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TAMAHOA, ILLINOIS <3l&
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
Class Book Volume
Many free countries have lost their
liberty, and ours may lose hers; but if she
shall, be it my proudest plume, not that I
was the last to desert, but that I never
TO the sacred memory of
the brave pioneers who
made this Great State possible,
this little book is affectionately
dedicated by the author.
ELBERT WALLER, Ph. B.
PRICE 40 CENTS
WAGONER PRINTING COMPANY
COPYRIGHT 1910 BY
Illinois has contributed so largely to American
history that we cannot fully comprehend the story of
our beloved country unless we know something of the
trials and triumphs of the people who have given to
Illinois its prominence in national affairs.
The author attempts here to present the import-
ant facts in Illinois history in chronological order and
in brief and tangible shape without making any at-
tempt at rhetorical display.
Grateful acknowledgements are due to Ex-County
Superintendent Mrs. Emma M. Bryan, of Murphys-
boro, County Superintendent O. J. Kern, of Rockford,
County Superintendent Maurice A. Mudd, of Ches-
ter, County Superintendent C. L. Gregory, of Aledo,
County Superintendent C. F. Easterday, of Vandalia.
Dr. J. T. Marlow, of Tamaroa, Editor H. L. Farmer,
of Tamaroa, Hon. Henry Clay, of Tamaroa, and Mrs.
Jessie Palmer Webber, Sec'y 111. Hist. Society, Spring-
field, all of whom have made prompt and gen-
erous responses to inquiries; also to Prof. C. E. Hef-
lin, of Viola, and Miss Edna Stallings, of Viola, each
of whom has given valuable assistance in preparing
Whether this little volume will endure the keen
and relentless critical spirit characteristic of this age.
remains to be seen, yet it is certain that we are justi-
fied in being proud that our state history is such as
to allow us to record the facts herein contained.
WE ARE ININl
While on his journey down the Mississippi, Mar-
quette discovered human footprints near the mouth
of the Des Moines and by tracing them a distance of
five or six miles he reached an Indian village. He
called out in the Algonquin tongue, "Who are you?"
and received the reply, "We are Inini." This was in-
terpreted to mean real incn as distinguished from the
Iroquois, whom they hated for their cruelty. From
Inini it changed to Jllini; the adjective ending, ese or
ois, was added and it became Illinese and finally
Illinois. From that time on, Illinois was a general
term applied to all the Indians of this region.
Cahokia Mound near East St. Louis the Largest Pyramid in the
World 1O2 feet high, 78O feet wide and 1O8O feet long.
Erected by hand, probably as early as 5OO 15. C.
1. Who were the first men on Illinois soil and
whence came they? These are questions that are as
puzzling as the Sphinx's Riddle and questions that
will never be answered. They have left us their
graves and their mounds, their only history. Whether
these mounds were for the worship of a Supreme
Being or whether they were for defense, we know
not. As a race, whither did they go? Was each race
exterminated by a succeeding one or were they all
the ancestors of the Indians? These questions are
likewise unanswerable. They gave us their country,
but its history vanished with those who made it. All
we know is that the Indians were here when the
white man came. Of those who were here we shall
try to tell you.
2. Since the Indians were more or less nomadic
it is hard to classify them and to tell just what lands
each tribe occupied. Early explorers arrange those
east of the Mississippi into three great groups; the
Muscogees, living in the south; the Iroquois or Five
Nations (rather eight nations), inhabiting the coun-
try from New York to the St. Lawrence and west-
ward to the Great Lakes ; the Algonquins, the most
powerful of them all, occupying practically all the
3. When LaSalle came he found the Indians, lat-
er known as the Illini Federation, occupying most of
the region drained by the Illinois river and its trib-
utaries. This federation may be said to have been
composed of the following: the Kaskaskias, the Ca-
hokias, the Peorias, the Tamaroas, and the Mitchi-
4. Next is the wise and daring Miami Federa-
tion. It was composed of the Miamis, the Eel-Riv-
ers, the Weas, and the Piankeshaws. They occupied
a broad expanse of territory to the eastward.
5. Other tribes not in federations were : the Win-
nebagoes, the Kickapoos, the Pottawatomies, the
Sacs and Foxes who settled together on Rock River,
and the Shawnees who were not Algonquins but
who came from Georgia and settled in the Ohio Val-
ley.* Of the Winnebago tribe, Blanchard in his His-
tory of the Northwest, says: "The Winnebagoes
* A Piankeshaw tradition says that they themselves al-
ways lived here and that the Shawneese just came up out of
were of the Sioux stock and may be set down as the
most heroic of all, they never having been con-
quered on the field of battle, either by other tribes or
even by the armies of the United States, as the fate
of Ouster's army in 1879 gives melancholy experi-
6. Wars among these tribes were common, each
struggling for the best hunting ground. The most
noted will, alone, require our attention. The Winne-
bagoes from the west, the Sacs, the Foxes and the
Kickapoos from the north and the fierce Iroquois from
the far east, made such inroads on the Illini that they
became weak and discouraged. The Tamaroas were
followed to the Mississippi and after hundreds of the
"braves" were killed, 700 women and children were
carried away as slaves.
7. In 1679 LaSalle built Fort Creve Cour on
Peoria Lake, but while he was on an expedition
down the Illinois and the Mississippi rivers the fort
was destroyed. Not to be dismayed, he, in 1682, built
Fort St. Louis on what is now known as Starved Rock.
The Illini, with a rallying of their old courage, came
to him and built up prosperous villages around him.
8. In 1700 the Kaskaskias left Old Kaskaskia.
(where Utica now stands) and founded a New Kas-
kaskia, near the mouth of the river then given that
name, (now called Okaw.) The Cahokias and the
Tamaroas made a settlement at Tamaroa, later known
as Cahokia, in what has long been known as the
"American Bottom/' south of the city of East St.
Louis. The Peorias went to the lake which now bears
their name. Fear of the Iroquois seems to have been
the principal reason for moving and now. when they
were at peace, many of them concluded to go back to
their old hunting ground. Then other old but unex-
pected enemies appeared on the scene.
9. In 1769 a Peoria Indian, being bribed for a-
barrel of rum, killed Pontiac, an Qttawa chief, at Ca-
hokia. This brought on a war from the tribes that
had so long been loyal to him. The Iroquois had
troubles at home and never joined in, but the Sacs
and Foxes, the Pottawatomies, and the Kickapoos
"never forgot" and in that same year, the last of that
noble Federation, took refuge on the site of old
Fort St. Louis and there perished of thirst and hun-
ger. From this tragic incident, Starved Rock gets its
10. The maps on the two succeeding pages will
show you about where they were when the white men
found them and where they were when their lands
came under the control of the United States of Amer-
11. Their further history is uneventful except as
they appear in the War of 1812 and in the Black
"No more for them the wild deer bounds,
The plow is on their hunting ground ;
The pale man's axe rings through their woods,
The pale man's sail skims o'er their floods."
Marquette's First Glimpse of Illinois.
EXPLORATION, CONQUEST AND SETTLEMENT,
12. Father Marquette, a Jesuit priest and Louis
Joliet, a French fur trader, were the first white men
to set foot on Illinois soil. In 1673 they crossed what
is now Wisconsin, westward to the Mississippi River.
They sailed down that river and finally up the Illinois.
Crossing overland from the headwaters of the latter,
they returned by Lake Michigan to the mission at
Green Bay, whence they started. Joliet returned to
France and was given the island of Anticosti. Mar-
quette returned to the Illini country, preached to the
Indians and established a mission the first church in
Illinois. He soon became afflicted with that dread
disease, consumption, and started to return to Can-
ada. On the south shore of Lake Michigan he died
and was there buried. Later the Indians took up his re-
mains and, with great reverence, took them to the
mission at St. Ignace. Joliet had command of the
expedition and Marquette went along as a subordin-
ate. Public opinion honors Marquette the more and
why not justly so? He wanted nothing for his ser-
vices. He was a man of God "whose saintly char-
acter will long remain an inspiration to men of every
creed and calling." "Greater love hath no man than
this, that a man lay down his life for his friends."
Robert Cavalier de LaSalle.
13. The French now resolved to take possession
of the Illini Country and sent Robert Cavalier de La-
Salle and Henry Tonti (an Italian) to build a line of
forts. In 1679 they went to the south end of Peoria
Lake, where they built Fort Creve Cour, the oldest
fortress in the state. An enemy of LaSalle's told the
Indians that LaSalle was an Iroquois spy and caused
them to be unfriendly to his party. They sailed down
to the Gulf of Mexico, claimed all the country for
France and returning, built Fort St. Louis on Starved
Rock, organized the Illini tribes and other tribes into
another federation (see 3) in 1682. "From this fort-
ress, inaccessible as an eagle's nest, LaSalle looked,
down upon the homes of more than twenty thousand
Indians." Leaving Tonti, he went to France and tried
to return by way of the Gulf of Mexico, but he could
not find the mouth of the Mississippi. He was fin-
ally assassinated by one of his own men. Thus died
in the prime of his manhood, Robert Cavalier de La-
Salle, "without doubt one of the most remarkable
explorers whose names live in history." "Never,
under the imperishable mail of paladin or crusader,
beat a heart of more intrepid mettle." Father Henne-
pin was with LaSalle and was sent to explore the
upper Mississippi. He got as far as the Falls of St.
Anthony, was captured by the Indians, escaped, re-
turned to France and wrote what is thought to be a
true account of his expedition. After LaSalle's death,
Hennepin wrote a different story, retracting his form-
er one and claiming to have been the first to explore
the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. The latter
story is an impossible one as his dates are badly mixed.
14. Other Frenchmen came over bringing their
families. The Kaskaskias decided to abandon their
old village and, in 1700, they formed at the mouth of
the Kaskaskia River what has since been known as
Kaskaskia. Here with them some of the French
formed a settlement. Some of the white people also
went to the Tamaroa (now Cahokia) settlement. It
is thus" evident that the first two white settlements in
Illinois, Tamaroa and Kaskaskia, were simultaneous
1700. Since they were going down the river it is
quite probable that the Tamaroa settlement was a day
or two the earlier.
15. In the year 1718 Louis XIV, King of
France, appointed Pierre Duque Boisbraint as Mili-
tary Commandant in the Illinois Country. About 18
miles up the Mississippi from Kaskaskia he built a
fortress and called it Fort Chartres. The stone of
which it was built was brought from the bluffs to the
east. It was not completed for about thirty years,
but it cost a million dollars and practically bank-
rupted the government of France. It was the greatest
structure of its kind on the Western Continent, but it
never fired a hostile shot.
16. In the year 1719, just a hundred years after
slavery was introduced into Virginia, Philip Renault
bought five hundred slaves in San Domingo and
brought them to Kaskaskia and Fort Chartres ex-
pecting to use them in mining precious metals, of
which the bluffs were supposed to be full. After this
hallucination disappeared the slaves were sold to the
planters. These slaves were the forefathers of the
slave population of Illinois.
17. When the brave General Wolfe and his men
defeated the French at Quebec, the fate of the future
Illinois was practically decided, for it led to the sign-
ing of the Treaty of Paris September 3d, 1763, which
provided that France give all her territory east of the
Mississippi to the English. The English proceeded
with caution to occupy their new territory and it was
October 10th, 1765, when Capt. Sterling, with his 42d
Highlanders, took possession of Fort Chartres, which
we Jrave-said~ before was the seat of French govern-
ment in Illinois. On the above date the Lilies of
France came down from the flagstaff and the Union
Jack, (the flag of Great Britain adopted in 1707)
went up in its place. The people were guaranteed
religious freedom and all the rights of British sub-
jects if they would take the oath of allegiance to the
King of England and if they chose to remain French
subjects they were at liberty to go to French terri-
tory, taking along all their goods and chattels. Pos-
sibly as many as two-thirds of them went to St. Louis,
not knowing that region had been secretly ceded to
18. On the 24th day of October, 1765, George III
issued a proclamation which forbade any of his "lov-
ing subjects" to acquire title to any of this territory
wrested from the French. That he intended to di-
vide the whole country west of the Alleghenies into
baronial estates and thus establish a government sim-
ilar to the old Feudal System in a vast inland empire,
cannot be doubted.
19. Hitherto the people had been content to al-
low the Priest to act as judge and jury in disputed
cases but the English wanted something different
and the jury system was adopted. The first court in
Illinois was convened at Fort Chartres December 9th,
Powder Magazine -the last relic of old Fort Chartres.
20. In 1772 the Mississippi overflowed its banks
and swept away a part of Fort Chartres. The British
had now an enemy that no bravery could daunt, so
they built a fort near Kaskaskia and called it Fort
Gage, in honor of General Gage who had command
of the British troops in Boston.
21. In the year 1774, the British Parliament
passed what was known as the "Quebec Act," which
annexed all the territory north of the Ohio to Canada.
By virtue of their original charters, Virginia, Massa-
chusetts and Connecticut claimed this territory. As,
might be expected, the people of these colonies did
not like this high-handed way of doing business and
resented it in words that forebode revolution. The
sequel to this resistance to British tyranny may be at-
tributed greatly to the character of the people and to
their manner of living. The soil was fertile and it
yielded abundantly to those who tilled it. Like-wise
the forest furnished plenty of game for the hunter.
So bountiful was the supply from field and forest
that many of the people were employed in taking flat-
boats filled with produce down to New Orleans. While
most of them were of a reverential turn of mind, yet
they were a "happy-go-lucky" sort of people and life
passed merrily among them. Frolics were common
and the Reverend Father was often the leading figure
22. On July 13th, 1775, the Continental Con-
gress which was then in session at Philadelphia, es-
tablished three Indian departments, viz: the Northern,
the Middle and the Southern. The Illinois Country
belonged to the Middle. This law never amounted to
anything but it is worthy of mention because it was
the first legislation in America concerning Illinois.
23. George Rogers Clark conceived the bold
project of taking the Illinois Country from the British.
This pleased Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia,
who on January 2d, 1778, commissioned him Lieu-
tenant Colonel, gave him orders to organize seven
companies of fifty men each and to proceed to take
the British post of Kaskaskia. The real object of
raising these companies was kept a secret and, in or-
der to delude British sympathizers, a public order was
given to proceed to Kentucky and protect the settlers
against the Indians.
24:. Colonel Clark, with three companies, went
down the Ohio from Fort Pitt to Corn Island. Here
he was joined by about a hundred Kentuckians. For
the first time he made known the real object of the
campaign. About a hundred men deserted, leaving
him about the same number as before but undoubtedly
of better mettle.
25. While going down the river he was over-
taken by Captain Linn who bore a message that
France and America had formed an alliance. Smith's
History of Illinois says this was Providential. It
might be said to have been Providential also that a
party of hunters who knew the trails fell in with
26. Believing the Mississippi to be fortified.
Colonel Clark chose to go overland to Kaskaskia, and
landed about a mile above Fort Massac. On the 29th
of June he started across the country. On the third
day they got lost in what is now Williamson County.
Suspecting the guide (one of the hunters), they
threatened to kill him, but he found a trail and they
reached the bluffs overlooking Kaskaskia on the sixth
day, July 4th, 1778.
27. The attack was well planned. His little army
was divided into three divisions and under the cover
of darkness, the left one was to cross the Kaskaskia
River below the town; the right was to cross above;
both to await orders from Clark who led the center
into town. A big "frolic," for which Kaskaskia was
famous, was in progress and all were there, even the
garrison. Leaving his men outside, Clark boldly
walked in and stood, an interested spectator. An
Indian brave discovered him and gave a war-whoop
All .was excitement but Clark tried to quiet them
bidding them to go on with the dance, adding that he
had "jest drapped in'' to tell them that they wer
dancing under the flag of Virginia instead of the flag
of Great Britain. They were all ordered to give up
their arms, to go to their homes and not to attempt to
leave under penalty of death. The word was given
to all the soldiers who immediately took possession ci
the town. The Union Jack came down and the Stars
and Stripes went up. (See Clark's Memoirs). The
little army whose bravery had won this bloodless bat-
tle, paraded the streets all night, yelling like savages.
28. The next day "with fear and tremb!:ng," a
number of the old men, led by Father Gibauit, begged
for mercy for their people. Never did a bright man-
hood shine more brightly through a rough exterior
than when Clark answered, "Do you take us for sav-
ages?'' and explained to them that their French breth-
ren were in alliance with the Americans and that Eng-
land was a common enemy. They all took the oath of
allegiance to the United States of America. Cahokia
and all the adjacent community promptly yielded and
Young America became firmly established on Illinois
29. In the autumn of this year, Captain Helm,
with a small force, not enough for a corporal's guard,
went over to "Vincennes on the Wabash," persuaded
the people to place themselves under American rule,
and Captain Helm became Commandant.
30. On the 15th of the following December, Sir
Henry Hamilton (the hair-buyer), with eighty red-
coats and four hundred Indian braves, advanced upon
the fort at Vincennes and demanded its surrender.
Captain Helm demanded the honors of war. His
terms were granted, and the "entire garrison, consist-
ing of one officer and one man, walked out with colors
31. "I must now take Hamilton or he will take
me," said Colonel Clark. Accordingly, on February
10th, 1779, he started a keel boat down the Mississippi
with forty-six men and some supplies, to co-operate
with him in command of his old soldiers and a com-
pany of Frenchmen, one hundred seventy in all, march-
ing overland to Vincennes. In a brief work we can-
not enumerate the hardships experienced on this expe-
dition. Crossing the drowned lands of the Wabash
would discourage anyone but men of mettle. By
wading, swimming and rafting, they got through, the
stronger helping the weaker, and on February 22d
they saw Vincennes. -
Clark Crossing the Drowned Lands of the Wabash.
(From Anderson's Grammar School History, published by Chas. E.
Merrill Co., Chicago and New York.)
32. The next day Colonel Clark sent in the fol-
To the Inhabitants of Vincennes:
Being now within two miles of your village with my
army, determined to take your fort this night, and not being
willing to surprise you, I take this opportunity to request such
of you as are true citizens and willing to enjoy the liberty
which I bring you, to remain still in your houses and
those, if any there be, who are friends of the King, let them
instantly repair to the fort and join the hair-buyer general
and fight like men. If any of the latter do not go to the fort
and shall be discovered afterwards, they may depend upon
severe punishment. On the contrary, those who are true
friends to liberty, may depend upon being well treated and I
once more request them to keep out of the streets, for every
one I find in arms on my arrival shall be treated as an
enemy. Respectfully yours, GEORGE ROGERS CLARK.
33. As indicated, fire was opened on the fort that
night. The fire was returned. This continued all
night and practically all the next day. Late in the af-
ternoon Hamilton signed articles of capitulation and
the fort was formally delivered February 25th, 1779.
Colonel Clark's army, two hundred sixteen men, had
taken from Great Britain territory enough for an
34. Shall we follow this great man's career
further? We fain would do so but a few words must
suffice. It often happens that those whom God means
shall do good works are to be wrongly treated by the
very ones whom they are to benefit. This case was no
exception. Personally he was never paid anything
nor was he in any way rewarded. He suffered many
years with rheumatism contracted in his country's
service, and died neglected and in poverty, the same
year that the Illinois Country which he had gained
for America became a state 1818.
35. In 1778, the Legislature of Virginia created
the office of Lieutenant-commandant nf the Illinois
Country and Governor Henry appointed John Todd :
of Kentucky, to fill the place. Todd arrived at Kas-
kaskia the next year and issued a proclamation organ-
izing Illinois County. He appointed a Magistrate at
Kaskaskia, one at Cahokia, and another at Prairie du
Rocher, to hold court at their respective places. He
also appointed a Captain of the Militia at each place to
assist the Magistrate in carrying out the laws. Among
the early settlers superstition hold sway and many still
believed in witchcraft. One negro at Kaskaskia and
one at Cahokia were sentenced to be burned at the
stake and their ashes scattered. Mr. Todd signed
their death-warrant in 1779, and they were duly exe-
cuted. Doubtless there were others but these are the
only ones of which we have any reliable record. Mr.
Todd went to Kentucky in 1780 and was killed in a
fight with the Indians. For the next ten years, Illinois
was practically without any government. (See 41.)
36. France (not individual Frenchmen like La-
fayette) had agreed to help the United States in the
Revolution more on account of her enmity to Eng-
land than her good feeling for America, and when the
negotiations which led to a treaty of peace between
the .United States and Great Britain were in progress,
it was plain that the French representative was warm-
ly supporting the claim of Spain to all territory west
of the Alleghenies. England, dreading the combined
power of France and Spain, did not prolong the con-
troversy and the treaty of peace was signed Septem-
ber 3d, 1783. This relinquished all of England's claim
to territory east of the Mississippi River and con-
firmed the title of the United States.
37. This same year, 1783, Samuel J. Seeley taught
the first school in Illinois. It was at New Design in
what is now Monroe County.
38. After the close of the Revolution some of the
men who had been with Clark emigrated to the west
and settled in the Mississippi bottom above Kaskaskia.
From them it got the name "American Bottom," which
name it has ever since retained.
39. The states of New York, Virginia, Massa-
chusetts and Connecticut claimed the territory north
of the Ohio River. The first had but little ground
for its claim and gave it up in 1784. Virginia mag-
nanimously ceded her claim in 1784, with the under-
standing that the lands be sold to pay the war debts
of the states. Massachusetts followed the same year
and Connecticut ceded her claim in 1786.
40. On July 13th, 1787, Congress passed a meas-
ure proposed by Thomas Jefferson. It was a code of
laws for the government of the Northwest Territory,
and was known as the Ordinance of 1787. Some of
the principal provisions were: that Congress should
appoint a governor, a secretary and three judges to
administer the laws; that religious freedom should be
guaranteed ; that within its borders neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude except as a punishment for
crime should ever exist in any of the territory ; that it
should eventually be divided into not less than three
states and never into more than five states, each of
which could be admitted into the Union when it had
sixty thousand free inhabitants. Nearly fifty years
afterwards Daniel Webster said, "We are accustomed
to praise the great law-givers of antiquity, we help to
perpetuate the fame of Solon and of Lycurgus but I
doubt whether one single law, ancient or modern, has
produced effects more distinct, marked and lasting in
character than the Ordinance of 1787."
41. It may be said to have been three years after
the adoption of the Ordinance of 1787 before Illinois
had any government at all. On October 5th, 1787.
General Arthur St. Clair was appointed Governor of
the Northwest Territory. He spent some time in the
present limits of Ohio and Indiana and reached Kas-
kaskia in 1790. On April 27th of the same year, he
organized St. Clair County with Cahokia as the
county seat, the first in the present state of Illinois.
It included all the Illinois country south of the Illinois
River and west of a line drawn from the mouth of
Mackinaw Creek near the present city of Pekin, to
Fort Massac near the present city of Metropolis.
42. Rev. Joseph Lillard founded the first Metho-
dist church in Illinois in 1793. It was at Shiloh in the
New Design settlement.
43. Randolph County was organized October
5th, 1795. It included part of St. Clair County, being
all of the Illinois Country south of a line drawn, due
east from the Mississippi, through the New Design
settlement to the Wabash River. This division was
made as a result of a misunderstanding between two of
the officers. One was to be judge in Randolph County,
the other in St. Clair.
44. The first Baptist Church in Illinois was or-
ganized by Rev. David Badgley, at New Design, in
45. By act of Congress, May 7th, 1800, Ohio was
cut out of the Northwest Territory and the remainder
was called Indiana Territory. It was to be a territory
of the first class, in which all the officers were appoint-
ed by the Governor. This law went into effect July
4th, 1800. "Saint Vincennes" (Vincennes) became
the capital and General William H. Harrison was ap-
Old Fort Dearborn The Beginning of Chicago.
46. Almost immediately after the close of the Rev-
olution, British subjects began to plan to annex the
territory, north and west of the Ohio, to Quebec, and
did all they could to create a hostile feeling between
the Indians and American citizens. Accordingly, the
United States Government thought it best to build a
fort in this region. A spot on the eastern shore of
Lake Michigan was selected at first, but the Chipewas
and the Ottawas objected. The next place chosen was
at the mouth of the "Chicagou River." Here Fort
Dearborn was built in 1804. It was named in honor
of General Henry Dearborn, who was then Secretary
of War. (See 51, 52, 96.)
47. Tradition says that Fort Massac was built by
Ferdinand DeSoto, the Spanish explorer, in 1542>
Whether this is true, we know not, but it is a fact that
the French occupied it as early as 1701. "Here Wilk-
inson, Sebastian, Powers and others, with Spanish.
French and Creole women plotted to dismember the
American Union. Here the gifted Aaron Burr rested
refreshed himself and planned his southern expedi-
tion; his plot to make an empire out of the southwest
and if events favored, to set himself on the throne of
the Montezumas," (111. Hist. Library, Vol. 8.)
48. The first Masonic lodge in Illinois was organ-
ized at Kaskaskia, September 13th, 1806, by seven
pioneers who were bound by the mystic tie. The 'name
of this lodge was Western Star.
49. On February 3d, 1809, the State of Indiana
was cut out of the Indiana Territory and the re-
mainder was called Illinois Territory. Kaskaskia was
the capital. An old atlas gives the following picture of
the first capitol.
Capitol of Illinois Territory.
50. Illinois Territory was changed to the second
class on May 21st, 1812. This gave them the right
to elect all town and county officers. The same year
Gallatin, Johnson and Madison counties were organ-
ized. All these had a tendency to encourage immi-
gration and the country rapidly filled up.
51. Prior to the war of 1812, British agents had
been among the Indians of the Illinois Country and
poisoned their minds against the Americans. With
the declaration of war against England, the Indians
began. The Americans had not been asleep but had
built a line of forts or block houses from Alton to
Kaskaskia, another from Kaskaskia to the salt works
in the Wabash Valley, another along the Wabash and
the Ohio, and one Old Fort Dearborn where Dear-
born Station, Chicago, now stands. The largest and
strongest of these, Camp Russel at Edwardsviile, was
made military headquarters for Illinois.
52. Captain Heald commanded a garrison of
seventy men at Fort Dearborn and was ordered to
evacuate it and go to Vincennes. He started, but on
the next day, August 15th, 1812, the men with their
women and children were attacked by overwhelming
numbers of Indians and most of them were horribly
massacred. This is known as the Dearborn Massacre.
53. Colonel William Russell, of Kentucky, or-
ganized a regiment of rangers, Kentuckians and Illi-
noisans. Governor Edwards ordered him to Peoria.
the Indian "hot-bed." Captain Craig went up the
Illinois River with supplies to co-operate with him.
The latter arrived first and received such a hot fire
from the Indians that he could not land until Colonel
Russell arrived. The Indians, seeing themselves con-
fronted by a superior force, fled. Captain Craig
landed, burned the town, captured the remaining in-
habitants, mostly Frenchmen, and took them to Alton.
(This last act was cruel and unnecessary.) The next
year they returned to Peoria and built Fort Clark,
burnt several Indian villages, then divided the force
into three parts, leaving only a small garrison. One
part went up the Illinois River and the other went
among the Sacs and Foxes on Rock River.
54. Lieutenant Campbell, with two boats, led an
expedition up the Mississippi, in 1814, and had a
deadly encounter with the Indians on what has since
been known as Campbell's Island. Later in the same
year, Major Zachary Taylor, the same man who be-
came president, made a similar expedition and had an
encounter with British and Indians. Neither expe-
dition was a success, but the enemy won dear vic-
55. The experiences growing out of this war
caused Congress to pass a law requiring all able-
bodied men to practice military drill once each month.
The days on which they met were called "Muster
days." After the officers had "bawled themselves
hoarse" they would have a barbecue, meantime they
"swapped yarns" and
"Sleights of art and feats of strength went round."
These old-time Muster days, after they had served
so good a purpose, degenerated into drunken
brawls, usually ending in a free-for-all fight. When
Andrew Jackson became President he recommended
that musters be discontinued, and it was done.
56. On September 6th, 1814, Matthew Duncan
published the first copy of the Illinois Herald. This
was at Kaskaskia, and was the first newspaper in the
state. There are now about two thousand.
57. The Bank of Shawneetown, the Bank of Kas-
kaskia and the Bank of Edwardsville were chartered
by the territorial legislature in 1816. This was the
beginning of "Wildcat Banks." Hitherto the settlers
never had much money, though it must be remem-
bered that anything of value served as a medium of
58. The first Cumberland Presbyterian church in
the state was organized by Rev. James McGready at
Sharon, White County, in 1816.
59. In 1817, Rev. Samuel Wylie organized the
first Covenanter Presbyterian church in the state.
This was in a little grove just across the Kaskaskia
River from Kaskaskia. The well respected family of
Wylies in Randolph County are his descendants.
A Train of Prairie Schooners.
(From Woodburn & Moran's American History, published by Long-
mans, Green and Co., New York )
60. The quarter of a century immediately pre-
ceding and as long a time following the admission -of
Illinois as a state (1818), we might properly call
"Pioneer Days." The complete story of the trials and
triumphs of the brave pioneers of those days will
never be written,' but not even a brief work would
serve its purpose if it said nothing of them. When
the Englishman, the Scotchman, the Frenchman, the
Irishman and the Swede left the "Old Home," they
did not come at the rate of forty miles an hour on a
passenger train, but they came in a covered ("kiv-
ered") wagon drawn by oxen, "way out west" to Illi-
nois. Those who came from the New England states
New York, New Jersey and Delaware settled prin-
cipally in the northern part. People of Pennsylvania,
Ohio and Indiana settled in the central part, while
people from Maryland, The Carolinas, Georgia, Ten-
nessee and Kentucky settled in the southern part. For
mutual protection several families came together and
they formed a settlement near some stream where
timber and water were plentiful. Every man had an
axe, a rifle, a frow (fro), a drawing-knife, and he
soon made a shaving-horse. Among them they would
own one or more whipsaws. Thus equipped, they
built their single-room log houses with "stick and
clay" chimneys, their puncheon floors and their clap-
board roofs. They made their furniture, for all the
furniture (?) they brought along was a skillet with
an iron lid. The Lord sent manna from heaven to
feed the Israelites and he was not less kind to the
Pioneers. He filled the forest with deer which might
be killed for food. Thus, through the help of Divine
Providence, they had venison to eat and, figuratively
and literally, kept the wolf from the door. Nor were
the women and children idle while this was going on.
They worked in the "clearing" or did anything there
was to do. This is the "start'' these brave and good
people had when they came into a region filled with
wild animals and merciless Indian savages.
61. In the summers of the earlier days the feet
were not hidden,
"In the prison cells of pride"
for they all went barefooted. The clothing was made
of "buckskin" and they wore "coonskin caps. These
were their "everyday" and their "Sunday" clothes,
too, except that occasionally the girls were
"Decked in their homespun flax and wool"
which they had brought from the "old home back
east." The fashion soon changed and they grew
their own wool and cotton, they carded, it, wove it,
spun it and, on a home-made loom, wove it into cloth.
Then it was made into clothes for all the family.
When "Father" went to a "log-rolling," "Mother"
went too and took her "knitting" along. The "husk-
ing-bee" and the "apple-cutting" were common forms
of sociability and of combining business with pleasure.
62. The neighbors went into the forests and built
the rude log church. On one side they put seats for
the men and boys, and on the other they put seats for
the giris and their mothers. The preacher was one of
their number who worked through the week, studied
his Bible at night and preached for two or three hours
"At church, with meek and unaffected grace,
His looks adorned the venerable place;
Truth from his lips prevailed with double sway,
While fools who came to scoff remained to pray/'
The old "camp-meeting," once so great a factor for
good, is now a reality only in memory.
63. Smith says, "The teacher was like the sea-
sons; he came and he went." He took anything of
value for tuition and "boarded round." Though the
people, A11 declared how much he knew,"
it is evident that his scholarship, as a general thing,
"would not pass muster" now. Here is a copy set by
one of them, "luck at the coppy carefull." Often the
Bible was the only reader in the school. All were in
the same Arithmetic class. They used slates and
home-made soapstone (talc) pencils, home-made ink
and quill pens.
64. There were no fever thermometers and the
good old mother was the family physician, the neigh-
bors were the undertakers.
"Yet e'en these bones from insult to protect,
Some frail memorial still erected nigh,
With uncouth rhymes and shameless sculpture decked,
Implores the passing tribute of a sigh.
Their name, their years, spelt by the unlettered muse,
The place of fame and elegy supply,
And many a holy text around she strews,
That teach the rustic moralist to die."
65. . The following is taken from an atlas pub-
lished in 1878 :
"A song for the early times out west,
And our green old forest home,
Whose pleasant memories freshly, yet
Across the bosom come ;
'A song for the free and gladsome life,
In those early days we led,
With a teeming soil beneath our feet,
And a smiling Heaven o'erhead !
Oh ! the waves of life danced merrily,
And had a joyous flow,
In the days when we were pioneers,
Some fifty years ago !
But now our course of life is short,
And as from day to day,
We're walking on with halting steps.
And fainting by the way.
Another land more bright than this, '
To our dim sight appears,
And on our way to it we'll soon
Again be pioneers.
Yet while we linger we may all
A backward glance still throw,.
To the days when we were pioneers,
Some fifty years ago."
Seal of the State of Illinois.
A GREAT STATE WRESTLING WITH GREAT PROBLEMS,
66. On April 18th, 1818, Congress passed what
was known as the Enabling Act. This law provided
that the boundary of Illinois should be as follows:
Beginning at the mouth of the Wabash River; thence
up the same and with the line of Indiana, to the north-
west corner of said state; thence east with the line of
said state to the middle of Lake Michigan ; thence
north along the middle of said Lake to north latitude
42 degrees and 30 minutes; thence west to the mid-
dle of the Mississippi River ; thence down along the
middle of that river to its confluence with the Ohio
River ; thence up that river along the northwestern
shore to the point of beginning. It further provided
that when this territory had 40,000 inhabitants, the
people were authorized to form a constitution and
that it might become a state. Nathaniel Pope was our
territorial delegate in Congress at the time and he
drew up the Enabling Act, making the northern
boundary 41 degrees 39 minutes. In that form it was
recommended by the committee having it in charge,
but when it was before Congress for passage he pro-
posed an amendment which made it 42 degrees 30
minutes north latitude. The amendment carried after
much debating and thus it remains.
67. The American Atlas published in Philadel-
phia a few years later says the population of Illinois
in 1818 was 35,220, but by a peculiar manipulation of
figures in taking the census, it was claimed that Illi-
nois had 40,000 people. Delegates were elected to a
constitutional convention. The constitution was drawn
up and agreed to by the delegates (August 26th,
1818), but was never voted on by the people. An
election was held for Governor, Lieutenant Governor.
Congressman (one), and members of the General As-
sembly (State Legislature). The Legislature met
at Kaskaskia, the capital, on October 5th, 1818, and
Shadrach Bond, the Governor-elect, was duly inaug-
urated on the next day. John McLean had been elect-
ed to Congress and the Legislature elected Jesse B.
Thomas and Ninian Edwards to the United States
Senate. McLean, Thomas and Edwards went to
Washington but Congress would not swear them in
until it had approved the constitution. After stren-
uous opposition, a bill approving it passed December
3d and President Monroe" signed it the next day. Illi-
nois thus became a state on December 4th, 1818. The
home of a French planter was used as the capitol.
68. The advocates of slavery knew that Congress
would not admit Illinois to the Union unless the con-
stitution contained an anti-slavery clause. With this
in view they inserted a clause providing that, "Neither
slavery nor involuntary servitude shall hereafter be
introduced." The trick in the word, "hereafter," was
discovered but men like William H. Harrison did not
believe it was so intended and it passed. Subsequent
events confirmed the views of the most pessimistic in
69. By studying the history of our flag it will be
seen that Congress had just adopted the present style
of flag, i. e. thirteen stars and thirteen stripes, with
one star added for each state added to the original
thirteen. Illinois' star appeared in the flag on July
70. In 1819, Governor Bond called the Legisla-
ture together and it passed a law locating the capital
at Vandalia. It also passed what was known as the
"Black Code." As the name might imply, it was
concerning the negro. It provided: That a negro
could not bring suit nor testify in any court ; that if
he were found ten miles from home he could be taken
before a justice and whipped twenty-five lashes; that
unless he had a certificate of freedom his services for
one year could be sold by the sheriff; that he might
be sold on execution or mortgaged for his master's
debts ; that no person could legally bring a slave to the
state for the purpose of freeing him without giving a
bond of $1,000 guaranteeing that such slave would be
a law-abiding and self-supporting citizen. The negro
slave had a home and a master that would protect him
but the free negro was an outcast liable to all kinds
of indignities even to being kidnapped and sold down
the river. He therefore often made himself a volun-
tary slave to some master.
71. In the fall of 1820, at a cost of only twenty-
five dollars, a young man, Sidney Breese, who later
became United States Senator, moved the records to
the new capitol, a two-story frame building at Van-
dalia. As an incident of pioneer life it might be noted
that while Vandalia was the capital the members of
the Legislature became tired of venison and wanted
72. Banks everywhere in the country were failing
and times were extremely hard. In order to satisfy a
popular clamor, the Legislature, in 1820, passed a law
organizing a State Bank. It was to be at Vandalia
and to have branches at Brownsville near where Mur-
physboro now stands, at Edwardsville, at Albion and
at Shawneetown. State Bank bills were issued to the
amount of a half million dollars. Several of our
wisest financiers were opposed to the state's going into
the "wild cat bank" business, but the masses wanted
it. The bills depreciated to thirty cents on the dollar
and times were harder than before (except with
members of the Legislature. That body passed a law
that state officers should be paid in this money at cur-
73. In 1821, Timothy Burnett was hanged at
Belleville for killing Alonzo C. Stewart in a duel. This
was the only legal execution for dueling in Illinois.
74. ^In 1822, Edward Coles was elected governcr.
In his inaugural address he advocated the repeal of
the Black Laws, and this brought on a contest tl:ut
lasted during his entire term. The slavery men
claiming to no longer be bound by the Ordinance of
1787, wanted to amend the constitution so as to legal-
ize slavery in Illinois. Accordingly, in 1823, the Leg-
islature, after unseating Nicholas Hansen, who opposed
the amendment, and seating John Shaw, who favored
it, passed a resolution to submit to the people, the ques-
tion of calling a convention to revise the constitution.
Governor Coles spent his entire salary for four years
($4,000), fighting this measure. Morris Birkbeck, i
liberty-loving Englishman, Rev. John Mason Peck, a
Yankee Baptist preacher, Hon. Henry Eddy, editor of
the Illinois Emigrant at Shawneetown, and many oth-
ers did valuable service in the fight. It was voted on.
August 3d, 1824, and the anti-slavery men won by a
majority of 1668. It might be added that Governor
Coles, like many other good men, was very unpopular,
in his lifetime, but his name will long live in history
as the one who did most to prevent the legalizing of
slavery in Illinois.
75. In 1824, a new capitol, a two-story brick
structure which cost $12,381.50, was built to replace
the one built in 1820 which had been destroyed by
76. The first law providing for a free school in
Illinois was proposed by Joseph Duncan, Representa-
tive from Jackson County. It passed on January 15th :
1825. About the same time the public-spirited citi-
zens of Edwards County built a schoolhouse with
"real glass windows." It was the first of its kind in
77. In 1825 General Lafayette visited the state
of Illinois and was received with great honor at Kas-
kaskia, at Vandalia and at Shawneetown, Reynolds
says he was lame from a wound received in achiev-
ing our liberties and it seemed that his lameness add-
ed to his noble bearing as it told to the heart the story
of the Revolution.
78. In 1825 Rev. George Wolf organized a
church not far from the hill known as Bald Knob in
Union County. It was dedicated to "Religious Lib-
erty" but was composed mostly of Dunkards and Uni-
79. Ninian Edwards, a former territorial gov-
ernor, was elected governor in 1826. One of his first
acts was to openly charge the management of the State
Bank with wilful violation of the law. The Legisla-
ture "investigated" and as modern politicians put it,
the whole thing was "whitewashed." One member
of the Legislature, who was sent to Shawneetown to
examine the bank there said he found plenty of good
whiskey and sugar to sweeten it. Governor Edwards
was what might be termed an aristocrat. He wore a
coat trimmed in gold lace at his inaugural.
80. On New Year's day, 1827, Dr. John Mason
Peck organized "The Theological Seminary and High
School" at Rock Springs, St. Clair County. It was
the first seminary in the state. Later it was moved to
Alton and is now Shurtleff College.
81. The so-called Winnebago War, in 1827, is
one of the most disgraceful things recorded on the
pages of history. The Winnebagoes lived near Ga-
lena and the "Palefaces," by hundreds, were over-
running their lands in search of lead. Some boatmen
from Fort Snelling, in a drinking carousal with the
Indians, forced their squaws on the boats and pulled
away, not returning until the next day. The Indians
had sobered up and in their righteous indignation at-
tacked them. Several on each side were killed in the
fight. Sixteen hundred soldiers came to the scene.
Several Indians were arrested, tried for murder and
executed. Ye Gods! talk of Helen of Troy! Had
American womanhood been .thus disgraced, the
United States would have fought the world or the
offender not the defender would have been pun-
82. McKendree College was founded by Rev.
Peter Cartright in 1828. It is located at Lebanon.
83. In 1829 the Duncan Free School Law was
repealed and a new one passed providing for the sale
of the lands which had been donated by Congress for
the benefit of the public schools. The object in sell-
ing it was, not to help the schools, but to loan this
money to the state and help the tottering State Bank
which had been the spoils of politicians for so many
84. In 1830 John Reynolds was elected governor.
In the same year the Salt Works near Equality which
the United States had recently ceded to Illinois, were
sold and the first state penitentiary was built at Alton
with the proceeds.
85. After the state had lost a half million dollars
in "high-handed financiering," the State Bank went
out of business in 1831, its charter having expired.
SG. The Black Hawk War occurred in 1831-2
Several years before some Indians of the Sac and Fox
tribes, while intoxicated, had transferred to the United
States most of the lands in the region of Rock River
belonging to the tribes, reserving it until the land was
sold to actual settlers. Black Hawk, the Sac Chief,
objected on the ground of fraud. Now that Keokuk.
a rival chief, had ceded all his lands east of the Mis-
sissippi, and that his own village had been taken while
he was away hunting, he could no longer endure it.
His war-like spirit was for a while appeased by an o!4
friend, a fur trader at Rock Island. The people, who
were themselves usurpers, did not feel secure, and
called on Governor Reynolds for protection. Sixteen
hundred soldiers were soon on the scene. Black
Hawk and his famishing followers of men, women and
children, crossed the Mississippi westward. On Jan-
uary 26th, 1832, the troops burned his village. Four
days later he gave up all claim to Illinois soil.
87. In the spring of 1832 he started across the
northwest corner of Illinois, going to his friends, the
Winnebagoes, in Wisconsin, to beg a place to plant
corn, and was ordered back. He did not heed. Gov-
ernor Reynolds, with all the pomp of an Alexander
with eighteen hundred men, met him near Dixon
Here a man named Stillman, while leading a recon-
noitering party, met a half dozen "Braves" under a
flag of truce and fired on them. "Black Hawk's spirit
rose high in his bosom" at such an act. He attacked
Stillman and killed twelve of his men, putting the rest
to flight. This disgraceful scene was the real begin-
ning of the war.
88. The time of most of the soldiers had now ex-
pired and they went home, but a new army of twenty-
seven hundred men was raised. This was in addition
to General Scott's army of one thousand men at Fort
Dearborn which did no service on account of the
cholera. Black Hawk, seeing this formidable force
arrayed against him, fled. He was pursued and in a
series of conflicts more than a hundred of his men
were killed. He finally surrendered to the Winneba-
goes and was turned over to the United States au-
thorities, August 27th, and the war was over.
89. It had taken over seven thousand troops and
had cost over a million dollars to put four hundred
men with their starving families off the land of which
they had been robbed. The Federal Court decided
that nothing but honorable warfare could be charged
against him and he was released in 1833.
"Black Hawk is an Indian ; he has done nothing of which
an Indian need to be ashamed. He has fought the battles of
his countrymen against the white men, who came year after
year to cheat them and take away their lands. You know the
cause of our making war it is known to all white men they
ought to be ashamed of it. The white men despise the In-
dians and drive them from their homes, but the Indians are
not deceitful. The white men speak bad of the Indian and
look at him spitefully, but the Indian does not tell lies. In-
dians do not steal. Black Hawk is satisfied. He will go to
the world of spirits contented. He has done his duty. His
Father will meet him and reward him/ Extract from a
speech delivered by Black Hawk zvhen he was turned over
by the Winncbagoes to the United States authorities.
90. In ISoi Governor Reynolds was elected to
Congress and on November 17th of that year he re-
signed the office of Governor, whereupon Acting
Lieutenant Governor William L. D. Ewing became
91. On December 3d, 1831, Joseph Duncan was
inaugurated governor. He advocated a free school
system, a series of internal improvements and a state
bank. The Legislature ignored the school question
but the same year it passed a law to incorporate a
company to construct the Illinois and Michigan canal.
Then, in anticipation of securing loans from the gov-
ernment according to President Jackson's policy, they
passed other laws organizing the State Bank and to
revive the defunct Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown.
For political reasons these banks never got any money
that was distributed to "Pet Banks," though in 183G
Congress divided among the states, the money that
had accumulated in the national treasury. Illinois re-
ceived $335,000. It was to be added to the School
Fund and is known as the surplus revenue. This
was technically a loan but really a gift. The state
used the money and pays interest on it into the school
Last State House at Vandalia. (As it was.)
92. On Christmas day, 1835, the first lodge of
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the state was
organized at Alton. It was named Western Star
93. The state was beginning to need a new cap-
itol and several cities were rivals with Vandalia for
its location. Hoping to settle the matter for all time
to come, the public-spirited citizens of Vandalia, in
1836, tore down the capitol that had been erected in
1824, and built a commodious brick structure at a
cost of $16,000. It is now the Fayette County Court
94. The people were wild on internal improve-
ments. Governor Duncan awakened to the situation
and strongly counselled economy, but to no avail. In
1837, the Legislature authorized the construction of
a series of railroads, canals, etc., that raised the state
debt from $217,276 to $6,668,784.
95. On November 7th, 1837, Elijah P. Lovejoy
was murdered by a pro-slavery mob at Alton, be-
cause he published an anti-slavery paper.. Several
presses had been destroyed and he was defending a
new one against an excited crowd when the fatal shot
was fired. Almost prophetic of his impending death
he had said only a few days before, "The present ex-
citement will soon be over ; the voice of conscience will
at last be heard and in some season of honest thought
you will be compelled to say, 'He was right* ". He
was the first to lay down his life in that awful strug-
gle for liberty, and his martyrdom is spoken of as the
beginning of the end of slavery.
I-.ove.joy Monument, Alton, Illinois.
96. The city of Chicago was incorporated in 1837
and William B. Ogden was elected the first mayor. A
short time previous to this, the Pottowatomie band
consisting of over five thousand, visited Chicago for
the last time and found substantial buildings where
the grass had grown for ages. This war-like band had
already made a treaty to go west of the Missouri, and
now fully realized that they must take up the lot of the
exile. They engaged in a mimic war-dance, then
silently and sadly took their departure for the unknown
97. The Great Northern Cross Railroad which
had been planned to run from Springfield to Quincy
(see 94), was completed from Springfield to Mere-
dosia, a distance of about twenty-five miles. An en-
gine was brought from Pittsburg and put on it No-
vember 8th, 1838. This was the first in the state.
98. Thomas Carlin was inaugurated governor
December 7th, 1838. He became alarmed at the
financial difficulties confronting the State and, follow-
ing the example of his illustrious predecessor, he
"about-faced" and counselled economy. The Legis-
lature now saw that they were right and tried as hard
to save money as previous ones had to spend it.
99. In the summer and fall of 1838, a great epi-
demic of chills and fever raged in Southern Illinois.
For a period of over four months there was scarcely
any rain. The dews no longer fell and the sun was
mercilessly warm. In the meantime suffering and
death reigned supreme. In going through these re-
gions, travelers would often find homes in which
every member of the family was sick. What a bless-
ing it was that a stranger should be guided by Divine
Providence to the lonely cabin to give a cup of cold
water to the sick and the dying! It continued until
after the great eclipse of the sun on September 18th.
The Indians said the Great Spirit was angry and
many others thought the Judgment Day was at han 1.
but the sun came out bright as ever and that was fol-
lowed by a good rain. The air was purified and the
100. The capital was moved to Springfield in
1839. The old Presbyterian Church was used as -i
i .pitol pending the completion of the one being built
by the state. (The capitol built this year is now the
Sangamon County Court House.)
James G. Birney.
101. In the presidential canvass of 1840, other
things besides "log cabin and hard cider" were
thought of. The martyrdom of Lovejoy had its re-
sults, the question of slavery was brought into national
politics and James G. Birney of Fulton County became
the first candidate for prescient on the Anti-slaverv
102. Thomas Ford was inaugurated governor
December 8th, 1842. The state was in deplorable
shape, financially. Many wild expenditures had been
made until in 1842 the Bank of Illinois at Shawnee-
town and the State Bank at Springfield became bank-
rupt. The state lost heavily in each of these and in all its
speculative schemes. The people awakened from their
delusive dream of munificence and splendor, found the
state $14,000,000 in debt, its credit to such a low ebb
that its bonds sold with difficulty at fourteen cents on
the dollar and nothing to show for it except a railroad
from Merodosia to Springfield (97) which was after-
wards sold for $100,000 in state bonds. There was
now open talk of repudiating the state debt but Gov-
ernor Ford took a very decided stand in favor of pay-
ing the whole of it without defalcation or discount.
His wise counsel prevailed and the credit of the state
103. In 1844 the Secretary of State was made ex-
officio State Superintendent of Schools.
104. The Mormons, or Latter Day Saints, set-
tled at Nauvoo, in Hancock County, and became a
power in Illinois politics. They secured favors from
each party, Whigs and Democrats, until they became
so strong as to maintain their own militia and to defy
the authority of the state. Things came to a crisis in
1844 when Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith, his
brother, were arrested for counterfeiting, placed in
the county jail at Carthage and were murdered by a
iv. ob. A reign of chaos followed but in 1846 the Mor-
mons went to Utah and established Salt Lake City.
There were sixteen thousand of them, and it is said
to have taken twelve hundred wagons.
105. In 1845 the United States Supreme Court
decided that the descendants of. slaves brought to the
state prior to the adoption of the Ordinance of 1787 :
could not be held as slaves.
General James Shields.
(Kindness of Dr. J. F. Snyder, Virginia, Illinois.)
106. On May 13th, 1846, President Polk called
for volunteers to serve in the war with Mexico. The
call on Illinois was for three thousands troops, but it
was met with six thousand of our brave men who
acquitted themselves creditably in every battle. They
were led by that great statesman and soldier, General
James Shields. "From Palo Alto and Resaca de la
Palma westward to Monterey the intrepid fighters
marched, and then across and down to Saltillo, Vic-
toria and Tampico until they routed Santa Anna on
the field of Buena Vista. In the south of Mexico the
conquering host mowed a swath of glory from Vera
Cruz until they reached the heart and center and
camped within the capital of Mexico."
107. When the Mexican War was over, General
Shields came back to Kaskaskia and was elected to the
United States Senate. After he completed his term
he moved to Minnesota and was honored by that state
with the same office. He then went to California, en-
iisted in the Civil War and, with the rank of Briga-
dier General, was assigned to the Army of The Poto-
mac. After the Civil War was over he went to Mis-
souri and was elected to the United States Senate.
When his term of office expired, he went to Iowa
where he died.
108. Wisconsin was admitted to the Union in
1846. This is worthy of note in Illinois history, be-
cause the former state tried to gain back the strip of
territory which had been added to the latter in 1818.
109. Augustus C. French was inaugurated gov-
ernor on December 9th, 1846. There were so many
problems before him for solution that it would have
frightened the faint-hearted. The Mexican War was
in progress. The state had out-grown the old consti-
tution and changed conditions made a new one neces-
sary. The internal improvement question which had
agitated the minds of the people for so many years,
was up for settlement and the failures of the past had
made it extremely difficult to do anything now. Each
of these questions were met face to face and solved in
course of time, much to the credit of those who did
110. In 1848 the Illinois and Michigan Canal
was completed. It had been under consideration for
twenty-five years and work had been carried on at in-
tervals for twelve years. The United States had
given each odd-numbered section in a strip of land
ten miles in width along its entire length to aid in its
construction, and it had cost the state over $5,000,000.
but after all, it paid and has since been deepened until
water flows through it from Lake Michigan down the
Illinois River. It is now the Chicago Drainage
Canal. This same year a railroad was built
from Chicago, ten miles westward, by the Galena &
Chicago Union Railway Company. This was the be-
ginning of the great Chicago & North-Western Rail-
The Pioneer First Locomotive in Chicago.
(Kindness of M. J. Clay, Chicago, Illinois.)
111. By a vote of the people, a new constitution
was adopted March Gth, 1848. It contained a clause
prohibiting slavery and was the first state constitution
to prohibit imprisonment for debt. It also provided
that an election for state officers should be held that
year. Since Governor French had thereby been leg-
islated out of two years of his term, he was given a
second term practically without opposition. On Jan-
uary 8th, 1849, he was inaugurated the second time.
112. The trouble between the Flatheads and the
Regulators or what is sometimes called the "Carnival
of Crime" was carried on in Massac and adjoining
counties in the forties. In the early days most of the
immigrants to Southern Illinois came across or down
the Ohio River. That region then became the chosen
location of a band of outlaws, for there they couM
easily trade or sell to the unsuspecting immigrant,
stolen horses or buy goods of them paying therefor
counterfeit money or forged warrants on the State
Treasury. They made it a business also to kidnap
free negroes, take them South and sell them into
bondage. These outlaws became so strong as to con-
trol elections and the courts. If people interfered,
their property was destroyed and sometimes they
themselves were killed. The law abiding citizens or-
ganized the "Regulators" and the outlaws were
given the name, "Flatheads." Finally, in 1849,
through the influence of Ex-Governor Reynolds, who
was again in the legislature, a law was passed where-
by persons accused of crime could be taken to adjoin-
ing counties for trial. This, with other legislation
113. In 1850, Congress gave to the State every
odd numbered section of land in a strip twelve miles
wide extending from Cairo to LaSalle, from LaSalle
to Chicago and from LaSalle to Galena, this land to
be used by the state in any way it chose for the con-
struction of a railroad. There was a provision that
where any of this land had been entered or purchased
of the government, the state should choose other land
in its stead. The United States reserved the use of
the right-of-way for the transportation of its armies
and implements of war in time of war.
114. In 1851 five important laws were passed: a
law authorizing counties to adopt township organization,
a law authorizing the establishment of private banks, a
law putting restrictions on the sale of liquors, a law
providing for homestead exemption and a law au-
thorizing the construction of the Illinois Central Rail-
115. Joel A. Matteson was inaugurated gov-
ernor January 9th, 1853. The next year a law was
passed "to prevent the immigration of free negroes"
and another law creating the office of State Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction was also passed. Nin-
ian W. Edwards, son of Ninian Edwards, was ap-
pointed to fill this office.
116. In 1855 a law was passed which gives us
the basis of our present free school system. Among
other things it required teachers to pass an examina-
tion in reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic and ge-
ography. Strange as it may seem to us now, the peo-
ple thought these requirements too severe and they
were repealed two years later.
117. In 1856 the Republican party was organized.
The anti-slavery people of Illinois were active in this
party and put in the field an entire state ticket which
was elected, though James Buchanan carried the
state for president.
Locomotive used by the I. C. B. R. Co. in 1856.
118. The Illinois Central Railroad was completed in
1856. To encourage and help the Illinois Central Rail-
road Company to build it, the state had granted all the
land given by the government for that purpose. (113).
There is a popular opinion that the Illinois Central
Railroad Company pays no tax, but in lieu thereof
pays to the state seven percent of the gross earnings.
Here are the facts as taken from their charter: it pays
no tax except to the state. It must pay five per cent
of the gross earnings and a state tax not to exceed
three fourths of one per cent of the valuation of ail
the assets, provided that if these do not equal seven
per cent of the gross receipts, the said Company must
also pay the difference to the state. It will thus be
Illinois State Normal University, Normal.
seen that the state is entitled to the alternative that
will bring the most money into the state treasury,
(153). Much censure was heaped upon the legisla-
ture for giving all this land to a corporation, but il
was a wise move, financially and otherwise. Land
through which the road ran was offered in 1851 at
$1.25 per acre with no buyer. In 1856 the same land
sold at from $2.50 to $5.00 per acre. The money re-
ceived by the state was applied to its interest-bearing
obligations and in course of time the immense debt
of the state was paid (140). The above conditions
concerning taxes applied only to the original lines
and not to lines which have been bought or leased
119. William H. Bissell was inaugurated gov-
ernor January 12th, 1857. This same year three im-
portant laws were passed. One provided for the es-
tablishment of a State Normal University, which was
located at Normal. Another provided that people of
any school district could vote a tax for school pur-
poses not to exceed two per cent, in addition to the
tax authorized by the law of 1855. The last one au-
thorized the building of the penitentiary at Joliet.
120. In 1858 Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A.
Douglas became candidates! for the United States
Senate. It would be decided by the legislature, many
of the members of which were to be elected that fail.
Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates.
The challenge was accepted and they debated at Ot-
tawa, Freeport, Jonesboro, Charleston, Galesburg
Quincy and Alton. Against the protest of his friends.
Lincoln asked Douglas if he favored popular sover-
eignty. The latter answered in the affirmative. Lin-
coln had said, "This may lead to my own defeat, bu^
it will keep Douglas from ever being president."
(Can it be that Lincoln foresaw that this answer
would split the Democratic party and open up the
way for the ultimate success of his own party?) The
Republican ticket received the majority, but by rea-
son of an unfair apportionment the Democrats had 54
in the General Assembly and the Republicans only
46. Douglas won, but Lincoln's sound logic and fore-
sightedness made him the successful candidate for
president two years later. This debate is sometimes
spoken of as "The Battle of the Giants," and was
probably the greatest event of its kind in the Nine-
121. An event of which we are not proud now
requires our attention. In 1859 it was discovered that
Ex-Governor Joel A. Matteson had defrauded the
state out of about $250,000. His property was siezed
by the state and it thus regained most of the money.
He was never prosecuted, but his latter days were
days of sorrow and regret, and he died without money
122. On March 8th, 1860, Governor Bissell died
and Lieutenant Governor John Wood became gov-
123. From early days in Illinois, slaves from the
South fled northward and were pursued by the slave
catcher. While those who sympathized with slavery
assisted the pursuers, the anti-slavery men helped the
slave in his flight toward Canada and for that purpose
conducted what has been known as the underground
railway. It was a violation of the law, but they felt
that unfair means had been brought to bear in the
elections and in the courts and that the slave-catcher
and kidnapper were daily violating the law in their in-
human traffic. Thus they felt justified in appealing to
a "higher law/'
124. The southern terminus of one of these routes
was on the Ohio near Metropolis, another was at
Chester, another at Alton, and a fourth one at Quincy.
They came together near LaSalle. Here the negroes
either hired out among the farmers or made their way
to Lake Michigan and got aboard a steamer, where
they were purposely not discovered until they reached
a British port, then, with great show of indignation,
they were put off. By this plan hundreds of negro
men, women and children were taken from slavery to
125. "The engineers, conductors, brakemen and
station agents upon these lines were God-fearing men.
who had the courage of their convictions, and, if oc-
casion required, did not hesitate, when on duty, to use
force to protect their passengers from the interference
of slave owners and slave-catchers, whom they loathed
126. On May 16th, 1860, the National Republi-
can Convention met at the Wigwam in Chicago and
nominated Abraham Lincoln for president. He was
elected over Stephen A. Douglas, his closest rival, the
following November and for the next five years dur-
ing the trying years of the Great Rebellion the his-
tory of Illinois becomes an important part of that of
"Not without thy wondrous story,
Can be writ the Nation's glory,
Richard Yates, Sr.
127. Richard Yates, the "War Governor," was
inaugurated January 14th, 1861. We were now en-
tering into a great conflict. On April 14th Fort Sump-
ter was fired on by the Confederates and the Civil
War had begun. The next day President Lincoln
called on each loyal state for troops and the men from
every hill and dale in Illinois responded, "We are com-
ing, Father Abraham." Acting under instructions
from the War Department, Governor Yates ordered
Cairo to be fortified, then removed thirty thousand
muskets, a number of cannon and a lot of other sup-
plies from the United States arsenal at St. Louis, at
that time a secession hot-bed, and without orders tele-
graphed the troops at Cairo to capture two boats of
supplies that the Rebels were taking down the river.
Stephen A. Douglas, the "Little Giant.
128. When the clouds of war fell like a pall over
the land, Stephen A. Douglas was patriotic enough,
like Jonathan of old, to rise above blasted hopes and
disappointments, above partisanship and prejudice, to
help his successful rival and he came out for the Un-
ion, declaring: "There can be no neutrals in this
General John A. Logan.
war ; either patriots or traitors." Many who had voted
for Douglas ("Douglas Democrats") remained Demo-
crats and came out for the Union. A few who were seces-
sionists at heart voted with the Democrats but did
ail in their power to further the interests of the seces-
sionists, generally joining such an organization as the
Knights of the Golden Circle, a band of organized
traitors. Still others of them became "Lincoln Re-
publicans" (nicknamed "Black Republicans" because
they were opposed to the extension of slavery) and
were loyal to the Union. The author's father voted
for Douglas and became a Republican and more than
once did the Knights of the Golden Circle attempt to
t~ke his life.
129. General John A. Logan was in Congress
when the war broke out, but he resigned his office,
went back to southern Illinois, and, in defiance of op-
position, made speeches for the Union in localities
where it was unsafe for it to be known that he was not
in favor of secession. He did more than any other one
man to save southern Illinois for the Union. He
started from Cairo as Colonel, fought in more than a
hundred battles and by dauntless courage won the
rank of Major General. He later served his state in
Congress and the United States Senate and was the
candidate of the Republican party for vice president in
1884. He stands without a peer as a soldier, as a
statesman and as a man.
130. When President Lincoln called for volun-
teers, Ulysses S. Grant volunteered to serve the
country in any capacity and soon demonstrated his
ability as a military leader, inscribing on his banners
such victories as Donelson, Shiloh, luka, Corinth and
Vicksburg. By act of Congress he was then made
Lieutenant General. This office was created that he
might be placed in command of all the armies of the
United States. He at once took command of the Army
of the Potomac in person because he wanted to fight
General Robert E. Le?, the ablest Confederate general.
The world knows the tragic story of the capture of
General Lee's army after four long, bloody years.
After the war was over, Grant served two terms as
President of the United States.
General Ulysses S. Grant.
131. More than two centuries ago, Andrew
Fletcher said, "Give me the making of the ballads and
I care not who makes the laws of a nation/' That his
logic is correct was never better demonstrated than in
the Civil War, but he might have added, "I care not
who fights the battles." The patriotic songs: "King-
dom Coming," "Brave Boys are They," and "March
Through Georgia" were all written by Henry Clay
Work of Illinois and "Just Before the Battle, Moth-
er," "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp," and "The Battle Cry
of Freedom," were written by G. F. Root of Illinois.
If the battle went ill or well, when the soldier heard
these patriotic melodies his heart rose high in hi^
bosom and he was eager to renew the conflict.
132. In 18G3, the Legislature expressed itself de-
cidedly against the Union and Governor Yates ad-
journed it against its will. This reminds us of Oliver
Cromwell's dissolving the Long Parliament more than
two hundred years before. The war dragged miser-
ably on while the patriot mothers bless their sacrcvl
memory bore the burdens at home.
133. On January 16th, 18G5, General Richard J.
Oglesby was inaugurated governor. On February 1st
of the same year President Lincoln signed the Thir-
teenth Amendment. The fact was telegraphed to
Governor Oglesby, transmitted to the General As-
sembly and adopted all in the same day. A few days
later the Black Laws (70) were repealed. The war
ended April 9th with the surrender of Lee's army and
Lincoln was assassinated April 14th. Thus ends the
story of slavery, so full of sadness yet so full of glory.
Illinois had furnished Abraham Lincoln, the Martyr
President ; Ulysses S. Grant, the greatest military
strategist since the time of Hannibal ; John A. Logan,
the greatest volunteer soldier the world ever knew ;
and 259,000 of her gallant "men behind the guns," who
carried their blood-stained banner through the very
region that cradled and nurtured and from whence
sallied forth on its mission of crime, misery and blood,
the disturbing and disorganizing spirit of secession
"Ah! never shall the land forget
How gushed the life blood of her brave
Gushed warm with hope and courage yet
Upon the soil they fought to save."
Gtmeral Kichard J. Oglesby.
134. England was much in sympathy with the
South, and, when it was evident that the Union would
be preserved, prophesied that such a vast army could
never be disbanded peaceably as each soldier, practiced
to the arts of war and unused to peace, would become
practically an outlaw, but he returned to the aban-
doned office or shop or farm when the war was over.
"And quietly took up the broken ends of love and life
as best he could, a better citizen for having been so
good a soldier."
135. To Dr. B. F. Stephenson, who had served
the country as surgeon of the 14th Illinois Infantrv
during the Civil War, is due the honor of originating
(he Grand Army of the Republic, he having organize 1
Post No. 1 at Decatur, Illinois, April 6th, the fourth
anniversary of the battle of Shiloh.
Engineering Hall, University of Illinois.
136. In 1867 a law was passed which established
the State University at Urbana. The expense of build-
ing it was greatly offset by a gift of 480,000 acres of
land which the government gave to the state for that
Present State Capitol.
137. On October 5th, 1868, the corner stone of
the new State Capitol was laid. It took twenty years
to complete it and cost nearly five million dollars, but
it is one of the finest in the United States. (Briefly
reviewing: the Territory of Illinois had one capitol
though it never owned it ; the State of Illinois has had
three capital cities Kaskaskia, Vandalia and Spring-
field and seven capitol buildings, five of which it
owned. See 67, 71, 75, 93, 100.)
138. General John M. Palmer was inaugurated
governor on January llth, 1869, and on July 2d of the
next year our third state constitution was adopted.
Among many other good features, it contained a pro-
vision prohibiting the state or any political division
thereof from giving aid to any private enterprise and
another providing for minority representation.
Southern Illinois Normal University, Carbondale.
139. In the year 1870, the Legislature passed a
law to establish the Southern Illinois Normal Univer-
sity. After a spirited contest among different cities of
southern Illinois it was finally located at Carbondale
and its doors were opened four years later.
140. On October 8th and 9th, 1871, the great
Chicago fire occurred. It covered an area of 2200 acres
burning nearly 16,000 buildings with a total valua-
tion of $200,000,000. The death roll was over 300
and 200,000 were rendered homeless. Insurance for
about $100,000,000 was carried by 201 companies; 68
of these companies were forced into liquidation and
only about half the insurance was ever collected.
From the ruins of the old wooden city a "New Chi-
cago" immediately sprang up that has been the won-
der of the world. It is said that the fire was caused
ty a cow's kicking a lantern over. It may seem strange
if we say that the smoke was seen over the entire state.
141. General Richard J. Oglesby was again in-
augurated governor on January 13th, 1873. Eight
days later he was elected to the United States Senate.
He resigned the governorship and Lieutenant Gov-
ernor John L. Beveridge became governor.
142. Shelby M. Cullom was inaugurated govern-
or January 8th, 1877. During this administration the
last burdensome dollar of state indebtedness, which at
one time amounted to $16,000,000 was paid and Illi-
nois alone of all the states was out of debt until Gov-
ernor Altgeld's administration. Governor Cullom was
re-elected in 1880 and re-inaugurated January 10th,
1881. He was elected to the United States Senate ir
1883 and Lieutenant Governor John M. Hamilton suc-
ceeded to the governor's office.
143. General Richard J. Oglesby was for the
third time inaugurated governor on January 13th :
1885. On May 4th, 1886, a mob collected on Hay-
market Square, Chicago, and when the police ap-
proached seven of the latter were killed by the explo-
sion of a bomb thrown among them. Eight men were
tried for this crime, four of whom were hanged and
three were sent to the penitentiary. The other com-
144. Joseph W. Fifer, popularly called "Private
Joe," was inaugurated governor on January, 14th.
1889. This year a law was passed for the construc-
tion of the Chicago Drainage Canal. It was to be
along the route of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and
was to be deep enough to allow the water to flow from
Lake Michigan into the Illinois River.
145. The Mississippi River had a number of
times overflowed its banks and was changing its
course in the region of Old Kaskaskia to such an ex-
tent that the site of that once proud metropolis of the
Mississippi Valley had almost disappeared and the
graves of those who had lived there in the early days
of Illinois seemed soon to be washed away. In 1892
the Legislature appropriated $10,000 for the purpose
of removing the remains from the cemetery to one to
be selected on higher ground. On account of objec-
tions raised by their descendants, the graves of a few
were left to be washed away, but there were probably
more than 2,000 removed to "Garrison Hill," a beauti-
ful site overlooking the Mississippi as it flows placidly
over the old. The exact number will never be known,
as the Mississippi had broken in and badly mixed some
of the graves and part of the removal was of neces-
sity a "wholesale" affair, however the work was done
with much credit to all concerned. In the new ceme-
tery on Garrison Hill stands a beautiful monument,
bearing this inscription:
Those who sleep here were first buried at
Kaskaskia, and afterwards removed to this
cemetery. They were the early pioneers of
the great Mississippi Valley. They planted
free institutions in a wilderness and were the
founders of a great commonwealth. In mem-
ory of their service, Illinois gratefully erects
The original site of town and cemetery is now en-
tirely covered by the Mississippi River, but as we
view this "City of the Dead" our minds wander back
more than two centuries to the time when the
people of Kaskaskia laid the foundation of the "Grand
Old Commonwealth of Illinois."
146. John P. Altgeld was inaugurated governor
January, 1893. The World's Columbian Exposition
was held at Chicago during the summer of that year.
On June 26th, 1893, Governor Altgeld pardoned the
three Haymarket rioters (143) who were in the pen-
itentiary. This made him very unpopular, as they
were considered anarchists.
147. Through the efforts of County Superintend-
ent O. J. Kern, Winnebago County has combined a
number of its rural schools into Consolidated Graded
Schools. By this plan several districts unite and the
children are taken to and from school at public ex-
pense. It has gone beyond the experimental stage and
bids fair to revolutionize the rural schools of Illinois.
On January 30, 1904, Seward Consolidated School,
the first consolidated school in the state, was dedicated,
148. In 1894 the American Railway Union went
out on a strike in the city of Chicago. Chaos reigned
until President Cleveland ordered Federal troops to
the scene to preserve order. Governor Altgeld took
offense at this alleged usurpation of authority, but he
finally ordered out state troops to take their places.
Eastern Illinois Normal, Charleston.
149. The Legislature passed laws in 1895 creat-
ing two new normal schools. One is located at
Charleston and is known as "The Eastern Illinois
Normal," the other is at DeKalb and is called "The
Northern Illinois Normal School." In completing the
history of Governor Altgeld's administration, one
thing, at least, must be said to his credit, i. e., that he
Northern Illinois Normal, DeKalb.
believed in substantial buildings and to such an ex-
y tent did he enforce his opinions on the architects, that
the buildings erected by the State stand as monuments
to what is known as Altgeld architecture.
150. John R. Tanner was inaugurated governor
January, 1897. This year the Legislature passed a law
to establish "The Western Illinois Normal School."
It is located at Macomb.
Western Illinois Normal, Macomb.
151. In 1898 the Spanish-American War was
fought. Governor Tanner promptly offered the service
of the State Militia and within three days the entire
eight regiments were ready for the fray. Several other
regiments were organized and were anxious for a fight
1-ut the services of only one more regiment was needed.
152. Richard Yates, son of the "War Governor,"
was inaugurated governor January 8th, 1901. This
same year a law was passed providing for Farmers'
Institutes. This law has already proven a great help
to the farmers of the State and the wisdom of those
who favored it can no longer be questioned. The
campaign for governor in 1904 was quite 'exciting.
Seven avowed candidates were in the field for the
nominaton on the republican ticket and there were
several so-called "dark horses." The State Conven-
tion lasted nearly a month. Finally, Charles S. De-
neen, of Chicago, was nominated and he was elected
over Hon. Lawrence Stringer, the democratic nom-
Charles S. Deueea.
153. Charles S. Deneen was inaugurated gov-
ernor January 9th, 1905. That year a Primary Elec-
tion Law was passed, but the next year the Supreme
Court declared it unconstitutional. Governor Deneen
then called the Legislature together in special session
and a new one was passed.
154. In 1907 the Legislature passed a Local Op-
tion Law which provides that the people of any city ;
township or county may vote on the question of li-
censing the saloon. As a result of this the liquor,
traffic has been greatly reduced.
Adlai E. Stevenson.
155. In 1908, the Legislature repealed the Primary
Election Law then on the statute books, and passed
another, but the Supreme Court declared it unconsti-
tutional. This was another campaign year. The re-
publicans nominated Governor Deneen to make the
race again, and the democrats offered that deservedly
popular man, Adlai E. Stevenson, of Bloomington,
who had honored the State by serving as the efficient
vice president of the United States from 1893 to
1897. This "battle of the ballots" was fought along
political lines and the former was re-elected.
156. On August 14th, 1908, a race riot broke out
in Springfield, almost under the shadow of the mon-
ument of the immortal Lincoln, and for nearly two
days, in fact until four regiments of militia were on
the scene, lawlessness reigned supreme. Seven people
were killed and more than fifty wounded, while prop-
erty valued at more than $100,000 was destroyed.
The next year, Miss Anna Pelley, of Anna, was mur-
dered by a negro at Cairo. He was arrested and put
in jail, but it became known that a crowd was being
organized to resort to "lynch law," and the sheriff
left with him, via the Illinois Central Railroad, but
was headed off near Dongola. The negro was taken
back and hanged in the heart of the city. Miss Pelley
was buried at her home and the public spirited citizens
of Anna and Cairo erected a beautiful monument to
her memory. Mob law is wrong, but back of it all
is the fact that the politicians catered for the negro
vote and did not enforce the laws against them.
157. The length of Illinois is 388 miles. It has an
area of 56,000 square miles and contains nearly 6,000,-
000 people. It ranks third among the states of the
Union in the production of manufactured goods and
of iron and steel products ; second in the production of
coal; first in farm products. It contains more miles
of railroad than any other state. In the manufacture
of watches, farm implements, railroad cars and pack-
ed meats it leads the world.
158. There is now strong probability that the
Chicago Drainage Canal, the Illinois River and the
Mississippi River will be converted into a deep water-
way connecting the Lakes with the Gulf. The mater-
ialization of this enterprise would make a seaport of
every town along these rivers. There can be no rea-
sonable conclusion reached as to the vast possibilities
opening up before us.
159. Attempting to give only the important facts we
have now traced the history of the great state of Illi-
nois from its discovery by Marquette and Joliet to the
present, telling of many brave deeds and brilliant
achievements of the men of Illinois with but few ref-
erences to the women of Illinois, and, without any de-
sire to detract from the glory due the men, we wish
here to direct attention to the sainted old mother who :
out of unbounded love, read the Bible, the best of
classics, to her sons and daughters, teaching them by
precept and practice to imitate that "Perfect Model"
of love and faith and duty. "Be a good boy, is what
she says to the little fellow each day as he starts to
school. Be a good boy, is what she says to the youth
as he leaves for college. Be a good boy is stili her
sacred charge, when, standing at the gate, she gives
him her blessing as he goes out into the world."
160. Nor would we forget the good and faithful
teacher, who takes the little urchins from a variety of
homes, teaching them how to be useful citizens, often
quelling miniature rebellions, giving them stories of
loyalty and patriotism, instilling in them a reverence
for our forefathers and a love for our country's flag
and ail it represents.
161. When the Civil War broke out, no less did
the "Woman of Illinois" expect of her son, her brother
or her lover than the Spartan mother did of her son
whom she told to come back bearing his shield tri-
umphantly or be brought back dead upon it. The
soldier "sang of love and not of fame" when he took
up the sweet refrain of "Just Before the Battle,
Mother." Well does the author remember that when
each regiment of Illinois troops went to the front in
the Spanish-American War its band would play,
"The Girl I Left Behind Me." Such influences
through childhood and youth and manhood would
make him feel happy to die righting for his country.
The immortal Lincoln had these in mind when he
said : "Let reverence of the law be breathed by every
mother to the lisping babe that prattles in her lap ; let
it be taught in schools, seminaries, and colleges ; let it
be written in primers, spelling-books and almanacs;
let it be preached from pulpits, and proclaimed in leg-
islative halls, and enforced in courts of justice; in
short, let it become the political religion of the nation"
"Through the long vista of departed years,
The kindling eye now gazes dimmed with tears
And now with magic power behold it brings
The sweets of memory without its stings."
When we view our great state in the light of
past, present and future events, witnessing its tri-
umphs of both peace and war, it makes us proud to
be an Illinoisan and there is added greater wealth of
pride than ever before to that beloved boast, "I am an
American citizen." As La Salle looked from his fort
on Starved Rock, "inaccessible as an eagle's nest,"
over his thousands of Indian Braves that roamed over
valley and plain, little did he dream that instead of a
vast French Dominion, a state like ours would exist
with a name that had always been magic in his ears
Every acre of ground, every house and lot, every bit of
personal property in the State gets its value largely through
the development of standards of intelligent appreciation and
intelligent desires. When the savage roamed over this rich
land it was worthless, because he had not the intelligence,
not the education, not the training to understand the land
and its resources. The .safety of property depends upon the
honesty of the people. The honesty of the people depends
upon their respect for law and property. This respect for law
and property is largely a creature of education. I believe the
value and safety of property depend upon the universality and
soundness of our education.
GOVERNORS AND LIEUTENANT GOVERN-
ORS OF ILLINOIS
D., Democrat; R., Republican; ** Resigned; * Died in office.
1818 Shadrach Bond D
1822 Edward Coles D
1826 Ninian Edwards D
1830 John Reynolds* D
1834 William L. D. Ewing. . D
1834 Joseph Duncan D
1838 Thomas Carlin D
1842 Thomas Ford D
1846 Augustus C. French D
1848 Augustus C. French D
1853 Joel A. Mattison D
1857 William H. Bissell**. . .,R
1860 John Wood R
1861 Richard Yates, Sr R
1865 Richard J. Oglesby R
1869 John M. Palmer R
1873 Richard J. Oglesby**. . .R
1873 John L. Beveridge R
1877 Shelby M. Cullom R
1881 Shelby M. Cullom**. .. .R
1883 John M. Hamilton R
1885 Richard J. Oglesby R
1889 Joseph W. Fifer R
1893 John P. Altgeld D
1897 John R. Tanner R
1901 Richard Yates, Jr R
1905 Chas. S. Deneen R
1909 Chas. S. Deneen R
Pierre Menard D
Adolphus Hubbard D
William Kinney D
Wi'iliam L. D. Ewing D
Alexander M. Jenkins* . . D
William H. Davidson... D
Stinson H. Anderson. . . ,D
John Moore D
Joseph B. Wells D
William McMurtry D
Gustave Koerner D
John Wood R
Frances A. Hoffman D
William Bross R
John Dougherty R
John L. Beveridge R
Andrew Shuman R
John M. Hamilton R
John C. Smith R
Lyman B. Ray. R
Joseph B. Gill D
William A. Northcott. . .R
William A. Northcott. . .R
Lawrence Y. Sherman... R
John G. Oglesby R
U. S. SENATORS FROM ILLINOIS
"The Senate of the United States shall be composed of
two Senators from each State, chosen by the legislature
thereof, for six years." 'No person shall be a Senator who
shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been
nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not
when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he
shall be chosen."
* Died iti office; ** Resigned; D., Democrat; R., Republican ; Ind.,
Name Residence In Out
Ninian Edwards D. .. .Kaskaskia 1818 1819
Jesse B. Thomas D Kaskaskia 1818 1823
**Ninian Edwards D Edwardsville 1819 1824
Jesse B. Thomas D Edwardsville 1823 1829
John McLean D. . . .Shawneetown 1824 1825
Elias Kent Kane D Kaskaskia 1825 1831
* John McLean D. .. .Shawneetown 1829 1830
David J. Baker D Kaskaskia 11-12-30 12-11-30
John M. Robinson D....Carmi 1830 1835
*Elias Kent Kane D. .. .Kaskaskia 1831 1835
John M. Robinson D Carmi 1835 1841
W. L. D. Ewing D Vandalia 1835 1837
Richard M. Young. . .D. . . Jonesboro 1837 1843
*Samuel McRoberts. ..D. .. .Waterloo 1841 1343
Sidney Breese D....Carlyle 1843 1849
James Semple D.... Alton 1843 1847
Stephen A. Douglas. ..D Quincy 1847 1853
James Shields D . . . . Springfield 1849 1855
Stephen A. Douglas. ..D Chicago 1853 1859
Lyman Trumbull D Belleville 1855 1861
*Stephen A. Douglas. D Chicago 1859 1861
Lyman Trumbull R Chicago 1861 1867
O. H. Browning. R Quincy 1861 1863
W. A. Richardson D Quincy 1863 1865
Richard Yates R Jacksonville 1865 1871
Lyman Trumbull R Chicago 1867 1873
John A. Logan R Chicago 1871 1877
Richard J. Oglesby .... R .... Decatur 1873 1879
David Davis Ind Bloomington 1877 1883
John A. Logan R Chicago 1879 1885
Shelby M. Cullom .... R .... Springfield 1883 1889
Name Residence In Out
*John A. Logan R Chicago 1885 1886
Charles B. Farwell R Chicago 1887 1891
Shelby M. Cullom R Springfield 1889 189,5
John M. Palmer D Springfield 1891 1897
Shelby M. Cullom R Soringfield 1895 1901
William E. Mason R Chicago 1897 1903
Shelby M. Cullom R Springfield 1901 1907
Albert J. Hopkins R Aurora 1903 1909
Shelby M. Cullom R Snringfield 1907
W. R. Lorimer R Chicago 1909
INFORMATION ABOUT THE COUNTIES OF
The star indicates that the county is not under township
Name Organized Sq. mi. Pop. 1910 Origin of Name
Adams 1825.. 830.. 64588 J.Q.Adams
Alexander* .. 1819.. 220.. 22741. W.M.Alexander
Bond 1817.. 380.. 17075.. Shadrach Bond
Boone 1837.. 288.. 15481. . .Daniel Boone
Brown 1839.. 306.. 10397. ...Jacob Brown
Bureau 1837.. 840.. 43975 P. de Buero
Calhoun* .. ..1825.. 251.. 8610. . . J. C. Calhoun
Carroll 1839.. 450.. 18035 Chas. CarroU
Cass* 1837.. 460.. 17372 Lewis Cass
Champaign . .. 1833. .1008. . 51829. .A Co. in Ohio
Christian . . . .1839. . 702. . 34549. . ..A Co. in Ky.
Clark 1819.. 513.. 23517... Geo. R. Clark
Clay 1824.. 466.. 18661.... Henry Clay
Clinton 1824.. 487.. 22832. DeWitt Clinton
Coles 1830.. 520.. 34517. ..Edward Coles
Cook 1831.. 890. .2405233.... Dan P. Cook
Crawford .. ..1816.. 470.. 26281.. W.H Crawford
Cumberland .. 1843.. 350.. 14281. .Cumberl'd R'd
DeKalb. ..1837.. 650.. 33457.. Baron DeKalb
Douglas . .
DuPage . .
Edgar ... ,
Edwards* . .
Fayette . . .
Franklin . .
Fulton ... ,
Gallatin . . ,
Grundy . . . ,
Hamilton . .
Hancock . .
Iroquois . .
Jackson . .
Jasper . . .
Jefferson . .
Johnson* . .
Kankakee . .
Lawrence . .
Organized Sq. mi. Pop. 1910
Origin of Name
440. . 18906, DeWitt Clinton
410. . 19591.. S. A. Douglas
340.. 33432.. DuPage River
640. . 27336 John Edgar
220. . 10490 Ninian Edwards
486.. 20255.. Ed. Effingham
720.. 28001 La Fayette
580.. 17096.. .. Thos. Ford
430. . 25943. .Benj. Franklin
864. . 49549. . . Robt. Fulton
14628.. Albert Gallatin
23363. . .Nath. Greene
24162. . Felix Grundy
18227. . . A. Hamilton
30638. John Hancock
7015. . .A Co. in Ky.
10727 Henderson R'vr
41736. .Patrick Henry
15543 . . . Indian name
33143 Andrew Jackson
18157.. Sgt. W. Jasper
29111 T. Jefferson
13954 New Jersey
22654 Jo Daviess
14331.. R. M. Johnson
91862. .Elias K. Kane
40752. . . Indian name
10777. . Amos Kendall
46159. .. Henry Knox
55058.. Lake Michigan
90132. ..LaSalle, Exp
22661.. Jas. Lawrence
27250 R. H. Lee
40465.. Ed. Livingston
30216. Dr. Jno. Logan
Pop. 1910 Origin of Name
Macon . . .
54186 . . . Nath. Macon
Macoupin . .
50685. . . Indian name
Madison .. .
89847.. . Jas. Madison
Marion . . .
35037 Francis Marion
Marshall . .
15679. John Marshall
Mason . . .
17377... A Co. in Ky.
Massac* . .
14200 . . . Fort Massac
26887, T. McDonough
McHenry . .
32509, Wm. McHenry
McLean . .
68008. . John McLean
Menard* . .
12796. .Pierre Menard
Mercer . . .
19723... Hugh Mercer
Monroe* . .
13508. . . Jas. Monroe
35311 R. Montgomery
Morgan* . .
34420, Daniel Morgan
Moultrie . .
14630. .Wm. Moultrie
. . .1836. .
27864. . . Joseph Ogle
100255... Indian name
Perry* . . .
22088.... O. H. Perry
Piatt . .
. .1841. .
16376. . . . Benj. Piatt
. . .1821. .
28622. . Z M Pike
.. ..1816. .
11215. Nathaniel Pope
15650, Casimir Pulaski
Putnam . .
7561. .Israel Putnam
29120 Em'd Randolph
Richland . .
15970.. A Co. in Ohio
70404 Isl'd samte name
30204. . . Saline creek
91029.. . Indian name
Schuyler . .
14852, Philip Schuyler
Scott* . . .
. . .1839. .
10067. ...A Co. in Ky.
31693... Isaac Shelby
Stark ... .
. . .1839. .
10098 John Stark
St. Clair . .
. . .1790. .
119870 A. St. Clair
36821 Benj. Steph'son
Tazewell . .
Union* ... .
White ... ..
Whiteside . .
Organized Sq. mi
. .1827.. 650.
. .1836. . 676.
.1836. . 850.
Pop. 1910 Origin of Name
34027. L. W. Tazewell
21856.... The Union
77996.. Vermillion R.
14913. . . Indian name
23133 Jos. Warren
18753.. G. Washington
25697. .Anth'y Wayne
23052.. Leonard White
34507... S. Whiteside
84371.... Conrad Will
45098.. A Co. in Tenn.
63153. . . Indian name
20506. ..A Co. in Ky.
Population of Illinois, 5,638,591.
Charles S. Deneen, Chicago, re-elected 190S.
John G. Oglesby, Elkhart, elected 1908.
SECRETARY OF STATE
James A. Rose, Golconda, re-elected 19C8.
AUDITOR OF PUBLIC ACCOUNTS
James S. McCullough, Urbana, re-elected 1908.
Ed. E. Mitchell, Carbondale, elected 1908.
SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION
Francis G. Blair, Charleston, re-elected 1910.
William H. Stead, Ottawa, re-elected 1908.
CLERK OF SUPREME COURT
J. McCan Davis, Springfield, elected 1908.
JUDGES OF SUPREME COURT
First District Alonzo K. Vickers.
Second District William M. Farmer.
Third District Frank K Dunn.
Fourth District George A. Cooke.
Fifth District John P. Hand.
Sixth District James H. Cartright.
Seventh District Orin N. Carter.
James H. Cartright is Chief Justice.
University of Illinois, Urbana Dr. E. J. James, President.
State Normal University, Normal Dr. David Felmley, Pres.
Southern Illinois Normal University, Carbondale Dr. D. B.
Eastern Illinois State Normal School, Charleston Dr. L. C.
Northern Illinois State Normal School, DeKalb Dr. John
W. Cook, President.
Western Illinois State Normal School, Macomb Dr. Alfred
(Numbers refer to paragraphs.)
A. F. & A. M., 48.
Algonquins, 2, 5.
Altgeld, John P., 142, 146,
Alton, 51, 80, 84, 120, 124.
Amendment, Thirteenth, 133.
American Bottom, 8, 38.
American Ry. Union, 148.
Badgley, Rev. D., 44.
Bank of Kaskaskia, 57.
Bank of Edwardsville, 57.
Bank of Illinois, 102.
Bank of Shawneetown, 57.
Banks, Private, 114.
Bank, State, 72, 83, 85, 91,
Banks, "Wildcat," 57, 72.
Baptist Church, 44.
Beveridge, John L, 141.
Black Hawk War, 11, 86, 89.
Birney, James G., 101.
Birkbeck. Morris, 74.
Bissell, Wm. H., 119, 122.
Black Laws, 70, 133.
Block Houses, 51.
Boisbraint, Pierre Duque, 15.
Bond, Shadrach 70.
Boundary of Illinois, 66.
Breese, Sidney, 71.
British, 20, 21, 51, 54.
British Sympathizers, 23.
Burnett, Timothy, 73.
Burr, Aaron, 47.
Cahokia, 3, 8.
Cairo, 113, 127.
Campbell's Island, 54.
Campbell, Lt, 54.
Camp Russell, 51.
Canals, 91, 110, 144, 158.
Capital, 67, 70, 71, 100.
Capitol, 48, 67, 71, 75, 93,
Carlin, Thomas, 98.
Cartright, Rev. Peter, 82.
Carnival of Crime, 110.
Charleston, 120, 149.
Chartres, Fort, 15, 17, 20.
Chicago, 46, 51, 96.
Chicago Fire, 140.
Church, Baptist, 44.
Church, M. E... 42.
Church, Cum. Pres., 58.
Church, Cov. Pres., 59.
Civil War, 126, 133.
Clark, George Rogers, 23, 38.
Coles, Edwadd, 74.
Congress, 40, 45, 66, 83, 110,
Connecticut, 21, 39.
Consolidated Schools, 147.
Constitution, 67, 74, 109, 111,
Corn Island, 24.
Counties, see appendix.
Court, Federal, 89.
Court, U. S. Supreme. 103.
Court, First in Illinois, 19.
Counterfeiting, 104, 112.
Craig, Capt., 53.
Cullom, Shelby M., 142.
Dearborn Massacre, 51.
Debt, State, see State Debt.
Debt, War, 39.
Deep Waterway, 158.
Deneen, Charles S., 150.
Douglas, Stephen A., 120, 128.
Duncan, Joseph, 76, S3, 94.
Duncan, Matthew, 56.
East St. Louis, 8.
Eddy, Henry, 74.
Edwards Co., 76.
Edwards, Ninian W., 115.
Edwards, Ninian, 79.
Eel Rivers, 4.
Enabling Act, 66.
England, 33, 36, 51, 134.
Ewing, L. D., 90.
Farmers Institutes, 152.
Federal Court, 89.
Fifer, Joseph W., 144.
Flag, 27. 69.
Ford, Thomas, 102.
Fort Chartres, 15, 20.
Fort Clark, 53.
Fort Creve Cour, 7, 13.
Fort Dearborn, 46, 51, 52, 88.
Fort Gage, 20.
Fort Massac, 47.
Fort Pitt, 24.
Fort Snelling, 81.
Fort St. Louis, 7, 9, 13.
Fort Sumpter, 127.
Foxes, 5, 6, 9, 53.
France, 17, 36.
French, .A. C, 109, 111.
Galena, 71, 98.
Garrison Hill, 145.
George III, 18.
Gibault, Father. 28.
Grant, U. S., 130 133.
Great Northern Cross R. R.,
Hamilton, John M., 142.
Hamilton, Sir Henry, 30, 33.
Harrison, William H., 68.
Haymarket Riot, 143.
Heald, Capt, 52.
Helm, Capt., 29.
Hennepin, Father Louis 13.
Henry, Patrick, 23.
Homestead Exemption, 114.
Illini, 3, 6, 7, 9, 13, 41.
Illinois, 12, 13, 15, 35, 41,
Illinois and Mich, see canal.
Illinois Cen. R. R., 114, US.
Illinois Herald, 56.
Illinois Territory, 49, 50.
Indiana, 41, 49.
Indiana Territory, 45.
Indians, 1, 14, 23, 27, 30, 51,
Internal Improvement, 94,
I. O. O. R, 92. Masonic Lodge, 48.
Iroquois, 2, 6, 9, 13. Matteson, Joel A., 115, 121.
McGready, Rev. James, 58.
Jackson, Andrew, 55, 91. McKendree College, 82.
Joliet, 119. McLean, John, 67.
Jolicr, Louis, 12. M. E. Church, 42.
Jonesboro, 120. Mercdosia, 97.
Juries, 19. Metropolis, 41, 124.
Mexican War, 106.
Kaskaskia, 8, 14, 15, 16, 20, Miamis, 4 :
23, 26, 27, 35, 38, 41, 56, Michigamies, 3.
67, 77, 145. Minority Representation, 138.
Kaskaskia Cemetery. 145. Mormons, 104.
Kaskaskia River, 14, 27, 51. JJ onev ' 5 T 7>
Kaskaskias, 14. nr T' Jam S< 7 '
Keel Boats, 31. Mbunds, 1.
Kentucky, 23, 52. Murphysboro, 72.
Kentuckians, 24, 53. Muscogees, 2.
Keokuk, 86. Muster Days, 55.
Kickapoos, 5, 6, 9.
Kidnappers, 112, 123. Nauvoo, 104.
Knights of Golden Circle, Neeroes, 16, 40, 68, 70, 74,
128 101, 105, 115, 123, 125, 133.
New Design, 37, 42, 44.
Lafayette, Gen., 77. Newspapers, 56.
Lands, Indian, 86. New York, 39.
Lands, Railroad, 113, 115. Normal, 119.
Lands, School, 83. Normal, Eastern, 149.
Latter Day Saints, 91. Normal, Northern, 149.
LaSalle 113 124 Normal, Southern, 139.
LaSalle! Robert, 3, 7, 13, 162. Normal, State, 119.
Lebanon, 82. Normal, Western, 150
Legislature, 59, 70, 72, 74, Northern Cross Road, 97,
94, 112, 132, 145, 153. x 102 -
Lillard, Rev. Joseph, 42. Northwest Territory, 45.
Lincoln, Abraham, 120, 126,
128, 130, 133. Odd Fellows, 92.
Linn, Capt, 25. Ogden, W. B., 96.
Liquor, 114, 151. Oelesby, Richard J., 133,
Logan, John A., 129, 133. 141, 143.
Louis XIV, 15. Ohio, 41, 45.
Lovejoy, Rev. Elijah P., 95. Ordinance of 1787, 40, 74.
Marquette, Father, 12. Palmer, John M., 138.
Peck, Rev. John M., 74, 8"J.
Pelley, Anna, 156.
Penitentiary, 84, 119.
Peorias, 3, 8, 9.
Pet Banks, 91.
Polk, James K., 106.
Pope, Nathaniel, 66.
Pottawatomies, 5, 9, 96.
Primary Elections, 152, 155.
Buincy, 97, 120, 124.
uebec Act, 21.
Railroad Lands, 113, 115.
Railroads, 89, 97, 102, 113,
Randolph County, 43.
Rebellion, 126, 133.
Rdigious Freedom, 40.
Renault, Philip F., 16.
Republicans, 117, 126.
Reynolds, John, 46, 84, 86,
Rock Island, 86.
Rock Springs, 80.
Russell, William, 53.
Sacs, 5, 6, 9, 53, 76, 86.
Salt Works, 84.
School Lands, 83.
Schools, 37, 76, 83, 91, 103,
115, 116, 119.
Scott, Wiiifield, 88.
Seeley, S. J. } 37.
Shawneetown. 57, 72, 77, 79.
Shields, James, 106, 107.
Shnrtleff College, 80.
Slavery. 16, 40, 68, 70, 74,
101, 105, 123, 124, 125, 133.
Smith, G. W., 25.
Smith, Joseph, 104.
Spanish-American War, 151.
Springfield, 97, 99.
Starved Rock, 9, 160.
State Bank, 83, 85, 91, 102.
State Debt, 94, 102, 142.
State Normal, 119.
State University, 136.
St. Clair, Arthur, 41.
St. Clair County, 41, 43.
Stephenson, B. F., 135.
Stevenson, A. E., 155.
Stewart, A. C, 73.
Sterling, Capt, 17.
St. Louis, 17, 127.
Supt. of Schools, 103, 115.
Supreme Court of U. S., 105.
Surplus Revenue, 91,
Tamaroas, 3, 6, 8, 14.
Tanner, John R., 149.
Taylor, Zachary, 54.
Teachers, 64, 116, 161.
Theological Sem. and H. S.,
Thirteenth Amendment 133.
Thomas, Jesse B., 59.
Todd, John, 35.
Tonti, Henr-. 13.
Township Organization, 114.
Treaty of Paris, 17.
Underground Railway, 123,
Union Jack, 17, 27.
Vandalia, 70, 71, 77, 93. Winnebagoes, 5, 6, 81, 87, 88.
Venison, 60, 71. Wisconsin, 12, 87, 108.
Vincennes, 29, 31, 52. Witchcraft, 35.
Virginia, 21, 23, 35, 39. Wolfe, Rev. George, 78.
Wolfe, Gen. James, 17.
Wabash River, 29, 31, 43, 51. Women, 132, 160, 161, 162.
War Debts, 39. Wood, John, 122.
War of 1812, 11. World's Columbian Exposi-
War Governor, 127. tion, 146.
Weas, 4. Wylie, Rev. Samuel, 59.
Wigwam, The, 126. Yates, Richard, Sr., 127.
Wildcat Banks, 57, 72. Yates, Richard, Jr., 152.