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" Let the result be what it may, I have launched my boat." 










1835, April 6th. 


Arrived at Fathighar The Sitar versus the Dital Harp The Mahratta 
Camp Her Highness the Baiza Ba'T Jankee Rao The Gaja Raja 
Sahib Visit to the Ex-Queen Dress of the Mahrattas The Sword of 
Scindia The English Side-saddle Pan and Atr Departure The 
Arab at the Zenana Gates Her Highness a good judge of a Horse 
Absurdity of a Side-saddle The Gaja Rajah's Horsemanship A 
Challenge The Kurk The Pilgrim receives a Title The Idols 
The six Wives of Appa Sahib Oppression of the Laws with respect 
to Widows Recipe for Hooqii Cakes Superstitions of the Natives 
Lucky and Unlucky Marks on Horses Tiger-claw Charms To tame 
vicious Horses Assam Coins 1 



1835, April \bth. 

Zenana of the Nawab of Fathighar The Nawab Hakim Menhdi His 
Attire and Residence Shawl Manufactory The Muharram Visit to 
the Zenana of the Nawab Lord Brougham Molineux and Tom Cribb 
The Burka Departure from Fathighar Return to Allahabad 
Voyage on the Ganges The Legend of Kurrah Secunder-al-SanI 
The Sati A Squall Terror of the Sarang The Kali, Nadi Ruins of 
Kanauj The Legend Ancient Coins Rosewater Burning the Dead 
Arrival at Fathighar 16 




1835, September 8th. 


Mutiny in Camp Murder of the Prisoners The Mutiny quelled by the 
Military Visit to the Zenana The Swing of the Gaja Raja The 
Seagull in Parda The Ba'i Visits the Pinnace How to dress a Camel 
Tlie Vicious Beast Lucky and Unlucky Days Her Highness 
ordered to Benares 32 



1835, October. 

Zenana of the Nawab of Famikhabad The Nawab Hakim Menhdl 
Hidden Treasures The Jak Dak to Cawnpore The Nawab of Banda 
Returned Home in the Seagull Mr. Blunt, the Lieutenant-Governor, 
quitted the Station Arrival of Mr. Ross The Baiza Ba'i sent to 
Allahabad Arrival of her Highness Parties in the Mahratta Camp 
Opium-Eating Marriage Ceremonies of the Hindoos Procession in 
Parda The Bride Red Gold The Ex-Queen's Tents at the Tribeni 
The Batliing Presents to the Brahmans Arrival of Sir Charles 
Metcalfe Sohobut Mela Illness of the Gaja Raja Sahib Murder 
of Mr. Frazer The Baiza Ba'i a State Prisoner The Power of 
Magic ............ 40 



1836, June 28th. 

A Storm on the Jumna An Amazonian Mahratta Lady Putli Coins 
The Mint at Gwalior East India Company's Rupees Departure of 
Sir Charles Metcalfe Murder of two Ladies in a Zenana The 
Steamer and Tug Rajmahal Tiger Cotton Seed Nagapanchmee 
Wreck of the Seagull A Fierce Tufan Arrival of Sir Henry Fane 
Visit to the Baiza Ba'i River Voyage to Calcutta Chunar The 
, God Burtreenatli Ghat of Appa Sahib Ghat of the Baiza Ba'i Her 
Treasury seized by the Government The Chiraghdanis The Minarets 
Native Merchants Kimkhwab Manufactory The Juneoo House 
of the Baiza Ba'i The Iron Chests of Gold Mohurs Rooms full of 
Rupees, of Copper Coins, and of Cowries Vishwii-Kurma, the Archi- 
tect of the Gods 53 



1836, November 2Ut. 


GhazTpur Tomb of Lord Corawallis Palace of the Nawab of Ghazipur 
Beerpur Satis The Murda Ghat Buxar The Stud BuUiah 
Mela Blue Waters of the Soane Swimming an Elephant A Day too 
late for the Fair Hajipur The Gunduc River Thieves Futwa 
Tarie-trees Monghir The Seeta Khoond Janghira Mosque and 
Graves Rocks of Kuhulgaon Desertion of the Dandees Sikri-gali 
An Adventure in the Hills of Rajmahal Tiger Tracks The Spring- 
bow By'a Birds The Hill-man Poisoned Arrows The Thumb-ring 
Bauhinia Scandens ......... 65 



1836, December 'Ith. 

Sporting at Rajmahal Ruins of the Palace of the Nawab Brahman! 
Ducks The Ruins of Gaur The Dakait An Adventure Beautiful 
Ruins Pan-gardens The Kadam Sharif Curious Coins Jungle Fever 
Casowtee Stone Fields of the Mustard Plant Ancient Bricks 
Fakirs tame Alligators Salt Box An Account of the Ruins of Gaur . 79 



1836, December 9th. 

Toll at Jungipur Bengalee Women Palace of the Nawab of Moorsha- 
dabad Mor-pankhi Snake Boats Casim Bazar Berhampur Cintra 
Oranges Cutwa Cloth Culna The Timber Raft Chandar-nagar 
Shola Floats The Hoogly Chinsurah Barrukpur Serampiir Com 
Mills The Shipping Chandpaul Ghat River Fakirs M. le General 
Allard Assam Leaf-insect The Races Kali Ma'i Dwarkanath 
Tagore The Foot of a Chinese Lady Quitted Calcutta The Steamer 
and Flat The Sunderbands Mud Islands Tigers The Woodcutters 
Kaloo-rayii Settlements Culna Commercolly Rajmahal Mon- 
ghir Coolness of a Native Pleasures of Welcome The Vaccine 
Department The Gaja Raja performs Piija as a Fakir The Eclipse 
The Plague The Lottery Conversations in the Zenana The Auto- 
graph Delicacy of Native Ladies Death of the King of Oude The 
Padshah Begam Moonajah The King's Uncle Raised to the Throne . 97 




1837, August. 

Festival of the Birthday of Krishuu The Ras The Rakhl Krishnii 
or Kaniya Sports of the Gopi's The Elephant The Horse Gopalii 
Gopi Nat'hu Radha Krishnii Krishnii destroying the Serpent 
Monotony of Life in India The Holy Monkey Sporting in Assam 
Buffalo Shooting Tiger Hunting on Foot The Baghmars The 
Spring-bow An Earthquake Risk of Life in the Bhagmar Department 
The Burying- Ground at Goalparah 116 



1837, August. 

Partiality of the Natives for English Guns Solitary Confinement The 
Nawab Hakim Menhdl Bad Omens^ A Slight Mistake Bhusa The 
Padshah Begam and Moona-jah The Baiza Ba'i visits a Steamer 
Arrival of Lord Auckland Visit of the Governor-General and the Hon. 
the Misses Eden to her Highness the ex-Queen of Gwalior A March 
up tlie Country The Camp at Fathlpur The Line of March Death 
of the Nawab Hakim Menhdi The Heir-apparent of Oude gives a 
Breakfast to the Governor-General H.R. H. Prince Henry of Orange 
and the Misses Eden visit Lucnow Resignation of Sir Charles Met- 
calfe Choblpur Thieves Urowl The Famine The Pilgrim buys a 
Cocky-olli Bird Merunkee Sara'e Ancient Hindu Ruin at Kanauj 
Famine in the Bazar Interment of Mahadeo and Parbati The Legend 
of Kanauj 134 



The 330,000,000 Gods of the Hindu Pantheon The Janeo Brumhii 
The Trinity Bramha Vishnii Shivu The Ten Avatars The Fish 
The Tortoise The Boar The Man-lion Vamana the Dwarf 
I'arashu-Rama Rama-Chandra Bala-Rama Booddhii Kalki 
Krishnii Radha Rukmeni Jaganna'tli Kama-deva Mahadeo 
Parvati GSn6sh Kartikeya Lachhmi Saraswati Durga Sati 
The Puranns The Mundane Egg of the Hindus Tiie Vedas Ascen- 
sion of the God Buddha 147 



1838, January 8th, 


Jellalabad Menhdl Bridge The Resident of Gwalior Difficulty of 
Crossing the Sands of the Ganges Imrutpiir Marching under the 
Flag of the Resident of Gwalior Khasgunge The Tombs of Colonel 
Gardner and his Begam Mulka Begam Style of March Pleasure of 
a Life in Tents The Fort of Alligarh The Racers The 16th 
Lancers present a Shield to Mr. Blood The Monument The Kos- 
Minar Koorjah and Solitude Meeting of Old Friends Meerut The 
Officers of the Artillery give a Ball to the Governor-General and his 
Party The Suraj Kiind The Buffs add to the Gaiety of the Station 
The Artillery Theatre The Pilgrim Tax abolished at Allahabad . .182 



1838, February. 

Happiness of being alive March from Meerut to Delhi Method of 
Stealing a Camel Delhi The Church Monument erected to William 
Frazer, Esq., B.C.S. The Canal of Paradise Mimic Warfare Tomb 
of Humaioon Fort of Feroze Shah Masjid of Zeenut al Nissa 
Masjid of Roshun-ool-DowIa Datisca Cannabina Mimosa Scandens 
Washing by Steam The Kutab Minar Ancient Colonnades Kutab 
ki Lat Unfinished Minar 191 



1838, February 2'2nd. 

Ancient Delhi The Ba'oll Tombs of Shah'alam, Bahadur Shah, and 
Akbar Shah The Zenana Ghar Extent of the Ruins The Observatory 
Palace of Shahjahanabad The Zenana Hyat-ool-Nissa Begam 
Poverty of the Descendants of Tamurlane The Effect of a Zenana 
Education on Man and Woman Death of Pnnce Dara Bukht The 
Dewani Am The Dewani Khas The Palace The Shah- burj Gar- 
dens of Shalimar Ruins of Palaces and Baths The Modem City 
Tees Hazzari Bagh The Madrissa The Jama Masjid The Kala 
Masjid Plan of the City of Delhi Quitted Delhi, and returned to 
Meerut Tomb of PIr Shah 207 



1838, March Wlh. 


First View of the Snowy Ranges Saharanpur MohunchaukT An 
Adventure The Keeree Pass Rajpur Mot! The Gunth Hill- 
men A Jampan Ascent to Landowr Hill Flowers Purity of the 
Air View of the Himalaya The Khuds Mussoorl Rhododen- 
dron Trees Mr. Webb's Hotel Curious Soap The Landowr Bazar 
Schools in the Hills Cloud End The White Rhododendron Storm 
in the Hills Hill Birds Fever in the Hills Newlands Death of 
Major Blundell 224 



1838,^;jr7 nth. 

Jerripani The Cicalas View from the Pilgrim's Bangla A Fall over 
a Precipice The Glow-worm Wild-beast Track The Scorpion 
Mules Karral Sheep Wet Days Noisy Boys Conical Hills The 
Khuds Earthquake at Cloud End The Waterfall Fall of a Lady 
and Horse over a Precipice Kalunga General Gillespie The Kookree 
The Ghoorkas The Korah The Sling Ben Oge Danger of 
Exposure to the Mid-day Sun An Earthquake A Spaniel seized by 
a Leopard A Party at Cloud End A Buffer encounters a Bear Hills 
on Fire Botanical Gardens Commencement of the Rains Expedition 
to the Summit of Bhadraj Munificence of tlie Clouds Storms in High 
Places Danger of Narrow Roads during the Rains Introduction of 
Slated Roofs in the Hills 236 



1838, June 29th. 

Kharlta of her Highness the ex-Queen of Gwalior A Mountain Storm 
An Adventure Asses carried off by Leopards Bear's Grease Deodar 
Oil Apricot Oil Hill Currants Figs and Tar The Cholera Sacrifice 
of a Kid to the Mountain Spirit Absurdity of the Fear of a Russian 
Invasion Plague of Fleas The Charmed Stone Iron-stone Kho- 
Wah, the Hill Dog Sheep-stealing Booteah Chharra Flexible 
Stone A Fearful Storm A Doomed Bangla Leaf Butterflies 
Bursting of the Mahratta Bandh at Prag Similarity of the Singular 
Marriages in the Hills with those of the Ancient Britons Honesty of 
tlie Paharis, i.e. Mountaineers 250 



1838, September. 


The Great Peak of Bhadrinath No Glaciers in the Snowy Ranges Cere- 
monies performed on visiting Holy Places Kedarnath Moira Peak 
Gangoutri The Jaunti Peak Jumnotrl The Himalaya Range 
formed by Mahadeo Palia Gadh The Dewtas Bandarponch 
Hiinooman The Cone Height of the Himalayas .... 260 



1838, September 8th. 

Family Sorrows The Snowy Ranges after the Rains Hill Birds The 
Park Hill Boundaries Stables on Fire Opening of the Keeree Pass 
Danger of passing through it Deobund Return to Meerut The 
Tomb of Jaffir Sahib Chiri-mars Country Horses The Theatre of 
the 16th Lancers Colonel Arnold's Farewell Ball His Illness 
Opinions respecting the War The Lancers ordered to Afghanistan 
Ghurmuktesur Ghat Country Boats Khobarah, the Hill Dog Sancho 
A Dilemma Gunths Knocked over by a Buffalo Fathlgarh 
DhobTs Cawnpore Sal and Teak Trees Deism Points of Faith 
The Power of the Brahmans A Converted Hindi! Sneezing an 111 
Omen The Return of the Pilgrim . . . . . . .271 



1838, November. 

Arrival at Allahabad Visit to the Mahratta Camp The Three Wishes 
The Ticca Wife The Farewell of her Highness the Baiza Ba'i 
How to dispose of a Wife The Bundelas Price of Children The 
Pillar in the Fort Voyage down the River Anwari Fish A Lady 
Overboard An Accident The SIta Khund The Army of the Indus 
Meeting of the Governor-General and Runjeet Singh The Camel 
Battery Lord Auckland's Visit to Runjeet's Camp The Koh-i-Nur 
The Rajpiit Tray A Paharl Dress The Ayha's Stratagem An 
Escape on the River Natives afraid of Cadets The Panchayat Fear 
of Poison Berhampur The Nawab, the Merchant, and the Palki 
Quitted Berhampfir 291 




1839, January \st. 


Cutwa Bracelets of the Sankh Shell Anchor-making at Culwa The 
Dying Bengali The Skull The Tides The "Madagascar" Mal-de- 
Mer A Man Overboard Mountains of Africa Wrecks Wineburgh 
Constantia A South-easter Return to the Ship Emancipation of 
the Slaves Grapes A Trip into the Interior Captain Harris St. 
Helena Prices at Mr. Solomon's Shop The Tomb of the Emperor 
Longwood St. Helena Birds Our Indian Wars General Allard 
Letter from Jellalabad Death of Colonel Arnold The Afghans 
Mausoleum of Shah Mahmoud The Gates of Somnaut The Remains 
of the Ancient City of Ghuznee 308 



1839, March \9th. 
Quitted St. Helena The Polar Star Drifting Seaweed ^The Paroquets 
Worship of Birds A Gale The Orange Vessel The Pilot Schooner 
Landing at Plymouth First Impressions A Mother's Welcome 
The Mail Coach The Queen's Highway Dress of the English 
Price of Prepared Birds The Railroads The New Police English 
Horses British Museum Horticultural Show Umberslade Tan- 
worth Conway Castle Welsh Mutton Church of Conway Tomb- 
stone of Richard Hookes, Gent. The Menai Bridge Dublin 
Abbeyleix Horns of the Elk Penny Postage Steam Engines 
Silver Firs Moonal Pheasants The Baige run down Chapel of 
Pennycross The Niger Expedition Schwalbach Family Sorrows 
Indian News The Birth of the Chimna Raja Sahib Captain Sturt's 
Sketches Governor Lin The Baiza Ba'i consents to reside at Nassuk 
Fire in her Camp Death of Sir Henry Fane Church built by Subscrip- 
tion at Allahabad Governor Lin's Button The ex-Queen of Gwalior 
marches to Nassuk Price of a Gentleman Death of the Old Shepherd 
from Hydrophobia Pedigree of JumnI, the Invaluable . . . 327 


Family Sorrows Departure from England The " Camatic" A Gale 
The Spirit of the Storm SunseU Peak of Teneriffe The Trade 
Wind A most Magnificent Comet Phosphoric Lights Visit of Nep- 
tune declined Scarcity of Provisions Spray Bows Albatross caught 
Arrival at tlie Cape of Good Hope 316 



1843, May. 


View from the Sea Wrecks Cape Town The Fish Market The 
Seasons Slavery Washerwomen on the Mountain Target Practice 
Beautiful Flowers Cape Sheep The Bushwoman Green Point 
Shells The Honey-bush Bracelets of Ivory High Price of Curi- 
osities Auctions Robberies Camp's Bay Fine Aloes Effect of the 
Fog-wreaths on the Lion Mountain The Lion's Rump Enormous 
Bulbs The Botanical Gardens Remarkable Trees and Shrubs The 
Haemanthus Poisoned Arrows The Puff-Adder The Melaleuca 
Curious Trees The Plaat Clip, or Flat Stone The Solitary Ruin . 355 



1843, August, 

A Kafir Warrior The Kaross Vegetable Ivory Shells Changeable 
Weather The Races Dutch Beauties Newlands Cape Horses 
The Arum The Aloe Servants at the Cape Pedigree of a Malay 
The Cook The Washerwoman Africanders Shops in Cape Town 
The " Robarts " View from the Ship in the Bay The Muharram 
The Southern Cross The Sailor and the Shark Madras Katmirams 
Masulla Boats The New Lighthouse The Mint She- Asses 
Donies Descendants of Milton The Globe-Fish Pooree The Surf 
Temple of Jaganath The Swing The Rath Death of Krishna 
The Architect of the Gods Jaganath The Trinity The Seal 
Ancient City near Pooree Dangerous Shore The Floating Light The 
Sandheads Anchored at Baboo Ghat, Calcutta Wilful Burning of the 
"Robarts" 369 



1844, April \st. 

Calcutta Mango Fish Lord Ellenborough recalled Fall of Fish The 
Hoogly The Bore Quitted Calcutta Ishapur Chagdah Happiness 
of Dying in Sight of the Ganges Quitted the Tropics Cutwa 
Plassey Berhampiir Morus Indica Jungipur Quitted the Bhagi- 
rathi Night Blindness SikrI-gali Herd of Buffaloes Patturgatta 
Hill Rocks of Colgong An Ajgar A Wild and Singular Scene . 389 



1844, November 5th. 


Bhagulpur Rock and Temple of Janghlra Cytisus Cajan Force of 
the Current Monghir An Aerolite Bairagl Temples Dwakanath 
Tagore Rosaries Vases Suraj-garha Bar Beggars and Swine 
BenTpur Bankipur Azimabad Suraj Puja Patna The Gola 
Deegah Havell's Farm Dinapur 401 



1844, November 20th. 
The Soane River Chuppra Revelgunge The Fair at BuUeah Bam- 
boos The Wreck Buxar The Peepul Tree and Temple of Mahadeo 
Barrah Sati Mounds Kurum-nassa River Palace of the Nawab of 
Ghazipur The Native Town The Gigantic Image Three Satis and 
a Mandap or Hindu Temple Eight-and-Twenty Satis The Fate of 
Women The Kalsas Station of Ghazipur The Stalking Horse 
Booraneepur Kankar Reefs Seydpiir Burning the Dead Rites for 
the Repose of the Soul BrahmanI Bulls Funeral Ceremonies of the 
Romans Raj Ghat, Benares 412 



1844, December Sth. 
Benefits arising from a Residence in the Holy City of KashI Kalu- 
Bhoiruvu The Snake-Charmers Gigantic Image of Hunooman 
BrahmanI Bulls The Ghats from the River Bhim Singh Tulsl Altars 
Ruins of the Ghat of the ex-Queen of Gwalior A Corpse Young 
Idolaters State Prisoners The City Sultanpur Chunar Pictu- 
resque Tree near the Ghat Singular Ceremonies The Deasil Turn- 
bull Gunge Mirzapiir Beautiful Ghats and Temples Carpet Manu- 
factory Bindachun ......... 435 



1S44, December lUh. 
Bindachun Devi Ghat The Temple of Bhawani Bhagwan The Thugs 
The Hajjam The Tashma-baz Thugs The Pleasure of Wandering 
Sirsa Munyah Ghat Arail Arrival at Allahabad Native Sugar- 
Mills . . 448 




1844, December \&ih. 


The Sibylline Temple Mr. Berrill's Hotel A Barouche drawn by 
Camels The Murdar-khor A Kharlta from the Baiza Ba'I Marriage 
of the ChimnaRaja Sultan Khusru's Garden The Tombs Tamarind 
Trees The Sara's The Baoll Tattoos used for Palanquins Reasons 
for the Murder of a Wife and Child The Lat A Skilful Swordsman 
An Eclipse Tufans Death of Mr. James Gardner Quitted Allahabad 
The Ganges A Wreck A Storm Indian Com Colgong Seryagali 
Hills and Ruins Nuddea Suspension Bridge Prinsep Ghat at Cal- 
cutta Engaged a Passage in the " Essex " ..... 461 



1845, September 1st. 

The " Essex" The " James and Mary" Steering a Ship at Anchor A 
Waterspout The Andamans Acheen Point A Squally Trade Wind 
Rodorigos A Gale The Whirl wind The Stormy Petrel A Day of 
Repose A Remarkable Sunrise ....... 474 



1845, October 29th. 

The Buffalo The Quoin Cape Aguilhas Hangclip Capo-del-Tomados 
Robbin Island Table Bay Cape Town Green Point The Lion 
Mountain St. Helena Flying-fish Blue-fish Island of Ascension 
Funeral at Sea A Sailor's Grave A Chinese Calculation Waterspouts 
The Western Isles St. Michael's Pico Fayal Christmas Eve 
The Good Ship " Essex" Arrival in England The Pilgrim's Adieu . 485 



No. To face page 

29. Frontispiece Kaniya-jee and the GopTs, to face the Title 

30. Superstitions of the Natives ...... 9 

31. The Spring-Bow 73 

32. Kaniya-jee and the Gopis ... ... 121 

33. Ancient HindQ Ruin . 143 

34. The Hindu Triad 147 

35. Plan of Delhi 193 

36. View from the Pilgrim's Bangla 237 

37. The Kharlta 250 

38. Pennycross Chapel 341 

39. The Bushwoman 360 

40. A Kafir Warrior 369 

41. The Southern Cross 375 

42. Jaganath 384 

43. Three Satis and a Mandap near GhazTpiir .... 419 

44. Kalsas 421 

45. The Temple of Bhawani 449 

46. Bhagwan 450 

47. Native Sugar Mills 457 

48. Waterspouts 493 

49. Pico 494 

50. Elevation of the Himalaya. At^4(- tj- 


) r 






Arrived at Fathlghar The Sitar versus the Dital Harp The Mahratta Camp 
Her Highness the Baiza Ba'T Jankee Rao The Gaja Raja Sahib 
Visit to the Ex-Queen Dress of the Mahrattas The Sword of Scindia 
The English Side-saddle Pan and Atr Departure The Arab at the 
Zenana Gates Her Highness a good judge of a horse Absurdity of a Side- 
saddle The Gujja Rajah's Horsemanship A Challenge The Kurk The 
Pilgrim receives a Title The Idols The six Wives of Appa Sahib Op- 
pression of the Laws with respect to Widows Recipe for Hooqu Cakes 
Superstitions of the Natives Lucky and unlucky marks on Horses Tiger- 
claw charms To tame vicious Horses Assam Coins. 

1835, April 6th. I arrived at Fathlghar, at the house of a 
relative in the Civil Service, the Judge of the Station, and agent 
to the Governor- general. After a hot and dusty dak trip, how 
delightful was the coolness of the rooms, in which thermanti- 
dotes and tattls were in full force ! As may be naturally supposed, 
I could talk of nothing but Khasgunge, and favoured the party 
with some Hindustani airs on the sitar, which I could not per- 
suade them to admire ; to silence my sitar a dital harp was 
presented to me ; nevertheless, I retained a secret fondness for 
the native instrument, which recalled the time when the happy 
slave girls figured before me. 

Having seen MusulraanI ladies followers of the Prophet, how 
great was my delight at finding native ladies were, at Fathlghar, 
worshippers of Ganesh and Krishn-jee ! 

' Oriental Proverbs and Sayings, No. 101. 
VOL. H. B 


Her Highness the Biiiza Ba'i, the widow of the late Maharaj 
Daolut Rao Scindia, was in camp at this place, under the care 
of Captain Ross. Daolut Rao, the adopted son and grand- 
nephew of Mahadajee Scindia, contested with the Duke of 
Wellington, then Sir Arthur Wellesley, the memorable field of 
Assaye. On the death of Scindia, by his appointment, the 
Biiiza Ba'T, having become Queen of Gwalior, ruled the kingdom 
for nine years. Having no male issue, her Highness adopted a 
youth, called Jankee Rao, a distant relative of Scindia's, who 
was to be placed on the masnad at her decease. 

A Rajpoot is of age at eighteen years : but when Jankee Rao 
was only fourteen years old, the subjects of the Ba'I revolted, and 
placed the boy at the head of the rebellion. Had her Highness 
remained at Gwalior she would have been murdered ; she was 
forced to fly to Fathlghar, where she put herself under the pro- 
tection of the Government. Her daughter, the Chimna Raja 
Sahib, a lady celebrated for her beauty, and the wife of Appa 
Siihib, a Mahratta nobleman, died of fever, brought on by 
exposure and anxiety at the time she fled from Gwalior, during 
tlie rebellion. It is remarkable, that the ladies in this family 
take the title of Raja, to which Sahib is generally aflixed. 
Appa Sahib joined the Biiiza Ba'I, fled with her, and is now in 
her camp at Fathlghar. The rebellion of her subjects, and her 
Highness being forced to fly the kingdom, were nothing to the 
Ba'i in comparison to the grief occasioned her by the loss of 
her beloved daughter, the Chimna Rajii. 

Her grand-daughter, the Gaja Riija Sahib, is also Uving with 
her ; she has been married two years, but is alone, her husband 
having deserted her to join the stronger party. 

The Bii'i, although nominally free, is in fact a prisoner ; she 
is extremely anxious to return to Gwalior, but is prevented by 
the refusal of the Government to allow her to do so ; this renders 
her very unhappy. 

8th. ^The Brija Biil, one of her ladies, called to invite the 
lady with whom I am staying to visit the Mahtiriij in camp ; 
and gave me an invitation to accompany her. 

12/A. When the appointed day arrived, the attendants of 


her Highness were at our house at 4 a.m., to escort us to 
the camp. 

It is customary for a visitor to leave her shoes outside the 
parda, when paying her respects to a lady of rank ; and this 
custom is always complied with, unless especial leave to retain 
the shoes has been voluntarily given to the visitor, which 
would be considered a mark of great kindness and condescen- 

We found her Highness seated on her gaddi of embroidered 
cloth, with her grand-daughter the Gaja Raja Sahib at her side ; 
the ladies, her attendants, were standing around her ; and the 
sword of Scindia was on the gaddl, at her feet. She rose to 
receive and embrace us, and desired us to be seated near her. 
The Biiiza Ba'i is rather an old woman, with grey hair, and en 
hon point ; she must have been pretty in her youth ; her smile is 
remarkably sweet, and her manners particularly pleasing ; her 
hands and feet are very small, and beautifully formed. Her 
sweet voice reminded me of the proverb, " A pleasant voice 
brings a snake out of a hole '." She was dressed in the plainest 
red silk, wore no ornaments, with the exception of a pair of 
small plain bars of gold as bracelets. Being a widow, she is 
obliged to put jewellery aside, and to submit to numerous 
privations and hardships. Her countenance is very mild and 
open ; there is a freedom and independence in her air that I 
greatly admire, so unUke that of the sleeping, languid, opium- 
eating Musalmanls. Her grand- daughter, the Gaja Raja Sahib, 
is very young ; her eyes the largest I ever saw ; her face is rather 
flat, and not pretty ; her figure is beautiful ; she is the least 
little wee creature you ever beheld. The Mahratta dress consists 
only of two garments, which are, a tight body to the waist, with 
sleeves tight to the elbow ; a piece of silk, some twenty yards or 
more in length, which they wind around them as a petticoat, and 
then, taking a part of it, draw it between the limbs, and fasten 
it behind, in a manner that gives it the effect both of petticoat 
and trowsers ; this is the whole dress, unless, at times, they 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 102. 



substitute angiyas, with short sleeves, for the tight long-sleeved 

The Gaja Riija was dressed in purple Benares silk, with a deep 
gold border woven into it ; when she walked she looked very 
graceful, and the dress very elegant ; on her forehead was a mark 
like a spear-head, in red paint ; her hair was plaited, and bound 
into a knot at the back of her head, and low down ; her eyes 
were edged with surma, and her hands and feet dyed with hinnii. 
On her feet and ancles were curious silver ornaments ; toe-rings 
of peculiar form ; which she sometimes wore of gold, sometimes 
of red coral. In her nostril was a very large and brilliant n'hut 
(nose-ring), of diamonds, pearls, and precious stones, of the 
particular shape worn by the Mahrattas ; in her ears were fine 
brilliants. From her throat to her waist she was covered with 
strings of magnificent pearls and jewels ; her hands and arms 
were ornamented with the same. She spoke but little, scarcely 
five words passed her lips ; she appeared timid, but was pleased 
with the bouquet of beautiful flowers, just fresh from the garden, 
that the lady who presented me laid at her feet on her entrance. 
These Mahrattas are a fine bold race ; amongst her ladies in 
waiting I remarked several fine figures, but their faces were 
generally too flat. Some of them stood in waiting with rich 
Cashmere shawls thrown over their shoulders ; one lady, before 
the Mahariij, leaned on her sword, and if the Ba'I quitted the 
apartment, the attendant and sword always followed her. The 
Ba'I was speaking of horses, and the lady who introduced me 
said I was as fond of horses as a Mahratta. Her Highness said 
she should like to see an English lady on horseback ; she could 
not comprehend how they could sit all crooked, all on one side, 
in the side-saddle. I said I should be too happy to ride into 
camp any hour her Highness would appoint, and show her the 
style of horsemanship practised by ladies in England. The 
Mahiiraj expressed a wish that I should be at the Mahratta camp 
at 4 A.M., in two days' time. Atr, in a silver filagree vessel, was 
then pi-esented to the Gaja Raja ; she took a portion up in a 
little spoon, and put it on our hands. One of the attendants 
presented us with pan, whilst another sprinkled us most copiously 


with rose-water : the more you inundate your visitor with rose- 
water, the greater the compliment. 

This being the signal for departure, we rose, made our bahut 
bahut adab salara, and departed, highly gratified with our visit 
to her Highness the ex-Queen of Gwalior. 

I4th. My relative had a remarkably beautiful Arab, and as 
I wished to show the Ba'I a good horse, she being an excellent 
judge, I requested him to allow me to ride his Arab ; and that 
he might be fresh, I sent him on to await my arrival at the 
zenana gates. A number of Mahratta horsemen having been 
despatched by her Highness to escort me to the camp, I cantered 
over with them on my little black horse, and found the beautiful 
Arab impatiently awaiting my arrival. 

" With the champed bit, and the arched crest, 
And the eye of a listening deer, 
And the spirit of fire that pines at its rest, 
And the limbs that laugh at fear." 

Leetle Paul's description of his " courser proud " is beautiful ; 
but his steed was not more beautiful than the Arab, who, 
adorned with a garland of freshly-gathered white double jasmine 
flowers, pawed impatiently at the gates. I mounted him, and 
entering the precincts of the zenana, found myself in a large 
court, where all the ladies of the ex-Queen were assembled, and 
anxiously looking for the English lady, who would ride crooked ! 
The Ba'i was seated in the open air ; I rode up, and, dismounting, 
paid my respects. She remarked the beauty of the Arab, felt 
the hollow under his jaw, admired his eye, and, desiring one of 
the ladies to take up his foot, examined it, and said he had the 
small, black, hard foot of the pure Arab ; she examined and 
laughed at my saddle. I then mounted, and putting the Arab 
on his mettle, showed her how English ladies manage their 
horses. When this was over, three of the Baiza Bu'i's own 
riding horses were brought out by the female attendants ; for we 
were within the zenana, where no man is allowed to enter. The 
horses were in full caparison, the saddles covered with velvet and 
kimkwhab and gold embroidery, their heads and necks ornamented 


with jewels and chains of gold. The Gaja Rajii, in her Mahratta 
riding dress, mounted one of the horses, and the ladies the others ; 
they cantered and pranced about, showing off the Mahratta style of 
riding. On dismounting, the young Gaja Raja threw her horse's 
bridle over my arm, and said, laughingly, "Are you afraid? or 
will you try my horse?" Who could resist such a challenge ? 
" I shall be delighted," was my reply. " You cannot ride like 
a Mahratta in that dress," said the Princess ; " put on proper 
attire." I retired to obey her commands, returning in Mahratta 
costume, mounted her horse, put my feet into the great iron 
stirrups, and stai'ted away for a gallop round the enclosure. I 
thought of Queen Elizabeth, and her stupidity in changing the 
style of riding for women. En cavalier, it appeared so safe, 
as if I could have jumped over the moon. Whilst I was thus 
amusing myself, " Shah-bash ! shah-biish !" exclaimed some mas- 
cuhne voice ; but who pronounced the words, or where the 
speaker lay perdu, I have never discovered. 

" Now," said I to the Gaja Raja, " having obeyed your com- 
mands, will you allow one of your ladies to ride on my side- 
saddle?" My habit was put on one of them ; how ugly she 
looked! " She is like a black doctor!" exclaimed one of the 
girls. The moment I got the lady into the saddle, I took the 
rein in my hand, and riding by her side, started her horse off in 
a canter ; she hung on one side, and could not manage it at all ; 
suddenly checking her horse, I put him into a sharp trot. The 
poor lady hung half off the animal, clinging to the pummel, and 
screaming to me to stop ; but I took her on most unmercifiilly, 
until we reached the spot where the Baiza Bii'I was seated ; the 
walls rang with laughter ; the lady dismounted, and vowed she 
would never again attempt to sit on such a vile crooked thing as 
a side-saddle. It caused u great deal of amusement in the 

" Qui vit sans folie n'est pas s! sage qu'il cro!t." 

The Mahratta ladies live in parda, but not in such strict seclu- 
sion as the Musalmiini ladies ; they are allowed to ride on horse- 
back veiled ; when the Gaja Raja goes out on horseback, she is 


attended by her ladies ; and a number of Mahratta horsemen 
ride at a certain distance, about two hundred yards around her, 
to see that the kurk is enforced ; wliich is an order made public 
that no man may be seen on the road on pain of death. 

The Hindoos never kept their women in parda, until their 
country was conquered by the Muhammadans ; when they were 
induced to follow the fashion of their conquerors ; most hkely, 
from their unveiled women being subject to insult. ; 

The Baiza Ba'i did me the honour to express herself pleased, 
and gave me a title, "The Great-aunt of my Grand-daughter," 
" Gaja Raja Sahib ki par Khala." This was very complimen- 
tary, since it entitled me to rank as the adopted sister of her 

A part of the room in which the ex-Queen sits is formed into 
a domestic temple, where the idols are placed, ornamented with 
flowers, and worshipped ; at night they are lighted up with 
lamps of oil, and the priests are in attendance. 

The Mahratta ladies are very fond of sailing on the river, but 
they are equally in parda in the boats as on shore. 

The next day the Biiiza Bii'i sent down all her horses in 
their gay native trappings, for me to look at ; also two fine 
rhinoceroses, which galloped about the grounds in their heavy 
style, and fought one another; the Ba'I gave five thousand 
rupees (500) for the pair ; sweetmeats and oranges pleased the 
great animals very much. 

When Captain Ross quitted, her Highness was placed under 
the charge of the agent to the Governor-general. I visited the 
Bii'I several times, and liked her better than any native lady I 
ever met with. 

A Hindoo widow is subject to great privations ; she is not 
allowed to wear gay attire or jewels, and her mourning is eternal. 
The Biiiza Ba'I always slept on the ground, according to the 
custom for a widow, until she became very ill from rheumatic 
pains ; after which she allowed herself a hard mattress, which 
was placed on the ground ; a charpai being considered too great 
a luxury. 

She never smoked, which surprised me : having seen the 


MusalmanI ladies so fond of a hooqii, I concluded the Mabratta 
ladies indulged in the same luxury. 

The Mahratta men smoke the hooqii as much as all other 
natives ; and the Ba'I had a recipe for making tobacco cakes, 
that were highly esteemed in camp. The cakes are, in diameter, 
about four inches by one inch in thickness ; a small quantity 
added to the prepared tobacco usually smoked in a hooqii 
imparts great fragrance ; the ingredients are rather difficult to 
procure '. 

Speaking of the privations endured by Hindoo widows, her 
Highness mentioned that all luxurious food was denied them, as 
well as a bed ; and their situation was rendered as painful as 
possible. She asked me how an English widow fared ? 

I told her, "An English lady enjoyed all the luxury of her 
husband's house during his hfe ; but, on his death, she was 
turned out of the family mansion, to make room for the heir, 
and pensioned off ; whilst the old horse was allowed the run of 
the park, and permitted to finish his days amidst the pastures 
he loved in his prime." The Hindoo widow, however young, 
must not marry again. 

The fate of women and of melons is alike. " Whether the 
melon falls on the knife or the knife on the melon, the melon is 
the sufierer^" 

We spoke of the severity of the laws of England with respect 
to married women, how completely hy law they are the slaves of 
their husbands, and how little hope there is of redress. 

You might as well "Twist a rope of sand'," or "Beg a 
husband of a widow*," as urge the men to emancipate the 
white slaves of England. 

" Who made the laws? " said her Highness. I looked at her 
with surprise, knowing she could not be ignorant on the subject. 
" The men," said I ; " why did the Mahiiraj ask the question ? " 
" I doubted it," said the Bii'i, with an arch smile, " since they 
only allow themselves one wife." 

"England is so small," I replied, "in comparison with your 

' Appendix, No. 30. Oriental Proverbs, No. 103. 

' Ibid. No. 101. Ibid. No. 105. 


Highness's Gwalior ; if every man were allowed four wives, and 
obliged to keep them separate, the little island could never con- 
tain them ; they would be obliged to keep the women in vessels 
off the shore, after the fashion in which the Chinese keep their 
floating farmyards of ducks and geese at anchor." 

" Is your husband angry with you?" asked the Brija, the 
favourite attendant of her Highness. " Why should you ima- 
gine it?" said I. "Because you have on no ornaments, no 

The Baiza Ba'i sent for the wives of Appa Sahib to introduce 
them to me. The ladies entered, six in number ; and walking 
up to the gaddi, on which the Ba'i was seated, each gracefully 
bowed her head, until her forehead touched the feet of her 
Highness. They were fine young women, from fifteen to twenty- 
five years old. The five first wives had no offspring ; the sixth, 
who had been lately married, was in expectation of a biiba. 

Appa Siihib is the son-in-law of the ex-Queen ; he married 
her daughter, the Chimna Ba'i, who died of fever at the time 
they were driven out of Gwahor. 


The natives are extremely superstitious respecting the lucky 
and unlucky marks on horses. The following are some of the 
marks best known, respecting which their ideas are curious : 

The favourable marks are the deoband, the bhora, and the 
panch kalian. 

The unlucky marks or aiibs are the sampan, siyah-talu, small 
eyes, and a star of a particular sort on the forehead. 

The deoband is the feather on the chest : this mark is very 
rare, and the best of all marks. If a horse have the deoband, 
it is the rok or antidote to the sampan and all other bad 

The bhorahs are the two feathers, one on each side of the 
neck, just under the mane. If there be two bhorahs turning 
towards the ears of the horse it is favourable, a very good sign. 
If there be only one bhora it is tolerably good. If the feather 
turn towards the rider it is called the sampan ; a bhora on one 


side and a sampan on the other neutralizes both bad and good 

The panch kalian. The natives admire a patch-kalian, as they 
call it, very much, that is, a horse with five marks, as follows : 
all four legs white to the knees, stockings as they are called, 
and a white muzzle with a white blaze from the muzzle up the 
forehead. According to my idea, such a horse in appearemce is 
only fit for a butcher's tray. Nevertheless, the natives admire 
them, and I have seen many good horses of this description. 

The sampan. When the feather on the neck of a horse on 
either side turns towards the rider, it is called sampan ; this is a 
very bad mark, indeed the worst ; but, if there be two sampans, 
one on each side the neck, have nothing to say to the animal, 
he is an Haramziida, given to rearing and squalling ; is vicious, 
and will be the death of his rider. 

The siyah-talu or black palate is a very bad sign ; such horses 
are regularly bad, and are never to be depended upon : no 
native will purchase an animal having, as it is usually called, 
the shatdloo. 

Small eyes are the sign of a sulky horse. 

The star on the forehead. No native will purchase a horse 
if he can cover the star on the forehead with the ball of his 
thumb. And in buying a horse from a native, look to that 
mark, as they take the white hairs out with a certain application. 
A large star is a good sign. No star at all is of no consequence ; 
but a few white hairs proclaim a bad horse, and no native will 
buy him. 

With respect to the colour of horses, they are fanciful. 
Greys are admu-ed : black horses are also considered handsome : 
bays are good : chestnuts very bad. 

With regard to Arabs, they are extremely particular as to the 
perfect straightness of the forehead, from the top of it down to 
the nose ; the shghtest rise on that part proving in their ideas a 
want of perfect pedigree. The deep hoUow^ under the jaw is 
absolutely necessary ; the small mouth, and the open, large, 
thin-skinned nostrils ; the eyes large and fine ; the hoof small, 
bhick, and hard ; and the long tail. These points attract the 


particular attention of the natives. " Bay in all his eight 
joints '." Horses of that colour are esteemed hardy and active. 

The prophet judged shical bad in a horse : shic^ is, when a 
horse has the right hind-foot and the left fore-foot, or the right 
fore-foot and the left hind-foot, white. 

The amble of a native horse is a quiet, quick pace, but not 
agreeable at first to one accustomed to the paces of horses 
broken in by Europeans : the Mahratta bit is extremely sharp, 
and throws a horse well on his haunches. 

I have seen a young horse, being taught to amble, with a 
rope tied to each fetlock ; it made him take short steps, moving 
the two legs of the same side at the same time ; it is a natural 
pace to a horse over-loaded. 

Horses in India are usually fastened with two ropes to the 
head stall, and the two hind-legs have a rope fastened on each 
fetlock, which rope is secured to a stake behind the animal, 
long enough to allow of his lying down : these are called agarl- 

In Shakespear's Dictionary, hirdawal is mentioned as the 
name of a defect in horses, and its being a feather or curling 
lock of hair on the breast, which is reckoned unlucky for the 

It is written, speaking of the Prophet Mohammud, " There 
was nothing his Highness was so fond of, after women^ as 
horses ; and after horses as perfumes ; and the marks of good 
horses are these : the best horses are black, with white fore- 
heads, and having a white upper Up ; next to that, a black 
horse, with white forehead and three white legs ; next to this is 
a bay horse of these marks : a bay, with white forehead, white 
fore and hind legs, is best ; and a sorrel with white fore and 
hind legs is also good. Prosperity is with sorrel horses. I 
heard the Prophet say, ' Do not cut the hair of your horses' 
foreheads, nor of their necks, nor of their tails ; because verily 
horses keep the flies off with their tails, and their manes cover 
their necks, and blessings are interwoven with the hair of their 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 106. 


foreheads,' 'Tie up your hoi-ses and make them fat for 
fighting, and wipe off the dust from their foreheads and rumps ; 
and tie bells to their necks.' " 

This latter command is curious, as in the " Rites of Tra- 
velling " it is mentioned, " The angels are not with that party 
with which is a dog, nor with that party with which is a bell." 
" A bell is the devil's musical instrument." "Kill black dogs 
having two white spots upon their eyes ; for verily this kind of 
dog is the devil." 

The natives cannot understand why Europeans cut off the tails 
of their horses, and consider it a disgusting and absurd practice. 
An officer in the artillery related a story of having sold an old 
Persian horse, with a tail sweeping the ground, to a friend at 

Fathlghar. When the sa'is returned, Captain A asked 

him how the horse was liked, and if he was well. " Ahi, 
Sahib ! " said the sa'is, " I had no sooner delivered him up than 
they cut off his tail, and the poor old horse was of such high 
caste that he could not bear such an indignity, and next morn- 
ing he died of shame !'' " Sharmandi ho mar-gaya." The 
English may be a very civilized nation, but this cutting off the 
tails of their horses, nicking the bone, and scoring fish alive, 
savour somewhat of barbarism : all that can be urged in its 
defence is, it is the custom (dastur) . 

The natives are extremely superstitious, and delight in incan- 
tations. " God save you, uncle !" is the address of a Hindoo 
to a goblin, of which he is afraid, to prevent its hurting him '. 

Her Highness the Biiiza Ba'i, having heard of the great fame 
of my cabinet of curiosities, requested some tigers' claws for the 
Gaja Raja. I wrote to a friend in Assam, who sent me a quart 
of tigers' claws ! regretting he was unable to procure more. 
If you kill a tiger, the servants steal his claws as quickly as 
possible to send to their wives to make into charms, which both 
the women and children wear around their necks. They avert 
the evil eye and keep off maladies. The Gaja Raja was 
pleased at having procured the claws, and her horse's neck was 

' Oriental Proverbs and Sayings, No. 107. 


adorned with some five-and-twenty ornaments or more strung 
together, each made hke the one appended to the chain in the 
sketch ; it must have been valuable, being formed of pure gold. 

The charm. No. 1 in the sketch, I had made by my own work- 
man in the bazar, in solid silver, a copy from a necklace worn 
by the wife of one of my servants Dilmir Khan. " Not one, but 
seventy misfortunes it keeps off '." The tiger's claws are 
tipped and set in silver ; the back opens with a hinge, and the 
Jadu-ke-Bat, a written charm, is therein concealed, the efficacy 
of which, added to the claws, ensures certain prosperity to 
the possessor, and averts the evil eye. No lady in India can 
wear any thing so valueless as silver, of which the ornaments 
made for her servants are composed. Whether Musalmani or 
Hindoo, the women are delighted with the claws of the tiger. 
When an amulet, in form like No. 2 in the sketch, is made for 
a child, two of the teeth of the crocodile are put into it in lieu 
of tigers' claws. To-day a child in the Fort met its death by 
accident. The natives say, " How could it be lucky when it 
wore no charm to protect it?" Baghna is the name for the 
amulet consisting of the teeth and claws of a tiger, which are 
hung round the neck of a grown-up person or of a child. 

The Prophet forbids the use of certain amulets, saying, 
" Verily, spells, and tying to the necks of children the nails of 
tearing animals, and the thread which is tied round a wife's neck, 
to make her husband love her, are all of the way of the poly- 

" It is the custom in Hindoostan to keep a monkey in or near 
a stable, to guard the horses from the influence of evil eyes. In 
Persia, the animal so retained is a hog ; and in some parts of 
England, a goat is considered a necessary appendage to a stable, 
though, possibly, from some other equally fanciful motive." 

The owl is considered an unlucky bird. " One-eyed men 
have a vein extra ^ ;" and are supposed to be more knowing thafi 
others. And I have before mentioned that an opinion prevails 
in wild and mountainous parts of India, that the spirit of a man 

' Oriental Proverbs and Sayings, No. 108. ' Ibid. 109. 


destroj'cd by a tiger sometimes rides upon his head, and guides 
him from his pursuers. 

I have never seen it done in India, but I have heard from very 
good authority, that there are men who profess to be able to 
tame the most vicious horse by whispering into his ear ; a man 
will go up to a violent animal, whisper to it, and the creature 
will become tranquil. Catlin, in his account of the North 
American Indians, says : " After having caught a wild horse 
with a lasso, the Indian gradually advances until he is able to 
place his hand on the animal's nose, and over its eyes, and at 
length to breathe in its nostrils ; when it soon becomes docile 
and conquered, so that he has little else to do than to remove 
the hobbles from its feet, and lead or ride it into camp." And 
in another part of the work, Catlin says : " I have often, in con- 
ciurence with a known custom of the country, held my hands 
over the eyes of the calf, and breathed a few strong breaths into 
its nostrils ; after which I have, with my hunting companions, 
rode several miles into our encampment, with the little prisoner 
busily following the heels of my horse the whole way, as closely 
and as affectionately as its instinct would attach it to the company 
of its dam ! This is one of the most extraordinary things I 
have met with in this wild country ; and although I had often 
heard of it, and felt unable exactly to believe it, I am now willing 
to bear testimony to the fact, from the numerous instances I 
have witnessed since I came into the country." 

In explanation of the coin, marked No. 9, in the plate entitled 
" Superstitions of the Natives," I must give an extract from the 
letter of a friend : 

" To entertain that amenity so requisite for the obtaining a 
note from you, I send, under the seal wherewith I seal my letter, 
' a little money,' as a first instalment. The form of the coin is 
meant to be octagonal ; that form is more evident on those that 
are larger. Now for the coin's explanation : It bears the seal of 
Eajah Gowrinath Singh, who succeeded his father Luckhishingh, 
in Assam, 1780 ; he was of a hot temper, and a liberal. After 
reigning five years, he was expelled by Bhurrethi Moran Rajah 
of Bengmoran. Gowrinath Singh fled to Gowhatty, and having 


got the Company to take his part, Captain WaUis was sent with 
an armed force to reinstate him on the throne ; this was per- 
formed, but at the cost of incredible destruction of towns, villages, 
cultivation, and all that sort of thing. Since those days, Assam 
has been a jungle. Finding Rungpore, his capital, depopulated, 
Gowrinath caused a palace to be built on the banks of the 
Deshoi, where he lived in tranquillity ten years ; the place became 
populous, and though the palace has fallen into ruins, it still 
exists as a town, under the name of Deshoi Khote. Gowrinath 
Singh died in 1795, having reigned in Assam fifteen years. 
I will send you his inscription, which is in part only on the coin 
enclosed ; but I must get it from my learned Pundit. Other and 
older coins are found, both of gold and silver, but of no 
baser metal ; copper appears to have been unknown for that 

No. 10 is the larger octagonal coin mentioned in the above 
extract, and was forwarded to me as a second instalment from 



Zenana of the Nawab of Fathighar The Nawab Hakim Menhdl His Attire 
and Residence Shawl Manufactory The Muharram Visit to the Zenana 
of the Nawab Lord Brougham Molineux and Tom Crib The Burka 
Departure from Fathighar Return to Allahabad Voyage on the Ganges 
The Legend of Kurrah Secunder-al-Sani The SatI A Squall Terror of 
the Sarang The Kala Nad! Ruins of Kannouj The Legend Ancient 
Coins Rosewater Burning the Dead Arrival at Fathighar. 

1835, April \5th. I received an invitation to pay my respects 
to the Begam Moktar Mahal, the mother of the Nawab of 
Fathigar ; she is connected with Mulka Begam's family, but 
very unlike her, having none of her beauty, and not being a 
lady-like person. Thence we went to the grandmother of the 
Nawab, Surfuraz Mahal, in the same zenana. They were in 
mourning for a death in the family, and wept, according to 
dastur (custom) , all the time I was there : they were dressed in 
plain white attire, with no ornaments ; that is their (matim) 
mourning. The young Nawab, who is about twelve years old, 
is a fine boy ; ugly, but manly and well-behaved. 

The Nawab Mootuzim Adowlah Menhdl Ali Khan Bahadur, 
commonly called Nawab Hakim Menhdl, lives at Fathigar ; he 
was unwell, and unable to call, but he sent down his stud to be 
shown to me, my fondness for horses having reached his ears. 

22nd. I visited a manufactory for Indian shawls, lately 
established by the Hakim to support some people, who, having 
come from Cashmir, were in distress ; and as they were originally 
shawl manufacturers, in charity he gave them employment. 


This good deed is not without its reward ; three or four hundred 
workmen are thus supported ; the wool is brought from 
Cashmir, and the sale of the shawls gives a handsome profit. 
I did not admire them; they are manufactured to suit the 
taste of the English, and are too heavy ; but they are handsome, 
and the patterns strictly Indian. Colonel Gardner's Begam said 
to me one day, at Khasgunge, " Look at these shawls, how 
beautiful they are ! If you wish to judge of an Indian shawl, 
shut your eyes and feel it ; the touch is the test of a good one. 
Such shawls as these are not made at the present day in Cash- 
mir ; the English have spoiled the market. The shawls made 
now are very handsome, but so thick and heavy, they are only 
fit for carpets, not for ladies' attire." 

2Gth. The Nawiib Hakim Menhdi called, bringing with him 
his son, a man about forty years of age, called " The General." 
He invited me to pay him and the Begam a visit, and wished to 
show me his residence. 

29th. We drove to the Nawab's house, which is a good one ; 
he received us at the door, and took my arm, instead of giving 
me his. He is a fine-looking old man, older than Colonel 
Gardner, whom in style he somewhat resembles ; his manners 
are distinguished and excellent. He wore an embroidered cap, 
with a silver muslin twisted like a cord, and put around it, as a 
turban ; it was very graceful, and his dress was of white muslin. 
The rooms of his house are most curious ; more like a shop in 
the China baziir, in Calcutta, than any thing else ; full of lumber, 
mixed with articles of value. Tables were spread all down the 
centre of the room, covered with most heterogeneous articles : 
round the room were glass cases, full of clocks, watches, sun- 
dials, compasses, guns, pistols, swords ; every thing you can 
imagine might be found in these cases. 

The Hakim was making all due preparation for celebrating 
the Muharram in the most splendid style ; he was a very religious 
man, and kept the fast with wonderful strictness and fortitude. 
A very lofty room was fitted up as a Taziya Khana, or house of 
mourning ; from the ceiling hung chandeliers of glass of every 
colour, as thickly as it was possible to place them, all the length 

VOL. II. c 


of the spacious apartment ; and in this room several taziyas, 
very highly decorated, were placed in readiness for the ceremony. 
One of them was a representation of the Mausoleum of the 
Prophet at Medina ; another the tomb of Hussein at Karbala ; 
a third, that of Kasim ; and there was also a most splendid 
Burak, a fac-simile of the winged horse, on which the Prophet 
made an excursion one night from Jerusalem to Heaven, and 
thence returned to Mecca. The angel Gabriel acted as celestial 
sa'is on the occasion, and brought the animal from the regions 
above. He must have been a fiery creature to control that 
winged horse ; and the effect must have been more than pictu- 
resque, as the Prophet scudded along on a steed that had the 
eyes and face of a man, his ears long, his forehead broad, and 
shining Uke the moon ; eyes of jet, shaped like those of a deer, 
and brilUant as the stars ; the neck and breast of a swan, the 
loins of a Uon, the tail and the wings of a peacock, the stature 
of a mule, and the speed of lightning ! hence its name Burak. 

In front of the taziyas and of the flying horse were a number 
of standards; some intended to be fac-similes of the banner 
('alam) of Hussein : and others having the names of particular 
martyrs. The banners of All were denominated, " The Palm of 
the Hand of All the Elect ;" " The Hand of the Lion of God ;" 
" The Palm of the Displayer of Wonders ;" and " The Palm of 
the Disperser of Diflliculties." Then there was the " Standard of 
Fatima," the daughter of the Prophet, and wife of Ali ; also 
that of Abbiis-i-'alam-dar, the standard-bearer ; with those of 
Kasim, All-akbar, and others ; the banner of the twelve Imams ; 
the double-bladed sword of All ; and the nal-sahib. There wa^ 
also the neza, a spear or lance dressed up with a turban, the ends 
flying in the air, and a lime fixed at the top of it ; emblematic, 
it is said, of Hussein's head, which was carried in triumph 
through different cities, by the order of Yuzeed, the King of 

The nal-sahib is a horse-shoe affixed to the end of a long 
pole ; it is made of gold, silver, metals, wood, or paper, and is 
intended as an emblem of Hussein's horse. 

The 'Alam-i-KasTm, or Standard of Kasim the Bridegroom, is 


distinguished by its having a little chatr in gold or silver, fixed 
on the top of it. All these things were collected in the long 
room in the house of the Nawiib, ready for the nocturnal peram- 
bulations of the faithful. 

After the loss of the battle of Kraabaallah, the family of 
Hussein were carried away captive with his son Zein-ool-Abaidin, 
the only male of the race of All who was spared, and they were 
sent to Medina. With them were carried the heads of the 
martjTS ; and that of Hussein was displayed on the point of a 
lance, as the cavalcade passed through the cities. In consequence 
of the remonstrances and eloquence of Zein-ool-Abaldin, the 
orphan son of Hussein, the heads of the martyrs were given 
to him ; and forty days after the battle they were brought 
back to Kraabaallah, and buried, each with its own body ; the 
mourners then returned to Medina, visited the tomb of the 
Prophet, and all Medina eventually became subject to Zein- 

All, the son-in-law of Muhammad, was, according to the 
Shi 'as, the direct successor of the Prophet ; they not acknow- 
ledging the other three caliphs ; but, according to the Sunnis, 
he was the fourth Khalifa, or successor of Muhammad. 

The Muharram concludes on the fortieth day, in commemo- 
ration of the interment of the martyrs at Kraabaallah, the name 
of a place in Irak, on the banks of the Euphrates, which is 
also and, perhaps, more correctly called Karbala. At this 
place the army of Yuzeed, the King, was encamped ; while the 
band of Hussein, including himself, amounting only to seventy- 
two persons, were on the other side of an intervening jungle, 
called Mareea. 

The Nawab is a very public-spirited man, and does much 
good ; he took me over a school he founded, and supports, for 
the education of native boys; showed me a very fine chita 
(hunting leopard), and some antelopes, which were kept foF 
fighting. For the public benefit, he has built a bridge, a ghat 
and a sara'e, a resting-place for travellers ; all of which bear 
his name. 

The Begam, having been informed that I was with the Nawab, 

c 2 


sent to request 1 would pay a visit to the zenana, and a day was 
appointed in all due form. 

May 3rd. The time having arrived, the Nawab came to the 
house at which I was staying, to pay me the compliment of 
escorting me to visit the Begam. The Muharram having com- 
menced, all his family were therefore in mourning, and could 
wear no jewels ; he apologized that, in consequence, the Begam 
could not be handsomely dressed to receive me. She is a pretty 
looking woman, but has none of the style of James Gardner's 
Begam ; she is evidently in great awe of the Hakim, who rules, 
I fancy, with a rod of iron. The rooms in the zenana are long 
and narrow, and supported by pillars on the side facing the 
enclosed garden, where three fountains played very refreshingly, 
in which golden fish were swimming. The Begam appeared 
fond of the fish, and had some beautiful pigeons, which came to 
be fed near the fountains ; natives place a great value upon par- 
ticular breeds of pigeons, especially those obtained from Lucnow, 
some of which bring a very high price. It is customary with 
rich natives to keep a number of pigeons ; the man in charge 
of them makes them manoeuvre in the air by word of com- 
mand, or rather by the motions of a long wand which he carries 
in his hand, and with which he directs the flight of his pigeons ; 
making them wheel and circle in the air, and ascend or descend 
at pleasure. The sets of pigeons consist of fifty, or of hundreds ; 
and to fly your own in mock battle against the pigeons of another 
person is an amusement prized by the natives. 

Several large glass cases were filled in the same curious manner 
as those before mentioned ; and the upper panes of the windows 
were covered with English prints, some coloured and some 
plain. The Hakim asked me if I did not admire them ? There 
was Lord Brougham; also a number of prints of half-naked 
boxers sparring; Molineux and Tom Cribb, &c., in most 
scientific attitudes; divers characters of hunting celebrity; 
members of Parliament in profusion ; and bright red and blue 
pictures of females, as Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter : 
a most uncouth collection to be displayed around the walls of a 
zenana ! I was surprised to see pictures in the house of a man 


considered to be so religious as the Nawab ; because the Prophet 
said, " Every painter is in hell-fire, and God will appoint a person 
at the day of resurrection, for every picture he shall have drawn, 
to punish him in hell. Then, if you must make pictures, make 
them of trees, and things without souls." "And whoever draws 
a picture will be punished, by ordering him to blow a spirit into 
it ; and this he can never do ; and so he will be punished as 
long as God wills." 

" The angels do not enter the house in which is a dog, nor 
into that in which are pictures." 

I spent an hour in the zenana, talking to the old Nawab ; the 
Begam scarcely ventured to speak. He took me over her flower 
garden, and made me promise I would never pass Fathighar 
without paying him a visit. I told him that when the rains 
arrived, I should come up in the pinnace, having promised to 
revisit my relatives, when I should have the pleasure of seeing 
him and the Begam again. He pressed me to stay and see the 
ceremonies of the Muharram ; I regretted extremely I was 
obliged to return home, being very anxious to see the mourning 
festival celebrated in all state. 

I happened to wear a ferroni^re on my forehead ; it amused 
the Begam very much, because it somewhat resembled the tika 
worn by the women of the East. 

His first Begam, to whom he was much attached, died : he 
sent her body to Mekka : it went down at sea. This was 
reckoned a great misfortune, and an omen of ill luck. Four 
years afterwards he married the present Begam, who was slave 
girl to the former. 

Between the pauses in conversation the Nawab would fre- 
quently have recourse to his rosary, repeating, I suppose, the 
ninety-nine names of God, and meditating on the attributes of 
each. In the Qanoon-e-islam it is mentioned, "To read with 
the use of a tusbeeh (or rosary) is meritorious ; but it is an- 
innovation, since it was not enjoined by the prophet (the bless- 
ing and peace of God be with him !) or his companions, but 
established by certain mushaeks (or divines). They use the 
chaplet in repeating the kulma (confession of faith) or durood 


(blessing), one, two, or more hundred times." On the termi- 
nation of my visit to the zenana, the Nawab re-escorted me 
to the house of the friend with whom I was staying. 

For the first time, I saw to-day a person in a burkii walking 
in the street ; it was impossible to tell whether the figure was 
male or female ; the long swaggering strut made me suppose 
the former. A pointed crown was on the top of the head, from 
which ample folds of white linen fell to the feet, entirely con- 
cealing the person. Before the eyes were two holes, into which 
white net was inserted ; therefore the person within could see 
distinctly, while even the colour of the eyes was not discernible 
from without. The burka'-posh, or person in the burka', 
entered the house of the Nawab. The dress afterwards was sent 
me to look at, and a copy of it was taken for me by my darzi 
(tailor). It is often worn by respectable women, who cannot 
afford to go out in a palanquin, or in a doli. 

The Hakim was fond of writing notes in English, some of 
which were curious. When the office of Commissioner was 
done away with, he thought the gentleman who held the 
appointment would be forced to quit Fathlghar. The old 
Hakim wrote a singular note, in which was this sentence : "As 
for the man who formed the idea of doing away with your 
appointment, my dear friend, may God blast him under the 
earth." However, as the gentleman remained at Fathlghar, 
and the Government bestowed an appointment equally good upon 
him, the Hakim was satisfied. On my return to Allahabad, 
he wrote to me, and desired me " not to bury his friendship and 
affection in oblivion." 

4th. Paid a farewell visit to her Highness the ex-Queen of 
Gwalior, in the Maliratta Camp, and quitted Fathlghar dak for 
Allahabad. A brain fever would have been the consequence, 
had I not taken shelter during the day, as the hot winds were 
blowing, and the weather intensely oppressive ; therefore I only 
travelled by night, and took refuge during the day. 

5th. I stopped duing the day at the house of a gentleman at 
Menhdl Ghat, which was built by the Nawab, as well as the sara'e 
at Naramhow, which also bears his name. From this place I sent 


to Kaanouj for a quantity of churls, i.e., rings made of sealing- 
wax, very prettily ornamented with gold foil, beads, and colours : 
the old woman, who brought a large basketful for sale, put a 
very expensive set on my arms ; they cost four anas, or three 
pence ! The price of a very pretty set is two anas. My host 
appeared surprised ; he must have thought me a Pakka Hin- 
dostani. Kannouj is famed for the manufacture of churls. I 
wore the bracelets for two days, and then broke them off, 
because the sealing-wax produced a most annoying irritation of 
the skin. 

6th. I spent the heat of the day with some kind friends at 
Cawnpore, and the next diik brought me to Fathlpoor. The day 
after, I spent the sultry hours in the dak bungalow, at Shahzad- 
poor ; and the following morning was very glad to find myself 
at home, after my long wanderings. The heat at times in the 
palkee was perfectly sickening. I had a small thermometer 
with me, which, at 10 a.m., often stood at 93 ; and the sides of 
the palanquin were hot as the sides of an oven. The fatigue 
also of travelling so many nights was very great ; but it did me 
no harm. 

I found Allahabad greatly altered ; formerly it was a quiet 
station, it had now become the seat of the Agra Government, 
and Mr. Blunt, the Lieut. -Governor, was residing there. I had 
often heard Colonel Gardner speak in high praise of this gen- 
tleman, who was a friend of his. My time was now employed 
in making and receiving visits, and going to parties. 

\3th. At the house of Mr. F I met the Austrian tra- 
veller, Baron H ; he requested to be allowed to call on me 

the next day to see my collection of curiosities. He pro- 
nounced them very good, and promised to send me some idols 
to add to them. I gave him a set of Hindoo toe-rings, the 
sacred thread of the Brahmans, and a rosary, every bead of 
which was carved with the name of the god Ram. Men were 
deceivers ever ; the promised idols were never added to my 
collection. The Lieut. -Governor's parties, which were very 
agreeable, rendered Allahabad a very pleasant station. 

Aug. 2nd. I went to the mela (fair) held within the grounds 


at Papamhow. To this place we had sent the pinnace, the 
Seagull; and on the 10th of the month ray husband accom- 
panied me two days' sail on my voyage, to revisit my relations 
at FathTghar, after which, he returned to Allahabad, leaving me 
and the great spaniel Nero to proceed together. The daily 
occurrences of this voyage may be omitted, only recording any 
adventure that occurred during the course of it. The stream 
is so excessively powerful, that at times, even with a fine strong 
breeze and thirteen men on the towing-line, we are forced to 
quit the main stream, and proceed up some smaller branch, 
which occasions delay. 

Aug. lAth. Arrived at Kurrah, a celebrated place in former 
days, I wished to go on shore to see the tomb of Shaikh Karrick, 
and to have a canter on the black pony, who was to meet me 
there ; but was obliged to give up the idea, because we were 
compelled to go up the other side of the river in consequence 
of the violence and rapidity of the stream. 

In A.D. 1295, Alia, the son of Feroze, the second King of 
Delhi, was Governor of Kurrah and Subadar of Oude. Alia 
made an expedition into the Deccan, and returned laden with 
spoil. Six hundred miin of pure gold ; seven mun of pearls ; 
two mun of diamonds, rubies, emeralds, cuid sapphires ; one 
thousand miin of silver, and four thousand pieces of silk, &c. 

The King of Delhi, wishing to share in his nephew's plunder, 
came down to Kurrah. Alia met him when his boat touched 
the bank of the river ; and, after the fondest greetings, made a 
sign to two men, who came forward and murdered the king on 
the spot. 

They relate, that when Alia visited a celebrated sage. Shaikh 
Karrick, who is buried at Kurrah, and whose tomb is held 
sacred to this day, he rose from his pillow, and repeated an 
extempore verse to the following purport : " He cometh, but 
his head shall fall in the boat, and his body in the Ganges," 
which, they say, was explained an hour afterwards by the death 
of the King Feroze, whose head was thrown into the boat on 
that occasion. One of the assassins died of a horrible leprosy, 
which dissolved the flesh piecemeal from his bones ; the other 


went mad, and incessantly cried out that Feroze was cutting off 
his head. 

This detestable Alia seized the throne of Delhi, and reigned 
under the title of Alia the First. He proposed, like Alexander 
the Great, to undertake the conquest of the world. In conse- 
quence of this project, he assumed the title of Sekunder al Sani 
(Alexander the Second) , which was struck upon the currency of 
the empire. The silver coins represented in the sketch (Fig. 6.) 
which I procured at Fathipoor, were found in a field five miles 
from Kurrah ; they were inscribed a.d. 1313, Sekunder al Sani. 
Never was there such a wretch as this Alia the First. He 
died A.D. 1316. I consider the coins as great a curiosity as the 
gentleman considers one of Thurtell's ears, which he has pre- 
served in spirits ! 

]6th. Anchored at Maigong in rather a picturesque spot, 
close to a sati mound. By the side of the mound I saw the 
trunk of a female figure beautifully carved in stone. The head, 
arms, and part of the legs had been broken off. They said it 
was the figure of a satl. At the back of the mound was a very 
ancient banyan- tree ; and the green hills and trees around were 
in all the freshness and luxuriance of the rainy season. 

The next morning, to my surprise, on going into the large 
cabin to breakfast, there was the figure of the headless satT 
covered with flowers, and at the spot where feet were not, offer- 
ings of gram, boiled rice, &c., had been placed by some of the 
Hindoo diindees. " How came you possessed of the sati?" said 
I. "The mem sahiba admired her, she is here." " Chorl-ke- 
mal na'Ich hazm hota," " Stolen food never digests," i. e., " 111 
deeds never prosper, the poor people will grieve for the figure ; 
tell the sarang to lower sail and return her to them." " What 
words are these?" replied the sarang, "we are miles from the 
spot ; the sati has raised the wind." The headless lady re- 
mained on board. 

As we passed the residence of Rajii Budannath Singh, he 
came out with his family on three elephants to pay his respects, 
thinking my husband was on board. The ladies were peeping 


from the house-top. The pinnace passed in full sail, followed 
by ten immense country boats full of magazine stores, and the 
cook boat. Being unable at night to cross those rivers, we 
anchored on the Oude side. I did not much admire being in 
the domains of the King of Lucnow instead of those of the 
Company ; they are a very turbulent set, those men of Oude, 
and often pillage boats. The vicinity of the Raja's house was 
some protection. Riim Din had the matchlocks of the sipahl 
guard fired off by way of bravado, and to show we were armed ; 
the lathis (bamboos) were laid in readiness, in case of attack : 
the watch was set, and, after these precautions, the mem sahiba 
and her dog went to rest very composedly. 

22nd. Not a breath of air ! a sun intensely hot ; the river is 
like a silver lake ; but over its calm the vessel does not ghde, 
for we are fast on a sandbank ! Down come the fiery beams ; 
several of the servants are ill of fever. Heaven help them ; I 
doctor them all, and have killed no one as yet ! My husband will 
fret himself as he sits in the coolness of the house and thinks of 
me on the river. The vessel was in much difficulty this morning ; 
the conductor of some magazine boats sent forty men and 
assisted her out of it. Lucky it was that chance meeting with 
the conductor in this Wilderness of Waters ! One is sure to 
find some one to give aid in a difficulty, no doubt through the 
power of the sati, whom they still continue to adorn with fresh 

25th. After a voyage of fifteen days and a half I arrived at 
Cawnpore ; coming up the reach of the Ganges, in front of 
Cantonments, a powerful wind was in our favour. The Sea- 
gull gallantly led the way in front of the twelve magazine 
boats : a very pretty sight for the Cawnporeans, especially as a 
squall overtook us, struck us all into picturesque attitudes, and 
sunk one of the magazine boats, containing 16,000 rupees 
worth of new matchlocks. Wlien the squall struck the little 
fleet, they were thrown one against another, the sails shivered, 
and the centre boat sank like a stone. Being an eye-witness of 
this scene, I was afterwards glad to be able to bear witness, at 


the request of the conductor, to his good conduct, and the care 
he took of the boats, when called upon by the magistrate of the 

28th. Anchored off Bittoor on the opposite side. I re- 
gretted being unable to see the place and Bajee Row, the ex- 
Peshwa, who resides there on an allowance of eight lakh per 
annum. Tn 1818, he submitted to the Company, abdicated his 
throne, and retired to Bittoor for life. It would have given 
me pleasure to have seen these Mahrattas ; but the channel of 
the stream forced me to go up the other side of the river. 

The Government wish the Baiza Ba'i to live at Benares on 
six liikh a year ; but the spirited old lady will not become a 
pensioner, and refuses to quit Fathighar. She has no incli- 
nation, although an Hindoo, to be satisfied with " A little to eat 
and to live at Bunarus'," especially as at this place she is no 
great distance from her beloved Gwalior. 

Sept. 2nd. A day of adventures. Until noon, we battled 
agEiinst wind and stream : then came a fair wind, which blew 
in severe squalls and storms. Such a powerful stream against 
us ; but it was fine sailing, and I enjoyed it very much. At 
times the squalls were enough to try one's courage. We 
passed a vessel that had just broken her mast : the stream 
carried us back with violence, and we ran directly against her ; 
she crushed in one of the Venetian windows of the cabin, and 
with that damage we escaped. Two men raising the sail of 
another vessel were knocked overboard by the squall, and were 
carried away with frightful velocity, the poor creatures calling 
for help : the stream swept them past us, and threw them on 
a sandbank a happy escape ! 

Anchored at Menhdl ghiit ; the moon was high and brilliant, 
the wind roaring around us, the stream, also, roaring in concert, 
like a distant waterfall ; the night cold and clear, the stars 
bright and fine ; but the appearance of the sky foretold more 
wind and squalls for the morrow. I had no idea, until I had 
tried it, how much danger there was on the Gunga, during the 
height of the rains ; in this vessel I think myself safe, but 

' Oriental Proverb*, No. 110. 


certainly I should not admire a small one. All the vessels 
to-day were at anchor ; not a sail was to be seen but the white 
sails of the Seagull, and the dark ones of the cook boat, the latter 
creeping along the shore, her miinjhl following very unwillingly. 

My sarang says the quantity of sail I oblige him to carry 
during high winds, has turned " his stomach upside down with 

3rd. For some hours the next morning the gale continued so 
violently, we could not quit the bank ; a gentleman came on 
board, and told me, by going up a stream, called the Kali NadI, 
I should escape the very powerful rush of the Ganges ; that I 
could go up the NadI twenty miles, and by a canal, cut in 
former days, re-enter the Ganges above. 

I asked him to show me the ruins of Kannouj ; we put off; 
it was blowing very hard : at last we got out safely into the 
middle of the stream. About a mile higher up, we quitted the 
roaring and rushing waters of the Ganges, and entered the placid 
stream of the Kali NadI. Situated on a hill, most beautifully 
wooded, with the winding river at its feet, stands the ancient 
city of Kannouj ; the stream flowing through fine green meadows 
put me in mind of the Thames near Richmond. In the Ganges 
we could scarcely stem the current, even though the wind, 
which was fair, blew a gale ; in the NadI we furled every sail, 
and were carried on at a good rate, merely by the force of the 
wind on the hull of the vessel, and the non-opposition of the 
gentle stream. My friend told me he had once thrown a net 
across the Kali NadI, near the entrance, and had caught one 
hundred and thirty-two great rhoee fish. On the hill above 

stands the tomb of Colonel ; who, when Lord Lake's army 

were encamped here on their road to Delhi, attempted on horse- 
back to swim the NadI, and was drowned. 

In the history of Kannouj, it is said, " Rustum Dista, King of 
the Persian province of Seistan, conquered India ; he, for his 
great exploits, is styled the Hercules of the East ; unwilling to 
retain so distant an empire as a dependent on Persia, he placed 
a new family on the throne. The name of the Prince raised to 
the empire by Rustum was Suraja, who was a man of great 


abilities, and restored the power of the empire. This dynasty 
commenced about 1072 years before the Christian sera, and it 
lasted two hundred and eighty-six years. It is affirmed by the 
Brahmins, that it was in the time of this dynasty that the 
worship of emblematical figures of the Divine attributes was 
first established in India." 

The Persians, in their invasions, they say, introduced the 
worship of the sun, fire, and the heavenly bodies ; but the 
mental adoration of the Divinity, as the one Supreme Being, was 
still followed by many. 

The great city of Kannouj was built by one of the Surajas, on 
the banks of the Ganges ; the circumference of its walls is said 
to have been nearly one hundred miles. It contained thirty 
thousand shops, in which betel-nut was sold ; and sixty thousand 
bands of musicians and singers, who paid a tax to Government. 
In A.D. 1016, the King of Ghizni took Kannouj, " a city which, 
in strength and structure, might justly boast to have no equal, 
and which raised its head to the skies." It is said, " The Hin- 
dostanee language is more purely spoken in Kannouj than in 
any other part of India." 

We anchored ; and after tiffin, Mr. M accompanied me to 

see the tombs of two Muhammadan saints, on the top of the 
hill. Thence we visited a most singular Hindoo building, of great 
antiquity, which still exists in a state of very tolerable preserva- 
tion ; the style of the building, one stone placed on the top of 
another, appeared to me more remarkable than any architecture 
I had seen in India. A further account of this ancient building, 
with a sketch annexed, will be given in a subsequent chapter. 

The fort, which is in ruins, is on a commanding spot ; the 
view from it all around is beautiful. The people sometimes find 
ancient coins amongst the ruins, and jewels of high value ; a 
short time ago, some pieces of gold, in form and size like thin 
bricks, were discovered by an old woman ; they were very 
valuable. The Brahmans brought to us for sale, square rupees, 
old rupees, and copper coins ; but none of them were Hindoo ; 
those of copper, or of silver, not being more than three hundred 
years old, were hardly worth having. I commissioned them to 


bring me some gold coins, which are usually genuine and good. 
A regular trade is carried on at this place in the fabrication of 
silver and copper coins, and those of a mixed metal. The rose- 
water of Kannouj is considered very fine ; it was brought, with 
other perfumed waters, for sale ; also native preserves and 
pickles, which were inferior. To this day the singers of Kannouj 
are famous. I am glad I have seen the ruins of this old city, 
which are well worth visiting ; I did not go into the modem 
town ; the scenery is remarkably pretty. I must revisit this 
place on my black horse ; there are many parts too distant from 
each other for a walk ; I returned very much fatigued to the 
pinnace. A great many Hindoo idols, carved in stone, were 
scattered about in all directions, broken by the zeal of the 
Muhammadans, when they became possessed of Kannouj. I 
shall carry some oif should I return this way. 

5th. A hot day, without a breath of air, was followed by as 
hot a night, during which I could not close my eyes ; and a 
cough tore my chest to pieces. 

When we lugaoed, I saw two fires by the side of the stream ; 
from one of which they took up a half-burned body, and flung 
it into the river. The other fire was burning brightly, and a 
Hindoo, with a long pole, was stirring it up, and pushing the 
corpse of his father, or whoever the relation was, properly into 
the flames, that it might all consume. The nearest relation 
always performs this ceremony. The evening had gathered in 
darkly ; some fifteen black figures were between us and the 
sunset, standing around the fire ; the palm-trees, and some huts, 
all reflected in the quiet stream of the Kali NadI, had a good 
effect ; especially when the man with the long pole stirred up 
his bap (father), and the flames glowed the brighter. 

I was glad to get away, and anchor further on, the smell on 
such occasions being objectionable ; it is a horrible custom, this 
burning the corpse ; the poor must always do it by halves, it 
takes so much wood to consume the body to ashes. 

The sirdar-bearer of an ofllicer died ; the gentleman desired 
a small present might be given to his widow, in aid of the 
funeral. At the end of the month, when the officer's accounts 


were brought to him for settlement, he found the following item, 
" For roasting sirdar-bearer, five rupees ! " . 

Some Hindoos do not burn their dead ; I saw a body brought 
down to the river-side this evening, by some respectable-looking 
people ; they pushed the corpse into the stream, and splashed 
handfuls of water after it, uttering some prayer. 

6th. After fighting with the stream all day, and tiring the 
crew to death on sandbanks, and pulling against a terribly 
powerful current, we were forced back to within two miles of our 
last night's anchorage ; we have happily found a safe place to 
remain in during the night ; these high banks, which are con- 
tinually falling in, are very dangerous. Fortunately in the 
evening, assisted by a breeze, we arrived at the canal ; and 
having passed through it quitted the Kali Nadi, and anchored 
in the deep old bed of the Ganges. 

7th. With great difficulty we succeeded in bringing the 
pinnace to within three miles of Fathighar, where I found a 
palanquin in waiting for me; the river being very shallow, I 
quitted the vessel, and, on my arrival at my friend's house, sent 
down a number of men to assist in bringing her up in 



Mutiny in Camp Murder of the Prisoners The Mutiny quelled by the Mili- 
tary Visit to the Zenana The Swing of the Gaja Raja The Seagull in 
Parda The Ba'i visits the Pinnace How to dress a Camel The vicious 
Beast Lucky and Unlucky Days Her Highness ordered to Benares. 

1835, Sept. Sth. A deputation arrived from her Highness the 
Biiiza Bii'i, claiming protection from the Agent to the Govern- 
ment, on account of a mutiny in her camp. She was fearful of 
being murdered, as her house was surrounded by three hundred 
and fifty mutinous soldiers, armed with matchlocks and their 
palitas ready lighted. The mutineers demanded seven months 
pay ; and finding it was not in her power to give it to them, 
they determined to have recourse to force, and seized her 
treasurer, her paymaster, and four other officers. These un- 
fortunate men they had made prisoners for seven days, keeping 
them secured to posts and exposed the whole day to the sun, 
and only giving them a little sherbet to drink. The Agent to the 
Government having called out the troops, marched down with 
them to the Mahratta Camp, where they seized the guns. 

The mutineers would not come to terms, or lay down their 
arms. The troops spent the night in the Camp ; at daybreak 
they charged into the zenana compound, killed eight mutineers, 
and wounded nine : the guns were fired at the Mahratta horse- 
men, who were outside ; after which the men leiid down their 
arms, and tranquillity was restored. 

The magistrate of the station, who had gone in with the troops, 


was engaged with two of the mutineers, when all three fell into a 
well ; a Mahratta from above having aimed his spear at him, an 
ofBcer struck the weapon aside and killed the assailant ; the spear 
glanced off and only inflicted a slight wound. The moment 

Colonel J charged the mutineers in the zenana compound, 

they murdered their prisoners, the treasurer and the paymaster, 
in cold blood ; the other four officers escaped in the tumult. The 
greater part of her Highness's troops being disaffected, they could 
not be trusted to quell the mutiny ; she was therefore compelled 
to ask for assistance. It was feared her troops, which amounted 
to eighteen hundred, might attempt to plunder the city and 
station, and be off to Gwalior ; and there being only two hun- 
dred of the Company's troops, and three guns at Fathlghar, the 
military were sent for from other stations, and a large body 
of pohce called out. The Baiza Ba'I despatched a lady several 
times to say she wished me to visit her ; this was during the 
time she was a prisoner in her house, surrounded by the muti- 
neers with their matches lighted. The agent for the Govern- 
ment would not allow me to go, lest they should seize and keep 
me a prisoner with the Bii'I's officers. I was therefore obliged 
to send word I could not obey the commands of her Highness 
on that account. 

Emissaries from Gwalior are at the bottom of all this. The 
camp was in great ferment yesterday : it would be of no con- 
sequence, if we had a few more troops at the station ; but two 
hundred infantry are sad odds against eighteen hundred men, one 
thousand of whom are horsemen ; and they have three guns also. 

17 th. Infantry have come in from Mynpooree and cavalry 
from Cawnpore, therefore every thing is safe in case the Mah- 
rattas should mutiny again. 

24th. The Governor-General's agent allowed me to ac- 
company him to the camp. He took some armed horsemen 
from the police as an escort in case of disturbance. The Baiza 
Ba'I received me most kindly, as if I were an old friend. I paid 
my respects, and almost immediately quitted the room, as affairs 
of state were to be discussed. The Gaja Raja took me into a 
pretty little room, which she had just built on the top of the 



liouse as a sleeping-room for herself. Her charpal (bed) swung 
from the ceiling ; the feet were of gold, and the ropes by which 
it swung were covered with red velvet and silver bands. The 
mattress, stuffed with cotton, was covered with red and blue 
velvet : the cases of three large pillows were of gold and red 
kimkhwab ; and there were a number of small flat round pillows 
covered with velvet. The counterpane was of gold and red 
brocade. In this bed she sleeps, and is constantly swung during 
her repose. She was dressed in black gauze and gold, with a pro- 
fusion of jewellery, and some fresh flowers I had brought for her 
were in her hair. She invited me to sit on the bed, and a lady 
stood by swinging us. The Gaja Raja has a very pretty figure, 
and looked most fairy-like on her decorated bed. When the affairs 
of state had been settled, we returned to the Ba'i. Rose-water, 
pan, and atr of roses having been presented, I took my leave. 

28th. I was one of a party who paid a visit of state to 
her Highness. Nothing remarkable occurred. As we were on 
the point of taking our departure, the Bii'i said she had heard 
of the beauty of my pinnace, and would visit it the next 
morning. This being a great honour, I said I would be in 
attendance, and would have the vessel anchored close to the 
Ba'i's own ghat, at which place she bathes in the holy Ganges. 
On my return home, a number of people were set hard to work, 
to fit the vessel for the reception of the Ba'I. Every thing Euro- 
pean was removed, tables, chairs, &c. The floors of the cabins 
were covered with white cloth, and a gaddl placed in each for 
her Highness. 

29th. ^The vessel was decorated with a profusion of fresh 
flowers ; she was drawn up to the ghat, close to a flight of 
steps ; and the canvas walls of tents were hung around her on 
every side, so that no spectators could see within. The sailors 
all quitted her, and she was then ready to receive the ladies of 
the Mahratta camp. Although I was at the spot at 4 a.m., the 
Ba'I and hundreds of her followers were there before me. She 
accompanied me on board with all her ladies, and on seeing 
such a crowd in the vessel, asked if the numbers would not 
sink her. The Ba'I admired the pinnace very much ; and ob- 


serving the satT, which stood in one corner of the cabin, covered 
with flowers, I informed her Highness I had brought the head- 
less figure to eat the air on the river ; that Ganges water and 
flowers were daily offered her ; that her presence was fortunate, as 
it brought an easterly wind. The Ba'i laughed ; and, after con- 
versing for an hour, she quitted the vessel, and returned to her 
apartment on the ghat. The Gaja Raja and her ladies went 
into the inner cabin ; Appa Sahib, the Ba'I's son-in-law, came 
on board with his followers, the vessel was unmoored, and they 
took a sail on the river. The scene was picturesque. Some 
hundreds of Mahratta soldiers were dispersed in groups on the 
high banks amongst the trees ; their elephants, camels, horses, 
and native carriages standing near the stone ghats, and by the 
side of white temples. The people from the city were there in 
crowds to see what was going forward. On our return from the 
excursion on the river, I accompanied the Gaja Raja to the 
Ba'i ; and, having made my salam, returned home, not a little 
fatigued with the exertion of amusing my guests. During the 
time we were on the water, Appa Sahib played various Hin- 
dostanee and Mahratta airs on the sitar. It must have been a 
great amusement to the zenana ladies, quite a gaiety for them, 
and a variety in their retired mode of life. They were all in 
their holiday dresses, jewels, and ornaments. Some wore 
dresses of bright yellow, edged with red, with black Cashmere 
shawls thrown over their shoulders ; this costume was very 
picturesque. The Gaja Riija wore a dress of black and gok', 
with a yellow satin tight body beneath it ; enormous pearls in 
profusion, ornaments of gold on her arms, and silver ornaments 
on her ankles and toes ; slippers of crimson and gold. 

Oct. 2nd. The Ganges at Farrukhabad is so full of sand- 
banks, and so very shallow, that fearing if I detained the 
pinnace, I might have some chance of being unable to get her 
dowTi to Cawnpore, I sent her oflf with half the servants to that 
place to await my arrival ; I shall go dak in a palanquin, and 
the rest of the people can float down in the cook boat. 

7th. I called on the Ba'i ; and while she was employed on 
state affairs, retired with the Gaja Rajii to the pretty little room 



before mentioned. There I found a Hindoo idol, dressed in 
cloth of gold, and beads, lying on the floor on a little red and 
purple velvet carpet. Two other idols were in niches at the end 
of the room. The idol appeared to be a plaything, a doll : I 
suppose, it had not been rendered sacred by the Brahmans. An 
idol is of no value until a Brahman dip it, with divers prayers 
and ceremonies, into the Gunga -, when this ceremony has been 
performed, the spirit of the particular deity represented by the 
figure enters the idol. This sort of baptism is particularly 
expensive, and a source of great revenue to the Brahmans. The 
church dues fall as heavily on the poor Hindoo, as on the people 
of England ; nevertheless, the heads of the Hindoo church do 
not live in luxury like the Bishops. 

The fakir, who from a religious motive, however mistaken, 
holds up both arms, until they become withered and immov- 
able, and who, being, in consequence, utterly unable to sup- 
port himself, relies in perfect faith on the support of the Al- 
mighty, displays more religion than the man, who, with a salary 
of 8000 per annum, leaves the work to be done by curates, 
on a pittance of 80 a year. 

The Gaja Rajii requested me to teach her how to make tea, 
she having been advised to drink it for her health ; she retired, 
changed her dress, returned, took her tea, and complained of its 
bitter taste. 

" I am told you dress a camel beautifully," said the young 
Princess; " and I was anxious to see you this morning, to ask 
you to instruct my people how to attire a sawiiri camel." 
This was flattering me on a very weak point : there is but one 
thing in the world that I perfectly understand, and that is, how 
to dress a camel. 

" I hope you do not eat him when you have dressed him ! " 
said an English gentleman. 

My relative had a fine young camel, and I was not happy 
until I had superintended the making the attire, in which he 
the camel, not the gentleman looked beautiful ! The Nawab 
Hakim Menhdl, having seen the animal, called, to request he 
might have similar trappings for his own sawarl camel ; and 


the fame thereof having reached the Mahratta camp, my talents 
were called into play. I promised to attend to the wishes of 
the Gaja Raja ; and, returning home, summoned twelve mochis, 
the saddlers of India, natives of the Chamar caste, to perform 
the work. Whilst one of the men smokes the narjll (cocoa-nut 
pipe) , the remainder will work ; but it is absolutely necessary that 
each should have his turn every half-hour, no smoke, no work. 

Five hundred small brass bells of melodious sound ; two 
hundred larger ditto, in harmony, like hounds well matched, 
each under each ; and one large bell, to crown the whole ; one 
hundred large beads of imitative turquoise ; two snow-white 
tails of the cow of Thibet ; some thousands of cowries, many 
yards of black and of crimson cloth, and a number of very long 
tassels of red and black worsted. The mochis embroidered 
the attire for three days, and it was remarkably handsome. The 
camel's clothing being ready, it was put into a box, and the 
Gaja Rajii having appointed an hour, I rode over, taking it with 
me, at 4 a.m. 

In the court-yard of the zenana, I found the Ba'I, and all 
her ladies ; she asked me to canter round the enclosure, the 
absurdity of sitting on one side a horse being still an amusing 

The Bii'I's riding horses were brought out ; she was a great 
equestrian in her youthful days, and, although she has now given 
up the exercise, delights in horses. The ladies relate, with great 
pride, that, in one battle, her Highness rode at the head of her 
troops, with a lance in her hand, and her infant in her arms ! 

A very vicious, but large and handsome camel was then 
brought in by the female attendants ; he knelt down, and they 
began putting the gay trappings upon him ; his nose was tied to 
his knee, to prevent his injuring the girls around him, whom he 
attempted to catch hold of, showing his great white teeth ; if 
once the jaw of a camel closes upon you, he will not relinquish 
his hold. You would have supposed they were murdering, not 
dressing the animal ; he groaned and shouted as if in great pain, 
it was piteous to hear the beast ; and laughable, when you 
remembered it was the " dastur;" they always groan and moan 


when any load is placed on their backs, however light. When 
the camel's toilet was completed, a Mahratta girl jumped on his 
back, and made him go round the enclosure at a capital rate ; 
the trappings were admired, and the bells pronounced very 

They were eager I should mount the camel ; I thought of 
Theodore Hook. "The hostess said, 'Mr. Hook, will you 
venture upon an orange?' 'No, thank you. Ma'am, I'm afraid 
I should tumble off.' " C'est beau ga, ri" est pas? I declined the 
elevated position offered me, for the same reason. 

The finest young sawarl camels, that have never been debased 
by carrying any burthen greater than two or three Persian 
cats, are brought down in droves by the Arabs from Cabul ; 
one man has usually charge of three camels ; they travel in 
single file, the nose of one being attached to the crupper of 
another by a string passed through the cartilage. They browse 
on leaves in preference to grazing. It was a picturesque scene, 
that toilet of the camel, performed by the Mahratta girls, and 
they enjoyed the tamasha. 

I mentioned my departure was near at hand ; the Ba'I spoke 
of her beloved Gwalior, and did me the honour to invite me to 
pay my respects there, should she ever be replaced on the gaddi. 
She desired I would pay a farewell visit to the camp three days 
afterwards. After the distribution, as usual, of betel leaves, 
spices, atr of roses, and the sprinkling with rose-water, I made 
my salam. Were I an Asiatic, I would be a Mahratta. 

The Mahrattas never transact business on an unlucky day ; 
Tuesday is an unfortunate day, and the Ba'I, who was to have 
held a durbar, put it oflf in consequence. She sent for me, it 
being the day I was to take leave of her ; I found her looking 
grave and thoughtful, and her sweet smile was very sad. She 
told me the Court of Directors had sent orders that she was to 
go and live at Benares, or in the Deccan ; that she was to quit 
Fathighar in one month's time, and should she refuse to do so, 
the Governor-General's agent was to take her to Benares by 
force, under escort of troops that had been sent to Fathighar for 
that purpose. The Bii'i was greatly distressed, but spoke on the 


subject with a command of temper, and a dignity that I greatly- 
admired. " What must the Maharaj do ? Cannot this evil fate be 
averted ? Must she go to Benares ? Tell us, Mem sahiba, what 
must we do?" said one of the ladies in attendance. Thus 
called upon, I was obliged to give my opinion ; it was an awkward 
thing to tell an exiled Queen she must submit, "The cudgel 
of the powerful must be obeyed'." I hesitated; the Ba'i 
looked at me for an answer. Dropping the eyes of perplexity 
on the folded hands of despondency, I replied to the Brija, who 
had asked the question, " Jiska lathi ooska bhains," i.e. "He 
who has the stick, his is the buffalo M " The effect was electric. 
The Baiza Ba'i and the Gaja Raja laughed, and I believe the 
odd and absurd application of the proverb half reconciled the 
Maharaj to her fate. 

I remained with her Highness some time, talking over the 
severity of the orders of Government, and took leave of her with 
great sorrow ; the time I had before spent in the camp had been 
days of amusement and gaiety ; the last day, the unlucky 
Tuesday, was indeed ill-starred, and full of misery to the unfor- 
tunate and amiable ex-Queen of Gwalior. 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 111. ' Ibid. No. 112. 



Zenana of the Nawab of Farrukhabad The Nawab Hakim Menhdi Hidden 
Treasures The Jak Dak to Cawnpore The Nawab of Banda Returned 
home in the Seagull Mr. Blunt, the Lieutenant-Governor, quitted the Station 
Arrival of Mr. Ross The Baiza Ba'I sent to Allahabad Arrival of her 
Highness Parties in the Mahratta Camp Opium-Eating Marriage Cere- 
monies of the Hindoos Procession in Parda The Bride Red Gold The 
Ex-Queen's Tents at the Tribeni The Bathing Presents to the Brahmans 
Arrival of Sir Charles Metcalfe Sohobut Mela Illness of the Gaja Raja 
Sahib Murder of Mr. Frazer The Baiza Ba'I a State Prisoner The 
power of Magic. 

1835, Oct. One day I called on the Begam, the mother of the 
young Nawab of Farrukhabad, and found her with all her rela- 
tions sitting in the garden ; they were plainly dressed, and looked 
very ugly. For a woman not to be pretty when she is shut up 
in a zenana appears almost a sin, so much are we ruled in our 
ideas by what we read in childhood of the hooris of the East. 

One morning, the Nawab Hakim Menhdi called ; his dress 
was most curious ; half European, half Asiatic. The day being 
cold, he wore brown corduroy breeches, with black leather boots, 
and thick leather gloves ; over this attire was a dress of fine 
white flowered Dacca muslin ; and again, over that, a dress of 
pale pink satin, embroidered in gold ! His turban was of gold 
and red Benares tissue. He carried his sword in his hand, and an 
attendant followed, bearing his hooqii ; he was in high spirits, 
very agreeable, and I was quite sorry when he rose to depart. 


In the evening, he sent down a charming Uttle elephant, only 
five years old, for me to ride ; which I amused myself with doing 
in the beautiful grounds around the house, sitting on the back 
of the httle beauty, and guiding him with cords passed through 
his ears. 

The next evening the Nawab sent his largest elephant, on 
which was an amarl, ^that is, a howdah, with a canopy, 
which, according to native fashion, was richly gilt, the interior 
lined with velvet, and velvet cushions ; the elephant was a fast 
one, his paces very easy, and I took a long ride in the surround- 
ing country. 

The Muhammadans have a fondness for archery, for which the 
following extract accounts : " There was an Arabian bow in 
the hand of the Prophet, and he saw a man with a Persian one, 
and said, ' Throw away the Persian bow, and adopt the Arabian, 
and appropriate arrows and spears ; because God verily will 
assist with them in religion, and will make you conquerors of 
cities.' " " Verily, God brings three persons into Paradise, on 
account of one arrow ; the first, the maker of it, being for war ; 
the second, the shooter of it in the road of God ; the third, the 
giver of the arrow into the hands of the archer." 

"His Highness entered Mecca on the day of taking it with 
his sword ornamented with gold and silver; and he had two 
coats of mail on the day of the battle of Oh'ud, and wore one 
over the other ; the Prophet had two standards, one large, the 
other small ; the large one was black, and the small one white ; 
verily, the Prophet came into Mecca with a white ensign." 

We were speaking to-day of the practice of burying money, 
so much resorted to by the natives, when a gentleman remarked, 
" It is a curious circumstance, that when a native buries 
treasure, in order to secure it, the only persons who know the 
secret are a low, debased caste, called Chamars ; these men are 
faithful to their employer ; they will bury lakhs of rupees, and 
never betray the spot ; they dig the ground, and guard it ; as 
long as their employer lives they keep the secret ; the moment 
of his death, they dig up, and are off with the money ; they 
consider they have a right to it in that case, and they would not 


give it up to his son." This is a curious fact, and accounts 
for their strict secrecy during the life of the owner. 

Buried treasures, consisting of jewels, as well as the precious 
metals, to the extent of lakhs and lakhs, are supposed to exist 
in the East ; the inhabitants in ancient, and even in modern 
times, being in the habit of thus securing their property from 
plunder in wars and invasions ; but they have not sufficient faith 
in their Mother Earth to leave their valuables in her care without 
the aid of necromancy (jadu) ; and, as before mentioned, the 
Akbarabiidee, or square gold mohur, as represented by Fig. 7 in 
the plate entitled " Superstitions of the Natives," is had recourse 
to, and buried with the treasm*e. Those who are not fortunate 
enough to possess a square gold mohur, substitute an Akbar- 
iibadee rupee. Fig. 5 ; or a square eight ana piece. Fig. 4. It is 
also stated that an animal, sometimes a man, is killed, and 
buried with it as a guard ; this animal is called ^'aA:, and receives 
orders to allow no one else to take up the treasure. It is not 
surprising the natives should behold the researches of EngUsh 
antiquaries with a jealous eye ; and it must be some consolation 
to them that they believe a fatality awaits the appropriation, by 
the discoverer, of a hidden treasure. 

\5th. Having despatched the pinnace to await my arrival at 
Cawnpore, I started dak for that place, which I reached the next 
day, after a most disagreeable journey ; I was also suffering from 
illness, but the care of my kind friends soon restored me to 
more comfortable feelings. 

22nd. I accompanied them to dine with the Nawab Zulfecar 
Bahadur, of Banda. The Nawab is a Muhammadan, but he is of 
a Mahratta family, formerly Hindoos ; when he changed his 
religion, and became one of the faithftil, I know not. Three of 
his children came in to see the company ; the two girls are very 
interesting little creatures. The Nawiib sat at table, partook of 
native dishes, and drank sherbet when his guests took wine. 
The next day, the Nawab dined with the gentleman at whose 
house I was staying, and met a large party. 

24th. I quitted Cawnpore in the Seagull, and once more 
found myself on the waters of the Gunga : a comet was plainly 


visible through a glass ; its hazy aspect rendered it a malignant- 
looking star. The solitude of my boat is very agreeable after so 
much exertion. 

25th. Anchored off a ship-builder's yard, and purchased 
six great trees ; sal, shorea robusta, and teak (tectona grandis) ; 
what they may turn out I can scarcely tell ; I bought them by 
torch-hght, had them pitched into the river, and secured to the 
boats ; the teak trees to make into tables and chairs ; the sal 
for a therraantidote ; we have one at home, but having seen one 
very superior at Fathlghar, induced me to have the iron-work 
made at that place ; I have brought it down upon the boats, and 
have now purchased the wood for it, en route, timber being 
reasonable at Cawnpore. 

26th. Here are we, that is, the dog Nero and the Mem 
sahiba, floating so calmly, and yet so rapidly, down the river ; 
it is most agreeable ; the temples and ghats we are now passing 
at Dzilmhow are beautiful ; how picturesque are the banks of an 
Indian river ! the flights of stone steps which descend into the 
water ; the temples around them of such peculiar Hindoo archi- 
tecture ; the natives, both men and women, bathing or filUng 
their jars with the water of the holy Gunga ; the fine trees, and 
the brightness of the sunshine, add great beauty to the scene. 
One great defect is the colour of the stream, which, during the 
rains, is peculiarly muddy ; you have no bright reflections on 
the Ganges, they fall heavy and indistinct. 

28th. Lugiioed the pinnace in the Jumna, beneath the great 
peepul in our garden, on the banks of the river. 

31s^. Dined with Mr. Blunt, the Lieutenant-Governor ; and 
the next day a lancet was put into my arm, to relieve an intole- 
rable pain in my head, brought on by exposure to the sun on the 

Nov. 6th. The Lieutenant-Governor gave a farewell ball to 
the Station, on resigning the appointment to Mr. Ross. The 
news arrived that her Highness the Baiza Bii'i, having been 
forced to quit Fathlghar, by order of the Government, is on her 
march down to Benares ; at which place they wish her to reside. 
Una Ba'i, one of her ladies, having preceded her to Allahabad, 


called on me, and begged me to take her on board the Calcutta 
steam-vessel, an object of great surprise to the natives. 

dth. ^The gentlemen of the Civil Service, and the military at 
the Station, gave a farewell ball to the Lieutenant-Governor ; I 
was ill, and unable to attend. Oh ! the pain of rheumatic fever ! 
The new Lieutenant-Governor arrived ; he gave a few dinners, 
and received them in return ; after which Allahabad subsided 
into its usual quietude, enlivened now and then by a Bachelor's 

1836, Jan. I6th. The Baiza Ba'i arrived at Allahabad, and 
encamped about seven miles from our house, on the banks of 
the Jumna, beyond the city. A few days after, the Brija Ba'i, 
one of her ladies, came to me, to say her Highness wished to 
see me ; accordingly I went to her encampment. She was out 
of spirits, very unhappy and uncomfortable, but expressed much 
pleasure at my arrival. 

Feb. 5th. Her Highness requested the steam-vessel should 
be sent up the river, opposite her tents ; she went on board, and 
was much pleased, asked a great many questions respecting the 
steam and machinery, and went a short distance up the river. 
Capt. Ross accompanied her Highness to Allahabad, and remained 
there in charge of her, whilst her fate was being decided by the 

9th. The Ba'i gave a dinner party at her tents to twenty of 
the civilians and the military ; in the evening there was a nach, 
and fireworks were displayed ; the ex- Queen appeared much 

There is a very extensive enclosure at Allahabad, called Sultan 
Khusru's garden ; tents had been sent there, and pitched under 
some magnificent tamarind trees, where a large party were assem- 
bled at tiffin, when the Bii'i sent down a Mahratta dinner, to 
add to the entertainment. In the evening, her two rhinoceroses 
arrived ; they fought one another rather fiercely ; it was 
an amusement for the party. Captain Ross having quitted 
Allahabad, Mr. Scott took charge of her Highness. 

March \st. The Brija Ba'i called to request me to assist 
them in giving a dinner party to the Station, for which the 


Biiiza Bii'i wished to send out invitations ; T was happy to aid her. 
The guests arrived at about seven in the evening ; the gentlemen 
were received by Appa Sahib, her son-in-law ; the ladies were 
ushered behind the parda, into the presence of her Highness. 
I have never described the parda which protects the Mahratta 
ladies from the gaze of the men : In the centre of a long room 
a large curtain is dropped, not unlike the curtain at a theatre, 
the space behind which is sacred to the women ; and there 
the gaddi of the Bii'I was placed, close to the parda ; a piece of 
silver, about six inches square, in which a number of small holes 
are pierced, is let into the parda ; and this is covered on the 
inside with white muslin. When the Ba'i wished to see the 
gentlemen, her guests, she raised the bit of white mushn, and 
could then see every thing in the next room through the holes 
in the silver plate herself unseen. The gentlemen were in the 
outer room, the ladies in the inner. Appa Sahib sat close to 
the parda ; the Ba'i conversed with him, and, through him, with 
some of the gentlemen present, whom she could see perfectly 

Dancing girls sang and nached before the gentlemen until 
dinner was announced. Many ladies were behind the parda with 
the Baiza Ba'i, and she asked me to interpret for those who 
could not speak Urdu. I was suffering from severe rheumatic 
pain in my face ; her Highness perceiving it, took from a small 
gold box a lump of opium, and desired me to eat it, saying, she 
took as much herself every day. I requested a smaller portion ; 
she broke off about one-third of the lump, which I put into my 
mouth, and as it dissolved the pain vanished ; I became very 
happy, interpreted for the ladies, felt no fatigue, and talked 
incessantly. Returning home, being obliged to go across the 
country for a mile in a palanquin, to reach the carriage, the dust 
which rolled up most thickly half choked me ; nevertheless, I 
felt perfectly happy, nothing could discompose me ; but the 
next morning I was obliged to call in medical advice, on account 
of the severe pain in my head, from the effect of the opium. 

The table for dinner was laid in a most magnificent tent, lined 
with crimson cloth, richly embossed, and lighted with nume- 


rous chandeliers. The niich girls danced in the next apartment, 
but within sight of the guests ; her Highness and her grand- 
daughter, from behind the parda, looked on. About two hundred 
native dishes, in silver bowls, were handed round by Brahmans ; 
and it was considered etiquette to take a small portion from 
each dish. On the conclusion of the repast, the Governor- 
General's agent rose, and drank her Highness's health, bowing 
to the parda ; and Appa Sahib returned thanks, in the name of 
the Ba'I. The dinner and the wines were excellent ; the latter 
admirably cooled. Fireworks were let off, and a salute was 
fired from the cannon when the guests departed. Her nephew 
was there in his wedding dress cloth of gold most elaborately 
worked. The Ba'I expressed herself greatly pleased with the 
party, and invited me to attend the wedding of her nephew the 
next day, and to join her when she went in state to bathe in 
the Jumna. I was very glad to see her pleased, and in good 

March 4th. ^This being the great day of the wedding, at the 
invitation of the Bii'I we took a large party to the camp to see 
the ceremonies in the cool of the evening. Having made our 
salam to her Highness, we proceeded with the Gaja Raja Sahib 
to the tents of the bride, which were about half a mile from 
those of the bridegroom. The ceremony was going on when we 
entered. The bridegroom, dressed in all his heavy finery, stood 
amongst the priests, who held a white sheet between him and 
the bride, who stood on the other side, while they chanted 
certain prayers. When the prayers were concluded, and a 
quantity of some sort of small grain had been thrown at the 
lady, the priest dropped the cloth, and the bridegroom beheld 
his bride. She was dressed in Mahratta attire, over which was 
a dopatta of crimson silk, worked in gold stars ; this covered 
her forehead and face entirely, and fell in folds to her feet. 
Whether the person beneath this covering was man, woman, or 
child, it was impossible to tell : bound round the forehead, out- 
side this golden veil, was a sihra, a fillet of golden tissue, from 
which strings and bands of gold and silver fell over her face. 
The bridegroom must have taken upon trust, that the woman he 


wished to many was the one concealed under these curious 
wedding garments. It was late at night ; we all returned to the 

Ba'i's tent, and the ladies departed, all but Mrs. Colonel W 

and myself ; the Gaja Raja having asked us to stay and see the 
finale of the marriage. The young Princess retired to bathe, 
after which, having been attired in yellow silk, with a deep 
gold border, and covered with jewels, she rejoined us, and we 
set out to walk half a mile to the tents of the bride ; this being 
a part of the ceremony. The Gaja Raja, her ladies, and 

attendants, Mrs. W , and myself, walked with her in parda ; 

that is, the canvas walls of tents having been fixed on long 
poles so as to form an oblong inclosure, a great number of men 
on the outside took up the poles and moved gently on ; while 
we who were inside, walked in procession over white cloths, 
spread all the way from the tent of the Ba'i to that of the bride. 
It was past 1 p.m. Fireworks were let off, and blue lights thrown 
up from the outside, which lighting up the procession of beau- 
tifully dressed Mahratta ladies, gave a most picturesque effect to 
the scene. The graceful little Gaja Raja, with her slight form 
and brilliant attire, looked like what we picture to ourselves a 
fairy was in the good old times, when such beings visited the 
earth. At the head of this procession was a girl carrying a 
torch ; next to her a nach girl danced and figured about ; then 
a girl in the dress of a soldier, who carried a musket and played 
all sorts of pranks. Another carried a pole, on which were sus- 
pended onions, old shoes, and all sorts of queer extraordinary 
things to make the people laugh. Arrived at the end of our 
march, the Gaja Raja seated herself, and water was poured over 
her beautiful little feet. We then entered the tent of the bride, 
where many more ceremonies were performed. During the 

walk in parda, I looked at Mrs. W , who had accompanied 

me, and could not help saying, " We flatter ourselves we are 
well dressed, but in our hideous European ungraceful attire we 
are a blot in the procession. I feel ashamed when the blue 
lights bring me out of the shade ; we destroy the beauty of the 

I requested permission to raise the veil and view the coun- 


tenance of the bride. She is young, and, for a Mahratta, 
handsome. The Ba'I presented her with a necklace of pure 
heavy red gold ; and told me she was now so poor she was 
unable to give her pearls and diamonds. New dresses were 
then presented to all her ladies. We witnessed so many forms 
and ceremonies, I cannot describe one-fourth of them. That night 
the bridegroom took his bride to his own tents, but the cere- 
monies of the wedding continued for many days afterwards. I 
returned home very much pleased at having witnessed a shadi 
among the Hindoos, having before seen the same ceremony 
among the Muhammadans. 

The ex -Queen had some tents pitched at that most sacred 
spot, the Treveni, the junction of the three rivers ; and to these 
tents she came down continually to bathe ; her ladies and a 
large concourse of people were in attendance upon her, and 
there they performed the rites and ceremonies. The super- 
stitions and the religion of the Hindoos were to me most in- 
teresting subjects, and had been so ever since my arrival in the 
country. Her Highness weis acquainted with this, and kindly 
asked me to visit her in the tents at the junction whenever any 
remarkable ceremony was to be performed. This delighted me, 
as it gave me an opportunity of seeing the worship, and con- 
versing on religious subjects with the ladies, as well as with the 
Brahmans. The favourite attendant, the Brija Ba'i never failed 
to call, and invite me to join their party at the time of the cele- 
bration of any particular rite. At one of the festivals her 
Highness invited me to visit her tents at the Treveni. I found 
the Mahratta ladies assembled there : the tents were pitched close 
to the margin of the Ganges, and the canvas walls were run out 
to a considerable distance into the river. Her Highness, in her 
usual attire, waded into the stream, and shaded by the kanats 
from the gaze of men, reached the sacred junction, where she 
performed her devotions, the water reaching to her waist. 
After which she waded back again to the tents, changed her 
attire, performed pooja; and gave magnificent presents to the 
attendant Brahmans. The Gaja Raja and all the Mahratta 
ladies accompanied the ex-Queen to the sacred junction, as they 


returned dripping from the river, their draperies of silk and 
gold clung to their figures ; and very beautiful was the statue- 
like effect, as the attire half revealed and half concealed the 
contour of the figure. 

1 5th. The hot winds have set in very powerfully ; to-day I 
was sent for by the Baiza Ba'i, who is in tents ; great sickness 
is prevalent in the camp, and many are ill of cholera. 

22nd. Sir Charles Metcalfe arrived to reside at Allahabad, 
on his appointment to be Lieutenant-Governor of Agra. The 
hot winds are blowing very strongly ; therefore, with tattis, the 
house is cool and pleasant ; while, out of doors, the heat is 
excessive. Her Highness, having been unable to procure a 
house, still remains encamped ; the heat under canvas must be 

May 1st. She sent for me, and I found the Gaja Raja ill of 
fever, and suffering greatly from the intense heat. 

May 9th ^Was the Sohobut Mela, or Fair of Kites, in 
Alopee Bagh ; I went to see it ; hundreds of people, in their 
gayest dresses, were flying kites in all directions, so happily and 
eagerly ; and under the fine trees in the mango tope, sweetmeats, 
toys, and children's ornaments, were displayed in booths erected 
for the purpose. It was a pretty sight, that Alopee ke Mela. 

The kites are of different shapes, principally square, and 
have no tails ; the strings are covered with manjhii, a paste 
mixed with pounded glass, and applied to the string, to enable 
it to cut that of another by friction. One man flies his kite 
against another, and he is the loser whose string it cut. The 
boys, and the men also, race after the defeated kite, which 
becomes the prize of the person who first seizes it. It requires 
some skill to gain the victory ; the men are as fond of the sport 
as the boys. 

The string of a kite caught tightly round the tail of my horse 
Trelawny, and threatened to carry away horse and rider tail 
foremost into mid-air ! The more the kite pulled and danced 
about, the more danced Trelawny, the more frightened he 
became, and the tighter he tucked in his tail ; the gentleman 
who was on the horse caught the string, and bit it in two, and 



a native disengaged it from the tail of the animal. A pleasant 
bite it must have been, that string covered with pounded glass ! 
Yah ! yah ! how very absurd ! I wish you had seen the tamashii. 
In the evening we dined with Sir Charles Metcalfe; he was 
residing at Papamhow. He told me he was thinking of cutting 
down the avenue of nim trees (melia azadirachta) , that led 
from the house to the river ; I begged hard that it might be 
spared, assuring him that the air around nim trees was reckoned 
wholesome by the natives, while that around the tamarind was 
considered very much the contrary. In front of my rooms, in 
former days, at Papamhow, was a garden, full of choice plants, 
and a very fine young India-rubber tree ; it was pleasant to see the 
bright green of the large glossy leaves of the caoutchouc tree, which 
flourished so luxuriantly. In those days, many flowering trees 
adorned the spot ; among which the katchnar (bauhinia) , both white 
and rose-coloured and variegated, was remarkable for its beauty. 
Sir Charles had destroyed my garden, without looking to see 
what trees he was cutting down; he had given the ruthless 
order. I spoke of and lamented the havoc he had occasioned ; 
to recompense me, he promised to spare the avenue ; which, when 
I revisited it years afterwards, was in excellent preservation. 

\4th. The Baiza Ba'I sent for me in great haste ; she was in 
alarm respecting the Gaja Raja, who was ill of epidemic 
fever. Having lost her daughter, the Chimna Ba'i, of fever, 
when she was driven out of Gwalior by her rebellious subjects, 
she was in the utmost distress, lest her only remaining hope and 
comfort, her young grand-daughter, should be taken from her. 
I urged them to call in European medical advice ; they hesitated 
to do so, as a medical man might neither see the young Princess, 
nor feel her pulse. I drove off", and soon returned with the best 
native doctress to be procured ; but, from what I heard at the 
consultation, it may be presumed her skill is not very great. 

The Nawab Hakim Menhdi is very ill ; I fear his days are 

The murder of Mr. Frazer, by the Nawab Sumshoodeen, at 
Delhi, who bribed a man called Kureem Khan to shoot him, took 
place when I was at Colonel Gardner's ; no one could believe it 


when suspicion first fell upon the Nawab ; he had lived on such 
intimate terms with Mr. Frazer, who always treated him like a 
brother. The Nawab was tried by Mr. Colvin, the judge, con- 
demned and executed. The natives at Allahabad told me they 
thought it a very unjust act of our Government, the hanging 
the Nawab merely for bribing a man to murder another, and 
said, the man who fired the shot ought to have been the 
only person executed. On Sunday, the 13th March, 1835, 
Kureem Khan was foiled in his attempt on Mr. Frazer's life, as 
the latter was returning from a nach, given by Hindoo Rao, the 
brother of the Biiiza Ba'i. He accomplished his purpose eight 
days afterwards, on the 22nd of the same month. In the Hon. 
Miss Eden's beautiful work, " The Princes and People of India," 
there is a sketch of Hindoo Rao on horseback ; his being the 
brother of the Baiza Ba'i is perhaps his most distinguishing 
mark ; I have understood, however, he by no means equals the 
ex-Queen of Gwalior in talent. 

June 7th. Sir Charles Metcalfe gave a ball to the station : in 
spite of all the thermantidotes and the tattls it was insufferably 
hot ; but it is remarkable, that balls are always given and better 
attended during the intense heat of the hot winds, than at any 
other time. 

9th. The Balza Ba'i sent word she wished to see me ere her 
departure, as it was her intention to quit Allahabad and proceed 
to the west : a violent rheumatic headache prevented my being 
able to attend. The next morning she encamped at Padshah 
Biigh, beyond Allahabad, on the Cawnpore road, where I saw 
her the next evening in a small round tent, entirely formed of 
tattls. The day after she quitted the ground and went one 
march on the Cawnpore road, when the Kotwal of the city was 
sent out by the magistrate to bring her back to Allahabad, and 
she was forced to return. Her grand-daughter is very ill, ex- 
posed to the heat and rains in tents. I fear the poor girl's life 
will be sacrificed. Surely she is treated cruelly and unjustly. 
She who once reigned in Gwalior has now no roof to shelter 
her : the rains have set in ; she is forced to live in tents, and 
is kept here against her will, a state prisoner, in fact. 

E 2 


Tlie sickness in our farm-yard is great : forty-seven gram- 
fed sheep and lambs have died of small-pox ; much sickness is 
in the stable, but no horse has been lost in consequence. 

25th. Remarkably fine grapes are selling at one rupee the 
ser; i. e., one shilling per pound. The heat is intolerable ; and 
the rains do not fall heavily, as they ought to do at this season. 
The people in the city say the drought is so unaccountable, so 
great, that some rich merchant, having large stores of grain of 
which to dispose, must have used magic to keep off the rains, 
that a famine may ensue, and make his fortune ! 



A Storm on the Jumna An Amazonian Mahratta Lady PutlT Coins The 
Mint at Gwalior East India Company's Rupees Departure of Sir Charles 
Metcalfe Murder of two Ladies in a Zenana The Steamer and Tug 
Rajmahal Tiger Cotton Seed Nagapanchmee Wreck of the Seagull A 
fierce Tufan Arrival of Sir Henry Fane Visit to the Baiza Ba'I River 
Voyage to Calcutta Chunar The God Burtreenath Ghat of Appa Sahib 
Ghat of the Baiza Ba'I Her Treasury seized by the Government The 
ChiraghdanTs The Minarets Native Merchants Kimkhwab Manufactory 
The Juneoo House of the Baiza Ba'I The Iron Chests of Gold Mohurs 
Rooms full of Rupees, of Copper Coins, and of Cowries Vishwii-Kiirraa, 
the Architect of the Gods. 

1836, June 28th. A hurricane has blown ever since gun-fire ; 
clouds of dust are borne along upon the rushing wind ; not a 
drop of rain ; nothing is to be seen but the whirling clouds of 
the tufan. The old peepul-tree moans, and the wind roars in it 
as if the storm would tear it up by the roots. The pinnace 
at anchor on the Jumna below the bank rolls and rocks ; the 
river rises in waves, Uke a little sea. Some of her iron bolts have 
been forced out by the pressure of the cables, and the sarang 
says, she can scarcely hold to her moorings. I am watching her 
unsteady masts, expecting the next gust will tear her from the 
bank, and send her off into the rushing and impetuous current. 
It is well it is not night, or she would be wrecked to a certainty. 
I have not much faith in her weathering such a tufan at all, 
exposed as she is to the power of the stream and the force of the 
tempest. High and deep clouds of dust come rushing along 
the ground, which, soaring into the highest heaven, spread 


darkness with a dull sulphureous tinge, as the red brown clouds of 
the tufan whirl swiftly on. It would almost be an inducement 
to go to India, were it only to see a hurricane in all its glorjf : 
the might and majesty of wind and dust : just now the fine 
sand from the banks of the river is passing in such volumes on 
the air, that the whole landscape has a white hue, and objects 
are indistinct ; it drives through every crevice, and, although 
the windows are all shut, fills my eyes and covers the paper. 
It is a fearful gale. I have been out to see if the pinnace is 
likely to be driven from her moorings. The waves in the river 
are roUing high with crests of foam; a miniature sea. So 
powerful were the gusts, with difficulty I was able to stand 
against them. Like an Irish hurricane it blew up and down. 
At last the falling of heavy rain caused the abatement of the wind. 
The extreme heat passed away, the trees, the earth, all nature, 
animate and inanimate, exulted in the refreshing rain. Only 
those who have panted and longed for the fall of rain can appre- 
ciate the dehght with which we hailed the setting in of the rains 
after the tufiin. 

3rd. ^This morning the Ba'i sent down two of her ladies, 
one of whom is a celebrated equestrian, quite an Amazon : 
nevertheless, in stature small and slight, with a pleasant and 
feminine countenance. She was dressed in a long piece of 
white muslin, about eighteen yards in length ; it was wound 
round the body and passed over the head, covering the bosom 
entirely : a part of it was brought up tight between the limbs, so 
that it had the appearance of full trousers falling to the heels. 
An embroidered red Benares shawl was bound round her waist ; 
in it was placed a sword and a pistol, and a massive silver bangle 
was on one of her ancles. Her attendants were present with 
two saddle horses, decked in crimson and gold, and ornaments 
of silver, after the Mahratta fashion. She mounted a large 
bony grey, astride of course, and taking an extremely long 
spear in her hand, galloped the horse about in circles, per- 
forming the spear exercise in the most beautiful and graceful 
style at full gallop ; her horse resiring and bounding, and 
showing off the excellence of her riding. Dropping her spear, 


she took her matchlock, performing a sort of mimic fight, 
turning on her saddle as she retreated at full gallop, and firing 
over her horse's tail. She rode beautifully and most gracefully. 
When the exhibition was over, we retired to my dressing-room : 
she told me she had just arrived from Juggernath, and was now 
en route to Lahore to Runjeet Singh. She was anxious I should 
try the lance exercise on her steed, which I would have done, 
had I possessed the four walls of a zenana, within which to have 
made the attempt. 

What does Sir Charles Metcalfe intend to do with the poor 
Ba'T? what will be her fate? this wet weather she must be 
wretched in tents. The Lieutenant-Governor leaves Allahabad 
for Agra, in the course of a day or two. 

In the evening I paid my respects to her Highness. I hap- 
pened to have on a long rosary and cross of black beads ; she 
was pleased with it, and asked me to procure some new rosaries 
for her, that they might adorn the idols, whom they dress up, like 
the images of the saints in France, with all sorts of finery. 

She showed me a necklace of gold coins, which appeared to 
be Venetian : the gold of these coins is reckoned the purest of 
all, and they sell at a high price. The natives assert they come 
from the eastward, and declare that to the East is a miraculous 
well, into which, if copper coins be thrown, they come out after 
a time the very purest of gold. In the sketch entitled " Super- 
stitions of the Natives," No. 8 represents a coin of this en- 
chanted well: they are called Putli, and the following extract 
makes me consider them Venetian : 

"It was in the reign of John Dandolo, 1285, that gold 
zecchini (sequins) were first struck in Venice. But before they 
could be issued, the Doge had to obtain the permission of the 
Emperor and the Pope. These zecchini bore the name and 
image of the Doge, at first seated on a ducal throne, but after- 
wards he was represented standing ; and, finally, in the latter 
times of the Repubhc, on his knees, receiving from the hands of 
St. Mark the standard of the Republic." 

The necklace, which was a wedding present to the bride, con- 
sisted of three rows of silken cords, as thickly studded with 


these coins as it was possible to put them on, the longest string 
reaching to the knees : it was very heavy, and must have been 
valuable. Another Mahratta lady wore a necklace of the same 
description, but it consisted of a single row, which reached 
from her neck to her feet : people less opulent wear merely one, 
two, or three putlis around the neck. 

An old Muhammadan darzl of the ShI'a sect asked me one 
morning to be allowed to go to the bazar to purchase a putll 
(a doll) to bind upon his forehead, to take away a violent pain 
in his head. This request of his puzzled me greatly : at the 
time I was ignorant that putll was also the name of the charmed 
coin, as well as that of a doll. He told me he had recovered 
from severe headache before in consequence of this application, 
and believed the remedy infalhble. The Ba'I mentioned that 
she struck mohurs and half mohurs at Gwalior, in her days of 
prosperity. I showed her some new rupees struck by the East 
India Company, with the king's head upon them, which, having 
examined, she said, "These rupees are very paltry, there is so 
little pure silver in them." 

5th. ^The ladies of th& station held a fancy fair at the theatre 
for the benefit of the Blind Asylum, which realized one hundred 
and eighty pounds. 

8th. Sir Charles quitted this station for Agra, leaving Alla- 
habad to return to its usual routine of quietness. The therman- 
tidotes have been stopped, rain has fallen plentifully, the trees 
have put on their freshest of greens, and the grass is springing 
up in every direction. How agreeable, how pleasant to the eye 
is all this luxuriant verdure ! 

The report in the bazar is, that a native of much wealth and 
consideration went into his zenana tents, in which he found two 
of his wives and a man ; the latter escaped ; he killed both the 
women. A zenana is a delightful place for private murder, and 
the manner in which justice is distributed between the sexes is 
so impartial ! A man may have as many wives as he pleases, and 
mistresses without number ; it only adds to his dignity ! If a 
woman take a lover, she is murdered, and cast like a dog into a 
ditch. It is the same all the world over ; the women, being the 


weaker, are the playthings, the drudges, or the victims of the men ; 
a woman is a slave from her birth ; and the more I see of life, 
the more I pity the condition of the women. As for the manner 
in which the natives strive to keep them virtuous, it is absurd ; a 
girl is affianced at three or four years old, married, without 
having seen the man, at eleven, shut up and guarded and sus- 
pected of a wish to intrigue, which, perhaps, first puts it into 
her head ; and she amuses herself with outwitting those who 
have no dependence upon her, although, if discovered, her death 
generally ends the story. 

27th. How weary and heavy is life in India, when stationary ! 
Travelling about the country is very amusing ; but during the 
heat of the rains, shut up in the house, one's mind and body 
feel equally enervated. I long for a bracing sea breeze, and a 
healthy walk through the green lanes of England j the lovely 
wild flowers, their beauty haunts me. Here we have no wUd 
flowers ; from the gardens you procure the most superb nose- 
gays ; but the lovely wild flowers of the green lanes are wanting. 
Flowering trees are planted here on the sides of the roads, and 
I delight in bringing home a bouquet. 

A steamer comes up every month from Calcutta ; she tows a 
tug, that is, a large flat vessel, which carries the passengers. 
The steamers answer well ; but what ugly-looking, mercantile 
things they are ! 

I must give an extract from the letter of a friend, describing 
an adventure, such as you would not meet with in the green 
lanes of Hampshire: "The boat was getting on slowly, and I 
went into the hills at Rajmahal, to get a deer or peacock or 
jungle-fowl, in fact, something for the kitchen. Some way in 
the interior I heard a queer noise, which one of my servants 
said was a deer ; as I could not draw the shot in my gun (which 
is a single barrel flint) to substitute a ball, having only a make- 
shift ramrod, I consoled myself that the shot was large, and 
pushed on in the direction of the noise, which still continued. As 
I came on the upper end of a hollow in the side of the hill, 
filled with jungle and long grass, some animal jumped up at 
about fifteen yards in front ; he weis evidently large, and what 


the great composers of the ' Sporting Magazine' term, of 
a fulvous colour ; he was decidedly, in the opinion of the beaters, 
a very heavy deer, of three or four miins. Hark forward ! was 
now the word, as the same great composers would again say ; 
we crossed a hollow road, entered the jungle on the opposite 
side, a httle below the du-ection the animal had taken, 
and had not gone fifteen yards when up rose, without hurry, 
a handsome large tiger, just out of arm's length, and a little 
from behind me ; his gait was slunk and shuffling ; I saw 
at once that he was going from me, and, owing to that circum- 
stance, I passed in review his sleeky flank and black stripes with 
much pleasure. I was a good deal excited, it being my first 
wild beast sight au naturel ; I almost felt an incUnation to slap 
my shot at him." 

The sketch, entitled "The Spring Bow," was taken in the 
Rajmahal hills, not far from the jungle in which my friend saw 
the tiger ; the hete sauvage represented in it might perhaps have 
been the very one whose sleeky flank and black stripes he 
viewed with so much pleasure. 

August. The cows are now in the finest order possible ; they 
are fed on Lucerne grass and cotton seed, and go out grazing. 
The cotton seed is considered very fattening for cattle ; it is 
separated, by the aid of a very simple machine, from the fine 
white cotton in which it is immersed in the cells of the capsule ; 
and this work is usually performed by women. Butter is made 
every morning and evening ; and, now and then, a cream cheese. 
The butter is very fine, of a bright yellow colour, and the cream 
cheese excellent. The extra butter having been clarified, and 
sealed down in jars, keeps good for twelve months. 

9th. ^Nagapanchmee : This day is sacred to the demigods, 
in the form of serpents ; the natives smear the doors of their 
houses with cow-dung and nim-leaves, to preserve them from 
poisonous reptiles. Nim-leaves are put amongst shawls and 
clothes, and also in books, to defend them from moths and insects. 

23rd. During the night it began to blow most furiously, 
accompanied by heavy rain and utter darkness ; so fierce a tufiin 
I never witnessed before. It blew without cessation, raining 


heavily at intervals ; and the trees were torn up by their roots. 
At 4 A.M. the storm became so violent, it wrecked twenty large 
native salt boats just below our house ; the river roared and 
foamed, rising in high waves from the opposition of the wind 
and stream. Our beautiful pinnace broke from her moorings, 
was carried down the stream a short distance, driven against the 
broken bastions of the old city of Prag, which have fallen into the 
river, and totally wrecked just off the Fort ; she went down 
with all her furniture, china, books, wine, &c., on board, and has 
never been seen or heard of since ; scarcely a vestige has been 
discovered. Alas ! my beautiful Seagull ; she has folded her 
wings for ever, and has sunk to rest ! We can only rejoice no 
lives were lost, and that we were not on board ; the sarang and 
khalasTs (sailors) swam for their hves ; they were carried some 
distance down the stream, below the Fort, and drifted on a 
sandbank. The headless image of the satl, that graced the 
cabin, had brought rather too much wind. When the sarang 
lamented her loss, I could only repeat, as on the day he carried 
off the lady, " Chori ke mal na'Ich hazm hota," stolen food 
cannot be digested : i.e. ill deeds never thrive. 

The cook-boat was swamped. On the going down of the river, 
although she was in the mud, with her back broken, she was 
sold, and brought the sum we originally gave for her when new ; 
such was the want of boats, occasioned by the numbers that 
were lost in the storm ! The next morning, three of the Vene- 
tians and the companion-ladder of the pinnace were washed 
ashore below the Fort, and brought to us by a fisherman. We 
were sorry for the fate of the Seagull ; she was a beautifully 
built vessel, but not to be trusted, the white ants had got into 
her. The mischief those white ants do is incalculable ; they 
pierce the centre of the masts and beams, working on in the 
dark, seldom showing marks of their progress outside, unless 
during the rains. Sometimes a mast, to all appearance sound,' 
will snap asunder ; when it will be discovered the centre has 
been hollowed by the white ants, and the outside is a mere 
wooden shell. Almost all the trees in the garden were blown 
down by the gale. 


Sept. 6th. I visited the Mahratta camp, to witness the cele- 
bration of the anniversary of the birth of Krishnu ; an account 
of the ceremonies and of the life of Kaniyii-jee shall be given in 
a separate chapter. 

Oct. I9th. The Commander-in-Chief, Sir Henry Fane, 
arrived ; his tents are pitched before the Fort, on the side of the 
Jumna ; the elephants, the camels, and the horses in attendance 
form a picturesque assemblage, much to my taste. 

21s^ The station gave a ball to Sir Henry and his party; 
he is a magnificent-looking man, with good soldier-like bearing, 
one of imposing presence, a most superb bow, and graceful 
speaking. I admire his appearance, and think he must have 
merited his appellation, in olden times, of the handsome 

27th. Sir Henry Fane reviewed the troops of the station, 
and a ball took place in the evening, at the house of Mr. Fane, 
the brother of the Commander-in-Chief. A few days afterwards, 
the ladies of his family requested me to accompany them to 
visit her Highness the Biiiza Ba'i, which I did with much 
pleasure, and acted as interpreter. 

Nov. 3rd. ^We dined with Sir Henry in camp, and he pro- 
mised to show me tiger-shooting in perfection, if I would accom- 
pany his party to Lucnow. 

7th. Some friends anchored under our garden, on their way 
to Calcutta ; the sight of their little fleet revived all my roaming 
propensities, and, as I wished to consult a medical man at the 
Residency, in whom I had great faith, I agreed to join their 
party, and make a voyage down the river. The Baiza Ba'i was 
anxious to see my friends ; we paid her a farewell visit ; she 

was charmed with Mr. C , who speaks and understands the 

language like a native, and delighted with the children. 

I3th. Our little fleet of six vessels quitted Allahabad, and 
three days afterwards we arrived at Mirzapore, famous for its 
beautiful ghats and carpet manufactories. 

\7th. Anchored under the Fort of Chunar, a beautiful 
object from the river ; it was not my intention to have anchored 
there, but the place looked so attractive, I could not pass by 


without paying it a visit. The goats and sheep, glad to get a 
run after their confinement in the boat, are enjoying themselves 
on the bank ; and a boy, with a basket full of snakes (cobra di 
capello), is trying to attract my attention. In the cool of the 
evening we went into the Fort, which is situated on the top of 
an abrupt rock, which rises from the river. The view, coming 
from Allahabad, is very striking ; the ramparts running along the 
top of the rising ground, the broad open river below ; the 
churchyard under the walls, on the banks of the Gunga, with 
its pretty tombs of Chunar stone rising in all sorts of pointed 
forms, gives one an idea of quiet, not generally the feeling that 
arises on the sight of a burial-place in India ; the ground was 
open, and looked cheerful as the evening sun fell on the tombs ; 
the hiUs, the village, the trees, all united in forming a scene of 
beauty. We entered the magazine, and visited the large black 
slab on which the deity of the Fort is said to be ever present, 
with the exception of from daybreak until the hour of 9 a.m., 
during which time he is at Benares. Tradition asserts that the 
Fort has never been taken by the English, but during the 
absence of their god Burtreenath. We walked round the 
ramparts, and enjoyed the view. The church, and the houses 
which stretch along the river-side for some distance, and the 
Fort itself, looked cheerful and healthy ; which accounted for the 
number of old pensioners to be found at Chunar, who have 
their option as to their place of residence. 

As you approach Benares, on the left bank of the river, 
stands the house of the Rajii of Benares, a good portly looking 
building. The appearance of the Holy City from the river is 
very curious, and particularly interesting. The steep cliff on 
which Benares is built is covered with Hindoo temples and ghats 
of all sizes and descriptions ; the first ghat, built by Appa 
Sahib, from Poona, I thought handsome ; but every ghat was 
eclipsed by the beauty of the one which is now being built by 
her Highness the Bfiiza Ba'i ; the scale is so grand, so beautiful, 
so light, and it is on so regular a plan, it dehghted me ; it is the 
handsomest ghnt I have seen in India ; unfinished as it is, it has 
cost her Highness fifteen liikh ; to finish it will cost twenty lakh 


more ; should she die ere the work be completed it will never 
be finished, it being deemed unlucky to finish the work of a 
deceased person. The money, to the amount of thirty-seven 
lakh, which the Bil'I had stored in her house at Benares, to 
complete the ghat, and to feed the Brahmans, whose allow- 
ance was two hundred rupees, i.e. 20 a day, has been seized by 
the Government, and put into the Company's treasury, where 
it will remain until the point now in dispute is settled ; that is, 
whether it belong to the Ba'i or to her adopted son, the present 
Maharaj of Gwalior, who forced her out of the kingdom. 
Several Hindoo temples are near this ghat; a cluster of 
beauty. Two chiraghdanis, which are lighted up on festivals, 
are curious and pretty objects ; their efiect, when glittering at 
night with thousands of little lamps, must be beautiful, reflected 
with the temples, and crowds of worshippers on the waters 
below ; and great picturesque beauty is added to the scene by 
the grotesque and curious houses jutting out from the cliff, 
based on the flights of stone steps which form the ghats. How 
I wished I could have seen Benares from the river during the 
Dewall, or Festival of Lights ! At sunset we went up the 
Minarets, built by Aurunzebe ; they are considered remarkably 
beautiful, towering over the Hindoo temples ; a record of the 
Muhammadan conquest. 

On my return to my budjerow, a number of native merchants 
were in waiting, hoping to dispose of their goods to the strangers ; 
they had boxes full of Benares turbans, shawls, gold and silver 
dresses, kimkhwab, and cloth of gold. This place is famous for 
its embroidery in gold, and for its tissues of gold and silver. I 
purchased some to make a native dress for myself, and also 
some very stiff ribbon, worked in silk and gold, on which are 
the names of all the Hindoo deities ; the Hindoos wear them 
round their necks ; they are holy, and called jun^oo. The 
English mare and my little black horse met me here, en route to 

The Baiza Ba'i told me by no means to pass Benares without 
visiting her ghat and her house ; some of her people having 
come down to the river, T returned with them to see the house ; 


it is very curiously situated in the heart of the city. Only 
imagine how narrow the street is which leads up to it ; as I sat 
in my palanquin, I could touch both the sides of the street by 
stretching my arms out, which I did to assure myself of its 
extreme narrowness. All the houses in this street are five or 
six stories high. We stopped at the house of the Bii'i ; it is six 
stories high, and was bought by her Highness as a place in which 
to secure her treasure. It is difficult to describe a regular 
Hindoo house such as this ; which consists of four walls, within 
and around which the rooms are built story above story ; but 
from the foundation to the top of the house there is a square in 
the centre left open, so that the house encloses a small square 
court open to the sky above, around which the rooms are built 
with projecting platforms, on which the women may sit, 
and eat the air, as the natives call it, within the walls of 
their residence. I clambered up the narrow and deep stone 
stairs, story after story, until I arrived at the top of the house ; 
the view from which was unique : several houses in the neigh- 
bourhood appeared much higher than the one on which I was 
standing, which was six stories high. The Mahratta, who did 
the honours on the part of her Highness, took me into one of 
the rooms, and showed me the two chests of cast iron, which 
formerly contained about eighteen thousand gold mohurs. The 
Government took that money from the Ba'I by force, and put it 
into their treasury. Her Highness refused to give up the keys, 
and also refused her sanction to the removal of the money from 
her house ; the locks of the iron chests were driven in, and the 
tops broken open ; the rupees were in bags in the room ; the 
total of the money removed amounted to thirty- seven lakh. 
Another room was full of copper coins ; another of cowries ; 
the latter will become mouldy and fall into dust in the course of 
time. One of the gentlemen of the party went over the house 
with me, and saw what I have described. Atr and pan were 
presented, after which we took our leave and proceeded to the 
market-place. The braziers' shops were open, but they refused 
to sell any thing, it being one of the holidays on which no worker 
in brass is allowed to sell goods. 


The worship of Vishwii-kurma, the son of Brumha, the 
architect of the gods, was perhaps being performed. On that 
day blacksmiths worship their hammer and bellows ; carpenters, 
the mallet, chisel, hatchet, saw, &c. ; washermen, their irons ; 
and potters, the turning-wheel, as the representative of this god. 
The festival closes with singing and gaiety, smoking and eating. 

I9th. The hour was too early, and but few shops were open, 
which gave a dull look to this generally crowded and busy city. 

The air is cool and pleasant ; we float gently down the river ; 
this quiet, composed sort of life, with a new scene every day, is 
one of great enjoyment. 

I must not forget to mention that, after a considerable lapse 
of time, the treasure that was detained by the Government on 
behalf of the young Maharaj of Gwalior, was restored to her 
Highness the Baiza Ba'i. 



Ghazipur Tomb of Lord Comwallis Palace of the Nawab of Ghazipur 
Beerpur Satis The Murda Ghat Buxar The Stud Bulliah Mela 
Blue Waters of the Soane Swimming an Elephant A Day too late for the 
Fair Hajipiir The Gunduc river Thieves Futwa Tarie-trees Mon- 
ghir The Seeta Khoond Janghira Mosque and Graves Rocks of Kuhul- 
gaon Desertion of the Dandees Sikrigali An Adventure in the Hills of 
Rajmahal Tiger Tracks The Spring-bow By'a Birds The Hill-man 
Poisoned Arrows The Thumb-ring Bauhinia Scandens. 

1836, Nov.2lst. Arrived early at Ghazipur, the town of GhazI, 
also called, as the Hindus assert, Gadhpur, from Gadh, a Riija 
of that name. We went on shore to view the tomb of a former 
Governor-General, the Marquis Cornwallis, who lies buried here, 
aged sixty-seven. The sarcophagus is within a circular building, 
surmounted by a dome, and surrounded by a verandah ; it is of 
white marble, with appropriate figures in half relief by Flaxman ; 
in front is a bust of the Marquis ; the coronet and cushion 
surmount it ; the iron railings are remarkably handsome and 
appropriate ; the whole is surrounded by a plantation of fine 
young trees, and kept in excellent order ; in front is a pedestal, 
intended, I should imagine, for a statue of the Marquis. The 
view from the building is open and pretty ; it is situated in the 
cantonment on the banks of the Ganges. There are four 
figures in mourning attitudes on the tomb, in half relief ; that of 
a Brahman is well executed. The pakka houses of the European 
residents at GhazTpiir, stretching along the river's side, have a 
pleasing effect. 



The ruins of the palace of the Nawab of Ghazlpur are 
situated on a high bank, in front of which the rampart, with 
four bastions, faces the river. The house is falling into ruins. 
I admired it very much, the plan on which it is built is charming ; 
what a luxurious abode during the hot winds ! It is situated on 
a high bank overlooking the Gunga ; in the centre is an octagonal 
room ; around this, four square rooms alternate with four 
octagonal rooms, which are supported on light and handsome 
arches. There are no walls to the rooms, but each is supported 
on arches. Around the centre room is a space for water, and 
a great number of fountains played there in former times. 
Between the arches hung rich pardas ; how delightfully suited 
to the climate ! Imagine the luxury of sitting in the centre 
room, all the air coming in cooled by the fountains, and screened 
from the glare by the rich pardas ! One of the octagonal rooms 
has fallen in completely. A gentleman of our party, not finding 
any game in the surrounding fields, shot five anwari fish that 
were sporting about on the surface of the river. Rosewater 
and cloth was brought for sale in abundance. The fields by the 
river-side are in parts a perfect Golgotha, strewn with human 
skulls. The Company's stud is here, but we did not visit it. 

Off the village of Beerpur I saw from ten to twenty sati 
mounds, under some large trees by the river-side ; the idea of 
what those wretched women must have suflfered made me 

Off Chounsah I was most thoroughly disgusted ; there is on 
the bank of the river a murda ghat, or place for burning the dead 
bodies of the Hindus ; about twenty charpals (native beds) were 
there cast away as unclean, the bodies having been carried down 
upon them. Some of the bodies had hardly been touched by 
the fire, just scorched and thrown into the water. The dogs and 
crows were tearing the flesh from the skeletons, growling as 
they ate, to deter other dogs that stood snarling around from 
joining in the meal. A gentleman fired at them, drove off some 
of the dogs, and killed others ; you have no idea how fierce and 
hungry the wretches were ; a bullet from a musket only scared 
them for a moment, and then they returned to the corpse. I 

BUXAR. 67 

was glad to get beyond the murda ghat ; the sight and smell of 
such horrors made me ill. 

Anchored at Buxar, and visited the stud ; the only stable I 
went into was a most admirable one, lofty, airy, ventilated, clean, 
and spacious. It contained two hundred horses, all looking 
clean, and in excellent condition ; the horses in this stable are 
all three years old, remarkably fine young animals. You may 
have the choice of the stable for 100, i.e. 1000 rupees ; these 
horses ought to be good, they come from the best imported 
English, Arab, and Persian horses, and are reared with great 
care. The animals stand in a long line, without any separation 
or bar between them in the stable ; the head is tied to the 
manger, the heels at liberty, no heel-ropes. They appear per- 
fectly quiet, although they stand so close to each other. About 
six hundred horses are at Buxar, and more on the other side of the 
river ; I derived much pleasure from seeing the stud at this place, 
and regret I did not visit that at Ghiizipur. Every day, from 
7 to 8 A.M., the whole of the young horses are turned loose into 
a paddock, to run and gallop about at pleasure ; it must be a 
pretty sight. 

23rd. The mela at Bulliah is held on this day, the last 
of the month of Kartik. The scene for five miles was very 
gay ; a great Hindu fair and bathing day ; boats full of people 
going to the fair, numbers on the cliff", and crowds in the river, 
at their devotions, an animated scene. The gentlemen are 
firing ball at the great crocodiles, as they lie basking on the 
sandbanks ; they have killed a very large one. When croco- 
diles are cut open, silver and gold ornaments are sometimes 
found in the interior ; the body of a child the whole body 
was found in a crocodile, a short time ago, at Cawnpore. 

25th. This morning our Uttle fleet passed the Soane river at its 
junction with the Ganges ; I went on decTt to look at the kala panl , 
the black water, as the natives call it, on account of the deep blue 
tinge of the Soane, which forms a strong contrast to the dingy 
milky hue of the stream of the Gunga. In this river, agates, 
amethysts, comehans, &c., are found. Crossing the river, which 
was considerably agitated by a very powerful wind, to go to the fair 



at Hiijipur, I saw a man apparently standing on the waters in 
the centre of the river ; it was blowing a stiff gale ; the man 
stood in an erect and easy position. On coming nearer I per- 
ceived he was standing on the back of an elephant ; the whole 
of the animal's body, with the exception of his head, was under 
water ; he put up the end of his trunk every now and then, and 
was swimming boldly and strongly forward directly across the 
enormous river. The wind blew so heavily, it was surprising 
the man could keep his balance ; he held a string in one hand, 
the other contained the ankus, with which the mahawat drives 
his elephant ; the string was, perhaps, the reins fastened in the 
animal's ears, with which they often guide them. 

On the evening of the 25th we arrived at HajTpur ; it was 
very provoking to see all the tents being struck, and the vessels 
going down the stream, as we were rowing up it, a day too 
late for the fair. Hajipur is situated at the junction of the 
Gunduc with the Ganges ; the Gunduc is such a rapid stream, 
it is hardly possible to stem it, at least with a foul wind, such as 
we had at the time of our arrival. We went on shore, and 
procured provisions ; returning, we crossed the Gunduc in a 
boat hollowed out of the stem of a tree, not a very safe sort of 
concern, but very common on the Ganges. 

What an uncomfortable night I spent ! awakened every half- 
hour by the falling in of the sandbank to which my budgerow 
was moored ; I feared my cook boat would have been swamped. 
In the middle of the night a great cry was raised of " Chor, 
Chor !" and a number of people rushed down to seize a thief, 
who was floating down the rapid Gunduc, with a ghara (an 
earthen pot) over his head ; a trick common to thieves, that they 
may pass unperceived. I got up, hearing the noise, and looked 
out of the cabin window ; seeing a man in the water close under 
the window, and imagining him to be one of the sailors, I said, 
" What is all this noise about?" The thief, for it was he, finding 
he was not concealed by the shadow of the vessel, swam off ; and, 
although a boat pursued him, he escaped by either crossing the 
Ganges or floating down it. These thieves are most wonderfully 
skilful, and infest the great fairs of India ; my servants say he 


had a large box with him in the water, and floated down upon 
it ; it was stolen from the tent of a rich native. 

Off the village of Futwa I purchased a quantity of Patna 
tablecloths, napkins, and cloth ; the manufactory is at this place ; 
and the people bring their goods off to the passing vessels. 

The whole way from Allahabad to Patna the fan palm 
trees (borassus flabelliformis) are extremely scarce ; immediately 
below Patna the river's bank is covered with them. The natives 
call them tar or tarie trees ; the juice is used as leaven for bread, 
also as urruk. A single leaf is sufficient to form the large hand 
pankhas used by the bearers, and paper is also manufactured 
from the tarie tree. They add greatly to the picturesque and 
Eastern beauty of the scene. 

29th. Arrived at Monghir : the place looks very well from 
the river with its old Fort. On anchoring we were assailed by 
a number of people, all anxious to sell their goods, chairs, 
work-tables, boxes, straw bonnets and hats, birds in cages, forks, 
knives, guns, pistols, baskets, kettles ; and to the noise of such 
a collection of people, all howling and shouting, was added the 
whining of a host of beggars. 

We went on shore, and walked through the bazar, buying a 
number of queer things. After tiffin we proceeded in palkees to 
the Seeta Khoond, about five miles from Monghir, the road very 
good, date and palm trees in abundance ; and the country around 
Seetii's Well makes one imagine that one is approaching the 
sea-shore ; there is a remarkably volcanic appearance in the 
rocks. The Seeta Khoond is a brilliantly clear spring of boiling 
hot water, which bubbles and boils up most beautifully, and is 
enclosed in a large space, with steps descending to the water. 
I never saw so beautiful a spring, or such living water ! There are 
four springs close to it, but they are all of cold water, and have 
none of the clearness or beauty of Seeta's Well. The water is 
contained in an enclosure of stone, in which it rises up sparkling 
and bubbling from its rocky bed. The steps on which you stand 
are very hot, and a hot steam rises from the surface ; the water 
is so clear you can see the points at which it springs up from its 
bed of rock. The stream from the Seeta Khoond is constantly 


flowing into the jheel below in a little rivulet, that gradually 
widens, and in which the presence of the hot water is perceptible 
in a cold morning for about one hundred yards from the 

Several years ago, an artilleiyman attempted for a wager to 
swim across the basin, and although he succeeded in getting 
over, it was necessary to convey him to an hospital, where he 
died within a few hours from the effect of the hot water ; not 
having tested it by a thermometer, I cannot tell the precise 
heat. The Brahmans say, so holy is the well, by the power of 
the goddess Seeta, that, although boiling, it performs the miracle 
of keeping rice and eggs thrown into it in an uncooked state. 
I saw a great quantity of rice which remained unswollen in the 
water; not being a pious Hindu, I conclude the water to be 
below the boiling point. 

A pretty Hindu temple has been erected close to the spring, 
dedicated to Seeta, in which are four idols ; one of the god 
Ram, his beloved Seeta, his brother Lutchman, and their cham- 
pion the monkey god Hoonuman ; in the verandah is also a 
statue of Hoonuman. I put the points of my fingers into the 
water, but the heat was too near the scalding point to allow of 
my putting in my hand ; the view from the spring is remarkably 
beautiful ; in front is a jheel, a large space of shallow water, 
bounded by the Kurrukpur mountains at various distances ; 
these mountains are rather rocks than mountains, and the stones 
took all sorts of grotesque forms as the sun declined behind 
them. On the right and left of the spring were rocks, which 
appeared to have been thrown up by an earthquake. The jheel 
looking like a place in which snipe and wild ducks would be 
plentiful, one of the party took his gun and shot over it, but 
had no sport ; the morning is the time for finding birds there. 
I walked half-way down the jheel : looking back towards the 
Khoond, the white temples at the spring, with the dark green 
i,nango tope behind, and the wild-looking, rocky scenery on either 
side, had a pleasing effect. The palkee-bearers told me, in the 
centre of the opposite mountains, the Kurrukpur, about six 
miles from the Seetii Khoond, there is a hot spring, called 


Ileegee Khoond, which, from being in the jungles, is little known ; 
that every third year a fair is held there, when people assemble 
to bathe and do pooja. My friends filled many bottles at the 
spring ; it is necessary to bring corks, as they are not procurable 
at Monghir. The water is so pure, it keeps like the Bristol 
water on a long voyage ; people returning to England make a 
point of stopping here on that account. 

30th. We anchored at the Fakir's rock at Janghlra. The 
abode of the Fakir is on a high bold rock, rising abruptly in the 
midst of the stream, completely isolated ; the temple is placed 
on the very summit ; there are four small temples also a little 
below ; some large trees spring from the crevices of the rock : 
the whole reflected in the Ganges, with the village of Janghlra 
beyond, and the mountains of Karrak in the distance, form a 
good subject for the pencil. On the outside, carved on the solid 
rock, are a great number of Hindoo images ; amongst them, 
one of Narasingh is very conspicuous, tearing open the bowels of 
the king who disbelieved the omnipresence of the Deity. We 
passed over in a little boat to see this temple ; the fakirs showed 
it with great good will, and gained a small reward. There is a 
remarkably fine tree, the plumeria alba, springing from the side 
of the rock, the goolachin or junglee champa, as the natives call 
it. On our return to the main land, we climbed a cluster of 
rocks, just opposite Janghira ; on the summit of these rocks, 
which are well wooded, stand the ruins of an ancient mosque ; no 
one inhabits the place ; the view from the platform is remarkably 
good. The graves of the Kiizi Biskermee's family are there ; 
the Kiizi formerly lived there, but I could not gain much infor- 
mation from our guide on the subject. The little burial-ground, 
with its eleven graves, looked so quiet, and afar from the turmoil 
of the world, I took a fancy to the spot. There must, or there 
ought to be, some little history attached to this picturesque 
mosque and its ruined graves ; it stands on a high rock, well 
wooded, rising abruptly from the Ganges. 

Dec. \st. We quitted the Janghira rocks ere daybreak, with 
a fair wind, and floated down the stream most agreeably ; in the 
evening we arrived at Colgong, which presents much picturesque 


beauty ; four rocky islands of considerable height, rock piled on 
rock, rise and stretch across the centre of the Ganges. As we 
sailed past them, I saw five or six of the smallest, lightest, and 
most fairy-looking httle boats gliding about the rocks, in which 
men were fishing ; the fish are large, excellent, and abundant. 
No one resides on these rocks. The village of Kuhulgaon, com- 
monly called Colgong, is situated under some hills, and prettily 
wooded. The cook boat not having arrived, one of the gentlemen 
fired his gun oflT, to direct the men where to find us ; the sound 
was returned from the rocks four times, distinctly and loudly, with 
an interval of four or five seconds between each echo. We took a 

walk in the evening ; Mr. killed a flying fox, or vampire 

bat, such a curious-looking animal, with a most intelligent little 
face ; the body was covered with hair ; its leathern wings 
measured from tip to tip three feet eight inches and a half. 

No one ought to take up-country dandees ; they ensure 
much plague and trouble. The Bengalees having their homes in 
Calcutta, do not desert going down the river. At Monghir the 
manjhi and six dandees deserted to their homes ; this detained 
and annoyed us. 

2nd. Early in the evening we anchored at Sickri-gali, a 
place close upon the Rajmahal Hills, and went out shooting. 
The dandees, with long poles, accompanied us to beat the 
bushes. The people say wild beasts often come to this place at 
night, and a few miles below there is good tiger shooting ; we 
found no game, being too near the village : had we proceeded 
further into the hills, we must have had some sport in the wild 
country around them. Night came on ere we regained the 

3rd. Mr. saUied forth with his beaters to try the 

marshy plain under the hills of the Sickri-gali Pass. The cool 
morning tempted me out, and the first person whom I saw was 
an indigo planter standing near his bungalow, the only Euro- 
pean dwelling-house at the place. On asking him where good 
shooting was to be found, he said the road the gentleman had taken 
was one in which game of all sorts abounded, but that on 
account of tigers it was dangerous. He showed me the marks 


of tiger's paws in his garden. His account rather gave me a 
curiosity to see the sort of plain where such animals may be 
found ; and with a chaprasl, and a bearer carrying a large chatr, 
I took the road to the rocks. After a very long walk, we came 
to a most suspicious-looking spot, surrounded by very high 
jungle-grass, beyond which stretched the deep woods and hills of 
Rajmahal. " In this direction," said my chaprasl, " is the very 
spot frequented by tigers, here they may be found ;" and we 
pushed through the heavy jungle grass from nine to twelve feet 
in height, and so thick it was almost impenetrable. " Here is 
some water," said the man, " and here, on its edge, the prints 
fresh on the marshy soil of the feet of a tiger ! Look, look, mem 
sahiba, it is true, it is true, here they are ! " I forced a passage 
for myself through the grass, and saw the foot-marks. " He 
who has never seen a tiger, let him look at a cat ; and he who 
has never seen a thief, let him look at a butcher '." 

My anxiety to see a bete sauvage, a royal Bengal tiger, in his 
native wilderness, making me forgetful that his presence might 
prove dangerous, induced me to scan the jungle on every side. 
" Are we likely to see a tiger? " said I to the man. " Not at this 
hour, mem sahiba, see, the sun is high in heaven ;" pointing to 
the hill, " they are up there in the recesses of the mountain, in 
the shade of the deep forests ; when the shadows of evening fall, 
if the mem sahiba will return to this spot she will be sure to 
see the tigers, at that hour they come down to quench their 
thirst at this water." At night, on my return to the boats, I 
remembered the words of the chaprasl, but did not feel inchned 
to go out on such a " will-you-come-and-be-killed " expedition. 

On this spot the baghmars, (tiger killers,) set up the spring- 
bow with a poisoned arrow : the bow is made of strong bamboo, 
supported on two cross sticks, to one end of which a string is 
fastened that crosses the wild beast's track ; as soon as the tiger 
touches the cord in crossing it to the water's edge, it releases 
the bow-string, and the arrow, being immediately discharged 
with great force, enters the body of the beast just about the 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 113. 


height of his heart. A poisoned arrow was thus set for a tiger 
in Assam, who was found dead sixty yards from the spot so 
quickly does the deadly poison take effect. A further account 
of this bow will be found in a subsequent chapter. The place 
was one of great interest ; the water was surrounded by the 
high grass ; on one side was a cluster of forest trees, and beneath 
them the sUght and deUcate babul. The By 'a birds were flitting 
about ; they delight in placing their long nests on the extreme 
end of the slight branches of the babul, pendant over a stream 
or pool for security. For a further account of these sagacious 
little birds, see vol. i. page 220. 

The bright sunshine, the deep reflections on the water, the 
idea that there was danger lurking around, all combined to 
render this picturesque and secluded spot one of great interest. 

The dandees from the boats that anchor at Sikri-gall, go up 
the hills in gangs to cut wood for tiring, and bring it down in 
great quantities. Following their track, I soon joined the party 
who were shooting snipes in the marsh at the foot of the hills, 

and at the moment of my arrival, Mr. was busily pulling 

the leeches oflT his ancles, which had stuck to them in passing 
through the water. Being fagged with the walk, I got a hackery 
from a village ; it is a sort of cart made of bamboos with small, 
heavy, clumsy, wooden wheels, drawn by two bullocks. Seated in 
this conveyance, I desired the man to drive me into the hills. 
My bones were half dislocated, bumping up and down in such 
a jungle of a place, over high stones that all but upset the cart, 
or through the marsh in which the bullocks sometimes being 
unable to keep on their feet, took six or seven steps on their 
knees ; it was a marvel how the little animals got on, or through 
such places as we crossed. I went deep into the hills, admiring 
the beautiful climbers that were in the greatest profusion, and the 
bearer gathered all the novelties, which made me quite happy in 
my cart, surrounded by specimens new to me. At last the driver he could proceed no further ; therefore I walked up the 
hill some distance until I was fagged : the view was very 
pleasing, looking down the valley over the plain to the Ganges, 
where the vessels were sailing past. At a bright running stream 


I gladly quenched my thirst, having taken no breakfast, and it 
being now nearly eleven a.m. Mounted on my bone-breaking 
cart, I rejoined my friend, who had only killed five snipe and 
another bird. He saw but one black partridge, no deer; the 
game was very scarce. 

Elephants here are absolutely necessary to enable a man to 
enjoy shooting amidst the high grass and thorny thickets. The 
place is so much disturbed by the people who go into the hills 
for wood, that the game retreat farther into the jungle. Had 
we had an elephant, we might have found a tiger ; until I have 
seen one in his own domains, I shall not sleep in peace. The 
khidmatgars arrived on a cart with bread, meat, tea, and wine. 
It being one p.m., and the sun powerful, we seated ourselves 
under a tree, and made an excellent breakfast, which was most 
refreshing after such a ramble. 

As we were tossing the bones to the little spaniels, we met 
with an adventure, which, bringing for the second time in my 
life uncivilized beings before me, quite delighted me. The foot- 
path from the interior of the hills led to the place where we 
were seated. Down this path came a most delightful group, a 
family of savages, who attracted my attention by the singularity 
of their features, the smallness and activity of their bodies, 
their mode of gathering their hair in a knot on the top of 
their heads, and their wild-looking bows and arrows. We 
called these good-natured, gay-looking people around us ; they 
appeared pleased at being noticed, and one of the women offered 
me some young heads of Indian corn, which she took from a 
basket she carried on her head containing their principal pro- 
vision, this boiled and mashed Indian corn. She also carried a 
child seated astride upon her hip. A child is rarely seen in a 
woman's arms, as in Europe. The same custom appears to have 
existed amongst the Jews : "Ye shall be borne upon her sides, 
and dandled upon her knees." Isaiah. 

The party consisted of a man and three boys, apparently 
eight, twelve, and sixteen years of age, two women, and 
a little girl. The man said he had come from a place four coss 
within the hills, by our calculation eight miles, but hill mea- 


surement of distance being generally liberal, I should suppose it 
double that distance. Their descent at this time to the plains, 
was to help in gathering in the present crop of uncut rice, for 
which purpose the owners of the fields had asked them to come 
down. The man appeared to be about five feet in height, 
remarkable for lightness and suppleness of limb, with the 
piercing and restless eye that is said to be peculiar to savages. 
His countenance was round and happy ; the expression had 
both cunning and simplicity ; the nose depressed between the 
eyes, and altogether a face that one laughed to look at. His 
black hair drawn tight up in a knot on the very top of the head, 
the ends fastened in with a wooden comb. His only clothing 
a small piece of linen bound around his middle. He carried a 
bow of hill bamboo, the string of which was formed out of 
the twisted rind of the bamboo, and the four arrows were of 
the common reed, headed with iron barbs of different shapes ; 
one of the barbs was poisoned. The hill-man said he had 
bought the poison into which the barb had been dipped of a 
more remote hill tribe, and was ignorant of its nature : he begged 
us not to handle the point. The natives will not mention 
the name of the plant from which the poison is procured ; it 
appears to be a carefully-guarded secret. On each arrow were 
strips of feather from the wing of the vulture. The boy was 
similarly dressed, and armed. The woman, who carried the 
child, appeared to be the favourite from the number of orna- 
ments on her person. She was extremely small in stature, but 
fat and well-looking. Unlike the women of the plains, she wore 
no covering on her head, and but Uttle on her body. Two or 
three yards of cloth were around her waist, and descended half 
way below the knees ; whilst a square of the same was tied over 
her shoulders like a monkey mantle ; passed under the left arm 
it was drawn over the bosom, and the ends tied on the shoulder 
of the right arm. Her hair was tied up in the same fashion as 
the man's. Around the rim of each ear were twenty-three thin 
ear-rings of brass ; and three or four necklaces of red and white 
beads hung down to her waist in gradations. Her nose-ring 
was moderately large in circumference, but very heavy, pulling 


.down the right nostril by its weight ; it was of silver, with four 
large beads, and an ornament of curious form. She had thick 
purple glass rings on her arms, called churees, of coarse manu- 
facture, and other ornaments which I forget, something of the 
same sort. 

She talked openly and freely. I took the man's bow, and shot 
an arrow after the English fashion ; at which the whole family 
laughed excessively, and appeared to think it so absurd that I 
should not draw a bow in the style of a mountaineer. T begged the 
man to show me the proper method ; he put a sort of ring on my 
thumb, placed my right forefinger straight along the arrow, and 
bid me draw it by the force of the string catching on the 
thumb-ring. I did so, and shot my arrow with better aim than 
when pursuing the English method. His happiness was great 
on my giving him a rupee for a bow, two arrows, one of which 
was the poisoned one, and the thumb-ring. He said his em- 
ployment consisted principally in shooting animals at night by 
laying in wait for them. He crouched down on the ground to 
show the way of laying in wait for wild hogs. On seeing a 
hog near, he would immediately spring to his feet and shoot his 
arrow, drawing it quite to the head. Sometimes they kill hogs 
with poisoned arrows ; nevertheless they feed upon the animals, 
taking care to cut out the flesh around the arrow the instant the 
hog falls. He told us he had but one wife, his tiri, the hill- 
man's name for wife, whom he had left at home ; perhaps the 
tiri was an abbreviation of istirl, or tiriyd, wife. 

After our long conversation with the savages we bade them 
adieu, and my parting present was a pink silk handkerchief for 
his tiri in the Hills. We returned at two p.m. to the boats, com- 
pletely fagged, with the accompaniment of headaches from the 
heat of the sun : unmoored the vessels, and with a good breeze 
reached Rajmahal at dark. During our absence some hill-men 
came to the boats, and offered bows to the dandees, begging in 
exchange a piece of linen. They parted with them afterwards for 
one halfpenny a piece. I must not omit to mention the magni- 
ficent wild climber, the Cachnar, Bauhinia scandens, which I 
gathered in the pass. The leaves are of immense size, heart- 


shaped, and two lobed : they collapse during the night. It is called 
Bauhinia from two botanical brothers, John and Caspar Bauhin, 
who, like its leaves, were separate and yet united. The Cachndr 
at Allahabad is a beautiful tree, but its leaves are not so luxu- 
riantly large as those of the wild creeper of the Rajmahal Hills. 
A cold bath and a late dinner restored me to comfortable feel- 
ings, and thus ended my adventures, and a happy day in the 
Hills of the SikrI-gali Pass. 



Sporting at Rajmahal Ruins of the Palace of the Nawab Brahman! Ducks 
The Ruins of Gaur The Dakait An Adventure Beautiful Ruins Pan- 
gardens The Kadam Sharif Curious Coins Jungle Fever Casowtee 
Stone Fields of the Mustard Plant Ancient Bricks Fakirs tame Alligators 
Salt Box An Account of the Ruins of Gaur. 

1836, Bee. 4th. Early this morning Mr. S crossed the 

river opposite Rajmahal, with his beaters and two little spaniels ; 
he killed six brace of birds, but was unable to secure more than 
seven of them, from the jungly nature of the ground ; the birds 
are partridges of a particular sort, only found, sportsmen say, 
at Rajmahal and one other place in India, the name of which I 
forget. At one spot the beaters were uncertain whether they 
saw a stranded boat or an alhgator ; it was a magar, the snub- 
nosed alligator. Mr. S put a bullet into his body about 

the fore-paw, the animal turned over in the river with a great 
splash, beating up the mud with his tail in his agony, and dis- 
appeared under the water. The magars are bold and fierce, the 
crocodiles timid, and it is supposed they do not venture to 
attack mankind ; nevertheless, young children have been found 
in their bodies when caught. 

During this time I rambled over the ruins of the old palace, 
which is fast falUng into the river; the principal rooms still 



standing now contain a quantity of coal, the warehouse of the 
steamers ; it must have been a handsome building in former 
days ; the marble floor of the mosque remains, and a fine well. 
My guide told me that at Gaur is a fine place, belonging to this 
Nawiib, now in ruins. All around Rajmahal is a beautiful 
jungle of magnificent bamboos ; such fine clumps, interspersed 
with date palm trees, overshadowing the cottages, around which 
were a number of small cows, and fowls of a remarkably good 
breed ; every thing had an air of comfort. The walks in all 
directions were so cool and pleasing, that it was very late ere I 
could induce myself to return to breakfast. The inhabitants of 
this pleasant jungle are accounted great thieves ; an idea quite 
the contrary is given from the comfortable appearance of their 
cottages under the clumps of bamboos, close to the river, which 
is covered with A'^essels passing up and down. 

5th. The ruins of the ancient city of Gaur are laid down as 
at no very great distance from the Ganges. We were very 
anxious to visit the place, and therefore, quitting the Ganges, 
entered the little river, the BaugruttI sota, up which, at the 
distance of half a mile, is the village of Dulalpur : off" the latter 
place we moored our vessels, being unable to proceed higher up 
from the shallowness of the water. 

We explored the nala in a dinghee, a small boat, and seeing 
two wild fowl (murghabi) , I requested my companion to shoot 
one. "They are BrahmanI ducks, I do not like to kill them," 
he replied ; I persisted ; he fired, and shot the male bird, the 
chakwa, it fell into the niila, close to the boat ; the hen bird, 
utterly unmindful of the gun, flew round and round the dinghee, 
uttering the most mournful cries over the dead body of her 
mate ; poor bird, with merciful cruelty we let her live ; never 
again will I separate the chakwa, chakwi. The following is an 
extract from Forbes' Hindustani Dictionary: "Duck (wild) 
chakwi, chakaT. This is the large duck or goose, well 
known in India by the name of Brahmani goose or duck, and 
in the poetry of the Hindus, is their turtle-dove, for constancy 
and connubial affection, with the singular circumstance of 
the pair having been doomed for ever to nocturnal separation, 


for having offended one of the Hindu divinities in days of yore ; 

" Chaliwa chakwT do jane ... in mat maro ko,e ; 
Ye mare kartar ke . . . rain bichhora ko,e." 

(Let no one kill the male or female chakwa ; 

They, for their deeds, are doomed to pass their nights in separation.) 

" According to the popular belief, the male and female of 
these birds are said to occupy the opposite banks of a water or 
stream regularly every evening, and to exclaim the live-long night 
to each other thus : 

" Chakwl, main a,iin ? Nahin nahin, chakwa. 
Cliakwa, main a, ijn ? Nahin nahin, chakwT." 

The darogha, the head man of the adjacent village, came 
down to the boats to make salam, and offered me the use of two 
horses for visiting Gaur ; and a gentleman from the indigo 
factory of Chandnl Kothi, two miles distant, had the kindness 
to say he would lend me an elephant. 

Dec. 6th. Early in the morning a man was seen watching 
and lurking about the boats ; therefore I desired the khidmatgar 
to put as few spoons and forks on the breakfast-table as possible, 
lest the sight of silver might bring thieves to the boats at night : 
the suspicious-looking man carried in his hand a long and pecu- 
liarly shaped brass lota, a drinking-vessel. 

The darogha sent the horses, and the elephant arrived, with 
an invitation to our party to go to the factory, where we found 

Mr. S very weak, recovering from jungle fever ; but his 

friend, Mr. M , promised to show us the ruins. They de- 
tained us to tiffin at 3 p.m., after which, my side-saddle having 
been put on one of the horses, I was ready to start ; when Mr. 

M recommended my going on the elephant, on account of 

the deepness of the swamps we should have to pass over. 
Accordingly I mounted the elephant ; a number of men attended 
us, amongst whom were three hill-men, with their bows and 

arrows ; Mr. M mounted his horse ; we went on, and lost 

sight of him. The factory is situated in the midst of jungle, 



the ground park-like around, good trees, a great number of tanks 
of fine water, and a large space of morass in different directions, 
filled with high jungle grass. My companion took his gun, he 
is an excellent shot ; nevertheless, on account of the unusual 
motion on a pad, from the back of the elephant he missed his 
game most strangely. We started by far too late, in spite of 
which we saw eight wild boars, three hog deer, one black 

partridge, two snipe, and nine or ten monkeys. Mr. M did 

not join us, and we marvelled at his non-appearance. On our 
return he assisted me as I descended the ladder from the back of 
the kneeling elephant, and said he had been almost murdered. 
He related that he quitted the house, and having gone half a 
mile, was looking for us, when a man tending cows called to him, 

and said, "A party on an elephant are gone that way." Mr. M 

turned his horse to the point indicated, when the cowherd 
struck him two blows with a stick, which almost knocked him 

from his horse; as the fellow aimed the third blow, Mr. M 

wrenched the stick from his hand, and cut his forehead open with 
a blow over the eye. The dakait, or daku, for he was a robber 
by profession, ran away ; the gentleman followed. The dakait, 
who had a brass vessel ftiU of water in his hand, swung it round 
most dexterously from the end of a string, not suffering the 

water to escape, and sent it right at Mr. M ; it missed him, 

and fell on the horse's head. The robber then seized him by 
the collar, and pulled him from his horse; they struggled 
together, trying to throttle each other, and the daku bit him 

severely in several places ; at last Mr. M made him a 

prisoner, returned to the factory, and having bound his arms, 
he secured him to a pillar in the verandah, tying his long hair 
also to the post, to prevent his escape. We returned from the 
shooting expedition just after all this had happened, and found 
the ground at the man's feet covered with blood ; he appeared 
to be a daring and resolute character. On being questioned as 
,t() his motives by the gentlemen, he pretended not to understand 
Hindustani, and to be an idiot. I went alone into the verandah : 
" O, my grandmother, my grandmother! Nani Ma, Nam Ma, 
saye me !" exclaimed the man ; " did I not bring you milk this 


morning ?" " Yes," said my bearer, " that is true enough; I 
know the man by the peculiar shape of his brass lota ; he was 
lurking about the vessel, and when spoken to said he had 
brought milk ; the khidmatgar took it for his own use, refusing 
to give me a portion." This was the man I had observed in the 
morning ; he was remarkably well formed, light and active, with 
muscles well developed ; the beauty of his form was not hidden 
by any superfluous clothing, having merely a small portion of 
linen around his loins ; his body was well oiled, and slippery as 
an eel, a great advantage in a personal struggle, it being scarcely 
possible to retain hold on a well-oiled skin. He told me he had 
been sent by an indigo-planter from the other side of the river, 

to take Mr. M 's life. On mentioning this to the gentlemen, 

I found the men of his factory on the opposite side the river had 
quarrelled about a well with the men of another factory, and in 

the affray, one of Mr. M 's hill-men had run the head man 

of the opposite party right through the body with an arrow ; it 

was unknown whether it had proved fatal, and Mr. M had 

crossed the river, awaiting the result of the unfortunate affair. 
It was supposed the dakait had been on the watch for some time, 
prowUng about the place as a cowherd, and attacked the indigo- 
planter, finding him alone and far from his servants, the latter 
having proceeded with the party on the elephant. The robber 
tending the cows was serving under the orders of the darogha of 
the village, who had lent me the horses ; I was informed the 
latter was a regular dakait, and was recommended to remove my 
boats from the vicinity of his village, which, I understand, is 
fuU of robbers, and close to Dulalpiir. We returned to our 
boats ; this most disagreeable adventure made me nervous ; the 
guns and pistols were looked to, that they might be in readiness 
in case of attack ; it was late at night, and I proposed crossing 
to the other side of the Ganges ; but the manjhi assured me 
there was more to be feared from the violence of the stream, if 
we attempted to cross the river during the darkness of the night, 
than from the vicinity of the diikaits. 

7th. We breakfasted at the factory, and then, having 
mounted a fine tractable male elephant, well broken in for 



sporting, and showing very large tusks, we proceeded towards 
Gaur, visiting all the ruins en route, and shooting from the back 
of the elephant as game arose in the thick jungle and amongst 
the fine ti-ees which surrounded the tanks in every direction. 
The countiy around one of the principal ruins is remarkably 
beautifiil ; the rain stands on a rising ground, covered with the 
silk cotton tree, the date palm, and various other trees ; and 
there was a large sheet of water, covered by high jungle grass, 
rising far above the heads of the men who were on foot. 

On the clear dark purple water of a large tank floated the 
lotus in the wildest luxuriance ; over all the trees the jungle 
climbers had twisted and twined ; and the parasitical plants, with 
their red flowers, were in bunches on the branches. The white 
granite pillars in some parts of the ruin were erect, in others 
prostrate ; a number of the pillars were of black stone. 

The Mahawat, as we were going over this rain, told us, " This 
is the favourite resort of tigers, and in the month of Bysak they 
are here in considerable number ; now you may meet with one, 
but it is unlikely." My curiosity so far overcame any fear, I 
could not help looking with longing eyes into the deep jungle- 
grass, as we descended into and crossed the water, half-hoping, 
half-fearing, to see a tiger skulking along. 

The Sona Masjid, or Golden Mosque, most particularly pleased 
me ; its vastness and solidity give the sensation one experiences in 
the gloomy massive aisles of a cathedral. I will not particularly 
describe the rains, but will add a description I was allowed to 
copy, written by Mr. Chambers, an indigo-planter, who, having 
lived at Gaur for thirty-six years, has had the opportunity of 
more particularly inspecting them than was in my power. I 
brought away many of the ornamented bricks, and those glazed 
with a sort of porcelain, something like Dutch tiles. 

The gateway of the fort, with its moat below, is fine ; the 
ramparts are covered with large trees. Lying in a field beyond 
the ramparts is a tombstone of one single block of black 
marble, an enormous mass of solid marble. At 5 p.m. the 
khidmatgiirs informed us that two chakor (perdix chukar) and a 
wild duck, having been roasted in gipsy fashion under the trees, 


dinner was ready ; we seated ourselves near one of the ruins, and 
partook of refreshment with infinite glee. No sooner was it 
ended, than, remounting the elephant, we went to the ruins of a 
hunting tower : approaching it from every point, it is a beautiful 
object seen above the woods, or through the intervals between 
the trees. Akbar beautified the city, and may probably have 
built this circular tower, a column of solid masonry, within 
which winds a circular stair. At Fathlpur Sicri is a tower, 
somewhat of a similar description, built by Akbar, and used as 
a hunting tower ; people were sent forth to drive the game from 
every part towards the minar, from the top of which the emperor 
massacred his game at leisure. This tower at Gaur, much more 
beautifully situated, with a greater command of country, may 
have been used for a similar purpose. The building is on a 
larger scale, and much handsomer than the one at Fathlpur Sicrl. 

My companion mounted the hunting tower ; climbing up the 
broken stones, a feat of some difficulty, he went up to the dome, 
which is now in ruins, though its egg shape may be clearly traced. 
The view pleased him : he was anxious I should ascend ; but I was 
deterred by the difficulty of climbing up to the entrance porch, 
which is of carved black stone and very handsome. 

There is one thing to observe with relation to the buildings : 
judging from the exterior ornaments on the stones, they would 
be pronounced Muhammadan ; but, on taking out the stones, the 
other side presents Hindoo images ; as if the conquerors had 
just turned and ornamented the stones according to their own 
fashion. The Hindoo idols around Gaur have generally been 
broken ; the interior of the buildings, presenting pillars of 
massive stone, appear to me Hindoo : this point I leave to the 
learned, and rest content myself with admiring their fallen 
grandeur. The peepul tree and the banyan spring from the 
crevices, twisting their roots between the masses of stone, 
destroying the buildings with great rapidity ; the effect, never- 
theless, is so picturesque, one cannot wish the foliage to be 
destroyed. Crossing a bridge, we saw what I supposed to be 
the dry trunk of a tree ; it was a large alligator asleep on the 
edge of a morass. Mr. S fired, the ball struck him just 


below the shoulders, and from the paralyzed appearance of the 
animal must have entered the spine ; he opened his enormous 
jaws and uttered a cry of agony. A second bullet missed him ; 
he made an effort, and slipped over into the water, which became 
deeply dyed with his blood. Every tank is full of alligators. 
He sank to the bottom, and the dandees lost a meal, by them 
considered very agreeable. I roamed on the elephant until it 
was very dark, when I got into the palanquin ; one of the party 
rode by its side, and amused himself by catching fire-flies in 
his hand, and throwing them into the palkee. How beautifully 
the fire-flies flitted about over the high jungle grass that covered 
the morasses ! As they crossed before the dark foliage of the 
trees, they were seen in pecuUar brilliancy. 

In the jungle, I saw several pan gardens, carefiilly covered 
over. Pan (piper betel), a species of pepper plant, is cultivated 
for its leaves ; the vine itself is perennial, creeping, very long, 
and rooting at all the joints ; the leaves have an aromatic scent 
and pungent taste. In India, of which it is a native, it is pro- 
tected from the effect of the weather by screens made of bamboo. 
The root of the pan, called khoolinjan, as a medicine, is held in 
high estimation, and is considered an antidote to poison. 

In one of the buildings you are shown the kadam sharIf, or 
the prints of the honoured feet of the prophet ; over which 
is a silken canopy. The door is always fastened, and a pious 
Musalman claps his hands three times, and utters some holy 
words ere he ventures to cross the threshold. This ceremony 
omitted, is, they say, certain and instantaneous death to the 
impious wretch: but this penalty only attaches itself to the 
followers of the prophet, as we found no ill effect from the 
omission. In the Qanoon-e-islam the history of the kadam-i- 
rasUl, the footstep of the prophet, is said to be as follows : "As 
the prophet (the peace and blessing of God be with him !) , after 
the battle of Ohud (one of the forty or fifty battles in which the 
.prophet had been personally engaged), was one day ascending a 
hill, in a rage, by the heat of his passion the mountain softened 
into the consistence of wax, and retained, some say eighteen, 
others forty impressions of his feet. When the angel Gabriel 


(peace be unto him !) brought the divhie revelation that it did 
not become him to get angry, the prophet (the peace ! &c.) 
inquired what was the cause of this rebuke. Gabriel replied, 
' Look behind you for a moment and behold.' His excellency, 
when he perceived the impressions of his feet on the stones, 
became greatly astonished, and his wrath immediately ceased. 
Some people have these very impressions, while others make 
artificial ones to imitate them. Some people keep a qudum-e- 
russool, footstep of the prophet, or the impression of a foot on 
stone in their houses, placed in a box, and covered with a 
mahtabee or tagtee covering ; and this, they say, is the impres- 
sion of the foot of the prophet (the peace ! &c.). 

" On this day (the bara-wufat) such places are elegantly deco- 
rated. Having covered the chest with moqeish and zurbaft, 
they place the qudum-e-moobarik (blessed foot) on it, or 
deposit it in a taboot ; and place all round it beautiful moorch'- 
huls or chawn-urs ; and as at the Mohurrum festival, so now, 
they illuminate the house, have music, burn frankincense, wave 
moorch'huls over it. Five or six persons, in the manner of a 
song or murseea, repeat the mowlood, dorood Qoran, his mow- 
jeezay (or miracles) , and wafat nama (or the history of his death) ; 
the latter in Hindostanee, in order that the populace may 
comprehend it, and feel for him sympathy and sorrow." 

Some Muhammadan tombs are also shown here : the place is 
embowered in fine trees, on the branches of which are hundreds 
of monkeys flinging themselves from branch to branch in every 
direction. The fakir in charge of the kadam-i-mubarak, the 
blessed foot, asked alms ; which I promised to bestow, if he 
would bring me some of the old rupees, or any coin dug up in 
Gaur. Coins in great numbers are continually found, but the 
poor people are afraid of showing any treasure in their pos- 
session, for fear of being made to give it up to the Company. I 
was unable to procure any ; stQl I hope, through my fi"iends at 
the factory, to get a few. The silver coins are very large and 
thin. A curiosity of carved sandal -wood was shown in the 
building of the Kadam Sharif: its name I forget. 

After this long day spent in exploring the ruins, we stopped 


at the factory. Mr. S blamed us highly for having re- 
mained so late in the jungle, on account of the fever, so hkely 
to be caught after sunset. With him we found Mr. Chambers, 
also an indigo-planter, who gave me a specimen taken out of a 
casowtee stone. In boring the stone for some water in the 
factory, a portion, which appeared to consist of gold and 
silver, incorporated with the stone, fell out. The casowtee 
stone is esteemed very valuable ; its colour is black : this 
was dug up in the Rakabud Mosque at Gaur. Having thanked 
our new acquaintances for their great attention and hospitahty, 
we returned to the boats. I was much over-fatigued, and ached 
in every limb from the motion of the elephant, one accounted 
exceedingly rough. The former night the fear of robbery had 
rendered me sleepless ; that night I was so much fatigued, a 
dakait would have had hard work to awaken me. 

The country around Gaur is very open, interspersed with 
innumerable fine tanks, surrounded by large trees. The fields 
present one sheet of golden colour in every direction ; the sarson 
was in Ml flower, its yellow flowers looking so gay amidst the 
trees, the old ruins, and the sheets of water. The sarson (sina- 
pis dichotoma) is one of the species of mustard plant cultivated 
in Bengal in great quantities on account of the oil extracted 
from the seeds, which is used for burning in lamps and in 
Hindustani cookery. The bricks of which the buildings are 
composed are very small and thin, very strongly burned, and 
very heavy, united with lime alone, no mortar having been 
used with it, which accounts for the durability of the ruins, and 
the great difiiculty of detaching a brick from any part, so firm is 
the cement. 

I am told the tanks are full of alligators ; the crocodile is in 
the Ganges, but not in the tanks at Gaur ; and these fierce 
snub-nosed alligators in some tanks are quite tame, coming up 
at the call of the fakirs, and taking the offerings of living kids 
from their hands : cattle are often seized and devoured by them. 

8th. I awoke much too weary to attempt hog-hunting, 
although the elephants were attired on the bank. Close to, and 
on the right of Dulalpur, hares, black partridge, and peacocks 


were numerous. In the marshes were wild hogs in droves of 
from two to three hundred ; and little pigs squeaking and run- 
ning about were seen with several of the droves. 

The gentleman who went out on the elephant returned, 
bringing with him two large wild boars and a young hog. We 
had the tusks extracted, and gave the meat to the servants, I 
being too much a Musalmani myself to eat hogs' flesh of any 
sort or description. The Rajpiits will eat the flesh of the wild 
boar, although they abhor the flesh of domesticated swine. 

Mr. Chambers came down to the river, where he had eight 
boats containing indigo to the value of two lakh. He showed 
me some fine old casowtee stones covered with Hindoo images, 
dug up in Gaur, and gave me some specimens of the Gaur 
bricks ; the stones he is sending home to the owner of the 
factory, Lord Glenelg. From the hill-men in charge of the 
indigo boats, I procured what is used by them as a salt-box, and 
was of their own making ; merely one joint of a thick bamboo 
ciiriously carved and painted, in the hollow of which they 
carry their salt. They gave me also an arrow for bruising, 
with a head of iron like a bullet. Thus ended a most interest- 
ing visit ; and to this account I will add Mr. Chambers' descrip- 
tion of the place, copied from his manuscript. 


" The ancient city of Gaur, said to have been the capital of 
Bengal, seven himdred and fifty years before the commencement 
of the Christian era, is now an uninhabited waste. It is situated 
on the east side of the Ganges, and runs nearly in a direction 
with it from s.e. to n.n.w., about twenty-five miles below Raj- 
mahal. It lies in n. lat. 24 53', and in e. long. 88 14', and 
is supposed by Rennell to be the Gangia regia of Ptolemy. It 
has borne various names ; it was formerly called Lutchmavutee 
or Lucknowtee, as well as Gaur ; and when repaired and beauti- 
fied in 1575, by the great Akbar, who is said to have been par- 
ticularly attached to this city, it received from him the name of 
Zennuttabad, from his fancying it a kind of terrestrial Paradise. 
The extent of the city appears, from the old embankments which 


enclosed it on every side, to have been ten miles long and two 
miles broad. These banks were sufficiently capable of guarding 
it from floods during the rising of the Granges, when the rest of 
the country was inundated, as well as defending the place from 
an enemy, as there are mounds of ecirth from thirty to forty 
feet in height, and from one to two hundred feet broad at 
the base, the removal of the earth forming deep broad ditches 
on the outside of the banks. Some of these embankments 
were defended by brickwork. On the outside, the city has two 
embankments two hundred feet wide, running parallel to each 
other, at five hundred and eighty feet asunder, probably for 
greater security against a large lake to the eeistward, which in 
strong weather drives with great violence against it during the 
season of the inundations. The principal passes through these 
banks to the city had gateways, two of which, one at the south 
end, and the other at the north end, are still standing, and the 
remains of others that have been destroyed are visible. The 
suburbs extended (there being sufficient vestiges of them to be 
traced) at least to a distance of four miles from each of those 
gates. Two grand roads led through the whole length of the 
city, raised with earth and paved with bricks, terminating with 
the gate at the south end. Where drains and canals intersected 
the roads, are the remains of bridges built over them. 

" The buildings and mosques must have been very numerous ; 
the rubbish and stones of which still left, point out the places 
where they stood. The two called golden mosques, and the 
Nuttee Musjeed, are doubtless the best buildings of that kind. 

"In the midst of the city stood a fort, nearly square, and ex- 
tending about a mile on every side, which had a bank or rampart 
forty feet high : there is a wall now remaining nearly a quarter 
of a mile in extent, and in some places between seventy and 
eighty feet in height, which smrounds a space many feet long 
and wide, parted into three divisions, and is supposed to have 
surrounded the king's palace. The gates leading to the fort, 
and another to Shah Husain's tomb are partly left, but covered 
with trees, and as frill of bats and reptiles as the ditches are of 


"The whole of this extensive boundary, including the fort 
and city, contains innumerable tanks and ponds of various sizes. 
The Saugur-dighee tank is a mUe in length, by half a mile in 
breadth ; three or four others, with this, are the best and largest 
cisterns of water in the place. 

" At one of the tanks the Musselmiins make offerings to the 
alligators, which has made them so tame, they come to the 
shore and take away what is offered. 

" The following observations on the ruins which still remain 
sufficiently entire, commence with the great 


" This noble building appears to stand nearly in the centre 
of this ancient capital. It is built of brick, but is ornamented 
on all sides with a kind of black porphyry stone. This mosque 
appears to have been surrounded with a wall, which, on the east 
side of the building, formed a court about three hundred feet in 
length and two hundred and fifty in breadth. The mosque itself 
formed a building one hundred and seventy feet in length from 
north to south, and one hundred and thirty in breadth. These 
dimensions are easily ascertained, as the north and south doors 
of the mosque, which mark its length, remain entire, and the 
breadth is easily computed from the one range and the ruins of 
the rest which yet remain. Its height within is about sixty feet, 
but it is probable that the spires of its lofty domes rose to the 
height of one hundred feet from the ground. Its internal struc- 
ture presents a singular appearance. Its breadth is divided into 
six ranges resembling the aisles of a church. These aisles are 
in breadth twelve feet ; and as they extend the whole length of 
the building from north to south, they are somewhat better than 
a hundred and fifty feet in length. 

"The six walls which once divided them and supported the 
roof were eight feet in thickness, built of brick, and covered 
with black porphyry to a considerable height. These ranges of 
aisles are not formed of solid masonry ; each of them is inter- 
sected by eleven openings from east to west, of somewhat more 
than six feet in breadth. This, in reality, divided the wall 


which supports the roof of each range into twelve massy 
columns of eight feet square, so that the whole building con- 
tained seventy-two of these columns, eight feet both in length 
and breadth, of which the six outer ones on the two sides north 
and south adhering to the outside wall, left sixty within to sup- 
port the roof. These rows of columns closed over each aisle, 
and thus formed six semicircular roofs, covering and extending 
the whole length of each aisle. It was, however, only that part 
furnished by each column which formed the arches of these six 
semi circular roofs ; the eleven spaces which intersect each 
range, were formed above into domes about eleven feet in dia- 
meter within, and terminating in a point without. Of these 
six ranges or aisles, only one, that on the east side, is now entire, 
although traces of the other five are still visible. Of the domes 
in this range, the roofs of five are entire ; those of two more are 
merely open at the top ; in three more the roof has entirely 
fallen in ; and the roofs on the rest having half fallen, seem to 
threaten the spectator with instant destruction, should any part 
of the mouldering ruin fall whilst he is walking underneath. 

" The outward walls are nine feet in thickness. They are 
built of small bricks, extremely hard, and with excellent cement. 
The whole building seems to have suffered far less from depre- 
dation than from the numerous shrubs and trees which grow 
upon it, and which, insinuating their roots into the breaches 
of the walls, threaten the whole with unavoidable and speedy 

" Proceeding about a mile distant from the above-mentioned 
mosque, there is a large 


" which stands alone, completely separate from any other 
building. It is supposed to have been erected for an obser- 
vatory, or for the sake of calling the inhabitants to the regular 
performance of their daily devotions. It contains four stories, with 
a staircase within. The first storv, about twelve feet from the 
ground, must be entered by a ladder. The wall is marked by 
many small windows placed over each other in a perpendicular 


line. The top is now completely open, but appears to have 
been formerly surmounted by a dome. On the wall within is 
discerned the vestiges of numerous former visitors, and their 
initials cut in the stones with the date annexed. Many of these 
names were identified : directing attention to the most ancient, to 
discover, if possible, how long this has been the resort of European 
visitors, we traced ' W. Harwood, April 17th, 1771 ;' ' G. Grey, 
1772 ;' ' I. Henchman ;' ' G. W. ;' ' H. C. ;' and many others : 
inspecting more narrowly the initials ' M. V., 1683,' are deci- 
phered. This was the remotest date ascertained : this reaches 
into the middle of the famous Aurunzebe's reign, and it may 
easily be supposed that the place had fallen into decay at least a 
hundred and eighty years, if not more. Who this European tra- 
veller could have been is a matter of conjecture ; but it is agi'eed 
that he was some gentleman from Holland or Portugal. This 
date, if Gaur had fallen into decay previous to his visit, might 
ascertain the time of its having been abandoned. 

" If the Emperor of Delhi, Akbar, who was contemporary 
with our Elizabeth, repaired and beautified it, the period between 
this visit and the meridian glory of Gaur could not have been 
more than ninety years. 

*' The height of the upper story from the ground is seventy- 
one feet. When to this is added the height of the cupola, &c., 
it seems probable that one hundred feet was the original height 
of the building. The diameter of the area in the upper story is 
precisely ten feet : as the extreme diameter at the bottom is only 
twenty-one feet, if the thickness of the two walls is reckoned 
at about three and a half, the extreme diameter of the upper 
story will be seventeen feet, so that in a height of seventy 
feet, its diameter has lessened little more than three feet, a cir- 
cumstance which reflects the highest credit both on the archi- 
tect and the materials of the building, as it has resisted the 
strongest hurricanes for so many hundred years. The steps of 
the staircase, which remain entire, are about fifty, but in many 
instances the intermediate ones are worn away. The windows 
are formed of black porphyry, which appears to have been 
intended for support as well as ornament, as the stones about 


two feet in length and one in breadth, and nearly a foot in 
thickness, support each other by means of tenons formed in the 
stone itself; and they, in several instances, stand firm, although 
the brickwork has fallen from them, whilst they are really 
firm ; however, they assume so threatening an aspect from their 
appearing loose, that the visitor is almost afraid of being crushed 
beneath them. 

"To the southward, about half a mile beyond the obelisk, 
is the 


" by some Europeans termed the China mosque, from the bricks 
of which it is built being ornamented with various colours. This 
building, however, has nothing of the mosque beyond some 
little resemblance in its external appearance, nor is there any 
thing within it corresponding with the internal appearance of the 
great Golden Mosque ; it appears evidently intended for purposes 
of amusement. It is the most entire of any structure now 
remaining at Gaur. Its extreme length from east to west is 
about seventy-two feet, its breadth about fifty-four feet, and its 
height about seventy feet. The outer walls, nine feet in thick- 
ness, are formed of bricks, extremely small, not exceeding four 
inches in length, three in breadth, and one inch and a half in 
thickness ; but these bricks are so well made, and the cement is 
so firm, that the building has almost the solidity of stone. The 
surface of these bricks is painted and glazed, yellow, white, 
green, and blue in alternate succession ; and the whole appears 
to have been finished with a neatness approaching to finery. 
The east, the north, and the south sides have three doors, 
forming nine in the whole ; on the west side it is closed. The 
arch of the middle door on each side is about eleven feet in 
height, the other two about nine feet high. The breadth is 
somewhat about six feet. On entering the east door, a par- 
tition wall presents itself, forming a space twelve feet in extent, 
and the whole breadth of the building. This marks the east as 
having been the front entrance, as this formed a kind of porch 
to the vestibule, in which probably servants remained. 


"The space within this forms a beautiful room, about thirty-six 
feet square, the four walls closing above, and forming a majestic 
dome. The height of this spacious room we had no means of 
ascertaining exactly, but, from its appearance, it may be from 
forty to fifty feet. So spacious and lofty a room, without a 
pillar, beam, or rafter, is a real curiosity ; and when the antiquity 
of the building, the smallness of the bricks which compose it, 
and its present high state of preservation are considered, it seems 
evident that the art of building, as far as durability is con- 
sidered, was far better understood in Bengal formerly than is 
indicated now by any modern edifice in the metropolis of India. 
Are European science and skill completely distanced by the 
former knowledge of a nation deemed only half-civilized ? 


formed the southern boundary of the city ; its majestic arch still 
remains, it is thirty-five feet wide ; on each side is a piece of 
masonry sixty feet square, and in height nearly equal to the 
outside of the arch surmounting the gateway, which is some- 
what better than sixty feet. The masonry is united both on 
the east and west side by a rampart of earth, which is also 
sixty feet high, and is covered with trees of various kinds. 
This rampart, however, would have formed but a feeble defence 
against an army of Europeans, whatever it might have been 
esteemed against an Indian army. 

" Many mosques, and the remains of old buildings, as well as a 
great number of fine stone pillars which once supported splendid 
edifices, are to be seen entangled by jungle and high grass, com- 
pletely covered up in some places, and in other places prostrate, 
the foundations having been excavated for bricks and stones. 
The towns of Malda, Rajmahal, and Moorshadabad have been 
supphed with building materials from Gaur, which to this day 
are continually carried to the populous adjacent towns and 
villages, to build native dwellings. 

" In passing through so large an extent of that which was once 
a scene of human grandeur, nothing presents itself but these 
few remains; trees and grass now fill up the space, giving 


shelter to a variety of wild creatures ; buffaloes, deer, wild hogs, 
monkeys, peacocks, and the common fowl, now become wild ; 
the roar of the tiger, the cry of the peacock, the howls of the 
jackals, with the company of bats and troublesome insects, 
soon become familiar to those inhabiting the neighbourhood." 

Extracts from an old work on India. 

'India was first discovered by the Portuguese in 1497, at 
which time, and even at the commencement of the reign of the 
Emperor Akbar, in 1556, Gaur was a flourishing city.' 

From the History of Portuguese Asia. 

' Gaur, the principal city in Bengal, is seated on the banks of 
the Ganges, three leagues in length, containing 1 ,200,000 fami- 
lies, and well fortified. Along the streets, which are wide and 
straight, rows of trees shade the people, who are so very 
numerous, that sometimes many are trodden to death.' 

" To the contemplative mind, what a striking example must a 
review of Gaur present of the uncertain state of sublunary 

' The Ruins of Gaur," with eighteen coloured plates, was 
published in 1817, in one volume quarto, from the manuscript 
and sketches of the late H. Creighton, Esq. ; it is a sccu*ce and 
interesting work. 



Toll at Jungipur Bengalee Women Palace of the Nawab of Moorshadabad 
Mor-pankhi Snake Boats Casim Bazar Berhampur Cintra Oranges 
Cutwa Cloth Cuba The Timber Raft Chandar-nagar Shola Floats 
The Hoogly Chinsurah Barrukpur Serampur Corn Mills The Ship- 
ping Chandpaul Ghat River Fakirs M. le General Allard Assam Leaf 
Insect The Races Kali Ma'i Dwarkanath Tagore The Foot of a 
Chinese Lady Quitted Calcutta The Steamer and Flat The Sunderbands 
Mud Islands Tigers The Woodcutters Kaloo-rayii Settlements Culna 
Commercolly Rajmahal Monghir Coolness of a Native Pleasures of 
Welcome The Vaccine Department The Gaja Raja performs Pooja as a 
Fakir The Eclipse The Plague The Lottery Conversations in the 
Zenana The Autograph Delicacy of Native Ladies Death of the King 
of Oude The Padshah Begam Moonajah The King's Uncle raised to the 

1836, Dec. 9th. Arrived at Jungipur, where a toll was levied 
of six rupees on my bajra, usually called budjerow,and two rupees 
on the cook boat, a tax for keeping open a deep channel in the 
river. During the hour we anchored there, and the servants were 
on shore for provisions, I was much amused watching the women 
bathing ; they wade into the stream, wash their dresses, and put 
them on again all wet, as they stand in the water ; wash their 
hair and their bodies, retaining all the time some part of their 
drapery, which assumes the most classical appearance. They wear 
their hair fastened behind in the Grecian fashion, large silver 
nose-rings, a great number of white ivory churees (bracelets) on 
their arms, with a pair of very large silver bangles on the wrists, 

VOL. 11. H 


and massive ornaments of silver on their ankles ; their drapery 
white, with, perhaps, an edge of some gay colour ; bright brass 
vessels for water (giigri) , or of porous red earthenware (gharii) , 
in which they carry back the river water to their dweUings. 
Having bathed, they repeat their prayers, with their hands palm 
to palm raised to their faces, and turning in pooja to particular 
points. After sipping the water a certain number of times, 
taking it up in their hands, they trip away in their wet drapery, 
which dries as they walk. The skin of the women in Bengal is 
of a better tinge than that of the up-country women ; they are 
small, well-formed, and particularly graceful in their movements. 

lOth. The BhaugruttI, as you approach Moorshadabad, is 
remarkably picturesque, and presents a thousand views that 
would make beautiful sketches. At this moment we are passing 
the Nawab's residence, or rather the palace that is building for 
him ; it is situated on the side of the river, which presents 
a beautiful expanse of water, covered with vessels of all sorts 
and sizes, of the most oriental and picturesque form. A fine 
breeze is blowing, and the vessels on every side, and all around 
me, are in every sort of picturesque and beautiful position. 
The palace, which is almost quite completed, is a noble building,' 
an enormous and grand mass of architecture, reared under the 
superintendence of Colonel Macleod. 

The mor-pankhi, a kind of pleasure boat, with the long neck 
and head of a peacock, most richly gilt and painted, and the 
snake boats, used on days of festival, are fairy-like, picturesque, 
fanciful, and very singular. Pinnaces for hire are here in numbers. 
The merchant-boats built at this place are of peculiar and beau- 
tiful form, as if the builder had studied both effect and swiftness ; 
the small boats, over which rafts are fastened to float down 
wood ; the fishermen's little vessels, that appear almost too 
small and fragile to support the men, and which fly along im- 
pelled only by one oar ; the well-wooded banks, the mosques, 
and the mut'hs (Hindoo temples), mixed with curiously built 
native houses ; all unite in forming a scene of peculiar beauty. 
Kasim bazar adjoins Moorshadabad ; both are famous for silk of 
every sort. In the evening we anchored at Berhampur ; the 


budgerow was instantly crowded with people, bringing carved 
ivory toys, chess-men, elephants, &c., for sale, and silk mer- 
chants, with handkerchiefs and Berhampiir silk in abundance ; 
all asking more than double the price they intended to take. 
Four more dandees having deserted, I have been obliged to apply 
to the Judge Sahib to procure other men. 

The most delicious oranges have been procured here, the 
rinds fine and thin, the flavour excellent ; the natives call them 
"cintra;" most likely they were introduced by the Portuguese. 
The station extends along the side of the river, which is well 
banked, and offers a cool and refreshing evening walk to the 
residents. I was tempted to buy some of the carved ivory 
chess-men, an elephant, &c., all very cheap, and well carved in 
good ivory ; nor could I resist some silk nets for the horses. 

I2th. At Cutwa cotton cloth was offered for sale ; I bought 
some, but the purchase gave more trouble than the cloth 
was worth. The men asked eighteen sicca-rupees for each 
piece of eighteen yards, and took eleven Furrukhabad rupees ; 
the mosquito curtains, for which they asked five rupees each, 
they sold for three. 

\4th. Arrived at Culna, to which place the tide comes up. 
Here we anchored, to buy charcoal and clarified butter for my own 
consumption, and rice for the dandees. We have passed a great 
many timber rafts that are floating down to Calcutta, with 
wood, for sale ; the timber is cut in the hills. The stems of 
two large trees are lashed across a boat, and, passing over the 
sides to a considerable distance, support a number of trees, 
which float on the water, fastened along both sides of the boat ; 
on the boat itself is a thatched shed. On each raft are two 
hill-men, their black bodies and heads completely shaved ; with 
no clothing but a bit of cloth passed between the limbs, and 
supported by a string tied round the waist. They have a wild 
look as they row with their bamboo oars the unwieldy rafts,' 
three or four of which are fastened together ; a picture in itself 
is the wild and strange-looking timber raft. A small canoe, 
hollowed out of a single tree, is always the accompaniment to 
a raft ; I saw four men in a canoe of this sort crossing the river ; 



one man steered by using an oar, while the other three, by 
leaning forward, made use of their hands alone as paddles ; you 
may therefore imagine how narrow the boat was, when a man 
could use a hand at each side at the same time in the water, to 
paddle her forward. The men were laughing and shouting most 
happily. They cut the timber in the hills, and come down 
with it for scarcely any payment, merely just enough to feed 

When the boats have delivered their wood in Calcutta, they 
take up one boat, and put it into another, and in this way the 
double boats return to the hills ; for this reason two men alone 
come with one boat down the stream, but in returning, more 
men are required to track against it ; the two boats being put 
one on the other, the four men suffice to take them back 

1 5th. This evening we anchored at Chandar-nagar, the town 
of Chandar, the moon, commonly called Chander-nagore, and 
took a walk to see a Bengalee temple, which looked well 
from the river. The building consisted of a temple in the 
centre, containing an image of the goddess Kali, and five 
smaller temples on each side, each containing an image of 
Mahadeo ; a little further on were two images, gaily dressed in 
tarnished silk and tinsel ; the one a female figure, Unapurna, 
the other Mahadeo, as a Bairagi or religious mendicant. The 
village was pretty. I stopped at a fisherman's, to look at the 
curiously-shaped floats he used for his very large and heavy 
fishing nets ; each float was formed of eight pieces of shola, 
tied together by the ends, the four smaller within the four 
larger. When this light and spongy pith is wetted, it can be 
cut into thin layers, which, pasted together, are formed into 
hats ; Chinese paper appears to be made of the same material. 
The banks of the river, the whole distance from Hoogly to 
Chinsurah and Chandar-nagar, presents a view of fine houses, 
situated in good gardens, and interspersed with the dwellings of 
the natives. There is a church at Chandar-nagar, where there are 
also cantonments ; and the grand dep6t for the wood from the 
up-country rafts appears to be at this place; the river-side was 


completely covered with timber for some distance. The natives 
were amusing themselves as we passed, sending up small fire 
balloons, and brilliantly blue sky rockets. 

The view is beautiful at Barrackpur; the fine trees of the 
park stretching along the side of the river ; the bright green 
turf that slopes gently down to the water ; the number of 
handsome houses, with their lawns and gardens ; the Govern- 
ment-house and the buildings around it, stuccoed to resemble 
white stone ; the handsome verandahs which surround the 
houses, supported by pillars ; and the great number of boats 
gliding about, render it peculiarly pleasing. 

In front, on the opposite side of the river, is the Danish 
settlement of Serampur ; its houses, which are large and hand- 
some, are two or three stories high. We are floating gently 
down with the tide ; I can scarcely write, the scenery attracts 
me so much, the Bengalee mandaps (places of worship) close 
to the water, the fine trees of every description, and the pretty 
stone ghats. We have just passed a ruined ghiit, situated in the 
midst of fine old trees ; at the top of the flight of steps are the 
ruins of two Hindoo temples of picturesque form ; an old 
peepul tree overshadows them ; its twisted roots are exposed, 
the earth having been washed away during the rains. A number 
of women are bathing, others carrying water away in gharas 
poised on their heads : the men take it away in water vessels, 
which are hung to either end of a split bamboo, called a 
bahangi, which is carried balanced on the shoulder. We fly 
past the objects with the ebbing tide ; what an infinity of beauty 
there is in all the native boats ! could my pencil do justice to 
the scenery, how valuable would be m.y sketch-book ! 

The Governor-General, Lord Auckland, lives partly in Calcutta, 
and partly at the Government-house at Barrackpur. At Cassi- 
pur is the house of the agent for gunpowder, its white pillars 
half-hidden by fine trees. At Chitpore is a high, red, Birming- 
ham-looking, long-chimnied building, with another in the same 
style near it ; the high chimneys of the latter emitting a dark 
volume of smoke, such as one only sees in this country pouring 
from the black funnel of a steamer : corn is here ground in 


the English fashion, and oil extracted from divers seeds. The 
establishment cost a great sum of money, and I think I have 
heard it has failed, owing to each native family in India grinding 
their own com, in the old original fashion of one flat circular 
mill-stone over another, called a chakkl. 

From this point I first caught a view of the shipping off 
Calcutta : for ten years I had not beheld an EngUsh vessel : 
how it made me long for a glimpse of all the dear ones in 
England ! "The desire of the garden never leaves the heart of 
the nightingale'." 

Passing through the different vessels that crowd the Hoogly 
off Calcutta, gave me great pleasure ; the fine merchant-ships, 
the gay, well-trimmed American vessels, the grotesque forms of 
the Arab ships, the Chinese vessels with an eye on each side 
the bows to enable the vessel to see her way across the deep 
waters, the native vessels in all their fanciful and picturesque 
forms, the pleasure-boats of private gentlemen, the beautiful 
private residences in Chowringhee, the Government-house, the 
crowds of people, and vehicles of all descriptions, both European 
and Asiatic, form a scene of beauty of which I know not the 

We anchored at Chandpaul ghat, amidst a crowd of vessels. 
The river-beggars fly about in the very smallest little boats in 
the world, paddled by one tiny oar : a little flag is stuck up in 
the boat, and on a mat at the bottom, spread to receive offerings, 
is a collection of copper coins, rice and cowries, thrown by the 
pious or the charitable to these fakirs ; who, if fame belie them 
not, are rascals. " A gooroo at home, but a beggar abroad ^" 
I forgive them the sin of rascality, for their picturesque appear- 
ance ; the gifts they received were very humble. " A kuoree 
is a gold mohur to a pauper \" 

There not being room that night for" our party at Spence's 

hotel, I was forced to sleep on board the budjerow, off Chand- 

' paul ghat. What a wretched night it was ! The heat was 

intolerable. I could not open a window because the budjerows 

Oriental Proverbs, No. 114. ' Ibid. No. 115. ' Ibid. No. 116. 

MONSIEUR LE g:6nral allard. 103 

on either side were jammed against mine : the heat, the noise, 
the mooring and unmooring, according to the state of the tide, 
rendered it miserable work. I wished to anchor lower down, 
but the answer was, " Budjerows must anchor here ; it is the 
Lord Sahib's hukm (order)." 

\7th. I took possession of apartments in Spence's hotel: 
they were good and well furnished. Since I quitted Calcutta, a 
great improvement has taken place : a road has been opened 
from the Government-house to Garden Reach, by the side of 
the river ; the drive is well watered, the esplanade crowded with 
carriages, and the view of the shipping beautiful. 

M. le General Allard, who had just returned from France, 
and was in Calcutta en route to rejoin Runjeet Singh, called on 
me ; he is the most picturesque person imaginable ; his long 
forked beard, divided in the centre, hangs down on either side 
his face ; at dinner-time he passes one end of his beard over 
one ear, and the other end over the other ear. The General, who 
was a most agreeable person, regretted he had not seen me when 
he passed Allahabad, but illness had prevented his calling and 
dehvering, in person, the bows and arrows entrusted to his charge. 

I was much deUghted with the General : he asked me to visit 
Lahore, an invitation I told him I would accept with great 
pleasure, should I ever visit the Hills, and he promised to send 
an escort for me. The General took with him to Europe some 
fine jewels, emeralds, and other valuable stones ; he brought 
them back to India, as they were of less value in Europe than 
in the East. 

I could have remained contentedly at the hotel myself, but 
my up-country servants complained there was no comfort 
for them ; therefore I took a small house in Chowringhee, and 
removed into it the furniture from the budjerow. It was com- 
fortable also to have my horses, which had arrived, in the 

Went to a ball given in the English style by a rich Benga- 
lee Baboo, Rustam-jee Cowsajee. The Misses Eden were there, 
which the Baboo ought to have thought a very great honour. 

1837, Jan. 1st. Mr. H arrived from Assam, suffering 


from the effects of one of the terrific fevers of that country : 
he brought me a leaf insect, a great curiosity. 

5th. Made my salam at the Government-house, as in duty 

9th. The first day of the races: drove to the stand at 
seven a.m., through a deep, white, thick fog, so usual in the 
early morning in Calcutta, which did my sore throat and cold 
no good. 

llth. The second day of the races; the Auckland Cup was 
to be given to the winner. The cup was of silver, the design 
remarkable, and very beautiful. It was sketched by Miss Eden, 
and executed in good style by Messrs. Pittar and Co., jewellers, 
in Calcutta. The winning horse came in well : twenty yards 
beyond the post, as the jockey attempted to pull him up, the 
horse dropped and died instantly. The cup was awarded to the 
dead horse. It was a piteous sight. 

\5th. Accompanied Mr. W and a party over his racing 

stables : the sight of the racers all ready for the contest in the 
morning was pleasing. We then visited a number of imported 
English and Cape horses that were for sale. 

In the evening I drove to see the far-famed Bengalee idol, 
Kali Ma'i, to which, in former times, human sacrifices were 
publicly offered ; and to which, in the present day, and in spite 
of the vigilance of the magistrate, I believe, at times, a human 
being is offered up ; some poor wretch who has no one likely 
to make inquiries about him. The temple is at Kali Ghat, 
about two miles from Calcutta. The idol is a great black stone 
cut into the figui'e of an enormous woman, with a large head 
and staring eyes ; her tongue hangs out of her mouth, a great 
broad tongue, down to her breast. The figure is disgusting. I 
gave the attendant priests a rupee for having shown me their 
idol, which they offered with all reverence to Kali Ma'i. The 
instruments with which, at one stroke, the priest severs the 
head of the victim from the trunk are remarkable. 

\6th. A cup of silver, given by a rich Bengalee, Dwarkanath 
Tagore, was run for : the cup was elaborately worked, and the 
workmanship good ; but the design was in the excess of bad 


taste, and such as only a Baboo would have approved. It was 
won by Absentee, one of the horses I had seen in the stable the 
day before, contrary to the calculation of all the knowing ones 
in Calcutta. 

17 th. The inhabitants of Calcutta gave a ball to the Miss 
Edens. I was too ill to attend. 

30th. Dined with an old friend at Alipur, some two miles 
from Calcutta. The coachman being unable to see his way 
across the maidan (plain), stopped. The sa'Tses, who were 
trying to find out where they were, ran directly against the walls 
of the hospital ; the fog was so dense and white, you could not 
see a yard before you ; it made my cough most painful, and the 
carriage was two hours returning two miles. 

Feb. 4th. I spent the day at the Asiatic Society. A model 
of the foot of a Chinese lady in the collection is a curiosity, and 
a most disgusting deformity. The toes are crushed up under 
the foot, so as to render the person perfectly lame : this is a 
less expensive mode of keeping a woman confined to the house, 
than having guards and a zenana the principle is the same. 

Having bid adieu to my friends in Calcutta, I prepared to 
return to Allahabad, and took a passage in the Jellinghy flat. 
The servants went up the river in a large baggage boat, with the 
stores, wine, and furniture. I did not insure the boat, insurance 
being very high, and the time of the year favourable. The 
horses marched up the country. 

March 6th. I went on board the JeUinghy flat, estabhshed 
myself and my ayha in a good cabin, and found myself, for the 
first time, located in a steamer. She quitted Calcutta in the 
evening, and as we passed Garden Reach, the view of handsome 
houses in well-wooded grounds, which extend along the banks of 
the river, was beautiful. The water being too shallow at this 
time of the year for the passage of the steamer up the BhaugruttI, 
or the Jellinghy, she was obliged to go round by the sunderbands ' 
(sindhu-bandh). The steamer herself is not the vessel in which 
the passengers live ; attached to, and towed by her, is a vessel as 
large as the steamer herself, called a flat, built expressly to 
convey passengers and Government treasure. It is divided into 


cabins, with one large cabin in the centre, in which the passen- 
gers dine together. 

7th. We quitted the Hoogly and anchored in the sunder- 
bands. The sunderbands is a large tract of low muddy land, 
covered with short thick jungle and dwarf trees. It is an assem- 
blage of islands, the tides flowing between them. A more 
solitary desolate tract I never beheld. We anchored where 
three streams met, flowing in from between these low mud 
islands. When the tide turned in the middle of the night, the 
steamer swung round on the flat with a crash ; several times 
the two vessels were entangled in this manner; the steamer 
drove in one of the cabin windows, and it was some time ere 
every thing was right again. Exposed to the power of the 
three streams, she was never quiet, never at rest : the children 
cried, the ducks did not like to be killed, and the vessels were 
wrestling together for hours an unquiet night. 

Sth. The mud islands are under water at high tide. At this 
moment we are passing through a very narrow passage ; on 
each side the thick, low, impenetrable jungle comes down to 
the water's edge. Not a tree of any size to be seen ; not a 
vessel, not an animal. During the whole of this day I have 
only seen two paddy birds, and one deer. The thick jungle is 
full of tigers ; so much so, that the Hindoos on board are not 
allowed to go on shore to cook their food on that account. 
Going along with the tide in our favour, the swiftness of the 
steamer is terrific ; the velocity with which we pass the banks 
makes me giddy. We have just passed a spot on which an oar 
is stuck up on end. The captain of the flat pointed it out to 
me as a sign that a native had been carried off" at that spot by a 
tiger. It is the custom to leave an oar to point out the spot, 
or to stick up a bamboo with a flag attached to it as in 
Cathohc countries a cross is erected on the spot where a murder 
has been committed. 

- " Kaloo-rayu is a form of Shivu : the image is that of a yellow 
man sitting on a tiger, holding in his right hand an arrow, and 
in his left a bow. A few of the lower orders set up clay images 
of this god, in straw hoxises, and worship them at pleasure. 


The wood-cutters in the eastern, western, and southern forests 
of Bengal, in order to obtain protection from wild beasts, adopt 
a peculiar mode of worshipping this idol. The head boatman 
raises elevations of earth, three or four inches high, and about 
three feet square, upon which he places balls of clay, painted 
red ; and, amongst other ceremonies, offers rice, flowers, fruits, 
and the water of the Ganges carried from the river Hoogly, 
keeping a fast : the god then directs him in a dream where to 
cut wood free from danger. There is no authority for this 
worship in the shastriis. Diikshina-rayu is another god, wor- 
shipped in the same manner, and by the same class of persons '." 
9^^. Last night two boats full of woodcutters passed us ; 
they said several of their men had been carried off by tigers. 
We have only overtaken four boats all this time in the sunder- 
bands. During the hot weather people dare not come through 
this place ; fevers are caught from the malaria : at the present 
time of the year it is safe enough. There are no inhabitants in 
these parts, the people finding it impossible to live here. We 
have a very pleasant party on board, most of whom are going 
to Allahabad. The vessel is a good one ; the accommodation 
good, the food also. It is very expensive, but as it saves one 
a dak trip this hot weather, or a two or three months' voyage 
in a country vessel, it is more agreeable. The heat in these vile 
sunderbands is very great ; during the day, quite oppressive; when 
we enter the Ganges we shall find it cooler. As we were 
emerging from the sunderbands and nearing the river, the banks 
presented a scene which must resemble the back settlements in 
America. Before this time we had scarcely met with a good- 
sized tree. Here the trees partook of the nature of forest : 
some people were burning the forest, and had made a settlement. 
Barley was growing in small portions, and there were several 
dwarf cows. The scene was peculiar ; a little bank of mud was 
raised to prevent the overflow of the tide ; the stumps of the 
burned and blackened trees remained standing, with the excep- 
tion of where they had been rooted out, and a paddy field 

' Ward, on the Religion of the Hindoos. 


formed. Places for look out erected on high poles were numer- 
ous, and thatched over: there a man could sit and watch all 
night, lest a tiger should make his appearance. There were a 
few miserable huts for the men, no women were to be seen ; 
nothing could be more primitive and more wretched than these 
young settlements in the sunderbands. On the morning of the 
10th we quitted this vile place, and anchored at Culna to take 
in a fresh supply of coals. 

\2th. We arrived at CommercoUy ; anchored close to the 
bank, to take in more coal : it was very oppressive, but the 
evening was beautiful ; the sky studded with stars, and the new 
moon just visible. I sat on deck enjoying the coolness : we 
anchored very late, not until it was impossible to see the proper 
course to steer on the river. We had at last gained the Ganges. 

I3th. Passed a great number of boats that were out fishing, 
and ran over one of them containing four men, three were 
picked up immediately, the fourth passed under the steamer, 
from her bows to her stern ; he was taken up exhausted, but 
uninjured. Some of the passengers are playing at chess, others 
reading novels ; some asleep, some pacing the deck under the 
awning, edl striving to find something wherewith to amuse 

I4th. We arrived off Gaur; I looked with pleasure on its 
woods in the distance, recalled to mind the pleasant days I had 
passed there, and thought of the well-oiled dakait who had 
called on me as his grandmother to save him. It was just at 
this place that coming down the river we turned to the right, 
and went a short cut down the BhaugruttI, instead of pursuing 
the course of the Ganges. A prize this day fell to my share in 
a lottery, in Calcutta, of a silver vase enamelled in gold ; but 
more of this lottery hereafter. 

1 6th. I got up early and went on shore at Rajmahal, roamed 
in the bamboo jungle and amongst the ruins, until the ringing 
of the bell on board the steamer announced the coals were on 
board, and the vessel ready to start. Of all the trees in India, 
perhaps the bans, bamboo, is the most useful, as well as the 
most graceful. What can be more picturesque, more beautiful 


than a clump of bamboos? From Calcutta to Allahabad, the 
common route by the river is eight hundred miles ; round by the 
sunderbands the distance is nearly eleven hundred. 

\8th. Passed the Janghiera rock, and anchored at Monghir: 
bought lathis, that is, solid bamboos, walking-sticks, sixty for 
the rupee. The male bamboo is solid, the female hollow. I 
bought them for the use of the beaters when M. mon mari goes 
out shooting. 

20th. The strong westerly wind sent the fine sand from the 
banks in clouds all over the vessel, filUng the eyes and ears most 

25th. Anchored at Benares : the steamer started again at 
8 A.M. ; the view of the ghats as we passed was beautiful ; the 
number of persons bathing, their diversified and brilliantly 
coloured dresses, rendered the scene one of great interest and 

26th. Passed Chunar ; the place had lost much of the 
beauty it displayed during the rains. A khidmatgiir fell over- 
board, passed under the vessel from head to stern, and was' 
picked up by the boat just as he was on the point of sinking. 
The skin was torn off the old man's scalp ; he received no 
further injury. The next day, to my astonishment, he was in 
attendance on his master at dinner-time, and seemed to think 
nothing of having been scalped by the steamer ! 

27th. Received fruit and vegetables from an old friend at 
Mirzapore. I am weary of the voyage, the heat for the last few 
days has been so oppressive : very gladly shall I return to the 
quiet and coolness of my own home. Aground several times 
on sandbanks. 

29th. Started early, and arrived within sight of the Fort ; 
were again fixed on a sandbank ; the river is very shallow at 
this time of the year. With the greatest difficulty we reached 
the ghat on the Jumna, near the Masjid, and were glad to find 
ourselves at the end of the voyage. My husband came down 
to receive and welcome me, and drive me home. The great 
dog Nero nearly tore me to pieces in his delight. Her Highness 
the Baiza Ba'i sent her people down to the ghat to make 


salam on my landing, to welcome and congratulate me on my 
return, and to say she wished to see me. 

It was pleasant to be thus warmly received, and to find my- 
self once more in my cool and comfortable home on the banks 
of the Jurana-jee after all the heat and fatigue of the voyage. 

The Brija Bii'i, one of the Mahratta ladies, was delighted to 
see me once again, and performed a certain sort of blessing 
called balaiya lena, or taking all another's evils on one's self; 
which ceremony she performed by drawing her hands over my 
head, and cracking her fingers on her own temples, in token of 
taking all my misfortunes upon herself. This mode of blessing 
I have many times seen performed both by men and women, 
our dependents and servants, both towards my husband and 
myself, on our bestowing any particular benefit upon them ; it 
expressed the depth of their gratitude. 

April 6th. The small-pox is making great ravages ; some of 
our friends have fallen victims. Lord WilUam Bentinck did 
away with the vaccine department, to save a few rupees ; from 
which economy many have lost their lives. It is a dreadful 
illness, the small-pox in this country. People are in a fright 
respecting the plague; they say it is at Palee, and has ap- 
proached the borders of the Company's territories ; we have 
fevers, cholera, and deadly illnesses enough, without the plague ; 
it is to be trusted that will not be added to the evils of this 

The Palee plague, they say, after all, is not the genuine thing : 
it has not as yet entered our territories ; however, the Govern- 
ment of Agra have very wisely adopted preventive measures, 
and have established boards of health, cordons, and quarantine, 
with the usual measures as to fumigations and disinfectants. 
It would be really too bad to give this stranger a playground, 
in addition to our old friends fever and cholera, already 

I5th. The first time of using the thermantidote was this 
morning : how delightful was the stream of cool air it sent into 
the hot room ! how grateful is the coolness and darkness of the 
house, in contrast to the heat and glare on the river ! 


I5th. This day is the anniversary of the birthday of the Gaja 
Raja Sahib, and she has sent me an invitation to accompany her 
to the Triveni, the sacred junction of the rivers, to see her per- 
form a vow, made for her by her mother. The young Princess 
from her birth was very sickly, and the mother, fearing the death 
of her infant, vowed to Mahadeo that if the god would preserve 
her life, she should do pooja as a fakir, at the shrine, on each 
anniversary of her natal day. The time having arrived, the young 
Mahratta Princess will perform the vow in the evening. How 
much I regret I am unable to attend ; unfortunately illness pre- 
vents my quitting the house. Picture to yourself the extraor- 
dinary scene. The young Princess doing pooja before the shrine 
of Mahadeo, a descent on earth of Shivii the destroyer. Her 
delicate form covered from head to foot with a mixture of ashes 
and Ganges mud ; her long black hair matted with the same, 
and bound round her head like a turban ; her attire the skin of a 
tiger ; her necklace of human bones, a rosary in her hand, and 
a human skull for an alms-dish, a religious mendicant ; or 
making discordant music on a sort of double-headed hand- 
drum used by fakirs, and wandering about within the canvas 
walls of the zenana tent like a maniac ! The skull borne by 
religious mendicants is to represent that of Briimha. Shivu, 
in a quarrel, cut off one of Briimha's five heads, and made an 
alms-dish of it. As the Gaja Riija appeared as a rehgious 
mendicant, the form in which the lord of the Bhootus appeared 
on earth, I hope some of the ladies represented the latter, a 
number of whom always attended Shivii. The Bhootiis are 
beings partly in human shape, though some of them have the 
faces of horses, others of camels, others of monkeys, &c. ; 
some have the bodies of horses, and the faces of men ; some 
have one leg, and some two ; some have only one ear, and 
others only one eye. They would have made charming attend- 
ants on the little Princess, who, wrapped in a tiger's skin, and 
wandering like a maniac, performed, before the shrine of 
Mahadeo, the vow made in her name by her mother at her 
birth ! 

The Hon. Miss Frances Eden has been with a party at 


Moorshadabad, tiger shooting ; they had indifferent sport, and 
only killed five tigers, one of which had the happiness of dying 
before the eyes of the fair lady. They have returned to Cal- 
cutta. It must have been warm work in the jungles after the 
tigers ; but when one has an object in view, one is apt to forget 
the power of an Indian sun, until a good fever reminds one of 
the danger of exposure. 

2\st. Last night, at midnight, the moon was completely 
eclipsed, and darkness fell over the land. The natives are 
horror-struck ; they say it foretels sickness, disease, and death 
to a dreadful extent. It is not unlikely their fears may be 
verified : the plague is raging at Palee ; it is expected it will 
spread ere long to the Company's territories. Then, indeed, 
will the natives believe in the direful presages of the eclipse, 
forgetting the plague was the forerunner not the follower of the 
signs of wrath in the heavens. Sir Charles Metcalfe has issued 
all necessary orders to prevent the intercourse of persons from 
the infected cities, with those of the surrounding country. The 
small-pox is carrying off the young and the healthy ; in every 
part of the country you hear of its fatal effects. 

The Brija Bii'i, one of the favourite attendants on the Balza 
Ba'I, came to see me ; I showed her a prize I had won in a 
lottery at Calcutta ; a silver vase beautifully enamelled in gold, 
value 40. She was much pleased with it, and anxious to 
procure tickets in the next lottery for mechanical curiosities. 

22nd. The Baiza Ba'i sent to me to say she had put into a 
lottery, and feared, having only taken seven tickets, she might 
not gain a prize, and her people would say she was unlucky. 
Therefore, to avert the evil of being called an unlucky person, 
she wished to procure the whole of the tickets which remained 
unsold. I tried to persuade her that she had tickets in abund- 
ance ; nevertheless she sent for thirty more. How curiously 
superstitious the natives are ! She is as much pleased as a child 
at this little bit of gambUng for mechanical curiosities and 

24th. The Brija came to request I would visit the camp 
to show them how to use a magic-lantern ; I did so, but it 


was a failure, being dim and indistinct. In the course of con- 
versation, wishing to remember a circumstance related by one of 
the ladies in attendance, I noted it in my pocket-book, on a 
little slate of white china. Her Highness, who observed the 
action, asked for the pocket-book, examined it, admired the 
delicately white china, and asking for a pencil wrote her own 
name upon it. She appeared surprised at my being able to read 
and write, accomplishments possessed by herself, but uncommon 
among the Mahratta ladies, who are seldom able to attain them, 
it being the system of eastern nations to keep their women in 
ignorance, imagining it gives them greater power over them. 
They are taught to consider it unfit for ladies of rank, and that 
it ought to be done for them by their writers and munshls ; 
nevertheless, they were proud of the accomplishments possessed 
by the Baiza Ba'I. 

Her Highness returned me the pocket-book, which I received 
with pleasure, and value highly for the sake of the autograph, 
of which, in the plate entitled "The Kharlta," the writing on 
the right-hand side is a fac-simile. 

All the needlework is done by women in the zenana : to 
allow a tailor to make your attire would be considered indelicate, 
and their clothes are never allowed to be shown to men, lest 
they should thus be able to judge of the form of the lady purda- 
nishln, i. e. behind the curtain. Imagine the disgust an Asiatic 
lady would feel if placed in Regent Street, on beholding figures 
displayed in shop windows, intended to represent English ladies 
in corsets, bustles, and under petticoats, turning round on poles, 
displaying for the laughter and criticism of the men the whole 
curious and extraordinary arcana of the toilet of an European ! 

May 5th. The Biiiza Ba'I was unable to get the thirty 
tickets she sent for in the lottery ; eighteen were all that were 
unsold, and these were taken by her. She wcis very fortunate, and 
won two prizes ; one was an ornament in diamonds attached to 
a necklace of two strings of pearls, and a pair of diamond ear- 
rings, valued at 2000 rupees, i. e. 200 ; the second a clock, 
valued at 400 rupees, 40 : my own ticket proved a blank. 
The clock is placed on a rock in the picture, on which are trees, 

VOL. 11. . I, 


a town, and a fort. In front is the sea, on which float a three- 
decker and a cutter, which roll upon the waves moved by- 
mechanism. The Mahrattas were charmed with it : it is a good 
specimen, but they will spoil it in a month. 

Copy from a native Akhbar {Court Newspaper). 

July 7th. "The King of Oude, Nusseer-ood-Deen Hydur, 
died this morning ; he had been unwell for some days, but not 
very ill : he took some medicine, and expired almost immediately, 
not without some suspicion of having been poisoned. Colonel 
Lowe, the Resident, went to the palace, and was proceeding to 
place the late King's uncle on the throne, by name Nusseer- 
ood-Deen, when the Padshah Begam, the late King's mother, 
attended by fifteen hundred soldiers and two elephants, came 
to the palace, bringing a boy whom she vowed was the late 
King's son, with the intention of putting him on the throne. 
Finding the palace-gates shut, she ordered them to be burst 
open by the elephants, entered, placed the boy Moona Jah 
(Feredooa Buckht) on the throne, and desired the Resi- 
dent to do him homage. In the mean time. Colonel Lowe 
had sent for the troops ; on their arrival, he insisted on the 
Begam's quitting the palace ; this she would not do. The troops 
were ordered to dislodge her party. The Begam and Moona Jiih 
were taken prisoners, and sent under a guard to Cawnpore. 
The soldiers were dispersed, with the loss of about sixty lives 
on the Begam's side, and two or three sepoys on the Company's. 
Mr. Paton, Assistant to the Resident, was much hurt in 
the affray. Colonel Lowe placed the King's uncle on the 
throne, and proclaimed him King of Oude. It is said the 
throne was plundered of its jewels to a great amount, and much 
treasure was carried off" by different persons ; some of which 
was recaptured a few miles from the city. Since the arrival of 
the Padshah Begam and the boy at Cawnpore, every thing has 
been quiet in Lucnow ; she is to be sent a state prisoner to 
Chunar. It is believed the boy is not the late King's son, but 
was made a tool of for the purposes of the Begam." 

By referring to Chapter the Eighteenth it will be observed, that, 


on the 30th January, 1831, Khema Jah and Moona Jah were 
presented with khil'ats (dresses of honour) by his Majesty, who 
declared the former to be his heir, and both of them his sons ; 
the latter, the Moona Jah, now en route to prison, alone was 
believed to be the son of the King. It is rumoured that his 
Majesty disowned the boys in the hope that his lately-acquired 
wife, Kurchia-Mahal, as he styled her, might present him with 
a son, whom he might raise to the throne. Moona Jah remained 
at Chunar until his death in 1846. The King's uncle, Muham- 
mad Ulee Shah, an old man, was placed on the masnad ; and 
Mossem-ood-Dowla, the grandson of Ghazee-ood-Deen Hydur, 
and son of his daughter, was deprived of his inheritance. 
(See the pedigree of the Kings of Oude, Chapter the Eighteenth, 
page 186.) 

I 2 



Festival of the Birthday of Krishnii The Ras The Rakhi Krishnu or 
Kaniya Sports of the GopTs The Elephant The Horse Gopalu GopT 
Nat'hiiRadha Krishnii Krishnii destroying the Serpent Monotony of Life 
in India The Holy Monkey Sporting in Assam Buffalo Shooting Tiger 
Hunting on Foot The Baghmars The Spring-bow An Earthquake Risk 
of Life in the Bhagmar Department The Burying-Ground at Goalparah. 

1837, Aug. ^The first few days in this month we were blessed 
with cooling and heavy rain. On the 6th, the annual festival of 
the Jenem, or birthday, and the sports of Krishnu, the Baiza Ba'i 
invited me to the camp : on my arrival I found her Highness 
seated under a large mango tree ; from one of its boughs a swing 
was suspended, in which the Gaja Raja and another lady were 
amusing themselves. This festival, in celebration of the sports 
of the most popular of the Hindoo deities, was held in all due 
form by the Mahrattas ; it took place by torch-light, in the cool 
of the evening. In the forests on the banks of the Yamuna 
Krishnu passed his time, playing on the flute, swinging under 
the trees, dancing, and sporting with the gopls. The young 
Princess was therefore amusing herself in the swing as a necessary 
ceremony ; after which, some sixty or eighty Mahratta women 
came forward, and performed several dances sacred to the 
season, singing as they moved on the turf, in a circular dance 
called the ras, in imitation of the gopis ; and the " Songs of 
Govinda," as addressed by Kaniya to Radha and her com- 
panions, were rehearsed at this festival, with a scenic represen- 

THE RAKHI. 1 1 7 

tation of Kaniya and the gopis. "The Ustener could not 
depart after once hearing the sound of the flute, and the tinkling 
of the gopias' feet ; nor could the birds stir a wing ; while the 
pupils of the gopias' eyes all turned towards Creeshna." 

Her Highness presented a rich dress of yellow silk, em- 
broidered with gold, and a pair of Indian shawls of the same 
colour, to the Gaja Raja, and to many of the ladies in attend- 
ance ; yellow being the favourite and distinguishing colour of the 
attire of the beloved of the gopls. On the arms of the young 
Mahratta Princess and another lady, the rakhl was bound at the 
desire of the Biiiza Ba'i ; the rakhi is also commemorative of 
Krishnii : the gift is esteemed a high honour, and the mark of 
the greatest favour. The value of so distinguished an honour 
may be better estimated by the following extract from Colonel 
Tod's " Annals of Mewar." 

" The festival of the bracelet (rakhl) is in spring; and what- 
ever its origin, it is one of the few when an intercourse of 
gallantry of the most delicate nature is established between the 
fair sex and the cavaliers of Rajast'han. Though the bracelet 
may be sent by maidens, it is only on occasions of urgent 
necessity or danger. The Rajpiit dame bestows with the rakhi 
the title of adopted brother ; and while its acceptance secures 
to her all the protection of a ' cavalier e servente,' scandal itself 
never suggests any other tie to his devotion. He may hazard 
his life in her cause, and yet never receive a smile in reward ; 
for he cannot even see the fair object, who, as brother of her 
adoption, has constituted him her defender. But there is a 
charm in the mystery of such a connexion never endangered by 
close observation, and the loyal to the fair may well attach a 
value to the public recognition of being the Rakhi-bund Bha'e, 
the ' bracelet-bound brother' of a Princess. The intrinsic value 
of such a pledge is never looked to, nor is it requisite that it 
should be costly, though it varies with the means and rank of 
the donor, and may be of flock silk and spangles, or gold chains 
and gems. The acceptance of the pledge and its return is by 
the katchli or corset of simple silk or satin, or gold brocade and 
pearls. In shape or appUcation there is nothing similar in 


Europe, and, as defending the most delicate part of the structure 
of the fair, it is peculiarly appropriate as an emblem of 

The rakhi is not exclusively bestowed upon men ; a woman 
may be distinguished by the honour, and would be pubhcly 
acknowledged and considered as the " bracelet-bound sister" of 
the donor. 

The evening closed with the performances of some Mahratta 
niich girls, after which I was allowed to depart, having first 
partaken of some sweetmeats, which they presented to me with 
a jar of dahi (curdled milk) ; the latter was excellent, and usually 
presented at this festival as the favourite food of the gopls. I 
returned home late at night, accompanied as usual by the 
horsemen and torch-bearers of the Biiiza Ba'I. 

I have many idols, images of Krishnti, in divers forms ; a 
description of which, with a sketch of his life, will be the best 
explanation of the scenes commemorated at the festival. He 
has many names, Krishnii, Heri, Kaniya, and is worshipped 
under many forms ; the idols represent this popular god through 
many of the events of his life. 


Vishnu the Preserver descended on earth in the form of this 
god, for the purpose of bringing peace and happiness to all the 
world. Krishnii is the most celebrated form of Vishnu, or, 
rather, Vishnu himself; and is distinct from the ten avatars or 
incarnations. Many of the Hindii gods govern their worshippers 
by fear ; the dread of the vengeance of the deity ensures 
obedience. Krishnii is the god of love and good-will : to bless 
mankind caused his descent from heaven ; and after many 
years' sojourn upon earth for that holy purpose, he suddenly 

Such was his power over the affections, that no woman ever 
beheld Kaniyii-jee, but she left home and husband and children, 
and followed him throughout the world ; no eye gazed upon 
him that loved him not ; and to this day, the beautiful, warlike. 


and amorous Krishnii is the most popular deity, and especially 
revered by Hindustani women. 

His parents were Vasudeva and Dewarki ; but he was brought 
up in the house of Nanda and Gosodii. In his infant days his 
life was sought : to preserve the child, and to conceal him from 
the tyrant Kansa, to whom it had been predicted that a child, 
the eighth of his family, would destroy him, his uncle fled with 
him to the banks of the Jumna : the pursuers were at his heels, 
escape was impossible ; the infant god commanded the waters 
to open a passage for him ; the waters heard and obeyed the 
command, they stood like a wall on the right side and on the 
left ; Krishnu was carried across by his relative ; on reaching 
the opposite bank, the waters flowed on as before, and cut off" 
the pursuit of his enemies. 

The city of Mathura is celebrated as the birth-place of 
Krishnu. In the family of Nanda he passed his youth amidst 
the gopas and gopls. During his childhood he vanquished the 
serpent Kaliya, and slew many giants and monsters : afterwards 
he put the tyrant Kansa to death, and kindled the maha-biirat 
or Great War. He is the Apollo of the Hindus, and is sup- 
posed by Colonel Wilford to have lived about thirteen hundred 
years before Christ. Krishnu is a terrestrial god, and is repre- 
sented by the image in black marble that stands on the right of 
Ganesh, in the frontispiece of the first volume ; I procured it at 
Allahabad during the great fair ; it came from Jeypore. The 
Hindoo deity is represented playing on the flute, an amusement 
to which he was prone when in the forests, surrounded by the 
gopls or milkmaids, who were his ardent admirers and followers ; 
amongst them he had 16,000 lady-loves, besides his lawful 
wives. The Hindoo code allows of two helpmates, but the laws 
of man extend not to the gods, and Krishnu took unto himself 
eight wives, each of whom bore him ten sons ; also Radha, the 
beloved, the wife of another, to say nothing of the 16,000 
gopis, each of whom also bore him ten sons. Nevertheless, 
it is asserted, his life was one of purity, and whatever may tend 
to give contrary ideas on the subject is all mdyd or illusion. 

The Bhagavat Purana gives the following: "In this happy 


season did Creeshna bestow joy and satisfaction on all living 
creatures, and often as he touched his flute in the presence of 
the adoring gopias, one exclaimed, ' Happy animals, inhabiting 
Berjeben, who enjoy the sight of Creeshna!' Another said, 
' O favoured stream of Jumna, and other transparent pools and 
fountains, whence Creeshna deigns to drink !' Another ex- 
claimed, ' Melodious above all is the flute which resides for ever 
on his lip ! ' Another said, ' O happy trees of this wood, under 
whose thick shade Creeshna delights to slumber !' Another said, 
' Honoured above all existing animals are these cattle which 
the Creator himself leads to pasture ! ' Thus did the gopias 
plunge into the fathomless ocean of love, and admire him 
who had on a yellow robe, a peacock's feather on his head, 
a brilliant rosary round his neck, and a flute on his lip ; 
and they said to each other, ' How happy are we whom he 
condescends to love!' In short, by their purity of faith, and 
zeal of attachment, their hearts at length became illuminated, 
and they knew and comprehended that Creeshna was the 
Creator of the World." 

The Bhagavat Purana gives this personal description : " He 
(Akroon) saw also, standing by him, more distinctly, the form 
of Creeshna, of a black colour, wearing a yellow robe, beautiful 
to behold ; with ruby lips, his neck smooth as white coral, his 
arms very long and slender, his breast high and bold, his waist 
of elegant proportion, his legs beautiful beyond expression, his 
foot like the lotus flower, and his nails red. He had a jewel of 
inestimable value in his crown, a chowder round his waist, a 
zennar upon his shoulder, a string of flowers round his neck, a 
splendid koondel in his ear, the kowstek-men on his arm, and 
the shankhe, chakra, geda, and kemel, in his hands." 

The work containing the history of this god is very interest- 
ing : some of the songs are beautiful, especially those in honour 
of him who, to the Hindus, brought peace and happiness upon 
earth. In many respects the history is thought by Maurice, in 
his "Indian Antiquities," to resemble that of our Saviour; 
on which subject more will be said as we consider another form 
of Krishnu, as the destroyer of the serpent. 



The dreadful shell panchajanya, of the great shankhe, or shell- 
fish, whose roar re-echoed from earth to heaven, was used by 
Krishnii as his trumpet. 

So devoted were the gopis to Krishnii the beloved, that if he 
wished to ride an elephant, the lovely ladies, with most extra- 
ordinary dexterity, assumed the shape of the animal and bore 
him off in triumph. The frontispiece to the second volume, 
entitled " Kaniya-jee and the Gopia," is a fac-simile of an old 
Hindoo painting commemorative of this feat : the style in 
which the figures are grouped is very clever, and does much 
credit to the artist ; the original is as highly finished as a minia- 
ture painting. The chatr, the emblem of royalty, is borne over 
his head ; peacock's feathers form the ornament for his fore- 
head ; and in his hand is the ankus (the elephant goad) and a 
lotus flower. The gopis carry with them their musical instru- 
ments ; they are adorned with jewels, and the tail of the animal 
shows the beauty and length of their hair. 

The second plate of Kaniya-jee represents the victorious 
Heri on a steed formed of the gopTs, bounding and capering 
beneath their precious burden, while their musical instruments 
and songs enliven his triumphal career. This is also a fac- 
simile of an old Hindoo painting, finished with wonderful 
delicacy and minuteness. 

I have a third painting, Krishnu, represented in a palanquin 
formed of the gopis, in which the arrangement and grouping of 
the sportive damsels is graceful and elegant. At the festival of 
the Huh, which is particularly dedicated to Kaniyii, images of 
the god are carried about on elephants, on horses, and in palan- 
quins, doubtless in commemoration of his sports with the 
gopis ; in fact, there was no end to their fooleries and diver- 
sions at Brindaban, the forest Brinda in the vicinity of Mathura 
on the banks of the Jumna. Krishnu is always represented of 
a dark cerulean blue colour (nila), hence his name Nila-nath, 
and he bears a lotus in his hand. Under the title of Heri, in 
funeral lamentations, his name only is invoked, and Heri-bol ! 
Heri-bol ! is emphatically pronounced by those bearing a corpse 
to its final destination. 



This small brazen idol, fig. 4 in the plate entitled " Jugun- 
nathu," represents him in his childhood, kneeling on one knee, 
and holding a pera, sweetmeat, in his right hand, while he 
petitions his mother, saying, " Ma, ma, mitha'i, do ;" " Mother, 
mother, give me sweetmeats." In this form he is worshipped 
as gao, a cow, and palii, nourished. These brazen images are 
particularly in favour, and some, being small and well made, are 
used as household gods. Sometimes the head of Gopalu is 
surrounded with a crown of glory, as in the sketch ; and in 
drawings, the head of Krishnii is generally represented encircled 
by rays. 

GOPi nat'hu. 

This form represents him peculiarly as the god of the gopls. 
GopT, the wife of a cowherd, and Nat'hii, a lord ; a young man 
dancing amongst the wives of the cowherds, the 16,000 gopls, 
who ever attended him, and were the companions of his 


Of all his numerous loves and wives, none had power over his 
affections equal to Radha, a gopi, whom he carried off from 
her husband. So great was her influence, that in puja the pre- 
ference is given to her, and the two images are worshipped 
together as " Radha Krishn," and not as Krishn Radha. 

The figure represents the god playing on his flute ; and, at his 
side, the image of Radha, which has one hand extended, and the 
other turned downwards. Their affection has passed into a 
proverb: " Apne Radha ko yad ker'." As Krishnii always 
thought of Radha, so they say, "Attend to your own Radha," 
either in anger or laughingly. The shrine of Radha Krishn has 
many worshippers ; but it is remarkable that none of the lawful 
wives of Krishnu are worshipped with him. 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 49. 


Another figure of Kaniya-jee in my possession, represents him 
under a tree playing on his flute ; at the back is one of the 
cows of the sacred herd, whom Krishnii attended, for by caste 
he was a gaowalla, or cowherd. 

Of all the images in my collection the most remarkable is a 
brazen one, in which this god is represented killing a serpent 
by crushing it with his foot. The Hindoos affirm there is 
enmity between the serpent and Krishnu. His having his foot 
on the head of the cobra di capello, which is evident from the 
expanded hood, is singular, as few Hindoos would kill the holy 
serpent. This similarity between the Saviour and Krishnii is 
considered by Maurice as worthy of remark. 

A sketch of this idol is given, fig. 3, in the plate entitled 
" Jugunnathu," where, as the destroyer of Kali-nag, " The black 
serpent," which infested the blue waters of the Yamuna or 
Jumna, he is represented as bruising him with his foot. He 
had, however, many battles with his adversary ere he conquered 

The following extract is very poetical : " One day, in 
Dwaraka, which is a second Vaicontha, Creeshna was enjoying 
himself with his relations, and sons, and grand-children, and his 
16,000 wives, and all his wealth: his elephants, his horses, his 
carriages without number, were arranged in order. In the 
midst of his golden castle extended his apartments on all the 
four sides. His gardens were of golden earth, wherein were 
trees of Paradise full of variegated fruits. Peacocks, and 
cocelas (Indian nightingales), and other birds, were sporting 
therein. Creeshna, on that day, was surrounded by his 16,000 
wives, as lightning with a cloud, and they gathered innumerable 
flowers as offerings to Creeshna, hke the Devatas presenting 
flowers to Eendra ; and, in all the licence of joy, they and 
Creeshna were sporting together, and throwing flowers at each 
other. In the garden was a river, whose banks were all gold 
and jewels, the water of which, from the reflections of rubies, 
appeared red, though perfectly white ; it was the imter of life ; 
and thousands of lotuses floated on its surface, among which 
innumerable bees were humming and seeking their food. In 


this river they bathed and played, Creeshna always in the midst 
of them. At length, in the very height of all their revels and 
enjoyments, he suddenly disappeared ! His principal wives, 
which were the eight nayega, remained for some time in pro- 
found astonishment : then they all burst out into the most 
passionate exclamations, crying, ' Whither is he gone ? ' One 
demanded of the birds if they had seen him, wondering they 
could sing until he returned. Another asked of the four-footed 
beasts why they made such loud moanings, as if Creeshna had 
left and deceived them too. One addressed the sea, ' Thou 
ocean ! who art night and day roaring, hath not Creeshna taken 
thy fourteen reten, or precious things, also, as well as our 
hearts, and is it not therefore thou grievest ? ' Another ad- 
dressed the moon, ' O thou lord of the stars ! why dost not 
thou draw on the w^orld the veil of darkness ? Art thou not 
affected by his absence ? at which every one must be heartless, 
like us wretched creatures, who know not what is our fault to 
be thus forgotten and forsaken.' Another spake to the passing 
clouds, ' Ye, too, are impressed with the colour and figure 
of Creeshna ; and, as he has taken his departure, so ye also are 
ever on the wing ; and ye, like us mourning for his absence, 
overspread every quarter with gloom.'" 

In the chapter entitled Jugunnathu will be found an account 
of the death of Krishnu, and the effect it produced upon the 
eight nayega and the 16,000 gopls. 

I5th. A heavy flight of locusts passed over Allahabad ; 
some were caught and preserved. Why should I keep a 
journal ? there is nothing to relate in the monotony of an 
Indian life at home. The weary heavy day, the hot and sleep- 
less night, the excessive heat of the weather, the relaxation of 
the body, the heaviness of mind, the want of interest in every 
thing, the necessity of a colder air and colder climate to restring 
nerves that are suffering from fifteen years' residence in India ; 
all this I feel most strongly, and must either return to England 
or go to the bilk to recruit my weary frame. There is a great 
deal of pfija going on in the camp ; the Ba'i wishes me to see 
the tamasha, but I am too unwell for exertion. 


The only monkey I ever saw in my life that I did not think 

disgusting was one which Mr. H brought from Assam. A 

little fellow perfectly jet black, with white eyebrows a curiosity. 
His master went up dak to Agra, leaving the monkey, baggage, 
and servants to follow in a boat. The monkey was provided 
with foiu- goats to furnish him with milk on the voyage ; and 
some tea and sugar, as it was his custom to take tea every 
morning. In a storm the boat went down : the khidmatgar in 
charge of it said, " I saved the monkey and my children with 
difficulty : what would the master have said had Jackoo been 
drowned? " Poor Jackoo's four goats were drowned, and with 
him the khidmatgar called on me at Allahabad to assist in pro- 
curing others. How could a monkey exist without milk to his 
tea? His beauty attracted great admiration. He was a high caste 
and most holy monkey. Coming down the river from Assam, he 
used to sit on the mast-head leaning on his hand. The natives 
followed the boat for miles making salam to him. I believe the 
creature came from the Garrows : some are black, others of a 
cream colour. They are most affectionate animals, leaving their 
food to caress one. They hang for great part of the day by their 
long arms from a bough or a bamboo running crossways. 

Besides these monkeys the Garrow Hills possess many 
curiosities ; birds, plants, &c. Amongst the birds is a pheasant 
of a grey colour, covered over with eyes like those on the pea- 
cock's tail, but smaller : it is very beautiful. 


Alluding to that part of the country induces me to insert 
extracts from some letters dated from Goalparah, giving an 
account of buffalo shooting and sporting in that part of the 

" This letter is taken up with Shikiir in obedience to your 
wishes. You have at heart a large share of the hunting prin- 
ciple, supposed to characterize mankind in a wild state. I have 
seen you in your excursion at Gaur, very anxious where the 
covert had a likely look, and so attentive when the game was 
started as not to be conscious of the thunder and lightning of 


the pestilent gun, which is such an object of horror in your 
hours of ease. I recall these recollections as an excuse to 
myself for making a long story of a late shooting excursion. 

" In the dawn of last Friday morning nine buffaloes were dis- 
covered in the river making for our hill, two were killed in the 
water by villagers in boats, and three on shore by the men of the 
detachment ; the remaining four took to the conical rising ground, 
at the southern extremity of our ridge, which is uninhabited, 
and covered with low tree and shrub jungle ; a few trees a little 
larger rise through this undergrowth, and form the pathway that 
surrounds the cone, the finest peepul I have ever seen. This 
pathway branches off" at the point, where the cone, or rather the 
detached hill, begins to rise from the main ridge, going entirely 
round it at the height of about four hundred feet above the level 
of the river. My havaldar, who took upon himself the ordering 
of the hunt, sent five men with muskets round by the left to esta- 
blish themselves in the high trees that look into the jungle 

supposed to contain the bufialoes. A Mr. F and myself, 

with three or four sepoys and the havaldar, all with guns, pro- 
ceeded by the right to some rocks, where, in perfect safety, we 
commanded the road, at the back of the hill, by which it was 
expected the buffaloes would arrive when dislodged by the left- 
hand party. After some time in this post, in a hot sun, it was 
a clear day, and 2 p.m., we heard a shot from the party on the 
other side of the hill ; and then, after an interval, two more ; we 
looked eagerly for the buffaloes along the pathway, but still they 

did not come ; and Mr. F getting tired, descended from 

our place of safety on the rocks, and proposed going round to 
where the shots were fired. As it was possible that the men in 
the trees might mistake us for buffaloes, I told a sepoy to call 
out that we were coming. I advanced a little way and saw two, 
one large, the other a calf; they were standing, and about to 
turn to go away. I aimed my large gun at the head of the 
calf and fired, without effect ; I turned round to exchange my 
large gun for the double barrel that was loaded, when 1 found 
that, except my orderly, who only carried powder and ball, 
and the hovildar who was a little way beyond him, every 


one had fled. The havaldar passed on the call for my double 
gun, and the man who held it put it into my hand in time ; for 
the two buffaloes I had seen, either irritated by my dogs, or 
alarmed by the party in their rear, made a dash down the road, 
the large one leading, with its head at the charge near the 
ground, and snorting at the dogs that were flying before it. 
When I changed my gun the head brute was not eight feet from 
me : firing both barrels in a hurry and flurry, I jumped down 
to the right into the jungle ; it was the affair of a moment, and 
my dexterity in escape, like Falstaff's at Gads-hill, was upon 
instinct. When I looked along the road in the line of the 
charge, I perceived it was completely cleared ; all within sight 
had made the same jump as myself the orderly, a little behind 
me, the havaldar about ten yards further back ; the former had 
a loaded gun, and told me afterwards, that he had not fired 
because my sacred person happened to be in a line with the 
buffaloes, a civility for which I felt thankful. The men from the 
trees had killed an old buffalo, which I found lying across the 
road, another still remained in the jungle near the top of the 
conical hill. I began to ascend through wet shrubs and over 
slippery ground ; when half-way up I was joined by Mr. F- 

who said he had run for our post on the rock the instant he 
heard the buffaloes, and only gained it just in time to see them 
pass by : blood was flowing from the shoulder of the leading 
one ; he himself fired without any effect. We now gained the 
top of the hill on which there is an open spot, overgrown with 
a coarse jungle grass used in thatching ; a small house had 
formerly stood upon the place, and the jungle grass probably 
sprung up from grass-seed fallen from the chhappar ; the thatched 
roof. The sepoys, except two with my guns, and my orderly, 
whom I trusted, owing to his late steadiness, to hand me my 
double gun, took to the trees, and Mr. F followed their ex- 
ample. The men on foot began beating the bushes, directed by 
the corps of observation in the trees. At length a full-grown 
buffalo emerged from the surrounding jungle, and stood before 
me on the open space. Instantly every tree opened its fire ; a 
single grazing shot was the only result ; this appeared to decide 


him, lowering his horns to the charge (to speak poetically) , his 
hoofs swallowed up the space between us ; at my feet was the 
least possible swell of the ground, and as he reached it I stopped 
him in mid career. A ball from my large gun had entered his 
head, between the horns, a little to the right as facing me, 
a httle to the left as regarded himself. He fell at about six 
feet from me. 

" You must now never mention Mr. B 's exploit, since an 

ordinary mortal has done as much ; for my part, I see little 
cause of fear from buffaloes. In the cold weather, the usual 
shooting season, they are only found in large plains, and no 
person with a trustworthy gun has an excuse for failing to kill 
in such a situation, where he must have long notice of the 
charge. Nothing in Friday's experience (not man Friday's) will 
deter me from going after very large-horned old ones, or the 
young calves, whose heads make excellent soups and stews. 
The manner in which I got my gun, and the haste I was obUged 
to make in firing, account for my not killing the leading buffaloes 
in the road. If they had meditated malice, instead of only 
making a rush to get away, I might have been in a jeopardy. 
These two buffaloes were brought in during the day by the 
sepoys, and all the personages of my story the nine buffaloes 
are, you see, accounted for ; and the tragedy might be repre- 
sented on the stage, if nothing but the unities of time and place 
were requisite." 


" A tiger having taken refuge in our hill, I was anxious 
to beat him up ; the sepoys being eager to join me I told the 
men the hunt was quite optional, and that the volunteer party 
might take as many muskets as they pleased. We started at 
1 P.M., and soon fell in with his immense footprints, taking the 
direction of the untenanted and jungly hill. A curious sort of 
feeling is suggested by following traces of this kind, that are 
to abut you know not how soon upon the grim precursor ; going 
on is like being caught in the rapid leading to a cataract. We 
were stationed at the old post of vantage on the rocks, the 


sepoys began beating from the opposite part of the hill ; a man 
in a tree communicated that the tiger was roused, and our 
expectation of his coming towards us was for a time intense. 
Keeping to the jungle of the hill above the pathway, he turned 
back in the direction from which we had come, and avoided the 
line of beaters. We quitted the rocks, and placed ourselves in 
the pathway beyond the part of the jungle the tiger had taken 
to, and the beating by the men bringing round the left of the 
line recommenced towards us. Scarcely a minute seemed to 
have elapsed before we heard an ugh-ugh from the tiger, though 
we were in ignorance at the time it was the roar with which he 
accompanied his spring on one of the sepoys, for at that time 
we got no sight of the tiger ; but the news of a man being 
knocked down soon reached us, and a sepoy carried him down 
upon his back ; a few scratches were visible on the shoulders, 
but the extent of the principal injury, which was on the head, 
was concealed by the turban, almost completely stained with 

" I heard afterwards that he was a-head of the others, 
crouching down, and looking into the jungle grass on the top of 
the hill, at the edge of the tree jungle, for traces of the tiger, 
when the animal sprung on him from behind, lighting with his 
fore-paws on his shoulders ; and that the wounds inflicted on 
the scalp were from a bite, the teeth luckily slipping over the 
surface of the skull. Mr. M and I took a more advan- 
tageous position on the slope of the rising ground, facing the 
conical hill, and at about sixty yards from the place where we 
afterwards saw the tiger emerge. An havaldar put himself at 
the head of those men who had brought guns, and continued 
the hunt, much incensed against the tiger ; he at length exposed 

his whole flank at about sixty yards to Mr. M and 

myself. Mr. M fired a little before me, and striking the 

tiger, caused him to turn round and escape the heavier bullet 
from my gun. The havaldar shortly after shot him again a 

little in front of the hip ; Mr. M 's shot was behind the 

shoulder. We left the tiger for that day ; the next evening we 
beat the whole hill, but he was not to be found ; probably he 



was dead, for an unusual collection of crows, vultures, and 
adjutants perching or flying very low, seemed to give token of 
his death. The wounded sepoy is doing very well ; and the 
present of some rupees has made him consider himself a lucky 


The following extract must not be omitted, since it elucidates 
the sketch of "The Spring-bow," vol. ii. p. 73. 

" I must tell you of a tiger that Lieutenant M and I 

went out to kill, and only succeeded in wounding. Some days 
ago, a cow was killed on this our hill of Goalpara, and tigers' 
footprints were in beautiful freshness and preservation on the 
footpath around that remote conical hill that has been before 
mentioned. Captain Davidson's assistant got two elephants for 
beating the jungle, and with a number of sepoys with muskets, 
I went out again, and did what was most prudent, by remaining 
on some rocks to receive the tiger when he should clear the 
jungle, and be driven towards me. The jungle was beat, but no 
tiger appeared, and the sepoys, getting tired of waiting, went 
into the jungle to beat instead of the elephants ; as this was 
really dangerous I advised them against it, but uselessly ; they 
seemed quite unconcerned, and to think it an affair of luck. I 
told the httle havaldar, who is a leader on these occasions, that 
the tiger would kill him ; he said, ' Yes, he would if I were to let 
him ;' and this was not the least the bravado it would have been 
in the mouth of an European, but the man's plain meaning. It 
is his opinion of the tiger that he is a beast possessed of great 
hikmat, cunning, but little heart or liver ; and if you oppose him 
resolutely, like the devil he will flee from you. The beaters went 
cutting down the jungle and shouting ; and, to put you out of 
suspense, no tiger was found, though the edges of his footprints 
were still fresh and crumbling. 

" The enterprize of bringing in the tiger was resigned to some 
bhagmar people, professional tiger-killers, a party of whom 
happened to be in Goalpara, for the purpose of receiving pay- 
ment for heads they had collected. 


" Have you ever seen the bow they set for tigers ' ? It is laid 
on one side the animal's track, and is of stronger and rather 
larger proportions than a bahangi bamboo ; the joint force of two 
or three men draws the string back when the arrow is to be set ; 
the poisoned head of the arrow, which is carried separate, is 
fitted on, and a piece of very thin twine laid from the bow 
across the animal's path ; the least touch on this string dis- 
charges the arrow in the same line with deadly precision. This 
bow was laid the night after our battue, and the next morning, 
about 9 A.M., I got the news that the tiger was lying dead upon 
the hill-side, and a number of prisoners were about to carry it to 
Captain Davidson's ; from him it was brought to me. It was a 
fine female, killed with its dinner of cow, and without any 
wound but that which killed it ; good proof that it was not the 
tiger we saw, who was twice wounded, as was shown by heavy 
clots of blood fallen on leaves over which he retreated. The arrow 
had buried itself only to the depth of its head, just behind the 
left shoulder : the mere wound could not have caused death, but 
the poison did ; and the tiger was found about sixty yards from 
the spot where it came in contact with the string. The poison 
is the same in appearance as that on the arrow you got at Raj- 
mahal ; the tiger-killers told me they got it from the inhabitants 
of Bhotan, but whether these last make or retail it I do not 
know : its efficacy is tremendous. 

" T have observed, and the same remark must have occurred 
to you, that these Sebundies, and natives generally who live in 
the constant vicinity of wild beasts, show a fearlessness of them 
that puts to shame the courage of an European on the same 
point. To beat through thick jungle, containing a tiger that 
had just struck down one of their party, some with only sticks 
in their hands, is what no European will do excepting on 

" I put the question to my havaldar, a man capable of answer- 
ing it from personal courage and experience in such matters, 
whether the buiFalo charges blindly forward in his first direc- 

' See the sketch entitled "The Spring-bow," Vol. ii. p. 73. 

K 2 


tion, 80 as to allow of a person's escaping by stepping aside ? 
' Oh no,' he said, ' the buffalo will turn with you.' 

" The two that charged me were making a rush to escape, 
and were going along a narrow footpath ; by jumping aside, I 
disappeared into the jungle growing below me on the face of 
the hill. 

" It is morning, and I am drinking tea ; and an instant ago the 
shock of an earthquake shook the table at which I am sitting, 
making my teacup and saucer rattle together like castanets. 
I was in the act of putting my pen on the paper when our hill 
began shaking, and then you would have had letters contorted 
by earthquake, rather an out-of-the-way fact in familiar corres- 
pondence. I hope we are not to have three shocks complete, and 
according to the degrees of comparison ; though such is said to 
be the custom of our Mother Earth. Far be it from me, who 
hold her in mythological reverence, to wish that she should 
forego any pet habits on my account ; the only condition I pray 
for is the standing of the house I am in. 

" The tiger-killers (bhagmar) are a strange set of people ; the 
trade, like all trades in this country, descends from father to 
son, and is, as far as I can compute, a very indifferent liveli- 
hood. Say that a set of men get twenty heads during the year 
(this is nearly twice the common average), the reward for this 
number is one hundred rupees ; which, divided by twelve and 
seven, gives each individual of the party one rupee three anas 
a month. Seven were in the set to which my informant 
belonged, including, probably, three women. Two of the tiger- 
killers lately arrived have good marks from the gentlemen 
whose heads they traffic in ; according to them all there is only 
one portion of their labours attended with danger, and that is, 
when seeking the tiger after the bow has been sprung. If the 
arrow lodges fairly in the side, the animal is found dead ; 
should he be less fully hit, he is found, as they call it, in a state 
-of drunkenness. They then approach him with hand-bows to 
finish him. This is the dangerous portion of their work. From 
the marks on one of these men, I should think the tiger must 
have been in a state of great weakness when he seized him. 


The different places in which he is scored show him to have 
been feirly in the tiger's grip, and yet the amount of injury was 
small. The other has suffered more severely ; and three men, 
they say, were killed outright during this year. 

" This is the trade that men will take up for the chance of half 
an ana a day ! I do not think the Sadr ' Adalat people would enter 
the bhagmar department if their salaries were to be doubled. 
This shows that the work of the service could be done for four 
anas a day, being three and a half anas for the respectability. 
' Two bobs for the vartue, and a sice for the laming !' 

" For the first time, I have visited the burying-ground. Your 
friend's place of rest is more remarkable than solemn. A small 
circular enclosure of upright slips of bamboo, precisely similar 
to the defence of a young tree, would seem to indicate to the 
traveller, the existence in these savage regions of a race believ- 
ing in a vegetable resurrection." 



"health alone is equal to a thousand blessings'." 

Partiality of the Natives for English Guns Solitary Confinement The Nawab 
Hakim Menhdi Bad Omens A Slight Mistake Bhusa The Padshah 
Begam and Moona-jah The Baiza Ba'i visits a Steamer Arrival of Lord 
Auckland Visit of the Governor-General and the Hon. the Misses Eden to 
her Highness the ex-Queen of Gwalior A March up the Country The 
Camp at Fathipiir The Line of March Death of the Nawab Hakim 
Menhdi The Heir-apparent of Oude gives a Breakfast to the Governor- 
General H, R. H. Prince Henry of Orange and the Misses Eden visit 
Lucnow Resignation of Sir Charles Metcalfe Choblpur Thieves Urowl 
The Famine The Pilgrim buys a Cocky-olli Bird Merunkee Sara'e 
Ancient Hindu Ruin at Kanauj Famine in the Bazar Interment of Ma- 
hadeo and Parbati The Legend of Kanauj. 

1837, Aug. ^A gentleman who had been paying us a visit 
quitted us for Agra just before his baggage boat arrived, in 
which were two immense German dogs, one striped like a tiger, 
most warlike animals ; they eyed me fiercely, and pulled im- 
patiently on their chains when brought into the verandah ; they 
will be good guards at night, but their arrival at Agra will be 
a little too late ; like locking the door when the steed has been 

stolen. Mr. H went out to dinner, and did not return 

home that night : some thieves took out a pane of glass, opened 
the door, carried off his two gun-cases and a writing-desk. A 
short distance from the house they broke open the cases, which 
they threw away, and made off with the guns, a gold watch, 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 117. 


three seals, and a guard-chain. No traces have been discovered 
of the thieves, and our friend must resign himself to the loss, 
with the comfort of remembering that I told him several times 
he would lose his guns, unless he locked them up in some heavy, 
unwieldy chest, that could not readily be carried away. 

Solitary confinement in the Fort of Allahabad, a punishment 
inflicted on rebellious sipahls, is dreaded by them more than any 
other. The cells for prisoners in the Fort of Chunar are really 
solitary ; you can neither see out of the window nor hear the 
sound of a human voice ; both of which they contrive to do at 
Allahabad ; therefore Chunar is held in all due horror. 

Sept. The fever, which, Uke the plague, carried off" its 
thousands at Palee, has disappeared ; the cordons are removed, 
the alarm is at an end, the letters are no longer fumigated, and 
the fear of the plague has vanished from before us. 

On the 22nd of July, this year, the river had only risen eight 
feet above the usual mark ; last year, at the same period, late as 
the rains were in setting in, the Jumna had risen twenty-four 
feet above the usual level ; showing the great deficiency of rain 
this season. 

24th The Nawab Hakim Menhdi has been re-appointed 
minister in Oude ; how happy the old man must be ! He has 
been Uving at Fathigar, pining for a restoration to the honours 
at Lucnow. The Nawab quitted for Oude ; on the first day of 
his march, the horse that carried his nakaras (state kettle-drums) 
fell down and died, and one of his cannon was upset ; both most 
unlucky omens. The Camp and the Minister were in dismay ! 
To us it is laughable, to the natives a matter of distress. The 
right to beat kettle-drums, and to have them carried before you, 
is only allowed to great personages. Therefore the omen was 
fearful ; it will be reported at Lucnow, will reach the ears of the 
King, and perhaps produce a bad effect on his mind ; the natives 
are so superstitious. 

The Maharaj of GwaHor, the Baiza Bii'i's adopted son, who 
drove her out of the kingdom, announced a few days ago that a 
son and heir was born unto him. The Resident communicated 
the happy news to the Government ; illuminations took place, 


guns were fired, every honour paid to the young heir of the 
throne of Gwalior. The Ba'i sent her grand-daughter on an 
elephant, in an amarl (a canopied seat) , attended by her followers 
on horseback, to do pooja in the Ganges, and to give large 
presents to the Brahmans. As the Gaja Riija passed along the 
road, handfuls of rupees were scattered to the crowd below from 
the seat on the elephant. Six days after the announcement of 
the birth of a son, the King sent for the Resident, and, looking 
very sheepish, was obliged to confess the son was a daughter ! 
The Resident was much annoyed that his beard had been laughed 
at ; and, in all probability, the King had been deceived by the 
women in the zenana : perhaps a son had really been bom, and 
having died, a girl had been substituted ; the only child pro- 
curable, perhaps, at the moment, or approved of by the mother. 
A zenana is the very birth-place of intrigue. 

30th. I am busy with preparations for a march ; perhaps, in 
my rambles, I shall visit Lucnow, see the new King, and my old 
friend the Nawiib Hakim Menhdl in all his glory. I should like 
very much to visit the zenana, for, although the King be about 
seventy, there is no reason why he may not have a large zenana, 
wives of all sorts and kinds, " the black, the blue, the brown, 
the fair," for purposes of state and show. 

Oct. 3rd. At this moment a large fire is blazing away, and 
throwing up volumes of smoke at no great distance from our 
house. In this country they chop up straw very finely, as food 
for bullocks ; an Hindu having collected a large quantity of 
bhiisa (this chopped straw) , has of late been seUing it at a very 
high price ; in consequence, some one has set fire to the heap, 
and has destroyed some hundred mims. My khansaman, looking 
at it, said very quietly, " He has of late sold his bhusii at an 
unfairly high price, therefore they have secretly set it on fire ; 
of course they would, it is the custom." The natives have 
curious ideas with respect to justice. 

' I2th. Called on the Baiza Ba'I ; really, the most agreeable 
visits I pay are to the Mahratta Camp. 

1 7th. The Padshah Begam and Moona-jah, the young Prince 
of Oude, whom she attempted to put on the throne, have 


amved at Allahabad, state prisoners; they remained a day or 
two, their tents surrounded by double guards night and day. 
The Begam wished to remain here, but she was forced to march 
at last, and has proceeded to Chunar, where she is to remain a 
prisoner of state. 

The preparations for a march up the country to visit my 
friends are nearly completed ; my new tents have just arrived 
from Cawnpore, they are being pitched and examined, that I 
may have no trouble en route. 

The Camp going to meet Lord Auckland at Benares passed 
through Allahabad yesterday ; two hundred and fifty elephants, 
seven hundred camels, &c., a beautiful sight; they encamped 
very near our house, on the banks of the Jumna. 

Nov. 23rd. The Biiiza Ba'i came down to go on board the 
steamer, which she was anxious to see. The vessel was drawn 
up to the ghat, and enclosed with kanats (the canvas walls of 
tents) . A large party of English ladies attended the Ba'i, and 
several Enghsh gentlemen went on board with Appa Sahib, after 
the return of her Highness, who appeared greatly pleased. 

Dec. ]st. ^The Governor-General Lord Auckland, the Hon. 
the Misses Eden, and Captain Osborne, arrived at Allahabad 
with all their immense encampment. The gentlemen of the 
Civil Service and the military paid their respects. Instead of 
receiving morning visits, the Misses Eden received visitors in 
the evening, transforming a formal morning call into a pleasant 
party, a relief to the visitors and the visited. 

7th. I made my salam to Miss Eden at her tents ; she told 
me she was going to visit her Highness the Baiza Ba'i with the 
Governor-General, asked me to accompany her, and to act as 
interpreter, to which I consented with pleasure. 

8th. The Gaja Raja Sahib went on an elephant in state, to 
bring the Misses Eden to call on the Baiza Ba'i. They arrived 
with Lord Auckland in all due form : his Lordship and Appa 
Sahib sat in the outer room, and conversed with her Highness 
through the parda. I introduced the Misses Eden to the Baiza 
Ba'i and her grand-daughter, with whom they appeared pleased 
and interested. Twenty-two trays, containing pairs of shawls. 


pieces of cloth of gold, fine Dacca muslin, and jewels, were 
presented to the Governor-General ; and fifteen trays, filled in a 
similar manner, to each of the Misses Eden. They bowed to 
the presents when they were laid before them, after which the 
trays were carried off, and placed in the treasury for the benefit 
of the Government. 

I5th. I quitted Allahabad on my road to the Hills, under 

the escort of our friend Mr. F , near whose tents my own 

were to be pitched : the countiy was swarming with robbers ; 
they follow the camp of the Governor- General, wherever it 
may be. 

1 6 th. Arrived at my tents at Fathlpur ; the scene in the 
camp was very picturesque ; the troops were drawn out 
before the tents of the Governor- General, and all was state 
and form, for the reception of the Chiefs of Bandelkhand ; 
the guns were firing salutes ; it was an animated and beautiful 

I8th. I mounted my black horse, and rode at daybreak with 
some friends. From the moment we left our tents, we were 
passing, during the whole march, by such numbers of elephants, 
so many strings of camels, so many horses and carts, and so 
many carriages of all sorts, attendant on the troops, and the 
artillery of the Governor-General and his suite, that the whole 
line of march, from the beginning to the end, was one mass of 
living beings. My tents were pitched near the guns of the 
artillery, outside the camp at Mulwah : a Raja came to call on 
Lord Auckland, a salute was fired ; my horses, being so near, 
became alarmed ; the grey broke from his ropes, fell on the 
pegs to which he was picketed, and lamed himself; another 
broke loose ; a camel lamed himself, and we had some difficulty 
in quieting the frightened animals. 

19th. I was unwell from over-fatigue, most uncomfortable. 
In the evening I roused myself to dine with Lord Auckland to 
meet Prince Henry of Orange. His Royal Highness entered 
the navy at eight years of age, and has been in the service ten 
years, in the " Bellona " frigate. Accompanied by his captain, 
he came up dak to spend a few days with Lord Auckland. 


The Prince is a tall, slight young man, and, apparently, very 

21 si. Arrived at Cawnpore, and paid a long promised visit to 
a relative. As the Misses Eden were at home in the evening, 

I accompanied Major P to pay my respects. We lost our 

way in the ravine from a dense fog : when we reached the tents 
the whole station was assembled there, quadrilles and waltzing 
going forward. 

25th. On Christmas-day the old Nawilb Hakim Menhdi, the 
minister of Oude, of whom I have so often spoken, breathed his 
last at Lucnow. His death was announced to me in a very 
original note from his nephew and heir, the General Sahib : 

" Dear Madam, I have to inform you that my poor uncle 
Nawiib Moontuzim-ood-Dowlah Bahadur departed this life at 
the decree and will of Providence, at half-past three o'clock a.m., 
the day before yesterday, Monday, the 25th inst., after a short 
illness of six days only ; consequently seeing him any more in 
this world is all buried in oblivion. The Begam Sahiba tenders 
her kind remembrances to you. With best wishes, believe me 
to be, dear Madam, yours very faithfully, UshruflF-ood-Dowla 
Ahmed Ally Khan Bahadur." 

I was sorry to hear of the death of the Nawab. How soon 
it has followed on the bad omens of his march ! 

26th. Received an invitation to breakfast with the son of 
the King of Oude (who had arrived from Lucnow), to meet the 
Govemor-General's party : went there on an elephant : an 
immense party were assembled in a very fine tent. Shortly 
after, breakfast was announced : when it was over we returned 
to the former tent, when the presents were brought forth ; they 
consisted of a fine elephant, with a howdah on his back, and 
the whole of the trappings of red cloth and velvet richly em- 
broidered in gold. Two fine horses next appeared, their hous- 
ings of velvet and gold; and the bridles were studded with 
rows of turquoise. A golden palanquin was next presented. On 
the ground, in front of the party, were twenty-three trays, the 
present to Lord Auckland; they were filled with Cashmere 
shawls in pairs, pieces of kimkhwab, and necklaces of pearls. 


emeralds, and diamonds. Fifteen trays of shawls and cloth of 
gold, with fine pieces of Dacca muslin, were presented to each 
of the Misses Eden ; two of the trays contained two combs set 
in superb diamonds, and two necklaces of diamonds and eme- 
ralds, such as are hardly ever seen even in India. All these 
fine things were presented and accepted ; they were then carried 
off and placed in the Government treasury. The Government 
make presents of equal value in return. 

26th. The station gave a ball to the Governor-General and 
the Misses Eden ; the next day Prince Henr}' of Orange, the 
Misses Eden, and Captain Osborne, went over to Lucnow for a 
few days, leaving Lord Auckland at Cawnpore ; they returned 
on the 30th, when the Prince quitted the party, and went off 
with the Captain of " the Bellona" to visit Agra. 

1838, Jan. \st. Sir Charles Metcalfe, who had arrived from 
Agra, resigned his power into Lord Auckland's hands, and 
departed for England. 

I am very comfortable, every thing being en regie, having a 
double set of tents, two horses for the buggy, two Arabs for 
riding, ten camels to carry the baggage, and two bullock-carts for 
the women. The men servants march with the camels : every 
thing is required in duplicate. One tent, with the people, starts 
in the evening, and is pitched at the end of the march, and 
breakfast is there ready for me early the next morning. 

3rd. A cold day with a high wind : my tents are pitched on 
a dusty plain, without a blade of grass, the wind and dust 
careering up and down. My little tent is quite a pearl in the 
desert, so white and fresh : small as it is, it is too large to take 
to the hills, and I have this day written for two hill tents and a 
ghoont (a hill pony) to be bought for me, that they may be 
ready on my arrival. 

4th. Quitted Chobipiir, and arrived early at the end of the 
march ; found the tent only half pitched, no breakfast ready ; in 
feet, the servants, leaving every thing about in every direction, 
had gone to sleep. The thieves, who are innumerable all over 
the country, taking advantage of their idleness, had carried off 
my dital harp with the French blankets and the pillows from 


my charpal. These things were under the sentry, but he was 
asleep on his post. The box was found in a field, near the 
tent, but the dital harp was gone. I had always made a point of 
pitching my tents near the great camp, for the sake of the pro- 
tection it afforded. "It is dark under the lamp'," was exem- 
plified ; a proverb used when crimes are committed near the seat 
of authority. Strict orders were of course issued to my people 
to be more on the alert in future. "When the wolf has run 
away with the child the door is made fast'." In the evening I 
dined with the Governor-General, and was much gratified with 
the sight of some of Miss Eden's most spirited and masterly 

5th. Arrived at Urowl. Here the famine began to show 
itself very severely ; I had heard it talked about, but had never 
given it much thought, had never brought the image of it before 
my mind's eye. No forage was to be procured for the camels 
or bullocks, therefore they went without it ; it was not to be 
had for money, but gram was procurable, of which they had a 
meal. The horses got gram, but no grass ; the country was so 
completely burnt up, scarcely a blade or rather a root of grass 
could be cut up, and every thing was exceedingly expensive. 

6th. At six A.M., when I quitted my tent to mount my 
horse, it was bitterly cold ; the poor star\'ing wretches had 
collected on the spot which my horses had quitted, and were 
picking up the grains of gram that had fallen from their nose- 
bags ; others were shivering over a half-burned log of wood my 
people had lighted during the night. On the road I saw 
many animals dead from over-exertion and famine ; carts over- 
turned ; at one place a palanquin gari had been run away with, 
the wheels had knocked down and passed over two camel 
drivers ; one of the men was lying on the road-side senseless 
and dying. 

On reaching the Stanhope, which had been laid half way for 
me, the horse gave some annoyance while being put into harness ; 
when once in, away he went, pulling at a fearful rate, through 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 118. ' Ibid. No. 119. 


roads half way up the leg in sand, full of great holes, and so 
crowded with elephants, camels, artillery, cavalry, and infantry, 
and all the camp followers, it was scarcely possible to pass through 
such a dense crowd ; and in many places it was impossible to 
see beyond your horse's head from the excessive dust. Imagine 
a camp of 1 1 ,000 men all marching on the road, and such a 

Away rushed the horse in the Stanhope, and had not the 
harness been strong, and the reins EngUsh, it would have been 
all over with us. I saw a beautiful Persian kitten on an Arab's 
shoulder ; he was marching with a long string of camels carry- 
ing grapes, apples, dates, and Tusar cloth for sale from Cabul. 
Perched on each camel were one or two Persian cats. The 
pretty tortoise-shell kitten, with its remarkably long hair and 
bushy tail, caught my eye ; its colours were so brilliant. The 
Arab ran up to the Stanhope holding forth the kitten ; we 
checked the impetuous horse for an instant, and I seized the 
pretty little creature ; the check rendered the horse still more 
violent, away he sprang, and off he set at full speed through 
the encampment which we had just reached. The Arab think- 
ing I had purposely stolen his kitten, ran after the buggy at full 
speed, shouting as he passed Lord Auckland's tents, " Doha'i, 
dohii'I, sahib ! doha'i, Lord sahib ! " " Mercy, mercy, sir ! 
mercy. Governor- General ! " The faster the horse rushed on, 
the faster followed the shouting Arab, until on arriving at my 
own tents, the former stopped of his own accord, and the 
breathless Arab came up. He asked ten rupees for his kitten, 
but at length, with well-feigned reluctance, accepted five, de- 
claring it was worth twenty. " Who was ever before the happy 
possessor of a tortoise-shell Persian cat?" The man departed. 
Alas ! for the wickedness of the world ! Alas ! for the Pilgrim ! 
She has bought a cocky-olli-bird ! 

The cocky-olli-bird, although unknown to naturalists by that 
name, was formerly sold at Harrow by an old man to the boys, 
who were charmed with the brilliancy of its plumage, purple, 
green, crimson, yellow, all the colours of the rainbow united in 
this beautiful bird ; nor could the wily old fellow import them 


fast enough to supply the demand, until it was discovered they 
were painted sparrows ! 

The bright burnt sienna colour of the kitten is not tortoise- 
shell, she has been dyed with hinna ! her original colour was 
white, with black spots ; however, she looks so pretty, she must 
be fresh dyed when her hair falls off ; the hinna is permanent 
for many months. The poor kitten has a violent cold, perhaps 
the effect of the operation of dyeing her : no doubt, after having 
applied the pounded menhdi, they wrapped her up in fresh 
castor-oil leaves, and bound her up in a handkerchief, after the 
fashion in which a native dyes his beard. Women oflen take 
cold from putting hinna on their feet. 


My tents were pitched near Meerunke Sara'e : in the evening, 
as I was riding into Kanauj, at the tomb of Bala Pir, I met 

Captain C on an elephant, and accompanied him to see the 

remains of a most ancient Hindu temple. Of all the ruins I 
have seen this appears to me the most remarkable and the most 
ancient : the pillars are composed of two long roughly-hewn 
stones, placed one upon the other, and joined by a tenon and 
mortise ; no cement of any sort appears to have been used. 
The style of the building is most primitive, and there is a little 
carving and but a little on some of the stones ; the structure 
is rapidly falling into decay. I regret exceedingly I cannot 
remember the marvellous stories that were related to me con- 
nected with this ruin and its inhabitants. 

" For they were dead and buried and embalm'd, 
Ere Romulus and Remus had been suckled : 
Antiquity appears to have begun 
Long after their primaeval race was run." 

On my return to the tents, my ayha complained bitterly of 
the annoyance she had experienced on the long march of thirteen 
miles and a half, over bad roads ; she had been upset in her 
baill, a native carriage, drawn by two bullocks, and her serenity 
was sadly discomposed. 

7th. This day, being Sunday, was a halt, a great refreshment 


after toil ; and Divine Service was performed in the tent of the 
Governor-General; after which, at 3 p.m., I went, on an 
elephant, to see two most ancient and curious specimens of 
Hindu sculpture, the figures of Ram and Lutchman, which are 
about five feet in height, carved on separate stones, and sur- 
rounded by a whole heaven of gods and goddesses : the stones 
themselves, which are six or seven feet high, are completely 
covered with numerous images ; and a devi (goddess) , rather 
smaller, is on one side. 

Passing through the bazar at Kanauj was a fearful thing. 
There lay the skeleton of a woman who had died of famine ; 
the whole of her clothes had been stolen by the famished 
wretches around, the pewter rings were still in her ears, but not 
a rag was left on the bones that were starting through the black 
and shrivelled skin ; the agony on the countenance of the corpse 
was terrible. Next to her a poor woman, unable to rise, lifted 
up her skinny arm, and moaned for food. The unhappy 
women, with their babies in their arms, pressing them to their 
bony breasts, made me shudder. Miserable boys, absolutely 
living skeletons, pursued the elephant, imploring for bread : 
poor wretches, T had but little money with me, and could give 
them only that little and my tears : I cannot write about the 
scene without weeping, it was so horrible, and made me very 
sick. Six people died of starvation in the bazar to-day. Lord 
Auckland daily feeds all the poor who come for food, and gives 
them blankets ; five or six hundred are fed daily ; but what 
avails it in a famine like this ? it is merciful cruelty, and only 
adds a few more days to their sufferings ; better to die at once, 
better to end such intolerable and hopeless misery : these people 
are not the beggars, but the tillers of the soil. When I was 
last at Kanauj the place was so beautiful, so luxuriant in vege- 
tation, the bright green trees, the river winding through low 
fields of the richest pasture : those fields are all bare, not a 
blade of grass. The wretched inhabitants tear off the bark of 
the wild fig tree (goolfer), and pound it into food ; in the course 
of four or five days their bodies swell, and they die in agonies. 
The cultivators sit on the side of their fields, and, pointing to 
their naked bodies, cry, " I am dying of hunger." Some pick 


out the roots of the bunches of coarse grass, and chew them. 
The people have become desperate ; sometimes, when they see a 
sipahi eating they rush upon him to take his food ; sometimes 
they fall one over the other as they rush for it, and having 
fallen, being too weak to rise, they die on the spot, blessed in 
finding the termination of their sufferings. The very locusts 
appear to have felt the famine ; you see the wings here and 
there on the ground, and now and then a weak locust pitches 
on a camel. Every tree has been stripped of its leaves for food 
for animals. The inhabitants of Kanauj, about a lakh of 
people, have fled to Oogein and to Saugar. The place will be a 
desert ; none will remain but the grain merchants, who fatten 
on the surrounding misery. There is no hope of rain for five 
months ; by that time the torments of these poor wretches will 
have ended in death ; and this place is the one I so much 
admired from the river, with its rich fields, and its high land 
covered with fine trees and ruins ! 

I returned to the ancient Hindu building that had so much 
interested me, to sketch it at leisure, and was thus employed, 
when I was surrounded by numbers of the stai-ved and wretched 
villagers. I performed my task as quickly as possible, and 
whatever errors there may be in the performance, must be 
attributed to the painful scene by which I was surrounded ; 
some of the poor people flung themselves on the ground before 
me, attempting to perform pa-bos, that is, kissing the feet ; 
wildly, frantically, and with tears imploring for food ; their 
skeleton forms hideously bearing proof of starvation ; the very 
remembrance makes me shudder. I quitted the ruin, and 
returned to my tents. To-morrow we quit Kanauj, thank 
God ! It is dreadful to witness and to be unable to relieve such 

I picked up a curious piece of ancient sculpture, Mahadeo, 
with Piirvati in the centre, and a devi on each side, which 1 
brought to my tent on the elephant. Considering it too heavy 
to carry about on the march, we buried it at night under a 
peepul tree, and shall take it away on our return home, if it will 
please to remain there. 



At this place I learned the following legend. In the olden 
time, Kanauj was a great city. There were giants in those 
days, men of enormous stature, who dwelt at Kanauj, and with 
three steps could accomplish the distance hence to Fathigarh. 
En passant, be it remarked, it took the feeble mortals in the 
camp of the Governor-General three long marches, during 
three long days, to pass over the same ground. The women 
were also very powerful ; on brushing their houses of a morning, 
it was their custom to pitch the dirt a stone's throw from the 
door. Now, the women being as strong as the men, the dirt 
was thrown as far as Fathigarh in a heap ; and on the rising 
ground produced by these dirt-throwing damsels was afterwards 
erected the Fort of Fathigarh. 





)^ CO 



' i 






















0) I 

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B ' 















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The 330,000,000 Gods of the Hindu Pantheon The Janeo Brumhu 
The Trinity Brahma Vishnu Shivu The Ten Avatars The Fish 
The Tortoise The Boar The Man-lion Vamana the Dwarf Parashu- 
Rama Rama-Chandra Bala-Rama Booddhii Kalkl Krishnii Radha 
Rukmeni Jaganna'th Kama-deva Mahadeo Parvati Ganesh 
Kartikeya Lachhmi Saraswati Durga Sati The Puranas The 
Mundane Egg of the Hindus The Vedas Ascension of the God Buddha. 

My journal is a constant source of pleasure ; it not only amuses 
me to record passing events, but in writing it I perform a pro- 
mise given ere I quitted England. Letters from home assure 
me of the deUght with which it is received, of the pleasure with 
which they follow me through my wanderings, and of the 
interest they feel in all those scenes that pass before me. The 
religion of the Hindus, who are perhaps the most extraordinary 
people on the face of the earth, is to my friends as interesting as 
to me ; they wish for more information on the subject, therefore, 
however difficult the task, it must be performed. Performed ! 
" Aye, there's the rub," but how? shall I send them, pour com- 
mencer au commencement, a catalogue of the deities in the Hindii 
Pantheon, amounting to three hundred and thirty millions of 
gods and goddesses? 330,000,000, " Taintis karor de'ota ! " 
The nomenclature would be somewhat difficult. 

Shall I send them the names of the three hundred gods which 
are interwoven in silk and gold on the jando I wear around my 
neck, to which is appended the key of my cabinet? I have 

L 2 


three of these sacred jandos, purchased at Benares ; unlike the 
Brahmanical thread, which bears the same name, but which is 
merely thread tightly twisted, these janeos are thick strong 
ribbons made of red, black, yellow, and white silk, interwoven 
in which are the names of the gods. They are worn over the 
right shoulder and under the left arm on particular days of 
pfija, and are esteemed very holy. On one in my possession, 
formed of red and different coloured silk, the names of three 
hundred of the gods are interwoven ; the letters are in the 
Sanscrit character ; the breadth of the band one inch. On a 
second, formed of black and coloured silk, and rather narrower, 
at intervals in several places on the sacred band is woven in the 
same character, " Sri Radha Krishn." The third is still nar- 
rower, and similarly ornamented. The jando is considered to 
possess many virtues : some that I saw at Benares were from 
two to three inches in breadth, of rich silk, and the names inter- 
woven in gold and silver thread ; they were handsome and very 

In my youthful days I devoted much time to drawing out the 
pedigree of my own family, a task that to me was one of 
pleasure, on revient toujours a ses premiers amours ; in lieu of a 
dry catalogue of the three hundred and thirty millions of Hindu 
deities, I will form a short pedigree, if such a term be appli- 
cable to it, to assist my own memory, and for the amusement 
and edification of the beloved one to whom this my journal is 


The Hindus worship God in unity, and express their concep- 
tions of the Divine Being and his attributes in the most awful 
and sublime terms. God, thus adored, is called Briimhu, " One 
Brumhii without a second," the one eternal mind, the self- 
existent, incomprehensible spirit, the all-pervading, the divine 
cause and essence of the world, from which all things are 
supposed to proceed, and to which they return ; the spirit, the 
soul of the universe. Amongst the Hindus the ignorant address 
themselves to idols fashioned by the hand of man; the sage 
worships God in spirit. Of that infinite, incomprehensible, 


self-existent spirit, no representation is made : to his direct and 
immediate honour no temples rise ; nor dare an Hindu address 
to him the effusions of his soul, otherwise than by the mediation 
of a personified attribute, or through the intervention of a 
priest ; who will teach him that gifts, prostration, and sacri- 
fice, are good, because they are pleasing to the gods ; not as an 
unsophisticated heart must feel, that piety and benevolence are 
pleasing to God because they are good. But although the 
Hindus are taught to address their vows to idols and saints, 
these are still but types and personifications of the deity, who is 
too awful to be contemplated, and too incomprehensible to be 
described. The Hindu erects no altar to Briimhu "Of him, 
whose glory is so great, there is no image" {Veda), and we must 
proceed to the consideration of the personified attributes of that 
invisible, incomprehensible Being, "which illumines all, delights 
all, whence all proceeded ; that by which they live when bom, 
and that to which all must return" {Veda). 

Briimhii, the one god without a second, became a trinity, and 
the three emanations or parts of one Brumhii, are Brahma, 
Vishnii, and Shivu. The first presided over Creation, the 
second over Preservation, and the third over Destruction. The 
three principal goddesses are, Durga, Lachhml, and Sa- 
ras watl. 


In mythology, Brahma is the first of the Hindu Triad, the three 
great personified attributes of Briimhii, or the Supreme Being ; 
but his name is not so often heard of in India as either of the 
other two great powers of Preservation and Destruction. He is 
called the first of the gods, the framer of the universe. From 
his mouth, arm, thigh, and foot, proceeded severally the priest, 
the warrior, the trader, and the labourer ; these, by successive 
reproduction, people the earth : the sun sprung from his eye, 
and the moon from his mind. 

Brahma is usually represented with four faces, said to repre- 
sent the four quarters of his own work ; and said, sometimes, to 
refer to a supposed number of elements of which he composed 


it; and to the sacred Vedas, one of which issued from each 
mouth. Red is the colour supposed to be peculiar to the crea- 
tive power : we often see pictures of Brahma of that colour ; 
which also represents fire, and its type the sun. Images are 
made representing Brahma, but none of Briimhii, the one 
eternal God. 

Briimhu, or the Supreme One, say the Brahmans, has been 
pleased to manifest himself in a variety of ways from age to 
age in all parts of the habitable world. When he acts imme- 
diately, without assuming a shape, or sending forth a new 
emanation, or when a divine sound is heard from the sky, that 
manifestation of himself is called acasavani, or an ethereal voice : 
when the sound proceeds from a meteor or a flame, it is said to 
be agnipuri, or formed of fire : but an avatara is a descent of the 
deity in the shape of a mortal ; and an avantara is a similar 
incarnation of an inferior kind, intended to answer some purpose 
of less moment. The Supreme Being, and the celestial emana- 
tions from him, are niracara, or bodiless; in which state they 
must be invisible to mortals ; but when they are pratyacsha, or 
obvious to the sight, they become sacara, or embodied, and 
expressive of the divine attributes, as Krishnu revealed himself 
to Arjun, or in a human form, which Krishnu usually bore ; and 
in that mode of appearing the deities are generally supposed to 
be born of a woman, but without any carnal intercourse. Those 
who"^ follow the Purva Mimansa, or the philosophy of Jamini, 
admit no such incarnations of deities ; but insist that the 
devas (gods) were mere mortals, whom the Supreme Being was 
pleased to endow with qualities approaching to his own attributes : 
and the Hindus in general perform acts of worship to some of 
their ancient monarchs and sages, who were deified in conse- 
quence of their eminent virtues. 

All the principal, and several of the secondary deities, or 
incarnations of the principal, have wives assigned them, who are 
called sacti ; and, except in sex, exactly represent their respective 
lords, being their energy or active power, the executors of their 
divine will. The sacti of Brahma is Saraswati, the goddess of 
harmony and the arts. 


Many deities have vehicles or vahans allotted to them : that 
of Brahma and of his sacti is the swan or goose, called hanasa; 
but he is not so frequently seen mounted on it, as other deities 
are on theirs : he is represented with his swan or goose in the 
cave of Elephanta. Saraswati, the goddess of learning, is some- 
times represented as the daughter of Brahma, and wife of 
Vishnoo ; and as the latter I have placed her in the annexed 

Brahma is represented as a man with four faces, of a gold 
colour, dressed in white garments, riding on a goose ; in one 
hand he holds a stick, and in another a kumunduloo or alms- 
dish. He is never adopted as a guardian deity. 


Vishnu is the second person in the Hindu triad ; he is 
a personification of the preserving power, and has on the 
whole a greater number of adorers than any other deity or 

I have a brazen image representing Vishnu reposing on a 
serpent with seven heads ; perhaps intended to represent Sesha, 
the vast thousand-headed serpent, or ananta, as the serpent, as 
well as Vishnu, is sometimes named ; meaning endless or infinite. 
Vishnu is represented as he is described in the Scanda Purana, 
asleep in the bosom of the waters, when a lotus arose from his 
body, which soon reached the surface of the flood. Brahma 
sprung from the flower, and looking round without seeing any 
creature on the boundless expanse, imagined himself to be the 
first-bom. Vishnu denied his primogeniture; they had an 
obstinate battle, which lasted until Mahadeo cut off" one of 
Brahma's five heads, which settled the affair, and the image of 
Brahma bears only four heads. Nothing can be more luxurious 
than this image, the god floating on the water-lily, and the 
serpent, whose outspread heads afford him shade during his 
repose ; while two celestial beings, sitting at his feet, shampoo 
him during his slumber. The one is his sacti, Lachhml, the 
goddess of beauty, who was produced with the chowda ratny, 


or fourteen gems, at the churning of the sea ; the other, another 
sacti, Saraswati, the goddess of literature and harmony, the 
daughter of Brahma. 

Vishnu and Shivii are said each to have a thousand names ; 
they are strung together in verse, and repeated on certain 
occasions by Brahmans as a sort of litany, accompanied some- 
times with the rosary. Images of Vishnu, either representing 
him in his own person, or in any of his avataras or incarnations, 
may be generally distinguished from those of other deities by a 
shell (chank), and a sort of wheel or discus, called chakra. 
The chank is the large buccinum, sometimes seen beautifully 
coloured like a pheasant's breast. The chakra is a missile 
weapon, very like our quoit, having a hole in its centre, on 
which it is twirled on the forefinger, and thrown at the destined 
object ; it has a sharp edge, and irresistible fire flames from its 
periphery when whirled by Vishnu. Two other attributes 
appertain to him ; the gadha, a mace or club ; and the padma, 
a lotus. The god is represented four-handed, and wears on his 
head a high cap of singular form, called mugut. At the back of 
this brazen idol lotus-leaves form a sort of glory, crowned by 
the head of a bird, perhaps intended as an emblem of his 
vahan Garuda. Vishnii is sometimes seen mounted on an 
eagle, or rather on an animal composed of an eagle and a man, 
cleaving the air, and soaring to the skies. Vishnu is represented 
in the form of a black man, with yellow garments. 


The third personage in the Hindu trinity is Shivu, theDestroyer: 
he is represented as a silver-coloured man, with five faces ; an 
additional eye and a half-moon grace each forehead ; he has four 
arms ; he sits on a lotus, and wears a tiger-skin garment. 
Nandi is the epithet always given to the white bull, the vehicle 
of Shivii, on which he is frequently seen riding ; in his temple 
it is represented sometimes of great dimensions, couchant, 
and it is commonly met with in brass. The Nandi is often 
represented couchant, bearing the particular emblem the type of 
Shivii, crowned by the five heads of the god ; the trident, called 


Insula, is his usual accompaniment. Durga and Sati are his 

Having thus given a brief account of the Hindu trinity, or 
emanations of the " One Brumhu without a second," let me 
return to Vishnu, the second personage of the triad, and trace 
him through his various descents. 


The word itself, in strictness, means a descent ; but, in its 
more extended signification, it means an incarnation of a deity 
in the person of a human being. Such incarnations have been 
innumerable ; however, speaking of the avatars, it is generally 
meant to be confined to the ten avatars of Vishnu, which are 
thus usually arranged and named : 1. Mach, Machchha, or the 
Fish. 2. Kurma, or the Tortoise. 3. Varaha, or the Boar. 
4. Nara-singha, or the Man-lion. 5. Vamana, or the Dwarf. 
6. Parashu-Rama, the name of the favoured person in whom the 
deity became incarnate. 7. Rama-Chandra, the same. 8. Bala- 
Rama, the same. 9. Buddhii, the same. 10. Kalki, or the 
Horse. Of these, nine are past ; the tenth is yet to come. 


I have a curious and highly-illuminated Hindu painting of 
this first avatar, representing Vishnu as a black man, with four 
arms, issuing erect from the mouth of a large fish, which is 
represented in the water, surrounded by flowers of the lotus. 
The head of the Preserver is encircled by rays of glory, and he 
appears in the act of destroying the demon Hayagriva, whom 
he has seized by the hair with one hjind, while, on the fingers of 
another hand, he is whirling round the disk with which to 
destroy the evil spirit. The demon is represented as a red man, 
issuing from a shell ; on his forehead are two golden horns, and 
in his hands one of the vedas, the sacred books. On the right 
of the picture stands Brahma, a pale-coloured man, with four 
arms and four heads, each of which has a long white beard : three 
of the vedas are in his hands, and the fourth is in one of the 
four hcinds of Vishnu. The following is a Uteral translation 


from the Bhagavata, and the particular cause of this first or fish 
avatar is described as follows : " At the close of the last calpa 
there was a general destruction, occasioned by the sleep of 
Brahma ; whence his creatures in different worlds were drowned 
in a vast ocean. Brahma, being inclined to slumber, desiring 
repose after a lapse of ages, the strong demon Hayagriva came 
near him, and stole the vedas which had issued from his lips. 
When Heri, the Preserver of the Universe, discovered this deed 
of the Prince Danavas, he took the shape of a minute fish called 
Saphari. A holy king, named Satiyaurata, then reigned, a 
servant of the spirit which moved on the waves, and so devout 
that water was his only sustenance. As this pious king was 
making a libation in the river, the preserving power, under the 
form of the fish Saphari, appeared to him, at first under a very 
minute form, but gradually assuming a larger bulk, at length 
became a fish of immense magnitude." The astonished king 
concludes a prayer by expressing his anxiety that the lotus-eyed 
deity should inform him why he assumed that shape. The Lord 
of the Universe returned the following answer : " ' In seven days 
from the present time, O thou tamer of enemies, the three 
worlds will be plunged in an ocean of death ; but in the midst of 
the destroying waves, a large vessel, sent by me for thy use, shall 
stand before thee. Then shalt thou take all medicinal herbs, all 
the variety of seeds, and accompanied by seven saints, encircled 
by pairs of all brute animals, thou shalt enter the spacious ark, 
and continue in it, secure from the flood, on one immense 
ocean, without light, except the radiance of thy holy com- 
panions. When the ship shall be agitated by an impetuous 
wind, thou shalt fasten it with a large sea-serpent on my horn ; 
for I will be near thee : drawing the vessel with thee and thy 
attendants, I will remain on the ocean, O chief of men, until a 
day of Brahma (a year) shall be completely ended.' " He spake 
and vanished from his sight. Satiyaurata humbly and devoutly 
waited the awful event, and while he was performing grateful 
services to Heaven, the sea, overwhelming its shores, deluged 
the whole earth : and it was soon perceived to be augmented by 
showers from immense clouds. He, still meditating on the com- 


mand of Bhagavat, saw the vessel advancing, and entered it with 
the chief of Brahraans, having carried into it the medicinal 
plants, and conformed to the directions of Heri. Alarmed at 
the violence of the waves, and the tossing of the vessel, the 
pious king invoked the assistance of the preserving power, 
" when the god appeared again distinctly on the vast ocean, in 
the form of a fish, blazing like gold, extending a million of 
leagues, with one stupendous horn ; on which the king, as he 
had before been commanded by Heri, tied the ship with a cable 
made of a vast serpent, and, happy in his preservation, stood 
praising the destroyer of Madhu. When the monarch had 
finished his hymn, the primeval male Bhagavat, who watched 
for his safety on the great expanse of water, spoke aloud to his 
own divine essence, pronouncing a sacred purana ; the substance 
of which was an infinite mystery, to be concealed within the 
breast of Satyaurata ; who, sitting in the vessel with his saints, 
heard the principle of the soul, the Eternal Being, proclaimed 
by the preserving power. Then Heri, rising together with 
Brahma from the destructive deluge, which was abated, slew the 
demon Hayagriva, and recovered the sacred books. Satyaurata, 
instructed in all divine and human knowledge, was appointed in 
the present calpa, by the favour of Vishnu, the seventh menu, 
surnamed Vaivaswata ; but the appearance of a horned fish to 
the religious monarch was all may a or delusion." 


The second grand avatara of Vishnu, called the Tortoise, 
evidently, like that of the fish, refers to the Deluge. Of this I 
have an illuminated painting, representing Kurma-Rajii, the king 
of the tortoises, on whose back the mountain Mandara is poised ; 
and just above it, I^chhml, the goddess of beauty, is seated 
on the flower of the water-lily. This avatar was for the purpose 
of restoring to man some of the comforts and conveniences that 
were lost in the flood. The vast serpent, Vasoky, is repre- 
sented coiled round the mountain, serving as a rope ; the head 
of the serpent is held by two of the soors (demons) , represented 
as men with two horns on their heads ; the tail of the animal is 


held by Brahma, distinguished by his four heads, and the Vedas, 
the sacred books, in two of his hands ; and next to him assisting 
in the operation is the blue form of Mahadeo, a form of Vishnu, 
his head surrounded by a circle of glory. They now pull forth 
the serpent's head repeatedly, and as often let it go, thus vio- 
lently whirhng round the mountain, they churned the ocean, 
for the recovery of the amrita, or beverage of immortality ; 
Vasoky serving as a rope to the mountain, which was supported 
on the back of the tortoise. Presently there arose out of the 
troubled deep, fourteen articles, usually called the fourteen 
gems, or in common language chowda ratny. 1. The moon, 
Chandra, with a pleasing countenance, shining with ten thou- 
sand beams of gentle light ; 2. Sri, or Lachhmi, the goddess of 
fortune and beauty, whose seat is the white lily of the waters ; 
3. Sura, wine ; or Suradevi, the goddess of wine ; 4. Oochis- 
rava, a horse with eight heads, and as swift as thought ; 
5. Kustubha, a jewel of inestimable value, that glorious spark- 
ling gem worn by Narayen on his breast ; 6. Parajata, the tree 
of plenty, that spontaneously jdelded every thing desired ; 
7. Surabbi, a cow, similarly bountiftil ; 8. Dhanwantara, a phy- 
sician ; 9. Iravat, the elephant of Indra with three proboscides ; 
10. Shank, a shell conferring victory on whomsoever should 
sound it; 11. Danashu, an unerring bow; 12. Bikh, poison, 
or di'ugs; 13. Rhemba, the Aspara, a beautifiil and amiable 
woman ; 14. Amrita, the beverage of immortality, which was 
brought forth when the physician Dhanwantara appeared, hold- 
ing in his hand a white vessel filled with the immortjd juice 


I have a painting of this avatara, representing Vishnii in 
human shape, with the head of a boar, on one of whose tusks 
the earth is lifted up, which is represented as mountains ; on 
which is a Hindoo temple, with a flag. Vishnu himself is in 
the ocean, his feet trampling on a gigantic demon who had 
rolled up the earth into the form of a shapeless mass and 
carried it down into the abyss, whither Vishnu followed him iu 


the shape of a boar, killed him with his tusks, and replaced the 
earth in its original situation. 


Hirinakassap, the younger brother of the gigantic demon, 
who in the third avatar rolled up the earth and carried it down 
to the abyss, succeeded him in his kingdom over the inferior 
world, and refused to do homage to Vishnu. His son Pralhaud, 
who disapproved of his father's conduct, was persecuted and 
banished ; his father sought to kill him, but was prevented by 
the interposition of heaven, which appeared on the side of 
Pralhaud. At length, Hirinakassap was softened, and recalled 
his son to his court ; where, as he sat in full assembly, he began 
to argue with him against the supremacy of Vishnii, boasted 
that he himself was lord of all the visible world, and asked, 
"What Vishnii could pretend to more?" Pralhaud replied, 
" That Vishnu had no fixed abode, but was present every where." 
"Is he," said his father, "in that pillar?" "Yes," returned 
Pralhaud. " Then let him come forth," said the king ; and 
rising from his seat, struck the pillar with his foot ; upon which 
Vishnu, in the form of Nara-singha, that is to say, with a body 
like a man, but a head hke a lion, came out of the pillar and 
tore Hirinakassap in pieces. Vishnii then fixed Pralhaud on 
the throne, and his reign was a mild and virtuous one. I have 
a Hindoo painting commemorative of this avatar, in which the 
man-Uon is represented seated in the centre of a pillar that has 
been burst open, while, with his hands, he is tearing out the 
bowels of the impious king, who lies howling and kicking across 
the knees of Nara-singha. On the right of the picture a Hin- 
dustani woman stands, with the palms of her hands pressed 
together ; and to the left, is a man, apparently a dwarf, standing 
in the same attitude. 


Maha-Beli, by severe rehgious austerities, had obtained from 
Brahrna the sovereignty of the universe, or the three regions of 
the Sky, the Earth, and Patala. He was a generous and mag- 


nificent monarch, but was so much elated by his gi-andeur, that he 
omitted the essential ceremonies and offerings to the deities ; and 
Vishnii, finding it necessary to check the influence of such an 
example, resolved to mortify and punish the arrogant Rajii. He 
therefore assumed the form of a wretched Brahman dwarf ; and 
appearing before the king, asked a boon, which being promised, 
he demanded as much as he could pace in three steps : nor 
would he desire further, although urged by Beli to demand 
something more worthy of him to give. Vishnii, on obtaining 
the king's promise, required a ratification of it, which is per- 
formed by the pouring out of water from a vessel upon the 
hand of the person to whom it is given. The monarch, 
although warned of the consequences, disdaining to deviate 
from his word, confirmed his promise with the required oath ; 
and bidding the dwarf stretch forth his hand, poured out upon 
it the sacred wave that ratified the promise. As the water in a 
full stream descended from his extended hand, the form of the 
Vamana gradually increased in magnitude, until it became of 
such enormous dimensions that it reached up to heaven. Then, 
with one stride, he measured the vast globe of the earth ; with 
the second, the ample expanse of heaven ; and with the third, 
was going to compass the regions of Patala ; when BeU, con- 
vinced that it was even Vishnii himself, fell prostrate and 
adored him ; yielding him up without farther exertion, the free 
possessions of the third region of the universe. However, 
Vishnu left Maha-Beli, for the remainder of his life, possession 
of Patala, or the infernal regions. In this character Vishnu is 
sometimes called the three-step-taker. I have an illuminated 
painting of this avatar, in which the king, whose head is sur- 
rounded with rays of glory, is holding in his hands a spouted 
vessel, while just before him Vishnu in the character of a dwarf, 
but with rays also around his head, is standing with clasped 
hands. Behind the king an Hindustani woman is waving the 
.chaunri, the white tail of the yak, above his head ; and behind 
the dwarf stands Sukra, called the one-eyed and evil counsellor. 
The ratifying stream was the river Gunga, which, falling from 
the hand of the dwarf Vishnu, descended thence to his foot, 


whence, gushing as a mighty river, it was received on the head of 
Shiva, and flowed on in the style commonly seen through the 
cow's mouth. 


The epithet parashu, distinguishingly prefixed to the name of 
this Rama, means a battle-axe. Among the avataras of Vishnu are 
recorded three favoured personages, in whom the deity became in- 
carnate, all named Rama, Parashu-Rama, Bala-Riima, and Rama- 
Chandra, and who are all famed as great warriors, and as youths 
of perfect beauty. Parashu-Rama was born near Agra ; his parents 
were Jamadagni, whose name appears as one of the Rishis, and 
Runeka. Jamadagni, in his pious retirement, was entrusted by 
Indra with one of the fourteen gems of the ocean, the wonderful 
boon-granting cow, Kam-dhenu or Surabhi ; and on one occasion 
he regaled the Raja Diruj, who was on a hunting party, in so 
magnificent a manner as to excite his astonishment, until he 
learned the secret of the inestimable animal possessed by his host. 
Impelled by avarice, the cow was demanded from the holy 
Brahman ; and, on refusal, he attempted to carry her away by 
force, but the celestial cow, rushing on the Raja's troops, gored 
and trampled the greatest part of them, put the rest to flight, 
and then, before them all, flew up triumphantly to heaven. 
The enraged tyrant immediately marched another army to the 
spot, and Kam-dhenu being no longer on earth to defend the 
hermit, the holy man was massacred, and his hut razed to the 
ground. Runeka, collecting together from the ruins whatever 
was combustible, piled it in a heap, on which she placed her 
husband's mangled body ; then, ascending it herself, set fire to it, 
and was consumed to ashes. The prayers and imprecations of a 
sati are never uttered in vain : ere she mounted the funeral pile, 
to strengthen the potency of her imprecations on the Raja, she 
performed also the ceremony of Naramedha, or the sacrifice of 
a man ; thereby rendering her solicitation to the avenging deities 
absolutely irresistible. 

Kam-dhenii, on her journey to Paradise, stopped to inform 
Parashu-Rama, who was under the care of Mahadeo, of the cruel 


conduct of the Raja to his parents; to whose aid he imme- 
diately flew, but arrived only time enough to view the smoking 
embers of the funeral pile. The tears rushed down his lovely 
face, and he swore by the waters of the Ganges that he would 
never rest until he had exterminated the whole race of the 
Khettris, the raja-tribe of Tndia. Armed with the invincible energy 
of an incarnate god, he commenced his career of vengeance by 
seeking and putting to death, with his single arm, the tyrant, 
with all the forces that surrounded him ; he then marched from 
province to province, every where exerting the unerring bow 
Dhanuk, and devoted the whole of the military race of Khettri 
to death. After a life spent in mighty and holy deeds, Rama 
gave his whole property in alms, and retired to the Kokan, 
where he is said to be still living on the Malabar coast. 

I have an illuminated picture of this avatar representing a 
single combat between Parashu-Rama and the tyrant Dinij : 
the Raja is represented with twenty-two arms, three of which, 
having been cut off by Rama, have fallen to the ground, the 
remaining nineteen he is brandishing about. In the upper 
part of the picture is represented the cell of the hermit, in front 
of which Jamadagni lies dead, and the holy cow with golden 
horns and golden wings is flying through the clouds. 


Riima-Chandra, son of Dasarathu, and conqueror of Lanka or 
Ceylon, was the seventh avatar ; when the deity descended for 
the purpose of destroying Ravana, who having obtained (for his 
devotion) a promise from Brahma that he should not suffer 
death by any of the usual means, was become the tyrant and pest 
of mankind. The Devatas came in the shape of monkeys, as 
Ravana had gained no promise of safety from them ; hence, 
Hanumana was Rama's general. Rama-Chandra's mother's 
name was Kaushalyii. His younger brother, Bharata, was son 
of Kekayl, who was the cause of Rama's going to the desert to 
perform devotions on the banks of the Pampa-nadI, insisting 
that her son should reign the fourteen years that Rama employed 
in the devotion. It was while performing his devotion (or during 


his stay in the forests) in company with Lakshmana (his ble- 
ther by Sumitra) that, while he was absent hunting, Ravana 
appeared as a beggar, and enticed away Sita, which gave rise to 
the war detailed in the Ramayana. Sita was daughter of Raja 
Janaka, who had promised to give her to any person who could 
bend a certain bow, which was done by Rama-Chandra. When 
in the forest, he drew a circle round Sita, and forbad her to go 
beyond it, and left Lakshmana to take care of her ; but Laksh- 
mana hearing some noise which alarmed him for his brother, 
left her to seek him : then it was that Ravana appeared, and 
enticed her out of the circle (gandi), and carried her off in his 
flying chariot. In the air Ravana was opposed by the bird 
Jatagu, whose wings he cut and escaped. Rama-Chandra reigned 
in Awadh (Ayodhyii) before Christ 1600. 

Vol. L page 108, contains an account of the Ram Leela 
Festival, and of Hiinooman and his army of monkeys, most 
important personages in the history of Riima-Chandra ; the grief 
of the warrior when roaming the world in search of the beloved 
Sita is described Vol. L page 342. As the offspring of Shivii, 
Hianooman is sometimes represented five-headed. Sita is de- 
scribed as " endued with youth, beauty, sweetness, goodness, 
and prudence ; an inseparable attendant on her lord, as the light 
on the moon ; the beloved spouse of Rama, dear as his own 
soul, formed by the illusion of the deva ; amiable, adorned with 
every charm." She is also a favourite in descriptive poetry, and 
is held forth as an example of conjugal affection. 

I have an illuminated picture of Sita, Ram, and Hiinooman. 
The happy pair are seated on a couch of silver and velvet, while 
Hunoomiin, on the ground before them, is gravely employed 
shampooing one foot of the god ; behind them stands an 
attendant, waving a chaunri of peacock's feathers over their 


Bala-Rama, although a warrior, may, from his attributes, be 
esteemed a benefactor of mankind ; for he bears a plough, and 
a pestle for beating rice ; and he has epithets derived from the 



names of these implements, viz. : Halayudha, plough-armed ; 
and Masali, as bearing a musal or rice-beater. His name, Bala, 
means strength, and he is sometimes seen with the skin of a lion 
over his shoulders. A full account of the three Ramas is given 
in the Ramayana, a great epic poem, so highly venerated that 
the fourth class of Hindus, the Sudra, is not permitted to read 
it. At the end of the first section, a promise is made of great 
benefit to any individual of the first three tribes who shall duly 
read that sacred poem : " A Brahman, in reading it, acquires 
learning and eloquence ; a Kshettria will become a monarch ; 
a Vaisya wUl obtain vast commercial profits ; and a Sudra, 
hearing it, will become great." 


Such Hindus as admit Buddha to be an incarnation of Vishnii 
agree in his being the last important appearance of the deity on 
earth ; but many among the Brahmans and other tribes deny 
their identity ; and the Buddhists, countenanced by the rahans 
their priests, do, in general, likewise assert the independent 
existence, and, of course, paramount character, of the deity of 
their exclusive worship. 

Buddha opposed the sanguinary sacrifices of the Brahmans, 
and consequently, in a degree, the holy vedas themselves which 
enjoined them : in India, therefore, there has always been a sect 
who are violently hostile to the followers of Buddha, denomi- 
nating them atheists, and denying the genuineness of his avatar. 
A rock altar is sacred to him throughout Asia ; and he himself 
was often represented by a huge columnar black stone, black 
being among the ancients a colour emblematical of the inscrutable 
nature of the deity. His fame and the mild rites of his religion 
have been widely diffused ; the Indian Buddha is the Deva- 
Buddha of the Japanese, whose history and superstitious rites 
are detailed at great length by Koempfer : among other circum- 
stances, he relates, that, " in the reign of the eleventh Emperor 
from Syn Mu, Budo came over from the Indies into Japan, and 
brought with him, upon a white horse, his religion and doctrine." 

BUDDHA. 163 

I have an illuminated painting, which I purchased at Priig, 
representing Mahadeo as a black man, with a crown of glory, 
leading a white horse, on which is a high native saddle, with a 
large bag pendant from each side, and above the saddle an 
umbrella (chatr), the emblem of royalty, and more especially 
indicative of Buddha, is fixed : the legs of the animal are dyed 
with menhdi up to the chest, and about a foot of the end of his 
tail is also dyed red : the horse is ornamented in the usual 
oriental style with jewellery and gold. It is evident that this is 
not a painting of the tenth or Kalki avatar, as the horse has 
no wings ; the saddle-bags, which, we may suppose, contain the 
doctrines which he brought with him upon a white horse, and the 
chatr, assign it to Buddha ; the figure of the man has only two 

" From the most ancient times," says Abu'l Fazel, " down to 
the present, the learning and wisdom of Hindustan has been 
confined to the Brahmans and the followers of Jaina ; but, 
ignorant of each other's merits, they have a mutual aversion ; 
Krishna, whom the Brahmans worship as god, these consider as 
an infernal slave ; and the Brahmans carry their aversion so far 
as to say, that it is better to encounter a mad elephant than to 
meet a man of this persuasion." 

The Buddhism of Hindustan appears formerly to have had its 
central seat in Buddha Gaya, a town in Bengal, as it had at 
Buddha Bamiyan, the northern metropolis of the sect. Ceylon 
appears its present refuge. Buddhism is orthodoxy in China 
and its tributary nations ; and in the states and empires of 
Cochin China, Cambodia, Siam, Pegu, Ava, Assam, Thibet, 
Budtan, many of the Tartar tribes, and generally all parts east 
of the Ganges, including many of those vast and numerous 
islands in the seas eastward and southward of the farther Indian 
promontory, whose inhabitants have not been converted to 

Jayadeva, in the Gita Govinda, thus addresses Buddha (or 
rather Vishnii or Krishna, so incarnated) , in his series of eulogy 
on each of the avatars : " 9. Thou blamest (O wonderful !) the 
whole veda, when thou seest, O kind-hearted ! the slaughter of 



cattle prescribed for sacrifice. O Kesava ! assuming the body of 
Buddha. Be victorious, O Heri, lord of the universe ! " 

The three sects of Jina, Mahiman, and Buddha, whatever 
may be the difference between them, are all named Buddhas ; 
and as the chief law, in which, as the Brahmans assert, they 
make virtue and religion consist, is to preserve the lives of all 
animated beings, we cannot but suppose that the founder of their 
sect was Buddha, in the ninth avatar, the benevolent, the tender- 

Moor remarks : " In very ancient sculptures and excavations 
we find the image of Buddha among other deities of Brahmanical 
superstition. The cave of Gharipuri, called by us Elephanta, an 
island in Bombay Harbour, is an instance of this ; and this 
temple in itself may be called a complete pantheon ; for among 
the hundreds I may, perhaps, say thousands of figures there 
sculptured, every principal deity is found. I noticed the follow- 
ing : Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, Buddha, Ganesa, and Indra ; and 
these are, in fact, all that are, by their forms or attributes or 
vehicles, unequivocally distinguishable. The figure of Buddha, in 
the temple of Gharipuri, is immediately on your left at entering." 
Moor supposes the temple is dedicated to the One Supreme 
Being ; but as no representations are made of that being, his 
three principal powers or attributes, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, 
are united in the most conspicuous place, immediately fronting 
the entrance, and forming a gigantic triune bust of the trimurti, 
the Hindii triad. The native account of this avatar is, that 
Buddha descended from the region of souls, and was incarnate 
in the body of Mahamaya, the wife of the Raja of Kailas. 
Five days after his birth, the pandits prophesied that, as he had 
marks on his hands resembling a wheel, he would at length 
become a Raja Chacraverti, and arrive at the dignity of avatar. 
He was named Sacya, and on one occasion Brahma descended, 
and held a canopy over his head. His wife was Vasutara, the 
daughter of a Raja. 

I have many images of Buddha, which were brought from 
Ava, in gold, silver, and in bronze. The common posture is 
that of sitting cross-legged on a throne, with his left hand 


BUDDHA. 165 

resting on his right foot, which is placed over his left knee, and 
his right hand hanging over his right knee. I have two images 
of Buddha in bronze, which came from Ava, in which he is repre- 
sented in this posture, sitting with his back against a plantain 
tree, the leaves of which spread out above his head, and adorn the 
image. These images were accompanied by several other figures 
apparently engaged in worship, wearing high conical caps ; the 
hands of one figure are clasped in prayer ; another holds in both 
hands, placed upon the knees, a plate containing four balls ; and 
another, in the same attitude, holds in both hands something 
that has the appearance of a circular box. I have also various 
dragons and bells, formed of bronze, which also came from Ava. 
An umbrella, made of iron, and gilt, is fixed on the tops of the 
temples, round the border of which some persons suspend bells ; 
the sound has a pleasing efiect when they are put in motion by 
the wind. Bells of various size are sometimes hung near a temple ; 
and images of lions, and monsters of various descriptions, facing 
the four quarters, or on each side the gateway, are attached to 
most temples. Umbrellas, and stone- vessels, in imitation of those 
used by Goutumii or Buddha as a mendicant, are also placed 
near the places of worship. When Buddha was one month old, 
his nurses " caused him to be laid under a white umbrella upon an 
adorned pleasure-abounding bed." At the age of sixteen, Buddha 
practised the greatest austerities ; the King, his father, became 
alarmed and dejected ; and the destiny-foretelling Brahmans as- 
sured him, that unless he put the unfortunate horses to the unfor- 
tunate chariot, and carried his son out, and buried him in a square 
hole, that they perceived three evils might happen : " One to 
the King's life, another to the white umbrella, another to the 
Queen." Buddha was carried forth ; he manifested his divinity 
to the driver of the unfortunate horses in the unfortunate 
chariot, escaped from meditated death, and fixed himself as a 
religious mendicant in the forest, where he practised the greatest 
austerities. I have an illuminated painting of Mahadeo under a 
rock in a jungle, seated upon a tiger's skin, with his arms raised 
above his head in penance. A sage leading a white horse stands 
in front, in the act of worship, and by the side of the river is a 


large tiger : aud here it may be remarked, that, among works of 
the highest merit, one is the feeding of an hungry infirm tiger 
with a person's own flesh, and the highest state of glory is 
absoi-ption. The following may explain the painting : In the 
midst of a wild and drearj' forest, flemishing with trees of sweet- 
scented flowers, and abounding in fruits and roots, infested with 
lions and tigers, destitute of human society, and frequented by 
the munis (virtuous and mighty sages), resided Buddha, the 
author of happiness, and a portion of Narayana. Once upon a 
time, the illustrious Amara, renowned amongst men, coming 
here, discovered the place of the Supreme Being in the great 
forest. He caused an image of the supreme spirit Buddha to be 
made, and he worshipped it as the incarnation of a portion of 
Vishnu : " Reverence be unto thee, in the form of Buddha; 
thou art he who rested upon the face of the milky ocean, and 
who lieth upon the serpent Sesha ; thou art Trivikrama, who at 
three strides encompassed the earth. I adore thee, who art 
celebrated by a thousand names, and under various forms, in the 
shape of Buddha, the god of mercy." The illustrious Amara- 
Deva then built the holy temple of Buddha Gaya, and set up 
the divine foot of Vishnii. 

" The forefathers of him who shall perform a sradda (funeral 
obsequies in honour of ancestors) at this place, shall obtain sal- 
vation ; a crime of an hundred-fold shall be expiated by a sight 
thereof ; of a thousand-fold, by a touch thereof ; and of a hun- 
dred thousand-fold, from worshipping thereof" 

The image of white marble, which the munshi at Allahabad 
informed me is that of Parisnath, see Vol. i. p. 324, is six inches 
high ; the position differs slightly from that of Buddha, the 
right palm is laid over the left, and the soles of the feet are 
shown, one on each side the hands ; the head is raised conically ; 
the hair is straight on the crown, and the woolly portion is so 
managed as to resemble a fillet of beads round the temple. A 
raised and quadrated lozenge is on the breast, and in the palm 
of the hand is a small ball. In the centre of the pedestal on 
which the image is seated is a crescent. The lobes of the ears are 
elongated to reach the shoulders. Moor informs us that in the 

BUDDHA. 167 

museum at the India House, is an image " about fourteen inches 
high, of a whitish, and I think calcareous, sort of stone : an 
inscription is on the pedestal, under the crescent, but it is not 
easily to be made out or copied. This image is, I think, of a 
very singular and curious description : its curly hair, thick lips, 
and position mark it decidedly of Buddhaic origin, while its 
seven heads refer it to a sect of Sauras : hence the appellation 
of Surya Buddha, appropriately applied to it. The quadrated 
lozenge on the breast and in the palm of this image, is also 
unaccounted for, and singular." 

The image of Parisnath agrees perfectly with the above 
description, with the exception that it has only one head, and 
there is no inscription on the pedestal. 

Buddha signifies a wise man, and sacya, his other title, means 
a feeder upon vegetables; he inculcated a total subjugation of 
sense, and an utter annihilation of passion. According to the 
religion of Buddha, there are no distinctions of caste. PoU- 
gamy is not forbidden by the Buddha doctrine, and it is not 
uncommon for a man to have a plurality of wives. Priests are 
forbidden to marry ; they are to live by mendicity ; are to 
possess only three garments, a begging dish, a girdle, a razor, 
a needle, and a cloth to strain the water which they drink, 
that they may not devour insects. To account for the short, 
crisp hair on the head of the idol, resembUng that of an African, 
it is said that Buddha, on a certain occasion, cut his hair 
with a golden sword, and its appearance in' consequence was 
meant to be represented on his images. 

There is a tradition among the Cingalese, that one of the 
kings of Hindustan, immediately after Buddha's death, collected 
together five hundred learned ascetics, and persuaded them to 
write down on palmyra leaves, from the mouth of one of 
Buddha's principal disciples, all the doctrines taught by Buddha 
in his lifetime. The Cingalese admit they received their reli- 
gion from the hands of a stranger. The Burmans believe that 
a Brahman was deputed to Ceylon to copy the histories of the 
incarnations of Buddha; and it is fabled that the iron stile 
with which he copied this work, was given him by an heavenly 


messenger. With the images of Buddha from Ava, were also 
presented to me four leaves of the palmyra-tree, twenty-three 
inches in length by two and a half in breadth, on both sides of 
which are engraved with a stile the religious doctrines of the 
Burmese. The leaves are held together by two pieces of ribbon 
passed through holes in them, and are a portion of a work of 
about three or four inches in thickness. In the plate entitled 
" Puja of the Tulsl," the Brahman is reading from palmyra 
leaves of the same description. 


The Kalkl, or final avatar, is yet to come ; in which Vishnu 
will appear incarnate in a human form, for the purpose of dis- 
solving the universe. The Kalki will be incarnate in the 
house of the Brahman Bishenjun, the apparent offspring of the 
sage by his wife Awejsedenee, and will be born in the city of 
Sambal, towards the close of the Kali period or Yug, in the 
month Vaisach, the scorpion. In one hand he is represented 
bearing aloft a " cimetar, blazing like a comet," to destroy all 
the impure, who shall then inhabit the earth ; and in the other 
he displays a circular ornament or ring, the emblem of cycles 
perpetually revolving, and of which the existing one is on the 
point of being finally terminated. The Kalkl is represented 
leading a white horse, richly caparisoned, adorned with jewels, 
and furnished with wings. The horse is represented standing on 
three feet only, holding up, without intermission, the right fore- 
leg ; with which, say the Brahmans, when he stamps with fury 
upon the earth, the present period shall close, and the dissolution 
of nature take place. Jayadeva thus describes the tenth avatar : 
" For the destruction of all the impure thou drawest thy 
cimetar, blazing like a comet : (how tremendous !) O Cesava, 
assuming the body of Kalkl : Be victorious, O Heri, lord of the 
universe !" 

End of the Kall-yug, or fourth Indian period, and of the 
history of the ten avatars. 


The Preserver appeared on earth in the form of Krishna, 


who is regarded as Vishnu himself, and distinct from the ten 
avatars. For the history of this god I refer you to page 118, 
in which, under the title of Krishnii, or Kaniya, is given the 
history of his life, up to the time that he disappeared from 
amidst the gopis, and left them mourning for his absence. 

Here, it may be as well to remark, in consequence of an error 
in that part of my journal, that Dewarkl, the mother of Krishnii, 
was the daughter of the tyrant Kansa ; and that Vasudeva, who 
carried him across the Jumna, was his father. 

The death of Krishna, which happened some time afterwards, 
and his ascension to the heavens, is thus related ; " Balhadur 
met his fate on the banks of the Jumna, and when Krishna saw 
that his spirit had finally departed, he became exceedingly 
sorrowful. Near where he stood there was a jungle or brake, 
into which he entered ; and leaning his head on his knees, sat 
absorbed in the deepest melancholy. He reflected within him- 
self that all the effect of Kanharee's curse had now fully taken 
place on the Yadavas, and he now called to remembrance these 
prophetic words, which Doorsava had once uttered to him : 
' O Krishna ! take care of the sole of thy foot ; for if any evil 
come upon thee, it will happen in that place.' Krishna then 
said to himself, ' Since all the Kooroos and the whole of the 
Yadavas are now dead and perished, it is time for me also to 
quit the world.' Then, leaning on one side, and placing his 
feet over his thighs, he summoned up the whole force of his 
mental and corporeal powers, while his hovering spirit stood 
ready to depart. At that time, there came thither a hunter, 
with his bow and arrow in his hand ; and seeing from a distance 
Krishna's foot, which he had laid over his thigh, and which was 
partly obscured by the trees, he suspected it to be some animal 
sitting there : applying, therefore, to his bow and arrow, the point 
of the latter of which was formed from the very iron of that club 
which had issued from Sateebe's body, he took aim, and struck 
Krishna in the sole of his foot. Then, thinking he had secured 
the animal, he ran up to seize it ; when, to his astonishment, 
he beheld Krishna there, with four hands, and drest in yellow 
habiliments. When the hunter saw that the wounded object 


was Krishna, he advanced, and, falling at his feet, said, ' Alas, 
O Krishna ! I have, by the most fatal of mistakes, struck you 
with this arrow ; seeing your foot at a distance, I did not 
properly discern my object, but thought it to be an animal ; Oh, 
pardon my involuntary crime!' Krishna comforted him to the 
utmost of his power, saying, ' It was no fault of thine ; depart, 
therefore, in peace.' The hunter then humbly kissed his foot, 
and went sorrowing away. After the hunter was gone, so great 
a light proceeded from Krishna, that it enveloped the whole 
compass of the earth, and illuminated all the expanse of heaven. 
At that instant, an innumerable tribe of devatas, and other 
celestial beings, of all ranks and denominations, came to meet 
Krishna ; and he, luminous as on that night when he was born 
in the house of Vasudeva, by that same light pursued his journey 
between heaven and earth, to the bright Vaikontha or Paradise, 
whence he had descended. All this assemblage of beings, who 
had come to meet Krishna, exerted the utmost of their power 
to laud and glorify him, Krishna soon arrived at the abode of 
Indra, who was overjoyed to behold him, accompanied him 
as far as Indra-Loke reached, and offered him all manner 
of ceremonious observances. When Krishna had passed 
the limits of Indra's territory, Indra said to him, ' I have 
no power to proceed any farther, nor is there any admission 
for me beyond this limit ;' so Krishna kindly dismissed him, 
and went forward alone." 

Arjoon, the friend of Krishna, went to Dwaraka, to see in 
what state Krishna himself might be ; when he beheld the city 
in the state of a woman whose husband is recently dead; and 
finding neither Krishna nor Balhadur nor any other of his 
friends there, the whole place appeared in his eyes as if involved 
in a cloud of impenetrable darkness ; nor could he refrain from 
bursting into tears. The sixteen thousand wives of Krishna, 
the moment they set their eyes on Arjoon, burst also into a flood 
,of tears, and all at once began the most bitter lamentations ; 
and, in truth, the whole city wzis so rent with uproar and 
distraction, that it surpasses description. A few days from this 
time, Vasudeva, the father of Krishna, died, while fourteen of 


his wives were standing around him, four of whom burnt them- 
selves on his funeral pile. Arjoon made search also for the 
earthly portions of what once was Krishna and Balhadur : these 
also he solemnly committed to the flames. Five of Krishna's 
wives burnt themselves ; while Sete-Bame, with some others, 
investing themselves with the habits of Sanyassi's, and, forsaking 
the world, retired into the deserts to pass their lives in solitude 
and prayer. 

Of the eight wives of Krishna it is unnecessary to give a 
detailed account ; the history of Radha has been mentioned 
before, but Rukmeni must not be forgotten, who, with several 
other of his wives, became satT, in the hope of an immediate 
reunion with her lord in the heaven of Vaikontha. 


Rukmeni bore to Krishna a son, who was named Pradyamna, 
and was no other than Kama, the God of Love. He was stolen 
by Sambara, a Raja, cast into the sea, and swallowed by a fish ; 
which being caught and presented to the Riija, was opened by 
his cook, Reti, who discovered and preserved the child. A 
tahsman was given which rendered the infant invisible at plea- 
sure. He was nurtured by Kam-dhenu, the holy cow, one of 
the fourteen gems of the ocean. The god of Love attained man- 
hood, and delusion (maya) being removed, he was restored to 
his delighted mother, Rukmeni. 

He is represented as a beautiful youth, sometimes con- 
versing with his mother and consort in the midst of his gardens 
and temples; sometimes riding by moonlight on a parrot or 
lory, and attended by dancing girls or nymphs, the foremost of 
whom bears his banner, a fish on a red ground. His favourite 
place of resort was a tract of country around Agra, and the 
plains of Matra ; where Krishna also, and the Gopia, usually 
spent the night singing and dancing. Pushpa-dhanva, the god 
with the flowery bow, is one of his many appellations. His bow 
is represented of flowers, or of sugar-cane, with a string formed 
of bees, and his five arrows, each pointed with an Indian 
blossom of love-inspiring quality. 

" Hail, god of the flowery bow ; hail, warrior, with a fish on 


thy banner ; hail, powerful divinity, who causest the firmness 
of the sage to forsake him, and subduest the guardian deities of 
the eight regions ! 

" Glory be to Madana ; to Kama ; to him who is formed as 
the god of gods ; to him by whom Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, 
Indra, are filled with emotions of rapture ! " 

jagana'th, or jaganat'ha. 

On the festival of the Rat'hajattra, or the festival of the 
Chariot, the images of Krishna and Bala-Rama are borne about in 
a car by day : on this occasion Krishna is worshipped as Jaga- 
na'th, or Lord of the Universe. At the temple of that name the 
concourse of people is very great : the rising of the moon is the 
sign of the commencement of the feast, which must end when 
it sets. A legend is given of Krishna having hid himself in the 
moon, in consequence of a false accusation of stealing a gem 
from Prasena, who had been killed by a lion. To see the moon 
on the fourth day after full, and the fourth day after new, of 
the month Bhadra, is hence deemed inauspicious ; and is con- 
sequently avoided by pious Vaishnavus, or followers of Vishnii. 
Further particulars relative to this deity will be found in the 
chapter that records my visit to the far-famed temple of 

Having thus traced Vishnu the Preserver through the various 
forms he assumed on earth in the ten avatars, in his appearance 
as Krishna, and the latter in the form of Jaganat'ha, let us 
return to the third personage of the Hindu triad. 


This god is generally ranked as the third power or attribute 
of the deity, he personifies destruction ; and in the obvious 
arrangement of the three grand powers of the Eternal One, 
Creation and Preservation precede Destruction. His most usual 
.accompaniment is a trident, or tri-forked flame, called trisula ; his 
colour is white, that of his hair light or reddish. He is some- 
times seen with two hands, sometimes with four, eight, or ten ; 
and with five faces. He has a third eye in his forehead, pointing 
up and down ; this distinction is peculiar to him, his children, and 


Avataras. As the god of Justice, which character he shares 
with Yama and other deities, he rides a bull, the symbol of 
divine justice. As emblems of immortality, serpents are com- 
mon to many deities, but this god is abundantly decked with 
them, and snakes are his constant attendants. A crescent on 
his forehead, or in his hair, is common in pictures and images 
of Mahadeva or Shivu. Serpents, emblems of eternity, form his 
ear-rings, called Naug Kundala : his pendant collar of human 
heads (Mund mala) marks his character of Destruction, or Time ; 
and his frontal crescent points at its most obvious measurement, 
by the phases of the moon. He holds what has been considered 
as a small double hand-drum, shaped like an hour-glass, called 
damaru, probably a sand gheri. Shivii is called " the three-eyed 
god," and " the auspicious deity with uneven eyes." Sometimes 
he is represented with a battle-axe (gadha, or parasha), and 
an antelope (mirg) in his superior hands : and in many plates of 
the deity his loins are wrapped in a tiger's skin, and the goddess 
Gunga (the Ganges) flows from his mugut or head-piece. The 
followers of Vishnu assert, that the blessed river flowed ori- 
ginally out of heaven, from the foot of Vishnu, and, descending 
upon Kailasa, the terrestrial paradise of Mahadeo, fell on the 
head of Shivu. Each sect is desirous of tracing the source of 
the sacred river to the head or foot of its own deity. The 
stream is sometimes seen issuing from the head of Shivii, and 
sometimes she afterwards issues from a cow's mouth. It is 
said, that high up towards its source the river passes through a 
narrow rocky passage, which pilgrims, who visit the sacred cleft, 
imagine resembles a cow's mouth. This spot is hence called 
Gawmuki, and is a place greatly resorted to by pilgrims. 

Viswaswara is the name by which Shivii is invoked at a 
beautiful and famous temple of that name in Kashi, or Benares ; 
and it is said in the Purdnas, that "The Vedas and Shastrs all 
testify that Viswaswara is the first of Devas, Kashi the first of 
cities, Gunga the first of rivers, and charity the first of virtues." 
Nandi is the epithet always given to the vehicle of Siva, the 
white bull : in his temples it is usually represented couchant. 

Here I will mention some of the animals appropriated as 


vehicles to Hindu mythological personages. Brahma, the swan, 
Hanasa Vishnu, the eagle, Garuda Shivu, the bull, Nandi 
Ganesh, the rat Kartikeya, a peacock Indra, the elephant, 
Travati Varuna, the genius of the waters, bestrides a fish, as 
doth also Gunga, the prime goddess of rivers. Kama, the god 
of Love, is carried by a lory, or parrot ; Agni, god of Fire, 
by a ram. The SactI, or consorts of these deities, have the 
attendant animal or vahan of their respective lords. Bhavani 
is, however, oflener seen on a lion or a tiger than on a bull, the 
vahan of Shivu. Avataras of deities ride a bull, horse, &c. 

Of Garuda, the man-eagle or bird-god, I have a small and 
curious brazen image ; representing him with folded wings, 
sitting in an attitude of adoration, on the back of a nondescript 
animal, which I have been told is a rhinoceros, but it has no 

Another brazen image which I procured, as well as the former, 
at Prag, represents the bird-god in an attitude of adoration on 
one knee, supporting on the top of his head a broadly-expanded 
cup, edged with leaves, perhaps intended to represent an ex- 
panded lotus ; a vessel of this sort is used in puja. 

The title deva is very comprehensive, meaning generally a 
deity ; devi is its feminine, but it is applied mostly to Bhavani, 
consort of Mahadeva, which name of Shivii is, literally, great 
god. But, as the title of deva is given to other gods, superior 
and inferior, so that of devi is, as hath been before stated, 
occasionally bestowed similarly on other goddesses. Devata is 
the plural of deva ; by some writers spelled dewtah. 

The antelope (mirg) that Shivu holds in one hand, alludes to 
a sacrifice, when the deer, fleeing from the sacrificial knife, took 
refuge with him. Five lighted lamps are used in piija to this 

Durga is the consort of Shivti ; this goddess is also known 
under the name of Bhuguviitee, which title is also given to the 
sow, which is regarded by the Hindus as a form of Durga. He 
was also married to Satl, the daughter of King Dukshu. 

Maha-kala is another form in which Shivu is worshipped in 
the character of the destroying deity. The image is of a smoke- 

MAHAD^O. 175 

coloured boy, with three eyes, clothed in red garments. His 
hair stands erect ; his teeth are very large ; he wears a necklace 
of human skulls, and a large turban of his own hair ; in one 
hand he holds a stick, and in another the foot of a charpai ; 
his body is swollen, and his appearance terrific. Images of this 
form of Shivii are not made in Bengal, but a pan of water, or 
an emblem of Mahadeo, are substituted ; before which bloody 
sacrifices are offered. Except before this image, such sacrifices 
are never offered to Shivu. 


Shivii appeared on earth in the form of a naked mendicant, 
with one head, two arms, and three eyes, and was acknowledged 
as Mahadeo, the great god : when he was about to be married 
to Parvati, the daughter of the Himalaya, her friends treated 
the god in a scurrilous manner, and cried out, " Ah ! ah ! ah ! 
this image of gold, this most beautiful damsel, the greatest 
beauty in the three worlds, to be given in marriage to such a 
fellow, an old fellow, with three eyes, without teeth, clothed in 
a tiger's skin, covered with ashes, encircled with snakes ; 
wearing a necklace of human bones ; with a human skull in his 
hand ; with a filthy juta that is, hair matted about his head in 
form of a tiara ; who chews intoxicating drugs, has inflamed 
eyes, rides naked on a bull, and wanders about like a madman. 
Ah! they have thrown this beautiful daughter into the river!" 
The asoca is a shrub consecrated to Mahadeo, and is planted 
near his temples. The hiloa, otherwise called Malura, is also 
sacred to him ; he alone wears a chaplet of its flowers, and they 
are offered in sacrifice to no other deity ; and if a pious Hindu 
should see any of its flowers fallen on the ground, he would 
remove them reverently to a temple of Mahadeo. The Hindu 
poets call it Sriphul, the flower of Sri. 

I have a beautiful image in white marble, highly gilt and 
ornamented, representing Mahadeo as a white man, young and 
handsome, sitting on a platform, with Parvati on his left knee. 
His hair is braided into the shape of a conical turban around his 
head, about which a serpent is twisted ; and from the top of his 


head flows Gunga, in a heavy stream, to the ground. His 
moustache is brilliantly jet black, and his forehead adorned with 
the triple eye in the centre of a crescent. Below Mahadeo in the 
centre of the platform, is a small image of his son Ganesh, on 
whose right is the Nandi, the w^hite bull couchant, and on his left, 
below ParvatI, is a yellow tiger. Mahadeo is represented with 
four hands, one bearing the tri-forked flame, another a warlike 
weapon, a third a short rosary of beads, the fourth, the hand- 
drum, the form of which is like an hour-glass. His hands and 
feet are dyed with hinnii ; his dress is yellow ; a large snake is 
around his neck, and his body profusely adorned with jewels. 


The history of Ganesh, the son of Mahadeo and ParvatI, 
having been fully detailed in the Introduction, is here omitted. 
This god is the guardian to the entrance of the heaven of Shivii. 
Vishnu, in the form of Parashu-Rama, wished to have an 
interview with Shivu, which was denied him by Ganesh ; upon 
which a battle ensued, and Parashu-Rama tore out one of his 
tusks. No public festivals are held in honour of Ganesh in 
Bengal ; many persons, however, choose him as their guardian 
deity. Stone images of Ganesh are worshipped daily in the 
temples by the side of the Ganges, at Benares, and at Allahabad. 


The second son of Mahadeo and ParvatI is the god of war, 
and commander of the celestial armies ; he is represented as 
six-headed, six-armed, six-mothered, and sometimes riding a 

An account of the three great gods of the Hindu triad having 
been given, I will add a short description of the three principal 
goddesses, Lachhml, SaraswatI, and Diirga. 


This goddess is the consort of Vishnti, and is esteemed by his 
followers as the mother of the world. When the sea was being 
agitated for the production of the immortal beverage, and the 


fourteen gems of the ocean ; " after a long time a^ipeared the great 
goddess, inhabiting the lotus, clothed with superlative beauty, 
in the first bloom of youth, covered with ornaments, and bearing 
every auspicious sign ; adorned with a crown, with bracelets on 
her arms, her jetty locks flowing in ringlets, and her body, 
which resembled burning gold, adorned with ornaments of pearl. 
This great goddess appeared with four arms, holding a lotus in 
her hand ; her countenance of incomparable beauty. Thus was 
produced the goddess Padma or Sri, adored by the whole uni- 
verse ; Padma by name. She took up her abode in the bosom 
of Padma-nabha, even of Heri." Vol. I. page 206, is an 
account and a sketch of this goddess of beauty and of pros- 
perity. I have a very ancient and time-worn brazen image, 
representing Lachhml seated on an elephant ; she has four 
hands, the two superior hands are raised as high as her head ; 
one holds a lotus-bud, the other something not unUke one ; 
each hand also supports an elephant ; their trunks unite above 
her head, and from two water-vessels they are pouring water on 
an emblem of Mahadeo, which rests on the crown of the head 
of the goddess. The lower hands are empty, the palm of one 
is raised, the other turned downwards. This image is very 
ancient and most singular : she is the goddess who presides over 
marriage, and, as the deity of prosperity, is invoked also for 
increase of children, especially male children. She bears the 
title of Rembha, as the sea-born goddess of beauty. 

Moor gives a drawing, much resembling the above, of a cast 
in brass, which he considers to be Devi, the goddess, a form of 


SaraswatI, the daughter of Brahma, and wife of Vishnu, is 
represented as a white woman, playing on a sitar. She is adored 
as the patroness of the fine arts, especially music and rhetoric ', 
as the inventress of the Sanscrit language, of the Devanagry 
character, and of the sciences which writing perpetuates. This 
goddess was tui-ned into a river by the curse of a Brahman, and, 
at the Triveni, the river SaraswatI is supposed to join the 



Ganges and Jumna underground. On the 5th day of the month 
Magha, Saraswati or Sri, the goddess of arts and eloquence, is 
worshipped with offerings of flowers, perfumes, and dressed rice : 
the worship is performed before her image, or a pen, inkstand, 
and book ; the latter articles are supposed to form a proper 
substitute for the goddess. On this day the Hindus neither 
read nor write, it is the command of the shastr. Implements of 
writing, and books, are treated with respect, and are not used on 
this holiday. Of an eloquent man the Hindus say, " Saraswati 
sits on his tongue." 

I have a picture of the goddess of eloquence, having an inter- 
view with Ganesh, the patron of literature ; with whom she is 
exchanging written scrolls, probably the vedas. Saraswati is 
mounted, astride, upon a most singular looking bird ; it is not a 
swan, neither is it a peacock ; its legs are long, so is its neck ; 
it is painted red ; can it be intended for the sarasu, what we call 
cyrus, or Siberian crane? In one of her superior hands she 
bears the vina, or been, a musical instrument ; in the second is a 
lotus and a scroll of paper with writing upon it ; the other two 
hands also bear written scrolls. She is represented as a white 
woman, with one head, on which is a red and yellow coronet ; 
her attire is of various colours, and she is adorned with jewellery, 
as well as with a long string or garland of flowers. Ganesh is 
represented sitting on a lotus, and standing behind him is a 
woman employed in fanning him with a chaunrT, made of the 
white tail of the yak ; the black rat, the constant attendant of 
Ganesh, is sitting before him. 


The consort of Shivii derives her name from the giant 
Doorgu, whom she slew. A short account of the Dasera, a 
festival held in honour of this goddess, has been given in Vol. I. 
p. 34. Durga has a thousand names, and has assumed innu- 
.merable forms, among which are Kali, the black goddess, 
worshipped at Kali Ghat ; Bhiivanl, the wife of Shivii ; Parvuti, 
the Daughter of the Mountain ; the Inaccessible, the Terrible, 
the Mother of the Universe. Kali, under the name of Phiilu- 


Huree, is described in Vol. I. p. 164 ; and Durga, as Bhagwan, 
will be hereafter mentioned. I have an ancient and curious 
brazen image of Durga, with ten arms, which I procured at 
Prag. Also numerous images of Anna-Puma Devi, the goddess 
who fills with food, a very common household deity ; most 
famiUes in the Mahratta country include her among their Dii 
penates. She is represented as a woman sitting cross-legged, 
and holding a spoon with both hands across her lap. 

ParvatI, Bhavani, Diirga, Kali, and Devi, or the Goddess, are 
names used almost indiscriminately in the writings and con- 
versations of the Hindus. The history of Sati has been given 
in Vol. I. p. 94. 


The first Indian poet was Valmiki, author of the Ramayana, a 
complete epic poem ; and Vyasa, the next in celebrity, composed 
the Mahabarat. To him are ascribed the sacred Puranas, 
which are called for their excellence, the Eighteen : they com- 
prise the whole body of Hindu Theology; and each Purana 
treats of five topics especially ; i. e. the creation, the destruction, 
and renovation of the worlds ; the genealogy of gods and 
heroes ; the reigns of the Manus ; and the transactions of 
their descendants. The Puranas are, 1. Brumhti ; 2. Padma, 
or the Lotus ; 3. Brahmanda, or the egg of Brahma, the Hindu 
Mundane egg ; 4. Agni, or fire ; 5. Vishnii ; 6. Garuda, the 
bird god, the vehicle of Vishnii ; 7. Brahmavaivarta, or trans- 
formation of Brahmii ; 8. Shivii ; 9. Linga ; 10. Naruda, son of 
Brahma ; 11. Skanda, son of Shivu ; 1 2. Markendeya, so called 
from a sage of that name; 13. Bhavishyat, future or pro- 
phetic; 14. Matsya, or the fish; 15. Varaha, or the boar; 
16. Kurma, or the tortoise; 17. Vamaha, or the dwarf; and 
18. The Bhagavat, or life of Krishnu. The Puranas are reckoned 
to contain four hundred thousand stanzas. There are, also,' 
eighteen upapuranas, or similar poems of inferior sanctity and 
different appellations ; the whole constituting the popular or 
poetical creed of the Hindiis, and some of them, or particular 
parts of them, being very generally read and studied. 



On the ancient sculptures and medals, allusive to the cos- 
mogony, these hieroglyphic symbols, the egg and the serpent, 
perpetually occur in very great variety, single and combined ; 
that famous representation of the Mundane egg, encompassed 
by the folds of the Agathodaimon, or good serpent, and sus- 
pended aloft in the temple of Hercules at Tyre, is well known 
to antiquaries. The Deus lunatus ovatus Heliopolitanus, or the 
divine egg with the lunar crescent, adored at Heliopolis, in 
Syria, is another relic of this ancient superstition. The most 
remarkable, however, of these symbolical devices is that erected, 
and at this day to be seen in one of the temples of Japan. 
The temple itself, in which this fine monument of oriental 
genius is elevated, is called Daibod, and stands in Meaco, a 
great and flourishing city of Japan. The principal image in this 
design displays itself in the form of a vast bull, butting with its 
horns against the egg, which floated on the waters of the abyss. 
The statue of the bull itself is formed of massy gold, with a 
great knob on its back, and a golden collar about its neck, 
embossed with precious stones. The fore-feet of the animal 
are represented as resting on that egg, and his hinder feet are 
immersed amidst stone and earth mixed together, the symbol of 
a chaotic mass, under which and the egg appears a considerable 
quantity of water, kept in a hollow stone. The basis of the 
whole is a square altar, the foot of which is engraved with many 
ancient Japanese characters ; and round that foot, in M. D'Han- 
carville's engraving, are two natives of that country prostrate, 
and adoring it. 


The Hindus believe that the original veda was revealed by 
Brahma, and was preserved by tradition until it w^as arranged 
in its present form by a sage, who thence obtained the 
name of Vyasa, or Veda-vyasa ; that is, compiler of the vedas. 
.He distributed the Indian scriptures into four parts, each of 
which bears the common denomination of veda. The veda, 
collectively, is the bcdy of Hindu scripture. The most popular 
idea of their origin is, that they (the four vedas) issued from 


the four mouths of Brahma. Brahma, as we have seen, had 
once five heads ; and there is a supplement to the Hindu scrip- 
tures, which some affirm to constitute a fifth veda. A mys- 
terious set of books, called Agama, proceeded from the mouth 
of Shivii. 

In Ceylon is a high mountain, on which is the print of a foot, 
still visible ; the natives worship this sacred footstep as that of 
the god Buddha, who from that eminence ascended to his native 

It has been offered, as a probable conjecture, that the Buddha 
superstition was the ancient rehgion of India, and that the 
followers of Buddha were driven out of Hindustan by the 
superior interest of the Brahmans at the courts of the Hindu 
monarchs. The priests of Buddha insist that the Brahmans 
came with their religion from Egypt ; while, by others, it is con- 
versely maintained that the Egyptians derived their doctrines and 
science from India. The religion of Buddha was, heretofore, 
and probably also about the era of Christianity, indisputably of 
extensive prevalence, as is evinced by many stupendous monu- 
ments. In Ava, where Buddhism is orthodoxy, the idea is 
upheld that it was equally prevalent in the same form throughout 
India until about the second century before Christ, when the 
Brahmans are stated to have introduced themselves and their 

This short account of the Hindii triad and their incarnations 
will give some idea of the mythology of the Hindus ; but to 
understand the subject more fully it would be necessary to refer 
to the authorities I have quoted in this abstract '. 

' Vide Appendix, No. 31. 



Jellalabad Menhdi Bridge The Resident of Gwalior Difficulty of crossing 
the Sands of the Ganges Imrutpur Marching under the Flag of the Resident 
of Gwalior Khasgunge The Tombs of Colonel Gardner and his Begam 
Mulka Begam Style of March Pleasure of a Life in Tents The Fort of 
AUigarh The Racers The 16th Lancers present a Shield to Mr. Blood 
The Monument The Kos-minar Koorjah and Solitude Meeting of old 
Friends Meerut The Officers of the Artillery give a Ball to the Governor- 
General and his Party The Suraj Kiind The Buffs add to the gaiety of 
the Station The Artillery Theatre The Pilgrim Tax abolished at 

1838, Jan. 8th. Arrived at Jellalabad without any adventures. 
Went to hear the band in the evening, but felt weary from not 
having slept the night before on account of the yells of the 
packs of jackals in every direction round the tent, and the noise 
of the sentries keeping off the people from Kanauj. We were 
in a complete jangal : a wolf came up to my tent at mid-day, 
then trotting over to the opposite tent, carried off my neigh- 
bour's kid. 

9th. Early this morning I overtook Colonel M , who 

was marching with his regiment, and rode with him some miles : 
we passed over a most curiously built suspension bridge, thrown 
over the Kala-nadi by the late Nawab Hakim Menhdi ; the 
pillars through which some part of the workmanship passes 
,are remarkable. The sight of the river put me in mind of the 
excellence and large size of the arwari fish it contains. After- 
wards, speaking of this sort of mullet to Captain O , he 

told me he had sent out a man to shoot arwari fish, who had 


returned quite sick from having seen a hundred and thirty dead 
bodies choking up the river. 
lOth. Arrived at Fathigarh. 

I2th. Dined with Major Sutherland, the Resident of Gwalior, 
who was in attendance on the Governor-General. A number of 
friends were assembled ; a bright fire blazed in the tent ; our 
host was the life of the party ; the dinner was excellent. I 
have seldom passed a more agreeable evening. 

I3th. Crossed the river on a bridge of boats that had been 
erected for the accommodation of the Lord Sahib, as the natives 
call the Governor- General. 

They say there are about eleven thousand people with the 
camp, and elephants and camels innumerable, which, added to the 
Body guard, Artillery, and Infantry, form an immense multitude. 
It is said his Lordship's marching about the country costs the Go- 
vernment 70,000 rupees a month ; the encampment encroaching 
on fields of grain often costs from 300 to 400 rupees a day to 
make up the loss sustained by the peasants. On the other side 
the bridge, the road was marked out by little flags, and a most 
heartbreaking road it was ; entirely through the dry bed of the 
river, nearly axle deep in fine sand : the day was bitterly cold, 
the wind very high, and the flying sand filled our eyes and 
mouths. I was too unwell to mount my horse, and the result 
was that the two greys had to drag me the whole way in the 
Stanhope. The first thing I discovered was my ay ha in her cart 
fixed in the sand, and quite immovable. Some soldiers came 
forward and helped her out of her difficulty. All the Company's 
hackeries had come to an anchor. The soldiers, finding the 
bullocks had no power to extricate them from the sand, took out 
the animals, and harnessed themselves, some thirty or forty men 
to each cart, and dragged it until it reached better ground. 

I came up to my tent at Imrutpur, and found it was pitched 
close to the lines of the camp of the Governor- General ; this 
could not be altered at the time, the other tent not having 
come up, and being ill I laid down to rest. The other tent 
did not come up until it was too late to pitch it ; and in the 
evening I was annoyed at finding I was within the rules of the 


camp, within the sentries, which I had given strict orders to 
avoid, and which my people had disobeyed by mistake when 
pitching the tent during the night. Indeed, the long march 
over the sand of the river had harassed them, and when it is 
particularly cold, the natives are more stupid than usual. 

\4th. I was quite ill, and much inclined to give up my 
journey altogether, but as my tent was pitched within the rules, 
I got up very early, had the other tent pitched without the 

rules, went into it, and struck the former. Captain C 

wrote to mention it had been observed that the tent had been 
pitched within the line of sentries, and to request I would give 
orders to my khalasis to prevent the recurrence of the circum- 
stance. I therefore determined to change my route ; and a note 

having come from Mrs. H , saying their party having 

quitted the great camp were going to AUigarh, and requesting 
me to join them, I accepted the invitation with great pleasure. 

I9th. Finished a march of fifteen miles before half-past eight 
A.M. ; halted at Nawabgunge ; breakfasted with my friends ; a 
most kind welcome, a bright fire, and an excellent breakfast, 
made me quite happy. The formality of the great camp I had 
just quitted formed a strong contrast to the gaiety and cheerful- 
ness of marching under the flag of the Resident of Gwalior. 

23rd. We arrived at Khasgunge, and encamped in the 
Mango Tope just beyond the village. After breakfast, I drove 
four miles to see Mr. James Gardner, who had succeeded to his 
father's property, and was living at his house. I found the place 
quite deserted ; Mr. Gardner was at one of his villages some miles 
off, but his wife, Mulka Begam, was at home. I sent word I would 
pay my respects to her if she could receive me. In the mean time 
I went into the garden, and visited all those spots where I had so 
often enjoyed the society of my dear friend Colonel Gardner. 
The pavihon in the centre of the garden, in which I had nursed 
him when he was so ill, recalled to mind the conversation we 
then had, which ended in his taking me to the tomb of his son 
just beyond the garden ; we sat on that tomb, and the dear old 
man said, pointing to the spot, " I wish to be buried there, by 
the side of my son ; another year will not pass ere I shall be 


placed there ; you are very kind in trying to persuade me, my 
dear daughter, that I have still many years before me, but I feel 
I am going, my constitution is gone ; it is well that with old 
age we feel all these pains and the ills that accompany it ; were 
it not so, we should never be willing to quit this world." Our 
conversation lasted some time, afterwards he took my arm, and 
we returned slowly to the house. I visited his grave : his son 
had raised a tomb on the spot selected by his father ; it was not 
quite finished. I knelt at the grave of my kind, kind friend, 
and wept and prayed in deep affliction. His Begam had only 
survived him a few days. She was buried in the same tomb, 
with her head to Mecca, towards which place the face of a true 
believer is always turned when laid in the grave. The corpse 
of a Muhammadan is laid on its back in the grave, with the 
head to the north and feet to the south, turning its face towards 
the kibla (or Mecca, i. e. west). The Shi'as make their tombs 
for men of the same shape as the Sunnis make those for 
females ; and for women like those of the Sunnis for men, but 
with a hollow, or basin, in the centre of the upper part. 

Mulka Begam received me very kindly ; she showed me her 
little girl, the youngest, about two years old, whom she said was 
reckoned very like me. The child was shy, and clung to 
her ayha, frightened at a stranger ; I could scarcely catch a 
glimpse of her face. The eldest boy was from home with his 
father ; the second son, William Linnaeus, so called after his 
grandfather, was at home ; he is a very fine, inteUigent boy. I 

requested leave to bring Mrs. H to pay her a visit that 

evening, and then asking permission to depart, I returned to the 
tents. In the evening, our party set off for Khasgunge : we 
walked in the garden, and visited the tomb. Major Sutherland 
spoke of Colonel Gardner as a most gallant officer, and recorded 
several most dashing actions in which he had distinguished 
himself in many parts of the country ; gallantry that had not 
met the recompense due to it from Government ; the value of a 
spint such as Colonel Gardner's had not been properly appre- 
ciated by the rulers of the land. 

When the evening closed in, the gentlemen went into the outer 


house, and I took Mrs. H into the zenana : as dark beauties 

always look best by candle-light, I had selected a late hour to 
visit the Begam ; she was sitting on her gaddl when we went in, 
surrounded by her three beautiful children, and was in herself a 
picture. The little girl, my likeness, had lost all her shyness, 
and was figuring about like a dancing girl ; on remarking the 
extraordinary change from shyness to such violent spirits, 
Mulka said, " She has had some opium, that makes her so 
fearless." We sat an hour with the Begam, and then took 
our leave. We found the gentlemen in the outer house, 
sitting over a warm fire, and an excellent dinner of native 
dishes was ready ; having dined, we returned by torch-light to 
the tents. 

My friends were much gratified with their visit to Khasgunge ; 
I had spoken so warmly of the beauty of Mulka Begam, that I 

was pleased to find Mrs. H admired equally both her 

person and manners. 

25th. Our morning march was thus : Mr. H , Major 

Sutherland and myself on horseback ; Mrs. H in a palanquin- 
carriage, that rivalled Noah's ark ; it held herself, three children, 
three ayhas, two dogs, and packages without number ; four good 
Arab horses had hard work to pull it six miles over such roads : 
the rest of the march was performed in buggies, with a relay of 
horses on the road. Major Sutherland, on his beautiful Arab, 
used to fly over the country in true Pindaree style ; some of his 
Arabs I coveted exceedingly. In the evening the gentlemen 
took their guns ; no game was to be found, the land was gene- 
rally perfectly bare, not a blade of grass, the game had perished 
for want of food. The whole country around Zezaree was very 
flat and uninteresting ; the only picturesque object we could 
find during these evening rambles was an old well ; these wells 
we used to seek out and peer into as if we belonged to the 
Thuggee department, and were searching for dead bodies. Our 
life in tents was very agreeable, and I believe the whole party 
were sorry the next march would bring us to Alligarh, and 
once more into the form and stupidity of life in a house ; for 
myself, the idea of having any roof over my head but that of a 


tent fell like a nightmare on my spirits ; and the giving up 
himting for old wells was a complete sacrifice. 

26th. Arrived at AUigarh ; were kindly welcomed by Mr. 

and Mrs. H , and pitched our tents in the Compound ; in 

the evening we visited the fort, rendered famous for the gallant 
style in which it was taken, in Lord Lake's time, from General 
Perron. The fort was strong, and surrounded by a fine ditch ; 
to have approached it in a regular manner would have taken a 

month. A party of the regiment had a skirmish with 

some of the men belonging to the fort ; as these men retreated 
over the first bridge the English fought with, and entered the first 
gate with them. When within the gate they were exposed 
to a heavy fire on every side ; just under a large peepul tree, 
close to the gate, six of the officers were killed ; the rest crossed 
the second bridge, and fixed their ladders on the wall ; but by 
their own ladders the enemy descended upon them. After 
dreadful slaughter, the second gate was entered, and the English 
took possession of the fort. 

General M was wounded in the assault, and obliged to 

retire ; it was fortunate for his memory he was an actor in one 
scene of gallantry, for his after-conduct gave rise to a song that 
is known to every sepahi in the service. 

" Ha'thi par howda 
Ghore par zin 
Jaldi bhagiya 
Gen'ral Monsin." 

The English lowered the walls of the fort, but left one small 
portion standing, to show their great original height. The fort 
formerly had but one entrance, which opened on the ditch ; the 
English built another gate on the opposite side, and another 
bridge across the ditch ; the place was kept in repair for a short 
time, but is now in ruins. Within the fort, on the right, is a 
model of the ground plan. I only regret I cannot very well 
remember all that was told me at the time in the most animated 
manner by Major Sutherland, who, himself a distinguished 
oflScer, was greatly interested in the Fort of AUigarh. 


2Tth. Our party drove to the race-stand, to see the horses 
that are in training for the races : certainly, Botanist and 

Faustus, two very fine Arabs, belonging to Mr. B , are 

beautiful creatures. In the evening we visited a house and 
garden, formerly the property of General Perron, now in the 
possession of Major Derridon, who married his sister. 

Major Cureton, of the 16th Lancers, dined with us ; we had a 
long conversation about the old regiment; he told me the 16th 
had sent Mr. Blood a present of a silver shield. How much the 
old man will feel and value the honour conferred upon him by 
his regiment ! 

2d>th. Visited Mr. B 's stud to see his beautiful Arabs : 

in the evening we went to the tomb of the officers who fell at 
the taking of the Fort ; eight of them are buried there, and a 
monument is erected to their memory. Thence we went to a 
Masjid, situated on a hill in the town, a very picturesque object 
from a distance. At its side is the ruin of a very old Kos 
Minar, which is remarkable. Rain threatened, the clouds were 
black and heavy, the thunder rolled, but only a few, a very few 
drops descended. Without rain all the crops now above ground 
will perish, and the famine wall continue. 

2^th. With regret I separated this day from the party, to 
pursue my route alone to Meerut, they to take the opposite 

direction to Muttra, Gwalior, and Agra : Mr. H and Miss 

B accompanied me the first six miles on the march. How 

curious appeared the solitude of my tents away from the happy 
party I had quitted ! yet I enjoyed the quiet, the silence, and 
the being alone once more. 

<iOth. Encamped at Koorjah ; a tufan of wind and sand 
all day ; no grass to be had or seen, the earth all dried up. 
In the Faquir's Baghlcha is a picturesque tomb and ruined 

Z\st. Encamped at Bulandsher ; quitted the good Delhi road 
to turn to Meerut ; the wind very high, and miserably cold, the 
sand flying like dust, covering every thing in the tent, and 
filling my eyes. The servants annoyed me by disobeying orders ; 
the food was bad, the Arab's saddle wrung his back, everj' 


thing went wrong. What a distance I have marched ! how 
generally barren, flat, and uninteresting the country has been ! 
I saw a very fine banyan tree a day or two ago, but the general 
face of the country is a sandy plain, interspersed with a few 
green fields near the wells, and topes of mango trees : in one of 
these topes my tent is pitched to-day. My beautiful dog Nero 
is dead. What folly in this climate to be fond of any thing ! it 
is sure to come to an untimely end. 

Feb. 3rd. Encamped at Kerkowdah ; at this spot my rela- 
tive, Capt. E. S , met me, to conduct me to his house at 

Meerut. How changed we were ! our first impulse was to laugh 
at each other ; when last we met we were happy young creatures, 
playing at games of every sort on the lawn at Somerford Booths. 
Our voices, the expression of our countenances, were, perhaps, 
the same ; in other respects the alteration was so great, how 
could we help laughing at each other ? 

4th. Arrived at Meerut, pitched my tents in the Compound, 
i. e. the grounds around the house. 

6th. The Governor-General and the Camp arrived. 

7th. Attended a ball given by the ofiicers of the artillery to 
the Governor- General ; Lord Auckland and the Misses Eden 
were gracious, and had I not been suffering from illness, I should 
have enjoyed the party. 

9th. Drove to the Suraj Kund, or Spring of the Sun, a re- 
markably large tank ; a little further on are a great number of 
sat! mounds of peculiar construction. In the evening attended 
a ball, given by the station to the Governor-General and his 

\2th. Dined with General and Mrs. R to meet the 

Governor-General and his party ; the dinner was given in one 
great tent, which held eighty guests at table. In the evening 
the party went to a ball given by the Buffs to the Governor- 
General ; the room was gay and well-lighted, ornamented with 
rays of steel, formed of bayonets and ramrods ; a sort of throne 
was decorated with the colours of the regiment for the Governor- 
General. The dancing was carried on with spirit ; the finale an 
excellent supper. 


Mr. W invited me to Lahore, to witness the meeting of 

the Governor-General and Runjeet Singh. I promised to accept 
the invitation, if in that part of the world in November, but I 

fear I shall be far distant. Captain O sent me three Italian 

greyhound pups ; they dart about in the most amusing manner. 
I hope the little delicate creatures will live. Wishing to view 
the ruins of Delhi, I sent off my tents one march to await me. 
In the evening I went to the theatre, to see the performance of 
the privates of the artillery. The men built their own theatre, 
painted their own scenes, and are themselves the performers. 
The scenery is excellent, the house crowded ; the men acted 
remarkably well ; and the ladies, strapping artillery men, six feet 
high, were the cause of much laughter. A letter from Alla- 
habad informed me, "the 12th of January was one of the great 
bathing days, the river and its banks were covered with the 
pilgrims ; for days and days we saw them passing in one almost 
continued line, very few rich people amongst them, principally 
the lower orders. There is no tax now levied by the Govern- 
ment, but an officer is sent down with a guard as usual. There 
was a storm in the morning, and the rain had been pouring ever 
since. The poor creatures now on their way in thousands for 
to-morrow's bathing will suffer dreadfully, and all their tamasha 
be spoiled." 




" I'll thank you for your name, Sir." 

Happiness of being alive March from Meerut to Delhi Method of Stealing a 
Camel Delhi The Church Monument erected to Wm. Frazer, Esq., 
B.C.S. The Canal of Paradise Mimic Warfare Tomb of Humaioon 
Fort of Feroze Shah Masjid of Zeenut al Nissa Masjid of Roshun-ool- 
Dowla Datisca Cannabina Mimosa Scandens Washing by Steam The 
Kutub Minar Ancient Colonnades Kutub ka Lat Unfinished Minar. 

1838, Feb. With the Neapolitan saying, " Vedi Napoli, e poi 
mori," I beg leave to differ entirely, and would rather offer this 
advice, " See the Tajmahal, and then seethe Ruins of Delhi." 
How much there is to delight the eye in this bright, this beautiful 
world ! Roaming about with a good tent and a good Arab, one 
might be happy for ever in India : a man might possibly enjoy 
this sort of life more than a woman ; he has his dog, his gun, 
and his beaters, with an open country to shoot over, and is not 
annoyed with " I'll thank you for your name. Sir." I have a 
pencil instead of a gun, and believe it affords me satisfaction 
equal, if not greater than the sportsman derives from his 


On my return from the theatre I sought my charpal, and 
slept Oh, how soundly ! was dressed, and on my horse by 
6 A.M., having enjoyed four hours and a half of perfect rest. 
" Sleep is the repose of the soul '." I awoke from my slumber 
perfectly refreshed, and my little soul was soon cantering away 
on the back of an Arab, enjoying the pure, cool, morning breeze. 
Oh ! the pleasure of vtigabondizing over India ! 

IQth. We rode part of the distance, and drove the remainder 
of the march, sixteen miles ; found the tents ready, and the 
khidmatgars on the look out. Took a breakfast such as hungry 
people eat, and then retired to our respective tents. The fatigue 
was too much ; the novel dropped from my hand, and my sleepy 
little soul sank to repose for some hours. 

When the sun was nearly down, we roamed over the fields 
with the gentlemen and their guns, but found no game. Thus 
passed the day of the first march on the road to Delhi at 

17 th. Arrived early at Furrudnagar, another long distance ; 
a high wind, clouds of dust, and a disagreeable day. During 
the night the servants were robbed of all their brass lotas and 
cooking utensils. A thief crept up to my camels, that were 
picketed just in front of the tent, selected the finest, cut the 
rope and strings from his neck ; then, having fastened a very 
long thin rope to the animal, away crept the thief. Having got 
to the end of the line, the thief gave the string a pull, and con- 
tinued doing so until he rendered the camel uneasy ; the animal 
got up, another pull he turned his head, another and he 
quietly followed the twitching of the cord that the thief held ; 
who succeeded in separating him from the other camels, and got 
him some twenty yards from the tent ; just at this moment the 
sentry observed the camel quietly departing, he gave the alarm, 
the thief fled, and the animal was brought back to the camp ; a 
few yards more the thief would have been on his back, and we 
should have lost the camel. 

I8th. Marched into Delhi : the first sight of the city from 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 120. 


^alacf ant Jfort of 0plhi 


DELHI. 193 

the sands of the Jumna is very imposing ; the fort, the palace, 
the mosques and minarets, all crowded together on the bank of 
the river, is a beautiful sight. " In the year of the Hijerah, 
1041 (a.d. 1631-2), the Emperor Shah -jahan founded the present 
city and palace of Shahjahanabad, which he made his capital 
during the remainder of his reign. The new city of Shahjahan- 
abad lies on the western bank of the Jumna, in latitude 28 36' 
North. The city is about seven miles in circumference, and is 
surrounded on three sides by a wall of brick and stone ; a 
parapet runs along the whole, but there are no cannon planted 
on the ramparts. The city has seven gates : viz., Lahore gate, 
Delhi gate, Ajimere gate, Turkoman gate. Moor gate, Cabul gate. 
Cashmere gate ; all of which are built of freestone, and have 
handsome arched entrances of stone, where the guards of the 
city kept watch." 

We entered the town by the Delhi gate : during the rains, 
when the river flows up to and by the walls of the city, the view 
from a boat must be beautiful ; at present the river is shallow, 
with great sand-banks in the centre. We crossed a bridge of 
boats, and encamped in front of the church. 

The church was built by Colonel Skinner, planned by Colonel 

S ; I do not like the design : it was put into execution by 

Captain D . The dome appears too heavy for the body of 

the church, and in the inside it is obliged to be supported by 
iron bars, a most unsightly affair. A man should visit the 
ruins of Gaur, and there learn how to build a dome, ere he 
attempt it. Colonel Skinner is a Christian ; the ladies of his 
family are Musalmanis, and for them he has built a mosque oppo- 
site the church. In the churchyard is the tomb of Mr. William 
Frazer, who was murdered by the Nawab Shumsheodin : Colonel 
Skinner has erected a monument to the memory of his friend ; 
it is of white marble, in compartments, which are inlaid with 
green stones, representing the weeping willow ; the whole was. 
executed at Jeypore, and cost, it is said, 10,000 rupees. On the 
top is a vase, and, in a compartment in front of the church is a 
Persian inscription. Below are these hues, and in front of 
the lines are two lions reposing : to none but an Irishman 

VOL. 11. o 


would it be clear that the us in the epitaph proceeds from the 
lions : 

" Deep beneath this marble stone 
A kindred spirit to our own 
Sleeps in death's profound repose, 
Freed from human cares and woes ; 
Like us his heart, like ours his frame, 
He bore on earth a gallant name. 
Friendship gives to us the trust 
To guard the hero's honour'd dust." 

On the other side the monument is another inscription, also 
written by Colonel Skinner. 








Creator ! 

A brother in FRIENDSHIP 











DIED MARCH 22nD, 1835. 

In the evening the brother of the Baiza Ba'i, Hindu Rao, 
sent me an elephant, and Colonel Skinner sent another ; on 
these we mounted, and went through all the principal streets of 
the city. Dehli or Dilll, the metropolis of Hindustan, is gene- 
rally called by Musalmiins Shiih-jahan-abad, and, by Europeans, 
Delhi. The Chandnl chauk, a very broad and handsome street, 
is celebrated ; it has a canal that runs through and down the 
centre of it ; but such is the demand for water, that not a drop 


now reaches Delhi, it being drawn off" for the u'rigation of the 
country, ere it arrive at the city. This fine stream is called 
Nahr-i-Bihisht, or " Canal of Paradise." " In the reign of 
Shah-jahan, Ah Merdan Khan, a nobleman, dug, at his own 
expense, a canal, from the vicinity of the city of Panniput, near 
the head of the Doo-ab, to the suburbs of Delhi ; a tract of 
ninety miles in extent. This noble canal is called by the natives 
the ' Canal of Paradise,' and runs from north to south, in 
general about ten miles distant from the Jumna, until it joins 
that river nine miles below the city of New Delhi : it yielded 
formerly fourteen lakh of rupees per annum. At present it 
is out of repair, and in many places almost destroyed." 

As we went round the Jama Masjid, a fine mosque, I thought 
of the words of the Prophet, " Masjids are the gardens of 
Paradise, and the praises of God the fruit thereof" On the 
high flight of steps leading to the mosque were hundreds of 
people in gay dresses, bargaining for cloth, sweetmeats, &c. 

The inhabitants of Delhi appear to delight in dresses of the 
gayest colours, and picturesque effiect is added to every scene by 
their graceful attire. Native gentlemen of rank, attended by 
large sawdrts (retinues) on horseback, on elephants, or on 
camels, are met at every turn, rendering the scene very 
amusing and animated. Nevertheless, in spite of all this 
apparent splendour, a proverb is used to express the vanity 
and indigence prevalent in that city : " Dilll ke dilwiill raunh 
chikna pet khali ;" " The inhabitants of Dihli appear to be opu- 
lent, when, in fact, they are starving." A little beyond the 
Jama Masjid is the wall of the palace, a most magnificent 
wall ; I was delighted with it and its gateways. Shortly after- 
wards we turned our elephants towards the tents, and returned, 
considerably fatigued, to dinner. 

\9th. This morning we had decided on visiting the tomb of 
Humaioon, but, on mounting our horses, hearing firing at a 
distance, we rode off" to see what amusement was going forward, 
leaving the visit to the tomb for another day. It was lucky we 
did so, I would not on any account have missed the scene. We 
galloped away, to save time, and found Lord Auckland and his 

(J 2 


party at a review ; after looking at the review a short time, 

Captain S , himself an engineer, took me to see a very 

interesting work : the sappers and miners had erected a mud- 
fort ; trenches were regularly formed in front of the fort, to 
cover the attacking party, and mines were formed underground 
to a considerable distance. We walked through the long 

galleries, which were all lighted up, and Captain S explained 

the whole to me. On our return. Lord Auckland came up, 
examined the fort, and walked through the miners' galleries. 
The attack commenced, the great guns blazed away at the 
bastion, which was blown up in good style by the miners ; the 
soldiers mounted the breach and took the fort, whilst, on the 
right, it was scaled by another party. This mimic war was very 
animated ; I like playing at soldiers, and it gave me an excellent 
idea of an attack, without the horror of the reality : another 
mine was sprung, and the warfare ended. The sun was high 
and very hot, we rode home as fast as our horses could carry 
us, only stopping on the top of a rocky hill near the late 
Mr. Frazer's house, to admire the view of Delhi, which lay below 
a mass of minarets and domes, interspersed with fine trees. 
Near this spot Mr. Frazer was shot. The house was bought by 
Hindu Rao for 20,000 rupees. Out of this rocky hill a sort of 
red gravel is dug, which forms the most beautiful roads. 

After breakfast we struck our tents, and came to stay with a 
friend, who has a fine house in beautiful grounds, with a 
garden filled to profusion with the gayest flowers, situated just 
beyond the Cashmere gate of the city. Colonel Edward Smith, 
of the engineers, deserves great credit for the style and good 
taste he has displayed in the architecture of this gate of Delhi, 
and for several other buildings which were pointed out to me as 
of his design in other parts of the city. We found the tents 
very hot within the walls, with flies innumerable, like the plague 
of Egypt ; at least, they must be quite as bad during the hot 
season. In the evening we went to a ball, given by Mr. Metcalfe 
to the Governor-General and his party. 

20th. The ball gave me a head-ache, and I was suffering a 
good deal of pain, when a native lady came to see me, on the 


part of the Nawab Shah Zamanee Begam, the Emperor's 
unmarried sister, from whom she brought a comphmentary 
message, and a request that I would call upon her at the palace. 
The lady, finding me in pain, most kindly shampooed and mulled 
my forehead so delightfully, that my head -ache was charmed 
away ; shampooing is the great luxury of the East. 


In the evening we drove through the ruins of old Delhi to 
the tomb of the Emperor Humaioon. The drive is most inte- 
resting ; you cannot turn your eye in any direction but you are 
surrounded by ruins of the most picturesque beauty. The tomb 
of Humaioon is a fine massive building, well worth visiting : it 
is kept in good repair. There are several monuments within 
the chambers of the mausoleum that are of carved white marble. 
The tomb of the Emperor is very plain, and without any inscrip- 
tion. On the terrace is a very elegant white marble monument, 
richly carved, of peculiar construction, over the remains of a 
Begam. The different and extensive views from the terrace over 
the ruins of old Delhi are very beautiful. 

Captain William Franklin gives the following description of 
this mausoleum : 

" The tomb of Humaioon, the son of Baber, the second of 
the imperial house of Timur, was erected by his son Akbar, on 
the western bank of the Jumna, in the old city of Delhi. 

" The terrace, which is of red stone, is two thousand feet in 
circumference. The mausoleum, which is also of red stone, 
rises from this terrace. It is of circular form, surmounted by a 
stupendous dome of white marble. Conspicuous from its 
dimensions, this dome is seen from a great distance. Four 
minarets of red and white marble support the extremities of the 
building. These are crowned with octagonal pavilions of red 
stone, having marble cupolas. I judge the height to be about 
one hundred and twenty feet. A winding staircase of red stone 
leads to a terrace, which encircles the exterior of the dome : 
hence you have a noble prospect, both of old and new Delhi. 
"The principal room below is paved with large slabs of white 


marble. It contains the tomb of Humaioon, of the common 
size, but elegantly decorated with chisel work. It bears no 
inscription. Adjoining to this room are other apartments, in 
which are interred several princesses of the house of Timur. 

" Upon the terrace before-mentioned are the graves of five 
princes of the royal family ; viz., Darah Shekoah, who was put 
to death by the order of his brother Aurunzebe ; 2nd, Mooiza- 
deen, or Jahandar ; 3rdly, Shah Furrukseir, put to death by the 
Seyuds ; 4thly, Beedar Bukht ; and 5thly, Azim Shah, son of 
Aurunzebe. Near them is the grave of the late emperor, the 
second Aulumgeer. 

" About two hundred yards from this mausoleum, is that of 
the famous Khan Khanan, prime minister of Jehangeer, and 
son of the renowned Byram Khan, remarkable for contributing 
in so great a degree, during the successive reigns of Humaioon, 
Akbar, and Jehangeer, to establish the house of Timur on the 
throne of Hindostan. The tomb resembles, both in size and 
shape, that of the Nawab Suftar Jung." 

On our return, we visited the old Fort of Delhi. The 
guide pointed out to us a building, which he called a khwab 
khana, or sleeping apartment ; from this building Humaioon fell 
by accident, and was killed. 

The mosque in the Fort attracted our admiration ; it is a 
beautiftil building. Passing out at the other gate brought us 
opposite to the Lall Durwaza, the carriage was in waiting, and 
I returned home. 


Feb. 2\st. We mounted our horses and rode to a ruin, 
beyond the Delhi Gate, called the Kotila of Feroze Shah. This 
is an old Fort completely in ruins. In the centre some arches 
still remain, on the top of which is a platform, on which 
is erected a Idt, a pillar of a single stone of great height, 
'which is said to be of granite ; a number of inscriptions are on 
the pillar. It measures at the base upwards of twelve feet 
in circumference. The top is broken, apparently shivered by 


The following extracts, from Captain William Franklin's 
Memoirs of Mr. George Thomas, and his Visit to Delhi in 1 793, 
are interesting : 

" A mile to the southward of the city are the remains of the 
fort, palace, and mosque of the Patan emperor, the first Feroze. 
These ruins embrace a considerable extent. The walls of the 
fort are of immense thickness, and the prodigious quantity of 
granite, with other stones, spread in heaps over the whole of the 
interior of the inclosure, denote it to have been a grand and 
splendid edifice. This fort was built Anno Hijirah 755, and 
was destroyed by the Mogul conqueror Timoor, in his invasion 
of Hindostan. Toward the centre of the place, is a building, 
of an ancient style, flanked with round pillars, and crowned 
with turrets of three stories. At the top of this building, on an 
ample terrace of stone, about forty feet in height, is a column 
of brown granite. On this column is an inscription, in the 
ancient character before-mentioned, as discernible on the pillar 
in the Fort of Allahabad, and composed of the same materials. 
This pillar is called by the natives Feroze Cotelah, the staff" of 
Feroze ; and from the construction of the building on which it is 
placed, I should conjecture it has been a monument of Hindoo 
grandeur prior to the irruptions of the Musulmans. Adjoin- 
ing to the Cotelah is a very large building, differing in the style 
of its architecture from those mosques built subsequent to the 
establishment of the Moguls. This mosque is square, has four 
extensive aisles, or cloisters, the roofs of which are stone, and 
supported by two hundred and fifty columns of stone, about 
sixteen feet high. The length of the cloisters gives a grand 
appearance to the building. An octangular dome of stone and 
brickwork, about twenty-five feet high, rises from the centre of 
the mosque. In the western cloister, is a kibla, or niche in the 
wall, in the direction of Mecca. Of this mosque, the Emperor 
Timoor took a model, and carrying it with him on his return to 
Samarcand, his capital, accompanied at the same time by arti- 
ficers and workmen of every description, he, shortly after his 
arrival, built a magnificent temple. 

" In the northern aisle of this mosque, at the upper end, is a 


small window, from which was thrown the body of the late 
Emperor AUumgeer, who had been assassinated at the instigation 
of his Vizier, Gaziodeen Khan. The assassins were two Ma- 
homedan devotees, whom he had invited under the pretence of 
their working miracles. The body of this unfortunate prince, 
unburied, for two days lay on the sands of the Jumna. At last 
it was taken up by the permission of Gaziodeen, and interred 
in the sepulchre of Humaioon. To me it appears that the style 
of building in this mosque refers to a period in the architecture 
of the Hindoos prior to the Mogul conquests. The mosque at 
Paniput, erected by the Emperor Baber, may be looked upon as 
the model of all the succeeding Mogul buildings." 

The Akbarabadee Masjid, which we next visited, is a large 
mosque, not very remarkable ; perhaps this is the Masjid of the 
Akbarabadee Begam, whose tomb is near the Taj at Agra. 

Thence we went to the Zeenut-al-Masjid, on the side of the 
Jumna, erected by a daughter of Aurangzeb, by name Zeenut- 
al-Nissa ; it is a very beautiful mosque, the minarets remark- 
ably elegant, and two of the pillars in front of the entrance, 
beautifully carved, are of elegant form. "It is of red stone, 
with inlayings of marble, and has a spacious terrace in front, 
with a capacious reservoir, faced with marble. The princess 
who built it, having decUned entering into the married state, 
laid out a large sum of money in the above mosque ; and on its 
completion, she built a sepulchre of white marble, surrounded 
by a wall of the same, in the west corner of the terrace. Here 
she was buried, in the year of the Hijerah 1122, correspondmg 
to the year of Christ, 1710." 

We called on Colonel Skinner, and saw his sister, an old lady 
very like her brother, with a dai-k complexion and white hair. 
The Chandni Chauk is a fine street, and its bazar the best in the 
city; we rode through it about 4 p.m. ; it was filled with crowds 
of gaily-dressed natives. 


We observed with great interest the gilded domes of the 
mosque of Roshan-ool-Dowla, at one end of the Chandni 


Chauk ; it is of the common size, built of red stone, and sur- 
mounted by three domes. The King of Persia took Dellii, 
A.D. 1739. Nadir Shah, on hearing of a tumult that broke out 
in the great market-place, in which two thousand Persians were 
slain, marched out at night with his men as far as this Masjid ; 
here he thought it prudent to halt until daylight. When day- 
light began to appear, a person from a neighbouring terrace 
fired upon the king, and killed an officer by his side. Nadir 
Shah was so much enraged, that although the tumult had by 
this time totally subsided, he sent out his soldiers, and ordered 
a general massacre of the inhabitants. This order was executed 
with so much rigour, that before 2 p.m., above one hundred 
thousand, without distinction of age, sex, or condition, lay dead 
in their blood, although not above one-third part of the city 
was visited by the sword. Nadir Shah sat during this dreadful 
scene in the Masjid of Roshan-ool-Dowla ; none but slaves 
dared approach him. At length the unfortunate Emperor of 
Delhi, attended by a number of his chief omrah, ventured before 
him with downcast eyes. The omrah who preceded the king, 
bowed their foreheads to the ground. Nadir Shah sternly asked 
them what they wanted ? They cried out with one voice, " Spare 
the city." Muhammad said not a word, but the tears flowed 
fast from his eyes. The tyrant, for once touched with pity, 
sheathed his sword, and said, " For the sake of the prince 
Muhammad I forgive." The massacre was instantly stopped. 

Since that dreadful carnage, this quarter of Delhi has been 
but very thinly inhabited. 

An auction of the presents that had been made to the Govern- 
ment having been advertised to take place at a Europe shop in 
Delhi, I went to the place, and desired them to purchase several 
articles for me, among others a single sheet of paper that 
measured forty feet in length by nineteen feet and a half in 
breadth. It is made, they tell me, from the fibres of the leaf, 
or the bark of a tree, and is brought from Almorah and other 
parts of the hills. Some of the sheets are very large and rather 
coarse, others are smaller and verv fine ; insects do not attack 
shawls that are wrapped in this sort of paper. An Amadou 


made from the same fibre is also brought from Almorah. I 
may here mention that many years afterwards I saw, at the 
Asiatic Society in London, a similar piece of paper ticketed, 
" A single sheet of paper measuring sixty feet by twenty-five, 
made in Kumaon, from the inner fibres of the Set Burrooah, or 
Daphne-Cannabind-tree ; presented to the Asiatic Society by 
G. W. Traill, Esq., 1839." Datisca cannabina, Hemp-like Da- 
tisca, Loudon. 

I also saw there an enormous pod of the mimosa scandens, 
a wild creeper ; the seed is called gela, and is used by natives 
chiefly for washing the hair. The dhobis cut a hole in the 
centre of this seed, and by rubbing it up and down on the 
muslin sleeves of native dresses, produce a sort of goufre, that is 
admired and worn by opulent men. Speaking of washermen, 
it appears to me a most extraordinary thing that the English 
have never adopted the Asiatic method of steaming the clothes 
in lieu of boiling them. The process of washing by steam is 
very simple, gives but little trouble, and produces the most 
delicate whiteness. The washermen place the clothes in the 
evening over the most simple steam apparatus in the world, 
leave them all night to steam, by the next morning they are 
clean and fit to be removed ; when all that is necessary is to 
rinse them in the river, dry, and iron them. What a saving of 
expense, time, and trouble it would be if this method were to 
be adopted in the public washing-houses in England ! 

21s^. Drove to Sir David Auchterlony's house; there was 
but little to see there. Attended a ball given by the station to 
the Governor-General ; remained an hour, and returned early to 
be ready for our expedition the next morning. 

22nd. Mounted our horses at day-break, and started for the 
Kutab. Passed the observatory without visiting it ; stopped to 
view the tomb of Munsoor Ali Khan Sufter Jung, Wuzeer of 
the Emperor Ahmud Shah, who died in 1753 1167; it is a 
handsome edifice. 


1 had seen many drawings of this famous minar, and imagined 


I had a perfect idea of what I was to behold. The reality far 
exceeded my expectations, on account of its grandeur, its enor- 
mous height, and the beauty of the building. Around the 
Kutab are the ruins of the most magnificent arches I should 
think in the world. Only one of these arches is entire, its 
proportions are very fine ; a few years, another year, perhaps, 
and this beautiful arch will give way ; the upper part is tottering 
to its fall even now. The Kutab Minar is perhaps so called 
from Kutb the polar star, as being particularly distinguished and 
attractive of general attention ; or after the conqueror of Delhi, 
Kutab-ud-din-Ibek, the polar star of religion ; or after the 
famous saint, Kutb-ud-din, whose tomb lies about half a mile 
s.w. of the column. 

Inscriptions on the Kutab Minar, transcribed and translated 
by Walter Ewer, Esq. 

" Kutub-ud-din-Ibek, on whom be the mercy of God, con- 
structed this mosque." 

"In the name of the most merciful God. The Lord has 
invited to Paradise, and brings into the way of righteousness, 
him who wills it. In the year 592 this building was commenced 
by the high command of Moez-ud-dunya-ul-din Mahomad Beni 
Jam-Nasir Amir Mominim." 

" The Sultan Shems-ul-Hak-wa-ud-din Altamsh erected this 

" In the year 907 this minar, having been injured by light- 
ning, by the aid of, and favour of God, Firoz-mund Yamani 
restored whatever was needed by the building. May the Lord 
preserve this lofty edifice from future mischance ! " 

" The erection of this building was commanded in the 
glorious time of the great Sultan, and mighty King of kings 
and Master of mankind, the Lord of the monarchs of Turkistan, 
Arabia, and Persia ; the Sun of the world and rehgion, of the 
faith and the faithful ; the Lord of safety and protection ; the 
Heir of the kingdom of SuUman Abul Muzeffer Altamsh Nasir 
Amin-ul-Mominin. " 

" The prophet, on whom be the mercy and peace of God, has 


declared, ' Whosoever erects a temple to the true God on earth, 
shall receive six such dweUings in Paradise.' The Miniir, the 
dwelling of the king of kings, Shems-ul-dunj'H-wa-ud-din, now 
in peace and pardon, (be his tomb protected, and his place 
assigned in Heaven !) was injured by lightning in the reign 
of the exalted monarch, Secunder, the son of Behlol (may 
his power and empire last for ever, and his reign be glorious!) : 
and therefore his slave, Futteh Khan, the son of Musnud Ali, 
the liberal of liberals, and the meritorious ser\'ant of the king, 
repaired it according to command, the 13th of Rubi-ul-Akber, 
in the year 909." 

March 30th, 1825. 

Franklin's account of this pillar is as follows : " The Coottub 
Minar is situated near, and derives its name from, the tomb 
of Khaja Cuttubadeen. His disciple, Shemsadeen, of the 
family of Ghazi, erected this column, anno Hijira, 770. The 
column has a most stupendous appearance : conceive a shaft 
of sixty feet diameter, composed partly of red stone, partly 
of white marble, rising to the height of two hundred and fifty 

"Ascending this pillar, relief is afforded by four projecting 
galleries of red stone ; tapering towards the summit, it was 
crowned with an octagonal pa^dlion, which perhaps would have 
contained at least a dozen persons. Each of the galleries are 
most richly, though differently, ornamented : the column is 
relieved and rendered strikingly bold by convex and angular 

" Within this grand tower is a circular staircase of three 
hundred and eighty steps of red stone ; there are, at intervals, 
landing-places, which communicate with the windows ; from the 
octagon on the summit the view is strikingly grand. Inscriptions 
in several parts twelve inches in breadth, embrace the column ; 
these contain verses from the khoran, in the Arabic character. 
The galleries are supported by sculptured ornaments, of which 
the richness is greatly heightened by a profusion of frieze- 

KUTAB Ki LAT. 205 

On the night of the 31st of August, 1803, the minar was 
shattered from the foundation by an earthquake ; the injury 
occasioned by it has been lately repaired by Colonel Edward 
Smith, of the engineers, who conducted the work with great 
judgment, having to remove and refix some of the large stones 
at the base of the tower. His judgment and taste failed when 
repairing the top of the edifice ; even from a distance the sort 
of pavilion which he erected on the top appears heavy, and 
unfitted to the proportions of the rest of the minar, which is 
fine by degrees, and beautifully less. Not content with this, he 
placed an umbrella of Chinese form on the top of the pavilion ; 
it was not destined to remain, the lightning struck it off, as if 
indignant at the profanation. The miniir is covered with Arabic 
inscriptions and the most elaborate workmanship. 

The colonnades around the Kutab are very remarkable ; 
some of them are of the same style of architecture as the old 
Hindu ruin at Kanauj, of which I have given a sketch ; one 
large long stone placed upright upon another of the same 
description, without any mortar. Some of the colonnades are 
almost perfectly plain, others richly sculptured ; they appear to 
be very ancient. 


West of the Kutab, about fifty yards, and in the middle of 
the colonnaded court in front of the exquisite arch I mentioned 
before, stands an iron column about twenty feet high, called 
"Kutab ki Ldt," or " Kutab's Stafl^"." It is covered with 
inscriptions, some of which are said to be in an unknown 
character, and are nearly effaced by time. The more recent are 
in Persian and Hindi characters. It is said that this iron column 
was raised by the grandfather of Raja Pittourah, on the repre- 
sentation of the Brahmans, who assured him that the sceptre 
would never depart from his posterity as long as this pillar 
stood. Raja Pittourah, however, was killed in the eighth battle 
fought near Delhi by Kutab-u-dln-Abek, who, to show his 
contempt for the prophecy of the Brahmans, and to evince its 


failure, allowed the column to remain. The pillar is dented 
near the top by a cannon-shot fired at it by Gholam Kadir. 

Near the Kutab is the foundation of another miniir, which 
was commenced on a larger scale, but was never finished. 

Extracts from Colonel John Luard's " Views in India " " The 

Cutteb Minar Dhelie." " This wonderful pillar derives its 

name from Cutteb-ud-din (the pole-star of reUgion) who having 
come from Turkistan as a slave, was purchased by the Emperor 
Mahomed Ghori rose in his favour, became a general, and 
ultimately succeeded to the throne, and was the first of the 
Patau, or Afghan sovereigns. In the year 589 Hegira, 1 193 a.d., 
he took the fort of Merut, and the city of DheUe, from the 
family of Candy Rai, and established the seat of his government 
there, and obliged all the districts around to acknowledge the 
Mussalman faith. To commemorate this and other successes 
over the infidels, this pillar was commenced about the year 
1195 A.D. The circumference at the base is 143 feet; height 
of the first balcony, 90 feet the second, 140 the third, 180 
the fourth, 203. Total height in 1826 was 243 feet. The 
original sketch was made in 1823." 

" Shumse-ud-din-Altumsh married a daughter of Cuttub-ud- 
din-Ibek. Like his father-in-law, he was formerly a slave, and 
was purchased for 50,000 pieces of silver. He became a great 
general, and succeeded to the imperial throne of Dhelie in 607 
Hegira, 1210 a.d. He was an able, enterprising, and good 
prince reigned twenty-six years, died in 1235 a.d., and is 
buried in this elaborately ornamented building, placed about 
200 yards from the Cutteb Minar, which he assisted in construct- 
ing. His tomb is built of white marble and red granite." 

Having roamed around the tower and colonnades the whole 
morning, we retired to our tents to dine during the heat of the 



Ancient Delhi The Ba'oll Tombs of Shah'alam, Bahadur Shah, and Akbar 
Shah The Zenana Ghar Extent of the Ruins The Observatory Palace 
of Shahjahanabad The Zenana Hyat-ool-Nissa Begam Poverty of the 
Descendants of Tamurlane The Effect of a Zenana education on Man and 
Woman Death of Prince Dara Bukht The Dewani Am The Dewani 
Khas The Palace The Shah-burj Gardens of Shalimar Ruins of Palaces 
and Baths The Modern City Tees Hazzari Bagh The Madrissa The 
Jama Masjid The Kala Masjid Plan of the City of Delhi Quitted Delhi, 
and returned to Meerut Tomb of Pir Shah. 

1838, Feb. 22nd. In the cool of the evening we mounted our 
horses, and rode to Ancient Delhi, or Indrapesta, now called 
Marowlie, the capital of the former Rajas. At this place, many 
houses were pointed out to us as having belonged to the mighty 
dead ; but my attention was arrested by a ba'oli, an immense 
well. From the top of the well to the surface of the water the 
depth is sixty feet, and the depth of water below forty feet ; 
just above the surface of the water the side of the well opens on 
a flight of stone steps, which lead to the upper regions. I 
peered over the well to see the water, and shuddered as I looked 
into the dark cold depth below ; at that instant a man jumped 
from the top into the well, sank a great depth, rose again, and, 
swimming to the opening, came up the steps like a drenched 
rat ; three more immediately followed his example, and then 
gaily claimed a "bakshish," or reward, begging a rupee, which 
was given : we did not stay to see the sport repeated, at 
which the jumpers appeared disappointed. 



Quitting the ba'oli, we visited tlie tombs of the three last 
emperors of Delhi, Bahadur Shah, ShahTdam, and Akbar 
Shah. The latter had been placed there within a few weeks ; 
the tomb of Shah'iilam is of white marble, and about 
eighteen inches distant from that of the Emperor Bahadur 
Shah, over whose tomb flourishes a white jasmine. How are the 
mighty fallen ! I had visited the tomb of Humaioon, and the 
still grander monument of Akbar at Secundra ; had admired the 
magnificent building, its park and portal. The last Akbar 
reposes side by side with the two former emperors. Three 
marble tombs, prettily sculptured, in a small open court, the 
walls of which are of white marble, is all that adorns the burial- 
place of the descendants of Tamurlane ! 

The building that most interested me was the Royal Zenana 
Ghar. At certain times of the year the Emperor of Delhi used 
to retire to this spot with all his ladies ; the place is prettily 
situated amidst rocks and trees: there, seated at ease on his 
cushions of state, his amusement was to watch the sports of the 
ladies of the zenana, as they jumped from the roof of a verandah 
into the water below, and then came up to jump in again. On 
the other side is another tank, with a sloping bank of masonry ; 
on this slope the ladies used to sit, and slide down into the tank. 
In the water, amidst the trees, the graceful drapery of the 
MusulmanI and Hindu ladies clinging to their well-formed 
persons must have had a beautiful effect. During these sports 
guards were stationed around, to prevent the intrusion of any 
profane eye on the sacredness of the zenana. 

At 9 P.M. we revisited the minar: the night was remarkably 
fine, no moon, but a dark blue, clear star-hght. The minar is fine 
by day, its magnitude surprising ; but, by night, a feeling of awe 
is inspired by its unearthly appearance. If you ask a native, 
" Who built the Kutab ?" his answer will generally be, " God 
built it ; who else could have built it ?" And such is the feel- 
ing as you stand at the base, looking up to the top of the column of 
the polar star, which appears to tower into the skies : I could not 
withdraw my eyes from it ; the ornaments, beautiful as they are 
by day, at night, shadowed as they were into the mass of building. 


only added to its grandeur. We roamed through the colonnades, 
in the court of the beautiful arches, and returned most unwil- 
lingly to our tents. 

23rd. Quitted the Kutab without revisiting Tuglukabad, our 
time not admitting of it ; and I greatly regretted not having the 
power of visiting the tombs that surrounded us on every side 
the ruins of Ancient Delhi. The extent of these ruins is sup- 
posed not to be less than a circumference of twenty miles, 
reckoning from the gardens of Shalimar, on the north-west, to 
the Kutab Miniir, on the south-east, and proceeding thence 
along the centre of the old city, by way of the mausoleum of 
Nizam-al-Deen, the tomb of Humaioon, which adjoins, and the 
old fort of Delhi, on the Jumna, to the Ajmeer gate of Shah- 
jahanabad. The environs to the north and west are crowded 
with the remains of the spacious gardens and country houses of 
the nobility, which in former times were abundantly supplied with 
water, by means of the noble canal dug by Ali Merdan Khan. 

Franklin remarks, "Ancient Delhi is said by historians to 
have been erected by Rajah Delu, who reigned in Hindustan 
prior to the invasion of Alexander the Great : others affirm it 
to have been built by Rajah Pettouvar, who flourished at a 
much later period. It is called in Sanscrit Indraput, or the 
Abode of Indra, one of the Hindu deities, and is thus distin- 
guished in the royal diplomas of the Chancery office." 


On our road home, about a mile and a half from the present city 
of Delhi, we stopped to visit the Observatory, Jantr-Mantr, a 
building well worthy the inspection of the traveller. The name 
of Jayasinha, the Rajah of Ambhere, or Jayanagar, and his astro- 
nomical labours, are not unknown in Europe ; but yet the 
extent of his exertions in the cause of science is little known ; 
his just claims to superior genius and zeal demand some enume- 
ration of the labours of one whose name is conspicuous in the 
annals of Hindustan. Jey-sing or Jayasinha succeeded to the 
inheritance of the ancient Rajahs of Ambhere in the year of 
Vicramadittya 1750, corresponding to 1693 of the Christian 

VOL. II. p 


aera. His mind had been early stored with the knowledge 
contained in the Hindu writings, but he appears to have pecu- 
liarly attached himself to the mathematical sciences, and his 
reputation for skill in them stood so high, that he was chosen 
by the Emperor Mahommed Shah to reform the calendar, 
which, from the inaccuracy of the existing tables, had ceased to 
correspond with the actual appearance of the heavens. Jaya- 
sinha undertook the task, and constructed a new set of tables ; 
which, in honour of the reigning prince, he named Zeej 
Mahommedshahy. By these, almanacks are constructed at 
Delhi, and all astronomical computations made at the present 

The five observatories, which were built and finished by Jaya- 
sinha, still exist in a state more or less perfect ; they were 
erected at Jeypoor, Matra, Benares, Oujein, and Delhi. 

The next observatory, in point of size and preservation, is 
that at Oujein ; it is situated at the southern extremity of the 
city, in the quarter called Jeysingpoorah, and where are still the 
remains of a palace of Jayasinha, who was subahdar of Malwa 
in the time of Mahommed Shah. The observatory at Oujein 
has since been converted into an arsenal and foundry of 

At Matra, the remains of the observatory are in the fort 
which was built by Jayasinha on the banks of the Jumna. 

The observatory at Delhi is situated without the wall of the 
city, at the distance of one mile and a quarter. It consists of 
several detached buildings : 

1 . A large equatorial dial : its form is pretty entire, but the 
edges of the gnomon, and those of the circle on which the 
degrees were marked, are broken in several places. This is the 
instrument called by Jayasinha semrat-yunter (the prince of 
dials) . It is built of stone, but the edges of the gnomon, and 
of the arches where the gradation was, were of white marble ; 

,e few small portions of which only remain. 

2. At a little distance from this instrument, towards the 
north-west, is another equatorial dial ; more entire, but smaller 
and of a different construction. In the middle stands a gnomon, 


which, as usual in these buildings, contains a staircase up to the 
top. On each side of this gnomon are two concentric semi- 
circles, having for their diameters the two edges of the gnomon ; 
it is evident that they represent meridians. On each side of 
this post is another gnomon, equal in size to the former ; and to 
the eastward and westward of them are the arches on which the 
hours are marked. 

3. The north wall of this building connects the three 
gnomons at their highest end ; and on this wall is 
described a graduated semicircle, for taking the altitudes of 
bodies that he due east, or due west, from the eye of the 

4. To the westward of this building, and close to it, is a 
wall, in the plane of the meridian, on which is described a 
double quadrant, having for the centres the two upper corners 
of the wall, for observing the altitudes of bodies passing the 
meridian, either to the north or south of the zenith. 

5. To the southward of the dial are two buildings, named 
Ustudnah. They exactly resemble one another, and are designed 
for the same purpose, which is, to observe the altitude and azi- 
muth of the heavenly bodies. They are two in number, on 
purpose that two persons may observe at the same time, and 
so compare and correct their observations. 

These buildings are circular ; and in the centre of each is a 
pillar, of the same height as the building itself, which is open at 
top. From this pillar to the height of about three feet from 
the bottom, proceed radii of stone, horizontally, to the circular 
wall of the building. 

6. Between these two buildings and the great equatorial dial 
is an instrument called shamlah. It is a concave hemispherical 
surface, formed of mason work, to represent the inferior hemi- 
sphere of the heavens. 

The best and most authentic account of the labours of Jaya-' 
sinha for the completion of his work and the advancement of 
astronomical knowledge, is contained in his own preface to the 
Zeej Mahommedshahy ; from which the following extract is a 
literal translation : 



"To accomplish the exalted command which he had received, 
he (Jeysing) bound the girdle of resolution about the loins of his 
soul, and constructed here (at Delhi) several of the instruments 
of an observatory, such as had been erected at Samarcand, 
agreeably to the Musalman books : such as Zat-ul-huluck, of 
brass, in diameter three guz of the measure now in use (which 
is nearly equal to two cubits of the Koran), and Zat-ul-shobetein, 
and Zat-ul-suchetein, and Suds-Fukheri, and Shamlah. But 
finding that brass instruments did not come up to the ideas that 
he had formed of accuracy, because of the smallness of their 
size, the want of division into minutes, the shaking and wearing 
of their axes, the displacement of the centres of the circles, and 
the shifting of the planes of the instruments ; he concluded that 
the reason why the determinations of the ancients, such as Hip- 
parchus and Ptolemy, proved inaccurate, must have been of 
this kind ; therefore he constructed in Dar-ul-kheldfet Shah- 
Jehanabad, which is the seat of empire and prosperity, instru- 
ments of his own invention, such as Jey-per-gas and Ram-junter, 
and Semrat-junter, the semi-diameter of which is eighteen 
cubits, and one minute on it is a barleycorn and a half, of stone 
and lime, of perfect stability, with attention to the rules of 
geometry and adjustment to the meridian, and to the latitude of 
the place, and with care in the measuring and fixing of them ; 
so that the inaccuracies from the shaking of the circles, and the 
wearing of their axes, and displacement of their centres, and the 
inequality of the minutes, might be corrected. 

"Thus an accurate method of constructing an observatory 
was established ; and the difference which had existed between 
the computed and observed places of the fixed stars and planets, 
by means of observing their mean motions and aberrations with 
such instruments, was removed. And, in order to confirm the 
truth of these observations, he constructed instruments of the 
same kind in Sewal Jeypoor, and Matra, and Benares, and 


After this most interesting visit to the Observatory, we 

-returned to Delhi. 



During my visit at Khasgunge, Mr. James Gardner gave me 
an introduction to one of the princesses of Delhi, Hyat-ool-Nissa 
Begam, the aunt of the present, and sister of the late king. 
Mr. James Gardner is her adopted son. The princess sent one 
of her ladies to say she should be happy to receive me, and 
requested me to appoint an hour. The weather was excessively 
hot, but my time was so much employed I had not an hour to 
spare but one at noon-day, which was accordingly fixed upon. 

I was taken in a palanquin to the door of the court of the 
building set apart for the women, where some old ladies met 
and welcomed me. Having quitted the palanquin, they conducted 
me through such queer places, filled with women of all ages ; 
the narrow passages were dirty and wet, an odd sort of entrance 
to the apartment of a princess ! 

Under a verandah, I found the princess seated on a gaddl, of a 
green colour. In this verandah she appeared to live and sleep, 
as her charpdi, covered with a green razd'i, stood at the further 
end. She is an aged woman ; her features, which are good, must 
have been handsome in youth ; now they only tell of good 
descent. Green is the mourning worn by the followers of the 
prophet. The princess was in mourning for her late brother, the 
Emperor Akbar Shah. Her attire consisted of trowsers of green 
satin, an angiya, or boddice of green, and a cashmere shawl of 
the same colour : jewels are laid aside during the days of mdtam 
(mourning) . I put off my shoes before I stepped on the white 
cloth that covered the carpet, and advancing, made my bahut 
bahut adab saldm, and presented a nazr of one gold mohur. 
The princess received me very kindly, gave me a seat by her 
side, and we had a long conversation. It is usual to offer a 
gold mohur on visiting a person of rank ; it is the homage paid 
by the inferior to the superior : on the occasion of a second visit 
it is still correct to offer a nazr, which may then consist of 
a bouquet of freshly-gathered flowers. The compliment is 
graciously received, this homage being the custom of the 


I had the greatest difficulty in understanding what the Begam 
said, the loss of her teeth rendering her utterance imperfect. 
After some time, she called for her women to play and sing for 
my amusement. I was obliged to appear pleased, but my 
aching head would willingly have been spared the noise. Her 
adopted son, the son of the present King Bahadur Shah, came 
in ; he is a remarkably fine, intelligent boy, about ten years old, 
with a handsome countenance. Several other young princes also 
appeared, and some of their betrothed wives, Uttle girls of five 
and six years old : the girls were plain. The princess requested 
me to spend the day with her ; saying that if I would do so, at 
4 P.M. I should be introduced to the emperor (they think it an 
indignity to call him the king) , and if I would stay with her 
until the evening, I should have naches for my amusement all 
night. In the mean time she desired some of her ladies to 
show me the part of the palace occupied by the zenana. Her 
young adopted son, the heir-apparent, took my hand, and con- 
ducted me over the apartments of the women. The ladies ran 
out to see the stranger : my guide pointed them all out by 
name, and I had an opportunity of seeing and conversing with 
almost all the begams. A plainer set I never beheld: the 
verandahs, in which they principally appeared to live, and the 
passages between the apartments, were mal propre. The young 
prince led me through different parts of the palace, and I was 
taken into a superb hall : formerly fountains had played there ; 
the ceiling was painted and inlaid with gold. In this hall were 
three old women on charpiiTs (native beds), looking like hags; 
and over the marble floor, and in the place where fountains once 
played, was collected a quantity of offensive black water, as if 
from the drains of the cook rooms. From a verandah, the 
young prince pointed out a bastion in which the king was then 
asleep, and I quitted that part of the palace, fearing the talking 
of those who attended me, and the laughing of the children, 
might arouse his majesty from his noon-day slumbers. 

On my return to the princess I found her sister with her, a 
good-humoured, portly-looking person. They were both seated 
on chairs, and gave me one. This was in compliment, lest the 


native fashion of sitting on the ground might fatigue me. 
The heat of the sun had given me a violent headache. I 
declined staying to see the king, and requested permission to 

Four trays, filled with fruit and sweetmeats, were presented 
to me ; two necklaces of jasmine flowers, fresh gathered, and 
strung with tinsel, were put round my neck ; and the princess 
gave me a little embroidered bag filled with spices. It is one of 
the amusements of the young girls in a zenana to embroider 
little bags, which they do very beautifully ; these they fill with 
spices and betel-nut, cut up into small bits ; this mixture they 
take great delight in chewing. An English lady is not more 
vain of a great cat and kitten with staring eyes, worked by herself 
in Berlin wool, than the ladies behind the parda of their skill 
in embroidery. On taking my departure the princess requested 
rae to pay her another visit ; it gave her pleasure to speak of 
her friends at Khasgunge. She is herself a clever, intelligent 
woman, and her manners are good. I had satisfied my curiosity, 
and had seen native life in a palace ; as for beauty, in a whole 
zenana there may be two or three handsome women, and all the 
rest remarkably ugly. I looked with wonder at the number of 
plain faces round me. 

When any man wishes to ascend the minarets of the Jama 
Masjid, he is obliged to send word to the captain of the gate 
of the palace, that the ladies may be apprised, and no veiled 
one may be beheld, even from that distance : the fame of the 
beauty of the generality of the women may be continued, pro- 
vided they never show their faces. Those women who are 
beautiful are very rare, but then their beauty is very great ; the 
rest are generally plain. In England beauty is more commonly 
diff"used amongst all classes. Perhaps the most voluptuously 
beautiful woman I ever saw was an Asiatic. 

I heard that I was much blamed for visiting the princess, it 
being supposed I went for the sake of presents. Natives do not 
offer presents unless they think there is something to be gained 
in return ; and that I knew perfectly well. I went there from 
curiosity, not avarice, offered one gold mohur, and received in 


return the customary sweetmeats and necklaces of flowers. 
Look at the poverty, the wretched poverty of these descendants 
of the emperors ! In former times strings of pearls and valuable 
jewels were placed on the necks of departing visiters. When 
the Princess Hyat-ool-Nissa Begam in her fallen fortunes put the 
necklace of freshly-gathered white jasmine flowers over my head, 
I bowed with as much respect as if she had been the queen of 
the universe. Others may look upon these people with con- 
tempt, I cannot ; look at what they are, at what they have 
been ! 

The indecision and effeminacy of the character of the emperor 
is often a subject of surprise. Why should it be so ? where is 
the difference in intellect between a man and a woman brought 
up in a zenana ? There they both receive the same education, 
and the result is similar. In Europe men have so greatly the 
advantage of women from receiving a supeiior education, and in 
being made to act for, and depend upon themselves from child- 
hood, that of course the superiority is on the male side ; the 
women are kept under and have not fair play. 

One day a gentleman, speaking to me of the extravagance of 
one of the young princes, mentioned he was always in debt, he 
could never live upon his allowance. The allowance of the 
prince was twelve rupees a month ! not more than the wages 
of a head servant. 

With respect to my visit, I felt it hard to be judged by people 
who were ignorant of my being the friend of the relatives of 
those whom I visited in the zenana. People who themselves 
had, perhaps, no curiosity respecting native life and manners, 
and who, even if they had the curiosity, might have been utterly 
unable to gratify it, imless by an introduction which they were 
probably unable to obtain. 

It is a curious fact, that a native lady in a large house always 
selects the smallest room for her own apartment. A number of 
ladies from the palace at Delhi were staying in a distant house, 
to which place a friend having gone to visit them, found them 
all in the bathing- room, they having selected that as the smallest 
apartment in which they could crowd together. 


I will here insert an extract from the Delhi Gazette of 
Jan. 13th, 1849. 

" On Thursday morning, departed this life. Prince Dara 
Bukht, heir-apparent to the throne of Delhi, and with him, we 
have some reason to believe, all the right of the royal house to 
the succession, such having been guaranteed to him individually, 
and to no other member of the family. We sincerely trust 
that such is really the case, and that our Government will now 
be in a position to adopt steps for making efficient arrangements 
for the dispersion, with a suitable provision, of the family on 
the death of the present king. The remains of the deceased 
prince were interred near Cheeragh Delhi within a few hours of 
his death. It is a curious fact, that nearly all the native papers 
have long since omitted the designation of ' Padshah ' when 
alluding to the King of Delhi, styling him merely ' Shah.' " 

It was too hot for me to venture round the walls of the 
palace, and I only paid a flying visit to the Diwdn-i-am, or Hall 
of PubUc Audience, and to the Diwdn-i-khdss, or Hall of Private 
Audience. The latter is built of white marble, beautifully 
ornamented, and the roof is supported on colonnades of 
marble pillars. In this hall the peacock throne stands in the 
centre ; it is ascended by steps, and covered with a canopy, with 
four artificial peacocks at the four comers. Around the exterior 
of the Diwdn-i-khfiss, in the cornice, is the well-known inscription, 
in letters of gold, upon a ground of white marble : "If there be a 
paradise on earth, it is this, it is this'." The terrace of this 
building is composed of large slabs of white marble, and the 
building is crowned at the top with four paviUons or cupolas of 
the same materials. 

The palace is 3000 feet long, 1800 broad, and at one time 
would have held 10,000 horse: the building it is said cost 
about 1,000,000 sterling. 

The royal baths, a little to the northward of the Diwdn-i- 
khdss, consist of three very large rooms, surmounted by domes 
of white marble : adjoining to the baths is a fine mosque. 

In the royal gardens is a very large octagonal room, facing 
' Oriental Proverbs and Sayings, No. 121. 


the Jumna, called Shah Burj, or the Royal Tower, which is 
lined with marble. Through the window of this room Prince 
Mirza Juwaun Bukht made his escape in 1784, when he fled to 
Lucnow. The Rohillas, who were introduced by Gholaum 
Cadir Khan, stripped many of the rooms of their marble orna- 
ments and pavements. 

It was my intention to have gone round the walls in the cool 
of the evening, with my relative, but I was so much disgusted 
with the ill-natured remarks I had heard, I would not enter the 
place again. 

The gardens of Shalimar are worthy of a visit, from which 
the prospect to the south, towards Delhi, as far as the eye can 
reach, is covered with the remains of extensive gardens, 
pavilions, mosques, and burial-places. The environs of this 
once magnificent city appear now nothing more than a heap of 
ruins, and the country around is equally desolate and forlorn : 

" The spider hath woven his web in the royal palace of the Caesars, 
1 he owl standeth sentinel on the watch-towers of Afrasiab ! " 


" The lonely spider's thin grey pall 
Waves slowly widening o'er the wall ; 
The bat builds in his harem bower ; 
And, in the fortress of his power, 
The owl usurps the beacon-tower ; 
The wild dog howls o'er the fountain's brim, 
With baffled thirst, and famine, grim ; 
For the stream has shrunk from its marble bed, 
Where the weeds and the desolate dust are spread." 


" Within the city of New Delhi are the remains of many 
splendid palaces, belonging to the great omrahs of the empire ; 
among the largest are those of Cummer-o'-deen Cawn, vizier to 
Mahmud Shah ; Ali Merdan Khan, the Persian ; the Nawab 
Gazooddeen Cawn ; Seftur Jung's ; the garden of Coodseah 
Begam, mother of Mahmud Shah ; the palace of Sadut Khan ; 
and that of Sultan Darah Shekoah." 

" The baths of Sadut Khan are a set of beautiful rooms, paved, 


and lined with white marble ; they consist of five distinct apart- 
ments, into which light is admitted by glazed windows at the 
top of the domes. Sefdur Jung's Teh Khana consists of a set 
of apartments, built in a delicate style; one long room, in which 
is a marble reservoir the whole length, and a smaller one raised 
and balustraded on each side ; both faced throughout with white 
marble. Adjoining the palace is the fort of Sellm, Sellm-garh ; 
it communicates by a bridge of stone, built over an arm of the 
river, and is now entirely in rains. 

" The modern city of Shahjahanabad is rebuilt, and contains 
many good houses, chiefly of brick ; the streets are in general 
narrow, as is usual in most of the large cities of Asia ; but 
there were formerly two very noble streets, the first leading to 
the palace gate, through the city, to the Delhi gate, in a direction 
north and south. This street was very broad and spacious, 
having handsome houses on each side of the way, and merchants' 
shops, well furnished with a variety of the richest articles. 
Shahjahan caused an aqueduct of red stone to be made, which 
conveyed the water the whole length of the street, and thence, 
by a reservoir underground, into the royal gardens. Remains of 
this aqueduct are still to be seen, but it is in most parts choked 
up with rubbish. The second grand street entered in the same 
manner from the palace to the Lahore gate ; it lay east and west, 
and was equal in all respects to the former ; but, in both of them, 
the inhabitants have spoiled the beauty of their appearance by 
running a fine of houses down the centre ; and, in other places, 
across the street ; so that it is with difficulty a person can 
discover, without narrowly inspecting, their former position." 

" In the neighbourhood of the Cabul gate is a garden, called 
Tees Huzzari Bagh, in which is the tomb of the Queen Malika 
ZemEini, wife of the Emperor Mahmud Shah. On a rising 
ground near this garden, whence there is a fine prospect of the 
city, are two broken columns of brown granite, eight feet high, 
and two and a half in breadth, on which are inscriptions in 
ancient characters." 

Near the Ajimere gate is a Madrasa, or college, erected by 
Gazooddeen Cawn, nephew of Nizam-ool-Mooluk ; it is built of 


red stone, and situated in the centre of a spacious quadrangle, 
with a fountain, lined with stone. At the upper end of the area 
is a handsome mosque, built of red stone, and inlaid with white 
marble. This college is now uninhabited. 

Modern Delhi has been built upon two rocky eminences ; the 
one where the Jama Masjid is situated, named Jujula Pahar ; 
and the other called Bejula Pahar ; from both of these you have 
a commanding view of the rest of the city. 


24th. We visited this noble masjid, the finest I have 
seen ; no difficulty was made in allowing us to inspect it. " The 
gate of the house of God is always open' :" not only Uterally, 
but also to converts. 

" This mosque is situated about a quarter of a mile from the 
royal palace ; the foundation of it was laid upon a rocky emi- 
nence, named Jujula Pahar, and has been scarped on purpose. 
The ascent to it is by a flight of stone steps, thirty-five in 
number, through a handsome gateway of red stone. The doors 
of this gateway are covered throughout with plates of wrought 
brass, which Mr. Bernier imagined to be copper. The terrace 
on which the mosque is situated is a square, of about fourteen 
hundred yards of red stone ; in the centre is a fountain, lined 
with marble, for the purpose of performing the necessary ablu- 
tions previous to prayer. 

" An arched colonnade of red stone surrounds the whole of 
the terrace, which is adorned with octagonal pavilions for sitting 
in. The mosque is of an oblong form, two hundred and sixty- 
one feet in length, surmounted by three magnificent domes 
of white marble, interspersed with black stripes, and flanked by 
two minarets of black marble and red stone alternately, rising to 
the height of an hundred and thirty feet. Each of these 
minarets has three projecting galleries of white marble, having 
their summits crowned with light octagonal pavilions of the 
same. The whole front of the building is faced with large slabs 
of beautiful white marble ; and along the cornice are ten com- 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 122. 


partments, four feet long, and two and a half broad, which are 
inlaid with inscriptions in black marble, in the Nishki character ; 
and are said to contain the greater part, if not the whole, of the 
Koran. The inside of the mosque is paved throughout, with 
large slabs of white marble, decorated with a black border, and 
is wonderfully beautiful and delicate ; the slabs are about three 
feet in length, by one and a half broad. The walls and roof are 
lined with plain white marble ; and near the kibla is a handsome 
taak, or niche, which is adorned with a profusion of frieze-work. 
Close to this is a mimbar or pulpit of marble, which has an 
ascent of four steps, balustraded. Kibla literally implies com- 
pass, but here means a small hollow or excavation in the walls 
of Muhammadan mosques, so situated on the erection of the 
buildings as always to look towards the city of Mecca. 

"The ascent to the minarets is by a winding staircase of an 
hundred and thirty steps of red stone ; and, at the top, the 
spectator is gratified by a noble view of the King's Palace, the 
Cuttub Minar, the Hurran Minar, Humaioon's Mausoleum, the 
Palace of Feroze Shah, the Fort of old Delhi, and the Fort of 
Loni, on the opposite bank of the river Jumna. The domes 
are crowned with cuUises of copper, richly gilt ; and present a 
glittering appearance from afar off. This mosque was begun by 
the Emperor Shahjahan, in the fourth year of his reign, and 
completed in the tenth. The expenses of its erection amounted 
to ten lakh of rupees ; and it is in every respect worthy of being 
the great cathedral of the empire of Hindustan." Franklin. 

Exclusive of the mosques before described, there are in Shah- 
jahanabad and its environs above forty others ; most of them of 
inferior size and beauty, but all of them of a similar fashion. 
In the evening, we drove to the Turkoman gate of the city, to 
see the Kala Masjid or Black Mosque. We found our way with 
difficulty into the very worst part of Delhi : my companion had 
never been there before, and its character was unknown to us ; 
he did not much like my going over the mosque, amid the 
wretches that surrounded us ; but my curiosity carried the day. 
The appearance of the building from the entrance is most sin- 


gular and extraordinary ; it would form an excellent subject for 
a sketch. You ascend a flight of stone steps, and then enter 
the gateway of the masjid : the centre is a square ; the pillars 
that support the arches are of rude construction, stone placed 
upon stone, without mortar between ; there are twelve or fifteen 
small domes on three sides of the square. I wished to sketch 
the place, but my relative hurried me away, fearful of insult 
from the people around. The masjid Wcis built four hundred and 
fifty years ago, before the building of the modern Delhi. The 
tradition of the place is this : 

In former times the masjid was built of white stone. A 
father committed a horrible crime within its walls. The stones 
of the masjid turned from white to black. It obtained the 
name of the black mosque. No service was ever performed 
there, and the spot was regarded as unholy : none but the 
lowest of the people now frequent the place ; and any stranger 
visiting it might as well take a barkindaz as a protection against 
insult. Hindoo Rao, the brother of the Baiza Ba'i, lives near 
Delhi, in the house of the late Mr. Frazer ; he came in his 

curricle to call on Captain S : I saw him ; he is a short, 

thick-set, fat Mahratta, very independent in speech and bearing. 
After some conversation, he arose to depart, shook hands with 
me, and said, " How do you do ? " thinking he was bidding me 
" good night." This being all the English he has acquired, he 
is very fond of displaying it. Some young officer, in a fit 
of tiimasha {i. e. fun) must have taught him his " How do 
you do." 

There is no guide-book to conduct a stranger over the city of 
Delhi, or to point out the position of its numerous gates ; I have 
therefore added a plan of the city, which we found very useful 
when arranging our excursions, and I have made numerous 
extracts from Franklin to point out places worthy of a visit'. 

2bth. Quitted Delhi, and encamped the first march at Fur- 
rndnagar on our return to Meerut ; it was too hot for tents. 

2Qth. Encamped at Begamabad : I was very unwell ; the 

' Appendix, No. 32. 

TOMB OF pIr shah. 223 

annoyance of thieves around my tent, and the greater plague of 
fever, kept me awake all night. 

27th. Was driven into Meerut the whole march, being 
unable to sit on my horse ; called in medical aid, and was con- 
fined for six days to my charpai, unable to rise from fever, in- 
fluenza, and severe cough. 

March Wth. Just able to creep about. Captain A 

drove me to see the tomb of Aboo, a very fine one near the prison 
at Meerut : its history I forget, and I was too tU to attempt to 
sketch it. 

Thence we drove to the tomb of Pir Shah, near the gate of 
the city. It is in ruins ; the verandah that once ornamented 
it has fallen to the ground. The tomb is peculiar, the dome 
has only been raised two feet and so finished : this has been so 
left purposely, that the sunshine and the dews of heaven may 
fall on the marble sarcophagus of the saint who sleeps within 
the building. Around the tomb are a number of the graves of 
the faithful. Perhaps the exertion of taking a drive made me 
ill again ; and the relative with whom I was staying not 
admiring this return of fever, determined to take me instantly 
to the hills. 



First View of the Snowy Ranges Saharanpur MohunchaukT An Adventure 
The Keeree Pass Rajpiir Moti The Giinth Hill-men A Jampan 
Ascent to Landowr HillFlowers Purityof the Air View oftheHimalaya 
The Kliuds Mussoori Rhododendron Trees Mr. VVebh's Hotel Curious 
Soap The Landowr Bazar Schools in the Hills Cloud End The White 
Rhododendron Storm in the Hills Hill Birds Fever in the Hills New- 
lands Death of Major Blundell. 

1838, March I6th. We drove out twenty miles, to the place 
where the palanquins awaited us, travelled diik all night, found 
a buggy ready for us at the last stage, and reached our friend's 
house at Saharanpur the next morning by 8 a.m. On the road, 
about five o'clock in the morning, I was much dehghted with 
the first view of the snowy ranges ; I never anticipated seeing 
mountains covered with snow again, and, as I lay in my palan- 
quin, watching the scene for miles, breathing the cool air from 
the hills, and viewing the mountains beyond them, I felt quite a 

different being, charmed and delighted. Mr. and Miss B 

received us very kindly ; and I had the pleasure of meeting an 
old friend. Captain Sturt, of the engineers ; the man whose 
noble conduct distinguished him so highly, and who was shot 
during the fatal retreat of the army in Afghanistan. In the 
evening we visited the Botanical Garden ; it is an excellent one, 
and in high order ; some tigers were there, fiercely growling over 
their food, several bears, and a porcupine. The garden is well 
watered by the canal, which passes through it. The Governor- 


General broke up his camp at Saharanpur, and quitted, with a 
small retinue, for Mussoorl, the day before we arrived. 

I4th. ^We took leave of our friends, and resumed our dak 
journey at 4 p.m. ; during the night we passed Lord Auckland's 
camp, which was pitched in a very picturesque spot at Mohun- 
chaukl : the tents, the elephants, and the camels formed beautiful 
groups among the trees, and I stopped the palanquin a short time 
to admire them. We passed through a forest, or sal jangal, as 
they call it, in which wild elephants are sometimes found, and 
met with a little adventure : a tiger was lying by the road-side ; the 
bearers put down the palanquin, waved their torches, and howled 
and screamed with all their might : the light and noise scared 
the Emimal, he moved off. I got out of the palanquin to look 
at a tiger au naturel, saw some creature moving away, but could 
not distinguish what animal it was ; the bearers were not six 
feet from him when they first saw him ; it was a fine, clear, 
moonlight night. The jangal looked well, and its interest was 
heightened by the idea you might now and then see a wild beast. 
A number of fires were burning on the sides of the hills, and 
running up in different directions ; these fires, they tell me, are 
lighted by the zamindars, to burn up the old dry grass ; when that 
is done, the new grass springs up, and there is plenty of food for 
the cattle ; the fires were remarkable in the darkness of the 
night. For some miles up the pass of Keeree, our way was over 
the dry bed of a river ; on both sides rose high clifis, covered 
with trees ; the moonlight was strong, and the pass one of great 
interest ; here and there you heard the noise of water, the 
pleasing sound of a mountain stream turning small mills for 
grinding com, called Panchakkl. In the morning we arrived at 
the Company's bungalow at Rajpur. 

Raj pur is situated at the foot of the Hills : I was delighted 
with the place ; the view from the bungalow put me in mind of 
Switzerland. We went to Mrs. Theodore's hotel, to see her 
collection of stuffed birds and beasts ; a complete set costs 
1600 rupees (160). At the bottom of the valley between the 
Hills I heard the most delightful sound of rushing waters : taking 
a servant with me, I went down the steep footpath, irresistibly 



attracted by the sound, and found the mountain rill collected 
into a mill-dam, from which, rushing down, it turned several 
mills ; and one of the streams was turned off into the valley, 
forming the httle cascade, the sound of which had attracted me. 
How bright, clear, cold, and dehcious was the water ! Being too 
unwell to bear the fatigue of climbing the hill, I sent for a hill- 
pony, called a gunth ; he was brought down ; the little fellow 
never had a woman on his back before, but he carried me 
bravely up the sheep-path, for road there was none. MotI, the 
name of the handsome giinth, is an iron-grey hill-pony, more 
like a dwarf-horse than a pony ; he has an exceedingly thick, 
shaggy mane, and a very thick, long tail ; the most sure-footed 
sagacious animal ; he never gets tired, and will go all day up 
and down hill ; seldom fights, and is never alarmed when 
passing the most dangerous places. Give your gunth his head, 
and he will carry you safely. Horses are dangerous, even the 

most quiet become alarmed in the hills. Captain S bought 

this gunth at the Hurdwar fair; he came from Almorah, 
cost 160 rupees (16) ; and 300 rupees have been refused for 

The following history was related to me concerning the gunth : 

Colonel P , to whom the animal was lent, took him to 

the Snowy Ranges ; "In some pass, by some accident, the 
gunth fell down a precipice, and was caught upon an oak tree. 
There he swung; one struggle would have sent him to the 

bottom, and to certain death ; he never moved. Colonel P , 

who was walking at the time, got some people, who descended 
to the place where the gunth hung, dug out a standing-place in 
the side of the hill, just big enough to hold the pony, and con- 
trived to get him off his tree into the spot : the giinth was so 
much alarmed, that they left him to recover fi-om his fright on 
this spot the whole night ; and the next morning got him up the 
precipice in safety to the road." Any horse would have strug- 
gled and have been killed ; these gunths appear to understand 
that they must be quiet, and their masters will help them. He 
is a queer-tempered httle fellow ; he kicked my sa'is over 
one day, and always kicks at me if I attempt to pat him ; but 


he carries me capitally : nevertheless, he is " vicious as he is 

The whole day I roamed about Raj pur ; the Paharls (the 
Hill-men) , who had come down to bring up our luggage, were 
animals to stare at : like the pictures I have seen of Tartars, 
little fellows, with such flat ugly faces, dressed in black woollen 
coarse trowsers, a blanket of the same over their shoulders ; a 
black, greasy, round leather cap on their heads, sometimes deco- 
rated all round their faces with bunches of Hill-flowers, freshly 
gathered ; a rope round their waists. Their limbs are stout, 
and the sinews in the legs strongly developed, from con- 
stantly climbing the Hills. They are very honest and very idle ; 
moreover, most exceedingly dirty. Such were the little Hill 
fellows we met at Rajpur. 

\Gth. This morning the gUnth came to the door for my 

companion to ride up the Hills : I was to be carried up in a 

jampan. A jampiin is an arm-chair, with a top to it, to shelter 

you from the sun or rain ; four long poles are affixed to it. 

Eight of those funny little black Hill fellows were harnessed 

between the poles, after their fashion, and they carried me up 

the hill. My two women went up in dolls, a sort of tray for 

women, in which one person can sit native fashion ; these trays 

are hung upon long poles, and carried by Hill-men. The ascent 

from Rajpur is seven miles, climbing almost every yard of the 

way. The difierent views delighted me : on the side of the Hills 

facing Rajpur the trees were stunted, and there was but little 

vegetation ; on the other side, the northern, we came upon fine 

oak and rhododendron trees such beautiful rhododendrons ! 

they are forest trees, not shrubs, as you have them in England. 

The people gathered the wild flowers, and filled my lap with 

them. The jangal pear, in full blossom, the raspberry bushes, 

and the nettles delighted me ; I could not help sending a man 

from the plains, who had never seen a nettle, to gather one ; he 

took hold of it, and, relinquishing his hold instantly in excessive 

surprise, exclaimed, " It has stung me ; it is a scorpion plant." 

' Oriental Proverbs and Sayings, No. 123. 



Violets were under every rock ; and the wild, pleasing notes of 
the Hill birds were to be heard in every direction. The delicious 
air, so pure, so bracing, so unlike any air I had breathed for 
fifteen years, with what delight I inhaled it! It seemed to 
promise health and strength and spirits : I fancied the lurking 
fever crept out of my body as I breathed the mountain air ; I 
was so happy, so glad I was aUve ; I felt a buoyancy of spirit, 
like that enjoyed by a child. 

The only bungalow we could procure was one on the top of 
the hill of Landowr ; it was an uncomfortable one, but a roof 
was not to be despised in such cold weather : we had a fire 
lighted instantly, and kept it burning all day. Where now was 
the vile fever that had bowed me down in the plains ? It had 
vanished with the change of climate, as if by magic. The Hill 
air made me feel so well and strong, we set off" on our ponies in 

the evening to visit Mr. E 's house ; it is beautiful, built 

with great taste, and highly finished ; its situation is fine, on a 
hill, at the further end of Landowr. Thence we went to Colonel 

P 's bungalow, a good house, well situated, but very far 

from supplies ; he offered it to me for the season for 1200 rupees 
i.e. 120 for seven months. From the barracks, at the top 
of Landowr, the view of the Snowy Ranges is magnificent. 
In any other country these hills would be called mountains ; but, 
being near the foot of the Himalaya, that in the distance tower 
above them, they have obtained the title of " The Hills." 
Landowr, Bhadraj, Ben Oge, are covered with oak and rhododen- 
dron trees ; the vaUeys between them, by the Hill people called 
khuds, are extremely deep : at the bottom of these khuds water 
is found in little rills, but it is very scarce. About two thousand 
feet below Landowr water is abundant, and there are some 
waterfalls. The HiUs are very grand, but have not the pictu- 
resque beauty of the valley of Chamouni : and yet it is unfair 
to make the comparison at Landowr ; Chamouni is at the foot 
of Mont Blanc : to compare the two, one ought to pro- 
ceed to the foot of the Snowy Ranges, where their sohtary 
grandeur would overpower the remembrance of Mont Blanc. I 
long to go there : the difficulties and privations would be great ; 

MussooRi. 229 

I could not go alone, and the fatigue would be excessive ; never- 
theless, I long to make a pilgrimage to Grangotri, the source 
of the Ganges. 

\7th. S'tarted on our ponies at 7 a.m. to ride to MussoorT, 
which is only a short distance from Landowr. The scenery 
at that place is of a tamer cast ; the southern side of the hill, 
on which most of the houses are situated, puts me in mind of 
the back of the Isle of Wight, but on a larger scale ; the 
projecting rocks and trees, with gentlemen's houses in every 
nook, all built on the side of the hill, give the resemblance. 
The northern side is called the Camel's Back, from a fancied 
resemblance of the hill to the shape of that animal ; there the 
scenery differs entirely. The southern side, on which Mussoori 
is situated, has few trees, and looks down on the valley of the 
Dhoon ; the northern side is covered with fine trees, the hills 
abrupt ; a wildness and grandeur, unknown on the southern side, 
is all around you ; the valleys fearfully deep, the pathway 
narrow, and in some parts so bad, only one foot in breadth is 
left for a pony. At first I felt a cold shudder pass over me, as 
I rode by such places ; in the course of a week I was perfectly 
accustomed to the sort of thing, and quite fearless. A pathway 
three feet in width at its utmost breadth, is a handsome road in 
the Hills ; a perpendicular rock on one side, and a precipice, 
perhaps three or four hundred feet deep, may be on the other. 
It is all very well when the road is pretty open ; but when you 
have to turn the sharp corner of a rock, if looking over a 
precipice makes you giddy, shut your eyes, and give your gunth the 
rein, and you will be sure to find yourself safe on the other side. 
The little rascals never become giddy ; and after a short time you 
will turn such comers at a canter, as a thing of course. I was 
delighted with the wildness of the scenery, it equalled my 
expectations. In front of Mussoori you are in high pubUc, the 
road called the Mall is from eight to ten feet wide, covered with 
children, nurses, dogs, and sickly ladies and gentlemen, walking 
about gaily dressed. I always avoid the Mall ; I go out for enjoy- 
ment and health, and do not want to talk to people. The children ! 
it is charming to see their rosy faces ; they look as well and as 


strong as any children in England ; the chmate of the Hills is 
certainly far superior to that of England. Not liking my bun- 
galow, I changed it for another half way up the hill of Landowr. 

1 7th. Lord Auckland and the Misses Eden arrived to-day, 
and took up their residence at Colonel Young's, a little below, 
on the hill of Landowr. 

From my bungalow the view is beautiful, and we have as 
much air as man can desire. The first thing was to get pardas, 
stuffed with cotton, for every window and door; the next, to 
hire a set of Hill-men, to cut and bring wood from the khuds, 
and water and grass for the ponies. A long ride round Waverly 
was the evening's amusement ; then came a dinner of excellent 
HUl-mutton, by the side of a blazing fire of the beautiful rhodo- 
dendron wood ! The well-closed doors kept out the cold, and 
my kind relative congratulated me on having lost my fever, and 
being so comfortable in the Hills. 

Visited Mr. Webb's hotel for families ; it is an excellent one, 
and very commodious. There is a ball-room, and five billiard 
tables with slate beds ; these slate beds have only just arrived in 
India, and have very lately been introduced in England. 

\9th. During the time I was waiting for my relative, who 
had accompanied Lord Auckland, to show him the hospital and 
the different buildings at Landowr, which were under his charge, 
my attention was arrested by a great number of HiU-men, carry- 
ing large bundles of moss down to the plains ; they grind up the 
moss with barley-meal, and use it as soap ; it is in great repute 
at weddings. 

Rode my little black horse, but found him not so pleasant in 
the Hills as a gunth, and more fatiguing. At the foot of 
Landowr there is an excellent bazar : eveiy thing is to be had 
there, Pdte'efoie gras, be'casses truffe's, shola hats covered with 
the skin of the pelican, champagne, bareilly couches, shoes, 
Chinese books, pickles, long poles for climbing the mountains, and 
'various incongruous articles. Many years ago, a curious little 
rosary had been brought me from the santa casa of our Lady of 
Loretto ; a fac-simile of the little curiosity was lying for sale in 
the Landowr bazar, amongst a lot of Hindustani shoes ! 


The Goveraor-General and his party quitted Landowr, and 
returned to Rajpiir, on their march to Simla, up the valley of 
the Deyra Doon. 

In the evening I rode out to see Ben Oge and Bhadraj : at the 
foot of Ben Oge is a boys' school ; a number of little fellows 
were out at play. There is also a girls' school at Mussoori. 
Here English children can receive some education in a fine 

20th. Rainy ; thermometer in the verandah at noon, 56 ; 
at 3 o'clock P.M. 54. 

2\st. The Hills covered and hidden by deep clouds ; thunder 
and lightning, with some rain. Thermometer, 8 A. m. 46 ; 
evening fine, heavy rain at night. 

23rd. Captain E. S has an estate in the Hills, called 

Cloud End, a beautiful mountain, of about sixty acres, covered 
with oak trees : on this spot he had long wished to build a 
house, and had prepared the plan, but his duties as an engineer 
prevented his being long enough at a time in the Hills to accom- 
plish the object. I offered to superintend the work during his 
absence, if he would mark out the foundation : a morning's ride 
brought us to his estate, situated between a hill, called " the 
Park," and Ben Oge, with Bhadraj to the west ; the situation is 
beautiful, the hills magnificent and well-wooded. Having 
fixed on the spot for the house, the drawing-room windows to 
face a noble view of tjie Snowy Ranges, the next thing was to 
mark a pathway to be cut into the Khud, a descent of two 
miles, for the mules to bring up water. 

The plan of the house was then marked out, and a site was 
selected for my hill-tent, commanding a view of the Himalaya : 
this little tent was made to order at Fathlgarh, it is twelve feet 
square, the walls four feet high, and has two doors. A stone 
wall is to be built around it, a chimney at one end, and a glass 
door at the other ; a thatch will be placed over it, and this will 
be my habitation when I go to Cloud End, or when I make 
excursions into the Hills ; my kitchen will be an old oak tree. 
The Hills are so steep, a single pole tent of the usual size can be 
pitched in very few places. Under an old oak, on a rock covered 


with wild flowers, I sat and enjoyed the scene : the valley of the 
Doon lay stretched before me, and the HUls around me. There 
is a I'hododendron tree on this estate that bears white flowers, 
it is a great rarity, and highly prized ; all the flowers of the 
other rhododendron trees are of a magnificent crimson. The 
Hill-men are fond of sucking the juice from the petals, which, 
it is said, possesses an intoxicating quality. 

Stormy-looking clouds were roUing up from the valley towards 
the HUls : returning home, we were caught in as fine a storm as 
I almost ever beheld ; it was a glorious sight, the forked 
Ughtning was superb, the thunder resounded from hill to hill, 
the hail and rain fell heavily : for about two hours the storm 
raged. We took shelter in a Europe shop ; towards night it 
decreased ; wrapped in black blankets, which we procured from 
the baziir, we got home in safety ; the rain could not penetrate 
the black blankets, the wool of which is so oily. The stonn 
raged with violence during the night, but I heard it not : in the 
morning the Hill-tops were covered with snow: at 7 a.m. the 
thermometer 38 in the verandah ; in the room at noon with a 
fire it stood at 57. 

25th. My relative left me, taking back all useless servants, 
and the camels from Rajpur. 

Visited the Hospital, of which Mr. Morrow is the steward, to 
see his collection of birds. The specimens are very well pre- 
served with arsenical soap, and they sell well on that account : 
he had two pair of the Mooniil pheasants alive, their plumage 
bright and beautiful. The collection was large ; I selected only 
a few specimens, as follows : 

The Golden Eagle of the Himalaya : a bird I have often seen 
flying around Landowr ; and a remarkably fine one. Also the 
Black Eagle of these mountains. 

The Loonjee, or Red Pheasant, from the deep forests of the 
Himalaya : a bird rare and valuable ; the skin on the neck is 
peculiar ; in confinement they are timid and quiet, but the light 
annoys them, from being accustomed to the shade of the 

The Moonal, Duffieah, or Blue Pheasant of the Himalaya : 


these birds are brought from the interior ; they are seldom found 
so far down as I^andowr ; nevertheless, one was shot at Cloud 
End, Bhadraj ; they are timid at first in confinement, after a few 
days, they will eat wheat in your presence, and show no signs of 
alarm. The eggs they lay when in cages might be brought to 
England ; why should they not thrive in our climate, since they 
are inhabitants of a cold region ? The hen-bird, although less 
splendid in plumage than the cock, is very game. 

The Koklas Pheasant, common in the Hills, is also a very 
game-looking bird. 

The CaUinge Pheasant, with its peculiar top-knot, is, as well as 
those before mentioned, excellent food . Other pheasants are found 
in the Himalaya, of which I was unable to procure specimens. 

Black Partridges : the most beautiful in the world are found 
in most parts of India ; they are a great delicacy. 

The Chakor, or Red-legged Partridge : very similar to the 
French Partridge ; excellent food : they may be rendered so tame, 
they will run about the house and garden. Chakor, the 
Bartavelli, or Greek Partridge (Perdix chukar, Gould. Perdix 
rufa, Lath) : said to be enamoured of the moon, and to eat fire 
at the full of the moon. This bird is also called atash-khwar (fire- 
eater), a variety of Tetrao rufus, Lin. ; called, in Hindi, Chakor. 
It is also denominated " Moon Bird," and " Minion of the 
Moon." The common grey partridge is coarse and inferior. 

Bush Quail and Rock Quail : beautiful and delicious. When 
buying a number of quail, which are caught in nets, you will 
rarely find a cock bird, if caught near Lucnow, or any 
native court ; they are taken out, and sold as fighting birds. 
Quail are numerous all over India, and generally sold twenty-five 
per rupee. 

A Jangal Cock and Hen : the wild cock and hen of the woods, 
common over all India ; the stock to which all common fowls 
owe their origin. There are various kinds of fowls in India ; 
the ghagas are large, fine, and very long legged, Uke game birds ; 
the chatgaiyan are fine also ; the karaknath are considered very 
delicate by the natives, but the purple colour of their bones has 
a disagreeable appearance. 


Green Pigeons : beautiful birds. Blue Pigeons : which 
inhabit the wells ; it is said the fare of an aide-de-camp is 
" hard work and blue pigeons !" 

The Barbet, the Blackbird, the Blue-winged Jay, the Long- 
tailed Blue Jay, the Woodpecker, Humming Birds, the Shah 
Humming Bird, the Mocking Bird, and the Cuckoo, whose 
note is delightful in the Hills, recalling thoughts of early youth 
and home. 

The Chand Chuck, the King Crow : a most courageous little 
fellow, who fights and bulhes all the crows in admirable style : 
hence his name. King Crow. 

Flycatchers, DhobI Birds, Magpies, and the Rana Chiriya : 
the colour of the cock is a brilliant scarlet ; that of the ranee, 
the hen-bird, is a bright yellow. They appear during the hot 

The Mango Bird : so called as they are seen during the 
mango season. 

The Rocket Bird : with the most elegant long white feathers 
in its tail. 

The birds brought from the interior by the Paharls must 
have the moss taken out with which they are stuffed, and be pre- 
pared with arsenical soap ; otherwise, the feathers will fall off. 

28th. Some Hill-men brought me two pair of the Moonal 
pheasants alive ; I bought them. They eat wheat, and live 
verj'^ quietly in their cages. 

31*^ Spent the day at Cloud End, overlooking the work- 
men. The mountain on which they are building the house 
will supply almost all the materials : the stones, which are 
cut out of it for the walls of the house, are at first so soft, 
they appear to be rotten ; but exposure to the air will harden 
them in a fortnight. The beams are from the old oak trees ; 
the lime is burned from the stones ; but the slates are to be 
brought from a neighbouring mountain ; and the frames for 
tJie doors and windows will be procured, ready-made, from 

The day was very hot, but the breeze delightful : returning 
home, I was seized with illness, and my pulse being one hundred 


and twenty, called in medical aid. It is not agreeable to be 
suffering from illness, on the top of a mountain, far away 
from all one's friends, depressed, and out of spirits, with 
nothing to amuse one but the leeches, hanging, like love-locks, 
from one's temples. 

A recovery from illness is a pleasant state, where you have 
around you beautiful scenery and pure air. The Hills have 
all that secret treasury of spots, so secluded, that you seem to 
be their first discoverer ; lonely glens and waterfalls, on which 
the sun's rays scarcely rest one hour in the twenty-four ; 
cold hidden basins of living water ; and all so shut out from 
intrusion of the human race, that, in spirit, you become blended 
with the scene. 

April \6th. ^Spent the day at Mr. E 's : in the evening, 

as we were going down the hill, which is exceedingly steep, 
I was so nervous, from recent fever, that I could not ride down 
the descent ; therefore the gunth was led, cmd I walked. The 
pathway, or rather sheep -track, not one foot in breadth, is 
covered with loose stones, and on the edge of a precipice. 

Miss B rode down perfectly unconcerned. From the 

bottom of the Khud I rode up the next hill, to see a house, 
called Newlands ; which has been struck and burned three 
times by lightning. The hill is said to contain a quantity of 
iron, which attracts the electric fluid. A lady and her ayha 
were killed there by the lightning. On my return I rode up 
the hill I had not had the courage to ride down ; even that was 
enough to make me nervous, after having suffered from recent 
fever so many days. A short time ago, as Major Blundell 
was going to that very house, Newlands, by some accident, his 
gunth fell over the precipice, and they were both dashed to 
pieces. At one place I dismounted, and climbed the side of the 
bank, whilst the servants held the gunths during the time 
three mules had to pass them. The passing was effected with 
great difficulty, and one of the mules was nearly over the preci- 
pice, so narrow was the pathway. 



Jerripani The Cicalas View from the Pilgrim's Bangla A Fall over a 
Precipice The Glow-worm Wild-beast Track The Scorpion Mules 
Karral Sheep Wet Days Noisy Boys Conical Hills The Khuds 
Earthquake at Cloud End The Waterfall Fall of a Lady and Horse over 
a Precipice Kalunga General Gillespie The Kookree The Ghoorkas 
The Korah The Sling Ben Oge Danger of Exposure to the Mid-day 
Sun An Earthquake A Spaniel seized by a Leopard A Party at Cloud 
End A Buffer encounters a Bear Hills on Fire Botanical Gardens 
Commencement of the Rains Expedition to the Summit of Bhadraj Mag- 
nificence of the Clouds Storms in High Places Danger of Narrow Roads 
during the Rains Introduction of Slated Roofs in the Hills, 

1838, April 17 th. Started on my glinth, the day being cloudy 
and cold, to make a call some miles off down the hill, at 
Jerripani. The elevation of Jerripani is much less than that 
of Landowr, and the diflFerence in the vegetation reraai-kable : 
here, the young leaves of the oaks are just budding, there, they 
are in full leaf ; here, the raspberry is in flower, there, in fruit. 

" The clematis, the favoured flower, 
That boasts the name of Virgin's Bower," 

was at Jerripani in beautiful profusion, sometimes hanging its 
white clusters over the yellow flowers of the barbery. The 
wjoodbine delighted me with its fragrance, and the remembrance 
of days of old ; and the rhododendron trees were in full grandeur. 
Near one clump of old oaks, covered with moss and ivy, I 
stopped to listen to the shrill cries of the cicala, a sort of 


transparently-winged beetle : the sounds are like what we might 
fancy the notes would be of birds gone crazy. 

" The shrill cicalas, people of the pine, 
Making their summer lives one ceaseless song, 
Were the sole echoes, save my steed's and mine." 

The road was remarkably picturesque, the wind high and cold 
a delightful breeze, the sky cloudy, and the scenery beautiful : 
I enjoyed a charming ride, returned home laden with wild 
flowers, and found amusement for some hours, comparing them 
with Loudon's Encyclopedia. A pony, that was grazing on the 
side of Landowr close to my house, fell down the precipice, and 
was instantly killed : my ayha came to tell me that the privates 
of the 1 6th Lancers and of the Buffs ate horseflesh, for she had 
seen one of them bring up a quantity of the pony's flesh in a 
towel ; I ventured to observe, the man might have dogs to 


I9th. The view from the verandah of my bangla or house is 
very beautiful : directly beneath it is a precipice ; opposite is 
that part of the hill of Landowr on which stands the sanatorium 
for the military, at present occupied by the invalids of the 1 6th 
Lancers and of the Buffs. The hill is covered with grass, and 
the wild potato grows there in profusion ; beyond is a high steep 
rock, which can only be ascended by a very precipitous path on 
one side of it ; it is crowned by a house called Lall Tiba, and is 
covered with oak and rhododendron trees. Below, surrounded 
with trees, stands the house of Mr. Connolly ; and beyond that, 
in the distance, are the snow-covered mountains of the lower 
range of the Himalaya. The road if the narrow pathway, 
three feet in breadth, may deserve so dignified an appellation 
is to the right, on the edge of a precipice, and on the other side 
is the perpendicular rock out of which it has been cut. This 
morning I heard an outcry, and ran to see what had happened ; 
just below, and directly in front of my house, an accident had 
occurred : an ofiicer of the Buffs had sent a valuable horse down 


the hill, in charge of his groom ; they met some mules laden 
with water-bags, where the path was narrow, the bank perpen- 
dicular on the one side, and the precipice on the other ; the 
groom led the horse on the side of the precipice, he kicked at 
the mules, his feet descended over the edge of the road, and 
down he went a dreadful fall, a horrible crash ; the animal was 
dead ere he reached a spot where a tree stopped his further 
descent : the precipice is almost perpendicular. 

22nd. Found a glow-worm of immense size on the side of the 
hill : a winged glow-worm flew in, and alighted on the table ; it 
is small, not a quarter the size of the other. 

23rd. ^During the night, some animal came into the verandah, 
killed one of the Mooniil hen pheasants, and wounded the cock 
bird so severely that he will die. There is a wild-beast track on 
the side of the hill opposite my house, along which I have 
several times seen some animal skulking in the dusk of the 

25th. Accompanied some friends to breakfast in my cottage- 
tent at Cloud End. We laid out a garden, and sowed flower 
seeds around the spot where my little tent is pitched, beneath 
the trees ; while thus employed, I found a scorpion among the 
moss and leaves where I was sitting, which induced me to repeat 
those lines of Byron : 

" The mind that broods o'er guilty woes 
Is like the scorpion girt by fire, 
In circle narrowing as it glows, 
Tlie flames around their captive close, 
Till, inly search'd by thousand throes, 
And maddening in her ire. 
One sad and sole relief she knows, 
The sting she nourish'd for her foes, 
Whose venom never yet was vain, 
Gives but one pang, and cures all pain, 
And darts into her desperate brain." 

" My memory was a source of woe to the scorpion at Bhadrdj ; 
they surrounded him with a circle of fire ; as the heat annoyed 
him he strove to get over the circle, but the burning charcoal 
drove him back ; at last, mad with pain, he drove his sting into 


his own back ; a drop of milk-white fluid was on the sting, and 
was left on the spot which he struck ; immediately afterwards 

the scorpion died : Mr. R saw him strike the sting into 

his own back. When it was over we felt a little ashamed of our 
scientific cruelty, and buried the scorpion with all due honour 
below the ashes that had consumed him : a burnt sacrifice to 
science. In a note in "the Giaour," the idea is mentioned as 
an error, of the scorpion's committing suicide, but I was one of 
the witnesses to the fact. 

29th. Saw a fine mule for sale for 10, and bought him imme- 
diately for my own riding ; mules are generally very safe on these 
dangerous roads. Also purchased two smaller ones for the estate 
for 9, water-bags and all. A man brought a number of fine fat 
Karral sheep, fit for table, from the interior, where they are 
fattened on acorns ; I purchased four of them for twenty-four 
rupees eight anas ; the mutton is delicious ; they have short 
tails and large horns, are very strong, and their fleeces, long and 
warm, are suited to their own hill climate. 

30^/t. The weather constantly fine, cool, and pleasant ; we 
have a little fire lighted merely in the morning and evening. 
Purchased Sancho, a handsome retriever, from a private in the 

May \st. My friend Mrs. B and her four children have 

arrived ; I invited them to come and stay with me ; the children 
are most interesting, nevertheless, their noise drives me half 
crazy ; my life has been so perfectly quiet and solitary of late, 
the change makes my head ache. 

Sunday, 6th. Unable to go to church at Mussoorl ; constant 
rain, very cold and chilly ; the clouds are hanging over the 
mountains in white heavy masses, or drifting on this powerful 
wind up the valleys, or rather between the ridges of the Hills. 
I went into the verandah, to see if the Italian greyhounds were 
warmly housed, and could not help exclaiming, " How delicious 
is this coldness in the Hills ! it is just as wet, windy, and 
wretched as in England :" thus mingling the recollected misery 
of a wet, raw day in England, and the delight of a cold day 
in India. The boys are calling me to have a game of marbles 


with little apples, the small sweet aj)ples we get from 

My mule, who has been christened Don Pedro, carries me 
beautifully ; we canter and trot up and down hill at an excellent 
pace ; he has but one fault, a dangerous one in the Hills, 
that of shying ; he would be worth two hundred rupees if he 
were not timid. 

The conical form of The Hills is their great peculiarity ; in 
order to gain sufficient level ground, on which to build the house 
at Bhadraj, it was necessary to cut off the top of the hill, a work 
of labour and expense. A khud is a valley between two hills, 
which is generally very narrow, so much so, that a horse might 
leap across the bottom of several of the khuds I have seen near 
Landowr. The building of the house at Cloud End has proceeded 
at a great rate ; five hundred Hill-coolies are constantly employed 
under the eye of an European, to keep them at their work. The 
house has been roofed in, and my relative has come up from 
Meerut, to have the slates put on after some peculiar hikmat 
(fashion) of his own. 

7th. The storm of yesterday rendered the air so pure and 
clear, it was most refreshing ; I mounted my mule, and went to 
spend the day at Bhadraj. The Snowy Ranges were distinct and 
beautiful, the wild flowers lovely on every rock ; the ride was 
one of great enjoyment. The wild notes of the Hill birds were 
heard in every direction, and the cuckoo was sending forth its 
old famiUar note. On my arrival I found one of the ponies at 
the estate had been killed by a fall over the precipice when 
bringing up water from the khud. 

\4th. Capt. S says, a very severe earthquake was felt 

at his estate during the storm the other night : he was asleep in 
the outer building, and was awakened by the shock, which threw 
down the gable end of it ; fortunately, the large stones fell 
outwards, or he would have been killed on his bed ; he ran out, 
and took refuge in the little tent. The shock also spht open the 
stone wall of the mule-shed. Although his estate is only six 
miles off, we did not feel the earthquake at Landowr. 

\8th. My fair friend and myself having been invited to a 


pic-nic at a waterfall, about two thousand feet below Landowr, 
we started on our gunths at 5 a.m. ; the tents, servants, and 
provisions had gone on the day before ; none of us knew the 
way, but we proceeded, after quitting the road, by a footpath 
that led up and down the steepest hills ; it was scarcely possible 
for the gunths to go over it. At 8 a.m. we arrived, completely 
tired, and found an excellent breakfast ready. The waterfall 
roared in the khud below, and amidst the trees we caught 
glimpses of the mountain torrent chafing and rushing along. 
After breakfast the gentlemen went out to explore the path to 
the waterfall ; we soon grew too impatient to await their return, 
and followed them. 

We descended into the khud, and I was amusing myself jumping 
from rock to rock, and thus passing up the centre of the brawling 
mountain stream, aided by my long pahari pole of rous wood, and 
looking for the picturesque, when my fair friend, attempting to 
foUow me, fell from the rocks into the water, and very pictu- 
resque and very Undine -hke she looked in the stream ! We 
returned to the tents to have her garments dried in the sun, and 
while the poor little lady was doing penance, I wandered down 
the stream, of which the various waterfalls are beautiful ; and, 
although there was a burning sun on the top of the Hills, down 
below, by the water, it was luxuriously cool. The path I took 
was straight down the torrent ; I wandered alone for three hours, 
refreshing myself with wild strawberries, barberries, raspberries, 
and various other Hill fruits that hung around the stream on 
every side. The flowers were beautiful, the wild ferns luxuriant, 
the noise of the torrent most agreeable, in fact, all was charming. 
On my return, I found the party at the foot of a beautiful 
waterfall, eighty feet in height ; the spot was lovely, it was 
overhung with trees, from the topmost boughs of which gigantic 
climbers were pendant. How gaily did we partake of excellent 
wine and good fare on that delicious spot ! It was nearly sunset 
ere we mounted our gunths, and took the path through the 
village of Buttah. 

This village is inhabited by Hill people ; I saw a very good- 
looking woman at a cottage door, in a very picturesque dress, 



and wished to go and speak to her, but was deterred from so 
doing, as the Hill-men appeared to dislike the gentlemen passing 
near the village : I must go alone some day, and see her again. 
By mistake we lost the path, and got into paddy fields, where 
we were obliged to dismount, and take the ponies down the most 
dangerous places. My fair companion was on a mare from the 
plains ; we were obliged to tie a rope to the animal, and leap her 
down those places over which the ponies scrambled; we went down 
the dry bed of a torrent for some distance, and it was most curious 
to see how the gunths got over and down the rocks. Walking 
fatigued me to excess ; I mounted my gunth, and rode up some 
frightful places, up the bed of a small torrent, where there was 
no path ; the gunth clambered up the rocks in excellent style. 

Presently Mrs. B thought she would do the same ; she had 

not been on the mare ten minutes when I heard a cry, " The 
mem sahiba has fallen into the khud !" Her horse had refused 
to clamber up a rocky ascent, I suppose she checked him, he 
swerved round, and fell down the khud ; fortunately he fell on 
his right side, therefore her limbs were above him, and they 
slipped down together, the horse lying on his side, until, by the 
happiest chance, his downward course was stopped by a tree. 
The sa'Ises ran down, pulled her off, and brought her up the 
HiU; afterwards they got the horse up again in safety. But 
for the tree, the lady and her steed would have been dashed to 
pieces ; she was bruised, but not much hurt. Her scream 
alarmed me, I thought it was all over. We returned com- 
pletely tired ; but the day had been one of great delight, the 
scenery lovely, and the air delicious. 

From Landowr, looking towards Hurdwar, the isolated Hill 
of Kalunga or Nalapani, with its table-land and Fortress on the 
highest extremity, is visible. When the steady coolness and 
bravery of the Ghoorkas, united with insurmountable obstacles, 
compelled our troops to fall back, General Gillespie determined 
. to carry the place ; and, at the head of three companies of the 
53rd Regiment, reached a spot within thirty yards of a wicket 
defended by a gun ; there, as he was cheering the men, waving 
his hat in one hand, and his sword in the other, he was shot 


through the heart, and fell dead on the spot. Thus died as 
brave and reckless a cavalier as ever put spur on heel ; his 
sword is one of the interesting relics of my museum. T never 
meet a hardy, active httle Ghoorka, with a countenance like a 
Tartar, and his kookree at his side, but I feel respect for him, 
remembering the defence of Kalunga. The women showed as 
much bravery as the men ; showers of arrows and stones were 
discharged at the enemy : the women threw the stones dexte- 
rously, severe wounds were inflicted by them ; and they 
undauntedly exposed themselves to the fire of the enemy ; 
they acted with the natural courage inherent in us all, never 
having been taught that it was pretty and interesting to be 
sweet, timid creatures ! Perhaps, after all, the noble conduct of 
these Ghoorka women may be traced to a reason given by a 
modem European author, who covertly asserts, that women, 
not having souls as men have, are guided in all their actions by 
instinct ! The Hindiis are equally compUmentary, and assert, 
" A woman cannot be kept in due subjection, either by gifts, or 
kindness, or correct conduct, or the greatest services, or the 
laws of morahty, or by the terror of punishment, for she cannot 
discriminate between good and evil !" 

The kookree is a semicircular, long, heavy knife, always 
carried by the Ghoorkas ; sometimes the sheath is curiously 
embroidered with strips from the qmll of the peacock's feather : 
two small crooked knives are generally in the same sheath. 
The kookree is used for war as well as for all domestic 

The sword used by the Ghoorka officers called a " korah," or 
a " bughalee," is also used by the executioners in China for 
decapitation, with a back-handed drawing cut. 

The sUng used by Hill-men is made of a thick long cord of 
worsted, having a little breadth in the centre, in which, having 
placed the stone, they whisk the sling round, and launch it. 
Specimens of all these weapons I brought from the Hills. The 
sling above described was doubtless used by the Ghoorka women 
at Kalunga. 

22nd. We mounted our gunths so early we were at Cloud 



End by 7 a.m. to breakfast. Ben Oge, the hill adjoining, is the 
highest point at Mussoori. The day was bright and clear. 

Captain S asked us to ride to the summit ; he accompanied 

us on foot. The view from the top of Ben Oge was beautiful : 
the Snowy Ranges were so clear and distinct, you could see 
every peak. I thought of Captain Skinner's journal as I looked 
at the peaks of Jumnotri, the source of the Jumna, and 
traced the river as it wound below through the khuds at the foot 
of the mountains, its course doubhng hke a hare. Beyond 
was the Peak of Gangotri, from which the Ganges rises. I 
longed to march into the interior, to behold the grandeur of the 
scenery of the Himalaya. Ben Oge is quite treeless at the 
summit, but the ground was covered with wild lavender, thyme, 
and various mountain flowers of great beauty, while numberless 
butterflies flitted over them. My relative found the breeze very 
chilly, but the sun was so hot it made my head spin ; we 
returned to his house : he was seized with cholera, from the 
heat of his body being suddenly checked by the cold air, and 
the sun pouring on his head ; he was very ill, and in great pain 
for two hours. We returned home, determined not to ascend 
another hill during the heat of the day. 

26th. My httle widow and I were out riding at seven in the 
morning ; on our return we were surprised to find a very severe 
earthquake had been experienced at Landowr and Mussoori, 
which had frightened all the people ; there were three distinct 
shocks. We on our gunths did not feel the shocks ; there are 
but few hours in the day in which an earthquake could catch us 
off" our ponies. 

I have never put on a bonnet since I came to the Hills ; like 
the steeds in the " Lay of the Last Minstrel," which " stood 
saddled in stable day and night," so am I saddled in my hat 
and riding-habit, always on my pony ; my visits are made on 
horseback. I have a jampan, (a sort of chair, with poles, carried 
* by Hill-men,) but this is a disagreeable kind of conveyance ; and 
I like the independence of my pony much better. The earthquake 
was charming ; we seem to have all the eccentricities of nature 
around us. A Landowr .^tna or Vesuvius would figure well 


in my journal, could we be lucky enough to discover a burning 
mountain in these Snowy Regions. 

28th. I gave a pic-nic party by the side of a mountain 
stream, in a deep khud at JerripanI : the barberries were quite 
ripe, in shape much thicker than the English, in colour black, 
very good in taste. The wild dog-rose hung its clusters of white 
flowers from almost every tree in the richest profusion ; it is a 
beautiftil climber. 

June 1st. ^The weather is hot during the middle of the day, 
the thermometer 70 ; one cannot go out with comfort, unless 
the day be cloudy or stormy ; it is very hot for the Hills. 

5th. A very hot day ; the Hills covered with a fog-Uke 
smoke, occasioned by the burning of the jangal in the valley 

below ; hot and smoky air comes up in volumes. Mrs. M 

was riding this evening, when a leopard seized her spaniel, which 
was not many yards in front of her pony ; the shouts of the 
party alarmed the animal, and he let the dog drop ; however, 
the poor spaniel died of his wounds. Some officers laid wait 
for the leopard, and shot it ; I saw it, coming up the Hill, 
fastened on a bamboo, to be stuffed and prepared with arsenical 

7th. Mr. D invited us to a pic-nic at Bhadraj ; we 

selected a spot under a fine oak tree on the estate at Cloud End ; 
numberless amusements were provided for us : a champagne 
tiffin was pleasant under the old oak tree ; and a dinner, rich 
and rare, finished the amusements of the day. When the moon 
arose we mounted our gunths ; and, as the road lay through 
the dark shade of trees, and on the edge of precipices, we 
determined to be careful, and agreed to muster three times on 
our journey of six miles, to see that none of the party had fallen 
into the khud. Away we cantered through the beautiful moon- 
light, almost racing our ponies. At the last muster, Mr. H 

was thrown by his mule ; but as he was scarcely hurt, it was only 
a laughing matter. We reached home at half-past eleven, after 
a beautiful ride and a pleasant day. 

lOth. One of the officers of the Buffs met a bear the other 
day, and was glad to get off" unhugged ; bears as well as leopards 


abound in the Hills. I must not take my pet dog out riding 
with me ; at this time of the year wild beasts are numerous, and 
render it dangerous. 

We have a great number of visitors every day in the Hills ; 
people have nothing to do but to run about calling and amusing 
themselves. A third earthquake has taken place ; but, as usual, 
I on my gunth was unconscious of the quaking of the earth. 
A storm of thunder, Hghtning, and hail has cooled the air, and it 
is very pleasant weather. The Hills look so beautiful at night, 
when they are on fire ; the fire never spreads, but runs up to the 
top of the HiU ; they fire them below in several places at once, to 
burn the old long grass, and make way for the new to sprout up. 

llth. A letter from Allahabad tells me, a most severe storm 
took place there on the third of this month, more severe than 
the one in which the Seagull was wrecked ; it only lasted an 
hour. It blew down one of the verandahs of our house, un- 
roofed the cow-house, the meat-house, the wild-duck-house, the 
sheep-house, &c. : the repairs will not cost us less than seven 
hundred rupees (70) . 

ISth. Accompanied Mr. R to see the Botanical Garden, 

which is small, but interesting : I ate cherries from Cashmere, 
saw a very fine Hill lily from the interior, and gathered many 
beautiful flowers. Some peaches, from the Dhoon valley, very 
large and fine, like English peaches, were sent me to-day. 

I8th. Our party being engaged to dine at Cloud End to-day, 
under the old oak tree, we got up at 6 a.m., when we found the 
Hills covered with thick white clouds from the bottom of the 
khuds to their summits ; the clouds were so thick, and we were 
so completely in the midst of them, you could not see beyond 
the verandah ; the thunder rolled, and the sheeted lightning 
flashed. After a while the wind blew off" the clouds, and the 
Hills re-appeared, but only for a few moments, when fresh 
clouds rolled up from the valley, and every thing was again 
hidden in the white foggy cloud. The rain fell heavily, straight 
down from the heavens : I trust the rains have set in this day ; 
without them the famine, and the sickness which is raging in 
the plains below, will continue. 


This specimen of what the rains will prove has quite horrified 
my fair friend, and she is wishing herself back again at Meerut. 
I who am fond of storm and tempest have enjoyed the day ; 
1 like these hurly-burly scenes ; too frequent repetition might 
perhaps render them annoying, and the dampness might be pro- 
ductive of rheumatism. Thermometer 1 p.m. 69. 

\9th. At half-past 7 a.m. our party were at Cloud End, seated 
on the rocks under the old oak, enjoying breakfast after the ride. 
The delicious mounteiin air made me feel so well, I proposed to 

Captain A to visit the summit of Bhadraj, seven miles off. 

The rest of the party thought the exertion too great, and would 
not join us. On quitting the made road we entered a track on 
the side of the mountain, overhanging a deep precipice. We 
lost our way, and found we could neither turn our mules round, 

nor proceed any further. We dismounted ; Captain A , 

with some difficulty, turned my mule ; he then attempted to do 
the same to his own, the animal became skittish, and, shpping 
from his hand, went down the side of the hill ; how he kept his 
feet was wonderful. The mule looked quietly up at us from 
below ; to have attempted to catch him would have sent him 
down the rock to certain death, we therefore walked off, leaving 
this most beautiful mule, for which 20 had just been paid, to 
his fate. As we expected, when he found the other mule had 
gone off, he ascended the rock with the utmost caution, and 
rejoined his companion ; I was glad to see his bridle in his 
master's hand again. 

After much toil we arrived at the flag-staff on the top of the 
hill ; thence the view was such as is seldom seen in such perfec- 
tion, even in these mountains : ^looking down towards the plain 
of the Deyra Dhoon, instead of the beautiful valley in all its 
emerald green, intersected by rivers pouring down from the 
HiUs, instead of this, white clouds entirely filled the plain, 
giving it the appearance of being filled with hills covered with 
snow ; beyond were the dark hills of the Lower Range ; the next 
minute the clouds changed their appearance, and rushed up the 
Hills on a strong wind, covering several mountains at a time 
in a most extraordinary manner with volumes of white cloud ; 


then, driving on, left them bright in the sunshine. The river 
Jumna, in the khud or valley, at times visible, at times con- 
cealed by clouds, wound its tortuous course below. I have seen 
the Hills under almost all forms, but the grandeur of the view 
on this stormy day exceeded any thing I had before beheld, and 
well repaid the fatigue. At times it rained a little, at times there 
was a scorching sunshine, then came gusts of wind and clouds, 
wrapping every object around us in dense white vapour. A Uttle 
further on we found a Hindu idol, rudely cut in stone ; this idol 
is now neglected, but was formerly much worshipped. Near it 
is a large stone, on which is chiselled, " Lady Hood, 1814 :" on 
speaking of this to the poUtical agent, he laughed and said, 
' You were more enterprising than Lady Hood ; you visited the 
spot, she only sent a man to chisel out her name, and that of 

Colonel B on the top of Bhadraj ; she never visited the 

place in person." We returned to dinner at Cloud End: how 
glad we were of a glass of champagne after our fatigues ! and 
how glad we were we had brought the beautiful mule back in 
safety ! After tea, remounting our steeds, we returned to Lan- 
dowr : I rode in the course of that day twenty-six mDes, up and 
down hill, a pretty good distance for a lady ; but who can feel 
fatigue in the bracing, most enjoyable air of these delightful 
mountains ? 

2lst. At twenty-two minutes after 4 p.m., an earthquake 
shook the ground and the house ; I was sitting at table and felt 
the shocks, which were very powerful. Rain, rain, storms, 
storms, thunder and Hghtning daily : truly, saith the proverb, 
" There are storms in high places." 

24th. A delightful day ! How fine, how beautiful are the 
Snowy Ranges ! In consequence of the heavy rain the roads 
have become very rotten and dangerous ; in many parts, half 
the road has fallen into the khud ; and where the path is often 
not three feet in width, it leaves but a small space for a man on 

his gunth. Mr. T , of the artillery, met with a serious 

accident this morning ; the road was much broken, and as he 
attempted to ride over it, it gave way ; he and his pony went 
down the precipice. Mr. T was stopped in his descent, 


after he had gone one hundi'ed feet, by a tree, was brought up, 
and carried to a surgeon. He was much hurt in the head, but 
is expected to recover in two or three weeks ; no bones were 
broken : the pony went down two hundred and fifty feet, and 
was found aUve ! 

One of my men was brought in for medical aid, he had 
been employed in charge of a gang of Hill-men, cutting slates 
for the roof of the new house, in a deep khud, and had 
caught a fever. The slates found in the Hills are very good, 
but more brittle than those of Europe. The houses formerly 
were all thatched at Landowr ; a thatched roof is dangerous on 
account of the lightning which so often strikes and sets fire 

to it. Captain S introduced slated roofs, and several 

people have followed the good example he has set them. 



Kharita of her Highness the ex-Queen of Gwalior A Mountain Storm An 
Adventure Asses carried off by Leopards Bear's Grease Deodar Oil 
Apricot Oil Hill Currants Figs and Tar The Cholera Sacrifice of a 
Kid to the Mountain Spirit Absurdity of the Fear of a Russian Invasion 
Plague of Fleas The Charmed Stone Iron-stone Khobarah, the Hill Dog 
Sheep-stealing Booteah Chharra Flexible Stone A Fearful Storm A 
doomed Bangla Leaf Butterflies Bursting of the Mahratta Bandh at Prag 
Similarity of the Singular Marriages in the Hills with those of the Ancient 
Britons Honesty of the Paharls, i. e. Mountaineers. 


1838, June 29th. Her Highness the Baiza Ba'i did me the 
honour to send me a kharttd, that is, a letter enclosed in a long 
bag of kimkhwdb, crimson silk, brocaded with flowers in gold, 
contained in another of fine muslin : the mouth of the bag was 
tied with a gold and tasselled cord, to which was appended the 
great seal of her Highness, a flat circular mass of sealing-wax, 
on which her seal was impressed. Two smaller bags were sent 
with it, as represented in the plate, each containing a present of 
bon-bons. The kharita, as well as one of the small bags, is 
represented divested of its outer ease of transparent muslin ; the 
other little bag has on its white cover, and the direction is 
placed within the transparent muslin. The autograph of the 
Balza Ba'I is on the right hand side of the page ; the letter was 
written in Urdu (the court language), in the Persian character, 
by one of her Highness's miinshls, and signed by the Ba'I 
herself: the paper is adorned with gold devices. The letter 
commenced in the usual complimentary style ; after which her 


Highness writes, that " The light of my eyes the Gaja Raja 
has been very ill ; she has recovered, and her husband, Appa 
Sahib Kanulka, having heard of her iUness, has come from 
GwaUor to see her." Kharitiis of this sort pass between the 
mighty men of the East, and between them and the public 
functionaries of Government. 

July 3rd. I rode over to Cloud End, inspected the new 
house, and trained young convolvulus plants over the bamboo 
hedge around the garden : the rain descended in torrents ; it was 
very cold and uncomfortable. At 7 p.m., being anxious to get 
home before dark, although it was still raining, I ordered my 
giinth ; my relative wrapped me up in his militeu-y cloak, and 
put a large Indian-rubber cape above it ; in this attire I hoped 
to keep myself dry during my ride home of seven miles. I 
had not proceeded a mile from the estate when the storm came 
on in the fearful style of mountain tempests ; the thunder burst 
roaring over my head, the lightning spread around in sheets of 
flame, and every now and then the flashes of forked lightning 
rendered me so bUnd I could not see the path for some minutes. 
I had two servants with me ; they walked before the gunth, but 
were unable very often to trace the road, it was so dark amidst 
the trees, and the whole time the rain fell in torrents. I saw a 
dark space in front of the horse, and asked, " What is that?" 
" Oh, nothing," said the sa'Is, " ride on." But I stopped, and 
sent him forward. At this spot three or four trees had been 
thrown across a precipice ; over these earth had been laid to 
some depth to form a road ; the earth had been entirely washed 
away by the force of a stream of water, produced from the 
heavy rain, and had fallen into the precipice : the darkness was 
the hollow produced by the chasm ! I dismounted ; the trees 
were still below, across the hollow ; with difficulty I clambered 
down, got over the trunks, and up the other side ; it was almost 
perfectly dark. I called the gunth ; the cunning little fellow 
looked at the hollow, stamped his fore-feet on the ground as if 
he disliked it, sprang up the bank on the other side, and was in 
safety by me. I remounted him and proceeded, an act that 
required a good deal of quiet courage. 


" The darkness of the night is a coUyrium to the eyes of the 
mole'." It certainly was not to mine : after I had been out two 
hours I found that I had advanced four miles on a path that 
was covered by high trees on every side, rendering it the more 
dangerous ; the lightning was very vivid, and I saw a flash 
strike the roof of a house ; suddenly a faintness came over me, 
with difficulty I kept in my saddle, and feeling ill, I desired the 
servant to lead the gunth to the first gentleman's house he came 
near. As soon as we arrived at a bungalow we went up to the 
verandah, when an officer, hearing a lady was exposed to such a 
storm, and wished for shelter, came out and took me into the 
house : I was so much exhausted, the tears ran down my 
face, and I almost fainted away. They gave me wine, and took 
off the Indian-rubber cloak, which, most likely, was the cause 
of the extreme oppression that overcame me. 

The lady and gentleman in whose house I had taken refuge 
were very kind ; dry clothes soon replaced my wet habit, and 
they gave me a bed ; however, I was far too much excited to go 
to sleep, and was disturbed by queer sounds in an outhouse, not 
far from my sleeping room. I got up, opened my door, wished 
to call my host, but not knowing his name, lay down again and 
listened. In the morning the mystery was explained : a lady 
staying at the house had two she-asses for her baby, which were 
in an outhouse near my room ; the night before my arrival a 
leopard had broken into the outhouse in which the donkeys 
were fastened, and had killed them both ; they were found dead 
with their halters on. The night I was there the leopard came 
again, tore one of the carcases from the halter, and carried it 
down the khud ; this was the strange noise that prevented my 
sleeping. Quite a night of adventures. The carcases had been 
left on purpose, and some of the officers of the Buffs were to 
have laid wait for the leopard that night, but the storm prevented 
their quitting their houses. 

Captain S came to Landowr the next day : he was sur- 
prised at my having passed the broken road in the darkness of 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 121. 


the storm ; even by daylight, he passed over it with difficulty 
perhaps the darkness aided me, as it prevented my being 

llth. Rode to the Botanical Gardens; observed several 
young tea plants, which were flourishing. The bright yellow 
broom was in full flower ; it put me in mind of the country by 
the sea-side at Christchurch, Hants, where the broom is in 
such luxuriance. We feasted on Cashmere apricots, which, 
though not to be compared to those of Europe, were agreeable 
to the taste. 

I2th. Storms, storms, rain, rain, day by day, night by 
night : thermometer at noon, 66. 

I7th. A bear having been killed, I procured several bottles 
of bear's grease. Apricot oil was recommended also for the 

I bought some Deodar oil, made from the white cedar ; the 
smell is vile ; it is good for rheumatic pains ; if rubbed in too 
much it will produce a blister. 

Baskets full of currants were brought for sale ; they were only 
fit for tarts. Fresh figs, pretty good, were sent me, also some 
tolerable pears of good size. Tar, called cheer-ke-tel, is 
excellent in the Hills. 

25th. ^Was persuaded to go to a ball given by the bachelors 
of Landowr and Mussoorl, an event in my quiet Ufe. Cholera 
has appeared in the bazar : the Hill-men are so much alarmed 
that they run away from service. My paharis came to request 
I would let them all depart and pay them their wages : this I 
refused to do : they pleaded their fear of the cholera. At 
length they agreed to remain, if I would give them a kid to 
sacrifice to the angry goddess who resides in the mountain, 
and whom they believe has brought the illness amongst them 
they are extremely superstitious. What can you expect 
from uneducated men ? "If grass does not grow upon stones, 
what fault is it in the rain'?" i. e. it is unreasonable to 
expect learning from him who has not the means or capa- 
city to acquire it. 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 125. 


August \7th.- As to our military movements, something will 
be done, and danger is to be anticipated ; but Russia will not 
be so foolish as to enter heartily into the quarrels of Persia. 
As for the Persians, bah ! I spit upon them, as Haji Baba tells 
us they say of us. I was amused by a letter in the paper to- 
day, which, speaking of the Russian Invasion, says, " We are 
being hemmed in all round like a pocket-handkerchief, and like 
it coming to blows." Are they afraid the bloodthirsty and 
ambitious Nicholas should push us from our stools and rob us 
of our salt ? Eating the Company's salt is the native mode of 
expression for their wages of labour done under it. 

Preparations for war are going on. Fifteen thousand men 
from Bengal, and ten thousand from Bombay are to march to 
Cabul, and defend that part of India in case of an attack from 
Russia and Persia. Burmah and Nepaul are looking hostile ; 
we shall have war in abundance shortly. The Mahrattas talk 
about the " Russes ;" indeed the whole bazar at Allahabad is 
full of it ; they would have even a worse time with these Cupi- 
dons du Nord, as the French called the Cossacks, than even 
with us, resumption regulations included. 

20th. ^For the last three weeks we have had rain night and 
day ; sometimes it has cleared in the evening for two hours ; 
any thing more unpleasant you cannot well imagine ; certainly 
the rains are very disagreeable in the Hills. Another plague. 
The houses swarm with fleas. At first they did not attack me ; 
for the last few nights I have hardly closed my eyes on account 
of their sharp fierce bites ; they will worry me into a fever. 
To counterbalance this plague we have no musquitoes ; and the 
climate is too cold to render a pankha necessary. How often 
have I remembered a poetical epistle of Mr. W. S. Rose's, 

" These cursed fleas, they bite and skip so, 
In this Island of Calypso ! " 

The Hill-men say there is a certain stone which possesses a 
charm and keeps away fleas; this stone they put into their 
beds, and vow it keeps off the biters. My ayha tells me she 



borrowed the charm, and put it into her bed, the fleas were 
nevertheless as ravenous as ever; she says the stone has the 
smell of a peach. 

" What are you doing ? " said I to my darzT, who was one 
day groping about the floor with something in his hand, " Try- 
ing to find my needle with this iron-stone ; there is plenty of it 
in the Hills." Shortly afterwards the needle, attracted by the 
magnetic qualities of the iron-stone, stuck to it ; and the darzi 
brought it to me in triumph. Sang-i-mikndfis is the native 
name for loadstone. 

2\st. ^Two of my fat sheep have been stolen: an oflicer in 
the engineers has given me a fine Hill dog, by name Khobarah ; 
he must be chained in the sheep -house. 

22nd. Another fat sheep has disappeared : according to the 
shepherd, carried off" by an hyena, according to my belief, 
sold to the butcher. 

23rd. ^We are blessed with a gleam of sunshine, and the 
man is off" with his net to catch butterflies ; this fine day will 
tempt them forth. 

A Hill-man brought in a basket of fresh kajgee, walnuts ; 
they were a novelty ; we cracked them, Hill fashion, between the 
door and the sill, and found them excellent, sweet, and fresh. 

The paharis brought down curious-looking white stones, 
which they called booteah chharrd, and used as shot. Accord- 
ing to their account these stones are found in a waterfall, and 
brought from Almorah. On first inspection they have the 
appearance of being a mineral crystalUzation, but on more 
minute examination, it will be found that the number of faces 
or flattened sides is irregular, some having eight, others nine, 
ten, or eleven faces. On splitting one open as shown in the 
plate entitled "Jugunnath," Fig. 7, which represents the two 
halves, a beautiful little round kernel presents itself, enclosed in 
the outer case. It is very probable, therefore, that they are the 
ripe seeds or berries of some tree or plant in the vicinity, which, 
falling into, or being washed by the rains into some water highly 
impregnated with carbonate of lime, become petrified, and 
entirely changed into this substance, which frequently happens 


under the supposed circumstances. The little flattened faces 
may thus be accounted for, by the pressure of the grains in 
their conglomerated state against one another, at the time the 
berries are either in a soft or ripe state ; at any rate, they are now 
simple carbonate of lime, completely dissolving in diluted muri- 
atic acid, with evolution of carbonic acid, and without sediment. 

In the plate above mentioned (Fig. 6) the grains are repre- 
sented en masse, about half their proper size. Fig. 8 represents 
them exactly the size of the original ; one is split open, showing 
the centre of the rays. Fig. 7 is a grain split open, showing the 
beautiful little white polished berry, if berry it be, 

I have numerous specimens of leaves and branches of trees 
from Almorah, petrified in the waterfalls, covered with a thick 
white or brownish crust, through which the fibres of the leaves 
can be distinctly traced. 

Amongst other curiosities in the Hills, I must not omit the 

flexible stone ; Major S showed me a large specimen, which 

was decidedly flexible. Since I have applied myself to lithography, 
it appears to me that the stone we cut out of his mountain at 
Cloud End, Landowr, with which his house was built, had 
greatly the appearance of the German lithographic stone ; I 
well remember thinking it rotten when first cut out, and finding 
it hardened completely on exposure to the air in ten days or a 
fortnight : I know not if this peculiarity belong to the litho- 
graphic stone. The latter dissolves completely in muriatic acid, 
and water, leaving no sediment. 

3\st. A most fearful storm during the night, one that was 
sufficient to make me quit my bed, to look after my little widow 
and the babas, i.e., children. The paharls informed me a 
few days ago that the banglii or thatched house in which I am 
living has been three times struck by lightning, and twice burned 
to the ground ! an agreeable reminiscence during so violent 
a storm. As the lightning, if it strike a house, often runs 
'round the walls of a room, from the iron of one wall shade 
to that of another, and then pursuing its course down to the 
grate, tears out the bars, and descends into the earth, we took 
the precaution of sitting in the centre of the room, avoiding the 


sides. My fair friend laughed, in spite of her alarm, when I 
repeated the old verses : 

" Ellen, from lightning to secure her life, 
Draws from her pocket the attractive knife ; 
But all in vain, my fair, this cautious action. 
For you can never be without attraction." 

Sept. 1st. A most delightful day, sunshine, absolute sun- 
shine, the Hills so gay and beauteous after the deluge of so 
many weeks : the ponies came to the door, and we enjoyed the 
day to its fullest extent. Some leaf butterflies were caught and 
brought to me ; they are very large and curious, the back of 
the wing is like two autumnal leaves laid upon one another. It 
is said that every month the appearance of the leaf butterfly 
changes, varying with the leaves. Those that were caught for 
me were like autumnal leaves, and were of two kinds. I made 
a large collection of butterflies, both at Allahabad and in the 
Hills ; in the latter place many rare and valuable sorts are 
found. The Map butterfly, so called from the map-like tracery 
on its wings, is difficult to catch, it flies so high ; it is very 
beautiful. The large black butterfly, that has four brilliant 
purple eyes on its wings, is perhaps as handsome as any ; but it 
has a rival in the emerald green long-tailed one, whose under 
wings are dashed with purple, and edged with rose-coloured 
spots. There is also a long-tailed black butterfly, the upper 
wings of which exhibit stripes of black and white, while the under 
ones have seven rose-coloured spots and four white marks in the 
centre. I am told the most valuable are the small purple ones 
with long tails. It were too long a task to enumerate the various 
beautiful specimens procured for me of these " insect queens of 
eastern spring." The privates of the Lancers and Buff's added 
to my collection, and were very anxious to give their butterflies 
in return for the beer brewed in the Hills ; which, though it 
cannot be compared to Bass's or AUsopp's Pale Ale, is very fair, 
when you consider it is country made. 

5th. A letter informed me of the bursting of the Mahratta 
Biindh at Allahabad : the Ganges poured through the gap, inun- 

VOL. II. s 


dating the whole country, until it reached the Jumna just above 
the Fort, leaving the latter completely insulated. Our house, 
being close to the bank of the Jumna, escaped, but was on every 
side surrounded by water. M. mon mari had two large boats 
anchored near, to receive himself, his horses, his flocks, and his 
herds, should the river rise any higher. The Biindh burst on the 
23rd of August ; it swept away the villages of Kyd and Moot! 
Gunge, carrying away all the thatched huts, the brick houses 
alone escaping. The Jumna rose to within seven feet of the top 
of the very high bank on which the chabutara (terrace) in our 
garden is placed. The damage done to the crops and villages is 
estimated at four lakh ; besides this, the force of the water rush- 
ing upon the bjistion of the Fort has caused it to fall in ; it will 
cost forty or fifty thousand rupees to repair the bastion. 

6th. 111 : my ayha is so kind and so careful of me : what a 
good servant I find her ! Apropos grain is at present very dear 
at Landowr ; gram, twelve seer per rupee. 

" One wife is enough for a whole family '." " Where do you 
live?" said I to one of my servants, a Pahari (mountaineer), 
who had just deposited his load of rhododendron wood, or, 
as he calls it, flower wood, in the verandah. "Three days' 
journey from this, in the pahar (mountain,)" said the man. 
" Are you married ?" said I. The man looked annoyed ; " Who 
will meirry me ? How can I have a wife ? there are but three of 
us." Having heard of the singular customs of the Pahar is 
with regard to marriage, I pursued my interrogation. "Why 
cannot you marry?" "We are only three brothers ; if there 
were seven of us we might marry, but only three, who will 
marry us ?" The greater the number of the family the more 
honourable is the connexion, the more respected is the lady. 
" But who claims the children?" "The first child belongs to 
the eldest brother, the second to the second brother, and so on, 
,. until the eighth chUd is claimed by the eldest brother, if there 
be a family of seven." 

I have heeird that the Hill women destroy their female 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 126. 


ofFspring, thinking the lot of woman too hard to endure. The 
price of a wife is high, from the scarcity of women, and may 
accomit for the disgusting marriages of the Paharls. 

Mr. Vigne, in his travels in Cashmir, remarks, " My classical 
companion pointed out to me the following passage of Caesar's 
Commentaries, showing that a similar custom existed amongst 
the Ancient Britons : ' Uxores habent deni duodenique inter 
se communes, et maxime fratres cum fratribus, et parentes cum 
liberis. Sed si qui sunt ex his nati, eorum habentur liberi, a 
quibus primum virgines quseque ductae sunt.' " Ccesar, de 
Bella Gallico, hb. v. cap. 14. 

I am told that honesty was the distinguishing characteristic in 
former times of the Paharis, but intercourse with civiUzed 
Europeans has greatly demoralized the mountaineers. 




" Not vainly did the early Persian make 

His altar the high places, and the peak 
Of earth-o'ergazing mountains, and thus take 

A fit and unwall'd temple, there to seek 
The Spirit, in whose honour shrines are weak, 

Uprear'd of human hands. Come, and compare 
Columns and idol-dwellings, Goth or Greek, 

With nature's realms of worship, earth and air. 

Nor fix on fond abodes to circumscribe thy prayer ! " 

The Great Peak of Bhadrinath No Glaciers in the Snowy Ranges Ceremonies 
performed on visiting Holy Places Kedamath Moira Peak Gangoutrl 
The Jaunti Peak Jumnotri The Himalaya Range formed by Mahadeo 
Palia Gadh The Dewtas Bandarponch Hiinooman The Cone Height 
of the Himalayas. 

1838, Sept. You wish me to send home some sketches from 
the Hills ; I will strive to comply with the request, and in the 
mean time will forward you a map, copied from a portion of a 
survey : it will show you the elevation of the Himalaya, and 
give you a definite idea of the shape of the mountains. 


The highest peak, that of Bhadrinath, 23,441 feet above the 
Sea, is a conspicuous object from the summit of Landowr. 
Some of the mountains of the Snowy Ranges display high, 
rocky, sharp peaks, covered with snow smooth, hard, unbroken, 
and glittering white; others are cut into fantastic shapes. 


There are no glaciers, because, in all probability, an uniform 
cold ^below the freezing point prevails in so elevated a region. 
Bhadrinath is a noted place of pilgrimage, and during my stay 
in the Hills some of my Hindu servants requested leave of 
absence to visit it. 

" The Hindus have a way to heaven without dying : if the 
person who wishes to go this way to heaven, through repeating 
certain incantations survive the cold, he at last arrives at Hima- 
luyii, the residence of Shivii. Such a person is said ' to go the 
Great Journey:' Yoodhist'hiru, according to the puranus, went 
this way to heaven ; but his companions perished by the cold on 
the mountain : this forms another method in which the Hindus 
may meritoriously put a period to their existence ; it is also one 
of the Hindu atonements for great offences." The ceremonies 
performed on visiting holy places are as follows : " When a 
person resolves to visit any one of these places, he fixes upon an 
auspicious day, and, two days preceding the commencement of 
his journey, has his head shaved ; the next he fasts ; the follow- 
ing day he performs the shraddhii (funeral obsequies) of the 
three preceding generations of his family on both sides, and 
then leaves his house. If a person act according to the shastrii 
he observes the following rules : First, till he returns to his 
own house, he eats rice which has not been wet in cleansing, 
and that only once a day ; he abstains from anointing his body 
with oil, and from eating fish. If he ride in a palanquin or in a 
boat he loses half the benefits of his pilgrimage ; if he walk on 
foot he obtains the full fruit. The last day of his journey he 
fasts. On his arrival at the sacred spot, he has his whole body 
shaved, after which he bathes, and performs shraddhii : if the 
pilgrim be a woman, she has only the breadth of two fingers of 
her hair behind cut off; if a widow, her whole head is shaved. 
It is necessary that the pilgrim stay seven days at least at the . 
holy place ; he may continue as much longer as he pleases. 
Every day during his stay he bathes, pays his devotions to the 
images, sits before them, and repeats their names, and worships 
them, presenting such offerings as he can afford. In bathing, 
he makes kooshii grass images of his relations, and bathes them. 


The benefits arising to relations will be as one to eight, compared 
with that of the person bathing at the holy place. When he is 
about to return, he obtains some of the offerings which have 
been presented to the idol or idols, and brings them home to 
give to his friends and neighbours ; these consist of sweetmeats, 
toolusee leaves, the ashes of cow-dung, &c. After celebrating 
the shraddhii he entertains Brahmans, and presents them with 
oil, fish, and all those things from which he abstained : having 
done this he returns to his former course of Uving. The reward 
promised to the pilgrim is, that he shall ascend to the heaven of 
that god who presides at the holy place he has visited." 

The mighty Bhadrinath towers far above Chimboraco, 

" Andes, giant of the western star, 

With meteor-standard to the winds unfurl'd, 

Looks from his throne of clouds o'er half the world." 

At Gangoutri, the source of the most sacred branch of the 
Ganges, Mahadeo sits enthroned in clouds and mist, amid rocks 
that defy the approach of living thing, and snows that make 
desolation more awful. But although Gangoutri be the most 
sacred, it is not the most frequented shrine, access to it being 
far more difiicult than to Bhadrinath ; and, consequently, to 
this latter pilgrims flock in crowds, appalled at the remoteness 
and danger of the former place of worship. This may pretty 
fully account for the superior riches and splendour of Bhadri- 
nath. The town and temple of Bhadrinath are situate on the 
west bank of the Alacknunda, in the centre of a valley; the 
town is built on the sloping bank of the river, and contains only 
twenty or thirty huts, for the accommodation of the Brahmans 
and other attendants on the deity : the sera of its foundation is 
too remote to have reached us even by tradition. 

A hot spring, issuing from the mountain by a subterraneous 

* passage, supplies the Tapta-Kund ; it has a sulphureous smell : 

Surya-Kund is another hot spring issuing from the bank. The 

principal idol, Bhadrinath, is placed in artificial obscurity in the 

temple, and is dressed in gold and silver brocade ; above his 


head is a small looking-glass, and two or three glimmering 
lamps burn before him, exhibiting the image in a dubious light. 
This temple hjis more beneficed lands attached to it than any 
other sacred Hindu establishment in this part of India. A large 
number of servants of every description are kept, and during 
the months of pilgrimage the deity is well-clothed, and fares 
sumptuously every day ; but as soon as winter commences, the 
priests take their departure, leaving him to provide for his own 
wants until the periodical return of the holy season. The 
treasures and valuable utensils are buried in a vault under the 

The pilgrims assemble at Hurdwar, and as soon as the fair is 
concluded they visit Bhadrinath, often to the amount of forty- 
five to fifty thousand, the greater part of whom are fakirs. 


The next remarkable peak is that of Kedamath, 23,062 feet 
above the sea ; and the supposed source of the Ganges is placed 
below it at the elevation of 13,800 feet. 

The temple of Kediir-Nath is situated at the source of the 
Kall-Gunga ; it is of indefinite antiquity, not lofty, but of some 
extent, and sacred to Mahadeo, or Shiva, under the name of 
Kedar. There are several dhrum-salas erected for the accommo- 
dation of the pilgrims who resort to the shrine, and who are 
pretty numerous every year. There are many kunds or springs 
near it. 

The Moira peak is 22,792 feet above the sea. 


GangoutrT (Ganga avatari) marked 10,319 feet above the sea, 
is the celebrated place of pilgrimage, near to which the river 
Ganges issues ; its course has not been traced beyond Gangoutrl, 
for the stream, a httle farther, is entirely concealed under a 
glacier or iceberg, and is supposed to be inaccessible. The small 
mandap here is of stone, and contains small statues of Bhagi- 
ratha, Ganga, and other local deities : it stands on a piece of 
rock, about twenty feet higher than the bed of the Ganges, and 


at a little distance there is a rough wooden building to shelter 
travellers. Notwithstanding the great efficacy attributed to this 
pilgrimage, Gangoutri is but little frequented. The accomplish- 
ment of it is supposed to redeem the performer from many 
troubles in this world, and ensure a happy transit through all 
the stages of transmigration he may have to undergo. A trifle 
is paid to the Brahman for the privilege of taking the water, 
which the Hindus believe is so pure, as neither to evaporate or 
become corrupted by being kept and transported to distant 
places. The Ganges enters the plains at Hurdwar, flows on to 
Priig, where it is joined by the Jumna ; and, after receiving 
various rivers in its course, it passes through that labyrinth of 
creeks and rivers called the Sunderbands into the sea. 
Captain J. A. Hodgson thus describes Gangoutri : 
" A most wonderful scene : the B'h^girat'hi or Ganges issues 
from under a very low arch at the foot of the grand snow-bed. 
The river is here bounded to the right and left by high snow and 
rocks ; but in front, over the Dehouche, the mass of snow is 
perfectly perpendicular ; and from the bed of the stream to the 
summit we estimate the thickness at little less than three hundred 
feet of solid frozen snow, probably the accumulation of ages ; 
it is in layers of some feet thick, each seemingly the remains of 
a fall of a separate year. From the brow of this curious wall 
of snow, and immediately above the outlet of the stream, large 
and hoary icicles depend ; they are formed by the freezing of the 
melted snow-water of the top of the bed, for in the middle of 
the day the sun is powerful, and the water produced by its 
action falls over this place in cascade, but is frozen at eight. 
The Gangoutri Brahmin who came with us, and who is only an 
illiterate mountaineer, observed, that he thought these icicles 
must be Mahad^va's hair, whence, as he understood it is 
written in the sha'stra, the Ganges flows. I cannot think of any 
place to which they might more aptly give the name of Cow's 
Mouth than this extraordinary Debouche. 

"We were surrounded by gigantic peaks, entirely cased in 
snow, and almost beyond the regions of animal and vegetable 
life ; and an awful silence prevailed, except when broken by the 


thundering peals of falling avalanches. Nothing met our eyes 
resembling the scenery in the haunts of men ; by moonlight all 
appeared cold, wild, and stupendous, and a Pagan might aptly 
imagine the place a fit abode for demons. We did not even see 
bears, or musk deer, or eagles, or any living creature, except 
small birds. The dazzling brilliancy of the snow was rendered 
more striking by its contrast with the dark blue colour of the 
sky, which is caused by the thinness of the air ; and at night 
the stars shone with a lustre which they have not in a denser 
atmosphere." " It falls to the lot of few to contemplate so 
magnificent an object as a snow-clad peak rising to the height of 
upwards of a mile and a half, at the horizontal distance of only 
two and a half miles." 

" She is called Ganga on account of her flowing through 
Gang, the earth : she is called Jahnavi, from a choleric Hindu 
saint : she is called Bhagirathi, from the royal devotee Bhagi- 
ratha, who, by the intensity and austerity of his devotions, 
brought her from heaven to earth, whence she proceeded to the 
infernal regions, to reanimate the ashes of his ancestors : and 
lastly, she is called Triputhaga, on account of her proceeding 
forward in three different directions, watering the three worlds 
heaven, earth, and the infernal regions, and filling the ocean, 
which, according to the Brahmanical mythology, although exca- 
vated before her appearance, was destitute of water." 

Hurdwar, at which place the Ganges issues on the plains, is 
put down on the map. 

The impracticable deserts of snow and rocks in these lofty 
regions alone prevent the pilgrim from going directly from one 
place to another. Thus, eleven days' journey are spun out 
from Gangoutri to Kedarnath ; while seven or eight days are 
expended in reaching Bhadrinath from the latter place. 

On the map a beautiful range of mountains now appear, 
crowned with the Jaunti Peak, 21,940 feet; next is Sir Kanta, 
and then the pass of Bamsera. 


Bandarponch is 23,916 feet above the sea, and the Peaks of 


Jumnotrl, 20,120. Jumnotrl itself, the source of the Jumna, is 
marked below in the map at the elevation of 10,849 feet. 

At Jumnotrl the snow, which covers and conceals the 
stream, is about sixty yards wide, and is bounded to the right 
and left by mural precipices of granite ; it is forty feet five and 
a half inches thick, and has fallen from the precipices above. 
In front, at the distance of about five hundred yards, part of 
the base of the Jumnotrl mountain rises abruptly, cased in snow 
and ice, and shutting up and totally terminating the head of 
this defile, in which the Jumna originates. Captain Hodgson 
says, " I was able to measure the thickness of the bed of snow 
over the stream very exactly, by means of a plumb-Une let 
down through one of the holes in it, which are caused by the 
steam of a great number of boiling springs which are at the 
border of the Jumna." The range of springs, which are exten- 
sive, are in the dark recesses, and in the snow caverns. The 
following is related concerning the origin of these hot springs : 
" The spirits of the Rikhs, or twelve holy men, who followed 
Mahadeo from Lunka to the Himalaya (after the usurpation of 
the tyrant Rawan), inhabit this rock, and continually worship 
him. Here the people bathe, the Brahman says prayers, receives 
his dues, and marks the pilgrims with the sacred mud of the 
hot springs. The people, out of respect, put off their shoes long 
before they reach Jangotrl, and at this place there is no shelter 
for them during the night. Jumna prefers simple worship at 
the foot of her own and natural shrine, and has forbidden the 
erection of temples to her honour." 

Noble rocks of varied hues and forms, crowned with luxuri- 
antly dark foliage, and the stream foaming from rock to rock, 
form a fore-ground worthy of Jumnotrl. When Mahadeo retired 
from Lunka, disgusted with the rebellion of his son Rawan, the 
tyrant and usurper of Lunka, he formed Kylds, or the Himalaya 
range, for his retreat ; and Soomeroo Purbat, or Roodroo 
Himala, with its five peaks, rugged and inaccessible as it is, for 
his own dweUing. The Bhagiruttee and Alacknunda are there 
said to have sprung from the head of Mahadeo. Twelve holy 
Brahmans, denominated the twelve Rikhs, left Lunka in search 


of Mahadeo, and penetrated to Bhyramghattee, where the J'han- 
nevie meets the Bhagiruttee, but could not find him. Eleven of 
them, in despair, went to Cashmire, but the twelfth, named Jum- 
RekhT, remained at Bhyramghattee, sitting on a huge rock in 
the course of the stream Bhagiruttee, which, instead of flow- 
ing on as usual, was absorbed in the body of the saint and lost, 
while the J'hannevie flowed on. The goddess of the stream (Bha- 
giruttee) herself was at Gungotri, worshipping Mahadeo, and 
making her prostrations on the stone on which the present 
temple is founded. When she felt the course of the stream was 
stopped, she went in wrath to Bhyramghattee, clave Jum-Rekhl 
in two, and gave a free passage to the river. One-half of the 
Rekhi she flung to the westward, and it became the mountain 
Bandarponch : from his thigh sprang the Jumna, and from 
his skull arose the hot springs of Jumnotri. They still show 
the large rock which the Rikh sat upon, and which was divided 
in two by the same fatal cut. It is a very large block of granite, 
which appears to have faUen from the cliff", above the point of 
union of the two rivers, and is curiously split in two. 

The name of Bandarponch applies properly only to the 
highest peaks of this mountain. Jumnotri has reference to 
the sacred spot, where worship is paid to the goddess and ablu- 
tion performed. 

Frazer, speaking of a glen about three days' journey from 
Jumnotri, says, " Having reached the top of the ascent, we 
looked down upon a very dark and deep glen, called Palia Gadh, 
which is the outlet to the waters of one of the most terrific and 
gloomy valleys I have ever seen. It would not be easy to 
convey by any description a just idea of the peculiarly rugged 
and gloomy wildness of this glen : it looks like the ruins of 
nature, and appears, as it is said to be, completely impracticable 
and impenetrable. Little is to be seen except dark rocks, wood 
only fringes the lower parts and the water's edge : perhaps the 
spots and streaks of snow, contrasting with the general black- 
ness of the scene, heighten the appearance of desolation. No 
living thing is seen ; no motion but that of the waters ; no 
sound but their roar Such a spot is suited to engender super- 


stition ; and here it is accordingly found in full growth. Many 
wild traditions are preserved, and many extravagant stories 
related of it. On one of these ravines there are places of 
worship, not built by men, but natural piles of stones, which 
have the appearance of small temples. These are said to be the 
residence of the dewtas, or spirits, who here haunt and inveigle 
human beings away to their wild abodes. It is said that they 
have a particular predilection for beauty in both sexes, and 
remorselessly seize on any whom imprudence or accident may 
have placed within their power, and whose spirits become like 
theirs, after they are deprived of their corporeal frame. Many 
instances were given of these ravishments : on one occasion a 
young man, who had wandered near their haunts, being carried 
in a trance to the valley, heard the voice of his own father, who 
some years before had been thus spirited away, and who now 
recognized his son. It appears that paternal affection was 
stronger than the spell that bound him, and instead of rejoicing 
in the acquisition of a new prey, he recollected the forlorn state 
of his family deprived of their only support : he begged and 
obtained the freedom of his son, who was dismissed under the 
injunction of strict silence and secrecy. He, however, forgot 
his vow, and was immediately deprived of speech ; and, as a 
self-punishment, he cut out his tongue with his own hand. This 
man was said to be yet living, and I desired that he should be 
brought to me ; but he never came, and they afterwards in- 
formed me that he had very lately died. More than one person 
is said to have approached the spot, or the precincts of these 
spirits, and those who have returned, have generally agreed in 
the expression of their feelings, and have uttered some pro- 
phecy. They fall, as they say, into a swoon, and between 
sleeping and waking hear a conversation, or are sensible of 
certain impressions, as if a conversation were passing which 
generally relates to some future event. Indeed, the prophetic 
faculty is one of the chiefly remarkable attributes of these 
spirits, and of this place. The awe, however, which the natives 
feel of this place is great and remarkable. The moment that 
Bhisht and Kishen Sing came in sight of the place, they com- 


menced prostrations, and the forms of worship, with many 
prayers and much apparent fervency, to the spirits of the glen. 
They assert that no man ever ascended the valley to any con- 
siderable height ; and that natural, as well as supernatural, 
obstacles are too great to be overcome ; that of the few who 
have attempted it, none ever returned, or ever enjoyed his 
reason again : and I believe that the former of these obstacles 
may be nearly paramount, for a survey with the glass showed 
the difficulty to be at least very great ; and certainly, ascending 
the hill to the top would be altogether impossible." 

There are said to be four peaks which form the top of Bandar- 
ponch, and in a cavity, or hollow, contained between them tra- 
dition places a lake or tank of very peculiar sanctity. No one 
has ever seen this pool, for no one has ever attempted to ascend 
any of these prodigious peaks. Bandarponch signifies "mon- 
key's tail." It is said that Htinooman, after his conquest of 
Lunka, or Ceylon, in the shape of a monkey, when he had set 
that island on fire by means of a quantity of combustible matter 
tied to his tail, being afraid of the flame reaching himself, was 
about to dip it in the sea (sumunder) to extinguish it ; but the 
sea remonstrated with him, on account of the probable conse- 
quence to the inhabitants of its waters : whereupon Hunooman 
plunged his burning tail into this lake, which has ever since 
retained the name. The Zemindars aver, that every year, in the 
month P'hagun, a single monkey comes from the plains, by way 
of Hurdwar, and ascends the highest peak of this mountain, 
where he remains twelve months, and returns to give room to 
another ; but his entertainment must be very indifferent and 
inhospitable, as may be inferred from the nature of the place ; 
for he returns in very bad plight, being not only reduced to a 
skeleton, but having lost his hair and a great part of his skin. 

Naldpan'i and the level of the Dehra Dun are marked in the 
map below the source of the Jumna. 

The Cone is a most remarkable peak ; the elevation of 
Parkyal and Kaldung is conspicuous among the lower mountains 
over which they tower. The Nulgoon Pass is marked below 
them in the map. 


Extracts from the papers. 

"Height of the Himalayas. The Great Trigonometrical 
Survey has determined the elevations of the great peaks of the 
Himalaya range. The highest (supposed to be the highest spot 
on the surface of the globe) is Kunchinginga, West Peak, 
28,176 feet ; the East Peak is 27,825 feet. The foUowing are 
the elevations of other peaks: Junnoo, 25,311; Kabroo, 
24,004; Chumalari (in Tibet), 23,929." 

" At a meeting of the Asiatic Society on the 6th November, 
a paper by Col. Waugh, surveyor-general, was read, giving the 
result of that officer's operations to determine the height of 
several Himalayan peaks in the neighbourhood of Daijeeling. 
Col. Waugh appears to have satisfactorily ascertained that the 
western peak of Cutchinchinga was 28, 1 76 feet high, and the 
eastern 27,825 thus claiming for that mountain the greatest 
altitude on the earth yet known. 1848." 



Family Sorrows The Snowy Ranges after the Rains Hill Birds The Park 
Hill Boundaries Stables on Fire Opening of the Keeree Pass Danger 
of passing through it Deobund Return to Meerut The Tomb of Jaffir 
Sahib Chiri-raars Country Horses The Theatre of the 16th Lancers 
Colonel Arnold's Farewell Ball His Illness Opinions respecting the War 
The Lancers ordered to Afghanistan Ghurmuktesur Ghat Country Boats 
Khobarah, the Hill Dog Sancho A Dilemma Giinths Knocked over 
by a Buffalo Fathlgarh Dhobis Cawnpore Sal and Teak Trees Deism 
Points of Faith The Power of the Brahmans A Converted Hindu 
Sneezing an 111 Omen The Return of the Pilgrim. 

1838, Sept. 8th. I made arrangements with my relative to 
march across the mountains to Simla, a journey of fifteen days 
from Landowr, and was looking forward with delight to all the 
adventures we should meet with, and the crossing the river in a 
basket suspended on a rope fastened across the stream ; but he, 
an old mountaineer, would not permit me to begin the journey 
until the khuds which are unwholesome during the rains, and 
full of fever should be fit to pass through. A friend had 
given me the use of a house for some months beyond Simla, ' 
and I was anxious to visit that part of the country. In the 
interval we formed a party to see the mountains at the back of 
Landowr, and I sent out my hill tents to the interior. 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 127. ' Ibid. No. 128. 


In the evening I was riding alone at Mussoorl, when I met 

Captain L ; there was an embarrassment and distress in his 

manner that surprised me : he quitted his party, and led my 
pony away from the walk, where the people were in crowds, and 
when we were alone informed me of the death of my beloved 
father. I had received no letters from home : this melancholy 
event had been known some days at Mussoorl, but no one had 
had the courage to tell his child. With what pain I reflected 
on having so long postponed my return home ! Letters from 
Allahabad confirmed the melancholy news, and my kind husband 
urged my return to England instantly, to see my remaining and 
widowed parent. 

I recalled my tents and people from the interior ; and from 
that moment the thoughts of home, and of what time it would 
take from the Himalaya to Devonshire, alone filled my thoughts. 
It was decided I should sail from Calcutta the next cold season. 

The weather had become most beautiful ; the rains had passed 
away, and the most bracing air was over the Hills. I spent my 
time chiefly in solitude, roaming in the Hills at the back of 
Landowr ; and where is the grief that is not soothed and tran- 
quillized by the enjoyment of such scenery ? The rains had 
passed away, and had left the air clear and transparent; the 
beauty of the Snowy Ranges, whose majestic heads at intervals 
flushed brightly with the rose-tints that summer twilight leaves 
upon their lofty brows, or rising with their snowy peaks of 
glittering whiteness high above the clouds, was far greater than 
I ever beheld before the departure of the rains. 

Look at the outline of the highest range of the Himalaya, and 
picture to yourself its grandeur and its beauty, which are not to 
be fully enjoyed in the society of others, in the midst of the 
gaiety of a party. Seek the highest point of the lone mountains, 
and the shade of the deep forests, whose beautiful foliage is varied 
by majestic pines, ever-green oaks, and brilliant rhododendrons. 
* In soUtude gaze on the magnificence of such a scene : 

" Look through nature up to nature's God :" 

'' Commune with thine own heart, and be still." Let none be 


near to break the reverie : look on those mountains of eternal 
snow, the rose-tints linger on them, the white clouds roll 
below, and their peaks are sharply set upon a sky of the 
brightest, clearest, and deepest blue. The rushing wing of the 
black eagle that " winged and cloud-cleaving minister, whose 
happy flight is highest into heaven," may be heard above. 
The golden eagle may be seen below, poised on his wing of 
might, or swooping over a precipice, while his keen eye pierces 
downward, seeking his prey, into the depths of the narrow 
valley between the mountains. The sweet notes of the Hill 
birds are around you ; and the gay butterflies, enamoured of the 
wild flowers, hover over their blossoms. 

Who may describe the solitary loveliness, the speaking 
quietude, that wraps these forest scenes ? Who may tell how 
beautiful they are ? Who that loves solitude does not enjoy the 

dewy mom, and od'rous noon, and even 

With sunset, and its gorgeous ministers ? " 

Who can look unmoved on the coronets of snow that crown 
the eternal Himalaya? Who can gaze without delight on the 
aerial mountains that pour down the Ganga and Yamuna from 
their snow-formed caves ? 

" My altars are the mountains and the ocean, 
Earth, air, stars, all that springs from the great Whole, 
Who hath produced and will receive the soul." 

" 1 love snow, and all the forms 
Of the radiant frost ; 
I love waves, and winds, and storms, 

Every thing almost 
Which is nature's, and may be 
Untainted by man's misery." 

There, indulge in solemn vision and bright silver dream, while 
" every sight and sound from the vast earth and ambient air" 
sends to your heart its choicest impulses : gaze on those rocks 
and pinnacles of snow, where never foot of common mortal 
trod, which the departing rose-tints leave in colder grandeur, 



and enjoy those solemn feelings of natural piety with wliich the 
spirit of solitude imbues the soul. 

" Are not the mountains, waves, and skies, a part 
Of me and of my soul, as 1 of them ? 
Is not the love of these deep in my heart 
With a pure passion ?" 

" On accuse I'enthousiasme d'etre passager ; 1 'existence serait 
trop heureuse si Ton pouvait retenir des emotions si belle ; mais 
c'est parcequ'elles se dissipent aisement qu'il faut s'occuper de 
les conserver." 

" Mont Blanc is the monarch of mountains. 
They crown'd him long ago. 
On a throne of rocks, in a robe of clouds. 
With a diadem of snow." 

Gazing on the Snowy Ranges, Mont Blanc sinks into insig- 
nificance in comparison with the elevation of the eternal 

I2th. Anxious to attain a stock of health, to enable me to 
bear my homeward journey, I commenced early rising, and was 
daily on my giinth at 5 a.m. ; it was very cold in the early 
morning, so much so that I often preferred walking. Captain 
Sturt, who is an excellent draughtsman, promised me a sketch 
of the Hills ere my departure ; this pleased me greatly, as, 
perhaps, there is no country of which it is more difficult to give 
a correct idea than that around Landowr. Two fine eagles were 
brought to me, a golden and a black one ; these I added to my 
collection, rather large birds to carry, but I shall have so much 
luggage, it matters but little, a few chests more or less ; every 
thing belonging to the mountains is so interesting. These 
birds are continually seen, especially at the back of Landowr. 
A pair of the Loonjee, the red, or Argus pheasants of the Hima- 
laya, have been given me : the bird has a black top-knot, and 
the neck below has a most peculiar skin over it ; beyond which 
are crimson feathers, bright as gold ; the breast is covered with 
feathers, half red, half black, and in the centre of the black, 


which is at the end of the feather, is a white eye. Tlie feathers 
on the back are of a game brown, tipped with black, in which is 
also the white spot : these birds are very rare and very valuable. 
I also received a fine hawk, and some small birds of brilliant 
feather : also the heads and horns of four gooral, the small wild 
deer of the Hills. 

20th. First met Colonel Arnold, of the 16th Lancers; we 
talked of the old regiment. Nothing pleases me so much as 
the kindness and affection with which my relatives, who were in 
this gallant corps, are spoken of by the old 16th. 

22nd. Not having forgotten the Hill woman I saw on our 
return from the waterfall, I rode alone to Biittah, hoping to 
catch sight of her, but was disappointed : en route, my dog 
Sancho put up a nide of Kallinge pheasants ; they rose with a 
phurr, as the natives call the noise of a bird, as of a partridge 
or quail suddenly taking wing. 

23rd. Colonel Everest has a fine estate near Bhadraj, called 
" The Park;" I rode over with a most agreeable party to breakfast 
there this morning, and to arrange respecting some boundaries, 
which, after all, we left as unsettled as ever ; it put me in mind 
of the child's play : 

" ' Here stands a post.' ' Who put it there ?' 
' A better man than you, touch it if you dare.' " 

Boundaries in the Hills are determined, not by landmarks, 
but by the fall of the rain ; in the division of a mountain, all that 
land is yours down which the rain water runs on your side, and 
on the opposite side, all the land is your neighbour's over which 
the water makes its way downwards. 

Colonel Everest is making a road a most scientific affair ; 
the obstacles to be conquered are great, levelling rocks, 
and filling up khuds. The Park is the finest estate in the 

25th. I was fortunate in being able to procure camels, and 
sent off my baggage from Rajpur in time to allow the animals 
to return to Meerut to be in readiness to march with the army 
there collecting for Afghanistan. 

T 2 


26th. A sa'Is cooking his dinner by accident set fire to mj' 
stables, in which were five gunths : the privates of the Lancers 
and Buffs, whose barracks are a Httle higher up the Hill, 
were with us in a moment; they saved the ponies, but 
the stable, which was formed of bamboo, mats, and straw, 
was reduced to ashes. A few days afterwards our house 
was set on fire ; the men, who were always on the alert, put it 
out immediately. 

29th. Having ascertained that the water in the Keeree Pass 
had subsided, and that it had been open for three days, we 
determined to quit Landowr for Meerut : accordingly a diik and 
horses having been laid for us, our party went down this morning 
to Rajpur. It was a beautiful ride, but when we reached the 
foot of the Hill the heat became most unpleasant : such a sudden 
change from fires and cold breezes, to the hot winds for such 
it felt to us at Rajpur when we took refuge at Mrs. Theodore's 
hotel. She has stuffed birds for sale ; her Moonal pheasants 
are very dear, sixteen rupees a pair ; but they are not reckoned 
as well prepared as those of Mr. Morrow, the steward at the 
hospital. Our party being too large to proceed dak in a body, 

it was agreed I should lead the way, with Captain L as my 

escort. At 4 p.m. we got into our palanquins, and commenced 
the journey : crossing the Deyra Dhoon it was hot, very hot, and 
the sides of the palanquin felt quite burning. As the sun sank 
we entered the Keeree Pass, where I found the air very cold ; and 
it struck so chillily upon me that I got out of the palanquin, 
intending to walk some distance. The Pass is the dry bed of a 
mountain ton-ent, passing through high cliffs, covered with fine 
trees and climbers ; a stream here and there crosses the road. 
During a part of the year it is impassable, but the water having 
subsided, the road had been open three days. 

It was a beautiful night, and a beautiful scene ; I enjoyed it 
extremely, and walked some distance, aided by my long pahari 
.pole. Wishing my escort to partake in the pleasure to be 
derived from such romantic and picturesque scenery, I asked 
him if he would walk. He partially opened the doors of his 
palanquin, and looking out, expressed his astonishment at the 


madness of my walking in the Pass ; said the malaria was so 
great he had shut the doors of the palkl, and lighted a cigar to 
secure himself from its influence, begged I would get into my 
palanquin, and keep the doors closed as long as I was in the 
Pass. I followed his advice, but the moonhght night often 
tempted me to open the doors, and I became completely ill at 
times from the chill that fell upon my chest, like the deadly chill 
of a vault, in spite of having wrapped myself up in a blanket. 
At first I was unwilhng to attribute it to the effect of the air of 
the Keeree Pass, but having arrived at the end of it, these 
uncomfortable feelings instantly disappeared. 

An instance of the danger of the Pass is, that Mrs. T 

was detained for two hours at the entrance of it, for want of 
bearers, she took a fever and died. The wife of the behishti, 
who was with our servants, was detained at the same place, she 
took the fever, and it killed her. To sleep in the Pass one night 
is to run the pretty certain chance of fever, perhaps death : 
there is something in the air that almost compels one to sleep. 
With the very greatest difficulty I kept my eyes open, even when 
in pain from a chilly sickness that had crept over me : I thought 
of Corinne and the Pontine Marshes, in passing which she could 
scarcely resist the spell that induced her to long for sleep, even 
when she knew that sleep would be the sleep of death. Quitting 
the Pass, we entered on the plains, where the sun was burningly 
hot how fierce it was ! We did not arrive at Deobund, where we 
were to take shelter, until noon the next day ; I felt sick and 
faint from the excessive heat, and was very glad to gain the 
shelter of a roof. 

30th. At 4 P.M. our palanquins were ready; getting into 
them was like going into an oven. We had taken the precaution 
of having no dinner during the heat of the day ; in the cool of the 
evening refreshment was welcome, in the shade of the jangal by 
the road-side. The bearers were good, and at 2 a.m. we arrived 
at the spot, to which a buggy had been sent, and horses laid on 
the road : how gladly I left the hot palanquin for the cool air in 
the buggy ! The roads were so bad, they were absolutely danger- 
ous, and the moonlight so puzzling, we could not see the holes 
into which the buggy was continually going bump bump, to the 


infinite hazard of breaking the springs ; nevertheless, we arrived 
in safety at Meerut. 

Oct. 2nd. ^The first thing necessary was to enjoy a good 
canter in the plains after having been obliged to ride a gunth so 
many months in the Hills. On the well-watered course, of an 
evening, the band of the Lancers was an attraction ; they played 
well, and the instruments were good. The band came out with 
us in the "Marchioness of Ely," and I recognised some faces 
amongst them. Fearing to encounter the intense heat in a boat 
at this season of the year, and hearing that cholera was at some 
of the stations on the river, I determined to prolong my stay at 

8th. Accompanied Colonel Arnold and Sir Willoughby 
Cotton to a review of the 16th Lancers ; I was much pleased 
with the review, and the fine appearance of the men. 

lOth. Revisited the tomb of Jaffir Siihib, one I particularly 
admire, because the dome is open at the top, that the dews of 
heaven and the sunshine may fall upon the marble sarcophagus, 
wherein repose the ashes of the saint. A tomb like this is 
preferable to weeping flowers, or votive cypress wreath ; and 
such an one, canopied by the vault of heaven alone, would the 
pilgrim desire, as the lone couch of her everlasting rest. It is a 
ruin, but must formerly have been a beautiful budding. 

Returning home we saw two chiri-mdrs (bird-catchers) . Their 
game is snared in a novel fashion : they carry a sort of shield, 
made of light split bamboo, entwined with green boughs ; they 
crouch to the ground, beziring this verdant shield before them, 
like a stalking horse, at the same time putting through it a very 
long thin bamboo, the end of which is covered with bird-lime ; 
with this they touch a small bird, and then carefully drawing 
the bamboo back to the boughs, put a hand through the shield, 
and secure the game. This style of bird-catching is simple and 
ingenious ; I never saw it before. 

What vicious brutes the native horses are ! In the evening I 

was riding on the course with two gentlemen : Captain A 's 

horse, a vicious, intemperate, great black animal, attacked mine, 
and lashed out most furiously. I threw my feet on my horse's 
mane : luckily for me they were out of the way in time, for the 


horse's heels cut through my habit, and would have broken my 
limbs had I not been sitting monkey fashion. 

My companions were alarmed: "My God, he has broken 
her legs !" was the firet exclamation, followed by a laugh on 
seeing my position, and "at least if he has not kicked your 
habit, he has a habit of kicking." The escape pleased me, and 
I refused to ride again in company with so dangerous a horse. 
He was a fine strong animal, and carried his gallant master nobly 
through all the hardships of the ensuing Afghanistan campaign. 
The country horses are horribly savage, and a frightful accident 
occurred at Allahabad. Serjeant Percival, who was riding with 
Serjeant Cunningham, dismounted to drink at a well, giving his 
horse to a cooly to hold ; the horse broke from the cooly and 
attacked Serjeant Cunningham ; tore his hand severely, broke 
his leg in several places, pulled him off his horse, shook him as 
a dog does a rat, knelt upon him, and tore him with his teeth : 
at length the horse was driven off, and the serjeant was carried 
to a hospital, where he died a few hours afterwards. When the 
16th Lancers first arrived at Cawnpore, the privates as Waterloo 
men considered themselves superior to the 1 1 th Dragoons, and 
when a man of the latter ventured to differ in opinion with the 
former, he was cut short by "When were you at Waterloo ? " The 
enmity occasioned by this was done away with one day on parade. 
A Lancer, who was riding a vicious country horse, was thrown ; 
the beast knelt upon the man and bit him fiercely. The Lancers 
looked on with astonishment ; the 1 1th Dragoons, accustomed to 
such little accidents, had recourse to bamboos ; they drove the 
horse away, and as one of them picked up the mangled Lancer, 
"Did you ever see the like of that at Waterloo?" said the 
Dragoon. Thus was harmony established between the privates 
of the two regiments. The Lancers have a very good theatre : 
the plays are encouraged by the officers, and the privates have 
the whole management of it : the scenes, which are painted by 
the men, are very well done ; their acting is good, and the band 
a great addition. The privates performed the "Iron Chest," 
and "The Middy Ashore:" the delight of the men, and the 
enthusiastic manner in which they applauded their comrades, 


when any thing pleased them, was quite amusing. After the 
play, the performers came forward, and sang " God save the 
Queen." By way of adding to the effect, on either side the 
stage was placed a Lancer in full uniform, leaning on his sword, 
with his lance in one hand. This was a fancy of the privates. 
The two men might have stood for pictures of manly beauty ; 
their attitudes were excellent, the effect was good, and their 
comrades were so much delighted, they gave them a round of 
applause. The management of a theatre is an excellent occu- 
pation for soldiers in a hot climate. 

\3th. Crossing a niila this morning during an excursion in 
search of the picturesque, my horse got into a hole, and we 
were very nearly thrown over, both together, into the stream. 
I gave him his head, and let him extricate himself, waiting 
patiently the result of his sagacity. He carried me out com- 
pletely soaked, and strained his hind leg in gaining the bank. 

17 th. Colonel Arnold gave a farewell ball to his friends at 
Meerut. The Lancers are to march for Afghanistan on the 
30th. His house is built after his own fancy : from without it 
has the appearance of Hindoo temples that have been added to 
a bungalow ; nevertheless, the effect is good. The interior is 
very unique. The shape of the rooms is singular ; the trellis 
work of white marble between them, and the stained glass in 
the windows and over the doors give it an Eastern air of beauty 
and novelty. Fire-balloons were sent up, fireworks displayed ; 
the band was good, and the ball went off with great spirit. 

18^^. ^The evening after this fete, during the time Colonel 
Arnold was at dinner, and in the act of taking wine with Sir 
Willoughby Cotton, he burst a blood-vessel on his lungs, and 
was nearly choked. Medical aid was instantly called in ; he was in 
extreme danger during the night, and was bled three times. A 
hope of his recovery was scarcely entertained : never was more 
interest or more anxiety felt by any people than by those at 
Meerut for Colonel Arnold. He had just attained the object of 
his ambition, the command during the war of that gallant regi- 
ment the 1 6th Ijancers ; and he was beloved both by the officers 
and the men. At 3 a.m. he parted with the guests in his ball- 


room in high health and spirits : at seven that evening he lay 
exhausted and apparently dying. When at Waterloo he was 
shot through the lungs, and recovered. It was one of those 
remarkable instances of recovery from a severe gun-shot wound, 
and as that had gone through the lungs, the breaking of the 
blood-vessel was a fearful occurrence. 

2lst. Colonel Arnold is still in great danger, but his friends 
indulge in hopes of his recovery. Two field-officers called to 
take leave of me. I asked, "What is this war about, the fear 
that the Russians and Persians will drive us into the sea?" 
Colonel Dennie answered, " The Government must have most 
powerful reasons, of which we are ignorant ; it is absurd to 
suppose that can be the reason of the war ; why send us there ? 
let them fag themselves out by coining to us ; we shall get there 
easily enough, but how shall we return ? We may be cut up 
to a man." His companion agreed with him, and this was the 
general opinion of the military men of my acquaintance. The 
old 16th marched from Meerut on the 30th October. Never 
was there a finer body of men under the sun. Their route is 
marked out across a desert, where all the water they will get for 
man or beast for three days they must carry with them in 
skins. Why they have been ordered on such a route the secret 
and political department alone can tell the men ask if it be to 
take the shine out of them : there is another road, said to be good, 
therefore it is difficult to understand the motive of taking them 
across the desert to Shikarpore. 

My boats being ready at Ghurmuktesur Ghat, I started diik 
to join them ; on my arrival a fine breeze was blowing, a number 
of vessels of every description were at anchor ; the scene was 
picturesque, and my people were all ready and willing to start. 
Messrs. Gibsonand Co. of Meerut have furnished me with two large 
flat-bottomed country boats, on each of which a house is built of 
bamboo and mats, which is well thatched ; the interior of the 
one in which I live is divided into two large rooms, and has two 
bathing-rooms ; the floor is of planks, covered with a gaily- 
coloured sutrnengi, a cotton carpet ; and the inside is fitted up 
with white cloth sometimes the rooms are fitted up with the 


coloured chintz used for tents. The other large boat contains 
the servants, the horses, and the dogs. The sort of boat gene- 
rally used for this purpose is called a surri, which is a pateli 
that draws very little water, and is generally rowed from the 
top of the platform above the roof, on which the dandls live. 

23rd. Started from Ghurmuktesur Ghat the moment it 
became possible to see the way down the river, and to avoid the 
sandbanks. At 3 p.m. the thermometer was 82, a most op- 
pressive heat for one just arrived from the Hills. Lugaoed on 
a sandbank, and walked with the dogs until ten at night, when I 
went to rest and dreamed of thieves, because this part of the 
Ganges is dangerous, and I have no guard on board the boats. 
From a fisherman on the bank I have purchased fish enough 
for myself and all the crew, a feast for us all, and a piece of good 

Taking a walk with the dogs puts me in mind of the kennel 
I had in the Hills, and of Khobarah, the magnificent dog of the 
Himalaya, of whom his former master told me this anecdote : 
" Sitting one night in my tent, the dog at my feet, a bearer, in 
a state of intoxication, entered and spoke to me ; the voice of 
the drunken man was loud and angry : the dog seized him 
instantly by the throat, bore him to the ground, and held him 
there. He did not injure the man : it being night, I suppose 
the creature thought me menaced with danger. He quitted him 
the instant I bade him do so." 

I gave this dog on quitting the Hills to a relative, desiring 
him to chain him up until he had made his acquaintance and 
ensured his friendship. My relative came to me a week after- 
wards highly amused, and said, " The moment your dog was 
unchained he took possession of the verandah of my house. 
He is walking up and down lashing himself into fury ; he keeps 
us all at bay, and I cannot enter the house ; perhaps when he sees 
you he will become more composed, and allow me to go in to 

In 1844, Khobarah, the Hill dog, was still in prime health, 
taking care of the cows at night at Cloud End, near Landowr. 
The fate of my dog Sancho was pitiable : he was in the Hills 


with a small spaniel I had given my relative, a sharp cry from 
the dog brought the gentleman to the door ; a short distance 
from the house he saw the spaniel in the mouth of a leopard, 
who carried him down the khud. Sancho was on the ground, 
having had his side cut open by a blow from the paw of the 
wild beast ; the poor dog crawled to the feet of my friend, he 
took him up, and tried in vain to save his life poor Sancho 

A fine litter of spaniel pups once placed me in a dilemma : a 
friend thus settled the point. "It is as much a duty to cut a 
dog's tail according to his caste, as it is to have drawn the 
superfluous teeth of a young Christian. This answer to the 
question respecting the tails of the young pups must be sent at 
once, lest time and the habit of wearing a whole tail should 
attach them, the pups, too strongly to the final three-quarters of 
an inch, which I think they should lose : the object with a 
spaniel is not so much to reduce the length as to obviate the 
thin and fish-hooky appearance of the natural tail. There is no 
cause to mourn such severe kindness to these pups ; grieve not 
for them ! theirs is an age when pain passes with the moment of 
infliction, and if, as some crying philosopher has observed, ' We 
know no pleasure equal to a sudden relief from pain, ' the cutting 
and firing will be all for the good of the little dogs." The price 
of a gunth is from sixty to a hundred rupees : a good Almorah 
gunth will fetch a hundred and sixty, or a fancy price of three 
hundred rupees. The common gunths are used for fetching 
water from the khuds, but such is the dangerous nature of 
the mountain paths they descend, they are often killed by a fall 
over a precipice. The only animals fit for such work are mules, 
which may be bought at the Hurdwar fair, at a reasonable price. 
The beautiful gunth MotI, whom I have before mentioned, was 
sent on an emergency to bring water from the khud : he fell 
over in returning with the heavy water bags and was smashed in 
the khud below smashed ! that is not my word, but picked up 
in intercourse with men, and is as shocking as a phrase I once 
made use of, " knocked over by a buffalo ! " 

This is too technical and gentlemanlike an expression ; in 


such cases one should sacrifice brevity in favour of the " I hope 
you may obtain it style," {i. e. the feminine of " I wish you 
may get it,") and say, you will be thrown down or hurt by a 
buffalo's running against you. The rules of female education, 
both of the governess and of after life, prevent a lady's knowing 
whether such an out-of-door animal as a buffalo attacks people 
with his head or tail, and a lady should betray no nearer 
acquaintance with the horrible creature than that implied in the 
form of speech above appointed for adoption. Our language 
affords a table-land of communication between lady and gentle- 
man, where the technical difficulties on either side the hill are 
out of sight. If the lady is to speak of a fashion she will leave 
out scientific terms, as will the gentleman if he is talking of a 
race ; and I see no objection to the language of the man and 
woman being exactly similar. Any affectation, such as extreme 
delicacy and timidity, is vulgar, and suited to novel-reading ladies' 
maids and milliners' apprentices. Every term or word turned 
from its common and general meaning to a particular meaning, 
is what I consider technical. Such are not only words employed 
in any art or science in a sense differing from their common 
acceptation, but, also, such words used in an uncommon sense 
by a particular set of people, schoolboys, or fashionables. To 
" cut over wnth a stone" is a school expression, which of course 
cannot be referred to the general meaning of the words. Any 
thing being in good or bad taste is a technicality of good society. 
Some expressions of this nature, when original, are rather to be 
considered as bon-mots. Such as Sydney Smith's saying that a 
clergyman next him at dinner had a ten-parson power of boring. 
To make use of French words, unless cleverly selected, comes 
under my ban, but the practice of good society is against me, I 
believe, in this. A schoolboy's word like that of " being 
knocked over," can be used with very good effect in fun. A 
lady may talk to a man of having a lark, or use any such word, 
' but it must not be used as her own word, but as if she were to 
say, " as you would call it." I will give the rest of this essay 
another time, for fear of knocking over the patience of the dear 
ones around the hearth of my childhood's home. 


25th. A fine breeze the horse boat has just passed along- 
side one of the horses looked out of the window and neighed 
loudly. I like to hear a horse neigh : poor boy, he would 
sooner be galloping with me on his back over the green sward 
of the race-course, than be cabined, cribbed, confined, in the 
boat ; nevertheless, both the horses eat, drink, and lie down 
to sleep like old soldiers. 

Another burning day. How good my health must be to 
stand such heat without much inconvenience ! The constant 
confinement to a boat is very irksome and disagreeable ; and 
this life of quietude after so much exercise is enough to make 
me ill. Would that I were once more enjoying the morning 
breeze, cantering against it ! The early breeze on the river is 
damp and unwholesome, therefore I remain idly on my charpai 
until half-past 7 a.m. The banks are low and ugly, the river 
broad and shallow, and fiill of great sandbanks, between which 
we glide. 

There is little on this part of the river to afford amusement ; 
here and there a flock of wild birds rises from the sands, and 
alligators basking in the sun have the appearance of logs of 

26th. ^To-day we have reached the district in charge of 

Mr. H S , and the head man of the village off which 

we have moored, has come on board to offer his services in pro- 
curing watchmen for the night, food for the horses, &c. All 
the way down we have lugaoed on sandbanks in wild out-of-the- 
way spots : how pleasant it is to have quitted the jangal ! In 
this district I feel at home, and chaukidars have come to guard 
the boats. 

27th. Arrived at Fathigarh, and drove to the house of my 
relative ; the grounds were just as beautiful, as full of flowers 
and flowering trees, and just as fresh as ever ; the house cool 
and pleasant. On my return to my boat in the evening, I 
found the heat excessive, which, added to the bites of the 
musquitoes, kept me awake until 4 a.m., at which time the 
washermen came down to the river-side and made a great noise ; 
their method of washing is to dip a garment into the water. 


then to lay it on a piece of flat board and soap it, after which 
they whirl the garment above their heads, and down it comes 
on the flat board with a loud sound, to which is added a most 
peculiar noise, like a pavior's grunt, given by the dhobis, when 
the garment strikes the board, as if the exertion exhausted them ; 
this whirhng and beating is continued for a short time, when the 
clothes are taken to the man's house, put over a most simple 
steam apparatus, which completely cleans them, after which 
they are rinsed, dryed, and ironed. 

2dth. Quitted the Fort Ghat ; after a good run of forty 
miles anchored at Kanauj, where the people cooked and ate 
their dinners ; after which we cast the boats oflf into the middle 
of the stream, allowing them to float down just at the pleasure 
of the current, whilst the people slept ; but their slumbers were 
occasionally disturbed by the boat running aground on a sand- 
bank or on shore, when they were roused up to get her off 

3\st. Reached Bitoor at breakfast time; a large fair was 
being held on the banks of the river. Here we nearly lost the 
horse-boat ; a strong wind carried the boats against a high bank, 
which was falling in every second ; just as the horse-boat ran 
foul of it the bank fell in ; the chaprasi on deck cut the towing- 
line with his sword, and the boat swerved off from the bank ; 
she was filled with earth, and all but swamped. The horses, 
feeUng the violent rocking of the vessel, neighed loudly several 
times, as if conscious of danger, and willing to remind us of 
their existence. The boat righted, and was got off with some 

On our arrival at Cawnpore we were detained by the bridge 
of boats, which was closed, and would not be opened until noon 
the next day. 

Nov. 1st. Rose early, and went on shore to buy two toon- 
wood trees, and one of sal. It is nearly noon ; I wish the 
bridge of boats would open, and let us pass through ; waiting on 
this hot sandbank is very tiresome, and the wind is favourable. 
I have had much plague with the miinjhl of the horse-boat ; 
n'importe, a lonely pilgrim must expect a little annoyance on the 


road at times. At noon the bridge opened, and we passed through ; 
anchored on the other side, to get the timber trees off the bank 
into the river. The sal tree, very heavy wood, twenty-two cubits 
in length, and two feet six inches in diameter, was lying on a 
high pile of trees ; with the greatest difficulty it was moved, it was 
so wedged in amongst the rest ; about twenty men were in the 
river below the tree, pulUng at a rope fixed to a beam as a lever ; 
all of a sudden the tree got loose, and down it thundered, rolling 
over on its side into the river below. I am not a coward, but 
when I saw what appeared inevitable death to five or six of my 
own men, I covered my eyes with my hands, expecting to see them 
crushed to death, and lying under the tree in the water ; how- 
ever, the cry of "By the blessing of God and the mem Sahiba's 
good luck they have escaped," was indeed welcome : they had 
all sprung aside quick as lightning, and not a man was hurt. We 
then proceeded down the river, taking our sal tree, lashed to the 
side of my boat, which made her all on one side ; therefore I 
purchased two toon-wood trees at another timber-yard, and lashed 
them on the other side, which righted the boat, the toon 
being hghter wood than the sal : by the time this was over it 
was 8 P.M. I paid the men well who had worked so hard, and 
gave the crews of both boats sweetmeats enough to last for four 
days ; all were in good humour, and I sought my couch com- 
pletely fagged. But sleep was driven away by the musquitoes ; 
I killed hundreds of the vile tormentors. Every night we drift 
down with the stream after the people have had their food on 

4th. On the top of the thatch of the house which is built on 
my boat, is a platform on which the people sit ; when the wind 
is in a particular direction all that is said above is plainly heard 
in the cabin below. A most theological discourse has amused me 
for the last hour carried on between my khidmatgar, one of the 
Faithful, and a staunch Hindu, one of my chaprasis. The 
question under consideration was, whether God made Hindus or 
Musalmans first ; and whether you ought to say " By the 
blessing of Allah," or "By the blessing of Vishnu." These 
points the Musalman undertook to explain. The questions of 


the Hindu were simple, but most puzzling ; nor could the man 
refrain from a laugh now and then, when some curious point of 
faith was explained to him by the follower of the prophet. It 
ended by the khidmatgiir saying, " If you do not believe in 
Allah and the kuran, they will take you by that Hindu top-knot 
of yours, hold you by it whilst they fill your mouth with fire, 
and pitch you to Jahannam." 1 laughed, the people heard 
me, and being aware that their conversation was overheard, 
dropped the subject. The follower of Muhammad worked so 
hard and so earnestly to gain a convert, it was unfortunate his 
opponent should have been so utterly incapable of understanding 
what he considered the true faith. 

The Musalmans are anxious for converts ; the Hindus will 
neither make proselytes, nor be converted themselves. Deism 
is the religion of well-educated Hindus, they leave idolatry to 
the lower orders. When conversing with a lady one evening, 
the priest's bell was heard ; she said, " I must attend, will you 
come with me?" Accordingly we entered the small room 
which contained the idols; they were Hghted up, and the 
Brahmans in attendance. The worship proceeded : I said to the 
lady, "Is it possible that you can believe in the power of brazen 
images, the work of men's hands ?" She answered, " I believe in 
one great and eternal God ; as for these images, it is the custom 
of the country to worship them ; the lower orders believe in 
their power." " Why do you attend suchpooja ?" said I. She 
looked at the Brahmans as if she feared our conversation might 
be overheard, and answered, " Their power is great ; if I were 

not to appear it would soon be over ; they " she ceased 

speaking, and drew her forefinger across her throat with a 
significant gesture. The conversation dropped ; and I observed 
the Brahmans " cast camel's glances ' " both on her and me. 

The clergyman at Allahabad converted a Hindii to the 
Christian faith ; consequently, the man became an outcast, he 
could neither eat, drink, nor smoke with his own family ; he 
complained to the clergj'^man, and was taken into service. His 

' Oriental Proverbs and Sayings, No. 129. 


attendance at church was constant. His patron died : the man 
was never seen afterwards at Divine Service. The newly 
appointed clergyman inquired the reason, and this answer was 
returned : " I received eight rupees a month from your prede- 
cessor ; if you will give me the same I will go to church every 
Sunday ! " So little did the man comprehend his adopted 
religion, or the kindness that induced the Clergyman to support 
him ! 

Passed Manucpur with a fine breeze and a powerful stream in 
our favour ; lugaoed below Kurrah, where the people cooked on 
shore, and as soon as the moon was high we turned the boat 
into the current, and allowed her to drift ; the helmsman ties 
the rudder up in the centre, and usually lies down to sleep by 
its side ; if the vessel run ashore, he starts up, and marvels at 
the occurrence. We drifted the whole night by moonlight ; at 
one time I told them to anchor, but the bank kept falling in in 
so fearful a manner we were obliged to put otF again. 

Just as we came to the bank to lugao the men suddenly 
shoved the boat back into the stream, saying, " Some one has 
sneezed, we cannot anchor here at present." A few moments 
afterwards they anchored. They are superstitious respecting a 
sneeze, and by waiting for a short time fancy the evil influence 
passes away. " After sneezing you may eat or bathe, but not 
go into any one's house ' :" because it is considered an omen of 
ill luck. 

A fair breeze is springing up ; we are near home, and they 
will be looking for the return of the wanderer. We are off 
Papamhow ; the river is very shallow and very broad. We passed 
the ghat, and moored while the people ate their dinners. I 
would have proceeded by moonlight, but was deterred from 
doing so by the advice of the fishermen on the banks, who said 
it would be very dangerous then to go on, as the stream was 
very fierce and shallow below. 

6th. Arrived at Raj-ghat, at which place the carriage was 
waiting for me ; but I found it impossible to reach the ghat, the 

' Oriental Proverbs and Sayings, No. 130. 


force of the current drove us off ; therefore, taking the crew of 
the horse-boat to aid our own, we dropped down into the Jumna 
below the Fort ; in doing this, we ran against another vessel, 
and did our own some damage. At this moment we are making 
our way slowly and with difficulty up the stream against the 
current of the Jumna, just below the Fort ; the view is inter- 
esting, and the pilgrim will reach the landing-place, below her 
own old peepul-tree, within an hour. I have at this moment 
but little energy left wherewith to pursue my homeward voyage, 
but my promise is yours, my beloved mother, and your child 
would not disappoint you for all the wealth of Ormus or of Ind. 
She who ventures on the waters must take patience, and await 
the good pleasure of the wind and tides ; but there is the Fort 
and the great Masjid, and the old peepul-tree, and the mem 
siihiba's home, and the chabutara ' on the bank of the river, 
which is crowded with friends on the look out for the pilgrim, 
and ready to hail her return with the greatest pleasure. 

' A terrace to sit and converse on. 



Arrival at Allahabad Visit to the Mahratta Camp The Three Wishes The 
Ticca Wife The Farewell of Her Highness the Baiza Ba'i How to dispose 
of a Wife The Bundelas- Price of Children The Pillar in the Fort- 
Voyage down the River Arwari Fish A Lady Overboard An Accident 
The Sita Khiind The Army of the Indus Meetingof the Governor-General 
and Runjeet Singh The Camel Battery Lord Auckland's Visit to Runjeet's 
Camp The Koh-i-Nur The Rajput Tray A Pahari Dress The Ayha's 
Stratagem An Escape on the River Natives afraid of Cadets The Pan- 
chayat Fear of Poison Berhampiir The Nawab, the Merchant, and the 
Palki Quitted Berhampur. 

1838, Nov. On my first arrival at Allahabad I thought I 
should never get through all the arrangements necessary before 
my departure for England ; so many farewell visits were to be 
paid to my old friends, and so many preparations were to be 
made for the voyage. Her Highness the Baiza Bii'I was still at 
Allahabad, and she sent for me. One of the Italian greyhounds 
given me by Captain Osborne having died, I took the other two, 
and presented them to the Gaja Raja Sahib, the young princess 
having expressed a wish to have one : I gave her also a black 
terrier, and one of King Charles's spaniels. 

One day a Mahratta lady came to my house, riding, en cavalier, 
on a camel, which she managed apparently with the greatest 
ease ; she told me her Highness requested I would call imme- 
diately upon her. On my arrival in camp, after the ceremony 
of meeting had passed, the Baiza Ba'I said, " You are going to 

u 2 


England, will you procure for me three things ? The first is, 
a perfectly high caste Arabian mare ; secondly, a very, very 
little dog, just like a ball, covered with long hair, perfectly 
white, and having red eyes ; and thirdly, a mechanical figure, 
that, standing on a slack rope, with a pole in its hand, balances 
itself, and moves in time to the music that plays below it." 

I thought of the fairy tales, in which people are sent to roam 
the world in search of marvellous curiosities, and found myself 
as much perplexed as was ever knight of old by the commands 
of a fairy. The Ba'I added, " You know a good Arab, I can 
trust your judgment in the selection ; the little dogs, they say, 
come from Bombay : you can bring them all with you in the 
ship on your return." 

I informed her Highness that very few Arabs were in England ; 
that in her Majesty's stud there were some, presents from Eastern 
Princes, who were not likely to part with the apple of their 
eyes : that I did not think an Arab mare was to be had in the 
country. With respect to the little powder-pufF dog with the 
red eyes, I would make enquiries : and the mechanical figure 
could be procured from Paris. 

A few days after this visit one of her ladies called on me, and 
the following conversation ensued : 

Mahratta Lady " You are going to England, you will be 
absent eighteen months or two years, have you arranged all 
your household affairs ? You know how much interest I take in 
your welfare ; I hope you have made proper arrangements." 

I assured her I had. 

" Yes, yes, with respect to the household, that is all very well ; 
but with respect to your husband, what arrangement have 
you made ? It is the custom with us Mahrattas, if a wife 
quit her husband, for her to select and depute another lady to 
remain with him during her absence ; have you selected such 
a one?" 

" No," said I, with the utmost gravity ; " such an arrangement 
never occurred to me ; will you do me the honour to supply my 

She laughed and shook her head. " I suppose you English 


ladies would only select one wife ; a Mahratta would select two 
to remain with her husband during her absence." 

I explained to her the opinions of the English on such 
subjects : our ideas appeared as strange to her as hers were to 
ine ; and she expressed herself grieved that I should omit what 
they considered a duty. 

Ilth. I called on the ex-Queen of Gwalior, and took leave 
in all due form ; the dear old lady was very sorry to part with 
me, the tears ran down her cheeks, and she embraced me over 
and over again. I was sincerely grieved to part with her 
Highness, with whom and in whose camp I had passed so many 
happy hours, amused with beholding native life and customs, 
and witnessing their religious ceremonies. The next day she 
sent me the complimentary farewell dinner, which it is the 
custom to present to a friend on departure : I partook of some 
of the Mahratta dishes, in which, to suit my taste, they had 
omitted musk or assafcetida ; the cookery was good ; pan, atr, 
and rose-water, as usual, ended the ceremony. 

Those ladies who are kind enough to support and educate the 
orphan children of natives, are startled at times by curious 
occurrences. A lady at this station lately married one of her 
orphans to a drummer in the 72nd regiment, and gave twenty 
rupees as a portion ; the man was drunk for about a week ; in a 
fortnight he made over his wife to another drummer, and in a 
month came to the lady, saying, " If you please. Ma'am, I should 
like to marry again." " Why, John Strong, you were married 
a few days ago!" "Yes, Ma'am, but I made over she to my 
comrade." Imagine the lady's amazement and horror ! The 
man John Strong went away, and told his officers he thought 
he had been very ill-used. The man was a half-caste Christian, 
the girl a converted native. 

The famine in the north-western provinces has been occasioned 
by the almost entire failure of the usual rains. Government 
has done much in giving employment to those who can work, 
and food and medical aid to the sick ; and more than a lakh of 
rupees has already been raised by private subscription on our 
side of India, and they are subscribing for the same purpose 


very liberally in the Bombay Presidency. Allahabad luckily has 
escaped, but every sort of grain is very dear, and large farm- 
yards like ours are somewhat costly. During the time of the 
famine the natives sold their children in order to save their 
lives ; and large numbers of the unfortunate Bundelas, the 
natives of Biindel-khand, arrived at Allahabad, famished and 
djdng ; subscriptions were raised, and the poor wretches were 
supported by charity. A most excellent and religious lady at 
the station proposed sending to the up-country, where the 
famine raged the most severely, and purchasing ten young girls ; 
these girls she undertook to bring up in the Christian religion, 
to teach them reading, writing, and needlework, and on their 
attaining a suitable age, to put them into service as ayahs to 
European ladies. The ladies at the station entered into her 
plans, and I agreed to buy and support two girls as my share. 
A calculation was then entered into as to the expense that would 
be incurred; I told her, "The other day, a Biindela woman 
came to my door with twins in a basket, which she offered for 
sale for two rupees ! I was greatly surprised ; the little naked 
creatures sprawling in the basket were in good condition, but 
their mother was a skeleton. ' Two rupees !' said I, ' that is a 
high price ; I will give you one rupee for the twins, if you give 
me the basket into the bargain.' The poor woman, delighted 
at having found a purchaser on any terms, laid her children at 
my feet, and making many salams, thanked me for having saved 
them from death. I took them into the room where my 
husband was sitting, and laid them on the table as a present for 
him : he laughed, and gave me some money for the woman. I 
returned the twins, and sent her to the place where the Bundelas 
are supported by the contributions of the station." 

Having heard this history, my friend wrote to a clergyman up 
the country, who purchased for us ten girls, all under eleven 
years of age, and sent them down ; the market for children was 
looking up ; he charged us the enormous price of ten rupees 
apiece ! They were placed in a comfortable house, with a school- 
mistress to instruct them ; every care was taken of them, and 
the ladies of the station attended the school, and superintended 


their morals. It certainly flourished to a very great degree ; 
they studied the commandment, "increase and multiply and 
replenish the earth," with so much assiduity, that in a short time 
all the little girls were in a fair way of becoming mammas ; a 
circumstance perfectly inexplicable, unless they had eaten the 
seeds of the peepul-tree : a peasant girl in Hampshire declared 
the same effect was produced by eating water- cresses. It was 
an annoying failure, that experimental school of ours. Speaking 
to an officer in the 1 6th Lancers, of the care that had been taken 
of these girls, of the religious instruction that had been bestowed 
upon them, and the disheartening finale of our charitable 
labours, he said, " In that dreadful famine hordes of wretched 
famished Bundeliis flocked into Cawnpore, and very liberal 
subscriptions were collected to feed them ; great numbers, 
however, perished from hunger, and mothers offered their 
children for sale for one rupee each : several were bought by 
very well-intentioned persons, to be educated, and converted to 
Christianity. Some little time after the Biindelas had disap- 
peared from the station, I happened to be dining with an old 
friend, who, in the evening, asked if I would accompany her in 
her drive to the bungalow where these children were being 
educated to form ladies' maids, as she had a favour to ask of me, 
that I would that evening stand godfather to twenty-two of 
these children ; I declined the honour, and some months after- 
wards heard that these children would shortly require godfathers 
and godmothers for their own offspring, should they bring them 
up as Christians." 

The enormous pillar now prostrate near the entrance gate 
of the Fort at Allahabad is to be set up on a pedestal, on an 
ascent of steps, and surmounted by a lion couchant. Colonel 
Edward Smith is entrusted with the performance of the work. 
The natives call it Bhim Singh ki liit that is, Bhim Singh's 
walking-stick. The hajjdm (the barber), whom I consulted on 
the subject, says he was a great pahalwdn (wrestler) : further 
I know not. 

Seneca says, " It is harder to judge and examine than to take 
opinions upon trust ; and therefore the far greater part of the 


world borrow from others those wliich they entertain con- 
cerning all the affairs of life and death." In the present instance, 
like the world in general, I take my opinion of the pillar upon 
trust, and firmly believe in all the barber asserts ; more especially, 
as some of the inscriptions on the lat are in unknown characters ; 
those of the mighty dead, who have disappeared from the earth, 
leaving records imperishable but incomprehensible. The Baiza 
Bil'I was very anxious to erect this pillar at her own expense, 
and I beUeve made the offer to the Lieutenant-Governor. She 
also wished to build a fine ghat at the Trivenl, which, in con- 
junction with the magnificent one she was then building at 
Benares, might have carried her name to posterity. 

28th. My friend Mrs. B and her four children arrived ; 

she is to accompany me to Calcutta : and a Manis has been 
sent me to add to my collection. 

Dec. 1st. We quitted Allahabad, and proceeded down the 
river, calling on those friends en passant of whom I wished to 
take leave. At Mirzapore the head of a ravine deer was given 
me. Off Patna a quantity of arwarl fish were brought alongside 
for breakfast ; they were delicious ; the remainder we had 
smoked in shakar and chokar that is, coarse sugar and wheat 
bran : let no one neglect this economical luxury, the smoked 
arwarl are delicious. 

\7th. Both the boys being very ill of fever, we hastened on 

for medical assistance. At night, as Mrs. B was quitting my 

boat to go to her own, passing down the plank, it upset, and she 
was thrown into the river ; it was as deep as her waist ; the 
night was dark, and the stream strong ; she was saved by a 
bearer's catching her gown as she was sinking; fortunately 
the bearer was in attendance, carrying a lantern. The rest 
of the people were on the shore eating their dinners, which 
they had just cooked. I called to the dandls to assist, not a 
man would stir ; they were not six yards from her, and saw her 
fall into the river. I reprimanded them angrily, to which they 
coolly answered, " We were eating our dinners, what could we 
do ?" Natives are apathetic with respect to all things, with the 
exception of rupees and khdna-ptnd that is, " meat and drink." 


I8th. To avoid the return of the accident of yesterday, this 
evening our vessels were lashed together ; T went to my friend's 
boat to see the poor boys, who were delirious ; on my return I did 
not see that the hold of my boat was open ; the shadows deceived 
me in the uncertain light, and meaning to jump from the railing 
of her vessel upon the deck of my own, I took a little spring, 
and went straight down the hold : faUing sideways with my 
waist across a beam, the breath was beaten out of my body for a 
moment, and there I hung like the sign of the golden fleece. 
The people came to my assistance, and brought me up again ; 
it was fortunate the beam stopped my further descent. I was 
bathed with hot water, and well rubbed with deodar oil, which 
took off the pain and stiffhess very effectually. 

19th. Anchored at Monghir; sent to the Sita Khund, and 
bottled off" a quantity of water for use on board ship ; it keeps 
good for ever, that bright, beautiful, sparkling water from Sitii's 
well ; we had the precaution to bring corks with us. 

The interview between Runjeet Singh and the Governor- 
General has taken place, it must have been a fine sight ; 
had I not been going to England I would have seen the 
meeting. Miss Eden presented Runjeet Singh with a picture 
of the Queen, painted by herself. 

Extract from a letter dated December 3rd, 1838. 

" I will endeavour to give you some idea of what is going 
forward in the grand army of the Indus. The day after our 
arrival Lord Auckland held a durbar, at which Runjeet Singh 
paid his visit ; my squadron was on escort duty, so that I saw 
nothing, and was nearly crushed by the line of elephants. I 
heard two guns were drawn up in one of the tents to be pre- 
sented to the Maharaj ; between them shrapnell shot were piled 
60 awkwardly, that Sir Henry and Runjeet stumbled over them, 
and very nearly pitched on their noses, and this will doubtless 
be considered a bad omen. On the 30th Lord Auckland 
returned the visit ; our Regiment and the 2nd Cavalry formed the 
escort : we crossed the Sutlej over a bridge of boats to the Seik 
encampment, where 40,000 men are collected. The disposition 


of Runjeet's troops was most judicious ; the road was first lined 
with his regular cavalry, tall men, but miserably mounted ; these 
were all dressed in scarlet, and looked tawdry and ridiculous : at 
the termination of this line of cavalry, which extended about a 
quarter of a mile, was a sandbank sufficiently high to obstruct 
all further view, except of the Zamburuks, who were placed on 
the elevation, and fired a salute from their camels as the Go- 
vernor-General passed. Having ascended the bank, the view 
was indeed magnificent, and I question if such a pageant has 
been seen since the decline of the Moguls. The road was now 
lined with infantry to the arch leading to Runjeet's tents, and 
before which the Maharaj's line of elephants was drawn up 
magnificently caparisoned. The infantry were dressed in scarlet, 
with red turbans, three deep on one side, and two deep on the 
other : these are the tallest body of men I ever saw. I think 
in the front rank there could not have been a man under six 
feet, and several must have been four and six inches higher ; 
some of the standard-bearers were perfect giants in height, the 
officers were superbly dressed, and I saw more than one wearing 
pearl epaulets. Only think of that ; for the life of me I could 
not help wishing to let the right squadron amongst them for 
one little half hour. In the centre of this line of infantry, 
extending more than a quarter of a mile, the Governor- General 
and Runjeet met, and, after embracing, proceeded to the durbar. 
Having passed through the arch, we found ourselves in an 
enclosure formed by khanats of about four acres, and in this Run- 
jeet's body-guard were assembled, dressed in new Kincab dresses, 
and as magnificent as silk, and gold, and embroidery, and sump- 
tuous arms could make them. The tents were beautiful, made 
of the finest fabric of Cashmere, and such as could only belong 
to the lord of that enchanting valley. Runjeet differed much in 
appearance from what I had been led to expect. He is a little 
man, and appeared less from being seated between two such 
very tall men as Lord Auckland and Sir Henry Fane ; he is 
very dark for a Seik, his face is rather full than otherwise, his 
beard grey, but far from white, the expression of his countenance 
is that of great cunning and intelligence, and constantly varying ; 


and if you did not know his character, I think you would say 
there was no outward sign of determination. 

" Runjeet was the only plainly-dressed man in his court ; he 
wore a dress and turban of dark red, without jewels or orna- 
ments of any description whatever, whilst his nobles were cased 
in superb cuirasses and choice armour, and were Uterally glitter- 
ing with jewels, and oh ! such shawls ! no lady patroness of 
Almack's in her wildest dreams ever imagined such a collection. 
Amongst the presents Runjeet has given to Lord Auckland is a 
gold bed, may he sleep on it as sound as I do on my little 
charpoy ! 

" We have just returned from a grand review of the whole of 
the troops for Lord Auckland and Runjeet ; all very fine, I hear, 
and we surpassed ourselves in a charge Shavash ! Shavash i 
Cawnpore is a water-meadow to this place, the clouds of dust 
would be incredible if we did not know we are advancing to 
Dust Mohamed's country. 

"This day week, it is said, we are to continue our march, 
but there are no supplies on the road for us. Shah Sujah's 
Contingent have advanced, and I fully expect to see them some 
fine morning coming back with at least a flea in their ear. Nobody 
knows what is to be done, only the first division under Sir W. 
Cotton marches forward, the second remains here as a reserve. 
No one seems to imagine there will be any fighting, but we shall 
march down to Shikarpore, and, I suppose, having secured the 
safe and free navigation of the Indus, march through Candahar, 
if the ruler of Cabul will not listen to the reasoning of our 

" The crowd at the durbar before mentioned, which took 
place on the 30th, was beyond bearing, and the band-master, 
who must be a wag, played ' We met, 'twas in a crowd ;' and 
this was by far the best thing that transpired at the visit of the 
Lion of the Punjab, and the Governor- General of India. 

" On returning from the durbar, Runjeet stopped at the 
flank of the troops lining the road, and had Major Pew's camel 
battery paraded for his inspection, and he seemed much pleased 
with it. Major Pew may well be proud of having first adapted 


the powers of the camel to the artillery service, for its success 
has exceeded the highest expectations that were formed of it. 
Several of Runjeet's parade horses were drawn up opposite my 
squadron, they were all large, fat, northern horses, and appeared 
highly broke ; they were most sumptuously caparisoned. 

" I forgot to mention that Major Pew's camel battery had 
accompanied us from Delhi. Four camels are attached to each 
gun, in strong and well-constructed harness ; and in no instance 
was there any delay on the road. There can be no doubt what- 
ever of the camel being a better beast of draught than the bullock ; 
and in this country, unless where very rapid manoeuvres are 
to be effected, I think superior to the horse. A driver is seated 
on each camel ; the animal requires comparatively little care or 
breaking, and thrives upon scanty food ; he walks along at the 
rate of nearly ^if not quite four miles an hour, and the team 
will trot away with a gun at eight, and keep this pace up for 
a distance if required. 

" The guard I before mentioned at the gate of the durbar 
were superbly dressed in yellow silk (the favourite colour of the 
Seiks) , some of them in curious and delicate chain armour, and 
all most sumptuously armed. There was some Uttle difficulty 
in persuading this magnificent guard to allow us ingress ; at 
length, however, this was permitted, and I found myself in a 
square of about four acres, artificially laid out as a garden with 
shrubs and flowers, which must have been brought from a con- 
siderable distance. This space was enclosed with canvas walls 
seven feet high, and in it were collected the body-guard, all 
armed with sword and matchlock, the stock curiously inlaid 
with gold, or silver, or ivory. There was no mistaking Runjeet 
Sing, from the loss of his left eye ; he is not emaciated, as I had 
been led to expect, from debauchery ; and has not the hooked 
nose usually found among the Seiks. The Lion of the Punjab 
was by far the most plainly-attired man in his court ; he wore 
the same dress he appeared in when he visited Lord Auckland ; 
he had not decked himself in any of the jewels of immense 
value which he has in his possession, and I was disappointed at 
not getting a glimpse of the Koh-i-Nur, which he generally 


exhibits on his person on great occasions. T fear Shah Siijah 
has little chance of ever recovering this inestimable diamond, 
who knows, in a few years, in whose possession it may be 
found ? Shah Sujah's ancestors plundered it from the treasure 
of Nadir Shah after he was assassinated, and Nadir Shah 
extorted it from the great Mogul after the massacre at Delhi. 

" Those of the Seik court who were admitted to the durbiir 
were most superbly dressed, some in flowing yellow or bright 
red silk dresses, their kumraerbunds always a Cashmere 
shawl of very great value ; some in high -polished cuirasses, 
and others in choice and glittering armour ; and all appeared 
decked in jewels of immense value. I should mention, 
Runjeet has wrested Cashmere from the rule of Cabul, and 
will, perhaps, restore the unequalled valley to Shah Siijah 
with the Koh-i-Nur ; however, at the Seik court, under a tent, 
formed, as it were, of immense shawls, seemed to be collected 
the very choicest fabrics of that heavenly country ; whilst all 
that superb armour, jewels of inestimable value, silks of the 
richest manufacture, ornaments of pure and elaborately wrought 
gold, shawls of the finest texture and most beautiful colours and 
patterns, and embroidery curiously worked on cloth of velvet, 
here met the eye. Even those in the retinue who were very 
far too inferior to geun admittance to the durbar, or hardly to 
the presence of those who appeared there, wore shawls of such 
beauty, as would have excited the envy of our richest ladies. 
Immediately in front of the Maharaj and Lord Auckland, the 
never-failing nach was exhibited ; the singer was covered with 
jewels, and wore a dark green dress, very tastefully embroidered 
in silver, and she modulated her voice sufficiently, not to make 
herself very disagreeable. The presents were now handed round, 
and we took our leave. The Seiks, like a sensible people, never 
shave the face, and would almost as soon cut their throats as 
their beards. I did not get back to my tents until late, but 
returned very highly gratified with the superb pageant I had 
witnessed ; it would be difficult to picture a more magnificent 

My correspondent here mentions, that the presents given by 


the Seiks were handed round on trays ; a far less miUtary style 
than that adopted by the Rajput, whose shield always forms the 
tray which contains his offerings. 

20th. When in the Hills, roaming in the interior, I met with 
an accident, a fall : coming down a rock, my long silk gown 
having caught on a projecting part of it, I was thrown headlong 
down ; therefore I made a dress more suited for such expe- 
ditions, a black Paharl dress, somewhat resembling Turkish 
attire. My fair companion admired it exceedingly, and made 
one for herself after the same fashion ; large round sailor-looking 
straw hats completed the costume : they were comfortable 
dresses on the river. My ayha, who accompanied me to the 
bazar last night, told me the natives said to her, "Ayha, ayha, 
is that a man or a woman?" "A man." "Ayha, tell the 
truth, is it a man or a woman ?" " A man." " Then why are 
you with him ?" " Oh, the sahib brought me to bargain for 
things in the bazar." I asked her why she had said I was a 
man ? She replied, " They are great thieves, and if they think 
you a man they are less likely to attempt to rob the boats." 
Her stratagem amused me. The purchases I made were certainly 
not feminine, consisting of sixty-five bamboos and some shot ; 
and I superintended the fixing of some brass work on a musket 
that was out of repair. 

We are at this moment surrounded by a great number of 
boats ; the people belonging to them are singing and playing on 
all sorts of uncouth instruments ; such a hum, and such a din ! 
it will be useless to attempt to rest until these perturbed 
spirits have sung themselves to sleep. 

22nd. Off" Pointy, where the river is rapid and dangerous, 

we saw two vessels that had been just wrecked. The owner of 

the land (the jamindar) was taking up the cargo from the 

wrecks ; half becomes his share, and the owners of the vessels 

. have only the remainder. 

25th. ^A stormy day ; during a lull we attempted to cross 
the river ; half-way over a heavy wind rendered my boat 
unmanageable, and we were driven by the wind upon a clump 
of bamboo stumps that were just above water in the middle of 


the stream : the crew were alarmed, and shouted " Ram ! ram ! 
ah'e Khuda ! iih'e Khuda !" Fortunately, the boat being strong 
and new, she did not split open, and after a time we got her off 
again ; the wind then drove us up a creek, and we lugaoed on a 
sandbank. The gale separated me from my fair friend, whose 
boat was driven to the opposite side of the river ; her people 
were calling to know if I were safe ; it was impossible to rejoin 
her ; she heard the answering shouts of my men in the distance, 
and was satisfied. We were like the Brahmani ducks, the 
chakwa chakwi, separated by the river, and calling through the 
live-long night " a'o, a'o," " come, come." 

26th. We anchored below the village of Downapur, which 
had been washed away into the river during the last rains, by 
the force of the current having undermined its banks. My 
fair friend and I roamed in the beautiful moonlight by ourselves, 
attired in our Pahari dresses and straw hats, to a village at some 
distance. The women took us for cadets, and ran away in a 
great fright ; nor was it for a length of time we could bring an 
ugly old hag to a parley ; at last we succeeded, and bought a 
Bengalee goat and kid ; the villagers were excessively afraid of 
us, and with great difficulty we persuaded them to bring the 
goats to the vessel. They asked my companion where her 
regiment was stationed ; and imagined my wife was parda nishln 
on bocird the boats. We did not undeceive them with respect 
to our manhood. 

On my return I asked the sentry on my boat, " What hour is 
it?" The man answered, "When Honey is perpendicular over 
the mast it is midnight; it must now be eleven." His Honey 
are the three stars in Orion's belt. 

27th. Anchored below Sooty on the Bhagirathi. I was 
awakened from my sleep at 10 p.m. by the servants saying my 
cook had been missing since 7 in the evening ; his age is twenty ; . 
and he had never quitted the boats before. We looked over all the 
boats, and searched the jdngal for miles around, and we began 
to fear a tiger might have taken him off, knowing that gentlemen 
are in the habit of coming to this part of the country tiger- 
shooting. My friend became uneasy, and was anxious to go to 


the opposite side of the river ; to this I objected, offering to keep 
a bonfire blazing before the boats all night, but refusing to quit 
the spot until the boy's fate was ascertained. At last he was 
discovered on the top of my boat, hanging over the side as if he 
had fallen there ; on moving him he groaned as if in severe agony, 
and appeared senseless; his jaw was locked, his eyes were fixed, and 
turned up under the lids. The poor fellow had been exposed in this 
state to the dews of a Bengal night for three houre. They brought 
him into my cabin, he fell into the most violent convulsions, 
and appeared dying. All the remedies for fits were applied ; 
we placed him in a warm bath ; after three hours and a half his 
jaw relaxed, his eyes moved as if the pressure was off them, and 
being better, the servants carried him, still apparently senseless, 
into the cook -boat. I had been up with him four hours in a damp 
foggy night, anxious for his recovery ; his father weis our cook, 
and this young native had been with us eleven years under his 

father. Mrs. B said, " 1 heard a native hint to another 

that the boy is not in a fit ; and I have heard natives will sham 
illness, and deceive any body." I called a servant, and asked 
him if it were true. The man, standing on one leg, with the 
palms of both hands clasped together, said, " What can I say ? 
will you forgive me ? If you were my master I would tell you ; 
but how can I utter such words of shame to my mistress ? Say 
you will forgive me for uttering such words, and I will tell you, 
if you order me to do so." He then related what had passed, 
and said, the boy, hearing himself called, became alarmed, hid 
himself, and, on being discovered, shammed illness. 

I desired the chaprasi to take a little riding whip in his hand, 
and accompany me into the cook-boat ; the boy was better, 
but had not recovered from his fit, the violent convulsions had 
gone off. I ordered the head man to cut off his hair, and apply 
leeches to liis head ; during the operation the itching of his head 
made him put up his hand and scratch it. I saw from his 
countenance he was angry, for the shaving of the head is, I 
believe, the sign of complete slavery with a native, and he found 
it difficult to sham illness. The operation over, the khaldsl 
gave him a sharp cut with the whip over his hand, desired him to 


leave off shamming, and come on deck. Finding his imposition 
was discovered, he got up, and in the most impudent manner 
said, " What fault have I committed ? what have I done that is 
wrong?" When I told a chaprasi to take charge of him, and 
take him to the nearest magistrate, the cook fell at my feet, 
confessed his crime, and begged I would not send him away ; 
requesting a panchayat might be held on his conduct, or that I 
would punish him according to my pleasure. I told the people 
to hold a panchayat according to their own customs, to report 
the sentence to me, and it should be carried into execution. 
The whole of the people assembled in council under a sacred 
tree on the bank, and deliberated on the case : at the termi- 
nation of the consultation the elders came to me saying 
they had decided as follows : The cook was to receive twenty- 
two lashes, that he was to lose caste, and to have his hukka pant 
hdndh that is, they would no longer allow him to associate 
with themselves, eat or smoke with them, or worship with the 
faithful. They requested I would turn him out of the boats, 
that they should be allowed to take him on shore, put him on 
an ass with his face to the tail of the animal, and followed by 
drums, and the hooting of the rabble, they should lead the 
donkey through the village, and then turn him off for ever. 
This was a severe sentence, and showed how angry the people of 
his own caste had become : they gave him the twenty- two lashes, 
he lost caste, and was not allowed to worship on deck as usual. 
I would not turn him out of service, knowing it would be his 
ruin, and I felt compassion for his pretty young wife, whom he had 
left at Allahabad ; nor would I allow them to parade him on an 
ass. The panchayat took into consideration the conduct of the 
under-woman ; the servants had told her if she had hidden the 
cook any where, if she would tell he should be released, and 
nothing should be said about it: that they would not awaken 
me ; they only wanted to find him. She swore she had not 
seen him at all ; she was present during the four hours he was 
pretending to be ill, she saw how much alarmed I was, also 
that during this time I was exposed to the night air ; and she 
aided in the deception. They condemned her according to law, 



but as the sentence was very severe, I only allowed a pai-t of it 
to be put into execution. She was obUged to blacken her own 
face with soot and oil as she sat on deck ; all the servants came 
round her, they laughed, hooted, and complimented her on 
her beauty ; she cried bitterly, the punishment was severe 
enough ; she was afraid she should be paraded on the donkey, and 
was very glad to find I would not allow it. The next day she 
wanted the cook to marry her, and make her a Musalmanl, 
saying, her husband on her return would cut off her nose, and 
break into the zenana of the cook. However, she was disap- 
pointed in her wish of becoming a follower of the Prophet, it 
being discovered she had another lover : this extra lover also 
lost caste, and had his hukha pant bdndh. 

Knowing the natives are apt to administer poison in revenge, 
I mentioned the circumstance to my khansaman, and said, " It 
is immaterial to me, but, in case of my death, you will be 
answerable to the sahib." The man made his salam, saying, 
" On my head be it : you have punished the man justly ; there 
is nothing to fear: had he been punished unjustly he might 
have revenged himself by putting poison in your food." 
" Very well," said T, "it is your concern, not mine;" and I 
finished my dinner. 

29th. Arrived at Berhampiir, at which place a bearer of 
mine related the following history : 

" In former times, when the English first came to Kalkut 
(Calcutta), a very rich merchant resided at Moorshedabad, by 
name Jugger Seit : this man was a great hardm-zdda (rascal) , 
never obeyed the orders of the Nawiib, was very rich, and had 
two hundred soldiers as a body-guard. One day he boasted 
that he could day by day dethrone such a Nawiib as the one at 
Moorshedabad, and daily place a new one on the throne : these 
words having been reported to the Nawab, he sent two soldiers 
to seize the merchant. While the man was bathing in the river, 
away from his attendants, the soldiers fell upon him ; and one 
of them having stabbed him in the side, they carried him before 
the Nawab. He oflTered as his ransom to strew the road from 
Moorshedabad to Delhi with gold mohurs ; but the Nawiib was 


inflexible. The merchant was fastened into a palanquin, placed 
in a small boat, carried out into the river in front of the 
Nawab's house, and thrown palki and all into the stream, 
where of course he was drowned." So ends the tale of the 
Nawab, the Merchant, and the Palki. 

30th. Kemained at Berhampur, to write letters, buy silks, 
also figures of men and animals beautifully carved in ivory, and 
to procure food. 

31*^ Quitted Berhampur. I have suffered so much during 
the last twelvemonth from the death of relatives and friends, 
that I now bid adieu to the past year without regret. May the 
new one prove happier than the last ! 




Cutwa Bracelets of the Sankh Shell Anchor-making at Culwa The Dying 
Bengali The Skull The Tides The " Madagascar" Mai de Mer A 
Man Overboard Mountains of Africa Wrecks Wineburgh Constantia 
A South-easter Return to the Ship -Emancipation of the Slaves Grapes^ A 
Trip into the Interior Captain Harris St. Helena Prices at Mr. Solomon's 
Shop The] Tomb of the Emperor Longwood St. Helena Birds Our 
Indian Wars General Allard Letter from Jellalabad Death of Colonel 
Arnold The A%hans Mausoleum of Shah Mahmoud The Gates of 
Somnaut The Remains of the Ancient City of Ghuznee. 

1839, Jan. \st. We flew down the river on a powerfiil wind, 
until we reached Cutwa, where we moored, to purchase a gdgrd, 
a brass vessel for holding water ; gdgrds and lotas are manu- 
factured at this place, as are also churls, bracelets made of the 
sankh, the conch shell which the Hindus blow. These churls 
are beautifully white, very prettily ornamented, and are worn in 
sets : above them, some of the women wore immense bracelets 
of silver or of pewter, according to the rank of the wearer ; 
those bracelets stand up very high, and the pewter ones shine 
like silver, from being scrubbed with sand daily in the river. 
At this place a number of people were bathing ; one of the 
Bengali women was remarkably well formed, my attention was 
attracted by the beauty of her figure ; her skin was of a clear 
dark brown, with which her ornaments of red coral well con- 
trasted ; her dress, the long white sari, hanging in folds of 
graceful drapery around her ; but her face was so ugly, it was 


quite provoking ; so plain a face united to so well-formed a 

2nd. At Nuddea the tide was perceptible, and the smell of 
the burnt bodies on the opposite side of the river most 

3rd. Anchored at Culwa, to get the wooden anchor filled 
with mud and bound up with ropes ; the process was simple 
and curious, but it took five hours to accomplish the work. 
Bamboos were tied to the cross of the anchor, which was of 
heavy wood, a bit of old canvas was put inside, and filled 
with lumps of strong clay, the bamboos were then pressed 
together, and the whole bound with ropes ; a very primitive 
afl^air. I had a new cable made before quitting Prag, a neces- 
sary precaution ; for unless you have it done beforehand they 
will detain you at Culwa to do it, as the hemp is a little cheaper 
there than in the up-country, and the miinjhis do not care for 
the annoyance the detention of three or four days may occasion. 
At Culwa I saw a shocking sight : a dying Bengali woman 
was lying on a mat by the river side, her head supported by a 
pillow, and a woman sitting at her side was fanning her with a 
pankha. At a certain time the body is laid in the water up to 
the waist, prayers are repeated ; and at the moment of dying the 
mud of the holy Ganges is stuffed into the nose and mouth, 
and the person expires in the fulness of righteousness. My 
people told me that, if the woman did not die by night-time, it 
was very likely they would stuff her nose and mouth a little too 
soon with the holy mud, and expedite her journey rather too 
quickly to another world ! The Hindus, up-country men, who 
were with me, were disgusted with the Bengalee customs, and 
violent in their abuse. Should she recover she will take refuge, 
an outcast in the village of Chagdah. 

We anchored at Santipur. The water of the river at the 
ghat was covered with drops of oil, from its being a bathing- 
place, and the Bengalis having the custom of anointing their 
bodies daily with oil. 

A chaprasi of mine, seeing a skull, struck it with a bamboo 
and cursed it. 


" Why did you strike and curse the skull?" said I. 

"It is a vile Bengali skull ; and those sons of slaves, when 
we ask a question, only laugh and give no answer." 

" Perhaps they do not understand your up-country language." 

" Perhaps not, that may be the reason ; but we hate them." 

6th. ^Two miles above Calcutta : the day was fine, the wind 
very heavy, but favourable : the view of the shipping beautiful ; 
I enjoyed it until I remembered my crew were up-country men, 
from Hurdwar, who had never seen the sea, and knew not the 
force of the tides. We drifted with fearfiil velocity through the 
shipping ; they threw the anchor overboard, but it would not 
hold ; and away we went, our great unwieldy boat striking first 
one ship then another ; at length a gentleman, seeing our 
danger as we were passing his pinnace, threw a rope on board, 
which the men seized, and having fastened it, brought up the 
vessel. All this time I was on deck, under a burning sun, and 
we did not anchor until 12 at noon ; consequently, that night I 
was verj'^ ill, the beating in my head fearfully painful, and I 
fainted away three times ; but it was of no consequence, I was 
in the hands of a kind friend, and soon recovered. 

9th. ^The ships lie close to the drive near the Fort, and 
visiting them is amusement for a morning. I went on board 
the "Earl of Hardwicke," she could not accommodate me; 
thence I proceeded to the " Madagascar," and took one of the 
lower stern cabins for myself, for which I was to give 2500 
rupees ; and a smaller cabin, at 1300 rupees, for my friend's 
three children, who were to accompany me to England. At the 
same time I engaged an European woman to attend upon me 
and the young ones. Going to sea is the only chance for the 
poor boys, after the severe fever they had on the river, from the 
effects of which they are still suffering. 

The larboard stern cabin suits me remarkably well ; it is very 
spacious, sufficient to contain a number of curiosities ; and 
before the windows I have arranged a complete forest of the 
horns of the buffalo, the stag, and the antelope. 

20th. A steamer towed the " Madagascar" down the river, 
and the pilot quitted us on the 22nd, from which moment we 


reckoned the voyage actually commenced ; it is not counted 
from Calcutta, but from the Sandheads, when the pilot gives 
over the vessel to the captain, and takes his departure. Suddu 
Khan, my old khansaman, who had accompanied me thus far, 
now returned with the pilot : the old man must have been half- 
starved, he would eat nothing on board but a Uttle parched 
grain, and slept outside my cabin-door ; he is an excellent 
servant, and says he will take the greatest care of the sahib 
until my return. 

I suffered severely at the Sandheads from mal de mer, on 
account of the heavy ground-swell ; perhaps no illness is more 
distressing, to complain is useless, and only excites laughter ; 
no concern on the subject is ever felt or expressed. Why is 
blind man's buff like sympathy ' ? 

Let no one be tempted to take a lower stern cabin ; mine was 
one of the largest and best, with three windows and two ports ; 
nevertheless it was very hot, the wind could not reach it ; it was 
much less comfortable than a smaller cabin would have been on 
the poop. 

30th. Very little wind in the early morning ; during the day 
a dead calm, very hot and oppressive. How a calm tries the 
temper ! Give me any squall you please, but spare me a 

Slst. The ship rolling and pitching most unmercifully; 
there is scarcely wind enough to move her ; she lies rolling and 
pitching as if she would send her masts overboard ; thermometer 
87 the heat is most distressing, no wind : caught a shark 
and a sucking fish. 

Feb. 1st. ^Thermometer 87, the heat is distressing : a return 
voyage is much hotter than one from England. Captain Walker 
is very attentive to his passengers ; he keeps an excellent 
table, and every thing is done to render them comfortable. We 
have sixty invalids on board, wretched-looking men ; one 
of them, when the ship was going seven knots an hour, 
threw himself overboard ; a rope was thrown out, to which 
he clung, and they drew him in again ; he came up sober 

' Appendix, No. 33. 


enough, wliich it was supposed he was not when he jumped 
overboard. Fortunate was it for the man that the voracious 
shark we afterwards caught, whose interior was full of bones, 
did not make his acquaintance in the water. 

March 4th. The morning was fine, the sea heavy, and we 
came in dehghtfuUy towards the Cape : the mountains of Africa 
were beautiful, with the foaming breakers rushing and sounding 
at their base. The lighthouse and green point, with its white 
houses, were pleasing objects. The view as you enter the Cape 
is certainly very fine : the mountains did not appear very high 
to my eye, accustomed to the everlasting snows of the Hima- 
laya, but they are wild, bold, and picturesque, rising directly 
from the sea, and such a fine, unquiet, foaming, and roaring 
sea as it is ! The Devil's Peak, the Lion, and Table Mountain, 
were all in high beauty; not a cloud was over them. The 
wreck of the " Juliana " lay near the lighthouse ; and the 
"Trafalgar" was also there, having been wrecked only a week 

5th. Breakfasted at the George Hotel ; fresh bread and 
butter was a luxury. Drove to Wineburgh to see a friend, and 
not finding him at home, we consoled ourselves with making a 
tiffin that is, luncheon, on the deliciously fine white water 
grapes fi'om his garden. Proceeded to Constantia, called on a 
Dutch lady, the owner of the vineyard, whose name I forget ; 
she, her husband, and daughter were very civil, and offered us 
refreshment. We walked over the vineyard ; the vines are cut 
down to the height of a gooseberry bush, short and stumpy ; 
the blue grapes were hanging on them half dried up, and many 
people were employed picking off" the vine leaves, to leave the 
bunches more exposed to the sun ; the taste of the fruit was 
very luscious, and a few grapes were sufficient, they were too 
cloying, too sweet. They told us it took an amazing quantity of 
grapes to make the Constantia, so httle juice being extracted, in 
consequence of their first allowing the bunches to become so dry 
upon the vine; but as that juice was of so rich a quality, it rendered 
the Constantia proportionably expensive. The old Dutchman 
took us up a ladder into an oak tree, in which benches were 


fixed all round the trunk ; he took great pride in the hreadth ot 
it, and the little verdant room formed of the branches was his 
favourite place for smoking. The acorns I picked up were 
remarkably large, much larger than English acorns. Oaks grow 
very quickly at the Cape, three times as fast as in England ; but 
the wood is not so good, and they send to England for the wood 
for the wane-casks, which is sent out ready to be put together ; 
they think their wine too valuable for the wood at the Cape. 
There was no wine-making going on at the time, but the lovers 
of Constantia may feel some disgust at knowing that the juice is 
pressed out by trampling of the grapes in a tub ; an operation 
performed by the naked feet of the Africanders, who are not 
the most cleanly animals on earth. 

How much the freshness of the foliage and the beauty of the 
country through which we drove dehghted me ! The wild 
white geranium and the myrtle were both in flower in the 
hedges. After a sea- voyage we devoured the vegetables, 
the fish, and the fruit, like children turned loose amongst 

Our voyage from Calcutta to the Cape had been a very fine 
one forty-two days ; the shortest period in which it has been 
accomphshed was thirty-one days, by a French vessel. The 
mal de mer that had made me miserable from the time the 
pilot quitted us never left me until we were within four or 
five days' sail of the Cape ; then image to yourself the delight 
with which I found myself on shore. Eatables such as sar- 
dines, anchovies, &c., are more reasonable than in Calcutta; 
one shilhng is equivalent to a rupee. Visited a shop where 
there is a good collection of stuffed birds ; bought a Butcher 
bird, it catches its prey, sticks it upon a thorn, and devours it 
at leisure : small birds are one shilling each ; but I know not 
if they are prepared with arsenical soap, like those to be pur-, 
chased at Landowr. No good ostrich feathers were to be had at 
the Europe shops : there is a shop, kept by a Dutchwoman, 
near the landing-place, where the best the uncleaned ostrich 
feathers are sometimes to be bought ; the price about five 
guineas per pound. My man-servant gave twenty shillings for 


eighteen very fine large long feathers in the natural state, and 
he told me he made a great profit by selling them in town. 

6th. I was just starting to dine with an old friend, when I 
was told a South-easter was coming on, and I must go on board 
at once ; there had been no South-easter for some time, and it 
was likely to blow three days. The Table Mountain was covered 
with a white cloud, spread like a table-cloth over the summit, 
and the wind blew very powerfully. My friend hurried me oflf, 
saying instances had been known of ships having been blown off 
the land during a South-easter, leaving the passengers on shore, 
and their not being able to return for them. A gentleman 
offered the boatman who brought us on shore five pounds to 
take us to the " Madagascar," she was lying three miles from 
land ; the man did not like the wind, and would not go. A 
boatman with a small boat said he would take six of the party 
for thirty shillings. When we got fairly from land the little 
boat pitched and tossed, and the waves broke over her, running 
down our backs ; it was a very dark evening, we made the 
wrong vessel, and as we got off from her side I thought we 
should have been swamped ; then there was the fear of not 
making our own ship, and being blown out to sea. Very glad 
was I when we were alongside, and still more so when my feet 
were on her deck, the Uttle boat rose and sunk so violently 
at the side of the vessel. How the wind roared through 
the rigging ! The South-easter blew all night, and abated in 
the morning, when those who had been left on shore came on 

A friend came to say farewell, and brought me a large hamper 
full of the finest grapes, pears, and apples, a most charming 
present. I and the three children feasted upon them for 
ten days : how refreshing fine grapes were at breakfast ! 
and such grapes ! I never tasted any so fine before. From 
a Newfoundland ship near us I purchased several baskets of 

There was a little squadron of fishermen's boats all out 
together, and hundreds of birds were following the boats, resting 
on the water at times, and watching for the bits of bait thrown 


away by the fishermen, which they picked up it was a pretty 

The mountains certainly are very wild and beautiful ; there is 
vegetation to the top of Table Mountain, 3500 feet. Landowr, 
on which I formerly Uved, is 7500 feet above the sea ; and 
that is covered with fine trees, and vegetation of all kinds, 
all over the summit. 

At Constantia, at Mr. Vanrennon's vineyard, his wife com- 
plained greatly of the emancipation of the slaves : some of them 
were unwilling to be free, some of them were glad that freedom 
procured them idleness ; their wages being high and food cheap, 
the emancipated people will only work now and then. The 
slaves collect in Cape Town, they work for a week, the wages of 
seven days will supply them with rice and fish for a length of 
time ; and until forced by necessity, they will not work again. 
They will prepare the land, but when the harvest is to be cut, 
they will not cut it unless you give them a sum far beyond 
their wages ; and if you refuse to submit to the imposition, the 
crops must rot on the ground. The thatching on the houses at 
Constantia is most beautifully done, so correct and regular, and 
every thing there looks neat, and clean, and happy. 

There are several sorts of grapes at the Cape, the purple, and 
the white Pontac grape, of which the Constantia wine is made. 
The white sweet pod, a long grape ; the sweet water, a round 
white grape ; and a round purple grape ; they are all very fine. 
The medical men prescribe nothing to old Indians but grapes, 
grapes, as many as they can eat ; that is the only medicine 
recommended, and the best restorative after calomel and India. 
The Hindoos, as they call us Indians at the Cape, approve highly 
of the prescription. The Cape horses, which are fine, and the 
cows, delighted me ; there were some excellent and strong mules 
also. The delights of shore after having been cooped up in a 
ship, only those who have made a long voyage and have suffered 
from mal de mer can understand ; or the pleasure of roaming at 
large on the quiet, firm earth, the sweet smell of the fields, no 
bilge water, no tar, no confinement. 

A friend of mine, a Bengal civihan, gave a good account of 


an expedition he made into the interior for about three hundred 
miles from the frontier with a Madras civilian. They got deer 
in abundance, zebra, and Guinea fowls, and saw lions in flocks. 
Fancy twelve of the latter gambhng together near a small pool 
of water. They travelled in a waggon drawn by twenty bul- 
locks, and took three Hottentot boys with them as servants, 
and fifteen horses, of which they lost all but one by theft or 
accident. He did not go, by many hundred miles, as far into 
the interior as Mr. Harris, not, in fact, into the hunting ground 
for elephants and camelopards : he spoke of Harris's work, 
which is very interesting : he knew Mr. Harris, says he is a fine 
fellow, and from what he saw beUeves his accounts to be 
unexaggerated. What a brilliant country for sport ! 

One of the gentlemen of this party broke his collar-bone : 
they met with some Itahans who came to them for protection ; 
they also met with twelve lions, upon which they made off and 
got home again as fast as they could. My tale is a lame one ; 
I have forgotten their adventures, but suppose the twelve Uons 
did not eat the twenty bullocks, or how could the party have 
got home again ? 

7th. Quitted Cape Town on a fine and powerful wind ; we 
were all in good spirits ; the change had done us good, and we 
had gathered fresh patience the worst part of the voyage was 
over for a man in bad health what a trial is that voyage from 
Calcutta to the Cape ! 

\2th. Very cold weather : this frigate-built ship is going 
nine knots an hour, and rolling her main chains under water. 
In the evening, as I was playing with the children on deck at 
oranges and lemons, we were all thrown down from the ship 
having rolled heavily ; her mizen-top-gallant mast and the main- 
top-gallant mast both broke ; one spar fell overboard, and the 
broken masts hung in the rigging. 

\Sth. At 8 A.M. we arrived at St. Helena : the view of the 
island is very impressive ; it rises abruptly from the sea a 
mass of wild rocks, the heavy breakers lashing them ; there 
appears to be no shore, the waves break directly against the 
rocks. The highest point is, I beUeve, two thousand feet ; the 

ST. HELENA. 317 

island appears bare and desolate as you approach it. A white 
heavy cloud hung over the highest part of the mountain ; the 
morning was beautiful, and many vessels were at anchor. I 
sketched the island when off Barn's Point. The poles of the 
flagstaffs still remain, on which a flag was hoisted whenever the 
emperor appeared, that it might tell of his whereabouts, giving 
him the unpleasant feeling that spies were perpetually around 
him. I went on shore in a bumboat that had come alongside 
with shells. Landing is difficult at times when the waves run 
high ; if you were to miss your footing on the jetty from the 
rising and sinking of the boat, you would fall in, and there would 
be little chance of your being brought up again. There are only 
two points on the island on which it is possible to land, namely, 
this jetty and one place on the opposite side, both of which are 
strongly guarded by artillery. Batteries bristle up all over the 
rock like quills on a porcupine. The battery on the top of 
Ladder Hill may be reached by the road that winds up its side, 
or by the perpendicular ladder of six hundred and thirty-six 
steps. We went to Mr. Solomon's Hotel, and ordered a late 
dinner ; the prices at his shop and at the next door are very 
high : he asked twelve shillings for articles which I had pur- 
chased for five at the Cape. 

Procured a pass for the tomb, and a ticket for Longwood, for 
which we paid three shillings each. Next came a carriage 
drawn by two strong horses, for which they charged three 
pounds. We ascended the hill from James's Hotel ; from the 
summit, as you look down, the view is remarkably beautiful ; 
the town lying in the space between the two hills, with the 
ocean in front, and a great number of fine vessels at anchor. 
The roads are good, and where they run by the side of a pre- 
cipice, are defended by stone walls. 

The tomb of the emperor is situated in a quiet retired spot at 
the foot of and between two hills. Three plain large flag-stones, 
taken from the kitchen at Longwood, cover the remains of 
Napoleon : there is no inscription, nor does there need one ; the 
tomb is raised about four inches from the ground, and sur- 
rounded by an iron palisade formed at the top into spearheads. 


Within the palisade is still seen a geranium, planted by one of 
the ladies who shared his exile. The old willow has fallen, and 
lies across the railing of the tomb, withered, dead, and leafless. 
Many young willows reared from the old tree shade the tomb, 
and every care is taken of the place by an old soldier, who 
attends to open the gate, and who offers to visitors the water 
from the stream which now flows out of the hill by the side of 
the tomb. Its course was formerly across the spot where the 
tomb is now placed ; it was turned to the side to render it less 
damp : the water is remarkably pure, bright, and tasteless. It 
was under these willows, and by the side of this little clear 
stream that Buonaparte used to pass his days in reading, and 
this spot he selected as his burial-place. 

A book is here kept in which visitors insert their names : 
many pages were filled by the French with lamentations over 
their emperor, and execrations upon the English. Many people 
have made a pilgrimage from France to visit the tomb, and 
on their arrival have given way to the most frantic grief and 

Having pleased the old soldier who has charge of the tomb, 
with a present in return for some slips of the willow, we went 
to a small and neat cottage hard-by for grapes and refreshment. 
It is inhabited by a respectable widow, who, by offering refresh- 
ment to visitors, makes a good income for herself and family. 
We had grapes, peaches, and pears, all inferior, very inferior to 
the fruit at the Cape. After tiflUn we proceeded to Longwood, 
and passed several very picturesque points on the road. Around 
Longwood there are more trees, and the appearance of the 
country is less desolate than in other parts of the island. We 
were first taken to the old house in which the emperor lived ; 
it is a wretched place, and must ever have been the same. The 
room into which you enter was used as a billiard-room : the 
. dining-room and the study are wretched holes. The emperor's 
bed-room and bath is now a stable. In the room in which 
Buonaparte expired is placed a corn-mill ! I remember having 
seen a picture of this room : the body of the emperor was lying 
near the window from which the light fell upon the face of the 

LONGwoon. 319 

corpse. The picture interested me greatly at the time, and was 
vividly brought to my recollection as I stood before the window, 
whilst in imagination the scene passed before me. How great 
was the power of that man ! with what jealous care the English 
guarded him ! No wonder the women used to frighten their 
children into quietness by the threat that Buonaparte would 
come and eat them up, when the men held him in such awe. 
Who can stand on the desolate and picturesque spot where the 
emperor lies buried, and not feel for him who rests beneath ? 
How much he must have suffered during his sentry- watched 
rambles on that island, almost for ever within hearing of the 
eternal roar of the breakers, and viewing daily the vessels 
departing for Europe ! 

In the grounds by the side of the house are some oak-trees 
planted by his own hands ; there is also a fish-pond, near which 
was a birdcage. The emperor used to sit here under the firs, but 
as he found the wind very bleak, a mud wall was raised to protect 
the spot from the sharp gales of the sea. After the death of 
Napoleon the birdcage sold for 175. 

We quitted the old house and went to view the new one, 
which was incomplete at the time of the death of the emperor ; 
had he lived another week he would have taken possession of it. 
The sight of this house put me into better humour with the 
English ; in going over the old one, I could not repress a 
feeUng of great disgust and shame. The new house is hand- 
some and well finished ; and the apartments, which are large and 
comfortable, would have been a proper habitation for the exiled 
emperor. The bath daily used by him in the old dwelling has 
been fitted up in the new ; every thing else that could serve as 
a rehc has been carried away. 

In the grounds were some curious looking gum-trees covered 
with long shaggy moss. The heat of the day was excessive ; we 
had umbrellas, but I had never before been exposed to such 
heat, not even in India. The sea-breeze refreshed us, but the 
sun raised my skin like a blister ; it peeled off after some days 
quite scorched. 

We returned to dinner at Mr. Solomon's Hotel. Soup was 


placed on the table. Dr. G said, "This soup has been 

made of putrid meat." "Oh no, Sir," said the waiter, "the 
soup is very good ; the meat smelt, but the cook took it all out 
before it came to table ! " A rib of beef was produced with a 
flourish ; it was like the soup, we were very glad to send it out 
of the room. We asked to see the landlord ; the waiter said 
he was over at the mess : we desired him to be sent for, of 
course supposing he was sending up dinner to the officers of a 
Scotch regiment, whose bagpipe had been stunning our ears, 
unaccustomed to the silver sound. What was our surprise 
when we found the hotel and shopkeeper was dining with the 
officers of the regiment ! King's officers may allow of this, 
but it would never be permitted at the mess of a regiment 
of the Honourable Company; perhaps his being sheriff 
formed the excuse. It was too late to procure dinner from 
another house; the boatmen would wait no longer, and our 
hungry party returned on board to get refreshment from 
the steward. 

The night was one of extreme beauty the scene at the jetty 
under the rocks was delightful ; the everlasting roar of the 
breakers that at times dash over the parapet wall, united with 
the recollections awakened by the island, all produce feelings 
of seriousness and melancholy. There is a cavern in the rock 
which is nejirly full at high water, and the rush into and retreat 
of the waves from that hollow is one cause of the great noise 
of the breakers. 

1 9th. Birds were offered for sale in the street ; they appeared 
very beautiful ; the St. Helena red birds, the avadavats. Cape 
sparrows, and green canaries were to be purchased. T dislike 
birds in a cage, although I took home four parrots from 
Calcutta, two of which died off the Cape during the 
rolUng and pitching of that uneasy sea. Quitted St. Helena 
at 10 A.M. 

Our Indian wars, propped up by the old bugbear of a Russian 
invasion, and the discovery of one thing, at least, the intrigues 
of Russian emissaries, seem to have excited more than usual 
interest in England, Her Most Gracious Majesty having been 

M. LE g6n6ral allard. 321 

pleased to notice our preventive movements to the north-west 
in her speech on the prorogation of the House. The 16th 
Lancers are amongst the fortunate who are actually to return. 
All speak of the campaign as most distressing from climate and 
privation of all sorts, and the popular king, the beloved of his 
subjects, turns out to be as popular as Louis le Desire. In 
February 1839, M. le General Allard, that most agreeable and 
gentlemanlike man, died at Peshawar. How much I regretted 
that circumstances prevented my accepting his escort and invi- 
tation to visit Lahore ! I should have enjoyed seeing the 
meeting between the Governor- General and the old Cyclops 
Runjeet Singh. 

We have received a letter from a friend in the 1 6th Lancers ; 
he says, the thermometer is 1 08 in tents ; that they have 
suffered greatly, both man and horse, for want of supplies ; that 
camp followers are on quarter, and the troops on half allowance, 
receiving compensation for the deficit. The army set out 
on their march from our provinces in the highest spirits, 
dreaming of battle, promotion, and prize-money, they are 
now to a man heartily sick of a campaign which promises 
nothing but loss of health no honour, no fight, no prize- 
money, no promotion. 

The following are interesting extracts : 

" Jellalabad, Oct. 28th, 1839. 

" Soon after the army left Shikerpur in the end of 
February, our difficulties commenced ; and we no sooner got 
on the limits of what is laid down in the maps as a marshy 
desert, than we suffered from a very great scarcity of water, and 
were obliged to make long and forced marches to get any : 
through the Bolan Pass we got on tolerably well; the road 
winds a great part of the way up the shingly bed of a river, and . 
the halting places were like the sea-beach. But no sooner 
had we arrived at Quetta, in the Valley of Shawl, than the 
native troops and camp followers suffered in earnest ; the former 
were placed on an allowance of half a seer, and the latter of a 
quarter daily ; and grain was selling at two seers for a rupee. 
VOL. ir. Y 


In this manner, proceeding more like a beaten army than an 
advancing one, the cavalry not supplied with any grain, and 
falling by tens and twenties daily, we reached Candahar. It 
has always appeared to me a mercy that we had up to this point 
no enemy to oppose us. We remained two months in Can- 
dahar, where we recruited a good deal in the condition of our 
horses, but the heat was excessive, 110 in our tents, and the 
men became unhealthy. From Candahar to Ghuznee we got 
on better, and the storm and capture of that fort had a wonder- 
ful effect on our spirits. Ghuznee, naturally and by art made a 
very strong fortification, was most gallantly carried, and with 
very trifling loss ; the cavalry of course had nothing to do, nor 
have we through the campaign, though we have been harassed 
and annoyed more than at any period of the Peninsular War. 
As to the country we have passed through from the Sir-i- 
Bolan to the boundary of the hot and cold countries, two 
marches from this nearer Cabul, there is a great sameness, with 
the exception of the outline of the mountain scenery, which 
has always been wild, rugged, and magnificent ; but the total 
absence of trees, and almost entire want of vegetation, except- 
ing near the towns of Quetta, Candahar, and Cabul, and some 
very few villages situated near a stream, give an appearance of 
desolation to the whole country we have passed through. It 
may be described, with a few excepted spots, as a howling wil- 
derness. With the people I have been much disappointed : from 
what I had read in Elphinstone and Burnes, I had expected to 
meet a fine brave patriotic race, instead of which, to judge from 
what we have seen, they are a treacherous, avaricious, and 
cowardly set of people ; even as bands of robbers and murderers 
they are cowardly, and in the murders of poor Inverarity of ours, 
and Colonel Herring, it appears they did not venture an attack, 
though both were unarmed, till they had knocked their victims 
. down with stones. If these rascals had been endowed with 
courage and patriotism, we never should be here. I should 
describe the Afghans as mean, avaricious, treacherous, cowardly, 
filthy, generally plunderers and thieves, and universally Uars, 
and withal extremely religious. No one has ever visited Cabul 


without speaking with delight of its streams, and mountains, 
and gardens extending for miles, and the endless quantities of 
delicious fruit and flowers displayed in shops through the 
bazars, with a degree of taste that would be no discredit to a 
Covent Garden fruiterer. Cabul itself is situated in a valley, or 
rather a hole in a valley, surrounded on three sides by hills ; the 
scenery in aU directions is beautiful, but least so towards Hindo- 
stan. In the city there are four pakka bazars, arched, and the 
interior decorated with paintings of trees and flowers so as almost 
to resemble fresco. The surrounding country is prodigiously 
fertile and excellently cultivated; the fields are divided by 
hedges of poplar and willow-trees ; and for the first time since 
leaving England, I have seen the European magpie. On the 
20th of August we lost Colonel Arnold, who had long remained 
almost in a hopeless state : his Uver weighed ten pounds ; I do 
not think he ever recovered the attack he had when you were 
at Meerut. At Colonel Arnold's sale, sherry sold at the rate 
of 212 rupees a dozen ; bottles of sauce for 24 rupees each, 
and of mustard for 35 rupees. At Colonel Herring's sale, 
1000 9igars, or about lib., sold for upwards of one hundred 
guineas ! this will tell you how well we have been off" for such 
httle luxuries. We left Cabul on the 15th inst., and the 
following morning, passing through a defile, was as cold a one 
as I ever felt in my hfe ; from the splashing of a stream the 
ice formed thickly on our sword scabbards and the bottoms 
of our cloaks ; and now the heat is as great in the day as at 
Meerut, such are the vicissitudes of climate in this country ! 

"The Afghans, in their own traditions, claim descent from 
Saul, King of Israel, and the ten tribes ; they invariably allow 
the beard to grow, and shave a broad stripe down the centre of 
the head ; the beard gives an appearance of gravity and respec- 
tability to the lowest of the people. The Afghans are good . 
horsemen, and appear to have fine hands on their bridle ; and 
they never tie their horses' heads down with a martingale. In 
this country there is a strong useful description of horse, which 
reins up well, and appears to go pleasantly, but the best of 
these are brought from Herat. Here they shoe their horses with 



a broad plate of iron, covering the whole sole of the foot, with 
the exception of the frog. 

" What I have said of the Afghans of Candahar will apply 
to all we have seen ; but perhaps at Cabul the men may be 
shorter and more thickly set. I have never seen a more hardy, 
sturdy-looking, or more muscular race, and the deep pome- 
granate complexion gives a manly expression to the countenance. 
Of the women we have seen nothing, but hear they are beau- 
tiful ; those taken at Ghuznee were certainly not so ; they are 
frequently met walking in the city, or riding on horseback 
seated behind a man, but universally so closely veiled that you 
cannot detect a feature of the face, or in the slightest degree 
trace the outline of the figure. It is a pity Dost Muhammad 
was not selected as our puppet king, for Shah Sujah is neither a 
gentleman nor a soldier, and he is highly unpopular among his 
subjects, who but for our support would soon knock him off 
his perch. 

" My squadron was on picquet near a village surrounded with 
gardens, with a clear rapid stream of water running through it ; 
and in this village, between two or three miles north-east of 
Ghuznee, is the tomb of the great Shah Mahmoud, which has 
stood upwards of eight hundred years, and which is an object of 
particular veneration to all true believers. The entrance from 
the village is by a low coarse door-way, which leads to a small 
garden ; a paved footway conducts to an arched building, unde- 
serving of notice : on either side the footpath are hollowed 
figures of sphinxes in white marble, and seemingly of great 
antiquity, and through these sphinxes water used to flow 
from the mouth ; above them also, there were other small 
fountains. From the building I have mentioned, a rudely 
constructed vault or passage a kind of cloister leads to 
another small garden, at the end of which stands the mausoleum 
of the Sultan Mahmoud, the doors of which are said to have 
been brought by the Sultan as a trophy from the famous Hindoo 
temple of Somnaut, in Guzerat, which he sacked in his last 
expedition to India ; they are of sandal-wood, curiously carved, 
and, considering their very great age, in fine preservation, 


although they have in two or three places been coarsely repaired 
with common wood. These doors are, I should think, about 
twelve feet high and fifteen feet broad ; and are held in such 
estimation, though it is upwards of eight hundred years since 
they were removed from Guzerat, that, it is said, Runjeet Singh 
made it one of his conditions to assist Shah Siijah in a former 
expedition, that he should give up the sandal-wood gates ; but 
this was indignantly rejected. In truth, I saw nothing particular 
about these doors, and if I had not been told of their age, and 
of their being of sandal- wood, I should have passed, taking 
them for deal, and merely observed their carving. Over the 
doors are a very large pair of stag's horns (spiral), and four 
knobs of mud, which are the wonder of all true Musalmans, 
who firmly believe in the miracle of their having remained 
uninjured and unrepaired for so many centuries. The mausoleum 
itself can boast of no architectural beauty, and is very coarsely 
constructed. The tombstone is of white marble, on which are 
sculptured Arabic verses from the koran, and various coloured 
flags are suspended over it, so as to protect it from dust. 
Against the wall at the head of the tomb is nailed up the 
largest tiger's skin I ever saw, though it had evidently been 
stretched lengthwise. When the picquet was relieved I rode 
into Ghuznee by the Cabul road, by the side of which, at some 
distance from each other, are two lofty minarets, one, I should 
think, one hundred, and the other one hundred and twenty feet 
in height : these are built of variously-shaped bricks, elaborately 
worked in various devices : the base of both these pillars is 
octangular, and rises to half the height, looking as if it had 
been built round the pillar itself, which is circular ; or as if the 
pillar had been stuck into this case : the easternmost pillar is 
the highest and most elaborately decorated. I think I before 
observed that these minarets at a distance look like prodigious 
eau-de-cologne bottles. The mausoleum of Sultan Mahmoud, 
and these minarets, are now the only remains of the ancient 
city of Ghuznee ; and nothing further exists to show the mag- 
nificence of the Ghuznee kings, or to mark the former site 


of a city which eight centuries ago was the capital of 
a kingdom, reaching from the Tigris to the Ganges, and 
from the Jaxartes to the Persian Gulf. The present town 
is computed to contain about six hundred miserable houses. 
So much for greatness ! Such in the East is the lapse of 
mighty empires." 



Quitted St. Helena The Polar Star Drifting Seaweed The Paroquets 
Worship of Birds A Gale The Orange Vessel The Pilot Schooner 
Landing at Plymouth First Impressions A Mother's Welcome The Mail 
Coach The Queen's Highway Dress of the English Price of Prepared 
Birds The Railroads The New Police^English Horses British Museum 
Horticultural Show Umberslade Tanworth Conway Castle Welsh 
Mutton Church of Conway Tombstone of Richard Hookes, Gent. The 
Menai Bridge Dublin Abbeyleix Horns of the Elk Penny Postage 
Steam-Engines Silver Firs Moonal Pheasants The Barge run down 
Chapel of Pennycross The Niger Expedition Schwalbach Family Sor- 
rows^ Indian News The Birth of the Chimna Raja Sahib Captain Sturt's 
Sketches Governor Lin The Baiza Ba'I consents to reside at Nassuk Fire 
in her Camp Death of Sir Henry Fane Church built by Subscription at 
Allahabad Governor Lin's Button The ex-Queen of Gwalior marches to 
Nassuk Price of a Gentleman Death of the old Shepherd from Hydro- 
phobia Pedigree of Jumni, the Invaluable. 

1839, March \Qth. A fine and favourable breeze bore the 
" Madagascar " from St. Helena, and gave us hopes of making 
the remainder of the voyage in as short a space of time as that in 
which the first part had been accomplished. The only really good 
fruit we got at James's Town was the plantain. Some mackerel 
was baked and pickled on board, but we were recommended not 
to eat it after the first day, as the St. Helena mackerel, if kept, 
is reckoned dangerous. 

April Wth. How glad I was to see the polar star, visible the 
first time this evening ! I thought of my dear mother, and how 
often we had watched it together ; and the uncertainty of what 


might have occurred during my voyage to the dear ones at home 
rendered me nervous and very unhappy. The southern hemi- 
sphere does not please me as much as the northern ; the stars 
appear more briUiant and larger in the north. 

\8th. The ship was passing through quantities of seaweed, 
supposed to be drifted from the Gulf of Mexico ; it is always 
found in this latitude. The children amused themselves with 
writing letters to their mother, and sending them overboard, 
corked up in empty bottles. 

May 7th. Polidorus, the great pet parrot, died ; the pitching 
of the vessel and the cramp killed the bird, in spite of the 
warmth of flannel : of our four birds one only now survived ; 
and very few remained of tw^enty-four paroquets brought on 
board by the crew. A flight of paroquets in India, with their 
bright green wings and rose-coloured necks, is a beautiful sight. 

The education of a paroquet is a long and a serious affair ; 
a native will take his bird on his finger daily, and repeat to it 
incessantly, for an hour or two at a time, the name of the deity 
he worships, or some short sentence, until the bird hearing the 
same sounds every day for weeks or months together remem- 
bers and imitates them. If in a cage, it is covered over with a 
cloth, that the attention of the birds may not be diverted from 
the sounds : sometimes a native will let the bird down a well 
for an hour or two, that it may be in darkness, while, lying on 
the top of the well, he repeats the daily lesson. 

Many birds are worshipped by the Hindus, of which the 
principal is Guroorii, whose feathers are of gold, with the head 
and wings of a bird, and the rest of his body like a man, the 
vahan of Vishnu, who rides on his back ; and at times, the bird 
god, in the shape of a flag, sits on the top of Vishnii's car, 
the lord of the feathered tribe, the devourer of serpents. 
When the Hindus lie down to sleep they repeat the name of 
Guroorii three times, to obtain protection from snakes. 
The bird Jiitayoo is the friend of Rama, and is worshipped at 
the same festival with him. 

The Shimkurii Chillii, the eagle of Coromandel, the white- 
headed kite, commonly called the Brahmani kite, is considered 


an incarnation of Durga, and is reverenced by the Hindus, who 
bow to it whenever it passes them. 

Khunjunu, the wagtail, is a form of Vishnu, on account of 
the mark on its throat, supposed to resemble the Shalgrama. 
The Hindus honour it in the same way they do the eagle of 

The peacock, the goose, and the owl, are worshipped at the 
festivals of Kartikii, Briimha, and Lukshmee. If, however, the 
owl, the vulture, or any other unclean bird, perch upon the 
house of an Hindu, it is an unlucky omen, and the effect must 
be removed by the performance of an expiatory ceremony. 

8fA. A heavy gale with squalls, it continued three days ; 
we were under storm-sails, the sea washing over the guns. It 
was a beautiful sight, the waves were like a wall on one side of 
the ship, the wind was contrary, and the wearing round the 
vessel in a heavy sea was extremely interesting to me, from not 
having been at sea so long. While the storm was blowing I 
thought of all the idols in the hold, of Ganesh, and Ram, 
and Krishnjee, and felt a httle alarm lest the " Madagascar " in 
a fit of iconoclastic fury, should destroy all my curiosities. In 
such a gale, to appear on deck in the attire usually worn by an 
Enghsh lady was impossible delicacy forbad it ; therefore I put 
on my Paharl dress, and went out to enjoy the gale. As I 
passed on to the poop I overheard the following remarks : " I 
say. Jack, is that ere a man or a woman?" to which the sailor 
replied, " No, you fool, it's a foreigner." On another man's 
asking " Who is it ?" he received for answer, " That ere lancer 
in the aft-cabin." The black velvet cap, somewhat in appear- 
ance like a college or lancer cap, perhaps inspired the bright 
idea, as the dress itself is particularly feminine and picturesque, 
and only remarkable on account of its singularity. 

1 1 th. The gale abated, leaving a strong contrary wind and a 
heavy sea. We passed a small vessel, merely a large boat 
battened down ; she was from Lisbon, bound to London ; the 
men wore high leather boots reaching above their knees ; every 
wave broke over her, and ran out on the other side, it was a 
fearful sea for such a little vessel. Four men were on board ; 


they hailed us to know the latitude and longitude, and found 
their calculations erroneous. The captain invited the master on 
board ; they threw overboard a cockle-shell of a boat, in which 
the master and one of the men came alongside : it was beautiful 
and fearful to see that little boat on the waves, they were still 
so tempestuous. The two men came on deck ; the master was 
the finest specimen of the veteran sailor I ever beheld, a strong, 
fine man, weather-beaten until his face looked like leather, frank 
and good-humoured, he pleased us all very much. They had 
been beating about where they then were for the last fortnight, 
and had had hard work of it. We exchanged spirits and tobacco 
for delicious Lisbon oranges, and all parties were pleased. The 
old sailor returned in the cockle-shell to the larger boat, and we 
all watched his progress with interest ; they puUed her in, and 
we soon bade adieu to the orange vessel. 

ISth. For some time we had been busy arranging for going 
on shore, which I determined to do if possible at Plymouth ; 
therefore my packages of curiosities were got up, at least as 
many as I thought I could take with me, being nine chests ; and 
all the buffalo and stags' horns were in readiness. About thirty- 
five miles from Plymouth a pilot vessel came alongside, and we 
calculated on landing in her in four hours. At 5 p.m., having 
taken leave of the captain, who had shown us the greatest 
attention during the voyage, we went a large party on board 
the pilot vessel : no sooner did we enter her than the wind 
changed, the rain fell, it was very cold ; we were forced to go 
below into a smoky cabin, the children squalled, and we all 
passed a most wretched night. 

I4th. ^We arrived at 6 a.m. May-flowers and sunshine were 
in my thoughts. It was bitterly cold walking up from the boat, 
rain, wind and sleet, mingled together, beat on my face. I 
thought of the answer of the French ambassador to one of the 
attaches, who asked why the Tower guns were firing, " Mon 
ami, c'est peut-6tre qu'on voit le soleil." 

Every thing on landing looked so wretchedly mean, especially 
the houses, which are built of slate stone, and also slated 
down the sides ; it was cold and gloomy ; no wonder on first 

A mother's welcome. 331 

landing I felt a little disgusted. I took a post-chaise, and drove 
to the house of that beloved parent for whose sake I had quitted 
the Hills, and had come so far. The happiness of those 
moments must be passed over in silence : she laid back the hair 
from my forehead, and looking earnestly at me, said, "My 
child, I should never have known you, you look so anxious, so 
careworn !" No wonder, for years and anxiety had done their 

The procession from the Custom House was rather amusing ; 
the natural curiosities passed free, and as the buffalo and stag- 
horns were carried through the streets, the people stopped to 
gaze and wonder at their size. Having left my young friends in 
the " Madagascar," it was necessary to go to town to receive them. 
I went up in the mail from Devonport ; its fine horses pleased me 
very much, and at every change I was on the look out for the 
fresh ones. We went on an average ten miles an hour. One 
gentleman was in the mail. I was delighted with the sides of the 
hedges covered with primroses, heatherbells, and wild hyacinths 
in full bloom ; nor could I repress my admiration ; " Oh ! what 
a beautiful Icine ! " "A lane !" said the man with frowning asto- 
nishment, " this is the Queen's high-way." I saw the error I 
had committed ; but who could suppose so narrow a road between 
two high banks covered with primroses, was the Queen's high- 
way ? Every thing looked on so small a scale ; but every thing 
brought with it dehght. When the gruff gentleman quitted the 
mail, he gathered and gave me a bunch of primroses ; with 
them and a bouquet of lilies of the valley I was quite happy, 
flying jilong at the rate of a mile in five minutes. In the cold 
of the raw dark morning they took me out of the mail thirty 
mUes from London, and placed me in a large coach, divided into 
six stalls, somewhat Uke those of a cathedral : a lamp was 
burning above, and in a few minutes we were going through a 
long, dark, dreary tunnel. It was very cold, and I felt much 
disgusted with the great fearful-looking monster of a thing 
called a train : in a short time we were at the end of the thirty 
miles, and I found myself once again in London. On my 
arrival I was exceedingly fatigued ; all the way from Landowr 


I had met with nothing so overcoming as that day and night 
journey from Devonport to town. To every person on a return 
from India, all must appear small by comparison. Devonshire, 
that I had always heard was so hilly, appeared but little so ; and 
although I was charmed with a part of the drive from Devon- 
port to Exeter, with the richness of the verdure, and the fine 
cows half hidden in rich high grass, and the fat sheep, still 
I was disappointed Devon was not as hilly a country as I had 
fancied. Oh the beauty of those grass fields, filled as they 
were with buttercups and daisies ! During seventeen years I had 
seen but one solitary buttercup ! and that was presented to me 
by Colonel Everest in the Hills. The wild flowers were 
deUghtful, and the commonest objects were sources of the 
greatest gratification. I believe people at times thought me 
half mad, being unable to understand my deUght. 

At the time I quitted England it was the fashion for ladies to 
wear red cloaks in the winter, and a charming fashion it was : 
the red or scarlet seen at a distance lighted up and warmed the 
scenery ; it took from a winter's day half its dulness. The poor 
people, who always imitate the dress of those above them, wore 
red, which to the last retained a gay and warm appearance, how- 
ever old or threadbare. On my return all the women were 
wearing grey, or more commonly very dark blue cloaks. How 
ugly, dull, dingy, and dirty, the country people generally looked 
in them ! even when perfectly new they had not the pleasant 
and picturesque effect of the red garment. 

In Wales I was pleased to see the women in black hats, such 
as men usually wear, with a white frilled cap underneath them : 
it was national, but not a red cloak was to be seen. 

What can be more ugly than the dress of the English? I 
have not seen a graceful girl in the kingdom : girls who would 
otherwise be graceful are so pinched and lashed up in corsets, 
they have all and every one the same stiff" dollish appearance ; 
and that dollish form and gait is what is considered beautiful ! 
Look at the outline of a figure ; the corset is ever before you ; 
In former days the devil on two sticks was a favourite pastime. 
The figure of the European fair one is not unlike that toy. Then 


the bustle, what an invention to deform the shape ! It is a pity 
there is no costume in England as on the Continent for the 
different grades in society. Look at the eyes of the women in 
church, are they not generally turned to some titled fair one, 
or to some beautiful girl, anxious to catch the mode of dressing 
the hair, or the tye of a ribbon, that they may all and each 
imitate the reigning fashion, according to the wealth they may 
happen to possess ? This paltry and wretched mimickry would 
be done away with if every grade had a fixed costume. 

I went to Mr. Greville's, Bond Street, to look at some birds, 
and took a list of his prices, which I have annexed, with those of 
Mr. Drew, a bird-stuffer at Plymouth'. My scientific friends 
preferred the birds in the state in which they came from India, 
therefore they remain in statu quo. 

Of all the novelties I have beheld since my return, the rail- 
roads are the most surprising, and have given me the best idea 
of the science of the present century. The rate at which a 
long, black, smoking train moves is wonderful ; and the passing 
another train is absolutely startling. The people at the stations 
are particularly civil ; there is no annoyance, all is pleasant and 
well conducted. From the velocity with which you move, all 
near objects on the side of the railroad look hke any thing 
turned quickly on a lathe, all long stripes ; you cannot dis- 
tinguish the stones from the ground, or see the leaves sepa- 
rately, all run in lines from the velocity with which at full 
speed you pass near objects. The New Pohce, now so weU 
regulated, also attracted notice ; their neat uniform renders them 
conspicuous ; a wonderful improvement on the watchmen of 
former days. The beautiful flowers, the moss-roses, and the 
fine vegetables in town were most pleasing to the eye. The 
height of the carriage horses in the Park attracted my attention ; 
they are fine, powerful animals, but their necks are flat, and 
their heads generally appeared very coarse. They wanted the 
arched neck and the fire of the horses of India. 

' Appendix, No. 34. 


Visited the Britisli Museum ; the new rooms that have been 
added are handsome, and well filled with Egyptian curiosities ; 
mummies in crowds, and very fine ones. The Elgin marbles, in 
a handsome hall, are also shown to great advantage. My col- 
lection of Hindoo idols is far superior to any in the Museum ; 
and as for Gunesh, they never beheld such an one as mine, even 
in a dream ! Nor have they any horns that will compare with 
those of my buffalo, or birds to vie with my eagles, which are 
superb. I was in town when a fog came on at 10 a.m. in the 
month of October, which rendered candles, or gas-lights neces- 
sary ; it was as deep as the yellow haze that precedes a tufan 
in the East. 

At the horticultural show at Plymouth, I was glad to see the 
kulga (amaranthus tricolor), which not only ornamented my 
garden in the East, but was used as spinach, sag. How often 
have we shot off the head of this plant with a pellet ball, not 
only for amusement, but to improve it, as all the lower heads 
then increased in size, became variegated, and the plant im- 
proved in beauty. The kala datura, and the datura metel, were 
also there ; and my old friends, the oleanders, looking slender 
and sickly. I went to the place alone, and the people expressed 
their surprise at my having done so how absurd ! as if I were 
to be a prisoner unless some lady could accompany me wah! 
wah ! I shall never be tamed, I trust, to the ideas of propriety 
of civilized Lady Log. 

Oct. 26fA "Visited Umberslade ; this ancient seat of the 
Archer family is about fifteen miles from Leamington in 
Warwickshire. The view of the house and grounds is good 
from the obelisk ; the latter leans fearfully, and totters to its fall. 
The mansion is a fine old handsome square building, cased in 
stone, and balustraded around the flat roof with the same 
material. We proceeded to the church of Tanworth, and 
inspected the monuments of the family. Thence we visited 
'" The Butts ;" a farm-house is now called by that name, of 
course; the place was formerly the archery ground. 

My love of beautiful scenery, the faint remembrance I retained 


of the mountains of Wales, and the wandering propensities inhe- 
rent in my nature, added to a desire to revisit Conway, because 
the pilgrim was born within the walls, induced me to go into 

Dec. 4th. The entrance to Conway from a distance is very 
beautiful ; it has finer hills around it than you would be led to 
suppose, judging by the views generally taken of the castle ; the 
suspension-bridge is handsome, and in keeping with the ancient 
building. I visited the old ruin, which afforded me the greatest 
pleasure, and went over the ancient walls that encompass the 
town ; there are fifty picturesque points of view in Conway. 

Darkness coming on, I took refuge at the Castle Inn, a good, 
comfortable, and very clean house : my dinner consisted of a 
leg of the most delicious Welsh mutton, for which Conway is 
especially famed, and which is more like our gram fed mutton in 
the East, than any I have tasted : the English sheep are gene- 
rally large, fat, and very coarse ; and the mutton is decidedly 
inferior to that of India. A troutlet fresh from the river was 
excellent ; the Welsh ale good, and the cheerful fire was most 

5th. I discovered William Thomas, an old servant, who 
formerly Uved with my grandmother ; he keeps a small inn : 
the man was very glad to see one of the family, and he became 
my escort to the house in which I was born, which having been 
sold by my father, is now the property of the Castle Inn. I 
went over it : in the room formerly my nursery were a couple of 
twins, and the landlady wished me to take lodgings there, saying 
they would be very cheap in the winter. I could not find a 
harper in Conway ; it being the winter season, the only one they 
appear to have had quitted the place ; he is there during the 
summer, when visitors are plentiful. Nor could I even see a 
Welsh harp, which they tell me differs from all other instru-. 
ments of the same kind. With great pleasure I revisited the 
old castle, admired the great hall, and the donjon keep ; the 
pilgrim was not born in the latter, but in "the flanking walls 
that round it sweep," that is, within the walls of Conway. The 
ivy which covers the castle walls in the richest profusion is 



remarkably fine, the wall-flowers most fragrant. Irish ivy is 
however larger and finer. The well-known lines 

" On a rock whose haughty brow 
Frowns o'er old Conway's foaming flood" 

present to the imagination an idea of a grandeur of rock and 
waterfall that you do not find near the castle. Old Conway's 
" foaming flood" is a small river flowing close to the rocky site 
on which the castle is built ; the rock is of slate stone, and in 
digging for slate some hundred years ago the foundation of one 
of the old towers was undermined, and a part fell in ; the work 
was stopped, and the old castle is still in fine preser\'ation. The 
oriel window in the Queen's tower is to be admired, and the 
banquet-hall must have been very handsome. Quitting the 
castle I went to the church, a very handsome old one, if 
viewed from within, and very old and curious if viewed exter- 
nally. It contains some ancient and curious monuments : on a 
flat stone in the chancel the name of Archer attracted my 
attention ; on it is this inscription : 

Here lyeth y^ body op 

Rich*" Hookes of Conway 

Gent who was the 41" child 

of his father W Hookes 

Esq" by Alice his wife 

AND Y' father of 27 CHILDREN 



N.B. This stone was re- 
vived IN THE year 1720 

Hookes ^^^^^ Esq" 


Bradley and W" Archer Esq'^^' 

I find this Richard Hookes was a relation of the Archers, 
which accounts for their care in reviving this curious account of 
the number of his family. In the street, a little above the 
Hotel, is a large and handsome house, called the Plas nwyd, or 

DUBLIN. 337 

new palace ; the ai'ms of the family to whom it belongs are 
carved on the chimney-pieces, and on the ceihngs. On going 
down to the quay I found it was high tide ; several small vessels 
were there. The walls of Conway, and the castle, and the 
suspension bridge, look well from this point. Next to the 
gateway is a large house, the property of the Erskines : the 
library is in the tower of the gateway ; it is now deserted, and 
falling to decay, but must have been a pleasant residence. 

Quitted Conway on my road to Ireland. Aber Conway, as I 
passed it, appeared to me very beautiful ; the bridge with its 
single arch, the mountains in front, the church to the left, the 
stream and the trees, would form a lovely subject for a sketch. 

The high road is fine excellent, it is cut through, and winds 
round a high rock close to the sea-shore, towards which a good 
stone wall forms a rampart, and prevents any one feeling 
nervous. The views in North Wales pleased me very much ; 
the mountains are low, but the heaviness of the atmosphere 
causes clouds to hang upon their summits, to which their 
height appears scarcely to entitle them. Penrith Castle is 
handsome, and the stone quarries appear large and valuable. I 
passed over and admired the Menai Bridge, and crossed Anglesea 
in darkness. They tell me the pretty and small black cattle, so 
common in Wales, come from Anglesea, the breed of the 
island. There are no wild goats in Wales, and I only saw two 
or three tame ones. 

6th. Arrived in Dublin, and proceeded to Knapton. The 
country around DubUn is hilly, pretty, and has some trees ; 
further inland it is flat, very flat and uninteresting. The 
towns swarm with beggars, who look very cold, and of an 
unhealthy white, as if much illness were added to their poverty : 
the Irish cabins appear abodes of wretchedness, some of them 
being without a chimney, the smoke making its exit through the. 
door ; the pigs and the naked-legged children rolling together ; 
and the roof looking as if its original thatching of straw was 
turned into mud, so covered is it with green moss, and the black 
hue of dampness. The potatoes are piled in ridges in the fields, 
covered over with a few inches of earth neatly beaten down, 

VOL. II. z 


the only specimen of neatness that I saw was in these potato 
ridges ; they are left unguarded in the field, and the Irish say, 
the last thing they would think of stealing would be the 
potatoes. Tlie hay-ricks are on the same small scale as the 
Welsh, but not put together nor thatched with Welsh neatness ; 
but the stacks of turf looked very Irish, and they were tolerably 
neat. The police, who are dressed in a dark-coloured uniform, 
are armed, which they are not in England. The sight of a turf- 
fire has an odd appearance at first ; the smell is oppressive, and 
it does not appear to send out the heat of a coal-fire. The 
])ark of Abbeyleix, with its fine trees, is a pleasing object, 
surrounded as it is by a flat country of bog and swamp, and the 
walks within it are delightful. I wish I had had some of the young 
rhododendron trees from Landowr to plant there ; I might have 
brought some home in glass cases, impervious to the sea air ; a 
great many cases of that sort, containing rare plants, came to 
England on the poop of the "Madagascar;" several of the 
plants were in bloom on board, and they were all healthy on 
their arrival. The hall at Abbeyleix is decorated with the skull 
and horns of an enormous elk, found in one of the bogs, a 
great curiosity ; there is also a woodcock, with a young one 
and an egg, which were found in the grounds, and are con- 
sidered a rarity. 

We passed a woman who appeared to be very poor from the 
scantiness of her clothing ; she wore her cloak over her head 
instead of over her shoulders, a fashion purely Irish ; but she 
did not ask for charity. My companion gave her some money ; 
she threw herself on her knees to thank him, and on our asking 
her history, she said, " My husband is a Roman, sure it's 
myself s the bad Protestant:" she added that she had eight 
children, four of whom were dead, and the Lord be thanked ; 
and she wished the Lord would take the others, for they were 
starving. I gave her a little money, which I made her promise 
to spend in potatoes and buttermilk, because she said she would 
lay it out in tea for the children. This new love of tea, to the 
abolition of potatoes and buttermilk, adds much to the starving 
state of the Irish poor ; if you give them money, it is said, their 

MALiCHUs o'more. 339 

priests take one-third of it ; besides which, O'Connell levies a 
tribute on the poor creatures. 

28th. This morning, a fine frost being on the ground, which 
from its pecuhar whiteness and brilhancy the Irish denominate 
a black frost, the party at Abbeyleix and Knapton sallied forth 
to shoot the woods : the keepers beat the woods for woodcocks 
much in our Indian fashion of beating the jangal. During the 
day I walked to the enclosed garden in Lord de Vesci's grounds, 
to see the tomb of MaHchus O'More, the son of Roderick 
O'More ; the strong ice that was upon it rendered the inscription 
difficult to decipher : it stood formerly within a few yards of its 
present situation ; Lord de Vesci built a hot-house on the spot, 
and at the same time he removed the coffin, which is of stone, 
and contains bones of gigantic size. 

1840, Jan. lOth. To-day the penny postage commenced : a 
great crowd collected at the post-office, putting in letters, 
which were in vast number, as people had refrained from 
writing, awaiting the opening of the penny post. The band 
was playing in front of the office. 

ISth. Quitted Liverpool in the train : you commence your 
journey through an immense tunnel, and when a train is going 
through notice is given at the other end by a whistle. The 
engines puff and blow in such an angry fashion, one can 
scarcely fancy they are not animated ; and when they want 
water, by a very simple contrivance, they whistle of themselves 
to get it. Their names delight me : the " Oberon " or the 
" Camilla " puff by you puff, puff, like enraged animals. The 

Swift Camilla scours the plain, 

Flies o'er the unbending com, and skims along the main :" 

road ought to be added, were it not for the rhyme, but must 
be understood. 

23rd. Rode with a friend to Clumber, the seat of the Duke 
of Newcastle ; the grounds are fine and extensive ; the house 
appeared an immense mass of heavy building : the interior may 
be handsome, but the exterior is heavy and dreary-looking. 

z 2 


I admired the lake v^ery much, and the canter we took in the 
park was delightful. 

29th. Visited Mr. Waljambe's museum of British birds ; it 
is most excellent ; and I was charmed with the silver firs in the 
grounds at Osburton, they are most beautiful and magnificent 

Feb. 3rd. The following speech made by a gentleman at 
tiffin amused me : " Lord Brougham says, ' Mankind are 
divided into two classes, those who have seen my house in Italy, 
and those who have not :' now, I divide mankind into those 
who have seen my Moonal pheasants, and those who have not. 
Lady William Bentinck gave them to me, and they are the 
most beautiful birds I ever saw." 

l\th. A steamer ran against a merchant vessel that was at 
anchor in the river ; down she went headlong, all her crew with 
her, down in a moment. At low tide four barges were brought 
and fixed to her with strong chains and cables. She was then 
left until the tide rose, at which time the pressure on the ropes 
increased. Hundreds of people assembled to see her drawn up 
the tide rose higher and higher the struggle was great 
" Now mud," " Now barges," was the cry : the mud held her 
tenaciously, the barges pulled more and more the anxiety was 
great : at last, like a cork drawn from a bottle, she rose from 
the suction, came up to the surface, and was immediately taken 
to the shore : some of her crew, who were asleep when she went 
down, were found dead in their beds. 

1841, April 20th. At the little chapel of Pennycross in 
Devon, my beloved father was buried. It is situated on a hill 
covered with fine trees, and commands a beautiful view, 
just such a quiet, holy, retired spot as one would select for 
a last resting place. I could not summon courage to go 
there before, but now I feel an anxiety to revisit it again 
and again. 

May 1st. Revisited the chapel of Pennycross, and took a 
drawing of the tomb of my father. 

\2th. Went on board the " Wilberforce" steamer, which is 
going with the " Albert" and " Santon" on the Niger expe- 








dition. She has two engines, each of thirty-five horse power. 
The " Santon" has only one engine: the " Wilberforce" is flat- 
bottomed, but has a double keel, they tell me, that may be 
drawn up at pleasure. She is ventilated, but will be horribly 
hot in a warm climate Uke an iron furnace. The life-buoy 
appeared a good invention. One of the officers showed me an 
absurd affair, a small lantern to strap upon the chest of a man, 
to purify the air he breathes when he is exposed to a pestilential 
atmosphere. They showed me a number of bibles and testa- 
ments, which they said were in the Arabic character : judging 
from the slight glimpse I caught, it appeared to me to be 
beautifully printed Persian. The two Ashantee princes came 
on board with their tutor : they are intelligent, good-humoured, 
ugly Africanders, with large blubber lips and up-turned flat 
noses, and dressed like young Englishmen : how soon they will 
discard their tight trowsers and small sleeves when they get 
back to their own countiy ! The crockery on board is shown to 
the lady visitors, who are expected to weep on beholding the 
appropriate design printed upon it : a negro dancing with 
broken chains in his hands ! It made me laugh, because there 
is much humbug in the whole aflfair but it is the fashion. I 
was rather inclined to weep when I thought what would be the 
probable fate of the men then around, who were going out on 
the expedition to such a dreadful climate. 

July 2\ St. Having been recommended to visit the baths of 
Schwalbach in Germany, on account of my health, I started per 
steamer for Rotterdam and proceeded up the Rhine : after a 
most agreeable stay at Schwalbach, and my health having 
received benefit from its chalybeate waters, I returned to 

Dec. 8th. This day is over I am once more alone and 
what a day of agony it has been to me my birth- day ! On this 
day I first beheld my beloved mother; on this day I have 
placed her in her grave ! have parted with her in this world 
for ever. My beloved mother has been placed in my father's 
vault in the churchyard of that quiet and beautiful little chapel 
at Pennycross, a tranquil and holy spot. O my mother ! let 


me turn from your grave to the duties that are before me, and 
strive to act in a manner worthy of your child. 


Overland letters brought me the following intelligence : 

" 1839, March 25th. Her Highness the Baiza Ba'i sent a 
kharita to give me the glad tidings of the safety of the Gaja 
Raja Sahib, and the birth of a daughter ; they are both very 
weak and thin, and her Highness is most anxious about her 
grand-daughter, as she can scarcely take any nourishment. 
They have named the child the Chimna Raja, after the wife of 
Appa Sahib." 

Holding rank by courtesy, as " Aunt of my grand-daughter 
the Gaja Raja," this newly-arrived young princess must be my 
great grand-niece, for which reason perhaps she honoured me 
by coming into the world on the anniversary of my wedding- 
day. It is remarkable the ladies of that family are oddly 
enough styled Raja, and Raja Sahib. 

Dec. \5th. My relative at Landowr wrote to me, saying, " I 
had a very interesting letter lately from our friend Sturt, of the 
engineers, from Cabul : he has been appointed engineer to 
Shah Sujah, and gets 1000 rupees a month : he had not heard 
of your being in England ; but he begged to be kindly remem- 
bered to you. Here is an extract : ' Give my best saliim ; I 
promised her a sketch of the Hills, which I have not forgotten, 
but never did one to my fancy ; but she shall have one of Can- 
dahar, Ghuznee, and Cabul, and any thing else this place 
affords : would she like a lady's dress ? if so, I shall be obliged 
by her accepting it from me.' I told Sturt you were at home, 
but would, I was sure, be delighted to get the sketches." 

How often after the death of Captain Sturt, who distinguished 
himself so highly, did I regret never having received the pro- 
mised sketches, and concluded they were lost during the dis- 
astrous retreat from Cabul! In 1848, Mr. Hullmandel showed 
me the work published by General Sale, and told me the litha- 
graphs were from sketches by Captain Sturt ; that the portfolio 


was lost during the retreat of the army, but was afterwards dis- 
covered and given to Lady Sale. With how much interest I 
looked over the drawings ! in jdl probability they were from the 
very sketches he had taken for me. 

" 1840, Feb. 1 5th. We have just received the news of Lord 
Auckland's having been created an Earl and Sir John Keane a 
Baron : what an unlucky wight Sir Henry Fane has been, to 
have missed prize-money and a peerage, and having nearly been 
killed by the only thing he got in the country, a pukka fever ! 

" There is no doubt as to the expedition to China, and ' Teas 
is riz.' It will be a short affair of a year, perhaps less ; the 
whole will fall on the shoulders of poor Governor Lin, who 
may lose his head in addition to his two buttons." 

" July 1st. ^The Bombay Government have consented to the 
Baiza Ba'i's residing at a place called Nassuk, on the banks of 
the Godavery, not far removed from the Poona district, her own 
country. Four lakh a year are to be granted her ; she is to 
live there on the same terms as people of her station reside at 
Benares, or other places in the British territories ; but it is 
clearly understood that her followers are to be subject to the 
rules and regulations of the country. 

" 2nd. We have heard of Sir Henry Fane's death, for 
which we were sincerely sorry poor fellow, his youthful good 
fortune did not attend his last career. In the Peninsular war 
he was styled ' Main de fer.' 

" August. The Ba'i has been unfortunate, having had a 
fire in her camp which destroyed her house, shawls, &c., and 
property to the amount of four or five lakh : it was occasioned 
by a Mahratta girl's setting fire accidentally to the parda." 

"Dec. ^The Gaja Raja has recovered from a very severe 
illness, and the little princess, the Chimna Raja, is well. 

" A subscription was circulated in 1835 at Allahabad for buildr 
ing a church. Mr. Blunt, the Lieutenant-Governor, subscribed 
1000 rupees. The building was to be done, provided the funds 
were sufficient, by Colonel Edward Smith, of the engineers. 
In February, 1841, the church was consecrated by the Bishop : 
it does honour to the architect, being a handsome building, and 


well adapted to the climate. The erection of so expensive a 
church by so small a society shows great zeal in the cause of 
religion in the inhabitants of Allahabad. 

" We have just received the news of the renewal of hostihties 
with China, at which I am glad. The celestials will be forced 
to lejirn the power of the enemy they have drawn upon them. 
Tlie new Commissioner, Lin's successor, is to be made over to 
the Board of Punishment, and the admiral has been deprived of 
his button. There is nothing new under the sun ; our expres- 
sion of having ' a soul above buttons' must be derived from 
the Chinese. A great man, for instance, like Admiral Kwang, 
bearing bravely up against loss of dignity {button) and honour." 

" 1841, Feb. I5th. ^The Baiza Ba'I has crossed over to the 
opposite side of the Jumna, where she remains until after the 
eclipse of to-morrow. Appa Sahib is in Sultan Khusru's garden, 
and will not move, it is said, until some arrangement is first 
made for him by the Ba'i or the Government, if not, he says, 
he wiU turn fakir." 

"May. Captain Fitzgerald, who has charge of the Baiza 
Ba'I, and her Highness, were heard of at Nagpore ; she gave no 
trouble, but was dilatory on the march, the weather being 
frightfully hot." 

" 1842. A khaiita was received from Nassuk, some forty or 
fifty kos from Bombay. The Brija Ba'I, one of her Highness's 
ladies, was very magrd, i. e. discontented with the hawd pdni, 
' the air and water' of the place, and complained that she saw 
no sdhib log (gentlemen), as when at Allahabad. 

" How little a man can estimate his real value ! The last 

accounts from Cabul informed us our friend Captain B was 

a prisoner, and to be sold for 200 rupees ! The price having 
been paid, he was released from captivity." 

Let me record the death of a faithful servant : on quitting 
Calcutta, a lame shepherd applied to be taken into employ ; the 
old man had been a sipahl, was wounded in action, and ever 
after remained lame. When he oflfered himself as bheri- 
wdld (shepherd) an objection arose on account of his lameness. 


it being imagined he could never take the goats five hundred 
miles up the country. " I am so lame I shall never overdrive 
them," said the man ; ^the reason was unanswerable, he was 
taken into service. 

The old male goat of the flock very often upsets the shepherd ; 
though they are always at war they are great friends. 

Poor old Bulwan, our lame shepherd, was bitten by a mad 
dog, which attacked him when he was driving it off from one of 
the goats my favourite black Bengali, which I had commended 
to his especial care ; he died four days afterwards : he was sent 
to the hospital, but it was too late. There seems to be no cure 
but that of cutting out the bitten part, and cauterizing the 
wound. We gave his son eight rupees to bury him, and shall 
keep him in his father's place if he is steady. We regret the 
old man very much ; we used to give him a rupee occasionally 
to cheer him. Every shepherd knows his own sheep ; and my 
old man not only knew his own sheep, but had a name for each 
of his goats, forty-five in number. Like Dandy Dinmont's 
terriers. Pepper and Mustard, and Mustard and Pepper, the old 
man derived the name of all his goats from one, his prime 
favourite, a beautifully spotted Delhi goat, by name JumnT, 
" Jumni's daughter," " Jumni's grandson's grand -daughter's 
son," " Jumni's nephew's grandchild," every kid in the flock 
was traced by some means or other to the invaluable JumnI : 
the pedigree of a race-horse was nothing in comparison to the 
pedigree of the kids ! 



" Here's a sigh for those who love me, 
And a smile for those who hate ; 
And whatever sky's above me, 
Here's a heart for any fate. 

" Though the ocean roar around me. 
It still shall bear me on ; 
Though a desert should surround me, 
It has springs that may be won," 

Family Sorrows Departure from England The Camatic A Gale The 
Spirit of the Storm Sunsets Peak of Teneriffe The Trade Wind A 
most Magnificent Comet Phosphoric Lights Visit of Neptune declined 
Scarcity of Provisions Spray Bows Albatross caught Arrival at the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

1843. I will pass over my wanderings in France, Belgium, and 
Germany without comment. My absence from India was pro- 
longed far beyond the time originally allotted me, by the deep 
and numerous afflictions that fell upon me. One by one all 
those I loved had sunk into the grave : mental suflFering, united 
to anxiety and bodily exertion, brought on severe illness, and 
that buoyancy of spirit which had hitherto supported me 
was gone. How can I express my gratitude to those dear 
friends who nursed me with such unwearied care and aflfection 
during a long and painful illness of nearly three months' duration, 
with which I had to struggle ; until, with health regained, my 


happy spirits began to resume their empire? It is a blessed 
dispensation of Providence, that, " with returning health returns 
that energy, without which the soul were given to us in vain ; 
and which enables us calmly to face the evils of our being, and 
resolutely to fulfil its objects : there is but one philosophy 
(though there are a thousand schools) , and its name is fortitude. 
To bear is to conquer our fate." 

On my recovery, contrary to the advice of my medical 
advisers, I determined to sail immediately for the Cape, and 
rejoin my husband, who had been compelled by illness to quit 
India, and proceed, for the benefit of his health, to Southern 
Africa. Having engaged the larboard stem cabin on the poop 

of the "Camatic," a vessel of Captain I 's, for 110 

to the Cape ; and having secured the services of an ayha, to 
wait upon me during the voyage, I took leave of my friends, 
and went to Portsmouth, to await the arrival of the ship. 

Feb. 8th. Sailed from Portsmouth at noon ; it was stormy, 
and blew hard, but the wind was fair ; the thermometer 46 
most bitterly cold. I suffered greatly from mal de mer, and was 
most completely wretched, so miserably cold and uncomfortable. 

lOth. In the Bay of Biscay we encountered a confusion of 
seas, all huddled and jostling together ; a strong following wind 
sent the vessel swiftly along, the waves roaring after her, whilst, 
every now and then, a sea struck her fearfully. I was too iU to 
quit my couch. 

I4th. A heavy gale came on, and blew incessantly with 
frightful force for two days and nights ! How the ship pitched 
and rolled ! she groaned as if all her timbers were being wrenched 
asunder ; this would continue ten mmutes, and then came a 
pause perfect silence for a few seconds, after which the groan- 
ing of the timbers recommenced, and the same dead silence at 
intervals ; it gave me the idea that the vessel beneath me was 
crazy in every beam, not sea- worthy. 

\6th. Foul wind and rain; even that was better than the 
state of the vessel during the gale, which abated a little this 
morning. The pitching and rolling, added to the groans of the 
timbers, allowed of no rest night or day ; it was to me a life of 


great suffering, added to which, the ship was badly provisioned, 
and the cook a very bad one. 

17 th. The captain of the vessel told me he was never out in 
such a gale before ; the first ofiicer asserted the same. His 
course lay outside Madeira, but the foul wind and heavy sea, in 
which the captain said the ship could not live, forced him to 
decide on taking the course within the islands. 

I8th. A wild wind and heavy sea, the waves striking the 
ship, and pouring over her in fearful style ; the galley was 
washed away, the Uve-stock under the large boat was nearly all 
destroyed, and seven of the pigs were killed. The deck pre- 
sented a scene of marvellous confusion ; the sailors, attempting 
to save the live-stock, were thrown down on the deck, and the 
steward, lying in the water that rushed over it, was holding on 
to a pig ; the animal bit his hand, the steward let go, and the 
pig was washed overboard by the next roll of the ship. With 
the vessel in such a state the passengers were left to shift for 
themselves, and very badly off they were. At dinner-time I 
crept out to get some food, my ay ha having been unable to 
procure any thing for me during the whole day from the steward ; 
the captain apologised for the dinner on table, on account of 
the galley having been washed away : it consisted merely of one 
great cheese, and each person was supplied with a biscuit ! 
Nineteen hungry cadets were there ; how the boys ate ! 
the great cheese quickly disappeared. Every one was in 
good humour, and glad of biscuit and cheese ; but the 
news of the loss of so much of the live-stock was far from 

2\st. From the time we quitted Portsmouth until this day 
I have been miserably ill with mal de mer, added to which, I 
have scarcely been able to sleep at night, the weather has been 
so constantly bad ; as for the poor creatures below, they must 
be nearly stifled, ^the waves, which are pouring in on the one 
side of the deck and out on the other, force them to keep the 
hatches closed. 

The wind was strong and against us ; in the evening I saw a 
beautiful meteor on the starboard bow, shooting down the sky. 


At night I was sitting Hindustani fashion on my sofa, playing 
on the guitar, and singing 

" Du, du, liegst mir im Herzen, 
Du, du, liegst mir im Sinn." 

The sea was very heavy, it blew a Uttle hurricane ; the wind 
suddenly changed, and the " Camatic " was taken aback ; how 
she pitched and rolled ! There was an uproar on deck, but I 
went on with my song, it was useless to disturb myself for a 
storm ; certainly the time of the music varied as the heavy 
pitching sent me backwards and forwards on the sofa. 

The next morning the chief officer said, " I was astonished 
last night when the ship was taken aback, I heard you singing 
as quietly as possible all the time ; I did not like it, it sounded 
like the spirit of the storm." This remark put me in mind of 
Long Tom Coffin, who, hearing a midshipman singing during a 
heavy gale, requested that the captain would call him from the 
gun on which he was seated, adding, " For I know, from having 
followed the seas my natural hfe, that singing in a gale is sure 
to bring the wind down upon a vessel the heavier ; for He who 
rules the tempests is displeased that man's voice shall be heard 
when He chooses to send His own breath on the water." 

23rd. A quiet day, a pleasant evening, and the first tranquil 
night since I have been on board in which I have been able to 
get the refreshment of a sound sleep ; we are now within the 
shelter of the islands. 

24th. Another quiet day, a beautiful evening, and a quiet 
night ; what a luxury ! A glorious sunset : the purple clouds 
stood up from the deep blue ocean Uke a wall, above were two 
brilliant streaks of vivid green, other streaks of crimson hue 
were surrounded by purple clouds, and above all a sky of 
mottled deep ultramarine blue clouds, of which the edges were 
of burnished molten gold, like the brilliant dyes on the back of 
the mackarel. A glorious sunset after such wild gales and 
drenching rains. 

25th. A nautilus and a tortoise seen. Another sunset, 
less wild than that of the evening before, but the finale was 


brilliant. The clouds drew back, and the sun a perfect world 
of fire sank in burning brilliancy into the deep blue sea, which 
did not appear to catch one tint from its vivid beams, but 
remained a deep, cold, clear blue, whilst every cloud around 
caught and returned the rays. In these latitudes, at sea, a 
sunset is indeed a glorious sight : and what, after the evening 
shades have fallen around, and the deck is quiet and nearly 
forsaken, can be more calm and refreshing than the star-light 
night, and the cool and delightful breeze ? luxurious hours of 
dreamy contemplation. 

26th. At 6 A.M. I saw the Peak of TenerifFe: when the sun 
came out in power the Peak became beautiful, its snowy head 
ridged with furrows, and glistening like silver in the sun ; deep 
shadows were over the island, the shape could be traced, but 
with an uncertain effect that gave it the appearance of fairy-land ; 
while, above the shadows, contrasted with and relieved by the 
unclouded blue sky, the silvery Peak was a beautiftd object. 
The sea was almost perfectly calm, and a number of the nautilus 
were around us. 

27th. A beautiful day, almost a calm, ^TenerifFe and Palma 
appear to advantage. Several Portuguese men-of-war near the 

March \st. ^The trade-wind fine and steady, making us all 
happy and contented : thermometer 67, a most agreeable 
temperature. My cot came down by the run ; the double- 
jointed brass screws on which it hung, having had too much 
work from the pitching and rolling of the vessel, broke short off; 
the old-fashioned common iron screws are far better, give less 
motion than the double-jointed brass ones, and will not break. 

4f/i. Lat.N. 17 57', long. W. 20 47'. 

" The moon is up, but yet it is not night, 
Sunset divides the sky with her." 

A magnificent scene was presented when the sun had disap- 
peared below the horizon ; a most brilliant rose tint overspread 
both sea and sky ; clouds of the deepest neutral tint were finely 
contrasted with others of burning crimson, and two vivid streaks 


of the brightest green mixed with the warm glow of sunset. 
While the waves were still bright with the rose tints, and two 
crimson clouds still lingered amidst those of the darkest hue, 
the crescent moon arose with the old moon in her arms, and a 
beautiful lunar bow was brightly visible, silver-tinted like the 
moon. The captain of the ship remarked it was an uncommon 
and curious circumstance ; the bow remained visible some time. 
The horizon darkened, meteoric lights played around the ship, 
illuminating the waves with flashes of silver light, and spark- 
ling stars, the glow-worms of the deep. The trade-wind was 
blowing, the night was fresh and pure, and most agreeable. 

5^;i. Lat. N. 15 12', long. W. 21 5'. Some beautiful flying 
fish were caught in the shrouds ; the captain ruthlessly ordered 
them to be dressed for breakfast, the flavour was delicate and 
delicious. Divine service was performed for the first time. A 
shark seen, and the lunar bow was in the same position as the 
night before. 

6th. Lat. 12 43', long. 21 8'. The lunar bow visible at 
the same hour, brighter and of greater length ; it has the 
appearance of an enormously lengthy comet. The trade-wind 

7th. Lat. 1 r 8', long. 20 4(7. Light winds ; the comet or 
lunar bow, whichever it may be, visible as usual. 

8th. Lat. 9 21', long. 20 55'. The comet-like appearance 
very decided, and with a telescope the star at the head was 
visible. The comet appeared at twenty minutes past six p.m. 
disappeared at eight p.m. The light of the tail was of a brilliant 
silver colour, and it was very much expanded at the end. The 
crescent moon still brilhant, the sea calm. 

9th. LsA. T 46', long. 20 53'. The comet is very distinct, 
and of enormous size ; it appeared in full splendour this 
evening, was visible a little later than it was yesterday evening, 
and disappeared about the same time as before. It was a 
beautiful night, the moon, in her third quarter, was brilliant ; 
Orion shone forth in the deep sky, Aldebaran, the Pleiades, 
and a Arietis were in full splendour, and Canopus was beautiful. 

\Qth. This morning two of the young men amused them- 


selves with swimming by the ship's side during the calm into 
which we have gradually fallen. The captain remonstrated with 
them ; and a shark was caught, which will prevent such folly in 
future. Thermometer 85 very warm. The comet appeared 
about six, and set about eight p.m. not so bright this evening 
as usual. A waveless ocean. 

llth. A deep calm the sunrise very beautiful, foreboding 
a very warm day. In the evening the comet, although visible, 
was obscured by clouds a squall, and fresh gale at night. 

12th. Leit. 4 28', long. 20 K/. At break of day this morn- 
ing, on looking out of the port, the glory of the scene spread 
before me rendered me speechless with admiration. Who can 
describe the grandeur, the glorious colours of that sunrise ? 
The burning crimson clouds deeply streaked with the darkest 
and fullest neutral tints, spread above deep fantastically shaped 
clouds that rose like mountains from the sea. Above the 
burnished crimson was a bright gleam of greenish blue sky, 
and above that was a profusion of clouds, in tones of still 
deeper and more burning crimson, mixed with the darkest 
neutral ones, spread upon a sky of the most vivid and deep 
ultramarine colour the purple waves rose and swelled glowing 
with the richest rose tints. On the left, also, deep neutral 
clouds stood up from the sea like a dark mountain, with 
streams of crimson light thrown upon its head, in front of which 
the softest, fullest, and most brilliantly white clouds contrasted 
with the dark blue sea, on which they appeared to rest. The 
man who dedicated the dim rehgious gloom and the crimson- 
tinted lights of a cathedral to the service of the Almighty must 
have taken the idea from the feelings inspired by such a scene, 
where a gorgeous profusion of solemn tints bows the soul to 
Him who hath " spread His glory in the heavens." 

This sunrise has repaid the toil and trouble of the voyage : 
the sunsets are magnificent ; but who shall describe the glory 
of the rising sun, the depth of shade, the burning Ught ; a scene 
that can never be forgotten, a glory that can never pass from 
the memory, even to the last. Heavy rain in the evening, the 
clouds numerous, the comet invisible. 


\4th. Rainy and uncomfortable. At night under the stern 
of the vessel the phosphoric light was beautiful : wishing to see 
what produced it, I desired the steward to throw out the bucket : 
he brought up a curious white jelly-like substance, two inches 
and a quarter in length, and three-quarters of an inch in width, 
at the thickest end, and shaped somewhat like a finger, covered 
with rings of small globules emitting a phosphoric light of a 
brilliantly transparent emerald colour. It extinguishes and 
resumes the light at pleasure. I put it into a tumbler-full of 
sea-water : any agitation of the water brought forth a powerful 
light. By daylight the next morning it had somewhat the 
appearance of a thinly haired dirty-white caterpillar, and its 
rounded form had become flat ; in this state it weighed one 
dram one scruple ; it was innocuous to the touch, it emitted no 
light, and was dead. 

I8th. Neptune wished to come on board, but his company 
not being considered agreeable, the visit was declined, and a 
present promised to him at the end of the voyage. 

1 9th. ^The stars very bright a lovely night in the trade 
winds the comet very high, much more vertical ; the end of 
the tail appeared some distance beyond Rigel in Orion the stars 
hid their diminished heads as it passed over them it set at a 
quarter past 9 p.m. ; its enormous magnitude was astonishing. 

22nd. ^The calm continued the weather very warm eight 
vessels around us wind-bound, as well as ourselves. To amuse 
the younger passengers, and pass away the time, which hung 
wearily on their hands, theatricals were commenced, concerts 
were given, and a newspaper was estabUshed and continued 
weekly, entitled "The Comet." 

23rd. The Magellan clouds visible the southern cross, with 
its pointers Very brilhant the whole sky gemmed with stars 
the moon, Vesta, and Mars, remarkably beautiful. 

April \st. A glorious sunset over Trinidada and Martin Vas 

4th. Lai. S. 24 39', long. W. 29 24'. The comet, which has 
been gradually diminishing in brightness, was invisible this 
evening, and we never beheld it again. The stock of water is 
VOL. II. A a 


very low ; of the live-stock very little remains, and there appears 
small chance of getting on more quickly with the voyage. 

9th. Another calm : are we ever to arrive at the Cape ? 
The water is nearly expended ; of the live-stock alone remain 
three sheep, two pigs, four fowls, and one goose. The captain 
talks of watering the vessel at Tristan d'Acunha. The stock is 
in a melancholy condition, and the solitary lean goose has 
fallen a victim to the rapacious jaws of nineteen hungry 

\4th. A heavy sea ; shipping water in large quantities, 
rolling and pitching heavily ; a sharp wind and strong breeze. 
On the high foaming waves astern, the spray bows, as they call 
them, are most remarkably beautiful, like small rainbows on 
the waves, four or five sometimes visible at the same time ; 
I watched them with great pleasure from the stern -windows. 

\5th. The sea calmer ; eight albatross and numerous small 
birds astern ; in the evening they collected close to the vessel, 
following it, and picking the bait off the hooks thrown out to 
catch them. 

16^A. Three albatross caught: the smaller one measured 
nine feet from tip to tip of its wings. A gentleman had the 
kindness to prepare it for me with arsenical soap, and I brought 
it to England. 

26th. Anchored at 10 a.m. in Table Bay, after a voyage of 
seventy-eight days from Portsmouth, and eighty-nine from the 
Docks. ' 

My arrival was unexpected, and therefore, I trust, only the 
more welcome. 



View from the Sea Wrecks Cape Town The Fish Market The Seasons 
Slavery Washerwomen on the Mountain Target Practice Beautiful 
Flowers Cape Sheep The Bushwoman Green Point Shells The 
Honey-bush Bracelets of Ivory High Price of Curiosities Auctions 
Robberies Camp's Bay Fine Aloes Effect of the Fog-wreaths on the 
Lion Mountain The Lion's Rump Enormous Bulbs The Botanical 
Gardens Remarkable Trees and Shrubs The Hsemanthus Poisoned 
Arrows The Puff-adder The Melaleuca Curious Trees The Plaat Clip, 
or Flat Stone The Solitary Ruin. 

1843, May. Cape Town, when viewed from the sea, is beautiful 
and singular; the white houses are close to the shore, siu-- 
rounded by mountains ; the Devil's Peak, the Table, and the 
Lion Mountain form a fine picture, enUvened by the number of 
vessels in the bay, lying close to the town. From the New 
Jetty, where you land, in the early morning of a clear day, the 
Blue Mountains, to the right of Robin's Island, on the opposite 
side of the bay, are very beautiful. From the Old Jetty under 
the Table Mountain you see, to the right, the wreck of the 
" Abercrombie Robertson," and that of the " Reform;" these he 
near together. At the same place the " Waterloo " went on 
shore, but being rotten, instantly went to pieces, and disappeared. 
A httle to the right, nearer the castle, are two other wrecks, now. 
fast disappearing. 

The castle and the barracks are close to this jetty ; the latter 
was formerly the store-house of the Dutch merchants. The 
principal street in Cape Town is the Heerengracht, which runs 
up from the shore : the George Hotel the best hotel in the 



place, is in this street : we went there, it was quite full, and the 
passengers from the " Carnatic " found a difficulty in procuring 
rooms ; from its being the race-week the place was full. 

I found my husband residing in the house of a French lady 
in Roeland-street, close under Table Mountain. This house is 
reckoned amongst the most respectable houses of the class, and 
its situation at the farthest end of the town is desirable ; you 
have quiet and fresh air. Had I arrived in the summer season 
at the Cape I should have preferred a house at Wynberg ; during 
the winter time, Wynberg being damp, the inhabitants gene- 
rally come into Cape Town. In a boarding-house there are 
many inconveniences, but you are saved the trouble of house- 
keeping, which to an Indian is a most vile affair ; therefore I 
was content to remain. The terms at a boarding-house are 
seven shillings and sixpence a day for each person, which 
includes one bed-room, food and wine ; the food is good ; the 
wine, which is Cape, is only drinkable for those accustomed to 
it ; and the Cape beer I did not venture to taste. House-rent 
is very cheap, and food also ; meat, threepence per pound ; an 
enormous fish costs twopence ; a great craw-fish one penny ; a 
fine fowl, thirteen- pence halfpenny ; a small cart of fire-wood, 
seven shillings and sixpence. 

The reports I heard in Cape Town respecting house-keeping 
in the country were not favourable ; they say the houses in the 
country are generally leaky, and the landlords will not repair 
them ; that the servants are thieves and liars, and, moreover, 
extremely dirty, requiring constant overlooking in the kitchen. 
The houses in Cape Town are infested with myriads of fleas 
and such fleas ! perfect monsters ! They have also a fair pro- 
portion of bugs. 

lOth. I went to the fish market, a square-walled enclosure 
near the Old Jetty. The scene was curious and animated ; 
Malays, Hottentots, Bushmen, and queer-looking people of all 
sorts, ages, and tribes, dressed out in their gayest colours, and 
grinning like so many monkeys, were all huddled together selling 
or buying fish. Cartloads of the most enormous craw-fish lay 
on the ground, crawling about and fighting each other ; and on 


the ground near to them were heaps of silver-fish, and quantities 
of Cape salmon, and fish without scales, with long thin bodies 
and pointed heads, which were sold for one penny each, good 
when salted and smoked ; and there were also a number of 
queer-looking fish, of all sorts and sizes, with unpronounceable 
names. The porters who attend the market carry the fish away 
in baskets slung to each end of a long pole balanced on the 
shoulder ; and such creatures as these porters are ! I bought a 
gielbeck or yellow beak, for which I paid twopence ; the palate 
of the gielbeck is yellow, whence its name. A Malay porter 
earned it to the house on a stick through its gills, for which his 
pay was also twopence, a great price for a very short distance, 
compared with the price of the fish, which was a very large one. 
One day I met a Bush-boy dragging off a fish as long as himself ; 
he had a great stick over his shoulder, the end of which was 
passed through one of the gills of the fish, whilst the tail of the 
creature swept the ground. The high cheek-boned little black 
monster laughed and grinned as I could not repress an exclama- 
tion at his exceeding and picturesque ugliness. 

16/A. The year, they tell me, is divided into two parts, the dry 
and the wet, nine months of dry weather, and three months of 
rain ; June, July, and August being the cold and rainy months. 
This day, the 1 6th of May, it is very cold, and may be reckoned 
a winter month ; the thermometer in my bed-room at noon 58. 
Since my arrival on the 26th April we have had daily showers, 
and some few days of rain ; still, between the heavy showers the 
sun bursts forth, and a walk is dehghtfiil. 

At breakfast-time a gentleman related to me an extraordinary 
history respecting slavery at the Cape ; the particulars are as 
follow : " The ' Cleopatra ' has seized a BraziUan vessel the 
' Progresso ;' she is a slaver. The ' Cleopatra ' has taken from 
her thirteen prisoners and forty-eight slaves ; with these people 
she has arrived at Pappendosh, a place near Cape Town, where 
the slaves have been landed ; the rest of the slaves will follow 
in the 'Progresso:' she has not come in at present; she was 
taken in the Mozambique Channel. The slaves will now be 
examined and classed according to their ages, the age is arbi- 


trarily settled. They generally arrive branded ; and as without 
some distinguishing mark they cannot be known, it is supposed 
those who may happen to have no mark will be branded by the 
authorities at the Cape. Blank indentures are to be drawn out, 
in which the age of the slave, his marks, &c., will be shown 
forth. The slaves are generally young, and they, supposing the 
age to be about ten years, wUl be bound to the purchaser of the 
indenture until the age of twenty-one ; these indentures are to 
be sold by auction on the Parade at Cape Town to the highest 
bidder. The slaves who may be more aged are to be bound for 
a certain term of years to the person who buys them, so that 
their slavery may be the same with those of earlier years. 
These proceedings are under the authority of the Government ; 
the motive is to conciliate the Dutch, who are generally the 
purchasers of the slaves." 

As the English hold forth that they abolish slavery, these 
proceedings appear curious, and I will go, if possible, to see the 
slaves sold on the parade. Although we do not originally 
capture the slaves we capture the vessels when carrying them 
away, take them into the Cape, and sell them for our own profit 
for a certain term of years to the highest bidder at public 
auction. It is mentioned in the indentures that the slaves are 
to be brought up in the Christian religion. It is said the slaves 
generally have no religion at all, and their masters leave them in 
utter ignorance. 

The Table Mountain is to me a source of constant enjoyment ; 
I delight in its varied appearance : at times a dense white vapour 
is spread over it, when that passes away, the deep clear ultra- 
marine blue of the sky, covered with bright clouds, forms a 
back-ground to the dark mountain, whilst, every now and then, 
a stormy grey cloud passes over all, and gives a beautiful effect 
of light and shade. 

I roamed the other day up the mountain by the side of the tor- 
rent, the bed of which is filled with large stones, over which the 
stream gurgles and runs with velocity. Hundreds of women and 
some few men were all employed washing clothes by beating them 
upon the stones in the stream : some of the women, with their 


THE devil's peak TARGET PRACTICE. 359 

infants tied upon their backs, were washing away, and the whole 
side of the mountain was covered with linen drying on the grass. 
How many of the groups would have formed an admirable 
picture, in spite of the ugliness of these Malay and Hottentot 
animals ! They ask four shilhngs and sixpence, or three and 
sixpence a dozen for washing clothes, but will generally take 
two shillings and sixpence, including large and small. For the 
ship passengers they wash very badly ; for people resident in 
Cape Town they wash well. 

We accompanied a gentleman and his family up the mountain 
under the Devil's Peak ; he was going to teach his boys to fire 
at a target. They produced a great heavy old pair of flint 
pistols, and with these they amused themselves. I was enrolled 
amongst the Tyros ; the two gentlemen were the best shots, I 
took rank as the third ; my success charmed me, although I was 
afraid of the pistol, the crazy old weapon was so heavy I could 
scarcely take aim. A few evenings afterwards a pretty young 
French lady accompanied the party, and fired remarkably true. 

25th. The sun during the day is very powerful ; it does not 
answer in these latitudes to expose one's self to its rays during 
the noontide heat. At 4 p.m. we went on the mountain to 
practise pistol-shooting ; we found that after sunset there was 
scarcely any twilight, and warned by the very cold, sharp 
exhalations from the wet ground, we quitted the spot quickly, 
but not before we had all taken cold. 

June llth. The thermometer in my room at noon 53, the 
air sharp and very cold. Rambled up Table Mountain, beyond 
the mill, from which place the nan'ow pathway is surrounded by 
flowers, even at this early season, I gathered great branches of 
what is called in England the Duke of York's geranium ; it was 
not in flower, but the scent of the leaves was delicious ; it grew 
there most luxuriantly ; when in blossom the flower is Ulac and 
white. The purple and white prickly heath, and the white 
heath, were abundant ; the deep orange-coloured aromatic 
azaUa, the bossistroph or honey-plant, the fine white arum, and 
the tall slender Ixia, with its pendant crimson and graceful 
blossom, and its small bulb, which shot up every here and there. 


delighted me with their beauty. These plants, cultivated with 
so much care in England, were growing wild in every direction 
surrounding the little stony sheep-path I was ascending. 

They say mechanics use the oil from the tip of the tail of the 
Cape sheep for their machinery, and that it does not become foul 
in the works. Five pounds' weight of the tips of the tails of the 
sheep costs two shillings and sixpence, and produces two quarts 
and a half of fine clear oil, after having been melted over the 
fire and strained through a flannel bag. Animals in southern 
Africa appear to run to tail : see the enormous size of the tail 
of the sheep into which all the fat of the body appears to be 
collected: see the pretty mousehunt (a sort of fox), the Hot- 
tentot women in Cape Town, and the Bushwomen ; eill these 
have the beauty of the Hottentot Venus. Some of the Malays, 
both men and women, are handsome : the Africanders are too 
universally well known to need description. 


The Bojesmans or Bushmen are a most remarkable race. 
In one of my solitary rambles on Table Mountain, I came 
suddenly upon three of these people, who were squatting round 
a small fire in a cleft of the rock. Curiosity induced me to 
stop and look at them ; they appeared to dislike my presence 
and scrutiny, and, as far as I could judge from the angry tone 
of their words and their suspicious glances, they were glad when 
I walked on. 

The speech of the Bojesmans is a most remarkable and extra- 
ordinary clack clack unUke any other language under the sun, 
something resembling the striking together of harsh castanets. 
The sketch represents a Bushwoman ; it is a portrait ; she has a 
bunch of bulbs in her hand : they principally feed on roots and 
vegetables. Her attire is of leather ; coloured beads are around 
her neck, her ear-rings are of ivory, a curious ornament is in 
front of her body, and her kraal or hut is in the distance. 

In 1847, I saw four Bojesmans who were exhibited at the 
Egyptian Hall ; they were handsome specimens of their kind ; 
the women were younger than the one represented in the 

OnSton* iy 

A B U ,S I! W M A N 


sketch, still the peculiarity of the figure and the style of coun- 
tenance stamp them of the same race. 

The following extract from Harris's " Wild Sports of Southern 
Africa," contains a most interesting description of the Bush- 
men : 

" At Kramers-font ein the next day, a horrible spectacle pre- 
sented itself to us in the form of an emaciated old Bushwoman, 
who had come down from her kraal, five miles distant, to fill 
two ostrich eggs with water. ' Grim misery had worn her to 
the bones,' and it is no exaggeration to say that her attenuated 
form appeared a skeleton covered with a wet cloth. Those 
rounded proportions, which are given to the human form divine, 
had no existence in her. Her skin resembled wrinkled leather ; 
and I can compare her legs and arms to nothing but straightened 
sticks, knobbed at the joints. Her body was actually crawling 
with vermin, with which she was constantly feeding a little half- 
inanimate miniature of herself in arms. 

' Wither'd and wild in her attire. 

She look'd not like a habitant of earth, 
And yet was on it.' 

We were glad to bribe her to depart by a present of tobacco ; 
and the wretched creature's countenance evinced thankfulness 
at our liberality. 

" The pigmy race, of which this woman was a characteristic 
specimen, usually reside in holes and crannies of rocks, and 
sometimes in wretched huts, incapable of protecting them from 
the inclemency of the seasons. These, their constant fear of 
discovery induces them to erect in secluded spots at a great 
distance from water : a precaution to which they are further 
prompted by a desire to leave the pools open for wild animals, 
which they occasionally shoot from an ambush with poisoned 
arrows, and devour on the spot. They possess neither flocks 
nor herds are unacquainted with agriculture and the most 
wealthy can boast of no property beyond his weapons and his 
starving dog. With no cares beyond the present moment, they 


live almost entirely upon bulbous roots, locusts, reptiles, and the 
larvae of ants, with the habitations of which latter the country is 
in many places thickly strewed. Not a trace of their hovels could 
be seen from the road ; and a traveller might even pass through 
their country without seeing a human being, or suspecting that 
it was inhabited. Such is their general distrust of visitors, that 
the males would never vrillingly approach us, evincing great 
trepidation when forced to do so no object being more unwel- 
come to their sight than a troop of horsemen on the plain. 

" The women, who were much less shy, and who never failed 
to follow the tracks of our waggons when they happened to 
come upon them, with the hope of obtaining tobacco in exchange 
for ostrich eggs, are of small and delicate proportions, with hands 
and feet of truly Lilliputian dimensions. Their foot-prints 
reminded us of Gulliver's adventures, and are not larger than 
those of a child. When young, they have a pleasing expres- 
sion of countenance, which they take care to render as capti- 
vating as possible by bedaubing their flat noses and prominent 
cheek-bones with a mixture of red-ochre and fat. The toilets of 
many were made with scrupulous attention, the effect of the 
paint being enhanced by necklaces composed of the fresh entrails 
of wild beasts a few cowrie shells, old bones, and buttons 
being also interwoven with their matted hair ; but the life they 
lead, their frequent long abstinence, and constant exposure to 
the wind and glare of light in a dry open country, soon inducing 
the habit of keeping their naturally small eyes more than half 
closed, their comeliness is very ephemeral, and never extends 
beyond youth. The females possess much greater volubility 
and animation of gesture than the men ; but the sounds they 
utter are a succession of claps of the tongue produced by 
forcing that unruly member against different parts of the teeth 
and palate : and whilst the enunciation is thus rendered trouble- 
some and full of impediment, it resembles rather the chattering 
of monkeys than the language of human beings." 

\8th. ^Thermometer at noon 52. Sharp and very cold : the 
scarlet fever in Cape Town. 

Idth. Walked to Green Point, and gathered shells beyond 


the second light-house, which is situated on a rocky shore, 
where vessels are frequently wrecked, both accidentally and, it 
is said, intentionally. The waves break beautifully over the 
rocks that run out far into the sea. The sand on the shore 
glitters like silver, being composed of fragments of pounded 
shells : there are numerous shells to be found, but generally 
broken by the ruggedness of the coast. The people dig for 
them here, and procure them in great quantities out of the sand, 
which they sift ; they are sold to burn for hme, which is made 
at a less cost from the shells than from the limestone quarries, 
as on the latter a duty is levied by the municipality. 

The rocks are covered with limpets of all sorts, and cockles : 
the great ear shell (haliotis) is common, the coat-of-mail shell 
(chiton) and other species are also numerous. The great ear 
shells I have seen carried about for sale in Cape Town at two- 
pence each ; the people consider the contents good food. 

In Camp's Bay, and other bays, I understand fine and perfect 
specimens of a great variety of shells are found where the shore 
is less rugged and the sand good. The enormous size of the 
sea-weed is quite surprising, its great stem is of such length and 
thickness. On removing a clump of the sea-weed, the sand is 
alive with millions of wood-hce, at least I think they are so called ; 
they make great bounds by rolling themselves up in a ball, and 
suddenly opening, the strength of the scales and the breadth of 
the tail sending them on at a surprising rate. It brought to my 
mind those early days in which a mouse, with a tail turned 
under the body, and fixed with a bit of cobbler's wax, was made 
to jump about the room to my great delight. 

21 si. Heavy rain thermometci 56 at noon ; the rain has 
taken away the great sharpness of the cold, which was too 
cutting to be pleasant. In these slightly-built houses, when 
the thermometer was 52 under the mountain, the air w?is 
very cold and clear, and peculiarly sharp and crisp. I roamed as 
usual up the mountain ; it is covered with honey bush, at 
present in full flower, both the red and the white ; the protea, a 
sort of honey bush, is now also in flower. As I made my way 
along, myriads of small sugar birds started from the bushes, 


where, fluttering over the flowers, they had been dipping their 
long slender beaks into the sweet juice below. The people 
collect the juice which flows in great abundance from the flower 
of the honey bush ; they warm it, and sell it in quart bottles 
at three shilUngs a piece to the druggists, who recommend it 
for coughs. 

23rd. Bought four rings of ivory, which the Kaffirs wear as 
bracelets and anklets, formed after a very simple fashion. From 
the hollow end of the elephant's tusk, where it is three-quarters 
of an inch in thickness, a circle is cut off one inch in breadth ; 
in this rude state it is worn as an ornament, three or four on 
each leg and arm. Purchased a pair of bullocks' horns, well 
polished, for four shillings ; but the enormous price asked for 
specimens in Cape Town deterred me from making as many 
purchases as I should otherwise have done. 

July 5th. Heavy rain and very unpleasant weather : the 
people are suffering from colds and sore throats ; which illness, 
they say, has been brought by the wind that blows over from 
the sea between Table Mountain and the Lion's Head. 

6th. An illness, called by the Capers the Sinkings, is very 
prevalent ; it appears to be a swelling or inflammation of the 
glands of the throat. 

7th. The middle of the Cape winter. Auctions are con- 
ducted on a curious principle, the lowest bidder being the pur- 
chaser : it is a Dutch practice, and rather difficult to com- 

9th. Walked beyond the hospital on the shore, where several 
wrecks lie scattered found some pretty shells. Robberies are 
daily committed during the night in Cape Town by the Malays. 
At this time of the year it is their custom to make presents to 
their priests : the presents must be made, whether the men have 
it in their power to offer them or not. In the latter case they 
commit robbery to satisfy the demands of their spiritual advisers 
"several houses have been broken into. 

\4th. Walked towards Camp's Bay over the Lion Mountain ; 
sketched some Cape aloes which were growing most luxuriantly 
on the road-side, where they had been planted as a hedge the 


stem was of the most brilliant crimson tint the prickly pear 
in full bloom, with its white and crimson flower, and its deep 
crimson buds mixed beautifully with the aloes in the fore- 
ground ; and in the distance beyond lay the sea and the Blue- 
berg Mountains. I found a great variety of the most beautiful 
heaths, also a number of bulbs. The Africander was in bloom, 
as well as those bulbs that give forth their scent at sunset. The 
Malays are extremely partial to these sweet night-scented flowers, 
and collect them by the handful. 

\7th. From the foot of the Devil's Peak I sketched the Lion 
Mountain ; it was covered with a deep driving fog that hung in 
wreaths not unlike a mane around it ; the fog covered the 
shipping that was just visible below it, and the town looked 
indistinct : it was a most cold and unwholesome day ; but I 
gathered beautiful flowers ; the arums and prickly pears were in 
fuU bloom. 

29th. Ascended the Lion's Rump, and arrived at the signal- 
post in time to see a magnificent sunset : took a sketch of the 
Lion's Head, to the right of which was the back of Table 
Mountain, and the Southern Ocean to the left. The town and 
the bay from this mountain are seen to great advantage ; the 
regularity of the plan on which the town was built by the Dutch 
is excellent. The walk this evening delighted me ; my young 
companions and I sat down many times, and employed ourselves 
with digging up the bulbs with which the mountain is literally 
covered. The size of some of the bulbous roots is surprising, 
one weighed three pounds and a quarter, and measured in cir- 
cumference twenty inches and a half; the height of the bulb 
was five inches and a half, and the leaves were eleven inches 
long. The fragrance of the flowers of the night-scented bulbs 
became delicious as we descended the mountain very late in the 
evening ; it is rich in fine grass, and bulbs innumerable. 

Aug. 4th. Visited the Botanical Garden under the Lion's 
Head ; a number of trees and plants from Australia are collected 
there. The most brilliant African plant in blossom was the 
Strelitzia regina, with its orange and purple blossom, and its 
long wand-Uke leaves. The Kaffir bread-tree (Zamia horrida) 


and the Zamia longifolia are very remarkable ; gi-ass trees from 
Australia were there, but they had perished from the cold. 
When on the Lion's Head we saw a very curious bulb, the 
haemanthus or blood-flower; the bulb is of large size, and 
produces only two leaves, which turn back and he open upon 
the ground ; they have no stalk, and lie close upon the earth, 
the colour a bright green ; some of this class have spotted 
leaves. The gardener told me that the Bushmen use the juice 
of the spotted hsemanthus as poison for their arrows ; and my 
young companions said, when they were on the frontier they 
saw a Bushman stick his arrow between the two leaves down 
into the bulb, and he told them, in that manner the Bushmen 
poisoned their weapons '. 

In India the Hill-men from Rajmal use poison on their 
arrows ; it is most powerful and fatal, but they will not disclose 
from what plant they obtain it. The Hill-men at Almorah 
preserve the same secrecy on the subject. The hsemanthus 
toxicaria has spotted leaves ; of these plants there were many 
in the garden, newly placed there, and they had not been there 
long enough to flower. 

Harris, in speaking of African poisons, says : " The Bechu- 
ana, with what truth I know not, are said occasionally to 
domesticate this stately bird (the ostrich) for equestrian purposes ; 
and the puny Bushman avails himself of the disguise afforded 
by its skin to mix with a troop of wild animals, and select his 
victim. At the twang of his tiny bow away scours the herd in 
dire consternation, and, more alarmed than all, off" scuds the 
impostor with them, again propelling a shaft as soon as the 
panic has subsided. The destruction committed in this manner 
is incredible : a slender reed, only slightly barbed with bone or 
iron, but imbued with a subtle poison, and launched with 
unerring dexterity, being sufficient to destroy the most powerful 
* " The principal ingredient of this deadly bane is said, by 

' See the two leaves of this bulb in the foreground of the portrait of the 


Pringle, to consist of the venom of the most dangerous serpents 
that infest the desert. In seizing and extracting the poison 
from beneath the fangs of the fatal puff-adder, or the cobra-di- 
capello, the despised African displays the most wonderful 
dexterity and boldness ; simply placing his naked foot on the 
neck of the writhing reptile, and not unfrequently closing the 
exhibition of his intrepidity by fearlessly swallowing the contents 
of the bag he has extracted, as a supposed antidote, or rather as 
an effectual charm against the deleterious consequence of the 
venom, should it ever be accidentally brought into contact with 
his blood. Being of itself too thin and volatile to retain its 
powers long unimpaired, this animal poison is skilfully concocted 
into a black glutinous substance, by the due admixture of 
powerful vegetable and mineral poisons ; the former being 
generally obtained from the root of a species of amaryllis, called 
by the colonists the gift-bol, or poison-bulb ; whilst the latter is 
an unctuous or bituminous substance, which is seiid to exude 
from certain rocks and caverns that exist in particular parts of 
the Bushman's country." 

On the mountain we found the ornithogalum, the star of 
Bethlehem, in abundance ; it was like a weed in the garden. 
The ferania was there, with its spider-like flower ; and the oxalis 
(woodsorrel) , with its most brilliant pink flowers ; the name of 
the enormous bulb I was unable to discover. The Australian pine 
was in great beauty in the garden ; also the melaleuca kyapootie, 
with its most curious bark. When you tear off a part of it you 
may separate it into layers as fine as gold-beaters' skin, and it is 
of the same colour. Another sort has a coarser bark, and is 
used to cover hooqu snakes in India ; fire-screens are made of 
this bark in America, and ingeniously ornamented with beads. 
The Zamia longifoha and the grass tree are distorted-looking 
productions, holding in outward appearance the same place 
amongst plants as a man afflicted with elephantiasis does 
amongst human beings. The bottle brush tree was in full 
bloom. The garden is very well worth visiting ; the gardener 
is civil and intelligent. 

^th. I started to walk to the Plaat Clip, or flat stone ; it is 


half-way up Table Mountain ; a favourite place of resort for 
parties from Cape Town. It is a beautiful spot : over the broad 
top of a bare rock a stream of water pours down with great 
velocity, and rushes down the side, forming a beautiful but small 
waterfall. Trees ornament the spot, and luxuriant bunches of 
the arum in full bloom are dotted amongst the rocks with 
picturesque effect. The ruin of a house stands there ; its 
history appears unknown, divers romantic tales were told me 
concerning this ruin. It is situated on a lovely and picturesque 
spot, very attractive to a person fond of solitude. After a long 
walk and much clambering among the rocks, we returned laden 
with flowers. Nothing can be more agreeable than spending 
the day at the Plaat CUp. 

-^ " 

On 3lTO "by 





A Kafir Warrior The Kaross Vegetable Ivory Shells Changeable 
Weather The Races Dutch Beauties Newlands Cape Horses The 
Arum The Aloe Servants at the Cape Pedigree of a Malay The Cook 
The Washerwoman Africanders Shops in Cape Town The " Robarts " 
View from the Ship in the Bay The Muharram The Southern Cross 
The Sailor and the Shark Madras Katmirams Masulla Boats The New 
Lighthouse The Mint She-Asses Donies Descendants of Milton 
The Globe-Fish Pooree The Surf Temple of Jaganath The Swing 
The Rath Death of Krishna The Architect of the Gods Jaganath The 
Trinity The Seal Ancient City near Pooree Dangerous Shore The 
Floating Light The Sandheads Anchored at Baboo Ghat, Calcutta 
Wilful Burning of the " Robarts." 


1843, Aug. The portrait of the Kafir warrior in the sketch re- 
presents him with his shield of leather, of which the proper height 
when placed on the ground is to reach to the chin ; his assegai 
or spear is in his hand, high feathers adorn his head, and we will 
suppose he has left his kaross in his hut, it being the only, 
and the garment usually worn by the Kafirs. Tliis sketch of an 
African Warrior may prove acceptable, as the war now being 
carried on excites so much interest in England. I heard that 
the dragoons were much disgusted at being forced to ride down 
and shoot the Kafirs ; who, although they fight well, if they 
are overtaken in flight, throw themselves on the ground, and 
plead for life. They are tall, fine, and powerful men, and their 

VOL. II. B b 



colour a good clear brown. I have heard it asserted that the 
Kafirs never eat salt ; if it be true, it is a most remarkable 
singularity. The only garment worn by them is the kaross : 
for one made of the skin of the wild-cat, consisting of fourteen 
skins, they demand in Cape Town three pounds fifteen shillings ; 
for one of the skin of the red jackal, containing sixteen skins, 
and very large, four pounds. A riding-whip of the rhinoceros or 
hippopotamus hide, called a sjambok, costs three shillings and 
sixpence, which, considering that the price on the frontier is four- 
pence halfpenny, is a tolerably good per centage. At least, this 
is the price demanded from Indians, who appear to be the 
natural prey of the people at the Cape, who are leagued together 
to pluck the Hindus. There is one price for the EngUsh, 
one for the Dutch, and one for the Africanders. 

The manner in which the skins of the red jackals are pre- 
pared by the Kafirs is remarkable ; the skin, which is originally 
very thick and coarse, is rubbed down with a stone until it 
becomes very thin, soft, and deUcate ; and the way in which the 
skins are sewed together to form the kaross or mantle is excellent, 
the workmanship is so neat and so good. The Kafir wears the fur 
of this garment next to his own skin during the winter, and in the 
summer he wears the fur outside for the sake of coolness. 

The corassa nut, or vegetable ivory, is unknown in Cape 
Town. In London they told me it was brought from America, 
and also from the Cape ; I took a specimen with me and showed 
it to the people, but found it was utterly unknown there. 

I3th. Very cold, rainy, and windy weather, the middle of 
the Cape winter thermometer 53, very sharp and bitter, after 
heavy rains for some days ; rheumatic and nervous complednts 

I9th. Collected shells off the second lighthouse at Green 
Point ; sea eggs, of all colours and most brilliant tints, were in 
large quantities ; the waves beat beautifully over the rocks, and 
the shore was delightful. 

21sL Very much warmer weather, quite the heat of an 
Indian hot wind, by far too hot to venture out in the sun. 

22nd. What can be more suddenly changeable than the 


weather at the Cape ? yesterday a burning sun, to-day a south- 
east wind covering the mountain with a shroud, the wind 
howHng and roaring round the house, a heavy gale blowing, and 
the street filled every minute with blinding clouds of dust and 
fine stones, that, whirling up, cut against your face, as with shut 
eyes you strive to make your way. The houses are thinly built, 
unfitted for the cUmate ; the chimneys smoke, and nothing can 
be more disagreeable than a residence here at present. The ships 
in the harbour had need look well to their anchors, to prevent 
their being driven out to sea in such a fierce gale. 

26th. A quiet day, after a south-easter that has blown for 
three days. 

Sept. 28th. Went to the races, which took place by the light- 
house at Green Point. Having heard a great deal respecting the 
beauty of the Dutch girls, I was induced to go to the race-ball 
to see them, and was much disappointed in my expectations. 

Oct. 7th. We quitted Cape Town, and went to reside at 
Newlands. This place was formerly the residence of Lord Charles 
Somerset, the Governor of the Cape : the house is situated in 
the midst of fine woods, and noble avenues of oak ; the roses 
and geraniums are most luxuriant. The Table Mountain, seen 
through the avenues at the back of the house, is calm and 
beautiful : the view in front extends across fine woods, termi- 
nated by the Blueberg Mountains. This is a delightful place, 
the avenues offer perpetual shade, and the flowers are a luxury. 
Newlands is well situated as a residence ; the walks around are 
numerous and beautiful, I enjoyed those especially around the 
back of the Table Mountain, where there are a profusion of wild 
flowers. On the road to Paradise the view of the opposite 
mountains and Simon's Bay to the right is very inter- 
esting ; there is still a garden at Paradise, but the house is in 

llth. The rides are most agreeable ; how happy I am to be 
on horseback again ! I look with regret on the months I lost 
by spending them in Cape Town, shut up in Roeland-street ; it 
is so deUcious in the country, ^we are about six or seven miles 



from the town, an agreeable distance. Bought two handsome 
Cape riding horses ; they carried me pleasantly at times, but 
were both very timid ; they tell me timidity is the general fault 
of the horses at the Cape, it was absurd the trouble these 
horses gave ere you could induce them to pass a flock of sheep. 
They would make a handsome pair for a carriage, and would sell 
well as such in Calcutta, besides paying their passage. 

Nov. 26<A. Drove to Wynberg ; saw an arum in Mrs. Usher's 
garden that I thought remarkable. On the large bright green 
leaf were white transparent marks ; the length of the flower 
thirty inches, the breadth eight inches ; the inside of the flower 
was of a deep, beautiful, and rich claret colour. How profuse 
of beauty is nature to the flowers at the Cape ! There was also 
an aloe at the same place of such enormous size, it was quite a 
sight, a gigantic plant. I regret very much I did not sketch 
or measure it ; it was the finest aloe I ever beheld. 

Never did I meet with such servants as those at the Cape, 
drunkards, thieves, and liars, the petty annoyances these 
people give are enough to destroy the pleasure of living in this 
fine climate and beautiful country ; had it not been for the 
plague of the servants I should have felt sorrow in quitting 
Africa. A Malay man-servant of ours, speaking of his family, said, 
" My father was only a lieutenant, but the father of my wife's 
eldest son, he was a very great man ! he was a colonel ! he gave 
her the cottage. Though the son is but a boy he has so much 
English spirit in him, that I am afraid of beating him ; don't you 
think the other children are very like me ? The friends of many 
women are only captains or Heutenants ; my wife's friend was a 
colonel ! we are all Uke this ! " 

In India, if a man is ashamed of his poor relations, the 
following is applied to him : " The mule was asked, ' Who is 
your father?' He said, ' The horse is my maternal uncle '.' " 

My Malay servant had no shame at all : " There is no physic 
for false ideas ^" To have attempted to have enlightened his 
mind on the subject in which he took pride, would have been as 

' Oriental Proverbs and Sayings, No. 131. ' Ibid. No. 132. 


useless as "To pound water in a mortar'" that is, it would 
have been labour in vain. 

We were supplied from Wynberg with most excellent bread, 
very good mutton and poultry, vegetables, and fruits. 

1844, Jan. 6th. For the last week we have had days of burning 
heat almost Indian heat, with very chilly evenings after sunset ; 
heavy rain has cooled the air to-day, and rendered the atmosphere 
dehcious. Newlands is at present the property of a Dutch 
gentleman, Mr. Crugwagen. 

The servants are very cool at the Cape ; my Malay cook came 
to me in Christmas week, to say she could not dress my dinner 
on three days in the coming week, as she was going out to 
dinner parties herself at the houses of some of her friends. I 
objected to going without dinner to oblige her, and at last was 
forced to dine on those days at an early hour, that she might 
be off at 4 p. M. to her parties. 

Two of my white muslin gowns came from the wash with the 
sleeves spht open, and a very deep tuck in the skirt ; I found they 
had been lent or hired out to an Africander, who was shorter than 
myself, and had very robust arms. The people are extremely 
fond of balls and gaieties, which they attend dressed out in the 
gayest colours ; and you sometimes see a fine French cambric 
handkerchief bordered with deep lace in the black fist of a floor- 
scrubbing Hottentot, as she walks grinning along to join a 
dancing party. The Africanders are very dirty in their persons, 
and they rub their bodies with a vUe-smelling oil ; the presence 
of a musk-rat is quite as agreeable as that of a Hottentot in a 
room. They appear to have a taste for music, judging from the 
correct manner in which I have heard the children singing 
various airs on the mountain. 

I do not particularly admire the shops in Cape Town. I was 
taken to a store, as they call it, and bought a quantity of Irish- 
linen ; as soon as the Unen was washed, after having been made 
into jackets, it fell into holes and was useless. At a shop in the 
Heerengratch I purchased two pieces of mousseline-de-laine ; it was 

' Ibid. No. 133. 


quite rotten, and soon became like tinder. Perhaps the people 
buy damaged goods at auction, and retail them in the shops. 
Certainly, the Hindus as they here denominate gentlemen from 
India meet with Uttle mercy from the Capers of a certain class. 

8^^. The " Robarts " having arrived, we determined to sail 
in her, and came into Cape Town, to prepare for our departure , 
what a contrast was the extreme heat of the town to the shade, 
the quiet, the coolness of the country ! 

1 1 th. Having secured the stem poop cabin below and the 
cabin next to it, we came on board ; we were much pleased with 
the ship, and more so with the captain and officers, ^they were 
anxious to render us every assistance, and save us all trouble and 

I2th. At 5 P.M. a breeze sprang up, and we quitted Table 
Bay. The view of the bay was beautiful, the mountains were 
darkly set against a bright sky, the sun streaming between the 
Lion's Head and the Table Mount, shone with yellow and red 
gleams upon the hot dust that enveloped Cape Town; the 
mountains were dark and misty, the sea a deep blue, with 
white-crested waves ; and the houses near the water standing 
out of a brilliant white. The wind was high, the sun bright, the 
clouds were flying quickly, and the white sheet was beginning to 
gather on the mountain. 

27th. Unpleasant weather : I cannot get over this mal-de- 
mer, and the attendant miserable feelings. 

30th. The native sailors celebrated the Muharram with 
single-stick playing, dances, and songs ; Captain Elder gave them 
a fat sheep and a bag of rice to add to their repast, and awarded 
prizes of gaily-coloured handkerchiefs to the best performers. 
The crew were Lascars, the officers European. 

Feb. 2nd. It is very rainy and most uncomfortable; the 
deep sea fog creeps into every bone ; long faces are in all 
^- directions. 

3rd. A most lovely day : a fair wind, which was also cold 
and bracing, bright sunshine, good spirits, and happy looks 
around us. 

4th. Since I entered the " Robarts " I have never had cause 



to utter one complaint ; Captain Elder is most attentive and kind 
to all his passengers, and the officers follow his example. The 
servants are attentive, the dinners and breakfasts excellent, and 
the steward sends to any one who is inclined to remain in their 
cabin all and every little luxury so acceptable to a sick person at 
sea. All this is done willingly and cheerfully, no pretext that 
the articles are in the hold, no delay, and no grumbling. The 
cook is excellent ; he bakes the bread, which is also excellent, 
and in profusion ; and every plate and knife is as clean and 
bright as on shore, a good proof of a good steward, who will 
allow of no neglect in those who are under his orders. After 
the miserable dirtiness and half-starvation of the former vessel, 
the neglect when iU, and the discomfort, I cannot sufficiently 
admire the excellent regulations and order on board the 
" Robarts." 

8th. A calm. A native jumped overboard, and caught an 
albatross that was feeding on some pork ; the boat was lowered, 
and the passengers shot five fine albatross that were in large 
numbers round the vessel. 

9th. Passed neeir the islands of Amsterdam and St. Paul's. 


\Oth.La.t. S. 35 54', long. E. 79 28'. I was called on deck at 
10 P.M. to witness an extraordinary appearance at the rising of the 
moon : it was very dark, a heavy black cloud spread along the 
horizon, in the midst of which the half-moon on the edge of the 
sea shone forth of an ominous dark red colour in the fog, and 
was reflected on the waves. One solitary bird alone broke the 
darkness of the sea. Above, in the deep blue sky, the Southern 
Cross shone in beauty ; the Pointers in Centaurus were briUiant, 
and the black Magellan cloud was distinctly visible between the 
stars in the Cross, looking hke a hollow in the sky. Alluding to 
the Cross of the South :" Una croce maravigliosa, e di tanta 
bellezza," says Andrea Corsah, a Florentine, writing to Giuhano 
Medicis, in 1515, "che non mi pare ad alcuno segno celeste 
doverla comparare. E sio non mi inganno credo che sia questo 


il crusero di che Dante parlb nel principio del Purgatorio com 
spirito profetico, dicendo, f 

" lo mi volsi a man destra, e posi mente 
Air altro polo, e vidi quattro stelle 
Non viste mai, fuor ch'alla prima gente. 
Coder pareva'l ciel di lor fiammelle. 
O settentrional vedovo sito, 
Poiche privato se'di mirar quelle ! " 

It is still sacred in the eyes of the Spaniards : " Un sentiment 
religieux les attache k une constellation dont la forme leur 
rapelle ce signe de la foi plants par leurs ancestres dans les 
deserts du nouveau monde." 

A lantern was held for me by the chief officer while I took 
the sketch, to enable me, as he said, to see the stars. 

20th. The thermometer 81 in my cabin, and 84 in the 
stern cabin above. The new moon was most beautiful. Venus 
looked of surprising size, and threw her light across the sea like 
a moon light. 

2lst. The trade wind blows calmly and sweetly ; we only 
make about 100 knots a day, and the heat is oppressive ; but 
the starry nights are brilliant, and the air at that time is most 
luxuriously cool, fresh, and soft. 

23rd. Tliermometer 82 A calm the boats were lowered, 
and a purse made for a boat race for the native crew, which 
aiforded amusement the heat at night was intense. 

25th. Calm again how much patience is requisite during a 
voyage at sea! 

29th. A dead calm the heat excessive, quite overpowering, 
far beyond the heat of India. Heavy rain, a water-spout seen 
a little breeze in the evening recrossed the line during the 

March ]st. The heat renders all exertion, mental or bodily, 
almost impossible. A heavy squall at noon, with powerful 
* thunder and lightning followed by a calm. No sooner are we 
refreshed by a breeze, than torrents of rain fall and the calm 
returns. When shall we pick up the monsoon ? we creep 
along at a weary pace. 


3rd. The evening brought the north-east monsoon ; it blew 
very gently, the air was soft and sweet, and the ship in perfect 
quietude moved beneath the soft moonlight ; it was one of those 
delicious evenings peculiar to the trade winds. 

4th. Almost perfectly calm the boat was lowered, and a blue 
shark was caught ; it measured nine feet and a half, a most 
ferocious-looking beast. This shark was most curiously caught 
in a noose by the third mate. The captain had a bait over the 
boat, of which the shark was shy ; but seeing the naked arms of 
the mate in the water, he darted towards him and was caught in 
the noose he had laid for him. After the sailors had dined, a man 
of the name of Stewart having had too much grog, went in the 
boat to catch another shark with the third officer and some 
cadets. The shark took the bait, Stewart gave him a pull 
towards the boat, the beast gave a spring, Stewart renewed his 
pull, and into the bows of the boat plunged the shark head- 
long. The cadets had fired four balls into him, which was 
fortunate, the creature was rather stunned, but Stewart held 
him, with the hook in one hand, the fingers of the other hand 
in his eye, and the body of the fish between his legs ! In this 
fearful position the drunken man and the fish struggled together, 
the man calling out, " Poor creature, don't hurt him ! " however, 
in spite of his outcry, the mate chopped off the tail of the shark, 
which disabled him, after which they pitched him out of the 
boat and towed him to the ship : he measured six feet. Several 
sucking fish fell off the shark into the boat : this scene I saw 
from my port, the boat was but a stone's throw from the ship. 
Thermometer 86 not a breath of air, and a dead calm a 
lovely moonlight, and we were cheered at night by the freshening 
of the monsoon. 

\Oth. Anchored off Madras about 11 a.m. On approaching 
Madras, a range of low hills are first seen, the land lies very 
low ; after a time the town appears at a distance. On the left 
the church in the fort is visible, the signal staff and the old 
lighthouse, beyond which is the new lighthouse, and in front of 
the latter is the evening drive on the beach. A post-office 
MasuUa boat, with her flag flying, was coming off" to the ship 


for the letter bags. The sea was as calm as possible ; hundreds 
of katmirams, or as they are usually called catamarans, were in 
every direction out fishing. The appearance was most singular ; 
the catamarans sunk in the water were invisible from a distance, 
and the natives on them appeared to be standing or sitting on the 
sea reminding me of the mahout as he appeared when swim- 
ming his elephant in the Ganges, standing erect on his back, 
and guiding him by the strings in his ears. 

Some of the catamarans contained only one man, some 
two ; their dark bodies were almost perfectly naked, and 
their heads adorned by a white or red cloth bound around 

Three or four rough logs lashed together is all that forms a 
catamaran : in some a few bits of wood fastened in front form 
a low bow very original and simple concerns. Sometimes 
these singular contrivances carry a triangular sail stuck on a 
pole. Very good models of MasuUa boats and catamarans are 
to be purchased on the shore at Madras. The MasuUa boat is 
a large high unwieldy boat consisting of thin planks sewed toge- 
ther with cocoa-nut fibres, and the seams filled up inside with 
the same : they offer little resistance when run on shore through 
the surf. The crew consists of twelve men. Rafts are employed 
to bring off carriages to vessels. The accommodation boat, 
a superior sort of MasuUa boat, is fitted up with seats in the 
stern, and an awning to protect passengers from the surf when 
landing, as well as from the sun. The crew do not encumber 
themselves with too much attire ; their dresses are generally 
white, ornamented with some gaily-coloured edging, a vandyke 
of red or blue. The boats are unsightly, awkward concerns, 
standing high and clumsily out of the water. 

The half-revolving light of the new lighthouse is splendid, 
flashing and twinkling, appearing in great brilliancy, and then 
dying away to a speck, then bursting forth again in all its 
radiance. A light no mariner could mistake. 

I2th. A number of boats are alongside with curiosities for 
sale ; the deck is covered with a marveUous collection of extra- 
ordinary things, sheUs, monkeys, parroquets, and ill-stuffed fishes; 


and there is a great noise created from landing horses and dis- 
charging cargo. 

I3th. Our friend Mr. R came in an accommodation boat 

to take us on shore. The day was quite calm, but the surf, even 
little as there was of it, was surprising to a stranger ; nothing 
would form a better subject for a picture than landing in the 
surf at Madras. The Masulla boat went bumping on shore, 
and her side having been hauled to the beach, the passengers 
were put into chairs, and landed by the men. The drives are 
good, and there is much open space around Madras. At the 
end of three miles, we reached our destination most glad was 
I to be out of the ship ! The house appeared to rock for some 
hours after our arrival, which was singular, as the ship we had 
quitted was perfectly still, and at anchor. Here we enjoyed the 
luxury of fish, cucumbers, and fresh butter. At Madras they 
appear only to use the pankha at the time of meals. The fresh 
sea breeze comes in most agreeably, nevertheless, a pankha 
constantly going would be very acceptable. 

\4th. The evening drive round the island, as it is called, 
and along the sea-shore, is pleasant ; the fine cool sea breeze 
carries off all the languor produced by the heat of the day. The 
statue of Sir Thomas Munro, on the Mount road, in the island, 
is a handsome object : the roads are never watered at Madras, 
and the carriages appear inferior to those in Calcutta. 

I6th. ^Visited the Mint, and was much interested in the 
process of coining and assaying. We quitted our friends after 
sunset, and were taken in a Masulla boat very cleverly through 
the three ranges of surf, perfectly unwetted, to the " Robarts." 
The days are very hot, the evenings cool and delicious : to-night 
there is not a ripple on the sea. 

The fresh sea breeze blowing in upon me made me sleep 
delightftiUy, and I was free from the annoyance of musquitoes, 
whose bites worried me on shore. When we reach Calcutta, 
how much we shall miss the evening breeze from the sea, which 
is so delightful at Madras ! 

\7th. Sunday, crowds of natives on board, Sunday being 
the great day of business with them : they brought grapes, 



which were delicious. I purchased a saw-fish, a sting-ray, or 
bat-fish, a sea-porcupine, a halfmoon-fish, and some others. 

"Mem want some she-asses?" "What?" "She-asses, 
Mem ; many got, Mem buy, I bring she-asses." They turned out 
to be sea-horses, which appear to be abundant at Madras, as 
well as all sorts of monstrous and queer fish. A juggler on 
board was displaying some of his tricks. He finished by sitting 
down on the deck, when he passed the blade of a sword down 
his throat, as far as the hilt, and during the time the blade was 
in his body, he let off fireworks, which were on the four corners 
of two pieces of wood that were fixed in the form of a cross on 
the hilt of the sword, and which spun round upon it. It was a 
disgusting sight, and an unpleasant one, as it sometimes causes 
the death of the juggler. Some of the passengers, on their 
return to the " Robarts," complained much of the heat, and of 
the musquitoes on shore, also of the badness of the inns, which 
are not sufficiently good to aspire to the name of hotels. The 
daunds or donies, as we call them, are numerous at Madras ; 
they are country vessels, coasters, and traders, and are com- 
manded by a sarhang, who wears the undress of the katmiram 
men ; the crews are native the vessels are short, thick, clumsy, 
and marvellously ugly. 

It is interesting to trace the descendants of Milton; his 
grandson was parish-clerk of Fort St. George, at a very remote 
period. Milton's youngest and favourite daughter Deborah 
married a Mr. Clarke; she is said to have been a woman of 
cultivated understanding, and not unpl easing manners ; known 
to Richardson and patronized by Addison, who procured a per- 
manent provision for her from Queen Caroline. Her only son 
Caleb Clarke went to Madras in the first years of the eighteenth 
century, and it appears from an examination of the Parish 
Register of Fort St. George that he was parish-clerk there from 
1717 to 1719, and was buried there on the 26th of October of 
the latter year. 

22nd. Captain Elder, finding the wind would not answer 
for getting out beyond the shipping, turned the head of the 
" Robarts" in shore, and cut through a crowd of donies, country 


vessels, in great style. We sailed from Madras with a delight- 
ful breeze, and were glad to resume our voyage. The captain 
brought me a present of a remarkably large globe-fish, a globular 
fish, covered with very sharp prickles ; it has the beak of a 
parrot, and is, I understand, also called the parrot-fish. 

23rd. The ship going nearly ten knots an hour, and as 
steady as if she were at anchor : how I enjoy the sea breeze ! 
what health, strength, and spirits it gives me ! 

24th. At sunset we passed close to Vizagapatam, the range 
of distant blue mountains was very beautiful, contrasted with 
the red volcanic-looking hills on the sea-shore. 

25th. Anchored off Pooree : the view of the station from the 
sea is remarkable : on the left the temple of Jaganath stands a 
high and conspicuous object. The houses are built along the 
shore on the sands, and close to the beach, where the surf rolls 
for ever with great violence. It is a beautiful sight to watch a 
MasuUa boat rising and sinking as she comes over and through 
the surfs, of which there appear to be three regular ranges, and 
which roll with greater violence than the surf at Madras. Few 
vessels ever anchor at Pooree. I think they told me a ship had 
not been there for three years. The " Robarts" anchored there 

to land Colonel and Mrs. G ; they went on shore in a 

Masulla boat, their carriage and horses were landed on a raft. 


26th. Mr. S came off to the "Robarts," and we re- 
turned with him in the Masulla boat to his house, where we 
breakfasted and enjoyed fresh strawberries. The sun was 
extremely powerful, but I could not resist going in a palanquin 
to see the temple of Jaganath. It is built of stone, and sur- 
rounded by a very high wall of the same material, enclosing a 
large space of ground, and it has four great gateways. In front 
of the grand entrance is a column of one entire piece of stone, 
and elegant in form. Two monsters frown on either side the 
gateway. A wheel ornaments the top of the dome, surmounted 
by a staff, on which three flags are flying ; the staff was bent 
during a hurricane. I got out of the palanquin, and went into 


the gateway to look at the temple ; the Brahmans were ex- 
tremely afraid my unholy footstep might profane the place, and 
would scarcely allow me even to look into the interior, otherwise 
I would have sketched it. A number of those idle rascals were 
about, and they appeared annoyed when I expressed a wish to 
enter the enclosure, which is around the temple. 

One of the Hindoo poets, in answer to the question, " Why 
has Vishntt assumed a wooden shape? " (alluding to the image 
of Jaganath) says, " The troubles of his family have turned 
Vishnu into wood : in the first place he has two wives, one of 
whom (the goddess of Learning) is constantly talking, and the 
other (the goddess of Prosperity) never remains in one place : 
to increase his troubles, he sits on a snake ; his dwelling is in 
the water, and he rides on a bird. All the Hindoos acknow- 
ledge it is a great misfortune for a man to have two wives ; 
especially if both live in one house." 

Krishnu is a descent of Vishnu, and the bones of Krishnu 
are Jugiinat'hii. 

I made the circuit of the wall, and then visited the swing of 
the idol. Once a year Jaganath is brought forth, and put into 
this swing. The arch is of black marble, and has the appear- 
ance of richly-carved bronze : the ropes are supported by iron 
rings fixed into the arch. It stands on a platform, to which 
you ascend by a flight of steps, which are crowned by two 
monsters, couchant. From the temple I returned to tiffin, and 
on my way 1 thought of the description of the plains covered 
with human sculls ; therefore, I kept a sharp look out for them, 
but not one could I see. The god was shut up in his temple ; 
we were not fortunate enough to land there during the celebra- 
tion of the rites, or when he is brought forth once a year at the 
festival called Rat'-ha-jattra, or the festival of the Chariot. The 
height of the ruth is forty-two feet, supported on sixteen wheels ; 
the four horses in front of it are of wood : ropes are attached to 
the bars below, and the car, with the monstrous idol within it, 
is drawn by 20,000 frantic devotees. On this occasion Krishnu 
is worshipped as Jaganath'ha, or Lord of the universe : the Lord 
of the World, from jugiit, the world, and nat'hu, lord. 


" In some period of Hindu history he was accidentally killed 
by a hunter, who left the body to rot under the tree where it 
fell. Some pious person, however, collected the bones of 
Krishnii, and placed them in a box, where they remained : a 
king, who was performing religious austerities, to obtain some 
favour of Vishnu, was directed by the latter to form the image 
of Jugiinnathu, and put into its belly these bones of Krishnu, 
by which means he should obtain the fruit of his religious 
austerities. The king inquired who should make this image ; 
and was commanded to pray to Vishnii-kurmii the architect of 
the gods. He did so, and obtained his request ; but the archi- 
tect at the same time declared, that if any one disturbed him 
while preparing the image, he would leave it in an unfinished 
state. He then began, and in one night built a temple upon 
the blue mountain in Orissa, and proceeded to prepare the 
image in the temple ; but the impatient king, after waiting 
fifteen days, went to the spot ; on which the architect of the 
gods desisted from his work, and left the god without feet or 
hands. The king was very much disconcerted ; but on praying 
to Brumha, he promised to make the image famous in its pre- 
sent shape. The king now invited all the gods to be present at 
the setting up of this image : Brumha himself acted as high 
priest, and gave eyes and a soul to the god, which completely 
estabUshed the fame of Jiigunnathii. This image is said to lie 
in a pool near the present temple of Jiigunnathii in Orissa." 
After many ceremonies have been performed within the temple, 
the god is drawn forth in his car ; at the expiration of eight days 
he is conveyed back to the place from which he came. The 
festival is intended to celebrate the diversions of Krishnii and 
the Gopis, with whom he used to ride out in his chariot. The 
image of Bvilu-Ramii the brother of Jugunnat'hii almost always 
accompanies him. Some place the image of Revutee by the 
side of her husband, Biilii-Ramii ; she was a singular personage, 
that maiden lady, for at the time of her marriage she was 
3,888,000 years old ! Bulii-Ramu saw her for the first time 
when ploughing ; notwithstanding her immense stature (which 
reached as high as a sound ascends in clapping the hands 


seven times), Baiu-Ramu married her, and to bring down 
her monstrous height, he fastened a ploughshare to her 


At this festival all castes eat together : the pilgrims to this 
shrine endure excessive hardships from fatigue, want of food, 
and exposure to the weather ; sometimes a devotee will throw 
himself under the wheels of the car, and be crushed to death, 
believing, if he sacrificed his life through his faith in Jugiinat'hu, 
the god would certainly save him. Every third year they make 
a new image, when a Brahman removes the original bones of 
Krishnu from the inside of the old image to that of the new 
one ; on this occasion he covers his eyes, lest he should be 
struck dead for looking on such sacred relics. The Rajah of 
Burdwan expended twelve lakh of rupees in a journey to 
Jugunat'hu, including two lakh paid as a bribe to the Brahmans 
to permit him to see these bones ; but he died six months after- 
wards for his temerity. A number of women belong to the 
temple, whose employment is to dance and sing before the god. 
Jugunat'hu, his brother, Bulii-Ramu, and their sister, Soobhudra, 
are placed together in the car. 

In the plate entitled Jaganiith is a brass idol, (Fig. 5,) which 
was given me at Pooree ; it may probably represent the three 
personages above mentioned ; but why the brother and sister 
should have stumps instead of arms, and why they should have 
no legs, I cannot imagine. Is Jaganath in himself a trinity, as 
this idol would lead one to suppose ? 

Fig. 1 , in the same plate, is a fac-simile of a little wooden model 
of the god ; it has no legs, and only stumps as arms ; the head is 
very large, as are also the great circular eyes. At the festivals 
the Brahmans adorn Jaganath with silver or golden hands ; and 
an offering of a pair of golden hands to the image is considered 
an act of great devotion. This model was presented to me at 
Pooree, as was also the seal (Fig. 2), with which the priests 
stamp the worshipper on the breast and on the arms ; it is 
covered with various holy emblems : the tika of hhabut or ashes 



lA2**-S **. 



On Stone tj Major pArlhy 



is also placed on the forehead of the pilgrim by the ministering 
Brahman. The Uchchat tilak is the ceremony of putting a few 
grains of boiled rice on the forehead of an image when addressed, 
or of a Brahman when invited to an entertainment. 

The asan, the sacred mat, used by the Hindus in worship, is 
made of the kashii grass (saccharum spontaneum), and sold at 
different prices, from a penny to one rupee each. 

I saw a small model of the ruth, or car, which was ornamented 
with flags and red linen. At Allahabad I wished to inspect 
one which was passing along the road, but was deterred from 
so doing, being told it was covered with indelicate paintings. 

During the mela, or great fair, at the sacred junction of the 
rivers at Allahabad, I have often seen worship performed before 
an image of Jaganath, as described Vol. I. page 262. 

A carved stone was presented to me, brought from the ruins 
of a city of great extent, about forty miles from Pooree ; its 
name has escaped my memory, but it appeared from the account 
I received to be full of curiosities ; few persons, however, had 
ventured to visit the ruined city, deterred by the probability of 
taking a fever, in consequence of the malaria produced by the 
thick jangal by which it is surrounded. The stone is white, and 
upon it is carved the figure of some remarkable personage, above 
which is an emblem of Mahadeo. A very fine tiger's skin was 
also added to my collection. I carried off my prizes with great 
delight, and they now adorn my museum. 

In the evening our party returned on board in a MasuUa boat 
through a very fine surf that flung the boat right on end, and 
can-ied her back many times towards the beach ere we could 
make our way through it ; the foam dashed over the boat as 
every surf rolled upon her ; it was a beautiful sight, I enjoyed 
extremely the passing through those magnificent surfs. The 
countenance of the captain of the " Robarts," who was with us, 
was grave and anxious ; he eyed the horizon intently, and 
appeared not to like the look of the sky. He weighed anchor 
instantly on reaching the ship, and said to me afterwards, " I 
did not like the appearance of the weather as we came on board, 
and was thinking whether I should lay my bones there." With 

VOL. II. c c 


a wind on shore a ship off Pooree must be in an awkward 

27th. At 8 p. M. arrived off the floating light, a brig, anchored 
at the Sandheads ; it was a beautiful night, our signal-lights 
burnt brightly, and we were guided from time to time as we 
approached the vessel by the half-hour hghts burnt on board 
her; the last light we had seen had been pretty distant, and 
steering by it, we suddenly perceived the brig on our quarter, 
about one hundred yards off, her sails, masts, cordage, and 
hull glancing out in the darkness, and from the deep shadow, 
by the lurid glare of her blue light ; the sight was beautifully 
spectral. A pilot came immediately on board ; with a fine 
breeze and a press of sail we proceeded towards Saugor, 
anchored, and reported our arrival at the Sandheads. 

29ith. A fine breeze bore us on until we anchored off the 
Bishop's Palace, at which time a north-wester came on, accom- 
panied by thunder, lightning, and heavy rain. 

29<A. Arrived off Baboo Ghat, Calcutta, after a most agree- 
able voyage from the Cape, which, I beUeve, was enjoyed by 
every one on board. 

The " Robarts " was a fine vessel, one of the old teak India- 
men. With regret we saw the following extract in a newspaper 
in 1847: 

Wilful burning of an Indiaman. 
" Considerable surprise has within the last day or two existed 
in the underwriters' room at Lloyd's, in consequence of the 
receipt of intelligence of the loss of another East India trader 
by fire, under circumstances that have justified the officers 
under whose command she was placed in apprehending the 
greater part of the crew on a charge of having maliciously 
occasioned the destruction of the ship. She was the ' Robarts,' 
of London, part the property of Messrs. Havisides and Co., of 
Cornhill, and was one of the old-fashioned teak-built Indiamen, 
of nearly 1000 tons' burden. She was deeply laden with cotton 
and other merchandize, which had been shipped at Calcutta, as 
well as a number of passengers, and was on the point of sailing 



when the calamity happened. The immense losses by fire that 
merchants and shipowners have within the last two years sus- 
tained in that port for we believe no fewer than five large ships 
have been totally destroyed during that time have led to every 
precaution on their part. The cargo of the ' Robarts' under- 
went a strict scrutiny before it was taken on board, and the 
ship's hold was carefully overhauled, besides which extra 
lookers-on were appointed to watch the conduct of the crew. 
With the exception of the officers, the crew were composed of 
Lascars, nearly seventy in number ; and here it is proper to 
mention, that in all instances where they are engaged to navi- 
gate a vessel, whether to England or elsewhere, they are entitled 
by the laws of that country to six months' pay in advance. 
This has led to the disasters spoken of; the Lascars firing 
the ships to defraud the owners of their services, all the 
ships being destroyed a night or so before the day of their 
appointed sailing. The ' Robarts' dropped down the river on 
the 28th of June, and the passengers having come on board she 
sailed on the following day, the 29th, for China. The succeed- 
ing night saw the destruction of the vessel in the river. The 
passengers and most of the officers were buried in slumber 
when they were startled by the cries of ' fire,' and on their 
reaching the deck were not a Httle alarmed at finding such 
to be the case, for smoke was rolling up in dense volumes 
from the fore part of the vessel. The captain and chief officer 
went down to ascertain its locality, and finding the bulk of the 
fire apparently behind the starboard-chain box, or locker, water 
in copious quantities was immediately thrown down, the pumps 
being also got to work ; notwithstanding, however, no effect 
was produced, but the smoke and heat increased, and the 
stench clearly showed the fire had extended to the cotton in 
the hold. The exertions were continued, but at four o'clock, 
four hours after the alarm was raised, Captain Elder seeing 
there was not the least chance of saving the ship, ordered the 
boats to be lowered, and having seen all hands and the pas- 
sengers safe in them absindoned her to her fate. Fortunately 
for them another vessel, named the ' Fatima,' was coming 



down the channel, and took them on board to Kedgeree, where 
they were landed. It is unnecessary to observe that in a few 
hours the 'Robarts' was totally destroyed. The men who 
were charged with setting fire to the ship have undergone an 
examination, and are remanded. The result of the second 
day's examination has not yet been received. The loss of the 
vessel and cargo is said to exceed 30,000. It is covered by 
insurances." Observer. 



Calcutta Mango Fish Lord Ellenborough recalled Fall of Fish The 
Hoogly The Bore Quitted Calcutta Ishapur Chagdah Happiness of 
Dying in Sight of the Ganges Quitted the Tropics Cutwa Plassey 
Berhampiir Morus Indica Jungipiir Quitted the Bhagirathi Night 
Blindness Sikri-gall Herd of Buffaloes Patturgatta Hill Rocks of 
Colgong An Ajgar A Wild and Singular Scene. 

1844, April \st. We took a house in Chowringhee, and found 
soon after that the cholera and small-pox were prevalent in 
Calcutta : how ill the dampness and the heat of this Bengal 
climate render me ! they destroy all energy. Calcutta is famous 
for its tapsi machhi (mango fish), in this month they are in 
perfection. " Mangoes and fish meet of necessity ' ;" they come 
in at the same season, and the unripe mango is also used in 
cooking fish : the dandls bring them in small baskets fresh from 
the boats to the Course of an evening, and sell them, twenty for 
a rupee, at the time a khansaman charges his master one rupee 
for five of them. Parties are made, to Fulta and Budge-Budge, 
down the river, to eat mango fish, after the fashion of white- 
bait parties in town ; they are excellent smoked in the same . 
manner as anwari fish for breakfast. 

28th. A fine fall of rain, perhaps it will clear the air, and 
drive off the cholera, which is raging strongly at present. 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 134. 


May 24th. Mango fish fifty per rupee. The weather very 
hot, the nights most oppressive, from the heavy mist and great 
heat. We left our horses at the Cape, which we regretted on 
our arrival in Calcutta ; we have been looking out for a pair of 
carriage horses for some time. This is the cheapest season of 
the year in which to make the purchase, but they are very dear ; 
those for sale at eight hundred rupees are vile, those at one 
thousand indifferent, you cannot get a good pair under 
fourteen or sixteen hundred rupees ; it would not answer to 
bring riding horses from the Cape for sale, but carriage horses 
would answer well, they are in such great demand in Calcutta. 

29th. Rain having fallen on the Queen's birthday, the display 
of fireworks was postponed until to-day ; it was a failure, with 
the exception of one bouquet, which was good. They would 
not bear a comparison with the jeux d'artijices that I witnessed 
in Paris on the day of the King's fSte ; I never saw any colours 
that equalled those in brilliancy and variety. The last firework, 
a bouquet of rockets of divers colours, was superb ; and some- 
times a composition was burnt, that threw a red glare over the 
landscape ; then came a glare of bluelights, casting a spectral 
appearance on the houses, the river, and the sky, after which 
another tint was thrown forth, and the effect was excellent. 

June \^th. Lord EUenborough recalled, deposed by the 
Court of Directors. 

July \8th. Visited the Uvery stables to see some fresh Arabs, 
among which some very good ones were pointed out to me. 
There was not a horse that I would have selected for my own 
riding whose price was less than from twelve to sixteen hundred 
rupees ; and for those likely to turn out good racers they asked 
two and three thousand. 

3\st. Lord EUenborough quitted Calcutta, and returned to 

Aug. 22nd. A very heavy gale, and a deep fall of rain ; the 
next day the natives were catching fish all over the maidan in 
front of the Government House ; they say the fish fell with the 
rain, which is now a foot deep on the ground. 

Oct. \st. It being our intention to proceed by the river to 


Allahabad, and the weather becoming daily cooler, we hired a 
pinnace budgerow for ourselves, a large oldk for the baggage, 
and a cook-boat, sent them to Prinsep's Ghat, and prepared for 
the voyage. 

That branch of the Ganges that quits the main stream at 
Gopalgunj, flowing by Sooty to Moorshedabad, is called the 
Bhagirathi until it reaches Nuddea, at which place it is joined 
by the Jellinghy, and they flow on, passing Calcutta, to the 
island of Sagor, under the name of the Hoogly. Only that 
part of the Ganges which lies in a line from Gangoutrl to Sagor 
island is considered holy by the Hindus, and named the Ganga 
or Bhagirathi. The Hoogly river, therefore, of Europeans, is 
considered as the true Ganges. 

The Bore commences at Hoogly Point, Sagor, where the 
river first contracts itself, and is perceptible above the town of 
Hoogly : so quick is its motion, that it scarcely employs four 
hours in running up from the one to the other, although the 
distance is nearly seventy miles. It does not run on the 
Calcutta side, but along the opposite bank ; whence it crosses at 
Chitpur, about four miles above Fort William, and proceeds 
with great violence. On its approach boats nmst immediately 
quit the shore, and go for safety into the middle of the river ; 
at Calcutta it sometimes occasions an instantaneous rise of five 
feet. The tide is perceptible as far as Nuddea. 

lOth. Quitted Calcutta with a foul wind and heavy rain, 
damp, gloomy, and rheumatic weather. 

\lth. Started with a fair wind, bought two milch goats for 
thirteen rupees eight anas, a great prize on the river. Moored 
the vessels at Ishapur, in order to visit a friend who has charge 
of the powder-works at that place ; his house, which is large 
and excellent, is situated on the banks of the river ; every thing 
is so cool and fresh around it ; it is delightful to be in the 
country once more. 

I4th. The fast of the Muhan-am ended to-day ; the followers 
of the prophet amongst our servants, wishing to have a great 
feast, petitioned to be allowed to stay till noon, to worship and to 
stuflf pillao. Quitted Hoogly with the tide at half-past one p.m. 


15<A. Passed the village of Chagdah, on the left bank of the 
Matabangah, forty-six miles from Calcutta ; a village of corpses, 
the inhabitants of which, having been brought by their 
relatives to the river's side, to die before their time, prefer a 
debased existence to a righteous end, agreeing therein with the 
highest authorities. Pope's Homer makes Achilles in the 
Elysian fields say, 

" Rather I'd choose laboriously to bear 
A weight of woes, and breathe the vital air, 
A slave to some poor hind that toils for bread, 
Than reign the scepter'd monarch of the dead." 

Solomon deems it better to be a live dog than a dead lion ; and 
Job, called by Byron " the Respectable," says, " Why should 
a living man complain ?" to which Byron adds, " For no reason 
that I can see, except that a dead man cannot." In the face 
of these grave authorities, as far as I am concerned, I cannot 
help being of a different opinion : the proverb agrees with my 
view of the subject, " It is better to die with honour than live 
with infamy'." These unfortunate people, outcasts from their 
homes and families, on account of their unexpected recovery, 
after having been exposed by their relatives to die on the banks 
of the river, have taken refuge in this village, and are its sole 

" The Hindus are extremely anxious to die in sight of the 
Ganges, that their sins may be washed away in their last 
moments. A person in his last agonies is frequently dragged from 
his bed and friends, and carried, in the coldest or in the hottest 
weather, from whatever distance, to the river-side, where he 
lies, if a poor man, without a covering day and night, until he 
expires. With the pains of death upon him, he is placed up to 
the middle in water, and drenched with it ; leaves of the toolsee 
plant are also put into his mouth, and his relations call upon 
him to repeat, and repeat for him, the names of Ramii, Hliree, 
Narayiinu, Brumha, Giinga, &c. In some cases the family 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 135. 


priest repeats some incantations, and makes an offering to 
Voitiirunee, the river over which the soul, they say, is ferried after 
leaving the body. The relations of the dying man spread the 
sediment of the river on his forehead or breast, and afterwards, 
with the finger, write on this sediment the name of some deity. 
If a person should die in his house, and not by the river-side, 
it is considered as a great misfortune, as he thereby loses the 
help of the goddess in his dying moments. If a person choose 
to die at home, his memory becomes infamous." 

This part of the river is flat and uninteresting ; anchored a 
little below Culna, which is sixty-six miles by water, fifl;y-two 
by land, from Calcutta. At night the insects, attracted by the 
brilliant light of the Silvant lamps, came into the cabin in swarms 
like the plagues of Egypt they fall into the wine-cups and fill 
the plates ; they are over my hands, and over the paper on 
which 1 am writing, and are a complete pest. 

I6th. Very hot during the middle of the day; thermometer 
86'. Passed the Dhobah sugar-works, seventy-two miles by 
water from Czdcutta ; left the Jellingee river on the right, and 
anchored at Nuddea, eighty-three by water, and sixty-four by 
land. The steamers generally arrive at the Dhobah sugar- 
works in one day, but still we think we have come on quickly in 
the Budgerow ! We did not land to visit the long range of 
temples on the bank of the river. To this place the Ccdcutta 
Sircars come, to eat the air. 

At MeertuUa, half-way between Nuddea and Dumdumma, we 
crossed the Tropic of Cancer, which made us fancy ourselves in 
a cooler climate, in spite of the extreme heat. At noon-day it 
is almost intolerable, and very oppressive, but the early mornings 
are cool, and the nights also ; moored off Dumdumma. 

\8th. Lugaoed on a dry sandbank beyond Dewangunge, 
one hundred and eighteen miles from Calcutta ; it has a large 
mart, and a fine indigo factory. 

I9th. Arrived early in the day off" Cutwa, situated on the 
right bank of the Bhagirathi, five miles from Dewangunge ; 
anchored to procure fowls, fish, and vegetables ; it has a coal 
depot for steamers. Cutwa is on the Adgar-nala : found nothing 


in the baziir but eggs and plantains, fowls and byguns (solanuni 
melongena). Purchased twelve sticks of shola, or sola, as it is 
commonly called, for one paisa ; the dandls use it as a tinder- 
box, and strike fire into the end of a sola stick with a flint and 
steel. A cooler day ; the river very uninteresting ; moored on a 
nameless sandbank. 

20^^. Passed the Field of Plassey, sixteen miles above 
Cutwa, on the left bank ; memorable for the defeat of Suraja 
Dowla, by the British forces under Colonel Clive, June 23rd, 
1757. This battle decided the fate of Bengal, and ultimately 
of India. Anchored on a fine cool sandbank near the Company's 
fil-khdna (elephant establishment) , on the left bank, eight miles 
above Plassey. 

2lst. Arrived at RangamattI, a village on the right bank, 
with steep red banks ; the Company's silk manufactories were 
here formerly. The place is celebrated for sajjl-matti, or fullers 
earth : it is six miles from Berhampiir, one hundred and sixty 
from Calcutta, and seventy-seven from Jellingee. Lugaoed at 
the civil station of Berhampiir, which looks quite deserted ; 
nothing is going forward ; no crowds of natives on the bank 
with various articles for sale, and no picturesque boats on the 

22nd. Sent letters to the Diik laid in a store of fowls, 
bread, butter, charcoal, limes, &c., to help us on to Raj- 
mahal, as provisions are only to be procured at the large 

23rd. Passed the palace of the Nawab of Moorshedabad : 
admired the fanciful boats he uses on state occasions, and the 
snake boats; the latter fly with great swiftness when rowed 
by twenty men, from their amazing length and extreme nar- 
rowness. The state boats are highly gilt, and ornamented 
very tastefully with colours and gold ; they are light and airy 
in the extreme. The river is very shallow ; we have great diffi- 
culty in finding the deep parts ; in consequence, our progress is 
slow, but the scenery is very beautiful. Moored off" a small 
bastl (village) on the right bank. 

24th. A little fleet of small boats filled with firewood has 


passed us ; never was there any thing so neatly and regularly 
stowed away as the wood. The weather is becoming sensibly 
cooler and more pleasant : moored below Jungipur on a field 
covered with the tut, (morus Indica, Indian mulberry,) a shrub 
which is planted and cultivated in great quantities as food for 
the silkworms which are reared in the neighbouring villages. 
My goats luxuriated for some hours by moonlight in the fields 
of tut, enjoying the fresh shrubs ; they have been cut down, and 
the young sprouts are now only about a foot high. 

25th. Passed Jungipur ; paid the toll which is levied for 
keeping open the entrance of the Bhagirathi ; anchored at 
KamalpOr, a straggling picturesque village : cows are here in 
the greatest abundance the village swarms with them ; they 
swim the cows over the river in herds to graze on the oppo- 
site bank, and swim them back again in the evening ; a couple 
of men usually accompany the herd, crossing the river by hold- 
ing on to the tail of a cow : the animals take to the water as a 
thing of course ; on their arrival at the cottages, they are tied 
up with food before them, and a smouldering fire is kept up 
near them all night : the cows enveloped in the smoke are free 
from the worrying of the insects. Mr. Laruletta has a large 
silk manufactory at JungipQr ; he lives in the Residency, which 
he purchased from the Government ; it is forty-two miles above 
Berhampur. The villages of Gurka and Kidderpur are on the 
opposite bank. 

26th. Quitted the Bhagirathi and entered on the Ganges : 
stopped at a place famous for bamboos, consisting of a few huts 
built of mats on the river-side, where bamboos and ardent 
spirits are sold. My manjhi bought nine very large newly-cut 
bamboos for one rupee five anas, and complained of their 
being very dear! Crossed the river, and anchored above the 
village of Konsert, at the Luckipur indigo factory, a most 
melancholy looking place, the bungalow in ruins the owner 
resides on the opposite side of the river. There is a very fine 
banyan tree on the Ghiit, at Konsert, and two very fine silk 
cotton trees (bombax heptaphyllum) in front of the factory. The 
kajur (phoenix dactylifera, common date palm,) flourishes here. 


it is remarkable for its lofty trunk, rugged on account of the 
persistent vestiges of the decayed leaves. 

27th. Passed Dulalpur and saw the factory of Chandnl Koti 
in the distance, where I met with so much hospitality on my 
expedition to the ruins of Gaur. Heard of Mr. Sinclair's death, 
which took place about a year ago, most Ukely from the jungle 
fever. After a pleasant sail with a fair wind, had the first sight 
of the Hills ; anchored on a cool, clear, and fresh sjmdbank in 
the middle of the Ganges the moon high, the night quiet and 
agreeable. I took a camera lucida on deck, and was much 
amused with the delight of the crew when they looked into it. 
They called it a Kompds, and were very anxious to have their 
own likenesses taken. 

28th. Thermometer 82 in the cabin at noon ; not a breath 
of air, the river very broad and shallow ; it is hardly possible to 
find water enough to float the budgerow. We are just passing 
a steamer with a cargo flat in tow; she has grounded, and 
there she is in the midst of the river burning with heat, whilst 
the little pilot boats are trying to find some channel deep 
enough for her. Like the hare and the tortoise in the fable, 
we shall reach the goal first. Imagine the heat of the iron 
steamer, the bright river giving back the sun's rays, and looking 
like unrufiled glass around her ; the inside of the vessel must 
resemble a well-heated iron oven. Lugaoed ofi" Husseinpur. 
The wooliik (baggage-boat) came up late ; for the second time 
she has run foul of the budgerow, and has done her some 
damage. The manjhi of the woolak cannot see after sunset, 
having what the natives call rat andhd, or night blindness : he 
can see well enough during the day time ; this is rather a dis- 
agreeable affliction for the master of a vessel. 

29th. Passed the steamer and flat with passengers for Cal- 
cutta veiy hot and oppressive arrived near Rajmahiil, and 
found a large portion of the bank of the river had fallen in ; it 
was a little land-slip. The palm-trees on the fallen land were in 
most picturesque disorder. Moored off" the ancient palace of 
Rajmahal : the river, which formerly washed its walls, has de- 
serted it, and the deep current is on the opposite side, leaving 

SIKRI-GALl. 397 

an almost dry bed before the ruins. Visited the old baoll 
(well) , which is beautified by age : down the centre of it hang 
long pendant shoots of the banyan, and the roots of trees : 
thence I proceeded to the tombs of the Europeans, and to the 
gateway. Several cows were quietly ruminating under the black 
marble arches of the verandah of the palace that overlooks the 
river. The steamers take in their coal a mile below, and there- 
fore do not destroy the beauty of the old ruins with their smoke, 
and steam, and Birmingham appearance. The Hills are distant 
about five miles inland. Myriads of minute insects are in great 
number ; they fiU my nose Uke snufF, and get into my eyes and 
ears, and torment me so much, I find it almost impossible to 
write ; they fill my teacup, and absolutely are giving forth a 
vile odour fi-om the numbers that have found death around the 
flame of the candle. 

30th. The early morning was delightful the weather much 
cooler and more agreeable. Laid in fresh stores found remark- 
ably fine fowls and good yams sailed at 4 p.m., lugiioed at 7, 
on a sandbank here the insects are but few, and do not annoy 
me as they did last night. Crocodiles abound, and are showing 
themselves continually, swimming low in the water. We passed 
near this place a village full of a caste of people who live on 
crocodile flesh. My dandis say they understand it smells rank, 
and is very hard. Twice this evening I heard a shrill peculiar 
scream, and on remarking it to the men, they said it was the 
cry of the crocodile. Twenty-one miles above Rajmahal and 
two miles below SikrI-gall Hill and Point, says the " Cal- 
cutta Directory," is the beautiful Mootee Jhuma waterfall ; it is 
visible on the eastern side of the Hills. I neither saw nor 
visited it. 

Slst. Anchored at sunset at Sikri-gall landed and walked 
to the bungalow. The French indigo planter had quitted the 
place ; the house was uninhabited ; had he been there, he would 
have exclaimed, 

" Voila Madame, qui arrive 
Pour encore visiter mes tigres !" 

Walked on a short distance to have a view of the Hills, and 


to recall the memory of the Hill-man and his terl (wife) : saw 
some beautiful goats in the village, which the people refused to 
sell, although I bribed them high. Wood and charcoal was 
cheap and plentiful; nothing else was to be procured. A 
number of jackals were roaming and howling in the village. 
The point of SikrI-gali is very picturesque from the river. 
The indigo factor's bungalow would be an excellent shooting 
box. It is said the Jharna waterfall and the Himalaya moun- 
tains are visible at times from Rajmahal ; I have never seen 
either. Bears, tigers, rhinoceroses, leopards, hogs, deer of all 
kinds, abound here, and feathered game in the Hills. Steamers 
pass in ten days and a half in the dry season from Calcutta. 

Nov. \st. Quitted SikrI-gali early ; the river very rapid, 
nothing but dreary sandbanks, with a distant view of the Hills. 
Porpoises gambolling in plenty. 

2nd. Fish in abundance for sale on the bank at Kantnagar ; 
a dreary day ; anchored on a sandbank, insects detestable, 
the thermometer at ten a.m. only 70. 

3rd. Saw a herd of buffaloes swimming the river about one 
hundred head ; the men swam with them, each holding on by a 
buffalo's tail, with his clothes carried high in the air in one 
hand. Some of the men had bamboos, with which they beat 
and urged the animals to swim. Wlien I first caught sight of 
them I took them for a reef of low black rocks, the black heads 
were so numerous and so mixed together. Late in the evening 
saw the rocks of Colgong ; tracked up the left bank of the river, 
aided by a good breeze ; the force of the stream here is excessive, 
and it was a great piece of good fortune we had a fair wind to 
aid us ; anchored in darkness about a mile below Kuhulgaon 
that is, Colgong. 

The " Directory" says, " Fifty-eight miles above Rajmahal, on 
the left bank of the river, is the junction of the Koosie river. 
On the Nepaul part of the Himalaya, nearly opposite, is the 
Patturgatta Hill, with one or two temples, and is noted in native 
tradition for a cave (only a small hole), into which, it is said, a 
Rajah, with an immense suite, and one lakh of torch-bearers, 
entered, and never returned ; such is the story of the attending 


fakir. Hence are beautiful views of isolated hills, and the tips 
of the Colgong Rocks. The Southern or Patturgatta passage 
up to Colgong has some very dangerous rocks, where, if a boat 
touches, not a soul can be saved." 

4th. At day-break arose to get a view of the rocks ; made 
the manjhi cross over to the Colgong side, to enable me to 
take a sketch from that bank. These rocky islands are very 
singular and beautiful, and there are four of them ; rocks on 
rocks, covered with fine foliage, they rise straight out of the 
centre of the river, which runs like a mill-sluice, and is here 
extremely broad ; we came up the left passage, which is naviga- 
ble after the rains. They say no one lives upon these rocks ; 
that a fakir formerly took up his abode there, but having been 
eaten by a snake (an ajgar), one of enormous size, and an eater 
of human flesh, the people became alarmed, and no holy or 
unholy person has since taken up their residence on these rocky 
islands. Here we bought two very fine rohii fish (cyprinus 
denticulatus) for six anas, but could not procure any of the 
rock fish : small boats were under the rocks fishing, and snakes, 
they say, abound upon them. 

"The village of Colgong is sixty-eight miles above Calcutta, 
and eighteen below Bhagulpur ; it is on the right bank of the 
river, has a fine nala and shelter for boats : it is a coal depot 
for steamers. The left passage should never be attempted by 
either steamers or boats in the rains, as the currents and eddies 
between the main and the rocks make it certain loss for any 
native boats, and too dangerous for steamers ; boats, in attempt- 
ing it, must be careful to have very strong tracking lines low down 
on their prows, with plenty of trackers, and two bowhnes as 
guys to the bank, and be kept close in. Rock fish are procur- 
able here, also fowls, kids, eggs, &c." 

I longed to have a gun fired, to awaken the echoes, and to 
startle the myriads of birds that inhabit these singular rocks. 
We have just passed a most enormous crocodile ; it was basking 
in the sun on a sandbank, looking Uke the stem of a dry tree, 
and, but for a pecuUar shine and polish, and the shade cast on 
the bank, you would not have supposed it a living animal : 



some diindis, tracking near it, aroused the enormous beast, and 
it took refuge in the river ; it was one of the largest I ever saw. 
Birds were around in innumerable flights. The river presents a 
singular picture ; the expanse of water is very great, interspersed 
with low sandbanks in every direction. Three crocodiles are on 
the banks, one at full length out of the river, on the top of the 
bank, the other two half out of the water, and lying flat upon it. 
One of the native charpals, on which a corpse has been brought 
down to be burned, and which, from being reckoned unclean, is 
always left on the spot, is on a sandbank ; it is upset, the feet in 
the air, and seated inside is an enormous vulture, gorged from his 
horrible feast. Storks, with their long legs and white bodies, 
are numerous in the water ; cuid some very soft-plumed birds, 
looking like large doves, are on the sands ; whilst countless 
birds, in flocks, are flying in every direction. We anchored on 
a fine open clean sandbank, and enjoyed the coolness of the 
evening and the quietude around us ; no human habitations 
were to be seen, nothing but the expanse of the broad river, 
and its distant banks. 



Bhagulpur Rock and Temple of Janghira Cytisus Cajan Force of the 
Current Monghir An Aerolite Bairagi Temples Dwakanath Tagore 
Rosaries Vases Suraj-garha Bar Beggars and Swine BenipQr 
Bankipfir Azimabad Suraj Puja Patna The Gola Deegah Havell's 
Farm Dinapiir. 

1844, Nov. 5th. At noon we moored oflF the Civil station of 
Bhagulpur. The river-side has been very picturesque the whole 
distance from Colgong. Procured mutton, fowls, yams, &c., 
from the bazar ; and purchased some pieces of silk and some 
imitation Scotch plaid, that was brought for sale to the budge- 
row. Accompanied the Judge to see the new church, the build- 
ing of which he superintends ; saw the monument which was 
erected in honour of Mr. Cleveland, of the Civil Service, by the 
Zamlndars, and was told, that at the other end of the station 
is another monument erected to him by the Government. He 
brought the Hill people into subjection, by whom he was styled 
the " Father of their Country." Bhagulpur is eighteen miles 
above Colgong ; it is two hundred and sixty-eight miles by land 
from Calcutta, by water, from the same place, three hundred 
and forty-eight miles in the rains, and six hundred and thirty- 
six in the dry season, and the dak runs in two days and a 
quarter. Steamers take nine and a half or eleven days to 

VOL. 11. D d 


arrive here. A light kind of silk, called tasar, is sold in this 
bazar, also, shot silks of various colours, useful for razals 
and native wear, and a kind of cloth called baflas. Here are a 
few Hill rangers and a sepahl station. 

6th. A pleasant and cool sail, the wind being fair at times ; 
lugaoed off a sandbank. But few insects, there being no trees 
near us. 

jth. ^To-day, to my sorrow, I was unable to pay the Rock 
and Temple of Janghira a visit, in consequence of the deep 
stream being on the other side the river ; still, I was near 
enough to sketch it, and very pretty and picturesque is its 
situation. It is twenty-five miles above Bhagulpur ; the rocky 
point on which the old ruined mosque stands, close to Janghira, 
with the mountains beyond, would form a good subject for a 
picture. Just above the rock we met a large fleet of pinnaces, 
budgerows, and country boats, of all sorts and sizes, conveying 
the Buffs from Allahabad to Calcutta, for embarkation for 
England ; I counted sixty-four vessels. On account of their 
coming down with the stream the sight was not as picturesque as 
it would have been had they been going up the river. All 
vessels put up very small low masts and scarcely any sail when 
going with the stream, on account of its extreme velocity ; 
but ascending the river they carry very high masts, and an 
overpowering quantity of sail. The last time I saw the Buffs 
was at a ball they gave at Meeinit, a farewell on going to 

The weather is now most agreeable, delightfully cool, a sharp, 
clear, pure air ; we use a pankha at dinner-time, hung from the 
ceiling of the cabin, but do not require it during the rest of the 
day ; the nights are cold. We have moored ; and the poor 
goats, who for three days have been on a barren sandbank of an 
evening, have now a fine field of urur (cytisus cajan) to browse 
upon. The people have cut some, and the goats will therefore 
be happy to-morrow ; this is a theft, but allowable on the banks 
of the river, because a less rent is paid for land subject to the 
visits of depredators from the Ganges. 

8th. A large white house on the hill at Monghir is visible. 


T was charmed with the scene when I went on deck at half-past 
seven this morning : the river in this part is extremely broad 
and very shallow, with a stream running like a mill-sluice ; a 
fair wind was blowing, and we were in the midst of about five 
hundred vessels, which had been detained there in consequence 
of the force of the stream. With this fine wind, however, they 
all set sail ; the lighter vessels with great difficulty passed the 
bad part of the river, the larger and heavier craft got up to a 
certain point, and beyond that they could not proceed, but one 
by one lowered their sails, and fell back on a sandbank, where 
they lay all in a row, like a line of soldiers. I amused myself 
with watching the vessels as they came up to the testing point, 
and went forward triumphantly, or fell back into the line of the 
hopeless. The cook-boat, with our assistance, was brought up 
with great difficulty ; the budgerow bravely made way against the 
fierce current ; the wooluk, unable to stem the stream, fell back, 
took some other passage, and parted company. Late at night 
we anchored on one of those fine, hard, cool, clean sandbanks ; 
the sand is mixed with such a quantity of mica (talc), that at 
night, by the light of a candle, it shines as if sprinkled with 
silver-dust. We expected to have reached Monghir to-day, but 
the winding of the river and the force of the stream have 
prevented us. 

9th. Arrived at Monghir. The river-side was covered with 
boats of all sorts as thickly planted as possible : the baziir 
extends all along the edge of the river, and some good houses 
belonging to the gentlemen at the station are on the higher 
ground ; the churchyard is beyond, and the Old Fort at the 
point. The moment we anchored we were assailed with hundreds 
of beggars ; their clamour and cries were most annoying, they 
were a complete pest, driving them away was useless. The 
people selling pistols, necklaces, bathing-chairs, baskets, toys, . 
shoes, &c., raised such a hubbub, it was disgusting ; we had all the 
Venetians shut on that side, and the people had the impudence 
to get down into the water and peep through them ; the 
chaprasTs drove them off, but they were back again the next 
minute like a swarm of bees. 



I may here insert a paragraph I saw in the papers : 
" The Asiatic Society has obtained an aeroUte, or a mass of 
meteoric iron, found imbedded in the soil on the top of the 
Kurruckpore Hills, near Monghyr, which had been exhumed 
and worshipped by the natives for many years. It is a block, 
weighing about 1601bs., of a somewhat conical, oviform, disk 
shape, standing on a sort of foot, and slightly truncated at both 
ends ; it contains iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium, siUca, alumina, 
and traces of arsenic and selenium." 

1 0th. The next day we started. The Fort is a good object 
from this side, but, on turning the corner, how much was I 
charmed to see the most picturesque cluster of bairdgi temples 
imaginable ! The maths are surrounded by fine trees, the ruined 
bastion of the old fort juts out into the river, and has fragments 
of rock at its base. The high spires of the white temples seen 
among the trees, the slender bamboos with their bright red or 
white flags, and a sort of Hindu altar in front, are beautifully 
grouped. On a large stone in the river, just in front of the 
temples, shaded from the sun by an immense chatr (umbrella) 
made of straw, sat two Hindu priests, who were a picture in 
themselves ; upright at their side was a very high thin bamboo, 
crowned with the branch of some holy tree, from which a lota was 
suspended in the air. The whole was reflected in the Ganges, and 
the vessels and distant land finished the picture. It came upon 
me by surprise : had I known of the temples that were hidden 
from my view by the bastion of the fort, I should have walked 
there the evening before. The " Directory " tells you of the 
articles in the bazar, but omits these gems of oriental beauty, 
which are invaluable to a lover of the picturesque. Beyond 
this stretch the walls of the old fort, which are of very great 
extent, and the view of Monghir is good from this part of 

the Ganges. Mr. D told us, that in coming up the river 

during the last rains, the current at Colgong was terrific ; on 
the left bank was a whirlpool that set directly on the rocks, and 
it would have been certain destruction to any boat attempting 
that passage ; and on the right bank was another whirlpool, 
of such force, that, in tracking to a certain point, the dandls 


jumped into the river, and fixed a hawser to prevent the vessel 
being carried round and round by the current, and dashed 
upon the rocks ; with care this passage was navigable, but 
the other was not to be attempted. From this gentleman's 
house on the hill at Monghir the view across the river was 
bounded by the horizon, as at sea, the waters were so high 
and the expanse so great. 

Dwakanath Tagore is going to Europe for two years, and is to 
visit the King of France. The magnet that attracts the Wise 
Man of the East is the beauty of the opera-dancers, and the 
delight above aU others that he has at the opera in Paris, seeing, 
as he says, three hundred of the most beautiful women in the 
world aU together ; the baboo is rather beside himself on the 

According to the steam regulations, the Civil station of 
Monghir is half-way from Calcutta, one hundred and thirty- 
three miles above Rajmahal, and twenty-five above the rock of 
Janghlra. Among the articles manufactured here, the black vases 
for flowers, turned in white wood, and lacquered whilst on the 
lathe with seahng-wax, are pretty. The necklaces and bracelets 
in imitation of jet, at two or three rupees the set, are beautifully 
made ; necklaces of St. Agnes's beads, monkeys, chameleons, 
and male bamboos, every thing is forthcoming in the bazar, 
with the exception of ducks. The steamer's passage is from 
ten to fourteen days to this place, three hundred and ninety- 
eight miles by the BhagirathI, six hundred and eighty-six by 
Sunderbands, and three hundred and four by dak ; the latter 
runs in two days and three-quarters. On arrival here the 
collector's and the magistrate's book is sent on board, for entry of 
all passengers' names. Two miles S.W. by W. of Monghir are 
some rocks, with a mark on them, they were formerly in the 
steamer's track, but are now buried in an immense sandbank ; 
steamers stop here three or four hours for coals. Moored off 
the village of Husseingunge. 

llth. At noon passed the large village of Suraj-garha, 
twenty miles above Monghir, with a small river that runs down 
from the hills ; fowls and kids are procurable here, through the 



jiimadar's assistance, for boat travellers. Lu^oed off a sand- 
bank; the weather has become very cold, the thermometer 
this evening 72, with a sharp wind. 

I2th. ^The river very uninteresting ; the villages dirty and 
disgusting, filled with pigs and most noisy beggai-s : moored the 
boats as far away from a village as we could, and were even then 
obhged to drive off the beggars, whose incessant noise left us 
neither peace nor quiet. 

ISth. Passed a remarkably fine banyan-tree, the roots of 
which are exposed, from the river having washed away the earth ; 
would have stopped to sketch it, but could not venture on 
shore amidst such a crowd of clamorous beggars and filthy 
swine, such pigs ! so lank and lean, and long-legged and thin- 
flanked, with staring bristles, all busily employed in turning up 
the earth with their unringed noses! Old wretched beggar- 
women, with their skeleton bodies and long white hair, are pur- 
suing the budgerow, uttering their monotonous cries for charity. 
There is a tope of tamarind-trees that looks most inviting at 
Bar, and the tar or fan palms are remarkably fine ^the natives 
say they are fifty cubits high. There are many spreading 
banyan-trees near this place, and the scenery of the interior 
looks very inviting. The large town and mart of Bar is on 
the right bank of the river, sixty miles above Monghir, and 
fifty below Dinapur, a bye depot for steamers' coals ; for twenty 
miles above and below, all this bank of the river is noted for 
piggery villages and saltpetre manufactories. Lugaoed a little 
above Bar. 

I4th. After a most uninteresting day among shallows and sand- 
banks, moored off Benipur : walked towards a Ught I saw at a dis- 
tance, and found a pohce-station . At the side was a burial-ground 
of the Faithful ; some Mahomedan saint was there entombed. 
The light was burning in the niche of the pillar at the head of 
the tomb. It was under a most magnificent old banyan- tree, 
growing on a bank ; the river had washed away the ground from 
its roots, and they were starting forth in all picturesque forms. 
Four large suckers having fallen to the ground, had each taken 
root, and had attained the size of a tree the great branches 


spread in every direction. Next to it was a remarkably fine 
old tamarind-tree : two or three tombs were around under 
the shadow of these and other trees ; the lamp in the tomb 
rendered them visible, and the young moon shed a bright light 
between the boughs, but not sufficient to dispel the deep dark- 
ness around. One of the banyan-trees to the left was so old, all 
its branches had fallen off, and its trunk was cleft, open, and 
hollow. It measured thirty feet in circumference : these ancient 
trees and tombs would be a beautiful subject for a picture. I 
asked a native at the spot to tear off a small branch of the 
banyan-tree : he said, " You can gather a bough yourself, if you 
like, but I cannot break one off from the tree that shades the 
tomb of a Plr," a saint. 

1 5th. The " Directory" says, on the right bank, eighty-seven 
miles above Monghir, and nine miles below the Patna, or rather 
Bankipur station, is a large native town, with a river on its 
upper or western end that flows from the Hills, and has a 
pukka, i. e. brick or stone bridge, over it. As we passed Futwa 
early, some fat merchants, who were bathing in the river, asked 
if we wanted any tablecloths or towels, for which the place is 
famous. We anchored at a holy spot ; the tomb of a saint is 
there ; both the tomb and the pillar are built of mud : it is 
raised on a high platform of earth, which is well secured from 
the inroads of the river by a palisade of the trunks of trees, the 
outside being covered with old planks from vessels. The priest 
showed it with great glee, and said, " It is the command that the 
river shall never touch this holy tomb, which has stood here for 
seven hundred years. You see it is built of mud ; the river 
overflows all the villages around, but this place is untouched. 
It is the command that the tomb is never to be built of stone." 
On my remarking the strength of the paUsades, he was much 
inclined to be abusive, and demanded alms with the outcries 
and whine of a beggar. 

Wth. The first glance on the river this morning delighted 
me : we were off an old ruined bastion which had partly fallen 
into the stream ; on its top was a beautiful burj (turret) there was 
another bastion a little further on, and then some temples and two 


more buruj. We had now arrived at Azlmabad, as the ancient 
city of Patna is called by the Muhammadans, which extends a 
great distance along the bank of the river, and is supposed to 
have been, among others, the site of the ancient Palibothra ; 
the Hindoo appellation is Sri Nagar. 

" The hypocrites of BhagulpQr, the footpads of Kuhulgaon, 
and the bankrupts of Patna, are all famous'." The Hindoos 
were coming down in large parties, preceded by tomtoms 
(native drums), and musical instruments of all sorts, to bring 
their offerings to the river. They carried baskets filled with 
fruits or vegetables to the river-side, and great bunches of 
plantains, and washed them in the river. The Brahmans poured 
water on the offerings, prayers were repeated, the people bathed 
and returned home. 

It was the festival of the Sun the Suraj Puja. The dresses 
of the people were of the most brilUant colours. Flags of a 
bright crimson colour, bearing the image of Hunuman blazoned 
in white upon them, were flying at the end of long slender 

Advancing higher up the river, near the old fort, there are 
picturesque houses of all sorts, intermixed with Hindoo temples, 
fine trees, and distant masjids. A sandbank in the centre of 
the Ganges was covered with temporary huts of straw, where the 
devout were bathing and offering flowers and fruits ; it was a 
beautiful scene, that animated multitude on the sandbank and in 
the river, with the high bank on the opposite side covered with 
the houses and the temples of the city. The pinnaces and vessels 
of all sorts were decked with flags. Large parties of women, 
dressed in the gayest attire and the most various colours, were 
doing puja, bathing in the river, or presenting their offerings of 
fruit, flowers, &c., to the attendant Brahmans. " While bathing, 
the Hindoos repeat certain incantations, in order to bring the 
waters of all the holy places in the heaven of Sooryii into the 
spot where they are standing, and thus obtain the merit of 
bathing, not only in Gunga, but in all the sacred rivers, &c., in the 

' Oriental Provtrbs, No. 136. 


heaven of the Sun-god. After bathing, too, the Hindoos make 
their obeisance to this god in a standing posture ; the more devout 
draw up their joined hands to their forehead, gaze at the sun, 
make prostrations to him, and then turn round seven times, 
repeating certain forms of petition and praise. On these occa- 
sions they hold up water in their joined hands, and then pour out 
a drink-offering to the sun." The number of boats off Patna is 
quite surprising. There is a boat-builder's on the opposite sand- 
bank, and a great number of vessels with large timber-trees 
are off the place. Passing Hadjipur, we were not tempted to 
go on shore, although the fair was being held there, not re- 
quiring elephants, horses, or shawls. The bungalow and race- 
course are on the left bank of the Gunduk that runs from the 
Nepaul Hills; the large native town is on the right bank. 
People tiock from all parts of India to its annual fair, which 
will last this month as long as the moon shines. We anchored 
on a sandbank in the middle of the river, nearly opposite the 
Gola or Gol-ghar. The " Directory" says, Patna, the Civil sta- 
tion of Bankipur, extends about ten miles along the right bank, 
fourteen miles below Dinapur. It is noted for opium, gram, 
and wax candles, and is a very large mart. Seventeen hundred 
boats of burden have been counted lying here at one time. It 
is the residence of a Nawiib, and a Sadr and Civil station. 
The Government establishments are at Bankipur, or the upper 
extreme of Patna, where there are some handsome houses, also 
a very large and noted granary built like a dome, with two 
flights of steps outside, to ascend to its top, on which is a large 
circular hole, to admit air into the building, and to start grain 
into ; it has only one door, and was built for a depot in case of 
famine. It is a very massive building, noted for its nume- 
rous, clear, and strong echoes, and is at present used as a guard- 

Steamers seldom stop here : sometimes not being able to get 
within a mile or two, passengers can land at the lower end and 
get ekhas, or hackeries, (a native one-horse conveyance,) to take 
them up to Bankipur or Dinapur, fourteen miles distant, by 
way of a change or novelty, where they can inspect the golii 


or granary by the road-side. The road is very good up to the 
military cantonments at Dinapur. , 

17 th. Landed to go to Havell's farm at Deegah ; found his 
widow there a very old half-caste personage. The establish- 
ment must have been a fine one formerly ; now the sheds are all 
empty, and scarcely any thing is done there. Ordered some 
beef brawn and Chili vinegar, both of which proved good. On 
our arrival at Dinapur my manjhi wished to anchor under the 
flag-staff, to which I objected, on account of the crowd of 
boats there : had to go on the distance of a kos, until we were 
past the Lines, to the ghat opposite the native hospital, a very 
uncomfortable place. 

I8th. Bought a mim of six-inch wax candles of Kinnoo Lall, 
price eighty rupees. Much disgusted with the annoyance of 
being obliged to procure fresh dandis for the wooliik, and having 
to send a chaprasl with the manjhi to fetch them from the other 
side of the river. 

I9th. ^The sardar-bearer here informed us he intended to 
quit us ; this was troublesome ; indeed, the homes of the people 
being often near Dinapur, the servants select this place for 
quitting their masters and going home, with or without warning, 
just as it may suit their own convenience. At 4 p.m. the fresh 
dandis arrived for the woolak ; how glad I shall be to get away 
from this place ! 

Dinapiir is a large European and mihtary station, where the 
steamers stop by the cantonment flag-staff to take in coals and 
passengers. It is considered as two-thirds of the passage up- 
wards. It is on the right bank of the Ganges, distant from 
Calcutta by steamer's route, via Bhagirathi, five hundred and 
eight miles; via Sunderbands, seven hundred and ninety-six; by 
land, three hundred and seventy-six. The letter dak takes three 
and a half days. Mutton, beef, fowls, eggs, bread, butter, 
fruits of various kinds, and grapes in May and June are procura- 
ble ; also tablecloths, napkins, towels, cotton handkerchiefs, sola 
hats, muslin and cotton cloth, shoes, harness, Patna wax candles, 
gram, wild fowl, &c. European shopkeepers are here. Plays 
are performed and auctions held. Passengers for Arrah and 


Tirhoot land here. Quitted Dinapur with great pleasure, and 
came to very agreeable moorings off Chittenniaw a great 
relief after the annoyance of being near the ghat of a large 
station. The people with us will now be well behaved, and 
give no more trouble to the end of the voyage; i. e., until we 
arrive at Allahabad. 



The Soane River Chuppra Revelgunge The Fair at Bulleah Bamboos 
The Wreck Buxar The Peepul Tree and Temple of Mahadeo Barrah 
SatI Mounds Kurum-nassa River Palace of the Nawab of Ghazipiir The 
Native Town The Gigantic Image Three Satis and a Mandap or Hindi! 
Temple Eight-and-Twenty Satis The Fate of Women The Kalsas 
Station of Ghazipur The Stalking Horse Booraneepiir Kankar Reefs 
Seydpur Burning the Dead Rites for the Repose of the Soul Brahman! 
Bulls Funeral Ceremonies of the Romans Raj Ghat, Bunarus. 

1844, Nov. 20th. To-day the scenery has been most unin- 
teresting ; nothing to be seen but sandbanks ; the river is full 
of shallows, and there is no wind. Lugaoed on a fine open 
space in the middle of the river ; it is really a good-sized island 
of fine and beautifully white sand. Four miles above Dinapur 
is the junction of the Soane with the Ganges. 

2\st. Sandbanks and shallows the whole day: we have 
advanced very little, and have moored as usual on a bank. 
Looking around me, I see nothing but a wilderness of sand- 
banks in the midst of the broad river, only terminating with the 
horizon not a tree, not a house to be seen ; here and there a 
distant sail. There is something very pleasing in this mono- 
tonous solitude ; the only sound the roar of the sandbanks, as 
they give way and fall into the stream, with a noise hke distant 
thunder. These high sandbanks are undermined by the strong 


current, and fall in in great masses very dangerous to small 
vessels passing near them. 

22nd. " Twenty- two miles above Dinapur," says the " Direc- 
tory," " on the left bank, is the Civil station of Chuppra, the 
capital of the Sarun district. Steamers seldom touch here, 
even in the rains. Passengers for this place should arrange to 
land at Revelgunge, above it, where there is a steam agent. 
The latter place, which is twenty- seven miles by water above 
Dinapur, on the left bank, is a very large grain and saltpetre 
mart, and noted for boat-building. An annual fair is held there. 
Steamers touch only to land passengers and a few packages to 
the steam agent's care. Thence up to GhazipUr the villagers 
are said to be uncivil and dishonest." 

We had a view of Chuppra from a distance, and then passed 
Revelgunge. The tents of a Raja were pitched on the side of 
the Ganges, with the khanafs extending on both sides into the 
river to screen the Raja from the eyes of the curious, as he sat 
under a shamiyana (awning) in the centre. His camp contained 
several elephants, one most remarkably large, a number of 
fine horses and camels, and all the retinue of a wealthy native. 
Moored a Uttle above Revelgunge. 

23rd. A fair wind. Lugiioed off a small hasti (village) . 

24th. A fair wind. Anchored off BuUeah : a large fair was 
being held there on the banks of the river ; we moored two 
miles away from it, but the din and uproar, even at that dis- 
tance, was like the sound of waves breaking on a distant shore. 
I walked to the fair ; it was late in the evening, and nothing was 
to be seen but thousands of people sitting in groups on the 
ground cooking their dinners, or lying there asleep. Some 
groups of people were watching the performance of niich girls, 
go'dld log, and dancing boys : every man had a long heavy 
bamboo in his hand, as a defence, and a walking staff. 

The fakirs had erected altars of mud, on the top of each of 
which was stuck a long bamboo, decorated with a flag. These 
holy personages, entirely naked, were sitting on the ground 
under some freshly-gathered boughs that were stuck up on one 
side. Tf one could but learn the real history of one of these 


men, it would give one a curious insight into human nature. A 
fakir of this descri})tion is looked upon with respect by the 
natives ; "No one inquires his caste or tribe ; he has put on 
the string, and is therefore a Brahman'." 

These men sit up all night by a fire, smoking ganja, an in- 
toxicating herb, eating sweetmeats and ghl, and drinking milk. 
They never put on any sort of clothing, and never sleep under 
shelter. They say they do not feel the cold, and they eat the 
offerings that are made to them. They must receive very large 
sums ; the bearers give from one to four piiisa to these fellows, 
and a rich Hindu gives a rupee. Groups of people were sitting 
together singing and playing on tom-toms ; the din was exces- 
sive, and the smoke very annoying from the innumerable fires 
around the pathway. To-morrow will be the last day of the 

25th. From 7 a.m. until 1 1 o'clock we were striving to get 
the boats past the fair, which extended for miles along the 
bank of the river. It being the early morning, the people were 
bathing by thousands ; the bank for miles was covered with 
moving figures ascending and descending the steep cliff in masses 
as thick as they could move. The river below was aUve with the 
devout. Hindus of all and every class were bathing and per- 
forming their devotions. The budgerow was stopped some time 
from the difficulty of passing her gun, (tracking line,) over the 
tops of so many high masts ; some persons cut the gun, and 
they ran away with part of it, which theft detained us some 
time. The manner in which, by the aid of a bamboo, the 
tracking rope is carried to the top of a mast and thrown over it, 
is curious. 

By the side of the river I saw several fakirs bathing ; they 
had thick heads of hair and enormous beards. One man had 
his hand and arm erect : it was only partly withered, his vow 
must therefore have been recently made, or the arm would have 
been withered to the bone and immovably fixed in its position. 
His body was covered with ashes, and his long elf locks, matted 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 137. 


with cow-dung and yellow clay, hung down like so many rusty 
yellow tails. Hundreds of boats were bringing more people to 
the fair. The morning being cold, the people, wrapped up in 
great white sheets, were huddled together in the boats, as many 
as it was possible to cram together ; and at a distance the vessels 
looked as if they were filled with bales of cotton. 

Cows were numerous, and were undergoing the usual puja. 
Sometimes a Brahman was seen seated on a charpai with a 
chatr over his head, the charpai supported on four bamboos 
that were erected in the river, and a fine triangular red flag 
flying from each end of the four bamboos. The effect was very 
picturesque : red and also white flags were in profusion, denoting 
the abiding place of a fakir. Beauty was extremely scarce 
amongst the women. Some of the men had fine features the 
skin of some of the latter was almost of a transparent black, that 
of others of a dark brown hue, and some exhibited a bright terra 
di sienna tint. I saw no lepers, which is remarkable ; it is usual 
to see one of the pink-coloured lepers amongst any great multi- 
tude bathing ; and that leprosy not being catching, the people are 
not driven from the society of their fellows, as are those who are 
afflicted with the Arabian leprosy. 

I think the number of people collected at this fair appears 
greater than the number I ever saw collected at Prag ; the cliff" 
for miles was covered with a countless multitude. Perhaps the 
people were more conspicuous on the cliffs than on the flat sands 
at the Tribeni. A number of respectable-looking Hindoo 
women were in boats covered with an awning. This large 
native village of Bulleah is seventy-four miles above Dinapur, 
on the left bank : it is a ddrogah station, noted for the fair 
annually held there, as also for a grain mart. 

This is the most dangerous part of the Ganges for quicksands 
and shifting banks : the stream is very strong, boats being some- 
times detained fi-om four to six weeks, waiting for water and a 
favourable breeze. The people carry away the Ganges water from 
this place in sealed bottles, as they do from Prag, and sell it in 
distant parts of the country at a high price. We had a hard day's 
work tracking amidst the sandbanks against a rapid stream, and 


did not anchor until the sun liad set for an hour and a half, and 
the full moon was high. I was very glad to see the moon; we 
were in a dilemma on a bad spot in the river ; however, after 
much labour we got off, and lugaoed on a comfortable sandbank. 
A large vessel belonging to a Mirzapur merchant was wrecked 
here a month ago ; I visited the wreck, they have recovered 
all but fom-teen bales of linen, which they are digging out, 
they lie twelve feet under the sand. In the evening the manjhi 
of my boat was preparing a bamboo to use for pushing the 
budgerow (.nwards ; I measured it as it lay on the ground ; it was 
sixty feet in length, and most beautifully tapered ; he said he 
had some spare ones on board much longer ; for nine of these 
bamboos he only paid one rupee, and he bought them at the , 
spot where the BhagirathI branches off from the Ganges. At 
Prag such a bamboo would have cost eight anas, A chaukidiir 
has erected a hut close to the wreck with her fragments ; there 
he and his people keep guard over her ; in front is an image of 
Mahadeo, made in mud, and ornamented with fresh green plan- 
tain trees stuck into the sand around the idol. 

26^A. Anchored early at Buxar, just under the fort. When 
walking to see the fort I was attracted to the left by the beauty 
of a most remarkably fine old peepul-tree, which overshadows 
a temple dedicated to Mahadeo, whose image is within the 
building ; on the outer wall is an image of Hunuman. The 
temple is beautifully overshadowed, and the stems of the peepul- 
tree for it is divided into many are old and picturesque, and 
the smallness of the leaves denotes the antiquity of the tree. On 
the bank of the river there is also an old peepul-tree, its long 
branching roots are exposed to view, the river having laid them 
bare by washing away the bank. Buxar on the right, and 
Kuruntadee on the left bank, are eighty-eight miles above 
Dinapur, and are noted as being the Honourable Company's stud 
establishment : there is a small fort here where the battle was 

27<A. Quitted Buxar early, and were forced to anchor for a 
time at Chounsah Beerboom, on account of a very heavy wind, 
which made old Gunga rise in waves, and rocked the budgerow 


like a sea : started at 4 p.m. and arrived at the Kurum-nassa 
river ; it is a shallow, melancholy-looking, small stream, with 
nothing to be seen on its banks but fishermen's nets. Hilsd 
fish are here caught in great numbers, and the rahu also ; I 
purchased one of the latter, and some quail, which were twenty- 
five per rupee. 

Lugiioed at Barrah, a small village on the right bank : climbed 
the cliff in the evening ; a fisherman who resided there showed 
me two sati mounds on the top of it, the one built of stone 
sacred to a Brahman, the other of mud in honour of a Kyiatt. 
A kalsd is the ornament on the top of a dome ; there were two of 
stone, without any points on the sati mound of the Brahman ; 
and two of mud, decorated with points, and one small image, on 
that of the Kyiatt'. 

T gave a small present to the people, and took away one of 
the kalsiis of mud as a curiosity : a number of broken idols in 
black stone had been dug up, and placed on the sati mound of 
the Brahman, I was anxious to have two of them, and deter- 
mined to ask the fisherman to give them to me. The old man 
told me with great pride that one of his family had been a sati, 
and that the Brahmans complained greatly they were not allowed 
to burn the widows, as such disconsolate damsels were ready 
and willing to be grilled ; he told me that a great number of 
mounds are on the left bank of the river, just opposite at 
Beerpur, and that there are several about two miles higher up 
the stream. 

The Brahmani ducks are calling to one another from the 
opposite banks of the river, there must be several pairs of them 
from the a'o ! a'o ! that I hear ; this is only the second time 
during this voyage that I have heard the chakwa. The wind is 
down, there is a soft and brilliant moonlight, the weather is 
really charming, and the moonlight nights delicious; from the. 
high bank by the satis one can see the stream of the Ganges 
below, glittering in its beams. 

" Eight miles above Buxar, on the right bank of the river, is 

' See the Plate entitled " Kalsas," Fig. 3. 
VOL. II. E e 


the junction of the Kurura-nassa : the touch of its waters is 
considered as one of the direst mishaps that can happen to a 
Hindu, as it is said it debars him admittance into heaven. 
There is a bridge over it, built by a Rajah ; this part of the 
country is noted for decoits." The bridge, which is some 
distance up the river, is not visible from the junction. 

Ten P.M. ; I have just returned from the sat! mound, accom- 
panied by the old fisherman, who brought with him two of the 
idols of black stone from the Brahman's mound, on which there 
were about twenty ; the old man gave them to me the moment 
1 asked for them ; I gave him a present afterwards, therefore he 
did not sell his gods ; but he requested to be allowed to bring them 
to the boats during the darkness of the night. He and his family 
are now the sole inhabitants of a little hamlet of five houses, 
which was formerly inhabited by himself and his four brothers ; 
they are dead, and their houses, which are in ruins, are close to 
the mounds ; the old man lives in the centre, with one young son 
and two daughters, and keeps his dwelling of mud in comfortable 
condition. They tell me fowls and chakor (the red-legged 
partridge) are abundant there; I was unable to procure the 

29th. Stopped the budgerow for a few minutes off the ruins 
of the palace of the Nawab of Ghazipur. The fort-like bastions 
rise from the Ganges, and the palace is built above ; the ghat is 
of stone, wide and good : this ruined palace has been before 
described in this volume, page 66. The native town of Ghazi- 
pur is full of picturesque beauty ; the mut'hs are numerous, but 
their architectural beauty is disfigured by whitewash and edges 
of dark red paint. There is a gigantic image in mud smeared 
with paint, which lies upon its back close to the water's edge, 
and has a curious effect : a little further on an old well has fallen 
into the river, on account of the high cliff within which it was 
sunk having been washed away ; the cliff, which is of sand, and 
very high, is covered with native houses, small temples, and 
trees, from the top to the bottom. 



Lugaoed close to a small and very pretty mandap or Hindu 
temple. I went up to see it ; the Brahman opened the door, 
and showed me his idols with much pleasure. They consisted 
of Seeta, Ram, and Lutchman, painted red, and decked with bits 
of gold and silver tinsel, and pieces of coloured cloth. Hiinoo- 
man was displayed on the wall |)ainted red, and decked also with 
red linen. The Brahman gave me a ball of sweetmeat, which 
he said was the usual offering at the shrine. Two fine peepul- 
trees, which had been planted together, are on the high bank 
above the temple, and within their shade are three satis, built of 
stone, of octagonal form, and surmounted by a dome : the point 
of the dome is ornamented with a kalsa formed like a crown 
with a hole in the centre, and on each of its points or horns, on 
certain days, a lighted lamp is placed. The cenotaph is hollow 
below ; and there is a little arch, through which the relatives 
also on particular days place a small lamp, and offerings of 
flowers within the cavity of the little building, and in the same 
place the two sir are deposited. The kalsas differ in form from 
those at Barrah ; and the satis are also of higher caste, being of 
stone and well built. If the moon rise in time, I will sketch 
the spot, but I am very much fatigued, and my head aches, not 
only from exposure to the sun, but from a blow I received upon 
it from the tracking rope this morning. The insects do not 
molest us now at night, with the exception of the musquitoes, 
which are very troublesome. 

On the rising of the moon I went on shore to take the sketch, 
and was attracted by what appeared to be the figure of a man 
watching from under a tree on a high cliff. On going up to it 
I found a sati, which had fallen to ruin; the remains were 
whitewashed, and a large kalsa had been placed on the top, 
which being also whitewashed, at a distance produced the 
deception. See fig. 2, which is a sketch of this kalsa ; the sati 
herself, partially wrapped in her sari, is seated upon it ; it 
is adorned with points, and made of mud. I brought the kalsa 
away with me ; it will be replaced by the kumhdr, or potter of the 
village, whose duty it is to restore all kalsas. On the other side 



of the old tree was another sati mound, and small lotas, earthen 
drinking vessels, were hung around the tree to receive the offer- 
ings of the devout. I had the curiosity to put my hand into 
one of them, and found one betel-nut which had been placed 
there as an offering. Peeping over a high bank, I saw an open 
space of ground, on which were some fine trees, and I could 
scarcely believe the number of mounds that met my eye were 
those of victimized women. By a little detour I found the 
entrance to this place of cenotaphs, and was shocked on 
counting eight-and-twenty satis. I was alone ; had a Hindu 
been with me, he would have made saliim to each of them. 

One was large and somewhat in the shape of a grave, after 
the form of the sati of the Brahman at Barrah. The others were 
of various forms ; the richer ones were of stone, of an oc- 
tagonal shape, and surmounted by a dome ; some were so small 
and low, they were not higher than one foot from the earth, 
like a little ant hill, but ornamented with a kalsa, which quite 
covered the little mound. Those of stone were from six to 
eight feet high, and of various forms. There is a hollow space 
within the sati, into which, through the little arch, the offerings 
are placed ; and there also are deposited the two sir, as they call 
them, which are made of stone, and are like a cannon ball 
split in halves. See the plate of the kalsiis, fig. 1 . One very 
old sati tomb, in ruins, stood on the edge of the high cliff above 
the river, shaded by a clump of bamboos. The spot interested 
me extremely. It is very horrible to see how the weaker are 
imposed upon ; and it is the same all over the world, civilized or 
uncivilized perhaps some of these young married women, from 
eleven to twenty years of age, were burnt aUve, in all the freshness 
of youth ; it may be with the corpse of some decrepit sickly old 
wretch to whom their parents had given them in marriage. 

The laws of England relative to married women, and the state 
of slavery to which those laws degrade them, render the lives of 
' some few in the higher, and of thousands in the lower ranks of 
life, one perpetual sati, or burning of the heart, from which they 
have no refuge but the grave, or the cap of liberty, i.e. the 
widow's, and either is a sad consolation. 


^ SVelgHed on the spol 

Ml* on S^oryrhy r- 

77 ; 


KALSAS. 421 

" It is this passive state of suffering which is most difficult to 
endure, and which it is generally the fate of women to expe- 
rience. It is too commonly their lot to be deceived into a 
beUef, that as they are the gentler sex, so they ought to be the 
weakest. Alas, it is far otherwise ; the soldier covered with 
wounds of glory, the mariner warring with the elements, the 
sage consuming his strength with the midnight oil, or the bigot 
wearing life away with fanatical zeal in false devotion, require 
not the unshrinking firmness, the never-failing patience, the 
unbending fortitude which is expected from almost every 

The river has encroached so much upon the cliff, and so much 
ground has fallen in, that, probably, the place of the satis was of 
much larger extent ; next year, most likely, those that are now 
tottering on the edge of the cliff will fall into the depth below. 
From this place I returned to the mandap, and sketched the 
satis I had first seen. Their kalsas had figures upon them, 
meant to represent the husband and wife ; I brought three of 
these ornaments away, they have received all the honours ; 
their foreheads have been marked with red paint, lamps have been 
lighted and placed upon their points, and offerings have been laid 
before them. Pretty well fagged with my moonlight expedition, 
I returned to the boats and slept quietly, a great blessing. 


Fig. 1 . The two sir. 

2. A kalsa taken from under an old tree on the banks of the 
Ganges, in front of the temple, in the sketch of " Three Satis 
and a Mandap near Ghazipur." 

3. A kalsa from the sati mound of the Kyiatt at Barrah. 

4 and 5. These kalsas were taken from the satI ground at 
Ghazipur, where there were twenty-eight cenotaphs, and which 
was only a short distance from the three satis represented in the 
other plate. On both of them are curious representations of the 
husband and wife sitting side by side. 

6. This kalsa differs from the rest, being hollow at the top, 
and the upper part of the dome of the cenotaph passed through 


it ; on the points of its horns, the Brahman said, Ughts were 
placed on particular days. It was taken off the top of the sati 
in the foreground of the sketch, over which two lotas are 
suspended to receive the offerings of the pious. Each of these 
kalsas had four horns ; they were much damaged by time, and 
some of the horns were broken off; they were formed of coarse 
red pottery. 

7. The topi-wdld kalsa from Allahabad, see Vol. I. p. 96. 

8. The kalsa from a sati by the temple of Bhawani Alopee 
Bagh, Allahabad, Vol. I. p. 96. 

9. The crescent and half-moon of the above kalsa. 

10. The kalsa without the points, to show the manner in 
which it is made. It is the duty of the kumhdrs, or potters of 
the village, to place new kalsas as the old ones are broken, or 
decay, or are taken away. 

SOth. Quitted the sati ground, and came up to the Canton- 
ment ghat just below the tomb of the Marquis Cornwallis. We 
are now in the north-western provinces, in which my husband 
holds his appointment under the Lieutenant-Governor of Agra, 
and have announced our arrival in due form. 

The Civil and Military station of Ghazipur is one hundred 
and nineteen miles above Dinapur, or thirty-one miles above 
Buxar on the left bank of the river. The native town is built 
on precipices ; the European inhabitants reside on a large plain 
about the centre of the station ; the cantonments form the 
upper part, and the European hospital is at the other extreme. 
Between the Civil and Military lines are the chapel and the tomb. 
It is noted for its opium manufactory, and Government stud esta- 
blishment, where horses can be purchased, as also for its rose- 
water, atr of roses, and other perfumed oils. Provisions of all 
sorts may be purchased here, also European articles and miUi- 
nery. Its distance from Calcutta, via Bhagirathi, is six hun- 
* dred and twenty-seven miles, vIeI Sunderbunds nine hundred 
and fifteen, and by land four hundred and thirty-one. The 
dak i-uns in four days steamer's passage, from seventeen to 
twenty days : they remain here for passengers, cargo, and coal. 


Passengers for Ghoruckpur should land here. This is the 
lower extreme of the North-Western Provinces, or Agra Presi- 
dency, and is a great place of trade ; it is also the lowest 
station for the Agra flat-boats. Kankari banks, a sort of stony 
gravel, commence here, and run hence upwards. At this station 
we purchased game ; a man came to our boats, and offered two 
wild geese and three wild ducks for sale ; he carried a long 
native matchlock, and led a cow by a string ; this cow he used 
as a stalking horse, the birds being so shy it would otherwise 
be impossible to get within shot distance. 

Dec. \st. A good day, having had but little contrary wind ; 
lugiioed off Booraneepur. On the edge of the high cliff stood 
a little temple and a large peepul-tree, very picturesque, which 
induced me to climb the rough kankari bank, and to find my 
way to the temple through a deserted village ; there were a great 
number of ruined huts, and very few inhabitants ; the village 
dogs barked most fiercely at a distance, and skulked away at my 
approach. This is the fall of the leaf, and the large peepul-tree 
was nearly leafless, which showed off its long and peculiar 
branches ; one branch, at the height of about eight feet from the 
ground, stretched out in a horizontal direction to the length of 
sixty feet : although it is now winter for the peepul, in three 
weeks more it will be covered with fresh green leaves. At the foot 
of the tree was a large sati mound of mud ; it was so much 
neglected that no pious hand had placed even a kalsa on the 
top, and not a flower had been offered there, nor a lamp burned in 
puja. A little Hindoo temple of octagonal form stood on the 
extreme edge of the clifi", some fragments of idols were placed 
against its side ; no Brahman was there, and the place looked 
cold and desolate ; a young banyan tree formed the background, 
and the Ganges spread its broad waters to the far horizon. 

The " Directory" says, " Eight miles above Ghazipur is the 
dangerous kankar reef that strikes directly across the river. 
Twenty-three miles above Ghazipur is Chochookpore stone 
ghiit and temple, noted for the numerous monkeys that resort 
there. Two miles above Chochookpore, on the right bank of 
the river, is the sunken rock, opposite to a palm-tree just below 



Sanotie." All the difficulties and dangers, monkeys and all, we 
have passed to-day, without being conscious of their existence ; 
the monkeys and temples I was sorry I did not see, ^we passed 
without observing them. The river has been very uninteresting, 
nothing to look at, and very few vessels : moored on a most 
solitary and insulated sandbank. 

" Thirty miles above Ghazipur by Kucharee, on the left bank, is 
a difficult channel with a dangerous sunken reef. Six miles above 
it is Seydpur, a large native town, with a tahsilddr and a ddrogha : 
and two miles above Seydpur is the junction of the Goomtie 
river, that goes up to Lucnow, said to be a very intricate and 
rocky stream, too shallow for the smallest boats in the dry 
season. The Ganges, from above Kucharee reef, past Seydpur, 
up to the Goomtie, a distance of eight miles, is a very difficult 
passage, with various bad patches of kankar rock, on which 
native boats and budgerows split instantaneously. 

"Five miles above the Goomtie is ChandroutI, with a white 
temple. Tn mid-channel is a very dangerous pakka platform, on 
kankar, with the ruins of an old temple on it, and no passable 
channel on its north-west or Zinhore side, and very dangerous 
for downward-bound boats, as the current sets directly upon it." 
At Seydpur is a very elaborately carved mandap or Hindu 
temple, of elegant form. 


As our boats passed slowly along, we had an opportunity of 
witnessing the funeral rites of the Hindus : the burning of a 
corpse was being performed just at the base of the cliff on the 
edge of the river. The nearest relative, as is the custom, was 
stirring up the body, and pushing it well into the flames with a 
long pole : much oil and ghi nmst have been expended and 
poured over the wood, as it burnt fiercely. The face of the 
corpse looked cold and pale and fixed, as the wind blew aside 
the flames and smoke, and enabled me to behold a scene that 
shocked me : in all probability the son was performing the 
ceremony. We read of the Romans burning their dead, regard 
it in a classical light, and think of it without disgust, but when 


you see the ceremony really performed it is very painful : never- 
theless, a sort of absurdity was mixed with it in my mind, as 
" stir him up with the long pole" flashed across my memory. A 
group of relatives were sitting by the river-side, watching the 
ceremony ; on its conclusion they will bathe and return to their 

The kapati-kriyd, a ceremony among Hindus, is, that when a 
dead body is burning, and nearly reduced to ashes, the nearest 
relation breaks the skull with the stroke of a bamboo, and pours 
ghl (clarified butter) into the cavity. Hence kapdl-kriyd karna, 
to think intensely, to beat or cudgel one's brains. 

The charpai on which the corpse had been carried, being 
reckoned unclean, had been thrown into the river, and the 
broken lota that had contained ghl was at its side. The scene 
was reflected in the Ganges. From the quantity of wood and ghl 
consumed the departed must have been a rich man : the relatives 
of the very poor scarcely do more than scorch the body, and 
throw it into the river, where it floats swollen and scorched a 
horrible sight. 

" The burning of the body is one of the first ceremonies the 
Hindus perform for the help of the dead in a future state. If 
this ceremony have not been attended to, the rites for the repose 
of the soul cannot be performed. If a person be unable to 
provide wood, cloth, clarified butter, rice, water-pans, and other 
things, besides the fee for the priest, he must beg among his 
neighbours. If the body be thrown into the river, or burnt, 
without the accustomed ceremonies, as is sometimes the case, 
the ceremonies may be performed over an image of the deceased 
made of kooshii grass. Immediately after death the attendants 
lay out the body on a sheet, placing two pieces of wood under 
the head and feet ; after which they anoint the corpse with 
clarified butter, bathe it with the water of the Ganges, put round 
the loins a new garment, and another over the left shoulder, and 
then draw the sheet on which the body lies over the whole. 
The heir-at-law next bathes himself, puts on new garments, and 
boils some rice, a ball of which and a lighted brand he puts to 
the mouth of the deceased, repeating incantations. The pile 


having been prepared he sets fire to it, and occasionally throws 
on it clarified butter and other combustibles. When the body is 
consumed he washes the ashes into the river ; the attendants 
bathe, and presenting a drink-offering to the deceased, return 
home : before they enter the house, however, each one touches 
fire and chews some bitter leaves, to signify that parting with 
relations by death is an unpleasant task." 

The rites for the repose of the soul, the offerings made in a 
person's name after his decease, and the ceremonies which take 
place on the occasion, are called his shraddhu ; which the 
Hindus are very anxious to perform in a becoming manner. 
The son who performs these rites obtains great merit ; the 
deceased is satisfied, and by gifts to the Brahmans in his name 
he obtains heaven. 

The Hindu shastriis teach that after death the soul becomes 
pre'tu, a departed ghost, namely, takes a body about the size 
of a person's thumb, and remains in the custody of Yiimii, the 
judge of the dead. At the time of receiving punishment the 
body becomes enlarged, and is made capable of enduring sorrow. 
The performance of the rites for the repose of the soul, deUvers 
the deceased at the end of a year from this state, and translates 
him to the heaven of the Pitrees, where he enjoys the reward of 
his meritorious actions, and aftei-wards in another body, enters 
into that state which the nature of his former actions assign to 
him. If the shraddhu be not performed the deceased remains 
in the prdtii state, and cannot enter another body. 

There are three shraddhiis for the dead: one, eleven days 
after the death ; another, every month ; and another, at the 
close of a year after a person's decease. During the ten days of 
mourning the relatives hold a family council, and consult on the 
means of performing the shraddhii ; on the last of these days, 
after making an offering for the dead by the side of the river, 
they are shaved. On the next day after the performance of 
humerous ceremonies, and offerings made to the priests, the son 
goes into the house, and placing a Brahman and his wife on a 
seat, covers them with ornaments, worships them, and adding a 
large present of money, dismisses them. After this the son of the 


deceased requests five Brahmans to oiFer a male calf, in doing 
which they take two cloths each, four poitas, four betel-nuts, 
and some kourees, and go with the company to a spot where an 
altar has been prepared, one cubit high, and four cubits square. 
Four of the Brahmans sit on the four sides of the altar, and 
there worship certain gods, and offer a burnt sacrifice. Near the 
altar are placed the shalgramti, four female calves, a male calf, 
and a vilwu post. The fifth Brahman reads a portion of a 
poorana, to drive away evil spirits. The female calves are tied 
to four vilwii posts, and the male calf to a post called vrishii 
post. To the necks of the cow-calves four small slender baskets 
are suspended, in which are placed, among other things, a comb, 
and the iron instrument with which Hindu women blacken their 
eyelids. A sheet of metal is placed under the belly of the bull- 
calf, on the back a sheet of copper : the hoofs are covered 
with sUver, and the horns with gold, if the shraddhii be per- 
formed by a rich man. On the hips of the bull-calf marks of 
Shivu's trident are impressed with a hot iron. After this the 
son of the deceased washes the teiil of the bull-calf, and with 
the same water presents a drink-offering to his deceased 
ancestors : and afterwards marries the bull-calf to the four cow- 
calves, repeating many formulas, in which they are recommended 
to cultivate love and mutual sympathy. The son next liberates 
the cow-calves, forbidding any one to detain them, or partake of 
their milk in future. In Hberating the male calf, he says, " I 
have given thee these four wives, live with them ! Thou art the 
living image of Yiimu ; thou goest upon four legs. Devour not 
the com of others, &c." The cow-calves are generally taken by 
Brahmans, the bull-calf is let loose, to go where he pleases : 
these bulls wander about, and are treated by the Hindus with 
great respect ; no one can claim any redress for the injury they 
do, and no Hindu dare destroy them. The English call them 
" Brahmani bulls." There are various other rites too numerous 
to detail, and the sums are enormous which at times are spent 
on the shraddhii. 

The funeral rites of the Romans and those of the Hindus are 
not very dissimilar. The Romans paid the greatest attention to 


them, because they beUeved that the souls of the unburied were 
not admitted into the abodes of the dead ; or at least wandered 
a hundred years along the river Styx, before they were allowed 
to cross it ; for which reason, if the bodies of their friends 
could not be found, they erected to them an empty tomb {ceno- 
taphium) , at which they performed the usual solemnities ; and to 
want the due rites was esteemed the greatest misfortune. The 
nearest relation closed the eyes and mouth of the deceased, and 
when the eyes were closed they called upon the decejised by 
name several times at intervals : the corpse was then laid on the 
ground, bathed, and anointed with perfumes. The body, dressed 
in the best attire which the deceased had worn when alive, was 
laid on a couch in the vestibule, with the feet outwards ; the 
couch was sometimes decked with leaves and flowers. A small 
coin (triens vel oholus) was put in his mouth, which he might 
give to Charon for his freight. The Romans at first usually 
interred their dead, which is the most ancient and most natural 
method. They early adopted the custom of burning [cremandi 
vel comburendi) from the Greeks, which is mentioned in the laws 
of Numa, and of the twelve tables, but it did not become till towards the end of the republic. Numa forbade his 
own body to be burned, according to the custom of the Romans, 
but he ordered it to be buried near Mount Janiculum, with 
many of the books which he had written. Sylla was the first 
of the Patrician branch of the gens Cornelia that was burnt ; 
which is supposed to have been in accordance with his wishes ; 
for, having ordered the remains of Marius to be taken out of his 
grave, and thrown into the river Anio, he was apprehensive of 
the same insult. Sylla died a.c. 78. Pliny ascribes the first 
institution of burning among the Romans to their having dis- 
covered that the bodies of those who fell in distant wars were dug 
up by the enemy. Under the emperors it became almost uni- 
versal, but was afterwards gi*adually dropped upon the introduc- 
tion of Christianity, so that it had fallen into disuse about the 
end of the fourth century. On the day of the funeral, when 
the people were assembled, the body was carried out with the 
feet foremost on a couch, covered with rich cloth, and sup- 


ported commonly on the shoulders of the nearest relations of 
the deceased or of his heirs. Poor citizens were carried to the 
funeral pile in a plain bier or coffin, usually by four bearers : the 
funeral couches were sometimes open and sometimes covered. 
Torches were used both at funerals and marriages. The funeral 
procession was regulated by a person called Designator, attended 
by lictors, dressed in black, with their fasces inverted ; some- 
times, also, by the officers and troops, with their spears pointing 
to the ground. First, went musicians of various kinds, then, 
mourning women, hired to lament and sing the funeral song ; 
next came players and buffiDons, who danced and sang ; one 
of them, called Archimimus, supported the character of the 
deceased, imitating his words and actions while alive ; then 
followed the freedmen. Before the corpse were carried images 
of the deceased, and of his ancestors, on long poles or frames, 
but not of such as had been condemned for any heinous crime, 
whose images were broken. Behind the corpse walked the 
friends of the deceased in mourning, his sons with their heads 
veiled, and his daughters with their heads bare, and their hair 
dishevelled, contrary to the ordinary custom of both ; the 
magistrates without their badges, the nobility without their 
ornaments. The nearest relations sometimes tore their gar- 
ments, and covered their hair with dust, or pulled it out ; the 
women, in particular, who attended the funeral, beat their 
breasts and tore their cheeks, although this was forbidden by 
the twelve tables. At the funeral of an illustrious citizen the 
corpse was carried through the forum, where the procession 
stopped, and a funeral oration (laudatio) was delivered in praise 
of the deceased from the rostra, by his son, or by some near 
relation or friend. The honour of a funeral oration was decreed 
also to women, old or young, married or unmarried. From 
the forum the corpse was carried to the place of burning or 
burial, which the law of the twelve tables ordered to be without 
the city, Hominem mortuum in urbe ne sepelito, neve urito, 
according to the customs of other nations ; the Jews, the 
Athenians, and others. The Romans prohibited burning or 
burying in the city, both from sacred and civil considerations, 


and that the air might not be infected. The vestal virgins were 
buried in the city, and some illustrious men, which right their 
posterity retained, but did not use. 

The funeral pile (rogus vel pyra) was built in the form of an 
altar, with four equal sides ; hence called ara sepulchri, funeris 
ara, of wood which might easily catch fire, as fir, pine, cleft 
oak, unpolished, according to the law of the twelve tables, rogum 
ascia ne polito, but not always so ; also stuffed with paper and 
pitch, made higher or lower according to the rank of the deceased 
(hence rogus pleheius) , with cypress-trees set around to prevent the 
noisome smell, and at the distance of sixty feet from any house. 
On the funeral pile was placed the corpse, with the couch ; the 
eyes of the deceased were opened ; the nearest relations kissed 
the body with tears, and then set fire to the pile with a lighted 
torch, turning away their faces (aversi) to show that they did 
it with reluctance. They prayed for a wind to assist the flames, 
as the Greeks did, and when that happened it was thought 
fortunate. They threw into the fire various perfumes (odores), 
incense, myrrh, cassia, &c. ; also cups of oil and dishes {dapes 
velfercula), with titles marking what they contained: likewise 
the clothes and ornaments, not only of the deceased, but their 
own ; every thing, in short, that was supposed to be agreeable to 
the deceased while alive ; all these were called munera vel dona. 
If the deceased had been a soldier, they threw on the pile his 
arms, rewards, and spoils. At the funeral of an illustrious com- 
mander the soldiers made a circuit (decurrebant) three times 
round the pile, from right to left {orbe sinistra), with their 
ensigns inverted, and striking their weapons on one another to 
the sound of the trumpet, all present accompanying them, as 
at the funeral of Sylla, and of Augustus, which custom seems to 
have been borrowed from the Greeks, was used also by the Cartha- 
ginians, and was sometimes repeated annually at the tomb. 
As the manes were supposed to be delighted with blood, various 
' animals, especially such as the deceased had been fond of, were 
slaughtered at the pile, and thrown into it ; in ancient times, 
also men, captives, or slaves, to which Cicero alludes. After- 
wards instead of them, gladiators, called bustuarii, were made to 


fight ; SO amongst the Gauls, slaves and clients were burnt on 
the piles of their masters ; among the Indians and Thracians, 
wives on the piles of their husbands : thus also, among the 
Romans, friends testified their affection ; as Plotinus to his 
patron, Plautius to his wife Orestilla, soldiers to Otho, Mnester, 
a freed-man, to Agrippina. 

Instances are recorded of persons who came to life again on the 
funeral pile after it had been set on fire, so that it was too late to 
rescue them ; and of others, who having revived before the pile 
was kindled, returned home on their feet. When the pile was 
burnt down, the fire was extinguished, and the embers soaked 
with wine ; the bones were gathered (ossa legebantur) by the 
nearest relations, with loose robes, and sometimes barefooted. 
We also read of the nearest female relations who were called 
funerae velfunere^, gathering the bones in their bosom. 

The bones and ashes, besprinkled with the richest perfumes, 
were put into a vessel called urna, an urn, made of earth, brass, 
marble, silver, or gold. Sometimes, also, a small glass vial full 
of tears, called by the moderns a lachrymatory, was put in the 
urn, and the latter was solemnly deposited in the sepulchre. 

When the body was not burnt, it was put into a coffin (area 
vel loculus) with all its ornaments, usually made of stone, as 
that of Numa, so of Hannibal ; sometimes of Assian stone, fi-om 
Assos, or -us, a town in Troas or Mysia, which consumed the 
body in forty days, except the teeth, hence called sarcophagus, 
which word is also put for any coflSn or tomb. The coffin was 
laid in the tomb on its back ; in what direction among the 
Romans is uncertain ; but among the Athenians, looking to the 
west. When the remains of the deceased were laid in the tomb, 
those present were three times sprinkled by a priest with pure 
water [aqua pura vel lustralis), from a branch of olive or 
laurel [aspergillum) , to purify them. Then they were dismissed 
by the preefica, or some other person, pronouncing the solemn 
word ilicet, i.e. ire licet, you may depart. At their departure, 
they used to take a last farewell, by repeating several times vale, 
or salve (Eternum ; adding, nos te ordine, quo natura permiserit, 
cuncti sequemur. The friends, when they returned home, as a 


further purification, after being sprinkled with water, stepped 
over a fire (ignem super grediebantur), which was called suffitio. 
The house itself was also purified, and swept with a certain kind 
of broom. There were certain ceremonies for the purification 
of the family, when they buried a thumb, or some part cut off 
from the body before it was burnt, or a bone brought home from 
the funeral pile, on which occasion a soldier might be absent 
from duty. On the ninth day after the funeral, a sacrifice was 
performed, called novendiale, with which these solemnities were 

Oblations or sacrifices to the dead {inferia, vel parentalia,) 
were afterwards made at various times, both occasionally and at 
stated periods, consisting of liquors, victims, and garlands ; 
these oblations were to appease ; to revenge, an atonement was 
made to, their ghosts. 

The sepulchre was then bespread with flowers, and covered 
with crowns and fillets : before it, there was a little altar, on 
which libations were made, and incense burnt, and a keeper was 
appointed to watch the tomb, which was frequently illuminated 
with lamps. A feast was added, called silicernium, both for the 
dead and the living. Certain things were laid on the tomb, 
commonly beans, lettuces, bread, and eggs, or the like, which it 
was supposed the ghosts would come and eat ; hence coena 
feralis ; what remained was burnt ; for it was thought mean to 
take away any thing thus consecrated, or what was thrown into 
the funeral pile. The Romans commonly built tombs for them- 
selves during their lifetime ; if they did not live to finish them, 
it was done by their heirs, who were often ordered by the testa- 
ment to build a tomb. The highest honours were decreed to 
illustrious persons after death. The Romans worshipped their 
founder Romulus as a god, under the name of Quirinus. 
Hence afterwards the solenm consecration of the emperors, by 
a decree of the senate, who were thus said to be ranked in 
the number of the gods, also of some empresses : temples and 
priests were assigned to them they were invoked with prayers 
men swore by their name or genius, and offered victims on their 


The entrance to the Goomtie river is very narrow, and a 
bridge of sixteen boats is placed across it. At Chandrouti is a 
white temple much carved ^the platform in the centre of the 
stream stands out about two feet high a bamboo was stuck 
upon it, and several birds were perched on the stones. The 
ruins of the temple must have fallen into the river I suppose, as 
no ruins are there, only a very few stones : this is to be 
lamented. It must have been very picturesque, and it also must 
have pointed out the dangerous spot to vessels. The navigation 
is perplexing, but we came through it without any mischance, 
and, after a great deal of annoyance, anchored at 10 p.m. off a 
village ; our time to lugao the boats has usually been four hours 
earlier. The Hindus, who have had no dinner to-day, must be 
sick and weary ; we could not get to the bank, on account of 
the shallowness of the water until this hour. The Musalman 
crew of the budgerow cook and eat on board ; the crews of the 
woolak and cook-boat, being Hindus, cook and eat on the river- 
side, that they may not defile the sacred Gunga. 

If you lugao near a village the chaukidars come down and 
guard your boats ; if you anchor on a sandbank you guard 
your own boats, and are generally distant from robbers ; never- 
theless, care is required through the night, and a watch should 
be set on each vessel during the dark hours. 

Five mUes above Chandrouti is BuUooah ghat and ferry on 
the right bank, the banks are formed of kankar rock. Exactly 
opposite the ferry, the budgerow struck on a sunken bank, which 
was very deep in the water ; we were detained upwards of two 
hours ere she could be got oflf ; the rudder was unshipped by 
the manjhi, and after great labour we were once again afloat, 
without having sustained much damage. The river is very 
shallow, and to find the deep stream is difficult in a budgerow. 

" Fifty miles above Ghazipur, or eight above BuUooah ghat, 
on the right bank of the river, is Kye, and its sunken kankar 
reef scarcely avoidable in some dry seasons. Thence due west 
over the right bank you may observe the Benares minarets 
distant nine miles." A Uttle wind aided us, and we lugaoed at 
6 P.M. at Riij ghat, Benares. A number of temples and tombs, 

VOL. II. F f 


with the minarets beyond, looked well in the distance as we 
approached ; but the smoke of the evening fires on the bank, 
and the red glare of the setting sun, rendered all objects indis- 
tinct. I walked to see a tomb on the top of the high cliff a 
little below Raj ghat ; it is enclosed by stone walls in a garden, 
and is a handsome monument ; many tombs are on the outside 
by the ravine. It is a very picturesque spot. Thus closed the 
evening at Raj ghat. 




Benefits arising from a Residence in the Holy City of Kashi Kalii-Bhoiruvu 
The Snake-Charmers Gigantic Image of Hunooman BrahmanI Bulls The 
Ghats from the River Bhim Singh TulsT Altars Ruins of the Ghat of the 
ex-Queen of Gwalior A Corpse Young Idolaters State Prisoners The 
City Sultanpur Chunar Picturesque Tree near the Ghat Singular Cere- 
monies The Deasil TumbuU Gunge Mirzapur Beautiful Ghats and 
Temples Carpet Manufactory Bindachun. 

1844, Dec. 5th. A friend accompanied me this morning to view 
Benares, or, as it is more correctly called, Bunarus : nothing 
pleases me more than driving about this city, the streets, the 
houses, and the people are so well worth seeing. " A httle to eat, 
and to live at Bunarus," is the wish of a pious Hindu ; but a 
residence at this place is rather dangerous to any one inclined to 
violate the laws, as the following extract will testify : " Kalii- 
Bhoiruvu is a naked Shivii, smeared with ashes ; having three 
eyes, riding on a dog, and holding in one hand a horn, and in 
another a drum. In several places in Bengal this image is 
worshipped daily. Shivii, under this name, is the regent of 
Kashi (Bunarus) . All persons dying at Benares are entitled to 
a place in Shivu's heaven ; but if any one violate the laws of 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 138. 
F f 2 


the shastru during his residence there, Kaiu-Bhoiriivii at death 
grinds him betwixt two mill-stones." f 


6th. Some of these people came down to the river-side, and 
displayed their snakes before the budgerow ; they had two boa 
constrictors, one of which was of enormous size ; the owner 
twined it about his neck after the fashion in which a lady wears 
her sable boa; the other, which was on the ground, glided 
onwards, and the man pulled it back, as it appeared to be 
inclined to escape into the water. They had a number of the 
cobra di capello, twenty or more, which, being placed on the 
ground, reared themselves up, and, spreading out their hoods, 
swayed themselves about in a fashion which the men called 
dancing, accompanied by the noise of a little hand-drum. The 
snake-charmers struck the reptiles with their hands, and the 
snakes bit them repeatedly on their hands, as well as on their 
arms, bringing the blood at each bite ; although the venomous 
fangs have been carefully removed, the bite itself must be disa- 
greeable ; nevertheless, the natives appear not to mind it in the 
least. There was no trick in the case ; I saw a cobra bite his 
keeper five or six times on his hand and arm, the man was 
irritating it on purpose, and only desisted when he found I was 
satisfied that there was no deception. At the conclusion of 
the exhibition they caught the cobras, and crammed them all 
into ghards (earthen vessels) ; the boas were carried off in a 

In the evening I walked to a dhrumsala or alms-house on the 
bank of the river, a little above Raj ghat ; it is situated on the 
top of a high flight of steps, and is very picturesque. On the 
steps of the stone ghat below is a gigantic image of Hunooman, 
made of mud, and painted according to the most approved 
fashion. The natives were very civil, showing me the way to 
different places, and yet the Benares people have a bud nam (bad 
name) in that respect, being reckoned uncivil to strangers. 

On the steps of the ghat I met a very savage Brahmani bull ; 
the beast was snorting and attacking the people, he ran at me, 


but some men drove him off; there were numbers of them in 
the bazar, but this was the only savage one I encountered ; the 
rest were going quietly from gram-stall to gram-stall, apparently 
eating as much as they pleased. The merchants would be afraid 
to drive the holy bulls away with violence. 

7th. Quitted Raj ghat early, and tracked slowly past 
Benares, stopping eveiy now and then to take a sketch of those 
beautiful ghats. The minars rear their slender forms over the 
city, and it is not until you attempt to sketch them that their 
height is so apparent, and then you gaze in astonishment at 
them, marvelling at the skill that has reared structures of such 
height and elegance, and at the honesty of the workmen, who 
have given such permanent cement to the stones. 

A little farther on is a cluster of Hindu temples of extreme 
beauty and most elaborate workmanship, with a fine ghiit close 
to them ; one of these temples has been undermined by the 
river, and has fallen but not to the ground ; it still hangs over 
the stream, a most curious sight. How many temples the 
Ganges has engulphed I know not ; some six or seven are now 
either deeply sunk in, or close to the water, and the next rains 
will probably swell the river, and undermine two or three more. 
A fine ghat at the side of these has fallen in likewise. 

Above this cluster of falling temples is a very beautiful ghat, 
built of white stone, I know not its name ; but I sketched it 
from the boats. It is still uninjured by time, and is remarkable 
for the beauty of its turrets, over the lower part of which a 
palm-tree throws its graceful branches in the most picturesque 
manner. On the top of a small ghat, just higher than the 
river, at the bottom of a long flight of steps, two natives were 
sitting, shaded from the sun by a large chatr ; groups of people 
in the water were bathing and performing their devotions, 
many were passing up and down the flight of stone steps,-^ 
whilst others, from the arched gallery above, were hanging 
garments of various and brilliant colours to dry in the sun. On 
the outside of some of the openings in the bastions straw mats 
were fixed to screen off the heat. 

Just above this fine structure, on a small ghat, a little beyond 



the minarets, is a gigantic figure in black stone of Bhim Singh, 
a deified giant, of whom it is recorded that he built the fortress 
of Chunar in one day, and rendered it impregnable. The giant 
is represented lying at full length on his back, his head, adorned 
with a sort of crown, is supported on raised masonry ; at his 
right side is erected a small altar of mud, of conical form, 
bearing on its top a tulsl plant ; the natives water these plants, and 
take the greatest care of them. The tulsl had formerly the same 
estimation amongst the Hindus, that the misletoe had amongst the 
ancient Britons, and was always worn in battle as a charm ; on 
which account a warrior would bind a mala of tulsl beads on his 
person. The scene was particularly picturesque ; below the ghat, 
on which reposed the gigantic hero, were some native boats ; 
and near them was a man dipping a piece of cloth embroidered 
in crimson and gold into the water ; while, with a brilliant light 
and shade, the whole was reflected in the Ganges. 

A little distance beyond I observed a number of small ghats 
rising from the river, on each of which a similar conical tulsl 
altar was erected, and generally, at the side of each, the flag of 
a fakir was displayed from the end of a long thin bamboo. A 
man who appeared to be a mendicant fakir, came down to the 
river-side, carrying in one hand a long pole, and in the other 
one joint of a thick bamboo, which formed a vessel for holding 
water, and from this he poured some of the holy stream of the 
Ganges on the little shrub goddess the tulsl. 

In the midst of hundreds and hundreds of temples and ghats, 
piled one above another on the high clifi^, or rising out of the 
Ganges, the mind is perfectly bewildered ; it turns from beauty 
to beauty, anxious to preserve the memory of each, and the 
amateur throws down the pencil in despair. Each ghat is a 
study; the intricate architecture, the elaborate workmanship, 
the elegance and lightness of form, an artist could not select 
a finer subject for a pictiue than one of these ghats. How soon 
Benares, or rather the glory of Benares its picturesque beauty 
will be no more ! Since I passed down the river in 1836 many 
temples and ghats have sunk, undermined by the rapid stream. 

The Baiza Bii'i's beautiful ghiit has fallen into the river, 


perhaps from its having been undermined, perhaps from bad 
cement having been used. Her Highness spared no expense ; 
probably the masons were dishonest, and that fine structure, 
which cost her fifteen lakh to rear a Uttle above the river, is 
now a complete ruin. 

The ghat of Appa Sahib is still in beauty, and a very curious 
one at the further end of Benares, dedicated to Mahadeo, is still 
uninjured ; a number of images of bulls carved in stone are on 
the parapet of the temple, and forms of Mahadeo are beneath, 
at the foot of the bastions. 

We loitered in the budgerow for above six hours amongst the 
ghats, which stretch, I should imagine, about three miles along 
the left bank of the Ganges. 

At the side of one of the ghats on the edge of the river sat a 
woman weeping and lamenting very loudly over the pile of wood 
within which the corpse of some relative had been laid ; the 
friends were near, and the pile ready to be fired. I met a corpse 
yesterday in the city, borne on a flat board ; the body and the 
face were covered closely with bright rose-coloured muslin, which 
was drawn so tightly over the face that its form and features 
were distinct ; and on the face was sprinkled red powder and 
silver dust ; perhaps the dust was the pounded talc, which looks 
like silver. 

How soon the young Hindus begin to comprehend idolatry ! 
A group of children from four to seven years old were at play ; 
they had formed with mud on the ground an image of Hunooman, 
after the fashion of those they had seen on the river-side ; and 
they had made imitations of the sweetmeat {pera) in balls of 
mud, to offer to their puny idol. 

I was at Benares eight years ago (in November, 1836) ; the 
river since that time has undermined the ghiits, and has done so 
much damage, that, in another ten years, if the Ganges encroach 
at an equal rate, but little will remain of the glory of the most 
holy of the Hindu cities. The force of the stream now sets 
full upon the most beautiful cluster of the temples on its banks ; 
some have been engulphed, some are faUing, and all will fall 
ere long ; and of the Baiza Ba'i's ghat, which was so beautiful 


when last I visited the place, nothing now reradns but the ruins ! 
Her Highness objected gi'eatly to the desire of the Government, 
to force her to live in this holy city : poor lady ! her destiny exem- 
plifies the following saying, " He who was hurt by the bel 
(its large fruit falUng on his head) went for refuge to the babul, 
(the prickles of which wounded his feet,) and he that was hurt 
by the babul fled to the bel\" 

The Rajah of Sattara resides a state prisoner at Bunarus. 

A buggy is to be hired at Secrole for four rupees eight aniis a 
day, which is preferable to a palanquin : in visiting the city the 
better way is to quit your buggy, and proceed in a tilnjan, if you 
wish to see the curious and ancient buildings to advantage. 

I am so much fagged with the excitement of the day, gazing 
and gazing again, that I can write no more, and will finish this 
account with an extract from the "Directory." " Benares on 
the left bank is considered as the most holy city in India, and is 
certainly one of the most handsome when viewed at a distance 
on the river, there being such numerous stone ghats and 
temples, some of which cost seventeen liikh of rupees. It is 
the residence of some native princes, pensioners of the Hon. 
East India Company, but their dwellings are divided into so 
many little chambers or pigeon-holes, that the internal part of 
the city has the appearance of a mass of mean buildings, piled 
up without any regard to order and appearance, and narrow 
filthy lanes instead of streets. 

" There is a large enclosed mart, called a chauk, which opens 
at 5 P.M., where trinkets, toys, birds, cloth, and coarse hardware 
are exposed for sale. It has a large well in it, and is also a 
resort for native auctions. Close to the chauk is the principal 
alley or mart for gulbadan, a very fine silk of various patterns 
worn by natives as trowsers ; also fine caps with tinselled crowns, 
and very elegant gold and silver embroidery ; also scarfs and 
turbans, and pieces for fancy head-dresses. There is likewise a 
traveller's chauk, or native inn, and a large horse mart, where 
very fine horses, of the Turki, Persian, and Cabul breeds are 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 139. ' 


procurable, as high as eight, ten, or fifteen thousand rupees, 
that are brought here by the fruit-carriers, who bring grapes 
and pears from those countries. Here are several miniature 
painters, and cdso venders of miniatures on ivory, said to be 
likenesses of different native princes, their queens, and nach 
girls ; and also true likenesses of native servants in costume, 
tradesmen, and beggars. Delhi jewellery of the best gold is 
brought on board the steamers by sending for the dealers. 
Here is also an old observatory, and two very high and slender 
minarets, one of which has a slight inclination ; travellers 
ascending them are expected to give to the keeper the fee of a 
rupee. From their tops is a fine view of the city, the adjacent 
country, and the river, so gratifying a sight should not be passed 
over by any traveller. Provisions are procurable ; partridges, 
quail, and wild ducks of all sorts, are to be obtained. Steamers 
remain at Riij ghat to take in passengers, to discharge and take 
in packages, and to receive coals. The civil and military station 
is about four mUes inland, direct from Raj ghat, where reside 
the commissioner, the judge, the magistrates, the collectors, the 
general, and all the officers of the native regiments quartered 
here, and some European artillery. 

" Letters must be sent for to the post-office, as they are not 
forwarded, which is very inconvenient. The city is about two 
miles long : the natives are very uncivil to strangers. Numerous 
fanatics are here, who drown themselves, believing that the 
holy Ganga and the city of the most holy secures them eternal 
happiness. Benares is from Calcutta, via Bhagirathi, 696 miles ; 
via Sunderbands, 984 ; and by land or dak, 428. Letters 
take four days, banjhis seven days. Palanquins axe procurable 
here, but they are infested with vile vermin." 

So much for the " Directory," from which I differ. So far 
from the distant view of the city giving you the best idea of it, 
it is not until you are in the midst of and close to the various 
and beautiful ghats and temples just beyond the miniirs that you 
can have an idea of the beauty of Benares. The best convey- 
ance in which to visit and sketch the ghats is a small boat with 
an awning. 


We passed the residence of the Raja of Benares at Raranagar, 
one mile and a half above the city ; it is a handsome native 

8th. Passed Chhota Kalkata, or Sultanpur-Benares : it is a 
native cavalry station, seventeen miles above Benares on the 
left bank of the river. Steamers bring to here occasionally, for a 
few minutes, to land passengers. It has a kankarl or rocky 
point, that is very awkward for native boats, as also for 
steamers, owing to a narrow channel and strong currents ; the 
point is off the cavalry stables, which are called Little Calcutta. 

On our arrival at Chunar we moored the boats at the request 
of the sarhang, as the dandts wished to go on shore to buy and 
sell in the bazar ; they carry on a regular traffic at all the 
stations up the river, and gain a heavy profit on their Calcutta 
lanterns, pankhas, bundles of cane, cheeses, pickles, and 
a variety of articles. Chunar is famous for its tobacco, 
and the men were anxious to lay in a stock for sale at other 

At a short distance from the landing-place, and to the left of 
it, is a fine peepul-tree (Ficus religiosa) , at the foot of which are 
a number of idols in stone, placed in an erect position, supported 
by the trunk. A native woman placed some flowers upon the 
idols, and poured Ganges water over them from an earthen 
vessel (a ghard) , which she carried on her head. Another was 
performing a religious and superstitious ceremony, called pra- 
dakshina, that is, she was walking a certain number of times 
round and round the peepul-tree, with the right hand towards 
it, as a token of respect, with appropriate abstraction and 
prayers, in the hope of beautiful offspring. For this reason, 
also, the Ficus indica is subject to circumambulation. The same 
ceremony is mentioned in the " Chronicles of the Canongate :" 
the old sibyl, Muhme, says to Robin Oig, " So let me walk the 
deasil round you, that you may go safe into the far foreign land, 
and come safe home." " She traced around him, with wavering 
steps, the propitiation, which some have thought has been 
derived from the Druidical mythology. It consists, as is well 
known, in the person who makes the deasil Wcdking three times 


round the person who is the object of the ceremony, taking 
care to move according to the course of the sun." Near the 
peepul-tree was an Hindu temple built of stone, but most 
excessively disfigured by having been painted red ; and next 
to it was a smaller one of white stone. The whole formed a 
most picturesque subject for the pencil. Thence I proceeded 
to the Fort of Chunar, and walked on the ramparts : the little 
churchyard below was as tranquil as ever, but the tombs having 
become dark and old, the beauty of the scene was greatly 
diminished. The Ganges is undermining even the rock on 
which the fortress is built. The birds'-nests, formed of mud, 
built under the projections of the black rock on which it stands, 
are curious ; and on some parts of the rock, just above the 
river, small Hindu images are carved. The " Directory" gives 
the following account of the place : " On the right bank, about 
four miles above Sultanpur, is Chunar, an invalid station, with a 
fortification, on an isolated rocky hill, which projects into the 
river, forming a very nasty point to pass in the rains. It com- 
pletely commands the river, and is used as a place of confine- 
ment for state prisoners. There are several detached rocky 
hills or stone quarries here. It is a very sickly place, owing to 
the heat arising from the stone, which causes fever and disease of 
the spleen. This is a great place for snakes. A little above the 
fort is a temple : tradition states it to contain a chest, which 
cannot be opened unless the party opening it lose his hand, four 
thieves having so suffered once in an attempt upon it. Very fine 
black and red earthenware may be purchased here, such as wine 
coolers, which, being filled with water after the bottle is inserted, 
and set out in the draft of the hot easterly winds (none other 
serves the purpose), in the shade, cools the confined liquor as 
much as iceing it : the cooler must be dried daily. Also, red 
sandy water-holders or suries, which keep water very cool ; black 
butter pots, with a casing for water, very neatly finished ; and 
large black double urns, to contain bread, and keep it moist. 
Steamers seldom stop here more than ten minutes." 

The Padshah Begam, the Queen of Ghazee-ood-Deen Hydur, 
and Moonajah, are in this fortress state prisoners. 


Moored our vessels off TurnbuU Gunge. Of all the native 
villages I have seen this is the most healthy-looking ; it consists 
of one very long broad road or street, with houses on each side, 
built after the native fashion, but on a regular plan ; and on 
each side the road a line of fine trees shade the people as they 
sit selling their goods in the verandahs of their houses. 

The Gunge was built by a Mr. TurnbuU, a medical man, who 
made a large fortune in India when medical men were allowed 
to trade ; the place bears his name, and is situated about two 
miles higher up the river than Chunar. 

9th. A little beyond TurnbuU Gunge is a white mandap 
(temple) , on the right bank ; the top of the spire has been 
broken off, and it stands by a fine peepul-tree. Just in front of 
it a bank of hard red mud runs out into the river ; the bud- 
gerow ran upon it with such violence that many things in the 
cabin were upset ; after this little fright we proceeded very well. 
The dandls were particularly miserable on account of the rain ; 
almost every man had clothed himself in a red jacket ; for these 
cast-off military jackets they had given a rupee apiece ; they were 
very proud of them, and afraid of getting them wetted. They 
wore below the usual native dhoti i.e. a piece of linen, in heu 
of trowsers, above which the European red coat had a curious 
effect. Anchored on a very fine sandbank in the midst of the 
river ; here we found a chaukidar under a straw thatch, ready 
for vessels. 

lOth. " Seven miles above Chunar, on the right bank, is the 
village of Kutnac, with rocky bottom and hard lumps of earth 
in the river ; a little above is a ravine, which is to be avoided by 
all boats." 

" Fourteen miles above Chunar is the crossing ferry of the 
Benares grand road, and of Kitwa and Bhundoolee to Mirzapur ; 
thence to the latter place is a fine road, distance seven miles 
and a half by land, and sixteen by water." 

" Ten miles above the ferry, and seven below Mirzapur, on 
the left bank, is Bhajoan, with a white tomb and a patch of 
kankar in the river, on which many boats are lost : hence the 
cantonments of Mirzapiir are visible. 


" Mirzapur, a military cantonment, is two miles below the 
city and the civil station : the judge's, the magistrates', and 
the collector's offices are one mile below the city. The steamer 
stops at the agency ghat at the lower end of the city. This 
place is noted for a cotton mart and cotton manufactory ; as like- 
wise for shell lac, lac dye, and hardware in a small way. Many 
boats are here at all seasons. The city is very confined, du-ty, 
and subject to great sickness : there are two or three very fine 
stone ghats here, and some small temples and minarets : bread, 
butter, eggs, mutton. Iamb, kid, veal, and fowls, are procurable. 
Mirzapur is from Calcutta, via Bhagirathi, 748 miles ; vi^ 
Sunderbands, 1036 miles ; and by dak route, 455. The dak 
takes five days, and banjhi eight days to run. Steamers having 
plenty of cargo to land are generally detained here four or five 

The river has given us some trouble to-day, and we have 
grounded many times. The white houses of the Mirzapur 
cantonments stretch along the right bank on a very high clifi"; 
the church, a very elegant building, was planned by Colonel 
Edward Smith, the spire rises just above the ghat of the civil 
station. The manjhl of our vessel wished to anchor there, but 
we pushed on to the city, and lugaoed on the other side the 
river, close to a fine house, the residence of the Raja of Ram- 
nager. We did not like to anchor at the stone ghat of the 
city, on account of the noise, smoke, and heat produced by a 
crowd of native boats : this will be pleasant : I can be up top 
df/ghl (gun-fire) to-morrow morning, and sketch the ghats. In 
the mean time the sandbank by which we are moored is cool, 
pleasant, and quiet. Now for English letters ! 

llth. ^We found we ought to have stopped at the ghat off 
Cantonments, as there bread, butter, meat, &c., could be pro- 
cured ; but what cared I for such creature comforts when I saw 
the ghats in the early morning ? We crossed the river, and I 
went out to sketch them. There are two fine ones, built of 
stone, that lie close together, and a number of temples are upon 
them, placed at intervals upon the cliflT, from the river to the 
top of the high bank, and very beautiful they are. 



The first sketch comprehended the ghilts that rise out of the 
river ; on their steps of stone, multitudes of people, in the gay 
attire of the East, were ascending and descending for puja and 
bathing, and to bring water up for domestic purposes ; the scene 
was particularly animated. On the steps of the ghat was a 
large awning, formed of mats, and supported by bamboos, under 
which the natives were sitting and conversing, while it screened 
them from the sun. Upon the river-side were several square 
platforms erected on four bamboos, with great stones beneath to 
support them ; and on the top of the poles were large jhdmps 
that is, mats of straw, which protected the people sitting inside 
from the rays of the sun ; these platforms were used as booths, 
and in them sweetmeats were displayed for sale. Half-way up 
the cliff were three small temples, with fine trees in the back- 
ground, in front of which stretched the high bank along the 
side of the Ganges. 

The second sketch of the same ghat was taken half-way up 
the cliff; on the right are the three small temples above alluded 
to, which form part of a group of singular beauty and varied 
form. A large shiwala or temple dedicated to Mahadeo is next 
to them, and a smaller, separated only by an archway, adjoins it ; 
on the portico of the latter a fakir's staff and flag were erected. 
The branches of fine trees were in the back-ground, the cliffs 
were abrupt, and the vessels on the Ganges were in the distance. 
In front of the doorway of the larger temple the holy bull, (the 
vehicle of Mahadeo,) was ccuchant on a small ghat erected for 
the purpose. 

The third sketch was taken from the top of the cliff looking 
up the river : it consists of a large shiwala or temple of Mahadeo, 
with a second in front which forms a portico, beneath which 
Nandi the holy bull reposes couchant ; to the side is the spire of 
a temple that rises from below. The Ganges adds to the beauty 
of the scene, and some branches of large trees in the back- 
ground adorn the temple. No mandap have I ever seen so elabo- 
rately carved or so beautiful ; from the basement to the pinnacle 
it is a mass of intricate sculpture, united with great elegance of 
design. It is covered with images of the gods, carved in stone. 


A little kid, which had just been offered to the idol, was frisking 
about the temple, unconscious of how soon he would be served 
up as a feast for the Brahmans. Kid is eaten by Hindus at 
particular times, and the priests consider the offerings as holy 

There is another handsome stone ghat a little further up the 
river, with nine temples upon it ; and many are the picturesque 
spots along the banks of the Ganges. Mirzapur is famous for 
its manufactory of carpets, which are often sent to England ; and 
large vessels in hundreds were off the city. We proceeded on 
our voyage, and lugaoed at Bindachun. 




Bindachun Devi Ghat The Temple of Bhawanl Bhagwan The Thugs 
The Hajjam The Tashma-baz Thugs The Pleasure of Wandering 
Sirsa Munyah Ghat Arail Arrival at Allahabad Native Sugar-cane 

1844, Dec. llth. We lugaoed early in the evening four miles 
above MirzapQr at the far-famed Bindachun. The first remark- 
able object on approaching the place is the ghiit of the Devi 
(goddess) which stands out into the river ; it is adorned with 
six bastions, which present a very fort-like appearance, and 
just above it we moored our boats. Taking an old bearer with 
me, whilst our people were preparing their evening meal, I 
hastened up to see the famous temple of Bhawanl, the place of 
resort of the Thugs, where they meet and take the vows. I 
ascended the steps of the ghat of which there are about eighty, 
and very steep ; from their summit you enter the bazar. This 
is a most curious place, and it is so narrow it can scarcely be 
called a street, being not more than six feet in the widest part, 
and in many places the breadth does not exceed three or four. 
It is lined on both sides with native shops, as thick as possible, 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 140. 


and paved throughout with flag-stones. The people from the 
shops called out to me, "Will you not buy a garland for the 
goddess, or a tdgah?" "Will you not buy sweetmeats for 
the shrine?" Garlands of fresh flowers were in profusion for 


I encountered a man who happened to be an hajjdm, a 
cupper and scarifier. Now, in all Eastern stories a personage of 
this description appears to be a necessary appendage, and mine, 
who was also a barber and an Hindu, offered to show me the 
way to the temple of the Devi. The road, which is straight 
through the narrow paved alley of the bazar, must be half a 
mile or more in length : in time we arrived at the temple ; three 
flags were flying from an old peepul-tree, and the noise of the 
bells which the Brahmans were tinkling for worship told of the 
abode of the goddess. The temple, which is built of stone, is 
of rectangular form, surrounded by a verandah, the whole 
encompassed by a flight of five steps. The roof is flat, and the 
pillars that support it of plain and coarse workmanship. On 
the left is the entrance to the Hindu holy of holies. The 
Brahmans begged me to take oflF my shoes, and said I might 
then enter and see the face of the goddess. I thought of the 
Thugs, and my curiosity induced me to leave my shoes at the 
door, and to advance about three yards into the little dark 
chamber. The place was in size so small, that when six people 
were in it, it appeared quite full ; the walls were of large coarse 
stones. The worshippers were turned out of the apartment, 
and they gave me a full view of the Devi, the great goddess, 
the renowned Bhagwiin ! 

The head of the figure is of black stone with large eyes, the 
whites of which are formed of plates of burnished silver : these 
glaring eyes attract the admiration of the Hindus : " Look at 
her eyes ! " said one. Thrown over the top of her head, 
strings of white jasmine flowers (the double sweet-scented 
churapa) took the place of hair, and hung down to the shoul- 
ders. If you were to cut a woman off' just at the knees, spread 
a red sheet over her, as if she were going to be shaved, hiding 

VOL. II. G g 


her arms entirely with it, but allowing her feet to be seen at the 
bottom, making the figure nearly square you would have the 
form of the goddess. The two Uttle black feet rested on a black 
rat, at least they called it so, and a small emblem of Mahadeo 
stood at the side. Six or eight long chaplets of freshly-gathered 
flowers hung from her neck to her feet festooned in gradation, 
they were formed of the blossoms of the marigold, the chumpa, or 
white jasmine, and the bright red pomegranate. The figure 
stood upon a square slab of black stone. It was about four 
feet in height, and looked more like a child's toy than a redoubt- 
able goddess. The Brahman or the Thug, whichever he might be, 
(for at this shrine all castes worship,) took a white flower, and 
gave it to me as a present for the goddess, at the same time 
requesting a rupee as an offering at the shrine. I had no money, 
but the old bearer had five paisa (about one penny three far- 
things), which he gave to the Brahman, who said, "This is not 
enough to buy a sweetmeat for the goddess ! " I made answer, 

" I give thee all, I have no more, 
Though poor the offering be." 

The man saw it was the truth, and was satisfied. The old 
bearer then requested me to hold my sketch-book for a few 
moments whilst he went in and put up a prayer : this I did, 
and the old man returned very quickly, much pleased at having 
seen the Devi. 

I sketched the goddess when before the shrine, the Brahman 
holding the lamp for me. Over her head was suspended from 
the ceihng an ornament of white flowers, and a lamp like that 
in the robber's cave in " Gil Bias" was also hanging from the 
roof. There was also a lamp on the black slab, which had the 
appearance of a Roman lamp. Ornaments worn on the wrists 
of Hindu women, called kangan, formed of a small hank of red, 
or rather flame-coloured cotton, intermixed with yellow, were 
offered to the Devi : the Brahmans put them on her shoulders, 
as arms she had none. Why and wherefore the kangan is 
offered, I know not. Before a sati ascends the funeral-pile, 
some red cotton is tied on both wrists. This may, probably, 

e^^-^^^:,.^^.-^:rr.v':-?^ - :^1---.-':'^^: 

^- ^Sketched in the Temple 


BHAGWAN. 45 1 

account for the kangan offered to Bhagwan, the patroness of 

I thought of the Thugs, but mentioned not the name in the 
temple ; it is not wise " to dwell in the river and be at enmity 
with the crocodile'." In the verandah of the temple were two 
massive bells of a metal looking like bronze. 

I can fancy terror acting on the Hindoos when worshipping 
the great black hideous idol, Kali Ma, at Kali-ghat, near Calcutta ; 
but this poor stump of a woman, with quiet features, staring 
eyes of silver, and little black feet, inspires no terror : and yet 
she is Bhagwan the dreaded Bhagwan ! 

The temple was crowded by men and women coming and 
going, as fast as possible, in great numbers. The month of 
Aghar is the time of the annual meeting ; it begins Novem- 
ber 15th, and ends the 13th of December ; therefore Bindachun 
must be full of rascals and Thugs at this present time, who 
have come here to arrange their religious murders, and to make 
vows and puja. 

This visit to Bindachun interested me extremely ; the style of 
the temple surprised me ; it is unlike any of the Hindoo 
places of worship I have seen, and must be of very ancient 
date. The pillars are of a single stone without ornament, rough 
and rude. Some of the shops in the bazar, like the one on the 
right where sweetmeats are sold, are of curious architecture ; 
stone is used for all the buildings, quarries being abundant in 
this part of the country. 

The people crowded around me whilst I was sketching the 
exterior of the temple, but were all extremely civil : the Brah- 
mans and beggars clamoured for palsa (copper coins), but were 
civil nevertheless. It is a disreputable neighbourhood : I hope 
they will not rob the boats to-night, as all the rascals and mur- 
derers in India flock to this temple at the time of the annual fair, 
which is now being held. Having made my salam to the great 
goddess, I was guided by the barber to another idol, which he 
said was worshipped by very few people. It was a female figure, 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 141. 


very well executed in stone, with four or five figures around it, 
carved on the same block. I was much inclined to carry it off; 
it is one of the handsomest pieces of Hindu sculpture I have 
seen. A few flowers were lying withered before it in the hovel 
where it stood, placed there, it may be, by the piety of the 
barber. Even my husband was induced to climb the steps of 
the ghat, and to walk through the bazar to the temple, but he 
did not enter it. A number of idols were under a peepul-tree in 
the bazar ; they were a great temptation, but in this high place 
of superstition it might be dangerous to carry off a god. 

This wandering life is very delightful ; I shall never again be 
content " to sit in a parlour sewing a seam," which the old 
song gives forth as the height of feminine felicity ! Much sooner 
would I grope through a dark alley idol hunting Apropos, by 
the idols under the peepul-tree was a sati mound, broken and 
deserted, not even a kalsa was there to claim the passing 
salam of the Hindii, nor a flower to mark the spot : perhaps 
the great goddess draws off" the worshippers from the deified 
mortal, although all satis are peculiarly under her protection. 


" Thuggee and Meypunnaism are no sooner suppressed than 
a new system of secret assassination and robbery is discovered, 
proving the truth of Colonel Sleeman's remark, that ' India is 
a strange land ; and live in it as long as we may, and mix with 
its people as much as we please, we shall to the last be con- 
stantly liable to stumble upon new moral phenomena to excite 
our special wonder.' As anticipated, at least one set of new 
actors have to be introduced to the public, and these are the 
Tashma-baz Thugs. 

"The Thugs formerly discovered went forth on their mur- 
derous expeditions under the protection of a goddess ; the 
. Tashmabazes have for their genius a European ! Who in Eng- 
land would be prepared to credit that the thimble-riggers of 
EngUsh fairs have in India given rise to an association that, in 
the towns, bazars, and highways of these provinces, employs 
the game of stick and garter as the lure for victims destined to 


be robbed or murdered? Yet this is the simple fact. The 
British had hardly gained possession of this territory before the 
seeds of the flourishing system of iniquity, brought to light 
almost half a century afterwards, were sowed in 1802 by a 
private soldier in one of his majesty's regiments stationed at 
Cawnpore. The name of this man was Creagh. He initiated 
several natives into the mysteries of the stick and garter, and 
these afterwards appeared as the leaders of as many gangs, who 
traversed the country, gambling with whomsoever they could 
entrap to try their luck at this game. It consists of rolling up a 
doubled strap, the player putting a stick between any two of its 
convolutions, and when the ends of the strap are pulled, it 
unrolls, and either comes away altogether, or is held at the 
double by the stick, and this decides whether the player loses or 
wins. A game requiring apparently no peculiar skill, and 
played by parties cleverly acting their parts as strangers to each 
other, being even dressed in character, readily tempted any 
greedy simpleton to try his luck, and show his cash. If he lost, 
he might go about his business ; if he won, he was induced to 
remain with the gamblers, or was followed, and as opportunity 
offered was either stupified with poisonous drugs, or by any 
convenient method murdered. Many corpses found from time 
to time along the vicinity of the Grand Trunk road, without any 
trace of the assassins, are now believed to have been the remains 
of the Tashraabazes' victims ; and distinct information has been 
obtained from their own members of murders committed by 
them. The merest trifle, it seems, was sufficient inducement to 
them to commit the crime, there being one case of three poor 
grass-cutters murdered by those miscreants in a jungle, merely 
for the sake of their trifling personal property. Indeed, these 
gangs seem to have been of a more hardened character than any 
other yet discovered, for their sole aim was gain, however it 
might be secured, without the plea of rehgious motive which 
regulated the proceedings of the other fraternities. Parties of 
them used to visit all the chief towns and stations of the 
Doab and its neighbourhood, and established themselves in the 
thoroughfares leading to the principal cities. Under the guise 


of gamblers, they were often brought to the notice of the 
authorities, and subjected to the trifling punishments due to 
minor oiFences ; but this was the very thing that lulled sus- 
picion as to their real character. They were constantly in the 
power of many dangerous acquaintances ; but these were bribed 
to silence out of their abundant spoils. The pohce almost every 
where seem to have been bought over. In the city of GwaUor, 
the kotwal got one-fourth of their profits ; and in the British 
territory, five rupees a day have been paid as hush-money to 
the neighbouring thannah. Amongst their friends was the mess 
khansaman of a regiment at Meerut, the brother of one of their 
chiefs, and an accomplice. Gold and silver coin, and ornaments 
of pearl and coral, formed part of the remittances that used to 
be sent to their head-quarters at Cawnpore. Indeed, they seem 
to have earned on a very safe and lucrative business, until the 
magistrates of Boolundshuhr and Cawnpore pounced upon them 
in the beginning of this year. Mr. Montgomery followed up 
their apprehension by a full report to Government, when the 
matter was taken up by the Thuggee Department, the sifting 
machinery of which, in the hands of Major Graham, soon 
brought to light all the facts necessary to establish that the 
gang formed a hitherto unknown class of Thugs." Agra 
Messenger, Dec. 2, 1848. 

1 2th. One mile above Bindachun are the dangerous granite 
rocks of Seebpur. After a very quiet day and very little diffi- 
culty, we anchored off the village of Bhoghwa, where we were 
informed by the chaukidar, that turkeys, fowls, and birds were 

The exertion of yesterday quite fagged me ; I was up and 
sketching from six in the morning to eleven a.m., at Mirzapiir, and 
again in the evening at the temple of Bhawiinl, a day of over- 
fatigue, but a very agreeable one. How I love this roaming life 
on the river, with the power of stopping at any picturesque 
spot ! Even tracking against the stream is most delightful to 
one who, like Dr. Syntax, is in search of the picturesque. My 
husband objects to accompanying me through the bazars, because 


such a crowd collect after me ; he goes along quietly, but with 
me it is different : the moment I stop to sketch, a crowd 
collects, and the attendants are obliged to drive them off to 
enable me to see the object. I have a great sympathy for Dr. 
Syntax, and perfectly comprehend the dehght he took even in 
a picturesque horsepond. India would have driven him wild ; 
it is the country of the picturesque. How I love this life in the 
wilderness ! I shall never be content to vegetate in England in 
some quiet country place. 

" Oh ! it settles the spirits, when nothing is seen 
But a pig on a common, a goose on a green." 

\3th. After an uninteresting passage with monotonous 
scenery, we moored off Poorooa, a village on the left bank. 
Wild ducks, geese, and Brahmani ducks are numerous on the 
river-side : it is very cold, so much so that T shall be glad to 
retire to rest to keep myself warm. 

I4th. No wind a warmer day, and no difficulty on the river. 
Anchored at a basti (village) about three miles below Sirsya. 
The Directory says, " Twenty-eight miles above Mirzapur, on 
the left bank of the river, is Suttamaree. Passengers generally 
land in the cold season, and have a walk across the neck of 
land in a w.n.w. direction, two miles wide to Taila, and rejoin 
the steamer off that place, she having to go a detour of twenty- 
one miles round the point. Two miles above Suttamaree is 
Deega-kunkur Spit, with a deep bight. 

" Letchyagurree and its ravine on the left bank of the fiver 
is twenty-two miles above Deega, noted for its robbers, when 
it was attached to the Oude territories." 

We have now arrived within a very short distance of Alla- 
habad ; I shall be quite sorry to end my voyage, and feel the 
greatest reluctance to returning into society. 

I5th. " Sirsya is a large cotton mart on the right bank ; it is 
sixty miles above Mirzapiir and twenty-three miles below 
Allahabad, to which place there is a good road. There are 
several pakka (brick) houses here, and two very fine tanks at the 
back of it, and an old mud fort ; thence to Frag, the river is very 


intricate and shallow. Iron work in a small way can be done 
for boats at this place. Turkeys and guinea-fowls abound." 

We passed Sirsya early, and found that the Queen's 40th regi- 
ment had just quitted the place. No fowls or provisions were to 
be had, the 40th, like a flight of locusts, had devoured every 
thing around the spot on which they descended ; some hilsa 
fish alone were to be procured, and most deUcious they proved, 
not only when fresh, but also when cured with tamarinds and 
vinegar. There is a house, some temples, and a peepul-tree on 
the cliff", that would make a good sketch, if taken looking up 
the river a little below the spot. In consequence of the 
shallowness of the stream we have had much trouble all day, and 
were unable to lugao until half-past seven p.m. cold and 

16^^. Arrived at Munyah ghat, on the right bank, at noon, 
eight miles from Prag. The river is so intricate, and the 
navigation so difficult, we shall be a length of time going those 
eight miles. 

The "Directory" says, "Allahabad is eighty-three miles 
above Mirzapur ; its fort is at the junction of the Ganges and 
Jumna. The steamers put up at the Jama Masjid, half a mile 
inside the Jumna. The native miUtary cantonments, and the 
place where most of the civilians and officers live, are from 
three to four miles inland. State prisoners are kept here in the 
fort. There is also a large stone pillar, said to have been 
erected by Alexander the Great to mark his conquests. This 
is the seat of the Sadr DewanI, or principal court of justice ; it 
was formerly the seat of the Presidency. Bread, butter, eggs, 
beef, mutton, lamb, kids, fowls, pigeons, turkeys, guinea-fowl, 
quail, partridge, teal, wild ducks, and wild geese, are procurable 
here : Europe shops are at the station, and auctions are held. 
About two miles from the ghat is the chauk or market, where 
all sorts of cloth, European and native, are procurable. Shawl- 
men board the steamers, if sent for, with every kind of Cashmere 
shawl, waistcoating, caps, gloves, socks, and Afghanistan 
woollen cloths : as also Delhi jewellers, and manufacturers of 
cotton carpeting, of various colours, showy on rooms, and 








rather durable. A little beyond the chauk is the native sara'e, 
where beautiful horses are at times to be purchased, of the 
Persian, Cabul, and TurkI breeds. You must send for your 
letters to the post-office. 

" The distance from Calcutta, via BhagirathI, is 831 miles ; via 
Sunderbands, 1186 ; and by dak route, 504 miles. 

" Steamer's regulated distance is 800 miles. Steamers remain 
here three entire days, when they depart on their return, taking 
passengers and cargo. Apply to the agent there, or to the 
commander, for passage downwards." 

In 1 844 the Sadr Board of Revenue and the Criminal and 
Civil Court, or Sadr Dewani, were removed to Agra. 

At half-past one, p.m., we caught the first sight of the fort 
and the telegraph. The flags were flying at the junction of the 
rivers, and the road from the sands over the Mahratta Band was 
plainly visible. Near Arail, just below the ferry, the river is 
intricate ; and the passage being difficult, we lugaoed off the 

17th. The Fort of Allahabad had an imposing appearance 
fi-om the river, and as we approached nearer we observed the 
flags flying at the bathing-place in great numbers, although the 
fair was not set. It was delightful once again to see old Priig, 
the Jama Masjid, the old well, surmounted by the temple so 
like that of the Sibyl, where dwells the Gossein, the shrine 
of Mahiideo a little above it, our old friend's bungalow beyond, 
and the fine peepul-tree on the high bank of the Jumna, that 
almost hides the house and chabutara, where we had passed so 
many years. Our old acquaintances are flocking down to welcome 
our return : we are once more at Allahabad, once more lugaoed 
in the blue waters of the Jumna, off the steamer ghat. 


The following account of the sugar mills, given me by Major 
Parlby, will elucidate the annexed sketch, which was taken by 
him on the spot. 

" As the sugar-cane is usually cultivated all over India, and 
the produce of its juice, in some form or other, is universally 


used, and constitutes a valuable article of export from India 
when converted into sugar, it may not be out of place to 
describe the construction and use of the patriarchal and simple 
form of mill represented in the drawing, which is at the village 
of Belaspore, on the left bank of the Ganges, near Mirzapore, 
about thirty miles below Allahabad. 

"It is supposed that sugar has been known and used in 
India and China from the eai'Uest ages ; and historians say that 
it was not introduced into the western world until after the 
conquest of Alexander the Great. This construction of mill is 
common in many parts of India ; and, rude and simple as it 
is, it is found to succeed in expressing the juice from the sugar- 
cane more perfectly than the rude cylinder mills which are used 
in other places. The villagers knew nothing more of its origin 
than that their fathers and grandfathers had used the same mills 
without alteration, except the occasional renewing and repairs of 
the wood-work, as required. 

" Some w^riters, and amongst the rest. Colonel Sleeman, in 
describing this construction of mill, term it the " Pestle and 
Mortar sugar mill:" but this name is improperly appUed, for 
the vertical beam has no reciprocating up-and-down motion, as 
the pestle of a common mortar has, but merely turns round in 
the cavity of the bed, as the bullocks walk round in their 
circular course. The bed of the mill is formed of a large mass 
of stone, of as hard a natui'c as can be procured in the locality, 
and free from any mixture of limestone, on which, probably, 
the action of the acid of the expressed juice of the cane might 
be injurious. 

" The beds are cyUndrical, ornamented externally with figures, 
emblematical or religious, which are cut in reUef. 

" The upright beam of the mill is generally selected from a 
tree, the wood of which is heavy, hard, tough, and durable ; 
and for this purpose the trunk of the babul, which is indigenous 
in these parts, is weU suited, and is generally chosen. 

" The bark is stripped off, one end is rounded, and the other 
is cut to a point ; the rounded end works in the hollow bed of 
the mill, and on the pointed end is hitched the end of a stay, 


properly formed for the purpose, the other end of which is 
attached to a horizontal beam, generally formed from a strong 
crotched piece of wood, which is cut at the crotched end to fit 
into a groove cut on the outside of the bed in which it traverses 
round, and the bullocks are yoked to the end of this beam. 
The stay leading from the top of the vertical beam is generally 
made of two pieces, which are capable of adjustment, so that 
the horizontal beam to which the bullocks are yoked may be 
kept at a proper distance from the ground. 

" The short pieces of cane, as they are supplied by a native, 
are bruised and squeezed against the internal sides of the mortar 
as the vertical beam moves round, the expressed juice running 
off by the channel which is cut from the bottom, opposite to 
which is an earthen pan let into the ground to receive it, a small 
piece of bamboo generally serving to connect them. 

" The driver sits on a frame or seat upon the end of the 
horizontzd beam, his own weight increasing the bruising power 
of the mill, which is also assisted by adding a weight of stones, 
if necessary. As the process of braising the cane takes place 
in the cold season, in December, the driver sometimes keeps 
himself warm by a pan of hot embers placed on the frame. 

" To each of these mills at Belaspore there were six bullocks, 
forming three reliefs: they work night and day as long as the 
cane is cutting, three hours at a time ; and in three hours about 
four seer or eight pounds of juice are expressed. The juice, 
as the pan fills, is immediately taken to the hut, whence the 
smoke is seen escaping at the door ; and there, in a boiler fixed 
on a rude furnace, the process of boiling the juice to concentrate 
it is carried on ; it is boiled down until it becomes a substance 
called goor, much thicker than treacle ; and in this state is 
carried to the neighbouring market of Mirzapur, where it is sold 
at the rate of eighteen seer for the rupee. Sixteen seer, or thirty- 
two pounds of goor are obtained from one maund of cane 
(eighty pounds). 

" In the foreground of the sketch are three heaps of sugar-cane, 
cut into pieces of six or eight inches long, ready to be supplied 
to the mill. A native canies the pieces of sugar-cane in a 


basket, and charges the mill by occasional supplies, as repre- 
sented in the drawing ; and he also takes out the bruised cane, 
from which the juice has been sufficiently expressed, and carries 
it to the hut, to assist, with a mixture of opla (dried cow-dung) 
in making the fire for the boiling process. The sugar-cane is 
slightly wetted when put into the mill, about two pints of water 
being used to moisten about eighty pounds' weight of it. The 
goor is purchased by the sugar-refiner, who dissolves and refines 
it again in the process of making sugar. But goor is also used 
for several purposes, as in preparing tobacco for smoking, and 
by masons, to mix with lime in forming hard cements for floors, 
terraces, baths, &c., for which the Indian masons are celebrated. 
It is impossible to contemplate the scene in the drawing 
without being struck with the strong contrast it bears to any 
mechanical process in our own country. The sketch was taken 
from life, and there was a quietude and apathy in all the per- 
sons engaged, which was remarkable : even the bullocks are 
urged round at a very slow pace, hardly two miles an hour, by 
the voice, more than by the short whip occasionally used by the 
driver. Thus it is ever in climates where the necessaries of life, 
shelter, food, and clothing are cheap, and easily procured ; in 
more severe climates the expenses attendant on the social state 
call forth the more active energies of human nature. ' God 
gives sugar to him who eats sugar',' i.e. He provides for His 
creatures in proportion to their wants." 

' Oriental Proverbs, No. 142. 



The Sibylline Temple Mr. Berrill's Hotel A Barouche drawn by Camels 
The Murdar-khor A Kharita from the Baiza Ba'i Marriage of the Chimna 
Raja Sultan Khusrii's Garden The Tombs Tamarind Trees The Sara'e 
The Baoll Tattoos used for Palanquins Reasons for the Murder of a Wife 
and Child The Lat A Skilful Swordsman An Eclipse Tiifans Death 
of Mr. James Gardner Quitted Allahabad The Ganges A Wreck A 
Storm Indian Corn Colgong Seryagali Hills and Ruins Nuddea Sus- 
pension Bridge Prinsep Ghat at Calcutta Engaged apassage in the "Essex." 

1844, Dec. \8th. The whole day was employed in receiving 
visits from our old acquaintances at the station, the munshl, the 
'amala of the office, and the natives whom we formerly employed. 
The pleasure they testified at our return was very gratifying ; and 
thedelightof Lutchman,my old Barha'l mistree (carpenter), was so 
genuine, it brought tears from my eyes, as well as from his own. 
We have moored the boats just below an old buij (bastion) of 
the ancient city of Priig ; there is a gateway below, the water- 
gate, perhaps, of the old Fort : the Sibylline temple crowns it. 
The old gossein who lives in the temple came this evening to 
make salam ; he reminded me of my having given him a present 
of sixteen rupees for having aided in recovering two hundred, 
that had been stolen from me ; he was young and good-looking 
then, now he is old and wily : he brought his son, a fine young 
Brahman, to introduce to me. Many are the strange stories 
related respecting this old Brahman and his solitary temple ; and 
I have before mentioned its curious resemblance to that of the 
Sibyl. Having defended the truth and faithfulness of my pencil 


in England, I was glad of an opportunity of again particularly 
observing the Ionic style of architecture of this httle building ; 
and while pondering on its singular appearance, Colonel Edward 
Smith came on board, and solved the mystery by mentioning 
that General Ouchterlony, finding the Jama Masjid seldom used 
as a place of worship, took possession of it as his dwelling-place, 
and formed magnificent rooms between the arches. He built 
the temple of the Sibyl on the top of the ancient water-gate of 
the old city. The Muhammadans, some years afterwards, 
petitioned Government not to allow the mosque to be used as a 
dwelling-place ; it was therefore restored to them, and is now 
used as a masjid. 

A pretty little modern building, a small temple, dedicated to 
Mahadeo, is near the ancient well of the water-gate. 

I am quite fatigued with seeing old faces, and saying kind 
words to the poor people. To my surprise an old woman, with 
a basket full of worsted balls, came to make salam ; she was 
fat and well, I had left her a poor wretched creature ; she 
used to make worsted balls for my dog Nero to fetch and carry. 
How many anas a month the poor old woman got from Nero ; 
she used to throw her ball to the dog, and then come to ask for 
payment; she was in fact a pensioner. The beautiful dog is 
dead; and the wretched old hag is fat and well, and makes 
worsted balls as usual. She got her little present, and went off 
quite happy. 

The ghat off which we are moored has been recently made by 
the Steam Agency ; and just above is an hotel, which has been 
established for the convenience of the passengers from the 
steamers, and is well conducted by Mr. Berrill. This little 
hotel on the banks of the Jumna-jee is well described in the 
following curious lines, which were written in four languages on 
the window of an inn in Russia. 

, " In questa casa troverte 

Tout ce qu'on peut souhaiter, 
Vinum, panem, pisces, carnes, 
Coaches, chaises, horses, harness." 

23rd. We quitted the boats, and went up to stay with our 


friends, Mr. and Mrs. M ; they received us with all that 

kindness and hospitality for which India is renowned ; their 
bungalow, a very fine one, is well situated at the other end 
of the station. We met a barouche drawn by two camels, 
harnessed like horses ; they went along at a fine pace, and I 
envied the possessor that pair of well broken-in carriage camels : 
in double harness they look well ; in single harness, especially 
in a Stanhope, or any other sort of buggy, the animal appears 
too large for the carriage. 

1845, Jan. II th. Saw a small comet, the nucleus of which 
was more distinct than that of the immense comet I saw when 
at sea, although the tail was so small, that it looked not unlike 
the thin switch tail of a horse. 

]8th. Finding it necessary to remain up the country for a 
time, we dug a tank and made a house for the wild ducks, and 
turned sixty-five birds into it. It was amusing to see the delight 
with which the murghabis splashed into the water when freed 
from the baskets in which they had been brought from the 
jangal, and such a confabulation as there was amongst them ! 

I omitted to mention that during my former residence at this 
station, the jamadar came to tell me that a murdur-khor (an 
eater of carrion), who had lately arrived, was anxious to perform 
before us. The man did not ask for money, but requested to 
have a sheep given him ; he said he would eat the whole at one 
meal, body and entrails, leaving only the horns and the skin, 
which he wished to carry away ; the wretch said that he would 
kill the sheep by tearing open its throat with his teeth, and would 
drink the blood. This feat they told me he had performed before 
in the bazar. I saw the man at a distance, and was so much 
disgusted that I ordered him to be turned out of the compound 
(the grounds around the house). In Colonel Tod's " Travels in 
Western India" there is a most interesting account of the 
murdi-khor, or man-eaters ; he made an attempt to visit the 
shrine of Kalka, the dread mother, whose rites are performed 
by the hideous Aghori, whose patroness she is, as Aghoriswara 
Mata. At one time they existed in those regions, but were only 
found in the wildest retreats, in the mountain-cave, or the dark 


recesses of the forest. Colonel Tod saw a man perform puja 
at the shrine of Goruknath, whom he had every reason to 
beUeve was one of these wretched people, but whether he was 
a murdi-khor he could not determine ; although, as he went off 
direct to the Aghori peak, said to be frequented only by his sect, 
it is probable that he belonged to the fraternity. It appears 
that the murddr-khor (the canion-eater) is almost the same as 
the ddam-khor or cannibal. 

24th. This life is very monotonous, and the only variety I 
have is a nervous fever now and then. 

March 1st. During a visit at the house of a friend I received 
a kharlta from her Highness the Biiiza Bii'i, and was greatly 
pleased to see the signature of the dear old lady, and also felt 
much flattered by her remembrance. After I quitted Allahabad 
for England her Highness remained there some time ; at last, on 
her positive refusal to live at Bunarus, it was agreed that she 
should reside at Nassuk, a holy place, about one hundred miles 
from Bombay. She quitted the Upper Provinces, marched 
across the country, and established herself at Nassuk. Having 
heard from some of her people of my return to India, and 
arrival at Prag, her Highness did me the honour to write to me, 
and after the usual compliments with which a native letter 
always commences, the Biiiza Ba'i added, " I received your 
letter in which you acknowledged the receipt of mine ; but I 
have not since heard from you, and therefore beg you will write 
and tell me how you and the sahib are ; do not be so long ageiin 
without writing, because it makes me anxious." 

I sent in answer a letter of thanks to her Highness for her 
kindness in having borne me in remembrance ; it was written by 
a munshi in the Persian character, and enclosed in a kharlta. 
At the same time I sent a bunch of the most beautiful artificial 
flowers to the Gaja Raja, to testify my respect ; it would have 
been incorrect to have sent the flowers to the Ba'I. They were 
Parisian, and remarkably well made ; the Gaja Raja, being fond 
of flowers, will be pleased. I gave the letter and bouquet to 
one of her attendants, Bulwunt Rao, who promised to send 
them across the country to Nassuk. The title of Gaja, i.e. 


elephant, is curiously applied to the young Princess, her form 
being fragile, delicate, and fairy-Uke. 

In 1848 I received a letter from a friend at Gwalior, men- 
tioning that the Chimna Raja, the daughter of the Gaja Raja 
Sahib, who was born at Allahabad, and who was then about 
eight years of age, had been betrothed by her great grandmother, 
the Baiza Ba'I, to JhankI Rao, the Maharaj of Gwalior ; after 
which ceremony the young bride returned to Oojein with the 
ex-Queen. This intelligence pleased me greatly, because the 
marriage of the great granddaughter of Daolut Rao Scindia with 
the reigning sovereign of the Mahrattas will give great satis- 
faction to her Highness ; and the wandering Haji rejoices that 
her great grand-niece (by courtesy) will share the throne of her 
ancestors with the Maharaj of Gwalior. 

5th. This evening, while cantering at a sharp pace round 
the Mahratta Bandh, my horse fell, and my companion thus 
described the accident in a letter to his brother. " Kabul came 
down upon his nose and knees ; nineteen women out of twenty 
would have been spilt. The Mem Sahiba sat her horse splen- 
didly, and puUed him up like a flash of lightning. The infernal 
brute must have put his foot in a hole. The evening passed 
hearing music, and talking philosophy." 

9th. I was invited to spend the day at Sultan Khusru's 
garden, to which place a tent had been sent, which was pitched 
under the fine tamarind trees in a most picturesque place. The 
garden is a large space of ground, enclosed by a high wall, 
contzdning tombs and some very fine trees : the entrance is 
through a lofty gateway. There are three tombs, and a Baithalc- 
khana or pavilion. The first and largest monument is that of 
Sultan Khusrij, in which he is buried ; it is a handsome building, 
and within it is deposited a beautifully illuminated kuran, which 
the darogha showed us with great pride. Sultan Khusru 
married a daughter of the Wuzeer Azim Khan ; he was the son 
of Jahangir, and his mother wa the daughter of the Rajput 
Prince Bagwandas of Amber. The next monument is that of 
the Jodh Bii'I, but in honour of which lady of that name I 
know not. Akbar married a Jodh Ba'I, the daughter of Oodi 

VOL. II. H h 


Singh, of Jodpoor ; she was the mother of Jahiingir, and was 
buried on the Chand-maree, near Fathipur Sicri. Jahanglr 
married a Jodh Bil'i, the daughter of Rae Singh, of Bickaner ; 
she was the mother of Shilhjahan, and her tomb is at Secundra. 
I forget to whose memory the tomb in Sultan Khusru's baghicha 
(garden) was erected. 

There is also a third mausoleum, which is not so handsome as 
the two before mentioned ; and the fourth building is a pavilion, 
in wliich visitors are allowed to live for a short time during a 
visit to the garden. Around the tombs are some of the largest 
tamarind trees I ever beheld : the imli, as the natives call the 
tamarind tree, is one of the finest and most beautiful in the 
world ; and they are generally found around or sheltering the 
tombs of revered or sacred characters. The sherbet prepared 
from the fruit is excellent ; the leaves and frait are used medici- 
nally. The natives are impressed with a notion that it is 
dangerous to sleep under the tamarind tree, especially during 
the night ; grass or vegetation of any kind is seldom seen grow- 
ing in such situations, and never with luxuriance. In times of 
scarcity the seeds are eaten by the poor ; they resemble a com- 
mon field bean. 

Part of Sultan Khusru's garden has been cultivated English 
fashion, that is, for vegetables ; seeds are given to the malts, 
(gardeners), and rewards for the first, second, third, and fourth 
best ddl'i that is, basket of vegetables : this is good ; the 
highest prize is fifty rupees, which will be to natives worth the 
contest. The milli in charge, kneeling on one knee, presented 
me with a bouquet of flowers ; it was not ungracefully done, 
nevertheless, it was bad taste to teach a man an European style 
of reverence, which in gracefulness is far inferior to the saliim 
of the native. 

The sara'e (caravansary) , with its gateways, and the handsome 
one through which you pass to the garden, are well worth 
visiting ; on the doors of the latter a number of horse-shoes are 
nailed for good luck, and the variety in shape and size is so 
great it is absolutely curious. 

Just beyond the gates of the sara'e is a bdoli, a magnificent 


well, with underground apartments ; it is a most remarkable 
and curious place, and the well is a noble one. The top of the 
baoli is level with the ground, from which place water can be 
drawn up, as also from the underground apartments, which 
open on the well. You descend by a long broad flight of stone 
steps to the water's edge, where there is an arch, ornamented 
with two large fish, the arms of Oude. Half way down is a 
pathway of stone that juts out from the wall, and communicates 
with the third apartment, from which you ascend by small 
circular staircases to the top. A nervous person might object 
to the walk along the pathway, it being very narrow, and having 
no defenc