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Full text of "Wanderings & wonderings. India, Burma, Kashmir, Ceylon, Singapore, Java, Siam, Japan, Manila, Formosa, Korea, China, Cambodia, Australia, New Zealand, Alaska, the States"

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WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS 



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BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 

A FLIGHT TO MEXICO. With 7 Full-page Illustra. 
tions and a Railway Map. Cr. 8vo, 7J. M. 

SIX MONTHS IN OAPE COLONT AND 
NAT All. With Illustrations and Map. Cr. 8vo, 6s. 

A FIGHT "WITH DISTANCES. With Illustrations 
and Maps. Cr. 8vo, 71. 6d, 



Kbgan Paul, Trench, Tr bhrr & Co.^ Ltd. 



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* ■.'■*., • 1 { . 



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Wanderings & Wonderings 



IN£>IA, BURMA, KASHMIR, CEYLOK, SINGAPORE, JAVA, 
SI AM, JAPAN, MANILA, FORMOSA, KOREA, CHINA, 
CAMBODIA, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, 
ALASKA, THE STATES 



BY 

J. J. AUBERTIN 

XBAKSLAXOR OF •'THE LUSIADS" AND ** SEVENTY SONNETS OF CAMOENS," AND 
AUTHOR OF "a FUGHT TO MEXICO," " CAPE COLONY." 
"a fight with distances," ETC, 



WTH PORTRAIT, MAP, AND SEVEN ILLUSTRATIONS 



LONDON 
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., Ltd. 

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING CROSS ROAD 
1892 



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CONTENTS. 

I. 

Introductory — Voyage out— Calcutta i 

II. 
Calcutta 15 

III. 
Darjeeling 23 

IV. 
Calcutta 28 

V. 
Burma 33 

VI. 

Benares — Lucknow, &c.— Allahabad — Jubbulpore — Au- 

rungabad — EUora 48 

VII. 
Bombay — Elephanta— Karli 65 

VIII. 
Ahmedabad— Kattiawar Peninsula — Palitana — Girnar 74 

IX. 
Mount Abu— Ajmir— Jeypur— Amba 89 

X. 

Agra— Fuitehpore Sikri— Gwalior 10 1 

046 

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VI CONTENTS. 

XI. 

PAGE 

Delhi 112 

XII. 

Amrilsar — Lahore — Sealcote — Peshawur — Indian Hospi- 
tality 117 

XIII. 

Khyber Pass 125 

XIV. 
Rawl Pindi — Murree— Kashmir 131 

XV. 
Kashmir— Srinagar — Islamabad, &c 142 

•XVI. 
Kashmir— Sind Valley 159 

XVII. 

Kashmir — Pir Panjal Pass 177 

XVIII. 

Kashmir — Chashma Shahi t86 

XIX. 

Nathia Gali— Simla 191 

XX. 
Narkanda — Sutlej Valley — From Mussuri . 195 

XXI. 

Darjeeling again 200 

XXII. 
Madras— Ootacamund—Nilgiris — Madura, &c. 208 

XXIII. 
Ceylon — Ramisseram — Ceylon 213 

XXIV. 
Java— Boro Buddor — ^Java 234 



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CONTENTS. VU 

XXV. 

PAGE 

Siam — Hongkong — Canton — Macao 244 

XXVI. 
Shanghai —Japan 262 

XXVII. 
Shanghai— Manila— Formosa 302 

XXVIII. 
Nagasaki — Korea 311 

XXIX. 
To Tientsin — To Peking 324 

XXX. 

Peking 333 

XXXI. 

Ming Tombs— Wall of China— Return to Peking— Peking 

again— From Peking 341 

XXXII. 
Yang-tse-Kiang 354 

XXXIII. 
Cambodia — Hongkong again 364 

XXXIV. 
Leaving Asia 379 

XXXV. 

To Australia — Sydney — Melbourne — To New Zealand — 

Hobart 384 

XXXVI. 
New Zealand -394 

XXXVII. 
Sydney again — Honolulu — San Francisco . .416 



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Vlli CONTENTS, 

XXXVIII. 

PAGE 

Alaska 422 

XXXIX. 

Mount Hamilton 43' 

XL. 

San Francisco— Shoshone Falls— -Salt Lake City — Mana- 
tou — Chicago — Niagara — Albany- -New York — Liver- 
pool — Conclusion. 43^ 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Portrait Frontispiece. 

A Point of Benares To face page 50 

Marble Rocks : Jubbulpore .... „ .. 58 

Interior of Del wara Temple: Mount Abu ,» „ 90 

Golden Temple : Amritsar . „ ,, 118 

Ramisseram : Island of Paumben n n 226 

George Sound : New Zealand ... i» » 396 

General View of Mount Hamilton Observatory „ „ 432 

Map at end of Volume. 



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WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 



I. 

J* Dear Dr. and Mrs. Alfred Barton, John 

Beaton, and Charles Seymour Grenfell, 

These pages belong to you. 

When I once more set foot in England, arriving in 
Liverpool on the isth of September, 1891, by the 
White Star Company's steamer Majestic, after an 
absence of about three years* travelling — thus 
occupying about the same time as a certain other 
great man in -the Endeavour^ of 370 tons — one of 
my first recollections was, that when I left London 
on the morning of the 25th of October, 1888, you 
all came down to the Liverpool Street station to 
wave me o(T to the East with best wishes, and that I 
then promised to give you, on my return, my own 
account of my wanderings and wonderings. 

It being almost impossible, nowadays, to go 
where others have not been, or have failed to 
write about, you asked for nothing pretending to an 
account of daring and original adventure, and cer- 
tainly nothing in the shape of mere descriptions 
repeated from those of others ; but simply an account 



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2 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

of my own individual doings, and my own impres- 
sions and experiences of things and places, for 
whatever these might be worth. 

To this style of letter I shall confine myself, and, 
in particular, I shall not dilate on Indian Govern- 
ment and taxation — such as " the reimposition of 
the patwari cess," for example — simply because I 
have seen the inside of Government House at 
Calcutta ; nor shall I offer any pseudo-profound 
observations upon social life, simply because I have 
dined under the roof of a Rajah. As Silvio Pellico 
said of politics, "parlo d'altro." 

Therefore I shall address this volume to you in the 
form of one long letter to the end. Thus I shall be 
sure of, at all events, four readers, and if any of the 
public, who have been indeed far from unfavourable 
towards me in my former volumes, are disposed, 
with your permission, to join the circle, I shall be 
only too gratified by their attention ; and, in this 
view, shall endeavour to secure it. 

In thus responding to my promise I must confess 
to some little self-satisfaction in hereby proving to 
you that I have not only returned, but have brought 
with me the capacity of accounting for my time. 
For although you accorded me your best wishes, yet 
I had reason to suspect that you were all besieged 
by certain grave doubts about the venture. Your 
minds misgave you that at my age, just six weeks 
short of striking seventy, the undertaking of a long 
journey, including India and Kashmir to begin with, 
was a very hazardous proceeding, the more so because, 
as usual, I was starting quite alone. However^ I had 



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ISTRODUCTORW 3 

no misgivings on that score myself, and here I 
am. 

In point of fact, for those who have anything of 
the art and delight of travel in them, travelling at the 
present day presents no real difficulties (although in 
truth it must always present many inconveniences) 
unless you are disposed to penetrate where you 
apparently have no right to intrude ; for the finger, 
and indeed the hand and arm sometimes, of England 
and Europe are to be found almost everywhere ; or, 
at all events, often enough to allow of a respite, after 
any shorter or longer visit to the less frequented 
districts of any given country. So long ago even as 
1773 Dr. Johnson expressed his annoyance at seeing a 
man come up with a complimentary Latin line, when 
he arrived with Bos well from his tour to the Hebrides, 
" I am really ashamed,^' said he, " of the congratula- 
tions which we receive. We are addressed as if we 
had made a voyage to Nova Zembla^ and suffered 
five persecutions in Japan." Now, as regards Nova 
Zembla, perhaps a boast might still be made — I have 
not tried it — but as regards a visit to Japan, that now 
bears scarcely more importance as a journey than 
did a visit to the Hebrides in Dr. Johnson's day ; 
while the persecutions you may perchance suffer in 
Japan are certainly not those he had in mind. 

For my own part, therefore, I have no combinations 
of impossibilities to indulge in ; I shall be rather 
showing you what you could do than what I did ; and 
though, as I travelled alone, I shall often be obliged 
to use the egotistically sounding pronoun I, what else 
can a man do who travels alone ? And if he seeks 

B 2 



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4 n'A\D£/^/XGS A. YD IVOXDERIXGS. 

to avoid any stupid charge of egotism on this 
account, is he to sneak into the shuffling " one " in 
order to avoid a fool's arrow ? I once saw (or 
perhaps have invented) a marginal note in pencil 
written against a certain " one thinks," and the note 
ran thus : " one, and only one, I should suppose ; speak 
for yourself and say I, and hear that you are an ass." 
So I will run the risk of the " ego " accusation boldly. 
That same putting of the letter I for the first personal 
pronoun, by the way, I have found to be very 
amusing among foreigners. In no other language 
that I have known anything of does the like occur. 
In many the personal pronoun need not be expressed 
at all, the inflection of the verb suffices, and thus the 
writer in the first person escapes the silly charge. I 
daresay I may now and then be discursive, but you 
will not object to that in a familiar letter, for I must 
sometimes write to satisfy my own wandering thoughts. 
Any given scene or circumstance may start a sudden 
recollection ; and it may be pleasing to me, at the 
moment, to wander up the stream of memory, and 
put on shore from time to time, and occupy the mind 
in rumination. 

I start with confidence, for you will be my real 
critics, and your judgments will be benevolent. But 
I have had no reason hitherto to dread that of others. 
Almost all of those who have hitherto noticed me 
have done me justice ; and how soon, even if it be in 
only a paragraph, does one see whether the writer is 
really of that peculiar and distinguished class called 
critics, or a mere cavilling coxcomb with no right 
whatever to occupy the chair. Now, if it be true of 



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IXTRODUCTORW S 

a poet that he must be born, so also Is it of a critic. 
I have be^n more than once astonished at the flippant 
manner in which I have been told by one or the 
other that (after perhaps being called to hopeless 
starvation at the bar) " he has taken up literature," 
meaning criticism. I once much offended a youthful 
aspirant who informed me of this his resolution, by 
advising him to " put it down again." " Why ? " quoth 
he. " Because," quoth I, •' you are claiming to have 
a master mind." And such the real critic must have 
— a master and a versatile mind. A real criticism of 
any really good book is often more entertaining 
reading than the book itself; and is always a most 
excellent introduction to it. But any notice is 
perhaps better than none at all, for the phrase is not 
unknown, " There is such a saucy notice against that 
book, that I must buy it and read it for myself." I 
need not dwell on this subject, yet I cannot but recall 
one notice of my last book, " A Fight with Distances," 
which occurred in the pages of Vanity Fair^ where I 
had twice been benevolently favoured. After re- 
viewing (?) another author's book by saying that the 
only good part about it was the title, he came to 
mine, and speaking of himself "as zve of the outer 
world " (the journal is professedly caricature), said 
that there was " nothing worth reading in it." Yet I 
had twenty-one other notices of it, and Mudie 
apologized to one customer of my acquaintance for 
the state of the copy. 

In this case, therefore, it was a question of either 
one fool or many. When Gil Bias was bargaining 
for a coat ihzfripier showed him one and said ** he 



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6 WANDERLyGS AXD IVONDER/XGS. 

had refused sixty ducats for it/' " ou je ne suis pas 
honnite Iwmme^' whereon the reflection of Gil Bias 
simply was, " ^alternative ^tait convaincante'^ 

My half-mistrusted start, as you know, took 
place on the 25th of October, 1888, when I left the 
Liverpool Station to join the P. and O. Company's 
steamer Ganges, Captain Alderton, then sailing for 
Calcutta. And herein occurred for the first time 
what afterwards happened to me more than once in 
my life of travel. My first plan was upset, to my 
annoyance ; but the result proved advantageous. 
For I had intended sailing for Bombay, and had 
bespoken my cabin, when a certain death occurred 
which prevented my departure. Nor could I obtain 
another cabin for Bombay to suit my time. Thus I 
was forced to Calcutta. How often these contrarieties 
occur in life, teasing us at first, and ending well at last. 
I could not have begun my Indian tour more success- 
fully, as it happened, than by beginning at Calcutta ; 
and, moreover, I was thus just in time to pay my 
respects, on the eve of his departure, to his Ex- 
cellency, the Viceroy, Lord Dufierin, whom I had 
last visited in St. Petersburg. Thus it is one wanders 
over this small great world. 

We formed a rather numerous list of passengers, 
and our captain was very pleasant. The accommo- 
dation was good, while, as regards the table, it struck 
me that with a less number of dishes the Company 
could give better dinners. Our usual passage, 
skirting ** The Bay,*' was not particularly unpleasant, 
and permitted that well-known very difficult piece of 
navigation — the walking up and down decks, and 



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VOYAGE OUT, 7 

meeting others. This time I passed Lisbon without 
touching there, which I had always done before in 
sailing to and fro between South America ; nor was 
I anxious to do so on this occasion, for a more rolling 
sea than that which tossed us all down that coast 1 
never experienced; while as to the Mediterranean, 
we found that capricious female in one of her frown- 
ing and contentious moods. It was now we expe- 
rienced one defect in our vessel, though possibly she 
is not singular in this : she could not carry her ports, 
as the phrase goes ; and therefore they were almost 
always closed, an inconvenience more unpleasantly 
felt in lower and warmer latitudes. 

Who has landed at Naples in dark wet autumnal 
weather? Paris looks dismal enough in such dis- 
guise. I always compare her to a chicken in the 
rain. But poor lovely Naples, what shall be said of 
her ? It was four o'clock in the afternoon of the 
2nd of November before we touched, and of course 
all was dull and dark. Yet one or two young 
passengers, on their first visit of course, came on 
board again delighted. Naples has her reputation, 
and therefore she mu.st command " enjoyment," and 
youth with novelty sees all with joy. 

While I never saw Naples look so miserable, and 
scarcely had believed it so capable in this respect, I 
never saw the Straits of Messina look more lovely. 
The passage through must be almost the most 
smiling and glittering in the world ; but to make the 
lovely picture quite complete, I think it should be 
approached from the south. I could not but recall 
a summer night's passage across from Messina to 



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8 IVANDERIXGS AXD \VO\DER/XGS. 

Naples in May, 1S83. The moon was full, and the 
water was a blue mirror. Everyone v/as on deck at 
midnight, and till early morning, male and female. 
Groups were gathered here and there, and guitars 
were playing to accompany soft voices. ** Truly," 
I said to myself, " this Italy is the real home of the 
serenade and sonnet." 

But who, with a stranger's eye, could at first believe 
that Etna is som? io,odd feet high ? His angle, like 
that of most volcanoes, is so obtuse, stretching com- 
pletely down into the sea, that the height of his 
crown is overladen with the vast circle of his base. 
In this respect how superior, as an object of beauty, 
is the Peak of Tenerife, my ascent of which I have 
already recorded ; he is a real Peak, with his I2,20D 
feet of height. 

At ten p.m. of the same day we had steamed 
out of Naples in the dark for Port Said, and 
the next morning broke in glory over the azure 
waters, fair weather continuing till we came to 
Port Said on the hot quiet morning of the 7th 
of November ; thus finding the very opposite in 
all respects as compared with our stay at Naples ; 
for while beauty there lay hid in wet and dark, 
here the ugly was all bright. Coaling being now 
necessary, Dr. Reid, an army surgeon, and Mr. 
Thompson, a district judge in Madras Presidency, 
easily persuaded me to go ashore with them, where 
we indulged ourselves with some hot games at 
pyramids in that rather depressing station, and where 
certain melancholy efforts were being made for the 
diversion of idle strollers or dwellers ; at 4.30 we 
sailed again for the Canal. 



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VOYAGE OCT, 9 

Port Said, however, must now be considered an 
interestinor spot from its standing at the entrance 
to the Suez Canal, and for myself there gradually 
came over me, as we wandered listlessly about, re- 
membrances of my visit to Egypt in 1879-80, 
with my late friend, Captain Sir Richard Burton. 
We passed through the canal in about twenty- 
four hours ; its length is given as of a hundred 
English miles, or 160 kilometres, or so many five- 
eighths of a mile ; but we were forced to wait from 
time to time in sidings. A striking ghostly night 
picture was thus presented to us when we met and 
had to give way to H.M. war-ship the Audacious, 
with all her crowded crew gazing on us, and recipro- 
cating cheers. The effects of the intense electric 
lighting of the channel were indeed electrifying ; all 
figures appeared to belong to another world, while all 
around seemeJ as if wrapped in another world's 
snow. 

On Thursday, the 8th of November, at about half- 
past four p.m., we breasted Suez, but did not touch, 
merely lying-to for provision -boats. Here again I 
recalled 1879, when all was new to me in that 
direction of the world. From Friday morning, the 
9th, till Tuesday, the I3tli, we were in the Red Sea, 
but encountered no great suffering from the heat 
until we came to dry, hot, rocky Aden, after passing 
our little Perim Island, with its well-known tale of 
how the English Admiral dished the French by 
snapping possession of it. I must confess to having 
shirked going ashore at Aden. I had had plenty of 
experience of hot skies and rocks in the course of 
my life, and I had no great curiosity about the tanks 



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10 WANDERINGS AND WONDER/NGS. 

as tanks, so I remained on board. It was here that 
Captain Angove, formerly commanding one of the 
Company's vessels, and now a visiting inspector, 
whose society was a help to me while it lasted, left 
the boat. I remember him for two special reasons, 
both anecdotal. It was he who, on an outward 
voyage, after several real captain's refusals, was at last 
downright over-captained by his passengers' unre- 
mitting entreaties to allow Blondin, then a passenger, 
to walk along the top-mast stays, from stem to stern. 
Blondin was successful, but declared the feat to have 
terribly tried him, as one might well imagine ; and 
on arriving in Calcutta the captain was roundly taken 
to task by the Press for according his consent 

The other anecdote may be well laid to heart by 
too-confident talkers, as showing how you may be 
found out when you least expect it, even though you 
talk Hindoostani in London. It occurred in an 
omnibus to his friend Captain SymonSj who told it 
to him as an excellent joke. A man and his wife 
got in and sat opposite to him, when the lady ven- 
tured a remark to her husband in Hindoostani, 
which I shall also give in the phrase furnished to 
me : — 

" Dekho, Sahib ko kaisa bard ndk hai," which, 
being interpreted, saith, " Look what a large nose that 
gentleman has." 

Now, Captain Symons had a large nose, and he 
also had a not small wit. So, to the horror of the 
good lady, he immediately rose in his seat, and 
taking off his hat, politely replied in Hindoostani 
also : " Han, Sahib bahut bard ndk hai," which again 



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VOYAGE OUT, II 

being interpreted, saith, " Yes, madam, I have a very- 
large nose." 

Having Captain Angove's full permission to give 
the anecdote, I do not lose the chance of doing so. 

We left on Thursday, the 13th of November, and 
on that day week, the 20th, behold, like a second 
Vasco da Gama, I caught my first sight of India, on 
the west coast towards Cape Comorin. 

I cannot say the land at all corresponded in im- 
portance of appearance with the grandeur of the 
Empire. It must have presented exactly this same 
low, flat aspect to the renowned Portuguese navigator 
as he approached it from Africa, and made for Cali- 
cut, higher up on the Malabar coast, where he landed 
in May, 1498. But we were not going to Calicut, 
and therefore continued our course towards Ceylon. 
On the afternoon of the 20th we caught our first view 
of this island, which presents a far more elevated out- 
line than Malabar, and among the heads there stood 
out prominently that of Adam's Peak, to which 
Camoens makes allusion in his tenth Canto. 

At five o'clock we landed in Colombo, and Mr. 
Ford, of Hammersmith, one of the passengers, drove 
with me about seven miles out of town to the Grand 
Hotel, at Mount Lavinia, on the shore. Here we 
dined and slept, joining the steamer by railway in the 
morning, as we were under orders for sailing by ten, 
though wc did not leave before one. Nothing could 
have afllbrded us a more lovely night scene than 
Mount Lavinia. The moon was full, and of a 
Cinhalese silver ; the curving sands were white, and 
the sea of a lovely blue. The air was more than 



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12 IVJXDE/^/XGS AXD IVONDERIXGS, 

merely warm, and at eleven o'clock there were more 
than one dabbler within the water's fringes. All lay 
below the eye, for the hotel is built on a certain 
rocky height. In truth, as the story goes, this fine 
building was never intended for an hotel, and the 
style of the rooms (so to call them) that Mr. Ford 
and I slept in favour the tale. Our two compart- 
ments were arranged by a mere low perlorated 
wooden screen being raised across a very large and 
lofty room ; highly inconvenient, particularly as Mr. 
Ford was a very long while getting to bed, which 
joke he will remember. The story, then, is this : that 
Sir C. Barnes, when Governor, considered he was 
entitled to a marine villa, and commenced the build- 
ing, which he named after Lady Barnes, in anticipa- 
tion of the home Government's acquiescence. But 
after the long interval then occupied in sending home 
and receiving a reply, that reply came in the nega- 
tive, and the building was sold, and degraded to its 
present uses. 

On the 2 1 St, then, we steamed out of Colombo — 
my real visit to the island being postponed for a 
later date — and made for Madras; in taking which 
course iry ignorance was enlightened by finding that 
we were obliged to steer round the island of Ceylon 
to get there, as the direct course is blocked by the 
chain of rocks and small islands called Adam's 
Bridge, running between the coast of India and 
Ceylon. We reached Madras on the night of the 
23rd, and the morning of the 24th showed us the 
low, dcsponding-looking shore in floods of rain. It 
seemed impossible not to pity those passengers 



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CALCUTTA. 13 

whose destinations doomed them to disembark ; 
and thus bestowing on them this cheap sentiment, 
we took our departure for Calcutta. 

At about the age of nine I had first read of the 
Black Hole of Calcutta in 1756; and in 188S, at 
seventy, I was to first see Calcutta, but no real 
vestige of the Black Hole was to remain. How 
Europe has invaded Asia ! The first incident of our 
passage from Madras was our being boarded by a 
Calcutta pilot. These pilots, as I shortly came to 
learn, are not merely the stalwart rough-and-ready 
officers that one is accustomed to meet in other 
ports ; but they arc men of education and position, 
and are in receipt of high pay ; and well may it be 
so, for the Hugli river, through which muddy stream 
you approach Calcutta, is full of danger, especially 
near the **jal m^ri," or fatal water, corrupted into 
the " James and Mary.'* The most casual view of 
the map will suffice to show what the Hugli must 
be as a matter of navigation ; but with the fresh 
comer novelty asserts her charm, even including the 
disagreeable. Observe Sagar Island on the right, 
with its light-houses, dense jungles, tigers everywhere, 
and snakes. These are not the Eastern grandeurs 
that Westerns come out to see. The whole of 
the Sunderbunds show nothing but the flat and 
marshy. Gradually steering onwards, you come to 
the deserted palace of the quondam King of Oudc, 
looking as tawdry as many other highly-pictured 
eastern palaces and gardens do. Afterwards comes 
*' Garden Reach*' pleasantly spotted with comfortable- 
looking villas, the water being crowded with a small 



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14 IVANDER/XGS AXD WONDEHIXGS, 

forest of masts, showing how vulgar Western com- 
merce invades the East to make it comfortable. 
" Commerce is not everything," says some one. But 
what is Everything ? Rather a vulgar robe than 
none at all, even in hot Calcutta. At last we are at 
the landing-place, having seen the city for some few 
miles down stream. 



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II. 



It was on Wednesday, the nth of November, that 
we arrived ; luckily so early as half-past ten in the 
morning, for the noise and confusion among the 
natives on the quay were indeed noisy and con- 
fusing. One feature of this eastern crowd at once 
struck me as compared with others; the predomi- 
nance of plain white loose clothing, with dark and 
black faces at the top. In the rush and push, I 
managed to get myself arrested by some officer 
from the Great Eastern Hotel, whither I had 
telegraphed from Colombo, and was carried off at 
once, without further hearing, in a flimsy, clatter- 
ing cab or gir^. Behold me, therefore, safe at 
Calcutta to begin with. 

On entering Calcutta I made my first acquaint- 
ance with it as it presented itself to me. I did not 
begin to think of all its statistical features, any more 
than one asks a person on first introduction as to age, 
pedigree, and capacities ; and in this way my first 
impression was, after passing through certain other 
streets, that the Old Court House Street was a very 
fine one. Here I was shortly deposited at the 
entrance to the Great Eastern, mounting a handsome 
staircase to a long, handsome corridor, with a dark 
office on the right, where the baboo sat who was to 
assign me my room ; and No. 46 was assigned to me 



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1 6 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS, 

on that same floor accordingly. This room lay on 
the left side of a long dark passage almost facing 
the staircase ; and as I soon afterwards discovered 
that there are two Calcuttas, so, I may say, that I 
at once here discovered that there were two Great 
Easterns — that is to say, two very different aspects 
of the hotel. The passage and its rooms were not 
equal to the grand broad corridor. Continuing from 
this latter you enter a fine dining-room, a good 
reading-room and billiard-rooms, and in front is a 
fine, open balcony, looking full on the wide street, 
and almost commanding the lordly pile and grounds 
of Government House. Underneath, running the 
whole length, is an almost gigantic store, where you 
may purchase anything you do, or don't, want, from 
a sugar-plum to a blunderbuss, and where I at 
cnce, under sound advice, purchased a Shikar hat, 
to hunt the sun. As to my bedroom, though it 
was commodious, all was rickety, and suggested 
a valuation by pence. My windov\s looked out 
into a side street, and in the early morning I 
was very sensibly made aware of what frightful 
monkey jabberings the Bengalee workman can excel 
in. But the curiosity was exciting with which 
I opened the blinds to view the scene below. 
There they were in groups ; some unloading cargo, 
and others loading rubbish-carts — a hateful sight — 
and while something more than usually offensive 
was being heaped on these, a watchful set of kites, or 
some kindred bird, sw^ooped down in groups, and 
deftly seized the morsel as they flew past without 
settling. 



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CALCUTTA. 17 

For a new-comer, with a constitutional incapacity 
for tough meat, the feeding could not be very 
attractive ; but the turbaned and naked-footed 
waiter (no servant must wear shoes in India), whom 
chance fixed me to, did his best among the number. 
The discharge of soda-water for the whisky was 
like that of irregular musketry, showing that the 
old pale ale days of my two late cousins twice re- 
moved, Hodgson and Drane, now really removed 
indeed, and of whom Bass is but a feeble imita- 
tion, had given place to hygienic considerations. 
Beetle is a good and constant fish at table, and if 
you order eggs for breakfast, you will find the Indian 
hens lay very small ones, and that the spoons you 
have to eat them with are very large. 

A letter of introduction from General Scott Elliot 
to Mr. Hyde, a barrister of the High Court, led to a 
very pleasant visit, when I had the advantage of going 
over the whole building with him, and it was in par- 
taking of his and Mrs. Hyde's hospitality a day or two 
afterwards that I became acquainted with the stately 
style of house and garden that forms the usual resi- 
dence in the grand modern Calcutta, which is called 
the City of Palaces. Later on I dined with Mr. 
Louis Paul, on an introduction from his father, Mr. 
Kegan Paul, and was again struck with the same 
aspect of dwelling. Here it was what is called a 
•* Chummery," where three or four " chum " together ; 
but the apparent pomp is quite the same, and runs 
through alL It is a curious mode of life in India : 
natural, but curious to a new-comer. You never 
seem indoors. Doors nor windows are ever shut. 

C 



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1 8 IVAXDERIXCS AXD IVOXDERIXGS. 

You really miss them, being all left open, but it is 
evident you could not bear them shut Yet, when 
the nights are chilly, as they are apt to be in winter, 
you seem to want protection. 

In the afternoon I found myself, by invitation, in 
Mr. Walkers balcony, overlooking the entrance to 
Government House, to see the arrival of Lord 
Dufferin, from the Sialda Station, on his return 
from visiting Decca. As an Indian procession it 
was novel and interesting. The body-guard was im- 
pressive ; the white-dressed crowd was large, and as 
they dispersed across the park, or maidan, the effect 
was very striking. What the European eye misses 
in these multitudes is women. 

On the next day I received a letter from the 
Viceroy's Private Secretary, in answer to one from 
me, appointing 12.30 on Monday for my waiting 
upon his Excellency. In the meantime Mr. Paul 
had invited me to luncheon at the cricket-ground 
and to the races afterwards. Accordingly, on Satur- 
day, the 1st of December, we went in Mr. Paul's 
dog-cart ; and even as I had been astonished at 
cricket in hot South Africa, so was I astonished here 
at the zest and activity displayed in hot Calcutta in 
this truly English game. At this time of year, how- 
ever, the ground is not so harsh and dry as I had 
seen it near Cape Town. The races followed, 
attended also by a numerous white crowd. It was 
what is called their First Extra Meeting. The 
Viceroy and Lady Dufferin were present, and the 
whole proceeding was a success. But a strange and, 
I should imagine, unique circumstance occurred with 



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CALCUTTA. 19 

the chief race. Many false starts took place in the 
distance, until at last we saw two horses come right 
away. In total ignorance that they were not accom- 
panied by the field, and that the start was again a 
false one, they came belting along and kept in view 
the whole way round, to discover their mistake at the 
end. These two horses turned out to be the two 
favourites, so that a mere outsider came in first. So 
much for the error. Now mark a curious result. 
One man only, by what is called the Totalizator 
System, I believe, had put his money by mere 
accident on that outsider, and by this happy chance 
thus became the astonished possessor of something 
between 70/. and 100/, In such hap-hazard manner 
do things happen for either good or bad. 

On the Sunday I dined with Mr. Paul at his 
" Chunnmery,'* and felt as if I were at a lord's dwell- 
ing ; and on the Monday I paid my private visit to 
his Excellency the Viceroy, having the honour, in 
response to a most friendly reception, of wishing his 
Excellency a happy voyage to England ; when he 
kindly accepted a copy of my " Fight with Distances," 
which related something of his favourite Canada, 
and would serve to beguile an hour or two on his 
passage home. 

Calcutta at this time of year, though always hot at 
noon, is particularly fresh at morning and evening. 
The climate, in fact, put me very much in mind of 
that of Rio in the winter, though Rio has hills about 
it. But the noons here are more trying. While wait- 
ing to see his Excellency, and holding a pleasant 
conversation with one of the aides-de-camp — Captain 

C 2 



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20 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

Curling, if I mistake not — he asked the usual question, 
' How do you like Calcutta ? '' to which I replied in 
the above sense. " I hope," said he, very naturally, 
" you will not go home and say we have nothing to 
complain of." Perhaps they who suffer India all 
through the year are often vexed by such ridiculous 
remarks of inexperience made by those who come 
out at a chosen season only. But I relieved his mind, 
and then he told me that the very horses had dropped 
down dead in the streets during the last summer. 
Indeed, Mr. Hyde had already informed me that they 
had been obliged to shut up the Law Courts — ay, 
and, I believe, at the request of the Natives them- 
selves ! Ere these terrible days arrive the Viceroy 
of the hour has safely started for the North ; and, 
alas ! for those whose duty still binds them to the 
South. 

On my return to the hotel I was greatly pleased at 
finding on my table a card with the name of '* James 
Ramsay." In this I recognized an old friend, who 
had worked as a district engineer on the Sao Paulo 
Railway in the now far-away country of Brazil ! It 
was more than twenty years since we had seen one 
another, and I now found him Engineer-in-Chief on 
the Western Bengal Railway. He happened to be in 
Calcutta, and had caught sight of my name ; and 
you may imagine the novel sensation of such an un- 
expected meeting, after so many years, in so different 
a country, and in one so far away from where we 
had lived almost together before. So things turn 
out, and so people turn up ! We were not long in 
making up our minds that we would travel to 



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CALCUTTA. 21 

Darjeeling together, and see the great Kanchinjunga. 
But when ? A few days did not then much signify 
to either of us. But the truth was that, while waiting 
for my interview at Government House, I had been 
dazzled by two most gorgeously-apparelled Rajahs, 
who went in before me ; and as I heard that the 
Viceroy was to have a farewell garden party on Friday, 
the 7th December, I was most anxious to see (as I 
thought I should) a crowd of these astounders. We 
therefore agreed to delay our departure till the Satur- 
day ; that, indeed, being the day on which Lord 
Dufferin was himself to depart, and his successor, 
Lord Lansdowne, to arrive. Ramsay had the entree, 
so I called on Lord William Beresford, who warmly 
engaged me to appear. When the day came, how- 
ever, it was a dull afternoon, and an insipid mass of 
mere European costumes parasolled about the lawns. 
Few indeed were the gorgeous colours, except in the 
evening sky, which suddenly glowed with glory ; but 
I had often seen that sort of sight ; the Rajahs' suns 
had all "set" privately before; and the two that 
tempted me to stay showed but the last remaining 
glow. 

One of my calls meanwhile was upon Sir Charles 
H. J. Crosthwaite, the Chief Commissioner for 
Burma, who happened to be in Calcutta at that 
moment ; for Lord Dufferin had most strongly 
recommended me to pay a visit to that country, 
if only a short one, and to call upon Sir Charles. 
His Excellency made me a most friendly suggestion 
that I should come down with him on the 13th, which 
I was quite unable to do ; and thus had to postpone 



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22 IVANDERIXGS AND WONDERINGS. 

Burma for Darjeeling, for my friend could not stay. 
Saturday, the 8th December, witnessed a remarkable 
scene in all the preparations for the entry of the now 
present Viceroy, and the departure of the late. All 
the neighbouring quarters of the city were alive with 
life and colour ; and amidst this mighty movement 
we two took our unperceived departure also. 



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III. 



My friend's companionship proved of much impor- 
tance. At the Sealdah Station he met an engineer- 
ing friend, who introduced him to Mr. Prestage, the 
General Manager of the remarkable DarjeeHng 
Railway — quite one of the sights of India — and this 
stood us in great stead, not only on the line itself, 
but also at DarjeeHng and on our return. We left 
Calcutta at 4.30 p.m. (Calcutta time) by the Eastern 
Bengal Railway, and in about five hours and a half 
we were, after 120 miles' run, on the banks of the 
Ganges, and were to cross to S^rd Ghat by ferry. 

" Why don't they bridge the river ? " I innocently 
inquired of Mr. Prestage, to which his answer was : 
" So they will if you will guarantee them a certain 
line ; but when your structure was ready the river 
would be elsewhere." Thus is it with these straggling 
and unruly streams. Of how far greater value our 
tractable silver Thames ! The ferry-boat was a very 
good one, and the food they gave us very fair. 
We occupied about a quarter of an hour in crossing, 
and with a short walk joined the North Bengal 
Railway for 196 miles to Siliguri. Here Mr. Prestage 
secured us a sleeping-car to ourselves. This line, 
however, is constructed on the metre gauge only, 
and the travelling was very rough. Thus we passed 
through the night and again through the day over 



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24 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

the flat hot plain ; and as we went I could but 
wonder, thinking of the former times, what those 
who fled from Calcutta's summer must have then 
gone through on this same journey, and what must 
have been the heats of the city from which they felt 
forced to fly. The journeys must have been under- 
taken at night-time assuredly. 

At length we came to Siliguri, having kept the 
great Kanchinjunga in distant view for several 
hours ; and here we entered the domain of what 
they call the Steam Tram. It is a two-feet gauge 
railway of some fifty miles in length, and mounts 
to Darjeeling. It is at Sookna, the first station, 
about seven miles distant, that the tramway begins 
to ascend, and hence for the whole way the journey 
is most exciting. Not only is the wooded scenery, 
with its occasional vast forest precipices, continuously 
beautiful, but the railway itself, with its curves, 
and gradients, and circles, and switchbacks, is a 
perfect marvel ; and every now and then, it may 
be confessed, is a rather alarming one. At Kurseong 
you obtain excellent refreshment, particularly in the 
bread — the best I tasted through all my three years — 
and while you repose, there lies a fine vast, out- 
spreading view far below you of the main famous tea- 
gardens of Darjeeling. This gives you an altitude of 
Sooo feet, the highest point on the line being 7300 
feet. It was dark when we arrived at the terminus 
on Sunday evening, the 9th of December, and here 
we were met by my friend Mr. Ford, who guided us 
to Mr. and Mrs, Roberts' comfortable " Woodlands 
Hotel," where everybody stays, and who very oppor- 



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DARJEEUNG, 2$ 

tunely cautioned us (myself, at all events) to be 
careful of the first effects of the rarified air. This I 
certainly experienced at first in some slight degree, 
and was glad of an arm in making the last stiff 
climb on foot from the station to our hospitable 
Eyrie. 

There is a certain advantage in arriving at a place 
like Darjeeling at night. You have no half- 
developed first view when you are tired, and you 
wait for the first grand scenic effect on the waking 
of the first fresh morning. Thus we went to bed 
and slept, with orders for early calling, to see the 
sunrise; and morning came, and before the sun- 
rise we were at our windows, and Kanchinjunga was 
before us. It is the very finest form of mountain, as 
seen from Darjeeling, that I ever beheld; and by- 
and-by the light increased, and gradually a growing 
brightness foretokened what was coming. The 
roses and the azures dawned and deepened, and 
presently the highest peak was glowing in live sun- 
shine. So came on the day to introduce us to more 
intimacy with, I should suppose, the finest, if not the 
very highest, mountain in the world. 

On Monday, the loth, we made a riding party, 
and visited the Obser\'atory Hill, whence the view 
of the mountain appeared particularly fine, but I 
came to analyze the peculiarity of these views more 
minutely on my second and more prolonged visit, of 
which I shall speak later on. Let me at once remark, 
however, that his main form is pyramidal ; that the 
colours of his massive rock become gradually lighter 
as they approach the top ; and that the distance in a 



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26 IVANDERIXGS AND WONDERINGS. 

bee-line to his peak has been measured as of forty 
miles ; thus corresponding with that of the main peaks 
of the Oberland Range, as seen from Berne, whereof 
let no man speak slightingly. We made a skir- 
mishing inspection of the very picturesque surround- 
ings to-day, and on the next, Tuesday, the iitb, we 
rode up to Tiger's Hill (as it is called), whence 
a sight is caught of just the peak of Mount Everest, 
or rather Gaurisankar, the really highest moun- 
tain in the world ; but on this occasion nought 
thereof was visible, for the weather had changed, 
and in the place of a spotless sky our imaginative 
faculties were greeted with the very wildest and 
strangest possible broken masses of wandering and 
flying white mountain clouds. These rolled about 
among the enormous crags and gorges, never 
allowing anything to be clearly seen, and yet now 
and then opening to us glimpses of vast passing 
fields of intense sunshine. This was what we did 
not come to see; still it was impossible not to be 
charmed with seeing it, for the mountainous features 
of the country are so gigantic here that all effects 
are quite surpassing. 

On the following day the weather had changed 
again, and all was bright ; so I repeated this excur- 
sion, though I had to go alone. The panorama was 
spotless, and over the opposite brow appeared the 
three expected snowy tips or tops ; and that is all 
one sees or guesses here of the great Mount Everest. 
Indeed, the largest to your right is certainly not he ; 
his head is the middle one ; this on my second visit to 
Darjeeling I verified in an excursion to Sundukphu. 



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DAR/EELIXG. 2/ 

Another advantage of our introduction to Mr. 
Prestage was his introduction of us to Mr. Lloyd, a 
Director, if not the Chairman, of the Darjceling h'ne ; 
for when I started for Calcutta on the Thursday 
morning, the latter took me down for a certain 
distance in an open trolly fixed to the train, and 
thence to the foot I joined Mr. Prestage in a sepa- 
rate trolly altogether. Thus I had the fullest possible 
opportunity of appreciating this astonishing fifty miles 
of railway ; the passage down which, however, was 
not quite so thrilling as my sixty-mile-an-hour de- 
scent in a trolly of the Santa Theresa railway near 
Rio, with the Minister of Marine. In descending, 
the vast tea plantations far below are opened out 
to the view in a very striking manner ; and the 
various aspects of Kanchinjunga from the ridgt-s 
of the line, which we had missed in the dark on our 
journey up, completely engrossed one's astonishment 
and admiration. Mr. Lloyd informed me that these 
tea plantations — the cultivation not being new to 
me — were not more than twenty or thirty years 
old. The close of the border contests had left much 
waste lands to be redeemed, and tea was then hit 
upon for covering all slopes and valleys. 



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IV. 



On arriving in Calcutta my first thought was a 
visit to Burma (as had been recommended to me), 
with the intention of going up the Irrawaddy as far 
as Mandalay. It was the proper moment to do this, 
before entering on my Indian and Kashmir excur- 
sions ; and accordingly I took my berth in the British 
Indian Company's steamer Putiala^ which I was to 
join at Diamond Harbour on Thursday morning, 
the 20th of December. My native servant, I found, 
was to manage for himself, amongst a host of others, 
on the fore-deck, and I paid $io for his passage. 
Not feeling quite certain about this arrangement, I 
was enlightened by the question, " What does he want 
more ? " nor did he at all expect more. This settled 
plan gave me a week at Calcutta, and as I had a 
floating curiosity, and only a floating one, about 
Katmandoo, the capital of Nepaul, I obtained an 
introduction by Mr. Longley to an exile of the 
former royal family, then quietly living in Calcutta. 
This was General Kedar Nursing, or (as I have it) 
Kedarnursing Jung Behadon. He received me with 
great pleasure and pleasantness, and was not long in 
proving his familiarity with the English language by 
informing me that Katmandoo was "beastly dirty." 
With a little extra zest, perhaps, he strongly dis- 



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CALCUTTA, 29 

suaded me from undertaking the journey. All this 
was information, though I did not need deter- 
ring from any intention I did not entertain. He 
told me the journey would be very trying and 
fatiguing ; that one must pass through a district of 
the most poisonous malaria ; that when I got there 
I should be watched and controlled — indeed, that the 
English Resident was quite a prisoner — and that at 
that time of year the vast chain of mountains would 
assuredly be clouded. The Rajah, he said, was then 
only twelve years of age, and a mere Pagoda. He 
gave me his photograph, and wrote my name in 
Sanscrit, which, he said, was the real language of the 
country ; but that the indigenous race who spoke it 
had been conquered and driven in by the Rajputanas 
when they fled thither from the tyrannies of the 
Mogul emperors. Our interview was so pleasant 
that, before finally leaving Calcutta, I paid him a 
second visit to say "good-bye." Singularly enough, 
a few days after my first visit, I had all his reports 
confirmed by Mr. Watson, a well-known dentist in 
Calcutta, to whom I had to appeal for a small timely 
service to prevent the necessity of a greater one by- 
and-by. He had been to Katmandoo, in aid of 
the teeth of the Commander-in-Chief — teeth, you 
see, can be troublesome in Nepaul — but he would not 
go again on any account. One reason for this was 
that, from some mere accidental oversight, he failed 
to salute his Excellency, whereupon that offended 
spirit (like all people of small birth) was highly indig- 
nant, and with indefensible ingratitude ** showed his 
teeth," even against him from whom he had so recently 



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30 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

received them. But the journey alone was enough ; 
privations and fatigues were incurred throughout. 
Everything must be taken with you, and all is badly 
economized and cooked. Rough bearers, clumsy 
elephants — what elephant doesn't feel clumsy? — no 
howdah, and the animaPs chain thrown over its back 
and against your own. All this would be nothing 
to a real explorer, but a professional man does not 
belong to that category, nor does every traveller. 
One anecdote which Mr. Watson told me I must not 
omit to add. I am not quite sure he saw the per- 
formance, but certainly he received it from a source 
that justified his repeating it. A group of common 
people were about to take their meal. They seized 
upon a goat and tied its four legs all together. They 
then flung it living on a huge bonfire, and when it 
had been well, scorched and perhaps just heated 
through, they tore it open and devoured it. So 
much for Nepaul and Katmandoo ! which I shall 
never see. 

I had several drives with my friend round the grand 
maidan, or park, or meadow, a grand open stretch 
of grass, and after he left I employed the rest of my 
time in visiting the Botanical and Zoological Gardens 
and other scenes of the city. In the former, the 
grand sight is the most wonderful banyan tree in the 
world. The word " immense " is scarcely immense 
enough to give any idea of its almost fabulous extent, 
and when you have come away your memory mis- 
gives you as to what you have seen. I was surprised 
some years ago at the size of one at Alexandria. It 
is as a pea to the moon ! For these Gardens you 



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CALCUTTA, 31 

must cross the Hugli, and the sight from the middle 
of the bridge should not be omitted for its own self, 
even under the interruption of passing vessels. Life 
abounds and gives one life. 

At the Zoological Gardens the object that chiefly 
struck me was the man-eating tiger. In general, I 
have been told, these man-eating tigers are the old 
mangy ones, that find their lord and master, man 
— the most defenceless of born animals in nature — 
their easiest prey, for they are unable to chase the 
fleeter animals. Thus, though man claims to have 
dominion given him over all things, many tigers are 
quite capable of teaching him another lesson, under 
mere natural conditions ; and when this vaunted 
phrase was given forth, rifles and explosive balls had 
not been invented. In this case, however, the man- 
eater was no mangy tiger. He was a royal Bengal 
tiger of the most fearful size, elasticity, and power. I 
saw him at his best, and the effect was greater be- 
cause he was in his own country. He was asleep 
inside, and I gave the attendant bakhshish to rouse 
him up. Forth he presently came, grand, alarming, 
and irate, and I felt quite willing to concede to him 
the empire. 

I have already said there are two Calcuttas ; they 
are the European, or the City of Palaces, and the 
native. My visit to the two above establishments 
took me notably through the midst of the latter. 
Nothing could be more picturesque, nor less palatial 
— nor less tempting for a dwelling. The contrast is 
extreme, and the impression lasting. Particularly 
note the moving, loose-robed crowds, among whom' 



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32 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

appear border men, called Pavendahs : also the small 
white oxen, labouring under their yoke, with the 
driver riding ; yet the eye is tranquil. 

In making one more call at the Bengal Club I was 
fortunate in finding Sir Guilford Molesworth, though 
only on the eve of his and Lady Molcsworth's final 
departure for England. But I mention the call 
because, in course of our conversation, he sti'ongly 
urged me not to leave India without seeing the great 
Temple of Ramisseram ; and this I bore in mind and 
in course of time accomplished, but under singular 
circumstances, which will appear in their turn. The 
temple is on the Isle of Paumben, the largest of those 
forming the line of Adam's Bridge, as already men- 
tioned, and is most difficult to attain. But I had 
with me a most valuable volume, the third of " Fer- 
gusson's Indian and Eastern Architecture/' which 
had been recommended to me by Mr. Harwood, of 
Messrs. Bickers and Son, in Leicester Square. I 
know not what I should have done throughout India 
without this book. It was a never-failing companion 
and instructor, and when I looked out Ramisseram 
and read Fergusson*s account of it, and saw his illus- 
trations, it became with me a treasured resolution to 
follow, if at all possible, Sir Guilford Molesworth's 
advice. 



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At length, by the 7.25 train from Sealda Station 
on the morning of Thursday, the 20th of December 
(Madras time, which rules on Indian railways, as 
being the most central time), I left Calcutta to join 
the Putiala for Rangoon in Burma, which we call 
" Farther India," though there is no real India, after 
all. The line runs down to Diamond Point, or 
Harbour, about fifty miles distant. The scenery 
is flat, but the tropical trees and the various groups 
of robed and turbaned natives sprinkled among 
them gave early morning a very lively look to my 
own not yet surfeited eye. We boarded the launch 
and then boarded the steamer, and sailed forth 
upon a mirrored sea. Our next day, Friday, the 
2 1st, was, as usual in the calendar, the shortest 
day, but strangely unlike our own. In this re- 
spect, though scarcely in any other, England fails 
to invade Asia out here. Our passage was a 
pleasant one both as to weather and companions^ 
and among these I found an American Baptist mis- 
sionary. Dr. Bunker, abroad. He is of twenty-two 
years' standing, and lives at Tongou, where his labours 
are chiefly among the Karens. These people, he 
informed me, are an indigenous mountain tribe, 
driven inland by the Burmese ; but he finds them 
far more manly and straightforward than the latter* 

D 



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34 WANDERmCS AJ^D WONDERINGS, 

They fought for England in the late war. He also 
.gave me an account of a fearful Burmese snake, 
called the hemadryad ; this reptile is six, twelve, 
or fifteen feet in length, and, unlike other snakes, 
will seek to attack, unprovoked. It is deadly 
poisonous, savage and aggressive, and pursues by 
leaps. By this description it would seem to outvie 
the Black Amba, of which I learned such fearful fame 
in Natal ; and strong indeed must be Dr. Bunker's 
nerves and true his aim : for he told me that, being 
pursued by a large specimen of this tribe, he turned 
and shot it with a rifle. He might have been of some 
service in the Garden of Eden, surely. The snake 
appears to be well known in the country, and feared 
as much as known. Dr. Bunker is a very earnest 
missionary, and by all accounts has obtained great 
influence over the flocks he superintends and visits. 
He is an American Baptist, ^ager to defend his 
views ; and, though a Baptist, considers that he agrees 
with the Churches in essentials. This is one of the 
points that greatly puzzle those who are preached to 
by entirely different, yet " Christian," missionaries. 

On Saturday we sighted the Aguda Lighthouse ; 
and on Sunday, the 23rd, after rounding the point 
which is veined with the very usual numerous mouths 
that characterize a huge river, the Irrawaddy (to 
which some add the name of the Bassein), we arrived 
at flat Rangoon, where I went to a curious-looking 
building, called "The British Burma Hotel;" and 
the establishment was as curious as the building. 
But independently of European intrusion, Rangoon 
would not have required an hotel at all. As time 



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BURMA. 35 

goes on our" civilization " will no doubt gradually im- 
prove the new necessities that it has created. The 
first feature of the town that presented itself to me 
was its broad, straight streets, lined with trees ; and 
these breadths were plentifully adorned with many 
figures in variously-coloured costumes. What I soon 
noticed was that the Burmese are very fond of 
colour. Palm trees, tamarind trees, and mango 
trees mingled their various foliages. It would be 
difficult to describe the city farther, because there is 
nothing to describe. 

Even more difficult it would be, but in quite 
another sense, to describe another feature, because it 
is quite indescribable : I mean the great Rangoon 
Pagoda, the most astonishing in the world, and 
called the Shoay Dagon, or Shoedagong, Pagoda. 
Before making my first visit to this w^onder, however, 
I was tempted to walk round a lesser Pagoda, which 
was covered to the top by a most strangely inter- 
laced scaffolding of bamboo, and this most strange 
construction I was positively informed had been reared 
in the incredibly short space of one day. There 
were several worshippers kneeling and prostrating 
themselves in prayer, and this before figures of 
Buddha ; just as Christians worship before the 
crucifix or the figure of the Virgin. Indeed, it is 
difficult to understand how any believers who have 
pinned their faith to any once visible human being 
or beings can possibly abstain from visible and 
memorial representations of them, preservation of 
their relics, and a craving for their image in physical 
aid of their spiritual devotions. 

D 2 



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36 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

General Spurgin had fortunately given me a letter 
of introduction to Colonel W. Cooke, then Assistant 
Commissary-General, whose residence was some 
short distance out of the town ; and as my road 
thither lay by the great Pagoda, I naturally stopped 
for a first survey of it as I passed by. The whole 
mass of structure is most elaborate and confusing. 
In the first place, the Pagoda itself is claimed as 
having a height of 321 feet, and it springs from a 
vast square marble platform, which is itself ap- 
proached by four sets of staircases, a set on each 
side; so that you mount considerably before ar- 
riving at the platform. When you get there you 
find this vast gilded Pagoda is surrounded by a 
number of smaller pagodas (said to be sixty-eight 
in all), something of the shape of their chief. 
Three only of these many, with the addition of 
a grotesque huge human face and figure, appear in 
Fergusson's engraving. Almost countless figures, 
large and small, surround the platform, among 
which is a huge recumbent one of Gautama, and 
at one end of this peopled platform is a monster 
bell, measuring eight feet diameter at the mouth, 
this being a great feature in Buddhism. The 
crowds of variegated worshippers in all corners were 
remarkable, and the permitted barking of dogs, who 
hate Europeans, and the loud cheerful conversations 
of human beings that surround the worshippers of 
the moment, make one wonder how devotion can be 
sustained. The outline of the great central Pagoda 
itself resembles that of a vast hand-bell, with a gilded 
framework, called a Hthee, at the top. The 



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BURMA, 37 

whole scene was enlivened by the moving crowds 
of cpstumed pilgrims, and one point of view 
especially attracted me: it was to stand at the 
top of the most frequented of the deep flights of 
steps, and watch the variegated groups passing 
up and down, and buying at the various votive 
stalls. This was my first visit, and in repeated 
returns the general effect increased ; and all this 
mass of structure, with living and moving beings 
round it, like bees gathering honey, has grown 
into this vast reality in order to cover either some 
hairs or a tooth of Gautama, or Buddha, "The 
Enlightened." Verily, verily, how much alike all 
faiths are in many features ! We are all idolaters ; 
either of our own gods and our own saints, or — of one 
another. 

It was now time to think of my letter of intro- 
duction and Colonel Clarke ; but well known as he 
was, great was my difficulty in finding him. At last 
this discovery was accomplished, and he came in 
view, hard at work. On presenting my letter he 
surprised me by recognizing the name, and it turned 
out as an additional introduction that he and my 
nephew, Colonel Aubertin, had been at Cheltenham 
together. We were, therefore, friends at once, and 
he showed his friendship by unhesitatingly order- 
ing me off; namely, ordering me to be off at once 
to Mandalay that same night, if I was really going 
there, or I should lose a week by calculation of the 
boats. I was, of course, wise enough to bow to 
this instant dismissal with thanks, the more so 
as I was pledged on my return to spend a few 



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38 WANDERINGS. AND IVONDERINGS. 

days with him in his tree-shaded dwelling before 
leaving again for Calcutta. Then came what was a 
real gift : a letter of introduction to Colonel Strover, 
the Commissioner at Mandalay. This new arrange- 
ment admitted of no delay, for I was to take the 
railway that night at 9.30 for some 190 miles to 
Prome, on the river ; and here we were to join the 
steamer Mandalay for Mandalay. 

At the hotel I found one of my fellow pas- 
sengers from Calcutta, General Johnston, bound 
on the same voyage of discovery as myself; and 
we both started together, with our two servants ; 
his being a Madrassee, of middle age, and by no 
means a pleasant individual. Our tickets being 
taken, we entered our car, as usual, but immediately 
received a kindly warning from an official : " Gen- 
tlemen, I must caution you to keep your door 
safely locked at night, for otherwise you are in 
danger of losing all your coats and luggage." A 
timely warning indeed, as we afterwards learned 
from many mouths of sufferers. One passenger on 
our return told me of several cases of this sort of 
robbery, including his own : " For," said he, ** I lost 
every single thing I had with me while I was asleep." 
Nay, more, it was a well-authenticated fact that the 
Chief of Police, though attended by an escort, had 
on one occasion himself been the sufferer. It is easy 
to attribute these robberies to the Burmese ; but 
those generally accredited with the trick are certain 
Madrassees, who come over to the country. The 
trick is to get upon the train, sometimes even under 
the train, and watch the opportunity of noting pos- 



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BURMA, 39 

sible prey at any given station. Then, when the 
train is again in motion, they enter, throw every- 
thing helter-skelter out, hide themselves, and " dis* 
embark " at the next station, deliberately walking 
back and gradually picking up their spoil. It is not 
of the Burmese to do this. 

For ourselves, we were on our guard, and arrived 
at Prome unrobbed, traversing our i6i miles un- 
interruptedly. 

At about half-past six on the morning of Monday, 
the 24th December, we embarked on board the 
Mandalay, of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company, 
whereof Captain Franz K. Timm was the sociable 
and able captain, and found ourselves on the fu), 
broad waterway of the Irrawaddy itself, for our 410 
miles to Mandalay. This river course I shall detail, 
because I had been so much misled about it. We 
anchored at Mihnla for the night, and some of us 
walked up to the fort, where there had been fighting 
in the days of invasion ; and when we had walked 
up we walked down again, not much wiser but very 
much more dusty than before. But it was " some- 
thing to do ! " and what a chance that is, very often — 
•' to have something to do." We had passed Kama, 
with its pagodas, and had stared at them as we 
passed. The river throughout the day had shown 
itself vast in waters; and so many would say, " this 
splendid river ;" but the banks were flat and quite 
monotonous. On one spot, however, by way of trade, 
an enormous mass of sawdust, more curious than 
beautiful, attracted my attention ; this turned out 
to be some years! accumulation from the making of 



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40 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

boxes for the dye called "Cutch/* But the most 
curious and interesting object to me was on board, 
where a mother in the second class was waiting on her 
daughter travelling in the first. My attention was 
pointedly called to this fact, and the name of the 
young lady was then given me as a Miss Dumont 
The explanation was startling enough. She her- 
self was half-caste, having certain white blood in 
her veins, while her mother had none, being 
wholly Burmese. Therefore the daughter of mixed 
blood was waited on by the mother of pure. 
This strange circumstance somewhat serves to 
exemplify social relationship throughout Burma, 
and I soon came to know that in every case 
servants go down on their knees before their 
masters on receiving orders or delivering messages 
or food. This is so, as between themselves, and I 
presently observed this custom going on haughtily 
on board on the part of a master of the most ordi- 
nary type. I was told that Burmese servants are 
especially attached to European masters, and an 
instance of this was given me later by a young 
officer who was deploring having to leave his devoted 
servant behind. 

Next day was Christmas Day, and throughout, the 
river was again vast — and this, though the water is 
always low at this time of year — but the banks were 
again monotonous. We passed the great Oil Station, 
Yeanang Young, with one solitary handsome group 
of trees ; and here we witnessed a very picturesque 
landing and scattering abroad on the slopes of our 
costumed native passengers. The sunset colourings 



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BURMA. 41 

were gorgeous, as we anchored an hour short of the 
famous Paghan. And thus ended our Christmas Day- 
passage. The day itself wpund up with the usual 
fare, which need not be described, except as to one 
item : the neglected, insipid Papua. This fruit was 
despised, till there came a passenger on board from 
one of the stations, who, helping himself to a good 
slice, casually remarked it was good for the liver. 
On this, the two large melon-shaped fruits disap- 
peared forthwith, and the following day saw the 
last of the fruit devoured. 

On the morning of the 26th we rose early to have 
a good look from the river on famous Paghan : 
famous, that is, for its pagodas. They are so 
numerous, that there is a defiant proverb as to 
counting them : " Count the pagodas of Paghan.'' A 
passenger on board was enthusiastic as to an endless 
walk among them ; and possibly the novelty of such 
a meander may be exciting ; but it was quite evident 
to us all that the mass of them were dwarf ruins ; 
some few were more or less entire, but there were no 
evidences of fine structures. Pagodas, I may say, 
are to be seen everywhere up to Mandalay, and they 
are for the most part ugly. The day was again 
somewhat diversified by the embarking, and landing, 
and scattering of the natives, and in one case I was 
suddenly reminded of a water-colour by Turner. 

On the 27th we passed what I called the eye of the 
river, viz. Sagain, one of the ancient capitals, with 
its various hills and pagodas ; and opposite to this, 
on the east or left bank of the river, stood Ava, also 
a former capital, and which now gives one of his 



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42 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

titles to the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava. A little 
higher up we come abreast of Amarapura, which also 
was formerly the seat of Government ; and another 
eight miles, completing our 410 miles in three days 
and a half from Prome, brought us at about noon to 
the dusty, steep, and ragged left bank, forming an 
unworthy landing-place for the present capital, 
Mandalay. 

Now, on arriving at such a spot, and asking for 
the Commissioner, one would naturally suppose it to 
be an easy task to find him. Quite the contrary. If 
I had trouble in finding Colonel Clarke at Rangoon, 
it cost me many times as much to find Colonel 
S trover at Mandalay. Forth I started, with my man 
on the box, in a rattle-trap gare (reminding me of 
Calcutta), in full assurance that it was " all right ; ^' 
and after a long and tedious drive we came to the 
city walls, castellated, and with pagoda ornaments at 
intervals. We crossed the moat and entered ; but, to 
my astonishment, I found no city at all ! This re- 
markable fact was afterwards explained to me. Still 
we kept driving on to a large residence, which had 
been pointed out to me after interpreted inquiry. 
This was wrong : it was the residence of the Chief 
Commissioner, Sir Charles Crosthwaite, when there. 
Off again; and outside the walls on the opposite side. 
In this line I passed close to the late king's palace, 
with its pagoda, and afterwards came to some fine- 
looking barracks. When far outside we at last stopped 
at another house. This, I was told, must be the right 
one ; so in I walked and proffered my letter. *' From 
my brother/' quoth the courteous gentleman.. This. 



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BURMA. 43 

took me aback, for I was evidently wrong again. 
" Oh ! " he quickly added, " I see this is to the 
Commissioner, about two miles ofif." I then recounted 
my despair, and begged him " to guide my weary 
way." Very kindly he sent a man with me, and in 
about half an hour we arrived at the very residence 
of Colonel Strover. Here at last I found a haven, 
having travelled six miles instead of one, and was 
most pleasantly received and housed. Perhaps if 
you go there now, knowledge will have improved ; 
but I do not forget what was. 

The Commissioner was engaged that afternoon at 
the races as one of the judges — there are races every- 
where and everywhen — and I spent my time among 
various pagodas, including the '* Incomparable," 
"The Golden House," and the "countless pagodas." 
Here I wandered through a downright forest of them, 
and mounted a central structure to survey, from a 
bird's-eye view, the astonishing surroundings. 

Early on the next morning, the 28th December, 
the Colonel drove me to see the Aracan Pagoda, 
where sits the great figure of Buddha, brought from 
Aracan. The figure was golden or gilded, and was 
flanked by two screens. I have said the Burmese 
are great colourists, and these two screens were 
indeed specimens of that art. Worshippers abounded, 
and so did their offerings of rice ; but these, as they 
lay scattered for worship's sake, were licked up by 
the prowling dogs, who, as usual, now and then 
resented European costume. This pagoda is worth 
visiting indeed. 

For the afternoon, Colonel Strover gave me a letter 



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44 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

to Captain Temple, at the Palace, also with its lofty 
pagoda, and which I had passed within the walls. He 
showed me the whole building, and strange indeed 
seemed the incongruity of a palace turned into 
Government offices. And now it was that Captain 
Temple explained to me the no-city phenomenon 
within the walls. The whole mass of inhabitants had 
been turned out, and made to carry their wooden 
structures with them. The Captain spoke of from 
fifty to sixty thousand inhabitants so dealt with, and 
thirty thousand more outside the walls ; and all 
this had taken place without a single hitch ; many 
bargaining with their neighbours for changing houses 
on agreed terms. Then came a highly interesting 
visit. This was to King Thebaw's Summer House, 
when I stood on the spot where he had signed his 
abdication, praying (as I was told) for so many 
weeks* or months' delay in his departure, and being 
answered by General Prendergast, "Not so many 
hours.'* There was yet one more mournful remnant 
of past power to be seen : the king's throne-room. 
Here, himself squatting in Eastern fashion, they who 
came before him approached in squatting movements 
to his feet, and spoke their prayer. But alas 1 the 
god is gone, like so many others. 

On Saturday morning, the 29th December, I was 
to be on board again in time, to sail at eleven, and 
the Colonel took me for an early previous drive to 
see other golden and glittering temples ; the 
Queen's Golden Kyoung among the number, and 
the great solid gilded pagoda. These temples may 
be called tawdry and trifling, and probably would 



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BURMA. 45 

look so in our latitudes ; but they have their special 
beauty in their native soil, standing out against their 
blue skies. The elaboration of their detail is astonish- 
ing. At length we came to the steamer, and I 
hailed our returning passengers, and so ended my 
visit to Mandalay, and to the pleasant entertainments 
of my generous host. 

In our various drives I particularly noticed the Bud- 
dhist priests, young and old, dressed in yellow robes, 
and how they begged from house to house for their 
daily sustenance. Each has his district, and there is no 
invasion. Each carries a large bowl, the " Alms Bowl," 
and presents himself at the open entrance ; open to 
the street. They never ask for anything, but simply 
stand and wait for perhaps two or three minutes. 
If no one comes to add to the contents they go 
away. Another feature to observe is the enormous 
quantity of tattooing of the almost naked legs and 
bodies. Even little children show it ; and it is won- 
derful to think how the agony can be endured except 
upon the theory, applied to the Chinese, that the 
Burmese are very insensible to pain. This view 
indeed was confirmed to me on board by a Mr. S. 
C. Robertson, Assistant Superintendent of Tele- 
graphs, who also spoke of their severities one towards 
another. While speaking of children, by the way, I 
noticed the large bracelets they carried, both here 
and in India, on their wrists and ankles ; and was 
offensively confirmed in my suspicion that cases too 
often occur in both countries of murder and mutila- 
tion to obtain them. The oxen are driven as in 
Calcutta, with the yoke on the neck and the string 



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46 WANDERINGS AND WONDnRlNGS. 

through the nose, in apparent suffering, but the 
tranquil eye, here as there, disputes this impression. 
In size and form the Burmese animals are superior 
to those in Calcutta. 

So down the wide, flat-shored river we went again, 
I being much struck by a single group of hills we 
had passed in the dark before ; and we arrived at 
Prome at 5 p.m. on the 31st. General Johnston 
and I had at one time intended going farther up the 
river to Bhamo, but were threatened by the ground- 
ing of the steamer at this time of year, which verily 
came to pass. But there were only a few miles of 
picturesque shore to be seen, after all ; and they who 
have travelled in flat countries know how molehills 
there are magnified into mountains. Major Clarke 
informed me that very much higher up stream, where 
he had gone with his forces, but where we could not 
then go, the scenery among the rocks was very fine. 

It will be gathered from what I have written that 
the general aspect of the Irrawaddy, as a river, is 
tame ; but I have no doubt that when the water is 
high you may be raised to get a fine extensive 
view of the country to the east, which would, of 
course, enliven the otherwise somewhat monotonous 
voyage ; for Burmese views are by no means flat ; 
what is flat are the general banks of the river. 

On Tuesday, then, the ist of January, 1889, at 
about six in the evening we arrived at Rangoon 
again, where I was met by a letter from Colonel 
Cooke, summoning me to his house. On this day 
all were enjoying a close holiday, and to me this 
summons was my holiday. In the evening the Colonel 



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BURMA, 47 

took me a delightftil drive around "The lioyal 
Lakes" and through the "Ladies' Mile," disjplaying 
views of the great pagoda. Then to the lively club. 
In the evening after dinner we lounged on the 
wide upper balcony under the trees, legs up, on 
those peculiar Indian chairs, to which I was always 
invited, but to which, in spite of prophecy, I could 
never get accustomed. A further drive out the next 
day displayed much large timber, especially the 
large-leafed teak tree ; and, to my astonishment, 
an unlimited growth of pineapples under large 
plantations. It appears to be a common practice in 
the season, in morning drives, to get out and help 
oneself ad libitum ; and the produce must indeed be 
inexhaustible. My last day, and my last long visit 
to the Shoay Dagon, was on Friday, the 4th of 
January. Major Cooke had joined us from Mandalay 
in the morning, and as my boat was to sail at 2.30 
a.m. I bade my pleasant host and his brother farewell, 
and went on board in the evening, and on Tuesday,, 
the 8th, I was in Calcutta again. 



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VL 



Having now returned to Calcutta, I was to prepare 
for my own intended "Voyage of Discovery'* 
through India, and to the ever-vaunted vale of 
Kashmir ; nor was I unwilling to be prompt in 
making arrangements for my departure, for I found 
the weather some ten degrees warmer than usual for 
the month of January, and, as I must confess, very 
depressing. Having availed myself, therefore, of the 
hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Hyde in their very 
pleasant villa, and also of Mr. Gordon's, at the 
Bengal Club, who likewise had been a schoolfellow 
of my nephew — such is the world's easy intercourse 
at present — I made my way to Messrs. Thomas 
Cook and Son's office, No. ii. Old Court House 
Street, in order to arrange the usual railway through 
tickets, with which I had already travelled some 
thousands of miles in other countries, and found 
infinitely convenient passports in joining trains, with- 
out standing and crushing at the wicket for a ticket. 
My first long journey was eventually to cease at 
Bombay ; and, counted by the way I intended to go, 
I had to measure a distance of 1689 miles, the 
coupons, as usual, giving the liberty of stopping at 
the various places which I desired to visit, and my 
heavy baggage being sent on direct, independently. 
Therefore at 9 p.m. on the evening of Tuesday, 



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BENARES. 49 

the 15th of January, by Madras time, I left the 
Howrah station, E.I.R., in a good-sized car or car- 
riage, where luckily I found only one other passenger, 
an officer ; and in India officers are always pleasant. 
The first object of my journey was the City of 
Benares, which I spell in the usual way, and will 
here remark that, as regards the spelling of various 
cities and places, I shall take my chance among all the 
promiscuous and contradictory authorities, spelling 
in any manner that at the moment happens to be in 
print before me, and I daresay spelling the same place 
differently and wrongly every time I write it. The 
first 470 miles took me to Moghal Sarai Junction at 
14.45, or 2.45 p.m. on the i6th, and, starting thence 
^^ 3«3S pni-> another ten miles on the Oudh and 
Rohilkund railway brought me, at 4.25 p.m., to the 
** Sacred City of Siva or Shiva,*' where I rested at 
Clarke's Hotel ; a habitation which was quite un- 
known to this God of Destruction, the Third in the 
Brahmin Trinity, though by some reputed as the 
First, or as comprehending all Three. It was at this 
first halting place that I realized the necessity of 
generally carrying with you through all India your 
whole bedding apparatus, even when visiting most of 
the hotels. Where there are none, and only dik 
bungalows, this necessity is a necessity indeed. These 
Government post-houses are not expected to have 
any furniture whatever besides a table and a few 
chain and sofas ; all is very scantily provided. One's 
arrival there is generally followed by a loud cawing 
and cackling among the fowls, and I have described 
the reception in general to consist merely of a 

E 



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50 ]VANDER/NGS AND WONDEKINGS, 

shrivelled old man and an impossible chicken. 
However, for India, the hotel, in this instance, 
afforded me very fair food, and bedstead , enough 
to put my own things upon. Thus dinner and the 
night were accomplished. 

Before seven on the following morning, the 17th 
January, my guide and I were moving to see Benares, 
the first aspect of which it seems to me should 
be sought from across the Ganges. The early hori- 
zontal rays of morning, striking the broad bosom of 
the stream, light up the wonderfully picturesque city, 
rising above the sloping banks on the opposite side, 
with its numerous broken ghats or high landing-steps, 
in an almost magical manner. The whole city lies 
upon the left bank or north side of the river, and the 
view is unintercepted. Then return and take one of 
the strangely made boats, or barges, and move quietly 
up and down stream for about a quarter of a mile, 
sitting on the outside top ; and thus you will view 
all that goes on, on shore ; bathing among the living, 
and burning among the dead. Sometimes these 
latter are cast into the Ganges, a style of disposal 
more popular with the obscene crocodile, and sup- 
posed to yield advantage to the soul. 

The next movement was to visit the narrow and 
in many ways offensive streets and passages of 
the confined and unwashed city, and here the tra- 
veller's senses become bewildered with the crowded 
varieties that press round him. Among other 
objects must be mentioned a great Brahmin Bull, 
and among the Hindoo buildings the remarkable 
Golden Temple, dedicated to the God Siva. The 



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BRNARES, 51 

symbol of Creation or Renovation under which this 
god of Destruction is worshipped appears every- 
where, as if to point the view that — 

** In the boundless realm of unending change " 

(as Shelley beautifully writes) there is really no such 
thing as death. Byron wrote a sentimental line — 

** Ah ! surely nothing dies but something mourns." 

In the above view this might be paraphrased — 
" Ah ! surely nothing dies but something lives/* 

Hence, Siva the Destroyer is symbolized as Siva 
the Creator or Renovator, because in the "unending 
change ^' the dispersion of one contributes to the 
formation of the other. But you may remark for 
ever, and yet not paint Benares. 

After becoming intoxicated with variety, if not 
yet overcome with fatigue, the last visit must be 
to the towering mosque of Aurungzebe, an awful 
intrusion, and in form a tyrannical one, upon 
the gloomy sanctity of Siva. But rival religions 
know nothing of consideration or forbearance, and 
always arrogate to themselves the truth, and this 
particular mosque is stated to have been the 
especial fruit of arrogance. When you have 
put on your shoes again, after visiting the 
Mosque, take courage, and take breath, and mount 
a minaret. The view will well reward you. Of 
its kind it must be unique : the river and the city 
close below you, and the country far around, form 
a scene to dwell on and to remember. There is 
£ 2 



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52 WAMDHRiMiS AND WONDERINGS. 

something strange in Fergusson's remark, that after 
all "there is hardly any great city in Hindustan 
that can show so few evidences of antiquity as 
Benares/* and that the Temple of Vishveshwar, which 
the Brahmins universally point out to you as their 
holiest and oldest, " was erected from the foundation 
in the last century to replace one that had been 
thrown down and desecrated by the bigot Aurung- 
zebe. The oldest buildings indeed would appear 
to be the Moslem tombs and buildings, about the 
Bukarija Kund, and these only of the 15th century." 

The Durg4 Temple lies outside, under splendid 
trees. It is said to be dedicated to the savage 
Siva's savage wife, under that name, which is intended 
to inspire that most essential element of all worship, 
terror ; in some, diluted to awe. The leading feature 
here are the monkeys, which are too much made 
light of perhaps. Is not their presence connected 
v/ith the worship of the monkey god ? " Monkey," 
it is true, has been made to signify "Devil." But 
among all the numerous gods which the human 
brain has in course of aeons invented we know that 
there appears " the monkey god.'* 

I can quite understand that some few specialists 
could pass several days in viewing and reviewing 
all the curiosities that the city has to show. But 
it would be affectation on my part to pretend that 
I needed any further acquaintance with it than my 
one day's visit had afforded me, and which I felt 
sure would be quite sufficient for my future memories 
and uses. I therefore decided to leave on the following 
morning, looking with a careless eye on all shawls, 



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m^^g^^^^SS^^^SS^^T ^-^^^^ ^, ■ , . ' . ^^M 



BENARES. S3 

while the glittering array of brass works that adorned 
a spacious saloon of the hotel were to my taste 
repellent rather than attractive. 

But before leaving Benares, I sought and found a 
Brahmin Bdbu, Ram Kdli Chaudhuri, to whom I had 
brought a letter of introduction from the late Miss 
Constance Naden. He was a Brahmin priest of the 
first class, and wore the three threads over his 
left shoulder, having been so invested at nine years 
old. To this degree, he informed me, none can 
rise ; but they must be invested in early life. It 
would be neither possible nor entertaining, if possible, 
to recount all our conversation, in which he spoke 
English exceedingly well. By my notes I see that the 
principal subject between us was the Congress ques- 
tion, of which he knew a great deal more than I did. 
But I refer to the conversation because I promised 
him that if I ever mentioned his name, I would 
make this declaration for him, and all his brethren : 
** That whatever might be the subject of their dis- 
satisfaction or complaint, they were really loyal 
subjects of the Empress, and that nothing whatever 
could induce them to commit any act that might 
have the tendency to weaken a Government in 
whose capacity to protect and support them 
they felt such perfect confidence.*' He was highly 
delighted on my presenting him with a copy of my 
Translation of the Lusiads, and I afterwards received 
a remarkably well-written letter from him, which bore 
evidence of his having really studied our language 
with scholastic success. 

Leaving Benares at 4.25 p.m. on the 17th, I 



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54 WAADENJNGS AND WONDERINGS. 

arrived at Lucknow at the ugly hour 2.16 a.m. on 
Friday, the i8th, and drove to Hill's Imperial Hotel, 
where I was again glad of my own covering. This 
hotel, I may mention, like almost every other 
throughout India, has its bedrooms built on a long 
ground floor row, with a corridor in front, and 
opening behind into a bath room, very commodiously 
arranged. After bed and bath and breakfast (as 
usual) I prepared to visit the ever-to-be-remembered 
scenes, so dark and so bright in history ; dark in 
sufferings and carnage, and bright in almost un- 
exampled endurance, valour, and victory. 

The Residency is, of course, the one grand centre of 
attraction, and before visiting its now quiet ruins, 
standing on turf and adorned with thick flowering 
creepers, a great advantage is offered of inspecting, at 
the museum^ a perfect model of it, carefully prepared 
by Captain Moore, as it stood with its surrounding 
houses before the siege. Then to the scene itself, in 
all its quietude and its engaging ruin, and do not by 
any means omit to mount its crags and survey the 
entire picture. The soldier might be here inclined 
rather to discuss, but the civilian rather to ponder. 
Explain things as the best qualified may try to do, 
the record seems to baffle the understanding. Re- 
member that all this deadly strife and fearful suffer- 
ing took place in summer, and note one small fact 
alone — "the greatest torment was the flies, which 
swarmed in incredible numbers. The ground was 
black with them, and the tables covered. The 
besieged could not sleep ; they could scarcely eat for 
them." The Sikandara Bagh, which is given as of 



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LiJCKSOWy ETC. 55 

1 20 yards square, and is surrounded \yy high solid 
walls, is also to be visited. Hither a large body of 
Sipahis retreated, expecting to escape at the other 
side. But there was no opening, and, being hotly 
pursued by the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab 
Rifles, they were ail massacred, some say to the num- 
ber of 2000, and other accounts give 1643 as the 
number of corpses buried under one huge mound out- 
side the gate. 

Leaving Lucknow and its great Imimbdrah, a visit 
to Cawnpore naturally followed, whither forty-five 
miles on the same line of railway took me by 4.30 
on the afternoon of the 19th, and early on the 20th 
I was driven round by a pensioned English soldier 
to all the various spots of horror, including, of course, 
the Park, the Well, and the Enclosure, with its 
statue. Perhaps I was more impressed with the 
barren ghat, by the river side, whither the bewitched 
General Wheeler led his unarmed officers and men to 
be slaughtered, for there the ground remained as it 
had been at the time. So also the Sevada House, 
whither Major Viper and seventy officers and men 
had fled, also unarmed^ simply to share a similar 
fate. It was much to have trod these scenes. 

I was now on my way through Allahabad to 
Jubbulpore, on the river Nerbudda, to see the 
Marble Rocks, and a run of 120 miles between 
1 1. 21 a.m. and 5 p.m. brought me to the above city, 
where I lodged at Lawrie*s hotel. The capital of 
the North-West Provinces, situated on the west bank 
of the Jumna, just before that river falls into the 
Ganges, is a finely built city, with wide, straight and 



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§6 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

well planted streets, stretching over a perfectly flat 
country, and containing many imposing buildings at 
a certain distance from one another, and involving 
the climbing of a great many steps for making calls 
on officials and professors. Its great curiosity is the 
Asoka Pillar, which ought to be stared at with all that 
feigned interest which the concealed ignorance and 
indifference of the general traveller may command 
fdr the occasion, and in the fine museum there is the 
skeleton of a gharidl, or long-snouted alligator. And 
there is, of course, a cemetery, containing the usual 
collection of hideous tombs. On toiling up several 
steps with a letter to Mr. Hugh Fraser, the registrar, 
from my connection. General Spurgin, I unfortunately 
found he was " on tour,'* as also was another gentleman 
up another forbidding staircase. But on mounting to 
the grand colonnade of the Muir College I was for- 
tunate enough to disturb the Professor of Sanscrit in his 
occupations, by sending in a letter, also from the late 
Miss Constance Naden, as at Benares. This was 
Pandit Adityaram Bhattacharya, M.A., with whom, 
however, I could then have only just as many 
minutes in conversation as it would have taken me 
to salute him properly by his name. Afterwards, 
however, he paid me the favour of a long call, main- 
taining a most interesting conversation in good Eng- 
lish, much on the same lines as my Pandit friend at 
Benares. Had I immediately afterwards conversed 
with a well-informed Indian authority I could better 
have repeated and understood various features of his 
discourse than I can now, which amounts to just 
nothing at all. But, not forgetting the repeated expres- 



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ALLAHABAD. 57 

sions of loyalty, I do remember that one leading form 
of protest and complaint was that they had to con- 
tribute a great deal of money without having any 
corresponding voice, by representation, or otherwise, 
in the conduct of public affairs. 

The fine arsenal and fort I took for granted, but I 
certainly have an impression of being somewhat 
earnestly taken to jail, and let out again, after con- 
fessing that it appeared to me, so far as I was a judge 
of jails^ to be remarkably clean and airy. My after- 
noon wound up with a visit to the imposing Mayo 
Memorial, the tower of which I mounted, some 1 50 
feet high, with a finial atop, whence an extensive 
spreading view of the country round for miles may be 
enjoyed. A night of railroad was before me, and the 
penalty of an early dinner, in order to catch the 7.22 
train for Jubbulpore, where I was to arrive, after 
travelling 229 miles by the E.I.R. at 5 a.m. on the 
following morning. This I did on Tuesday, the 22nd 
of January, settling at Clark's Hotel, in a quiet lean- 
to bed-room, looking out into a garden, the enjoy- 
ment of whose freshness and fragrance, however, I 
postponed for a few short hours of morning sleep. 
After breakfast, arrangements were easily made for 
the excursion to the river. 

The distance is ten miles, and they gave me a 
tonga for Rs. 5, the regular charge. I did not feel 
at all sure as to what I was to see ; for an English- 
man and his wife, whom I chanced to meet at Allaha- 
bad, and who were most anxious to make the journey, 
but could not, had been told by another Englishman 
and his wife two different tales ; he having expressed 



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58 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

himself delighted, and she having declared she would 
not cross the road to see the rocks again. My own 
report, if I met my first-named travellers again, would 
be that, without saying it would have been worth 
their while to go and to return the number of miles 
it would have cost them, yet that no one with the 
slightest sense of beauty and refinement should pass 
this station without a visit. When I came to the 
river side, after walking down a steep descent, I found 
a boat and boatmen, and two good-looking young 
Brahmin priests with a friend, who, speaking a little 
English, asked me to allow them to come with me. 
To this I consented, but the men did not move, nor 
speak English to say why. Getting impatient the 
Brahmins asked for me " why ? " and the answer was 
that one of the last party had disturbed the wasps, and 
they were afraid of returning so soon. Now there is 
no fiction about these wasps, who build their large 
black nests on the rocks, and on the slightest disturb- 
ance, either by the firing of a gun, or by the smell of 
fire, as of a mere cigar smoked near them, will attack 
and mortally attack intruders. But none of us 
seemed disinclined to try, and so we went. 

We were soon among the marbles, and so singular 
an effect I have never before seen. The waters of 
the Nerbudda, sometimes furious, were lying like a 
mirror, and the marble rocks on both sides were 
reflected on them. The long vista was all marble, 
for there appeared to be a block at the end, and to 
this wc rowed and 'turned. There is nothing grand 
in the scenery ; perhaps none of the marble cliffs 
are much more than a hundred feet high. But the 



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JVBBULPOSE, 59 

fairy-like effect is charming. The colouring is most 
artistic. Strange to say I had been warned against 
being disappointed, because there would be what was 
called much discolouring. But in point of fact this 
added a charm. There was exquisite white below, 
where the waters more or less protected the surfaces ; 
and then there were light roses, light and dark 
browns, and purples. The only slight disappoint- 
ment I felt was that there was not enough of them. 
In going and returning you cannot make out your 
hour, and the men make a mere moving business of 
it In our case, however, we had one additional 
chance. There had been a slight (and only a slight) 
disturbance of the wasps, for one man had insisted 
on mounting one of the rocks towards a high nest 
with a cigar in his mouth. No sooner, however, did 
the fumes arise than the alarm commenced, and the 
intruding smoker fled so quickly that he left his cap 
behind him. This cap he had given a rower some- 
thing to recover ; so we hove to at the spot, and the 
man mounted the crags, while we waited and gazed 
below. I kept everyone dawdling here and there 
besides, as well as I could, but all was over, never- 
theless, too soon. I climbed to the road on return- 
ing in company with the Brahmins, who took the 
opportunity of hoping and ascertaining that I was 
not a missionary ; and then broke forth in protesta- 
tions against having their own revered religion 
interfered with. So ended my visit to the Marble 
Rocks. 

I was now to complete my journey to Bombay — 
whither another 6i6 miles of railway still remained. 



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60 WANDRR/NGS AND WONDERJNGS. 

by the G.I.R.R. But I did not intend travelling 
straight through, for I should pass by stations where 

I meditated a halt. The first was that of Pechora, 
for a visit to the Ajunta caves ; and the second was 
that of Nandgaon for Ellora. As regards the first, 
however, my hopes were small, though I was 
resolved to make the trial. I had therefore written 
the station-master that I was coming by a certain 
train, and would take the advantage of a few minutes' 
talk with him on the subject. It was 6.10 in the 
morning that I left Jubbulpore, and between 10 and 

I I at night that we came to Pechora, where I im- 
mediately got out and looked for the station-master, 
who was also looking for me. The hope was hope- 
less. Twelve hours each way in a bullock waggon 
over a vile road, and no one at hand to undertake 
the journey, nor any sort of refuge for the night ; 
all this decided me to abandon the attempt. So on 
I went to Nandgaon for Ellora. From what I could 
gather the Ajunta excursion requires long prepara- 
tion, and the real mode of undertaking it is to make 
up a party for a few days. 

At Nandgaon we arrived at about half-past one 
in the cold morning of the 24th, and, having written 
to this station-master also, he was there to greet me 
when I left the train. Ellora was practicable, because 
there was a dak bungalpw near the station, and a 
Parsee postmaster to provide a tonga. But everyone 
was fast asleep : so when the train was gone, the 
master came with me to the post-office and knocked 
the Parsee up, who came cheerfully forth, showing no 
disposition to knock him down in return. He was a 



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ELLORA, 6l 

good, stout, manly fellow, evidently blessed with a 
good digestion — almost the whole secret of life being 
worth living — and at once acceded to my sugges- 
tions. These Parsees, as I came gradually to know, 
are the life and soul of the tonga business through- 
out India. Early mornings can be cold in India, 
and this one kept up that character. I was to get 
what rest I could in the barren bungalow close by, 
and to be up and out again at five. This task I 
managed to accomplish, and cheerfully resigning my 
hard sofa at that hour for some hot milk and coffee, 

" Passed out in open air preventing day." 

It IS not necessary to go as far as Arungabad in 
order to visit Ellora, but the Parsee persuaded me 
to do so. It lies fifty-six miles from Nandgaon, and 
entails fourteen miles to and fro beyond the turning 
to Ellora. I passed the night at the bungalow, bare 
and uncomfortable enough, and learned that Mr. 
Caine, M.P., was in the next compartment, but I 
did not see him, and found a little whisky for my 
water, notwithstanding ; while a shrivelled old man 
brought me in a screaming white young cock, to 
show me what I was to have for dinner. The only 
object worth attention in the town was the mosque 
built by Aurungzebe, in imitation of his father Shah 
Jehan's tomb, the celebrated Taje Mehal, of Agra. 
It was built (says Fergusson) in memory of his 
favourite daughter Rabia Diiranee ; and he adds, 
that " it narrowly escapes vulgarity and bad taste." 
I must confess this remark quite chimes in with my 
impressions, later on imbibed at Agra, as to how 



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62 WANDERINGS AND IVONDRRfNGS. 

much the building there owes of its fair fame to its 
material, and its careful structure. Here both were 
coarse, and afforded an unhappy introduction to 
Agra. 

The morning of the 2Sth shone bright and beautiful, 
and I started with satisfaction for Ellora, my chief 
object being to realize the great monolithic Temple 
of Kylas. Fourteen miles back brought us to the 
turning, at first an open road, but afterwards pic- 
turesque. We crossed a stream at a descent, at the 
end, and came direct through shrubs to Kylas. But 
it was very difficult to make out what it was I first 
saw as I was approaching, for it certainly was not 
the temple. It turned out to be the dark, discoloured 
vertical face of the cut in the hill, where this had been 
dug out for the purpose of this wonderful monolith, 
which, with all its details, was to be formed out of the 
mass left in the middle. Fergusson gives loo feet in 
height to this inner face, which fronts directly to the 
road you come by, and half that height to the outer- 
most sides. The floor of this pit, with a flat entrance, 
is I so feet wide and 270 feet in length. In the centre 
of this floor stands this elaborate temple, mono- 
lithic, carved out of a block of stone, interiorly 
and exteriorly, and flanked on its two sides and 
its inner end by these vertical cuttings, through 
all three of which runs a continuous dark pillared 
corridor. 

I confess to have been profoundly impressed with 
this strange and imposing reality, and very little 
inclined afterwards to read how Fergusson dilutes 
the wonder of the structure by arguing that it is 



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RLLORA. 63 

considerably easier, and less expensive, to excavate 
an elaborate temple out of a block, than to build 
one by separate pieces. This sounds like destroying 
faith by reason, or dispersing a miracle by proving 
sleight of hand. It is a luxury, sometimes, to be 
amazed, and I felt thus amazed by wandering to and 
fro, and in and out of Kylas. It is not a building ; it is 
a great block of stone hammered and chiselled into an 
elaborate temple ; and it rises out of and belongs to 
its own floor, standing in its own pit, and between 
its own precipices. And round and round the gal- 
leries in these I walked continually, contemplating 
the fane after wandering among its pilgrims in the 
interior. Fergusson's sketch gives some idea, and 
only some, of the reality, and in his pages you must 
find the details. I had but little time for the other 
caves, and did not much care to confuse my impres- 
sions^ so that when I had mounted the hill side and 
looked down upon the structure and its elaborate 
roofing, and yet again had wandered through its 
interior, I came away with a memory, " unmixed with 
baser matter," of the solitude and solemnity of 
Kylas. 

As I was determined to reach Bombay on the next 
day, I had to start very early for Nandgaon station 
to catch the 10.10 morning train, which a little extra 
bakhshish to the driver enabled me to do. The 
rough ponies in their rough harness travelled ex- 
tremely well, though a great deal of time was lost at 
all the frequent changes, and I paid Rs. 50 for the 
whole excursion. Our train was late on arrival, in 
consequence, I believe, of various crowded ones to 



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64 WANDERIXGS AND WONDERINGS. 

see a parachute descent. We passed the ThuU or 
Tal Ghaut in full dayh'ght, with which I was not so 
much impressed as I had expected to be ; and, on 
arriving, I made my way to the best built hotel (at 
all events) — the " Esplanade." 



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VII. 



When McCulloch published his geographical dic- 
tionary in 1844, he wrote of Bombay that its best 
streets were scarcely equal to the suburbs of Cal- 
cutta or Madras. He could not have said the same 
thing to-day. Bombay is aa imposing city, contain- 
ing several fine large public buildings, principally 
constructed, as it. seemed .to me, in the mediaeval, 
narrow arch window style ; one much more adapted 
for that sky and climate than our London, where 
people are already far too fond of introducing it. 
The Esplanade Hotel itself is a fine building (I 
speak of the building) and close to it stands the 
Secretariat. You will not care to go through the 
list with me, but I will mention the enormous Law 
Courts, and the University Library with its lofty 
Clock Tower, 260 feet in height. Here also, as in 
Calcutta, there are two cities, European and Native : 
and an immediate drive from one to the other is the 
best of ail modes of describing both to one's own satis* 
faction. It seems strange that all should be on an 
island, and a small one too — this being the capital of 
the Presidency. 

Then, if you want, as of course all do, to see 
the Caves of Elcphanta,. you embark in a steam 
launch for another island, and a much smaller one, 
lying to the east in the bay. Come with me and see 

F 



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66 WAj\;nFfef^;Gs akd vvoMnERhxas, 

them at once. You must have already seen them 
illustrated, and will not need any very particular de- 
scription of them. I might lightly describe our small 
party. There was an American preacher, and an 
English clergyman, who talked to him incessantly, and 
I am quite sure professionally ; and when we came to 
the caves talked nonsense about Athens and Greek 
architecture. Athens at Elephanta! Then there 
was an American of the softer sex, but of the harsher 
voice. She was not ill-natured, but very loud about 
equality — d> propos to nothing. She was " as good 
as Queen Victoria : quite," and there was no stop- 
ping her, till I reminded her she had forgotten one 
question. " How's that ? ^^ " Do you think Queen 
Victoria is as good as yourself.?'' " Well, I daresay 
she is," was the reply, and a final one for the moment. 
Then said one of them to me : " We re an All Round 
party from the States, and that good woman has 
been a scourge all through." So much for travelling 
parties ! The other two were an honest man and his 
wife, and he was connected with coal mining, and 
made much more sensible observations than the 
classical ecclesiastic. He was puzzled how the flat 
roof of a cave could stand so firm with such small 
support, and this circumstance is striking when the 
remark is made. For many of the pillars have been 
shot away, the Portuguese being accused of having 
religiously brought in cannon for that holy purpose. 
The delicate fluting of these pillars may be observed, 
as adding greatly to the general effect ; but the whole 
interior is not large. The island itself is very pic- 
turesque and well wooded, and you mount by a great 



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BOMB A Y. 67 

many steps to the caves, whence you enjoy a very 
pleasing view of the harbour; and the excursion is 
a short and easy one. 

I was very fortunate in having a letter ot introduction 
from Mr. Thompson, of the Pall Mall Gazette, to the 
then Governor, Lord Reay, for this not only gave 
me the entrance to Government House, where I was 
received with all kindness, but, before I left Bombay, 
obtained for me several letters from Lady Reay that 
enabled me to visit the Kattiawar Peninsula, on my 
way north, which Fergusson's volume had made me 
very anxious to do, especially in regard to Palitana. 
No sooner had I had time to turn round in Bombay 
than I found a former Egyptian acquaintance, whom 
I had known in Alexandria, in the person of Judge 
Scott. Nor was I many hours before enjoying his 
hospitality, as also that of Mr. Forrest, of Messrs. 
KilHck Lixon and Cie. Mr. Sedgwick entertained 
me at the BycuUa Club, and, in particular, intro- 
duced me to the Library of the Bombay Branch of 
the Asiatic Society, which was a great resource for 
reading all the English papers. On Wednesday 
evening, the 30th of January, I had the honour of 
attending a very picturesque " At Home " at Govern- 
ment House. There was no lack of hospitality at 
Bombay. The only drawback to these entertain- 
ments was that I presently felt an unusual sensation 
in my throat, and, on consulting a chemist, was 
smilingly and heartlessly informed that I had " only 
got the Bombay throat ; " and this, I found, was a 
penalty very generally paid by visitors, who would 
aspire to be entertained by friends in Bombay, 

F 2 

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68 WANDERINGS AND WONDEJiJNGS. 

living on Malabar Hill. Before I finally left I had 
certainly made up my mind that I did not like the 
climate. 

I had yet another friend at hand, in the person of Mr. 
R. A. Willis, of Messrs. Faber and Cie., who, besides 
entertaining me at the Byculla Club, afforded me the 
opportunity of passing two interesting mornings — 
one very pleasant as well as interesting, the other, 
certainly interesting because most novel, but cer- 
tainly scarcely pleasant. 

I have already spoken of the Ajunta Caves and of 
my disappointment at not being able to visit them. 
Having mentioned this subject to him, he at once 
proposed to drive me to call upon Mr. Griffiths, the 
chief of the School of Art, with whom he made an 
appointment to receive us. On going there I was 
well repaid, for I think I must, in truth, have seen all 
Ajunta before me. The number and the variety, 
including colouring, of the principal features was 
really surprising. I scarcely felt I could wish to go 
with him on his next visit, and did not feel, from all 
he said, that I should have gained anything in going 
alone sufficient to repay me for an inordinate pro- 
portion of fatigue and a mere uninstructed stare. His 
reproductions were most remarkable ; visibly so ; and 
he possessed various most curious fabrics and vases 
into the bargain. 

My second excursion with Mr. Willis was quite 
different. It was to the Parsee Towers of Silence. 
Mr. Willis had evidently considerable authority in 
our hotel, of apparently an official character, and the 
manager of the hotel was a Parsee — Cowasji, D. 



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BOMBAY. 69 

Furdonji. On mentioning the subject, and my 
desire to behold the scene, our Parsee most cour- 
teously assented, and he was, of course, to be the 
j^ide under whose conduct we could be admitted to 
the garden. Accordingly, on the morning of the 2nd 
of February, we went, the Parsee offering me a 
small descriptive pamphlet, in English, followed by a 
long list of certificates of approval by those who had 
been visitors. The first three words of one of these 
I well remember : it was signed approvingly by Lord 
Randolph Churchill, and it began, "I permit myself, 
etc., etc." I kept the pamphlet till the end, but I then 
returned it for some one else. I had no right what- 
soever to protest, nor indeed felt inclined to do so, 
but I could not " permit myself " to approve. The 
whole affair appeared so unpleasantly strange. I 
thought of the curse truly or fabulously pronounced 
on Jezebel, and then of the remarkable variety of 
sentiment of which the human brain must be pro- 
ductive. For here goes on a process in the name of 
affection and regard which ends in what was for her 
. intended as the worst of insults, and a curse. For 
what is the mode of burial, so to call it? It is just 
what prevented her burial, which Jehu (if he was in 
fact contemporaneous) sent out to order. We had 
full licence of entrance all round the towers and 
garden, and that was enough. These Towers of 
Silence are, I believe, five in number. They are 
scarcely towers, for they are not more than fifteen 
feet in height, and from sixty to eighty in diameter ; 
and they are built with great solidity, with an open 
hollow in the centre, occupied by many open stone 



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70 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

receptacles. Round the edges of these towers sit 
silent and sulky-looking, high-shouldered, obscene 
vultures, still as the dead they wait for. But you are 
in a beautiful and well-kept garden of trees and 
flowers. Presently a funeral train appears, and a 
movement of hustling life begins among the nearest 
tower birds. They turn their filthy heads to see 
what is coming for them, and they are glad to greet 
the mourning group. The naked corpse is duly 
placed in one of the open stone receptacles. The 
bearers reappear with cloth and empty bier, and 
down swoop these birds from tower and tree, and 
behold a skeleton alone remains. Such are the 
Towers of Silence and such the mode of burial. Fare- 
well, vultures — and roses. 

There was nothing in the description of Poena 
that tempted me to go there, nor did I intend any 
excursions southward, considering all of interest I had 
to visit in the north before the heats invaded the 
plains. But I had made up my mind to see the cave 
at Karli, which Fcrgusson calls the finest of its class, 
and his illustration of which is most attractive. The 
proper station for this visit is Khandalla, about 
seventy-eight miles from Bombay, and not the next 
Lonauli, unless you mean to make a scampering 
return day of the journey, eating something at the 
refreshment room. 

My fellow-passenger from England, Mr. Ford, was 
already there, to whom I telegraphed, and who met 
me at the station. The hotel was very comfortable, 
and the scenery remarkably picturesque. I slept, or 
meant to do so, in one of the small houses, but was 



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BOAfBAY. 71 

awoke at about two o'clock in the morning by 
two arrivals in the opposite room, who appeared 
never intending to lie down in silence. At last I 
opened my door to expostulate, when, with a thousand 
apologies, they informed me that in fact they were 
not going to bed at all, but were re-costuming for a 
tiger-hunt — oneofthoseanimals having lately appeared 
on the neighbouring hills. The result was not satis- 
factory, for they returned without the tiger, having 
seen only the bright eye of a panther, lying inside a 
rock. But the effect on me was that I was kept 
talking to them until, when they had gone, it was 
time for me to think of going too — but not for a tiger. 
1 was in the tonga by half-past five, with five miles 
along the Poona Road, lined with mango trees ; then 
we crossed a rough plain to the left for a good mile, 
whence I had to take foot for another good mile ; and 
then began the climb. Whatever the height was, it 
seemed to me something like 600 feet, and then you 
turn into certain recesses of the variously shaped 
mountain — the top being yet much higher — before 
you come in full view of the fine arched cave. Into 
this you look direct, with the slight interference of a 
screen and entrance. The interior consists of one 
entire arched nave, given as of 81 feet 3 inches in 
length to the dagoba, and of 25 feet 7 inches in 
breadth ; and it is flanked by fifteen handsome 
pillars on either side, with a narrow aisle behind them. 
The height is of 46 feet to the crown of the uniform 
arch, which is composed of curved beams. The 
light comes in copiously from the open front, and you 
see the whole interior at once. Great solemnity per- 



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72 WANDERINGS AND IVONDER/NGS. 

vades the scene ; and round the cold massive circular 
dagoba at the end there happened to be, while I was 
there, a living illustration of the dark superstition 
that is the spirit of these structures — of these, 
among so many others in all quarters of the globe — 
in that a solitary being was walking and kneeling by 
turns round and round, and counting his beads — for 
Buddhists have rosaries too — and muttering his 
special prayers, with all the attitudes of intense 
devotion and ardent expectation. 

I hung about the place for some long time, and 
can even now somev/hat vividly recall the tone of 
mind that it gave rise to. These dark Buddhists' 
temples impress one far more than do the mosques 
of Islam. And behold I my visit was on a Sunday. 
On the Monday I spent the whole day with pleasure 
at Khandalla, and on Tuesday, the Sth of February, 
returned by early train, with Mr. Ford, to Bombay. 
Hence, he and General Johnston scampered off to 
England at once, leaving me to begin and pursue my 
long course to the north. 

On Thursday, the 7th of February, I had the 
honour of dining with a large party at Government 
House, where the whole scene with the turbaned 
waiters presented quite a brilliant Indian picture ; and 
it was in a long evening conversation afterwards with 
Lady Reay that I obtained my valuable letters to 
Kattiawar, with much information on the subject. 
Nor shall I omit to say that her ladyship did me the 
honour to accept of me a copy of my translation of 
the " Lusiads.*' I was also fortified with several letters 
from Parsee B. M. Malabari ; and by the 6.30 p.m., 



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BOA/BAY. 73 

Madras time, on Saturday, the 9th of February, I 
started for my 310 miles to Ahmedabad, which Lady 
Reayhad earnestly recommended me not to miss, by 
the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. I 
must not forget, by the way, that the day before Mr. 
Behrens, one of the tiger-hunters, suddenly appeared 
in perfect safety, and pledged me to dine with him at 
the Byculla. He had been out again and seen the 
tiger, and nearly got a shot at him ; but a companion 
spoiled (he sport. That the tiger was really there 
was true ; for a few days afterwards the newspapers 
reported that it had been hunted and shot by a 
young officer. 



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VIII. 

It was about eight o'clock on the next morning 
that I reached the station at Ahmedabad, where I 
made up my bed, feeding at the meals provided for 
the passengers ; for this was a refreshment station. 
And after breakfast I drove into the beautiful old 
city. There was little indeed of Kylas or of Karli to 
be seen here, for all is Islam. The whole feeling 
was changed, just as might two languages mark two 
different peoples. 

It is a most engaging old city, extremely 
picturesque in its old architecture ; and in almost all 
the old houses you may remark quantities of beautiful 
wood and stone carving by way of ornament. Then 
note the noble triple gateway that spans the very 
broad main street, and all the costumed people 
scattered, marketing or otherwise, over the broad 
space. When I passed this spot at the setting of the 
sun, I bid the driver go very slowly that I might 
dwell on the living kaleidoscope. The structure I 
mention is imposing ; the height of the arches is 25 
feet, the centre gate 20 feet wide, and that of each 
side gate 17 feet wide ; and the whole structure towers 
upwards in proportion. Of course there are all the 
well-known mosques and tombs to be visited, and the 
well. There is the famous specimen of stone window 
tracery in the desecrated mosque in the bhudder, or 



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AHAfEDABAD. 75 

palace ; there is the tomb of Shah Alam, and the 
Jumma Musjie, or Friday mosque, Friday being the 
Holy Day of Islam. This is indeed a beautiful 
building, with all its 260 pillars and its fifteen domes ; 
but is connected in my mind with a great disappoint- 
ment, seeing that Fergusson compares it with the 
temple near Sadri, which I had the greatest but in- 
effectual curiosity to see. At page 241 appears the 
illustration and his tantalizing description both of the 
building, with its " forest of columns" and "endless 
variety of prospective," and the " play of light and 
shade." But do what I could, and say what I could, 
no one could give me the slightest information of 
how I was to find " the remote valley piercing the 
western flank of the * Aravulli,* b:ing a spot evidently 
selected for its natural beauties," which Khumbo 
Rana of Oudeypore chose for rearing this charming 
structure. Only when I had reached Jeypur, still 
inquiring, did I by the merest chance find someone 
who could give me an inkling of the place ; and 
acting on this I at length made the discovery, too late 
(and which I can only give to others inspired by the 
like curiosity with myself), that the station to stop at 
is Falna, on the Bombay and Baroda line, far away 
from where I was when at last I was informed. But 
there is no waiting-room, and only somewhat rough 
arrangements can be made for a sixteen mile ride to 
Sadri, whence a short excursion serves to show the 
temple. I invite nobody to go, but would have con- 
trived to go myself. 

It would not be permissible, however, to leave 
Ahmedabad without visiting the Temple of Thet 



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y6 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, . 

Huttising outside the Delhi gate. This is a Jain 
. temple, and the Jains, or followers of Jina, a sort of 
dissenter from true Buddhism, are the most elabo- 
rate and picturesque of the architects in India. The 
elaboration of this temple is most extraordinary. 
Here, as elsewhere, the porch is truly beautiful, and 
indeed magnificent in its compound structure, full of 
perspective with its pillars, and leading to an inner 
porch with twenty-two pillars. The drawing in 
Fergusson gives an idea of the almost overladen 
building, but does not show the outer porch. I 
wandered all round the outside, and failed to see 
even a small blank about it anywhere, and of course 
the inside corresponds. Figures of Buddha are in 
the niches round the corridors, and in the middle is 
a large black one, before which my guide hummed a 
low, melancholy religious cadence. Into the cell, 
however, their " Holy of Holies," you are not ad- 
mitted. There is a grand Buddha — no mere in- 
visible supposed occupant : and all is dedicated to 
Dharmanath, the 15th Thirthanker, or (as I was 
told) Holy Pilgrim. But strange to say, a certain 
charm is wanting, from the mere fact that the build- 
ing is not old, not yet quite half a century 
having elapsed since it was finished. Say what we 
will, we love the mystery of antiquity, and hate hard 
modern outline. Green parrots and doves were 
hovering round the roofing. So ended my visit to 
Ahmedabad, to which no passer-by should fail to 
pay his reverence. 

Now came the time for my special divergence 
into the Kattiwar or Kattiawar Peninsula, for 



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KATTIAWAR PF.X INSULA. TJ 

which I held passports from Lady Reay, and my 
anxiety to visit which had been awakened by Fer- 
gusson^s illustrations and descriptions. The journey 
involved an extra distance of 230 miles to the utmost 
point, and the same back again, because I should be 
obh'ged to return to Ahmedabad in order to continue 
my main course northwards. But when one has 
started, with no tie on his time but the change into 
the hot from the cool season — a matter of mortal 
importance, by-the-way, in India — a few hundred 
miles more or less are not much thought of. And 
railways have, moreover, made such a difference 
within the space of so few years. I am old enough 
to remember our grand old coaching d§^ys : ten 
miles (or now and then a little more) an hour, in- 
cluding changes and meals ; and in the cold weather, 
however warmly clad, the getting off without much 
knowledge of having either toes and fingers ; com- 
pared with all which the comforts and rapidity of 
movement now have robbed almost all travelling of 
enterprise. I was lately carelessly looking through that 
ever-entertaining volume, "Sketches by Boz," and 
came upon the one entitled " Early Coaches." Look 
at the illustration by our immortal Cruickshank : it 
is a reality ; and Dickens' pages are equally alive. 
The unfeeling indifference of the clerks and porters 
to the traveller's agony ; they are as " cool and 
collected," he says, " as if nobody was going out of 
town, or as if a journey of a hundred odd miles were 
a mere nothing." We have almost come to think a 
journey of ten times that distance " a mere nothing ;'^ 
and assuredly, with all the present facilities at com- 



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78 IVA^fDRR/NGS AND WONDERINGS. 

mand, at ten times told, we can scarcely hold our- 
selves so hardy as those of even sixty or seventy 
years ago. tn the last century mere home travellers 
were almost explorers. 

If you laok at page 227 of Fergusson, you will 
find his illustration of Palitana ; or rather of The 
Sacred Hill of Sutrunjya, near Palitana — that first 
word (rightly or wrongly spelt according to diverse 
authorities) signifying " The Conqueror of Enemies." 
This illustration is very striking, but gives no real 
representation of the scene itself Indeed, no illus- 
tration could, for the configuration forbids it. I 
started from Ahmedabad at 8.10 a.m., and reached 
Bhaunagur by 5.12 p.m., where I was most plea- 
santly received with my letter by the Government 
officer, Mr. Proctor Sims and Mrs. Sims, and directed 
to the bungalow for a bed. On returning to dine 
and spend a pleasant evening there, I had the honour 
of an introduction to the Maharajah of Bhaunagur — a 
most genial gentleman — who was on a short visit of 
friendly ceremony at the moment of my arrival, and 
whom I had the advantage of seeing in all that 
glorious style of costume that I was so disappointed 
at not seeing at Lord Dufferin's final garden party. 
In coming to Bhaunagur, however, I found I had 
come too far for my ultimate journey ; I should have 
left the train, on that one consideration, at Songad, 
the second station from Dhola Junction ; but happy 
was I to be where I was. 

My next letter was to Captain Ferris, the Assistant 
Political Agent, whose station was this same Son- 
gad ; and in the morning of the 12th of February I 



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KATTIAWAR PENINSULA . 79 

breakfasted with Mr. and Mrs. Proctor Sims, and 
he drove me to the station. At Songad I found 
Captain Ferris, to whom Mr. Proctor Sims had 
already telegraphed, who took me home and intro- 
duced me to Mrs. Ferris ; and after finishing his 
court, where I sat by his side, an entertained ob- 
server, furnished me with a carriage half way to 
Palitana, where I was met by that of the Takhore of 
the district. But I must not fail to mention that, 
at the moment of leaving my bungalow, there ap- 
peared two stalwart Eastern figures, with a huge 
tray of fruit and flowers as a present from his 
Excellency the Maharajah. 

The evening found me at the Takhore's Guest 
House; a fine spacious dwelling, rather grandly 
built ; and here I was fed and housed. Then there 
came the arrangements for my visit to the Sacred 
Hill the next morning, for which I found all was 
in readiness. Coffee and I were to be ready at half- 
past five, and so we were. A short drive took me 
to the foot of the hill, and there I met my bearers 
with a doll, or square open seat between two poles, 
four being the number to carry me, with a relay. We 
mounted some 1700 feet in all. And what a mount 1 
Long winding lines of mounting pilgrims were 
making the ascent with us. The Sacred Hill is 
somewhat lonely on the plain, so that everything 
stood out intensely ; males and females, grown 
people and children, all were going to kneel and pray, 
and to seek salvation from threatening vengeance, 
as in all religions, except perhaps the pure Buddhist, 
who " utterly rejects the belief in a personal god." 



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80 WANDERINGS AND WONDRRINGS, 

At last we are among the temples, the City of 
Temples ; but really only the first of the Cities of 
Temples: and of Temples only. The mountains 
belong to the gods ; the cities belong to the gods. 
No human habitations are allowed ; none must 
cook food, possibly not eat, within the walls ; none 
are dwellers save a few necessary priests, and the 
sacred pigeons; all else are pilgrims for the day. 
The temples are of all sizes, all dates, and in all 
styles of details. You walk through streets of them. 
Grain is offered, which dogs, of course, lick up. 
Prayers are said everywhere, and figures of Buddha 
appear everywhere. In short, to use an admirable 
phrase of Fergusson, you are surrounded (unless 
you are a mere tasteless scoffer) with " bewildering 
magnificence.^' But what I have written applies to 
the first city alone. Look down, with a bird's-eye 
view upon that vast group, a mere flight of steps 
below you. Those temples are built upon a neck 
that joins the two heads of the mountain. Revel in 
these, and then mount up to that twin crest to find 
just such another city of temples as the one you first 
wandered in. Such is a visit to Palitana Mountain 
with all its thousand structures (speaking indefi- 
nitely), which, according to Fergusson, date down- 
ward from the nth century ; and, for aught I know, 
are being added to at this present hour. All is 
Jain architecture, with whom the building of temples 
is a means of salvation ; it is in itself " a prayer in 
stone," having reference to pilgrimage and not to 
congregations. 

Perfectly satiated at last, I returned to bath and 



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KATTIAWAR PENINSULA. 8 1 

breakfast, meeting as many coming up now as I 
had accompanied before. While at the table I was 
visited by a Mr. Dias, the Takhore's lawyer and 
manager, to notify that his Highness would receive 
me at three o'clock. 

No interview could have been more cheerful and 
agreeable. His Highness spoke English remarkably 
well, and when at last I rose to go, he struck a small 
bell, at the sound of which there appeared a small 
group of servants carrying small salvers of special 
seed and sweetmeats, of which I was to " partake;" 
and finally his Highness took a small brush and 
sprinkled me over with an infinitesimal shower of an 
intensely fragrant water, the redolence of which 
threatened to last almost as long as does the memory 
of his good-fellowship and kindness. Afterwards I 
visited his stables, containing some 120 horses, some 
of a showy breed, and all stalled (as I found was 
usual throughout India) by being rope-hobbled on 
the hind fetlocks. At five o'clock I took my leave 
for Songad, returning as I had come ; and having 
dined and spent a very pleasant evening with Captain 
and Mrs. Ferris, I passed a night of luxury in their 
luxurious tent. 

But before I leave this recollection of their hospi- 
tality I must, if only for my own satisfaction, recount 
a small item of conversation. " Your name is Ferris," 
I said; "a neighbouring clergyman of my father's 
acquaintance was of the name of Ferrers, the Rector 
of Beddington, but I remember a somewhat stately 
lady of your own name who used to visit two vener- 
able aunts of mine at Banstead : she came out of 

G 



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82 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

Sussex." " That," said he, " was my grandmother, 
the widow of the Dean of Battle." And this in 
Gujerat ! 

I was now to prepare for Girnar Mountain, and by 
my notes I find that I left Songad station, on the 
2Sth of February, at 2.29 by Dhola and Jetalsar 
Junctions for Junagadh, and covered these ninety-six 
miles by 9.30 p.m. I had telegraphed to the Dewar 
Sahib Haridas Viharidas, for whom I had a letter 
from Government House, but he was absent. I was, 
however, met at the station by Secretary Rajosali 
Chhaganldl Harilal Pandya, who conveyed me in 
a carriage to the bungalow of his Highness the 
Nawab Sahib of Junagadh, where I was his guest, 
including a welcome glass of champagne after my 
day's journey. 

At 8.30 on the following morning, my friend and 
protector (who spoke excellent English) again 
appeared with a carriage to take me a drive round, 
the excursion to Girnar being fixed for the morrow. 
We first drove to some most extraordinary under- 
ground courts or halls, which had been discovered 
and dug out some twenty years before ; the uses to 
which they were applied remaining a mystery. 
They are double-storied and lighted well from above, 
and have been carved out with care, the pillars and 
capitals being well worthy of attention in this respect. 
It is supposed they may have served for govern- 
mental purposes. This mystery overhanging them 
of course lends them a special charm, as mystery 
always does if there is any trace of imagination in 
the brain ; because it gives rise to speculation, and 



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KATT/AWAR PENINSULA, 83 

speculation, whether fruitless in airy nothings, or 
ruinous at the gaming table, is always alluring. 
There was, however, very little room for speculation 
as to what I was next shown, the by far most 
enormous rhinoceros that I had ever seen. Next 
after this alarming, and almost impossible, animal, 
came the large unsightly boulder, incised all over, 
and irregularly so — the As6ka Stone, said to exhibit 
Edicts of As6ka, some 270 years B.C.; and then came 
a walk in the zoological gardens, where, among 
various engaging flowering shrubs and plants, showing 
that the more graceful pursuits and studies are 
cherished here, we came upon a centre enclosure of 
rock and water containing crocodiles. Boys were at 
hand, as usual, for a few coppers, with stones to 
disturb these basking reptiles, and make them move 
and show themselves. And nothing could be more 
frightful than to see their wide angry jaws, quite 
close by, as they opened their tongueless mouths and 
showed their frightful armoury of jagged teeth, as 
they dived into the water. " Did it ever strike you,'' 
said the Pandya, " to ask yourself, How could the 
Deity create such hideous things ? " " But," said I, 
" they are not hideous to themselves, and there must 
be love even among crocodiles. Besides which, the 
Deity made house flies." 

The next visit was the most curious of all ; it was 
to a Vishna temple, called the Swami Ndrdyan 
Temple. My friend belonged to this temple, so that 
we went in freely. Many were present, and a most 
curious proceeding was going forward. The gods 
were being fed. All we saw of this proceeding were 

G 2 



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84 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

two curtains drawn across two square recesses, 
each flanking the centre arrangements. But by-and- 
by these curtains were withdrawn suddenly, the 
tomtoms were loudly beaten, and lamps were flounced 
in the faces of two black squatting figures with 
bulging cheeks, indicative of good feeding indeed. 
Why laugh } or why pitifully sigh ? Asia, in her 
different countries, has her own interpreted gods, and 
Europe has the same, and the question might not 
unreasonably be asked, Will either of these two 
quarters ever change the beliefs of the other ? Is 
Europe more likely to change Asia than Asia to 
change Europe ? 

Afterwards the Pandya sent me two copies of a 
description, written by himself, of the mythological 
pictures in the dome of the temple, containing a 
succinct account of the prominent features of some of 
their Holy Incarnations, of which they have several. 

The next day, Sunday, the 17th, was appointed 
for the Jain Temples on Girnar Mountain, these 
being the great object of my visit here; and we started 
in the carriage for the foot of the mountain, at half- 
past six in the morning. Less than an hour's 
drive brought us there. Here, again, I mounted a 
doli, and the Pandya kindly allowed his assistant, 
Ramji Bhimji, to attend me. We soon began to 
ascend, and an ascent indeed it was. The main group, 
some sixteen in number, are built some 600 feet 
below the highest peak of this most irregular and 
jagged mountain, but they are still some 3000 feet 
above the level of the sea. What might be the 



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KATTIAVVAR PENINSULA. 85 

height of the plain, which is very far below, I do not 
know. It cannot be much. We were above two 
hours climbing to the chief temples. A long paved 
way conducts you at first, but afterwards you ascend 
by sharp zigzags of a craggy pathway (so to call it), 
consisting of steps cut in the rock. The doH often 
grazes the sides, in a manner that might serve to 
shake the nerves of certain travellers, particularly in 
the descent. Even beyond where you go there are 
temples built, where a long backbone leads to the 
highest crag. There one solitary structure stares 
against the- sky. Here, indeed, you may well under- 
stand that the Jains did not build for congregational 
purposes. I was now and then reminded of my first 
climb up the Gemmi, in Switzerland, so long ago as 
1846. Stupendous is the whole mass of the mountain 
compared with that at Palitana ; but barren indeed 
in comparison is the grouping of the temples. 
In truth, there is no room here for those cities of 
shrines. But there is verily enough to see, and of 
quite a different character. In the great group there 
are carved and decorated cupolas, with the usual 
pendents. There is the Temple of the god 
Neminatha. The three temples, opening into one 
another, of the two brothers Tejpala and Vastupala ; 
the palace of King Rachengdr and Queen Ranek 
Devi, now converted into a temple. But you must 
not stop here in climbing, you must mount to a yet 
higher peak, say the height of Snowdon, to the 
temple of what was given me as of Anmbar. From 
this spot survey the various craggy peaks around you, 



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86 WA\DEKINGS AND iVONDJtMJNGS. 

and their dotted temples. You may, in fact, climb 
and crawl from one distant spot to the other, almost 
all day long. The view below of course is vast It 
has been called " truly magnificent." The mountain 
and its peaks and crags, indeed, stand up, but stand 
alone, for the vast view beyond is as flat as a frying- 
pan, and about as brown. This is no magnificent view 
for me. In descending, after all is visited, you might 
perhaps feel timid, and should you incline to indulge 
in a little safe mental terror, mark out that harsh, 
hideous integral rock called Bherav, to your ascending 
left ; for from this pilgrims of old cast themselves 
headlong down, in order to gain vast rewards in some 
other world. Going or coming, you will not find 
yourself the only pilgrim, though perhaps the only 
irreligious one among the number, as they themselves 
would be at Lourdes ; the crags you would ever 
find sprinkled with them. 

At noon I began my descent, and at the foot 
found the Pandya already there to meet me with the 
carriage. I was disappointed in not being presented 
to the Nawab Sdhib Bahadurkhanjec, but he was in 
mourning and sent word to say he could not see me. 
Through the Pandya, however, he presented me with 
a book containing his portrait, and in the course of 
the afternoon, his Excellency, for many years Prime 
Minister, BahavdinbhAi, his Highnesses maternal uncle, 
drove over to see me ; a fine spangled, broad-headed, 
and cheerful countenanced man, who maintained a 
lively conversation of some quarter of an hour through 
his interpreter. 



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KATTIAWAR PENINSULA. 8/ 

Thus ended my visit to Gujerat, to see Palitana 
and Girndr, both of which seem to stand before me 
once again while I am writing of them, and before 
4 a.m. on the i8th I was getting ready for the S.i6 
train to return to Ahmedadad. 

Strangely different were two scenes I witnessed in 
the train, being transferred once or twice at the 
different junctions. On starting, I was confidentially 
called aside to have a caution given me. " There is 
a high-caste Brahmin in your carriage there : pray 
take care not to touch him, for if you do, he will have 
to wash seven times." When I got in, there sat my 
turbaned friend, legs carefully swaddled up along the 
bench on his side ; so that I must have made an 
effort to touch even a corner of him ; and he took no 
notice of my entrance whatsoever. Presently a harsh 
cry escaped his mouth, and brought a servant, whom 
he ordered like a dog to bring water ; and this the 
other of course most humbly did. When I left him, 
quite intact, I had to mount another carriage, full of 
laughing and talking turbans and costumes ; and one 
remarkably jovial-looking fellow was wearing a solid 
gold band round his neck. Scarcely had we moved 
on but scented tea was offered me, and an English- 
speaking companion told me I was expected to join 
in all, and that this was the Private Secretary to the 
Maharajah of Bhaunagar — whom I had met at Mr. 
Proctor Sims'. I kept pace with them as well as I 
could for as far as they travelled with me, and 
arrived at Ahmedabad at last, both musing and 
amused. 



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88 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

The rest of the day and the next I again spent at 
and about Ahmedabad, and prepared for my further 
progress north, Mount Abfi being my next halting 
place ; for here I was again to visit architecture by 
the Jains, before passing further into the regions of 
Islam, through Jeypur, to Agra and Delhi. 



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IX. 



Great was my surprise and disappointment on 
starting, to find that hence all the way to Delhi 
the great main line from Bombay had changed at 
Ahmedabad into a narrow-metre gauge. It is im- 
possible, of course, for a mere chance traveller to 
criticize this mal-arrangement, because it is im- 
possible for him to know what tyrannical circum- 
stances may have existed at the time of construction 
to force this terrible defect ; but he is quite at 
liberty to express his infinite surprise and disappoint- 
ment, and indeed personal disgust. However, at 8.30 
p.m. on the 20th I entered my narrow jolting 
carriage, and having at about 3 p.m. accomplished 
our 115 miles, I found myself at the Abu Road 
Station. I had already telegraphed for horses, and 
found all ready ; and a ride of about a mile along 
the flat brought me and my servant, with light 
'uggage, to the bungalow. The food in this case was 
superior to an impossible chicken, and the keeper 
was not a shrivelled old man ; but there was no bed- 
stead whatever, and I spread my coverings upon a 
cane sofa. At early morning I mounted horse, and 
we rode some rather tedious distance, still along the 
flat, but now and then between trees, and always 
with the wooded mountain close before us. The 
moment we began to mount, the gorges became 
extremely picturesque, and forest surrounded us. 



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90 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

These solitudes as usual were illustrated by a num- 
ber of large curly-tailed monkeys, who peered out of 
the branches, snatching close looks at us, and then 
scampering back into their hidings. It soon became 
quite evident that the temples I was about to visit 
had been built on a very romantic site indeed, and it 
was not till I had mounted 4000 feet through the 
very undulating forest, with its flowering trees, and 
covered a distance of some fourteen miles, that I 
reached the Rajputana Hotel. This hotel was kept 
by Sr. CostaofGoa, a Portuguese, of course, to whom 
and whose hotel I can offer my best acknowledg- 
ments, and with whom it was a certain pleasure to 
indulge in his language, as Fused to do in days gone 
by. The scenery was rather brown, but charming : 
in the green season it must be more so, but 
curiously enough, and unhappily, the district is then 
malarious. The hotel is small, but comfortable, and 
mothers and wives of officers, with their children, 
come up to stay from time to time. 

Very soon after my arrival two other travellers 
followed me, and we all three went together to visit 
the two temples. Outside they are nothing, but 
inside they are everything. Anything more 
beautiful — anything so beautiful, I could say — I have 
never seen. They are called the Delwarra Temples, 
and Fergusson says that the more modern of the two 
was built by the same two brothers, Tijpala and 
Vastupala, who built the Triple Temple which I 
had noticed at Girnar. All hail to them 1 The two 
interior courts are parallelograms — one measurement 
. may serve for both in general description : 140 feet 



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INTERIOR Of OELWARA TEMPLE : MOUNT ABU 



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MOUXT ABU. 91 

by 90. This is surrounded by a double peristyle. 
In the middle is the cell, and in front of this cell is a 
porch — a real Jain porch — which baffles all photo- 
graphing and description in its cupolas and compli- 
cated perspective beauties. All is of the purest, and 
quite spotless white marble, brought from some great 
distance, and all is elaborately ornamented ; indeed, 
to so minute an extent that you have almost to look 
again to believe it. Before recurring to the porch let 
me add that these double peristyles form porticoes to a 
range of cells, fifty-five in number, and in each of these 
is a figure of the Thirthanker, or Pilgrim Saint, to 
whom the temple is dedicated — Parswanatha. At the 
end of this court is an inner gallery, and in this gallery 
there are carved twelve perfect elephants in white 
marble and of nearly life-size. 

To return to the porch : it is composed of forty- 
eight integral pillars, all most elaborately carved, and 
these support a dome and pendant, which must be 
seen, and seen often, to be at all comprehended. My 
companions were not less rapt than I. A drawing 
in Fergusson's volume exhibits only some faint show 
of the reality, and a photograph in my possession 
exhibits some little more. I had resolved to return 
and reinspect all this on the following day, of which 
my companions, however, had no intention. But when 
the to-morrow came, I really felt that the brain had 
not yet had time to digest all that I had seen the day 
before. I may seem to exaggerate when I say it 
required a longer interval than twenty-four hours 
between two repasts of such wonder and beauty, and 
to my great regret I had to come away without the 



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92 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

satisfaction of a second visit, and to content myself 
with another chaff with the monkeys. Both in art 
and nature Mount Abu remains a leading memory 
amidst all I saw in my three years' wanderings ; nor 
can I speak of nature without recalling a sunset visit 
to the little Nucki Jalas, or Pearl Lake, close by, a 
circular gem of blue water in a perfectly harmonious 
setting of surrounding mountains. 

On the morning therefore of Friday, the 22nd of 
February, I rode down the mountain, witnessing 
some grand atmospheric effects in the early light ; 
hailed by many monkeys, and longing to see just one 
tiger in the safe distance lounging through the 
forest : a rare occurrence here. 

The mail train for Ajmir did not leave till the after- 
noon, and the run of 190 miles took me nearly eleven 
hours; so that it was not till after two in the morning 
that I found myself at Mrs. Rice's Rajputana Hotel. 
There I found actually tender cold roast beef, and 
beer, and bed. I came full of complaints of my 
night's journey ; for though the Sojat Road Station 
had an asterisk as a refreshment-room, not even tea 
was ready, and on my asking for a biscuit I was 
offered a whole new tin for purchase. I saw there 
was a certain secret amusement mingled with Mrs. 
Rice's sympathy, which I'next day learned was pro- 
voked by the fact that the stout individual by her 
side, her brother-in-law (as she afterwards told me), 
to whom I was complaining, was the very contractor 
for the station. Two features, I will here observe, 
struck me in this Indian railway travelling. The 
general tea and feeding stations are very poor, and in 



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AJMIR. 93 

coming into stations, beside that the running is very 
moderate, no brakes are used, but the train is 
allowed to " slow " in. This may be economical, but 
it is very tantalizing. As to the non-eating and 
drinking, I daresay it has grown to be better, as was 
talked of when I was in India. But whether at 
stations or hotels, people seem to me to have become 
demoralized into swallowing tough meat without 
knowing it. One worthy gentleman, a traveller too, 
went so far as to say that he had met with refresh- 
ment rooms better than any at home. He must have 
been dreaming, surely, of some summer's picnic on 
the peaks of Kanchinjunga. One other striking 
feature that I noted all through my railway travelling 
was the multitudinous rush of native third-class 
passengers. One cannot but wonder what they all 
have to do here, indeed, among a race that easily 
lets time and life go by. On a fine night, too, you 
will find them lying asleep in scores outside the 
entrance, waiting for the very first morning train. 
Now, if railways have made them alert among them- 
selves in all things, what a moralizer is the Indian 
locomotive ! With us, he has surely made us 
restless, and when any given epidemic sweeps off 
such numbers of us, as has lately proved to be the 
case, is not this a result of nerves insensibly shaken 
by an almost perpetual rush and hurry through 
existence ? The atoms of wrought iron, they say, are 
brought down to those of the cast metal by perpetual 
jarring. May not something of a similar character 
occur in the jarred human frame ? 
I remained in Ajmir till the ist of March, visiting 



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94 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS, 

more than once the Great Mosque and its majestic 
gateway, where " the Cufic and Togra inscriptions are 
interwoven with the more purely architectural decora- 
tions," the effect of this being singularly successful. As 
you stand in the court to gaze on it, however, you 
might feelwell content that the large tree was outof the 
way. The mosque itself is a wonderfully well pillared 
mosque, and this again is due to the Jains, for it is 
one of their converted (or perverted) temples : i\\ the 
language of the iconoclastic intruders the heathen or 
pagan (i.e. clownish) shrine was redeemed (that is, 
stolen) for the Faithful. In such cases the course 
pursued seems to be to destroy the centre cell and 
adapt the court of peristyle. But nothing I saw in 
India did I feel could for a moment compare with the 
interiors of the temples at Abu. Ajmir lies in a 
perfectly flat valley, surrounded by abrupt russet 
mountains ; and there are several very pleasant 
drives in the immediate neighbourhood. You may 
go through the gardens to the lake, which I did 
twice. Here the view is charming, with a chateau in 
the centre of the farthest well-wooded shore. Again, 
the views on the Jeypur road are striking, with fine 
tamarind trees. Again, along the Pushgar road the 
scene is striking, and the Mayo College and grounds 
should be visited. I was detained at Ajmir waiting 
for information as to getting to Oudeypore, but what 
I received forced me to abandon that desire. So I 
left my pleasant hostess and hotel, inscribing these 
few lines in her Book of Visitors : — 

This earthly shrine, 
Though not divine, 



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JEYPUR. 95 

May claim of travelling youth and age 

An oft-repeated pilgrimage ; 

Where needs we all in common share 

Are furnished in response to prayer ; 

The reason is not far to tell, — 

An English hostess consecrates the Cell. 



It required between six and seven hours on this 
narrow-gauge train to bring me over a distance of 
seventy-four miles to Jeypur, where I arrived at seven 
o'clock in the evening of the 1st of March, to find a 
bungalow under a plantation of trees, with good 
rooms but extremely bad food. To add to this 
disappointment — a great one to a traveller — I suffered 
want of rest from a constant barking and howling of 
Pariah dogs all night long. This is a frequent 
nuisance in India. Yet do not pay a man to drive 
them away, for this only means that he barks instead 
of the dogs. 

But then came a real disappointment indeed. 
I found the Maharajah, with all his retinue, 
was absent, paying a visit to the Viceroy at 
Calcutta. And this really was a disappointment, for 
Mr. B. M. Malabari, my Parsee friend at Bombay, 
had given me a letter to his Highness's private 
secretary, and I had hoped for an interview, as at 
Palitana, and to be sprinkled with nectar at parting, 
by another Jove. As it was, I really did not care 
to get an order for going over a dreary empty 
palace, but wandered, moody, in the gardens, and 
saw and heard the tigers. These were grand animals 
truly ; and it was the first time I really heard 



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96 WANDERINGS AND WONDIiRINGS. 

tigers roar, a very far finer voice than that of the 
h'on, when he indulges in that vocal note of defiance, 
if so it is intended. With these tigers it was 
doubtless so, and fearful ; for the attendant was pro- 
voking their fine open mouths all together. Rage 
among these noble beasts is real beauty ; in certain 
other animals it cannot so be called. 

The modern city of Jcypur I found remarkable for 
its flat, wide, and straight streets, and for the parti- 
cularly native aspect of all the living objects that 
moved about in them, including elephants and 
camels. Two processions particularly attracted my 
attention. The one was that connected with infant 
marriage. The little bridegroom, I suppose about 
six or seven years old, in his open palanquin, gorge- 
ously dressed, and correspondingly attended, was 
being carried to and fro into various streets on a visit 
(as I was informed) to relations and friends, notifying 
the event of his engagement, and as he thus had to 
make many turnings, I met with him more than 
once. 

The other was most peculiar. It was a very long 
procession, including, if I remember rightly, camels, 
elephants, and horses, of a certain number, and in 
the middle there came a very curious-looking object : 
a sort of carriage completely covered over with a 
tent'Shaped, tight sheet, tapering to the top, and 
resembling, on a large scale, those matted baskets in 
which nurserymen pack pots of flowers, or small 
sucklings, for the railway. "What on earth is 
that ? " " It is the wife of the Maharajah, taking an 
airing." Thus was the imperious cloking up ex- 



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jEYPUR. gy 

plained, for vulgar eyes were not to peer within. 
Whether the "airing " object was truthfully explained 
I . know not ; her Highness might have been on a 
visit only. At the same time my recollection carried 
me back to the system of quiet old ladies taking 
their "airing" many years ago (say at Brighton) in 
yellow chariots, with the windows well up, and the 
glasses well steamed ; not for the pure and modest 
purpose of concealment, but in order to avoid the 
•*air" which they had expressly come out to 
take. 

The chief excursion from the flat modern capital 
is to Amber, the very hilly ancient one. And at 
early morning, on the 3rd of March, I started with 
one Phillips, a guide, to visit the abandoned seat of 
greatness, nor could I help noticing the very numer- 
ous flocks of the small Indian crow that continually 
accompanied us, in their apparently first morning 
flight, employed, like so many human beings are, in 
providing for the food of the day. As we approached 
Amber I noticed temples, or dwellings, one after 
another, on the left side of the road, all neglected — 
though still well planted by the hand of nature — 
melancholy examples, these, of desertion — all empty, 
all silent — their *'own sad sepulchres." At length 
we came to a large gateway, and a large elephant 
reclining. Here you must begin the ascent, and it 
must be upon the elephant, and therefore on his 
Majesty I mounted. It was the first time I had 
ever ridden an elephant, and I shall not sigh if it 
be the last. 
No greater contrast could be found between an old 

H 



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98 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

and a new capital than appears between Amber and 
Jeypur. The flatness of the ground of the new city 
I have already mentioned : the old city is almost in a 
gorge : and observe, as a striking feature, the wall of 
this old city which you catch sight of at once-^ 
clambering the abrupt eminences and dipping into 
the abrupt hollows, in infant imitation of the great 
wall of China. The shattered palace is founded on 
a rock and seems to grow out of it, and the fort 
stands high above it. Below is a large lake, and in 
early morning the reflection on the water creates an 
imposing picture. Among the masses of former 
pride you may wander at leisure, and enjoy the 
various prospects that present themselves from 
various points of view, and aft:er all this you may 
easily return by noon. I was not to escape, however, 
without an elephantine photograph, against which I 
much protested, and the fruits of which, probably un- 
successful on account of that indisposition on my part, 
I declined, on payment of a small outlay as previously 
agreed. But anyone may have his portrait taken on 
an elephant, if he likes to go as far as Amber and 
bespeak it. 

My afternoon was spent at Jepyur in visiting the 
museum and the school of art and pottery ; and 
luckily not buying. And then came my afternoon's 
drive and amusement in joining the Natives in feed- 
ing the kites. This bird is sacred at Jeypur, and 
abounds in hundreds. The kites assemble on the 
house-tops about five o'clock in the afternoon, which 
is the general hour of their entertainment, as it is of 
hundreds in the city. 



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JEYPUR. 99 

A small baked ball or pellet of something, the 
name of which I forget, is sold in very cheap abund- 
ance at a score of stores, and these the birds are very 
fond of. There is more diversion here than in feed- 
ing the pigeons of St. Mark's, and there is, moreover, 
religion in the fun. Indeed, any naturalist might be 
scientifically entertained by the sight. There are 
most diverting contests on the ground, exhibiting 
immense activity of wing and movement ; there are 
contests, and more graceful contests in the air, before 
the well-thrown ball has time to come down ; some- 
times there are no contests, but a swooping pair of 
wings catch the moving atom without an instant's 
pause or deviation in so doing, and sail with it 
triumphantly away. The power and activity of the 
wing are, as I say, wonderfully displayed indeed, and 
I could not hold the entertainment as merely childish. 
If serious faces think it so, then there is Dryden's 
line to save us : — 

" Men are but children of a larger growth.'' 

A poet's truth, however, is too often sentimentally 
quoted and acknowledged with a sigh ; but the 
individual application of it is never so much as 
thought of. Never care: if either ofyougo to Jeypur 
you will be found feeding the kites. 

When I was leaving the bungalow the keeper was 
very anxious that I should report well of the food. 
The secret was that he held it of the Maharajah, who 
was understood to be very strict on the subject of the 
good treatment of guests. I was informed that this 
man made out his own bills to his landlord, and 

H 2 

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ICX) WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

squeezed the travellers. Certain it is that in conse- 
quence of my most decided protests the food was 
suddenly and wonderfully changed, while the tariff 
remained the same. This was a plea by confession, 
and I was induced to enter " good " without marking 
the date, though two patient travellers had thanked 
me for the alteration of affairs. 

I see by Murray's Guide of 189 1 that there is now 
an *' excellent '' hotel, but I mention the state of 
affairs as I found it, because it very much exemplifies 
a feature in travelling through India. The whole 
mass of the inhabitants live in a totally different 
manner from Europeans ; Americans of course in- 
cluded. You seem to move about in narrow tracks. 
You really have not the least affinity with your sur- 
roundings. Their ways and thoughts and entire 
modes of life are as different as their language or 
costume, and of affinity there can be none. You 
are always an outsider — not from mere counter feel- 
ings, but as belonging to totally different races, 
and coming from a totally different part of the 
globe. This sense of isolation — not by any means 
necessarily inimical — grows upon you at every step. 
Even though you know that you belong to the Ruling 
Power, you are — as all your conventionally known 
peoples are — "a stranger in the land," an absolutely 
incongruous atom, a winding rivulet running between 
banks, through a vast indifferent expanse. As travel- 
ling increases food and rest will of course gain ground, 
but as I found things then, I do not hesitate to say 
that travelling in India was often very trying. 



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X. 



1 WAS now to leave for Agra Fort, and the moment 
you see this name, your thoughts will spring to what 
we call — for shortness as usual — the Taj ; and, in re- 
sponse, perhaps I ought to make a wide search to 
see what so many others have written about it, and 
then try to write something yet more striking. But 
I am not going to do anything of the kind. I am 
quietly going to speak for myself. 

I left Jeypur by the T.i'j p.m. mixed train, on 
Monday, the 4th of March, and we arrived at Agra 
Fort about 8 a.m. on the Tuesday, the distance being 
145 miles. And as we rolled into the station I 
caught the first sight of the domes and minarets of the 
far-famed building, which from that point presented 
only a sort of confusion of milk-white excrescences. 
This appearance I called to mind afterwards. It 
was not the first object of my curiosity on leaving 
Lawrie's Hotel, for I had letters to two Pandits whom 
I wished to see at starting, and this led me towards 
the Fort, which I took* the immediate opportunity of 
visiting, and descriptions of all the remarkable build- 
ings in which are in every guide book. Here, of 
course, is the renowned white marble Moti Musjid, or 
Pearl Mosque, which occupies one end of a large 
oblong court, presenting its front in the shape of an 
open corridor of seven saracenic arches, in triple 



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102 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

order. Through these it is very pleasing to wander. 
But I was impressed with a certain want of depth 
compared with the width, and though the symmetry 
of the building would not admit of a fourth inner 
row of seven, the centre row being constructed as 
central, the impression of shallowness seemed to be 
disappointing. While engaged in examining all the 
striking features in the Fort, I caught sight of a view 
of the Taj in the distance, which was not pleasing. 
The remarkable whiteness of the jumbled domes and 
minarets from that unfair distance was mixed up 
with the back of one of the red sandstone buildings 
that flank it on both sides, and of which I shall speak 
further on. The river Jumna rolled nobly below. 

After the Fort I went at once to see the Taj. This 
word I found means crown, and the full title Taj 
Mahal can mean nothing else than Crown Palace. I 
was driven to the large, handsome red sandstone gate 
that forms the entrance to the garden, and, standing 
under it, I looked down the long walk with dark trees 
on either side, and beheld the delicate and exquisite 
building, now so familar grown in photographs and 
other representations. The effect of this picture is 
beyond dispute, and there can be nothing else that at 
all resembles it. In its ivory whiteness it scarcely 
even seems to have a perceptible outline. The mosque 
that I had seen at Aurungabad, too like it in a cer- 
tain sense to leave a doubt in any ordinary observer's 
mind that it had been built in imitation, was yet not 
worthy of a second or third thought. 

The afternoon in which I first saw the Taj was pro- 
pitious, and fitted for the occasion, and the building. 



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AGI^A, 103 

in all its toilet delicacy, looked (as I have hinted) 
as if it might have been made of ivory. It cannot 
be robbed of its undoubted peculiar attractiveness in 
these respects, but then these very features leave it 
quite naked of all the halo that surrounds old Indian 
tombs and temples in general. It is an adorned and 
draped-out beauty among the reverend aged : more 
for the showing of its own self than for awakening 
associations. After I had recovered from the first 
impression, two facts weighed much with me, in 
which I felt confirmed in after visits. In the first place, 
how necessary it is, in order to really see this build- 
ing to perfection, to confine oneself to this one view 
of it from under the gateway ; and secondly, how 
almost entirely it owes its extreme beauty to the 
very delicate material with which it is outwardly 
adorned, and to the very delicate manner in which 
that material has been put together. Had the Taj, 
as it stands, been composed of red sandstone, or even 
of white marble commonly put together, would it 
have attracted very special attention ? And I think 
you have only to look at the engraving of the build- 
ing, with all the hard outlines, in Fergusson's volume, 
to persuade yourself of this. Can anyone, looking at 
that engraving, call it an enchanting structure } The 
architectural formation is of the simplest. Fergusson 
himself correctly describes the form. It is " a square 
of 186 feet with the corners cut off to the extent of 
33 feet 9 inches. It is surmounted by a large central 
dome and four campaniles," and that is the whole 
description needed to explain its form. It cannot 
compare in complicated details with other tombs, 



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104 WANDERINGS AND WONDERING^. 

taking for example that of Akbar's Tomb, Secundra, 
close by. Nor is it left dependent only on its own 
intrinsic delicacy. " It would lose half its charm," 
writes Fergusson, " if it stood alone." But he does 
not quite define what he means. To my unauthori- 
tative vision its beauty greatly depends on cfose con- 
trasts. On walking down and looking round, I 
observed what made me feel quite convinced that the 
designer or designers had mainly intended to rely on 
texture, set off by contrast, for the general effect. 
There is a grouping on the spot What is the mean- 
ing of these two flanking red sandstone structures, 
which intrude on you when you visit the spot itself? 
They are most evidently foils, in order to show off the 
exquisite delicacy of the now mausoleum to perfection. 
This object also seemed to me to be particularly 
carried out in the structure of the four handsome 
minarets that adorn the corners of the beautiful white 
marble platform, of eighteen feet in height, on which 
the Taj stands. For look attentively at the Taj. 
You have to do so attentively if you desire to detect 
the joinings ; nay, there is even quite a toilet festoon- 
ing run round the centre dome. Now, observe the 
minarets. Not only are the joinings visible, but to 
my own eye they are purposely and markedly 
emphasized, as in contrast. I found it impossible 
not to be struck with this antagonism, of which 
there is nothing in Fergusson's lines. Thus here, 
and altogether, it seemed to me that the main reliance 
of the architect was on material and refined workman- 
ship. Of course proportion was held in view, and 
there is a certain indefinable sweetness in the whole 



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AGRA. 105 

form, as viewed from the gate, that may be attribu- 
table to this feature, as also the latent fact that the 
dome stands higher than the Kutub at Delhi. But 
what a pity it is, I could not help thinking, that the 
white marble trellis-work through which the subdued 
light is admitted to the interior is carved in squares. 
In the distance these bear the appearance of mere 
common casements. 

Of the interior I have little to say : the light is of 
course subdued, as is the case in any other interior 
darkly lighted. The architecture cannot be remark- 
able from the form ; the carvings and the jewels are 
mere adjuncts, and the echo is merely sharp and 
rapid because the space is confined. Yet here an 
American found them ** float so deliciously" that he 
" heard them after they were silent." They who have 
been to Pisa know what vocal echoes are. 

After a good walk round, admiring all the wonderful 
lacework detail on the surfaces, I mounted into one 
of the minarets. But if I were asked to commit myself 
to what I thought the exact sppt on which to stand 
for the best view of the fantastically delicate struc- 
ture, I should say, stand under the centre of the 
crown of the gateway, so as to make that a sort of 
framework, and so that the eye may just catch an 
almost insensible tinge of the red ; then look down 
the dark avenue, again a foil, or artistic contrast, 
on the virgin, white below. White, white, white — 
white it must be kept. As to the line of fountains 
and their ugly spouts, they are an ugly interrup- 
tion. 

There seems to be some little confusion about the 



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I06 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

date of the building in reference to the death of 
Mumtaz-i-Mahl, for whose tomb the building is sup- 
posed to have been designed. But Fergusson and 
others treat it as originally intended, according to the 
custom of the Moghuls, for a "Bara Durri," or** Palace 
of Pleasure/' during the life of the monarch, and for 
his tomb after death, so that it should thenceforth be 
sacred. Some suppose that after the designs were 
accepted, and the garden perhaps already marked 
out, the empress died, and that thereupon Shah 
Jehan consecrated it to her tomb at once, so that it 
was really never used, as would otherwise have been 
the case, as a " Bara Durri." What is certain is that 
when Muntaz-i-Mahl died she was no beautiful young 
woman, for she died in child-bed with her eighth off- 
spring, in 1630. And read Dryden's drama. This sad 
catastrophe would appear to have crushed the first 
usual dedication of the building by interposing the last. 
After this first inspection the next day I had 
a visit from my two Pandits. Pandit Peyaray 
Krishna came in the morning, and after a long 
and interesting conversation, very much in the tone 
of my friend at Benares, and after discussing many 
subjects on which I could not offer an opinion, 
he wound up with the more practical matter of 
recommending to me a most excellent coachman, 
with whom I agreed to go to Futtehpore Sikri, start- 
ing at seven o'clock the next morning. The after- 
noon I spent in visiting what might be called the very 
opposite of the Taj Mahal, and what I have already 
referred to— the complicated and elaborate red sand- 
stone tomb of the mighty Akbar. It is impossible to 



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AGieA. 107 

wander over a structure of this magnitude and detail 
without some slight feeling of the ridiculous ming- 
ling with the marvellous, if it be admitted that such 
structures were meant only in the first place for 
retreat and recreation during life, but mainly for 
ever after to be consecrated to the funeral and re- 
pose of the departed founder. Life, as life, is entitled 
to its poor pleasures, unless there is a grievously con- 
tradictory one elsewhere, equally proceeding from the 
same source, as interpreted by sour professors ; but 
what can the mere dead want with such tombs as these ? 
Is there not something ridiculous in the pyramids ? 

In the evening Pandit Jagan Nath favoured me 
with a call. Him I found far more restless and im- 
patient than either of those with whom I had con- 
versed. He lent me, for reading, an English pamphlet 
written by a lawyer in Madras, whose name I find I 
did not take, the literary style of which I cannot say I 
much admired, and the somewhat snarling dislike of 
Lord DuflFerin which it evinced made me very much 
mistrust his motives. The Pandit spoke of himself, 
as I understood him, as being of the Congress 
Party, and I remember asking him what general 
combination and understanding could exist among 
them all, when they could not even sit down to their 
common food or modes of life together, but must all 
group themselves into separate knots, according to 
their castes. Of course he saw no difficulty in unity 
thus disunited, or united only for a while against 
something of supposed common grievance to them 
all, the disappearance of which might set them all 
wrangling one with another. But he was a very 



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I08 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

communicative man, and spoke sincerely of his dis- 
content, and as he was suffering from want of proper 
spectacles, I immediately wrote to Mr. Adie to send 
him a pair, and these I trust he has received safely, 
and without erroneously suspecting any small latent 
allusion to his mental vision. 

At six o'clock on the morning of the 7th of March 
the two-horse g4ri came, and I had every reason to 
thank the Pandya for his recommendation. Starting 
at 7 a.m., I was driven splendidly both ways, with 
one change of horses, over the twenty-two miles. I 
entered the great abandoned city walls soon after 
nine o'clock, and, quite guiltless of any intention to 
insult the dead, I suddenly found myself in a large 
court, being landed at the Ddk Bungalow, which 
occupied nothing less than the Record Office of the 
mighty Moguls, and which I was about to defile by 
ordering an unbeliever's vulgar breakfast. If we are 
to indulge in mournful sentiment upon departed 
greatness, 

" And arts the splendid wrecks of former pride," 

how coarse all this present sort of proceeding seems. 
The glory of Futtehpore Sikri, says Fergusson, 
is its mosque ; and there is no difficulty in assenting 
to this. While breakfast was preparing, I went to 
view its great southern gateway. As it stands on 
rising ground and is approached by many steps, its 
vast height and volume seem something overpower- 
ing ; but at the same time it is difficult to find any 
standing-place whence to obtain a really good view ; 
and this defect a second gaze did not help me to 



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FUTTEHPORE SIKRh IO9 

remedy. This gateway certainly overpowers the 
mosque, but Mr. Keene says that it was built after- 
wards, not as belonging to the mosque, but as a 
triumphal arch. The mosque nevertheless is in 
itself difficult to surpass. But what a grand com- 
plicated mass of red sandstone buildings altogether 
IS this Futtehpore Sikri. On returning from the 
mosque, and before sitting down, I wandered alone, 
fancying to lose myself among the long corridors 
and colonnades of the large group of buildings. And 
after breakfast again I wandered ; and again I say, 
what an elaborate and varied mass of buildings it all 
is. How much forced labour was here employed, 
and how many lives sacrificed? Want of water 
caused its abandonment, and want of water had 
existed from the beginning. How strange, then, that 
this site should have been chosen. In a scene like 
this you are bewildered, and perhaps rather wish to 
be 5*0. " Futtehpore Sikri/' writes Fergusson, " is a 
romance in stone." If I should specially mark any 
one building it would be what is called The House 
of Birbal's Daughter, which seemed to me to com- 
bine, in a very singular manner, the cyclopean and 
the elegant. Once more then through those long 
red colonnades; and then back to Agra, passing 
many carts and waggons laden with red sand- 
stone grindstones. It is, indeed, the material of the 
country. 

As I was going to Gwalior on the following day. 
Pandit Jagan Nath very kindly called in the even- 
ing, and brought me a letter to his friend, the Chief 
Justice there, A. Srinivasa Row, B.A., which I found 



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no WANDERINGS AND WONDER/NGS. 

to be of infinite service, and at four o'clock on the 
afternoon of the 8th of March I left for Gwalior by 
the Itarsi line of the G.I. P., and arrived in four hours. 
But, before departing, I had spent the morning by 
the special invitation of the Pandit Peyaray Krishna ; 
I had visited him, and gone over his new tan-yard 
with him. Here I was struck by his informing me 
that his fellow-religionists voted him an outsider, 
because, possessing the Janao, or Three Threads, he 
was going into trade. I may here remark that the 
tan-yard was close outside the precincts of the Taj 
Mahal ; and that the same naked and confused look 
of the white domes and minarets that I have before 
remarked on, struck me here again. 

On arriving at Gwalior I was driven to the large 
new and handsome bungalow built by the Maharajah 
for the convenience of travellers. But as it was 
totally unprotected by anything like a tree, all the 
upper rooms were ovens. Let anyone who tele- 
graphs for a room, add " ground floor." Permission 
to see the Fort was readily given, and on the morning 
of the 9th of March I called on the Chief Justice, 
who received me with all courtesy, and ordered his 
carriage for me to drive round the town. This was 
a particularly interesting excursion, for the day was 
devoted as a religious holiday in honour of the God 
Shiva ; and I scarcely think that one traveller out of 
a hundred ever saw him worshipped in the startling 
form I twice witnessed. To see the Fort I had 
again to mount an elephant, up and down, nor do I 
carry with me a memory of any very striking feature 
outside architectural curiosities, concerning which I 



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GWALIOR. II r 

am content to leave Mr. Fergusson uncontradicted. 
There are many things highly interesting to the artist 
which are " caviare to the general." 

I regretted having been induced to visit the tomb 
of Mohammed Ghans, for it is in a most discoloured 
and neglected state, and did not arouse the slightest 
interest in me. Indeed, I think it is a great mistake 
to be making a point of gaping at everything. It 
spoils the eye and confuses the memory, and emanates 
from mere childish curiosity to see, and to be able 
to answer " Did you see ? " It is sometimes a luxury 
to be able to say " No." 

One curiosity this driver did incite in me : that of 
testing how bad horse, gdri, and driver could all be, 
and yet get on without falling all to pieces. It was 
worse than Calcutta, but it suited with the tomb. 

On Sunday morning, March loth, I took the 
early train to Agra, and on that evening I went to 
see the Taj by moonlight The effect on the side 
was far greater than that on the front, for the angle 
of light did not fall propitiously upon the latter ; 
and this, I suspect, has been the cause of mute dis- 
appointment in many cases. On the side the bright- 
ness was almost intense, and with the foil of the red 
sandstone structure, as I stood in its eye-protecting 
shadow, the Taj seemed almost like frosted silver. 



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XL 



At half-past ten on the night of the nth I 
started for Delhi, and was uncomfortably delayed 
for more than an hour at the Tundla Station, 
about fifteen miles on the road. At last the train 
arrived, and being almost dead tired, I made for my 
first-class carriage, in all such of which I had hitherto 
managed to find myself alone, or nearly so. But in 
this case there was but one such carriage, and I 
found three in it already. Still they might have 
been three small or moderates, but they were three 
enormous ecclesiastics. Being French, I soon found 
out that the oldest was a bishop, and the two were of 
course priests. We were all very polite to one an- 
other, though we were rather crowded, which therefore 
made our politeness doubly laudable ; and while re- 
freshments were going on between them, though of 
something not exactly savoury; I lay along my seat 
undisturbed. But, when their own lying down came 
to pass, I confess my terrors were awakened. These 
carriages contain four beds at need. The two seats 
run sidewise and are adjustable ; but in case of need 
(as in this case), two more above them can be let 
down on chains, thus making room for four ; and 
that is the style throughout the railways. The 
bishop was the first a-bed, opposite to nle ; and, in 
spite of my secret prayer, by far th$ largest and heavi- 



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DELHI. 113 

est of the two other divines cast his eyes upon the 
berth suspended above me. Allowing for the ex- 
aggeration which panic always paints for itself, I am 
still quite sure that the chains groaned and the bed 
trembled, while my own heart beat. These sounds, 
however, soon subsided into long-noted snoring, and 
somewhat before we arrived at Delhi the carriage 
was safely delivered of the three. Happy was I 
when the creakings of the descent subsided. As the 
sword of Damocles never fell, so was I not crushed 
by divinity. 

Arriving safe at early morning, I was driven to 
the Northbrook Hotel, which I at once declined to 
patronize, and sought shelter in " The Grand," well 
situated, and very fairly conducted. But what 
strikes me in all these Indian cities^ as regards the 
European quarters (so to call them), is the distance 
that lies between the various buildings — the native 
quarters being all so crowded. Every shop, for 
example, occupies a separate house, and between the 
tailor and the draper there is a long drive. Though 
I mention this here, I do not know that Delhi thus 
struck me more than other places ; for the observa- 
tion is of general application. 

The historical associations with Delhi are indeed 
fearful. Carry your memory back to the days of 
Nadir Shah, and then bring it back quickly to 1857. 
Speaking of this, latter date, surely we may say it 
needs not fields of hundreds of thousands to make 
a war of giants. My first visit was to the Ridge, 
where all is quiet now. But the Mutiny Memorial 
is there^ mute but speaking. Read as much of its 

I 



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114 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

inscriptions as you please, and ascend it for the view, 
and fancy all that was going on while we were at 
home in quiet. From the middle of May till 
the middle of September the storm and tempest 
of siege and assault were raging, and mutinous 
Delhi at last succumbed to British valour. The 
scene is very striking from the Ridge, and the drive 
occupies a very pleasant afternoon. 

The next day I devoted to visiting that strange 
towering individuality called the Kutb or Kutab 
(both of which appeared to be corruptions) Minar — 
which word is, of course, the large of Minaret. A 
more extraordinary structure than this, or so extra- 
ordinary a one as this, it would be difficult to 
conceive of. If it is not a physical incorporation 
of the spirit of pride, what is it ? And a yet larger one, 
for the mere purpose of out-topping it, was begun, 
but the builder was not able to finish. I could not 
divest myself, while gazing on it, of something of 
the sentiment of the ridiculous. This much said, 
the structure must be appreciated. It stands 238 or 
242 feet high, and tapers from a diameter of some 
forty-seven or forty-eight feet at its base, to scarcely 
nine feet at the top, and it consists of five storeys. 
According to Fergusson it was even once some 
twenty feet higher. Each storey is ornamented 
with a balcony that protrudes very handsomely. 
The depth and outlines of the moulding show how 
well the builders understood the effects of light and 
shade and of variety, and, in its own character, 
this Minar is held to stand alone in our small 
world. 



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DELHI. 1 1 S 

The Iron Pillar, dilated on by Fergusson, must not 
be overlooked, nor is very likely to be so ; nor indeed, 
is the Mosque — an evident converted Jain temple. 
Mark also the large arch, reminding one of Ajmir. 
Various tombs are visited on the way back, some 
worth seeing and some not, but all somewhat causing 
confusion of memory and impression. 

The whole of the next day I devoted to the Fort 
and the Jumma (Friday) Musjid. With this latter 
I was not so much impressed as I was with others. 
But as regards the Palace in the Fort, as it was 
originally built by the renowned Shah Jahan, it is 
difficult to understand that everything you now see 
belonged once to that Unity. There is now a total 
want of connection, and instead of finding yourself 
passing through and through corridors and courts 
from one great feature to another, all this effect has 
been destroyed, and you pass to mere separate 
structures. In his volume there is an admirable 
general plan of what Fergusson calls "perhaps 
the most magnificent palace in the world," among 
the features of which figures the fantastic Moti Mus- 
jid, very small in proportion to the other arrange- 
ments, but probably intended (as in more modern 
instances) for exclusive Royal worship. But among 
all the buildings that which most drew my attention, 
and most rests on my memory, was the Diwan-i-Khas, 
or Private Hall of Audience. This Diwan-i-Khas 
is erected on its own marble base, some eight feet 
high, and consists of a large oblong assembly room, 
all in white marble, and formerly intensely adorned ; 
and instead of being walled in, it is marked out by a 

1 2 



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lie WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

double row of integral peculiar-shaped pillars, 
verging into arches on the roof, so that as you 
stand in the centre you look through and through 
a wonderful perspective of pillars on all sides. 

With this much said, I leave you, if you go there, 
to wander about as you will, and meanwhile to 
accompany me to see the Golden Temple at 
Amritsar. But there is a distance of 316 miles, and 
starting at noon on Friday, the 15th of March, I 
arrived at seven the next morning, having in the 
daytime passed through vast streets of the most beau- 
tifully growing wheat. Will it tempt you to make 
the journey if I tell you that strawberries were offered 
at the Delhi Station ? 



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XII. 

What you have to visit at Amritsar is the Golden 
Temple, and what I was most fortunate in hitting 
off, by pure accident, was the celebration of the 
Feast called "Holi." This golden temple stands 
in the midst of a large pool or tank (as it is called) 
of pure water, carefully edged with stone, and 
called the Fool of Immortality ; such, indeed, ac- 
cording to Murray ([891), is the meaning of the 
word Amritsar. It stands on its own platform, 
sixty-five feet square, and is approached by a 
long marble causeway, following the level of the 
water, and constructed of white marble. The struc- 
ture inside and out is overwhelming with golden 
eccentricity and variegated decoration. And to all 
this was added moving crowds of worshippers, on 
whom I looked down from above. They were all 
crowding, moving, praying and talking together, like 
a great living nosegay of various flowers in a golden 
vase ; for in addition to their own costumes they were 
painted in careless chance splashes of red ochre. In 
this holiday, with a motive which I leave others to 
explain, the excitement consists in squirting all this 
coloured liquid over one another, motion adding to the 
undoubted effect. The outside scene for the moment 
was enchanting ; and nothing would have marred 
the effect, had it not been for the grossly vulgar and 



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Il8 WANDERINGS AND IVONDER/NGS. 

Ugly high Clock Tower, of barbarous English design. 
Do either of you remember old King's Cross, long and 
long since removed ? The monster at Amritsar is 
just as much uglier as it is larger. As to purchases 
at Amritsar, you may buy shawls, and chudders, silk 
fabrics, and carvings, and fancy you have made great 
bargains ; and when you bring them home and find 
you don't want the m, and have them valued by dis- 
dainful tradesmen, you are certain to find about as 
many shillings put upon them as they cost you pounds. 

Still through smiling spreads of wheat, of strong 
and even growth, I undertook my two hours more 
to Lahore, and found myself in the capital of the 
Punjab, or Panjab,at Nedou's Panjab Hotel, thus yet 
more nearly approaching my looked-for entrance 
into Kashmir. Delhi is, of course, in the Panjab also, 
and for my own satisfaction, if not for yours, I w^ill 
write down the names of the five Rivers — Panjab — 
that give this name. The Indus has often been 
mentioned as one, but it is not so. Here they are : 
The Ravi (or Bavi), the Dias, the Jhelum, that flows 
through the Vale of Kashmir, the Chenab and the 
Sutlej. 

At Lahore, amidst all the buildings that are worth 
a visit, I again witnessed the extremely picturesque 
effects of the festival of the " Holi," which were yet 
more striking than at Amritsar. For the crowds in 
the narrow streets were far more densely packed, and 
all were in constant voice and movement. Add to 
this, as my carriage perforce moved very quietly along, 
there was ample opportunity for appreciating the 
incessant appearances of delicate carvings, and bal- 



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LAHORE, 119 

conies, bay windows, and indeed whole houses them- 
selves, of the quaintest and most picturesque descrip- 
tions. Bazaars and bazaars abounded; with oxen, 
goats, and buffaloes interspersed, and vocal sounds of 
every sort and kind. 

Here I learnt that the Bays, my nephew's former 
regiment, were at Sealcote, and that his friend, 
Colonel Lister Kaye, who had succeeded to command, 
was there. I was to pay him a visit, and this made a 
divergence necessary from the line to Peshawur at 
the Wazirabad Junction, a distance of sixty-two miles. 
A morning train took me there on the 20th, where I 
found a letter from Adjutant Captain Dewar and 
Colonel Kaye's dog-cart, and was driven to the 
Colonel's quarters, he being absent for a day or two. 
Meanwhile I was hospitably received by Major 
Sadlier, my acquaintance with whom afterwards 
stood me in excellent stead. I stayed from the 20th 
till the morning of the 25th, starting with Colonel 
Kaye, who went straight into Kashmir for the far 
mountains beyond, on his real sporting excursion 
during his three months' leave. For myself, I was to 
visit Rawl Pindi, staying with Captain Heyland, R. A., a . 'V , 
and his wife, my goddaughter of far-away Brazil; ^Um ^ ^ f 
and thence to go on to Murree for Kashmir, with a 
divergence, however, to Peshawur. 

In this journey I experienced my least pleasant 
experience. For, leaving Wazirabad Junction be- 
tween one and two p.m. on Monday, the 25th of 
March, I arrived at Rawl Pindi at 11.30 at night, in 
a pitiless downpouring of rain, and there I found a 
messenger from Rowbury's Hotel, whither I had 



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I20 WANDERINGS AND WONDERJNGS. 

telegraphed, informing me there was no room. The 
'' Imperial " was suggested to me, but there was no gari 
to take me there. It would have been too wet for 
even a duck to attempt to walk. At last a kind fellow- 
passenger, who was detained by luggage, lent me his 
gdri to go and to return it in a quarter of an hour. 
In less than that time, not only did the gAri return, 
but I returned with it ; for so abject an apology for 
a resting-place I had never till then beheld. I never 
thought of the place again, and the house might 
have been full ; but you are liable to such things in 
India. When once more at the station I changed 
my front, decided to sleep in the waiting-room, as 
best I could, and to start for Peshawur by the first 
train in the morning; thus postponing my Rawl 
Pindi visit till my return for Murree. Accordingly, 
at 8.30 a.m. on the 26th, I left for Peshawur, and 
drove to the Dak Bungalow, though I had a letter 
to the Commissioner, Colonel Ommanney, from my 
friend Colonel Busk in England. Fortunately for 
me — fortunately this time — the D4k Bungalow was 
full, so that I had no option but to drive to the 
Colonel's, on whom I had not chosen to force mysdf 
in the first instance. A more pleasant house and 
garden, and a more pleasant reception to correspond, 
I never met with. No sooner was my letter opened, 
than the question was put, " Where are your things ? " 
They were on the gdrf, of course ; but in a very short 
space of time they were in a glorious airy bedroom, 
and so was I, with servant well housed into the 
bargain ; nor did much time elapse before I found 
that in former days I had known, among oW friends, 



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PESHAWUR, 121 

the coloners great-uncle, Admiral Sir John Om* 
manney. 

The open hospitality in India many years ago is 

abundantly historical. Visits from Europe were not 

so numerous as now, and, moreover, strangers do 

not now by any means stand in so much need of 

assistance. The response is to-day made to letters 

of introduction, which in the olden time were not 

necessary. But with this condition, I found in more 

cases than one (which will appear in turn) the most 

benignant welcome. And this subject calls to mind 

a conversation which I held with a retired colonel in 

the Indian army, whom I met so long ago as July, 

1888, just three months before I left England, at 

the house of my esteemed friends, the Rev. E. A. 

and Mrs. Pitcairn Campbell, of Vicar's Cross, near 

Chester. The very interesting anecdote he told me, 

while we were naturally conversing about my then 

coming journey, he has lately confirmed by letter, 

with his full authority to make use of the particulars, 

which are really most amusing. Even this anecdote, 

however, is not older than 1850. 

In that year, Colonel MacDougald, as a young 
ensign, was travelling from Hansee, near Delhi, 
to Segowlee — both railway stations now — on the 
borders of Nepaul, to join the loth Regiment Irre- 
gular Cavalry, as Adjutant. On the i8th of April, 
1850, he took the steamer Mirzapore at Benares, 
intending to drop down the Ganges as far as Dina- 
porc. But as the steamer made only twenty-five 
miles in four days — mark the difference of now-a- 
days — he induced the captain to put him on shore at 



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122 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

Syndpore, where he hired an ekka, and in that 
terrible vehicle he underwent a wearisome, happily 
not mortal, journey of absolutely thirty miles. 
What is an ekka ? I saw several, and most fortu- 
nately, sight was the only sense that was affected by 
this cramped-up instrument of torture. The colonel 
shall describe the vehicle himself. "An ekka is a 
light two-wheeled vehicle, drawn by a pony, without 
springs, inflicting terrible punishment on a traveller 
if he has to ride any distance. The legs of the 
unfortunate occupant hang over the side without 
support to the feet, and there is none whatever to 
the back. The wheels being small, you are close to 
the ground, and the dust is intolerable. The punish- 
ment of that drive I shall never forget ; and having 
been kept awake for four nights previously by the 
largest mosquitoes I have ever experienced, I was by 
no means in ordinary good trim for a long journey of 
any kind." 

The young ensign, however, survived this agony — 
but only try to imagine what Indian travelling then so 
lately was. On reaching Ghazeepore at three o'clock 
in the morning, the driver made for the first bunga- 
low in the station, which proved to be that of a Mr. 
Shaw. Notwithstanding the early hour, the servants 
were roused, refreshments offered, a bed made up, 
and a comfortable bath prepared ; and at the break* 
fast table the host and hostess first became acquainted 
with their guest. Great kindness was shown to him 
during the day, and after a comfortable dinner he 
started with twelve palankeen bearers for Buxar — 
now also a railway station, and also a refreshment 



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INDIAN HOSPITALITY. 123 

room — a distance of twenty miles, Mrs. Shaw kindly 
lending her palankeen. 

Next comes the final scene of the exhibition of 
Indian travelling ; and it contains so amusing an 
incident, that the colonel shall again tell it in his 
own words :— 

"Early in the morning Rarunkadhee was reached. 
Nothing, however, would induce the palankeen 
bearers to cross the River Ganges to the rest-house — 
Dik Bungalow— at Buxar, where I had intended 
to pass the heat of the day. Neither threats nor 
promises were of any avail, the bearers insisting that 
they had always taken parties to Major Sherer's 
house, and thither and to no other place would they 
go. In vain I expostulated that I did not know 
Major Sherer (then superintendent of the Govern- 
ment studs), and that I would prefer the public rest- 
house. But no : the bearers argued that I should be 
well received by the Major Sahib, and that he would 
be dreadfully offended with them if they took their 
travellers elsewhere. So, lifting up the palankeen on 
their shoulders, they entered the grounds, making as 
much noise as they could to attract attention, as only 
palankeen-bearers know how to disturb a household, 
and carried me up to the front door of the house. 
Out came the servants, regretting that their master 
and mistress had just started for a drive — the regular 
hour in India — but assuring me that a bed-room was 
prepared, and a water-carrier ready with his mussuk 
to give me a fresh bath, and that tea also was forth- 
coming. I had hardly finished my toilet and entered 
the drawing-room when up drove the carriage. And 



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124 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

here comes the curious incident The major and his 
wife, seeing a palankeen and the bearers taking their 
rest under the trees, made up their minds that their 
own young son, Joe, whom they were expecting and 
had not seen for many years, had really arrived ; and, 
rushing into the drawing-room, Mrs. Sherer gave me 
off-hand a most warm-hearted embrace, at which 
Major Sherer, delighting in the joke, laughed most 
heartily, when a few minutes had served to dispel the 
illusion. This kind host and hostess never forgot 
their guest during the remainder of General Sherer's 
distinguished services ; and I and the son have up to 
this time entertained the most friendly relations with 
each other. I was pressed to stay to meet their son, 
but I had to join my regiment ; and thus, loaded with 
all sorts of good things for a journey, I left this 
hospitable family. Strange to relate," continues 
the colonel in his letter to me, " about fifteen years 
afterwards I lived in this very same house, and 
enjoyed the appointment which Major Sherer had so 
long occupied." 

Connected with the hospitality I experienced in 
India, this anecdote, independently of its intrinsic 
interest, has appeared to me to be worthy of recalling 
and recording. With Major Ommanney, whose life 
was enlivened by the presence of his two musical and 
cheerful daughters, I passed five full days most 
pleasantly, and with one great advantage, namely, 
that of visiting the historically famous Khyber Pass, 
under the authority of Colonel Warburton, who was 
in command of it. 



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XIII. 

It was on a fine fresh morning on the 27th of 
March that Colonel Ommanney drove me into Pesha- 
wur — an extremely picturesque old city, but far 
more fitted for a visit than a stay. The grand bird's- 
eye view of all is from the top of the gateway, 
belonging (if my recollection serves me rightly) to 
the old palace. The surrounding scene, with wild 
mountains in the prospect, is remarkably striking — 
the city lying below — and in the far distance to the 
west were pointed out to me those prominent hills, 
looking quite clear, that form the entrance to the 
darkly famous Pass which I was anxious to enter. 
One great feature in the city are the bazaars, and the 
remarkable variety of the attending crowds coming 
in from all regions, with Afghans about everywhere. 
As to the city itself, it must be confessed that it does 
not enjoy a very exalted general character. It is one 
that ought assuredly to be visited and realized by any 
traveller endowed with enterprise enough to seek 
variety and strangeness, and desirous of witnessing 
what those parts of the earth (not exactly belonging 
to Islington) have to show. And this may well be 
done so as to leave a strong and lasting impression, 
without counting all the ugly corners that abound 
within its precincts. 
Colonel Warburton came to luncheon on the 28th, 



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126 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

and then it was that a visit to the Khyber Fass^as far 
as Fort AH Musjid, was arranged. It was more than 
the mere satisfaction of curiosity that influenced me in 
my desire to see even that much, of a scene that would 
surely bring back vividly my recollections of 1842. 
Not so many now living can clearly recall the effect 
of the long account of carnage and disaster that 
shocked all England at that momentous period. It 
was in the beginning of 1842 that despatches from 
India made us all aware of the horrors of the Afghan 
war, and the retreat from Cabul. I had then not 
completed twenty-three years of age, and was stay- 
ing with my eldest brother at Alresford, then a curate 
of the late Lord Guilford. He was engaged to be 
married in the following October to Miss Dunn, the 
half-sister of Captain Hopkins, who had accompanied 
Dr. Brydon in the flight to Jellalabad, and who was 
massacred within ten miles of that city. Dr. Brydon 
alone escaping of the small company that had found 
their way almost to the walls of safety. And what 
has most particularly barbed this story in my memory 
is that the news was brought to the mother, then 
Mrs. Dunn, at Alresford, with all the peculiar anguish 
clinging to the fact that with but a few more miles of 
riding her son would have been safe. He was only 
just near enough to safety for safety to laugh at him. 
I have of late been looking back to the files of the 
Times, with the aid of " Palmer's Index," to find the 
letter which I have always so well remembered, and 
which appears in that journal under date of April 7th, 
1842; I mean the letter that Dr. Brydon wrote his 
brother " Tom " after his safe arrival at Jellalabad. Nor 



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KHYBER PASS. 12/ 

was it possible for me to forbear wandering through 
all the neighbouring dates and columns of that period, 
so that I seemed at last to live again in the days of 
'^ Disastrous Intelligence." Out of 4500 fighting- 
men and 12,000 camp-followers who left the canton- 
ments, leaving behind them their provisions, guns and 
ammunition — all under arrangements blindly made 
by General Elphinstone with Akbar Khan, after his 
treacherous assassination of the British envoy. Sir 
William MacNaghten,at a conference — those who by 
mere accident survived might be numbered by a few 
score. 

Dr. Brydon recounts that their party of seven 
officers and five European soldiers reached to a 
distance of thirty miles from Jellalabad, Captain 
Hopkins being one of the seven. They were 
attacked, and three of the officers and all the soldiers 
were killed, Lieutenant Bird falling by his side. 
Captains Bellow, Collyer, Hopkins, and a fourth 
reached to sixteen miles of Jellalabad, but these first- 
named three being well mounted had ridden on 
alone. The fourth gave in and was slain. Dr. Bry- 
don continued slowly^ and at last met a party of six 
of the enemy, one of whom wildly rode at him and, 
wounding him, galloped by. The three who had 
ridden forward he never saw again ; but this party 
of six were leading a horse, and, for reasons which 
I forget now, this horse was recognized at the time 
as having been Captain Hopkins's. 

At six o'clock on the morning of the 29th of 
March, armed with a permission, I started in a two- 
horse wagonette for the entrance to the Pass at 



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128 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

Jumrud Fort, a fort belonging to us and lying at a 
distance of ten miles. The weather was fine and 
fresh, and I had furnished myself well, as I thought, 
with wraps at starting. "You must take more/' 
said Colonel Ommanney, who was at hand to see 
me off. "Oh! these are quite enough," quoth I. 
"No such thing, I assure you," he replied; and 
well was it for me that he was there to say " No." 
It is quite a mistake to suppose that all India 
is always hot. The latitude of Peshawur is about 
34 degrees, barely that of Cyprus; but Peshawur 
can be very cold as well as very hot. I was well 
satisfied to be well clothed in my drive, and, 
attended by one mounted guard, I arrived safely at 
Jumrud Fort Here I delivered up my pass, and my 
mounted guard left me. But he was at once suc- 
ceeded by two, who rode forth from the Fort to 
attend me ; and thus I entered. Another ten miles 
brought me to AH Musjid, the intended limit of my 
excursion. This indeed, as I was authoritatively told, 
is the most striking feature in the Pass. The scene 
is very mountainous and wild, and the road rises and 
falls from time to time very picturesquely. But it is 
not a bold, hard, rocky Pass ; on the contrary, the 
formation is shaly and slatey. Fort AH Musjid is a 
sort of double fort, and is built on a huge middle 
ragged eminence, on each side of which there is 
one still higher, and quite as ragged. The Pass here 
is naturally very narrow, and the whole view afforded 
ample faciHty for comprehending all those arduous 
sufferings that have stamped it with an ugly immor- 
tality. In that Fort, now desolate and silent and 



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KHYBER PASS. 129 

indifferent, I was to breakfast. Half an hour's hard 
climb took me to the warderless gateway, and my 
coachman quietly carried up and laid out for me my 
undisturbed repast. But I was not alone, for within 
there were a number of rough tenants, and these at 
once came round me and watched me as a Feringhee, 
or foreigner. There they stood while I ate, and when 
I had satisfied my appetite they appeared to have 
satisfied their curiosity, leaving me and my coach- 
man and the basket to depart in peace. It would 
not have been so in 1842. 

On coming down I was somewhat surprised to see 
an escort of Afghan Cavalry, and, while wondering, 
was saluted with an English *' Good morning." This 
I found afterwards was an Englishman, representing 
a well-known firm in Calcutta (the name of which I 
ought to have taken) engaged in rather large con- 
tracts with the Amir, and this partner was in the 
habit of making the long journey, to and fro, as far 
as Cabul — 190 miles from Peshawur — under special 
escort. These journeys, I was told, are permitted 
by our Government under the express understanding 
that there is no responsibility for personal safety. I 
was by no means sorry to sit and talk with him for a 
certain period, for it enabled me to dwell upon the 
strange scene around me, and to imbibe a certain 
inspiration from the reality. 

In my morning journey I had been delighted with 
the beautiful effects of the early sunshine on the dis- 
tant snow mountains to the north, with the purples on 
Tartarra and his indented ranges. On my return 
°^y curiosity was correspondingly awakened by the 

K 



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130 IVANDERJAGS AND W'OXDERINGS, 

crowds of life I met coming in. It was just the time 
of year for the return to Cabul, and hundreds of 
turbaned, swarthy Afghans, attending their hundreds 
of laden, hairy camels, for sometime intercepted, and 
happily in no hostile mood as of yore, my retreat 
from the Khyber Pass. 

My next day's occupation was of a very different 
character. I went with Colonel Ommanney to a dis- 
tribution of prizes among native students in the 
Public Gardens, a most satisfactory exhibition, all 
countenances exhibiting the becoming sunshine of 
the occasion. But no one ought to leave Peshawur 
without speaking of the vast spread of stuccoed lawn- 
tennis grounds : the nurseries, these perhaps in Eng- 
land, of female voters, by their developing power. 
If Peshawur of to-day is [celebrated lor anything 
iimocent, it is so for its lawn-tennis grounds, and 
if Colonel Ommanney is celebrated for anything 
outside his official duties, it is for his warlike pur- 
suit of tennis — but not of lawn. Cold as I found 
the morning on my visit to the Pass, Peshawur 
soon gets hot, and people who can do so, get away. 
Yet there are mountains all round, more or less 
distant certainly, but still all round ; and one parti- 
cular feature of the scenery results from this : look 
which way you will there are mountains at the end of 
every flat line. 



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XIV. 

From my pleasant divergence to Peshawur I re- 
turned to Rawl Pindi on Sunday, the 31st of March, 
and here my second attempt was far more successful 
than my first. I found myself very comfortably 
housed at Powell's Hotel, and in full communication 
with my friends, Captain and Mrs. Heyland. At 
Rawl Pindi I spent a few pleasant days, but the 
weather was rainy, and the changes in the ther- 
mometer frequent and important, Mrs. Oliphant, 
with whose husband in the Army Veterinary Corps 
I found I had made chance acquaintance in travel- 
ling, and who shortly afterwards appeared, drove 
me to witness the distribution of prizes at the 
Horse Show, by Sir Thomas Baker, Commis- 
sioner of the Division, where I afterwards saw the 
singular exercise of what is called tent-pegging. 
The horseman gallops by and is to wrench up the 
peg with his lance as he passes. This attempt the 
native lancers accompanied with a wild, warlike and 
somewhat alarming cry, but the peg very often re- 
mained wholly indifferent to the alarum and attack. 
The company was large and gay. 

I would mention that it was here Lieut-Colonel 
Oliphant called my attention to two photographs of 
two wcry ancient and rather imperfect figures, but ex- 
ceedingly Grecian in their appearance, which I at once 

K 2 



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132 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

bought, but which I regret to find will not admit 
of reproduction. He informed me that there are 
several of the same character in the Mess Room of the 
Queen's Own Regiment of Guides at Hoti Murdan. 
They were brought (as I understood) from the 
Swats' country after the Black Mountain War, and 
not far from the Indus. Whence they derive their 
Grecian aspect may be a question of much curiosity. 

My chief matter of business at Rawl Pindi was to 
arrange my journey to Murree, and thence onwards 
to Kashmir ; and again the Parsee was the coach 
proprietor, Mr. Dhanjiboy. With him I engaged a 
two-horse tonga to take me as far as Gharri. This is 
the fifth station beyond Murree, the distance being 
forty miles to Murree and sixty-two more to Gharri. 
Hattian, twelve miles more, was the usual limit, but 
some bridge had given way, and from Gharri ponies 
were to be obtained for Baramula, fifty miles farther 
— this being the foot station of the Vale. I speak as 
I found, because I am writing my own record, but all 
this is altered now under the new road system. 

Now, as a general rule, I could have gone on from 
Murree on the day following my arrival, six hours 
serving to lake me thither from Rawl Pindi. But I 
was detained there longer than I had intended, 
passing through one of those phases of life that vex 
with present annoyance, but result in subsequent 
advantage. " How very wrong to be vexed," says 
the would-be moralist, not being himself vexed at the 
moment, but just as liable to that frailty as those 
whom he would lecture. If we knew that good was 
coming we might not be vexed, but then sometimes 



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Id AWL P/.VD/. 133 

the present seeming advantage is followed by the 
opposite, and in that case foreknowledge would check 
satisfaction. In fact, doing right and doing wrong 
are just as contradictory in their results as the 
happening right and happening wrong. This sort of 
confusion of consequences, measured by our expecta- 
tions and desires, happened* to be vexing my philo- 
sophy at that moment, so I composed a parody, 
which I shall detain you by printing here. I daresay 
you all remember, or will easily recall, the paradox 
of the " Rules of the Road," as propounded by a 
learned judge some years ago : — 

The Rules of the Road are a paradox quite ; 

For, as you are driving along, 
If you go to the left, you are sure to go right, 

If you go to the right, you go wrong. 

Then comes my parody : — 

The Rules of this Life are a paradox quite ; 

To their course contradictions belong ; 
For if you do wrong, you too often prove right, 

Doing right, you are left in the wrong. 

But if the occasion of all these reflections was not 
great to any besides myself, the man that occasioned 
them was assuredly so. For in point of fact my 
departure from Murree was fidgeted from one day 
to another because Sir Frederick, now Lord, Roberts, 
the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army, was 
going into Kashmir just at the moment that I had 
settled to do the same thing myself. However, on 



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134 WAXDERIXGS AXD WONDERIXGS. 

tlie morning of Saturday, April 6th, I left PoweU's 
comfortable hotel at Rawl Pindi in my tonga, taking 
with me in the back seat my travelling servant, 
" Mogul John " (of whom hereafter), and my cook 
for Kashmir, Bana. It was only half a good-bye to 
Captain and Mrs Hey land, for he had his leave and 
they were to follow. 

My tonga-start from Rawl Pindi was the admiration 
of more than one beholder, and I must confess to 
their laughter and my own distrustful astonishment. 
But I had faith in Zoroaster, and away we got at 
last, after having described certain wheel figures on 
the hotel drive which could not have claimed a 
problem in Euclid for any Q.E.D. Now, if that one 
start was astonishing, what were some of the others 
among all the very rawest of ponies that were from 
time to time put to ? The fights, and the breakings 
loose, and the bringings back again, and makings to 
go, beggar all description. But the thing was re- 
peatedly done, and admirably done indeed. I never 
had seen the maxim so well applied, '* Never let a 
horse get the better of you, — if you can help it." 

Murree lies 7CK>o feet above Rawl Pindi, and the 
road very soon becomes picturesque. There is a 
good deal of up and down among round hills decked 
with stunted green, and there are cultivated valleys. 
By-and-by the necessary ascent begins and the 
views enlarge, all culminating at the last change in a 
vast range of folding hills and valleys. To Murree 
we came at last, and quite in good time, but there 
was still another mount to Powell's Hotel, called, I 
believe, " Viewfort.*' Whether it is the best hotel I 



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MURREE. 1 35 

know not, because I lived in no other, but I can 
say that it was very good, and that Mr. Powell was 
very cheerful and obliging, while, as to position, 
having seen the other leading one, I have no hesita- 
tion in saying that the position of Powell's is in- 
comparably the best. Nothing could well be more 
striking than the enormous expanse of mountainous 
ranges and undulating valleys, all interspersed in 
untraceable confusion, that lie far below you, ex- 
tending to the far-distant snowy ranges that border 
Kashmir. Much terraced cultivation of bright green 
corn in broad lines and patches, amid the general 
brown of the month of Apiil, help to soften the 
scene, and remind one that busy life yet claims a 
dwelling among the comparative solitudes. But it 
was time to go in and get oneself comfortable, and 
I found my cheerful landlord just the man to make 
me so. Not many at that moment were there, and 
he gave me a chosen corner room in his outside row, 
which commanded all the majestic prospects. 

The first fruit, not a very large one perhaps, of my 
being detained by Sir Frederick Roberts (that was 
his title then, and so I shall speak of him) was that 
I saw him. People say ihcy can beheve without 
seeing, but they always like to see nevertheless, and 
while we are flesh and blood — and who can prove 
what else we are ? — we are always striving after the 
visible and tangible. Well, I saw Sir Frederick 
Roberts. On Sunday morning I was standing at 
the end of the veranda with Captain McRae, when 
there rode into the courtyard one or two horsemen 
and one or two ladies ; and the eldest of the party 



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136 WANDEIilNGS AND \VONDERL\GS. 

jogged up towards us. "Who's this," I said, " like a 
light weight at covert side ?" That was his appearance : 
nothing like stiff soldier parade seat : and I daresay 
he won't be angry if he sees this. My companion of 
the moment had just time to say, "That is Sir 
Frederick,'' when he hailed us with " Good morning," 
and asked for Sir Thomas Baker. " I will go and 
find him," said the captain. " Thanks, I am going 
on to Kashmir and wished to bid him good-bye." 
The very first observation Sir Frederick made to me 
was, "You have a very fine view here indeed," to 
which I responded, and, after a few casual remarks 
between us, Sir Thomas was found, and I saw no 
more of Sir Frederick till on a memorable occasion 
not long forward in the future. But I had now 
realized the man whose name only I had known, 
and having judged by a photograph that he was a 
large, swarthy officer, I now knew he was nothing of 
the kind. How many of our unseens remain only 
creatures of the brain to the end, and even when 
seen, how much it still costs to get rid of the figured 
unseen. 

From this profound reflection I passed to my 
inevitable preparations for Kashmir in procuring all 
necessary household or tent utensils, and a pair of 
long wicker baskets, covered with leather, called 
kiltas, in which to carry them. But to the con- 
tents were to be added certain tins of prcvender. 
Among these, one grand item should always be 
remembered, Paysandu tongues — there is nothing like 
them. They come from the Republic of Uruguay, 
and are by far the finest specimens of preserved 



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MURREE. 1 37 

tongus, or preserved anything, I have met with any- 
where. A very nice pony was offered me for Rs. 
40, but I was too far from the riding point to take 
him, and it was well for me I declined him. 

Murree, though 7000 feet above the sea level, is 
not considered a remarkably healthy place ; indeed 
there had been a very severe course of cholera there 
in 1888. And in looking over the grand view I 
have spoken of, I could not avoid a misgiving that 
it must be. sometimes invaded, when the wind sets 
that way, by miasma from the not too distant flats. 
The weather also is apt to be very unsettled at 
times; and so I found it while there, though I 
secured a pleasant ride or two to Pinnacle Hill and 
other spots. The scope for excursions is, however, 
limited. 

It was in fact bad weather that prevented my 
leaving before Saturday, the 13th of April; for in 
the night of the 9th we had a very heavy thunder- 
storm, accompanied with that grim and ghostly 
phenomenon, a high wind in the dark. Nay more, 
there was snow ; ay, and a small shock of earthquake 
into the bargain was felt by all of us in the course of 
the night. The next two days were but little better, 
and bad reports of the roads came in, large landslips 
being announced. However, on Saturday, the 13th, 
as I have said, I came away in my tonga, notwith- 
standing all misgivings, and reached the station of 
Domel for the night. The road descends rapidly 
from Murree towards the River Jhelum, which flows 
through the Vale of Kashmir and falls into the 
Indus. Almost immediately after leaving Murree 



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138 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

the scenery becomes charming. The road descends 
through a steep, hanging mass of wood on the hills 
and mountain sides^ and shows the distant snow ranges 
through the forest trees on the left. Then it mounts 
and falls, and turns to and fro, and round among the 
valleys, gorges and vast ridges which are seen from 
Powell's Hotel, until descending within a few miles 
short of Kohala, the Kashmir Jhelum is first caught 
sight of. When you have passed Kohdla this river 
is followed up the whole way in a gorge to Baramula^ 
and is always a rushing noisy stream. But at Bara- 
mula, where the traveller finds himself at the foot of 
the Vale proper, the river has suddenly become a 
sluggish stream. 

Perhaps the chief eye of this day's journey is to 
be seen shortly after leaving Daywal, ten miles 
from Murree. But on approaching Domel, about 
the hour of sunset, I was particularly struck by a 
fine white mountain in the distance, the name of 
which was given me as Karnar. I arrived at about 
seven in the evening, and had found to my cost in 
this journey that the report of a large landslip was 
not untrue. A long, trying walk to meet another 
tonga was the result, but here also struck in a happy 
small incident ; for at Dulai, on the way, a few 
minutes* conversation with a quite unknown gentle- 
man turned out to be of infinite service to me long 
afterwards in Kashmir. As to the changes and 
startings of the horses, these were as before. One 
instance, however, shone out supreme, where the 
animal twice kicked itself right out, and was twice 
brought back. At Kohdla British territory ends. 



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KASHMIR. 1 39 

My next day, Sunday, April 4th, took me some 
fifteen miles perhaps, to Gharri, and here my tonga 
contract ended, and I was to depend on pony and 
coolies for baggage. I had brought my two servants 
with me, and had engaged a chustas, or water-carrier, 
Camala by name, at Murree, and he had taken 
charge of my luggage, which he now brought in. 
But now arose the next inconvenience from the visit 
of the Commander-in-Chief. He and his retinue, like 
a marching army, had swept the country of every 
coolie and every pony, and I and others were com- 
pletely stranded. The Hey lands had come in in 
the evening, and I found them comfortably tented 
out with their two sturdy boys, quite children ; but 
they had made their own private arrangements* 
and could get on with their own people, which they 
did. All next day I had to wait, with a prospect 
of the next and perhaps the next. 

But while in this predicament there arose one 
alleviation as regards monotony. I was not alone 
in trouble, and I presently made the acquaintance of 
a very pleasant lady, who was likewise, though more 
patiently than I, waiting for her release. In opening 
conversation I observed, among other things, that 
according both to Lavater and Gall, she had a large 
organ of language, as betokened by the lower eyelid ; 
and pursuing our intercourse farther, I soon dis- 
covered that she had travelled a good deal. This led 
to reciprocal recollections and an interchange of 
experiences and impressions, until I said, " I went 
also to the Hawaiian Islands, and I had Miss Bird's 
book with me.*' Whereupon forthwith there came 



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I40 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

the short reply, " I am Miss Bird." Thus, then, so 
far I was rewarded for delay. What next ? 

" Why e'en in that was heaven ordinant." 

"Hallo! are you here?" said somebody who had 
seen me at Sealcote. " Yes," I replied, " and likely to 
remain here." "Why/* quoth he, "Major Sadlier is 
to be here to-night, on his way to Baramula." So 
far, so good ; but what then ? With evening came 
the major and his friend. Captain Armstrong, of the 
Fusiliers ; and recognizing me with a hearty greeting, 
and hearing why I was still here, " Oh," said he, 
" come on with us to-morrow ; I have all my four polo 
poriies with me, and you can take one of them." 
Thus was I, after all, more than compensated for the 
delay ; and in the morning we cheerfully journeyed 
on together, I delighting in my pleasant mount and 
— in my English saddle. Thanks, therefore, to Sir 
Frederick Roberts for having detained me till Major 
Sadlier came. 

It was at Uri, two stations short of Baramula, 
that I saw the last of Mrs. Bishop (Miss Bird), and, 
bidding me a very gracious good-bye, with a hope of 
meeting again, she added, to my amusement, "And, 
do you know, I have been quietly laughing all the 
whilC; for you are wearing my hat. Now do tell me 
where you got it." " Bless my heart," \ said, " this 
hat was given me by my own servant, to whom (as 
he told me) it had been given by somebody else's 
servant." "Well, I'm delighted to hear that, fori 
charged my man with having sold it. I gave it away 
because it made my head ache ; and I am delighted 



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KASHMIR, 141 

to find it so well disposed of at last." The anecdote 
is trite, but happening between a distinguished and 
an undistinguished traveller, and with a hope of 
meeting again, I choose to record it as an incident by 
the way. I must record, also, that in a very few days 
I found my own head was just so far entitled to 
affinity with Miss Bird's, that the hat, which was one 
of those great ventilated saucepans, made mine ache 
likewise ; and as it had been given to me, so gave I 
it away to somebody else, who did not wear a turban. 
If ever I have the hoped-for pleasure of meeting 
Miss Bird again, the hat is quite sure to be revived 
in our conversations. 

Throughout the journey to Baramula the class of 
scenery continues much the same. The mountains 
are nearly all round-headed, though vast. Some 
appear to be high enough to carry snow through the 
year. All the rest are green, and show cultivated ter- 
races. Now, however, that the carriage-road is made, 
the length and the rugged fatigue of the ride are 
matters cf the past; but our own enforced deviations 
were not a little trying. The mountains are always 
there, and the rushing river is always there ; there is 
a sameness of variety, and a variety of sameness. 



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XV. 

Passing through Hattian, Chicoh', Uri, and Ram- 
pore, on Friday, the 19th, we made an early push to 
Baramula. My companions, taking a turn to the 
right without my observing them, passed over into the 
Vale by what is called the Baramula Pass. This road 
I took on leaving the Vale, and will speak of it then. 
But in going in I was directed by the new road, which 
takes you round by a level entrance. And here, I 
must confess, was my first disappointment; for I 
beheld a very wide, flat valley, with no feature that 
very particularly struck me. My companions arrived 
by their road almost at the same moment as myself, 
and there we met the agent of Bahar Shah, of Srina- 
gar, to whom, by the good advice of Colonel Lister 
Kaye, I had already telegraphed, and who proved of 
excellent service to me throughout my visit to the 
Vale. In short, this is the real house to rely upon. 
My companions at this point arranged their own two 
boats, and I took possession of my two, already 
prepared for me. These were to be the dwellings of 
myself and servants throughout Kashmir, excepting 
when I was in tent, and the names of the owners were 
given me as Rahmana and Arfa. I had full reason 
to be satisfied with them throughout. 

These boats are rather rough ; they are long, and 



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KASHMIR, 143 

of course flat bottomed ; the prow is left open for 
working, and the stern is reserved for the rowers' and 
towers' uses. The larger third, in the middle, is 
partitioned off, and furnished according to your own 
taste, for your own sitting-room, dining-room, and 
bedroom ; and from time to time you can of course 
walk out and sit in the prow. You are covered in 
with double matting, which is fairly comfortable, but 
requires a good deal of tying and tucking in when 
the wind blows. Your second boat is reserved espe- 
cially for your stores and cooking apparatus, and for 
other general uses, including the people who work it, 
and your own crew also. On the first day all our 
four boats anchored for the night above a famous 
fishing spot called Sopur, but, being no fisherman 
myself, I need not pause on that particular fact. At 
very early morning my companions went on, my own 
men starting much later. 

Now I have told you what were my first impressions 
of Baramula, and my entrance into the Vale. What 
were they of my six hours' journey up to Sopur ? In 
the first place, my enthusiasm was not greatly ex- 
aggerated by finding that we were to be towed up the 
river ; and thus it was all the way to Sopur, to begin 
with. The banks of the Jhelum were as flat and 
barren as those of a common canal ; and this is a 
feature that belongs to a wide and totally flat valley. 
In its main characteristics thus far, to begin with, I 
found it much wider and much flatter than my too- 
well-tutored expectations had led me to anticipate. 
There was a continuous show of middle-distance 
mountains, and farther off of snow mountains ; but 



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144 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

these were in the decided distance, and then came the 
thawing information of one of my boatmen, ** Snow 
disappears on many in summer." Such are not 
thoroughbred snow mountains. This distance that I 
speak of prevents these mountains from appearing to 
belong to the flat Vale ; they do not give the effect in any 
degree whatever of being two prolonged and adorning 
attendant ridges on either side ; they represent, rather, 
a distant and uneven amphitheatre. Here and there, 
but never on the banks of the river, there were green 
undulations which showed beauty, and dotted with 
certain timber, but not large. I saw nothing of 
striking and indisputable superiority anywhere, though 
much that was now and then pleasing. Thus I 
arrived at Sopur, and, somewhat distrustfully, judg- 
ing from the general aspect around me, I waited for 
more romantic features. 

On the next day — Saturday, the 20th— I con- 
tinued my course up the river to Srinagar — the 
City of the Sun — and, as I anticipated, passed 
through merely the same class of scenery. It was 
dusk before we arrived at the capital, and here the 
effect was decidedly depressing. The city lies on 
both sides of the river, and it presented to me, at 
first sight, one of the most tumble-down places I 
ever saw. This feature is never quite alien to the 
picturesque ; in short, very often the least habitable 
of dwellings look the sweetest and the happiest under 
the pencil. Comfort and fertility have so little con- 
nection with beauty, and are not unfrequently her 
mortal enemies. No one stops at Srinagar; if he 
did so, it might not improbably turn out to be a final 



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KASHMIR, 145 

stop. You here abandon the tow-ropes, and the men 
take to their mode of rowing, which consists of beating 
the water with paddles shaped Hke a broad heart, and 
with these they push along, varying their measured 
strokes with an occasional presto movement. Thus 
you mount till you get tD a large and imposing, but 
uncouth, building on your right, and this is the Sher 
Garhi, or Palace of the Maharajah. Opposite to this 
is the opening of a canal, into which you turn sharply 
on the left. This is called the Sant-i-Kul, or Apple 
Tree Canal — why, I know not. This stream connects 
the Dal with the Jhelum. The word "Dal," I was 
informed, means *' lake ; " so of course, anglice, we 
always call this piece of water the ** Dal Lake," i.e. 
the Lake Lake, whereof by-and-by. After about 
twenty minutes' paddling up this canal, which is 
fairly dressed with trees, and under some evening 
influences looks in parts extremely pretty, you pass 
a Hindoo temple on your left, and come to the 
" Chenar Bagh," or " Plane Tree Garden/' on your 
rijht. Here is the regulation settlement of bachelor 
visitors, who pitch their tents under the trees, and 
those who bring horses with them stable them up 
behind. The banks are perfectly flat, as is all the 
land behind it ; and it is most important, as I came 
to prove, to choose a spot where you are not liable to 
be swamped when the canal runs high. The trees 
under which this resting-place is established are fairly 
handsome, but admit of no sort of comparison with 
the great growth of the same tribe elsewhere. Here 
they form a grove of shelter, planted together, and 
look remarkably well from the opposite side. Beyond 



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146 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

the bend of the canal they are more separate and 
somewhat finer. 

Well, on looking back at my diary, here I appear 
to have passed life in my boat, moving up and down 
into Srinagar to see Bahar Shah and to other places, 
spending money on things that were wanted, and 
throwing it away on things that were not, until the 
28th, when I started for my first excursion, which 
was to Islamabad, completely up the river. But I 
had not to wait beyond the first morning after my 
arrival before receiving another proof — and this time 
an important one — of the benefits I had derived from 
Sir Frederick Roberts' interruptions. For behold, 
on Sunday, the 21st, there appeared before me, while 
seated among my two or three newly purchased 
-wooden chairs under the trees, Ummir Nath, the 
Maharajah's representative for the welcoming of 
strangers, to whom, indeed, on the suggestion of 
Colonel Lister Kaye, I had previously written. And 
Ummir Nath most courteously informed me that, 
among many others, I was to have a card of 
invitation to a grand dinner at the Palace, to be given 
by his Highness the Maharajah Pertab Sing in honour 
of Sir Frederick Roberts on the following day, viz. 
Monday, the 22nd, at half-past seven. This card 
now lies before me, and it is easy to confess that 
the occasion and the entire novelty of the whole affair 
quite chimed in with my inclination for travelling, 
curiosity and incident. 

At the proper hour, therefore, on Monday evening, 
I got on board my small boat — my gig — that here 
waited on the two large, and was paddled down to 



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KASHMIR. 147 

the Palace : the boatmen feeling very grand — perhaps 
almost as grand as I did. But on mounting the high 
steps and threading through the scarlet-carpeted 
corridors towards the large reception room, I soon 
found myself but a very small item in the grand 
number. On entering the saloon among the assem- 
bled there I beheld a long bench, or row, of seated 
celebrities, occupying the whole width of the upper 
end ; his Highness the Maharajah ; his Excellency Sir 
F. Roberts and Lady Roberts and a son ; the English 
Resident, his Excellency Mr. Nesbitt ; Captain 
Ramsay, the Master of Ceremonies, and many others, 

" Whom not to know argues myself unknown." 

There was a sort of confusion and irregular 
grandeur in the whole scene, which was considerably 
enhanced by the gorgeous dresses of some of the 
performers, for curiously enough the entertainment 
preceded the feast. First came the Nach (or dancing) 
girls, a performance of which I am wholly un- 
appreciative ; then came the Thibet dancers, 
gorgeously arrayed and most hideously masked, to 
the extent indeed of reminding one of the griffins 
at the entrances of the Buddhists* pagodas. Heaven 
send that the gods themselves are not after all like 
these. Then there was wild howling and clanging 
music — that is, of cymbals : ugly and confused 
gestures and postures, and sounds of uneaithly 
portent proceeding from a chorus of vast horns, so 
vast as to need support over the shoulders of more 
than one person, and of length as unearthly as the 
sounds. All this variety of attraction occupied much 

L 2 



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148 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

time, and then came the dinner. My own place was 
marked, and the card given me, but at the last 
moment some French lady made a confusion at that 
part of the table on account of some forlorn friend, 
whereby I nearly lost my place altogether. But I 
was happily beckoned by an authority in charge, 
I believe Captain Ramsay, to come and sit by him at 
the bottom of the table, for which charitable act I was 
very glad, and of which I was very, very lucky to be 
in time to avail myself. Here I was well placed and 
well taken care of, and I shall always remember, 
with deep carnal gratitude, that the turkey and in 
particular the ham were as good as any I have ever 
tasted. 

When the repast was over, and all were well 
champagned for the inevitable conclusion, his Ex- 
cellency Sir F. Roberts, the chief guest, made a clear 
and fitting speech, and we all adjourned to coffee, 
and presently afterwards to fireworks. These were 
witnessed from one of the balconies : they were pro- 
fuse and noisy, and some were handsome.' What I 
was particularly struck with was a very effective back- 
ground to all. This was composed of a very large 
and lofty mass of wicker work, thoroughly furnished 
with an infinity of lamps, which made it look like 
a long screen of glittering gold. A great effect was 
thus produced by simple means, and might well be 
imitated, for it concentrated and intensified all that 
was exhibited in front. I saw the Maharajah more 
than once, walking about hand-in-hand with the 
Commander-in-Chief, and I could not but be struck 
with the lifeless, worn and discontented expression 



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KASHMIR, 149 

of his countenance. The not unusual medley of de- 
parture on such occasions prevailed in Srinagar, as in 
other more pretentious places, but I found my boat- 
men without too much trouble, and, with a lantern at 
the prow, rowed home beneath a starry sky. 

The next day I entered my name at the Palace, 
and did the same at the Residency for the Resident 
and for the Commander-in-Chief, and not being able 
to leave without my tents and other paraphernalia, 
which Bahar Shah was arranging for me, I walked 
across the large flat space behind the Chenar Bagh 
to the small library on the river banks, and sub- 
scribed Rs. 5 for a month's entrance. In this 
district also lies the Post Office, and to and fro 
I several times repeated this monotonous entertain- 
ment. At length all necessary preparations were 
complete. The boatmen in both boats were clothed 
by me, as custom required, as also were my other 
men, Mogul John, the Khidmatgar, or valet; the 
cook, Bana ; the waterman, or Bhcestie, Camala ; the 
sweeper, Samdu ; and a very useful and active young 
volunteer servant, Sedika, or Sedeeka, by name. 
This youth belonged to the boat, but was ambitious 
for all service, and was a son of one of the boatmen, 
not by his second wife, but by his wife No. 2. 

Thus we all set out together on the 2Uh of April 
for Islamabad, and hauled up for the night on the flat 
bank, at a place called Pampoor. On my way I 
caught sight of the small stone temple at Pandritan, 
or Pooran Adi Sthan, formerly the capital of Kash- 
mir. But as the artistic little building was in the 
middle of a pool of water, and there was only a half- 



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150 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

swamped boat at hand, I deferred to trouble myself 
about trying to examine it until my return. On 
Monday, the 29th, there was no scenery to excite, 
the river banks being still towing-paths, and the 
nearer grounds quite flat; and on Tuesday, the 30th, 
I completed the boat course at a place called Kanbal, 
where I spent the night. I must not omit to men- 
tion, however, that on the way up I stopped at a place 
called Bijbehara, and mounted a high bank, attracted 
by several magnificent chenar trees. On arriving 
under them I found they represented the broken lines 
of a very fine original avenue, and wandering up 
and down I came across another visitor, who turned 
out to be Lieut. Blenkinsop from Allahabad, in the 
Veterinary Department. We naturally fell into con- 
versation, and as no visionary was there, we were 
far from disagreeing about the general scenery of 
Kashmir, so far as we had realized it. We were 
equally in accord about the splendour of the chenars. 
He luckily had a tape with him, with which vire 
measured the girth of one of these trees at about 
five feet above the ground, and it gave a circle of 
between thirty-eight and thirty-nine feet. It was of 
course the largest of the noble broken line. 

At Kanbal, by virtue of a letter from Bahar Shah, 
I arranged a .very pleasant pony and saddle, and 
came on next morning with all necessaries for 
Atchibal. This was an easy day's march, and the 
tents were raised under a group of beautiful chenars, 
with some very pretty sloping grounds behind. 
Mountains there were in sight, of course, and the road 
through the strange, stony, straggling town of 



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KASHMIR. 1 5 1 

Islamabad was peculiar in more ways than one ; but 
beyond this I have no observation to make about 
the flat scenery. Here at Atchibal are the tawdry 
remains of the Maharajah's gardens and fountains, 
which are famous for the cold*water springs. All is 
very ragged, and gives the impression of having 
always been flimsy. 

The next day's journey, May 2nd, was one of much 
interest. I visited the ruined Temple of Martand, a 
word which is said to mean the Sun. Fergusson has 
a full account of this temple, and a very fair illus- 
tration of it. It is by no means large, not so large 
as the temple at Jerusalem, which, according to 
Prideaux, was small enough ; but it exhibits features 
of great beauty and elaboration. It is surrounded by 
a courtyard, fenced in by a beautiful open screen 
work of stone ; and curiously enough, recurring to 
Pandritan, General Cunningham (whom Fergusson 
quotes) opines that this inner court was originally 
filled with water. The temple stands grandly alone, 
and a most impressive view of it is obtained by 
ascending a small eminence behind it, and gazing 
down upon the structure. It stands in a vast flat 
valley, but here the flatness was effective, for the 
distant higher hills or mountains round were, when 
I stood there, covered with snow, and were dis- 
playing a most effective amphitheatre. I spent 
some time hovering about the scene, so glad to feel 
my interest at last excited, and, to the relief of my 
wondering and perhaps pitying attendants, at last 
moved on to Bawan Springs in Mutten. 
Passing through the ragged little town, we came to 



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152 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

another beautiful plantation of chenars, shading a 
rushing crystal stream of water ; and here, in a spot 
fairly picturesque, I dined and tented for the night. 
And here also I once more reaped a benefit from 
the visit of the Commander-in-Chief. ** What is that 
affair under the trees ? " " Oh ! that is Bana^s 
delight. It is a sort of cooking apparatus ; it was 
built up for the Commander-in-Chief when his Excel- 
lency was here." And this was the last. And after 
all, how fortunate, in the main, I was in following 
Sir Frederick Roberts into Kashm'r, and what an 
unknown debt of gratitude I owe to one who at first 
slightly injured, and afterwards so effectually, albeit 
so unconsciously, befriended me. 

While at Bawan I was induced to visit what are 
called the Caves of Bhoomjoo, to which the word 
*^ pilgrimage '^ is attached. They He about a mile 
distant from the chenars, and iti Ince's Guide Book, 
edited by Joshua Duke, may be found a page and a 
half with all particulars ; but for myself I have not 
even a word and a half to spend upon these mere 
uncouth hallows. The road to them, however, 
enabled me to^ obtain a sight of the immediate pros- 
pect outside the chenars, which is pleasing enough. 
There are some folding hills of attractive feature, and 
one black rock, capped with snow, added character 
to the general view. 

On Friday, May 3rd, I rode to Eishmakam, a 
pleasant ride, but not calling for special observation. 
The valley, as all these valleys- are, was flat, but the 
town and its fortress are on an elevation ; and having 
pitched my tent on a pleasant piece of ground under 



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KASHMIR. 153 

a fine walnut tree, I mounted to the Fort. Hence 
the view is striking. You behold a good stretch 
of the Liddar Valley, but it is flat as a table, of 
course. 

In this case, however, it is well wooded, and for the 
first time I saw some show of the hills sloping down 
in junction with the \ alley, a feature wholly wanting 
in the main Vale. There was also a fine range of 
mountains, still snowy. You may well imagine that 
Eishmakam is a strange rocky place; and in the 
fortress you may visit a 5trange tomb of a Holy 
Muhammadan, Jhan Shah, who lies buried in the 
long recess of a ragged chasm. On the morning of 
the 4th, I started for the reputed " lovely " Liddar 
Valley, and was to tent for the night at a place called 
Pylgam; and, my feelings of "great expectations" 
not having yet- been completely cowed, I was sub- 
jected to the cold fit of what I find I have called in 
my journal, "complete disappointment." I must 
give my written evidence fairly and honestly, and 
quote the words : " The valley is of mere third-rate 
Swiss scenery. It is flat ; and in parts full of flooded 
rice grounds. There are, of course, green mountains 
and certain winter-snow crags ; but, barring one or 
two grassy slopes and hanging woods, nothing 
charms or enchains attention. The journey is one 
of fourteen miles to Pylgam, and Pylgam itself is 
distinctly ugly. A few ragged dwellings on an ugly 
stony flat constitutes the town ; the river struggles 
along among the boulders in various narrow streams, 
before becoming a rushing unity lower down, and 
tenting space was difficult to find, though here I 



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154 WANDERINGS AND WONDER/NGS. 

passed the night." With this extract I must be con- 
tent to report of Pylgam and the Liddar Valley. 

The next morning proved very fresh and fine, and 
my ride back to my walnut tree was pleasant, break- 
fasting and lounging in the sunshine on the way. 
On the 6th, through those tedious rice grounds of 
Kashmir, I came back to the chcnars at Bawan 
Springs. Here, to my satisfaction, I found two 
arrivals ; Captain and Mrs. Harries were tented under 
the trees, and we joined tables pleasantly, both quite 
concurring with me as to the caves I have referred to. 
Towards evening a beautiful white bird flew tamely 
close before my tent, which Captain Harries told me 
was called the Bird of Paradise of Kashmir. But in 
reality it is no Bird of Paradise at all, though very 
beautiful. It is covered all over with long white 
feathers, and has a long tail following behind it like 
a comet's. I could not get the real name of it, and 
so must leave it hallowed by belonging to the un- 
known, and with the impression, which the astonished 
sense of sight has left upon my memory, of having 
seen a winged comet among the trees. 

Returning on the 7th to Kanbal on the river, I 
purposely walked on foot through Islamabad, which, 
for its curious people, mosque, and general character, 
is worth that trouble, if you go through it at all. 

I was now to return to the Chenar Bagh, and, on 
my way down the flat-banked river, I visited some 
very scant remains at Wantipur, and afterwards made 
a more successful effort at Pandritan than I had 
done in coming up. By the help of Camala, my 
waterman, and Samdu, my sweeper, I managed to 



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KASHMIR. 1 55 

get the awfully cranky boat baled out^ and as the 
dead duckweed pool that surrounded the little 
temple among the willow trees was only forty yards 
square, we succeeded in the voyage to and fro with- 
out shipwreck. The structure is a hollow square, 
each of the four sides having an open arch, and the 
centre forming a cupola. There was just room to 
push the boat quite underneath, so as to view the 
centre. The little affair is deeply and elaborately 
adorned, and is in its way quite a little gem ; so 
that our small duckweed enterprise with a leaky 
boat was rewarded by the sight. And here stands 
this comparative speck of architecture, solitary amon^ 
its willows, sole remnant, if legend be believed, of 
the once capital of Kashmir. It lies only some half 
hour's walk from the Ram Munshi Bagh, close by 
the Chenar Bagh, and may thus be easily seen by any 
of those few who may care for such a visit. This 
Ram Munshi Bagh is the Bagh set apart for fami- 
lies. I walked through it instead of continuing in 
the boat, without regretting that I was not qualified to 
dwell there ; it seemed to me to be shut in, and not 
to be well supplied with water. As we walked along 
from Pandritan, Camala shook me down a quantity 
of small mulberries from time to time from large 
trees. But I had far better mulberries than thase 
later on, Kashmir being deservedly famed for that 
delicious fruit of mournful association. 

The weather had been wet and unpleasant, and 
my boat matting had flapped much during my 
return ; and when, on the evening of the 8th, I re- 
occupied my tent, that flapped in concord. Indeed, 



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15^ WANDERINGS AND WONDERINCS. 

I too well remember that about this time the weather 
did begin to be very uncertain, or rather certain to 
be rainy and windy and unpleasant, and on the 
night of the loth I find I have marked a very heavy 
thunderstorm. The tent that I had travelled about 
with was now changed fora new one, and until the i6th 
I passed a not very joyous time under my adored 
chenars, while, with very little intermission, their 
heavy foliage flung quantities of water down upon my 
double roof, and amid unmusical tones of droppings, 
my waterman was employed in cutting and keeping 
clear an improvised earth gutter round my canvas 
walls. 

This bad weather was enlivened or darkened by a 
small discovery that somewhat concerned my domes- 
tic economy ; for word was brought to me by my 
cook and waterman that my " bearer " — a corruption, 
as I believe, of the word behrd — Mogul John, was 
habitually getting partly or wholly tipsy, and that he 
had boasted in his cups that he could rob me of my 
whisky at night, by getting hold of the bottle under 
the pegged sides of my tent ; indeed, that he had done 
so more than once already. I therefore enlivened 
the monotony of water by a private examination of 
the accused, as to spirit He began to equivocate, 
and persisted, till I threatened to throw him into the 
canal. Thereupon he roundly denied the charge, 
whereupon the witnesses were called, and confronted 
with him. The trial took place, and ^' Guilty " was 
then with perfect facility pleaded. I had more than 
once suspected him of drinking, and I had now to 
add lying and theft. I don't suppose he has ever 



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KASHMIR. ' 1 57 

offered himself again, but k is best to record his 
name and character ; add to which, on dech'ning to 
settle his book except through Bahar Shah, a deduc- 
tion of what the Stock Exchange would call five- 
eighths was made of his bloated total. All the rest 
were honest and straightforward to the end ; but 
travellers should be upon their guard. Yet, even so, 
they may be deceived ; for this person was on Messrs. 
Cook's list. Muhammadanism had not kept Mogul 
John pure ; whether he was Sunni or Shia, he wor- 
shipped the bottle more religiously than he did the 
prophet. 

One fine afternoon was too tempting to be lost, and 
I accepted an invitation from Mr. Gordon, a barrister 
from Allahabad and a tented neighbour in company 
with Lieutenant Blenkinsop, to take a row round the 
Dal. Anyone who has read Moore's exquisite non- 
sense about the Dal in his Lalla Rookh — that blind 
product of *' the encouraging suggestions of friends " 
— ought to anticipate disappointment ; and by thus 
meeting that enemy half way, he is not likely to be 
too keenly overcome. The water, as it rushes out 
from the entrance, is of a lovely crystal, and so it is 
inside wherever you can catch a good view of it — 
beautifully crystal. But where do you see it ? 
Even the guide book persuades itself to have courage 
enough to tell plain truth here. Its main surface is 
covered with dense belts of gigantic reeds, bulrushes, 
and floating gardens, these last with something of a 
pretty name, being, as I had once found them at 
Mexico city, ugly and shapeless lumps of dirt bound 
roughly together. 



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158 IVA.WDER/XGS AND WONDERINGS. 

The feature that attracts attention here is that 
exhibited by the mountains which encircle the lake, 
particularly towards the abandoned palace, called 
Peri Mahal, not far from which stood one lonely tree, 
like a mourner o'er the dead. Here the slopes are 
charming, and the crystal water has been somewhat 
spared, to reverberate the sun and shade, and to repeat 
these pleasing shores downwards on its thus attractive 
surface. So also there is some fine grouping near a 
spot called Chashma Shahi, or " Royal Spring," of 
which I shall speak more at length before I leave 
Kashmir. In companionship the afternoon passed 
pleasantly enough ; we manoouvred our way through 
all impediments, and the evening concluded with a • 
quiet tented entertainment. 



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XVI. 

My next excursion was to include the Sind Valley. 

This lies upon the road to Lay, the capital of Ladak ; 

and I followed it to somewhat beyond Sonamerg — 

merg signifying meadow. But there were other spots 

to be visited on the road thither and on the return. 

It was on the afternoon of Wednesday, the 22nd of 

May, that I made my start ; but the early morning 

of that day I had already devoted, at the earnest 

desire of Camala, to a climb to the Temple called 

Takti Suleiman, or Throne of Solomon. Here, I 

must ask you to believe among other matters told of 

that same monarch, that King Solomon used from 

time to time to sit "in all his glory." The climb is 

smart and rough enough, as many paths have been 

to many thrones. And when you get to it, the 

Temple is as little worth the trouble as has happened 

to be the case with many thrones. The height is 

6000 feet above the sea, and 1000 above the Chenar 

Bagh. When there, you cannot fail, in some respects, 

to be impressed with the view. In the distance you 

sec many folding hills, and winter-snow mountains ; 

while below you cannot but remark the very curiously 

sinuous course of the Jhelum, displaying a pattern on 

theground, to which an oft-repeated legend attributes 

the invention of that well-known pattern on the old- 

fashioned Kashmir shawl. And, so far as this pattern 



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l6o WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

is concerned, the extreme flatness of the Vale well 
serves to exhibit the effect of the laid-out shawl. The 
colouring of all the view was charming at that early 
hour, for I had started at about five o'clock. 

In the afternoon, then, in spite of there being 
some grand out-door entertainment by the Maha- 
rajah, which was open to all, and my stores and 
all other necessaries being on board, I started 
with my two boats, but in cold and comfortless 
weather, for Aloos, on the north bank of the 
Woolar Lake. This was to be my to-morrow night's 
station, and an anchorage down stream was to 
serve for the night, and my first visit was to be to 
the Lolab Valley. Leaving early on the following 
morning, I found we must diverge from the passage 
by the Noru Canal, which lies on the way from Sopur 
to Srinagar, in order to get to the lake, which we 
reached at about three o'clock in the afternoon. Here, 
in a marshy, weedy corner, the boatmen proposed to 
stop. On my naturally expostulating they talked of 
'^hawa" upon the lake. This is a very dangerous 
and well-known storm of rain and gusty, high wind, 
funnelled through the surrounding hills and mountains, 
and working up shallow and confined waters to the 
destruction of flat- bottomed boats. But all was peace 
and quiet now; and it was only a corresponding state 
of quietu&e, vulgarly called laziness, that reigned 
within the boatmen's breasts. They were, however, 
soon roused by a not very tempestuous vocal breeze, 
and we crossed the lake at leisure, with which I will 
not pretend to have been greatly charmed, though it 
is not wholly without feature. The water is shallow, 



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KASHMIR. l6l 

and was very muddy and weedy, and Aloos was little 
better than the spot whence I had worried the boat- 
men. But there is some show of folding hills and 
valleys round about. 

Ponies and coolies were ready at early morning, 
and I was glad to get away and begin to ascend. We 
were to mount a considerable ridge in order to 
descend to the Lolab Valley on the other side, and it 
was a very stiff and not very interesting mount. But 
my eyes and ears were now and then regaled by 
the well-known whitethorn in full bloom and by th» 
far from unknown voice of the cuckoo. At last w^ 
came to the summit ; and there, in a small but beau- 
tiful woodland scene, at a turn to my left into a path 
that led to Sopur, I breakfasted under a very fine old 
forest tree. 

A little farther on I was to pass out of this broad 
belt of shade, and to look down on Lolab, far below. 
Accordingly, I walked through alone, in order that I 
might enjoy alone the promised opening. Shortly 
I issued from the wood, and all was before me. What 
was my sudden, but enduring, impression ? Simply 
that I would go no farther. Below me, strikingly 
far down, lay the valley, flat as a floor; and not 
only so but flooded with rice cultivation ."Oh!" 
I was told, ** certainly, yes, there is much rice ; but 
Lalpur has some very pretty walks." Very good ; but 
I did not undertake Kashmir for a " pretty walk," nor 
surely for the guide-book's entertainment of " ten or 
twelve daySy marching about from village to village.'' 
Right or wrong, I turned from flooded rice-grounds. 
The surrounding hills were commonplace to me, and 

M 



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1 62 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

I am quite content to be abused for my something 

more unpleasant even than indifference. "Where 

can we go now?" said I, in not the best of moods, 

and intending inwardly simply to go back. But 

Camala saved me this. "There is Nagmerg" he 

said ; " that lies up here." We had turned back into 

the wood, and he pointed to a rising ground to my 

then left, and therefore in a direct line opposite to 

what had been my breakfast-ground. "Anything^," 

I said, "rather than doing nothing, except going 

down to the Lolab." So that path we took, and I 

certainly do not repent it. We were soon in the 

midst of a very undulating — indeed, almost precipitous 

— forest, well clothed, but not too closely so, with fine 

trees ; and on an extensive bank, rising before me, I 

presently beheld an immense sheet of forget-me-nots 

in full bloom, offering a spread of flowering azure 

that was quite new to me among these flowers. But 

this was adventitious. The general scenery was 

standard and permanent, and I could recommend any 

one to visit Nagmerg, though the climb is severe. It 

presents a fine, widely undulating surface of mountain 

meadow, beautifully fringed with forest edges, not of 

merely pine, but of fine round-headed timber; thus 

calling to mind the description of the picturesque 

which Gilpin gives in his " Forest Scenery," where an 

irregular base forms bays and promontcriesoi foliage. 

From both sides, that is, front and back, the views are 

most striking. The one looking towards the Vale I 

saw. The one looking in the opposite direction I 

did not see ; for my weather was very unpropitious, 

and I consequently lost one whole day, not cnly in 



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KASHMIR. 163 

tent, but, for the greater part of the day, in bed. It 
was of no use to get up. 

From the northern side, the great mountain Nunga 
Purbat can be seen ; but him I saw afterwards, of 
which anon. Towards the Vale the view is really 
grand. You look completely down the vast gorge 
you have been climbing, and the lake and all its 
shores are visible far below. In the very farthest 
distance you get a long range of snow mountains; and 
between them and the lake you have the intermediate 
flats, effective from this point, because decked out 
specially by the River Jhelum, which trails directly 
towards the eye in one long approaching line of 
distant silver. Short was my evening view, however. 
For the next morning the weather was at war with 
everything ; and thunder and lightning of the moun- 
tain's force, loaded with violent hail, swept the whole 
country round, and made it quite impossible to movc# 
While it lulled towards the afternoon, my solitude 
was enlivened by a visit from a Captain Balfour, who 
kindly walked towards my tent to make inquiries, 
and who gave me certain useful hints about Lake 
Manasbal and the Sind Valley, confirming me also 
in the wisdom of my determination not to descend 
to the Lolab. 

On the morning of Sunday, May 26th, I came 
down again to Aloos, and took to the boats: and 
down indeed it was. My men and pony coolies 
recommended it, the latter naturally, for I had to 
come on foot, and now and then on something else 
besides. But the green rugged scene was extremely 
picturesque. On turning out of the river, the next 
M 2 

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164 WANDERINGS AND WONDEKINGS. 

day, to get to Manasbal, the scenery became ex- 
tremely pretty. The surrounding hills sloped plea- 
santly towards the water, which was of a perfect crystal, 
and our lenting-ground was under some handsome 
chenars at the head ; and here I had the good fortune 
to meet again my neighbours of Atchibal, Captain 
and Mrs. Harries. 

Here I stayed four days, moving about in one way 
or another, an J was one day much amused by at- 
tending a fishing excursion, where the fish were caught 
with nothing more nor less than mulberry bait, which 
they eagerly snatched. What they were worth when 
caught, I am not competent authority to say. But 
talking of mulberries, for which Kashmir, as I have 
.said, is famous, there was an old Fakir living below 
our chenars. at the lake-side, who brought us every 
moniing, before breakfast, some of this delicious fruit, 
fresh gathered from his own garden. It was daintily 
set out in a little wicker saucer, lined with fresh 
chenar-leaves, and decked with blossoms of the wild 
single rose, carefully sprinkled on the purple fruit. 
We went down to pay him a visit, and to walk 
through his garden ; and he showed us, with much 
quiet satisfaction, a long natural tunnel, made longer 
by his labour, in the hill behind his house, which was 
to be his tomb. Nor are they merely Kashmir Fakirs 
whose vanity extends to tombs. 

The weather had been unsettled, but was improv- 
ing, and on the morning of the 30th of May my 
attention was attracted by a small group of shepherds 
driving some thousands of sheep up the mountain 
for pasture. This, 1 was informed, showed they con- 



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KASHMIR. 165 

sidered the weather might now be depended on as 
settled, so I followed its expected example, and began 
to settle my own mind ; this time, for a start on my 
excursion up the Sind Valley. And this I made on 
Saturday morning, the ist of June. 

The excursion, as far as Sonamerg, comprehends 
four stations on the road from Srinagar to Ley in 
Ladock. There are altogether (Duke's Ince, p. 239) 
nineteen of these, and the whole distance given is 
260 miles. The same book says that " many visitors," 
even those *' who do not care for sport " (which will 
take Englishmen anywhere) '* simply " (very simply ?) 
"march to Ley for the benefit of the exercise.'' 
Considering the sort of country to be travelled over, 
and to be repeated on return, such a proceeding 
might be termed a strong application of the principle 
of exercise, at the end of which it is quite possible 
the "visitor" might find himself very much "exer- 
cised " indeed. That my good host, Colonel Lister 
Kaye, went many days into the mountains, I know 
by his messages into Srinagar. But he went to shoot 
the ibex, and, from what I gathered, had been suc- 
cessful. For myself, had I been in every respect, 
perhaps, different from what I was, I might have 
ventured on the same arduous enterprise, but in no 
case would I have gone to Ley for mere exercise. 
The little run to Sonamerg — some forty-five miles — 
was all I went for. It is so easy to write things in 
books. I was told by a recently returned sportsman 
that the road becomes fatiguing, tedious, and mono- 
tonous in the extreme. 

To Sonamcrj, then, let us go, and tent at Kangan, 



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1 66 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

at about twelve miles* distance. Thence, next day, 
to Gund, another fourteen. Then, next day, to 
Gagangir, another nine. And thence, on the fourth 
and last day, to Sonamerg, another ten. Here I 
found an extensive undulating rocky meadow ground, 
dressed on some of the slopes with timber, but alto- 
gether somewhat naked ; surrounded at greater or 
lesser distances with mountains, which were some- 
what interlaced in the direction of Ladakh. Here an 
entomologist, who had been with me, and of whom I 
will speak anon, left me at once, as he was pressing for- 
ward on his far longer journey ; and here my solitude 
was enlivened by the presence of Mr. and Mrs. Blisset, 
he, I believe, being at the head of the telegraph 
service. 

Of this my journey to Sonamerg, I wish to say that 
it was by far the most generally interesting and 
engaging of all my Kashmir wanderings. There are, 
of course, many of us who want to see everything, 
wherever we may go ; and, not only so, but who 
measure the beauty and curiosity of everything they 
see by the distance that it lies from home. To these 
I do not speak : but to others I should say. Content 
yourself with this visit to Sonamerg, or if you will 
add, add Nagmerg. Of Gulmerg I say nothing, 
because I did not go there ; but from what I gathered, 
its recommendations, without unnecessarily detracting 
from its features, are more noted for society than for 
scenery, and this must always be a great object in 
Indian furloughs. 

One great advantage in the Sind River or Valley 
excursion is that as you advance the scenery cul- 



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KASHMIR, 167 

minates. When I first turned into the side valley, 
after about three-quarters of an hour's ride, I fell 
into a dead stretch of those interminable flat, 
wet rice-grounds that deform Kashmir, and which 
illustrate, in the most forcible manner possible, what 
I have repeatedly affirmed, that fertility may present 
ugly landscapes ; and if rice-fields do not, what does ? 
But in this present case there was a fine apse of moun- 
tains before me, not gigantic by any means, but 
large ; and towards these one may direct the eye. 
In perhaps two hours you leave these undelectable 
and unwholesome spreads, and arrive for breakfast on 
grass, and under trees. Thence onwards the scenery 
improves ; the ground is rough and picturesque, and 
presently there opens a remarkably striking perspec- 
tive of the valley before you, with heavily wooded 
slopes. In a short afternoon ride of three hours we 
came to the evening's halt at Kangan, and tented on 
a charming spot. The slopes on the right were 
densely wooded, with very varied foliage, and on the 
left were bulky grassy lumps of almost mountains. 
One great companion in this journey is the noisy, 
rushing river Sind. And what a companion a really 
running river is ! Even if it is running against you 
it is one ; and how much more so is it when it runs 
with you and beckons you on with " follow me," as 
so many of us have long since proved, through the 
beautiful slopes among the walnuts and sweet chest- 
nuts of the Italian Switzerland. 

But during these two or three days I had another 
companion also — I mean the entomologist I have 
already mentioned. He was travelling for a Society, 



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1 68 WANDERINGS AND VVONDERINGS. 

and he had come out into these remote districts, and 
was bound for a certain altitude, far off still, in order 
to investigate and report upon a certain question: 
whether a certain given butterfly was to be found at 
that altitude. This may sound trifling to some ; but 
It was an inquiry into nature, and worth a great deal 
more than many erudite wranglings. He was 
wrapped up in his research, and full of information 
in his sphere. He had also secured several varieties, 
which he showed me, in gazing on which (reminding 
me of rougher sport of this class in almost schoolboy 
days) I wondered not more at the specimens than at 
the artistic method of the packing. A pursuit of this 
kind carried to this extent might seem unaccountable 
to some ; but to me it seemed far and far more enter- 
taining than walking 260 miles to Ley, and back 
again, for exercise. 

At 7.30 on the following morning we started for 
Gund, still following up the rushing stream, now 
milky with snow and glacier water ; and with scenery 
always improving, and satisfying the craving thirst 
for Kashmir gorges, without flats and rice-grounds. 
And here I may call to mind the constant companion- 
ship of wild flowers. The rose of Kashmir sounds 
more romantic and suggestive, than the Kashmir 
rose ; but the blossom itself, by whichever name 
called, is pleasing in its modesty, and grows in modest 
places and on a modest bush. At all events, it is 
far more engaging than the Rose of Sharon, or the 
flower that was shown me in Syria under that name. 
It shows of course a single blossom only ; but how 
much more of sympathy there really is in the speak- 



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KASHMIR. 169 

ing countenance of a single blossom, with its smiling 
eye, than in a pursed-up double one, without a 
countenance at all ! The difference between the two 
I have always interpreted to myself as this— the 
single blossom says, ** Tm looking at you/' while the 
double says, " Look at me." Biit a quite peculiar 
feature in the Kashmir bush is that the blossoms 
grow on the long straight branches' from end to end 
in a regular row, one after another, so that by bend- 
ing one of these into a circle you have at once a 
perfect and unpretending chaplet; which, in all its 
simplicity, might strikingly adorn a lady's brow. I 
could not but recall four French lines I have read 
in one of Isaac Disraeli's charming volumes — the 
first of his "Curiosities of Literature." He quotes 
them from among those many that were written on 
the famous " Poetical Garland of Julia ; " and although 
it is the violet that speaks them, they might, with a 
little indulgence, if not strictly, be spoken by the 
Rose of Kashmir : — 



It 



<rc t / 



** Modeste en ma couleur, modeste en mon S(5jour, 
Franche d'ambition, je me cache sous Pherbe ; 
Mais si sur votre front je puis me*verun jour, 
La plus humble des fleurs sera la plus superbe.** 

Which let me thus translate : — 

Modest in my colour, modest in where I grow, 
Free from all ambition, 'neath the grass I hide ; 

But if I, one day, should find me on thy brow, 
The humblest of the flowers would, then, the fullest 
be of pride. 

But besides the modest rose-bushes, there was a 

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I/O WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

white clambering rose. High and wide, and in some 
of the plants strikingly so, it clung to the trees, and 
blossomed abundantly among their leaves and 
branches, as if belonging to them. The effect was 
charming ; add to which at early morning the air was 
perfumed with just the most delicate aroma. The 
hawthorn must again be added^ and one or two 
shrubs of the dogwood. Nor were specimens of the 
blue iris wanting. 

In addition to the general class of scenery I have 
described, the camping ground at Gagangir showed 
some fine curving rocks in the direction of the next 
day's journey ; while those on the other side of the 
rushing river were splendidly clothed with forests of 
varied fresh green foliage. On the last day the 
scenery was, perhaps, the finest; and at length 
emerging on the rocky meadows of Sonamerg we 
beheld a cragged, double-headed mountain, exhibiting 
two or three glaciers on its slopes and precipices. 

It was the same afternoon of this arrival that the 
entomologist left me for the next station. After that, 
I met Mr. and Mrs. Blisset ; he being somewhat dis- 
appointed that a grizzly bear had escaped him and had 
been seen afterwards crawling up the mountain. On 
the morning of the next day, June 5th, before break- 
fasting with them, I rode for about two hours, going 
some way down the path towards Baltal and back. 
Beyond Baltal begins the Zogila Pass that leads into 
Ladak ; and after breakfast, all tents having been 
already struck, I was on my way back to Manisbal 
Lake. As the scenery on coming had culminated, so 
on returning it deteriorated ; and this was one dis- 



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KASHMIR. 171 

advantage of having to return. Rice-grounds re- 
appeared, and the foul mud-ploughing, and the shout 
of the muddy plougher to his muddy oxen. How 
different from the healthy furrows of our Surrey 
hills ! Yet this is the grand growth in Kashmir, to 
come to join in which has been recommended to 
English farming emigrants. Well, indeed, and with 
a pang of absence, they might remember, 

" How jocund did ihey drive their teams a-field." 
It was in the course of one of these day's marches 
that a curious incident occurred, the peculiar 
feature of which might have by many been over- 
looked, by mistaking it for a mere exhibition of com- 
mon timidity. As I was quietly riding along, I 
suddenly saw a black snake, of no great size, cross- 
ing the path. Instinctively I threw my crop at it, 
and called out to my guide who was behind. The 
moment he saw what I pointed at, he made three or 
four short, measured jumps back. This would very 
naturally be attributed to fear. But it was no such 
thing. I instantly detected a reverential colouring in 
his attitudes ; and I am confident that there was here 
figured the latent sentiment of the old Niga, or snake- 
worship. Nothing could have induced that man to 
hurt the snake. And this is the reptile which the 
Christian holds to impersonate the enemy of all 
mankind. Thus have minds or brains differed 
throughout the world ; and, in particular, to what 
thoughts and facts has not the serpent, or snake, 
given rise ? I distinctly witnessed his influence here 
in a very humble case ; and later on I saw a very 
grand one in the vast temples in Cambodia. 



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172 WANDERINGS AND WONDERfNGS. 

On Saturday, the 8th of June, I arrived at Manisbal, 
and on crossing the new bridcre, on my return, noted 
that there were some rather striking peaks and shelv- 
ing valleys far away to the right as I turned down to 
the left towards my destination. Happily I found 
Captain and Mrs. Harries still there, and that they 
had been joined with their friends. Captain and Mrs. 
Brown. The space under the chenars was therefore 
rather largely occupied ; but as I was to start at early 
morning, I became, at their suggestion, their guest at 
dinner for the evening, and slept on board my boat 
below. I must add that the lights and colours of the 
general landscape were particularly effective in the 
course of this afternoon and at sunset. 

After havin^^ thus seen the Sind Valley, I should 
naturally have returned to Srinagar ; and so I should 
have done, had I been favoured with fair weather at 
Nagmerg, and been able to see Nungar Perbat from 
those striking and engaging heights. But as this 
was otherwise, and that I was determined to get a 
view of him, I was bound to go across the somewhat 
dreary Woolar Lake again, to a place called Bandipur, 
for Tragbal. This I did on the 9th, and made my 
way through foggy, sedgy, weedy, and muddy water, 
and thence up a canal to a coolie station. Here we 
were furnished with ponies and attendants, and were 
to go to Kralapura. But the pony-boy, by a blunder, 
took us up another road, and we found ourselves 
brought for a meal and a night's halt to a merely 
wretched, ruined, empty cowshed. Fortunately a 
Kashmir cowherd was on the spot, and explained to 
my men the mistake ; whereon Sedeeka " turned to " 



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KASHMIR. 173 

and thrashed the pony-boy. Cuffing is often 
appealed to out there, especially with CDolies. But 
not much harm was done ; for the charming touch of 
evening that I enjoyed in going across two wooded 
heads or ridges of no great distance in order to 
redeem the error, more than made up for the mistake. 
In the first rather scanty wood we were overtaken by 
just the fringe of a small thunderstorm, the in- 
tervening sunshine silvering the rain-drops, and on 
descending from this and mounting the other, the 
evening sun came out bright and warm upon us, and 
all things glistened. But chiefly, as the effect of all 
this, there was a wondrously fine evening double 
rainbow, which for some meteorological reasons hung 
close upon us ; and while Kralapura lay in deep bird's- 
eye view immediately below us, it thus gilded the 
scene as Constable himself would have joyed to see 
it Moreover we were here wholly among the hills ; 
the flat, insipid Vale being quite excluded. 

At early morning on the loth came our climb, and 
fortunately for me, I had a very clever pony. The 
height from the lake — itself some 5000 feet high — is 
called 4C)CX) feet ; and if it is not so, it seems so. The 
coolies and the men came a shorter but a sharper 
way, and arrived some little time after me with ges- 
tures that betokened something not very unlike fatigue. 
We were all landed under seme large pine-trees over - 
shadowing a piece of water, and here I breakfasted 
But this was not yet the top, for that lay another 
20CO feet above. However, here I tented, and shall 
not readily forget the truly pastoral scene 1 witnessed. 
As I came towards the trees I saw before me two 



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174 IVANDERLVGS ASD WONDERINGS, 

large flocks of goats, reposing with their two tall 
shepherds. The goats were themselves of unusual 
size, and very long-haired. But their tameness was 
quite as singular as their appearance. I got off, and 
walked among them, and they would scarcely make 
way for me ; in those solitudes I confess to have 
felt companionship : 

" Their tameness was charming to me." 

After breakfast came the second climb to see the 
mountain, and through the forest to a wide, ungainly, 
undulating plain we came at last — Camala and I. 
Here, to our right, we caught a full view of Haramuk, 
rearing his snowy range to about 1 7,coo feet above 
the sea, to some ii,ooo feet or 12,000 feet above 
the vale, and to some 6000 feet or 7000 feet above 
us. But I did not come specially to see Haramuk. 
The afternoon was very fine, but where was Nunga 
Perbat ? " Ah ! " said my waterman, who was on a 
pony with me and spoke just enough English to be 
generally misunderstood (though not so in this case) 
— "behind rain cloud.*' And truly, there gloomed a 
centre storm in the far middle distance, a large dark 
separate curtain across the otherwise blue sky. I 
turned my pony to the right towards Haramuk, caring: 
not where I went, when lo 1 through an opening of 
some crags and crests, the corner of my eye caught 
a startling object. It was really Nunga Perbat, and 
the storm was really miles away from him. Hasten- 
ing forward I called to Camala, and gained an 
eminence and gazed. He stood out far distant and 
quite alone without competitor ; and he was snowy 



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KASHMIR. 175 

white throughout. The sun was full upon him with 
his map-registered height of 26,629 feet, and he looked 
supremely fine. His form, from my point of view, 
was perfect : two vast shoulders with an aspiring 
head between them ; the whole body to correspond ; 
and all alone. This mountain scene was truly im- 
pressive, and all the more so from its chief feature 
having come upon me by surprise. There stood he; 
Haramuk and his high range were to my right, and 
over the ridge to the Tragbal Pass — ii,8oD feet high 
—which lay to my left, for I had diverged — I saw the 
long snowy mountain-path leading onwards down to 
Zcdkusu on the road toGilgit ; and along that snowy 
path there was approaching one small, slow group of 
one man with his one laden donkey ; a perfect Bewick 
winter colophon. I sat gazing on Nunga Perbat 
till I perceived the effect was changing by the move- 
ment of the sun. A shade was just appearing on 
one side, with a slight mist into the bargain. I did 
not wait to drink the lees ; but with the last taste of 
the sparkling wine I quickly rose and departed. 

Two facts should here be noted : you do not see 
Nunga Perbat at all from the common path ; and 
you should see him at mid-afternoon. As regards the 
path, I met two young sportsmen on the road who 
had killed there ten bears together — seven for one, 
and three for the other ; and who had just come up 
from Zedkusu. But they had seen no mere of the 
mountain than I had seen of the bears. This bear- 
shooting, by-the-way, of the common black bear is 
now belittled in Kashmir. " Oh ! bears, yes." And I 
confess the sport docs not, as described to mc, seem 



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1/5 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

very grand. These animals are as fond of mulberries 
as are the fish, and are shot down while enjoying 
their schoolboy plunder, squatting on the branches. 
With the grizzly and grisly gentleman the case is 
somewhat different, and the sport is rarer. Kashmir 
for other sport, has, by all accounts, been shot out 
altogether. From the forest tent I came down, and 
down, on the follo.wing morning, and was towed up 
the "charming" mud-banks of the Jhelum ; landing 
and tenting again at the Chenar Bagh on Wednes- 
day, the 1 2th of June ; but, this time, higher up and 
beyond the crowded trees. Thus ended my second 
excursion. My third and last was to be to the Pir 
Panjal Pass. 



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XVII. 

I HAD heard of the glories of the Pir Panjal Pass 
into Kashmir from Lahore so long" ago as when 
on board the " Ganges " coming to Calcutta ; and 
I had heard of them again at Murree ; and being 
myself purely an excursionist, with my time my 
own, I could not have dared to leave the Vale 
without seeing the Pir Panjal Pass. Accordingly, 
I made my arran^^ements for starting on the even- 
ing of the 1 8th. and in the meantime I employed 
my few days in walking across the wide flat to 
the reading-room and in paying another and a fuller 
visit to the Dal, especially in order to see some- 
thing at least of the remnants of Moore's " splendid 
domes and saloons of the Shalimar/' The illusion 
that any such features could ever have existed there 
must be dispelled by a visit. But, then, Lalla Rookh 
is not a guide-book ; and they who desire to think of 
Shalimar, as he wrote of it, should not go there. 
What remains shows that the whole affair must have 
been put together in such a manner as common sense 
must see was alone possible in those remote and then 
quite outlandish districts ; I mean that the quah'ty 
of the remains, to the vulgar mind at all events, thus 
shows that in its original condition the building and its 
surroundings must have partaken of the tawdry. The 
canal leading up to it is to-day of dismal aspect truly. 

N 



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178 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

The Nishat Bagh (or garden) may follow suit in my 
description ; but the Naseeb Bagh is well worth a 
visit, for it is a palace of nature merely, consisting 
of no artificial bagh and buildings, but of a fine grove 
of old chenars like a small Windsor forest. Save 
for the inconvenience of access, it would be the 
choicest of the Srinagar tenting-grounds. I was 
again depressed by the absolute suffocation of the* 
waters of the Dal ; there is even a causeway (as we 
call it) built into the lake ; but the sloping banks 
and mountainous hills around improve upon better 
acquaintance. 

Well, in undertaking the Pir Panjal Pass, I 
arranged to put all my people on ponies, to their 
great delight, reserving one of the boatman to come 
on foot, in order to look after the coolies with the 
tent and stores ; and on the evening of the i8th I 
started for the Pass, gc^ing round in the boat to the 
Post Office on the river. Thence, next morning, I 
was towed up to Karkapur, arriving about two 
o'clock p.m. This was a desolate-looking place, 
but at about a furlong onwards there was a fine 
chenar-tree to tent under, which, in turn, afforded a 
fine, though distant, view of mountains with undula- 
tions ; but these also far away. A beautiful burnish of 
virgin gold attended sunset, and this tint is very 
characteristic of Kashmir. In coming up the river I 
thought the hills in certain parts looked better than 
before, but the banks were but towing-banks still. 

Starting at six next morning I had a ten-mile ride 
to Rama, and tedious and ugly was the ride. Rice- 
grounds and coarse grass were its adornment, and 



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KASHMIR. 179 

the flatness was of the Isle of Dogs. The weather 
was hot, ray thermometer, both yesterday and to-day, 
showing 88° in the shade, where we could get shade. 
Though we arrived at an early hour we were obliged 
to halt, which we did under some fine walnut-trees. 
But we were not quite solitary, though perchance 
would have rather been so. For we were regaled with 
what at home would be called " rough music." Here, 
however, the occasion was the exact opposite. So far 
from its object being, as with us, to accompany the 
wranglings of husband and wife, it was here intended to 
celebrate their early harmonious junction, before the 
luxury of love had been succeeded by the luxury of 
quarrel. My people were somewhat astonished as 
well as amused at the barbarism of my objection ; 
and at my explanation of how we understood such 
sounds at home were rapt in wonder. 

An early start next morning brought us, after an 
eleven miles' ride, to Shupyan, where there was some 
show of timber, but only a poor tenting-ground, and 
the ride was again flat and ugly. Afterwards, 
another night brought us to Hirpur, whence the 
ascent is considered to begin, though this is not 
strictly correct ; and here it was that the general hire 
of horses took place. The spot itself is more or less 
engaging, and I tented by a stream's side under a 
large walnut-tree. The bungalow (so called) was of 
so doubtful an appearance that I left it in doubt. 

On Saturday, the 22nd, I sent the coolies forward 
with their guide, getting up at early dawn to free my 
tent for them, and at a later but still early hour all 
our riding party mounted our ponies. There was 

N 2 



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l80 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

myself and cook, the waterman and the sweeper, the 
under boatman and volunteer waiter ; and off we 
all trudged together, to get to a spot on the Pass 
called Aliabad Serai for the night. 

What we were to see I could not at all make out. 
In the Chenar Bagh there was a near neighbour of 
mine, a young doctor, who had come over rather too 
early in the season, and was suffering from a much- 
frozen lip in consequence. But I could not possibly 
get from him any distinct description of what he had 
seen, though I am quite sure he did his best to give 
me something of the sort, and was very indulgent of 
my cross-questioning ; but he was only an exaggera- 
tion of too many travellers : they cannot manage to 
describe what they have seen, so as to prepare you 
for it. In this case, however, that peculiarity was 
strong, perhaps because I always found him reading 
mathematics. Thus it was that my curiosity was 
great, and my distrust, perhaps, was scarcely less. 

Well, we began with a very pretty ride through the 
Hirpur woods, though by-and-by the path became 
almost too picturesque in rocky ruggedness and un- 
mitigated ups and downs. At length there was a 
decided down, and we came forth upon a low bridge 
across the rushing, boisterous Rembiera. There the 
real ascent began through the forest on the opposite 
side. Out of this we presently emerged, almost 
equally impressed with roughness, and came upon the 
coarsely green and shapeless gorges of the Pass, 
while the Rembiera now roared far below us on our 
left. This unpicturesque gorge continues in long 
perspective, and you see your future path in certain 



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KASHMIR. l8l 

broken lengths for a good way ahead, roughly cut out 
upon the harsh, dry cheek or slope. It is as bad as 
bad can be in places, and I believe I was the only one 
who escaped the ineffable bore of continually getting 
off and on. But my pony was very clever, and only 
wanted his fair chance given him, and this served for 
both of us. What else could you expect on the Pir 
Panjal? Perhaps we saw more than usual of this 
class of the so-called picturesque, and I was told we 
did, for by the breaking of some bridge we were forced 
into an unusual divergence, and were driven over a 
ragged round. What chiefly proved this was that 
our breakfasting hour happened during the divergence, 
and we bivouacked on a shingly slope of perhaps 60°. 
On we afterwards continued, and I soon discovered 
that, whatever the Pir Panjal Range may look like 
at a distance from the south, the Pir Panjal Pass, or 
vast gorge of the Rembiera, is, as compared with 
grand mountain passes, ugly, confined, and coarse. 
There is not to be seen one single glance of a good, 
real, craggy peaked snow mountain. You are for 
the whole way to Aliabad Serai — to speak of nothing 
farther at present — under the brows of that lower 
class of mountain known as the round or clumsy- 
headed, and there is only coarse grass, some rock, 
and dissolving snow to show for itself. The bare- 
ness of the slope you travel on is extreme, though 
this of itself need not have destroyed attraction. 

At length, in the midst of all this, hope jeering at 
me as we went on, I heard the welcome, yet most 
unwelcome words, " Aliabad Serai/' and there it was 
among the same shapeless slopes, showing itself at a 



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1 82 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

curve about two miles away in front. Thither we 
came in time, and I then found myself upon a wide, 
exposed and undulating maidan, or meadow, with a 
profound apology here to that beautiful word for this 
application of it. Around us were unattractive 
mountains, but the most unattractive object of all 
was the most filthy Serai itself. " Hardly fit for a 
lady." says one of the guide-books, somewhere, in 
which passage I have scratched out " lady," and 
inserted " pig." If the Maharajah's feeling as regards 
the visits of strangers to his dominions is to be tested 
by the state of this building, he must be held to abhor 
their presence. 

I tented out in the pseudo-meadows under a 
blazing sun ; and be it the turn of sun or of high 
wind, either of which can arrange to worry you or 
both can assault together, there you must take your 
chance. Hitherto I am bold to say that, judged by 
this class of excursion, there was nothing whatever 
worth coming for, nothing at all, so far. But the 
view from the Fakir's house down on to India was a 
point much spoken of, and this lay still some miles 
further on, the distance to be undertaken on the early 
morrow varying in report from five to seven. 

Assuredly I was not going down to Lahore at 
midsummer, and therefore my continuance to and 
from the ridge was matter of mere faith. And 
faith in what ? We are told that faith is tried. It is, 
indeed, and very often too, and too much, though 
sometimes (as must be the case) it is rewarded. I 
felt mine tried here, but nevertheless I meant to face 
the trial, and to see whether joy would come in the 



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KASH\fIR. 183 

morning. But behold ! there is another arrival from 
the very spot. Who are they ? Two young officers 
from Lahore. Now then for information, unless 
(by-the-by) there are mathematics. But I got none, 
though for a far better reason, and my disappoint- 
ment was much softened by my amusement at the 
naive reply. I naturally walked to their tent and bid 
them " good day," being received, as I always was 
by officers in India^ with pleasant frankness. 
•* You have come from Lahore ? " 
" We have, indeed, and glad to get away." 
"Of course stifling?" 

*• We could not sleep indoors and scarcely out ; 
even there it seemed hard to breathe." 

" What did you think of the road up to the top of 
the Pass ? " 

"Well, we were not much impressed with any 
particular part of it, and it was very hot and 
fatiguing." 

Then came my real point. " And the view from 
the Fakir's house — I propose riding there to-morrow 
morning — is there anything really striking there ? " 

Alas ! there had been no Eurydice behind Orpheus 
in this particular escape from corresponding regions. 

** We didn't look back*' was the reply. We could 
not but all laugh together. 

As I was determined on two points — one to see 
the ridge, and the other to leave sweet Aliabad Serai 
on the same day — I had to start very early for the 
first object, and I and my waterman were both in our 
saddles very soon after four o'clock on Sunday, the 
23rd, the pony coolie coming with us. What the 



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184 WANDERINGS AND iVONDERINGS. 

real distance was I know not ; what it seemed I 
know. 

The coolie insisted it was four Cos, or eight miles ; 
for me it might have been eighty. Long, dreary, 
monotonous, commonplace, and seemingly inter- 
minable did I find that " lovely "ride. At last there 
appeared the building at the crest ; and towards this 
I made at once in haste. 

How was my faith rewarded ? Did I see anything 
worth coming for.? Yes, indeed I did. All that 
there is to see I did not see ; the enormous flat stretch, 
including even Lahore, was curtained off by gloomy 
mists ; but in this there was perhaps something 
gained in the dark charm of half-mystery that hung 
about, without concealing, all that lay immediately 
below. I stood upon a seeming precipice. Poschiana 
lay six miles down by path, and through the sombre 
atmosphere I saw Poschiana, and a gloomy depth 
yet lower still, and the misty outline of the rising 
hills immediately beyond. It was all impressive to 
behold, and rests upon the memory. 

I am very glad I persevered. It is in reality a 
Surprise View. How, then, should it be recommended 
to come into the Vale by this Pass ? I should answer 
for myself that such advice is wrong. For what is 
the descent into the Vale for which you will lose 
this great surprise ? It is nothing. Even if you 
saw the Vale you would only look upon a flat. But 
you do not see it at all, or only just a small distant, 
ineffective peep, perhaps in the direction of Islamabad. 
Even were there anything to see, the obstinate fold- 
ing of the dead-coloured buttresses of pine in this 



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KASHXfIR, 185 

" lovely pine-clad valley " would shut out everything 
below. Yet "kaleidoscopic effects" have been 
declared ! But there is not even variety in ugliness. 
I have a small but very sensible pamphlet which 
was published in 1887 by a "Mr. Charles F. Gilbert, 
Executive Engineer on the late Kashmir Railway 
Survey," who came upwards. After saying that 
some of the scenery on the other side is " very ordi- 
nary," he thus sketches it from the crest to Shupyan : 
" Monotonous maidan for four and a half miles, 
monotonous valley for six and very ordinary wood 
and water foreground beyond/' ... "no fore- 
ground, no background." For, myself, I must boldly 
dare the responsibility of asserting that the only 
feature — and that is a grand one — worth looking for 
on the Pir Panjal, for anyone who has ever seen really 
fine mountain scenery, is the Surprise View on going 
into India ; "the rest is silence." 

My only deviation on returning was from Rama 
to Chrar; to see Shah Nur-u-din*s Zcarat, a road 
described by Ince to run " amidst beautiful scenery 
all the way," but, as described by me, " ugly ride, ugly 
place, ugly mosque, and ugly Zearat." 



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XVIII. 

When I found myself at the Chenar Bagh again on 
the evening of Friday, the 28th of June, I found it 
very full, and therefore moved up to nearly opposite 
the entrance to the Dal, and next door, as great good 
chance would have it, to a Mr. Garrick, well known 
in India for a very remarkable translation of a Native 
poem. I was myself now getting rather tired of 
travelling and tenting, and on the night of July 3rd 
my canvas was drenched with rain, and I was forced 
to sleep in the boat. And here was my good luck ; 
for while lying there on the 4th, another boat was 
suddenly pushed in alongside of mine by someone 
who had come to call on Mr. Garrick and mistaken 
my boat for his. Mr. Garrick had left that morning ; 
and this fact leading to a few words, behold, I was 
recognized as the stranger who held the very short 
conversation at Domel. It was Mr. Collett's self who 
spoke. And behold, again, he told me I was looking 
fagged, which no doubt I was, and that I must come 
up to his house on the Dal and spend a few quiet 
days there. And behold again, after a very noisy 
night of Muhammadan " Merry Marriage Bells," in the 
course of the morning of Friday, July 5th, I arose 
and struck my tent for the very last time in Kashmir, 
and went in my boat to his landing-place, where I 
was met by his servants and carried up in a rede to his 



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KASHMIR. 187 

quiet dwelling called " Chashma Shahi," or " The 
Royal Spring," which lies beneath one of the very 
prettiest of the mountain groupings round the Dal. 
Thus, the first slight chance of my few words at 
Domel, which I need not have exchanged, and the 
second small chance of my being driven to an upper 
portion of the Bagh, and the third of my being next 
to Mr. Garrick, brought me into contact with Mr, 
Collett, and found me really a most timely and bene- 
ficent refuge with the owner of Chashma Shahi. 
There I remained, enjoying the quiet hospitality of my 
friend till I left Kashmir, lounging about his garden, 
and gazing on the mountains round, or listening to 
the birds, including the varieties of the mocking-bird, 
and the beautiful note of the golden oriole which 
had always cheered me in the Bagh. Nor do I 
forget the sight of a mute beauty that is your com- 
panion everywhere, although without a voice, I mean 
the hooppoe. These charming birds, with their 
exquisite crests and their curved bills, are most 
familiar, and will take little or no heed of you 
while hopping about and piercing the grass for 
whatever food it may be they are in search of. 
Here at Chashma Shahi, with Mr. Collett, I enjoyed 
"somno et inertibus horis," the "jucunda oblivia 
vitae ^' of his retreat, until I bid him a most grateful 
farewell on the morning of Wednesday, the 24th. 

Then I was again carried down to my boat 
(though now I could have walked), and embarked 
upon the Dal, passing out into the well-known Sant-i- 
Kul Canal, paddling by the Chenar Bagh with a last 
farewell, and thence to settle all things with Bahar 



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l88 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

Shah, who presented me with a small shawl on 
parting. Thence I was punted through the last of 
The City of the Sun, with its weedy, grass-covered 
roofings, and afterwards towed almost as far as 
Sopur for the night. The next day I continued 
to Baramoola, passing at one time through a long 
space of shallow water covered with weeds and 
flowers. At night there was a general assembly of 
the crews of both boats, and the usual farewell 
assembly and distribution. My cook, who had now 
become my travelling servant, and Camala, my 
waterman, came on with me to Murree, and two of 
the boatmen as far as Hattien, where, to my great 
relief, I learned the Tonga road was already open all 
the way to Kohala ; and they who travel now will 
never know the ups and downs and crags that from 
time to time were encountered by those who travelled 
in 1889. Thus I came back again to Powell's Hotel 
at Murree, passing coldly through all the stations 
where there had been greetings on the coming, but 
where the dwellings were desolate on the return. 

Now in leaving the Vale I made a point of 
coming out by the old road, over the Baramoola Pass, 
in order to see that first view which has been so 
much spoken of. I found very much what I ex- 
pected ; it is striking to a certain extent, but the, to 
me, radical defect is there : the dead flatness of the 
Vale, and its paltry river-banks. On turning to come 
down into what I call the Entrance Valley, or gorge, 
I must confess this appeared to me to be much more 
striking, though the winding, and the there rushing, 
Jhelum is not actually in view. The fulsome and 



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KASHMIR. 189 

c!umsy exaggerations of the scenery in Ince's Guide- 
Book speak for themselves, and carry their own 
refutation ; and to show how such books are written, 
even the author shrinks from repeating Moore's 
obvious nonsense about Baramoola being an •* earthly 
paradise," and dares to suggest that ^^ Moore must 
have seen it at its best'' Moore in Kashmir ! 

When Hamlet says he sees his father "in his mind's 
eye," he at all events had seen him with his real eye. 
But Moore had no such solid memory of Kashmir to 
recall. 

What I had expected to see in Kashmir was a 
beautifully wooded and undulating valley, with flocks 
and herds, and hanging forests, adorned by a river 
with ever-varying banks — I will say such a land- 
scape as might compare with that beautiful descrip- 
tion of The Isle of Loves which is to be found in the 
IXth Canto of Camoens' Lusiads. I had expected 
a beautiful diversified Vale, where the mountains, 
seeming to belong to it, combined with it, adorned it 
closely, and appeared to grow out of it. In his 
Introduction to the " Fortunes of Nigel," Scott re- 
fers to Lady Mary Montague as saying " with equal 
truth and taste, that the most romantic region of 
every country is that where the mountains unite 
themselves with the plains or lowlands/' Of this 
I found nothing in the Vale of Kashmir, though I 
found it abounding in Java and Japan. Indeed, 
how do geologists describe Kashmir ? They opine 
that the Vale represents the dry bottom of a gigantic 
lake that eventually broke through and left only the 
sluggish river. I can but talk by my own brain ; 



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190 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

and I have already said enough to show why, as 
regards Kashmir, whatever else may be the views 
of others, I entered hoping and departed disap- 
pointed. 

And if this was the case as regards the scenery, 
so was it as regards the " lovely virgins." Not quite 
so much, perhaps ; because I was too old to be 
able to persuade myself that where poverty, hard 
work, and poor nourishment must of necessity pre- 
vail, fairylike beauty and complexion could possibly 
abound. I could discover no more of that among 
the brown-skinned and well-featured females that 
I saw than I could of " kaleidoscopic colourings " 
in the rough Pir Panjal Pass ; and the real 
Kashmir woman, moreover, has all the bearing of 
being rather cold, proud, and distant towards 
strangers. It is quite possible that if they ever lose 
one sort of character they may lose the other, but 
that would not serve to enshrine them in fantastic 
poetry. 



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XIX. 

I WAS not left long at Murree, for scarcely had 
I arrived when I received a very kind letter from 
Miss Ommanney, asking me to repeat my visit to 
the Colonel, and to come and add Nathia Gali 
(or Gully) to my experiences. Therefore, on a fine 
morning, on the 13th of August, I got into the 
saddle, and arrived about four o'clock that after- 
noon. Assuredly there was no flatness here 
Thickly and handsomely timbered gorges, running 
in all directions, one with another, mainly con- 
stitute the features of these gullies ; while the 
picturesque dwelling of the Colonel and his two 
daughters in the midst of a wood exactly corre- 
sponded with the surrounding scenery. Here I 
passed six pleasant days, enlivened by a periodical 
succession of lawn-tennis parties on the artificial 
ground, and looking over several water-colour sketches 
by the Colonel. On the 22nd I returned to Powell's 
at Murree, to leave on the 25th for Powell's at Rawl 
Pindi, and on my way I found the rains had made 
all green since my arrival ; sp much so that I could 
scarcely recognize the road. 

Being now on my way to Simla on a visit to 
Colonel and Mrs. Nicholson, I made no stay except 
to buy one or two required articles among the dis- 
persed mansion-shops of Pindi, and came on to 
Lahore, still hot, but now much cooler than when 



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192 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

the two retreating Pir Panjal officers had not looked 
back at it. Thence I took rail to Umballa, where 
a tonga was then necessary to Kalka, at the foot of 
the mountains. There I slept, continuing my next 
day's journey up the mountain to Simla. 

There must now be a railway to Kalka along the 
flat, for the works were well advanced when I was 
there, and this will be a great boon. There was also 
a talk of carrying the line up to Simla, but this great 
advantage, in one sense, would rob the traveller of a 
most exciting and interesting tonga drive. Both in 
going up and coming down, and particularly in the 
down, your attention is kept alive at every turn ; not 
much less so by the skilled driving than by the 
character of the road. But take care of the heels of 
the horses when you get out at the changes. As 
regards Simla, I must confess to have been much 
surprised when my driver pointed out to me the first 
view of the city. It seemed to be hanging on a 
precipice, and not to be adorned by any attractive 
features as to its buildings. In short, when I came 
to know it more, I felt convinced that had I arrived 
there an unprotected and unrecommended stranger, 
I should not have remained in the place — as Simla — 
for four-and-twenty hours if I could have got away 
within that not very prolonged period. But, as it 
turned out, my stay was of very many twenty-four 
hours, for I had sent on my letter from Colonel Busk 
to his brother-in-law. Colonel Nicholson, the Military 
Secretary of the Commander-in-Chief, whose coolies 
and jinrikisha were waiting at the station, whence I 
was carried still farther up, and received a hearty 



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snfLA. 193 

welcome from the Colonel and Mrs. Nicholson at 
their charming residence of Armadale. 

I was not long in practically proving what was in 
reality the configuration of Simla. On the day after 
my arrival I accompanied Mrs. Nicholson to the 
shooting-ground at Annandale, where she figured 
quite in the first-class among the competitors, and I 
took my aneroid with me to test the level. It was 
one of Adie's, and has from first to last turned out 
singularly correct according to all officially registered 
altitudes. Accordingly, I pointed out that, measured 
from the high crown of the town, which is consider- 
ably above Armadale, down to the shooting-ground, 
we had descended just 1000 feet, and, as a natural 
consequence, had to clamber up it again before we 
could get home. 

Simla is altogether precipitous, and the Viceregal 
Lodge stands up like a kite in the sky. You may 
drive about in your carriage and four, but then your 
carriage is a jinrikisha, and your four are four coolies. 
No wheels, as we understand them, are allowed to any 
but the Viceroy and the Commander-in-Chief All 
the rest must go as I have explained — in which con- 
veyance I confess to have felt as shy at starting as I 
had on striding a donkey for the first time in Cairo. 
Or you may ride, or you may walk. But I don't 
think officers are expected to salute from jinrikishas. 
In point of fact, if carriages were allowed there would 
assuredly be pushings over precipices here and there, 
or barriers of safety would serve to impede traffic. 
There is, to be sure, one round of about five miles for 
riding, called the Mall. Make the best of it. 

O 



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194 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

It was on the 2nd of September, about the close 
of the rainy season, that I arrived at Simla, and 
the weather was superb. The sharp edges of the 
great snow range are visible at intervals from the 
high level of the Viceregal Lodge, and their buttresses 
and independent lesser mountains in all directions 
offer an immense variety of form. But life is carried 
on in perpetual warfare with the laws of gravitation, 
and the place is toe and heel for even 

Being a guest at Armadale my time was varied 
with much society. My first duty was, of course, to 
enter my name at the Viceregal Lodge, and Mrs. 
Nicholson took me to call on Colonel Ardagh, the 
Viceroy's Private Secretary, where I was highly 
interested in his paintings, for they were of views in 
Dalmatia, where I had been with Sir R. Burton. Of 
course, I called on Lord William Beresford, and the 
remarkably tantalizing task of getting to his dwelling 
reminded me of my discovery of that of the Com- 
missioner at Mandalay. I must also mention 
Colonels Quintin and Hennessey ; and Colonel Pole 
Carew, who entertained me at dinner at his romantic 
dwelling, " Shady Dale," down to which I had almost 
to jump. Colonel Warburton, to whom I was in- 
debted for my visit to the Khyber Pass, also reap- 
peared ; and many ladies diversified the scene. Thus 
was I in enjoyment of life at Simla till the morning 
of the 13th, when I left on a journey to Narkanda, 
departing under the command of my indulgent host 
and hostess to come back to them and give an account 
of myself. Happy '* exam." ! 



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XX. 



Accordingly, I started after breakfast in my carriage 
and six. That was the number required. My first 
halt was at Fagu, at a distance of twelve miles, and 
at looo feet above Armadale. My next at Matiala 
or Mutteana — what a wonderful freedom in ortho- 
graphy there is out here ! — this was only 900 feet 
above Armadale. And my third, Sunday the iSth, 
brought me to Narkanda, 1650 feet above Armadale. 
Here my solitude was enlivened by meeting Colonel 
Harvey, of the Wilts Regiment, who, seeing my name, 
claimed me as a relation of his friend, my nephew, 
formerly of the Bays, and gave me very useful 
information about my return road. We passed the 
evening in gazing on the grand range immediately 
in front of the long verandah of the bungalow ; but 
though I saw this fine range, I saw also that I had 
not seen it at its best. In the first place, the magic 
mantle of these mountains, snow, was scanty ; I was 
told it was unusually so. In the next^ the grand 
moment for the view is towards sunset, when the rays 
fall full upon them, but at that hour they were cloudy. 
In the third, at early morning when all the black, 
sharp edges were quite clear, the sun was exactly 
behind them. To see the Narkanda range to perfec- 
tion you must have a fine clear evening. Still, I 
had seen them and can recall them. But if I admired 

O 2 



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196 WANDERINGS AND WONDERJNGS, 

the aspiring tops of these Himalayas wherever I 
caught sight of them, not less was my wonder excited 
at their buttresses and outworks. The extent and 
magnitude of these is most surprising, and hence 
indeed it is that so much difficulty is found in getting 
so good an approach to the main range as will 
enable you to obtain a long and uninterrupted line 
of ice and snow. There is a view of the above de- 
scription at Fagu, which is, in my own idea, worth 
going for alone. 

But I did not stop at Narkanda ; I went on to 
Kotegarh, in the valley of the Sutlej, where I found 
I had come down to the level of Armadale. Here I 
had the good fortune to find Colonel Hammond, 
C.B., of the 5th Punjab Cavalry. We therefore 
could dwell and descant upon the scene together. 
The whole country was of course vastly mountainous, 
and it was gloomy ; and the dark river, winding in the 
most delusive manner to the sight, was gloomy. It 
lay, perhaps, 2000 feet and more below us, and though 
to the eye it was boisterous, to the ear it was com- 
pletely silent ; and onwards thus it foamed and 
flowed alone between its rocky banks, rushing as one 
of the five godfathers to christen the Punjab, and to 
fall at last into the mighty Indus, which, as another 
godfather, has served to christen India. 

I stayed the whole of the next day at the little 
bungalow at Kotegarh, and in dutiful memory to 
Colonel Warburton I buried a chicken, to the subse- 
quent delight of Colonel Hammond. You may ask 
me what this means. It refers to an excellent hint 
of the Colonel's. Bury your chicken for a few hours 



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NARKANDA. I97 

in good mould, before you cook it : plucked or not 
plucked. On the next day, the i8th September, the 
Colonel came with me to Baghi, and we both 
enjoyed, particularly I myself under his guidance, a 
delightful ride through a rocky forest. This brought 
us to some 1750 feet above Armadale, and I mention 
all these altitudes as illustrating the style of the 
country. 

On the 19th we went to the top of the Hatta, 10,000 

feet high, whence the mountain view is grand ; and 

here Colonel Hammond left me to return, while I 

continued to Narkanda. The remainder of this ride 

was again through forest till I at last dropped down 

into the Narkanda road and came along soberly to 

the end. Returning to Simla, my path seemed yet 

more impressive than before, and on Sunday, the 

22nd, I was at Armadale again for breakfast. If, on 

approaching Simla, anything particularly struck me, 

it was the host of Sunday folks coming out to Mas- 

howbra, close by, in jinrikishas, in saddle, and on foot, 

to enjoy the air pf heaven in the place of dogma. 

If in their countenances of thanksgiving I detected 

any slight latent frown, it evidently meant, What 

infidel is this, going into Simla on such a holy 

morning ! 

On arriving at Simla there was a renewal of enter- 
tainment ; and finding that Lord and Lady Reay. 
who had been so kind to me at Bombay, had arrived 
on a visit to his Excellency, I performed the pleas- 
ing duty of immediately entering my name in their 
book. Between that day and my departure I had 
been honoured with a dinner and a concert at the 



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198 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS, 

Viceregal Lodge, and an invitation, through Lord 
William Beresford, to a ball given by the Viceroy's 
staff. Thus was Simla gilded by means of my 
friends' letters from England, and by my entertain- 
ment at Armadale. After breakfast on Sunday, the 
29th, I bade farewell to my generous host and 
hostess, where I had passed so many pleasant, and 
indeed luxurious, days, and swung down my fifty- 
eight miles to Kalka in a rapid and exciting tonga 
journey. Alas ! for those who will enjoy the barren 
luxury of a railway. 

My next point was Mussuri, in order to obtain 
a long backbone view of the Himalayas, which 
Mussuri, from a proper point, affords. On the 2nd 
of October I reached Rajpore, at the foot of the 
very steep climb to my destination, and rested at 
the New Rajpore Hotel. The journey was very 
tedious, for many horses had died, and slow-paced 
oxen only were available over several miles. But 
the Mohun Pass, rocky and wooded, and varied, in 
a certain way, by the diy bed of the sometimes 
torrential Bindal, served as a diversion. The next 
day's climb was very trying and tedious ; and it 
required a nine miles' hard pull to get to the Charle- 
ville Hotel, whence the views are fine and varied. 
But the hotel was crowded, and all sorts of English 
pastimes were going on, including a luxurious 
luncheon. Bearing a letter from Mrs. Nicholson to 
Sir George Greaves, I lost no time after breakfast in 
going to his house, which happened to be close by, 
though by a rocky approach. I found him at his 
solitary meal, but he asked me to dine with him, 



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FROM M US SUE I. 199 

which invitation I accepted, conditioned on my 
getting a refuge at the hotel. This, I afterwards 
found, was impossible on my return thither, so that I 
had to put myself off on that account, and receiving 
his verbal " salaam '* in reply to my note, I took my 
luncheon and counter-marched to Rajpore, with a 
certain feeling, for the first time, of being an outcast 
in India. 



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XXI 

N.OW I had made up my mind to revisit Darjeeling, 
for the purpose of making the journey to Sundukfo, 
and seeing more of the mountains. I therefore 
struck for Allahabad, having learned on inquiry that 
I could get across to Darjeeling without returning 
first to Calcutta, a necessity which, I fancy, would 
have altered my resolution. On my way to Alla- 
habad I passed again through Delhi and Agra Fort, 
revisiting all the now old scenes — so soon do we 
become acquainted with what we have seen — and 
confirming former impressions ; and from Allahabad 
I found my way, at some cost of fatigue, to Darjeeling. 
The connections, or quasi non-connections, between 
the various lines involved many tedious waitings ; and 
in crossing the Ganges from a place called Saheb- 
gunge, where we had to wait from morning till after- 
noon, to another called Manihari Ghat, a straight- 
line distance of some four miles, we were forced from 
some nautical mysteries to compass fifteen, up and 
down on the river. Altogether this journey, which 
was to relieve me from a return to Calcutta, cost me, 
night and day, from the morning of the 15th of 
October to the afternoon of the 17th, and covered 
660 odd miles ; but I got to Darjeeling at last. 

A good many might think this journey worth while 
for merely a second sight of the magnificent moun- 



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DARJEELING AGAIN. 20I 

tain view from Darjeeling before finally leaving 
India ; and I would not readily dispute their judg- 
ment ; certainly I should prefer so doing to walking 
1 60 miles to Lay and back again for exercise. 
Kanchinjunga from Darjeeling is of surpassing 
grandeur ; and Mr. Roberts' comfortable hotel is 
admirably situated for a contemplative gaze from one 
of the best positions. But for myself, my chief object 
in returning was to arrange a journey to Sundukpho ; 
the usual time occupied in going and returning being 
five days. 

The great point gained in this excursion is the 
freeing of the whole mountain view from that middle 
ridge which hides all but three comparatively insigni- 
ficant peaks from the top of Tiger's Hill. But there 
was here necessity of companionship for a special ex- 
cursion of this kind ; and the first not unlikely person 
that I encountered was a jovial-looking German, 
of nearly middle age, but stout, who began talking 
about undertaking the exploit, but in a negative 
sense. This might have so passed ; but he kept 
repeating the same thing so often that I made up my 
mind he was really making up his own to take the 
daring plunge after all. I was in no hurry myself, 
for I was expecting at leisure that the weather would 
get quite cool enough for my intended jaunt into the 
Madras districts, and thence across to Ceylon ; so I 
waited patiently till the egg hatched. 

This worthy gentleman jsras a Mr. J. W. Kriiger, 
from Rangoon ; and he was soon joined by a young 
and active Englishman from the same city, Mr. John 
Reddie by name. The enterprise therefore ripened. 



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202 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

and we made up a party of five. There was Mr. 
Kriiger, Mr. Reddie, a young Mr. McDonell (who 
was staying at Woodlands with his mother), my- 
self, and the fifth traveller from another hotel, a Mr. 
Cooke, being a friend, I believe, of Mr. Reddie's. 
Three days were required for getting horses, things, 
and attendants together, and these, under the com- 
mand of my mounted cook and servant, Bana, were 
despatched in order. " What a noise your people 
made leaving early in the morning,'' we heard when we 
returned. No doubt they did, for they were many. 
Besides my own cook, there was another and a 
waiter, eight baggage coolies, five ponies with grooms 
or s&is, and one most important and indispensable 
individual, the sweeper, without whom there would 
be no admission at the mountain bungalows. For 
ourselves, we took the train to Ghoom, where we were 
met by our ponies, and thence we found our way^ 
riding and walking, to Jore Pokri, for the night. This 
was on Thursday, the 31st of October. On Friday, 
the 1st of November, we slept at Tongloo, and on 
Saturday, the 2nd, at Sundukpho. This was the 
limit of our journey, and it was here that we were to 
enjoy the fullest view of the mountains which the 
fairly practicable paths of these districts afford. The 
excursion fully repaid us, which I believe I can say 
was our unanimous opinion. 

On the next morning we were all up at the very peep 
of dawn, and hurried on to the eminence, which was 
of easy access, lying immediately behind the bunga« 
low, and there, in the fresh and sparkling air, and in 
our loose but sufficient clothing, we had our rough 



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DARJEELING AGAIN. 203 

hot coffee arrangement put together, and sipped our 
cups and watched for glowing sunrise. All the fold- 
ing icy groupings lay uninterruptedly before us in 
long retreating perspective, and though it was imme- 
diately obvious that the largest of the three peaks 
seen from Tiger Hill belongs to a comparatively near 
snow crest, called, I believe, by the absurd name of 
the " Hooded Monk," yet it must be understood that 
it is at first difficult to pick out Mount Everest from 
the rest; and it must also be understood that the 
guides were quite unable to assist. The fact is, he lies 
to the north of the range in Thibet, and, after all, you 
really do not see a great deal of him ; the form of 
what you do see resembles that of a diamond or 
lozenge, so far as the nearer mountains permit that 
much of him to appear. What his exact distance 
might be from our position the various calculations 
do not enable one to state with exactness, but it 
would be quite safe to say that a straight line of 
eighty miles would be the very smallest figure admis- 
sible. Popularly speaking, a round hundred might 
be ventured. 

It will thus be evident that, seen at such a 
distance, it would be unfair to judge of his parti- 
cular appearance ; but certain it is that the eye, 
so far as it can judge, entirely misgives the notion 
of his presenting anything like the picturesque 
and varied form of Kanchinjunga. Being curious on 
this point, I have since my return conversed with my 
friend, Dr. Inglis, on this subject, whose report con- 
firms my doubts. Some ten years or so ago he 
made a real mountain excursion amo ng the ridges. 



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204 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

and ascended one which lies on the western boundary 
of Sikkim, and is an offshoot of Kanchinjunga, which 
brought him to almost the same distance from Mount 
Everest as the former mountain stands from Darjeel- 
ing. He was at a height of some 1 5,000 feet, and 
there lay only one other ridge, perhaps some iooo 
feet higher still, between him and the 29,000 feet of 
Everest. He had a fine, clear, open view of the moun- 
tain accordingly, and the description he has given 
me is, that it rises quite conspicuously, as it naturally 
would do, is very large in appearance, but of the 
plain and simple form of a huge sugar-loaf; and 
therefore it must be far inferior to Kanchinjunga in 
variety of bulk and outline. 

Even as regards his height, viewed from our 
distance, the eye was quite unable to distinguish him 
by any prominence of that kind. He did not appear 
to dominate the group. But mark ; as light came 
gradually growing on, and a glow in the sky gave 
token of fast approaching sun, there appeared at 
length a sudden proof that, far away as he was, 
he was nevertheless the real monarch. Kanch- 
injunga lay strikingly close to our right, and while 
the sun was just tipping his crests the long-reaching 
perspective still lay in cold and slatey atmosphere, till, 
in a moment, the farthest-away peak of all was 
lighted up alone ; and thus the lofty Gaurisankar was 
made manifest among the group by the early golden 
crown with which the monarch of the morn adorned 
him. Speaking for myself, this decided singling out 
of the veritable peak by a living coruscation was quite 
electrical, and, say what you will, this feeling was 



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DARJEEUNG AGAIN. 20$ 

enhanced by the recollection that I was gazing at 
that moment on the highest mountain in the world. 

We spent a certain time at Sundukpho, and 
wandered for a certain distance down the road towards 
Phallut through the undulating pine forest that hung 
upon the slopes to our right. But Sundukpho was our 
intended limit, nor can I doubt that it offers the most 
striking view obtainable in those regions. Certain it 
is that the further we went the less we saw of all that 
had so engaged us in the early morning, and as Phallut 
was wholly inaccessible on account of broken road and 
bridges, we were quite content to return to our bunga- 
low at Tongloo, and on the following evening, Mon- 
day, the 4th of November, to find ourselves again at 
Darjeeling. 

Our entire journey had been propitious, and we 
had all been well attended to in all things. The road 
is altogether exceedingly picturesque, the forests being 
copious. But there is, no doubt, much fatigue at 
times, because the ups and downs are very arbitrary. 
The formation of the ground continually involves a 
mount which you know merely necessitates a descent, 
and so on to the last. To mention the main altitudes : 
Darjeeling stands at 7000 feet, Tongloo at 10,000, 
and Sundukpho at 12,000. As to danger, the word 
is worth mentioning only because it has been printed, 
and therefore should be contradicted. It is more 
difficult of discovery than is Mount Everest of 
discrimination. When we were well at home and at 
the dinner-table, my health was drunk with compli- 
ments for having '*gone so straight." Indeed, we 
were always all well together, though now and then 



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206 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

young Mr. McDonell would dare me to follow him 
in short cuts, for of course there was a great deal to 
be done on foot. And so farewell to Darjeeling and 
its grand excursion. 

We dispersed at once, and on Friday, the 8th, I 
found myself again at old quarters at the Great 
Eastern Hotel, which I had left just ten months 
before, to undertake my Indian and Kashmiri " wan- 
derings and wonderings." 

Yet one last note about Darjeeling, which I must 
choose to record for my own satisfaction, though trite 
in itself and purely personal. In that now again far- 
distant land I suddenly observed a notice, ** To Ban- 
stead Cottage." Banstead I had known since memory 
began ; it was the next parish to Chipstead, my father's 
rectory, and his unmarried sisters, our worthy aunts, 
were for ever sending for us all. But both were in 
olden times two very quiet villages, Chipstead parti- 
cularly so, among the Surrey Hills. What could 
Banstead have to do with Darjeeling ? 

'* Who lives at Banstead Cottage ? " 

" Oh ! a Mr. Gibbons." 

"That won't quite do—" 

*' Ah ! but he did not build it." 

" Who did ? " 

" An old gentleman, now living at so-and-so." 

" What is his name ? " 

" Crommelin, Colonel Crommelin." 

" That will do ; a name as familiar to me as my 
own, and of a twin Huguenot family of old times." 

So on Colonel Crommelin I at once called, and saw 
his daughter, he being rather unwell. But the name 



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DARJEEUNG AGAIN. 207 

was at once recognized, and I was begged to call on 
the morrow without fail. This I did, and suffice it to 
say that, although I had not known him personally 
among others of his family there, yet during our long 
interview I was at Banstead in my early youth again, 
until I left the house, when I was at once in Dar- 
jeeling again. Thus readily can thought adapt itself 
and wander where it wills, or where it must, but 
would not. The Colonel had passed his ninety 
years ; and it was about the time of my early days 
that his brother, " Tom Crommelin,*' was a very well- 
known name among sportsmen, nor can it be yet 
forgotten by many now living. 



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XXII. 

Although my circle to Calcutta was now complete, 
I had still something more to do in India, for I could 
not leave without visiting the Madras Presidency ; 
and as I had resolved to sail for the city, I secured 
a cabin by the British India Company's steamer, 
India, Captain Hall, and was in hopes to have been 
piloted down the Hugli by Mr. Hudson, with whom 
and Mrs. Hudson I had dined a day or two before. 
We left upon the i8th of November, but were de- 
tained in the Hugli by signal, on account of threaten- 
ing weather, which our captain could not profess to 
see any real signs of. However, on the morning of 
Thursday, the 2ist of November, the foul weather 
signal was down and we got away, and passed out of 
muddy water into blue ocean. 

Beautiful weather attended us, and we arrived at 
Madras at 4 p.m. on Saturday, the 23rd. We had 
touched here in heavy rain coming up, and though 
the sun now shone, the flat place looked only a trifle 
less uninviting than before. The works of the harbour 
seemed to be all to pieces ; and as to its protecting 
power, I was told that the signal for bad weather, 
so far from meaning ''fortiter occupa portum^^ was 
a warning to get out of it and go to sea. My object, 
however, was inland, and as soon as possible I found 
my way to the Madras Club, by the help of a boy 



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MADRAS. 209 

whom Mr. Rowlandson had kindly sent to meet me. 
There I saw Mr. Hamilton Holmes, the Secretary, 
who at once made me at home ; and very fortunate 
I thought myself ; Mr. Rowlandson calling shortly 
afterwards. These introductions are indispensable 
in India. Two more letters were also of great 
service to me which General Scott Elliot had given 
me, among others, one to Colonel Gunning, and 
particularly one to Colonel C. J. Smith, R.E., who 
marked me out a most successful march on my way 
south as far as Tuticorin. At Madras, where, never- 
theless, I drove about and admired the lordly houses 
of the English quarter, this was my chief thought, 
and especially the getting to the island of Paumben, 
as advised by Sir Guildford Molesworth, to see the 
corridors of Ramisseram. No one, however, would 
give me much hope of doing this by way of any 
road out of Madras ; for at best a long and next to 
impossible bullock-track would take me only to the 
shore, whither I might never arrive, and then, as to 
a boat } But by dint of asking — " by asking you 
can get to Rome " — I was at last introduced through 
Captain Simpson to Captain Street, who gave me 
no new hope, but gave me a letter to Winstanley 
Carlyon, Esq., Port Officer in Paumben, to be used 
if I could get there. This turned out to be of vital 
importance ; and by-and-by I will tell you how I did 
get there, and how you can get there whenever you 
like to go. But don^t forget the letter. 

On Monday, the 2nd of December, I left Madras, 
and my first march being to the Nilgiris, or Blue 
Mountains, I went as far as Mettu. On the follow- 

P 



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210 WAA'DERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

ing day I took a tonga to Coonoor, or Kunur — spell 
as you please the name of any place you please — and 
drove to Davidson's Hotel, lying about a mile out of 
the road. I made the height of this hotel to be 
6300 feet, and was throughout the drive delighted 
with the bold mountains and the wooded gorges 
through which I passed. On the following morning 
I continued my drive to Outacamund, or Wakamand ; 
and be its orthography what it may (nor do I 
care), there can, at all events, be no doubt about its 
attractive beauties. Who would ever stop even to 
spell the word Simla — as Simla — if he could reach 
the fine, open, picturesque, and charming scenery of 
Outacamund ? Here I lodged at Sylk's Hotel, after 
admiring, I think, every inch of the road thither, 
mounting to 7000 feet. There were the blue hills 
in verity, and the impressive Dodabetta Peak, of 
8000 feet, and an air that seemed to breathe im- 
mortality. A fine evening drive round the lakes is 
one recollection that strikes me among many ; nor 
must I omit a visit they took me to the Foda People, 
as they are called, with their long black hair, and in 
their huts. I do not, however, profess to have con- 
versed with them ; and can give no information as 
to their beliefs and social lives. Hooded carts and 
waggons with pairs of beautiful white oxen were 
continually met with, and added life and beauty to 
the surrounding scenery. One spot seemed to tempt 
you to go to another. 

On leaving Outacamund, I made for hot Trichi- 
nopoly, passing through Seringam, where I was 
quite disappointed with the great temple of which 



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MADHAS. 211 

the general view in Fergusson is so impressive. He, 
however, somewhat prepares you for this, and the 
warning is apt. Besides which, strangers are sub- 
jected to much hindrance. " Trichi " (as they call 
it) was verj' hot, and its great feature is a great hot 
rock, once part of a now entirely demolished fortress. 
Up the hot sides of this you may climb, if you like, 
in a blazing sun, to see a great flat panorama round 
you, called by the Guide- Book "jone of the finest pano- 
ramic views in India." For myself, mere extent is 
not synonymous with beauty, and very often quite 
inconsistent with it. I coolly (as coolly as I could) 
declined the rock, even with the last tempting pro- 
mise of the guide " that I should see all the railway 
station." Hence I visited Tajore and returned, ex- 
amining both the Great Pagoda and the Temple of 
Soubramanya, both of which are illustrated and fully 
discussed by Fergusson. But I must confess that I 
found all this Hindoo architecture fall short in its 
attraction when compared with the dignity of the 
Muhammadan, and the exquisite pillars and porches 
of the Jains. 

All the detail on the Gopuras and elsewhere is so 
crowded and confused, and so eminently trifling (to 
say nothing more), that the structures bespeak a far 
inferior people by their own far inferior conceptions ; 
though this need not interfere with a great deal of 
interest and curiosity attaching to these productions. 
Even a certain amount of this species of disappoint- 
ment attaches to the exterior of the Great Temple at 
Mddura ; but the structure itself is vast and varied 
indeed; and where the interior is not choked and 

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212 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

bedaubed with barbarous splashing of colouring, the 
courts are full of majesty. Nevertheless, disfigura- 
tion predominates, and destroys far too much of 
what would otherwise be stately and majestic. In 
one part of the edifice I was astonished by the ex- 
tensive and busy bazaar that was being held ; though 
there was a certain living picturesqueness produced 
by the varied colouring and the clamour. Come to 
the south for clamour. It would be too bad to say 
these people were " a den of thieves ;" and indeed 
nobody had yet intruded on them to call them so, 
nor to overthrow their tables. In what is called the 
Tirumulla Nayak's Choultrie there is a splendid 
corridor ; but I had to see one yet more splendid. 
From Madura I continued to Tuticorin, whence I 
was by-and-by to sail for Ceylon ; but being de- 
tained there by irregularity in the boats, I made the 
best use of my time by a visit to Tinivelli and its two 
temples ; they were, however, so hideously disfigured 
by paint and whitewash and brownwash, and the 
following and howling people were so jealous of 
my^intrusion, that I came away without satisfaction, 
but wholly without reluctance, and do not recommend 
any one to go there. 

At last, on Saturday, the 14th of December, the 
Java appeared for Colombo, and when this was 
well certified I made all things ready and went with 
my servant on board, thus finally leaving India, 
just thirteen months after I had landed at Cal- 
cutta. 



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XXIII. 



We did not sail till the Sunday afternoon, for 
certain arrangements had to ba made with the Port 
Officer, one of which entailed the disembarking of a 
host of coolies, already taken on board, for the vessel 
was declared to be overloaded. This host of parti- 
coloured males and females were uncivilized enough 
to go back as quietly as they had come out, and left 
us to depart at three o'clock. Our passage was pro- 
pitious, and at seven o'clock on Monday, the i6th of 
December, I landed at Colombo, where 1 had set 
foot on the 20th of November, >i 888. 

I did not come to pay a visit to Ceylon — the 
Taprobdna of Camoens and afterwards the Tapro- 
bane of Milton — which used to present itself so 
fancifully in our young geographical studies. I did 
not picture it as the island of palms and spices, and 
as a land endowed with all those recorded beauties 
and attractions that made the East, even in those 
days of only yesterday, a region of the imagination. 
For if facilities of locomotion make travelling easy, 
it must be at the expense of ideality and of losing 
the charm of absolute novelty. I have before men- 
tioned the constant intrusion of Europe wherever 
you go, and that you never can get rid of her. Here 
at Colombo is a striking example, and you begin 
with abundant proof. You will not land with 



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214 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

difficulty on a " palm-fringed " shore, breathing 
spicy gales, but you will land with vulgar facility, 
because the late Sir John Coode devised a magni- 
ficent breakwater and protected a spacious harbour ; 
and though the waters are crowded with natives in 
their hollowed-out "Catamarans" or "floating trees," 
aided by their open one-sided outrigger framework, 
and ready for everything, yet there is the welcome, 
vulgar steam-launch to take you, western-like, to 
shore ; and when you get there you will seek your 
comfort in a European structure called " The Grand 
Oriental Hotel." 

I arrived in this beautiful island full of intention 
and desire to see the most of it within a reasonable 
time, and I occupied just four weeks and three days 
traversing some part of it and steaming round it. 
This latter course occupied ten days, and was forced 
upon me by my determination to see Ramisseram. 
How was this last to be accomplished } I soon 
found out there was just one way and one only, viz. 
to get on board the steamer that made periodical 
journeys quite round the island and always called 
at Paumben on the way. On learning this I imme- 
diately put myself in communication with the Steam- 
ship Company, and was introduced to the captain, 
Captain Whitley, of the Lady Gordon, He was 
starting in two days on his then next passage, going 
" south about " ; but he recommended me by all 
means to wait for the next turn, which would be 
"north about** and one much more agreeable, con- 
sidering winds and currents. 

Following his advice, which I offer to others, I 



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CEYLON. 21 S 

made my arrangements, and at once decided to start 
for Kandy. This I did at 2 p.m. on Tuesday, De- 
cember 17th, and reached my destination, "The 
Queen's," at 6.40, four hours and forty minutes on 
the train. 

The almost overwhelming fertility that surrounds 
one, especially at starting, is the Jirst impressive 
feature of this journey. I am not about to descant 
upon *' palm-fringed shores," for I don't at all like 
them ; they are extremely flat, marshy, and un- 
wholesome, though crowded with vegetation to please 
the eye ; and for two hours after leaving Colombo 
you travel through this style of country : flags, 
cocoa-nut palms, and all manner of thick-growing, 
moist-looking creepers ; and rice grounds and their 
specially offensive features, though I concede the vivid 
green when the young plant is growing. Then you 
begin to mount, and at Kandy you reach an altitude 
of some 1680 or 1700 feet. Thickly-covered hills and 
dales and distant mountains are the general cha- 
racteristics of the scenery, interspersed with large 
patches of cultivation, the whole suggesting a garden 
climate. The line now and then crosses the old 
road, and though the journey in its time, now gone 
by, might have been tedious, it sometimes seemed 
tantalizing to be snatched with rapidity by steam 
over spots where one would fain have lingered to 
receive an abiding impression. The gorges are in 
general deep, and the sides abrupt, and the features 
of the landscape seem all very close together. I 
was also astonished at the quantity of close-grow- 
ing forest, but in a map of the island published in 



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5l6 IVA.XDERINGS AXD IVONDER/NGS. 

1884 by Mr. J. Ferguson, of the Ceylon Observer^ 
there appear these figures : — 

Acres. 
Total area of the island . . 1 5,809.280 
Total area cultivated . . 2,997,100 
Total area of good forest land 2,680,000 

Kandy is a sort of Buddhist " Mecca," and has its 
great Buddhist Temple, called Maligawi. Like 
the Pagoda at Rangoon, this covers (without any 
irreligious parenthesis of, " or is supposed to do 
so") a tooth of Buddha. Infidel scoffers have at- 
tempted to deride the tooth, and pretend that what 
has been shown for it might belong to a croco- 
dile. I still remember those I saw at Junagadh ; 
but so it is, that no sooner does Faith blossom 
than Disbelief attempts to blight it. Besides which, 
the tooth cannot be too large for either of the huge 
recumbent figures that I saw, one at Rangoon, and 
the other at Bangkok in Siam. I have no more 
difficulty, however, in believing in the tooth for 
Buddhists than I have in believing other revered 
curiosities for others. The temple itself, however, 
did not interest me so much as those I have already 
referred to. It is greatly reverenced by the Believers, 
many of whom, however, are complaisant enough (in 
the words of Mr. Ferguson of Colombo) " to accept 
a new religion so long as they are not asked to give 
up their own." 

The drives and walks in the neighbourhood of 
Kandy present the same class of scenery as I have 



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CEYLON. 217. 

described, and the immediate Lake is a charming 
object ; nor is the course round its shores among 
the least attractive, a turn which I enjoyed one very- 
fine, indeed lovely, evening on my way to dine with 
Mr. Gordon, whose hospitality, as well as that of all 
others who entertained me, I choose for my own 
satisfaction to immortalize in these, of course, im- 
mortal pages — immortal, that is, until the next glacial 
period shall again freeze up the surface of the world, 
and destroy for another space all that therein is. 

I could not make up my mind to leave the great 
Buddhist centre without attempting a journey to 
Anuradapura, one of the buried cities of Ceylon, 
It was rather an undertaking, because although 
there was the vulgar convenience of a railway for six- 
teen miles as far as Matale, and a less vulgar but 
less convenient coach thence to Dambulla, yet thence 
to Anuradapura was to cost me a whole night's 
travel, and, of all things, in a bullock coach or 
covered cart. However, people had done it, and I 
followed the usual mode, strongly recommended by 
the authorities, of booking this whole coach for my- 
self (it would contain only two), and placing a board 
down the centre ; this was to be covered with every 
wrapper at hand, and I was to dream (dreaming, that 
is, without sleeping, which many of us seem often to 
be doing) that it was a bed. Accordingly I tele- 
graphed to Dambulla to secure this luxury for the 
night of Saturday, the 21st of December, astronomi- 
cally the longest of nights, as it was likely to be 
experimentally; for the distance was forty-two miles, 
and I was not to arrive before the lazy sun had risen. 



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21 8 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

starting soon after his early setting. Let me make 
a passing observation about this sun which is so 
often pointed out to all of us as an example. The 
earlier he goes to bed the later he gets up, and the 
later he goes to bed the earlier he gets up. How 
can mortality follow so absurd an example ? 

Well, I embarked on my railway, content that all 
was arranged in order. But on getting out at Matale 
I was pleasantly hailed by an obvious clergyman, 
comparatively young. " Good morning ; I conclude 
you are going to Anuradapura ; so am I ; Tm glad 
we shall be fellow-passengers on that trying 
journey." 

This is what you are liable to. So much for 
certainties ! 1 scarcely had the heart to dis- 
close to him my own selfish but indispensable 
arrangements, but was however obliged to do so. 
" The fault is mine," he said ; " I ought to have 
inquired, as I generally do." And here was what is 
commonly called a **fix,*' for there was no train 
back, and he was on duty and I was on necessity ; 
for the journey with a squeeze of two was for me 
impossible. As he was a thorough gentleman and 
quite sincere, I shall not shrink from the phrase in 
which he expressed his dilemma: " Dear, dear," said 
he ; "I am under a solemn engagement to preach, 
and I only wish to please God Almighty." 

The result was that, as I intended to stop at Dam- 
bulla on returning to see some Buddhist caves, I 
suggested the chance to him that I would reverse 
this plan, and stop to see them on going, if he could 
secure me with the post-master the whole wagon for 



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CEYLON. 219 

the next night. So we both got on the horse coach 
together, and so far I was exceedingly glad of his 
company as the bullock luxury was not now at all 
in danger. I trace this anecdote through because I 
here experienced an exhibition of the missionary 
mind, such as pervades what we call Pagan countries, 
lying in outer darkness, i.e. not following European 
Faith ; and I do so without misgiving, because in 
this case my companion was (as I have said) sincere 
and courteous. The truth is, that he instinctively 
spoke in missionary style, but free from cant. Thus 
we kept up an entertaining interchange of views and 
thoughts, and I was reminded of an observation 
attributed to the late Archbishop Whately — ^so good 
that it ought to be his — when he said to a young 
missionary clergyman, about to embark on his 
religious enterprise : " When you are trying to con- 
vert anyone try to answer your own difficulties." It 
seemed to me, sometimes, that this was what my very 
candid companion was doing. But when the coach 
at last stopped at Dambulla, at the end of its twenty- 
nine miles, his final observation disclosed the tone 
of his own mind, and is instructive, I think, as 
regards those who really believe that what they 
themselves believe is the only real belief: and not 
only so, but that they are bound to bring others to 
the same belief. ** I quite appreciate all you have 
been saying, and have discussed these things with 
myself, but what I have been at last permitted to 
attain to, and what I hope for you, is that, in the 
language of St. Paul, you may rise to a spiritual 
understanding of things." There was a good dash 



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220 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

of poetic enthusiasm in the mind of my companion, 
and is not the religious sentiment essentially 
poetical ? No one who knows Ceylon will fail to 
recognize, in this interview, the Rev. Mr. Garrett. 

After all these theoretical discussions there now 
came the rude and practical one : How was faith to be 
kept by the preacher as to time, for no one was at 
hand to work a miracle ? So Mr. Garrett immediately 
went to the Post Office to arrange, if possible, what I 
had suggested ; but alas ! he returned with an un- 
favourable reply, whereupon we both remained with 
our mouths open, but quite as silent as open. Fortu- 
nately, however, someone else spoke and said, " You 
have not been to the head man." How often is the 
subordinate more absolute and obdurate than the 
head ? This was the case here, and I cheerfully 
altered my plan, Mr. Garrett thus getting away with 
the coach to himself, and his pulpit being furnished 
as was promised. I remained under only one mis- 
giving, that somebody less congenial might come up 
the next afternoon and present the like difficulty by 
making the like request, and so on ad infinitum. 

However, I took my rest, and on the following 
morning visited the Buddhist temple. As Dambulla 
can show "the largest and most celebrated rock 
temples in Ceylon," it may be worth visiting by 
many on this account, and there is a very welcome 
pamphlet on the subject, written by Mr. S. M. 
Burrows, M.A., Oxon., entitled, " The Buried Cities 
of Ceylon." But I must wholly dissent from the 
expression in his preface, where he talks of a nation 
that " could carve a mountain into a graceful shrine." 



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CEYLON. 221 

The mountain itself is certainly ungraceful enough, 
though there is a splendid view from it ; and the 
caves are in truth but little less so. To a certain 
extent they are, I suppose, carved, but the leading 
character of all the five that I visited is, that vast, as 
well as small, ugly natural cavities in the mountain 
have been adapted. They are most curious to behold, 
but they are not elegant, nor were the priests one whit 
more so. But you ought to go and see them, even 
if you don't worry yourself and the bullocks as far 
as Anuradapura. The whole visit comprehends a 
strange exhibition of piety and of picturesque rude- 
ness of art amidst rude features. There are Buddhas 
of all descriptions : of small there are many, and of 
large there is one ; and belonging to this large one 
there are a pair of naked feet showing the soles, 
standing square together upon the heels, and justify- 
ing, to my surprise, a drawing of such things in 
Ferguson's book. 

Evening now came on, the horse coach had arrived, 
and I was to dine and prepare for my bullock journey 
by half-past six, expecting no further interference 
with my arranged movements. But, behold, as I 
entered for my repast a half-caste figure stood at the 
door. Like the ghost of Monk Lewis' "Alonzo the 
Brave "— 

" He spoke not, he stirred not, he looked not around, 
But eagerly gazed" — upon me! 

I felt certain of his intent, and took no external 
notice of him, but inwardly from the first determined, 
like Sterne with the Monk, to resist any request. 



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222 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

Therefore, when I had finished, and I found him still 
standing in the same place, it required nothing to 
make me firm. But had this not been so, he would 
himself have settled the question, for at last he 
persuaded himself to make his appeal for a seat to 
" my Christian consideration." This was not only 
enough, but too much ; it was of the too frequently 
encountered slang, a strong specimen of which in a 
newspaper boy I had encountered at Coimbatore, so I 
shortly denied him, and told him why, as already 
explained, besides which a small boy servant was 
indispensable to me. But as he persisted in his 
phrase I had to meet it with a round untruth, and 
straightway declared myself to be a Buddhist, in order 
to be rid of him. This shut him up, and the driver 
allowed him to *^ hang on*' somewhere up to a cer- 
tain distance. Meanwhile I got through the night 
upon my plank bed as best I could, rather cheered 
than disturbed in fitful sleep by the bugle and the 
bells, the former assuring me that we had reached yet 
another change, and the latter that the oxen were 
trotting. By daylight to Anuradapura we came. I 
spent the Sunday and Monday there, calling on the 
Government Agent, Mr. Murray, who asked me to 
breakfast on the Monday, where I again met my 
friend Mr. Garrett. Mr. Murray then very kindly 
drove me about on view of all things. 

I cannot say I think that the general traveller would 
feel greatly gratified with what Anuradapura has to 
show him. With the purely historical and profes- 
sionally architectural it might be otherwise. The 
more attractive drawings in Ferguson give promise 



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CEYLON, 223 

of much more size and importance in the originals 
than they possess, and of the old palaces absolutely 
nothing remains but what appear to have been the 
under peggings of various stone columns or pillars. 
The most surprising group of these belongs to what 
is called Lowa Maha Paya, or the Great Brazen 
Monastery, and their number is given as 1600. They 
stand about twelve feet high, and I walked to and 
fro in this stone forest with a curious sense of novelty. 
There are also several of those ugly and unsightly 
things called dagobas, and, as a variety, these are 
generally surrounded with carved pillars with capitals. 
But the great natural curiosity of the place is the Bo' 
Tree, reputed to be the second oldest historical tree 
in the world. It is said to have been planted 245 
years B.C. from a branch of the Sacred Bo' Tree, under 
which Gautama sat on the day that he attained to 
Buddhahood. Here is the story, as recounted by Mr. 
Burrows ; it is worth quite as much as many others. 
" The Royal Missionary Mahindo had converted the 
Rajah and people of Anuradapura to the tenets of 
pure Buddhism, and with miraculous rapidity. 
Queen Anula and thousands of her countrywomen 
with her became converts. Mahindo, feeling unable 
to administer so many vows of self-devotion, sug- 
gested that his sister Sanghamitta should be sent 
for to do what he could not She came, and with 
her the King of Pataliputua sent a branch of the 
Sacred Bo* Tree, under which Gautama sat on the 
day that he attained to Buddhahood." 

My curiosity and interest having been gratified, I 
encountered the necessary return midnight journey 



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224 WANDERINGS AND WONDER/NGS, 

to Dambulla ; and on Tuesday, the 24th, Christmas 
Eve, found myself again at Kandy, walking along 
the row of trees that border the attractive lake. 

After another whole morning spent on the beauti- 
fully wooded hills of Kandy, instead of returning 
direct to Colombo I diverged to Nawara Eliya, to 
enjoy that fine air, upwards of 6000 feet above the 
sea. From Nanu Oya there is a fine coach drive of 
about four miles, which adds to the pleasure of the 
journey. Here I walked through a tea estate called 
" The Scrubs," and was shown some of the mysteries 
of a tea factory : how they turn a slanting perforated 
cylinder to separate the small young leaves from the 
large, and how the black tea is produced by fermen- 
tation ; and how the green is the unfermented ; and 
lastly, to my surprise, how all is close packed in the 
chests in a dry piping hot condition. And having 
thus satisfied this curiosity, as I had satisfied another 
at Anuradapura, I returned to Colombo. 

Here I was to prepare at once for my passage 
round the island, made necessary, as I have said, by 
a determined visit to Paumben, in order to see the 
Temple of Ramisseram. On the afternoon of the 
31st of December I accordingly embarked on board 
the Lady Gordon, with her pleasant captain, Captain 
Whitley, Mr. Pace, the Company's agent, accom- 
panying also. After sunset on the ist of January, 
1890, we landed at Paumben in boats for a certain 
small distance. I had previously telegraphed to Mr. 
Carlyon, the port officer, as to my letter from Captain 
Street ; and while on our way we were met by his 
servant, bearing a letter to our captain on the subject. 



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RAMISSERA M. 225 

He returned with us ; and I use the plural because 
Mr. Pace, and the first officer, Mr. Porter, a planter, 
and another passenger, determined to make the 
venture of coming with me. I delivered my letter, 
and we took Mr. Carlyon quite by surprise ; but a 
more hearty reception could not have been offered ; 
and well indeed it was that this was so, for otherwise 
we could not have managed Ramisseram within the 
limited time of stopping. We really invaded the 
house, and forthwith all sorts of preparations were 
made for feeding us and lodging us. Tins were opened, 
beds on chairs and sofas were improvised, bottles 
of wine and beer were opened ; in short, we gloriously 
ate and slept. But time was running against us, and 
that he should not go too swift for us and run us 
ashore, Mr. Carlyon called out all his dependable 
people to furnish bullock carts for us in the very 
early morning. These were to be ready at the door 
by four o'clock, and not till we were assured they 
would be so could we lie down to rest. 

As surely as four o'clock struck there were the 
carts, and there was the hot coffee ; and without scald- 
ing our mouths, off we were. Mr. Carlyon of course 
came with us ; we should have lost much pleasure 
could he not have done so. We had seven miles to 
go to get to the temple, and the road lay tolerably easy 
under a constant canopy of an avenue of trees. The 
bullocks trotted famously ; they were of the small 
white active kind, and the carts were light. Still 
some small anxiety disturbed my mind about the 
steamer, but this was at once most easily allayed : 
" Oh," said Mr. Carlyon, " I am the pilot ; they can't 

Q 



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226 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

go without me, and the tide won't fit till ten." And 
hence we were at peace. In went the prods, and on 
went the bullocks, and to the temples we came. Like 
Abu, the outside was nothing. We were to go to the 
proper entrance, and drove round the building. I 
hastened in. I had certainly been somewhat pre- 
pared for what I was to see by the. engraving and 
descriptions in Fergusson ; and yet was I quite im- 
prepared for what 1 did see. These corridors are 
almost overwhelming. On each side you have a 
corridor, with from twenty to thirty feet of floor 
width, anjd a height of about thirty feet to the centre 
of the roof, and these are flanked on both sides with 
large massive integral, and elaborate pillars, lighted 
by an inner small aisle ; and the whole uninterrupted 
length extends to no less than 700 feet. Well may 
Fergusson say that no engraving can convey an idea 
of the scene. To stand at the end of this unexampled 
perspective provokes a desire to walk down and 
through it to the end, and when at last you have 
arrived at the end, you have but to turn to find it all 
before you again, provoking a repeated traverse. 
Grandeur can here speak for itself, but it likewise 
commands your wonder for this very Labour of 
Hercules that must have been here performed. 

Fergusson's engraving gives only the centre cor- 
ridor, which is the shortest ; to give the two side 
ones would be impossible ; but I have a photograph 
which I bought at Madras in which the 700 feet of 
length has been attempted. In this photograph the 
beautiful play of light has been very successfully 
caught, while one most deplorable blemish in both is 



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RAMISSERA.Xf. 22/ 

not apparent. To use Fergusson's too trusty words, 
" within the last few years these corridors have been 
painted " (splashed) " with a vulgarity that is incon- 
ceivable on the part of the descendants of those who 
built this fane ; they have been dosed with repeated 
coats of whitewash so as to take off all the sharpness 
of detail, and then painted over with blue, green, and 
yellow washes, so as to destroy and disfigure the 
effect to an extent that must be seen to be believed." 
This very strong protest is too well founded, though 
not so fully applicable to the grand side corridors as 
to the central of which he especially speaks. But 
the side corridors have suffered also, and the majesty 
of the stone has been almost everywhere basely 
defiled. 

" Nihil est ab omni 
Parte beatum." 

There is always a " but " somewhere. Perhaps 
the gods were jealous of the fane, and set mortals to 
defile the work of mortals. But such was and such 
is Ramisseram. My companions in part amused 
themselves with those ugly dances, and still uglier 
instruments, belonging to Nach girls, who were 
allowed inside the temple. A young elephant was 
also allowed to intrude his trunk. These utterly 
ugly shows of the Nach girls are to me offensive any- 
where. I thought them blasphemous among the 
corridors of Ramisseram, where I wandered and pon- 
dered until it was, all too soon, full time to go. 

Safe with the pilot, I cared not how long I stayed. 
We jogged back safely with our faithful bullocks, 

Q 2 



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223 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

and at ten o'clock precisely were on board and off 
for Jaffna. 

At Jaffna we disgorged four missionaries ; they 
were appointed to do work there, and as they 
departed in their boat they broke forth in hymnal 
choir upon the waters. They had asked and 
obtained permission to hold their service on deck, 
and in this case no inconvenience was caused, as none 
could be interrupted or offended ; but I have been on 
board one or two of our crowded English steamers 
where this illegitimate intrusion was unbearable 
among different beliefs. 

The next point of interest in my compulsory 
voyage round the island was the far-famed harbour 
of Trincomalee — the most important naval station 
in these regions, and among the chief harbours of 
the world. And that it has been so regarded is 
made evident by the repeated contests for its posses- 
sion. From 1639 to 1795 it five times changed 
hands between the Dutch and French, until in the 
last year it was taken by the English, and confirmed 
to England by the Treaty of Amiens in 1801. As 
regards the scenery it is remarkably pretty, the 
water being circular, and the surroundings consisting 
of green hills. I should not deem it worth going 
to see, though certainly worth seeing, but how Mr. 
John Fergusson, of Colombo, in his highly interest- 
ing lecture before our Royal Colonial Institute, on 
Ceylon, can for one moment talk of its being " more 
beautiful" than the splendid harbour of Rio de Janeiro, 
I do not understand. He does, however, qualify 
this by " I believe ; *' and as we all know the power of 



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CEYLON. 229 

'* belief," we may let the patriotic phrase ^o by. The 
harbour, however, can ^dd its great natural and 
national importance to its appearance ; and therefore 
can command a special interest as belonging to our 
great maritime power. For these reasons I am very 
glad to have visited and realized it, though I may 
hope never to have occasion to recall it on any too 
interesting and alarming an occasion. We entered 
at night on the 4th, and did not leave till the 
afternoon of the 6th ; but I did not go on shore, 
simply for the sake of going on shore. The view 
was the best from on deck, nor had I any introduc- 
tion to the resident naval commander-in-chief, who, I 
understood, was not there. The rest of our passage 
was comparatively uninteresting, though we touched 
here and there, till the vast lighthouse building at 
Dondra Head attracted our attention. Galle was 
our last touching point, and we rode into Colombo 
at early morning on Friday, the loth of January, 
1890, having completed a very pleasant round of 
nine days and a half with our pleasant skipper, 
Captain Whitley. 

Once again at Colombo, I was bound for Java by 
Singapore, and had just five days at my disposal. 
But I was to leave Ceylon without picking up any 
pearls ; and also without ascending Adam's Peak, the 
head of which I had again caught sight of from some 
point in our passage round. And this latter neglect 
was wilful, though I must confess to have long felt 
an interest in it from its being pointedly mentioned 
in The Lusiads of Camoens. Thus runs the first half 
of stanza cxxxvi. of Canto x., and my translation : 



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230 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

'* Olha em CeilSo que o monte se alevanta 
Tan to que as nuvens passa, ou a vista engana ; 
Os naturaes o tern por cousa santa, 
Pela pedra onde estd a p^gada humana." 

** Sec in Ceylon so high a mountain rise 
It caps the clouds, or doth the sight mislead ; 
The natives hold it sacred in their eyes, 
For there's the stone with mark where man did tread." 

This man, of course, was Adam ; and as the moun- 
tain is only 7352 feet high there is a spice of exag- 
geration in the poetry ; but as most prose travellers 
arc (so to speak) prosaic, or prosers, in their exag- 
gerations, Camoens may be pardoned as a poet. 

The man, as I have said, was Adam ; he and Eve, 
whom I have always suspected he falsely accused, 
having sought amidst these enchanting island scenes 
a refuge that might, in some sense, recall that garden 
whence they had been expelled when all was lost, 
and when 

*' They hand in hand, with wandering steps and slow, 
Through Eden took their solitary way." 

Hence Adam's Peak, and also Adam's Bridge that 
intercepts the passage to Calcutta. These two tradi- 
tional first human beings were apparently allowed 
repose after their transgression, while Pilate, after 
his, was driven to Monte Pilato, and there, I believe, 
committed suicide, as well indeed he might, so far as 
I remember that uninviting dwelling. But all things 
change according to surrounding influences. And I 
am given to understand that this footprint of Adam s 
is now entirely claimed as that of Buddha, and so 



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CEYLON. 231 

revered by all the thousands of Buddhist pilgrims 
that labour up the mountain with their priests. 
What the size of the footprint may be I know not, 
but from what I have heard it might belong to one 
of the gigantic Buddhas. Indeed, who can believe 
that Adam would ever have toiled up that mountain, 
having come so far as Ceylon for the blessing of 
repose ? And it is not to be believed that he was 
so gigantic a man as was the Noe, whose lengthy 
tomb many of us have seen in Palestine. So far as 
an ascent of the mountain is actually concerned, the 
morning and evening Shadow must be the attraction, 
besides the view which must be grand. But I had 
ascended the 1 2,200 of Tenerife as published already, 
and nothing here could have been otherwise than a 
diminished exhibition. Otherwise^ as I may now 
safely enough say, I should have ventured the 
fatigue. 

Fortunately I had met at the hotel Mr. and Mrs. 
Burnett, who had been fellow-passengers from London 
to Calcutta, he having constructed the waterworks 
at Colombo. I therefore had the advantage of 
driving about with them, and in one of their drives 
v/e went to the head of his works. The rush of 
splendid water through certain ingeniously arranged 
courses excited my interest and curiosity, but equally 
defied my criticism. Not so one of the ugliest of 
towers I ever saw— not due to Mr. Burnett by any 
means — which had been extolled for its beauty by 
high authority. The view over the city, swallowed 
up, almost, by trees, is very striking. Another drive 
was to the Cinnamon Gardens ; a phrase which 



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232 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

sounds engagingly poetical. But, in truth, the 
cinnamon is produced from a somewhat common- 
place looking shrub, not very much unlike a vtry 
poor laurel, this in its real form being a beautiful 
shrub. The garden also is quite flat, so that al- 
though the visit is highly interesting, not much 
beauty should be anticipated. Another excursion 
was to the oldest Buddhist Dagoba called " Kelamy," 
presenting the usual bulging lump of curious ugliness. 
In all these drives we continually passed through 
roads overwhelmed with foliage, and continually 
bought green cocoa nuts to enjoy their juice. 

But the last day came at last, and on Wednesday, 
the 15th of January, 1890, 1 went on board the Bremen 
steamer Braunschweigery Captain Stormer, bound 
for Singapore on my way to Java. Yet must I 
recount a curious fact that happened in the harbour 
a day or two before I left ; a fact inseparable alto- 
gether from the ludicrous, and yet mixed with the 
regretful. A Brazilian man-of-war, the Almirante 
BarrosOyyfhxch had been out on a long cruise, rode in, 
carrying the Imperial colours, with one of the princes 
as second lieutenant on board : Don Augusto, son of 
the Due Saxe Coburgh, and the Princess Leopoldina, 
second daughter of the late Dom Pedro II. Then, for 
the first time, the prince was made aware, with the 
captain and officers and crew, of the revolution 
which had driven his grandfather from the throne 
and country, and established a republic in the place 
of an Empire. The young prince was in the coffee- 
room once or twice, and seemed as he might have 
seemed had such things not happened. His person I 



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CEYLOX. 233 

should call pale, and somewhat delicate ; and his small 
voice was exactly that of the late Emperor. If the 
Empire is ever to be restored, it must be so in the 
person of the Prince of Grao Pari, the son of the 
eldest daughter. Princess Isabel, and the Comte D*eu, 
son of the Due de Nemours. But Brazil will choose 
for itself, and I have every sympathetic reason to 
hope that she will do well. 



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XXIV. 

A PASSAGE of six days, without incident, brought 
us to Singapore — I believe they still spell it so — ^and 
I went to the H6tel de TEurope. The approach to 
the place is remarkably green and pretty, but all is 
very flat, and the wharfs where you are landed are 
some three or four miles' drive from the hotel. 
There was nothing here I cared to stay for, and on the 
following day, the 22nd, which curiously enough was 
the New Year's Day of the city with all things closed 
for the holiday, I managed a ticket for Batavia 
by the French boat of that evening. On going on 
board, however, at 4.30, I found our departure was 
delayed till the next day. This was a question of 
mails, and therefore ought to be noted. The Oxus 
from Bordeaux had not arrived. However, at 11 
a.m., on the 23rd, we positively sailed, and after a 
holiday passage arrived on the 25th at Tanjong (Port) 
Preok in Java, curiously called "The Netherland 
Indies" by the Dutch. This passage is, I believe, 
alway-s fair and placid, in evidence of which our 
steamer carried a wooden awning. Nobody stops in 
Batavia, so that on meeting the Commissioner from 
the "Hotel Java" at Weltevreden, at a not incon- 
venient distance, I drove thither with him and found 
a very pleasant French landlady, though hampered 
sadly with Dutch colonial modes of living. 



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JAVA. 235 

After settling down, however, in a large bedroom 
opening on a large verandah, I found a notice had 
been put into my hand which the slow Commissioner 
ought to have taken care of at Batavia. It was an 
evidence of the Dutch jealousy and timidity as to 
strangers. I should at once have given notice of arrival, 
and asked permission to remain for four days, I believe. 
The landlady suggested I should call on the Resident, 
and explain the case, the late hour, nine o'clock^ not 
signifying. Accordingly, I wrote my letter to be 
presented, and drove off to present it The whole 
affair, and what presently occurred, reminded me 
somewhat of the ancient style of things as they 
recounted them to me at the Cape, where the Dutch 
martinet system for years ruled triumphant. The 
Residents name was Metman, and the Resident's 
house was a good pretentious one, surrounded by a 
white pillared outside corridor. I was walking up the 
broad steps to it, arranging my card and letter to send 
in when I had rung, or clapped my hands, when a 
solemn voice invaded my ear, and looking up I beheld 
a large figure, who was evidently the Resident him- 
self; he had come out to meet me, and proved to be 
as pretentious as his house. 

''La premiere chose qu'on fait ici,'* said he. ad- 
dressing me in French, "en entrant dans une maison est 
d'oter son chapeau ; c'est une grande faute de politesse 
de ne pas le (aire.'* Had he held a scimitar in his 
hand he ought to have chopped my head off in con- 
formity with his rebuke. I could not provoke him very 
safely for (as I erroneously supposed) 1 had come to ask 
his pardon for an omission ; so I controlled my sense 



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236 WAXDEHINGS AXD WOXDERIXGS. 

of the ridiculous, as well as some small offence, by 
politely reminding him that his corridor was yet 
outside, and in truth that the " premiere personne " I 
had expected to meet was " la domestique " and not 
"son Excellence" himself. He gradually softened, 
read my letter, asked if I had a passport, and fumbled 
out something which meant, more or less, that I 
must appeal to the Governor of the Island, and went 
in, leaving me staring. So the next day, though it 
was Sunday, I called on our Consul, Mr. McNeil, 
who received me very pleasantly, somewhat smiled at 
my account of the interview, and enlightened me on 
two points : first, that the Resident was quite the 
wrong person to go to, for he had no authority 
whatever in the matter ; and secondly, that he was 
not entitled to ** Excellency," both of which small 
mistakes on my part fully accounted for his assumed 
comical self-importance. The next day all was 
easily arranged at the Police Office ; but my 
friend, the Resident, had actually privately sent 
to the hotel to inquire about a stranger who was 
travelling about the island "sans papiers." The 
anecdote may seem trite, but it means a good 
deal. The authorities are exceedingly jealous, and 
fines are imposed unless rules are strictly attended 
to ; though escapes were recounted to me. The 
difficulty in these last cases is that the captains of 
the steamers are held responsible, and are therefore 
quite on the alert to defend themselves in case of 
need. 

The grand object of my coming to the island was 
to see the famous Buddhist Temple, or Pagoda, 



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JAVA. 237 

known as Boro Buddor ; and in order to accomplish 
this in the easiest mode, I had to take the steamer to 
Samarang. But it did not leave till the morning of 
the 30th, so that I took occasion to make other 
intermediate experiences; and one was to taste the 
Mangostine, a fruit concerning which I was very 
curious, and which I was delighted to find was in 
full season. I never could get anyone to describe it 
to me, so I shall nowxiescribe it to you. It grows in 
clusters on its short branches, of which I eventually 
bought in plentiful quantities, hanging them up in 
my bedroom. The fruit is of about the size of a 
small orange, the outer thick rind being of a very 
dark crimson, quite inedible, and quite separate from 
the very deiicate fruit inside. This fruit lies perfectly 
white in a hollow, in concentric pieces, like what we 
call the pigs of an orange. You pick out each of the 
pieces separately, which are sometimes with and 
sometimes without a stone. They are almost entirely 
liquid and crush into nothing in the mouth ; and if I 
am asked the flavour, I scarcely know how to describe 
it. The prevailing feature is great delicacy, and it 
is a compounded delicacy. It is delicately sweet, 
delicately acid, delicately aromatic, and has delicately 
something of its own, perhaps produced by the above 
combination. On cutting the dark purple rough 
outside, the white centre presents a curious contrast, 
almost recalling the contrast of Beauty and the Beast. 
The gross opposite to this fruit is the Dorian, which 
I smelt, but tasted not. I did not indeed get a fair 
opportunity of doing so, and therefore must escape a 
charge of cowardice on that plea. 



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238 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

I availed myself of my two days to make an 
excursion by train to Buitenzorpr, and on the 
following day continued to Soekaboemie and re- 
turned. This took me among the wooded mountains, 
but as the weather was cloudy — it being now the wet 
season — I did not see so much as on a second excur- 
sion later on. I saw enough, however, to prove to me 
that the Javan scenery can show what the Vale of 
Kashmir cannot — the beautiful effect of the long 
mountain slopes combining with the valleys. This 
characteristic I observed throughout. 

On the morning of the 30th I started for Tanjong 
Preok, and went on board the Pambora for Samarang, 
and suffered the ordeal of bad weather along a coast, 
and Dutch Colonial food into the bargain. Lots, 
but coarse. We thought ourselves advanced by not 
being able to touch at the intermediate ports, seeing 
that we therefore arrived in shorter time ; but we 
paid for this on coming back, pains following pleasures, 
as usual. Moreover, when we got to Samarang, 
" The Blue Flag '' was flying, which meant we must 
lie to outside, and could not have the steam launch 
to land us. On the second day, however, the 2nd of 
February, wc were relieved, and I went to the 
Pavilion Hotel. Here I lunched, and immediately 
took the train for Ambarawa or Willem I, arriving 
at 6 p.m. Here it was necessary to hire a carriage 
for my course, but alas ! the only word I could get 
understood was Boro Buddor; and even this was 
spelt in some other manner, which I shall, however, 
accept as the inevitable. At last, when despair was 
at its depth, there appeared a young Dutch officer. 



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BORO BUDDOR. 239 

who had just one or two more words in Engh'sh than 
I had in whatever it was they talked at the hotel, 
and a carriage was ordered to be at the door at six 
in the morning. 

And punctually it came — a carriage and four ; and 
punctually at 6.30, after breakfast, we started. The 
road was extremely hilly ; indeed, mountainous : we 
were at one time, by my aneroid, 2000 feet above the 
sea. The driving was excellent, and when we had 
to walk we hired bullocks, sometimes joining them 
on, and sometimes taking out the horses and putting 
in the bullocks instead. Intercourse, when needed, 
was carried on by pantomime. At last, about half- 
past one, we arrived at Magelang, and stopped at 
Mr. Unglaub's German hotel. Here I gave tongue, 
and after a consultation with the host, decided to 
take carriage and horses for (let us see) Djocjacarta, 
sleeping at Boro Buddor, which was not far off. 
This time it was to be a carriage and six, and I 
was to get to " Djoc " (that will do) by early afternoon 
on the next day. 

I therefore left the hotel— most picturesquely situ- 
ated, fronting on a large, green, well-timbered space 
— immediately after luncheon, again experiencing ex- 
cellent driving and fine mountainous and cultivated 
country, until at last there appeared among the trees 
a huge, dark brown, massive structure of a wholly 
novel form. This was Boro Buddor, and driving up 
to it, and almost round it, I was landed, shortly before 
four o'clock, at a most convenient small hotel, built 
there solely for the entertainment of travellers to the 
spot. 



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240 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

The dark massive Boro Buddor, a terraced pyra- 
mid, was now clear before me. Fergusson calls it 
" a seven or a nine storied Vihfira." Its square 
basement, he says, measures 4C0 feet, but the real 
temple is only 300 feet from angle to angle. The 
form is of a perfect square ; and for a full architectural 
description of it recourse must be had to his pages. 
Its date he assigns to the interval from A.D. 650 
to 800. It has five square independent procession 
paths, one above another, pyramidally diminishing 
in circuit, and connected with one another by steps. 
And on mounting these, you come upon a large open 
surface, still showing increasing open altitudes, which 
may or may not be called storeys, towards the very 
centre, where the former solid dagoba, or dome, once 
stood, and where a wooden scaffold for the general view 
has been now constructed. But the detail of orna- 
ment and the variety of figures on this great mass is 
almost incredible. As I stood upon the top scaffold 
I counted seventy-two perforated small dagobas, 
each containing a Buddha : and as both faces, right 
and left, of the procession paths are sculptured, 
Fergusson counts that there are nearly two English 
miles' length of them altogether. Add to these 
independent figures of Buddha in every available 
position. The whole building seems to bristle with 
canopies. It may be readily understood that all 
these basii relitvt relate to the whole life, historical 
and legendary, of Sakya Muni; and even were they in 
a fairly readable condition, they might occupy an 
erudite for— how long ? But the stone is dark and 
discoloured ; here and there it has fallen out of form, 



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BORO BUDDOR. 24 1 

and almost everywhere a quantity of lichens of 
various colours are growing on the surfaces. Even 
to such an one, therefore, the task of close examina- 
tion would be prolonged, while to the ordinary 
traveller it must be one of despair. 

Be all this as it may, it yet remains to wonder, 
after all, how the temple still stands as it does to- 
day, mouldering only under the hand of time, and 
spared by that iconoclastic barbarism which is so sorely 
prevalent between opposing faiths ; for in Java the 
religion of Buddhism has been long since abandoned 
for that of Islam. This sparing is explained by the 
fact, as stated by Fergusson, that " when the Javans 
were converted to Mahommedanism it was not in 
anger, and they were not urged to destroy what they 
had before reverenced.'^ 

The position of the Temple is romantic : it was no 
doubt artistically chosen. Mountainous country 
extends on all sides : immediately on the left are 
serrated ridges, and below, mixed with meadows, 
there are extensive handsome forests. I lingered on 
the top till after sunset, and watched large flights of 
white birds winging home to roost for the night, amidst 
a certain large group of trees. Then, by-and-by, a 
few more belated ones followed, and by-and-by 
again some single stragglers, one by one; but all 
came in at last, and all to the same wooded resting 
place. And then I also left the now neglected fane 
with its abandoned faith to darkness, and, like the 
white birds, came down to roost, myself. 

In the morning I was on the top again for sunrise, 
and for a long survey of all the marvellous detail — all 

R 



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242 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

to fall to pieces by degrees. My carriage and six 
was quite ready in good time, and I came as far as 
•' Djoc " visiting the Temple of Mendoet on my way; 
small but remarkable for its three colossal figures 
and its refinement of execution. This, if I remember 
rightly, stands in the very midst of a wood. At 
" Djoc " I found the hotel full, and came thence, by 
rail, to Solo, and thence next day to Samarang, 
in expectation of the steamer from Tanjong Preok. 
Here, however, there was delay arising out of some 
confusion as to steamers, and I had to pass a dull 
whole day at Samarang, adding but one new fact 
to my gatherings, namely, that those same Java 
sparrows, slate coloured with white cheeks, for which 
some fifty years ago we paid ten shillings per pair, 
are in their own country as common and as mis- 
chievous as our own house sparrow in England. 
*• What on earth are all that host of small chattering 
birds just come in to roost?" **They are the Rice 
Thieves." I passed a good deal of rice, by the way, 
after leaving Boro Buddor, but in several cases it 
was being cultivated on the hill sides in terraces. 
There was great fertility throughout 

On the morning of the 7th of February I got on 
board a British India Company's steamer for Batavia, 
and having to stop extra time at the various ports, 
because we had left them out in coming, I arrived 
only in time to know that I had lost my return 
steamer to Singapore ; and I landed only to return 
to Weltevreden. Availing myself of the interval 
before the next boat started I made another journey 
to Buitenzorg, going this time to the Hdtel Belle 



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/AVA. 243 

Vue and securing a room with a full view of Mount 
Salak and his glorious sloping wooded sides, forming 
with the valley below a charming picture. To this 
scene was superadded the colouring of a supremely 
fine sunset. Returning in the morning, both Salak 
and Ged^ were clear : the former rises 8000 feet and 
the latter 10,000 feet. But Salak is the finer of the 
two, as Kanchinjunga is finer than Gaurisankar. 
From Thursday the 13th to Sunday the i6th I was 
on board the Javara^ Captain Pot, landing, on the 
latter day, once more at undelightful Singapore, with 
its undelightful Hotel de TEurope. 



R 2 

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XXV. 

My next object being Bangkok in Siam, whither 
I was tempted by Fergusson's volume, I was obliged 
to wait for the steamer till Sunday, the 23rd. I had 
also to make up my mind to visit the astonishing 
Cambodian Temple Nakhon Watt, and the ruins of 
the vast city Nakhon Thom, which, geographically 
speaking, I ought to have managed on my way to 
Hongkong from Bangkok, and of which Mr. 
Watters of the Glasgow Herald had given me full 
information in my passage from Calcutta to Madras. 
But having communicated with Saigon upon the 
subject, I was informed by the agent of the Steam- 
ship Company that I was too late for this year, the 
river Mccon being now too low; so that this visit was 
for the present hopeless. They were kind enough to 
admit me to the club for a few days, which relieved 
me in my uneasy stay ; and, moreover, we had at our 
table Mr. and Mrs. Siegfried, fellow-passengers from 
Batavia whom I afterwards met at San Francisco ; 
and Mr. Wright, also a fellow-passenger, representing 
Messrs. Siemans. With this latter gentleman I 
visited the botanical gardens, of which one is bound 
to speak highly. These gardens are remarkably well 
kept, and very pretty in themselves ; and there are 
some really fine fern and orchid houses. When, 
however, the day for leaving came, I was not sorry to 



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S/AAf. 241 

say good-bye to Singapore, and particularly to the 
Hdtel de TEurope. 

On Sunday, the 23rd of February, I left for 
Bangkok in the Ocean Steam Navigation Company's 
ship Hydra, Captain White, with three other 
passengers : one was the well-known American Mis- 
sionary of Amoy, Dr. Ashmore, whom I met more 
than once afterwards in his busy peregrinations ; M. 
Pina de St. Didier, of the French Consulate at 
Bangkok, transferred from Mandalay, of which we 
had some talk ; and in particular, two young Germans, 
who were afterwards my companions to the ancient 
capital of Ayutia, Alexander von Roessing and his 
brother Lieut. Freiherr von Roessing. There was 
nothing of maritime note in our passage except that 
we rolled rather more than seemed quite justified by 
the sea ; these steamers, however, are built rather 
flat-bottomed because of the bar at the mouth of the 
river Me Nam. 

But one fact, trivial at first sight, though to a certain 
extent of natural import, attracted my attention, 
namely, that scores, or rather hundreds of hard, round, 
white cabbages were suddenly spread out on the fore- 
deck by a group of Chinese. Captain White and 
Dr. Ashmore were both much amused at my notice 
of such a circumstance, but showed me how these 
cabbages illustrated the astonishing trading character 
of the Chinese. No cabbages grow at Bangkok, and 
these had actually been brought all the way from 
Swatow to Singapore, and were now going thence to 
Bangkok, thus covering a distance of about 2500 
miles at sea. And all this for a mere cargo of 



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246 WAXDERIXOS AXD IV'OXDERIXGS. 

cabbages and for the profit of but a few pieces of 
silver ! 

On the 26th we came in sight of the lighthouse 
built out on the shallow waters, and here we anchored 
at eight in the evening. At six on the following 
morning we started up the river, wide, winding, and 
lying between two quite flat shores ; but these were 
thickly dressed with trees, and in that respect the 
Me Nam is more agreeable than the Jhelum. Green 
thick shrubs and palm abounded on both sides. 
Presently we came to huts and houses on the very 
edge of the water, some being built even on piles and 
standing over the water ; and these increased in 
number till we came to the very bright and busy 
scene of our anchorage at the beginning of Bangkok. 
Here we were ** visited," and afterwards a missionary 
who had come to meet Dr. Ash more very kindly 
took me and the two young Germans in his steam 
launch to the Oriental Hotel — this lay some twenty 
minutes away — and we landed on its river frontage, 
in bright sunshine, of course, with life and boats and 
trees and buildings all about us. 

At Darjeeling I had made the acquaintance of 
our Minister Plenipotentiary and Consul General 
at Bangkok, Captain Jones; and to him I had 
telegraphed from the mouth of the river. He was, 
therefore, expecting me, and I forthwith took a 
beat, the shortest mode, to his large and stately 
house, with its garden in front abutting on the river. 
I had come only to lunch, for, as he had warned me 
in his letter, he had as yet scarcely an extra chair in 
his large rooms. But how cool and lofty these were. 



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SIAM. 247 

and how often I enjoyed a few hours of day repose 
in them. In the course of the afternoon he took 
me a drive through the city, and the first structure 
we visited was Wat Sekest by name, I have no 
particular note of it, except the remark that it is 
ugly and rugged. But I here obtained from the top 
my first general view of the city and the river. The 
chief feature to remark in this is, how thoroughly it 
is hidden in the crowds of trees ; and the next, how 
many small canals there are. Perhaps it was this 
last feature that led the early Portuguese and Dutch 
travellers (as Fergusson tells us) to call Ayutia (the 
ancient capital, about fifty miles up the river which I 
afterwards visited) the " Venice of the East." 

The next scene — indeed scenes — that we visited 
were scenes of cremation. There appeared to be a 
certain district of the city devoted to these operations. 
And assuredly had cremation been hitherto practised 
in England as I saw it practised here, the aversion , 
indeed horror, with which many of our innocent 
brethren have brought themselves to view it might 
not only be pardoned, but applauded. In principle, 
this system involves the question between the living 
and the dead. Which is to inherit the land } Mr. 
Gladstone, in an interesting literary article on libraries 
in the Nineteenth Century^ humorously hinted at 
our books pushing us into the sea, and the daily list 
of publications might really almost make the timid 
tremble. But what will our corpses some day do for 
us ? Strangely enough, religion is lugged into the 
discussion, and the chief prejudice against the pro- 
cess appears to be ecclesiastical. On this point I 



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248 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

remember reading in the Times newspaper, some 
time ago, a synopsis of a sermon preached against 
cremation (I think at St. Paul's Cathedral) by the 
late Canon Liddon, in which that highly gifted man 
wound up with this most strange anti climax : — 
" Finally, my brethren, what if our Blessed Lord's 
body had been burned ? *' The mere shutting up of 
church-yards points but to one conclusion in the 
longer or shorter future of the question. For the 
cemetery is only a new invasion. 

Well, what do they do with their dead at 
Bangkok ? Burn them — really they do not. Look 
at this ceremony close in front of you, now going 
forward. We have already talked together about the 
Towers of Silence at Bombay. There the vultures 
are at all events left to do their ugly Jezebel work in 
solitude. But here they come boldly down among 
the people, and demand admission among the dogs 
as equal guests. Your pyre is on the ground ; it is 
clumsily put together, and it is clumsily fired ; but 
fired enough to cause a sort of underdone roasting. 
In eoes a dog and tears out a morsel ; but it is hot 
enough to burn his mouth ; he shakes his head and 
shakes it out of his mouth accordingly; growls at it, 
lets it cool, and devours it, and then repeats the trick. 
So other dogs, and so the vultures, too, except the 
growling. That last bird was too audacious rather, 
and resents the scorch with an indignant screech. 
And so things go on, and all as a matter of course. 
Bad enough, you will say ; but what if common burial 
went on with corresponding hideous imperfection ? 
And so we leave Bangkok cremation. That all their 



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SI AM. 249 

so-called holocausts so take place it would be ex- 
aggeration to assert. But these are of everyday. 
Que voulez vous f 

The next day I again lunched with Captain Jones, 
and again spent the afternoon with him ; and rowing 
up the river we landed to see what, I must confess, 
had first attracted my attention to Bangkok by the 
print of it in Fergusson. " The Great Tower of the 
Pagoda, Wat ching." This was indeed an object 
wholly and entirely different from the solemn pile 
that I had so lately visited in Java. But it was 
highly interesting nevertheless. Referring to the 
same volume, there is what he calls " The Hall of 
Audience," but I saw it as the Gateway to the Court 
of this Pagoda. The structure as portrayed at p. 
634 must speak for itself. Even broken crockery 
ware is arranged for blossoms, and I don't know that 
I can do better than quote Fergusson where he 
writes that this Pagoda *' is covered with an elabora- 
tion of detail and exuberance of coloured ornament 
that has seldom been surpassed *' (has it ever been 
equalled ?; ** nor is it desirable it should be, for it is 
here carried to an extent, truly barbarous." I con- 
fess to have been exceedingly interested in conning 
this quite novel styleof architecture, and by mounting 
to a certain height, not only because I thus became 
more and more intimate with it, but that I also en- 
joyed an impressive view of the noble river and the 
city. On the water, moreover, large rafts of teak 
were floating down the stream, adding yet more life 
to the living picture. 

Lunching again with Captain Jones, we went 



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250 WAXDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

afterwards with the Roessings in the afternoon to 
Wat Po, where we saw a most remarkable com- 
pound of almost every kind of pagoda, including^ 
a huge redininqr Buddha, which occupied the 
whole length of a large dark Temple. Then to the 
Gardens : and then we dispersed till morning, when 
we were to make arrangements for our journey to 
Ayutia. This we did with Mr. Andersen, the pro- 
prietor. We -were to have a steam launch and 
attendants. We arranged our lists of provisions, 
and my servant, as cook, was of course to go with 
us. 

Accordingly, on Monday, the 3rd of March, I was 
called at a quarter to four, and all being ready, I 
started on the dark river amidst the small stars of the 
lights among the vessels, and stopped at " Mark- 
waldts," a short distance up the river for my com- 
panions. But the premises being large and the 
buildings irregular, I had the misfortune to commit 
that never-forgiven crime of waking the wrong man. 
We soon got away, however, with the right two, and 
the daylight broke rapidly upon us. Sails and boats 
were scattered everywhere, in busy movement ; the 
winding river's banks were everywhere clothed with 
trees, and the gable-ended houses of wooden villages 
opened to us inconstant succession. F'ive hours and 
a half brought us to a place called Bang Pa-i, and 
here the interesting features decreased. But here a 
new interest arose, for there was a King's Palace and 
Garden of which Mr. Alten, a German, was the 
resident guardian, and to whom my companions had 
a letter. Here we therefore called, and Mr. Alten 



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S/A.\f. 251 

came on with us to Ayutia, which lay just two hours 
more up stream. 

Constant temples and pagodas appeared as we 
went along, picturesque but not important ; till at last 
we came to a large old one. Here we again found 
a huge recumbent Buddha, and (what was novel) 
all the walls were fairly honeycombed with tiny 
recesses, in which were placed tiny Buddhas : these 
being brought, as we were informed, from time to 
time by pilgrims. Then we came to the Old Royal 
Domain and Palace, which showed "splendid wrecks 
of former pride," for Ayutia ^says Fergusson) '*had 
for three centuries been the flourishing capital of one 
of the great building races of the world." To the 
top of this old Palace we mounted to obtain a general 
view of the ancient city itself. It was most strik- 
ing. All was now one flat mass of thick growing 
trees, out of which at various intervals arose the tall 
naked ruins of the ancient pagodas, towering above 
the trees in exactly the shapes given by Fergusson's 
engravings. Never was there a more perfect picture 
of the results of abandoning Art to Nature in a 
fertile land ! This, for me, was the real view of the 
old city, but my companions desired to walk throup;h 
it, which they did. They could tell me no more, 
however, than that they had walked along paths and 
gone from tower to tower, but as the whole ground 
was a mere dead level, they had caught no general 
view at all. This was to be had only from the Old 
Palace, and I lounged about that abandoned structure 
and mounted to the top again while they were gone. 
On their return we dined under an open canopy, 



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252 WANDERINGS AXD WONDERINGS. 

and steamed back to Mr. Alten's where we com- 
fortably passed the night. 

Before leaving after breakfast in the morning we 
were taken over the buildings and gardens, the usual 
feelings and expressions of grateful satisfaction 
following, and then we embarked for Bangkok, not, 
however, without visiting a place of worship built by 
the King, which he had fantastically had erected as 
nearly as possible like a Christian church. The 
whole day brought us down to Bangkok, the journey 
occupying from 10.30 a.m. till 4.30 p.m. on Tuesday, 
the 4th of March. 

I had yet to see the King's Palace and Compound, 
or Private Domain, and I had also now to arrange for 
my departure to Hongkong. I had also to obtain 
some photographs from Mr. Loftus, the photographer, 
and in doing this I was offered the attendance of his 
brother, who had the license of admission to all that 
was ever permitted to be seen. The opportunity of 
beholding his Majesty himself I missed, for he was 
absent The nearest I could come to this was only 
the Crown Prince's tutor — a somewhat remote 
German cousinship— whom I met on lunching again 
with Captain Jones, and also the Netherlands 
Minister, Mr. Morant. 

On Friday, the 7th, I was to be on board the 
Mongkuty Captain Fowler, belonging to the Scottish 
Oriental S.S. Co., so that I had just one entire day 
to visit the Palace of Bangkok, and this I accordingly 
did with Mr. l^oitwsfrtre, A truly Oriental mass of 
gaudy buildings and bewildering ornament I found ; 
and if Fergusson chooses to call it all tawdry I 



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SI AM, 253 

suppose we must not contradict him. But I do not 
at all feel inclined to depreciate the style after this 
fashion. It is intensely novel and picturesque ; look 
at the entrance to the old Palace ; and it makes you 
feel that you are among new people. Moreover, it 
suits the atmosphere, and appears to be perfectly in 
place. So much was this the case with me that some 
palladian buildings which had been, for convenieace 
sake, introduced for offices did, by tfce side of all these 
Siamese kaleidoscopes, appear heavy, cold, coarse 
and vulgar. One feature that astonishes is the 
elaboration of the roofs and of the jutting eaves. 
Not only is their unnecessary extent vast, but curves, 
and colours, and gildings among the tiles are studied 
in every variety, and even though a rigid Sir 
Christopher Wren would have called it worse than 
Gothic, and a mere baby show, I must confess to 
have been baby enough to enjoy the sight. There \s 
even the Golden Temple, with its gilded veitibule 
and peristyle, its interior a id, so to speak, high altar. 
In short, what is there not of Siamese Art and 
Fashion ? If all would not suit in London— and 
certainly it would not — still it is equally certain that 
St. Paul's would not suit at Bangkok. Brain, 
atmosphere, and region work together everywhere ; 
and architecture is only another tree or flower. 
But talking of England, I must not omit to mention 
my surprise at finding so much English written 
about the city. There appears to be a decided 
tendency in this direction, though whether there is 
any suggestion of education connected wiih it I 
did not learn. There was one object among the 



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2 54 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

rest, however, which none could criticize or cavil at. 
It was a huge model of the Great Snake Temple of 
Nakon Wat, round which you could even walk ; and 
this considerably whetted my desire to visit that 
spot on some future opportunity, which I did. 

Full of brain pictures of green, blue, red, 
yellow, and gold, and of sheets of gorgeous tiled 
roofs, curving down into tremendous corners and 
overhanging eaves, I came for the last time to lunch 
with Captain Jones. Nakon Wat was the subject of 
our conversation, and I took a last inspection of the 
splendid illustrations in Lieut. Garnier's two volumes, 
lying on his table. I had to look to him for an 
introduction to the authorities. He, however, told 
me that he had already obtained for me a letter 
from the Foreign Minister, Prince Devawongsc, 
addressed to the Governor at Nakon Wat, recom- 
mending me to his care, which he had forwarded to 
Consul Tremlett at Saigon, to await my arrival 
whenever I got there. Moreover, he recommended 
me to call, in his name, on General Sir Allen John- 
son, whom I should find at Hongkong, and who had 
actually gone across country to Nakon Wat from 
Bangkok, out of season. 

. On the afternoon of March the 7th I was on board 
the Movgkut for Hongkong, and found Captain 
Fowler with his remarkable black Chinese dog, and 
Dr. Ashmore again, also on his way thither. We 
dropped down to the bar and lay there all night. 
Moving oflf by daylight, and leaving a trail of 
disturbed mud and sand behind us, we anchored 
opposite the wooded island, Kohsichang, which is 



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SI AM, 255 

the resort for change from Bangkok. Here we 
remained all day, and were joined by Mr. Gordon, 
whom I afterwards met with at Shanghai, connected 
with the public works at Siam. On the 9th we 
sailed again with five days of fine weather. Then 
came a change to rough, with rain and mist and 
seeming chillings, though my thermometer still stood 
at 78°. At night on the 15th we anchored in Hong- 
kong in smooth water, but entirely missed the pro- 
mised view on account of both fog and lateness. 

The morning of my landing, Sunday, the i6th of 
March, was again dull and chilly, but Victoria Har- 
bour looked all alive, and the hills all round insisted 
on showing in the picturesque. Chinese junks lent 
novelty to the general view, but they were not of the 
large order, though the ridiculous painted eyes upon 
the prows stared with wonted giant aspect. Then, 
again, there was the great Dragon Flag, to frighten 
all beholders, as should the figures that guard the 
pagodas. It took us about twenty minutes to row 
from our anchorage to the Hongkong hotel where I 
was very comfortably housed ; and shortly after- 
wards Messrs. Melchior et Cie., to whom I had a 
letter, were good enough to enter my name at the 
Hongkong Club — a notable advantage indeed. 

The day being dull, I was not disposed to move 
about much, and therefore immediately made my call 
upon General Sir Allen Johnson at his hotel ; for 
my visit to Cambodia was one of my leading 
thoughts. On introducing myself, as recommended 
by Captain Jones, Sir Allen received me very 
kindly, and iurnished me with abundant information. 



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2S6 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

I ncluding photographs, all of which was subsequently 
of considerable use to me. How he could have 
undergone the overland passage from Bangkok to 
Battambong at all, and afterwards visited temple 
and city, and then found his way to Saigon, and 
all out of season, was a matter to me of astonish- 
ment. The feat deserves the name of "General 
Johnson's March/*^ 

My next call was on Messrs. Butterfield and 
Swire, to whom also I had a letter, and I was 
received by Mr. Mackintosh, who at once put me in 
the way of getting to Canton, and thence to the 
Portuguese settlement of Macao, which latter my 
connection with the name of Camoens made it 
equally inviting and imperative to visit; for here the 
poet had resided as Commissary of the Estates of 
Deceased Persons ; and here he is recorded to have 
completed his Lusiads, — probably the last three 
cantos. 

I was to leave on Thursday, the 20th, at eight a.m. 
The weather was now decidedly improving ; and 
the beauties of Hongkong were brightening to the 
view. The scenery is of course limited, because the 
island, though remarkably picturesque in form, is 
small, the whole circumference being given at twenty- 
seven miles. No doubt, to many bound by occupa- 
tion all becomes very soon monotonous ; and ledgers 
with a good amount on the right side afford a more 
generally entertaining aspect than repeated rocks 
and vales ; though these may still be preferred to 
too large amounts on the left. While to me all was 
new, all was no doubt pleasing; and as Messrs. 



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HONGKONG. 2^7 

Butterfield and Swire's office is on a hill, and owns 
an open balcony, I ventured a note of admiration 
to Mr. Mackintosh : " What a beautiful view you have 
here, when you come of a morning ! " Perhaps I 
ought to have anticipated the reply: "Yes, if one 
had not seen it so very often." 

I had to come more than once to Hongkong — the 
meaning of which is Good Harbour — but was never 
there long enough at a time for its beauties to cloy ; 
yet I soon began to find the air in the city itself 
depressing from the close surrounding hills ; though 
nothing can be cleaner ^nd neater than the streets. 
On Tuesday 1 took one of the many long-poled chairs 
that threaten your viscera every time you leave the 
hotel, and mounted to the flagstaff, returning by the 
French convent. There is a railway also, but I pre- 
ferred the chair. The view from the top is supremely 
fine. From a height of 1774 ft. at the Victoria Peak, 
you look down upon the splendid harbour and free 
port, where the value of the annual trade is estimated 
at 40,(XX),ocx>/. ; and where, as usual, British tonnage 
immensely surpasses all others. The spread of water 
is intensely blue, the effect of which is greatly 
enhanced by the russet colour of the mountains as a 
contrast, stretching the long tongues of their bases 
out into the richer colour. I was fortunate, more- 
over, in • having a day of fine weather mists, and 
thus of enjoying a series of dissolving views, appear- 
ing and disappearing as these gauzy veils from 
time to time passed over the scene to intercept and 
permit by turns the sunshine of a brilliant sky on 
all that lay extended far below. 

S 



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258 WANDERINGS AND WONDEJRINGS. 

A highly successful and interesting passage took 
me to Canton, on the Thursday morning, the scenery 
being all more or less mountainous, and the Tiger 
Rocks very striking. Of what I was to see at Canton 
I had formed no clear idea ; and now that I have 
seen it I am by no means sure of conveying any- 
clear idea about it. The first feature that struck me 
from on board, on arriving, was the vast number of 
crowding boats, or sampans, upon the waters, and it 
seemed almost incredible when I was told that the 
population who live upon these boats is numbered 
at something like a quarter of a million. I at once 
boated to Shameen, where all the Europeans live, 
and called on Mr. Detmering, to whom I brought a 
letter from Messrs. Melchior et Cie. He advised me 
to take up my abode across the river (the Chao, or 
Choo, Kiang; or Pearl River), in the small Oriental 
Hotel at Honan ; and there to rest for the night, and 
start for the city with a guide in the morning. This 
I accordingly did, amusing myself by a visit to the 
Honan Temple, which is quite devoid of any archi- 
tectural attraction ; but it displayed at the moment 
of my visit a solemn religious Buddhist ceremony, 
wherein the procession of priests reminded me exactly 
of the Roman Church. Vestment, ceremony, and 
dignity predominated. 

From Canton I was to go to Macao, and return 
thence to Hongkong. My luggage was therefore 
dispatched at once to the Macao boat, and at 
ten a.m. on Friday, the 21st, I came across with my 
guide to Canton. The crowd of residential boats 
again attracted my attention. They extend for some 



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CANTON. 259 

four or five miles in front of the city ; they are of all 
sizes, hooded of course, and even in the small craft 
are occupied by whole families ; these include geese, 
cooped and uncooped, and coops of ducks and 
chickens. Somewhat apart are handsomer craft, 
occupied by the more wealthy, and devoted to 
more wealthy and less public purposes. 

We each got into our lifted chair, and were 
paraded through the city. One word immediately 
springs to my lips. Canton is a glorious kaleido- 
scope. There are no streets, they are all broad flat 
paved passages ; all are crowded with variegated 
Chinese walking to and fro, and very busy about 
something or about nothing ; the shops are open on 
both sides ; some gorgeous, and all well ornamented, 
and every trade and calling makes appearance. 
Among the number, mark the butcher with heaps 
of pork roastings, and a few black dogs into the 
bargain. Among other glitterings, one most re- 
markable, and indeed I might almost say gorgeous, 
effect is produced by the peculiar mode of hanging 
out signs : a custom pursued by every one. My 
guide began by leading the way in his chair, but I 
shortly altered this in order to enjoy the perspective. 
Large polished black long parallelogram boards are 
hung out vertically ; and in large Chinese character, 
which is very handsome, the name and the trade are 
emblazoned on each in very marked, broad, golden 
characters. So that, what with the open shops and 
the rich gold lettering of the sign boards, and the 
moving crowd, in variegated robes, the effect is 
dazzling. As you are being carried along on high, 

S 2 



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260 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

the views, as may be imagined, which you thus 
command are extensive ; and in various parts an 
open wicker work is arranged above to protect the 
more exposed passages from the sun. 

This is really the sight of Canton for the passing 
stranger, and I should suppose a more striking one 
he would not note in China. 

But spots and buildings are to be visited, the most 
singular of which I found to be the Temple of the 
500 Genii. All these figures, sitting down, are 
gilded from top to toe, and all are posing with their 
hands, and among all the 500 I could not find two 
posing alike. . Where one or two were intended for 
the Great they were represented as very stout and 
corpulent. The Chinese God of War — Kuanti — is 
always represented as corpulent. That is their idea 
of strength, and certainly some people should be 
strong enough to carry about with them what they 
are possessed of in this respect. All keep looking at 
you more or less pleasantly, none angrily, so that 
when you come out you feel to have left a pleasant 
crowd behind you. 

But if this be a pleasant visit, what shall be said of 
its contrast in the Temple of Horrors ? It may be 
called the Hell of the Wicked, over illustrated. Then 
there is the Examination Hall, where there is not 
much for examination, as you are not a student ; the 
silk weavers ; the Courts of Justice ; and, lastly, a long 
walk to the Five Storey Pagoda, which I held to be 
the last and the least. It is far from impressive in 
itself, and the view from it of Canton is disappoint- 
ing. Through Canton once again, rather for a visit 



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MACAO. 261 

than for a dwelling ; and then to our boats. This time 
we were met by golden marriage processions, carry- 
ing all things in golden glitter, and at last, through 
the sampans again, I came to the Macao steamer. 

There was, after all, very little that I found closely 
associated with Camoens at Macao. Grotto there 
was absolutely none ; nor is it easy to trace where 
there ever was one. The garden you are shown into 
is a very pretty undulating piece of ground, and is 
rather heavily timbered ; and in a picturesque part of 
this there are some rocks, in the midst of which there 
is planted a small bust of the poet, with certain ex- 
tracts from the Lusiads, engraved on stone. These, 
however, are scarcely legible, partly from the decay 
of the material and partly from the growth of lichens 
on the surface. Nor does the state of the case rest 
here. More than one admirer, or desirous of being 
so called, has taken occasion, for his own sake, to 
hitch his name on to that of Camoens by writing 
unneeded eulogies on him, and, in particular, one 
Frenchman has mutilated a large face of one of the 
rocks by inserting a huge black stone tablet with a 
huge number of stanzas. I could conjure up no 
associations with the poet, nor gather any inspiration 
from the scene. On the following day I was again at 
Hongkong. 



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XXVI. 

I was now to make arrangements for getting 
to Shanghai, which was to be my starting-point 
for Japan ; and I again availed myself of one of 
Messrs. Butterfield and Swire's boats for the passage. 
This I did by sailing in the AncAises, Captain Lapage 
— known as Captain Lappidge — and went on board 
on a cold, foggy, windy morning, it being Wednes- 
day, the 26th of March. On this passage we touched 
at Amoy, and took in Mr. Marshall, Inspector of 
Consulate Buildings, and whom I afterwards met at 
Shanghai. This entrance to Amoy is very fine, the 
rocks are remarkable and the water spacious, offering 
a secure and commodious harbour. This is the port 
for Formosa, which I held in prospect for a visit, if 
only to gratify an old schoolboy's curiosity, but it was 
not to be now, if ever. We started again the same 
evening and came into yellow water, which marked 
Woosang at the entrance of the Wangpoo, on which 
river Shanghai lies, and there we anchored for the 
night. 

The extensive fortifications at Woosang not 
threatening to blow us out of the water if we 
attempted to steer up the Wongpoo with audacious 
intent of landing at Shanghai, we ventured on that 
proceeding, and assaulted the Shanghai quay at the 
auspicious hour of eight o'clock in the morning, with- 



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SHANGHAI. 263 

out however having spread any insane alarm in con- 
sequence ; and after quietly breakfasting with the 
captain on bo^rd, I quietly came on shore and put 
myself under the paternal and maternal protection of 
Mr. and Mrs. Jansen, at the Astor House Hotel. The 
town was in perfect repose, and indeed everything 
was shut, for it was Palm Sunday. 

On Monday, however, the vulgar world's every-day 
work began again, and temporal thoughts superseded 
eternal, and then it was that on going to my bankers* 
for money, I found I had to make out the receipt in 
taels, which is not a coin but a fanciful weight, and 
this weight continued to press upon me when I went 
to take my cabin to Kobe, for the measurement by 
the aristocratic taels knocks the poor dollar into 
second-class value, and enables companies, dentists, 
and other professionalists to charge by the higher de- 
nomination. Of this, however, Mr. Bois, of Butterfield 
and Swire's house — here they are everywhere — had 
forewarned me, so that I paid without a groan, or at 
allevents, without letting one be heard. 

At Shanghai, on this my first visit, I passed only 
two days, but returned more than once again. Al- 
ready, however, it was easy to see that in its grand 
European aspect it is a fine-looking city, with grand 
dwellings. Carriages are plentiful, and so are jin- 
rikishas. But these have not yet obliterated the old- 
fashioned wheelbarrow, though they have relegated 
it to the use of the lower classes. It is exactly a 
wheelbarrow in the mode of locomotion, but the body 
is like that of an Irish car. A division stands in the 
middle ; the man sits on one side, and his baggage 



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264 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS.. 

— in the shape of his wife or otherwise — is on the 
other. And when the cargo is very heavy, a man 
pulls in front to help the pusher behind, with his two 
lifted handles. The jinrikisha is also ubiquitous ; and 
is at first very likely to give you a cold, or the ear-ache. 
On Wednesday, the 2nd of April, I went with my 
servant on board the Yang-tse^ Captain Lormier, 
and was now at last bound for Japan^ which I had 
begun to think it was a shame to have not yet seen ; 
for I had been provoked to go there so long ago as 
1873, and even then had been warned that the coun- 
try had been already spoiled some years before. This 
was the warning and information given me by the 
Rev. Dr. Smythe, whom in that year I met at Buenos 
Ayres. He had been practising as a physician in 
Japan, and had since then entered the Church, and. 
was resident, at the time I speak of, in the Argentine 
Republic. It does not, however, happen to us very 
frequently that we can choose exactly what we shall 
do and where we shall go. In travelling I have proved 
this — that if you will not go to one place merely be- 
cause you have not yet been to some other, it very 
often happens that you will go to neither. I know, 
for example, for myself, that it happened to me to 
' drive into Rome with a friend behind four horses, 
an4 even to see the glorious Bay of Rio, long before 
I could get circumstances to allow me to see Holland. 
And I know, moreover, that when I did go there by 
rather .a forced arrangement, I met with an unex- 
pectedly early winter, and spent my time in suffering 
sciatica and lumbago, and drinking cura9ao at every 
station I came to. The Fates said "Yes"; the 
Furies " No." 



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JAPAN. ' 265 

I never found a fair and natural chance of getting 
to Japan till this last date I speak of, and I confess 
myself now to have been perfectly satisfied with 
what I saw, notwithstanding all the spoiling. I 
saw much more by means of the intrusion of Europe 
than I should otherwise have done; I saw plenty 
that had been unaltered by Europe ; and after having 
seen all that was Japanese for entertainment and in- 
struction, I was quite content to fall back into what 
was European for the enjoyment of reflection and 
repose. 

The French steamer, the Yang-tse^ was advertised 
to go through the Inland Sea, and that was the first 
object to be enjoyed. The weather, it is true, was 
very dull, but, independently of this drawback, I must 
profess myself to have been quite disappointed in 
this one particular passage. There were on board two 
ladies, Mrs. Watkin Wingfield and Miss Smith, 
who had been staying with their relatives, Sir John 
and Lady Walsham, at Peking (which city I do 
not ruthlessly rob of its legitimate and essential G), 
and I am quite sur^ they would say, and indeed they 
did say, the same ; nor had they, as I afterwards had, 
the chance of amending this first impression. The 
truth is that the going through the Inland Sea is a 
mere matter of course, for Kobe, or Kiogo, has to be 
touched, and that lies on this sea ; but the mere 
phrase itself does not mean seeing that sea. From 
Kobe runs the passage to Yokohama, and that is the 
business of the French Messageries and of the Eng- 
lish P. & O. But these companies take the shortest 
cut and go through the Inland Sea by .day or by 



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266 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

night, just as despatch requires. The consequence 
of this was that on this occasion we saw only the 
entrance, the beauties of which were very soon 
steamed through. Later on, I found other means of 
reah'zing the* real charms of this exquisite piece of 
water. Be it noted, moreover, that the French 
steamers do not even touch at Nagasaki, though the 
P. & O. do. 

We landed at Kobe early in the morning of Satur- 
day, the 5th of April, and went at once into Euro- 
pean quarters at the Oriental Hotel, a French house 
which I would recommend ; and the wet, cold weather 
found me quite content to remain under its European 
protection. 

The next day was fine, and I went as far as Osaka 
with the ladies, who continued on their way by train 
to Tokio. My object in a special journey to Osaka 
and back was to see some specimens of the Japanese 
cherry blossoms. These I found very striking of their 
kind. They come out before the leaves, and they 
grow thickly and very closely on the branches, as 
closely as if they were on a child's garland. And 
they are but a childish show at last, for they give no 
fruit at all ; thus exemplifying the well-known 
national taste of the Japanese for the cultivation of 
flowers. There was nothing at all picturesque in the 
position of the trees I saw, and the cherry tree, 
moreover, is one of very stiff and unpicturesque form. 
There was nothing particularly striking in the hour's 
journey, as regards country, but a singularly adven- 
titious effect was thrown over vast extents of the 
prospect by the accident of the rape, grown for oil. 



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JAPAN, 267 

being at that moment in full feather of its well-known 
golden blossom. Certainly I have to confess that at 
the station, both coming and going, I was made to 
witness one spoiling of Japan by European intrusion. 
The Japanese, as a matter of every-day courtesy, keep 
continually bowing in a sort of bobbing manner, to 
one another ; no one makes a curtsey. This species 
of politeness maj' pass in the robes of Japan, but 
when the performance takes place in European garb, 
as it often must where people are more usefully and 
energetically employed than in growing fruitless 
flowers, the gesture has lost all possible national 
grace, of which I have seen it sometimes exhibit some 
traces, and verges on the idiotic. 

My friends, Messrs. Butterfield and Swire, were 
again at my side to help me ; for on going to their 
house I was introduced to Mr. Baggalay, the son of 
an old member and acquaintance, who gave me 
much assistance and information. And. here I imme- 
diately found that something of old Japan had not 
been quite destroyed, but only wounded and yet 
surviving. For instead of being wholly forbidden to 
go out of a city, all were now to procure passports 
of permission so to do ; nor was there any danger of 
having the head taken off because you had omitted 
to take off the hat. But these passports were to be 
strictly regular ; no railway tickets could be bought 
without them ; and no deviation from the strict 
course they were requested for would be permitted. 
I obtained a separate one for Kioto on the spot ; 
but the general one was to be prepared at Tokio 
and sent for me to Kioto ; for without it I could not 



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268 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

stir beyond that city. After arranging this indis- 
pensable matter, I was well pleased to take a Euro- 
pean lunch with Mr. Baggalay and to meet a nephew 
of Sir Austin Layard. And if I remember this 
lunch particularly, it is because I was greatly struck 
by suddenly seeing a most striking portrait of the 
late Lord Justice ; a face which I had first known 
young in Lincoln's Inn, so far back as in the thirties, 
and which I now saw out here in far Japan, as that 
of yet one other dead and gone. 

After a scrimmage about my servant's name not 
being on my passport, I got away for Kioto, and 
according to advice drove to the Europeo- Japanese 
Ya-ami hotel. But the drive was in a jin-ri-ki-sha 
(or strong-man-carriage), — that peculiarly Japanese 
vehicle, on which Municipal Licence fees are paid in 
Tokio to the respectable number of 39,ooo^and 
the distance was somewhat considerable, rendered 
seemingly yet more so because it was late and the 
streets were dark. In the morning I found that the 
position of the hotel was very picturesque, command- 
ing a bird's-eye view of the town in which, however, 
seen in this fashion, there is a considerable pre- 
dominance of brown roofing. The day was spent as 
usual, in wandering about and making casual ob- 
servation ; and as the Mikado happened to be there, 
the streets were more than usually adorned, par- 
ticularly with large and variegated paper lamps. In 
the evening I was induced to go to the theatre ; an 
experience which I was not likely to repeat. It was 
by great favour and with difficulty that I obtained a 
ticket to join ai private box, and it surely was with 



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JAPAN. 269 

great difficulty that I persuaded myself out of compli- 
ment to remain ; but I take great credit for my cour- 
tesy. Anything so prolonged, dreary and monotonous 
I had not yet imagined. Yet I read in Mr. Caine's 
" Round the World " that the author spent several 
evenings in going to the theatres! In a pleasant 
and instructive book, Chamberlain's " Things Japan- 
ese," there is a paragraph about these theatres, 
and lectures and other holdings forth. And in par- 
ticular as to sermons (of all things) the missionaries 
tell the author they never can be "prolix enough 
to stay the insatiable appetite of their converts." 
That is not European, certainly ; and Mr. Chamber- 
lain attributes this to the virtue of patience ; patience 
surely reduced to a vice. In Japan, therefore, be- 
ware of theatres and of — sermons ; no great friends, 
these two, anywhere, for people are so good ; but 
here, in pari delicto. 

I had a pleasanter entertainment in view ; the 
descent of the Tanba River. I started with my 
guide at 8.30 on the loth of April, and a jinri- 
kisha was, of course, the vehicle. Fifteen miles 
took me to Taaba, to embark on the river, and 
a long, straight, picturesque street, crowded with 
suspended variegated paper lamps, was the beginning 
of my road. After that the rest of the line was 
through flat and indeed ugly country, with hills to 
the right ; but this suddenly changed when we came 
to the river, the banks of which from first to last 
were lofty and pleasing, and now and then aspired to 
be rocky. But it is not for this alone that you take 
the boat — a good flat-bottomed one.- It is the ex- 



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2/0 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, . 

citement of the twelve miles down stream over so 
many rapids that constitutes the special delight of 
this excursion ; and it is one well worth while. The 
river is not nearly so large as either of the other two 
which I shall by-and-by have occasion to describe ; 
but, as these do not fall within the scope of every- 
body's travel, this river ought by no means to be over- 
looked. The rapids are rocky, and skilful management 
is indispensable. Moreover, at the end of the hour's 
rush, which is about the average time occupied over the 
thirteen miles, the far-famed Arashi-yama, or Stormy 
Mountain, rewards the exploit. Here, the steep and 
lofty hills that clothe the right of the river are 
covered thickly in quiet spring with all the well- 
known soft foliage of Japan, and these blush all 
over in their higher plumes with spreads of the pink 
wild cherry blossom. Far more pleasing is this 
blossom thus seen than on the stiff branches of the 
separate trees; striking as that sight is. A grand 
and comfortable tea-house greets you here ; and six 
miles more of jinrikisha take you back to Kioto. 

I should have left Kioto at once, but my passport 
had not yet arrived, which delay cost me two more 
days. And dull they were in weather. Still I went 
to the *' gardens," or rather a wilderness of trees, 
mixed with other features belonging to a country 
where nature cannot help being beautiful. The 
maples, in all their variety of virgin green, are a real 
charm in Japan. In autumn they can show more 
colour ; but give me the young growth of spring 
where all shows sign of fresh and beaming life : of 
Nature waking up again to live; and where there 



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JAPAN. 27 1 

has been rain, and sunshine follows it, mark how the 
virgin foliage of these trees festoons before the back- 
ground of the dark wet bark behind. Perhaps it was 
the weather that made me find Kioto and its people 
more colourless than I had expected. The small 
children seemed to me to be the only gaily-dressed 
among all others ; and then there seemed to be a 
striking number of women with black teeth. This 
was explained to me as signifying marriage. We 
often hear of women losing their looks after marriage, 
but in Japan it would seem they take artificial pains 
to disfigure themselves forthwith. What reason could 
my guide give me } It was a short and decisive 
one : to keep people off. Very effective, in that 
respect, one might readily admit ; but capable, one 
might also misgive, of presently keeping the husband 
off among the number. 

On Sunday, the 13th, I got away, and came as 
far as Nagoya, where I slept. And here I had my 
first experience of real Japanese manners, though 
the hotel was Europeanized to some small degree. 
The first I approached appeared for some reason 
inaccessible ; but the mystery arising out of an inter- 
change of unknown tongues was at last dispelled by 
a young Japanese Missie being fetched from above 
to squeeze out the two words (laughing, of course) 
" No room." This was the Shiukinro hotel, whence I 
went to the Shinachu ; very different names, these, 
from " The Lion " and " The Bear." Still they were 
hotels ; and at this latter house I found both bed 
and board. It was one of those curious little build- 
ings which belong to Japan, but it was not wholly 



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272 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

Japanese. Built almost like workboxes, these pre- 
sent the most opposite possible character to the 
heavy-beamed structures that one used to find in 
Switzerland. They are so slender that when night 
comes on, an outside set of panels are adjusted^ 
Everything was neat and clean, and the walls of the 
little square rooms were daintily ornamented with 
colours ; and here I may mention that I was never 
really troubled with any insect but the obscene 
and pertinacious house-fly. The dinner was served 
to me by four young girls, who were most delicate 
in their attentions, and like curious children put their 
snatched and repeated questions, full of laughing 
amusement, at everything that I said in reply. Cer- 
tain English words, funnily pronounced, they knew. 
That I came from England was enough : off they 
all went, and on they came again ; and off they went 
again. The whole scene was a novelty indeed ; one 
or two broken words (as I have said) sufficing to 
keep up the giggling intercourse, whether they quite 
understood or not. 

I was called at four the next morning, and after 
a slight breakfast, not served by the young ladies, I 
left with another passenger for the train. The day 
turned out wet and foggy, and I found no refresh- 
ment during the thirteen hours' journey, beyond 
what was by chance in my pocket. What the par- 
ticular features of the view were, if there were any, 
I know not. But I saw a quantity of rice in slush 
close at hand, and now and then I almost thought 
that we were stopping to take up frogs. Fuji no 
Yama was quite out of sight when we ran under 



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JAPAN. 273 

him. One feature of the journey reminded me of 
India, the multitudes of third-class passengers, which 
were now and then startling and amusing at the 
stations. But I would rather talk about this line 
of country later on. Suffice it to say we arrived 
safely, but not till seven in the evening ; and at 
length I was well content to find myself at the 
European Grand Hotel at European Yokohama, 
and to have had the great advantage of travelling 
through this journey in European form. 

My first duty in Yoko was to call on Mr. Brooke, 
the proprietor of the Herald^ whom I had met at my 
friend Mr. Gassiot's house in England. I was at once 
invited to spend the rest of the week with him and 
Mrs. Brooke on the Bluff, and willingly made my 
way thither, where, besides a charming house and host 
and hostess, I found a beautifully arrayed garden, 
and the grounds artistically planted with trees ; the 
view from the windows being correspondingly 
pleasing and attractive. My name was also put 
down at the Club, and thus Yokohama became a 
pleasant resting place. The Exhibition being open 
at Tokio, an early day was of course devoted to a 
visit thither, where every possible variety of articles 
as usual, confounded attention ; and this was more- 
over almost entirely distracted by the hustling crowds 
of other mere curious inspectors. One effect prac- 
tically wrought upon me was that I was induced to 
give orders, in town, for china and cloisonnd ; and 
in another point of view I must mention having been 
greatly struck by the difference between the two 
styles of Japanese paintings that were plentifully 

T 



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274 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

exhibited : one in the well-known style of their own 
peculiar body colour (so to call it) where a few light 
touches serve to suggest immensity, and the other in 
oils, where, on the other hand, the pigment is laid on 
in lumps and masses. 

Altogether, I spent exactly two calendar months in 
Japan, from the Sth of April till the 6th of June, 
though I came back for a few more days, later on, to 
Nagasaki. My weather was by no means propitious 
during all this period, nevertheless I saw the few 
leading points that I came to see, and was fortunately 
favoured with fair weather on these occasions, ex- 
cepting on my Nikko excursion. April is one of the 
wet months in Japan, and in 1890 it was cold also. 
But on the 21st I made bold to start for Nikko, and 
dined and slept at the Tokio Hotel. The next 
morning I marked "wet,^* and had to* wait till the 
second train for Yusunomiya Station ; the journey 
to which, for some three hours or a little more, 
showed me nothing calling for remark except flat rice 
grounds, and these not being pleasant features in the 
dry time are certainly not so in the wet. From this 
station to the hotel at Nikko (which I was told 
means "sunshine,") the distance is twenty-five miles, 
and it was then necessary to hire the inevitable jin- 
rikisha for the journey. Two, therefore, I took, 
each with two men ; one for myself and the other for 
my guide, Awoki, But now there is a railway all 
through, a great relief in one respect, but destructive 
of the most impressive part of the journey in 
another. I refer to the road that runs for miles under 
an avenue of large and spreading cedars, forming, no 



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JAPAN. 275 

doubt, the original approach to the Temple. There 
are, of course, interruptions in this surely unex- 
ampled length of avenue, partly by the total 
disappearance of some of the original trees, and 
partly by younger ones of stunted growth, planted 
in various spots ; but the effect produced is grand ; 
historically and devotionally as regards their plant- 
ing, and actually so as regards themselves. All this 
is, of course, lost in the railway, though for some length 
the line runs close by the side of the trees. On my 
own journey I saw that it was nearly complete, 
which fact, by the way, cost me not a little ; for of 
course nothing more was being laid out to keep the 
road in order, out of which it had hideously wan- 
dered. If it did not shake every joint out of the 
socket that is about all I can say for it ; and often- 
times I had to get out and walk along the path close 
by the large stems, thus somewhat varying the 
picture, and very much varying the shocks. Time, 
to a certain extent, was lost, and when the dusk 
approached the pines increased the sombre : nor did I 
reach the hotel till nearly ten at night, and in the 
absolute dark. 

The next morning I was rewarded by miserable 
wet and fog. An American lady agreed with me that 
indoors was therefore the only proper place either in 
Japan or any where else ; but four others defied the 
weather, and started in their palanquins up the 
mountain to see the well-known lake. They were 
very wet when they came back and they were very 
silent too. *' What did we come for ? " they had 
said when starting. " What did you go for t " we 

T 2 



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276 WANDERINGS AND WONDEKINGS. 

asked when they returned. I suppose the lake is 
worth seeing ; at all events it must offer a pleasant 
day's excursion. But some photographs that were 
shown me lead me to suppose that that was the 
limit, and decided me not to spend an extra day 
on it in doubtful weather. Indeed, the next day 
would not have suited. It opened fairly in the 
early hours^ but threatened to lose its temper very 
soon ; so I shot off at once to the Temple, and was 
just in time. You come to this by a straight ap- 
proach, and are at once much struck by the magnifi- 
cence of its] position, to which it owes so much ; for 
immediately behind the group of structures below, 
including a rather lofty pagoda, there rises a towering 
and precipitous broad screen of rock, densely covered 
with forest trees of various kinds, hovering, as it 
were, over the sacred edifices both for adornment 
and protection. 

As you approach through the Torii, or outer gate, 
and mount the steps, you become aware of the 
elaborate work within, and you pass up three 
terraces from court to court, astonished at the detail 
outside and in. The predominance of roofs and 
eaves, and the great labour bestowed upon them, as 
before observed at Bangkok, is particularly apparent 
here, not forgetting the cornices inside. Far from 
the least impressive view of all is obtained by walking 
up the 200 stone steps in the forest behind, and 
gazing on the Temples through the vast stems of 
the trees that clothe them. This is an addition to 
the examination of the Temple that ought not by 
any means to be omitted, though there is nothing 



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JAPAN. 277 

worth seeing at the top. Scarcely had my walk 
concluded when the sunshine ceased, and rain coming 
on, I sought my European shelter for the remainder 
of the day. 

The following one was fine. I did not care for 
the lake, but enjoyed the very varied lights and 
shades that adorned the avenue of cypress on my 
return. Both in coming and going I had experience 
of the tea houses and their amused and amusing 
attendants, and from time to time caught sight of 
real shrubs of the cultivated azalea, completely laden 
with scarlet blossoms, whole branches of which are 
gathered, seemingly without stint ; and in one par- 
ticular case the sun was shining so brilliantly on a 
particularly loaded specimen that I was reminded 
of the favourite device of one of our kings, '^ The 
Rose in Sun." Indeed I stopped ray jinrikisha to 
enjoy a long contemplation of it in unadulterated 
light, while I myself was under the shade of the 
avenue with open pupils. 

Finding on my arrival at Tokio that the Honour- 
able Mr. and Mrs. Napier had gone down to Yokohama 
with H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, I had no 
motive for making a halt at the former city, and went 
straight down to the " Oriental." Two chance 
meetings here turned out very fortunately. On 
looking at the visitors' book, I found that Mr. 
Tremlett, our English Consul in Saigon, had arrived, 
to whom Captain Jones had forwarded the official 
letter that was to secure me every facility for visiting 
the Cambodian Temples. I was of course well 
pleased to make his acqaintance, and obtained much 



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2^8 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

information as to my projected visit towards the end 
of the year. The other was the chancing to open a 
conversation with a young and energetic traveller 
and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Needham Wilson, who 
had seen a great deal of Japan as well as other 
places, and who particularly recommended me to 
the two rivers, the Fujikawa and the Tenriugawa, as 
presenting, in their opinion, the finest scenery they 
had witnessed in the country. This was exactly the 
class of scenery that I had come to see, and not to 
run from one place to another for the mere sake of 
seeing what you could see elsewhere. There is, 
indeed, a great deal of very plain and commonplace 
scenery in Japan — I speak of the main island ; and Mr. 
Chamberlain himself says that " padi fields of vivid 
green (not always) separated into squares by low mud 
dykes form the most characteristic feature of the 
Japanese landscape." One, or if possible both these 
rivers therefore became my two leading objects before 
my return to Koby, and by perseverance and 
marshalling my time and forces I accomplished 
both. 

The run from Yokohama to see the Daibutsu or 
" Great Buddha " at Kamakura was a matter, of 
course, of one day. It happened to be a holiday 
when I went, and crowds were (as everywhere else) 
idling about, enjoying the air. No great movement 
in amusements was visible, but among the number 
was one that attracted my attention by its humming 
noise. The puzzle was solved by discovering that 
this sound belonged to several coloured kites, some 
in the shape of fish, and some in the shape of birds — 



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JAPAN. 279 

'^"t not much resembling the humming birds of 
Brazil— th^t were being flown on high ; these were 
so constructed as to catch the wind and hum, a 
characteristic of Japanese ingenuity and innocence. 
Then came the huge Buddha, which Mr. Chamber- 
lain says you must see more than twice before you 
can thoroughly appreciate " the calm, intellectual, 
passionless face which seems to concentrate in itself 
the whole philosophy of the Buddhist religion — the 
triumph of mind over sense, of eternity over fleeting 
time, of the enduring majesty of Nirvana over the 
trivial prattle, the transitory agitations of mundane 
existence/' I have copied the whole sentence in 
order to confess that having paid only one visit to it, 
that is to say two with the interval of an hour or two 
I wholly failed to trace all these characteristics in 
*e gigantic countenance. Nor can I defend myself 
upon the above excuse ; for I have seen photograph 
after photograph of the original, vividly recalling its 
exact form and expression, and yet have still remained 
unperceiving as before. 

For myself, if I compare this countenance with that 
of either of the three — but they are marvellously 
identical — gigantic figures of the great Rameses II., 
sitting side by side, in a sublime repose upon their 
thrones outside the Temple of Aboo Simbel, the 
Daibutsu must retire altogether. Yet it did not 
require, in this latter case, a second visit, and scarcely 
more than a second gaze, to feel fully impressed with 
the majestic beauty, the excessive sweetness of those 
faces, which I must say, without attributing to them 
all that would appear to belong to the Daibutsu, I 



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280 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

infinitely prefer. The total height of these, as sitting 
figures, is given as of sixty-six feet, and (according* 
to my own observation) the flat open hands, laid 
out upon the knees, impart a very magic of placidity. 
It is true I saw them to the very best advantage. 
They look calmly out eastward over a very broad 
part of their river. We fortunately moored there 
for the night, when the scene far surpassed that by 
day. It happened to be a full moon at rising, which 
therefore shone full upon them ; and three or four of 
us, clambering on to the enormous masses of golden 
gritty sand which are banked up against the Temple, 
lay there and enjoyed the magical effect which it 
may be imagined so fine a moonlight would cast 
upon those countenances. I do not attempt to work 
out any compound group of sentiments that would 
appear to occupy their brow, but simply speak of 
their sweet and majestic placidity. I am no great 
believer in these elaborate analyses of countenances 
after you are told to whom they belong. I always 
remember, while at Rome, some thirty-five years ago, 
the ingenious analysis of the various expressions 
made manifest in the countenance of the then sup- 
posed portrait of the Beatrice Cenci, in the Barberini 
Palace. I never could appreciate them, and an 
Italian reviewer, some few years ago, published an 
article, showing that the figure is no Beatrice Cenci 
at all. 

I was now to prepare for an excursion to one of 
my rivers. Which was it to be ? I had engaged an 
active and intelligent young guide for the rest of my 
sojourn in Japan, whose name was Sosuke Yama- 



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JAPAN. 281 

ixioto, and whose residence was 213 Gochome Moto- 
machi, in Yokohama ; I could cordially recommend 
him. On consulting him, I decided I should at first 
try the river Fujikawa, as being the nearest, and the 
one from which I could return to Yoko, includ- 
ing the usual round by Myanoshita, in the course 
of a week. The scenery also, he assured me, was 
quite on a par with that of the Tenriugawa, the latter 
being grander but the former sweeter ; while both 
were magnificent. This was a true description of the 
two. 

Accordingly, on the morning of Thursday, the 8th 
of May, having arranged all necessary provisions, 
my guide being, of course, the cook, I and he 
started by railway as far as the forty-five mile station 
of Kodzu, and there we took the tram-car to Yumoto, 
on the road to Myanoshita. We lunched at the hotel 
Jamanoyu at Tonosa, and came on to the Fujiya 
hotel, with all its spread of glass windows, at the 
end of our day's journey. Throughout this march I 
was constantly charmed by the delicate foliage on all 
sides, by the wooded gorges and river, and temple ; 
and began to obtain a decided introduction to the 
particular character of Japanese scenery. One occa- 
sional feature particularly struck me. From time to 
time you come upon a group of tombs, utterly 
isolated, attached to no temple, to no building what- 
ever. The sanctity of the churchyard for the repose 
of the dead is totally unknown. As their temples are 
not for congregations, so are there no surrounding 
enclosures to protect their tombs. Respect is, how- 
ever, always shown. 



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282 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

The following day was naturally devoted to the 
Lake Hakone. The view of Fujiyama from that hotel 
is well worth gazing on. He is not naked. His snowy 
peak stands up behind the foldings of middle distance 
mountains, and the water in the foreground, fringed 
on the right by hills of hanging foliage, though those 
to the left are somewhat arid, combines, as a breast 
of water often does, to enchant the eye. Here also is 
a temple that can boast its planted avenue. The row 
across the lake, on the return home, served to disclose 
its attendant woodland ornaments, but on the other 
side were opened fatiguing stretches of uneven sul- 
phur grounds, of which I had rather more than enough 
before I found myself again in the glass house of 
Fujiya. 

The next day's journey was in another direction ; 
towards the river I was bound for ; and my resting 
place was to be Subaschidi. I had been recommended 
by no means to miss the Otoma Togc Pass, in order 
to see the finest full view of Fuji no Yama that the 
island affords ; and happily my path lay exactly over 
it. We mounted, as it were, the side of a long stiff 
screen, sjeeing nothing before us but the ridge we were 
to attain to ; until at last we got there, and stood 
upon a narrow neck, before again descending on the 
other side. But at the instant of arriving, and sitting 
down on a bench outside the tea-house for a moment's 
pause, my attention had not yet been arrested by any 
striking feature. In a few moments, however, I was 
up again, and walking but a few paces to the other 
edge, really only a few paces, there suddenly opened 
before my eyes what I must honestly call an astound- 



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JAPAN, 283 

ing view. It was a " surprise view " altogether. On 
mounting the neck I saw nothing, on crossing it with a 
few paces I saw everything. A varied and enormous 
valley lay before me and far below me, just fifteen 
hundred feet below me where I stood ; and covering 
up the very whole of the far-away background 
there was spread forth the full 12,500 feet figure 
of Fujiyama, staring me in the face like an enor- 
mous pyramid, or taking rather the shape of a vast 
protecting flat tent curtain. That this view has 
been seen by many and has been already set to the 
grindorgan by many, may be true. But that makes 
no difference to me ; I saw it for the first time, and 
shall ever remember it as one of the leading glories 
of my travels. Nor was I deceived by my aneroid, 
for I afterwards compared its register with one of 
the Company's engineers at Gotemba station, I 
stood at a height of 3000 feet above the sea, and 
Gotemba, which lies in the valley, is marked on the 
railway map at a height of 1499. What the real dis- 
tance was from the ridge I stood on to the snow- 
crown of the mountain I had no means of ascertain- 
ing ; and perhaps for the picture's sake it is best left 
in mystery, on which the astonished senses love to 
feed. Down to Gotemba we had to come, and there 
at once were found two first-class jinrikishas, in which 
we started at full speed for Subaschidi, occupying 
from 4 to 6 p.m., and mounting just ,500 feet more, 
i.e. 2000. Here I received a check. The road to 
Kofu, a distance of one day, was broken up, and of 
course the first misgiving that arose was that I could 
not get there. But that was not the case, the vexa- 



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284 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

tion was limited to my being driven into two. Mis- 
fortune, however, turned out fortune, and the toad's 
head bore yet a precious jewel ; for the road we 
were obliged to take on the following morning, besides 
being always beautiful, and leading past two temples, 
brought us down upon the splendid Lake of Kawa- 
guchi, which we should not otherwise have seen. 
Here again was hanging foliage, and rodks and water, 
truly Japanese. But the grandest of effects appeared 
when, turning the head and looking across the water, 
there rose seemingly almost out of it Fujiyama's selt 
In short, we kept going round the base of the moun- 
tain and had it almost ever in view. On the borders 
of the lake we rested for the night. 

The two temples we thus had to pass were those at 
Yamanaka and Yoshida. Of the former, architectur- 
ally speaking, there was not much to say, though, as 
usual, the gateways, roofs, eaves, and soffits, formed 
the most elaborate features. But the position was 
romantic, seeing that it was surrounded by a grove 
of fine timber and foliage, the beautiful camphor 
tree predominating, as it is said to do round the 
many temples of Is^. The other temple of Yoshida 
was a very fine one, and was also well-bosomed with 
trees. The approach to it was by a long straight- 
planted avenue, adorned with what they call stone- 
lamps. A fine fountain or tank occupied the court 
to which you were invited, or from which you were 
warned, by a furious-looking elaborate bronze dragon ; 
the terrors inseparable from all religions being thus 
combined with its softer poetry. On one side, a 
white wooden horse in a separate box stood peer- 



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JAPAN. 285 

ing through an iron grating, on going to look at 
which I found him buried up to his knees and hocks 
in horseshoes made of straw, to be tied upon the 
hoofs. Fortunate for him, I thought it, that he was 
not bound to work and wear them. But I had to 
change my mind about these shoes in this regard. 
Here, however, they were only a Japanese form of 
the " Gift to the Altar." 

On the morning of the 12th of May we were to 
start on our journey to Kofu and were to ascend a 
very steep mountain side ; and here the jinrikishas 
came to a halt. We were to take ponies, and when 
I came out to observe the arrangements made, what 
was my astonishment to find all the nags' hoofs 
cobbled with those very same straw shoes. No- 
thing at first would induce me to mount, but I 
presently was persuaded by my guide to do so, on 
his authority that the horses could go in nothing 
else. He was to have something also, though he 
manfully protested ; but I made him take a Cango 
or Japanese net upon a straight pole, with a carrier 
before and behind. Thus I could effect a change 
from time to time, and walk oh foot besides. All 
went slow, but went well ; the horse did not trip at 
all. We mounted very high and very steeply, and 
eventually descended to a place called Kuloyoma, 
eye-feasting, as usual, on the foliage. I wonder how 
many, species of maple Japan can count ? At this 
last place I resigned the straw hoofings and entered 
a horse-car, which at first nearly jolted my lunch out 
of me, but by-and-by got better because the road 
got flatter and uglier, till at last we came to ugly 



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286 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

Kofu. Here I found we were to sleep ; but I found 
also that I was still ten miles from our starting-point on 
the river — Kajica-zawa — whither we were to go in the 
morning. This plan I at once abjured, deciding to 
get to the battlefield at once. A new horse was 
therefore found, and after driving over a spread of 
ugly rice grounds, I reached the starting station, 
and sat down very comfortably in the boat-tea- 
house, ready for a start in the morning. 

But there was a first and an immediate second 
question to be asked. First, what is the state of 
the river? for if the rains have filled it above a 
certain mark the boatmen are forbidden to go. 
Secondly, is there a boat ? for once down stream, 
many days are requisite for crawling and fighting 
up again, and many days sometimes elapse between 
the last departure and the first return. Happily 
for me both questions could be answered satis- 
factorily. The river, though high, and though still 
rising, was still one foot below the forbidden mark, 
and happily there were still two boats at hand. So 
I slept in confidence, and prayed for fine weather 
in the morning, which therefore, for my audacity, 
came with pouring rain. One day lost was not of 
much account ; but of course I trembled for the 
rising of the river, particularly as the wet continued 
till the afternoon. I then walked out in the mud 
to look about, and was much struck by the abrupt- 
ness of the change of scenery at Kajica-zawa. It is 
most remarkable. It is from a dead flat above 
stream to this very spot, when the river at once 
enters lofty green and wooded banks on both sides. 



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JAPAN, 287 

The morning of the 14th came with smiling sun- 
shine, and at an early hour the boatmen came with 
smiling faces, and my guide, smiling also, to tell me 
that the river was still several inches below the for- 
bidden mark, and that the sooner we were off the 
better ; in which suggestion I heartily concurred. 
So exactly at seven we were in the boat with all our 
belongings and provisions and under the guardian- 
ship of three men and a boy. 

The moment we began to move the river scenery 
began to charm, and from beginning to end I con- 
fess to have been enchanted. The time generally 
occupied in the descent was given as about eight 
hours, but as the water was high and the current 
strong we occupied only seven. During all this 
period I do not remember even one five minutes' 
space of flagging interest. The banks were moun- 
tainous throughout on both sides, but far from being 
monotonously so. They were green and folding 
and refolding in every variety, with constant per- 
spectives of lateral valleys, which, as we looked upon 
them in passing, might seem as if of Rasselas. 
Villages were visible on high from time to time, 
and waving spreads of wheat, but principally of 
barley, sloped towards the river and swept from 
one's memory at the moment the dead, foul cultiva- 
tion of the rice. Nor are hanging forests of Japanese 
foliage to be forgotten. Something of the general 
effect produced upon one must of course be attri- 
buted to the first time ; something to the continuous 
movement, and much perhaps to the bright state of 
excitement in which the mind was kept by the 



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288 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

constant succession of rapids, of which warning was 
from time to time given by the beating of a long 
oar against the side of the boat. The men knew 
well what they were about and that was enough. 
We were only somewhat splashed once or twice. 

What are these rapids ? They differ from those 
on the Tokio river in character, and in size of 
course immensely. They seem to be formed by vast 
promontories of boulders stretching out into the 
sloping river — how formed I cannot say — and occupy- 
ing some four-fifths of the stream. The water there- 
fore rushes with impetuosity through the remaining 
opening, running up to it along the upper side 
of the promontory. The art in navigation thus 
seems to consist in getting your boat well placed 
in this side current, but not too near the promontory, 
so that it is carried up to the opening just as if its 
nose was in a moment going belt against the rocky 
bank. But at that exact moment it comes in con- 
tact with, and is caught by the down rush, which, for- 
bidding the seemingly inevitable contact, swings its 
nose down with a sort of unconscious vehemence, 
and carries it into the next space of comparatively 
smooth water. These spreads are sometimes very 
smooth and seem very lovely lakes. Do not content 
yourself with the front perspective only ; continually 
look back and look round ; you will find you are in a 
panorama of beauty. 

At last all is over, and you emerge in an open 
country on a canal, and a railway station, Iwabuchi 
by name. This we did, but by my guide's advice 
I went an hour down the line in order to get a good 



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JAPAN. 289 

hotel at Shidzuoca. Here I visited a fine but un- 
poetically placed temple, and afterwards discussed 
an across-country journey to the other river. But 
having deliberated for a while, wiser counsels pre- 
vailed. I was sufficiently charged with memories 
of Fujikawa, and resolved to return direct to Yoko- 
hama. This I did by the morning train of the iSth 
of May, falling in (not out) with Mr. and Mrs. 
Brooke at one of the short stations. Thus, includ- 
ing the deviation, which to some whom I know I 
would almost recommend, the seventh day found me 
at " The Grand " again. 

It was on my return to Yoko that I decided 
about leaving Japan in consequence of a letter 1 
had received, that opened me a chance of a visit to 
Peking. But I had now determined to see the 
Tenriugawa river on my way down to Kobe, and 
therefore I arranged to leave Yoko on the morning 
of the 22nd of May. Bidding good-bye to my friends, 
therefoire, I sent my own servant on to Kobe direct, 
and started with Sosuke Yamamota by the 9.15 
morning train to Tokio, in order to take the train 
from the Yueno station to Takasaki, and to 
continue thence by jinrikisha to Ikao. This I did, 
arriving late at Ikao — ^just too late to join a dinner- 
table — after having passed through the usual style 
of Japanese scenery among the mountains. 

At a quarter to seven on the following morning I 
started to the voice of the cuckoo, and was accom- 
panied from time to time during the day by a little 
bird, always too shy to be seen, but which I was 
told was of a plain brown ; it would sing just one or 

U 



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290 WANDEJilNGS. AND WONDEHrNGS. 

two notes only, but those one or two of the nightingale. 
** Everybody " knew it, but nobody knew its name. 
The whole of the road was varied and striking : hill, 
valley, barley, foliage and mountain, with a peep at 
just the distant snow top of Fuji Yama to our left, 
standing out clean against the spotless sky. But 
finer scenery remains ; for after you have descended 
to a very picturesque lake, and mounted again to a 
spot called Tenjin Toge, you stand before a beauiiful 
surprise view of vast extent, and in the distance you 
behold the strange feature of perfectly serrated ridges 
perfectly covered with bright green grass. Snow 
tops back the picture. Here is a small structure 
erected to the God Tenji, and here I rested at the 
tea-house for a while to gaze and to sip and to gaze 
again. 

As Asama Yama is now the only active volcano in 
Japan I must not of course omit noting that I saw 
him smoking, and as every little incident helps in a 
long march I must mention also a most singular 
recumbent profile marked out on one of the green 
hills, just before reaching the lake I had passed by. 
As it is not like the Duke of Wellington or Washing- 
ton I don't mind calling attention to it. The small 
point is that besides the remarkably regular features, 
a most curious effect of a perfect eyebrow is produced 
by a large clump of bushes rising exactly in the 
proper place. 

The peculiar charm of this day's march began at 
the Tenjin Toge. We were to descend the long 
wooded gorge, which increased in beauty as we went. 
The trees were fine and the underwood was fine, and 



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JAPAN. 291 

here was a special beauty, in that every now and 
then vast blushes were thrown over the undergrowth 
by the copious spreads of the wild pink azalea. Then 
we came to the bottom where another gorge joined 
in and brought a stream, and where a huge, lofty, dark- 
coloured, integral panel-rock stood staring among the 
trees. The whole might have served for an imagined 
scene worthy of Midsummer Night's Dream. Shaking 
off enchantment I began to rise again, but still in 
depths of hanging forest, where amidst other huge 
integral panel-rocks, huge cedars, and a clear and 
rushing stream, I came upon the Temple of Haruna. 
So closely does all this scenery hover round it that 
some of its pillars may be at first confounded with 
the trees. The building itself will not for a moment 
compare with Nikko, but the position is far more 
romantic, and the care that has been, as usual, 
bestowed upon the curves of the roofings is eminently 
effective here. My guide had to pull me away that 
we might arrive at the Shi-shi-a tea-house at Mioge 
before night overtook us. 

The next day was very fine, and the morning was 
devoted to a journey to the two temples on the high 
ridge, bearing the strange names, Kurakake-yan and 
Boson Gon-gen. Passing across a large wooded and 
fantastical dell, you mount the other side towards one 
large dark tree at the top. When you get there, 
circumspice I There is fantastic beauty everywhere ; 
here I now found that I was close upon those 
green serrated ridges that I had seen from far off. 
Walk all along, continually delighted ; go through the 
large natural arch and look round ; finally mount the 

U 2 



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292 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

140 Steps to the Boson Gon-gen; again mount the 
top of this if you please, and circumspice again. 
There is a downright confusion, far and wide, of 
green serrated ridges, round heads, valleys, ribbed 
and wrinkled hill sides : all these compose a picture 
the equal to which I do not believe Japan itself can 
show elsewhere, and when you feel quite sure you 
have gazed long enough, you can return. 

As to the temple which lies high up on the face of 
an almost perpendicular rock close by the tea-house 
below, I certainly cared not to climb to it, particularly 
for what the red guide book promised me : the 
" magnificent view of the whole sweep of the plain 
extending to Tokio." What can be the beauty of 
the " whole sweep of a plain " ? Such also was the 
' love of a plain displayed in speaking of the Usui 
Pass, where you behold about as fine a hanging 
forest all the way through as is to be seen, I should 
say, in any part of the world ; and here we read that 
" although the Pass is thickly wooded,*' views of the 
'< extensive plain below " can be caught. This seems 
to me to be a strange perversion of the picture. Who 
wants to see a plain, instead of hanging forests 
abounding in every wealth of foliage ? 

After continuing the journey with all the variety 
of pony, cango, and foot, and just onq hour's railway 
from Karuizawa to Tanaka, we passed over the Wada 
Toge, seeing a large lake and a temple by its shore. 
This was at a height of 2500 feet. By-and-by we 
came upon the Tenriugawa itself, and crossed a wilder- 
ness of boulders, where its tributary, the Otangiri, 
flows in, backed by the fine snow mountain, Coman- 



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JAPAN. 293 

gataki. But this was not where I was to take boat. 
Various spots from time to time arrested attention 
and excited admiration, and finally, after sleeping 
three nights on the road, including one whole wet 
day passed in bed, the river-side tea-house at the 
starting point, Tokimata, was reached at S p.m. on 
Wednesday, the 28th of May. Here ray aneroid 
marked 1300 feet. 

The boatmen were of course immediately sent for, 
and the two nece.ssary questions put. It was the 
last boat, the very last 1 The water was now practi- 
cable, but high. It had been very high, too high, of 
late for the passage, and all the other boats were 
still kept down below. An extra fee of $4 being 
demanded, $25 in all, I naturally closed the bargain, 
and settling that at eight o'clock in the morning we 
were to start, I dined and went to bed. 

In the middle of the night, however, I was waked 
by the entrance of two men with a large Japanese 
paper lantern. What was this ? but the vofce of my 
guide immediately explained the intrusion. The 
head boatman was ill, and another must be sent for, 
and we could not leave before two o'clock in the 
afternoon, sleeping at Siraoka ; so to sleep I went 
again, quite contented with my next morning's 
respite. 

By two o'clock on the 29th the afternoon was fine 
and bright. The head boatman had come, Motero 
by name, and we made our start for Siraoka, which 
we were to reach at five, and many villagers gathered 
round to see us go. We were but a few minutes 
away before we felt the run of the stream. The river 



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294 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

is again larger than the Fujikawa, and there are said 
to be thirty rapids in its course. The scener}', as 
before, began at once, but wilder and more rocky (as 
my guide had told me) than on the Fujikawa. Yet 
there was always foliage. How many races we 
passed before we reached Siraoka I know not, but I 
remember a great deal of rapping and rushing. The 
style of the rapids is exactly like that in the other 
river, and we swept along at no snail's pace to our 
night's sojourn, making an awful climb to the tea- 
house. I could not regret the interruption, for the 
evening's bird's-eye view of the reverse curve of the 
river below, winding between its lofty banks, was as 
fine as sunset could make it. At night (but this time 
before I went to bed) Motero came with my guide 
to ask leave to put two more hands on board for the 
morrow, without extra charge, as the stream was 
running very strong, and to this I naturally very 
readily assented. 

This made six boatmen on board, and on the 30th 
we left our eyrie tea-house at something before six 
o'clock on a very fine morning. For about two 
hours and a half we were passing through what they 
call the " grands," and mighty noisy and mighty rude 
they all were, none so rude, however, as the Chona, 
which struck us with some sort of violence, sousing 
me and flinging me off my raised seat into the boat, 
and treating the guide who was behind in even a 
more unruly manner. As a result of this we had to 
pull up and bale out the water. At half-past eight 
our extra boatmen left us. From first to last the 
scenery came up to all expectation. Rocks appecired 



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JAP AX. 295 

from time to time of romantic shape, not towering 
up into naked precipices, but only standing bodily 
out from the upper green and foliaged mountains. 
Nor was it without much surprise that I almost 
always saw them blushing with the wild pink azalea, 
not then knowing, what I afterwards learned, that 
that delicate plant grows in dry places, and that 
indeed its name has been given as indicating this 
disposition. Though the " grands '* had passed, some 
few hours yet remained of beauty, in the same 
alternation of lakes and rapids, until at last all was 
over, and we emerged into mere flats, and found 
ourselves at the Hamamatsu Station on the railway. 

Here I settled everything with my young guide, 
and gave him, as he deserved, an excellent certificate. 
He returned to Yoko, and I went down to Kobe. I 
went direct, not stopping at the lake Bivar, partly 
because the weather was unpropitious for that day, 
and partly, almost mainly, because I could not 
gather, either from photographs or report, that there 
was any specially characteristic scenery to be found 
there. I was very glad to have a railway to take mc 
to Kobe, and I was very glad to have the Oriental 
to receive me when I got there. I had seen the 
Fujikawa, and the Tenriugawa, and I shall not 
readily forget either. No other river scenery that I 
ever saw, none that I have ever looked for, approach 
the beauty and the grandeur of these two most 
enchanting streams, and the noisy anger of the close 
and threatening waters emphasizes the excitement 
and romance of the adventure. 

Indeed, besides these two rivers I had seen a great 



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296 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

deal of Japanese scenery and of the people as I 
passed through. At the tea-houses I always found 
everything very neat and clean, and indeed almost 
too much so, for the whole of the arrangements 
are drawing-room arrangements. You are supposed 
to enter spic and span at once and so to con<» 
tinue ; on stepping on to the raised matted open 
ground floor, you must take off your shoes, or have 
them carefully brushed and wiped before you tread 
within, and this in the drjest and cleanest weather ; 
and when you have mounted the ladder to go up- 
stairs, you find only your trim sitting-room. A 
fdint show of chair and table is being now introduced, 
but when the bed is brought in it consists of one 
or more good full mattresses on the ground. I 
always carried my own sheets and coverings, and was 
never at all inconvenienced. The female attendants 
are always extremely attentive and polite, with the 
pleasant peculiarity of Japanese manners. I do not 
call the girls pretty, but they are very picturesque. 
Their dark hair is singularly well arranged, and 
always looks sleek and glossy, standing out in per- 
fect bows. But if you touch it, you find it hard, to 
which quality indeed it owes its admirable form. 
The cheeks look almost painted, and the teeth are 
good, unless, indeed, the married women's black ones. 
The poets talk of smiles disclosing pearls, but with 
the smile of the married Japanese you are more 
readily put in mind of an old coffin opening to show 
a corpse. 

Where Japan most suffers by her European spoil- 
ing is in the change of the costume. The Japanese 



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JAPAX. 297 

have no figures. But in cases where they have now to 
enter on active work, how can they do otherwise than 
dress accordingly ? I found this same necessary 
change among the Arabs in Algeria some years ago. 
The difference is almost magical. At one tea-house 
a servant of the house answered my clapping of my 
hands, and I said I wanted my guide. Presently 
another person came. "No," I said, "my guide." 
To which he answered, " I am your guide," and so 
he was. He had dressed himself in Japanese, and I 
did not know him again. 

That was why I declined a friendly offer to take 
me to a grand ball in Tokio given by the 
German Minister. I declined, saying, " You will find 
the room overcrowded and no costumes ; all will be 
aping the European style." And so it proved, as I 
learned afterwards. Look at the people about the 
railways and in the post office, in short in every 
official position ; and not only at them, but their wives 
and children also. Look at that woman coming 
along the station now, she is disguised in necessary 
disfigurement ; and as to her little child she is leading 
by her side, he is a mere little waddling apple dump- 
ling. But go out into the country, where of old no 
stranger dared go, and you can ahvays find Japan 
enough, and see what of old none ever saw. 

When I passed through lida and stopped to 
refresh the men, the tea-house was besieged by the 
whole place, as it seemed, to see the stranger. 
Young and old, male and female, crowded round, and 
partly for air and partly for diversion, I amused 
myself by throwing coppers. As to children, they 



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298 WA.WDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

are always in the streets in numbers. The parents, 
I was told, always send them out ; but the European 
pocket-handkerchief does not come with them. As 
to the general character of the people socially, intel- 
lectually, morally and everything else, as I was only 
so many weeks in the country I ought of course to 
know everything, and as I don't, I therefore ought to 
write ; but what ? I had need to give very little room 
for testing honesty, nor did I find any dishonesty ; but 
I suppose the brain that is so undoubtedly ingenious 
in many convenient things, may very readily be 
ingenious in inconvenient also. 

It would be scarcely fair to leave speaking of 
Japan without dedicating at all events one special 
paragraph to her one great mountain — Fuji no 
Yama, or Fuji Yama, or Fusi Yama. And when 
you mention a great mountain, the first next thought 
is the ascension of it. In my own case this was 
quite out of the question, because I was in Japan 
out of the season for such an expedition. But, indcr 
pendently of this point, I should not care to undertake 
it for two reasons. In the first place, the mountain, 
as a mountain pure and simple, is totally unpic- 
turesque ; and in the second place, it is the only one 
great mountain ; so that, wholly unlike all other 
mountain ascents, where the higher you rise the more 
is surrounding grandeur developed, you would here 
behold nothing of that character, and would moreover 
dwarf every other formerly appreciated eminence that 
you had admired. Fuji Yama is a noble object when 
seen in towering combination with folding foreground 
and middle-distance scenery to dress his snow-white 



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JAPAN. 299 

head ; but seen bare and alone he is wholly destitute 
of the picturesque, though he still may assert the 
wonderful. In this opinion I think many must con- 
cur, and a concurrent one of real value I can claim in 
that of my friend Mr. John Varley, the artist ; allud- 
ing to whom, I cannot but mention his Japanese and 
Chinese paintings lately exhibited in New Bond 
Street. How he can have managed, by the way, to 
paint all those 213 pictures in nine months may be 
still more puzzling to artists than it is to me ; but I 
specially mention them to note how he has in Japan, 
as he did in Egypt, caught with peculiar felicity the 
real atmosphere of the country. I speak of Egypt 
because there are now hanging before me two of his 
water-colours which continually recall old scenes ; 
my joke with him being that he will never again paint 
an Arabian desert like the one he painted for me. 

In now quitting Japan, I was to pass again through 
the Inland Sea, and, on information received, I de« 
termined to take my passage back to Shanghai by a 
boat of the Nippon Usen Kaisha, or "Japan Mail 
Steam Ship Company *' ; because that company run 
their boats not only through the best part of the sea, 
but so arrange their hours as to show everything by 
daylight. Accordingly I took my cabin in the 
Saikio Maru, Captain Conner, which was to sail on 
the morning of Friday, the 6th of June. But in con- 
sequence of some delay at Yokohama we could not 
get away till the afternoon. When I went down the 
first question I asked was whether this change 
altered the chance of seeing the scenery. *' I am 
sorry to say/' was the reply, " we shall this time go 



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300 WANDERINGS AND WONDER/NGS. 

through the best part of it in the dark." Was I to be 
baulked again ? Could anything be more provoking ? 
What was to be done, but get on board and go? 
And this I did, revelling discontentedly in the finest 
cabin I ever slept in. These boats are really splendid. 

A cure, however, came where I had least expected 
it The afternoon and night were miserably wet, 
and this fact, which in general is a curse, for me was 
now a blessing, for it was succeeded by a heavy fog 
at sea ; and in consequence of this fog we had to 
cast anchor and wait some hours before it all cleared 
off. By. this happy interruption we were thrown 
back in time again, so that we did not reach the " best 
part " till very early dawn instead of getting through 
in the dark. At five o^cIock, therefore, I was on deck 
and witnessed all the choicest pictures. Not only so, 
but I had the benefit of the growing light and the 
early morning ray. Nothing could be more beauti- 
ful to behold. There was lake scenery of the finest 
kind, and you looked through and through some of 
the small islands on to others. On shore there were 
waving high-pitched fields of ripe barley, villages 
and clustering forests, and the soil and the rocks were 
russet against the blue water. Then there was the 
early hour and the horizontal sunbeam. O ye, who 
love the landscape charms that Nature has to show, 
worship the morning and the evening in their rays 
and shadows, and leave the garish noon to worship its 
own self: 

So we came through the Inland Sea this time ; and 
by touching at Shimonosaki and also at Nagasaki we 
enjoyed what the French steamer Yang Tse had 



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JAPAN. 301 

given us no chance of beholding. On Tuesday, the 
10th, the yellow waters, yellow enough to pass for 
the Yellow Sea, proved we were approaching Woo- 
sung and the Whangpoo, and in the evening I was at 
the Astor House again. 



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XXVII. 

I HAD now two grand excursions in view. One that 
I had long thought of, and for which Mr. Needham 
Wilson had sharpened my desire, was to mount the 
Yang-tse-kiang and see the Chinese Gorges com- 
mencing above Ichang ; this same station lying a 
thousand miles (or, strictly speaking, 966) above 
Shanghai. The other excursion was a highly 
interesting one ; viz., to Peking, the name of which 
city, as well as that of Nanking, I steadfastly refuse 
to deform by robbing it of its legitimate G. Thus 
indeed do all educated Englishmen in China spell 
it; the Chinese word Pih-king signifying Northern 
Capital, as Nan-king means the Southern. 

This latter adventure I had not calculated on when 
I left London, nor had I thought of it until at Singa- 
pore, where I had received a letter from my friend, 
Mr. Stephen Busk, enclosing an introduction to Sir 
Robert Hart from my friend, Mr. Gerard Lodcr, 
the member for Brighton. The letter, however, 
awakened all my curiosity of travel, and I forthwith 
enclosed it to Sir Robert, waiting his reply. This 
came in due course, inviting me to come and stay 
with him. But, as the season at Peking is not to be 
played with, he took care to caution me not to 
appear before the middle of September. I had 
therefore plenty of time on hand so far as Peking 



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SHANGHAI. 303 

was concerned. Then what of the gorges ? Here, 
also, it was too soon to think of such a journey, for 
though the steamers go to Ichang in June, it is 
quite impossible for small boats to resist the enor- 
mous flow of water that pours down the river in that 
month. And to get to the upper end of the gorges 
you must gj up stream ; you cannot go by land, and 
then come down as yuu can in Japan. All this 
Captain Holmes explained to me, who came in 
while I was lunching with Mr. and Mrs. Robert 
Little, and I naturally acted on his advice to defer 
the attempt till October. Nothing could have been 
more opportune than this delay, thus forced on me, 
as time wi*] show. But what was to be done mean- 
while ? The Club at Shanghai was pleasant enough, 
and my hotel was pleasant enough, but to remain 
lounging in Shanghai, waiting so long, was impossi- 
ble. Besides which, cholera had begun to appear, 
so I determined to gratify an old schoolboy curiosity, 
of somewhat less than a hundred years ago, and get a 
sight of the Island of Formosa ; the name of which 
had always excited my imagination. The port for 
Formosa is Amoy, where a large trade with the 
island goes on ; and accordingly I took a cabin, but 
only to Foochow to begin with, on the chance of 
seeing certain beautiful river scenery there, on . my 
way. 

The firm of Butterfield and Swire were again my 
friends, and after dining with Mr. and Mrs. Bois, he 
was good enough to come and see me into the 
launch the next night for their steamer, the MenelauSy 
Captain Nelson, " blue funnel." He also gave me a 



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304 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

letter to Mr. Martin of their firm, which eventually 
bore fruits of happy advantage in New Zealand. 

Wc arrived at Foochow, the beautiful approach to 
which surpasses, that of Amoy, on the i6th of 
June, and I immediately called on Mr. Martin, who 
introduced me at once to Mr. Pimm, to whom 
Mr. Graham, of the Nippon Usen Kaisha, an 
old fellow-passenger, had given me a letter ; for 
Mr. Pimm was the authority for the river ex- 
cursion. But I was out of season here : the 
weather was far too hot, and so was business. The 
fact is, if you are to do everj'thing you must waste 
a great deal of time, and if the one season suits two 
places together, the seeing both must involve twelve 
months. All you can do is to do all you can. 
*• Come back in October," they said, but in October 
I was in the gorges. So with Mr. Martin's help, I 
took my cabin to Amoy, and, most happily for me, 
took his future address at Melbourne, whiiher he 
was on the point of departing. The short amuse- 
ment of Foochow, therefore, was to lunch with Mr. 
Martin, and to marvel at ihe rapidity of the process 
of the tea-tasting, for the spoon is run through a dozen 
samples in a shorter time than an uninitiated person 
would require to fully analyze one. That same 
evening I sailed in the Douglas S.S. Co. Haitan^ 
Captain Ashton, for Amoy, arriving on the morning 
of the 1 8th. 

Here I called with my letter upon Mr. C. S. 
Powell, and declared my intention of going to 
Formosa. But here there was an interruption again, 
for what with holidays and some irregularity in the 



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MANILA. 305 

boats, I was likely to lose several days doing 
nothing. So I sat down to lunch gloomily. **This 
is vexatious," I said, " for I have to dovetail all my 
movements. Are you sure there is no boat going ? 
There's a blue peter flying now." " Oh ! that's no- 
thing ; that's going to Manila." " To Manila? How 
far is that ? " " Two and a half days or three." 
" Then why should I not go there and come back to 
fill up time }'^ " That you can do if there's time to 
get passport and ticket too.'' So I did not delay, 
but sped to the Spanish Consul for my passport, I 
found him rather out of sorts about it, as I was so 
late, and fearing that he might refuse altogether, I 
introduced a word or two gf Spanish. This saved mc. 
The clouds cleared off and I went on board the China 
and Manila S.S. Company's Diajnante^ Captain 
Taylor. We came out by a different route from the 
one we entered by. This depended on the tide. 
And it may well be so, for so remarkable an ex- 
hibition of a rocky entrance I have never anywhere 
else seen. To the view it is complicated in the ex- 
treme, but the passage seems clear. Accordingly, we 
steamed all round, as the expression was, and went 
out to sea. Between four and five on the 21st of 
June we were at Manila. The fine mountainous and 
wooded island of Luson looked well as we approached 
it in the evening sun, but the landing was flat. The 
town itself seemed all more or less littery, and the 
hotel with its dinner table was very much so. But on 
the following morning I found Mr. Wood at the club, 
Iwo miles off, at San Miguel, where he gave me a 
resting place. In the evening we drove to the Praia 

X 



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306 VVAXDERINGS AXD IVONDERIXGS. 

ofLunetta. It was on a Sunday, and the picture 
was thoroughly Spanish, both as to crowds and 
colouring. Two military bands were in full play at 
diflferent points, and carriages and horses of all kinds 
and degrees were moving to and fro. On the following 
day Mr. Wood drove me through the town, and we 
visited the immense cigar manufactory, also the 
ruins of the old residence of the Governor, destroyed 
by the earthquake of 1863, and suggesting in ruin, 
I am sure, a far higher character and greater volume 
of architecture than when perfect it could have dis- 
played. Then we took a turn in the switchback 
railway — montanas Russas — going home to dinner at 
the club. 

It was now Tuesday, the 24th, and the return boat 
was to leave on the 30th. It was therefore proposed 
that I might visit the lakes and the river beyond, in 
company with Mr. Wood's cousin, Mr. R. Wood. 
This we did, but the weather was not propitious, nor, 
if it had been so, do I fancy I should have found 
anything to justify what was represented to me on 
board. The scene painter always exaggerates. The 
narrow river, so far as we could ascend it, was 
charming, with its thickly clothed perpendicular 
mountainous banks, from the heights of which 
monkeys are accused of throwing stones down upon 
boats. But our course was very short indeed, and 
even so, the boatman had to get out several times. 
It was a bit of a scramble from first to last, but it was 
an excursion for both of us, and — was in the island of 
Luson. 

I now learned, to my surprise and disappointment. 



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FORMOSA. 307 

that we could not return to Amoy d.'rect, but must 
touch at Hongkong on our way thither. This was 
the trading course, and the steamers are of course 
trading steamers. It was not therefore till the 8th 
of July that I found myself again at Amoy, and bid 
good-bye to Captain Cobban and the Zafiro, Mr. 
Powell was ready to receive me, and sent his gig to 
take me across the water to the island of Koolangsoo, 
where he was living in a fine airy house on the 
borders of one of the sweetest bays I ever saw. And 
there I enjoyed his hospitality until Saturday, the 
1 2th, when he took me on board the Formosa^ 
Captain Hall, ready to go to Formosa. 

The passage was not long nor violent. At early 
morning on the following day we sighted the high 
range of mountains, with snow upon the highest, 
that form the backbone of the island, and making for 
the land direct, ran up the pleasant coast, mountain 
and vale in view, for some forty miles to Hobie, 
Tamsui. Thence I was to find my way to Mr. Best, 
Mr. Powell's partner, at the town of Twatutia, and 
this lay some two hours by steam launch up the wide 
and winding river Tamsui, adorned on both sides 
with cultivated slopes, varied with green folding 
mountains. The launch was ready, and the captain 
accompanied us. Twatutia itself is flat and ugly ; 
one would not expect a spic-and-span city in those 
districts, nor is it found. But Mr. Best's welcome 
was very pleasant. 

There is a railway even here, but it is still quite in 
its infancy. It runs through rice fields, crossing the 
river with a handsome wooden bridge. Of rice 
X 2 



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308 \VANDERL\GS AXD WONDERIXGS. 

grounds there is a vast extent, Formosa rice being of 
excellent quality. This fact points more to fertility 
than beauty. To this must be added the cultivation of 
a special kind of tea, nearly the whole produce of which 
goes to San Francisco. The Latin-sounding name 
was given by the Portuguese, and the word is really 
Portuguese. The original name of the island is Tai 
Wan, which means *' terraced beaches " or " terraced 
bays," and of these we saw several on our passage 
up the coast. There is also a town of that name. 

Mr. Best took me a journey to see the savages, as 
they are called. They come down to a village called 
Kutchu, out of the range of mountains, where they 
live in clans in almost pathless forests. They are 
very friendly towards Europeans, but are deadly foes 
of the Chinese. Indeed it is said that the price for 
a daughter in marriage is so many Chinese heads. 
We made p. long day of our excursion in chairs ; but 
I found the bamboo poles (as I had been warned) 
very stiff and jerky. Our point was Sintiam, where 
we breakfasted, close to a missionary chapel, 
and the whole of this course was through rice fields 
of the usual niud and slush. There we crossed the 
river in a ferry boat, and mounting a high crest on 
our way we came down on the other side, and 
finally reached Kutchu. But we were most un« 
fortunate as regards the savages, for only one 
appeared, and he was not quite taken as a thorough- 
bred, except by the fact that he did not understand 
money. Very savage indeed ! In returning home 
we came down the river through some gentle rapids, 
and the scenery was fair. From the twisting of the 



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FOR. \f OS A. 309 

Stream it took us two hours to get to Sintiam, and 
thence we repeated the stiff bamboos till home. 

It was well for us that we thus chose our day, for 
the next would have been quite impossible, and 
must have made many succeeding ones equally so. 
One or two of the men had talked suspiciously of the 
sky, and in truth we were soon really assailed by a 
typhoon. All night long there was a furious pour 
of rain, and we got out of bed in the morning with a 
high wind added, to attend us in our toilet. Pre- 
sently Mr. Best came into my room to say that his 
barometer had suddenly fallen alarmingly ; and very 
soon afterwards the real war began. Still the glass fell, 
and still the storm increased. It was a real typhoon, 
but we fortunately were on shore, and were not near 
the centre, nor did this move at all near us ; that was 
Mr. Best's experienced report. But rain and wind 
were eccentrically mad enough ; the whole place was 
rushing with water ; trees were torn and twisted and 
the house quivered. At length the glass rebounded ; 
" now the worst is passed/* said Mr. Best ; " the glass 
never goes back again." And so, in effect, it proved ; 
for all at length grew calmer by degrees, and night 
was tranquil. 

Before leaving I had the pleasure of meeting Mr. 
Wilson, the engineer of the railway, at dinner ; and 
also of dining and lunching with Mr. Hutchison, 
formerly resident in Korea, who gave me valuable 
letters for that somewhat remote country, whither I 
was going. And on the morning of the 21st of July 
I left Twatutia by the steam launch to join the 
Hailoongf Captain Goddard, for Amoy again. The 



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3IO WANDERINGS AND IVONDERIXGS, 

last event I witnessed at Twatutia was not felicitous. 
We had had wind and rain, now we had fire. Just 
as I was leaving the cry was raised, and in the 
distance there arose a wide and almost quite sudden 
mass of pure flames. They shone forth furiously, 
though the air was bright enough to deaden many a 
glare ; and this was the distressing feature of the 
catastrophe ; the conflagration had taken place amidst 
the mere thatched bandbox dwellings of the crowded 
poor, and the greedy flames must surely have 
swallowed life. 

Our passage to Amoy was uneventful. We 
rounded the island of Koulangsoo about noon 
on the 23rd of July, and after again enjoying all 
the strange rocky scenery of the bay, I found myself 
domiciled once more with Mr. Powell in his charming 
home. Here there was interchange of hospitalities, 
and information as to future plans obtained ; and I 
remember with pleasure, besides my good host, Mr. 
Cass, Mr. Leyburn, Mr. Bruce, and Mr. Gettens. I 
was to have gone by the Shanghai steamer, but at 
the last moment was advised to change for the 
Canadian Pacific's larger vessel, the Parthia, The 
obvious advantage in doing this was the getting a 
more commodious passage ; but the latent disadvan- 
tage was, that when we * came to Woosung it was 
found we were drawing too deep to pass the 
bar. Meanwhile, my discarded humbler coaster had 
gallantly steamed up unhindered ; and it was only 
at night that the steam launch took me on board, 
from my prouder, to sup and to go to bed at the Astor 
House on the 23rd of July, 



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XXVIII. 

As I was now at Shanghai again and quite at the 
end of July, I began • to think seriously of my 
intended visit to Peking ; and as a first step called 
on Mr. Graham at the Nippon Usen Kaisha to con- 
sult him. The course open to me was to go to 
Nagasaki, and there wait a day or two, and take 
their boat to Chemulpo, Korea. By the best rough 
calculation I could make I found I ought to leave 
Shanghai on the 9th of August. Taking into 
account Nagasaki, Korea, and Tientsin, I judged 
that I should arrive in Peking within the first fort- 
night of September, which would fairly square with 
Sir Robert Hart's advice ; and therefore I followed 
Mr. Graham's suggestion, and took the ticket. 

During my remaining days at Shanghai I had the 
honour of calling on our Consul-Genergil, Mr. Hughes, 
and lunching with him and Mrs. Hughes on the 
following day, where I met General Jones, the 
American Consul at Chin-Kiang, the first station on 
the river, who recalled a good deal of what I had 
seen and heard in Mexico, where he had resided, 
including the fate of General Lopez. Having also 
called on Mr. and Mrs. Marshall, I lunched with 
them and obtained a valuable letter of introduction 
to Mr. Walter Hillier, our Consul-General at Sdoul. 



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312 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

Then, again, the same intercourse occurred with 
Mr. Commissioner Bredon, Sir Robert Hart's brother- 
in-law, who also sped me on my way. So bidding 
all good-bye, till my return to ascend the mighty 
river, I went on board, as I was bid, on Friday night, 
the 8th of August, and found to my satisfaction that 
I was to be with Captain Conner again sailing on the 
Saikio Maru, It so happened, however, that this 
was some holiday time, and certain return-ticket folk 
were on board ; and as we were not to sail till early 
morning, the captain was not to be on board till then. 
The consequence was that during the night the usual 
form of English holiday-making among a certain 
class was kept up, and under their auspices the 
Saikio Maru became a first- rate specimen of a night 
pot-house. 

We had a glittering sea passage all the way to Na- 
gasaki, during which Captain Conner told me, what 
out of gratitude to fate I cannot but record, that two 
friends of his had gone all the way to Tokimata for a 
passage down the Tenriugawa, and had been obliged 
to return disappointed. Truly they who would 
make that excursion ought to pave the way before- 
hand. In this case the rain was the enemy ; the 
river would have been too high for too long a time to 
wait. Remember the boats also. 

The only decent hotel at Nagasaki is the Belle 
Vue, which is very well conducted and beautifully 
situated on a well clothed eminence. The bad posi- 
tion of the other, to say no more of it, is quite against 
it. I changed from this to the former, and will at all 
events give the gentle landlord credit for Christian 



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NAGASAKI. 313 

candour when he growled out, " You are welcome to 
go if you choose." 

I had two days at Nagasaki — one wet and one fine. 
On the latter I made one of the short excursions 
there with a young American^ whose father had 
married a Japanese lady ; and if I were ever to 
go to Japan again, I should confine myself to the 
Inland Sea as far as Kobe and to Nagasaki. The 
undoubtedly attractive scenery in these quarters 
might well satisfy many. Kioto, and the river there, 
might be added, and much of Japanese special 
scenery thus be realized. 

The Owari Maru, Captain Jones, was to arrive 
that evening, and sail on the 14th, at 8 o'clock 
in the morning for Chemulpo, Korea, for which 
port I was to take my ticket, arranging one for 
Tientsin afterwards. All therefore was put in order 
with Mr. Duus, the Agent, and on a very fine 
morning I left the charming Belle Vue Hotel, 
and went on board with this quite new country 
now in view, thus commencing an excursion which 
formed one of the most pleasing chapters, and cer- 
tainly the most novel, in all my varied wanderings. 
Captain Jones was a genial captain ; in former times 
that might have required a note or two of admiration, 
but instead of putting any at all, I will add the same 
character to the weather. 

Over this line of ocean there is much to engage 
the eye ; much, in short, that is far more pleasant to 
the passenger than to the navigator. However 
picturesque a rock may be, the captain hates it, nor 
is the passenger often fond of it, unless it be pic- 



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314 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

tnresque and his captain be a good one. And what 
of the fogs that far too often hang about these regions ? 
I well remember my crossing one fine morning, now 
many years ago, from Holyhead to Dublin. On 
approaching Dublin a glorious bank of cloud, with 
full sunshine making a very striking picture of it, lay 
upon the ocean far before us. '* What a splendiJ 
sight ! " in my ignorance I exclaimed. *' Splendid ! " 
cried the captain, half in pity, but with natural irri- 
tation, " if you knew a little more you'd know it's 
about the blessedest ugliest sight a man could see." 
And on entering it so it proved. A dreary mass of 
fog and the howling fog-bell echoing through it from 
the pier welcomed us into Dublin Bay. 

But for us, on our way to Korea, the fogs were 
absent, and the captain joyous ; nor was he angry 
with me for admiring his varied and variegated 
enemies. We touched at pretty Fukie, on the Gotto 
Island, all of which I appreciated from on board, in 
the perspective, as it is often best to do. Then 
through green rocks we came at night to Itsuhdra, 
on the Island of Tsushima. On Friday, the isth of 
August, we sailed to Fusan ; and on Saturday, the 
1 6th, we were engaged all day long in taking in cargo. 
But what sort of cargo } Well, I have had my 
wonder excited in Norway by downright cairns of 
dried fish. But in this respect Norway must yield to 
Fusan here. The bundles were a sight to see ; and 
the nose was not much less astonished than the eyes. 
Till 9 p.m. we were thus employed, and then we 
sailed for the port of Chemulpo, my rocky friends, 
and the remarkable " Two Mountain Island " con- 



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KOREA. 3 1 S 

spicuously so, adorning our course through what I 
might call a Korean archipelago. On Monday, the 
1 8th of August, about 3 p.m., we arrived at Chemulpo. 
Some time before so doing Captain Jones had 
pointed out to me the naked shining roofs upon a 
slope ; and the general outline of the land gave plea- 
sant evidence that the country was hilly, and indeed 
mountainous. Korea is, for Europeans, a very young 
country, and the sight could not be expected to 
astonish. The tide was low when we arrived ; it 
recedes extensively at Chemulpo ; and moreover it 
was the moment of spring tide. We anchored at 
some little distance from the shore, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Hulbert of S^oul kindly proposed to me to share their 
sampan to get to land. So with the usual mingling 
of regret and satisfaction I bid a " sans adieux '* to 
Captain Jones. 

Scrambling out of the sampan, I was recommended 
to a two-storied red-brick house, standing with a sort 
of naked tyrannical appearance among the lesser 
subject surroundings, on entering which I found the 
inside looking about as naked as the out. 

The name of the proprietor is portentous. He is a 
Japanese, and calls himself and his hotel by the name 
of the great Buddha at Kamakura — Diabotzu ! But 
this had not .saved him from mortal infirmities. He 
was ill in bed, and the sons and boys were the sup- 
posed directors. Which was which I did not know, 
and I am not quite sure that they did. 

In this state of confusion I consulted my letters of 
introduction, and went to call on Mr. Townsend, who 
received me very kindly and told me where I could 



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3l6 WANDERINGS, AND l\ ONDERINGS. 

find the Consul-General, Mr. Hillier, for whom (as I 
have said) I had brought a letter from Mr. Marshall 
of Shanghai, the Director of Public Works. In a 
very pleasant interview with this gentleman he sug- 
gested that we should go together to Seoul the next 
day on horseback, and on my showing him a letter 
for Mr. Schoenicke, Acting Chief Commissioner of 
Customs in that city, given me by Mr. Hutchison at 
Formosa, he very kindly telegraphed to that gentle- 
man that I had arrived. 

Having managed to get through the night at the 
hotel, the morning brought Mr. Hillier and his two 
ponies, and I mounted a white one. But the other 
would not let Mr. Hillier mount, and after a long 
fight and a long walk, and several ineffectual attempts 
to enforce obedience, we were obliged to return. I 
am particular about this because of the subsequent 
amusing incident that it gave rise to. 

On getting back to the hotel, Mr. Hillier suggested 
that I should at once order a chair, but that I 
should not start unless I could get away well before 
eleven o'clock, or I might find the city gates shut at 
S^oiil. This I made the hotel non-directory under- 
stand, and at twenty minutes to eleven we started. 
The men jogged along very merrily through the long 
street. until they came to a turning point; and then 
they suddenly set down the chair and began to 
chatter at me : a tolerably perplexing situation. 
Only with gestures could I answer them, which they 
contemptuously disregarded, alid finally set them- 
selves down in a group upon some boulders. On 
this, I got out of the chair and began to walk back to 



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KOREA, 317 

the hotel, when I was met by the proprietor of a hotel 
on the road, an Austrian, whose name I regret I 
cannot recall, who very kindly offered to speak to the 
men, as he saw I was in difficulties with them* So we 
went back, and as far as he could make things out, 
their rebellion had arisen because they had not been 
paid half their money at the hotel. " But I knew 
nothing of these rules," I said, " and my money is 
with my servant on ahead." My friend in need 
then offered to advance the required sum, but time 
had been lost, the gates might be shut, and the men 
were a doubtful lot, so that I relinquished the 
journey and ordered them back to the hotel. 

On arriving there I called the *' people " to account, 
and one of them went to upbraid the men, but on 
coming back told me another story — that the men 
found the hotel chair too heavy, and would not carry 
it This decided me to dismiss them altogether* 
which I did in a sufficiently emphatic manner, not- 
withstanding their evident desire to make terms. 
To Mr. Hillier I therefore again had recourse, who 
at once undertook that his " boy " should set all 
things in order for me for the next day; and after 
dining with him and getting through the night as 
best I could, he and I, he on his white pony and I 
with excellent coolies and a good chair, found our 
way on the 20th of August to Seoul. 

Mr. Johnston, the Acting Commissioner of Customs 
at Chemulpo, had. paid me a very friendly call on 
hearing of my misadventure, offered me any assistance 
1 might require, and pledged m6; on my return from 
Stoul, not to come merely the . day before the boat 



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3l8 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

for Tientsin sailed, but to give Mrs. Johnston and 
himself the pleasure of entertaining me for a few 
nights — an invitation afterwards confirmed by Mrs. 
Johnston, who jocosely and wittily thanked me for 
having " given them something to talk about ! " My 
journey to the capital — the word S^oul, I am told, 
signifies capital — represents the extent of my incursion 
into Korea. The distance from point to point is 
about twenty-six English miles, and the coolies, two 
sets of four each, accomplished the course in about 
eight hours to the banks of the river Han, including 
a stoppage of nearly an hour at a rough resting-place, 
called " Horikol," some sixteen miles from Chemulpo. 
These coolies were manly, active fellows, and very 
willing. They walked very smoothly, and with short 
steps ; the carrying rods were elastic, and in this 
respect I was much more at ease than in the dancing 
and jerking chairs in which I rode in Formosa. On ap- 
proaching this river, the way, at this time of year, lies 
over a wide and desolate plain of sand, the whole of 
which must be covered in the rainy season. The 
river itself is ferried over by a broad, rough boat to a 
very ragged wall on the opposite side, and when you 
land and are carried onwards you realize what sort of 
place you are in. The first town is called Mapu, and 
I can best describe my first impressions of it by 
saying that it represented to me a crowd of badly- 
built and badly- thatched tumble-down cow-houses, 
with very little more than cow-paths to walk through 
upon, and these adorned or unadorned with the 
dreariest of open shops and stalls, and further still 
with petty cesspools. 



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KOREA. 319 

Passing on and through, the capital lies between 
three and four miles further, and in its general aspect 
shows very little better than Mapu on first appearance. 
I seemed to be carried through something like a city 
conjured up in a nightmare, until at last, in greatest 
wonder where Mr. Schoenicke could have found a 
dwelling, I was suddenly turned into his compound, 
and a host, full of the sunshine of hospitality and 
welcome, stood at his door to receive me. 

Once within the precincts of his dwelling, I felt 
separated from the city ; and it soon became evident 
that, happily for all the Europeans officially occupied 
in S^oul, all their compounds are grouped together. 
The ground is very uneven ; some houses stand 
higher than others. Mr. Schoenicke's is rather lower 
than some others, but very picturesque. A fitting 
dwelling has been designed by Mr. Marshall, and is 
now in course of construction, for Mr. Consul-General 
Hillier, in an excellent position, and Mr. Waebcr, the 
Russian Charge d'Affaires, with whom and his hos- 
pitality I had the opportunity of making a very 
pleasant acquaintance, is also building for himself a 
house worthy of his office. Well indeed do gentlemen 
occupying these positions in Seoul require every 
fitting comfort in existence that can be afforded 
them. 

The position of S^oul is peculiar. It is not many 
feet above the level of the sea in any part of it. Its 
surface is very irregular, but it is chiefly in a hollow, 
and is surrounded by peculiarly arid serrated ridges, 
some nearer than others. From one of these, when 
the weather is not too hot to make the excursion, I 



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320 WAXDERINGS AND WOXDERINGS. 

am told a most effective view of the city can be ob- 
tained : and it must be a curious view. During my 
stay my thermometer stood too high for the attempt 
in question, the summer having tediously lingered. 

While in S^oul, and seeing that my host was busily 
occupied in his duties, Mr. Stripling, to whom I had 
a letter of introduction, kindly called and showed me 
over what was to be seen. Among other things are 
two old palaces ; and Colonel Cummins afterwards 
took me to the outside of the one occupied by his 
Majesty, showing me also the Great Bell, and the 
great Regent Street of Seoul. On my return with 
Mr. Stripling, we mounted over uneven ground to the 
walls of the city. These encompass a far wider space 
than is really populated, and the following of their 
wandering course up and down the various heights 
and hollows offers an attractive pursuit for the 
stranger's eye. 

While I must confess to have been struck with the 
utterly ragged appearance of almost everything about 
me, I must not forget to mention another sight that 
also struck me at one of the old palaces. I refer to a 
large plantation of mulberry trees. They were too 
healthy and luxuriant to escape my immediate notice, 
and the natural question arose as to the cultivation of 
the worm and the production of silk. The attempt 
had, it appears, been made, but the result, from 
certain causes, was rather more akin to the state of 
the city than to the luxuriance of the trees. Surely 
the matter cannot rest here. Other signs of fertility 
were visible in other spots, and I must mention the 
garden belonging to Judge Denny's house, where 



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KOREA. 321 

Mrs. Denny appears to be able to make everythino^ 
of fruit and flower grow and give. 

The soil of Korea, indeed, has the character of 
remarkable fertility. I have said that* my invasion of 
the island extended only to the capital. But even 
over that short space I was continually surprised by 
the luxuriance of the crops. Wherever the earth had 
been appealed to it had responded generously, and 
produce was abounding. Among other species ap- 
pears a bean, cultivated very extensively, and exported 
very largely to Japan, being used (as I was informed) 
as a manure, and also for its oil. The people, though 
of course very backward, appear to be strong and 
active, and ought to be able, by-and-by, to take a far 
more prominent position than they at present either 
can or would be permitted to occupy. 

As regards the cliitiate, it is reported as excellent. 
The road from Chemulpo develops largely the general 
character of the country. It is undulating through- 
out, with a surrounding prospect of hills, and even 
mountains, the serrated ridges in the neighbourhood 
of S^oul being visible almost from the beginning of 
the journey. There is little or no timber in the 
districts I speak of, but large forests are found in the 
north, and much mineral wealth is said to exist. 
Fertility and climate, those two vital gifts, may fairly 
be attributed to Korea. Everything (so to speak) 
will grow ; and I am told that, as a general rule, only 
two summer months in the year are oppressive. Nor 
is the cold of the winter more than may be borne 
with health, provided always that people have some- 
thing better than cow-houses to live in. 

Y 



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322 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

On the 28th of August I bade adieu to my 
most pleasant host, and started for Chemulpo. My 
journey throughout was prosperously made, coolies 
and all having been set under command with Mr. 
Schoenlcke's usual kindness and consideration, and 
again I appreciated the healthy undulations and the 
smiling fertility around me that had attracted my 
attention on my journey upwards. 

Happy man ! Scarcely having relinquished hospi- 
tality in Seoul, I was regaled with it immediately on 
my arrival in Chemulpo ; and my bearers, on arriving 
at the Buddha Temple, were met with orders to carry 
me up at once to the Eagle Nest of Mr. and Mrs. 
Johnston, where, in their perfect little guest-house, I 
enjoyed society, comfort, and repose till my departure 
for Tientsin. This was to take place at six o'clock 
on Tuesday morning, the 2nd of September, by the 
Tsuruga, Captain Thomsen, for which I arranged a 
new ticket, as agreed. Meanwhile I called on Mr. 
H. T. Stanclifif, the paymaster on board the United 
States s.s. Swatura, whom I was to visit at Chefoo, 
two of the officers, Lieutenants Perkins and Reynolds, 
afterwards dining with Mr. and Mrs. Johnston. But 
on the 31st a great change of weather took place, and 
we were hindered from lunching with Captain Tisdale, 
of H.M.S. Linnet. All such passing events are un- 
eventful in Tall Mall, but if you go to Chemulpo you 
will find they give you "something to talk about.*' 
Finally (for one more) we sat down to a cheerful 
dinner on the evening of the 1st of September, at 
which, to my great subsequent advantage, 1 made the 
acquaintance of Mr. Michie, the proprietor of 'llu 



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KOREA, 323 

Chinese Times at Tientsin, and found he was to be a 
fellow-passenger on board. After dinner and talk, on 
board we all went ; and the usual parting sentiments 
were abundantly interchanged. So farewell, Korea I 
with the fullest meaning of that word. Nature has 
done much for you among your neighbours, and Man 
must not be permitted to undo you. And you, 
commercial England, behave well to Korea ; for her 
trade with you in necessary articles is already com- 
paratively large, and is increasing yearly ; your 
position is good, so take good care of it, and your 
Consul-Genera], Mr. Hillier, will take good care of 
you. 

And finally, you, my two good hosts, farewell to 
you ! I have many thanks to pay to you, but happily 
no Customs duties; but were it otherwise, to none 
would I pay them so cheerfully as to Mr. Schcenicke 
and Mr. Johnston. 



V 2 

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XXIX. 

We had a most propitious passage on board the 
Tsuruga to Tongku. Our weather was as genial as 
our good captain — Thomsen; which is saying much. 
On Wednesday, the 3rd of September, we stood off 
Chefoo, at early morning, the shore view looking very 
inviting; but no time was given to land, and I could 
only hail Mr. Stancliff in his boat. Steaming on 
again for a few hours' voyage, we breasted the now 
historical Taku Forts. As a rule, I take no special 
interest in forts, in visiting which my mouth is 
generally wider open than my eyes ; but here, in full 
view of Taku, I could not but bestow a special gaze 
upon them, for I had received a letter from my inti- 
mate friend in London, Surgeon Lieut- Colonel Dr. 
Lewins (who had been engaged in the Chinese war of 
1860-61), in which he wrote, "Think of me at the 
Taku Forts, if your enterprising steps lead you in 
that direction." I was happy in the reflection that 
the forts were tranquil, and that he was safe in 
London. 

My friend was surgeon in charge of the Mauritius^ 
hospital ship, at the taking of these formidable forts. 
We had more than once conversed upon the subject, 
nor can I refrain from here noting down some inte- 
resting and important particulars of that operation, as 



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TO TIENTSIN, 32$ 

recounted to me by him, while I seem to have Taku 
now standing before mc. 

In the year previous to the war I speak of, these 
forts had successfully resisted Admiral Hope's deter- 
mined attack, and Dr. Lewins has always attributed 
their capture in the war of 1 860-61 to the genius of 
the late Lord Napier of Magdala, who, as Dr. Lewins 
thinks, was the first engineer or artillery officer who 
ever commanded a division of the British army. . The 
then Commander-in-Chief was a cavalry officer, Sir 
Hope Grant, whose qualifications for the special art 
of siege operations might naturally be doubtful; nor 
was the French general, Montauban, at all superior to 
him in this respect. The original intention was that 
the English army should attack the Northern Forts, 
and the French the Southern ; tactics which Dr. 
Lewins thinks would have caused great slaughter, 
without being very well calculated to succeed. But 
Lord Napier at once sagaciously detected the weak 
point in the Chinese position, and attacked the 3rd 
Fort from the sea, in which there was a raised mound 
where guns could be placed for raking the whole 
range of the defence. The attempt entirely succeeded, 
and this fort was captured at the cost to the English 
of 200 killed and wounded, and to the French about 
the same. Nor would this loss have been so great 
had not the French, out of mere bravado, proceeded 
to escalade before the Tartar force was completely 
crushed, thus obliging the English to follow them into 
quite useless destruction. Dr. Lewins particularly 
mentions it was on this memorable occasion that, 
under the command of Captain Barry, a battery of 



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326 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

Armstrong breech- loading guns were for the first 
time brought into play ; and (says the doctor) it was 
dreadful to witness their terrible efficiency. Not a 
single Tartar escaped death, for all refused quarter or 
surrender to the very last ; those who had not been 
shattered by the Armstrongs perishing by the 
bayonet. Here, I may observe, is another example of 
these people's indifference to life. " Moreover, even 
those recruited by us for the Transport Corps, and 
treated among the wounded on board the Bentinck, 
preferred death to surgical treatment, and it was a 
constant source of anxiety to the officials to prevent 
their committing suicide in order to avoid the alter- 
native." 

We sailed as nearly up to the railway-station 
of Tongku as the tide would admit of, and, when 
we anchored, our good captain immediately placed 
his gig at our disposal, and we bid him a hearty 
farewell. Being kindly hailed by the Engineer of 
the line in the usual form, we left by the 9.42 
morning train for Tientsin, where we arrived at 
1 1.8 o'clock. This railway was a real blessings, and 
certainly it has not invaded and wounded any very 
delightful scenery. At best, the whole surrounding 
lands are flat, but as we saw them on the 4th of 
September — oh, what a desolation of outspread 
waters ! In this respect there must have been 
novelty for all of us, and, to a certain extent, to the 
poor inhabitants, for I believe the floods of 1890 
were quite unusuaU On arriving at Tientsin Mr. 
Michie was good enough to take me to the hotel, 
and a certain guide presenting himself, he forthwith 



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TIENTSLW 327 

recommended him to me — Ngan Chii Shing — a 
heartily opportune circumstance. 

My first object was the Chief Commissioner's office 
to get my letters, where I had the pleasure of meeting 
Mr. Yorke, in the absence of Mr. Detring ; and here, 
to my agreeable surprise, I found among them a long 
letter from Sir Robert Hart, full of suggestions as to 
my course to Peking. Mr. Yorke was kind enough 
to recommend to me one Hu Yung-an, for ponies, 
who served me well : these I had been recommended 
to bring up with me, for none are to be had at Peking. 
Thus I was prepared so far for a start ; and it was 
decided that my journey must be by the river Peiho. 
A conference with Mr. Ritter, of the Ast<^r Hotel, 
put me in the way of securing all the provisions I 
should require for my river journey to Tungchow, and 
my guide undertook to find the necessary house-boat. 
I am not at all sure I should have chosen any other 
mode of travelling here, but fortunately no room to 
doubt and choose was left, for though the ponies 
could be led in some fashion to meet me at Tung- 
chow, to ride there was impossible on account of the 
floods. An afternoon's visit to inspect the chosen 
house-boat was proformd only, for all the boats were 
alike. The system of their structure reminded me of 
the one I had floated about in while touring in. 
Kashmir ; but the details here are far superior. 
Here there is wooden framework ; there you 
are simply covered in with matting, above and 
around, and are never free from draughts of wind at 
night, and, the boats being smaller, it is always 
necessary to have a second one for cooking. But 



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328 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

they do their best among the very poor workers in 
Kashmir with their scanty means. 

Solids and liquids and ice being on board, and the 
British Consul having furnished me with the indis- 
pensable passport, all was now in order, and I started 
for Peking at eleven o'clock on the morning of the 
Sth of September, wondering what sort of a city I 
was to see, and feeling sure it must be very unlike 
Tientsin, through the narrow bizarre bazaars of which 
I was carried in a chair to meet my boat at " The 
Bridge." I had my guide and my Indian servant 
with me, and both proved essential throughout. One 
great help I also had at Mr. Michie's hands — a full 
large bundle of the latest London Times^ to read and 
digest in case of monotony on my river journey. For 
some considerable distance up stream I was surprised 
to observe the close and varied number of sampans 
crowding both sides of the Peiho. Later on these 
disappeared, but the breast of the stream was always 
adorned, and sometimes clogged, with rice boats 
and their rectangular crumpled sails shining in the 
sun. The shores gradually became naked, and of 
course merely flat and muddy, and twice I was sur- 
prised by a heavy splash on board, produced by a fall 
of earth from a dry, low bank into the water, in feeble 
imitation of grander catastrophes. 

On the evening of the 6th we came to the village 
of Ho-hsi-wu, which my guide told me was just half 
way on the journey ; and we passed onwards under 
its group of trees on the flat shore to our night 
anchorage higher up stream, at eight o'clock. 

The 7th was chiefly remarkable for the complete 



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TO PEKING. 329 

regiment of rice boats we passed with their sails 
glittering in the sun ; they lent life to the scene, but 
their charm was a charming bore sometimes, and 
especially so were some very huge boats belonging 
to the Emperor. But we managed to pass through 
them without entangling our lines or being im- 
periously crushed. Nor Were these the only troubles 
on the way. I must add the impalpable dust from 
the banks, reminding me of the Nile ; and especially 
the sun. Wind about as we would — and the Peiho 
certainly does wind — our main direction always 
brought us sun, direct or by reflection ; 

Sun, sun, sun, 

Wherever we wound or turned ; 
From sky to water, and water to sky, 

Both of 'em blinded and burned. 

As to the river's windings, it reminded me of the 
Jhelum in Kashmir, both flow through dead flat 
banks ; and here again I noted that the flatter the 
territory the more winding and devious is the 
stream, as if it were without a guide and did not know 
whither it was going ; meeting with no troubles to 
control it I am told that while the distance from 
Tientsin to Tungchow by land measures eighty 
miles, that by water measures 120, or just half as 
much again. However, all here was new, though 
small annoyances themselves are very rarely so ; and 
at eight o'clock at night we anchored. 

The 8th was to show me my last half day on the 
river, and at very early morning I was waked by a loud 
Buddha gong. Yes, we may object to this ; but 



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330 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

what of the wild howlings of our Salvation Army at 
home ? Are the gods so fond of discord ? Where 
IS St. Cecilia ? Has she no throne in heaven ? or has 
she turned enemy to harmony ? The Buddhists are 
the more tolerable by far. Their bells are sonorous. 

At about noon or a little after we landed among 
a crowd of boats, thus making the river journey in 
three whole days and an hour — or seventy-three 
hours altogether. The stream was strong against us, 
and the men worked well throughout, stopping for a 
certain number of hours each night, and feeding on 
their rice at intervals. My own cook, Ngan Chii 
Shing and my Indian servant kept me supplied with 
everything, and were most attentive. 

On landing, my first question of course was, 
" Where are my ponies .^ *' " There," said my guide, 
" there ; " but before 1 could catch sight of them a 
letter was put into my hand, being another explicit 
one from Sir Robert Hart, who had very considerately 
sent down a chair and two carts to meet me, in case 
my ponies should not have arrived. Nothing could 
have been more welcome to me ; and as the sun was 
very hot I availed myself of the covered chair, and 
sent up the ponies with the mafoo, and my guide and 
servant with the carts. 

Sir Robert Hart had warned me in his letter that 
the gates of the city closed at half-past six in the 
evening, and that I must by no means start one 
minute later than 2 p.m. or I should run the danger 
of being shut out, and have to pass the night in 
whatever miserable Chinese hotel the chair coolies 
might take me to. The journey was to occupy five 



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TO PEKING. 331 

hours, and the coolies were to have an opportunity 
of stopping two or three times for tea and tobacco. 

We started in good time. They had their instruc- 
tions, and I consigned myself to their care like a bag 
of merchandise. As was to be expected they carried 
me well and faithfully ; and in very good time before 
the forbidding hour I found myself close under the 
vast perspective of the imposing thirty feet high 
dark walls of the Capital of the North, Peking. 
There was a certain majesty in this towering outside 
aspect in the evening, as there was also something of 
imagined awe as I was carried through the dark 
depth of the Tung-pien-men, or Eastern Gate, into 
the Chinese city, the first of the three that you come 
to. But immediately on emerging, there was a striking 
and entertaining change. A medley, as it seemed, of 
streets and houses, and carts, and flat yellow faces in 
various costumes suddenly took possession of my 
eyes, and in the midst of all my coolies set me down 
to take their five minutes' rest. It was most amusing. 
Had I been a monster as rare as some of their pecu- 
liarly impossible statues, I could not have been 
more intensely gazed at It was monstrari digiio 
with a vengeance, though not in the Horatian 
sense, and astonishment commanded silence. The 
crowd at last became so great that my coolies 
hurried themselves to move on. Through this part of 
the Chinese city I passed to another gate, an inner one 
opening into the Tartar City, and called Ha-ta-mSn ; 
though why we spell Tartar with the middle " r," I do 
not know. The word is Tatar. I was not set down 
again, and indeed soon found myself carried over 



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332 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

a large open space under the wall. But I confess 
to have kept asking myself the question, "Where 
on earth, among all these strange streets, and open- 
ings and dwellings and people, can Sir Robert Hart 
be living ? " 



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XXX. 

At last, however, encountering crowds again, we 
arrived at T'ai Ch'e Chiang — where stands his walled 
domain,— and entering in, I found myself surprisingly 
separated from all associations with the city, and in the 
presence of Hay-Ta-Yin, Sir Robert Hart's self. A 
spacious house, surrounded by a well-planted garden 
with lawns and trees, was before me, and a genial 
welcome, uncompromised by the title, greeted me on 
entering. Sir Robert was at home, and the rest of the 
evening before dinner time was pleasantly filled up by 
a quiet walk under the trees and over the lawns, not 
huge but ample; and scarcely less influenced by the 
general aspect of the ground than by the easy 
hospitality of my host, I fairly felt myself "at 
home " at once. 

I must confess I was particularly taken, during our 
conversational stroll, with the garden ; not only 
flowering shrubs and lawns, but quiet avenues of 
trees being included ; and the owner had planted 
them all. That surprised me, for their growth was 
notable ; and being passionately fond of trees, their 
screen and shade were charming to me. 

Nothing could be more comfortable and indepen- 
dent than the arrangements made for my sojourn. 
My rooms were on one side of the hall, the house 
being built in spacious English style, and there 



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334 IVAXDERLXGS AND IVONDERIXGS. 

and thence I had free dwelling and exit just as I 
pleased. Every morning came my coffee with an 
abundance of grapes, for which Peking is at this 
season so deservedly famed, and of these grapes it is 
worth while observing that the Chinese have some 
secret method of preserving their freshness all 
through the winter. The fruit is particularly fine, 
and well worth their ingenuity. Sir Robert was 
engaged all day till five on the opposite side, free 
from interference ; luncheon only intervened, and 
dinner and conversation closed up the evening. 

On the following day, the 9th, I was of course to 
call upon our Minister, Sir John Walsham, which I 
had much personal pleasure in doing, for I had made 
his acquaintance some years ago in Madrid, as the 
eldest son of his late worthy father, whom I had 
known very well indeed. I found his Excellency 
living in a veiy handsome temple, with all dignified ap- 
proaches, now converted into a Legation, and I sat for 
a long time conversing with him. This dwelling in 
temples, particularly in the hills, when vacation 
comes on, is notable. It was vacation time when I 
visited Peking, but Sir John was at the Legation, 
and, fortunately for me. Sir Robert Hart never takes 
a holiday. 

It was now the 9th of September, and I had to 
consider the realization of one great object of my 
coming to Peking, besides that of enjoying the 
society of my distinguished host and making myself 
acquainted with the great city, its crowded streets 
and alleys, and its large open spaces, unoccupied. 
That great object was to see the great historical 



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PEKING. 335 

Wall, and the now forlorn tombs of the Ming 
Dynasty ; and as I had yet to visit the gorges of 
the Yangtse Kyang, and to take care not to be too 
late again for the temples in Cambodia, it was 
necessary not to loiter, though there was no occasion 
for hurry. Sir Robert had at once made me ac-j 
quainted with his Private Secretary, Mr. Ludlow, 
who naturally speaks Chinese well, and under his 
guidance I had made that one generally necessary 
visit, viz. to the Bank, or what was as good as a 
bank, for foreign establishments under that name 
arc not permitted in Peking. Then it must enter 
into my head ; " I wonder whether I dare ask for 
Mr. Ludlow as my companion lor the journey ? *' I 
made bold, and did ask, and behold, taking into 
consideration the utter loneliness I should suffer and 
the necessary incompleteness and discomfort of my 
journey in consequence, the request was most con- 
siderately granted. So preparations were forthwith 
set on foot for a start on the morning of Friday, the 
1 2th, and leave of absence was accorded until the 
following Tuesday, just five days. Meanwhile, 
on the intermediate Tuesday, Wednesday, and 
Thursday, Mr. Ludlow made it more apparent to me 
than ever how much I depended on him, by riding 
with me through almost every part of Peking, over 
paved streets, and dusty streets, and crowded 
streets ; among carts with dangerously projecting 
axle-trees, and other carts with dangerously pro* 
jecting corners of awnings ; between ugly booths, and 
stalls, that were hiding better shops ; and chairs, and 
handsome mules, and even barrows. It is almost 



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336 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

impossible to believe that Canton and Peking can 
belong to the same nation, so utterly different are 
the two. As regards the plan of the whole of 
Peking, I made every effort to obtain a copy of a 
small pamphlet containing one, with a quantity of 
other useful information, but in vain. 

The whole city, as Peking, is built on a vast flat, 
sandy plain, between the river Peiho and its affluent, 
the Hoen-ho ; and it consists of three walled cities. 
The Chinese city is a rectangular parallelogram 
running one way in length. The Tartar city is such 
another ; longer and almost as broad, joining at 
right angles, and making a sort of very broad V \ 
and the Imperial city is walled up within the Tartar 
city. The outside walls cover, I understood, some 
twenty miles. The Chinese city is said to con- 
tain nine square miles, is thickly populated by 
the Chinese, and is the seat of general business. 
The Tartar city is not so thickly populated. It con- 
tains fourteen square miles, and contains also the 
forbidden Imperial city. The whole is flat and 
sandy, dusty enough, and a great deal too much so 
when the wind blows. The main streets are straight, 
and a curious raggedness is given to the scene by 
the arrangement of them. There is a raised dusty 
causeway (as we call it) in the middle, on each side 
of which there is a lower dusty breadth, and then 
come the real shops. These are in many cases 
coloured and showy, particularly the tea-shops ; but 
between these and the raised street ragged and paltry 
places of active business are built, materially hiding 
the others. These, they say, are removed when the 



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PEKING. 337 

Emperor comes out ; but there was no sign of this 
Imperial movement during my short sojourn. 

In the Chinese city, crowded with life and move- 
ment, I remember to have been conducted up the 
Long Street, the Curio Street, where I made no 
purchases whatever (the street being Curio enough 
itself), and the Lamp Street. Now and then a man- 
darin in his official chair and with his retinue will be 
met with ; and everyone gives way to the palanquin. 
In short, the glory of these streets is their colour 
and confusion, and I rather delight in courting con- 
fusion of recollection. Some strange things I saw 
in the Chinese city, some in the Tartar city, nothing 
beyond something of the outsides of the Imperial city. 
But I should here mention one famous temple of which 
a certain uncertain view used to be obtained ; it has, 
however, been totally destoyed by fire. I mean the 
one illustrated at page 690 of Fergusson, and called 
by the two singularly contrary names, so far as the 
Christian ear is affected, of the " Temple of Heaven," 
or of " tiie Great Dragon." But the great dragon is, 
we should remember, the symbol of the Chinese 
nation, intended, of course, to strike terror ; as also 
it is in the Apocalypse, but in a different sense. The 
Tartar city is the residence of all the Legations and of 
all foreigners. Many Manchus reside there, and if 
you meet a woman astride on horseback she is a 
Tartar and never a Chinese. Look at those mules, 
now and then. Where else can you find any such 
truly handsome animals i I had almost said any 
approach to them. We used to boast of our mules in 
Brazil, but they would be literally nowhere here. I 

z 



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338 WANDERINGS AND WONDER/ NGS, 

am afraid to say what some of the best saddle-mules 
are worth ; but I believe you may add an s to 
hundred ; and if I have said, " Look at the mules/' 
I may now add, " Listen to the donkeys !" I may safely 
say that Peking brayings appeared to me to create a 
new sensation. Always bear in mind — crowds. 

In one of our daily rides we met a very singular 
procession. There was a good nosegay of varie- 
gated costume and there was a carrying on high of 
certain large gilded or golden boxes of a certain 
size. What on earth are these ? The procession 
is a marriage procession, and those boxes contain 
geese. Boxes of this historical bird are carried 
as a present to the bride, but they are only hired 
for the purpose, and having been presented, are taken 
away again and serve for a new occasion. I know 
not whether they intimate future happiness in 
marriage, or are intended to signify that the married 
are geese if they expect it ; but, strangely enough, 
they serve opposite purposes, for, having paid their 
respects to marriage, they are equally carried to 
funerals. Geese, I was told, are not eaten in Peking. 
Ducks, I know, are, and considering what these 
birds must feed on, I cannot think them wholesome. 
If you see btef in a butcher's shop, you may be sure 
he is a Muhammadan. The Chinese do not eat beef 
and mutton, but pork ad /iditum, and veal. They 
are known to eat a good many odd things. In the 
Chinese city I certainly saw laid out in admirable 
symmetry dead rats upon a stall, in fair number, 
their tails being as carefully arranged as though they 
had been those of Chinese themselves. 



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PEKING. 339 

A highly interesting and impressive scene pre- 
sented itself one morning when we mounted to the 
top of the thirty-feet city walls, and walked along 
a considerable space of its many surrounding miles. 
The width of these walls at the base is called 
twenty or twenty-five feet, but they taper inside ; 
and the top is given as only twelve or fourteen feet. 
It looked more to me. The construction consists of 
two outsides to protect a mass of stuff thrown in 
between. The labour of it all may be contemplated. 
Shrubs and brambles were growing on each side of 
us as we walked along, and it was easy to imagine 
ourselves upon a country road. We enjoyed a fine 
view of the city below us, which was thickly 
dressed with trees, reminding me in this respect 
of Bangkok in its far lesser scale. Again, on another 
part of the Wall we saw the extraordinarily well 
preserved instruments of the old Observatory, all 
for many a year exposed to the air, and yet pre- 
senting perfect surfaces. 

The material was bronze ; the various scientific 
instruments were elaborately ornamented, the Im- 
perial Chinese Dragon figuring with his five claws. 
These instruments were constructed in 1674 by order 
of the then Emperor, Khanghi, under the direction of 
the Jesuit Father, F. Verbiest ; and the large azimuth 
was presented to that Emperor by Louis XIV. Note, 
therefore, the quality of both material and climate. 

Religious liberty must to a certain extent be 
recognized in Peking, because I saw a Roman 
Catholic Cathedral and a Mosque. I was also 
shown^an Examination Hall, as in Canton. Here, 

z 2 



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* I 



340 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

as there, there is said to be great competition for 
degrees. The chance of later promotion is thought 
to be well worth contcndinGj for. Intellect and literary 
capacity are much esteemed ; but the ranking of the 
successful, as explained to me, seemed singular. 
Three degrees of "Doctor^* are conferred in groups 
of hundreds. To the first class hundred are granted 
Sinecures, to the second class quasi sinecures, and to 
the third class offices of generally useful service. So 
thus it would seem that learning in the shape of 
scholastic acquirements is considered to exist in in- 
verse proportion with usefulness ; in other words, the 
less of the scholar, the more of common sense. 
What, then, if all the world were scholars ? whftre 
would the world look for common sense ? Not 
among the too erudite, entangling and inventing. 

Thus were my three days passed in Peking ; and 
on the evening of the i ith, the eve of our departure to 
the Great Wall, Sir Robert Hart showed me his beau- 
tiful phonographic instrument, in experimenting on 
which and viewing certain mechanical contrivances 
I passed more than an hour of entertainment and 
surprise. Then came the morning of our departure, 
for which all preparations had been carefully made 
with the assistance of Mr. Taillen and his store ; 
the sumpter animals and baggage being looked after 
by proper authorities, whom Mr. Michie's recom- 
mended guide actively assisted. 



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XXXI. 

Accordingly, on the morning of the 12th, I was 
called at five o'clock, the weather being very fresh 
and fine. At 6.30 my guide, Ngan Chii Shing, and 
my Indian servant, Bana, left with the coolies, mules, 
and cargoes, and at 7 a.m. Mr. Ludlow and I followed 
with the mafoo on our three ponies, leaving Peking by 
the An-ting-men Gate. My guide had made out 
his programme for four days, but Mr. Ludlow greatly 
improved upon it, and marked out five. The great 
point gained by this arrangement was that we were 
not simply to get to the Wall in the middle of the 
day and leave it again after only an hour or two's 
stay, but we were to go through it, and sleep, and 
return through it the next morning ; and we were 
also to make a round on our return. We lunched 
at Ching Ho (or Clear River) and slept at Ch'ang- 
p'ing Chou (familiarly called "Jumping Joe*'), and 
as the ground was fair for riding, we covered twenty- 
four miles quickly ; visiting the Yellow Temple, 
with its curious white monument, at a short distance 
from Peking, an illustration of which is given in 
Fergusson. I know not that I was particularly 
struck with any feature of the country in this ride, 
except it was with the splendid crops of what we 
call buckwheat (buchweisen) ; not even in Germany 
had I ever seen such splendid spreads of it. 



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342 WANDERINGS AND l\ ONDERINGS. 

The next day, the 13th, was to be the day for 
visiting the Ming Tombs, and after passing a very 
comfortable night (in our own beddings, by-the-by) at 
a rather rough but fairly convenient hotel, we diverged 
towards the north to visit these tombs. The scene 
is most striking. The large valley round which they 
are placed is quite flat, and is encircled by a vast 
and varied range of green mountains, curiously folding 
one behind another, and presenting a ribbed and 
wrinkled appearance. The first object met with is a 
large white marble gateway : the first. The second is 
called the Red Gateway. Then appears a large stone 
tablet, with a huge tortoise, and this is surrounded 
by four pillars ; and from this point there begins the 
much-renowned, and very strange, long avenue of 
stone animals ; and not of natural animals only, but 
of fabulous animals ; and fairly, may I also add, of 
fabulous men. All these objects (including camels 
among the number) are of gigantic size. I believe 
they extend altogether for a mile, and they astonished 
our own animals even a good deal more than they did 
ourselves— a certain sort of sarcasm being thus ex- 
pressed towards these intended tragical and impres- 
sive productions. This, I thought, was particularly 
expressed by my pony's terrified objection to face 
one majestic interpretation of a horse, which he 
viewed with terror instead of fraternity. 

At various distances round the very extensive 
ridge of the mountains there are thirteen tombs 
constructed ; but you may well look for the tombs. 
They are all more or less elaborate buildings with 
courtyards, and are surrounded by a screen of trees 



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Af/XG TOMBS. 343 

planted for their protection. We visited (I may 
say travelled over) the chief tomb, called that of 
"Yung-lo," among other features of which was a 
large hall supported by several very lofty wooden 
trunks or pillars, said to have been sent from 
Burmah, and reminding me of some even loftier 
trunks which supported one of the halls of the late 
King Thebaw's Palace at Mandalay. The hall 
of this Ming Tomb is said to be seventy yards 
long by thirty deep. The whole encircled space 
forms a complete domain, and from the highest 
point of the buildings a fine view of the amphi- 
theatre of the green mountains is obtained, these, 
taken far and near, appearing to entirely encircle 
the enormous flat valley. The thirteen funeral pro- 
cessions of Imperial burials, as they severally took 
place across this vast solitary space, must have 
offered an imposing scene and attracted thousands 
of admiring followers ; but now mere gaunt, unheeded 
ruin stares ; for at the funeral of the thirteenth 
emperor, Wan-lie, almost three hundred years ago, the 
Ming Dynasty itself was the companion of his corpse 
to that yonder thirteenth tomb, and was buried with it. 
And now for Nankou, a town at the foot of the 
Pass that is to lead us to the Great Wall. Bearing 
off to our right in a south-westerly direction, we 
reached Nankou for tififin, and after tiffin we set out 
for the Pass. The walls round Nankou gave us some 
small notion of the great structure we were about to 
visit, clambering about the surrounding most uneven 
ground ; but our attention was soon called to the 
Pass itself, presenting (as it does) the great, high 



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344 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

road to Mongolia, Kashgar, and Siberia. The general 
aspect of the highest mountain on each side is by 
no means so savage as has been presented in certain 
prints. The rocks are almost always covered with 
grass, and in the light and shade of the afternoon 
presented often a velvety appearance. The road (as 
may be supposed) is generally rough indeed, but 
in many parts it has been repaired. In many, how- 
ever, repair is quite impossible : torrential streams 
have torn it all to pieces. This feature, neverthe- 
less, is not predominant, and we made our way very 
fairly so as to arrive at the Wall itself some easy 
time before sunset. Long before reaching this point, 
however, we caught sight of the great animal coming 
headlong down an apparently vertical side of a big 
mountain in the distance straight before us ; but we 
were not yet to get through the archway. I thought 
we should never do so. The windings of the road 
towards the upper end appeared to me intermin- 
able ; at last, however, behold the longed-for goal. 
The wandering, pitching, clambering line stood 
close before us ; and here, by the irony of history, 
was seen that vast structure which was erected in 
order to keep out that race — the Eastern or Mantchou 
Tartars — one of whom now occupies the Imperial 
Throne of China. We of course dismounted and 
climbed on to the serpentine monster. The evening 
light and shade lent great effect to the surrounding 
scene, and as Cha-tao, where we were to sleep, lay 
only one mile below us and beyond us, we were 
quite at liberty, as regards time, to examine and 
survey. We therefore wandered and pondered at 



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IVALL OF CHINA, 345 

our leisure, and walked on the top up the declivity to 
our left for some little distance until brought to by 
a huge and ruinous fall of the structure, which 
made farther passage impossible. This stupendous 
structure, said to have been completed some 200 
years B.C., appears to be composed, as the walls of 
Peking, of a huge mound of earth in the middle, 
built in and supported on both sides by walls of 
mixed brick and stone. It begins with a mass of 
stone at the sea side, and runs over hill and dale 
some 1500 miles, varying in height all through ; 
and at short intervals it is fortified with large square 
towers, perhaps thirty feet high. Where we saw it 
the Wall itself might be twenty feet high, or perhaps 
something more, and its width at the top perhaps 
fifteen feet. You cannot see any great length of it 
at one time because of the great and sudden irregu- 
larities of the ground. It shoots down upon you, 
runs by you, mounts and disappears, and then gives 
you a parting glimpse on a yet more distant apex. 
When we had gazed enough we came down to the 
comfortable reality of our saddles ; into these we 
mounted and found our way with easy descent to 
Cha-tao, only one mile away, where our servants had 
prepared for us our dinner and beds, and where, after 
a toughish journey of some twenty-eight miles, we 
enjoyed our champagne and bed. But if you want 
the real benefit of champagne after fatigue, drink 
some immediately on coming in, and don't wait for 
mere dinner sippings, which may come afterwards. 

The next day, the T4th, was to be a long one ; 
no less than thirty-three miles ; through the Pass 



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346 WANDERINGS AND WOXDERINGS. 

again, via Nankou, to the temple, Ta Chiao-ssu ; and 
my companion considerately suggested to me that I 
should take a mule litter over the Pass, at all events, 
instead of quixotically riding as I had come. I 
wavered a little, and, on beholding the litter,absolutely 
revolted. But presently an open chair appeared, not 
very elegant or luxurious, but open ; and my re- 
bellious spirit bowed ; I accepted the considerate 
suggestion. I never made a more judicious sub- 
mission, for, starting early, we had the benefit of 
the light and shade of the still low sun, and the 
surpassing freshness of the morning air to sharpen 
the perceptions. The road gradually ascended to 
the Wall, which thus we saw for the second time ; 
and though it is often said with truth that a first 
sight is the most impressive, yet it was not so in this 
case, for I must give my verdict in favour of the 
second. The whole scene remains imprinted on my 
memory, and I should always say ; ** If you wish to 
see this section of the Wall to the best effect, pass 
through it from below." 1 did not climb again, nor 
was my companion yet up with me ; but I was set 
down for a short time to inwardly digest ; and it is 
just possible that my now certain comfort of being 
carried over rattling stones and rocks on men's 
shoulders, without the jar of the jerking hoof, in* 
sensibly elevated my feelings into that generous 
appreciation of all around which we can so gene- 
rously give way to when, for the moment, our restless 
uneasiness is completely satisfied. 

Just as I had found the approach to the Wall 
from the outside afford the most effective aspect, so 



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RETURN TO PEKING, 34/ 

I found the descent of the Pass much more effective 
than the ascent, and, seated in my chair, I had the 
greater opportunity of enjoying the lights and 
shades of morning. But one most impressive feature 
I must not omit to mention most particularly — the 
enormous and continuous flow of hairy, two-humped 
camels on their long way through to Kashgar, 
Mongolia, and Russia, laden heavily with tea. Add 
to these as many more coming in, and thousands of 
white sheep, with black heads and faces, also being 
driven inwards from the north. As on the river 
with the rice-laden boats, so in the Pass with the 
animals and the tea- laden camels. On arriving at a 
toll station we asked what was the number of camels 
daily passing through during the season. The 
answer was remarkable : " From eight to nin2 
hundred daily on the average ; but this morning I 
have already checked off two thousand." Yester- 
day had already astonished us in this respect, but 
this morning astounded us. There was something 
wild and exciting in the sight of these camels : in 
that they were going on a far, far journey, and that 
the tea they were carrying had come all the way 
from Hankow. The camels themselves also vividly 
recalled to my mind those troops of them, though 
not so numerous as these, which I had met with in 
the wild Khyber Pass on their road to Cabul. 

At Nankou we took our tiffin and rest, and started 
off for the Ta-chiao Temple on our homeward road. 
And here we enjoyed the occupation of the rooms 
lately left by "his Excellency Herr von Brandt, the 
German Minister, and also some remarkably finespeci- 



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348 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

mens of the always abundantgrapes,and some splendid 
water. But when I speak of grapes, do not let me 
forget the fruit called Persimmon, about the size 
of a small plum, and in consistency and flavour not 
very unlike the gooseberry ; a most refreshing aid 
in travelling. What I did not so much enjoy was 
the deep-toned midnight Buddhist bell. But if you 
will seek shelter in religious precincts, you must 
conform to religious proceedings. 

Our thirty-three miles being thus accomplished, 
we woke up on our fourth day, the 15th of the 
month, to find our way to Wo-fu-ssu, or the " Sleep- 
ing Buddha " Temple. This proved to be a day of 
twenty-three miles, but it was a very varied one 
among temples, and hard in performance, involving 
a climb on foot over a rocky mountain. My com- 
panion had suggested a round by the Western Hills 
and to sleep at the Ta-pei-ssu, but we thought it 
better to curtail this round and pass the night at 
Wo-fu-ssu, visiting the Pi-yiin-ssu, and returning. 
To this arrangement the priests invited us in some- 
thing very like a hospitable tone. Suddenly, how- 
ever, but not until all our goods and chattels were 
spread forth and the beds laid, we were informed 
that for their thus proffered night's repose they 
would expect us to pay the modest sum of $20. 
To this Mr. Ludlow, in very quiet but decided 
Chinese, flatly objected. Whereupon the demand 
suddenly and precipitously tumbled down to $7, a 
still exorbitant sum. We would have paid $5, or 
just double what we had hitherto paid, but this was 
declined. So we lunched, paying a mere nominal 



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RETURN TO PEKING. 349 

occupation sum, and got into our saddles. Then, 
while our men were beginning to pack, came the 
message, but all too late, that the priests would be 
content with the proffered §5. They did not get 
more than one quarter of that sum ; and thus, while 
attempting to be very wide awake while Buddha 
was asleep, they proved themselves to be even more 
asleep than he. In this escape, our guide, Ngan 
Chii Shing, was eminently useful. 

This reclining Buddha (either of metal or ivory) 
measures some thirtj'-six feet in length ; but the 
one I saw in Siam (though not of either material) 
measured 126 feet, lying with bended knees. Both 
were surrounded with (perhaps) thousands of baby 
Buddhas, the personal offerings of pilgrims : but while 
those in Siam were placed in niches in the wall, these 
were on open shelves. 

Our next halt, at a short distance, was at the 
extraordinary and picturesquely situated temple, Pi- 
yiin-ssu. A pagoda of fine white marble, but of 
curious design, forms the chief architectural feature. 
But the marvellous contents of the temple consist 
first in the large hall containing no less than 500 
gilded wise men, perhaps a little larger than life. All 
are in different attitudes, apparently of recognition 
of the visitor ; and of the thousand hands perhaps 
no two are in the same position. They reminded me 
of the corresponding sight at Canton. Five hundred is 
a large number to call wise, and it must be confessed 
that there are not many outward signs of wisdom 
among the faces of the multitude. Then, in other 
parts, are thousands of other smaller figures ; repre- 



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350 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

sentation of hell and hell torments, of course from- 
which some slight hints might perhaps be taken even 
by those who are said to be appointed below to plague 
almost every mortal that was ever born. Pass on, 
and you come to those who are enjoying happiness in 
another quarter. In short, from first to last the whole 
place seems to be alive with lifeless figures of all sorts 
and sizes. 

It was now time to leave for the Ta-pei-ssu on 
the Western Hills, and for this spot our road lay 
across rather rough country. These Western 
Hills (as they are called) contain eight temples 
dotted on the hill-side at various intervals, and it is 
here that the various I-egations are in the habit of 
retiring during the hot season. Some of them are 
perched high indeed, and if our road was rough, so 
indeed did I find the steep paved approach even to 
our destination, which was by no means the highest. 
But in the season these rough paths are thought 
nothing of, and the communications are cariied on 
between the temples with frequency and activity ; 
contrasting strangely, as may be supposed, with the 
abandoned and snowy desolation of the winter. We 
reached Ta-pci-ssu at evening, and thus completed 
our fourth day and our additional twtnty-three 
miles. 

Now came our fifth and last day, the i6th of 
the month. Our road to Peking would have been 
short and easy if followed direct, but we considered 
it quite worth while to take a round by the Summer 
Palace and the Bell Temple, or Ta-chung-ssu. At 
the former great repairs are going on, and much 



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PEKISG AGA/X. 35 r 

building also in the close neighbourhood. For the 
present, the Summer Residence, which was burned 
in 1860-6 f, presents no very inviting aspect for resi- 
dence. The situation is striking. The enclosed 
domain with all the attendant buildings occupies 
a large cone or mound, which stands out singly on 
the plain. 

We lunched at the Bell Temple in a remarkably 
pleasing quadrangle, and saw the greatest hanging 
bell in the world, covered with sacred writing inside 
and out. I say the greatest hanging bell, but the bell 
which I saw at Moscow is larger still, being the largest 
in the world. This, however, is not a hanging bell ; 
it fell in the great fire, and remains where it fell. 

And now for Peking again, after a most success- 
ful, interesting, and pleasant journey, occupying just 
five days, during which, with this day's seventeen 
miles, we had ridden 125 miles. The great walls 
looked majestic, and now hospitable, as we approached 
them, and we entered by the Te Sheng Men. 

Instead, however, of riding direct to our destination 
at Sir Robert Hart's, Mr. Ludlow added further to 
my knowledge of the city by taking me round by 
the Drum Tower, Coal Hill, and the Palace Ground 
and moat ; a.nd thus at last, still under the guidance 
of my indispensable companion, I came again to the 
hospitable roof under which I have passed so many 
interesting hours of perfect liberty and repose. A 
quiet dinner and a long quiet evening of conversa- 
tion offered a very pleasant close of my five days 
of lively interest, and, to a certain extent, of bodily 
fatigue ; but after a good night's rest, and my coffee 



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352 WANDERINGS AND WONDER/NGS. 

and grapes, all symptoms of the latter had disappeared, 
and left the former unalloyed. 

The shadow of the day of departure now began 
to fall, and this was fixed for early morning on Sun- 
day, the 2 1st of September. Meanwhile, Sir Robert 
had arranged a dinner party for me, although almost 
all the world were absent, and after dinner there was 
a vast amount of entertainment among all the 
company with the marvels of the phonograph. 
" What next will be invented ? " has been a perpetual 
interrogatory, and I never forget a strange phrase 
used by an old home gardener when informed of 
some (to him) new horror, that "by-and-by we 
should be getting too cunnin' for God A'mighty." 
And there are certain of a higher rank, too, that 
labour under much the same misgiving. 

On the Saturday afternoon we were regaled on 
the lawn with a band of music, conducted by a 
Portuguese bandmaster, whom I, of course, invited 
to a Portuguese conversation. This band is one 
especially belonging to Sir Robert, and is ex- 
clusively fostered by him. It plays every Satur- 
day, and the lawn is an harmonious scene of social 
meeting. 

That evening we had a trio dinner of adieu, Sir 
Robert, Mr. Ludlow, and I. The chair which 
Sir Robert had sent for from Tung Ching had 
arrived, my guide and servant had already departed, 
and late at night I gratefully bid my hospitable host 
good-bye. Nor can I better do so again on these 
pages than by transcribing the acrostic that I ventured 
to write in his Visitors' Book : — 



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FROM PEKING, 353 

High sound and phrase may greet the ear, 

And surface forces show ; 
Repose and intercourse are here — 

The forces lie below. 

Sunday morning came, arid with it Mr. Ludlow to 
shake hands. At five minutes past six I was again 
alone upon the road, and at twenty minutes to eleven 
I was at Tung Ching. 

Down the river is generally easier than up, and on 
the Pei-ho there was no exception to this rule. It 
cost me just four days to go up and one day and 
five hours, or twenty-nine hours in all, to come down. 
At five o'clock on the afternoon of the 23rd, I was at 
the bridge at Tientsin, and at half-past seven at the 
dinner-table with Mr. and Mrs. Detring, a pleasure 
that was repeated on the following day. At half- 
past four on the 25th the same kind Commissioner 
sent his steam-launch round to the Astor House' 
Hotel, for which I leave the very best report, and 
thus I came on board the Chungking^ Captain 
Hughes, for an early start next morning for Shang- 
hai. There we arrived about noon on Michaelmas 
Day, and having left the Astor House at Tientsin, I 
resumed the Astor House at Shanghai. 



A a 

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XXXII. 

It was now the moment for arranging my con- 
templated excursion up the Yang-tse-Kiang, before 
finally leaving Shanghai, and well it was for me that 
when I first spoke of doing so the swollen river cried 
" No." For now I came armed with a full recommen- 
dation from Sir Robert Hart to all his Commissioners 
at the various ports to take me under their protec- 
tion ; his letters, I should observe, having already 
gone before me, on my having expressed to him, 
while in Peking, my desire to see the gorges. I 
therefore called on Mr. Bredon, Sir Robert's brother- 
in-law, and Commissioner of Customs at Shanghai, 
who had forwarded the letters up the river, and 
again having recourse to Messrs. Butterfield and 
Swire, Mr. Bois furnished me with a ticket to leave 
by their S.S. Peking, Captain Batten, early on Wed- 
nesday, the 7th of October ; and I was to be on board 
the night before. My first resting place was to be 
Hankow, the limit of the steamer's course of 598 
miles ; and Mr. Lay, the Commissioner there, had 
already written that he was expecting me. 

After enjoying the hospitality of our Consul- 
General, Mr. Hughes and Mrs. Hughes, Mr. Bredon, Mr. 
Bois, and Mr. and Mrs. Robert Little, the night of the 
7th of September found me on board, and i a.m. on the 
8th found us in movement. As the day opened the 



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YANG-TSE-KrANG. 355 

enormouswidthandwindingsofthe uncouth and unruly 
river became strikingly apparent, but the banks were 
all low and flat and totally uninteresting. Side creeks 
led up into the country, stretching for many miles. 
We stopped at Chinkiang about cargo at night, both 
going and coming, so that I had no opportunity of 
landing there. The next station was Wahu, and the 
next Kiukiang, but in both these cases I had to defer 
my visit till my return, and eventually we came to 
Hankow at about II a.m. on the nth. Here Mr. 
Lay came on board, and I was escorted to his house, 
enjoying his and Mrs. Lay's hospitality till I could 
continue my journey to Ichang, where the excursion 
to the gorges begins. Every morning a regular re- 
port was made as to the inches which the river had 
sunk during the twenty-four hours : these two or 
three inches in so immense a body representing 
enormous masses of water. 

There was some delay here from an accident to the 
continuing boat, the Kiangtungy and various contra- 
dictory reports kept me in doubt as to how I was to 
get on, until the night of the iSth, when Mr. Lay and 
Mr. Gardener, our Consul, took me on board the 
suddenly-appointed Paohua^ Captain Lewis, at about 
half-past eleven, and we started soon afterwards. I 
cannot remember any scenery calling for special 
observation throughout these 370 miles. The general 
feature was flatness, with agriculture going on by 
help of the European-hating buffaloes, who even know 
the stranger by the smell. On the river itself, Sha- 
Sze attracted attention by the large assemblage of 
junks — some said a thousand — lying off the straggling 

A a 2 



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35^ IVANDER/NGS AND WONDERINGS. 

town, which is about to threaten Ichang. We left 
almost immediately after arrival, for the protective 
laws would not allow our vessel, which was not 
Chinese, to take Chinese passengers. 

We were late in arriving at Ichang in consequence 
of fogs, but found ourselves at the pontoon on the 
morning of the 19th, when the Count d'Arnoux, the 
Commissioner, came on board and took me to his 
temple, where I was introduced to the countess, and 
spent the day. To show how much is wanting still 
to develop these treaty ports, not only was this 
templethe onlypossible place of residence for the Com- 
missioner, but it was scarcely large enough to hold even 
him. However, though the Kiangtung was not fit 
for steaming, she was good for sleeping, and the good 
Captain Yankowski, then very ill and since dead, 
granted me a bed. In the afternoon we walked out 
with Consul Fraser and Dr. Aldridge, and saw the 
site chosen by Mr. Marshall for the new residence he 
had designed ; and a strange walk part of it was. 
An extensive old Chinese burial-ground consisted of 
nothing but huge mounds, each apparently contain- 
ing perhaps a score of bodies, and on the other side 
was a large dead pool of water. In the distance 
beyond there rose a range of picturesque hills, and on 
one of them appeared a tower of peculiar origin. On 
the opposite side of the stream from Ichang, you 
must know, there is a very curious and regular line 
of successive pyramidal hills, very striking to the 
stranger's eye. But the inhabitants persuaded them- 
selves that the largest, and therefore the most attrac- 
tive of these was an evil — had an evil eye — to the 



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YANG-TSE-KIANG. 357 

town. So they did not attempt to lower it, or to 
pull It down, but built the tower I have mentioned to 
counteract its evil influence. More refined supersti- 
tions, however, might appear to the Ichangese quite 
as ridiculous as may this to ourselves who assume 
to be the enlightened. 

I learned that the proper season for visiting 
Ichang, and therefore the gorges, is the month of 
April. All is then green, and flowers are spangled 
everywhere ; nor is the river too high or too low. 
In this particular feature October corresponds, but 
it is brown and colourless, as I found it to be, instead 
of green and spangled. 

The count, having received Sir Robert's letter, had 
very kindly at once set all things in order for me, 
and everything was in readiness for my start on the 
following day, the 20th. Sir Robert had suggested 
that the Count might possibly be my companion, but 
this being otherwise, he considerately found another 
in the person of Mr. Balharry, one of the staff", who 
happily was young, bright, and cheerful, and kept up 
life all through. 

Our boat lay close below the steps, and for this 
night I slept on board at once. Mr. Balharry joined 
in the morning, and we crossed over to Shipa 
Island, waiting for our cook, who had gone to make 
purchases. At half-past eight on the 20th we 
began our excursion to the gorges. The scenery 
was pleasing until half-past eleven, when we turned 
suddenly to the left and entered the Ichang Gorge. 
This offered a very long perspective of mountainous 
banks blocked to the eye at the far end by a large 



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3S8 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

massive group. The October want of colour was 
evident all round, the masses were rather uncouth 
than impressive, and sloped off raggedly. In particu- 
lar, for the word " gorge " the river was too wide. 
Some one or two of the precipices might be called 
fine. At about 2 p.m. we came to the Pin-San- Pah 
Station, and continued till dusk as far as below the 
village of Lantoo. 

Our modes of moving were various: there were 
long oars, there was the breeze, and there was the 
tracking of the men on the sloping, ragged sides with 
ropes. We had fifteen altogether. They fed, slept, 
and worked in the front, making noise enough, and 
the pulling in and out of the wet cord according to 
the tracking was not a little tiresome. Rice was 
their exclusive food, cooked by their own cook in 
front ; rice, like corn to horses, or grass to cows. 
But we had a scene the very first evening. One of 
the men wanted to desert, and he was followed, seized, 
punished, and brought back to duty. In this small 
episode you might gather the style of Chinese punish- 
ment and of Chinese want of sensibility. It is im- 
possible they can feel like other people. At home 
the exhibition would have represented "attempt to 
murder,'^ but the man came back and forgot it all at 
once. 

On the 2 1st we started at about six in the morn- 
ing, and in very fine, fresh weather. The character of 
the scenery I have marked was increasing in bulk and 
variety, but coarse in kind, and the river always wide. 
At eight o'clock we breasted on our right what is called 
"The Needle of Heaven." It is a fine individual 



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YANG'TSE'KIANG. 359 

Striking object, and is given as of 2000 feet in height. 
After passing this the scenery became tamer, and, 
indeed, I have marked tiresome ; but a small inci- 
dent aroused us. Our rope broke in tracking. We 
were not, however, carried down the stream ; that was 
somehow managed ; and on coming to a place called 
by the euphonious name of Huanglien Mien, an 
enormous purchase of new material was made, includ- 
ing some of alarming thickness. These ropes are of 
bamboo, which alone is capable of withstanding the 
friction and the snatching, as the men on shore track 
along the spreads of ugly rocks. At dusk we were 
at San-to-pin, and stopped for our second day. 

On the 22nd we started at seven, and to-day we 
passed up the Tatung Rapid, but without particular 
feature, and several rather rushing corners gave us a 
little trouble ; time lost, noise and wet ropes being 
unpleasant. But, in compensation, a good breeze 
sprang up afterwards, and we covered a good 
space. 

It was about three o'clock in the afternoon of this 
day that we came in perspective sight of the entrance 
to the Lukan Gorge. This entrance is considered to 
present the finest scene on the river, and I quite con- 
cur in this opinion. As we approached it it looked 
really fine and mysterious, and it offers the only really 
first-class piece of scenery that I found on the river. 
The effect was also increased by two small white sails 
under the cliffs at the moment. I believe my com- 
panion would say the same. It is true that it lies rather 
at an angle as you approach it, the effect of which is 
that the river appears narrower than it really turns 



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3^0 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

out to be when you come close up. But this may 
pass. What is quite disappointing is the gorge itself 
when entered, for the mountains fall away upon 
your left, the river's right, and let in a vast amount of 
breadth and light. The whole gorge, running into 
the Mittan Gorge, offers the best run of scenery, but 
it has been grossly exaggerated in some of the de- 
scriptions of it, justifiable only if written by persons 
who had seen but little else besides the rest of the 
river, or (say) Shanghai, of which it has been declared, 
almost too severely, that it has nothing higher than a 
mole-hill, unless it is a grave. 

On our fourth day we started at six o'clock and 
came to the Shintan Rapid, and reached the Yatan 
Rapid, standing second in the crowd for the morning's 
haul ; and on the next, or fifth day, we came in sight 
of Patan and a pagoda ; and here we turned round. 
After the scenery of the Lukan and the Mittan, which 
I have mentioned, there was nothing worthy of special 
remark. In coming down, perhaps, some parts of the 
river looked more impressive than in going up, and 
that is all I can say. What did impress me was the 
quiet and imperceptible manner in which we were 
rapidly carried down to Ichang, and the quiet, con- 
temptuous manner in which the stream completely 
turned our boat about among some harmless eddies. 
And what is that diminutive model of a boat with 
paraphernalia floating on the water, and looking like 
a nursery toy 1 It is there to float about and com- 
memorate, so long as it will last, some fatal accident 
in the floods, and it represents a usual practice. 

It was on the 25th, at noon, that we turned, and at 



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YANG-TSE'KIANG. 3^1 

one on the 26th, after resting a whole ni^ht below the 
Lukan, and spending forty minutes at San Yu Tung, 
we were at Ichang. We could not have been more 
than twelve hours on the water. San Yu Tung is a 
natural cave turned into a temple, and with its rude 
centre rock looks like a rather clumsy chapter-house. 
On arriving, I immediately sought shelter at the 
former refuge, and in the afternoon we had a quiet 
sail upon the river, up to the entrance to the Ichang 
Gorge, and, viewed in this quiet manner, without the 
exaggerated fuss that had been made about it, it really 
looked important in proportion. 

One more day and we dined with the Consul ; on 
Monday night I bade farewell to my hospitable 
friends and went on board the Kiangtung. At two 
in the morning of the 28tb, I was unconsciously 
moved off, and on the 29th, in a very fine morning, I 
was again shaking hands with Mr. and Mrs. Lay at 
Hankow. It was here that, on looking through some 
newspapers, I came upon a telegraphic paragraph 
from London, headed, " Death of a Man of Note." 
My friend of many years, and my colleague, not com- 
petitor, in translation, Captain Sir Richard Burton, had 
gone. Linked with some foes and with a thousand 
friends, this indefatigable author and explorer was, 
perhaps, too independent of public opinion to be con- 
ventionally popular and to be fairly recognized and - 
rewarded. His papers showed that he was on the 
point of writing to me in answer to my letter on the 
subject of my visit to Macao ; but the letter was never 
written : *' Flere et me'minisse relicium est,'' 

On the evening of the 30th we all dined with Mr. 



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362 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

and Mrs. Smith, and met Captain Shaw, of the 
Gnankin^ with whom I was to sail that night for 
Shanghai, so that I was safe, and at half-past ten I 
went on board with him. This time I did not miss 
Kiukiang — ^** Nine Rivers " — and had the pleasure of 
enjoying some hours with M. de Bernifere and his 
family, regretting not to have seen madame also. 
Everything looked gay, especially a splendid show of 
chrysanthemums, and I was sorry at not being able 
to make a longer stay. One little incident consider- 
ably amused me here. A Mr. Currie, in the Customs, 
was changing to Wufu, and as he was very popular, 
an enormous number of crackers were (more popu- 
lorum) discharged as he came off ; but a good lady 
on board, knowing nothing of all this, was highly 
indignant at the interruption, and we found her want- 
ing to know " what all this disgraceful noise meant." 
So that, for want of knowing what was really going 
on, an affectionate farewell was condemned as dis- 
graceful. There are corresponding cases in life of 
very much more consequence. 

At Wahu it was again my lot to be very plea- 
santly entertained by Mr. and Mrs, Spinney, with a 
walk and a visit to the garden, which Mrs. Spinney 
took care to have dressed under her own special care. 
In China this is very important. The Chinese are ex- 
cellent gardeners, but the unwholesome modes they 
pursue of manuring the ground are mischievous both 
to the air and to the vegetable as an edible. Passing 
Chinkiang again by night, I was at the Astor House, 
Shanghai, in the afternoon of the 2nd of November. 

Thus ended my visit to the so-called goi^es. Gorges 



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YANG-TSE'KIANG, 363 

they are not, for the river (as I have said) is always 
wide. I went about a thousand miles up to begin 
them, and taking my excursion altogether, as it was 
laid out for me, I would not on any account have 
missed it. That I was disappointed in the scenery 
is most true, chiefly from exaggerated reports in 
Shanghai and elsewhere, and by illustrations worked 
up in London from verbal boastings. Observe what 
I was told of the Lukan Gorge : that you entered a 
completely dark defile, and that only after proceed- 
ing some distance a vertical silver seam of light began 
to appear, and gradually expanded into day. When 
people grossly exaggerate scenery they do not seem 
to understand that they are misrepresenting just as 
much as if they were passing off silver for gold. If 
you ask me whether I would recommend you to go 
up a thousand miles of river simply and solely to 
see these "gorges," without such introductions as 
charmed and adorned my path, my unhesitating 
answer would be " No." 



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XXXIII. 

The one remaining Asiatic excursion I had now to 
make was that to the great temple of Nakhon Wat in 
Cambodia, ^nd in order to accomphsh this, for which 
I had waited one year, occupied as above, I must 
get down to Hongkong in time for the French boat 
that would touch at Saigon, sailing from Hongkong 
on the 20th of November. To Mr. Bois, therefore, I 
again appealed for a safe passage, who furnished me 
with a ticket by the Menelans to sail on the 9th, and 
promised me the launch to go off in. This would 
still give me time to touch at Foochow in hopes of yet 
seeing the famous river, and I therefore telegraphed to 
say I was coming, and received for answer, " Come." 
Bidding all friends good-bye, therefore, on the 
night of the 8th, I went on board to stop at Foochow, 
and passing out by Woosung, beheld a sight of 
twelve old-fashioned war-junks in a row. All was 
fair for some time, but presently the sea began to 
roll, or rather, perhaps, to make the Menelaus do so, 
and a bad night we had. But I was quite content to 
be tumbled about for the result that ensued, for the 
boisterous weather had filled the waters with their 
phosphoric propensity — whatever the cause may be — 
and when we slowed down at about two in the morn- 
ing of the loth, I looked out and saw what I had so 
longed wished to see, the spread of phosphoric light 



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CAMBODIA. 365 

all over the ocean. It must not be understood, how- 
ever, that there Is one widespread sheet of this light, 
as I must admit I had conjectured from descriptions. 
It is only the breakers, or " white horses," that show 
the phosphorus. This is, of course, grand and 
astonishing enough, but not if you expect the other. 
Certainly, in our case, the wind being high and the sea 
very rough, the breakers were most abundant and the 
night scene was magical, extending to the very offing. 

On the afternoon we arrived at the beautiful pagoda 
anchorage at Foochow,and I went to find Mr. Pim. 
He was absent, and Mr. Oswald had kindly replied, not 
wishing to disappoint me. But how many difficulties 
are in the way of doing easy things ! If I went up the 
river I could not continue in the MenelauSy and if I 
did not continue in the Menelaus there would not be 
another boat to Hongkong in time to catch the 
Saigon steamer. So I had to give up the Foochow 
river entirely,and contented myself with the shorter ex- 
cursion to Kushan, and its rocks, priests, and temples, 
which made up a very pleasant day on the 12th : and 
after being Mr. Oswald's guest until late that night, 
he insisted on accompanying me on board, to sail in 
the morning, giving me — an immense gift in China — 
two bottles of fresh milk from his own dairy, which I 
had visited and appreciated on shore, and also con- 
ceding me ten pounds of crack chop Pan Yong tea, 
a district 100 miles from Foochow. 

We sailed at 8.45 on the morning of the 13th, 
touching at Swatow on the following day. The 
entrance is picturesque, but certainly not equal either 
to that of Foochow or Amoy. At four o'clock of the 



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366 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

same afternoon we sailed for Hongkong, and when 
I left Swatow I took my final leave of China, 
the Empire of the Brother of the Sun and Moon. 
We were at Hongkong at nine the next morning, 
and the weather contributed to adorn the entrance, 
but the colours of earth and sky were now russet and 
blue, for the brown of winter had superseded the 
green of summer. 

My first object at Hongkong was to secure a pas- 
sage for myself and servant to Saigon by the French 
steamer, and this I did at once by the Natal^ Captain 
Bretel, to sail on Thursday, the 20th. In the mean- 
time I was honoured by a visit from Dr. L. P. Marques, 
and Senhor J.C da Cunha of the Bibliotheca Lusitana 
de Hongkong, who generously hailed me as trans- 
lator of their great national epic poem, " Os Lusiadas," 
by Luis de Camoes, invited me to pay their club a 
visit, presented me with a handsome volume of views 
in Macao, and have since honoured me farther by 
electing me an honorary member of their Society, of 
which degree they have lately sent me an illuminated 
diploma. This patriotic body of Portuguese, though 
not numerous, cherish in connection with their colony 
at Macao the name and fame of an author whose 
presence has sanctified that scene, and of whom 
their nation is most justly proud. They conduct their 
club with energy, publish a Portuguese journal 
entitled Extremo Oriente^ and are ever alive to 
maintain their nationality. Macao, it will be remem- 
bered, was given to the Portuguese in 1586, by the 
then Emperor of China, in return for assistance afforded 
by them against pirates who had infested the coast. 



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CAMBODIA. 367 

Wc made a rapid passage to Saigon, arriving there 
at midnight of the 22nd. Consul Tremlett, whose 
acquaintance (as already mentioned) I had made in 
Yokohama, sent for me, and I was conducted to the 
*' Hotel de TUnivers," afterwards dining with him and 
his partner, Mr. Detmering, the brother of Mr. Detmer- 
ing at Canton. 

My ticket for Pnom Penh and beyond being secured 
in the Phuoc Kien, Captain Bouillet, which was to sail 
on the night of the 25th, I passed my intermediate two 
evenings in driving about with Mr. Tremlett. The 
French have made a good, decent town, and have, as 
usual, planted avenues of trees everywhere, but 
everything all round is as flat as a sheet of paper, and 
one cannot help wondering whatever induced them 
to take possession of the place. However, there they 
are, and they make the best of it, so far as outside 
show is concerned. The public gardens, or park 
afford a very pleasing evening drive, and plenty of 
carriages are to be found there. The climate cannot 
but be depressing, and the soil produces large crops of 
very excellent rice. This refers to Cochin China, of 
which Saigon is the capital, and which the French 
have held absolutely since 1867 ; but they have other 
projects in view. 

On getting on board the Phuoc Kien, I found two 
young Frenchmen were coming on the same excursion 
as myself: M. Laffbnt, of the India and China Bank, 
and M. Furiet, Aide-Commissaire de la Marine. They, 
like me, had made all their separate arrangements, 
but we became companions nevertheless all through, 
and so far as I myself was concerned, with great con- 



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368 WANDERINGS AND WONDER/NGS, 

sequent advantage ; nor have I reason to doubt that 
this feeh'ng was mutual. 

Our first night was certainly not pleasant. We 
had to make a round to get into the Mecon, on which 
Pnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia, is situated ; 
and although we came through some inner course to 
avoid the turbulent shallows, we rolled so far on our 
beam ends that our cabins were deluged with water. 
However, on the large river we were quite quiet. 
Nor was it likely that I should here fail to think of 
Camoens ; for it was on the Mecon that he was 
nearly drowned, swimming to shore with one hand, 
while he held his poems in the other. 

And Mecon shall the drowning poetry 
Receive upon its breast, benign and bland, 
Coming from shipwreck and from misery, 
'Scaped from the stormy shallows to the land ; 
From famines, dangers great, when there shall be 
Enforced with harshness the unjust command 
On him for whom his loved harmonious lyre 
Shall more of fame than happiness acquire. 

Lustads, Cant. X., St. cxxviii. 

Our course up the river, larger than the Pei-ho, but 
not so large as the Yang-tse-Kiang, was calm and 
uneventful, and we arrived at Pnom Penh on the 
27th. Here I had to pass the afternoon and night, 
save that I paid a visit to Mr. Meyer with a letter 
from Mr. Tremlett about a guide. The person in- 
tended was ill, and sent his son, and he embarked 
accordingly in the morning. As for the night, I think 
it was the noisiest I ever passed — cargo and cries 
till very sunrise. 



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CAMBODIA. 369 

Here we left the Mecon, and turning to the north- 
west, made up another river flowing from the Tale 
Sab Lake, some short distance from which Siem Riep 
lies. This stream showed remarkable masses of thick 
creeping plants which entirely covered the riverside 
trees like canopies, and the woods were peopled by 
flocks of white birds of a very elegant form, called 
here aigrettes. They are killed for their feathers ; 
but my young French friends were pretty active with 
their guns without a hope of any such profit from 
them. They flew in circles far and near about the 
steamer, and into the solitary forest again, generally 
choosing a dead tree to settle on, and looking in the 
short distance like a profusion of large white blossoms 
growing on the barren branches. 

At last the steamer anchored at the head of the 
lake, and we all three, with my servant and guide, 
disembarked in a large sampan. Presently we came 
to a sort of custom-house, where we had to find small 
boats to go up the creek, and very luckily they were 
found ; but this is a sort of venture, and should 
there be half a dozen passengers, notice should be 
sent beforehand. We punted and pushed up the 
narrow creek till we came to an uncouth village, 
where carts and buffaloes had to be found, as the 
creek failed us. The Frenchmen's equipage was 
there, and so was a chance cart for me; but all the 
buffaloes were out grazing. At last two came loung- 
ing in and were yoked, and I jumbled along, and 
joined my companions at Siem Riep. There I armed 
myself with my letter, and we all crossed over the 
water to call on the Governor. Besides my letter I 

B b 



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370 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

took over also a one-dozen case of champagne as a 
lubricating present, the hotel-keeper having most 
disinterestedly advised me that the demie would not 
serve, and my grand letter demanding corresponding 
largess ; but by the look of the man, I should doubt 
whether he had ever even heard of champagne ! He 
had been out fishing, and was taking his tea in his 
ragged-looking costume and ragged dwelling, and 
the arrangement of the tea was curious. There was 
a tray with six small cups, full, and fixed in position ; 
when he had sipped and finished one, he went to the 
other, and so on to the end, while we were being 
interpreted. He was very civil — Minister's letter 
and champagne combining — and arranged trotting 
bullocks and small carts and drivers for us, and away 
we went. The road was luckily a sandy woodland 
road. We were more or less under trees of one sort 
or another all the way, and there was no jerking. 
By-and-by we came in view of the great width of 
the vast and most elaborate temple crowned with its 
five elaborate towers. Turning sharply to the right, 
we stood in full front to it, still some distance away, 
and about half way up the broad, flat-stoned approach 
to it we found a large bamboo building among trees, 
where visitors find lodging. Here we all assembled, 
and forthwith walked up to take a first survey of 
outside aspect, courts and corridors. 

Stand and gaze for a time, and then walk in. This 
is the Temple of Nakhon Wat, or " the Temple of 
the City," and I really think that that must be about 
the beginning and the end of my description of it 
You must consult Fergusson, and study his illustra- 



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CAMBODIA. 371 

tions. One very striking feature of the mighty pile 
was presented to me at once — for I was there some 
short time before the others — namely, the unlimited 
amount of detail — details in ornament of every 
variety, and on every possible surface, as well as 
bassi relievi in the corridors ; and my attention was 
particularly drawn to this at once by finding a M. 
Raffegeaud on the spot,busily engaged with workmen 
in taking large careful models of various devices. 
He told me he was resident there for a certain period, 
having been commissioned by some French archi- 
tectural and antiquarian society to secure a hand- 
some collection for Paris. 

With all our delays we had arrived from Pnom 
Penh in plenty of time to give us a good afternoon 
at the temple ; and on my own behalf I at once took 
a quiet walk completely round the colonnades. The 
general effect is perhaps scarcely so finished as is 
indicated by Fergusson's woodcuts, 373 and 374 ; but 
the bassi relievi on the inside walls all round are truly 
astonishing. Fergusson estimates the whole length 
of these to represent 2000 feet, and to contain from 
18,000 to 20,G00 figures of all sorts. I walked round 
the four colonnades more than once, and agree with 
Fergusson that they are probably the most remark- 
able features of this temple. But really all is remark- 
able, above as well as below. I do not quite gather 
whether Fergusson ever personally visited the temple, 
or whether his very minute description is collected 
from authorities whom he has consulted. A sentence 
or two leave this doubtful. But if he has been there, I 
am surprised he overlooked one remarkable feature 

ii b 2 



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3^2 WANDERINGS AND WONDBRINGS. 

in the sculptures, which very strongly supports his 
view that the temple belongs to the snake worship and 
has not a trace of Buddhism. No one going over the 
building could avoid becoming his disciple in this 
estimation. The serpent is everywhere, and what is 
called the "seven heads" looked to me like the 
**capello;" but in one of the long colonnades or 
corridors— the third, I think, beginning on the right 
as you enter — there is one long, huge serpent stretch- 
ing from end to end, and being carried on the 
shoulders or under the arms of a whole army of 
hundreds of figures. What Buddha can have to 
do with this remains to be shown. The allusion to 
Ramisseram is juat ; its outside is entirely unshapely, 
while Nakhon Wat speaks loudly indeed for itself in 
this respect. But it remains to be said that, as regards 
the corridors of Ramisseram, there is nothing in those 
at Nakhon Wat that, for me, can compare with them 
in architectural effect. Fergusson's detailed descrip- 
tion seems to bring the building vividly back to 
memory, and the whole tone of the structure dis- 
sociates itself entirely from my associations with 
Buddhist structures. I know that when on the next 
day we visited the forests, now growing where the 
city of Nakhon Thom, or Ankor Thom, once stood, 
and came upon a large statue of Buddha, the sight 
was totally incongruous with my then pervading 
impressions, and he seemed to be a vulgar intruder. 

But in aid of all the impressions that a general 
survey of the whole gigantic structure and a close 
examination of its marvellous details may produce, 
comes the still dark question. Who were the people 



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CAMBODIA. 373 

that dwelt and built ? For none are near that can be 
even alluded to in discussing such a question. There- 
fore, throughout the whole scene there pervades a 
hallowing atmosphere of mystery, with which, in 
these now overgrown solitudes, imagination might 
be tempted to toy, for the luxury of indulging in 
the supernatural. 

We dined off our provender and wine, and passed 
our night very fairly in the bamboo house, bamboo 
poles floor and all, and prepared ourselves for an 
early bullock trot to the site of the old city, Ongkor 
Thom, or Nakhon Thom. For this we made an early 
morning start between five and six. Our soft sandy 
road lay through a perpetual and luxuriant forest, 
with now and then an exhibition of gigantic trees, all 
strange — strange underwood, strange sounds of birds' 
notes. After about twenty minutes* drive, we came 
to doubtless the most majestic piece of overgrown 
ruin that I ever beheld. It was the high arched, 
massive south gate of the old city. It was very 
lofty, broken, but not fallen, and not truncated. On 
the contrary, it was heightened, and adorned from 
the top throughout by the beautiful and copious 
embraces of its luxuriant destroyers. If anyone 
desires to see a noble specimen of wild green nature 
adorning and triumphing over ruined art, here it 
is. Passing under it, we entered somewhat farther 
into the depths of the forest, and came to the vast 
ruins of Baion. What this was at one time, it is 
almost a pleasure to feel the impossibility of under- 
standing. It is said to have been more magnificent 
than Nakhon Wat itself; but the same wild growth 



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374 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. . 

that I have already referred to prevails here, and it 
is most surprising to observe how branches and 
runners have gradually intruded between enormous 
blocks, pushing them out of place, and revelling in 
an adorning destruction. All seemed a confusion of 
the majesty of ruin, for all showed size and power ; 
and for myself^ I did my best to keep my mind in 
the intoxication of admiration. We returned by 
about eleven to breakfast, and had the whole of the 
rest of the day at our disposal under the brow of 
Nakhon Wat. 

On Monday, the ist of December, Mr. Raffegeaud 
breakfasted with us, and we left for Siem Riep in our 
charettes in the afternoon, and slept there. All was 
in order (in Siem Riep order) to receive us, and the 
Governor sent me an extensive present of live ducks 
and chickens, which I had no misgiving in accepting 
to be killed, seeing that I totally disbelieved in the 
temple we had visited being Buddhist. Our bullocks 
trotted us well down to the creek in the morning, 
starting before four, and after somewhat of an un- 
pleasant water excursion, we joined (as bound to do) 
the Phuoc Kien again, which lay at anchor on its 
return from Battambong, and sailed for Pnom Penh. 
This was our only chance of return, and we had 
taken our tickets accordingly. The interval gave us 
two full days for all we came to see ; nor must I omit 
to add that our two French guns were not wholly 
wanton, but more than once enriched our larder with 
some snipe. At Pnom Penh we were delayed a day, 
as in coming up, which I spent driving and dining 
with Mr. Meyer. On the 5th we changed our 



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HONGKONG AGAIN, 375 

steamer for the Battambong^ Captain Noury, and 
sailed at 8 a.m. for Saigon, arriving at about ten the 
next morning. Thus our excursion occupied from 
the night of the 2Sth of November to the morning 
of the 6th of December. At Saigon I had to wait 
for the French steamer from Europe, the Sydney^ 
till the 15th, spending the time in drives and 
dinners with Mr. Detmering. On th:\t day we left 
at 2 a.m., I being on board the night before, and early 
on the 18th I was again at Hongkong. My twelve- 
months' patience had been well rewarded. 

On my arrival there I found the whole town in 
a state of excitement upon the subject of an auda- 
cious piracy on the Douglas Steamship Company's 
boatj the Namoa, on the high season the loth, within 
a few hours' steaming of Hongkong, attended with 
murder of the captain and of a passenger who 
happened to be on deck when the entirely unexpected 
attack broke out ; and on this same i8th of December 
there was published by the Hongkong Daily Press 
a full detailed account of all the circumstances, with 
the following r^j«;;/r' for the French mail: — "Great 
excitement has been caused during the past week by 
a case of piracy on one of the coast steamers. The 
Douglas sttdLm^r Namoa left on Wednesday, the loth 
instant, for the coast ports. After she had gone 
about sixty miles, a gang of pirates who had shipped 
as passengers, and whose numbers are variously 
stated at from forty to sixty, rose during the tiffin 
hour and took possession of the ship. They were 
all armed with revolvers and cutlasses, and fired down 
into the saloon. Captain Pocock was induced to 



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376 WAXDERfNGS AND IVONDERIXGS. 

come on deck under promise of safety, but was im- 
mediately shot down, and died soon afterwards. Mr. 
Petersen, a passenger, who had remained on deck 
instead of going down to tiffin with the other 
passengers, was shot at the commencement of the 
outbreak, receiving four bullets in the head. A Malay 
quartermaster was shot and thrown overboard, and 
another was so severely wounded that he afterwards 
died in hospital. Two European officers, another 
Malay quartermaster, and a cook and a seaman were 
also wounded. The pirates then proceeded to rifle 
the baggage of the European and native passengers, 
and obtained booty to an amount variously stated at 
from §20,000 to $40,000, and subsequently left in 
junks which were in waiting for them. The officers 
and European passengers, who had in the meantime 
been confined in the captain's cabin, then came out, 
and the ship was brought back to Hongkong, where 
she arrived the next morning." 

This alarming incident concerns everybody, the 
more so that the same journal refers to several other 
cases of a like nature, effected or frustrated, since so 
late a date as 1874 ; and at the end of its editorial 
article writes the following remarkable and rather 
startling paragraph : — " But whatever is done, it will 
still be advisable, if not absolutely necessary, for the 
masters of steamships to adopt every precaution which 
prudence can suggest to prevent similar outrages, for 
it must be remembered that this colony is an Alsatia 
for the criminals of Kwangtung, and is periodically 
flooded with them when the hunt for them grows hot 
on the mainland. According to a Chinese estimate 



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HONGKONCf AGAIN, 377 

— we give it for what it is worth — there are at the 
present moment not less than two thousand pirates, 
or would-be pirates, in the colony, and they only wait 
the opportunity to declare their predatory and too 
often brutal instincts. The Namoa piracy furnishes 
an instructive example of the ability, forethought, 
daring, and resource of the desperadoes with whom 
we have to reckon, and whose rendition, when applied 
for by the Chinese Government, is made so difficult." 
Though not personally concerned in this most daring 
and monstrous proceeding, yet it came near enough 
to my movements to make me feel that I might have 
suffered the like horrors had I happened, on the 
Namoa, or any other coasting steamer, to have 
travelled with a large number of steerage Chinese 
passengers (as was the case here) returning to their 
homes with all their savings from working in foreign 
countries. This was the evident temptation to the 
brutal crime, the fact having been disclosed by some 
accomplice, or perhaps beingaccidentally promulgated. 
I had always seen the stand of arms at the top of the 
companion — the pro fomid row of long guns and 
cutlasses — stacked all in order, and had silently 
smiled at their inutility, none of the guns probably 
being ever loaded. But what another instance of 
mocking incidents it is that a passenger should have 
made a remark upon them, and that Captain Pocock 
should have replied, "They are a relic of the past ; 
years ago we used to want them, but we don't ever 
want them now ; " he who an hour afterwards lay in 
dying agonies, and knowing that his steamer was in 
the plundering and murdering hands of those against 



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378 WANDERfNGS AND WONDERfNGS, 

whom every weapon and every nerve were requisite. 
At a later date, while I was in New Zealand, papers 
arrived with the satisfactory account that the ring- 
leader and several others had been caught, and had 
been tried, condemned, and decapitated within the 
twelve hours. That they would die with either 
bravado or indifference appeared to be expected by 
those who are best acquainted with the Chinese 
character, and it was thus, in verity, they met their 
death. 



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XXXIV. 

Thus ended my whole Asiatic tour, which has 
suggested, or confirmed, or removed many floating 
reflections, for some present or future benefit, or for 
none at all. And it ended harmoniously, for I alto- 
gether escaped the unhappy scenes which have very 
lately taken place in relation to interference and 
invasion in matters of religion and faith, and which 
are very certain to break forth periodically unto the 
end. I suppose every one ought to admire per- 
severance in the face of difficulties, but surely diffi- 
culties should sometimes warn that the course 
pursued is wrong. There are millions who feel that 
Europe has no more right to intrude her religion 
upon Asia than Asia to intrude hers upon Europe ; 
and this is a point that is entirely sponged out by 
those who presume to say, " We are the true, divinely 
appointed ; you are the false ; and we are ordered 
to redeem you." The assumption is tremendous 
Europe has given, and is giving, all worldly im- 
provements to Asia ; Asia gave Europe her religion, 
which could never have been founded in Europe 
herself, but which Europe has nevertheless worked 
out and made her own, and which Asia will not have 
from Europe, refusing to make what to her would 
be the mere exchange of new mysteries for old. 
And this refusal is all the stronger, in that there 



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380 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

are many important differences among the many 
teachers, who at the same time do not merely ask 
the giving up of the old but the acceptance and adop- 
tion of their own new instead. This, moreover, they 
preach in the case of a belief which, by a curious 
assertion, was originally ** hidden from the wise and 
given unto babes," but has since shown a prolonged 
vein throughout history of arrogance and erudition. 
Again, the intruder is liable to be told that he 
comes without a book : for that his corner stone, 
the Bible, belongs to the Jews, who utterly deny those 
readings and interpretations by which he seeks to 
attach the New Testament to it, whose only real 
foundation is thus confessed to be the Old Testa- 
ment (so called) as interpreted against those whose 
real book it is, and who must be supposed to know 
its purport. All these considerations are bound to 
be keenly regarded by propagandists, who intrude 
upon more ancient faiths, but they need not for one 
moment interfere with those who have accepted their 
belief from the beginning, and walk through life 
doing quiet good in virtue of it, undisturbed by 
the wranglings of controversy between those who, 
while striving to unsettle and proselytize others, are 
mutually striving among themselves to show that 
the one or the other of them believes and teaches 
either too little or too much. 

The Buddhist tells the Christian that his new 
faith is a mere copy of his own old, and Dr. Marcus 
Dodds by inverting history writes (p. 138) : "The 
voluntary incarnation of Buddha is a myth of later 
formation, and one of many in which there exists a 



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LEAVING ASIA. 38 1 

very striking, and it must be owned perplexing, 
similarity to the most striking points in our Lord's 
career/' The Buddhist naturally reverses this com- 
parison by dates ; while the follower of Confucius 
points to the great Christian Maxim as being only a 
later affirmative copy of the old negative which was 
centuries before propounded by his own philosopher, 
and which I have found frankly printed outside 
" Social Life of the Chinese," by missionary Justus 
Doolittle, " Do not unto others what you would not 
have them do unto you." This maxim, moreover, 
appears in the Talmud, and was taught by Rabbi 
Hillel. 

Any amount of consideration for other peoples' 
and nations' articles of faith is quite consistent with, 
and indeed belongs to, the very firmest belief in a 
person's own, as imbibed at home and cherished 
through after life. This, mentally speaking, cannot 
be interfered with ; nor ought to be so otherwise, so 
long as the golden rule is kept in view : — Sic utere 
ut non alieno Icedas. Everyone has a right to propa- 
gate his own opinions; but they should be presented 
naturally — as his own ; and not as being d priori 
imperative by special origin, and thus compulsory on 
all. Such a position is wholly opposed to common 
sense, and by common sense, for. the due exercise of 
which we are profoundly responsible, cannot be ac- 
cepted. It arises from the same self-confidence that 
imagined our own tiny, infinitesimal, dust-atom 
globe to be the primary of the Universe. Whoever 
assumes mysterious authority really does nothing 
more than minimize his own authority to speak 



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382 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

at all, and opens the ground for a reciprocal 
intrusion. 

I should fancy the missionary's self-imposed task 
in India is far less difficult and perilous than in 
China, though the Brahmins religiously resent any 
invasion of their Vedas, now some 3000 years old. 
In India, I am told, to the Roman Catholics is 
attributed (and I believe without contradiction) the 
widest success, and this seems very natural among 
Eastern people ; for that communion exhibits all the 
mystery, music, poetry, and display that belong to 
the full-blown Christian Church, and without which 
mere unadorned and unrepresented dogmas appear 
dumb, frigid, and repellent. Besides, there is more 
familiarity and brotherhood between these teachers 
and their taught, and a less comfortable separate 
mode of living among the former than among those 
of the various sects. This may obviously be caused 
by matrimony, with its home, existing on the one 
side, and celibacy, without a home, existing on the 
other ; the latter springing from an exaggerated im- 
portance being given to a mere crabbed suggestion 
that has served to strangle tens of thousands of 
choicest aspirations. 

In a small and impressive volume well worthy of 
careful reading, written by Mr. Alexander Michie, of 
Tientsin, there occurs a note at page 52 with a 
small extract from the Reverend Dean Butcher: — 
" It is no sign of a true religion to affront a false." 
This is an excellent maxim, and I have never heard 
that it is to any extent contravened ; but it has this 
main blot — that it speaks of a "false" religion. 



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LEAVING ASIA. 383 

But " false " is a word that can be readily thrown 
back where antagonism is brought into play : and it 
Height well be asked, " Who is entitled to use it, 
where all preach mysteries, professedly insolvable ? '' 
There is a " true word spoken in jest " attributed to 
the late Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. Trench. He is 
credited with the witty saying that the proper way 
of spelling these two following words should be auio- 
doxy and hetero-doxy : mine and yours. The re- 
ligious contender can never yield : 

" Quum solos credat habendos 
Esse Deos, quos ipse colit." 

Every io^a claims its own divine origin in one 
form or another. This should be always remem- 
bered : and the later born beliefs necessarily contain 
many modified features of the earlier, and are open 
to be thus crucially tested, when paraded. 

Any particular cast of human mind or brain will 
follow others, or work out for itself its own beliefs 
and modes and objects of worship, and will fashion 
its own God, just as it will follow or work out its 
other subjects of thought. And on this part of the 
question I have long since copied out a written 
phrase of the late Cardinal Newman, written, I 
believe, when he was appealed to as to a passage 
in Shakespeare on Falstaff s death : that he was 
" bound to confess that there was no ultimate test 
of truth besides the testimony borne to truth by the 
mind itself." 



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XXXV. 

" Coelum, non animum, mutant, qui trans mare currunt." 
They who o'er the ocean Ifly 
Change not mind, but only sky. 

But even without going any farther, I did not feel 
like this at all. Nor, indeed, was the line written by 
Horace as a general maxim, though he dreaded and 
abhorred ocean, even without having been sea-sick ; 
but it was addressed to a friend who had gone to Asia 
to relieve his mind of a special cause of disquietude. 
The very essence and object of travelling is that it 
does change the mind, and is indeed the best mode 
of changing a mind that has been warped by too 
much sitting at home, and shutting itself out from 
the world to which it belongs, but which it has thus 
taught itself to treat censoriously, and to avoid like 
the outside of a self-conceived Garden of Eden of its 
own. No one with even the weakest of brains can 
come back with the same tone of thought as that 
which he went out with, and this result is just what 
those who have bricked themselves up in their own 
little existence at home call demoralization. They 
who experience the change think themselves the 
better for it ; they who denounce travelling think 
they are all the worse. Nobody could mean^ of 
course, that everybody is bound to go to Asia^ but 



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TO AUSTRALIA. 385 

people can move about and get a great deal of 
experience of the world they belong to without 
doing that. Everyone, however, is sure to do as 
it best pleases him, but no one can pose as a sound 
preacher who would say, " Keep out of the world ; 
thank God, I am content with my own garden/' 
It is a real demoralization to sit at home till 
you think everybody outside your own gates is 
going wrong, and that all the stars were made for 
you. Nor, on the other hand, does much good 
arise from mere scampering for the mere sake of 
it. Of such It has been written in an odd (perhaps 
very exquisite) phrase that, — 

They never once possess their soul • 
Before they die. 

Yet, look again at the entangled and wrangling 
sort of literature that some people fruitlessly, or even 
mischievously, work out by travelling in their own 
mere brains at home ; puzzling themselves and every- 
body else with spider*s webs, and fancying all the 
while that it is thus they can assure themselves that 
they " possess their soul ! " 

Horace expresses himself much more tersely than 
above in another place, — 

. . . Patriae quis exul 
Se quoque fugit ? 

Who that bids his land good-bye 
Also from himself can fly. 

No, we never can get away from ourselves, though 

C c 



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386 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

it is a common saying that we may get '* beyond 
ourselves." The 

Post equiteni sedet atra cura 

points to a barbed arrow ; yet even here diversion in 
travel may serve to allay, though, again, interruption 
and fatigue may serve to exacerbate. 

Up to the exact moment of my own life, however, 
of which I am now speaking. I was not b^ing driven 
about as an exul to avoid curUy and though I had 
steadfastly settled in my mind at starting that I 
would not mingle the ripe old associations of Asia 
with the brand-new energies and the no-ancient history 
of our Colonies, yet *'when it came to the point" 
(as the phrase is) I felt quite ashamed of being so 
near those astonishing young giants of English life, 
Australia and New Zealand, without taking a look at 
them ; so that I resolved to make bold and drop down 
to them instead of merely going home. Nor was it 
now quite, indeed, the chosen season for taking 
that homely step ; although, by the way, our dear 
ill-behaved England is not unfrequently as bad in 
June as she is in December. 

Therefore, once more, though now, alas ! for the 
last time and ineflFectually, I appealed to my hitherto 
constant friends, Butterfield and Swire, to see me 
safely to Sydney. " Oh, yes," said Mr. Mackintosh, 
with his ever-pleasant face of business, but he added, 
** I'm not quite sure youM like it." Why, the vessel 
was to be full of tea, saloon included, with sleeping 
room only for one besides myself, and he (if I re- 
member rightly) was going in charge of all the tea ! 



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TO AUSTRALIA . 387 

The offer was kind and well intended, and though 
it cut me sadly to the heart to feel forced to decline 
it, I felt confident that Mr. Mackintosh quite expected 
me to do so, which helped to relieve my anguish. 

Accordingly, in mournful mood, I sought the 
office of Messrs. Russell & Cie., whose genial 
breezes blew away all my clouds by their according 
me a cabin in their Eastern and Australian S.S. 
Menmuir, Captain Craig, which was to sail on the 
23rd for Sydney ; and tea would here be confined to 
breakfast and afternoon, except on sea-sick occasions, 
for assistance ; an exception, happily, not likely to 
arise with me, or I should never have been at Hong- 
kong. But what do you think of a merry lady I 
really met in these travels, who, while suffering 
that agony, alternated the exacerbations with real 
laughter at herself in the short remissions! As I 
have not the wit to invent such a picture, I need not 
most positively assure you, you may say 

The story is true, for I saw it in print. 

On the afternoon therefore of the 23rd I came on 
board the Memnuir^ but not without a terrible 
scrimmage with my Indian servant, which it is as 
well to mention here for the sake of others. These 
servants, however honest (and I have no sort of 
complaint against mine in this regard), have a re- 
markable instinct of secrecy. Note its exhibition in 
him : he was afraid to come so far with me, and had 
made up his mind to stop and go home, but he kept 
this secret. I need not recount the small awful crisis 
that all this caused at the last moment. Suffice it 

C c 2 



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388 WANDFR/NGS AND IVONDER/XGS. 

to say that, by Captain Craig's kindness, I had just 
time to shake him off and leave him behind to get 
home with his money, although I had paid his passage; 
nor will I on any account omit to add that Messrs. 
Russell returned me the whole of this in Sydney. 
In truth, it turned out to be a happy incident, and I 
recount it here for the purpose of showing how 
necessary it is to make these people speak out. They 
manage English but badly, and to escape confusion 
get rid of the difficulty by saying " yes," and after- 
wards you pay the penalty. "* Yes/ *y^V you are 
always saying 'yes.' If I asked you if you had the 
devil inside of you, I believe you would say * yes.' 
Now have you?" '*Yes." 

The passage from Hongkong to Sydney occupied 
twenty-nine days, from the 23rd of December, 1890, 
till the i8th of January, 1891, on which morning we 
passed through the Heads into the harbour. Thus I 
spent my Christmas and New Year's Day at sea. , 
The voyage was without nautical incident, but we , 
encountered the torrential rains of the season while 1 
steaming down the coast of Australia. The steamer \ 
was rather small, so that this circumstance proved I 
more than usually inconvenient ; but Captain Craig, I 
the chief engineer, the chief officer, and our two or 
three passengers were all very pleasant, so that it was 
not difficult to make the best of things, which I found 
it possible to do with the exception of a sciatica. 
We passed my friend Luzon on our port, running 
down his coast on a very fine 2Sth, and on the 
27th along the fine coast of Mindanao, regretting 
when darkness overtook us. Then we came upon 



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TO AUSTRALIA, 389 

the Dutch Celebes through the Molucca Pass, and 
sailed close under the coast of the island of Buru, 
which presented a rather remarkable aspect. It 
stood out as if entirely of a high-peaked mountain, 
to which the height of 9000 feet is given, and at 
the very top of it there is said to be a large lake. 
The vast foreground consisted of innumerable projec- 
tions, including certain green serrated ridges, and the 
whole mountain was covered with dense forest. This 
was on the 31st of December, and with Buru I bid 
adieu to the year 1890. 

The New Year's gift of 189 1 was Delli, on the island 
of Timor, belonging to Portugal. Here we remained 
till 5 p.m. and went on shore. Here is to be recog- 
nized the vacuity of monotony in its true features. 
The few officials themselves complain of it, and no 
wonder. The whole island is far from belonging to 
Portugal. We landed on the north ; then there is 
some fine mountainous country behind, which is in- 
habited by what are called savages, and on the south 
the Dutch are the possessors. As an evidence of 
the slovenly state into which the brain falls when it 
has not enough to do, the custom-house folks forgot 
we had one of their staff on board, and he himself 
did not jump off his chair till just after we had moved 
oflT, when he was despatched to land in one of the 
steamer's own boats. When one can get away from 
such places within a short and certain period it does 
some slight good to have seen them. 

On the 3rd we rode into Port Darwin, and found 
England on the other side of the world. Here we 
remained under the jetty for the rest of that day and 



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390 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

all the next, admiring (in a certain sense) the black, 
curiously-robed, and curiously-haired women, and 
the very ugly, but muscular, black men. Then we 
touched Thursday Island, very picturesque in appear- 
ance ; came through Albany Pass, and were soused 
with the torrential rains. A new experience occurred 
to me on the loth in the catching of a shark. If you 
suppose they wait till he is dead before they cut him 
up, secundum artem^ you are mistaken. On the 1 3th 
we passed under the sun on his northern course, and 
after standing off Cook's Town and Brisbane, where 
my only impressions are of rain, we at last, as I 
have said, arrived off Sydney Heads a little before 
five o'clock on Sunday morning, the 1 8th of January. 
With all my fancy for morning views, perhaps this 
was a little too early. The Heads somewhat dis- 
appointed me. The North Head is bold and very 
curiously coloured, but the top is a dead flat The 
South Head is not remarkable, and the entrance, 
being very wide, makes all the less show of itself. 
We turned to the left at once to the Health Station, 
and then to the right, crossing the entrance again to 
the Quarantine Station. We then steamed up the 
length of the harbour as far as Sydney, following it 
to the right to land at the quay. Long before we 
reached this spot the sun was shining brightly, and 
showed the various suburbs and the rising green and 
wooded hills surrounding the harbour. These are 
spangled all over with villas among their trees. The 
whole presented a sparkling picture, in the midst of 
which the Domain and the Botanical Gardens, where 
the Governor resides, formed a cardinal feature, with 
their green, well-timbered mounds of turf. 



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SYDNEY. 39r 

Sydney occupies a very undulating and, in parts, 
lofty position. I had to mount considerably before I 
gained my hotel, the Grosvenor, and in this respect 
there is a great advantage when you get there, for 
the general air of Sydney is decidedly heavy. Mr. 
Duncan, the manager, and all under him were very 
attentive, the only defect being one which appertains, 
I am told, to all Australian hotels, that the rooms 
are small. 

And here I received the reward of an act of civility, 
for, knowing that Mr. Martin of Foochow, although 
stationed in Melbourne, was connected with the firm 
of Messrs. Lorimer, Rome & Cie, I called at once at 
their office, and found that Mr. Martin, though not in- 
doors at the moment, was nevertheless, by the merest 
chance, in Sydney. In this simple fact there was not 
much, but when he called on me it turned out to be 
everything ; for on his inquiring what I was going to 
do, and finding nobody had given a hint to me about 
anything, he at once gave me the important news that 
I was just in time to catch the last trip to the Sounds in 
New Zealand. Dropping all Sydney thoughts, there- 
fore, I made for this, and on Monday, the 26th, I was 
on board the P. & O. s.s. Carthage^ for Melbourne. 
I was in Melbourne from the 28th of January until 
the 3rd of February, and visited Mr. Martin at 
Kew, commanding a fine open country, and in 
Melbourne itself I had the opportunity of witnessing 
a large city of active, moving people, and of large 
buildings, built in squares, with busy shops, and cable 
cars running to and fro and up and down the un- 
dulating streets, quite in the fashion of San Francisco. 
The whole speaks of enterprising and increasing life. 



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392 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

I also realized something of the hard blue Austra- 
lian sky. But, like that of India, it is of too hard a 
blue. It is easy to say " Give me a fine day in Eng- 
land," but It is useless to say " Give me fine days." 
They are of the very best when they come, but they 
only peep in and laugh and run away. Nor is this 
all ; for they are generally followed by some that 
frown darkly and coldly ; reminding one of some of 
our companies, who pay us eight or ten per cent, one 
year, and nothing the next, with a call to make up 
losses into the bargain. 

On Tuesday, the 3rd of February, I started in the 
Wairarapa about 3 p.m. for the Bluff in New 
Zealand, where I was to meet the Tarawera coming 
from Dunedin on this the last of the Sounds Excur- 
sions for the season. We touched at Hobart on our 
way, and came into the estuary of the Derwent at 
about ten on the morning of the Sth. We steamed 
up a wide stream with green hilly sides. After 
about an hour's winding through picturesque distant 
slopes, and turning to the right by the low rock light- 
house, and then to the left, we came in view of the 
scattered city on the hillsides. The moment was 
propitious, for in front lay seven vessels of the Royal 
Navy, the Admiral's (Sir G. Scott) flagship heading 
them. Mount Wellington, some 4000 feet high, 
formed a very prominent feature. The whole picture 
was very pleasing, partaking entirely of fine lake 
scenery. 

From the Sth to the 9th we were on our passage 
from Hobart to the Bluff. The weather was fine, but 
somewhat breezy, and for one or two days we were 



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TO NEW ZEALAND. 393 

constantly attended by albatross and mohawks. 
Although I had already steamed along the coast of 
South Africa, I had not yet become acquainted with 
this strange bird of the " Ancient Mariner." The 
savage monsters were even more attractive to behold, 
and much more gigantically so, than the kites in 
Jeypur. They curved, and swooped, and soared, and 
stooped, and brushed against the wind without one 
single apparent motion of their enormous wings, 
irresistibly reminding one, in this respect at all events, 
of Virgil's dove ; but neither bird nor weather will 
bear the simile further. Nothing verily was there of 
the " acre lapsa quietOy' for the full gale was blowing, 
and the wilder was the wind, the steadier were the 
outstretched seventeen-foot sails. 



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XXXVI. 

On Monday, the 9th, we arrived at the Bluff, and 
here I first put foot on a southern point of New 
Zealand, which we call the Antipodes of England. 
The Tarawera was not yet in, and was expected on 
the following morning. I therefore did not, as some 
did who had come on the same mission as myself, 
go up to Invercargill only to return, but contented 
myself with remaining at the local "Club House 
Hotel," where I was very comfortably lodged. 

It was a day or two before arriving at the Bluff 
that I made up my mind, in convalescence from 
sciatica — take care of small steamers in the Australian 
wet season — that I must get some sort of young com- 
panion or helpmate to continue my journey with ; and 
feeling now more among one's own people, a chance 
conversation with a young New Zealander on board 
decided me to enlist him to continue the rest of my 
journey with me. So that thenceforward I ceased 
to disregard your injunctions against travelling en- 
tirely without a companion, and Mr. John Cameron 
Morrison, of Wellington, was appointed to take care 
of me, it being a feature in the case also that he was 
young enough for me to take some sort of care of 
him. 

On the loth, being Shrove Tuesday, the Tarawera^ 



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NEW ZEALAND. 395 

Captain Sinclair, came in very early, and we started 
for the West Coast Sounds at half-past eight. Of 
these excursions there are three, I believe, every 
season, arranged by the Union S.S. Co. of New 
Zealand, and the return tickets are taken at Dunedin, 
arrangements for the Bluff being included. The 
outing (to use that word) is a sort of a steamboat 
picnic, the Sounds being the leading object. The 
whole distance to and fro is stated to be 828 miles, 
and the whole time occupied up to the return to 
Dunedin (Port Chalmers) is ten days. This length 
of time is far more than is necessary for visiting the 
Sounds, but a whole day is spent in some of them 
for fishing and boating parties, or for simply walking 
on shore, so as to make a change from the steamer. 
Then at night there may be dances, or concerts, or 
recitals, or private theatricals ; in short, all kinds of 
amusements. The vessel is fitted out expressly for 
the occasion, with all sorts of games on board, and so 
popular are these that even amidst some of the most 
beautiful of the scenery the players were the blindest 
and busiest. But people go on these excursions for 
the purpose of enjoying themselves, and are entitled 
to accomplish this not too often successful object in 
the manner most consonant with their dispositions. 

The general character of all these Sounds, with the 
exception of Milford Sound, is a mixture of soft 
sloping forest down to the water's edge, with generally 
wooded islands in the middle, and rocks protruding 
through the trees. They are all beautiful. 

Preservation Sound was the first we came to, 
between four and five of the afternoon of the first 



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396 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

day. The gradually opening scenes as we sailed up 
were very sweet, until quite at the top distant serrated 
and barren peaks opened behind the green fore- 
ground buttresses in a striking picture. Here also are 
bossed islands which add greatly to the effect As 
in picnic fashion, singing and dancing filled up the 
evening, and the whole of the next day was, or 
would have been but for the rain, spent in fishing or 
meandering, or hoping for fine weather. 

On the 1 2th we visited what to my mind was the 
most exquisite in sweetness and variety of all our 
scenery. We started at five in the morning, and at 
about eight entered what is called " Dusky Sound." 
We of course steamed to the top of this, amidst a 
great variety of effects, produced by wooded islands 
as well as by hanging forests, the trees throughout 
all the Sounds being small, but very thick. In going 
up the " Dusky," however, we passed to our left a 
very beautiful, long, perspective opening, and to my 
great satisfaction, on our return, I found our course 
lay through it. It is called " The Acheron Pass," 
and leads into another Sound of truly exquisite soft- 
ness and beauty, and this we traversed, to my infinite 
contentment and delight, even to the head, and 
anchored there for the night. ' This lovely retreat, un- 
photographed, bears a real sailor's name. It is called 
Wet Jacket Sound : inharmonious indeed with the 
fairy scenery it disclosed to us, but indicating, never- 
theless, what too often happens here, that the weather 
can be fearfully wet. Not so, however, was it with us. 

Here we did not remain a day, but steamed out to 
sea to get to George's Sound ; and having to do so, 



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NEW ZEALAND, 397 

the wind took care to rise, which incommoded some 
for a while. This Sound did not so particularly strike 
me, coming after that of yesterday ; but it is very pleas- 
ing notwithstanding ; and anchoring about three in 
the afternoon, we remained all night and all next 
day, when there was a gay regatta, ladies and all 
contending, with a gay regatta ball at night But on 
this day it must be confessed that the wind was strong 
and cold. Indeed, at one time the regatta seemed a 
doubtful ceremony. 

Early on the morning of the 15 th we sailed for 
Milford Sound, and here the scene completely changes. 
The coast increased in rocky character until we 
reached the entrance at 9.30. The character here 'is 
gigantic, the heights varying from five to seven thou- 
sand feet. The latter height is given to Mount 
Pembroke, on which there hangs a particularly fine 
white glacier. Here also is a real waterfall, not being 
one of those mere ribbons about which passengers 
would be continually calling out. These falls are 
called after the late Governor, Sir George Bowen ; 
their great effect is produced by the second neck 
from above (there are two) falling into a confined 
pool, whence the waters rebound with height, force, 
and width — from perhaps 350 feet. The steamer 
anchored in front of them, and here begins what might 
almost be called the disappointment in this un- 
doubtedly magnificent Sound. It stops quite short 
just beyond the falls, and subsides into comparative 
flats, whereas from the character of its scenery you 
would expect a prolonged perspective of a corre- 
sponding character. It is almost all entrance. But 



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398 WANDERINGS AND IVONDERINGS. 

on your left as you look back to the actual entrance 
you should observe what is called Sinbad's Valley. 

We stayed at anchor here all the Sunday and 
Monday, and until five o'clock on the Tuesday, for 
an excursion was to be made to what are called the 
Sutherland Falls. This is a hardish task, and the 
weather was very wet for the start on the Monday 
morning, but it was accomplished by some of the 
party, who gave no very pleasant account of their 
toil, though they highly appreciated the scene. The 
photographs did not greatly impress me. A yet 
harder excursion, without a return to the steamer, 
was undertaken by another party to walk to the 
Lake Te Anou, sail over it in a boat, and find their 
way gradually to Queenstown and Lake Wanaka. 
In this they also were successful and — fatigued. 

Meanwhile we had made up our own party for a 
long walk to Lake Ida through the forest. It was 
scarcely worth the fatigue, and for myself I narrowly 
escaped a broken neck or limb by the breaking of a 
wooden bridge over a deep and very ugly chasm. 

On the Tuesday morning the whole scene looked 
splendid under a peculiarly fine sunrise after the rain, 
which I found myself watching by the side of Mr. 
Peele, a New Zealand painter, well known and much 
appreciated. He had come with the rest of us to 
admire all these alluring scenes, and gather hints 
from Nature. And also came among the number 
three ecclesiastics of the Roman Church, whom it 
was quite refreshing to see joining in sympathy with 
all the amusements that took place. There was Arch- 
bishop Carr, of Melbourne, who indeed took the chair 



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NEW ZEALAND. 399 

and gave out the list from time to time of the various 
performances ; Bishop Moore, of Ballarat ; Bishop 
Moran, of Dunedin, and one more whom I cannot 
find upon the list. What a difference there is among 
all the priests and preachers of the almost various 
Gospels ! -The educated Roman Catholic priest is 
always genial, and is not known among enjoying 
groups by his prohibitory and censorious separation : 
separation, which invariably breeds censoriousness : 
and whereof a sad example exists in the person of 
the pious Cowper ; proving that piety of a certain 
class engenders the virtue of censoriousness. 

There was unhappily a high wind and a rolling sea 
when we put our nose out for a direct run to the Bluff ; 
but on the morning of Wednesday, the i8th, all we 
who were going to visit New Zealand were safely 
landed there, the boat going on to Dunedin. Before 
the passengers were parted, however, there was a 
general vote of thanks proposed for Captain Sinclair 
and his officers, and never was one better deserved ; 
and a handsome subscription was made for the crew. 
Here also the Archbishop graced the ceremony by 
presiding. 

Thus ended my excursion to the Western Sounds 
of New Zealand, and I shall always remember their 
great beauty, our most successful visit to them, and 
the happy chance that enabled me to catch the last 
excursion just in time; for had I lost the opportunity 
of adding all these pictures to the gallery of my 
memory, the loss would have been great indeed. 

" And what do you think of them as compared 
with the fiords of Norway ? " asked an acquaintance, 



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400 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

who wanted to know something of what he hadn't 
seen. "How do you compare them?" "Well, I 
will tell you how : the Sounds are Fiords, and the 
Fiords are Sounds, and Norway is Norway, and New 
Zealand is New Zealand." How anyone who has 
seen both can pretend to put. both into the same 
crucible and really compare them, I know not. 

So soon as we were landed Jack and I made for the 
railway station, to go to the Albion at Invercargill 
that afternoon, and we left the troop to go on ahead 
next day. On the 20th we slept at Lumsden. From 
Lumsden we went to Kingston, at the bottom of 
Lake Wakatipu — called " Wakatip *' — and thence 
we steamed up to Queenstown, lodging at the very 
comfortable hotel called Eichardt's. The day was 
cold and dull, and this no doubt contributed to my 
feeling what I had been warned of, that so far as 
Queenstown, at all events, Wakatip could not com- 
pete with the west. The scenery, however, at 
Queenstown is not to be despised by any means. 
The serrated ridge, called the " Remarkables," is 
indeed fine, and when sprinkled with snow must be 
more so. Mount Cecil also must be mentioned. 

On the 22nd there was a drive with Mr. Johnson 
and Mrs. Moir, his married daughter, and on the 24 th, 
the day being fine, I decided to go up to the head of 
the lake. The sides are barren, but the opening of 
the snow range, as it rides into view, is grand ; Mount 
Earnshaw showing well, with a grand glacier. The 
head of the lake itself is flat and featureless, and 
the change in the apparent outline of Earnshaw, 
according as the light strikes him, is remarkable. 



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JV£IV ZEALAND. 4OI 

a feature chiefly observable between the up and down 
passages of the lake. i 

Mr. and Mrs. Newell and their daughter, an Ameri- 
can family resident in Melbourne, whom we had met 
on the Sounds excursion, being here, we made a 
day's drive to what js called " The Skippers," a very 
rough mountain road, and somewhat calculated to 
startle those who have not been habitual mountain 
travellers, the most notable point being " Siberia " 
(as it is called) and the rock castles. On the 28th 
we all started for Lake Wanaka, and in wet weather 
we went as far as a place called Arrowtown. Thence 
we toiled up and over what is called " Crown Range," 
whence there is a wide view, but not one the vaunted 
features of which greatly attracted me. The drive 
down was ugly, and the road was bad. Towards the 
close I just caught sight of Mount Aspiring and Black 
Rock to the left, Mount Ion lying to the right. 

On the 2nd of March, Captain Hedditch took us up 
the lake, which I thought superior to that of Waka- 
tipu. Note the Black Rock, so called because the 
top is black ; Mounts Alva, Albert, and Alba ; three 
A's. The snows and glaciers were frequent. The 
island Manuka also should be visited, with the strange 
lake, about 350 feet above Wanaka, always discharg- 
ing but not showing any means of supply. If you 
like to clamber still higher there is a fine view to 
reward you. However much these two lakes may be 
appreciated by many, it seems quite clear that the 
two most beautiful in the island are those of Te Anau 
and Manipori. To neither of these, however, could I 
easily get, nor did I make any great endeavour to do 

D d 



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402 WANDEHINGS AND \VOND£If/AGS. 

SO, for on the Te Anau the steamer had broken down, 
and on the Manipori there was no steamer at all. 
Moreover the road from Kingston, at the foot of 
Wakatipu, the proper point of departure, was bad, 
though fairly enough served with a now and then 
coach. It is to be hoped that the authorities have 
done something effectual in making this beautiful part 
of their country easy of access, and worth the journey 
on getting there. It must be well worth their while 
to do so ; the scenery is obviously choice. 

On the 3rd we were persuaded to go to Glendhu 
Bay for a sight of Mount Aspiring ; but the journey 
was not successful in this, and particularly not so as 
regarded a high climb to see a large pond, represented 
below as being a lovely lake. No features of the day 
are worth recording. • Hence our road lay to Dunedin, 
and the first night was spent at Cromwell. Thence 
crossing over the river in a cradle, we continued to 
Roxburgh, passing for some fifteen miles along the 
banks of the Molyneux, or Clutha River, and through 
some of the very roughest rocky country I have ever 
seen. From Roxburgh we drove to Lawrence with a 
coachman of pictureque memories, Mr. Mcintosh by 
name; and there we found that vulgar but most 
welcome addition to the landscape, in the shape of a 
railway. To say that it took us " straight away " to 
Dunedin \yould not be precisely correct ; for, as far 
as Milton Junction it wound about in a most remark- 
able, but no doubt necessary, manner. Finally, we 
reached Dunedin, the capital of the Otdgo Pro- 
vince, the picturesque city of Dunedin, and "de- 
scended" at the Grand Hotel, belonging to Mr. 



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NEW ZEALAND. 403 

Watson, who also had been one of the visitors to the 
Sounds. 

I remained in Dunedin till Monday, the i6th, Mr. 
and Mrs. Newell leaving on the 14th to meet again ! 

at Sydney \ and in the interval I did my best to 
see the most of what I might almost call romantic j 

Dunedin. The undulations of the country are 
striking, and the cable cars offer all facilities for i 

moving up and down. I had the advantage of Mr. | 

Martin's letter to Mr. G. L. Denniston, who received I 

me at his house, put my name down at the Club ; 

(where I again met General Sir Allen Johnson), and 
gave me an introduction to the Hon. Mr. and ! 

Mrs. Reynolds, his father and mother-in-law, at 
Montecillo. What a fine air there is upon those 
hills ; and in walking round the garden I could but 
exclaim, " What magnificent gooseberry bushes ! " I 
was unfortunately out of season for the feast, but I \ 

was told that the produce of that common but most 
delicious fruit (I had rather be always among goose- 
berries than always among mangostines) is even 
inconvenient ; friends and neighbours, with their 
children, being invited to thin them off. I hope you 
don't expect statistics of the city, for I do not intend 
to copy out tables which you would not read, and in 
which I should always have less interest than in the 
gooseberries. 

My next city was to be Christchurch, the capital 
of the Provincial District of Canterbury ; but on my 
way thither I had made up my mind to see Mount 
Cook, and this involved a rather serious and fatiguing 
diversion from the direct road. However, I under- 
D d 2 



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404 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

took it, encouraged so to do by my young companion, 
and not less by my being able to take a passage 
everywhere, even to London, with Messrs. Cook and 
Son*s active agent at the hotel. 

Accordingly I took all necessary tickets, and we left 
by the eleven o'clock train through Timaru for Fairlie 
Creek, the latter being the branch railway station and 
starting point for the coach. We arrived there, to 
the Gladstone Hotel, at 8 p.m., in order to start away 
the next morning at 8 a.m. But I must not pass by 
this uneventful journey without recording my recol- 
lection of the remarkably pleasing scenery that I 
enjoyed in the train while running down from 
Dunedin towards Port Chalmers. Hills, vales, woods, 
and water all combined to charm in the sunshine. 
Afterwards, however, when we had turned well to 
the north, the country became flat, though no doubt 
fertile. 

On the 17th, therefore, we started for Pukaki, 
having secured and paid an extra fee for the two box 
seats for myself and companion, this being an essen- 
tial arrangement for anyone who values a real chance 
of seeing the country and getting information from 
the coachman as worth more than a few extra shillings. 
Our point for the day was Pukdki, the whole distance 
being fifty-six miles. The proprietor drove to Tekapo 
Lake and hotel, twenty-six miles, with the same 
horses, resting and watering on the road, which up 
to that point was not bad ; -certainly not worse than 
the hard food at the hotel ; and Mount Cook con- 
tinued to show himself as we came along. 

Here we took a fresh coach as well as fresh horses, 



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NEIV ZEALAND, 4O5 

and for the remaining thirty miles the road certainly 
became rougher, nor was there any farther change 
of horses. Henceforth the ranges of the mountains 
began to open impressively, and Mount Cook, with his 
12,349 feet, stood forth very grandly. His form was 
remarkable, exhibiting a gigantic gable-ended roofing 
with a vast stack of antique chimneys at one end. 
Homely as this simile may appear, the effect was far 
from homely. At last we came to Lake Pukaki, where 
the accommodation at the hotel is as good as the small 
house could admit of ; and if Mount Cook is ever to 
attract many visitors, more attention should be paid 
to this station. Our party, moreover, felt this in- 
convenience particularly ; for a certain number had 
already arrived by the direct rough road from Lake 
Wanaka, and with now two roads leading to it the 
small accommodation is destructive of the Mount Cook 
excursion. The view is decidedly fine. Mount Cook 
appears to rise from the head of the lake, and all his 
surrounding companions show forth around him. To 
a remarkably fine craggy monster is given the not 
harmonious name of " Rotten Tommy,*' the allusion 
being to the brittle nature of the rock. Then there 
is the Seely Range, Mount Tasman, and others, all 
combining to attract attention and excite admiration. 
But in truth Pukaki has no topographical right to 
He upon the road to Mount Cook from Fairlie Creek, 
though apparently it must always continue to do so ; 
and the reason is the utterly impracticable character 
of the Tasman River, with its quicksands and shifting 
channel. Otherwise this river might be crossed in a 
direct line westward before it enters the Pukaki lake ; 



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406 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINCfS. 

that is, at the head of that lake, instead of at the foot 
to which the road to Mount Cook must thus be brought, 
at the expense of altogether a divergence costing 
thirty miles. 

On the 1 8th we started early, and encountered 
forty miles of an almost always rough road. No 
change of horses took place, but they rested and 
baited while we lunched in the open, our view now 
including the huge Tasman glacier. But of this ver>- 
little that is engaging can be said, for it is utterly 
covered with debris^ while nothing can look much 
uglier than the Tasman river. While we were lunching 
a curious circumstance happened. A brown bird, ver>' 
like a large partridge, and called by some fern-hen, 
came about us, in twos or threes. These, in order to 
pick up what they could, came boldly and slyly close 
up to us, and one of them indeed had its beak in my 
very pocket when the alarm was given. This habit 
of theirs is well known in New Zealand, and picnic 
parties are continually missing small things on this 
account. A great hunt after one in our case resulted 
in nothing ; the manner in which the thief dodged in 
and out of the close bushes defied all efforts till it was 
time to move on. When we did so we still found the 
valley flat, barren, and ugly, and the Hermitage, as 
the name is, looked naked and dreary in the un- 
fruitful space between the hills and mountains. But 
glaciers abound upon the latter, patched in various 
directions, and those oh Mount Sefton, as you 
approach, are particularly fine. At the Hermitage 
we were welcomed by Mr. Huddleston, who, full 
of attention and interesting information, actively 



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NEW ZEALAND. 407 

superintended and accompanied the chief excursions 
from the station. 

I have said that the glaciers of Mount Sefton are 
particularly fine. They are not so extensive as some 
others, but they hang very precipitously, and thus 
naturally exhibit in a special manner all those deep 
fissures and ragged rocky surfaces that constitute the . 
chief beauties of those marvellous accumulations of 
ice, now confined to mountain recesses, but claimed 
as having occupied, at some long past period, vast 
regions of now cultivated earth. For anyone who 
wishes to see glaciers with some of their most effec- 
tive features, Mount Sefton should be well worth a 
visit ; and another point is that, as a result of the 
almost vertical hanging of these glaciers, the avalanche 
is frequent. It was owing to my young companion's 
restless spirit in opening the door on the night of 
Saturday, the 21st of March, that Mr. Huddleston 
and I were called out by him to see as well as to hear 
by moonlight one that can compare with any I have 
ever witnessed, if not the largest of all. 

Mount Cook, I may say, is of course closely visible 
(so to speak) from the Hermitage, but there is no 
such view of his general bulk as is obtainable along the 
road. Meanwhile there is a unique excursion of a 
day, by the Muir glacier with its astonishing cavity, 
over the mountains; and this, be it observed, includes 
what many afar longer one does not afford, the excit- 
ing novelty of a glissade. Other excursions there 
are, but to neither did I go, except to the Muir, for 
the weather was poor and in part bad, and this class 
of excursion has long ceased to be novel to me. 



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408 WANDERINGS AND WONDER/NGS, 

We were to close our pleasant visit on the morning 
of the 23rd, and at about two in the night we 
were waked by a downright furious mountain storm of 
lightning, thunder, and rain. At the hour of starting 
matters were calmer, but drizzling rain still con- 
tinued for a space, hiding all views, though the* weather 
gradually cleared up for outdoor luncheon, and a re- 
visit of the fern-hens. Thus we came on to Pukaki, 
when, lo ! a dilemma. In this out-of-the-way spot, 
immediately after our arrival, the driver — a very good 
one — came to inform us, to our horror, that the axle 
of the front wheels was broken, and that the coach 
could not farther proceed on its arduous duties. 
What was to be done ? Most fortunately, some extra 
passengers had come up to us, and were returning 
with us in their extra buggy : Mr. and Mrs. Marsden, 
and two children ; and this fact, with their very 
willing and friendly combination, served to help us 
out of what might have proved a very inconvenient 
state of affairs indeed. By riding nearly all night to 
and fro to a distant station, the coachman managed to 
borrow another small buggy and a saddle-horse ; and 
with forces thus marshalled wecoveredour distance of 
thirty miles to Tekapo, where we took the other 
coach ; Jack, to his great delight, riding the thirty 
miles. Yet were we not completely free from trouble, 
for before we arrived at Fairlie Creek, behold this 
second coach broke down, in the shape of the bursting 
of a strap. I wonder how the vehicles stand the 
journey at all. However, here we were not far from 
our destination, and rough efforts, employing rough 
means, and causing some little amusement, served 
to carry us through. 



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■ NEW ZEALAND. 4O9 

The evening of the 25th found us at Coker's Hotel 
in the flourishing city of Christchurch, the Cathedral 
city of New Zealand. But I must not omit to 
mention that in passing through Timaru, where we 
were detained for some hours, I availed myself of 
the opportunity of taking a very pretty drive, and 
visiting one of those large freezing-houses which 
serve to furnish us with so much excellent mutton in 
England. We were admitted to the real, dark Arctic 
regions of this most astonishing industry, and in the 
frozen passes we found ourselves surrounded by hard 
rocky carcasses, hanging dressed in winding sheets, 
destined to be thawed back, not indeed to life, but 
into a fitting state to be devoured and enjoyed by us 
men of prey. 

I wonder whether in any other part of the globe 
any such marked difference can be found between two • 
cities in the same island, and comparatively close to 
one another, as exists between Christchurch and Dun- 
edin. In the former all is hill and dale ; in the latter 
all is flat. In the former prevails the atmosphere of 
the Kirk ; in the latter reigns the Church of England. 
I happened to be at Christchurch when the new 
bishop preached his inaugural evening sermon on 
Easter Sunday, and my young companion, who had 
early associations connected with the cathedral, urged 
me to attend. We went there, and the scene at the 
doors somewhat reminded me of the old scenes at 
theatres. Even standing room was scarcely to be 
had after the inward rush, and I left him there to find 
his fate, which he succeeded in doing successfully, 
and returned profoundly impressed with the ceremony 
throughout, choir and sermon and all; nor did I find 



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4IO WANDERINGS AND WONDER/NGS. 

this impression to be at all singular among many 
others. 

I have said that Christchurch is flat. Nevertheless 
between the spreading city and its port, Port Lyttle- 
ton, about nine miles distant, there is an important 
range of hills, called the Port Hills ; and in order to 
facilitate communication with the port the highly 
enterprising work was carried out of driving a tunnel 
through, more than a mile and a half, under the 
superintendence of Sefton Moorhouse. Port Lyttle- 
ton is very picturesque and full of life and shipping. 
As to the city, it will speak for itself. I am well old 
enough myself to remember the first movements and 
emigrations connected with the Canterbury Settle- 
ment, and I beheld it with wonder in 1891. 

Declining the bore of attending the races on 
Easter Monday — what an incessant amount of racing 
there is in the Colonies, as also in Shanghai and 
Hongkong! — I started early on the 31st of March 
to Springfield by railway, on my way to Greymouth, 
for the express purpose of seeing the far-famed Otira 
Gorge, on the road. The drive to Bealey cost forty 
miles, with two changes of five horses each. I found 
the driving more remarkable than the country, 
particularly in the dark of the last few miles, and 
we came safely to supper and bed. 

The next morning was the notorious ist of April, 
and there was plenty of time to pass the jest of the 
day upon us, for we were waked at half-past four. 
Early dawn was fairly propitious, and in due time 
our coach started ; but as we approached the great 
water-shed that frowns over the Gorge, and showed a 



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NE IV ZEALAND. 4 1 1 

height by my aneroid of 3300 feet, a low, dark brush 
of cloud swept up into our faces. Are we to be dis- 
appointed ? " That's nothing," said the coachman ; 
but it was something, for it soon enveloped us. 
Much of it, however, soon passed off, and when we 
began the real descent the mixture of sunshine and 
luminous mist aided the eye with imagination. It is 
a long way to come to see this gorge, which is 
scarcely five miles in length ; but it is really a little 
gem. One most striking feature is its pitch, its 
rapid declivity. In the course of its four miles and a 
half you wind down fifteen hundred feet, and though 
you are all too soon through it, you may, if you 
choose, remain at the hotel at the foot, and wander 
up and down at your leisure. But the real way to 
see it is, after all, to come down it with the surprise 
of the descent, and with all before you and beneath 
you. There are some towering rocks at the head, 
but the winding slopes and lofty precipitous sides are 
perfectly mossed with foliage, among which I par- 
ticularly noticed the Totira tree and the black birch. 
What we missed, being a little too late for it, was 
the flowering of the Rata tree. Two large scarlet 
blossoms in the green masses attracted my admira- 
tion, and the coachman gave them their name, but 
added the tantalizing information that a fortnight 
before the whole gorge was a-blush with them. So 
that if you go to see the Otira Gorge, go before the 
1st of April. After passing the hotel you run 
through a long woodland drive, where the tree-fern 
abounds to an extent that reminded me of the virgin 
forests of Brazil ; and the crossing of one or two 



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412 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

stony dry beds of streams reminded me that I had 
a back. Thus we continued till we came to Taipo, 
which name belongs in native tongue to that con- 
tinual black intruder into scenery, whose ugly name 
is introduced here because some old chief was lost 
in the dark river. 

We now left the coach and came to Greymouth, 
passing over a wooden tramway running through a 
thick wood, and at Greymouth I resolved to take 
the steamer direct to Wellington. This I did by (I 
believe) the Mawketra, Captain Manning. The good 
captain could not, of course, do what was never 
yet done, not even by King Canute, command the 
winds and the waves, and they would indeed, in the 
opposite case, have required his very strongest com- 
mand here ; for if some of our coach passages 
had shown what wrenching and jarring were, so did 
Cook's Strait show us what rolling was until the last 
minute of the last of the many late hours which 
landed us safely in Port Nicholson and the 
Occidental Hotel at Wellington. And so, farewell 
to the South Island, or rather Middle Island, from 
which I part, but of which I bring along with me 
many additions to many pleasant memories heaped 
up elsewhere, and not forgotten. I have said Middle 
Island because the small Stewart Island is numbered 
as the South Island. My only regret at not having 
visited this spot of earth is that I missed seeing the 
almost fabulous crowds of the large penguin that in 
days gone by appeared in the old engravings. 

In Wellington we have the seat of Government, 
and we have again a very undulating hillside city, 



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NEW ZEALAND. 413 

for it is built upon the very shores of its land-locked 
port, Port Nicholson. Its importance in the colony 
speaks for itself; it can boast of many leading features, 
and among others — though I know not if this be 
actually a boast — of a prodigious quantity of high 
winds. The story goes that wheresoever you meet 
a Wellington man you may always know him by his 
instinctively holding his hat every time he turns a 
corner with you. After you have visited all the usual 
buildings of a city, take a drive, as I had the pleasure 
of doing with Mr. Parfitt, of the New Zealand Bank, 
and his niece. Miss Newell, of Sounds memory, 
round Evans' Bay, and visit the public park. 
Note also the very fine Club, and ask Mr. Parfitt to 
give you a lunch there. Here also I renewed my 
acquaintance and dined with Mr. and Mrs. Miles and 
Miss Rowlands. 

On the 8th of April I went on to Palmerston and 
slept, and the question was, Should I go on to Auck- 
land through the sulphur districts, or go to New 
Plymouth and take the steamer. I had already seen 
larger sulphur districts, for which I have no affection ; 
and I fairly shrank from going to look on a chaos 
only to be told " Here the terraces once were." I 
therefore turned off" to Wanganui, having, however, 
first made an excursion to Woodville and back, in 
order to* see the well-worth-seeing Manawatu Gorge. 
At Wanganui the air seemed to me to be particularly 
fine during a two hours' drive along the banks of the 
river, which we had followed in the gorge. The 
country was undulating and pleasing, and though the 
gorse to a New Zealander^s eye may not be pleasing. 



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414 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

yet to my English eyes to see rich and abundant 
blossom all round was a delight. At New Plymouth 
we missed Mount Egmont, for the weather wa? very 
thick. Thence the Takapuna took us to Onehunga, 
and running across the eight miles by ten o'clock, we 
arrived at " Craig's Star Hotel," in Auckland, where I 
met my old " Sound '^ American friends of Melbourne, 
Mr. and Mrs. Newell. We were all bound for 
Sydney, and not only so, but when the steamer 
touched to take us there, we learned to our satis- 
faction that it was our " Sounds " boat, the Tarawera^ 
with Captain Sinclair and his officers again on 
board. 

Though Auckland has lost the seat of Government, 
it still claims to be the largest city in New Zealand ; 
and certainly it has not lost the diversified beauties 
of its position. You must, of course, at least drive to 
Mount Eden and survey the scene. Its disadvantage 
is that the city cannot be reached by ships on the west 
coast ; but if the day should come when a sufficiently 
large canal can be cut through to unite it nautically 
with Manukau Harbour, its importance would be 
vastly increased, and perhaps it might then call 
itself the principal port in New Zealand. What 
time may develop here and almost everywhere else 
in these islands remains to be known by those who 
will belong to coming generations. That the natural 
energies of the people may have led them to take too 
great early strides has its obvious inconveniences, 
but is no bad sign, for it betokens a desire to advance, 
which is always better than a lounging inactivity. 
We need not anticipate Lord Macaulay's figure, 



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NEW ZEALAND. 4IS 

which he borrowed from Volney; but that New 
Zealand must necessarily grow into greatness is, we 
may fairly hope, a surer prophecy than that her sons 
may sit upon a broken bridge and stare at the ruins 
of London. God speed both Mother Country and 
Colony. 



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XXXVII. 

We all felt ourselves quite at home on board the 
Tarawera, and there was no doubt we recalled the 
" Sounds " to Captain Sinclair. We embarked on 
the 14th of April, and we steamed in between the 
Heads of Sydney about five in the afternoon, all our 
party finding their way up the beautiful harbour to the 
quay, and thence to the well-known Grosvenor; one, 
at all events, among us, who was born in the Mother 
Country, reflecting much on the imposing fact of thus 
sailing, at the Antipodes, from one splendid colony to 
another, both belonging to the Crown at home. 

From Sydney I was to sail for San Francisco, and 
as the Alameda was marked for the 20th, the very 
next day after our arrival, I could not leave before 
the 1 8th of May by the Mariposa^ Captain Hay ward, 
who had taken me out to Honolulu from 'Frisco in 
1886. On the 20th, however, I went down to call on 
Captain Morse, who had taken me back from Hono- 
lulu ; and then the next question was, how to fill up 
my time in the great city of Sydney. I made two 
excursions with Mr. and Mrs. Newell before they left 
for Melbourne, one to the Paramatta River, and 
the other to the Middle Harbour. Both were in- 
teresting ; but there was another, to me, much 
more so. It was a drive with Mr. Fleming, a friend 
of theirs, who took us to Botany Bay, and there we 



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SYDNEY AGAIN. 417 

lunched at the hotel which bears the name of Sir 
Kdward Banks, and across the water we saw the 
obelisk which was erected on the spot where Cap- 
tain Cook is said to have first set foot in 1 770* 
This Botany Bay was always associated in our 
youthful minds with transportation and convict 
settlement. Little did I know at that time that its 
name was given, — not in connection with ruffians, but 
— because it exhibited such a wealth of plants and 
flowers. Indeed, it never was really a convict 
settlement, for it was soon found to be fit only 
for flowers, and the convict settlement was moved 
farther up to Sydney. The effect was curious on 
finding one's self upon this very spot, and locally 
associated with the names of Cook and Banks. 
What was going on there at the moment, however, 
awakened very different thoughts ; these were 
races, and I believe that these were the moving cause 
of Mr. Fleming's most acceptable thought. 

After my friends had left for Melbourne, Jack and 
I went up to see the Jenolan Caves — the usual limous 
stalactite caves — the name being, I believe, corrupted 
from that of the man who discovered them, James 
Nolan. Our first day was to Mount Victoria, and our 
second to the caves themselves, visiting the Imperial 
Cave in the afternoon of our arrival. As I had seen 
many others, including those very grand caves at 
Adelsberg, which I was the means of having properly 
lighted, as explained in the Graphic some years ago, 
I did not drain the cup by going into the others. 
This cave, however, is indeed well worth a visit. It 
exhibits remarkable features of both stalactite and 

E e 



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41 8 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

Stalagmite, and is exceedingly well lighted. It is the 
best of the group, but does not equal the great cave at 
Adelsberg ; not only are its massive structures infe- 
rior, but the surfaces are dry and dull, whereas those 
at Adelsberg are in a perpetual state of glittering 
moisture. The approach to the station is very fine, 
and so are the extensive views you obtain on the 
road ; but the general, almost exclusive, foliage is 
that of the blue gum tree. 

In returning, we did not go direct to Sydney, but 
continued to Katoomba, diverging again in order to 
see Govett's Leap. Here the scene is very remark- 
able. You stand on an absolute precipice ; far away 
in front of you are distant ridges, and the whole 
gigantic space between, lying some 800 to lOOO feet 
below, and rising up on the two sides, is a densely- 
wooded forest, adorned by a waterfall. The foliage 
here again is mainly of the blue gum tree ; but poor 
as this tree is when close at hand, in the thick and 
distant forests its effects are remarkably soft. From 
the Leap we went on to Katoomba, and lodged at 
Mr. Goydcr's spacious hotel, the " Carrington." 
Hence we went to see the Katoomba Falls, and 
afterwards the Leura Falls. You may fairly class 
all these three views together ; 

" facias non omnibus una, 
Nee di versa tamen." 

On the iith of May we returned to Sydney; not 
to be idle, however, we arranged tickets for the 
Hawksbury River, but neither of us found himself 
able to rise to the level of the exaggerations. 



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SYDNEY AGAIN. 419 

We had now to think of leaving our pleasant 
quarters and to prepare for our passage to San Fran- 
cisco. Sydney, like the rest of the world out there, is 
growing, and the old city is fast giving way to the 
new. Whether the huge new hotel I left in building 
and arranging will, for the present at all events, find 
the huge support that it must require to be successful, 
remains to be proved. 

Meanwhile the Grosvenor will pursue the even 
tenor of its way, and life and movement will increase 
and multiply. What a mighty world has sprung 
up out in these regions since Captain Cook and 
Edward Banks first landed in the little Endeavour^ of 
370 tons burden, in 1770. But what of that? In 
1992 men will say, " What a little place Sydney was in 
1892 I " Nevertheless, great as may be the after- 
growth, great is indeed he who plants the first foot. 

So away we went for 'Frisco at four o'clock in the 
afternoon of Whit Monday, the i8th of May, and 
began with a very unpleasant rolling four days' 
passage to Auckland ; and here we encountered that 
very inconvenience, already spoken of, of having to 
round the North Cape and come down to Auckland 
and return north again, which will one day be 
remedied by the grand canal that is to be cut to 
Manukau Harbour. Sailing again, at 2 p.m. on the 
next day, the 23rd, we steamed into fairer weather, 
and on the 24th, being the Queen's birthday. Cap- 
tain Hayward ordered the Mariposa to be dressed 
throughout with the united flags of both nations. 
The scene was especially lively, and so were all the 
passengers a't evening, songs, music, and recitals 
E e 2 



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420 WAN£>ERINGS AND WONDERIXGS. 

abounding — the Rev. Dr. Ellis, who was returning^ 
home with Mrs. Ellis after many years' absence, 
acting as the Corypheus. Then on the 30th it was 
Decoration Day in the States, and twin decorations 
and entertainments again adorned the occasion. In 
short, there was an abundant show of games and 
pleasant evenings all through the passage, without 
the necessity of solving the problem of the change 
of time when we passed out of eastern into western 
longitude across the meridian of 180°. We had a 
splendid plunge bath on deck while it was hot, and 
many lovely mornings, glittered with ten thousand 
sparkling stars upon the quiet purple ocean, as it threw 
forth in front its white fringes of foam, in seeming lazy 
protest against the rude disturbance of our prow. 

But on one of these mornings there was a stoppage 
and a tremendous rush to the port bulwark. We had 
touched at one of the Samoan Islands, to drop a 
missionary, if I remember rightly, and to take some 
one up. Natives, male and female, were in the boats, 
and we gazed on them long enough to find they were 
fine-looking people ; and with that we separated, our 
next incident being our arrival at Honolulu. This 
was on the 3rd of June. Many of us naturally dis- 
embarked until the following day at noon, and 
parties were made from the Royal Hawaiian Hotel 
to the Pali. The scene was not new to me ; but I 
chartered an open carriage with Colonel Carr, and 
Jack came with us. Two large parties filled two 
other carriages, and the goddess was thus far 
honoured. How many changes have come about 
here since my already published visit in 1886 1 



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SAN FRANC/SCO. 421 

We were now approaching San Francisco, for it 
was the loth, and as we did so nearer and nearer, the 
fog, as usual, was there to wrap us in its cold, unwel- 
come covering. Heavily were we greeted on the 
morning of our arrival, on the nth of June; and 
harshly were we waked at early morning by the 
hideous tolling of the fog bell. This is again a 
foggy entrance for me — the fourth — without the 
chance of seeing " The Golden Gate." We landed 
at noon, and having now seen so much of Chinamen 
in their own country, I declined the "Palace," which 
is full of them, and went with the captain and purser 
and several other passengers to the very comfortable 
Occidental Hotel at No. 240, Montgomery Street. 
So here I was again at San Francisco, and prepared 
to renew my journey through the States, and again 
to hail the Americans with their jugs of cream and 
rockinsr-chairs. 



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XXXVIII. 

My two leading objects at San Francisco were the 
excursion to Alaska, which I had missed, as in my 
former journey recounted, in 1886 ; and a visit to the 
renowned Lick Observatory on Mpunt Hamilton. As 
regards the first, I immediately put myself into com- 
munication with my friend of 1 886, Mr. Hutchinson, 
and secured my two tickets for the 19th, and accepted 
his Saturday to Monday invitation to the Hotel San 
Rafael, which lies across the bay and at the end of 
a short railway. Thus, at last, I came to see this 
bay. The afternoon was perfectly fine, and we 
crossed the entrance, the Oceanic at the moment 
steaming proudly before us on her outward voyage. 
The general effect was well worth witnessing, but 
" The Golden Gates," as usual, did not quite come 
up to what I had been led to expect. At the sa-me 
time, I have no doubt that from this point you lose 
a great deal of the impression which is produced by 
actually entering from the ocean. 

The hotel of which I speak is really beautifully 
situated in very handsome grounds of its own, sur- 
rounded by undulating and wooded scenery, with a 
large mountain close in view, called Tamil Pais, and 
a ridged middle distance between ; and if you will 
mount the water-tower you may thoroughly command 
all about you. The building is perfectly new and 



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ALASKA. 423 

everything pleasant, except the perpetual music all 
dinnertime — when people who know what comfort 
IS like to be quiet — in which someone was far too 
proud of his performances on " the ear-piercing fife." 
This retreat from 'Frisco was a discovery I had not 
looked for, and I recommend the trial of it to all. 
The air is perfect. 

On the 19th, then, Jack and I started for Alaska. 
But when I say Alaska, as everyone else does, it will 
not be supposed that the real immense territory of that 
name, with its immense river, Yukon, is intended. The 
continually talked of and numerously attended ex- 
cursion extends qnly up part of the narrow southern 
shred of it, as far as what is called Glacier Bay, and 
there it is that you behold the great culminating point, 
the Great Muir Glacier, that lies along the whole 
top of that bay. I had better say nothing about the 
(so called) descriptive guide-books, for I cannot 
approach them in their language of ecstatic imagina- 
tion, and must therefore tread my humble path alone 
and speak accordingly. 

We left at 9 a.m. by the Walla Walla, Captain 
Wallace, for Victoria, where we were to meet the 
Pacific Coast Steamship Company's Qtieen, Captain 
Carroll, coming from Puget's Sound, and we arrived 
there late at night, where I took up my old quarters 
of 1886 at Mr. Hardnagel's Driard House Hotel. 
The passage up was to me eventful, because I twice 
saw what I had for so many years longed to see, the 
thrasher-fish attacking the whale. Both these fish 
separately I had seen, the whale very often, and the 
thrasher once only in the Bay of Panama. In both 



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424 U'AKDERJNGS AKD WONDERINGS. 

these cases, as was confirmed on board, there appeared 
to be two thrashers to each whale. The style of attack, 
as you may know, is that the active thrasher raises 
himself high in the water and comes down with all 
his weight and hard under-substance, gradually 
beating the breath and life out of the whale. What 
the motive is, continues debatable among fish his- 
torians. Whether the motive is pure hatred, such as 
that which exists between races of men, or whether it 
is for devouring objects, such as that which also 
exists among lords of creation, I make no attempt to 
discuss here ; but many assert that the object of prey is 
the whale's tongue. The first attack was near enough 
for us to hear the tremendous thuds with which the 
thrasher came down. Anything more like what 
might be a great black water devil — a highly hetero- 
dox one, I allow — I could not imagine, and when I 
caught first sight of the monster I almost thought it 
was one. Even if the whale dives he must come up 
again for breath ; and the thrasher is there to 
receive him with all welcome. But what is as true 
as the rest of the story is, that almost always the 
thrasher is aided by a swordfish, who prods the whale 
underneath and prevents his even fruitless prolonga- 
tion of suffering by diving. Thus it would appear 
that the object of both must be prey, and an easy 
instinct soon brings them together for the attack. 

I hope you don't think this short description too 
long. I was glad of the diversion and of its memo- 
ries, for (except for several of the passengers on 
board) I found a great deal of our Alaska passage 
very monotonous. We left our moorings at Victoria 



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ALASKA. 425 

at 6 a.m. on Tuesday, the 23rd of June, and our 
weather was cold and windy, though somewhat 
sunny. The next day we reached Fort Wrangel, 
and stayed some hours in that uninteresting spot for 
the tide. Here we were in perpetual twilight. We 
passed the twenty-five miles of Wrangel's " Wrangel 
Narrows " — but not Miss Scidmore's " Wrangel Nar- 
rows," which I vainly strove to discern — and then 
we came upon the fine Patterson Glacier {America 
glazier) on our right, the grand feature of which is 
its great depth. Here in the pearly light of half- past 
eight or nine we anchored in a fine open bay, with a 
fair show of effective mountains at various points. 

On the next day we came to the Taku Glacier at 
an early hour, and found ourselves surrounded with 
the arctic scene of water it had created by covering 
the surface far and wide with larger or smaller ice- 
floes. Nor was it by any means uninteresting to 
mark the fishing up into the steamer by iron grapnels 
of huge carcases of these floes, for ice supplies. We 
continued on to Juneau. The weather was not 
propitious. On the 27th we hailed a fine morning, 
which soon began to confess its falsehood, by frown- 
ing into cloud and wind ; and thus we passed to 
Chilcat. Today the vast Davidson Glacier walled 
the waters in its cove ; and there stands out another, 
much higher up, much whiter, and in some respects 
more impressive. Here the rugged mountain ranges 
became more striking than they had been heretofore, 
appearing above the continuous, unchanging, dead 
green of the unpicturesque pine, or spruce, or cypress. 
We left Chilcat about lunch-time, and now we were 



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426 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

bound for our culminating limit, Glacier Bay, anchor- 
ing for the night in the arctic scene of Bartlett's Bay. 
At 4 a.m. on the 28th we made the first turn of the 
screw, and about one minute more we made the first 
blow against a floe ; and far indeed was it from the 
last. It was one continued course of blows against 
the floes till we came at length into full front view 
of the great Muir Glacier. We did not, however, 
anchor very near ; near enough to give a fair per- 
spective view. It rises a complete congeries of pre- 
cipitous ice precipices and pinnacles above the surface 
of the water, and it should be at once remembered, 
so as to appreciate its volume, that it must lie deep 
and very deep below. The width of the face is called 
three miles, and the height is said to vary from 200 
to 300 feet. That this height must, in the pro- 
portions that surround it, disappoint many at first 
sight, if they dared speak frankly, I know without 
asking. One passenger, indeed, at once said to me, 
ironically : " Don't say it's a humbug,*' to which I 
replied, '*Wait awhile." People's eyes should be 
accustomed to these scenes. But disappointment is 
the fruit of so much out-of-breath nonsense that is 
written. The blight and the curse of all fine scenery 
is the commonplace exaggerator. We all, or nearly 
all, took boat and went on shore, many up the 
debris and on to the top ; but with the Rev. Dr. 
Yarnell and two or three ladies I chose rather to 
walk along the shore up nearly to the foot ; and 
this, for me, is the sight to see. On near approach 
you become aware of the craggy variety of the front 
surface; of the shadows, the ice shadows, and the 



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ALASKA. 427 

ice lights of the innumerable recesses, spearings, and 
projections. All this was truly effective to behold, 
though the day was dull ; but presently, by great 
favour, I suppose, the sun shone forth, and lasted us 
for twenty minutes. His rays struck at a propitious 
angle; and then came the colouring. From dark 
cobalt, through every stage of blue, through seeming 
golden blues, through and beyond all ultramarine 
blues, these colours varied. I have never seen any- 
thing approaching to this twenty minutes* scene of 
fairy colouring anywhere else, nor do I know any 
other spot that offers such a chance ; and if you really 
wish to appreciate this glacier, you must thus walk 
up to it — and take your hat off. Before we left, the 
steamer was brought up much closer to the full front, 
and there we stood ; but there was no more sun, and 
those who had walked over a small speck of the top 
saw no colour. Note also, when you are on the 
shore, where we were, you have the great advantage of 
a diagonal view. Mount " Fainveather ^' was indoors. 
We sailed in the afternoon for Sitka, the curious 
capital of mighty Alaska ; and presently we were all 
thrown off our feet. We had struck a huge floe and 
bent a flange in course of extrication, giving us an 
infantine hint of what might be the sensation of a 
large ship striking against a large iceberg. Otherwise, 
we came safe to Sitka. Here, alas ! the morning of the 
29th was wet, and prevented full appreciation of the 
scene, including the rather too distant Mount Edge- 
combe, seeing he is not 3000 feet high. The who^e 
picture should be very pleasing, but why its would-be 
friends should insult the place by writing that it 



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428 WANDERINGS AND WONDFRrNGS. 

" surpasses the Bay of Naples in the grandeur and 
beauty of its surroundings " — grandeur, moreover, not 
being at all the leading feature of the Bay of Naples 
— I leave Sitka to inquire. The phrase is stark 
nonsense, and has no sort of application whatever. 
In the afternoon we left on our return, and I amused 
myself for some little time upon the high deck in 
watching the steamer through the vast quiet windings, 
and persuading myself into the harmless belief that 
we were wandering nowhere. But small red flags 
here and there kept renewing a sense of certainty 
through almost exciting bewilderment. 

This for a time relieved the monotony I have 
hinted at ; and that monotony chiefly arises from 
the dead, dark green, colourless colour of the con- 
tinual and oppressive srameness of common outline, 
covered over with mere peaks of mountain firs and 
pines and cypress. The forests, instead of being a 
delight, are an oppression ; and this is the case all 
through and through from Puget's Sound. Nor are 
there any really grand outside crags to relieve the 
eye sufficiently from the weight of this impression. 
But you may put up with it if you are very curious 
indeed to see the arctic floes and glaciers on the 
water. For my own part, I am very pleased to have 
made the excursion, and do not deny that I was 
fairly interested in so doing, though I must admit it 
did not occur to me to " sigh breathlessly in the 
ecstasy of joy," possessing, I suppose, only that some- 
what curiously described phenomenon, "an earthly 
and material soul." 

However, it is always pleasant to see people 



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ALASKA. 429 

pleased ; and for the Americans I must say this, 
that when they are out on a holiday they are deter- 
mined to be pleased. Moreover, if they can only get 
an Englishman among them they are set on drawing 
the badger ; and if they can only urge him to make 
a speech and say something friendly and pleasant to 
them and of them, and join in their merry carouse, 
you are a mark at once. Your American is jolly 
independent, but he is jolly sensitive too, particularly 
as to what the Old Country thinks of him ; and he 
cleaves to the meridian of Greenwich, for he knows 
it gives the giant offspring his pedigree among the 
nations. In the books of two ladies I was even 
summoned to write a distich, which will show the 
chaff and goodwill prevailing : and as the inspirers 
insisted they were without fail to see their lines in 
my book, each will recall her own. Both were, to a 
certain extent, tender. This was the first : 

Alaska breathed a magic charm, 

For midst her ice the heart grew warm. 

And this being shown, behold, another pen was put 
into my hand, and I wrote the second ; 

Meeting was joy, and parting would be sorrow, 
Did Hope not breathe— Believe in a to-morrow. 

There was yet one more. The next was moved by 
a challenge that when everyone else is happy you 
yourself ought to be so, and would therefore never be 
sad: — 

Thrice-happy heart, of feeling true, 

Happy, when all are happy too ; 

Yet thou, in turn, must anguish find 

When Fate to others proves unkind. 



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430 WANDERINGS. AND WONDERINGS. 

We touched at Nanaimo for coaling, and remained 
all day taking in their black and dirty wealth, and 
sailed at midnight. But until electricity be developed 
into a common moving power, what a real black 
diamond coal is ; and all praise indeed to those who 
carefully, most carefully, regard our precious " Coal- 
ing Stations " ! 

On arriving at Victoria at about six in the morn- 
ing, by great good luck we found the Umatella there, 
which was to sail at eleven. It lay on the other side 
of the wharf, so that we had only to walk across after 
breakfast and get on board, when I had the pleasure 
of making the acquaintance of Captain Holmes, and 
was accompanied by Mr. Tedcastle, the Company's 
Treasurer, and Mr. and Mrs. Talbott, all of whom 
had been fellow-passengers to Alaska. We had a 
remarkably pleasant passage, with a remarkably 
good Captain's table, arriving at ^Frisco on Sunday 
night, the sth of July, but too late to land ; thus 
making sixteen days for the excursion, by the 
Monday morning. 



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XXXIX. 

My visit to the Observatory on Mount Hamilton 
was now to be accomplished, in order to see that 
remarkable establishment, and to gaze upon the 
Moon through the largest telescope in the world. 
For this particular object the moment was most pro- 
pitious, for it was now new moon, and in a few 
nights she would present the best aspect for the cross 
lights, just before the first quarter. Accordingly, by 
the help of my friends, I obtained an interview with 
one of the trustees, Mr. Phelps, of the Customs, who 
gave me a letter to Dr. Edward S. Holden, the 
Resident Director, which I immediately forwarded 
to him on the 6th, announcing my intended visit. 
The truth is, I was anxious for the night of Friday, 
the loth, because the Saturdays are fixed public 
days, and I feared interruption if I took that chance 
only. 

Therefore on Friday, the Qth, I and my young 
companion started by the afternoon fast train for 
San Jos^, and dined and slept at the ** Vendome,'* 
where I received my answer from the professor with 
instructions. Accordingly, at half-past seven on the 
loth, we were on the early post-car to begin our 
journey, and a truly remarkable one it was ; for the 
elevation at which the Observatory stands is no less 
than one of 4209 feet above the level of the sea ; 



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432 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

and the winding road that mounts to it presents a 
most ingenious effort of engineering. Nor does the 
scenery fail to correspond' The large white dome 
that contains the monster telescope soon became 
apparent^ and so continued showing itself, like a 
constant landmark of invitation, while we wound 
about among evergreen oaks covered with abundant 
mistletoe, with the jDeautiful Santa Clara Valley and 
Hall's Valley opening more and more uport us as we 
ascended. At this season of the year, unhappily, 
all was brown ; but in spring the excursion must be 
nothing less than lovely, well worth the drive with- 
out the Observatory ; only if there had been no 
Observatory there would have been no road. As it 
was, we gazed on vineyards, corn-fields (corn in our 
sense), and flowering shrubs, and arriving at the 
entrance, I was immediately met by Dr. Holden. 

A walk all over the grounds and the establishment 
was the first order of the day, and I stood under the 
dome in wondering and respectful attitude. By-and- 
by we were hoping to wonder more. Outside we 
saw the Coast Range, the Diabolo Range, and the 
Sierra Nevada ; and the head even pf the bay of 
San Francisco was to be seen also. But, welcome 
as ye are, all ye views, " Watchman, what of the 
night?'' "We are liable to hill fogs," said the 
Professor, "but I hope we shall be clear to-night, 
though there is an appearance I don't quite like." 
And when night came there really was an appearance 
that none of us liked at all ; for there was a thick 
white fog over everything, intruding its own exclu- 
sive and unpropitious presence. 



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MOUNT HAMILTON. 433 

When, however, the Saturday morning came with 
brilliant sky and some well-understood change of 
wind, the professor begged me to stay another night, 
a kind suggestion which you may quite understand 
I was nothing loth to fall in with ; and well were 
we rewarded. Nor do I now regret the fact of its 
being a public night ; for although there were some 
forty or fifty persons there; everything was conducted 
in the quietest and most orderly manner. Every- 
body saw, and nobody was hurried ; and what we 
all saw was the Moon magnified 370 times, through 
the thirty-six-inch object-glass of this refracting 
telescope ; the focal distance of the visual object- 
glass being 694 inches, or 57 feet 10 inches, and 
the tube a little shorter than the focus, as the true 
focal length is measured from a point in front of 
the object-glass, and in line with it. 

When I say we saw the Moon so magnified, that 
is using the common expression. What we really 
saw was, of course, only a small section of it. For 
thus is our mortal capacity hemmed in ; the larger 
the magnifying power the larger the field occupied 
by a comparatively small space. And observe the 
practical meaning of 370 times magnified. The full 
Moon is held to occupy one-half of a degree in the 
heavens ; the whole arc, we know, contains 180°, or 
360 halves. Therefore, the whole full Moon magni 
fied 370 times would, if it could be seen in its totality, 
occupy rather more than the whole arc of our heaven ; 
a tolerably startling calculation. Even now, a little 
mistrusting myself, though without reason, I insert 
a small extract from the professor's letter to me of 

f 



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434 WANDERINGS AND WONDERrNGS. 

July 24th, 1 891 ; — "You are entirely right in your 
calculations on the Moon. The Moon is about \ a 
degree in angular diameter, and 360 moons would 
just fill 180° from east to west, as you say." 

We had three inspections ; one before the public 
began, one in turn with the rest, and a third after 
they had gone ; the whole dome and apparatus and 
especially the movable floor, being gradually and with 
perfect ease adjusted to suit the planet's own move- 
ment. The cross lights were vivid ; Mount Theo- 
philus was the grand object ; his crater and the cone, 
like a double-blossomed white flower at the bottom, 
were so sharply and brightly discernible that you 
almost asked where they were when you took your 
eye away ; they had seemed so real and near. They 
can measure these indeed ; the crater is 18,000 
feet in depth, and the interior cone is 6000 feet in 
height ; and the Professor told me that they felt 
themselves able to say that the quality of the 
Moon's rocks closely resembled that of Table 
Mountain. Though I had seen Table Mountain, 
and indeed had now seen the Moon's rocks, I did 
not feel myself quite justified in offering any con- 
firmation of this view. But is it not wonderful what 
calculations can be made } and in aid of this 
wonder it should be noted that, under the best con- 
ditions, the Professor can bring the Moon to about 
150 miles' distance, from her 250,000, or thereabouts. 

The mere inexperienced eye has to collect itself, 
or the brain for it, before it really knows what it is 
looking at. At first, all round Mount Theophilus 
looked like flat white plaster of Paris ; afterwa^rds 



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MOUNT HAMILTON. 435 

it became ribbed, and then flat again. The eye was 
greatly astonished, as is always the case ; but the 
change of light somewhat affects the question. Cer- 
tain it is that the eye must be tutored to these sights. 
I was speaking to the Professor of an effect produced 
on my vision at the total eclipse of the sun which I 
witnessed from the top of the rock of Gibraltar in 
1870, when through my glass I most distinctly saw 
the moon approach the sun like a great black globe ; 
a globe. "That," said he, '^is a well-known and 
explainable optical illusion." So much for the un- 
educated eye. But the repeated sight of the Moon 
through the Great Lick telescope left certainty upon 
the memory. 

This establishing of observatories at great heights 
appears to be recommendable on account of the 
" steadiness of the atmosphere *' that is thus secured, 
the drawback of occasional mountain fogs being con- 
sidered of small comparative importance. I know 
not how our own on Ben Nevis satisfies our Pro- 
fessors. The height there is practically the same as 
at Mount Hamilton, the former being 4407 feet above 
the sea, and the latter (as I have stated) 4209. The 
two climates are, of course, wholly different, but of 
Mount Hamilton, at all events, it is considered that 
the position offers advantages superior to those found 
at any point where a permanent observatory has 
been established. And here I cannot but recall 
another high-pitched observatory on the Pic du Midi 
de Bigorre, which I saw in 1878. What its exact 
height was, or is, I did not record, but the mountain 
itself measures more than 9000 feet, and to the best 

F f 2 



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43^ U'AXDRR/XnS A.\D UONDER/NGS. 

of my remembrance the building stood in the top 
regions. Peculiar interest attached to it from the 
fact that it had been made his residence as well as 
studio by a retired French soldier — General Nansouty 
—who conducted it and kept up constant com- 
munications with the leading astronomers in Paris, 
devoting his life to astronomy in those solitudes. I 
was so impressed at the time by his strange resolution 
that I wrote and sent him a Sonnet, which he at once 
acknowledged, and as the book in which I published 
It is now out of print, I will here recall it in his 
honour, and in association with Mount Hamilton : — 

Mount, mount, and dare these rugged steeps on high, 

Leave in the vale thy luxuries below ! 
Where is thy merit here, thou butterfly, 

That flutterest only in the summer's glow ? 
But ye, whose hearts would aught of grandeur know. 

Turn to these topmost crags your wondering eye ; 
Behold a dweller here, who winds and snow. 

Soldier of Science, bravely can defy ! 
A white-haired warrior ye shall see revealed. 

Who, working out his theme alone in age, 
And gathering glory in this other field, 

Doth with the changing heaven and air engage : 
The sword of Science in his grasp ye find. 
Mars still at heart, Apollo tunes his mind. 

Before leaving this subject, however, I must men- 
tion another very interesting circumstance. A few 
weeks after leaving the observatory my attention was 
called to a paragraph in one of the papers stating 
that Professor Holden had discovered something like 
snow in the moon. On this I wrote him, and now 
copy his reply : — 



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MOUNT HAMILTON. 437 

" Parts of the moon look as if snow were there, 
and some things can be, perhaps, best explained by 
supposing snow to be there. I am not, however, 
prepared to say that snow is certainly present. It 
may be — voila tout** 



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XL. 



When we left the Observatory on the afternoon of 
the 1 2th we returned to San Jos^, but not yet to 
San Francisco, for I had a desire to see the establish- 
ment of Del Monte, at Monterey ; therefore, on the 
next day I took the train, called the Flyer, thither, 
and would recommend others to do so. The hotel is 
spacious indeed, raising in my thoughts the some- 
what homely question, How many square acres of 
carpet are we walking over? The grounds are 
charming and extensive. Trees, lawns, and patterned 
flower-beds abound, and reading on seats under the 
branches is a popular pursuit. By the presence of 
Mr. and Mrs. Talbott, of Indiana, of the Alaska 
party, I was induced to join in the regulation drive 
of "The Seventeen Miles." So we all four went 
together, and greatly enjoyed its variety. Here also 
you may see the first beginnings of Monterey, and 
reflect upon the power and rapidity of development. 
We had seen our present dwelling, and we now saw 
the first wooden house, which, in fact, was brought 
out from England. Such things are not seen with- 
out producing an impression ; and where can the 
end possibly be fixed to change and development, 
until there be nothing left to change or to develop ? 
But why do people out here walk in the hot full 
sun with parasols of brilliant scarlet ? Surely this 



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SAN FRAm:rsco. 439 

is not a development of common sense, departing 
from the more sober and protecting colours of old ? 
But it aids the complexion, throwing over it the 
bright vermilion of youth, either where it is not 
wanted, or where it is a useless fudge. The eye is 
so avaricious nowadays. Even to come down to 
the vulgar table, you will sacrifice the small delicious 
strawberry for the spongy pompous one ; and you 
will fill your mouth with the grit of that nasty stuff, 
crystallized sugar, simply because it looks prettier 
than the old and much pleasanter " pounded/' 

On the 17th we were again at 'Frisco; and in 
moving about from friend to friend to accept of their 
hospitality, I became more impressed than ever with 
the enormous consequence to San Francisco of the 
cable car system of the tramways. How could I 
have dined with Mr. and Mrs. Dodge ? or have en- 
joyed his introduction of me to Dr. Harkness and the 
Pacific Union Club ? How could we have more than 
once climbed and descended and climbed again, won- 
dering all the while, to Gough Street, to accept the 
• hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. MuUins — Mrs. and Miss 
Mullins recalling Alaska memories — but for the cable 
cars ? Contemplate the most aristocratic (Americans 
will forgive that insidiously creeping word) parts of 
the fast-extending city, and ask yourself, How came 
these dwellings here, but for the cable cars ? And 
here I must call to mind a day we spent with Mr, 
Adolph Sutro on his vast property, " Sutro Heights,^' 
away on the hills. On our return in his carriage he 
stopped it in the middle of a wood, in order to say : 
" This is to be the centre of the city." It sounded 



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440 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

strangei but I recalled the cable cars, and shrank 
from the responsibility of disbelief. 

On the other side of San Francisco the roads are 
less adventurous, and the suburbs (so to call them) 
cheerful and happy-looking. Mr. Siegfried, a well- 
known and established merchant in 'Frisco, whose 
acquaintance I had made in the East, among other 
acts of hospitality, invited me to spend the day with 
him and wife and family at his house at Alameda. 
A prettier place for a quiet retreat from the irritations 
of business could not be well conceived than Alameda. 
It is called, indeed, " The City of Small Homes ; '^ 
and that exactly represents its commodious but un- 
pretending villas, with their square lawns and gardens, 
and front lawns trimmed in front down to the edge 
of the road. All suggests, as it were, a picture of 
pretty domesticity, as the name implies ; but Mr. 
Siegfried has somewhat transgressed these bounds by 
the possession of a costly and surprising collection of 
rare orchids. 

Then there is another twin spot, San Anselmo. 
Here also the American knows how to repose ; and 
in particular, the district claims a position in the 
astonishing fruit production of California. Mr. Foss, 
whom I had met in the States in 1886, found me out 
at 'Frisco and entertained me at his newly-purchased 
fruit-garden, where produce seems inclined to crowd 
upon him. Certainly in these parts you find fruit 
abounding ; but as a consequence there is much 
carelessness about it, and carriage of it to distances 
being an object, much is gathered before it is ripe, 
by which the tables of the city suffer. 



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SHOSHONE FALLS. 44 1 

My face was now set westward towards England, 
and the question arose, should I repeat my visit to 
the mighty ranges of the Canadian Pacific, or make 
a diversion to see the Shoshone Falls on the Snake 
River, and so pass through Salt Lake City and 
Manitou again ? Curiosity as to the Falls prevailed. 
This made the round by Portland necessary, and 
we therefore left by the 9 p.m. train of the 
31st of July. Mount Shasta is one great feature 
here, and we enjoyed a full view of him ; but as a 
snow and glacier mountain I was not greatly im- 
pressed with him. Stilly as so many know, there is 
striking scenery on this line. Witness that from 
Gazelle station, and the vast stretches and complicated 
varieties of what is called the Siskiyou Valley. 
Portland showed us Mount Hood looking very fine ; 
and the 3rd of August took us up the banks of the 
Columbia River by train. I have already written 
that this is the proper way to see the river ; but I 
will now add that it is best to come the way I came 
in 1886, down stream. 

From the point of leaving the Columbia, near 
Walla Walla, we entered a dreary, and sandy, and 
sage-bush country till we came after the night's 
journey to the Shoshone station. We were then 
twenty-six miles from the Falls, and on the 4th took 
the usual carriage, to sleep upon the spot and return 
next day. Anything so dreary and therefore ap- 
parently endless as this drive I have never met with. 
Sage-bush country without intermission. Where is 
the river ? where are the Falls ? and when are we to 
get there ? But time and distance were as they 



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442 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

always were, and not subject to the measurement of 
content or discontent Our driver did very fairly, 
and at last at a sudden turn and rapid descent through 
a most remarkable congeries of black precipitous 
precipices, we came upon the river and crossed it, 
after waiting and signing, to the Government Hotel. 
There they did the best for us. It is placed at 
the brow of the Falls, of which you obtain that class 
of view on the evening of arrival. 

On the next morning you go with the guide down 
a very steep and trying path to the bed of the river 
below, and obtain your full view. The depth of the 
Falls is 2 ID feet; the shape is horseshoe, and thus 
measured in the arc give 700 feet ; in straight line 600. 
There are these black precipices all round, and the 
general view is truly strange. The flow of water was 
good ; and the water quite white and clear. Had 
it been at its full it would have lost this feature 
and been yellow. Were it not for Niagara, these 
Falls would probably be the finest in America ; but 
the comparison must not be made, because the tre- 
mendous force and volume of Niagara is unapproach- 
able, and therefore unapproached. Nevertheless, the 
whole scene is entirely different, and entirely original 
in its special features. 

On our return we were persuaded to diverge through 
the Blue Lakes, stopping at a fruit farmer's for lunch ; 
but we did not think this worth while, and resigned 
ourselves to the return sage-bush drive. Of this same 
country they say, as they say in Peru, that with rain 
it would burst into great fertility. I quite believe 
this of Peru, and have already written how I saw 



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SALT LAKE CITY. 443 

sudden flowers rise and perish under a dash of 
moisture. 

The rise of the Andes, a late mountain develop- 
ment, according to geologists, seems to have stopped 
the rains from Peru, the whole undulating surface 
of which, running up to Arequipa from Mollendo, 
looks exactly like that of a rain-washed country. But 
these sage- bush wastes are comparatively flat, and it 
seems to be a forlorn hope that their latent fertility 
should be awakened by the rain. Ugly country still 
continued to Salt Lake City, to which we travelled 
through the night, and arrived at noon on the 6th. 

What a change here since 1886! There are now 
two cities ; the old one, with its separate dwellings 
and gardens and the water running down the sides 
of the streets, and the new one, very much like other 
new cities in the States. I had been introduced by 
Mr. Siegfried in 'Frisco to Mr. Sears, a polygamist, 
and a leading member of the Mormon Church, who 
had kindly bespoken my beds at the huge " Knuts- 
ford " in the new town, where we fared very comfort- 
ably ; and he again introducing me to Mr. Grant and 
Mr. Cannon, both apostles of the Church, and both 
polygamists, we all five took a drive of inspection with 
Mr. Grant in his carriage. We visited the tabernacle 
and heard the pin dropped, but I fancy you must be 
on one particular spot to hear that minute sound 
through all the length of the building. We also visited 
the yet unfinished temple. Then there was Brigham 
Young's unpretending grave in the corner of a grass 
plat. It was a very pleasant drive, and we had 
abundant conversation, with arrangements for attend- 



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444 WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS, 

ing the service on Sunday. The full title of the 
church is '* The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter 
Day Saints and Polygamy." I am not quite sure 
that this word polygamy (a perfectly genuine Eastern 
institution) is now always added, because, in conces- 
sion to the law of the land, polygamy is being 
gradually abandoned, though the High Church Party 
there rather appear to deem this step as somewhat 
partaking of a dereliction of principle. 

On the Sunday we attended the service, when the 
whole building was closely crowded with a very 
attentive audience. Mr. Sears came with us ; there 
was a special choir for the organ, and in the hymns 
all joined. Mr. Grant preached, as also two other 
leaders. On entering I had observed a number of 
high-standing silver flagons, and a vast number of 
chalices containing cut bread. These were the ele- 
ments of the Communion. All cannot, of course, be 
communicants every Sunday, but a vast number were 
so on this day ; and the elements were carried round 
by several, and partaken of by each in his place. 
But there was no wine ; these silver reservoirs, continu- 
ally appealed to, contained the pure water of the city, 
which is excellent. The two elements were bread 
and water, in which you are not bound (though pos- 
sibly somewhat prone) to perceive some small protest 
against the form of the original institution. 

We of course made a day to the Dead-Sea-looking 
Salt Lake, surrounded by its dry mountains. But 
the population do not leave it dead. It is alive 
with holiday-makers, rowing, swimming, eating and 
drinking, and enjoying the hot air, like other or- 



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MANATOU. 445 

ganized existences. Continual trains run to and fro, 
and many are the passengers. Here, also, in the 
new town I was surprised to see electrical tramcars, 
as I had seen them in other places ; I believe at 
both San Jos^ and Monterey, and certainly in later- 
visited towns. 

On the loth we left by the Rio Grande and 
Denver Line for Manatou, in which beautiful spot I 
wasted a day or two, and drank the waters ; Jack 
having set his full heart on riding up Pike's Peak on 
horseback. But, behold, since I so toiled up in 1886, 
there is a railway to the very top. I paid another 
visit also to the Garden of the Gods of the old Ute 
Tribe, insisting this time that I should enter by the 
grand vestibule or chief entrance, with Pyke's Peak 
full in front, instead of coming out that way. All, 
however, seemed accustomed to enter by what I call 
the back door, and to come out by the front. 

Then we came on to my old acquaintance, Chicago, 
"The City of Lakes," where I sought the Grand 
Pacific Hotel, and where, in virtue of a letter from 
Mr. Hutchinson to Mr. Morse, I had the pleasure of 
visiting him and Mrs. Mprse at their hospitable home. 
And here he took us one (among others) most inter- 
esting drive, viz. to the Jackson Park, the seat of 
the coming World's Fair. Under his guidance and 
protection he drove us into the territory set apart 
for this gigantic Exhibition, where we wandered 
about the one square mile allotted for its occupa- 
tion, wondering and again wondering how out of 
such a mighty chaos beauty and order could be pro- 
ducible. They who see it in perfection will never 



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44^ WANDERINGS AND WONDERINGS. 

see what we saw. Whether I shall go to see what 
they will see, is very doubtful. 

Well indeed is Chicago called the City of Lakes, 
and well has she availed herself of the position which 
coniers on her that title. What a gift of water ; 
and what advantage taken of it! She probes the 
very fathoms of the inexhaustible resources. Go and 
wonder at the waterworks. 

From Chicago to Niagara was inevitable, where 
that stupendous outpouring from the grand four 
freshwater lakes of the world, Superior, Michigan, 
Huron, and Erie, moans over the rocks towards Lake 
Ontario. The whole scene with the park has been con- 
siderably improved, but the Fall itself, though mighty, 
was not quite so voluminous as I had seen it in 1886. 
Very much depends upon the wind ; the water is 
always there, but the Falls had been low all through 
the season ; full enough, however, to carry one 
unfortunate man down in his boat while we were there. 
He was well known, and had been often cautioned, 
being much devoted to the opposing liquor, for which 
the water thus at last avenged itself. 

From Niagara the next step was to Albany, with 
its enormous new capitol, and the Kenmure Hotel, 
not the DelavAn House ; and from Albany down 
the riverside, as of yore, to the Fifth Avenue Hotel, 
as of yore, New York. And really here the main 
question plainly was, after paying a visit to our good 
agent, Mr. McKeevan, of our London and Brazilian 
Bank, What is the next steamer to Liverpool ? This 
was the White Star Line steamer, the Majestic; and a 



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CONCLUSION. 447 

majestic passage we made of it, considering all things, 
though not of the very first rapidity, Liverpool and 
London now read almost the same; and on the i6th 
of September, 1891, 1 once more found myself, with a 
vastly increased gallery of mental pictures, in the same 
room and at the same table which I had left, then three 
years ago, and where I am now writing these last lines. 
Shall I publish them ? " We shall not be able to 
read them unless you do," you will say, "and to us 
you have promised their contents." "Then I am 
bound to do so." *' Is there, then, any indisposition, 
implied by that last word ? Should it not be a 
pleasure thus to record three years of your life well 
spent and in fulfilment of a promise made to friends ? 
What do you fear— criticism ?" " No ! " " What, then .?" 
" I will tell you. I fear the Thrasher, though I am not 
a Whale. I fear * Thurkill's little account.' I fear the 
Publisher's bill. If either of you has ever published, 
you will know what these things always are. Did 
ever any other debtor side of an account, in the shape 
of charges, allowances, and deductions, exhibit such 
peculiar ingenuity ? Trade feeds on brain. The 
only comparison that occurs to me to make is one 
with the barber surgeons in Naples. There the 
barbers bleed. Spirit of Dr. Dickson, hear ! Hands, 
feet, and limbs are painted over their doors, and at 
every possible small point, especially between toes 
and fingers, " the life thereof" is shown to be spurting 
forth in sign of their ingenuity in bleeding. And 
such as are the Neapolitan bleeders, such are the 
Publishers ! " Que voulez vous ? Ilfautpayerl 



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448 WANDRR/yGS AND WOiVDERfNGS. 

These pages, then, I dedicate to you, 
Feigning to deem their merits small and few : 
But claiming that, at all events, they're true : 

They're true. 

My portrait you've requested me to show, 
Before I older— or no older — grow ; 
I'm old enough already, as you know : 

As you know. 

My three years' travel o'er, I'm here again. 
Have all retravelled o'er with pen and brain, 
And, for the present, shall at home remain : 

At home remain. 

Adding merely, 
Yours sincerely, 

J. J. AUBERTIN. 



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160 




;\*- 




-^-i 



160 



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CLASSIFIED LIST 



OF 



THE PUBLICATIONS OF 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 

and Co, Limited 




LONDON 

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., LTD. 

Paternoster House, Charing Cross Road 

1892 



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CONTENTS 



PAGE 



Works on Orikntal Subjects:— 

Relating to India, etc. .... 

On Oriental Buddhism .... 

Relating to China ..... 
Relating to Islam . . • . , 

Persian Religion and Literature 
Relating to Japan . . . • • 

Jewish History and Religion 
Archaeology of Egypt and Assyria . 

Works on Comparative Philology, The Science of Lan 
GUAGE, Grammars, Lexicons, Etc. . 

Works on Theology, Bibucal Exegesis, and Devotional 
Subjects, ...... 

Works on Speculative Theology, Philosophy, and Com 
PARATivE Religion ..... 

Mythology and Folk-Lorb .... 

Works relating to the Occult Sciences, Animal Magnet- 
ism, Spiritism, and Theosophy 

Numismatics. ...... 

General and European History 

Travels, Voyages, and Guide-Books 

BiCkSRAPHY ....... 

Works on Education ..... 

Greek and Latin Classics, Etc. 



5 

9 
II 

12 
IZ 

13 
13 

13 

M 



29 

33 

35 
37 
38 
40 

42 
47 
48 



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Contents. 



Works on Military Scibncr .... 

Botany and Natural History .... 

Anthropology ...... 

Physiology and Medicine .... 

Mental ai^d Moral Science .... 

Law, Politics, and Sociology .... 

Works on the Physical Sciences, Mineraixmsy, Geology, 
Etc. ....... 

Technology ....... 

Art and Music ...... 

Poetry and Belles-Lettres .... 

Novels and Works of Fiction .... 

BlBLIOGRAI'HY ...... 

Gastronomy and Diet, Chess Manuals, and Miscellaneous 
Works ....... 

Periodicals ....... 



PAOK 
48 



50 
5a 

53 

54 
55 

58 
61 

63 
64 
71 

75 

76 
80 



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Patbrnostbk House, 

Charing Cross Road. 
June 20, 1892. 



Kegan Paul, Trencb, Mbner, & Go/s 

PUBLICATIONS. 



NoTB.— The letters I. S. S. denote that the Work forms a Volume of 
the International Scientific Series. 



WORKS ON ORIENTAL SUBJECTS, 

EMBRACING 

The Religions^ Literature^ Philosophy^ History^ Geography^ 
and Archceology of India^ China^ Japan^ Persia, Arabia, 
arid Palestine. 

WORKS RELATING TO INDIA, Etc. 

Albenmi's India : An Account of the Religion, Philosophy, 
literature, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy, Customs, Laws, and 
Astrol(^ of India, about A.D. 1030. Arabic Text, edited by 
Professor E. Sachau. i^o, £$, 3j. 

History of India, as told by its own Historians : the Mu- 
hammadan Period. From the Posthumous Papers of the late Sir 
H. M. Elliot. Revised and continued by Professor John Dowson. 
8 wis. Sv0, £Sy 8j. 

History, Folk-Lore, and Distribntion of the Races of the 
North-Western Provinces of India. By Sir H. M. Elliot, edrted 
by J. Beames. With Four Coloured Maps. 2 vols. %vo, £1, i6s. 

Hindn Mythology and History, Geography, and Literature, 
Classical Dictionary ot By John Dowson. Post Svo, i6s, 

[Trillm«r'B Oriental Sorles. 

History of India from the Earliest Ages. By J. Talboys 
Wheeler. Svo. Vol. I. containing the Vedic Period and the 
Mahi BhiLrata, with Map. Vol. IL The Ramayana and the 
Brahmanic Period, with two Maps, 21s. VoL III. Hindu, Buddhist, 
and Brahmanical Revival, with two Map, i&. VoL IV. Part I. 
Mussulman Rule, 14s. VoL IV. Part II. Completing the History 
of India down to the time of the Moghul Empire, 12s, 
*«* VoL IIL is also published as an independent work under the title 

oi * History of India s Hindu, Buddhist, and Brahmanical.' 



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6 Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner, and Ca's 

Original Saaakrit Texts, on the Origin and History of the 
People of India. By John Muir. Vols. I., 11. , IV., and V., 21 j. 
each; Vol. III. i6s. Second Editi4tn, Svols. 8tv. 

Casta. —Kythioal aad Lagendaxy aDOOunts of the Origla of CbiU. 

By John Muir. TAird Edition, £1, u, 
*«* This work is also issued as a volume of Trubnor's Qrlaatal Borles, 

at the same price. 

TraiiB-Hlmalayaii Origin of tlio Hindus. By John Muir. Stcond^ 
Edition. £1, is. 

TheVedas. By John Muir. Second Edition. 16s; 

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English-Turkish and Turkish-English. The whole in English char- 
acters, the pronunciation being folly indicated. By J. W. Kjkdhousb. 
Third Edition, Z2mo,6s. 

Grammar of the Khassi Language. By H. Roberts. 

Crown SvOt los. 6d. 

A Simplified Grammar of the GiUar&tf Language, together 
with a short Reading Book and Vocabulary. By the Rev. W. St. 
Claik Tisdall. Crown 8tv, lOr. 6d. 



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Perelan fka Travellers. By Alexander Finn. Oblongs 
Persian-English Dictionary. By £• H. Palmer. Sgcend 

Edition. Royal i6mo, 10s, 6d, 

Persian Qranunars, — Simplified Qrammar of Hindustani, 

Persian, and Arabic By £. H. Palmer. Second Edition, Crown 
ovOf 5*, 

English-Persian Dictionary, with Simplified Grammar of the 
Persian Language. By £. H. Palmer. Royal iSrno, 10s. 6d. 

Bantn. — A Language Study based on Bantu. An Inquiry 
into the Laws of Root-Formation. By F. W. Kolbe. Svo, 6s. 

Malagasy Language, Concise Qrammar of the. By G. W. 
Parker. Crown Stw, 5s. 

Samoan Language, Grammar and Dictionary of the. By 

George Pratt. Second Edition, Crown 8zv, 18^. 

Modem Oreek, Guide to. By E. M. Geldart. Post %vo^ 
Js, 6d. Key, 2s. 6d. 

Modem Greek, SimpMed Grammar ofl By £. M. Geldart. 

Crown 8cv, 2s, 6d. 

Lexicon of Modem Greek-English and English Modem 

Greek. By N. Contopoulos. 2 vols, Szv, 275. 

Basgue Grammar, Outlines of. By W. Van Eys. Crown 

Somany. —English Gipsies and their Language. By C. G. 
Leland. Second Edition, Crown 9vo, 7s, 6d, 

Gxammaire Albanaise, k Tusage de ceux qui d^sirent ap- 
prendre cette langue sans Taide d'un mattre. Par P. W. Crown 
&v, Js. 6d, 

Hungarian Language, SimpMed Grammar of the. By I. 
Singer. Crown Szv, 4;. 6d, 

Honmaniau Language, Simplified Grammar of the. By R. 
Torceanu. Crovm ^vo^ 5s. 

Simplified Serbian Grammar. By W. R. Morfill. Crown 
StfOf 4s, 6d, 

A PtogressiTe Grammar of Common Tamil By Rev. A. H. 

Ardbn. SvOf ss. 

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Oomparative Grammar of the South African Bantu Languages, 

comprising those of Zanzibar, Mozambique, the Zambezi, Kafirland, 
Benguela, Angola, The Congo, The Ogowe, The Cameroons, the 
Lake Region, etc By J. Torrbnd. Super-royal Szv, 25^. 

A Oomprehensive Qrammar of the Sinhalese Language. By 

Abraham Mendis Gunasikara. 8tv, i2j. 6^. 

Polish Language, Simplified Qrammar of the. By W. R. 

MORFILL. Cr<mm Svo, y. 6d, 

Russian, How to Learn ; A Manual for Students, based 
upon the Ollendorffian system. By Henry Riola. Fourth Editian, 
Crown ^fvot 12s. Key, 5^. 

Bussian Reader, with Vocabulary, by Henry Riola. Crown 
Svo, los, 6d. 

Spanish Language, Simplified Orammar of the. By W. F. 
Harvey. Crozvn 8w, 3s, 6d, 

Spanish Teacher, and Colloquial Phrase-Book. By F. Butler. 
l8m^, half -roan f 2s, 6d, 

Spanish and English Languages, Dictionary of the, for the 
use of young Learners and Travellers. By M. DB la Cadkna 
Velasquez. Crown Svo, 6s. 

Spanish and English Languages, Pronouncing Dictionary of 

the. By Velasquez, /^oyal Svo, £1, 41. 

Spanish Reader, Kew. By Velasquez. Containing Pas- 
sages from the most approved authors. With Vocabulary. Post 
Szw, 6s. 

Spanish Conversation, Loitroduction to. By Velasquez. 

i2mo, 2s. 6d, 

Spanish Language, New Method to Read, Write, and 

Speak the Spanish Language. Adapted to Ollendorff's system. By 
Velasquez and Simon n6. Revised Edition, Post 8w, dr. Key, 4^. 

Portuguese and English, Ghrammar of. Adapted to Ollen- 
dorff's system. By A. J. D. D'Orsey. Fourth Edition, i2»io, 

7s, 

Oolloauial Portuguese ; or. The Words and Phrases of Every- 
day Life. By A. J. D. D'Orsey. Fourth Edition, Croivn 8w?, 
3x. 6d, 

Portuguese and English Languages, Pocket Dictionary of 
the. By Vibyra. 2 vols, post 8cv, los. 



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Metodo para apprender a Leer, escribir y hablar el Ingles 
segun el sistema de Ollendorff. By CarrilAo. Svo, 4s, 6d, 
Kcy,3J. 

Italian Oonversationy Maanal of. By John Millhouse. 

English and Italian Dictionary. By John Millhouse. 
2 wis. Sw, 12s, 

L'Edo Italiano: A Guide to Italian Conversation. By £. 
Cambrini. With Vocabulary. i2mo, 4s, 6d, 

Italian, Method of Learning. By F. Ahn. i2mo,^s, 6d. 

Gkrman Langnage, Orammar of the. By F. Ahn. Crown 

German Language, Method of Learning Oerman. By F. 
Ahn. i2fno, y. Key, &/. 

German and English Oonyersations ; or, Vade Mecum for 
English Travellers. By F. Ahn. i2mo, is. 6d. 

German Beader, Graduated: A Selection from the most 
Popular Writers. With a Vocabulary. By F. Otto Frcembling. 
Tenth Edition, l2mo, y. 6d. 

German.— Graduated Exercises for Translation into German : 

Extracts from the best English authors. With Idiomatic Notes. By 
F. O. Frosmbling. CroTon Svo, 4s. 6d. Without Notes, 41. 

Dutch Language, Grammar of the. By F. Ahn. i2mo, 
y. 6d. 

Pennsylvania Duteh; A Dialect of South Germany, with an 
Infusion of English. By S. S. Haldeman. 8tv, 3;. td* 

French Language, Grammar of the. By H. Van Laun. 

Crown %vo. Accidence and Syntax, 4;. ; Exercises, 3;. 6d. 

French Grammar, PracticaL By M. de Larmoyer. Part 
I. CroTvn $vo, y. 6d. Part II. Syntax. Crown Svo, y. 6d. 

French Grammar, adopted by the Imperial Council of Public 
Instruction. By A Rochb. Crown $vo, y. 

French Translation. Prose and Poetry, from English 
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Second Edition, Fcap. Svo, 2s. 6d. 

French Translation, Materials for translating English into 

French. By L. Lb-Brun. Seventh Edition, Post Scv, 4X. 6d, 



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French, Method of Leamixig. First and Second Courses. By 
F. Ahn. iimoy 3^. Separately, is, 6d, each, 

French, Method of Leaniing. Third Course. By F. Ahn. 

I2tn0i IS, 6d, 

French. Modem French Reader. By Ch. Cassal and 

TntoDORE Karcher. 

Junior Course. Tenth Edition, Crown ^uo^ 2s, 6d. 

Senior Course. Third Edition, Croivn Svo, 4s, 

Senior Course and Glossary in i vol. Crown 8ev, 6^. 

Little French Reader : Extracted from the * Modem French 
Reader.' Thirti Edition. Crown 8w, 2s, 

Glossary op Idioms, Gallicisms, and other difficulties con- 
tained in the Senior Course of the * Modem French Reader.* 
By Charles Cassal. CrcTvn 8zv, 2s, 6d. 

Questionnaire Frangais: Questions on French Grammar, 
Idiomatic Difficulties, and Military Expressions. By Th. Karcher. 
Fourth Edition. Crottm Svo, is, id. Interleaved with writing 
paper, 5^. 6d, 

Improved Dictionary, English-French and French-English. 
By E. Weller. Eoyal Szv, 7s, 6d, 

French-English and En^^ish-French Fodcet Dictionaiy. By 

Nugent, z^mo, y. 

French and English Dictionary for the Focket, containing 
the French-English and English-French divisions on the same page ; 
conjugating all the verbs; distinguishing the genders by different 
types ; giving numerous aids to pronunciation, etc By John 
Bellows. Second Edition. 32^^, morocco tuck^ 121^. 6dL ; roan^ 
los, td, 

French Examination Papers set at the University of London. 
By P. H. Brette and F. Thomas. Part I. Matriculation and 
the General Examination for WomeiL Crown 8w, y, 6d. Key, 5/. 
Part II. First B.A. Examinations for Honours and D. Litt. Kx- 

aminations. Crown 8zv, Js, 

Metodo para apprender a Leer, escribir, y hablar el Frances, 
segun el verdadero sistema de Ollendorff. By Simonnj^. Crown 
8w, 6s. Key, $s. 6d, 

Danish Language, Simplified Grammar of the. By E. C. 

OTTi, Crown ivo, 2s, 6d, 

Danish Language, Guide to tluj! By Maria Bojessn. 

i2mo, ff. 



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EugUflh-DaniBli Dictionary. By S. Rosing. Croum Svoj 
Ss.6d. 

Dano-Norwegian Grammar : A Manual for Students of 
Danish, based on the OUendorffian system. Bjr E. C. Ott£ 
Third Ediiion, Crcnvn Sv0, *]s, 6d, Key, 31. 

Swedish Language, Simplified Grammar of the. By £. C. 

Ott6. Crown 8w, 2s, 6d. 

Norwegian Grammar, with a Glossary for Tourists. By M. 
Smith and H. Horneman. Post 8tv, 2s, 

Latin Grammar for Beginners. By F. Ahn. lamo, 3X. 
Latin Grammar for Beginners on Ahn's System. By W. 

IHNE. I2m0, 3s. 

Anglo-Saxon. — Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon Tongue. By 
Erasmus Rask. Translated from the Danish by B. Thorpe. 
Third Edition. Post 8w, 55. 6d. 

Study of Words, On the. By Archbishop Trench. 
Twentieth Edition^ Revised, Fcap, &zfo, y. 

English Fast and Present. By Archbishop Trench. 

Thirteetith Edition^ Revised and Improved, Fcap, Szv, 5j. 

English Grammar, Essentials ofl By Professor W. D. 
Whitney. Second Edition, Croivn ^vo, y, 6d, 

English Grammar for Beginners. By H. C. Bowen. Fcap, 
SvOf IS, 

Studies in English, for the use of Modem Schools. By H. 
C. BoWBN. Tenth Thousand. Small crown Zvo, is, 6d, 

English Etymology, Dictionary of. By H. Wedgwood. 

Fourth Edition, Revised and En/ar^ed. Svo, yfi, is. 

Contested Etymologies in the Dictionary of the Rev. W. W. 
Skeat. By H. Wedgwood. Crown Svo, 5J. 

Vest-Pocket Lexicon: An English Dictionary of all except 
familiar words, including the principal scientific and technical terms. 
By Jabbz Jenkins. 64mo, roan, is. 6d. ; cloth, is. 

Glossary of Terms and Phrases. Edited by H. Percy 
Smith and Others. Cheaper Edition, Medium Sm?, 5;. 6dl 

Dictionary of English Literature and British and American 

Authors, from the earliest accounts to the latter half of the Nineteenth 
Century. By S. A. Allibone. 3 vols, royal ^vo, £$, $s. Supple- 
ment, 2 vols, royal 800 (i 891), ;f 3, 3^. 



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Select QloBsary of English Words used f onnerly in 

Different from the Present. By Archbishop T&kncil Stvemik 
Edition^ Revised and EnlargecL Feap, $vo, 5/. 

Welsh Philology, Lectures on. By John Rhys. Sea^nd 

EcUtiim, Crown 8tv, 15J. 

Americanisms, Dictionary of: A Glossaiy of Words and 

Phrases colloquially used in the United States. By J. R. Bartlktt. 
Fourth Edition^ ^, 2ls, 

Volapnk, Handbook of: the International Language, By C 
£. Spragub. Second Edition^ Crown Zvo, 5^. 



WORKS ON THEOLOGY, BIBLICAL 

EXEGESIS, AND DEVOTIONAL 8UBJEOT& 

Pulpit Oommentary, The (Old Testament Series). Edited 
by the Rev. J. S. Exell and the Very Rev. Dban H. D. M. 
S PENCE, D.D. Super Foyal Stv. The Homilies and Homiletics by 
various Writers. 



By the Rev. T. Whitelaw, D.D. Introdnctioa to the 
Study of the Old Testament by Archdeacon Farrar, D.D. 
Introductions to the Pentateuch by the Right Rev. H. Cottbrtll, 
D.D. and Rev. T. Whitelaw, D.D, Ninth Edition. 15^. 

Bxodns. By the Rev. Canon Rawlinson. FouHh Edition. 2 vols, 
gs. each, 

Levitioiis. By the Rev. Prebendary Meyrick. Introductions by 
the Rev. R. Collins, Rev. Professor A Cave. Fourth Edition, 
iSs. 

Numbers. By the Rev. R. Winterbothah. Introduction by Rev. 
Thomas Whitelaw, D.D. Fifth Edition, 15J. 

Denteronomy. By the Rev. W. L. Alexander, D.D. Fourth Edition, 

JodiiUL By the Rev. J. J. Lias. Introduction by the Rev. A 
Plummer, D.D. Sixth Edition, 12s, 6d, 

Judges and Bntb. By the Bishop of Bath and Wells and Rev. J. 
MORISON, D.D. Fifth Edition, los, 6d, 

L and XL SamneL By the Very Rev. R. P. Smith, D.D. Seventh 
Edition. 2 vols, i $5, each, 

I. Klngi. By the Rev. Joseph Hammond. Fifth Edition, 15J; 

n. Ktags. By the Rev. Canon Rawlinson. 15J. 

I. Obronloles. By the Rev. P. C. Barker. Second Edition. 151. 

XL dironloles. By the Rev. C Barker. 15^. 



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Pulpit Oommentary, The — Continued. 

Bm, Hebemlali, and Ertber. By the Rev. Canon G. Rawlinson. 
Seventh Edition, 12s, 6d, 



By the Rev. Canon G. Rawlinson. Second Edition, 2 vols, 
iSs, each, 

Jersmlah ( VoL L ). By the Rev. T. K. Chkyne, D. D. Third Edition, 

Jersmlab (Vol. II.) and Lamentatioiu. By the Rev. T. K. Cheynb, 
D. D. Third Edition, i $s, 

HoBoa and Joel. By the Rev. Professor J. J. Given, D.D. 15^. 
Joto. By the Rev. Canon G. Rawlinson. 21s. 

ProvMrbfL By the Rev. W. J. Deanb and the Rev. S. T. Taylor- 
Taswell. I5i. 



(Vol. I.). By the Very Rev. E. H. Plumptre, D.D. Intro- 
duction by the Rev. T. Whitelaw, D.D. 12s, 6d, 

E»klel(Vol. II.) By the Very Rev. E. H. Plumptre, D.D.,andthe 
Rev. J. Whitelaw, D.D. 12s, 6d. 

Pnlpit Oommentary, The (New Testament Series). Edited 
by the Very Rev. H, D. M. S pence, D.D., and the Rev. Joseph S. 

EXELL. 

81 Uark. By the Very Rev. Dean E. Bickersteth, D.D. 

Six/h Edition, 2 vols, los. 6d, each, 

St Luke. By the Very Rev. H. D. M. Spence. 2 vols, los. 6d, 
each, 

St. JObn. By the Rev. Professor H. R. Reynolds, D.D. Third 
Edition, 2 vols. l$s. each. 

Hie Acta of the AposUet. By the Bishop of Bath and Wblls. 
Fourth Edition. 2 vols. los. 6d. each. 



By the Rev. J. Barmby. 151. 

L Corintblans. By the Ven. Archdeacon Farrar, D.D. Fourth 
Edition. 1 5 J. 

n. CkMrlntblans and Qalatiaiui. By the Ven. Archdeacon Farrar, 
D.D., and Rev. Prebendary E. Huxtable. Second Edition. 21s, • 

Bphesians, Phllippians, and Colossians. By the Rev. Professor W. G. 
Blaikie, D.D., Rev. B. C Caffin, and Rev. G. G. Findlay. 
Third Edition. 21s. 

TliesBalonlanB, Timotby, Tlttu, and Philemon. By the Bishop of 
Bath and Wells, Rev. Dr. Gloag, and the Rev. D. Eales. 
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Pulpit Commentary, The — Continued, 

Btitimn and Jamas. By the Rev. J. Barmby, D.D. and Rev. Pre- 
bendary £. C. S. Gibson. Third Edition. 151. 

Patar, John, and Jnda. By the Rev. B. C Caffin, Rev. A. Plumioer, 
D.D. and the Rev. F. D. Salmond, D.D. Second Edition. 15^. 

B«YdEti<m. Introduction by the Rev. T. Randall. Expodtion by 
the Rev. T. Randall, assisted by the Rev. T. Plummer, D.D., 
andA.T. BOTT. Second Edition, 1 51. 

Imitation of Christ. By Thomas A Kempis. Revised 

Translation. Elzevir 8w (Parchment Library), Vellum^ 'js, 6cL ; 
Parchment or cloth^ 6s, Red Line Edition. Fcap, 8w, 2s. 6d. 
Cabinet Edition^ Small %tfOj is, 6d, ; Cloth limp, is. Miniature 
Edition, 32/7^7, with Red Lines^ is, 6d, ; without Red lAnes^ is, 

De Imitatione Ohristi. Latin and English. Crown Svo, 
7s, 6d, 

Seeds and Sheaves: Thoughts for Incurables. By Lady 
LovAT. Crown S/vo, $1. 

Pascal's Thoughts. Translated by C. Kegan Paul. Fcap. 
$vo, Parchment, 12s. Mew Edition, Crown &w, 6s, 

Catholic Dictionary, containing some Account of the Doctrine, 
Discipline, Rites, Ceremonies, Councils, and Religious Orders of the 
Catholic Church. Edited hy Thomas Arnold. Fourth Edition. 
8v0, 2 If. 

Manual of Catholic Theology, based on Scheeben's ' Dog- 
matik.' By Rev. Thomas B. Scannell and Joseph Wilhblm, 
D.D. 2 vols. 8w. Vol. I. 15J. 

What are the Catholic Claims 7 By Austin Richardson. 

Introduction by Rev. Luke Rivington. Crown ^0, 3j. 6d. 

Authority; or, a Plain Reason for Joining the Church of 
Rome. By Rev. Luke Rivington. Fifth Edition, Crown 8w, 
3J. 6d, 

Dependence; or, The Insecurity of the Anglican Position. 
By Rev. Luke Rivington. Crown 8w, 5^. 

Towards Evening : Selections from the Writings of Cardinal 
Manning. Fourth Edition, zoith Facsimile. i6mo, 2s, 

Gospel according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke, The. 

Elzevir 8w (Parchment Library), Fcllum, Js, 6d, Parchment or 
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Jesus Christ. By the Rev. Father Didon, of the Order of 

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SnpematDtal In Nature, The. A Verification by the Free 

use of Science. By Rev. J. W. Rbynolds. Third EdUicHf revised 
and enlarged, 8tv, 141. 

MjBtery of the Uniyerae Our dommon Faith. By Rev. J. W. 

Reynolds. Sv^, 14^. 

VyBtery of Miradas. By Rev. J. W. Reynolds. Xhird 

EdiHon^ enlarged. Crown $vo, 6s, 

World to Ctame, Tha Immortality a Physical Fact By Rev. 
J. W. Reynolds. Crown 8iv» 6s. 

The Origiii and Beligiona Oontenta of the Psalter. The 

Bampton Lectures, 1889. By Canon T. K. Chbynb. 8cv, i6s. 

Isaiah, The Proiihecies ofl By Canon Cheyne. With Notes 

and Dissertations. Fifth Edition, 2 vols. Svo^ 25^. 

Job and Solomon ; or, The Wisdom of the Old Testament. 
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The Book of Psalms ; or, the Praises of Israel, with Com- 
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The Book of Psalms. By Canon Cheyne. Elzevir Zvo 

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Parables of omr Lord, Notes on the. By Archbishop Trench. 

8w, I2J. Cheap Edition. Fifty-sixth Thousand, Is, 6d, 

Kiracles of omr Lord, Notes on the. By Archbishop Trench. 

Szv, I2s, Cheap Edition, Forty -eighth Thousand, Js, 6d, 

Brief Thoughts and Meditations on some Passages in Holy 

Scripture. By Archbishop Trench. Third Edition, Crown Svo, 
3s,6d. 

Apocalypse: Commentary on the Epistles to the Seven 

Churches of Asia. By Archbishop Trench. Fourth Edition, 
revised, 8ev, Ss. 6d, 

New Testament^ On the Authorised Version of the. By 
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Studies in the Gospels. By Archbishop Trench. JnffA 

Edition, revised, Svo, liys, 6d, 

Synonyms of the New Testament By Archbishop Trench. 

Tenth Edition, enlarged, Svo, 12s, 

Sermons, New and Old. By Archbishop Trench. Crown 
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Shipwrecka of FUth : Three Sermons preached before the 
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2s.6d. 

Westminster and other Sermons. By Archbishop Trench. 

CfXfwn avOf 6Sm 
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Cheaper Edition, Small %vo, 31. 6d. 

St. Panl's Epistle to the Corinthians. Expository Lectures. 
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Lectnres and Addresses, with other Literary Remains. By 
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Sermons. By Rev. F. W. Robertson. Five Series. StnaU 
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*«* Portrait of the late Rev. F. W. Robertson, mounted lor 
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Oreat Question, The, and other Sermons. By William 
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Apostles' Qreed, Tha Sermons by Rev. Robert Eyton. 
Crown ^0, y, 6d, 

Tme Life, The, and other Sermons. By Rev. Robert Eyton. 

Crown SvOf Js. 6d, 

The Lord's Prayer: Sermons. By Rev. Robert Eyton. 

Crown Svo, y, 6d. 

Tremadoc Sermons : Chiefly on the Spiritual Body, the Un- 
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Fourth Edition, Crown 8w, 6f. 

Prayer of Humanity, The. Sermons on the Lord's Prayer. 
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Temple of Humanity, The, and other Sermons. By Rev. 

H. N. Grimley. Crown Svo, 6s, 

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selected from the published Sermons of the late Edward Bouverie 
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Disputed Points and Special Occasions, Sermons on. By 

George Dawson. Edited by his Wife. Fifth Edition, Small ^00, 
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AQtbentic Qcep^ The, and other Sermons. By George 
Dawson. Edited by Gborob St. Clair. F^rih Edition, Small 
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Every -Day OonnselK. By George Dawson. £dited by 
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Prayers. By George Dawson. First Series. Edited by 
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Book of Job, Conunentaxy on the. By Samuel Cox, D.D. 
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Balaam: An Exposition and a Study. By Samuel Cox, 
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Miracles : An Argument and a Challenge. By Samuel Cox, 

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Salvator Mnndi; or, Is Christ the Saviour of all Men? By 
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Larger Hope, The. A Sequel to ^ Salvator Mundi.' Second 
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Qenesis of Evil, and other Sermons, mainly Expository. By 
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Pormation of the Qospels. By F. P. Badham. Crcnvn Svo, 
2s, 6d, 

Present Day Oounsels. By Rev. W. L. Paige Cox. Crown 
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The Bible Tme firom the Beginning : A Commentary on all 
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Larger Hope, Our Catholic Inheritance in the. By Alfred 

GuRNBY. Crown Szv, is. 6d, 

Meditations on Death and Eternity. Translated from the 
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Gracious Permission. Crown 8tv, 6s, 

Meditations on Life and its Religions Duties. Translated 
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Higher Life, The : Its Reality, Experience^ and Destiny. By 
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Doctrine of Aimihilfttion in the JAgkt of the QoqM ^ hove. 
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2s. 6d, 

Ohilst in Modem Life. By Rev. Stopford A. Brook& 

Stvetituntk Edition, Crcwn 8fW, 5^. 

Ohiistlan Life, The Spirit of the. By Rev. Stopford A. 
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Fight of Faith, The : Sermons preached on various occasions, 
by Rev. Stopford A. Brookb. Sixth Edition, Crown &», 5x. 

Sermons. Two Series. By Rev. Stopford A. Brooke. 

Thirteenth Edition. Crown 8ev, 51. each. 

Theology in the English Poets— Cowper, Coleridge, Words- 
worth, and Burns. By Rev. Stopford A. Brookb. Sixth Edition, 

Post OfWf $J. 

Onrrent Coin. By Rev. H. R. Haweis. Materialism — The 
Devil — Crime — Drunkenness — Pauperism — Emotion — Recreation 
—The Sabbath. Sixth Edition, Crcwn 8»<7, $5. 

Arrows in the Air. By Rev. H. R. Haweis. Fifth Edition, 
Crown Svo, 51, 

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Ninth Edition. Crown Svo, is, 6d. JPaper, is. 

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each. 
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Religious Life of England, Retrospect of the ; or, Church, 
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Post%euo, is, 6d, 

The Early History of Balliol College. By Frances de 

PaRAVICINI. 8»^, I2f. 

History of St. Martin's Ohurch, Canterbury. By Canon 
C. F. RouTLBDGB. Crown Szfo, 5j. 

The Maldng of Italy, 1856-1870. By The O'Clery. Svo, 
1 6 J. 

The Irish in Britain from the Earliest Times to the Fall 
and Death of Pamell. By John Denvir. Crown Svo, 6s, 

The Martyrdom of Man. By Winwood Reade. Fourteenth 
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Popular History of the Mexican People. By K. H. Ban- 

« CROFT. SzfO, I5J. 

An^lo-Jewish History, Sketches of. By James Picciotto. 

Scripture History for Jewish Schools and Families, Mannal 
of. By L. B. Abrahams. With Map. Crown 8cv, is. 6d, 

Blunders and Forgeries : Historical Essays. By T. ' E. 
Bridgett. Crown Svo, 6s. 

The Gypsies. By C. G. Leland. Crtmm Svo, lox. 6d. 

Oriental History. See Works on Oriental Subjects. 



TRAVELS, VOYAQE8, AND QUIDE-BOOK& 

Equatorial Afirica. The Kilima-NJaro Expedition : A Record 
of Scientific Exploration in Eastern Equatorial Africa. By H. H. 
Johnston. With 6 Maps and 80 Illustrations. 8w, 21s. 

South Africa. — Matabele Land and the Victoria Falls : A 

Naturalist's wanderings in the interior of South Africa. By Frank 
Gates. Edited by C. G. Gates. With numerous Illustrations and 
4 Maps. ^Wf 21 s. 

Zululand. — Oetywayo and his White Neighbours; or, Re- 
marks on Recent Events in Zululand, Natal, and the Transvaal. By 
H. Rider Haggard. TAt'rd Edition. Crown 8w, 6s. 

South America, Around and About: Twenty Months of 
Quest and Query. By Frank Vincent. With Maps, Plans, and 
54 Illustrations. Mtdtum Svo, 21s, 

Chiiana, Among the Indians of: Sketches, chiefly Anthro- 
pologic, from the interior of British Guiana. By Everard F. Im 
Thurn. With 53 Illustrations and a Map. $po, iSs. 

British New Guinea, Toil, Travel, and Discovery in. By 
Theodore F. Bevan. With 5 Maps. Ztf^jr crown 8tw, 7s. 6d. 

Two Tears in a Jungle, by W. T. Hornaday. With 

Illustrations. Zvo^ 2is. 

History of a Slave. By H. H. Johnston. With Forty- 
seven Illustrations. Square %vo^ 6s, 

Fu-Sang ; or, The Discovery of America by Chinese Buddhist 
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Kashmir and Kashgar: The Journey of the Embassy' to 
Kashgar in 1873-74. By Surgeon-General H. W. Bbllew. 
Svtf, los, 6d. 

Egypt: Leaves from an Egyptian Note-Book. By Canon 

Isaac Taylor. Crown Svo^ 51. 

Egypt as a Winter Resort By F. M. Sandwith. Crvu/n 

. ZvOt 3f. 6d, 

Japan : Notes of a Tour from Brindisi to Yokohama, 1883- 
1884. By Lord Ronald Gower. Fcap, 8w, 2j. 6d. 

Ceylon. —A Visit to Oeylon. By Professor Ernst Haeckel. 
Post 8w, 7J. 6d. 

Bermuda Islands. By A. Heilprin. Zvo^ i8x. 

Holy Land, Forty Days in the. By E. H. Mitchell. 

With 6 Illustrations. Crown 8z^, 6s, 

Bulgaria, Past and Present: Historical, Political, and De- 
scriptive. By Jambs Samuelson. With Map and numerous 
Illustrations. %vOy los, 6d. 

H.B.H. The Duke of Olarence and Avondale in Southern 

India. By J. D. Rees. With a narrative of Elephant Catching in 
Mysore, by G. P. Sanderson. With Map, Portraits, and Illustra- 
tions. Medium 8w, 31J. 6d, 

Lord Oonnemara's Tours in India, 1886-1890. By J. D. 
Rees. With Maps. 8w, ly. 

Buried Cities and Bible Countries. By George St. Clair. 
Large crovm 8»(?, is, 6d, 

Naples in 1888. By E. N. Rolfe and H. Ingleby. With 
Illustrations. Crown Svo, 6s, 

Venetian Studies. By Horatio F. Brown. Crown Svo, js, 6d. 

Lagoons, Life on the. By H. F. Brown. With 2 Illustra- 
tions and Map. Crown SvOj 6s. 

G^emIany, Present and Past By S. Baring-Gould. JVew 
and cheaper Edition, Large crown 800, 7^. 6d, 

Carlsbad and its Natural Healing Agents. By J. Kraus. 
With Notes by John T. Wallers. Third Edition, Crown 
%vOy 6s, 6d, 

The Alps. By Prof. F. Umlauft. Translated by Louisa 
Brough. With no Illustrations, ^vo^ 2y. 



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B*. Bradsliaw's Dictionary of Mineral Waters, Climatic 

Health Resorts, Sea Baths, and Hydropathic Establishments. VTiih 
Maps and Plans. Crown Svo, 2j. 6d, 

Alone through Syria. By Ellen E. Miller. With an Intro- 
duction by Prof. A. H. Sayce. With 8 Illustrations. Second Edition, 
Cr. 8w, 5J. 

Arctic Expedition. — The Great Frozen Sea : A Personal 
Narrative of the Voyage of the AUrt during the Arctic Expedition of 
1875-76. By Captain Albert Hastings Majblkham. With 
Illustrations and Map. Sixth and cheaper Edition, Crown 2(oo^ 6f. 

North Wales.— Through North Wales with a Knapsack. By 

Four Schoolmistresses. With a Sketch Map. Small Svo, zs. 6d. 

Madeira, Handbook of the Island o£ By J. M. Rendell. 

With Plan and Map. Second Edition, Fcap, 8cv, \s, 6d, 

The Architecture of the Churches of Denmark. By Major 
Alfred Healbs. %vOy 141. 



BIOGRAPHY. 

St. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury and Primate of the 
Britains, Life and Times of. By Martin Rule. 3 w/j., 8tw, 32J. 

Thomas Becket, Martyr Patriot By R. A. Thompson. 

Crown Svo, 6j. 

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Canterbury, Life, Times, and Writings oL By C. H. Collette. 
8w, 7s. 6d, 

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C. Benson. Crown Sivo, 6s, 

John Henry Newman, the Founder of Modem Anglicanism, 
and a Cardinal of the Roman Church. By Wilfrid Mbynell. 
Crown Szfo, 2s, 6d, 

John Henry Newman. Contributions chiefly to the Eariy 
History of the late Cardinal Newman; By F. W. Newman. 
Crown Svo, 3^. 6d, 

Archbishop Trench, Letters and Memorials of. By the 

Author of * Charles Lowder.* With 2 Portraits. 2 vols, Svo, 2is. 

Bishop Wilberforce of Oxford and Winchester, Life of By 

his Son. Crown Svo, gs. 

Antonio Bosmini Sorhati, Life of By Rev. W. Lockhart. 
With Portraits. 2 vols, crown Svo, iSx. 



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P. W. Bobertson, Life and Letters of. Edited by Stopford 
Brooke. 

I. Library Edition, with Portrait. Svo, I2s, 
II. With Portrait. 2 vols, crown Svo, 7 J. 6d, 
III. Popular Eklition. Crtmrn Bvo, 6s» 

Bishop Selwyn of New Zealand and of Lichfield : A Sketch 
of His Life and Work, with further gleanings from his Letters, 
Sermons, and Speeches. By Canon Curteis. Lar^e crown 8w, 
7j. (>d. 

Bishop Bawle: A Memoir. By G. Mather and C J. 
Blago, Large crown %vo, ys. 6d, 

Bishop Forbes : A Memoir. By Donald J. Mackay. With 
Portrait and Map. Crown Svo, *js, 6d. 

Burke, T. N., Life of the Very Rev. By W. J. Fitzpatrick. 
With Portrait. 2 vols, 8w, 30J. 

Alexander Heriot Mackonochie: A Memoir. By £. A. T. 
Edited, with Preface, by E. F. Russell. With Portrait and Views. 
Large crown 8v^, ^s, 6a, Cheap Edition, crown 8zv, jj. 6fif. 

Pope Joan : An Historical Study, from the Greek of Rhoidis. 
Translated by C. H. Collette. \2mo, 2j. 6d, 

William Gaston, England's First Printer, Biography and 
Topography of. By W. Blades. %vo, hand-made pater, imitaium 
oid bevelled binding, £i, is. Cheap Edition, Crown ovo, 5^. 

Francis Bacon, Life and Times of. By James Spedding. 

2 vols, post $V0, 21 S. 

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Life of. By Edward Dowdkn, LL.D. 

With Portraits. 2 vo/s, &vo, 36J, 

In Tennyson Land: A Brief Account of the Home and 
Early Surroundings of the Poet Laureate. By J. Cuming Walters. 
With Illustrations. 8v<7, 5x. 

Longfellow, Life o£ By his Brother Samuel Longfellow. 

With Portraits and Illustrations. 3 vols, Svo, 42s. 

Lord L3rtton, Life, Letters, and Literary Remains of Edward 
Bulwer, Lord Lytton. By the Earl of Lytton. With Portraits, 
Illustrations, and Facsimiles. Svo, vols, L and IL, 32J. 

Balph Waldo Emerson, Talks with. By C. J. Woodbury. 

Crown Svo, $s. 

Emerson at Home and Abroad. By M. D. Conway. With 
Portrait. Post Svo, los. 6d, [Philosophloal Library. 

Oeorge Eliot, Thoughts upon her Life, her Books, and 
Herself By Ma&garst Lonsdale. Second Edition, Small Svo, 
U.6d, 



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John Loihrop Motley : A Memoir. By Oliver Wendkll 

HOLMBS. Croton Szw, 6s, 

Giordano Bmno, the Nolan, Life of. By I. Frith. Re- 
vised by Professor MoRiz Carriers. With Portrait PostSvo, 14s, 

Benedict de Spinoza, Life, Correspondence, and £thics of. 

By R. Willis. 8w, 21s. 

Thomas k Eempis : Notes of a Visit to the Scenes in which 
the Life of Thomas k Kempis was spent. By F. R. Cruisk. With 
numerous Illustrations. $tw, izs, 

Lessing : His Life and Writings. By James Sime. Second 
Edition, 2 vols. With Portraits. Post ^uo, 21s, 

[PbUosophloal Ilbnzy. 

Edgar Qtdnet : His Early Life and Writings. By Richard 
Heath. With Portraits, Illustrations, and an Autograph Letter. 
Post Stfo, i2s, 6d, [FtiUoiopliical LIbnry 

Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Memoir of. By W. Smith. 

Second Edition, Post 8t»?, 45. 

James Hinton, Life and Letters of. With an Introduction 
by Sir W. W. Gull, and Portrait engraved on steel by C H. JssNS. 
Sixth Edition, Crown 8zv7, &r. 6d, 

Dr. Appleton: His Life and Literary Relics. By J. H. 
Appleton and A. H. Saycb. Post Sw, los, 6d. 

[FIiilMoplileal UUruy. 

Mendelssohn's Letters to Ignaz and Charlotte Moscheles. 
Translated by Felix Moscheles. Numerous Illustrations and 
Facsimiles. ^0, 12s. 

William Oharles Macready. By William Archer. Crvwn 
Svo, 2s, 6d, [Rm1n<mt Acton. 

Thomas Betterton. By R W. Lowe. Crown Stfo, 2s, 6^. 

[Eminent Acton. 

Oharles Macklin. By Edward Abbott Parry. Crown Zvo^ 
2s. 6d, [Bminent Aeton 

Charles Dickens and the Stage ; or, A Record of his Con- 
nection with the Drama. By T. Edgar Pbmbsrton. Crvwn 

Zvo, 6s, 

John Leech, Artist and Humourist : A Biographical Sketch. 
By Fred G. Kitton. iZmo, is, 

Major-(}eneral Sir Thomas Munro : A Memoir. By Sir A. 
J. Arbuthnot. Crown 9tfo, y, 6d, 



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Major-Oeneoral 0. G. Qordon, His Journals at Khartoum. 
Printed from the Original Mss., with Introduction and Notes by 
A. Egmont Hake. Portrait, 2 Maps, and 30 Illustrations. 2 vols, 
SvOf 2ls. Cheap Edition^ 6s, 

Oordon's Last Journal: A Facsimile of the Last Journal 
received in England from General Gordon. Reproduced by photo- 
lithography. Imperial 4/^, ;^3, 35. 

General Gordon, Events in the Life of, from the Day of his 
Birth to the Day of his Death. By Sir H. W. Gordon. With 
Maps and Illustrations. Second Edition, ^0, p, 6d, 

Beynell Taylor, O.B., O.S.L : A Biography. By E. Gambier 
Parry. With Portrait and Map. Svo, 14s. 

President Garfield, Life and Public Services of James A. 
Garfield, President U. S. A. By Captain F. H. Mason. With a 
Preface by Bret Harte. Portrait. Crozvn Zvo, 2s. 6d. 

Gonvemeur Morris : Minister of the United States to France, 
Diary and Letters of. By Anne C. Morris. With Portraits. 
2 vols, Svo, $os, 

Madame de Maintenon. By Emily Bowles. With Por- 
trait Lar^ crown 8w, 'js, td, 

Marie Antoinette, Last Days of: An Historical Sketch. By 
Lord Ronald Gowbr. With Portrait and Facsimiles. Fcap. 4/^, 
105. 6d, 

Bnpert of the Rhine : A Biographical Sketch of the Life of 
Prince Rupert. By Lord Ronald Gower. With 3 Portraits. 
Crown $vo, buckram^ ts, 

Mjr Beminiflcences. By Lord Ronald Gower. Miniature 
Edition. Printed on hand-made paper^ limp parchment antique, 
los. 6d. 

ParacelBUB, Life of, and the Substance of his Teachings. By 
Franz Hartmann. Post Svo, los, 6d, 

The Life of Francis Duncan, O.B., B.A., MP. By Rev. 
Henry Birdwood Blogg. With Introduction by Lord Bishop of 
Chester. Crown Sv^, 3^. 6d, 

Jacob Boehme, Life and Doctrines of. An Introduction to 
the Study of his Works. By Franz Hartmann. Post %vo, los, 6d. 

Robert Dale Qwen: Threading my Way: Twenty-seven 
Years of Autobiography. Crown Svo, ys, 6d. 

D. D. Home : His Life and Mission. By Mroe. Dunglas 
Home. With Portrait. 8zv, 10s, 

ae Blavatsky, Incidents in the Life of. By A. P. 
Sinnett. With Portrait. Sw, lox. 6d, 



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Alexander Osoma de Edrds, Life and Works of, between 1819 
and 1842. With a short notice of all his Works and Essays, from 
original documents. By Theodoiib Duka. Post Sw, gs. 

[Trtiliiier*! Oriental florles. 

Sister Dora: A Biography. By Margaret Lonsdale. 
With Portrait TkirtUih Edition, Small %vo, 2s, 6d. 

Philip Henry Gosse, Life of. By his Son, Edmund Gosse. 
8w, 155. 

Julius and Mary Mohl, Letters and Recollections of. By 
M. C. M. Simpson. With Portraits and 2 Illustrations. 8w, 15^. 

Charles Lewder : A Biography. By the Author of St 
Teresa, Twelfth Edition, With Portrait. Crown 8w, 31. 6d, 

William Ellis, Founder of the Birkbeck Schools, Life of. By 
E. Kell Blyth. Second Edition. Svo, 14s. 

Henry Bradshaw : A Memoir. By G. W. Prothero. With 

Portrait and Facsimile. Svo, i6s, 

Memoirii of Arthur Hamilton, B.A., of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. Crown 8w, 6s, 

Mrs. Gilbert : Autobiography, and other Memorials. Edited 
by JosiAH Gilbert. Fifth Edition, Crown 8w, ys, 6d. 

James Skinner: A Memoir. By the Author of CharUs 
Lowder, With Preface by the Rev. Canon Carter, and Portrait. 
Large crown Svo, Js. 6d. Cheap Edition, Crown 8w?, y, 6d. 

Thomas Davis : The Memoirs of an Irish Patriot By Sir C. 
Gavan Duffy. 8w, 12s, 

John Mitchel, Life of. By W. Dillon. With Portrait. 

2 vols. Svo, 2 1 J. 

Thomas Drummond : Life and Letters of Thomas Drummond, 
Under-Secretary in Ireland, 1835-40. By R. Barry O'Brien. 
Svo, 14s, 

Life of B. John Juvenal Ancina. By Fr. Charles Henry 
Bowden. Svo, gs. 

A Nun : Her Friends and Her Order. Being a Sketch of 
the Life of Mother Mary Xaveria Fallon. By Katharine Tynan. 
Crown Svo, ^s. 

The Last Colonel of the Lrish Brigade, Count O'Connell, 

and Old Irish Life at Home and Abroad, 1745-1833. By Mrs. 
Morgan J. O'Connell. 2 vols. Svo, 25^. 

Diaries of Sir Daniel Gooch, Bart. With an Introductory 
Notice by Sir Theodore Martin, K.C.B. With 2 Portraits and 
an Illustration. Croivn Svo, 6j. 



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Mrs. Richard Trendi, Remains of the late, being Selections 
from her Journals, Letters, and other papers. Edited by her son, 
Archbishop Trench. New and cheaper Edition. With Portraits, 

Biographical Sketchea By C. Kegan Pauu Crown 87/^, 
7J. 6rf. 

Maria Dmmmond : A Sketch. Post Svo, 2s. 

Oonfessio Viatoris. Pcqfi. Svo, 2s. 

Biographical Lectures. By George Dawson. Edited by 
George St. Clair. Third Edition. Large crown 9vo, yj. 6d, 

Brave Men's Footsteps : A Book of Example and Anecdote 
for young people. By the editor of Men who have Risen, Illustra- 
tions by C Doyle. Ninth Edition, Crown 8w, 2s, 6d, 

Well-spent Lives: A Series of Modern Biographies. By 
Herbert Edmonds. A^ew and cheaper Edition, Crown 8w, 3J. 6d, 

Episodes in the Lives of Men, Women, and Lovers. By 

Edith Simcox. Crown Svo, p. 6d, 

From World to Oloister ; or, My Novitiate. By 'Bernard.' 
Crown Svo, 5J. 



WORKS ON EDUCATION. 

Educational Theories, Introduction to the History of. By 
Oscar Browning. Second Edition. 35. 6d. [Education Library. 

Education as a Science. By Alex. Bain. Seventh Edition. 

Crown Svo, ^s. [L 8. 8. 

Education, Scientific and Technical ; or, How the Inductive 
Sciences are taught, and how they ought to be taught. By Robert 
Galloway. 8w^?, loj. 6d. 

Industrial Education. By Sir Philip Magnus. 6^. 

[Edacatlon Library. 

The Education of Girls ; and The Employment of Women 
of the Upper Classes educationally considered. By W. B. Hodgson. 
Second Edition. Crown Svo, y. 6d. 

Women and Work : An Essay on the Higher Education of 
Girls. By Emily Pfeiffer. Crown Svo, 6s. 

School Management : Including a General View of the Work 
of Education, Organisation, and Discipline. By Joseph Landon. 
Seventh Edition, Crown Svo, 6s, [£<laoatlO]i Library. 



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Home Edncation : A course of Lectures to Ladies. By 
Charlottb M. Mason. Crown Sva, y. 6d, 

Old Greek Education. By Professor Mahaffy. Second 
Edition, y. 6d, [Edacatlon Litaraxy. 

Education of the Human Race, from the German of Gott- 
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Public Schools, Our : Eton, Harrow, Winchester, Rugby, 
Westminster, Marlborough, and the Charterhouse. Crowft 8zv, 6s, 

Freedom in Science and Teaching. By Professor Ernst 
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Crown Svo, $s. 

GREEK AND LATIN CLASSiCSi ETO. 

Homer's Iliad, Greek Text, with Translation. By J. G. 
CORDERY. 2 vols. Svo, 1 4/. C/iea^ Edition (translation only), Crown 
8w, $s. 

iEschylus : The Seven Plays. Translated into English Verse 
by Professor Lewis Campbell. Crown 8i», yx. 6d. 

Sophocles : The Seven Plays. Translated into English Verse 
by Professor Lewis Campbell. Crown 8w, js, td, 

Horatius* Placcus, Q., Opera. Edited by F. A. Cornish. 

With Frontispiece. Eitcvir Zvo (Parchment Librai/), vellum^ fs, 6»/.; 
parchment or clothy 6s, 

Pliny. The Letters of Pliny the Younger. Translated by 
J. D. Lewis. Post Svo, jss. 

lAry. Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livius. 
From the Italian of Niccol6 Maciuavelli. By N. Hill Thomp- 
SON. Lar^e crown SzHf, I2s. 

Philological Introduction to Greek and Latin for Students. 

Translated and adapted from the Cjerman by C. Kegan Paul and E. 
D. Stone. Third Edition, Crown Svo, 6s, 

Plutarch: His Life, his Lives, and his Morals. By Arch- 
BISHOP Trench. Second Edition enlarged, Fcap, 8cv, y. 6d, 

WORKS ON MILITARY SCIENCE. 

Tactics— Elements of Modem Tactics, practically applied to 
English Formations. By Lieut. -Col. Wilkinson Shaw. Seventh 
Edition. With 31 Plates and Maps. Small crown 8w, 9J. 



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Notes on Military Surveying and Reconnaissance. By 

Lieut-Col. W. Paterson. With 16 Plates. 8w, 'js. 6rf. 
Tactics. — Minor Tactics. By Gen. C. Francis Clery. With 

26 Maps and Plans. Eleventh Edition, revised. Crown Svo, gs, 

Pield Artillery: Its Equipment, Organisation, and Tactics. 
By Lieut. -Colonel Pratt. Fourth Edition, Small crown ^o, 6s, 

Field Works: Their Technical Construction and Tactical 
Application. By Major-General Brackbnbury. 2twls, Small 
crown Svo, lis. 

Field Training, System of. By Major C. K. Brooke. 

Small crown Svo, cloth limp, 2s, 

Oavalry in Modem War. By Major-General Trench. 

Small crown Svo, 6s, 

Oavalry Tactics, Organisation, etc., Notes on. By a Cavalry 
Officer. With Diagrams. Svo, 12s, 

Defence and Attack of Positions and Localities. By Col. 

H. SCHAW. Fourth Edition, Crown Svo, is, 6d, 

Military Law: Its Procedure and Practice. By Lieut- 
Col. Pratt. Seventh Revised Edition, Small crown Svo, 4J. 6d, 

Military Administration, Elements ofl By Major Buxton. 

First Part : Permanent System of Administration. Small crown 
Svo, Js. 6d, 

Military Tribunals. By Lieut.-Col. C. F. Colvile. Crown 
Svo, sewed, zr. 6d. 

Military Sketching and Beconnaissance. By Col. Hutchin- 
son and Major Macgregor. Fifth Edition, With 16 Plates. 
Small crown Svo, 45. 

Modem War. Translated by C. W. Foster. Part I. 
Strategy, and Atlas of 64 Plates. Svo, £1, l6s. Part IL Grand 
Tactics, I5J. 

Officer's Memorandum Book for Peace and War. By Col. 
R. Harrison. Fourth Edition, revised. Oblong S2mo, red basU, 
with pencil, 35. 6d, 

Preliminary Tactics. An Introduction to the Study of War. 
For the use of Junior Officers, By Major Eden Baker, R.A. 
Crown Svo, 6s, 

Tactical Questions and Answers on the InfiEkntry Drill Book, 

1892. Compiled by Captain H. R. Gat.k Third Edition, Crown 
Svo, IS, 6d, 

The British Army and onr Defensive Position in 1892. 

Founded on Speeches and Memoranda and on Parliamentary Papers 
and Returns. With a Preface by the Right Hon. E. Stanhope, 
M.P., Secretary of State for War. Crown Svo, is, 
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BOTANY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Origin of Floral Stractores througli Insect and other 

Agencies. By Professor G. Henslow. With 88 Illustnilions. 
Crvwn ^00 i 55; [L B. 8. 

Origin of Onltivated Plants. By Alphonss de Candolle. 

Second Edition, Crown Svo, Ss. [L S. 8. 

British Discomycetes, Manual of With Descriptions of all 

the Species of Fungi hitherto found in Britain included in the family, 
and with Illustrations of the Genera. By W. Phillips. Crvwn 
Svo, 5J. [L a. 8. 

Fungi: their Nature, .Influences, and Uses. By M. C 
Cooks. Edited by M. J. Berkeley. With numerous Illustrations. 
FourtA Edition. Crown Svo, 5j. [L 8. 8. 

British Bdible Fungi ; How to Distinguish and How to Cook 
Them. With Coloured Figures of upwards of Forty Species. Crown 
Svo, 7s, 6d. 

Fresh Water Alga, Introdnction to. With an Enumeration 
of all the British Species. By M. C Cooke. With 13 Plates. 
Crown ^0, 5J. [L 8. 8. 

Botany, First Book of Designed to Cultivate the Observing 
Powers of Children. By Eliza A. Youmans. With 300 lUustia- 
tions. New and cheaper Edition, Crown 8zv, 2s, 6d, 

The Oak: A Popular Introduction to Forest Botany. By 
H. Marshall Ward. Crown Svo, 2s, 6d. {Modem Science Series.) 

Bambles and Adventures of our School Field Olub. By G. 

Christopher Davies. With 4 lUustrations. New and cheaper 
Edition, Crown %vo^ y, 6cL 

Homy Sponges, Monograph of the. By R. von Lenden- 

rELD. With 50 Plates. Issued by direction of the Royal Society. 

Microbes, Ferments, and Moulds. By £. L. Trouessart. 

With 107 Illustrations. 5^. [L 8. S. 

The Orayflsh : An Introduction to the Study of Zoology. By 
Professor T. H. Huxley. With 82 lUustrations. Fifth EdUion. 

Crown SvOf $s, [I. 8. 8. 

History of Creation, The. By Professor Ernst Haeckel. 
Translation revised by Professor E. Ray Lankester. With 
Coloured Plates and Genealogical Trees of the yarious groups of 
both Plants and Animals. Third Edition. 2 vd/s, post Svo, 3zr. 

Jelly-Fish, Star-Fish, and SesrUrchins : Being a Research 
on Primitive Nervous Systems. By G. J. Romanes. With lUustra- 
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The Horse : A Study in Natural History. By W. H. Flower. 
Crown 8w, 2J. 6d, {Modem Science Series. ) 

Mental Evolution in AnliriailB. By G. J. Romanes. With 
Posthumous Essay on Instinct by Charles Darwin. ^Oy i2j. 

Animal Intelligence. By G. J. Romanes. Fourth Edition. 

Crown 8w, 5^. . [L 8 .8. 

Descent and Darwinism, Doctrine of. By Professor O. 
Schmidt. With 26 Illustrations. Seventh Edition. Crown $vo, 
SJ. [L 8. B. 

Mammalia in their Relation to Primeval Times. By O. 
Schmidt. With 51 Woodcuts. Crown 8w, 5J. [I. S. 8. 

Senses, Instincts, and Intelligence of Animals. With 
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Ants, Bees, and Wasps : A Record of Observations on the 
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Natural Conditions of Existence as they affect Animal 
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Edited by J. E. Harting. With Portrait and Map. 8w, 14s. 

Sonth African Butterflies : A Monograph of the Extra 
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Taxidermy and Zoological Collecting. By W. T. Hornabay. 

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Australian Birds. — ^Tabular List of all the Australian Birds 
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Evolution of Man, History of the. By Professor Ernst 
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Evolution in Man, Mental : Origin of the Human Faculty. 
By G. J. Romanes. 8zv, 14J. 

Origin of Human Reason. By St. George Mivart. Zvo^ 

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Development of the Human Race, Contributions to the 
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by D. Ashbr. Post ^o, 6s, [PhllOBopliioal Liteaiy. 

The Human Species. By Professor A. de Quatrefages. 

Fifth Edition, Crown Svo, Ss, [L 8. & 

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C N. Starckb. Crown 8«?, 5j. [L S. S. 

Man before Metals. By N. Joly. With 148 Illustrations. 
Fourth Edition. Crown 8w, 5/. [L 8. S. 

Australian Race, The. Its Origin, Languages, Customs, 
etc With Map and Illustrations. By Edward M. Curr. 3 vols. 
Svo, I vol. 4to, £2, 2s, 

Aborigines of Victoria, The. By R. Brough Smith. Com- 
piled for the Government. With Maps, Plates, and Woodcuts. 
2 vols. Royal Svo, £3, 31. 

Polynesian Race, Account of the : Its Origin and Migrations, 
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The Ice Age in North America, and its bearing upon the 
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and Illustrations. Bvo, 21s, 

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Nature and Man. By W. £. Carpenter. With a Memorial 
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Five Senses of Han, The. By Professor Bernstein. With 
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Mental Physiology, Principles of. With their Applications 

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Mnsdes and Nerres, (General Physiology o£ By Professor 

LRosBNTHAL. Third Edition, With 75 Illustrations. Crown 
, ss. [I. B. S. 

Physiological and Pathological Ohemistry, Text-Book of, 

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Surgical Handicraft: A Manual of Surgical Manipulations. 
By Pyb. With 233 Illustrations. Third Edition revised. Crown 
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of Dressers and Nurses. By Pyb. iZmOy zs, 

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LOCKBS. Third Edition, Crown ^uo^ 2s, 6d. 

Epidemics of the Middle Ages, The. Translated from the 
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Colour Blindness and Colour Perception. By F. W. Edridge 

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Snpematnralism. — Natural Oauses and Supernatural Seem- 

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[Las. 

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Colour Sense : Its Origin and Development An Essay in 
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Ethics. — The Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle. Translated 

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Oapital and Wages. By Francis Minton. Svo, i^s. 

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Work Amongst Working Men. By Ellice Hopkins. Six^A 

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Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Causes of 
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Modem Physics, Ooncepts and Theories ot By J. B. 

Stallo. 7%ird Edtiion, Crown 8tv, $s, [L a. 8. 

Exact Sciences, Oommon Sense of the. By W. K. Clifford. 

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The Telephone, the Microphone, and the Phonograph. By 

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Electricity in Daily life : A Popular Account of its Applica- 
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Ohemistry of the Oarbon Oomponnds ; or, Organic Chemistry. 
By Professor Victor von Richter. Authorised Translation by 
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Editum, Crown Svo, 20s, 

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Ohemistry of Light and Photography. By Dr. Hermann 

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Meteorology. — ^Weather : A Popular Exposition of the Nature 
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Meteorology, Elementary. By Robert H. Scott. Fourth 
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The Sun. By Professor Young. With Illustrations. TTiird 
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Ooioor : A Text-Book of Modem OhromaticB. By Ogden 

N. Rood. With 130 Original Illustrations. Third Edition. Crown 
Zvo, Ss. [L 8. 8. 

Spectrom Analysis, Studies in. By J. Norman Lockyer. 

With Six Photographic Illustrations of Spectra, and numerous Engrav- 
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Lights Nature of. By Dr. Eugene Lommel. With a General 
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[L 8. 8. 

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Organs of Speech and their Application in the Formation 
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Forms of Water in Clouds and Rivers^ Ice and Glaciers. 

By Professor J. Tyndall. With 25 Illustrations. JVinth Edition. 
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Animal Mcchanlsm : A Treatise on Terrestrial and Aerial 
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Geology. — Text Book of Geology for Schools. By James 

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Geology, Manual of By James D. Dana. Illustrated by a 
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Geology. — The Geological Story briefly told. By James D. 
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The Oanse of an Ice Age. By Sir Robert Ball. Second 
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loe Age, The, in North America^ and its Bearing upon the 

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Volcanoes, What they Are and What they Teach. By 
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Volcanoes. — The Eruption of Erakatoa^ and Snhseaaent 

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America. — The Lifted and Suhsided Rocks of America. 

with their influence on the Oceanic, Atmospheric, and Land Currents, 
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Physical History of the Earth, Chapters from: An Intro 
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Saturn's Kingdom; or. Fable and Fact By C Moore 

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Mineralogy, System of. By J. D. Dana and G. J. Brush. 

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Technological Dictionary of the Terms employed in the Arts 
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Vol. I. German — English — French. I2J. 

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Technological Dictionary in the English and German Lan- 
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Theoretical Mechanics: A Manual of the Mechanics of 
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Fuel, Treatise on, Scientific and Practical. By Robert 
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Telegraphy. — Instructions for Testing Telegraph Lines. By 

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Nautical Tables : Designed for the Use of British Seamen. 
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Air Analysis: A Practical Treatise, with Appendix on 
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Sugar Analysis. For Refineries, Sugar-Houses, Experimental 
Stations, &c By G. Ferdinand Wibckmann. 8w. los. 6d. 

Blowpipe Analysis, Alphabetical Manual of. By Lieut.-CoL 

W. A. Ross. Crown Svo, Sj. , 

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Ptactical Horse-shoer. By M. T. Richardson. With 170 

lilustxations. Crown $w, 5^. 

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Illustrations. 8v^, £2, 12s. 6d. 

Pure Fertilisers, and the Chemical Conversion of Rock 
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Photography. — Preparation of Drawings for Photographic 

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Mathematics.— Lectures on the Ikosahedron, and the Solution 
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by G. G. MoRRiCE. Svo, los, 6d. 

Mathematical Drawing Instruments, and how to use them. 
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ART AND MUSIC. 

History of Painting, with Numerous Illustrations. By 
Alfred Woltmann and Karl Woermann. Medium Svo, 
VoL I. Painting in Antiquity and the Middle Ages, 28^. Vol. II. 
The Painting of the Renascence, 42s. The two volumes may be had 
^und in clot A, with bevelled boards and gilt leaves^ price ^os, and 45^. 
respectively. 

Discourses. By Sir Joshua Reynolds. Edited by E. Gosse. 
Elsevir Szh> (Parchment Library). Vellum, p. 6d, ; parchment or 
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John Leech: Artist and Humourist By F. G. Kitton. 

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Artists of the Nineteenth Oentury and their Works. By 
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[PUlOBopbical Ulxrary. 

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Songs of Two Worlds. Thirteenth Edition, 

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Owen and Tlie Ode of LUiBi Seventh Edition, 

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The Splo <tf HadM. With 16 Autotype Illustrations, after the 
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Tlie Eplo of Hades. Presentation Edition, s^o, cloth extra, gilt leaves, 

The Bplo of Hades. Elzevir Svo, cloth extra, gilt top, 6s. 

Birthday Booki Edited by S. S. Copeman. With Frontispiece. 

22mo, cloth extra, gilt edges, 2s, ; cloth limp, is. 6d. 
A Vision of Saints. Fcap. Svo, dr. 

Poetical Works of Sir Edwin Arnold. Uniform Edition. 

comprising The Light of Asia, Indian Poetry, Pearls of the Faith, 

Indian Idylls, The Secret of Death, The Song Celestial, and With 

Sa*di in the Garden. 8 vols, crown Svo, 48^. 
In My Lady's Praise. Poems old and new, written to the honour of 

Fanny Lady Arnold. Imperial i6mo, parchment, y. 6d. 
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Indian Poetry, containing the Indian Song of Songs from the Sanskrit, 

two books from the Iliad of India, and other Oriental poems (O. S.)- 

Fifth Edition, 7s, 6d. 
Lotus and Jewel Containing In an Indian Temple, A Casket of Gems, 

A Queen's Revenge, with other poems. Second Edition. Crown 

Svo, 7s. 6d, 
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ful names of Allah. Fourth Edition. Crown Svo, Js, 6d. 
Poems, National and Non-Oriental: with some new pieces. Crown 

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Teaching of Gautama. Presentation Edition. With Illustrations 

and Porti-ait. Small 4/^, 2if. Library Edition^ crown Svo, *js. 6d. 

Elzemr Edition, 6s. Cheap Edition (Lotos Series), cloth or half - 

parchment, 3J. 6d. 

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the Sanskrit. Third Edition, Crown Svo, *is, 6d. 

The Song Celestial; or, Bhagavad-Git&, from the Sanskrit. Second 
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The Works of William Sbakspeire— Continued. 

A Naur Vailonmi Edition of Sliakespeaze. Edited by Horace 
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and IV. * Hamlet,' Vol. v. 'Lear,' VoL vi. 'Othello,* Vol. vii. 
* Merchant of Venice,' Vol. viii. «As You Like It.' iSs. ea^h vol. 

Bonsots. Edited by Edward Dowden. With Frontispiece. Elzevir 
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Index to Bhakespeare'B Works. By E. O'Connor. Crvwn %vo, 51. 

BliakeBpeare Classloal Dictionary ; or, Mythological Allusions in the 
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(hiucer's Oanterbury Tales. Edited by A. W. Poli^rd- 

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Canterbury Chimes; or, Chaucer Tales retold to Children. By F. 
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Poems of P. B. Shelley. Edited by Richard Garnett. 
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ys. 6d. ; Parchment or cloth, 6s. 

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Edition. Crown Svo, cloth, 3^. 6d. 

Selected Poems of Matthew Prior. Edited by Austin 

DOBSON. Elzevir Svo (Parchment Library.) Vellum, ys. 6d. ; 
Parchment or cloth, 6s, 

Fables of John Gay. Edited by Austin Dobson. With 
Portrait. Elzevir Svo (Parchment Library). Vellum, Js. 6d, 
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Selections from Wordsworth. By William Knight and 
other Members of the Wordsworth Society. Printed on hand-made 
paper. Large crown Svo. With Portrait Vellum, 151. 5 /^wrA- 
ment, I2s. Cheap Edition. Crown Svo, 4J. 6cL 

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Works of Sir Henry Taylor. 5 vols, crown Svo, $os, 
Pbilip Taa Arte^elde. Fcap. Svo, p. 6d, 
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The Poems of Ebenezer Elliott. Edited by his son, the 
Rev. Edwin Ellioit, of St. John's, Antigua. 2 vols, crown 8w, i8j. 

Poems by W. Onlleii Bryant. Cheap Edition, Small ^vo^ $s. 6d. 

Poems of Edgar Allan Poe. Edited by Andrew Lang. 
With Frontispiece. Elzevir Svo (Parchment Library). Vellum, 
7s. 6d, ; Parchment or cloik, 6s. 

The Bayen: with Commentary by John H. Ingram. Crown 8w,. 
parchment, 6s. 

Poems by Archbishop Trench. Tenfh Edition. Fcap. %vo^ 
7J. 6d. Library Edition. 2 vols, small Svo, los. 

Sacred Latin Poetry, chiefly Lyrical. By Archbishop Trench. 

Third Edition. Corrected and Improved. Ecap. Svo, 7s. 

Household Book of English Poetry. Edited by Archbishop 
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English Verse. Edited by W. J. Linton and R. H. Stoddard. 

5 z'ols. crorvn Sv^, 5^. each. 

Ghanoer to Bnme. Traiulations. Lyrice of the Nineteenth Century. 
Dramatic Scenes and Characters. Ballads and Romances. 

Bare Poems of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Oenturies. 

Edited by W. J. Linton. Crown Svo, 51. 

English Lyrics. Elzevir Svo (Parchment Library). Vellum, 
ys. 6d. ; Parchment or cloth, 6s. 

English Sacred Lyrics. Elzevir Svo (Parchment Library). 
Vellum, 7s. 6d. ; Parchment or cloth, 6s. 

Selected Poems of Bobert Bums. With an Introduction by 
Andrew Lang. Elzevir Svo, vellum, 7s. 6d. j Parchment or cloth, 
6s. (Parchment Library). 

Ladle. By the late Earl of Lytton. With 32 Illustrations. 
i6mo, 4r. 6d. 

Bhymes from the Bnssian. By John Pollen. Transla- 
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English Odes. Edited by E. Gosse. With Frontispiece. 
Elzevir Svo (Parchment Library). Vellum, 7s. 6d. ; Parchment or 
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Living English Poets. With Frontispiece. By Walter 
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Sea Song and River Rhyme, from Ohaucer to Tennyson. 

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Breitmann Ballads. By C. G. Leland. Only Complete 
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Europe. Crown 8w, 6j. Another Edition (Lotos Series), 3^. 6^. 

Gaudeamns : Humorous Poems from the German of Joseph 
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Pidgin-English Sing-Song; or, Songs and Stories in the 
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Svo, $s. 

Ballades in Blue Ghina. By Andrew Lang. Elzevir Sifo, $s. 

Rhymes d La Mode. By Andrew Lang. With Frontispiece 
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Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect. By William 

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Old World Idylls, and Other Verses. By Austin Dobson. 
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At the Sign of the Lyre. By Austin Dobson. Elzevir 

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Birds and Bahies. By Ethel Coxhead. With 33 Illustra- 
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The Christian Year. By J. Keble. With Portrait. Elzevir 
Svo (Parchment Library). Vellum, *js, 6d, ; Parchment or cloth, 6s. 

The Poems of Wilfrid Scawen Blunt. 
Tbe Wind and the Whirlwind. Svo, is, 6d. 
The LoTe Sonnets of Proteus. Fi/th Edition. Elzevir Svo, $s. 
In Vinculls. With Portrait. Elzevir Svo, Sj. 
A New Pilgrimage ; and other Poems. Elzevir Svo, $s. 

Book of Chinese Poetry. By C. F. Romilly Allen. Being 
the collection of Ballads, Sagas, Hymns, and other Pieces known as 
the Shih Ching, metrically translated. Svo, i6s. 

Shadows of the Lake, and other Poems. By F. Leyton. 

Second Edition, Crown Svo, $s. 

The Poems of Mrs. Hamilton King. The Disciples. TmlA 

Edition. Elzevir Svo, 6s. ; Small Svo, ^s. 
A Book of Dreams. Third Edition. Crown Svo, 3^. 6d. 

Sermon in the Hospital (from ' The Disciples *). Fcap. Svo, is. Cheap 
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A Lover's Litanies, and other Poems. With Portrait of 
Author. By Eric Mackay. (Lotos Series), y, 6d, 

Goethe's Faust. Translated from the German by John 
Anster. With an Introduction by Burdett Mason. With Illus- 
trations (18 in Black and White, 10 in Colour), by Frank 
M. Gregory. Grand folio^ £2> 3^* 

French Lyrics. Edited by George Saintsbury. With 
Frontispiece. Elzanr 8w (Parchment Library). Vellum^ Js. 6d. ; 
Parchment or cloth ^ dr. 

Poems by Allied Qumey. The Vision of the Eucharist, and 
other Poems. Crown Svo, ^s. 
A OtarlBtmas Faggot. Small Szv, 55. 
Voloes from tbe Holy Sepnldire, and other Poems. Crown $vo, ss. 

Poems by Edmund Gosse. New Poems. Crown Svo^ ys. 6d. 

Firdansl In Bzlle, and other Poems. Second Edition, Elzevir Svo, 
gilt top, 6s. 

On Ylol and nnte : Lyrical Poems. With Frontispiece by L. Alma 
Tadema, and Tailpiece by Hamo Thornycroft. Elzevir Svo, 6s, 

London Lyrics. By F. Locker. Tenlh Edition, With 
Portrait. Elzevir Svo, cloth extra, gilt top, ^s, 

En^^ish Oomic Dramatists. Edited by Oswald Crawfurd. 

Elzevir Svo (Parchment Library). Vellum, "js. 6d. ; Parchment or 
cloth, 6s, 

Poems by Tom Dntt. A Sheaf gleaned in French Fields. 
8w, loj. 6d, 

Ancient Ballads and Legends of Hlndnstan. With an Introductory 
Memoir by Edmund Gosse. \Smo, cloth extra, gilt top, 5/. 

St. Augustine's Holiday, and other Poems. By William 
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A Strange Tale of a ScarabSBus, and other Poems. By A. 
C p. Haggard. Crown Svo, 35. 6d, 

A Song-Book of tbe SooL By Marjory G. J. Kinloch. 

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Lyrics and Other Poems. By Lady Lindsay. Second Edition^ 
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Psalms of the West. Small Svo^ is. 6d, 

Loniife do la Vallidre, and other Poems. By Katherine 
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Granite Bnst. Fifty Poems. By Ronald Campbell Macfie. 

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Garmela ; or, The Plague of Naples. Crown Svo^ 2s, 6d. 

The Marriage of the Soul, and other Poems. By W. Scott- 
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Beauty and the Beast ; or, A Rough Outside with a Gentle 
Heart. A Poem. By Charles Lamb. Fcap, %V0y vdlum^ lor. (>tL 

In Hours of Leisure. By Clifford Harrison. Second 

Edition, Crown S/zfo, $s. 

Verses Written in India. By Sir Alfred Lyall. Ehtevir 

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Analysis of Tennyson's ' In Memoriam.' (Dedicated by per- 
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India Kevisited. By Sir Edwin Arnold. With 32 Full 

page lUastrations. Crown SvOy Js, 6d, 

Milton's Prose Writings. Edited by E. Myers. Elzevir 
Svo (Parchment Library). Vellum, ys. 6d. ; Parchment or clotk^ 6/. 

Select Letters of Shelley. Edited by Richard Garnbtt. 

Elzevir Svo (Parchment Library). Vellum^ ys, 6d, ; Parehnune or 
cloth, 6s, 

Oalderon. — Essay on the Life and Genius of Calderon. 

With translations from his ' Life 's a Dream * and * Great Theatre of 
the World.* By Archbishop Trench. Second Edition, ransed 
and improved. Extra f cap. Svo, ^s, 6d, 

Confessions of an English Opium Eater. By de Quincey. 
Edited by Richard Garnett. Elzeznr Svo (Parchment Library). 
Vellum, ys, 6d, ; Parchment or cloth, 6s, 

A Word for the Navy. By Algernon Charles Swinburne. 

(Only 250 Copies printed. ) Imperial i6mo, paper covers, 5*. 

Biglow Papers. By James Russell Lowell. Edited by 
Thomas Hughes, Q.C Fcap, Svo, 2s, 6d, 

Robert Browning.— Studies in the Poetry of Robert Browning. 

By James Fotheringham. Second Edition. Crown Svo, 6s, 

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Goldsmitli's Vicar of Wakefield. Edited by Austin Dob- 
son. Elzevir Zvo (Parchment Library), Vellum, ^js, 6d, ; Parch- 
ment or cloth, dr. 

Eii^teentli Century Essays. Edited by Austin Dobson. 

With Frontispiece. Elzeinr %vo (Parchment Library). Vellum, 
Js, 6d. ; Parchment or cloth, 6s. Cheap Edition, Fcap, Svo, is, 6d. 

Four Centuries of English Letters : A Selection of 350 
Letters by 150 Writers, from the period of the Paston Letters to the 
present lime. Edited by W. B. ScooNES. Third Edition, Large 
crown Svo, 6s, 

Munchausen's Travels and Surprising Adventures. Illus- 
trated by Alfred Crowquill. (Lotos Series), 3J. 6d, 

Specimens of English Prose Style from Malory to Macaulay, 

Selected and Annotated. With an Introductory Essay by George 
Saintsbury. Large crown Svo, printed on hand-made paper, 
vellum, 15J. ; Parchment ant Ofue or cloth, \25, 

Macaulay's Essays on Men and Books : Lord Clive, Milton, 
Earl of Chatham, Lord Byron. Edited by Alex. H. Japp (Lotos 
Series), y, 6d. 

The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia. By Sir Philip 
Sidney, Kt. Edited by H. Oskar Sommer. The original 4to 
Edition (1590) in Photographic Facsimile, with Bibliographical 
Introduction. 

Carlyle's Sartor Resartus. Elzevir Svo (Parchment Library). 
yellum, js, 6d, ; Parchment or cloth, 6s, 

Swift's Letters and Journals. Edited by Stanley Lane 
Poole. Elzevir Svo (Parchment Library). Vellum, ys, 6d, ; 
Parchment or cloth, 6s, 

Swift's Prose Writings. Edited by Stanley Lane Poole. 

With Portrait. Elzevir Svo (Parchment Library). Vellum, *js, 6d, ; 
Parchment or cloth, 6s, 

Vagabunduli Libellus. By John Addington Symonds. 

Crown Svo, 6s, 

Disraeli and His Day. By Sir Willlam Fraser> Bart. 

Second Edition, Post Svo, ^r. 

NOVELS AND WORKS OF FICTION. 

Novels By George MacDonald. 
Donal Grant. With Frontispiece. Crown Svo, 6s, Cheap Edition, 

y, 6d. 
Home Again. With Frontispiece. Crown Svo, 6s, 
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Kaloolm. With Portrait of the Author engraved on SteeL Crown 9aCt 6s, 
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TlM MarqnlB <tf Loaiie. With Frontispiece. Crown %oo^ 6x. Cheap 
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St. George and 81 Michael. With Frontispiece. Crown 9ivo, 6f. 

Wliat'e Mine'e Mine. With Frontispiece. Crown Sew, 6r. Chet^ 
Edition, y. 6d, 

Annals of a Qntot Helghboiirlkood. With Frontispiece. Crvmn Stv, 6;. 

The Seaboard Pariah : a Sequel to ' Annals of a Quiet Neighboiirhood.* 
With Frontispiece. Crown 8w, 6s, 

WiUSrtd dunhennede : an Autobiographical Story. With Frontis- 
piece. Crown ^vOf 6s. 

1!1ionias Wlngfold, Curate. With Frontispiece. Crown Stw, 6s. 

Paul Faber, Surgeon. With Frontispiece. Crown Svo, 6s, 

The Elect Lady. With Frontispiece. Crown 8w, 6s. 

There and Badk. With Frontispiece. Crown Stv, 6s, 

Flight of the Shadow. With Frontispiece. Crown Szw, 6s. 

Hawthorne's Novels and Tales. — Works. By Nathaniel 
Hawthorne. ^ Complete in 12 vols. Large post 8ev, *js. 6d. each. 

Novels by Ck>L Meadows Taylor. 

Seeta : A NoveL With Frontispiece. Crown 8w, 6s, 

Tlppoo Smtann : A Tale of the Mysore War. With Frontispiece. 

Crown Svo, 6s. 
Ralph DameiL With Frontispiece. Crown Szv, 6s. *" 

A Noble Qneen. With Frontispiece. Crown %vo^ 6s. 
The OonfesBlonB of a Thng. With Frontispiece. Crown 9vo, 6s. 
Tara : A Mahratta Tale. With Frontispiece. Crozon Svo, 6s. 

Novels by Hesba Strettoxt 

DaTld Uoyd's Last WIU. With 4 Illustrations. AVztr Edtiiou, 

Royal \6m0y 2s. 6d, 
Through a Needle*e Eye : A Story. With Frontispiece. Crown ^w, 6s. 

Novels by Maxwell Gray. 

In the Heart of the Storm. With Frontispiece. Crown Sev, 6s. 

The Reproach of AnneSiOy. With Frontispiece. Craion &tfo, 6s. 

SUenoe of Dean Kaltland. With Frontispiece. Crown Svo, 6s. 

Novels by Rowland Orey. 
m Sunny Swltierland ; A Tale of Six Weeks. Second Ediiion. Small 

Undenblnmen, and other Stories. Small ^vo, Ss. 

By Vlrtne of His Offloe. Croztm Zvo^ 6s. 

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Novels by ' Tasma.' 

A Sydney Sorarelgn, and other Tales. Crown Svo, chth, 6s, 
In Her Earlleet Taatb. Cheap Edition, Crown ^vo, 6s. 

Novels by Lucas Malet. 
Oolooel Bnderby'BWlfe. With Frontispiece. Crown 8w, 6s. 
A Counsel of Perfection. With Frontispiece. Crown Svo, 6s, 
Little Peter : a Christmas Morality for Children of any age. With 
numerous Illustrations. Fourth Thousand, $s. 

Stories by Mrs. Q. S. Beaney. 

Waking and Working: ; or, From Girlhood to Womanhood. Ne^v and 

Cheaper Edition, With Frontispiece. Crown 8zv, 35. 6d, 
Bles8in« and Bleesed : a Sketch of Girl Life. New and cheaper Edition. 

Crown 8w, 3^. 6d. 
Bose Onmey's Dlecoyery : a Story for Girls. • Dedicated to their 

Mothers. Crown Svo, Js, 6d, 
Eii«rli8h Oirlfl: Their Place and Power. With Preface by the Rev. R. 

W. Dalb. Fifth Edition. Fcap, Svo, 2s, 6d, 
Just Any Ono, and other Stories. With 3 Illustrations. i6mo, 

IS. 6d. 
Snnbeam Willie, and other Stories. With 3 Illustrations. 16^0, 

IS. 6d. 
Snnslilne Jenny, and other Stories. With 3 Illustrations. i6;w, 

\s, 6d, 

Tbe Prig. — ^Black is White; or, Continuity Continued. 3^. 6d, 
The Prigment : 'The Life of a Prig,' ' Prig's Bede,' * How to make a 
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