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Full text of "War in the Pacific National Historical Park : hearing before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests, and Public Lands, Committee on Natural Resources, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, on H.R. 1944, to provide for additional development at War in the Pacific National Historical Park ... hearing held in Washington, DC, May 27, 1993"

WAR IN THE PACinC NATIONAL 
HISTORICAL PARK 

Y 4. R 31/3:103-29 

ARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE ON 
NATIONAL PARKS, FORESTS AND PUBLIC LANDS 

COMMITTEE ON NATURAL RESOURCES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
ON 

H.R. 1944 

TO PROVIDE FOR ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENT AT WAR IN THE PACIFIC 
NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES 



HEARING HELD IN WASHINGTON, DC 
MAY 27, 1993 



Serial No. 103-29 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Natural Resources 



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U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFldM f/ /.^ 
72-168 WASHINGTON : 1993 '' ''VfStV^ i.l<-:^. 

For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office ' ' ''■'" 

Superintendent of Documents. Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402 
ISBN 0-16-0AU98-9 



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WAR IN THE PACinC NATIONAL 
HISTORICAL PARK 



Y 4. R 31/3: 103-29 

Uar i& the Piciflc Katlon^l Kistori... a t^t-kt/-^ 

ARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE ON 
NATIONAL PARKS, FORESTS AND PUBLIC LANDS 

COMMITTEE ON NATURAL RESOURCES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

H.R. 1944 

TO PROVIDE FOR ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENT AT WAR IN THE PACIFIC 
NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES 



HEARING HELD IN WASHINGTON, DC 
MAY 27, 1993 



Serial No. 103-29 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Natural Resources 



'^^^mn. 




DBcf 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE v,*^ 
72-168 WASHINGTON : 1993 "\ ^ ^ 

For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office 
Superintendent of Documents. Congressional Sales Office, Washington. DC 20402 
ISBN 0-16-04U98-9 



COMMITTEE ON NATURAL RESOURCES 
GEORGE MILLER, California, Chairman 



PHILIP R. SHARP, Indiana 
EDWARD J. MARKEY, Massachusetts 
AUSTIN J. MURPHY, Pennsylvania 
NICK JOE RAHALL II, West Virginia 
BRUCE F. VENTO, Minnesota 
PAT WILLIAMS, Montana 
RON DE LUGO, Virgin Islands 
SAN GEJDENSON, Connecticut 
RICHARD H. LEHMAN, California 
BILL RICHARDSON, New Mexico 
PETER A. DeFAZIO, Oregon 
ENI F.H. FALEOMAVAEGA, American 

Samoa 
TIM JOHNSON, South Dakota 
LARRY LaROCCO, Idaho 
NEIL ABERCROMBIE, Hawaii 
CALVIN M. DOOLEY, California 
CARLOS ROMERO-BARCELO, Puerto Rico 
KARAN ENGLISH, Arizona 
KAREN SHEPHERD, Utah 
NATHAN DEAL, Georgia 
MAURICE D. HINCHEY, New York 
ROBERT A. UNDERWOOD, Guam 
HOWARD BERMAN, California 
LANE EVANS, Illinois 
PATSY T. MINK, Hawaii 
THOMAS J. BARLOW III, Kentucky 
THOMAS M. BARRETT, Wisconsin 

John Lawrence, Staff Director 

Richard Meltzer, General Counsel 

Daniel Val Kish, Republican Staff Director 



DON YOUNG, Alaska, 

Ranking Republican Member 
JAMES V. HANSEN, Utah 
BARBARA F. VUCANOVICH, Nevada 
ELTON GALLEGLY, California 
ROBERT F. SMITH, Oregon 
CRAIG THOMAS, Wyoming 
JOHN J. DUNCAN, Jr., Tennessee 
JOEL HEFLEY, Colorado 
JOHN T. DOOLITTLE, California 
WAYNE ALLARD, Colorado 
RICHARD H. BAKER, Louisiana 
KEN CALVERT, California 
SCOTT McINNIS, Colorado 
RICHARD W. POMBO, California 
JAY DICKEY, Arkansas 



Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands 

BRUCE F. VENTO, Minnesota, Chairman 



EDWARD J. MARKEY, Massachusetts 

NICK JOE RAHALL II, West Virginia 

PAT WILLIAMS, Montana 

PETER A. DeFAZIO, Oregon 

TIM JOHNSON, South Dakota 

LARRY LaROCCO, Idaho 

NEIL ABERCROMBIE, Hawaii 

CARLOS ROMERO-BARCELO, Puerto Rico 

KARAN ENGLISH, Arizona 

KAREN SHEPHERD, Utah 

MAURICE D. HINCHEY, New York 

ROBERT A UNDERWOOD, Guam 

AUSTIN J. MURPHY, Pennsylvania 

BILL RICHARDSON, New Mexico 

PATSY T. MINK, Hawaii 



JAMES V. HANSEN, Utah, 

Ranking Republican Member 
ROBERT F. SMITH, Oregon 
CRAIG THOMAS, Wyoming 
JOHN J. DUNCAN, Jr., Tennessee 
JOEL HEFLEY, Colorado 
JOHN T. DOOLITTLE, California 
RICHARD H. BAKER, Louisiana 
KEN CALVERT, California 
JAY DICKEY, Arkansas 



Richard Healy, Staff Director 

Amy Hollet, Professional Staff Member 

GwYN Fletcher, Staff Assistant 

Stephen Hodapp, Republican Consultant on National Parks 



(II) 



CONTENTS 



Hearing held: May 27, 1993 1 

H.R. 1944: 

1. Text of the bill 2 

2. Background information 8 

Member statements: 

Hon. Bruce Vento 1 

Hon. Robert A. Underwood 9 

Hon. Ron de Lugo 21 

Witness statements: 

Denis P. Galvin, associate director, planning and development, National 

Park Service, Department of the Interior 10 

Panel consisting of: 

Hon. J. George Bamba, senator, 22d Guam Legislature 26 

Michael Cruz, acting director. Bureau of Planning, on behalf of Hon. 

Joseph F. Ada, Governor of Guam 47 

Panel consisting of: 

Beatrice Flores Emsley, Guam 56 

Rosalia R. Bordallo, Cathedral Grade School of Guam, accompanied 

by Jonathan Bordallo 61 

Cyril J. O'Brien, Third Marine Division Association, Veterans of the 

Liberation of Guam 63 

Hon. James Corman, Guam veteran and former Representative to 
Congress from the State of Cahfornia 69 

APPENDK 

May 27, 1993 

Additional material submitted for the hearing record: 

Development costs proposed for War in the Pacific National Historical 
Park and American Memorial Park submitted by the National Park 
Service, Department of the Interior 73 

Prepared statement of Hon. Ron de Lugo 79 

Prepared statement of Hon. Robert A. Underwood 82 

Prepared statement of Hon. James V. Hansen 87 

Prepared statement of Hon. Lorenzo I. De Leon Guerrero, Governor, 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 90 

Letter to Hon. Robert Underwood from Hon. Joe T. San Agustin, Speaker, 
22d Guam Legislature, dated June 10, 1993 94 

Prepared statement of Hon. Juan N. Babauta, Resident Representative 
to the United States from the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana 
Islands 95 

Prepared statement of Hon. Elizabeth P. Arriola, senator, and Chair- 
person, 22d Guam Legislature's Committee on Youth, Senior Citizens, 
and Cultural Affairs 98 

Letter to Chairman Vento from General Louis H. Wilson, USMC (Ret.), 
dated May 24, 1993 100 

Letter to Chairman Vento from Peter C. Siguenza, Captain, USMCR, 
(Ret.), president, Guam Chapter, Third Marine Division Association, 
Inc., dated May 21, 1993 102 

Handwritten letter to Hon. Robert Underwood from Mr. and Mrs. Vicente 
Acfalle 103 

(HI) 



IV 

Page 

Additional material submitted for the hearing record — Continued 

Letter to Hon. Robert Underwood from Natividad Gumataotao, teacher, 

Guam Public School, dated May 18, 1993 105 

Letters in support of H.R. 1944 from students of the 5th Grade Gifted 

and Talented Program, Price Elementary School, Mangilao, Guam 106 

Letter from Harold K. Noble, past president, past chairman, board of 

directors. Third Marine Division Association, dated June 21, 1993, 

to Members of Congress 109 

Letter from Mrs. Arlene Taitague Acfalle dated May 18, 1993 110 

Prepared statement of Mrs. Natividad Gumataotao, Malesso, Guam Ill 



PROVIDING FOR ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENT 
AT WAR IN THE PACIFIC NATIONAL HIS- 
TORICAL PARK, AND FOR OTHER PUR- 
POSES 



THURSDAY, MAY 27, 1993 

U.S. House of Representatives, 
Committee on Natural Resources, 
Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests 

AND Public Lands, 

Washington, DC. 

The subcommittee met at 11 a.m. in room 340 of the Cannon 
House Office Building, the Hon. Bruce Vento presiding. 

OPENING STATEMENT OF HON. BRUCE VENTO 

Mr. Vento. The Subcommittee on National Forests, Forests and 
Pubhc Lands will be in order. This morning we are meeting to hear 
testimony on H.R. 1944, a bill introduced by our friend and col- 
league on the Subcommittee, Congressman Bob Underwood, to pro- 
vide for additional development at War in the Pacific National His- 
torical Park. 

[The bill, H.R. 1944, and background information follow:] 



(1) 



103d congress 
1st Session 



H.R.1944 



To provide for additional development at War in the Pacific National 
Historical Park, and for other purposes. 



IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

April 29, 1993 
Mr. Underwood (for himself, Mr. de Lugo, Mr. Faleomavaega, Mr. 
Abercrombie, Mr. Oilman, Mr. MuRPm', Mr. Montgomery, Mr. Ken- 
nedy, Mrs. Mink, Mr. Richardson, and Mr. Romero-Barcelo) intro- 
duced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Natural 
Resources 



A BILL 

To provide for additional development at War in the Pacific 
National Historical Park, and for other purposes. 

1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 

2 tives oftJie United States ofAynerica in Coyigress assembled, 

3 SECTION 1. FINDINGS. 

4 Congi'ess finds that — 

5 (1) June 15 through August 10, 1994, marks 

6 the 50th anniversarv^ of the i\Iariana campaign of 

7 World War II in which American forces captured the 

8 islands of Saipan and Tinian in the Northern Mari- 



2 

1 anas and liberated the United States Territory of 

2 Guam from Japanese occupation; 

3 (2) an attack during this campaign by the Jap- 

4 anese Imperial fleet, aimed at countering the Amer- 

5 ican forces that had landed on Saipan, led to the 

6 battle of the Philippine Sea, which resulted in a 

7 crushing defeat for the Japanese by United States 

8 naval forces and the destruction of the effectiveness 

9 of the Japanese carrier-based airpower; 

10 (3) the recapture of Guam liberated one of the 

11 few pieces of United States territon^ that was occu- 

12 pied for two and one-half years by the enemy during 

13 World War II and restored freedom to the indige- 

14 nous Chamorros on Guam who suffered as a result 

15 of the Japanese occupation; 

16 (4) Ai-my, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast 

17 Guard units distinguished themselves with their he- 

18 roic braveiy and sacrifice; 

19 (5) the Guam Insular Force Guard, the Guam 

20 militia, and the people of Guam earned the highest 

21 respect for their defense of the island during the 

22 Japanese invasion and their resistance during the 

23 occupation; their assistance to the American forces 

24 as scouts for the American invasion was invaluable; 

25 and their role, as members of the Guam Combat Pa- 

•HR 1944 IH 



3 

1 trol, was instrumental in seeking out the remaining 

2 Japanese forces and restoring peace to the island; 

3 (6) during the occupation, the people of 

4 Guam — 

5 (A) were forcibly removed from their 

6 homes; 

7 (B) were relocated to remote sections of 

8 the island; 

9 (C) were required to perform forced labor 

10 and faced other harsh treatment, injustices, and 

11 death; and 

12 (D) were placed in concentration camps 

13 when the American invasion became imminent 

14 and were brutalized by their occupiers when the 

15 liberation of Guam became apparent to the 

16 Japanese; 

17 (7) the liberation of the Mariana Islands 

18 marked a pivotal point in the Pacific war and led to 

19 the American victories at Iwo Jima, Okinawa, the 

20 Philippines, Taiwan, and the south China coast, and 

21 ultimately against the Japanese home islands; 

22 (8) the Mariana Islands of Guam, Saipan, and 

23 Tinian provided, for the first time during the war, 

24 air bases which allowed land-based American bomb- 

25 ers to reach strategic targets in Japan; and 

•HR 1944 IH 



4 

1 (9) the air offensive conducted from the Mari- 

2 anas against the Japanese war-making capabiHty 

3 helped shorten the war and ultimately reduced the 

4 toll of lives to secure peace in the Pacific. 

5 SEC. 2. SENSE OF CONGRESS. 

6 It is the sense of Congress that — 

7 (1) an appropriate commemoration of the 50th 

8 anniversary of the Mariana campaign should be 

9 planned by the United States in conjunction \vith 

10 the Government of Guam and the Government of the 

11 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; 

12 and 

13 (2) the Secretary of the Interior should take all 

14 necessary steps to ensure that two visitor centers, 

15 one at the War in the Pacific National Historical 

16 Park on Guam and the other at the American Me- 

17 morial Park in Saipan, are completed before June 

18 15, 1994, for the 50th anniversary commemoration, 

19 to provide adequate historical interpretation of the 

20 events described in section 1. 

21 SEC. 3. WAR IN THE PACIFIC NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK- 

22 (a) Authorization of Appropriations. — Sub- 

23 section (k) of section 6 of the Act entitled "An Act to 

24 authorize appropriations for certain insular areas of the 

25 United States, and for other purposes", approved August 



•HR 1944 IH 



5 

1 18, 1978 (92 Stat. 493; 16 U.S.C. 410dd) is amended 

2 by striking "$500,000" and inserting "$8,000,000". 

3 (b) Development. — Section 6 is further amended 

4 by adding at the end the following subsections: 

5 "(1) Within the boundaries of the park, the Secretary 

6 is authorized to construct a monument which shall com- 

7 memorate, by individual name, those people of Guam, liv- 

8 ing and dead, who suffered personal injury, forced labor, 

9 forced marches, internment or death incident to enemy oc- 

10 cupation of Guam between December 8, 1941, and August 

11 10,1944. 

12 "(m) Within the boundaries of the park, the Sec- 

13 retary is authorized to implement programs to interpret 

14 experiences of the people of Guam during World War II, 

15 including, but not limited to, oral histories of those people 

16 of Guam who experienced the occupation. 

17 "(n) Within six months after the date of enactment 

18 of this subsection, the Secretary, through the Director of 

19 the National Park Service, shall develop and transmit to 

20 the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the 

21 Senate and the Committee on Natural Resources of the 

22 House of Representatives a report containing updated cost 

23 estimates for the development of the park. Further, this 

24 report shall contain a general plan to implement sub- 

25 sections (1) and (m), including, at a minimum, cost esti- 

•HR 1944 IH 



6 

1 mates for the design and construction of the monument 

2 authorized in section (1). 

3 "(o) Within six months after the date of enactment 

4 of this subsection, the Secretary, through the Assistant 

5 Secretary of Territorial and International Affairs, shall 

6 compile and transmit to the Committee on Energy and 

7 Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on 

8 Natural Resources of the House of Representatives a list 

9 of names to appear on the monument authorized in sub- 

10 section (1). 

11 "(p) The Secretary may take such steps as may be 

12 necessary to preserve and protect various World War II 

13 vintage weapons and fortifications which exist within the 

1 4 boundaries of the park . " . 

15 SEC. 4. AMERICAN MEMORIAL PARK. 

16 Section 5(g) of the Act entitled "An Act to authorize 

17 appropriations for certain insular areas of the United 

18 States, and for other purposes", approved August 18, 

19 1978 (92 Stat. 492) is amended by striking "$3,000,000" 

20 and inserting "$8,000,000". 

o 



•HR 1944 m 



BACKGROUND INFORMATION 

H.R. 1944, WAR IN THE PACIFIC 

NATIONAL HISTORIC PARK 

In 1978, Congress passed legislation (P.L. 95-348) to 
authorize the establishment of War in the Pacific National 
Historical Park to, "commemorate the bravery and sacrifice of 
those participating in the campaigns of the Pacific Theater of 
World War II and to conserve and interpret outstanding natural, 
scenic, and historic values and objects on the island of Guam." 

The United States had acquired Guam from Spain in 1898. On 
December 10, 1941, the Japanese seized Guam as part of a Pacific 
campaign which had included the bombing of Pearl Harbor three 
days before and resulted in U.S. entry into World War II. 

Guam remained in Japanese hands for two and a half years. 
The islanders were forced to learn Japanese language and customs, 
and many were relocated to remote sections of the island to 
perform forced labor or to be placed in concentration camps. The 
island was turned into a Japanese airfield and its occupation 
enabled the Japanese to block American access to the Philippines. 

In 1944, American forces recaptured Guam, liberating the 
only American territory subject to total Japanese occupation 
during World War II, and allowing land-based American bombers 
access to air bases from which to reach strategic targets in 
Japan. The U.S. Department of the Interior became the federal 
agency responsible for Guam in 1950, and with this change the 
people of Guam were granted U.S. citizenship. 

War in the Pacific National Historical Park includes seven 
units each providing a different insight into the Pacific War. 
These sites contain both Japanese and American artifacts and 
interpret military aspects of the War in the Pacific on Guam. No 
park site interprets the story of the people of Guam. 

H.R. 1944 expresses the sense of Congress both that an 
appropriate commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Mariana 
Campaign should be planned, and that the Secretary of the 
Interior should take all necessary steps to ensure that visitor 
centers at War in the Pacific National Historical Park on Guam 
and at American Memorial Park in Saipan are completed before June 
15, 1944, the 50th anniversary commeiaoration. 

The bill increases the development ceiling for War in the 
Pacific National Historical Park from $500,000 to $8,000,000 and 
authorizes the construction of a monument within the park to the 
people of Guam who suffered personal injury, forced labor, forced 
marches, internment or death as a result of enemy occupation 
during World War II. The Secretary is also authorized to 
implement programs to interpret the experiences of the people of 
Guam during World War II. Finally, the development ceiling for 
American Memorial Park is raised from $3,000,000 to $8,000,000. 



Mr. Vento. War in the Pacific National Park was established in 
1978 to commemorate the bravery and sacrifice of those participat- 
ing in the campaigns of the Pacific theater in World War II, and 
to preserve and interpret outstanding natural scenic and other cul- 
tural values and objects on the Island of Guam. 

The Park includes seven units, each providing a different insight 
into the War in the Pacific. These sites contain both Japanese and 
American artifacts and interpret the military aspects of the War in 
Guam. 

I had the privilege in 1989 to accompany then-Secretary, newly 
designated Secretary Lujan and our former Chairman and great 
leader in many of these natural cultural resources Congressman 
Mo Udall to the Pacific Islands. 

We visited many of the sites of the War in the Pacific National 
Park, and specifically sites on Guam and Saipan which are the sub- 
ject of attention today. 

I think that some of the Members, at least in Congress today, not 
all on the Committee at this time, have had the opportunity to visit 
these sites and had an on-the-ground experience concerning them. 

I will not go through reading the history of World War II for you. 
I think my colleague from Guam and the witnesses can reiterate 
the tremendous suffering and problems that occurred. 

It is important to recognize that Japan had a long history of in- 
volvement in what we speak of as the Western Pacific. It was inter- 
esting to me to note in Saipan that there were monuments there 
from other countries that have been established. Ironically, the 
U.S., which played such a preeminent and important role at that 
time, has not placed the monuments in place that reflect its role 
and its personal emphasis. 

But hopefully we will be able to make that up. 

I want to compliment my colleague on the designation of the 
House Resolution No. 1944. I think it was prophetic. Hopefully by 
the 50th Anniversary we will be able to make a down payment on 
the establishment of the type of recognition which was anticipated 
by my colleagues and myself in 1978. That is right; I have been 
here that long, Jim Corman. 

I am pleased to see in attendance at the meeting former Con- 
gressman and friend. Congressman Jim Corman. We welcome his 
input on this important subject as we work on it. 

I am pleased to yield such time to the gentleman, Congressman 
Dr. Robert Underwood. 

STATEMENT OF HON. ROBERT A. UNDERWOOD 

Mr. Underwood. Thank you very much, Mr. Vento. 

I appreciate the time and the energy you have taken to call this 
hearing. I appreciate very much the speed with which you have al- 
lowed us to have this hearing. I know that it is a very crowded 
schedule today, and that there are some very important issues, but 
at least for the people of Guam this issue is very critical. 

I want to reiterate, not to redo the whole history of World War 
II, but certainly it seemed to us as we watched the Park mature 
a little bit, and as the 50th Anniversary came on the horizon, that 
there was a missing dimension to the War in the Pacific Park; and 
that was recognition of the experiences of the Chamorro people. 



10 

So this legislation, while it seeks to get the process moving along 
of recognizing the 50th Anniversary and preparing a visitors center 
for that, it also puts in a special provision to allow recognition of 
the experience of the Chamorro people. 

We have a number of witnesses today from the Government of 
Guam, officials as well as the experiences of some of the people, 
and I think we look forward to hearing some of their testimony. 

One very poignant testimony will be given by Mrs. Emsley re- 
garding her personal experiences. We also have a little girl who 
would like to share her experiences or her relationship to this issue 
as well. 

I also, too, acknowledge Mr. Gorman's presence. I had a nice lit- 
tle visit with him yesterday in which he not only participated in 
the liberation of Guam in 1944, he stayed for a year and found a 
woman in the Red Cross I believe. So he really got a lot out of 
Guam. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Underwood. And I hope Guam gives back much to him. 

I have a statement that I would enter, without objection, into the 
record. 

Mr. Vento. Yes. Without objection, all of our statements and the 
statements of witnesses in their entirety will be made a part of the 
record. 

Hearing no objection, so ordered. 

Mr. Underwood. And without further ado, I guess we could go 
ahead and call our first witness. 

Mr. Vento. Very good. 

Thank you. Let me do that. We have Denis Galvin, now a long- 
time Associate Director for Planning and Development of the Na- 
tional Park Service, Department of the Interior. 

Your statement has been made a part of the record, Mr. Galvin. 
You may proceed to summarize. 

STATEMENT OF DENIS P. GALVIN, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FOR 
PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Mr. Galvin. Mr. Chairman, I will simply summarize the state- 
ment. 

We do not object to the enactment of H.R. 1944, if amended in 
some detail. The bill calls attention to the 50th Anniversary that 
the two Members have discussed in their opening remarks and di- 
rects the Secretary of Interior to ensure that two visitor centers, 
one on Guam and one on Saipan, be built prior to June 15, 1994. 

It amends previous legislation to change the development ceil- 
ings to $8 million at both parks, and provides authorization to con- 
struct the monument naming those people of Guam who suffered 
during the enemy occupation and authorization to interpret the ex- 
periences of the people of Guam during World War II. 

The Secretary is required within six months to develop a report 
with updated cost estimates for development in the Park and a 
plan for implementing these requirements. 

We believe that an appropriate commemoration of the 50th Anni- 
versary should be planned, and in fact we are working with the 
local governments on both islands to develop plans for that 50th 
Anniversary. 



11 

While we cannot build visitors centers in time for that, we are 
actively considering some low-cost options for development, espe- 
cially on Guam, that would begin development that would be con- 
sistent with the later construction of visitor centers, but that could 
be done for considerably less cost and more quickly. 

At the War in the Pacific National Historical Park, that develop- 
ment would include parking facilities, an interpretive trail, inter- 
pretive exhibit panels on Nimitz Hill, a site overlooking the inva- 
sion site that is the visitors center site called for in the General 
Management Plan. 

We would also plan to place other interpretative panels at strate- 
gic sites through the Park. 

We are planning a video program of the Chamorro experience 
during the campaign. 

The General Management Plan for the War in the Pacific Park 
on Guam does call for the development of a visitors center. 

Our current estimates are that that visitors center would cost, 
including design, $11 million. So one of the things we are suggest- 
ing is that the authorization ceiling be changed from $8 million to 
$11 million to include the most recent estimate. 

For American Memorial Park on Saipan, the Government of the 
Northern Marianas is now actually constructing improvements at 
that Park, including the new pavilion that was done based on sche- 
matic designs done by the National Park Service. 

They have hired a private architectural firm and are using the 
Seabees to do construction there at this time, and they expect to 
have a pavilion, which is Phase I of the construction, done by the 
commemorative events in 1994. 

The General Management Plan for American Memorial Park sug- 
gests additional development, a visitors center and a museum, and 
we are looking at options for the visitors center at this time. 

My understanding is that in fact again the Government of the 
Northern Marianas has a private firm engaged to design that visi- 
tors center. 

Our current estimates for that Park would bring total develop- 
ment ceilings to $19 million. So we suggest again that this bill be 
amended to bring those figures up to date. 

Neither of these visitors centers are included in our 1994 budget 
request, Mr. Chairman, because they do not have sufficient service- 
wide priority. So in our 1994 request we have not included any. 

That concludes my summary, Mr. Chairman. I would be happy 
to take any questions. 

[Prepared statement of Mr. Galvin follows:] 



12 



STATEMENT OF DENIS P. GALVIN, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, PLANNING AND 
DEVELOPMENT, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 
BEFORE THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON NATURAL RESOURCES, SUBCOMMITTEE ON 
NATIONAL PARKS, FORESTS, AND PUBLIC LANDS, CONCERNING H.R. 1944, 
A BILL TO PROVIDE FOR ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENT AT WAR IN THE 
PACIFIC NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. 

May 27, 1993 



Mr. Chairman, I appreciate the opportunity to provide your 
Subcommittee with the views of the Department of the Interior on 
H.R. 1944. 

We do not object to enactment of H.R. 1944 if amended as we 
suggest. 

The bill states that a 50th anniversary of the Mariana campaign 
should be planned by the United States in conjunction with the 
Government of Guam and the Government of the Commonwealth of the 
Northern Mariana Islands, and that the Secretary of the Interior 
should ensure that two Visitor Centers, one at War in the Pacific 
National Historical Park on Guam and one at American Memorial 
Park in Saipan, should be built prior to June 15, 1994. H.R. 
1944 would provide an $8 million development ceiling for War in 
the Pacific National Historical Park, and as well an $8 million 
development ceiling for American Memorial Park; this would amend 
the enabling legislation which included respective development 
ceilings of $500,000 and $3 million. 



13 



The bill further includes, for War in the Pacific National 
Historical Park, authorization to construct a monument naming 
those people of Guam who suffered during the enemy occupation, 
and authorization to interpret the experiences of the people of 
Guam during World War II. The Secretary is required to develop 
and transmit to Congress a report with updated cost estimates for 
development in the park, and a plan for implementing these 
requirements . 

We believe strongly that an appropriate commemoration of the 50th 
Anniversary of the Mariana campaign should be planned by the 
United States in conjunction with the Government of Guam and the 
Government of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. 
Therefore we concur with the sense of Congress statement proposed 
in the bill. 

Given that the 50th anniversary of the Mariana campaign is in 
June 1994, we are reviewing low-cost options for developing an 
appropriate program to meet this tight deadline which will also 
provide a quality experience for visitors. 

For War in the Pacific National Historical Park on Guam, we are 
planning parking facilities and an interpretive trail adjacent to 
Nimitz Hill, a pivotal position during the War and inside the 
park boundary. We will develop a plan for interpretive signs 



14 



which will b'3 placed at strategic sites throughout the park to 
tell the story of the campaign there. And we are planning a 
video pro-jram of the Chamorro experience during the campaign. 

War in the Pacific has a General Management Plan to support the 
deveJopment of a Visitor Center. We note however that it would 
not oe possible to complete construction of such a center by 
Ju le, 1994. We need to review our various options regarding a 
visitor center, particularly in light of our tight budgetary 
constraints. We suggest that the authorization ceiling be 
amended to $11 million which is sufficient for any of the options 
under consideration. 

For American Memorial Park on Saipan, we will have an 
interpretive bulletin available for the commemoration. We are 
pleased the Commonwealth is now constructing and will have 
completed by June 1994 the new Pavilion which can be used for the 
commemorative events in 1994. 

American Memorial Park has a General Management Plan which calls 
for the Pavilion/stage, a Visitor Center, and a museum. We also 
need to review the various options for a visitor center for this 
park. We suggest that the authorization ceiling be amended to 
$19 million which is sufficient for any of the options under 
consideration. We also note it would not be possible to complete 
construction by June, 1994. 



15 



We note that, at this time the National Park Service is 
struggling to maintain the safety and quality of existing park 
resources and infrastructure. Given these pressing needs, the 
projects proposed in H.R. 1944 have not been included in the 
service wide priority list, and therefore, the President's budget 
for 1994 does not contain funding for these projects. 

I thank you for the opportunity to testify and will be happy to 
answer your questions. 



16 

Mr. Vento. We have a Journal vote on and I have to try to make 
that this morning. I did not hear the bells, but apparently they 
went off. So we will recess and I will be back momentarily and we 
will ask some questions. I am sorry about the interruptions. We 
will probably have more. 

[Recess.] 

Mr. Vento. The Subcommittee will resume its sitting. 

It is easy to get distracted on the Floor this morning. I want you 
all to know I did not slow down my walking. 

Mr. Galvin, I think that in looking at the testimony last evening 
what caught my attention is the amounts that were recommended 
which were obviously in excess of what has been sought by the au- 
thor at $11 million for the War in the Pacific National Historical 
Park and $19 million for really the monument or American Memo- 
rial in Saipan. 

You talked about a range of plans which I expect are in the pre- 
liminary stages, if I interpreted correctly what you said. 

Do you have some sort of analysis that you could provide the 
committee which would demonstrate how we arrived at these fig- 
ures, for the purpose of just a brief description this morning in 
some detail, and a description in writing to this Subcommittee at 
a later date? Not too late, I hope. 

Mr. Galvin. Oh, no. We can provide the committee with a de- 
tailed breakdown of the facilities that would be constructed for the 
$11 million and $19 milhon. 

[Editor's note. — See appendix.] 

Just briefly though, the $11 million on Guam on War in the Pa- 
cific Park is principally the visitors center. It is an 8,000-square- 
foot visitors center, parking lot, utilities, interpretative facilities 
both at Nimitz Hill and at other places, and at other sites in the 
park. 

On American Memorial Park, the figure comprises a series of de- 
velopments including a visitors center and museum at the Amer- 
ican Memorial Park site itself, but also interpretative panels, struc- 
tures, and other things at other locations on the island. 

The principal element of cost is remoteness. We hired a private 
firm to confirm our estimates because these are what we call 
"Class C estimates." They are simply based on square-footage costs. 

Since we are not familiar with construction costs in the Pacific, 
we hired a private firm to verify the estimates. An over 200 percent 
multiplier is in these costs because of remoteness. 

Mr. Vento. Do these costs include displays and interpretative 
materials? 

Mr. Galvin. Yes. In fact, indeed on American Memorial, there is 
a considerable amount of that, and also on Guam. 

I should say also, Mr. Chairman, with respect to the short-term 
developments that we mentioned in the testimony, we also have 
under design and include a considerable amount of interpretative 
material — interpretative panels, audio-visual programs, et cetera. 

We have been discussing, both within the National Park Service 
and with Territories in the Department a reprogramming of funds 
that are currently available to both of us to accomplish those pur- 
poses so that they are either under construction or complete by the 
anniversary date. 



17 

Mr. Vento. Yes. I must say that those numbers are going to get 
attention by, as you say, the remoteness. 

I think the concern I have is the tendency to include in visitors 
centers the interpretative materials and displays and other such 
costs, because I think, insofar as contributions and so forth are con- 
cerned, that in some instances you can obtain contributions. 

Now I understand that on some of these sites there is not a need 
for a structure, that the interpretative panels which the weather 
has built and so forth work very well to serve these needs, but it 
is important to look at that. 

I do not know whether we have always authorized all the inter- 
pretative materials in terms of the authorization for what we look 
at is the construction ceiling, but some of those costs may in the 
past have come from a variety of different sources. 

Is that not correct? 

Mr. Galvin. That is correct. 

In fact, in terms of the modest developments that are in both 
places right now, they have been largely through rehabilitation 
costs, or interpretative funds available to the Harper's Ferry Cen- 
ter for operating purposes. 

For instance, the War in the Pacific brochure was done as part 
of our regular folder program. 

Mr. Vento. The impression I get, especially in Saipan, is that 
you would get into parking facilities and restroom facilities, which 
are not presently at some of the sites in Saipan. 

Is that correct? 

Mr. Galvin. That is correct. 

I should say that it is my understanding that the Government 
of the Northern Marianas is currently constructing what we call a 
Phase I of that development. The visitors center and the museum 
are in Phase II, and they are using Trust Fund money available 
to them from the funds set aside in the original legislation to do 
that. 

My understanding is those facilities are under construction now. 
Furthermore, they have a private firm under contract to design the 
visitors center and are paying for that design with their Trust 
Fund money. 

Mr. Vento. Well my colleague is pushing to have the visitors 
center site, if we can, up and running. 

In his bill I notice he has some six-month requirements and so 
forth, which you did not specifically speak to. You did generally 
speak to it and suggest that you could not get it done in time, but 
I want you to comment more directly about the six-month require- 
ments in terms of if we could pass the bill expeditiously in the 
House and the Senate, what about the sort of requirements? 

I mean, obviously, Congressman Underwood is anticipating that 
it would be possible to in fact move forward more quickly than 
what your testimony indicates. 

Mr. Galvin. Well, directly we cannot build these visitors centers 
in this amount of time. I mean, we could not have a visitors center 
built by the 1994 date specified in the bill. 

I should say where we are with this particular visitors center. 
We have done a schematic design, so there is really very little in 



18 

terms of information that would allow somebody to construct a 
building that is done at this time. 

So we would have to do a complete design cycle, and of course 
the construction award advertising, specifications, award, and nor- 
mally that takes three years. 

Mr. Vento. Do you have any type of requirements in terms of 
environmental assessment? 

Mr. Galvin. Absolutely. 

Mr. Vento. Has the site already been selected for these loca- 
tions? 

Mr. Galvin. The site has been selected, but we normally do com- 
pliance, environmental assessments in the preliminary design 
phase in year number one, and that is all on schedule. 

We do final design engineering drawings in year number two, 
and award and construct in year number three. That is the normal 
cycle. 

All of that remains to be done on these projects. We have a site 
selected. We have 

Mr. Vento. For both projects? 

Mr. Galvin. Yes. We have what I would call architectural 
sketches of the facility on Guam. As I mentioned, the facility on 
Saipan is under design. The CNMI has engaged a private firm on 
their own using trust fund money. 

Mr. Vento. In terms of what you are telling me about, what 
could be expected at an event to mark the 50th Anniversary of the 
U.S. liberation of the people of Guam would be something of a 
ground-breaking at that particular point. That is about what could 
be done at that point. 

But there is no money requested in the budget this year specifi- 
cally for this. You have been using your general planning monies 
for this. 

Is that correct? 

Mr. Galvin. That is correct. 

Now as I say, we have been discussing within the Department 
the possibility of reprogramming funds — actually, unused land ac- 
quisition funds in our case — on Guam, and other funds that I am 
not sure what the source is from TIA to accomplish the beginnings 
of the development at Nimitz Hill, which would include a road, an 
interpretative trail, interpretative exhibits, and a 20-site parking 
area, that would be consistent with later development. 

That is, it would be the site where the visitors center ultimately 
will go. 

Mr. Vento. Are you purchasing land there? 

Mr. Galvin. We have in the past. 

Mr. Vento. So you would continue to use some Land and Water 
Conservation funds for that purpose? 

Mr. Galvin. Yes. Yes, that is right. And we would have to come 
back to Congress to get that reprogram in both instances. Terri- 
tories would have to come back to Congress. 

Mr. Vento. So we would have to visit with the Appropriations 
Committee about that particular one. 

Let me yield to my colleague for such questions as he may have. 

Mr. Underwood. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 



19 

In terms of looking at the 50th Anniversary, what is the Park 
Service's position in terms of the monument specifically related to 
identifying the Chamorro people? 

Mr. Galvin. We are supportive of that. In fact, we were discuss- 
ing that yesterday afternoon. That currently has not been included 
in our estimates of what this initial phase work would do. 

I asked yesterday afternoon to get an estimate on that to see if 
the funds that we propose to be reprogrammed would enable us to 
construct that. 

We are supportive of the monument, or monuments, and we be- 
lieve that we could design them and at least begin their construc- 
tion with this preliminary, or first phase of development. 

Mr. Underwood. Okay. So you are saying then that there is the 
possibility of using some of this reprogrammed money for this spe- 
cific purpose 

Mr. Galvin. Absolutely. Yes. 

Mr. Underwood. In terms of building the monument? 

Mr. Galvin. I am saying that. 

Mr. Underwood. Okay. 

Mr. Galvin. But I do not know what the cost of the monument 
would be. So I am not sure whether the money we were 
reprogramming would be sufficient to construct it. 

I am trying to fiind that out as we speak. 

Mr. Underwood. In terms of just the Nimitz Hill Overlook, do 
you have an estimate for the development of that area? 

Mr. Galvin. The preliminary part, or the entire development? 

Mr. Underwood. The preliminary part 

Mr. Galvin. Yes. 

Mr. Underwood [continuing]. Which would be done in time for 
the 50th. 

Mr. Galvin. It would be under construction in time for the 50th, 
yes. Our estimate is about a half a million dollars for that. 

Mr. Underwood. And have you given consideration to the idea 
of putting the visitors center up with the Nimitz Hill Overlook? 

Mr. Galvin. Yes. 

Mr. Underwood. Do you see that it is compatible? 

Mr. Galvin. Yes. In fact, this development that we are propos- 
ing, this initial phase, would be compatible with later construction 
of the visitors center. 

Mr. Underwood. And is it not possible to build the visitors cen- 
ter over time in a kind of phase-in process, rather than 

Mr. Galvin. Yes. Up to a point, that certainly is the case. I 
mean, we have done buildings where we have done the site work 
and utilities in one phase, and do the building in a later phase. 
That is possible. 

Mr. Underwood. First off, you want to revise the estimates for 
the Park on Guam to be $11 milhon, and the estimate for the Park 
in Saipan to be $19 million? 
Mr. Galvin. That is correct. 

Mr. Underwood. At the risk of sounding like we are competing 
with the CNMI, could you just briefly relate why the cost dif- 
ference, in your estimation? 

Mr. Galvin. Actually, if you would look at the General Manage- 
ment Plan for Guam, the total cost is higher than the figure I gave. 



20 

The figure I gave for War in the Pacific is the visitors center and 
development at Nimitz Hill. The total cost of development in the 
General Management Plan for Guam is around $25 million, I be- 
lieve. 

So this development ceiling increase would allow us to build the 
development at Nimitz Hill and interpretative facilities at other 
places on the island. 

Major developments would have to come later. 

Mr. Underwood. Does your figure for the CNMI consider the $3 
million that has been identified for this particular Park in the 
House Appropriations process? 

Mr. Galvin. I believe it does in that it would be an increase of 
that, yes. In other words, you would start with the $3 million that 
would be essentially included in the $18 million figure. 

Mr. Underwood. In your testimony you indicated — and correct 
me if I am wrong — I believe that the words you used were that the 
visitors centers in Guam and Saipan did not have sufficient prior- 
ity in the Park Service. 

Mr. Galvin. That is correct. 

Mr. Underwood. Of course for us it has a major priority, and 
I am curious as to why it would not have sufficient priority. 

What we have here is the case of the 50th Anniversary coming 
up. This is basically the last opportunity for the participants in this 
event, both servicemen and civilian, to bring closure to this dimen- 
sion of their lives and also at the same time bring honor to them 
and have the succeeding two generations bring some recognition to 
that. 

Although it does sound like a local event in that nature, I think 
it is an event of national significance. It certainly is going to be 
something that will draw increasing attention not just in Guam 
and the CNMI, but certainly throughout the Nation next year. 

It may not look that way now, but certainly what we are going 
to be treated with is a number of specials probably on television 
and in the national media, and I am concerned that the Park Serv- 
ice does not see these as projects of sufficient priority within the 
Service to attend to. 

Would you care to comment on that? 

Mr. Galvin. Yes. We construct things off of a Service-Wide Prior- 
ity List. Frankly, the Service -Wide Priority List is very biased 
against visitors centers in the sense that the criteria that drives 
the Service -Wide Priority List start with health and safety items, 
proceed through rehabilitation of existing facilities, to protection of 
resources, and you do not get down to construction of new facilities 
in new areas — ^which these areas would be classified as — until you 
get to the fourth criterion. 

So as an example, in the first 100 service-wide priorities, there 
are only 8 visitors centers, and 6 of those are really associated with 
rehabilitation of existing facilities. 

As an example, we have asked for 2 visitors centers in this year's 
budget, one at Martin Luther King, and the other at Oconaluftee 
in the Great Smokies. 

Oconaluftee in the Great Smokies is essentially rehabilitating an 
existing building. So it is not that we do not recognize the impor- 
tance of these facilities to this site, it is simply that our construe- 



21 

tion needs are so weighed down by taking care of what we call the 
backlog that we seldom request new construction. 

In a $135 million budget request, we have essentially asked for 
a $5 million visitors center this year at Great Smokies. That sort 
of gives you an order of magnitude of where we are. 

Mr. Underwood. Well, of course this legislation has been at- 
tempted previously, and I understand it will also be introduced in 
the Senate. 

I personally think it is unfortunate that we have to in a sense 
help you establish those priorities through this route. But I feel 
very strongly on this issue, and I believe I represent the people of 
Guam's sentiments in that, exactly. 

Mr. Galvin, I understand that. 

Mr. Vento. Thank you. 

I am pleased to recognize the distinguished Chairman of the In- 
sular Affairs Subcommittee of the Natural Resources Committee, 
and newly appointed this year again to the Subcommittee. He had 
a brief absence, which we have noted, but we are pleased to have 
him back, Congressman Ron de Lugo. 

Mr. DE Lugo. Well thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. I 
missed the few months I was not on this committee, and it was un- 
avoidable because of the new rules. With the demise of the Narcot- 
ics Task Force on which I was a member, that made it possible for 
me to rejoin my beloved Chairman with whom I have spent so 
many years, and who I admire greatly, and I am not being face- 
tious. I really do. 

Mr. Underwood. Does he have seniority over me, then? [Laugh- 
ter.] 

Mr. Vento. If you want to give it to him, whether he has it or 
not. [Laughter.] 

STATEMENT OF HON. RON de LUGO 

Mr. DE Lugo. Well first of all I want to thank you, Mr. Chair- 
man, for holding and scheduling this hearing on Congressman 
Underwood's legislation. I want to commend my very good finend, 
Robert Underwood, and colleague from Guam for introducing and 
pushing this legislation and getting these hearings here today that 
would commemorate the sacrifices of the U.S. Armed Forces in the 
Pacific during World War II, as well as — and this is so important — 
to honor the memory of the American Nationals of Guam who pa- 
triotically and courageously endured the violence and the suffering 
during the long Japanese occupation of Guam. 

Mr. Chairman, my subcommittee held hearings a few years ago 
on legislation that Senator George Bamba has worked on for a long 
time, and I want to welcome the Senator and a number of wit- 
nesses here who have come from Guam. 

Particularly I want to welcome Senator George Bamba who has 
been leading the fight for fair compensation for those who suffered 
or lost family members during the occupation of Guam. 

Senator Bamba and I have worked together on a number of is- 
sues affecting Guam before the subcommittee, which I had the 
honor of chairing. 

Also, Mr. Chairman, in making reference to the hearing that I 
had held before my committee in 1989, I am pleased to welcome 



22 

before your committee Mrs. Beatrice Perez Emsley, another witness 
from Guam. 

Now Mrs. Emsley appeared before my committee and she gave 
testimony in the summer of 1989. It was testimony that I will 
never forget as long as I live. 

We have a great debt that we owe the people of Guam. The peo- 
ple of Guam, the Chamorro people of Guam, were American Na- 
tionals at the time that the Japanese occupied Guam. The horrors 
that they endured, and their patriotism and their loyalty to the 
United States is historic. 

Mrs. Emsley was 13 years old at the time of that occupation. The 
occupation went on for 2V2 years. She told me before the commit- 
tee, she told of how the Japanese soldiers had tried to behead her, 
and in fact the soldiers left her for dead assuming that they had 
beheaded her. 

Those hearings outlined the horrors that were inflicted. It was a 
reign of terror. There were rapes, beheadings, people were killed if 
they did not bow low. People were killed and tortured if they were 
heard singing an American song. It was terrible. 

I am glad that finally we are going to commend the memory of 
the Guamian people who risked their lives to protect American fly- 
ers who hid out in the caves there. They risked their lives bringing 
food to these American soldiers. 

It is a story that is little known by most Americans. 
To our witness from the Park Service, Mr. Galvin, have I been 
correctly informed that you support the listing of the names of the 
Chamorro people who went through this terrible ordeal and stood 
by our country? 
Mr. Galvin. That is correct. We do support it; yes. 
Mr. DE Lugo. Because we have to remember that the Chamorro 
people today are American citizens. Back at that time, they were 
American Nationals. 

We had a great responsibility to these people, and they stuck by 
us. I think that it is rather shabby of our country that it has taken 
this long to finally get around to really create this War in the Pa- 
cific National Historical Park and put the monuments that we need 
there. 

So, Mr. Chairman, I have no questions of this witness. I under- 
stand that the Park Service supports Congressman Underwood's 
legislation. I commend them for that. 
And again I thank you for holding these hearings. 
Mr. Vento. Thank you for your questions and your recalling the 
importance of this for the record for the subcommittee and for my- 
self. 

I know when we visited that site with our beloved Chairman Mo 
Udall that Congressman de Lugo was leading the delegation be- 
cause of his deep interest and commitment to the issues aflecting 
the territories and areas like Guam. He does a great job on it. 

I recall specifically Congressman Udall of course had been on 
Tinnaman, and had served in this Theater, as had our former col- 
league Congressman Corman who is with us this morning. I want- 
ed to point that out to Congressman de Lugo. 



23 

In any case, we have a few technical questions that I wanted to 
just recount. Most of the work here, Mr. Galvin, is done by the 
Denver Service Office. 

What is the arrangement in terms of some of the process for de- 
sign and so forth that would take place in these two parks? 

Mr. Galvin. Well on Guam we have done the work thus far. We 
would probably hire a private firm to do further design work there. 

As I mentioned, the CNMI has already hired a private firm to 
do design work. 

Mr. Vento. So that is sort of a cooperative venture with CNMI? 

Mr. Galvin. That is right. And they are using trust fund monies 
to do that. 

Mr. Vento. Yes. I think there are some growing concerns regard- 
ing the accounting and other procedures in terms of some of those 
funds. So, unfortunately, even though this is unrelated to other 
problems, because they have used Trust Fund monies, and because 
there is a probability in the future that they will, there are other 
issues there that must be resolved before we act on that in the 
committee. 

I think we will want to work with the Chairman on that, as I 
wanted to get Congressman de Lugo's attention on this matter with 
regard to the controversy surrounding the use of Trust Fund 
money in CNMI. That issue is going to have to be resolved before 
we finally act on this in the Full Committee, and I want to do it 
in consultation with you. 

The Chairman has indicated an interest in this matter, as has 
certainly Congressman Underwood. I want to state that in the 
record. 

I think in terms of trying to make a down payment on this issue 
in terms of legislation this year, that we should make a concerted 
effort in terms of reprogramming. I want to join with you, Bob, and 
I am certain we can enlist some other support, along with Con- 
gressman de Lugo, to get some reprogramming money so that we 
can begin to make an appropriate commitment to the efforts at 
least on Guam, since it is not associated with the other issue of the 
expenditure of Trust Fund monies by the CNMI. 

Hopefully we can iron that out and the Park Service can go for- 
ward with this cooperative role with CNMI. 

I was especially struck by the U.S. absence, or sort of vacuum, 
that had occurred on CNMI when we visited those sites. 

In addition to that, I am interested from the standpoint of when 
we do in fact procure services from architects and other construc- 
tion firms that we use a competitive bid system here. 

There are special limitations and problems. I guess you have ar- 
ticulated some of them, Mr. Galvin, but are there others that you 
would like to speak to with regard to bids and so forth? 

I notice you mentioned that you used some Seabees to in fact ac- 
complish some of the work? 

Mr. Galvin. Yes. That is, and again I am not clear as to whether 
or not U.S. Navy Seabees have been used on Guam, but they have 
been used on Saipan and in fact are being used to accomplish some 
of the work on Guam. 

There are a couple of ways that this could be accomplished. We 
could take it through design and give it to somebody else to con- 



24 

struct — in other words, give it to the Government on Guam or the 
Government on Saipan — or we could do the whole thing. 

If we do it, to procure the professional firms we use the Brooks 
bill approach, which is a negotiated procurement based on the 
quality of the firm's proffer. But on construction we almost always 
use bid and award, which is essentially opening sealed bids and 
taking the low bid. 

Mr. Vento. But given the universe that there are not as many 
construction firms, you may be practically just dealing with one or 
two construction firms? 

So what you are suggesting is that you may do a negotiated 
agreement? 

Mr. Galvin. If the conditions warrant, there are other methods 
of contracting. 

Mr. Vento. We seldom ask questions like this at a hearing, but 
this is an unusual circumstance £uid there are unusual costs in- 
volved here. 

I think it is important that we begin to understand what the di- 
mensions are. I have tried to elaborate on that through my ques- 
tioning initially of you. 

The other point here is that very often some of these sites at 
least are considered memorials. 

Has there been private or nonprofit participation in the funding 
of any of these memorials so far that are on the Park Service sites 
in the War in the Pacific Park on Guam? 

Mr. Galvin. I am not certain, Mr. Chairman. 

I think there has been some private activity on some of the sites 
adjacent to Park Service-owned land on Guam, but I simply do not 
know whether there has been any private funding involved. 

Mr. Vento. Does the General Management Plan for either of 
these to anticipate such private involvement in terms of enhance- 
ment or a supplemental funding for the programs? 

Mr. Galvin. No. 

Mr. Vento. It does not? 

Mr. Galvin. No. Neither of them do. 

Mr. Vento. Do you know the basis for that, that it has not been 
the case? 

Often when we talk about memorials or monuments, and espe- 
cially when we are talking about multiple ones in this case, it 
might be prudent to have that as an aspect. 

Mr. Galvin. Yes, that could be. I see the direction of your ques- 
tioning, particularly with respect to the aspect of the memorial it- 
self. 

Frequently, and obviously especially here, most of the memorials 
are being constructed with private donations. The costs I was indi- 
cating in my response in the General Management Plan are largely 
development costs — the costs of the roads and trails, buildings, et 
cetera. 

Mr. Vento. Well, one of the dilemmas, in listening to your re- 
sponse to Congressman Underwood, is the issue of building this in 
phases because you have to decide the size; then you have to get 
the proper water and electrical connections; you have a myriad of 
things that that first phase really sets the pattern in terms of what 
happens thereafter. 



25 

I do not know how to phase it, but certainly you have to design 
the size, the capacity, and other essential utility connections and 
so forth that take place. 

Mr. Galvin. Yes. And once you get into the building, I think in 
terms of the overall development at these two sites there is a con- 
siderable amount of phasing that can be done in terms of this rath- 
er low-level interpretative development and interpretative sites and 
that sort of thing. 

But once you get into the building, you really are probably stuck 
with doing it either in one phase or in two phases using parking 
and utilities site work in the first phase, and then constructing the 
balance of the building in the second phase. 

Mr. Vento. I want to make it clear that we do not undervalue 
or depreciate in any way the type of contribution and/or the na- 
tional significance, and really the international significance, of 
these sites and the events that occurred in the 1940s in the West- 
em Pacific. 

I think these are just tough questions that we are going to have 
to answer in 1993 and 1994 as we try to wrestle with the budgets. 
We want to do as good a job as we can, and we want to rely on 
where we think we might be able to obtain some of the participa- 
tion by nonprofit veterans organizations and others that really 
have a deep interest and commitment and could probably supple- 
ment the funds. 

I realize the backbone of this particular program ought to be the 
Park Service. It ought to be controlled by the Park Service. I think 
that the Park Service ought to do its job and ought to have the op- 
portunity to carry out the mission through the authorities that 
exist. 

I would be very concerned about CNMI as to what the Park Serv- 
ice role would be once we get done in terms of drafting that par- 
ticular agreement. 

To this day, do you have an agreement actually as to what spe- 
cifically you are going to do in those instances in CNMI? 

Mr. Galvin. No. 

Mr. Vento. Well, I think that is another key here in terms of 
trjdng to move ahead expeditiously with this. 

Notwithstanding the issues and questions over the CNMI monies 
is the fact that we do not have such a solid and tangible agree- 
ment. It is one thing to get the people to uphold it, but if you do 
not, then we are wandering forth authorizing money and assuming 
good faith with a backlog of questions and problems that have aris- 
en. 

So I think it is essential that we resolve that. I will be, as I said, 
working with the principal sponsors and the others interested — the 
chairman and subcommittee chairmen from our sister subcommit- 
tee. 

Are there further questions of Mr. Galvin at this time? Or of me? 

[No response.] 

Mr. Vento Well, I thank you very much, Mr. Galvin 

Mr. Galvin. Thank you. 

Mr. Vento [continuing]. For your efforts. This is a difficult topic, 
and we look forward to the written responses to the detailed esti- 
mates that you have prepared to date, or your staff. 



26 

Mr. Galvin. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Vento. We are very pleased to welcome the first panel of 
Senator George Bamba of the 22nd Guam Legislature, the 22nd 
District I assume? Or is it the 22nd Guam Legislature? 

And finally — oh, and at large. So he represents the whole Island. 

Well, sometimes people suggest we only represent Minnesota, but 
some of the things I do even affect people outside of Minnesota. 
[Laughter.] 

PANEL CONSISTING OF HON. J. GEORGE BAMBA, SENATOR, 
22D GUAM LEGISLATURE; AND MICHAEL CRUZ, ACTING DI- 
RECTOR, BUREAU OF PLANNING, ON BEHALF OF HON. JO- 
SEPH F. ADA, GOVERNOR OF GUAM 

Mr. Bamba. Well, actually on Guam I think even some of the 
people claim that I do not represent them. 

Mr. Vento. Well that is always a problem. 

You also have with you Mr. Michael Cruz from the office of Gov- 
ernor Joseph Ada. 

Am I pronouncing the Governor's name correctly? 

"Add-a." Pardon me. 

Senator Bamba, please proceed with your statement. It has been 
made a part of the record by previous request. 

Mr. Bamba. Okay. I have a detailed testimony which has been 
submitted to the committee. 

Mr. Vento. And it is a part of the record, so you can summarize, 
or read the portions that you choose to read. 

STATEMENT OF HON. J. GEORGE BAMBA 

Mr. Bamba. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Chairman, my name is George Bamba. I am a member of the 
22nd Guam Legislature. 

I want to thank you for giving me the opportunity to comment 
on H.R. 1944. I have provided the committee with detailed testi- 
mony, and in the interests of time, I would like to briefly summa- 
rize my written statement. 

In 1978 Congress recognized the importance of the Guam Cam- 
paign by enacting Public Law 95-348 creating the War in the Pa- 
cific Park. This Act authorized $16 million for land acquisition, and 
$500,000 for development. 

In the 15 years between 1978 and the present, little progress has 
been made to complete the Park. Out of the $3 million actually ap- 
propriated for land acquisition, approximately $2.5 million was 
used to acquire less than 40 percent of the private holdings within 
the Park. 

As of May 1992, there was a balance of approximately $500,000 
unexpended in the land acquisitions' fund. 

In 1983, the National Park Service submitted its General Man- 
agement Plan to congressional committees. That plan rec- 
ommended increasing the authorization for development. However, 
no action resulted. 

Last month. Congressman Underwood introduced H.R. 1944 
which seems to authorize a monument listing the names of the 
Guamians who suffered atrocities at the hands of the enemy. 



27 

In addition, the Secretary is authorized to incorporate exhibits 
interpreting the Guamian war experience. 

Mr. Chairman, incorporating a monument and interpretative ex- 
hibits in War in the Pacific Park is entirely consistent with the in- 
tent of U.S. PubHc Law 95-348. 

Section 6 [a] states: 

In order to commemorate the bravery and sacrifice of those participating in the 
campaigns of the Pacific Theater of World War II, and to conserve and interpret 
natural, scenic, and historic values and objects on the Island of Guam for the benefit 
and enjoyment of present and future generations, the War in the Pacific National 
Park is hereby established. 

Inclusion of a monument and interpretative exhibits is likewise 
consistent with the NPS 1983 General Management Plan. The Plan 
itself notes the need for additional data on oral history that will 
add to the general historical knowledge involving citizens of Guam 
who remember the war and its dramatic impact on the Chamorros. 

And in the Guam situation, the bravery and sacrifice of the 
Guamians represents the bravery and sacrifice of all Pacific Thea- 
ter Islanders as they interacted with those who fought on and occu- 
pied their islands in a war not of their making. 

With respect to the monument, I am aware that there is an un- 
written policy against using federal funds for this purpose. How- 
ever, I do not believe this is vahd for the present instance. 

First, Title 8 of U.S. Public Law 95-625 mandates a memorial 
to the late Congressman WiUiam M. Ketchum be placed within the 
Park's boundaries. 

Second, federal funds were appropriated to the American Battle- 
field Monuments Commission for the design of a monument honor- 
ing fallen American service personnel in Guam. My office was in- 
formed that a design was in fact completed. However, the commis- 
sion was advised that further funding would be made available 
from the Department of the Interior in the context of the War in 
4*v*p pQcific Psrlc 

Third, the NPS Plan was to specify "At the tip of Asan Point, it 
is also proposed to provide a simple, dignified memorial for all Pa- 
cific World War II dead." This will not be a separate structure but 
accomplished within the context of the interpretation proposed at 
the same location. 

Furthermore, I respectfully call to the committee's attention the 
fact that exceptions to this unwritten policy have occurred on nu- 
merous occasions. In 1987, Public Law 100-71 authorized $150,000 
for a memorial on Guadacanal. 

Senate Report 100-48 notes in part: "As the site of one of the 
turning points in the Pacific Campaign during World War II, it is 
important that the United States follow the lead of our Japanese 
alUes and honor our countrymen." Again, Public Law 99-572 au- 
thorized the appropriation of $1 million for site preparation, design 
plan construction, and associated administrative costs for the es- 
tablishment of a Korean War Memorial. 

While the Department of the Interior opposed this legislation. 
Senate Report 99-459 reflects a letter written by Deputy Assistant 
Secretary P. Daniel Smith on November 7, 1985. That letter states 
in part: "The issue remains as to if the memorial should be erected 
with appropriated funds. There is precedent for both approaches. 



28 

The Gen. John J. Pershing memorial was erected by the American 
Battle Monuments Commission pursuant to the Act of November 7, 
1966. The Vietnam Veterans and United States Navy Memorials 
are both authorized by Congress in 1980 and were authorized to be 
erected in private organizations." Perhaps the most compelling rea- 
son for incorporating monuments and interpretative programs can 
be found in the perception of the Park by the primary population 
it serves, the people of Guam. 

Mr. Chairman, during national celebrations commemorating the 
50th Anniversary of Pearl Harbor, Guam was virtually ignored, al- 
though it too was attacked on the same day. 

Some years ago, the Park was even closed to local residents on 
weekends. Nevertheless, affection for and dedication to the Park re- 
mains high in Guam. 

Disillusionment is due in large measure to the lack of progress 
being made to acquire the private landholdings within the Park. 

However, I ftiUy agree with Congressman Underwood and Sen- 
ator Daniel Akaka that the land acquisition question is a separate 
one from the bill before this committee. 

Finally, Mr. Chairman, I wish to touch briefly on the question of 
funding. In the event H.R. 1944 is enacted, it will be necessary to 
appropriate the funds which have been authorized. 

While I fully support Congressman Underwood's efforts to lobby 
the Appropriations Committee, it is unlikely that money will be 
made available in time for the 1994 50th Anniversary. This is so 
in part because the President's budget proposal does not include 
funding for the War in the Pacific Park in fiscal year 1994. 

Therefore, the potential exists that the Administration would op- 
pose such legislation. Nevertheless, there is approximately 
$500,000 in previously appropriated money which could be repro- 
grammed for this purpose. 

I am referring to the balance of the $3 million for land acquisi- 
tion which has not been spent and is sitting in a fund gathering 
dust. 

At the time the money was appropriated, land on Guam was rel- 
atively cheap. Today, the $500,000 cannot be spent because land 
values have more than quadrupled. 

Since this does not represent new money, reprogramming it for 
Park development — and specifically the monument authorized in 
H.R. 1944 — would be revenue-neutral and could be used to con- 
struct the monument in time for the 1994 anniversary. 

It is my personal belief that, should this occur, it would indi- 
rectly expedite a resolution to the land issue by highlighting the 
Park and its relationship to the local community. 

Last year, House Insular Affairs Chairman Ron de Lugo, the co- 
sponsor of H.R. 1944, wrote Secretary of the Interior Manual Lujan 
on July 7: 

In view of this situation, you may want to initially concentrate on developing fa- 
cilities. A first step might be to seek authority to reprogram the approximately 
$500,000 of unused acquisition funds for the Guam Park for development purposes. 

Noting the request for a monument by the Governor and myself. 
Chairman de Lugo added: "The $500,000, which you may want to 
reprogram, could be used for these purposes." Before closing I wish 
to point out that development of the Park has been urged by the 



29 

3.5 million member National Military Coalition. Including a monu- 
ment has been specifically endorsed by the American Legion and 
Third Marine Division Association, Guam chapters. 

American Legion Guam Post 53 Commander Paul Koss was to 
write me in February 18, 1992: 

It is these, the living, who benefit most by a monument commemorating 
Guamians who suffered during the Occupation. For Guamians of all ages, the monu- 
ment to memories would be not only historical preservation, but act as a sanctified 
place to put spirits to rest. 

Without these rights, there is no closure. The wound remains 
open. The pain persists. Names to see and touch become life's most 
special acknowledgement. 

A credit line of supportive players in often tragic and still splen- 
didly special historic happenings. 

Mr. Chairman, I want to really reiterate my support for the H.R. 
1944 and respectfully request the committee to consider either an 
amendment authorizing a reprogram, or some other means by 
which we can make use of these funds in time for the 50th Anni- 
versary of the Liberation of Guam. 

On behalf of myself and the thousands of our people who have 
yet to be recognized for their loyalty to the United States during 
the Second World War, I urge this committee to support H.R. 1944 
and commend the Honorable Robert Underwood for introducing it. 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

[Prepared statement of Senator Bamba follows:] 



72-168 - 93 - 2 



30 




155 f rslrr l^tmt 
Agana. (ftuam l.i&.A. 96910 



(671) 477-8648 



May 19, 1993 



The Honorable Bruce F. Vento 

Chairman, Subcommittee on National Parks 

814 OHOB 

Washington, D.C. 20515 

Re: Testimony in support of H.R. 1944 
Dear Mr. Chairman: 

Thank you for giving me this opportunity to comment on H.R. 1944. 
If enacted, it would increase the authorized amount for development 
of the War in the Pacific Park from $500,000 to $8 million. As a 
member of the 22nd Guam Legislature, I strongly support H.R. 1944 
and commend the Honorable Robert Underwood for introducing this 
urgent legislation. 

Mr. Chairman, Guam was the only American territory (outside of the 
Philippines) acutally occupied by the enemy during World War II. 
It was also the first U.S. soil liberated in 1944. During nearly 
two-and-a-half years of enemy occupation, Guamanians (who were U.S. 
nationals but not citizens) endured savage treatment. Thousands of 
my people suffered death, personal injury, forced labor, forced 
marches and internment in concentration camps. Thousands of brave 
American service personnel made the ultimate sacrifice to liberate 
the island. So bitter was the fighting on Guam that no less than 
three Congressional Medals of Honor were awarded for heroism under 
fire. 

In 1978, Congress recognized the importance of the Guam campaign by 
enacting P.L. 95-348, creating the War in the Pacific Park. This 
Act Authorized $16 million for land acquisition and $500,000 for 
development. In the fifteen years between 1978 and the present, 
little progress has been made to complete the park. Out of the $3 
million actually appropriated for land acquisition, approximately 
$2.5 million was used to acquire less than 40% of the private 
holdings within the Park. As of May 1992, there was a balance of 
approximately $500,000 unexpended in the Lands Acquisition Fund. 

In 1983, the National Park Service (NPS) submitted its General 
Management Plan to congressional committees. That plan recommended 
increasing the authorization for development. However, no action 
resulted. H.R. 1944 remedies this by increasing the authorization 
for development to $8 million. 



31 



SEN. GEORGE BAMBA: TESTIMONY H.R. 1944 



Mr. Chairman, over a year and a half ago, the Honorable Joseph Ada, 
Governor of Guam, wrote Senate Energy Committee Chairman J. Bennett 
Johnston a letter dated November 4, 1992 (Exhibit "A") which stated 
in part: 

"Mr Chairman, there is strong sentiment in Guam for 
completing the War in the Pacific National Park ... In 
light of the attention to be focused on the entire 
Pacific campaign in the days and months ahead, I have, 
together with Senator George Bamba of the 21st Guam 
Legislature, developed a proposed amendment which would 
authorize two monuments listing the names of American 
servicemen killed in action, as well as the names of 
Guamanians who suffered as a result of the war. 
Secondly, the proposed amendment would specifically 
authorize the interpretive programs of Guamanians' war 
experience . . . increase the authorized amount for park 
development based on the 1983 general management plan; 
and would require the National Park Service to submit a 
report to Congress updating cost estimates and plans for 
the park." 

On February 18, 1992, the Third Marine Division Association, Guam 
Chapter, endorsed this initiative (Exhibit "B"). The Third Marine 
Division was one of the units which played a major role in the 
liberation of Guam. Likewise, American Legion Guam Post 53 
endorsed the proposed development of the Park (Exhibit "C"). On 
February 18, 1992, Post Commander Paul Coss was to write: 

"It is these, the living, who benefit most by a monument 
commemorating Guamanians who suffered during the 
occupation . . . For Guamanians of all ages, a monument 
to memories would be not only historical preservation, 
but act as a sanctified place to put spirits to rest . . . 
Without these rites, there is no closure — the wound 
remains open, the pain persists . . . Names to see and 
touch, become life's most special acknowledgement — a 
credit line of supportive players in often tragic, and 
still splendidly special historic happenings ..." 

Last month. Congressman Underwood introduced H.R. 1944 which seeks 
to authorize a monument listing the names of Guamanians who 
suffered atrocities at the hands of the enemy. In addition, the 
Secretary is authorized to incorporate exhibits interpreting the 
Guamanian war experience. Mr. Chairman, incorporating a monument 
and interpretive exhibits into the War in the Pacific Park is 
entirely consistent with the intent of U.S. P.L. 95-348. Sec. 6(a) 
states: 



32 



SEN. GEORGE BAMBA: TESTIMONY H.R. 1944 



"In order to commemorate the bravery and sacrifice of 
those participating in the campaigns of the Pacific 
theater of World War II and to conserve and interpret 
outstanding natural, scenic and historic values and 
objects on the island of Guam for the benefit and 
enjoyment of present and future generations, the War in 
the Pacific National Historical Park ... is hereby 
established. " 

Inclusion of a monument and interpretive exhibits is likewise 
consistent with the NPS 1983 General Management Plan. 

The Plan itself notes the need for "Additional data on oral history 
that will add to general historical knowledge" involving "citizens 
of Guam who remember the war and its dramatic impact on the 
Chamorros [Guamanians] . . . can help the managers and planners in 
restoring the historical scene." 

And "In the Guam situation, the bravery and sacrifice of the 
Guamanians represents the bravery and sacrifice of all Pacific 
Theater Islanders as they interacted with those who fought on and 
occupied their islands in a war not of their making." 

With respects to the monument, I am aware that there is an 
unwritten policy against using federal funds for this purpose. 
However, I do not believe this is valid in the present instance. 
First, Title VIII of U.S. Public Law 95-625 (92 Stat. 3534) 
mandates a memorial to the late Congressman William M. Ketchum be 
placed within the Park's boundaries 

Secondly, federal funds were appropriated to the American 
Battlefield Monuments Commission for the design of a monument 
honoring fallen American service personnel in Guam. My office was 
informed that a design was in fact completed — however, the 
Commission was advised that further funding would be made available 
from the Department of the Interior in the context of the War in 
the Pacific Park. 

Thirdly, the NPS Plan was to specify: 

"At the tip of Asan Point, it is also proposed to provide 
a simple, dignified memorial for all Pacific World War II 
dead. This will not be a separate structure but 
accomplished within the context of the interpretation 
proposed at this same location." 

Furthermore, I respectfully call to the Committee's attention the 
fact that exceptions to this "unwritten policy" have occurred on 



33 



SEN. GEORGE BAMBA : TESTIMONY H.R. 1944 



numerous occasions. In 1987, P.L. 100-71 (101 Stat. 411) 
authorized $150,000 for a memorial on Guadalcanal. Senate Report 
100-48 notes in part: 

"As the site of one of the turning points in the Pacific 
campaign during World War II ... it is important that 
the United States follow the lead of our Japanese allies 
and honor our countrymen." 

Again, P.L. 99-572 (100 Stat. 3226) authorized the appropriation of 
$1 million for site preparation, design, planning, construction and 
associated administrative costs for the establishment of a Korean 
War Memorial. While the Department of the Interior opposed this 
legislation. Senate Report 99-459 reflects a letter written by 
Deputy Assistant Secretary P. Daniel Smith on November 7, 1985. 
That letter states in part: 

"The issue remains as to if the memorial should be 
erected . . . with appropriated funds . . . There is 
precedent for both approaches. The General John J. 
Pershing Memorial was erected by the American Battle 
Monuments Commission pursuant to the Act of November 7, 
1966. The Vietnam Veterans and United States Navy 
Memorials, both authorized by Congress in 1980, were 
authorized to be erected by private organizations." 
(emphasis added) 

Perhaps the most compelling reason for incorporating monuments and 
interpretive programs can be found in the perception of the Park by 
the primary population it serves: the people of Guam. 

Mr. Chairman, during national celebrations commemorating the 50th 
anniversary of the Pearl Harbor, Guam was virtually ignored — 
although it too was attacked on the same day. Some years ago, the 
Park was even closed to local residents on weekends. Nevertheless, 
affection for and dedication to the Park remains high in Guam. 
This is not only attested to by the enclosed, but by local media 
editorials and the constant stream of residents who continue to 
express their support for the Park. Disillusionment is due in 
large measure to the lack of progress being made to acquire the 
private land holdings within the Park. However, I fully agree with 
Congressmen Underwood and Senator Daniel Akaka that the land 
acquisition question is a separate one from the bill before this 
Committee. 

Finally, Mr. Chairman, I wish to touch briefly on the questions of 
funding. In the event H.R. 1944 is enacted, it will still be 



34 



SEN. GEORGE BAMBA : TESTIMONY H.R. 1944 



necessary to appropriate the funds which have been authorized. 
While I fully support Congressman Underwood's efforts to lobby the 
Appropriations Coinmittee, it is unlikely that money will be made 
available in time for the 1994 fiftieth anniversary. This is so in 
part because the President's budget proposal did not include War in 
the Pacific Park funding in FY 94. Therefore, the potential exists 
that the Administration would oppose such legislation. 

Nevertheless, there is approximately $500,000 in previously 
appropriated money which could be reprogrammed for this purpose. 
I am referring to the balance of the $3 million for land 
acquisition which has not been spent and is sitting in a Fund 
gathering dust. At the time the money was appropriated, land on 
Guam was relatively cheap. Today, the $500,000 cannot be spent 
because land values have more than quadrupled. Since this does not 
represent "new money," reprogramming it for park development — 
specifically the monument authorized in H.R. 1944 -- would be 
revenue neutral and could be used to construct the monument in time 
for the 1994 anniversary. It is my personal belief that should 
this occur, it would indirectly expedite a resolution to the land 
issue by highlighting the Park and its relationship to the local 
community. 

Last year. House Insular Affairs Chairman Ron de Lugo (a cosponsor 
of H.R. 1944) wrote Secretary of the Interior Manuel Lujan on July 
7th (Exhibit "D") : 

"In view of this situation, you may want to initially 
concentrate on developing facilities ... A first step 
might be to seek authority to reprogram the approximately 
$500,000 of unused acquisition funds for the Guam park 
for development purposes." 

Noting the request for a monument by the Governor and myself, 
Chairman de Lugo added, "The $500,000 which you may want to 
reprogram could be used for these purposes." 

In conclusion, I want to reiterate my support for H.R. 1944 and 
respectfully request the Committee to consider either an amendment 
authorizing a reprogram -- or some other means by which we can make 
use of these funds in time for the fiftieth anniversary of the 
liberation of Guam. 



35 



SEN. GEORGE BAMBA: TESTIMONY H.R. 1944 



On behalf of myself and the thousands of my people who have yet to 
be recognized for their loyalty to the United States during the 
Second World War, I urge this Committee to support H.R. 1944. I 
also request that my testimony and its attached exhibits be made 
part of the record. 

Sincerely, 



/ 

/ h. GEORGE B 

( -Senator, 22nd Guam Legislature 



J. GEORGE BAMBA 



36 



EXHIBIT 



37 







L HAINAN I MAOA LA 
AGANA.0LAMyt)4li: 



The Honorable J. Bennett Johnston 

Chai rman 

Comraitee on Energy and Natural Resources 

SH-136 Hart Senate Office Building 

Washington, D.C. 20510-1802 

Dear Mr. Chairman: 

The 50th anniversary of American Involvement in World War II 
Is fast approaching. While national attention will, quite 
properly, be focused on Pearl Harbor, I believe that the 
sacrifices experienced on Guam and Guamanlans alike are 
equally worthy of commemoration. 

Guam was the only U.S. territory actually seized and occupied 
by the enemy (outside of the Philippines) during World War 
II. Hopelessly outnumbered by the invading enemy, the tiny 
island garrison was forced to surrender on December 10, 
1941, During the battle, 14 Americans were killed in action 
- while five out of six servicement (who had escaped enemy 
detection) were hunted down and executed between 1942 and 
1944. Another 2,124 members of the U.S. armed forces lost 
their lives liberating Guam between July 21 and August 10, 
1944. So bitter was the fighting that no less than three 
Congressional Medals of Honor were awarded in Guam for 
heroism under fire. At the sane time, thousands of loyal 
Guamanlans suffered death, personal injury, forced labor, 
forced marches and Internment during nearly two-and-a-half 
years of enemy occupation. 

Mr. Chairman, the Important role Guam played in the Pacific 
campaign was recognized by Congress (and your good committee) 
through enactment of Public Law 95-348 on August 18, 1978. 
This Law established the creation of the War in the Pacific 
National Park. A total of $16 million was authorized for 
land acquisition and $500,000 for development. In 1983, the 
National Park Service, pursuant to Public Law 95-348, 
transmitted its general management plan to congressional 
committees. The plan recommended increasing authorized 
development funds based on cost estimates using 1981 dollars. 



Commonwealth Now! 



38 



The i<onorabLe J. Bennett Johnston 
Page Two 



Mr. Chairman, there is strong sentiment in Guam for 
completing the War in the Pacific National Park, which was 
authorized more than thirteen years ago. In light of the 
attention to be focused on the entire Pacific campaign in the 
days and months ahead, I have, together with Senator George 
Bamba of the 21st Guam Legislature, developed a proposed 
amendment which would authorize two monuments listing the 
names of American servicemen killed in action, as well as the 
names of Guamanians who suffered as a result of the war. 
Secondly, the proposed amendment would specifically authorize 
interpretive programs of Guamanians' war experience within 
the Park; increase the authorized amount for park development 
based on the 1983 general management plan; and would require 
the National Park Service to submit a report to Congress 
updating cost estimates and plans for the Park. 

We have contacted our Congressman, the Honorable Ben G. Blaz, 
who will be working on the House of Representatives side to 
resolve this issue. Congressman Blaz is a strong supporter 
of our War in the Pacific Park. 

On behalf of the people of Guam, who wish to honor those 
brave men and women (Guamanians and Americans alike) who 
actions make it possible for us to live in freedom today, I 
respectfully request introduction and passage of the enclosed 
amendment in the Senate at the earliest practical date. 
Thank you and Si Yu'os Ha'ase. 

Siiicerely, 



'JOSEPH F. ADA 
Governor of Guam 



39 



EXHIBIT "B' 



40 




o-TKirJ Marine Division Association, Inc. 

Bougainville • Guam • Iwo Jima • Vietnam 




February 18, 1992 



Senator George Bamba 
Twenty-First Guam Legislature 
155 Hesler Street 
Agana, Guam 96910 

Dear Senator Bamba: 

Thank you for your letter of January 23, 1992 in reference to 
legislation on the War in the Pacific Park. 

The 3cl Marine Division was one of the units that played a 
major role in the Liberation of Guam on July 21, 1944 when the 
Division landed on Guam at Asan Beach, exactly in the area where 
the War in the Pacific Park is now located. 

As United States Veterans living on Guam, it is our feeling 
and desire that the United States Government establish the War in 
the Pacific Park that is suitable and in commensurate with the 
major role that Guam played during World War II. Guam was the only 
U.S. Territory that was invaded and occupied by the enemy — the 
Japanese. 

At a meeting of the Guam Chapter, 3d Marine Division 
Association on February 16, 1992, the members unanimously endorsed 
your proposed amendment to Public Law 95-348 (92 STAT. 492: 16 
U.S.C. 140dd) . 



GUAM CHAPTER 
P.O. Box 7012 
Tamuning, Guam 96931 




41 



EXHIBIT 



42 



AMERICAN LEGION GDAM POST 53 

P.O. Box 23616 

GMF. Guam 96921 



February 18, 1992 



Senator J. G6orge Bamba 
Twenty-First Guam Legislature 
155 Hesler Street 
Agana, Guam 96910 

Dear Senator Bamba: 




As Commmander of American Legion Post 53, I am particularly pleased for 
your invitation to address the status of War in the Pacific Park. As 

spokesperson for Post 53, the following is the consensus of members. 

Since 1978, many Post veterans have held high hopes that the philosophi- 
cal intent of the Park would become visitable, visible reality. Mr. 

T. Stell Newman, the Park's first director, was held in high regard for 
the energy and integrity of his efforts. Yet even prior to his untimely 
death, implementation of the Park's purposes appeared stalemated pre- 
sumably because of economics. While procuring private lands at a fair 
market value was an apparent problem, many became of the belief that 
Guam's great distance could have mitigated the Park's relevance; while 
the United States Congress enacted Public Law 95-348 to establish a 
National Park reflective of the entire Pacific Campaign, Guam's remote- 
ness to the contiguous states tends to remove the region from national 
focus. For instance, it could have been argued that the population the 
War in the Pacific Park would serve would not substantiate nor justify 
the appropriations necessary to create the Park in its total design. 

While this concern may have never been brought up, we bring it up here 
as an attitudinal possibility; it can't be discounted as a factor in 
the need for immediacy. If one were to draw a comparison between Gettys- 
burg National Military Park, for example, the total yearly visitation to 
The War in the Pacific Park, as projected, could suffer. But the War 
in the Pacific Park begs commemoration where it occurred — just as does 
Gettysburg. 

And the war in the pacific has very great relevance to the island of 
Guam itself, the only U.S. soil occupied by the enemy, and the first to 
be liberated by U.S. forces. The emotionalism, the patriotism in Guam- 
anians, remains as intense today as it was during World War II. 

It is these, the living, who would benefit most by a monument commemor- 
ating Guamanians who suffered during the occupation. The affect upon 
the local population would be personally profound, and bestow upon them 
a sense of peace, release, and pride. 

None of us are immune to the need for tangible tokens, that which has 
form and substance and symbolizes identity. For Guamanians of all ages, 
a monument to memories would be not only historical preservation, but 
act as a sanctified place to put spirits to rest. For a culture, it 
has been very difficult; deeply Catholic, the rituals of wakes and burials 



43 



Senator J. George Bamba/page 2 



along with the outpouring of grief and love, begins the healing process. 
Without these rites, there is no closure — the wound remains open, the 
pain persists. And this is what has happened with the indigenous people. 

We at Guam Post 53, feel that legislation structured by you. Senator Bamba, 
along with Governor Ada, is an excellent alternative solution towards 
overcoming the current paucity of the Park. The two proposed monuments — the 
second to commemorate United States Armed Services personnel killed in action, 
along with programs to interpret the WWII Guamanian experience, would defin- 
itively dignify the suffering and sacrifice of thousands of Americans. 
Names to see and touch, become life's most special acknowledgement — a credit 
line of supportive players in often tragic, and still splendidly special 
historic happenings, as they illustrate the beauty of the human spirit. 

Further, while the U.S. mainland suffers under a grave economic crisis, 14 
years' have elapsed since the Congress created by law, the War in the Pacific 
Park. And Guam is soon to embark upon its 50th Liberation Anniversary. Since 
the documented history of mankind began, it has been eloquently evident that 
spiritual survival is the only assurance of physical survival; these two 
cannot be viewed independently — they are Inseparable facts of life. 

Again collectively, we at American Legion Guam Post 53, commend Congressman 

Ben Blaz for his ceaseless devotion to this cause. We further respectfully 
request the consideration of the Congress towards approving the funding 
necessary for these amendments. Post 53 veterans state that their own sense 
of pride in America, as well as their sense of self-esteem in serving their 
country, would be enormously elevated if these amendments are enacted. 




Paul Coss 
Commander 
American Legion Guam Post 53 



44 



EXHIBIT 



45 



Committee on 
interior anb iniulav Attain 



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nrtii 4. o«r*ro owoom 

I r.n. tAinmAvMOK Mil 

^I'^'S^'^ July 7, 1992 :;i7.;™;c';s 

XJMTT jOMPftTOPl Hfl*0« CtiitlW COUMtfl 

S« I'STr Si5S«. w«»i«..-«.<«cii.. 

•nOMS < tOlOMoa •UMTS MD 

Th« Uonorabla Manuel Lujan, Jr. 
Secretary of th« Intarior 
1849 c straat, N.w. 
Washington, D.C. 20240 

Daar Xr. Sacratary: 

The 50th anniversary of the United States' involvement in World 
War II is an appropriate tine to ensure that the tremendous 
sacrifices of that conflict will be remembered. You can help do 
this by seeJcing funding for the War in the Pacific National 
Historical Par)c in Guam and American Kemorial Parle in the 
Northern Mariana islands. 

As you know, these parks were both created in 1978 to commemorate 
the sacrifices of those who participated in the Pacific theater 
during World War II. But, as I am sure that you also know, 
neither has been substantially funded. Much of the land 
authorized to be included in the War in the Pacific Park has not 
been acquired and there has been relatively little development of 
either park, as you saw during your inspection of both parks in 
1989. 

Because of the dramatic increases in land prices in Guam since 
the park there was authorized, acquisition of all of the land 
necessary to complete this park in the near future is an 
unrealistic goal. Indeed the Administration's budget for fiscal 
year 1993 proposes $1 million to purchase just two of the 170 
acres outstanding. 

In view of this situation, you may want to intially concentrate 
on developing facilities within both parks (although wo should 
■till work towards acquiring of all land needed for the Guam.) 

A first step might be to seek authority to reprograa the 
approximately $500,000 of unused acquisition funds for the Guam 
park for development purposes. 

A second might be to reconsider the Department's position on 
S. 2331, Senator Akaka's bill to authorize an additional 
$8 Billion for development of each of these parks. 



46 



Th« Bonorabl* Manual Lujan 
July 07, 1992 
Paga 2 

A third atap might ba to saak nacessary funding for these parks 
In the fiscal yaar 1994 budget. 

Governor Joseph Ada and Senator George Basba of Guaa have 
requested the inclusion of two monuments within the Guam park as 
part of the design for a visitor center, one monument would list 
the names of American service personnel killed in action on the 
Guam. The second monument would list the names of Guamanians 
living and dead, who suffered atrocities during the war. They 
have also requested additional Guamanian war experience exhibits 
within the park. The $500,000 which you may want to reprogram 
could be used for these purposes. 

Senator Akaka's legislation has been endorsed by Guam chapters of 
the American Legion and the Third Marine Division Association as 
well as by the 3.5 million member National Military Coalition. 
It is worthy of consideration. 

Mr. Secretary, I would appreciate your leadership in ensuring 
that these parks become a true reflection of our country's 
commitnent to the memory of the military personnel and the 
residents of the islands who joined in sacrifice during World war 
Two. I stand ready to work with you towards this end. 

Sincerely, 



r RON DE LUGO ^^ 

Chairman 

Subcommittee on Insular and 
International Affairs 



ROL/blo 



47 

Mr. Vento. Thank you, Senator Bamba. 

We are pleased to welcome the Governor's representative, Mr. 
Cruz. 
Welcome, Mr. Cruz. 

STATEMENT OF MICHAEL CRUZ 

Mr. Cruz. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

My name is Michael Cruz. I am the current Acting Director of 
the Bureau of Planning from the Government of Guam here pre- 
senting testimony on behalf of the Hon. Governor Joseph F. Ada. 

I have submitted testimony for the record. However, there is one 
particular paragraph that I wanted to highlight. If the Chairman 
will permit me, I will read this. 

Mr. Vento. Yes. Absolutely. You can read any portion you would 
like. 

Mr. Bamba. Governor Ada indicates in his testimony that the 
story of the Chamorros who lost their lives on their own soil during 
that war is one not often told. 

The story of Chamorros who suffered grievously during the war 
through forced labor, through beatings and torture, through intern- 
ment in concentration camps, these stories are not frequently re- 
counted. 

In a small country like Guam, painful experiences are not fre- 
quently relived, and the more painful the experience the more pro- 
found the silence. 

I believe, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee, that 
that really summarizes the Governor's own thoughts about this 
particular situation. 

He did ask that I relate to the Committee that he is in full sup- 
port of H.R. 1944. 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

[Prepared statement of Mr. Cruz follows:] 



48 







WASHINGTON OFRCE OF 
THE GOVERNOR OF GUAM 
URSINAN I MAGALAHI 
161 5 NEW HAMPSHIRE AVENUE, r 
SUITE 40Z 

WASHINGTON. DC 20009 
TELEPHONE (202) 234-GUAM 
TELECOPIER 1202)797-0410 



TESTIMONY 



before the House Subcommittee on 
National Parks, Forests and Public Lands 

On Behalf of Joseph F. Ada 
Governor of Guam 



COMMONWEALTH NOW 



49 



MR. CHAIRMAN AND MEMBERS OF THE SUBCOMMITTEE, THANK YOU FOR THIS 
OPPORTUNITY TO SPEAK BEFORE YOU ON THIS ISSUE. 

MY TESTIMONY TODAY IS VERY BRIEF, BUT ON MY PART, BREVITY MAY BE THE 
BEST ELOQUENCE I CAN MUSTER. FOR NOTHING IS MORE ELOQUENT THAN THE 
TESTIMONY OF THOSE OF MY PEOPLE WHO TRULY EXPERIENCED AND SUFFERED 
THE HARSH REALITIES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR IN GUAM. 

ONE THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED CHAMORROS DIED DURING THE SECOND WORLD 
WAR IN GUAM. THAT MAY NOT SOUND LIKE MANY, BUT AS A PERCENTILE OF 
OUR INDIGENOUS POPULATION AT THE TIME, IT WAS A VERY LARGE NUMBER, 
THE EQUIVALENT IN RATIO OF MORE THAN NINETEEN MILLION AMERICANS 
LOSING THEIR LIVES TODAY. OF THOSE FIFTEEN HUNDRED CHAMORROS WHO 
LOST THEIR LIVES IN WORLD WAR TWO, THE VAST MAJORITY DIED IN A 
SINGLE MONTH, THE PERIOD INCLUDING PART OF JULY AND PART OF AUGUST 
1944, THE PERIOD IN WHICH AMERICAN FORCES RECAPTURED THE ISLAND 
FROM JAPANESE OCCUPYING TROOPS. 

IN TRUTH, THE STORY OF THE CHAMORROS WHO LOST THEIR LIVES ON THEIR 
OWN SOIL DURING THAT WAR, IS ONE NOT OFTEN TOLD. THE STORIES OF 
CHAMORROS WHO SUFFERED GRIEVOUSLY DURING THE WAR THROUGH FORCED 
LABOR, THROUGH BEATINGS AND TORTURE, THROUGH INTERNMENT IN 
CONCENTRATION CAMPS... THESE STORIES ARE NOT FREQUENTLY RECOUNTED. 
IN A SMALL COUNTRY LIKE GUAM, PAINFUL EXPERIENCES ARE NOT 
FREQUENTLY RELIVED AND THE MORE PAINFUL THE EXPERIENCE, THE MORE 
PROFOUND THE SILENCE. 

IT IS DIFFICULT TO MYTHOLOGIZE THE SUFFERINGS OF YOUR PEOPLE WHEN 
YOUR PEOPLE ARE NOT NAMELESS HEROES, BUT YOUR FATHERS AND 
MOTHERS, YOUR SIBLINGS, YOUR LOVED ONES. BUT THE FACT THAT WE DO 
NOT MAKE A MYTH OF OUR FALLEN, DOES NOT IN ANY WAY DIMINISH THE 
HEROISM OF OUR PEOPLE OR THE STARK REALITY OF THE SUFFERING THEY 
EXPERIENCED. 

1 



50 



NO MONUMENTS EXIST... IN STONE OR BRONZE... TO MEMORIALIZE THE 
HEROISM AND THE SUFFERING THAT CAUSED IT TO BE BORN. NO MEMORIAL 
EXCEPT FOR OUR MEMORIES. IT IS CERTAINLY FITTING THAT ALMOST A HALF 
CENTURY AFTER THESE EVENTS OCCURRED, EVENTS LITTLE NOTED NOR 
REMEMBERED BY ANYONE OUTSIDE OF GUAM, THAT SOME OFFICIAL 
RECOGNITION BE GIVEN. CONGRESSMAN UNDERWOOD IS TO BE 
CONGRATULATED FOR THIS EFFORT TO SECURE A MEMORIAL FOR THE 
CHAMORRO PEOPLE OF GUAM WHO DIED OR OTHERWISE BORE THE SCARS OF 
THE SECOND WORLD WAR, SCARS WHICH HAVE NOT ALTOGETHER 
DISAPPEARED, EVEN TODAY. AFTER ALL, IF ANYONE CAN BE SAID TO HAVE 
BEEN BLAMELESS VICTIMS OF THE VIOLENCE OF THAT WAR, SURELY THE 
PEACEFUL PEOPLE LIVING IN THE ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC SUCH AS GUAM... 
PEOPLE WHO HAD DECLARED WAR ON NO ONE... TRULY WERE. 

THANK YOU VERY MUCH. 



51 

Mr. Vento. Well thank you, Mr. Cruz. 

I think that one of the great writers once said that those that 
cannot remember history are destined to relive it. So it is very im- 
portant to remember problems as we have, just in the Nation's cap- 
it£d this year, put up a museum to some of the horrors that grew 
out of the 1930s and 1940s in terms of the Holocaust Museum. 

So obviously there is a recognition by the American people for 
this. I think it is safe, and I think appropriate, to recognize a lim- 
ited population with the income level and so forth, with the neces- 
sity and importance of this in terms of the U.S. playing a role in 
helping with the construction and memorial. 

The backbone, the infrastructure, the visitors centers, are tradi- 
tional things we do, but I think that supplementing it, or trying to 
enhance it with other participations, is also appropriate rather 
than to presume it solely on its own. 

It is a tough time, but I think we can begin to address some of 
the issues as you have pointed them out, the land issues, and those 
are very tough issues. We will not get into that today, because it 
is a difficult issue and we want to focus on getting to next June 
and through that. 

I am trying to get this down to where we can eliminate any prob- 
lems and/or concerns. That is why I spoke out with regards to 
CNMI and what is likely to occur and that that may hang it up. 

We may have to deal with that aspect of it in separate legislation 
as a matter of fact. But we will try to advance it as far as we can. 

I do not have any questions. I respect. Senator, the work that 
you have done, and the Governor's deep interest and support, both 
of you supporting it. 

I think that the only comment I would make is that in your testi- 
mony, Senator Bamba, you referred to the difficulty that Congress- 
man tJnderwood has as an uphill fight; we will join with him. 

This is bringing much more attention to it by virtue of the hear- 
ing which underlines the importance of it to the m£iny Members of 
Congress and the staff who are present today. 

I think that the Administration more or less took what was the 
budget last year, even though the previous President left only a 
partial budget. They really were not able to go through all of the 
different priorities. 

I would hope that in the process on appeal we might be able to 
obtain more support from Secretary Babbitt and President Clinton 
on this issue. I would be surprised if we were not able to get some 
recognition of it and some help with the Appropriations Committee 
and with the general appropriations for 1994 to begin this long- 
overdue task. 

As I have said, we have been faced with 12 years of not much 
happening. So what we are trying to do now, or what we would like 
to do is make a down payment on it which we hope would indicate 
the good faith. 

I will work, again with the Secretary and the President, to try 
to enlist their consideration in this matter. We will again be guided 
by your Congressman from Guam, Congressman Underwood. 

Congressman Underwood, do you have any questions of your con- 
stituents? 



52 

Mr. Underwood. No. They were very laudatory in their com- 
ments, and I thank you very much for your statement of support 
in helping us seek further support from the Administration on this 
matter. 

You made a comment, Mr. Chair, and I liked that comment, as 
an old history teacher, that those who forget the past are doomed 
to repeat it. 

History teachers, those who remember it, are condemned to teach 
it. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Vento. Well, I was going to say, I did not know who coined 
it, so I could not 

Mr. Underwood. But as an old history teacher, I always felt a 
little that way. 

The comments made by both Senator Bamba — and I would like 
at this time, too, for the record to recognize the work of Senator 
Bamba on this issue particularly related to World War II, anything 
related to World War II, the experience of the Chamorro people, 
war reparations, other issues that are related to this. 

I know that his mother made it a cornerstone of her public ca- 
reer, and he himself has made it a real cornerstone of his own ef- 
forts and I think the people of Guam recognize fully that Senator 
Bamba has taken a strong leadership role in this for a number of 
years. So I would like to recognize that. 

I think the comments made by Mr. Cruz are also very pertinent 
and to the point. I would say that both of these gentlemen, as do 
most people on Guam, but I think both of these gentlemen have 
relatives and grandfathers and uncles who participated in the occu- 
pation and participated in the events surrounding the occupation 
in a very direct and heroic way, and I would like to recognize that, 
as well. 

Just one question I have of Senator Bamba, because this is an 
issue in terms of identifying the people who would likely end up 
on this monument. Sometimes this has been raised by people as a 
possible impediment and as a difficult issue. 

So I would like to ask his comments about how he visualizes how 
the names would be selected and what resources are available for 
this. 

Mr. Cruz. Well actually, Mr. Congressman, the names are avail- 
able already through two authorities actually. The first is through 
the listing of the authorization under the Guam Meritorious Claims 
Act authorized by the United States Congress, which is already a 
part of the record. 

And the second, authorized by the Government of Guam in the 
creation of the Commission on War Reparations, which basically 
went out and identified those individuals that suffered atrocities 
during the occupation. 

That was a commission that was sanctioned by the Government 
of Guam. It was a commission created by law by the Government 
of Guam. Those would be the two authorities that I would suggest 
would be for the listing of the names. 

Mr. Underwood. So this is not really an impediment of any 
sort? 

Mr. Cruz. No. 



53 

Mr. Underwood. This is a case of well-documented public 
record? 

Mr. Cruz. Yes. In fact, all the names have been documented and 
fully justified. 

Mr. Underwood. Okay. Thank you. 

I have no questions. 

Mr. Vento. Congressman de Lugo. 

Mr. DE Lugo. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. 

I want to welcome both witnesses here before this committee. 
Senator Bamba, and also the Governor's representative Michael 
Cruz. 

Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask unanimous consent to have 
my prepared opening statement be made a part of the record. 

Mr. Vento. Yes. Without objection, so ordered. 

[Editor's note. — See appendix.] 

Mr. de Lugo. I thought that in your prepared statement, Mi- 
chael, you made a very telling point. That is, the magnitude of 
what happened in Guam during this occupation. 

There was a 2V2 year period, and during that period the people 
of Guam were subject to all sorts of abuse. But during a one-month 
period between July and August of 1944, most of the 1,500 
Guamians who were killed and lost their lives, they lost their lives 
during this period just prior to the Americsins retaking Guam. 

And 1,500, if you put that in its proper perspective, the propor- 
tion of the casualties, of the deaths among these American Nation- 
als, if you were to project that today to the United States if this 
happened, 19 million Americans would lose their lives would be the 
comparison. 

So that gives you some idea of the way that the people in this 
community must look on this. 

Congressman Underwood used the term "heroic" just a while ago. 
I can assure you that anyone reading the record of this period has 
to be stunned by the heroic nature of the resistance and the loyalty 
that was displayed by the Chamorro people. 

It is just amazing. 

I saw that Jim Corman who was here with us, who just went 
through the door, he was, as the Chairman pointed out, he is a vet- 
eran of the action at that time. 

In my own prepared statement it is pointed out that among the 
U.S. troops — I mean, this was a bloody, terrible campaign — 5,700 
U.S. troops were killed or missing during the Marianas Campaign 
that included Guam — 5,700 killed or missing — and almost 22,000 
were wounded, to give you some idea of the scope of what went on 
there, and we still have not paid honor to their memory. 

Senator Bamba, as you know, there is not unanimous support for 
this proposal here in Congress. I would like to hear from you. What 
is the impact, or what will the impact be? What does it mean to 
the people of Guam to have the names of the Chamorro people, the 
Guamians who died and suffered during this period, included on 
this monument? 

What is the cultural impact of this to the people of Guam? 

Mr. Bamba. Well, Congressman, as far as speaking for myself 
and in viewing and talking to other Chamorros on the island, the 
period of the occupation was one of extreme suffering and extreme 



54 

injustice. Certainly the atrocities that were committed, we do not 
even talk about it. 

It is a very difficult thing for those of us, the generations after, 
and even those persons, the people who survived the occupation, 
have a difficulty recounting the experiences that they had because 
it was that painful. 

In my case, my grandmother was killed at the onset of the inva- 
sion. She was beaten because she had light skin and the Japanese 
thought that she was an American. 

My grandfather was beheaded shortly before the invasion be- 
cause he pulled an American pilot out of a plane which had 
crashed. 

I never knew that, and my mother never talked about it, for the 
longest time until I started working on this issue after she had 
passed away. 

But it is those kind of experiences I think that the generations 
that come in the future need to know that their ancestors, their 
relatives, their families did play a role and remained steadfastly 
loyal to the United States. 

I think it is these stories that should be told and should be re- 
membered and recounted for the benefit of future generations. 

It means a great deal for the Chamorro people. Although maybe 
it is a simple act of seeing the name of your relative on a wall, and 
it is very simple, but it means quite a bit to us as a people. 

Mr. DE Lugo. Well, Senator and Mr. Chairman, I think that we 
c£in relate to that because of the history of the Vietnam Memorial 
and the terrible open-wound agony of the Vietnam War. 

This very simple memorial that was very simple in its design, I 
think that is part of the beauty of it in its place down on the Mall 
to have the names of all of those who died in Vietnam there. 

Americans come from all over this country on a pilgrimage to 
make peace with themselves and this terrible agonizing period by 
going there and seeing their comrades names, their family mem- 
bers' names, their loved ones' names, to see the name eind touch 
the name. 

It has become a ritual where they take a piece of paper and with 
a pencil rub it and get a copy of the name that is on the Memorial, 
and it is healing. It is a healing process. 

So I think this memorial is very important to the people and I 
want to commend you for all of your efforts. 

Senator, approximately how many names of Guamians will there 
be on the monument? 

Mr. Bamba. Approximately 4,000. Those were just the list that 
was compiled under the Meritorious Claims Act and also under the 
Commission which was set up by the Government of Guam. 

Mr. DE Lugo. Have there been any efforts to raise private funds 
for this monument? 

Mr. Bamba. Well, unfortunately in my discussions with the Gov- 
ernor — and this was in the last year-and-a-half when Congressman 
Underwood was not in office yet when there was difficulty getting 
the original bill through. 

So we were looking at raising monies from private sources. But 
to me, if that was the case then we would go ahead and appro- 
priate the money ourselves on Guam and to honor our own people. 



55 

I think that is missing the entire point. The issue here is the 
United States recognizing the heroism and the experiences, the ter- 
rible experiences, that the Chamorro people endured. 

If nothing else, then at least a simple monument. We are not 
asking for a fancy monument that is going to cost in the millions 
or anything like that, but just a simple monument that would fi- 
nally honor the Chamorro people, which is long overdue. 

I would hope that in keeping it simple— and that is why we have 
stressed the simplicity of the monument — that it would be con- 
structed in time for the 50th Anniversary. Because after the date 
of the 50th Anniversary passes, it has lost its meaning. 

I mean, I would like to be there during the date of the 50th Anni- 
versary and look at a simple monument rather than a parking lot 
that was just paved. 

Mr. DE Lugo. Thank you very much. Senator. 

Mr. Vento. Well, thank you. 

No one is suggesting that in 1978 when the legislation was 
passed that the commitment was not made. I think it should be of 
honor and by my suggesting supplements and other aspects I was 
not referring to that. 

So that is the basis we authorized and put in place, as meager 
as they may have in terms of funds or resources, a War in the Pa- 
cific Park and the American Memorial on CNMI, and we ought to 
go through with it. 

When we do memorials and authorize monuments, we are just 
doing it mostly in the corridor here in Washington and the vicinity, 
and that is a much different arrangement and a much different 
challenge. 

A lot of those that were here, and especially some of the rediin- 
dant ones, were paid for with public funds, I hate to tell you the 
insignificance of some of them, and the profound significance of 
others — the profound significance that has been taken on in terms 
of the Lincoln Memorial where Marion Anderson, the late, great 
musician, and Dr. Martin Luther King were brought to that par- 
ticular place not because of the bricks and mortar but because of 
the meaning of what Lincoln stood up and did in the middle of the 
last century. 

So basically it rivets public attention and has brought about this 
sort of almost spiritual recognition and continuity in terms of ideas 
between centuries and between peoples struggling for the same 
goals and objectives. 

We have recently authorized, for instance, at the Lincoln Memo- 
rial, to have in its basement, which was basically empty, a civil 
rights activity which is being funded by students from Arizona and 
students across the country, and with the coordination of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Teachers, a group I belonged to at one time, but 
an idea I had nothing to do with but am happy to share in the 
limelight of as it is ta£ng on significance. 

It is the way of politics. 

In any case, Senator, you have done well on your testimony, and 
the Governor's constant interest and support for this, and espe- 
cially his poignant remarks with regards to not mythologizing. 
That is what happens when we do not put things down in stone 



56 

sometimes, or get them recorded in a monument. They become sort 
of myths and pretty soon forgotten. 

Hopefully this will not be forgotten. 

Thank you, Mr. Cruz, and thank you, Senator. 

Mr. Bamba. Thank you. Sir. 

PANEL CONSISTING OF BEATRICE FLORES EMSLEY, GUAM; 
ROSALIA R. BORDALLO, CATHEDRAL GRADE SCHOOL OF 
GUAM, ACCOMPANIED BY JONATHAN BORDALLO; CYRIL J. 
O'BRIEN, THIRD MARINE DIVISION ASSOCIATION, VETERANS 
OF THE LIBERATION OF GUAM; AND HON. JAMES CORMAN, 
GUAM VETERAN AND FORMER REPRESENTATIVE TO CON- 
GRESS FROM THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Vento. We have a final panel of Mrs. Beatrice Flores Emsley 
fi-om Guam; Rosalia R. Bordallo of the Cathedral Grade School of 
Guam, both of whom had been introduced briefly by my two col- 
leagues earlier; and finally Mr. Cyril O'Brien of the 3d Marine Di- 
vision Association who is here. 

We are pleased to welcome them. 

If you want to sit at the table. Congressman Corman, and add 
a word or two in this process, I think it would be appropriate to 
do so, if we can find a chair there for you. 

Mr. Corman. Thank you, sir. I appreciate this. 

Mr. Vento. You can give a little moral support here to your col- 
league. Who outranked whom here in this arrangement? 

Your statements, which have been presented to me, have been 
made a part of the record. 

Mrs. Emsley, please proceed with your comments this afternoon. 

STATEMENT OF BEATRICE FLORES EMSLEY 

Mrs. Emsley. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Thank you. Chairman de Lugo. I had met you, and this is my 
second time. 

I came all the way fi-om Guam only asking that United States 
will give us a little care; that we're way out there, and we were 
fighting for that American Flag. 

I was 13 years old. My uncle was working for Naval Hospital, 
and he took off with three American Corpsmen. They had a census 
up in the area where I was staying in Tai, better known as Father 
Dranus. 

We have three families in that ranch. When the officer of the 
Japanese came and he demand anybody to go after my imcle, or 
all three family will be killed. 

So that afternoon I was staying — my mother had just given birth 
to my three-days' sister. So I was sitting down with the Japanese 
interpretation of a piece of paper so that I can pass Japanese secu- 
rity in Agana, because nobody stay in Agana; everybody is all in 
the jungle. 

So when I pass through there, I bow and bow and bow, and fi- 
nally I show them the pass, and they just chase me away. 

I continue my journey to go look for my uncle. I look at this one 
foxhole that my mother said that he might be there. He is not 
there. 



57 

I went into another foxhole that is owned by Father Camatcha. 
As I was approaching the bushes, I hear somebody breathing. 
When I push through, I find my uncle laying down on the ground 
so filthy, so skinny, with infection in his leg. 

I told him, I say, Uncle, I got to take you back. He ask me, how 
could you, my daughter, I cannot walk. I said, even if I dragged 
you, we have to go back. 

Since this is happening, we hear a bunch of soldiers that are 
moving by the ocean in Agana at Podyplumes into St. Nicholas at 
George Washington, and they were stomping, a whole bunch of 
them stomping on the ground with their shoes. 

All of a sudden, somebody pushed the place where we're at and 
they told us to get out. We get out. They accuse us whether we 
know Tweed. I don't know George Tweed. 

I try to explain. I show my paper. All they did is they told us 
that we're leaving with them. 

So they drag us up by San Ramon Hill, right below Governor 
Ada's palace now. It happened to be below the Bishop's house. 
There was three tunnels. 

So as we approached San Ramon Hill, there was a flare coming 
from the sky and it start lighting down. So the Japs say lay flat 
on the ground. So we all did. After the flare was gone, they pick 
us up and they move us into the first tunnel. 

There was my luicle and Juan Cabrara. Then all of a sudden 
there's three girls came crying, and they pushed them into the tun- 
nel. Then there's more Guamian Chamorro men. But the only one 
that is really like an American is Mr. Arthur Andersen. 

He will start telling us that he went after to meet wife, because 
his wife is delivering a baby, and he happened to meet a bunch of 
Japanese and they took him because they thought he was Tweed. 

So as we were sitting there, someone interpreted and came in 
and started investigating us, whether we're waiting for the Amer- 
ican, whether we love the American. Do you understand the Amer- 
ican ain't gonna find nothing but just flies? 

So we agreed with them. They say we're liars, and they start 
slapping us around. By almost daylight, a bunch of the soldiers all 
dressed up and well equipped like they're going to war, and they 
call us all out and line up. 

To each one of us, we had two guns with a rifle and something 
like a bayonet in front, and they march us down just a little ways. 
And that place where my grave is at is now got McDonald's. 

They push us into this hill, and on top of the hill there's a bunch 
of soldiers. There was an officer with a long saber. He was standing 
right by the hole. 

The first thing they did is they separate the seven men. And 
when my uncle pull me, they pull him away and they meirch them 
in the other side of the jungle. All us four girls hear is like some- 
body chopping down the forest, and moaning for God, for mother, 
and I'm djring, and all that. 

Since then, Mr. Chairman, I didn't have any feeling. I'm standing 
there like I'm just out in a cloud. So then after they finish and ev- 
erything is quiet, they come back and went by us and they all have 
a bloody uniform. Their rifle and everything are all blood. 



58 

Then finally they start calling Diana Guerrero, the oldest 
woman, who walked up to this officer, and the only thing I seen, 
and it start to get blurr, was he cut this fi-ont and start sawing off 
her breast. 

Then the sister next to her came running up to try to help. They 
do just everything they can with what they got. And the third one 
was Toni, because I was the youngest one and the last. They march 
her up, and the only thing they did is sliced down her stomach and 
everything come out. 

When it comes to me, when they took me out, I was walking in 
air. As soon as they let go of me, I fall down to the ground. Then 
one Japanese soldier came toward to me and asked me about his 
half-cast Japanese girlfi^end, whether she had a baby. 

I said, I don't know because when the Americans start bombing 
back the island, everybody is out to the jungle, about two, three 
family in one big tree, praying and prajdng and praying. 

So finally when they are finished with me, he pushed my head 
down and he hit me in the back of my neck. And all I did is, I feel 
a splash down on my body, and I was gone. 

The next thing I know, I was trying to struggle because I vvas 
buried in that hole. I was struggling for air because I was losing 
breathing. 

Then I found this hand was shaking loose, and I start to reach 
£ind scratch my face. When that face was open and I start breath- 
ing, I look up on that hill and there was this young man standing, 
calling, who is alive, to come with him. 

Then he said, here comes the Japanese. All I did is I closed my 
eyes. They come, and I hear them say Bonsai three times, and took 
off because it's getting daylight. 

During daylight, the Japanese is not out. They're all hiding. Only 
at night. 

So then I start digging myself. I look at that certain particular 
person I saw, and he ain't there. I was just there in that hole. 

Then I start digging myself and I hear somebody moaning next 
to me. It was that girl that has been cut up. She wanted some 
water. She's thirsty. 

So what I did is I crawl over to her and I just felt something wet 
on that ground, and we just start drinking it. 

I passed out until the sun was hitting it and it was so hot and 
I wake up and I look around, and I said, "Toni," and she was al- 
ready stiff. 

I started to crawl up the hill to get away from that area. When 
I got up to the hill, I fell down because I'm so weak. When I fell 
back down there, I wait for awhile until I get enough strength to 
climb up. 

I climb up and I start crawling over to where I hear them 
Chamorro men crying and hollering for God and help. 

I happened to look, and the only thing that I seen on my uncle 
is that leg that got wounded. The reason why, Mr. Chairman, I 
Imow this is his is because the half of that pants that he was wear- 
ing they're so filthy. 

So then I just look and I continue. I don't know where I'm going. 
I don't know what happened to me. I don't know nothing. I just 
keep going. 



59 

Finally, I get tired. I slept on a dump area. Then I started to get 
hungry and thirsty. Then I look around. Nothing. 

I keep going and going until finally I came down to one side of 
the jungle and I look at a ranch up on a hill, and I started to ap- 
proach that ranch. 

When I was coming up to the small trail, I hear a bunch of Japa- 
nese noise. They were taking out everything in that ranch. 

So on the side of that little small, there was a white cat that 
came out and started going "meow" to me, and he jumped into a 
Guamian oven which the Chamorro make out of rock and they 
bake and bake. 

We went in there. When they pass by and they disappeared, the 
cat came out and I came out. I went around the other side of the 
building. As somebody make noise, he took off and there was this 
Juan Cabraras that left me and calling that if anybody come, come. 

He was standing under a coconut tree on the bottom of the hill. 
I look down and I say, hey, man. Hey, man, give me something to 
eat and something to drink. 

He looked at me and he called me and he said, "Come down." 

So I start sliding down. And we started to eat this coconut, and 
I start getting choked up. There weren't no water. So we went close 
to the swamp, and we start sucking the swamp water. 

Then he told me that there is in Agana this house where his 
mom, before they run off in Agana, left some rice and some salty 
fish. Let's go over there and we cook some to eat. 

So when we went over there, we decide to go to some place to 
look for medicine because, Mr. Chairman, in the two days I had 
something crawling out of my neck. When I reached up, there was 
a handfiil of maggots that are all coming out because I had high 
fever, I had chills, and I keep going to find in Agana there was a 
U.S. Naval Hospital that has been bombed before. But in our mind 
we think that we are going over there to look for some medication. 

So we didn't find nothing. 

So then my companion, Mr. Juan Cabraras, said "Stay here." 

He put me on the bottom of the house on the ground, and he 
build Chamorro tree rocks and some wood, and we use this Japa- 
nese pot that you make rice. And he washed it, and he said watch 
that rice, and I'll go over and take a look for some indication. 

He came running because he met some Japanese again and he 
was chasing him again. So this dog that has some puppies went 
after the Japanese and he grabbed me in the back of my hair and 
pull me down to the San Antonio Chapel. 

Under the San Antonio Chapel that was destroyed there was a 
big slab of concrete. He put me imder there, and he said "Just stay 
there." 

So we keep hearing the dog. When the dog don't bark any more, 
he said "let's go." 

We went in the back of that Chapel up to this Manengon area 
where there is an abandoned ranch. My goodness, Mr. Chairman, 
I feel so happy because we find six drums of rain water, star apple 
and banana are all falling out of the tree. 

I ate and ate and drink rain water until I have a stomachache. 
Then he said we're going to continue and look for our family. 



60 

We came up to Father Drinas'; nobody was there. Nobody. It's 
abandoned. So then we just stay there for awhile. We don't know 
where we are going. We don't know where they are. 

So finally my uncle and another gentleman sneaked out of the 
concentration camp to look for the rice and the com that they biir- 
ied under the groimd. Because the reason why we hide, Mr. Chair- 
man, our food is because the Japanese take everything we got. 

They would rather feed their army than us. 

So what happened is we found this. Then my uncle was going to 
Malojloj, and he met a bunch of soldiers, and they took them to 
carry their equipment over to Geegul. 

Then when the Japanese were sleeping, the other gentleman 
said, "I don't know about you, Mr. Jose Parado, but when they're 
asleep we're going to untie ourself and take off." 

But my imcle was chicken. He don't want to. But Mr. Antonio 
Mayna got loose with his. He says, **What about it?" He loosened 
up my uncle and took off. 

I met my uncle, and he didn't recognize me because he came 
back through that reties to take that rice and com. He took me 
fi-om there up to Jona. 

I met the 3d Marine Division right up there in the jungle, and 
I was so happy. But they cannot assist us because they were in the 
front line. And all the 3d Marine Division that is here, my uncle 
got a pack of Camel cigarettes, and he went into the camp, because 
they snuck me into the camp. 

I went to these two Guamian nurses. And when they put this al- 
cohol, my goodness, Mr. Chairman, all these maggots are all com- 
ing out. And I got half clean there. 

Then the American came the other day and took me into a long 
trail down to Asan and took me over to the U.S. ship and cleaned 
me up, because I had this one dress that's stuck with all this dirt 
and blood that I stink. 

So I got dressed, and they see a beautiful blond during the battle 
over there in the ship that cleans me up. 

I happen to grow up after I went to the Naval Hospital and they 
release me. 

I try going to school. I cannot. So finally I grow up and I learn 
how, my mother trains me how to take care of a house. I met an 
American man from Detroit, Michigan, in the United States Army 
and I got married, and I have 10 children. 

I have been married for 37 years, except my husband passed 
away 7 years ago over at Shadow, Washington, because I took my 
husband all over until he rest. And I am here. 

All I am trying to ask Chairman Ron de Lugo — ^we go way back 
to 1989— is: 

Recognize us, please. 

We are American. 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Vento. Thank you for sharing that experience, a very dif- 
ficult experience no doubt for you to share, so we appreciate your 
courage and your constancy in terms of presenting to us and ex- 
plaining this history to Americans and to others who might not re- 
call it so vividly. 

So thank you very much. 



61 

We are pleased that Rosalia from Cathedral Grade School in 
Guam is present. 

Rosalia, why don't you go ahead. I understand your brother is 
with you. Do you want to introduce him? 

STATEMENT OF ROSALIA R. BORDALLO 

Miss BORDALLO. This is Jonathan Bordallo. 

Mr. Vento. Welcome to you, too. 

Mr. Bordallo. Good afternoon. 

Mr. Vento. You can go ahead, Rosalia, with your comments. 

Miss Bordallo. Mr. Chairman, Congressman Underwood, and 
Members of the Committee, good day. 

My name is Rosalia Rita Bordallo. I am from the Island of Guam 
and I have travelled nearly 9,000 miles in 20 hours to tell the story 
of my father and grandfather. 

I am 9 years old, and I am in the 4th Grade at Cathedral Grade 
School. 

It is from my parents that I learned the history of my island dur- 
ing World War II. I hope that you decide to build this monument 
at the War in the Pacific Park on Guam. 

On December 8, 1941, the Japanese began bombing my home- 
land of Guam. Two days later, they invaded and took over the en- 
tire island. 

It was not until July 21, 1944, that American forces returned to 
Guam. During these 2 V2 years, the people of Guam suffered greater 
and deeper losses than any other community in the United States 
during World War II. 

In my own family, my father, Paul Bordallo, and my grandfather, 
Baltazar Bordallo, were tortured and almost killed by the 
Kempeitai, the Japanese secret police. 

On midnight of August 10, 1943, my grandfather and his family 
of 14 children, most of whom were only my age or younger, were 
marched off their ranch at gunpoint. 

They were called by the Kempeitai to the central police station 
where they were separated from my grandfather and thrown into 
an underground dungeon. 

When my grandmother asked why they were imprisoned, the 
commander told her that the family ranch was hiding the Amer- 
ican sailor George Tweed who was not captured by the Japanese 
authorities during the occupation. 

My father, who was 13 at the time and one of the eldest children, 
still remembers the screams of a young Chamorro girl who was 
being tortured in a cell nearby. 

For five hours she screamed and pleaded for mercy while my 
grandmother and her children sat in the small cell completely terri- 
fied. 

In the early morning hours, a policeman came and called for my 
father. Full of fear, my father answered back. He was taken out of 
the dark and terrible dungeon into the street in front of the police 
station. 

There he was told by the Kempeitai commander that his father 
had confessed that radioman George Tweed had been hidden on the 
family ranch. 



72-168 - 93 - 3 



62 

The commander also told him that he suspected my father of de- 
livering food and supplies to Tweed. The commander told my father 
that if he confessed now, he and his family would not be executed. 

My father did not know the whereabouts of George Tweed. The 
officer became angry that my father could not tell him where the 
American sailor was hiding. 

He ordered four soldiers to hold my father while Kempeitai offi- 
cers beat him on the head, back, and legs with a club. 

My father told me that he screamed and cried from the pain. 
Soon, however, the continuous hitting stopped hurting my father. 
The more they kept hitting him, the less he could feel the pain. 

After what seemed like hours, my father lost consciousness under 
the torture. Later that night, the Japanese awoke him and brought 
him back to the dark cell where the rest of the family was kept. 

He told me that he looked quietly at all his younger siblings, sat 
down on the dirt floor and cried. 

My grandfather was treated even more harshly than my father. 

After being separated from the rest of his family, my grandfather 
was interrogated by the Kempeitai commander about the location 
of George Tweed. My grandfather, who truly did not know where 
Mr. Tweed was hiding, was beaten by the Japanese just like my 
father. 

However, the Kempeitai still did not believe that my grandfather 
did not know where Tweed was. They imprisoned my grandfather 
during the day and tortured him at night. 

They would tie his hands to two poles stuck in the ground and 
would whip him until his back bled. When they released him 10 
days later, my father told me he had no skin on his back. 

When I asked my father why he and grandpa were beaten, he 
told me that the Japanese were trying to capture an American sol- 
dier. 

He also told me that all people suffered during war. My father 
would tell me that the Japanese did those things to him because 
they were just as afraid of war as we Chamorros were. 

To him, this sailor George Tweed was hiding in the jungles of 
Guam because he was afraid of the Japanese. But the Japanese 
were just as afraid of Mr, Tweed. 

Their failure to capture this lone man made the Japanese com- 
manders lose face with their superiors. The Chamorros hid George 
Tweed and gave him food. 

Many Chamorros were killed by the Japanese for hiding this 
American soldier, or for expressing hope that America would return 
to Guam. 

Mr. Tweed later received a medal for his struggle against the 
Japanese. He was honored for saving himself. The Japanese com- 
manders also sought to save themselves, if not their lives then 
their honor or face. 

But it was only the Chamorros who sought to give generously of 
themselves. It was the Chamorros who sheltered Mr. Tweed. 

To save their lives, as well as the lives of other Chamorros, they 
could easily have revealed Mr. Tweed's hiding places, but they 
chose not to do that. 



63 

I have heard my teacher say that George Tweed stood as a sym- 
bol of America during the war with the Japanese. The Chamorros 
wanted to be hberated from the bad conditions during the war. 

Those who hid Mr. Tweed all those years believe that the United 
States will come back and save Guam. My father told me that the 
Chamorros were liberated by the Americans because our island 
was important to winning the war. 

The Chamorros of Guam still want recognition for the bravery of 
their people. My father told me that the memorial will ensure for- 
ever the memory that we are a people of worth and bravery who 
have been tested in battle and blood and whom history will not for- 
get. 

My father also told me that the story of the Chamorro people will 
live on long after its telling ceases upon the silent graves of our el- 
ders. My father told me that war is a terrible thing and what the 
war did to our people must not be forgotten, 

Mr. Vento. Thank you, very much. 

I would say, I suppose we have to move along, but I have seldom 
seen two witnesses, from a young child who lived the history and 
from a young person who has learned the history, mesmerize and 
quiet a committee room like this committee room has been quieted 
this noon. 

I do not think there is much that any of us could add to the 
poignant statements that you have made. 

We are pleased to welcome on this panel Mr. Cyril O'Brien, of 
the Third Marine Division, who is accompanied by his friend and 
apparently fellow soldier Jim Corman, a former member and one 
of the rank-and-file soldiers around here for quite a few years. 

Mr. O'Brien? 

STATEMENT OF CYRIL J. O'BRIEN 

Mr. O'Brien. I am also fortunate to have at my right hand some- 
one who knows everj^hing I am saying and who witnessed it all. 
So I have to be accurate. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Vento. Well, we are appreciative of you both being here, and 
your interest. 

Mr. O'Brien. My name is Cyril O'Brien, Mr. Chairman, and 
Members of the Committee. 

My name is Cyril O'Brien, and I am a Veteran of the Guam lib- 
eration. I am speaking for myself and nearly 5,000 members of the 
Third Marine Division Association which fought in three cam- 
paigns. 

I am only going to emphasize a couple of those, because you 
know you all have my statement. 

When we sailors, soldiers, and marines hit the Islands of Guam, 
Saipan, and Tinian, the Big War, as some people chose to call it, 
was raging in Europe. 

The Normandy Landing was only a few weeks old. So our wild, 
fierce, and distant little war in the Pacific was relegated pretty 
much to second-class attention by the press, by the current histo- 
rians, and also in the public eye. 

But, gentlemen, 50 years have passed since then. That is a half- 
century. The Marianas need not be on the back burner anymore. 



64 

Yes, we are the Veterans who fought there, the heroic people of 
the Marianas. Mrs. Emsley is a wonderful example of the terrible 
history that was made there. 

Repeatedly, legislation and speeches have asked and pleaded for 
completion of those long-delayed national parks. Remember the sig- 
nificance of the Marianas. 

D-Day on Saipan alone involved some of the heaviest casualties 
of any division throughout the whole of World War II. Some 2,500 
Americans fell there on the first day, June 15, 1944. 

On Guam, where bitter fighting hardly reached the American 
ears, I saw the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin on the day of our in- 
vasion, and all they talked about was the battle in Europe. 

We rescued there our own Americans — the first Americans ever 
captured by an enemy from 32 months of cruel domination. 

The fall of the Marianas was significant. With the fall of the 
Marianas, Premier Tojo and his cabinet, under whom the war 
began, resigned. Then from the runways of the Marianas, the way 
was open to the Japanese jugular. 

Our overwhelming air thrust, you recEill, so affected the Japanese 
mainland and its defense that we barred the last-ditch suicidal de- 
fense of the Mainland which, had we had to do it, would have cost 
us millions of lives. 

That was because of the Marianas. 

Gentlemen, we have told all this before. Here we are literally 
back on square one. I have been back to the Marianas five times, 
and to other Pacific battlegrounds. My return visits have made it 
very, very clear that we, a very grateful Nation, have still been un- 
believably skimpy in honoring the men and women who served in 
those island campaigns. 

I cannot say that for the Japanese. The Japanese have not so re- 
acted. They have generously honored the battlegroimds of their 
honored dead. 

There is an interesting thing. There is a gasoline station at the 
bottom of one of the hills on Chonito Ridge on Guam. It is a Mobil 
station. 

I wandered in there one day not too long ago and asked the 
young man at the bottom of the hill pumping gas, I said, "By the 
way, was there any action, or did anything happen round here?" 

He says, "I don't know. Beats me." 

I said, "Was there any action?" 

He says, "No, I don't know of anything that ever happened 
around here." 

Remember, I had seen on that hill 40-some years before Able 
Company, of which Mr. Gorman knows very well, pinned down for 
a day and a half. The Japanese were so close they couldn't throw 
grenades. The Leathernecks were so close they had to roll the gre- 
nades down on them. 

Here was a hill dedicated and honored in American blood, and 
the people passing by had no idea what happened there. 

Do you know why? There is no monument there. 

There is no plaque. 

There is nothing in the world that would tell anybody that that 
was sacred ground. Absolutely nothing. 



65 

By the way, there is another interesting thing. There is a swim- 
ming pool. There is a httle country road that runs up the hill to 
the top of the hill where Nimitz stayed, and you pass a swimming 
pool. 

The swimming pool, interestingly enough, was the CP of F Com- 

Eany which was commanded by a Capt. Lewis Wilson. There, that 
attle literally broke the back of the Japanese at Fonte Ridge. The 
man who led the battle, Lewis Wilson, was later Commandant of 
the Marine Corps and received the Medal of Honor for his actions. 

There is a swimming pool there. 

They tell you you can swim there, but nobody ever tells you any- 
thing of the tremendous battle and the loss of American life and 
Japanese life, too, on that spot. 

Yes, there is a museum on Guam. The National Park Service are 
very engaging, hospital people, but their exhibits are static. 

It is like a shopping list. What they do is the very best they can 
with the little — I emphasize the little — that they have got. 

But perhaps closest to my heart is the clause of Mr. Underwood's 
proposal. I think it was intensified immensely three or four min- 
utes ago when I heard Mrs. Emsley talk. 

This is the clause in the Congressman's measure which would 
commemorate the sufferings, the indignities, the executions which 
were part of the life and fate of the Chamorro people over the 32 
months of enemy occupation. 

The thought of a monument would warm the heart of any Marine 
or soldier who was on Guam. Those liberating Marines loved the 
Chamorro people. 

A friend of mine who lost his hand on Iwo Jima did not want to 
go back to Iwo Jima. He did not care. But he did want to go back 
to Guam. 

So we do want those Americans on Guam appreciated and re- 
membered for their loyalty and heroism. Occupation was stem 
enough at the invasion when the invasion was coming, as you well 
know now and have heard fi*om other witnesses, of the rape and 
the beheadings that occurred. 

With all my heart and patriotism that I can engender, Mr. Chair- 
man and Members, I urge you to authorize a suitable recognition 
for these wonderful people. 

Next year, thousands of us will return to Guam. Mr. Corman is 
going back with me and to Saipan to commemorate the 50th Anni- 
versary of the Battle of the Marianas. 

Governor Joseph Ada and the people of Guam are so enthusiastic 
that the Governor said he will help to defray the expenses of the 
liberators returning. 

We hope then, gentlemen, that the returning veterans can return 
to adequate memorial parks that will forever tell the story of what 
they did, what they risked, and what it will all mean to genera- 
tions to come. ThanJt you. 

[The prepared statement of Mr. O'Brien follows:] 



66 



Testimony of Cyril J. O'Brien 

Third Marine Division Assn. 

Veterans of the Liberation of Guam 

on H.R. 1944 

Before the Subcommittee on National 

Parks, Forests and Public 
Lands, Committee on Natural Resources 

May 27, 1993 

I am proud and eager as a veteran of three campaigns in the 
Pacific to add my support and the enthusiastic approval of nearly 
5,000 veterans of the Third Marine Division Assn. to H.R. 1944 
introduced by Delagate Robert A. Underwood of Gu2un. 

The measure to provide additional development of the War in 
the Pacific National Park on Guam and the American Memorial Park in 
Saipan will offer veterans, Americans and the Chaunorro people, 
after half a century, a fitting and living memorial of perhaps the 
most decisive czunpaign in that fierce Pacific war. 

June 15 through August 10 marks the 50th anniversary of the 
battle for the Marianas (Guam, Saipan, and Tinian) . When the 
Marianas fell. Premier Hideki Tojo and his cabinet, under whom the 
war began, resigned. 

From the runways of the Marianas, the way was now open to the 
Japanese jugular, the homeland. The overwhelming thrust of 
American air power not only made the Japanese defeat inevitable, 
but barred the last ditch suicidal defense of the home islands. 
That battle, it is estimated, would have cost a minimum of one 
million American lives. 

Thousand of veterans will return to Gueun and to Saipan next 
svimmer to mark the 50th anniversary of the battle for the Marianas. 
Governor Joseph Ada and the people of Guam are so enthusiastic that 
the Governor is offering to help defray some of the expenses of 
returning Liberators. 

When the veterans do go back, will they find a finished 
monument designed to perpetuate the memory of the Liberation, the 
freedom achieved, and the heroism it took to win it all? 

Will there be an appropriate commemoration of the 50th 
anniversary of the Marianas campaign, and will the Secretary of the 
Interior ensure that the two visitors' centers are completed before 
June 15 and July 21, dates which mark the half century since the 
invasion of Saipan and Guam? 

If and when development of the parks is completed, the park on 
GU2U11 will include, for instance, the high ridge line of Chonito, 



67 



affording an absolutely breath taking view of the Asan-Adelup 
invasion beach. A visitor could at the same time consider that the 
Japanese enjoyed this view as well, and that at the moment the 
Marines came ashore, they could look right down the throats of the 
Americans. 

What we seek now is authorization for the much delayed 
development of these parks. This is not the first appeal. There 
have been many. Last year before a Senate subcommittee, veterans, 
survivors, and others eloquently appealed for development of these 
parks. It was then that retired Marine General Ben Blaz with tears 
in his eyes pleaded in support of authorizing legislation 
introduced by Senator Daniel Akaka of Hawaii. Now we are seeking 
that authorization again. 

Quite pertinent are the remarks this year of Congressman 
Dnderwood, author of the current legislation: 

Our children and their children must learn 
about the lessons of war, and the changes that 
the war brought to the islands. 

This brings to mind a personal experience. There is a 
gasoline station at the foot of one of Chonito's hills above the 
Asan-Adelup beach. On that hill. Able Company, 1st Battalion, 
Third Marines, was held back for a day and half by stubborn 
Japanese at the top. It was a bloody and fierce melee. The 
Japanese defenders were so close they couldn't throw grenades so 
they rolled them down on Marines. It was there that Captain Geary 
Bundschu, Able Company's commanding officer, having been told to 
take the hill, gave his life trying. 

I doubt that anybody who passes the bottom of that hill today 
can spell Geary's name, much less heard of it. It is certainly 
nowhere in public view. A young man pumping gas at the bottom of 
the crucial hill where so many Marines died said, "I never knew 
anything ever happened here." He had not known that a shot had 
been fired there during the liberation of Guam. 

Down Gucun's principal highway, a little hanging sign in the 
Marine Corps' Scarlet and Gold lets you know that nearby was the 
landing site of the Brigadier General L.C. Shephard's First Marine 
Provisional Brigade. The sign is not far from where the 77th Army 
Division czune ashore under Major General A.D. Bruce. That's all 
the information you get. 

I have been back to Guam five times. I love Guam. My first 
visit in 1985 opened with the sunshine of the warm, smiling, and 
generous welcome of the Chamorro people, with whom the Marines fell 
in love. 

I found then that our own government showed little concern for 
tribute. Only a 155mm shell imbedded in two blocks of concrete 
then marked the site of the landing that liberated Guaun. There is 



68 



a museum building at the ?.san-Adelup beacb today with static 
displays. The building is rented. 

One crusty old leatherneck. Captain Harvey Tennant USMC (ret.) 
of San Diego, California, was so chagrinned at the lack of 
attention to the Marine battle grounds, he made a collection lunong 
veterans of the Third Division. A monument to the landing, paid 
for by veterans, was erected there in 1987 on land donated by the 
government of Guam. 

American tributes to our warriors on Saipan were no more 
numerous on that first visit (or today) than they were on Guam. 
Clemmer Marcus, of the 534th Amphibian Tractor Battalion, 0.8. 
Army, couldn't find where he came ashore at Charan Kanoa, Saipan or 
on the narrow invasion beach of Tinian. There were no markers. 
Clemmer 's amphibious tracked vehicle made repeated trips to the 
flaming beaches with Marines of the Second and Fourth Divisions. 
The 27th Army Division fought beside them, especially against 
repeated enemy banzai attacks. The sites of these attacks and the 
progress of the battle are unmarked, likely unknown. 

Marcus and his returning Army buddies found a few rusted 
Japanese and American tanks, a private one-room museum operated by 
someone original enough to collect what was available, and a narrow 
gauge railroad. But Clemmer has found nothing to explain one of 
the greatest battles of the Pacific war. 

But perhaps closest to my heart is the clause in H.R. 1944 
which calls for a monument to commemorate by individual njune, these 
people of Guam, living and dead who suffered personal injury, 
forced labor, forced marches, internment and death incidental to 
enemy occupation of Gueun. 

Why do Marines return to Guam in such numbers? It is because 
the Marines love the Chamorro people. A friend of mine lost his 
hand on Iwo Jima, but he cares not if he ever sees that island 
again. But he returns to Guam. A schools teacher in Virginia went 
to Guam because she promised her father as he neared death that she 
would return for him. 

We want these American Chamorros appreciated; their heroism 
remembered. Even on that first liberation day illuminated by 
flashes of gunfire, we found loyal, warm, friendly people who had 
suffered 32 months of harsh even bestial occupation. When the 
invasion by the Americans was imminent, the Japanese occupiers 
intensified their cruelty. Women were raped; men gathered for 
working parties were shot or even beheaded as their work was done. 
Chamorros were forced into concentration camps, forced into a death 
march that, for some, was not unlike Bataan. 

With all the heart and patriotism I can engender, I urge you, 
gentlemen, to authorize suitable recognition for these wonderful 
people. 



69 

Mr. Vento. Thank you, very much. 

Mr. O'Brien, can I invite the gentleman from Cahfomia for a few 
ad hominem remarks? 
Welcome. 

STATEMENT OF HON. JAMES CORMAN 

Mr. Gorman. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. 

We all have memories of specific things, and remember the day, 
but I only have one memory that I remember the time. I remember 
where I was at 3 minutes after 8:00 a.m. on July 21, 1944. I was 
stepping off a landing craft. 

The times were very precise. 

I remember one of the least desirable chores that we lieutenants 
had was to take small patrols out in the jungle looking for Japa- 
nese. 

I remember how comforted I was when I had a Chamorro with 
me, which was frequently. He was risking his life to help me save 
mine. I remember that very well. 

And I remember meeting George Tweed. I understand Tweed is 
probably still alive. So he had 50 years after that event. He is alive 
today because of the people whose names will be on that monu- 
ment who gave their lives to save his. 

I hope when I get to Guam at 3 minutes after 8:00 on July the 
21, 1993, that I will get to go and look at that monument and pay 
tribute and appreciation to the people whose names are embla- 
zoned there. 

I thank you. 

Mr. Vento. Well, thank you. 

I think there is not much more we can say. I think the emphasis 
here should be in terms of focusing on getting the monument done, 
or at least started. This is enormously important, and if not having 
everything perfectly engraved that we can at least have the names 
listed somehow so they can be recognized appropriately. 

This whole account reminds me of Alexander Pope's statement, 
as I listened to the terrible recoiinting of these events and the tre- 
mendous loss of lives of the people of Guam, of the Chamorros, of 
the U.S. Military loss of lives. 

All of us had relatives that fought in the Second World War, 
many of us did, and certainly I did. And in the Pacific. 

In any event, it reminds me of Alexander Pope's comments of 
man's inhumanity to man, a lesson that has to be learned. 

So I have no questions. 

But let me yield to my colleague, the historian. Historians are of 
course the most powerful people in the world. 

Dr. Underwood, Congressman Underwood? 

Mr. Underwood. Thank you very much. But not on this commit- 
tee. [Laughter.] 

I thank you very much, and I certainly want to reiterate your 
comments earlier, Mr. Chair, about the power and the energy of 
the statements that were made here by Mrs. Emsley and by 
Rosalia and by Mr. O'Brien, and by Mr. Gorman. 

I think that the panel presented the very good mix of the experi- 
ences that are attached to this, and provide more adequate testi- 
mony than any historian could ever do justice to. 



70 

It is very important to understand I think, and I think they all 
did their job well of not only indicating what went on at the time, 
but that there is a great obligation on the rest of us to remember 
it and to remember it well. 

The memories of the liberators and the memories of the people 
who experienced it are equally balanced. I look forward hopefully 
to getting a part of this Park, and certainly the monument, under 
way. 

Earlier in some of the testimony there is reference made to Japa- 
nese war memorials. Japanese memorials which have been con- 
structed. Also, the only monument on Guam, ironically, and I have 
made this point before, and I made this point repeatedly on Guam, 
there is a monument to war dogs that died in Guam. 

There is a war dog cemetery, and this is maintained at federal 
expense. I think that when the issue of what kind of funding 
should be given to the issue of the monument for the Chamorro 
people, I think we are talking somewhere between $1.5 million to 
probably $2 million, and I think that it is money well spent. 

It is certainly much more significant than the cemetery to the 
war dogs. In fact, the war dog cemetery is the only monument on 
Guam that lists by name who participated in World War II. 

If you go to the war dog cemetery, there is a plaque that lists 
"Tubby" and "Cubby" and other names. It is almost laughable until 
you get to the point to trying to understand and balance the rela- 
tionship and the participation of the individuals that we see before 
us. 

The Federal Government for years and years has maintained 
this facility. In fact, I saw correspondence earlier — meaning no dis- 
respect to the people who have initiate this correspondence — but 
some people are discussing the idea of relocating the war dog ceme- 
tery to its original site at federal expense, I might add. 

The attention that is given to this war dog cemetery is not atten- 
tion that is not warranted, but in balsuice when we take a look at 
the kind of human tragedy and human emotion and the bravery of 
the men involved and the experiences of the Chamorro people, I am 
hopeful and I make this plea that we honor the Chamorro people 
no less, and certainly the liberators of Guam. 

Thank you. 

Mr. Vento. Thank you. Congressman de Lugo has been with us 
throughout the afternoon. 

Mr. DE Lugo. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. 

I certainly have nothing to add. The eloquence of the testimony 
that we have heard here today from Mrs. Emsley and Ms. Bordallo 
and from the veterans, Mr. Cyril O'Brien, and from the gentleman 
from California, Jim Gorman, an old friend and former colleague is 
just so moving. 

What you recounted here told so eloquently why this Park should 
exist and why this memorial should exist and has to exist. I just 
hope that we will be able to move this and bring this about for the 
50th Anniversary. 

Mr. Vento. Thank you very much, Ron and Bob, and thank you 
all for coming all this way to share this with us. I think it has been 
a very moving experience for me and for other members, and I 



71 

hope we can recount that and carry through these sort of feelings 
as we try to deal with this issue in this Congress. 

Thank you, very much. 

If there is no farther business to come before the Committee, the 
meeting stands adjourned. 

[Whereupon, at 1:20 p.m., the Subcommittee was recessed sub- 
ject to the call of the Chair.] 



APPENDIX 



May 27, 1993 



Additional Material Submitted for the Hearing Record 
United States Department of the Interior fl3^:^a 




NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

P.O. Box 37127 ' I 

Washington, D.C. 20013-7127 

L58(180) 

JUN I 1993 
Honorable Bruce F. Vento 
Chairman, Subcommittee on National Parks, 

Forests and Public Lands 
Committee on Natural Resources 
House of Representatives 
Washington, D.C. 20515 

Dear Mr. Vento: 

As you requested in the May 27, 1993, hearing on H.R. 1944, 
enclosed are the development costs proposed for War in the 
Pacific National Historical Park and American Memorial Park. 

Sincerely, 



/if Roger G . Kennedy 
^ Dii 



Lrector 
Enclosure 



(73) 



74 



WAR IN THE PACIFIC NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 



$825,000 Planning and Design 

$1,250,000 Visitor Center Exhibits 

$8,250,000 Visitor Center Construction 

$10,325,000 Grand Total 



AMERICAN MEMORIAL PARK 



$12,430,000 Visitor Center (phase II) 
$4,180,000 Museum (phase III) 

$16,610,000 Grand Total 



75 



WAR IN THE PACIFIC, VISITOR CENTER COST ESTIMATE 10/25/1991 






NOTE: COST ESTIMATE BASED ON SEP 1988 DESIGN CONCEPT AND ON MAR 1989 
DESIGN ESTIMATE. ESTIMATE BELOW INFLATED TO 1994 CONSTRUCTION. 



CONSTRUCTION ITEM 

VISITOR CENTER 8150 SQ FT 

SITE WORK 

UTILITIES 



COST EST 94 S'S ADJUSTED $'S 



SUBTOTAL 

GUAM FACTOR (X 2.2) 
CONTINGENCIES (10%) 



$2,665,000 
$400,000 
$328,000 



$3,393,000 



$7,465,000 
$750,000 



SUBTOTAL 



INTERPRETIVE EXHIBITS 

GUAM FACTOR (X 1.5 SHIP/ INSTALL) 



$830,000 
GROSS CONST 



$8,215,000 

$1,245,000 
$9,460,000 



DESIGN ESTIMATE 



SURVEYS /PRELIM DESIGN-BLDG & SITEWORK 
PRELIM DESIGN-EXHIBITS 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 
EXHIBIT FABRICATION DOCUMENTS 



$260,000 

$60,000 

$390,000 

$115,000 



TOTAL DESIGN ESTIMATE 



$825,000 



76 



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78 



TO: Honorable Benjamin T. Manglona, Lieutenant Governor 

Commonwealth of the Northern Marania Islands 
FROM: Paul Kalkwarf, Project Manager 

Denver Service Center/Western Team, National Park Service 
THROUGH: Ed Wood, Ranger-in-Charge, American Memorial Park, Saipan 
SUBJECT: Design and Construction Estimate 

The following design and construction estimates are based on design 

concepts developed by the Denver Service Center in documents from 

November 1990 and June 1991. The three major items included for 

construction in these documents are a World War II memorial, a 

visitor center and a museum. The estimates prepared earlier did 

not break out separately the cost of the visitor center from the 

World War II memorial. 

The Saipan cost factor which we have shown, of multiplying by 2.2, 

is the same factor we used earlier for the proposed visitor center 

for War in the Pacific, National Historic Park, Guam. 

All estimates are at our class "C" (+or- 15%) level and all of the 

construction estimates are inflated to 1994 costs. 

Request for funding this project must include the cost of preparing 

construction drawings and for the construction contract award 

process. 

The time frame for designing and awarding this project in FY 1994 

is very short. A contract award by September 1994 may be very 

difficult to achieve. 



World War II Memorial and Visitor Center $5,650,000 

Museum $1,900,000 

subtotal $7,550,000 

add Saipan construction factor x 2.2 

total $16,610,000 

add design & contract award process $ 1,250,000 

total project cost $17,860,000 



,^ 



79 



STATEMENT OF CONGRESSMAN RON DE LUGO 

HEARING ON H.R. 1944 

TO PROVIDE FOR ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

AT THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 

SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL PARKS, 

FORESTS, AND PUBLIC LANDS 

May 27, 1993 



Mr. Chairman, and Members of the Subcommittee. Let me begin by 
expressing my thanks to you and to the Ranking Member, Mr. Hansen, for 
holding this hearing. 

I also want to commend my colleague from Guam, Robert Underwood, for 
introducing this legislation to commemorate the sacrifices of the U.S. 
Armed Forces in the Pacific during World War II, as well as to honor the 
memory of the American Nationals of Guam who patriotically and 
courageously endured violence and suffering during the long Japanese 
occupation of their island. 

In addition, I also want to welcome the witnesses from Guam who have 
traveled a very long distance to testify at this hearing today. In particular, 
let me welcome Senator George Bamba who has been leading the fight for 
fair compensation for those who suffered or lost family members during the 
occupation of Guam. Senator Bamba and I have worked together on a 
number issue affecting Guam before the Subcommittee on Insular and 
International Affairs, which I am privileged to Chair. 

I also want to acknowledge the presence of Mrs. Beatrice Perez Emsley, 
another of the witnesses from Guam. Mrs. Emsley gave very moving 
testimony before my subcommittee, in the summer of 1989, on her 
experiences and her suffering when the Japanese occupied Guam. 

Mrs. Emsley, Mr. Chairman, was only thirteen years old when the enemy 
soldiers tried to behead her and left her for dead. I commend her for her 
courage and strength and again welcome her to the committee. 



80 



As you know, Mr. Chairman, June 15th through August 10th of next year 
will mark the 50th anniversary of the Marianas campaign of World War II. 
During that period, American forces captured the islands of Saipan and 
Tinian in the Northern Marianas and liberated the United States territory 
of Guam from Japanese occupation. 

This anniversary makes this an appropriate time for the Congress to act to 
ensure that the tremendous sacrifices of that time will be remembered. The 
War in the Pacific National Historical Park in Guam and the American 
Memorial Park in the Northern Mariana Islands were both created to 
honor those who sacrificed in the islands during World War II. 

Although these parks were established in 1978, neither has been fully- 
funded. They are not only incomplete, but are sad statements of our 
Nation's seeming indifference to the memory of those who suffered under 
occupation or because of the fighting between other nations. 

In the case of the War in the Pacific National Historical Park, there are 
approximately 170 acres of unacquired privately held lands within the 
boundary of the park. These land owners have been waiting for thirteen 
years for the National Park Service to purchase their property. I think the 
time has come, Mr. Chairman, for us to perhaps look at other possibilities 
for acquiring of the remaining acreage -- other than through purchases -- to 
complete the park. 

Approximately 5,700 U.S. troops were killed or missing and 21,900 wounded 
in the Marianas campaign. 

In addition, the Chamorro people of Guam suffered painful horrors at the 
hands of Japanese soldiers during the two and a half years that the island 
occupied. Guamanians, during this period, lived under a reign of terror 
where a failure to bow low enough to their conquerors or sing anti- 
American songs led to executions on the spot. 



81 



Beheading, rapes, torture and senseless other brutalities were common. 
Hundreds of Guamanians were executed. 

And those fortunate enough to escape death were relocated to remote 
sections of the island, required to perform forced labor and eventually 
placed into concentration camps and subjected to retribution when the 
impending liberation of the island became apparent 

Mr. Chairman, H.R. 1944 will commemorate the suffering of the people of 
Guam by authorizing of the building of a monument in their honor. 

It will do so by increasing the authorization for development of the War in 
the Pacific National Historical Park territory to $8 million. The bill also 
proposes to increase the authorization for the American Memorial Park on 
Saipan. 

In closing, I want to urge swift consideration of this bill because in a little 
over a year from now hundreds of veterans are expected to visit Guam and 
Saipan to commemorate the 50th anniversary of their victory over the 
Japanese and of the liberation of Guam. It would be a shame if there isn't 
an adequate monument or memorial to the thousands of Americans and 
Guamanians in place before that time, especially since the islands currently 
have splendid monuments built by Korea and Japan to commemorate their 
war dead. 



82 



ROBERT A UNDERWOOD 



ARMED SERVICES 



NATURAL RESOURCES 




Congre£(£( of t\}t Winitth ^tate£f 

l^oude of i^epresientatitieK 

MaUfjinBton, ©C 20515-5301 



WASHINGTON OFFICE 



GUAM OFFICE 



; (67 11 477-2587 



Congressman Robert A. Underwood 

statement on H.R. 1944 

Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests, 
and Public Lands 



May 27, 1993 



83 



Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee: 

Thank you Mr. Chairman for holding this hearing today on H.R. 1944. 
I also join my colleagues this morning in extending a warm "Hafa 
Adai" to those witnesses who have travelled from Guam to present 
testimony on this bill. 

Mr. Chairman, in fourteen months the islands of Guam, Saipan and 
Tinian will commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the heroic battles 
of the Marianas campaign. The Government of Guam and the 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands have been preparing 
for this event for years. 

We on Guam hold very dearly the memory of the occupation and 
liberation of our island. It is our fathers and mothers, and our 
brothers and sisters, who lived through the brutal 32 months of 
occupation. We know who died, who was beheaded, who was beaten and 
who was tortured. We know who marched to the concentration camps 
in Manengon and Malojloj, and who was massacred in the caves at 
Faha and Tinta. We know because these were our fathers, mothers, 
brothers, sisters and neighbors. We know because it is our legacy 
to remember what happened on our island fifty years ago. 

To help us all remember, and to help future generations understand 
the vast horror of the War in the Pacific, H.R. 1944 authorizes 
developments including a visitors center and a monument on Guam to 
the Chamorro people who suffered the atrocities of the occupation. 

The visitors centers at the War in the Pacific Park on Guam and the 
American Memorial Park on Saipan are intended to hold permanent 
displays of the War. Just as the experiences of the Holocaust and 
the attack on Pearl Harbor are memorialized in the Holocaust 
Museum's displays and the Arizona Memorial's visitors center, so 
will the War in the Pacific be remembered in permanent displays in 
the proposed visitors centers. 

More importantly, H.R. 1944 authorizes a monument at the War in the 
Pacific Park on Guam to honor those people who were beheaded, 
executed, killed, suffered injury, or endured forced labor, forced 
marches and internment in concentration camps during the 
occupation. Just as there is now on Guam a monument to the 
American liberators, a monument to the Japanese soldiers, even a 
monument to the American war dogs, there will finally, fifty years 
later, be a monument to the people of Guam. 

The War in the Pacific Park is unfinished. It commemorates a war 
on Guam that is incomplete without the central theme inherent in 
the experience of the people of Guam. The legacy of the War is not 
about a rusty tank; it is about the heroism of the Marines and 
soldiers who fought the War. Likewise it is not about a village 



84 



that was destroyed; it is about the villagers who were massacred. 

If you visit the War in the Pacific National Park on Guam and you 
do not get a sense of the human toll that the War extracted, then 
it must not be finished. 

If you do not see the names of people, such as Father Jesus Baza 
Duenas, Edward Camacho Duenas or Jose Leon Guerrero Cruz who were 
beheaded, or Alfred Flores and Francisco Borja Won Pat who were 
executed by firing squads, then you have not experienced the War. 

If you do not hear the names spoken of those who suffered, like 
Beatrice Perez Emsley who was a victim of a Japanese sword, nearly 
decapitated and buried alive, but by the grace of God is still 
alive and who is here to testify today; or Jose Oficido Cruz, 
Joaquin Cruz and Juan Lizama who survived the massacre at a cave in 
Fena where thirty-three Chamorros were killed by hand grenades; or 
six year old Jesus Duenas Crisostomo, who was killed while showing 
the Americans a hidden Japanese position, then it is not finished. 

If you do not read the names of Manuel Charfauros, Felipe Santiago 
Cruz, Frank Anderson, Louisa Baza and Joaquina Concepcion, who 
crawled out of the caves at Faha and Tinta where forty- six other 
Chamorros were killed, then you do not know of our ordeal. 

If you do not read the stories of the Chamorro people, like 
Magdalena Tenorio Barcinas, whose husband Martin died during forced 
labor, and whose daughter Antonia was beaten, and whose son Arthur 
was killed, then you do not understand their sacrifices. 

If the War in the Pacific Park does not bear witness to these 
stories, then it is not complete. 

If instead you see a picnic ground, then the War in the Pacific 
Park has failed in its essential purpose. 

H.R. 194 4 proposes a monument to honor the People of Guam whose 
loyalty to America never wavered in spite of the atrocities they 
endured. 

In order to complete the monument in time for the 50th Anniversary 
of the Liberation of Guam on July 21, 1994, I propose that the 
Committee recommend in its report that in the interest of 
expediting the construction of the monument, the National Park 
Service commission one artist to design the monument. The 
background and experience of the artist should reflect the cultural 
values of the Chamorro People of Guam. The monument should convey 
an artistic interpretation of the occupation and liberation of Guam 
and the inherent suffering and triumph of the Chamorro people 
during this ordeal. 



85 



The names to be placed on the monument, which H.R. 1944 requires 
the Office of Territorial and International Affairs (OTIA) of the 
Department of the Interior to provide, can be verified from the 
records of the Government of Guam. My office can assist OTIA in 
identifying and acquiring the necessary records. 

I envision that the monument will be placed in the War in the 
Pacific National Park's Nimitz Hill overlook, which commands a 
dramatic view of the Asan invasion beach. The monument can be 
integrated into the current design for the overlook, where the 
visitors center will also be situated. At this late date, it is 
unrealistic to expect that the visitors center can be completed in 
time for the 50th Anniversary. However, it is possible for the 
monument to be completed in time and for the Nimitz Hill overlook 
to be in a presentable condition. It may also be possible to 
identify modest funds to complete the first phase of the visitors 
center, as outlined in the National Park Service's plans. 

It is also likely that Congress will authorize and fund the $3.0 
million for the American Memorial Park in Saipan, as recommended by 
the House Committee on Natural Resources. With these funds, the 
American Memorial Park will also be able to complete the major 
improvements needed at that park. 

Mr. Chairman, as we look to the 50th Anniversary of the Marianas 
Campaign, we must look at our responsibility to our chi-ldren. We 
must judge our success or failure in preserving for all generations 
the horrors and triumphs of the War in the pacific. As caretakers 
of a legacy written in the bloodied sands of the invasion beaches 
of Guam, and etched in the memory of the Chamorro people who 
survived the occupation, it is our duty to do now what needs to be 
done before time destroys the memory. 

I would like to recognize three witnesses who will testify today 
with their unique perspectives. Mr. Cyril O'Brien, representing 
the Third Marine Division Association of the United States, was one 
of the young Marines who participated in the invasion of Guam. His 
memories of those battles, and his appreciation of the loyalty of 
the Chamorro people will be articulated in his testimony. 

Mrs. Beatrice Perez Emsley, to whom I referred earlier, survived 
one of the most horrific atrocities in the last days prior to the 
Liberation. Nearly decapitated by a Japanese sword and buried in 
a mass grave, Mrs. Emsley bears witness to a time that few people 
believe can even occur on our peaceful island. Her story is a 
profound statement of the quiet courage of the Chamorro people. 

Rosalia Bordallo, a fourth grader at Cathedral Grade School, will 
enlighten us with her perspective as an heir to our legacy. The 
monument and visitors center are meant to preserve the history of 
the war for future generations. Rosalia knows about the war from 



72-168 - 93 - 4 



86 



her grandfather and father; future schoolchildren will learn about 
the legacy from history books and from the War in the Pacific Park. 

Mr. Chairman, I again thank you for holding this hearing, and I 
urge my colleagues to listen with their hearts to the testimony 
presented by the witnesses from Guam today. 



87 



OPENING STATEMENT 

THE HONORABLE JAMES V. HANSEN 

ON H.R. 1944 

A BILL TO INCREASE THE AUTHORIZATION 

CEILINGS AT AMERICAN MEMORIAL 

AND WAR IN THE PACIFIC PARKS 

MAY 27, 1993 



Mr. Chairman, we are taking up legislation today 
which I think reveals the frustration that many Members of 
Congress have with respect to being able to fully fund 
parks in areas we represent. The War in the Pacific 
National Historic Park in Guam and American Memorial 
Park in Saipan were established in 1978 to commemorate 
the human tragedy which occurred in the Pacific Theater 
during World War II. This is an extremely important 
aspect of our American history which deserves to be 
recognized within our park system. 



-2- 



Mr. Underwood has re-introduced the legislation 
authored by Mr. Blaz last Congress in hopes of securing 
funds for the parks in the area he represents. Mr. 
Chairman, we all need additional funds for parks in areas 
we represent; in fact, I testified to that effect before the 
Interior Appropriations Subcommittee just a few weeks 
ago. It is precisely this reason that this side of the aisle 
gets so concerned whenever the park system is expanded. I 
would hope that the other side of the aisle would soon 
come to recognize this relationship between new park 
proposals and funding existing parks and join us in more 
critically reviewing the many proposals that come before 
this Committee. 



89 
-3- 



I support the efforts of the Gentleman from Guam in 
his attempt to secure additional funds for the War in the 
Pacific Park. However, I cannot support those sections of 
the bill which would have the effect of jumping the priority 
of funding visitor centers at these parks over numerous 
other parks in the system which have been waiting far 
longer. For example, Lassen Volcanic National Park, 
established in 1907, has no visitor center. It is not right for 
this Committee to leap frog over so many other priorities 
to create new visitor centers at these two parks by fiscal 
year 1994. In fact, as the Administration will testify, 
construction of these visitor centers by the dates 
established in this bill is not even feasible. 



90 



Testimony of 

Governor Lorenzo I. De Leon Guerrero 

Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 

Re: H.R. 1944 

for the 

American Memorial Park 

before the 

U.S. House of Representatives 

Subcommittee on National Parks, 

Forests and Public Lands 

May 27, 1993 

We extend to you, Mr. Chairman, and distinguished members of 
your Subcommittee, our warmest greetings and "Hafa Adai". 
'I'hank you for inviting us to provide testimony for before your 
distinguished Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public 
Lands fulfilling the mandate of our Covenant and Public Law 95- 
348. 

Let us take a moment to go into history, nearly 49 years agu, tu 
reflect the emotional anxiety of that hellish war: 

"It was exactly 5:42 a.m. on June 15, 1944, when the 
Commander of Task Force 58, Admiral Turner, gave the 
order 'Land the Landing Forces!' The 2nd and 4th Marine 
Divisions began landings on Saipan's well-defended beaches 
to start what would be one of the bloodiest battles of the 
Pacific war. The first wave of amphibians and tanks landed 
at 8:30, but many were knocked out by intense Japanese 
resistance. Of the 14 medium tanks of the 4th Division, 
only four reached the beach in operating condition. Within 
20 minutes, 700 landing vehicles had landed more than 
8,000 marines of the 2nd and 4tb Divisions. The Japanese 
troops inflicted more than 2,000 casualties on what the 
marines called "Dog Day". But they had established a 
beachhead 10,000 yards long and about 1,500 yards deep. 
Admiral Turner said later: The Saipan landing . . . was the 
most difficult of any I personally experienced during the 
war." 



91 



Mr. Chairman, on June IS, 1944, under hellish and deadly 
bombardment from nearly invisible and impregnable 
gun emplacements dug into a series of ridges perfectly placed to 
defend against amphibious assault, three divisions of United 
States Armed Forces began the final phase of the Pacific War by 
invading Saipan to use as a forward staging base for B-29 bomber 
assaults on Japan. 

The beaches and shalloxv waters of the Saipan lagoon were 
literally turned red with the precious blood from the brave men 
of the Second and Fourth Marine Divisions who led the assault. 
In a very short time the brave men of the U.S. Army's 27th 
Division bled and died for their country -- now our country -- 
along^ side the Marines on our. beaches and ridges, and in our 
jungles and villages. Of the 71,000 American troops who landed 
on Saipan, nearly 4,000 were killed, 13,100 were wounded or 
missing In action. American losses on Saipan were double those 
suffered on Guadalcanal. 

The defenders fought with a desperation born of the knowledge 
that the loss of Saipan meant the ultimate defeat of their 
homeland. They fought with the certain knowledge that they 
would have no reinforcements -- that they must defend their 
empire with all the ferocity and cunning they had. The fanatic 
resistance to the invasion brought utter destruction to the 
defenders. Of the 31,630 Japanese troops on Saipan, 
approximately 29,500 died as a result of the fighting. 

Death and agony was not limited to the soldiers. During the 
twenty-four days of savage fighting required to root out the cut- 
off and desperate defenders, roughly nine percent of the local 
civilian population - our Chamorro and Carolinian people -- 
were killed in the cross fire. Think of what it would be iike for 
America to suddenly lose 9% of its population. This was a huge 
and grievous loss for us. And that is not all. Hundreds of 
Korean and Okinawan civilian workers and their families brought 
to Saipan as labor for the Japanese war machine were 
slaughtered. Japanese civilian families - men, women, 
and children - believing the war propaganda of their army. 
Jumped to their deaths from cliffs on Saipan that now have 
shrines and peace monuments. 

There are, in fact, many shrines and monuments to the 

2 



92 



Japanese defenders of Saipan in various locations on tlie island. 
The governments of Japan, Korea, and Okinawa have constructed 
peace memorials to honor their dead. Tlie Marine survivors of 
the invasion have installed a small bronze plaque on the primary 
landing beach from private contributions. 

Mr. Chairman, the approach of the 50th anniversary of the 
Saipan invasion reminds us that the great sacrifices made for 
liberty and democracy by Americans and Chamorros and 
Carolinians alike during this Invasion have not been suitably 
remembered and honored by the United States Government. 
I am sure, Mr. Chairman, that you are fully aware that the 
Commonwealth has long taken seriously the obligation to create 
a fitting memorial to_.those brave Americans who died for our 
freedom. 

We formed an American Memorial Park Planning Committee. 
Our committee is action-oriented. Our general management park 
plan is completed and is now being implemented. Two years ago 
we conducted a design concept competition for a fitting 
monument for our American Memorial Park coordinated by the 
National Park Service Center in Denver. With their help, we 
now have selected a fitting design concept for the memorial. 
Because of our commitment to get results, we even brought 
several National Park Service architects to Saipan to personally 
survey our American Memorial Park site. To expedite 
construction and to save money, we have solicited the support of 
the U.S. Navy Seabees who have been on Saipan for more than 
one month assisting in the site preparation for this important 
project, as well as paving the parking lot at the new multi- 
purpose pavilion which is nearing completion and will play a key 
role in our 50th anniversary commemoration. At this time the 
only thing stopping us from issuing out the A & E design and 
construction of the monument Is lack of funding. Mr. Chairman, 
we need your help. 

Time is running out. We need to Immediately reach the deadline 
to plan and construct an appropriate memorial monument to 
commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Marianas campaign. 
Without an American Memorial Park authorization and 
appropriation in this session of Congress, it may not be possible 
for us to build the monument and other park facilities envisioned 
in our Covenant. H.R. 1944 will fulfill this important mandate 



93 



to fittingly honor all the brave members of the U.S. military who 
made the supreme sacrifice in the Marianas, and our innocent 
people who were caught in the crossfire. 

Mr. Chairman, our Covenant brought democracy, individual 
liberties, and self-government to our islands for the first time in 
our history. We honor and revere this charter of our freedom. 
We also honor and cherish our place in the American political 
family. The proposed construction of the American Memorial 
Park monument is now our common responsibility. It is a shared 
sacred obligation we have to the memories of those who died and 
suffered that we, and others around the Pacific and the world, 
might enjoy our present freedoms. The Marianas invasions were 
eclipsed in publicity J>y the Normandy Jnvasion that began just 
nine "days earlier on Ihe other side of the world. But the effects 
of the Marianas Invasions were just as important to the War in 
the Pacific as Normandy was to the crusade in Europe. 
Americans fought and suffered and died to secure forward air 
bases from which to hasten the end of the war and end the 
suffering. Their sacrifices did exactly that. They suffered and 
died so that others might live. The air campaign did ultimately 
bring a swift end to the war. 

We cannot, and we must not, allow those sacrifices to fade from 
our memory. To the monuments at Bunker Hill and Gettysburg, 
at Shiloh and Vicksberg, at Arlington and at the somber 
cemeteries In Europe that honor American dead we must now 
include the American Memorial Park monument in Saipan. 

Mr. Chairman, it is within your power to take the first positive 
step to achieve this sacred commitment. I humbly urge you and 
all the members of your Subcommittee to please favorably 
approve the authorization and appropriation of funding 
immediately so we can continue the complex and time consuming 
process of constructing this long over-due memorial monument to 
those who gave so much for us. May we never forget all those 
who fought and shed their blood on our soil so that we can enjoy 
freedom and liberty today. 



Thank you and Si Yuus Maase. 




I. DE LEON GUERRERO 

4 




94 



(§tt\tt of Ih^ ^ppakrr 

TWENTY-SECOND GUAM LEGISLATURE 

155 Hesler St 

Agana.Guam U.S.A. 96910 

Tel: (671)477-8527/9120 • Fax: (671)477-5570 

June 10, 1993 

The Honorable Robert Underwood 

U.S. House of Representatives 

507 Camion House ]i . 

Office Building 
Washington, D.C. 20515 

Dear Congressman Underwood, 

1 am writing in reference to your H.R. 1944 regarding improvements for the 
War in the Pacific Park on Guam. 1 am pleased to learn that you are making 
progress in securing passage of this important legislation. As 1 have indicated to 
your earlier, your endeavors have the fullest support of the members of the 22nd 
Guam Legislature. 

We share your hopes for the eventual enactment of H.R. 1944. As you 
know, this legislation is important to the people of Guam for a number of reasons. 
The general improvements of this park facility are, of course, long overdue and 
very much needed. Beyond this concern though, the hi tone recognition provided 
in your legislation for the suffering our people endured during the Japanese 
Occupation has struck a deeply responsive chord in our community. As you 
continue to purse adoption of this measure, please be assured that your efforts have 
the heartiest endorsement of niyself, my colleagues, and the people of car island. 

Sincerely, 




USTIN 



95 



Statement of 

The honorable Juan N, babauta 

REsroENT Representative to the United States 

FROM THE 

Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana islands 

ON 
HJtl944 

before the 

subcommtitee on national parks, forests, and public lands 

Committee on Natural resources 

U.S. house of Representatives 

MAY 27, 1993 



Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee: 

Thank you for the opportimity to submit testimony in support of 
H.R. 1944. 

I am especially pleased to be able to work in concert with Mr. Robert 
Underwood of this Subcommittee. The gentleman from Guam in the short 
time he has been in Congress has already extended a helping hand to his 
brothers and sisters in the Northern Marianas on numerous occasions. 
H.R. 1944 is just one example of that. I thank him. 

Many of my comments here would apply equally to the War in the 
Pacific Park on Guam and to the American Memorial Park on Saipan. 
However, because I know the American Memorial Park I will confine my 
remarks to that park. 

One year ago I testified in favor of legislation introduced by Senator 
Daniel Akaka, which would have raised the authorization for the 
American Memorial Park to $8 million just as H.R. 1944 proposes. In that 
testimony I pictured a grim scene at the park site for the June, 1993, fifl;ieth 
anniversary of the U.S. invasion of the Northern Marianas: 



96 



Testimony of Juan N. Babauta 

Resident Representative 

Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 

May 27, 1993 

Page 2 



That commemoration will take place on the bare expanse of 
grass and sand set aside on Saipan for the American 
Memorial Park. To one side is the shell of an abandoned 
elementary school, its roof gone in a typhoon. Nearby a locked 
concrete hut holds the few war relics gathered by a now 
defunct museum committee; an occasional venturesome 
tourist tries to peer through the window. Outside on broken 
tarmac a howitzer, a Japanese tank, a torpedo have been 
hauled up; they rust away in the sea air. 

Today, I can report to you that the situation has improved. Because of 
the leadership of Lt. Governor Benjamin T. Manglona and the efforts of 
many in the Northern Marianas, development of the park site has begim. 
With local government funds a pala-pala has been erected, with the 
cooperation of the Commander in Chief of US Naval Forces in the Marianas 
a crew of Seabees and their heavy equipment have done site preparation, 
and a concerted effort of locsd fundraising has raised thousands of dollars. 

But much more remains to do. Last month during confirmation 
hearings for Interior Department Assistant Secretary Leslie Turner, 
Senator Akaka called the condition of this site "an affront to all 
Americans." Less than two weeks ago the House Natural Resources 
Committee itself issued a report saying the present monument to US war 
dead at American Memorial Park is "inadequate." 

Congress has a choice. You can allow the fiftieth anniversary of the 
battle of Saip£m to pass without attention. Or you can act to assure that the 
commemoration of what Marine Lt. General Holland Smith, commander of 
US landing forces, called "the decisive battle of the Pacific offensive" will 
occur in a fitting setting. 



97 



Testimony of Juan N. Babauta 

Resident Representative 

Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 

May 27, 1993 

Page 3 



Mr. Chairman, it will never be too late to create a proper memorial to 
the four thousand Americans who died taking Saipan. But in not too many 
years the survivors of that bloody month of jungle combat wiU all have 
passed on. We could finish the American Memorial Park thirty years from 
now, but no one would attend that dedication whose personal experience 
encompassed the event commemorated. How much better it would be if we 
could build the Park now and honor the living as well as the dead. 

Mr. Chairman, thank you again for the opportunity to testify. 



98 



Testimony of 

Senator Elizabeth P. Arriola 

Chairperson, Twenty-Second Guam Legislature's Committee on Youth 
Senior Citizens and Cultural Affairs 

on H.R. 1944 

"A BILL TO PROVIDE FOR ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENT AT WAR 
IN THE PACIFIC NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK, AND FOR OTHER 

PURPOSES" 

May 26, 1993 



Hafa Adai, I am Senator Elizabeth P. Arriola, chairperson of the 22nd 
Guam Legislature's Committee on Youth, Senior Citizens and Cultural 
Affairs ajid I thank the Honorable Bruce Vento, chairman of the 
subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands for receiving 
my testimony in support of H.R. 1944 for proposing the use of federal park 
land for our people and most especially for its promotion of cultural 
preservation efforts. I also thank Congressman Robert A. Underwood for 
sponsoring a bill whose intent, in part, had mirrored my objective 1990 to 
erect a similar monument at Gaan Point in Agat within the War in the 
Pacific National Historic Park. The names of that memorial were to bear 
the victims of Fena Massacre during Guam's occupation by Japanese 
Imperial Forces. 

Few wHl not argue that many Hves were lost and many more sxiffered the 

rippling tragedies of that war. Today, that period is but a chapter in 

Guam's history books, buried away as an ugly past. I contend that Guam 

has yet to realize the real value of that historical period. The comfortahle 

lifestyle we maintain today is tied to that period of turbulence ia Guam's 

history. Only memories, war wounds and untold stories are left of that era- 

Unfortiinately, those xmtold stories rob Guam of part of its history and 

represent the erosion of Guam's culture. In recent years, the island has 

undergone an unprecedented frenetic rate of development. While we 

welcome the economic benefits, it has diluted the dynamics of our island 

culture. 

1 

The same economics that has upgraded our hfestyle has strained the 



99 



cultxiral fabric that provides the Dtrcngth end blurs the identity of ous 
people. Oral history and storj'-telling by our elders have giveu way to 
videography with specizd effects and other more techui<;<tl art forms. The 
telling of these stories played a crucial role in the preservation of our 
culture in that they were passed ou with each Keueratioa. Unfortunately, 
the generation in pursuit of higher lecbuulogy poses roadblocks in the 
pas6iiij< ou of cultural aspecUi and traditions that make Guam unirp)?.. It's 
ufU;n. been said that a person must know and understand where rhpy came 
from to appreciate who and what they have become and tn h*»«;t decide their 
future direction. 

Tr. i.^ in thst vf^jn and La the interest of our youth and culture that I offer fiiH 
support of H.R. 1944 ae a meane of providing a tangible approach in the 
prcGcrvQtion of our culture and the memorialization of the saffering Guam 
endured for the liberties we enjoy toJa>. 

The p.rectinn nf a mprnorial monument bearing the pamAg of all thocc who 
suffered personal injury or who died during Japan's occupation maies 
hietory nhnoot permanent with its stArk reminder of the forced labor, forced 
marches, and internment of the Chauiurros who survived those hardships. 
Understanding this part of Guam's turbulent history maVps xis appreciate 
the freedom we now enjoy and enr.onrfiges greater care in choosing the 
direction of the island's future. It's important for fiaturc generations to 
know that the nomcc the memorial shaJl bear are of Chauiorrus who 
suffered fatal tragedies at a time when Guam enjoyed little, if any, luxury 
uf today's modem amenities. I especially endorse the implementatioa of 
programs to interpret esTienenres of the people who endured that war. 
This, too, is an effective approach in the cultural preccrvation of Guam's 
hietory and pocGQgc of thia Bill will most certainly be an appropriate 
commemoration of the 50th Anniversaijr of Lhe Marianas campaign of 
WWII y.Lich restored freedom to Guam and her people. With all due 
respect, I urge expedient passage of H.R. 1944. 



IC^jA^ QmuL 



100 



\^m- 



- 



May 24, 1993 



rUairman Bruce F. Veneto 
Subcon\iTutt:ee on National Parks, 
Forest and Public Lands 
in-812 0'NeUlH.O.B. 
Wasliington, DC 20515 

Dear Mr. Chairmnn and Members of the Subcommittee on National 
Parks: 

It is always a pleasure for me-an honorary citizen of Guam-to 
speak on behalf of the people of Guam. This great honor was 
bestowed on me by the Guam legislature after I was awarded the 
Medal of Honor for service during the invasion preceding 
libera Hon in July 1944. 

HR 1944 provides much needed additional development at tlie War 
in the Pacific National Plistorical Park in Guam. I endiusiastically 
reconunend its passage and urge Congress to authorize such 
additional development as envisioned in the bill. 

I was a company commander in tlie 3rd Marine Division during the 
invasion and subsequent liberation of tliis, die only United States 
territory occupied in World War II by an enemy force. I saw first 
hand the tenible suffering experienced by the people of Guam and 
their absolute loyalt)' to America during their 32 months of 
captivity. They held an opHmisric, unbounded belief that America 
would not abandon them. 



101 



Now its \^n^e to rercvjrtize fclie sacr ''<~es made during tliis 
oppn^S'iive occupation. The rolativt:!/ small amoimt of our national 
resources required to cornnit morale tliis di?dication and sacrifice 
seems a sntall anic i.mt to pay for such pati iolism and tiK'> ability to 
influence future gpneriHons. 

I deeply I. -ret that I am unable to personally appear bf^fore iMs 
inipoit.mt subcommittee. I strongly luge you to enact this 
legislation. I plan to retm-n for the SOtli anniversary of tl\e 
Liberation in 1994. Noihiug would please ine more tlian to-see not 
c-nly an expanded national park-but amonument to honor tlic 
■irave ciLi7ens of Guam who suffered so greatly. 

Thank you for the opportunity to address this House Subcommittee 
on National Parks. 



L <9^**> // Widj 



General Louis H. Wilson, USMC (Ret) 
Medal of Honor-Guam-1944 
Coniniandant of the Marine Coips-1975-79 
1338 Wemble Road 
SanMorino,CA9ll08 



102 



Bougainville 



Guam Chapter 

Third Marin^^ Division Association, In 

• Cu^m • Iwo Jima • VictnaiTi 



P O E OX 7012 TAMUNING GUAM %93l 



Honorable Bruce Vent 
Chairman, Subcommltt^ 
Washington, D.C. 



on Parks and Lands 



May 21, 1993 



Dear Congressman Vento: 

I lake this opportunity to offer comments on Bill 1944, concerning 
funding for an appropriate memorial to honor the people of Guam, and the 
members of Jhe U.S. AJrmed Forces that help liberate Guam during World 
War II. 

I believe that such a memorial Is fitting to recognize the sufferings of 
the Chamorro people Under the tyranny of the Japanese military that 
Invaded our peaceful and beautiful Island of Guam in 1941. A memorial to 
the people of Guam sh'ould contribute to the education of the future 
generations about the bufferings of the people and the strong patriotism 
to the United States of, America throughout the period of the Japanese 
occupation. There were many lives lost but the Chamorro people of 
Guam never wavered In their loyalty to Uncle Sam. 

During World Warjll, I served with the Third Marine Division from the 
time It was organized at Camp Elliott and Camp Pendleton In 1942 to the 
time It was disbanded |)nGuam In 1945, except for the period of time that I 
was sent to QuantIco, Virginia for Officer Candidate School. As a Marine, 
I feel that a fitting menjorlal should be 

provided also to honorjthe memt>ers of the U.S. Armed Forces who fought 
In the Pacific during World War II. Building these memorials at the War In 
the Pacific Park at Asafi, Guam would be In keeping with the purpose of 
the National Park on Gbam for the education of future generations of 



Americans. It would give meaning to the saying that Guam is a showcase 
DEMOCRACY and t^at Guam Is where America begins it's day. 
Thank you for the honor and the opportunity to comment on Bill 1944. 



Hafa Adal and^Semper FIdells 

Peter C. SIguej/za, Captj^n USMCR, Ret. 
President 



103 



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104 



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105 



I Eor J a 



The Honorable Rob's 
Member of Concreas, 
^A)'l Cannon House 
Wa?ihinfiton. D.C. 2{) 



Mav 1)3, 1993 



~t Underwood 



ffice Buildinfl 
515-5301 



Dear Del. Underwoo 

I am writinR in sutport of bill H.R. 1944 to developed the War in 
the Pacific Natlonc 1 Historic*! P^rk on Guajn. The sipnlf icance of 
t.hia hietoriC'il monument cannot be overly amphaaized. 



As en educator. 1 
retciined through f 
the clasarooms but 



idvocate that knowledge is acquired ajid better 
.rst hand experiences and exposure not only in 
leo si«nif icantly outside the classroom as it 



pertains to our culk-ural heritage. Instructions in history become 



more vivid when etv 
toi explore events 



dents are given the opportunity to witness and 
as thev occur. Since this is not always 



possible, havinf! tie National Historical Park would serve as an 
ftlternative to viev events as they had taken place in the past. 

The significance oi the proposed monument is a symbolic means of 
i-eachinR culture, hi.'itory and the plight of the Chamorros who were 
sub.iected to Rreat] hardship, torture and even death durinR the 
WWII. The interest and curiosity generated by the monument will 
inevitably lead to inciuiries, discussions and research vital to 
rliiicoverv and learning success. 



This monument is tr 
Chamorro people 



■ ilv a gift deserving of Guam's students and the 
uam residents and visitors will also have the 
opportunity to better understand what Guam has endured in the 
course of history! While the War of the Pacific National 
Historical Park on Guam provide lessons of sacrifice, it will also 
promote the value of peace. love, and friendship amonR the 
ifiulticultural and milti lingual populace. 



Natividad Gumataotao 
Teacher. Guam Public School 



106 



Letters in Support of H.R. 1944 

From the Students of the 5th Grade 

Gifted and Talented Program 

Price Elementary School, Mangilao, Guam 

Ms. Sisson, Principal 

Ms. Cabot, Teacher 



Cheressa Cruz: 

I think that [we] should preserve and protect our parks and 
museums because it is a part of Guam's history and culture. A lot 
of people would like to see our heritage and background preserved 
and protected. National historical parks are also important to me 
because Guam is a part of my heritage. All of Guam's beauty and 
treasures should be preserved because Guam is a very beautiful 
place. 

If I could support this bill I would because Guam is very 
important to me. I would also support this bill because Guam is a 
paradise island in the Pacific ocean and it should be preserved. 

Sirena Marv Laauana Morta; 

National Historical Parks and museums are important for us 
little kids because it shows us what happened here in Guam long 
ago. And it is important to preserve these because the tourist[s] 
come to see our beautiful island and they go back and tell the 
people where they live to come here to Guam because they have a lot 
of historical parks and historical museums and wonderful beaches. 
And when we grow up and have kids of our own I would like it to 
still be here so that my kids can learn what happened long time 
ago. 

Kristopher Dominauez: 

I think our national and historical parks are important to us 
because we can learn the background of our ancestors and so we can 
learn what they did a long time ago. I really want our park here 
so I can learn my culture and my heritage. But if I could help 
support this bill, I would. Because I think I should help our 
national and historical parks. 

Kuuipo Boria: 

What I think is that we should stand up for this bill because 
of the many historical things we have on our island. We need to 
protect and furnish it with the best we can because very much of 
these things have a lot of meaning to it. 

Right now I think for more protection and safety for these 
many valuable things we have. If I could I would support this bill 
because a lot of the things we have are about the war. They are 
historic and mean very much to our island. 



107 



Letters from Price Elementary School 5th Graders 
Mangilao, Guam 
Page 2 



Joanne Matanane: 

I think it's really important that we should preserve the 
museums and historical parks so that the next people who are 
brought up on Guam will learn our culture, ancestry, and heritage. 
It might be an advantage for the youth on Guam if they knew all 
this. Protecting the museums and historical parks would probably 
save our ancient artifacts like the latte stones, ancient wells, 
and ovens. If we could do this and put some of it in museums we'd 
probably save most of our heritage. By placing this bill we would 
get the help we need. And by getting the help it wouldn't just be 
more money, protection, and preservation but it would be a great 
help by educating students about our culture. It also would help 
the island by saving the artifacts that the native Chamorros once 
used. This would make the island's youth realize the hardships 
passed on and also show them how they used to learn long ago. 

If this bill is passed the island would probably have more 
kids learning about our background. Now if I could support this 
bill I would do it because it would not only help other children 
learn, but it would also help me. I'm proud of my heritage and 
culture, and I really would like to help other people learn our 
background. By doing this, the island of Guam would probably be a 
better place to live. Not just for the youth but also for the 
elders. For them to remember our island of Guam. 

So if I could support it, I would. I would do this for 
everyone on Guam, including the wildlife. If there were more 
national historical parks Guam would be the perfect island 
protected by Congress. 



Nicole Fallorina: 



National and Historical parks should be preserved. They 
should be preserved because they are important national treasures 
of Guam. They help us remember what happened in the past and why. 
I think these parks are good for the younger generation to be 
informed about their island. 

I would try to support this bill in every way because it is a 
good bill. I think this bill will help our island very much to 
keep the remains of our past and history preserved. I'm sure our 
own island will be pleased once this bill is settled. 



108 



Letters from Price Elementary 5th Graders 
Mangilao, Guam 
Page 3 



Amni Saleh; 

I think a bill should be passed to preserve our national and 
historical parks because they tell and share the past so we will 
know. If not, how will we know what to do if it happened again? 
Our parks and museums are sharing and preserving our history and 
our heritage. Without anything to tell our past we would be blind. 
We need more places like this so we can learn. Our island has been 
through so much for us and it's like the island is saying to us, 
"please preserve your historical monuments and national park!" We 
should try to help our island. So please do it for this generation 
and the generation to come. When there's a need there's a way! 

Ana Murphy Babauta: 

So I can learn more about my history and study it. Because 
it's very important that people learn about it on our island of 
Guam. Because the history in the United States is the history of 
Guam too. 

I should support this bill to save our history. If they did 
do something to this park then people in the future wouldn't know 
much of our history. People who do remember it would tell people 
in the future but they wouldn't tell enough of it. 

This museum could tell a lot about the past and I bet it is a 
very beautiful place too. I really want to save this place, a lot! 



109 



]■ ■■ A 9 





JUN 2 9 1993. 
•TKird Marine Division AssociatiQU^Obic.TLr 

Bougainville • Guam • Iwo Jima • Vietnam 



Congressman Porter Goss ^'^- Keyers, FL 
Senator Bob Graham Tampa, FL 
Senator Connie "ack Tampa, FL 
Congressman Dan r'iller Sarasota, FL 



Dear; 



21 June 199; 



As a former combat Marine during World V/ar II, and a 
Liberator of Guam, I strongly and respectfully urge you to 
support Bill HS ig'J-'J- now before Congress. In addition to 
you support, I request that you encourage your colleagues to 
pass this Bill which will honor the brave and loyal people of 
Guam. 

On 21 July 19^4, I landed with the assault wave of the 
Third ."arine Division to recapture the only American territory 
occupied by the Japanese during \T,iII. For 32 months the people 
of Guam suffered under Japanese rule... they were tortured, maimed 
endured forced marches, internment and were murdered. , only because 
they maintained their loyalty to the United States of America. 
I had personally witnessed some of this Japanese brutality. Kid- 
way through the campaign, while on a combat patrol, we came upon a. 
clearing within a densely wooded area. .. there , on their knees 
with arms and hands bound behind their backs v/ere forty Chamorro 
children, women and elderly men....v/ho only hours before were 
be-headed:.' The people of Guam suffered many such atrocities. 

Fifty years have passed... it is nov/ time for them to be 
HOMORED. 



copy: 

Congressman R. A. Underwood 



Sincerely, 
^ ^^^^ 



Harold K. Noble 
past President, past Chairman 
Board of Directors 
Third I.Iarine Division Ass'n. 



3822 Cakley Greene 
Sarasota, FL 3^' -'-35 



110 



Letter of Mrs. Arlene Taitague Acfalle 

In Support of H.R. 1944 

Merizo, Guam 

May 18, 1993 



Guam, Mariana Islands 
Merizo Village 
May 18, 1993 

Dear Delegate Robert Underwood, 

I give my support to this bill concerning the "War Monument" 
to your hearing on May 27, 1993. 

Often times we take freedom for granted. Our forefathers are 
no exception ensuring the freedom we enjoy today. History has a 
tendency to repeat itself, sad to say, even the wars that can be 
avoided. We must still be vigilant and carry this commitment down 
to our children. 

What other memento to foster an affirmative stance than 
erecting a monument to our fallen heroes who experienced the 
supreme and ultimate sacrifices. A monument to remind us [what] 
freedom indeed costs and must be prevented at all cost. 

Every year the village of Merizo honors those men and women 
who died during WWII and the Japanese occupation. 

Although this event coincides with the Liberation celebration, 
all veterans are honored and revered, be it the Korean War, Vietnam 
War, [and] Tingting Hanom, Faha cave, Tinta cave, during the 
Japanese occupation. 

In our small village of Merizo 46 men and women died during 
the Japanese occupation, 5 died during the Vietnam crisis and 2 for 
[the] Korean war. 

I felt that in the life of an individual we are deeply touched 
to see these Chamorros sacrificed, in memory of our loved ones who 
died with undimmed faith and hope. As [a] concerned local U.S. 
citizen of Guam, I am glad and hopeful that our Guam Congressman 
Robert Underwood will provide our people of Guam with this 
opportunity that we are asking for — simple justice in memory [and] 
in honor of our loved ones who died during this war. 

Keep up the good work and God will be give you more blessings. 
God be with you always. 

Yours respectfully, 

Mrs. Arlene Taitague Acfalle 
Local U.S. citizen of Guam 



Ill 



Testimony of Mrs. Natividad Gumataotao 
Malesso, Guam 



Our forefathers are honored every year down here in Malesso. 
We honor them to show our deepest appreciation for what they have 
done during the Japanese occupation. 

This celebration is one of the most solemn occasions where all 
the fallen heroes' loved ones gather to show respect and gratitude 
for the ultimate sacrifice that befalls them at Faha cave, Tinta 
cave, and Tingting Hanom. 

Often times as a resident of Merizo (Malesso) I dream that one 
day a monument will be built at the actual site of these events 
during WWII, 1944. Our children, and their younger ones will enjoy 
this monument. I also envision parks alongside the area where the 
people of Guam will sit down and think of how fortunate we are 
today to enjoy the freedom dearest to us which cost so many lives. 
[This is] for us, the living, [so] that we can prevent and guard 
our freedom matter what price we have to pay. 

This [monument] will bring pride to our culture. I can see 
more concrete benches and concrete tables constructed in the 
future. This generation and the next will ensure that this is part 
of history and it will not [be] repeated. The Army Corps of 
Engineers will then clean our rivers proudly. Our beautiful local 
fish, shrimp, and eels will come to live. Everything will start a 
chain reaction and many beautiful projects coming from the heart 
will be done. Because the past will link us into our present. 

I just hope that these heroes will not have died in vain but 
will live in our minds and hearts and empower us to be proud of our 
heritage and culture. Our unique Chamorro culture will then be 
appreciated and will touch other people across the globe so this 
world can be peaceful — that was meant to be. 

Therefore I fully support bill number 1944. 

o 



72-168 (120] 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05983 461 2 



ISBN 0-16-041498-9 



9 780160"414985 




90000