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Full text of "War of the nations : portfolio in rotogravure etchings : compiled from the Mid-week pictorial"

I 



m 



mm 



or/gT Contents 



PORTRAITS 

Rulers, Statesmen, Military 
and Naval Leaders of War- 
ring Nations. 

Pages 

American 3-33 

French 34-42 

British 43- 55 

Belgian 56-57 

Italian 58-60 

Balkan 61-62 

Polish, Portuguese, 

Czechoslovak 63 

Central and South 

American 64 

Oriental 65 

Russian 66-69 

Gennan 70-81 

Austrian 82- 86 

Turkish and Bulgarian. 87 

Neutral 88 

Pope Benedict XV 89 

Allied Peace Delegates. 500-501 
Geography and Chronol- 
ogy of the World War 90- 92 

MILITARY OPERATIONS 
On Western Front 

Battle Scenes 93-199 

Signal Work 118-119 

Trench Methods 122-125 

Types of Weapons 138-139 

Gas and Fire Devices. .154-156 

Tanks 166-171 

Heavy Artillery 174-175 

Monster American Guns. 193 

Eastern Front 200-225 

Austro-Italian Battle Zone.226-249 

Balkan Front 250-265 

The Dardanelles and Gal- 

lipoli Campaign 266-274 

Conflicts in Mesopotamia 

and Palestine 276-289 

Surrender of Jerusalem.279 
Allenby Entering the 

Holy City 280-281 

BritishEnteringBagdad.289 



PICTURES 

Pages 

The War in the Air 290-301 

Bombing and Battle 
Planes 291-293 

Balloons and Dirigibles. 294-29 5 

Famous Aviators 296-297 

Anti-Aircraft Guns . . .298 

Aerial Raids on Cities. .300-301 
America's Entry Into the 

War 302-324 

Operation of the Draft..302 

American Army in 
Training 303-313 

American Munition and 

Gun Works 314-315 

Transportation of 
Troops 316-318 

U. S. Soldiers in I^rance 

and England 319-324 

British Empire Organizing 

for War 325-331 

Allied Auxiliary Troops. .332-335 
Cities Prominent in the 

War 336-350 

President Wilson Reading 

Historic War Message..351 
Facsimile of War Message 

and Declarations 352 

Scenes in Capitals When 

War Was Declared. . . .353-356 
Interallied War Council 

in Session 357 

Sfgning of the Treaty of 

Brest-Litovsk 357 

Tragedy of the Lusitania..368 
Sinking of American 

Troopships 359 

Execution of EdithCavell.360-361 
Hospital and Red Cross 

Activities 362-364 

American and Allied Loan 

Drives 365-368 

First Americans Killed in 

the War 369 

Welfare Work for Soldiers.37 0-371 
Occupation of Cities by 

Enemy Forces 372-374 



Paees 

War Posters 375 

Navies in the War 376-396 

Notable Sinkings 386-387 

German Submarines ..392-394 
Camouflaged Ships ...395 

Germany Stripped of Her 
Colonies 397-401 

Devastation Wrought in 

the War 402-439 

Signing of the Armistice . 440-449 

Surrender of German 

Fleet 451-465 

German Munitions and 
Weapons Surrendered. .456-457 

Occupation o f German 
Territory by Americans 
and Allies 458-466 

Allied Troops in Fiume 
and Trieste 467 

Taking Over of . Darda- 
nelles and Palestine by 
British and French. . .468-469 

Military Medals and In- 
signia 470 

Making of a Marshal. . . .471 

Rebirth of Poland 472-473 

Revolution in Germany. .474-481 
Gennan National As- 
sembly at Weimar. . .480 
Ex-Kaiser in Exile 481 

Russian Revolution 482-487 

Czechoslovak Activities. .488-489 

Allied and American 
Troops in Russia and 
Siberia 490-493 

President Wilson's Trip to 

Europe 494-497. 

Gathering of Peace Dele- 
gates 498-501 

Battlefields Where Amer- 
icans Fought and Con- 
quered 502-503 

Return of the Troops 504-514 

Peace Congress and 
Framing of Treaty 
(with Maps) 515-525 



Pages 

North and South 
America 90 

Europe, Africa, and Near 
East 91 

Asia, Oceania, and Far 
East 92 

The Western Front 104-105 

Zone of Belgian Opera- 
tions 130 

Ethnological Map of 
World 136-137 



MAPS 

Pages 

Flanders and Picardy Bat- 
tlefields 142 

Verdun 152-153 

St. Mihiel Salient 160 

Chateau-Thierry and Bel- 

leau Wood 176 

Hindenburg Line 186 

English Channel and 

Ports 191 

Western and Italian 

Fronts 198 

Eastern Front 214 



Pages 

Carso Plateau 226 

Austro-Italian Front ....232-233 

Piave Battle 246 

The Balkans 264-265 

Dardanelles and Gallipoli.266 
Palestine, Mesopotamia, 

and Syria 275 

Coast of Germany 390 

American Mine Barrage 

in North Sea 396 

Devastated France 40S 

Armistice Terms 458 



Pages 

Chronology of the War.. .526 



TEXT 

Pages 

Significant Dates and 
Events 527 



Pages 

The Peace Settlements. . .528 



SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT 



Two Pictorial Maps.— 1. The Western Front, Showing All Important Battle Lines During the War. 

2. Eurone and the Near East, Showing Changes in Frontiers, 1914-1919. 



ce 



President Marshall and Members of Cabinet 





THOMAS RILEY MARSHALL, 
Vice President of the United States. Pre- 
sided at Cabinet meetings in President 
Wilson's absence. 



CARTER GLASS. 
Secretary of the Treasury, 
succeeding William Gibbs 
McAdoo. 




WILLIAM J. BRYAN, 
Secretary of State first Wil- 
son Cabinet. Resigned June 

8, 1915. (© Sarony ) 





THOS. W.GREGORY, 

Attorney General. 
Resignation took ef- 
fect Mar. 4, 1919. 



) Hnr. A Bw'g. ) 



DAVID F. HOUSTON, 
Secretary of Agriculture. Took oath of 
office March 6, 1913. 




WM. B. WILSON, 
Secretary of Labor. 
Has served in three 
Congresses. 



FRANKLIN K. LANE, 
Secretary of the Interior. Former mem- 
ber Interstate Commerce Commission. 





WILLIAM C. REDFIELD, 

Secretary of Commerce. For- 
mer member of 62d Congress. 




ALBERT S. BURLESON, 
Postmaster General. Has 
served in eight Congresses. 



A. MITCHELL PALMER, 
Attorney General, succeeding Mr. Greg- 
ory. Former Alien, Property Custodian. 



8 




9 



United States Ambassadors Abroad During War 





JAMES W. GERARD, 
Ambassador to Ger- 
many until severance 
of diplomatic 
relations. 



FREDERIC C. PENFIELD, 

Ambassador to Austria until 
recalled by United States. 



DAVID R. FRANCIS, 
Ambassador to Russia 
for two years and 
eight months. 

^^::s::^^f ^ Sarria d Bwino. t 



BRAND WHITLOCK, 
Minister to Belgium through greater 
part of the war. 



PAUL S. REINSCH, 
Minister to China. Helped in securing her 
adhesion to allied cause. 




THOMAS NELSON PAGE, 
Ambassador to Italy. Eminent also in 
field of authorship. 



10 



Two Ex-Presidents and Their Secretaries of State 




■ 



WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT. 
Twenty-seventh President of the United States, March 4, 1909, to 
March 4, 1913. Ardent advocate of the League of Nations. 



THEODORE ROOSEVELT, 
Twenty-sixth President of the United States, from Sept. 14, 1901, 
to March 4, 1909. Died Jan. 6. 1919. 




PHILANDER CHASE KNOX, 
Secretary of State in President Taft's Cabinet. Elected to the 
Senate from Pennsylvania Nov. 6, 1916. 



ELIHU ROOT, 

Secretary of State in President Roosevelt's Cabinet, July 1, 1905, 
to Jan. 27, 1909. Senator from New York, 1909 to 1915. 



11 




u 



Senators of Both 
Parties Prominent 
During the War. 



LEE SLATER OVERMAN, 
Democratic Senator from North 
Carolina. Chairman of Commit- 
tee on Rules. 





JAMES A. REED, 
Democratic Senator from 
Missouri. Chairman of Com- 
mittee on Manufactures. 



r 




V 



G. E. CHAMBERLAIN 
Democratic Senator from 
Oregon. Chairman of Mili- 
tary Affairs Committee. 




LAWRENCE Y. SHERMAN. 
Republican Senator from Illi- 
nois. On Appropriations and 
Pensions Committee. 



F. M. SIM- 
MONS. 
Democratic 
Senator from 
North Caro- 
lina. Chair- 
man of 
Finance Com- 
mittee. 

Buck. ) 




ROBT. M. LA FOLLETTE. 
Progressive Republican Sen- 
ator from Wisconsin. Chaii- 
inan Com. on Corporations. 



WM. E. 
BORAH, 
Progressive 
Republican 
Senator from 

Idaho. On 
Judiciary and 
Foreign Rela- 
tions Com- 
mittee. 






KNUTE NELSON, 
Kepu bl lean Senator from 
Mmnesota. On Judiciary 
and Rules Committees. 



12 




JOSEPH W. FORDNEY, 
Republican from Michigan. 
Chairman i n Sixty-sixth 
Congress Ways and Means. 



LEMUEL P. PADGETT, 
Democrat from Tennessee. 
Chairman of Committee on 
Naval Affairs. 




IRVINE L. LENROOT, 
Republican from Missouri. 
Member of Committees on 

Rules and Public Lands. 



18 




CORDELL HULL, 
Democrat from Tennessee. 
Member of Committee on 

Ways and Means. 




ALLEN T. TREADWAY 
Republican from Massachu- 
setts. Member of Wavs and 
Means Committee. 




JOHN A. STERLING, 
Republican from Illinois 
Member of Ways and Means 
Committee. 



14 




15 





THOMAS A. EDISON. 
Eminent inventor and President Naval 
Consulting Board. 



EDWARD N. HURLEY. 
President of U. S. Shipping 
Board Emergency Fleet Cor- 
poration. 




BAINBRIDGE COLBY, 
Member U. S. Shipping Board 
Emergency Fleet Corporation. 



I 



ROBERT S. LOVETT, 
Head Commissioner of 
Priority in Transpor- 
tation. 



JOHN D. RYAN, 
Chief Director of Air- 
craft Corporation. 
Member of Red Cross 
Commission. 




CHARLES E. HUGHES, 
Ex-Supreme Court Justice and investi- 
gator in aircraft inquiry. 



HOWARD E. COFFIN, 
Chairman Aircraft Board. Member Council 
of National Defense. 



3^E 



CHARLES M. SCHWAB, 
Director General United 
States Emergency Fleet Cor- 
poration. 



CHARLES PIEZ, 
Vice President U. S. Shipping 
Board Emergency Fleet Cor- 
poration. 




MAJOR GEN. GEO. W. GOET-.ALS. 
Member Shipping Board and later Chair- 
man Eight-Hour Commission. 



16 



Organizers of Financial and E 



conomic Activities 





BERNARD M. BARUCH. 
Chairman Advisory Commission of Council 
of National Defense. 



VANCE McCORMICK, 
representing Secretary of 
State as Chairman War Trade 
Board. 




RAYMOND B. FOSDICK, 
Chairman of Commission on 
Training Camps for Soldiers' 
Welfare. 



V 



HENRY P. DAVISON. 
Chairman of War Council of 
National Red Cross Com- 
mission. 




.1 



OTTO KAHN. 
banker and philanthropist, 
prominent in Red Cross work. 




3>£ 



H. A. GARFIELD, 
United States Fuel Ad- 
ministrator. Formerly 
President Williams 
College. 



F. W. TAUSSIG, 
Chairman United 
States Tariff Commis- 
sion. Writer on eco- 
nomics. 




V 



WALTER S. GIFFORD, 
Director of the Council of National De- 
fense and Advisory Commission. 



SAMUEL GOMPERS. 
member Council of National Defense. Head 
of Federation of Labor. 



E. R. STETTINIUS, 
Surveyor General of Army Purchases. 
Eminent banker and economist. 



17 




BRIG. GEN. WILLIAM L. KENLY. 
Genera! Kenly did distinguished work as Chief 
of Military Aeronautics. Was active in devel- 
opment of wireless telephone. 



u 



MAJOR GEN. 
ENOCH H. CROWDER. 
Provost Marshal General. The 
successful operation of the draft 
has been under his direction. 



BRIG. GEN. WILLIAM CROZIER. 
General Crozier has been Chief of the Ord- 
nance Department since 1901. Inventor of 
the disappearing gun. 



18 





MAJOR GEN. GEORGE W. READ, 
in command of 4th Army Corps in action at 
Bellicourt. 



MAJOR GEN. OMAR BUNDY, 
Commander 5th Army Corps at 
battle of Chateau-Thierry. 



MAJOR GEN. GEO. B. DUNCAN, 
Commander of 77th Division and later of 82d 
Division. 



20 




MAJOR GEN. CLARENCE E. EDWARDS, 
I'ommanding 26th Division, composed chiefly 
of New England troops. 



Inffinational Film Srrvicc.) 



MAJOR GEN. 
JOHN A. LEJEUNE, 
commander 2d Division of U. S. 
Marine Corps at Belleau Wood. 



MAJOR GEN. WILLIAM G. HAAN, 
commander of 32d Division, forming part of 
Army of Occupation. 



21 




MAJOR GEN. CHARLES P. SUMMER. 
ALL. 

commanding General of Fifth U. S. Armv 
Corps. 



MAJOR GEN. ROBERT ALEXANDER, 
commanding 77th "Liberty" Division at 
the Argonne battle. 



MAJOR GEN. J. FRANKLIN BELL, 
commanding Department of the East at 
New York City. 



22 




MAJOR GEN. THOMAS H. BARRY, 
Succeeded J. Franklin Bell as Com- 
mander of the East, January. 1919. 



MAJOR GEN. GEORGE BARNETT, 
Commandant of the United States Marine 
Corps- 

(© Hnrria rf KwHny ) 



MAJOR GEN. WILLIAM A. MANN, 
First commander of the 42d or "Rain- 
bow" Division. 

HarrU * Kurintf. ) 



23 





Generals Who Led 

American 
Troops to Victory 





3oZ 



MAJOR GEN. 
WILLIAM R. SMITH. 

commanding 36th Divi- 
sion of Fifth Armv 
Corps. 



MAJOR GEN. 
W. T. JOHNSTON. 

commanding 91st Divi- 
sion in Argonne-Meuae 
offensive. 

( H3 Prrxa Illuatrnting Service, i 



MAJOR GEN. 
ADELBERT CRONKHITE, 
commanding 80th Division in 
the Argonne-Meuse offensive. 



ZLOYL 




MAJOR GEN. HENRY T. ALLEN, 
commanding 19th Division at St. Mihiel 
and the Argon ne. 

I© Harris A Eicnng.\ 




3>r 






Si---. 



MAJOR GEN. LeROY S. LYON, 
commanding 31st Division in 
the final period of the war. 

( © Oain.thoroKi/h Studio. y 




MAJOR GEN. CHAS. W; KENNEDY, 

commanding 85th Division of 5th Army 
Corps. 



MAJOR GEN. 
EDWARD F. McGLACHLIN, 
commanding 1st Division in the Army of 
Occupation. 



MAJOR GEN. 
FREDERICK S. STRONG, 
commanding 40tn Division in last days 
of the war. 



24 





Leaders Whose 
Deeds Shed Lustre 
on American Arms 





MAJOR GEN. PETER C. HARRIS. 
Adjutant General of Army, succeeding 
General H. P. McCain. 

(0 Harris rf tUving > 



MAJOR GEN. CHARLES H. MARTIN, 
Commanding 86th Division, formerly 
served on General Staff. 

(■C /Vf ss i(iii»(r.i'rnr( S'Tvirt . > 



MAJOR GEN. GROTE HUTCHESON, 
Administrator of service of embarking 
troops for overseas. 

<ii3 Hnrri,i A F.irUiiJ \ 



25 




MAJOR GEN. E. E. BOOTH, 
commander in 4th Division of the 
Second Army Corps. 

({5 ['. s. of/ioi/ii.y 



Leaders Who 
Have Upheld 
American Army 
Tradition 



BRIG. GEN. E. B. WINANS, 
commanding 64th Brigade of the 
32d Division. 

(© V. S. OffU-inl. ) 



BKIG. GEN. CHARLES A. 

DOYEN, 
commanding first Marines 
sent to France. Died Oct. 6. 
1917. 



MAJOR GEN. HARRY J. HATCH, 
Coast Artillery Section of United States 
Army. 

^7 



BRIG. GEN. CHARLES D. 
WINN, 

commanding 305th Field Ar- 
tillery of 77th Division. 

(© Timfn Photo Hrrvitr.) 



MAJOR GEN. BENJAMIN 

ALVORD, 
Adjutant to General Persh- 
ing on Headquarters Staff. 



MAJOR GEN. SAMUEL D. 

STURGIS. 
Took command of 80th Di- 
vision on Nov. 18, 1918. 



MAJOR GEN. 
E. M.WEAVER, 
m command of 

United States 
Coast Artillery. 

(O Paul Thompson ) 




BRIG. GEN. B. L. McCAW- 
LEY, 

Quartermaster of United 
States Marine Corps. 



7 



MAJOR GEN. 
FREDERICK 
S. FOLTZ, 
commanding 
91st Division 
of Fifth Army 
Corps. 

© IJnrris A Ewing.) 



BRIG. GEN. ROGER D. 
WILLIAMS, 
commanding 75th Brigade of 
the 38th Division. 



M 




B'RIG. GEN. EVAN M. 
JOHNSON, 
commanding 154th Infantry 
Brigade of the 77th Division. 



26 




MAJOR GEN. WILLIAM 

H. HAY, 
promoted from command of 
134th Infantry Brigade. 




MAJOR GEN. EDWARD M. 

LEWIS, 
commanding 30th Division, 
co-operating with British. 




MAJOR GEN CHARLES B. 

WHEELER. 
Chief Ordnance Officer of 
U. S. Array in France. 



27 



Accomplished 
Soldiers and 




MAJOR GEN. 
WILLIAM P. BURNHAM, 
commander of 82d Division 
2d Army Corps. 




MAJOR GEN. 
GEORGE H. CAMERON 
commanding in 5th Army 
Corps at Argonne battle. 



MAJOR GEN. 
C. G. MORTON, 
('ommanding 29th Division 
of the 4th Army Corps. 



28 




w 




\ Commanders 
Who Shared in 
Their Country's 



MAJOR GEN. TASKER H. BLISS, 
V. S. Chief of Staff at beginning 
of war. Later, Peace Delegate. 






BRIG. GEN. DOUGLAS McARTHUR. 
commanding 42d Division on march 
into Germany. 



BRIG. GEN. W. S. SCOTT. 
Commanding General Base 
Section No. 2. 



('. .S. Offlrnll 1 




BRIG. GEN. DEAKYNE, 
Chief of Engineers of the 
Second Army. 

(O ('. S. Offi'ial.) 




BRIG. GEN. 

PAUL B. 

MALONE. 
commanding 
10th Brigade. 
5th Division. 



BRIG. GEN. WILLIAM M. 

BLACK. 
Chief of the Corps of Engi- 
neers, U. S. Army. 





BRIG. GEN. PRESTON 
BROWN, 
Chief of Staff of the 2d 
Division. 



MAJOR GEN. C. A. F. FLAGLER, 
commanding 42d Division in tht- 
Army of Occupation. 



BRIG. GEN. GEORGE C. 

BARNHART. 
commanding 178th Infantry 
Brigade, ^9th Division. 




BRIG. GEN. L. D. TYSON, 
commanding 59th Brigade 
of 30th Division. 



BRIG. GEN. 
R. A. BROWN, 

commanding 
84th Brigade, 

42d, "Rain- 
bow," Division. 





BRIG. GEN. HARVEY A. 

SMITH. 
Commandant of the Army 
Schools at Langres, France. 



29 





BRIG. GEN. 
E. T. DONNELLY, 
commanding 164th Brigade, 
89th Division. 




BRIG. GEN. 
EDWARD A. MILLAR, 
commanding 6th Artillery 
Brigade, 6th Division. 



BRIG. GEN. 
U. G. MacALEXANDER, 
commanding 90th Division 
in the Army of Occupation. 



30 










REAR ADMIRAL WILLIAM S. SIMS, 
COMMANDER OF UNITED STATES FLEET IN EUROPEAN 
WATERS DURING THE WAR. 





31 



Officials in 



Close Touch With Naval Act|vmes 








FRANKLIN D. 

ROOSEVELT, 

Assistant S e c r e- 
tary of the Navy, 
who has been ac- 
tive in extending 
and co-ordinating 
all branches of the 
service. 

Bnchrach. } 



ADMIRAL W. S. BENSON," 

Chief of Naval Operations, .who directed activities iti 
the North Sea. Later he was one of the amistice 
delegates at Treve. 




REAR ADMIRAL ALBERT CLEAVES, 

in charge of the anti-submarine convoy and escort 
system in transporting over 2.000,000 United States 
troops abroad. 



32 




Admirals of the 
United States Nav) 
During the 
War 




REAR ADMIRAL C. J. BADGER, 
commanding the United SUtes battle- 
ship fleet in Mexican waters. 

((f) B. AfuHer.) 



REAR ADMIRAL 
FRANK FRIDAY FLETCHER, 
of the Atlantic Fleet. Picture taken on 
his flagship, the Wyoming. 



REAR ADMIRAL WILSON, 
in charge of United States fleet operat- 
ing in French waters. 



33 






34 




35 



7 



^1' 



:2oz 



ALBERT THOMAS, 
French Socialist leader 
and ex-Minister of Muni- 
tions, ardent patriot and 
efficient administrator. 

((^ Piths niiiKtrulinff Co i ' 



Famous French 
Statesmen Who ' 
Have Guided the 
Affairs of the 
Republic 



f 



ALEXANDRE RIBOT, 
who has headed and 
been a member of many 
Cabinets, financial ad- 
viser in War Council. 



LOUIS J. MALVY, 
former Minister of the Interior, 
recently banished for treason- 
able relations with the enemy. 



nor 



RENE VIVIANI, 
eloquent orator, former Prime Minister 
and French Commissioner to the United 
States. 

(O -Vo//' " studio. ) 



:3C 



M. JONNART, 
eminent publicist, representative to the 
Inter-Allied Conference at session held 
in London. 



V 



JOSEPH CAILLAUX, 
former French Minister of 
Finance, now awaiting trial on 
a charge of treason. 



ALEXANDRE MILLERAND, 
Minister of War until he was succeeded 
by General Gallieni. 



ARISTIDE BRIAND, 
leader of the Socialist Party, former Min- 
ister of National Defense, and at one 
time Premier. 



10 Bain Nfwa Service.) 



36 



1 



J. J. JUSSERAND, 
French Ambassador to 
the United States, who 
accompanied President 
Wilson to France. 



French Leaders 
Who Have Taken 
Prominent Part in 
the Peace 
Negotiations 



PAUL PAINI.EVE, 
who was the Premier of 
the Cabinet that was 
formed after the resiK- 

nation of M. Ribot. 



M. KLOTZ. 
former Minister of the Interior, 
now Minister of Finance and 
delegate to the Peace Confer- 
ence. . 




STEPHEN PICHON, 
Minister of ForeigTi Affairs, who was 
chosen as one of the French delegates to 

the Peace Conference. 



JULES CAMBON, 
former French Ambassador at Berhn and 
since the war one of the chiefs of the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 





LEON BOURGEOIS, 
former Prime Minister, whose 
wide inforiuation and experi- 
ence made him a vaUiable ad- 
viser at the Peace Conference. 



HOC 



V 



DENYS COCHIN, 
Minister of State, sent on a diplomatic 
mission to Athens, where he has wielded 
great influence. 

1 r J/cfdii f'hoto Hfi'virc.t 



ANDRE TARDIEU, 
High Commissioner to the United States, 
and one of the French delegates to the 
Peace Conference. 

(i> Hfidrl d llfrbrtt.i 



37 




38 





a9 



^.rcr^r. MARSHAL JOSEPH JOFFRE 

RAISED TO THE MARSHALATE BECAUSE OF HIS GREAT VICTORY om 
THE MARNE, WHEN HE HURLED BACK THE GE^^U^IrmTes WH^^ 
THEY WERE CLOSE TO PARIS. 

(O Central Netoa Pkoto Set-vice.) 



40 



^•r^ — - 

" ■ ' ~* - • 



GEN. FRANCHET 
D'ESI'KREY, 
commander m chief of 
the Balkan armies that 
crushed Buitjarian r^ 
sistance. 




/v. 



GEN. HENRI DE CASTELNAU. 
called the 'savior ol Nancy" from his 
heroic defense of that gateway to Paris. 



H 



GEN. DUBAIL. 
given the Grand Cross of the Legion of 
Honor for distinguished services. 



GEN. ROBERT NIVELLE. 
who led the Fi-ench in the 1917 Offensive 
on the Aisne. 



41 





GEN. MANOURY, 
the "Hero of the 
Ourcq," where he won 
a great victory in 1918. 



GEN. MAUD'HUY, 
who commanded the French line 
from Arras to the Aisne in 1914. 



4 



lOT. 





Brilliant Galaxy of 
Commanders Who 
Have Led French 
Troops to Victory 





GEN. HENRI BERTHELOT, 
the military strategist who headed the 
mission to Rumania in 1916. 




2<C 




GEN. DE LANGLE DE GARY 
who had charge of operations at Verdun 
before PeUin took command. 



GEN. HUMBERT 
whose army operated with g^eat results 
in the Picardy offensive of I9i8. 




GEN. DEBENEY, 
whose troops recap- 
tured Roye in Foch's 
great counter-offensive. 




REAR ADMIRAL LACAZE, 
French Minister of Marine, who 
did effective work against the 
submarine. 




GEN. GOURAUD, 
the "Lame Lion of Africa," whose armv 
coK>perated with the Ameri^ns in the 
Argonne fighting. 



42 




44 




45 




46 




LORD CURZON, 
membt-r of the Lloyd 
George Cabinet, and 
delegate to the Peace 
Conference. 



British Statesmen 

and Diplomats 
Prominent During 
the War 



LORD MILNER, 
British War Secretary, 
succeeding Lord Derby. 
Has been in British 
Cabinet since 1916. 



/A 



SIR ERIC GKDDES. 
head of the British Admiralty, 
whose rise in politics has been 
meteoric. 

) C Hurt 's <t f- icinn > 



ANDREW BONAR LAW, 
Chancellor of the Exchequer and spokes- 
man for the Government in the House of 
Commons. 



VISCOUNT JAMES BRYCE, 
eminent historian and publicist, and head 
of commission that investigated Belgian 
atrocities. 



3>S 



LORD ROBERT CECIL, 
son of Lord Salisbury, and Brit- 
ish Minister of Blockade since 
1917. 



JAN CHRISTIAN SMUTS, 
conqueror of German East Africa, and the 
most powerful figure in South Africa. 



LORD READING. 
Special Commissioner to the Unitefl 
States following death of Sir Cecil 
Spring-Rice. 



48 





ARTHUR HENDERSON, 
labor leader in the British Parliament, 
and member of Lloyd George Cabinet. 



SIR ROBERT LAIRD BORDEN, 
Premier of Canada, who has been active 
in prosecuting the war. 



J 



THE MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE, 
whose letter advocating a negotiated 
peace created discussion in 1918. 



49 





FIELD MARSHAL HORATIO HERBERT KITCHENER, 
BRITISH SECRETARY OF STATE FOR WAR, WHO WAS DROWNED WHEN 
THE HAMPSHIRE WAS SUNK BY A MINE JUNE 5, 1916. 

(S3 Kogcrs.) 



50 




GEN. SIR 
ARTHUR CURRIE, 

commander of the Ca- 
nadian forces in France. 



A 



GEN. 

SIR FREDERICK MAURICE. 
British Director of War Opera- 
tions until the Spring of 1918. 



Hon 







Generals Who Led 



Uenera 



British Troops in 
Colonial and Far 
East Campaigns 





GEN. SIR EDMUND ALLENBY, 
whose brilliant campaifiTis in Palestine 
crushed the Turkish armies. 





GEN. SIR W. R. BIRDWOOD, 
"the Soul of Anzac," leader in the Gal- 
lipoti campaign and later in Belgium. 



GEN. SIR W. R. MARSHALL, 
who brought the Mesopotamian campaign 
to a victorious ending in 1918. 






GEN. 

F. STANLEY MAUDE, 
whose victorious career 
in Mesopotamia was 
cut short by his death 
in 1917. 




GEN. TOWNSHEND, 
who was forced to surrender 
Kut-el-Amara to the Turks after 
. a gallant defense. 

<© Cmleripoo.f A 17 mi crwoorf. ) 




dr. 




GE^^. BOTHA, 
Premier of South Africa and director of 
operations that won German Ea&t Africa- 



52 




SIR HENRY Wli.SON. 
a leading member of 
the British ataff direct- 
ing operations in 
France. 




GEN. SIR HERBERT C. 0. PLUMER. 
in command of the British Army of Oc- 
cupation at Colore. 



IJ 



GEN. H. S. HORNE, 
whose army was active in the dashing 
operation.s that drove the Gernnans from 
France. 



GEN. SIR HENRY RAWLINSON, 
with whose comnnand American forces 
were brigaded in Foch's counter-; 
offensive. 



53 




VICE ADMIRAL 
FREDER K STURDEE, 
who sank the German 
fleet untU-r von Spec in 
1914. 



ADMIRAL 
SIR CHRISTOPHER CRADOCK, 
who went down with his ship, 
the Good Hope, off Coronel. 




British Admirals 
Who Have Main- 
tained Their Navy's 
Traditions 



ADMIRAL SIR REG- 

INALD TYRWHITT, 
who was di'sijniated to 
receive the surrender of 
the German submarines. 



ADMIRAL SIR JOHN FISHER, 
head of the British Admiralty at the begin- 
ning of the war. 



i 



ADMIRAL 
SIR ROSSLYN E. WEMYSS. 
First Sea Lord of the Admiralty, 
delegate at armistice signing. 



ADMIRAL HORACE HOOD, 
who lost his life on the Invincible in the 
Battle of Jutland. 



^^B^^f ^^^^^^^^ 



ADMIRAL SIR J. R. JELLICOE, 
in chief command of the British Fleet at 
the Rattle of Jutland. 



ADMIRAL SIR HERBERT B.JACKSON, 
who co-operated with Allenby in the 
Palestinian campaign. 



55 



0il 



Leading Fig- 
ures 

Heroic 
Kingdom 

of Belgium 



)fthe 
Littl( 



3 



GEN. RUCQUOY, 
who became the Com- 
mander in Chief of the 
Belgian Army after the 
death of Gen.Wielmans. 

(© /nfemat'l Film Ssrvtrc ) 



EMIL VANDERVELDE, 
member of the Belgian Socialist Party and 
Secretary of State. 



CARDINAL MERCIER, 
whose unflinching re- 
sistance to German rule 
aroused the world's ad- 
miration. 



BURGOMASTER MAX 
of Brussels who defied the Ger- 
mans, and spent years in a Ger- 
^man prison in consequence. 



GEN. LEMAN, 
the heroic defender of 
Liege, who held up the 
German invasion while 
the Allied forces were 
gathering. 



GEN. GILLAIN, 
commander of the Belgian Army, who re- 
ceived from the t'rencn Government the 
Crossof the L-egion of Honor. 



66 




GIOVANNI GIOLITTI. 
Italian Parliamentary ii-ader, who op- 
posed Italy's entering the war. 



GUGLIELMO MARCONI, 
inventor of the wireless telegraph and a 
Commissioner to the United States. 



BARON SALANDRA, 
Premier of Italy wh.n Italy joined the 
cause of the Allies. 



58 



Italian Generals 
Who Participated in 
the Victories Over 
Austria 



DUKE OF ABRUZZI. 
commander of the larg- 
est fleet Italy has ever 
had in the Mediter- 
ranean. 



DUKE OF AOSTA, 
who has held important 
commands in the army 
during the war. 



GEN. BADOGLIO, 
next in importance to Diaz in 
the army and the chief figure 
in the armistice arrangements. 



nor 



GEN. ARMANDO DIAZ, 
Commander in Chief of the Italian armies 
in the two great victories. 



r 



GEN. LUIGI CADORNA, 
commander of the Italian armies until 
after the disaster of Caporetto 



GEN. PORRO. 
Chief of Staff of Italian Army during the 
offensive against the Austrians. 



ADMIRAL THAON DI REVEL, 
Commanikr in Chief of the Ital- 
ian Navy, with a record of suc- 
cesses. 



GEN. ZUPELLI, 
Italian Minister of War, in which posi- 
tion he succeeded Alfieri in March, 19)8. 



60 






GEN. AVERESCU, 
Commander in Chief of the Rumaman 
Army, and one of the ablest of Balkan 
strategists. 



KING FERDINAND 
of Rumania, whom the collapse of Russia 
forced to withdraw from the war. 



CROWN PRINCE CAROL ^ 
of Rumania, who incurred his father ^ 
displeasure by marrying outside of the 
royal caste. 



61 





EX-QUEEN SOPHIA OF GREECE 
sister of ex-Emperor Wilhelm of Ger- 
many, who shares her royal husband's 
exile. 



KING ALEXANDER 
of Greece, who became King June 12, 1917, 
when his father was forced to abdicate. 



EX-KING CONSTANTINE 

JuneT2'iq?7''h throne 
June 12, 1917 because of his intrigues 
With Germany. 



62 




BERNARDINO MACHADO. 
elected President of Portugal Aug. 6, 
1915, for a term of four years. 



GEN. GARCIA ROSADO, 
commander of the Portuguese troops on 
the French front in 1918 campaign. 



SIDONIO PAES. 
former President of Portugal, who was 
assassinated Dec. 14, 1918. 



63 





Hon 



RAYMON VALDES, 
President of Panama 
and formerly Minister 
from Panama to the 
United States. 

(© Harris oiui Ewing.) 



Rulers and States- 
men of Central and 
South American 
Republics 



MARIO G. MENOCAL, 
President of Cuba, was 
educated in the United 
States, and graduated 
from Cornell University. 

(© Un^ierwood d Underwood.) 



ISMAEL MONIES, 
former President of Bolivia, 
elected May 8, 1913, for a term 
of four years. 




WENCESLAU BRAZ, 
former President of Brazil, elected March 
1, 1914, for a term of four years. 



3oC 



2C 



9^ 



LAURO MUELLER, 
Secretary for Foreign Affairs 
for Br^il prior to its entrance 
into the war. 



HIPOLITO IRIGOYEN, 
President of Argentina, elected in 1916 
for six years. Has kept his country 
neutral. 



ESTRADA CABRERA, 
President of the Republic of Guatemala, 
elected March, 1917, for an eight-year 
term of office. 



FELICIANO VIERE, 
President of Uruguay, elected March 1, 
1915, for a four-year period. 



64 



Kb- 



Japanese and 

Chinese 
Rulers of the 
Far East 



YUAN-SHIH-KAI, 
Pi-esident of China, af- 
terward made Emperor 
by royalist faction. Died 
June 6, 1916. 



TERAUCHI, 
Premier of Japan, who came into power Oct. 
9» 1916, and has staunchly supported the 

Allied cause. 



YOSHIHITO, 
Emperor of Japan, who 
succeeded to the throne 
on the death of his 
father July 30, 1912. 



LI YUAN-HANG. 
President of the Chinese 
Reput)Iic, elected June 
6, 1916, for a term of 
slightly over two years. 




\ 



VAJIRAVUDH, 
King of Siam. which was the 
sixteenth nation to join the En- 
tente against the Central Powers. 



KIKUJIRO ISHII, 
Japanese Ambassador to the United States, 
and one of his country's delegates to the 

Peace Conference. 



65 




GEN. 
M. V. ALEXEIEFF, 
appointed Commander 
in Chief of Russian 
armies April 15, 1917 ; 
resigned June 5, 1917. 



Powerful Figures in 
Days Preceding the 
Russian Revolution 



GEN. KUROPATKIN, 
who, althoug^h defeated 
in the war with Japan, 
did excellent service in 
the world war. 



GREGORY RASPUTIN, 
the chaiiatan who was the evil 
genius of the Russian Court and 
was assassinated in December, 
1916. 



3021 



GRAND DUKE NICHOLAS, 
Commander in Chief of the Russian armies 
until supplanted by the Czar in person. 



GEN. RATKO DMITRIEFF, 
prominent in the sweeping advance of 
the Russians that captured Przemysl. 



GEN. RENNENKAMPF, 
who led in the invasion of East 
Prussia in the early period of 
the war. 



, ^ GEN. KALEDINE, 

leader of the Don Cossacks, who has been 
m pronounced opposition to the Bolshevist 
Government. 



/ 



GEN. ALEXEI BRUSILOFF 
appointed Commander in Chief of Rus- 
sian armies June 5, 1917; resigned Aug 
2, 1917. 



66 



r 




67 



i 

f 



V 



Russians Who 
Have Admin- 
istered Affairs 
Under Revo- 
lutionary Re- 
gime 



M. JOFFE, 
one of the signers of the 
Brest - Litovsk Treaty, 
and afterward Ambas- 
sador from the Bolshe- 
vist Government t o 
Berlin. 

(« ' I'llflrnr,.,,,! A I ' „'h > ir„i-<l . j 



A 



NIKOLAI LENINE, 
Bolshevist Premier of 
the Soviet Government 
until arrested by his 
associate, Trotzky, in 
1919. 



LEON TROTZKY, 
Minister of War, and 
leader of the ultra-radi- 
cal element of the Bol- 
shevists. In 1919 he 
arrested his associate. 
Lenine. 



Minist^.fnfl-'^'^ TERESTCHENKO, 
■winieter of b inance in First Provisional Pav 
ernment, organized after down ^r'f the" 
monarchy, later Foreign Minister 



. PAUL MILUKOFF 
University Professor and Minister 
ot Foreign Affairs in the Firs[ 
Provisional Government 

<(0 r.,.M-,.,.„„ , Vu,„y.rn.>., ; 



caused the arrest S ^ZT^n^gZ^lJ^n 
Moscow. 1918. 



6B 




GEN. SEMENOFF, 
commanding one of the armies operating 
against Bolshevist forces in co-operation witli 
Allies. 



GEN. SKOROPADSKI. 
Hetman of the Ukraine, who after 
the signing of the Brust-Litovsk. 
Treaty, allied himself with_Ger- 
many. 



ADMIRAL KOLCHAK. 
former t-ommandifr of the [Jlack Sua Fleet, 
who succeeded Gt ti. Hor \ath as l.'.i.ler of the 
Government al Omsk. 



G9 





EX-CROWN PRINCE FRIEDRICH WILHELM 




70 




71 



1^ 



Rulers of 
German 
States Who 
Have Been 
Compelled to 
Abdicate 
or Flee 



KING WILLIAM 11. 
OF WURTTEMBERG, 
came to the throne Oct 
6. 1891; abdicated Nov 
10, 1918. 



EX-KING LUDWIG 
III. OF BAVARIA. 

became King Nov. 5. 
iyi3; renounced his 
royal rights Nov. K 
1918. 



•f 



FRIEDRICH IL, GRAND DUKE OF BADEN, 
came to the throne Sept. 28, 1911 ; abdicated 
Nov. 14, 1918. 



CROWN PRINCE RUPPRECHT 
OF BAVARIA. ^ 
^^^'^^ those of the 

German Crown Prince participated 
'nGermano ffensive of March ^gig 



KING 

FRIEDRICH AUGUST 

III. OF SAXONY, 
acceded to the throne 
Oct. 15, 1904; abdi- 
cated Nov. H. 1918. 



GRAND DUKE ERNEST LUDWIG 
^ . . HESSE, 
succeeded his father March 13, 1892; abdi 
cated November, 1918. 



72 




]->R. RICHARD VON KUEHLMANN, 
one of the signers of the Brest-Litovsk 
Treaty ; appointed Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs Aug. 6, 1917. 



PRINCE MAXIMILIAN OF BADEN 



appointed German Chancellor m October, 
1918 '.resigned in favor of Ebert Govern- 
' ment after Emperor's flight. 



GOTTLIEB VON JAGOW, 
Minister of Foreign Affairs at the time 
that war was declared and until replaced 
by Zimmermann, Nov. 21, 1916. 



73 





74 




75 




German Generals 
Who Have Played 

a Leading Part 
in the World War 



J 



GEN. ERIC 
VON FALKENHAYN, 
at one time Chief of 
Staff, later leader of 
German armies in Bal- 
kan campaign. 



DUKE ALBRECHT 
of Wuerttemberg, whose 
forces operated on both 
the western and eastern 
fronts. 



"J. 



GEN. VON DER GOLTZ. 
leader of the Turkish forces in 
the Mesopotamian campaign 
when the victory of Kut-el- 
Amara was won. 



PRINCE LEOPOLD 
of Bavaria, who took a leading part in the 
Russian operations resulting in the Brest- 
Litovsk Tn.-aty. 



GEN. VON BUELOW, 
who led one of the German armies in the 
great offensive on the western front. 



COUNT ZEPPELIN 
who originated the dirigible that bore his 
nanie. The Count in his youth was aide- 
de-camp to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant 



COUNT HELMUTH J. L. VON 

iMOLTKE, 
Chief of Staff of the German 
Army when the war began. 



GEN. ALEXANDER VON STEIN 
Prussian Minister of War, intrusted with 
the preparation of news of military oper-. 
ations for publication. 



76 



GEN. VON BELOW, 
who directed the Ger- 
man - Austrian opera- 
tions that resulted in 
the Italian defeat at 
Caporetto in 1917. 



German Generals 

Who Led Great 
Armies During the 
War 



3oZ 



GEN. VON EMMICH, 
who was prominent in 
the fightinpf that imme- 
diately followed the 
German invasion of 
Belgium. 

lO Itiown Uios.) 



GEN. VON BOEHN, 
the " Organizer of Retreat," so 
called because of his skill m such 
operations. 



GEN. VON KLUCK, 
who led the right wing of the German 
Army and had come within 22 miles of 
Paris before he was thrown back to the 
Aisne. 



GEN. VON EINEM, 
whose army was involved in the disas- 
trous fighting after Foch launched his 

1918 counterattack. 



4 



GEN. VON BISSING, 
Military Governor of Belgium at the time 
of the execution of Edith Cavell. 



GEN. VON GROENER, 
active in Ukraine operations and 
Commander in Chief after Lu- 

dendorff's resignation. 



lion 



GEN. VON HEERINGEN, 
prunn'iient rn the early days of the fight- 
ing on the Mame and the Aisne. 



77 



Men Upon Whom 
Germany Pinned 
Her Hopes of 
Military Victory 



GEN. 

SIXT VON ARNIM. 
the defeat of whose 
forces in the fighting 
before Ypres April 29. 
1918. was crushing. 



3.0Z 



GEN. 
VON EICHHORN, 
commander of the Ger- 
man forces in the 
Ukraine who was assas- 
sinated while driving 
through Kiev, 1918. 



GEN. VON HUTIER 
originator of the " Hutier " tac- 
tics that first achieved marked 
success in the taking of Riga 



GEN. VON MACKENSEN, 
dashing cavalry officer, who afterward be- 
came a great infantry commander and won 
victories in Russia and Rumania 



GEN. VON QUAST, 
who gained distinction in the fighting be- 
tween Armentieres and La Bassee on the 
Flanders front. 



GEN. H. K. VON WINTERFELD 
one of the German envoys who signed 
the armistice :.i Kt'thondes, France 
Nov. II, 1918. 



GEN. VON KATHEN, 
commander of one of the Ger- 
man armies in the great offen 

sive of March 21, 1918. 



GEN. VON HAUSEN. 
leader of one of the German armies in the 
first year of the war. 



78 





German 
Admirals 
Whose 
Activity 

Was 
Restricted 
by Blockade 





GRAND ADMIRAL VON TIRPITZ, 
head of the German Admiralty and origi- 
nator and advocate of submarine fright- 
fulness." 



ADMIRAL COUNT VON SPEE. 
who in battle with the British 
went down with his ship off the 
Falkland Islands Dec. 8, 1914. 



ADMIRAL HIPPER, 
who conducted the negotiations with Sir 
David Beatty for the surrender of the Ger- 
man fleet Nov. 21. 1918. 



79 





HUGO HAASE, 
leader of the minority Socialists in the 
Keichstag, and a severe critic of the for- 
mer Imperial Government 



wh. u K ^^^^ KAUTSKY, 
who has been active since the revolution in 

for^^L'war^"^^ responSl J 

tor the war on the imperial regime. 



n 



=3>z: 



, ^ ^ , H. BAUER, 
appomted by Prince Max of Baden as 
Secretary of State for the Imperial LabSr 
Office. 



80 




Statesmen Shaping 
Affairs in 
Revolutionary 
Germany 



DR. W. S. SOLF 
succeeded von Hintze as 
Imperial ForeigTi Sec- 
retary and co-operated 
with Ebert after the 
Emperor's abdication. 



KURT EISNER, 
former newspaper edi- 
tor, became first Presi- 
dent of the Bavarian 
Provisional Republic, 

November, 1918. 



MATHIAS ERZBERGER, 
leader of the Centrist Party and 
one of the envoys to the armi- 
stice conference. 



FRIEDRICH W. EBERT. 
former Socialist leader in the Reichstag, 
became first Chancellor of the Revolu- 
tionary Government. 



VICE CHANCELLOR 

VON PAYER, 
former assistant of von Hert- 
ling, tendered his resignation 

Sept. 29, 1918. 



/ 



CONSTANTINE FEHRENBACH. 
member of the Centrist group and Presi- 
dent of the Reichstag under the 
monarchy. 



ADOLF GROEBER, 
member of the Socialist Party in the Reichs- 
tag and Secretary of State without port- 
folio. 



PHILIP SCHEIDEMANN, 
the most prominent of the iVlajority 
Socialists, who announced the abdication 
of the Emperor. 



81 




WAR BY AUSTRuTga ™SERBU '^^^^^^^"ON OF 



84 



Statesmen and 
Diplomats of 

the Dual 
Monarchy of 
the Hapsburgs 



MICHAEL KAROLYI. 
leader of the Liberal 
element in the Reichs- 
rat, now President of 
the new Republic of 
Hungary. 



BARON 
STEPHAN BURIAN, 
Austro-Hungarian Min- 
ister of KoreigTi Affairs, 
who uas succeeded by 
Count Andrassy. 



COUNT OTTAKER 
CZERNIN VON 
CHUDENITZ, 
Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs, who resigned 
after publication of the 
" Dear Sixtus " letter. 



COUNT ETIENNE TISZA, 
Conservative and Germanophile Hungarian 
statesman, who was assassinated Nov. 3, 1918. 



BARON MAX VON HUSSAREK, 
who succeeded to the Premiership 
when the von Seidler Cabinet fell 
from power. July, 1918. 



DR. CONSTANTIN DUMBA. 
former Ambassador to the United States, 
whose recall was demanded by the Govern- 
ment at Washington. 



85 




BARON CONRAD VON HOETZENDORFF 
Chief of the General Staff, and director of 
the 1918 advance against the Italians. 



MORITZ RITTER VON AUF - 

FENBEKG. 
Corps commander at beginning of 
war, and later army inspector. 



GEN. HERMAN KOVESS, 
Hungarian strategist, who led the armies 
that completed the conquest of Montenegro, 



86 




Tf: I', 



1 



DR. VASSIL 
RADOSLAVOFF. 
Prime Minister of Bul- 
garia when that country 
declared war on the En- 
tente, October, 1915. 



Prominent Figures of 

the Balkans, 
Turkey, and the Far 
East 



10Z. 



BORIS III., 
King of Bulgaria, who 
succeeded to the throne 
on the abdication of his 
father, Czar Ferdinand, 

Oct. 4, 1918. 



M. T. T. C. BRATIANO, 
Rumanian President of the State 
Council, and Minister of War. 



EX-CZAR FERDINAND 
of Bulgaria, who came to the throne in 
1887 and abdicated alter Bulgaria's defeat 
Oct. 4, 1918. 



3or: 



3>r 



GEN. LIMAN VON SANDERS^ 
German Commander of the 
Turkish troops in Palestine that 
were ■ overwhelmingly defeated 
by the British. 



MOHAMMED VI., 
new Sultan of Turkey, who came to the 
throne on the death of Mohammed V., 
July 4. 1918. 



3oE 



'Si 



MOHAMMED V., 
former Sultan of Turkey, came to the 
throne April 27, 1909; died July 4, 1918. 



ENVER PASHA, 
Turkish Minister of War. and an ardent 
supporter of the cause of the Central 
Powers. 



87 




KING HAAKON VII 
of Norway came to the throne Nov. 18 
1905, has maintained friendly attitude 
toward Allies. 



CHRISTIAN X 
King of Denmark, succeeded to the throne 
on the death of his father. May 14, 1912 



GUSTAV V 
y^J^ather died, Dec. 8, 1907. 



88 



T 





POPE BENEDICT XV. 
BECAME POPE IN SUCCESSION TO PIUS X. IN 1914. 




89 



Geography and Chronology of the World War 



ARCTIC 5EA 





TJ 




BAFF/N 

BA y 




DOM rt5^ N 



A N A TS^ A 




aHEE\ LA XD. XEU THA £7] 



UXITEJ) STATES DECLARED U AH 
AGALXST GERM AX y APRIL 6, 1917. 
AGAIXST AVSTRIA, DEC. 7, 1917. 




5AN FRANCISCO 




'A 



unJted s 



'(3 

HAW A// 



[MEXICO, XEVTRAL. 




\gVATEMALA declar ed war APRIL 22. 191 
I SAX SALVADOR, XE I ' 




,^ y^NE^W YORK 
JwAsVtlNGTON 



SUBMARINE DEPREDATIONS \ 
MA Y 18, TO SEPT. 3, 1918. ' 



TRAL 
COSTA RICA 



ATLANTIC 
co.j r^ OCEAN 

^^^^ |£^ DECLARED WAR APRIL 7, 1917.1 

"^^^ ^rS^^HAITI DECLARED WAR JULY 15, 1918 
^HONDURAS HONDURAS DECLARED WAR JULY 19 19181 

'^t-tr.r^n.^cv- ^^^'^^-^^^'-^ pgrz..4ffgi) war may u'. 1918' 



EXEZUELa! XEl • TRA L?^ o^^***^^*^ 



COSTA RICA Sw---, i :u ' "^:^'^Y^ ' r^\J^'' 

COSTA RICA DECLARED WAR MA Y 23, ms^'^ ^^ Vj/ENEZUELaKj&^^^^o^^^ 

\PAXAMA DECLAR ED WAR APRIL 7. I J \ ; rNf*^ 

\nn....r.^,. ^'^rTRALAjijX .--O J^X U 



TUAMOTO 
ARCHIPetf^OO 
frrench) 



PERU SEVERED DIPLO 
RELATIONS OCT. 6. 



WMATICV' ^.-/ D to A 

1,1917. \ R A 

V V "'--i^ oc 



I — \ ' \ \ WAR OCT. S 

\BnU,^., DIPWMATICHELATI0'^7J^j;;j-;7 i>.f;^ 



OFFCORONEL, VON SPEE DEFEA TED 
\ CRADOCK-S SQUADRON NOV. 1, 1914 



^miPARAGUAYrNmfRAL.^iO OE 

'^OyV ^T JANEIRO 



SANTlAGt) 

I CHILE, NEUn, 




-- DECLARED 
OCT. 26. 1917 




MONTEVIDEO, 



PIPWMATW RELATIONS 
DEC. 17, 1917. 



^RGEXTINA, NEUTRAL. 



' ^r^ y^ ^g^- 8, 1914. 



ALTHOUGH EUROPE WAS THE MAIN RATTT pSvf m /'''^ ^OUtlTTZ^, 

CAUSE. ^i^runuCS DECLARED FOR THE ALX.IED 



90 



Geography and Chronolo 




Rl'SSlA DKCLARi:!) 11 XK. 
M C. 7. 1914. 



{J^SICNFA) BRKST-UTOi SK TRHA f ) 
^ I MARCH 3. 1918. 



CZECfI()-SU)\ AKIA Rmx.'M/.KD SKPT 2 1918 

/A/JA'/'/-;A7JA'.Vr/v. Off. 26. 1918 



TI RKEY, COSIH'EREI), 
SIGXEI) ARMISTICE 
<^'r. 31. 1918. 



iXJAKiA UECLAREi) W AR (H'T 14 IQIK 
DEFEATED, SIGNED AVlSml 



SEPT. 39, IDIS. 



SERBIA ENTERED WAR Jl 

MONTENEGRO DECLARED 
WAR A UG. 9, 1914. 



GREECE ENTERED 
WAR NOV. 28. 1916. 



DARDANELLES CAMPAIGN, 
MARCH 1915, J AN. 20. 1916 
— r- 



>TRIPOU^. 



mi r . 

_ , — ■ - ' ■ 



'AFGHANISTAN 

J NECTHAL. y 



TO THE FRENCH ARM Y.,* V-TT I ^^'^^ P T^ 



PORT- GUINEA 




TO 

W EST APR I CA 



SIERRA LEONE \^>-t^. 
LIBERIA 



LIBERIA DECLARED WAR, ACG. 4. 1917. 



TOGOLAND CAPTURED, AL'G. 26, 1914. 



A 

^ -2- ■ 
^ A 
y - 



GERMAN AFRICAN COWNIES CAPTVHED BY ALLIES. 
931,460 SQUARE MILES. 




CAMEROON S SUBDUED, FEB. 1916. 



ff n south w£s t a frica 

CAPTURED, .!( LY 9, 1915. 



2 Europe/ Africa and the Near East. 

TWO HTINORFD AND TWENTY-THREE WEEKS OF WAR SWEEPING OVER THE WORLD HAVE WROUGHT MOMENTOUS 
PHA^NrFS IN THE MAP OF EUROPE AFRICA. AND THE NEAR EAST. NATIONAL BOUNDARIES WILL IN MANY CASES 
BE OBLI^ MODIFIED OR WHOLLY RECAST. GERMANY'S VAST COLONIAL POSSESSIONS ARE NOW IN THE 

HANDS OF THE ALLIES PALESTINE AND MESOPOTAMIA HAVE BEEN EMANCIPATED FROM OTTOMAN RULE. 



91 



Geography and Chronology of the World War 




KABUL 



DELHf 



^. / »-^^nit>^iSHEDA MIUJOX LABORERS. < VeiL^Si/ 



INDIA 

( CALCOTTA 

BOMBfi\y 

\ BA Y ar 

L 1 S£A/OA/ 



INDIA FIRM SHED LARGE \0 
HI-:iSF<m( EMEXTS TO HRtTlSH 

\ ^ 

C£YiOfv 

SIAM DECLARED WAR 
•^^■/-J 22. 1917. 

/ A/ ^ / /» A/ 




PA c/ r/ c nr^ /^A/ 



,j KIAO-CHAV CArTVRED BY JAPAXESE, .VQV. 7, 1914" 



^ ^{fHlLLPPlNE 



, ^''•S fO£RMAN) 
fus) 



4 

C0C05 




PELEW /S. 



carol/ne 



J, NEVv'"^Sn ^ SOLOMON 



MARSHALL /s 
(GERMAN) 

S 

G/L8Ef?T /5. 



COmx /.SX.4.\7>, aERMAX RAIDER 
EMDEX DESTROYED NOV. 10, 1914. 




O ff 
0« • 



NEW HEBRIDES 



BR/5BANE 



YDNEY 




CHAO H.VK B.L"V|.^sT/SlE^^^^^^^ 



92 



es Aga inst Surprise 




FRENCH CAVALRY PATROL SC OUTING ON THE LINE OF THE AISNE. TO WHICH THE GERMANS HAD BEEN DRIVEN 
FRENCH CAVALRY^AlROLbCU ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ME WITHIN TWENTY-TWO MILES OF PARIS. 

rP} Undtrwood i fnderujoorf. ) 



93 



Preparations for Battle on the Main Fighting Front 




(© VndertDood rf Vn<U:rwood,) 




_ . <© PpmJ Thompaon. ) 



y^WTC^vrn^^^^ A HAY 



94 




GERMAN RIFLEMEN BEHIND IMPROVISED DEFENSES RESISTING A STRONG ATTACK AGAINST THEIR POSITION, WHILE 
THEIR OFFICER, STANDING BY THE COTTAGE, WATCHES THROUGH GLASSES THE 

EFFECTS OF THEIR FIRE. 




95 



When the Mighty Invasion SwepT Over _the Border 




96 




THE AISNE WILL BE A MEMORABLE RIVER IN FRENCH ANNALS, FOR IT WAS TO THERE THAT THE GERMANS 
WERE BRIVEN WHEN PARIS WAS ALMOST WITHIN THEIR GRASP. GERMAN TROOPS ARE HOLDING A FIRST-LINE 

TRENCH ON THE RIVER BANK. 



97 



fW h e'n^En gland Came tT^^TH^T^^^ 




DETACHRIENT OF THE BRITISH ROYAL MARINES MARCHING THROUGH THE MAIN SQUARE OF OSTEND. ON THE 
BELGIAN COAST, WHERE THEY HAD JUST BEEN LANDED BY ONE OF THE BRITISH DREADNOUGHTS. 

( O (■ i irooif d Cnili-rirouit. ) 




AT WERE BEING PRF^^Pn r Ar^iT^.. FRANCE. CH^ THEIR WAY 

<0 ^/-/e^ot . ^™ ^^^^ THE FIRST GERMAN TNVASTOM 



GERMAN INVASION. 



98 



e World War 




™^NCH LANCERS PASSING THRO^^ TOWN IN BELGIUM, IN AUGUST OF 1914, OVER ROADS THAT SOON 

WERE TO BE SWEPT BY SHELLS AND THROUGH A SMILING COUNTRYSIDE, AS YET UNVEXED BY WAR. 

I (0 I'liilt rwootI d- l!n<irrwood. ) 




ESPECIALLY PICTURESQUE WERE THE ALGERIAN CAVALRY. SPLENDIDLY COUNTED AND FILLED ^^^^^ WARLIKE 
ARDOR THAT MADE THEM A MOST VALUABLE AUXILIARY TO THE CAUSE OF THE ALLIES. 

( O Inttrtitationtil .Veuia Servicr^ ) - 



I 



99 




FIGHTING HAS JUST BEEN BROUGHT TO AN END IN VISE, BELGIUM, AND A GROUP OF BELGIAN PRISONERS HAVE 
BEEN GATHERED IN THE HOLLOW. AT LEFT IS A COTTAGE WHERE A WOMAN AND TWO MEN WERE SHOT ON THE 
CLAIM THAT THEY HAD FIRED AT THE GERMANS. 




1 



Hapless Towns Lying Directly in the Track of War 




A BATTERED TOWN IN THE REGION OF THE ARGONNE THAT SHOWS THE DEVASTATION W ROUGHT BY SHELL FIRE. 
GERMAN ARTILLERY IS TRUNDLING THROUGH ON THE WAY TO THWART A THREATENED COUNTERATTACK. 




102 




a va 



^^=^^iLa£lBef o r e Trench 



Fighting Began 





FRENCH CHASSEURS LIGHT CAVALRY, PASSING THROUGH ROUEN AFTER THE RETIREMENT FROM TOURNAI, WHERE 
THEY FOUGHT A REARGUARD ACTION WITH THE GERMANS IN THEIR FIRST ADVANCE TOWARD PARIS. 

(tfl I'ndericooil .( I mlfrxcood.) 



103 



Pictorial Map of Western Front, Covering 



o A TM- ^^^A. 



LONDON 

AIDSTONE 




MAP DRAWf^ TO SC^t£: IN 



THE ARMISTICE PUT BeN] 



r 



Military Operations .n F,.„.. Belgiu 



m 




^ TO HOSTILITIES. 



f 



I 



^1 




106 




RUINS OF ONE OF THE CONCEALED BELGIAN FORTS NEAR BRUSSELS BEING EXAMINKD BY GERMAN OFFICERS 
AFTER THEY HAD WRECKED IT, TO SEE IF IT WAS STILL CAPAi?LE OF REPAIR. 




^ r .r^ o^tTTP PTXT/- TWAT ^^TTRROTTNDFD ANTWERP. WHEN THE BELGIANS WERE FORCED 

™cu\'tVthe Sty.thIy'blew TvlZ'^^nTnZvlo be™ no m.l.tary advantage to the enemy. 



Underwood Unilermood.) 



107 



The Rrave Defense o7 Belgium by Her Little ArjJ 




EVEN THE DOGS WERE PRESSED INTO SERVICE UNDER THE STRESS OF WAR. AND SOME OF THEM ARE HERE SHOWN 

DRAWING MACHINE GUNS TO THE BATTLE LINE AT TERMONDE. 



<l!) Vntlcrivooil .(■ I'liilei ioooil. ) 




±i5i™2^!^Hj;HE WOODS IN FRONT OF THE GUNS. 



108 



e World War 




WEARY AND MUD-BESPA-rTERE^^^^ WHO HAVE BEEN FIGHTING IN THE OOZY SLIME OF THE 

TRENCHES MOVING FORWARD TO TAKE UP A NEW POSITION NEAR FURNES. 

CT* I'lli iiiitlioil'l! ;V( „ s .Si I ( ti l . ) 





6. ' 




A LONG LINE OF BELGIAN SOLDIERS ASSIGNED^ TO 
TRENCH DUTY ALONG A SPECIALLY DANGEROUS SEC- 
TION OF THE FR0N1\ 



BELGIAN SHARPSHOOTERS DASHING ALONG A RAILROAD 
LINE IN AN ARMORED CAR AND HARASSING THE FOE. 



109 



River waTfTrrTrThT^^Mn^r"^ 

— = =====^==^iL,_jLiLE_ u m e r o u s French 



Wat 



er way s 




THE GERMANS IN THEIR INVASION OF FRANCE HAD TO CROSS RIVERS OF CONSIDERABLE DEPTH AND WIDTH. THE 
FRENCH ARMED BaS vHTH CANNON. AND THEY WERE. OF MARKED SERVICE IN RETARDING THE ENEMY 

ADVANCE. '® hadet i Hcrberl.) 



Ill 



Some Features of the German Invasion of Belgium 



1 

I 





ALGERIAN "^^^f^^^^^^^^ BRINGING BACK TO HEADQUARTERS A NUMBER OF GERMAN 

FKlbONLRS. WHO HAVE BEEN TAKEN IN THE FIGHTING IN THE WEST OF BELGIUM. 



hi! I iilr'-nni ioiial Nnrn t^rrrir, 




112 



^^=^^^^^^^^^=-===.44^JL^_JlL_^ e s t in Battle Zon 




GERMAN AND AUSTRIAN TROOPS BEING RUSHED BY SPECIAL TRAIN TO A THREATENED POINT ON THE RAILROAD 

LINE THAT THEY HAVE BEEN ASSIGNED TO GUARD. 




A MOMENT OF RELAXATION IN A GERMAN TRENCH ON THE WESTERN FRONT DURING A LULL IN THE FIGHTING. 
TWO OR THREE KEEP WATCH ON THE WOODS IN FRONT TO GIVE WARNING OF DANGER WHILE THE OTHERS REST, j 



113 



Gigantic British Gun Th^dl^C^^^^^^^il^^ 





A SCORE OF MEN ARE NEEDED TO OPERATE THIS GREAT GUN. USED BY THE BRITISH ON THE SOMME IT H>S 
JUST BEEN LOADED, AND IS RECKIVING A FINAL ADJUSTMENT OF AIM FROM THE "GUN LAYER." 



114 




SOLITARY BELGIAN SOLDIER IN AN ADVANCED POST. STRONGLY DEFENDED BY SAND BAGS. OPERATING A MAXIM 
MACHINE GUN AND GLANCING ALONG THE SIGHTS TO MAKE SURE HIS AIM IS ACCURATE. 



115 




116 



the Native French 




THE FAMOUS TURCO TROOPS FROM FRENCH COLONIES. NOTABLE FOR THEIR FIERCE FIGHTING QUALITIES. WERe" 
AVAILABLE FROM THE START OF THE WAR AND RENDERED VERY VALUABLE SERVICE. 




FRENCH INFANTRY HOLDING A SECOND-LINE TRENCH ON THE EDGE OF A FO^^^^^^ 

IF THEIR COMRADES IN THE FIRST-LINE TRENCHES SHOLLD FAIL TO HOLD. 



( r; rndi ricooil .f Uiiflmcood.) 



117 



^Tlve^jeat^Pa^t^a^eThy the Td^^ e in the WarJ ; 




lis 



Devices 



in Battle Zone 





POWERFUL SEARCriLIGHT USED BY THE GERMANS IN 
THEIR NIGHT ATTACKS AGAINST THE FRENCH ON THE 

AISNE. 



GERMAN ARTILLERY OBSERVATION POST ON THE SUM- 
MIT OF A TALL TREE NEAR THE HINDENBURG LINE. 




119 



Terrific Pounding of German Liji es by Bj^jji s h 




ARTILLERY WARFARE AT ITS HEIGHT IS SH^^^^n'^^^^H^H^J^RING PICTURE. ^ 

TOWARD 



I I i. c I b in the Kaffir £ 1 7. — =^== 

^ ^===SiiL!jQi-_the Somme in 1917 







IN FOREGROUND HAS JUST BEEN DISCHARGED AND ITS CREW ARE RUNNING 
RELOAD. 



Binii .Vi !' » .St rt II I . ) 



,21 



Mountains 




MOUNTAINS. HAVE A CERTAIN TOUCH OF ART AND A PALPABLE EFFORT 
lOWARD COMFORT CHARACTERISTIC OF QUARTERS WHERE GERMAN OFFICERS HAVE SETTLED DOWN IN PROLONGED 

OPERATIONS. 




122 




■MILES OF BARBED WIRE HAVE BEEN USED IN THIS BEWILDERING MAZE OF TWISTKP STRANDS THROUGH WHICH IT 
SEEMS IMPOSSIBLE THAT ATTACKING TROOPS COULD MAKE THEIU WAY IN THE FACE OF SHELLFIRE. 



TRENCHES VARY IN CHARACTER ACCORDING TO THE NATURE OF THE TERRITORY TO BE DEFENDED. THESE ELAB- 
ORATE FORTIFICATIONS WERE ERECTED BY THE GERMANS IN THE SAND DUNES OF BELGIUM 



12:^ 



Building Shelters FVr Us e As Winte r Quarters 




FRENCH TROOPS BUILDING SHELTERS FOR THE WINTER IN THE SOMME DISTRICT, WHERE THE LACK OF OTHER 
MATERIALS MADE IT NECESSARY TO USE SAND BAGS TO MAKE THE WALLS. 




''''''=''^<^'^0™NMmOUT7wiT^^ 



IS WINTER, 



124 



Massive F ort rrTTTtnTi^ r 1 ^ T 

==4iirJiL. Of Iremendous Strength 




THIS GREAT QUARRY IN THE CHAMPAGNE REGION" WAS UTILIZED BY THE GERMANS, WHO ENHANCED THE NATURAL 

STRENGTH OF THE POSITION BY THE ERECTION OK FIELD FORTS. 




125 




126 



B^SlSIIISj^^nrfrTrFlee.ng Foe 




t ■ ! 



'10 




A PONTOON BRIDGE WAS THROWN ACROSS THE MARNE IN THREE HOURS AFTER THE GERMAN DEFEAT, AND FRENCH 
CAVALRYMEN ARE LEADING THEIR HORSES OVER TO MOUNT AND DASH IN PURSUIT. 




DETACHMENT OF FRENCH CAVALRY SPURRING THEIR HORSES THROUGH THE SHALLOW WATER OF A SMALL RIVER. 
HOT ON THE TRAIL OF THE INVADERS, AFTER THE LATTER WER^ THROWN BACK AT THE MARNE. 



127 



Where Snowclad Peaks Stand Against the Sky Line 




128 




THE BELGIAN FORTS, WHICH WERE COUNTED AS AMONG THE STRONGEST IN EUROPE. CRUMPLED ALMOST IMMF 
DIATELY BEFORE THE IMPACT OF THE GERMAN SIEGE GUNS. THE DEMONSTRATION OF THEIR POWER PROFOTINm 

MODIFIED THE SUBSEQUENT CONDUCT OF THE WAR. i^rv rivuruuiNULic 



129 



The IrT^stible Belgian Offensive of September, 1918 




MAP SHOWING THE ZONE OF WAR OPERATIONS IN WESTERN BELGIUM, THE PORTS OF OSTEND AND ZEEBRUGGE, THE 
LINE OF BATTLE SEPT. 28, 1918. AND THE LINE TO WHICH THE BELGIANS HAD ADVANCED TEN DAYS LATER. 




SQUADRON OF BELGIAN CAVALRY RIDING TO JOIN THEIR COMRADES IN THE GREAT OFFENSIVE THAT STARTED 
THE DISASTROUS RETREAT OF THE GERMANS FROM THE SEACOAST OF BELGIUM. 



130 



£0 r Wounded an 



d Captured 




BRITISH SOLDIERS BRINGING IN A GROUP OF GERMAN PRISONERS. SOME OF THEM WOUNDED. ONE IN THE REAR IS 

BEING CARRIED ON THE BACK OF ONE OF HIS COMRADES. 




GER*MAN PRISONERS BEING UTILIZED BY THE BRITISH AS STRETCHER BEARERS, AFTER AN OUTPOST SKIRMISH. 
THEY ARE HERE SHOWN CROSSING A TRENCH— A DIFFICULT OPERATION. 

I j> Briltsh Official Choto, from Untleruioorl tt I'rulrrwood. ) 



131 




132 



t Hurled Destruction 




so INTENSE WAS THE BOMBARDMENT OF THESE GUNS THAT THEIR ROAK WAS HEARD IN ENGLAND. DEATH SPOKE 
FROM THEIR MUZZLES AS THEY THREW THEIR HUGE PROJECTILES INTO THE GERMAN LINES. 




BRITISH GUN CREW SERVING THEIR PIECE ON THE FLANDERS FRONT IN SUMMER HEAT THAT MADE IT NECESSARY 
FOR THEM TO STRIP TO THE WAIST. NOTE THE CAMOUFLAGE THAT HELPS TO CONCEAL THE GUN'S POSITION. 



J/rid.vft IMIiLUil I'hoh.s. front V niUiuuuil tt t'niferwouti ) 



133 



Colonial Troops Were I mportant F a c to r^_in__theJW^ 




PATROL OF INDIAN CAVALRY ATTACHED TO A BRITISH BRIGADE PASSING THROUGH A VILLAGE THAT HAS BEEN 
WRECKED IN THE FIGHTING. AS IS SHOWN BY THE SKELETONS OF HOUSES, 





SQUADRON OF SPAHIS. THE CRACK MOROCCAN CAVALRY WHO RENDERED STERLING SERVICE TO THE FRENCH AND 
WHO WERE AMONG THE FIRST WHEN THE WAR WAS OVER TO DIP THEIR STANDARDS IN THE RHINE. 



134 




THE VERY SOUL OF FRANCE THE INDOMITABLE LOOKS THROUGH THE EYES OF THESE FRENCH SOLDIERS ON DUTY 
AT VERDUN, GRIM. WATCHFUL, DETERMINED TO DIE RATHER THAN YIELD THAT GATEWAY TO PARIS. 

Intemationat Film Hrrvice.i 



135 



WAR OF THE RACES-MEN IN THE GREA 




IT IS BEYOND DISPUTE THAT IN NO WAR IN THE H.STORY OF THE WORLD HAVE SO MANY RACES AND PEOPLES BEE. 

AND THE QUARTERS OF 



(conflict and where they come from 




SOUGHT INTO CONFLICT. THIS CHART HAS BEEN PREPARED TO SHOW THE MANY VARIED TYPES IN THE ARMIES ENGAGED 
! GLOBE IN WHICH THEY LIVE. 



- 137 



Various War W e a p o ri s of D e a d 1 yE f f e c t i v e ri e s s 




A NEW FRENCH MACHINE GUN WHERE THE CARTRIDGES, INSTEAD OF BE- 
ING FED FROM A STRAP, ARE INSERTED IN A SEMI-CIRCULAR DEVICE AS 

HERE SHOWN. 



GERMAN OFFICER EXAMINING 
CAPTURED FRENCH MACHINE GUN, 
USED AS ANTI-AIRCRAFT WEAPON. 




"FLYING PIG," OR AERIAL TOR- 
PEDO. READY FOR DISCHARGE 
INTO ENEMY'S LINES. 



l^^l^rPJL ^2^1^^ HURLING BOMBS. THE OPERATOR OF THIS IS IN GREAT 
DANGER AS THE ADJUSTMENT OF THE BOMB IS A DELICATE OPERATION AND 
PREMATURE EXPLOSIONS OFTEN RESULT. 




RIFLE GRENADES WHICH ARE FIRED THROUGH CREVICES 
IN THE SAND BAGS THAT PROTECT THE TRENCH. 



FRFNr? TTu^^^r^T^T.J^*^^'^^^ CAPTURED BY THE 
FRENCH. IT WELL DESERVES ITS NAME OF " TROUBLE 

MAKER." 



138 



FRENCH THROWER OF GRENADES. PROTECTED BY SAND 
BAGS, LOOKING THROUGH HIS PERISCOPE IN ORDER TO 
GET AN ACCURATE AIM. 



GERMAN HAND - GRENADE THROWERS CLOTHED IN 
STEEL ARMOR. WHICH MAKES THEM RESEMBLE SOL- 
DIERS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 




ANTI-AIRCRAFT MACHINE (?UN. THAT THROWS A VAST NUMBER OF PROJECTILES WITH AMAZING RAPIDITY, 
BEING OPERATED IN A REGION THAT IS INFESTED WITH POISON GAS. ^ 



139 



Mud and Mire Conditions on the Flanders Front 




HORSE SUNK TO HIS HAUNCHES IN THE CLINGING MUD OF FLANDERS, WHICH CONSTITUTED ONE OF THE MOST 
SERIOUS TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS WITH WHICH THE MILITARY FORCES OPERATING THERE HAD TO DEAL. 




ONE MEMBER OF THIS TEAM OF MULES HAS BEEN BADI Y Rorrp-n AKm 
IS NEEOEO TO HELP HIM. BRITISH «0--HS J^^^^^^^^^^^ 



140 




SQUAD OF MEN JACKING A PIECE OF ARTILLERY OUT OF THE MUD, IN WHICH ONE WHEEL HAS SUNK ALMOST TO 

THE HUB, IN ORDER TO REMOVE THE GUN TO A NEW POSITION. 




EVEN A TWELVE-HORSE TEAM CANNOT PULL THIS HEAVY GUN OVER THE MARSHY GROUND. AND HORSE POWER 
HAS TO BE SUPPLEMENTED BY TWO LINES OF IV^EN STRAINING AT THE ROPES. 



141 



Map 



of Western Front March 2 1 to Aug. 2 1 . 19 18 




Z FSEsfpoTT^LrHE'B™^^^ «^™IVE OF MARCH 21, 1918, WAS LAUNCHED, 

iLj^sLf^s'^obZ^^^ ™ AUG. 21 BY THE 




A CxROUP OF GERMAN DEAD LYING ON A SUNKEN ROAD NEAR MOISLAINS, FRANCE, AFTER THE BRITISH HAD 
urvwujT yj STORMED THE TOWN. 

( © BrttUh Official Photo, from Inlernattonai Film Service.) 



143 




ACTUAL PHOTOGRAPH OF AMERICAN .SOLDIERS IN FIKRCE FIGHTING IN A WOODED COUNTRY- THROWING HAND 

GRENADES INTO THE GERMAN LINES. ' '^"^"'^^'^ "^^^ 

(O CommiK. i „„ I'iibUc Iiiforin/ttion. ) 




= ™ SECONDS OR LESS. 



144 



A££li£i^=l£ii£:iCh^ the German Lin 



e s 





COMPANY M AND COMPANY K, 336TH INFANTRY OF THE 8 2D DIVISION, MOVING AT THE DOUBLE QUICK ARE HERE 
SHOWN CHARGING THE ENEMY'S LINE. WHILE T.HE 307TH ENGINEERS ARE CLEARING THE WAY THEM 

liO Commilirr on public information, from International FUtn l^trvUe.} 




AMERICAN TROOPS CHARGING IN SUCCESSIVE WAVES AGAINST A STORM OF MACHINE-GUN BULLETS, AND CLIMBING 

A SLOPE TO TAKE THE CREST WHICH IS STRONGLY HELD BY THE ENEMY. 

(© Committee on Public Information, from Undenooo<l and Underwood.) 



145 



aiicl P r 1 n . n t -Jl_jJl£Lj[n7^^ Fighting 




BRITISH TROOPS IN A SUPPORT TRENCH ENJOYING A SHORT PERIOD OF WELL-EARNED REST AFTER THE ALMOST 
CEASELESS FIGHTING THAT DROVE THE FOE BACK TO THE HINDENBURG LINE. 

(© Canadian O/fit-ial Photo. ) 




— — (43 Britiah O/ficwl Photo » 



146 



g Over the Top of the Trenches for a Charge 




AN INCIDENT IN THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME. WHEN THE FIRST WAVE OF ATTACKING TROOPS WAS FOLLOWED 
BY A SECOND SUPPORTING WAVE, HERE SEEN CLAMBERING OUT OF THEIR TRENCH. 




IMMEDIATELY IN FRONT OF THIS TRENCH IS A CRATER MADE BY A MINE, AND AT THE EDGE OF THIS A TRENCH HAS 
BEEN HASTILY DUG AND MACHINE GUNS ARE BEING PREPARED FOR DEFENSE. 



(© British Ojficial I'hoto.) 



147 



148 



^MLj^^iE^EPllljniJr s Taken on Western Fr.n. 




BRITISH SEARCHING GERMAN PRISONERS BEFORE TAKING THEM BACK INTO THE PRISON CAMP SOMETIMES IMPOR 
TANT PAPERS ARE FOUND AND AT TIMES CONCEALED WEAPONS THAT MIGHT AID IN ATTEMPTS TO ESCAPE. 





SOME OF THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF GERMAN PRISONERS TAKEN BY THE ALLIES IN THEIR VICTORIOUS AD- 
VANCE TO THE LINE WHERE THEY STOOD WHEN THE WAR ENDED. 

(0 Bridah tfffirial Photo, from Underwood rf Vnilericood,) 



149 



American Troops Who Had Got"thI Habit of Victory 




COMPANY H, 2D BATTALION, WITH SERGEANT MAJOR C. H. GREENBERG IN CHARGE, HAS JUST FINISHED MOPPING 
UP SOME ENEMY TRENCHES THAT IT HAD CAPTURED IN THE BATTLE OF THE ARGONNE. 

(0 Commit I i:e -on I'liblir Information, from Kadrl rf Herbert)' 




^ THE AMERICAN DRIVE. THEY ARE PASSING THROUGH A DESERTED FRENCH VILLAGE. 

<e CommUtee on PublU- Information, from Underwood rf rndfr«>oori.) 



150 



A 



m 



Eli^liLSoldiers in the Thick of the Fightin 




BATCH OF GERMAN 
PRISONERS BEING 
TAKEN TO THE 
REAR, THE FIRST 
RESULTS OF THE 
VICTORIOUS AMER- 
ICAN MARCH TO 
THE MARNE WHICH 
RESULTED IN THE 
CAPTURE OF LONG- 
PONT, THE KEY 
TO CHATEAU- 
THIERRY. 
(© French Official Photo.) 



SOLDIERS OF THE 
107TH INFANTRY 
CHARGING THROUGH 
E N T A N G LEMENTS 
WHICH A TANK HAS 
JUST LEVELED. ONE 
OF THE MEN HAS 
BEEN WOUNDKL) AND 
FALLEN OVER THE 
WIRES. TANK IS HID- 
DEN BY ITS SMOKE 
SCREEN. 

{ O Com milite on Pii blir 
/»i/ornm(roii. from Interna- 
tional Film Service.) 





AFTER THE FIERCE FIGHTING AT CHATEAU-THIERRY. WHERE THE AMERICANS DISTINGUISHED THEMSELVES. THEY 
WERE SENT TO REST FOR A WHILE IN VILLAGES BACK OF THE LINES. A GROUP ARE HERE ENJOYING THEMSELVES. 

Frenr-h Official I'hoto, from Wcatcm Newspaper Union.) ^ 



151 



VIEWS AND M APOF VERDU N, THE GLORIOUS DEFeW 






Verdun will always be memorable in F ench 
"They shall not pass," that became the wa chw 
they made good at such a tremendous sacri ice. 
of Paris would have been almost inevitable. Bes 
Homme, Hill 304, the Wood of the Crows am oth 
lines when the German attack began, wherj: it e 
the Germans had been driven back in 191T. 




VERDUN. AFTER THE SHELLING Bl THI 
THE RIVER BANK CRUMBLED INTO ^ASS 



152 — 1 



[WHICH IS ONEOF TH^PROl inr^r ^4P^^^p|pc; r^^ rp ^MPF 




ench annals because of the immortal phrase: 
chword of its heroic defenders, and which 
ice. Had Verdun been captured, the taking 
Besides indicating the famous Le Mort 
other famous spots, the map shows the 
it ended and where the armies rested after 




THE GERMANS, WITH THE HOUSES ON 
ASSES OF MASONRY AND DEBRIS. 




STRIPPED AND SHATTERED TRUNKS OF TREES AT VERDUN STANDING IN THEIR 
DESOLATION LIKE GHOSTS KEEPING WATCH OVER A VALLEY OF THE DEAD. 



- 153 



Grotesque Masks the Only Protection Against Gas 




ABOVE ARE SHOWN THE VARIOUS TYPES OF GAS MASK IN USE IN THE DIFFERENT ARMIES SHAPES DIFFER BUT 
THE PRINCIPLE VARIES LITTLE. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ARE KINDS USED BY AMERICAN, BRITISH FRENCH' AND 

GERMAN TROOPS. 




ON EVERY FRONT THERE ARE BELT <^ T TKF thpqtt 
WHICH ARE RUNG BY A SENTRY wLn A gII 
ATTACK IS IMMINENT. 



WEAffisIs^A'^S^TH^^J f?S?4^S' COMPELLED TO 

ARF DOmr iS^M^ BRITISH CAVALRY 

ARE DOING, WHEN IN GAS INFESTED REGION 

dnrierwood ,i Vndcrwon.l j 



154 



I^IIlM^^^^^^Tha^J^H^^^ of Liquid 



Fl 



ame 




(Above) —American soldiers 
their faces well protected 
against the deadly fumes of 
poison gas, are here seen 
using gas flappers to fan the 
gas out of the trenches. This 
is necessary because some 
varieties of the gas" are 
heavier than air and cannot 
be expelled except by arti- 
ficial mean^. 



(At right)— The German 
flammenwerfer here show-n 
consists of a tank holding 
benzol, made from coal tar 
mixed with crude oil. A pres- 
sure of nitrogen propels this 
through the hose, at the 
nozzle of which is a friction 
igniter which causes the 
flame produced to be thrown 
from forty to fifty yards 
with fearful effect. 



155 




156 



^ESllSj^ ^^JnT^TT^ ,,, a Strong Combination 

tMM II ^MMl — . 




AMERICAN GUNNERS SIGHTING AND FIRING A BIG GUN OF THE HOWITZER TYPE. AND DESTROYING GERMAN 

DEFENSES IN PREPARATION FOR AN ADVANCE BY THE INFANTRY. 

I© Frenrh'Of/ie*al Photo, from Kadrl Herbert i 



157 



Camouflage That Bewilders and Deludes the Ejiemj_ 




ROAD PROTECTED BY STRIPS OF CANVAS COVERED WITH GRASS SO THAT IT RESEMBLES A MEADOW TO AVIATORS, 
WHILE THE STRIPS AT THE SIDES DECEIVE HOSTILE ARTILLERYMEN INTO BELIEVING THEY ARE LOOKING AT 

A FOREST. 

__. . no h'i'i-nili O/firiiil rh'ilo. /lOm I'irtorial /'ri'my.) ^ 



WHAT SEEMS A DEAD HORSE WOULD IF 
CLOSELY EXAMINED. SHOW A PLACE 
OF HIDING. 

tfi"^ <'"">i,i ilrrf on I'Hblii- ln1fi,,uii(iov.) 




THE DUMMY HORSE HERE SHOWN IS 
REALLY AN ENGINEER'S LISTENING POST. 

iiO romiiilltrr on I'libliv Ijiforiiiitlion. ) 




TREE CLIMBER IN BLACK 
AND WHITE, AMERICAN 
FRONT. 



<ir; Co>„tmllU'e on I'ubhc Information.) 



™E OF THE HEAVY FRENCH GUNS SKILLFULLY CAMOU- 
FLAGED, BEING TRANSPORTED TO THE FIGHTING LINE. 



I ij. riniih I'tdortai Scrvit e. ) 



158 



Deception CaTTi^d to a~Hi,l. n,„„. D-,f--,iin 




GERMAN GUNS, WHEN THE BRITISH ADVANCE FORCED THEM INTO THE OPEN. WERE CAMOUFLAGED IN GAUDY 
COLORS. ACRES OF THEM CAPTURED BY THE BRITISH ARE HERE ASSEMBLED.,^, o//-,..., , 



I 



, A 





GERMAN OBSERVATION POST CON- 
STRUCTED WITHIN THE HOLLOW OF 
A SHELL-BROKEN TREE. 

lO WcKlrni .Wrwsi'itptr Vnio». ) 



CONCRETE GERMAN OBSERVATION POST AT LA BASSEE CLEVERLY 
CAMOUFLAGED WITH SHATTERED ROOF TO SIMULATE A WORTHLESS 

HOUSE. 

I j;, Hiititti O/fiiiiil I'holu, /ruin t' rulrrwooil .^ f'niti iivkuI. > 



159 




160 



Americans Upholding Their Country's Flag Abroad 




A COMPANY OF AMERICAN ENGINEERS RETURNING FROM THE FIGHT, JUBILANT AND WITH COLORS FLYING. PASS- 
ING THROUGH THE SHELL-SWEPT TOWN OF NONSARD. 




161 




162 



A 



m 



ericans on the Alert Both in Summer and Winter 




UNITED STATES SOLDIERS OPERATING A MACHINE GUN ON THE WEST FRONT IN FRANCE, JUST BEFORE THE BEGIN- 
NING OF FOCH'S GREAT COUNTERATTACK THAT DROVE THE GERMAN ARMIES BACK TOWARD THE FRONTIER. 



(0 Uiilluli Offittiil f'hulu, fnim V niUi wooit it (' >iilii wooil ) 




OUTPOST SENTRIES IN W INTER. A FEW MINUTES AFTER 
THIS PICTURE WAS TAKEN THIS POSITION WAS DE- 
STROYED BY SHELLFIRE. 

t'oiii'iitttcc on Public informa1i<m.\ 



AMERICAN ARTILLERY PASSING OVER THE MARNE 
ON A PONTOON BRIDGE IN PURSUIT OF THE FLEEING 
GERMANS. 



163 



French Utilizing Captured G e r manGuns ^ n d For t s^ 




The above picture 
of a German "pill 
box," captured by 
the French and 
converted to a 
similar use for 
themselves, gives 
some idea of the 
enormous strength 
of these miniature 
forts that are im- 
mune to ordinary 
fire and vhere a 
few resolute men 
can hold up many 
times their 
number. 

(© Preticft Pictorial 

Service. > 




(At left)— These 
huts for soldiers, 
which have been 
c n s t r ui;ted in 
trenches along a 
road on the French 
front, have been 
nicknamed "c o n- 
fession boxes" by 
the men. They 
find them very 
comfortable, never- 
theless, especially 
in Winter and in 
the rainy season, 
and what they 
lack in size they 
make up in dry- 
ness and warmth. 

I© Frettch Pictorial 
Service. > 




75» 



A GERMAN FORTRESS, USED BY MACHINE-GUN SQUADS 
ON THE SOMME. TURNED UPSIDE' WwN BY FRENCH 
MINES SET UNDER IT. ri^r^i^^n 




IN^THFm C^^lr n^^wS"^^^^^^ THE CAI^ADIANS 
IN THEIR GREAT DRIVE AGAINST THE HINDENBURG 
LINE IN THE FALL OF 1918 

i^, Ca nadian Offwiat Phoior) 



164 




GERMAN PILL BOX IN THE PARK OF A FRENCH CHATEAU. 
THE NARROW ENTRANCE TO THIS IS SEEN IN THE 
FOREGROUND. 

. ((pi French Pirtoriai. Service. \ . 



FORMIDABLE WIRE ENTANGLEMENT WITH A FRAME OF 
STEEL BARS RIVETED TOGETHER AND SHARPLY 
POINTED SO AS TO BE ALMOST IMPREGNABLE. 

I p Pnlifit Oflurial PkoUt. from UndwmOiid d Ujtdt^wfyrtrt. i 



165 



Types of Speed and Power in Tanks on French Fron^ 



GROUP OF "CHARS O'ASSAUT." THE FRENCH RENAULT BABY TANKS. SWIFT AND EASILY TURNED AND MAN- 
AGED, PASSING THROUGH A RUINED VILLAGE IN HOT PURSUIT OF THE FLEEING GERMANS. 

10 h'rtnch I'iitortiil Fri'Vicr.} 




THREAD. 



{© Vndeiioood rf Underwood.) 



166 



French, British, and German Types of Battle Tanks 




ACTUAL battle 
scene ^above). of 
French tank 
going into action, 
while behind it a line 
of French infantry is 
moving up to its sup- 
port. It would be too 
much to say that tanks 
won the war, but it 
can safely be said that 
the final allied victory 
would have been great- 
ly deferred had it not 
been for the incalcu- 
able service rendered 
by the tanks. Not 
only have they broken 
down defenses that 
would otherwise have 
been almost impreg- 
nable, but they have 
saved thousands o f 
lives by screening 
from hostile fire the 
lines of infantry that 
followed them. 

(© Fretich Pictorial Sei'vice.i 




(At left)— British ar- 
mored car about to 
start on a reconnois- 
sance. Note the pro- 
jecting muzzles of the 
puns at front and on 
the side. The dam- 
aged condition of the 
tree trunk indicates 
that the woods nearby 
had been swept by 
shellfire. 

Itt ltlnh Offn inl I'hotit. 
from Vnthrwaoit J 
Vntit fwiKitl I 



Below is a huge Ger- 
man tank captured by 
the French and re- 
paired by them. While 
of emirmous size, the 
tanks which the Ger- 
mans built after the 
British had proved the 
value of that weapon 
were too ponderous 
and unwieldy to be of 
great service to their 
forces. 

Id Firtiih I'irturlat NtTi'icr, ( 





167 



DRESSING STATION ON THE BRITISH FRONT WHERE HUNDREDS 



168 




10!) 



Methods Used By Germans to Trap or Destroy 




ONE OF THE LARGEST TYPES OF BRITISH TANK SPANNING AN ENEMY TRENCH. WHILE FROM ITS SIDES ITS GUNS 
HURL DEATH INTO THE GERMAN LINES. THE FIRST APPEARANCE OF THESE MONSTERS MADE THE GERMANS 

BREAK IN PANIC. Vnderwood rf Underwood ^ 




DEEP PITS SO ARRANGED BY THE GERMANS AS TO T nnir 
SHALLOW AND THUS fNTICE^TA^^^^^ 



POWERFUL ANTI-TANK RIFLE DEVISED BY GERMANS, 
SHOWING ALSO THE PROJECTILE BY WHICH IT WAS 
HOPED TO PENETRATE AND CRIPPLE THE TANK 



170 



Ponderous and Fear-Inspiring Weapons at Work 




MIGHTY BRITISH TANKS RUSHING TO THE ATTACK. LEAVING BEHIND THEM THE DEAD BODIES OF GERMANS, WHO A 

FEW MINUTES BEFORE WERE TRYING TO HALT THEIR ADVANCE. 

((0 Rriri^h Offinal I'holo, from Vndt^rwood d UniUruxiint } 





2. '- 




Vanadian Uffirxal Fhoto. from Wtstem N .'y<!«p<ipfr Union i 



171 




172 



Dugouts Usually Shelter But Sometimes Trap 




173 



British and German Guns of Heavy Calibre and Power 




BRITISH TANK BRINGING IN AS A PRIZE A GERMAN NAVAL GUN, THAT HAD BEEN DISMOUNTED FROM AN IDLE SHIP 

AND USED IN LAND FIGHTING IN THE GREAT BATTLE OF CAMBRAL 



(O ftrltish Offiruil I'holo. from Unthi wood rf Vnilcrivood. ) 




THE CANADIAN HOWITZER HERE SHOWN WHILE BEING LOADED HAS WON A REPUTATION IN MANY BATTT FS AS 
CAN BE SEEN FROM THE RECORD OF TRIUMPH PROUDLY INSCRIBED UTO^ BATTLES, AS 



1(0 <:-anadian Official Photo, from Wvalein NewHpapt-r Unton.) 



174 



Immense Types of Guns Developed During the War 






GREAT AMERICAN 16-INCH NAVAL GUN, WHICH CREATED SUCH A SENSATION IN FRANCE BY ITS TREMENDOUS RANGE 

AND EFFECTIVENESS, BEING TRANSPORTED TO THE BATTLEFIELD. 

Inler-nalUMial Film Service.) 




DEPICTED IN THE PREPARATIONS FOR LOAm^^^^^ DURING 



STIRKiNG ACTION IS DEPICTED m^THE^^^^^^^ PKONT. 

(© British Official Phalo. from Intemalional Fiim Service.) 



175 




176 



Americans in Actual Ba ttle on the Western Front 




AMERICAN TROOPS PASSING THROUGH A RUINED FRENCH TOWN JUST CAPTURED AFTER FIERCE FIGHTING, IN THE 
GREAT ADVANCE THAT CARRIED THEM FROM THE MARNE TO THE VESLE. 




AMTTPirAM pvn TROSS FIRST AID STATION IN FRENCH TOWN. BADLY WOUNDED SOLDIERS HAVE JUST BEEN 
rS^HT IN IroS tII ISefTeLD on S^^^ while others. SLIGHTLY WOUNDED. ARE AWAITING THEIR 

tSn.UUUn.1 IVi r txyj^^i u^t. TURN. Co.nm,ttee on PubUc Informalujn. from GUUama Serx'^c.) 



177 



ace 



of the Earth Transformed By Shot and ShelT 




GROUND ^™CH HAS BEEN FOUGHT OVER AND CHURNED UP BY SHELL EXPLOSIONS SO THAT IT BEARS NO RESEM- 
BLANCE TO ITS PEACETIME APPEARANCE AND MAKES TRAVELING EXTREMELY DIFFICULT ^i^^^i^M. 



(0 /nfci-ntilionnl Film Hervirc.) 




^'""^ ''^-'o- fo'" Underu^ood Vn<Urrcooa., 



178 



Scarred and Battered Trees and Roads of France 




.lii.^frinn O/fictat Photo, fvoin Inttmnfio'tal Film Service ) — — 



179 



American Soldiers Doing Their Part on the Front 




ICY WINDS AND SNOW-COVERED GROUND HAVE NO TERRORS FOR THESE HARDY YOUNG AMERICANS WHO ARF 
SERVING A ONE-POUNDER AND WATCHING THE EFFECT OF THEIR SHOTS. 

(® CorinniUce an Public Information. } 




180 



I 



Tanks and Howitzers Co-operating with Infantry 





PLATOON OF THE 107TH INFANTRY, LYING LOW BEHIND AN ADVANCING TANK, READY TO CHARGE AS SOON AS THE 
TANK SHALL HAVE BATTERED DOWN THE ENEMY DEFENSES. AT RIGHT, A SECOND TANK IS THROWING OUT A 



SMOKE SCREEN. 



I (!^ Coiitinillcr on /'iiMir /n/orin(i< Ion , from I'uiil Thotufifion.) 




AMERICAN ARTILLERYMEN UNDER COMMAND OF COLONEL WILLIAM TIDBALL OF THE THIRTY-FIFTH 
AMERICAN A^^^^^^'^i^'j'j^^U^^^^^ ENEMY LINES BEYOND VERDUN IN THE ARGONNE ADVANCE. 



DIVISION, 



(O Coinmtllcr on f'lililii- luforination . i 



181 




182 



British and Canadians Fighting on Somme Front 

1 — . — : 




CANADIANS BREAKING THROUGH GERMAN BARBED WIRE ENTANGLEMENTS IN THE TAKING OF VIMY RIDGE, ONE 
OF THE MOST BRILLIANT VICTORIES ACHIEVED BY THE ALLIES IN THE WAR. 

I ("niiadinn (»//(( iai T'hoto.) 




183 



FRENCH SHARPSHOOTERS AT A POINT OF VANTAGE IN A RUINED HOUSE 
THAT AFFORDS THEM SOME PROTECTION AGAINST RETURN FIRE. 

<© Kad^l d Herbert.) 



t)n With Varied Appl lances 
ition of the Enemy 




lown British 
ing through 
ines during 
lan drive in 
ne man, de- 
id, retains a 

in what is 

on. 



-ench troops 
n marching 
llage to the 
accompanied 
3 h big gun 
" to support 
? coming 
bat. 



! Chasseurs 
ig work in 
the Vosges 
! depicted in 
: the right, 
ed in white 
less easily 



185 




186 



Ge man Pn^one r^ Captured by Allies in Big Drive 




THE STORMING OF THE CANAL DU NORD WAS ONE OF THE MOST DASHING EXPLOITS OF THE WAR. BRITISH 
WOUNDED IN THE VICTORY ARE BEING CARRIED ON LITTERS BORNE BY GERMAN PRISONERS. 

i British Offii.~\til Photo.) 




CANADIAN CAVALRY HERDING IN A GRO^P OF PRIS^ 
ONERS CAPTURED NEAR CAMBRAI, ONE OF WHOM lb 

WOUNDED. 

rana.lian Off.cial Pho,o. fro'n l-n.U.-^ood ^ Un„rr,coo^.) 




GERMAN SOLDIERS WHO HID IN A CELLAR WHILE A 
TEMPEST OF SHELLS SWEPT BY EMERGING TO SURREN- 
DER TO BRITISH. 



V nili rwoiid d L'ruti i won't, } 



R7 



Innocent and Efficient Participants in the War 





™Wi??riSLiIEkrw'HlN''[)THlR^^^^^ THEY WILL BE SENT 



*'^^Li?LP3£V„Ni9i^™N ARE T00_ SLOW OR DANGEROUS oi^^AC^m. 



188 




DISPATCH-BEARING DOG WAITING FOR HIS MESSAGE. HE IS EMPLOYED FOR THIS PURPOSE ALONE, IS KNOWN BY 
NAME ONLY TO HIS KEEPER, AND IT IS STRICTLY FORBIDDEN FOR ANY ONE TO PET HIM. 



(ff) British Offifial Photo, from Umtcncood d Und^rtoood.) 




™ x^^^o rvxT Tui^ PRPMPH FRONT ARE VERY SAGACIOUS AND ARE USED TO HUNT UP THE WOUNDED AT 
o'^R^'m DIFF™ULrCOU?™ OR SOME ARTICLE BELONGING TO THE WOUNDED 
NIGHT OR IN owui>-ix^ ^^^^ RESCUERS TO THE SPOT. 



189 



Ho 



rses 



N 





HORSES OF BRITISH PATROLS TETHERED BEHIND DUGOUTS IN A SUNKEN MEADOW. CAVALRY ACTIONS HAVE BEEN 
INFREQUENT IN THE WAR IN THE WEST. BUT COMMON IN PALESTINE AND MESOPOTAMIA. 



lO British Offtcinl Photo, from l'tuierwoo<l rf Underwood.) 




^™URED^^^^^^^ HAVE JUST REACHED TILLOY AND 

^.n^KMAN ARMORED MACHINE-GUN TURRETS ON WHEELS, SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND. 



I© Ainerivan Press Association,) 



190 



Frustrated Attempt of Ger many to Reach Cn^.f 



LONDON 




■ f^AILHOAPS 
BATTli UN£ 
MARCH I. 
BATTLE Unb 
MAY fOtfIt 



THE THRUST IN THE DIRECTION OF THE CHANNEL PORTS, THAT WAS ATTEMPTED IN SPRING OF 1918 BY THE GER- 
MANS, STOPPED AT THE LIMITS SHOWN IN THIS MAP WHEN SIXT VON ARNIM MET WITH A BLOODY DEFEAT BEFORE 

YPRES, APRIL 29. 




INDIAN CAVALRY OF THE BRITISH ARMY WAITING FOR THE WORD TO ADVANCE IN THE GREAT OFFENSIVE OF 1918. 
INDIAN CAVALKl ^^^^^^ THE CARTRIDGE CLIPS SUSPENDED FROM THE NECKS OF THE HORSES. 




IM THF RFTAKTNr OF RAPAUME THE BRITISH MADE LARGE CAPTURES OF GERMAN GUNS. ONE OF 4.2 CALIBRE, AT 
IN THE RETAI^G OF fAPAUM^^^^^^ AGAINST ITS FORMER OWNERS AND OPERATORS. 

' (O Untish Of/icial Photo, from Unticrtcood <f U rulerwood . ) 




'TP THE VICTORS BELOls^^^^ SITTING ON A GERMAN GUN THAT THEY HAD CAPTURED IN 

THE LAST STAGES OF THE ARGONNE FIGHTING. JUST BEFORE THE ARMISTICE WAS SIGNED. 

Publishers' Photo Service, t 



192 



Monster Guns in Use by American Forces in Argonne 




AMERICAN MORTAR RAILWAY MOUNT, USED TO DESTROY CONCRETE AND DKEP UNDERGROUND FORTIFICATIONS. 
IT WILL HURL A HUGE SHELL MORE THAN TEN MILES, ANDCAN BE PUT IN OPERATION IN FIFTEEN MINUTES. 



(tf) VomiHlUcc on f'ubliv Informnl ion. from Urown Bros.) 




n^^ r^^^ thp trfaT TUNS THAT ARE MANNED BY MEN FROM THE AMERICAN COAST ARTILLERY. AND TO AT CAN BE 
? ™NSpKd ^^ANY^^^ ZONE WHERE RAILROAD TRACKS ARE OR CAN BE LAID. 

X ivi-ii'i^jj. v^iv * ,- Official I')ioto i 



193 



194 



Canadian Troops Have Rendered Sterling Service 




CANADIAN GUARDS DIRECTING THE REMOVAL OF WOUNDED GERMAN. WHO IS BEING TAKEN BY HIS OWN 
COMRADES TO THE FIRST AID DRESSING STATION IN REAR OF THE LINES. 



' -i) Caitnilian Offiruil Photo, from Cfnlrttl Xrum. ) 




CANADIAN TROOPS IN TRENCHES. EQUIPPED WITH STEEL HELMETS OF ™E I^ATEST TYP^^^ HAVE GREATLY 

REDUCED THE NUMBER OF WOUNDS FROM FLYING. PIECES OF SHRAPNEL. 

I if \ Canailian Ofjirtul I'holo, from Cfniriit .Stua.t 



195 



Difficult Problems Faced by Engineering Corp 




SPLENDID WORK DONE BY THE BRITISH ROYAL ENGINEERS IN THROWING A BRIDGE OVER A STREAM TO REPLACF 
ONE THAT HAD BEEN RECENTLY BLOWN UP BY THE RETREATING GERMANS ^bPLACE 

(© British Official Photo.) 




''U Vnaerwood rf Underwood.) ' 



196 



Stirring Battle Scenes on the Canadian Front 




SHELLS BURSTING IN A VILLAGE WHERE THE CANADIANS ARE GETTING READY FOR THE GREAT ADVANCE NEAR 

ARRAS THAT HAD ITS CLIMAX IN THE STORMING OF VIMY RIDGE. 

(& Cannduin Of/trial Photo. Sraui Western N fxcuiiapcr Union.) 




AN ARMORED CANADIAN TRAIN BEARING AMMUNITION TO THE FRONT LINE TO^^ 
SHATTERED HOUSES SHOW THAT IT HAS BEEN THE SCENE OF BITTER FIGHTING. 

Canadian Official Photo, from Central Atujs Agen/^y ) 



197 



c 
o 



c 

CO 



c 

CO 

a 

V 



a 

o 

o 

CO 

<u 

a 
O 

c 

• ^< 



G 
O 

• 

CO 

a: 

B 



HI vl 
Of i 




198 



Nature q?u7^]u^^f7i7n j 1 y in the Fighting Zone 




BRITISH ARMORED CAR SUNK DEEP IN THE FLANDERS MUD DURING THE RAINY SEASON. DURING THE SOMME 
FIGHTING OF 1917, THE WEATHER LIMITED GREATLY THE SCOPE OF THE BRITISH VICTORIES. 

((0 British O/fkuil I'hotu, fmni Vmlirrwood A Undcrtaood.) 




TiRTTTQU <m niFRS rONSTRUCTING TRENCHES IN A FLOODED AREA NEAR BLANGY, FRANCE. IN SUCH DISTRICTS 
BRITISH SOLDIERS TO^ EMPLOYED IN VAST NUMBERS TO FORM THE SIDES OF THE TRENCH. 

&AiNU DAVjO Xlrtvx^ ,Q Bnt,>h OffiHal Photo, from VndcTWOO.i i Vnd,^u^od.) 



199 




HE SNOW COVERED SOIL, AWAITING AN EXPECTED RUSSIAN ATTACK. 



Austrians Holdi ng Bleak Passes of Carpathians 



AUSTRIAN ALPINE SCOUTS ON DUTY IN ONE OF THE MOUNTAIN PASSES THROUGH WHICH THE RUSSIAN INVASION 

OF 1915 SOUGHT TO POUR INTO THE HUNGARIAN PLAINS. 

( IsJ J nirrntilionul Film Seri ivc, ) 




202 



Austrian ^ArnUery Infantry on th 



M 



a r c 




PONTOON BRIDGE THROWN OVER A STREAM IN GALICIA WHICH, WHILE CONSTRUCTED IN HASTE. IS STRONG 

ENOUGH TO PERMIT THE PASSAGE OVER IT OF HEAVY ARTILLERY. 

(© Unili:r\cood tJ ruler wood. ) 




' ITT AT rnilNTRY IN WHICH MANY OF THE AUSTRIAN MILITARY OPERATIONS 

THE DEPRESSING CHARACTER OF TO WHICH^MAIN^^ ^^^^^^ AUSTRIAN INFANTRY. 

WERE CARRIED ON IS hHUWIN ,g I ndcwood d ynderwooH.) 



203 




204 




THE GREAT RUSSIAN ADVANCE IN THE SECOND YEAR OF THE WAR WA3 OFTEN HELD UP BY SWOLLEN STREAMS 
AND FLOODED AREAS. AUSTRIAN TROOPS HERE SHOWN ARE DEFENDED NOT ONLY BY TRENCH, BUT BY FLOOD. 



(0 TopUal Press Agency.) 




nMP OF THE THICKLY WOODED PLATEAUS IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE 

HEAVY RUSSIAN FORCES IN A TRENCH Tok™PLAcI IN AN ATTEMPT TO CROSS INTO HUNGARY. 

CARPATHIANS, WHERE DESPbKAlti. ec.trai .v.^^. ^v^.>1ce , —————==: 



205 




206 



Conflagration Attending C 



apture of Russian To 



wn 




WHEN BREST-LITOVSK WAS CAPTURED BY THE GERMANS IN THE GREAT RETREAT OF GRAND DUKE NICHOLAS, 
THE CITADEL WAS SET ON FIRE. SOLDIERS ARE TRYING TO SAVE SUPPLIES THAT HAD BEEN STORED THERE. 

(iQ Paul Thoiiiiison.) 




mi 



"amTD TJAPTDTV qPRFADTNG FLAMES STORES OF GRAIN ARE HERE BEING SHOWN WHILE BEING CARRIED FROM 
gSaRIES TO i'^^LACE^^^^ CITY OF B REST-LITOVSK THE RUSSIAN PEACE TREATY WAS LATER 

SIGNED. t'aut T/iO"i;t-.on. ) 



207 




THE CAPTURE OF PRZEMYSL BY GRAND DUKE NICHOLAS CREATED CONSTERNATION IN THE CENTRAL POWERS. IT 
WAS LATER ON RECAPTURED BY THEM WITH TREMENDOUS DAMAGE TO THE FORTS, AS HERE SHOWN. 



I'.i'j l!rou'\ it Daifnon.} 





THE I^KSTRUCTIVE EFF^^ ?HF^ A^HT^l??,? BEEN MORE CLEARLY EXHIBITED THAN IN THIS 

PICIUHE OF THE SMASHING OF THE IMMENSELY STRONG DEFENSES OF PRZEMYSL. 

iii? Bruirn ,E Dawson.) 



208 



Russian Prisoners Cantnr^^ri fk^ '\/\ i i 

II ^ 1 ^ a piured at the Mazurian Lak 



es 




AFTER THE RUSSIAN INVASION HAD SWEPT EAST PRUSSIA IT WAS CHECKED BY HINDENBURG AT THE MAZURIAN 
LAKES. SOME OF THE PRISONERS ARE HERE BEING CONCENTRATED UNDER GUARD. 




AN ATvrn^T rmiMTTP^c; HORDF OF RUSSIAN PRISONERS CAPTURED BY THE GERMANS AT TANNENBURG ARE 
^ HErSnSn^^^^^ a town ON THE. BORDE^^ WAY TO A DETENTION CAMP IN GERMANY. 



209 



J 



21(1 



AN IMPRESSION OF ALMOST UNLIMITED SPACE IS GIVEN BY THIS PICTURE OF THE FLAT AND WIND-SWEPT PLAINS 
OF RUSSIA, THROUGH WHICH A GERMAN ARMY OF INVASION IS TRAMPING PLAlNb 




WHERFVRR POSSTRTF THF RAIT ROAD WAS CHOSEN AS THE LINE OF MARCH BY THE GERMANS IN RUSSIA. BE- 
CAUSE THEREBY THEY W TO KEEP IN CLOSE TOUCH WITH THEIR SUPPLIES AND COMMUNICATIONS. 



211 




212 



Rus s i a n Troops In 7h^ rTTTT r r '■ i ■ 
- _^ ___;^i__tne Ureat Ualician Invasion 




THE SIBERIAN TROOPS WERE AMONG THE FIRST OF THE RUSSIAN ARMY TO GET INTO ACTION AND THEY OUICKI Y 
WON THE REPUTATION OF EXCELLENT FIGHTERS. A COMPANY OF THEM ARE HERE PRESE^^ 

Unilcrwood &. Undertoood.) 




ZERNOWITZ. THE KEY TO BUKOWINA, WAS CAPTTOED BY THE RUSSIANS IN A NOTABLE BA™, AND THE VICTORI- 
nnt; troops ARE HERE RESTING IN A VILLAGE NOT FAR FROM THE CITY. 

\J\J£D lIXKJXJi^ ,Q i:n'iencood A rnderwood. ) 



213 



Theatre of 



Operations 



Russian Front 




THE above map embraces the 
whole scene of war activi- 
ties in Russia. Austria, and 
Germany, from the time that the 
contlict began in 1914 until the 
signing of the iniquitous treaty 
of Brest-Litovsk and the with- 
drawal of Russia from the war 
in the Spring of 1918. The line 
at the left represents the furthest 
advance of the Russians at any 
stage of the struggle, and the one 
at the right shows where they 



were standing when the front 
collapsed and the treaty of peace 
was signed. 

So tragic and overwhelming a 
downfall of a once mighty nation 
has seldom been known in the 
.history of the world. The energy 
with which Russia entered the 
war was full of promise for the 
Allies and equally full of portent 
for the Central Powers. Her 
armies were huge, and the Grand 
Duke Nicholas, the Commander 



in Chief, soon showed himself to 
be aNtrategist of the first order. 
The Russian armies swept like a 
flood over the province of East 
Prussia, and it seemed not beyond 
the pale of possibilities thai tht- 
victorious Slavic march might ex- 
tend as far as the gates of Berlin. 
This danger to Germany was dis- 
pelled, however, by the great vic- 
tories of Hindenburg at Tannen- 
burg and the Mazurian Lakes, 
which drove the Russians back 



over -the border. The Russian? 
retrieved these disasters, how- 
ever, and in the campaign that 
took Przemysl and threatou'^' 
Cracow came perilously nt-a' 
overrunning Hungary. Then ^•^■J"' 
graft and corruption that o^; 
prived the armies of supplies anu 
forced the retreat beyond Wai- 
saw. Later followed the revolu 
tion, the accession of the Bolshe- 
vists to power, and the betrayal 
of the Allies by the treaty <'t 
Brest-Li to vak. 



214 



;^MSil^Sllilo77~G;^an Invasion of Russia 




WHAT WAR MEANS TO THE WEAK AND DEFENSELESS IS SHOWN BY THIS PITIFUL FIGURE OF A RUSSIAN PEASANT 
WOMAN RETURNING TO FIND HER LITTLE HOME IN RUINS. SHE HAS PLACED HER BABY IN THE CRADLE AT THE 

RIGHT AND IS TRYING TO PREPARE A MEAL. 




.pc WHO HAVE FLED BEFORE THE TERRORS OF THE GERMAN INVASION 
POLISH REFUGEES AND THEIR FAMILIES WHu n^^ SUPPLIES AND SHELTER THEY ARE ABLE TO SECURE. 

CAMPING IN THE WOODS WITH WHAl & mweru-oorf., 



215 




A FORTIFIED SUMMIT SOUTHWEST OF TARNAPOL HAS JUST 
BEEN TAKEN BY SIBERIAN TROOPS, AND THE SECOND WAVE 
IN THE TRENCHES IS WAITING ORDERS TO ADVANCE 



COSSACK CAVALRY, WHO ARE AMONG .maI 
DRAWN UP READY FOR ACTION ON THEIR ,^'^ J 



d T^hreatenirig_ the Overthrow of Austria-Hungary 



rPARATION FOR AN ATTACK, WHILE IN THE TRENCHES 
AITING FOR THE SIGNAL TO CHARGE. 



ESQUE AND DASHING HORSEM^ IN THE WORL^ 
tRONG AND ENDURING HORSES. WHO CAN CLIMB 
CHAMOIS. - 



' a <;tTTDY IN RUSSIAN PHYSIOGNO MY IS AFKOKDblJ HY THT^ 
GrSuP WHO HAVE JUST CAPTURED THIS GERMAN TRENCH ON 
^ ' THE GALICIAN FRONT. 



17 



Austrian and German Guns of Great Range and Power 




A STRONGLY FORTIFIED POSITION EQUIPPED WITH HEAVY ARTILLERY ON THE BLACK SFA AT TTTP F^^tttapv r^T. 

THE DANUBE. GUNS WERE MOUNTED AFTErTHE OvLRUNSr^^^ ESTUARY OF 




218 




THE FIRE OF A RUSSIAN FIELD BATTERY BEING DIRECTED BY OFFICERS KNEELING !N THE REAR OF THEIR SQUADS 

AND WATCHING ATTENTIVELY THE EFFECTS OF THE SHOTS. 

((p) tJnilfrwoiiil d (i'rKlfficooti ) 




219 




220 




^ r.T. rruTQ vTi T ACV TN GALICIA GERMAN TROOPS ARE PRESSING ON AFTER THE 
ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE STREET OF THI^^^ TRAINS ARE RETURNING FOR MORE SUPPLIES. 

DEFEATED FOE, WHILE ON inc. l^^^ ^ ^ ,.q Faul Thompson) 



221 




SQUADRON OF GERMAN HUSSARS RIDING THROUGH SLUSH AND ICE, WITH EARS MUFFLED AND CLOSELY BUTTONED 

COATS TO WARD OFF THE ICY WINDS OF A RUSSIAN WINTER. 





RUSSIAN ARTILLERY AND PRISONERS CAPTURED DURING THE VICTORIOUS ADVANCE TOWARD LUBLIN. AND NOW 
BEING SENT UNDER GUARD TO A PRISON CAMP IN THE INTERIOR OF GERMANY. 



I irj I'liiil Thot'i iifon ) 




I ,1 iinr riTr- ^TATT rorLCr^ i*iroTTT attqtptam^ wrrr made 

WHEirPRZEft^^ ARE PASSING EACH OTHER AS THE RUS- 

PRISONERS of WAR. THE COLUiMNb U^ v^ij.^^^ ^^^^ POSSESSION. 



223 



OVER THE DREARY RUSSIAN PLAINS IN EARLY SPRLNG, WITH SNOW STILL CLINGING IN PATCHES TO THE GROUND, 
A GERMAN TRANSPORT TRAIN, MILES IN LENGTH, IS MOVING TO THE BATTLE FRONT NEAR SUWALKL 

1 1'"! lull 1 nnttovnt Si wh Sf-miT. ) 




224 



GERMAN TROOPS RESTING AFTER THE STORMING OF GARLICE. GALICIA. THE SMOKE ARISING FROM THE TOWN 

THAT WAS PUT TO THE. TORCH CAN BE SEEN BEYOND. 




CAPTURFD RimmAN MACHINE GUNS AT BERZNIKI BEING INSPECTED BY THE GERMAN CAPTORS. THE GREAT 
QUANTITIES OF I^^^ ^^^^^^^^,?^^THotZ^^'^ MARKED EFFECT IN CAUSING THEIR COLLAPSE. 



225 




THE MAP ABOVE SHOWS THE POINT ON THE CARSO PLATEAU REACHED AFTER SANGUINARY FIGHTING BY THE 
ITALIAN FORCES UNDER CADORNA IN 1917. IN THEIR OFFENSIVE TOWARD TRIESTE, WHICH SEEMED ALMOST 

WITHIN THEIR GRASP. 



226 



Dif ficuit^ FTTivThr^ cv^TJTT r — p ^ 

== = — =^==^ conditions on Italian Front 




AUSTRIAN TROOPS DEPLOYED ON CLIFFS OVERLOOKING THE ISONZO RIVER, WHERE SOME OF THE BLOODIEST 

FIGHTING OF THE WAR OCCURRED IN THE TWO ITALIAN OFFENSIVES. 



I 




AUSTRIAN MACHINE 



r.T,o TM AT^mN AGAINST AN ITALIAN DETACHMENT WHICH IS WORKING ITS WAY UP 

GUNNERS IN ACTION AGAlWblAiN nTFFirULT TO GET A FOOTHOLD. 



rPKECIPITOU™ GOATS WOULD FIND IT DIFFICULT TO GET A FOOTHOLD. 



227 




ht 



the Theatres of Fighti ng 




THESE ITALIAN TROOPS, MARCHING OVER THE SNOW IN INOTAN FILE, ARE CLOTHED IN WHITE SO THAT THEIR 
GARB WILL HARMONIZE WITH THE SNOW AND MAKE IT EASY FOR THEM TO GET CLOSE TO THE ENEMY LINES 

BEFORE BEING DETECTED. 




ITALIAN ALPINE TROOPS MOVING OVER THE SNOW AND ICE OF THE MOUNTAINS ON THEIR WAY TO VARIOUS 
STRATEGIC POSITIONS ON THE FRONT IN THE MONTE GRAPPA REGION. 



228 



Artillery Actions FIT Ti — i ■ x , • . — 

=====^=====^L£iJLj^^ on the Mountain Heights 




I 



A BATTERY OF ITALIAN IN ACTION ON A PLATEAU OVERLOOKING THE ISONZO RIVER. WHICH FOR A LONG 

TIME CONSTITUTED A FORMIDABLE BARRIER AGAINST THE ITALIAN ATTEMPT TO REACH THE CARSO PLATEAU. 



h'a4h l a Iferbtrt.) 




A : f u fit jti 





^xTo^i. PRAPPA FRONT WHERE THE AUSTRIANS. REINFORCED BY GERMAN TROOPS. 
MONTE GRAPPA f^^^^^/tiMALLY DRIVEN FROM THEIR POSITIONS. 



ITALIAN ARTILLERY ON THE MONl E on FINALLY DRIA 

FOUGHT TENACIOUSLY, bUl ^^^^^^^^ niusn-aUn^ Serr.-.O 



229 




230 



wounded arnd^FiTs^^ 77 c c^l T^vyT — 

^= = ==,^i,!^^J^^ the Seamy Side of War 





AT A DRESSING STATION NEAR THE FIRING LINE IN THE ITALIAN BATTLE ZONE. WOUNDED ITALIAN SOLDIER 

BEING TREATED BY ITALIAN AND FRENCH AMBULANCE MEN. 

Italian Official Photo.) 




- , o.^nrv<z^ TTsJ IftlG IS SHOWN IN PART BY THIS GROUP OF PRISONERS TAKEN IN VHf 

HOW GREAT WAS THE ITAUAN SUCCESS IN ^^^^^ GRAPPA FRONT. 

BAllLli^O Ui^ /fofion OffUHal Photo.) 



231 





a4 




"Oou 



60L' ' ' 




•GERMANY MUNICH • 

•^<;^/ ^ • ^'Nv .'-.^ yALZBURO 

^/ ^ INNSBRUCK \ \ 

/SWITZERLAND'"^ ^ ^ oraz 

Is. \i \ TR'ENy ^ L^IBACH 

M^AM ^ PADUA^^^PtRIESTE 
- \ TURIN VERONA VE^^E^BEl J-FIUME 

^ \ 'l T A L Y a^gg^ 

f GENOA ^ U *A I J^£Y 

MAP 






THE ABOVE MAP SHOWS THE FURTHEST LINE OF THE AUSTRIAN OFFENSIVE IN JU^^ 
OVERTHROWN THE AUSTRIANS IN ONE OF THE MOST DECISIVE TICTORTES 0^ 

OF T 



I Afterthe~~0 j — I a 

UL==== ^ 3,,___^^^__L^e reat Administered to Austria 



J&MUNO 



A 



Taci 



LTOLHINO 



HEI 



ISO 



TRII 



ALLf£S TAK£\ 
P055B55/ON 
OF TR/£STE 

/voy. 6. /p/8 



'EN ICE 



M0OTH5 
f>0 



GULF OF V£NiCB 



3* 

J* CITTAHbVA* 



/:\ D R I ^ T I C \ 
S E ^ 



t\ - 

^\ PAREn; 

1^ 



ENA^: 



' Dl^NAOO 



vr 



[ Cqkurth] 



^MT T^up TTATIAN ARMIES WHEN THEY HAD UTTERLY 

:E»D THE FINAL LINE REACHE;p BY THE I^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

^"*R AND FORCED THE SIGNING OF THE ARMibllUfi- in 




234 



precipices W here TTTT i 1 ^^i i — 7 

i==^====L^ and Austrians Battled 




HUGE NAVAL GUN THAT HAS BEEN TRANSPORTED WITH INFINITE PAINS TO THE ITALIAN MOUNTAIN REGION, 
WHERE IT HURLED DEATH INTO THF, RANKS OF THE AUSTRIAN ARMIES. 



((T) lliiliii)} OffU-ifit Photo.) 




ITALIAN SflELTER HUTS ERECTED ON THE bU^,^^^^ GORGE. 

,..-■) /ntrmatiotial h'itm .Sc ii(i(C, ) 



:;:;;7^W^DES of mount BOCCAR, facing THE ENEMY INTRENCHED 



235 



N 



ava 




THE FLOODED REACHES OF THE LOWER PIAVE ENABLED NAVAL GUNS TO BE USED WITH GREAT EFFECT IN SUP- 
PORTING THE INFANTRY WHO WERE OPPOSING THE AUSTRIAN CROSSING OF THE RIVER. 




HUGE FLOATING ^^T™ CANAL. THE GUN WAS TAKEN FROM A BRITISH MONITOR WHOSE 

DRAFT WAS TOO HEAVY TO PERMIT IT TO ENTER THE SHALLOW WATERS. 



236 



r 



L a u reh WoTT^T^ 

= ==^4^ii£JJalian Navy in the War on Austria 




A FLOTILLA OF DESTROYERS MOORED AT ONE OF ITALY'S NAVAL STATIONS. THESE "WASPS OF THE SEA" MADE 
HISTORY IN THE DASHING ATTACKS ON THE HARBORS OF CATTARO AND DURAZZO. 




^..TAM MARTNF OPERATING IN THE SHALLOW WATERS OF THE PIAVE. THE GUN 
'"'sTATIo'nIS T^Orj^ELycSrlSZ escape the attacks of AUSTRIAN AVIATORS. 



237 




23i 



Triumphs of hal 




AUSTRIAN PRISONERS CAPTURED IN THE BRILLIANT SERIES OF ACTIONS THAT LED TO THE TAKING OF GORIZIA 

BEING TAKEN INTO ITALY UNDER GUARD OF A SQUADRON OF LANCERS. 

l© UndcruiQotl & Underwood.) 



I 

-. 




239 




AN ITALIAN EXAMPLE OF THE RETURN TO OLD-TIME METHODS OF PROTECTING HEAD AND BODY WITH ARMOR 
THE SOLDIERS WEARING IT ARE GOING FORWARD AGAINST AUSTRIAN MACHINE-GUN FIRE. 

I II , liili^rimtu^iuil Ftl rii Srrvirc. ) 




g Beside the Italians 




BRITISH REINFORCEMENTS IN CONSIDERABLE NUMBERS WERE SENT TO ITALY'S AID AFTFR THF niSASTVR AT 
CAPORETTO. SOME OF THEM ARE HERE SHOWN DIgI^ING TRENCHES IN THE M^^^^ 

14? I ndcrwood & Undirrwooii. } 




T^^^ ' — ;.T,^Ti A TnwM IN NORTHERN ITALY TO REINFORCE THE ITALIANS ON THE PIAVE, IN 

f^RENCH TROOPS PASSING ™ROUGH A T^^^^ ^HE AUSTRIAN OFFENSIVE. 

ANllUPAllUIN "^^^^j^^^.^^ f,ff,,,„, Photo, from Dr. llu//a.) 



241 




ITALIAN MACHINE GUN ADVANTAGEOUSLY POSTED TO HARASS THE ENEMY'S RETREAT AT THE TIME THAT THE 
DEMORALIZED AUSTRIANS WERE MAKING THEIR WAY THROUGH THE PASSES OF THE HILLS. 



242 



Ita lian Reg uj_ar Infantr 



y_ind Choice Shock Troo 




INFANTRY TAKING COVER IN ONE OF THE PRELIMINARY SKIRMISHES THAT PRECEDED THE GREAT ITALIAN 
OFFENSIVE THAT DROVE THE AUSTRIANS BACK FROM THE MONTELLO PLATEAU. 




Tut^nv^ Z^TTr^ pTTTt^MARPSHOOTERS FROM THE "ARDITI," THE SHOCK TROOPS OF THE 

THESE ARE NOT FIGURES IN A NIGHTMARE BUT SHA^^ BATTLE WERE UNSURPASSED. 

ITALIAN ARMY, WHOSE RECKLESSNESb ANU 



245 




244 



I 



s and Artillery Posts 




SIGNAL STATION FAR ™ ™! ivEsTN^H^n^i^.^/.^^^^^^ ™^ AND THE PIAVE, PROTECTED FROM 

rUYlJNG EYES AND HOSTILE BOMBS OF THE ENEMY AVIATORS. 




AN ITALIAN ARTILLERY POSITION STRONGLY FORTIFIED BY SAND BAGS, IN ADDITION TO THE ROCKS THAT NATURE 

HAS LIBERALLY PROVIDED IN THE MOUNTAIN REGION. 




'-^ rrup TTATTAN FRONT SO CUNNINGLY CAMOUFLAGED AS TO DECEIVE ENEMY 

AN ENTIRE TRANSPORT ROUTE ON T^^ PLYING ABOVE THE LINES. 

BAllriRlt'O AriLf ixu-. ^^^^^ muitraUnff Service.} 



247 




THE ABOVE MAP SHOWS THK FIKLI) OK OPKRATIONS ON THK PIAVE. TO WHICH THE ITALIANS HAD RETREATED 
AFTER THE CAPORETTO DISASTER. AND THE MONTELLO PLATEAU. TAKEN IS PART BY THE AUSTRIANS, WHO WERfc> 

AFTERWARD DRIVEN ACROSS THE RIVER IN A CRUSHING DEFEAT. 




ITALIAN RED CROSS STRETCHER BEARERS BRINGING IN TO FIRST-AID STATIONS WOUNDED AUSTRIAN SOLDIERS 

WHO HAVE FALLEN ON THE ISLAND OF FAGARE IN THE RIVER PIAVE. 



246 



Camouflaged Signal St 





AN ITALIAN ARTILLERY POSITION STRONGLY FORTIFIED BY SAND BAGS, IN ADDITION TO THE ROCKS THAT NATURE 

HAS LIBERALLY PROVIDED IN THE MOUNTAIN REGION. 




AN ENTIRE TRANSPORT ROUTE ON THE ITALIAN FRONT SO CUNNINGLY CAMOUFLAGED AS TO DECEIVE ENEMY 
BATTERIES AND THE AUSTRIAN AVIATORS FLYING ABOVE THE LINES. 

(© Prfsa lllugtrating Service.) 



247 



Flowed 



in the 




COMPANY OF ITALIAN GRENADIERS ADVANCING WITH A RUSH OVER ROCK-STREWN 




THE FIGHTING WAS ESPECIALLY SANGUINARY IN THE SERIES OF BATTLES THAT ENDED IN THE TAKING OF 

ONE OF THE INFANTRY ATTACKS IN THAT CAMPAIGN IS HERE IN PROGRESS. 




DS ON THE ASIAGO PLATEAU TO STORM A STRONGLY DEFENDED AUSTRIAN POSITION. 




— - — ^ >. 'v - 




" ^ n^oc- DTTM AVH HACKING THEIR WAY THROUGH THE ENTANGLEMENTS THAT 

ITALIAN INFANTRY GOING ^ORW^^^^^^ NEAR JAMIANO. 




250 



Fightinj Condition 



s in the Serbian Battle Zone 




SERBIAN RIFLEMEN IN A HASTILY DUG TRENCH ON A HILL OVERLOOKING THE DANyBE READ^^ MEET AN EX- 
PECTED ATTACK FROM THE AUSTRIAN FORCES THAT HAVE JUST CROSSED THE RIVER. 




AT THIS POINT IS NOT ONLY A GREAT AVENUE OF COMMERCE. BUT FORMED A 
AT ^TK^TUiAM nviTF.NSIVE ON THE SERBIAN FRONT. 



THE DANUBE^RIVEJi^V^^ T>HE AUSTRIAN OFFENSIVE ON THE SERBIAN 



251 



Serbian A r t i 1 1 ery____^ 




HAS BEEN LOADE^7r^D:^OW BEING SI^^^ ™E AUSTRIANS 



SERBIAN HEAVY ™A, „,s b^kENJ.,A NISH. SERBIA. 




SERBIAN TRENCH BRISTLING WITH GUNS, AND ALSO STRENGTHENED BY ITS POSITION AT THE CREST OF A HILL, 
TO ADVANCE UP WHICH WOULD .SUBJECT THE ATTACKING FORCES TO HEAVY LOSSES. 



252 





= = iTT^Trn RV THF SERBIANS IN SUPPLYING THEIR TROOPS IS SHOWN BY 

DIFFICULTIES FACED BY THE SERBIANb^l^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 



SOME OF THE INCREDIBLE JIFMCU i in-o DRAWN 
THESE WATER BARRLLts i"^|g';„„„,„„«.-a( .s^r.^r. ) 



253 




254 



British ArTiruTv^^nTfT"?^ 

^^^^^^^L==£iLi^iL'lg the Saloniki Front 




BRITISH GUNS IN ACTION ON THE LAKE DOIRAN FRONT. NOTE THE CAMOUFLAGE SPREAD OVER AND AROUND THE 

GUN TO SCREEN IT FROM THE GAZE OF ENEMY AVIATORS. akuujnu ihh. 

<© Centrnl News Photo Service.) 




ONE OF THF TNPH HOWITZERS SHELLING THE BULGARIAN LINES NEAR LAKE DOIRAN AND PREPARING THE 
yc. Kjt ^^^^^^^^^^^^ THAT FORCED BULGARIA'S WITHDRAWAL FROM THE WAR. 



255 








— ^ ~~ " xrMTCAxrn^ wi'RP TAPTURED DURING THE ABORTIVE AUSTRIAN INVASION, 

AUSTRIAN PHISONERS. O^^ PORT ON DANUBE. 




BULGARIAN TROOPS. SOON AFTER THE ENTRANCE OK THEIR COUNTRY INTO THE WAR RESTING ON THE BANKS OF 

THE DRIN, NEAR A STONE URIDr.K THAT SPANS THE RIVER 



256 



Allies Aid the Serbi 



ans to Regain Their Country 




GATHERED IN THE VALLEYS ON THE MACEDONIAN FRONT IS A CONSIDERABLE SECTION OF THE REORGANIZED 
SERBIAN ARMY, WHICH IS CO-OPERATING WITH BRITISH, FRENCH, ITALIAN AND GREEK FORCES. 

(O Uiiilenioott ■* Underwood. i 




FIRST ALLIED REGIMENT LANDING AT THE^^^^^ 

OF SALONIKI AND MARCHmGjHROUGH r^^^^^^^T... 



SERBIAN TROOPS, THOROUGHLY REORGANIZED AND 
EQUIPPED/ PREPARING TO GO OVER THE MOUNTAIN 

PASSES. I'ndcrwood d Underwood.) 



257 




258 



Conflagrations Caused by Air Raids in Balkans 




BRITISH PATROLS ADVANCING TO VILLAGE IN THE VICINITY OF MONASTIR THAT HAS BEEN SET ON FIRE BY BOMBS 

THAT HAVE BEEN DROPPED FROM GERMAN AND AUSTRIAN PLANES. 





FOUND A MAn/v n.-" ^ _^ t'«(t*Mfu"</ ^ unfUi-wood.} ^ — ■ 



259 




FRENCH INFANTRY COLUMN ON THE ROAD. THE BAY OF SALONIKI AND A PORTION OF THE TOWN IS SEEN IN THE 

BACKGROUND, BEHIND THE CYPRESS TREES. 





GENERAL CULCER AND STAFF INSPECTING INFANTRY OF THE RUMANIAN ARMY JUST BEFORE THE START OF THE 
CAMPAIGN THAT THREATENED FOR A TIME THE INVASION OF HUNGARY. 

I'nili >-triiinl d f iulo irood.) 




DEFEND ONE OF THE PASSES THROUGH^WHICH ARE PRESSING MACKENSEN'S 



RUMANIAN TROOPS ON THEIR WAY TO def™^^^^^^^ AEaCH BUCHXrEST: 

UI!.IViVlrt.li c>w^ , Hr,luiU Off.- ml l'ho(o ) 




STREETS OF BUCHAREST AT THE TIME THE GOVERNMENT WAS 



TYPES OF RUMANIAN SOLDIERS GATHERED m^TH^^^^^ ALLIES. 



261 





262 



W a^r in the Balkans , Called "the Cock-Pit of Europe" 




TROOP OF BULGARIAN INFANTRY DRAWN UP IN A VILLAGE PREPARING TO MARCH TO T^^^^ IN THE CAM- 

IKUUr ur nvj pAiQi^ WAGED AGAINST FRENCH AND BRITISH FORCES NEAR LAKE DOIRAN. 





^ • ,0 Uu'ln-icood i VndcrivQodr, 



ciFRRTAN SOLDIERS CREEPING STEALTHILY FORWARD 
Fn A SURpSaTTACK on farm held by BULGARIANS. 



263 



■jvlr i I I Tf r ; f c of Turbulent Balkan R 

Map and 1 mpor ta n t _^H^e j_^^^__^ ^^ 




THE GREEK PORT OF SALONIKI ON THE AEGEAN SEA. THE ALLIED BASE FOR THE 
BALKANS AND STARTING POINT OF ALLIED OFFENSIVE. 



(O I'nd'-rwood d I'uiltru-oori.) 



THE CITY OF SERAJEVO, 
WAS ASSASSINATED, WHICH A1 



\)^here the Greatest War in History Had Its Origin | 




K AUSTRIAN ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERD^^^ 

5 Made the pretext for Austrian wai^ 
*<st serbia. - 



South of the golden^horn^^J^^|^^^ ^ 



26:, 



^ , - 1 rr J ; fririn fn the Dardanelles 
111 -Fated British ExpediLi^n to^^^L^^,^,, .^^ == 




BRITISH MARINES. LANDED ON THE BEACH AT GALLIPOLI. TURKEY. IN THE EARLY STAGES OF THE DARDANELLES 
CAMPAIGN THAT ENDED FINALLY IN WITHDRAWAL OF ALLIED FORCES. 




MAP OF THE DARDANELLES, WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE AREA HELD BY THE ALLIED FORCES, WHO, AFTER 
ACCOMPLISHING PRODIGIES OF VALOR. WERE YET UNABLE TO PENETRATE THE STRAIT. 



266 



Turkish Troops Fighting Under German Leaders 




SKASONED TURKISH TROOPS. WHO UNDER CAPABLE LEADERSHIP HAVE ALW AYS PROVED EXCELLENT FIGHTERS. 

ON THEIR WAY TO THE ZONE OF WAR IN ASIA MINOR. 



iri"*) Inlrrnalionnl I'ilm Scrrirt.) 




TURKISH ARTILLERY IN JK 



CRUSALEM DESIGNED TO BE EMPLOYED AGAINST THE BRITIS^ FORCES UNDER ALLENBY, 



WHO CAPTURED MOsT OF THREE TURKISH ARMIES. 




BUT DIRECTED BY GERMAN OFFICERS. WHO 






268 



Great Guns Used in Balkan Sphere of Operations 




OlAi^O lxaiVV^»JVJAi w (©Topical Nei«s Agency) 




. , , RV ARTII LERY FIRE FROM Y TURRET OF THE BRITISH 



269 




270 



Disembarkation of British Troops in Near East 




BK,T,S„ SVoKV„"„''S.*.^/eS'^^^^^^^^^^ "" ™' " 

i& Central A'ti/J.i.) 




CITY OF TENTS SPRANG UP IN A NIGHT TO 



ANIMATED SCENE ON^THE|HaK|YR^^pg GREAT^I 



271 




272 



Gallipoli, Where Allies Fought and Died in Vain 




( (Q Cfnitral Ncu>b. ) 




^^t^iaifc I ■^,p.„.„^ ..wp-T.i.OF THOU- 



273 




Where 



Cross and CresceivtMe^ 



Furious Fighting 





"tiirKTSH troops leaving their trenches for a charge in a battle with FRENCH AND BRITISH TROOPS IN 

EARLY STAGES OF THE GALLIPOLI FIGHTING. 

lO /Teas llhistialing SeriiLr.) 



274 



M 



ap 



of Palestine, Arabi 



la, Syria, and Mesopotamia 




The above map covers the whole the ^^^^^Z"^^^ 

arena of fighting activities in the the Russian co p ^^^^.^^ 

Near East. Before Russia with- ^^I'^h lurKej ^^.^^^^ Arabian 

drew from the conflict she had ^' ' King Hu . , w r rpn iviarsnau iu...cy «o - 

Z^^^^'V::^rZ B^^^S?^^— IJ^ilLl^^ul-^n-^l^in t.at ^ut He. out . .e wa. 

threatened Constantinople from el-Amara. 



(Vn Townshend was the vicinity of Bagdad and Mosul. 

f"'^ ?^ surrender Under the Gen. Allenby in Palestine utterly 

K^' ii it i TaTe^^^^^^^ Turkish armies, 

brilliant learterbn p c-aptun-rt Uamascus and Aleppo 

Maude howevei this disaster ^ , forced 

Ttht rrt tl r Turkey to ask for the armi.tice 



275 





THE SAND HEAPS THAT PREVAIL IN THE DESERT PORTION OF PALESTINE ARE HERE SEEN BEING UTILIZED BY THE 
BRITISH AS DUGOUTS. STRENGTHENED BY THE ADDITION OF SAND BAGS. 



i Photos O British Off\ria\.) 



276 



British Toiling Over Roads and Sands of Palestine 




1 ^'T^ > 




AUSTRALIAN MILITARY MOTOR CYCLB^^^^^ \^0^''tl^vTAK JERUSALEM. 




C OF ADEQUATE ROADS UNDER TURKISH 




278 



C a p t ure of Jerusal em by British Und e r A 1 1 e n b y 




MAYOR OF 



ZmE^'^i^^^^^^^ BY BRITISH OUTPOST SENTRIES. 

,^5 A,„,rlran Colony rhf.foffrayher^ ) 




I Bri f ij/i O ' '^^^^ ^^^^^ ' '~ 



^iSUilEi^TiiiS^^^ TO GEN. ALLENBY 



279 



— ^ = — : T^^ ^T^'T^'^^T^^TTrinThe^ ^ East 





A- 



' ,^r^T,*.TAXT nr.xT'TTMn^NT TN EGYPT THE SCOTTISH FLAG IS 

TWO COMPANIES OF COLONIAL ^^^^^^^^^ 




BATTLEFIELD OF OGHRATINE, WHERE AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND SOLDIERS GAI^^^^ 

TORY OVER THE TURKS. IN THE FOREGROUND IS A COLUMN READY TO JOIN THE LONG LINE OF CAMEL TROOl^b 

ALREADY ADVANCING. (© BrUiah official photo, from Ihuicwood d Underwood.)^ 



282 



British Soldiers in Deserts of Egypt and Palestine 




TUV LOOSE SAND AND INTENSE HEAT OF THE ARID REGIONS IN PALESTINE MAKE THE SHELTER OF THESE IM- 
THE LOOSE SAND AND^im^E^N^^^^ GRATEFUL AND ALMOST INDISPENSABLE TO THE BRITISH TROOPS. 

t O Brilixh Offu;iil. frni,, /.if-?rn.i(u.ri.-I Sr\r.t Seivtcr ) 




^' ' ' iL-— _ .T^T^^T r AMAT. NRAR THE AUSTRAL 

-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^sii^^^ THEDIST^NC^^ 

IAN CAMP AT THE PYRAMIDS, i wu ^^^^^ ^ _______ = 



283 



Difficult Militaify__Co^dmo^ 



1 n 



the Near East 




„ . «, r-vD^-r-Tpn TURKISH ATTACK HAVE CONSTRUCTED TRENCHES 




THE BRITISH WHO ARE FIGHTING IN THE VICINITY OF THE EUPHRATES ANJ TIGRIS HAVE CONTEND WITH THE 

FLOODED CONDITIONS SHOWN ABOVE WHEN THE RIVERS OVERFLOW. 

I© Bnfish 0//iriuI Photo, from Cential Newa.) ^ . — 



284 



Modern Fighting Amid Ruins of Ancient Empires 




THE MASSIVE BRICK SHELL OF 



THE "THRONE OF CHOSROES" ON THE SITE OF ANCIENT CTESIPHON. WHERE IN 1915 



THrBRITISH WERE ENGAGED IN A SERIES OF BATTLES WITH THE TURKS. 




MEADI 



, nt'PnT OF SUPPLIES FOR THE AUSTRALIAN TROOPS 



(© Topical /'l-'xy I'C-rl' V ) 



285 




Native A u xiU^iyFo^c^s^ 



the Oriental Zone 




I mil II i iin nil I mn which was a barren 




INDIAN TROOPS IN MESOPOTAMIA ANSWERING TO ROLLCALL ON THE EVE OF P.EING SENT TO JOIN THE FORCES 



OF GEN. MARSHALL ON THE BAGDAD-MOSUL LINE 



286 



Cavalry Operations Between Tigris and Euphrates 




KAllN I ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ f^^„, press S^rtHc 



287 



TT^^^'^'^^^nTr^^Tr^^The Persian Gulf 
Fighting i nth^__Xlli5iil==S^^ 




^^iXlTHiTFiiiil^^^JH FORCES, 



.ND,AN75I^IIi7«^™^^ TO THE BRITISH. 



tcCLI^UT^ ^ THEV ARE. HAVE PROVED OF ^ 





BOTH CLIMATE AND 



TRAVELING CONDITIONS WERE HANDICAPS TO THE ARMIES FIGHTING IN THE NEAR EAST. A 



SUPPLY TRAIN IS HERE SEEN FLOUNDERING OVER FLOODED SANDS IN MESOPOTAMIA. 



288 



Ancient City of the Caliphs Now in British Hands. 




THE GERMAN DREAM OF THE t^t^^i^uN ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ r>.cro ...-.-i.r > 



289 



American Airplanes for Military and Naval Use 




I© liitvi'inlioiutl Film Service.^ 




FACTORY AT THE LEAGUE ISLAND NAVY YARU. 



FINAL 



— CONSTKUCTION. 

PHILAL»tL.fniA. ... P^htiMhera Photo Servue.) 




GERMAN 



ITT ARnpATPT Y AND ODDLY CAMOUFLAGED, BROUGHT DOWN BY 

AIRPLANE OF THE^HALB^EJ^™^ t'hE OISE. 



UNEXPLODED G E R- 
MAN BOMB AT NANCY. 



(0 Vndrrwood ti Underwood. ) 




AVIATOR SEATED IN HIS PLANE BEHIND HIS MACHINE GUN, WHICH IS OPERATED IN 
HARMONY WITH THE MOVEMENT OF THE PK(3PELLER SO THAT THE LATTER AVOIDS 

THE BULLETS. 




GROUP OF STUDENTS DESIROUS OK BECOMING AVIATORS ASSEMBLED ABOUT A PLANE IN THE GERMAN AVIATION 

SCHOOL LOCATED AT LUBECK, GERMANY. 



292 



Ob 



servation and Dirigible Balloons on West Front 




THE CAPTIVE BALLOON HERE SHOWN IS CONNECTED BY 
TELEPHONE WITH THE GROUND AND THE OBSERVER 
REPORTS TO GUNNERS THE EFFECT OF SHOTS. 



NEW ITALIAN DIRIGIBLE IN FLIGHT ABOVE THE ALPS 
NEAR THE PIAVE FRONT, WHERE THE ITALIANS WERE 
VICTORIOUS OVER THE AUSTRIANS. 




RRTTT'^H RALLOON PARTIALLY INFLATED. THE BALLOONS HAVE PROVED RATHER UNWIELDY IN THE WAR AND 
tS PLACE HAS TAKEN BY THE SWIFT-FLYING AND EASILY CONTROLLED AIRPLANE. 

1(0 iiiiiU I ii ofi'l d Ihuh I irimil. ) ^ 




TW^O BRITISH AIRSHIPS. THE C-2 AND THE C-9. THE 
FORMER HAS JUST LANDED, WHILE THE LATTER IS IN 

FULL FLIGHT. »€ RH/ish ajfuial. Jrom Cudcrwood A U»Ueiw<.od.} 




NEW AMERICAN DIRIGIBLE RETURNING TO ITS HANGAR 
AFTER TRIAL FLIGHT AT THE FORT OMAHA BALLOON 



SCHOOL. 



fj) l>il(.nialU'ntU FUm SirrrU-e.) 



295 




Daring Aviators on ~BothSi±esWhose^^^^ 



A 




AVIATOR AND HIS BOMBING PLANE IN FLIGHT OVER ELLINGTON FIELD TEXAS PHOTO 

GRAPHED FROM ANOTHER PLANE. ii^AA^. rwUlU- 

iQ InteniaftonnI Film firrvicf.) 



CAPT. VON RICHTHOFEN 
GREATEST OF GERMAN 
AVIATORS^ 



296 



s 



Throughout the World for Their Contempt of Death 



'API' EDWARD V. RICK- 
NBACKER, PREMIER 
AMERICAN "ACE." 



1 



AIRPLANESINTHEAIR-AND ABOUT TO ASCEND AT AN AMERICAN AVIATION FIELD IN 
FRANCE, NOT FAR FROM THE FIGHTING LINE. 

((C Con: unlive on I'liblit: I nloriitatinn.) 



"via 



LIEUT. JACQUES M. . WILLIAM THAW. DARING ^ ^.^p^ ^ a. BISHOP, CA- 
SWAAB, PROMINENT V AMERICAN AVIATOR. NADIAN "ACE" AND V. C. 
AMERICAN "ACE." _ — — — = 



m ^NE FLYING DIRECTLY 
E ' GIGANTIC BIRD. 



1( 



CAPTAIN BOELKE. 
FAMOUS GERMAN AVIA- 
TOR. 



* nryjx>x>jvn ATT?PT ANF TO THE BRITISH LINES OVER GROUND THAT HAS 

BRINGING IN A CH^PPLED^^R^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ FIGHTING. 



BHtiah Official Photo.) 



297 




298 



Huge Balloons That Serve as the " Eyes of the Army " 




CAR TO WHICH THE BALLOON IS ATTACMa THE CAR IS 
FOITTPPFn WITH A WINDLASS. BY MEANb Uf uniLn inn. 
^^^lT^?,nM IS DRAWN DOWN. 



THiq PAI I OON CUSTOMARILY ASCENDS TO A HEIGHT OF 
™00 FEy^r TO DIR^^^ AND RECTIFY THE ARTILLERY 

* Msu^ TT^Ti-iri . .. rnilowood d Underwood.) 



FIRE. 



299 




TYPE OF AIR-RAID DUGOUTS WHICH WERE BUILT AT EDMONTON BY THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES AND WHICH IN CASE 
OF NEED COULD PROVIDE SHELTER FOR 20.000 PEOPLE. 




300 



Precautions Taken at Paris Against Aerial Attack 






America Creating Army U n d e r_^elec n v e Draft L ajvv 




PRESIDENT WIL- 
SON BEING RLIND- 
FOLDED PREPAR. 
ATORY TO DRAW- 
ING THE FIRST 
CAPSULE FROM 
THE BOWL IN THE 
CEREMONIES AT- 
TENDING THE 
PlITTINfl INTO EF- 
FECT OF THE LAW 
EXTKNDING THE 
DRAIT AGES TO 
ALL MALES BE- 
TWEEN 18 AND 45 
YE\RS OF AGE. 
INCLCSIVE. THE 
DRAW LVG TOOK 
PLA( K ON SEPT. 
30, litis. IM.OOO.OOO 
MEN WERE MADE 
AVAILABI K BY 
THE DRAFT. 

(O liitn nalioiiiit FUm 

Sryriri . ) 



ml 




TYPICAL GROUP OF STALWART AMERICAN YOUTH RFGISTERING IN THF 
CALL TO THE COLORS UNDER THE SELECTIVE DRAFT LAW SEPf 12 1918 

( 'D I'niil Thompaini. ) ' r . 



THE DRAFT BOWL 
AND ITS AC- 
COMPANYING 
PARAPHERNALIA . 
WHICH PLAYED 
A CONSPICUOUS 
PART IN THE 
SELECTION OF 
AMERICA'S ARMY, 
WILL BE PLACED 
iJE\R THE LIBER- 
TY BELL IN INDE- 
PENDENCE HALL, 
P H ILADELPHIA. 
THE PICTURE 
SHOWS THE BOWL. 
THE WOODEN 
SPOON WHICH 
STIRRED THE CAP- 
SULES, AND A 
NUMBER OF THE 
CAPSULES AS 
THEY APPEARED 
BEFORE THEY 
WERE DRAWN. 

iT; Iliiriis rf ir i n II . ) 




NATIONAL ARMV GROUP, ABOUT TO BK 'S^p™^,>NTO ^^^^ PROM THE RAILWAY STATION TO 



302 



Bidding Farewell to Men in the Selective Draft 




LIGHT-HEARTED 
TON, 




MEN OF NEW YORK CITY| |ECO^D QU^^^^^ 
NEW NATIONAL ARMY ON ™EIR VV AY lu ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 



^uE-ppQ AMD TFARS FOR THE OLD GOTH AS IT STARTS 
CHEERS AND 1 t.AKS r un. ii pcpmph TRKNCHES. 



^N ITS FIRST LAP FOR THE FRENCH TRENCHES. 



303 



Tr;.n.sforming Y oi^^I cT^ i 1 i a t o Soldiers 





































ill li^'i' 



It/ 9 



YOUNG MEN OF THE NEW YORK STATE CADET OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS. ALL UNDER THE DRAFT AGE, DRILLING 

DAILY IN BRYANT PARK. BACK OF THE PUBLIC LIBRARY, NEW YORK. 

1 r nifcrn'otid ,( Viuli i wooil. I 




SORTING OUT NEW JERSEY'S NATIONAL ARMY MEN ACCORDING TO THEIR HEIGHTS AT THE CANTONMENT OF CAMP 

DIX AT WRIGHTSTOWN, NEW JERSEY. IN THE FALL OF 1917. 

I <; I'nilcT^iood A Underwood.) 



304 



Military Exercises in American Training Camps 




MEN AT THE SIGNAL CORPS CAMP AT LHTLE SILVER. NEW JERSEY, SPELLING OUT WITH THEIR FLAGS THE DESIRE 

OF THEM ALL: *' WE WANT TO GO TO FRANCE." 



(0 Underwood Vnderwood.) 




305 



Erected for America's Ne 



A 




CONSTRUCTION WORK PROGRESSING AT ONE OF THE LARGE CANTONMENTS THAT SPRANG UP ALMOST LIKE JONAH'S 

GOURD OVER NIGHT UNDER THE PRESSURE OF NATIONAL NEED. 

(© ConiiniHre on Piiblit Inforvfifion.} 




HALTING FOR LUNCH AT CAMP McCLELLAN, ANNISTON. ALABAMA. THE 6,000 MEN IN THE PHOTOGRAPH ARE A PART 
OF THE 58TH INFANTRY BRIGADE, INCLUDING THE 115TH AND 116TH REGIMENTS AND THE 112TH MACHINE GUN 

REGIMENT. 



306 



Mimic War in Preparation for the Grim Real it 




' OVER THE TOP." 



A CAMP UPTON ATTACKING PARTY IS SHOWN ADVANCING BY WAVES OVER AN ENEMY TRENCH, 
BAYONETING "ENEMY SOLDIERS" AS IT RUSHES FORWARD. 

(0 Tillies PhQ^o Servlvr ) , 




2. 



TROOPS TN TRATNTNr MAKING A SORTIE OVER THE SNOW-COVERED GROUND. A FORETASTE OF EXPERIENCES THAT 
TROOPS IN TRAINING MAKING A^ORl^|OV^ ^ WINTER CAMPAIGN ON THE WESTERN FRONT. 

I© ComniHtee on Publu In/oriiuilion. ) 



307 




30R 



White and Colored Troops in Vigorous Training 




INFANTRY SOLDIERS IN CAMP AT CAMP UPTON LEAVING 
THEIR TRENCH FOR A CHARGE AGAINST AN IMAGINARY 

ENEMY. 



DESPITE THE SNOW WHICH PREVAILED AT MANY OF 
THE NORTHERN TRAINING CAMPS. PREPARATION FOR 
SERVICE WENT ON WITH UNABATED EARNESTNESS. 




rninRFn troops PRACTICING WITH BAYONETS, FOR WHICH THEY DEVELOPED A MARKED APTITUDE. THE QUICK- 
SesE WITH wSfcH TRAINING WAS A GRATIFYING FEATURE OF WAR PREPARATION. 

(fTj I'nilerMooiid A {'ndrriroo'l t . _ 



3uy 




310 



Training Tha^ ^eveloped an American Army of Athlet 



es 




MEN AT CAMP 
UPTON LEAPING 
OVER THE BOR- 
D E R S OF A 
TRENCH, WITH 
GUNS READY FOR 
INSTANT ACTION 
AGAINST THE 
IMAGINARY ENE- 
MY. THE PRAC- 
TICE IS CARRIED 
ON UNDER THE 
DIRECTION OF 
OFFICERS LOANED 
BY THE ALLIES. 




THE OVERCOMING 
OK OBSTACLES OF 
EVERY KIND IS A 
PRIMARY AIM OF 
CAMP TRAINING, 
AS IS ILLUSTRAT- 
yr> BY THE PICTURE 
AT LEFT OF NA- 
TIONAL ARMY 
MEN AT CAMP 
MKADE, WHERE 
THE MEN A RK 
COMPELLED TO 
CLIMB AND DE- 
SCEND FEN(;ES IN 
A GIVEN TIME. 
(4^ Inlfimtttiinul Film 

Sf7-'lCi:. 1 




ALMOST RFADY FOR ACTUAL SERVICE ARE THESE NATIONAL ARMY MEN AT FORT DIX. FULLY EQUIPPED WITH HEL- 
ALMOST READY ^^^^^^^i^JiXs^^^^ AND THOROUGHLY TRAINED IN THE THEORY OF WAR. 



311 




A COMPLETE AMERICAN REGIMENT, 3,000 MEN, OF THE 68TH INFANTRY BRIC VI 



313 



^^H ousing and Training of Great American Armies 




lOVERNMENT IN ALMOST EVERY STATE OF THE UNION FOR THE NEW ARMY. 

l}l„^irnli"<J Co.. Cami< L'je . Vn.) 





GREAT PLANT AT THE BETHLEHEM STEEL WORKS DEVOTED TO THE FINISHING OF THE GREAT GUNS WHICH WERE 

GOT READY WITH SURPRISING SPEED FOR SHIPMENT TO FRANCE. 




HIGHLY PAID VOLUNTEER WORKMEN AT THE BETHLEHEM PLANT TURNING OUT SHFT T rv ^vtx, a.tt t rnM Tn no 

THEIR PART IN KEEPING THE WORLD SAFE FOR DEM^^^ MILLION TO DO 



(© I'ndfncoofi UnHmvood.) 



314 



SHRAPNEL BY THE HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS LYING IN THE BINS AT THE BETHLEHEM WORKS, READY TO BE LOADED 

INTO SHELLS FOR THE USE OF THE AMERICAN ARMIES OVERSEAS. 

»T ■.. ± M WT l_ l> 



Vn*}rrwood d Undt-rwood. ) 




ITY OF A THOUSAND COMPLEIE Kif ^ WORLD. — — === 



315 



Typical Young Ameri cans Welcoming Chan ce to Fight 





r 





MEMBERS OF THE 69TH REGIMENT. NEW YORK NATIONAL GUARD. LATER 165TH INFANTRY USA DFPARTING FOR 
TEMPORARY CAMP FROM WHICH THEY WERE SHORTLY TO BE SENT TO F DEPARTING t OK 

(0 7'nfic.i Photo Sirv'xcc.) 



316 



Transporting of Two Million American Soldiers 




FLEET OF CAMOUFLAGED AMERICAN TRANSPORTS THAT HAVE ARRIVED SAF^^^ LIVERPOOL DOCKS AND 

ARE BEING UNLOADED AFTER THE SOLDIERS HAVE DlSEMBAKKh.U. 



(aj) Iiil>-niiit\i>n(il Film Service. ) 




THE LAST CONTINGENT OF AMERICA| SECUN^u M..^^^^^^^ AND LAST STAGE 

POOL LU DCi OE^i-'-x ^ jntcn^ational Filui Senxcc.) 



•S SECOND MILLION BOUND FOR FRANCE W^^^^^^ DOCKS AT LIVER- 



317 




318 



American Soldiers on War-Scarred Soil of France 





319 



320 



London Echoes to the Tread of American Soldier 




THE KING OF ENGLAND AND HIS MOTHER. THE DOWAGER QUEEN ALEXANDRA, WATCHING THE YOUNG SOLDIERS 
OF AMERICA AS THEY MARCHED PAST BUCKINGHAM PALACE, LONDON. ENGLAND. 



Aiin'ri'-mi I'liss A.i^orinUo 




AMERICAN TROOPS SWmj.mG^DOWN P.CCAOIL 11^^^^,%%'^.^''' ""^"^^ 

(O Amerivo'i Pras Asaocialion. ) ^ 



321 




322 



Training and Marching Within Sound of the Gun 




AN AMERICAN MACHINE-GUN SECTION, AMPLY SUPPLIED WITH THAT FORMIDABLE WEAPON AND EXPERT IN ITS 
USE. MARCHING THROUGH FLANDERS TO GO INTO ACTION ALREADY IN PROGRESS THERE. 

{^French Offiviul Photo.) 




UNITED STATES MARINES IN FRANCE BEING PUT THROUGH A COURSE OF INTENS^^^^ TRAINING UNDER THE 

TUTELAGE OF FRENCH OFFICERS IN A CAMP BACK OF THE LINES. 

I 'jj (VjiJii/iifitt on I'ublic Informntton i 



323 



Varied Activities 



merican Soldiers Abroad 




(ABOVE)— THE 
QUARTER- 
MASTER'S 
DEPARTMEN T 
WAS A HIVE 
O F ACTIVITY, 
AS IT HAS TO 
BE. THESE 
BUILDINGS 
WERE ERECT- 
ED CLOSE TO 
RAILROAD 
TRACKS TO 
SAVE FREIGHT 
CARTAGE. 



(AT RIGHT)— 
CHILDREN 
OF A FRENCH 
VILLAGE, RE- 
CEIVING A 
HOLIDAY 
FROM SCHOOL, 
SHOWER 
FLOWERS 
UPON UNITED 
STATES MA- 
RINES PASS- 
ING THROUGH 
ON MOTOR 
TRUCKS. 

(© Committee cm 
Public 
Information.) 




-I 






GENERAL VIEW OF A BRITISH CORPS SCHOOL, WHERE OFFICERS OF THE AMERICAN EXPFnTTIONARY PORPF*; IN 

FRANCE WERE. TAUGHT THE METHODS OF MODERN WARFARE^ FORCES IN 

^^^^^^ (© Underwood rf Underwood.) 



324 



When the British Lion Roared the Whelps Came to Help 




TROOPS FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND PASSING THROUGH LONDON. AT THE DARDANELLES, IN PALES- 
TINE, AND ON THE WESTERN FRONT, NONE SURPASSED THESE MEN IN DASH AND COURAGE AND ENDURANCE. 



325 




326 




(AT LEFT)— 83rd BAT- 
TALION OF CANADIAN 
INFANTRY ON THEIR 
WAY TO ENTRAIN 
BEING REVIEWED BY 
CITY OFFICIALS 
WHILE PASSING THE 
CITY HALL AT TO- 
RONTO, CANADA. THE 
MEN WERE TRAINED 
TO THE MINUTE AND 
PRESENTED A STRIK- 
ING APPEARANCE AS 
THEY MARCHED IN 
PERFECT STEP. 

I© Press lllimlranng 
Compont/. ) 



i. ■ 






^DT^cu TjnvAT PMrTKFFRS GOING THROUGH BAYONET EXERCISE. THE ENGINEERS DID SPLENDID WORK IN THE 
rtRITISH ROYAL^|NG^^ ?i?^tHEIR OWN SPHERE, BUT FREQUENTLY IN HAND-TO-HAND FIGHTING. 

(© Central Nevca.) 



327 



Typical Scene at One of the Many CantonmejUs ^ 




'4- 



J: 



1 



\ - 



ad: 



TROOPS OF THE NATIONAL ARMY AT CAMP GORDON, ATLANTA, GEORGIA, PASSING' 



328 



American Youth Received Their Military Training 




329 



Great Britain Turning Civilians Into Soldier 




NEW RECRUITS STIRRED BY THE CALL TO ARMS AND THE NEED OF THEIR COUNTRY FLOCKINfi RY THOTT'^AMnQ 
INTO LONDON, TO BE ENROLLED IN THE ARMIES DESTINED FOR FRANCE. i^uubANDb 



(© press Illitstriilinrj Co.) 




KITCHENER'S ARMY. GATHERED BY THE INDEFATIGABLE EFFORTS OF thp ^JtrrRT^TAu^/ r^r.^ 

SPECTED BY KING GEORGE BEFORE BEING SENT ™PthE CHANnIE t™ Fmmc UNE^'^'"'^ 

(C -V/^ort ami (lejtirtil Frtsa Affcmy.) 



Women an Important Factor in England's War Work 




331 



India Furnished Its Contingents to Allied Cause 




THE CARE THAT GREAT BRITAIN TOOK TO KEEP ITS INDIAN AUXILIARIES CONTENTED IS SHOWN IN THIS PICTTIRP 
OF THESE TROOPS READING ILLUSTRATED PAPERS PUBLISHED IN THEIR OWN LANGUAGE. '-^'^^^ 



( (Q H II fish (Affinal I'Utilo, /roiii I' nilerwootl rf V ndtrwonil. ) 




INDIAN TROOPS DRAWN UP UNDER COMMAND OF THEIR OWN NATIVE OFFtpt^pq n.^^^ ITT^ 

WITH DISCIPLINE AND HAVE PROVED VERY ETO COMPLIED RIGIDLY 



332 



Soldiers Gathered from All Quartets of the Globe 




o r^mvr TO FRANCF TO SERVE AS STEVEDORES ON FRENCH TRANSPORTS. THEY ARE 

^n^fE^^EK^D™ ^^^^^^ ™^^^ VANCOUVER^ 



333 



Nati 



ves 



of Two Hemispheres Fighting for Allj 




AUXILIARY TROOPS FROM INDO-CHINA, IN CAMP AT VERSAILLES. CELEBRATING THE ANNIVERSARY OF CFN 
HOCHE BY A REVIEW IN PRESENCE OF GEN. DE SAILLY, JUNE 24, 1916. 



iiO French Of final Photo.) 




~ — i'ij I'rrss Associ'itiotr ) 



334 



Allied Warlike A ctivities in the Torrid Zone 




QT?MFrATFSF TROOPS BEFORE THE RAILROAD STATION AT SAN STEFANO. ALEXANDRIA. EGYPT. IN THE BACK- 
GROUND ™A RED CRESC^^ HAS JUST BROUGHT IN WOUNDED INDIANS FROM FLANDERS. 

(O ir»dfruiood d Underwood.) 




, r^^or^tr FMRARKTNr AT FREETOWN SIERRA LEONE, AFRICA, THE MAIN OBJECT OF AT- 

S'beim^^^^ ^'^^^^ '^^ ^^^^^^ ™^ ^^^"^ ''^^'^ 

lAt.K 15l!il]N<jr 1 riEi rv^n-X yjL 0//f<^tal. from Cr„(>at .Vci^s > 



335 



Former Austrian Seaports Now In Allied Control 




TRIESTE, THE PRINCIPAL SEAPORT OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. LOCATED ON THE GULF OF TRIESTE. AND OCCUPIED 

BY THE VICTORIOUS ITALIANS ON NOVEMBER 6. 1918. 




pniMTT THP ^FPOND CITY IN IMPORTANCE ON THE SEACOAST OF AUSTRIA AND THE SEAT OF A VERY EXTENSIVE 
FIUME, THE SECOND OTY^J^N^L^^ DESIRED BOTH BY THE ITALIANS AND THE JUGOSLAVS. 

(© C tide VIC ood rf Undcricood. ) ^^^^ 



337 





DURAZZO. AN ALBANIAN SEAPORT CAPTURED BY THE AU3TRIANS FEB. 28, 1916. IT WAS THE SCENE OF A BRILLIANT 
NAVAL ACTION OCT. 2, 1918, IN WHICH AMERICAN FORCES PARTICIPATED AND WHICH RESULTED IN A COMPLbl^ 

AUSTRIAN DEFEAT. 



338 



Capital and Seaport of Martyred Belgium 




ANTWERP, THE CHIEF SEAPORT IN BELGIUM AND ONE OF THE GREATEST IN EUROPE. WAS CAPTURED BY THE GER- 
MANS OCT. 9, 1014, AND HELD BY THEM UNTIL THE GREAT GERMAN RETREAT IN THE FALL OF 1918. 




BRUSSELS ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL AND COSMOPOLITAN OF EUROPEAN CITIES. WAS OCCUPIED BY THE GER- 
MANS AUG. 20. 1914, AND RE-ENTERED IN TRIUMPH BY KING ALBERT NOV. 22, 1918^ 



339 



G erman Cities Occupied by Triumphant Allies 




TRFVFS THE OLDEST CITY OF GERMANY. ON THE RIGHT BANK OF THE MOSELLE RIVER, CROSSED AT THIS POINT 
BY A bVdGE TH^^^ SIN^E THE DAYS OF MPERIAL ROME. AMERICAN FORCES ENTERED TREVES 



DEC. 1. 1918. 




341 



Citi 



1 es 



N 



ear 



the Border 



of Germany and Belgium 




,.„^,^„„ ,.PPM4N rnv THAT WAS THE CAPITAL OF THE ANCIENT EMPIRE OF CHARLE- 




DINANT. BELGIUM. fiAlKS BACK TO THE SIXTH CENTURY. IT IS LOCATED NEAR THE MFIISR ITS POSITION ON A 
ROCKY HEIGHT IS ONE OF CONSIDERABLE NATURAL STRENGTH TOGETHER ^^^^ WAS 

AMONG THE FIRST BELGIAN TOWNS TAKEN BY THE GERMANS. . 



342 



French City Nearly Reached by German Invaders 




L'ndtrwijoii i I'ltdcrwood ) 



343 



lerusalem. the H^l7!H^yrTgr^I|i^^^^l^^^"^gj; 




A BIRDSEYE VIEW OF JERUSALEM FROM THE MOUNT OF OLIVES. THE CAPTURE 01 



344 



1 



t45 



Oriental Cities Drawn Into the Turmoil of War 




CITY OF JAFFA, THE ANCIENT SEAPORT OF PALESTINE AND THE PLACE AT WHICH INVADING ARMIES HAVE 
LANDED SINCE THE DAYS OF THE CRUSADERS, TO MARCH THENCE TO JERUSALEM. 



iuU ritdliotidl Film ^'(■T|-|<■f . ) 




CmLDREli THAT VF IT^ll'^/n^^u.^'ilt^ '^^'^ ™^ ATROCITIES AGAINST ARMENIAN MEN, WOMEN, AND 
CHILDREN THAT HAVE HORRIFIED THE WORLD, THOUGH THEY ELICITED NO PROTEST FROM THE CENTRAL POWERS. 

— < & V'ldi rwood J Vmlei wood. ) 



346 



Dreaming Cities of the East Rudely Awakened 




■ ' i^T^oo^ r'TTv nir THI? WORT T) AND RKGARDKD BY THK TURKS AS ONE OF 

VIEW OF I^AMASCUS SAin TO B^^ ™Th'''' TOe'^'cOvS " STREET CALLED STRAIGHT." CirV 
THE FOUR PARADISES OF THE EARm.^^^"^ BY THE BRITISH OCT. 1. 1018. r.„.n ; r..... 




347 



Russian Wheat Centre and Transcaucasian Capital 




TIFLIS, THE CAPITAL OF TRANSCAUCASIA. WHICH LIES ON THE SOUTH OR ASIATIC SIDE OF THE MAIN RANGE OF 

THE CAUCASUS AND WHICH HAS AN AREA OF 91,000 SQUARE MILES. 




ODESSA. RUSSIA'S PRINCIPAL PORT ON THE BLACK SEA. IT IS ESPECIALLY NOTED FOR ITS EXPORT OF GRAIN. THE 
PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS THE ANDREVSKY STATUE AND THE KURHAUS. IT WAS OCCUPIED BY THE FRENCH AFTER THE 

ARMISTICE. 



348 



Capitals of Two Newly Born European Republics 





AND TURRETS HAVE AN ORIENTAL SUGGESTION. PRAGUE IS THE CAPITAL Ui" lUi^ 



349 




CATHEDRAL OF ST. BASIL AT MOSCOW, SET ON FIRE DURING THE BOLSHEVIST UPRISING IN NOVEMBER, 1917, WHEN 
MANY HUNDREDS WERE KILLED AND WOUNDED IN SANGUINARY STREET FIGHTING. 




VIEW OF THE PETERHOF ON THE NEVA AT PETROGRAD, RUSSIA, THE CITY WHICH HAS HAD FEW MORE SAN- 
GUINARY CHAPTERS THAN THAT WHICH RECORDED THE RISE OF THE BOLSHEVIKI TO POWER. 



350 




On Monday April' 2. 1917. before the Sixty-fifth Congress 

Sunrei^e Court, the Cabinet, and almost the entire Uiplomatic 
Corps The tumultuous scene which the arUsf s pene, has 
caught came at the moment it became a certamty that the 



President's decision, which had been carefully guarded, was 
for war. When the President stated : " There is one choice 
we cannot make-we are incapable ot making. -We will not 
choose the path of submission," Chief Justice White raised 
both hands above his head and brought them together with a 
resounding blow. Instantly Senators, Representatives, and 
even di^ified members of the Supreme Court were on heir 
Let wa^ng small flags and wildly cheering. Two.days later 
■the Senate passed the war resolution and the House of Repre- 
sentatives concurred on April 6. 



iDraw, hv 'iclor P«ror,l © Uld-Wctk PIcIortnl ) 



351 




352 



London and Paris On the Day That War Was Declared 




Ik. * 



HM TWF NTPHT OF AUG 4 1914 WHEN GREAT BRITAIN DECLARED WAR AGAINST GERMANY, IMMENSE CROWDS 
™f gKbOUT BUC^^^^^ AND CHEERED THE ROYAL FAMILY ON THE BALCONY. 



(£3 UniU rwitOil it Undo woud. ) 



S25«i ll^^' 




i 



ANCENIS 




..3L< 



- 



THE YOUNGES'j 



ri ASS OF FREN CH LADS ONLY 17 YEARSOF AGE. CALLED TO THE COLORS AND GATHERED AT THE 
CLASS OF FRENOT^LAUb. U^^^ ^^^^^ OUTBREAK OF WAR. 

Preaa ntuatrnting Company. ) ^ , — 



353 




354 



War Declaration by the Chief of the Central Powers 



1 




HISTORIC SCENE IN THE GERMAN REICHSTAG WHEN THE GERMAN CHANCELLOR, VON BETHMANN HOLLWEG, MADE 
HISTORIC bCE_^^^ pATEFUL ANNOUNCEMENT THAT MADE THE WORLD CONFLAGRATION INEVITABLE. 




CROWDS IN BERLIN GIVING A TREMENDOUS GREETING TO THE KAISER AS HE LEFT FOR THE FRONT, AFTER PROMIS- 
ING THEM THAT HIS ARMIES WOULD RETURN VICTORIOUS BEFORE THE COMING WINTER. 



10 I'niil Thompson ) 




CELEBRATION IN BUDAPEST, HUNGARY, ON THE OCCASION OF THE VICTORY OF THE AUSTRIANS AT LEMBERG, 
WHICH WAS WON OVER THE RUSSIANS IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE WAR. 



356 




Grouped around this council board are the allied statesmen 
intrusted with the working out of the destinies of their respective 
countries. Each nation has sent her most astute diplomats and 
brilliant military men to represent her at this meeting. 

Starting at the extreme left and moving to the right around 
the table are Premier Asquith of England, Lord Bertie, Sir 
Edward Grey, David Lloyd George, one of the secretaries, Lord 



Kitchener and military aid. Sir William Robertson, Italian Premier 
Safandra, Ambassador Tittoni, Baron Sonnino. General Cadorna. 
an Italian secretary. Mr Matsui, General Chagas, M Isvclsky 
General GiUinski, Premier Pashitch. General Veanitch. Genera 
Yovanovitch, General Rochitch. General de Gastelnau. General 
Joffre, Admiral Lacaze, Premier Briand, General Roques (stand- 
ing), and General Bourgeois. 



I. ft 




^ A 



357 




THE 



LUSITANIA. WHICH SAILED FROM NEW YORK FOR LIVERPOOL MAY 1. '^''^^^Y^'^^^^^^^ 

SUNK BY A GERMAN SUBMARINE MAY 7. WITH A LOSS. INCLUDING WOMEN AND CHILDREN. OF 1,195. 




THE SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA. THAT GREATEST OF OCEAN TRAGEDIES, IS HERE PORTRAYED BY A BRITISH 
ARTIST FROM DESCRIPTION AND WITH THE AID OF SURVIVORS. THE MARKINGS ON THE PICTURE GIVE THE MOST 
IMPORTANT DETAILS. THE MOMENT CHOSEN IS WHEN BOATS ARE PULLING AWAY WITH SURVIVORS 




SERVICES AT THE GRAVESIDE OF THE LUSITANIA VICTIMS IN THE CEMETERY AT QUEENSTOWN, IRELAND. WHILE 
ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE OCEAN ALL AMERICA MOURNED IN SYMPATHY. 



(Q Inlernatioital Nctoa Service.) 



358 



American Transports Sunk With Heavy Losses 




BURIAL ON SCOTTISH SOIL OF AMERICAN VICTIMS OF THE OTRANTO COLLISION OCT 11 1918^ THE OTRANTO WAS 
SUNK BY COLLISION WITH THE BRITISH STEAMER KASHMIR IN THE ENGLISH CHANNKL. 

i 14) Wcalt'in .Wicvfuijx (■ ("»iioii. ) 



AMERICAN TROOPSHIP TUSCANIA TOR 
PEDOED OFF THE COAST OF IRELAND FEB 
6 1918 WITH THE LOSS OF ABOUT 100 SOULS 




RTIRIAT PT ACE OF TUSCANIA VICTIMS WHO WERE WASHED ASHORE 
ON SCOTTISH CO^^^ AMERICAN FLAG BEING AT HAND THE 

ON SCOUISH^CUAfca^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ DESCRIPTION. 




FIRING A VOLLEY OVER THE RESTING PLACE OF THE OTRANTO DEAD ON SCOTTISH SOIL OCT. U. 1918. THE BODIES 
FIRING A VOLLEY OVER pj^^VIOUSLY BEEN BURIED WITH FULL MILITARY HONORS 



359 



One of the Most Striking 



EDITH CAVELL, A GENTLE. FRAGILE WOMAN OF MIDDLE AG 
HER FELLOW-COUNTRYMEN TO GET BACK TO ENGLAND FRO 
OCT. 13. 1915, THOUGH AMERICAN AND SPANISH REPRESENTA 
RUTHLESS BRUTALITY OF THE KILLING. THE ACCOMPAm"' 



360 



d Pathetic Figures of the World War 

HEAO 0. A NUHSINO SCHOO. .OK BELOTAK 
E TERRITORY Oa UPIED BY ™E GERMANS. ^OR ^S^^^ HORRIFIED AT THE 

S SOUGHT FRANTICALLY TO SAVE HER Ll^^ EXECUTION AND HER GRAVE. 

CTURES SHOW HER PORTRAIT AND THE bCfclME- ur 



Hospitals Bombed Delibe rately by German Airmen 




DESTRUCTION WROUGHT ON ONR OF THE HOSPITALS OF THE ST. JOHN'S AMBULANCE ASSOCIATION ON BRITISH 
FRONT. THE HOSPITAL BUILDINGS ARE SO MARKED BY DAY AND ILLUMINED AT NIGHT THAT MISTAKE AS TO 

THEIR CHARACTER IS IMPOSSIBLE. 




362 



The Toll o( War Expressed in Wounds and Suffering 




lit". I<rili!*h Offi'-inl Photo ) 




FORT, SPEhUlNO lUWAniJ r„„„«,ood a vnd^woodr> 



3(>3 



The Red CToss, ''thT'cTealTTrM^ 




RKD CROSS PARADE. BRINGING TOGETHER THE LARGEST BODY OF WAR NURSES EVER AS:,j:MBLED IN THIS COUN- 
TRY. ESTIMATED AT 20,000. PASSING DOWN FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK, CHEERED BY 300,000 PEOPLE. 




PRESIDENT WILSON LED AND REVIEWED THE GREAT RFn rPHQ g pap ^ y^r. - 

SECOND WAR FUND CAMPAIGN. AT LEF^T IS^A vfsTA OF ErOADwIy^^^^^^^^ ^T THE OPENING OF THE 
. ^ SQUARE t^LOSED B> THE TIMES BUILDING AT TIMES 



((0 Tinii:^ I'holo Scrvicf ) 



364 



Americans of All ApesAn ame With Enthusi^ jjn 




AVENUE AND 35TH STREET. NEW YORK, IN THE LIB- 



TANKS GREETED ™MU_LTUOUS^a™ ,,^p^,^,. 



ERTY LOAN 



Tillies I'hotu .SVri'ur. I 




365 




366 



America's Billions Rolled in For America's Needs 




ONE OF THE MOST EFFECT- 
IVE OF THE LOAN POSTERS 
WIDELY DISTRIBUTED. 



FOB VICTORY. BUY BONDS 



FIGHT GLEAMED IN THE 
EYE OF THIS SOLDIER. AND 
THE PUBLIC OBEYED^ 



367 




CAPTURED GERMAN HELMETS BEING GIVEN AS PREMIUMS TO PURCHASERS OF BONDS IN PARIS DURING THE 

PROGRESS OF THE FOURTH " LIBERATION " LOAN DRIVE IN 1918. 

(© International Film Service.) 




m 



ill n 



i 



TRAFALGAR SQUARE, IN LONDON, WAS TRANSFORMED TO REPRESENT A WAR-SCARRED VILLAGE ON THE WESTERN 
FRONT, AND PEOPLE WERE INVITED TO " FEED THE GUNS WITH BONDS " AND THUS HELP END THE WAR. 

,2 10 British Official Photo, from Topical Prea» AQtmcy.y 



368 



mericans 




Kill 




Private Thomas F. EnHght of Pittsburgh, i Corporal James B. Gn-sham of Evans- Private Merle D, Hay, native of Iowa, 21 
Penn., killed Nov. 3. 1917. T ville, Ind., one of first Americans kilUd. • years old, killed ih first Amertcan battle. 



iPoTtrails © International Film Service.) 




(^5 fommUfcP on Public Infarmnlion.) 




LeS pReMlERSSOlDATS 





369 




INTERIOR OF A LOUNGING AND RECREATION HUT PROVIDED FOR SOLDIERS. HERE THEY CAN CHAT, READ AND 
WRITE LETTERS. JOIN IN CAMP SONGS LED BY THE PIANO ON THE PLATFORM, AND HAVE OTHER ADVANTAGES OF A 
CLUBHOUSE AND SOCIAL CENTRE. 



370 



Soldiers' Recreation Centres in Paris and at Front 




SERVIOiii. ^^^^ 




4 



If N 





. wiTTTrARF ORPANIZAT ION AT THE FRONT, CAREFULLY CAMOUFLAGED TO SCREEN 

HosmE avi1to™d o™™ is possible in the stress o f ACTUAL war. 

1 1 t KUJVl nV^O i 1^*^ " ^ ^^^^^^ C^tnmltue on Public /n/ortnotion. ) " 



371 




TROOPS STAT.ONEI, AT L,L«, THE «OST mPORTA„T C,TV OF NOETHERN FRANCE, ARE HERE SEE» AT 

GUARD MOUNT IN THE PRINCIPAL PLAZA OF THE UlY. 

((0 Brown if D<nt<son. frov Underwood A Vndei-wood .) ^ 



,p -If 




BRUSSELS, THE CAPITAL OF BELGIUM, WAS OCCUPIED BY THE GERMANS IN THE EARLY WEEKS OF THE WAR- A 
SPECTACULAR PARADE OF THE GERMAN TROOPS IS BEING HELD FOR ITS EFFECT ON THE SUBJUGATED POPULATION. 



372 



Great Cities at Extremes of Former Russian Empire 




AMERICAN NAVAL OFFICERS AND AMERICAN MARINES SALUTING THE PARADE OF THE ALLIED TROOPS IN THE 

STREETS OF VLADIVOSTOK, THE PRINCIPAL SEAPORT OF SIBERIA. 

( Underwood rf Unilerwood. ) 




y, IVIO. p^^l Thompson."! 



373 




THE INHABITANTS OF LILLE, WHO HAD BEEN FOR FOUR YEARS UNDER GERMAN RULE. GREETED THE BRITISH 
TROOPS WITH WILD ACCLAMATIONS AS THEY MARCHED THROUGH THE RECAPTURED CITY. 



( <t'^ ftrifivfi Offu tal I'holo. from I'micrwood d Vndcruood.) 




THE GRAND SQUARE OF LILLE. PACKED WITH JUBILANT THRONGS LISTENING TO THE MUSIC OF THE MARSELLAISE 
WHICH FOR FOUR YEARS THEY HAD ONLY BEEN ABLE TO MURMUR BEHIND CLOSED DOORS 



I Itritish Offtriiil Photo, from Viulcrwood rf Vtiderwood. ) 



374 



War Posters That Stirred the Blood and Won Recruits 

ii 




AMERICAN WAR POSTER THAT 
PROVED VERY EFFECTIVE. 




FOR U.S. ARMY 

NEAREST RECRUITING STATION 



NAVY 
HEEDS YOUl 
DON T READ 

AHQWCAH HiSTOHfY 

MAKE IT! 



THE COMPELLING DIRECTNESS OF 
THIS DEMAND DID ITS WORK. 




U S-NAVY RECRUITING STATIQII 



THINKT 



ARE YOU CONTENT FOR 
HIM TO FIGHT FOR YOU? 

WONT YOU DO YOUR I 

WE SHALi. .^^ 

BUT YOU Mr MELP 



JOIN TO-DAY 





THE NAVY MANNED ITS DREAD- 
NOUGHTS IN THIS FASHION. 



i 



THIS STRIKING PICTURE OF AN AMERICAN MARINE BROUGHT COM- 
RADES TO HIS SIDE. 




IILLIIIIBREECH 



IF EVER A PUN JUSTIFIED IT- 
SELF IT WAS HERE. 



THE SCRAP OF PAPER" 




FOLLOW 

THE 

FLAG! 



BRITAIN NEEDS 



The Germans have broken their pledged woM 
and devastated Belgium. Help to Keep your 
Country s honour bright by restorin^gium 
her liberty. 

ENLIST TO-DAY 



THIS BRITISH POSTER BROUGHT 
SWARMS INTO THE RANKS. 




ENLIST IN THE NAVY 
U.S.NAVY RecruitingStation 



THE VERY TANG OF THE SEA IS IN 
THIS NAVY POSTER. 



YOU AT- ONCE. 



THE ENGLISH ST. GEORGE SPEARING 
THE GERMAN DRAGON. 



375 



THIS TOWERING HULL OF THE DREADNOUGHT OKLAHOMA HAS A KEEL THAT IS VPRv" 
HEAVILY WEIGHTED TO OFFSET THE PONDEROUS ARMAMENT ABOVE 



jars and Stripes in the North Se 




HIP TEXAS, SHOWING THE MIGHTY 
E MOST DEADLY ENGINES OF DE- 
AFLOAT. 



LjALC^i^L ^ Central SfW.) ^ — T^IZ^^^T^I^I^^ 



177 




378 



Launching of American Battleships of Latest Types 




THE UNITED STATE S DREADNOUGHT PENNSYLVANIA. OF LARGEST AND MOST POWERF^^^^ CLASS. STARTING DOWN 
mt, UXNiiiLu ^liv ^^^^ WATER AT NEWPORT NEWS. VIRGINIA. MARCH 16. 1916 ^ 



(O liain News Scrvtce.) 



U'l 1 • 



III ' * ' ■ .i mu i— 



SHlr hSUlL.* r ,.,f,r«^f,(^.al .Vcu.il aervir<.) 



379 



Preparation by the NUTTloTTkTj^^ t h e^^ ^ 




AMERICAN SUBMARINES OF THE K-CLASS FITTED OUT WITH MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT OF THE LATEST TYPE 

TO BE USED IN CASE OF HOSTILE DESCENT ON OUR COAST. 



»(<•! (Wi/ra/ New/i Photo Service.) 




TORPEDO OF THE 21-INCH TYPE BEING GOTTEN READY TO BE LOWERED INTO THF MOT r> nj? tviv nvT AwnMA TT 
IS .HOM THE TUBK BV COU^U^SS.^^^^^^^^^ 



380 



Great Guns, Destructive Shells and Skilled Gunners 




381 




382 




THE COVETED STAR ON A SHIP'S 
FUNNEL THAT SHOWS IT HAS SUNK 

A SUBMARINE. 10 Vn^erwood 4 Underwood.) 




TAKE ABOARD A BO^^^^M:dWVkTIU^^^^^ 
STAiC^a om-rviTx^.v ADRIFT IN MIUUCEAN AFTER TI 

ATTACK. WHO HAD BEEN SET A^^^^ L'L.^.,.. on pu.hc inforr.a.ion.y 



UNITED ST^^^i^^^^^r^^ ^^?.\^U'^rSTKUCTION O. THEIR VESSEL. 



383 



-r c n- r Raffle- Cruisers of British Navy 
Type or Cjieantic battle j_ 




THE QUEEN MARY, HERE SHOWN. WAS ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL BATTLE CRUISERS OF GREAT BRITAIN'S 
FLEET. SHE WAS SUNK BY GERMAN GUN FIRE IN THE BATTLE OF JUTLAND MAY 31, 1916. 

( g) Unilenvood V nderioood. J 





ON BOARD THE HERCULES, THE FLAGSHIP OF THE FOURTH BRITISH SQUADRON WITH CRFW^^ AMn r-rrxTc .t^7 
FOR ANY EVENTUALITY WHILE THE SURRENDER OF THE GERMAN FLEET WAS PROr^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

^ . <(0 Wesunx Newspaper UnionA '^^^i vv rtO I'KUOll.JbjUlNG. 



384 



F rench and Italian Guardians of Their Coasts 





Great B a 1 1 1 e s h ,>7Th7rW^7ej]^7t7^ 






THE BRITISH BATTLESHIP BRITANNIA. SHORTLY AFTER SHE WAS TORPEDOED BY A SUBMARINE NEAR GIBRALTAR 
NOV. 9, 1918, AND JUST BEFORE SHE SANK. SHE WAS THE LAST NAVAL VESSEL STOK IN THEWAR 

^ (© Centi-nt News Photo Service.) 



3Rn 



Gallant Ships Whose Names Will Live in History 




THE PRE DREADNOUGHT IRRESISTIBLE WAS PUT OUT OF ACTION AND SUNK IN THE SPRING OF 1915. IN THE FIERCE 
THE PI^'^^TOE^ADNOUG^^^^ RESULTED FROM THE FUTILE BRITISH ATTEMPT TO FORCE THE DARDANELLES, 



10 lulriimttonnl Si'wn Sfrvit^.) 




AL ir^iViri _^ Cntral Seiot Service/} — 



387 



Antagonism 



~ , Submarines 
Between D e s t r o y e rs__jjid^^^£^^,^^ 



i 





ITALIAN DESTROYER, FULL SPEED AHEAD. IN PURSUIT 
OF A SUSPICIOUS CRAFT IN THE ADRIATIC. 



FRENCH U-BOAT CHASER ARMED WITH THE FAMOUS 
FRENCH "75" OPERATING IN THE SUBMARINE ZONE. 



(© Underu^ood d Underwood.) 




LATEST TYPE OF THE FRENCH CRUISER SUBMARINE SHOWING UNUSUAL LINES. A COMBINATION OF SURFACE AND 

UNDERWATER CRAFT DEVELOPED UNDER THE EXIGENCIES OF WAR. 

(© Central News Service.) 



388 



^Supplies and Mechanical Equipment of Submarines 




PHOTOGRAPH OF THE SUBMARINE "MOTHER" SHIP VULCAN TAKEN IN THE KIEL CANAL. ON EITHER SIDE ARE 
SEEN GERMAN SUBMARINES. AND IN FRONT IS A CRAFT ENTERING THE ■■PQCK" SHIP. 




r 




TORPFno TUBES THROUGH WUK H THE DEADLY MIS- 
SILES ARE DRIVEN COMPRESSED AIR ON THEIR 
ERRAND OF DESTRUCTION. 




INTERIOR OF SUBMARINES SHOWING 0^^^^^ 
THE PERISCOPE. ^ AT SJDE IS J^^^^I™ 



IN A SUBMARINE LOOKING AFT. SHOWING HOW IT IS 
PACKED WITH DELICATE AND POWERFUL MACHINERY. 



389 



Germany's Defensive Bulwark and Offensive Weapons 




THE PRECIPITOUS CUFFS OF HELIGOLAND. THE FORTIFIED PART OF THE ISLAND IS TO THE RIGHT. THE LANDING 
PLACE IS ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE ISLAND. BELOW THE LIGHTHOUSE. 



lO hiUi-nntioiial Film Survivt.) 




EST FACTORY OF ITS KIND IN EUKUfii.. "^^^^^ SERBIA. AND RUMANIA. 



391 



The Submarine on V/ ho^^_Kuthle^sLi^^ 




viKi^rHANT SHIP STRUCK AND KLOWN UP BV THE EXPLOSION OF A TOR- 
P i'V™ THE PATH OK THE TORPEDO CAN BE 

1 CLEAULY SEEN. (/•■(<il«rc rholo service.) 



> J, 



SECOND STAGE— GERMAN SUB.M 



Iy.ir<..i>lmii 1 




THH^D STAGE— SUBMERGED 



GERMAN MINE-EAVING U-BOAT U. C. 5. CAPTURED BY THE BRITISH 
VIEW OK flER UPPER DECK SHOWING CONNING TOWER. PERISCOP 



AND MINES. 



PHOTOGRAPH OF. THE GERMAN SUBMAKi> l-^^^ 
ON THE LINE FROM BARCELONA TO HA^ - ; 



j^7d~ATr~a7d Thereby Brought America Into the War 





r vlNO IN WAIT F ^SlroiANDg^ 
iU SEVERAL HUNDREDS OF MILES OUT Al bt.A 



PORTANT FEATURE THAT HAS MAi^t^^ ^ 



39: 



"^"^r Tj jTr^^TaNTeTc h a n t Boat 

Memorable V o y a g e o|_JJnde^I^^ej^J^ 





THE DEUTSCHLAND. IN TOW OF A TUG. PROCEEDING TO HER ANCHORAGE IN BALTIMORE. PREPARATIONS WERE 
MADE BY BRITISH CRUISERS TO CAPTURE HER ON HER RETURN VOYAGE, BUT SHE ELUDED THEM. 

[ I'holos © /n(t riiu(iortai Film Scruire.) 



394 




— — ^^^^^ SHE 




=========7=-T^^7J77r"w^ MAKE 

T^MYSTIFYING .CAMOUFLAGE ^VHK-H ^^^^^^ 

VERY DIFFldlLT FOR ^^Hip. „ ^^^:if2T±L 



A BRITISH SHIPwi^i^^l^^ 
ENABLED IT ON MANY^TRIPS^ 1" ^ 



395 



an 



Submarines 




^JIFoFaMERICAN mine laying operations in the north sea, involving over 56,000 MINES. 



A FLEET OF MINES, CONSISTING OF FROM TWENTY TO FORTY MINES. THIS IS HAULED BY STEAM WINCHES TO 
THE STERN OF THE SHIP, WHERE BY OPENING A TRAP THE MINES ARE RELEASED ONE BY ONE. 

(© V. S. Officiot.') 



396 



rAltjve Military Ope rations in German East Attica] 





MAIN OBJECT OF THE ATTACK BEING THE POKl^u^^^^^ WARFARE 




^ on Afri can Soil 




ENGLISH ARTILLERY CROSSING A PONTOON BRIDGE HASTILY THROWN ACROSS A STREAM. AT THE RIGHT THE 
HORSES ARE BEING WATERED PREPARATORY TO RESUMING THE MARCH IN THE SCORCHING AFRICAN HhAl. 



iQ Paul Thompson. ^ 



|FiS7^Lana ana Wn^Tu^^T^^^^Lgiili 



■t. 



A 



ABOVE ARE SEEN 
URITISU ARMORED 
MOTOR BOATS 
PLYING ON LAKE 
TANGANYIKA IN 
THE GERMAN 
EAST AFRICAN 
OPERATIONS. THE 
BOATS WERE SllP- 
PLIEI) WITH THE 
LATEST TYPES OF 
CANNON AND MA- 
CHINE GUNS. 



(AT LEFT.). GER- 
MAN CAMEL COUPS 
IN EAST AFRICA. 
THIS COLONY PUT 
UP A DETERMINED 
RESISTANCE AND 
PROLONGED HOS- 
TILITIES O F A 
GUERRIUl'A CHAU 
ACTER TO THE 
VERY END OF THE 
WAR. 



A 



J 



y - 



raiSROUGH RECTANGLE WERE^USEDBYIH^^^^ 



s e 




LANDING OF JAP- 
ANESE SOLDIERS 
AT LAO-SHA-WAN 
IN THE OPERA- 
TIONS PRECEDING 
THE CAPTURE OF 
TSING-TAO. AFTER 
THE FORT WAS 
CAPTURED IT WAS 
ALLEGED THAT 
JAPAN HAD PROM- 
ISED TO RETURN IT 
TO CHINA AFTER 
THE WAR. THIS 
HAD NOT BEEN 
DONE UP TO THE 
TIME THE PEACE 
CONGRESS MET AND 
ITS ULTIMATE 
POSSESSOR WAS AT 
THAT TIME IN 
DOUBT. 

( Pi I'liiit Thompson ) 
V t ic 



400 



Utter Demolition of German Power in the Far East 




PONTOON BRIDGE BUILT BY GERMAN TROOPS IN THE PROVINCE OF KIAO-CHAU. THE LAST REMAINING FOOTHOLD 

OF THE TEUTONIC FORCES IN THE CHINESE EMPIRE. 

(Q/'ouJ Thompson.) 




THE TERRIBLE EXECUTION DONE BY BRITISH AND 
JAPANESE SHELLS IS SHOWN BY THIS WRECKED GUN 

AT TSING-TAO. raul Thompson.) 



GERMAN COURIER OF THE TSING-TAO GARRISON IN 
THE TOWN OF TIEN-TSIN ON HIS LITTLE ASIATIC PONY. 




Formidable character, as seen above, explained the long resist- 



(C Paul Thompaan. ) 



401 



ranee 




'■(^^UK'^ OF THE CATHEDRAL AT VARENNES, ONCE THE MOST CHARMING CITY IN THE ARGONNE REGION AND THE 
KU^Wb CENTRE OF FIERCE FIGHTING IN THE FIRST STAGE OF THE AMERICAN DRIVE. 

(Uj PrcaU iUiuitraling iServicfl. ) 



402 



Ruins Like These Dot Vast Regions of Northern France 







DESERTED TRENCHES OUTSIDE THE RUINS OF THE TOWN OF MONTFAUCON. FRANCE. WHICH WAS RECAPTURED 
'"'-'^''^Y THE AMERICANS IN THE GREAT DRIVE THAT ONLY STOPPED WHEN THE ARMISTICE WAS SIGNED. 



l'r<B» llliiatra'iny Senlte ) 



m 



Devastated Cities of Little Kingdom of Belgium 





DIXMUDE THAT FOR FOUR YEARS WAS IN THE SWIRL OF THE HOTTEST FIGHTING ON THE BELGIAN FRONT. 
CREATOR PART OF THE CITY IS IN RUINS THOUGH SOME SECTIONS WERE BUT LHTLE DAMAGED. 



THE 




,^^uv ,M I ntlVAIK KNOWN FOR ITS CELEBRATED CHIMES WHICH WILL NEVER 
THE FAMOUS CATHEDRAL OF ST„ "ERRE^^^ ^Ob^e"^*^^^^^ ED BY GERMAN SHELLS. 

»■ RING ACiAlIN AO ^ inU.Kattonal Film Seruicc-) . — — ^^^^^^ 



405 




40G 



Destroying One of the Great Buildings of the World 




THE CLOTH HALL OF YPRES, BELGIUM, GLORIOUS IN BEAUTY AND RICH IN TRADITION. ONE OK THE BEST KNOWN 
STRUCTURES IN THE WORLp AND A SHRINE FOR LOVERS OF ART THE WORLD OVER. 




THP riOTH HALL IN FLAMES FIRED BY THE GERMANS ON THEIR INVASION OF BELGIUM IN 1914. NOT ONLY 
BELGIUM BUT THEWORLD WAS IMPOVERISHED BY THIS SUBTRACTION FROM ITS BEAUTY. 

1(1^ International FUm Bervic^.^ 



407 



HOUSES WITHOUT ROOFS, ROOMS WITHOUT WINDOWS, WALLS WITHOUT SUPP*^ 



4' 




i CEMETERY THAT ONCE WAS A CITY— YPRES, AFTER THE GERMAN INVASION. 



R~rw77ughti^ 



t Chateau-Thierry 




WOMEN AND CHILDREN WHO HAD BEEN HIDING IN THE CELLARS OF CHATEAU-THIERRY EMERGING FROM THEIR 
SHELTERS AFTER THE AMERICANS HAD HURLED BaCK THE GERMANS AND LIBERATED THE CITY. 



(i>5 (.'ndcncood <f Vndertrood.) 



410 



Where American Valor Won a Splendid Victory 




CORNER TO CORNER AND FROM HOUSE TO^HOUSE. ^';^</,'|^^^^^^^^^^^ , ^. , 



411 



of Ftan 





m 




"'SSSIII'S^'^L^iVI'SS "f I«SaS?K.OP A RUINED 




ALL THAT WAS LEFT OF THE FORT OF APREMONT AFTER THE TERRIFIC CANNONADF PRFrKniMr T»ir ^r.-^^^^.r. 
THE ST. MIHIEL SALIENT BY THE AMERICAN^FJRST ^^R^Y^^ JerLTn B^^^^^ 



413 



German Shells Bursting On C a t h e_draj__ a t Rheims 




TR ATED A ROVR ^ GERMAN ATTACKS AS ARE ILLUS- 



(6^ Underwood d Undcrioood.) _ 



114 



Incalculable Damage Wrought by German Vandalism 




ONE OF THE DOORWAYS OF RHEIMS CATHEDRAL LmFRb^^W^^^^^ 

THE SHATTERED MASONRY THAT FOR Y^ HAS BEhN THE TARGET OF^^^^^^ 



(ft Intcm-tli-nal Sewn Servire.) 



415 



tion 



Left 



the Wa 



jje of German Armies 




V> V >^ J 





AN ORGY OF DESTRUCTIVE RAGE IS INDICATED BY THIS RUIN OF THE EXTENSIVE WORKS OF THF TOAI PITS AT 
DOURGES. FRANCE. NO MILITARY END WAS SERVED BY THIS, AND IT WAS WHOLLY OUTSIDE THE SANC™ OF 

INTERNATIONAL LAW. ,^ p^,,,^, servic) 



416 



Fleeing Germans Block Roads to Retard Pursuit 






FARM HOUSES WERE DESTROYED, GKEAT TftEES CUT DOWN AND'TH» ROAD BARRICADED IW EVERY POSSIBLE WAY 
AS THE GERMANS FLED BEFORE THE GREAT ALLIED OFFENSIVE THAT DROVE THEM BACK TOWARD THE RHINE. 



I jj I'fS^ llhislinltui/ .Scri'Ifr.) 




RRTTISH TROOPS CLFARING AWAY THE BARRICADES THAT THE GERMANS HAD CREATED NEAR PERONNE. FRANCE, BY 
BRITISH TROOreCLEAR^NO^^^ THE HIGHWAY IN ORDER TO HOLD UP THE PURSUIT OF THE VICTORIOUS ALUl.S. 



417 



Hotly Contested_Bardene]dj_££ 



e s t e r n 



F 



r o n t 




' ( Q I'lrltirial I'rcss. ) 



BIRDSEYE VIEW OF THE VILLAGE OF BOURESCHES, AT THE EDGE OF THE FAMOUS BELLEAU WOOD AND NORTH- 
WEST OF CHATEAU-THIERRY. WHERE IHE AMERICANS DROVE THE GERMANS BEFORE THEM. PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN , 

FROM AN AIRPLANE. r.me, Photo service )_} 



418 




FRENCH SOLDIERS AT GUISCARD SALVAGING MATERIAL FROM A HOUSE WHICH HAD BEEN RUINED BY A MINE 
THOUSANDS OF SUCH MINES WERE EMPLOYED TO BLOW UP BUILDINGS WHEN THE GERMANS EVACUATED TOWNs! 



(,{^ Frrnrh I'iitorinl Sfilicv.) 




MAIN STREET IN ARMENTIERES AFTER THE STORM OF BATTLE HAD SWEPT OVER THE TOWN. FEW CITIES IN THE 
OCCUPIED REGIONS HAVE BEEN THE SCENE OF SUCH BITTERLY CONTESTED CONFLICTS. 

• U Hiili^h OHinat from Unilerwoofl d I' ndrrwood I ^— 



419 




420 




CHURCH AT ALBERT BEFORE IT WAS UTTERLY DESTROYED. A LEGEND RAN THAT WHEN THE FIGURE OF THE 
VIRGIN ON THE TOWER SHOULD FALL THE WAR WOULD BE NEARLY OVER. IT WAS SHOT DOWN IN 1918, AND 

PEACE FOLLOWED SHORTLY AFTERWARD. 




WRECTCED RAILWAY LINE PASSING THROUGH ALBERT. FRANCE. THE PICTURE WAS TAKEN HALF AN HOUR AFTER 
THE GERMAN EVACUATION. THE DESTRUCTION COULD SCARCELY HAVE BEEN MORE COMPLETE. 

1 I'mlcivooit J fntleiu-ooit i 



421 



==^. , . r""""""''^^?rrr^ ol FTench Towns 

Allied Soldiers A m o n g K in n s_oj_J^^ ^^^^___^ 




.nil APF THAT THEY HAVE JUST CAPTURED AFTER 




GEORGES CLEMENCEAU, FRENCfl PREMIER, DEFYING MINES PLANTED IN THE STREETS OF NOYON BY THE RE^ 
TREATING GERMANS. ALTHOUGH 78 YEARS OLD, THE "TIGER OF ^FRANCE" IS STILL STRONG AND VIGOROUS. 



Id" H'rs/erii Nttos/iaijet t'nioii.l 



422 



D 



evastation of Fv^^rnat^j d d n 

- evacuated Kegions By Caermans 




THE PLACARD ON THIS RUINED CITY HALL OF PERONNE, FRANCE. WAS LEFT BY THE GERMANS WHEN THEY ABAN- 
DONED THE TOWN. IT READS: "DO NOT GROW ANGRY-ONLY WONDER." THE WORLD HAS WONDERED. 



\(Q Urxliah Offiriul.) 




HTTPF MTMP CRATER IN THE MAIN STREET OF LA BASSEE. SO PLACED AS TO MAKE THE ROAD IMPASSABLE. IT WAS 
EXPLODED BY THE GERMANS JUST BEFORE THE BRITISH RECAPTUURED THE TOWN. 

, r: ii .. (>li,<nil f'Acifo. fioir t'nilrru ooil A I'luterirootl. I 



423 




GRASS GROWING IN RUINS OF ARRAS CATHEDRAL AND TYPIFYING THE UTTI 



and an Art Treasure of the World, Today in Ruins 




425 



=-==============^==^^^"^^^^"^^^0^7^^77X10 Heap of Ruins 

Picturesque F r encli_Town^^Redu^ 




TO WA.xv- 




PHOTOGRAPH OF ARRAS TAKEN FROM AN AIRPLANE, SHOWING THE REMAINS OF THE CITY HALL IN THE FORE- 
GROUND. WITH THE MELANCHOLY WRECKS OF OTHER BUILDINGS CLUSTERED ABOUT AND BEHIND IT. 

i^.j r..nrh Offi.Hil rholo. f,0}n I<t,<i,l ,t Ihrtxrt.) . 



426 




r 



Gaunt and Shatterprl \7~7^ r 7^ 
==========iLiii£I£d Victim of German 



A 




ALL THAT IS LEFT OF THE HOTEL DE VILLE AT ARRAS, FRANCE, WHERE SOME OF THE BITTEREST FIGHTING OF 
THE WHOLE WAR OCCURRED IN THE GREAT GERMAN DRIVE OF MARCH, 1918. 



427 



Sanctity ofChurcl^^ 




MORE THAN ANY OTHER BUILDINGS IN FRANCE. CHURCHES HAVE SUFFERED FROM GERMAN SHELLS. THIS PIC- 
TURE SHOWS THE CHURCH AT RIBECOURT ON THE OISE, AFTER TOWN WAS RECAPTURED BY THE FRENCH. 



(© I'liih-ruo'- .1 I'nili rwooit.) 




A RARE SPECIMEN OF J^^^™ ARCH^^^ CHURCH IN THE SOMME DISTRICT. WHICH HAS 

BEhN UTTERLY RUINED AND LAID OPEN TO THE SKY 



428 



r 



Desecrated San r ^71777 i r> i • , 

_ ,^ ^^^a^^Ui_aj- 1 e s I n Be 1 g i u m and France 





BATTERED FACADE OF THE ONCE BEAUTIFUL CHURCH AT TILLOLOY. FRANCE. FRENCH TROOPS ARE PASSING 
BEFORE IT TO ENTER A COMMUNICATION TRENCH LEADING TO THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE. 

(C Wrifia/i Offiiini from Puu\ Thouiiiton. ) 



429 



— — r - - ~cZZ7. Ui Des p e r a t e Fight i n p 

Churches Used as rort s^i^^^^^^^^^^^^^,.:. ^ ^ ==,^^^ 




VILLAGE CHURCH OF FRISE, FRANCE. IN THE VERY HEART OF THE TERRIFIC SOMME FIGHTING. THE PLACE WAS 
HELD AS A FORT BY THE GERMANS UNTIL THE FRENCH DROVE THEM OUT WITH SANGUINARY LOSSES. 



iKj) rnil' ii-tiiiil d VnitrrwoiKl.) 




COMPLETELY UNROOFED BY ARTILLERY FIRE IS THIS CHURCH AT VIE CHAPELLE IN THE DISTRICT AROUND LA 
BASSEE, WHERE BATTLES RAGED FIERCELY IN THE GREAT GERMAN DRIVE OF THE SPRING OF 1918 



430 



CHATEAU SHELLED SAVAGELY BY THE GERMANS AFTER THEY HAD BEEN DRIVEN FROM THE VICINITY BY TH^ 
CANADIANS. HUNDREDS OF THESE CHARMING STRUCTURES HAVE SUFFERED A SIMILAR FATE. 

(0 M'la'fTn Newspaper Vn\on ) 



431 



Bridges Demoye^Bv Hastily Retreating Armi 



e s 




PONT DES ARCHES IN LIEGE BLOWN UP BY THE BELGIANS TO RETARD THE (lERMAN ADVANCE. THIS WAS ONE OF 
THE MOST BEAUTIFUL OF THE BELGIAN BRIDt.KS. THE GERMANS BUILT A PONTOON BRIDGE NEAR BY. 




^ ..Tc^TTT A R TVFR DURING THE RUSSIAN RETREAT BEFORE VON MACKENSEN'S ADVANCE. THE GER- 
S\Te PA^Sm^^^^ r"™"^ PI-ACE OF THE DESTROYED STRUCTURE. 



433 



Desecration of Churches and Mocking Taunts 



Kirche" 

Passchcndale 




CHURCH CANDLESTICKS TIkO 1N tlUNt)l.Kg TiY GERMAN 
LOOTERS WHO, HOWKVKR. HAD NOT TIMK KNOUGH TO 
GET THEM AWAY. 



"CHURCH OF PASSCHENDAELE" WAS THE IRONICAL IN- 
SCRIPTION LEFT BY GERMANS ON THIS SITE OF BELGIAN 

CHURCH. Ko /j'f'Mdii > 




~ ="="T^MATTRESSES CUT OPEN AND THEIR CONTENTS Sl'READ ABOUT THE ROOM. ON 

THIS ROOM HAS BEEN PILLAGED THE MATTRESSES CUT^ ^^^^^^^ EXAMPLE OF CEHMAN HUMOR, 

THE BEDSTEAD IS LMAi^ntt. ^.^ 



435 




436 



mbs From Air 




ROOF TORN FROM HOUSE BY A BOMB DROPPED BY GERMAN AVIATORS DURING A RAID ON LONDON TWO BOVS 
WERE KILLED IN THIS RAID, WHICH WAS THE FIRST TO BE WITNESSED BY AMERICAN SOLDIERS. 

I C Knn.sh Offw„il ]'hi.f-K f,-.„., fiirlr. u ooil .( rmlcrv i.iiil.) 




DEATH AS WELL AS MATERIAL DAMAGE WAS CAUSED HERE 
WHEN A YOUNG GIRL WAS BURIED IN THE DEBRIS OF THE 

BUILDING. 

tiT) British OffiHal Photo, fim-i «tr,tl Srvs ti'^rrirr ) 



CORNER HOUSE PARTIALLY WRECKED BY BOMB 
DROPPED FROM ZEPPELIN IN 1917. 

li Cnilrnt Sewn tici vlci ) 



437 



Italian C i t i e sA^a 




lii^ fnss lllii.':tnitiiu/ S.ivU-r ) ^ — 




INTERIOR OF A CHURCH AT MONFALCONK. ITALY. DESTROYED BY AN AUSTRIAN BOMB. THE ALTAR AND ITS ORNA- 
MENTS HAVE VANISHED ANlt PART OF THE ROOF HAS BEEN TORN OFF. 



438 



Destruction 





OF PART OF IrlEi I 



439 



The 



White 




4 




J 



Hi \ 




GERMAN DELEGATES ON THEIR WAY TO THE ARMISTICE CONFERENCE WITH 



Above is shown the framing of the armistice terms by the Interallied Conference ^ ersa.iles France.^ L^^^^^^^ aide of table from 
to right: Second man. General di Robilant. Italian Foreign Minister Sonnmo, Italian P^^^'^^'^Orlando Col^^^^^^ Genera 
Tasktr H. Bliss. ; next, but one. Greek Premier Venizelos. and Serbian Minister Vesn.tch^ At the right : Vice Admiral Wemys3. General 
Sir Henry Wilson, Field Marshal Haig, Genera! Sackville West. Andrew Bonar Law, British Premier Lloyd Georp French Premier 
Clemenceau. and French Foreign Minister Stephen Pichon. No gathering of plenipotentiaries for a century past has been fraught 
with such importance. 




This drawing of the first meeting of the German armistice delega ces with Marshal Foch and allied associates in the Marshal's rail- 
road car at Rethondes, France, was made by an artist especially assigned by the French Government for that purpose. The allied 
representatives are (1) Marshal Foch. (2) British Admiral Wemyss. (3) an American delegate, probably General Rhodes. (4) French 
General Maxime Weygand. The German delegates are (5) Mathias Erzberger, (6) General von Guendell. (7) General von Winterfeld, 
and (8) Count von Oberndorff. Marshal Foch read the terms in a loud, clear voice. Conference followed and the terms were signed 
Nov. 11. 1918. 



442 



Scenes Attend! 



1 n 



ill rf '^1^1-: 



igning 



of 



m 1 s 1 1 




THE SPOT IN THE FOREST OF COMPIEGNE. FRANCE, WHERE THE ARMISTICE WITH GERMANY WAS SIGNED. NOV. 11. 
1918. ON THE LEFT IS THE TRAIN THAT FORMED THE HEADQUARTERS OF MARSHAL FOCH AND ON THE RIGHT THAT 

OCCUPIED BY THE GERMAN ENVOYS. i.-j..«uoj j r«i.ru>oo.(.) 




STAR ON MAP INDICATES THE EXACT PLAC| NEAR 
RETHONDES. FRANCE^^^1^^^J^^^™|S^ ^ 



The most momentous event of the 
year 1918 was the signmg ol trie 
armistice between the Alhes and 
Germany on Nov. 11, which, while 
it did not formally end the war. 
virtually accomplished that result, 
since it made the resumption ot 



hostilities by Germany impos- 
ojKie The negotiations took place 
^ he S!road^•ar in the Forest of 
Compiegne, where Marshal Foch 
had his headquarters. The Ger- 
man delegates reached the spot 
Xr a long automobile journey 



which, whether bv accident or 
design, was made to include the 
districts where there had been 
wanton devastation by tbe Ger- 
man armies. The discussion 
lasted for three days, during 
which time the German envoys 



had their sleeping and dining 
quarters in the train, shown on 
t:ie right of the picture above. 
Only trifling modifications were 
made in t'le terms, and after the 
armistice was signed Marshal 
Foch proceeded to Paris. 



Premature Rejoicing in New York Over Armistice 




NKVV YORK WENT WILD WITH .lOY WHKN THK NKWS CAMK NOV. 7. 1918. THAT THE ARMISTICF WAS Sir.NFD THE 
REPORT WAS PREMATURE. BUT ALL KELT THAT THE SIGNING WAS ONLY DEFERRED AND THE CrTY PFT F^^ 
AS NEVER BEFORE. "SCRAPS OF PAPER- GAVE THE IMPRESSION OF A SNOWSTORM AS SEEN ABO^^ 



444 




A FEATURE OF THE EXULTANT DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK OVER THE SIGNING OF THE ARMISTICE WAS THE 
CEREMONY OF SALUTING THE VigTORIOUS FLAGS OF THE ALLIES AT THE PUBLIC LIBRARY. THE ITALIAN FLAG 

IS JUST BEING RAISED. 



■I V I 



4-: .1; 



!5 



• V 



ON NOV 11 1918. THE STREETS OF THE METROPOLIS WERE PACKED WITH (CHEERING THRON 
^ ' ' • AND FIFTH AVENUE, SHOWN ABOVE, TRAFFIC WAS ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE. 



AT 42ND STREET 



445 





If ^' • 1 ?t 3 - 



MEUSE. ^ 




THE DEMONSTRATIONS IN PARIS CONTINUED ALL THE NIGHT. AMERICAN SOLDIERS. WITH A SPRINKLING OF 
FRENCH BROTHERS IN ARMS, ARE HERE PARADING THE STREETS IN AN AMERICAN ARMY TRUCK TO EXPRESS THEIR 
JOY OVER THE END OF THE WAR. 

446 



Enthusiastic Throngs Crowding P a r i s Streets 




THE STRASBOURG MONUMENT, WHICH FOR DECADES HAS BEEN VEILED WITH BLACK AS A SYMBOL OF MOURNINC 
FOR LOST ALSACE-LORRAINE, BUT NOW DECKED WITH FLAGS AND FLOWERS. h.uin .< ,f.,b,.-, , 




447 




448 



Italy, Canada and China Rejoicing Over Armisti 




ce 



■ ^^^^^ 



(ABOVE.) ROME, 
ITALY. WAS DELIR- 
IOUS WITH JOY 
WHEN THE ARMI- 
STICE SIGNING WAS 
ANNOUNCED. A 
VAST MULTITUDE 
JOINED IN A PRO- 
CESSION TO THE 
ALTAR OF THE NA- 
TION WHERE CERE- 
MONIES WERE 
HELD. 



(AT RIGHT.) AT SAN 
JUAN, IN PORTO 
RICO. THE POPULA- 
TION MADE HOLI- 
DAY AND AMERI- 
CAN FLAGS WERE 
SEEN EVERYWHERE 
WHILE PATRIOTIC 
SONGS WERE SUNG 
AND PUBLIC AD- 
DRESSES MADE. 

(^^ Puhliahrrs' Photo 
Scruice. t 




(ABOVE.) THE ITAL- 
IAN POPULACE OK 
MILAN JOINED IN A 
TREMENDOUS DEM 
ONSTKATION WHEN 
THE NEWS OK THE 
ARMISTICE SIGN- 
IN (; WAS AN- 
NOUNCE D. THE 
STREETS WERE 
PACKED WITH DEM- 
ONSTRATORS. 

(BELOW.) WITHIN 
T H E H I STO R I C 
GROUNDS OK THE 
FORBIDDEN CITY AT 
P K K I N G. (IHINA, 
ELABORATE CERE- 
MONIES WERE 
HELD BY THE CHI- 
NESE. TROOPS OK 
THE ALLIES ARE 
AWAITING THE 
PRESIDENT'S A K • 
RIVAL. 




449 



Vast Ge 



,„an War Material Surrende red to Alli es 




A PICTORIAL SUMMARY THAT ENABLES ONE TO GRASP THE WEAPONS AND SUPPLIES DEMANDED BY THE TERMS 
OF ARMISTICE TO PREVENT THE RESUMPTION OF HOSTILITIES BY GERMANY. 



GERMANY'S war strength 
was so diminished by the 
aimistice that all chance 
of further successful prosecution 
of the war by her was eliminated. 
The terms included the delivery 
of 2,500 heavy guns and an equal 
number of field guns, 25,000 ma- 



chine guns and 3,000 minnenwer- 
fers. Naval surrenders included 
ten battleships, six battle cruisers, 
eight light cruisers, two mine 
layers, fifty destroyers, and aU 
submarines, with their complete 
equipment. In adddition.all vessels 
of the auxiliary fleet trawlers, 



motor vessels, &c., were to be dis- 
armed and their armament and 
crews put on shore; 1,700 air- 
planes — bombers and fighters — 
were also to be delivered to the 
Allies. In the realm of transpor- 
tation the terms demanded the 
givintr up of 5,000 locomotives, 



150,000 railroad cars, and 5,000 
motor trucks. All other material 
— fooa, ammunition, coal — not re- 
moved within the period fixed tor 
the evacuation were to remain m 
the hands of the Entente, Harbor 
facilities and railway equipment 
were to remain intact. 



450 




U. S. ADMIRAL RODMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY ADMIRAL SIMS, EXTENDING A CORDIAL GREETING TO KING GEORGE OF 
ENGLAND AS THE LATTER CAME ON BOARD THE NEW YORK, THE FLAGSHIP OF THE AMERICAN DREADNOUGHT 

SQUADRON. (45 I'mlrruittod A (;>irfrr ifood. ) 




451 




452 



Vanishing of Naval Strength of Central Po 



w e r s 




¥-1 



I 



453 




454 



' " g ' ° ' ' ° "J=,££j,jlGejjnan Submarine Warfare 





GERMAN COMMANDER SURRENDERING HIS VESSEL TO BRITISH NAVAL OFFICER, AFTER SIGNING A STATEMENT TO 
THE EFFECT THAT HIS CRAFT WAS IN PERFECT CONDITION WHEN GIVEN UP. 

(0 /nr<-rii(t(i(»ml Film Ser\>ice.) 




THE U-155 YIELDED UP UNDER THE ARMISTICE TERMS, LOOKING FROM STERN TOWARD BOW. IT HAS GUNS MOUNTED 
ON TURNTABLES FORE AND AFT THE CONNING TOWER. OUTRANGING THOSE OF ANY ALLIED MERCHANTMAN. 

' (© r S. O/firial.) 



456 



Vast War Material Yielded Up B y the Germans to t 






HUGE GERMAN GUNS GATHE^A ^ 
BORDER TO BE DELIVEREdBoK 
ARMISTICE. " 



CANADIAN SOLDIERS CLOSELY INSPECTING THE FAMOUS ALL-STEEL GERMAN AIR- 
PLANE WHOSE ARMORED SIDES DEFIED BULLETS. vn.,.vwooa Uuftcrwood.) 




MOTOR TRl 




IN MONTAM 




DEC. 2,'I. I9B 


m 


EREn UPT(1 


mi 


FIRST Divi 


mi 


A FEATUM 


Kh 


MISTICE t1 


VA 


STIPULATll 


Iat 


LIGHT ANM 


Iy 


BE Sl'RRE'l 




ARE HErJ 






Mlies After the Cessation of Hostilities, Nov. II, 1918 




GREAT PLAIN NEAR THE 
5RDANCE WITH TERMS OF 

I'lKlei-utioil i( Vnilerxcooit.} 
<^ A. 



KNERAL 




loF THE 




i A PILE 




1 RIFLES 




Iachine 




1 long- 




Ice. 








Arriving 




pRMANY. 




k DELIV- 




IfERICAN 




f-T THAT 




rHE AR- 




|AS THE 




|AT 5.000 




Iy guns 




p. SOME 




llBLED. 

1 4^^^^^^^ 






ONE OF THE FRENCH COMMISSIONERS STANDING BENEATH THE LONG BORE OF A 
HEAVY GUN THAT A FEW WEEKS BEFORE HAD TRIED TO CHECK THE ALLIED ADVAN( 



*&7 



^ -r ■ . k^OrriiDied By Allied Forces 
German Territory to be Uccupiea uy^ _ 




The map above shows the conditions that have been and are being created by the fulfillment of the terms of armistice signed Nov. 11. 
1918. The shaded part indicates the German territory that is to be occupied by the Allies pending the conclusion of the final peace 
treaty. This includes the entire territory on the left bank of the Rhine. On the right side of the Rhine a neutral zone six miles 
wide extends from HoJland to the Swiss border. At three great cities that command the. crossings of the Rhine — Coblenz, Mayence. 
and Cologne — the Allies are to occupy bridgeheads on the right bank, each with a radius of eighteen miles. Other features of the 
map. including the line of furthest German advance into France. 1914. are explained by notations in the lower left-hand corner. 



458 




ALTHOUGH THE ANCIENT CITY OF AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. THE FORMER CAPITAL OF CHARLEMAGNE. WAS OCCUinKD 
MAINLY BY THE BELGIANS, PART OF THE AMERICAN ARMY ARE HERE SEEN PASSING THROUGH ON THE WAY TO 

COBLENZ. 





AMFRTCAN SOLDIERS HEADED BY THEIR BANDS. MARCHING THROUGH THE KAISER PLATZ IN TREVES. DEC. 1. 1918. 
AMERICAN i,Ui^U^t.i^^ WAS THE FIRST GERMAN CITY OF IMPORTANCE OCCUPIED BY AMERICAN TROOPS. 



iC Pdiff r iPOi'<( (( t nth t iro-iil.} 




4f>9 



United States T r o ops__aosj_^oj£^ 



a n 



d Rhin 




THE RHINE AT THIS POINT IS 400 YARDS WIDE AND THE BRIDGE CAN RE MOVED TO PERMIT RIVER TRAFFIC TO 

PASS. IT IS HERE SHOWN LADEN WITH AMERICAN SOLDIERS. 




WITH LIGHT HEART AND SWINGING STEP. A COLUMN OF THE 18TH AMERICAN INFANTRY OF THE FIRST DIVISION 
POURS OVER THE MOSELLE. THE TOWN IN THE BACKGROUND IS GRAVENMACHER IN THE GRAND DUCHY OF 

LUXEMBURG. ^'c v. s. o//,,,.., . 



460 



Review of American Troops by General Pershing 




STIRRING ADDRESS BY THE AMERICAN COMMANDER.IN CHIEF TO^LIMERS, OK JHE TO DIVISION ON THE 



OCCASION OF H.s\l1iT TO THE OCC ZONE. MARCH 14-18. .010. 

i^- InlttnnliinKtl I'llm Hcrvt-'fj) ^ 




THE 



OAT Arv KAPFS FILLED WITH AMERICAN SOL- 



461 



IT- r U\^j^x<^ Under American Control 

Historic German Kivers uiiuci ^ 




AMERICAN SOLDIERS OF THE ARMY OF OCCUPATION LOOKING ACROSS THE MOSELLE AT CATTLE ON THE HILL AT 
COCHEM, D \TING BACK TO MEDIAEVAL TIMES, NOW HEADQUARTERS OF FOURTH ARMY CORPS. 

I© V. S. Of/irln,.) 




^^"^EmENRRpTTS^Fm FORTRESS ON THE RHINE BANK, THAT OF 

EHRENBREITSTEIN, CAPABLE OF HOLDING AN IMMENSE GARRISON AND NOW USED AS AMERICAN BARRACKS. 

tnlri nalional Fil.n Service.) 



462 



Honors Given and Duties Done in Occupied Zone 




I AHtRiCAN 

kRiOGCMEAO BOUNOApr 



GENERAL PERSHING DECORATING lUUG. 
GEN. EDWIN B. WINANS WITH DISTINGUISHED 
SERVICE CROSS AT DIERDOKF, GERMANY. 

(flj liitn nnliiinul Film Ni-i i (•■•■,) 



AN AMERICAN INDIAN. CORPORAL GEORGE 
MINER. 12HTH INKANTRY. ON GUARD AT THE 
MOST ADVANCED SECTOR IN THE BRIDGE- 
HEAD ZONE. 'O « "//W.rl.> 



.1: 



■. V 



yjr miljl. I i^iv * P Intfinultunol t'il'n "'"'f i' * i 



463 




464 




GENERAL LECONTE OF THE FRENCH 33D ARMY CORPS REVIEWING HIS TROOPS AS THEY MARCH 
THROUGH WIESBADEN. GERMANY. ON THEIR WAY TO MAYENCE. 



( O I'mtrrivood J I'ml^ ru-oorl. I 




TO A FANFARE OF DRUMS AND TRUMPETS THE JUBILANT FRENCH ARMIES ENTERED RECOVERED STRASBOURG. THE 
lU A I-AIS^AKI^ VV iJKUMO Anu CHIEF CITY OF ALSACE. NOV. 25, 1918. 



(C f'-mrh Official Photo from Kwltl H Hnbert i 



466 



Occupation of Two Seaports of Austria - Hungary 




NEWLY ARRIVED AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN THE IMPORTANT CITY OF FIUME, THE ASSIGNMENT OF WHICH TO ITALY 
OR JUGOSLAVIA IS A DIFFICULT MATTER FOR THE PEACE CONGRESS TO SETTLE. 

(({> K' w»''itii' Vii tc Co ) 




467 




468 



Commanders Who Conquered Bulgaria and Palestine 




r-u-Mu-uAi PRSMPHPT n'FSPFRFY THE CONQUEROR OF BULGARIA, IS POINTING IN THE DIRECTION OF SEBASTOPOI. 
^™'^?f''btTk''seI StSnG near H?M.WrTH his BACK TO THE CAMERA. IS GENERAL EDMUND ALLENBY. THE 

VICTOR IN PALESTINE. 



t<\- I , h /'I. hnUll .V. r . I. . , 




MAHF RY TFNERAL FRANCHET D'ESPEREY. WHOSE BRILLIANT 



469 



t: ; . 1 '■ J ^^Tvice Decorations 
Divisional Insignia and ^e^vj££^^ ^^ ^ 




THE CHIEF DECORATIONS CONFERRED BY OUR OWN AND ^KE^GN COUNTRIES FOR DI^ f^^^fc'cN 
WAR ARE SHOWN ABOVE. THE HIGHEST HONOR THAT CAN GAINED BY AN AME 

rX}V<i<imNAl MFDAI OF HONOR IN NUMERICAL ORDER FOLLOW 2 AMERICAN DISTINGUIbHbU bEKVlCE LKObS, 
S'fSh^ (4) BRITISH VICTORIA CROSS (5) MONTENEGRIN 0^^^^^^^^ ^^.^SllS 

ORDER OF THE IRON CROWN. (7) RUMANIAN CROSS OF ™E STAR^ J^^ 

ORDER OF TAKOVA. (10) RUSSIAN CROSS OF ST. GEORGE. (11) GERMAN IRON CROSS, (12) BELGIAN ORDER Of LEOPOLa 




EACH DIVISION OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY HAS ITS OWN DISTINCTIVE BADGE SOME ARF WHTM^TCAt OTHERS 
NUMERICAL, WHILE STILL OTHERS ARE BASED ON SOME FEATURE OF THE SECTIO^^ 
IS RECRUITED. ALL THESE ELEMENTS ARE REPRESENTED IN THE TYPICAL INSIGm^ 

MERICAL ORDER: (1) IS THE BADGE OF THE 4TH DIVISION. AIR SERVICE (2) 19TH DR^IsTo^ m 1?^^?^ "I'lBERT^^ 

DIVISION; (4) 27TH DIVISION; (5) 89TH DIVISION; (6) ARMY OF OCCUPAT ON- (7) 79TH mv^^m^^ 

(9) 82D DIVISION (10) 87TH DIVISION (11) 12TH DIVISION (12) CAMOUFLAGE cM (13™86TH DIvJ^ (^N^ (fl) 88TH DIV 



470 



Brilliant French Leaders Made Marshals ot France 




OP 1918. 




(ft U'tderxroott S L'tuierwood.) 



471 




COLORS BEING PRESENTED TO A POLISH REGIMENT BEFORE GOING INTO ACTION IN THE MARNE SECTOR GENERAL GOU 
RAUD, FRENCH COMMANDER OF THE SECTOR. AND A NUMBER OF AMERICAN OFFICERS ARE PRESENT. 

^ 'ip> hnnth i'iiliiiiiil Stfvicc.) 




POLISH MACHINK-r.UrS CONTIN- 
GENT IN ACTION IN THK RIIEIMS 
SECTOR IN FRANCE. THE CASES 
HELD BY THE MAN AT THE 
RIC.HT ARE THE BOXES THAT 
HOl.l) THE CAKTRinC.ES WITH 
WHICH THE MACHINE GUNS ARE 
FED. OFFICER IS WATCHING 
THE EFFECT OF SHOTS. 



REVIEW OF POLISH TROOPS ON 
THE WESTERN FRONT BEFORE 
GOING INTO ACTION. THE LEAD- 
ER OF THE POLISH CONTINGENT 
WAS GENERAL HALLER. AND 
THE TROOPS UNDER HIS COM- 
MAND RENDERED IMPORTANT 
SERVICES TO THE ALLIES 
THROUGHTOUT THE WAR. 




Scenes In Berlin FVllowhi^K 




IMMENSE THRONGS BEFORE THE REICHSTAG BUILDING. BERLIN. WHEN NEW GOVERNMENT WAS PROCLAIMED NOV. 

10, 1918. THE SAME MORNING THE KAISER HAD FLED TO HOLLAND. 




CONVOCATION OF DELEGATES OF THE SOLDIERS' AND WORKMEN'S COUNCILS GATHERED IN THE GREAT HALL OF 
THE REICHSTAG TEN DAYS AFTER THE ARMISTICE HAD BEEN SIGNED. ,o mtc^tionai f service.) 



474 



I 



Capital of Germany in the Throes of Revolution 




(ABOVE.) FOLLOWERS 
OF LIEBKNECHT CAR- 
RYING MACHINE GUNS 
THROUGH BERLIN. 
DISBANDED SOLDIERS 
AND SAILORS, A S 
WELL AS CIVIUANS, 
JOINED IN THE MOVE- 
MENT, AND WERE 
AMPLY SUPPLIED 
WITH WEAPONS 
WHICH THEY OB- 
TAINED FROM ARSEN- 
ALS THEY HAD 
SEIZED. 



(AT LKKT.) BARRI- 
CADES MADE OUT OK 
itUNULES OP NEWS- 
PAPERS BEHIND 
WHICH THE REVOLU- 
TIONISTS WERE 
SHELTERED. THE 
NKWSPAPERS WERE 
OBTAINED I ROM THE 
VORWAERTS BUILD 
ING WHICH HAD BEEN 
STORMED BY THE 
RIOTERS. 




475 



Incidents of the Spartacan Uprising in Berlin 




(ABOVE.) GOVERN- 
MENT TROOPS HOLD- 
ING A POSITION BE- 
HIND A BARRICADE 
AND AWAITING AN 
EXPECTED RUSH BY 
THE SPARTACANS. 
DURING THE FIRST 
FIGHTING OF THE 
REVOLUTION. 



(^5 Thnca Photo Service ) 



(\T LEFT.) SOLDIKKS 
OF THE EBERT GOV- 
ERNMENT BACKED BY 
MACHINE GUNS 
SEARCHING SUSPECT- 
ED SPARTACIDES IN 
THE STREETS OF BEU 
LIN FOR CONCEALED 
WEAPONS, THE POS- 
SESSION OF WHICH BY 
CIVILIANS WAS PRO- 
HIBITED. 



477 




478 



Damage and C ;^ <; n a 1 f ; ^ . • n i . ^ 

^ .^iL^^^a^^am^ in Recent Berlin Revolt 




FRAGMENTS OF DESTROYED NATIONAL MONUMENT NEAR BRANDENBURG GATE. THE I)AMA(;E DONE TO PUR! IC 
BUILDINGS AND MONUMENTS IN THE OUTBREAKS HAS BEEN VERY GREAT. 



{1^ ('mil l u o'iil rf ('iiil< i ti 'i'jil. t 




4 PimiTr FTINFRAL IN BERLIN OF THOSE RADICALS WHO FELL IN THE STREET FIGHTING BETWEEN THE FOL- 
A PUBLIC ™NERAL^N^Kl.KLm ^ur^^ UPH9LDERS OF THE EBERT GOVERNMENT. 



(Q Inlerntit'.rninl film feVruc. J 



479 




480 



Former Kaiser and Crown Prince in Exile in Holland 




THE ex-Kaiser is 
here seen out for 
a drive in the 
vicinity of Ameron- 
gen, Holland. His com- 
panion, whose face is 
hidden by the coach- 
man, is his host, Count 
Wilhelm von Bentinck. 
The former Emperor 
fled to Holland Dec. 
10. 1918. after a 
stormy scene with his 
generals and chief civil 
officers at the head- 
quarters of the Ger- 
man High Command 
at Spa, Belgium. They 
assured him that they 
could no longer depend 
upon the loyalty of the 
army to his person 
and at length he yield- 
ed reluctantly to their 
arguments. 

('ji'/'TK'ooi/if Untierwonil. ) 



1 



i 




FORMER CROWN PRINCE FRIEDRICH WILHEI 
MAN OF THE ISLAND OF WIERINGEN, 



.M TALKING TO A FISHER- 
HIS PLACE OF EXILE. 



FALLEN Gernmn 
Emperor as lie 
appeared wlicn 
taking a walk with his 
host about the urounds 
of the castle of Amcr- 
onjicn. Holland. Since 
he souK'ht ri'fuKe nt 
that place the ex-Em- 
peror has kept closely 
to the grounds of the 
castle and his chief di- 
version has been wood 
chopping, in which he 
Is to have become 
expert. His presence 
in Holland has been a 
source of considerable 
embarrassment to the 
Dutch Government 
and there has been 
a large amount of 
correspondence on the 
subject with the allied 
Governments. 

(11^ thilh l U'li'lll tt I'llllrriiKllnl.} 



T 





-A 



THIS 



481 



^^S^£^^==SSini^ll^Ri!liran Government 




SCENE IN THE DUMA FOLLOWING THE FORCED ABDICATION OF THE EMPEROR. SHOWING BACK OF THE SPEAKER 
THE FRAME FROM WHICH THE PORTRAIT OF THE CZAR HAD BEEN REMOVED. 



it 

i 



4^ "^n.^ 



THP PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT THAT FOLLOWED THE CZAR'S ABDICATION WAS ITSELF THREATENED WITH OVER- 
THROW ™ AND WORKING PEOPLE INVADED AND TOOK POSSESSION OF THE DUMA. 

I 13 PhiW Thitiniitan ) 



483 



M 



en 



Shot Down in P e t ro£rad_in. 



Revolutionar y Ri o t s 




TNTPRMFNT WITH SOLEMN CEREMONIES OF THE 182 PERSONS KILLED IN THE RIOTS THAT ATTENDED THE ABDI- 
cSn OF THe SzIr MARCH ™ BURIED IN THE PETROGRAD FIELD OF MARS. 

(© Underwood <t Underwood.) 




SLAUGHTER AND WOUNDING OF SCORES OF PEOPLE IN THE NEVSKY PROSPECT, PETROGRAD, DURING THE LENIN- 
IST UPRISING IN JULY, 1917, WHEN A HAIL OF BULLETS WAS SENT INTO THE CROWD FROM THE ROOF OF THE PUBLIC 

LIBRARY. (© Intenuitionol Film Service.) 



484 



Revolutionary Russia Under Bolshevist Regi 




' IC /nffvnahon«J Film Hcrvire.t 



485 



B e ginnin^^ancL^JMead^ 



Movement 




THF "RED GUARD " COMPOSED OF CIVILIANS. WHO SEIZED GUNS WHEREVER THEY COULD BE ^^O^^l^ND AR^^^ 
TECTING A BOLSHEV^^^^ WHO IS HARANGUING A THRONG IN FRONT OF THE WINTER PALACE. PETROGRAD. 




ARRIVAL OF 13,000 RUSSIAN SAILORS FROM THE GREAT PORT OF CRONSTADT TO SUPPORT THE BOLSHEVISTS IN 
OPPOSITION TO GENERAL KORNILOFF, WHO WAS ENDEAVORING TO KEEP FAITH WITH THE ALLIES. 



486 



^21Al^^^^^lo{_Ex^^^ of the Romanoffs 





(Above.) The house in Ekatoi inburjt, Russia, where the un- 
fortunate ex-Czar of Russia spent his last days, is here seen in 
part, the lower part being hidden by a hijfh board fom-e guarded 
by Bolshevist sentries to prevent approach by unauthorized 
persons. It was .here that ho was reported to have been ex- 
ecuted in the Summer of 1918 by a decree of the Ural Sovii-t 
Government. 



(At Left.) The ex-Czar is here shown in the grounds of the 
palace at Tsarskoe-Selo. near Petrograd, wh(*re he was im- 
prisoned after his abdication on March 15, 1017. Later on he 
was transferred to Siberia, where he is said on doubtful evi- 
dence to have bt-en executed. In th<^ backKi'ound of the picture 
are some of the Revolutionary guards, fully armed, who were 
held re.sponsible for his safety. i-*'; 'vi.f.d/ a-.u^ p 



\jr O'-' ^ ^ lntf}-nnitonnl f if r»r Service. ) — ^— 



487 




488 



\fter Their Sturdy Fight Against Bolshevism in Russia 






UORED TRAIN MANNED BY 
DIVISION. THE TRAIN HAD 
> HE EAGLE." 



48ii 



An^.rir.n Soldiers 7:r^T^^ir^^r"A ^ n g.e 1 Fro^ 




MEN OF CO. I. 339TH INFANTRY, PASSING IN REVIEW AT ARCHANGEL, RUSSIA. OCT 2 1918 THEY WERE C^^ 
\TING IN THAT SECTION WITH BRITISH, FRENCH. AND RUSSIAN TROOPS AGAINST THE BOLSHEVISTS. 




AN AMERICAN CAMPFIRE IN NORTH RUSSIA. THE COUNTRY OF VAST SPACES. DENSE FORESTS AND BITTER COLD. 
WHERE MILITARY OPERATIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF AMERICAN STORES AT ARCHANGEL WERE CARRIED ON 

UNDER GREAT DIFFICULTIES. i^rLi^riin^iy 



490 



American Forces Doing Duty in Archangel Snows 





4»1 





BIRDSEYE VIEW OF THE BASE AND TRANSPORT DOCK OF THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES AT 
VLADIVOSTOK, SIBERIA. THE AMERICAN TRANSPORT CROOKS IS SEEN AT THE DOCK 

(© t', Of/iciaL) 



492 



Th 



es 




TESTING ROLLING KITCHENS ON THE WINDING ROADS NEAR VLADIVOSTOK. WHERE THE 'MST AMERICAN INWANTRY 
HAS BEEN STATIONED TO CO-OPERATE WITH ANTLBOLSHEviST ELEMENTS IN st^^^^^^ INWAN1RY 

^ 'O f S. Official.) 





49a 



President Wilson's Trip to Paif2S_ Peace Congresj^ 





PRESIDENT WILSON LEFT THE UN [TED STATES. DEC. 4, 1918. TO AT- 
TEND THE PEACE CONGRESS AT PARIS AS A DELEGATE. THE GEORGE 
WASHINGTON. ON WHICH HE SAILED. IS HERE SHOWN LEAVING NEW 
YORK HARBOR. GUARDED BY SUBMARINE CHASERS. 



THE PRESIDENT LANDED IN BREST DEC. 13 AND ARRIVED IN PARIS ON 
THE FOLLOWING DAY. THE PICTURE SHOWS HIM IN THE CARRIAGE 
WITH PRESIDENT POINCARE OF FRANCE ACKNOWLEDGING THE AP- 
PLAUSE OF THE GREAT CROWDS THAT GREETED HIM. 

I© Kailrl d Hrrbrit.) 




PRESIDENT FROM THE TOPMOST DECK OF THE GEORGE WASHINGTON. IMMEDIATELY ABOVE THE BRTDGF ! TFTTNG 
HIS HAT IN RECOGNITION OF THE CHEERS OF THE CROWD ON THE HOBOKEN PIER. 

I '{'': Paul ThoiniiKoit. ) 



494 



President With Paris Throngs and American Troops 




PRESIDENT WILSON AND GENERAL PERSHING REVIEWING UNITED STATES TROOPS ON CHRISTMAS DAY AT THE 

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY AT CHAUMONT. 150 MILES FROM PARIS. 




PARIS STREETS, RECEIVING THb UKti>AiC'3A _^ ^^,^,.„„,.^^, pu,„ s<^rvice.) •- 



495 



Engl 



a n 



■ 




^Tx.^^AM PA7ArF lONDON PHOTOGRAPHED IN COMPANY OF KING 
THE PRESIDENT AND MRS. WILSO ^Em DaKer; PRINCESS MARY 



4> 



1.1 -i-^' •■■1 5' *-t l ' V''^ 



I 



TMP PRFFDOM OF THE CITY OF LONDON TENDERED TO PRESIDENT WILSON IN THE GUILDHALL. BEFORE AN AS- 
THE PKEEUUM Uf *"|jJ{^'lAGE INCLUDING SOME OF ENGLAND'S GREATEST MEN AND WOMEN. 



4U6 



Unexampled Welcome to President Wilson in Ital 




THE PRESIDENTIAL PARTY VIEWING HISTORIC SPOTS IN ROME IN THE VICINITY OK THE COLISEUM. PREVIOUSLY 
THE PRESIDENT HAD VISITED KING VICTOR EMMANUEL AND THE TOPE. 

< O fhol.. Sill II <■. ) 




,„ .o TUAQP THAT GREETED THE PRESIDENT. 



THE 



'demSnstratiSn was overpowering and was TH^^^MU. 



497 




498 



Ml^^^LJ^^^lllLM:^l-Pl^SiLCon%<^^^ Was Held 



4 




PRESIDENT WILSON IS SHOWN ASCENDING THE STEPS OF THE QUAI D'ORSAY. ERENCll FOREIGN MINISTRY BUII I) 
INC. A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT IS EXTENDING HIS HAND IN GKKfAm^ 



r il ) ( 'i tilval .1 Si'l Vll-r. > 




THE ENTRANCE TO THE QUAI D'ORSAY RESERVED FOR THE 
ENTRANCE AND EXIT OF PEACE CONGRESS DELEGATES 



r i"' Tii'ifH I'holo Service. ) 



BUILDING WHERE FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTRY IS 
HOUSED. USED FOR PEACE CONGRESS SESSIONS. 



499 



Allied Delegates to the Peace Congres s at Paris_ 




SALVATORE 
BARZILAI, ITALY. 




SALVAGO RAGGI, 
ITALY. 



HENRY WHITE, 
UNITED STATES. 



GEORGE NICOLL 

BARNES, 
GREAT BRITAIN- 




M. VAN DEN 
HEUVEL, BELGIUM. 




SIR GEORGE E. 
FOSTER, CANADA. 



PREMIER WILLIAM 
F. MASSEY, 
NEW ZEALAND. 



DR. EGAZ MONIZ, 
PORTUGAL. 



SIR WILLIAM F. 
LLOYD, 
NEWFOUNDLAND. 




r 



PENHA GARCIA. 
PORTUGAL. 



NICHOLAS MISU, 
RUMANIA. 



ROMAN DMOWSKY. 
POLAND. 




M. ZOLGER, 
SERBIA. 



MAHARAJAH OF 
BIKANER. INDIA. 



NICOLAS POLITIS, 
GREECE. 



SIR JOSEPH COOK, 
AUSTRALIA. 



EDWIN SAMUEL 
MONTAGU, INDIA. 



DR. EDWARD BENES, 
CZECHOSLOVAKIA. 



SIR S. P. SINHA, 
INDIA. 



ANTONIO SANCHEZ 
BUSTAMANTE, 
CUBA. 



500 




EPITACIO PESSOA, 
BRAZIL. 



JUAN CARLOS. 
BLANCO. URUGUAY. 



W. H. IJUIN, 
JAPAN. 




S. A. L'EMIR FEISAL, 
ARABIA. 



OLYNTHO DE MA- 
GALHAES, BRAZIL. 



ANTONIO BURGOS 
PANAMA. 



DON Y DE ALSUA, 
ECUADOR. 




VISCOUNT CHINDA. 
JAPAN. 




SAO KE ALFRED 
SZE, CHINA. 




RUSTEM HAIDAR, 
ARABIA. 



LU CHIENG TSANG. 
CHINA. 




PHYA BIEADH 
KOSHA, SIAM. 



Pyctures of th. other deleoatea to reoce Congress are fou»d et.eu>here (» thi. volume. 



RAFAEL MARTINEZ. 

CUBA. 




M. K. MATSUI. 
JAPAN. 



VIKYUIN WELLING- 
TON KOO. CHINA. 



FRANCISCO GARCIA 
CALDERON. PKUU. 



BARON MAKING. 
JAPAN. 




CERTULLIAN GUH. 
BAUD, HAITI. 



PRINCE CHAROON, 
SIAM. 



C. B. D. KING, 
LIBERIA. 



1© l/orrie i Ewlno. Waahitujton, D. C.) 



501 



F 



r e n c 



h T 



owns 



c 



a ug 



h t In t h 



w 1 r 



1 of BattI 



i 



DUN-SUR-MEUSE, FRANCE, REACHED BY AMERICAN ARMIES NOV. 2, 1918. TRE-T^WN, SET UPON A HILL OVERLOOK- 
ING THE MEUSE. WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONTENDL\vJ ARTILLERIES, AND NOT A HOUSE ESCAPED UNDAMAGED. 



VAUX. FRANCE. SCENE OF ONE OF THE FIRST ACTIONS PLANNED AND CARRTPn out ttkit^tdt^t x.,. 

OFFICERS AND TROOPS. ON .UKY 1, ..IS, ™™HV^A^^^^^^^^^^^ pt5J!l'^^^ 



502 



Historic j\ ni_erican Battlefields 



France 



m 





RUINS OF SEICHEPREY. WHERE, ON APRIL 20. 1918. OCCURRED THE HEAVIEST KICHTING IN WHICH AMERICAN 
TROOPS HAD ENGAGED UP TO THAT TIME. THE VILLAGE WAS ALMOST WHOLLY DESTROYED. 




WHAT WAS ONCE BEAUMONT. TAKEN BY THE AMERICAN 2D DIVISION IN ™E VICTORIOU^^^^^^ 
MEUSE, NOV. 4, 1918. IN THE BACKGROUND AT THE LEFT IS THE FAMOUS DEAD MAN S CURVE. WHERE THE LU^b^ 

WERE HEAVY. - 



503 



27th Division Passing Under Victory Arch, New Y 



or 




THE ARCH OF VICTO RY AND ADJACENT PYLO NS AT MADISON SQUARE, ADORNED WITH SCULPTl I 



5U4 




RED 



WEAPONS AND NAMES OF BATTLES IN WHICH THE TROOPS PARTICIPATED. MAR. 25, 1919. 



Giant Troop Ship Bringing Home American Soldiers 






606 




VICTORY ARCH AT MADISON SQUARE. NEW YORK. UNDER WHICH PASSED ALL PARADES OF RETURNING TROOPS 
HELD IN THAT CITY. THE ARCH IS ESPECIALLY ATTRACTIVE AT NICHT. OWING TO THE HRILLIANT ILLUMINATION 

THROWN UPON IT. 



ir, /ii'xiii III 



y 4 



' s 1 



Ik. 



507 



Honors Paid to the Dead in Home-Coming Parades 




CORTEGE IN HONOR OF THE DEAD OF 77TH DIVISION 
PASSING THROUGH VICTORY ARCH. NEW YORK, MAY 



6, 1919. 



(© Brown Bros.) 



SERGEANT REIDAR WALLER OF THE 27TH DIVISION 
CUTTING SILKEN CORD AT VICTORY ARCH. NEW YORK. 
TO PERMIT CORTEGE TO PASS. 

(© I itleTtial-onal Film iiervice.) 




BANNERS CARRIED IN PARADE OF 77TH DIVISION BEAR- 
ING 2,356 GOLD STARS IN HONOR OF THOSE MEMBERS 

WHODIED. ,^ tnternadojMt Fihn Service.) 



ROLL OF HONOR OF 27TH DIVISION AT COURT OF HFROTC 

DEAD. NEW YORK CONTAINING N^^ 

WHICH THE DIVISION TOOK PART, -o am.,, srof) 



508 



Miliii^^^^P^iad^ Three Great Cities 




THE 26TH DIVISION. WHICH HAD LOST 1,760 MEN IN 
BATTLE. PARADING IN BOSTON. MASS., APRIL 25. 19iy. 

(© I' iflci wooil d Viulerwoi/il. ) 



PENNSYLVANIA'S 28TH "IRON" DIVISION PASSING BE- 
FORE THE LIBERTY BELL. PHILADELPHIA. MAY 15, 1919. 

(O Underwood d Underwood.) 




509 




310 



Men in Training Camp Returning to Civil Lif 



r 



SOLDIERS BEING MUSTERED OUT AT CAMP DIX, ^^^;^i^l%%rmTGZr'' 




r 

I - 7 - 

/ ■ 




CHARGE PAPERS AND PARTING tKUivi urnv. mrfenrood a rmimcood . .==== 



511 




512 



Italy and Bel 



oicing Over Allierl Victor 



4 ' 



Si. ' 



» _ 




IMMENSE THRONG IN ROME CROWDING ABOUT GENERALS DIAZ AND HADOGLIO. LEADERS OK THE ITALIAN ARMY, 
ON THEIK RETURN FLOM THE ERONI WHERE THEY HAD COMPLETELY CRUSHED THE AUSTRIAN ARMY. 



513 



Returning German Troops Hailed as Conquerors 





BERLIN MOTHERS, WIVES, AND CHILDREN MEETING ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF THP .-ITV ppp«^ am o^t r^,r,„^ 

FROM THE WAR. WINDING GARLANDS OF FlSrs a\ouT™LiR^IteI!XmET^ ARRIVING 



514 



German Peac^e Delegates at Versailles, Franc 




HKRR I ESBERTS. 
MINISTER OF POSTS 
IN NKW GKRMAN 
CABINET. 



HERK LE INERT. 
PRESIDENT OK THE 
PRUSSIAN ASSEM. 
BLY. 



\ 1 



I 



HKRR I.ANDSBKRi;. 
MINISTER OK ITB- 
I.iCITV. ARTS. AND 
I.ITERATIRE. 



DR. THKODt)RK MEI.- 

( iiioR. mana(;er 

Of THE WARBl R(; 
BANK. 




IMIOK SCmiECKlNi;. 

INTERNATIONAL 
LAWYER AND AD- 
VISER OK EX-KAISER 




MOTEL TRIANON. WHERE PEACE TREATY 
WAS HANDED TO GERMAN DELEGATES. 



COUNT VON BROCK- 

DORKK-RANTZAU. 
HEADOK DELECTATION. 



PALISADE i:i ILT TO PREVENT COMMUNI- 
CATION OK DELEGATES WITH OUTSIDE 
WORLD. 



V 




A 




GREAT HALL IN THE TRIANON PALACE HOTEL. WHERE THE HISTORIC SESSION OK MAY 7. 1910. WAS HELD. WHEN THE 
COMPLETED PEACE TREATY WAS DELIVERED BY THE ALLIES TO THE GERMAN ENVOYS. 



615 



Striking Features Attending Delivery of Treaty 




DRAWING OF GERiMAN DELEGATES LISTENING TO CLEMENCEAU. LEFT TO RIGHT ARE MELCHIOR, LEINERT, LANDS- 
RERG. VON BROCKDORFF-RANTZAU (HEAD OF THE DELEGATION), GIESBERTS. AND SCHUECKING. 



ifi*. /d rill mm; )/(/ /' Mrni'uinii HI I. UUtsiralwii f 




S^S'JSS'S^J"'^ GERMAN DELEGATES INTO THE GREAT HALL IN TRIANON PAI APR HOTFI Tn p,rn,.„.u. 
PEACE TREATY, MAY 7, 1919. AT THE HEAD IS BROCKDORFF-RANTZAU AT LFF? m rmi^np^^'^i 

COLONEL HENRY. FRENCH LIAISON 0FFICeI^^\.Z^^I\^1, ™i™™;,„I^ 



* 



516 



One of the Great Moments in the World's History 




PRESIDENT OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE, PREMIER CLEMFNCEAU. AI)I)RESSIN(; THE i;ERMAN DEI-EGATES AT TMK 
TRIANON PALACE HOTEL, VERSAILLEC. MAY 7. I0I9. PRELIMINARY TO THE DELIVERY TOTMKM OK THE PEACE TREATY 



« ■ 




517 




ALSACE-LORRAINE. THE SARRE COAL BASIN AND SMALL 
SECTIONS ABOUT EUPEN AND MALMEDY ON THE BEL- 
GIAN BORDER. 



MAP OF EASTERN GERMANY SHOWING SECTIONS THAT 
ARE TAKEN AWAY. INTERNATIONALIZED OR SUBJECT 
TO PLEBISCITE OF THE POPULATIONS AFFECTED WITH 
ESPECIAL RELATION TO THE NEW REPUBLIC OF POLAND 



518 



Demonstrations 



1 n 



Berlin Against Treaty Ter 



m s 




^9. 



i 



(Above.) Great throngs 
assembled before the Reich- 
stag in Berlin to protest 
against the peace terms as 
soon as they had become 
known. There was a chorus 
of denunciation from peo- 
ple, press, and pulpit, and it 
was declared that such 
terms could not possibly be 
accepted. The only excep- 
tions were the Independent 
Socialists who declared for 
any treaty that would pro- 
vide "bread and work." 





(Alwve.) National Union 
fif Young G«'rman« galh- 
cn*(i U-forc the Kmm Mun- 
ument in H»Tlin bearing 
flagft and placards inveigh- 
ing agttin«t the peace 
treaty. F'larard at tht- right 
'•eads: "In 1G4-*1*J84 l»ui« 
XIV. atole German-AlHacc 
from uB. In 1919 Clemen- 
ceau HtealH it." 

(At left.) ProteKt of Ger- 
mans from foreign coun- 
trica and from those hav- 
ing investments there 
against the conditions of 
the peace treaty that ad- 
versely affected their prop- 
erties. Dr. Friedrich Nau- 
mann, the noted advocate 
of the "Mitteleuropa" 
project, is addressing them 
iK-fore the Berlin Museum. 



519 



Allied Peace Delegates A s s e m bUd^j^JlilLglJ^jll-E^ 





THE following names and numbers apply to the lower 
sketch. Each figure there outlined is fully shown in a 
corresponding pose in the drawing above: 1. M. 
Dutasta, Secretary. 2, M. Berthelot. 3. M. Pichon, France. 
4. E. M. House. United States. 5. Lieut. Col. Hankey. 6. 
President Wilson, United States. 7. Lloyd George, Great 
Britain. 8. M. Clemenceau, France. 9. A. J. Balfour, Great 
Britain. 10. H. White. United States. 11. General Tasker 
Bliss, United States. 12. Robert Lansing, United States. 13. 
Lord Milner, Great Britain. 14. Bonar Law, Great Britain. 
15. G. N. Barnes. Great Britain. 16. Lord Robert Cecil, 
Great Britain. 17. M. Tardieu, France. 18. R. L. Borden, 
Canada. 19. Prince Charoon, Siani. 20. J. Ward, New 
Zealand. 21. Phya Bibadh Kosha, Siam. 22. W. M. Hughes. 
Australia. 23. L. L. Klotz, France. 24. M. Benes, Czecho- 
slovakia. 25. M. Bratiano, Rumania. 26. General Botha, 
South Africa. 27. M. Cambon, France. 28. Leon Bourgeois, 
France. 29. M. Vesnitch, Serbia. 30. Roman Dmowski, 



PLENARY SESSION OF PEACE CONFERENCI 

Most of the work of the Peace Conference has beeh necessariB 
to the armistice, territory, reparalions and a host of rel.i^ 
subject. The conclu3ions reached by the committees 
accepted, rejected, or modified before they were 

session was made by J. Simont of the French jouni 
with remarkable clearness the features of pr^cC- 
sulting the numbered outlines in the lower sketch 



520 




. <J 4? , ^ U ^ 't ^ " * . , .5 M M ^ 





■ N AL DECISIONS WKKK 

-r» Th* va»t complex, t> 

• . . i r«ty ' 
• R and IS rr['' 
mrfnbrr of 

e agaiTB ibowB in the dnwiogr cma br tdcaufwd- 




roUM 31 M P»«Wr«wmkt, I'oUnrf St Jaa H«n<iU. M«Ailh 
Afnra U W Ma««»>. Nr« /^Urvl M M llur^'M. 
Paiwma ^r. M r. > . f |i ^.nrr. ImIui M U«r<t hinh«. 
InJta 37 I U M TnimlMtrh. lUrtMs 

3» K I'ut. ' ' . 1 r,nr* lUbUr, Arahu 41 M 

Orlando, luly 42 tH Monii. Fortutfal U |>r VilUU. 
pQrtural 44 M MatMi, Japan 4& Baron Ma inu, Japan 
44 M Honnlao. lUly 47 Marf|uii Hahinji, Ja|«an 4« M 
4a Ala«a, Rrua.lor 40 M Kintf. l.tUfta v 
Frru M M Mantuui, tMMtprwt'f t.2 Ma' 
luly b3 M <iailbaud. Haiti M M Har/illai, lui> i>'. 
Marahal Korh. Krarv^ Vt M fv.hr,. /;f.^rr A7 M 
Blanco, Uruguay &H M ^ I^m Ttrnir 

TalaJW. Oilna 40 Haf* ' ^ fll M 

B^iawnt*. 4 uba ^'^ M '> M M«-ri'l'^« 

GttatMMla M. M Macal^ M Varwl-rv^lia. 

BalfiiUB. M f#«-nrral H»>iif(ir»), ai-i lu Marahal h'*rh, 
fraiva. tT. M Hymana, B Ir'um AM K l'r«ac/B. Hrairil 
M Vai^ralmvl. Balrnm. 



521 



Lost German Colonies in China, Africa, and South Seas 



KEY MAP 



2SO 3 
S,0OO Pi 



"^-^^ MARIANNE I5LAND5 



TO JTAPAfV 



O 



YAP ^ ^^£60/ 



TO JAfAN 




f BIKINI ^AlLI/r ^ 



/^t? /V/Vf 5 \ TO JAPAN 
2000 ^opi//Atton J 



St/NAJ 



jyS, OOO Po/^uiji.iionj 



/s 



IH/t 

\M6f^ ^riuiuiriA 



BBON 



GILBERT IS 



I OOO 5f Mifeb \ 
SO OOO Papu/^ion J 



TO 

N£yi/ Z£ALAN0 




MAP OF SOUTH SEA ISLANDS CAPTURED 
FROM GERMANY IN FIRST YEAR OF THE WAR. 



WHILE the territory that Germany loses in 
Europe is by far of the greatest importance, 
a vastly larger area measured by square 
miles is lost to her in what was formerly her colonial 
empire. The islands in the South Seas represent 
95,560 square miles and a population of 600,000. 
These will henceforth be administered by the 
Australians and Japanese. In Africa the manda- 
taries of the League of Nations come into control 
of Togoland, 33,000 square miles; Kamerun, 191,- 
130; Southwest Africa, 322,450, and East Africa, 
384,180, aggregating 931,460 square miles. In 
China, Kiao-Chau and the Shantung Peninsula, from 
which the Germans were ejected in 1914, were 
definitely ceded to Japan, which has bound itself 
at some unspecified date to return them to Chinese 
sovereignty. Germany had been building op her 
colonial empire for many yeaVa and in the peace 
discussions vigorously protested against their loss. 



LEONE 
LIBERIA 




KIAO-CHAU AJMD SHANTUNG PENINSULA 
CEDED TEMPORARILY TO JAPAN. 




H^MERUN 
i^l.OOSo Miles 
f 000. 000 PopuJai'on. 



A TL PiNTI C 
O C £AN 



SOOTH iVSSr AF/fiCA . ^ 
322, ^SO 5o. /Y/Zes I TO mON OF 

300. OOO A^po/cLf.ony^ ^^^'^"^ 



/ NO/AN 



TERRITORY IN AFRICA AGGREGATING OVER 900,000 SQUARE MILES 
FORMERLY UNDER GERMAN CONTROL, NOW TAKEN FROM HER BY 

PEACE TREATY. 



5^2 



r 



Austrian P 



eace Delegates and Te rms of Treaty 




-^7 




rpllK fnunlng of the |M«cf> 

^•r ih» mcMt formMklttr of 
ih* (Vntrml Pbw«ir«. iMtunll) 
'»r»i tn iimr ah I lmpor> 
• iHil »horil> After \hf (lor 
man tmty wu rirti^nvil at Vrr 
' ^ -rm. 

^ at St lfrmtatn<4tn-l«ayr, 
«i l*ar»t The i-rrrmnnv ttmk 
piw on June J. p.M'>. I 



\rr»«iH«i Auatria wu Ml b) 
the trvfttv a ' '■ . 

u| Imrii ^.lKKt In 
■ udr* She WW rr- 
^ulrxl to mcttitnlir the rtmiiilele 



ute anil lo cMie othrr 
1. 1 1 r.M . * whkh prrvUiiialv in 
unUin «lth her riim|iii»n| AimtriA 
lluhtfary Shr wan kImi Btri|i|>e.| 
of her niiviil «ml avrtal fime*. 
ami (-(trniirllM) tu renuurwe all hor 
**»lrR ' lit rtffhiii II' 

'he I ' of the 1 ., f 

Nalluna ntveiiant. 



I At left I Austrian mvnya In th« 
imnlen uf the villa aap||rnnil to 
in the aulMirtm of I'artn 
•■llor Karl ttfiitwr hr» | nf 

ir.. .1. .1 left, 

I hiMi lit haa 

bvvii onl> ■Utfhlly rMlrh'li<(l. 




(Atrf.ve » <"hai« aii Kranrol* Vn-mifr at Kl. 
' wh»T** thi* 

, . , . ' illy han(l»-<l 

tij Ihrrn on Junr 2. i'Ji'J. I hi- lr«ly Ifft 
Aujilria a mere Hha'low of ita furmiT aelf and 
fffettually rrrmivc^l hff aa a m<mac« to the 
p<-ai4r of Europe. 



<At Irftj Komitr Auatnan UrriUjry in dU- 
pute between Italy and JuKoalavia. Klume, 
the former Mraixji-t of A . " \ wai 

one of the atorm cenlrea - It U 

here abown with other harljora 



How American Press Announced]jignin^ "of Peace Treaty 



IHIS IS DERTAG 

DETROIT MITHin*^ , ^ — JB. 



GEl^MANY WAKES OUT ^^^•^^ , 




PRESIDENT WILSON'S CABLED MESSAGE TO 
THE AMERICAN PEOPLE: 

"The treaty of peace has been signed. If it is ratified and 
acted upon in full and sincere execution of its terms it will 
furnish the charter for a new order of affairs in the world. 
It is a severe treaty in the duties and penalties it imposes 
upon Germany, but it is severe only because Rreat wront^s 
done by Germany are to be righted imd repaired; it imposes 
nothing that Germany cannot do; and she can regain her 
rightful standing in the world by the prompt an<l honorable 
fulfillment of its terms. And it is much more than a treaty 
of peace with Germany. * * • It makes international 
law a reality supported by imperative sanction. ' • ♦ 
It recognizes the inalienable rights of nationality, the 
rights of minorities and the sanctity of religious belief 
and practice. * * * It is for this reason that I have 
spoken of it as a great charter for a new order of affairs. 
There is ground here for deep satisfaction, universal re- 
assurance, and confident hope." 




1, Bringing War to an L 



*^^^',.xcirks Formalities at Vers? 
in Message Urges Acceptance 



1 CONTROL 




g PAGES. 1 NKW YORK 



WDS THE GREAfmR^ 
PART STILL PROTESTING' 

CE SIGNED 



525 



ORIGIN OF THE WAR 

ON June 28. 1914, the Archduke 
Franz Ferdinfind of Austria, 
heir to the throne, and his wife, 
the Duchess of Hohcnburg, were ansas- 
sinated in Serajevo, the capital of 
Bosnia. The assassin, a student named 
Piinzip, was arre.sted and held for 
trial. AlthouK'h he was a Bo.snian. 
feelinj^ in Austria ran hi^h uj^ainst 
Serbia, which, it was claiined, was re- 
sponsible for the deed, if not positive- 
ly, at least nejjatively. by permitting 
her soil to be made the bani.s for anti- 
Austrian intrigue. 

At fi o'clock in the evening of 
July 23. H)14. the Au.stro-Hungar- 
ian Minister at Belgrade presented 
to the Serbian Government a note 
containing the demands of the Dual 
Alonarchy with regard to the .suppres- 
sion of the Pan-Serbian movement 
and the punishment of Serbians al- 
leged to have been concemed in the 
murder of the Archduke Franz Fer- 
dinand. The document, which sought 
to make Serbia a vassal of Austria- 
Hungary, was harsh, peremptory, and 
lirovocativc. 

Serbia's answer to the Austro-Hun- 
garian note was sent on July 2!i, VJ14. 
It conceded all the demands except 
two, whicli infringed upon its rights 
as a sovereign State, and these two 
it offered to submit to arbitration. 

The Austro-Hungai'ian Foieign Of- 
fice denounced Serbia's reply on July 
27 and issued a foiinul declaration of 
war the next day. the text of which 
follows: 

The Koyul Government of Serbia lutl 
liii\!nE r«M»lle<l In a siitlsfactory mtiiincr to 
tlie n<il<- rcrtiltli-it to II by the AiJ.itri>- 
HiitiKiiiliin Minister in IlilcrjifU- on July 
i'.i. 11114. ihv lni|i(Tliil nnd Royal Covi-rn- 
niint finds lint If r'<>nii>elk'(l to pron-ed in 
Hiirecuard Itn riglit.t nnd Intereats »nd lo 
Imv.- rfcourse foi- UiIk purpoNe to force 
lit II riD.s, 

AiisiriH-Hiingary eon.'tlderu ltJ<olf, tliere- 
fore, from tills moment In ti sdite of war 
with Serbia. COl'NT IIKKniTOLD. 
Mlnlnter of Foreign AffHlrs of Austrla- 
HunKary. 

Atteniptfi at mediation by France 
an<l England were fruitless. Austria 
peisisted. and (Jermany refused to 
curb her ally. 

After vainly pleading with the Kai- 
ser to intervene for peace, the Czar 
of Russia mobilized a portion of his 
army to go to the aid at Serbia; Ger- 
many invaded Belgium, Gieat Brit- 
ain declared war on Germany, and 
the great conflict that was to shake 
the world for more than four years 
had begun. 

TWENTY-EIGHT NATIONS IN- 
VOLVED 

At various stages of the struggle 
one nation after the other became 
more or less actively engaged until 
the aggregate reached twenty-eight. 
In some ca.ses the intervention was 
military, in others economic, while 
s. me went no further than the sev- 
erance of diplomatic relations. The 
dates of their entrance into the con- 
flict follow: 

Austria agiiinst HelKlutii, Aug. 2S. litH. 
Austria against Jajxin. Aug. 27, 11M4. 
Au.-<triH against Montfneijro. Aug. ». 1014. 
Austi ia against Ruwala, Aug. 0, I!n4. 
Austria against Serbia, July 2S. 1014. 
Retglum against Oerniany. Aug. 4. 1014. 
lirazll againii!t Germany, Oct. 20. 1017, 
Bulgaria against Serbia, Oct. 14. 1015. 
flilna against Austria, Aug. 14, liH7. 
China against Germany. Aug. 14. 1917. 
Costa^^Riea against Germany. May 23, 

Cuba against Germany. April 7. 1!>17. 
Cuba against Austria-Hungary. Dec. 16. 
1 01 7. 

France against Austria, Aug. 13. Ifil4. 
France against Uulgai-la. Oct. Ifi, 101.1. 
Franee against Germany, Aug. 3. 1014. 
France again.st Turkey, Nov. fi. 1014. 
Germanj ayalnst Belgium, Aug. 4, 1014. 
Germany again.st Franee. Aug. :i. IflU, 
Germany against Portugal, March U. 101«. 
Germany against Rumania. Sept. 14. lOlfi. 
Germany against Russia, Aug. 1, 1014. 



Chronology 

Great Brllatn agalnft Austria. Aug. Vi. 
IIPH. 

Gnat Hril/iln agalnKt Bulgaria. Oct. 1''. 

Great Brimin agalnft Germany. Aug. 4. 
101 1. 

fJreai Britain againfl Tuikey. Nov. .">. lOH 
Gre^-e against Itulgaiia. Nov. 2>*. IWl'l. 

( I'rovldlonal Govornmi-nl. ) 
Grceei- against Bulgaria. Jtily 2. 1017. 

((:'»v.!i nmenl <tf Alt xandirr. ) 
-Gri-i'ce aguinKt Germany, Nov 2X. lOItt. 

( I'rovislorial Government. ) 
Grei-ei- against fleimany. July 2, 1017, 

(tlovernnienl of Ali-xanilt r. ) 
(;iiatr-,nalH ag.jln«t Gi i many and Auslrla- 

llungary, April 22. l!lis. 
Haiti against Germany. July i*i. lOlS 
H.-ndura.-. against Germany. Jidy 10. 101*' 
llaly against Au'.-lrta, May 24. lOI'-. 
Italy against Bulgaria. U(l- 10. IOir>. 
llaly .'igatnst Gi'rmtiny. Aug. 2.'*. U'Hi. 
llaly agiinst Tiirli.'y. -Aug. lOI.'i. 
.lap'in against Cprmaiiy, Aug 2.'l. 1014- 
IJIii rta against Gerniany. Aug. 4. 1017, 
.Montenegro against Austria, Aug. 8. 1014 
.Monlenegro against Germany. Aug. It. 
101 f. 

,\I<'iiiagua against Germany, May 24. 1018. 
Panama aualnsl (UTmany. April 7. 1017. 
Panama against Austria, iJ- e HI. 1017. 
I'orlugal iig.iinst Gtrmajiy. Nov. 211. 1014. 
(rej.oliitl(in pu.fsed auihorlalng military 
mtfrvenllon a.*, ally of Kngland ) 
Bortugal against ISermany. May 10. 101.'), 

(miillary aid granti'il.l 
Rumania again.-t Austria, Aug- 27. lOIfl. 
(allies of Austria also consider It a 
ihclariitlon.) 
Russia against Gi-rmany. Aug. 7, 1014. 
Uu»8la against Bulgaria. Oct. 10. lUl-'i. 
ItilHsla against Turkey. Nov. 3. 1H14. 
San Marino against Ausliia. May 24, lOir.. 
S< i lila againsl Bulgai lu. Oct. Ifi. lOiri. 
Serbia against Germany. Aug, 0, lOU. 
Si-tbia iigatnst Turkr-y. Dee. 2. 1014. 
Siam iinalnst Austria. July 22. 1017. 
Sljirn against Geinian>, July 22, 1017. 
Tiiikc> against Alliis. Nov. 2;). 1014. 
Turkey against Humania, Aug. 20. lOlfi, 
Pniteil States against Germany, April fi, 
1017. 

I'nited States against Au.stria-Hungary. 
Dee. 7. 1017. 

SEVERANCE OF DIPLOMATIC 
RELATIONS 

The nations that formally severed 
relations with Germany and her al- 
lies, whether afterward declaring v.'ar 
or not, are as follows: 

Austria against Japim, -Aug. 211, 1014, 
Austria again.>it I'oitugal, March 10, 1016. 
Austria againsl Serbia, July 26. 1014. 
Austria against United Statea. April S, 
1017. 

Bolivia against Germany, April 14, 1017. 
liraKil against Germany. April 11. 1017. 
China ttgalnst Germany. March 14. 1017. 
Costa Kieu aga Inst Germany, Sept. 21 , 
1017. 

Ecuador againsl Germany, Dec. 7, 1017. 
I'igM't against Germjiny, Aug." 13, 1014. 
I'"tanec against Austria. Aug 10, 1014. 
Gieeci- again.st Turkey, July 2. 1017. tOov- 

i-i nmenl of .Mexander. ) 
Greece against Austria. July 2, 1017, (Gov- 

t rnna-nt of Alexander.) 
Guatemala against Germany, April 27. 
1017. 

Haiti against (>ermany, June 17. 1017. 
Honduras against Germany. May 17. 1017. 
Nicaragua agalnat Germany, May IM. 
1017. 

I'eru against Germany. Oct. 6. 1017. 
Santo Domingo against Germany. June 
s. 1017. 

Turkey against United .States, April 20. 
1017. 

United States against Germany. Feb. 3. 
1017. 

Uruguay agalnat Gerniany. Oct. 7. 1017. 

CHIEF EVENTS OF THE WAR 
1914 

June 2.'i— Francis Ferdinand shot at Sera- 
jevo. 

July .■>— Kai.ser's War Council at Potsdam. 
July 2.t— Austro-Hungarian note to Serbia. 
July 2S— Austria declared war on Serbia. 
July 31— State of war In Gei-many. 
Aug. I— Germany dPclared war on Russia. 
Aug- 2— German ultimatum to Belgium. 
Aug. 3— Germany declared war on Franee. 
Aug. 4— Great Britain declared war on 
Gerniany. 

Aug. 10— France declared war on Austria. 
Aug. 12— Great Britain declared war on 
Austria. 

Aug. l.V- Fall of Li^ge. 

Aug. Ifl— Britl.'jh Army landed In France; 

Russian advance Into Kast Prussia. 
Aug. 20— Germans occupied Brussels. 
Aug. 23— Japan declared war on Germany. 
Aug, 24— l-all of Namur. 
Aug. 2r>— .**ack of I.,ouvain. 
Aug. 27— German victory of Tannenberg. 
Aug. 2-H-Biltish victory In the Bight. 
Aug. 2ft— New Zealanilers In Samoa. 
Sept, 2— Russians took I^emberg. 
Sept, 3— Paris Govi-inment at Bordeaux. 
Sept, 4— Pact of Lmdon signed. 
Sept. End of retreat from Mons. 
Sept. (V— Mrst Marne battle begim. 
Sept, ir.— First Aisne hattU' begun. 



of the War 

Hep. Ml Ku,-.sian.^ ev;.. Ui.l.-.l East Pi us- 

.Sept. 2;t-Flrst lliltlsh air raUl In Ger- 
many. 

Oct 0— Fall of Antwerp. 

(),.(. i:;— Belgian Government at Havn'. 

Oct. 211-Klrsl battle of Ypres begun. 

Nov. I-.\aviil action off C<ironeI, 

Sf)\- .*. Gical Britain declared war on 

Tuiki-y, 
Nov. 7-FaIl of Tslng-tao. 
Nov. 1(1— 10m<len sunk, 
Nov. 2I-Brltish oceuple.l Basra. 

. 2— Austriann in Belgraile, 
Dei>. .t^Naval battle off the Faiklands 
Dec. H— Serbians retook Belgrade. 
Dmc. Ifi.-Germans bomburde'l West Har- 

tlcponl, 

Dec IS--JIue!)seln Kamel, SuHan of 
Eg>I>t 

Dec. 24— First air raid on England. 
1915 

Jan. 24-Naval battle off Dogger Bank. 
Feb. 2-Turks defeated on Suez Canal, 

is_['.ho.it ■■blockade" of England, 
Feb a.V- Allieii fleet attacked Dardanelles. 
.\Jareh 10— Oiltish captured Neuve Cha- 
pel I e, 

March 22— Russians took Przemysl- 

Aprtl 22— Second battle of Ypres begun; 

first ga.'i attack by Germans. 
April 2.''r-AHIed landing in GalUpoIl. 
May .'{-Battle of the Dunajee, 
Msiy H_BattI<> of Krithia, Galllpoll. 
^^ay 7— lAlsItania torpedoed. 
May H— Germans occupied Llbau. 
.May II— German repulse al Vpres 
May 12-Geneial Botha occupied Wind- 

huk. i,\frlca.) 
May 1(1— Ru.Bslan retieat to the San. 
May 2;f-!taly declared war on Austria. 
May 25— BrltLvh Coalition Cabinet formed. 
June 2'-Italian5 crossed Isonzo, 
June 3— Ru.s.<iians evacuated Przemysl, 
June 2'.*— Austro-Germans " recaptured 

I. em berg. 
July 2— Pommern sunk In Baltic. 
July li--German Southwest Africa con- 

<iuered. 

July 24— Nasirlyeh, on Euphrates, taken. 

Aug. 4~Fall of Warsaw. 

Aug. .>— Fall of Ivangorod. 

Aug- tJ— New landing at Suvla Bay, Ger- 
mans took Wansaw. 

.\ug. -V-Generai Blrdwood's advance at 
Anzae. 

Aug 17— Fall of Kovno. 

Aug, IN— Russian victory in Riga Gulf. 

Aug, 19— Fall of Novo-Georglevsk. 

Aug. 21— Cotton declared contraband. 

.\ug, 2ri— Fall of Brest-Mtovsk. 

Sept l-(;eneral Aiexeleff as Chief of 
Staff. 

Sept- 2-Fall of Grodno. 
Sept. 5— Czar as Generalissimo. 
Sept, 7— Hu-islan victory near Tarnapol. 
Sept. I.*i-Fall of Vilna, 
Sept. 21— Russian retreat ended. 
Sept. S-W Battle of Loo.s and Champagne. 
Sept, 2S— Victory at Kut-t'l-Amara. 
Oct. 4— Russian ultimatum to Bulgaria. 
Oct, .-|— Allied landing at Salonlkl. 
Oct. 6— Austro-German Invasion of Serbia. 
Oct- !l— Belgrade occupied. 
Oct. 14-Uulgaria at war with Serbia. 
Oct. 17— Allied note to Greece. 
Oct. 22-Bulgarians occupy T^skub, 
Oct. 28-.\I, Brian<l French Premier. 
Nov. 5— Fall of NIsh. 
Nov. 22 -Rattle of Cteslphon. 
Nov. 2fi-Brltish withdrew from Cte«i- 
phon. 

Dee. 2--PaIl of Monastlr. 

Dec. .3— General Town.'ihend at Kut. 

Dec. 0— Allied retreat In Macedonia. 

Dec. la-^Salonlkl llne.'^ fortified, 

^'^*'aJ,'*7^*'^ British Commander In 
Chief, 

Doc- 10— Withdrawal from Galllpoll. 
Dec. 2,V-Turklsh defeat al Kut. 

1916 

Jan. fi-Galllpoll evacuation complete. 
Jan. 13-Fall of Cettlnje. 

Feb 0— General Smuts appointed to East 
Afric.i. 

Feb. 10— Russians entered Erzerum. 

Feb. IS— German Kamerun conquered. 

Feb. 21— Battle of Verdun begun. 

Feb. 24— Germans took Fort Douaumont. 

March 1«— Admiral von Tirpltz dL-imL-^sed. 

April O— German a.«saull at Verdun, 

April 17— Ru.isians entered Treblzond. 

April 24— Rebellion In Ireland. 

April ■>9— Fall of Kut-et-.\maia, 

May 24— British Conscription bill passed. 

May 31— Battle of Jutland. 

June 4 — General Brusiloff's offen.slve. 

June .V- Lord Kitchener lost at sea, 

June 14— Allied Economic Conference in 
Paris. 

June 21— .Mecca taken by Grand Sherlf. 
July 1— Somme battle begun. 
July 2.'>— Russians occupied Erzlnjan. 
Aug. «— Italian offensive on Isonzo. 
Aug. ft— Gorizia taken by Kalians. 
Aug. 10— Russians at Stanislau. 
Aug. 27— Rumania entered the war. 
Aug. 29— Hindenburg Chief of Staff. 
Sept. 1.')— First use of •'tanks" by British 

In battle of the Sonmie. 
Sept. 2«— British took Thiepval and 

Combles. 

Oct, 10— .-Vllied ultimatum to Oreece. 



j;ov. I— Italian advance on Cai-.io. 
.N'ov. i:i— Ilrltish victory on the .\nete 
Nov. IN— Serbians and French look 
M ona-^llr. 

Nov. 21 -Charle.« I. succeeds Franci- 
J oye ph. 

Nov. 2il— Grand Fleet under Sh- D. B<-ally- 
Dee. I — \ntl-allied iiot in Athens. 
Dee. .-(-Resignation of Mi". A.«quith. 
Dec. fl— Germans entered Buchareat. 
Dec. 7— Mr. Lloyd George Prime Minister 
Dec. 12— <;erman " peace pioposals." 
Dec, l.'f— Fren<h victory al Verdun. 
Dec. 20— President Wilson's peace not--- 

1917 

jfin. 1— Turkey denounced Berlin Treaty. 
Feb. I—" I-' n restricted " U-boat war 
begun. 

Feb. .t— .Vmerlca broke with Germany. 
Feb. 24— Britlj'h recaptured Kul-el-Amara. 
March II— British entered Bagdad 
.March 12— Ri volution in Russia. 
March l.'i- Abdication of the trzar. 
Maich IS— Biitish enlereii P^ronne, 
March 21-FIr»t British Imperial Wnr 
Cabinet. 

April (;— America declaied war on Ger- 
many. 

Aijrll 0— Battle of Vimy Ridge begun. 

May 4— Frtmch took Craonne. 

May 14— New Italian offensive. 

.Mav l.V- General PiStaln French Com- 
mander m Chief. 

May 1K-Selectlve draft law passed in 
United States. 

June 7— British victory al Messlpes 
Ridge. 

.lune 12-Abdieatlon of King Constantlne. 
J\me 2ft— First American troops in France. 
June 20— General Allenby commander in 
Kgypl. 

July I— La.-it Russian offensive begun. 
July 14— Beihmann Holiweg dismissed, 
julv 17— British Royal House styled 

•■ Winiisor." 
July lO-Reichstag "peace" resolution. 
July 21— Keiem=ky in power at Petrograd. 
July '24- Russian defeat in Galicia. 
July 31— Great allied attack around Ypies. 
Aug. 20— President Wilson's note to the 

Pope. 

Sept. 4 — Germans occupied Riga. 
Sept. l.'i—Russian Republic proclaimed. 
Sept. 2fv— British victory at Ramadleh. 
Oct. 0— Allied attack in Flanders. 
Oct. 24— Italian defeat at Caporetto. 
Oct. 20— Fall of Udine. 
Oct, 30— Chancellor Michiiells dismissed. 
Oct. 31— British captured Beeisheba. 
Nov. 1— German retreat on Chemln dts 

Dames. Heitling German Chancellor. 
Nov. 4— British troops in Italy. 
Mov. fi— British stormed Passchendaele 

Ridge. 

Nov. 7— Lenine and Trotzky in power; 
Bolshevist coup d'etat in Ru.ssia. 

Nov. it— Italian stand on the Piave. 

Nov. Hi— Clemenccau Ministry. 

Nov. 17— British in Jaffa. 

,Vuv. IS— General Maude's death In Meso- 
potamia. 

Nov. 20— British victory at Cambrai. 
Nov. 20— First plenary session of Inlet - 

allied War Council. 
Nov. ,10— German success at Cambrai. 
Dee. (I— .\rmistice on Russian front. 
Dec. 10— British enter Jeru.'^alem. 
Dec. 22— Brest-Litovsk Conference opened. 
Dec. 20— Sir R. Wemyss First Sea Lord. 

1918 

Jan. K— President Wilson's fourteen 
point.s. 

Jan. 20— Bresiau sunk: Goeben damaged, 

Feb. 1— Germany recognized Ukraine. 

Feb. Ukraine peace of Brest-Litov.sk, 

Feb- IS— German invasion of Russia. 

Feb. 21— British capture Jericho, 

Feb. 24 — Turks recover Trebizond. 

Feb. 2.')— Germans at Reval. 

March 3— Ru.ssian peace of Brest-I-itovsk 

March 7— German peace with Finland. 

March 1 1— Turks recover Erzeruni, 

March 13— Germans at Odessa, 

March 14— Brest -Lltovrk treaty ratified 
at Moscow, 

March 21— German offensive in France, 

March 23— First long-distance bombard- 
ment of Paris, 

Maich 24 — Bapaume and P^ronnt lost. 

March 2«— General Foch made allied Gen- 
eralissimo. 

April .5— Allied landing at Vladivostok. 

April 11— Armenti&re.= lost- 
April 13— Turks occupied Batum. 

.\prll 22 — Naval raid on Zef-brugge and 
O.stend. 

April 24 — Battle for Amiens. 

April 2(i— Kemmel Hill lost. 

.■\pril 27— Turks occupied Kars. 

April 30— Germans at Viborg. 

May 1— Germans at Sebastopol. 

May 7— Rumanian peace of Bucharest. 

May tl — Second raid on Ostend. 

May 27— Second German offensive. 

May 20— Soissons lost; Rheims held. 

May 31— Germans reach Marne, 

June 1— Attacks toward Paris held. 

June 0— New German assaidt. 

June liV- ,\ustrtan offensive in Italy. 

June 23— Great .\ustrlan defeat, 

July 2— One million Americans are in 
France. 

July l.V- Last German offensive. Second 
Marne battle begun. 



526 



July Ift-Ex-Crar shot at Ekaterinburg. 
Jul)- IK— GenernI Foch's counternttHck. 

VIclorlouf Franco- American offensive 

on thp Marne and Afsne. 
July 20— Germans recrossetl the Marne. 
Aug. 2 — SolfKuns recovered. 
Aug. ft— British attack at Amlene, 
Aug. 29— Bapaume and Noyon regained. 
Sepl. 1— Pferonno recovered. 
Sept. 2— Drocourt-Qu6ant line br«ach«d. 
Sept. 12— American atUck at St. Mlhlel. 
Sept. 15— Austrian peace note. 
Sept. 17— New Macedonian offensive. 
Sept. 25— Bulgaria proposed armlRtlce. 
Sept. 27— Hlndenburg line broken, 
Sept. 29 — Bulgaria surrendered. 
Sept. 3))— Kali of Damascus. Chancellor 

Herlling resigns, 
Oct, 1— St, Quentln regained, 
Oct. 4— Abdication of King Ferdinand. 
Oct. — Cambral regained, 
Oct, l.'l— French recovered I-aon. 
Oct. 14— British troops at Irkutsk, 
Oct, 15— British in Homs. 
Oct. 17— Ostend, Lillle, Doual regained, 
Oct. 10— Bruges reoccupied. 
Oct. 20 — Belgian coast clear. 
Oct. 25— Ludendorff resigned . 
Oct. 26— Aleppo fell to the Allies. 
Oct. 27— Austria sued for peace. 
Oct. 28— Italians crossed Piave. 
Oct. 29— Serbians reached the Danube. 
Oct. 30— Turkey granted armistice. 
Nov. 1— Versailles Conference opened. 
Nov. 2— British at Valenciennes. 
Nov, 3— Austria surrenders. Kiel mutiny. 
Nov. i — Versailles armistice agreement. 
Nov. 5— Armistice powers for Marshal 
Foch, Sir. Wilson s last note to Ger- 
many, 

Nov. 8— Americans reach Sedan. 

Nov. 7— Bavarian Republic proclaimed. 

Nov. 9— Foch received German envoys. 
Abdication of the Kaiser. Chancellor 
Prince Max resigned. Berlin revolu- 
tion. 

Nov. 10— Kaiser'B flight to Holland. Brit- 
ish at Mens, 

Nov. 11— Armistice 
Germany, 

Nov. 28— Kaiser abdicated. 



Significant Dates and Events 



terms accepted by 



1919 

Jan. 12— Peace Conference met at Paris. 
May 7— Treaty delivered to German dele- 
gates. 

June 28— Treaty signed at Versailles. 

CHRONOLOGY OF AMERICAN 
OPERATIONS 

GENERAL MARCH, American 
Chief of Staff, appended the fol- 
lowing chronology to his annual 
report to Secretary Baker, made pub- 
lic Dec. 5, 1918. It is a complete of- 
ficial summary of the chief opera-' 
tions of the United States Army in 
France : 

1918 

April 28-2!»— A sector in the vicinity of 
Breteull. northwest of -Montdidier was 
occupiL-d by the 1st Division. 

May 28— Cantigny was capt\ired by the 1st 
Division. A detachment of our troops 
reinforced by French artilltiy, suc- 
cessfully attacked the enemy on u 
front of about 2.200 yards. We occu- 
pied Cantlgny, captured some 200 pris- 
oners, and inflicted severe losses on 
the enemy. 

June 10— The 2d Division attacked in Bois 
de Belleau, advancing the line &00 
yards on a fiont of IVi miles, captur- 
ing .'too prisoners, 30 machine guns. 4 
trench moilms, and stores of small 
arms, anmiunltlon, and equipment. 
Held all of Hill 2lU down to the village 
on the northeast slope, thus preventing 
the enemy from concentrating his 
forces in the northern part of Chateau- 
Thierry. 

June 11— The 2d Division continued Its ad- 
vance in the Bois de Belleau, captur- 
ing more prisoners and machine guns 
and two 77 mm. fleldpieces. 

Our aviators executed their first 
bombing raid, dropping niimerous 
bombs on the railway station at Dom- 
mary-Baroncourt, northwest of Metz. 
All of our planes returned in safety. 

The artillery of the 2d Division 
shelled the enemy In their areas, pre- 
venting concentration near Torcv. 
Monthl4r.s. Hill 128. and Gonetrie 
Farm It discovered and dispersed a 
group of 210 machine guns In the wood 
south of !;irepilly. The 2d Division 
captured the last of the German posi- 
tions In the Bois de Helleau. taking 
r>(> prisoners, machine guns, and trench 
mortars 

July 18— French and American troops ad- 
vanced under the cover of a heavy 
storm on the front between Solssons 
and Chflteiiu-Thlerry. The greatest 
advance was In tlie northern part of 
the sector, where a depth of ."> miles 
was attained, and we reached the 
heights southwest of Solssons, domi- 
nating the railroad and highways. 

July 24— The advance of the Franco- 
American forces continued, and In the 
evening the line ran east of Buzancy 
to Tlgny. to Hartennes, Grand Rozoy, 
Oulchy-Ie-Chftteau. Armentl^rea, Coin- 
ey, Courpoil. and then Joined the old 
line at Jaulgonne. West of Rhelma 
Marfaux was retaken, and the line ran 
from Aubilly, through M6zy, and 
Joined the old line at Coulommes, 

July 25— The line ran from the Ourcq to 
the Marne, where the allied troops ad- 



vanced fi kilometers in the centre and 
■i to 4 kilometers on the flanks. Ihe 
\\"^ evening ran from Armi.-n- 

tifrcs to Bruy^res. the eastern edge of 
the Bois de la Tournellc. Ihe eastern 
edge of Beuvarde<. thv .-astern edge of 
1^ Charnel. (lie crossroads at Gros 
c hene. la Bouhing^re. the northern 
edge of Treloup, Chnsslns. 
July 2(^-The line ran: Nanteuii. Notre 
2?.^"^. '2.^ Hill lis. la Mls^re, 

KUl 100, southwestern part of Kois de 
la Tournelle, Hill 111, 1* Charnel. 
Hard fighting continued all day and 
the French ami Americans ateadlly 
advanced on Fire. 

July 27-Th e 42d Division tried to cross 
the Our<q. but was driven back by 
heavy artillery fire. 

July 2«-The 42d Division renewed the as- 
sault, crossed the river, and after vig- 
orous flghtmg took Serlnges-el-Neslcs, 
Nesles. and Sergy. 

The 28th Division held the line about 
1 kilometer north of the Ourcq, Dur- 
ing the day .slow progress wa s made 
the enemy slowly falling back after 
bitter rearguard action. 

July 29 — Franco-American troops ad- 
vanced 3 kilometers from Oulchv to 
Mllers Agron. and Bougneux. Sapo- 
nay, Serlnges. Nesles. and Cierges 
were Included within our lines. 

July 30— Our pre.'^sure continued on the 
right bank of the Ourcq. The railroad 
station at F^re and Cayenne Farm re- 
niained In our possession. We lost 
.Seririges-ei-Nesles, but reoccupied 
Sergy. Hill 312, and the woods 8 kilo- 
meters north of Konchf^res. 

July 3I-The 28th Division retook Serln- 
ges-et-Nesles. The 32d Division at- 
tacked in Crimpettes Woods with suc- 
cess ; the woods were taken, and troops 
advanced to Cierges. German coun- 
terattacks were brilliantly repulsed 
with the bayonet, and an immense 
amount of material and equipment 
was taken from tlie enemy. 

Aug. 3— After continuous fighting late In 
the evening. Solssons was taken, and a 
line extending along the Vesle to be- 
tween Braisne and Bazoches was be- 
ing consolidated. South of the Aisne 
our troops drove buck the enemy rear- 
guard. Acting with the 4th Division, 
the 32d Division reached a line from 
Ville Savoye to a point Just north of 
St. Gilles. 

Aug. 4— A large enemy patrol attacked in 
the vicinity of Coulees, but was driven 
off by a combat group of the 5th Di- 
vision, which had been reinforced. Our 
troops were very actlx e In patrolling, 
having sent out over seven recontioi^- 
sance, combat, and ambush patrols. 

The 32d Division took Fismes, In an 
eight-day battle this division forced 
the pa.ssage of the Ourcq, took prison- 
eis from six enemy divisions, met, 
routed, and decimated a crack division 
of the Prussian Guards, a Bavarian 
division, and one other enemy divis- 
ion, and drove the enemy line buck for 
16 kilometers. 

Aug. fi— The 28th Division launched an at- 
tack the objective of which was the 
north bank of the Vesle. The attack 
was met by exceedingly heavy ma- 
chine-gun and artillery fire. On the 
right our troops succeeded in crossing 
tiie river and advancing to the high- 
way which runs from Khelms to Sols- 
sons. On the left the advance was 
held up by the enemy's fire. 

Aug. 7— The units on the left advanced 
across the river and o<rrupied the 
railroad lines on the north bank. The 
casual tie! resulting from this opera- 
tion were considerable. A violent 
enemy coimterattack was completely 
repulsed, and a number of prisoners 
and machine suna were left in our 
hands. 

.A.ug. 8— As a result of successful opera- 
tions on the evening of Aug, 8, 11 com- 
panies of infantry and some machine- 
gun detachments of the 28th Division 
reached the north bank of the Vesle. 

Aug. 10— The 2Sth Division launched an 
attack in P'l.smetle A creeping bar- 
rage move<l ahead of tlicm. They 
made =omc progress, but were soon 
exposed to flanking fire from both the 
east and the west and weie forced to 
fall back into Fismette. The position 
here was very difficult- Flanking 
machine-gun fire came f rnm both 
sides and heavy casualties were re- 
ported. A box barrage was placed 
around the town and unmiunition was 
sent up- The town was held by one 
battalion, with one machine-gun pla- 
toon, which received orders to hold the 
position at all cost. 

Aug. 17— After strong artillery prepara- 
tion the infanti-y of the 5th Division 
captured the village of Frapelle and 
consolidated the line; north of the 
road running Into the town from the 
southeast. 

Aug. 19— The enemy continued shelling 
Frapelle positions and the artillery of 
the fith Division replied actively. 

Aug. 21— The Dth Division repulsed hos- 
tile attack with heavy loss to the 
enemy and with no casualties to our- 
selves. 

The 32d Division, acting with the 
Tenth French Army, advanced to and 
held Juvigny, 

Tlie 77th Division cleared the small 
wood between the Vesle and the rail- 
road west of Chateau du DIabie, 
Sept. 3— During the five days prior to 
Sept. the .32d Division matfe dally 
advances against the enemy, gaining 
6 kilometers through very difficult 
terrain and against violent opposition. 
It captured II officeis and 1»20 en- 
listed men. A large amount of guns 
and munitions was captured. A 
patrol of the 77th Division penetrated 
to Bazoches. 

Sept. r>— French and American units ad- 
vanced In the Oise-Rheinis area as 
far as Condf. Strong patrols of the 
77th Division were pushed forward 
north of the Vesle and were encoun- 
tered by machine-gun resistance. 
Other casualties were slight. 



The 2«th Division croBse<) the Veslo 
In force and pursui-d the enemy to 
the north, 

Sept. rt-The artillery of the 2Rth Division 
diricted harassing and destruttlve fire 
on the Alsne bridges, while the enemy 
harassed the v111!ir.-.h in our rear 
areas, using u great numbci- of gas 
shells, 

Sept. 7— The 28th Division r«p\tlB(d two 
enemy counterattacks. The 77th Di- 
vision dnive the enemy out of I.^ 
Oendlftre Farm and passed the .\lsne 
Canal, 

Sfpt, 12— After four hours* bombanlnu nt 
our troops advanced on the noulh and 
west flanks of the St, Mlhlel salient 
at r, A. M. Hy 7;S0 A. M, the foives 
operating on the south had readied 
the soutliern edge of tin Bois Juli, 
the Quart de Reserve, and the north- 
ern e<lge of the Bois de Mort Mare. 
By noon they had reached KuBt y and 
Vievllle and the army operating In the 
difficult ground in the west had cap- 
tured \,ci* Eparges. At « V. M. the 
troops had reached a point one kilo- 
met* t- east of Senzt y and had taken 
St. Reniy and Combres. During the 
night the troops on Ihe western flank 
of the salient advanci-d mill's in five 
hours, reaching VIgneulles by ri A, .VI, 

Sept, 14— Then was a general advance 
along the entire line, and the .\mer- 
Ican Army established itself on the 
following front: Manheulles, Fresnes, 
rintheville, St. Hllairt , Doncourt, 
northeast of Woel, south end of the 
Etang de L^chaussde, Vendl^res, and 
across the Moselle at Cliampey. 

Sept. 17— American troops advanced along 
the Mo.seIle within rSlMl yai-ds of I'aguy. 

Sept. 18— The 2mh Division made two 
raids during the night. One against 
St. Hilaire was without r. suit as the 
enemy had retired : the other against 
the Hols de WarvlUe resulted In the 
capture of 1.% prisoners. 

Sept. 10— The «2d Divi.sion repulsed an 
attempted enemy raltl In the St. Die 
sector. 

Sept. 20— The 02d Division repulsed two 
memy raids in the region of Lesseux, 

Sept. 2(l-The First Army atlatUed north- 
west of Vetdun on a front of 20 miles 
and peneti'Bted to an average depth of 
7 miles, . 

Sept. 27-The I07th Regiment of the 27th 
Division attacked fast of Belllcourt 
and attained Us objectives. 

Sept. 2(1— In tl>e Argonne the Americans 
met with furious resistance. Their 
losses were heavy, and they were un- 
able to do moie than hold their own. 

Sept. .'iO— The 27th and ."(Oth Divisions 
took prisoners north of St. Quentin 
totaling 210 officers and more than 
1,200 nten. 

Oct. 1— The 28th Division repulstd a hos- 
tile counterattack on the entire dl- 
vlsioniil front in the .Vii-e Valley, 
with very heavy losses to the enemy. 

Oct, ;t-The 2d Division, opi rating with 
the Fourth French Arrn> , made an 
advance of 2 kilometers, reaching 
Medfah Farm In the afternoon. In 
the evening the 2d Division advanctd 
about kilometers, ami theli- line 
ran from .Med^ah Farm southwest 
along the road to Blanc Mont, Thev 
captured 1,000 prisoners, and casual- 
ties were estimated at ."00. 

Oct. ■(— The 1st Division attacked on both 
sides of Exermoni, and made progress 
in spite of strong opposition from the 
enemy, who resisted with machine 
guns in organized opposition. Ap- 
proximately 3(Kl prisoners were taken, 
and our casualties were l,r>00. 

Oct, 5— The 1st Division captured ArlCtal 
Farm, .ind the line was advanced 4(tO 
yards beyond. The Oth Division re- 
pul.sed a large enemy raid on Scn- 
dei'nach. - 

Oct. 7— .\ brigade of the 82il Division 
ailvanced 7 kilometers, occupying Hill 
22.i, north of Chatel ChiSh^rv : ^« pris- 
oners were captured. Including I of- 
ficer. Our casualties wer.- light. 
Lattr the enemy counterattacked anil 
occupied Hill 223. north of Chatel 
ChOhOry. 

Oct. S—Thc ii!)th Brigade of the .'Ulu, Di- 
vision .ittacked at ,"> .\, M, o\er a 
front of .'i.OOO yards, gained all first 
objectives by A. M., and second ob- 
jectives by noon. Fifty officers, l..'iOO 
men. and four 101 -millimeter guns 
wcrt taken. 

Oct. 8-n— The 2d Corps advanced about 
7 miles on a front of 4.0(H) yards and 
captured about 2,000 prisoners and 30 
guns. 

Oct, 1>— In spite of strong resistance the 
1st Division advanced In the sector 
east of F16vilie and captured 230 
prisoners. 

Tlie 3.1d Division, operating with the 
Seventeenth French Army Corps, at- 
tacked early In the morning north of 
Vllosnes-sur-Meuse. taking more than 
2;»0 prisoners. 

Nov. 7-The troops of the 2d Division 
cleared the west bank of the Meuse of 
the remaining machine guns and sni- 
pers in the vicinity of Mouzon. The 
Tith Division, -supported by artillery 
fire, continued Its advance despite the 
enemy's continued resistance, princi- 
pally with machine guns. Most of the 
artillery cro.ssed to the east 'bank of 
the Meuse, following In support of the 
infantry. Additional prisoners were 
taken, including two officers and 132 
men. 

Nov. 8— The patrols of the 2d Division 
crossed the Meuse south of Mouzon. 
The troops of the S.'ki Division, aided 
by barrlage fire, carried out a success- 
ful raid on Chateau Autnoix, capturing 
one officer and twenty -two men. 
Strong combat patrols were sent out 
from the lines of the f)2d DlvNlon. (col- 
ore<l.) Prisoners were captured and 
casualties Inflicted on the enemy. 

Nov, »— During midnight the patrols of 
the .'ith Division drove back the enemy, 
inflicting many casualties and captur- 
ing six prisoners. The troops consol- 
idated, and, despite stubborn resist- 
ance, principally from machine eruns. 



drove the cnomy from Bolis du Canol 
and l.n Senllnelle anil captured 
llrandev'lle In tlie.se operatU.ns forty- 
seven pi Isnm-r.". 12.*i machine Bun.-*. and 
other materiel were cupture.I, A ationg 
combat pHlTol was active along the en- 
I're front of tlie Xtd Division, meeting 
with heavy machine-gun r«slHtance 
from the enemy, and a patrol of one 
company captured eight prisoners In 
the Bois de Warvllle, The troops of 
the litth l>lvl^lon advanced In a gen- 
erally norttieH«terIy dhi-ctlon, wiU> the 
right flank in Hol.s de Damvlller». The 
«d and units of the isl seized the 
heights south of Sedan. 
Nov. 10- The :tM Division carried out n 
successful rahi on Marehevllle, occu- 
pying the town and taking elglity pris- 
oners, Including three offliers, Stnmg 
patrols from the line engaKcd In sharp 
fighting. The .17th Division, operating 
with thi- :t4tli Flench Avniy Corps, at- 
tacked In order to force a crosalng of 
the .S<heldt. Violent enflla.llng ma- 
chine-gun fire, heavy ar llllei y, and 
the flooded ron<lltl<in of the terrain ile- 
layed the construction ot bridges and 
crossings In the fuee of continuous 
heavy artillery fire, supported bv ma- 
chine guni". tlie troops advanced about 
two kllonn ter.x. The flOth Dlvlwlon a<i- 
vaneed toward Sudlon. encountering no 
resistance. The I12d Division reached 
Hols Treliaul and captured 710 prlat>n- 
ers. 

Nov, ll-The ;id Division advance.i three 
kilometets east of Hitfh^vllle. D. s|ilh 
increasetl resistance by niachiiie-Kuii 
find artillery fire, the .".ih Dlvl-lon 
continued to advance, capturing cIkIiI- 
een prisoners, thiee iarge-calibr.- 
B»ms, six nillienwerfers, and considera- 
ble mattrlcl. in accordance with tin- 
terms of the ainilstice, hostilities on 
the front of the Anierlean ai lilies 
ceased at II A, M. 

THE LUSITANIA SINKING 

About 2 P M. on May 7, 1915. tho 
Cunard liner Lu.^iitania, on a voyage 
from New York, with 1,918 persons on 
board, was sunk without notice by the 
German submarine U-.'J1> ten miles off 
Old Head of Kinsnle. The ves-sel went 
down twenty-one minutes after the at- 
tack, with the loss of 1,154 lives, in- 
cluding men. women, and children, of 
whom 114 were Americans. The Ber- 
lin Government at first asserted that 
the Lusitania was armed. The essence 
of the Lusitania case was staled by 
our Government in its note of .June 9 
as follows: "Whatever be the other 
facts regarding the Lusitania. the 
principal fact is that a great steamer, 
primarily and chiefly a conveyance 
for passengers, and carrying more 
than a thousand souls who had no 
part or lot in the conduct of the wai-. 
was sunk without so nmch as a chal- 
lenge or a warning, and that tnen, 
women, and children were sent t,i theii" 
death in circumstances unparalleled in 
modern warfare." 

There were three American notes to 
Germany upon the Lusitania -sinking. 
In the first, May 1'), 1915, occui-s the 
expression, " The Imperial German 
Government will not expect the Gov- 
ernment of the United States to omit 
any word or any act," and the conten- 
tion is advanced that it is impossible 
to conduct submarine warfare against 
commerce conformably with interna- 
tional law. In the second, -June 9, oc- 
curs the statement that " the Govern- 
ment of the United States is contend- 
ing for something much greater than 
mere rights of property or privileges 
of commerce. It is contending for 
nothing less high and sacred than the 
rights of humanity." In the third, 
July 21, it is asserted that " the events 
of the last two months have clearly 
indicated that it is possible and practi- 
cable to conduct • ♦ • submarine 
operations ♦ • ♦ within the so- 
called war zone in substantial accord 
with the accepted practices of regu- 
lated warfare." This note clo; es with 
the statement that '* the repetition " of 
certain acts " must be regarded by the 
Government of the United States, 
when they affect American citizens, 
as deliberately unfriendly." 

TWO YEARS OF AMERICAN 
ACCOMPLISHMENT SINCE 
WAR WAS DECLARED 
APRIL 6, 1917 

A few of the statistics relating to 
our armed forces, casualties, shipping, 
and estimated cost of operations, April 
6, 1917, to April 6. 1919: 



527 



The Peace Settlements 



li,j;iilur Army ■ 

NiillunHl Ciii.nl In F.-<lernl Mivlrp S0,4n« 
Ki'Si TM- <'(>iT)s l?i jiftrvlce ■ 4,i»<MP 

TLtHl of -oldkiv 
I'i-tsonni-l riJivy V-'.ti^ 
.\I;irini' C'irv '■'•"f* 

Total nrm>'<I force* 2S»3,4-'* 

x!.^ ..... 

MiirtlU- t'oip.H 

Tdliil iirniwi folcfK 4.3T«t.<l47 

• • • 

.sc.ldk-rn niiiifporlcil <jv<-raiu> 2,(l.'i:i,:i47 
Aiin^rlcn.i iroitpx In "cUori. 

Nov. II. i..uvir,ii 

.Sul.lii-r.H 111 ciiiiip!- In the Cnl- 

IHl Slates. Nuv. II. HUN-. 1..IK..(WII 
CiusiiaUI.-!', Army nul .Mii- 

rim- '"onin, A. K. 1'.. -- ^—iii 
I lentil I II U- l»ft- Ihous/ind. 

\ [,;_ 1.- ■<»i 

ilLi'mii'n I'.iin'iiriM tiiU.ri., 44.000 
\mi.i'lfann dt'coi utuil b> 

HrltlNh, Ktfiich. Hflgliili. 

.'■ikI H-illi.n Aiinii-s. iibniU 
Niiinlxi- of in.-n n-i:lf I'-i'-'I 

Mini I'lll.lHlflCli lllllll^l' 

lltliM- .HTvIfi- I:i w. . - . - . 
ri.st i.f tlilrl.v-lwii N'litlonnl 

ArtiiN ( iinlimriii'iiti* iinil 

NiiMiitKil ^Jiimil ciimpK.-- 
snuk'iilH fiirnll.'.! In ."iWI S. 

A, T. »' i iimpM. . . 

offlci'ij* coinmlHHloncil fi-im 

InilnlnK <-'ni|i»i i cxrliifiv.. 

..f uiilv.-inUli«, > 

U'riiii.-n 1 njcfiKi-il 111 CiiviTn- 

niinl w;ii fiiilustrl.'H 



lU.IMMI 
«I-l».«2n.4li7 

I7II.IIIHI 

Ml.lMMJ 
L'.IHKI.lllHI 



HKHINI) THK HATTI>BMNES 

Hiiilway liicomotlvpH sunt to 

Kii.nr.. .. , 

I'iclKlit iiirs «fnt li> Frwnci- l.<.li4 
l^jcunii>llv«>- lit foii'lfii orf- 

Kln niH iiitc.l b> A K \'. 
Cms of fdii lBii oilfiln "p- 

.lalfii b.v A, K. F 

Mih-n of Hliiinlnrfl tfauKi' 

iiuch liild In i'rjincv.. .. M'l 
Wii ii!hoiincj!, iipprotlmii 1>- 

iiri'H in wniiirt- f«-t-l j.'f.iHMi.iWMi 

Motor vchlclf." fblpju-d t'l 

France lin.iiiHi 

ARMS ANH VMMI NTTION 
['■-tsona (■niiilii>i-il In about 

s.lMHi .irilnmii'f plants In 1' 

.S. at ^ifc-nhiK "f iiinilstici. 
SluMildfr ilflti* niiiili' iluilnK 



■I.I 



,(1110.(11 II I 
■J..'i(»l.»IHl 
2.I*7!I.I IS.tHId 



Kaunilu of umiiU iirmi* nm- 

niunllidli 

Mi(i)ilii>< Knnp and nutoninth 

rifU-s^ iM.iitl-J 

(!as l^lirlU :.IH).IHI(. 

.■<hiM|m.-l 7.-.*.-|(t,0lin 

Csis iiiiiHU.H, rxtia rntiltitcrs. 

Jind hoi'w maslti' ... . '»,."iiMi.ihhi 

\AVy AND MKUCllANT SHIIM'I.V'i 

WainhllJH at b-jrlnnhic ■>f 

war ■ . . '"' 

Wiiijiiiipi' !(i i iui of war :.iuy-i 

Small boiil* biilU 

SiibmuiiiK- iliasor.- biiill. . ^I'l.i 
.Mi'ri'biuit ^hlps iirni'''!.. -'..'i"(i 
Naval bar.i'!« lit Kiiropi-un 

watiTH ami tlif .Vaori's... -"I 
Sliliibulldim; yaids im-T. 
rliant timrini'l Imrciisi-il 
fnini (11 to inon- than 20(1. 
shliihulldliit; %vtij.s ln«rmir=>d 
fE'i'in i'.lTt to nunc lhnn 
t.iiiio. 

■d u> Slilppinn 

i nd c,r inis. . . . 

loiMiai:'' of ulilp.i 



Sliip^ .l.-li\' 
liiKinl h\ 

DraiUvriu'ltl 

d< ihi rrd 



;{.42.S 



r.02 

.4nr. 



FINAiN<*i;s HF THI': W AH. 
Total (-ost. appioxlmHt«-l.v. . .$24,Hl*ll."lMi,(HHl 

rroiiit.-i In .-l.-\-n nations... .S.M I .H.'.T.dOd 

RaHo.l hv taxation In lOlS. . ;(.flll4.lH"l iJllil 

Ualnfd by IJlxTiy Ivoans... H."Hlli,(Hm.(Mili 
War Savtm,'." Slampn to No- 

v.'mb.-i. mis s-{4.2r.:i.(Hiu 

W ar rill. f trifts. cj.tlmatfd. . 4,(HKI,IHMI,(M10 



anrl more than 15,000 men in ihe 
IJritish morchant marine had lost 
their lives throuKh enemy action. 

The United State.s lost 145 Ameri- 
can pas.scnger and merchant ves.sels 
of 354,449 KroB.s tons. In this destruc- 
tion 775 live.s were lo.st. 

The ship construction during this 
period was 10,849,527 ^ross tons, while 
enemy .-ihipping amounting to 2,392,- 
r>75 gro.-*." tons was captured, --^o that 
the net loss of allied and neutral 
tonnage was 1.811.584 gros.-* tons. 

'1 he neutral los.ses amounted to 
about 2.0011.00(1 Ions, the chief suf- 
ferers bein;r Holland and Norway. 

GROWTH OF NATIONAL DEBTS 

The Mechanic.'; and Metals Rank of 
New York i.s.supd a .statement showing 
the debts of the leading nations at the 
beginninK and close of the war, which 
is herewith summarized: 

r;ro*«nibtof Auk. l. I"14. Jan. l, UUft. 

|d.O(«l.('(J(),(M)(( »'Jl,rHI(l IKXI.OIKI 
S ,-.(JII.(l(l(l.tlUH 4II.'H'I(.I"K'.0(H( 

fl..VKi.iiiio.()ou ;m.r»(Mi.ii(Hi.m»o 
4.(t(10.IHin.<MI« •J7.'>lMl.iiOt'.<Hlit 
2.S(10,I)(IU.(|(IO VJ.iMMI.iMiil.OIHl 



r. s 

Gl. Britain 
Frani'i* — 
KiiKflla .... 
Haly 



ICntcnte na- 

ifonv- , . .*ls.4iKp.(MH».(jii(i »i;ii),()iiri,(HHi.iiiKi 
(Ji-nnun ICniji. 

and Stilton.. .•i.2ftO.On".00(t l(»,(Miil,(i((li.(i(l(i 
Auiitrla-Hun- 

gnry a.TiH'.OOd.tiDil 24.000.000. Oflll 

Teutonic na- 

llonn »«4.!(lKI.IIUH,l»U(l *Ci4.IH"I.IH«l.0llll 



CiOM!* di'bl -.*27.;HKi.ii(«I.Oi)n J1104.II(»I.0(HMMM1 

THE '• FOl'RTEEN POINTS " 

In an address to Congre.ss. Jan. 8. 
1918, President Wilson enunciated 
fourteen points which he regarded as 
the only po.s.sibic ba.sis of an enduring 
peace. They were as follow.*: 

I . Dpcn t'Mvi'iia ttif iif pi-ai''-, upi-nly ar- 
(ht-d at. .ifUT wMi l. llu-io sliall be no 
l>i hale inli'inai loiial ondei sta ndingj^ of 
aii\ hind, bill dlplonuu'> sbilll pi la-cf d al- 
wiiMt franklv and !n thi- public \iiw, 

II. Ab.-oliiti. rreudoni of navtK'itlon upon 
till- «ian, I'litHicU- ti'irilorial walrT.-i, altkf 
In police and in war. i-xn-pt uf llu' 
niav be <'ki.«cil In wlioU- "r In part bj 
Init rnationiil m l ion for thi- i-nfoi-cotni'nl 
of liilt riialiiaial co^ i iuintti. 

III. 'I'll.- r.nnnal. ^-i- far h> pojf.-dbli-. .)r 
all fioniiiiilc bariU'ii and Ibc i-Mabll>Ii- 
ni>.nt of an iiiualit> .if trad<. ■■ondltions 
anuaii; all lb>- nalioii.-; > lai.xi-niuiK t" tin- 
|n-ai'c and aK-sociatlni; i ln'm.>«>'h i ' f -r \l> 
mainti-nanco. 

I \' .Vd-'tjuaH- i;uaraiUi'op k W'-u md 
taken I bat national arnuimcnl-' w ill b<' 
n diii i-d lo llu- lottfj*l p.uni ■■..n.i|.-«li nl 
witb doiiu-fitic nafety. 

V, A ti-ff. iipi-n-minib'd. and al'isoluti h 
imparl tai ailjustmrnl of all ci.l'.nial 
|.|ahil>. I)a^^■d iipi>n a siriit i.hn.'rvanci .if 
tin- pilnclpK' that in dttfrniiniiiK all -<iiib 
ipn-stl'infi 'if »i)V('riii(;iUy ibf lnl«-r< -iis >( 
tbi. |»opulati"n.- loiuiint'il niii.si ban' 
.(pial wriniH with Ihf i quitiiiib- rlaiiii.- .-r 
llie (lovernnn-iil wbosi' lUti- is to In ili - 
ii-rndnvd. 

VI. The evacuation yf all liiif>tan i- r- 
ritorv ami stioli a si'ttU-nwrn of .dl ipi.'.-- 
tlons affectinK Kus.sia a^ will -•Jcf iir.- ihr 
bcsl and Irce.-l co-oporaUon .d llu- .illur 
nallon.- ot the w.'ild In ..hl.-iinini; f-a- li.-r 
an iiidiauip' i 'd and um niba ri a.ssi d '"p- 
in.riuiiil\ for llf Indi^pi iiil. iil d.-lorniina- 
lion of hei o«n i.oiltUal .l.Mlopinoni and 
national polic> ami ai-.-'iii'- Iht of a .*ln- 
vvri- wi'lt'oine into (bo .smifii of free na- 
tfon-s luuU-i insiltiitUm.- -if bi r -iwn ciioo.s- 
ing i and, moi i- ibun a wi lcomv. assist - 
anie also n( i-virv kind llutt she may 
lued and may lursilf do.slre. Tin- treal- 
monl actoided Ku.-sia h> b.'r sisi.r iia- 



MOBILIZED STRENGTH AND CASUALTY LOSSES OF BELLIGERENTS 

fnitfd Stiites and A«.«o(bn.d Nations. 

.NJallon, 
tidted Sialic 
lirltlsh lOini'in 
Ji'rance 
Italy 
Helglun) 
Russia 
,1a pan 
iiiiniania 

Siibia 

Montenegro .. 

llrooi^e 

Portugal 



Total 



CiTmnny , 

A o.strln-Hiingary 

Iliiljrarhi 

Tiu-k<'> 



Total 









Prisoners or 


Total 


.Mobilized. 


Ih'ad. 


Wounded . 


Ml-s?.lnK. 


Cnsiiiiltli s 


I.:'7'J,-VJI 


I17.M3 


102.4s:t 


H,;ilLl 


274,il."til 


7,:.no.oiHi 


«!IL',tHi.'» 


2.(Kt7.;i2:t 


.■((10.. 1(17 


:i,(lS!i.7.'i7 


7..")0P.0(10 


l.:{s."i.:{iio 


2. 117.-.. 00(1 


4 40. .1110 


4..Mi)t.i<iii1 


.'i,,'ilH).lin0 


4t;0.l«H) 


•147.0(H) 


i,.'{i»;i.(i'io 


2, son. Olio 


■_'r.7.iiiKi 


20.(1(1(1 


fiO (UHI 


lll.Ollil 


po.iilio 


12.0011.(1(111 


1 ,7(1(1.(100 


4,9.-)O,()0O 


i;.."i( II 1,000 


'.t.l.'H'.IHIIl 


MM), (Hid 


:t(io 


!I07 


;t 


1,21" 


T'li.OOd 


2011. (KH) 


120,000 


so, 000 


IIHI.OOO 


7P7.;!t.'t 


:!22.oiH) 


2N.0O0 


lOd.fHiO 


iriii.iioii 


.'ill.lKHi 


.'{.IHNI 


ID.IHHI 


7.000 


20.000 


2:!0 IHMl 


l."i.ilOII 


40.II(H1 


45.01 W 


ino.iKio 


100.000 


4.000 


1. "1.0(10 


2fKl 


lu.nno 




4..MlII.47h 


ll,0'.\7l.-| 


4.iirirt,i*a3 


20,MI2,220 




Ceritral 


rowers. 






Jl.OlKI.IKHI 


1,(111. KM 


.l.t^Kl.liri 


772. .'>22 


li.O0(i.700 


tl..*00.(HIO 


Mill mm 


;i.2oo,tn«i 


1.211.1HM1 


.\2n.OOO 


II 10.000 


201.224 


I.'i2.:i»n 


10,s"2.'i 


2(14 .44N 


I.tlOO.tlUU 


:{ii(i.(Hio 


.'.70.000 


ISO. 00(1 


i.iMio.noo 


. Ill.."ilH).Ol)U 


2.012..^2N 


7,«(i."i.:>*2 


2.1-24..t47 


12..>42.;;i7 


.r>n,iiO,MH 


7,7Sl,8n(i 


is.itsi.a.iT 


7.080.580 


33.434.443 



DAMAGE BY SUBMARINES 

The cessation of ho.stilitie.-^ made 
possible an accurate summary of the 
loss caused to the allied and neutral 
world by submarine warfare. 

The British Admiralty on I)ec.5,1918. 
stated that the total losses of the 
world's merchant tonnage fi-oni the 
beginning of the war until the end of 
October, 19i8. were 15,053,786 gross 
tons, of which 9,031.828 were British ; 
5,622 British ships had been sunk dur- 
ing the war. of which 2,475 had been 
.^iink with their crews still on board 
and 3.127 had been destroyed and 
their crews set arliift. Fishing ves- 
sels numbering 670 tiad been sunk. 



lioii& in the ninnlli.-< in c-nne will be the 
acid test or Iheir eood-wlll, of their com- 
prehension of btr needs as disilngulshed 
fi<an Ibeir own lniet<-slji, nnd of tVteir in- 
(■lli^iiil and tm.Belflsb ^ynipatln 

VI I. l!elj,'iiini. the whole world will 
.lyree, mtist bcf evaeiiateil and restored, 
without any attempt to limit the sover- 
eignty which fhe enjoys in common with 
all other free nations. Xo other sihgle 
aet will serve as Ihl.s will serve to reslore 
confidence among the nations In the laws 
which they have them,=elves .sel and de- 
termined for the eovernnient of ihclr rela- 
tion.* with one another. Wiihoiil this 
healing act the whole -structure and va- 
lidity of international law Is forever Im- 
paired. 

VIII. All French territory should be 
freed and the invaded portton.s restoi i-d. 
and the wrong done to France by Pru.ssla 
in 1S71 In the nuitter of Alsace-Lorraine, 
wbit h has iinseHh il the peace of Ihe 



world for nearly fifty year*.. ''>«'"'^„^^ 
rlKhled in order thai pe«e(- ma> once more 
be m»de secure In the interenl of all. 

IX A re«dju,-tmenl of the fronlieii. of 
Italy wbuubl be < f fected along clearly rev 
oKni/iible ltne»i of nationality. 

X The peoples of Au^ti la-Hungai > . 
whce place among the nations we wisij 
10 -ee wafeguanled and a.«su(e<l. should 
be accorded the freeKl opportunity of au- 
tonomous development. 

XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro 
should be ivaeuatod. occupied lc^rltorle^ 
re.«toied. Serbia accorded free and secure 
aece-> to the .-. a. and the lelallon.v of the 
several Balkan Slates lo one another de- 
termined bv friendly . ounsel al.mg nl..<- 
lorlcallv . Ntabllshed lines of allegiance 
and nallonulity. and Internationa Buar- 
antees .if the political and eeonomi< inde- 
pendeiiei- and territorial Int.grUy of the 
seveial Kiilkan Klales sliuiild be enteiefl 

'"xM Til-. Turkish portions of the pren- 
ml (itlonian lOinpire should be assured a 
,..(111 ■ -I'ni eifrnty. tiui the other natton- 
i. lilies which are now under Turkish rule 
sb'iuld 111- a.«sured an undoubted security 
iif lif. and Tin a'-solutely unmole.-^ted op- 
portunil' of HUtt-nnrnous development, 
and llie Dardanelles .siioilld be perma- 
nemlv oi>ened iis a free passage to the 
ship.- and commerce of all nations under 
International t'uaranlees. 

XJIl- An jnitependeni Polish 
sboulit be erected wliieh nhould Include 
the terrttorie.v inhabited by Indisputably 
Pi.Ilsh (»»piilations. which shoultl be us- 
•■ure.l n free and secure acce.as to the sea. 
and whose polllleal and economic Inde- 
penilence and leirllorlal Inlegrlty should 
bi. Buarnnleed by iineriiaiional covenant. 

XIV A general as."Oclation of nations 
must be formeii undi-r specific, covenants 
for the imrpow of affording mutual guar- 
antees cf political Independence and terrl- 
t.Tial inl.grlty to great ..nd small States 
alike. 

ARMISTICE TERMS GRANTED TO 
CENTRAL POWERS 

Bulgarian Armistice. Sept. 29. 1918 

The terms involved nothing less 
than unconditional surrender. They 
were purely military in character. 
Consideration of political and terri- 
torial matters was postponed until the 
signing of a final treaty ot peace. 
Bulgaria agreed to evacuate all occu- 
j)ied teiritory in Greece and Serbia; 
to demobilize her army at once; to 
surrender all means of transport on 
land and on the Danube to the Allies; 
to permit their unhindered passage 
through Bulgaria for the development 
of military operations; to surrender 
all arms and ammunition; to permit 
the occupation by the Allies of all 
strategic points, and to withdraw as 
a belligerent from the war. No stip- 
ulations were made regarding King 
Ferdinand, as this was regarded as a 
purely internal matter, to be disposed 
of a.s the Bulgarian people might 
choose. The King settled the matter 
by abdicating on Oct. 4. 

Turkish Armistice. Oct. 30, 1918 

The Iiardanelles and Bosporus were 
to be ope.ied and access to the Black 
Sea accorded to the Allies, who were 
also to occupy the forts of the strait. 
Allied prisoners of war were to be re- 
patriated immediately. Demobiliza- 
tion of the Turkish Army was pro- 
vided for, except such troops as the 
Allies might choose to retain under 
arms as a police force. All ships were 
to be surrendered, and all occupied 
territory to be evacuated. Turkish 
troops in garrisons weic to surrender 
to the nearest allied commander. Any 
strategic points in Turkish territory 
were to be occupied by the Allies at 
will. Germans residing in Turkey 
were to be sent home, and Turkey 
was renuired to end all relations with 
the Central Powers. 

.Vuslrian Armi-slice, Nov. i, 1918 

The terms of the armistice stripped 
Austria of all power to renew the war 
should she be so inclined. The army 
was to be wholly and promptly demo- 
bilized. Austrian brigades fighting 
with the Germans were to be with- 
drawn. All territories occupied by 
Austria since the beginning of the 
war were to be evacuated. Military 
and railway equipment in the evacu- 
ated territory was to be left intact. 
German troops in the Austrian Army 
were to be expelled. Half of the 
army material, artillery, and ammuni- 
tion was to be surrendered to the Al- 
lies. Prisoners of war in Austrian 
hands were to be repatriated at once 
without reciprocity. A large and speci- 
fied number of battleships, cruisers, 
destroyers, and submarines was to be 
surrendered, and the remaining naval 
vessels were to be concentrated, dis- 
armed, and placed under allied super- 
vision. Free movement over all parts 
of Austrian territory and the occupa- 
tion of strategic points were lo be 
granted to the forces of the Entente. 
Fi^eedom of navigation in the Adri- 
atic, the Danube, and all territorial 
waters, together with the right to dis- 
mantle the fortifications of water- 
ways, was also to be yielded. Strin- 



gent conditions were inserted against 
sabotage, concealment, or evasion. 

(ierman Armistice, Nov. II. 1918 

Germany was required to evacuate 
all occupied territories everywhere. 
The iniquitous treaties of Brest-Li- 
tovsk and Bucharest were annulled. 
Germany was to .surrender 5,000 
pipce-s of light and heavy artillery, 
25,000 machine guns, 3.000 minen- 
werfers, 1.700 airplanes, 5.000 locomo- 
tives. 150.000 railroad cars, and 5,000 
motor lorrie-s. All the.se were to be in 
perfect condition. All submarines 
were to be .surrendered, together with 
10 battleships. 6 battle cruisei.s. 8 light 
cruisers, and 50 destroyers. The re- 
maining naval vessels were to be dis- 
armed and placed under allied super- 
vision. Prisoners of war in German 
hands were to be yielded up without 
reciprocity. All territory on the left 
bank of the Rhine was to be occupied 
by the allied armies, and three bridge- 
heads were to be established at May- 
ence, Coblenz, and Cologne, each with 
a radius of eighteen miles. A trip of 
territory six iriles wide on the right 
bank of the Rhine was to constitute a 
neutral zone. The period of armistice 
was one month, with provision for re- 
newal if necessary. 

P1CACE CONFERENCE 

The Peace Conference, composed of 
delegates from the allied and asso- 
ciated powers, convened in Paris, Jan. 
18, 1919. The treaty was practically 
completed by April 25, on which date 
the German envoys were summoned 
to Versailles. The treaty was handed 
to them on May 7. Counterproposals 
by the Germans resulted in some 
modifications, and the treaty in its 
amended form was delivered on June 
16, the Germans being allowed a week 
to accept or reject it. They agreed on 
June 23 to sign the treaty. 

PEACE TREATY SIGNED 

The Treaty of Peace between Ger- 
many and the allied and associated 
powers was signed at Versailles, 
France, June 28, 1919. What Ger- 
many is compelled to concede undee its 
terms may be briefly summarized as 
follows: 

liennqui,.;hment of Alsace-Ijorraim- to 
France. Posen and West Prussia to Po- 
land. i)f part of Schiesw'ig lo Denmark, 
anil of ."{X2 scjuare miles of Rhenisli Prus- 
sia lo lleigiiim. 

The Saar eoal basin to lie internation- 
uMiied for fifteen years, pending a ple- 
bi.--clte to determine permanent control, 
the eoal mines going to Fiance. 

l.uxeiiibiii-g is freed from the tiernian 
■ iist'inis union. 

(;<.rin:iii\ recognizee the imlepen'lenee of 
German .Vusliia, I ViUind, and ("'zechoslo- 
vukia. 

(;i-rtnan> loses all colonies and her val- 
uable concessions in Kurope, .\sia, and 
Africa, and recognizes the British pio- 
teiiorate of Egypt. 

The German Army is to be cut to a tem- 
porary total strength of 2II0,(K)0 men. but 
ultimately nui.st be loii.doii. 

The Germ-in Navy is limited to six bat- 
tleships under 10 000 tons each, .six light 
crui.sers, and twelve torpedo boats, sur- 
rendering or de-'itroying all othei' war ves- 
sels. .'>he is to have no more submarines. 
The n.ivy personnel if limited to 2."i Oflo. 

.Military and naval air forces are abol- 
ished. 

.Munitions faetorie,s are to be operated 
only by permission of the .\llies. and im- 
port or export of war materials is forbid- 
den. 

Heligoland defenses will be dismantled. 
Fortifications aiming at control of the 
Baltic are forbidden. 

The Rhine and the Moselle are put un- 
der the control of an international com- 
mission, on which Germany will bo rep- 
resented. The French, Belgian, and other 
nations may run canals from tlie Rhine, 
but Germany is forbidden lo do so. Ger- 
man fta ts within thirty-three miles of the 
river will be dismantled. 

Other great rivers hitherto German will 
be under international control, the Ozeclio- 
slovaks and Poles having free access to 
the Elbe. Oder, and other streams, and 
the Poles to the Niemen. 

The Danube will be controlled by an in- 
ternational commission. The Kiel Canal 
will be open lo all nations, and the Czechs 
get harbor rights at the mouth of the 
Elbe, 

German railroads must be of stantlard 
gauge, and rights are granted to other 
powers to use them. Traffic discrimina- 
tions against outsiders are forbidden. 

(iffcndors against the rules of warfare 
and humanity are to be delivered up to 
the Allies. An international high court Is 
provided for the trial of the Kaiser, whose 
surrender will be asked of Holland. 

Germany's indemnity payment is to be 
fixed bv an interallied commission. .-\n 
Initial piyment of $.■>. 000. 000,000 must be 
made within two years. Bonds running 
thirty years will be issued for later pay- 
ments. Occupation of the Rhine country 
will continue until the Allies are assured 
i>f Germ.iny's good faith. 

Germanv must help build ships to re- 
place those she sank, helji rebuild dev- 
astated regions, surrender her fourteen 
submarine cables, and rede all German 
ships over l.llOO tons and many smaller 
ones. 

She accepts the League of Nations prin- 
ciple, but is barred from membership for 
the present. 

Her peace treaties with Russia .ind Ru- 
nmnia are abrogated, and she recognizes 
the independence of States formerly Rus- 
.=ian 



528 



■I