(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The war of the Polish succession"

o/ru/i/e^j*'^*' ^' jr^a/tfof 



SFP 8 1917 



THE WAR 

OF 

THE POLISH SUCCESSION 



Oxford: HoBACE Hart 

Printer to the University 



THE WAR OF THE 
POLISH SUCCESSION 



BY 



H.R.H.THE CROWN PRINCE OF SIAM 

h4. ^ 






OXFORD 

B. H. BLACKWELL, BROAD STREET 

LONDON: T. FISHER UNWIN 

1901 



'V 



^\^. 

-^ 



f 



u rW' 



^ 



PEEFACE 

The object of this brief Sketch is to 
lay before the student a few facts about 
the War of the PoUsh Succession, col- 
lected from various sources, and selected 
with the idea of throwing light on the 
subject from as many aspects as possible. 

For the genealogies I am indebted to 
Mr. Arthur Hassall, to whom I must 
here express my best thanks for his valu- 
able assistance to me in preparing the work. 
I also take this opportunity of thanking 
Mr. R. E. Olivier for his kindness in 
reading through the proof-sheets. 

Reference has been made to, and much 
information obtained from, the following 
works ; — 

(1) The Balance of Power, by Arthur 
Hassall, M.A. 



•36 i.-r3o 



vi PREFACE 

(2) A Handbook of European History, 
476-1871, Chronologically arranged, by 
the same Author. 

(3) The Pupils of Peter the Great, by 
R. Nisbet Bain. 

(4) line Ambassade Pranfaise en Orient 
sou^ Louis XV, par Albert Vandal. 

(5) Elisabeth Parnese, by Edward Arm- 
strong, M.A. 

(6) Memoirs of the Kings of Spain of 
the House of Bourbon, by William Coxe. 

(7) Frederick the Great, by Thomas 
Carlyle. 

It is hoped that the book may prove 
useful not only to members of the 
University who are reading for the His- 
tory ' School,' but also to all who are 
interested in the affairs of Europe in the 
eighteenth century. 

M. V. 

Christ Church, ,^ 

Oxford, 1901. ■Ci\\a t«H|£hAU^// 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

The Polish Succession . . . ' . . ix 

Contemporary Sovereigns . . . . xi 

Introduction 1 

Chapter I. The Election to the Polish Crown 10 

II. The Siege of Danzig . . .22 

III. The Spanish Conquest of the 

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies . 36 

IV. The Rhine Campaign . . .52 

Conclusion 68 



3G293U 



THE POLISH SUCCESSION 



Frederick Augustus, 

Elector of Saxony, 1694-1733 ; King of Poland, 

1697-1733, 

m. d. of the Margrave of Bayreuth 



Frederick Augustus, 

Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, 1733-1763, 

m. Mary Josepha, d. of the Emperor Joseph. 



Stanislaus Leszczynski, 
King of Poland, 1707-1709; re-elected 1733 



Mary = Louis XV of France. 



CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGNS 



England 
George II 
1727-1760. 

The Papacy 
Clement XI 
1730-1740. 

Sweden 
Frederick I 
1720-1751. 

Sardinia 

Charles 

Emanuel I 

1730-1773. 



France 

Louis XV 

1715-1774. 

Spain 

Philip V 

1700-1746. 

Russia 

Anna Ivanovna 

1730-1740. 

Prussia 
Frederick 
William I 
1713-1740. 



The Empire 
Charles VI 
1711-1740. 

Portugal 

John VI 

1706-1751. 

Turkey 
Mahmoud I 
1730-1754. 

Denmark 

Christian VI 

1730-1746. 



^^ 



INTRODUCTION 

In 1731 the Second Treaty of Vienna The 
was signed. A European w^r was averted, ^r^^^^^^ ^r 
France was isolated, and for the moment Viema,^ 
Bourbonism was checked. It was confi- 
dently expected by many that a period of 
peace in Europe had really begun, a peace 
which would remain undisturbed for many 
years. And, indeed, there seemed to be 
a reasonable ground for this belief, seeing 
that there were no less than three states- 
men, namely, Fleury in France, Walpole in 
England, and Patino in Spain, who were 
in favour of the preservation of peace. As 
the relations between the three countries 
mentioned appeared then to be friendly 
enough, outwardly the political situation 

B 



.: ?^:>: V, ; ilNTRODUCTION 



The War 

Party in 
France. 



Elisabeth 
Farnese, 



looked reassuring ; but, as a matter of fact, 
' the calm of 1732 was the calm which 
preceded a storm S' a storm which, on 
closer examination, we find was already 
brewing. 

In France there existed a war party, 
the views of which seemed to grow more 
bellicose and more popular with the 
nation every year. INIoreover, the King, 
Louis XV, was determined to place 
his father-in-law, Stanislaus Leszczynski, 
on the throne of Poland whenever a 
vacancy occurred. The war party strongly 
advocated a union with Spain, as well as 
an alUance with the small German States 
and Sardinia. The former policy would 
bring ruin to England's commerce, while 
the friendship with the small German 
States would prevent an outbreak of 
hostility on the part of the Emperor. 

EUsabeth Farnese, the Spanish Queen, 
saw the desirability of an alliance with 
France for the furtherance of her aggres- 

^ Hassall, Balance of Pofver. 



INTRODUCTION 3 

sive schemes and dynastic aims. Don 
Carlos, her son, was already in Parma, 
and the Duchy of Tuscany was being 
occupied by 6,000 Spanish troops. Even 
then the Queen was not quite satisfied, 
but as she hated Fleury she would not 
as yet make a treaty with France. The 
French Government was anxious for 
a treaty with Spain, in order to unite 
the Bourbons against England. There 
existed between France and England 
commercial and colonial rivalry which 
was bound before long to result in a 
collision between the two Powers ; and as 
both endeavoured to secure the Spanish 
aUiance, the ambassadors of the two rivals 
were kept extremely busy in Madrid. 
Walpole and Patino were both anxious to 
preserve peace ; the former in order to 
maintain the House of Hanover on the 
throne of Great Britain, and the latter in 
order to allow Spain to gain strength and 
improve her navy. Owing to the influence 
of EUsabeth Farnese, and the growth of 



4 INTRODUCTION 

the anti-English feeling, Spain suddenly 
changed her policy and declared openly 
against England, and for France. The 
Queen was tired of her unprofitable friend- 
ship with England, for Walpole gave no 
encouragement to her designs ; while 
France, on the other hand, incited her 
against the Emperor. Besides these purely 
dynastic considerations, the anti-English 
feehng was aggravated by the commercial 
disputes between England and Spain, 
which had grown much more serious of 
late. There were many circumstances to 
cause irritation between the two countries, 
and in England the 'Craftsman' in the 
hands of an unscrupulous opposition was 
employed in attempting to force Walpole 
into a war with Spain. 
Eastern Nor was the situation in Eastern Europe 

^"''''^^' reassuring. At the end of 1731, a treaty 
was proposed between Austria, Russia, and 
Prussia, the object of which was to defeat 
the candidature of Stanislaus Leszczynski 
to the Pohsh throne, and to settle the 



INTRODUCTION 5 

succession question. It was never ratified, 
but it served to show that Louis XV's 
candidate would meet with opposition. 
As has abeady been mentioned, Louis 
was determined upon the election of 
his father-in-law, hoping thereby that 
Austria and Prussia would be kept in 
check, and that French influence would 
become dominant in Eastern Europe. The 
Court of Versailles reckoned also on the 
friendship of Sweden and Turkey. Austria 
and England, as hereditary enemies of the 
Bourbons, were strongly opposed to Louis' 
scheme ; but England, having but little to 
lose in Poland, was content with aiding 
the Emperor by purely diplomatic means. 
Austria, however, was more closely con- Russian 
cerned, and naturally looked to Russia, %fj^j^y^^ 
with which power she had been allied 
since 1726, knowing how deeply the 
Muscovite Government was interested 
in the affairs and the future of Poland. 
A sharp struggle took place between 
the representatives of France and Austria 



6 INTRODUCTION 

in St. Petersburg, the latter being assisted 
by the Enghsh minister. Those at the 
head of Russian affairs were them- 
selves divided. The Vice - Chancellor 
Ostermann was the chief champion of 
Austria, and found a troublesome oppo- 
nent in Marshal ^liinnich, who had been 
won over by Magnan, the French Chargd 
d' Affaires. Indeed, Mi'mnich, a vain and 
ambitious man, went so far as to offer, on 
his own responsibihty, assistance to France 
in the shape of troops and ships in return 
for ample subsidies. He also suggested 
that, in order to ensure success, the Grand 
Chamberlain Biren, the Empress Anne's 
favourite, should be won over by means 
of a large bribe. An experienced states- 
man like Ostermann found no difficulty 
in exposing the fallacies of the scheme 
proposed by such a political meddler 
as Miinnich, and an alliance between 
France and Russia soon became quite out 
of the question, the Cabinet once for all 
rejecting the notion of a French alliance. 



INTRODUCTION 7 

and deciding still further to strengthen 
that abeady existing with Austria. 

Sweden, in the meantime, had been France and 
approached by France. Not only were 
rich subsidies promised, but the prospect 
of recovering the lost Baltic provinces 
was also held out to her, provided she 
took the part of Stanislaus ; but much to 
the relief of Russia and Austria as well 
as England, she decided to remain neutral. 

Not the least interesting of those per- Augustus the 
sonages concerned with the question of ^^^ pf/-.y'^ 

the Polish succession was the King of Succession 

Poland himself. Augustus II — surnamed 
* the Strong ' — had ruled, or rather mis- 
ruled, Poland for five and thirty years, and 
was now failing in health. He was very 
anxious to secure the succession for his 
own son Augustus, Electoral Prince of 
Saxony, and it is edifying to see to what 
lengths he was willing to go. First of 
all, he attempted to gain the Empress 
Anna over to his project ; and with this 
object he approached Biren, to whom he 



8 



INTRODUCTION 



Augustus 
and Biren. 



Augustus 
and 

Frederick 
William of 
Prussia. 



promised a large sum of money, together 
with the Duchy of Courland, if the Em- 
press should be won over. Biren, under 
pressure of the Austrian and Enghsh 
ministers, had already refused the offers 
made to him by the French Charge 
d' Affaires, but the splendour of this new 
offer so dazzled him, that for a moment 
he wavered. However, as Russia, Austria, 
and Prussia were at this time as much 
opposed to the Prince of Saxony as to 
the French candidate, Biren had not 
the courage to close with the King of 
Poland's offer. Finding himself thus 
foiled, Augustus next attempted to bribe 
the Prussian King to whom he offered 
Polish Prussia, Courland, and even a part 
of great Poland, showing himself wiUing 
to abandon a part of the country that his 
son might become possessor of the rest. 
Frederick William was almost tempted 
into accepting this offer, but fear of 
Austria and Russia prevented him from 
doing so, and once more Augustus was 



INTRODUCTION 9 

disappointed. Now grown desperate, he 

urged, in the last resort, that Russia, 

Austria, and Prussia should all be satisfied 

by a division of his country — in other 

words, the ruler of Poland suggested a 

definite partition of the country that he 

had sworn to defend. However, he had 

no time to carry out this infamous scheme, 

for on February 1, 1733, Augustus died. Death of 

Europe, as we have abeady seen, was like j^f^^^'^^' 

a mine ready to be fired at any moment, 

and the death of the King of Poland was 

the spark that caused the long expected 

explosion. 



CHAPTER I 

THE ELECTION TO THE POLISH CROWN 

The death of On the death of Augustus II in 
mf'^^' February, 1733, the question of the Po- 
lish succession, which had long perplexed 
the statesmen of Europe, became a matter 
of immediate moment. France was then 
in the midst of a struggle with the 
Parlement of Paris, and her financial 
affairs were far from satisfactory. Never- 
theless, the French Government decided 
to defend the independence of Poland, 
and to support by force of arms the can- 
didature of Stanislaus Leszczynski. It 
was easy to get him elected, the difficulty 
would be to maintain him on the throne. 
Opposition from Russia and Austria was 
certain, and it was also probable that 



THE POLISH CROWN 11 

Prussia would join these Powers. Both 
Russia and Austria had taken deep 
interest in the affairs of Poland, and were 
both determined to vigorously resist 
French interference. They could easily 
find some means to nullify the election 
of Stanislaus, while Poland, with no 
clear policy of its own, and in a state 
verging on anarchy, could not hope to 
resist the forces of the two Imperial 
Powers. Stanislaus himself said : ' The 
Poles will nominate but will not support 
me.' He knew that he could not hope 
to retain the throne unless France sup- 
ported him, not only by diplomatic means 
but also by force of arms. In spite of 
Fleury's pacific assertions and inten- 
tions, France decided to adopt the views 
of Chauvelin and Villars, and place 
Stanislaus on the Polish throne, hoping 
thereby to deal a blow at the House 
of Hapsburg. 

Both in Sardinia and in Spain, France The Treaty 
hurried on negotiations. In Spain, the %Jq^^^* 



12 THE ELECTION TO 

war party carried the day against 
the peace-loving Patino ; and to the 
surprise of the Emperor, Charles Eman- 
uel, the young king of Sardinia, con- 
sented to admit the French into Italy. 
On September 26, the League of Turin 
was concluded between France and 
Sardinia. The policy of Chauvelin was 
to drive the Austrians out of Italy ; 
Charles Emanuel was then to occupy the 
INIilanese and JNIantua; Don Carlos was 
to have Naples, Sicily, and the Tuscan 
ports ; Don Philip to have Parma, 
Piacenza, and Tuscany ; while France 
was to have Savoy. But the King of 
Sardinia's views did not coincide with 
those held by Chauvelin. Being aware 
that the Spanish Court wished to be- 
come supreme in the Italian Peninsula, 
he did not desire to see the Spaniards 
estabhshed in Northern Italy. He de- 
clared that they might conquer the Two 
SiciUes and the Tuscan ports for them- 
selves, and he proposed with French aid 



THE POLISH CROWN 13 

to conquer for himself Lombardy and 
JMantua. 

On November 7, the Treaty of the The Treaty 
Escurial was simed between France and % ^- , 

o Lscunal, 

Spain. It was really a solemn family 173S. 
compact between the two branches of the 
House of Bourbon, by which they agreed 
to present a firm opposition to the colonial 
and commercial advancement of Great 
Britain, and at the same time to unite 
against the Emperor. France and Spain 
guaranteed the possessions of each other ; 
Gibraltar was to be recovered ; the exclu- 
sive privileges granted to English 
merchants by Spain were to be revoked ; 
and the combined fleets were to repel 
any attacks by the British navy. This 
secret treaty resembled in many points 
the family compact of 1721 made by 
Dubois. The object of both was to hinder 
the commercial expansion of England in 
Southern America, and the rapid develop- 
ment of the Anglo-Saxon race in the 
North. During the War of the Polish 



14 THE ELECTION TO 

Succession, however, the arms of the 
Bourbons were directed mainly against 
the Emperor. 
Polish In Poland, on the death of Augustus 

jmrs. J j^ ^j^^ leading man was Theodore Potocki, 
the Primate, who, until the election of a 
new king, was ex officio Interrex. He was 
a devoted adherent of Stanislaus, and his 
first acts were to dissolve the Diet, to 
dismiss the late king's bodyguard, to order 
the Saxon guards at the Court to quit 
Poland, and to post corps of observation 
along the Prussian and Austrian frontiers. 
He found supporters in the French Am- 
bassador, in the Czartoryskis, and in 
Stanislaus Poniatowski, the one capable 
Polish statesman. Both Potocki and 
Poniatowski looked primarily to France 
for aid. On April 27 (old style) — that is 
a few weeks after Augustus' death — 
Potocki summoned a Diet, the temper of 
which was unmistakably hostile to any 
foreign candidate, and it declared for 
a * native Pole, who was a Catholic and 



THE POLISH CROWN 15 

who married a Catholic ^,' and further re- 
solved that no one should proclaim a king 
without the consent of the Diet, on pain 
of being declared a traitor to his country. 
When, however, the Senators and Depu- 
ties were called upon to solemnly swear to 
observe their own resolutions many of 
them drew back, and Potocki could only 
overcome their scruples by striking out 
the clause which forbade the receiving of 
bribes from the future candidates. Even 
this apparently did not satisfy every one, 
for when they were called upon to take 
the oath the next day, not a few began 
to raise objections, or make reservations, 
while others departed from the Diet 
altogether, with fixed determination of 
protesting against all its proceedings on 
the very first opportunity. 

No better illustration could be given of 
the internal divisions in Poland, and this 
state of affairs provided an excellent reason 
to other Powers for coming forward as 

* Nisbet Bain, Pupils of Peter the Great. 



16 THE ELECTION TO 

Bussiati champions offf^ee election. In St. Peters- 
^*^^* burg, directly the news of the death of 
Augustus was received, an assembly of 
the Ministry, senate and nobility was 
held, when it was agreed that the interests 
of Russia would not permit her to recog- 
nize Stanislaus Leszczynski, ' or any other 
person dependent directly on France (and 
therefore indirectly on Turkey and Sweden 
also) ' \ as a candidate for the Polish throne. 
The Empress Anne addressed a letter to 
the Interrex Potocki, demanding that the 
name of Stanislaus should be struck out 
from the list of candidates, and Count 
Carl Gustaf Lowenwolde was sent to 
Warsaw, to reinforce his brother. Count 
Frederick Casimir, who was the Russian 
IMinister resident in the Polish capital. 
The brothers Lowenwolde, accompanied 
by the envoys of Austria and Prussia, 
waited upon Potocki. The interview was 
a somewhat stormy one ; the Primate's 
attitude was one of defiance, as he knew 

* Nisbet Bain. 



THE POLISH CROWN 17 

that the majority of his countrymen were 
with him, and would 1-esent the interference 
of Russia or any other Power with their 
liberties. Next Potocki summoned an 
Elective Diet, and took measures for 
securing an absolutely free election by 
reviving a long obsolete statute, which 
forbade foreign Ministers to remain at 
Warsaw during the session of the Diet. 
The Ministers were naturally indignant; 
Lowenwolde absolutely refused to leave 
Warsaw without the Empress's express 
command, while his Austrian colleague 
declared that he must await instructions 
from Vienna. 

Although both Russia and Austria The Russian 
strongly opposed the candidature of Stan- 'candidal^!''' 
islaus Leszczynski, neither had, at the out- 
set, a candidate of their own to offer. Both 
knew that no native Pole except Stanislaus 
had the slightest chance of being elected, 
and it became necessary therefore to look 
abroad. The Infante Emanuel of Portugal 
was at first proposed by the Court of 



18 THE ELECTION TO 

Vienna, but as his father, King John VI, 
would not consent to his nomination, 
Russia and Austria ultimately agreed to 
give their support to Augustus of Saxony, 
the son of Augustus II. A compact was 
concluded with the Elector by Lowen- 
wolde in the middle of August, 1733, 
whereby the former acceded to the Prag- 
matic Sanction, which he had hitherto 
steadily opposed, contracted a treaty of 
mutual defence and guarantee with Prussia 
and Austria, and promised to relinquish 
Poland's claims to Livonia, leave Courland 
her ancient rights, and keep inviolate 
the constitution of the PoHsh Republic. 
Russia at once took vigorous steps to 
support her candidate, and ordered troops 
to the frontier. 
Election of In the meantime, important events were 
1788. ^"*' taking place in Poland. On August 26, 
the Elective Diet met at Praga, near 
Warsaw. The Lithuanians abstained 
from attending, and sent a deputation 
to Potocki, demanding the enforcement 



THE POLISH CROWN 19 

of the decree of banishment pronounced 
against Stanislaus Leszczynski fifteen 
years before. As the Primate paid no 
heed to their demand, the malcontents 
formed a * confederation,' protesting against 
all the acts of the Elective Diet ; they 
were presently joined by 3,000 deputies 
brought over by Prince Wiesniewicki, and 
Prince Lubomirski, the Palatine of Cra- 
cow, but the majority of electors still 
remained on the Primate's side. On the 
arrival of Stanislaus, who had travelled 
night and day from central Europe, dis- 
guised as a coachman, the election took 
place. The malcontents sent in a protest 
which Potocki, however, rejected as irre- 
gular, as it had not been presented with 
the usual formalities on the field of elec- 
tion. The Primate rode from group to 
group, asking the deputies whom they 
would have as king, and was greeted 
everywhere with cries of * Long live King 
Stanislaus.' After a vain appeal to the 
patriotism of the malcontents, Stanislaus 



20 THE ELECTION TO 

was proclaimed the duly elected King of 
Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, 
the malcontents, in their turn, issuing a 
manifesto declaring the election null and 
void. 
His fight. Thus, for the second time, Stanislaus 

Leszczynski was elected King of Poland, 
at the beginning of September, 1733. 
But he was to occupy the throne for 
an even shorter period than on the first 
occasion. Immediately after his election, 
he issued a proclamation ordering a levee 
en masse of the gentry ; but since he had 
no forces available to resist the advance of 
Russian troops from the frontier, he was 
obliged, only twelve days after his election, 
to quit Warsaw, and shut himself up in 
Danzig, with Potocki, Poniatowski, Czar- 
toryski, and the French and Swedish 
envoys. 
Election of On the departure of Stanislaus, a serious 
Safmy^ ^^^^ ^^^^ place in Warsaw. Lowenwolde's 
1733, house was plundered, and he had to 

take refuge in the house of the Austrian 



THE POLISH CROWN 21 

Ambassador. The Saxon Minister's resi- 
dence was attacked and looted, and the 
Minister himself had to fly from the 
capital. Scenes of disorder continued till 
the end of September, when General Peter 
Lacy, at the head of a Russian army, 
appeared on the right bank of the Vistula. 
On his arrival opposite Warsaw, he was 
joined by the Polish malcontents, who 
placed themselves under his protection, 
and on October 6 Augustus, the Elector 
of Saxony, was proclaimed King of Poland. 



CHAPTER II 

THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 

(1733-1734.) 

Condition of ALTHOUGH Augustus had been pro- 
claimed king, affairs in Poland showed 
no signs of improvement. Almost the 
whole country was in favour of Stanis- 
laus, who all this time remained in the 
strong city of Danzig, awaiting help 
which had been promised by France. He 
knew that the irregular bands of his 
partisans could not hope to gain much 
advantage over the Russian troops, and he 
was aware also that the invasion of Saxony 
was the only way to make Augustus 
rehnquish Poland. Without the help of 
his son-in-law, Louis XV, he knew that 
he was lost. Russia, on the other hand, 



THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 23 

recognized the importance of driving 
Stanislaus from Danzig, whither help 
could be so readily conveyed by sea. At 
the end of 1733, therefore, General Lacy 
was ordered to proceed to Danzig and 
to besiege the city without delay. The Lacy besieges 
gallant Irishman immediately obeyed, but ^^^^^' 
before long he realized how he had under- 
rated the difficulties of his task. Having 
left garrisons in Warsaw and other towns 
en route, he found himself on arriving at 
Danzig with only 12,000 out of the 
20,000 men which he had brought with 
him into Poland. In order to adequately 
invest the city from the land side, he had 
to distribute his men over a large area, 
being thus exposed to the danger of being 
attacked and cut off in detail by some 
fifty thousand hostile peasants. The 
Danzigers were also determined to offer 
a strong resistance, being well supplied 
with provisions and ammunition, and 
their artillery ably served by French and 
Swedish gunners. Fortunately for the 



24 THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 



Arrival of 
Munnich. 



Attitude of 

Fredenck 

WiUiam. 



Russian commander, the partisans of 
Stanislaus outside thought far more of 
plundering their private enemies than of 
helping their king ; and the garrison took 
care to keep well behind the ramparts. 

In the middle of March, 1734, Marshal 
Munnich arrived and took over the com- 
mand of the army. He was resolved to 
press the siege vigorously, and two days 
after his arrival, a strongly fortified 
redoubt called ' Scotland ' was captured 
after a hard fight, and on the next day 
the bombardment of the city itself com- 
menced. But the siege could not be 
as vigorous as Miinnich wished, as he 
had only some 8 -pounders, and the 
King of Prussia would not allow any 
artillery to be conveyed through his 
territories. Munnich bitterly resented the 
attitude of Frederick William, and is said 
to have threatened 'to pay a visit to 
Berlin' after he had done with Danzig. 
The Marshal, in a letter to the Empress 
Anne, said that Stanislaus had bought 



THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 25 

over Frederick William, who was reported 
to have said that he could not stand by 
to see Danzig destroyed, and would send 
an army ' to mediate.' Indeed, it would 
have been serious for the Russians had 
this happened, as they had suffered con- 
siderably from want of forage and clothing. 
After a long delay some mortars arrived 
from Saxony by post addressed to the 
commander of the Saxon contingent. On 
April 30, the first bomb was thrown by 
these mortars into the city, and a week 
later Fort Sommerschanz was captured, 
Danzig being thus cut off from Weichsel- 
mlinde, its port at the mouth of the Vistula. 
Encouraged by this success, Miinnich 
resolved to follow it up by capturing the 
Hagelberg, a strong redoubt built on and 
around a hill on the south of the city, 
which was the key of the whole position. 
The attack, which was made on May 9, 
proved abortive, and Miinnich lost 
120 officers and 2,000 men. Although a 
great number of bombs had been thrown 

E 



26 THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 

into Danzig, the besieged showed no signs 
of surrender. 
Firat landing At this crisis occurred one of the most 
oj le renc . j.^^^^^^^^^ incidents in the history of the 
siege of Danzig. Towards the end of 
May, the partisans of Stanislaus learnt 
with dehght that Louis XV had decided 
to send help and that a French force had 
been landed at Weichselmiinde. Their 
delight changed into dismay when they 
learnt, two days later, that the French 
had re-embarked and the fleet sailed away. 
The force alluded to comprised in all only 
three battalions of the regiments of 
Blaisois and Picardy, and was under 
the command of Brigadier-General de 
Lamoite. Lamotte de la Perouse, an officer who 
was ' brave in a fight, but lacking initia- 
tive and shirking responsibilities ^' At 
Weichselmiinde, Lamotte discovered the 
Russian lines between the coast and 
Danzig, but after careful consideration 

* Albert Vandal, Une Ambassade Frangaise efi 
Orient, sous Louis XV. ' 



THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 27 

he decided that to attack them without 
artillery and with only the three bat- 
talions at his disposal was absolutely 
impracticable. Accordingly he decided 
to re-embark and to sail for Copen- 
hagen. 

At the Danish capital he was very Comte de 
badly received by the Comte de Pldo, ^^^^''• 
the French ambassador. Pldlo is de- 
scribed by the French historian, Vandal, 
as 'a Breton, ex-colonel, poet at leisure, 
diplomat on occasions, above all a loyal 
subject and gentleman full of honour.' 
He was annoyed at the thought that the 
King's flag, hitherto unknown in the 
northern seas, should have made its 
appearance only to be seen in retreat ; so 
he resolved to take back, on his own 
authority, Lamotte's httle force to Danzig, 
with himself at its head. There was 
nothing in his instructions to authorize 
such a step, and the fact of an ambas- 
sador leaving his post to go and fight 
was, as Vandal remarks, without prece- 



28 THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 

dent. These considerations, however, did 
not hinder Plelo's action. To Lamotte 
he said, ' In the name of the King, your 
master and mine, and whom I represent, 
I command you to follow me.' To 
Louis XV he wrote, ' We shall return to 
you victorious, or, if we succumb, it will 
at least be in a way worthy of true 
Frenchmen and faithful subjects of your 
Majesty.' Then he embarked with La- 
motte and his force and sailed once more 
for Weichselmiinde. 
Second land- The reappearance of the French fleet 
^Frenh came as an unpleasant surprise to the 

Russians, who thought that Lamotte was 
returning with large reinforcements. Plelo 
landed on May 20, and the next day 
attacked the Russian lines, he himself 
being with the Grenadiers in the first 
rank. He captured several earthworks in 
the outer line of Russian entrenchments, 
and was gallantly attacking others in 
Death of the second line when he fell, having re- 
^^^^^' ceived a bullet, a sabre-cut, and fifteen 



THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 29 

bayonet thrusts ^ Deprived of their brave 
leader, the French hesitated and were 
beaten back with heavy loss. Lamotte 
then ordered the retirement of the column, 
which marched to the island called La 
Platte, near Weichselmiinde, and there 
remained unmolested for four weeks. 

On June 10 a Rui^sian fleet under the The Russian 
command of Admiral Gordon arrived, ^^''^ ^^^'i'^'- 
bringing to Miinnich the siege artillery 
which he had been anxiously awaiting so 
long. Gordon had orders to attack the 
enemy's fleet wherever he found it ; but 
as the French fleet had not deemed it 
advisable to remain longer at Weichsel- 
miinde, he had to content himself with 
blockading the port, while JMiinnich, now 
joined by the Saxon contingent, began 
a vigorous bombardment of the French 
force on La Platte. Before long Lamotte Lamotte 
capitulated, and was conveyed with his ^^i^^^"^^^^*- 
men to St. Petersburg by the Russian 
fleet. It was the first time in history 

1 Vandal. 



30 THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 

that the French and Russians had come in 
contact with one another on the battlefield, 
and the Empress was * not a little proud 
of her novel triumph, although somewhat 
indignant with the French for provoking 
a quarrel which had not been of her own 
seeking \' The treatment which the 
captives received was somewhat curious. 
Lamotte and his staff shortly after their 
arrival were compelled to attend the fete 
given at the Winter Palace in com- 
memoration of their defeat. The Empress, 
however, seemed to have treated them 
with kindness otherwise. On that same 
occasion at the palace, the officers were 
even allowed to wear their swords in Her 
Majesty's presence, and they were enter- 
tained as guests. The Empress also gave 
to every common soldier a coat lined with 
sheep-skin, and every officer one fined 
with fox-skin, when the weather turned 
cold 2. 
Fleury's While the incidents narrated above were 

^^^^' 1 Nisbet Bain. « Ibid. 



THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 31 

taking place, the King's Council in Paris 
were discussing the last demands of the 
Marquis de Villeneuve, the French ambas- 
sador in Constantinople. Fleury saw the 
urgent necessity of relieving Stanislaus, 
but at the same time he shrank from 
the decisive action demanded by the 
occasion. The sending of the three bat- 
talions under Lamotte was, in Fleury 's 
eyes, 'nothing more than an expedient 
destined to calm the impatience of public 
opinion ^' He gave out that the little 
force was merely an advanced guard to an 
army, which, however, he had not decided 
to send. This conduct on Fleury 's part 
had an excuse. He thought that the 
appearance of a large fleet in the Baltic 
would be regarded by England as a 
defiance and probably make that Power 
join the enemies of France. To avoid 
such intervention, the Cardinal attempted 
to drag Sweden into the struggle and to 
induce her to send troops to Danzig. But 

^ Vandal. 



82 THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 

Sweden,herself menaced by Denmark,only 
gave him evasive replies, saying that if 
Turkey were to commence hostilities, she 
also might possibly join in. Thus it was 
seen that the only hope of saving the cause 
of Stanislaus lay in the co-operation of 
Turkey. But the Porte refused to move 
until France had agreed to sign a written 
declaration assuring the safety of the 
Ottoman Empire. 
Turkey. Turkey was naturally hostile to Russia, 

and was afraid of the advance eastwards 
of Austria. She was well aware of the 
intention of Russia to attack her as soon 
as the downfall of Poland was completed, 
and she knew that she could not success- 
fully resist 200,000 disciplined Russian 
troops without the co-operation of one 
of the great European Powers. At the 
same time it must be remembered that 
the prestige of France among the Tartar 
tribes was high, the Khan having in 1730 
assured Villeneuve of his readiness to aid 
France in Poland. It was thus obviously 



THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 33 

to the advantage of Turkey to be allied 
with France, and so able to count on the 
assistance of the large, if somewhat un- 
disciplined, army the Khan could put into 
the field. 

In 1733 Villeneuve urged the Turks to The Turks 

move, but the Porte refused to take action ^^^^'*^ ^^ 

move. 

till France declared war against Austria, 
and made a defensive league with Turkey. 
Fleury however, being a prince of the 
Church, was unwilling to make an alliance 
with the Infidel; and the Turks would 
not move unless France engaged at least 
not to make peace with Austria so long 
as Russia was at war with Turkey, the 
Porte being fearful of a simultaneous 
attack by Austria and Russia. Thus, it 
will be seen that Fleury failed at the 
outset to grasp the situation, and through 
his hesitation to treat with the Porte the 
chances of Stanislaus being relieved became 
very remote. If the Turkish troops had 
entered the southern provinces of Poland 
at the beginning of the siege of Danzig, 



34 THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 

there would have been perhaps a general 
uprising in favour of Stanislaus. The 
Turks would have found no difficulty 
in advancing into Poland ; the Russians 
would have had to turn from the shores 
of the Baltic to face their new enemy ; and 
Danzig might thus have been relieved. 
The Sublime Porte, following the advice 
of Villeneuve, had made preparations for 
a war which was regarded as imminent. 
Some regular corps were massed in the 
northern part of Bessarabia, and the Khan 
had received orders to proceed thither 
with his Tartar tribes. He arrived at the 
head of 150,000 horsemen prepared for 
a fight, and was said to have exclaimed 
that 'he would not dismount until King 
Stanislaus was once more in possession of 
his crown \' Thus everything was in 
readiness, it only remained for France to 
make the necessary move. ' One stroke of 
the pen would have added 200,000 more 
men to the defenders of Stanislaus ^Z 

» Vandal. « Ibid. 



THE SIEGE OF DANZIG 35 

It was not until after the capitulation Declaration 
of Lamotte, that the Council of the King x^rkeZ^ ^ 
of France became fully aware of the 17S4^ 
extreme seriousness of the situation. After 
six weeks' discussion it was agreed to 
treat with the Porte, Fleury yielding to 
Chauvelin and his other colleagues. After 
due dehberation the French Government 
made the following written declaration : — 
'The King of France, recognizing the 
justice of the undertaking by the Porte 
to maintain the Treaty of the Pruth, the 
liberty and tranquillity of Poland, declares 
through his ambassador, that he will not 
enter into a treaty of peace until assured of 
the safety of the Ottoman Empire.' This 
declaration, instead of being sent by the 
route used by Villeneuve's couriers, was 
sent by boat from Marseilles. The vessel, 
after having been tossed about in the 
Mediterranean for forty- six days, arrived at 
Constantinople on July 10, 1734. But on 
July 2, Danzig had already capitulated, and Capitulation 
Stanislaus had fled into Prussian territory. 



CHAPTER III 

THE SPANISH CONQUEST OF THE KING- 
DOM OF THE TWO SICILIES 

France and If France was unsuccessful in Poland, 
war ^1733 ^^^ ^^^ certainly much more fortunate in 
her campaigns against the Emperor, both 
in Italy and on the Rhine. In Poland, 
Augustus of Saxony, by the fall of Danzig, 
was left practically in absolute possession 
of the PoUsh throne, while Stanislaus 
was now a fugitive in Prussia. One of 
the first acts of King Augustus III was 
to guarantee the Pragmatic Sanction, in 
return for the support he received from 
Charles VI, while he repaid Russia by 
handing over Courland to be made into 
a dukedom for Biren, the favourite of the 
Empress Anna. 



THE TWO SICILIES 37 

In October, 1733, France declared war 
against Charles VI, on account of the aid 
given by the latter to Augustus of Saxony, 
and operations were carried on simul- 
taneously in Italy and Germany. 

In Italy the Austrian rule had never German rule 
been really popular. The interests of ^popidar!^^' 
Italy had in various ways been subordin- 
ated to those of Austria, and discontent 
had begun to show itself in Lombardy as 
well as in the Two Sicilies. The Italian 
regiments, which had done good service 
under the Hapsburgs, were disbanded. 
Under Spanish rule, the gravest judicial 
cases alone had been referred to Madrid ; 
but under the Austrians, every little case 
was taken to Vienna. The Italian nobility 
repaired to the Imperial Court to spend 
their fortunes, and the German officers 
saved up their pay, which they spent at 
home, so that Italy was becoming gradu- 
ally drained of her wealth. Trade was 
also on the decHne. What seemed, how- 
ever, to have been felt most by the Italians 



38 THE SPANISH CONQUEST 

was the continual showering of Imperial 
favours upon the Spanish refugees. Most 
of the highest judicial and civil appoint- 
ments, which used previously to be con- 
fined to Italians, were now conferred upon 
Catalans, while those offices still open 
to Italians *were practically put up to 
auction \' Impositions were much in- 
creased, and their produce withdrawn 
from the regular revenues and trans- 
ferred to the privy purse — this also for 
the benefit of the Catalonian refugees. 
Yet, in spite of all these evils, there was 
a very small chance of an uprising, for the 
people had no leaders. The nobles, who 
might have led them, 'were fascinated 
by Imperial grandeur, and captivated by 
the Imperial titles which they could buy 
or beg 2.' There was no doubt of the 
existence of the feeling of discontent, and 
it was certain that a Spanish force, on its 
first success, would meet with general 
sympathy. 

* Edward Armstrong, Elisabeth Famese. ^ Ibid. 



OF THE TWO SICILIES 39 

Upon the declaration of war by the War in Italy. 
three aUied Powers, namely France, Spain, 
and Sardinia, against Austria, hostilities 
immediately commenced. King Charles 
Emanuel of Sardinia 'opened the ball'; he 
received the keys of JVIilan, and advanced 
to the Adda, where he was subsequently 
joined by a French army under Marshal 
Villars, who appears to have been the hero 
of both the Spanish and Sardinian Courts, 
as well as of the Court of Versailles. The 
French and Sardinians were so successful 
that by the middle of February, 1734, the 
whole of the Milanese and part of the 
territory of Mantua had been conquered. 

Meanwhile the Spaniards had not been 
idle. 16,000 Spanish infantry, conveyed by 
twenty men-of-war, were transported from 
Barcelona and Alicante to the Genoese 
coast, while 5,000 cavalry, crossing the 
Pyrenees, embarked at Antibes for the 
same destination. This force was under 
the command of Montemar. On the dis- 
embarkation being completed, the Spanish 



40 THE SPANISH CONQUEST 

army marched into Tuscany and estab- 
blished its head quarters near Siena. 
During these movements, Don Carlos 
proclaimed himself of age and assumed 
the government of Parma. Soon after- 
wards he quitted Parma for Siena, where 
he took over the command of the Spanish 
forces. Before leaving the former town, 
he, ' as if secure of a higher distinction, 
stripped the ducal palace of the most 
valuable movables and curiosities \' 
The Spanish The French and Sardinians hoped that 
the Kingdom the Spaniards would join them in reduc- 
of Naples, [^g ^j^g JMilancsc, but in this they were 
doomed to disappointment. Spain was 
playing for a higher stake, and had her eye 
on Naples, which was practically waiting 
to be conquered. The German regime, as 
has been already mentioned, had become 
highly unpopular, and the remnant of the 
Spanish party had been making earnest 
representations to the Court of Madrid to 

^ William Coxe, Memoirs of the Kings of Spain of 
the House of Bourbon. 



OF THE TWO SICILIES 41 

deliver them from the Austrian yoke. 
* An object so tempting, and apparently so 
easy in attainment, outweighed the general 
interests of the aUiance of which Spain 
formed a part^' and Spain accordingly 
went her separate way. Villars himself 
repaired to Siena and conferred with Don 
Carlos in order to persuade him to act in 
co-operation with the French and Sardi- 
nians, but it was all to no purpose. Don 
Carlos left his allies to carry out their own 
plans in Lombardy, and himself marched 
southwards through the Papal States to 
the Garighano. He was received by the 
Ministers of the Pope with respect, though 
without the usual honours due to a 
crowned head. Meanwhile, a squadron 
under the command of the Count de 
Clavijo, with 8,000 troops on board, pre- 
ceded the Infante and occupied Ischia 
and Procida, and the headland of Miseno. 
Carlos seemed to expect little or no oppo- 
sition, for in April news was received of 
' Coxe. 
G 



42 THE SPANISH CONQUEST 

him from Aquino to the effect that *he 
was quietly fishing in the Garighano^' 
Passing by Capua, he crossed the Val- 
darna, and concentrated his forces at 
St. Angelo di Rocca Canina. He issued 
a proclamation to the Neapohtans in the 
name of King Phihp V, his father, an- 
nouncing his intention to deliver them 
from the German oppression, promising 
to restore to them their privileges, and to 
reheve them of the taxes imposed since 
the German occupation. The manifesto 
was accompanied by a declaration in the 
name of Don Carlos himself, in which he 
confirmed his father's promises in general, 
and asserted his own resolution to estab- 
lish no new tribunal, either civil or eccle- 
siastical. This last was necessary in order 
to assure the Neapolitans that they need 
have no fear of the establishment of the 
Inquisition, which they had consistently 
opposed. 

These very fair offers produced a great 

' Armstrong. 



OF THE TWO SICILIES 43 

sensation, as might well be expected, Occupation 
among the Neapohtans. To make things ff%p/^'^^ 
even easier for the Spaniards, the Viceroy 1734. 
Visconti, perhaps already foreseeing the 
hopelessness of the struggle, retired to 
Rome, and the Austrian generals, Caraffa 
and Traun, disagreed in their plan of 
operations. The Imperial position at 
St. Angelo della Canina was forced by 
the Spaniards, the Imperialists being 
driven into Capua and Gaeta, where they 
were besieged by a portion of the Spanish 
forces, the rest of which continued the 
advance towards Naples. At Aversa a 
deputation from the capital waited upon 
the Infante, when arrangements were 
made for the surrender of the city, and 
all the forts commanding it and the port 
were occupied by the Spaniards. Don 
Carlos made his triumphal entry early 
in May, and read the decree by which 
King Philip V ceded to him the kingdom 
of the Two Sicilies. 

No rest was given to the Austrians. ofBitonto, 



44 THE SPANISH CONQUEST 

While Don Carlos was establishing the 
government of his newly acquired do- 
minions, Montemar followed the Austrian 
troops to Bitonto, where he forced their 
intrenchments and utterly dispersed the 
only army in the field. The battle seemed 
to have been a great one, for we are told 
that * nearly 2,000 men were left in the 
field, 6,000 taken, with their tents, pro- 
visions, and stores, and of the whole body 
only 400 hussars escaped into the moun- 
tains of Calabria \' Capua and Gaeta 
before long surrendered, the latter having 
been ably defended for several weeks by 
Traun. 
Coronation Don Carlos received the crown at 

■f r\ 

Carlos Naples amidst the acclamations of the 
people, whose delight was unfeigned, for 
Naples was once more a kingdom, and 
its capital again a royal court. The 
whole of Italy indeed had reason to hope 
that the days of foreign occupation were 
over, and that the restoration of the balance 
* Coxe. 



OF THE TWO SICILIES 45 

of the five Italian Powers which had 
existed previous to 1494 was imminent. 
Of the five, only two survived, viz. the 
Papacy and Venice. Now a new dynasty 
would take the place of the Aragonese 
monarchy of Naples. The House of Savoy 
would succeed to the possessions of the 
Visconti and the Sforza, while Don Philip, 
Elisabeth Farnese's second son, would have 
Tuscany enlarged by the addition of 
Parma, and perhaps also of Mantua. 

The first act of the new King of Naples 
was to reward the services of Montemar, 
who was created Duke of Bitonto, and was 
given a pension of 14,000 ducats a year, 
with the perpetual custody of Castello 
Nuovo. To these rewards, the King of 
Spain added the honours of a grandee 
of the first class. 

There still remained Sicily to be con- Spanish 
quered. Even before Capua and Gaeta slcUy!^ 
fell, Montemar, reinforced by fresh troops 
from Spain, landed near Palermo, where he 
was at once welcomed as Viceroy of King 



46 THE SPANISH CONQUEST 

Carlos. The Sicilians rose in favour of 
the Spaniards, and helped them by pre- 
venting the concentration of the Austrian 
troops from the smaller garrisons. Only 
three fortresses offered any resistance, and 
Trapani, the last of these, surrendered on 
June 21, 1735. Carlos himself went over 
to Sicily and was, on July 3, crowned at 
Palermo, where the enthusiasm was con- 
siderable. Thus, within fifteen months, 
the kingdom of the Two Sicilies had 
changed its ruler, and ' the familiar adage 
was again confirmed that " the kingdom " 
was hght to win and light to lose ^' 
Operations In the north of Italy, while the Two 
'o/iLT'^^ SiciHes were being reduced by the 
Spaniards, the allied forces of France 
and Sardinia had also met with much 
success, though the results were not so 
decisive. Villars urged Charles Emanuel 
to undertake the siege of Mantua. This 
the King of Sardinia was willing to do, 
provided he was allowed to retain the 

' Armstrong. 



OF THE TWO SICILIES 47 

town in return for concessions to France 
in Savoy. On Fleury replying that 
Elisabeth Farnese had made its posses- 
sion a condition of the Spanish alliance, 
and that he could not therefore promise 
it, Charles Emanuel declined to advance. 
ViUars thereupon threw up his command 
in disgust, and was succeeded by Coigny, 
with whom was Broglie. The old marshal 
never saw home again, for at Turin he fell 
dangerously ill and died in the beginning 
of June, 1734. With him disappeared 
one of the great names of the past 
generation. 

The Emperor did his best to recover Course of the 
the Milanese. An army, under General j!^^^^^^^' 
Graf von Mercy, was sent to attack the 
Gallo- Sardinian lines at Parma, but it 
was disastrously defeated and Mercy him- 
self killed. About this time the French 
troops seem to have been in a terrible 
state of demoralization, and their depre- 
dations in Parma aroused the anger 
of Elisabeth Farnese, as they were 



48 THE SPANISH CONQUEST 

professedly holding it in trust for her 
son. 

In September there were two actions 
worth noting. On the 15th the Austrian 
army, under Graf von Konigsegg, crossed 
the Secchia by night, cut off a piquet at 
the ford, and attacked Broglie's camp. 
Taken completely by surprise, Broglie 
just managed to get away with his men 
to join Coigny, leaving behind him much 
baggage. This was the one success to the 
Austrians during the war. Their triumph 
was short-Hved, for four days later, on the 
19th, a battle was fought at Guastalla, 
resulting in a crushing defeat to Konigs- 
egg's army, which had to hurry back once 
more across the Secchia. Yet, at the end 
of the fighting season, the Austrians 
still held the line of the Adda, JVIantua 
remained to them, and reinforcements 
could still come in from Germany over the 
Brenner and Semmering passes. 
The Siege of In the following year, the Spaniards, 
1735^^' having finished their conquest of the Two 



OF THE TWO SICILIES 49 

Sicilies, were induced to turn northwards. 
A Spanish army under Montemar landed 
on the Tuscan coast, captured Orbitello, 
and drove the Austrians from the Presidi. 
The arrogant attitude of the English and 
Dutch brought about a temporary re- 
concihation between Spain, France, and 
Sardinia, and the siege of Mantua was 
decided upon and undertaken. But here 
once more was discord. The French 
under Marshal de Noailles, who had by 
then succeeded Coigny, did assist the 
Spaniards in the siege, but the King of 
Sardinia refused to lend his siege artillery 
in order to capture a town for the 
Spanish princes. The siege-train had 
thus to be dragged up from Leghorn and 
Naples. Nor was there much danger of 
Mantua being starved out, for the French 
blockade was so carelessly maintained, 
that stores could always be got into the 
town by a few enterprising Venetian 
merchants. 

Such was the military situation when 

H 



50 THE SPANISH CONQUEST 

Fleury's news was received of a nature which sur- 

N^otiations, P^^^^^ ^^^^Y ^^^' I^^l^ury, without having 
1735. consulted his allies, had suddenly signed 

the prehminaries of peace with the 
Emperor. Immediately on receiving the 
news, Montemar fell back upon Bologna, 
and then with heavy loss upon Parma and 
Tuscany, w^here he was forced to accept 
an armistice through the mediation of 
Noailles. Deep was the disappointment 
of the Spaniards, but the Spanish army 
could boast of having achieved great 
things during the two years' campaigning 
in Italy, and the activity of its movements 
had been undeniable. The officers openly 
expressed their contempt of their French 
and Sardinian colleagues, and perhaps not 
without reason. ' While the French were 
pulling rings from women's fingers, and 
robbing their aUies' vineyards, the 
Spaniards had conquered a great king- 
dom, and founded a dynasty which was to 
outlive a century \' The campaign had 

* Armstrong. 



OF THE TWO SICILIES 51 

been, all through, a very unfortunate one 
for the Emperor. With the one excep- 
tion of the victory on the Secchia, his 
forces had been defeated throughout 
Italy. Nor was he more successful on 
the Rhine. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 

French About the Same time that Villars 

fh^mine^'' started for Italy, another French army 
marched towards the Rhine, commanded 
by the gallant Duke of Berwick. He 
occupied Lorraine and the Electorate of 
Treves, took Kehl, and finally besieged 
Phihpsburg, where he lost his life. These 
in fact were the only really important 
events of the German campaign. 

Up to the seizure of Kehl the fighting 
had, properly speaking, been between the 
French and Austrians, but after that event 
things took a different turn. The Emperor 
appealed for help to the Imperial Diet, 
which, in spite ofFleury's attempts to cajole 
it, supported Charles VI, and on March 13, 
1734, declared war against France. Thus 



THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 53 

the Emperor had an l7?iperialin Siddition The Imperial 
to his Austrian army. This, however, ^^^' 
did not make the Emperor as strong as it 
would appear at first sight, for unfortu- 
nately, the Imperial army, 'raised from 
multifarious contingents, and guided and 
provided for by many heads, is usually 
good for httle \' Some of the rulers even 
refused their contingents, and protested in 
the Diet. Another difficulty was in regard 
to the appointment of commanders. There 
were always two field-marshals of the Im- 
perial army; one Roman Catholic and one * 
Protestant. The famous Prince Eugene of 
Savoy, at the time of the declaration of war, 
occupied the position of Roman Catholic 
field-marshal, but the other was still 
vacant. How to fill this vacancy was the 
question. Duke Karl Alexander of Wiir- 
temberg, who succeeded Duke Eberhard 
Ludwig as ruler, would have been very 
suitable to succeed him also as Protes- 
tant marshal, but unfortunately he had 
^ Thomas Carlyle, Frederick the Great. 



54 THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 

gone over to the Roman Church, so 
that there would have been two Roman 
Catholic field-marshals. There were, 
besides the Duke of Wiirtemberg, two 
other candidates for the vacancy, both 
Protestants, and both claiming the ful- 
filment of old promises. The difficulty 
was solved by the King of Prussia, 
who proposed that there should be four 
field-marshals, and this suggestion was 
accepted and acted upon. The above 
may perhaps afford an illustration of the 
ineffectiveness of the Imperial organiza- 
tion. 
The Of aU the contingents which came to 

make up the Imperial army, that of Prussia 
was undoubtedly the best. Frederick 
WiUiam had steadily refused to take any 
share in the Pohsh election, in spite of the 
many good offers made to him on both 
sides. He would, perhaps, have also stood 
out of this war between France and the 
Emperor, had he not been bound by treaty 
to assist the latter whenever he should 



Prussian 
Contingent. 



THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 55 

declare war with the consent of the Diet. 
Therefore the King had orders issued 
to his army to be in readiness even before 
the Diet had given its assent, so that by 
the time it did so the Prussian contingent 
of 10,000 men was prepared. 

At the end of JNIarch, Berwick appeared 
in the neighbourhood of Phihpsburg. The 
Prussian contingent, consisting of three 
cavahy and five infantry regiments, under 
the command of General Rbder, left Berlin 
on April 8. Besides the regular staff, there 
also accompanied the force, or joined it 
afterwards, as volunteers, many high 
military dignitaries, including the King 
himself, and the Crown Prince, after- 
wards Frederick the Great, whose first 
real campaign it was. 

To return to Philipsburg. For de- PhiUpshurg. 
fensive purposes a chain of posts was 
constructed twenty miles away to the 
south of the town, running from Miihlburg 
on the bank of the Rhine up to Ettlingen 
in the hills. These were known as the 



56 THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 

' lines of Ettlingen,' and were constructed 
in a similar way and for a similar purpose 
to the lines of Stollhofen, the attack upon 
which had made Marshal Villars famous 
in 1707. The Hues of Ettlingen were 
held by a small number of Imperial troops, 
commanded by Duke Ferdinand of Bruns- 
wick-Bevern, one of the four Imperial 
field-marshals. 
Success of Berwick, while the force under the com- 
mand of Belleisle was occupied in reducing 
Trarbach, crossed the Rhine with his second 
division well to the south of Philipsburg, 
intending to attack the lines of Ettlingen 
and so to arrive at the town. Another 
division was to cross over a little lower 
down the river, i. e. nearer Philipsburg, 
and attack the defenders in the rear. On 
May 3, NoaiUes, who had not yet gone 
to Italy, marched up to Ettlingen and 
bivouacked at the foot of the mountain. 
Early the next morning, he ascended with 
his force in two columns, and issuing from 
a little wood on the top beheld the eastern 



THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 57 

end of the lines of Ettlingen, which 
he stormed and took without much 
difficulty. Berwick was on the point of 
attacking when Noailles came up to report 
his victory. Duke Ferdinand, perceiving 
the hopelessness of the situation, collected 
together the scattered remnants of his 
troops, and retreated that night unpursued 
to Heilbronn, where he gave up the com- 
mand to Prince Eugene, who had just 
arrived there. On May 13 Philipsburg 
was invested. 

Prince Eugene did not immediately 
make a move from Heilbronn, but 
waited for some time for the Imperial 
forces to gather there. On June 7 the 
Prussian contingent arrived, and the rest 
came in by degrees. The field-marshal, 
when joined by the Prussians, moved 
down towards Philipsburg and encamped 
in the rear of the besiegers. Berwick 
threw up intrenchments which were well 
manned, to protect his force against the 
attacks of Eugene, while his guns carried 



58 THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 

on a vigorous bombardment of the town. 

He had one bridge across the river, at the 

further end of which he placed a battery to 

shell Phihpsburg in the rear. One morning, 

on paying his usual visit to the various 

posts along his hne, Berwick mounted 

a hiU exposed to the batteries of both 

Death of sides. While taking observations, a 

cannon-ball, whether French or Austrian 

it is not certain, struck his head. Thus 

perished, five days after the death of his 

old friend ViUars, the cautious French 

marshal, and the best and bravest of the 

Stuarts. 

Frederick of Berwick's death did not affect the siege, 

which was carried on under his successor 

in command with undiminished vigour. 

Prince Eugene still looked on and did not 

make a move. On July 7, the Crown 

Prince of Prussia and other distinguished 

volunteers arrived at the Imperial camp 

at Wiesenthal. In a letter to his father, 

Frederick spoke of fascines and hurdles 

being made to be used in one of two plans 



THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 59 

of action. The first plan was to attack 
the French intrenchments, and the second, 
* to amuse the enemy by a false attack, 
and throw succour into the town.' Neither 
of these plans, however, was carried out. 
The day after his arrival (July 8) the 
Crown Prince went out reconnoitring, 
and on this occasion showed admirable 
coolness and courage. Herr von Suhm, 
the Saxon Minister at Berlin, in the pre- 
face to his volume of Correspondence, 
described this incident and spoke of the 
Prince in glowing terms. ' The cannon- 
shot from the lines,' wrote Suhm, ' accom- 
panied him incessantly, and crashed down 
several trees by his side ; during all which 
he walked his horse along at the old pace, 
precisely as if nothing were happening, 
nor in his hand upon the bridle was there 
the least trace of motion perceptible.' 
Suhm was not himself with the Prince, 
but the anecdote was supplied him by the 
Prince von Lichtenstein, who was probably 
an eye-witness. 



60 THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 

Arrival of On July 15, King Frederick William of 

Prussia. Prussia arrived at Wiesenthal. Prince 
Eugene invited him to lodge at head 
quarters, but the king declined the invita- 
tion, preferring a tent among his own 
people. Even here in camp, Frederick 
WiUiam did not altogether escape diplo- 
matic business. The Empress of Russia 
sent a message threatening that unless 
Stanislaus was given up, Miinnich would 
come across the frontier to seize the 
fugitive. The King of Prussia returned 
a diplomatic but firm answer, refusing 
to comply with this request. He was 
likewise approached on the same sub- 
ject by Austria, and returned the same 
answer. Neither at this time nor after- 
wards did Frederick William yield either 
to Austria or Russia in the matter of 
dehvering up the refugee. He remained 
' deaf as a doorpost alike to the menaces 
and the entreaties of Kaiser and Tsarina \' 
Frederick William remained a month 

1 Carlyle. 



1784^ 



THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 61 

with the army. Both he and Frederick 
attended all the councils of war, but the 
result of these meetings seems to have 
been nothing, for no attempt was made to 
relieve Philipsburg, which, after a stiff de- 
fence of six weeks, capitulated on July 18. 

After the fall of Philipsburg, nothing of The year 
very great importance took place during 
that year (1734). The French proceeded 
to repair the town without being molested, 
and there were no really important engage- 
ments. Frederick, writing in later years, 
said he thought the French lines would 
not have been difficult to take, and in fact 
seemed to have thought that, in case of an 
attack, the defeat of the French was prob- 
able. But Prince Eugene, now but a mere 
shadow of his former self, did not put too 
much trust in the very mixed force under 
his command, and would not make the 
attempt. He was now old, being seventy- 
three years of age, and, as Carlyle says, ' a 
good deal wearied with the long march 
through Time,' and this possibly accounts 



62 THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 

for the strictly defensive policy he saw fit 
to adopt. 

About the middle of August, Frederick 
William left, his health having suffered 
much during the month's campaigning. 
The Crown Prince, however, still remained 
and moved about with the camp. There 
-was a good deal of manoeuvring on 
both sides, which was not productive of 
any result worth noting. In October 
Frederick returned to Potsdam, having 
passed through his miUtary apprenticeship 
with credit. 
The year The next year, 1735, was even less 
productive of military events, although 
the Emperor, to quote Carlyle once 
more, 'does exert himself to make a 
campaign of it.' In April, Lichten- 
stein arrived in Berhn from Vienna 
with three requests to the King of 
Prussia : ' (1) That, in addition to the ten 
thousand troops due by treaty. His 
Majesty would send his Reichscontin- 
gent. (2) That he would have the good- 



THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 63 

ness to dismiss Marquis de la Chdtardie, 
the French Ambassador, as a plainly 
superfluous person at a well-aiFected 
German Court in present circumstances. 
(3) That His Prussian Majesty do give 
up the false Polish Majesty Stanislaus, 
and no longer harbour him in East 
Prussia or elsewhere.' All three demands 
were refused by Frederick William, 
especially the two latter, which he con- 
sidered as * something notably high on 
the Kaiser's part, or on any mortal's, to 
a free sovereign and gentleman \' How- 
ever, he sent back the original ten 
thousand, with a troop of hussars in 
addition, to aid the Emperor in the 
coming campaign. The Crown Prince, 
though himself eager to return with the 
contingent, was not allowed to go, for in 
truth Frederick William did not entirely 
approve of the war, which he considered 
to be the result of meddling with some- 
body else's affairs. 

1 Carlyle. 



64 THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 

Prince Eugene did no more in 1735 
than he did the year before. The only 
noteworthy action was fought by Secken- 
dorf, one of Eugene's Heutenants. At 
the head of 30,000 men, he marched 
towards Trarbach, in the interior Moselle 
country, and gained a smaU success over 
the French army under Belleisle at 
Arrival of Ivlausscn. Another event worth mention- 
il^^f"**^'^' ing was the appearance of a Russian army 
in those parts. As a result of an appeal 
from Austria, the Empress Anne, having 
settled the affairs in Poland, ordered 
General Lacy to proceed to Germany 
with a force of 20,000 men. After a 
tedious march of two months, the Russian 
army joined the Imperial forces on the 
banks of the Neckar. This was the first 
time that a IVIuscovite army had ever 
appeared in Central Europe, and ' the 
strict discipline and perfect order of the 
Northern barbarians excited some surprise 
and not a Httle admiration \' Lacy, how- 

^ Nisbet Bain. 



THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 65 

ever, came too late to render any real 
assistance. A month after he had gone 
into his winter quarters at Pforzheim, 
peace negotiations were opened between 
France and Austria. 

It was the general outlook that induced Fleuty 
Fleury to sign the prehminaries of peace, "^.^hrjllce, 
He was afraid of England and Denmark 1735, 
joining the Emperor, and was aware that 
negotiations had been carried on for some 
time past between Charles ^^I and Patino, 
who, representing Elisabeth Farnese, had 
been endeavouring to obtain the hand of 
Maria Theresa for Don Carlos. Fleury 
also knew he could not trust Sardinia, as 
the King had already divulged the terms 
of the Treaty of the Escurial to the Eng- 
lish Government. The Cardinal there- 
fore deemed it advisable to come to 
terms with the Emperor. On October 5, 
1735, the preliminaries of the treaty be- 
tween France and the Emperor, known 
as the Third Treaty of Vienna, were 
signed, though the definitive treaty 



Peace. 



66 THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 

was not concluded till November 18, 
1738. 
Tenns of The preliminaries contained the follow- 
ing clauses : — 

(1) Don Carlos to have the Two Sicilies 
and the Tuscan Presidencies. 

(2) The King of Sardinia to have 
Novara and Tortona. 

(3) The Emperor to hold Parma and 
Piacenza. 

(4) France to guarantee the Pragmatic 
Sanction. 

(5) Stanislaus Leszczynski to renounce 
his claim to the PoHsh throne, but to 
receive the Duchy of Lorraine during 
his hfetime, as soon as the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany died ; Lorraine to revert to 
France on the death of Stanislaus. 

(6) The Duke of Lorraine to receive 
Tuscany on the death of the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany. 

Close of the Thus ended the war between France 
and the Emperor, a war of successes for 
the former and of disasters for the latter. 



Wi 



ar. 



THE RHINE CAMPAIGN 67 

Many perished during the war on both 
sides. On the French side, two marshals, 
Villars and Berwick, died within five 
days of one another. On the Austrian 
side, among those who died was the 
veteran Mercy, the most enterprising of 
all the Imperial generals during the whole 
of the Italian campaign. The great 
Eugene hardly survived the Rhine cam- 
paign, for he died on April 21, 1736, less 
than a year after the cessation of hostilities. 
And yet the war, which claimed as 
victims those mentioned above, cannot 
in a military sense be called either 
a great or a glorious one. 



CONCLUSION 

Anger of The ncws that the prehminaries of 
peace had been signed was received in 
Spain with great indignation, for it was 
considered as a shght on the country by 
France. EHsabeth Farnese, who had 
always dishked the French, naturally 
joined in the outburst of feeling against 
them, and once more she contemplated 
a close alliance with England. She was 
bitterly disappointed at her failure to 
bring about the marriage of Don Carlos 
to ]\Iaria Theresa, and at the postpone- 
ment of her schemes in Northern Italy, 
declaring that Spain had been duped by 
France. Charles Emanuel was also very 
indignant, and refused to accept Fleury's 
explanation of what he called French 
perfidy. The fact of the prehminaries 
having been signed did not mean an 



CONCLUSION 69 

immediate adjustment of all difficulties, for 
throughout 1736 Northern Italy remained 
in an unsettled condition ; but on May 18, The Third 
1736, Spain acceded to the prehminaries, ^^^^^J/ ^J^ 

Vi&ivfici 

and the Third Treaty of Vienna was finally jinaihi mti- 
ratified in 1738, thus closing the War of >^^ ^^^^• 
the Polish Succession. 

In this war, Charles VI, though his Austria after 
armies had suffered so many crushing and ^^^ *^^^' 
humiliating defeats, had not been alto- 
gether unsuccessful. The Polish throne 
was occupied by the candidate whom he 
had supported, and the Pragmatic Sanc- 
tion had been guaranteed by Louis XV 
and Augustus III. Lorraine, it is true, 
was lost, but its Duke, who had married 
IMaria Theresa in February, 1736, had 
obtained Tuscany, which was added to the 
Emperor's possessions. Charles VI had 
been forced to relinquish the kingdom of 
the Two Sicilies and the Tuscan ports, 
but he had got back Parma and Piacenza, 
and thus had consolidated his dominions 
in Italy. 



70 CONCLUSION 

TheBourho7i France and Spain were undoubtedly the 
Potvers. greatest gainers by the war. By securing 
the reversion of Lorraine, France had 
gained an acquisition of immense value ; 
while Spain had not only conquered 
for herself a great kingdom in Southern 
Italy, but had also shown to Europe that 
her soldiers, when led by a capable 
general like IMontemar, had lost none of 
that courage and skill in war for which 
they had been so famed. Although there 
were various circumstances which caused 
a temporary coolness between France 
and Spain, the union of the two branches 
of the House of Bourbon became very 
apparent to the world, and, till the French 
Revolution, was a source of anxiety to 
English statesmen. 
Russia. Another country that succeeded in 
making its importance felt in Europe was 
Russia. Her alliance with Austria had 
proved of incalculable value, especially as 
regards Poland, where both Powers were 
eminently successful in carrying out their 



CONCLUSION 71 

schemes. Russia in this instance, though 
acting in concert with Austria, had the 
more important role to play, and played 
it well. Her statesmen claim — and they 
certainly have a right to do so — that 
Austria would have come out of her 
French war even worse than she actually 
did if Russia had not taken entirely into 
her own hands the suppression of the 
rebeUious elements in Poland and the 
pacification of that country. The appear- 
ance of a Russian army, for the first time 
in European history, on the banks of the 
Rhine, undoubtedly did much to hasten 
the conclusion of peace. In fact, Europe 
now realized that Russia had indeed 
emerged from the state of semi-barbarism 
in which she had hitherto been supposed 
to dwell. 

The war also illustrated the growing Branden- 
coolness between the Courts of Berlin ^"''^• 
and Vienna. Frederick William had sent 
a force of 10,000 men to join the Imperial 
army on the Rhine, it is true, but then 



72 CONCLUSION 

he was obliged to do so by treaty. He 
was much irritated at the course of events 
in Poland ; all through the peace negotia- 
tions he had been entirely ignored, and he 
declared that he had been deserted by 
Austria and Russia. Austrian statesmen, 
on their part, had seen in the rising 
Electorate of Brandenburg the rival of 
their own State, and the events of the 
years 1733 to 1735 seemed to justify 
their apprehensions. The end of the war 
found the relations between Frederick 
William and Charles VI very strained. 
Italy. The war was for Italy peculiarly 
important, for the map of the Peninsula 
was now entirely changed ; Naples and 
Sicily were joined together under a 
Spanish prince, and the young kingdom 
of Sardinia took its place as one of the 
important States. 
Poland. As for unfortunate Poland, she was on 
the road to decline, and her fall became 
a mere question of time. Sweden, the 
one friend from whom she could expect 



CONCLUSION 73 

any aid, was herself decadent, whereas 
her neighbours, Prussia and Russia, were 
both rising Powers, and the alliance be- 
tween the Courts of Vienna and Peters- 
burg still remained as firm as ever. Her 
sun was set — she was destined to remain 
an embarrassment and temptation to her 
neighbours, and the War of the Pohsh 
Succession proved the first step towards 
the Partition Treaties. 



Oxford: HoBAOE Haet 
Printer to the UniverBity 






RETURN TO the circulation desl< of any 
University of California Library 

or to the 

NORTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 
BIdg. 400, Richmond Field Station 
University of California 
Richmond, CA 94804-4698 

ALL BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS 

• 2-month loans may be renewed by calling 
(510)642-6753 

• 1-year loans may be recharged by bringing 
books to NRLF 

• Renewals and recharges may be made 
4 days prior to due date 

DUE AS STAMPED BELOW 

.qpNT ON ILL 

SEP 8 2006 



U.C. BERKELEY 



DD20 1M 3-02 






/: 



o 



UNIVERSITY OF CAUFORNIA LIBRARY