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Full text of "War Record of 4th Battalion King's Own Scottish Borderers"

H.R.& M.M. 
MARSHALL 



.! 

t'o.oxv.t SR I. J. "¥AI.I,IE-GRIFFITH, BAR'I'.. 
Hon,»rarv Cc,lonel. 4th Bn. The King's On Sc«ttish l-lordercrs. 



WAR 

RECORD 

4th Bn. King's Own 

OF 
Scottish Borderers 

ND 

Lothians and Border Horse 

WITH HISTORY OF THE T.F. ASSOCIATIONS OF THE COUNTIES 
OF ROXBURGH. BERWICK. AND SELKIRK 

I:'DITED BY 
SORLEY BROWN 
(Lieuteaant, 4th Ba. K.O.S.B.) 

PUBLISHED ON BEHALF OF THE T.F. ASSOCIATIONS BY 
JOHN blcQUEEN & SON, 
GALASHIELS. 
1920. 



o tb¢ fllemor? 

of those members of the 4th Bn. King's Own Scottish 
Borderers and Lothians and Border Horse who laid 
clown their lires in the great war, 1914-1918. 

19utce et decorum est pro ibaIriâ moff. 



PREFACE. 

IT was at an officers' conference held one evening in the year 
1916, when the 4th 13n. K.O.S.13. was traversing the desert wastes 
of Snai, that it was decided to coIIect material for the compilation of 
a record of the part the 13attalion played in the Great War. Lieut.- 
Colonel G. T. 13. Wilson, D.S.O., who was then in command of the 
13attalon, was very anxious that this should be donc. Unfortunately 
the severe fighting in which the 13attalion was subsequently engaged 
]eft little time and opportunity for much progress to be ruade with 
the Record, and, indeed, nothing further was donc in the matter until 
last iear, when the members of the Territorial Force Associations of 
the Counties of Roxburgh, 13erwick, and Selkirk, at the instigation 
of Colonel Sir Richard Waldie-Griffith, decided that this little book, 
embodying the war record of the 4th 13n. K.O.S.13. and the Lothians 
and 13order Horse, together with a short history of the Territorial 
Force Associations concerned, should be written and published. The 
task of writing and editing the volume was entrusted to the present 
wdter. In carrying out that task I have receved much valuable 
assistance from many brother officers, non-commssioned officers, and 
men. I desire especialli to thank Colonel Sir Rchard Waldie-Griffith 
for much kindly advice and help. H]s love and concern for the 
interests of the 13attalion cannot be over-estimated, and as its Honor- 
ary Colonel he is regarded wth the deepest and warmest affection 
by all who have had the honour to serve under his command. 
I desire also to thank Captain J. R. Marshall, who is responsible 
for the portion of the volume relating to the Lothians and 13order 
Horse ; Lieut.-Colonel A. Haddon, O.B.E., for information about the 
Territorial Force Associations; the Off%er in charge of Records, 
Hamilton ; and Captain T. 13roomfield and others who were kind 
enough to send me a large number of photographs, from which a 
selection has been made. 
Every effort has been made to make the record as complete as 
possible. Mistakes may have crept in, and omissions will doubtless 
be noted, but I trust that with all its imperfections the book wll 
serve its purpose as a small reminder of the honourable part the 
units concerned played in the Great War. 

W. S. B. 



CONTENTS. 

PART I.----4TH BN. K.O.S.B. RECORD. 

çHAPTER PAO 
I. The Call to rms ............ Il 
II. Gallipoli--The 2th of Juif ......... 17 
III. Moreabout the 2th of Juif ......... 27 
IV. Sunshine and Shadow ............ 40 
V. The Last Week at Cape Helles ......... 48 
VI. Memories of Lemnos ............ 59 
VIL In Turkish Hands--A Prisoner of War's Story ... 65 
"VIII. Cairo, Port Said, and Kantara ......... 73 
IX. Romani, Rabah, Mohamidiya ......... 82 
X. The Attack on Outpost Hill ......... 89 
XI. The FMI of Gaza and the Battle of Mughar ... 103 
XII. The Crossing of the River Aua ......... 111 
XIII. On the Western Front ............ 121 
XlV. The Armistice and After ......... 128 
XV. Casualties, Awards, and Roll of Honour ...... 134 

PART II.--LoTHIANS AND BORDER HORSE RECORD. 
I. Mobilisation ............... 153 
II. "A" Squadron ............ 158 
III. Headquarters, "B" Squadron and Machine Gun Section 165 
IV. Do. (continued) ............ 174 
V. "D" Squadron ............ 184 
VI. Casualties, Honours, and Awards ...... 191 

PART III.--HISTOR' OF THE TERRITORIAL FORCE ASSOCIA- 
TIONS OF THE COUNTIES OF ROXBURGH, BERWlCK AND 
SELKIRK ............... 

201 



Part I. 

4th K.O.S.B. Record. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE CALL TO ARMS. 

The people of the Border country have good reason 
to remember as a red-letter day the 5th of August, 1914,. 
as on that memorable day the 4th Bn. K.O.S.B. was 
mobilised, orders to mobilise having been received the 
previous evening. There was naturally much excitement 
and bustlc at the various detachment headquarters, as 
the Battalion was thus for the first time placed on a war 
footing. Having congregated at Galashiels, the troops 
were billeted at the Battalion's headquarters in Paton 
Street, and in other buildings throughout the town, and 
after the necessary preliminaries had been arranged, 
involving the delay of a few days, orders were received 
that the Battalion was to more to Cambusbarron. By 
August 11th mobilisation was complete, and, thanks to 
the immediate enlistment of a good number of National 
Reservists, the Battalion was brought up to full strength. 
The Battalion was under the command of Lieut.-Colonel 
J. McNeile, with Major A. Stevenson as second in com- 
mand, Captain J. C. Lang as adjutant, and Lieutenant 
E. H. Follis as quartermaster, while the medical Offlcer 
was Captain D. R. Taylor, and the Rev. W. S. Matheson 
was chaplain. As Major (afterwards Lieut.-Colonel) 
Stevenson was medically rejected for active service, he 
was subsequently succeeded as second in command by 
Major W. E. A. Cochrane, Major Stevenson being posted 
to the Reserve Battalion. Speculation became rire, and 
Dame Rumour, always very influential in the Army, had 
some of ber greatest triumphs. But doubt soon gave way 
to certainty, and on August 12th the Battalion entrained 
for Cambusbarron. The townspeople gave the Borderers 
an enthusiastic send-off, and after a railway journey of 
some hours--the first advance in "The Great Adventure" 
--Stirling was reached. Few who took part in the subse- 
quent match to Hayford Mi!l, where the Battalion was 



12 

quartered, will ever forget it, and many a time and oft 
lhe depressing effect which the long straight Dumbarton 
Road had that day was recalled when, by frequent passage 
over it, our men got a better idea of the distance. But 
at last a turn off the main road was ruade, and there, 
.sheltering between the Touch Hills and the King's Park, 
was the home of the Battalion for nine months. A large 
mill, atone rime giving employment to some hundreds 
of hands, which, in consequence of trade depression, 
had a varied and chequered career, once more--in the 
service of the military and as a billet for troops--became 
a scene of lire and energy and bustle. The first thing 
done was to get the " bouse in order," and several days 
-of methodical work revolutionised the place from the 
point of view of comort, though later in the year it 
underwent further improvements which raised it into 
high esteem as a comfortable billet. 
Training commenced--the hard, rigorous, disciplined 
training rendered necessary by circumstances. Of ail the 
training areas, perhaps the most famous was " Shielbrae," 
where the civilian soldiers of the old Territorial Force, 
reinforced by recruits whose patriotism brought them early 
to the Colours, learned many of the arts of war. The 
Battalion's first experience of " Shielbrae" was as the 
oal of a route march, when the hilly road up took ail 
aback, and the troops were relieved when, after a halt, 
"' About turn " was ordered. Rigorous training, how- 
ever, had a wonderul effect, and within a few days the 
Battalion marched up that saine road in full marching 
order, carried out strenuous training for some hours, 
and marched liht-heartedly back to billets, none the 
worse for their exertions. The beautiful policies of 
Airthrey Castle, near Bridge of Allan, also afforded excel- 
lent opportunities for training, route marching being 
çombined with field practice, and valuable experience 
was in this way gained. Later on, the old historic field 
.o[ Bannockburn became the centre o[ many a hard-fought 
tactical scheme, where brigades were involved rather 
than battalions at the end of a hard and comprehensive" 
• scheme of training. Route marches were frequent, and 



13 
most of the country in the neighbourhood echoed to the 
beat of tramping feet and the swing of a soldier's 
chorus. 
During the whole period rnuch experience was ained 
by ail ranks of garrison duties, and in supplyin the 
guards, picquets, and fatigue parties necessary to facilitate 
operations in the busy rnilitary centre near which the 
Battalion was stationed. The relations of the Battalion 
with the villaers of Carnbusbarron and the burghers of 
Stirling were noteworthy for their cordiality. On arrival, 
few rnen knew any of the local inhabitants, but the latter, 
by their kindness in keeping an open door to roups of 
soldiers, won their way cornpletely to the hearts of the 
rnen, who, at the sarne time, by their frankness and ood 
conduct, did rnuch to earn for the Battalion a reputation 
second to none in the district--a reputation which even 
the period of the war did not dirninish. 
During the period of occupation of the rnill at 
Cambusbarron by the 1/4th K.O.S.B., the 4th (Reserve) 
Battalion was forrned at the headquarters in Galashiels 
under the command of Colonel Sir Richard Waldie 
Griffith, with Major A. Stevenson as second in cornrnand, 
Captain (now Major) W. J. Mabbott as adjutant, Major 
J. Sanderson as quarterrnaster, and Major W. Doi as 
rnedical officer. The mansion of Galahill was secured 
as an officers' mess, and the recruits that flocked to the 
Battalion were billeted at the headquarters in Paton 
Street and the other parts of the town. Recruits carne 
in in steady and increasin nurnbers--sturdy youths frorn 
ail parts of the Borders--and trainin was carried out in 
the Public Park, in Gala Policies, on Ladhope Moor, 
and elsewhere in the district. Wonderful enthusiasrn 
prevailed amon oflàcers and rnen, and the work of train- 
in was reatly facilitated by the fine, brisk weather which 
prevailed throuhout the auturnn and early winter. 
Mernorable features of the trainin were the long route 
marches that were undertaken by selected officers and 
rnen for the purpose of stirnulating recruitin. The first 
march was one " up Ettrick and down Yarrow "--a 
distance of over 40 rniles--which was accornplished in 



14 

two October days. Some of the recruits who took part 
in this march had less than two months' training, but 
although they had practically no sleep overnight owing 
to the presence of large numbers of rats in the barn 
which was occupied as a billet, and an incident, in- 
volvin the calling out of the guard, into the details 
of which I need hOt enter here, ail completed 
the journey back to headquarters. Marches were also 
ruade throuh Roxburghshire and Berwickshire, and in 
every town and village through which the Battalion passed 
the troops were warmly and hospitably received by the 
inhabitants. Training was carried out on a carefully 
oranised plan. In the later stages several sham fights 
took place, and one which the writer specially recalls was 
that against several battalions of the Black Watch which 
were stationed at Hawick. This fight took place on the 
hills near Selkirk amid torrents of rain, and ail were 
drenched to the skin. After being passed efficient the 
first batch of recruits--thirty in number--were sent to 
join the 1/4th K.O.S.B. Those men were the cream of 
the reserve unit, and on theîr arrival at Cambusbarron 
they were accorded a reat reception from ail ranks. It 
hould be stated here that the 1/4th K.O.S.B. volunteered 
almost to a man to go on forein service, but when the 
medical test became more severe many were rejected as 
unfit for active service. These were ultimately trans- 
ferred to the reserve Battalion and were replaced by fit 
volunteers, every effort being made to get the 1/4th 
K.O.S.B. up to full strength once more. On Match 15th, 
191S, the reserve Battalion was inspected at Galashiels by 
Lieut.-General Sir R. Pole-Carew, K.C.B., C.V.O., 
Inspector of the Territorial Force, who said, in the course 
of his address to the troops, " I do hOt think I have ever 
seen a better Border battalion." 
In April, 191S, the reserve Battalion, which by this 
rime was over a thousand strong, proceeded to Barry for 
musketry practice. After the musketry tests were com- 
pleted orders were received that officers and men unfit 
for active service, or who had hOt volunteered for active 
8ervice, were to be formed into the 12th Provisional 



15 

Home Service Battalion. This was done, and the 12th 
Provisional Battalion, under the command of Lieut.-Col. 
A. Stevenson, with Major Mabbott as second in com- 
mand, at once proceeded to Portobello, and subsequently 
to North Ç)ueensferry, where the Battalion for twelve 
months did valuable work in garrisoning the Forth 
defences. The remainder of the 4th (Res.) K.O.S.B. 
became known as the 2/4th K.O.S.B., and left Barry for 
Rumbling Bridge, Major H. P. Cochrane being promoted 
second in command, and Captain A. L. Dickson being 
appointed adjutant. Here, amid beautiful scenery in the 
valley of the Devon, more arduous training was carried 
on. Meanwhile a third line unit known as the 3/4th 
K.O.S.B. was formed at Galashiels, and from the third 
line recruits after a spell of training were drafted to the 
2/4th Battalion, which was very anxious to be made up 
to full strength and proceed on service overseas. This 
desire, however, was never gratified, though, after the 
heavy losses sustained by the 1/4th K.O.S.B. at Gallipolî 
on the 12th of July, most of the subalterns of the second 
line Battalion were sent out to fill the gaps. After pro- 
ceeding to Hawick in October, 1915, the Battalion was 
amalgamated with the 2/5th K.O.S.B. (less a proportion 
of officers and men who were returned to 3/4th Battalion), 
which was subsequently stationed at Chelmsford and then 
sent to the Curragh. The 3/4th K.O.S.B. at Galashiels, 
however, continued to enlist recruits, and from this unit, 
officers, N.C.O.'s and men were drafted at various times 
to the 1/4th K.O.S.B. after it had gone overseas. The 
third line was afterwards stationed at Stobs, Catterick 
Bridge, Hawick, and Dunfermline, and from all those 
places reinforcements were sent to the l/4th K.O.S.B. 
and to other units of the regiment. At Galashiels the 
3/4th K.O.S.B. (latterly re-named the 4th (Res.) 
K.O.S.B.) was commanded by Major J. Sanderson; at 
Stobs by Colonel Sir Richard Waldie Griffith, who ultl- 
mately saw service in France; at Catterick Bridge and 
Hawick by Lieut.-Colonel W. J. Millar, D.S.O., who 
was in command of the 1/Sth K.O.S.B. at Gallipoli and 
in the Sinai Peninsula; and at Dunfermline by Lieut.- 



16 

Colonel Millar, Major J. Sanderson (temporarily), 
Lieut.-Colonel C. A. G. O. Murray, D.S.O., and Major 
H. W. Locke, successively, the last named being in com- 
mand when the unit was disembodied in mid-summer, 
1919. When the 3/4th K.O.S.B. left Galashiels for Stobs 
in 1916, the headquarters of the Battalion became known, 
first, as the Administrative Centre, 4th K.O.S.B., and 
afterwards as the 150 T.F. Depot, Captain A. T. Roberts, 
Lieut. J. Ross, and Lieut. W. S. Brown being successively 
in charge. At the depot practically ail the 4th K.O.S.B. 
recruits were clothed and equipped before being de- 
spatched to the reserve unit for training. The depot 
was also recognised as the connecting link between the 
T.F. Association, the Record Office at Hamilton, and 
the Battalions at home and abroad. From the depot 
hundreds of casualties admitted to hospitals in this 
country from overseas received their rejoining instruc- 
tions after discharge from hospital. The depot also per- 
formed other useful functions. Time and again it was 
the place of test for stranded soldiers, and the many 
other duties carried out by the officer and staff in charge 
included the settling up of difficulties of soldiers of all 
regiments who had grie-ances to complain of, extending 
leave in urgent cases, arranging military funerals, writing 
letters on behalf of soldiers' dependants, assisting men 
with advice on demobilisation, taking charge of stores 
and documents, dealing with much correspondence and 
other matters too numerous to mention. 



î 



17 

CHAPTER II. 

GALLIPOLI--THE 12TH OF JULY. 

On January 21st, 1915, orders were received that the 
1/4th K.O.S.B. had been selected to go on foreign 
service. Several memorable " alarms " were /iven and 
carried out, in one case at least to such an extent that 
it was firmlv believed by ail ranks that the day of farewell 
to Cambuslarron had arrived, but it turned out not to 
be so, and when real orders did corne, the Battalion was 
unfortunate in that an outbreak of measles prevented 
its departure for France, and the 6th Bn. Scottish Rifles 
was ordered abroad in place of the Borderers. At last, 
on May 19th, the orders to more wei'e given, and the 
Battalion marched through crowded streets to Stirling 
railway station, to entrain for the purpose of following 
the remainder of the South Scottish Brigade to the port 
of embarkation, but for some reason unknown at the 
time the orders were once ain cancelled, and seldom 
bas a battalion looked or felt so disappointed as ours as 
it marched back aain through Stirling to the old mill, 
where two wretched days were spent. However, once 
more orders to more came, and on May 21st riht 
heartedly, but very cautiously, the troops marched to the 
station and entrained for Liverpool, the send-off accorded 
to them being enthusiastic and sincere. Amid cheers the 
train departed, and on May 23rd the Battalion embarked 
for Gallipoli on H.M.T.S. " Empress of Britain." On 
the 8ame transport was ail that was left of the 1/Vth Royal 
Scots, who but a few hours after our departure from 
Stirling met with a serious accident en route at Gretna. 
Also on board the " Empress of Britin " were the 4th 
Bn. Royal Scots, the 8th Bn. Scottish Rifles, and Major- 
General Eerton, Officer Commandin the 52nd Divi- 
sion, and staff. Ail told, there would be 4500 troops on 



18 

the ship. The transport left Liverpool anaid scenes of 
great enthusiasm, and thus did Cambusbarron prepare 
the Border men for their strenuous work on the ill-fated 
Gallipoli Peninsula, where so many fine lads offered the 
supreme sacrifice for their King and Country, meeting 
as if on manœuvre at Cambusbarron ail the hardship, 
horror, apd danger of war. 
The sail proved a pleasant one except for the intense 
heat, and on June 4th the Battalion disembarked and 
entrained for Aboukir, where camp was pitched on the 
sea shore. No transport was available, and the work of 
carrying base baggage, anmaunition and stores over the 
heavy sand proved no light task. On June 9th the 
Battalion entrained for Alexandria, and left there two 
clays later on board the "" Empress of Britain " for 
Mudros Bay, off the coast of Lemnos, and while lying 
at anchor the ship v«as bombed from a Turkish aeroplane. 
Little time was lost, and on June 13th the Battalion was 
r.acked into two small steamers and proceeded direct to 
the Gallipoli Peninsula, situated about 60 mlles away. 
The Battalion disembarked in the grey dawn of the 
!ollowing morning at the south point of the Peninsula, 
the famous '" River Clyde " being used as a gangway, 
nd rn.qrched one and a half mlles to the bivouac of the 
i55th Brigade. The Battalion received its baptism of 
tire en ro«.te, but suffered no casualties. No intimation 
of the arrival of the Battalion had been sent, and as tools 
were totally insufficient in numbers, only one company 
could be dug-in that day, the remainder occupying dug- 
outs of the rest of the Brigade. Further, owing to the 
lighters in which the Battalion landed on the Peninsula 
h.a,ing orders to carry nothing but troops, most of the 
Battalion's stores and equipment had to be left on the 
ship. By June 15th, however, the Battalion was dug-in. 
The dug-outs were in full view of the Turks, who shelled 
our position frequently. Fairly good supplies of bully 
beef, biscuits, and onions were issued as rations, two 
onions per man being the allowance for the mid-day meal 
for several weeks, but there was no means of purifying 
the water, which was hot good. For several weeks the 



19 

Battalion was engaged on constant heavy fatigues, and by 
June 18th the casualties were one officer (Captain, after- 
wards Major, Jobson) wounded, and one man killed and 
16 men wounded. On June 22nd the Battalion moved 
up into the trenches for a spell of rive daysr While in 
the trenches there were 14 more casualties, of whom three 
were killed. Including sick, the total casualties at this 
period were slightly over 50. On July llth, after having 
 short rcst, the Battalion moved up into the firing line 
trenches, preparatory to an attack, orders having been 
received to attck three lines of Turkish trenches at 7.35 
the following morning, the instructions being to pass 
over the first and second line and occupy and consolidate 
the third line. The Battalion was selected to lead the 
attack, and all took part in it with the exception of the 
junior captin and junior subaltern and twenty men of 
each of the four companies, who were sent back to form 
part of the Divisional Reserve. A great bombardment 
by our rtillery on the Turkish trenches at 6.55 on 
the morning of the fatal 12th--a gloriously fine summer 
daywsignified that the battle had begun, and the Bat- 
talion eageriy awaited the order to advance. At 7.35 
.m. the range of our artillery was lengthened, and the 
Battalion moved to the attack, passed over the first and 
.second trenches, and continued advancing with the object 
of occupying the third trench. Not a man faltered, and 
it bas been well and truly said that no finer charge was 
ever ruade on any field of battle. After advancing a dis- 
tance of some 400 to 500 yards, Colonel McNeile, who 
was at the frent leading the Battalion, said to Major 
Cochrane:--"We are too far forward, we must get 
back." The fact is that the Battalion got within the zone 
of our own artillery tire. Major Cochrane replied:--" I'll 
stop the men and get them back," and this he endeavoured 
"to do. No third trench was seen during the advance 
or when going back. Csualties were hOt very heavy 
during the advance, but when retiring the Battalion had 
to pass through the zone of tire of our own artillery, also 
che tire from the enemy's artillery and machine gun and 
l'ifle tire, and this circumstance caused very heavy losses. 



20 

The Battalion, or what remnained of it, then occupied part 
of the second Turkish trench, which was consolidated. 
I give herewith an account of the charge written for this 
record by Captain (afterwards Maior) W. T. Forrest, 
who was subsequently killed in Palestine. Captain 
Forrest writes :-- 
"" It is with sadness one takes up the pen to put on 
record the deeds of the Battalion on and around the 12th 
of .luly, 1915, when so mnany good officers, N.C.O.'s, and 
men laid down their lives. However, it is their iust due 
that these deeds should be put on record, so that future 
generations may know what Border mnen were able and 
willing to do in the interests of King and Country. 
"" The Battalion was ordered to take its place in the 
firing line on the afternoon of the llth. Careful pre- 
parations were ruade for the attack next morning. 'A' 
Coy. was on the right, resting on an old Turkish tele- 
graph line; 'B' Coy. was next on the left, with two 
platoons of ' D ' Coy. ; ' C ' Coy. was in second wave on 
the right; while 'D' Coy., less two platoons, was in 
second wave on the left. The orders were simple, viz.: 
--' Carry the first two trenches but do hOt occupy themn, 
the objective being the third Turkish trench.' Right 
gallantly did the Battalion carry out its mission. At a 
given signal, when the artillery increased the range by 
300 yards, every oflïcer, N.C.O., and man went over the 
parapet except a few who had already been killed or 
wounded by the Turkish counter bomnbardmnent. The 
first trench was reached with comnparatively few casualties, 
as was the second, some prisoners being sent back from 
both. The Battalion kept steadily on until it was seen 
that there was no third trench to take and occupy. They 
were through the Turkish defences, but were much too 
smnall a body to relmain out in the open. 
"' The commanding oflïcer, second in col.nl.nand, and 
adjutant, held a consultation, and orders were issued to 
get back and occupy the second trench, vhich had been 
passed over, and it was during this time that so l.nany 
casualties occurred. The front which had been broken 
was narrow, and the Turkish machine guns on the right 



21 

and left were by this time in position to enfilade the re- 
turning men. The survivors round their sister battalion, 
the 1/5th K.O.S.B., in possession, busy consolidating. 
Every available man turned his hand to this most 
necessary work, and by nightfall the new firing line was 
firmly established, with machine guns in position. 
"' During the attack ten per cent. of the officers and 
men who had been kept as Divisional Reserve in the 
support lines had been anxiously waiting for news, and 
towards evening permission was asked to take food and 
water up to the new firing line. One officer and twenty 
men made up the party, which was loaded up with empty 
tin biscuit boxes full of water, bully beef, and jam. 
Words can hardly describe the journey from the dump to 
the firing line. The time of starting would be about 7 
p.m. Progress was painfully slow. Every few minutes 
there was a halt to allow wounded, walking or on 
stretchers, to pass. Ration and ammunition parties were 
frequently met, and although the distance to the original 
firing line was only about two toiles, the party did hOt 
arrive there until one o'clock the following morning. 
There one might almost say the real difficulties started, as 
the road to the first Turkish trench was in the making. 
The term ' road' in this case fs rather misleading, as it 
consisted of a zig-zag sap hOt more than 24 inches wide, 
varying in depth from 2 to 5 feet. In this narrow sap a 
fatigue party of about 40 men was working, and the 
difficul.y experienced in getting a party loaded up with 
food and water along such a trench can be readily 
imagined. Practically the whole rime machine-gun and 
rifle tire was being kept up by the Turks, making it quite 
an exciting job. The sap itself was about 200 yards long, 
at the et:d of which it was round there were still some 
forty yards of open ground to cross. This was covered 
at a smart jog trot, and ail dropped safely into what had 
been a Turkish trench the night before. The hour was 
3 a.m. It was still dark, and nothing could be seen at 
first, but never will any man of that party forger the scene 
zs dawn slowly broke in the east behind the trenches still 
held by the Turks. The officer of the party was at once 



22 

ordered to take charee of a part of the firine line whicb 
was very short of officers, while the remainder of the 
party was split up, and each tried to find the Battalion. 
Alas ! it was soon apparent that the rumour which had been 
filterine throueh during the previous day must be true, 
as only here and there could an occasional 4th K.O.S.B. 
man be round, and at no place were there more than two 
toeether. All units of the 1SSth Brigade were fearfully 
mixed up. The only thine that could be dorie was to 
issue the food and water for the benefit of ail and sundry, 
and sorely were the food and water, especially the latter, 
needed. One thine will never be foreotten by the writer. 
If word came alone for ' water for the wounded,' a water 
bottle would pass throueh a hundred hands, and be the 
man ever so thirsty hOt a sien of hesitation could be seen 
in passine the water alone. 
" About the hour when it is difficult to say whether 
it is still dark or daylieht, word was received that the 
Turks were eoing to counter attack. 'Stand to' was 
passed alone the line, but it was quite unnecessary, as 
every man had been on his fire-step an hour before, and 
when dawn broke there was revealed one of the straneest 
scenes ever witnessed by the writer. Suddenly, about 
100 Turks appeared [rom behind a small ridee. They 
were chargine in a half-left direction, and they simply 
disappeared when our machine euns and rifles opened 
tire. Not a man of them got back. After that there was 
a lull, and then bayonets were aeain seen movine along 
the Turkish trench. The Turks evidently had a com- 
munication trench somewhere near the barricade, and 
havine filled up the trench, they once more came on. 
Never was there a more haltine, hesitatine advance. They 
proceeded about ten yards and stopped. Then they 
moved forward a few more haltine, hesitatine steps, each 
with one of his hands held in front of his eyes. Appar- 
ently this exasperated one of their officers, as he was seen 
to take his rifle and club a man behind, which one can 
only imaeine roused another man to make some remark, 
as the officer in question immediately turned round and 
shot him. 



23 

"' This was the signal for a general retreat of the 
Turks, and every gun and rifle opened tire. One would 
naturally ask why we hadn't been firing ail the time. The 
only explanation seems to be that the Turks, by holding 
their hands in front of their eyes, gave the impression that 
they intended to surrender. Certainly the word was 
passed from mouth to mouth--' Don't tire; they are 
going to surrender.' How many got back on this occasion 
it is difficult to say, but certainly hot many. That 
finished the Turkish counter attacks. 
" As the sun rose higher a curious feature was 
observed. Apparently the Turks thought we were going 
to attack again, for suddenly about twenty bayonets were 
pushed above the level of, and in the direction of, the 
barricade. Our men accordingly did the saine, and there 
the bayonets remained for about ten minutes, with the 
sun shining on the polished steel, but after being satis- 
fied that nothing further was going to happen, the enemy 
gradually withdrew their bayonets." 
The following a¢count of the charge is given by Cor- 
poral T. Richardson, No. 14 Platoon, D Coy.:-- 
" On the morning of the attack, Nos. 13 and 14 
Platoons were on the extreme left of the Battalion--the 
right of No. 14 resting on the head of the communication 
trench. At the head of this communication trench a 
bombing sap ran out a few yards towards the first Turkish 
trench, and was held by a party of our bombers. Directly 
opposite the centre of No. 13 Platoon a Turkish com- 
munication trench could be seen running into their firing 
line, and the junction was screened by a small tree. The 
first Turkish trench appeared to be about 50 yards from 
our firing line. Our orders were that on getting over 
the parapet No. 13 Platoon on reaching the tree was to 
do a left wheel, take and hold the near end of the com- 
munication trench, while No. 14 was to right incline and 
hold the top end next the second Turkish trench. This 
second Turkish trench appeared to be about 250 yards 
behind the first trench. No. 13 Platoon had a straight 
run forward, while No. 14 had to do a wheel right 
round. 



24 

" On getting the order to go, we ail scrambled over 
the parapet, and on running a few yards round ourselves 
in dead ground. We doubled forward, and on reachin 
the crest of the ridge, were met by very heavy arti}lery 
tire, and we had many casualties. It was here that Lieut. 
Henderson fell, shot through the head. We went on to 
the first enemy trench, and jumped over it and ruade for 
the second trench. By this rime we had got so far to 
the right that we never saw the communication trench, 
and practically the who}e of No. 14 Platoon went straight 
on, as well as a number of No. 13. On reaching the 
second trench, some jumped in, while others lay on the 
parapet and fired into the trench. A number of Turks 
were showing fight, and were firing their rifles through 
the loop-ho}es. I saw a great naany dead and wounded 
Turks lying in this trench. 
" Just at this time Captain Lang, the adjutant, came 
over to this part of the line, and, telling us to aet over 
the trench, pointed in a ha}f-right direction, where, 
about 150 yards away, we could see the parapet of what 
looked like another trench. Accordingly, we doubled 
across in that direction, and on getting up to this third 
trench we round it to be untenanted and on}y a couple 
of Ieet deep. However, it afforded us some cover, and 
in we scrambled---the order immediately coming alon 
for every man to fil} his two sand bas and bui}d up the 
parapet. The ground was like flint, and we could make 
little headway with our entrenching too}s. 
" To the }eft from where I round myse}f, this shal}ow 
trench ran up towards a wood, and stopped about 100 
yards short of it. To the riaht the trench ran in the 
direction of another wood. In both these woods a 
number of men were running about, but whether friend 
or foe I did hot know. There seemed to be a great deal 
of rifle and machine gun tire coming in our direction 
from this wood on the right, and we felt our present posi- 
tion by no means comfortable. In front of us, however, 
there appeared to be no enemy at ail. We were lying 
absolutely packed in this trench, and after about half- 
an-hour, during which rime we suffered numerous casual- 



25 

lies, word was passed along for the men on the left to 
-extend towards the wood. As I was pretty well on the 
left, I got out and doubled across the open until I came 
to a very comfortable-looking shell-hole, into which I 
very contentedly iumped. Very shortly after reaching 
this haven I heard shouts of ' Retire ! Retire ! ' and on 
looking over towards the shallow dummy trench I saw 
our men getting up and retiring on the second Turkish 
trench, so I scrambled out and got into another shell- 
hole iust in the rear of the dummy trench, along with an 
.officer of the 5th K.O.S.B. Whilst lying in this hole I 
saw Lieut. Patrick and about eight men corne out of the 
wood on the left and double across to the dummy trench. 
They ran past in front of our shell-hole, and I shouted 
out, but nobody seemed to hear. Two of the party" got 
hit before they reached the trench--one of them a man 
named Anderson from Jedburgh, who belonged to 'A' 
Coy., was hit in the arm iust as he was passing, and 
he fell right into our shell-hole. I bandaged the wound, 
and while doing so a Turk came running over from thc 
.direction of the wood and gave himself up. I searched 
him to see if he had any arms. This Turk himself took 
Anderson back to the second trench. 
" By this time everybody appeared to have retired 
rom the dummy trench, so the 5th K.O.S.B. officer and 
myself agreed to make a dash back. I got back safely, 
crawling most of the way, as a shell burst very close iust 
.as I was leaving, and I round I had lost the power of one 
of my legs. When I got back to the second Turkish 
trench I round only three other men of our Battalion 
beside me---Brown, Fletcher, and McGhie. The test of 
the trench appeared to be manned by R.S.F. and 5th 
K.O.S.B. men. 
'" We spent all that afternoon building up the 
parapet, which had been practically blown away. Atone 
part the foot of the trench was level with the ground 
in front. We also cleared the trench as far as possible 
by getting the dead over the parapet. They were nearly 
.ail Turks. The words were continually coming along 
:,the firing line ail afternoon--' Turks massing in front,' 



or ' Turks massing on right,' etc., but nothing ever came 
in the way of a counter attack. We could see the enemy 
running about on the ridge beyond the dummy trench, 
and they offered us splendid targets. When darkness 
began to corne down the order was passed along for every 
man to ' Stand to the parapet ail night.' " 



27 

CHAPTER III. 

MORE ABOUT THE 12TH OF JULY. 

The following graphic account is supplied by af} 
officer of the Battalion who was attached to the Divisional 
Reserve on the 12th of July, 1915. He writes:-- 
"' Early in the afternoon of the 11th orders came in 
from Brigade Headquarters that ten per cent. o: the Bat- 
talion were to go back to the Eski Line as DivisionaI 
Reserve. The junior captain and junior subaltern from 
each company were detailed for this duty, along with 
about eighty men, chosen mostly :rom the sick and those. 
temporarily unfit. No appea[s were [istened to, so about 
four o'clock, after an 'au revoir' and 'good luck' to 
those remaining, we struggled along'Parsons Road" 
and trudged down " Oxford Street ' to the Eski Line to 
a point just in front of the Backhouse Post, where every- 
one turned in for the night--all of us very sore and dis- 
appointed men. 
"' At daybreak on the 12th we were startled by a 
terrific bombardment from batteries with which we 
appeared to be surrounded, and almost at the same 
moment a heavy rifle tire could be heard on out left-- 
somewhere in the direction of the Krithia Nullah. 
Orders came in shortly afterwards that the reserves were 
to move out o: the Eski Line to a position on the left 
of the smal[ Nullah, just behind Backhouse Post. There 
we settled down to anxious[y await news o: the Batta[ion. 
"" Shortly after eight o'clock the first of the wounded 
commenced to corne down, an ear[y arrival being 
Captain C. E. Macdonald, who had been shot through 
the hand. Most of these men had been wounded whilst 
getting out of the trench, or very shortly after leavin 
it, and little information could be got from them as to 



28 
how the attack had gone. From that time onwards a 
constant stream of ' walking cases' passed us en route 
for the dressing stations on the opposite side of the 
Nullah. Ail these men were given a much-needed drink 
by some artillery men who had their headquarters near 
the Nullah. Practically no information could be got 
about the Battalion except that the men of the batteries 
supporting our attack informed us that they were length- 
ening and shortening their range alternately, whatever 
that meant. Right up until 9 o'clock the artillery kept 
up an incessant bombardment. Then their tire began 
to gradually diminish until about 1 p.m., when another 
deafening bombardment began. Some of out officers at 
this time climbed up on to the ridge on our left, and 
irom a French artillery observation station watched the 
attack of the 157th Brigade on out Battalion's immediate 
left. The tin discs on the back of each man could be 
plainly seen, glittering in the sun. At first the attack 
appeared to rail back a little, then go right ahead again. 
The position of out own Battalion could hot be seen 
from this ridge owing to the rising ground. During the 
morning our position behind the Eski Line had been 
treated to occasional salvos from the Turkish artillery, 
but our casualties were slight--one man killed and six 
wounded. We had now been reinforced b  ail the avail- 
able men sent up from the Rest Camp as well as some 
wounded men who had corne in from the front. About 
a score of these men were obviously unfit for further 
service, and a chit from the Medical Officer o a neigh- 
bouring unit enabled us to send them back to the Rest 
Camp. 
"" About four o'clock in the afternoon an order came 
in from Divisional Headquarters ordering an officer and 
ail available men from the Battalion Reserve to report 
at Brigade Headquarters, which were then situated in 
' Oxford Road ' between ' Piccadilly Circus ' and ' Par- 
sons Road.' I,ieut. Fairgrieve was detailed to collect 
the men and report accordingly. It took this party, 
consisting of 49 all ranks, over an hour to reach the 
Brigade Headquarters owing to the continuous cry, 



29 

'Clear trench for stretchers.' The scenes outside the 
dressing stations in the Nullah leading to 'Oxford 
Street ' were beyond description. Around each station 
were rows upon rows of stretchers--each containing what 
had been or, rather, what remained of a human being. 
The slightly wounded were waiting in long queues for 
treatment. What impressed one was the absolute 
deathly silence which prevailed over each station--not 
a word or a groan to be heard. We could find none of 
out own men among these cases, which probably had ail 
corne in from the later attack of the 157th Brigade. On 
arrival ai Brigade Headquarters about 7 o'clock the 
Brigadier gave orders for the party to be issued with picks 
and shovels, and sent for Major Spence of the Royal 
Engineers. Brigade Headquarters could give us no news 
of the Battalion, as ail communication seemed to have 
been cut. 
" Major Spence gave orders that we were to proceed 
to ' Parsons Road' and there carry on diging at two 
saps from that trench up to the first Turkish trench, 
which we then heard for the first rime had been captured. 
The saps had been started shortly after the attack, but 
both working parties had been annihilated by enemy 
shrapnel, which was decidedly cheering news for us! 
On arrival at the head of ' Oxford Street ' we were told 
that one sap was along to the riht and the other to the 
left. Out party was then split into two, the one lot going 
to the left sap, where it was round that Sergt.-Major Pirie 
of the Fusiliers had already a party at work, and the 
other to the right. Neither sap had proceeded more 
than 30 or 40 yards, and at no place was either sap deeper 
than a couple of feet. The orders were that the sap must 
be cut throuh belote daylight, otherwise no food or 
water could be got up to the men in front. Leavin 
hall out party under Sergeant-Maior Pirie, Lieut. Fair- 
rieve commenced work on the right sap. At that time 
the sap went straight forward for 40 or 50 yards, then 
struck sharply off to the right. After some hours of 
strenuous toil, Lieut. Fairgriexe ot forward into the 
Turkish trench and was told by an R.E. officer there that 



30 

Pirie's party were through, having had a much shorter 
.road to cut. With the aid of this officer the correct line 
of our sap was marked out and the work carried on with 
everish haste. 
" Flares of ail kinds were lighting the whole place 
every few minutes, and work had to proceed with the 
greatest caution, as a machine gun was at once turned on 
our party. As each tiare went up every man ' c]apped,' 
and owing to the fact that the ground was absolutely 
strewn with corpses we were not spotted. During the 
night our Machine Gun Officer passed us with some of 
his section, carrying ammunition, and, shortly after, some 
of our signallers, bent on repairing wires. We then 
knew that our men were in front. 
" By this time every man was becoming absolutely 
exhausted with the incessant digging, and whenever a 
man's spell of picking or shovelling was over he was prac- 
tically asleep before he sat down. This necessitated a 
constant awakening. On being awakened each man 
sprang up and bravely buckled to. Every credit is due 
to these men for the work donc that night, as no man 
had tasted food since the previous day at dinner. 
'" Between 1 and 2 o'clock in the morning (13th 
July) we heard a sudden crackle of heavy rifle tire in the 
trenches in front. This proved to be a small counter 
attack by the Turks, so we downed tools and seized our 
rifles. Our artillery, however, appeared to bave the 
matter in hand and the attack fizzled out. So once again 
we resumed our work and carr|ed on until about an hour 
before daylight. 
" At 4 o'clock, just as the first streaks of dawn 
were appearing over the Narrows, we were once more 
tartled by a heavy burst of firing and loud cries of 
'Allah ! Allah !' t:rom the advancing Turks. This 
proved to be a more formidable attack, and Lieut.- 
Colonel Pollok McCaI1, who had charge of 'Parsons 
Road,' ordered our party, along with some Scots Fusi- 
liers, to get over the parapet and make for a part of 
the trench to our left front, from which reinforce signais 
laad been sent up. The intervening space was eovered 



uccessfully witb.out a casualty. After jumping into the 
trench we looked round to see if we had corne in among 
our own men, and there saw one of our Machine Gun 
Sections under Sergeant Jardine. The trench was literally 
filled with dead and wounded from lractically every unit 
in the S2nd Division. Whilst looklng for more of our 
men, Lieut. Fairgrieve ran into Captain Forrest, who 
had come up with food and water the previous night, 
and was now endeavouring to find some of our men. 
" To our left the trench appeared to be the firing 
line, and at the spot where we were to serve as a second 
line, a Turkish communication trench ran up from the 
centre to the second captured Turkish trench. On pro- 
ceeding up the communication trench Lieut. A. Galloway 
was round with a handful of our men at the left end of 
the second captured trench, just at the head of the com- 
munication trench. He and his men were absolutely 
exhausted, and could give us no information as to where 
the rest of the Battalion were. 
"" On returning to the first trench we round that 
Captain Forrest, who had taken charge, was endeavour- 
ing to clear the trench and build up the parapet, which 
had been blown to pieces by shell tire, and the trench 
itself resembled a shambles. We set to work to bury the 
dead, and get the wounded out. One of the first to be 
buried was Lieut. J. B. Innes of our Battalion. Just 
about this time our Machine Gun officer, Lieut. W. K. 
Innes, appeared--shot through the neck--and he had to 
be sent off to the dressing station. 
"" At 9 o'clock word came in from the Engineers that 
we were to carry on with the digging, as in some parts 
the saps we had dug during the night were still very 
shallow. Our men by this rime had got well scattered, 
and it was wlth difficulty that about twenty men were 
collected and digging resumed from the deep end of the 
sap. We carried on until relieved by a party of Fusiliers 
about mid-day, when we 'handed over' and filed 
back to our dump at Brown House with orders from 
Captain Forrest to bring up the Battalion rations to the 
firing line that night. Finding out there that the rations 



32 

v¢ould not be up until 8 p.m. we went right on to our 
old position at Backhouse Post. On the road down 
Lieut. Fair8rieve was called in to Divisional Head- 
quarters to report to General E8erton as to the where- 
abouts of the Battalion, and why Colonel McNeile or 
the Adjurant hadn't 8ot in touch with Brigade Head- 
quarters. Lieut. FairSrieve replied that, so far as he 
could discover, both the Colonel and the Adjutant had 
been killed. 
" On reachin8 Backhouse Post we turned in for a 
much needed rest, before settin8 off to carry up the 
rations. By 8 o'clock we were back at Brown House, 
the party consisting of one officer and 19 men. There 
each man saddled himself with as much bully beef, 
biscuits, water, and firewood as he could possibly carry, 
and we started off for the firing line about 9 p.m. On 
entering 'Oxford Street' we got hopelessly entangled 
with two battalions of the Royal Naval Division, who 
were proceeding up ail communication trenches in the 
vicinity to consolidate the ground taken by our Battalion 
the day before, and to take that fatal 'third' trench. 
With the greatest difficulty we wriggled and struggled 
through and ultimately reached our forward dump in 
• Parsons Road' at the top of ' Regent Street' at 2.30 
a.m. Sergt. Jardine took over the stores, and C.Q.M.S. 
Macpherson returned with the ration party to Backhouse 
Post." 
In the couse of a letter written to a friend on the day 
previous to the attack on the 12th, Colonel McNeile, 
writing of the losses in the Division which had already 
occurred, said-- 
"'. . . . We are to take the front part in an 
attack shortly, but I hope it will not prove so costly." 
The gallant Colonel's hope that better luck would 
favour the Borderers, however, was not realised, as the 
casuality lists compiled on July 16th up to that date 
showed how severely the 1/4th K.O.S.B. had suffered. 
The casualties in killed, wounded, and missing were as 
follows:--Officers killed--5; wounded--6; missingl7; 
total--18. Other ranks killed--57; woundedl203; 



33 

missing--275; giving a grand total of 553 or more than 
hall of the original strength of the Battalion when it left 
Cambusbarron but a few weeks previously. 
The names of the oflàcers reported killed were-- 
Surgeon-Major D. R. Taylor, Captain A. Wallace, Lieut. 
T. M. Alexander, Lieut. ,1. B. Innes, and Second-Lieut. 
A. H. M. Henderson. 
The names of the officers reported missing were-- 
Lieut.-Colonel J. McNeile, Capt. and Adjt. J. C. Lang, 
Major J. Herbertson, Capt. H. Sanderson, Lieut. A. 
Bulman, and Second-Lieuts. P. Woodhead and J. B. 
Patrick. 
The names of those wounded were--Captain M. 
Jobson (previously recorded), Capt. C. E. Macdonald, 
Lieut. J. Harrison, and Second-Lieuts. J. Elder, R. P. 
Smith, and W. K. Innes. 
Of the 275 of the rank and file reported missing, only 
13 were subsequently reported as prisoners of war. At 
first it was thought that the number of those taken as 
prisoners by the Turks would materially increase, but as 
rime went on the fervent hope in many stricken hearts 
that more of our men were not "" missing " but prisoners 
became blasted, and there is now no doubt whatever that 
with the exception of 13 ail those reported missing were 
killed in action. 
The names of the 13 Border men taken as prisoners 
were--Sgt. A. R. Wood (Stow); Private C. Burgess 
[Galashiels); Private A. Wark (Hawick); Private W. 
Martin (Duns); Private H. C. Turnbull (Earlston); 
Private F. D. Wallis (Selkirk) ; Private R. Renilson (Jed- 
burgh); Private A. Graham (Edinburgh); Private J. 
Thomson (Kelso); Private A. Nixon (Hawick); Private 
W. Shanks (Kelso); Private R. Thomson (Hawick); 
and Private M. Davidson (Hawick). 
As indicated, by far the greater number of casualties 
occurred on the 12th of July, but considerable casualties 
were suffered on the 13th during the Turkish counter 
attacks, wbich the Borderers repulsed, killing a great 
many Turks with their raking machine gun tire. In the 
repulse of the Turks, Sergt. Jardine, who was the N.C.O. 



34 
in charge of one of the Machine Gun Sections, played a 
prominent part, and his gun mowed the enemy down in 
big numbers. 
During the attack on the 12th, the Borderers--both 
officers and men--were brave to a fault, never faltering 
or wavering. The first and second waves in the attack 
went over the parapet practically simultaneously. 
Colonel McNeile and the Adjutant led the second wave, 
and the survivors of the charge never tire of telling what 
a magnificent example the brave Colonel, who had 
endeared himself to all ranks, was to his comrades that 
day, when according to one who took part in the charge, 
" our big guns were shifting about six or eight cartloads 
of earth off the hill at a time, and bullets fell like tain 
uporl calm water.'" Yet of those who survived nobody 
can say what became of the Colonel and the Adjutant. 
They were well forv«ard in the charge, and it fs surmised 
that they were killed while on their way back to the 
second trench from the dummy one. How they met their 
death, however, fs not known--and probably never will 
be known--but it fs certain that the manner in which 
they fell was heroic. 
When ail were so brave and wore Fearlessness like 
a shroud, it may seem invidious to make any distinctions, 
but special note may be ruade of the gallantry of Captain 
Wallace, whose stirring cry, '" Corne away, Borderers! 
don't be beaten! " inspired the eager men he led, and 
who, although badly wounded and with blood streaming 
down his face, continued to advance until he was 
wounded a second time, on this occasion fatally. Pipe- 
Major Bertram spoke to him as be lay dying, and his 
last words were--" I'm done for." Lieut. J. B. Innes, 
too, although mortally wounded, continued to cheer on 
his men until he died from loss of blood. Poor Innes 
got one of his arms blown to bits by a shell, and after 
getting his cousin, Lieut. W. K. Innes, to cut it off, asked 
for a cigarette. Surgeon-Major Taylor worked unceas- 
ingly among the wounded during the attack, with shells 
bursting ail around him, and he met death instantaneously 
v«hile bandaging a wounded man atone of the dressing 



35 

stations. A special word of praise is due to the Bat- 
talion's stretcher-bearers for their great work on the 12th, 
Drummer D. Dick being especially prominent in bring- 
ing the wounded to safety under heavy shell tire, while 
splendid service in getting up ammunition, water, and 
food to the firing line was also performed by Regimental 
Sergt.-Major G. Murray, who later on was awarded the 
D.C.M. in recognition of his services on that memorable 
day. 
As already indicated, the Borderers' objective was a 
third Turkish trench, which however proved to be a 
.dummy, and there is now little doubt that the aerial 
reconnaissance was faulty in that this dummy was reported 
as a trench. In any case, the 1/4th K.O.S.B. attained 
their objective, and had the third or dummy trench been 
a trench in the real meaning of the word, there is no 
doubt that they would bave held it at ail costs. The 
theory has been advanced that the dummy trench was 
hOt the third trench tbat our men were meant to take 
and hold, but this theory is considered untenable in view 
-of the fact that no other trench was seen by any of our 
officers or men after they had advanced beyond the 
second Turkish trench. 
According to General Sir Ian Hamilton, the 4th 
K.O.S.B. " pressed on too eagerly and came under the 
]eu de barrage of the French artillery," and in view of 
what General Sir Ian Hamilton says, it is interesting to 
quote the following extract from his dispatch dated llth 
December, 1915, relative to the action of 12th and 13th 
.July :-- 
" The action of July 12th and 13th was meant to be 
a sequel to the action of the 28th June. That advance 
had driven back the Turkish right on to their second 
main system of defence just south of Krithia. But on 
my centre and right the enemy still held their forward 
.system of trenches, and it was my intention on the 12th 
.July to seize the remaining trenches of this foremost 
system from the sea at the mouth of the Kereves Dere 
to the main Sedd-el-Bahr--Krithia road, along a front 
,of some 2000 yards. 



36 

"On our right the attack was to be entrusted to the 
French Corps; on the right centre to the 52nd (Lowland) 
Division. On the 52nd Division's front the operation 
was planned to take place in two phases; our right was 
to attack in the morning, our left in the afternoon. 
Diversions by the 29th Division on the left of the 
southern section and at Anzac were to take place on the 
saine day so as to prevent the enemy's reserves from 
reinforcing the real point of attack. 
"' At 7.35 a.m., after a heavy bombardment, the 
troops, French and Scottish, dashed out of their trenches 
and at once captured two lines of enemy trenches. Push- 
ing forward with fine elan, the 1st Division of the French 
Corps completed the task assigned to it by carrying the 
whole of the Turkish forward system of works, namely, 
the line of trenches skirting the lower part of the Kereves 
Dere. Further to the left the 2nd French Division and 
out 155th Brigade maintained the two lines of trenches 
they had gained. But on the left of the 155th Brigade 
the 4th Battalion King's Own Scottish Borderers pressed 
on too eagerly. They hOt only carried the third line of 
trenches, but charged on up the hill and beyond the 
third line, then advanced indeed until they came under 
the fcu de barrage of the French artillery. Nothing 
could live under so cruel a cross tire from friend and 
foe, so the King's Own Scottish Borderers were forced 
to fall back, with heavy losses, to the second line of 
enemy trenches which they had captured in their first 
rush. 
" During this fighting, telephone wires from forward 
positions were cut by enemy's shell tire, and here and 
there in the elaborate network of trenches numbers of 
Turks were desperately resisting to the last. Thus though 
the second line of captured trenches continued to be held 
as a whole, much confused fighting ensued; there were 
retirements in parts of the line, reserves were rapidly 
being used up, and generally the situation was anxious 
and uncertain. But the best way of clearing it up seemed 
to be to deliver the second phase of the attack by the 
157th Brigade just as it had originally been arranged. 



Accordingly, after a preliminary bombardment, the 157th 
Brigade rushed forward under heavy machine-gun and 
rifle tire, and splendidly carried the whole of the enemy 
trenches allotted to their objective. Here, then, out line 
had advanced some 400 yards, while the 155th Brigade 
and the 2nd French Division had advanced between 200 
and 300 yards. At 6 p.m. the 52nd Division was ordered 
to make the line good; it seemed to be fairly in our 
grasp. 
"' Ail night long, determined counter-attacks, one 
after another, were repulsed by the French and the 155th 
Brigade, but about 7.30 a.m. the right of the 157th 
Brigade gave way before a party of bombers, and our 
grip upon the enemy began to weaken. 
"I therefore decided that three battalions of the 
Royal Naval Division should reinforce a fresh attack to 
be naade that afternoon, 13th July, on such portions of 
our original objectives as remained in the enemy's hands. 
This second attack was a success. The 1st French 
Division ptlshed their right down to the mouth of the 
Kereves Dere; the 2nd French Division attacked the 
trenches they had failed to take on the preceding day; 
the Nelson Battalion, on the left of the Royal Naval 
Division attack, valiantly advanced and ruade good, well 
supported by the artillery of the French. The Ports- 
mouth Battalion, pressing on too far, fell into precisely 
the saine error at precisely the saine spot as did the 4th 
King's Own Scottish Borderers on the 12th, an over- 
impetuosity which cost them heavy losses. 
" The 1/5th Royal Scots Fusiliers, commanded by 
Lieut.-Colonel J. B. Pollok-McCall; the 1/7th Royal 
Scots, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel W. C. Peebles; the 
l/5th King's Own Scottish Borderers, commanded by 
Lieut.-Colonel W. J. Millar; and the 1/6th Highland 
Light Infantry, commanded by Major J. Anderson, are 
mentioned as having specially distinguished themselves 
in this engagement. 
" Generally, the upshot of the attack was this. On 
out right and on the French left two lines had been 
captured, but in neither case was the third, or last, line 



38 
of the system in their hands. Elsewhere a fine feat of 
arms had been accomplished, and a solid and endurin 
advance had been achieved, 8ivin8 us far the best sited 
line for defence with much the best field for machine-Sun 
and rifle tire we had hitherto obtained upon the 
peninsula. 
" A machine 8un and 200 prisoners were captured by 
the French; the British took a machine 8un and 329 
prisoners. The casualties in the French Corps were hOt 
heavy, though it is with sorrow that I have to report the 
mortal wound of General Masnou, commandin the 
1st Division. Our own casualties were a little over 3000; 
those of the enemy about 5000." 
On July 14th the 1/4th Kin's Own Scottish Borderers 
were still in the trenches, but they were thorouhly 
exhausted with the heavy fihtin on the two previous 
days, and on the 15th the remnant of the Battalion 
returned to the Rest Camp for the purpose of bein 
reoranised, Major Cochrane takin over temporary 
command of the Battalion, and Captain Forrest becom- 
in Adjutant. Major Cochrane and Lieut. A. Galloway, 
it may be mentioned, were the only officers of the 
Battalion who came throuh the chare on the 12th 
unscathed. For the next week or two the Battalion.was 
mainly enaed in furnishin fatigue parties for the pur- 
pose of removin stores at W. Beach and entrenchin 
work. The Battalion was never back in that part of the 
line which it occupied on the 12th, and as no further 
advance was ruade there, the bodies of the vast majority 
of our men who were killed on that terrible day could 
not be athered in and buried. Ail efforts to collect the 
dead proved fruitless. The fev that tried it were killed, 
and definite orders had to be issued that no further 
attempts should be ruade. 
The big battle over, lire on the Peninsula became 
more serene, althouh the Battalion was reatly reduced 
in numbers, and it was with difficulty that sufficient men 
could be round for the various duties allotted to the 
unit. Major Cochrane continued in command for several 
weeks, after which Major C. A. H. Maclean from 52nd 



Divisional Headquarters had command for a short period 
prior to the arriva| in September of Lieut.-Colonel 
G. T. B. Wi|son, A. and S. Highlanders, who had beer 
appointed to the command of the Battalion. 



4O 

CHAPTER IV. 

SUNSHINE AND SHADOW. 

During Auust, September, and October, conditions 
at Gallipoli were more pleasant. The enemy appeared 
to be short of shells, and sent comparatively few over 
each day. The Battalion took its turn in the firin line, 
reserve trenches, and rest camp. As a ru!e, the spell 
in the firin line lasted for a period of ten to twelve 
days. While in the firin line considerable snipin and 
bombin went on, but we had very few casualties in 
killed and wounded, althouh dysentery and jaundice 
gradually depleted the ranks. Several fresh officers 
arrived from the 2/4th K.O.S.B., but no drafts of 
N.C.O.'s and men came with them, and, as a matter of 
fact, it was December before any reinforcements in other 
ranks were received from home, and even then the two 
drafts which came out only totalled about thirty in 
number. As revealin how weak the Battalion was in 
numbers at this time, it may be mentioned that on Sep- 
tember 13th the total strenth of the Battalion was 230 
of ail ranks. This meant that only about 150 rifles were 
available for duty in the trenches. 
Officers and men were constantly obliged to " go 
sick," and they were either sent off to Lemnos or taken 
elsewhere on hospital shps. There must have been com- 
paratively few officers and men on the Peninsula who 
were not afflicted sooner or later with dysentery, and 
once a man took this vile trouble he experienced the 
greatest difficulty in ettin cured of it. That dysentery 
and ]aundice were so prevalent was not to be wondered 
at, as the Peninsula was, more or less, one vast cemetery, 
and the drînkin water was bad. It is ratifyin to 
report, however, that from Auust onwards there was 
considerable improvement in the rations. For a lon 



4t 

lime bread was an unknown luxury, but after the field 
bakery was established fresh bread was îssued to the troops 
rive or six days per week. Breakfast consisted of tea, 
bacon and bread; dinner of stew or bully heef; and tea, 
of tea, bread or biscuits, and iam (always plum and apple 
and apricot!). As the weather grew colder, soup was 
ruade for supper for the men who manned the firing line. 
In the early days on the Peninsula each man when in 
the trenches was obliged to cook his own meals, but after 
Ihe field kitchens had been established hehind the lines 
the rations were cooked there and hrought up to the 
trenches by the orderlies detailed for the purpose by 
the respective companies. The parcels which began to 
arrive from home also helped to solve the food problem, 
and in view of the tremendous difficulfies that had to he 
contended with, it was extraordinary that the mail service 
to Gallipoli was as good as it was. The news that a 
mail had corne in always heartened everyone. When a 
mail did arrive there were always twenty or thirty parcels 
containing food for one of out officers, who had evidently 
a very attentive wife, and, as a consequence, on several 
<)ccasions the officers' mess was well replenished. When 
in the rest camp the Battalion was frequently smartened 
up by platoon drill, fille exercises, and marches to the 
sea at "W" and "Y " beaches for a bathe. Open-air 
concerts were also held at the rest camp, and on occasion 
the Divisional Band would play selections of music. 
There is no doubt that the terrible losses sustained on 
the 12th of July took the heart somewhat out of the 
Battalion for a time, but the officers and men were much 
cheered by a visit one day from Major-GeneraI Sir F. J. 
Davies, the new 8th Army Corps commander, who bas 
a close Border connection. The General spoke to almost 
every officer and man in the Battalion, and his kind, 
.cheery words did much to put a new spirit into the men. 
What specially struck one about the campaign at Galli- 
poli, and, indeed, the whole campaign in the East, was 
the relationship which existed between the Generals, 
officers and men of the rank and file. The true spirit 
• of a noble form of brotherhood manifested itself on ail 



42 
sides, revealing to ail what a fine and wonderful thing 
comradeship is. As miht be expected, this spirit helped 
to lighten the severe trials of our men, and they cheerily 
carried out the many and various tasks allotted to them. 
During September the Battalion, when in the trenches, 
was employed pretty constantly on the Clunes Vennel 
extension, which was completed by our men on September 
24th, and arrisoned for the first time. Early in October 
the Battalion took over a new part of the line which 
had not been occupied by the unit before. This was at 
the Vineyard, and the ground held included three bomb- 
ing stations. During the night of October 12th we suc- 
cessfully pushed forward the North-East Bombing Station 
15 yards, and ground which had been No Man's Land 
was occupied. Owing to the fact that the operations 
were carried out very quietly, the Turks were taken by 
surprise, and their bombing station, which vas now but 
15 yards from ours, was treated to a salvo of bombs at 
daybreak. On this successfully-executed enterprise the 
Battalion was congratulated by Brigadier-General Pollok 
McCall. 
Early in November the Battalion was strengthened 
in numbers by having attached to it a squadron of Glasgow 
Yeomanry under the command of Major Wardle, with 
Captain Glen Coats as second in command. On the 
afternoon of November 15th the 156th Brigade of our 
Division attacked and captured the Turkish trenches in 
front of " Hope Street." Two mines were exploded, and 
a Turkish counter-attack was frustrated by a very heavy 
bombardment from our uns. That night a very severe 
thunderstorm broke over the Peninsula, and that the bad 
weather spell was at hand seemed apparent when another 
very heavy thunderstorm occurred the following night. 
As a result, most of the troops got thoroughly wet, and 
discomfort in the trenches was very great, while the whole 
of the Battalion's kit in the rest camp was under two or 
three feet of water. The storm was succeeded by very 
changeable weather--warm and bitterly cold spells in 
turn--until November 26th, when there commenced that 
awful three days' storm which hastened on the evacuation. 



43 

The morning of the 26th broke warm and somewhat 
mild, but just as darkness was beginning to gather around, 
a great thunderstorm, followed by heavy rain, broke with 
fury. Flashes of lightning lit up the whole surroundings, 
and from the trenches we occupied one could see great 
tongues of tire stabbing Achi Baba. It was a weird and 
truly wonderful sight, the bodies of the unburied dead 
in No Man's Land bcing seen momentarily quite dis- 
tinctly. The storm lasted until 9.30 p.m., al:ter which 
tain fell steadily. On the following day rain fell in tor- 
rents for some hours. Heavy streams of water rushed 
down the gullies, and the trenches became flooded, and 
in some places were rendered impassable. But the most 
terrible day of all was November 28th, on which day 
snow fell and a bitterly cold north wind blew with the 
strength of a blizzard. It was impossible to keep warm, 
and we were glad when at 1 p.m. that day we were 
relieved. The Battalion moved to the new test camp 
near the Krithia Road, and the corrugated iron shelters 
and dug-outs which had been built there, and which 
provided a fair measure of comfort, were in the nature 
of a heaven-sent blessing, especially as for four nights 
bitterly cold frosty weather prevailed, although by day 
the sun shone brightly and enabled wet clothing tobe 
dried. By December 3rd the weather was much warmer- 
--something like a warm May day in this country. On 
the following day the Battalion was inspected in the test 
camp by General Sir W. R. Birdwood, the " Soul of 
Anzac." On December 5th the Battalion moved up the 
line for a further spell in the trenches, and on this 
occasion suffered several casualties in wounded. From 
now onwards the Turkish shell tire greatly increased, and 
conditions in " Argyll Street," " Wigan Road," and else- 
where were by no means pleasant. That the Turks had 
now got more shells was evident on December 13th, when 
many 5-inch howitzer and high-explosive shells fell in 
close proximity to the Battalion's headquarters in "' St 
Vincent Street." In endeavouring to locate the position 
of the Turkish batteries an artillery observation officer 
and bombardier were killed instantaneously by a shell 



44 

which ianded in one of our first support lines, while a 
shell which landed in the firing line wounded rive gunners 
who had been sending up aerial torpedoes, or " flying 
pigs," as out men termed them. As the Turks kept up 
their bombardment day after day it was presumed that 
they were firing shells which had been captured from 
-the Serbians. On December 19th (the date of the evacua- 
tion at Anzac and Suvla) an attack was launched by the 
157th Brigade on trenches to out left, and in order to 
cover the advance out Battalion ruade a demonstration 
by cheering and showing fixed bayonets above the para- 
pets. This caused the Turks to retaliate with very intense 
rifle and shell tire, which continued for some hours. On 
December 21st the Battalion Was relicved, and reached 
the test camp, where we remained over Christmas. On 
Christmas Eve a special service was held at the 52nd 
Divisional Band's headquarters. Suitable hymns were 
sung, and a solo was contributed by Captain G. Dun of 
our Battalion. While the service was being held, several 
shells were fired by the Turks, and ianded in close prox- 
imity to the band's headquarters. Later in the evening 
the junior officers of the 1/4th K.O.S.B. held their Christ- 
mas dinner in a spacious dug-out covered with corrugated 
iron. Those present were:--Captain R. R. M. Lumgair, 
v«ho presided; Lieuts. A. Galloway, 3. G. Brown, J. M. 
Watson, 3. S. Allan, H. L. Armstrong, W. M. Mercer, 
3. A. G. Cairns, 3. Wood, 3. M. P. Adam, and W. S. 
Brown. Of the eleven mentioned only rive have survived 
the war. An excellent repast was enjoyed, a number of 
toasts were given and honoured, songs were sung, and 
the company was visited by Lieut.-Colonel Wilson, who 
wished everyone the best of luck. The singing of " Auld 
Lang Syne " and the National Anthem brought a memor- 
able function to a close. 
On the iollowing day the Battalion moved up to the 
trenches for the last rime and occupied the firing line. 
On the 27th the Turks started to heavily bombard the 
trenches on our immediate right with high explosive 
shells, which did considerable damage, and we had one 
ofiïcer (Captain G. Dun) and three meta wounded by 



45 

shrapnel. On the 29th the 1/gth and 1/5th R.S.F. of 
out Brigade carried out a successful attack and occupied 
the remainder of trench G 11 A, taking 27 prisoners. 
, mine was exploded and the enemy surprised. Our 
Battalion sent a grenade party to the 1/gth R.S.F., a 
grenade party to 1/Sth R.S.F., one ofcer and twenty 
men to carry grenades, and one ofcer and twenty men 
to support the 1/Sth K.O.S.B. During this operation 
our Battalion suffered no casualties, but in the evening, 
when ail was comparatively quiet, Lieut. Cairns, while 
laying wire in front of our firing line, was killed, being 
shot through the heart, and one man was wounded while 
on sentry duty on the parapet. Later in the night news 
was received that the 52nd Division would be relieved 
shortly by the llth Division. Next day we had three 
more men wounded, and on the last day of the year the 
Battalion's cookhouse was wiped out by Turkish shell 
tire, Sergt. Master-Cook Glennie and two men being 
badly wounded. 
The present writer remembers well those two last 
davs of Decernber, 1915. On the 30th Captain Lumgair's 
Company moved out of the firing line to one of the 
reserve trenches ('" Wigan Road "). During the whole 
of the afternoon we were heavily shelled, sorne of the 
shells blowing in our parapet. About 10 p.m. the ofcers 
of our cornpany got orders to send their spare kits to 
the rest camp, and our orderlies were detailed for that 
purpose. Those kits were not seen again until ,lanuary 
9th, when rnost of us round them intact at Mudros. 
The night of December 30th was probably the most 
nerve-tr)ing of ail the nights we spent on Gallipoli--the 
night during which our troops in the firing line did not 
tire a shot between the hours of 7 p.m. and 3 a.m. the 
following morning. The sudden total cessation of tire 
on the part of hundreds of sentries along our whole line 
must bave seemed strange to the Turks. The Turkish 
sentries kept on firing occasional shots as usual, but as 
the night wore on their rifles spoke at longer intervals, 
and towards rnldnight scarcely a sound disturbed the 
still air. 



46 

One of our guns, stationed not far behind " Wigan 
Road," kept firing for short periods at long intervals. 
It was always the saine gun that spoke, but the Turkish 
artillery ruade scarcely any effort to reply toit, and the 
monotonous sound it ruade only served to render the 
.silence Inore acute. Only too ready to fall asleep on 
other nights when the noise of rifle and shell tire always 
prevai!ed, I round it impossible on this particular night 
fo let sleep steal away over Iny eyelids, and there were 
many other tired soldiers near me who were in the saine 
state. And so we lay more or less awake the whole 
night through. 
The night seeined as if it would never end. In the 
almost intense stillness the senses became exceptionally 
cute, and one had the feeling that something was going 
to happen. As it was, nothing happened. Unable to 
sleep, I lay and smoked, and several times I went out 
of the dug-out into the trenches and looked around. 
q'he darkness shrouded everything, anti the silence of the 
reat night had clearly cast a curious spell upon the 
imagination. I was looking up at the stars above me 
v«hen suddenly a man lying on the fire-step of the parapet 
said in a low voice, which almost startled me--" Do you 
think 3ohnny Turk will corne over ?" 
The uncanny silence somehow was closely identified 
with that question, for every one of us knew that our 
ruse was a deliberately-laid scheme to try and induce the 
Turks to attack. But the Turks did not leave their 
trenches. They might have thought we were leaving the 
Peninsula. If they did think so, why did they not shell 
the beaches as they did a few nights later ? I rather sus- 
pect that they were afraid of being drawn into a trap. 
Anyhow, they ruade no effort anywhere to attack us, 
neither did they go in for any rapid tire, which was 
.strange, considering that on numerous previous nights, 
when there was no cause for anxiety, they so frequently 
went in for " rapid " that we became ainused. 
The night slowly passed, the grey dawn appeared on 
-the horizon, and day gradually declared itself. If the 
Turks still had any doubt about our being in the trenches, 



47 

they must have got a rude awakening at 12.30 p.m. that 
day (December 31st), for, at a given signa], every man 
in the firing line fired rive rounds rapid, and out artillery 
treated the enemy to a heavy bombardment lasting only 
fifteen minutes. The " sttmt " was known as the "' Fare- 
well to Gallipo|i Stunt." The Turks were evidently 
taken by surprise, and must have feared that we were 
going to assault their lines, for their artil|ery kept up a 
continuous reply ail the a[ternoon, and ruade things very 
lively, several of out men narrowly escaping death or 
serious injury from shells which landed in " Wigan 
Road.". 
It was understood that out Battalion was to be 
relieved at 7 o'clock that evening, but it was past e|even 
ere we got away, and owing to the frightful condition 
of the trenches and saps, it took us over three hours to 
reach the test camp. When we were being re|ieved in the 
dark by an English regiment I heard someone say softly-- 
" These [ellows bave got rations [or seven days, and 
they're to fight the rearguard action." Seven days' 
rations! And as for the rearguard action, it could only 
mean one thing. At last I thought I knew the whole 
truth. The intimation that " the 8th Army Corps will 
shortly be relieved by the 9th Army Corps " was all a 
" blind," and, indeed, there was a pretty general feeling 
that more than a relief was intended. And as those 
strong men arrayed in battle order and wearing overeoats 
filed into the trenches I [elt that they had a tough iob 
on hand. We saw the New Year " in" during a halt 
in " C " Avenue, which was one maze of artillery wires, 
and greetings were duly exchanged. I don't think any 
of us will ever forget that last awful walk down "C " 
Avenue, and it was a great relief to be at the rest camp 
again, where we turned in for some well-earned sleep. 



48 

CHAPTER V. 

THE LAST WEEK AT CAPE HELLES. 

The last week at Gallipoli was one of the most 
memorable of ail the weeks we spent there. We now felt 
certain we were going to evacuate, although our Colonel 
was first of ail told that our army was to bang on to Helles 
at ail costs, as the Navy wanted it as a submarine base. 
This, of course, the Colonel did not believe, and when he 
confided to some of us that Helles was to be evacuated, 
and got a promise that the 1/4th K.O.S.B. would be 
allowed to wait till the end, the cup of joy was overflow- 
ing. But there was much to do before we could get away. 
Stores and ammunition and mules, etc., had to be taken 
off, and at the various beaches there was much bustle. 
On January 2nd things were very lively at " W " beach, 
as the Turks shelled it incessantly, and Major Wardle of 
the Glasgow Yeomanry, attached to our Battalion, who 
was acting as M.L.O. there, was killed by a high explosive 
shell. On the intimation of this casualty, one of our 
officers--Lieut. A. Galloway--was sent down to take over 
Major Wardle's duties. The Turks continued to shell 
the beach all that night. They had the range to a nicety. 
Most of the shells appeared to corne from the direction 
of Achi Baba, and it was surprising that the casualties 
among the fatigue parties who were loading the lighters 
were not much greater than they were. At " W " Beach 
there was a look-out man at the top of the cliff, and when- 
ever he saw the flash of the Turkish guns a warning bell 
was rung, which gave our men a few seconds in which to 
run for any shelter they could obtain. A faint boom in 
the distance, the shout of '" look out ! " and then the 
crash of a shell on the beach--this pretty accurately 
describes the happenings at " W " Beach. The duties of 
the M.L.O. and his assistants were most nerve-trying in 
the circumstances. Great difficulty was experienced in 
getting the stubborn and nervous mules off. Sometimes 
after being collected for embarkation a shell would corne 
over, burst in amongst them, killing some, and causing 



49 

a general stampede among the others. And then the 
work would re-commence, and the saine thing would 
happen time and again. On the whole, however, it was 
vonderful how many of those valuable mules, which, in 
the hands of their dark-skinned drivers, performed such 
serviceable work on the Peninsula, were saved. By day 
and night the work went on; guns, ammunition, kits, and 
stores of ail descriptions were got away, and a word of 
praise is due to the fatigue parties for the heroic manner 
in which they carried out their arduous and very trying 
duties. 
For some unknown reason there was practically no 
Turkish shelling during the night of January 3rd, but 
during the following day and night the shellin re-com- 
menced. On January 5th the strength of the Battalion 
and Glasow Yeomanry (attached) on the Peninsula was 
reduced to 147 ail ranks--the balance of the Battalion 
(about 80 ail ranks) having left on the night of January 
2nd, after performing fatigue duties at " W " Beach. On 
January 6th the Turks were much quieter, but some of 
their taubes came over and dropped bombs on the rest 
camp from a low altitude. During these last few days 
the rest camp became more and more deserted, as troops 
had been leaving quietly every night, getting away with- 
out mishap in cold, raw weather. In consequence, the 
greatest precautions were taken to give the rest camp its 
usual appearance, as the Turks were watching us narrowly, 
judging from the activity of their taubes, for which we 
kept a sharp look-out, and I think it was at this period 
that one of the most clear-sighted of the officers of our 
Battalion spotted " three Turkish airships," which were 
ultimately discovered to be three flocks of wheeling 
starlings! Officers and men were ordered to move about 
as much as possible, and dummy figures were erected 
here and there to deceive the enemy. One of the chier 
employments at this time was the destroying of waterproof 
sheets, blankets, and sand bas, and burying tins of bully 
beef. The dismantling of our padre's du-out was in 
itself an arduous task. After cutting through one lyer 
of waterproof sheets a layer of blankets was discovered, 



5O 
then another layer of waterproof sheets, and finally the 
'ooden roof and rafters! We feit glad, however, that 
out good padre at any rate had fared well, especiaily 
as first-class dug-outs were rare on the Peninsula. And 
so the days and nights went by, and anxious days and 
nights they were. Some of us got iittle sleep at night, and 
as we lay awake we couid hear horses and waggons and 
,uns rattling down the Krithia Road towards the beach. 
During the forenoon and part of the afternoon of 
January 7th the writer was at "W " Beach along with 
Lieut. Mercer, and fifty fatigue men from out Battalion. 
On the way down we noticed that the Y.M.C.A tent at 
the top of the cliff had been wrecked by a shell, and a 
Red Cross waggon, aiso sadly wrecked, lay at the side of 
the road close by a great shell hole, and elsewhere a 
number of horses lay dead. No sooner had we arrived 
at the beach than three sheils came over in quick succes- 
sion. The first fell into the sea, just missing by a yard 
or so a lighter which was loaded with scores of boxes of 
ammunition, and one shuddered to think what might 
bave happened had the lighter been struck. As it was, 
a great cloud of water was sent up by the shell, and a 
man in the lighter was drenched to the skin but unhurt. 
The second and third sheils burst on the beach close to 
our party, but we sustained no casualties. One observed 
that the sea was becoming toucher, and it looked as if 
a speii of bad weather was again to be shortly upon us. 
In the distance two nurses could be seen rowing in a 
small boat in the vicinity of a hospital ship. We loaded 
iighters for several hours, and Lieut. Mercer and myself 
having been shown through the big magazine in the cliff 
which was to be blown up some 36 hours later, we started 
out for the rest camp, which we reached without mishap. 
In the afternoon, to the left of Krithia, the Turks 
ruade a determined attack, but were repulsed with heavy 
casualties, out naval guns pourin shells into their lines. 
Had that attack not been repulsed our " game " would 
assuredly bave been up, as our troops on the Peninsula 
were by now comparatively few, and there were no ser- 
viceable uns left. By 6 p.m. peace reined, and our 



Red Cross wallons brouht our wounded down the 
Krithia Road. In the evening we partook o[ our last 
meal on the Peninsula--tea, bread and cbeese and jam-- 
and at 9.45 p.m. what remained o[ the Battalion and the 
(]lasgow Yeomanry (147 all ranks) was formed up on 
the road. It was a fine dark night and favourable for 
our departure. There were mixed feelins at oin. We 
were leavin a place ained by the most manificent 
heroism of the first troops landed, hun on to by the 
ailantry and determination of a handful of sick and 
wearied men, hun on to in the end aainst increasin 
masses of Turks and heavy uns--released by the evacua- 
tion of Suvla and Anzac--and we were leavin our dead 
there, our old comrades for whom the unfailin liht 
was spent and donc, and worst of ail, was not the evacua- 
tion a slur on (]reat Britain ? On the other hand, the 
alternative was to have remained on with a rapidly 
mountin roll of casualties, but in any case higher powers 
had decided, and that was sufficient for us. 
The roll call havin been taken, and ail havin been 
reported " present and correct," we set o1 noiselessly 
on our march to "W" Beach. At the top of the clil 
the Battalion was halted, and all lay down while the 
Adjutant went ahead to find out exactly where we were 
to o. As we lay there several shells fired from the 
Turkish batteries at Achi Baba, and from our oid friend 
"' Annie " at Kum Kalessi on the Asiatic coast, burst 
close to us, but caused no casualties. After waitin about 
half-an-hour the Adjutant returned breathless with orders 
that we were to move down to the beach, where we 
round over a thousand troops of other reiments had 
already arrived. Here we were oblied to lie low aain, 
as the pier by which we were to cross on to the steamer 
wbich had been drawn close in had broken down and 
the enineers were repairin it with ail speed. We lay 
huddled close toether on the beach. The suspense was 
reat and the minutes seemed like hours. All was quiet, 
and every few minutes a faint boom could be heard in 
the distance. This was the signal that a sheil had been 
fired, and then with a whistlin sound it would corne over 



52 

and burst on the beach or fall into the sea close to the 
pier. About one in every two shells landed short on 
the cliff above us and failed to explode, but had the 
Turks kept up a constant bombardment we must have 
suffered considerable casualties. As it was, by rare good 
fortune, the shells did no harm. 
At last, about 1.30 a.m., January 8th, word came to 
"" move," and forming up in single file we marched on 
to the steamer. It was an unforgettable journey across 
creaking planks of wood and over the deck of a hall 
submerged boat. There was no need to order the troops 
to keep close together while going over the gangway to 
the small transport, which was named the "' Prince 
Abbas." Once on board the Navy took us in charge. 
Darkness shrouded everything. The men disappeared 
mysteriously in one direction and the ocers in another. 
I remember a naval man grasping me bv the hand and 
ushering me into a large saloon where warnth came from 
a glowing tire, and a waiter was busy taking orders for 
light refreshments. It seemed as if we had corne away 
from hell into Paradise. Very tîred, we lay down on 
the floor, and the transport moving off between 2 and 
3 a.m., we arrived a few hours later at Mudros harbour, 
where we disembarked and marched round to our camp 
at Mudros West, several toiles distant. 
The final evacuation of the Peninsula took place on 
the night of January 8th-9th. One of the last to leave 
• ,vas Lieut. A. Galloway of our Battalion, who had been 
engaged on duties at "W "' Beach. After everyone had 
been taken of the magazine at Lancashire Landing blew 
up, the explosion being terrific, and the Turks sent over 
a hurricare of shrapnel. As the demolition operations 
had been so successfully carried through, there was little 
left that the Turks could make use of. Did they know we 
were going away ? That has so far remained an unsolved 
question. It is said that one day the Turks threw into 
one of our bombing stations a piece of paper containing 
the following words--" We know you are going; good 
luck ! good Englishmen," but I have not been able to 
get any confirmation of the story. I ara pretty certain, 



53 

however, that they were heartily glad over our departure, 
as with the help of our Navy we ail along ruade them 
very uncomfortable. 
And now, after seven months of great hardship, the 
Battalion--200 ail ranks, a fifth of the original strength 
as it landed on the Peninsula--was at Lemnos, where it 
was possible to sleep at night without hearing death moan 
and sing. 
In November, 1915, by a remarkable indiscretion, the 
announcement was ruade in the House of Lords that Sir 
Charles Munro had advised the abandonment of the 
Dardanelles expedition, thus giving the enemy due 
warning of our intentions, and in view of this fact the 
complete success of the evacuation without casualties 
becomes ail the more remarkable. In his dispatch of 
March 6th, 1916, Sir Charles Munro says:--"A series 
of four arguments, irrefutable in their conclusions, con- 
vinced me that complete evacuation was the only wise 
course to pursue:-- 
" (a) It was obvious that the Turks could hold us in 
front with a small force and prosecute their 
designs on Baghdad or Egypt, or both. 
"" (b) An advance on the position we held could not 
be regarded as a reasonable military operation 
to expect. 
" (c) Even had we been able to make an advance in 
the Peninsula out position would not have been 
ameliorated to any marked degrce, and an 
advance on Constantinople was quite out of 
the question. 
" (d) Since we could not hope to achieve any purpose 
by remaining on the Peninsula, the appalling 
cost to the nation involved in consequence of 
embarking on an overseas expedition with no 
base available for the rapid transit of stores, 
supplies and personnel, ruade it urgent that we 
should divert the troops locked up upon the 
Peninsula to a more useful theatre." 
The " more useful theatre " was Egypt and Palestine, 
and a more useful theatre it eventually proved to be. 



54 

Mr Sideney A. Moseley, described as '" Official Cor- 
respondent with the Mediterranean Forces," on the 
other hand, in his book entitled " The Truth about the 
Dardanelles," says our army at Gallipoli was within a 
few toiles of decisive victory, that just when the enemy's 
morale was broken we decided to evacuate, and that 
the evacuation was a great blunder ! 
Mr John Masefield, the poet, who was enaged on 
Red Cross work out East, however, has given us a 
valuable, competent, and eminently readable book on 
Gallipoli. Mr Masefield, who has a very fine descriptive 
style, gives a clear, reasonable, and comprehensive 
account of the whole Dardanelles campaign, and, unlike 
the over bold Mr Moseley, refrains from criticism, and 
confines himself mainly to a thorough explanation of the 
tremendous difficulties our troops had to face from the 
first, a picturesque account of the battles they fought, and 
the unequalled courage and devotion that were revealed 
by our men. Of the first and memorable landing Mr 
Masefield says :-- 
"" No army in history has ruade a more heroic 
attack; no army in history bas been set such a task; 
no other body of men in any modern war has been 
cailed upon to land over mined and wired waters 
under the cross tire of machine guns. Our men 
achieved a feat without parallel in war, and no other 
troops in the world (not even the Japanese or 
Ghazis in the hope of heaven) would have ruade 
good these beaches on the 25th of April." 
High praise, but well-merited, and of our newly trained 
troops who helped to make the landing, Mr Masefield 
says:--" They were the finest body of young men ever 
brought together in modern times " ; and Mr Masefield 
writes of them so splendidly and with such a fine feeling 
of sympathy that his book may fittingly be regarded as 
a memoriai of every man who laid down his lire at 
Gallipoli. Here is a typical passage :-- 
" Up in the trenches the rifles ruade the irregular 
snaps of fire-crackers, sometimes almost ceasing, 
then running along a section in a rattle, then quicken- 



55 

in down the line and drawin the enemy, then 
pausing and slowly ceasing and beginning again. 
From time to time, with a whistle and a wailing, 
some Asian shell came over and dropped, and seemed 
to multiply, and gathered to herself the shriek of 
ail the devils of hell, and burst like a devil, and filled 
a great space with blackness, and dust, and falling 
fragments. Then another and another came, almost 
in the saine place, till the gunners had had enough. 
Then the dust settled, the ruin was ruade good, and 
ail went on as belote, men carrying and toiling and 
singing, bullets piping, and the files settling and 
swarming on whaever was obscene in what the shell 
had scattered. 
Everywhere in these positions there was gaiety 
and courage and devoted brotherhood, but there was 
also another thing, which brooded over ail, and 
struck right home to the heart. It was a tragical 
feeling, a taint or flavour in the mind, such as men 
often feel in hospitals when men are dying, the sense 
that Death was at work there, that Death wandered 
up and down there and fed on lire." 
The foregoing displays Mr Masefield's power, and 
there is nobody who was on the Peninsula who, reading 
the above passage, will hot testify to its wonderful 
accuracy of description, lIr Masefield deals with the 
awful storm which broke over the Peninsula on 26th, 
27th, and 28th November, to which I have already 
alluded, when we experienced SHOW, frost, and violent 
rain swept by full gales of wind, when every gulley was 
a raging torrent, and every trench a river, and men were 
up to their waists in water, when many men at Suvla were 
frozen to death, and sufferings were endured that could 
not well have been greater. "" In one trench, when the 
flood rose, a pony, a mule, a pig, and two dead Turks 
were washed over a barricade together." During this 
terrible storm the " incomparable " 29th Division lost 
two-thirds of its strength. " In the three sectors over 
two hundred men were dead, over ten thousand were 
unfit or further service, and hot less than thirty thousand 



56 
others were sickened and ruade old by it." Mr Masefield 
says that the Turk loss was much more serious than ours, 
the Turkish equipment being only good for summer, and 
many of the Turks having neither overcoat nor blanket. 
The effect of that blizzard, however, was to remove the 
curse of dysentery, whose daily toll of victims for some 
months was nearly a thousand, and to hasten on the 
evacuation. 
And the evacuation was so brilliantly carried out 
that many people put the matter beyond understanding 
and say--" You must have bribed the Turks to let you 
o." These people exist, for the writer has met them 
and talked to them--people who, on the whole, would 
appear to be 'ather sorry that our casualties during the 
evacuation were not substantial. The probability is that 
had we had a few thousand casualties in the course of the 
withdrawal the public mind would not be so suspicious, 
and the uncharitable would hot be with us. Seriously, 
could anything be sillier than the story that we bribed 
the Turks to let us go ? Everything points to the fact 
that at Anzac and Suvla, where the first evacuation was 
carried out, the enemy mistook the preparations that 
were being ruade for preparations for the landing of fresh 
troops; and " by ruse and skill, and the use of the dark, 
favoured by fine weather, the work was done almost 
without loss, and as far as one could judge, unsuspected." 
A full moon was shining when out troops left Anzac 
and Suvla on the niht of 19th-20th December, but they 
were unmolested, and as the rearguard of honour--two 
thousand of those that had landed in the first charge 
moved down to the lihters, " one of their number saw 
a solitary Turk, black aainst the sky, hard at work upon 
his trench. That was the last enemy to be seen from 
Anzac." 
It is possible that the attacks which out troops ruade 
at Helles on December 19th and 29th deceived the Turks 
and ruade them think that Helles was being held at ail 
costs, and that we were determined to push on. The 
Turks seemed to have a reatly increased quantity of 
shells, and the xvriter can substantiate Mr Masefield when 



57 

he says that the " Turks' shell tire increased and became 
very heavy." Mr Masefield says he does hot know the 
answer to the following question:--" Een if the Turks 
were deceived at Anzac and Suvla, they must have 
known that you were leaving Cape Helles. Why did 
they hot attack you when you were embarking there ? " 
Mr Masefield, however, adds that "" it is possible that 
they did hot know that we were leaving. It is possible, 
on the other hand, that they were deceived again by our 
ruses. It is, however, certain that they watched us far 
more narrowly at Cape Helles after the Anzac evacuation. 
Still, when the time came, the burning of our stores 
after out men had embarked seemed to be the first 
warning that the Turks had that we were going." 
Mr Masefield makes no mention of the attempt on 
the part of the Turks to cut off out troops to the left 
of Krithia on the afternoon of January 7th. It was, as 
I have already pointed out, " touch and go," and their 
.shell tire was very great that afternoon ; but out troops 
opposed the attack with great gallantry, showed the Turks 
that we could still hold them, and inflicted heavy losses 
upon them. As for the evacuation of Helles itself, I 
myself hold to the view that the Turks most probably 
knew we were going, but that they did hot know the 
night on which we would depart. At it was, every 
Britisher was off the Peninsula by three o'clock in the 
morning of January 9th. Supposing that on that last 
night the Turks knew we were leaving our trenches and 
were embarking, they would certainly have met with 
reat difficulties in making an attack. They would have 
been suspicious of mines, and in the inky darkness the 
barbed wire everywhere would have held them up and 
.given us time to escape. But one thing the present 
writer feels absolutely certain of is this--the Turks were 
heartily glad to see the last of us. 
Members of the Australian forces hold the opinion 
that a '" few more men would have done the whole 
trick," and I myself talked on the Peninsula to a very 
optimistic officer who gave it as his opinion that the 
Turks were short of ammunition during September and 



$8 

October, and that with proper reinforcements we could 
have swept over Achi Baba had we ruade an advance 
then ; but he wisely added--" Of course, that is only my 
opinion, and it may not go for much." It was always 
difflcult to find out the Turkish strength in men and 
munitions. I remember one day looking through a 
periscope at a Turkish trench which we bombed fre- 
quently at night. Somehow, I had an idea that the 
trench was not manned, that the Turks had with- 
drawn from it, and fellow-officers were of the saine 
opinion as myself on that point. Some days later 
an attack was ruade on this trench, and the officers and 
men who ruade the charge soon discovered that the Turk 
was there in force, and our casualties were very much 
heavier than we expected them to be. I relate this little 
incident as showing how easy it was to be batBed. But 
there are some things about the Gallipoli campaign 
concernin which there can be no possible doubt, and 
these are, viz., that after the overthrow of the Serbians 
the Turks had any quantity of shells, that the natural 
difficulties aainst us from the start were tremendous, 
that the bad weather spells when they did corne were 
terrible in the extreme, and that to bave wintered longer 
on the Peninsula would have meant courting grave- 
disaster. We came off the Peninsula not a day too soon, 
for the weather was again breaking on January 9th, and 
at Lemnos a few days later there was a repetition of the 
sort of thing which had occurred towards the end of 
November, and which, had we remained on the 
Peninsula, must have resulted in a big addition to the 
already heavy casualty list. And the experience was 
that even worse weather spells always occurred in 
February and March--a fact doubtless noted by those. 
responsible for the evacuation. 
The losses sustained by the 1/4th K.O.S.B. in killed, 
wounded, missing, and sick at Gallipoli were between 
750 and 800. 



59 

CHAPTER VI. 

MEMORIES OF LEMNOS. 

AT LEMNOS. 
On this lone isle, whose rugged rocks affright 
The cautious pilot, ten revolving years 
Great Pœean's son, unwonted erst to tears, 
Wept o'er his wound : afike each rolling light 
Of heaven he watched, and blamed its lingering fl]ght : 
By day the sea-mew, screaming round his cave, 
Drove slumber from hls eyes : the chiding wave 
And savage howlings chased his dreams by night. 
Hope still was his : in each low breeze that sighed 
Through his rude grot he heard a confing oar, 
In each white cloud a coming sail he spied ; 
Nor seldom listened to the fancied roar 
Of Oeta's torrents, or the hoarser tide 
That parts famed Trachis from the Euboic shore. 
T/tomas usselL 
Few who were with the l/4th K.O.S.B. on Gallipolî 
escaped acquaintance with Lemnos--" escaped," for to 
most Lemnos was not a pleasant place. To many the ' 
name recalls memories only of dysentery, jaundice, or 
rheumatism, in understafed hospitals, or perpetual 
[atlgues and indiferent food in the details' camp. But 
some few there were also who were privileged to sec 
Lemnos at its best, and [ound it not merely a stony, 
barren, fly-infested refuse heap of dirty Greeks, but a 
place of beauty under a rising or setting sun, with rugged 
hills, sheltered, wooded valleys, picturesque windmills, 
and rambling, red-roofed villages. And if the Greek 
men were not always pleasant to look upon, yet the 
daughters could demonstrate that the classic tales of 
Greek beauty were not entirely mythical. 
Before the war, Lenmos, Imbros, and some others 
of the Agean islands were subjects of debate between 
Greece and Turkey, but at the beginning of the Gallipolî 
campaign they came to be practically French and British 



property. They were used as intermediate bases for 
Gallipoli, the fairly extensive plains round the bays being 
crowded with reinforcement and rest camps, hospitals, 
A.S.C. stores, R.E. dumps, and the thousand and one 
necessary adjuncts of a large fighting force. 
Imbros was known to few--to too few--of the 1/4th 
K.O.S.B. During August and September, 1915, small 
parties of men were sent there for training and rest. 
There, ten days' bathing, concerts, exercise, good food, 
and freedom from shell-fire, in most cases, put a very 
dif[erent complexion upon lire. Luxuries at exorbitant 
prices were bought eagerly from the Greek canteens, 
and devoured at a rate that would have amazed 
the careful housewife at home. Even the army doctors 
were shocked to elicit from nen that they had eaten 
a couple of pounds of grapes at a sitting, and v,'ere 
surprised at the resulting discomfort. Those who may 
deem such behaviour foolish and childish do not know 
what it was to live in the Gallipoli trenches. The desire 
for luxuries was natural, and satisfying the desire did, on 
the whole, but little barre. The great pity was that more 
of the Battalion did hOt get a chance of such a respite 
from the horrors of the Peninsula. 
But very much better known than Imbros to the 
Battalion as a whole was Lemnos, where, as we have 
seen, the Battalion canne after the evacuation of Gallipoli. 
And even those whose experience there in hospital and 
details' camp had been, to say the least, unpleasant, were 
glad enough to see once more its hiil-girt harbour and 
-stone-strewn clay. We were encamped on the slope of a 
bill beneath the village of Sarpi--a hOt unpleasant camp 
on the shore of a shallow bay. There, for a day or two, 
the men were rested. The southern exposure of the 
camp gave us the full benefit of a gratefully warm sun. 
and those whose nerves were jaded were gradually 
restored to equanimity. The nights were cold, but 
blankets were plentiful, and sleep was easy. Before 
boredom could set in parades v, ere begun as of yore at 
Cambusbarron, and we soon began to approach the 
• discipline and smartness once achieved under Colonel 



6! 

McNeile's command. It was not to be expected that we 
would at once regain out old marching form; but though 
marching was difficult after trench lire, and over country 
where roads were few and of the poorest quality, yet 
it was one of the most pleasant forms of parade we had. 
Usually we passed through one or more of the several 
scattered villages, whose narrow, cobbled streets, vine- 
clad walls, red-roofed houses, and lack of sanitation were 
especially noticeable. The largest and most beautifu! 
village of ail on the island was Castro, situated some six 
or seven toiles from Sarpi camp, and those who had the 
good fortune to go there could testify to the fine wine 
which was to be had at a pretty little inn. Several of 
our of-ficers also ruade the acquaintance of the charming 
little mountain village of Thermos, where at the " hotel," 
the delight of a natural hot spring bath, followed by 
a good meal, was much enjoyed. In the tour which 
the writer ruade of several of these villages, one, which 
I specially remember, was practicaly built on rocks. The 
houses seemed to have been literally dumped down any- 
where, and most of them had the windows shuttered or 
half-shuttered, as if the sun's rays were something to be 
shunned and avoided. The shutters, doors, and outward 
woodwork generally were nearly ail painted light blue, 
while the walls were white, and seen from a distance, 
the village, with the sun shining upon it, looked quite 
charming. One entered the village by an iron gate in 
the centre of a whitened stone wall, which enclosed part 
of the village. The first house I saw appeared to be of 
the better type. Adioining it was a large orchard, which, 
I was informed, became a wonderful bloom of flowers 
in summer, but which looked bare and desolate. Close 
by were about a dozen children playing at some gaine. 
They were pleasant and tidy, and did not beg for money 
as the Maltese children do. Many of the bouses had 
become temporary shops in view of the near presence of 
so many soldiers, and ail appeared to be doing a large 
amount of business. The fruit sold consisted chiefly of 
figs and small but very julcy oranges. The former 4d per 
per lb., and the latter were about 6d per dozen, and some- 



rimes much cheaper. Brown bread and eggs could also 
be bought, but the bread did hOt look appetising, and, 
in point of fact, had a bitter taste. Generally speaking, 
the village appeared strangely llfeless. Nearly ail the 
dwelling bouses seemed at first to be untenanted until 
you caught sight of a face peering at you from behind 
one of the half-shuttered windows. The only building of 
note was a Greek church, the inside of which was very 
fine. At the top end of the village I came to a well, 
congregated round which were several veiled women, 
some engaged in drawing water, others in knitting. A 
little further on, and overlooking the village, were about 
a score of windmills, which were used for grinding flour. 
A pretty strong breeze was blowing, and several of them 
were working. I tried to keep up a conversation with 
an old peasant who was adjusting the salis of one of 
the mills, but it was no good. Near by was a high peak, 
nestling at the top of which was a small building, which 
appeared to be a chapel, and climbing up over the rocks 
until my legs ached, I eventually reached the summit, 
and felt a rare pleasure in being able to have a good view 
of a part of the island which Sappho loved so well. 
Returning through the village, I met a merchant riding 
on a mule, who had corne from Castro, and from him I 
purchased some delicious cigarettes. The Greeks seemed 
to be inveterate smokers, as one rarely met a Greek 
who did not bave a cigarette between his lips. 
Whether by intent or happy chance, during the 
Battalion's route marches the halts were usually called 
just outside a village, and Greeks--men, boys, and 
donkeys--launched themselves upon us with ample stores 
of chocolate and tangerine oranges. Of ail things bought 
on Lemnos, surely these oranges were the cheapest and 
best that ever round their way into the all-absorbing 
interior of the British soldier. No amount of them 
seemed to do any barre, and as delicious thirst-quenchers 
they will hOt readily be forgotten by those who know 
what a military thirst can be. But let it hOt be imagined 
that, fresh from a trying campaign, we had to spend ail 
our time on parades and route marches. Except for 



63 

defaulters, our afternoons were free. Thursdays were 
holidays, and on Sundays there were only church parades. 
There were good football pitches on fiat, firm sand, and 
halls were unearthed from somewhere. There was good 
rugby talent from both the Borders and the West of 
Scotland in the combined units of out own Battalion and 
the Glasgow Yeomanry, but for some reason it was round 
difficult to arrange a match. Still, it was like embracing 
a bit of the old country to have a rugby ball in one's 
arms again, and to see our old Scottish full-back punting 
in his own old style was as refreshing to those who 
watched as it manifestly was to Captain Forrest himself. 
So we spent our time--healthfully, usefully, plea- 
santly. Those who had been in hospital on the island now 
also had a chance of additional little pleasures in repay- 
ing a small part of the kindnesses received at the hands 
of the hospital sisters. The light blue of the Canadian 
uniforms, and the duller grey of the English, soon gave 
evidence of their natural attractiveness. Perhaps in the 
private diaries of some of the officers one might find 
mention of afternoon tea parties, picnics, and even 
dances--but, after ail, private diaries are private, and 
should be reserved at least for posthumous publication ! 
But lire at Lemnos was hOt a time mainly of " beer 
and skittles." We had hOt been long in Sarpi camp 
before an unpleasant experience was given us of an 
fEgean storm. For close on forty hours the tain poured 
and a cold gale blew. Tents were blown down and had 
to be put up, and even the marquees had to have a 
rescue party constantly in attendance. But satisfaction 
was felt that the storm had corne when the Battalion was 
on Lemnos rather than when in the trenches. After an 
interval of some years, the memories of the cold and 
discomfort are slightly dulled, but one remembers, chiefly 
as humorous incidents, such scenes as a man finding a 
rivulet flowing through his bed, or an officer in a pair 
of gum-boots and hall a suit of pyjamas pulling a fallen 
tent over two valise-ensconced companions. The storm 
ultimately passed, and gradually out clothes were dried, 
and the old routine again held sway. 



64 

Then on January 27th, 1916, the first hall of the Bat- 
talion, followed a few days later by the other half, set 
sail on H.M.T. "" Nestor," and after a pleasant, unevent- 
ful voyage, arrived at Alexandria. From Alexandria we 
were taken immediately by train to Abbassia, a suburb 
of Cairo, near Heliopolis, and the Egyptian phase of our 
military history was begun. 



65 

CHAPTER VII. 

IN TURKISH HANDS--A PRISONER OF WAR'S 
STORY. 

As has been related in a previous chapter, ode 
N.C.O. and twelve men of our Battalion were taken 
prisoners by the Turks on July 12th, 1915. The N.C.O. 
in question was Scrgt. A. R. Wood, Stow, who was sub- 
sequently irterred for the most part in Angora, Asia 
Miror, and who died on his way home, previous to the 
Armistice, at Smyrra, on or about 26th October, 1918, 
in the Austriar Hospital, from malaria and dysentery. 
Of the other twelve prisorers, the followirg died in 
captivity:--Pte. W. Martin, Pte. H. C. Turrbull, and 
Pte. J. Thomson. Sergt. Wood kept a diary of his 
experiences while a prisoner of war, and it is interesting 
to quote the followirg extracts therefrom as showing how 
our men fared in the hands of the Turks. Sergt. Wood 
records :-- 
" We were captured in the morring of the 12th, 
about ode and a hall hours after the charge, and taken 
to a dressing station or hut for the purpose of having 
our wounds dressed. I was cut below the left eye, on 
the left ear, had a small piece of shraprel in my right 
jaw, and had a bullet wourd in my left side. We were 
robbed of our possessions and received bread and water 
from our guards. Our position was immediately behind 
the firing line in a gully. Towards evering a British 
bombardment commenced, terrible in its intersity, but 
unfortunately the shells burst on the opposite side and 
did little damage. We remained where we were until 
a gun, enfilading us from the sea, sent a shell into the 
gully dOt far from us. A few Turks were killed and 
wounded, there was gereral confusion, and the roof of 
our dug-out collapsed and we were covered with dirt. 
Our guard said 'Iday' and hurried us off to another 
dug-out round the corner. Here we met six others of 
our Battalior, who had been captured at a different 



66 

point. We were ail wounded except one, and looked 
very miserable. For a time the din of battle was awful, 
and from my corner I could see the Turks were retiring. 
A big sereant came along looking for shirkers and 
spotted one of our guards, and ordered him off to the 
firing line, and then brought his rifle to his shoulder as 
if to shoot us. We thought our end had come, but 
another of our guards rushed in front of us and I heard 
the words 'commander' and ' Engleish,' whereat the 
big sereant moved off. 
" We stayed there ail night and next day, the 13th, 
and towards dark were taken away. I shall never forget 
that painful match. The smell of dead bodies was 
horrible, and the groans of the wounded pierced the air. 
We must bave walked for two hours when a halt was 
called, and we climbed a steep gully to an ofiîcer's but, 
where Pte. Wark was interrogated. After another hour's 
walk we arrived at headquarters, and were brought before 
a very aristocratic German General, who passed round 
t tray of sweets and intimated to us that we were not 
now enemies. Out wounds were again dressed, and we 
retired for the night after having a cup of sweet hot 
water and bread. We enjoyed a fine sleep on boards, 
with out boots for pillows. 
" We were up early next morning, and this time we 
drove in carts to another dressing station, where out 
v«ounds were properly washed, etc. A Turkish officer 
asked me to play the piccolo; I did so, and he was 
delighted. Afterwards we had some lice to eat and sweet 
water to drink, and were about to retire for the night 
when a message arrived and we were again carted off, 
this rime to a field hospital. There out clothes were 
taken from us and put in a bag--one each--and we were 
given sleepin suits, had out wounds dressed and were 
put to bed--our first bed since leaving home. We were 
treated well here, and the doctors were very nice. In 
the morning we got boiled lice and bread, and durin 
the day bread and water, while the evening meal con- 
sisted of mutton, boiled lice, a bowl of raisins in sweet 
water, and bread. Cigarettes in plenty were also pro- 



67 
vided. During our stay here we were visited by many 
noted officers, had our photographs taken by a German 
journalist and by cinema photographers. After ten days' 
rest we again took to the carts, and after a long journey, 
going through Maidos, which was in ruins, we arrived at 
a hospital ship. The ship sailed on the evening of July 
23rd, and after a fine voyage through the Sea of Marmora, 
passing on the way many interesting places, we got our 
first view of Constantinople. It was beautiful. The 
minarets looked fine as the sun struck on them, and the 
waters of the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus were a 
deep blue, but our ship turned to the right and we dis- 
embarked at Kadi-Kieu. From there we drove in rickety 
carts to the School of Medicine Hospital, where we 
stripped and had a hot Turkish bath, put our feet into 
slippers, and went to bed again. We were the first 
British prisoners to arrive at this hospital, and we were 
treated very well. The Turkish doctors, who were of a 
curious disposition, were constantly in attendance for the 
first few days. 
" On July 25th we were called upon by Mr Philips 
of the American Embassy, who took ail particulars 
relating to us and said he would acquaint the British 
-Government. A week later he again called and gave 
us e.qch 30 piastres. We were also vlsited by two 
American ladies. We had a pleasant conversation, and 
Miss Stewart, asking permission, promised to send me 
a violin, but when it came the head Pasha objected, and, 
.of course, we were disappointed. However, the ladies 
sent us four pots of strawberry jam, three cakes, a big 
bouquet of flowers, and some nice books, ail of which 
were much appreciated. The mea|s at this hospital 
were :-- 
8.30 a.nl.--Cup of tea and bread. 
10 a.m.--Cup of warm milk. 
1 p.m.--Mutton and bread and bowl of soup. 
6 p.m.--Soup and bread. 
" There were two Frenchmen in the room next to 
<tors; one of them, Henri Planquet, had corne from 
New York, where he had been for ten years, and he 



68 

was able to interpret for us. The French language was 
spoken by ail the doctors. Our room was at the top of 
the building, and two windows opened out on to a small 
balcony. Here we had a splendid view of the Sea of 
Marmora and the Bosphorus. The oflïcers promised to 
allow us to visit the picture houses once a week, but the 
promise was hot kept. It appeared that some of the 
higher ofiî.cials had heard a story about the British iii- 
treating Turkish prisoners at Alexandria--which, need- 
less to say, was untrue---and in consequence they decided 
that we should have similar treatment meted out to us. 
Accordingly we were ordcred to move at once, and our 
old torn, dirty, and blood-stained clothes were given 
back to us. My boots, the only decent things 1 managed 
to bring with me to hospital, were hot forthcoming, and, 
instead, I was given an old torn pair without laces, and 
bcing too small in size they pinched my toes terribly. 
That a!ternoon, August 26th, we drove to Haidir Pasha 
Pier (Captain Coxon of the 5th Norfolks was with us, 
and his entire clothing consisted of a shirt, short pants, 
and a pair of old boots). Here we met some wounded 
prisoners, mostly Englishmen, who were captured about 
the beginning of August. The boat came in, and we got 
aboard and sailed across the Bosphorus to Stamboul. 
We then drove to a big hospital in Pera. Our treatment 
at this hospital was very bad. There were hot enough 
beds for the number of patients, and some of us had to 
lie on boards for a few nights with nothing on but a 
thin sleeping suit. I was nine or ten days there and did 
hOt bave a blanket ail that time. On September 5th I 
was discharged from this place, and felt very thankful. 
Twelve of us were marched through the streets of 
Constantinople for about two mlles, and a sorry spectacle 
we were, the majority of us being without headgear, 
while some were minus boots and puttees and our clothes 
were torn, but the onlookers did not seem disturbed, 
as most of them were in a worse condition than we 
were. We arrived that evening at what we called the 
' dungeon.' It was a sort of civil and military prison, 
and all classes of men xvere herded together here. Most 



69 

prominent were Armenians, Arabs, Bulgars, and Greeks. 
If our last place was bad, this was certainly not mucb 
better. The place was simply moving with lice, and it 
was difficult to snatch an hour's sleep. It was here that 
we started the 'caravana' system of taking our food. 
Each man was given a wooden spoon, and we all sat 
around a big copper dish (from 9 to 12 men to a dish) 
taking a sup therefrom in rotation. At first, this method 
of eating was revolting, but we soon got accustomed to 
it. For the first three weeks we were closely confined to 
the dungeon, but later we were allowed into a small yard 
for exercise morning and evening. There was a small 
canteen where we could buy cheese, fruit, etc. About 
this rime we had another visit from Mr Philips (those 
of us who had no clothes, etc., had new suits supplied by 
the Turkish Government, but immediately Mr Philips 
had gone they were taken from us). He left us the sure 
of £68. There were four sergeants and about 98 men, 
and the money was distributed among ail. The room 
in whicb we were confined would have given comfortable 
sleeping accommodation for 40 men, but that number 
was far exceeded, and when the number reached 120 the 
atmosphere of the place became unbearable, and we were 
relieved when the day came for our departure to Angora. 
Before leaving we were each supplied with blankets (one 
between two men), soap, a tooth brush, flannel shirt and 
pants, a towel, cigarettes, a pipe, and insect powder-- 
these being gifts from the Americans. 
" It was on September 24th that we left the 
• dungeon,' and, marching to the pier, ot aboard a small 
steamer and once again crossed the Bosphorus. Arrived 
again at Kadi-Kieu, we boarded a train for Angora. We 
travelled at a slow pace all day, and having had no food 
since the previous night, we felt very hungry. At 11 p.m. 
that night we received a half-loaf and a piece of cheese, 
which we devoured ravenously. Next day we were able 
to buy bread, grapes, tomatoes, etc., as we stopped at 
the small stations. Grapes could be bought at ld per 
1 Ibs., tomatoes were 10 or 12 for 2d, and bread was 
ld per loaf of 1 lbs. We arrived at Angora at about 



7O 
11 p.m. on September 26th. I paid particular attention 
to the nature of the country we had passed through. In 
many places the scenery was magnificent, especially up 
in the wooded and mountainous parts, where there were 
many caves occupied by wandering Arabs. These caves 
were in precarious positions in the cliffs, and seemed 
to me to be unapproachable. We fell in two-deep at the 
station and marched to the School of Agriculture, from 
which place we had a fine view of Angora and the sur- 
rounding district. Here we had food, and the sun was 
high in the heavens before we rose next morning. Ismila 
Effendi, our commander, proved to be a genial old 
gentleman, and we got on very well with him. On 
October 4th I received my first letter from home. 
On October 13th we played a gaine of football with a 
local team of Greeks, Armenians, and Tartars. They 
showed a good knowledge of the game, and played very 
well. On the following day we left Angora, and after 
many ' idays ' and ' chabuks ' we arrived at our destina- 
tion, Kungheri, on October 17th. Here we were very 
well off, as we could buy goods in the town and do our 
own cooking, but our money soon vanished, and many 
men resorted to the selling of blankets, boots, etc., in 
order that they mîght bave a tasty bite occasionally. 
We were alloved up town every Sunday (not a Turkish 
Sunday, which is our Friday), and did some good business 
there. After a few weeks the weather became cooler, 
and one day there was a fall of snow about an inch deep, 
which made us think of home. In November a few bales 
of welcome clothes arrived. On December 22nd 
a Turkish officer from Constantinople arrived and in- 
spected the barracks. Several complaints were lodged, 
the chier being the holding-up of parcels, and he promised 
to look into the matter. On December 23rd Pte. Wark 
and I ruade our Christmas pudding, containing bread, 
crumbs, flour, eggs, raisins, nutmeg, honey, suet, etc. 
On Christmas morning the sun shone brightly, and every- 
body was early astir and down to the gully to cook the 
turkeys, etc. In the afternoon we had a football match, 
Army v. Navy, and the Army won by 5 goals to 1. After 



71 

the match we had our Christmas dinner, and then a con- 
cert at night, at which we were assisted by several Turkish 
musicians." 
In January, 1916, Sergt. Wood records in his diary 
that he and his fellow-prisoners were sent back to Angora, 
and from Angora to Bozanti-Bilemedik, by way of Eski- 
Shekir and Konia. He was much struck by the beauty 
of Bozanti, which is surrounded by wooded mountains. 
Here the prisoners were lïanded over to a German firm 
who were contractors for a long range of tunnels, etc. 
Wages were paid, Sergt. Wood recording, under the date 
of March 1st, 1916. that he received " 116 piastres as 
wa,es, he getting 20 pastres per day and the others 12 
piastres. From now onwards parcels appeared to arrive 
frequently, and the prisoners were allowed to spend 
money freely in Konia and other towns. He states, how- 
ever, that on November 3rd the party was sent back to 
Angora, and then proceeded to Mamuck. The treatment 
of our men at Mamuck was bad, and on January 21st, 
1917, they returned to Angora. He mentions that he 
was inoculated on various occasions against dysentery, 
enteric, and choiera, there being an outbreak of choiera 
in August, 1917. On Decerober 25th of that year the 
men enjoyed their third Christmas dinner in captivity, 
the menu consisting of " roast leg of mutton, potatoes 
and vegetables, and plum pudding, the latter ruade of 
rusks, flour, raisins, prunes, dates, suet, nutmeg, cinna- 
mon, marmalade, and syrup." He also states that the 
Christmas festivities passed ot well, " our best Christmas 
in Turkey so far." He secured a violin, and during 1918 
played in the orchestra atone of the cinemas, and at 
other concerts. He records on July 29th that he is " just 
recovering from an attack of Spanish fever," and that two 
days later he has a relapse and is confined to bed. On 
September 25th he records that he is suffering from 
malaria, and a few days later he is taking quinine for 
ague. On October 3rd he passes a board of doctors for 
repatriation, and the last entry in his diary is :--" October 
6th, 1918--I corne out of hospital and prepare for journey 
to Smyrna." 



72 

Poor fellow! The strain of over three years' captivity 
in an uncongenial climate, coupled with recurring attacks 
of malaria and other troubles, proved too much for him, 
and he died three weeks later at Smyrna, being interred 
in the College grounds there with others of his country- 
men. To the other prisoners of the Battalion who were 
with him in Turkey he proved a loyal, brave, and helpful 
friend. 



73 

CHAPTER VIII. 

CAIRO, PORT SAID, AND KANTARA. 

When we arrived at Polygon Camp, near Heliopolis, 
,on February 1st, 1916, we round reinforcements of two 
officers and 94 other ranks awaiting us. A huge letter 
and parcel mail had also arrived, and a fatigue party was 
.at once put on to sort out and distribute the many 
hundreds of letters and parcels. The mail had brought 
several hales of oilskin coats, sent out to the Battalion 
by the Galashiels Soldiers' Comforts Fund Committee for 
the use of our men at Gallipoli, but owing to the evacua- 
tion they unfortunately did hot arrive in rime tobe of use 
in the trenches. However, had we remaincd on Gallipoli 
these coats would bave been invaluable, but now that 
we were in Egypt they were hot required. Soon we were 
training and re-equipping again. Lieut.-Colonel Wilson's 
indomitable energy had us hard at it during the forenoon 
---the men in squads of old and new hands (the former 
emulating the latter in smartness), and " the young 
officers " amuscdly grousing under the R.S.M. It seemed 
strange to those who were fresh from hard training at 
home that they should bave to continue it out here, and 
ït seemed no less strange to those who had been through 
• Gallipoli that they should have to return to the days of 
the babyhood of their soldiering; but without doubt it 
was in great part due to the strictness of that training 
that the Battalion so soon regained its high standard of 
.smartness and discipline. And who that was there will 
.ever forger the throatiness of communication drill or the 
trying defights of " ceremonial " "a But here, as on 
Lemnos, our afternoons were generally free, and we had 
-two whole-day holidays per week. Cairo is an expensive 
place to see, and the piastre is a coin that is all too 
• soluble; but we had not been able to spend much on 
'Gallipoli, and bank balances were high and the pay-books 



74 

could " stand " a good deal. Great, therefore, was the 
joy of spending, and neither the excuse nor the oppor- 
tunity was lackine In the streets, in the cafés, in 
Shepheard's or the Continental, one met friends long 
thought killed on Gallipoli or lost in the far corners of 
the Empire. 
At Polygon Camp the officers were under canvas, 
and the men were billeted in laree, well-ventilated huts. 
The weather was beauti[ul--warm durine the day-time 
and chilly at night--and proved a pleasant change to the 
sort of weather we had experienced at Gallipoli. Indeed, 
it v, as quite a joy to be in Egvpt, and with money to, 
spend we did ourselves v, ell. Heliopolis, a modern,. 
clean, residential suburb of Cairo, charmed everyone. It 
is a sort of desert pleasure city, some 6000 acres o[ desert 
having been converted into splendid roads, avenues, 
parks, hotels, etc., and some of its buildins are maeni- 
ficent, the Moorish style of architecture beine promi- 
nently displayed. Here were golf links, polo and cricket 
grounds, and tennis courts, and a race course. Heliopolis, 
indeed, is rapidly coming into its own as a health resort, 
as in few other parts of Eeypt is the air of the desert so 
pure and fine. To all of us the place seemed to teem 
with every kind of luxury. Close to our camp were the 
Abbassia Barracks, the headquarters of the dusky warriors 
of the Eyptian Army. Like ourselves, the Eeyptians 
did several hours' drill every day, and very smart and. 
keen they were. When a " fall out" v«as eiven, our 
men mixed with them, and a fine spirit of comradeship 
manifested itself amone the black and white men. The- 
Eyptian camp was a model of cleanliness. 
We were much struck by the beauty of the buildines- 
of Heliopolis, the famed Heliopolis Palace Hotel having 
been taken over as a hospital by the military, and here 
the patients had a splendid time. A huge white buildine, 
at niht it looked especially beautiful under the dark 
blue, cloudless dome overhead. Cairo could be reacheà 
in ten minutes by electric railway and tramway, and we 
all round Cairo extremely wonderful, most of us visiting. 
the mosques, the c;,tadel, the tombs of the Caliphs, the 



75 

Zoo, and the bazaars. But, after ail, gay and animated 
and amazing Cairo, with its weird and hidden sins, was 
not Egypt. It was fine to sit in the tranquil shades of 
the beautiful gardens with which Cairo abounds, and 
smoke delicious cigarettes, but finer still to venture 
that dream-world a few mlles from the city, and there 
watch the calm evening gathering around where the 
strange, lonely Sphinx, with serious gaze and big pouting, 
lips, broods supreme. In the case of the Pyramids, special 
trips were organised throughout the Division, and strings 
of specially chartered trains conveyed loads of cheerful, 
singing Scotsmen through parts of Old Cairo, across 
Roda Bridge, and along the fine, tree-sheltered Pyramids 
Road. An idea of the impression which a visit to the 
Pyramids ruade upon the writer may be gained from the 
following sonnet, by one of England's most accomplished: 
poets :-- 

I gaze across the Nile ; flamelike and red 
The sun goes dovn, and ail the western sky 
Is drowned in sombre crimson ; wearily 
A great bird flaps along with wings of lead, 
Black on the rose-red river. Over my head 
"Fhe sky is hard green bronze, beneath me lie 
The sleeping ships ; there is no sound or sigh 
Of the wind's breath,--the stillness of the dead. 

Over the palm tree's top I see the peaks 
Of the tall Pyramids ; and though my eyes 
Are barred from it, I know that on the sand 
Crouches a thing of stone that in some wise 
Broods on my heart ; and from the darkening land 
Creeps fear and to my soul in whisper speaks. 

Unfortunately, our stay at Heliopolis proved ail toc, 
short, as on February 17th the Battalion left by train for 
Port Said, where we encamped next day on a none too 
pleasant site close by the railway station. Here, for a 
brief spell, we had a quiet time, one of the chief occupa- 
tions being bathing in the sea. By repute, Port Said is 
a filthy place, but we did not find it so. I recollect that 
one of the main streets was lined on both sides by tall 
trees, and it was a great luxury to sit in the shade of 



76 

their thick foliage, drink tea and iced minerai waters on 
the verandah of the Exchange Hotel, and listen to the 
birds piping loudly and sweetly. Near the harbour was 
situated the 31st General Hospital, of which many of 
our officers and men had, sooner or later, very pleasant 
recollections. This was one of the best equipped, best 
managed, and best staffed hospitals in the East, and I 
feel certain that officers and men of the Battalion who 
were invalided to this hospital will unanimously join with 
me in paying tribute to the kind band of doctors, sisters, 
and nurses for the manner in which they treated the 
many patients under their care. It seemed to me 
especially that there had been got together at this hospital 
the finest and most painstaking staff that could possibly 
be conceived. Here, in addition to the wounded, 
thousands of cases of dysentery, sunstroke, typhoid, and 
other revers were treated skilfully by a frequently over- 
v«orked staff. We had hOt been long at Port Said when 
an Egyptian, whom we christened '" Moses," appeared 
in our lines. He was a dark-skinned man of average 
height, with a pleasant and honest-looking face, attired 
in a long black coat, and wore a red Fez cap on his head. 
He introduced himself to our quartermaster, and offered 
to act as agent in the purchase of goods for the officers" 
and sergeants' messes. His services were at once enlisted, 
and if ever the Battalion had a friend it had one in this 
man. He did much for us during our stay in Port Said, 
and after the Battalion left for the Sinai Peninsula it was 
mainly through " Moses " that we were for some months 
kept supplied with those little extras that made lire in the 
desert wastes a little more congenial. '" Moses " supplied 
us with everything from soda water and tinned fruit to 
fly-papers and fishing-rods, was honest to a fault, and 
proved a most valuable acquisition to the Battalion. 
It was on February 26th that orders were received 
that the Battalion was to proceed to Kantara on the Suez 
Canal, and on this day the squadron of Glasgow Yeo- 
manry which joined us prior to the evacuation of Cape 
Helles ceased to bc attached to the Battalion, and resumed 
duties as Divisional Cavalry to the 52nd Division. On 



77 

the intimation of this new move there was great bustle 
and excitement in camp, and the packing up and taking 
down and the innumerable other jobs which had to be 
attended to were the cause of a very early reveille next 
morning. However, we did hOt entrain until 2.30 p.m. 
The troop train consisted of first class trucks, the 
best at the disposal of the Egyptian State Railway, and 
cheers were given as we started out along the Suez Canal, 
on a nev pilgrimage, the distance, duration, and mono- 
tony of which had only been exceeded by the Israelites 
themselves. 
A run of a few hours at a slow pace duly brought 
us to Kantara, and after considerable delay and a good 
deal of confusion the Battallon arrived at the camp which 
was to prove our base for quite a rime. February 
27th, 1916, then, may be taken as the date on which the 
Battalion started on a long and weary year of wandering 
through the waterless desert wastes of Sinai. Two days 
later C and D Companies left for Hill 108, while the 
officers and men remaining in camp were obliged to 
undertake a new kind of duty and one which in many 
ways was experimental, far from easy, but at all timeg 
amusing. This was caused by the 31st Division departing 
for another front and leaving ail their transport behind. 
The Battalion took over the whole horse transport of a 
complete brigade, consisting of some 200 horses and 
mules, countless G.S. waggons, water carts, field kitchens, 
etc., etc. Captain John M. Dun was in charge of thc 
whole show, and his assistants were Lieuts. Alston, 
Grieve, J. G. Brown, Harvie, Elder, and Fair, who, 
with a troop of thirty men each, had the time of their 
lives, and this in more ways than one. Bearing in mind 
that with a single exception these officers had no previous 
experience of this kind of work, and that the knowledge 
of the men was quite on a par with that of their seniors, 
the position of affairs which prevailed during the next 
ten days can be better imagined than described. The 
going down to water three times a day, mules running 
amok (with no one daring enough to catch them), the 
surreptitious purloining of one another's mules to make 



78 

,ood deficiencies, the very early reveille and the conse- 
quent early retiral at nibts, and tbe dozen and one other 
eatures wbich constituted this novel, fatiuin, yet withal 
enjoyable fortniht, on innumerable occasions provided 
ample subject matter for humour and jokes. 
After the transport had been apportioned over the 
other urits of the Briade, a programme of steady train- 
in and route marchin over the sort sand was inauu- 
rated, but in tbe course of a few days a more was ruade to 
Hill 40, and later--on St Patrick's Day--anotber chane 
took place, this rime to Turk Top, where the Battalion 
vas united aain. This spot, or, rather, this sand dune, 
vill doubtless for ail rime remain pre-eminent in the 
history of the Battalion. Tbe day after our arrival we 
encountered the worst sandstorm experienced durin/ 
1916; diin was out of the question, and fortunately, 
• so also was drill of any kind. Here at Turk Top was 
tarted the diin of a series of redoubts with which ail 
ranks were to become very familiar, and between shovel- 
tin sand and steady drill, lire was inclined to vere on 
che monotonous. But the rimes chane swiftly, and 
Easter Sunday let us hear tbe sound of the uns aain. 
That was tbe day on which tbe " Dueidar stunt " took 
place. It had been the duty of the orderly officer, in 
addition to his multifarious duties about camp, to patrol 
fo an intermediate post beld by us between Turk Top 
and Hill 70. Throuhout the previous niht nothin of 
moment had occurred, but no sooner had the orderly 
officer of that day ot into bed than the noise of rifle 
tire could be heard. So up he had to/et aain and make 
a still lon6er patrol in order to keep our own redoubts 
linked up, and see that our part of the line was clear. 
Information as to what had transpired soon came to hand 
--the Turks had attacked our post at Dueidar, a palm 
rove eiht mlles away, held by the 5th Fusiliers, and 
had been beaten off with fairly severe casualties. On the 
:afternoon of that day our Battalion pushed forward to 
Hill 70, which had been partially vacated by the 4th 
R.S.F., in a gallant endeavour to assist their sister Bat- 
talion at Dueidar. In and around " 70 " there was a 



79 

hum of bustle and excitement, and this was not lessened 
when we had to " stand to " on account of the imngined 
approach of the Turks. But Dame Rumour, as she has 
done on many occasions, played us false--the Turks had 
had enough, and a few camels tearing along by themselves 
with " Gippos " in hot pursuit was the sole reason of 
the commotion. The day after the battle one of our 
platoons was sent up to the scer:.e of the fight to bring 
back some prisoners, and the same night another party 
was sent to escort a convoy of a hundred thousand rounds 
of ammunition. This latter undertaking was a some- 
what eerie ]ob, as a few Turkish snipers were said tobe 
still on the loose. However, this story was groundless, 
as nothin was either seen or heard of the snipers, and 
the convoy, after a hard two hours' march, rcached 
Dueidar safely. On the saine morning that the Turks 
attacked Dueidar, squadrons of the Gloucester and 
Warwickshire Yeomanry were greatly outnumbered at 
Katia and suffered a reverse and considerable casualties, 
and at night remnants of horsemen galloped into our 
camp at Hill 70 with exciting stories of the fight. By 
this rime, however, the Australian Light Horse and the 
New Zealand Mounted Rifles had corne up, and they 
went in hot pursuit of the retreatin Turks. The 
Colonials also encamped at Hill 70, and during the next 
few days more normal conditions were resumed, and our 
Battalion raised a strong Rugby team to play the Welling- 
ton Light Horse, a strenuous and exciting game endin 
in a win for the Colonials by 6 points to nil. Now that 
the Turks were known tobe about, outpost duty seemed 
more important than ever, and visitin patrol at niht 
to the various scattered posts near Hill 70 became a trifle 
more excitin. With the advent of the month of May 
the sun became appreciably hotter, and the intense heat 
began to tell on some of our men, while the fly nuisance 
became more pronounced. With an eye of torrid brass 
the sun stared callously on everythin, and from 10.30 
a.m. till 3.30 p.m. ail work had to be suspended. The 
sun made one's tenta stiflin place, and caused one's 
back and shoulders to ache. There is, fortunately, always 



80 

night as well as day, and a sigh of relief seemed to rise 
from the endless sands when the sun went down--a shrine 
of death and tranquil beauty. The blush of rose at the 
going down of the sun was always a sight to satisfy the 
weary and sorely tried eyes, but often one craved for 
the " shady sadness of avale, far sunken from the healthy 
breath of morn." Here and there on the illimitable 
desert were stunted shrubs and bushes and pretty flowers, 
and down by the canal palm trees grew straight and tall, 
but one missed what Keats, in his wonderful peom, 
" Hyperion," calls 

"Those green-robed senators of mighty woods, 
Tall oaks, branch-charmed by the earnest stars, 
That dream, and so dream all night without a stir." 

There was little to see, with the exception of barren- 
ness and the wilderness, the violet-pink sky of dawn, the 
bright glare of noontide, and the unforgettable and tender 
loveliness of sunset. Night always came down suddenly, 
like a great mountain shadow. Much more quickly than 
in Scotland, day receded into the unknown, and one 
missed the long, lingering summer twilights which in 
one's own country hold the imagination with so subtle 
a spell. The nights were calm, cool, and serene, and 
their great beauty captivated the heart, the spell being 
broken only by the weird chanting of the Egyptians in 
the Labour Corps camp, the call of the jackal and the 
chirp of the cricket. The stunted shrubs and bushes 
seemed to hide the wraiths of the warring peoples who 
thousands of years ago had traversed those uncanny and 
grey desert wastes. One felt conscious of a sense of far- 
off things amid this dust of dead worlds. Fear crept 
among the shadows, and a strange, haunting spirit 
brooded over all. Far-off the head-light of a ship pass- 
ing through the Suez Canal could be seen moving slowly; 
the sacred mountain on which Moses received the tables 
of the Ten Commandments gored the sky somewhere in 
the long distance; those vast tracts of desert stretching 
away to the plateau of Judea were as waterless as they 
were in ages past; the stars that hung like golden spiders 



81 

in the heavens above, and " ever stirred to some strane 
breath," were those that shone in the days o[ lon-dead 
empires and peoples; 0 stars that were! 0 stars that 
are! 0 rime that was! 0 rime that is! 
When the moon shone it flooded the land with olden 
liht, and it did one ood to o into the desert and let 
the mind shake off the thouht o[ conflict, and 

"Dream as if there were no wars, nor wounds nor scars, 
And all the world were hOt a new-digged grave." 



82 

CHAPTER IX. 

ROMANI, RABAH, MOHAMIDIYA. 

The Battalion had by now been reinforced by Major 
3obson and two officers and 115 men from the 3/4th Bn. 
K.O.S.B., and by twenty N.C.O.'s and men from the 
3rd Bn. K.O.S.B. These reinforcements were much 
needed, as the Battalion had a reat deal of diing to 
do. On May 15th, 1916, the shade temperature was as 
hih as 115 dearees, and on the 16th it was 114 derees, 
and officers and men ot an idea of what intense heat 
was like. At Hill 70 the question of the water supply 
became more important, and an officer in charge of water 
was appointed. The Battalion's water was brouht up 
daily in fantasses by camels from Kantara. The water 
was then emptied into lare tanks, from which the supply 
was drawn for cooking and washin8 purposes, and from 
which the officers and men filled their bottles once daily. 
The issue worked out at the rate of about three-quarters 
of a allon per man per day for ail purposes, but later 
the issue per man was reduced to half-a-allon. As miht 
be expected, the water had to be used most sparinly, 
and this was constantly impressed on all ranks. Although 
worn out with the day's toil and heat the men always 
]umped up with alacrity when the time came for water- 
bottle parade. Water-bottles were usually filled at 6 p.m., 
but by 10 a.m. next day fifty per cent. of the bottles were 
empty. The water we got in the Sinai Peninsula was 
not bad, but it had the effect of makin one thirsty, and 
if one took a drink one always wanted to go on drinkin. 
A good deal of soda water was consumed, but it could 
only be had in limited quantities from Port Said, and 
occasionally a barrel of beer ruade its appearance in the 
canteen. The Eyptian labourers, who ruade the roads 
and laid the railway, were reat drinkers of water, and, 



83 

as a fact, could not, or would not, work unless they ot 
all the water they wanted. The writer was for a time in 
charge of many tanks, containing in ail several thousands 
of gallons of water, and I often experienced trouble with 
the natives, who always drank their supply and wanted 
more. The engineer said to me--" If you don't give 
these men ail the water they want they won't work in 
this heat. So long as they bave water they will work 
hard all day." One black man, I remember, came to 
the tanks for water from a point six mlles of[ twice every 
day to get the supply for himself and several of his com- 
panions. Two huge biscuit tins for holding the water, 
one at each end, were tied with cord to a stout pole, 
which lay across his shoulders. And every day he walked 
twenty-four miles--making two of the journeys of six 
mlles each with several gallons of water! I used to feel 
sorry for that poor soul, as it must have been a big task 
to carry that burden with the temperature at over 100 
degrees in the shade. One day one of the tins was leak- 
ing, and after he had filled both tins and set out on his 
return journey, I saw the water running out of one of 
them. He had not noticed this, but a soldier stopped 
him, ruade the tin water-tight, and he continued on his 
way. Needless to say, there was always a sentry guardin 
the water tanks and carts both night and day, and he 
certainly required to be very vigilant. 
On May 18th the Battalion went down to Kantara 
again to rest and re-equip. A little training was carried 
on, but the chier item in the day's proceedings, apart 
from the somewhat heavy station fatigues, was a bathe 
in the canal. Here let it be clearly stated that the bathin 
which the Battalion enjoyed was not merely a matter 
of pleasure, but, owing to the reat scarcity of water, 
frequently an urgent necessity. After a few days' stay 
at Kantara we moved again--this rime to pastures new 
(there are few pastures despite the fact that the Israelites 
called the desert their pasture land)--and went up to 
Romani, 25 mlles east, which was at that time Railhead. 
A fine new camp was pitched, and here we experienced 
our first serious visit of enemy aircraft since landing in 



84 

Egypt. On Sunday, June llth, a taube came over, but 
the airman reserved his bombs till he was flying over 
Kantara. Little damage was done, but the incident was 
in itself important, as marking the commencement of a 
continual, though irregular, series of visits. Reference 
has been ruade to the fact that our position was 25 mlles 
advanced east of Kantara, and having regard to the 
strategical situation and what had happened at Dueidar, 
the various units of the 155th Brigade " stood to " in 
turns, one battalion usually at a time. 
On Thursday, June 1Sth, the Brigade ruade a start 
on what were in future known as '" mobile column 
stunts." Early on the morning of that day the Brigade 
marched out for a three days' " show," but for reasons 
which can be better imagined than explained, the column 
arrived back the saine night very tired and very hungry. 
An interesting sight to ail of us was that of twelve of our 
own aeroplanes which passed over our camp on 18th 
June, and, if reports speak correctly, they did very 
material damage at EI Arish on that day. 
The evening of Tuesday, 20th June, will long be 
remembered as the night of "' Nimmo's Storm." The 
said officer was acting Adjutant at the rime, and in 
view of information which had corne in, he caused 
a message to be sent round to the effect that a 
terrible storm was approaching, personally telling the 
officers, with the result that a few moments later 
the noise of hammers reminded one forcibly of the 
work in a shipyard. But ail the hammering and 
securing of tents went for nothing, as the storm did 
not touch our area at ail. Wednesday, June 28th, 
witnessed an exciting air fight right over our camp, the 
British airman chasing Fritz away with machine gun tire, 
but, unfortunately to the great chagrin of the onlookers, 
the strong sun interfered, and both planes were soon 
lost to view. 
The tenth of July, by which rime the strength of the 
Battalion was 25 officers and 459 other ranks, saw the 
start of a course of musketry ata specially constructed 
30 yards range. The course consisted of seven practices, 



85 

and as prizes were tobe awarded for the best scores, 
there was a good deai of enthusiasm displayed. In a 
way, too, the idea was novel, as this was the first occasion 
on which the men had had any practice since leaving 
Gailipoli. The heat at this period was very great, and 
while not so great as was experienced in the last days 
of May, the thermometer registered 109 degrees to 112 
degrees in the shade. 
July 20th was an outstanding day, and provided a 
weicome break in what some termed a dry and dreary 
monotony, as orders were received for the Battalion to 
be ready to move out on 15 minutes' notice. On the 
previous day a report had been received that the Turks 
were concentrating at Bir-el-Abd, 25 toiles east of 
Romani, and on this day (20th), after waiting on all day 
for something to happen, " A " Company under Captain 
Forrest was sent out to a new post to dig themselves in. 
There they passed a hard but uneventful night, but down 
at Battalion Headquarters matters were lively. The 
reason for this was that a sensational message had been 
received to the effect that an attack was imminent, and in 
consequence " B," " C," and " D " Companies moved 
out and took up a defensive position. If ail stories are 
true, there was a fait spark of comedy despite the 
apparent seriousness of the situation, but that side of the 
matter, though probably the more interesting to some 
who took part, had perhaps better be omitted from this 
review. The Turks, however, were still 25 mlles off, so 
all the commotion was for nothing. Four days iater 
"'A " Company, having done a good deal of work at 
Itmaler (afterwards known as Redoubt No. 23), changed 
over to a nexv part of the redoubt line and started on 
a new work, but owing to the strain of the past few days, 
digging and wiring by day, watching and patrolling by 
night, the men were well nigh exhausted, and the 
Egyptian Labour Corps was sent up to do the sandbag- 
ging. By this time the Australians on their horses were 
practically in touch with the Turkish patrols, and this 
provided ample scope for the prophets, particularly as 
to how " the zlth " would be affecte& 



86 

The Battalion now moved forward and created a new 
camp just beside Katib Gannet, a prominent sand hill 
on the outpost line, and while only one company was 
actually holding a redoubt, by this time known as 22A, 
practically the whole Battalion was engaged holding 
various other posts. As an indication of what was likely 
to happen, it may be mentioned here that on July 25th 
four enemy aeroplanes came over, one of which dropped 
a message asking us to fly larger red cross flags over our 
hospitals, and in the early morning of the saine day the 
Australians had a scrap with the enemy. This was the 
start of the fighting. Three days later, the 28th, the 
Turks pushed back our patrols and came forward to 
within a toile of Katia, a large oasis between 7 and 8 
mlles east of Gannet. "" A " Company was now relieved 
in 22A Redoubt by " C " Company, and the change over 
was weleomed by both, although it did seem hard lines 
that "'A " should require to vacate the post just when 
there seemed a likely chance of having a brush with the 
enemy. Colonel Wilson, however, was of the opinion 
that the ofiïcers and men must have a rest after their 
eleven days' arduous labours. Immediately on reaching 
camp two taubes appeared and started to bomb the camp, 
and in consequence excitement was rampant. For- 
tunately our good luck continued and there were no 
casualties to record in our own unit. By August 1st the 
Battalion's strength had been increased to 33 oflïcers and 
540 other ranks. 
On August 3rd heavy firing could be heard in the 
distance, and this we were later informed was our 
monitors bombarding EI Arish. There were now many 
aeroplane conflicts, and it was evident that the Turks 
were coming nearer. At 8.30 p.m. on August 3rd the 
Battalion, or rather the reserve of it ("A '" Coy. and 
details), the remainder being at various posts, was 
hurriedly ordered to move out, and in the early hours 
of the next day, August 4th, the firing started ail along 
the redoubt line. Two platoons were ordered to line a 
ridge in front of our rear position previously prepared. 
Immediately at dawn heavy shelling and rifle tire became 



87 

the order of the day, and the dropping of bombs by 
enemy aircraft did hot make the situation less lively. 
Matters quietened down a little about 8.30 a.m., and 
several of out platoons were sent forward on to ridges 
to give support to Nos. 4 and 5 redoubts, the holders 
of which were having a bad time. So also was 22A 
redoubt under Capt P. L. P. Laing ("C "' Coy.), but 
this redoubt, almost on the bend of the line, received 
comparatively few shells although receiving a fait share 
of rifle tire from the enemy on Wellington Ridge. With 
the approach of night the firing died down very consider- 
ably, and, but for an occasional shot, one would bave 
been inclined to believe that the events of the previous 
24 hours had been a dream. Subsequent events recalled 
Napoleon's famous dictum--" order, counter-order, dis- 
order." On the same night word was brought by a very 
excited and agitated messenger that the Turks had got 
through the wire between Nos. 6 and 7 redoubts, and 
immediately the reserve of the Battalion under Colonel 
Wilson rushed forward, fixing bayonets on the run, and 
occupied a line of rifle pits pre-arran8ed for any such 
contingency. At this point mention must be ruade of the 
reconnaissance performed by Captain Forrest, which, 
together with his good work on Gallipoli, resulted in 
his being awarded the Military Cross at a later date. 
Special note also falls to be made of the excellent defence 
put up by " C " Company at 22A redoubt under Captain 
Laing, who, in consideration of his fine work in this 
engagement, was subsequently awarded the Order of the 
Nile. 
The stillness which prevailed subsequently indicated 
an alteration of tactics on the part of the enemy, and 
when morning came (August 5th) the enemy was retir- 
ing. Next day the whole of the 155th Brigade marched 
to Rabah (an oasis near Katia), and those who took part 
in that match are agreed that it was easily the hardest trek 
they had experienced in the desert so far. "'A " Com- 
pany escorted the Brigade Machine Gun Company, and 
marched one hour and 40 minutes without a halt, while 
the remainder of the Battalion had to contend with as 



88 

great a hardship in lying for three hours beneath a broil- 
ing sun owing to the artillery which they had to escort 
being late in starting out. Few were the officers and men 
who were hOt apparently " done to the world " when 
Rabah was reached, but a cup of tea, the safety-valve of 
the British Army in Egypt, worked wonders, and though 
leg-weary and sore, everyone was soon cheerful again. 
Then the sentries having been posted, officers and men, 
except " those who work while others sleep," forgetting 
the responsibilites of the day and regardless of the proba- 
bilities of the morrow, lay down to snatch a few well- 
earned hours of rest. 
The Battalion remained at Rabah until August 14th, 
when it left for Romani, and on the following day the 
whole Battalion was inoculated against choiera. On 
August 26th the Battalion returned to Rabah and 
took over outpost duties. However, on September 11th 
the 52nd Division was relieved by the 42nd Division, and 
the Battalion marched from Rabah to Mohamidiya and 
encamped there. On September 12th Colonel Wilson 
relinquished the command of the Battalion, and as Major 
Jobson left two days later to take over the command of 
the 52nd Division Rest Camp at Port Said, Captain 
Forrest took over temporary command. To the end of 
September a progressive training programme was in 
operation. 



Lieut.-Colonel Wilson calling for three cheers for the King after reading out His 
Majesty's congratulatory inesmge on the Battle of Romani. 

Capt. J. Dickson, the late Capt. W. F. Cochrane, the late Lieut. R. B. Anderson, 
and the late Lieut. A. Ainslie. 



LT.-COlo J, ]kt. Il, SA,x'rES, M.C. 

LT.-CoL. R. DASHWOOD-TA.XDY. 

The Latc MAIOR \. T. I"ORRESr, M.C. 

...... r r r 1 .... ,. LT.-('OL. G. T. B. VIL3ON, 



89 

CHAPTER X. 

THE ATTACK ON OUTPOST HILL. 

Early in October, 1916, the Battalion was placed on 
a mobile column footing, and all stores which could hOt 
be carried were returned to Romani, which, in view of 
the approaching move eastwards, became the dump of 
the 1,5,Sth Brigade. On October 12th the Battalion 
moved to El Afein. This proved a very trying match, 
especially as the absence of any breeze during the first 
three hours ruade the journey very exhausting, but only 
one man fell out. Next day the Battalion moved out 
for Bir-el-Abd, and on the day following "B " and 
"C " Companies took over the outpost line there. 
During the next few days the Battalion was engaged 
mainly on strengthening defences and finding observation 
posts. A number of enemy taubes came over out lines, 
but the bombs which were dropped caused no casualties. 
On October 21st Lieut.-Colonel J. M. B. Sanders, 
M.C., Leinster Regiment, vas appointed to the command 
• of the Battalion. On October 27th the Battalion 
marched to Salmana, and on November 7th a draft of 
155 N.C.O.'s and men arrived, the mobile column 
trength now totalling 750 ail ranks. During November 
nothing of importance occurred, the Battalion being 
mainly engaged on outpost duties. The weather at this 
time was very changeable--sometimes very cold and 
:sometimes very warm. On December 1st the Battalion 
ruade a more further east, and on the following day 
arrived at EI Mazar. On December 22nd the Battalion, 
having rested the previous day at EI Madaan, moved to 
EI Brittia, acting as rearguard to the 52nd Division. It 
may be mentioned that it was from EI Madaan that we 
caught our first glimpse of the sea since leaving 
Mohamidiya, and in the distance, about 20 toiles away, 
could be seen the spire of the Mosc/ue in EI Arish and 
Nebi Yesir's Tomb, on a knoll by the sea coast. On the 



9O 
following day the Battalion arrived on the outskirts of 
EI Arish, and a day later marched through the village, 
the defences of which had just been evacuated by the 
Turks, who were being pursued by our mounted troops. 
Christmas Day round the Battalion resting and digging 
new trenches. EI Arish was the first town encountered 
by the Battalion in a journey of over a hundred toiles 
since leaving Port Said in February. The Battalion's 
stay at and around EI Arish was ruade as pleasant as 
possible. Here boxing contests took place, and unique 
Soccer and Rugby gaines were played, with the players 
floundering up to the knees in sand! On several occa- 
sions the Australians provided the opposition to out 
Rugby fifteen. 
The month of January, 1917, saw the Battalion 
engaged chiefly on beach fatigues and route marches. 
At the beginnin of the month very bad weather pre- 
vailed, rain and sand storms causing considerable dis- 
comfort. As an example of the strange climatic condi- 
tions which prevailed, it may be mentioned that in places 
the hurricane would form hills of sand one day, and 
when we awoke next morning we would discover that 
during the niht the hills had mysteriously disappeared. 
Platoon training and night operations occupied the- 
month of February, the strength of the Battalion having 
now been ruade up by several drafts to over 800 ail 
ranks. On February 27th the Battalion moved from 
EI Arish to El Burj, and arrived there without suffering 
casualties. On March 7th the Battalion moved to Sheik 
Zowaiid and took up its position on the outpost line, 
and from the 20th to the 24th the Battalion was hard 
at work on the trenches. It may be added that during 
this period a day's respire was enjoyed by a percentage 
of our troops, who attended a big race meeting at Rafa, 
known as " the Desert Column Spring Meeting," in 
connection with xhich no fewer than twenty silver cups 
were awarded as prizes, o Our Battalion was represented 
in the races by Lieut. C. Fair, who rode the transport 
officer's horse, and came in fifth in a field of twenty. 
There were in ail ten events, concluding with a highly 



91 

amusin mule race, known as the " Jerusalem Scurry.'" 
On March 25th the Battalion moved with the rest of the 
155th Briade to Khan Yunus, and on the followin day 
continued its march to In Seirat. As the battle for Gaza 
was in proress, thins became much more lively. On 
March 28th the divisions in front of us were withdrawn 
at dawn, and passed throuh our lines, and we were 
ordered to di-in on the ridée in front of Dir el Biela, 
our outpost line bein about hall a mi!e distant from the 
Wadi Ghuzee and about four mlles from Gaza. That 
day "A " Coy. was sent out to save what abandoned 
stores were still lyin out in front, and the company ot 
about 500 camel loads of all sorts of materials, and, 
needless to say, the men had a complete refit of blankets, 
etc., out of the spoil. The last day of the month saw the 
Battalion in reserve, the 155th Briade havin moved to 
the outpost line coverin6, EI Breij. On the first of April 
the Briade made a reconnaissance in force and ot close 
to Gaza, and parties were in the Wadi Ghuzee, diing 
wells and makin roads. Next day the Turks tried to 
et into the Wadi, but were driven back by our artillery 
tire. 
On April 4th the outpost line was taken over by 
the Battalion from the 1/Sth K.O.S.B., one company 
bein stationed at Red House. Recollection of this 
ruined red-tiled bouse will doubtless be brouht home 
to many readers by the followin very fine poem which 
has appeared over the si6nature of Robert R. Thomson 
in " Chambers's Journal "'-- 

THE RED-HousE GARDEN. 

O'er ridge and plain calm hung the mist of dust, 
Save where it soared anaidst the whirlwind gust. 
The distance trembled 'neath the noonday glare ; 
Hot airs hung stagnant in the wadi, where 
The transport toiled along. 
Above, along the banks, tho, garden slept, 
With yellow-flowering cactus hedge, where crept 
Grey lizards, rattling through the fleshy leaves 
And bushes, ail entangled with the reeves 
Of blue convolvulvus. 



92 

Aweary of the constant, thundering guns, 
I turned old Sandy up the path that runs 
Toward the red-tiled house, which ruined lies, 
Verandah wrecked, roof gaping to the skies, 
A heap of masonry. 
I led him through a gap, and carefully 
We picked out way between an almond-tree 
And snipers' post by sandbagged, loopholed hedge, 
With cartridges still littered on its ledge, 
Where nigh there lay some graves. 
I saw the broken water-wheels, the wells, 
The fruit-trees green, though riven by the shells, 
Citrons and oranges with whitest flowers, 
Vines, olives, fig-trees, with their richest dowers, 
And limes and towering palms. 
The tamarisk and cedar gave their shade, 
Whilst in the open places melons strayed. 
And yet the garden in its beauty lay 
A waste o'ergrown with weeds--I turned away: 
Despair was even here. 
I wondered why should ail this slaughter be ; 
And then I saw a dark pomegranate-tree, 
Aglow witb crimson blooms. Some petals fell 
Like showers of drops of blood that seemed to tell 
Of wounds, mad pain, and death. 
It seemed as if the very trees did bleed ; 
But when I closer looked, then I took heed 
That whence the flowers had fallen always hung, 
Unripe and small because they were so young, 
The round pomegranate fruit. 
E'en then the fruit swelled with the luscious seeds 
That satisfy the thirsty traveller's needs-- 
I saw the promise, when this war should cease, 
Of ail this weary land refreshed by peace, 
And rich with seeds of life. 
This land from tyrmmy we yet should free ; 
Not useless then would ail this slaughter be. 
A random shrapnel's smoke came drifting by ; 
But hopefully I turned, and horse and I 
Walked on toward the sea. 
By April 15th all preparations had been ruade for 
the advance to Kurd Hill, and on the following day the 
Battalion crossed the Wadi Ghuzee and entrenched in 
two lines facing nerth-east. Durin/ the mornin6 of the 



93 

16th the Battalion was heavily shelled, and, on the 18th, 
enemy howitzers kept up a heavy bombardment ail day. 
Thirteen of our men were buried by one explosion, but 
ail were safely excavated. On the 19th, at 3 a.m., orders 
for the atmck were received. The preliminary bombard- 
ment, with help from the Navy, was timed to start at 
5.30 a.m., and the infantry were to advance at 7.30 a.m. 
The l!4th K.O.S. Borderers were ordered to follow the 
1/5th K.O.S.B. along the eastern slopes of Kurd Hill-- 
Lees Hill ridge at 800 yards distance. At 7.15 the Bat- 
talion was in position in lines of hall companies at four 
paces extension and 250 yards distance. The order of 
battle was " A,'" " B,'" "' D," and "' C " Companies 
(less two pltoons), the latter being cscort to the artil- 
lery, and the Battalion strength was 25 officers and 572 
other ranks, ailocated as follows:--Battalion Head- 
quarters--I,ieut.-Colonel J. M. B. Sanders, M.C., Com- 
manding Otficer: Major W. T. Forrest, M.C., Second 
in Command; Captain J. M. Watson, Adjutant; Lieut. 
W. N. Alston, Signalling Officer; Lieut. G. J. Brown, 
Acting Quartermaster; Lieut. J. S. Allan, Intelligence 
Officer; and Captain J. Howitt, Medical Officer. Other 
ranks--49. 
"" A " Coy.--Captain R. R. M. Lumgair, O.C. Com- 
pany; Lieut. J. Elder; Second Lieuts. J. M. Pollok, T. 
Broomfield, and J. M. Macpherson. Other ranks--158. 
"" B " Coy.--Captain T. T. Muir, O.C. Coy. ; Second 
Lieuts. R. S. Alexander, W. R. Ovens, J. C. Moore, and 
J. J. S. Thomson. C)ther ranks--131. 
"'D " Coy.--Ce.ptain W. F. Cochrane, O.C. Coy. ; 
Lieut. R. B. Andcrson; Second I,ieuts. A. Ainslie, J. 
Dickson, and D. Burns. Other ranks--151. 
"C " Coy. (less two platoons)--Captain D. Craig, 
O.C. Coy.; Second Lieuts. G. D. Sempill, L. D. 
Robertson, and W. Robertson. Other ranks--83. 
At 9.30 a.m. the Battalion advanced to Queen's Hill, 
and at 11 a.m. "'A" and "B" Coys., under Major 
Forrest, were ordered to proceed to and attack Outpost 
Hill, vhich the Turks had retaken, and "D " Coy. was 
subsequently sent forward to support "A " and "B " 



94 

H IL L 

Plan showlng advance of 16/4/17 and 19/4/17 



95 

Companies in this attack. By half-pst twelve ail three 
Companies were involved in the attack, which had been 
partially stccessfll. By 12.50 p.m. our men had taken 
the east half of the Outpost Hill redotbt and trenches 
to the north-east and south-west. The redoubt and 
trenches were full, and many men of our Battalion were 
lying in the open unable to get into them. One runner 
out of a dozcn nanged to get through with a message 
to Battalion Headctarters from Lieut. Anderson stating 
that our men were holding the redoubt, but were surfer- 
ïng muïh from maïhine-gun tire, and as a result of this 
message artillery support was asked for. Later in the 
afternoon the remainder of "C " Company managed to 
get to ti:e redoubt with several thousands of rounds of 
ammunition. The redoubt, however, had to be evacu- 
ated at dusk owing to a Turkish enveloping movement; 
and of the original garrison in the redoubt, numbering 
100 ail ranks, only three oftîcers (two of whom were 
suffering from shell-shock) and 30 N.C.O.'s and men, 
came oat. At 6.30 p.m. the 155th Brigade was relieved 
by the 157th Brigade, and the surviving garrison of the 
redoubt, along with "' C " (reserve) Company, proceeded 
to bivouacs on Kurd Hill after ail possible wounded had 
been brought in. How terribly the Battalion had 
suffered in the assault on the redoubt may be judged 
from the casualties, which amounted to 15 oflïcers and 
310 other ranks killed, wounded, and missing. The 
oflïcers killed were:--Major W. T. Forrest, Captain 
W. F. Cochrane, Captain R. R. M. Lumgair, Lieut. 
R. B. Anderson, and Second Lieuts. A. Ainslie and 
J. C. Moore. The oflïcers wounded were:--Captain 
T. T. Muir, Lieut. J. Elder, and Second Lieuts. J. M. 
Macpherson, W. R. Ovens, R. S. Alexander, D. Burns, 
J. M. Pollok, T. Broomfield, and J. Dickson--the last 
rive mentioned ail suffering from shell-shock. Out of 16 
oflïcers who took part in the fighting in and around the 
redoubt, only one came through unscathed, namely, 
Second Lieut. J. J. S. Thomson of '" B " Company. Of 
the casualties in other ranks, between g0 and 50 were 
reported killed and missing. 



I give herewith an account of the attack written by" 
Second Lieut. (now Captain) T. Broomfield. He 
writes :-- 
"" The Battalion, together with the remainder of the 
Lowland Division, had been lying in the vicinity of Sheik 
Zowaiid, a few hours' march south of Rafa and the 
frontier line of Palestine, when orders were received to 
move forward. The mounted troops and 53rd (Welsh) 
Division, together with the 54th Division, were believed 
to be moving north of Rafa, and the 52nd Division 
advanced on March 25th to support them. Few of the 
men will forget the crossing of the frontier. The 
Divisional Pipe Band played 'Blue Bonnets Over the 
Border' as we passed. After marching ail forenoon on 
the 25th, we had a rest beyond Rafa for a few hours, 
another in the early hours of the morning of the 26th, 
and then we were on the road again before dawn. When 
daylight came the Battalion round itself amongst cactus 
hedges and orange groves in the village of Khan Yunus, 
near Beila, in a thick mist. Everywhere there were 
signs of activity, and huge dumps of shells and rations 
abounded. By this time we all knew (from rumour) 
that the attack in front was held up owing to fog. How- 
ever, the guns soon started well in front. Just before 
mid-day we halted about three mlles south of the Wadi 
Ghuzee, and, crawling to the ridge, we saw practically 
the whole battle area. Things seemed to be going 
very well for a while, and rumour had it that the mounted 
troops were round Gaza; then we could see our mer 
retiring and shells bursting amongst the stretcher-bearers 
of the 53rd Division and the retiring troops. Shortly 
after this we hcard our attack had failed. On this occa- 
sion our Division was not called upon except to cover 
the retreat and help to bring in stores, etc., left by the 
retiring Divisions. During the next few days we dug-in 
about hall-a-toile south of the Wadi Ghuzee, from which 
place we could see the Turks doing likewise on Ali 
Muntar and other parts of the line. With the exception 
of a reconnaissance in force, nothing important took place 
for a fortnight or so; then we could see that another 



97 

attack was coming off. Every night the Battalion scouts 
patrolled the E1 Sire ridge for about four mlles in order 
to select suitable ground to advance over, and on these 
occasions used to go over the ground held by the Kurdish 
lancers in the day-time. These lancers used to shake 
their lances and snipe at us at hopeless ranges by day, 
but at night they withdrew behind the Turkish trenches. 
On the night of April 16th-17th the advance started, and 
at dawn the Turk found us looking at his positions on 
Outpost Hill and Mansura Ridge from Kurd Hill. As 
soon as we were seen at dawn we were heavily shelled. 
This continued for a day or two, and then on the morning 
of April 19th the Brigade moved out to the attack, the 
line of advance being the line of the EI Sire ridge, with 
Ali Muntar standing out distinctly in the north, and 
evidently strongly held. The 5th R.S.F. were respon- 
sible for the left flank, which was open, and our Battalion 
moved out to support the 5th K.O.S.B., who, to judge 
from the noise, were meeting with considerable opposi- 
tion beyond Queen's Hill, between Kurd Hill and Out- 
post Hill. In a short rime we got the order to reinforce, 
and after doubling about 1500 yards or so we met scat- 
tered parties of the other battalions of our Brigade and 
passed many wounded. In a wadi about 400 yards or 
so from Outpost Hill the remainder of the Brigade 
seemed to be held up. It was here, under heavy artillery 
and rifle tire, that Major Forrest got on the top of the 
"wadi and coolly walked about preparing the men for an 
assault on the redoubt. When ail was ready he valiantly 
led the charge, and a body of about fifty Turks leaped 
from a ravine and bolted away in a half-left direction, 
and these we drove into the hedges on the left slopes of 
Outpost Hill. 
"" From that rime I was separated from the other 
officers of our Battalion, and had only about ten men 
of various units with whom to look after the left flank. 
-On several occasions bodies of Turks were seen massing 
in the woods, but these we managed to disperse with the 
help of a very plucky gunner and the coolness of one of 
rny sergeants--Sergeant A. Murray--who continued to 



98 

carry arnrnunition to the Lewis gun after ail the others 
had been killed or wounded. Just before nightfall a 
staff officer frorn our Division crawled out to our position 
with an orderly frorn our Battalion who was killed shortly 
afterwards. The orderly told me that Captain Lurngair, 
Captain Cochrane, and Lieutenants Anderson, Ainslie, 
and other officers were killed, and that rnany had been 
wounded. We were now under direct tire frorn a nurnber 
of machine guns, rifles, minenwerfers, and a battery of 
artillery. Nearly every man had been killed or wounded, 
and, in spite of the additional danger of being rushed 
by the Turks, we were thankful as darkness fell when a 
few men crawled down a ditch to us and helped to hold 
the left of the hillside. Lieut. Foote of the R.S.F. arrived 
in our ditch with Lewis guns, and also Maior Crornbie 
of the 5th K.O.S.B., who took over cornrnand until we 
were relieved b) • the A. & S. Highlanders about mid- 
night. 
"" After a difficult march over open ground our rnixed 
party (about 15 rnen of diferent battalions), with the 
two officers aforernentioned, reached our Battalion Head- 
quarters on Kurd Hill. Here I round no other ocers 
back except those attached to Battalion H.Q., so I was 
ordered out to hold an outpost line till rnorning, and 
was joined b kieutenant Mercer when he arrived. Next 
morning, as I was suffering from contusion, a wound on 
one of rn) • heels, and shock, I was sent to hospital, where 
I got a good rest until reioining the Battalion in June. 
It was onl) • after getting to hospital that I reall) • knew 
how heav) • our casualties had been. In rn) • opinion the 
heavy percentage of casualties arnong officers of our Bat- 
talion was due to the prolonged fighting at close quarters, 
where an) • officer who seerned to be directing things at 
ail could easily be seen and shot at close range. The 
rnost outstanding case of gallantr) • in the action--and there 
were rnany such cases--was that of Major Forrest, who 
undoubtedly rallied the larger part of the Brigade and 
led the assault, when, through disorganisation caused b.v 
heav casualties, the troops were held up." 



99 

Further accounts by other officers and men who took 
part in this bloody battle confirm the view that it was 
every whit as tierce and terrible as the engagement on 
the 12th of July, 1915, at Gallipoli. The redoubt was 
a network of trenches, and the Turks had their machine 
guns in and around the redoubt in such positions that 
every movement on the part of our men was met with 
murderous tire. An interesting account o[ the attack on 
the redoubt is herewit-h given by Lieutenant J. M. Pollok, 
who writes :-- 
"I shall never forget the scene around me durin 
the attack on the redoubt, so gallantly led by Major 
Forrest. The tire from the enemy's machine guns was 
terrific, spelling certain death to nearly ail who were in 
the open. About 20 yards from the redoubt I obtained 
shelter in a shell-hole for a few minutes, and while lyin 
there I saw Captain Cochrane rush forward and bend 
over the body of Captain I.umgair, who was lyin 
wounded between the barbed wire and the redoubt 
trench. He appeared to be just on the point of liftin 
Captain Lumgair up, when a man near me said--' Look 
at Captain Cochrane; he'll be killed as sure as rate,' and 
these words had scarcely been spoken before I saw Captain 
Cochrane stager and rail to the round. I eventually 
rushed forward with the Lewis gun team and ot into 
the redoubt. The Turks were holdin one hall of the 
circle of the redoubt. Some were within bombin dis- 
tance, while others were not a hundred yards away, and 
they were causin reat havoc with machine gun and 
rifle tire, especially from the slope of the hill overlookin 
the redoubt. Our losses were very heavy, and, as we 
were badly in need of rein[orcements, urgent messages 
asking for same were repeatedly sent back by runners 
and by slightly-wounded men. Shortly afterwards 
Captain Muir sent me a written message statin that he 
had been badly wounded, and asking for the assistance 
of an officer at his part of the line. I was on the point 
of seeing what I could do to render assistance to Captain 
Muir, when a body of Turks made a determined rush 
on our part of the redoubt. We repulsed this attack and 



100 
chased thc Turks back into their part of the line, which 
we held for ,q.bout seven hours by means of hand grenades 
and Lewis guns. We also captured a few prisoners, but 
eventually the Turk, who greatly outnumbered us, forced 
Lieutenant Dickson and myself and the iew men who 
remained to retire up the trench which encircled the 
redoubt, and where out men were holding out under 
Lieut. Anderson. This would be about 6.30 p.m. Lieut. 
Anderson had passed a verbal message to Lieut. Dickson 
ordering us to hold on until dark and then retire, and 
the latter officer was in the act of passing on the message 
to me when news came along that Lieut. Anderson had 
at that moment been killed instantaneously, having been 
shot through the heart. 
"" When darkness came we realised that it was im- 
possible to hold the redoubt in the absence of reinforce- 
ments, which were sorely needed, and we therefore 
decided to retire across the open. The trench we were 
in was very shallow, and only by lying down was it 
possible to obtain cover from the hail of bullets which 
passed over the trench. The men left the trench by ones 
and twos, and aiter Lieut. Dickson had gone I was just 
about to follow him when I heard a man shouting for 
help. Going along the trench to discover what was 
wrong, I round one of out men pinned under the dead 
body of a comrade who had allen on the top of him. I 
managed to extricate the man with the help of another 
soldier. These men left, and I was about to follow them 
when I recognised the voice of Major Forrest, who was 
calling for water. I crawled along the trench to where 
he was lying and gave him ail the water that remained 
in my bottle. Although I could hOt see him owing to 
the darkness, he had evidently been very badly wounded, 
and I propped him up on the side of the trench for the 
purpose of endeavouring to carry him back, but I realised 
that the task was hopeless, as his condition was such that 
he could hOt be moved. The Turks had evidently seen 
my movements, and they fired at me from a range of hot 
more than twenty yards. I was quite alone at that rime, 
and as it-was my duty to avoid being taken prisoner I felt 



101 
obliged to leave the trench, especially as the Turks were 
practically upon me. How I escaped being killed on 
getting out of the trench was a miracle, as I was fired 
upon repeatedly, but through shock and a slight wound 
I partially lost the power of my legs, and it was very 
late at night belote I was assisted back to the spot 
where the remainder of the Battalion were resting. I was 
utterly exhausted, and had tasted no food since 6 a.m. 
that day." 
Mention also falls to be rnade of the desperate efforts 
on the part of Lieut. Ovens and Sergeant Waugh to bring 
Captain Lumgair to safety. Sergeant Waugh had lifted 
the wounded officer up, when unfortunately the latter 
was wounded a second rime, on this occasion fatally. 
On April 24th the following special Order of the 
Day by Major-General W. E. B. Smith, C.B., C.A.G., 
S2nd Division, was issued:-- 

24th April, 1917. 
The G.O.C. desires to place on record his keen 
appreciation of the conduct of the entire Division 
during the recent operations. 
The steadiness, courage, and devotion to duty 
by ail ranks, under very trying conditions, afford 
proof of a very high standard of discipline and 
morale. The careful organisation and successful 
execution of the operation which resulted in the 
capture of the enemy's advanced position reflect the 
very greatest credit on ail concerned. The gallantry 
and doggcd determination of the 155th Brigade in 
its attack on Outpost Hill and the capture and re- 
capture of the Redoubt were worthy of the highest 
traditions of the British Army. The G.O.C. deeply 
deplores the loss of those gallant comrades and 
valuable soldiers, who, through devotion to duty, 
lost their lives during the operations. 

(Sgd.) C. A. H. MCLE,N, Lt.-Col., 
A.A. and Ç).M.G., 52nd Division. 



102 

Brigadier-General J. A. Pollok McCall, commanding 
the 155th Brigade, in the course of a letter to Lieut. 
Colonel Haddon, Hawik, wrote:--" The charge of a 
party composed of all units of the Brigade, so gallantly 
led by Major Forrest, M.C., was an inspiring sight. 
Under a terrible tire of artillery, machine-guns, and riflcs, 
they retook the redoubt from which we had been momen- 
tarily driven out by concentrated artillery tire." 



103 

CHAPTER XI. 

THE FALL OF GAZA AND THE BATTLE OF 
MUGHAR. 

The loss of so many officers in the engagement of 
19th April, 1917, was such that when the Battalion was 
re-organised two days later only two officers per company 
were available. During the next few nights the Battalion 
was kept busily employed digging the trenches which 
formed the new line of defence, including the Slag Heap 
Redoubt, on the completion of which the Battallon was 
warmly compllmented by the G.O.C. 15Sth Brigade. On 
the night of May 13th notice was received of an expected 
Turkish attack, and extra patrols and listening posts were 
put out, but the night passed quietly. On May 17th 
Major R. M. Paton, Sth R.S.F., arrived and took over 
the command of the Battalion, Lieut.-Colonel Sanders 
having been invalided to hospital. On May 20th the 
trenches were very much filled up with blown sand, due 
Io a strong windstorm of the previous 24 hours. On this 
day the Turks were much more exposed than usual, and 
considerable sniping and Lewis gun firing was engaged 
in by us. Every day, more or less, to the end of the 
month the Turks did a certain amount of shelling, but 
to little purpose. 
During the first few days of June lire in the trenches 
was very quiet, especially as at night, owing to the moon, 
successful patrolling of the enemy's lines could not be 
carried out. On June 8th Lieut.-Colonel Sanders arrived 
back from hospital and took over the command of the 
Battalion from Major Paton. From June 26th to the 
30th the Battalion did special training in the assault and 
consolidation of trenches, and the operations of a scheme 
carried out on the latter date were observed by the 
G.O.C. 52nd Division, who expressed himself as highly 



104 
pleased with the manner in which the operations were 
performed. The month of July was a quiet period for 
the Battalion. On July 23rd the Battalion took over the 
Goliath Ridge system of redoubts. This defence system 
consisted of rive redoubts, and as a result of a hard 
week's work by the Battalion the redoubts were greatly 
strenthened and improved. During Auust the strength 
of the Battalion was increased by the arrival of several 
fresh officers and men, and on September 15th the Bat- 
talion secured a new C.O. in Lieut.-Colonel R. 
Dashwood-Tandy, Lieut.-Colonel Sanders having again 
been taken to hospital. On September 22nd the Battalion 
moved up to the firin line and support line trenches. 
On the night of the 27th the enemy opened a lively 
bombardment of our front line trenches for about hall 
an-hour, but very little damage was done. Shortly after 
dark that night a thunderstorm broke over us, followed 
by a heavy downpour of rain--practically the first rain 
we had had since leaving El Arish in January. During 
the next few days our guns were very active, bombardîng 
the Turkish trenches, sometimes continuously for twenty- 
four hours, but very little enemy shelling was experienced 
in our sector. 
The morning of November 1st saw our artillery tire 
increase in intensity, and under cover of a terrific bomb- 
bardment the 156th Briade attacked and captured 
Umbrella Hill. The enemy's batteries replied along out 
whole line, the bombardments exceeding by far any that 
we had experienced on the Gallipoli Peninsula. Next 
day our batteries heavily bombarded the enemy's line 
from the El Arish redoubt to the sea, supported by 
machine 8un tire, and the attacking forces moved out 
from our line and took up attacking formation in the 
rear of the barrage. At 3.30 a.m. the attack was launched 
along the whole front. The enemy artillery continued 
to bombard our front and support trenches, but out 
casualties were only two men wounded, and by 10.30 p.m. 
the artillery had quietened down, and the situation 
became normal. On the following day (November 3) 
it was learned that the 54th Division had captured two 



105 

lines of enemy trenches on a front extending from 
Umbrella Hill to Sheikh Hasan, and that the line was 
fairly well consolidated. By November 5th the whole 
of the defensive system at Gaza was in British hands. 
Early on November 7th the enemy were reported tobe 
evacuating Gaza. On the morning of the 8th the Bat- 
talion moved of[ up the coast to a point due west of 
Burberah. The Battalion came under heavy artillery 
tire, and deployed and nloved up the hills to the east 
in support of the 1/Sth K.O.S.B. The Battalion con- 
tinued to advance slowly ail day as Brigade Reserve, the 
objective being north of the village of Herbieh. In the 
course of the afternoon the enemy delivered a determined 
counter-attack, but it was driven of[. " A," " B," and 
"D " Companies took up outpost positions with the 
1/Sth K.O.S.B. on our right, and the 1/Sth R.S.F. on 
our left, and " C " Company as Brigade Reserve. Out 
casualties on the 8th were one officer (Lieut. and Act.- 
Qr.-Mr. G. J. Brown) seriously wounded. 
Next day the Battalion moved to a position one toile 
north-east of Herbieh village, and on November llth, 
the Battalion, passing Burberah, arrived at EI Mejel with 
the rest of the Brigade, and took up its position on the 
outpost line. On the 12th, the Battalion did a march 
of 15 toiles to a position on the main road east of Khurbet 
Lezra, after a halt on the way at Esdud. On November 
13th, the Battalion left its outpost position, and marched 
1500 yards in artiIlery formation on a two company 
frontage with two companies in support, "A " and 
"D " Companies, commanded by Captains Fairgrieve 
and Allan respectively, being in front, and "B " and 
" C," commandcd by Major Locke and Captain Laing 
respectively, in support. On the high ground 2500 yards 
due south of Yebnah, the formation was changed to 
widely extended lines of platoons, and the Battalion 
rnoved forward in eight waves towards its objective--the 
village of Mughar. At 10.30 a.m. the enemy opened 
very heavy machine gun tire, and sent over much high 
explosive and shrapnel, but in spite of this the Battalion 
advanced to within 400 yards of the village, taking up, 



106 
positions in the Wadi Jamus, and Wadi Shellel el Ghor 
near an old well, and behind Khurbet Hebra. The 
Battalion was reinforced on the right by the 1/Sth 
K.O.S.B. Every possible man was required for the 
ttack, and by 2 p.m. the Headquartcrs' staffs of the 4th 
and 5th Battalions K.O.S.B. had moved up to the firing 
line. At 3.45 p.m. the attack was launched. The Bat- 
alion advanced by rushes, gallantly led by Colonel 
Tandy, while the 6th Mounted Brigade charged on our 
ieft fl.qnk through heavy machine gun tire, and reached 
-the high ground north of the village. The attack was 
entirely successful, thanks to the wonderful spirit and 
dash of our men. It was a case of " all in," Brigadier- 
'General Pollok-McCall being well to the fore with a 
rifle and bayonet, and by 4.zl5 p.m. the village was cap- 
tured and consolidated, and the cavalry continued to 
pursue the enemy, who were in full retreat. In the 
course of the advance a valuable piece of work was per- 
formed by L.-Cpl. A. Ramsay, who, with his Lewis gun, 
was successful in silencing a troublesome Turkish machine 
.gun which was causing many casualties amongst our men. 
After this gun was silenced, Captain Laing, R.-S.-M. 
Murray, L.-Cpl. Ramsay, and three privates went up the 
hill-side and captured about forty Turks, including one 
• officer. These Turks, who were hiding in a quarry, had 
thrown away their rifles and ammunition and surrendered 
in a body. 
Parties from our Battalion were thereafter detailed 
to hunt for snipers who were still hiding in the village. 
Our Battalion took altogether over 300 prisoners and 
handed them over to the cavalry. In the evening the 
Battalion was re-organised and took up its position on 
the outpost line for the night. 
While the 4th and 5th K.O.S. Borderers had been 
busy capturing the village of Mughar, the Royal Scots 
Fusiliers of our Brigade had worked their way into Katrah 
by a series of flank attacks, and as the captures at Katrah 
included a Turkish infantry battalion, two field guns, 
:and twenty-six machine guns, the 155th Brigade had good 
-reason to feel proud of its achievements. 



107 

The casualties of the 1/lth K.O.S.B. in this engage- 
ment were:--Officers killed, 3--Captain and Adit. J. M. 
Watson, Second kieut. L. D. Robertson and Second 
Lieut. J. Wood, while Captain A. P. Nimmo died of 
"ounds shortly afterwards at E1 Arish. 
Officers wounded, 9--Major R. W. Sharpe, Captain 
A. Fairgrieve, Captain J. S. Allan, Lieut. G. D. Sempill, 
and Second Lieuts. R. Bell, A. W. Harvie, B. D. Leslie, 
H. M. Ross, and R. Graham. 
Other ranks killed numbered 30; missing, 1; 
wounded, 138---giving total casualties in officers and men 
as 182. 
The following account of the battle of Mughar is 
given by Captain J. S. Allan, who was wounded in the 
engagement. He writes:-- 
" It was in the afternoon of November 12th that the 
Battalion, after a very heavy anc trying march, arrived 
zt the historie small town of Esdud, where we had some 
ood and ruade any necessary change of footgear. Colonel 
Tandy callcd the Offlcers together and explained that a 
night's march would be necessary, as it was desirable 
to get forward to the retiring enemy and try to eut them 
off. The N.C.O.'s and men were then informed of the 
schemc, after which the order was given to discard packs, 
and take nothing except 'battle order.' At this time-- 
away inland--another brigade could be seen in conflict 
with the Turks, and cavalry were pushing forward along 
the coastal sector. Darkness had set in before we com- 
menced our march. I shall never forget that march. 
The congestion of traffic in the narrow streets of the 
village--if one could call them streets--was very great, 
and it was a long time before we got clear of the town, 
but eventually we got into the open. It was a dreary 
march, no one being allowed to speak except in a whisper. 
At about midnight we arrived at our rendezvous, where 
the Battalion was formed into a semi-circle and the com- 
panies began to dig in with entrenching tools. There 
was no chance of any sleep, as we had no blankets and 
he cold was intense, while everyone had to 'stand to' 
'before daybreak. When dawn came (November 13th) 



108 

we round ourselves on the reverse side of a raduall}- 
slopin hill, with no enemy to be seen. A hurried rneal 
was prepared, after which the Battalion ot ready for 
another more, and I may add here that reat credit is 
due to the Battalion's transport, under Lieut. J. B. 
Stewart, for thc manner in which it kept the unit sup- 
plied while on the move from Gaza. The Battalion was 
formed into artillery formation and marched nearly to 
the top of the hill, where our objective--the village of 
E1 Muhar--was pointed out. The Cornpanies were then 
split up into smaller artillery formations, and the advance 
was made towards the village, which stood on a ridée of 
hills. 
" ' D ' Company was the extreme left Company, and 
had to advance till the left of the Company line came to 
a small clump of trees where there was a small buildin, 
and there await orders for the final attack. By this time 
the Battalion was in extended order. It was a beautiful, 
peaceful, sunny mornin. On the surroundin hillsides 
sheep and oats could be seen razin and birds were 
whistlin. Everythin appeared so calm, and it was diffi- 
cult to believe we were about tobe enaed in battle. 
Keepin the village as our objective, we drew nearer, 
when ]t was possible to discern the enemy feverishly  
• diin in' in front of the village and alon the top 
of the rides on either side. On approachin to between 
1200 and 1.500 yards' distance from the village, machine 
un, rifle, and artillery tire were opened upon us--a 
sudden and dramatic chane bein wrouht upon the 
perfect calm of the mornin. The enemy tire was fallin 
short, and ail alon the line in front dust was risin. 
On we went in short, successive dashes throuh the 
barrage to our allotted position. "B' Company had 
corne up this time and taken up its position alon with 
'D' Company. A ood many casualties had already 
occurred, Sereant Crai bein amon the first to be 
killed whilst allantly leadin his Lewis un section. We 
were subjected to enemy tire durin the whole of the 
day, and it was almost impossible to secure cover by 
• diin in' owin to the hard, rocky nature of the. 



109 

ground. During this period there was opportunity for 
reconnaissance, and Captain A. P. Nimmo went away to 
the left flank to reconnoitre, but could not get in touch 
with anyone. When coming back he was woundcd in 
one of his fingers, but nevertheless continued on duty. 
A message giving information regarding the enemy posi- 
tions was gallantly taken back across the open by Lieut. 
D. Burns, and splendid work was also done during the 
day by Lieuts. Ross, Wilson, and Wood. 
"" Between 3.30 and 4 p.m. our cavalry, consisting 
chiefly of Dorset and Somerset Yeomanry, appeared on 
our left flank, and were getting into position to charge 
and take the hill on the left of the village. It was an 
inspiring sight to see the lines of horsemen coming across 
the open at top speed. Meanwhile our Battalion kept 
up a heavy supporting tire. On the cavalry charged. 
They had to cross a deep gully at the foot of the hill, 
but this obstacle was overcome, and they were soon to 
be observed tearing up the hill, where they captured the 
position and took many prisoners. It was in this mag- 
nificent charge that Capain Neil Primrose lost his life. 
" At this point Lieut. Burns arrived with a message 
from Battalion Headquarters ordering us to continue the 
advance (along with the l/5th K.O.S.B.) and take the 
village, and accordingly word was passed along the line 
to that effect. The troops advanced steadily in lines 
across the deep gully already referred to, charged through 
the gardens on the slopes of the bill, and, in spite of 
stubborn resistance on the part of the enemy, captured 
the village, taking numerous prisoners in doing so. The 
cavalry gave us good supporting tire from the hill on 
the left flank, while our artillery also rendered us valu- 
able support. After crossing the gully a party of us 
doubled forward to a cactus hedge at the foot of one of 
the village gardens, and opened tire on the Turks, who 
were ensconced at the top of the garden, and it was at 
this time that Lieut. Wood was killed. Captain Nimmo 
was again wounded, this rime very badly. Lieut. 
Graham was wounded in the leg, and while lying on the 
ground was again wounded in the shoulder. Lieut. Ross 



110 

was also wounded in the lea, and I was wounded in the 
arm--all these casualties occurring in quick succession 
as the result of rifle or machine gun tire. At this rime 
Private Fox of 'D' Company fell mortally wounded, 
and whilst endeavouring to bandage his wound he spoke 
to me with his last breath--one of the many touchin 
incidents that occurred amidst the roar of battle, and 
one that I shall never forget. It was indeed a memorable 
charge. Our men without exception were splendid. 
The enemy did not yield the village without puttin up 
a stiff fight, but by 5 p.m. the victory was complete. 
Very soon the sun sank behind the hills and the dark 
mantle of night crept down upon the battlefield, shroud- 
in the aony and the misery." 



111 

CHAPTER XII. 

THE CROSSING OF THE RIVER AUJA. 

On November 18th the Battalion moved with the 
Brigade to EI Ramleh and next day occupied Annabeh 
without opposition. On the 20th the Battalion arrived 
at Berfilya. The surrounding country was very hilly and 
rocky, and parties from our Battalion were employed on 
repairing the roads, which were in a very bad state owing 
to a very heavy downpour of rain which lasted four 
hours. As the downpour was accompanied by a con- 
siderable drop in the temperature, our men, who had 
neither overcoats nor blankets, suffered considerably, 
especially as but a few hours previous to the rainfall they 
had been sweltering in intense heat. On the 22nd the 
Battalion joined the rest of the Brigade at Beit Likia and 
encamped for the night. On the 23rd, while moving into 
the Wadi Amir, north-east of Biddu, the Battalion came 
under heavy shell tire, two other ranks being killed and 
eighteen wounded. On the 24th the 5th K.O.S.B. and 
5th R.S.F., with our Battalion in support, were ordered 
to attack and capture EI Jib, the old Gibeon of Biblical 
faine, which was strongly held by the enemy, this action 
taking place over the saine ground on which the rive 
kings were defeated. We were very heavily shelled and 
there was also very heavy machine gun tire from the 
front and left flank, and little headway could be ruade. 
Our troops reached an orchard about 400 yards from the 
village when orders to retire were received and the action 
was accordingly broken off, the Battalion returning to the 
camping area about one and a half mlles south-west of 
EI Kubeibeh. In this abortive attack on EI Jib Second- 
Lieut. A. N. Wilson and two other ranks were killed and 
twenty other ranks wounded. 
On November 28th the Battalion moved through 
Beit Sira and came under very heavy machine gun tire 
from the ridges in front of Suffa. The Battalion conse- 



quently deployed for action, taking up its position arnong 
the rocks and ridges. The Turks held a cornrnanding 
position, and before our rnen could deploy a nurnber of 
casualties occurred. Ail day we fought with the Turks, 
who were evidently trying to get astride the Rarnleh- 
Kubeibeh track, which, had they succeeded, would bave 
been a trernendous handicap to our forces in the hills. 
However, thanks rnainly to the good work of our artillery, 
the Turks rnust have lost very heavily. In fact, a later 
report given by a captured Turkish officer stated that the 
Turkish forces were very seriously depleted by this fight. 
"'C '" Cornpany at the beginning of the attack held a 
cornrnanding ridge frorn which position the Lewis gunners 
put several enerny machine guns out of action ata range 
of frorn 500 to 700 yards, Pte. (afterwards Corpl.) Angus 
doing great work in this connection. This ridge was 
ultirnately vacated, when "C " Company was ordered 
back to lie in support to the Battalion. It was about this 
lime that Maior Locke was badly wounded in the hip, 
and Captain (now Maior) P. L. P. Laing took his place 
as second in cornrnand of the Battalion. Orders were 
received to prolong the line on the left of the 1/7th Royal 
Scots, and by 8 p.rn. the Battalion was reported in position 
for the night. 
This surprise attack by the Turks was of a very deter- 
rnined character, and in repulsing the enerny we had one 
officer (Lieut. W. M. Mercer) and seven rnen killed, 
while Major H. W. Locke and twenty other ranks were 
wounded. Next day the enerny subjected us to very heavy 
machine gun tire, and while engaged on reconnaissance 
work Captain I,aing had his horse shot, but on the 30th 
ail was quiet in our part of the line, and havlng been 
relieved, the Battalion encarnped for the night south-west 
of Beit Sira. 
On Decernber 2nd the Battalion, having passed the 
night near Anwas, rnoved to Rarnleh, and spent several 
days there resting and equipping. It is a noteworthy fact 
that in all the marching frorn Mughar, through the hills, 
round Jerusalern and back to Rarnleh, not a man of the 
Battalion fell out from fatigue, although in rnany cases 



1 '4th Bn. K.).$.B. entering Beit Likia the day bef,,re the action there. 

Nte tramp-like appeal'ance of men after the long advance. 

The lqattali,m resting at Beit Anan after the action at EI Jib, near Jerua|em. 



113 
the men's boots were hanging in pieces, some having their 
boots tied round with string to keep the soles on. Out 
medical officer considered this an extraordinary feat of 
endurance. On December 6th the Battalion relieved the 
7th Australian Light Horse in position north-east of Jaffa, 
in the vicinity of the Almond Grove. At night tain fell 
heavily and ail next day, making things very uncomfort- 
able for out men. Fortunately, by the llth the weather 
had cleared and the sun shone brightly once more. 
While in this part of the line the enemy subjected us to 
considerable shelling, but out casualties were light and 
ail ranks were in good heart over the good news of the 
surrender of Jerusalem and of General Allenby's official 
entry into the city on the llth. On the 14th, following 
a heavy bombardment by out artillery, the enemy 
retaliated with heavy shell tire, but our casualties were 
nil. On the 19th Lieut.-Colonel Tandy, Captain L. P. 
Cathels, Second Lieut. D. Burns, and 200 other ranks 
from the Battalion proceeded to Jaffa as Brigade repre- 
sentatives in connection with the presentation of medals 
as follows :-- 
Captain A. P. Nimmo, M.C. (died of wounds). 
Captain A. Fairgrieve, M.C. (in hospital wounded). 
Second Lieut. D. A. R. Cuthbert, M.C. 
C.S.M.T.G. Potter, D.C.M. 
Lce.-Cpl. A. Ramsay, M.M. 
Pte. A. Angus, M.M. 
Pte. T. Fairbairn, M.M. 
Pte. A. McEwan, M.M. (in hospital wounded). 
On December 19th the weather was very stormy, and 
on the 20th tain fell heavily ail day. At 5.30 p.m. on that 
date the Battalion moved off to a position near some 
caves in reserve to out Briade, who were to attack and 
capture Kerbet Hadrah on the other side of the river 
Auja. The final touches to the preparations for the sur- 
prise passage of the river Auja--an event which was to 
mark the final advance of the 52nd Division in Palestine 
--were now being ruade. Experiments with model rafts 
were carried out on a reservoir near Jaffa, and repre- 



ooo 

lalan showing approximate positions of 52nd (Lowland) Division at crossing of 
the river Auja, December, 1917. 



115 

tentatives from the various units attended there to make 
themselves familiar with the method of using the rafts, 
and the night of December 20th saw the Battalion engaged 
in carrying pontoons and coracles to the river. These 
had been ruade and concealed in orange groves. The 
orange groves were a feature of the Jaffa district, and 
previous to the war were mainly owned by Germans. As 
the crop lasts for several months, from November 
onwards, our men had an unlimited supply of beautiful 
ripe oranges, very much superior in quality to those sold 
in the home market. In ordinary times 20 of these 
oranges could be obtained in Jaffa for 2-d. 
The coracles were capable of carrying twenty men 
apiece. The crossing of the river was, however, fraught 
with difficulties, as the Auja was much swollen by the 
recent heavy rains and was flowing swiftly, while the banks 
of the river were little better than mud swamps, and few 
fords could be found. On the high ground beyond, over- 
looking the open stretch of country through which the 
river flowed, the enemy was strongly entrenched, but as 
the weather was so bad and as the river was more or less 
in spate, he evidently had no knowledge of our intentions 
until about midnight, when he opened a sharp bombard- 
ment on the orange grove, greatly impeding the carrying 
of the rafts. Even without the shelling, the carrying of 
rafts was a difficult matter. The wood was soaked by tain 
and was in consequence very heavy, and twenty men at 
least were required to lift each raft. The lanes leading 
to the river bank were just wide enough to permit a raft 
to be carried down, while the cactus hedges and the dark- 
ness of the night added to the difficulty of the task. Ail 
night, however, our Battalion worked hard on fatigues, 
giving every assistance to the engineers. The canvas rafts 
were lashed together to forma bridge, and over this 
bridge the artillery and most of the infantry crossed, 
making as little noise as possible. Other infantry crossed 
in the coracles and a few--greatly daring--waded across 
breast deep at possible fords. The Turks were taken by 
urprise, and post after post was rushed at the point of 
the bayonet without a shot being fired. 



116 

The 155th Brigade (less 1/4th K.O.S.B.) were among 
the troops which successfully crossed the Auja on the 
night of the 20th, and they duly attained their objective 
--the capture of Kerbet Hadrah. Our Battalion, how- 
ever, having been engaged in carrying pontoons, etc., did 
hOt cross until the morning of the 21st, when it took over 
the line at Kerbet Hadrah. "" The successful crossing of 
the Nahr el Auja," says General Sir Emund Allenby in 
his dispatch dated September 18, 1918, "' reflected great 
credit on the 52nd (Lowland) Division. It involved con- 
siderable preparation, the details of which were thought 
out with care and precision. The sodden state of the 
ground, and, on the night of the crossing, the swollen 
state of the river, added to the difficulties, yet by dawn 
the whole of the infantry had crossed. The fact that the 
enemy were taken by surprise and that all resistance was 
overcome with the bayonet without a shot being fired, 
bears testimony to the discipline of this Division. Eleven 
officers, including two battalion commanders, and 305 
other ranks, and ten machine guns were captured in this 
operation." 
After taking over the line we were on the 21st sub- 
jected to very heavy shelling all day, but only two 
casualties resulted. On the 22nd the Battalion moved off 
in artillery formation vith the rest of the Brigade to 
capture three objectives, namely, Khurbet-es-Sualimiyeh, 
to be taken by the 5th R.S.F. ; Tel el Mukhmar, the 4th 
K.O.S.B.'s main objective; and Khurbet Wabsah, to be 
taken by the 4th K.O.S.B. and Zlth and 5th R.S.F. The 
5th K.O.S.B. acted as right flank guard. AI1 objectives 
were carried with little or no opposition, the Turks evac- 
uating one position after another in quick succession, and 
the Battalion took up its position north-west of Tel el 
Mukhmar. The wet weather still continued, and 
throughout Christmas Day the rain fell in torrents, 
making ail of us very miserable, but fortunately by next 
morning the weather had considerably improved. From 
December 26th to the end of the month the Battalion 
was busily engaged in digging and wiring the new line, 
good progress being ruade. 



117 

On January 1st, 1918, rain fell heavily again, and next 
morning one of our posts at Boche Wood was attacked by 
a large enemy patrol, which was driven off. This proved 
tobe the Battalion's first encounter with a German bat- 
talion, namely, the 701st Infantry Regiment. We took a 
few prisoners and suffered in this skirmish three casualties. 
As a result of the tain which continued to rail the river 
Auja was in heavy flood on January 7th, and as on that 
day out transport and ration party under the direction of 
Lieut. J. B. Stewart had to cross the river twice waist deep, 
great credit is due to the drivers for their work on that 
occasion. One driver of another unit was drowned. To 
the end of January nothing of importance occurred, and 
though out artillery was very active, the enemy's was, on 
the whole, very quiet. On January 30th the Battalion 
moved to Sarona and occupied billets in the houses there, 
which were exceedingly comfortable, though the sudden 
change from sleeping in the open to sleeping indoors 
caused almost everyone to surfer from colds. The 
change, however, was greatly appreciated by all ranks 
after the trying experiences they had undergone. At 
Sarona during the first fortnight of February the Battalion 
was mainly engaged in a scbeme of training and musketry 
practice. On the 14th the Battalion relieved the 1/Tth 
H.L.I as right reserve battalion on the left sector of the 
52nd Division's line. While in this sector nothing of 
importance occurred until the night of the 26th, when one 
of out patrols, under Lieut. H. O. ,]ones, was suddenly 
engaged by the enemy and came under heavy rifle and 
machine gun tire. Out patrol withdrew, two of out men 
being wounded and two being taken prisoners. The 1st 
of Match saw the Battalion in position east of Jelil, and 
except on the 10th, when the enemy heavily bombarded 
the Battalion area for an bout, a very quiet rime was 
spent. On Match 15th the Battalion moved to the 
reserve area at Arsuf, north of Jelil. Arsuf is a tiny 
village on the coast, and marked the furthest point in 
Palestine reached by the Battalion. Towards the end of 
the month route marches were frequent, and the general 



118 

impression among ail ranks now was that the Battalion, 
having finished its work in Palestine, was being hardened- 
up for srrenuous duties in another theatre of war. Ort 
March 29th the Battalion was relieved by the 25th Rifles 
(Punjabis), and returned to Sarona, where next day we 
received a draft of rive new oflîcers, and owing to the 
recent losses they were indeed sorely needed. At Sarona 
we enjoyed two days' rest prior to going to France with 
our Division. The 4th K.O.S. Borderers had as a bat- 
talion played a great part in the conquest of Palestine, 
as a summary o[ its advance bears witness. Ail the way 
from Kantara the Battalion had been with the 52nd 
Division in the great and triumphant advance. The 
extent of the ground covered may be judged by a rough 
survey of the route, viz.:--From Kantara to Romani, 25 
toiles, over very sort sand; from Romani to EI Arish, 
about 75 miles, also over very sort sand and in very trying 
weather; from EI Arish to Gaza, a distance of 50 toiles, 
with the going rather better; from Gaza to Ramleh the 
Battalion had to fight its way over a distance of practically 
50 miles, as it did not go by any means as the crow flies; 
from Ramleh to the outskirts of Jerusalem, a further 20 
miles, hall of this distance being stiff mountain climbing; 
then followed a 20 mlles' trek back to Ramleh with 
fightlng on the way. The next move from Ramleh to the 
banks of the river Auja was 14 miles, and, finally, the 
advance to Arsuf, 8 miles--making the total distance 
covered by the Battalion in the advance fully 260 miles-- 
a truly splendid achievement. The hardships suffered by 
the Battalion had been very great and the casualties 
severe, but it was not quite ail work and no play with 
our oflîcers and men, and some good stories could be 
told about the lighter side of things. When the Battalion 
was stationed at Kantara a certain amount of fishing was 
done in the canal, the fish caught being mullet, which in 
appearance were not unlike grayling. The natives caught 
most of their fish by means of a net, which, on being 
thrown from the hand, spread out like a fan over a con- 
siderable area of water, and, after being allowed to sink, 



119 

g'as drawn in. The method of fishing was such as was 
employed in the East in the earliest rimes, and as there 
was always a great demand for the captured fish the native 
fishermen did good business. 
In Lieut. Ainslie, a very gallant officer who was killed 
on April 19th, 1917, the Battalion possessed a keen 
entomologist, who, in the course of his iourney through 
the desert, ruade a most wonderful collection of butterflies, 
moths, beetles, etc. If bird and insect lire was interest- 
ing on the Gallipoli Peninsula, where thrushes, crows, 
wagtails, hawks, magpies, wild duck, quails, sand martins, 
vultures, and many other kinds of birds were to be seen, 
it was certainly equally interesting in Egypt and Palestine. 
Around Gaza, for instance, scorpions and centipedes 
were very numerous, several of out men being badly 
bitten and stung by them. Quail were also very 
numerous belote the barley was cut or trampled down 
at Gaza, and several of out officers went quail shooting. 
In the sea at Arsuf we used to get a fait supply of 
fish by bombing and then plunging in naked and catching 
the fish as they floated about stunned by the explosions. 
A matter of interest after the crossing of the Auja was the 
extraordinary flights of migratory starlings. Every even- 
ing they would fly over--columns of them--with here 
and there a hawk diving at them. As a method of 
defence the starlings would ail flock together and rise 
almost in a solid pillar to meet the hawk, and seldom, if 
ever, did he conquer. The men used to turn out of their 
bivouacs and watch these strange aerial contests until 
darkness fell. And here are a few good stories. While 
lying in the line near Arsuf we used to get good fox-hunt- 
ing. On one occasion the horsemen (R.S.F.) rode right 
through the posts into No Man's Land. This incident 
was very humorously referred to by a maior of the R.S.F. 
in the course of an article in the Army paper, " The 
Palestine News." An extract from the article runs thus" 
--" Fox was raised in Jelil covert, and after skirting 
Tandy's earths (out dug-outs) led the field through heavy 
wire on to ground which is at present under dispute 
between Tandy and his neighbour Abdul." 



220 

On one occasion when the Battalion was crosslng the 
desert during a very hot and trying match one of our 
men was heard to say--" Wull-ie, they can say what they 
like, but l'll bate Napoleon didnae mairch twenty-five 
mlles a day up here in an iron waiskit." He had evi- 
dently got confused between Napoleon and King Richard, 
both of whom had covered the ground we were going 
over, and the padre was constantly telling the men about 
this and that Napoleon had done over 25 mlles a day. 
For a long rime we got no jam--just marmalade day 
after day, and the Army Service Corps' excuse was that 
a ship load of jam had been submarined, but that the 
rnarmalade ship had got through. It was at the time of 
this shortage of jam that one of out officers overheard one 
of out men say--" If Kitchener had been in a marmalade 
boat he wudnae bave been droon'd." 
On another occasion a man, after taking a pull at 
his water bottle, was heard to say--" Jock, there must 
hae been an awfu' lot o" fishers oot in the swect water 
canal; a' can taste their waders." It may be mentioned 
that ail our water was pumped up the desert from the 
sweet water canal at Kantara, and often the water tasted 
of rubber piping and chloride of lime. 



The da 3, after crossing the River Auja. Note the oranges, 
which were very plentlful. 

• i l- 

After a fex¢ nfilutes rain near Sheik Ballutah, January, 1918. 



121 

CHAPTER XIII. 

ON THE WESTERN FRONT. 

On April 4th, 1918, the Battalion moved to Ludd 
ttation, entrained there, and arrived at Kantara at 2 
o'clock the following morning--the iourney taking 14 
hours. Twelve hours later the Battalion entrained for 
Alexandria, and next morning embarked on the s.s. 
" Malwa,'" Colonel Tandy being appointed O.C. Troops, 
and Captaln and Adiutant W. N. Alston ship's Adiutant. 
The transport lay in the harbour for several days, and 
did hot sali until April llth. Marseilles was reacbed on 
the morning of the 17th, and the Battalion disembarked 
and marched to Musso Camp. On the 19th the Battalion 
again entrained, arrived at Noyelles on the 22nd, and by 
that afternoon got settled down in the pretty village of 
Favieres, where comfortable billets were obtained. Here 
q week was spent in equipping and training, and on the 
29th a more was ruade to Aire, where the French Cavalry 
Barracks were occupied by out men. 
At Aire hard training w.as begun, but by May 7th 
the Battalion was on the more once more, and late that 
night arrived at Neuville St Vaast. On the following 
day the Battalion proceeded to Vimy Ridge and relieved 
lhe 6th Battalion Black Watch in the trenches, "'C '" 
qnd "D " Coys. going into the line, wlth "A " and 
" B " Coys. in support. The Battalion had hOt been long 
în the trenches before casualties occurred, three men 
being wounded by shrapnel. At this time out artillery 
was very active, and on the llth we got an idea of what 
German shell tire was like, out front line that day being 
very heavily shelled for fully an boue The Battalion 
occupied the line until the night of May 15th, when it was 
relieved, and returned to Neuville St Vaast, where a few 
days were spent in bathing, cleaning, resting, and train- 
ing until the 19th, when we moved to Ottawa Camp at 



Mont St Eloi. Here lectures on various matters were 
iven and musketry practice and specialist training 
engaed in. On the 24th the Battalion moved up to the 
reserve sector of the line aain, and relieved the 1]6th 
H.L.I., and three days later we had out first experience 
of enemy as shells, but suffered no casualties. On June 
2ad the Battalion relieved the 4th R.S.F. in the line, and 
on this occasion we had a pretty rough rime of it. The 
enemy discharged as, and subjected out line to very 
heavy shellin---much heavier than anything we had ex- 
perienced at Gallipoli. On June 10th three of our 
of:ficers and two platoons raided the enemy front line, 
which was fotmd to be unoccupied, the party returning 
without suffering casualties. Next day the Battalion was 
relieved, and returned to Pendu Camp, Mont St Eloi, 
where we remained until the 20th, when we relieved the 
çth A. and S. H. in the support line. While in the 
support line much work was done in repairing and erect- 
ing wire at niht in front of out areas. On June 28th 
the Battalion took over new positions in the centre of the 
line. Nothing of much importance occurred until the 
night of July 5th, when, the vind being favourable, 540 
cylinders were projected at 11 p.m. on Arleux Loop, 
which caused the enemy to put up numerous flares, and 
rires were observed to have broken out at various parts 
of his line. Two nihts later, about midniht, enemy 
shellin set the artillery dump in the area of our Battalion 
Headquarters on tire, but, thanks to the personnel of 
Headquarters, the tire was extinuished in thirty minutes. 
On July 8th we were relieved and proceeded to Fraser 
Camp, Mont St Eloi, in motor lorries, and here we 
remained until the 17th, when we took over the support 
line trenches in Brown Line, the trenches bein very 
muddy owin to heavy rain, and considerable rime had 
to be spent in clearin the water out of them. 
Subsequently, after a respite at Camblain 1' Abbe, the 
Battalion proceeded to the trenches in the Willerval area, 
where we relieved the S0th Canadian Regiment, the 
boundaries bein " Western Road " and " Tired Alley." 
While in this part of the line some excitin work was 



123 

experienced by our niht patrols. On the niht of August 
6th the enemy put down a barrage on the " B " Company 
area, and a Boche raiding party oi: two officers and about 
40 other ranks attempted to rush out post at the iunction 
of " Plumer Road " and " Tired Alley." They were, 
repulsed, [eavin,6 one officer and Jour men killed and two. 
prisoners. We had ei,6ht N.C.O.'s and men wounded,. 
while Serst. Coonie, who had done splendid work with 
the Battalion at Gallipoli and elsewhere, was taken 
prisoner. Il I remember rightly, this was the N.C.O. 
who, when the Battalion was vacatin8 the Gallipoli 
trenchcs for good on the last night of the year 1915, was 
heard to say--"A've seen naething wrang wi' the lire oot 
here. It's a damned sight better lire than the barrack 
square dreel that ye're ,6aun tae noo, mate! Mark ma- 
words ! " 
Two days later the Battalion area at Willerval was 
shelled with mustard gas shells, but we suffered no 
casualties, and afler a few days at Thelus, Roclincourt, 
and Mont St Eloi, the Battalion marched to Caucourt. 
After a short rest the Battalion proceeded south through 
Habarq and Gouy-en-Artois to Bretoncourt, where we 
arrived on AuSust 23rd. During the next two days we 
knew that things were happenin,6, as a tremendous 
"' racket " was goin8 on up the line. We could see the. 
gunners limbering-up for the advance across the Arras 
railway at Fichewx. Shells were burstin,6 on the ridges 
around Henin, but gradually the artillery tire lifted to 
the ridSes behind Henin and on to Henin Hill. Out 
turn to move duly came, and about 3 p.m. on August 26th 
the Battalion moved out in artillery formation to attack 
the switch of the Hindenburg Line, "A" and "B" 
Coys. leading. After entering the line the Battalion 
bombed its way south-east up the slopes of Henin Hill, 
which was apparently now held only by machine gunners. 
The German heavy artillery worried us considerably, but 
did hOt manage to ,6et many direct bits on the trenches 
along which we proceeded. After reachin,6 the dried-up 
bed of the Coieul river our men pushed their way up the 
bill. The attack was a very fine one, right across the  



124 

open, and was well led. Having got so far with fairly 
light casualties, the Battalion got a rough rime from 
trench mortars farther up the bill. Towards dark the 
Canadians joined hands with us after having carried out 
a successful sweeping movement on our left. Evidently 
Henin Hill had been reported as clear of the enemy by 
now, but such was hot the case. Fortunately, the attack 
at dawn next day by the 157th Brigade pushed the 
Germans right off the hill, otherwise the position might 
bave been serious. This attack by the 157th Brigade was 
pretty tough work, as could be seen later from the number 
of dead lying about at ail the barricades in the trenches. 
During this engagement one oflïcer (Second Lieut. 3. A. 
Walker, R.S.F., attached) was killed, but the casualties 
amongst other ranks of our Battalion were light. On 
August 28th the Battalion was relieved, and after two days 
rest at Mercatel marched to Bullecourt and took over 
trenches there from the London Scottish, Major P. L. P. 
Laing taking over temporary command of the Battalion 
from Lieut.-Colonel Tandy, who that day left the Bat- 
talion, much to the regret of ail ranks. 
Late on the following afternoon (September lst) the 
Battalion formed up in Bullecourt trench ready for the 
attack. The massing for the attack was spotted by the 
enemy's artillery, and, as a result, our trench was heavily 
shelled, Second-Lieut. Brown and four other ranks being 
wounded during the shelling. At 5.55 p.m. our barrage 
opened on Tank Avenue, and the Battalion immediately 
went over the parapet, " B " and " C " Companies lead- 
ing, with " D " Company as " moppers-up " and '" A " 
Company in reserve. The Battalion crossed Tank 
Avenue, and while doing so our right flank experienced 
heavy machine gun tire, which was so severe that the 
advance was held up, and as darkness came on, the troops 
were withdrawn from in front of Tank Avenue, which 
was then manned and the trench consolidated. While 
the work of consolidation was being carried out, the 
enemy put over sneezing and mustard gas. During the 
advance Lieut. E. C. R. Hamilton-Johnston, O.C. " B '" 
Company (attached from 2nd Bat. K.O.S.B.), was killed, 



125 

and the following officers were wounded :--Second-Lieuts. 
.1. D. Pollok, G. Manby, .]. Bryson, T. Burrell, Munro, 
Grey, and Cassidy, the two last-named being attached 
from the H.L.I. The casualties among the rank and file 
were :--Killed, 21; missing, 2; wounded, 104; giving total 
casualties among officers and men as 138. 
The Battalion remained in Tank Avenue ail night, 
and next day was organised into two companies, "A " 
and "B" becoming "X" Company, and "C " and 
" D .... Y " Company. On September 3rd the Battalion 
marched via Sunken Road to the Hindenburg Line, and 
a patrol was sent to clear the village of Queant. On the 
7th the Battalion le[t the trenches, and, crossing the 
Hirondelle railway, marched via Noreuil, Longatte, and 
Ecoust to near Croisselles, where it was re-organised into 
t:our companies. On the 9th Lieut.-Colonel E. C. Hill- 
Whitson took over the command of the Battalion, and 
a spell of training was carried on until September 15th, 
when the Battalion moved forward to Moeuvres, where 
more heavy fighting was experienced. The march was 
considerably delayed owing to bombing by enemy air- 
craft. During the night we relieved the 2/5th Lancs., and 
had a very unpleasant rime, as the enemy was sending 
over much gas, and this, of course, necessitated the wear- 
ing of gas masks. There was no fixed line, and posts had 
to be established in and around the ruins of the village. 
The Battalion we relieved had no very clear idea of 
where the Germans were. On the right ot: "A" Coy. 
was the Guards Brigade, and opposite us were the 
Prussian Guards. The enemy seemed to have massed a 
fair quantity of artillery in front of us (to bar the way 
to Cambrai, it was said). One very rough spot was the 
roadside near the broken bridge over the Canal du Nord. 
This point was swept by the enemy's machine guns at 
about 100 yards range, and as the road had to be fre- 
quently crossed, the discom[ort can be readily imagined. 
The trenches we occupied gave little protection, and we 
sustained a number of casualties through sniping. At 
night bright moonlight prevailed, ahd it was difficult to 
keep out of sight of the enemy. About 6 p.m. on the 



126 

night of September 17th the Germans attacked after a 
heavy barrage and forced our two left companies to retire, 
but the two companies on the right held their positions 
and repulsed the enemy. During this attack by the 
Germans Captain A. W. Harvie and Second.-Lieut J. 
Dickson were wounded. 
Further fierce fighting took place on the night of 
September 19th, when our Brigade attacked Moeuvres, 
""A " Company being in reserve to the l/4th R.S.F., 
while " B " and "" C," which had been formed into one 
Company under Captain Sempill, furnished carrying 
parties ail night to the l/4th R.S.F. "'D '" Company 
assisted the 1/Sth R.S.F. The attack was successful, and 
the village was captured, but during the night the enemy 
.recaptured Moeuvres. At 5 o'clock next morning "" A '" 
Company ruade a determined attack and reached the 
• canal, but met with such opposition that they were pushed 
back, and latterly assisted the l/4th R.S.F. to hold the 
position which had been taken up. That night our 
Brigade was relieved by the 156th Brigade, but on the 
night of September 23rd-24th our Battalion returned to 
che trenches and relieved the l/7th Royal Scots. During 
the next few days severe fighting was engaged in. Twice 
the Germans rushed and captured one of our positions, 
and twice we drove them back, ultimately getting the 
position re-established. Moeuvres was finally captured 
• on September 27th, and on the last day of the month the 
Battalion was ready for a rest, and marched to Grain- 
.court on the way to Cambrai, but our troubles were hOt 
.yet over, as after leaving Graincourt on October 1st the 
road along which the column marched was heavily 
-helled, and bombs were dropped by enemy aeroplane, 
while very heavy artillery and machine gun tire was 
• experienced as the Battalion was taking up its position 
near Paris Copse. At 5.45 p.m. that day our barrage 
• opened preparatory to an attack by the 1/4th and l/5th 
R.S.F. of our Brigade, "A " Company under Lieut. N. 
Kennedy reinforcing the l/Sth R.S.F. Early next morn- 
• ing (October 2nd) "" A "' Company commenced an attack 
on a strong enemy position, but it broke down under 



127 

heavy barrage tire. Our men, however, ultimately 
reached their objective, but were withdrawn, and the 
original line was established. During this attack Lieut. 
G. Fair was killed. Towards evenin one of our aero- 
planes ruade a forced landing near " D " Company area, 
and drexv very heavy enemy shell tire, during which 
Second-Lieut. Doughty was wounded. 
On the afternoon of October 3rd orders vere received 
for two Companies to launch an attack on one of the 
enemy's positions, and " B " and "" D " Companies were 
detailed for this operation. Careful preparations were 
ruade after dusk had set in, and "'B" Company, with 
"'D " Company in support, went forward at 11 p.m., 
and in spite of heavy machine gun tire and shelling, the 
objective was attained, but our casualties were severe, 
Second-Lieut. Kirkwood being among the killed. Next 
day the Battalion was relieved by the l/6th H.L.I., and 
marched to billets in Cantaing. 
On October 7th the Battalion arrived at Vraucourt 
and entrained for Ligny, and for some days carried out 
training and re-equipping at Ambrines. On the 13th 
Lieut.-Colonel Hill-Whitson left the Battalion, and once 
again Major Laing took over temporary command. Sub- 
sequent movements of the Battalion were to Bully Grenay 
from Tinques station by train, from Bully Grenay to 
Lievin, thence to Montigny, and from Montigny to billets 
in Cite de la Basse Nayelles. On October 24th the Bat- 
talion marched to Raches, and remained there until the 
28th, on which date it marched via Orchîes to Landas, 
the Corps Commander inspecting the Battalion en route. 
At Landas, on October 31st, the fighting strength of the 
Battalion consisted of 25 officers and 431 other ranks. 



128 

CHAPTER XIV. 

THE ARMISTICE AND AFTER. 

The Battalion remained at Landas until November 
5th, on which date a move was ruade to Rumegies, and 
on the following day Lieut.-Colonel A. W. Angus, D.S.O., 
assumed command of the Battalion. On the 9th we left 
Rumegies and marched to L'Ecarlatc, and on the follow- 
ing day continued our march to Sirlaut. The Franco- 
Belgian frontier was crossed at Bon Secours. At Herchies 
on the llth orders were received for our Brigade to 
advance to the railway line east of Jurbise, and the Bat- 
talion had formed up and was ready to move off when 
a message was received from Brigade Headquarters stating 
that hostilities would cease at 11 a.m. that day. The 
news, which secmed too good to be true, was communi- 
cated to the troops by Major Laing. "' I'll bet its a 
damned lie," whispered one of our men to one of his 
comrades. As soon as the message had been read out 
the men threw their steel helmets in the air and gave 
vent to their jubilant feelings by cheering loudly, as in 
the hearts of all there was a feeling of thankfulness unutter- 
able. The pipe band was immediately ordered out and 
played appropriate music through the village of Herchies, 
the villagers joining in the rejoicings. Thereafter the 
Battalion marched to Jurbise and occupied billets there. 
Never was a march undertaken by the Battalion with 
lighter heart, for the armistice practically meant that the 
grim business on which we had been engaged was at an 
end. Next day the Battalion enjoyed a complete rest 
from ail duties, and on the 14th the Battalion was 
inspected and addrcssed by Brigadier-General G. H. 
Harrison, D.S.O., and on the following day, on the 



129 

occasion of the entry of British troops into Mons, the 
Battalion was represented by a detachment under Captain 
J. Dickson. 
Occasion was now taken to start a system of recrea- 
tional training, and durina the rernainder of the month 
classes in English, French, and Gerrnan were beaun, 
lectures on topics of interest were delivered, after-war 
problems were discussed, a recreation room was opened, 
and sports were held every afternoon. A good Rugby 
team was got together, and the first match against the 
410th Coy. Royal Engineers ended in an easy victory for 
the Battalion fifteen by 34 points to nil. It may be men- 
tioned that many of our rnen were attached to the Royal 
Engineers for instruction in their trades, and in this way 
much time was put to good use. During December a 
very pleasant time was spent at Jurbise, and our Rugby 
fifteen, capably tutored by Colonel Angus, rnade a name 
for itself. Five more matches were played, and in all 
we were victorious, not a point being scored against us. 
We defeated the ll4th Royal Scots by 42 points to nil; 
the 17th Northurnberland Fusiliers by 19 points to nil, 
and the same unit in the return match by 35 points to 
nil; the New Zealand Mounted Rifles by 3 points to nil; 
and the XXII. Corps Headquarters by 22 points to nil. 
Christmas Day was observed as a holiday, and we did 
ourselves as well as possible. In the afternoon an inter- 
esting gaine of '" Soccer " was played between tearns 
representin the officers and the N.C.O.'s, a well-contested 
match ending in a draw. It is of interest to note that on 
the last day of the year the strength of the Battalion was 
32 oPficers and 674 other ranks, and on January 1st, 1919, 
the first batch of men left the unit for demobilisation. 
Thereafter demobilisation was carried on daily, and with 
demobilisation, ceremonial parades, lectures, battalion 
and educational training, and sport to occupy the attention 
of the officers and men, the time was not long in passing. 
An interesting function took place on January 17th, when 
at a Divisional ceremonial parade on Masieres drill- 
ground, M.C. and D.C.M. ribbons were presented by 
the Corps Commander. During February and March 



130 

demobilisation of the Battallon, excepting the Cadre, was 
completcd. On March 22nd the Cadre moved from 
,lurbise to billets in Soignies, and remained there until 
May 31st, when the Cadre entrained for Antwerp, which 
was reached late that night. The Cadre remained in 
Antwerp until June 5th, on which date the Battalion rem- 
nant of three officers (Capt. and Adjt. W. Graham, Capt. 
and Qurtermaster J. A. Thomson, and Lieut. 13. Mont- 
gomery), and 36 other ranks embarked on H.M.T. 
"'Sicilian.'" Tilbury was reached on the morning of the 
7th, and that night the Cadre left London for Galashiels. 
News that the Cadre would arrive at Galashiels early in 
the morning of the 8th was only received at the Depot 
at 7.30 the previous evening, but various means were 
adopted to spread the news, and there was a great crowd 
at the station in the morning to welcome the Cadre home. 
The Galashicls Town's Band and the Galashiels Ex- 
Soldiers' Pipe Band were in attendance, and after the 
Cdre had marched up Channel Street and down Bank 
Street with the King's and Regimental Colours, carried 
by Lieut. Montgomery and Sergeant Jef[rey respectively, 
a halt was made at the Corn Mill Square, where a hearty 
welcome was extended by Provost Watson. Captain 
Graham replied on behalf of the Cadre, and thereafter 
the Cadre proceeded to the Depot in Paton Street. The 
officers and men were billeted in hotels until .lune 10th, 
when the party proceeded to Georgetown for dispersal. 
The unit was finally disembodied by the end of the month, 
and Mjor P. L. P. Laing, who had been appointed to 
the temporary command of the 4th K.O.S.B., assisted by 
the officer in charge of the Depot, took over the regi- 
mental stores and documents. 
It may be mentioned that after the Battalion left Alex- 
andria for Gallipoli in .lune, 1915, Band-Sergeant T. 
McDonald, 1/4th K.O.S.B., along with four other ranks 
--Pte. A. Melrose, Pte. (afterwards C.Q.M.-Sgt.) G. 
Watson, and Ptes. W. Douglas and Cockburn--were left 
in charge of the Battalion baggage, kits, etc., at Alex- 
andria. A similar number of men was also left by the 
other battalions in the 52nd Division. Many different 



131 

duties were carried out by these details. Garrison guards 
were round, and when not on guard the men were em- 
ployed at the docks loading up water and food supplies 
for the Division on the Peninsula. An idea of the work 
involved may be gained from the fact that as many as 
5000 petrol tins had to be filled with water every day, 
sealed, and put on boats for transport to the front. Later 
more men began to arrive at the base, and from the 
New Zealand and Australian troops Lieut. and Band- 
toaster Woods, Otago Section, New Zealand Mounted 
Rifles, assisted by Bandmaster McDonald, was able to 
form a band. Bandmaster Woods and his men, however, 
left for Gallipoli towards the end of August, 1915, and 
it was some time before a Band could be got together 
again. However, Colonel Payne, the Base Commandant, 
got in touch with Bandmaster McDonald, and from the 
low category men at the base--the 52nd and 42nd Divisions 
being well represented--on October 1st, 1915, the pains- 
taking 4th K.O.S.B. Bandmaster re-formed, and took over 
the conductorship of the Band. From that date until 
March llth, 1919, Bandmaster McDonald conducted the 
Band, which had a splendid record during that period. 
About this time application was ruade to the Offlcer 
Commanding the 1/4th K.O.S.B. for the use of the 
Battalion instruments, which were lying at the base, for 
the Band, which was named the Alexandria Base Band. 
The application was readily granted, and on October 1st, 
1915, the first programme was played with the Battalion's 
instruments, and by June 10th, 1917, no fewer than 668 
performances had been recorded. On January 1st, 1917, 
orders came out that the Band would be a recognised unit 
of its own from that date, and from that time onwards 
the Band was named the Alexandria District Military 
Band, and when this change was made a new set of instru- 
ments replaced those of the 4th K.O.S.B., which were 
re-packed, stored, and eventually forwarded to Galashiels. 
Bandmaster McDonald continued to conduct the Band 
until March llth, 1919, by which date the number of per- 
formances given had increased to 1404, Bandmaster 
NlcDonald having the proud distinction of being the only 



132 
member of the Band who took part in all these perform- 
ances. Belote leaving Alexandria he received the follow- 

ing appreciative letter from Brigadier-General R. C. 
Boyle :m 

Headquarters, 
Alexandria District, 
11th Match, 1919. 

Sergt. T. McDonald, 
4th K.O.S.B., 
Alexandria. 

I understand you are shortly returning to Scotland 
on demobilisation. Since May, 1915, when you 
arrived in Egypt, you have as Bandmaster of the 
Mustapha Band, and afterwards the Alexandria Dis- 
trict Band, given me great satisfaction. Your work 
bas been of the greatest value to the troops under my 
command. The Band under your conductorship has 
given great pleasure both to soldiers and to the 
civilian population, and I ara glad to record my 
appreciation of the work you have done. 
I would add that owing to continuous changes 
in the personnel of the Band, due to military exigen- 
cies, your task has been a particularly diflïcult one. 
It is due to your skill as a trainer of instrumentalists 
that the Band under your direction has been kept up 
to a high standard ail the rime. 
R. C. BOVLE, 
Brigadier-General, 
G.O.C. Alexandria District. 

From the foregoing chapters it will be noted that the 
Battalion served with distinction at Gallipoli, and in 
Egypt, Palestine, and France. It took part in many im- 
portant battles, including the action of the 12th of July, 
1915, at Gallipoli, the battles of Romani, Gaza, Mughar, 
EI Jib in Palestine, and the engagements at Henin Hill, 
Bullecourt, Moeuvres, and Cambrai in France. From 



mobilisation to disembodiment no fewer than six officers 
had been appointed to the command of the Battalion, 
riz.:--Lieut.-Colonel J. McNeile, Lieut.-Colonel G. T. 
B. Wilson, D.S.O., Lieut.-Colonel J. M. B. Sanders, 
M.C., Lieut.-Colonel R. Dashwood-Tandy, Lieut.-Colonel 
E. C. Hill-Whitson, and Lieut.-Colonel A. W. Angus, 
D.S.O. ; while officers who had temporary command of 
the Battalion at various times were Major W. E. A. 
Cochrane, Major C. A. H. Maclean, Major W. T. Forrest, 
M.C., Major M. Jobson, Major P. L. P. Laing, Major 
R. M. Paton, Major R. W. Sharpe, Captain W. F. 
Cochrane, Captain L. P. Cathels, and Captain J. Dickson. 
Of these latter officers, Major Forrest and Major Laing 
had command for the longest periods. 



134 

CHAPTER XV. 
I/4TH K.O.S.B. CASUALTIES. 
The numbers of casuaities sustained by the Battalion 
while on active service were as foilows, the figures includ- 
ing 4th K.O.S.B. oflïcers and men who were kiiled and 
wounded while serving with other units:-- 
Killed, Missing, Died of Wounds 
and Sickness. Wounded. 
Officers. Other Ranks. Oflïcers. Other Ranks. 
44 606 52 ° 1019 
Total Casualties in ail ranks--|721. 

AWARDS. 
The following officers, warrant officers, non-com- 
missioned officers, and men of the Battalion won awards: 

Lt.-Colonel G. T. B. Wilson ... D.S.O. and Order of St Stanislau 
with Sword. 
Major G. Dun ......... O.B.E. and Order of the Nile (4th 
class). 
,, W.T. Forrest ...... Military Cross. 
P. L. P. Laing ...... Order of the Nile (4th Class). 
Captain A. P. Nimmo ...... Military Cross. 
,, A. Fairgrieve ...... do. 
,, W.N. Alston ...... do. 
,, A.W. Harvie ...... do. 
,, H. O'C. Jones ...... do. 
,, D. Bums ...... do. 
,, N. 1). Kennedy ... do. 

Co 
Lieutenant 
2nd Lieutenant D. A. R. Cuthbert 
,, J. Munro ... 
,, J.D. Pollok ... 
,, E. Dinning ... 
,, J. McFadzean ... 

H. K. Srnith, R.A.M.C. (att.) Military Cross. 
J. J. S. Thomson (att. 155th L.T.M. Battery) Military Cross. 
C. C. Usher (art. 5th Bn. Warwick Regt.) Military Cross. 
E. A. Cochrane (art. 5th Bn. Wavick Regt.) Croce de 
Guerre (Italian Decoration). 
Military Cross. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Chevalier de l'Ordre de la Couronne 
and Coix de Guerre (Belgian). 

535 Regtl. Sgt.-Major Murray, G., Military Cross, Distinguished 
Conduct Medal and Medaille 
Militaire. 



35 

Coy. Sgt.-Maior Potter, T. G., Distinguished Conduct Medal. 

8337 
200,864 ,, Ellio¢ H., do. 
200,202 Sergeant Waugh, J., do. 
6550 L.-Corporal Dick, D., do. 
200,450 Private Currie, W., do. 
201,871 ,, Shaw, A., do. 
200,075 Coy. Sgt.-Ma]or Roberts, £1., Military Medal. 
201,434 ,, Soulsby, T., do. 
31,763 ,, Foley, D. J, do. 
200,216 Sergeant Jeffrey, G., do. 
200,036 ,, Scott, C., do. 
200,404 ,, Dobson, J., do. 
200,019 ,,, Murphy, A., do. 
200,505 ,, Robson, G., do. 
200,107 Corporal Bell, T., do. 
200,767 ,, Gibb, A., do. 
200,397 L.-Corporal Ramsay, A., do. 
200,407 ,, Melrose, A., do. 
201,318 ,, Falconer, M., do. 
200,980 ,, Nairn, A., do. 
200,414 Private Stenhouse, T., do. 
200,804 ,, Rule, A., do. 
200,286 ,, Nairn, A., do. 
209,952 ,, Thomson, R.W., do. 
30,597 ,, Ferguson, H., do. 
200,604 ,, Angus, A., do. 
201,199 ,, Fairbaim, T., do. 
200,690 ,, McÈwan, A., do. 
200,996 ,, Wilson, T., do. 
200,117 ,, Deans, R.W., do. 
200,529 ,, Whitehead, C., do. 
203,562 ,, Sanderson, C., do. 
200,152 ,, Caverhill, J., do. 
201,180 ,, Scott, J., do. 
200,539 ,, Scott, R., do. 
31,828 ,, Langan, W., do. 
42,271 ,, White, E., do. 
30, 504 ,, Crichton, D., do. 
200,791 ,, Little, E.C., do. 
15,523 » Egan, P., do. 
200,291 ,, Burns, J., do. 
200,534 ,, Somerville, I-, do. 
241,584 ,, Kerr, J'., do. 
200,118 ,, Robson, B., do. 
241,618 ,, Johnston, G., do. 
82,949 ,, Dickson, A., do. 
200,751 ,, Heron, J., do. 
241,193 » Richardson, S., (att. 155th L.T.M. Bty.) Military Medal. 



136 

201,562 Coy. Sergt.-Major Wood, J. W., Meritorious Service MedaL 
200,194 Coy. Q.M. Sergt. Dick, P., do. 
200,488 Watson, G., do. 

MENTIONS IN DISPATCHES. 

Lt.-Colonel G. T. B. Wilson, D.S.O. 
Major W. T. Forrest, M.C .... 
,, P.L.P. Laing ...... 
,, Major G. Dun, O.B.E .... 
Captain T. T. Muir ...... 
2nd Lieutenant L. D. Robertson ... 
Captain H. O'C. Jones, M.C .... 
Lieutenant and Q.M.E.H. Follis 
,, C.C. Usher, M.C .... 

December, 1915 
December, 1915, and June, 1917 
December, 1915 
June, 1917, and June, 1919 
June, 1917 
June, 1917 
July, 1917 
July, 1917 
-- 1918 

,, E.A. Cochrane, Croce de Guerre -- 1918 
Major H. S. Dickson ....... 1919 
Captain J. M. Dun ....... 1919 
535 Regtl. Sergt.-Major Murray, G., M.C., D.C.M., Decr., 1915 

6550 L.-Corporal Dick, D., D.C.M. 
200,565 Sergeant Elliot, T. R .... 
200,202 ,, Waugh, J., D.C.M. 
200,441 Corporal Lindsay, J .... 
200,952 Private Thomson, R. W., M.M. 
200,216 Sergeant Jeffrey, G., M.M .... 

December, 1915 
June, 1917 
June, 1917 
June, 1917 
June, 1917 
April, 1918 

SUMMARY OF AWARDS 
MENTIONS. 

Order of the British Empire ...... 
Distinguished Service Order ...... 
Militaxy Cross--Officers ...... 
Warrant Officer ... 
Distinguished Conduct Medal ...... 
Military Medal ............ 
Meritorious Service Medal ...... 
Order of St Stanislau with Sword ... 
Order of the Nile (4th class) ...... 
Chevalier de l'Ordre de la Couronne ... 
Croix de Guerre (Belgian) ...... 
Croce de Guerre (Italian) ...... 
Medialle Militaire ......... 
Mentions in Despatches--Officers ... 
Other Ranks 

Total ... 

AND 

• .- 1 



137 

THE ROLL OF HONOUR. 
The undernoted list includes ail officers and other 
ranks of the 4th Bn. K.O.S.B. who were serving with their 
unit at the time they became casualties. The roll also 
includes those officers, N.C.O.'s and men of the 4th Bat- 
talion who were killed while attached for duty to other 
battalions of the same regiment. 

2nd Lieut. A. Ainslie, 
Lieut. T. M. Alexander, 
,, R.B. Anderson, 
,, H.L. Armstrong, 
,, A. Bulman, 
2nd Lieut. J. A. G. Cairns, 
l,ieut. G. G. Carmichael, 
Major H. P. Cochrane, 
ç'apt. W. F. Cochrane, 
2nd Lieut. R. H. Connochie, 
,, S.E. Ditchfield, 
l. A. Dowens, 
l.ieut. G. Fait, 
2nd Lieut. C. G. Fart, 
Major V. T. Forrest, 
Lieut. C. Gardiner, 
2nd Lieut. A. H. M. Henderson, 
Major J. Herbertson, 
2nd Lieut. J. S. Hogarth, 
Lieut. J. B. Innes, 
Major McG. Jobson, 
2nd Lieut. W. L. Kirkwood, 
Çapt. and Adjt. J. C. Lang, 
2nd Lieut. R. Logan, 
Çapt. R. R. M. Lumgair, 
2nd Lieut. A. McCall, 
J. W. Macintyre, 
Lt.-Co. J. McNeile, 
2nd Lieut. J. Mayall, 
Lieut. W. M. Mcrcer, 
2nd Lieut. J. C. Moore, 
Lieut. A. P. Nimmo, 
2nd Lieut. J. ]3. t'atrick, 
Lieut. L. D. Robertson, 
Capt. H. Sanderson, 
lfieut. A. H. Scott, 
2nd Lieut. G. Sutherland, 

OFFICERS. 
Killed in action 19-4-17 
,, 12-7-15 
,, 1%4-17 
25-4 18 
Missing. Death accepted 12-7-15 
Killed in action 29-12-15 
Missing. Death accepted 1-8-18 
'Killed in action 20-9-17 
,, 19-4-17 
,, 31-7-7 
" 17-1-18 
Died of wounds 1-10-18 
25-3-18 
Killed in action 19-4-17 
Missing. Death accepted 25-4-18 
Killed in action 12-7-15 
Missing. Death accepted 
Killed in action 25-3-17 
12-7-15 
Died o'wounds 3-5-18 
Killed in action 4-10-18 
Missing. Death accepted 12-7-15 
Killed in action 20-10-18 
19-4-17 
Died oïwounds 23-8-17 
Died of heart failure 30-3-17 
Missing. Death accepted 12-7-15 
Died of wounds 13-11-18 
Killed in action 28-11-17 
19-4-17 
Died o['wounds 17-11-17 
Missing. I)eath accepted 12-7-15 
Killed in action 13-11-17 
Missing. Death accepted 12-7-15 
3-5-17 
Killed in action 9-4-1 



138 

Surg.-Mai. D. R. Taylor, R.A.M.C., Killed in action 
Lieut. W. Thomson, Died of wounds 
Capt. A. Wallace, Killed in action 
2nd Lieut. J. M. Watson, ,, 
C. C. Watt, ,, 
Lieut. J. Wood, 
,, P. Woodhead, Missing. 

Death accepted 

12-7-15 
26-8-18 
12-7-15 
13-11-17 
9-5-17 
13-11-17 
12-7-15 

OTHER RANKS. 

843 Private Fairgrieve, J., 
6694 ,, Dick, J., 
7126 ,, Kinghorn, W., 
6498 ,, Murray, J., 
7106 ,, Lindores, A., 
4462 I " Cowe, R., 
4451 /Cpl. Ford, J., 
6901 Private Crombie, J. S., 
564 A/Cpl. Stevenson, T., 
4339 Private Fairbaim, W., 
6794 ,, Edgar, J., 
7357 ,, Sword, A., 
7372 ,, Morley, S., 
6478 ,, Stewart, W., 
6484 ,, Brydone, A., 
6485 ,, Reid, A., 
6491 ,, Dalgleish, A., 
6494 Ballantyne, J., 
6464 A]'gt. Waite, J., 
6466 Private Gall, A., 
6685 L]Cpl. Poustie, J., 
6558 Private Weir, R., 
6559 ,, Hall, F., 
6561 ,, Laing, R., 
6586 L/Cpl. Johnstone, W.. 
6610 Private M'Culloch, C., 
6500 ,, Tait, J., 
6508 ,, Imrie, H., 
6511 ,, Hardie, J., 
6725 L/Cpl. Hume, G., 
6703 Cpl. Sanderson, T., 
6717 L/Cpl. Brown, H., 
6719 Private Paterson, R., 
6720 Cpl. Hogg, W., 
6646 Private Pringle, G., 
6658 ,, Amos, J., 
6666 ,, Cockbum, G., 
6668 Cpl. Yuile, C., 
6675 L/Cpl. Reid, A., 

Died of wounds 18-6-1 
,, 20-6-15 
,, 21-6-1:5 
22-6-15 
Killed in action 24-6-15 
Died of wounds 28-6-1:5 
1-7-15 
Missing. Presumed dead 10-7-15 
,, 12-7-15 



139 

6397 Private Greve, 1., 
6389 ,, Scott, W., 
6380 L/Sgt. Waddell, A., 
6137 IJCpl. Redpath, R., 
6026 Sgt. Miller, D., 
4550 Private Spalding, G., 
4518 ,, Thomson, G., 
4519 ,, Tovnsley, M., 
4539 ,, Hardie, J., 
6737 ,, Walls, W., 
6727 ,, Thomson, T., 
6732 ,, Currie, J., 
785 ,, Bunyan, A., 
818 ,, Law, J., 
4485 ,, tLutherford, A., 
781 ,, Polwarth, T., 
782 ,, Gilbolm, J., 
784 ,, Stewart, W., 
7573 L]Cpl. Ludski, N., 
7480 Private Aderson, G., 
7466 ,, Jamieson, D., 
6861 ,, Clark, T., 
6864 ,, Oag, D., 
6867 ,, Whitelaw, D. 
6874 ,, I }algliesh, J., 
6880 Bennet, W., 
6881 L/Cpl. Waldie, W., 
6890 Private Smith, G,, 
6892 ,, Cranston, W., 
6830 ,, Keddie, C., 
6839 ,, Luira, T., 
7654 ,, t/eattie, J., 
7724 ,, Ritchie, D., 
7007 ,, Snowden, J., 
7030 ,, I)eans, J., 
7036 Rutherford, W., 
7046 L/Cpl. Rathie, W., 
6983 Private Tyson, J., 
6988 ,, Coughlin, J., 
6981 ,, Shit.l, J., 
6997 ,, 1Lutherford, XV., 
7000 ,, Sanderson, T., 
7062 ,, Smellie, J., 
6844 ,, Haig, W., 
7217 ,, Docherty, J., 
7227 ,, Leitch, J., 
7090 ,, Youllg, G., 
7095 ,, Clelland, W., 



140 

6911 
6920 
7344 
7359 
7362 
7367 
7108 
7139 
7142 
7148 
7165 
7169 
7172 
7189 
7265 
7270 
7275 
7285 
%574 
6125 
6589 
6599 
6613 
'6519 
6722 
6723 
6619 
6645 
6652 
6171 
-4545 
811 
779 
7553 
7555 
.6897 
-6898 
7668 
7058 
7060 
.6854 
7192 
7197 
7077 
7078 
.6902 
6904 
5912 

Private Riddle, R., Missing. Presumed dead 12-7-15 
,, Young, R., ,, 
,, Hope, T., ,, ,, 
,, Te|fer, J., ,, ,, 
,, ]3rown, P.C., ,, ,, 
,, Galbraith, J., ,, ,, 
,, Pievey, G.J., ,, ,, 
,, Allen, D., ,, ,, 
,, ]3est, A., ,, ,, 
,, Cairns, A., ,, ,, 
,, Mather, J.H., ,, ,, 
,, Queenan, J., ,, ,, 
,, Robertson, J., » ,, 
,, Yeomans, R. ]3., ,, ,, 
» Purves, A., ,, ,, 
,, Scott, A., ,, ,, 
,, Richley, W., ,, ,, 
,, l)avie, J., ,, ,, 
Paton, W., Died of wounds ,, 
Sgt. Whyte, J., ,, 
Private Fox, J., Killed in action ,, 
,, Knox, A., ,, . 
,, Walker W., ,, ,, 
,, Hill, W., ,, ,, 
A/Cpl. Rae, J., ,, ,, 
Private Currie, J., ,, ,, 
,, Davidson, A., ,, ,, 
,, Walker, W., ,, ,, 
,, Henderson, ., » ,, 
Sgt. Scott, J., ,, ,, 
Private Webb, W., ,, ,, 
,, Wilson, A., ,, ,, 
,, Kerr, J., ,, ,, 
,, Buglass, W., .... 
,, Sanderson, W., .... 
,, Barbour, G., .... 
,, Cameron, R., ,, ,, 
,, Mack, A., ,, ,, 
,, Johnstone, G., ,, ,, 
,, Miller, W., ,, ,, 
. ]3rown, tk. 
,, ]3allantyne, G., ,, ,, 
,, Callender, F., ,, ,, 
,, Lorimer, A., ,, ,, 
,, Oliver, P., ,, ,, 
,, Andison, J., ,, 
,, Handyside, R., ,, ,, 
,, Riddle, W., ,, ,, 



141 

6916 
6924 
7345 
7368 
7112 
7314 
7246 
6779 
7239 
844 
917 
4274 
6816 
6815 
7404 
7439 
7433 
7519 
491 
480 
523 
339 
629 
7288 
7291 
7300 
7301 
7304 
7305 
73O6 
7310 
7321 
7328 
7247 
7252 
7259 
6766 
6767 
6772 
6775 
6777 
7232 
7235 
7242 
6748 
6425 
6423 
4371 

Private Weatherstone, J., Killed in action 12-7-15. 
,, Rutherford, G., .... 
,, Wright, J ...... 
,, Kinnon, J., .... 
A/Cpl. Lawson, T., ,, ,, 
Private Beatson, W., .... 
Private Forster, J., ,, ,, 
,, Davidson, R., .... 
,, Nairn, W. ..... 
,, Richardson, J., .... 
,, Cunningham, E., .... 
A/Sgt. Walker, J., .... 
Private Halley, J ...... 
,, Douglas, J., .... 
Combe, W., Died of wounds ,, 
Private Hardie, J., Missing. Presumed dead ,,. 
,, Thomson, A., .... 
,, Telfer, A., .... 
,, Chalmers, W., .... 
,, Aikman, A ...... 
,, Paterson, J., ,, ,, 
L/Cpl. Martin, A., .... 
Private Hollands, G., .... 
,, Sanderson, J., ,, ,, 
,, Anderson, J., ,, ,, 
,, Hunter, W., .... 
Cessford, A., ,, ,, 
Sgt. Aikman, W., ,, » 



142 

4376 Private Harper, D., 
-4380 ,, Haig, A., 
-4387 ,, Watt, C., 
4403 ,, Marshall, H., 
857 ,, Haig, R., 
858 ,, Gray, A., 
830 ,, Wright, T., 
822 ,, Handry, A., 
-4414 Cpl. Galbraith, J., 
4436 Private White, J., 
4446 ,, Hunter, W., 
757 ,, Mackenzie, J., 
760 ,, Davidson, G., 
897 ,, Scott, W., 
899 ,, Cranston, A., 
900 ,, Dickson, R., 
884 A/L/Cpl. Heggie, A., 
885 Private Laidlaw, T., 
892 ,, Halliday, R., 
895 ,, Knox, J., 
4203 ,, Wilson, R., 
4354 ,, Scott, W., 
918 Cpl. Caldwell, A., 
922 Private Whi[lans, R., 
4020 A/Sgt. ]ohnston, W., 
4032 A/C.S.M. Wood, J., 
570 Sgt. Thomson, W., 
573 Private Blain, ]., 
574 ,, Storrie, J., 
580 Sgt. McPherson, J., 
598 Private Messer, A., 
.617 L/Sgt. Oliver, 
623 Private Fait, A., 
643 ,, Reid, W., 
• 633 ,, Myles, J., 
• 656 ,, Thomson, W. T., 
657 ,, Murray, ]., 
659 ,, Heskeith, G., 
-879 Cpl. Fraser, G., 
883 Private Farmer, T., 
306 ,, Street, C., 
106 ,, Hogarth, A., 
53 Sgt. Middlemas, A., 
-546 Private Wallace, B., 
553 ,, Hunter, J., 
-554 ,, Darling, W., 
745 ,, Kennedy, J., 
oE49 ,, Rae, J., 

Missing. 



143 

6826 Private Cairns, W. 
6762 ,, Smail, A., 
6818 ,, Cunningham, A., 
6819 ,, Smith, W., 
6781 ,, Paterson, W., 
6798 ,, Hogg, J., 
6790 ,, Angus, H., 
6802 ,, McTavish, F., 
6807 ,, Romanes, T., 
6835 ,, Eckford, R., 
6467 ,, Delaney, D., 
6471 ,, Stevenson, ]., 
6473 ,, ]ohnstone, A., 
6532 L/Cpl. Russell, 
6529 Private Cowan, W., 
6542 ,, Chisholm, R., 
6475 ,, Wood, K., 
6439 ,, Roden, H., 
6452 C.S.M. Watson, D., 
6457 Private Millet, J., 
6454 ,, Henderson, A., 
7402 ,, Turnbull, T., 
7387 ,, Elmslie, W., 
7378 ,, Shearlaw, A., 
7443 ,, Schoolar, W. H., 
7438 ,, Hendry, ]., 
7432 ,, Wilson, ]., 
7464 ,, Boyd, G. W., 
7461 ,, Rutherford, T., 
7459 ,, Jeffrey, W., 
7449 L/Cpl. Ballantyne, J. 
7447 Private Minto, P., 
7430 ,, Swanston, P., 
7425 ,, Mason, R., 
7416 ,, Thomson, T., 
7415 ,, Rae, W., 
7407 ,, Grieve, W., 
7617 ,, Ingles, G., 
7619 ,, Anderson, F., 
7622 ,, Buckham, A., 
7542 ,, Gladson, W., 
7736 ,, Douglas, T., 
7580 ,, Sligh, R., 
7582 ,, Anderson, A., 
7583 , Barnett, W., 
7601 ,, Darling, J., 
674 ,, Storrie, A., 
670 ,, Hogg, W., 

Missing. 

Presumed dead 12-7-15 



144 

697 Private Stewart, D., Missing. Presumed dead 12-7-1, 
699 ,, Barrett, W., .... 
708 ,, Thomson, C ..... , 
726 ,, Kerr, J., ,, ,, 
566 ,, Wait, J.S., ,, ,, 
492 ,, Vhittaker, T., ,, ,, 
494 L/Cpl. Anderson, C.T., ,, ,, 
496 Private Rodger, W. .... , 
540 ,, Stavert, R., ,, ,, 
545 Cpl. Neil, W., ,, ,, 
477 Priv:tte Hall, C., ,, ,, 
515 ,, Rose, J., ,, ,, 
516 ,, Scott, M., ,, ,, 
527 Cpl. Murray, J., ,, ,, 
448 Private Jackson, H., ,, ,, 
446 ,, Drummond, A., ,, ,, 
557 ,, Waldie, J., ,, ,, 
488 ,, Scott, W., ,, ,, 
4499 ,, Waddell, R.., ,, ,, 
4452 ,, Hope, W., ,, ,, 
4459 L/Cpl. Robertson, A., ,, ,, 
6744 Private Taylor, W., 
6761 ,, Shiels, W., Died of disease 13--15 
4388 L/Cpl. Frater, J., Killed in action ,, 
658 Private Riddell, A., Died of wounds ,, 
4501 ,, Wilson, J., ,, ,, 
7376 ,, Swan, A., ,, ,, 
7475 ,, Smith, J., ,, ,, 
7655 ,, ]3ennett, T., 
7168 ,, Purves, T.J., Killed in action 14--15 
7460 ,, Kyle, J., ,, ,, 
4396 ,, Smerdon, C.J., Died of wounds 
6768 ,, Turnbull, W., ,, 15--15 
4127 Sgt. Wilson, J., Killed in action 
6591 Private Donaldson, W., Died of wounds 17--15 
7249 ,, Brunton, J., ,, ,, 
7241 ,, Scott, G., ,, 
1113 ,, McVittie, T., Killed in action 18-'-15 
7394 ,, ]3rodie, C., Died of wounds ,, 
7448 ,, Aitken, J., ,, 19-7-15 
777 ,, Edmunds, R., ,, 20-7-15 
778 ,, Lunham, T., ,, 24-7-15 
4389 L/Cpl. Hume, R., ,, 25-7-15 
6833 Private Wright, J., ,, 26-7-15 
7627 ,, Jackson, G., Died of disease 29-7-15 
7739 ,, Holywell, H., ,, 8-8-15 
7229 ,, Middlemiss, J. F., Killed in action 4-9-15 
6742 ,, Redpath, A., Killed accidentally 5-9-15 



145 

662 Private Tumbull, R., 
7150 ,, Dumma, R., 
6780 ,, Matthews, W., 
1727 ,, Thorn, J., 
4408 ,, Crow, R., 
7076 ,, Kerr, J., 
555 ,, Fortune, 
871 ,, Gray, A., 
6433 Bugler Currie, W., 
6550 L/Cpl. Dick, D., 
4227 Private Boulton, E., 
7631 ,, Martin, A., 
6474 ,, Smail, A., 
4435 ,, White, G., 
729 A/L/Cpl. Wood, F., 
825 Private Brannon, A., 
7397 , Nicol, T., 
6726 ,, Wallis, W., 
4448 ,, Turnbull, H., 
4411 ,, Martin, W., 
203,178 ,, Hislop, A., 
562 L/Sgt. Thompson, T., 
200,831 Private Thornson, J., 

8411 ,, Thomson, ]. T., 
201,688 ,, McManus, A., 
201,051 ,, Mein, R., 
200,150 ,, Dickson, ]., 
201,223 ,, Turnbull, J., 
201,157 ,, Bell, W., 
200,822 ,, Lough, R., 
201,541 ,, Frier, R., 
200,919 ,, Douglas, G., 
201,124 ,, Elliot, W., 
201,221 ,, Geazie, A., 
240,222 ,, Dolan, M., 
200,254 L/Cpl. Dougal, G., 
200,766 Private Coulter, R., 
201,1361 L/Cpl. Callender, W., 
200,28.5 Private Ford, J., 
200,941 ,, Murray, J., 
200,758 ,, White, R., 
241,656 Sgt. McAllister, T., 
201,307 Private Galbraith, W., 
200,672 ,, Hope, G., 
201,807 ,, Jolly, E., 
240,967 ,, McNae, J., 

Died of disease 
Killed in action 
Died of disease 
Killed in action 
Killed accidentally 
Died of disease 
Died of wounds 
Died of disease 
Lost at sea 
Died of disease while a 
Prisoner of War at 
Angora 
Died of disease 
Accidentally killed 
Died of disease 
Died of wounds 
Missing. Presumed dead 
Killed in action 

Missing. Presumed dead 
Killed in action 

9-9-15 
1%%15 
11-10-15 
14-10-15 
17-10-15 
19-10-15 
20-10-15 
27-10-15 
29-10-15 
10-11-15 
25-11-15 
4-12-15 
17-12-15 
18-12-15 
5-10-16 
10-10-16 
1-1-17 

6-3-17 
27-3-17 
6-4-17 
6-4-17 



200,167 
200,823 
201,337 
200,852 
200,741 
241,651 
200,336 
200, 269 
200,241 
200,693 
240,666 
201,222 
200,266 
241,669 
201,283 
201,442 
200,571 
200,946 
241,650 
200,696 
200,809 
200,162 
200,642 
201,558 
200,708 
200,412 
201.451 
201,773 
200,899 
201,455 
200,720 
201,265 
201,267 
6770 
200,148 
200,961 
200,092 
201,022 
201,877 
201,429 
201,404 
30492 
200,014 
201,858 
201,246 
30723 
201,160 
200,124 

146 

Private Cowan, F., Killed in action 
,, Webb, G., ,, 
,, Landels, J., ,, 
,, Todd, T., ,, 
,, laterson, J., ,, 
,, Murray, ,V., ,, 
,, Kennedy, J., 
A/Cpl. Watson, G., ,, 
Private Paterson, G., ,, 
,, Brockie, W.R., ,, 
,, Maxwell, M., ,, 
,, Welsh, J., ,, 
» Dunn, C., 
,, Halliday, A., 
,, Bell, J., ,, 
,, Sbie], W., ,, 
,, Cunningbam, W., Died of wounds 
,, Tumbull, R., ,, 
,, Brown, W., ,, 
,, Cochrane, R., ,, 
,, Young, C., ,, 
Sgt. Gray, A., ,, 
Private Ferguson, H., ,, 
,, Hunter, J.A., ,, 
,, Johnstone, R., ,, 
,, Thorburn, R. ,, 
,, Blake, A., ,, 
,, Cassidy, J., ,, 
,, Robertson, A., Died of disease 
,, Craig, J.A., Missing. Presumed dead 
Cpl. Yeomans, W. Died of wounds 
Private Young, R., ,, 
,, Tumbull, P., 
Herkes, W., Misslng. Presumed dead 
L/Cpl. Fernie, I., Died of disease 
Private Crosbie, A., Killed in action 
,, Duncan, A., ,, 
C.Q.M.S. McDonald, D., Died of wounds 
Private Cnningham, J., ,, 
,, Leslie, W., Killed in action 
,, McEwan, T., ,, 
,, Eggleston, F., ,, 
,, McLeod, S., ,, 
,, McGuire, D., ,, 
,, Anderson, J., ,, 
,, Barber, R., ,, 
,, Beattie, R., 
,, Burton, J., 

23-4 17 
24-4-17 
26-4-] 7 
27-4-17 
3-5-17 
20-5-17 
7-6-17 
22-6-17 
9-7-17 
8-9-17 
25-10-17 
30-10-17 



147 

201,252 Private Cockburn, J., Killed in action t3-11-i7 
200,845 L/Cpl. Cowan, A., ,, ,, 
200,832 Cpl. Craig, G., ,, ,, 
200,149 L/Cpl. Dalgliesh, S., ,, ,, 
200,159 Private Dalgliesh, T., 
31730 ,, Fox, E., ,, ,, 
30947 ,, Heaps, J., ,, ,, 
201,401 L/Cpl. Jenkins, A., ,, ,, 
30916 Private Rain, J., ,, ,, 
30838 ,, Robertson, J., ,, 
200,850 ,, Tait, A., ,, ,, 
201,116 ,, Thomson, R., ,, ,, 
201,961 ,, White, H., ,, ,, 
201,211 ,, Lindores, A., ,, ,, 
201,867 ,, Owens, E., ,, ,, 
30726 ,, Pinfold, H., ,, ,, 
200,537 ,, Pow, J., ,, ,, 
201,496 ,, Preacher, W., ,, ,, 
240,422 ,, Bissett, J., ,, ,, 
23048 ,, Maxwell, J., ,, ,, 
201,618 ,, Thompson, I., ,, ,, 
201,865 ,, Kyle, J., ,, ,, 
201,260 ,, Leithead, P., ,, ,, 
200,113 ,, Rorfison, G., Died of wounds 14-1 I-17 
200,483 L/Cpl. Cunliffe, W., ,, ,, 
200,918 L/Sgt. Douglas, J., ,, ,, 
201,410 Private Lauder, A., ,, ,, 
201,248 ,, Turnbull, A., ,, 
200,408 ,, Scott, R., ,, 17-1ï-17 
200,446 ,, Forrest, J., ,, 23-11-17 
200,586 ,, Naim, A., Killed in action ,, 
200,073 ,, Taylor, A., ,, 
201.486 ,, Adamson, A., ,, 28-1ï-17 
241,599 ,, Clarke, J., ,, ,, 
200,868 ,, Lough, T., ,, ,, 
200,392 ,, McGhee, J., ,, ,, 
201,184 ,, Reid, J. ,, ,, 
200,631 ,, Allen, J., ,, ,, 
30910 ,, Bain, W., ,, 
200,441 Cpl. Lindsay, J., Died of wounds 29-1ï-17 
200,464 Private Donaldson, T., Died while a Prisoner of 
Var (cause hot known) 1/30-11-17 

200,355 ,, Christie, D., Died of wounds 1-12-17 
200,303 ,, Pringle, A., ,, 5-12-17 
00783 ,, Sanders, T., ,, 7-12-17 
201,933 ,, Blake, T., Died of disease 10-12-17 
201,249 ,, McMichan, S., Killed in action 11-12-17 
201,039 ,, Hunter, H., Died of wounds 15-12-17 



148 

201,190 Private Glendinning, A., Killed in action 22-12-17 
200,484 Cpl. Johnstone, J., Missing. Presumed dead 30-12-17 
28921 Private Gerrard, J.R., Died of wounds 2-1-18 
31756 ,, Benson, T., ,, 12-1-18 
33468 ,, Obree, M., Died of disease 10-2-18 
201,421 ,, Scott, J., Missing. Presumed dead 26-2-18 
30635 ,, Wilson, J., Died of disease 18-6-18 
45548 ,, Hay, A., ,, 7-7-18 
45256 ,, Fergie, T., ,, 10-7-18 
45642 ,, Scott, J., .... 
45472 ,, Elliot, F., ,, 12-7-18 
45775 ,, Edgar, W., ,, 18-7-18 
45297 ,, I)ouglas, R., ,, 28-7-18 
31809 ,, Sullivan, J., ,, 12-8-18 
42163 Terrace, A., Died of wounds 
200,039 Sgt. Smart, G., 13-8-18 
45505 Private Mcllwraith, J., Died of disease 14-8-18 
45240 ,, Wilson, A., ,, 19-8-18 
45761 ,, Yule, J., 24-8-18 
201,117 ,, Cunningham, J., Died of wounds ,, 
200,471 ,, Noble, W., Killed in action 
201.267 ,, Colvin, A., ,, 26-8-18 
202,081 ,, Flint, J., .... 
31838 L/Cpl. Huddart, T., ,, ,, 
31765 Private Spence, J., ,, ,, 
30829 ,, Thomson, A., ,, ,, 
31748 ,, Wood, C., 
201,379 ,, Gray, C., Killed accldentally 30.8-18 
201,491 ,, Bell, W.E., Killed in action 1-9-18 
241,598 ,, Cochrane, J., .... 
41138 ,, Cormack, P., .... 
240,736 ,, Coupland, H., .... 
31812 ,, Elliot, J., ,, ,, 
200,819 ,, Foster, T., ,, ,, 
200,578 Sgt. Knox, W., ,, ,, 
201,344 Private Mack, J., .... 
30634 ,, Merrin, G., ,, ,, 
202,914 ,, Milne, G., ,, ,, 
242,750 ,, McLean, P., ,, ,, 
200,317 Cpl. Renton, J., ,, ,, 
42155 Private Smith, D., ,, ,, 
30508 ,, Scott, J., ,, ,, 
200,636 A/Sgt. Scott, W., ,, ,, 
202,006 Private Somerville, F., ,, ,, 
31840 ,, Thomson, E., .... 
200,610 Sgt. Thorburn, J., ,, ,, 
201,054 Private Turnbull, J., ,, ,, 
30251 ,, Wilson, J., ,, ,, 



149 

201,424 
23061 
242,340 
41977 
42149 
31775 
201,010 
30556 
202,908 
200,072 
33759 
200,081 
42261 
31766 
901,151 
901,551 
30588 
200,804 
31786 
201,063 
28780 
201,569 
202,9O7 
200,976 
201,387 
200,233 
35312 
42153 
202,193 
31746 
35118 
35105 
201,592 
201,205 
35327 
18254 
200,827 
10287 
35148 
240,303 
35054 
201,199 
201,041 
35117 
35196 

Private Young, H., 
,, Milne, G., 
,, Knowles, A., 
,, McMahon, P., 
,, Simpson, D., 
,, Atkinson, H., 
,, Bennett, T., 
,, McCusker, F., 
,, Howe, J., 
A/L/Cpl. Douglas, F., 
Private Morrison, J., 
,, Nichol, W., 
,, Rose, W., 
,, Atkins, G., 
,, Gibbs, G., 
,, Hay, W., 
,, Piper, E., 
,, Rule, A., 
,, Melling, H., 
,, Rodgerson, J., 
,, McKay, H., 
,, Liddle, A., 
,, Anderson, J., 
,, Tice, W., 
,, Avery, W., 
L/Cpl. Craig, J., 
Private Shepard, F., 
,, Stark, R., 
,, Keats, H., 
,, Wardlaw, T., 
,, Wyllie, J., 
,, Andrew, W., 
, Robertson, R., 
,, Chapman, R. T., 
,, Wilson, J., 
,, Potter, T., 
,, Hewitson, J., 
,, Smith, R., 
,, Scullion, J., 
,, McKnight, R., 
Cameron, J., 
L/Cpl. Fairbairn, T., 
Private Knox, R., 
,, McLean, D., 
,, ]3oyd, W., 

Killed in action 1-9-18 
Died of wounds 2-9-18 
Died of disease 9-9-18 
Killed in action 16-9-18 
Died of wounds 19-9-18 
Missing. Presumed dead 20-9-18 
Died of wounds ,, 
Killed in action ,, 
24-- 
Died of wounds or 25-9-18 or 
killed in action shortly af ter 
Killed in action 27-9-18 
,, 1-10-18 
,, 2-10-18 
Died of wounds or 2-10-1' or 
killed in action shortly after 
Killed in action 3-10-18 
Died of wounds or 3-10-1' or 
killed in action shorfly after 



150 

201,247 
201,418 
241,565 
241,508 
201,911 
35109 
201,528 
35058 
42278 
200,061 
35224 
31741 
201,258 
201,979 
35195 
200,416 
200,283 
201,946 
201,425 
200,967 
201,345 
35232 
5805 
35098 
35360 
35207 
31793 
30903 
200,340 
201,341 
241,677 
31825 
200,215 
28061 

201,035 
46032 
35461 
31263 
201,497 
201,237 

Private Corson, R., 
,, Scott, T., 
,, Hempseed, J., 
,, Mathieson, J., 
,, Melvin, J., 
,, Crosbie, J., 
,, Richardson, W., 
,, Sannachan, J., 
,, Hitchen, R., 
,, Baillie, G., 
,, Muir, A., 
,, Shilton, A. E., 
,, Smith, A., 
,, Drew, G., 
,, Duffy, J., 
,, Dawson, W., 
Sgt. Allan, W., 
Private Devlin, A., 
,, Douglas W., 
,, Henderson, W., 
,, Mercer, H., 
,, Wallis, W., 
,, Snaith, J., 
,, Twiggins, R., 
,, Kennedy, K., 
,, Munce, G., 
,, Dixon, R., 
McKerron, G., 
Sgt. Crossan, J., 
Private Thompson, P., 
,, Green, J., 
Hardcastle, A., 
Sgt. Wood, A., 
Private Harris, -- 

,, Wilton, D., 
,, Scott, F., 
,, Donnelly, C., 
,, Robinson, G., 
,, rowl, J., 
,, Shiell, W., 

Died of wounds or 3-10-18 or 
killed in action shortly after 
Killed in action 3-1-18 
Missing. Presumed dead , 
" 4-1-18 
Died of disease ,, 
Killed in action ,, 
Died of ounds or 4-10-18 or 
killed in action shortly after 
Died of wounds 5-1-18 
,, 6-10-18 
,, 7-10-18 
" l 18 
8- - 
22-10-18 
Died of disease while a 
prisoner of war 29-10-18 
Died while a prisoner of 

war (cause not known) 30-10-18 

Died of disease 1-11-18 
,, 23-11-18 
,, 3-1-19 
9-1-19 
Died of wounds 25-9-19 
,, 9-7-19 



The I,ate Ç'Ol.ONEI. (TF.xII,. IRI«;.-Gglx.) LORD BINNING, C.B., 3I.\'.O. 



Part II. 

Lothians and Border H orse Record. 



The I.ate {'lq'.IX T..\. N:l.s«x. 



153 

CHAPTER I. 

MOBILISATION. 

To horse ! to horse ! the sabres gleam, 
High sounds our bugle call ; 
Combined by honour's sacred tie, 
Our word is Laws and Liberty, 
Match forward, one and all! 
--War Song of the Royal Edinburgh 
Light Dragoons, 1802. 
One hundred and ten years after the date famous in 
the Border counties as the occasion of " the False 
Alarm " of 1804, the Lothians and Border Horse 
mobilised on the declaration of war against Germany. 
Mobilisation took place rapidly and ef[ectively in accord- 
ance with the Mobilisation Standing Orders drawn up for 
such a contingency. Of the four peace establishments 
of the regiment, '" B " and " D " Squadrons, which were 
recruited from Mid and West Lothian, mobilised at 
Edinburh; "A " Squadron, from East Lothian, and 
Berwickshire, mobilised at Dunbar; and " C " Squadron, 
representing the shires of Roxburh and Selkirk, mobil- 
ised at Hawick. Most of the men from country districts 
brought with them their own horses, which were taken 
over by the Government. But many men, particularly 
those who came from Edinburgh, had still to be provided 
with horses, and purchasing officers had already been 
engaged for a day or two on the formidable task of buying 
a sufficient number of horses to mount the regiment com- 
pletely. The feelings with which one and ail met the 
sudden upheaval, and the strange situations which it 
caused, have been well expressed in verses written by a 
member of the Regiment. 
Tommy once worked in a baker's van, 
And I on a stool in town ; 
I was a sort of city man, 
Tommy a hackney brown. 
Tommy and I, Tommy and I, little thought thus to meet 
As we passed each morning when I walked up and he rattled 
doxaa the street. 



154 

Tommy is free from the morning rolls 
That weighted hisbusy cart, 
And I am one of rive hundred souls 
Who ride with a single heart : 
Tommy and I, Tommy and I, who could ever have guessed 
We'd find each other good company--good company?--the best. 

Tommy no longer must move ahead 
At the bang of a door behind ; 
And I can't snuggle till nine in bed, 
And I'm leaming not to mind. 
Tommy and I, Tommy and I, funny are fortune's tricks, 
To kick me out of a crowded tent to saddle him up at six ! 

For two days the issue of saddlery and equipment,. 
the allocation of newly-bought horses, and the organisa- 
tion of ail detail consequent upon mobilisation went on. 
Then late on the evening of Friday, 7th August, a[ter 
almost ail officers had gone to bed, it was suddenly dis- 
covered that the Scottish Command had reason to fear 
an immediate landing of German forces on the coast of 
East Lothian. Colonel Lord Binning at once called a 
meeting of officers, attended by a quaintly diversified 
gathering of majors in pyjamas, captains in all-concealing. 
greatcoats, and subalterns in breeches and spurs. Arrange- 
ments were ruade for mounted patrols and a motor-patrol 
under an officer to start at once to reconnoitre the coast 
line on which the landing was suspecte& Ammunition 
was issue& And in the grey of early dawn the greater 
part of the two Edinburgh squadrons paraded mounted 
and in marchin order in Princes Street, and marched t« 
Haddington with all military precautions. Those men 
who were as yet unmounted were conveyed by motor 
lorry to Haddington, whose newly-awakened inhabitants 
learned in one breath of their danger and their deliverance. 
Their surprise, however, at the first of those "' scares," 
which constant repetition later robbed of the charm of 
novelty, was as nothing compared with the surprise and 

 "Ballads of Field and Billet" by W. Kersley Holmes 
(Gardner, Paisley), 1915. 



155 
chagrin of one officer whose absence from the midnighr 
conference had remained unnoticed, and xvho awoke next- 
morning in his billet to learn that the regiment had 
meanwhile marched to Haddington to repel a German 
landing! 
"A " Squadron had at the saine rime marched from 
Dunbar to Haddington, where the whole regiment con- 
centrated. The change from the peace establishment of 
four squadrons to the war establishment of three was 
effected by the bxeaking up of "C " Squadron, and the 
distribution of the officers, horses, and men among the 
other squadrons in order to bring them up to war strength. 
The horses were picketed in the Neilson Park, and the 
men were billeted in a disused distillcry. Before very 
long an outbreak of " pink-eye " among the horses led 
to the transfer of "A " Squadron to the grounds of 
Amisfield, just outside Haddington, where soon afterwards 
the other two squadrons followed. In September the 
re-organisation of the regiment for service abroad was 
carried through by the elimination of the unfit. At thc 
same time the " second line " regiment was formed, and 
commenced its training in Edinburgh, under Lieut.-Col. 
Lord George Scott. For the remainder of the winter 
the regiment was quartered at Amisfield, one squadron 
living in billets in the stables, whilst the remainin 
squadrons lived under canvas until new buts had been 
erected, an improvement which was not completed until 
the end of the year. The inevitable wct weather had 
meanwhile reduced the horse-lines--and indeed the 
whole park--to an indescribable mass of mud. Trainin. 
proceeded rapidly. But, in common with most other 
units, the regiment's memory of the first winter of war 
will always be a recollection of vigorous training carried 
on in spire of a constant struggle against adverse condi- 
tions, and varied by a succession of alarms of enemy 
landings; a memory of mud and troop-training, musketry 
and roadside control-posts, a midnlght stampede of 
horses, and constant issues and recall of ammunition, 
coupled with ominous announcements that " ail men are 
confined to camp to-night because there's a ' scare ' on." 



156 

The alarm which had brought the regiment to Had- 
dington proved false. But the fear of invasion remained 
constant. Soon after its arrival the regiment was sent 
to the battlefield of Prestonpans to dig a system of 
trenches which was designed as an outlying defence for 

Edinburgh. And similar work 
haven sands, where any hostile 
East Lothian was most likely to 
rime the troops responsible for 
prepared for landings anywhere. 

was carried out at Bel- 
landing on the coast o| 
take place. At the same 
coast defence had to be 
This led to the rehearsal 

of a variety of schemes, carried out in conjunction with 
the 10th Royal Scots and artillery of the Lowland Brigade 
R.F.A., intended to make ail ranks familiar with the lie 
of the land and with the part which they might be called 
upon to play. The possibility of their actual fulfilment 
ave these schemes a reality lacking in peace rime 
manœuvres, and they became doubly interesting when 
compared with similar schemes drawn up for the East 
Lothlan Yeomanry and the local Volunteers during 
Napoleon's threat of invasion in 1803. 
At the beginning of May, 1915, the regiment moved 
down to Hedderwick, near Dunbar, and went into camp 
on the race course, where the annual training had taken 
place in previous years. Training went on with renewed 
enthusiasm amid conditions which were ideal when con- 
trasted with the mid-winter gloom of Amisfield. Inspec- 
tions by Generals of various degrees became more and 
more frequent. Towards the end of July a telegram was 
received that the regiment was to be armed forthwith 
with the cavalry sword. Finally it was announced that 
the regiment would proceed abroad as divisional cavalry 
with three divisions of the New Army. The delight with 
which all ranks hailed the fact that the regiment could 
at last be spared from coast defence, and had been selected 
for service abroad, and that it would serve mounted, con- 
cealed a very real feeling of regret that, in fulfilling the 
role of divisional cavalry for which it had been selected, 
the regiment would necessarily be split up into its three 
.component squadrons. And joy at the prospect of going 



157 

abroad was tempered by regret at the thought that active 
service would involve the breaking up of the regiment 
as a single unit under the command of " The Colonel." 
At the end of July, 1915, the three squadrons left 
Scotland to join their divisions. "A " Squadron was 
sent to Salisbury Plain to join the 26th Division. " B " 
and " D " Squadrons entrained for Aldershot, where they 
remained in camp together--although training separately 
with their respective divisions--until "" D " Squadron left 
on 5th September to embark for France with the 22nd 
Division. " B " Squadron and Regimental I-Ieadquarters, 
with the Machine Gun Section, followed later with the 
25th Division. 



158 
CHAPTER II. 
" A '" SQUADRON. 
On September 21st, 1915, " A " Squadron, under the 
.command of Major W. Warin, M.P., embarked at 
Southampton, and crossed to France as divisional cavalry 
to the 26th Division, which was commanded by Major- 
General Mackenzie-Kennedy. The other officers of the 
Squadron were Captain S. S. Steel, and Lieutenants T. A. 
G. Tulloh, Lord Charles Hope, T. Robson Scott, and F. 
R. Eustace. At that rime the British front had recently 
been extended so as to include an area south of the river 
Somme. This area was taken over by the XII. Corps, of 
which the 27th and 22nd Divisions formed part, and took 
over the front line trenches from the French, the 26th 
Division remainin in Corps reserve. The Squadron, 
therefore, after detrainin at Loneau, near Amiens, for 
some weeks moved from place to place in reserve durin 
the later staes of the Battle of Loos. 
Rumours which had beun to fly about concernin 
the dispatch of a British Force to Serbia were confirmed 
by the receipt of orders to re-entrain [or Marseilles, where 
the Squadron arrived on 28th October. Marseilles, until 
then merely the base of the Indian Corps, had at a 
moment's notice been transformed into the port of 
embarkation of a new ]xpeditionary Force as well as a 
Base, and chaos held undisputed sway. Units of every 
kind were inextricably minled at the Borely Racecourse 
in a camp where the mud rivalled and surpassed that of 
Amisfield. Ordnance and equipment desined for Indian 
troops had to be adapted to the needs of ail and sundry, 
and information as to probable dates of embarkation was 
unobtainable--if existent. In the beginning of December 
the Squadron embarked for a destination unknown, and 
by reason of an outbreak of septic-pneumonia amon the 
horses, was enabled (unlike "'D " Squadron) to land 
without the usual delay on arrival at Salonika. 
The retreat of the 10th Division and the French 
-forces from Doiran to Salonika had just taken place, after 
their inef[ectual attempt to relleve the retreatin Serbian 



159 

Army, and during the remainder of the winter the 
newly arrived divisions were employed in digging the 
"' entrenched camp of Salonika " on the northern slopes 
on the range of hills immediately behind the town. The 
Bulgarians had halted some 30 miles north, on the Greek 
frontier, which they in their turn set themselves to fortify. 
But for some time considerable apprehension existed in 
the minds of the staff and of everyone else lest the Bul- 
garian advance on Salonika should be resumed before 
the completion of the necessary defences. The Squadron 
at once moved out in advance of the area of defences held 
by the 26th Division, and by Christmas, 1915, was on 
outpost duty at [.angaza. Two troops were dispatched 
under Captain Steel to act as divisional cavalry to the 
10th Division, which held the line of defence on the right 
of the 26th Division. 
During the spring and summer of 1916 the Squadron 
continued its outpost duties, in addition to undertaking 
reconnaissance of the unknown country which lay between 
the British defences and the Bulgarian lines. It also 
iound itself called upon to perform many of the "" odd 
jobs "' which invariably devolve upon divisional troops. 
Thus, for instance, during July, 1916, orders were received 
to detail a party to proceed to Likovan and bring in 
prisoners and cattle. A sergeant and ten men were dis- 
patched for the purpose. In due course the sergeant 
reported that there were forty prisoners and two thousand 
animais, ranging from pigs to water buffaloes. So a 
further ten men under an officer had tobe sent to perform 
the double office of escort and assistant cattle-drovers. 
On another occasion it was rumoured that a large number 
of rifles were stored in a village named Suho, some 
distance away, in the mountains between Langaza Lake 
and the Struma Valley. As it was part of the duties of 
the Squadron to collcct arms from the population, of 
whom a large portion were pure Turks, the Squadron 
leader and a small party rode to the village and sur- 
rounded a suspected house. It was found to contain 
some hundreds of pistols and swords, elaborately orna- 
mented and of antique pattern, and obviously quite 



160 

unsuited for modern warfare. The load was far beyond 
the capabilities of the pack mules which had been brought 
as transport. The party, therefore, returned and reported 
the result of the investigation. The discovery of so large 
a quantity of arms amongst so heterogeneous a popula- 
tion caused considerable uneasiness of mind to those in 
authority. Instructions were accordingly given that ail 
the arms must be brought away from Suho and carefully 
guarded. The following day two waggons were sent to 
Suho--the first wheeled vehicles that in the history of 
Macedonia had ever achieved the journey--and the 
pistols and swords were brought in safety to the 
Squadron lines. Subsequent investigation by experts in 
the language and history of the country revealed the fact 
that the bouse surrounded had been the local police 
station, and that these weapons had been there under 
guard since the disarming of the population during the 
Balkan War of 1912. 
In the months of July and August, 1916, a general 
advance of the British and French forces, begun during 
the spring and early summer, was completed, and posi- 
tions were taken up which were therafter maintained 
with little change until the final advance which ended the 
campaign in the autumn of 1918. In August, "'A "" 
Squadron was transferred from the 26th Division to the 
Struma front, where--together with "'D " Squadron, 
which was similarly transferred--it formed part of a 
Composite Regiment with the Derby Yeomanry in the 
7th Mounted Brigade. The opposing forces had not yet 
settled down into trench warfare, and many villages on 
the wide valley of the Struma were still in dispute. And 
during this period both Squadrons crossed the river on 
rafts, and took part, dismounted, in raids upon various 
villages, notably in those in which the villages of Ano 
(Upper) and Kato (l,ower) Gudeli were captured and 
set on tire. 
After this visit to the Struma--a visit w} ", ill long 
be remembered for the grapes and melor: "d fruit of 
every kind which grew in profusion abou. .vacuated 
villages--" A " Squadron, in October, 19 ined the 



The Late CAPTAIN C. k'o 



161 
26th Division, which had mennwhile been sent to the 
Doiran front. Here the Squadron was made responsible 
for the defence of a sector of the front line extending 
from the vicinity of Doiran Station to the village of 
Surlovo. And, with certnin interruptions, the Squadron 
remained in this area from the end of 1916 until the 
final advance in September, 1918. Soon after its arrival 
the Squadron undertook to remove from Doiran Station 
two railway trucks which had been abandoned during the 
retreat. The railway line was repaired in seven places, 
and a bridge 30 feet long and 30 feet high was constructed 
over tbe Gol Ajak stream out of railway sleepers, rails, 
and wire. Under cover of a screen of poplar trees work 
was carried on in dayliht, but with such precaution 
that the Bulgarians, distant only about a thousand yards, 
had no suspicion of what was happening until the 
had been completed and the railway waggons recovered, 
much to the satisfaction of the Divisional and Corps 
Commanders. 
Duririg the last months of 1916 the political situation 
in Greece was such as to give rise to great anxiety. 
Constantine had not yet been deposed from the throne 
of Greece, and there was a very real danger that he might 
openly avow the German cause, and treacherously bring 
the Greek army in to attack the Allied forces in Macedonia 
[rom the flank and rear. In order to guard against 
possible surprise in such an event, it was round necessary 
to send a brigade of the 60th Division to Ekaterini, seven 
days' march away, on the seashore beneath the slopes 
of Mount Olympus. On the 7th of December, 1916, 
"A " Squadron received orders to join this brigade at 
Salonika. The infantry of the brigade had meanwhile 
been sent to their destination by sea. On arrival with 
their new formation the Squadron was given a half-a-day's 
rest and then sent off in charge of a column of 1700 
men and 2000 mules and horses, composing the transport 
animais of the brigade. The Division had but newly 
arrived in the country, and had ]ust been equipped for 
the first rime with pack transport, a method of transport 
whose intricacies and mysteries the transport drivers had 



162 

as yet had no opportunities o¢ mastering. A distinctly 
heterogeneous force was collected by one o'clock in the 
morning and marched off in good moonlight, resting the 
following day. 
The next evening it started again, and by 9 o'clock 
came on an area of tremendous floods, which had 
inundated the low-lying country near the mouths oI the 
Vardar River. The whole country was a vast lake, with 
a few trees and bouses sticking up here and there to show 
that it was hOt the sea. Through this tan the so-called 
road on a raised embankment of three feet, the road itself 
being submerged by water. A series o¢ partially sub- 
merged bridges served to indicate the course of the road 
through the flooded area, which extended for 1} toiles. 
As it was important to arrive at Ekaterini in time to 
oppose the King of the Greeks, who xvas said at that time 
to bc marching l:rom Larissa to attack the Allied armies, 
:t was decided to push across in spite of the floods. The 
mounted troops got over without difficulty. But a¢ter 
another three mlles marching, the column came upon 
another flood two mlles wide, in which the bridges showed 
from their position that the road was winding. Rain- 
clouds ruade the moonlight fit¢ul and bad. Al:ter various 
attempts to find a way round, a couple o¢ men picked 
their way across the second flood, and returned to guide 
the mounted troops over. For hours the Squadron 
leader watched the units go by. CIosed up, the mounted 
column was three toiles long, and the dismounted column 
another three--six toiles in ail. It was a strange scene: 
mules with packs dangling beneath them, horses without 
riders, men wading without horses. By .5 a.m. the 
mounted troops were in bivouac. Then the Squadron 
leader rode back to the assistance of the in¢antry and pack 
animais, and round that it had taken from 11 p.m. to 6 
a.m. to negotiate the first flood. In daylight a better way 
as, as ¢ound ¢or them, and they got into bivouac quite 
exhausted by 4 p.m. When the final reports came in it 
was a relief to find that no men, horses, or mules had 
been lost. The test of the match was child's play---seven 
¢lays in all. 



163 

In Marcb, 1917, the Squadron returned from 
Ekaterini to the Doiran front, where it took part in a 
flank attack on certain villages held by the Bulgars to 
tbe east of the lake. On May 7th, 1917, " A " and " D " 
Squadrons were re-united, formed into the XII. Corps 
Cavalry ReSiment under the command of Major Waring, 
and attacbed to the 8th Mounted Brigade, which had 
assumed responsibility for lhe line immediately south of 
Lake Doiran. On the departure of the 8th Mounted 
Brigade for Palestine in June, 1917, the Regiment once 
more took over this line. During September and 
October, however, " A " Squadron was sent up for patrol 
duty with an Independent Brigade in the Dova Tepe area. 
In September, 1917, Captain H. S. Stewart, accompanied 
by Corporal W. Ker, proceeded on patrol several toiles 
in advance of the summer outpost lines on the hiIls to 
wbicb the infantry had withdrawn in order to escape 
malaria. The patrol encountered the enemy, and Capt. 
Stewart was wounded and his horse shot. Corporal Ker, 
who dismounted and proceeded towards Captain Stewart 
in order to extricate him from under his horse, vas kiIIed, 
and Captain Stewart was taken prisoner. Writing from 
tbe prison camp at Philippopoli, Captain Stewart re- 
marked in a letter--" Poor Ker met his death whilst per- 
forming an act of supreme courage." 
In September, 1917, Maior Waring was recalled 
to other duties, and tbe command of the Corps 
Cavalry Reiment was taken over by Lieut.-Colonel 
Browne-Clayton, D.S.O., South Irish Horse. From 
November, 1917, until July, 1918, the Regiment remained 
in the Doiran Lake sector, where, together with the XII. 
Corps Cyclists, it held the line between the right of the 
22nd Division at Doiran and the left of tbe Independent 
Brigade in tbe Dova Tepe area. During this period it 
took part in raids carried out by the Independent Brigade 
on Brest, Akindzali, and other villaes lying to the east 
of the lake. Attempts were frequently ruade by escaped 
Bulgar prisoners of war to slip through the lines. Several 
of these were captured by the Regiment whilst attempting 
to do so. Witb the advent of summer, and the withdrawal 



164 

of the infantry from the malarial area, a system of 
rnounted outposts and patrols was substituted for the dis- 
rnounted outposts of winter. 
In July, 1918, the Regirnent was withdrawn for a 
rnonth's intensive training in preparation for the general 
advance. And on Septernber 18th the Regirnent was once 
more split up, " A " Squadron rnarching by night to join 
the 27th Division as divisional cavalry. With that 
Division the Squadron advanced up the Vardar Valley on 
Septernber 22nd. The rapid advance of the Greek and 
Serbian troops across the rnountains to the north, how- 
ever, rnade further advance up the Vardar Valley 
unnecessary, and the 27th Division therefore swung east- 
wards across the river, and so carne behind the 26th 
Division, thus rnissing the opportunity of corning into 
touch with the retreating Bulgars. On Septernber 28th 
the Squadron entered Bulgaria and rnarched to Strurn- 
nitza to act as XVI. Corps Troops. After the Armistice 
with Bulgaria on 30th Septernber thc Squadron was sent 
up to Berovo and Pehcevo in Serbia, where it relieved 
the Greek Archipelago Division then engaged in disarrn- 
ing the Bulgar forces, held an outpost line on the 
Bulgarian frontier until the general situation had begun 
to clear, and rnaintained touch between the Greek, 
Serbian, and British forces scattered by the rapid advance. 
On its return to Strurnnitza on 12th October the Squadron 
was ordered to rejoin the Regirnent and proceeded to 
Dedeagatch in Bulgaria as escort to the artillery and 
transport of the 22nd Division, in thc concentration of 
forces which then took place with a view to the invasion 
of Turkey. On 30th October, 1918, just as the Armistice 
with Turkey was sined, the Squadron reached Dedea- 
gatch, after having rnarched alrnost continuously for over 
seven weeks, during which it had covered soine 600 to 
700 mlles. After rernaining for over a fortnight close to 
the Turkish frontier, the Squadron began the return 
rnarch to the Salonika area, which was reached belote the 
end of Novernber. And soon after Christrnas, 1919, it 
accornpanied the 27th Division to Baturn for duty with 
the Arrny of Occupation in Trans-Caucasia. 



CHAPTER III. 

HEADQUARTERS, "'B " SQUADRON AND 
MACHINE GUN SECTION. 

In the third week in September, 1915, the 25th 
Division began their move overseas from Aldershot. 
The Officers were:--Headquarters--Colonel Lord 
Binning, C.B., M.V.O.; Major D. A. Wauchope, 
D.S.O Major and Quarter-Master W. Stubbs, and 
Captain P. C. Caverhill, R.A.M.C. 
The Squadron:--Major Burton Stewart, Captains A. 
G. Cowan and J. Pringle, Lieutenants T. A. Nelson and 
C. Younger, and 2nd lJieutenant Napier. 
Machine Gun Section :--Second-Lieutenant Haldane. 
"'B " Squadron with Headquarters and Machine 
Gun Section embarked from Southampton on the 27th 
September and arrived at Havre the following morning. 
They cntrained frorn Havre that afternoon, and then 
started what appcared to be an interminable tour round 
the North of France. At some station late the following 
evening a chit was handed to the C.O. conveying orders 
to detrain at Steenbecque and march to a farm, Steam- 
mill, one mlle south-west of Bailleul, which, with other 
farms if necessary, was to be taken as billets. Then there 
was much searching of maps, for the country, which 
became so familiar later, was entirely unknown to anyone. 
The first detraining in France at 11 p.m. on the 
29th was rather a nightmare. In torrents of rain, and 
pitch darkness, tb..e 18 kilometer march through Haze- 
brouck and Merris was only ruade interesting by its 
complete strangeness, the utterly deserted road, and 
the fact that we could see and hear that " there was 
a war on." Just at dawn the appointed destination 
was reached. The interpreter, picked up at Havre, 
clistinguished himself by knocking at the farm and 
dernanding " Ou est le Maire." (The Maire was prob- 
bly in bed at Bailleul, and the farm outwith his 



166 

jurisdiction.) Other steps were taken to induce the 
owner to believe that we had orders to billet there, and 
not at ail the other places which he declared were much 
more convenient for us and for himself. There was 
nothing like room for ail at Steam-mill. Ïhe Squadron 
billeted there for the time, and Headquarters and the 
Machine Gun Section established themselves not far from 
the Bailleul Station. Next day was spent in settling down 
and spreading out as much as our experience permitted. 
Two more farms were occupied, and the horses and men 
vere ruade fairly comfortable. By degrees we located 
ourselves. We knew we were in the 25th Division, com- 
manded by Major-General Beauchamp Doran. We round 
we were in tbe II. Corps, commanded by Sir Charles 
Ferguson, and in the Second Army, commanded by 
General Plumer. The front now taken over by the 
Division was from the Lys, near Armentières, to St Yves, 
and included the well-known Ploegsteert Wood, of evil 
odour at that time. We had to make ourselves familiar 
with ail the approaches not to our front only, but 
also from any part of our area to the parts of the 
line occupied by the neighbouring Divisions on our 
right and left. On the 5th October Headquarters 
removed to Nieppe. A first experience of the trenches 
was gained on the 10th October and following days, 
when two troops at a time joined the 74th and 75th 
Brigades in Ploegsteert Wood, and half the Machine Gun 
Section went to the 7gth Brigade. Second Lieutenant 
Haldane was appointed, on 8th October, A.D.C. to the 
G.O.C. 3rd Division, and Lieutenant Napier took over 
the Gun Section. 
The work of divisional mounted troops is varied. 
They bave to be kept trained as cavalry. They provide 
orderlies for Army Corps and Division, and bave to be 
ready to do the thousand and one other things, mounted 
or unmounted, which may be required of them, and to 
act as a reserve for the Division. The Police for road 
control, and in this area for prevention of espionage, 
always ruade a heavy call, and some 30 men under Captain 
Pringle were generally thus employed, with their head- 



167 

quarters at Romarin. In addition there was continuous 
instruction in bombing and gassing, the preventive 
measures for the latter being then only in their infancy. 
Horses had to be e×ercised and stances made for them, as 
the Flanders mud was very deep. Shelter also had to be 
provided, as the weather was very bad. Material was 
limited, and the demnnd of the whole Division very 
great. Transport was hot easily got, and bricks from 
destroyed bouses in Ploegstreet village could only be got 
with difficulty and at night. The brickfield at Hazebrouck 
was a great find. The owner sold the bricks with pleasure, 
and the R.T.O. proved a friend in need. But after a few 
truck loads were secured, the First Army, in whose area 
Hazebrouck was, objected. Fortunately, the sergeant in 
charge of the party was a wilv man, and managed to 
persuade the objecting First Army that any orders con- 
cerning him must corne through his own C.O., and got 
another two days at the brickfield, securing nefirly ail the 
bricks that were required. To get the things was the 
order, and it was round that having got the things the 
authorities were always pleased--if a little surprised--at 
the initiative and ingenuity shown. And the absence of 
sickness amongst our horses was a pleasing result. 
The Squadron and Machine Gun Section had mean- 
while moved to two fatras on a road running north-east 
of Steenwerck Station, which was considerably nearer 
Nieppe and near the centre of the Division. On the 
26th October the whole Squadron was on parade or on 
duty on the ground and at Bailleul in connection with the 
visit of His Majesty King George. Another duty which 
fell upon the Divisional troops was that of finding obser- 
vers for the Divisional Intelligence Officer. This work 
was started on October 26th, and the men engaged on it 
soon got learned in the various Hun uniforms and the 
movements of their transport. Thcy also got a good 
knowledge of the various kinds of missiles hurled across 
by him. By some good luck these well-chosen observa- 
tion posts were never struck by direct bits, though later 
we were hOt so lucky. This work was very interesting, 
if strenuous, and subsequently was greatly developed. 



168 

Maior Burton Stewart at the end of the month was 
attached to the 7Sth In[antry Brigade for duty, and Capt. 
Cowan assumed command of the Squadron. Maior 
Stewart was on 3rd November appointed temporary 
I,ieut.-Colonel commanding the 10th K.O.Y. Battalion. 
The Machine Gun Section, or part of it, from now to the 
rime the Division le[t the line, was always lent to one of 
the Brigades, and it is a pleasure to record that the 
Brigadier under whom they served every week thought 
fit to compliment the C.O. on their work in the trenches 
and their co-operation in raids. On I)ecember 6th the 
Second Army Commander, General Plumer, ruade a tour 
of the admin;.strative area of the Division and inspected the 
horses and lines of the Squadron. He was good enough 
to be complimentary about the work which had been put 
in, and incited us to be_, borrow, or (recollection thinks) 
to steal, but at any rate to et, what we needed. A 
different kind of visit was paid to the Division by Lieut. 
Kennerley Rumford, assisted by officers and men of the 
Artists' Rifles, who enlivened things considerably at two 
concerts. The eneral feelin was that Mr Kennerley 
Rumford never sang better in hls lire. He certaln!y never 
san to a more appreciative audience. These winter 
months were hot good in Flanders--cold and continuous 
rain varied with SHOW. The mud was proverbial and 
indescribable. On December 13th the followin was 
circulated from Second Army Headquarters:-- 
" The Army Commander wishes all Commanding 
Officers, N.C.O.'s, and men to know that he fully realises 
all the hardships they are underoin and the difficulties 
they bave to contend with in the present very severe 
weather. He thoroughly appreciates all the efforts ruade 
to mltiate the hardships and discomforts, and to prevent 
any abnormal amount of sickness, and he is confident that 
these efforts will be contlnued through what must be 
necessarily a very trying period." 
The Hun had left Nieppe alone since out arrival, but 
in December he now began to amuse himself by shelling 
lhat place occasionally. The bouse next Headquarters 
Officers' Mess was demolished by some hih explosive 



169 

,shell. In the house on the other side of the mess were at 
that moment ail the N.C.O.'s :and men of Headquarters 
.at dinner. However, [or us the miss was as ood as a hit. 
The inhabitants o[ Nieppe soon learned the way to the 
cellars beneath these houses whenever " les obus " were 
heard, and the Headquarters went to look to their horses, 
.and by good luck the shells dropped in the neighbouring 
fields and not on their newly-made canvas sheiters. 
Colonel Lord Binning, who had been in comm:and 
temporarily of the 62nd Inantry Brigade, on the 19th 
December was gazetted to the 41st Brigade, and the 
following is the last Order published to the Regiment he 
loved so well, and which owed so much to him :-- 
" The Commanding Officer much regrets that his 
sudden appointment to command a Brigade, and the 
short time allowed him to leave belote taking it over, 
prevented him rom coming over, as he would have 
wished, to say good-bye personally to ' B ' Squadron. It 
would bave been a proud moment for him if he had been 
able to command the Regiment in tlle Field, but circum- 
stances bave hOt permitted it, and after ten years, whicb, 
alas! have gone only too quickly, he leaves it in the best 
of hands. He wishes ail ranks every sort o luck and a 
.sale and glorious return home, confident that, whatever 
may turn up, the Lothians and Border Horse wîll continue 
to maintain their splendid traditions, and confirm the 
high opinions which have been formed of them on all 
sides since they came out." 
Christmas Day and New Year's Day passed with such 
celebrations as were possible, and the 1915 Christmas 
dinner gave evidence that Flanders had not, at least at 
that rime, been denuded o ail its pigs and pouitry. At 
the end of January, ater some tour months in the line, 
the 25th Division was ordered into rest billets, and the 
Squadron and Machine Gun Section moved to somewhat 
scattered qtarters near Noute Boom. Headquarters 
moved to Merris. Rest billets do not mean absolute 
idleness. We had a good deal of training, schools 
instruction in tbe many arts o war, drill manœuvres, 
.and combined work with Inantry and Cyclists. The 



170 

Divisional Headquarters began huge preparations for 
Divisional manœuvres, which generally did not take place 
owing to the Division moving before the advertised time. 
One wonders if the German in his great push adopteà 
the saine plans we then prepared. 
The Army Commander, General Plumer, again 
inspected the Division. But it was not ail work. Foot- 
ball and cross-country running and other sports were 
induiged in, and the cross-country team carried off the 
zI-5 toile cross-country race, open to the Division, very 
easily; a good performance considering their small 
numbers; and the success was only gained by pluck and 
endurance during the race, and good training and pre- 
paration before it. A rugby fifteen also defeated the 
hitherto unbeaten Cheshire Battalion, after a very 
strenuous gaine, which indeed was so keen as to be almost 
a fight. 
Some much-needed drafts, to replace casualties and 
men who had left to take commissions, now began to 
arrive from the Base, and Major H. F. Caddell joined as 
second in command on 19th February, 1916. Rumour had 
been rire as to the movement of the Division. "" The 
Salient " was the most favourite prophecy, probably 
because the Division always had to be ready to move there 
at a few hours' notice. However, it turned out that the 
new area taken over from the French was to be its destina- 
tion. On the morning of 15th March the two days " 
trek began in a snow-storm. The snow ruade going 
difficult, and Merville was only just cleared at the 
advertised rime. The following day took us through 
Lillers and Pernes to our destination--Tangry. The late 
snov«-storm and drifts ruade some of the roads impassable. 
The following is an Order published on the 12th as  
farewell Order from the Corps Commander of the II 
Corps on the departure of the Division from the- 
Corps :-- 
"'I should like to express my great regret at the 
severance of our connection, and my sincere congratula- 
tions and thanks for ail the good work the Division has 
done during the last month. The Commanders of ail 



171 

grades, staff, and units have worked most loyally and 
whole-heartedly. I know they will keep up the reputadon 
that the Division bas already ruade for itself, and I wish 
the Division the best of luck and success in the future." 
We now round ourselves in the XVI| Corps, com- 
manded by Sir Julian Byng. The time in Tangry was 
spent in learning the roads in what was to be out future 
area, and finding out which roads were suitable for the 
various kinds of transport. The change to the peaceful 
hilly and pleasant country and the glorious spring weather 
and flowers, after the fiat, ugly region of Flanders, was 
thoroughly appreciated. On Match 25th a move was 
rnade to Averdoingt. While there, and afterwards at 
Bethonsart, rnuch training in cavalry work was done. The 
Corps Commander himself superintended a great deal of 
it, and several times had the whole of the cavalry and 
cyclists of his Corps out, and the terre "G in gap " 
became familiar. Further, it was arranged that a troop 
at a time should go to a cavalry regirnent at Filliéres. A 
new weapon, the Hotchkiss gun, was issued about this 
rime, and its intricacies and tactical employrnent had to 
be studied. At the end of the month the G.O.C. in 
Chier, Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, inspected the 
Division, and the following cxtract from Orders was the 
result :-- 
"" The Comrnanding Officer has been instructed by 
the G.O.C. in Chief to inform ail ranks that he is glad 
to see such fine men from the Lothians and Borders o 
Scotland." 
Towards the end of April the Division again went 
into the line, holding the Vimy Ridge towards Arras, and 
the Divisional mounted troops moved on the 29th to 
Bethonsart. Cavalry training was carried on with some 
difficulty, as the Division wanted us repeatedly in the 
line by night, and the Higher Command wanted us to 
train every day. Observers were furnished for posts at 
St Eloi and Neuville St Vaast. At the beginning of May, 
1916, the reorganisation of Divisional rnounted troops 
as Corps rnoup.ted troops began, and the Lothians 
and Border Horse joined the V. Corps. Part of 



172 

the reorganisation necessitated the abolition of the 
Machine Gun section. Some of the men were attached 
to the Machine Gun Corps, others were absorbed in the 
Squadron. On the 9th the Headquarters of the Squadron 
marched to Ham-en-Artois, and billeted there. On thc 
following day we marched through country we knew well, 
to the Headquarters of the 50th Division, at Fleetre, and 
received orders to billet at farms at Godewarsveld. The 
following letter to the O.C. was received from the G.O.C., 
25th Division :-- 
'" Thanks for your letter, which I was very glad 
to receive. I trust your gallant and smart lads are 
having a good and restful rime, and at the saine time 
putting in useful work. I feel sure that when the rime 
cornes for them to show their worth they will be 
second to none. They are a fine soldierly lot, keen 
and energetic, and I ara sorry to lose them out 
of the Division. Whilst they were with me I felt 
that any job I gave them to do they would do 
well. I was very sorry I did not have the opportunity 
of seeing them before they went. But will you 
please convey to ail ranks my very high appreciation 
of them as a squadron, and that I shall always follov 
their movements and look out for great things for 
them when they get busy. 
"' It is kind of you to speak in the appreciative 
terres which you have used of the 25th Divisional 
staff, and I shall make it known to all concerned. 
"'I hope you and ail ranks of the Lothians and 
Border Horse, Headquarters and Squadron, will have 
the best of luck at ail rimes, and that we may corne 
across you again whilst we are soldiering. I ara very 
sorry to lose you ail." 
Two squadrons of the Queen's Own Glasgow Yeo- 
manry joined us, and the three squadrons beca:ne the V. 
Corps Cavalry Regiment. With the cyclists from the 
50th and 23rd Divisions and No. 3 Motor Machine Gun 
Battery, we became the Corps mounted troops, under 
the command of Lieut.-Colonel D. A. Wauchope, D.S.O., 
to whom on 24th May passed the command of the 



173 

Kemmel defences. A ood rime was spent at Kemmel 
in bivouacs. The Squadron was billeted near Westoutre 
and Headquarters at Locre. Captain Nelson was iven 
command of the Corps Intelligence Observers, who were 
[urnished mostly by the Squadron. 



174 

CHAPTER IV. 

HEADQUARTERS, " B " SQUADRON AND 
MACHINE GUN SECTION. 

(CONTINU.E1).) 

By the rniddle of April, 1916, the great Gerrnan 
attack on Verdun had spent itself. For SOl'ne rnonths the 
enerny had been making attacks on the Ypres Salient, 
which culminated in the onslaught on the Canadians at 
the beginning of June. As a result, in addition to the 
V. Corps rnounted troops, No. 4 Cornpany Mon- 
rnouthshire R.E., the 1st Entrenching Battalion, and 
1st Battalion Northurnberland Fusiliers, were put under 
O.C. Kemrnel defences for tactical purposes. The 
Gerrnan attack, however, was eventually defeated, and the 
ground lost was recovered by Canadian counter-attacks. 
It was then decided to send the Corps mounted troops to 
the Second Cavalry Divisional area for a month for 
training both as a cavalry regirnent and in conjunction 
with the Cyclists and Motor Machine Gun Battery. On 
the 7th of June a two days' trek began frorn Westoutre 
by Hardiforte to Noordpeene for the night, and thence 
the following day via Watten and Nordausques to Guerny, 
where we carnped. " B " Squadron was attached to the 
Royal Scots Greys, who readily gave thern all sorts of 
assistance, and lent expert instructors. Indeed, nothing 
could bave been more pleasant and usel:ul than a rnonth's 
training with the Greys. Great programmes were rnade 
.out how to put the rnonth to best advantage, and rnake 
the regirnent ready for the " G. in gap." But after a 
week was past, the Regirnent was ordered back to West- 
• outre, and left the area on the 25th of May. The Squad- 
ron returned to Westoutre. Preparations were now being 
rnade for the attack on the Messines Ridge, and every 
rnan who was in the area was at once put on to dig, rnake 
roads and durnps, and bury cable, and rnuch tirne was 



175 

pent on the Kemmel defences. Our observers, some 28 
of thern at Siege Farrn, were particularly busy at this 
rime, the whole systern of observation on the Corps front 
being reorganised by Captain Nelson. 
At 5.30 on the 17th July a high explosive shcll struck 
and set tire to the observers' but at Siege Farrn. Fortu- 
nately, only hall of the party were in the but at the rime. 
Trooper Wickharn was killed on the spot, and Serteant 
Inglis and Lance-Corporal Grieve died of wounds next 
day, and Lance-Corporal Palfrey in October. Two other 
men were also wounded. Very brave work was done in 
gettint the wounded from the burning but, which was 
kept under heavy shell tire and in which rnuch S.A.A. 
was exploded. Sergeant Jack and Lance-Corporals 
Riddell and Young received the Military Medal for 
tallantry. 
Much dissatisfaction had been expressed with the 
method of carrying the Hotchkiss tun arnrnunition, and 
Major-General Sir Philip Chetwode, comrnanding the 
Second Cavalry Division, had experirnents rnade as to the 
best rnethod. At a conference held by General Chetwode, 
the carrier rnade by the V. Corps Cavalry, on a plan of 
Major Caddell's, was adopted as the best for the Arrny. 
On the 29th of July Lieut.-Colonel Connal, of the 
Queen's Own Glasgow Yeornanry, assurned cornmand of 
the V. Corps Cavalry Regirnent, with such of the Head- 
quarters of that Regirnent as had corne with hirn from 
Eypt. 
The first hall of Autust, 1916, was fully occupied by 
various workin parties, on road construction, rnaki@, 
arnmunition durnps, and constructing darns; and in addi- 
tion, several reconnaissances were rnade of the G.H.Q. 
second line, which tan, roughly, frorn Neuve Etlise, and 
connected up with Kernrnel defences. By this tirne the 
Battle of the Somme had started, and it had been open 
knowledge for sorne days that the r@,irnent was to match 
south to take its place in the Fifth Arrny, which was sorne- 
rimes described as the " Arrny of Manœuvre." There 
was rnuch exciternent and speculation as to how the 
situation would develop, and sorne people with grey horses 



177 

Some 30 other ranks were detached for duty with the 
A.P.M., V. Corps, and remained more or less in this 
capacity until the Squadron left the Corps. The A.P.M., 
V. Corps, was very sorry indeed to lose these men, and 
said repeatedb; that they were the best men he ever had. 
October passed very much as September had done, 
there being the saine routine work, interspersed with 
various working parties at such places as Beaussart and 
Mailly-Maillet. Towards the middle of the month, pre- 
parations were well advanced for the subsequent attack 
at Beaumont-Hamel, which took place eventually on 13th 
November. Many parties were detached from the Squad- 
ron for duty, escorting prisoners from various Divisiona! 
Headquarters to the Corps cages. The main Corps cage 
was at Forceville, and about 200 prisoners passed through 
this cage in the first 24 hours after the attack. 
Several reconnaissances were now ruade by the C.O., 
second in command, and Squadron leaders, from near 
the front line at Beaumont-Hamel, the '" special idea '" 
of "'(3 " V. Corps being that, when the attack on Beau- 
mont-Hamel took place, the V. Corps Cavalry should 
go through and establish themselves on a line between 
Pusieux and Miraumont, at a place called Beauregard 
Dovecote. It was probably fortunate for the Regiment 
that the " special idea " did not mature. It is question- 
able whether anyone could ride over this ground even 
at the present day. 
Captain Nelson and Mr Thin rejoined the Squadron 
for a few days at intervals, but for the most part were 
very fully employed with their observers, and lived a very 
hard life. Captain Nelson went forward with the 63rd 
R.N. Division during their attack on Beaucourt-sur-Ancre, 
and the information he sent back by carrier-pigeon of the 
situation at this particular part of the front was the first 
to reach Corps Headquarters. At the end of November 
the Regiment moved to Marîeux, and went into billets 
there for the winter. 
December passed fairly uneventfully. An officer from 
5th Lancers was attached to supervise the Troop and 
Squadron training. On the 21st December the following 



178 

appeared in Orders:--" Military Medal awarded Sergt. 
Tait, J., L. & B. Squadron, for conspicuous gallantry 
when attached to 63rd R.N. Division as Dispatch Rider." 
January, 1917, was taken up with working parties at 
various places within the Corps area; and several officers 
were detached for a course of instruction with regular 
cavalry regiments, and to attend the 4th Cavalry Divisional 
School near Le Tréport. It was probably in January or 
February that the Fifth Army Commander inspected the 
regiment. As there was deep ShOW on the ground and 
very hard frost at the time, liberty of manœuvre was 
somewhat restricted. 
On the 12th of March the regiment--less details to 
look after horses--marched to Couin dismounted, to be 
under the orders of 46th Division. On the 13th the march 
was continued to Bienvillers. The Corps troops relieved 
the 5th Battalion Leicester Regiment in the line at Hannes- 
camps. It was just at this time that the Germans were 
retiring from the Hindenburg Line. The Squadron was 
in the line until the 17th of Match. Patrols were sent out 
nightly. Regimental Headquarters were at Hannescamps, 
which came in for a good deal of attention from the 
Germans two or three times a day. On the 17th March, 
on information that patrols from the Brigade on the right 
were pushing into Essars, a patrol under Mr Kerr was 
sent out, and gained touch wt' the Notts and Derbys 
in Essarts. A troop with two Hotchkiss guns, and cyclists 
with two Lewis guns, were sent out in support of Mr Kerr, 
and joined up with the left of the 6th Notts and Derbys. 
A patrol sent out to ascertain what the situation was on 
our left (which was very much in the air), did very good 
work, ruade its way to Monchy, and explained the situa- 
tion to the troops they found there. Parties of Germans 
were seen hurrying from their dug-outs at Adinfer Wood, 
about 2000 yards distant. In the evening the mounted 
troops in tbe line were relieved by the l/6th South 
Staffordshire Regiment, and marched back to Bienvillers, 
The Squadron found their horses there, and rode back to 
Marieux, which they reached about 2 a.m. on the 18th. 



179 
The following special order was received by O.C. 
¥. Corps Cavalry Regiment :-- 
COPY OF LETTER FROM G.O.C 46TH DIVSION, 
TO 5TH CORPS. 
To V. Corps. 
I desire to place on record my very great appre- 
ciation at the way the Corps mounted troops have 
carried out their duties when holding the line east 
of Hannescamps whilst under my command. By 
energetic patrolling, and reports rendered, they bave 
assisted materially in watching the movements of the 
enemy on my let, and maintaining touch with the 
58th Division. 
(Signed) WLLAM THWAITES, 
Major-General Commanding 
46th Division. 
17th March. 

To O.C. Corps Mounted Troops. 
The Corps Commander wishes me to say that he 
bas much pleasure in forwarding this letter. The 
work of the Corps Cavalry Regiment and Cycllsts is 
most creditable to ail concerned. 
(Signed) G.F. BOYD, 
B.G.G.S.V. Corps. 
18th March. 

On the evening of the 18th, orders were received for 
a contingent of the Corps Cavalry to report the following 
day to 7th Divisional Headquarters at Mailly-Maillet. A 
composite squadron of rive troops of the Queen's Own 
Glasgow Yeomanry and L. & B. Horse, under the com- 
mand of Major W. Macfarlane of the Queen's Own 
Glasgow Yeomanry, marched out at 5 a.m. on the 19th. 
The officers of "B "" Squadron were Mr Younger, Mr 
Kerr, and Mr Mein, who had just corne to France frorrl 



180 

Salonika. This force received orders at Mailly-Maillet 
to proceed to St Leger, where they reported to the O.C. 
6th North Hants Regiment. The distance from Marieux 
to St Leger is approximately from 20 to 25 miles. The 
going was terrible, as the roads were rendered very deep 
owlng to the thaw which had now set in after the severe 
frost. The village had been demolished, and numerous 
large craters had been blown in the roads. The horses 
were taken to the gully south-west of St Leger, and the 
Squadron " stood to " ail night waiting for orders. It 
was a bitterly cold night, with rain and bail. Threepatrols 
were sent out. A mounted patrol under Mr Mein round 
Boyelles occupied by our infantry at 6 p.m. A dis- 
mounted patrol, at 10.30 p.m., met an enemy patrol, which 
retired south of Croisilles. And a further dismounted 
patrol, which went out at 2 a.m., round no signs of the 
enemy up to the wire in front of Croisilles. At 7 a.m. 
the composite Squadron, under Major Macfarlane, took 
part in an attack on Croisilles. A squadron of Jacobs' 
Horse operated to the west of the village, a frontal attack 
was ruade by the 6th North Hants, while the composite 
squadron advanced to the south-east of Croisilles. The 
attack was held up by artillery and machine gun tire. A 
Hotchkiss gun under Mr King, of the Glasgow Yeomanry, 
was left in position to cover an attempt by Major Macfar- 
lane to work round the enemy's east flank. This attack 
was also held up by machine gun tire, and a line of 
skirmishers was established to conform with a line which 
the Lucknow Brigade was holding. Later in the day the 
led horses were sent back to St Leger, a small detachment 
remaining on outpost duty under Mr Mein. 
At 12.45 on the 20th Major H. F. Cadell, second in 
command of the regiment, assumed command of Major 
Macfarlane's party. At about 3 o'clock the enemy opened 
heavy shell tire on St Leger, and it was then that Mr 
Younger and Mr Kerr were wounded, the former suc- 
cumbing to his wounds the following day. Mr King of 
the Glasgow Yeomanry had previously been wounded 
while in charge of the Hotchkiss gun. The casualties, 
besides those mentioned, were 11 other ranks wounded, 



181 
3 other ranks killed; 15 horses killed, and 9 wounded. 
Mr Mein did very good work at this time in getting the 
horses removed from the shei/ed village, and personally 
going round and shooting those that had been too badly 
wounded. 
On the 21st, Major A. G. Cowan and Mr Smith joined 
Mr Cadell's party at St Leger. On the 22nd, Mr Thin 
and Sergeant Watson, both of "B '" Squadron, and 
attached to V. Corps Observers, passed through out lines 
at St Leger to make a reconnaissance of the position in 
front. They were unfortunately both taken prisoners, 
and Sergcant Watson was fatally wounded. Until the 
26th, a line of outposts was held by Major Cadell's party 
together with the 21st Manchester regiment. The troops 
in the line were increasing in numbers every day, but 
the difficuity of getting anything moved up, in the way 
of guns and wheeled transport, was enormous, as the 
roads were so bad. If the Germans had ruade a local 
counter attack during any of these days they would hOt 
bave met with much opposition, and it was very fortunate 
that the St Leger valley got off with as little shelling as 
it did. On the 26th, at 11 p.m., the posts were relieved 
by the 2[Sth City of London Regiment, and on the 27th 
Major Cadell's party reioined regimental headquarters at 
Logeast Wood. 
On the 2nd of April, 1917, the Regiment moved back 
to Mailly-Maillet for a few days' test, and on the 7th the 
Regiment moved forward to Bihucourt and went into 
camp. On the 10th, the Regiment marched to Ervillers 
and reported to 18th Infantry Brigade. Next day the 
Regiment marched again to L'Homme Mort, under the 
orders of the 62nd Division, returning to camp again in 
the evening. The whole of the 4th Cavalry Division were 
then " standing to." Flagged-tracks had been prepared 
up to the line, and everyone thought they were " going 
through." Indeed, the itinerary eventually was described 
as--Ervillers-Ecoust and " The Gap." On April 28th, 
Captain T. A. Nelson's naine appeared in the War Diary 
as " kiiled in action and struck off the strength." The 
Squadron had heard previously of Captain Nelson's death, 



182 
and those who had been in any way associated with him 
will never forget the gloom and sorrow which the news 
of his loss cast over all ranks. At the time of his death 
he was attached to the Tank Corps as Intelligence Officer, 
and it was while making a reconnaissance during the 
battle of Arras that he was killed. There is hOt an N.C.O. 
or man who bas served with him who does hOt hold his 
memory very dear. And his love and admiration towards 
his men was a joy to ail. 
Towards the end of April Major Cadell had been 
evacuated sick. The outlook was rather gloomy. Major 
Cadell, Captain Nelson, Mr Younger, and Mr Kerr were 
all casualties, but the Squadron had two excellent subaltern 
officers in Mr Mein and Mr Smith, and all the N.C.O.'s 
and men of the Squadron carried on splendidly. During 
May and 3une, 1917, the situation had again become one 
of stalemate. Bullecourt in the Hindenburg line had 
been attacked several times without success and at enor- 
mous cost. One squadron in the composite regiment was 
always kept "' standing to," as the idea still seemed to 
obtain that a successful attack, followed by a break- 
through, might be ruade. Working parties in the line 
at night, digging new trenches near Bullecourt Ecoust, 
were of frequent occurrence. The following letter was 
received in this connection :-- 
To O.C.V. Corps Mounted Troops. 
The Corps Commander wishes me to say he is 
much pleased at the excellent report received from 
the 62nd Division on the work latterly done by the 
Cavalry and Cyclists in digging trenches, which re- 
flects great credit on all concerned. 
Please communicate these remarks to officers and 
meno 
(Signed) G.F. BOYD, 
B.G.G.S.V. Corps. 
14/3/17. 
Mention must be made of a most successful dinner 
held on the 4th July at the Town Major's (Captain 
Pringle's) house at Ablainzeville, when the following 



183 

oflïcers were present:--Colonel W. Norman Stewart, 
D.S.O. ; Majors Burton Stewart, Cowan, and Ramsay; 
Captains Pringle, Robson-Scott, and Brydon; Lieutenants 
Dunn, Mein, Lindsay, and Smith. 
In the beginning of July, 1917, a strong rumour was 
received that the Regiment was to be dismounted. This 
rumour seemed about to be verified when the Squadron 
entrained a lot of its horses at Bapaume to go to Mar- 
seilles. Mr Smith, with a party from "'B " Squadron, 
was in charge of the '" B " Squadron horses. This party 
returned in about a fortnight's time, and on the 24th of 
July, with a few horses and officers' chargers that were left, 
the whole Regiment moved to G.H.Q. Army Troops area 
near Hesdin, the Squadron going into billets at Crequy. 
It was pretty well known now that the Squadron was to 
be turned into infantry, although until the last moment 
no official information was vouchsafed on the subject. 
The billets at Crequy, after lire in the forward area, were 
much appreciated, and before the Squadron was finally 
disbanded a most successful and enjoyable sports meeting 
was held, and also a concert in the Crequy school build- 
ings, which many of the natives attended. On the 22nd 
July, 1917, Maior Cowan left the Squadron to report for 
duty with the P.M. Fourth Army, and on the 23rd the 
Squadron proceeded to Etaples to the 20th I.B.D., for 
attachment to the 17th Royal Scots. A note compiled 
from imperfect records shows that up to this rime over 60 
N.C.O.'s and men of '" B " Squadron had been commis- 
sioned from the ranks--a remarkable record in an estab- 
lishment of 142 of a!l ranks. The reinforcements which 
the Squadron received from rime to rime were of a high 
order, and in spite of the constant drain for commissions, 
the excellence and individuality of the N.C.O.'s and ail 
other ranks was maintained to the end. 



184 

CHAPTER V. 

"D'" SQUADRON. 

After having been reviewed with the 22nd Division 
at Aldershot both by Lord Kitchener and by His Majesty 
the King, " D " Squadron embarked for France on 6th 
September, 1915, landed at Havre, and entrained straight 
for the Somme area. For a short rime the Squadron was 
billeted near Vignacourt, but soon rnoved with Divisional 
Headquarters to Gillaucourt, where a series of control 
posts were established in coniunction with the Surrey 
Yeom.anry of the 27th Division. The Squadron was con» 
manded by Major J. R. Ramsay, with Captain the Marquis 
of Linlithgow as second-in-command, the other officers 
being Lieuts. J. R. Marshall, A. R. Balfour, A. K. 
Graham, and I. M. A. Matheson. Before belng ordered 
to Marseilles at the end of October, the officers and 
N.C.O.'s of the Squadron were given an opportunity of 
acquiring a first-hand experience of trench warfare by 
being attached for a short spell to infantry battalions in 
the line. A class of instruction for the snipers of the 
Division was also started by Captain Lord Linlithgow, 
but the class was abruptly tèrminatèd by the transference 
of Lord kinlithgow to another formation, and by the 
receipt of orders by the Squadron to entrain for Marseilles. 
On reaching Marseilles the Squadron spent three weeks 
in the mud of Borely Camp, patiently awaiting the arrival 
of a transport. It embarked on 24th November, and 
learnt with surprise that the transport had, with no less 
patience, for the last fortnight been awaiting the arrival 
of its troops. Four days later the transport sailed, and, 
after a day spent in the harbur of Toulon, steamed into 
the mists of Salonika harbour on the morning of 8th 
December. 
Owing to the uncertainty of the situation no 
troops were landed for four days, and the Squdron 
did not disembark until the night of llth-12th December, 



M«unted patr«l near llamzli. Match, lç16. 

\'ie in Savjak. 



Tro«,p f "" I)"" Squadron al: l'at:trs, |:ty, 1010. 

The village fitmtain at Savjak. Affer the Bulgar descent flore Rupel this village 
was vell behind the Bulgar line t/Il the final advance. 



185 

t the very moment when the retreat from Doiran was 
taking place. After a couple of days' rest for the horses, 
after their 17 days' voyage, the Squadron was equipped 
'ith bivouacs and with transport, and marched to Dautli, 
in order to take up patrol duties in advance of the en- 
.trenched line then being dug around Salonika. During 
the next three months the country between the Salonika 
.defences and the Bulgar lines at Doiran was constantly 
patrolled, both for defensive purposes and in order to 
acquire information likely to be useful in case of an 
advance. Reports were furnished to the Division on the 
billeting accommodation in the villages, on the state of 
the roads and tracks, and on the water supplies, fuel, 
.and flocks available throughout the area, whilst at the same 
rime military proclamations were distributed amongst 
the inhabitants. In carrying out these duties the Squad- 
ron acquired a detailed and thorough knowledge of the 
area occupied by the British forces. Special reconnais- 
sance detachmcnts, accompanied by General Staff officers, 
geographical experts, engineers, and artillery officers, 
were also sent forward, and traversed the country to the 
very fringe of the enemy zone, penetrating as far as the 
villages of Poroi and Nikolic, which were later included 
in the lines entrenched and occupied by the Bulgars. 
In the middle of April, 1916, the Squadron received 
• orders to march with a squadron of the Notts Hussars 
for duty as Army Troops in the Struma Valley, where it 
• camped close to the village of Orljak, in a position of 
isolation far in advance of any other British troops. From 
here patrols and reconnaissance parties were sent to 
Demir-Hissar, Vetrina, and the Rupel Pass, and in fact 
throughout the Butkova-Seres portion of the Struma 
Va!ley, into which the enemy had hot as yet descended. 
The Greek fronticr was still occupied by the Greek army, 
with whom, however, relations were somewhat delicate, 
since this army a month or two later surrendered Fort 
Rupel to the Bulgars, and permitted their invasion of the 
Struma Valley. One day in May it became known to 
Army Headquarters that the German Consul fïom the 
Drama had that morning gone to Seres, in order to engage 



186 

Greek workmen for the prosecution of designs which were 
undoubtedly pro-German and presumably anti-British. It 
was decided therefore to have him arrested, and "'D '" 
Squadron was ordered to perform this task, but to be 
careful not to get into trouble with the Greek troops. As, 
the Consul was known to be returning from Seres to Drama 
by a certain train, Lieut. A. R. Balfour, M.C., with one 
troop was sent to intercept and stop the train after it had 
left Seres. This he did, and returned that evening with 
the Consul as prisoner, having ef[ected his purpose in the 
face of strong opposition and threats of violence from a 
number of Greek oflïcers and a company of soldiers who. 
happened tobe on the train. 
Before the end of May the Squadron was recalled 
from the Struma, and rejoined the 22nd Division, which 
was then advancing from Salonika to the vicinity of Lake 
Doiran. Here, together with the 7th Mounted Brigade, 
it carried out protective duties covering the front of the 
Division, occupying by day posts of observation on a ridge 
overlooking the town and lake of Doiran, and by night 
guarding the roads between the enemy's lines and the 
position occupied by the Division. 
Owing to the sickness prevalent during the first sure- 
mer in Macedonia, many units were reduced very much 
below strength. Amongst others, the Derby Yeomanry 
had suffered severely from the ravages of malaria. Ac- 
cordingly, in August, 1916, both "" A " and "" D " Squad- 
rons were sent to the Struma Valley to make up the 
depleted numbers of the Derby Yeomanry, with whom 
they formed a composite regiment. As a part of the 7th 
Mounted Brigade, therefore, "D " Squadron took part 
in the various operations in which the river was crossed 
and villages in the occupation of the enemy were raided. 
At the end of September the composite regiment was 
broken up, and "' D " Squadron recrossed the British area, 
which had then been extended to the River Vardar, and. 
rejoined the 22nd Division on the left of the British line, 
where it camped close to the western shores of Lake o 
Ardzan. 



i87 

Amongst other difficulties incidental to the conduct 
of war in Macedonia, the strange mixture of races amongst 
the inhabitants produces a very serious problem. In one- 
place a taroup of villages will be entirely Turkish. In 
another, exclusively Greek. In a third, both Greeks and 
Turks live totaether in the saine village. The next village, 
perhaps, may be inhabited by Bulgar-speaking inhabitants. 
Ail of these are citizens of Greece, but, as may be readily 
imagined, their sympathies are apt to differ widely. Often 
some member of the family is actually serving in the 
Bulgarian or the Turkish army. Consequently espionage 
is widespread and diflîcult to suppress. Once the oppos- 
ing forces had settled down to a warfare of positions, the 
scope for the use of mounted troops was restricted, and 
the services of the Squadron were largely utilised in order 
to establish a system of control posts under the orders 
of the A.P.M. of the Corps. Posts of N.C.O.'s and men 
were scattered throughout the Crps area in order to 
patrol the villages, watching the inhabitants and control- 
ling their movements, so as to lessen the danger of 
innocent-looking peasants gaining military information 
and carrying it across the lines to the enemy. 
On 26th November, 1916, one troop was detached and 
sent to join the Independent Brigade, which was th.n 
taking over the Dova Tepe area, hitherto held by an 
ltalian Division. This troop provided orderlies and d- 
patch riders, and also furnished mounted patrols, which 
took part in the operations conducted by the Brigade 
against the village of Akindzali. Later it was attached to 
the 60th Division when that Division arrived from France 
and relieved the Independent Brigade. 
Meanwhile, in the beginning of December, 1916, 
"D " Squadron once more left the 22nd Division 
and came under the orders of the 8th Mounted 
Brigade, which was then responsible for a portion 
of the front line immediately south of Lake Doiran. 
During its tenure of this area, in addition to the 
usual duties of defence, the Brigade carried out a 
complete reorganisation and renewal of the defensive 
works of the sector, and also took part in several raids 



188 

on villages within the Bulgar outpost line. On the de- 
parture of the 8th Mounted Brigade for Palestine in May, 
1917, "'A "' and "'D "' Squadrons, which had now been 
united as the XII. Corps Cavalry Regiment, took over 
the defence of the sector previously held by the whole 
Brigade. 
At the beginning of June, however, "" D " Squadron 
was sent eastwards to the Dova Tepe sector, in order 
to provide outposts for the forward area, on the with- 
drawal of the infantry from the low-lying mosquito- 
infested " winter-line " to the '" summer line " on the 
hills. Mounted posts were established by night, whilst 
during the day the whole area was searched by patrols 
and watched by observation posts from suitable points. 
During July "D " Squadron was withdrawn, and after 
a short period of training in August, replaced "A '" 
Squadron at Piton Gallieni, south of Lake Doiran. "" A " 
Squadron was then sent to the Dova Tepe sector. For 
the next year '" D " Squadron remained in camp at Piton 
Gallieni with responsibility for the 8efence of the Lake 
Sector, at first under the 22nd Division, but later--on a 
regrouping of the sectors of defence--as part of the XII. 
Corps Cavalry Regiment. During this period, each troop 
-of the Squadron in turn was attached to one of the infantry 
battalions of the 22nd Division, and for a week at a time 
held a front-line work called Silbury Hill, thereby gaining 
a valuable insight into the tension and monotony of the 
role of infantry in trench warfare. 
Before the final advance of September, 1918, the 
Squadron was withdrawn with the Regiment for a short 
period of intensive training in preparation for the advance. 
When the offensive took place, "D " Scluadron, with 
Regimental Headquarters, were attached to the 26th Divi- 
sion, and concentrated near Lake Ardzan. On the retreat 
• of the Bulgars, "D '" Squadron advanced into Serbia 
with the Derby Yeomanry by Bogdanci, Cestovo, and 
Kosturino to Strumitza in Bulgaria. On the retreat of 
the Bulgars, ofiïcers' patrols advanced in front of the 
Division, and joined the Derby Yeomanry at Cestovo, 
"where skirmishing with the retreating enemy first took 



189 

place on the Kosturino Ridge. Early on the following 
morning the Regiment advanced in support of the Derby 
Yeomanry, and shared with them the honour of being 
the first Al]ied troops to enter Bulgaria. Beyond the 
frontier village of Kosturino, the road to Strumitza was 
round tobe blocked by enemy machine guns. The 
advance of the 14th Greek Division on the left flank 
having been delayed, it was round impossible to force 
the pass with mounted troops alone, and they were 
accordingly withdrawn at night behind the infantry outpost 
line. Durina the night the enemy continued his retreat, 
and on the 26th the Derby Yeomanry, with the I. 8: B. 
Horse in close support, continued their advance on 
Strumitza, where touch with the enemy was once more 
gained among the villages on the northern side of the 
wide valley of the Strumitza. A large column of the 
enemy could be seen winding along the road which 
ascended the mountains across the valley, but in the 
absence of artillery support it was impossible with a com- 
posite mounted force of four weak squadrons to attack 
the retreating column, protected as it was by a chain of 
villages strongly held by machine guns and mountain 
guns. And dusk removed any further opportunity of com- 
pleting the havoc wrought among the column by the 
bombs of the Royal Flying Corps. 
Early on 29th September one troop, under Lieut. 
Dunlop, M.C., moved as advance guard to the 79th 
Infantry Brigade, when the advance towards Berovo was 
resumed along the mountain road. The progress of the 
troop was soon checked by heavy rifle and machine gun 
tire. The troop Hotchkiss gun was brought into 
action with good ef[ect, first against a Bulgar rear-guard, 
and afterwards, by a quick change of position, against an 
enemy mountain gun, by which they had begun to be 
heavily shel]ed. By this manœuvre the enemy was forced 
to retire. Mr Dunlop, who had been wounded by 
shell tire, was subsequently high-ly complimented by the 
Divisional Commander on the good work of his troop, 
which remained until nightfall in advance of the Briade. 



190 

Next day hostilities ceased in consequence of the 
signature of the Armistice with Bulgaria. The Regiment 
was re-united, and started on its long march through the 
Rupel Pass and the Struma valley by way of Kavalla, to 
take its part in the concentration on the Turkish frontier 
at Dedeagatch. Almost at once, however, two troops of 
"'D " Squadron were detached and sent with the 26th 
Division to Sofia, thence to Rustchuk on the Danube, 
.and ultimately to Varna on the Black Sea. And before 
the Regiment had left the Struma valley the remaining 
two troops of " D " Squadron were ordered to rejoin the 
27th Division, which was marching to Adrianople. After 
the Armistice with Turkey had been concluded, however. 
on 31st October, 1918, these two troops were withdrawn 
and brought back to the neighbourhood of Salonika, and 
were eventually sent with the remainder of the Regiment 
for duty with the Army of Occupation in Trans-Caucasia. 



CHAPTER VI. 

CASUALTIES, HONOURS AND AWARDS. 

At the beginning of January, 1919, after its return 
from the Turkish frontier at Dedeagatch, the Regiment 
--less the two troops with the 26th Division in Bulgaria-- 
embarked at Salonika for Batum, being much reduced in 
strength owing to the ravages of an epidcmic of influenza. 
On arriving at Batum the Regiment disembarked, and 
after a few days' rest proceeded by train to Tiflis, taking 
up quarters--after a thorough cleansing of the Augean 
stables--in the Cavalry Barracks before the end of the 
month. On 3rd February a detachment under Captain 
Tulloh was sent to Kars, for duty in maintaining order 
there and at Erzeroum; and on 20th February another 
detachment under Captain Clappé was sent for similar 
duty to Akhaltsikh. In both places the confused medley 
of races which compose the populatîon--Greeks, Turks, 
Tartars, Armenians, Kurds, and Georgians--made this a 
matter of considerable difficulty, and at times it was round 
necessary to resort to force in order to restore order. 
Officers and men were meanwhile being gradually sent 
home for demobilisation. Finally, after four months' 
duty as Troops of Occupation, the Cadre of the regiment 
under Major Stericker (Scottish Horse) returned home, 
and arrived in Edinburgh on 2nd July, 1919. Next day, 
together with the 1st Batt. Royal Scots, the Regiment 
marched through the streets of Edinburgh to the City 
Chambers in order to receive the official welcome of the 
City of Einburgh. The colours of the Regiment were 
crowned with a laurel wreath, and then borne through 
the city to the Drill Hall in Forrest Road, where both 
units were entertained to luncfi. And after rive years of 
mobilised service, ail but one month, the remainder of 
the Regiment was at length disembodied, in order to await 
re-creatlon in the new Territorial Force. 



192 
The compilation of a list of casualties and of honours 
and awards won by rnernbers of the Regirnent has been 
rendered dif-ficult by the inaccessibility of the necessary 
records. In addition to this, exceptionally large nurnbers 
of N.C.O.'s and rnen have been granted commissions in 
ail branches of the service. So far as can be ascertained 
at present, 22 a, commissions were granted during the war 
to rnembers of the Regiment. Many others also were 
transferred to infantry regirnents in France after "B '" 
Scluadron was disrnounted. 
It bas been cluite impossible to trace the records of 
those who were cornrnissioned, and of those who were 
transferred to other units. Many are known to bave been 
killed in action with the regirnents in which they were 
serving. Many more gained distinctions of every kind. 
But to narne any without narning ail would be invidious, 
and itis therefore with regret that the list which follows 
has been restricted to Officers, N.C.O.'s, and rnen servin 
with the Regirnent abroad, attached to the Regirnent, or 
seconded frorn it for service with other units. An excep- 
tion has been ruade in the case of Sergeant J. B. Daykins, 
V.C., M.M. Sergeant Daykins enlisted in the Regirnent 
on 13th Septernber, 191,, and went overseas as a private 
in "A " Scluadron. Frorn there he was sent home in 
order to clualify himself for cornnrnlssioned tank. For 
rnedical reasons his commission was refused. He was 
then posted to the ,th Reserve Regirnent of Cavalry at 
Aldershot. Frorn there he was eventually transferred to 
the 2/4th Battalion of the York and Lancaster Reaiment 
(T.F.), in which he was serving as a scrgeant at the rime 
of the operations during which he won the Victoria Cross. 
A special Order, issued by Major-General Sir R. D. 
Whi,,aharn, K.C.B., D.S.O., Cornrnanding the 62nd (West 
Riding) Division, describes the circurnstances in conse- 
tuence of which the award was rnade:-- 
Decernber 26th, 1918. 
During the operations at Solesrnes on 20th October, 
1918, this N.C.O. displayed the greatest dash, initia- 
tive, and gallantry. He had comrnand of No. 7 



French, Greek, and British sentries on bridge over river Struma, 
near Orljak, April, Ic)16. 



193 
Platoon, and led 12 men of this platoon--all that 
remained with him--up the main street towards the 
church, and met with heavy opposition. By the 
skilful way in which he picked his way he was able to 
work along, and about half-way up the street he shot 
a machine gunner just about to open tire on the party, 
and the gun was rushed. The Sergeant and his party 
carried on up the street, and when about S0 yards 
from the church the opposition became very strong, 
heavy machine gun tire being opened and bombs 
thrown at the party, which by this rime was sur- 
rounded, the enemy coming out of the cellars behind. 
Hand-to-hand fighting ensued, in which the Sergeant 
accounted for 7 of the enemy. The enemy at last 
ran away, and the Sergeant led his men to their 
objective, where a strong point was formed. Up to 
this time the party had captured 30 prisoners and 
killed about 25 of the enemy, wounding many more. 
They had been isolated in the town about half-an- 
hour. 
From one of the prisoners Sergeant Daykins 
learned the position of a machine-gun which was 
holding up another portion of his Company, and 
although other men left with him wanted to accom- 
pany him, he refused to take them owing to the 
necessity of still maintaining the important post 
already established, and to prevent the large numbers 
of prisoners from escaping and again taking part in 
the action. 
In spire of heavy machine-gun tire he worked his 
way to the post alone, and shortly afterwards returned, 
driving 25 of the enemy in front of him and carrying 
a captured machine-gun, which he mounted at his 
post. This action of Sergeant Daykins, although it 
appeared, owing to the previous opposition, almost 
certain death, undoubtedly saved many casualties to 
the remainder of his Company, and enabled the 
villa/e to be carrled at an early hour of the 
operations. 



194 
His rnagnificent figbting spirit and exarnple inspired 
his rnen, who would follow hirn anywhere. He was 
the outstanding figure in the success of the attack. 
(Sined) HAROLD F. LEA, 
A.A. & Q.M.G., 62nd (West 
Riding) Division. 
Exceptions bave also been rnade in the case of Sert. 
T. M. Skirving, who died in Edinburh whilst on short 
leave I:rorn Salonika, and in the case of Col. (Ternp. Bri. 
Gen.) Lord Binning, C.B., M.V.O. 
By the death o1: Lord Binnin, which took place on 
12th ,lanuary, 1917, during a visit to Tyninharne, East 
Lothian, the Re,airnent suffered an irreparable loss. Lord 
Binnin's previous experience o1: active service in the 
Egyptian carnpain of 1882, the Sudan Expedition o1: 1884, 
and the Hazara carnpaign o1: 1888, proved of inestimable 
value when the Reirnent carne to undertake its war train- 
ing. The four years which he had spent in cornrnand of 
the Royal Horse Guards, frorn 1899 to 1903, rnade him 
an ideal Colonel of a yeornanry reirnent. It was in 1905, 
a couple of years before the institution of the Territorial 
Force, that Lord Binnin took cornrnand of the Regirnent. 
,lust as he was on the point of retirin in 1914, after the 
last possible extension, the reat war broke out, and his 
period of cornrnand received a new lease of lire. By the 
fact that the Regiment was split up and sent overseas as 
three divisional squadrons, Lord Binning was denied the 
privilege of cornrnanding in the field the Regiment which 
during so rnany years he had trained. In going to France 
with Regirnental Headquarters and "'B "" Squadron, it 
was felt that his ability and experience were wasted in 
¢ornrnand of what was little more than one squadron. 
But although the regret which he expressed in leaving 
the Regirnent was shared by every rnember of it, none 
could deny the right of the War Office to rnake use of his 
services in the more suitable rank of Brigadier-General. 
What he had done for the Regirnent during the ten years 
which he comrnanded it, only those who have served 
under hirn can realise. With the professional skill of 



195 

he regular officer, he combined the tact and charm of 
manner, the knowledge of men and the power of arousing 
enthusiasm, which are especially necessary for the success- 
fui command of a regiment like the Lothians and Border 
Horse. By his death the nation lost an able soldier, and 
the Regiment a keen and devoted commander. 
h would be impossible in less than a volume to 
describe adequately the many qualities with which he was 
endowed. But a brief tribute is contained in aletter 
written to the "" Times " by an old comrade. "" He was 
hot only a man of extreme brilliancy and charm, but one 
whose kindness, unselfishness, and devotion to duty com- 
manded the affection and respect of all those who were 
associated with him. He shone in every way that is most 
calculated to inspire admiration, for he was a bold and 
admirable horseman, a fine polo player and cricketer, a 
clever musician and composer, and the most charming of 
companions. He was spontaneously witty, and would 
always lay himself out to please and entertain ail those 
in whose society he round himself. His military career 
speaks for itself, but it denotes the energy of his character 
that at the age of sixty he went out to France and took 
part in some of the most severe fighting of the present 
campaign. His most remarkable characteristic was his 
influence over others, for in ail his surroundings he 
unconsciously became the leader, his companions deferr- 
ing voluntarily to his opinions and views. With ail this 
he was a man of the most extreme modesty and simplicity 
of character, and his kindness and sympathy to those in 
trouble, combined with his energy and wisdom in assist- 
ing them, can never be forgotten by those who benefited. 
In the opinion of many he was the most brilliant man of 
his generation, and had he been ambitious of worldly 
success, he might have attained any position. During his 
lire he always set the highest example of duty, and he 
leaves behind him the deepest sorrow in the hearts of 
many people, and a gap which can never be filled." 
The death of 2nd Lieut. C. V. M'G. Watson occurred 
shortly after he had left the Regiment in order to be 
attached for duty to the Royal Flying Corps. After 



196 
goln out on a reconnaissance fliht with another ocer, 
he and his pilot failed to return and were posted missin. 
A few days later the followin message in French was 
dropped in our lines by an enemy aeroplane:--" The 
English aviator, C. V. M'Greor (Watson), and his 
observer were brought down after a combat over our 
lines. They are buried in a little cemetery near a church. 
We honour the brave of whatever nation, even though 
they are our foes." 
(Sined) LES BULG,RES. 

AWARDS. 

Lieut.-Colonel R. C. Browne-Clayton (South Irish Horse), D.S.O., 
Serbian Order of the White Eagle. 
Major S. A. Stericker (Scottish Horse), O.B.E. 
Captain (Temp. Lieut.-Colonel) W. N. Stewart, Distinguished Service 
Order. 
,, I.M.A. Matheson, O.B.E., Croix de Guerre and Serbian 
Order of the White Eagle. 
,, W.E.S. Napier, Military Cross. 
,, A.R. Balfour, do. 
Lieutenant G. S. Bleck, M.B.E., Portuguese Order of Avis (Military) 
3rd class. 

1718 
120, 061 
120,090 
120,227 
120,013 
120,108 
120, 206 
120,319 
120, 331 
120,029 

120,396 

W. Stuart, Distinguished Service Order. 
G. H. Mills (4th Bn. Royal Scots Fusiliers), Military Cross. 
J. J. Dunlop, Military Cross. 
Sergeant Daykins, J. B., Victoria Cross and Military Medal. 
,, Young, A. P. A., Military Medal. 
,, Riddell, J., do. 
,, Jack, A.G., do. 
,, Tait, J., do. 
Squadron Sergt.-Maior Short, J., Meritorious Service Medal. 
Farrier Staff-Sergeant Duff, C., do. 
Sergeant Christison, D., do. 
,, Scott, R., do. 
,, (Acting R.Q.M.S.) Sanderson, W. J., Meritorious Ser- 
vice Medal and Greek Military Cross (Class II.) 
Private Barr, A. B., Meritorious Service Medal. 



197 

MENTIONS IN DISPATCHES. 

Major W. B. Stewart ...... June, 1916 
Captain T. A. Nelson ...... June, 1916, January al'ld May, 
1917 
Lieutenant J. H. Brydon ...... June, 1916 
Captain A. R. Balfour, M.C .... September, 1916 
,, H.C. Haldane ...... January and December, 1917, 
May, 1918 

,, (Temp. Lt.-Col.)W. N. Stewart, D.S.O. May, 1917 
,, (Acting Lt.-Col.) V. A. J. Marquis of Linlithgow, May, 1917 
Lieutenant T. J. D. Reid, • ..... May, 1917 
,, J.A. Thin ...... May, 1917 
Captain W. E. S. Napier, M.C .... December, 1917 
Lieutenant G. S. Bleck, M.B.E .... May, 1918 
,, S.H. Williams ...... May, 1918 

Major (Bt. Lt.-Col.) R. C. Browne-Clayton, D.S.O. (South Irish Horse 
and R. of O. 5th Lancers), January, 1919 
Captain R. J. K. Russell ...... January and June, 1919 
Lieutenant J. J. Dunlop, M.C., ... January and June, 1919 
Lieutenant R. Thornton ...... January and June, 1919 
Major S. A. Stericker (Scottish Horse), O.B.E. June, 1919 

Captain I. M. A. Matheson ... June, 1919 
Lieutenant A. H. Otto ...... June, 1919 
,, J.E. Mein ...... July, 1919 
Major J. R. Ramsay ......... 
Major A. G. Cowan ......... July, 1919 
120,263 Squadron Sergt.-Major Goodwin, A. L., September, 

1916, 

12003 
1 
120,046 
1491 
120,108 
12299 
121,338 
12313 
12175 

June, 1919 
,, Morgan, G. A., June. 1916 
Regfl. Q.M. Sergeant Anderson, D., June, 1916 
Corporal Hudson, G ....... June, 1916 
L.-Corporal (Act. Cpl.) Jack, A.G., January, 1917 
Squadron Sergt.-Major Short, J., January, 1919 
Sergeant Lindsay, J.H., ... June, 1919 
Private (Act. Cpl.) Caverhill, F.D., June, 1919 
,, ,, Hume, J., June, 1919 
Sergeant Mayo, J. P., ...... July, 1919 



198 
SUMMARY OF AWARDS AND 
MENTIONS. 
Victoria Cross .................. 
Order of the British Empire ............ 2 
Member of the British Empire ......... 
I)istinguished Service Order ............ 
Military Cross .................. 4 
Military Medal .................. 5 
Meritorious Service Medal ............ 6 
Serbian Order of the White Eagle ......... 2 
Portuguese Order of Avis (Military) 3rd Class ... 1 
Croix de Guerre ............... 
Greek Military Cross (Class II.) ......... 
Mentions in Despatches--Officers ......... 29 
Other Ranks ...... 11 
Total ......... 66 

THE ROLL OF HONOUR. 
KILLED, DIED OF WOUNDS OR DISEASE. 

Colonel (Temp. Brig.-Gen.) Lord 120,760 S.-Smith Howatson, W. 
Binning, C.B., M.V.O. 1605 Private Hogarth, W. 
Captain T. A. Nelson 1460 ,, Wickham, J. V. 
,, T.P.E.F. Clennel I480 ,, Harvey, C. 
,, W.N. Stewart, D.S.O. 1939 ,, Smith, J. K. 
Lieut. C. F. Youlger I585 ,, Pott, . G. 
2nd Lieut. C. V. M'G. Watson I839 ,, Rintoul, R. 
,, M.S. Macaulay 120,586 ,, Smart, . 
,, R.C. Campbell 1897 ,, Old, J. W. 
120,040 Sadd.-Sergt. Lawrie, G. 120,768 ,, Murphy, . C. 
646 Sergt. Inglis, G. 120,654 ,, Laing, W. 
120,117 ,, Watson, G.P. 120,436 ,, Bruce, W. A. 
120,124 ,, Ronaldson, W.A. 120,607 ,, Valentine, G. F. 
120,264 ,, Skirving, T.M. ,, Spence, R. 
120,276 Corpl. Kerr, W. 120,822 ,, Lafferty, . 
1680 L.-Corpl. Grieve 120,688 ,, Murdoch, J. 
1679 ,, Palfrey, . 120,792 ,, MacDonald, A. 
120,604 ,, Reid, D. 



Part III. 

History of the Territorial Force 
Associations for the Counties 
of Roxburgh, Berwick, 
and Selkirk. 



201 

HISTORY OF THE TERRITORIAL FORCE 
ASSOCIATIONS OF THE COUNTIES OF 
ROXBURGH, BERWICK, AND 
SELKIRK. 
Schemes were made by the Army Council for the 
establishment and constitution of the following Associa- 
tions:--(1) Territorial Force Association of the County 
of Roxburgh; (2) Territorial Force Association of the 
County of Berwick; and (3) Territorial Force Association 
of the County of Selkirk. That for Roxburgh provided 
for a president, 7 military members, 2 representative 
members appointed by the County Council, and 4 
co-opted members; that for Berwick, 6 military members, 
2 representative members, and 4 co-opted members; and 
that for Selkirk, 6 military members, 2 representative 
members, and 3 co-opted members. The members of each 
Association have always been fairly representative of the 
military, lande& and industrial interests of the district. 
His Grace The Duke of Roxburghe, K.T., M.V.O., 
is president, and Colonel Sir Richard Waldie Griffith, 
Bart., of Hendersyde Park, Kelso, is chairman of the Rox- 
burghshire Association. Captain C. B. Balfour is presi- 
dent and chairman of the Berwickshire Association. The 
Right Hon. Lord Polwarth is president, and Major C. 
H. Scott Plummer of Sunderland Hall, Selkirk, chairman 
of the Sclkirkshire Association. 
The units administered by thcse Associations at the 
outbreak of the late war were :-- 
ROXBURGH.--1 squadron Lothians and Border Horse. 
3 companies of the 4th King's Own Scottish 
Borderers. 
BERWICK.--1 squadron Lothians and Border Horse. 
2 companies of the 4th King's Own Scottish 
Borderers. 
SELKIRK.3 companies of the 4th King's Own Scottish 
Borderers, with the Headquarters of that 
Regiment. 



202 

Lieut.-Colonel Andrew Haddon, O.B.E., Hawick,. 
was appointed Secretary of the three Associations, with 
offices at 7 Tower Knowe, Hawick, and Mr J. Aikman 
Smith, C.A., 11 Duke Street, Edinburgh, was appointed 
auditor. 
Ail the members of each Association were elected to 
the General Purposes Committee. 
It was seen at the very start that the three Associa- 
tions would be jointly interested in the greater part of 
the business, and it was obvious that Joint Committees 
would be required. Ail the members of each Asso-- 
ciation were therefore appointed a Joint Committee. 
Captain C. B. Balfour, of Newton Don, Kelso, then the 
Chairman, now the President of the Berwickshire Associa- 
tion, was appointed Chairman of the Joint Committee. 
There was also appointed a Joint Finance and Advisory 
Committce of nine members, which could be called to- 
6ether at short notice to authorise the payment of accounts 
or deal with any business requiring immediate attention. 
There was also a Joint Mobilization Committee appointed 
to deal with these matters. 
Meetin6s of the Roxbur6hshire Association have been 
held at Newtown St Boswells, of the Berwickshire Associa- 
tion at Duns, and of the Selkirkshire Association at Gala- 
shiels. The Joint Association meetings have been held 
in the County Council rooms, Newtown St Boswells, the 
use of these rooms having been granted by the Roxburgh- 
shire County Council, a small rent bein6 char6ed. In 
order to comply with the terres of the schemes, it was 
necessary to hold meetin6s of each Association in the 
County Council rooms immediately after the Joint 
Committee met for the purpose of homolo6atin6 the 
resolutions corne to at these joint meetin6s. 
Although the business of the Associations was con- 
ducted jointly, the schemes, to6ether with War Office 
instructions, entailed separate books and accounts to be 
kept for each Association. An Army Book, 89.B., was 
therefore kept for each Association to6ether with a 
separate minute book for each, as well as a minute book 
for the minutes of the Joint Committee. The claires for 



203 
annual rants were made up for each Association as welI 
as the financial returns. A separate bank account was 
kept for each, and the £rants for each Association paid 
into the respective bank accounts, which were drawn 
upon by cheques si£ned by appointed members of the 
respective Associations and the secretary. 
The followin£ were the members of each Association 
prior to the war:-- 
ROXBURGHSHIRE.-- 
The Right Hon. Lord Reay, K.T., G.C.S.I. 
G.C.I.E., President. 
Colonel Sir Richard Waldie Griflîth, Bart., 
Chairman. 
His Grace The Duke of Roxbur£he, K.T. 
M.V.O., Vice-Chairman. 
Lord G. W. Montagu Douglas Scott. 
Provost J. S. Boyd. 
Captain Mark Sprot. 
Major C. W. Anderson. 
Maior A. M. Small. 
Major A. Stevenson. 
Major W. A. Innes. 
Maior T. D. Crichton Smith. 
Arm.-Sgt. J. H. Scott. 
Provost Melrose. 
A. B. Patrick, Esq. 
BERWlCKSHIRE.-- 
Captain C. B. Balfour, Chairman. 
Colonel Lord Binning, M.V.O., Presidento 
Major J. Hunter, Vice-Chairman. 
Lieut.-Colonel D. W. Milne Home. 
Captain A. N. McDougal. 
Major 3ames Greig. 
Colonel C. Hope. 
Major R. H. Shaw. 
Provost J. Ford. 
Colonel W. M. Threipland. 
Major Sinclair Wemyss. 
Captain Fulton. 



204 
SELK1RKSH1RE.-- 
The Right Hon. Lord Polwarth, President. 
Major C. H. Scott Plummer, Chairman. 
The Earl of Dalkeith (now His Grace The Duk¢ 
of Buccleuch), Vice-Chairman. 
Major D. C. Alexander. 
Major W. Dunlop. 
John Scott, Esq. 
John C. Scott, Esq. 
Major J. Herbertson. 
Captain J. L. Pringle. 
Lieut. S. Strang Steel. 
Lieut.-Colonel J. McNeile. 
Captain McGregor Jobson. 
The following were the members of the Finance and 
Advisory Committee :- 
Colonel C. Hope. 
Captain C. B. Balfour. 
Colonel Sir Richard Waldie Griflth, Bart. 
His Grace The Duke of Roxburghe, K.T., 
M.V.O. 
Major C. H. Scott Plummer. 
Major T. D. Crichton Smith. 
John H. F. K. Scott, Esq. 
John C. Scott, Esq. 
A. B. Patrick, Esq. 
Although some of the members were called on and 
had to leave the country for servicc abroad, their places 
were not filled, but when any member was reported 
killed or presumed to be killed, a substitute was round to 
fill the vacancy. As a number of the military members 
were on home service and were able to attend the meet- 
ings of the Associations, and in view of the fact that much 
of the business had devolved upon the Joint Finance 
and Advisory Committee and a Joint Emergency Com- 
mittee consisting of the Chairman of each Association with 
Colonel Hope and Major Dunlop, the work of the 
Associations was carried on quite satisfactorily. These 



205 

committees frequently met in the Secretary's office and 
took the burden of the great pressure of work entailed 
at the time of mobilisation. 
Another room was fitted up in the Secretary's offices 
for the accommodation of the staff to be engaged on the 
separation allowance work, and girls employed to be 
initiated into that work. The Secretary's staff was added 
to as it was round necessry to undertake the increased 
volume of work. The Separation Allowance Department 
has hand[ed up to 2000 claires. A separte set of books 
and accounts are kept for this Department, which are 
audited periodically by auditors from the Scottish 
Command. 
In peace time the Associations had provided suitable 
drill halls and rifle ranges. The site for a drill hall was 
purchased at Hawick, and a suitable drill hall erected 
thereon at a cost of .2750. A building was purchased 
at Galashiels and alterations and additions ruade thereon 
to make it suitable for a drill hall with headquarter offices 
and stores for the Regiment at a cost of 311S. A build- 
ing was leased at Melrose and altered to make it suitable 
for a drill hall. Drill halls and armouries were also 
acquired on lease at 8elkirk and throughout Berwickshire. 
These drill halls were suitably furnished and gymnastic 
apparatus obtained for the use of the men, and instructors 
lrovided to give instruction. Rifle ranges were either 
provided or put into proper repair at the various Detach- 
ments throughout the three counties. Drill fields were 
also arranged for the use of the units. The latest web 
equilment had been provided and ail units were suitably 
clothed. The yeomanry had a suit of walking-out dress 
and service dress for each man. Walking-out dress had 
not been provided for the infantry, but two sets of service 
dress had been supplied for each man. Mobilisation 
stores had aIso been provided or a contract ruade for their 
supply, so that when the word to mobilise came every- 
thing was ready. 
The Association undertook the raising and organisa- 
tion of the National Reserve, and appointed Golonel Sir 
Richard Waldie Griffith to the command of the Battalion 



206 
|or Roxburh and Selkirk, and Colonel Hope to the 
eommand of the Battalion for Berwickshire. They also 
appointed committees throuhout the area for the purpose 
-of recruitin and oranisin. The ollowin were the 
Chairmen of these Committees:-- 
ROXBURGH.-- 
Hawick--Lieut.-Colonel A. Haddon, O.B.E., 
Hawick. 
Jedburgh--Major C. W. Anderson, Royal Bank 
House, Jedburh. 
Kelso--Major T. D. Crichton Smith, Kelso. 
Melrose--Major A. Murison Small, Commercial 
Bank Chambers, Melrose. 
BERWICK.-- 
Duns--Captain A. N. McDoual, Market Square, 
Duns. 
Coldstream and Swinton-- Captain Smith, 
Orchard House, Coldstream. 
Earlston--Colonel C. Hope, of Cowdenknowes, 
Earlston. 
Lauder--Captain G. L. Broomfield, Lauder. 
Greenlaw--Captain J. McDoual, Bassendean, 
Gordon. 
Chirnside--Mr Geore Ainslie, The Bridge, 
Chirnside. 
Ayton--Major T. J. S. Douhty, Ayton. 
Eyemouth--Sert.-Major Peter Edar, Albert 
Road, Eyemouth. 
SELKIRK.-- 
Selkirk--Major D. C. Alexander, Selkirk. 
Galashiels--Major W. Dunlop, Lawyer's Brae, 
Galashiels. 
Many parades took place at the headquarters of de- 
tachments, and a shootin competition was oranised and 
held at Melrose for the Roxburh and Selkirk Battalion, 
prizes bein awarded to the best shootin detachments, 
and a parade of the Berwickshire Battalion was held at 
Duns. A register of ail men was kept by the chairman 



207 

-at each detachment Headquarters and by the secretary of 
the Associations. At the outbreak of war parades of these 
.detachments were held at the Headquarters of each de- 
tachment, which were attended by Colonel Sir Richard 
Waldie Griffith in Roxburh and Selkirk, and by Colonel 
Hope in Berwickshire, who read the conditions upon 
which they could ioin the army. Many enrolled at once, 
and others enrolled at subsequent parades. The men were 
classified into Class I., Class II., and Class III. Class I. 
had been medically examined as fit for foreign service, 
and subsequent instructions provided they could only get 
the bounty if they ioined the Reular or New Armies. 
The bounty for Class I. was £10, and the bounty for Class 
II. £5. After the outbreak of war A.F.N.R.1 were 
issued for every man entitled to the bounty who joined 
the army. The strenth of the National Reserve was as 
follows :-- 
Roxburghshire ...... 445 
Berwickshire ......... 410 
Selkirkshire ......... 376 

1231 
The recruiting under the voluntary system entailed 
a great amount of work on behalf of the members of the 
Associations, and each contributed his quota in one way 
or another. Arrangements were ruade with the political 
agents and their committees to assist in this work. Meet- 
ings were arranged in ail the towns and villages through- 
out the area administered by the Associations. Local 
bands were engaged, and the band of the 3rd Battalion 
K.O.S.B. from Edinburgh was brought out, and played 
:t various centres throughout the area. Speakers were 
arranged to address the audiences, advertisements were 
inserted in the local papers, and attractive bills posted 
at ail populous places. Large supplies of circulars and 
attestation forms, both for the Regular Army and Ter- 
ritorial Force were obtained, and the former freely distri- 
buted. Recruiting staffs were organised at every Drill 
Hall with instructions to recruit every man available either 
for the Territorial Force or Kitchener's Army, the latter 



2O8 

being the most popular, as it was considered by many that 
they would be the first to go to the front, which was not 
the case. 
On the passing of the Military Service Act the 
Chairman, Captain C. B. Balfour, was appointed area 
representntive. Major T. D. Crichton Smith, Major 
Dunlop (both Members of the Association), and the 
Secretary were appointed Military Representatives, and 
subsequently, with the exception of Major T. D. Crichton 
Smith, National Service representatives, and these gentle- 
men did a great deal of work in securing men for the 
army. 
When the additional battalions came to be organised 
much work fell to the Associations, especially in the 
clothing and equipping of these and in finding the under- 
clothing required, also for the 1/4th K.O.S.B., before 
proceeding to the front. The Emergency and Finance 
Commitees took this in hand. The contracts with the 
London clothiers were stopped, as the War Office 
required these contractors to supply the immediate needs 
of the army in the south. The Hawick hosiery firms were 
each visited, and old stocks on their shelves of the very 
best quality of underclothing purchased. They also 
arranged with the textile mills in the district to make 
and supply the necessary khaki cloth, which was ruade 
up by tailors and clothiers in Galashiels and Hawick. A 
manufacturer in Galashiels also undertook to manufac- 
ture the glengarry caps, including the diccd border, which 
was done most efficiently, although these articles had not 
been manufactured in the district before. These arrange- 
ments proved most efficient and enabled the Battalions 
to be clothed with the utmost despatch. Boots were also 
obtained from supplies in the shops, and the units were 
clothed and equipped to the entire satisfaction of the 
Commanding Officers. The accounts, amounting to 
about £22,000 for ail these outlays, were checked and 
passed by the Finance Committee, paid by the Associa- 
tions, and debited on an Imprest Account, which was 
subsequently repaid to the Associations through the 
Scottish Command, the result being that three Bat- 



2O9 

talions of Infantry and four Squadrons of Yeomanry were 
recruited, clothed and equipped--the 1/4th K.O.S.B., 
2/4th K.O.S.B., 3/4th K.O.S.B., and two squadrons 1st 
Lothians and Border Horse, one squadron 2/1st Lothians 
and Border Horse, and one squadron 3/1st Lothians and 
Border Horse. A depot (first called the Administrative 
Centre) for the K.O.S.B. Territorials had been estab- 
lished in Galashiels, and another in Wemyss Place, Edin- 
burgh, for the Lothians and Border Horse, to which the 
Associations sent considerable supplies of clothing, under- 
clothing, and boots, which enabled subsequent drafts of 
recruits to be fitted out ready to join the reserve unit. 
In peace rime two squadrons of the Yeomanry were 
administered by Roxburgh and Berwick Associations, the 
other two squadrons with Headquarters in Edinburgh 
were administered by the City of Edinburgh. After the 
outbreak of war the four scuadrons were put into three 
squadrons, and as this entailed a good deal of mixing up 
of men administered by the different Associations in 
March, 1917, the payment of the separation and depend- 
ents' allowances were taken over by the City of Edin- 
burgh. 
The 2/4th K.O.S.B. was billeted in Galashiels, and 
Colonel Sir Richard Waldie Griffith, as Chairman of the 
Roxburghshire T.F. Association, did good work in obtain- 
ing suitable billets there on reasonable terres, and the rents 
and claires were settled by the Associations. 
As already stated, every facility was given for men to 
enrol in the Regular or New Armies, and a supply of 
Attestation Forms for these Armies, as well as the Terri- 
torials, were provided at ail Recruiting Centres. The 
Associations also gave the Regular and New Armies 
billeted in the area the use of the Drill Halls and Rifle 
Ranges, paying ail expense of heating, lighting, and clean- 
ing of the former and ail repairs and upkeep of the latter. 
An important part of the duties of the Association has 
been the recommendation of gentlemen for commissions 
throughout the war. A joint Committee was appointed 
composed of Captain C. B. Balfour, Colonel Hope, and 
Major Alexander, who have satisfied themselves as to the 



210 
qualifications and suitability of each applicant before the 
President and Secretary of the respective Associations 
signed the certificate on the Army Form. 
At a meeting of the Joint Committee held on 25th 
October, 1916, the question of raising Volunteers was con- 
sidered. Colonel The Hon. W. G. Hepburne Scott, who 
had been asked to attend the meeting, explained what 
would be required, and it was resolved to raise a Volun- 
teer Battalion from Roxburgh and Selkirk and another 
Volunteer Battalion from Berwickshire. After the pro- 
bable number of officers and men had been ascertained 
it was agreed to request the Lords Lieutenant of these 
counties to make the necessary offer of service for His 
Majesty's acceptance, and Committees were appointed to 
put forward the names of gentlemen for commissions to 
be recommended by the Lords Lieutenant. 
At a subsequent meeting it was reported that the 
offers of service had been accepted by His Majesty, and 
the following strength had been enrolled:-- 
1st Roxburghshire Volunteer Regiment ... 685 
1st Berwickshire Volunteer Regiment ... 457 
1st Selkirkshire Volunteer Regiment ... 485 
The following gentlemen had been nominated for 
commissions :-- 
ROXBURGHSHIRE.-- 
Maior A. Stevenson. Mr Thomas Black. 
Maior W. A. Innes. Mr Wr. E. Ballantyne. 
Mr M. J. Oliver. Mr A. Midd|emas. 
Mr J. B. Hamilton. Rev. John Laidlaw. 
Mr W. Scott El|iot. Mr John T. C. Hi||. 
Mr H. S. R. Innes. Mr Robert E. Boyd. 
Mr James Veitch. 
ERWICKSHIRE.-- 
Captain C. B. Balfour (as County Adiutant). 
Captain A. N. McDougal. 
Mr A. Malcolm. Mr H. Harvie. 
Mr W. E. Kitson. Mr J. F. Veitch. 
Mr G. S. Robertson. Mr N. P. Durie. 



SELKIRKSHIRE.-- 
Colonel H. S. Murray. 
Mr D. G. Stalker. 
Mr John Roberts, jun. 
Mr J. S. McQueen. 
Mr R. H. Dun. 

211 

Mr R. S. Sanderson. 
Mr C. Craig-Brown. 
Mr Wm. Rutherford. 
Mr R. Turnbull. 
Mr Thomas Dryden. 

It was also reported that Coloncl Sir Richard Waldie 
Griffith had been appointed County Commandant for 
Roxburghshire, and Lieut.-Colonel Murray, County Com- 
mandant for Selkirkshire, and that these were to form an 
Administrative Battalion to be called the Bordcr Rifle 
Volunteer Battalion, under the command of Colonel Sir 
Richard Waldie Griffith. Colonel Hope was appointed 
County Commandant for Berwickshire, and Maior J. C. 
Aitken, Nisbet, Duns, to command the 1st Berwickshire 
Voluntcer Battalion. On 14th Aùgust, 1917, Colonel Sir 
Richard Waldie Griffith having resigned the command 
and the office of County Commandant in ordcr to take 
up military duty in France, Lieut.-Colonel Murray was 
appointed to the Command, and Lieut.-Colonel Steven- 
son was appointed County Commandant for Roxburgh- 
sbire. Captain J. M. Dun, 4th K.O.S.B., was appointed 
Adjutant of the Border Rifles, and Captain A. N. 
McDougal, Duns, was appointed Adiutant of the 1st 
Berwickshire Volunteer Regiment. A sure of money was 
voted for each Commanding Officer to meet his postage 
and petty outlays, and ail the drill halls and rifle ranges 
belonging to the Associations were put at their disposal 
for drilling and rifle practice purposes. Additional drill 
halls at outlying populous centres were also hired for 
their use. The Royal Army Clothing Department sup- 
plied the cloth on Indent, and the Associations arranged 
contracts for the uniforms tobe ruade up first by a London 
firm, but latterly by a Galashiels and Hawick firm of 
clothiers. Equipment as well as arms were obtained by 
Indent on the Ordnance at Stirling, and the whole Force 
was suitably clothed and equipped in anticipation of the 
men becoming efficient. On their being certified as 
havlng become efficient a Grant of £2 per man was drawn 



2i2 

by the Associations to meet the cost of clothin and other 
expenses. After the regiments were armed, clothed and 
equipped, mobilization stores were indented for on 
Ordnance and supplied to each Volunteer Battalion. 
Alternative titles were given by the War Office to these 
two Volunteer Regiments, that for the Border Rifles to 
be 1st Vol. Batt. King's Own Scottish Borderers, and that 
for 1st Berwickshire Volunteer Regiment to be 2nd Vol. 
Batt. King's Own Scottish Borderers. 
Circulars were sent out to owners of heavy motor 
lorries and others throughout Roxburgh, Berwick, and 
Selkirk, asking for the use of these to form a Heavy 
Motor Transport Corps. Although these were readily 
offered, it was round that Roxburgh was the only county 
possessin sufficient of the weight required. An offer of 
service of such a Corps was sent in by the Lord Lieutenant 
of Roxburgh, which was accepted by His Majesty. The 
naine of Mr J. B. Situe, Brieryhill, Hawick, was sent in 
for a commission to command the Corps, and he was duly 
gazetted Lieutenant to the Command. Mr R. W. 
Michael, Kerchesters, Kelso, was also gazetted a 2nd Lieu- 
tenant. The naine assigned to this l_]nit was Roxburgh- 
sbire A.S.C., M.T. (V.), and it consisted of one heavy 
section. 
A conference was held in London on 23rd April, 1918, 
with the Under Secretary of State for War in reference 
to the raising of Special Service Companies for Coast 
Defence. ]_.ieut.-Colonel Murray, Major Aitken, and the 
Secretary attended on behalf of the Associations, when it 
was arraged that these Service Companies should be 
provided for three months, and the pay, with separation 
allowances, to be the saine as those paid for the Territorial 
Force. The necessary number of officers and men offered 
their services and were organised under the 93rd and 94th 
Companics of the Special Service Volunteers doing duty 
at Dunbar. The separation and dependents' allowances 
xvere assessed by the Secretary and paid to the dependents 
and wives of these Volunteers. There were 36 had 
dependents and 35 were married. 



At the conclusion of the period the following letter of 
appreciation was received from the Director General of 
the Territorial Force:-- 
WAR OFFICE, 
ADASTRAL HOUSE, 
VICTORIA EMBANKMENT, F.C.4, 
28th September, 1918. 

SIR, 

With reference to the termination this day of 
the engagement of the Volunteers who have been serving 
for three months in the Special Service Companies raised 
under War Office letter, number as above, of the 1st June 
last, at the original instance of the Under Secretary of 
State for War in his appeal at the Conference heid at the 
County Hall, Spring Gardens, London, on the 27th May 
last, I am directed by the Army Councii to convey to you 
an expression of the keen appreciation which is felt at the 
patriotic response to that appeal. 
It is fully realised that the officers and men concerned, 
who voluntarily undertook, in nearly ali cases at consider- 
able inconvenience to themseives, unaccustomed duties for 
protracted periods of two or three months, enabled the 
Government to meet a critical situation, and tide over 
very difficuit days in the history of the war. 
I am glad to add that ail concerned may congratulate 
themselves on the fact that up to the limit of their powers 
they have directly contributed to the improvement of the 
situation in France, and on more distant fronts. It is a 
matter of satisfaction to know that members of the Volun- 
teer Force can be relied upon to corne forward on the 
occasion of a crisis such as that which recently occurred, 
and I ara to ask you to convey this expression of thanks 
to ail concerned. 
I ara, Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 
(Sgd.) SCARBOROUGH, Major General, 
Director General, 
Territorial and Volunteer Forces. 



Recruiting for the 1st Vol. Bn. K.O.S.B. (Border 
Rifles) commenced in December, 1916, including both 
Roxburghshire and Selkirkshire. Captain John M. Dun, 
l/4th Bn. K.O.S.B., was appointed Adjutant on 27th 
April, 1917, and about this time the obligation for a 
definite number of hours of training to be done each 
month came into force, and about 75 per cent. of the 
Battalion signed the necessary form. The permanent 
staff consisted of R.S.M.W. Balmer {K.O.S.B.), C.S.M. 
Instructor of Musketry Buchanan {K.O.S.B.), and Reg. 
Q.M.S. Elliot (H.L.I.). 
The total number of ail ranks enrolled was 2121. Of 
this total 546 men joined the Regular Army, about 200 
were discharged medically unfit, and 1200 passed the effi- 
ciency test, a record which was commented on most 
favourably by the G.O.C.-in-C., Scottish Command. 
The various specialists, signallers, machine gunners, 
pioneers, etc., were fully trained up to establishment. 
The Battalion was fully equipped and armed early in 
1917, although every man could hOt be clothed, as the 
Battalion was always over establishment. On the llth 
November, 1918, the total strength was 1044. 
Temporary service was performed by men of Jedburgh 
and Hawick Detachments for about 18 months, manning 
Hostile Aircraft Observation Posts at Jedburgh, Denholm, 
Hawick, and Borthwickbrae. This duty was performed 
from sunset till sunrise during that period. 
The Battalion was inspected at various dates by the 
G.O.C.-in-C., Scottish Command, G.O.C. Special Re- 
serve Brigade, G.O.C. Highland Reserve Brigade, Inspec- 
tor General of Infantry for Scotland, all of whom ex- 
pressed their satisfaction as to its efficiency. The official 
report of the Inspector General of Infantry was:-- 
REPORT OF I.G. INFANTRY VOLUNTEER UNITS. 
lST BATTALION BORDER RIFLES VOLUNTEER REGIMENT. 
TRAINING.--Well tralned and as good as any other Volun- 
teer Battalion seen. Both instruction and work 
thoroughly satisfactory throughout. 
DRILL.---Good. 



MUSKETR¥.--Instruction good, but a little more attention 
needed to the correction of faults. 
BAYONET FIGHTING.--Good. 
HOTCHKI$$ GuNs.--Work smart and instruction good. 
REMARKS.--A thoroughly efficient Battalion. 
REMARKS B¥ G.O.C. SPECIAL RESERVE BRIGADE. 
A very satisfactory report and reflects great credit on 
the Commanding Officer and Adiutant. 
(Sgd.) C.J. SIMPSON, Lt.-Col., 
Special Reserve Brigade. 
Edinburgh, 23/3/18. 
Field Marshal French inspected the Battalion at 
Galashiels in January, 1917, and 600 men of the Battallon 
took part in the march past before the Duke of Connaught 
in September, 1917. 
The Duke specially congratulated the County Com- 
mandant on the smartness of the Battalion. 
About 600 men of the Battalion were under canvas in 
August and September, 1918, at Hedderwick and 
Melrose. 
When a call was ruade for Special Service Companles 
in May, 1918, at a critical period in the war, two officers 
and 109 men offered their services, though only two 
officers and 71 men were accepted. These were on duty 
on the East Coast from 29th .lune till 29th September, 
1918. 
The Battalion was one of the most efficient unlts in 
Scotland, and was frecluently held up to other units as an 
example of the standard to whlch Volunteers could be 
raised.