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Full text of "Warren centennial : an account of the celebration at Warren, Pennsylvania July 2d, 3d, and 4th in commeration of the first century after the laying out of the town of Warren"

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Warren centennial 

1 



WARREN PUBLIC UBRARY 

f^u-lae iDon jJinhoaiikl 
'Wlkl'KjO.n J4idorlcat ColLcfion 

Warren Centennial 



AN ACCOUNT 



Celebration at Warren, Pennsylvania 



July 2d, ^d, and 4th, 189^ 



IN COMMEMORATION OF THE FIRST CENTURY AFTER 
THE LAYING OUT OF THE TOWN OF WARREN 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

Warren Library Association 



ON THE THRESHOLD 

The preservation of any record of the daily 
events at the Warren Centennial, including the 
speeches and addresses, is due to the enterprise 
and neighborly interest of the editor of the " Oil 
City Derrick." From the elaborate reports pub- 
lished in that journal the editor has freely drawn in 
the preparation of this volume. 

Articles descriptive ot the various features of 
the exhibition have been kindly iurnished by Mrs. 
James Brann, Mrs. F. H. Rockwell, Mrs. Charles 
W. Stone, Mrs. W. M. Lindsey, Miss Belle S. Val- 
entine, Mr. C. D. Crandall, Mr. W. V. N. Yates, 
Mr. Joseph A. Scofield, and Superintendent VV. L. 
MacGowan, which have been used in the prepara- 
tion or incorporated into the text of the volume. 

The view of the old-time Warren Street is repro- 
duced from a drawing by Miss Elizabeth Lesser, 
after some old photographs, and she has also kindly 
furnished several other drawings. Mr. W. A. 
Greaves loaned his water-color, " Coming Down 
from Yankee Bush," which will be recognized as a 
faithful portrait of a familiar character. He also 
kindly furnished a number of most interesting ])ho- 
tographs, as did Messrs. Bairstow and Binder. 

To all of these, as well as to the great number 
1 



li WARREW CEXTEXNTAL 

of Other persons to whom the editor is indebted for 
the use of pictures and cuts, and for information 
and assistance in his work, he desires to express his 
grateful thanks. 

The appearance of the book has been greatly 
tlelayed. Some causes tor this might be mentioned 
tor which the editor is not responsible, yet it cannot 
be denied that the principal cause is the mistake of 
the Centennial Association in its selection of the per- 
son to whom the task of its preparation was as- 
signed. But while the publication has been delayed, 
the scope of the work has expanded from a mere 
souvenir to a volume, which, however deficient in 
literary quality, will, it is believed, be found to pos- 
sess great interest to tlie citizens of Warren and to 
be of permanent value. In selecting the illustra- 
tions the editor has been embarrassed, and what to 
leave out has given him serious concern. Portraits 
of many persons havi; been inserted, while others 
no less promin('nt in the history of the town have 
been omitted — in some cases because they could not 
be obtained, and in others because the means at the 
disposal ot the editor would not admit of more pict- 
ures. Portraits ot h\'ing persons, however, have 
not been inserted, except in the case of ex- fudges 
and Congressmen, though the taces of many appear 
in the various groups. 

The editor desires, in conclusion, to express his 
sense of obligation to Mr. Joseph Knight, of the 
firm of Henry T. Coates & Co., tor many kind- 
nesses over and above the ordinary services of the 
publishers. 




BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION 



^ HE Centennial Exhibition was an at- 
tempt to illustrate the history of 
the town of Warren from its be- 
ginning to its one hundredth birth- 
day. This history, as well as that 
of the county in general, will be 
found treated in detail in Mr. Mor- 
ris' historical address, but a brief 
chronicle of the principal events 
seems to be required as an introduction to the de- 
scription of the exhibition itself 

The History begins with the year 1749, when 
Captain Bienville de Celeron, with his company of 
Prench and Indians, passed down the Conewano-o 
to the Allegheny, landed on the south bank of the 
latter stream, and buried a leaden plate declarino- the 
sovereignty of the King of France. At or near the 
mouth of the Conewango there was then an Indian 
village, called variously on the old maps and in old 
documents "Kanoagoa," "Canawagy," "Canawao-o," 
and "Conewagoo." It was certainly there when, in 
1779, Colonel Brodhead came up the river to punish 
Cornplanter for his assistance to the British cause, 
and in 17S5, when Brigadier-General William Ir- 
vine visited the country and cast his practical eye 



WAEREN VESTF.yyi. I L 






upon the beautiful flats at the mouths of the Cone- 
wanoo and Brokenstraw, which he afterwards took 
up from the State, and which in part still remain in 
the ownership of his descendants. The exhibition, 
therefore, naturally began with an Indian village, 
and the descendants of Cornplanter, still living on 
the banks of the Allegheny, gladly availed them- 
selves of the opportunity to 
return for a few days to the 
home and manners of their 
fathers. 

Pursuant to an act of the 
Legislature, passed June 19, 
1795, the town of Warren 
was laid out by the Com- 
missioners of the State, Gen. 
William Irvine and Andrew 
Ellicott, into 524 lots and 
certain "out-lots" — undi- 
vided tracts adjoining the 
" in-lots." The Commissioners began their sur- 
vey at a stone on the bank of the Conewango, 
which disappeared before the memory of an)' 
pcM-son now living ; but at a very early da)- some 
thoughtful person, probabl)- Robert Falconer, set 
stones at the four corners of Market and High 
stre(;ts, from wliich the present landmarks have 
been derivt.'d. The dimensions of tlie lots and the 
absence of alleys in the middle of the blocks have 
been found serious mistakes in modern times, but 
the general plan ol the town was convenient and 
beautiful. 




CO RN PLANTER. 



BY ]VAV OF TXTRnnrcrrox 5 

A wide street was run along the bank ot the river 
and up the Conewango to the Hmit of the plot, thus 
leaving an unobstructed view of the river and the 
hill scenery beyond for a distance ot more than half 
a mile ; but as the streams were, at the time, the 
only thoroughfares, it is probable that this arrange- 
ment was prompted by commercial rather than by 
sesthetic considerations. 

Back from the river. High street, one hundred 
feet in width, was laid in nearly a straight line from 
the initial point of the survey on the banks of the 
Conewango to the western limit ; and Market street, 
also one hundred feet wide, from the northern 
boundary to the river. At the intersection of these 
wide streets a large square was reserved for public 
use. 

The site of the town was reserved by the Com- 
monwealth from the 
grant to the Holland 
Land Company. An- 
drew Ellicott and his 
son-in-law, Dr. Ken- 
nedy, with a party of 
assistants, were on 
the ground surveying 
for that company in 
1794-5, and they erected a house of hewn logs as 
a depot of supplies. This block-house, without Hoor, 
window or chimney, was the first permanent build- 
ing. It remained until about 1S40, and our illustra- 
tion is from a drawing made by A. D. Wood, 
Esq., from the description of those who remember 




FlKM IIoLSK IN WaKKKN. 



(1 ]rARRI-:x CEXTKXMAL 

its appearance. Daniel McOuay, a witty and in- 
domitable Irishman, who several times returned on 
foot from New Orleans to the Brokenstraw after 
making the descent of the rivers on rafts, lived for 
a time with his family in this house, and was thus 
the first permanent resident of Warren. Here, a 
little later, David Brown, the father oi Judge William 
D. Brown, abided with his family for a time, and 
his daughter Mary, afterwards Mrs. Jagger, of 
.Sugar Grove, was born there in 1S07, the first female 
born in the town, the first male being Stephen 
Gilson. 

The storehouse and an abandoned improvement 
on the Conewango flats opposite the t(5\vn site were 
the only evidences ot civilized lite which were visible 
when, in 179S, James Morrison, Jr., and (jates IMur- 
dock landed from their dugout in the eddy. The 
fine growth of large oaks which originally covered 
the ground had been blown down by a terrific wintl 
storm, in which Ellicott and his part\- nearly lost 
their lives, in 1795. In iSoo James Morrison, .Sr., 
and [eremiah Morrison arrived, and in iSo^John 
(jilson and others. 

In 1797 Daniel Jackson settled on what is now 
the W'etmore farm on the t^ickson run, and about 
1800 was celebrated the starting of the first saw- 
mill in the county. At this mill the first raft of 
lumber ever floated down the Allegheny is said to 
have been sawed. 

Although so far from civilizetl lil(\ and li\-ing in 
log huts, the pioneers were not unmindtul ot the 
dutv of education. As early as 1S04 the Morrison, 



BY WAT OF IXTROhUCTfOX 



Gilson and Jackson children were gadiered into a 
very select school under a Mrs. Cheeks, whose equip- 
ment consisted of a Dilworth's Speller and a copy 
of the New Testament, and she was succeeded the 
following winter by Betsy Gilson. In 1S05 Daniel 
Jackson, with lumber from his Jackson run saw- 
mill, built the Jackson Tavern on the site where the 
Citizens' Bank noi 



stands, which became 
the first licensed "inn 
or tavern " in the 
county. In a small 
vacant room in this 
building George W. 
Fenton, little dream- 
ing that he was to be 
the father of a Gov- 
ernor and United 
States Senator of the 
Empire State, wield- 
ed the birch, in the 
winter of 1806, until 
the school-house, of 




^> 



Mk-. llAMhl, Ja. K^o.n. 

round logs, with openings covered by oiled paper for 
windows, which was built in that year, was ready. 

It was in this same room in Jackson's Tavern 
that Lothrop T. Parmlee, in iSoS, opened the first 
stock of " store goods " ever brought to Warren, 
and here also his rival in business during so many 
years, Archibald Tanner, displayed his first stock, 
brought by keel-boat up the Allegheny from the 
Ohio Valley. Mr. Parmlee remained but a short 



8 M'ARRFy rEXTEXyiAL 

time at his first visit, but returned in time to dis- 
pute with Mr. Tanner, who came in 1815, the title 
of first merchant. His house and store building 
stood a little west of the present Carver House, 
while Mr, Tanner, with an eye to the advantages of 
the river bank, took his chances of disturbance, and 
built in 1S16 the little one-story frame building 
which still stands on the bank of the river and within 
the bounds of the street. In times of freshet steam- 
boats were moored to its foundation-walls, and the 
cargoes loaded and unloaded by the use of a bull- 
wheel at the rear, overhanging the water. 

In 1S08 came John King, who married Betsy 
( lilson, the school-ma'am. Their son, Rufus P. King, 
Esq., and many grand and great-grandchildren, are 
still among us. In 1S12 Martin Reese, Sr., built 
of hewn logs a house which stood until the First 
National Bank building was erected on its site. For 
many years it was the iamous Dunn's Tavern, head- 
quarters for lumbermen, and boasted of having 
sheltered Aaron Burr for several days while he 
sojourned here, storm bound, on his way to visit 
IMiMinerhassetl:. 

I'rom tlie close of the year 1S12 to the clima.K 
()[' the lumbering business, Warren was a fairly 
prosperous and active town. Postal service was 
established in the spring ol 181 5. Andrew Coburn 
was the first postmaster, and made his first quarterly 
rej^ort |ulv 1, 1815, but tlie precise date ot his 
conunission cannot be ascertained. Alter Coburn, 
Archibald Tanner held the office several years. 
The coLuU\' ol Warren was established in iSoo, 



'>r 



:> 




AKLUIliAI.II I'ANNKK. 



BY WAY OF lyrRODUCTION 



11 



but it was attached to Venango for judicial pur- 
poses until 1819, when Warren really became a 
county-seat. By that time many men prominent in 
its later annals had arrived, among them Col. Joseph 
Hackney, Henry Dunn, Zachariah Eddy, John An- 
drews, James Follett, Robert Falconer, Lansing 
Wetmore, Abram Ditmars, and the first lawyer, 
Abner Hazeltine. fames Stewart in this vear built 




AMI Wll 1.1 AM I I'M. Ml 



the first saw-mill, availing himself of the water- 
power still in use. He built, also, the first grist- 
mill, in 1S2S. 

When Warren County was organized for busi- 
ness in 1S19 Archibald Tanner became County 
treasurer, Lansing Wetmore Prothonotary and 
Clerk of the Courts, etc., and Joseph Hackney and 
Isaac Connelly Associate Judges. The County 



12 WAR REX rEXTEXXlAL 

Commissioners, James Benson, Asa Winter and 
Henry Dunn, got first to work, and their first busi- 
ness appears to liave been to settle the claim of 
Charles O'Bail, son of Cornplanter, for the bounty 
on two full-grown wolt-scalps. 

Monday, November 29, 1S19, is a date to be 
written large in the annals of Warren. On that 
day, in an unfinished room in the house of Ebenezer 
Jackson, standing where the Carver House is now 
located, the Courts of Common Pleas, Orphans' 
Court, Court of Quarter Sessions, Oyer and Termi- 
ner and General Jail Delivery, were solemnly opened 
f(jr Warren County. It was a day of jubilee and 
jollification among the citizens of the county, and 
nobody was absent. Richard B. Miller, the foreman 
of the Grand Jury, and Guy C. Irvine, the famous 
river lumberman, came on foot, with packs on their 
backs, through the woods from the I"}rokenstraw by 
way of Chandler's \'alley. SheriH" Bowman, Pro- 
thonotary Ale.xander McCalnvjnt ami Court Crier 
Morrison came from \'enango to show the officers 
of the new county how to conduct a court. 

The appointed hour having arrived. Crier Morri- 
son stood in the front door of the rude building and 
blew his horn, the town afi'ording no bell. At the 
signal the officers assembled, and, led b)- the sherifi, 
escorted the Court to the room. IVesident Judge 
[esse Moore, of Meadville, but originally of Phila- 
delphia, a large and venerable-looking gendeman ot 
the old school, with a broad-brimmed beaver upon 
his head, took his seat on the bench, with the Lay 
ludges. Hackney and Connelly, tlanking him to right 




Ab.nkk Ha/:iiI_i ink. 



BY WA r OF lyTRODVCTION 15 

and left, while the audience filled the rude benches, 
and, for want of other room, even perched upon the 
bare beams overhead. Crier Morrison, with great 
dignity, recited the quaint formula still in use in 
opening court, concluding with what Daniel McOuay 
called "a bit of a prayer" — "God save the Common- 
wealth and this Pionorable Court." 

The oath of office as attorneys in the new courts 
was then administered to the lawyers present. The 
only resident lawyer was Abner Hazeltine, after- 
wards judge in Chautauqua County, N. Y., but Col. 
Ralph Marlin and Patrick Farrelly, of Meadville, 
Thomas H. Sill, of Erie, and John Galbraith, of 
Franklin, afterwards president judge, were present. 
Some civil causes had been transferred from Ve- 
nango, but none were tried, and the court would 
have adjourned without a jury trial had not an 
altercation taken place in the evening between 
John Dixon, a member of the grand jury, and Col. 
Marlin, both being a litde more than "gentlemanly 
gay," to use L. S. Parmlee's phrase. This resulted 
in the prosecution of both for assault and battery, 
in the trial of which Messrs. Sill and Galbraith, the 
latter a very young man, distinguished themselves. 

In 1820 the first frame school-house was erected 
by the inhabitants on the northwest part of the plot 
reserved tor pubh'c uses. In 18:25 it was removed 
to the adjoining lot, and subsequently converted into 
a dwelling-house. 

On its first site a court-house was erected between 
1825 and 1827, the first brick building in the county. 
The bricks were made at the corner of Market and 



16 



WARREN CENTENXIAL 



Fifth streets, where Charles W. Stone found the 
remains of the brick-yard when he applied his 
exhaustless energies to gardening there, after his 
marriage in the late '60s. Across Market street 
the first jail, a leaky structure, which some early 
humorist likened to a "turkey-pen," was built, and 




( )|.l) (.'ulRl-llnrsK. 



the old stone jail which succeeded it is still remem- 
bered by the youngsters. 

The Warren ot the '60s w^as a rude little ham- 
let, "beautiful lor situation," but for nothing else. 
The business oi the country was lumbering, and 
the river was crowded in high water with rafts. 
W'Ik'U the water was high enough, steamboats from 
Pittsburg ascended the river laden with passengers, 




Lansinc, Wktmijrk. 



BV ]v,\r OF ixTRonurTfox 19 

" store g-oods " and whiskey, and when it was low. 
transportation for persons and goods was by l<eel- 
boats and canoes. In very early days an occasional 
Methodist preacher held services on Sunday, and 
before 1820 Abner Hazeltine read sermons in his 
house to the assembled people, which resulted in a 
regular meeting in the new school-house, when it 
became available in that year, out of which grew the 
First Presbyterian Church. 

July 24, 1S25, the first number of the Conewango 
Emigrant was issued. The name was soon changed 
to the M^arren Courier, but it suspended in the 
sprinc: of 1826. The starting of the Emigrant 
stirred up Tanner and Lansing Wetmore, both 
ardent Whigs. With the help of some Whig 
Quakers in Philadelphia, who furnished them the 
Ramage press which was one of the curiosities of 
the Centennial, they started the Warren Gazette, 
with Wetmore as editor and Morgan Bates as 
printer, and put forth their first number February 
18, 1826. The old press was used for Whig news- 
papers until Fphraim Cowan established the WarreJi 
Mail and supplanted it with a Washington. The 
Gazette, however, suspended in 1S29, when Thomas 
demons and William A. Olney issued the Voice of 
the People, which in time became the Warren Bul- 
letin, then the Dejnocratic Advocate, then the Warren 
Standard, and finally, on the first day of May, 1849, 
the U'arren Ledger — a long line of Democratic 
journals. No Whig paper succeeded the Gazette 
until August, 1838, when M. Milligan issued the 
People s Jl/onitor, which ran a languishing course 



20 



WARRKN CENTEXMAL 



until 1845, "^^'htTi it died on tlie hands of P. S. Colt*. 
In 1X48 a few earnest Whigs started the Alleghenv 
A fail, with I. Warren Fletcher as editor. In a few 
montlis the paper fell into the hands of Ephraim 
Cowan, who changed the name to Warren Mail, 
under which title it is still conducted by his sons. 

On Wednesday, May 24, 1826, the first four-horse 
stage arrived. The editor of the GazetU\ proudly 

announcing the 
event, declared that 
anyone who had fa- 
vored such an enter- 
prise five years pre- 
viously would have 
been regarded as 
"visionary and chi- 
merical." Stages 
now plied between 
Warren and Dunkirk 
once a week, the 
same gradually im- 
proving until, about 
184S, by the neic line 
established b\- Rich- 
ard T. Orr and others, 
a traveller could go 
from Pittsburgh to 
Buffalo in less than 
three days, stages leaving Warren tor Pittsburg 
everv UKirning, and for Buffalo ever\' evening. 

Although the- Presbyterians had the first con- 
gregation, the JNIethodist Episcopal was the first 




First M. K, ('iirRiii nK iS; 



BY ir.ir OF TXTunDrcrrnx 



21 



'^:r- 



J t 



church building dedicated in die town. It was a 
substantial brick building, dedicated in 1833, and 
was occupied continuously until it was demolished 
in 1SS5, when the present more elegant structure 
was built. The first Presbyterian church was dedi- 
cated in 1834. It was a quaint wooden building with 
a high pulpit, 
gallery, and fur- 
n i s h e d with 
"pews" and 
"slips." To raise 
the necessary 
funds the pews 
were sold out- 
right, which gave 
rise to a notable 
controversy, 
later on, when 
the necessities of 
the congregation 
made it expedi- 
ent to exact a 
rentfortheiruse. 

Robert Miles and Walter W. Hodges, smarting 
under what they regarded as a great injustice, con- 
sulted Judge Scofield as to their remedy against the 
congregation, which had appropriated their pews. 
At the critical moment Hodges relented and said, 
" I think we had better give it up ; we cannot fight 
the church." 

"Walter," said Mr. Miles, with a stamp of his 
cane, "don't you remember the old hymn, 




RiujERT Miles 



2-2 WARRKX ('ESTEXXTAl. 

' Sure I must fight, if I would reign ; 
Increase my courage, Lord ' ? 

Sue 'em, Scofield." 

The old church was replaced in iS66 by a hant 




rKKSI'.\' ri'KIAN t'lirKl'll I>1-- lS6(). 

somt; frame buildiriLC which still stands, though th< 
conirreeation has outL'Town it. 



IIY ir.l J' OF IXTIIODVCTTOX 



So far, with a very few exceptions, the inhabitants 
of Warren were born under " Old Glory " — Scotch- 
Irish from the southwest, New Knglanders, or New 
\ orkers of Dutch ancestry. In the summer of 1S28 
the tide of immigration from Europe touched this 
secluded valley. The first wave was a company of 
Alsatians and Germans, eighty in number, who, hav- 
ing penetrated so far into the wilderness, pitched 
their tents at the mouth of the Conewango, where 
they were visited by all the inhabitants, who gazed 
with interest and 
wonder at the quaint 
costumes, wooden 
slioes, and strange, 
shy faces of the im- 
migrants, and re-in- 
vented the sign-lan- 
guage in order to 
communicate with 
them. 

Strange and for- 
eign as was the ap- 
pearance of these 
immigrants, the Alsa- 
tians and Germans 
who came to Warren , 

Lfavis Aknfii'. 

trom 1S28 to 1850 

rapidly became thoroughly Americanized, and their 
names begin to appear on the court records as 
prospective citizens as early as 1S32. The same 
names are still familiar, and we do not now remem- 
ber that they are foreign. Mr. Lewis Arnett, whose 




24 WARRKX C'EXTENMAL 

portrait we insert, was one of the earliest arrivals. 
He worked on the mill-dam as a day laborer, and 
afterwards became the owner of the mills, and re- 
built them on a large scale. He was for many 
years one of the most prominent business men in 
Warren. He served as Burgess of the town, and 
afterwards as associate judge. 

The pioneers, Daniel Jackson, |ohn Gilson, and 
all who died at Warren before 1S23, were buried 
in an acre lot in the midst of Jackson's farm. In 
1823 a regular town burial-ground was established 
on two lots on East Water street, at the corner of 
Fifth. Here, and on the two lots adjoining on the 
west, the dead were laid, the woods gradually giving 
place to pastures, and the pastures to open streets, 
with dwellings crowding all about their resting-place, 
until the present cemetery was opened in 1863, 
since which time the last remains have been trans- 
ferred thither. 

The first settled physicians in the town were Dr. 
Abraham Hazeltine and Dr. Thomas Huston, both 
of whom came in 1S28. The former remained ten 
years or more, and his two sons. Dr. William V. 
Hazeltine and A. J. Hazeltine, President of the 
Warren Savings Bank, returned many years ago to 
their father's early home. 

About 1826, Mr. Tanner, whose merchandising 
had prospered, built a row of frame buildings extend- 
ing from the old Jackson Tavern to Second street. 
One of these became in that year the famous " Man- 
sion House." It was a low, rambling structure, with 
a quaint "cupola," or bell-tower, surmounting its 




TunMAb SrRLTHEKS 



BY ll'.ir OF fXTRODUCTIOX 'J. i 

broad roof, in which hurn^- the bell, which became 
one of the best known objects in the town. It was 
for many years a sort of regulator of the town, and 
was removed in 1859 to the Tanner House. Mr. 
Tanner's daring and enterprise prompted him in 
1S30 to join with David Dick, of Meadville, in trying- 
steam navigation on the upper Allegheny. A boat 
was built and sent to Olean and back, but it served 
only to astonish the Indians on their reservation 
and give old chief Cornplanter and his sons an 
unique excursion, after which the enterprise was 
abandoned. 

In the decade from 1S30 to 1S40 a nimiber of 
important events occurred. 

In 1832 the town was incorporated as a borough, 
having at the time 358 inhabitants. The assessment 
of 1833 shows the names of Josiah Hall, Oilman 
Merrill, Thomas Struthers and Lansing Wetmore, 
attorneys-at-Iaw ; Abraham Hazeltine, Timothy F. 
Parker and Henry Sargent, physicians ; Daniel 
Chase, Robert Falconer, Samuel D. Hall, Orris 
Hall, William P. McDowell, Lothrop S. Parmlee 
and Archibald Tanner, merchants. In obtaining the 
charter, Archibald Tanner, always leading in every 
enterprise, and his attorney, Thomas Struthers, were 
active. Mr. Tanner had been indicted by the grand 
jury for maintaining his store building on the river- 
bank within the bounds of the street. Struthers, 
seeing no escape from conviction, cleverly procured 
the insertion in the incorporating act of a clause 
providing that fences and buildings encroaching 
upon public streets should not be disturbed, but 



WA BR EN CENTEX XI A L 



should not be rebuilt. It is by virtue of this shrewd 
device that the queer little building- still stands, 
perpetually renewed but never rebuilt. 

From 1830 to 1836 the school question agitated 
the minds of the people of Warren. A tract of 500 
acres had been set apart by the State in i 799 for 
an academy, and the academy was incorporated, 
but had no building. At last, in 1S34, aided by a 
grant of $2000 from the State, a building was begun 
on the southeast corner of the public square, 
opposite the jail. In 1S36 the academy was organ- 
ized under Rasselas 
Brown, iresh from 
college, as principal, 
meeting in the court- 
house tor a short 
time until the build- 
ing was ready. From 
this time the academy 
became the school of 
Warren until the 
erection of the first 
union school build- 
ing in 1S56. 

The first bank in 
the borough was the 
" L u m be r m a n's," 
chartered in 1S34, of 
which Robert Fal- 
coner was president and Fitch Shepard cashier. 
I'alconer built in this year tht; stone house, still 
standing, opposite the court-house, and in this the 




KoKKKI' KaI.i 



BY WAY OF IXTRODUCTIOX 29 

banking office was located. Fitch Shepard's two 
sons, who passed part of their boyhood in Warren, 
afterwards became prominent figures in New York, 
one of them being Col. Elliott F. Shepard, the son- 
in-law of William H. Vanderbilt and editor of the 
Mail and Express. 

Samuel P. Johnson arrived in 1S34, and at once 
became a prominent figure. In that year also came 
Carlton B. Curtis, who was member of the Assembly 
in 1S37-3S. Lewis F. Watson came in 1835, ^ 
boy of 16, clerking, writing in the recorder's office, 
and finishing his education under Rasselas Brown 
at the academy. In 1841 he entered upon his 
business career which terminated so successfully. 
Between 1835 and 1S43 Judge Nathaniel B. Eldred 
resided here, the first of the president judges to 
dwell in Warren. In 1837 the dream of Thomas 
Struthers, Dr. William A. Irvine, and some other 
visionaries, of a railroad from the tide-water at 
Philadelphia to the lakes at Erie, began to be real- 
ized. The Sunbury & Erie Railroad Company was 
incorporated. But it took more than twenty years 
of patient and persistent eftbrt to bring the iron 
horse and his train into Warren. 

In 1 838, owing to causes over which the honor- 
able and high-principled president had no control, 
the Lumberman's Bank failed disastrously. Mr. 
Falconer, ruined in fortune and smarting under 
unjust criticism, retired from the world, his vigor- 
ous intellect impaired by anxiety. The picture 
of him which we insert is from an oil portrait by 
W. A. Greaves, presented to the Warren Library 



3 ]VA RREX CF.y TEXXfA L 

Association by W. T. Falconer, Esq., of Jamestown, 
N. Y. 

In 1839 the first bridge over the Allegheny was 
built. It was located nearly in front of where the 
residence of iVIrs. Rasselas Brown now stands, and 
some remains of the pier and approach on the 
southern side may still be seen. 

In 1840 came Dr. D. \'. .Stranahan, followed by 
Dr. Gilbraith A. Irvine in 1842, two prominent 
figures in Warren during their lives. 

Warren in those days was a depot of supplies for 
the lumbering camjjs located on all the streams. 
The lacksons. Halls, Irvines, Meads, McKinneys 
and Hooks were busy turning the noble pines into 
lumber, and our merchants were generally dealers 
in lumber as well. As the spring rains raised the 
streams the lumber Hoated to Warren from the 
upper Allegheny and the Conewango, and was here 
"coupled up" into the regulation "Allegheny Fleet." 
The eddy was a scene of noisy activity and the streets 
were filled with raftsmen, m.any of them somewhat 
more than "gentlemanly gay" with the whiskey 
which was plenty enough in those days. At times 
one could almost cross the river on the rafts moored 
side by side, and every eddy for miles above ami 
below would be filled. Among the Iimibermen a 
conspicuous figure was Guy C. Irvine, of Irvineburg, 
on the Conewango. " Old Guy," as his familiars 
called him. was one of the largest operators on the 
river, " rough and tough," like Joey B., but in his 
rout,diness anil toughness much more dangerous 
than Dickens' amiable old soldier. The old resi- 



Bv ir.ir OF rxTRODurTroN 



31 



dents are full of stories of the men of the river. 
It was James Olney, the noted Allegheny pilot, if 
our recollection be not in fault, who, after examin- 
ingr with the eye of an expert the hull of the steam- 
boat which Jerome W. Wetmore built near Warren 
to test his idea of a la'alking boat, gave his opinion 
to this effect: 








i miirn 




Cakvik 1Iih>k. 



"With a good ingine, 'n a gooci starn-wheel, 'n a 
good pilot, 'n plenty of beech wood, she — may — 
go — down stream, but she'll never come back- 
never !" 

The Germans organized the Evangelical Associa- 
tion as early as 1833, and the Baptists haci a church 
organized in 1834. The first church building to 
follow the Presbyterian was, however, the Lutheran, 



32 WABRKX rENTFyXTAL 

built by the Germans in 1846-4S. The Catholics 
built a church in 1850, the Evangelicals in 1852, and 
the Baptists in 1839. 

In 1849 the building in which the first court was 
held, the Warren House, kept by "Commodore" 
John H. Hull, was pulled down, and the Carver 
House erected by Joseph Carver. This was the 
first brick building for private use in the town. The 
second was the " Tanner block," on the corner 
opposite the site of the old Jackson Tavern, which 
was built the same year by Archibald Tanner. 

The Warren County Bank was chartered in 1852, 
with Joseph Y. |amcs as president and Orrin Hook, 
Rufus P. King, Thomas demons, John N. Miles, 
Myron Waters and Lewis Arnett as directors. In 
1859 the name was changed to Northwestern Bank. 
Its place of business was a small brick building 
built for it, between the Carver House and Trinity 
Memorial Church. After an honorable though brief 
career it failed in 1862, owing to mismanagement ot 
its interests in New York. 

In lanuary, 1843, Glenni W. Scofield was admitted 
to the bar, and at once entered upon his distinguished 
career as a lawyer, statesman and jurist. In 1846 
he was appointed district attorney ot the county, and 
in 184Q-50 he rei)resented it in the assembly. 

Lansing D. Wetmore began his legal career in 
I S45. in which year our oldest merchant, O. H. Hun- 
ter, came to town. With a short interregnum ot 
absence, the latter has been continuously in busi- 
ness here ever since, now more than half a century. 

The honor of senioritv mav, however, well be dis- 



BY WAY (IF rXTRimrcTIOX 



33 



puted by Christian Smith, who began in the boot 
and shoe business in 1846, and has continued with- 
out interruption to this day. 

In 1S57 came Chapin Hall, to begin private bank- 
ing. William D. Brown, who had been previously 
a student at the Warren Academy under Rasselas 
Brown, came as a 
law student about 
1845, ^'""-1 was ad- 
mitted in 1847. 

From 1 85 1 to i 855 
Carlton B. Curtis 
represented the dis- 
trict in Congress, 
and after his re- 
moval trom Warren 
he also represented 
the Erie district in 
that body. 

The senior mem- 
ber of the bar resi- 
dent in Warren, 
since the death of (ien. J. Y. lames, is Lothrop T. 
Parmlee, whose admission dates from 1842. 

In 1857 the railroad project was revived in good 
earnest, Thomas Struthers throwing himself into it 
with his characteristic energy. In December, 1S59, 
the line was completed from Erie to Warren, and 
the advent of the first train was celebrated by 
bonfires, speeches, and a general jollification. 

Among the engineers who were drawn to Warren 
by the railroad building were Hugh W. McNeil, 




(). H. HrNTKK. 



34 



WARREN CENTEXNIAL 



afterwards distinguished in the army, and A. D. 
Wood, who possessed a Hterary faculty which would 
have o-iven him a wide reputation had he sought it. 
At this time Chapin Hall was in Congress and Glenni 
W. Scofield in the State Senate. 

In this year, also, began the oil e.xcitement on 
Oil Creek and at Tidioute. The first floi^'ing \vell 
was drilled by Watson, Tanner, D. M. Williams 
and others, and since then the production and 

refining of petro- 
leum has been an 
important factor in 
Warren business 
circles. D. M. 
Williams and Ben- 
jamin Nesmith had 
a small refinery in 
King's Hollow as 
early as 1S64. 

At a very early 
day Archibald Tan- 
ner, tirst in so many 
enter])rises, brought a small hand hre-engine to 
town. The queer little machine is now in the 
possession of his grandson, Archibald Tanner Sco- 
field, and was one of the most interesting exhibits 
at the Centennial. The borough owned a fire- 
entrine and a few leet of hose as earl\- as 1S4S, 
but there was no fire company until Vulcan No. 
I was organized in 1S53. Rufus P. King, Julius 
15. Hall and Marvin D. \\'aters are survivors ot 
the original members. In i.'~!50 the German resi- 




nr WAY OF isTnonrrTiox oo 

dents organized Rescue No. i, which existed for 
ten years. 

From 1S54 to 1856 the absorbing topic was free 
schools. Like all improvements, they encountered 
at first considerable opposition, but at last the sys- 
tem was established, and the union school building, 
which still stands on Third street, was erected and 
opened in Januar_\-, 1S57. The Faculty consisted 
ot Prof. Charles Twinning, Principal; Miss Maria 
C. Shattuck, of Groton, Mass. (now Mrs. L. D. VVel- 
more); Miss S. E. A. Stebbins, of Clinton, N. Y. 
(afterwards Mrs. Rufus P. King); Miss Kate Miller, 
of Sugar Grove, Pa., and Miss S. O. Randall, of 
Warren (later Mrs. Starrett), as assistants. The 
opening of this school was the death-blow to the 
old academy. The building was sold in 1866, and 
demolished when the residences which now occupy 
the okl "diamond" were erected, about 1868. 

In the fall of 1860 occurred the last muster of the 
an/e bellimi militia of the county. The "general 
training" was at Youngsville, and Brigadier-General 
Rasselas Brown, with G. \'. N. Yates, of Columbus, 
Leroy L. Lowry and Harrison Allen among his staff 
officers, was in command. It is to be feared that 
the evolutions were not very scientific, for at the 
December term of court, at which Judge Johnson 
first presided, the grand jury presented the military 
law as a public nuisance. 

In i860 the borough had 1742 inhabitants, occu- 
pying 308 houses; 417 were of foreign birth, 9 had 
estates valued at $30,000 and over, 19 over $20,000, 
and 29 over $10,000. 



36 WARREN rENTESNIM. 

Until 1854 there was no public hall in town except 
a small one In the James block, below the Carver 
House, used occasionally for dancing. Lectures 
and public meetings went to the court-house or one 
of the churches. 

The erection by judye |ohnson of the tine three- 
story brick block still known as Johnson's Exchange 
(■•ave the town a place for the travelling exhibition 
and for the display of its amateur talent, which was 
always considerable. 

The business panic which preceded the breaking 
out of the war was severely felt, but the railroad 
construction went on, and in 1S64 the Philadelphia 
and Erie was completed tlirough to its eastern ter- 
minus, Thomas Struthers and his partner, Charles 
C. Wetmore, a business man of extraordinary 
activity and ability, building a large section of the 
road east of Warren. 

The breaking out of war (juieted in a measure the 
partisan strife which had preceded it. Rasselas 
15rown, who was appointed president judge by the 
last ante bclluiii Democratic Governor, and who had 
been defeated for that office by his brother-in-law 
and partner, S. P. lohnson. presided ac the first war 
meeting, at which J. Dennis James and other Demo- 
crats made speeches, as well as Struthers, L. D. 
Wetmore, Scofield and William I), lirown, the 
I\(,'publican leaders. The first company of volun- 
teers was raised by Roy Stont;, but he resigned the 
ciMnmaml to raise' a company ol picke-d riflemen 
from among the Allegheny raftsmen, and Flarrison 
All<-n was chosen its captain. 



/>"!" ii'.i y OF TNrnoDVCTioy o* 

During the civil war citizens ot Warren served in 
the following; Pennsylvania regiments, so far as 
known: 39th, loth Reserves; 42d (Bucktails); 58th; 
S3d : iiith; 145th; 159th; i82d; 193d; 211th; 
also in Independent Company C, and another 
independent company of militia. Space will not 
permit the mention of the names of these patriotic 
men, but among them were Brigadier-Generals 
George A. Cobham, who was killed at Peach Tree 
Creek, and Roy Stone of the Bucktails, now a dis- 
tinguished engineer and United States Commis- 
sioner of Roads and Highways ; Colonels Harrison 
Allen, who was brevetted Brigadier-General after 
the close of the war, and was afterwards Auditor- 
General of the State ; Hugh W. McNeil of the 
Bucktails, killed at Antietam, and Carlton B. Curtis, 
member of Congress both before and after the war ; 
Major Darius Titus, who was taken prisoner; and 
Captains D. \V. C. James, brevetted Major at the 
close of the war, Sylvester H. Davis, and Elias M. 
Pierce. 

The women were active and devoted during the 
struggle, and the Ladies' Aid Society uniformed 
and fitted out the first two companies raised in the 
town. 

Warren, as it appeared to the writer of this sketch 
on his arrival before daylight one December morning 
in 1S65, was a most interesting little place. Tumbling 
out of the train, half-awa,ke, at the old shanty which 
answered for a station, he found himself in the arms 
of a good-natured Irish omnibus driver, PZd. Dugan, 
to wit, for many years one of the characters of the 



3 8 W. 1 RRKX CENTKNNL I /. 

town. It was court week, and the Carver House 
was swarming with men in high jack-boots, who 
looked hke the pictures on the covers of the dime 
novels of the period, but were, in fact, only oil 
operators from Tidioute. Going out ior a walk, the 
view of the river curving gracefully in front of the 
principal street, with the wooded flats and slopes ot 
the hills be)'ond, was attractive and novel, even in 
winter. Below the Carver House ran a straggling 
row of wooden buildings to the litde flat-iron park 
where, fifteen or sixteen years before, George N. 
Parmlee and Rufus P. King had planted the maples 
which now shade it so charmingly. To the east 
stood the Tanner block, three new brick stores, and 
then came a rambling row o( wooden structures 
bending up Second street and ending with the 
Russell (formerly the Hackney) House, and the 
Ludlow building. Opposite stood Johnson's Ex- 
change, and along .Second street on the south side 
another row of mean little frame buildings terminat- 
ing at the Watson & Davis brick block, finishing the 
triangle. At the foot of Liberty street were the 
mills and the ferry, which was the only means of 
crossing the rivtT since the fall of the bridge. 
Further to the west, (Mi Water street, the Old Ex- 
change, a wooden row full ot business liouses. 
Then, as now, the little one-story Tanner buikling 
stood solitary on the river bank, but its rear oxer- 
hung the water and tin; bull-wheel of boating da\'s 
still hung in place. ( )n the "island" Ballard C^ 
Co.'s barrel-factor)-, |anies Clark ^ Co.'s planing- 
mill and Kirberger's paint-shop were in opt-ra- 



BY WAV OF IXTROIiT^crroy 41 

tion, and across the river a {&\v gleams of white 
marble among the trees revealed the new Oakland 
Cemeter\'. 

A few of the merchants only can be recalled — 
Beecher & Coleman and J. H. Mitchell & Co. 
in hardware ; I'armlee and Henry, Hunter and 
Mathews and J. B. Brown in dry goods ; William 
Messner, George L. Friday & Co., Seneca Burgess 
and P. J. Trushel in groceries ; George Ball in 
clothing; C. Smith, Jr. & Philip Byseker, boots and 
shoes; B. Nesmith, Arnett & Valentine, general 
stores ; Variety Hall, with E. T. Hazeltine already 
making Piso's cure; Dr. F. A. Randall's drug and 
variety store ; and last, but not least in the estima- 
tion of the youngsters, Mrs. Weaver's queer little 
shop with its unique unclassifiable stock. 

It was court week, and the Tidioute oil excite- 
ment was at its height. The town and the court 
were crowded. Johnson was on the bench and 
Scofield in Congress, but Col. Curtis, with W. W. 
Wilbur, Rasselas Brown, with H. A. Jamieson, just 
beginning to desert law for business, L. D. Wetmore 
and Junius R. Clark, William D. Brown and David 
McKelvy, Charles Dinsmoor, Joseph A. Neil), L. T. 
Parmlee, Major Darius Titus, and perhaps others, 
managed to take care of the flood of business 
brought by the oil excitment. 

The old Presbyterian church, with its queer belfry 
and lofty pulpit, which has gone and left no trace 
except " Deb " Page's rude drawing, still stood in 
its place, and was to stand until the Rev. W. A. 
Rankin had come and preached his trial sermon 



42 ]VARREy CEXTEyXfAL 

therein. The old academy stood vacant and forlorn 
on the east side of the " diamond," deserted, out- 
ranked by the new school-house, and condemned 
by the grand jury as a nuisance. There stood the 
old stone jail, the brick building in which were the 
county offices, and the old court-house, a plain red 
brick building, much like a church, of which, un- 
fortunately, no picture remains except the glimpse 
in an old photograph reproduced on page i 6. 

How simple and delightful was Warren society 
in those days ! Whether it was the Odd Fellows' 
grand annual ball, a sleigh-ride to Sugar Grove, a 
dance in the Carver House dining-room or a church 
" sociable," everybody was there, for the town was 
too small for cliques. At the gatherings of young 
people the old-fashioned country games were in 
vogue, and the etiquette of the time was of the heart, 
and not a mere varnish. 

What a day was New ^'ear's in the Warren of the 
'60s, when every house, from Augustus Wetmore's 
in the west to William D. Brown's temporar\abiding- 
place at Market and Fifth, was open, and every man 
ol any pretensions was calling, on foot, in cutters, 
omnibus-sleighs, and even ox-sleds — all the ladies in 
their Sunday best, all the tables groaning, and, alas, 
too often, all the decanters filled and tempting! 

When spring openetl and the ice went out of the 
river of a moonlight night, what a sight it was to see 
the gleaming cakes mount the pier of the vanished 
bridge and rattle down the boulders, with which it 
was filled, with a shower ol sparks ! Then the 
banks were piled high with grubs and skiff's and oar 



73 r ir.ir of lyTnonucTiox 



40 



stems, and as the water rose the rafts came down 
the rivers until the eddy was solid lumber, and the 
town was filled with noisy and obstreperous, rafts- 
men. The great flood of 1S65, the highest ever 
known, which covered the Irvine fiats and scattered 
I)allard & Co.'s oil barrels from Warren to Pitts- 




burg, was a fresh wonder. And who does not 
remember the long freshet of 1866, when the con- 
course of raftsmen, delayed by high water, enabled 
Rouse's company of actors to play in Johnson's Hall 
lor a whole month to good houses, changing the bill 
nighdy, and exhausting the whole range of dramatic 
literature from Hamlet and Macbeth to the " Ticket- 
of-Leave Man " and " Toodles " ? But the travellino- 



44 



WAR REX CENTEX y r. I L 



entertainment was rare. Lectures by eminent per- 
sons, and some not so eminent, there were, espe- 
cially after Stone and James G. Marsh and their kind 
became active forces in Warren. And there were 
amateur entertainments galore — tableaux vivans, 
waxworks and mistletoe boughs; and, when "Joe" 




Wells came to town, concerts and cantatas, and even 
operas and plays. And the temper ol the people 
seemed to be joyous and merry. The merchants 
and grave doctors and lawyers were never too busy 
for a joke. It was a dull day, indeed, which did not 
furnish tin; town witli a laugh. One restrains with 
an effort the inclination to set up tor a humorist on 



BY WAY OF lyTRODUCTIOS 45 

borrowed capital, as the quips and pranks of the 
local wags rise in memory. But all these little 
comedies and tragedies, the rich dde of human in- 
terest flowing through this secluded stream, must 
be left to the future Dickens or Barrie of Warren. 
Is he now learning to spell in the school-house 
yonder '' 

Since the war, Warren, though never really 
"booming," except during temporary oil e.xcite- 
ments, has kept well up with the times, and far in 
advance of most towns of Its size. In 187 1 the 
suspension bridge was erected and the public library 
finally established, largely through the efforts of the 
Rev. W. A. Rankin. Illuminating gas and lighted 
streets came in 1872. and in the same year the 
steamer "R. P. King." which did good service at 
fires when water was attainable, but has been little 
used since the introduction of water-works in 1S82. 
In 1869 the Keystone block was erected, and in this 
Orris Hall fitted up a public hall, naming it Roscoe 
Hall, after a son killed in the war. It was furnished 
with scenery and a drop curtain ornamented with 
an imaginative painting in which the Rocky Mount- 
ains and the Allegheny river, Indians and raftsmen 
were curiously mingled. The Hickory street addi- 
tion to the school-house was built in 1870. In 1868 
or 1869 the "diamond" disappeared, the land 
being sold tor dwelling-house sites; and in 1S71 the 
Dunkirk and Warren Railroad was constructed, and 
the extension to Titusville the following year, the 
consolidated companies taking the present name of 
Dunkirk, Allegheny Valley and Pittsburg. 



46 



WABEF:X OENTEXyTA L 



About 1S72 Mr. Struthers constructed a street 
railway from the railway stations eastward across 
the Conewango, and started the building boom in 
East Warren; but horse-cars did not pay, and the 
rails were taken up and sent to liradtord. 

In 1 8/,^ the Commissioners appointed by the State 
to locate the new hospital for the insane visited 
Warren, and selected the farm of E. B. Eldred, 
about two miles up the Conewango. This beautiful 
farm had lone been the residence of Mr. Patrick 




■"^aesf^Basr^ 



Si AIK I [(i-.ri I \i.. 

Falconer, and the charming scenery, smooth mead- 
ows, substantial stone mansion and long avenue of 
trees leading from tlie stone lodge at the gate 
suggested the old worKl taste of the builder. In 
April, 1S74, the ground was broken for the new- 
building, Mr. Falconer's daughter using the spade, 
and September 10, 1S74, tlie corner-stone was laid 
with great ceremony, (iovernor Hartranft and staff 
and many other distinguishetl persons being present. 
This event brought to Warren the largest crowd of 
people ever assembled there before the Centennial. 
Ur. John Curwen, one of the commission who 




Daviii Heaiv. 



BY ir.ir OF ISTRODUCTIOX 



40 



superintended the erection of the hospital, and 
amonq- the foremost alienists in the country, has 
been the head of the institution ahnost from the 
opening, and under the wise cHrection of its faithful 
Board of Trustees it has developed and improved 
year by year. 

About 1865 began the immigration of Scantlina- 
vians, who now lorm an important element in the 
population of Warren. Before that date the Green- 
lund brothers had come from Denmark, and by 
1 87 1 the Scandinavian Lutherans were numerous 
enough to pur- 
chase the German 
Lutheran church 
which had been 
abandoned by 
that congregation 
on the comple- 
tion of their new 
church in i 869. 

In 1876 David 
Beaty, who had 
acquired a tor- 
tune in oilproduc- 
t i o n elsewhere, 
bought Thomas 
demons' farm, 
across the Cone- 
wango from War- 
ren, and built a 

hne mansion there. Having been accustomed to 

natural gas for fuel, and having, moreover, an itch 

-1 




On, Wki.i. ai-tkk 



50 WARREN CEXTEXSIAL 

for drilling wells, he drilled behind his house, hoping 
to get enough gas for his own use. Like Dow, 
in Bret Harte's poem, "his luck made him cer- 
tain to miss," and he struck oil. A booming oil 
excitement followed, extending to North Warren 
and the lands owned by the State Hospital. This 
was the first of a number of such fevers which have 
swept over the town ; but having plenty of substan- 
tial business buildings and a wise fire ordinance, 
"shanties" were kept out, and much was gained 
and nothing lost in these flurries except the demor- 
alization which resulted from the kiting speculations 
fostered by the Oil Exchange, which was maintained 
from the opening of the Cherry Grove field until 
some time after its close. A borough ordinance 
forbids the drilling of wells in the borough limits, 
and has prevented the ruin of the town, surrounded 
as it is by producing wells. 

In 1879 the Warren Savings Bank, in which Col. 
L. F. Watson was the largest stockholder, and the 
Citizens' Savings Bank, which afterwards became 
the Citizens' National, with Mr. Myron Waters as 
its larijest owner, were both established. 

The Struthers Library Building was completed in 
1S84, the site being purchased by subscription and 
the building donated by Thomas Struthers. Its cost 
was about <,So,ooo. 

In 1SS3 natural gas was introduced tor fuel and 
lights. Xo j3ublic impro\'ement has contributed 
more than this to the comlort ot the inhabitants, 
and, from its situation, Warren's supply seems to be 
assured for manv vears to come. Electricitv tor 




(;k()LI' (.>f r()Xf;RF.s>MEX. 

C. \V. Stonf. C. B. Curtis. 

G. \V. bcoHKi.D. 
CHAPIN IlAi.L. L. F. Watson. 



j;y way of iXTRODrrTiON 5;3 

light and power came in 1890. Paved streets were 
begun in 1891. In 1893 an electric railway was 
constructed along the route of the abandoned horse- 
car track, and it now extends to Glade Run on the 
east, and is reaching out to the north to connect the 
State Hospital with the town. 

It is painful to conclude this bony sketch without 
some mention of many men and women whose 
marked individuality and characteristics have given 
the town its character and peculiarities. It would 
be pleasant to clothe these dry bones with flesh and 
blood, to make the ancients and the elders live again, 
and paint a picture which might convey some notion, 
however inadequate, of the life and manners of the 
Warren of the first century. 

The men and women who made up life in 
Warren moved, with tew exceptions, in a narrow 
sphere, but this was an accident ot environment. 
Among them have been men fit for any dignity, 
women qualified by natural endowment and culture 
for any station. The atmosphere of the town is 
still charged with the electric wit of Hackney and 
Tanner, of Curtis and Scofield, the somewhat grim 
humor of Johnson, and the more recent spark, so 
prematurely quenched, of A. D. Wood. We have 
passed over the last thirty years of the century 
almost with a glance, scarcely noticing those who 
have figured so prominently in the recent life ot the 
town. But to this, want of space and time con- 
strain us. 

We mention below some of the residents of the 
borough who have held important national or State 



54 ir. I RREN CKXTE.XXt. 1 L 

offices, conscious that many who have held no office, 
or filled positions lower in rank, have not been less 
deserving, and may have even left a deeper impres- 
sion upon the life of their town. 

Carlton B. Curtis was member of the Assembly 
in 1837-3S, and Representative in Congress from 
iSsi to 1S55. He \^'as also elected to Congress 
from the Erie district after his removal to Erie. 

Chapin Hall represented the district from 1S59 to 
I 86 1. 

Cilenni W. Scoheld was member of the Assembly 
in 1850-51; State Senator 1857-59; President 
ludcre by appointment in the Venango district 1861, 
and Representative in Congress from 1863 to 1875, 
his last term being as Representative-at-Large. 
He was Register of the Treasury under President 
Hayes from 1S77 to 18S1, and Judge of the United 
States Court of Claims from 1881 to 1891, when he 
retired on account of ill health, shortly before his 
death. 

Lewis F. Watson was Representative in Congress 
from 1877 to 1879, 1881 to 1883, and 1889 to the 
time of his death, in August, 1890. 

Charles W. Stone was member ot Assembly in 
1868-69, State Senator in 1877 and 1878, Lieuten- 
ant-Governor 1878 to 1880, .Secretary of the Com- 
monwealth 1887 to November, 1890, when he re- 
signed to take his seat in Congress, having been 
elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death ot 
L. F. Watson. He has been re-electtnl continuously 
since, and is Chairman of the Committee on Coinage, 
Weii/hts and Measures. 




X. B. El.URKli. 
W. D. I'.KUWN. 



GRdL'P OF JUDGES. 



S. r. |(.UNSoN. 



L. 1 1. Weimork. 
R. Brown, 



/>')' WAY OF ISTIlODrcTroX 



57 



Thomas Struthers was member of Assembly in 
i^57~5S. and member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention in 1S72-73. 

Nathaniel B. Eldred was appointed President 
Judge in iS35,and again in 1840, serving until 1843. 

Rasselas Brown was member of the Assembly in 
1845, President Judge of the Sixth District by 
appointment in 1S60, and member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention 1S72-73. 

Samuel P. Johnson was elected President Judge 
of the Sixth District, and served ten years, from 
i860 to 1870. Lansing D. Wetmore was elected 
President Judge to succeed Judge Johnson in 1870, 
and served ten years, until January i, 1881, when 
he was succeeded by 
Judge William D. 
Brown. 

William D. Brown 
was member of the 
Assembly in 1863- 
64 and '6^, and Pres- 
ident Judge of the 
Thirty-Seventh Dis- 
trict 1880 to 1890. 

Charles H. Noyes, 
the present incum- 
bent, succeeded 
Judge Brown Janu- 
ary I, 1 89 1. 

Harrison Allen was member of the Assembly 
1866-67, State Senator 1870-72, and Auditor-Gen- 
eral from 1872 to 1875. 




•') 8 n '. 1 El! FX CKNTEyXI. 1 L 

Orrin C. Allen was State Senator from 1887 to 
1 89 1 . 

Besides those above mentioned, the members ol 
the Assembly residing in Warren have been the 
following: josiah Hall, 1836; Joseph Y. James, 
1S43 and 1S52: Benjamin Bartholomew, 1846; 
Lothrop T. Parmlee, 1854; Ephraim Cowan, 1861- 
62 ; Junius R. Clark, 186S-69 ; W. M. Lindsey, 
1877-78: Henry Brace, 1885 to 1888: Caleb C. 
Thompson, 1888 to 1892, who was Speaker of the 
House during his last term : and the sitting member, 
Edward W. Parshall. 

Lansing D. Wetmore and George N. Parmlee 
were, from the organization of the board, members 
of the Board of Trustees ot the State Hospital for 
Insane until recently. Orrin C. Allen and Starling 
W. Waters are at the present time members of that 
board. 

Of the Associate [udges who have at various 
times sat in the courts of the county the following 
were at the time residents of the borough : Joseph 
Hackney, Josiah Hall, Gilman Merrill, Lansing 
Wetmore, Lewis Arnett, Sidney A. Wetmore, Isaac 
H. Hiller, Rufus P. King and John H. Sandstrom. 



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Bi.ocK-HousE Attacked hv Indians. 

WARREN CENTENNIAL 

As the one hundredth anniversary of the laying out 
of the town of Warren approached, the local news- 
papers occasionally called attention to the fact, and 
expressed the general feeling that the event should 
be in some way appropriately commemorated. The 
first step was taken by the burgess, J. W. Wiggins, 
Esq. On Friday, May 3, 1S95, the local papers 
contained the followintr call : 



" Citizens, ATrENXioN : 

"Warren's Centennial year ought to be fitly 
celebrated. All ladies and gentlemen who think 



n 2 WAR REX CEXTFXXfA L 

so and are willing to assist, are invited to meet at 
the rooms of the public library this Friday evening 
at 7.30 o'clock to arrange the preliminaries. 

"James VV. Wiggins, Burgess." 

At the meeting thus called there were present but 
seven or eight gentlemen, but it was organized by 
tlie election of the Hon. Charles \V. Stone, Chair- 
man, and F. W. Black, Secretary, and after some 
e.vchange of views it resolved, "That it is the sense 
of this meeting that the Centennial of Warren be 
suitably celebrated, and that a committee be ap- 
pointed to report at a future meeting a general plan 
for such celebration." 

Pursuant to the resolution the following com- 
mittee was then chosen : Charles H. Noyes, Chair- 
man ; James W. Wiggins, H. A. Jamieson, John 
M. Siegfried, A. C. Morck. Jr., A. D. Wood, E. H. 
Boeschlin, W. D. Todd, F. A. Steber, S. Reed 
Brown, Mrs. M. Waters, Mrs. James Brann, Mrs. F. 
H. Rockwell, Mrs. A. J. Hazeltint-, Mrs. O. C. 
Allen. 

From this time the ball was kept rolling. There 
were meetings of committees and sub-committees, 
debates and discussions, plans and counter-plans : 
but it all culminated at last in an organization 
known as the Warren Centennial Association, with 
the- following officers and committees : Pi-csident, 
Hon. Charles W. Stone, M. C. ; First I'lcc-Prcu- 
dciits, Hon. Wilton M. Lindsey anil William W. 
Wilbur, I{sq. : Scco)td Vice-Presidents. Christian 
.Smith, A. j. Havis, A. H. Lacy, William Zeigler, 



n:iRREX cK\Tt:\y[Ar. fio 

Andrew Hertze], L. B. Moftnian, M. D. Waters, 
M. B. Dunham, John M. Davidson. Warren 
Brasing^ton, A. T. Hackney, Marcus Spauldino-, 
John O'Hern, Joseph Walkerman, Chester Park, 
Martin Cribbins, O. W. Randall, Henry Knupp, 
M. Fitzgerald, Theophilus Messner, Benjamin 
Williams, James P. Lacy, L. Castater, Chauncey 
Cobb, J. P. Nesmith, Hon. R. Brown, M. Waters, 
A. Morck, Sr., Hon. W. D. Brown, J. J. Taylor, 
Hon. L. D. Wetmore, John Sill, ilon. }•:. B. 
Eldred, Henry Cobham, Guy C. Irvine, F. A. 
Randall, John F. JVIcPherson, 1. S. Alden, I. G. 
Lac\-, Dr. E. M. Pierce, John C. Siechrist, lames 
Clark, P. J. Trushel. L. A. Rogers, Gen. J. Y. 
James, Hon. R. P. King. G. N. Parmlee. S. H. 
Cogswell, D. M. Williams, O. H. Hunter. ]. W. 
Wetmore, Erie, Pa. ; Hon. L. Rogers, Smeth- 
port, Pa.; Hon. Junius R. Clark, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Hon. George W. Allen, Denver, Col. ; ]. W. 
Stearns, Jamestown, N. Y. ; George A. Walker, 
Emporium, Pa. ; Gen. Roy Stone, Washington, D. 
C. ; Hon. I. H. Hiller, Frewsburg, N. Y.] Philip 
Gisselbrecht. Dr. Chester W. .Stranahan, Erie, Pa. ; 
T. J. demons, Columbus, Pa. ; John N. Schnur, 
Russell, Pa. ; Capt. John H. Mitchell, Hartford, 
Conn. ; Gen. Harrison Allen, Fargo, N. D. ; Jerome 
Powers, Ridgway, Pa. ; Albert Kiberger, Wies- 
baden, (jermany. Secretary, S. W. Waters ; Treas- 
2irer, Col. James O. Parmlee ; Director-General. 
H. J. Muse. 

Executive Committee; Hon. Charles H. Noyes, 
Chairman; S. W. Waters, Secretary ; Hon. Charles 



Gfi WARnEX CKSTESNIAL 

\\. Stone, Hon. W. M. Lindsey, \V. \V. Wilbur, 
Esc]., Col. lames O. Parmlee, H. J. Muse, Esq., Hon. 
O. C. Allen. F. M. Knapp, Esq., E. \V. Parshall, 
Esq., Mrs. W. M. Lindsey, D. U. Arird, Esq., Capt. 
L. T. Borchers, \V. D. Hinckley, Esq., Mrs. G. W. 
-Scofield, Mrs. F. H. Rockwell, Mrs. A. J. Hazeltine, 
Mrs. E. W. Parshall, Mrs. George F. Yates, Mrs. 
M. Waters. 

Special E.vecutive Committee : The President, 
Chairman of the Executive Committee and heads ot 
departments, ex ojficio. 

Superintendent of Centennial Grounds : C. W. 
Uhdey, Esq. 

ExiiiiuTidX Department. 

First Divi.siox — 1795 to 1S61. 

Siipcrinh-udfiit, E. W. Parshall, Esq. ; Secretary, 
W. A. Talbott, Esq. 

Indian Committee : W. H. Allen, Chairman ; W. 
A. Talbott, Charles D. Crandall. 

Block-House Committee: L. R. PTeeman, Chair- 
man ; Theodore Messner, George F. Yates, Charles 
Chase, O. W. Beaty, James Clark, P^. W. Smith, F. 
T. Parker. 

fackson 'Pavern Committee : Mrs. Charles W. 
Stone, Chairman ; Mrs. W. PI. Copeland, Mrs. 
George F. Yates, Mrs. J. P. Jefferson, Mrs. W. H. 
Filler, Miss Lora E. Alden, Miss Gertrude King, 
Miss Belle S. Valentine, j\lr. William A. Smiley, 
Dr. Joseph T. Danforth, Mr.. Eniile Amann, Mr. 
Turk Fehlman, Mr. .Samuel G. Allen, Mr. Harold 
Hazeltine. 



TI'. 1 RREX CFXTEXXl. \ L H 7 

Ouiltiny Party Committee: Mrs. Tamer Gilbert 
Rockwell, Chairman ; Mesdames Charlotte I. 
Waters, May Rockwell Henry, Nellie S. Beaty, 
[ennie Stranahan Brecht, Mary C. Bemis, Isabel 
W'eatherby Henry, Clarissa Gilbert (aged 82), 
Maria C. Allen, Martha W. Pierce, Matilda I. Ball, 
Diadama H. White (aged 82), Sarah Ann Sturgeon 
(aged 86), Arabella Waters Parshall, Salome Arnett 
Galligan, Florence S. Wood, Rachel Weatherby 
(aged 87), Josephine E. Mease, Miss Susan T. 
Daggett, Mrs. Mary P. Gerould, Nancy L. Hoff- 
man, Hattie M. Talbott, Sarah Antoinette King, 
.Sarah E. Allen, Catherine Alden, Rosamund Hall 
Waters, Rose Gemmill Messner, lessie Dunham 
Stewart. All these ladies appeared in costume at 
the quilting. 

Committee on Antiquities: Mrs. |ames Brann, 
Chairman ; Mrs. G. W. Scofield, Mrs. W. D. Brown, 
Mrs. R. F". Van Doom, Mrs. Ale.xander Shaw, Mrs. 
W. F. Messner, Mrs. P. A. Gilbert, Mrs. Eugene 
Abbott, Mrs. George Sill, Mrs. Clara S. Blood, Mrs. 
J. W. Hull, Mrs. \\'. V. Hazeltine, Mrs. William 
Keegan, Mrs. D. H. Siggins, Mrs. T. W. McNett, 
Mrs. N. S. Falconer, Mrs. S. A. Wetmore, Mrs. R. 
Brown, Misses Anne Stone, Mary Kopf, Ellie G. 
.Scofield, and Messrs. N. S. Falconer, V. li. Hertzel, 
Willis Cowan, 1. P. Jefferson, G. N. Parmlee, J. W. 
Albrecht. 

Sub-Committee on Town Ball : E. T. Hazeltine, 
Chairman ; William Scott, S. E. Walker, R. Reese. 

Sub-Committee on District and Singing-Schools : 
W. V. N. Yates, Chairman ; Miss Ellie G. Scofield, 



6S WAR REX CESTF.XyiAL 

Mrs. \V. D. Hinckley, Mrs. Ray Pickett, Charles A. 
Peterson, Dr. W. W. Freeman, Dr. W. M. Robert- 
son, Henry Messenger, Neill. 

Sub-Committee on Relics, War of 1812 and Me.xi- 
can War: \\ . H. Copeland, Chairman: William 
McCray, E. B. Jackson, A. W. Jones. 

Sub-Committee on Pictures: Mrs. Henrietta fiddy, 
Mr. W. A. Greaves. 

.Sei'onh Division — 1S61 to 1S95. — Mrs. W. M. 
Lindsey, Chairman. 

War E.xhibit : Mrs. W. W. Wilbur, Chairman: 
Mrs. B. V . Morris, Mrs. L. 1". Parmlee, Mrs. Lindsey. 

Centennial Booth, consisting of Martha Washing- 
ton Party in Costume : Mrs. Ellen McDowell, Chair- 
man ; Mrs. S. \'. Davis, Mrs. ]. M. Siegfried, Mrs. 
Grelo.\, Misses demons, Nora Davis, Florence 
Meacham, Ida Neill. 

Milliner)- Booth, E.xhibit of Bonnets from 1861 to 
1S95 : Mrs. I''. T. Parker, Chairman : Mrs. D. Shear, 
Mrs. los. Scofield, Misses Julia Harrison, Anna 
Rockwell, Laura -Smith, Annie Henry, Nettie Tal- 
bott, Josephine Rankin. 

Needlework tlxhibit : Mrs. W. W. Rankin and 
Miss Libbie Rogers, assisted by Miss Kate Brown 
and Miss Lizzie Pierce. 

China-Painting Exhibit: Mrs. C. A. Waters and 
.Mrs. C. -S. Cjreenlund in charge, assisted b_\' Mrs. S. 
F. Walker, Miss Lucia Breed, .Miss Clara Parshall, 
.Miss Blanche INIair. 

Lemonade and Confectionery : Mrs. L. G. Noyes 
and Mrs. R. S. Hall, superintendents, assisted bv 



ir. I nRKx cEXTi'ixxr. 17, 69 

Miss Teresa Howartl, Miss Hattie Friday and Mr. 
John S. Smith. 

Oil Development Exhibit: Mrs. E. E. Allen, 
Chairman; Mrs. Lucie Richards, Mr. Will Messner. 

Warren High School Laboratory Exhibits : Prof. 
MacGowan, assisted by students from High School. 

W . C. T. U. Exhibit, under charge of Mrs. Levi 
Smith and Mrs. Ellen Lacy. 

Trades Exhibits : Capt. W. J. Alexander, Chair- 
man, assisted by Harold Hazeltine and Eugene 
MacLaren. 

CELEBK.vnox Dep.vrtmext, D. U. Arird, Esq., 
Chairman. 

Department of Finance : Capt. L. T. Borchers, 
Chairman ; Capt. S. H. Davis, S. W. Waters, J. D. 
W'oodard, J. W. Wiggins. 

Committee on Merchandise ISazaar: C. M.Shaw- 
key, Chairman ; Harry Pickett. 

Committee on Transportation : W. 1 ). Todd, 
Chairman ; O. C. Allen, E. W. Parshall. 

Committee on Advertising: W. D. Hincklev, 
Chairman ; W. D. Todd, E. T. Hazeltine, [as. D. 
W'oodard. 

It was, after some consideration, agreed that the 
celebration should consist of an exhibition on the 
Fair Grounds, opposite the town, illustrative of the 
development of Warren and the life and manners 
of its inhabitants during the century. This was 
divided, for convenience, into two divisions, the first 
embracing the features illustrating the period from 



70 WAIUIEX CEyTEXNIAL 

1795 to 1861, and the second those from 1S61 to 
1S95. The celebration was to continue three days, 
endin^;- on the Fourth of July with a grand indus- 
trial and military parade and a display of fireworks. 
From the first the best of feeling prevailed, and 
the citizens entered into the matter with heartiness 
and enthusiasm. As it was obviously expedient to 
charo-e an admission-fee to the e.\hibition grounds, 
it was ao-reed beforehand that any money left after 
paying expenses should be given to the public li- 
brary, recently made free by the gifts of the citizens. 
The Warren County Fair Association generously 
o-ave the free use of their grounds, and the owners 
of the several private buildings turned them over 
for the occasion to the Centennial Association. The 
Pennsylvania and Warren and Chautauqua Gas 
Companies furnished natural gas, where their lines 
extended, without charge, and the Warren Electri- 
cal Li'dit Company wired the buildings on the 
grounds at actual cost, and furnished both arc-light 
and incandescent current without charge. The 
liorough Council entertained the municipal officers 
of the city of b'ranklln and their party and the offi- 
cers of the .Seneca Nation as the guests ot the 
borough, and contributed to tlic decorations in the 
streets ; and the citizens gave, through the Finance 
Committee, headed by Capt. L. T. Borchers,$2 35i.50 
to defray the expenses of the public display. A list 
of the contril)utors is appcinled. The celebration 
de[)artment, und(-r the chairmanship of D. U. Arird, 
Fs(i., arranged to have the town most beautikilly 
decorated both bv arches and lights in th.e streets. 



MWnREN CEXTENNrA L t 1 

and by the decoration of private and public build- 
ings, which was general. 

Each department subdivided its work, and there 
were innumerable sub-committees, each carrying on 
its enterprise in semi-independence, but subject to 
the control of the general committee of the depart- 
ment to which it belonged, and the whole under the 
executive control of the Director-General and the 
Executive Committee, acting in most cases through 
its sub-committee, which consisted of the responsi- 
ble general officers of the Association. Good and 
efficient service was rendered by all connected with 
the enterprise ; but from the evening of the first 
meeting, on the third of May, until the last Indian 
was safely returnt^d to his home, the distinguished 
gentleman who honored the office of president 
seemed to have laid aside all aftairs of state, as well 
as all the multitudinous details of his extensive pri- 
vate business, in order to devote his time to the 
Centennial. Early and late he toiled at its aftairs. 
and to his wisdom, enthusiasm and inexhaustible 
energy, more than to the effort of any other one 
person, is due its triumphant success. 

A special committee secured from the railroad 
special trains and reduced rates for visitors to the 
Centennial, which the crowds who took advantage 
of these facilities amply justified. 

All the newspapers published in Warren gave 
much space to the Centennial, and, without any pe- 
cuniary interest, contributed largely to spreading a 
knowledge of the character and attractiveness of 
the Exhibition among the people of the town and 



t- WAKRF-:X CEXTEXyUL 

the western part ot the State generally. The De- 
partment of Advertising-, under the chairmanship of 
Watson I). Hinckley, I'^sq., left nothing to be de- 
sired. Posters large and small called attention, and 
detailed descriptions ot the E.xhibition were widely 
distributed in great numbers. These were carried 
to all places within reach by means of wagons, which 
were themselves calculated to make a sensation 
wherever they went, and thus draw attention 
strongly to the E.xhibition. 

A notable poster was the great canvas painted 
by a young artist from Denmark, JMr. Otto Clemen- 
son, representing Warren's progress from the days 
of red men to the days ot balloon-sleeves, which 
was nailed to the east enel ot Mr. Myron Waters' 
brick livery-barn, and which still attracts the notice 
of strangers passing along Liberty street. 

For the comfort of the crowds of people provi- 
sion was made tor meals and lunches on the grounds, 
and there were innumerable small stands tor the 
sale of lemonade and other "soft" tirinks, sand- 
wiches, etc. A carrousel or "merry-go-round" was 
licensed on the grounds, with a tew other unobjec- 
tionable features of this kind: but, in general, all 
" fakes " and side-shows were e.xcluded, and the ad- 
mission at the gate admitted to everything on the 
grounds. The Adjutant-Cieneral of the State kindly 
loaned a quantity of tents and tlic-s, which w^ere dis- 
posed about the grounds anti turnished with seats, 
thus providing a most grateful rest and shade for a 
vast number of weary visitors. They were pro- 
vided in anticipation of rain, but throughout the 



WABEEX CEXTEXNr.lL 73 

three days the weather was perfect, and assurances 
of its continuance obtained by private advices to 
President Stone from the Government Weather 
Bureau at Washington added to the pleasure and 
confidence of the managers. 

Warren itself never presented in all its previous 
history such a festal appearance as during the three 
days of the Centennial Celebration. Flags, bunt- 
ing and evergreen were to be seen everywhere. 
Twelve or fifteen arches were raised at different 
points along the streets. One of them, at the cor- 
ner of Water and Second streets, had three spans 
of evergreen and laurel. From the central span 
hung a transparency, illuminated at night, typifying 
the progress of the town and county during the 
century, the main features being the evolution of the 
better class of homes, of the oil-well, the refinery, 
of the railroad and the electric street-car. This, 
also, was by the talented young Dane, Clemen- 
son. 

Other arches of merit and beauty were located as 
follows: Two at the City Hall, on the Hickory and 
Third street fronts of the building; one in front of 
the office of the Pennsylvania Gas Company, with 
a neat illumination at night of natural gas ; one in 
front of the office of the Warren and Chautauqua 
Gas Company, a beautiful example of what can be 
evolved from gas-pipes andthe green bough of the 
hemlock-tree and leaves of laurel, also illuminated 
by natural gas after dark. At the north end of the 
Pleasant bridge was another handsome arch. The 
hotels and business houses made most commenda- 



74 WAnRKX CEXrEXXTAL 

ble efforts to beautify their places. Beautiful work 
was shown at the Carver House, the Struthers, the 
Revere, Moran's Hotel, and the Exchange. The 
Warren Savings Bank building was a mass ot bunt- 
ing and large flags, and by many was pronounced 
the finest in appearance ot the many buildings be- 
decked for the great event. The merchants devel- 
oped a decided penchant lor unique and startling 
displays in their windows. Many and varied were 
the effects presented to view. Private residences, 
too, were not a jot behind, and some very ornate in 
displays of the national colors and bunting, and 
hardly a dwelling-house along the route of Thurs- 
day's parade was devoid of adornment in honor ot 
the occasion. 

Aniph' provision had been made by the borough 
authorities and the county peace officers to ensure 
order and protect the crowds of people from pick- 
pockets, thieves and confidence-men. A large num- 
ber of special policemen patrolled the streets of the 
borough, and some twenty deputy sheriHs were 
placed on the Exhibition grounds, which, being in 
Pleasant township, were beyond the borough juris- 
diction. Special solicitude was felt about the Indian 
guests, and every effort was made to protect them 
not only from evil-doers, but trom temptations; and 
the discipline established in the Indian camp by the 
Indians themselves was ably seconded by the white 
authorities, assisted by the trained military police ot 
Company I, i6th Regt., P. N. C, which furnished a 
detail every day of men who had served at Home- 
stead. A few arrests promptl)' made rendered many 



WARREN CENTENNIAL 75 

unnecessary, and the good order durinq- the three 
days was remarkable. 

Early on the morning- of the 2d the town was 
astir and the sound of music was in the air. The 
visitor descending from a train at either of the rail- 
way stations stepped at once into a vortex of excite- 
ment. The way from the P. & PI. station at Chestnut 
Street to the Pleasant bridge, leading to the Exhibi- 
tion grounds, was festive with flags, bunting, ever- 
greens, arches, transparencies, banners, and every 
conceivable device calculated to beautify the street 
and convey to the passers-by the knowledge that 
Warren was one hundred years old. He could 
reach the grounds by four several modes : First, on 
foot, which was chosen by the larger number of 
people ; second, by the electric cars, which carried 
as many as they could accommodate all the three 
days ; third, by carriage direct to the gate ; and 
tourth, by a line of bateaux from the river at the 
foot ot Chestnut Street to a landing on the Pleasant 
side near to the gate of the grounds — a pleasant and 
popular mode of conveyance, suggesting the ways 
of a hundred years ago. The ancient stage-coach 
which was to have plied between the railway stations 
and the Jackson Tavern was not secured, though 
great efforts had been made and considerable ex- 
pense incurred to procure one. This was the only 
failure scored against the Centennial management. 

In the building at the gate the Director-General 
had his headquarters, and here the Secretary, S. W. 
Waters, Esq., and Treasurer, Col. James O. Parm- 
lee, assisted by the First \'ice-President, W. W'. 



76 WATinKX CESTEXNIAL 

Wilbur, Esq., administered the somewhat difficult 
but efficient and satisfactory system of tickets and 
passes which the pecuHar character of the exhibi- 
tion made necessary. On the grounds the absence 
of the usual danger from horses was noticeable, the 
management having provided ample stable room 
for visitors with teams, but requiring them to be 
kept off the grounds. A lofty tlag-stafl" in front of 
a large tent at the end of the first street marked 
the headquarters ot the President and executive 
committee, and across the race-track the Indian 
committee maintained headquarters among their 
guests, who were encamped in tepees made of brown 
canvas, arranged on the green sward inside the 
track, with a stage or platlorm tor their dances and 
other exhibitions in front. Opposite the grand 
stand a large stage or platform had been erected, 
covered by an awning, and the track between it 
and the grand stand was fitted up with seats, which 
could be readily removed and replaced as occasion 
required. 

Going south from the gate, the first building on 
the left was the reproduction ot the fackson Tavern, 
accomplished by a committee under the chairman- 
ship of Mrs. Charles W. Stone. It was a plain 
structure (in fact, one of the fair buildings done over 
for the occasion), with thi" diamond-paned windows 
antl generous front door ot early days. The portico 
was supported bv antique columns rescued by Mr. 
and Mrs. J. P. |efterson from the ruins of the 
Kiantone Tavern, a roadside hostlery nearly one 
hundred years of age. The sign swung from a post 



WARRFy CEXTEyyUL 77 

at the corner, and in the crotch of a pole set up 
near it hung the bell which summoned the hungry 
at the dinner-hour. 

Diagonally opposite was the building devoted to 
the quilting party, and adjoining it the building- 
containing the collection of relics and antiquities. 
Beyond these stood the curious block-house, built 
like the one erected here by the Hollanders almost 
a hundred years ago, of hewn logs with overhang- 
ing upper story, with loop-holes instead of windows, 
and roofed with shingles riven out of the log. Still 
farther away and beyond the track stood the Indian 
village ol brown tepees, looking like one of Bier- 
stadt's or Henry Farny's western pictures. Except 
that they were supplied by the commissary, instead 
oi hunting and fishing for subsistence, the Indians 
lived as they were wont to live in the woods, the 
squaws cooking the meals over camp-fires, and 
something of interest to the palefaces was in pro- 
gress at all times. 

Behind the grand stand was a small building in 
which Messrs. Pickett and Shawkey displayed a 
collection of merchandise donated by manufacturers 
and merchants to be sold for the benefit of the Cen- 
tennial. Facing each other, and connected by a 
canvas-covered passage, were the buildings occupied 
by the second division, illustrating the period from 
iS6i to 1895. There were numerous restaurants 
and refreshment stands about the grounds, and 
during the three days there was no time when some- 
thing interesting or amusing was not to be seen. 
There was music in plenty. The Warren Cornet 



78 WARREN CEXTEXXrAL 

Band, led by Thad. Reig ; the Maccabees Band, of 
Warren; the Youngsville Cornet Band; the Indian 
Band from the Cattaraugus reservation in their 
striking Indian uniforms ; the Cornplanter Indian 
Band ; Logan's fine Indian Band from the reserva- 
tion at Gowanda, N. Y. ; and last, but by no means 
least, in the estimation of the performers themselves 
or the old setders, the Military Band of fifes and 
drums, which was always on hand and always 
delightful to the grayheads. 

Promptly at half-past ten Tuesday morning the 
regular program was taken up, and the procession 
formed at the headquarters of the Director-General, 
headed by the Warren Cornet liand. Then came 
the Director-General, followed by the President and 
other members and committees of the Centennial 
Association, and the Burgess and Town Council ot 
the Borough of Warren. 

Arriving at the platform, die grand stand and 
intervening benches were found well filled with 
people, and after the band had given a medley ot 
patriotic airs, the Rev. John A. Kunimer, D.D., of 
the I'irst M. E. Church of Warren, was introduced 
by President Stone and offered prayer. 

The Hon. Charles W. Stone, President of the 
Centennial Association, then delivered the address 
of welcome as follows : 

Ladies and Gentlemen : Warren has e.xisted for 
a century. No one of her citizens remains who can 
tell us of its birth, and there are tew even of the 
second generation to recite the incidents and events 



WARREX CENTENNIAL 79 

of its early existence. A hundred years is a lono- 
period — longer than the life of most individuals, 
longer than the life of many nations. Not one in- 
dependent nation on the western continent except 
our own has existed a hundred years. The round- 
ing out of a century is no common event, the retro- 
spect of a hundred years no ordinary spectacle, 
and the close of a century in the life of any nation 
or community has come to be regarded as an event 
worthy of notice and commemoration. 

When, a few years ago, the United States cele- 
brated her centennial, that wonderful exhibition, ex- 
tending through several months, was to the world a 
marvellous revelation of the growth and greatness 
and richness of the American republic. No one 
questioned the propriety of the celebration of the 
centenary of the nation's birth, and nothing in her 
history, save only the demonstration of her ability 
to suppress the most gigantic rebellion the world 
ever saw, has so exalted the standing of this people 
among the nations of the world or so extended our 
trade and stimulated the development of our mar- 
vellous resources as that celebration. As an expres- 
sion of sentiment, of patriotic pride, it was com- 
mendable : as a simple business enterprise, it was 
wisely planned and rich in practical results. What 
is true of the nation on a large scale is true of the 
town on a smaller one ; and the celebration to-day 
ot the close of the first century of Warren's exist- 
ence, while primarily the outgrowth of sentiment, 
of a sentimentality if you choose, not over-luxuriant 
ot growth in American character and American life, 



so WABREX CEyXENXIAL 

an expression of pride and love we bear the place 
of our homes, may yet, in ultimate results, demon- 
strate that, in its conception, sentiment and practical 
worldly wisdom have been interwoven like the warp 
and woof of the web. 

But I stop not to discuss this. The one thou^^rht 
uppermost in all our minds to-day undoubtedly is 
of the contrast existing- between the conditions that 
surround us now and those that e.visted a century 
ago. -Standing, a hundred years back, where we 
stand to-da\-, we should have found ourselves sur- 
rounded by pathless and almost boundless primeval 
forests. Through them the last savage war-whoop 
had hardly ceased to reverberate. The gallant 
Wayne had just won that memorable victory which 
really opened this region to white settlement. 
Where we now stand, or near here, had been an 
Indian village, and here the people of Corn planter 
lived in pristine simplicity. Across the river a band 
of surveyors, protected by a company ot soldiers 
with their flint-lock muskets, were laying out the 
town of Warren, yet uninhabited. No railwa\'-train 
or steamboat had relieved the tiresomeness oi their 
journey over the mountains and up the river. No 
telegraph e.xisted, no ])Ostal communication con- 
nected tliem with even the outjjosts oi civilization, 
no steam-engine was known, no electric motor mir 
light e.xcept as it illuminecl the storm\' heavens. 
Petroleum was valued only as a useful liniment. 
The ve'ry necessities ot modern lite were then un- 
known and unattainable luxuries. The conditions 
that surrounded our fathers were rough and rugged. 



nWRHFy CK.XTKXyiAl, 81 

Those conditions develojDed sturdy frames and strong- 
it not broad characters. 

"To them was life a simple art 
Of duties to be done, 
A game where each man took his part, 
A race where all must run, 
A battle whose great scheme and scope 
They little cared to know, 
Content, as men-at-arms, to cope 
Each with his fronting foe." 

So they met the requirements of daily Hfe ; so 
they surmounted the obstacles that everywhere con- 
fronted them ; so they levelled forests, reared homes, 
planted fields and garnered up the fruits of their 
toil ; so they laid the foundations of the town in 
which we li\-e— crudely, roughly, awkwardly per- 
haps, but honestly and substantially. With them 
life was indeed "a race where all must run." They 
had no place for the drone or the coward. What 
they had and what they were to have came to them 
only as the result of their own effort and their own 
Irugality. While they reared a town and builded 
fortunes they builded character, and the town came 
to partake of the character of its founders. It was 
not showy, it was not pretentious, it was not sensa- 
tional ; it had no feverish periods of abnormal 
growth, no chilly days of sickly decay. Slowly, 
steadily, firmly it moved forward, keeping fair pace 
with the progress of modern life, until to-day it 
stands '■ beautiful for situation," solid in foundation, 
substantial of growth, the "gem of the Alleghenies" 
— our own loved home. What it is, what it may be. 



82 ]VARRI-:X CFXTEXMAL 

I shall not attempt to delineate further than to say 
it is and will be what, and only what, its sons and 
dauLj'hters make it. It will not rise above and can- 
not fall below the average level of the character 
and attainments of its citizens. Each imlividual 
helps to give character to the town. As he raises 
himself and broadens his own character, and learns 
to look out beyond himself and realize his relations 
and his duties to his fellow-men, he will do his part 
to broaden and strengthen the growth of the town 
in which he lives ; and as the standard ot the life of 
th<" town as a whole is raised, as civilizing and en- 
lightening influences in its midst are strengthened 
and multiplied, so the tendency will be to raise the 
standard of the life of each individual. When tlie 
town as a whole moves up and forward, it carries 
with it all its citizens, even the listless and idle ; but 
how much nobler to aid than to n:'tard such progress; 
to lift according to your strength than to rest, a dead 
load, on those who are lifting : to march in the van- 
guard of the column of progress than to straggle in 
its rear. 

Fellow-citizens of Warren, standing, as we do, on 
the threshold of a new century, with all its opportu- 
nities and all its resi^onsibilities confronting us, with 
tile' vast possibilities of individual life and individual 
growth almost unlimited, I press home to each one 
of you the thought — and the solemn thought — of the 
weight of responsibility and duty we owe to each 
other, and jointly and severally to the town in which 
wi' dwell. No man lives to liimself alone, and no 
man comprehends the spirit and scope of this match- 



WAFREX CEyTEXXrAf, 83 

less age of ours who does not realize that the duty 
ot the individual to the public in effort and service 
is no less than ot the public to the individual in pro- 
tection and guidance. To perform this duty he must 
be awake and alive and act now. He cannot list- 
lessly wait till next week or next year. This is an 
age of action, of motion, not of rest; of the steam- 
engine and the electric car, not of the stage-coach ; 
of the telegraph and telephone, not of the postman 
and his saddle-bags. Never before and nowhere 
else in the world's history has human intellect and 
human ingenuity reached such a state of intense 
activity and broad development as in this day and 
nation, and never before and nowhere else have the 
rewards ot energy and enterprise been so great or 
the scope of man's accomplishment been so broad. 

" In an age on ages telling 
To be living is sublime," 

but the sublimity comes only with an intelligent 
comprehension of the opportunities presented and 
the responsibilities involved. I cannot elaborate. 
I undertake now to point out no path of individual 
duty. That can be easily found. When found, it 
will not be smooth ; it is rugged, but it leads up, not 
down — to glory, not dishonor: to life, not death. I 
do, however, say, in brief, that the best interests of 
this town ought to lie near the heart of every citi- 
zen, and whatever makes for civilization, for refine- 
ment, for progress, tor growth, for enlargement — 
not of territory only, not of population simply, not 
of business merely, but ot the great aggregate of 



84 WAR BEX rFXTI-:\\/AI. 

mind and heart and soul— whatever brings broader 
vision and higher aspiration, and more generous and 
unselfish action, should command the cordial co- 
operation of every citizen. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : I will not detain vou 
longer. In behalf of the citizens of Warren, I bid 
you a hearty welcome to our celebration and invoke 
your cordial co-operation in its progress. We shall 
endeavor to give you some idea ot what Warren 
was and is. We may exaggerate its beauties and 
charms, its achievements and possibilities ; but if so, 
it is but the outgrowth of the love we bear our home, 
for, " Be it ever so humble, there is no place like 
home." To that home we bid you cordial welcome. 
Last week it was and ne.xt week it will be ours; this 
week it is yours. 

Then came the glee club ot one hundred voices, 
led by Dr. W. W'. Freeman, with which the audience 
joined in singing several songs of "ye olden time." 

Following these vocal selections, Burgess James 
\\ . W iggins was introduced. The gentleman made 
no attempt at delivering a set s[)eech. He said in 
substance that he had a remem])rance of a piece 
he used to read in his old /v'/?// Rciic/er, entitled 
" Rienzi's Atklress to the Romans," in which the 
gentleman remarked that he 'came not here to 
talk," and then went on and spoke lor tour or five 
hours. The gentleman said that he was not there 
to indulge in a long talk, but rather to listen to 
others. After touching briefly on various minor 
subjects pertaining to the Centennial, he said he 



WAnUEX CFyTKXXfAL 85 

was pleased to see the red men present in such 
large numbers, the ancestors ol whom had inhabited 
these hills and valleys so many years ago. He 
hoped the friendship between the white man and 
tlie Indian that had been formed during the life of 
that grand and good old chief Cornplanter, the 
friend of Washington, would always flourish and 
grow, if possible, stronger. He was glad to know 
that the President and Council of the Six Nations, a 
confederacy that was born and had its existence 
long before the confederacy of the American Colo- 
nies was dreamed of were to be here during the 
Centennial, and said he thought it was the first occa- 
sion of a like character since its formation. 

The past, present and future of Warren was briefly 
touched on, and incidentally a little said regarding 
correct municipal government, which, as he looked 
at it, should allow the town or city to own its own 
water-works, electric-light plants, etc. He believed 
that the present occasion would prove of great benefit 
to the coming generation, and thought that the com- 
ing one hundred years would each feel the effects of 
it in UKjre ways than one. 

In closing, he extended the freedom of the cit)' to 
all visitors, adding, by way of appendix, that he 
hoped, on leaving, they would return it, as there 
might be use for it in the future. He further said, 
in jocose allusion to the presence of the Indians, 
that he hoped the visitors would carry as much of 
their hair home with them as they brought. Mr. 
\\ iggins's remarks were well received and loudly 
applauded. 



86 WABREX CESTESXIAL 

Hon. Charles H. Noyes, President Judge of the 
Thirty-seventh District, composed of the counties of 
Warren and F'orest, and Chairman of the Executive 
Committee, was the next speaker, who spolce sub- 
stantially as follows : 

JMr. President: It has passed into a proverb that 
he who dips his feet in the crystal waters of the 
Alle^dieny is bound to its banks for life. To these 
green hills and fertile valleys the hearts of the pil- 
grims and exiles turn with longing aftection, and 
hither they sooner or later return from the flat plains 
of the West or the burning fields of the too sunny 
South, to which the Yankee instinct for change has 
removed them. If there are to-day among us 
strangers from a distance, may I not ask them to 
look upon these gracefully swelling hills, clad in 
the green of forest and field, upon yonder crescent 
river lying like a silver sickle between its willow- 
fringed banks, upon the town whose spires and roots 
loom above the waving tree-tops, and upon this 
assemblage of its men, its women, its children — its 
strength, its beauty and its hope — and tell me 
whether we have not cause to be proud of our 
country and our town, and reason tor celebrating 
with joy and festivity its one hundredth year. 

One hundred years is not a long period in human 
history. Men are within the sound of niy voice whose 
years go back almost to the time when Irvine and 
Ellicott, with that sublime faith which marks the 
^'ankee race, laid out lots and parks, and streets 
and lanes, and sites for public buildings, in the midst 



WARliEy CEXTEXXrAL 87 

of the untrodden wilderness. Nor is it anything 
remarkable, in this age of wonders, that a town of 
Sooo or 9000 inhabitants, with such buildings and 
with such industries, should have grown up in a 
century. After Chicago and Kansas City, it does 
not become us to be boastful on that score. But 
the evolution of the society of the twentieth century 
is a wonder which will be forever wonderful, and of 
this the growth of Warren is a part. We may study 
it here as well as at Chicago. Here, as there, the 
progress has been from the wigwam to the palace ; 
from the ox-cart to the Pullman and the bicycle ; from 
buckskin and feathers to big sleeves and — shall I 
say it? — bloomers. It was the aim of the projectors 
of this Exhibition to illustrate the changes in life and 
manners during the one hundred years in a variety 
of ways. This has been done more perfectly and 
e.xpansi\'eh' b\" the committee in charge than any 
one dared at the outset to even suggest. The 
Indian wigwam, which was ciesigned to represent 
aboriginal life, has expanded into a whole village, 
and a daily, almost hourly, exhibition of Indian life 
and manners. The block-house — the primitive set- 
tlers' fort — has been executed as an actuality, and 
not merely as a scenic representation. "Jackson's 
Tavern " has risen from its ashes — with the help of 
Kiantone ; and if you do not get venison for dinner 
there it will be because Chief O'Bail doesn't go out 
with his young men after the deer. The old times 
will be further recalled by the interesting exhibits in 
the Hall of Antiquities and the old-time spellings and 
singing-schools, the old folks' reunions and the 



88 WAHRE.X CEXTEyxrAL 

quiltin', which is so life-like that one would expect 
to meet his orandmother there. Elsewhere you will 
find most interesting- exhibits recallino- Warren in 
war times — her women's work at home as well as 
the sufferings of her sons in the field — and, still 
further, some suggestion of the condition of \\ arren 
in our own times. To all this and to the wonders 
described on the program I join with the President 
in giving you a cordial welcome. 

W'arren has not produced many men and women 
who have attained to very wide notoriety, but many 
who were worthy to fill the highest places. I was 
not here early enough to know the ancients, as we 
may call them, but I have known them well and 
intimately at second-hand, through the eloquent and 
living pictures drawn by such masters as Johnson, 
Struthers and Brown, and especially Scofield, who, 
along with his capacity for statesmanship, could 
paint character and depict a scene to the life with 
the talent of another Dickens, had he chosen to so 
apply it. 

I may not, in the time allotted, \enture to speak 
of all the men who have made their mark upon the 
pages of Warren's histor\', Ijut none among them 
will Ije remembered longer or more worthily than 
the old war chief, whose )'oung men hunted over 
this ground when the hrst white men came to survey 
it. In his veins flowed a mingled stream drawn on 
the one hand from generations of savage chiefs, on 
the other from generations of indomitable Dutch- 
men, froni whom we derived much of the gootl in 
oLir institutions and learned the \alue of libertv; 



WARRKX CEyTENXIAL 89 

men whose country may well be called the mother 
of our own — for it was from Holland that the Pilgrim 
Fathers first set sail on their way to found New 
England. His life was noble according to its lights, 
and his wisdom far above the people among whom he 
lived. He was wise, brave, truthful, faithful to duty 
at all times and at any .sacrifice. Of what white man 
can more than this be said? — Of course, I refer to 
Cornplanter. To him and William Penn it is due 
tliat at this day the red nation flourishes in the heart 
of our civilization, changed but not annihilated, and 
still in a measure independent, and we welcome 
them and their representatives among us. 

What will the coming years bring forth ? More 
houses and finer, more factories and larger, more 
population and the satisfaction of dwelling in a larger 
town? I am not unmindful of these things, but reflec- 
tion has taught me not to overvalue them. If we 
have not multiplied as fast as our neighbors, if our 
chimneys are not so high, our population not so 
dense, nor our streets so busy, I am glad that our 
people are better housed, better fed and better paid, 
and, as I am glad to believe, on the whole, happier 
and more contented. It is better that we should be 
happy than great; so may the century that is coming 
bring our children those things which work for right- 
eousness and happiness rather than greatness. 

The Reservation B.a.nd. — Then came a fine selec- 
tion by Prof. Leigh's band, of Gowanda, N. Y., an 
organization made up entirely of Indians. Their 
effort was loudly applauded. 



90 WABREX CEXTEXXfAL 

Director-General H. J. Muse was then introduced 
by President Stone. In the course of his introduc- 
tory remarks he paid that gentleman a very high 
compliment for the efficiency he had displayed in 
bringing the huge task in his hands to so successful 
an outcome, and, continuing, said : 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : We to-day 
celebrate the occurrence of events that took place 
upon this ground a century ago, the participants in 
which have long since passed from the earth ; and 
this latter fact makes more apparent the truth of 
that which at all times is impressed upon the minds 
of thoughtful persons, that man lives in the present, 
but his deeds are perpetuated after his physical ex- 
istence has terminated. It is natural and proper 
that at times men should call a halt in the speedy 
march of life's absorbing and engrossing events, 
and casting their thoughts backward through the 
vista o[' years separating the present Irom the- dis- 
tant past, rtjview reflectively the results achieved, 
and thereby acquire a safe and an instructive guide 
for tlie luture. 

The prest;nt is an auspicious occasion lor the 
people of Warren to mentally marshal their historical 
and experimental knowledge of the occurrences ot 
the past, and dwell with honest gratification Lipon 
the achievements ot the first centur\' ot the exist- 
ence of their beautiful town. 

We may be pardoned if, in our reflections, mem- 
ory stops not at the time when, by the authority ot 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, a survey was 



]VARREy OEyTEXXTAL 91 

made of certain territory within our view, and 
streets, squares and lots plotted thereon for a fu- 
ture town, named in honor of a gallant hero of 
Revolutionary fame, whose patriotism, \alor and 
heroic deeds in that hard-fought struggle for inde- 
pendence, the success of which has crowned the 
world with priceless and enduring blessino-s. we 
ought to commemorate by a fitting monument erected 
within the limits of the borough of Warren. The 
name ot Joseph Warren, who yielded up his life in 
the cause of Colonial freedom at the historic battle 
ol Bunker Hill, fires the American heart with love 
of liberty, and kindles anew within the soul an un- 
selfish devotion to our native land. 

It was at the close of that war waged by Warren 
and his compatriots for national independence and 
freedom from British dominion and misrule, and 
after its heroes — who had survived the sufferino-s 
and privations incident to insufficient food, clothino- 
and shelter, the marches, sieges and the shock of 
battle, and seen the glorious termination of the un- 
e(]ual contest between Great Britain and her colonies 
— had returned from the fields of carnage and glory 
to their firesides, that a spirit of migration was 
kindled along the Atlantic coast. Westward over 
the Alleghenies the march of civilization began. 

Through dense and interminable forests, along 
the course of friendly and convenient streams, en- 
countering and vanquishing savage men and beasts, 
courting and enduring hardships and privations, 
)-our ancestors came to the junction of the Cone- 
wango creek and the Allegheny river, where they 



92 WARREX CEXTEXXrAL 

founded a town that for a century has steadily grown 
and expanded into a community of 8000 souls, with 
churches, schools, banks, public buildings and edi- 
fices, private homes, railroads and a vast variety of 
industrial establishments which entitle Warren to 
her far-famed reputation as a prosperous, contented 
and substantial community. 

With your productions ot oil and gas you con- 
tribute to the light of the world ; with your produc- 
tions of lumber you help to build cities and towns ; 
through the skill, industry and enterprise of your 
citizens your manufactured products find ready sale 
throughout the Union, and your articles of export, 
natural and manufactured, contribute very materially 
to supply the demands of foreign commerce. 

Your educational institutions and the natural 
intelligence, spirit and patriotism ot the people 
have furnished the nations and the world with not a 
few notable examples of wise statesmanship, heroism 
and devotion to the cause of human liberty. 

In the forward march of the world's intelligence, 
in the advancement of thought and art, and in the 
f()rc(;s that contribute to the true welfare of human- 
ity, the women of Warren have ever furnished 
bright and worthy examples. Her daughters stand 
in the fn^nt rank of reform and progressive move- 
ments, and in the community constitute the life and 
forceful power of Christian and benevolent enter- 
[jrises ; their influence and energies often blaze the 
way, and lead in schemes calculated to improve and 
elevate the moral tone of the public and establish 
the supreme rule of "peace and good-will." They 



WAnEFX CEXTKXXIAL 93 

are powerful for good, notwithstanding the exchange 
of the hoop-skirts of their grandmothers' day for 
the modern balloon-sleeves. 

Warren points with honest pride to her record of 
the past century and to the future with bright ex- 
pectations. Because of these, in part, her citizens 
have conceived and arranged this celebration, com- 
memorative of the mighty and fruitful past, and to 
which we have been invited. In the various depart- 
ments will be found many articles of ancient use 
and amusement — relics and antiquities — mute but 
unimpeachable witnesses of the manners and cus- 
toms of our ancestors, illustrating their life in war 
and in the happier pursuits of peace. 

You will here see illustrated the dangers and 
hardships which the early settlers of this beautiful 
valley were subjected to by aboriginal tribes, whose 
descendants, arrayed in their native costumes and 
war-dresses of the past century, will participate in 
mimic warfare with the white man as their forefathers 
did in reality in the boundless forests of this region 
more than one hundred years ago. Here will be 
seen mementos of the past, reminders of the life- 
and-death struggles of the republic with her foes, 
foreign and domestic. Here, too, can be viewed 
the fruits of peaceful and intelligent industry and 
toil. To all these and much more that will both 
interest and instruct you your attention will be in- 
vited after the conclusion of the opening exercises 
of the day. 

At the conclusion of the Director-General's speech 



04 WARRP:\ CEXTEXXrAL 

the procession re-formed, and, headed by the bands 
— three in number — marched to the Indian village, 
where a most interesting ceremon\" took place. 
Seated on a platform, erected for that purpose in 
the centre of the semicircle of tepees, were the 
leading chiefs and women of the Seneca Nation from 
both the Cattaraugus and Cornplanter reservations. 
The chiefs were seated on the front rows of chairs, 
while the squaws occupied seats in the rear. These 
latter were bedecked with all manner of bright- 
colored dresses and ribbons, the leading color being 
red. The picture presented was, although not ex- 
actly pretty, certainly fascinating, attractive, and at 
th(; same time somewhat formidable, and it was 
noticed that the crowd was not possessed of any 
great desire to get too near the stand, but kept back 
at a respectful distance. The celebrated personage 
known as Solomon O'Bail, a grandson of Corn- 
planter, occupied the centre of the first circle. He 
is now a man eighty years of age and somewhat 
infirm. When the procession arrived at the stand 
the officials of the Association, headed by ex-Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Stone, ascended to the platform, 
and the crowd torme-d in line to listen to the vener- 
able chieftain, O'Bail, who addressed the committee 
through the aid of an interpreter, Harrison Half- 
town, as follows : 

Chikf O'B.ml's T.alk. 

Brothers : To-day my duty is to speak before you 
in behalf of my people and friends. We all be- 
lieve, while we meet here to-dav, both Indians and 



WA RRFX CEXTKXyiA L 



95 



whites, in only one Creator, who made the world. 
The Great Spirit is supposed to furnish all good 
things. We ought to feel thankful for the great 

blessings we get 

from the earth, and 
also for the blessings 
we receive from our 
guides, the sun and 
the moon, and also 
that the Great Spirit 
has created rain in 
the clouds to pour 
on the earth and 
bring from it sup- 
plies. For all this we 
ought to be thank- 
ful to our Creator in 
heaven. For this I 
speak at this meet- 
ing. I am going to 
say, in behalf of the 
Indians, that they are 

part of the Commonwealth of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania. It seems that the State of Pennsylvania and 
the Government of the United States treat the In- 
dians fairly and jusdy. We also understand that 
they act for the justice of all. This is all I have to 
say in behalf of my Indians. 

President Stone's Repi.v. 
In reply to Chief O'Bail. Mr. Stone spoke sub- 
stantiallv as follows, through the interpreter: 




Sill.OMON O'HaII.. 



96 WARREN CENTENNIAL 

Chieftain, Children of Cornplanter and People of 
the Iroquois Nation : We join with you in homage 
to the Great Spirit, the omniscient power, that sends 
us the sunshine and the rain and controls all our 
ways. We know you were the first inhabitants of 
these valleys and hunted over these hills. You have 
been restricted in your hunting-g-rounds, but have 
been benefited by the opening to you of a higher 
mode of living and a better knowledge of the Great 
Spirit, the Father of all. We are glad to meet you 
here to-day, and we welcome you as friends. The 
children and people of Cornplanter must be always 
our friends. We honor his memory. We know he 
was brave and true. He was honest and without 
deceit. For more than a hundred harvests we have 
smoked the pipe of peace with his people. We 
have grown strong and many as the leaves ot the 
forest. The thirteen fires have become forty-four. 
In our own town many lodges now stand where one 
hundred years ago there were none. Our young 
men rejoice to be strong, and our old men tarry long 
from the happy hunting-grounds. We have lighted 
our fires. We have brought trom our lodges many 
curious things. We have made ready to rejoice and 
be happy. In this rejoicing we ask the Iroquois 
Nation to join us. We bid you a cordial welcome 
to our celebration, our Centennial festival. We want 
you to enjoy yourselves and be happy now and at 
all times, and to remember that the white men are 
your friends. I have done. 

The Indians then joined the procession, and the 



]VAERE.\ CEXTEXXfA I. 



97 



several departments of the Exhibition were visited 
in turn, the officers being received by the committee 
in charge, and the Exhibition was formally declared 
open by the President. 

The Ouiltix(;-Party. 
A very large crowd was gathered to witness the 
sights of the afternoon, almost blocking the streets 
on the Exhibition erounds. 




ThF, (Jril.TINC-PARTV. 



At one o'clock a curious spectacle attracted the 
attention of the many persons lining the streets of 
the town. This was a wagon-load of ladies who 
seemed to have suddenly stepped out of some 
ancient picture to dazzle the eyes of tha Jin dc Steele 
beholder by the striking costumes of a century ago. 



rtS WARRE.X rENTEXXrAL 

Verily, Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed 
like one of these. Mounted on horseback and clad 
in ororgeous raiment, Mrs. Myron Waters rode in 
advance, carrying in her arms the baby, the pet ot 
the quilting-party. To the accompaniment of " Wait 
for the Wagon " and other popular songs this brill- 
iant company were wending their way towards the 
fair grounds. The large, pleasant building, kindly 
loaned bv the Methodist ladies, was where they were 
to participate in ye old-time quilting-bee — a genuine 
representation of our grandmothers' method of 
combining work and pleasure In the old-fashioned 
way. The whitewashed walls were adorned with 
pictures — genuine antiques — such as the "Tree of 
Life " and " The Farmer's Pets." Strings of dried 
apples and bunches of corn hung from the ceiling, 
while wreaths of asparagus testooned the ancient 
mirrors, and two old clocks marked the time, as they 
had so faithfully done for one hundred years and 
more. The old powder-horn and musket were in 
evidence — dread reminders that they were once a 
necessary protection from the ruthless maraudings 
of the savage red man. The furniture was through- 
out in keeping with the central idea — quaint and 
anti(|ue. With almost infinite variety of detail, the 
general effect was harmonious and complete — so 
true to the original as to bring tears to the eyes of 
manv a tenck-r-hearted visitor, who lived over again 
in meinorN' the days of long ago. The central por- 
tion of the i)uilding was devoted to the famous quilt. 
Stretched u|)on a frame, itself a relic of bygone 
davs, it formed the centre of a bevy of workers 



WARREX CEXTESWIAL 101 

whose taste and skill were making it an object of 
admiration to the aesthetic as well as to the more 
practical beholder. The blocks of pink and white 
calico were tastefully combined in the album pattern. 
The centre of each block contained the name of one 
ot the committee, while the central block bore the 
inscription : 

1795 

W^ARKEN CeXTEXXIAL 
1895 

Upon its completion the quilt was sold at auction, 
Mr. George N. Parmlee kindly acting as auctioneer. 
The highest bidder was Mr. F. H. Rockwell, in whose 
family this souvenir will always be highly prized. 
I he ladies, in their quaint costumes, grouped about 
the quilting-frame, made a most attractive picture. 
Near by were two spinning-wheels, at which Miss 
Susan T. Daggett and Mrs. Charlotte Waters pre- 
sided — spinning endless rolls of wool, to the infinite 
enjoyment of the crowds of spectators who thronged 
the building. At another wheel Mrs. Lucinda Lacy 

was busily engaged in spinning fla.\ into thread 

such as our grandmothers were accustomed to weave 
into firm linen cloth. In the background stood a 
high four-post bedstead — the property of the Dun- 
ham family — tastefully draped ; and its coverlet, so 
curious and beautiful, was the work of Mrs. Rachel 
W'eatherby, over fifty years ago. A quaint old table 
and chest of drawers were covered with fine embroid- 
ered and linen pieces, the handiwork of Mrs. Stur- 



102 WARREN CEyTENNfAL 

geon and Mrs. Summerton in their youthlul clays. 
Our music-loving friends rejoiced in the presence of 
an old melodeon and a violin, the first ever brought 
into Warren county. Both of the instruments re- 
tained much of their pristine richness ot tone, and 
furnished pleasing accompaniment to the good old 
songs which delighted the ears of the audience at 
almost any hour of the day. "The Old Oaken 
Bucket," " Auld Lang Syne," and "Aunt Dinah's 
Quilting-Party " were most inspiring, sung by the 
ladies with animation and amid such appropriate 
surroundings. At si.\ o'clock tea was served, the 
front of the building forming the dining-room. The 
table fairly groaned beneath the weight of the many 
good things prepared by the ladies. If variety is 
the spice of life, surely the flavor was well supplied, 
for the bill of fare was rich and varied, consisting of 
everything which our ancestors enjoyed, besides an 
occasional modern innovation, all served upon china 
a century old. Pleasure was added to the repast 
by the presence of the husbands of the ladies. Long 
and pleasantly will the Quilting-Party be remem- 
bered by those who had it in charge. With patience 
and energy, not unmi.xed with true enjoyment, the 
ladies worked together in perfect harmony for sev- 
eral weeks, and to their energy and efficienc}' is due 
the success of the undertaking. 

The following are the names of the ladies partici- 
pating : Mrs. F. H. Rockwell. Chairman; Mrs. E. 
W. Panshall, Mrs. D. I. Ball, Mrs. L. B. Hoffman, 
Miss Susan T. Daggett, Miss Jennie Merrill, Mrs. 
iN. C. Allen, Mrs. F.^Henry, Mrs. J. M. Bemis, Mrs. 



M'ABREy CENTENNIAL 103 

Myron Waters, Mrs. U. G. Mease, Mrs. O. C. Allen, 
Mrs. I. S. Alden, Mrs. A. Gerould, Mrs. W. A. Pierce, 
Mrs. L. D. Galligan, Mrs. O. \V. Beaty, Mrs. fennie 
Brecht, Mrs. W'm. A. Talbott, Mrs. Richard B. 
Stewart, Mrs. A. D. Wood, Mrs. .S. W. Waters, Mrs. 
J. P. King, Mrs. Theo. Messner, Mrs. W. F. Henry, 
Mrs Rachel Weatherby, Mrs. Sarah Ann Sturgeon, 
Mrs.Diadama H. White, Mrs. Clarissa Gilbert. 

For Tuesday the Indian village on the grounds 
proved to be the centre of attraction, not only from 
the fact that the afternoon amusement opened at 
that point, but as it was the general point of interest, 
and the people were anxious to observe how the 
primitive savage conducted his domestic affairs before 
the advance of civilization compelled such radical 
changes in his manner of living. At 2 p.m. the 
program opened with a war-dance on the platform 
erected in the Indian village, participated in by a 
score ot dusky bucks, who were attired in the his- 
toric raiment oi deerskin so commonly attributed to 
the aborigines. To the weird music of tom-toms, 
etc., with an accompaniment of shrill yells, the stal- 
wart braves ot the last disappearing Six Nations 
gave a most thrilling illustration of their prelimina- 
ries for war. 

This was followed in close order by the game of 
lacrosse between the twelves trom the respective 
reservations of Cattaraugus and Cornplanter. This 
game was decidedly new to the spectators, many of 
whom had never been fortunate enough to witness 
this Canadian Indian game. There are 1 2 players 
on each side. The o-oals are similar to those of foot- 



104 WARRF.y CEXTEXNfAL 

ball, being distant trom each other about loo yards, 
though the posts are but 8 feet apart and about 6 
feet in height. To secure a score, the ball (a rubber 
one about the size of those used in tennis) must be 
forced between these posts. Two men are desig- 
nated as starters, one for each side, who begin the 
play from the centre. Fielders to the number of ten 
on each side are lined up, facing each other in lines 
reaching to each goal, the players six feet apart, and 
one back-stop, or goal-protector, for each team. The 
ball is put in play in the centre, and then there is a 
wild scramble with the long -handled buck -thong- 
rackets, somewhat like tennis rackets, but ot much 
larger proportions. The men of the Cattaraugus 
team seemed to be the best, and some of their inter- 
ference and plays were very adroit, and made foot- 
ball players who saw the contest curious. It required 
but ^o minutes for the Cattaraugus men to vanquish 
their opponents, the score being 3 to o. 

While the lacrosse game was being hnished, the 
"old boys'" base-ball game began. This was a con- 
test at the base-ball played when our lathers were 
boys, and now known as "patchings," that name 
being derived from the fact that a base- runner can 
be put out by being struck with tin; ball. Among 
the players noted was A. |. Hazeltine, President of 
the Warren Savings Bank, and his gyrations in an 
attempt to avoid being "patched" while running 
bases were very amusing to the crowd watching the 
game. Others prominent in the- game were M. 1:5. 
Dunham, a well-known lumberman and bank di- 
rector; E. T. Hazeltine, famous tor his connection 



}V.\RR FX r'EXTKXXTA L 1 5 

for many years with the Piso manufactory ; Charles 
Chase, an old-time lumberman and an intimate friend 
of the late Hon. L. F. W^atson ; Sidney A. Wetmore, 
another gentleman who acquired wealth in the palmy 
days when lumbering was the principal vocation of 
the citizens of Warren county; A. Carroll, commonly 
known as " Dad ;" Robert Henderson, a contractor 
and builder; John M.Davidson, a contracting mason ; 
P. J. Trushel, an East Side groceryman ; Dr. John 
A. Kummer, Pastor of the first M. E. Church, who 
was the pitcher for one side, and was immediately 
dubbed "Southpaw Kummer," owing to the fact that 
he pitched left-handed. 

The complete list of participants in the ball games 
on July 3d is appended : 

Charles Chase, Captain ; Walter Marsh, William 
Fogies, Al. Samuelson, J. J. Eckles, J. M. Davidson, 
A. Carroll, T. H. Brown. 

N. P. Curtis, Captain ; E. T. Hazeltine, Robert 
Henderson, S. A. Wetmore, Rev. Dr. Kummer, (]. 
R. Starr, F. E. Foster, A. J. Hazeltine. 

But the most interesting feature of the day's pro- 
gram was the attack upon the block-house. A 
party of members of the Grand Army, veterans in 
real war, dressed in the costume of our grandfathers, 
were peacefully hoeing in the field, but with guns 
prudently lying near, when they were attacked by a 
party of redskins, dressed in feathers and war-paint, 
under Chief Gar-no-gwah (alias Charles D. Cran- 
dall, of the Indian Committee), and retreated, firing, 
into the block-house, where they prepared to defend 
their lives to the bitter end. Another party of red- 



106 WARREN CENTENNIAL 

skins under Chief Big Horse (alias D. Gardner) 
now made a fiery attach: from another direction, and 
soon the defenders' ammunition was exhausted and 
they were unable to make further resistance. The 
Indians now swarmed about the block-house and 
vainly tried to force an entrance, but the stout door 
withstood all their efforts. Failing to batter it down 
they resorted to the old Indian expedient, and with 
yells and whoops they set fire to the logs and danced 
around the house in savage excitement. At this 
point the scene was very realistic and exciting. 
The party was composed of real Indians, some ot 
whom had been soldiers, and all were lamiiiar with 
the traditions of savage life. The war-whoops were 
thrilling, and many spectators, not being aware that 
the leaders were white men, feared that the un- 
accustomed excitement might carry the red men into 
actual deeds of violence. ]ust at this critical point, 
when the block-house seemed doomed, there was a 
sound of many feet on the dry grass, a quick, short 
word of command, and Company I, under Captain 
F. v.. Windsor and Lieutenant I). F. A. W'heel- 
ock, appeared, and by a series of beautiful evolu- 
tions drove the Indians off and extinguished the 
flames. 

When the smoke of the battle had cleared away, 
and Company I had retired in soldierly fashion, the 
spectators turned their attention to the exhibitions in 
the various buildings. The Indians gave exhibitions 
at intervals on the platform in the Indian village, and 
the Indian Committee were kept busy introducing 
visitors to Chief O'Bail and Deerfoot, and showing 



WARREN CENTENNIAL 109 

them through the camp, which was always a strong 
attraction. 

Exchange of Greetings. 

Warren county was at one time a part of Lycom- 
ing county. That county celebrated the centennial 
of its organization on the same three days of the 
Warren celebration. Some recognition of this fact 
seemed proper, and accordingly, early in the after- 
noon of July 2d, the following telegram was sent : 

"President of the Lycoming Centennial As.sh- 
( lATiON, Williamsport, Pa. : 
"The Borough of Warren, commencing to-day 
her Centennial celebration, sends filial greetings to 
the mother county of Lycoming, and hopes full suc- 
cess will crown her celebration, and that abundant 
prosperity may be her portion during the coming 
century. 

" Charles W. Stone, 

'' President of Warren Centennial Association." 

To which the following reply was received : 

" Hon. Charles W. Stone, Warren. Pa. : 

" The mother of Warren reciprocates the kindly 
sentiments of her child, and wishes her continued 
prosperity and happiness. 

" H. C. Par.sons, 

"Vice-President Lycoming Centennial Association." 

Report of the Indian Committee. 

At a meeting of the First Division of the Centen- 
nial Committee, held in the Library for the purpose 



110 WARREN CEXTEXNTAL 

of decidin^r upon a program of attractions appro- 
priate to the period dating from 1795 to 1S61, it 
was suggested by C. D. Crandall that an Indian 
village, composed of Indians of the Cornplanter 
tribe, could be made an interesting leature, and 
upon the suggestion President Stone appointed W. 
H. Allen, \V. A. Talbott and C. D. Crandall a com- 
mittee to visit the reservation, interest the Indians 
in the celebration, and secure their aid in making 
the project a success. 

The committee first visited the Cornplanter reser- 
vation, fifteen miles above Warren, on the Allegheny 
river, where they met Alfred Halftown. Marsh 
Pierce, and other representative Indians. The In- 
dians seemed interested in the project, and another 
meeting was arranged to take place a week later, 
at which time Myron Silverheels, ot Red House, 
lames Pierce, of Quaker Bridge, and others from 
Onoville, Salamanca and Cold Springs, were present. 
At that meeting an arrangement was made to bring 
to Warren about two hundred men, women and 
children, composing the best war-dancers, lacrosse 
plavers. runners and basket-makers. It was agreed 
that as many as possible were to be dressed in old- 
time native costume. Betsy Bennett was given the 
contract for making forty-two tepees ; the tepees 
were made of muslin painted with yellow ochre ami 
oil. which ga\e them a skin or hide color, antl at the 
same timt; matle them thortnighly water-proof. 
Each te[)<.-e was matle large enough to accommodate 
si.\ or seven persons. Indians were also hired to 
cut the necessary poles, seven being required for 




Indian CoMMiTTEf:. 



KM BR EX CEyrKXyiA L 1 1 :t 

each tepee, and they were dehvered at Warren the 
Friday previous to the celebration, at which time 
the village was erected under the leadership and 
direction of Alfred and Jefford Halftown. The 
Cornplanter Band, composed of twelve members, 
were without uniforms; the committee purchased 
buckskin cloth, which was tanned with oak bark, 
giving it a true skin appearance. The suits were 
made by the Indians themselves, showing artistic 
skill and workmanship. 

While visiting the reservation and in conversation 
with Myron Silverheels, who held an important posi- 
tion at the Chicago World's Fair Indian village, the 
committee learned that the best war-dancers and 
lacrosse players lived on the Cattaraugus reserva- 
tion, in the pagan settlement of Newtown. Wishing 
also to secure the presence of Solomon O'Bail, the 
grandson of Cornplanter, who at one time lived on 
what is known as the Cornplanter reservation, and 
also Deerfoot, the noted Indian runner, whose ten 
mile record had never been beaten, the committee 
decided to visit the Cattaraugus reservation. They 
not only secured the above attractions, but also 
arranged with Logan, the orator of the Seneca 
Nation, to appear as one of the speech-makers on 
July 4th. President Frank P. Patterson was one of 
the number present at this meeting, which suggested 
that the President of the Nation and the Indian 
Council be invited as a body to visit Warren during 
the three days' celebration as special guests of the 
borough council and officials. The invitation was 
given and accepted, and the attendance of Logan's 



1 1 4 IIM RREX r 'EXTEXXf. I f. 

Seneca Nation Band was also secured. This band 
was correcdy costumed in old Indian attire and 
attracted considerable attention. 

Prof. Lay's Indian Band of eighteen pieces, one 
of the finest bands in Western New York, was also 
en"-ac;ed. Those who attended the celebration will 
remember with pleasure the fine music produced 
by that band. 

On their arrival home the committee conferred 
with President Stone, who was somewhat apprehen- 
sive as to the success of their undertaking, the 
matter of expense entering largely into his objec- 
tions ; but with the promise that expense would be 
kept at the lowest possible figure, he at last ap- 
proved of what seemed a gigantic and toolish 
undertaking for so small a town as Warren. The 
committee ne.xt conferred with the railroad officials, 
making necessary and satisfactory arrangements for 
a special train to Warren over the W. N. Y. & P. 
Railroad, and for the transportation of camp equip- 
ment, such as blankets, cooking utensils, Indian 
relics, and other baggage. A similar arrangement 
was also made with the D. A. \'. tS: P. Railroad tor 
transportation of the Cattaraugus Indians from 
Lawtons, N. Y., on the line of the Buftalo and South- 
western road. 

Realizing that the Commissary Department should 
be in th(_' hantls of men more familiar with that line 
of work than the members of the committee, tliey 
secured the assistance of Messrs. P. H. Fehlman 
and Jerome L. Cogswell in the ca[)acity of Commis- 
saries. Commissary tickets were issued to the In- 



ir. 1 RRr:.\ < ■F.yrKyxiA r, 1 1 o 

dians on their arrival at \\ arren, and each morninor 
they appeared at the commissary headquarters and 
received their allowance for the day, which was lib- 
eral and the best that the market afibrded — fresh 
meats, vegetables, and watermelon, the favorite fruit 
oi the Indian, unless it was "bologna," which seemed 
to be appreciated more than anything offered. A 
milk-wagon visited the village twice a day, and ice 
was tarnished to those who desired it. 

Ever)'thing was in readiness in the camp on the 
afternoon of |idy ist, and that evening all the In- 
dians arrived. At about eight o'clock bonfires were 
burning in front of nearly every tepee and the vil- 
lage was all activit)'. Supper had been served by 
nine o'clock, at which hour a detail from Company 
1. I 6th Regiment, arrived on the grounds and took 
charge of the village until daybreak. The next 
morning the village was divided into four sections : 
tour Indians were sworn in as deputy-marshals and 
patrolled their respective sections. 

From the mc^ment the grounds opened the Indian 
village became the centre of attraction. Alter the 
several speeches had been made and the program 
of the opening exercises at the grand stand carried 
out, the members of the different committees and 
\isitors, headed b\' President Stone, marched to the 
Indian \'illage. There they were received by Messrs. 
Allen. Talbott and Crandall, and presented to Chief 
Solomon O'Bail. -Speeches ot welcome and good- 
teeling were made by both President -Stone and 
O'Bail, alter which the Indians joined with the 
parade, and, in turn, visited the difterent attractions 



116 WARREN CFXTEXXfAL 

on the grounds. The Indian part of the program 
was then commenced. Running races and games 
pecuHar to the Indian nation followed in quick suc- 
cession, to the enjoyment of the thousands of visit- 
ors who were present, some of whom had never 
before seen an Indian or become familiar with their 
sports and pastimes. In the afternoon an attack by 
the Indians on the block-house defended b\' the 
farmers was a realistic presentation. This part of 
the program was also carried out on the second 
day. Three famous lacrosse teams, representing 
Cold Spring, Cornplanter and Cattaraugus, at dif- 
ferent times during the Exhibition gave evidence of 
their skill in that national game, the Cattaraugus 
proving to be the strongest team. 

On the Fourth of July, the last day of the Cele- 
bration, the entire village marched in the parade. 

This division was headed by the Indian Commit- 
tee, followed by four carriages containing President 
Patterson and members ot the Indian Council, Chief 
Solomon O'Bail, Deerfoot, and two other chiefs. 
l')ehind the carriages marched the men, women and 
children of the nation, some in lacrosse uniform, 
others in fantastic Indian costume, with head-gear 
of war-bonnet and peculiar Indian ornaments ; the 
women and children, in bright-colored dresses, pre- 
senting a never-to-be-forgotten picture. .After the 
parade the procession marched to the Exhibition 
grountls, and were followed by the \-isitors, ami 
during the ceremonies at the grand stand Logan, 
the famous Indian orator, interested and surprised 
the thousands present with his eloquence and origi- 



WARREN CEyTENNIAL 117 

nality. His speech was one of the best of the 
day. 

President Stone then announced that the Indian 
Council, wishing to show their appreciation of the 
manner in which they and their people had been 
treated by the citizens of Warren, desired to adopt 
into the nation the three gendemen who composed 
the Indian Committee. The Indians who had charge 
ot the adoption ceremonies formed on the speaker's 
stand, and first conferred the honor on \V. H. Allen, 
adopting him into the Bear clan, and giving him the 
name of Sa-go-gaah-soh, meaning " Brother to all ;" 
then C. D. Crandall into the Wolf clan, named 
Gar-no-gwah, meaning " Running oil ;" then W. A. 
Talbott into the Hawk clan, named Skan-dyo-gwa-di, 
meaning " above the multitude." This honor is one 
that the Indians seldom confer, and few white men 
are members of the Indian nation. These adoptions 
are recorded in the books of the nation, and the 
names given to the adopted children are those of 
chiefs who have lived in the past and have been 
noted for some particular virtue. 

The balance of the afternoon and evening was 
devoted to war-dances, green-corn dances and the 
famous squaw-dance, several running races and a 
hotly-contested game between the Cattaraugus and 
Cold Spring lacrosse teams. 

The endre village broke camp on the morning of 
July 5th, and were escorted to their several trains. 
It is a matter of congratulation that during the four 
nights and three days that these Indians, numbering 
nearly three hundred, were the gruests of Warren 



118 v'AnnFX CEyrFyyiAL 

there was not a single accident or case of drunken- 
ness or trouble of any kind in the camp. Every- 
thing was carried out with systematic precision. To 
competent men was entrusted the handling of bag- 
gage, and not one piece was miscarried or lost. The 
oldest member of the village was Solomon O'Bail, 
about eighty-five years old, the youngest less than 
two months old. A classified list of names of those 
present was not preserved, as it was almost an im- 
possibility to secure the necessary information ; but 
among the more prominent Indians present were 
Chief Solomon O'Bail, Deerfoot, the noted runner, 
Andrew John, Logan, York, President Frank P. 
Patterson, Treasurer Hague and the ten members 
of the Council, Myron Silverheels. Red Eye, Ray, 
[ames and Marsh Pierce, Jamieson, Alfred and Har- 
rison Halftown, Charles Gordon, Jerome Bowen, 
Tom [acobs, Owen Jacob and Jefibrd Halftown. 

Solomon O'Bail, war-chief of the .Senecas, is the 
grandson of Gy-aut-wa-chia, the Cornplanter, com- 
monly known as Captain John O'Bail. Corn- 
planter was the son of a Dutch trader named 
A'lSeel and a Seneca woman. His English name 
was a corruption of A'Bee'l, and led to the belief 
that his father was Irish. He rose by his great 
abllit)' to be the head war-chief of the Senecas. As 
a boy he was with the French at Fort Duquesne at 
the time of Braddock's defeat, and h(; was probably 
the leader at Cherry X'alley and Wyoming, instead 
of Brant, to whom tradition aiKl poetr}' ha\e as- 
signed that bad eminence. But after the Revolution 
he became an advocate of peace and a friem.! of the 



WABREX CENTENNIAL 119 

whites, and largely forfeited his influence with his 
own people by his efforts to keep them from exter- 
mination. Peace was the unpopular side, and Red 
Jacket, who was no fighter, but every inch a politi- 
cian, espoused the war side with all his eloquence, 
and thereby supplanted Cornplanter, though he did 
not defeat that wise leader's pacific purposes. Corn- 
planter lived in his last years on a tract of land on 
the Allegheny river, above Warren, given him by 
the State of Pennsylvania in recognition of his ser- 
vices, where he died and is buried. His grave is 
marked by a stone erected by the State to his 
memory. 

Cornplanter had three sons, Henry, Charles and 
W illiam. Henry was educated in Europe, but his 
career, after returning to this country to take up the 
work which his father had so much at heart — of teach- 
ing the Indians how to adapt themselves to new con- 
ditions — was a great disappointment to his father, 
and he died while still young. Alter the death of 
Charles and William, Solomon O'Bail, son of Henr)-, 
succeeded to the chiefship, though his functions have 
not been very active. He is venerable and power- 
tul in appearance, and, had the tribe engaged in 
war, niight have led them with ability and courage. 

Deerfoot. 

The following account of this interesting Indian 
appeared in the Oil City Derrick : 

Hot-tyo-so-do-no (he peeks in the door), or Lewis 
Bennett, commonly known as "Deerfoot," was 
born on the Seneca Reservation in i8;o. Some 



120 



WAR REX CEXTEXyrAI. 



say he was born in 1S37, but his son in;i,in(;Lins that 

h'-' it ''-, y.;ars of 
^'^<-. I l'M|,.sf;(;nds 
''''oni;ui-,h.,|.Sen- 
'■'••t l.inilly. His 
fathr:,-, Noah Two 
^^ii'is, ,11. 1 vigor- 
ous ■.(■rvici: in our 
war ol iy,,2, and 
was ,„„. „f ji^g 

first nwn killed at 
tli'-'''iilh:,,rChip- 
P'-w:^ D-rrfoot 
ni'i'l'' lii, lu-st ap- 
pi-aranr,. (j,^ ^^ 

'-''■'■ I r.irk in 
''\5''. at ,1 coLinty 
';ii'', a I 1 ■■,•<:, Ionia, 
-^'^ V.,wlicii \ui ran 
fiv<: mil 
III, •„., 




Deerfoot. 



minutes and won a purse of $50. I li , ■..•idiul ,-ace 
took place in the fall of 1S56, at I'.iill.ilo, N y 
Twelve Indians and one white man wcic ih,. com- 
petitors, Deerfoot winning the race of ic,, mil,>s in 
5S minutes. A purse of $40 was tlu' sm.i|| pii/,. but 
his fleet feet, that ran against the wind, won for him 
a record that challenged failure. 11,- lonunued 
racing on various race-tracks throughoii I i],,. United 
States, always winning, until 1S61, when .m fji'dish 
trainer, George Martin, hearing of hi, wouilrous 
work, came to this country, and, atti:r vvli nc.slnM- hj^ 
races, succeeded in securing an en;^a',;cn\c'nt and 



WAR REX CENTENXIAL 121 

returned to England with him early in the summer 
of iS6i. He had him in training but five weeks 
when he issued a challenge to James Putney, who at 
that time held the championship of all England for 
long-distance running. Putney failed to accept the 
challenge for the ten-mile championship, and it was 
awarded to Deerfoot without contest. 

In November, i86i,the Prince of Wales, who was 
at that time at Cambridge, requested Deerfoot to 
visit him. During the visit he raced six miles in 2i2, 
minutes. It is a boast of this Indian that the Prince 
of Wales entertained him at dinner and presented 
him with a watch and chain and various other tokens 
of friendship, thereby being, as he expressed it, "a 
first-rate fellow." 

Deertoot's great achievement was at London, 
England, April 3, 1863. At this race he stepped on 
the mark, clad in the attire of his people. His strono- 
loins were decorated with the native kilt of light 
cloth ornamented with porcupine-quill work, feath- 
ers and beads. Circling his then jet-black hair was 
a fillet of silver adorned with one eagle-feather, the 
symbol of victory and power. Buckskin moccasins 
were on his feet, and in all his movements he dis- 
played the inborn grace of the red man. 

As he started on his run he gave a quick, defiant 
glance at the spectators, lifting his head, and then 
shooting out down the track with the fleetness of an 
arrow. Mile after mile he flew around the track 
with the unswerving persistency of his ancestors on 
a war-trail. On and on he sped, undisturbed by the 
applause of the multitude, whose enthusiasm was 



122 WAEREN CEXTKXXrAL 

almost ungovernable, until he had lett the record 
behind him at i i miles, and continued another mile 
at the same unapproachable speed. His figures 
were as follows : 

Eleven miles in 52 minutes and 52 seconds; 11^ 
miles and 99 yards in 59 minutes and 44 seconds : 
12 miles in i hour and 2^ seconds. In the exact 
hour he covered i i miles and 970 yards. He made 
the 10 miles in 52 minutes and 26 seconds. 

Deerfoot was, after this race, the lion of the hour 
throughout all England and America. By this race 
he won the championship of England and many 
hundred pounds for himself and thousands for his 
friends. Becoming homesick and possessed with a 
desire to again get to America and be with his be- 
loved people, he set sail for his native land on the 
(jreat Eastern April 10, 1863. Arriving at home, 
he continued racing, never losing. These races 
include the well-known one at the driving-park at 
Chicago against horses. Three men, beside him- 
self, participated in this contest, he finishing the six 
miles at the last quarter several feet in advance ot 
the horse, thereby winning the race and purse. 

Deerfoot says that the story about his always 
breathing through his nose, and never through his 
mouth, is all stuff and nonsense. He used, when 
racing, to breathe the same as any other man. \\ hen 
in training, Deerfoot ran and walked at least 40 
miles a day. His diet consisted of beef mutton, 
chicken, vegetables, and at supper a glass ot port 
wine or sherry. His trainer watched him with a 
watch in one hand and a whip in the other. He 



IT'. I RREX CKXrEXXlA !. 123 

had no rest, he says, only at night. Ijed-hour 
was eight o'clock, and a watch was kept over him 
that his rest should be undisturbed. He trotted 
on a (juarter-mile track some portion of the day, 
and walked the balance of his allotted 40-mile 
task. 

Deerfoot has been twice married ; has been a 
widower seventeen years ; has si.x children, three 
sons anil an e(}ual number ot daughters, and one 
grandson. At one time he owned a large tract of 
land, but when his children became of age he di- 
vided it into small farms, and presented each ol 
them with acres to live on. He reserved irom the 
original portion thirty acres ot woodland for his 
individual use, which he has cleared with his own 
hands in the past fourteen years. 

Deerfoot's mother was a Christian, and he was 
reared in the Presbyterian taith. He says he went 
to school when a boy, but forgot it. His eyesight 
is now failing, but he still retains the haughtiness of 
bearing and stateliness of the true Indian. 

He was at the World's Fair, and thousands vis- 
ited him, among them hundreds that thought him 
dead and gone. 

The grand old Indian is still a wonder, still eager 
for sport of an athletic character, still (as he says) 
ready to run any horse or man ten miles, and will 
bet his house and farm he can defeat them. It is 
a pleasant and )'et a semi-sad sight to see the old 
fellow's face light up with enthusiasm and his eye 
shoot fire when the subject ot the past is broached. 
He is very sensitive regarding his past, and is not 



124 fVAREJ':N CEXTENNIAL 

willing- to admit that he is a "has been." Surely he 
was a wonder in his day, and is still a wonder. 
(Since the Centennial, Deerfoot has died.) 

Iackson's Tavern. 

Machinery Hall was given over to a committee 
to be transformed into an old-time inn, for even the 
poet in his undying love-song, Lucile, parenthetically 
confesses : 

'•' We may live without love — what is passion but pining ? 
But where is the man that can live without dining?" 

In consideration of this universal need of a good 
square meal the reconstruction of the hall was satis- 
factorily accomplished, and served a twofold pur- 
pose — that of feeding the hungry with an abundance 
of old-fashioned cookery, and of displaying in each 
of the tavern's three apartments the quaint and 
homely furnishings of early times. A creaking sign- 
board told the public that this was "Jackson's 
Tavern," so-called in honor of a pioneer inn of that 
name which figured in the early history of Warren. 
Restfully seated within the house might be foimd an 
interesting relic of that self-.same tavern in the per- 
son of a woman of pleasing appearance and much 
intelligence, who told of having been herselt at ser- 
vice in the original Jackson's Tavern. She labored 
early and late for the best interests of the house ior 
the munificent sum of ten shillings a week ! A 
wide cool porch across the front of the inn was sup- 
ported by imposing pillars, which were discovered 
and transported from an historic ruin near Kiantone 



WAR BEX CEyTEXMAL 



125 



by Mr. and Mrs. Jefferson. A picturesque brick 
chimney loomed up against the north outside wall, 
surrounded at its base by clumps of blooming holly- 
hocks. A veteran hitching-post ran along the front, 
while at the north end of the porch, from the crotch 
of an old hickory-tree, was suspended an historic 







Jackson's Taakrn. 

bell with a dangling rope. The landlord, resplen- 
dent in a full suit of clothes once owned by the late 
Lord Cobham, issued pompously forth from the 
bar-room and promptly pulled the bell at that 

" Hour of all hours, the most blessed upon earth, 
Blessed hour of our dinner." 

The tavern was divided into three compartments ; 



12H WAR REX fEXTEXXIAL 

thtj front door opened into the bar-room, which 
extended the width of the house ; a hiyli bar at the 
south end was abundantly lurnished with cider, 
lemonade, and other harmless, necessary drinks. 
Here presided the jovial bar-tender, who added to 
his other duties that ot registering the guests, a 
custom not strictly in keeping with early times, but 
one that it was thought might be of interest to some 
when the register is opened and the roll is called at 
Warren's next Centennial. 

(Opposite the bar, and occupying the north end ot 
the room, was a wide, open fireplace, equipped with 
ever\' accessory that early times pronounced meet 
antl fitting to adorn it. Massive andirons sup|)orted 
blazing logs, while the bellows hung ready to act in 
anv untoward emergency, Everything shone that 
was intended to shine, 'and above all, on a stately 
mantel-piece, stood a stuffed peacock, looking 
proudh" down, with unruffled feathers, upon the 
activity and thrift of the inn. Later in the season 
this stately bird became the marriage portion ot the 
indefatigable bar-tender, presented b\- the Tavern 
Committee as a memento ot tht; haijpiest event in 
the histor\- (5f Warren. 'I he old rush chairs were 
never so pictures(]uely occupied as when the portly 
landlord and his gootl wite dozetl awa\' the hours while 
the back-log ft-ll into glowing coals and thi' ball ot 
\-arn rolled away at its own sweet will. Arrangt;d 
on the wall ot this room were relics in the shape ot 
dec-r horns, IniUet-iiouches, tlint-lock shot-guns and 
I'illes, saddle-liags, mugs, pipes and pictures. 'I hi' 
sunlight entered thrinigh diamond-shaped panes ot 



]\-AI!RFX CEXTKXNfAL 127 

,i,'"lass, and lingered lovingly around the benign 
countenances of George and Martha Washington as 
ever in unbroken companionship, while John Alden 
and Priscilla in well-preserved frames, from an oppo- 
site corner, are telling the same old story, the only 
bit ot brightness in all the barren waste of a new 
country. The bedroom, with its massive four-poster, 
with the veriest old-time linen and counterpane, its 
quaint red cradle, from which many nestlings have 
flown out into the world, and some to worlds beyond, 
its chest of drawers, its warming-pan, old boc^ks and 
rag carpet, are lull of pathetic interest: while in a 
dark corner, in its lonely dignity, stood the century- 
old spinning-wheel. 

'•Its low sweet hum is ceased, 
The matron charms no more." 

Behind the bedroom, and approached by a narrow 
hall, was the dining-room, redolent of overhanging 
herbs and picturesque in its colonial furnishings. 
The table literally groaned under the weight of old- 
fashioned abundance, served in the bluest of blue 
dishes by the most quaintly dressed maids and 
matrons. Square tin pans of pumpkin pie. rasp- 
berry tarts and apple-butter — well, no one who par- 
took of those dinners will ever be likely to foro-et 
the Jackson Tavern hospitality, and the choir of 
voices filling the place with old-time melodies was 
an e.xperience to make one glad to be living. 

A yoke of oxen conveyed the committee in charge 
from their several homes to Jackson's Tavern each 
morning during the Centennial, and the costumes 



12S WARRKX CESTEXyiAL 

displayed by these ladies and gentlemen fully ex- 
pressed the character of the occasion. 

There could not have been gathered a more har- 
monious company of workers than that composing 
this committee, and all together it was a labor ot 
love and great good cheer. Surely the beacon-light 
from the old inn's hearth-stone, to say nothing of its 
tallow dips, its quaint hospitality, the memory of the 
merry davs together on the old fair ground, will 
illumine the darkest hour and shed a joy that words 
fail to e.xpress, but which the people gathered there 
w ill li\'e " o'er and o'er again " while the memory ot 
Warren's successful Centennial remains. 

" Whoe'er has travel'd life's dull round, 
Where'er his stages may have been, 
May sigh to think he still has found 
The warmest welcome at an inn." 

The idea of representing the original Jackson's 
Tavern originated in the fertile brain oi the chair- 
man of the sub-committee, Mrs. Charles \V. Stone, 
and it is needless to say that it was carried out with 
great spirit and success under her direction. 11 the 
original pair of Jacksons were halt as comfortable- 
It^oking and hospitable as Mr. .Smiley and Mrs. 
Copeland, who represented them, their inn must 
have been a favorite. If Mr. Samuel T. Allen ever 
scores as brilliant a success at the bar ot justice 
as he did at the tavern bar he will deserve a more 
substantial reward than the peacock which graced 
his wedding. Mr. Danforth as the English butler 
might si'em out of place, yet the pioneer days 



WAR REX CEXTEXyfAL 129 

l)rought stranger characters than English butlers to 
the banks of the Allegheny. But the antique cos- 
tumes could not make pioneers of the other mem- 
bers of the committee who served as waiters and 
waitresses. Their presence gave the tavern an air 
of refinement and elegance far removed from the 
rude manners of the primitive days. All the dis- 
tinguished guests w-ere entertained at the tavern, and 
its register will be preserved as a souvenir of the cele- 
bration, increasingly interesting as the years go by. 
The exhibition of the Relics and Antiquities Com- 
mittee shall be described by one who knows all 
about it. The account is open to a single criticism, 
namely, that it does scanty justice to Mrs. James 
Brann, the efficient chairman of the committee in 
charge, to whose energy and intelligence the great 
success of this exhibition was in great measure due. 

Relics .wn Axri(^)urnES. 

The large sign bearing the inscription "1795 — 
Relics and Antiquities — 1895," swinging over the 
entrance to Floral Hall, gave only the slightest hint 
of the magnificent display within. On all sides of 
the large enclosure, from floor to ceiling, were 
cherished treasures from every age and clime, while 
the pyramid in the centre of the building, tier upon 
tier, was completely covered with articles of a like 
nature. The walls had been covered with black 
cloth, forming an excellent background tor the fine 
collection of portraits and pictures. 

The central pyramid and the side-shelves were 
draped in the red, white and blue, while gaily- 



130 \\'A.Ri!Ey cF.yTFyyiAL 

colored buntiny hung gracefully festooned from the 
ceiling to the display beneath. The whole interior 
presented a strikingly pretty and attractive appear- 
ance, and the manner in which the exhibits were 
classified and arranged added material!}- to the in- 
teresting collection. 

At the right of the main entrance, the first fire- 
engine used in Warren — now the property of A. T. 
Scofield— furnished interest for sight-seers, while- 
close by the other door the old Ramage printing- 
press, loaned by Willis and D wight W. Cowan, proved 
equally attractive. It resembles the old Washing- 
ton hand-press, and the pattern is the second oldest 
in the United States, being next to the Franklin in 
the Patent Office at Washington. It was entered 
at the Loan Exhibition in Buffalo a few years ago, 
and proved to be one of tlie features of that b^xpo- 
sition. 

One of the distinctive features of the Centennial 
exhibit was the collection of valuable heirlooms from 
the family of Mrs. O. W. Scofield. Portraits of 
Mrs. Sara Parker, Mrs. Scofield's great-granil- 
mother, Mrs. McDowell, Mrs. Scofield's grand- 
mother, Archibald Tanner and G. W. Scofield, all 
deceased, historical firearms from the Revolutionary 
and subseciuent wars, a mounted copy of TIic J'u'ks- 
burg Scnti)icl, printed on wall-paper the day before 
the surrender of the city to Cen. Orant, relics from 
many foreign countries, together with a collection of 
dainty and exquisitely fashioned hand-embroidered 
dresses worn by Mrs. Scofield when a baby, dresses 
and riding-habits worn by the ladies of the family. 



wahrex centennial 131 

while Mrs. Scofield herself graced the occasion by 
her actual presence. 

A collection not less interesting came from Cob- 
ham Park, the historic spot around which cluster so 
many pleasant memories and associations. A 
wealth of hand-made laces and embroideries, dainty 
ornaments, such as fire-screens, embroidered chairs, 
etc., and every conceivable article that womanly 
hands could devise, was to be seen, all the handi- 
work of the former mistress, Mrs. Cobham ; there 
were, besides, the portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Cob- 
ham, a portrait of their son. Col. George Ashworth 
Cobham, his commission in the army and his Remi- 
niscences of the Battles, appropriately mounted. 
Rare old china, silver and pewter were amonc,-- the 
treasured articles of this interesting collection." 

Notable am.ong the exhibits were the commissions 
of General William Irvine and Andrew Ellicott to 
lay out the town of Warren, a portrait of Gen. Irvine, 
beside which was placed his certificate of membership 
in the Society of the Cincinnati, signed by President 
Washington at Mount Vernon, and a portrait of Dr. 
\\ . A. Irvine, who was so closely identified with the 
history of Warren. 

Miss Anne Stone, daughter of Congressman 
Stone, contributed a valuable collection, including 
spoons made from the silver coins paid the soldiers 
ot the Revolutionary War, jewelry of quaint and 
curious design, saddle-bags which, on account of 
historic associations, are worth their weight in gold, 
muskets and other war relics, a candlestick which 
came over in the Mayflower, heirlooms in her 



132 WARREX rENTEXyiAL 

parents' families for many generations, and trauyht 
with deep interest. 

One large show-case was devoted almost entirely 
to Mrs. .M. Beecher's antiquities. Here were to 
be found curious features from every part of the 
world. 

Curiously carved, chased and enamelled brass 
dishes, a medallion of St. Paul, obtained in Hercu- 
laneum in 1S40, a piece of the first Atlantic cable, 
beaded moccasins made by early Indian tribes, curios 
from Jerusalem, besides many species of fishes, etc., 
now e.xtinct, which had e.xisted in neighboring 
waters. Many ancient books were also a part ot 
this uni([ue collection. 

ludge R. P. King's family, one ot the oldest and 
most time-honored in Warren, contributed man\- 
quaint and beautiful pieces ot furniture, lamps, 
work-table, chairs, pictures, etc., which have been 
handed down trom the time when Judge King's 
mother, Betsy (lilson King, was the only temale 
child in Warren. Portraits ot Hon. R. P. King, his 
wife and mother, occupied prominent places in the 
picture-gallery. 

A silver table-service which has come down 
through many generations, and which is now the 
property of Mr. and Mrs. jefterson, is, indeed, a 
thing of beauty. A handsome portrait of Mrs. 
Jefferson's grantlmother hung not tar distant, and 
the striking resemblance of the eipuilly beautiful 
granddaughter of to-day, attired in the costume of 
her ancestor's time, was generally remarked. 

Close b\' was another case, containing fans, laces. 



]VAnREN CENTEyNIAL 133 

gloves, etc., worn at Washington's wedding, and at 
receptions given by him in the White House. 

An inkstand used by Washington, as well as the 
paper with turned columns announcing the sad news 
of his death, were also among the attractions. A 
file of the United Stales Gazette and Pluladelphia 
Daily Advertiser for the year 179S was loaned by 
P. C. Boyle of the Oil City Derrick. 

A German Bible 234 years old, the property of 
Mathias Gutzler, and a German Prayer-Book bear- 
ing the date of 1645, owned by Mrs. M. Boeschlin, 
were among the oldest of the large collection of 
ancient books. Clocks 150 and 200 years old re- 
spectively, loaned by the Waters family and Mrs. 
Young, a watch which kept time in 1695 (Mr. N. S. 
Falconer's property), and hundreds of other articles^ 
large and small, valuable, some for their own intrin- 
sic value, others for the tender associations which 
cling round them, furnished interesting and instruct- 
ive entertainment for the thousands of visitors who 
daily thronged the hall. 

The picture-gallery, under the careful and artistic 
supervision of Artist W. A. Greaves and Mrs. Hen- 
rietta Eddy, was a delight in itself. Here were the 
old, familiar faces of most of the prominent men 
and women who have written their names high upon 
the roll of Warren's honor. Many have crossed to 
the other shore — Archibald Tanner, Hon. Thomas 
Struthers, Judge Scofield, Judge Johnson, Orris 
Hall, Benjamin Mead, Rev. W. A. Rankin, Dr. 
Irvine, and many others. The pleasant features of 
Myron Waters, Judge and Mrs. W. D. Brown, and 



1 o 4 WA R R FX CEXTEXXH L 

Others, are still " true to life." H. A. Jamieson, a 
baby in his mother's arms, even at so young an age 
gives evidence of the mettle of which men are macl(\ 
Twenty-six of the oil portraits were the work of one 
individual, our townsman artist. W. A. Greaves, and 
it is only putting it mildly to say that he certainly 
has made his mark, though the aim was high. 

No other building on the grounds equalled the 
Antiquity Building in interest. From early morn- 
ing till late in the evening not one moment elapsed 
when this department was not thronged with inter- 
ested spectators, and on the day of the 4th a dense 
mass of humanity packed the hall to its utmost ca- 
pacity from the moment the doors were thrown open 
till the clock struck the closing hour. The committee 
who collected and arranged this memorable collec- 
tion, and who presented a quaint and picturesque 
appearance in their dresses of the olden time, were : 

Mrs. James Brann, Chairman ; Mrs. ( j. W. Sco- 
field, Miss Ellie Scoheld, Mrs. \V. I). Brown, Mrs. 
Myron Waters, Miss Anne -Stone, Mrs. \V. F. Mess- 
ner, Mrs. S. A. Wetmore, Mrs. George Sill, Mrs. 
R. F. Van Doom, Mrs. D. H. Siggins, Mrs. N. S. 
b'alconer, Mrs. Palmer Gilbert, Mrs. W'm. Kt-egan. 
Miss .Mary Kopf, Mrs. Rasselas Brown. Mrs. O. W. 
P,eaty, Mrs. Ale.\. Shaw, Mrs. T. W. McNett, Mrs. 
W. V. Hazeltine, Mrs. H. A. Abbott, J. P. Jefferson, 
Willis Cowan, George N. Parmlee, Freeman liert- 
zel, A. J. Hazeltine, J. B. Mullen. 

The fact that out of the hundreds u{)on luindreds 
of e.xhibits displaced in this collection not one arti- 
cle was destroyed or lost is sufficient testimony to 



WARREX CEXTEXyr.lL 13.') 

the watchful care exercised by the members of the 
committee, as well as to the excellent scheme of 
registering and receipting employed and to die inde- 
fatigable efforts, first and last, of E. W. Parshall, 
chairman of the whole first grand division, to make 
this building one of the essentially interesting feat- 
ures of the Centennial — a desire which was fulfilled 
tar beyond our most sanguine expectations. 

In the evening, when the scene was illuminated 
by electric lights and natural gas, the effect was very 
striking and brilliant. The streets and windows in 
the town were aflame, all the arches illuminated, and 
many of them bore beautiful transparencies. The 
graceful bridge over the river was hung with lan- 
terns, and the road from the Pleasant abutment to 
the Exhibition grounds was bordered by a line of 
gas flambeaux, producing a weird and beautiful 
effect from the streets opposite, the red flames light- 
ing up the darkness of the woods and bringing out 
the graceful shapes of the trees. On the grounds 
everything was brilliant with electricity and gas, the 
buildings being Illuminated by incandescent lights. 
The Ouilting-Party was over at sundown, but the 
Jackson Tavern was hospitably open. The "Relics 
and Antiquities" was a litde more attractive by night 
than by day, and the Military and Art. Trades and 
Industrial exhibitions attracted crowds of visitors 
every evening, as well as In the daytime. 

Military and Art Buildings. 
What is known as the Second Division of the 
Centennial was devoted to the period from iS6i to 



136 IVARREN CEXTEXXrAL 

1S95. This division was in charge of Mrs. W. M. 
Lindsey, and the able management of its affairs is 
sufficient guarantee of that lady's ability to manage 
exhibitions of that kind. In the work she was as- 
sisted by the following committee : War Booth — 
Mrs. W. W.Wilbur, Chairman; Mrs. B. F. Morris, 
Mrs. L. T. Parmlee, Mrs. W. M. Lindsey. Centen- 
nial Booth — Mrs. McDowell, Chairman ; Mrs. J. M. 
Siegfried, Miss Ellen demons. Miss Nora Davis, 
Mrs. S. H. Davis, Miss Neill, Miss McCauley, Miss 
Meacham, Mrs. Grindly, Alta Nickle, Burt Meacham, 
and Harold Wood. China-Painting Booth — Mrs. C. 
A. Waters, Chairman ; Mrs. C. S. Greenland, Miss 
Clara Parshall, Miss Blanche Mair, Miss Gilder- 
sleeve, Mrs. S. E. Walker. Needle-Work Booth — 
Miss Elizabeth Rogers, Chairman ; Mrs. W. W. 
Rankin, Misses Kate Brown and Lizzie Pierce. 
Millinery Booth — Mrs. F. T. Parker, Chairman : 
Mrs. D. Shear, Mrs. A. T. Scofield, Miss Anna 
Henry, Miss Laura Smith, Miss Harrison, Mrs. J. 
A. Scofield, Miss Nettie Talbott, Miss Josephine 
Rankin, Miss Rockwell. Oil Develoi)ment Booth — 
Mrs. E. E. Allen, Chairman; Mrs. W. j. Richards 
and Mr. W. F. Messner. Warren Higli School 
Booth— Prof W. L. MacGowan. W. C. T. U. 
Booth — Mrs. L. Smith. Chairman; Mrs. D, 1. Ball. 
In the main hall, in which were the [irincipal booths, 
were e.xhibited large numbers of curiosities. This 
was the place where " any old tiling" tlid not go. 
The dates were from 1861 to 1805, and only articles 
of that period were shown. On the right, as we 
entered the building, we saw the Centennial Booth, 



WAHREX CENTENNIAL 130 

representing the period from 1870 to 1S80, with 
Mrs. Ellen McDowell, Chairman. The Martha 
Washington Tea-Party, comprising various dames 
dressed in costumes ot the Martha W^ashington 
times, was a pleasing feature, with Mrs. Grindly as 
Martha Washington, assisted by Mrs. J. M. Sieg- 
fried, Mrs. S. H. Davis, Miss Ellen demons. Miss 
Nora Davis, Miss Florence IMeacham, Miss Jennie 
Bell, Miss Edna Hertzell, Miss Ada Neil, and Miss 
F"annie McCauley. Souvenir cups and saucers were 
tor sale here. The booth was handsomely decorated 
in light blue, with white lace. 

The next booth on the right was the War Booth, 
with Mrs. Wilbur, Chairman, assisted by Mrs. L. T. 
Parmlee and Mrs. B. F. Morris. This booth was 
decorated with red, white and blue, and flags of 
various sizes and materials. On the walls were 
hung portraits in large numbers of famous com- 
manders, chiefly Pennsylvanians, while relics from 
the battle-fields of the Civil War were numerous 
and interesting to view, reviving, as they did, tales 
of the valor and Iieroism of the boys in blue. Of 
the many relics of the Civil War we cannot speak 
individually, but the booth evidenced work and skill 
of the chairman and ladies having it in charge. A 
part of each day the ladies costumed as army nurses, 
claiming much attention and interest. Over one 
hundred and fifty articles were exhibited in this 
booth commemorative of the war time. 

The centre of this building was fitted up as a 
confectionery and lemonade booth, presided over 
by Mrs. L. G. Noyes and Mrs. Robert Hall. Here 



140 WARREX CENTEXXTAL 

the fine taste and artistic proclivities of these ladies 
were manifested. The decorations were green and 
white, with palms and handsome plants surrounding 
the counters, where candy, lemonade and cigars 
were offered for sale. Coming back on the left, as 
we enter this building, we see an immense display 
of all kinds of millinery, under the direction and 
able management of Mrs. Fletcher Parker, assisted 
by Mrs. D. Shear, etc. Mirrors, lace curtains, and 
a wealth of bonnets of all kinds, sizes and colors, 
made this booth very attractive, while the Big Bonnet 
of iS6i was a source of wonder and admiration to 
all. Next on the left was the Art Needle-Work 
Booth, Miss Elizabeth Rogers and Mrs. W. W. 
Rankin, directors. In working up this department, 
it was, like the new woman, a fi)i dc siccle product. 
It is surprising how little needle-work was done 
tliirty-hve years ago — none that could be called 
"artwork." It was probably the beautiful e.xhibit 
at the Centennial of '76 that taught the women oi 
tliis countrv what could be done with the needle, 
and tile sewing-machine has given her time for such 
work. This little exhibit of seventy- or one hundred 
pieces of art embroidery would do credit to a much 
more- pretentious community. Lack of space onl\- 
[jrevented a much larger and more be-autitul display. 
The next and last booth on the left was the China- 
Painting Pjooth, with Mrs. C. A. Waters, Chairman. 
The first attempts at china decorating were here 
displayed with the fine and elaborate work done by 
ladies in Warren up to date. The booth was taste- 
fully decorated with white and yellow, and the effect 



II'. I R R EN rENTENXIA L 141 

of the handsome display of china upon this back- 
ground was very fine. Passing through the door, 
we walk under canvas to the next building, which is 
the annex to this department, all under the direction 
and manag-ement of Mrs. Lindsey, with Capt. W. 
J. Alexander in charge. A fine exhibit by the War- 
ren Table Works of the celebrated roll-top table 
was Hanked on the opposite side by the Pickett 
Table Works, which showed a handsome line of like 
goods, though of somewhat different design. New- 
maker & Reed also had fine displays of mantels 
and fireplaces, while the Homer Chair Works made 
a very handsome display of their goods. 

Here also the W. C. T. U. had located their 
booth, at which sulphur water was dispensed for 
those wlio desired it. Further on the Warren High 
-School Booth was seen, where Prof MacGowan and 
his pupils were continually giving demonstrations in 
chemistry, etc., for the benefit of the visitors, and 
occasionally creating bad smelling gases. The last 
booth was that of oil development, typifyincr the 
business in its various stages and showing the dif- 
ferent grades of refined oil, and the processes of 
refining were explained. The arrangement of the 
booths and exhibits in this division was particularly 
neat, and reflected much credit on the committee. 

But the visitors were not confined to inspectin^j- 
the exhibits. The program furnished continual 
amusement for those who could not find room in 
the buildings. A committee consisting of the fol- 
lowing persons undertook to reproduce the District 



142 WARE EX CENTENNIAL 

School and Singing-School of the old days, together 
with an exhibit of ancient school-books : W. V. N. 
Yates, Chairman : Miss Ellie G. Scofield, Mrs. S. T. 
Neil], Mrs. W. D. Hinckley, Mrs. Ray Pickett, Mrs. 
W. W. Freeman, Dr. W. M. Robertson, H. M. 
Putnam, H. A. Messenger, C. A. Peterson, and 
Miss Susan T. Daggett. 

A school-room was furnished in a corner ot the 
dancing-hall, the desks and seats made ot slabs and 
decorated with carvetl initials and pictures of things 
known and unknown by a number ot old boys 
wliose skill proved that they had had practice in 
their youth. A large collection of school-books of 
ancient date was made: but the dancing-hall proved 
to be an inappropriate place tor such an e.xhibit, and 
it was theretore not displayed. Tuesday evening 
an old-tashioned school exhibition was given on the 
platform in front of the grand stand, and witnessed 
by a large and delighted crowd of old boys and 
girls, who slipped oft the burden ot years as they 
revived memories ot old times. Mr. Charles Chase 
was to have conducted the e.\ercises, but was either 
unavoidably absent, as he alleged, or laid up trom 
his exertions in the ball-held, as many sarcastically 
suggested, but his mantle was worthily worn by the 
portly chairman, and Schoolmaster Yates left nothing 
to be desired. The opening number was an inno- 
vation, namely, a beautitul selection by the Indian 
Band, which nothing but the exquisite music could 
excuse in such an exhibition. The next number 
was (juite as much ot an anachronism, but the exhi- 
bition of club-swinging by Prof J. B. Kelly, of But- 



n:\RR f:x CExrFxyfA i, 143 

falo, was so good that this was overlooked. The 
school exhibition began in earnest with a comic 
recitation by Miss Fannie Smith, which made the 
audience forget that art such as the fair reciter's 
was not common in our grandfathers' days. A 
vocal piece by Ethel McCray, Grace Bush, Bessie 
Phillips and Lois Nesmith — four young girls — pro- 
duced a hearty recall, after which the smallest 
scholar (JMrs. Kate Waters Wilkins) "spoke" 
"Twinkle, twinkle, little star." When the Indian 
Band had again discoursed most excellent music 
the spelling-school was organized from the audi- 
ence, and Schoolmaster Yates puzzled them with 
hard words from " Cobb's Speller," to the great 
amusement of the audience. As the contest nar- 
rowed to a few it became spirited and interesting, 
the victory being finally won by Mrs. Isaac S. Lacy. 

When the spelling-match was over and the Indian 
dances had ceased there still remained the dancing- 
hall, where, under the direction of Messrs. August 
Morck, Jr., Samuel G. Allen, of the Jackson Tavern, 
and Ralph Stone, all went merry until a very late 
hour. 

A detachment of Co. I inspected the grounds 
nightly, unearthing an occasional stowaway, and 
then the watch was set and all was still until the 
rising sun opened another busy day. 

The Second D.w. 

Betimes, on Wednesday morning, before the weary 
citizens were fairly astir, the irrepressible Corn- 
planter Brass Band was parading the streets, 



1 44 ir.l RHEX rEXTF.Wf. 1 L 

mounted upon an open street-car. By every train 
visitors arrived in crowds, and the roads leading to 
Warren were thronged with vehicles. At lo. lo the 
Mayor and municipal officers of the city of Frank- 
lin, which was laid out in the same year and under 
the same Act of the Legislature as Warren, arrived 
by the Western New York and Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, accompanied by a number ot leading citizens 
of that city, and by some of the wives and daugh- 
ters of the gentlemen, all of whom were received at 
the station by the Burgess and Town Council ot 
Warren as the guests of the borough, and given 
tlie freedom of the town. The party consisted ot 
tb.e following : 

Mayor W. H. Forbes, Col. R. Richardson, Deputy- 
Mayor Thomas Alger and wite, l)r. J. B. jobson, J. 
W. Rowland and wife, J. P. Robertson and children, 
Capt. R. H. Woodburn and wife, J. Howard Smiley, 
H. R. McCalmont and his daughter Maud S.. Boyd 
M. Park and wife, Anson Sible\- and wife, City 
.Solicitor E. K. Hughes, City Engineer T. L. Ken- 
nerdall. City Clerk E. Jeunett, j. K. Crawford. Hon. 
1 lenry V. James, D. W. Ott, H. C. LamJjerton, Hon. 
C. W. ( lilhllan and wife, and e.\-Judge C. E. Taylor 
and wite. 

Tlie visitors and their escort, preceded by the K. 
O. T. M. Band of twenty pieces, proceeded in car- 
riagt's to the Exhibition grounds. At the bridge 
tht; party were met by Landlord and Landlady 
lackson and their numerous family, all rigged out 
in holiday attire and seated in a lumber-wagon 
drawn bv Hon. C. W. Stone's o.\-team, driven by 



ir.l RREX CEXTEXMA I. 1 4o 

-Master Orren Rowland, and by the Old Folks' 
Ouilting-Party in their hay-rack wagon. Thus 
escorted, the guests were brought to the Jackson 
Tavern and heartily welcomed, and in due time 
hospitably fed by the good-natured host and hostess. 

After safely landing this party of visitors, the 
Burgess and Council returned to the D. A. V. & P. 
depot to meet the Indian Council of the Seneca 
Nation. The party arrived on the i i o'clock train, 
and consisted of the following persons: 

F'rank Patterson, President of the Seneca Nation ; 
A. Sim Logan, Secretary ; King Tall Chief, Alfred 
L. Jamison, William Patterson, Alfred Logan, Robert 
White and Charlie Gordon of the Allegheny reserva- 
tion, and Frank Seneca. Thomas Silverheels, Thomas 
Patterson, Jesse Jamison, Lester Bishop and Eli 
Jamison of the Cattaraugus reservation. This body 
ot Indian dignitaries was escorted directly to the 
Indian Village and quartered in the vicinity. The 
Indians occupied the balance of the forenoon with 
their games and dances, which were very interest- 
ing to the crowds assembled. The game of lacrosse 
was particularly exciting and hotly contested. 

At two o'clock a large audience assembled at the 
grand stand, every seat being occupied, and some 
thousands of persons standing. On the platform 
were seated the officers of the Centennial Associa- 
tion, President Stone presiding ; the guests from 
Pranklin, the President and Council of the .Seneca 
Nation, the chiefs of the Senecas, headed by Solo- 
mon O'Bail and Ueerfoot, the Burgess and Council 
of Warren, the speakers of the afternoon, and many 

10 



146 WARR Fx rr.y tf. xxi. i l 

ladies and gentlemen, including- the male chorus 
under Dr. Freeman. 

After music by the K. O. T. M. Band the chair- 
man introduced the Hon. Caleb C. Thompson, e.\- 
Speaker of the Pennsylvania House of Representa- 
tives, who in a clear and distinct voice read the Act 
of the Assembly approved the 19th of June, 1795. 
directing the laying out of the towns of Erie, Water- 
ford, Warren and Franklin. 

The ne.xt speakerwas Major Alexander McDowell 
of Mercer, Congressman-at-large, whose grandfather 
was one of the three surveyors by whom the work 
of laying out the town was performed. 

Major McDowell spoke substantially as follows : 

Ladies and Gentlemen, and Citizens of Warren 
County : I am pleased to meet you to-day on this, 
the Centennial year of the laying out of your beauti- 
ful town of Warren. My friend has introduced me 
as the grandson of the gentleman who surveyed the 
out-lots, of the town of Warren in i 795. While I am 
proud of the noble deeds of my ancestors, you will 
understand that I do not hold myselt accountable 
for all of their mistakes ; and while I ani proud ot 
this act, I am not in any way to blame for being the 
crrandson of my grandfather. During the years that 
have passed you have accomplished much in your 
advancement, and have here reared upon the spot 
then surveyed under an Act of Assembly this beauti- 
ful city of Warren, of which you are so justly proud, 
and which has long since been observed as one ot 
the most beautiful towns of our Commonwealth. 



n\lRRE\ CEXTENNUL 147 

For fifty years you have been represented by some 
of the most eminent gentlemen whose presence 
have graced the halls of our National Congress ; 
and having had the honor of sitting beside your 
present honored Representative in Congress, I 
know you are still keeping up your reputation in 
that respect. And now, in conclusion, I must say 
that I am proud of your growth and prepress, and 
of your citizens, who have thus gathered to bind you 
m closer union and friendship as citizens of the 
county of Warren, of which you are so proud. 1 
hope you will continue in your achievements. I 
know that greater honors await some of your deserv- 
ing representatives, and that gubernatorial honors 
may still reach them. I thank you most heartily 
for this opportunity of meeting with you. 

After another selection by the band, B. F. Morris, 
Esq., was introduced, and delivered the following 
historical address : 

When the project of celebrating the hundredth 
anniversary of Warren was talked of I expressed 
myself as not in sympathy with the movement fear- 
ing it would not be a success ; and when the com- 
mittee came to me to write up Warren's history I 
was more than ever convinced that my judgment 
was well predicated. 

But now, standing before this gathering of man- 
hood and womanhood, and seeing the evidences of 
progression, of achievement, noting the enthusiasm 
with which the project has been sustained, I have 



us n'ARRFX rEXTFXMAL 

arrived at the conclusion that I was mistaken, knew 
nothinq- about the temper of our people, their quick- 
ness, willingness, and intelligent direction of their 
or your minds. 

Here you stand, the product of former genera- 
tions. Each person has had a distinct individualized 
history, dating back even beyond your own knowl- 
edge. 

Do you fully realize the advantages you possess 
over those who first settled in what is now known as 
Warren and its surroundings ? Perhaps not so 
much in the more determined and stubborn qualities 
the first settlers had, but you excel in the finer 
(jualities. \'ou have grown out of those hard, 
material conditions which were necessary to the 
enduring fibre of the men and women who first 
settled the wilderness and made it possible for you 
to be what you are, more elevated in the spiritual 
qualities, dwelling less upon the material. Vou are 
enjoying the fruits of their endeavor. 

Could this dumb grountl on which we are, talk, 
what a history it would give of the struggles, the 
toil and the privations of those who came before us. 
But the ground does not talk, ami the air is silent 
in this respect. The men and women who formerly 
inhabited this spot and these surrountlings have 
long since gone to their homes beyond ; their voices 
and actions are stilled. 

Where, then, shall we go tor the history that gives 
us the lives, the habits antl thoughts of those who 
once toiled on the ground where we now celebrate!^ 

Inia'^Muation must be called mto requisition to a 



U'.inREX CEXTE.XXIAL 140 

great extent. While I may be able to give some 
facts and figures, yet I shall not be confined to these. 
These ha\e already been given more correctly than 
it is possible to formulate in this short address; 
therefore I shall dwell in some degree upon the life, 
habits and thoughts of those who preceded us, using 
figures only to connect the events as we shall drift 
upon tliem in the pilgrimage up the years. 

The hundred years that have now passed have 
been most exacting upon the physical resources of 
the participants. Sometimes hunger, sometimes 
tear of the Indians, sometimes fear of wolves, fears 
of being lost, fears for the lost, and all that makes 
up the history ot the by-gone age. 

The Bki;ixnin(; (ik Warren. 

Warren County and the borough of Warren were 
named after General Joseph Warren, who was killed 
at the battle of Bunker Hill. 

Seventeen hundred and ninety-five — the date 
when Warren assumed an individuality, a name. 
Before this, this spot was unindividualized — be- 
longing to the earth, but unorganized by bounda- 
ries, and had not a name ; and yet the river ran as 
now. Willows shaded the waters, and the tall trees 
spread their branches. The hills and valleys were 
before that date, as now, changed only by the settler 
and his axe. Wild animals inhabited the forests ; 
animals came before man. Note the gentle opera- 
tions of evolution — rising, always rising from the 
lower to the higher plane. After the animals came 
the Indians. How long these occupied before the 



150 WARREy CEXTEXXrAL 

white men came is unknown, but centuries certainly. 
At about 1760 there were civlhzed men here. 
How do I know ? There is history in trees, stones 
and running- streams. In 1S44 a party of civil engi- 
neers were making a survey of lands near the head- 
waters of Glade run. They cut down a tree which 
had a protuberance on one side, a few feet from the 
orround. The block was cut out. The tree had 
been blazed — cut into. An European axe had been 
used. The growths over the blaze indicated the 
time since the mark was made, about 1760; there- 
fore this is about the date of the advent of the white 
men into the wilderness. That dumb tree told its 
story to that little band of scientists. 

This litde incident is given by John F. McPherson 
of this place, who was one oi' the party. 

Not many years ago a cribbed well was discov- 
ered near Garland, and in the bottom of the crib 
was found an European-made axe, which had Iain 
there since the time the blaze was made on the tree 
in Glade. This is conjecture, but the language of 
the tree and the well tell the same story — white 
men had been here long before written history gives 
any account. The well had been sunk tor the pur- 
pose of gathering Seneca oil, so scarce and valua- 
ble then, so plentiful and chea[) now. In the ar- 
chives of scientific research in Paris mention is 
made of this oil as having been sent to P^rance by 
PVench travellers in America. How wondertul is 
this' .Man writing history by digging in the ground 
and chipping into a tree, all unknown to himself. 

Previous to 1700, and subsequently, this whole 



WARREX CKyrKyXLlL 1.">1 

region was owned and occupied by the Seneca In- 
dians. In the year i 7S4 the treaty to which Corn- 
planter was a party was made at Fort Stanwix, ceding 
the whole of northwestern Pennsylvania to the Com- 
monwealth. At the time of Wayne's treaty, in i 795, 
or about that time, several Irishmen came here 
from Philadelphia. They came up the Susquehanna 
and Sinnemahoning rivers, penetrating the wilder- 
ness of McKean county. Reaching Olean, they 
passed clown the river and made the first settlement 
in the county. Their names were Robert Miles, 
|ohn Russell, John Frew, John and Hugh Marsh 
and Isaiah Jones. They settled in Pine Grove and 
Sugar Grove townships. The sum total of their 
cash was only three dollars. This was the first 
settlement in Warren county. These names are 
familiar. 

In 1S05 the county was anne.ved to Venango for 
judicial purposes. On the 1 6th of March, 1S19, it 
was full}- organized, and the seat of justice fixed at 
Warren. It contains S32 square miles. Warren 
itself has as great a population as the county had 
in 1S30, viz., 9229. 

W.\KREN BdKOUiai. 

Warren has an existence by virtue of the signa- 
ture ot Governor Mifflin, in 1795. The bill passed 
April iS, 1795. The survey was finished during 
the same summer (1795). This is 100 years af- 
terward, and this is what we are celebrating. Then 
this was a prospective city ; today it is one in tact. 
We are realizine, to some extent, that which the 



152 n'ARIiEX CEXTEXXrAL 

projectors had in mind. They looked at the topog- 
raphy of the place, and found it in every way 
adapted to a large and busy city. The river, the 
wide valley on each side, the Conewango, with its 
valleys of more or less width and richness of soil, 
the distance west and east from any other prospect- 
ively large place, led the first surveyors who came 
here to predict this as designed by Providence for a 
distinctively beautiful and commercial town. It has 
not grown as rapidly as those who stood sponsors 
for it imagined it would, but it has grown, is grow- 
ing, and the measure of their most vivid imagina- 
tions will yet be filled. 

How was the forest subdued ? By a simple but 
wondrous instrument — the axe. It transforms for- 
ests into fields and cities. 

The town of Warren, as originally laid out, con- 
sisted of 525 lots, each 58 X 233 feet. An order 
for the sale of the lots in Warren, Erie, Watertord 
and Franklin was issued by Governor Mifflin on the 
"th day of May, 1796. The commission was issued 
to General William Irvine (who was the grandfather 
of our late Dr. William A. Irvine), of the County 
of Cumberland ; /\ndrew Ellicott, ol Philadelphia, 
and George Wilson, ot Mittlin. But it does not 
appear that Wilson served. I lis name is only found 
in the commission. 

The lots were directed to be sold at Philadelphia, 
Carlisle and the borough ot Pittsburg. The num- 
ber oi lots are designated in the document from 
which this information is obtained. The elocument 
is the property ot Mrs. Biddle, daughter of Dr. 



WARREX CEXTEXXIAL 153 

Irvine, vvlio has kindly intrusted it with the commit- 
tee, and to Mr. J. P. Jefferson I am indebted for the 
perusal. Certain lots were to be sold at each place. 
A. I. Dallas's name is attached to the document as 
secretary. It does not appear here who purchased 
the lots — at what price they sold ; but it is learned 
that the sales were not satisfactory ; that the halt- 
payment down, as required, was not complied with, 
nor was the balance as promptly met as was de- 
sired. It is presumable some of these lots were 
not paid for in full. The document itself is on ex- 
hibition here, and maybe seen by anyone curious in 
such matters. The first permanent building was 
erected in 1796, and belonged to the Holland Land 
Company. There were few white people here at 
this time, but many Indians. 

For many years there was but slight increase in 
the population of the town, or until after the war of 
1S12. 

In 1492, by careful estimates, it is believed there 
were about 500,000 Indians in North America. 
According to the last census there were 247,273, 
or about half the former number. There might 
have been more between the tim.e of Columbus and 
1795; but if not. the Indian has certainly held his 
own to a greater e.xtent than is the popular belief. 
But it is a fact that there are more than a half less 
in this section than there were 100 years ago. It is 
related that at that time there was no American 
tribe north of Mexico that had domesticated any 
animal but the dog. 

The population of this county in iSio was but 



15i WAnnEx cEyTEsyiAL 

S27 ; in 1S20 it was less than 2000. In 1S32 War- 
ren was made a borough, and had a population of 
385, since which time the growth has been slow but 
steady. It is situated just below the confluence of 
the Conewango creek and the Allegheny river. The 
limits when the borough was incorporated contained 
about 300 acres of land. Since its new acquisition 
it contains about 1000 acres. Its prosperity for a 
long number of years was due principally to the 
lumber business, and many of the fortunes held by 
the present generation were founded on the lumber 
business. 

In I Si 3 the town had but five houses. The busi- 
ness of Warren varied with the seasons. In the 
midst of winter or summer the place was exceed- 
ingly dull, but with the breaking up of the ice in the 
spring and during the subsequent floods the town 
and the whole country above on the Conewango 
and Allegheny rivers was alive with bustle and 
preparation among lumbermen. Large rafts came 
down the river and smaller ones down the Cone- 
wango. Coming into the Warren eddy, these rafts 
were coupled together into fleets of immense area, 
50 feet wide and 325 feet long, in which shape they 
pursued their way to Pittsburg, Cincinnati and New 
Orleans. 

Warren borough in 1S40 had a population of 737. 
History says the population at that time was not 
commensurate with its original plan. It was sup- 
posed the town would have a faster growth. The 
court-house and jail, situated something as now, 
were separated some distance trom the compact 



WARRRX CEXTFyXfAL 155 

business street along the river, and presented a 
lonely appearance. The population had not grown 
up to anticipations. At that time (1S40) there were 
but three churches — Presbyterian, Methodist and 
German Methodist. There were, however, a Bap- 
tist and German Lutheran congregation without 
houses for worship. 

So it will be noticed that our principal growth 
has been since 1S40: Our public buildings are no 
longer lonely or isolated. They are elegant of 
themselves, of modern architecture and surrounded 
by elegance. In one thing we lack over the other 
time, and that is our academy, which stood on what 
was known as the public square or diamond. The 
place is now occupied by dwellings; but we have 
an academic department to our public-school sys- 
tem which gives an education to the growing minds 
in e.xcess of that given by the old academy, where 
our older citizens were educated. 

Few have amassed fortunes in the mercantile 
trade, but our merchants through the years have 
been usually prosperous, careful business men. 
They have preserved the credit of the cit>-, and 
have been just to their patrons as a general thing. 

Guy C. Irvine was known as the Napoleon amono- 
lumbermen, although he was located a short dis- 
tance below what is known as Russell. His name 
was a household word from western New York all 
along the river to New Orleans. He owned more 
pine lands and ran more lumber than any other man 
on the Allegheny, and more than many combined. 
In 1836 and 1S38 he frequently sent to market 



156 W. I R R EX CEXTEXXfA L 

20,000,000 feet of boards in a season. The shore 
for a mile or two above Pittsburg was frequently 
lined with rafts waiting for a rise of the water. 
Orris Hall was another lumber manufacturer ot note. 

The first saw-mill on the upper waters of the 
Allegheny river to make lumber as an article ot 
commerce was about 1799. A grist-mill was built at 
Ceres in iSoi. Lumber was first transported down 
the river from above Olean in 1807. The first raft 
floated down the Allegheny from near Warren was 
in 1 801. There were two saw-mills in the county, 
one on the Brokenstraw and one on Jackson run. 
In 1 801 J. M. and T. C. [ackson ran a small raft of 
boards down the river. The Meads, on the Broken- 
straw, also ran a small raft that year (1801). 

Jackson was the first white man who took up a 
residence in Warren county. He put up a small 
grist-mill about this time, in which he ground corn. 
Ko wheat was raised then. It took tour days to 
get a sack of salt from Waterford. then Le Ikeuf. 
The wilderness was traversed by the direction of a 
pocket-compass, no roads or blazed trees. To 
show the newness of the country, in 1801 there was 
but one white family in Warren, but one in iMay- 
ville, and not even one in Jamestown. 

The oil development has been one source ot 
profit, and many of the brick blocks have been 
reared by men in the production of oil. 

At about 1820 and 1825 agricultural pursuits 
began. Necessity compelled this. I'A'en the lum- 
bermen entered the agricultural ranks. It was soon 
found that land that produced such immense pine- 



WAR REX rEXTFXXIAL 157 

trees was rich enough to bear crops, and so it 
proved. The kimber business began with the 
century, and is still the employment of a few. The 
lOO years passed has nearly consumed the pine- 
and hemlock-trees, and the lumber business at this 
day is of secondary consideration. There are many 
things which should find a place here, but time 
presses and we must hurry on. 

About 1830, some Germans found their way into 
the county. They have made excellent citizens, 
intelligent, honest and industrious. 

Within 100 years we have grown from a wilder- 
ness, inhabited by wild beasts and Indians, to a 
population of 9000 white people, not a wild beast 
nor an Indian, except for exhibition. We have pro- 
gressed by steady approaches to the present num- 
bers and present intelligence, and stand abreast 
with other places in progress, in morals and pro- 
gressive thought. 

Corry, twenty-seven miles west of us, appeared 
on the scene by accident, and for a time forged 
ahead, and in a few years grew to our number, to 
the number it has taken us 100 years to reach. 
But Corry will be a small town when Warren will 
have swelled to tens of thousands. This is said in 
view of the different locations — surroundings. War- 
ren entertains no jealousies. She is simply herself, 
proud she had a beginning, proud of her location, 
ot the men who have s^iven her a financial standine 
throughout the country. It lies with the men of 
Warren to hold up this credit. It is worth millions 
to us, and a man will be a craven who abuses this 



1 ■-> 8 WA R R EN CEXTEyyiA L 

credit. Our credit is t^ood because our business 
men always pay. It is the men of the past and 
present who have made this reputation, and it 
speaks more for their honor and intelligence than 
any words of praise I can award them individual!)-. 
It is tlie business honor of the place which gives it 
a reputation. It is not asked how many Sunday- 
schools have you, or how many churches, but what 
is the credit of your business men. Do they pay 
their debts? Do they tell the truth? It is worth 
([uite as much as wealth — gives credit to a town. 
Let young men who contemplate getting a living 
easily think this over. The easiest way to live easy 
is to protect your credit, and thus benefit the city 
and your neighbors. 

The first court-house was built in 1827 ; the jail 
two \-ears thereafter, 1829. Previous to this the 
courts had been held in a house about where the 
Carver House now stands, and the jail near where 
|ohn Sill, Esq., now lives, on Liberty street. 

At the time of the erection of the present court- 
house in 1876, the question arose as to what device 
should be placed in the tower — whether a statue of 
< "leneral Joseph Warren or the statue of Justice, 
justice was decided upon, and there she stanels, with 
her eyes blindfolded and her scales evenly balanced. 

Beneath that emblem justice has been the rule. 
1 luman judgment is not always exact, but the deci- 
sions reached in our courts are usually in conformity 
with that symbolized by the hgure. Our judges 
are not purchasable commodities. 

The bridg(,' over the river at this place was put 



n'AFBEX CE.XTEXyTAL 150 

Up in 1839, and was located below the present 
bridge, the south approach being about where these 
fair grounds are now located. 

Some time after my death there may be a free 
bridge where the beautiful suspension toll bridge 
now hangs ; but I can't tell you just how long after ; 
but it is thought within the next hundred years a 
free bridge will span the river at this point. Pleas- 
ant township will in after time become a part of 
Warren, and there will be no cross-purposes as to 
what the price of a free bridge shall be. 

In 1809-10, Olean began to be a place of em- 
barkation for emigrants, and for a long period, in 
portions of each year, great numbers assembled 
there to take passage down the Allegheny river in 
arks. 

For a few years pending the completion of the 
Erie canal, every spring the opening of navigation 
on the river counted to the number of thousands : 
said to have amounted to 3000 in 181S. This created 
great scarcity of food. Flour sold on such occasions 
as high as ^^25 a barrel, and pork at <,^o a barrel. 
These emigrants all passed by Warren. On the 
completion of the Erie canal, travel was e.xpedited. 
The Erie canal was the means of founding a new- 
empire in the West. 

Stp:.\mb(j.\ts. 

The first steamboat to steam up the river from 
Warren was in 1830. It was built by Archibald 
Tanner of W'arrsn, and David Dick and others of 
Meadville. It was built in Pittsbure. The steamer 



1 fi I^'.-l RREX CEXTEXNTA L 

was called " Allegheny." It went to Olean and 
returned, and went out of commission. 

Major D. \V. C. James furnished this incident of 
the Allegheny voyage: 

A story was told by James Follett regarding the 
trip of the Allegheny from Warren to Olean which 
illustrates the lack of speed of steamboats on the 
river at that early day. While the steamer was 
passing the Indian reservation, some twenty-odd 
miles above Warren, the famous chief Cornplanter 
])addled his canoe out to the vessel, and actually 
]>addled his small craft up stream and around tlie 
Allegheny — the old chief giving a vigorous war- 
whoop as he accomplished the proud teat. 

The Allegheny was the only steamboat which 
ever went uj) the river as far as (Mean. The [xir- 
ties building it had an idea. They sought to obtain 
an appropriation from the Government to improve 
the Allegheny. By showing by actual demonstra- 
tion that the river was navigable as far as Olean 
they thought the appropriation would be forthcom- 
ing ; but they had such a tedious voyage, by the 
breaking of the steering apparatus, and the appro- 
priation not materializing, this project was given up. 
There have been other steamers on the river ; one 
succeeded in going down, but it never came back. 
The late Captain A. Dingley, of Brooklyn, at one 
time a resident of Tidioute and Warren, built a 
very fine steamer in about 1S03 or 1S65. Its cost 
was $20,000 ; it was built to transport oil and pas- 
sengers between Tidioute, Irvineton and Warren, 
it made a few trips, and was finally sold anil did 



n'ABBEX CEXTESMAL 16 1 

service on the Ohio river. There was another 
steamer here in the year iS — , owned by the late 
Thomas Bell. It was a small affair, and had a 
second-hand boiler in which to generate steam. It 
made a few trips up and dowm the river a mile or 
two each way; but the boiler burst, blowing Shir- 
ley, the man at the wheel, a hundred feet into the 
air, killing him instantly, and badly scalding Mr. 
Bell and injuring several others to some extent. It 
made no more trips. 

First Whe.xt. 

The first wheat raised in this county was in Pitts- 
field, by McOuay. He winnowed the chaff from 
two bushels, put it in a bag, put the bag over his 
shoulder, and carried it through the forest to Mead- 
ville, where it was made into flour, and he broucrfit 
the flour back. Do you comprehend the strength 
aud endurance required to perform this act? Two 
bushels of wheat weigh 120 pounds — a good lift for 
most persons — and when carried a mile will cer- 
tainly weigh twice as much. The distance to Mead- 
ville is 60 miles. How much did the bag weio-h 
beiore he took it from his shoulder in the mill at 
Meadville ^ 

Let the young men of this city figure it out. How 
many at this day have the strength and fortitude for 
such an accomplishment i' And yet we talk about 
hardships I 

There is a sap-kettle in Pittsfield, cast-iron, weigh- 

'"* 75 pounds, which was purchased in Pittsburo- 

the year is not known — which the purchaser carried 



lfi-2 ]\'ABREy rESTESSIAI. 

from Pittsburg to Pittsfield on his back. The dis- 
tance is about 200 miles. The kettle is in Pittsfield 
now, and I would have it here, only I could not bring 
it. |ohn Ford says he is well acquainted with it. 

There were giants in those days. 

There is a will on record in the Recorder's office, 
made by Dr. Elias Boudinot, of Xew Jerse_\', giving 
several thousand acres of land in Pittsfield town- 
ship, which he owned, for the amelioration of the 
jews : but there was never a Jew so poor as to need 
these lands — never one settling upon them. They 
were sold for ta.xes. 

What Can'i Bk Tai,kki> Abdut. 

Here is all this mass of history, and less than an 
hour in which to present it. Nature, coupled with 
the aitl of man, has been one hundred years in bring- 
ing to a focus the scene as presented. How, then, 
can all these be related in the space of time indi- 
cated ? Infinite time and patience would be re- 
quired. It would rec|uire niLich space to tell about 
the churches and the good the\- have done. An 
hour to give a history of the newspapers. Our 
manufacturing industries all require the space at 
my disposal. It would take long to give a histor\- 
of the schools, with their 1500 pupils and 39 teach- 
ers, of the W. C. T. L'., and the history of the man\- 
secret societies. .Struthers Library building and the 
lil)erality of its tlonor would occupy much time to 
kill)- portray. Our fuel-gas, our brick pavements, 
our Rouse hospital, our .State as\lum for the insane, 
the \'()ung Men's Christian Association, the private 



ri'. I R R FX CEyTEXXfA L 1 6 o 

libraries, and much else which go to make up the 
sum total of one hundred years of evolution from 
forest to a flourishing city. It would require a larcre 
book to contain the varied qualities of the men and 
women who have made Warren famous. She has 
produced statesmen, jurists, and men standing hicrh 
at the bar tor learning and eloquence, and who have 
thrilled audiences at home and abroad. Much would 
I like to individualize. 

Some of the eminent jurists are dead, and some 
ot the able attorneys, but the pace is kept up, and 
we still have a pardonable pride in our statesmen, 
our judges, attorneys and business men. In the 
past there were no artists of which any account has 
been given. Now there are several ; artistic talent 
is plentiful. There have been eminent physicians 
in Warren, and they are here now, some of them. 
All departments have been supplied with good 
brains. Whether it is the air, the soil, or the good 
but rather disagreeable Puritan stock that has pro- 
duced these brains is not known, but it may be said 
that there is no place where so many people are so 
well provided with skill and knowledge as at this 
point on the Allegheny river called Warren. Wher- 
ever our men and women go as representatives 
they represent, and make names for themselves 
and their place of habitation. Once Franklin, our 
sister one-hundred-year-old town, was called the 
nursery of great men. So it was and is. But of 
late Warren has certainly taken the honors. Were 
we as good as great, the air would be filled with 
hallelujah songs the livelong dav. However, we 



164 u'ARREy CEsrEyyiAL 

are growing into better conditions, and are now as 
good as our environments will permit. There are 
few criminals in Warren. 

I would like to mention our railroads. They are 
the Philadelphia & Erie, Dunkirk, Alleghen\- X'alley 
& Pittsburg, Western New York and Pennsylvania, 
and the trolley cars, which have been running two 
years, having been opened up for the transportation 
of passengers July 4, 1S93. 

I would like to talk ot our soldiers. .Some of 
them are dead, and some enjoy their pensions ; but 
it is hoped the time will come when war will be no 
more, when it will not be commendable to fight for 
a living. A hundred years from now it is hoped 
the pensioners will have all been paid off, and that 
there will not be another war to bring forth another 
crop. 

Bravery is not upon the held of battle alone. 
There are heroic soldiers in civil lite and on a higher 
plane. The occupation oi killing each other will 
not be so highly commended in that other time, a 
huntlred years from now. 

Cki.ei'.r.mki) Me.x. 

It is not recorded that any great number ot cele- 
brated men made their passage down the Allegheny 
in those earh' limes, but one ol these may be men- 
tioiK.'d in Aaron Inirr, who had served as Vice-Presi- 
tlent oi the United .States, and sought to establish 
an empire in iMe.xici), as he declan^d ; but his real 
purpose was to get possession ot Louisiana and 
other .States, and form an independent government. 



M'ARREX CEXTEyyrAL 165 

In the year 1805 ^^ passed down the Allegheny 
river, and remained part of two days with James 
Morrison, on the island at Kinzua. Burr failed to 
enlist any young men of this section to join him, 
and he floated down the river in his boat to Blen- 
nerhassett Island, where he enlisted Blennerhassett 
and ruined him. There is a tradition that Burr 
stopped off at Warren, but I do not state this as 
absolute history. So it may be said that Warren 
has had the honor of having one of the "wisest 
and meanest of mankind." And it is fitting that 
he be given mention in these e.xercises. He un- 
doubtedl)- stood upon the ground where we stand, 
and was a maker of history. 

AcADEMV Lands. 

Warren borough and its out-lots were reserved 
from the Holland purchase. April 10. 1799, the 
Governor was authorized to direct the Survevor- 
General to make a survey ot the reserved tract, 
adjoining the town of Warren, which had not been 
laid out into town-lots, and that 500 acres of the 
same be laid oft for the use ot such schools and 
academies as might thereafter be established by law 
in said town. In 1829 an act was passed authoriz- 
ing the trustees to lease these lands for a period of 
not to exceed 99 years, which was done at a rental 
of not much over $100 for the whole. At that time 
the lands were not considered valuable, and it has 
transpired the county was badly sold when the lands 
were rented. By an act of Legislature, February 
13, 1832, the sum of §2000 was appropriated by the 



IHG WARHEN CEXTKXNLII. 

State to erect an academy. (It is here shown that 
the State has always been a liberal patron of edu- 
cation.) This was followed by an act, April 8, 1833. 
which authorized the trustees to erect a building for 
academic purposes on the grounds reserved at the 
layino- out of the town of Warren for public build- 
ings, and directed that the sum of $2000 already 
appropriated be used in the construction. The 
balance of the cost was made up by individual 
subscription. 

The 500 acres are still intact, and when the leases 
expire there will be an additional fund tor educa- 
tional purposes. But the leases have 25 or 30 
years still to run. There is now an accumulation 
of these funds, according to the last report of the 
trustees, of ^2500. 

The HoLL.ANn Purchase. 

The lands of the Holland Land Company — 
that portion belonging to Pennsylvania (for they 
ran into New York and embraced all the western 
portion of that State) — lie wholly within that part of 
Pennsylvania known as the first purchase, made 
from the Indians, by the treaty at Fort Stanwix in 
the )ear i 784. 

The deed for the purchase, signed by the Chiefs 
of the Si.x Nations, is dated October 25, 17S4. 
There was a subsequent treaty made with the 
\\')-andots and Delaware Indians at Fort Mcintosh 
in January, 1785, by which all claims they might 
have within the same boundaries were also e.x- 



tinguished by deed similar to that signed at Fort 
Stanwix. 

The Holland Company consisted of a number of 
merchants, eleven in number, of the city of Am- 
sterdam, who through their agents became laroe 
purchasers of lands in the years 1792. 1793 and 
1794, and their surveys are found in nearly all the 
counties into which this extensive domain has since 
been divided, both east and west of the Allegheny 
river. 

Although these Dutch merchants had but little 
knowledge of America, whose institutions they 
knew but slightly, they were far in advance of the 
prevailing sentiment in Europe as to the meaning, 
success and permanency of the experiment of Free 
Ciovernment. 

Their creed should be carried along the ages and 
their memories be respected for their confidence in 
the stability of American institutions, and because 
they were less grasping than later-day corporations. 
Warren was not a part of the Holland purchase. 

The men who settled these lands were a sturdy 
race. They were hardy and brave. We talk about 
bravery in war. W^ellington and Napoleon were 
fighting for empire. These early settlers were 
settling an empire, and fought wild beasts and suf- 
fered privations and fatigues the average soldier 
seldom experiences. I have no time to tell of their 
bravery, endurance and fortitude. They knew that 
tew would live to reap a great reward for their 
labors. They were poor — none but the poor would 
go into the wilderness to hew out a home. I cannot 



168 WARREX CEXTENNTAL 

talk of these men and women as I feel. They 
deserve our lasting gratitude and sympathetic 
remembrance. 

A Word to the Ladies. 

The women up to date have had no history in 
particular, although they shared uncomplainingly 
the hardships of a pioneer life. Men have been 
selfish. It was the religion of the past that prevented 
them making history. A few have shone brilliantly, 
notwithstanding, and by their noble deeds their 
names had to be remembered. Generally, they 
have been known as wives of men, but of them- 
selves, independent and alone, for what they were 
as individuals they have not been known. The tide 
that has borne us along to this date has borne us to 
a new thought, and created a New Woman. She 
is assuming equality with men in politics, religion, 
business and in the professions. They are known 
as mothers still, some of them ; they can speak in 
meeting now. In all these things they are coming 
— are here — and, like the bicycles which they ride, 
have come to stay — until something better comes to 
take their places. 

But there is one thing the women with all their 
progressive qualities cannot do — make hair grow 
upon their faces. This shows that she will never 
become masculine to any e.Ktent. On the other 
hand men have, these hundreds ot years, been shav- 
ing the hair from their faces to make them like 
women, but without avail. Nature understands her 
business. Of the smooth-shaved-faced man it is said : 



WARREX CENTEXyiAL 169 

" He is the fellow who would 
Be a young lady if he could, 
But as he can't, does all he can 
To show that he is not a man." 

The razor must go. 

The Cemetery. 

While time is pressing, I have not spoken of our 
Oakland Cemetery, a beautiful place on the hill in 
this direction. It is a conception by the Odd Fel- 
lows ; had the order never done other good, this 
alone would embalm it in the memories of the pres- 
ent and future generations. To save time I will 
give a portion of a poem by Rose Terry Cooke on 
the " Two Villages." .She must have visited War- 
ren and written her poem on this spot: 

" Over the river on the hill 
Lieth a village white and still ; 
All around it the forest trees 
Shiver and whisper in the breeze. 
Over it, sailing shadows go 
Of soaring hawk and screaming crow ; 
And mountain grasses, low and sweet. 
Grow in the middle of the street. 

" In this village under the hill. 
When the night is starry and still. 
Many a weary soul in prayer 
Looking to the village, there, 
And weeping and sighing, longs to go 
Up to that home from this below ; 
Longs to sleep in that forest wild, 
Whither our vanished wife and child, 
And heareth praying, this answer fall : 
' Patience ' That village shall hold you all.' " 



170 WARREN CEXTEXXr.lL 

A Glance Ahead. 

The wild animals have disappeared within this 
hundred years. The Indians have faded away to a 
remnant, and we see them here as curiosities; a 
new civilization has come upon the scene. We are 
here as we are. Some of us probably imagine us 
the perfected fruit of the tree ol knowledge, that we 
are the climax of common thought and endeavor. 
A hundred years from now a race of beings will in- 
habit here as superior to us as we conceive our- 
selves superior to the Indians. We have to go, or to 
be relegated back in the race. The light from the 
twentieth century is already casting its benignant 
light to us, and we get a glimpse of that in store 
for that other race ot men and women. We can 
see into the illumined future, and tee! the quicken- 
ing pulse of that nearby time. Thought is quicker, 
consequently all things will move taster. Five 
years of the ne.xt century will be equal to fifty years 
of the middle of the century we are about passing- 
out of. In times past, fifty years produced but little 
change in method ot thought. Our ancestors had 
no time to think. They exhausted themselves in 
material action, clearing their lands and raising their 
tamilies. There has been more progress in the 
world during the last fitty years tlian in the previous 
hundred years. 

But a hundred years from now there will not 
only be a new woman but a comparatively new 
man : there will be new and taster methods ot 
travel. 



WARREX CENTENNIAL 171 

The swiftly moving bicycles of this day will be 
superseded by a swifter vehicle, propelled by an 
electrical storage battery instead of by foot-power. 
There will be a free bridge over the river at this 
point, a hundred years from now. The creeds will 
have passed out of the minds of educated men and 
women, and knowledge will have taken the place of 
mythological theology. Then honest poverty will 
be no more out of place than criminal wealth — poor 
and rich alike. 

We have dwelt upon Warren and its surround- 
ings. Let us reach out for a moment. Within the 
last hundred years we have experienced wonderful 
changes in all departments of life. We can on this 
occasion only speak of individual effort and unfold- 
ment. Man, inspired by ambition of unseen and 
invisible intelligence, has achieved most wonderful 
results. I will cite Andrew Johnson, learnino- the 
alphabet from his wife ; afterward President of the 
United States. Abraham Lincoln, who started from 
the lowest walks of life ; twice President of the 
United States, a martyr and saviour of his country. 
U. S. Grant, who started out in life a.s a laborer in 
a tanyard ; afterward became the greatest soldier 
ot the age and President. He made himself a name 
in history as that of a warrior and a representative 
ot America that will echo far into the corridors of 
time. 

As a boy, we see James A. Garfield at work, 
driving a canal-boat, then Republican leader of the 
House, then Senator, then President, and finally the 
object of a weeping world. 



1 7"2 WA RREN rEXTEXXFA L 

VVe see Daniel Webster ploughing on a iarm ; 
afterward delighting the world with the magic of his 
voice. 

We have Benjamin Franklin, learning to ink type 
in his youth, and in his maturity we see him subdu- 
ing and enslaving the lightning and teaching the 
world its practical use 

We see Elihu Burritt learning his letters at noon- 
time in a blacksmith's shop, and afterward convers- 
ing in thirty languages. 

We remember Salmon P. Chase, a poor ( )hio boy, 
who became Governor, Secretary ot the Treasury of 
the United States, and finally Chief (ustice of the 
Siipreme Court. 

We see Horace Greeley trudging across a State, 
anxious to secure work for his board and clothes : 
later on, we see him in council with Presidents, and 
know him to have been one ot the greatest men ot 
the times. 

We see in Haming characters the names ot Wash- 
ington and Tom Paine. W'e note James Gordon 
Bennett, the jibe of all the printers because ot his 
crooked eyes. Yet he died the owner of the great- 
est money-making newspaper in all newspaper his- 
tory — a journal which sends e.xpeditions to Atrica 
and squadrons to the North Pole. These men, In- 
well-directed energy, not only succeeded in life, but 
have been of great benefit to mankind. They stand 
forth a beautiful object-lesson to the young men, 
especially of this date. 

Taking into consideration the wcMidcrtul achieve- 
ment of individual eHbrt, and that of national ad- 



IVARBEN CENTENNIAL 173 

vancement in the arts and sciences during the last 
liundred years, what may we not expect durinij the 
next century? As a nation, the United States is 
last in war and first in peace. As a people, they 
are politic in character, and possess the broad prin- 
ciples of thought and purpose which make them the 
most noble, wise, free and independent nation of 
the world. 

" Lives of great men all remind ns 
We may make our lives sublime, 
And, departing, leave behind us 
Footprints in the sands of time." 

God will have ceased to be a material being, and 
mankind will know instead of believing by faith. 
Faith has served a good purpose, but knowledge is 
better. The God of that other time will be greater 
than the conception of the Supreme at this day is 
possible. Intelligence will have taken the place of 
heathen customs and thoughts. Then God will be 
looked up to as a loving, a lovable intelligence, 
rather than one of hatred and revenge. 

In that day it will be known that man himself is 
greater than the present conception of himself. 
Man is greater than all else known. God is so 
great that we cannot know Him, and the man will 
be known as the highest exponent of personal ma- 
terial creation. Science will become the great theo- 
logian. Then it will be known that man is the crown- 
ing glor\- of creative genius. It has been taught us 
that man is a poor, sinful creature, im worthy of God's 
care and protection. This new thought teaches dif- 



174 



WARRFX CEXTEXyiAL 



ferentlv. Man is not a worm of the dust, but the 
highest achievement of the Divine command. Here- 
after man will not bow himself in abject humiliation 
before his Creator, but stand up in his exuberant 
pride and gladness that he was placed in these ma- 
terial conditions. Through all earth's adversities, 
with the knowledge he will have, he will stand with 
his head above these material clouds, and see the 
liirht that shines ever from that other shore. 




<1<"K1-K I'lMi I'N riii" Il\^ 



W'ARREX CESTENNIAL 17,t 

Mr. Morris's address was received with marked 
interest, and at its conclusion there was some more 
music. Then followed a reunion of old settlers, 
wliich was confined to residents who had come to 
Warren before 1840. 

The repast was prepared by the Women's H.\- 
change, and served in a building on the crrounds 
devoted to their use. 

Naturally, the guests of honor were Solomon 
O'Bail and Deerfoot, the most aged representatives 
of the Seneca Nation, the original proprietors of the 
country. At the close of the dinner Mr. R. P. 
King, a resident of Warren since 1817, arose and 
spoke as follows : 

"There are several of us here who have been in 
close touch and relationship with the illustrious 
Cornplanter, the ancestor of our honored guest, 
Solomon O'Bail, as well as with Henry and Charles 
O'Bail, his father and uncle; and those of us can 
say with sincerity that our relations with them have 
always been of the pleasantest, no discord ever be- 
coming apparent during the years of intercourse, 
and no trouble ever threatened the border white 
settler during the years while these men were in our 
midst." 

The old Chieftain O'Bail was visibly affected by 
this tribute to his ancestors, and in turn replied, in 
a tremulous voice, the following, translated by the 
interpreter, Harrison Halftown : 

" It gives me great pleasure that the Omnipotent 
(jod has allowed us to assemble here in verification 
of the words previously spoken. In the dav of my 



17fi 



n'ARREX CENTEyyiAL 



grandfather, my father and my uncle, it was always 
their saying that the white man would act fairl)' with 
the children of the forest, and the assemblage here 
to-day and the treatment of my people since arriv- 
ing here are abundant evidence ol the truth of this 
saying." 

A register ot the old people who attended the 
dinner, together with the date of their birth and the 
time of their coming to Warren, is appended : 





Born. Came 


to Warre 


A. Hertzel, . 


1829 ] 


S33 


Henry Knupp, 


■S39 


839 


T. S. Messner, 


1S22 


841 


H. M. Phillips, . 


1 8 24 


831 


James Cook, 


1S29 


83-- 


Alex. Kitchen, 


1 8 18 


S38 


A. T. Arnold, 


1830 


845 


Augusta M. Arnold, 


1842 


842 


Christian Smith, . 


1823 


836 


I. P. Lacy, . 


1813 


S29 


i. H. Hiller, . 


1 81 7 


844 


Mrs. A. Morck, . 


1825 


S5I 


Anna M. Sandstrom, 


1829 


868 


Philip Bysecker, . 


1826 


846 


L. J. Marsh, 


183S 


838 


Mrs. L. J. Marsh, 


1834 


834 


P. J. Trushel, 


1830 


S39 


Philip Siechrist, 


1826 


833 


I. G. Lacy, . 


1823 


836 


Stephen Critchlow, 


1S20 


844 


M. D, Waters, . 


1825 


826 



WABRES CENTEXyiAL 



177 



F. S. Knopf, 
H. A. Putnam, 
Mrs. H. A. Putnam, 
Peter Smith, 
Mrs. Allen Smith, 
W'ni. H. Deming, 
W'm. Zeigler, 
O. W. Randall, . 
Chas. Dinsmoor, . 
Nelson P. Coates, 
Michael Kelly, 
A. P. Lacy, . 
Russell A. Phillips, 
Rufus P. King, 
Mrs. J. M. Thompson, 
Ezra T. Hazeltine, 
Mrs. Ezra T. Hazeltine 
A. H. Lacy, . 
J. J. Taylor, . 
Mrs. Elizabeth W.Taylc 
Jas. W. Cramer, . 
Mrs. Mary T. Cramer, 
Henry Howard, . 
Helen Waters Howard 
D. M. Williams, . 
Lyman D. Wilson, 
Elizabeth E. Wilson, 
S. A. Wetmore, . 
S. H. Davis, 



Born. Came 


to Warren 


1839 


1839 


1837 


[S37 


^837 


837 


1S26 


852 


1S32 


852 


1S18 


S39 


1S16 


839 


1S2S 


838 


1834 


836 


■S39 


839 


S22 


840 


tS23 


S3 2 


1S32 


832 


SI7 1 


817 


S45 1 


845 


1836 


860 


IS36 


860 


ISI9 


S28 


S26 


826 


82q 


S33 


S33 


833 


S39 I 


839 


83S 


S54 


840 I 


S4O 


817 I 


8 40 


831 


833 


S3 9 I 


843 


825 I 


825 


830 I 


840 



The oldest two men in Warren. |. Y. James and 

12 



178 WARREN CEyTEXyUL 

Benj. Williams, aged respectively 92 and 91, were 
not present at the dinner, possibly owing to feeble 
health. Mr. Williams has resided in Warren nearly 
So years, and when he came here the town was 
practically a primeval forest. 

There was another game of old-time ball, Iul\- 
4th, with the following players : 

K. T. Hazeltine, Capt., Thomas Cooper. Capt., 

A. Conarro, John Burget, 

P. J. Trushel. A. J. Marsh, 

H. T. Russell, John Eckles, 

W. Brasington, Walter Marsh, 

Jacob Leonhart, Charles Chase, 

"0. P. Dunn, Ed. Parker, 

Mot. Schuler, G. O. Cornelius, 

G. R. Starr, Mel Sharp, 

|. M. Davidson, Elmer Wilcox, 

J. K. Weaver, N. P. Curtis, 

M. B. Dunham. Wm. Akely, 
Wm. Fogies. 

The Inih.w b'lciir. 

The second sham fight between the Indians and 
the s(jttlers took place at 5 o'clock. The Indians 
succeeded in conquering the settlers and gaining 
possession of the block-house. A long fight then 
ensued betwcien the settlers and Company I on one 
side and the Intlians, who hekl possession of the 
block-house', on the other. At last a cannon was 
brought into requisition by the soldiers, and after a 



n'AEREX CEyTEXXIAL 179 

tew rounds from that the white flag was hung from 
one of the loop-holes, and the fight, which lasted 
nearly half an hour, and during which nearly 1500 
rounds of ammunition were discharged, was at an 
end. The capitulation then took place in due form, 
the surrendering Indians being escorted to the 
speaker's stand, where the regular surrender ac- 
cording to the rules of war was gone through with, 
the Hon. O. C. Allen speaking for the whites. The 
volley firing of the soldiers under the command of 
Captain Fred E. Windsor was fine, and showed long 
practice and hard drilling. Chiefs Crandall and 
Gardner displayed a great knowledge ot woodcraft 
in the way they handled their braves. It was only 
after the last hope had vanished and each was se- 
verely wounded that these great braves threw up 
the sponge and allowed themselves to be made 
prisoners ot war. 

Company I gave a most interesting skirmish drill 
at 5.30 P.M., reflecting great credit both upon the 
officers and men. 

The special feature ot Wednesday evening on 
the grounds was the old-time singing-school, in 
charge of the same committee that had the district 
school in hand, W. \'. X. Vates, Chairman. Mr. 
Anthony Conarro, an old-time singing-master, pre- 
sided, and conducted the choruses with dignity and 
much beating of the air. Logan's Indian Band 
opened the program, and was followed by Prof. 
Kelly with another club-swinging exercise. The 
school then sang •' lerusalem. My Glorious Home," 
with many old-time shakes and quavers. At this 



180 WARR EN CEXTENNIA L 

point C. D. Crandall, who had been captured by 
the Indians the night before, and so failed to appear 
at the school exhibition, was discovered by the con- 
ductor, dratJ^t^ed to the front, and compelled to recite. 
He gave " I Want to Hear the Old Band " with so 
much effect that the audience demanded another, 
which he did not refuse. A male quartette then 
sang "Auld Lang Syne," and responded to a hearty 
encore from the audience. The school then sang 
" America," Mrs. D. L. Gerould gave " Wait for the 
Wagon," Philip Siechrist spoke " I am Monarch of 
all I .Survey." and the school closed the evening 
with the " Battle Hymn of the Republic," Miss 
Harriet Cutting singing the solo. Before the pro- 
gram was concluded the irrepressible Indians had 
begun their evening dances, but at ten o'clock both 
Indians and pale-faces were admonished by the 
superintendent that it was time to leave oii dancing 
and go to rest, and quiet reigned in the Indian 

village. 

Thk Thiku 13.\v. 

All looked for a great crowd Thursday, but none, 
not even the most sanguine, believed that it would 
be as large as it actually was. In the morning at 
7.30, when the first train arrived — the Kane accom- 
modation — it was clearly demonstrated that there 
was to be practically no limit to the attendance, for 
the engine had behind it eight heavily-loaded cars 
of human freight. There were celebrations both at 
Kane and Sheffield, and, therefore, when a lull train- 
load arrival from that direction it was a most agree- 
able surijrisc. Then came the W. N. \'. & P. from 



WAJUiES CESTKyyUL 181 

both ways, Olean, Oil City and intermediate towns, 
all bringing large and crowded train-loads. The 9 
o'clock train from Titusville on the D. A. V. & P., 
and the one at 1 1 o'clock on the same road, were 
also heavily loaded, as was each successive train on 
all three roads up to 3 o'clock in the afternoon. 

At noon conservative estimates placed the num- 
ber of visitors in the city at between 15,000 and 
20,000, the ones holding to the latter figures being 
largely in the majority. It was, without the least 
doubt, the largest crowd of humanity that ever 
assembled in the borough of Warren. Had not 
extra preparations been made it would have been 
impossible to handle the jam in any kind of an 
orderly manner. As it was, the hotels, restaurants, 
and lunch-counters, both permanent and transient 
(scores of the latter blossomed on every hand), 
found their resources taxed to the utmost, patrons 
standing three deep, most of the time, waiting their 
turn at the table and counter. 

The day was as perfect as could be asked for, 
there being just enough cloud to create an enjoy- 
able shade and breeze sufficient to obviate the neces- 
sity of fans. 

The town was aroused early by the incessant firing 
of cannon across the river. This cannonading began 
about S-3'^' ^nd continued without cessation up to 6 
o'clock, being varied, as soon as daylight made its 
appearance, by cannon-crackers, small cannon, tor- 
pedoes, etc., in the hands of the irrepressible small 
boy and a large number of older brothers. 

There was positively no sleep alter this fusillade 



182 WAR REX CEXTEyyiAL 

began ; therefore at 7 o'clock nearly every resident 
was up and stirring, and the streets at once took on 
a lively and busy aspect. 

The main attraction booked tor the forenoon was 
the grand parade announced to take place at i i 
o'clock. About this time Water street from Market 
down to the park was lined on each side and packed 
many deep with spectators, and many crowded out 
on the brick pavement. The running of street 
cars was entirely abandoned for the time, and ve- 
hicles found it impossible to proceed, being entirely 
hemmed in by the dense crowd. 

The parade was to start trom the junction of 
Market and Water streets, where the first house 
built in Warren was located. The procession was 
formed as follows : First division on Market street, 
right resting on Third. Second division on Third, 
right resting on Market, lacing east. Third division 
on Market street, right on Third. Carriages (at- 
tached to third division) formed with right on Market 
street, facing west. Fourth division on Second, 
right on Market, facing west. 

The line of march was as follows ; Out Second to 
Water street; thence around the Savings Bank cor- 
ner to East Water street; up East Water street to 
F(,)urth ; Fourth to Market ; Market to Third ; Third 
to Water; Water to Beech; Beech to Fourth; 
h'ourth to Chestnut; Chestnut to Water; up Water 
to the Savings Bank. The whole was headed b\' 
the bicycle corps, which tormed on Market, with thr 
right on Second, lacing north. 

The officers in command were as tollows : Col. 



WARREN CEXTEXXIAL 1S3 

D. Gardner, Grand Marshal ; Capt. F. E. Windsor, 
Chief of Staff; Aids— M. B. Dunham, F. H. Rock- 
well, John Siegfried, W W. Wilbur, John Roy and 

0. W. Beaty; Chiefs of Divisions — First, Capt. W. 

1. Alexander; Second, Dr. W. S. Peirce ; Third, 
Capt. S. H. Davis ; Fourth, Capt. L. T. Borchers. 

T/u- Proa' ssi oil. 

Chief of Staff, F. E. Windsor. 

A. C. McAlpin, in command of bicycle parade. 

Twenty-five young ladies on bicycles. 

Ninety-six men on bicycles. 

Grand Marshal and Staff. 

Reig and Barth's Cornet Band, 25 pieces. 

Officers of Centennial Association, on toot. 

Company I, Sixteenth Regiment, Lieut. D. F. A. 
W'heelock commanding, 2,7 men. 

August Morck impersonating " Uncle Sam." 

Martial music, in carriage. 

Eben \. Ford Post, G. A. R., 40 men. 

Council of Indians, in four carriages. 

Two hundred Indians and squaws, with children, 
on toot. 

Coach containing landlord and landlady of Jack- 
son's Tavern, with waiters. 

Thirty ladies in Colonial costume from the Ouilt- 
ing-Bee building in side-seat wagon. 

Thirty ladies in Colonial costume, in two wagons, 
committee from Relics and Anticiuities building. 

Second Division. 
Marshal Dr. W. S. Pierce. 
Cattaraugus Reservation Indian Band, 20 pieces. 



1S4 \VARRh^■ CENTEXNIAL 

Fire Police, i8 men. 

Watson Hose Company, with handsome banner 
and portrait of the late Col. L. F. Watson, 25 men. 

Struthers Hose Company, with large banner and 
portrait of the late Thomas Struthers, 40 men. 

W^etmore Hose Company, 38 men. 

Citizens' Hook and Ladder Company, 30 men. 

Centennial Hose No. 4, East Side, Robert 
Walkerman, foreman, 25 men. 

Fire police cart, drawn by Burr Walker's ponies. 

Fire steamer Rufus P. King. 

K. O. T. JM. Band, 22 pieces. 

Knights of the Maccabees, Allegheny Tent, No. 
3, 82 men. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 93 men. 

Branch 27, Catholic Mutual Benefit Association, 
38 men. 

Robert Blum Lodge, D. O. H., 22 men. 

Burgess and Council of Warren, Mayor and 
Council of Franklin, in carriages. 

Old citizens and their wives in carriages. 

T liD'd Diz'ision. 

Cornplanter Reservation Indian Band. 

A long procession oi wagons, floats and other ex- 
hiliits, illustrating the manufacturing and commercial 
enterprises of " Greater Warren." 

At ihe St.x.nd. 

By 2 o'clock the crowd was o\'er the river, and as 
manv as could get v.ithin earshot assembled in front 
of the speakers' stand. President Stone presided, 



WARREX CEyTENNFAL 185 

and opened the meeting with a few bright and appro- 
priate remarks. Five-minute speeches were in order, 
and the president introduced as the first speaker the 
Mayor of Franklin, W. H. Forbes, Esq., who spoke 
as tollows : 

Air. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen : For this 
honor I thank you most earnestly, for it gives me an 
opportunity to publicly express the great debt of 
gratitude which all the ladies and gentlemen from 
Franklin owe to the ladies and gentlemen of Warren 
tor the extreme kindness and attention to even the 
smallest detail that could add to our comfort, enjoy- 
ment and delight. But we were not surprised that 
we should be so received and entertained. Warren 
and Franklin came into existence in the same year, 
and by virtue of the same legislation, one hundred 
years ago ; and from that time until the present the 
people of these, the two most beautiful little cities 
in the world, have exchanged the warmest hospital- 
ity and acts of friendship. We anxiously await an 
opportunity some time this year to demonstrate 
practically and to the best of our ability our high 
appreciation of the royal manner in which we have 
been entertained. Your reproduction of old-time 
manners, customs, costumes and sports are won- 
derfully true, according to history and the authority 
of old people. This could only be accomplished by 
the hard and tedious labor of the noble women of 
Warren. Too much praise cannot be given them. 
W ere I at home I would propose three cheers for 
them. Hoping to be able in the near future to have 



186 WA RREN CESTENNIA L 

the great pleasure of extending- to you, one and all, 
the freedom ot the city ot Franklin, and again thank- 
ing you, your illustrious chairman, your honorable 
Burgess and Council, I will say adieu. 

The Hon. Wm. D. Brown was then introduced. 
After a few preliminary words, in response to re- 
marks made by the president in his introduction, the 
gentleman spoke as follows : 

We are accustomed to hear, on occasions like 
this, of the greatness of our country in territorial 
extent and its wonderful resources — the growth of 
our people and their progress in science, art, and 
in other things. All this is right. It tends to 
inspire patriotism, love of country, and devotion to 
the Hag we so fittingly designate as " Old Glory." 
lUit we should remember that material resources, 
material or even intellectual development, do not 
make a people great. Nobility of character in the 
individual citizen is the all-important factor. 

It lias been frequent!), and 1 think truthfully, said 
tiiat all great and worth}' achievements have been 
accompHshed und(_'r the inspiration of ideals. What 
conception have we, citizens of this nation, of what 
its future ought to be and what it may be.-' What 
conception have we, as citizens of Warren borough, 
whose Centennial v.'e celebrate, of what the coming 
centurv uKiy and ought to witness in the life of those 
who shall at its close occupy these- pleasant hills and 
valleys i* 1 have a word-picture, drawn not by myself 
but by a master artist, that presents in such felicitous 



WARREN CESTENNIAL 187 

language and condensed form the ideal nation and 
the ideal community, that I present it as better 
than anything that it is possible for me to say. In 
a recent lecture delivered by a distinguished doctor 
of divinity these words occur: 

"It seems to me there ought to be something in 
our lite that admits of idealization — something that 
appeals to the imagination of the citizen — something 
that inspires, in time, a genuine devotion and a gen- 
erous faith that, leaving the things that are behind, 
shall, with high enthusiasm, stretch forth unto the 
things that are before. Can we not and should we 
not think of a community as becoming more and 
more a social organization, bound together by bonds 
not wholly economic and commercial, but by human 
sympathies and human interests, with a character to 
develop and a destiny to fulfil, moving steadily for- 
ward, under the influence of a righteous purpose, in 
the way of peaceful progress, strengthening law, 
enlarging liberty, difiusing intelligence, promotino- 
happiness, and becoming, through the co-operative 
good-will of its people, a mighty and brilliant provi- 
dence to all who dwell within its boundaries ? Are 
there not possibilities in this life of ours that can 
make the heart glow with great hope and high en- 
thusiasm ? 

" May we not with profit cherish the vision of a 
vocation and a community fairer, purer, nobler than 
any yet known ? May we not with profit think 
much of an earthly community better than we now 
have? — a nation and a community whose officers 
shall be peace and whose exactors shall be right- 



1 88 WA RBEX CENTEXXfA L 

eoLisness, whose homes shall be sacred and secure, 
whose traffic shall be wholesome and beneficent, 
whose laborers shall go forth to their cheerful toil 
unburdened by the heavy hand of legalized monopo- 
lies, whose laws shall toster no more curses, nor 
open the gates of whatsoever worketh abomination 
or maketh a lie; whose streets shall be full of happy 
children playing in safety, and learning the great 
lesson of love to God and love to man, and whose 
citizens, wherever they shall wander, shall ever turn 
homeward with longing desires and loving hearts?" 
Citizens ot Warren borough, ot \\ arren county, 
of the nation : If, one hundred years hence, we who 
now participate in this celebration ot our national 
independence and the centennial of our existence as 
a borough shall be granted a vision of these hills 
and valleys, may we not indulge the hope that the 
ideal picture thus presented shall then be a veritable 
realit)' ^ 

President Stone grew eloquent in his introduction 
of Logan, the Indian orator, and his words were 
loudly applauded. Orator Logan, in the course of 
his short speech, took occasion to say that he never 
before realized as tully as now that he was a fool 
at speech-making. Ot this he was now t'ulh' aware 
after having listened to the eloquent speakers who 
had preceded him. He would, however, endeavor 
to say a tew words. He said that to-da\' his thoughts 
went back to one hundretl years ago, when his tore- 
fathers inhabited here, and roamed o\er these hills 
and throuyh these vallevs. As he thoutrht of these 



WARREX CEXTEyyTAL 189 

things he sometimes imagined that his countrymen 
ought to be crying, instead of rejoicing, because 
the\- had lost possession and control of this beauti- 
ful land. But then he reflected that it was the will 
ot the Great Spirit that such things should be, and 
he at once became reconciled, and he wished to state 
that in his opinion the change had been beneficial to 
himself and his people. "Simply," said he, "be- 
cause you see my people playing games and be- 
sporting themselves in peculiar ways, you need not 
think that is all they know. They can plough, read 
their Bibles, play instruments in a way to produce 
sweet music, and do many other things of a similar 
character. They have fallen into the stream of civ- 
ilization, and are swimming toward the top. I think 
I enjoy life better under my present surroundings 
than I would under those of one hundred years ago." 
In closing. Logan paid President Stone, Messrs. 
Crandall, Talbott and Allen and the balance of the 
Centennial officials a glowing compliment for the 
kinijly manner in which his people had been treated, 
and his earnest hope was ttiat the kindly feeling thus 
engendered might continue through the coming cen- 
tur_\-. Himself and the Indians had been treated as 
human beings, and not as brutes. 

Charles Dinsmoor, Esq., was called on to speak 
for the schools, and his response was as follows ; 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : The system 
oi Warren schools is still doing business at the old 
stand. F"or nearly forty years, for more than a third 
ot a century, it has stood, as it sdll stands, toilino- 



IDO WARREy CESTENNIAL 

faithfully in your behalf, led by a spirit that has 
for its shibboleth the battle-cry ot progress, culture 
and intelligence. 

The school did not form this people ; the people 
created it. And I am happy to say that here, where 
it was formed, in the wisdom ot the fathers, here it 
still lives, in the strength of its manhood and fulness 
of its original spirit. If it has seemed to grow with 
unwonted vigor, that growth has only paralleled the 
growth of our people in virtue and intelligence. If 
it has done good, that good has sprung from the 
noble and generous impulses ot the people who sus- 
tain it. If it shall do good in the tuture, that good 
must come trom the same abundant source. 

And so with honest purposes, with absolute con- 
fidence in the support of the community in all things 
worthy ot support, we approach the threshold of the 
coming century, moving to the command sounded 
all along our lines, " Forward — March '" 

The Rev. Dr. George H. Humason, when called 
on t(.) speak, stepped to the tront ot the platform 
and delivered a strong address that was full of good, 
hualthy facts. He said, in substance, that he con- 
sidfjred it a great honor to be present on an occasion 
such as occurs only once in a hundred years to anv 
one audience. He congratulated Warren on the 
good name it bore, both at home and abroad, and 
said he believed that if it had been called by any 
other name (submitting a tew as samples), things 
might have been different. The memory of Dr. 
Warren was recalled in 'liowinir terms, and the 



WA BREX CEXTFXXn L 191 

speaker thought his good name and sterhng quah- 
ties had much to do with establishing the town's 
good character. He was glad his lot was cast here, 
where he found nothing but a feeling of public spirit 
manifested when anything for the good of the town 
or the betterment of humanity at large was proposed. 
The men and women here were at all times ready 
to sacrifice and toil to make success in place of 
failure out of all things taken hold of. The Cen- 
tennial will do good in after years. He said he was 
touched by the words of Logan, for they came from 
the heart instead of the head. He was sad at times 
when he thought that his forefathers had wronged 
those of Logan, but was somewhat consoled when 
he thought of the great kindness and honesty of 
William Penn. He said that many of the wrongs the 
Indians had sustained were due to dishonest agents. 

He called the attention of the visitors to many 
of Warren's attractions, among which he mentioned 
the oldest Mason in the State and the second oldest 
printing-press. As illustrating Warren county's 
philanthropy, he mentioned the Rouse hospital, the 
asylum for the insane, and the library building. In 
concluding, the speaker took occasion to hope that 
the result of this Centennial would be the erection 
of a monument in the form of a hospital. His re- 
marks were loudly applauded. 

After listening to music by Logan's Band, the 
Rev. j. W. .Smith, of the Presbyterian church, was 
introduced and closed the speech-making. 

He said he was in the position of the colored 
preacher who, when called on for a speech after 



192 WA R REN CEXTEyXlA L 

three men had already spoken, said that he was a Httle 
afraid, as one speaker had already talked on liberty, 
another on power, and all he could think of was 
God be merciful to the next speaker. In his case, 
reliL^non, medicine, the scliools, the asylum for the 
insane, and everything' but the jail had been talked 
about. He paid the ladies of both Franklin and 
Warren a neat compliment, saying' that he thought 
they all grew better-looking as they grew older. 
He hoped all would be here the ne.xt Centennial, 
and closed b)' extending the hope that the coming 
generation ;nay be lett a heritage ot character by 
the present one that all may be proud of, and that 
the stamp of Christ might be imprinted on all. 

There; was singing by the glee club of one hun- 
dred voices led by Dr. \V. \V. Freeman, and at the 
conclusion ol the speaking the benediction was 
given \)\ the Rev. G. H. Trabert, ot the Lutheran 
church. The Inilians then took possession of the 
platlorni, and a most interesting ceremony not down 
on the program took place. 

The Council oi the Seneca Nation, to show their 
,Tp[)reciation ot Messrs. Crandall, Allen and Talbott, 
dt'cided to adopt them as brothers into the Nation. 
In a briet speech from the stand Mr. Logan, on 
111 'halt ot the Council, announced that the Indians 
wished to more firmly cement the bond of friend- 
ship by adopting, before leaving, their three especial 
Iriends, the Indian Committee. 

l-^or Mr. Allen the name of Skan-dyo-goradi, liter- 
ally, a brother to all, was chosen. With chants and 
(lanc(;s,in which the bluslilng young man participatiMJ, 



WABHEN CEXTENNIAL 193 

the ceremony was gone through with, and at its end 
he was shaken by the hand by the numerous repre- 
sentatives of the Bear clan. 

Mr. Logan then stated that as Mr. Crandall was 
engaged in the oil business, an appropriate name 
would be selected for him, and therefore, after the 
marching, chants and hand-shakings of the ceremony 
were over, Charlie was the possessor of the name 
" Gar-no-gwah," meaning dripping oil. This w^as 
the name of a noted chief who died some years ao-o, 
and the name had been held in reserve until the 
present occasion. He was of the "Wolf clan," the 
same as Cornplanter. 

To Mr. Talbott was reserved the honor of being 
presented with the name of a former famous chieftain 
ol the tribe, and again the marching, chanting and 
hand-shaking were gone through, and at its end 
Mr. Talbott belonged to the Hawk clan, and re- 
joiced in the appellation " Oa-go-gah-rah," the man 
on the other side of the multitude. The Indian 
chief who formerly bore this name was one of the 
most honored men of the tribe. At the conclusion 
ol the ceremonies the " new Indians " were the 
recipients of hearty hand-shakes from their new 
brothers. 

The display of fireworks in the evening was the 
finest ever seen in Warren, and was furnished by 
the celebrated Paine Fireworks Company, which 
furnished the fireworks at the Columbian Exhibition 
at Chicago. It was preceded by the descent of an 
illuminated fleet of boats from the W. X. Y. & P. 
R. R. bridge, all the canoes and small boats in town, 

13 



1 4 TT'.4 RREX CEXTEXXrA L 

numbering- fifty or more, under the direction of 
Willis Cowan, being in line, and brilliant with 
lanterns and colored fires. The river was smooth 
as glass, and the effect of the illuminated boats, 
floating double, boats and shadows, w-as magical. 
The fireworks were given from a stage in the river 
near the bank on the Pleasant side, and were com- 
fortably seen by the thousands of spectators who 
covered the high banks on the Warren side, filled 
every window and balcony, and every temporarv 
stand erected for the occasion, and dotted the hill- 
sides back of the town. 

The performance lasted nearly one hour and a 
lialf, concluding with the firing of a large set piece 
on wliich was emblazoned in big burning letters the 
followiuLT : 



1795 
WARREN'S CENTENNIAL 

1S95 



The special trains began to pull out at i i o'clock, 
and by midnight most ot the thousands ol visitors 
were on their way home, tired but happy, and the 
great Centennial was at an end. 

The "celebration department," with I). I'. Arird. 
Esq., as chairman, had gloriously succeeded, and 
Warren could not e.xpect to celebrate on such a 
scale a'^ain for another hundred \'ears. 



WARREy CEyTEyyLiL 195 

The work of clearing away and settling up was 
immediately taken up by the several officers. All 
bills were audited by W. W. Wilbur, Esq., and the 
secretary and treasurer, after having been approved 
by the head of the proper department. So far as 
known nothing was lost, and nothing of consequence 
injured, but those to whose kindness the manage- 
ment were indebted for the loan ot articles received 
them again uninjured. After settling all bills there 
remained the sum of $1710.76, which, in accordance 
with the resolution of the Association at the begin- 
ning, was turned over to the Warren Library Asso- 
ciation and set apart as a special fund. The card 
catalogue, so long vainly desired, has been paid for 
out of this fund. 



196 



WAEREN CENTEyNIAL 



List of the Contributors to the Fund for the 
Celebration of the Warren Centennial. 



Mrs. Anna W. Syms, 

C. \V. Stone, 
Struthers, Wells tV Co. 
L. D'. Wetniore, . 
Pennsylvania Gas Co., 
National Transit Co., 
George H. Leonhart, 
M. Waters, . 

Warren Water Co., 
Warren Street Railwav 
Mrs. C. W. King, 
(). W. Reaty, 

D. W. Heaty. 
lohii Siiiiitz, 
William Moran, . 
j. K. Madden, . 
J. M. Haunian, 

J. 1). Woodard, . 

I. l;. K.ldy. 
1). Shear, . 
Monk I'.ros. . 
Hood, Gale \: Co., 
.\1, .V- K. M. S. hwmg, 

II. .\, janiieson, . 

I'lt kett Hardware (.'o. , 
V. 11. Rockwell, . 
.\. Hcrt/el, . 
C H. \(jves. 
Kevstoiif' ( Hue Works, 
William 1). Hrown, 



too 

I GO 
lOO 
lOO 
ICO 



5° 
5° 
45 
4° 
40 
40 



A. J, Hazeltine, 

Eliza I. Henry, 

J. H. Grey, 

Jacob Strieker, 

G. N. Parnilee, 

A. L). Wood, 

M. Mead, . 

P'mil Meyer, 

C. Schimmelfeng 

G. Geracimos, 

Seigfried & Co. , 

C. Smith, 

AN'arren and Chan. Gn 

Co. , 
Mitchell \- Shaukey, 
W. M. I.indsey, . 
M. M. Ounhani, 
Fehlmau Bros. , 

C. 1'. Northrop. . 
Isaacs lS; Morningstar, 
'1'. ( ). Slater & Co., 
A. A. Davis & Co., 
George Ball, 

<). H. Hunter \: Son, 
George F. Vates, . 
Dr. A. C. .McAlpin, 
.Mrs. I, aura M. Scofield 
Dr. W . M. Baker, 

D. I. Ball, . 
(). C. Allen, 



WARREN CEyTEXMAL 



197 



Newmaker & Reed, 


Sio 


W. \V. \\'inger, . 


lO 


L. (ileason, . 


lO 


J. R. Kaldensperger, 


lO 


J. E. Blair, . 


lO 


Berger & Hall, . 


lO 


J. S. Bayer, . 


lO 


W". W. Wilbur, 


lO 


James Clark, 


lO 


\V. Jarvis, 


lO 


B. W. Rogers, 


lO 


I. H. Lockwood, . 


lO 


W. McCray, 


10 


Morris & Mullen, 


lO 


K. T. Hazeltine, . 


lO 


I). M. Howard, . 


lO 


Hinckley & Rice, 


10 


J. N. Beniis & Son, 


lO 


Ropf & Henry, 


5 


A. E. Boeschlin, . 


5 


S. Reller, . 


5 


Jacob Keller, 


5 


A. M. Rogers, 


5 


James 0. Parmlee, 


5 


F. R. Scott, 


5 


C. J. Marker, 


5 


L. Hutter, . 


5 


William Schnur, . 


5 


H. A. Booth, 


5 


C. W. Shawkey. . 


5 


Ray W. Norris, 


5 


Humphrey & Neihmeyer 


5 


G. Offerle & Son, 


5 


W. A. Graves, 


5 


Charles Chase, 


5 


X. Greenlund, 


5 


P. M. Smith, 


5 



Allen & Langley, 
R. B. Orr & Co. , 
Ackley & Wheelock, 

D. A. Swanson, 
S. T. Neill, . 
Theo. Messner, 
M. 1). Hall, 
A. W. Jones, 
C. C. Thompson, 
G. H. Strickland, 
F. E. Hertzel, 

C. Dinsmoor, 

J. H. Fuelhart, . 
John F. Kercher, . 
Samuel Peterson, . 
Warren Table \\'orks, 
J. P. Johnson, 
Wyman & Conarro, 
W. M. Lott, 
H. W. Pickett, 
H. M. Putnam, . 

E. E. Allen, 
W. D. Todd, 

D. L. Gerould, 

F. K. Russell, 
F. T. Parker, 

A. T. Scofield, . 
J. K. Weaver & Co., 
S. A. Wetmore, . 
Louis Meyer, 
D. Carmichael, 
H. Wills, . 
A. B. Nesmith, 
Warren Chair Works, 
Dr. W. V. Hazeltine, 



Total, 



S23Si-5° 




Cuming Duwn fru.m Yankee Bl'sh 












'.■*;-'' 

.^v. 



New Episcopal Church. 



GREATER WARREN 

This memorial of Warren's Centennial would be 
incomplete without a description of the Warren 
which appeared to her visitors at the end of her 
first century. Our description will, however, be as 
of the time of the publication of this volume, rather 
than the exact date of the celebration. 

Warren became " Greater Warren " in 1895 by 
the annexation of the village of East Warren, lying 
in Glade township, east of the Conewango, by which 
her territory and population were increased nearly 
one-half The borough now extends along the 
north bank of the Allegheny river a distance of 
about two and four-tenths miles, and is divided into 
two unequal parts by the Conewango, which is 
spanned by two substantial iron bridges and a wire 
foot-bridge. The Allegheny, noted for the beauty 
of its scenery, sweeps down from the eastward, 
leaving to the northward a wide, level flat, once 
beautiful farms, now covered by thriving factories, 
and laving with its crystal waters the very feet of 



20i 



WAh'TlKX rKXTF:\xrA L 



the green hills which torm its southern bank. Just 
where it receives the waters of the Conewango, and 
the hills recede to give place to the charming wood- 
land long known as " Irvine's Grove " — now grow- 
ing into the village of Richland — Oakland Cemetery 
rises in beautiful terraces from the w-ater's edge; 
and here the dead, whose lives have been woven 
into Warren's history, sleep, overlooking the town 
they loved so well. The cemetery is the property 





4 


,.^ 




' '!>9IH 



Pi kas \nt l!Kiiii;h; 



ot the Odd Fellows, by whost; benevolence and tore- 
sight it was established in 1S63. just below the 
mouth ot the Conewango the Pleasant bridge crosses 
the river with a single span of 480 feet. This 
bridge, originally built by a corporation in 1871, 
but now free, is a feature of the landscape, its grace- 
tul proportions adding beauty to the view from any 
point from which it is visible. Below the bridge the 
river sweeps in a lovely halt-moon curve past the 
town, which is built upon the high plateau on the 



GREATER WARREX 203 

south bank, the buildinos along Water street beino- 
confined to the north side, leaving the bank of the 
river open, to be converted in the near future into 
a pleasure-ground for the enjo3'ment of the people. 
Water street, Short street and the business portions 
of Second and Liberty streets are paved with hard 
brick. Opposite the town the little village of Rich- 
land is rising amid the trees, and to the west of this 
lies the enclosure of the Warren County Fair Asso- 
ciation — where the Centennial Exhibition was held — 
in full view from Water street. At the junction of 
Water and Third streets is a small, triangular park, 
shaded by Hourishing maples planted years ago by 
Judge R. P. King and George N. Parmlee, Esq., 
both of whom still live to enjoy their shade. Behind 
the town to the north rise the beautiful hills — a rest 
to the eyes in summer, and, with their groves of 
oaks and chestnuts, supplying to some extent the 
lack of public parks. The easternmost, which de- 
scends to the Conewango, is "Tanner's Hill," a 
noble monument to one of Warren's early benefac- 
tors ; next west is a loftier eminence, which, if it has 
no settled name, is commonly spoken of as " Sco- 
held Hill," thus perpetuating the memory of one ol 
the most distinguished of the men who have lived 
and died in Warren, Glenni W. Scofield, the col- 
league and trusted friend of Stevens, Blaine and 
Garfield in Congress, Register of the Treasury, and 
later judge of the Court of Claims. The prominent 
point to the west of the town will go down in his- 
tory as "Stone's Hill," for in full view stand the cot- 
tage and log-cabin, and a little back are the farm 



204 WARREN CENTENNIAL 

buildings of another ot Warren's distinguished sons, 
the President of the Centennial. 

Warren is served by three lines of railroad, the 
Philadelphia and Erie, operated by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company ; the Dunkirk, Allegheny \'alley 
and Pittsburg, operated by the New York Central ; 
and the Western New York and Pennsylvania. The 
Western Union and Postal Telegraph lines and the 
New York and Pennsylvania Telegraph and Tele- 
phone lines enter the town, and there are two e.\- 
press companies, the Adams and the American. 
Two natural-gas companies supply "wild" gas for 
fuel and light. Artificial gas is also supplied by an- 
other company, and electricity tor light and power 
by the Warren Electrical Light Company. Water 
in abundance is supplied by the Warren Water 
Company, the principal source ol supply being a 
mountain stream about two miles above the town. 
West of the Conewango a complete system of 
sewers is laid, and the eastern wards are about to 
be sewered. An electric railroad traverses Water 
street from the west line of the borough to the 
Conewango, and, crossing, proceeds out Pennsyl- 
vania avenue to the bridge at Glade run, with a 
branch out Market street to the; village of North 
W^arren, two miles north, where the .State hospital 
for insane is located. 

Lying at the foot of the hills, with its two beauti- 
ful rivers, its abundant shade, and its pleasant, 
solidly-built streets, Warren is easil\- the prettiest, 
as it is one of the brightest towns in Western Penn- 
sylvania. It has many things to be proud ot, but 



GREATER WARREX 207 

the feature which most impresses the visitor is the 
character of its homes. There are many fine and 
costly mansions, and green and well-kept lawns : 
but it is not these, but the great number of trim, 
comfortable residences, clearly indicating moderate 
but adequate means, and taste and cultivation in the 
inhabitants, which is most striking. He who walks 
over the entire town, traversing the most out-of-the- 
way streets, will find no squalid poverty skulking in 
dirty alleys, or dilapidated shanties sheltering a mis- 
erable and degraded population. Warren has its 
poor, and a small degraded element ; but its atmos- 
phere is wholesome and elevating, and those who can- 
not rise into better conditions do not find it congenial. 

The Warren post-office ranks sixth in the State, 
outranking many larger boroughs and some cities. 
There are three daily newspapers, all issued in the 
evening — the Mirror. News and Democrat ; one 
semi-weekly, the twice-a-week Ledger, and three 
weekly papers — the Mail, Mirror and De7nocrat. 

Warren is the county seat of Warren county, and 
the court-house and jail stand on what was once the 
public square, at the intersection of Market and 
High (now Fourth) streets. The court-house is a 
fine and imposing structure, built of pressed brick, 
with stone trimmings, and was erected in 1876. The 
town-hall stands on the corner of Third and Plick- 
ory streets, and is a substantially built two-story 
brick-and-stone building, occupied by the borough 
officials and the fire department. The borough has 
also a hose-house of brick on Water street, opposite 
the .Struthers Iron Works, for the use of the Struthers 



208 



WA BR EN CENTENNIA L 



Hose Company, and a fine new one in the Sixth 
ward for the Centennial Hose Company. On the 

corner of Liberty 
and Third streets 
stands the Struth- 
ers Library Build- 
ing, erected in 1S83 
by the late Thomas 
Striithers at a cost 
of about $So,ooo, 
and donated to the 
\\ arren Public Li- 
brary, which occu- 
pies the second floor 
of the front build- 
ing. The librar)' 
was founded in 
1 Sji.and, except the 
rents of the library building, has been always main- 
tained by the voluntary subscriptions of the people 
of Warren, though until 1S92 fees were charged for 
the use of books taken from the librar\' room. The 
library contains nearly 10,000 volumes ot well-se- 
lected books, has about iSoo registered borrowers, 
and circulates about 50,000 volumes annually. The 
building also contains the post-office. Masonic Hall, 
•Struthers Theatre in the rear, and a store-room for 
rent. 

Cm KCIIES. 

The largest and finest church edifice in Warren 
is that of the First Presbyterian Church, iust com- 
pleted at a cost of upwards ot $So,ooo. 




■rRriHhK^ I.IHRAKY BriMUNi 



GREATER WARREy 



209 



This church stands on the site of the mansion 
occupied for more than half a century by the late 
Thomas Struthers, corner of Market and Third 




First Presbyterian Church. 



Streets. It is built of stone, and is one of the most 
beautiful and serviceable church-buildings in the 
State. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church on Third 



no 



WABREX CFyTEyXTAL 



Street is a fine modern structure of brick and stone, 
and its young daughter, Grace M. E. Church, in 
the Sixth ward, has a pretty chapel which will be all 
too small in the near future. 




FiKsr M. !■:. CiirKi 



The Episcopalians are just finishing their new 
Trinity Memorial Church and Parish House on the 
site of the old one at the intersection of Water, 
i'ophir anel Third streets. It is of soft, creamy 
stone, uni([ue and ht'autiiul m design, and contains 
three miMUorial windows of great beauty. The 
ih'coratioiis of the chancel include an exquisite 



GREATER WAR REX 



211 



mosaic of the throned Christ, and are most rich and 
tasteful. This work is a contribution by Mrs. Anna 
Watson Syms to the memory of her father, Col. 
L. F. Watson. 

The Roman Catholic, German Lutheran and 
Evangelical denominations have substantial brick 
churches, the former possessing also a large brick 
building containing an amusement hall and gymna- 
sium, school rooms, and the like, as well as two 
smaller buildings used for parochial schools. The 
Baptist, Swedish Lutheran and free Danish con- 
gregations have comfortable frame churches, and 
there is also a small 
chapel belonging to 
the Swedish Method- 
ists, and another for 
the Swedish Baptists 
in process of erection. 

On Liberty street 
the Young Men's 
Christian Association 
is finishing a stone- 
front three-story 
building, very grace- 
ful in design, 42 feet 
in width by 116 feet 
in depth, all of which 
will be occupied by 
the Association ex- 
cept one store-room ' 
on the ground-floor. There will be a gymnasium, 
swimming-pool, bowling-alley, baths of all kinds, and 




212 r]\iRREy rE\'TF.yyTAL 

the various working-rooms of the Association, in- 
cluding a small auditorium seating about 475. The 
building will be completely equipped and up to date 
in every particular. 

.^ Schools. 

Apart from the parochial schools maintained by 
the Roman Catholics, Smith's Business College — 
an e.xcellent insdtution of its kind — and a private 
kindergarten, the schools of Warren belong to the 
public-school system, and they rank among the best 
in the State. 

There are at present tour school-buildings, two 
more being in contemplation. The high school is 
located in the Central building, and, while somewhat 
at a disadvantage because of the inadequacy ot the 
building, it is well equipped, and pupils who have 
taken its four years' course are admitted to about 
twentv colleges and universities upon their certifi- 
cates.* The East-street building is the most modern, 
and is in every way ideal. The spacious halls, easy 
stairs, light, cheerful rooms, convenient furniture, 
and the perfect system of heating and ventilating, 
leave nothing to be desired. 

The School Board of " Greater Warren " is con- 
stituted as follows : David I. Ball, Esq., President; 
Mrs. Eucie C. Richards, Secretary; Watson E). 
Hinckley, Dr. William M. Baker, Mrs. Peoria A. 
Cowan, Dr. C. W. Arird, W. D. McEaren. James 

•'= since this was written a tine new high-school building has 
been begun on the site of the old Ludlow House, corner of 
Market and Second street?. 



ORKATET! M'ARHKX 



21:", 



W. Crawford, C. W. Brown, Mrs. Ellen W. Beaty, 
F. G. Shreves, John s>M. Davidson. Superinten- 
dent, W. L. MacGowan. 




EasT-STRKKT .ScHi 



The various schools have in charge upwards of 
si.xteen hundred pupils, and the board employs 
forty-two teachers — five men and thirty-seven 



•214 -" WABRFX CKXrESXrAL 

women. Besides the common-school branches, 
which are taught according to the latest and most 
approved methods, the curriculum includes courses 
in Mathematics, Science, English, History, German, 
French, Latin, Greek, Philosophy, Political Science, 
and Business. 

The course of study embraces twelve years, eight 
in the lower or common grades, and four years of 
high-school work. In addition to the ordinary 
school-subjects, instruction is given by special 
teachers in vocal music, drawing, writing, and 
manual training. The last embraces sewing for the 
girls, to which cooking will probably be added soon, 
and wood-working and carving for the boys. 

Young men and women also get a thorough busi- 
ness education in the commercial department of the 
high school, where shorthand, type-writing, commer- 
cial law, book-keeping, etc., are taught. 

A flourishing school savings bank is in operation 
throughout all grades. The pupils have upwards 
of $6000 in the bank, drawing four per cent, interest. 

The school-buildings, with the e.xception of the 
Central, which will soon be replaced, are all 
modern structures, well-lighted, ventilated, and 
adapted to school purposes. Solid slate black- 
boards, single desks and seats, curtained and shaded 
windows Avlth beautiful flowering plants, picture- 
hung walls, free te.xt-books and supplies ot all 
kinds, together with well-educated and e.xperienced 
teachers, go to make life in the school pleasant and 
profitable. 

As we write the workmen are busy removing the 



GREATER WARRE.X 215 

old •' Ludlow House " to make room tor the new 
high-school building, which by another year will 
stand on the corner of Second and Market streets. 
The plans show a handsome modern building ht for 
the twentieth century. 

Borough Organization. 

The following is a list of the borough officers at 
the date of the Centennial : 

Burgess, James W. Wiggins ; Town Council, 
Isaac S. Alden, President ; Henry A. Messenger, L. 
T. Borchers, James Brann, J. H. Humphrey, A. R. 
Kehr, John Masterson, Joseph Hill. Borough Engi- 
neer, D. F. A. Wheelock ; Street Commissioner, 
John Smith; Treasurer, A. |. Hazeltine; Clerk, I). 
U. Arird. 

For protection against tire the borough maintains 
the tbilowing voluntary organizations, in addition to 
the steamer Rufus P. King : Niagara Hose Com- 
pany, Col. L. F". Watson Hose Company, E. I). 
\\ etmore Hose Company, Exchange Hook and 
Ladder Company, and the Fire Police, all quartered 
in the borough building, the Struthers Hose Com- 
pan}' in their own building in the Fourth ward, the 
Centennial Hose Company occupying the fine new 
building in the Si.xth ward, east side. 

Clubs. 

The Conewango Club occupies a pretty cottage 
at Market and Second streets, and has it charmingly 
furnished and equipped. A fund is being accumu- 



216 n'ABUKy CEyxEyyiAL 

lated which will, in the future, provide it vvith a per- 
manent and more commodious home. 

The Columbian Athletic Club has sumptuous 
rooms in the McKean block on Liberty street, and 
the Beach Street Athletic Club has a well-equipped 
gymnasium and other rooms in St. Joseph's Hall, 
on Beach street, adjoining the Catholic church. 

MlLIT.\RY. 

Company I, i6th Regiment, N. G. P., is the only 
military organization in Warren, and it is the crack 
company of the regiment. It was originally organ- 
ized in iS/S, with Captain (afterwards Lieutenant- 
Colonel) James O. Parmlee as its commander. 
His successors were John M. Siegfried (afterwards 
Lieutenant-Colonel on the Governor's staft"), Fred. 
H. Windsor (now Major of the regiment), and Cap- 
tain D. F. A. VVheelock, the present commander. 
The company has seen actual service on several 
occasions, the most important being the Homestead 
riots, where it performed e.xcellent service, the regi- 
ment being among the first to arrive, and Company 
I being among the very last to leave the scene of 
the trouble. 

The company occupies spacious and well-equipped 
quarters, having, in addition to its armory and drill- 
room, a good gymnasium and several pleasant par- 
lors for the use of the men. 

Warren has always been notable for the hospital- 
.ln ;id refinement of its citizens and the charm of 
its social life. There is more wealth than is usual 



GREATER WARREX '219 

in so small a place, but no tendency to ostentatious 
display or social distinctions based upon fortune. 
There is much entertainment of a modest kind, but 
very few grand " functions." The Library Theatre, 
m the Struthers Library Building, is a tasteful and 
convenient "opera house," to use the phrase of the 
time, and seats nearly one thousand. It is supplied 
with a fine set of scenes and stage-fittings, and is 
up to date in every respect. Of clubs and .societies 
of a social kind the most notable are the Warren 
Shakespeare Club, now in its fourteenth year; the 
Philomel Club, composed of lady pianists ; the " Pro- 
gressives," a branch of the Chautauqua Literary and 
Scientific Circle, a large and flourishing organization, 
which meets bi-weekly at the home of Mrs. Laura 
M. Scofield : The Warren Social Science Club, a 
club of gentlemen for the discussion of social ques- 
tions, and the Derthick Literary and Musical Club, 
composed of ladies and gentlemen and devoted to 
the systematic study of the lives and works of great 
composers. The Mothers' and Teachers' Club of 
the Warren Public Schools, with branches for each 
school building, is doing an excellent work in a new 
field, namely, systematic child study, and laboring to 
bring about intelligent co-operation between parents 
and teachers. 

A Town Improvement Society has recently been 
formed, trom which much is expected in the future. 

Ch.akitiks. 

Besides the various charitable organizations con- 
nected with the several churches and the Women's 



■2-20 



WAERFX ( 'KXTKyyiA L 



Relief Corps, which looks after needy veterans, the 
women of Warren maintain a branch of the West- 
ern Pennsylvania Children's Aid Society, and two 
Relief Associations which are active in caring for 
casual cases ol distress. 



FiNAN'ciAL Institutions. 

Since the failure of the North-Western Bank in 
1862 no financial institution of Warren has even 
been shaken. All the four banks now doing busi- 
ness are strong 
in the confidence 
of the people, and 
are flourishing, 
but conservative 
and safe, and 
managed by men 
of experience and 
unusual ability. 
The oldest is the 
First National 
Bank, which was 
organized in 
1S64, and took 
the place ot a pri- 
vate bank con- 
ducted by Beech- 
er and Coleman, 
Mr. Moses Beech- 
er being its first 
continued until his 
buildinLi- now occu- 




KiR^T National Ba 



cashier, in which position ht 
death, in 1894. Ihe bankin;. 



GREATER WARREN 



221 



pied by this institution was erected in 1872 on the 
site of the old Dunn Tavern, built of hewn logs, then 
the oldest building in Warren. The bank has a 
capital of $100,000 and a surplus fund of 520,000. 
The present officers are : President, F. H. Rockwell; 
Vice-President, Perry D. Clark ; Cashier, Frank K. 
Russell : Teller, Charles T. Conarro. 

iVe.xt in order of age is the Warren Savings Bank, 
which was chartered by a special Act of the Legisla- 
ture in 1870. Its capital is but ;t^ioo,ooo, but it 
maintains a surplus fund of ^239,000, and its depos- 
its range from $1,150,000 to 51,300,000. It has 
about four thousand de- 
positors, and from the 
year of its foundation 
has never passed its semi- 
annual dividend. The 
building, which it owns 
and occupies, is the finest 
in the town, four stories 
and a basement, built of 
red brick and brown 
stone, and provieled with 
electric elevator and all 
modern equipments. The 
banking-room, in its fur- 
nishings and decorations, 
is sumptuous and convenient — one ot the richest in 
the State. The officers are : President, A. J. Ha- 
zeltine ; Vice-President. O. W. Beaty ; Cashier, G. 
B. Ensworth : Assistant Cashier, G. H. Jackson ; 
Teller. C. E. Cobb. 




Warrfn S.-\vings Bank. 



WARREX CENTEyyiAL 



The Citizens' National Bank was organized as a 
national bank about the first of May, 1875, but it 
had been doin;^'- business as the Citizens' Savings 
Bank, a partnership concern, since 1S70. It has 
always been a sate, conservative and flourishing in- 
stitution, and many of the best and strongest finan- 




ciers ot Warren have been connected with its man- 
agement. In iSSS it purchased and pulled down 
the old Tanner block, corner ol Water and Hickory 
streets, the oldest brick building in town, and erected 
thereon a fine brick antl stone banking building, in 
which it is now located. The capital is $1 50,000 ; sur- 
|)lus, <,30,ooo, and the officers are : President, Myron 
Waters ; Vice-President, E. T. Hazeltine ; Cashier, 
n. L. Gerrould ; .Assistant Cashier, L. W. Dennison. 



OR EATER WAR REX 22S 

The Warren National Bank was incorporated in 
April, 1893, but it is a very vigorous youth, and the 
confidence of investors in the men by whom it was 
started was so great that double the amount of capi- 
tal required might easily have been obtained. It 
has paid dividends from the first, and added to its 
capital of ;«; 150,000 a surplus fund of $10,000 in its 
four years of business. It has as yet no buildintr of 
its own, but its banking-room is well located, and it 
boasts of a huge Mosler-Corlis spherical safe, which 
burglars are too wise to waste time upon. The offi- 
cers are : President, George N. Parmlee ; Vice- 
President, H. A. Jamieson ; Cashier, F. E. Hertzel ; 
Teller, Emil Lampe. 

BriL]ii.\(; AssoriATioNS. 

The fact that the workingmen of Warren are so 
largely owners of their homes and permanent resi- 
dents is due, in part, at least, to the building associ- 
ations. The first of these was the Helping Hand, 
incorporated in 1874, and still doing business. 

The most important and successful corporation of 
this class is the Conewango Building and Loan 
Association, which occupies its own building on 
Liberty street, and has already about 2000 stock- 
holders, and ;>,f 75,000 out in loans on improved real 
estate, the appraised value of which is $300,000. The 
officers are : President, E. T. Hazeltine ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, M. B. Dunham ; Secretary, F. M. Knapp ; 
Treasurer, D. L. Gerrould ; Assistant Secretary, 
Geo. E. Colvin ; Solicitor, J. W. Dunkle ; Manager 
Loan Department, G. B. Ensworth. 



MANUFACTURES 

Struthers Iron Works. — The oldest and most 
important of Warren's manulacturing- establish- 
ments is the Struthers Iron Works, which occupies 
an entire square in the west part of the borough, 
opposite the Pennsylvania Railroad station. 

The business was founded in 1S51 by W. F. 
Kingsbury as a foundry, and by him, with Henry W. 
Brown, a frame foundry and machine shop was built 
on the site of the present works in 1855, in which 
was pUiced the first steam-whistle that ever sum- 
moned Warren workmen to labor. Mr. Kingsbury, 
in 1S60, retired, and John and Thomas Brown, 
brothers of Henry, became interested in the busi- 
ness, which now was conducted under the style of 
Brown Brothers. About 1S6S Thomas Struthers 
acquired an interest in the firm, which assumed the 
name of Brown & Struthers Iron Works. Mr. 
.Struthers brought to the business large means and 
unlimited enterprise, and with his advent began 
an era of expansion and improvement which has 
continued without interruption to the present time. 

In 1875 the firm name became Struthers, Wells 
& Co., the partners being Thomas Struthers, James 
C. Wells and A. H. McKelvy, and the shop name 
"Struthers Iron Works" was adopted, which has 
since become known in man\" parts of the world, 
and familiar wherever wells are drilled for the pro- 



228 WARREN CENTENNIAL 

duction of oil, gas, salt or water. Both firm-name 
and shop-name are still retained, though none of 
the original partners remain, Mr. Struthers and Mr. 
Wells having died, and Mr. McKelvy retired. 
The present partners are the trustees of the estate 
of Thomas Struthers, administrators of the estate of 
[ames C. Wells, J. P. Jefferson, M. W. Jamieson, R. 
F. Van Doom and E. D. W'etmore; Mr. Jefferson 
being the managing partner, Mr. famieson treasurer, 
and Mr. Van Doom superintendent of the works. 

In place of the small wooden shop of Brown 
Brothers, now stand the solid brick buildings con- 
taining the counting-rooms, the designing depart- 
ment, machine shop, etc. ; and filling all the square 
are the numerous other buildings devoted to the 
various branches of work, some brick and steel, 
some iron-clad, but all modern, up to date, and filled 
with the best and most improved machiner)'. Cars 
are loaded within the works tor all parts ot the 
world, and the immense travelling crane handles the 
ponderous boilers, engines and other structures as 
easily as if they were bundles oi leathers. 

The name of the .Struthers Iron Works became 
first widely known in connection with engines and 
boilers adapted to the operation of artesian wells, 
which are still produced in large quantity ; but the 
slioji has long outgrown this specialty, and now 
turns out an infinite variety ot machinery adapted 
to all conceivable purposes. 

The firm now has large capital invested in its 
Inislness, and t-mijloxs trom two hundred and tilt\ 
to three hundred men. A Vfr\- lariie number ot 



GBEA TER WA UHKX 



these are permanent residents of the borough, and 
honored and respected citizens. The Struthers 
Hose Company is mainly composed of employees 
of the works, and is as fine a body of men as can be 
found in the State. The conduct of the firm towards 
its employees has always been characterized b)' 
kindness and consideration, and has been rewarded 
by faithful service and attachment. 

Warren is proud of the Struthers Iron Works. 
The name stands for all that is worthy and honor- 
able in business, and partners and employees alike 
are among her best citizens. 

John Hill & Co. have a foundry and machine 
shop near the larger works of Struthers, Wells 
&Co. 

John Best manufactures oil-well pumping-ma- 
chinery on Fourth street, in the west end of town. 

The Warren Axe and Tool Works is a cor- 
poration which manufactures a.xes and other edo-ed 
tools under the supervision of W. J. Sager, under 
chemical processes of which he is the owner, by 
means ot which very superior articles are produced. 
The daily capacity of the works is about forty dozen 
tools, and it employs upwards of twenty-five men. 
The works turn out axes of every shape and style, 
planer-knives, bark spuds, turpentine tools, etc., 
which are sold over a very wide territory. A New 
York agency is maintained, and four travelling men 
are employed on the road. The goods are becomino- 



230 WABHEy CEXTESSIAL 

more widely known year by year, and the business 
bids fair to grow into large proportions. The offi- 
cers of the corporation are: President, J. D. Woodard ; 
Secretary, Treasurer and General Manager, A. 
Mintzer; and several other prominent business men 
are among the directors. 

The Piso Company. — In 1S64 E. T. Hazeltine, 
with Dr. H, Gerould and Dr. M. C. Talbott as 
partners in the enterprise, began the manufacture 
of " Piso's Cure for Consumption," the formula being 
a prescription of Dr. IVI. C. Talbott, then the lead- 
ing physician of Warren. At first modest quarters 
in Johnson's E.xchange sufficed for the business, 
and Mr. Hazeltine had time to manage the drug and 
fancy goods business long and widely known as 
" \'ariety Hall," but in iS7oa building was erected 
on " the Island " to obtain the advantage of water- 
power. In 1SS6 a new brick building was erected. 
In I 894, the firm previously known as " E. T. Hazel- 
tine " was incorporated as "The Piso Company." 

From the start the business has been successlul, 
although its growth was gradual and solid. Piso's 
Cure for Consumption and Piso's Remedy for 
Catarrh are known and used all over the world, and 
the manufacture, sale and advertising of these medi- 
cines gives employment altogether to upwards ot 
seventy-five persons. 

The establishment is a model one ot its kind, and 
e.\hibits the characteristics of its founder and mana- 
"■er, E. T. Hazeltine, in a remarkable manner. 
Nearly every one of the many operations in the 



anEATEK WARKEy 281 

compounding, bottling, labeling, wrapping, packing 
and shipping of the medicines, as well as in the 
production of the advertising matter used by the 
company, involves the use of some peculiar and use- 
ful machine or device which has been invented or 
adapted by Mr. Hazeltine himself, or some of his 
torce under his eye and direction. 

The daily output of upwards of twenty thousand 
bottles of "Piso," and infinite numbers of tiny alma- 
nacs, booklets, hotel registers, and other advertising- 
devices, is turned out with apparent ease, everybody 
having work enough, but nobody more than he can 
do. The building is spacious, light and airy, and 
every machine goes like a clock. The character of 
the employees is somewhat unusual. The atmos- 
phere of the Piso factory is elevating and bracing. 
.Many a young man has been strengthened, many a 
young woman helped, by the discipline of honest 
labor under Mr. Hazeltine's firm but kindl)' rule. 
Mr. Hazeltine is a business man, and never loses 
sight of the interests ot his partners ; but he reu-ards 
his ability to employ labor, as he does the money 
which he has acquired by his industry and foresio-ht, 
as a trust, and he has faithfully administered it, to 
the great benefit of the community in which he lives. 

It is not the purpose of this article to advertise 
the merits of Piso's Cure, but the factory in which 
it is produced has been for thirty years one of the 
notable institutions of Warren. Mr. Hazeltine, as 
indetatigably industrious, as simple in life and modest 
in character now as in the days of his small begin- 
nings, interested in every enterprise for the better- 



232 WAERE'y CENTEXyiAL 

ing- of the condition of the people of his town, lavish 
in his generosity to all worthy charities, Mr. Myron 
Waters, whose capital, pluck and enterprise have 
contributed so much to the success of the business, 
and Mr. W. A. Talbott, for many years personally 
employed about the establishment, are among the 
citizens of Warren who will be remembered with 
pride and kind feeling when Warren celebrates its 
ne.\t Centennial. 

L. D. Wetmore & Co.— In 1S71 M. B. Dun- 
ham, J. R. Capron, Anthony Conarro and Junius R. 
Clark, as Dunham, Capron & Co., built a small sash 
and door factory on the site of the present laro-e 
establishment of Wetmore & Co. Mr. Capron was 
succeeded by William H. Macdonald, and the firm 
became Dunham, Macdonald & Co. Later it be- 
came the exclusive property of Junius R. Clark, 
who conducted the business for some time under 
the style of Clark, Morse & Co. The building was 
burned in iSSo, and the property purchased by 
Lansing D. Wetmore, who was nearing the end of 
his term as President Judge, and was not only one 
of the foremost lawyers and jurists in this part of 
the State, but an extensive and successful lumber- 
man, and a man of large means. He immediately 
rebuilt the factory on a much more extensive scale, 
and from that time it has been one of the establish- 
ments which have done most to build up the town, 
constantly improving and expanding, and giving 
employment to many men. 

The works now cover over six acres of around 



GREATER WARREN 233 

and employ seventy-five men. The daily capacity 
is 150 doors, 1200 windows, and 50 pairs of blinds, 
and they produce also dressed lumber, mouldino-s, 
and all kinds of builders' and cabinet-makers' wood- 
work in pine and hardwoods. The business is con- 
ducted in connection with the extensive saw-mills 
owned by Judge Wetmore at Wetmore and Ludlow, 
in McKean county, which gives the factory a great 
advantage in the trade. The success of the busi- 
ness is due in some degree to the prudence and 
ability of Mr. C. A. Reese, to whom the manage- 
ment of the factory is entrusted, as well as to the 
energy and business capacity of Mr. Edward D. 
Wetmore, to whom, in Judge Wetmore's absence, 
his large business interests in this section are en- 
trusted. 

Judge Wetmore is another employer of labor who 
appreciates his true relation to his employees. Al- 
though there have been many periods of depression, 
and times when there was no profit in the business, 
the factory has never shut down for a single day. 
The employees grow gray in the service. Some of 
them have been there longer than the owner. Labor 
troubles are unknown. 

Newmaker & Reed conduct the factory on "the 
Island " for many years owned by James Clark & 
Co. The buildings have been much enlarged, and 
the plant now covers two acres, and with the yards, 
about eight acres. In addition to lumber, doors, 
sash, blinds and builders' material, the firm makes 
mantels, desks and extension-tables, which are sold 



234 WARE EX CEXTFXXIAL 

far and wide. They have the advantage of the 
water-power which made the site of their mill the 
first manufacturing site in town, and has kept "the 
Island " humming ever since ; but it is not depended 
upon absolutely, the factories now being supplied 
also with steam-power. The Allegheny and Cone- 
wango bring logs to the mill, and the capacious 
boom is always stocked. The partners are practi- 
cal, pushing and honorable men, and in their hands 
the business is flourishing and expanding. They 
employ from fifteen to thirty-five men, according to 
the season. 

The Warren Extension -Table Company 

operates the large and well-equipped factory on the 
Pleasant side of the Allegheny, which was erected 
to manufacture the Pickett patent extension-table, 
but is now used tor turning out a variety of articles 
of furniture on a large scale. Desks and tables in 
great variety are turned out, and sold at prices which 
are astonishingly low. The secret lies in the use of 
the beautiful veneers manufactured by the Gale 
Manufacturing Company, and the production of the 
same design by thousands, using the most modern 
machinery. The company is incorporated. Fred. 
Morck, A. |. Hazeltine and the Gale Manufacturing 
Company are the principal stockholders. 

The large building on Laurel street, near the pas- 
senger station of the I). A. \ . and P. R. R., is occu- 
pied b\' Samuel Peterson, an enterprising and 
intelli<rent citizen of Warren, of Danish birth, who 



GBEATER WAERKS 235 

ktieps tvvent\- to twenty-five skilled workmen busy 
in the manufacture of wagon-spokes and handles 
tor axes, hammers, cant-hooks, pike-levers, neck- 
yokes, whiffletrees and the like. Mr. Peterson is 
also the owner of similar factories at Cochranton, 
Pa., and conducts an extensive and growing busi- 
ness of which he is a master. 

In the rear of the same large building the Warren 
Table Works manufactures tables ol many styles 
and sizes, from tiny stands to the Homer Patent 
Extension-Table, which in great variety of style and 
finish constitutes the distinctive feature of the estab- 
lishment. This table, which adapts itself to any 
required length without the use of leaves, by an in- 
genious modification of the roll-top principle familiar 
in office-desks, is rapidly making its way wherever 
good things are appreciated, and the orders come 
from Europe as well as from all over America. Un- 
der the able management of Mr. C. S. Homer, Presi- 
dent, and .Mr. W. M. Creal, Secretary and Treasurer, 
this business seems destined to grow largeh' in the 
future. 

The Warren Chair Works, in the same local- 
ity, manufactures chairs of various kinds. The fac- 
tory is not large, but they make desirable goods, and 
the business is apparently flourishing. 

The furniture factory of James P. Johnson, on 
Union street, has grown from small beginnings until 
it gives employment to from twenty to twenty-five 



•236 WABREX CENTEyXIAL 

men, and turns out bedroom furniture in great 
variety and considerable quantities. If nothing 
happens to Mr. Johnson, the same energy and up- 
rightness of character which has brought him success 
thus far will bring him still greater prosperity, and 
his factory will continue to expand its walls until 
it grows too large for the present location. 

Among the wood-working establishments of War- 
ren none is more important than the veneer and 
hub factory of the Gale Manufacturing Com- 
pany. This factory was first started at Kinzua, in 
this county, but was removed to Warren and located 
on the flats on the east side of the Conewango, after 
the works at Kinzua were destroyed by fire. The 
firm at that time was Hood, Gale & Co., and so 
continued until a second fire destroyed the plant 
at Warren. Mr. Gale, with Mr. F. H. Rockwell 
and other Warren capitalists, then organized the 
present company, and rebuilt the factory on a larger 
scale and with every modern improvement. It 
seems now all "tiles and glass, and is in every way 
a model institution. The walls of the light and 
spacious buildings, enclosing a space of more than 
two acres, are built of fire-proof hollow block, with 
tiled floors and sides of glass. Both river and rail- 
road are available to bring to the factory the logs 
used in the manufacture of hubs, pulleys, and the 
cheaper veneers ; but huge logs ot mahogany and 
other precious woods from distant forests come and 
are turned by the machinery into thin slices, exhibit- 
ing in perfection the beautiful graining, and capable, 



GREATER WARREN 237 

when properly glued up, of receiving the highest 
polish. 

From this busy factory veneers of all kinds, 
adapted to all manner of uses, pulleys, hubs, grape- 
baskets, and many other specialties, go forth by the 
car-load daily, and the daily bread of upwards of one 
hundred and forty men depends upon this industry. 

IVIr. B. L. Gale is the President of the company, 
Mr. F. H. Rockwell Vice-President, and W. F. 
Henr)' Secretary and Treasurer. The capital is 
$80,000. 

Oil refining in Warren really began in 1SS7 with 
the erection of the Glade Oil Works, on the east 
Warren tlats. It was soon followed by the Muir 
Oil Works, which brought William JNIuir to War- 
ren, an oil refiner of experience, and a business man 
of great enterprise and discretion. In 1890 both 
these institutions were merged into the Crew Levick 
Company of Philadelphia, Warren parties acquiring 
large interests in that company, and Mr. Muir re- 
maining in charge of the business at Warren. Both 
these factories are large and flourishing institutions, 
and have built up an extensive trade in illuminating 
and lubricating oils, for the production of which the 
Warren refineries are especially well situated. 

The Cornplanter Oil Refining Company, 
Limited, is an extensive and important institution, 
owned and managed by W^arren parties, and located 
on the tlats. The growth of the business may be 
inferred from the fact that its capital stock was in- 



238 WARREX CEXTEXXIAL 

creased in eight years from $10,000 to $250,000. It 
now refines upwards of 12,000 barrels of oil per 
month, and sends its products to market in its own 
tank-cars. A. J. Hazeltine is the President, fohn C. 
(joal Vice-President, W. D. Todd General Mana- 
ger, E. E. Allen Treasurer, and W. F. Messner 
Secretary and Superintendent of the works. 

The Warren Linoline and Gasoline Works, 

of which James Clark is President, William Muir 
Treasurer, and James N. Craft Secretary, receives 
from the adjacent refineries about 4000 barrels of 
benzine per month, and converts it into gasoline, 
naphtha, etc., suitable for a multitude of uses. It is 
a well-appointed institution, and handles its danger- 
ous business skilfully and successfully. 

The Warren Refining Company occupies the 
site of an early refinery built in the '70s by A. 
Hertzel. Benjamin Nesmith, Thomas Struthers, and 
others, near the mouth ol the [ackson rim, between 
Warren and North \\ arren. The Standard Oil 
Com])anv purchased and dismanthxl the first refinery, 
and the present one, owing to various causes, was 
closed out in 1S94, when it tell into the hands H. A. 
jamieson. With Mr. jamieson at the head, success 
is assured, it such a thing is possible. He has long 
been itlentihed with the manufacturing and com- 
mercial interests ol Warren, and to his enterprise, 
prLnJencc and abilit\' is due the success ol many of 
its important institutions. .Since he acquired the 
Warrtm refinery the wax |_)lant has been destroyed 



GREATER WARRES 239 

by fire, but it has risen enlarged and improved from 
its ashes, and improvement and expansion is the 
constant tendency. The works are managed by 
George S. Sager, with C. W. jamieson as assistant, 
Mr. M. IX Hall being in charge of the books and 
accounts. 

The Seneca Oil Works on the Hats is another 
strong and prosperous oil refining institution, of 
which the principal officers are Myron Waters and 
O. F. Hoffman. They employ fifteen to twenty 
men, and, like all the Warren refineries, turn out 
superior illuminating and lubricating oils. 

The Pennsylvania Oil and Grease Works 
have a large new refining plant at the northern 
edge of the borough, on the site of Philip Leonhart's 
old-dme brewery. Mr. Von Zastrow, the President 
of the company, is a chemist of much skill and great 
experience in the treatment of petroleum and its 
products. The company manufactures high grade 
filtered cylinder and machinery oils, spindle, neutral 
and wood stocks, high test illuminating oils, the 
specialties being hot and cold neck, cud, crank-pin, 
wire rope and axle greases. The officers are : Her- 
man von Zastrow, President ; Frank A. Hall, Secre- 
tary and Treasurer; Frank K. Foster, Superinten- 
dent. 

The Warren oil refineries are all "Independent" 
— that is, not controlled by the "Standard." Their 
success in spite of the competition of that great 
rival is due largely to the fact that the oil produced 



240 WARREN CENTENNIAL 

in and about Warren is of a superior quality, giving 
the refiner having it advantages over those who are 
obliged to use the ordinary " Pennsylvania " or other 
oils. To secure their advantage most of them have 
built their own pipe lines, and either bought or ac- 
quired control of producing territory, so as to secure 
themselves an adequate supply of the desirable 
" Tiona " crude. The Crew Levick Company and 
the Cornplanter are especially well provided in this 
respect. 

The Riverside Acid Works, Limited, began 
as a tender to the refineries on the flats, taking the 
spent acid used in refining and restoring it by treat- 
ment. Subsequently the manufacture of fertilizers 
was added, and the " Cresco " goes out now in large 
quantity, and bids fair to make the hills of Warren 
county blossom as the rose. I he citizens of War- 
ren contemplate with pleasure this effect, except on 
evenings when the conditions are favorable and the 
sickening odor which is watted over the town dis- 
turbs their comfort. This inconvenience, which for 
a time provoked much newspaper comment and in- 
spired one of Mr. Crandall's most mirth-provoking 
songs, has been remedied of late, and complaints 
have ceased. 

The barrel factory of A. Knabb is another ten- 
der to the oil refineries, supplying them with the 
barrels used for shipment ot their products. It is 
an establishment oi much importance, and employs 
lo to 20 hands. 



GREATER M'ARREX 241 

The Keystone Glue Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Limited, was organized in 1893, and has 
grown and expanded from the first. F. C. Tocht- 
erman, the General Manager, and A. H. Tochter- 
man, his brother, the Superintendent of the works, 
are both experts in the production of glue. The 
proximity of the location to the great sole-leather 
tanneries ot Warren and adjacent counties gives 
the company advantages for procuring the stock 
necessary for the production of pure hide glue, 
which they exclusively manufacture. This is one 
of the most solid and promising of the manufactur- 
ing concerns of Warren. iMr. C. D. Crandall is 
Chairman of the Board of Managers, and G. B. 
Ensworth Secretary and Treasurer. 

The Hazeltine Woollen Mills, at North War- 
ren, have been producing woollen cloths of excellent 
quality for over fifty years. The original mills 
were built by Patrick Falconer in 1845, ^^d Pur- 
chased by George Hazeltine in 1866. In 1S90 
E. T. Hazeltine became interested in the business, 
and a corporation was formed with a capital stock 
of $25,000. Fine brick buildings were erected, 
and a large and flourishing business was built up 
in ready-made trousers made from the honest, 
pure wool-cloth produced by the mills. Since 
this history has been in preparation these build- 
ings have been destroyed by fire, but they are now 
being rebuilt substantially as before, but with some 
improvements. 

John Ellis & Co., of New York, who have pipe- 

16 



242 WAR REN CENTEyyiAI. 

lines in this oil-field, and have been for some years 
large buyers and shippers of Tiona oil, are erecting 
a large refinery on the flats west of the Seneca 
Works. 

E. C. Inderlied has a large factory for making 
wood alcohol, charcoal and acetate of lime, also 
located on the flats. He employs about 15 to 20 
men and boys in this industry. 

The Truth Soap Company, Limited, have a 
factory situated on Fourth street, in the west end 
of the borough, where they carry on the business 
originally started by B. A. Lynde & Co. Their 
product is of excellent quality and is having a wide 
sale. 

Besides these factories, the Pickett Hardware 
Company, Limited, and Schelliiammer & Son 
manufacture gas-furnaces in connection with their 
hardware and plumbing business. W. E. Spinner 
has built up an e.xtensive business in the manufac- 
ture of his patent gas-heaters and mantels. F. E. 
Steber, MavhaNj-: & Saiujr and A. E. Boeschlin 
manufacture cigars in large quantities. The Cen- 
tury C.vtarrh CfRE and Cur.\iine Oil, two well- 
known proprietary medicines, arc produced by com- 
panies who employ a number ot persons in their 
manulacture and sale, and there are other smaller 
concerns which might properly be ranked as manu- 
factories. 

There are two flourincr-mills. The largest is that 



GREATER WARRES 243 

of the Warren Mills Company, which carries on 
the business that has known no interruption since 
the first grist-mill was built in 1S28. A few years 
ago their brick mill on the old site was abandoned, 
and a new roller mill erected in the west end, where 
better railroad facilities were obtainable, and here, 
by the most improved process, the finest grade of 
flour is produced in large quantity. 

The owners are George Ensworth, Myron Waters 
and Andrew Hertzel. 

The Allegheny Mills of Kohlfrat & Dunham, 
situated on Fourth street, is also a large and flour- 
ishing concern, which has been in operation since 
1887"^ 

There are two steam laundries. The first estab- 
lished was the Warren, which is located on Royal 
street and conducted by R. E. Norris. The Citi- 
zens' is in the west end, on Fourth street, and Knox 
& Utter are the proprietors. Both are popular and 
efficient institutions. 

The retail stores of Warren will compare favor- 
ably with those of any other town twice its size in 
the State. Warren people want the best of every- 
thing, know what they want, and the merchants who 
recognize this fact and try to meet the want succeed. 
Space will not permit us to mention in detail the 
names of our merchants, but they are mainly young 
men — active, alert and enterprising. Failures are 
rare, and there are few concerns that do not enjoy 
abundant credit or deserve it by business-like and 
honorable dealing. 

From the little park at Water and Third streets 



-44 WARREX CKSTKyyiAL 

to the Conewani2:o, only the Car\er Hulsk, the 
the Tanner Bl'Ilding on the bank, Johnson's Ex- 
change and one or two shops on the south side of 
Water street remain of the business buildings which 
were here in i860, and only these and the three 
brick stores east of the Citizens' Bank were here in 
1866. Fires have been many but kind, selecting the 
buildings which could best be spared, with a few 
exceptions. 

As might be inferred from the window-gardens 
and the luxuriant bloom about the houses, Warren 
is a notable market for flowers and plants. The 
greenhouses of W^ M. Lorr, on Liberty street, and 
Daniel Offerlee, on Conewango avenue, are large 
and extensive purveyors of these beautiful and fra- 
grant wares, while the smaller houses of Miss Fitz- 
gerald, in the West End, are taxed to their utmost 
capacity to supply her trade. 

What shall be the future of Warren .■' Judgino- 
by the past, it will be solid, steady growth — a com- 
munity always alive and warm, but never boiling 
over ; not feverishly anxious to have a large popu- 
lation, but determined that its citizens shall be pros- 
perous, intelligent and well behaved ; an ideal place 
lor a home, and in business affording opportunity 
tor reasonable success to those who deserve it. The 
graceful hills and the noble rivers will remain, and 
the care of man will adorn them more and more. 
Warren will be more than ever a beautiful town 
which it is a pleasure to enter and a pain to leave.