Skip to main content
PUBLICATION 751 ISSUED MAY, 1943
HOUSEHOLD BULLETIN No. 20
DOMINION OF CANADA- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
JAMS AND JELLIES
I W ■ Canada Ottawa K1 A 0C5
Published by authority of the Hon. James G. Gardiner, Minister of Agriculture,
STEPS IN CANNING
1. Checking equipment
2. Washing and sterilization of jars
3. Testing jar rings
4. Selection of product
5. Grading or sorting product
6. Preparation of syrup
7. Washing and peeling
8. Blanching when required
'J. Packing jars
10. Processing or sterilizing
11. Sealing and cooling
Successful canning depends on strict attention to every step.
HOME CANNING OF FRUITS AND
HOME canning takes on new importance in wartime, for as much as possible
of Canada's perishable fruits and vegetables should be canned for use
throughout the winter. In order to avoid any waste of sugar or fruit,
extra care should be taken to follow directions and recipes given in this bulletin
prepared especially for wartime canning. If this is done, even the beginner
may feel confident of successful results.
If food products are left in their natural state, most of them spoil in a few
days — some in a few hours, owing to the growth on their surface or in their
tissues of bacteria, mould or yeasts. If such organisms can be destroyed and
the entrance of other organisms prevented, the food can be kept in good condition
indefinitely. Therefore successful canning depends on destroying all microscopic
life by using sufficient heat for the proper length of time and by using air-tight
containers which protect from reinfection. The aim in canning fruits and
vegetables is to assure this result while preserving natural shape, colour and
fresh flavour. Safe canning depends on strict attention to every step in the
Can Fkesh Vegetables and Fruit.— The fresher they are the better will
be the finished product, and the smaller the chance of failure. For best results
Vegetables should be canned within a few hours of gathering.
SPOILAGE OF CANNED FOODS
Improper sterilization and sealing of canned fruits and vegetables may result
m the following types of spoilage— mould, fermentation and bacterial spoilage
(flat souring) .
In the case of mould, if it is detected soon enough the growth may be removed
from the surface, the contents of the sealer brought to boiling point and the fruit
When slight yeast fermentation occurs, boiling the fruit with a small amount
of additional sugar generally makes it palatable.
With bacterial spoilage which usually takes the form of what is known
as 'flat souring" no gas is formed but the contents of the sealer or can develop
a sour or rancid odour, and the liquid is generally cloudy.
If any sign of bacterial spoilage is detected, the entire sealer should be dis-
carded without tasting as toxins may be present which are extremely poisonous.
Containers for canned goods should be of a size to suit the needs of the
household so that the contents may be consumed shortly after opening, otherwise
deterioration and spoilage may occur.
It is a wise precaution to boil canned vegetables gently for at least ten
minutes after they are removed from the sealer or can. This does not imply
that they must be eaten hot. When the vegetables are required for salads etc
they may be set aside after boiling and chilled before use.
80617— li 3
STEPS IN CANNING
No equipment is needed other than that fovind in the ordinary kitchen.
Sharp knives — preferably stainless steel, a colander, bowN, measuring cups,
towels, enamel pie plates, wooden spoons, a wide mouthed funnel for filling
sealers, and a lifter to save burned fingers in taking sealers from the sterilizer.
The sterilizer may be the common wash boiler or preserving kettle, pressure
(ooker or the oven.
There are two types of container which may be used, glass sealers and tin
Several makes of glass sealers are available, screw top, spring top and
vacuum type. All are equally satisfactory if thev can be made completely air-
To furnish a perfect seal, a sealer for use in canning should have a smooth
rim and tight fitting cover. Test each sealer before you use it. See that it is
not cracked. See that there are no chips in the rim of sealer or cover. Fill the
sealers with water, adjust the rubber, seal and invert a few minutes to test for
leakage. Be sure that the wire spring of a spring top sealer springs into position
with a snap. New metal screw caps should replace those which have become
cracked or corroded.
Rubbers are an important part of canning equipment. To be effective
the ring must be pliant. For a good seal it is necessary to have the proper sized
ring for the sealer used. The boxes are plainly marked and the types of rings
are not interchangeable. Wide rings fit spring top sealers; narrow rings fit
screw top sealers.
It is preferable that new rings should be used each year; however, some
retain their elasticity and are thus suitable for re-use. Rubber is valuable,
therefore great care should be taken in storing usable rings. On removal from
the scaler they should be washed and dried immediately, then laid flat, so they
will not lose their shape. Keep rubber rings in a dry place, away from light.
Old type rings arc tested by bending double; an unsatisfactory ring will
crack. A second test is stretching — a good ring will spring back. The wargradc
rubber ring being manufactured is not so elastic as the old type but makes a
satisfactory seal. These rings will not return to shape and may break if
stretched and so should not be tested in this way.
Some types of sealer have a sealing composition on the metal disk top.
For these scalers use new caps each year.
Sterilize Sealers, Tops and Rings
This may be done while fruits and vegetables are being prepared. Wash
For water sterilization half fill each sealer with cold water, place glass tops
in position and stand the sealers on the rack in the boiler. Surround with cold
water, bring to boiling point and boil 15 minutes. Keep the sealers hot until
ready to fill.
For qyen sterilization place empty scalers and glass tops on a tray in the
oven. Sterilize 30 minutes at 275° F, Remove from the oven one at a time
Rubber rings and metal caps which have a sealing compound on them are
sterilized by pouring boiling water over them and allowing to stand 5 minutes.
Grading or Sorting
Uniformity of size and maturity makes a more attractive product. Unripe
fruit should be allowed to ripen before canning. Bruised or spotted fruit should
not be canned but if bruises are cut out the good portion of the fruit may be
used for jam.
Fruits and vegetables should be thoroughly washed until all soil is removed
Care should be taken not to bruise the fruits. Lift from the water instead of
draining it off. If available use a wire basket. A sprav is excellent for washing
fruits and vegetables. Do not wash too much at one time. A small brush is
useful for cleaning vegetables.
Pre-cooking is necessary to shrink vegetables, allow a better pack and to
ensure a quick and thorough heat penetration. The vegetables are prepared
for serving, covered with boiling water and brought to boiling point over the
nre, then boiled for several minutes (see chart, page 11), packed hot into - alers
and covered with the boiling water in which they were cooked. Peaches pears
and cherries can be pre-cooked before packing. This is recommended' when
oven sterilization is used.
This process is used to remove skins from peaches and tomatoes. It co.isist -
of placing in steam or boiling water for 15 to 30 seconds to loosen skins and then
dipping in cold water.
To Prevent Discoloration
Such fruits as peaches, pears and apples should be dropped in a brine of
1 teaspoon of salt to 1 quart cold water as soon as peeled.
Figure the amount of syrup required for fruit to be canned and have syrup
ready before preparing fruit.
Thin syrup ... 1 cup sugar to 2 cups water . . . makes approximately 2\
cups syrup. This syrup is recommended for apricots, blueberries, sweet cherries,
raspberries, peaches and pears.
Medium syrup ... 1 cup sugar to 1 cup water . . . makes approximately
1 5 cups syrup. This syrup is recommended for sour cherries, plums, blackberries
A syrup between these two using 1 cup of sugar to 1| cups of water . . . makes
approximately 2 cups syrup. This syrup is recommended for sweet plums,
cherries and apricots if desired.
To make syrup add water to sugar, boil 5 minutes, skim, keep hot but not
For each pint sealer allow: —
5 to J cup syrup for small fruits.
i to 1 cup syrup for large fruits.
Sugar .—Beet and cane sugar are chemically the same and therefore can be
used interchangeably with identical results in canning, jam or jelly making.
CANNING FRUIT WITHOUT SUGAR
All fruits may be successfully canned without sugar. Use boiling water
instead of syrup. Add 5 minutes to time of sterilization given in the time
table (.page 10).
Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cherries, currants, plums and rhubarb
can be packed in sealers — crushed until the juice overflows and sterilized allowing
5 minutes longer than time required when syrup is used.
Fruit canned without sugar is excellent for pies and desserts and may be
sweetened as used with a little sugar from the weekly ration.
Chemical compounds and "canning powders" are not recommended since
heat sterilization is sufficient for preservation.
METHODS OF PACKING
1. Cold Pack Method. — By this method the food is packed into sterilized
sealers raw and cold, covered with liquid (syrup, water or its own juice) either
hot or cold and partially sealed — then sterilized.
2. Hot Pack Method. — Food is subjected to a pre-cooking and packed
while hot. This requires shorter time for heat penetration and in most cases
allows more food to be packed in the sealers. This method is used for vegetables
except tomatoes and sometimes used for fruits, particularly when oven canning.
3. Open Kettle Method is not recommended for canning fruit with the
present sugar allowance and should NEVER be used for vegetables.
Glass Sealers. — When packing, work as quickly as possible. Remove
sealers one at a time from the sterilizer. Pack sealer full, then fill with boiling
liquid. Corn, beans and spinach should be packed fairly loosely to allow for
expansion and perfect penetration of heat to the centre of the sealer and thus
ensure even sterilization. To prevent sealer from cracking, place on cloth
and pour liquid directly on the product. After filling, dip the blade of a knife
in boiling water and run it down and around the inside of the sealer to remove
air bubbles. Adjust sterilized rubber ring making sure that it is flat, then place
sterilized top in position. Then partially seal, this allows for expansion during
sterilization. There is danger of breakage if sealers are completely sealed.
With wire clamp sealers, adjust the top clamp but do not spring clown the lower
one. With screw top sealers screw tight — then unscrew half turn. On vacuum
sealers adjust metal clamps.
Cans should be filled to within \ inch of the top of the can. Since cans are
sealed before sterilizing sufficient head space must be allowed for expansion.
PROCESSING OR STERILIZING
Pressure Cooker. — The pressure canner is a strongly built container
fitted with a clamped-on cover. The small amount of water placed in the canr.or
boils forming a pressure of steam the temperature of which varies with the
At 5-lb. pressure the temperature is 228° F.
At 10-lb. pressure the temperature is 240° F.
At T5-lb. pressure the temperature is 250° F.
For each 2,000 feet of altitude one pound of pressure must be added.
If using a pressure cooker carefully follow directions in the book supplied
by the manufacturer.
Be sure that sufficient water is added to provide steam during time required
Allow steam to escape from the open pet cock at least 3 minutes Then
close, and allow pressure to rise until the gauge registers required pressure
Count time of sterilization from this time. When the product is sufficiently
sterilized cool until gauge registers zero. Leave for 2 minutes. Then open
pet cock SLO VV LY. Remove sealers at once.
Main points to watch:
1. Amount of water.
2. Keep pressure constant by regulating heat. Liquid will be drawn
out of sealers if pressure fluctuates.
3. Let stand sufficient time before opening pet cock.
4. Tilt cover away to avoid steam coming into face.
Boiling Water Bath.— A boiling water bath outfit may be any container
of sufficient depth to allow the sealers to be covered with water while standing
on a rack which allows circulation of water under the sealers. It must also have
a tight fitting cover. Special kettles may be bought for the purpose having a
wire rack with handles for lifting in and out of the boiling water, but the wash
boiler or other deep pot may be fitted with a wooden rack and will answer the
purpose nicely. Set filled sealers on rack. Do not allow them to touch "each other.
Add water to cover sealers 2 inches over tops. This depth is necessary
for pressure to keep seepage from the unsealed sealers. Have water near the
temperature of the filled sealers. Put cover on kettle. Count time of sterilization
from the time water boils. Keep water boiling. Add boiling water to keep sealers
Oven.— The oven is excellent for processing small fruits or tomatoes or for
large fruits pre-cooked m the open kettle. Pre-cook peaches, pears and cherries
m syrup and pack hot: This aids in preventing discoloration. An oven with
thermostatic control is most satisfactory. Preheat the oven to required tempera-
ture - Oven temperatures are given in table for fruits. Tin cans cannot be
sterilized in the oven as the seams may burst.
Place sealers two inches apart on a tray or pan. Pour sufficient water in
the pan to cover the bottom one inch deep (this prevents burning in case some
syrup boils over). Time of sterilization is counted from the time at which the
oven has returr.ed to required temperature after placing sealers in it.
Steamer.— This may be the same kettle as is used for water bath. Water
is used in sufficient amount to reach the rack on which the sealers are placed
Steam is generated and circulates around the sealers giving an even temperature
Be sure that water is boiling and steam rising before placing sealers. Count
time ot sterilization from 3 minutes after putting cover on cooker. This method
requires longer sterilization period and should be used only with fruits (See time
table, page 10.)
Raw Canning.— Raspberries or rhubarb may be canned successfully by
what is known as the raw canning method. Pack in sealers. Cover with
boiling syrup. Adjust top and seal tightly. Place on several layers of newspaper
in a tub and pour in enough boiling water to cover the sealers 3 inches over the
top Place a blanket or rug over the tub and leave until cold. In pouring in
boiling water care should be taken not to pour directly on the sealers
Note. — It is recommended that the pressure cooker be used for sterilizing all
vegetables except tomatoes. While instructions are given for the water bath
method, great care must be exercised because of the ever present danger of
spoilage through insufficient sterilization.
When water bath method is used it is preferable to can vegetables in pint
Remove sealers as soon as time is up to avoid over-processing.
Screw tops and spring tops should be tightened as soon as removed from
the sterilizer and sealers inverted a few minutes to test for leakage.
Do not tighten or invert vacuum type or self-sealing top sealers. Such
sealers can be tested after they are cold, by tapping the lids gently with a metal
spoon. If properly sealed there is a clear ring and metal tops will curve inward
Never Open a Sealee After Sterilizing. — Sometimes the contents of a
sealer will shrink in processing leaving space at the top of the sealer. This is
due to air spaces left in packing the sealers, but the entire contents are sterile
and will keep perfectly. Opening may allow bacteria to enter and contaminate
Never attempt to tighten the screw top after it is cold. This Mill break
Before storing wipe sealers dry and be sure there are no leaks. If a leak is
found, remove the cover, see that there are no chips in sealer or lid, put on a
new rubber, seal, and invert to test for leakage. If seal is satisfactory, sterilize
j time allowed for the particular product.
Label and date each sealer. Store in a cool, dry, dark place or wrap each
sealer in paper. The cartons in which new sealers are packed make a very
satisfactory storage container for filled sealers.
Examine fruit ore week after canning to see if every sealer is keeping.
Wash and cut rhubarb in small pieces. Do not peel. Put in preserving
kettle. Add 1 cup water for each quart of rhubarb. Cover tightly. Bring
slowly to boiling point on top of stove and simmer 5 minutes. Strain. Pour
into hot sterilized bottles, leaving 1 inch head space. Partially seal. Process
10 minutes in hot water bath at simmering temperature, 180° F. Seal tightly.
The rhubarb may be steamed without the addition of any water in covered
kettle and finished as above.
Allow 1 pint water and 2\ cups sugar to one six-quart basket of grapes.
Wash, stem and crush grapes. Add water and bring to boiling point. Simmer
15 minutes. Strain through a moist jelly bag. Add sugar, heat to boiling
point anct pour into hot sterilized bottles. Finish as for rhubarb juice.
Grape juice may be made without sugar and sweetened before using.
Use thoroughly vine-ripened fruit, green portions impart a bitter undesir-
able flavour. Artificially ripened fruit is not so rich in vitamins as that ripened
naturally. Wash and remove core and cut tomatoes but do not peel. Cook
slowly one-half hour in a tightly covered kettle. Press through a coarse sieve,
extracting all pulp, then through a fine sieve to remove seeds. Allow 1 teaspoon
of salt and f teaspoon pepper (optional) to 1 quart juice. Pour into hot sterilized
bottles or sealers, partially seal and process 10 minutes in boiling water bath
or 20 minutes in 259° F. oven.
1 peck ripe tomatoes
6 large onions
§ cup sugar
\ teaspoon cayenne pepper
1 head celery
\ cup flour
\ cup salt
§ cup mild flavoured fat
Wash vegetables, cut in small pieces. Cook for \ hour. Press through a
sieve. Melt fat, add flour, sugar, salt and pepper. When blended slowly mix
with strained tomato. Heat to boiling and let cook until thickened. Pour into
sterilized sealers. Seal and sterilize 10 minutes in pressure cooker.at 5-lb. pressure
or 30 minutes in boiling water bath.
APPROXIMATE YIELD OF CANNED FRUIT— JAM— JELLY
Kind of Fruit
Type of Standard Container
(Box, basket, etc.)
of Quarts from Fruit
Berries, including Currants
Pears . ,
12 quart boxes
*24 pint baskets (crate) .
6 quart basket (flat ) .
11 quart basket (flat).
6 quart basket
* 4 basket crate
* Small box
" Large box
quart basket (flat).
11 quart basket
6 quart basket (heape I : .
' Box (crate)
6 quart basket (heape 1 )
1 1 quart basket (flat)
6 quart basket (flat)
G quart basket (heaped).
* Box (crate)
* 4 basket crate .
6 quart basket (flat) . . .
quart basket (heaped).
' British Columbia fruit containers.
TIME TABLE FOR FRUITS
The time given is for pint containers. For quart containers add 5 minutes
to time sterilization in boiling water bath and steam cooker; 10 minutes for
Apples, sliced or
Apricots . . .
Blackljcrries or blue-
Simmer 5 minutes in syrup — pack
Peel— halve and pit — pack — cover
with boiling syrup
Wash — pack,
fill with boiling
Currants. . . .
1 Wash, stem, pit and pack, cover
with boiling syrup
2. Wash, stem, pit, pre-cook 5
minutes in boiling syrup — pack
hot, fill with syrup
Wash, stem, pack, fill with boiling
Crush fruit, heat slowly, strain,
pour into sealers
Wash, pack in sealers, fill with
1. Immerse in boiling water
minutes — cold dip, peel, re-
move pit, pack in sealers, add
2. Peel, remove pit, simmer ii
syrup in open kettle 5 minutes,
pack hot — fill with syrup
1. Pare, half, remove core, pack,
fill sealers with boding syrup.
If pears are firm, steam l.'i
minutes before packing
2. Pare, halve, remove core, cook
in syrup in open kettle 10
minutes. Pack hot, fill with
Wash if necessary, pack in sealers,
cover with boiling syrup
Wash, prick skin, pack cold, cover
with boiling syrup
Wash, cut in small pieces, blanch
1 minute, cold dip, pack, cover
with boiling syrup
Wash, stem, fill scalers, cover with
50 at 275° F
15 at 275
55 at 275
35 at 275
35 at 275
20 at 250
35 at 275
30 at 275
— 20 at 275
25 at 275
45 at 275
30 at 275
20 at 250
TIME TABLE FOR VEGETABLES
. Pressure sterilization is recommended for non-acid vegetables. When vege-
tables are sterilized in the boiling water bath, it is preferable to use pint containers.
Time of Sterilization
Wash, tie in uniform bundles, stand upright
in 2 inches of water. Boil 4 minutes. Pack
hot, add | tsp. salt to eacli pint sealer, fill
with boiling water
Pints. . .
Beans, string or wax.
Wash, string, cut in desired lengths. Cover
with water, bring to boiling point, boil 4
minutes. Pack hot, add J tsp. salt to each
pint sealer. Kill with boiling water
Wash and cut off tops 2 inches above beet.
Boil 15 minutes. Cold dip, remove skins,
pack, add J tsp. salt to a pint scaler. Kill
with boiling water
Use only very young carrots. Wash and boil
5 minutes. Cold dip — slip off skins, pack,
add J tsp. salt to pint sealer, fill with boiling
Wash, break into florets. Drop into salty-
water. Let stand i hour, cover with water,
bring to boiling, drain, pack sealers, add
J tsp. salt to a pint sealer. Kill with boiling
Corn, whole kernel . .
Cut corn from cobs. Cover with boiling
water and bring to boiling point, fill sealers,
covering corn with boiling liquid, add \ tsp.
salt to a pint sealer
Qhard, Spinach or
Wash carefully, steam 5 minutes, pack ii;
sealers, add i tsp. salt to a pint sealer, fill
Wash and trim, large ones may be cut in
pieces. Blanch 5 minutes. Cold dip very
quickly. Pack, allow \ tsp. salt to a pint
sealer, fill with boiling water
Use only young tender peas. Shell and wash.
Cover with water and bring to boil, pack,
add } tsp. salt to a pint sealer, fill with boil-
ing water. Intermittent sterilization may-
be used for peas allowing 1 hour on each of
3 successive days if water bath is used ....
Wash, remove seeds, boil 3 minutes, cold dip.
Remove skins, pack, allow 1 tsp. salt to a
pint sealer, cover with boiling water
Cut in pieces, remove seed and membrane,
peel, steam until tender, mash, pack
Scald and peel, pack in sealers, cover with
tomato juice made from irregular very large
or broken tomatoes cut in small pieces,
cooked over slow fire for 5 minutes. Strain.
Allow i tsp. salt to a pint sealer
Sweet Green or Red
Tomatoes may be processed in the oven
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING JAM
1. Fruits for jam should be firm, ripe but never over-ripe.
2. Measurements should be accurate.
3. Wash, peel if necessary, cut or mash, so that some juice will escape To
prevent sticking a little water may be added but as this must later be boiled
away care should be taken not to use too much.
4. Less acid fruits such as peaches and pears, are improved by adding a
little cider vinegar, rhubarb juice or lemon juice.
5. Heat fruit very slowly to extract juice. Stir frequently using a wooden
6- ^!f* wi £ h I toa * h skins make better i am if pre-cooked before adding
sugar Wild fruits have tougher skin and larger proportion of seeds than garden
varieties, therefore it is advisable to pre-cook the fruit.
7. Time is saved by heating sugar before adding.
8. Peeled fruits are usually mixed with sugar before cooking.
9 Boil the required length of time— to 220° F. or until the jam remains
heaped up or sheets from the spoon.
10. Satisfactory jams can be made with the wartime allowance of sugar
as used in the following recipes. Longer boiling time has to be allowed than
it a larger proportion of sugar were used.
11. Pour hot jam into hot, sterilized jars. When cool, seal with paraffin
wax. t over with paper or metal lid to prevent contamination from dust.
Rhubarb and Strawberry Jam
4 cups rhubarb 4 cups strawberries 3 cups sugar
Wash and cut rhubarb in half-inch pieces. Add cleaned berries. Cook
20 minutes. Add sugar. Cook 15 minutes or until thick and clear. Pour
into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about 2 pints.
Blueberry and Rhubarb Jam
2 quarts blueberries 2 cups rhubarb juice 4 cups sugar
To make juice, use 1 quart rhubarb, washed and cut in 1-inch pieces. Add
1 cup water Cook 10 minutes— press through a sieve. Add the cleaned
.lueberr.es and cook 10 minutes. Add sugar and cook 10 minutes. Pour into
hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about 1\ pints.
3 quarts blueberries 2 cups sugar 1 cup water
Make a syrup of the sugar and water and boil for 5 minutes. Add the
vSdT 1 aSut? I m;i ,, °° k f ° r 2 ° mimite *' P ° Ur int ° * teriHzed ^ s ■« -'•
1 quart pitted cherries (6 cups unpitted) 1 quart gooseberries
1 quart red currants 1 quart raspberries 8 cups sugar
b. + i W K Sh i a ' ld . P it ., c j lerr r ies and P ut in kettle with 2 cups of the sugar. Bring
to he bo.1 and boil for 5 minutes. Then add the quart of cleaned gooseberries
and 2 more cups of sugar. Bring to the boil and boil 5 minutes. Then add
the quart o^ cleaned red currants and quart of cleaned raspberries and 4 cups of
2 quarts raspberries 3 cups sugar
Crush fruit and simmer 10 minutes. Then add sugar and cook until
thick — about 25 minutes. Pour into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield:
about 2% pints.
A delicious jelly-like jam may be made by adding 2 teaspoons cider vinegar
with the sugar in the above recipe.
2 quarts gooseberries 1^ cups water 4\ cups sugar
Top, tail and wash the gooseberries. Simmer the fruit and water for 10
minutes. Add sugar and cook for about \ hour. Pour into hot sterilized jars
and seal. This jam is quite thin when hot but it thickens considerably when it
If desired, \ cup honey may be added to the recipe if it is too tart for your
taste. Yield: about 3J pints.
Black Currant Jam
2 quarts black currants 4| cups sugar
\\ cups of water \ cup honey
Top, tail and wash the black currants. Simmer the fruit and water for
10 minutes. Add sugar and honey and cook about 15 minutes or until thick.
Pour into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about 3 pints.
Ground Cherries (Cape Gooseberries or Strawberry Tomatoes)
8 cups prepared fruit 4 cups sugar
Remove hulls. Wash and pick over fruit. Add sugar. Let stand over-
night. Boil 30 minutes. Pour into sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about
6 cups peeled, sliced peaches 3 cups sugar 1 tablespoon cider
Mix all ingredients. Let stand 1 hour. Cook slowly until thick. Pour
into sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about 2 pints.
Cantaloupe and Peach Conserve
3 cups peeled, diced peaches 3 cups sugar 3 cups peeled, diced
Juice and grated rind of 2 cantaloupe
Mix all ingredients. Cook slowly until thick. Pour into hot sterilized jars,
cool and seal. Yield: about 2 pints.
4 pounds peeled, cored sliced pears 3 lemons
2 oz. green ginger root or 3 lb. sugar
1 oz. dry ginger root (optional)
Place pears in preserving kettle in layers, sprinkling each layer with sugar,
lemon juice and grated green ginger. (If dried root is used, break in pieces and
tie in bag). Let stand 2 to 3 hours. Cook slowly until thick and clear. Pour
into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal.
2 quarts plums 3 cups sugar 1 orange
Wash and cut plums and remove pits. Slice orange very thinly. Cook
together slowly for 15 minutes. Add sugar. Cook rapidly 5 minutes. Pour
into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about 2| pints.
Damson Plum Jam
Weigh and wash the fruit. Add a little water to the plums and heat slowly
to boiling point. Cook gently for one-half hour. Add \ pound sugar for every
pound fruit and simmer one hour. (Skim off pits that rise to surface). Pour
into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal.
Wash the grapes, remove from the stem and press the pulp from the skins.
Cook the pulp 10 minutes and put it through a sieve to remove seeds. Add
skins to the pulp and measure the mixture. To 1 cup of pulp allow § cup of
sugar. Cook about 20 minutes or until skins are tender. Pour into hot
sterilized jars, cool and seal.
Grape and Apple Butter
2 cups grape pulp 2 cups apple pulp 2 cups sugar
Prepare fruit pulp by cooking cleaned fruit with a little water (to prevent
burning) and passing it through a coarse sieve. Add sugar and cook 20 minutes.
Pour into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal.
Cut citron in 5-inch slices — peel, remove seeds and cut in cubes. Cover
with weak brine, allowing 1 teaspoon of salt to 1 quart of water and stand over-
night. In the morning, drain thoroughly, place over a very low heat and cook
until tender. Allow 2 cups sugar and juice and rind of 1 lemon to 6 cups of
citron. Bring to a boil slowly. Cook until clear and pour into hot sterilized
sealers. Seal at once.
Medley Fruit Conserve
2 pounds peaches 2 pounds quinces \\ pounds pears
1 lemon 4 5 pounds sugar \ pound tar apples
Wash and prepare fruit. Pass through food chopper. Put fruit and sugar
in alternate layers in a large bowl and let stand overnight. Next morning place
in a preserving kettle and add grated rind and lemon juice. Boil until mixture
becomes thick. Pour into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal.
4 cups saskatoons 1 cup water
lj cups sugar 1 teaspoon vinegar
Pick over and wash berries. Add water and vinegar. Cook 5 minutes.
Add sugar. Stir until dissolved. Boil 1 minute. Pour into hot sterilized
jars, cool and seal.
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING JELLY
1. This method can be used for apples, crabapples, gooseberries, logan-
berries, grapes, currants and sour plums or such combinations as grape and apple,
plum and apple, quince and apple, or red currant and raspberry.
2. Select clean, sound but slightly under-ripe fruit. Over-ripe fruit does
not make good jelly.
3. Cut or crush, do not core or peel fruit. Add water to come just below
top of fruit. Cook slowly until fruit is soft and mushy and juice is drawn out.
4. Drain thoroughly through a moist jelly bag. Do not squeeze bag if you
wish a cleaT jelly.
5. Measure juice and sugar. Allow \ cup sugar to each cup juice.
6. Boil juice gently for 10 to 20 minutes, testing frequently for pectin.
7. Add heated sugar. Boil 3 to 8 minutes or until jelly sheets from spoon
8. Pour into hot sterilized jars. Let stand until set. Seal.
ROSE HIP JUICE
4 cups rose hips 2 cups boiling water
Wash hips, remove ends, chop coarsely. Add boiling water. Cook 5
minutes and strain through a jelly bag. Add 1 cup of this juice to 3 cups of
prepared apple juice and proceed as for apple jelly.
To test for pectin with alcohol, measure 1 tablespoon fruit juice into a dish
and add 1 tablespoon alcohol. If a jelly-like mass forms, a large amount of
pectin is present and the sugar can be added. If the mixture remains unchanged
in consistency, boil the juice a few minutes longer— until the test gives a jelly-
like mass (do not taste mixture). Then add sugar.
BEANS IN BRINE
Use 1 pound of coarse salt to 4 pounds of beans.
Wash beans, string, cut in desired lengths or leave whole. Place a layer of
beans in a crock; sprinkle generously with salt. Repeat until all beans are
used. Place plate or board (cut in shape of crock) over beans and put weight
To use the beans, remove them from the brine, wash thoroughly in several
waters then soak for 2 hours in warm water. They get tough if soaked over-
night. Cook in boiling water without salt until they are tender— 25 to 35
minutes. Drain and serve as fresh beans.
Discard bruised or decayed outer leaves and core of the cabbage. Weigh
and allow 1 pound of salt to 40 pounds of cabbage. Shred cabbage and place a
four- to six-inch layer in a water-tight receptacle. Sprinkle lightly with salt;
repeat until all the cabbage is packed. Press down firmly, cover with a cloth,
a clean board and a heavy weight so the brine, when formed, will completely
cover the cabbage. Let stand at room temperature, 70° F., or lower while
fermentation is taking place— 2 to 6 weeks. When bubbles cease to rise fermen-
tation is complete. Remove all scum. Cover crock with a clean cloth and lid.
Store in a cool place. Kraut may be sealed in sterilized, air-tight sealers, using
enough of the brine to fill jars completely. If made late in the fall, kraut may
be frozen when fermentation ceases.
STORING, HOME DRYING AND FREEZING
Other methods of food preservation such as drying, storing or freezing may
be used in order to save fruits and vegetables for use out of season. If facilities
are available, storing is recommended, for beets, carrots, cabbage, cauliflower,
onions, parsnips, potatoes, turnips, pumpkin, squash and apples. Information
may be obtained from the Dominion Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, on
storage in the home cellar, on the preparation of fruits and vegetables for pre-
servation in cold storage freezing lockers and on the construction and operation of
a home dehydrator.