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Full text of "Wartime canning : jams and jellies"

PUBLICATION 751 ISSUED MAY, 1943 

HOUSEHOLD BULLETIN No. 20 

DOMINION OF CANADA- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



WARTIME CANNING 



JAMS AND JELLIES 



I W ■ Canada Ottawa K1 A 0C5 



CONSUMER SECTION 

MARKETING SERVICE 




Published by authority of the Hon. James G. Gardiner, Minister of Agriculture, 

Ottawa, Canada 



630. U 

C212 

Pub. 

1st 



720— 5:4.? 



STEPS IN CANNING 



1. Checking equipment 

2. Washing and sterilization of jars 

3. Testing jar rings 

4. Selection of product 

5. Grading or sorting product 

6. Preparation of syrup 

7. Washing and peeling 

8. Blanching when required 
'J. Packing jars 

10. Processing or sterilizing 

11. Sealing and cooling 

12. Storing 

Successful canning depends on strict attention to every step. 



HOME CANNING OF FRUITS AND 
VEGETABLES 



HOME canning takes on new importance in wartime, for as much as possible 
of Canada's perishable fruits and vegetables should be canned for use 
throughout the winter. In order to avoid any waste of sugar or fruit, 
extra care should be taken to follow directions and recipes given in this bulletin 
prepared especially for wartime canning. If this is done, even the beginner 
may feel confident of successful results. 

If food products are left in their natural state, most of them spoil in a few 
days — some in a few hours, owing to the growth on their surface or in their 
tissues of bacteria, mould or yeasts. If such organisms can be destroyed and 
the entrance of other organisms prevented, the food can be kept in good condition 
indefinitely. Therefore successful canning depends on destroying all microscopic 
life by using sufficient heat for the proper length of time and by using air-tight 
containers which protect from reinfection. The aim in canning fruits and 
vegetables is to assure this result while preserving natural shape, colour and 
fresh flavour. Safe canning depends on strict attention to every step in the 
process. 

Can Fkesh Vegetables and Fruit.— The fresher they are the better will 
be the finished product, and the smaller the chance of failure. For best results 
Vegetables should be canned within a few hours of gathering. 

SPOILAGE OF CANNED FOODS 

Improper sterilization and sealing of canned fruits and vegetables may result 
m the following types of spoilage— mould, fermentation and bacterial spoilage 
(flat souring) . 

In the case of mould, if it is detected soon enough the growth may be removed 
from the surface, the contents of the sealer brought to boiling point and the fruit 
used immediately. 

When slight yeast fermentation occurs, boiling the fruit with a small amount 
of additional sugar generally makes it palatable. 

With bacterial spoilage which usually takes the form of what is known 
as 'flat souring" no gas is formed but the contents of the sealer or can develop 
a sour or rancid odour, and the liquid is generally cloudy. 

If any sign of bacterial spoilage is detected, the entire sealer should be dis- 
carded without tasting as toxins may be present which are extremely poisonous. 

Containers for canned goods should be of a size to suit the needs of the 
household so that the contents may be consumed shortly after opening, otherwise 
deterioration and spoilage may occur. 

It is a wise precaution to boil canned vegetables gently for at least ten 
minutes after they are removed from the sealer or can. This does not imply 
that they must be eaten hot. When the vegetables are required for salads etc 
they may be set aside after boiling and chilled before use. 

80617— li 3 



STEPS IN CANNING 
Checking Equipment 

No equipment is needed other than that fovind in the ordinary kitchen. 
Sharp knives — preferably stainless steel, a colander, bowN, measuring cups, 
towels, enamel pie plates, wooden spoons, a wide mouthed funnel for filling 
sealers, and a lifter to save burned fingers in taking sealers from the sterilizer. 
The sterilizer may be the common wash boiler or preserving kettle, pressure 
(ooker or the oven. 

Containers 

There are two types of container which may be used, glass sealers and tin 
cans. 

Several makes of glass sealers are available, screw top, spring top and 
vacuum type. All are equally satisfactory if thev can be made completely air- 
tight. 

To furnish a perfect seal, a sealer for use in canning should have a smooth 
rim and tight fitting cover. Test each sealer before you use it. See that it is 
not cracked. See that there are no chips in the rim of sealer or cover. Fill the 
sealers with water, adjust the rubber, seal and invert a few minutes to test for 
leakage. Be sure that the wire spring of a spring top sealer springs into position 
with a snap. New metal screw caps should replace those which have become 
cracked or corroded. 

Rubber Rings 

Rubbers are an important part of canning equipment. To be effective 
the ring must be pliant. For a good seal it is necessary to have the proper sized 
ring for the sealer used. The boxes are plainly marked and the types of rings 
are not interchangeable. Wide rings fit spring top sealers; narrow rings fit 
screw top sealers. 

It is preferable that new rings should be used each year; however, some 
retain their elasticity and are thus suitable for re-use. Rubber is valuable, 
therefore great care should be taken in storing usable rings. On removal from 
the scaler they should be washed and dried immediately, then laid flat, so they 
will not lose their shape. Keep rubber rings in a dry place, away from light. 

Old type rings arc tested by bending double; an unsatisfactory ring will 
crack. A second test is stretching — a good ring will spring back. The wargradc 
rubber ring being manufactured is not so elastic as the old type but makes a 
satisfactory seal. These rings will not return to shape and may break if 
stretched and so should not be tested in this way. 

Some types of sealer have a sealing composition on the metal disk top. 
For these scalers use new caps each year. 

PREPARATION 

Sterilize Sealers, Tops and Rings 

This may be done while fruits and vegetables are being prepared. Wash 
sealers thoroughly. 

For water sterilization half fill each sealer with cold water, place glass tops 
in position and stand the sealers on the rack in the boiler. Surround with cold 
water, bring to boiling point and boil 15 minutes. Keep the sealers hot until 
ready to fill. 

For qyen sterilization place empty scalers and glass tops on a tray in the 
oven. Sterilize 30 minutes at 275° F, Remove from the oven one at a time 
for filling. 



Rubber rings and metal caps which have a sealing compound on them are 
sterilized by pouring boiling water over them and allowing to stand 5 minutes. 

Grading or Sorting 

Uniformity of size and maturity makes a more attractive product. Unripe 
fruit should be allowed to ripen before canning. Bruised or spotted fruit should 
not be canned but if bruises are cut out the good portion of the fruit may be 
used for jam. 

Washing 

Fruits and vegetables should be thoroughly washed until all soil is removed 
Care should be taken not to bruise the fruits. Lift from the water instead of 
draining it off. If available use a wire basket. A sprav is excellent for washing 
fruits and vegetables. Do not wash too much at one time. A small brush is 
useful for cleaning vegetables. 

Pre-cooking 

Pre-cooking is necessary to shrink vegetables, allow a better pack and to 
ensure a quick and thorough heat penetration. The vegetables are prepared 
for serving, covered with boiling water and brought to boiling point over the 
nre, then boiled for several minutes (see chart, page 11), packed hot into - alers 
and covered with the boiling water in which they were cooked. Peaches pears 
and cherries can be pre-cooked before packing. This is recommended' when 
oven sterilization is used. 

Blanching 

This process is used to remove skins from peaches and tomatoes. It co.isist - 
of placing in steam or boiling water for 15 to 30 seconds to loosen skins and then 
dipping in cold water. 

To Prevent Discoloration 

Such fruits as peaches, pears and apples should be dropped in a brine of 
1 teaspoon of salt to 1 quart cold water as soon as peeled. 

Syrup 

Figure the amount of syrup required for fruit to be canned and have syrup 
ready before preparing fruit. 

Thin syrup ... 1 cup sugar to 2 cups water . . . makes approximately 2\ 
cups syrup. This syrup is recommended for apricots, blueberries, sweet cherries, 
raspberries, peaches and pears. 

Medium syrup ... 1 cup sugar to 1 cup water . . . makes approximately 
1 5 cups syrup. This syrup is recommended for sour cherries, plums, blackberries 
and strawberries. 

A syrup between these two using 1 cup of sugar to 1| cups of water . . . makes 
approximately 2 cups syrup. This syrup is recommended for sweet plums, 
cherries and apricots if desired. 

To make syrup add water to sugar, boil 5 minutes, skim, keep hot but not 
boiling. 

For each pint sealer allow: — 

5 to J cup syrup for small fruits. 
i to 1 cup syrup for large fruits. 

Sugar .—Beet and cane sugar are chemically the same and therefore can be 
used interchangeably with identical results in canning, jam or jelly making. 



CANNING FRUIT WITHOUT SUGAR 

All fruits may be successfully canned without sugar. Use boiling water 
instead of syrup. Add 5 minutes to time of sterilization given in the time 
table (.page 10). 

Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cherries, currants, plums and rhubarb 
can be packed in sealers — crushed until the juice overflows and sterilized allowing 
5 minutes longer than time required when syrup is used. 

Fruit canned without sugar is excellent for pies and desserts and may be 
sweetened as used with a little sugar from the weekly ration. 

Chemical compounds and "canning powders" are not recommended since 
heat sterilization is sufficient for preservation. 

METHODS OF PACKING 

1. Cold Pack Method. — By this method the food is packed into sterilized 
sealers raw and cold, covered with liquid (syrup, water or its own juice) either 
hot or cold and partially sealed — then sterilized. 

2. Hot Pack Method. — Food is subjected to a pre-cooking and packed 
while hot. This requires shorter time for heat penetration and in most cases 
allows more food to be packed in the sealers. This method is used for vegetables 
except tomatoes and sometimes used for fruits, particularly when oven canning. 

3. Open Kettle Method is not recommended for canning fruit with the 
present sugar allowance and should NEVER be used for vegetables. 

FILLING SEALERS 

Glass Sealers. — When packing, work as quickly as possible. Remove 
sealers one at a time from the sterilizer. Pack sealer full, then fill with boiling 
liquid. Corn, beans and spinach should be packed fairly loosely to allow for 
expansion and perfect penetration of heat to the centre of the sealer and thus 
ensure even sterilization. To prevent sealer from cracking, place on cloth 
and pour liquid directly on the product. After filling, dip the blade of a knife 
in boiling water and run it down and around the inside of the sealer to remove 
air bubbles. Adjust sterilized rubber ring making sure that it is flat, then place 
sterilized top in position. Then partially seal, this allows for expansion during 
sterilization. There is danger of breakage if sealers are completely sealed. 
With wire clamp sealers, adjust the top clamp but do not spring clown the lower 
one. With screw top sealers screw tight — then unscrew half turn. On vacuum 
sealers adjust metal clamps. 

Cans should be filled to within \ inch of the top of the can. Since cans are 
sealed before sterilizing sufficient head space must be allowed for expansion. 

PROCESSING OR STERILIZING 

Pressure Cooker. — The pressure canner is a strongly built container 
fitted with a clamped-on cover. The small amount of water placed in the canr.or 
boils forming a pressure of steam the temperature of which varies with the 
pressure. 

At 5-lb. pressure the temperature is 228° F. 

At 10-lb. pressure the temperature is 240° F. 

At T5-lb. pressure the temperature is 250° F. 

For each 2,000 feet of altitude one pound of pressure must be added. 



If using a pressure cooker carefully follow directions in the book supplied 
by the manufacturer. 

Be sure that sufficient water is added to provide steam during time required 
for sterilization. 

Allow steam to escape from the open pet cock at least 3 minutes Then 
close, and allow pressure to rise until the gauge registers required pressure 
Count time of sterilization from this time. When the product is sufficiently 
sterilized cool until gauge registers zero. Leave for 2 minutes. Then open 
pet cock SLO VV LY. Remove sealers at once. 

Main points to watch: 

1. Amount of water. 

2. Keep pressure constant by regulating heat. Liquid will be drawn 
out of sealers if pressure fluctuates. 

3. Let stand sufficient time before opening pet cock. 

4. Tilt cover away to avoid steam coming into face. 

Boiling Water Bath.— A boiling water bath outfit may be any container 
of sufficient depth to allow the sealers to be covered with water while standing 
on a rack which allows circulation of water under the sealers. It must also have 
a tight fitting cover. Special kettles may be bought for the purpose having a 
wire rack with handles for lifting in and out of the boiling water, but the wash 
boiler or other deep pot may be fitted with a wooden rack and will answer the 
purpose nicely. Set filled sealers on rack. Do not allow them to touch "each other. 

Add water to cover sealers 2 inches over tops. This depth is necessary 
for pressure to keep seepage from the unsealed sealers. Have water near the 
temperature of the filled sealers. Put cover on kettle. Count time of sterilization 
from the time water boils. Keep water boiling. Add boiling water to keep sealers 
covered. F 

Oven.— The oven is excellent for processing small fruits or tomatoes or for 
large fruits pre-cooked m the open kettle. Pre-cook peaches, pears and cherries 
m syrup and pack hot: This aids in preventing discoloration. An oven with 
thermostatic control is most satisfactory. Preheat the oven to required tempera- 
ture - Oven temperatures are given in table for fruits. Tin cans cannot be 
sterilized in the oven as the seams may burst. 

Place sealers two inches apart on a tray or pan. Pour sufficient water in 
the pan to cover the bottom one inch deep (this prevents burning in case some 
syrup boils over). Time of sterilization is counted from the time at which the 
oven has returr.ed to required temperature after placing sealers in it. 

Steamer.— This may be the same kettle as is used for water bath. Water 
is used in sufficient amount to reach the rack on which the sealers are placed 
Steam is generated and circulates around the sealers giving an even temperature 
Be sure that water is boiling and steam rising before placing sealers. Count 
time ot sterilization from 3 minutes after putting cover on cooker. This method 
requires longer sterilization period and should be used only with fruits (See time 
table, page 10.) 

Raw Canning.— Raspberries or rhubarb may be canned successfully by 
what is known as the raw canning method. Pack in sealers. Cover with 
boiling syrup. Adjust top and seal tightly. Place on several layers of newspaper 
in a tub and pour in enough boiling water to cover the sealers 3 inches over the 
top Place a blanket or rug over the tub and leave until cold. In pouring in 
boiling water care should be taken not to pour directly on the sealers 



8 

Note. — It is recommended that the pressure cooker be used for sterilizing all 
vegetables except tomatoes. While instructions are given for the water bath 
method, great care must be exercised because of the ever present danger of 
spoilage through insufficient sterilization. 

When water bath method is used it is preferable to can vegetables in pint 
sealers. 

SEALING 

Remove sealers as soon as time is up to avoid over-processing. 

Screw tops and spring tops should be tightened as soon as removed from 
the sterilizer and sealers inverted a few minutes to test for leakage. 

Do not tighten or invert vacuum type or self-sealing top sealers. Such 
sealers can be tested after they are cold, by tapping the lids gently with a metal 
spoon. If properly sealed there is a clear ring and metal tops will curve inward 
slightly. 

Never Open a Sealee After Sterilizing. — Sometimes the contents of a 
sealer will shrink in processing leaving space at the top of the sealer. This is 
due to air spaces left in packing the sealers, but the entire contents are sterile 
and will keep perfectly. Opening may allow bacteria to enter and contaminate 
the product. 

Never attempt to tighten the screw top after it is cold. This Mill break 
the seal. 

STORING 

Before storing wipe sealers dry and be sure there are no leaks. If a leak is 
found, remove the cover, see that there are no chips in sealer or lid, put on a 
new rubber, seal, and invert to test for leakage. If seal is satisfactory, sterilize 
j time allowed for the particular product. 

Label and date each sealer. Store in a cool, dry, dark place or wrap each 
sealer in paper. The cartons in which new sealers are packed make a very 
satisfactory storage container for filled sealers. 

Examine fruit ore week after canning to see if every sealer is keeping. 

Rhubarb Juice 

Wash and cut rhubarb in small pieces. Do not peel. Put in preserving 
kettle. Add 1 cup water for each quart of rhubarb. Cover tightly. Bring 
slowly to boiling point on top of stove and simmer 5 minutes. Strain. Pour 
into hot sterilized bottles, leaving 1 inch head space. Partially seal. Process 
10 minutes in hot water bath at simmering temperature, 180° F. Seal tightly. 

The rhubarb may be steamed without the addition of any water in covered 
kettle and finished as above. 

Grape Juice 

Allow 1 pint water and 2\ cups sugar to one six-quart basket of grapes. 
Wash, stem and crush grapes. Add water and bring to boiling point. Simmer 
15 minutes. Strain through a moist jelly bag. Add sugar, heat to boiling 
point anct pour into hot sterilized bottles. Finish as for rhubarb juice. 

Grape juice may be made without sugar and sweetened before using. 



9 

Tomato Juice 

Use thoroughly vine-ripened fruit, green portions impart a bitter undesir- 
able flavour. Artificially ripened fruit is not so rich in vitamins as that ripened 
naturally. Wash and remove core and cut tomatoes but do not peel. Cook 
slowly one-half hour in a tightly covered kettle. Press through a coarse sieve, 
extracting all pulp, then through a fine sieve to remove seeds. Allow 1 teaspoon 
of salt and f teaspoon pepper (optional) to 1 quart juice. Pour into hot sterilized 
bottles or sealers, partially seal and process 10 minutes in boiling water bath 
or 20 minutes in 259° F. oven. 



Tomato Soup 

1 peck ripe tomatoes 

6 large onions 

§ cup sugar 

\ teaspoon cayenne pepper 



1 head celery 

\ cup flour 

\ cup salt 

§ cup mild flavoured fat 



Wash vegetables, cut in small pieces. Cook for \ hour. Press through a 
sieve. Melt fat, add flour, sugar, salt and pepper. When blended slowly mix 
with strained tomato. Heat to boiling and let cook until thickened. Pour into 
sterilized sealers. Seal and sterilize 10 minutes in pressure cooker.at 5-lb. pressure 
or 30 minutes in boiling water bath. 

APPROXIMATE YIELD OF CANNED FRUIT— JAM— JELLY 



Kind of Fruit 



Type of Standard Container 
(Box, basket, etc.) 



Weight 
of Fruit 



Approximate Number 
of Quarts from Fruit 



Canned 
Fruit 



Jam or 
Jelly 



Berries, including Currants 

Apricots 

Crabapplcs 

Cherries 

Grapes 

Peaches 

Pears . , 

Plums 

Prunes 



12 quart boxes 

*24 pint baskets (crate) . 



Box (crate). 



6 quart basket (flat ) . 
11 quart basket (flat). 
' Box 



6 quart basket 

* 4 basket crate 

* Small box 

" Large box 



quart basket (flat). 
11 quart basket 



6 quart basket (heape I : . 
' Box (crate) 

6 quart basket (heape 1 ) 

1 1 quart basket (flat) 

■ Box 



6 quart basket (flat) 

G quart basket (heaped). 

* Box (crate) 

* 4 basket crate . 



6 quart basket (flat) . . . 

quart basket (heaped). 

Small box 



Lb. 

15 
12 

18 

H 

14J 
38 



20 
15 
25 

61 

h; 
M 

20 



145 
42 



15 
20 

BJ 
9! 
15 



Quarts 

12 
12 



4 
8 

23 

5 
15 
11 
18 



10 

5 

7 

23 

4 

li 

i) 

12 

4 

n 



Quarts 



3 

17 

Notadvisod 
for jam 
or jelly 

3 
65 

35 

7 

31 
45 
15 

3} 
I 

75 
10 

3j 

a 

75 



' British Columbia fruit containers. 



10 



TIME TABLE FOR FRUITS 

The time given is for pint containers. For quart containers add 5 minutes 
to time sterilization in boiling water bath and steam cooker; 10 minutes for 
oven sterilization. 



Fruits 



Apples, sliced or 
quartered 



Applesauce. 

Apricots . . . 



Blackljcrries or blue- 
berries 



Cherries. 



Preparation 



Sterilization 



Simmer 5 minutes in syrup — pack 
hot 



Pack hot. 



Peel— halve and pit — pack — cover 
with boiling syrup 



Wash — pack, 

syrup 



fill with boiling 



Currants. . . . 
Fruit juices.. 
Gooseberries. 

Peaches 



1 Wash, stem, pit and pack, cover 
with boiling syrup 



2. Wash, stem, pit, pre-cook 5 
minutes in boiling syrup — pack 
hot, fill with syrup 



Boiling 
Water 
Bath 

212° F. 



Wash, stem, pack, fill with boiling 
syrup 



Crush fruit, heat slowly, strain, 
pour into sealers 



Wash, pack in sealers, fill with 
boiling syrup 



1. Immerse in boiling water 
minutes — cold dip, peel, re- 
move pit, pack in sealers, add 
boiling syrup 



Pears. 



Plums. 



2. Peel, remove pit, simmer ii 
syrup in open kettle 5 minutes, 
pack hot — fill with syrup 



1. Pare, half, remove core, pack, 
fill sealers with boding syrup. 
If pears are firm, steam l.'i 
minutes before packing 



2. Pare, halve, remove core, cook 
in syrup in open kettle 10 
minutes. Pack hot, fill with 
syrup 



Raspberries. 
Rhubarb 



Wash if necessary, pack in sealers, 
cover with boiling syrup 



Strawberries. 



Wash, prick skin, pack cold, cover 
with boiling syrup 



Wash, cut in small pieces, blanch 
1 minute, cold dip, pack, cover 
with boiling syrup 



Wash, stem, fill scalers, cover with 
boiling syrup 



20 



20 
16 

16 
16 



Steam 

Pressure 

5-lb. 



Minutes 

30 
10 

20 

20 

20 

20 
30 
16 

20 



Minutes 

10 
5 

10 

10 

10 



10 

(180° F.) 
10 

10 



Oven 

for Glass 

Sealers 



Minutes 

50 at 275° F 
15 at 275 

55 at 275 

35 at 275 

35 at 275 

20 at 250 

35 at 275 

30 at 275 



Steam 
Cooker 



Minutes 

35 
15 

30 

30 

30 



30 



— 20 at 275 



20 



10 
10 

10 
10 



25 at 275 


— 


45 at 275 


30 


30 at 275 


25 


20 at 250 


25 


— 


25 



25 



30 



30 



11 



TIME TABLE FOR VEGETABLES 

. Pressure sterilization is recommended for non-acid vegetables. When vege- 
tables are sterilized in the boiling water bath, it is preferable to use pint containers. 





Preparation 


Time of Sterilization 


Vegetables 


Boiling 
Water 
Bath 


Steam Pressure 




Wash, tie in uniform bundles, stand upright 
in 2 inches of water. Boil 4 minutes. Pack 
hot, add | tsp. salt to eacli pint sealer, fill 
with boiling water 


Hours 
2 

3 

H 

2 

1 

3 
3 

3 
3 

S 

4 

3 

i 

Pints. . . 
Quarts. 


Minutes 
40 

40 

40 

40 

30 

CO 
00 

GO 

60 

30 
60 

15 

35 

45 


Pounds 




10 


Beans, string or wax. 
Beets 


Wash, string, cut in desired lengths. Cover 
with water, bring to boiling point, boil 4 
minutes. Pack hot, add J tsp. salt to each 
pint sealer. Kill with boiling water 

Wash and cut off tops 2 inches above beet. 
Boil 15 minutes. Cold dip, remove skins, 
pack, add J tsp. salt to a pint scaler. Kill 
with boiling water 


15 




15 


Carrots 


Use only very young carrots. Wash and boil 
5 minutes. Cold dip — slip off skins, pack, 
add J tsp. salt to pint sealer, fill with boiling 
water 






15 


Cauliflower 


Wash, break into florets. Drop into salty- 
water. Let stand i hour, cover with water, 
bring to boiling, drain, pack sealers, add 
J tsp. salt to a pint sealer. Kill with boiling 
water 






10 


Corn, whole kernel . . 


Cut corn from cobs. Cover with boiling 
water and bring to boiling point, fill sealers, 
covering corn with boiling liquid, add \ tsp. 
salt to a pint sealer 


15 


Qhard, Spinach or 
other greens 


Wash carefully, steam 5 minutes, pack ii; 
sealers, add i tsp. salt to a pint sealer, fill 


15 


Mushrooms 


Wash and trim, large ones may be cut in 
pieces. Blanch 5 minutes. Cold dip very 
quickly. Pack, allow \ tsp. salt to a pint 
sealer, fill with boiling water 






15 




Use only young tender peas. Shell and wash. 
Cover with water and bring to boil, pack, 
add } tsp. salt to a pint sealer, fill with boil- 
ing water. Intermittent sterilization may- 
be used for peas allowing 1 hour on each of 
3 successive days if water bath is used .... 

Wash, remove seeds, boil 3 minutes, cold dip. 
Remove skins, pack, allow 1 tsp. salt to a 
pint sealer, cover with boiling water 

Cut in pieces, remove seed and membrane, 
peel, steam until tender, mash, pack 

Scald and peel, pack in sealers, cover with 
tomato juice made from irregular very large 
or broken tomatoes cut in small pieces, 
cooked over slow fire for 5 minutes. Strain. 
Allow i tsp. salt to a pint sealer 




Sweet Green or Red 
Pepper (pimientos) 

Pumpkin 


15 
15 


Tomatoes 


15 




05 




Tomatoes may be processed in the oven 
(275° F.) 


minutes 
minutes 



12 
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING JAM 

1. Fruits for jam should be firm, ripe but never over-ripe. 

2. Measurements should be accurate. 

3. Wash, peel if necessary, cut or mash, so that some juice will escape To 
prevent sticking a little water may be added but as this must later be boiled 
away care should be taken not to use too much. 

4. Less acid fruits such as peaches and pears, are improved by adding a 
little cider vinegar, rhubarb juice or lemon juice. 

5. Heat fruit very slowly to extract juice. Stir frequently using a wooden 
spoon . 

6- ^!f* wi £ h I toa * h skins make better i am if pre-cooked before adding 
sugar Wild fruits have tougher skin and larger proportion of seeds than garden 
varieties, therefore it is advisable to pre-cook the fruit. 

7. Time is saved by heating sugar before adding. 

8. Peeled fruits are usually mixed with sugar before cooking. 

9 Boil the required length of time— to 220° F. or until the jam remains 
heaped up or sheets from the spoon. 

10. Satisfactory jams can be made with the wartime allowance of sugar 
as used in the following recipes. Longer boiling time has to be allowed than 
it a larger proportion of sugar were used. 

11. Pour hot jam into hot, sterilized jars. When cool, seal with paraffin 
wax. t over with paper or metal lid to prevent contamination from dust. 

RECIPES 
Rhubarb and Strawberry Jam 

4 cups rhubarb 4 cups strawberries 3 cups sugar 

Wash and cut rhubarb in half-inch pieces. Add cleaned berries. Cook 
20 minutes. Add sugar. Cook 15 minutes or until thick and clear. Pour 
into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about 2 pints. 

Blueberry and Rhubarb Jam 

2 quarts blueberries 2 cups rhubarb juice 4 cups sugar 

To make juice, use 1 quart rhubarb, washed and cut in 1-inch pieces. Add 
1 cup water Cook 10 minutes— press through a sieve. Add the cleaned 
.lueberr.es and cook 10 minutes. Add sugar and cook 10 minutes. Pour into 
hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about 1\ pints. 

Jellied Blueberries 

3 quarts blueberries 2 cups sugar 1 cup water 

Make a syrup of the sugar and water and boil for 5 minutes. Add the 

vSdT 1 aSut? I m;i ,, °° k f ° r 2 ° mimite *' P ° Ur int ° * teriHzed ^ s ■« -'• 

Jewel Jam 

1 quart pitted cherries (6 cups unpitted) 1 quart gooseberries 

1 quart red currants 1 quart raspberries 8 cups sugar 

b. + i W K Sh i a ' ld . P it ., c j lerr r ies and P ut in kettle with 2 cups of the sugar. Bring 
to he bo.1 and boil for 5 minutes. Then add the quart of cleaned gooseberries 
and 2 more cups of sugar. Bring to the boil and boil 5 minutes. Then add 
the quart o^ cleaned red currants and quart of cleaned raspberries and 4 cups of 



13 

Raspberry Jam 

2 quarts raspberries 3 cups sugar 

Crush fruit and simmer 10 minutes. Then add sugar and cook until 

thick — about 25 minutes. Pour into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: 

about 2% pints. 

A delicious jelly-like jam may be made by adding 2 teaspoons cider vinegar 

with the sugar in the above recipe. 

Gooseberry Jam 

2 quarts gooseberries 1^ cups water 4\ cups sugar 

Top, tail and wash the gooseberries. Simmer the fruit and water for 10 

minutes. Add sugar and cook for about \ hour. Pour into hot sterilized jars 

and seal. This jam is quite thin when hot but it thickens considerably when it 

cools. 

If desired, \ cup honey may be added to the recipe if it is too tart for your 

taste. Yield: about 3J pints. 

Black Currant Jam 

2 quarts black currants 4| cups sugar 

\\ cups of water \ cup honey 

Top, tail and wash the black currants. Simmer the fruit and water for 

10 minutes. Add sugar and honey and cook about 15 minutes or until thick. 

Pour into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about 3 pints. 

Ground Cherries (Cape Gooseberries or Strawberry Tomatoes) 

8 cups prepared fruit 4 cups sugar 

Remove hulls. Wash and pick over fruit. Add sugar. Let stand over- 
night. Boil 30 minutes. Pour into sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about 
2\ pints. 

Peach Jam 

6 cups peeled, sliced peaches 3 cups sugar 1 tablespoon cider 

vinegar 
Mix all ingredients. Let stand 1 hour. Cook slowly until thick. Pour 
into sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about 2 pints. 

Cantaloupe and Peach Conserve 

3 cups peeled, diced peaches 3 cups sugar 3 cups peeled, diced 

Juice and grated rind of 2 cantaloupe 

oranges 
Mix all ingredients. Cook slowly until thick. Pour into hot sterilized jars, 
cool and seal. Yield: about 2 pints. 

Pear Marmalade 

4 pounds peeled, cored sliced pears 3 lemons 

2 oz. green ginger root or 3 lb. sugar 

1 oz. dry ginger root (optional) 

Place pears in preserving kettle in layers, sprinkling each layer with sugar, 
lemon juice and grated green ginger. (If dried root is used, break in pieces and 
tie in bag). Let stand 2 to 3 hours. Cook slowly until thick and clear. Pour 
into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. 

Plum Gumbo 

2 quarts plums 3 cups sugar 1 orange 

Wash and cut plums and remove pits. Slice orange very thinly. Cook 
together slowly for 15 minutes. Add sugar. Cook rapidly 5 minutes. Pour 
into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. Yield: about 2| pints. 



14 

Damson Plum Jam 

Weigh and wash the fruit. Add a little water to the plums and heat slowly 
to boiling point. Cook gently for one-half hour. Add \ pound sugar for every 
pound fruit and simmer one hour. (Skim off pits that rise to surface). Pour 
into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. 

Grape Marmalade 

Wash the grapes, remove from the stem and press the pulp from the skins. 
Cook the pulp 10 minutes and put it through a sieve to remove seeds. Add 
skins to the pulp and measure the mixture. To 1 cup of pulp allow § cup of 
sugar. Cook about 20 minutes or until skins are tender. Pour into hot 
sterilized jars, cool and seal. 

Grape and Apple Butter 

2 cups grape pulp 2 cups apple pulp 2 cups sugar 

Prepare fruit pulp by cooking cleaned fruit with a little water (to prevent 
burning) and passing it through a coarse sieve. Add sugar and cook 20 minutes. 
Pour into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. 

Citron Preserves 

Cut citron in 5-inch slices — peel, remove seeds and cut in cubes. Cover 
with weak brine, allowing 1 teaspoon of salt to 1 quart of water and stand over- 
night. In the morning, drain thoroughly, place over a very low heat and cook 
until tender. Allow 2 cups sugar and juice and rind of 1 lemon to 6 cups of 
citron. Bring to a boil slowly. Cook until clear and pour into hot sterilized 
sealers. Seal at once. 

Medley Fruit Conserve 

2 pounds peaches 2 pounds quinces \\ pounds pears 

1 lemon 4 5 pounds sugar \ pound tar apples 

Wash and prepare fruit. Pass through food chopper. Put fruit and sugar 
in alternate layers in a large bowl and let stand overnight. Next morning place 
in a preserving kettle and add grated rind and lemon juice. Boil until mixture 
becomes thick. Pour into hot sterilized jars, cool and seal. 

Saskatoon Jam 

4 cups saskatoons 1 cup water 

lj cups sugar 1 teaspoon vinegar 

Pick over and wash berries. Add water and vinegar. Cook 5 minutes. 

Add sugar. Stir until dissolved. Boil 1 minute. Pour into hot sterilized 

jars, cool and seal. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING JELLY 

1. This method can be used for apples, crabapples, gooseberries, logan- 
berries, grapes, currants and sour plums or such combinations as grape and apple, 
plum and apple, quince and apple, or red currant and raspberry. 

2. Select clean, sound but slightly under-ripe fruit. Over-ripe fruit does 
not make good jelly. 

3. Cut or crush, do not core or peel fruit. Add water to come just below 
top of fruit. Cook slowly until fruit is soft and mushy and juice is drawn out. 

4. Drain thoroughly through a moist jelly bag. Do not squeeze bag if you 
wish a cleaT jelly. 

5. Measure juice and sugar. Allow \ cup sugar to each cup juice. 



15 

6. Boil juice gently for 10 to 20 minutes, testing frequently for pectin. 

7. Add heated sugar. Boil 3 to 8 minutes or until jelly sheets from spoon 
(220° F.) 

8. Pour into hot sterilized jars. Let stand until set. Seal. 

ROSE HIP JUICE 

4 cups rose hips 2 cups boiling water 

Wash hips, remove ends, chop coarsely. Add boiling water. Cook 5 
minutes and strain through a jelly bag. Add 1 cup of this juice to 3 cups of 
prepared apple juice and proceed as for apple jelly. 

PECTIN TEST 

To test for pectin with alcohol, measure 1 tablespoon fruit juice into a dish 
and add 1 tablespoon alcohol. If a jelly-like mass forms, a large amount of 
pectin is present and the sugar can be added. If the mixture remains unchanged 
in consistency, boil the juice a few minutes longer— until the test gives a jelly- 
like mass (do not taste mixture). Then add sugar. 

BEANS IN BRINE 

Use 1 pound of coarse salt to 4 pounds of beans. 

Wash beans, string, cut in desired lengths or leave whole. Place a layer of 
beans in a crock; sprinkle generously with salt. Repeat until all beans are 
used. Place plate or board (cut in shape of crock) over beans and put weight 
on top. 

To use the beans, remove them from the brine, wash thoroughly in several 
waters then soak for 2 hours in warm water. They get tough if soaked over- 
night. Cook in boiling water without salt until they are tender— 25 to 35 
minutes. Drain and serve as fresh beans. 

SAUERKRAUT 

Discard bruised or decayed outer leaves and core of the cabbage. Weigh 
and allow 1 pound of salt to 40 pounds of cabbage. Shred cabbage and place a 
four- to six-inch layer in a water-tight receptacle. Sprinkle lightly with salt; 
repeat until all the cabbage is packed. Press down firmly, cover with a cloth, 
a clean board and a heavy weight so the brine, when formed, will completely 
cover the cabbage. Let stand at room temperature, 70° F., or lower while 
fermentation is taking place— 2 to 6 weeks. When bubbles cease to rise fermen- 
tation is complete. Remove all scum. Cover crock with a clean cloth and lid. 
Store in a cool place. Kraut may be sealed in sterilized, air-tight sealers, using 
enough of the brine to fill jars completely. If made late in the fall, kraut may 
be frozen when fermentation ceases. 

STORING, HOME DRYING AND FREEZING 

Other methods of food preservation such as drying, storing or freezing may 
be used in order to save fruits and vegetables for use out of season. If facilities 
are available, storing is recommended, for beets, carrots, cabbage, cauliflower, 
onions, parsnips, potatoes, turnips, pumpkin, squash and apples. Information 
may be obtained from the Dominion Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, on 
storage in the home cellar, on the preparation of fruits and vegetables for pre- 
servation in cold storage freezing lockers and on the construction and operation of 
a home dehydrator.