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Full text of "The Watchmaker & jeweller, silversmith & optician"

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Vol. XIII. No. i.] 



JULY i, 1887.-— 



Subscription ) Post 
_5s. per Annum. ) Frbe. 




sj.jcy 



©ffice : 

IMPERIAL BUILDINGS, LUDGATE CIRCUS, 

LONDON, E.C. 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[July 1, 1887. 




♦*•■ BOTWRIGHT & GREY, 

(Late A. H. BOTWRIGHT. Established 1865.) 

MANUFACTURING OPTICIANS, 

WHOLESALE AND FOR EXPORTATION ONLY, 

13, SPENCER STREET, CLERKENWELL, E.C., 

Makers of every description of Spectacles and Folders, in Steel, Shell, Gold, Silver and Horn ; Solid, Nickel, German 
Silver, &c, at the lowest possible prices. Our work is always reliable. We guarantee the quality of our Gold Spectacles 
and Folders to be Standard under their various qualities. Specialties in perfect Pebble Spectacles and Folders. Field, 
Opera and Marine Glasses. Barometers and Thermometers. Spectacle and Folder Cases, &c. Interchangeable 
Spectacles and Folders for the Colonial Markets ; New Patterns in Cork and Indiarubber Placquet Folders. All Materials 
and Parts kept in Stock and sold for Repairing. Please write for Samples and compare our Prices. We invite 

inspection of our large Stock. 

REPAIRS, OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, IN EVERY CASE WE EXECUTE AND SEND BACK BY RETURN POST. 

Oculists and Hospital Prescriptions prepared. Sphero Cylinders and Prisms worked to order, and in every case by return of post. 

PRESCRIPTION FOH1HS WITH C1TSTOXI EltS' NAMES SVEPLIEO GRATIS. 



VENABLES' 




HIGH-CLASS 

PIANOS 

COMBINE 

Strength and Durability 

with Purity and 

Richness of Tone. 



C. VENABLES & CO, 

ESSEX ROAD, ISLINGTON. 



RICHARD & CO., 

French (tloch JTlanufacturers. 

LONDON : 

24, CANNON STREET, E.C. 

PARIS : 

Boulevard St. Martin, 32, Rue de Bondy. 

THE LARGEST STOCK OF 

CARRIAGE and FRENCH CLOCKS (own make). 

CARRIAGE CLOCKS (own make) PATENTED. 

Vide Horological Journal, July, 1881. 

TRewaroeJ) at tbe following jErbiblttons:- 
PARIS, 1878. SYDNEY, 1879. MELBOURNE, 1880. 




AMERICAN 

ALTHAM 




ATGH 



©OMP/cNY. 



A 



LL Watches now made for this market, except Plain Steel Balances and the 18-size Plain 
Compensation, have hardened Breguet hairsprings. 

Particular attention is called to these excellent goods, the simplest in construction and strongest 
and most durable of all Chronograph Watches ; also 

THE NEW WATCH FOR LADIES, 

6-size Key-winding and Keyless Plain Gold and Expansion Balances to Extra Jewelled, all with 
Breguet hair-spring, modelled on the famous 14-size Riverside, so well and favourably known 
throughout the world. 

Price Lists, with full description 0/ all movements manufachired by the Company, on application to 

W™ B_s, R0BB "£? * ^ P F P LF T0N ' 

HOI.BOKN emeus, London, E.C. GENERAL AGENTS. 



5^0 



3Xc 



{JJatcl^aker, 




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^ili/erSH^itl^ 



Entered at Stationers' Hall.'] 



Edited by D. GLASGOW, Jun. 



[Registered for Transmission Abroad. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 1.] 



JULY 1, 1887. 



[" Subscription, 5s. [ Post 
|_ per Aunum. j Free. 



CONTENTS. 







PAGE 


Editorial ... 




1 


General Notes 




2 


Birmingham News. From Ouk Correspondent ... 


4 


American Items ... 




4 


The Royal Observatory "Report ... 




5 


A New Astronomical Clock. Illu.it? ated 


fi 


A Short History of the Thimble. By 


Herman Bush 


8 


The Albert Medal... 




9 


Machine for making Watch Cases 




.. 10 


Society of Arts Conversazione . 




.. 10 


Silversmithing 




.. K) 


Skelton's New Fusee-Keyless Work. 


Illustrated ... 


11 


Watch Oils 




12 


Mayoral Chains ... 




12 


Mayoral Badge for Wokingham 




.. 13 


Workshop Memoranda 




13 


Applications for Letters Patent... 




.. 11 


Recent American Patents 




.. 14 


Gazette 




.. U 


London Bankruptcy Court 




.. 15 


Meetings of Societies, &c, for the Month 


15 


Correspondence ... 




15 


Answers to Correspondents 




16 


Buyers' Guide 




.. 16 



Che Watchmaker, jeweller an.6 
Siluersmith. 



A Monthly Journal devoted to the interests of Watchmakers, 
Jewellers, Silversmiths and kindred traders. 

Subscription. — A copy of the Journal will be sent monthly for one 
year, post free, to any address in the United Kingdom or countries in the 
Postal Union for 5s. payable in advance. 

Advertisements.— The rates for advertising will be sent on appli- 
cation. The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith will be found 
an exceptional medium for advertising. Special Notices, Situations, &c, 
per insertion, is. for two lines, prepaid. 

Correspondence.— Correspondence is invited on all matters of interest 
to the trade. Correspondents will please give their full address in each 
communication, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of 
good faith. 

Address all business communications to 

THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & SILVERSMITH, 

Imperial Buildings, Ludgate Circus, London, E.C. 
Cheques and Postal Orders to be crossed and made payable to J. TRUSLOVE. 



Agent for the Australian Colonies : 

EVAN JONES, 
Hunter Street and Royal Arcade, Sydney, N.S.W. 



Editorial. 




HILE the members of the watch trade have been 
discussing the clauses of the Merchandise Marks 
Bill which relate to watches, and otherwise putting- 
forward their views as to a means of bettering the condition of 
the English watch trade, a controversy has been going on con- 
currently among pawnbrokers that, from an outside observer's 
point of view, presents some common features of similarity ; and 
(besides being of public, as well as special, interest) affords an 
instructive parallel to the first-mentioned question, as it bears on 
the subject of trade grievances generally. 

Should the debate under consideration serve no other purpose 
than that of pointing out the ill effects of legislation having 
for its object the restriction, in any form, of free contract in 
business, it will not have been without its uses. 

Pawnbrokers, in common with other traders, are suffering from 
the continued trade depression. The assertion may appear some- 
what paradoxical to those who hold the popular belief which 
regards them as battening on other people's misfortunes, but it 
is nevertheless true ; never were there so inanybusinesses in the 
market, with fewer purchasers, as at the present time, and 
competent authorities regard the state of affairs as distinctly 
discouraging. 

The discussion that is just now agitating the pawnbroking 
mind is the result of the proposition by a member of the frater- 
nity foil shortening the period during which pledges can be 
redeemed from twelve months, as at j>vesent, to six months. The 
advocates of the proposed alteration (which it is suggested to 
bring about by means of an appeal to Parliament) advance 
numerous plausible arguments in support of their views, foremost 
among which are the larger amounts that could be lent on articles 
liable to depreciation from their perishable nature or from changes 
of fashion, the fewer forfeits that would be left on their hands, 
and the greater facilities that would be afforded for checking 
and educating their assistants. 

The opponents of the proposed change, on the other hand, 
state that it would have the effect of throwing a large amount 

A 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[July 1, 1887. 



of idle capital into the tills of the trade, and result in less 
business being done, and greater losses incurred on account of the 
still further inducements presented to advance the outside value 
on articles taken in pledge, with other objections equally cogent. 

Without going in detail into the -pros and cons of the case, it will 
be sufficiently curious to watch the progress of the discussion from 
ih?, abstract point of view as it affects the interest of a trade more or 
less intimately connected with those we represent, and not a few of 
whose members are numbered among the readers of this journal. 

The Pawnbrokers' Gazette, in commenting on the subject, 
very pertinently says that this divergence of opinion takes place 
in i\\e minds of practical men (not mere theorists), every one of 
whom should be able to form, from his own experience, a perfectly 
sound judgment upon the point under discussion, and suggests 
the possibility of discussion leading in time to that unanimity of 
opinion among all parties, without which it would be improper 
for a section to take action in that which concerns the whole 
trade. While fully endorsing the opinion respecting the benefits 
of discussing trade matters on which widely different views are 
held, recent experiences do not allow us to be very hopeful of the 
result. Nevertheless, we shall attentively observe the course of 
the present debate, and, should it lead to a definitive arrangement 
being arrived at, carefully note such conclusion for the benefit of 
those of our readers who are interested in the agitation previously 
referred to, and to which it bears so strong a resemblance. 



The announcement of the death of Colonel Croll, a short 
notice of which is given in another column, will lie beard with 
regret by those who had the good fortune to form part of his 
circle of acquaintances. His never-failing amiability and courtesy 
to all witli whom he came in contact, and his well-known 
energy of character in business matters excited universal respect. 
As an esteemed member of the Clockmakers' Co., with which 
body he was in his later years more particularly identified, 
Colonel Croll devoted much time and attention to matters purely 
horological as well as civic, and a good deal of the later action of 
the Company in endeavouring to promote the welfare of the 
trades of which they are the corporate head may be traced to hi s 
influence. Colonel Croll, who was a native of Perth, first came 
to London about 50 years ago, where he became connected with 
several of the larger commercial undertakings in which his energy 
was speedily conspicuously shown. As Chairman of the United 
Kingdom Electric Telegraph Co., he was presented by the 
shareholders, in 1871, in acknowledgment of his services to the 
Company, with a magnificent testimonial in the shape of a 
massive silver centre table ornament of the value of 1 000 
guineas, which he, a few years since, magnanimously presented 
to the Clockmakers' Co. as an addition to their museum in the 
City of London Library. 

Colonel Croll was a deputy lieutenant and magistrate for several 
counties, and member of the Council and Technological Examiner 
of the Society of Arts. Taking great interest in and successfully 
dealing with questions relating to educational and commercial 
subjects, there were few men moving in a similar sphere who had a 
more honourable retrospect, and his place will hot be easily refilled. 



Seneral Notes. 



fpHE PRINCESS OF WALES, on the application of Mr. 
1*| J. Jacobs, through the Home Secretary, having consented 
to purchase and wear some articles of jewellery with a view 
of reviving the Birmingham trade, a case containing a selection 
of articles from various manufacturers has been submitted to Her 
Royal Highness, by a committee appointed for that purpose. 

Thk Jubilee celebrations have not had a very stimulating 
effect on trade generally. From Sheffield we learn that the 
cutlery and plating trades have been dull throughout the month, 
with the exception of a few of the larger firms, with whom 
Jubilee orders had been placed ; and the same partial result is 
reported from Birmingham, in the fancy industries, and from 
other manufacturing centres. As for the London West End 
tradesmen, they not only had to shut up shop during Jubilee week, 
but were put to considerable expense for decoration ; they will. 
however, doubtless be benefited indirectly by the increase of 
general business the presence of so many strangers in town is 
sure to produce. 

The other day a working jeweller named Simpson, in Prince 
Albert Street,' Brighton, met with a strange piece of luck at an 
auction in that town. A picture of a negro, in an old and 
dilapidated frame, was put up as a lot, and was knocked down 
to him " for a mere song," amid the jeers of the brokers and 
other attendants of the rooms. On the back of the canvas, 
however, Mr. Simpson had noted, when the pictures were on 
view the previous day, the words " Dr. Johnson's Servant," and 
his curiosity being stimulated thereby, he referred to " Boswell *' 
and to the " Life of Reynolds," when he found that Sir Joshua 
bad painted at least one portrait of John Williams, the black 
servant who was so long in the employ of 1 )r. Johnson. The style 
of painting struck several amateurs as rather in the style of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, and that view has since been confirmed 
by one or two experts, who have given their opinion that the 
portrait is either an original painting by Reynolds, or else a 
remarkably good copy (possibly a replica) of the portrait which 
the great master painted for Sir G. Beaumont. 

Mr. John Johnson, of 9, Queen Victoria Street, Mansion 
House, London, has been awarded the first premium of twenty 
guineas in the design competition for tlie clock Mr. Willing 
intends to present to Brighton. Mr. H. A. Cheers, of Avenue 
House, Twickenham, has been awarded the second premium of 
ten guineas. Mr. Johnson's plan will be adapted to the ideas 
formulated by Mr. Willing and the local authorities. 



Messrs. Buck & Hickman, of 280, Whitechapel Road, London, 
are showing, at the American Exhibition, the specialties of the 
following firms : — The Morse Twist Drill and Machine Co., 
New Bedford, Mass.; the Pratt and Whitney Machine Co., 
Hartford, Conn.; Messrs. E. Horton, Son & Co., Windsor 
Locks, N.Y.; the Oneida Steam Engine Co., Oneida, N.Y.; 
the Cushman Chuck Co., Hartford, Conn.; the Brown & Sharpe 
Manufacturing Co., Providence, R.I.; Messrs. W. Coupe & Co., 
South Attleboro, Mass.; the Miller's Falls Co., New York. 



Presentation to the Birmingham Art Gallery. — A large 
collection of art work Avas formally presented to the town of 
Birmingham at a meeting of the Town Council held on June 6. 
This gift to the local Art Gallery was made by Mr. John 
Feeney, and was procured while he was travelling abroad some 
years since. The collection, which fills over twenty cases, com- 
prises Japanese and Chinese bronzes, china and enamels, carved 
ivories, lacquer armour, Indian metal work and jewellery, and 
objects in silver of old Scandinavian and German workmanship. 

The death, at the age of 76, of Colonel Alexander Angus 
Croll, a former Master of the Clockmakers' Co., took place at 
Dunblane, N.B., on the 7th ult. 



July 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKEB, JEWELLEE AND SILVEESMITH. 



No gold was coined during the year 1886, the Mint having 
been exclusively engaged on silver and bronze coinage, the value 
of the former being £417,384, and of the bronze coins £51,669. 
The number of half-crowns coined was 994,752, and of florins 
592,020 ; while the shillings struck amounted to 1,774,080, and 
the sixpences to 2,724,480 in number. The number of three- 
penny-pieces coined was 6,150,408. 



The prospectus of the Glasgow 1888 Exhibition of Industry, 
Science and Art has been issued by the Committee. Mr. W. 
M. Cunningham is the secretary, and Mr. H. A. Hedley the 
manager. 

Messrs. James Pinder & Co., of the Colonial Works, 
Sheffield, have just introduced a useful novelty in the form of an 
automatic biscuit box. When closed, it takes the form of a corru- 
gated shell. It is opened at either side by pressing one of two 
knots at the top, and as the two halves fall gradually open, the 
pierced inside linings rise automatically, allowing of access to the 
biscuits. In closing the box the linings fall and meet the covers 
about half-way, thereby preventing the biscuits from falling out. 
It is manufactured of the best white metal, and is strongly 
electro-plated ; and as it can be obtained plain or engraved in 
various ornamental designs, it will doubtless command a ready 
sale, and should engage the attention of the trade. 



According to the Paris Messenger, a cabman named Wesle 
may consider himself a victim of the Pranzini mystery. He 
called at the shop of a watchmaker and jeweller, on the Boule- 
vard de Magenta, under the pretence of having a watch repaired, 
but in reality to ascertain the value of a diamond, and sell it if 
possible. The gem was worth about 2,000 fcs., and the 
jeweller being surprised to see a diamond of that value in the 
hands of a cab driver questioned the man, and not being satisfied 
with his answers jumped at the conclusion that it must be one 
of the missing jewels of Marie Eegnault, and called in the police. 
The cabman was then forced to admit that he had found the 
diamond, an ear-drop, in his cab more than a year ago. It 
proved to be one lost by the Princess Zoe de Beauvau-Craon, 
while riding in a cab to the Sceaux railway station. The man 
has now been sentenced to two months' imprisonment. 



Her Majesty's Consul at Batavia reports that in certain 
instances unauthorised persons have registered and used in the 
Netherlands Indies trade marks, the property of British firms. 
To prevent these proceedings, Her Majesty's Consul recommends 
British owners to empower their agents in the Netherlands 
Indies to register, on their behalf, such trade marks as they wish 
protected, and to protest against the registration if it has already 
been effected by others. The documents necessary are as 
follow : — (a) Power of attorney in favour of the owner's agents 
authorising them to' register their trade mark, and to protest 
against others registering it. Powers of attorney must first be 
legalised by a Dutch consular official in the United Kingdom, 
and afterwards by the Foreign and Colonial Ministers at The 
Hague, (b) Certificate proving the ownership of the trade mark, 
and that it is duly registered in England, (c) Three copies of 
any trade mark the owner may wish to have registered, with 
particulars of the class of goods on which same is used. Pro- 
tests of registration have to be lodged within a year of the 
original registration. 



Cape Diamonds. — In 1883 the export of diamonds from the 
Cape amounted to £2,742,000, and in 1884 to £2,807,000 ; but 
in 1885 it had fallen off to £2,492,000, and some of the 
companies which had been only moderately successful when the 
European demand was largest practically suspended operations.. 
Last year the export of diamonds for the year reached a value of 
about £3,000,000. This is partly accounted for by the larger 
production, and partly by the fact of the greater size and 
brilliancy of tFe~ stones found in some of the more fully-developed 
properties. 



A novelty in earrings has just been introduced into the 
American market in the form of a so-called " perpetual motion 
earring." This device depends upon a double motion : one, a 
concealed pivoted movement attached to the setting ; the other, 
that acquired from the ring to which the arm of the setting is 
attached. Iridium bearings secure the parts against wear ; and 
the result is said to be a perfectly safe contrivance, which, never 
at rest, shows off the stone to the best advantage. The patentees 
and inventors are Messrs. Edge & Sons, of Newark, N.J., and 
New York. 



Eich gold mines have been found in Eastern Siberia, some 
few hundred miles from Yakutsk, extending over a district 
hitherto unexplored. Eeport declares that the region is a perfect 
new California in its greatest days of the gold diggings. 



It is reported that pieces of gold have been discovered by 
miners in the bed of the river Mawddach, North Wales ; and 
investigation, it is stated, seems to confirm the statement that 
the bed of the river is impregnated with gold, which has probably 
been washed down from the hills. Some fifteen years ago a great 
rush was made to the neighbourhood of Dolgelly and the valley 
of Mawddach, where a rich quartz of gold had been found. 



Brussels Exhibition of 1888. — The Chamber of Eepre- 
sentatives, on the 15th of last month, voted the credit asked for 
by the Government for the Grand International Exhibition of 
Arts and Sciences to be held in Brussels in 1888. The sum 
voted amounted altogether to 2,800,000 fcs., of which the 
greater part is to be expended on the buildings. All the facilities 
and advantages which the Government proposed to give to the 
enterprise were also approved by the Chamber. 



The glass beads manufactured in Venice form an important 
branch of industry, 6,000,000 lbs. being exported yearly to all 
parts of the world. 

EOBBERY OF WaTERBURY WATCHES AND JEWELLERY. At 

Sheffield, on the morning of the 7th ult., the police found that 
the premises of the AVaterbury Watch Co., High Street, Sheffield, 
had been broken into. The manager was sent for, and it was 
found that the shopbreakers had climbed the iron gate, entered 
by the fanlight, and cleared out the silver watches, lockets, chains 
and purses from the glass case on the counter and escaped. A 
short time ago a jeweller's window on the opposite side of the 
street was smashed and valuable property stolen. 



The Diamond Market. — No very marked change has taken 
place in the Amsterdam market since our last report ; the 
slightly advanced movement we noticed, however, has continued, 
and the fears as to polishers being thrown out of work have 
proved groundless, as the existing factories are fully employed, 
and there are three new ones in course of construction. 

The prices for rough remain the same, and there is some 
demand for finished among the numerous buyers present, but 
prices remain unfavourable from the seller's point of view. 

There lias been a slight change for the better in the Parts 
market since the sale of the Crown jewels, and dealers regard as 
a hopeful indication the fact of the said jewels realising more 
than their officially estimated values. Towards the end of the 
past month the sales have fallen off, and the demand, such as it 
is, has been mostly confined to buyers from the United States. 

The steamers "Athenian," " Norham Castle," "Spartan," 
" Hawarden Castle" and " Tartar" arrived at Plymouth during the 
month from the Cape, bringing large parcels of all round stuff 
from the fields, most of which, as prices were somewhat easier, 
was speedily bought up by the numerous foreign dealers present. 

Latest advices from Kimberley report : market quiet, prices 
easier ; yellow at a discount, but good demand for fresh at 
reduced prices. 

Silver. — The latest quotations are : bars 44d., Mexican 
dollars 43d. per oz. 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[July 1, 1887. 



Birmingham Neuus, 

From Our Correspondent. 



TTTHI'HvE has lici'n a »reat stir here during the last few 
1^ weeks anions? the medallists, who have been working day 

Cola) . ° o «/ 

and night, and all the heavy presses in the trade have 
been swinging incessantly during the 24 hours, striking Jubilee 
medals; very numerous have been the demands upon any manu- 
facturer possessing a press heavy enough for the purpose, and it 
is no exaggeration to state that they have been turned out in 
hundredweights. 

* «- * 

The makers of mayoral chains, civic badges, maces, &c, have 
been employed in a similar manner, and one of them told me 
that he was simply tired of working from 5 o'clock a.m. until 12 
o'clock midnight (rather a new sensation for a jeweller, these 
times). Every newly created borough and every ancient boron, li, 
large and small, that were not the fortunate possessors of some 
civic emblem wherewith to adorn the person of their mayor, or 
otherwise add to their dignity of office, have made vigorous 
exertions to collect the necessary sum and go in for the much 
coveted decoration ; so that the makers, who are not so numerous 
as some brandies, have reaped a harvest such as they will not 
see again for some time to come. 

* -* * 

There is not much activity to report among jewellers or 
silversmiths here in general trade goods ; there is every probability 
of a considerable falling off during the next month, as a reaction 
from the Jubilee work has already set in, and buyers are very 
reluctant to place orders until they can see what change is likely 
in the fashion for the autumn season. There seems to be a 
strong inclination towards enamelled work as the coming thing. 
and several makers are already speculating upon new dies for 
this purpose ; no doubt a little pushing may make a success 
of it. 

* * # 

If silver continues as cheap as now, or falls even lower still, 
as appears quite possible, I think it will widen the field for 
makers of silver goods, as a number of articles might lie produced 
in silver that hitherto have been excluded on account of juice, 
and it is such a beautiful clean metal, that goods made of it 
would certainly find purchasers. If some enterprising firm will 
give their attention to this, it may prove remunerative and a 
blessing to the manufacturing community. 



The Temperature of the Atmosphere at "Different 
Altitudes. — At the meeting of the Meteorological Society, held 
on the 15th of last month, Mr. W. Marriot, F.R.M.S., read a 
paper on the " Results of Thermometrical Observations made at 
4 feet, 170 feet and 260 feet above the ground at Boston, 
Lincolnshire, 1882-86." The observations were made on Boston 
Church tower, which rises quite free from any obstructions, in a 
very flat country, to the height of 273 feet. A Stevenson screeri 
with a full set of thermometers was placed 4 feet above the 
ground in the churchyard ; a similar screen and thermometers 
was fixed above the belfry at 170 feet above the ground, while a 
Siemens electrical thermometer was placed near the top of the 
tower, the cable being brought down inside and attached to a 
galvanometer on the floor of the church, where the indications 
were read off. The results showed that the mean maximum 
temperature at 4 feet exceeds that at 170 feet in every month of 
the year, the difference in the summer months amounting to : : ; 
degrees ; while the mean minimum temperature at 4 feet differs 
hut slightly from that at 170 feet, the tendency, however, being 
for the former to be slightly higher in the winter and lower in 
the summer than the latter. As the electrical thermometer was 
read usually in the day time, the results naturally showed that 
the temperature at 4 feet during the day hours was considerably 
higher than at 260 feet. The author also detailed several sets of 
readings which had been made during the night, the results from 
which were of a very interesting character. 



American Jtems. 



fHE "Gladstone Testimonial," a large ornament containing 
1,000 ounces of pure silver, is now on exhibition at 
Tiffany's. This magnificent and costly work of art is the 
gift of many of Mr. Gladstone's admirers in America. It stands 
36 inches high, with a width of 22 inches at the base. The 
testimonial is crowned with a small bust of Gladstone. The 
pose of the head is majestic, the face is stern yet of pleasant ex- 
pression, and the design is correct. Immediately below the bust 
is a pedestal with the inscription, " William Ewart Gladstone, 
Testimonial Presented by his American Admirers." This is in 
fancy letters with raised surface and a fancy scroll-work back- 
ground. In the centre of this part of the pedestal is a laurel 
wreath surrounding njari.s and scales of justice, with the words 
" Home Rule " in prominent letters. On the right side of this 
pedestal, and standing on the main pedestal, is a female form 
clothed in a light garment covered with stars. She holds in her 
left hand an Irish harp, and with her right arm lovingly clasped 
about the base of the bust, she looks up at the form of Gladstone 
with a face fixed with deep admiration. She represents the 
American admirers, and they are beautifully represented. Upon 
the other side of this pedestal is a large wreath of laurels, and on 
the back the date of presentation, 1887, is done in a richly 
ornamented style. Below this pedestal is the base. This is a 
large oblong block resting upon six feet of Celtic pattern. Its 
panels are ornamented with emblems. In the centre is re- 
presented the "lamp of learning," with the word " Sapientia " in 
block letters. Over this is the coat-of-arms of Christ Church 
College, with the words " Double First," which means to the men 
of this college that he took the first place both in mathematics and 
classics. To the right of this central group is a wreath with the 
emblem of justice, and to the left is a similar wreath with the 
emblem of kind-heartedness. The head of Homer in relief on the 
left side of the base indicates the classical learning of Gladstone, 
and that of Demosthenes upon the other indicates his great 
power as an orator. Shamrocks and stars and stripes are 
patterned into this testimonial with great skill and artistic effect. 
The whole piece, which is made solid and of pure silver, is a 
remarkable example of workmanship, and a work of art that does 
credit to all concerned in its construction. 



The Jeioeler's Circular says there is little doubt that the United 
States will yet be found to be exceedingly rich in all kinds of 
precious stones. The States, now noted for their gold and silver 
productions, have been but imperfectly prospected, and their re- 
sources are not even suspected. Every little while some miner 
accidentally stumbles upon some gem, the value of which he does 
not realise, but, because of its peculiar appearance, he holds for 
some one to pass upon ; and those who have the greatest familiarity 
with the geological formations of the country, predict that all 
kinds of precious -tones will yet be found in quantities. We have 
recently seen specimens of rough diamonds and rubies that were 
picked up by miners in the West, and several jewellers in this city 
have experts on the alert to pick up whatever is found in this line, 
and to follow up all indications of such dejiosits. The Government 
could well afford to encourage its geologists to prosecute this line 
of explorations, although experience has demonstrated that private 
enterprise usually accomplishes better results than any Govern- 
ment prospectors in matters of this kind. 



Silver in a Steel Furnace. — A new line of work was 
recently taken up by the Edgar Thomson Steel Co., Braddock, 
Pa. It was found necessary to repair the foundation of one of 
their furnaces, and while excavating the workmen came in contact 
with quite a quantity of lead which had worked its way out through 
the foundation. The lead came from ore used in making the 
best manganese iron, and as the furnace had been working 
extensively on this kind of iron, about 50 tons had been de- 
posited. It was analysed by the chemist at the works and found 
to contain 60 dols.' worth of silver to the ton. In extracting the 
silver the Company will be well paid for their trouble. 



July 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



Che Royal iDbseruatory Report. 



fjliW HE Report of the Astronomer Royal to the Board of 
<?M? Visitoi'S of the Royal Observatory, which was read at the 

1 annual visitation on June 4 last, has been published. 

The present Report, which is very complete, refers to the 
period of twelve months from May 21, 1886, to May 20, 1887, 
inclusive, and is divided into : I. Buildings and Grounds, 
Moveable Property, and Library. II. Astronomical Obser- 
vations. III. Spectroscopic and Photographic Observations. 
IV. Magnetical Observations. V. Meteorological Observations. 

VI. Printing and Distribution of Greenwich Publications. 

VII. Chronometers, Time Signals and Longitude Operations. 

VIII. Personal Establishment. IX. General Remarks. 

The extension of the two Computing Rooms has been 
sanctioned by the Admiralty, and provision for the work made in 
the estimates. The Quadrant Passage is to be included in the 
Lower Computing Room, and the Upper Computing Room is 
to extend over the Safe Room, witli a central opening and spiral 
staircase to establish ready communication between the two 
rooms. Above the extended portion of the Upper Computing 
Room a dome (18 feet in diameter) is to be erected, in which it 
is proposed to mount the Cooke 6-inch equatoreal, the photo- 
heliograph tube being attached to the same mounting. The 
combined instrument will be carried on a pier to be built on the 
top of the old Quadrant Pier, and will command a complete view 
of the sun throughout the day (an important consideration, as the 
work- of the photo-heliograph in its present position is seriously 
interfered with by trees and the Lassell dome). The. 6-inch 
Cooke refractor will be available for occupations, phenomena of 
Jupiter's satellites and other occasional observations. It is 
anticipated that the concentration of the astronomical establish- 
ment thus effected will prove of great advantage. 

The old instruments and apparatus have been thoroughly 
overhauled by Mr. Lewis, and those that appeared to be of 
only historical interest have been transferred to the Library 
No. 4, the remainder being disposed so as to be readily available 
for use. 

The two Simms equatoreals, part of the mounting of the 
Corbett equatoreal, a photo-heliograph and two photo-heliograph 
mountings, two 4-inch detached telescopes (Simms, Nos. 1 and 
2), and part of the single prism spectroscope, were lent for use 
in the eclipse expedition to Grenada last August. Mr. Turner 
proposes to use the telescope of the Simms equatoreal No. 1 and 
a small portable equatoreal mounting for the observation of the 
total solar eclipse of August next, in Hussia. 

No change of importance has been made in the transit circle 
beyond the renovation of the recording micrometer apparatus, 
which was much worn by constant use since 1873. 

The personal equation instrument, which is used to determine 
the personal errors made by observers, due to the individual 
peculiarity or disposition of each, has not been much used in the 
past year — partly owing to pressure of other work, and partly 
because it was deemed expedient, before making an extensive 
series of observations, to make arrangements for registering the 
end as well as the beginning of the contacts made by the 
instrument. With this object a small chronograph, by Krille, 
has been adapted by Messrs. E. Dent & Co. for electric 
registration of make and break contacts. The regular subjects of 
observation with the transit circle are the sun, moon, planets and 
fundamental stars, with other stars from a working catalogue. 
A new list of some 3,000 stars was prepared at the end of 
1886, to include all the stars in Groombridge's Catalogue and in 
the Harvard Photometry which had not been observed at 
Greenwich since 1867. The Annual Catalogue of stars observed 
in 1886 contains about 1,665 stars. 

The following shows the number of observations made with 
the transit circle in the twelve months ending May 20, 1887 : — 
Transits, the separate limbs being counted as 

separate observations ... ... ... 6,366 

Determinations of collimation error ... ... 304 

Determinations of level error... ... ... 410 



5,983 



385 



602 



Circle observations 

Determinations of nadir point (included in the 

number of circle observations) 
Reflexion observation of stars (similarly in- 
cluded) 

About 400 transits (included in the above number) have been 
observed with the reversion prism, to determine personalty 
depending on the direction of motion. 

The investigation of personal equations in eye and ear transits, 
as well as in chronographic, has been completed for the year 
1886, and the results accord well with those found in the previous 
year. The practice of observing two clock stars on each night 
by the eye and ear method has been maintained. 

The sidereal standard, mean solar clocks and the chrono- 
graph are in good order. Several auxiliary clocks which had 
not been cleaned for many years have been cleaned recently. 
Many interesting details are gone into in this section of the 
Report which our space will not allow of even enumerating. 

In Section IV. the Report states that the magnetical ob- 
servations have been continued on the same lines as in former 
years, changes in the magnetic declination, horizontal force and 
vertical force being continuously recorded by photography and 
the absolute values of magnetic declination, horizontal force and 
dip being determined from time to time by eye observation. 

Earth currents in two directions nearly at right angles to each 
other are also photographically registered. For these last the 
ordinates have hitherto been measured on an arbitrary scale, and 
it appeared desirable to obtain the data for expressing this in 
terms of the accepted electrical units. The authorities of the 
Post Office Telegraphs have courteously given their assistance in 
regard to the requisite electrical measurements, and an electrical 
balance for measuring resistance, a standard cell and a 
galvanometer of the Post Office pattern have been prepared under 
their auspices. In October last, Mr. H. R. Kenipe, of the Post 
Office Telegraphs, made some measures of the resistance of the 
earth current wires, but the conditions were not then favourable 
for insulation, and the wires were subsequently damaged by a 
snowstorm ; but it is believed they are now restored to their 
normal condition, and arrangements are being made to obtain 
the value of the difference of electric potential between the two 
earth plates on each line corresponding to a given length of 
ordinate en the photographic register. 

Under meteorological observations it is stated that the con- 
tinuous registers of barometer, dry and wet bulb thermometers, 
direction, pressure and velocity of wind, rain, sunshine and 
atmospheric electricity have been maintained with the usual regu- 
larity. The new sunshine recorder, of Professor Stoke's improved 
pattern, was brought into use at the bediming of 1887, the 
record with the Campbell instrument being, however, still 
maintained for purposes of comparison. Experiments were 
made last summer with the new thermograph and the standard 
thermometer stand to determine how far it is necessary to screen 
the thermometer bulbs from possible effect of radiation from 
neighbouring objects, but the results showed that there was no 
sensible difference from this cause, and the same result attended 
experiments with respect to the radiation from the ground. 

The mean temperature of the year 1886 was 48"7°, being - 6° 
below the average of the preceding 45 years. The highest 
air temperature in the shade was 89'8°on July 6, and the lowest 
16 - 5° on January 7. 

The number of chronometers now being tested at the 
Observatory is 225, and of these 170 (126 box chronometers, 
19 pocket chronometers and 25 deck watches) belong to the 
Navy, 52 box chronometers are the property of various chrono- 
meter makers who have sent them for the special competitive 
trial, and 3 deck watches have been placed for trial by Messrs. 
E. Dent & Co , with a view to the selection of two of them to be 
transferred to the Navy in exchange for some old chronometers. 
The first seven chronometers in the competitive trial of 1886 
were exceptionally good, the first chronometer being superior to 
any previously on trial except the first in 1882. 

The time of commencement of the annual trial of chronometers 
has been altered to the first Saturday in July, so that the 



THE WATCHMAKEE, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[July 1, 1887. 



trial may terminate at a more convenient time for the financial 
arrangements of the Admiralty. But as it is desired to 
increase the stock of Navy chronometers without delay, a 
supplementary trial (for which 52 chronometers have been 
entered) was commenced on March 5, the rating to terminate 
on June 18, just before the commencement of the ordinary 
annual trial. 

For the annual trial of deck watches, which commenced last 
November, fifteen watches were entered, and of these nine were 
purchased for the Navy, the first three being classed "A," or 
equal, in performance, to an average box chronometer. A sup- 
plementary trial took place in February and March, for which 
nine deck watches were entered, and of these seven were 
purchased for the Navy, the first two being classed " A." 

The watches in each trial were rated for a period of nine 
weeks, viz., two weeks (dial up) in the room at a temperature of 
50° to 55°, four weeks in four different positions in the oven 
(dial up, pendant up, pendant right, pendant left, arranged 
symmetrically) at a temperature of about 80°, and three weeks 
(dial up) in the room. When the period of rating in any posi- 
tion was less than a week, weekly rates were inferred from the 
rate for the period by simple proportion. 

In order to compare the performances of the several watches, 
" trial numbers," representing deviation in weekly rates, have 
been formed on the same general principles as for the chronometer 
trials. The trials in different positions introduce, however, a new 
element, and an arbitrary weight must be assigned to them in 
combining them with the trials " dial up." It has been con- 
sidered that when the watch is worn in the pocket the pendant 
will generally be " up," and that not more than one-third of the 
deviation " pendant right " or " pendant left " is likely to have 
practical effect. Putting a = difference between greatest and 
least weekly rates, " dial up:" b = greatest difference between 
one week and the next, "dial up;" c = difference between 
weekly rates, " pendant up " and "dial up : " d = difference 
between Aveekly rates, "pendant right " and " dial up;" e — 
difference between weekly rates " pendant left " and " dial up," 

the quantity c + - + — may be taken as the measure of the 
'6 3 

deviation in weekly rates due to positions in ordinary wear. 

Half weight, lias been given to this quantity in combining it with 

the trial number "dial up" (a + 2 b), on the assumption that 

the deck watch would be usually lying " dial up," and that it 

would not be carried in the pocket more than eight hours a day 

on the average. Thus the quantity a + 2 b + -1 ( c + ^ + ~) 

has been adopted as the trial number for deck watches. It has 
been arranged that for the future all pocket chronometers and 
deck watches rated at the Observatory after repair shall be tested 
in positions. 

'1 he following is a statement of the trials of chronometers and 
deck watches for purchase from the beginning of 1886 to the 
present time : — Annual trial of thirty-seven chronometers for 
the Navy, from January 9, 1886, to July 21, 1886 ; trial of 
fifteen deck watches for the Navy, from February 15, 188C, to 
March 6, 1886 ; trial of two chronometers for the Navy, from 
July 10, 1886, to November 16,1886; trial of eight chrono- 
meters for the Indian Government, from September 1, 1886, to 
September 31, 1886 ; trial of four deck watches for the Indian 
Government, from September 1, 1886, to September 31, 1886 ; 
trial of fifteen deck watches for the Navy, from November 27, 
1886, to January 22, 1887 ; supplementary trial of nine deck 
watches for the Navy, from February 5, 1887, to April 2, 1887 : 
supplementary trial of fifty-two chronometers for the Navy, from 
March 5, 1887, to June 18, 1887 ; trial of three deck watches 
for the Navy, from May 16, 1887, to July 18, 1887. 

In addition to the above, three chronometers have been tested 
for the Indian Government after being repaired. 

The temperature of the chronometer oven has been successfully 
regulated by Mr. Kullberg's automatic apparatus to the tempera- 
ture of about 80° for the trials of deck watches as well as to the 
higher temperature at which chronometers are tested. 



In June and July last year, Mr. Lewis spent several days at 
the Admiralty in comparing the chronometer books kept there 
with those of the Observatory, and after some trouble a complete 
accordance was finally secured. 

There have been only four cases of failure of the 1 p.m. signal 
to the Post Office Telegraphs. 

The new contact apparatus of the Westminster clock was 
brought into action on May 22, 1886, and the automatic signals 
from the clock have been received regularly from that date, 
except on three days following the snowstorm of December 26 
and 27. 

The error of the clock was insensible on 25 per cent, of the 
days of observation, 1' on 40 per cent., 2' on 22 per cent., 3' on 
11 per cent, and 4' on 2 per cent. On one day the signal was 
15' late, and on another day 10' late. 

A suggestion has been made that in view of the importance of 
the connection of the British and Continental surveys, the tele- 
graphic difference of longitude between Greenwich and Paris, 
which was originally determined with great care in 1854, should 
be confirmed in order to complete the network of telegraphic 
longitudes which have been determined of late years by Con- 
tinental astronomers. It seems desirable that Greenwich 
Observatory, which, under Sir G. B. Airy's direction, took such 
an active part in utilising the telegraph for the determination of 
longitude, should now assist in completing the cycle. The 
necessary exchange of observers and signals could conveniently be 
carried out in the summer of next year, when the French 
geodetists will, it is understood, be prepared for their share of 
the work. 

A review of the work of tin.' past twelve months shows that the 
activity of the Observatory has increased in various directions, 
and while the continuous trials of chronometers and deck watches 
(requiring special arrangements in each case) have made large 
demands on the time of the heads of the establishment, 
extraneous work in connection with the Navy has also absorbed 
a good deal of time that would otherwise have been free for 
scientific investigations, respecting which the Astronomer Royal 
observes that, while it seems desirable that such directly utilitarian 
work should be undertaken by the Observatory as being the only 
existing Government establishment where itcan be done efficiently, 
the existing staff is inadequate for these extraneous duties in 
addition to the well-defined work for which the Observatory is 
primarily maintained, and suggests an increase of the staff 
together with the delegation of further responsibility to the 
present assistants. 

In concluding an excellent and most comprehensive Report, he 
says : — " Proceeding on the lines which have been laid down by 
my predecessor, I believe that the maximum of efficiency at the 
minimum of cost would be attained if an increase of work were 
met by an increase in the staff of computers, with due recognition 
of the position of two or three senior computers, and of the in- 
creased responsibility of the assistants." 



A jNeuu Astronomical Hlock. 



fHE illustration shows a new combination, the recent in- 
vention of Messrs. Diette & Hour, of Paris. The 
construction of this clock is, according to M. Saunier, 
based on the principle of the Mouret Clock, the inventors having 
added some accessory indications and modified the disposition of 
the whole with the double result of producing a more useful and 
ornamental article at a marketable price, which renders its 
widespread adoption assured, not only by the chief scholastic 
institutions, but by all to whom an observation of the conditions 
under which the celestial phenomena are accomplished is of interest. 
The following is the explanation of its functions given by the 
inventors : — The astronomical clock represents the terrestrial 
globe, to which the train of the clock communicates the two 
principal movements of the earth in space : the one, its rotation 
upon itself in 24 hours ; the other, its different positions in its 
course around. the sun in 365 days. The sphere thus driven by 



.July 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



the train of the clock* enables us to know its position in space at 
each moment of the year, and gives us mechanically the 
explanation of the seasons, the duration of the days and nights, 
the relative hour upon all the points of the globe, the sun's rising 
and setting; and, besides, the axis of this sphere carrying a divided 
circle, whereon are inscribed the dates and months of the year, 
and the clock giving by a little dial above the six o'clock the 
days of the week, we have here a complete calendar. A little 
sun that may be seen in front of the centre of the sphere shows 
the noon upon every point of the globe passing under his disc. 
The large arc of the vertical circle separates the sphere into two 
equal parts : in front it is day (the light part), and at the back 
it is night (the dark part). We have, then, the indication of 
day, of night, of sunrise, and of sunset upon all the points of 
the globe. 



under the sun ; this is the epoch when 1 , from the meridian of 
Paris, we receive his rays the most directly. Continuing the 
movement we shall arrive at September 21, or autumnal equinox, 
and the equator will return to its place under the sun, but in the 
contrary sense relatively to the spring time. Placing, then, the 
calendar at December 21, or winter solstice, the Tropic of 
Capricorn will come in like manner under the sun ; this is the' 
epoch in which we receive his rays most obliquely. In executing 
this accelerated movement, it may be seen that at March 21 the 
superior pole is presented in the bright part, in front of the 
vertical circle, and remains there until September 21, the epoch 
where this pole goes into the obscure part, or into the night. 
The contrary is the case for the south pole; one has thus the 
mechanical explanation of the days and nights of six months in 
the polar regions. 




A New Astronomical Clock. 



The large horizontal circle, divided into 24 hours, permits 
of the time being ascertained of every country of the globe, 
relatively to any given place. 

To use the apparatus for purposes of demonstration : — By 
turning the button which may be seen under the sphere, the 
movement of rotation is obtained. By drawing out the button 
at the back, the sphere is disengaged from the mechanism of the 
clock, which allows its being shifted quickly and facilitates the 
explanation of astronomical phenomena. Thus by bringing 
March 21 on the calendar under the index, we have the vernal 
equinox, and the equator will be placed under the solar ray ; the 
star, figured by the little sun, surmounting the horizontal circle 
of 24 hours. Passing to June 21 we shall have the summer 
solstice, and the Tropic of Cancer will in its turn be placed 



To ascertain the duration of the day at any date, and for a 
given town, it is only necessary to bring the point of the calendar 
indicating this day under the index, and to count the number of 
hours and fractions of the hour which pass under the little sun 
during which the said town remains visible in the bright part 
from its entrance at the left until its exit at the right. The 
hours of sunrise and of sunset for the same town are similarly 
obtained ; by observing its entrance at the left in the bright 
part (this is the sunrise), and its exit at the right (dark side), 
this is the sunset ; the little sun serves as the index upon the 
sphere. The sun rises then for each country when it enters at 
the left in the bright part, and he sets for those at the right 
entering the dark part. The 24 hours engraved upon the circle 
are those for the countries respectively passing it. 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[July 1,1! 



A Short History of the Chimble. 

By Herman Bush. 
r 7r'?XKNT:i lii-r ■•iifdiiin- < i *1« ' I > i;i t i< »i i . held in Octobar, 1384. at 



Amsterdam, in honour of the inventor of the thimble. 
introduced by Nicholas van Benschoten, a gallant young 
goldsmith, and made in the first instance for the protection of the 
finger of his fair and industrious lady-love, and its origin, like 
many other things, attributed to Dan Cupid, a search has been 
instituted in " Industrial Old Records " to find a priority of the 
existence of this little and useful article, and the following notes 
are the result, which are beyond doubt fully authenticated : — 

In the year 1568 appeared, at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, a book 
entitled " Eygentliche Beschreibung Aller Stiinde auff Erden 
Holier und Nidrigor Geistlicher und Weltlicher, aller Kiinsten, 
Handwereken und Handeln, etc.," illustrated by the renowned 
German artist of the second half of the 16tl) century, Jost 
Ammann. and versified by the well-known German national poet, 
Hans Sachs, in which we find a direct allusion to the 
" Fingerhiiter '" or thimble-maker. 

The illustrations of the thimble in this old book arc exactly 
like the thimbles now in use and fully known to every person 
engaged in sewing by hand. The verses are here produced in the 
original old German, with a free translation annexed — 
'■ Auss Messing mach icli Fingerhiit, 
Blechweiss, werden im Feuer g'liit, 
Dann in das Eysen 'nein getrieben, 
Danach Lochlein derein gehieb'en. 

Gar maneherlcy Art. eng und writ. 
Fiir Schuster und Schneider bereit, 
Fur Seidensticker und Niiterin, 
Des Handwercks ich ein Meister bin." 
Translation — Of brass I make thimbles by cutting discs and anneal 
in the fire, and then forced hollow into an iron, afterwards provided with 
little sinks. I make them of various shapes, narrow and wide, for 
cobblers and tailors ready at sight, for silk embroidress and seamstress 
and other trades I supply and bless. 

As seen in the verse, even various shapes of thimbles were 
known at that remote time. 

Jost Ammann's masterly "Beschreibung aller Stiinde" 
(Description of all Handicrafts) has recently been reproduced in 
fac-simile by Dr. Georg Wirth, of Munich, and can bo highly 
recommended to all connoisseurs of old industries and curious 
manipulations. The noted Amsterdam goldsmith, Nicholas van 
Benschoten, and his alleged original invention and manufacture 
of the finger protector (thimble) for his sweetheart, can there- 
fore have reference only to the thimble made by him in this in- 
stance ; and, most probably, more likely to the artistic embellish- 
ment of the thimble which the gallant knight of love presented 
to his fair affianced on her birthday. Yet a far more remote and 
equally reliable record gives the thimble — this little unpretending, 
and, for industrious ladies, indispensable auxiliary — an older 
existence. In one of Adalbert von Keller's (published Shrove 
Tuesday) plays of the 15th century, he makes the jolly hawker 
of haberdashery — small wares — announce to the assembled crowd 
of youths and damsels, men and women, around him — 
" Ich ban gut Schnur fur's Unterhemd, 
Audi hab' ich Nadeln. Burst und Katnm', 
Fingerhiit, Tascben und Schaclitel viel, 
Heftlein and Hiiklein. wie man will." 
Translation. — I have good tape for the chemise, and likewise, and 
likewise needles, brushes and combs, thimbles, bags and boxes many, 
handles and crochets for you any. 

This is, however, not yet the oldest record of the thimble, 
which, it appears, was already known in the 12th century. 

The. Royal Library at Wiesbaden, Germany, contains an in- 
teresting manuscript of the 13th century, which brings literary 
extracts by the Saincted Hildegauo, composed in the 12th 
century. In these curious literary collections we find a compila- 
tion of 900 words with a translation in an unknown and lost 
language Amongst the words mention is made of Vingerhuth 
(thimble), which is called Ziriskanz in the strange translation. 
In the recent excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii, which 
in the year 7!) a.d. were overwhelmed by an eruption of the 
volcano Vesuvius, tiny metal cups were found, which, judging 
from the shapa and size, could hardly be used for any other 
purpose than a protection of the finger whilst engaged in sewing. 



In England, the thimble must have been known and in use for 
a considerable period, and no doubt in great demand, as wo can 
trace by " London Statistics of Industries" a certain John Lofting, 
a cunning craftsman, who in 1695 seized on the idea to set up 
what was then considered a manufactory, consisting of a show- 
case in the front window of his house, displaying a variety of 
thimbles, and a small workshop for the making of this specialty 
at Islington, in the north of London. 

Thimbles were readily purchased, not only for use, but for orna- 
ment as an emblem of industry and suitable present, and John 
Lofting enjoyed an extensive patronage which created envy with 
other metal workers, who soon started improved manufactories of 
thimbles. 

The thimble was first known as a thuiuble, from a corrupted 
combination of the words thumb and bell, and old records intimate 
that it was originally worn on the thumb, but it appears hardly 
conceivable that it could have been of much use there. Thimbles 
were made at that time of iron or brass for ordinary use : of gold, 
silver, horn and ivory inlaid with gold, mother-of-pearl, glass or 
highly-polished steel for ornaments, and richly chased or 
engraved. The embellishment of fancy thimbles were frequently 
not only highly artistic, but sometimes carried on to such an 
extent as to make the article unwearable for use. 

Relating to the excess of ornamenting the thimble, the young 
King of Siam recently succeeded in outstripping all competitors in 
the production of a magnificent thimble as a present to his bride. 
1 laving seen the European and American ladies accompanying 
the diplomatic and naval officers at his court using this useful 
protection for the finger, he was struck with its benefit and 
determined to introduce the thimble among his people. Even in 
Siam they have fashions : and a female leader for such articles as 
these securing the introduction, he solved the difficult) by 
ordering a thimble in the shape of the lotus, tin' royal flower of 
India. The Queen Consort of Siam owns, therefore, a gold 
thimble, not only shaped like a lotus bud of exquisite workman- 
ship, but thickly studded with diamonds, which are so arranged 
as to form the royal name of tic recipient ami the date of the 
marriage of the royal couple. As the Siamese language is by 
no means succinct in letters and signs to express word-, it can 
therefore be readily understood that the diamonds used for this 
purpose are plentiful ; but the use of the present as a thimble is 
no doubt impaired by its decoration. 

In recent years numerous attempts have been made to 
overcome the almost universal complaint that every shop- 
keeper is only too familiar with, that silver thimbles are 
not as serviceable and durable as desired, by having too 
little resisting power when brought into daily contact and use 
with the needle. Stone ends have been introduced, and steel ones 
also ; each in turn have been condemned as not answering the 
proffered advantage, and have, besides, been found to be useless 
to the great majority of wearers who use tin' sides of the thimble 
only. To meet this objection, and achieve a thorough success 
against it, an idea was conceived by a practical manufacturer — an 
ingenious jeweller of good repute and standing, Mr. Charles 
Horner, carrying on an extensive establishment at Halifax, 
Yorkshire — to make a thimble on the principle that may be best 
described as an armour-plated silver thimble, which is made of 
three separate parts, closely wedged together, the inner and 
outer parts being silver and the intermediate part steel. The 
three parts are conjointly struck up together by special machinery 
made for the purpose, producing a solid resisting power that 
fully justifies the expression of "armour plated," and becomes 
for durability unequalled. 

These thimbles are made in all the different (and every one 
plainly numbered) sizes as may b> required for tli3 fingers of 
children or adults, and may be had either in plain finish, or 
richly chased or engraved in various designs. 

This thimble novelty, called "The Dorcas," is protected by 
Royal Letters Patent by the inventor and manufacturer, and 
handled with decided success by many respectable firms, who 
find for the article a continually increasing demand, and requires 
only to be submitted for inspection and explained to effect a sale 
to ladies frequenting jewellers' establishments. 



July 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



Che Albert fftebal. 



|S|T the meeting of the Council of the Society of Arts on 6th 



ult., a letter was read from the Secretary of His Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales (the President of the 
Society), informing the Council that Her Majesty the Queen had 
intimated to His Royal Highness her willingness to accept the 
Albert Medal. It was offered to Her Majesty by the Council, 
with the approval of H.R.H. the President, in this the Jubilee 
Year, in commemoration of the progress of arts, manufactures, 
and commerce throughout the empire during the 50 years of 
her reign. 

The following leading article on the award of the Albert 
Medal appeared in the Times, Tuesday, June 7 : — 

The Albert Medal of the Society of Arts, for the year 1887, 
has been awarded by the Council of the Society to the Queen ; 
and, at a meeting of the Council held yesterday, it was officially 
announced that the President, the Prince of Wales, had formally 
confirmed the award, and that Her Majesty had signified her 
consent to accept the medal. The Albert Medal was founded in 
the year 1862 as a memorial of His Royal Highness the Prince 
Consort, who was for eighteen years the President of the Society ; 
and it is directed by the bye-laws to be awarded annually for 
" distinguished merit in promoting arts, manufactures or com- 
merce." The recipient may be of any nation ; and it lias always 
been the practice of the Society to take a somewhat wide view of 
the question, and to look to the indirect, as well as to the direct, 
results of individual activity. A precedent for the presentation 
of the medal to a reigning Sovereign was early established — the 
first award, in 1864, having been made to Sir Rowland Hill 
" for his great services in the creation of the penny postage, and 
for other reforms of the postal system, the benefits of which have 
extended over the civilised world;" — and the second in the 
following year, to His Imperial Majesty Napoleon III., for 
" distinguished merit in promoting, in many ways, by his per- 
sonal exertions, the international progress of arts, manufactures 
and commerce, the proofs of which are afforded by his judicious 
patronage of art, his enlightened commercial policy, and especially 
by the abolition of passports in favour of British subjects." Of 
the 21 subsequent awards, eight have been to foreigners ; and it 
would be difficult to find any greater names among the men who 
in this country have signalised themselves in the arts of peace. 
Faraday, Cooke and Wheatstone (jointly), Sir Joseph Whitworth, 
Liebig, de Lesseps, Sir H. Cole, Sir H. Bessemer, Chevreul, 
Sir VV. Siemens, Michael Chevalier, Sir G. Airy, Jean Baptiste 
Dumas, Sir W. Armstrong, Sir VV. Thomson, Professor Hofmann, 
Pasteur, Sir Joseph Hooker, Captain Eads, Henry Doultou and 
Samuel Lister complete the tale ; and it will be seen that the 
principles governing the selection have been of the most com- 
prehensive character. The award to Her Majesty expresses the 
conviction of the Council that the 50 years of her reign have 
been such as to foster art and industry, to elevate taste, and to 
establish conditions which have rendered the conquests of science 
more accessible to all ranks, from the highest to the lowest, than 
they could have been in any less favourable circumstances. The 
throne has been so filled as to increase the strength and stability 
of the national fabric, and the personality of the Sovereign has 
been a potent agency in the promotion of every good and useful 
work. The Queen's acceptance of the medal will confer additional 
lustre upon it and upon the Society, as well as upon all who in 
future years may be distinguished in a similar manner. 

The award of the Albert Medal, which, in the nature of things, 
can hardly be received otherwise than as the crown of a long 
career of usefulness and honour, can hardly be said to exert any 
active influence in the promotion of the efforts which it serves to 
mark and to commemorate. It is, nevertheless, a fitting thing 
that the selection of the recipient should be entrusted to the 
Society of Arts, a body which has been active for good during 
what is now, comparatively speaking, the long term of its 
existence. Many of the m ost important industrial steps of the 
century have been first made known at the meeting-room in the 



Adelphi, either by those with whom they originated, or in the 
many and various lectures which have been delivered under the 
endowment of Dr. Cantor ; and the Society has been no less 
useful by the manner in which it encouraged technical education 
long before the necessity for such encouragement had come to be 
recognised by general public opinion. Nor must it be forgotten 
that the organisation which it possesses is such as to afford very 
complete securities against the neglect of any kind of merit. 
The Council, with whom the sebction rests, is itself recruited 
from a very wide field, and always contains representatives of 
many kinds of knowledge ; while it has been the praiseworthy 
custom to ask for the suggestion of names not only from 
members of the Society of Arts itself, but also from foreign 
academies and institutions, and from the councils and presidents 
of English learned societies. In this way it is scarcely possible 
for any valid claim to be overlooked ; while an additional 
security is afforded by a bye-law which requires the presence' 
of twelve members of the Council when the award is made, and 
the concurrence of nine of them in the selection. Besides this, 
the award must lie confirmed by the President, with whom there 
therefore rests, by implication if not explicitly, a power to object, 
and to require from the Council a statement of the considerations 
by which they have been guided. It can afford no surprise that 
a distinction thus safeguarded should be a matter of high 
ambition among all who have any kind of claim to aspire to it ; 
and the recommendations of both English and foreign learned 
bodies have been frequently made with an earnestness which 
sufficiently demonstrated their feeling upon the subject. It has 
been the custom that the medal should be given by the President 
in the presence of the assembled Council ; and a meeting for 
this purpose has usually been held at Marlborough House ; but 
it will be in the recollection of our readers that the Prince of 
Wales conferred upon Mr. Doulton the honour of going to the 
works at Lambeth, and of giving him the medal in the presence 
not only of the Council, but of the assembled artists and potters 
in his employment. Of the ceremonial which will be observed 
on the occasion of the presentation to the Queen it would, of 
course, at present be premature to speak. 

It would be impossible to glance over the list of persons which 
we have given above without some consideration of the mighty 
advances in human knowledge, and the vast additions to human 
welfare and convenience which have been the direct issue of their 
labours. The Albert Medal dates only from the last half of the 
reign, but what changes does it not commemorate ! Before its 
establishment worthy recipients had, so to speak, accumulated ; 
and the first awards were to men whose work was already in 
great part finished. Rowland Hill, Faraday, Cooke, Wheatstone, 
de Lesseps and Thomson collectively represent the changes which 
have occurred in the methods of communication between indi- 
viduals and countries, or the rise of the present postal, tele- 
graphic and telephonic services. Whitworth represents the 
accuracy of measurement which has rendered it possible to make 
the parts of machinery interchangeable, or to construct from 
written descriptions a portion of an engine which may be 
conveyed to the Antipodes, and fitted into its allotted place. 
Liebig, Chevreul, Dumas. Joule, Hofmann and Pasteur represent 
the influence of physical science, sometimes in its most abstruse 
forms, upon the actual management of industries which afford 
maintenance to thousands of people. Bessemer, Siemens and 
Armstrong represent practical metallurgy ; Hooker represents 
the utilisation of innumerable vegetable products ; Cole, the 
Science and Art Department and the South Kensington Museum ; 
Chevalier, the influence of political economy ; Airy, the increased 
safety of navigation ; and Eads, the advances which recent years 
have witnessed in the maintenance and improvement of water- 
ways. There is not one of these great developments which does 
not serve to lighten the daily life of every inhabitant of any 
civilised country, which does not increase comfort, afford pleasure, 
and cheapen necessaries. At the rate of modern progress there 
need be no fear but that each recurring period of election will 
bring to the Council of the Society of Arts an embarrassing 
abundance of fitting claimants rather than a scarcity of them ; 
and there can be no doubt but that the gracious consent of Her 



10 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[July 1,11 



Majesty to add her name to the illustrious list of the recipients 
will greatly enhance the future value of the award. While those 
who have already received the medal represent, as we have said, 
the departments of science or of industry in which they have 
become famous, the Queen may be held to be in this case the 
personal embodiment oE the nation, and to represent the 
aggregate of its work. In her hands the medal will be a fitting 
memorial of the beneficial changes which have occurred since she 
assumed the sceptre, and of the multitudinous benefits which her 
people have received under her sway. 



Machine for mahing "UUatch liases. 



'ESSRS. KELLER & GRTJRlNG,of Bienne, Switzerland, 
*.V:JIE have invented and patented a very ingenious tool for 
making tlie different parts of watch cases in gold, silver or 
other metals, which is said to execute the work with great rapidity, 
without solder, and almost without waste. As the cut shows, it 
is very simple. It consists of the following parts : — An arbor 
which carries a pulley and a dummy pulley, so that a movement 
of the hand throws the arbor into or out of action. This arbor 
receives at its hollow end four segments of a circle presenting 
exteriorly the exact form of the inside of the band or middle of 
a case ; a cylindrical chuck fixes by a vice the exact pressure to 
be applied against the side of the hole, and at the same time 
holds the disc that has been previously pressed into the roller 
and which is destined to form the middle. A wheel, having 
the exterior form, but in hollow, of the middle, is carried by a 
chariot held in a vice ; and, lastly, another wheel neutralises the 
pressure on the arbor of the first wheel. 

The disc of gold, silver, &c, is made slightly convex to 
facilitate the work, and fixed at the extremity of the arbor; 
the last is put in motion, and the chariot approached to it, 
which forces the metal to take the form of the moulds. The 
form of the band, the snaps for the bottoms, the cover and the 
recess for the dial are all made at a single operation. The 
interior moulds are composed of many pieces, coming thus 
easily out of the middle. A similar machine is used for making 
the bottoms and the bezels. A middle is completed in one 
minute ; the work being clean and without burr. 

Messrs. Keller & Griiring have patented their invention in all 
countries. 



Society of Arts £onuersazione. 



fHE Society's Conversazione was held at the South Kensing- 
ton Museum (by permission of the Lords of the Committee 
of Council on Education), on Wednesday evening, 
June 15. 

The galleries containing the Raphael Cartoons, the Sheep- 
shanks Collection, the William Smith Collection of Water 
Colour Drawings, the Dyce and Forster Pictures, and " The 
Chantrey Bequest," were open. 

The reception was held in the South Court by Captain Douglas 
Galton, C.B., D.C.L.,. F.R.S., Chairman, and the following 
Vice-Presidents and Members of the Council : — Mr. R. Brudenell 
Carter, F.R.C.S., Mr. Charles Cheston, Mr. Francis Cobb, 
Mr. T. R. Crampton, Sir Juland Danvers, K.C.S.I., Professor 
Dewar, F.R.S., Colonel Donnelly, R.E.. Mr. VV. H. Preece, 
F.R.S., Sir Robert Rawlinson, C.B., and Mr. Owen Roberts. 

Promenade concerts were given by the band of the Royal 
Artillery (Conductor, Cav. L. Zaverthal) in the North Court, 
and by the band of the Royal Horse Guards, Blues (Conductor, 
Mr. Charles Godfrey), in the Courtyard of the Museum; and 
a vocal and instrumental concert by scholars ot\the Royal College 
of Music, by permission of the Director, in the Lecture Theatre. 

The number of visitors attending the Conversazione was 3,800. 



Siluersmithing. 



JSlN an original article written for the American Manufacturing 
JL> Ji'ireh'r, this subject is treated in a very able and interesting 
manner ; and, as the extent to which the American taste in 
the applied arts has been developed of late years is but very par- 
tially realised in this country, a reproduction of the principal 
part of the article may be useful for purposes of enlightening 
our own producers in more than one way : — 

Silversmithing and goldsmithing originally comprised the art 
of working in all the precious metals, embracing, therefore, jewels 
and jewellery as well as the larger pieces pertaining to the table, 
instruments, sacerdotal utensils, &c. It is to the larger pieces of 
silversmithing proper, however, that we devote this encyclopaedic 
monograph. The art of giving rich and beautiful forms to gold 
and silver is one of great antiquity. The products of the silver- 
smith were extremely remarkable in Asia, Egypt, Phoenicia, 
Judea, Greece and Rome. In comparatively recent discoveries 
we are furnished with a great number of objects of Egyptian 
production which enable us to form a just and nearly correct 
idea of this work among them in the most remote times. The 
museum of the Louvre contains a beautiful group in gold which 
represents the Egyptian Trinity (Osiris, Isis and Horus). Another 
remarkable work of this character is a boat found in the tomb of 
Aah-Hotep with a quantity of other precious objects in gold and 
silver, such as rings, armlets, bracelets, collars, chains, diadems, 
pectorals, &c. The boat is of massive gold, and furnished with 
its crew : in the how stands the pilot, amidships twelve rowers 
with their commander, and in the stern the helmsman : these 
figures are all in silver. The museum of Boulac possesses 
Egyptian vases of silver of the greatest antiquity, contempo- 
raneous perhaps to the great quantity of articles in gold and 
silver which the Israelites carried away in their exodus, and 
which proves that the art existed in the country at that time. 
Sometime after the exodus, the Israelites having demanded of 
Aaron that he should give them a peaceful God, they collected 
the jewellery of the women and maidens and made the golden 
calf. Moses returned from Sinai with the tables of the law, and 
indignant at their return to idolatry dissolved the calf in acids — 
at least, so says the German savant, Klaproth. After the Jewish 
people, we read in Homer that among the rich presents which 
Priam gave for the body of his son Hector, there were two mag- 
nificent tripods of a work so remarkable that it dazzled the eyes, 
and also many vases of great richness, and a cup of infinite price 
which was received from the Thracians at the time when he was 
sent to them as an ambassador. We see furthermore in Homer 
that Menelaus and Helen received from Egypt pieces of silver 
work decorated with gold ; and from the same author we learn 
that the sword of King Agamemnon had a handle of gold, and the 
description of the shield of Achilles gives also decorations of gold 
and colours finely chased. The women of Athens at a period of 
great antiquity carried in their hair grasshoppers of gold — a 
symbol indicating that they were of good birth, and, like that 
insect, born on the soil of Greece. There is in the museum of 
the Hermitage in St. Petersburg a superb Greek vase of silver, 
found near Nicopol, in 18(13, in a tumulus. Its form is that of 
an amphora, and its date the 4th century B.C., which was the 
most beautiful epoch of Greek silversmithing, as the rich and 
exquisite ornamentation clearly shows. Some of the repousse 
work is gilded. It was designed for holding the wine mingled 
with snow which they served at their feasts. 

The Romans borrowed of the Greeks the art of silversmithing 
as they borrowed everything else in the line of art. In Rome the 
silver work of Delos was very highly estimated, and consequently 
very much sought after. Under the empire the table utensils as 
well as many articles of furniture were of gold or silver, and they 
existed in great abundance. These vases, cups and pateras were 
in daily use, and served to emphasise the extravagant luxury that 
everywhere prevailed. We get an idea of the merit of these 
works of art from the specimens preserved in our museums, such 
as the vases of the Cardinal Albani, which represents the atone- 
ment of Orestes and the labours of Hercules, and also the two 



July 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



11 



celebrated pieces known as the shield of Scipio and the shield of 
Hannibal. It goes without saying that a vast store of these 
objects have perished in the wars and in the conflagrations. It 
is also known that the great number that Rome had pillaged 
from the barbarians and taken to Rome in order to make a 
display of booty were retaken from her again by her uncivilised 
enemies when she succumbed to their inroads at a later date. 
This may explain why certain pieces of Roman silversmithing 
have been found far from the Roman territory. For instance, 
they have unearthed in Hanover, in the environs of Hildesheim, 
about 45 objects of undoubted Roman production, and which 
comprise drinking cups elaborately decorated, urns, pateras, 
utensils of the table, &c. 

The Roman art of silversmithing was perpetuated in Europe 
until the 5th century, and that the production was enormous we 
may learn from the fact that in the first years of our era, according 
to Posidonius, Q. Servilius Capio took possession of the treasures 
of the Tectosages preserved in Toulouse, which were valued at 
15,000,000 talents (about 17,000,000 dols.). In the 6th 
century the most renowned school of silversmithing in Gaul was 
located at Limoges, where the art of enamelling had already 
become pretty well advanced. Eligius (St. Eloi), who was born 
in Chatelac in 588 and died in 659, was a noted artist and also 
an excellent caligrapher. He executed not only silversmiths' 
work, but also metallic bookbinding. Eligius had been suc- 
cessively bishop of Abbon and citizen of Limoges and of Thillo. 
He had besides frequent relations with another silversmith, 
named Banderic. Of the 7th and 8th centuries and until 
the 11th, that is to say under the Merovingians and the Carlo- 
vingians, it is granted that all the works of silversmithing are 
works of the so-called barbarians. In the meantime our museums 
contain specimens of silversmithing of these epochs which testify 
of the skill and the style of the artists by whom they were 
executed : for example, the Scythian diadem of Novo-Tscherkask, 
the objects composing the treasures of Petrossa and of Guarrazar, 
the cross said to be by St. Eloi, the crown of Charlemagne, and 
all other remarkable and well-known works of Byzantine enamel- 
ling. In the 11th century the silversmiths made chiefly objects 
which were used in the churches : the sacred vessels and shrines. 
Paris and Limoges occupied the first rank in the fabrication of 
these articles, the makers — after John of Garland — being divided 
into four classes : the coiners, the jewellers, the fermailleurs and 
the makers of drinking cups The establishment of the corpora- 
tion of silversmiths belongs to a period so remote that its date is 
unknown. The most ancient documents which we have tend to 
demonstrate that this corporation existed some time before the 
reign of Louis IX., about 1260. This body of silversmiths, which 
enjoyed certain prerogatives, was also charged with hindering 
the progress of the art. During the 12th and 13th centuries 
silversmithing was in the ascendant. Limoges produced a great 
number of pieces which were called "works of Limoges." 
Among the pieces preserved in the cathedrals the works of 
Limoges made during the 13th century are very easily dis- 
tinguishable from the earlier objects on account of the im- 
prints or stamps. 

The shrines of this epoch are veritable Gothic boxes, as we may 
say, notably in the shrine of St.-Taurin of Evreux, that of St. 
Julie, a Jouarre, and especially that of Nivelles. The commence- 
ment of the .16th century was a period of great depression in 
silversmithing, for the wars which exhausted France at this 
epoch forced Louis XII. to sign an edict forbidding all the 
silversmiths making any pieces, vessels, shrines, table utensils, 
&c, without previous authority; but some years after the acces- 
sion of Francis I., about 1528 or 1530, silversmithing, which 
was flourishing in Italy, made progress in France by reason of 
the patronage of Francis. Painters like Leonardo di Vinci, the 
Primatice, the Rossa, and jewellery silversmiths like Matteo del 
Xassaro, Benvenuto Cellini, and many others who had been 
called to the court, strongly stimulated the emulation of the 
French artists. The last named has almost become the patron 
saint of the silversmiths to this day. Among others might be 
named Pirame Triboulet, Pierre Mangot, Benedict Ramel, 
Etienne Delaune, F. Dujardin, F. Briot, Jean de la Haye, &c. 



At the commencement of the 17th century, silversmithing 
attained its zenith, and realised the greatest perfection in France. 
Among the artists of this epoch we find Louis Roupert, of Metz, 
but who worked in Paris and made there a reputation. This is 
the period also of Ballin, who at the age of 29 made four basins 
of silver, upon which figured the four ages of the world. These 
basins were bought by Richelieu, who ordered four others of 
antique style. The sculptor Sarrasin, astonished at the talent 
of the young silversmith, chiselled him divers bas reliefs. Ballin 
worked also in enamelled gold the first sword and the first gorget 
of Louis XIV., and a mirror of gold for Anne of Austria. 

We have followed the art into France because it was the 
country that first received it from Rome, but other countries 
made a more pronounced progress in the 15th and 16th cen- 
turies, particularly Italy. Germany caught the inspiration of 
the renaissance a little late, but she retained it longest. Of pieces 
produced near the beginning of our era the collection unearthed 
in the Bosphorus, and at present treasured in the museum of the 
Hermitage at St. Petersburg, gives a good idea of not only the 
finer Grecian work, but also the more barbarous styles of the 
early inhabitants of Russia. Reproductions of most of these are 
now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in Xew York. 



Shetton's New Fusee-Keyless TJIorh. 



m 



miFf^ illustrate a new winding arrangement for fusee watches, 
which is the invention of Mr. M. W. Skelton, of Park 
Place, Liverpool. It is similar in principle to the 
Kullberg and Chalfont windings, and seems to have the elements 
of a good fusee-keyless work, viz., strength and simplicity. 
The intermediate wheel gearing into the winding pinion is carried 
on a moveable bar and comes into action with the wheel on the 

fusee arbor when the button 
is turned in the direction of 




winding, 



being kept free 



from the latter wheel when 
not thus in use by means 
of a spring pressing against 
the bar. Two screws or 
studs keep the bar in its 
place, the lowermost shown 
acting as the pivot of the 
rocking bar, while the upper 
one, besides preventing the 
bar from rising from the 
plate when undue pressure 
is applied to the winding 
mtton, permits of the ad- 
justment of a good depth 
between the intermediate 
and fusee wheels. 

The second rocking bar, 
which carries the wheel for 
Skelton's New Fusee-Keyless Work. Setting the hands, has a 

projecting hook, which, on pushing in the push-piece, locks the 
first bar in its place and prevents it from going over to the other 
side, an,d the wheel from getting out of gear with the set-hand 
and motion wheels. 



"The European Mail" and "The Colonies and India." 
— The success of the " Industrial Supplement " which has for 
some years past been published with these allied journals — now 
numbering 242 issues annually— has induced the proprietors to 
start another novel addition in the form of a " Household Stip- 
plement." This will be published for the first time in July, and 
the fact that it is to be edited by Mrs. Carey-Hobson and Miss 
Buckland is sufficient proof that it will contain all that is latest, 
most interesting and most serviceable in matters appertaining to 
the family circle. A serial story, specially written for the Sup- 
plement by Mr. Percy Russell, will be an additional attraction. 



12 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[July 1, 188?. 



Tilatch iDils. 



*'Kl CORRESPONDENT of the Deutsch Uhrmacher Zeitung 
^P^; writes : — Where can we get a good, serviceable watch oil ? 
This question forces itself upon the watchmaker even- 
little while, after he has found out, to his vexation, that the oil 
which he employed for some time does not comply with the 
reasonable expectations made of it ; and the question will be an 
ojjen one until we are furnished with an oil that shall answer all 
reasonable demands, and is recognised as serviceable by the 
majority of watchmakers. Some of the oils found at present in 
commerce are open to one objection, the others to some other 
one, What with these shortcomings and defects of oils, the 
watchmaker is constantly in a " sea of trouble " with his cus- 
tomers, who blame him for careless work. 

The queries as to some brand of oil are frequently answered in 
different manners by colleagues. Its faults are often wittingly 
withheld, for reasons of delicacy, and the interrogating watchmaker 
who, by the insufficiency of the lubricant he customarily employs, 
is forced to change it for some other make, will after ail have to 
depend on good luck with the next lot. 

But why trust to good luck ? Most surely the oil can be 
tested for its quality before it is used, many a watchmaker will 
rejoin. He will ever prescribe the "modus operandi" fordoing 
it. Place a few drops of it upon brass or copper in small sinks 
or gutters upon an inclined plane — a custom universally employed 
— and from the result you ,may form a judgment of its different 
virtues : whether it is too viscid or too liquid, whether it attacks 
the metals, whether it is inclined to volatilising, thickening, 
drying or other vexations : whether it congeals in the cold, or 
when brought between two metallic plates it becomes sticky. If 
none of these evils are visible after the course of several days or 
weeks, the oil is deemed to be very good, and is without further 
thought taken into use. 

Also, I have observed this mode of testing, and deducted my 
conclusions therefrom, having at present nine different sorts of oil 
under test on brass and copper. But I have recently found 
out how unreliable this mode is, and I deem the experience I 
gather important enough to be published for the information of 
my colleagues, at the same time soliciting them, in case their 
observations should coincide with mine, to also publish their 
deductions. 

I have arrived at the conclusion that one sort of oil which 
retains its fluidity for years in brass holes becomes viscid in the 
same length of time in the jewel holes of the same watch, and 
that another brand of oil possesses the exact opposite properties. 
To what purpose, therefore, is a test upon brass by which we do 
not obtain information how the oil will behave in the jewel holes ? 

I will illustrate by facts. About two years ago our two 
shop regulators — which is equal to saying two astronomical 
clocks executed in the most careful manner — were cleaned, and 
an oil labelled as " Finest Animal Oil for Chronometers and 
Watches " was used for lubricating. Both clocks at first 
preserved good rates, but gradually retarded to such a degree 
that it became at last necessary to take them down. The oil in 
the jewel holes (of finest rubies) was completely dried up — it was 
as thick and brown as cold carpenter's glue — while in the brass 
holes, although being light green, it was perfectly fluid and 
capable of rendering good service for years. The pivots working 
in the rubies, as well as the shoulders, and even a part of their 
arbors, were completely black, while those in brass had preserved 
their polish. I would also add that one of the clocks was about 
eight months ago oiled again with an oil of a very renowned 
German brand. The condition of the oil in both clocks was 
exactly the same. I would also state that the temperature in 
our shop is very variable ; we have sometimes 10° R. in the 
morning and 20° R. in the evening. This, of course, has also a 
deteriorating effect upon the oil ; but why to such a degree I 
cannot understand. 

Another observation with an English oil I made, and found that 
it acted in the contrary way, as I have observed in a great many 
watches. While the oil in the jewel holes is limpid and fluid, it 



becomes thick and black like tar, and attacks the pivots. ( 1 
have met with cases where it acted thus in less than six months.) 
If a watch came back, I knew that the pivots were to be polished 
and the holes bushed. What was the reason of this ? It is 
almost unnecessary to mention that the blame could not 
be laid to the workman. Our shop employed twenty repairers, 
and every one was required to perform his work with the utmost 
painstaking. 

Although it is sufficiently well known that the quality of the 
brass exerts an important influence upon oil, I will nevertheless 
mention an occurrence which happened to me lately. I had, as I 
said above, nine kinds of oil for testing upon brass. Among 
these was also a sort which I have employed for watches for 
years, and have often lubricated with it a small so-called French 
regulator, which had gone eleven full years before it was cleaned, 
and it was then only due to the accident that the spring had 
become unhooked. The oil had not thickened in the least, but 
was inclined to volatilise, wherefore I re-supplied it every two 
years. After cleaning (both the pivots and holes had been 
preserved perfectly during this time) I again used the same oil. 
The oil tests upon brass I performed four months afterwards, 
and imagine my astonishment, when after a few days the same 
oil, which I had applied in four little sinks, had turned full 
screen. I at once took down the movement of said regulator to 
examine its condition, and found that its oil was perfectly clear, 
ami did not exhibit the least trace of assuming a green colour. 
Consequently the fault was due to the brass I had chosen for 
instituting the tests. It is very possible in this manner to 
pronounce an oil as usd.'-s while it possesses good, useful 
qualities. 

T reiterate the solicitations to my colleagues to publish their 
experiments and experience in this line. The subject is of too 
grave a nature to be treated slightingly or silently. 



jTlayoral Chains. 



N important chain and badge for the borough of Bridgwater 
has just been manufactured by Messrs. T. & J. Bragg, ol 
Birmingham. It is in gold of 18-carat quality, every 
| link being Hall-marked, and connecting links, formed of the 
initial of the name of the town, are joined to larger links with 
mural crowns and escutcheons. These escutcheons, eighteen in 
number, contain the names in succession of as many mayors and 
magistrates or officials of the borough, dating from an early 
period. The centre link- has in circle the monogram of Mr. 
Alfred Peace, J. P.. the present mayor, in gold letters upon a 
crimson enamelled field with the dove crest over it. anil motto, 
"Memor et Jidelis" below. The badge, which is of a circular 
form enriched by graceful scrolls, lias the cognisance of the 
borough (the triple-towered castle upon a bridge of three arches), 
as in the old civic seal. The town, whose first charter is dated 
a. ii. 1 z(M), carries us back to the castle period of corporate history, 
and is, with- the legend, rendered in a very interesting manner. 
Over this is the corona muralis, signifying a walled tower, and 
the national wreath of oak and laurel. The civic fasces and the 
mace, as municipal symbols, are placed crosswise beside the 
borough seal, and the whole work is carried out in a thoughtful 
and artistic style. 



A very superb chain, royal medallion and badge of office has 
just been manufactured by the same firm for Pembroke. It has 
been subscribed for by the ladies of the town and district as 
a Jubilee gift to the corporation. The chain has a double 
link connection, giving a particularly rich effect in wear, the 
larger divisions being occupied with crusader shields, in reference 
to the period of incorporation of the borough. These shields 
are surmounted by civic coronets having a significant relation 
to the mayoral office, so that the shields will become an ap- 
propriate and continuous record of successive occupants of the 
civic chair. As Henry VII., styled Henry of Pembroke, was 
born in the castle which then defended the town, his coat of 



July 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLEE AND SILVERSMITH. 



13 



arms in enamel blazon, surmounted by the beautiful British 
crown of that age, forms an excellent centre link to the chain ; 
the crossed leeks of Wales, in correct colours, beside it com- 
pleting this portion of the decoration. Beneath this depends a 
charming gold oval medallion with a border regarding the pre- 
sent year of the Royal .Jubilee, and having in centre an enamelled 
painted miniature portrait of Queen Victoria. From this is 
suspended the large badge of the borough itself, in massive gold, 
most elaborate in detail. The general form is circular, the arms 
of the corporation and legend, as on borough seal, enamelled in 
centre, round which four sportive dolphins, in open repousse work, 
are arranged, giving much lightness and beauty to the effect. 
The civic mace and fasces in saltire are carefully wrought, being, 
as to the second circle, a framed border of British oak and laurel. 
On this border are four subsidiary medallions facing the points of 
the compass, and giving, in as many coats of arms, the periods of 
the historical charters of the town. First comes that of Gilbert 
Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke ; next that of King John ; again, 
that of Henry VIII.; and, lasfly, the modern one, indicated by 
the arms of the reigning sovereign. Foliated terminals give a 
graceful line to the border. The work is carried out with artistic 
fidelity, and has given the highest satisfaction to the Committee. 



As the Royal year of Jubilee is, in the case of Llanidloes, the 
Jubilee of the incorporation of the borough under the Reformed 
Corporations Act, a very handsome Mayoral Chain has been 
subscribed for, and the work has just been completed, also by 
the same firm. It is of gold, Hall-marked; and the larger 
links, of rich renaissance form, each bear gold tablets on 
which may be engraved at each election the names of successive 
occupants of the civic chair. The centre link, which is larger 
and supported by maces, bears in an enamelled escutcheon, in 
centre, an elaborate monogram recording the Borough Jubilee. 
The badge, of large proportions, has the Corporation arms in 
centre : lion rampant argent, on a field ermine with a bordure 
gules. Over this is the name of the borough, in gold letters 
on a ground of blue enamel, and surmounted by the mural 
coronet. The Welsh leeks crossed below the shield are admirably 
rendered, and on a riband entwined about them it is recorded 
that the town is a borough by prescription. Beside the shield 
are two croziers relating to Llanidloes as a seat of ecclesiastical 
authority. A long inscription on reverse of badge completes 
the decoration, which will be a worthy and fitting memorial of 
the occasion. 



Jftayoral Babge for Tftohingham. 

fHE celebration of the Royal Jubilee has led to the acquire- 
ment by many corporations of permanent records in the 
form of civic insignia, and the pretty badge made by 
Messrs. T. & J. Bragg, of Birmingham, for Mr. Thomas M. 
Wescott, Mayor of Wokingham, is one of the most interesting. 
It is in general outline a heart shape, and the place of honour is 
given to the beautifully painted miniature portrait of the Queen 
in enamel colours upon fine gold. Surrounding this is an oval 
border also enamelled, with words recording the Jubilee. 
Wokingham (or Oakingham, as it is believed to have been origi- 
nally named) has for its borough device a spray of oak ; therefore 
the designer has arranged a continuous wreath of oak at the 
sides of the royal portrait, and by a happy mixture of alloy the 
gold, which is of 18-carat quality throughout, is so combined in 
the leaves of the oak as to give a greenish effect as compared 
with the yellow tint of the remaining portion. Over the Queen's 
miniature is placed the royal crown, surmounted by the British 
lion, also crowned — the crest of England. The sceptres come 
in at the sides, the name of the borough on a riband in enamel ; a 
rich border completes the ornament, which depends from an 
appropriate gold centre with mural 'crown over, and the initials 
of the mayor given in gold letters on an enamelled field. Several 
additional gold links lead to the wide ribbon of royal blue by 
which the decoration is suspended. The whole has been finished 
in best style, and will form a memorial of the year in every way 
worthy of the event. 



Workshop Ittemoranija, 



Powder for Silver Plating. — Mix 1 part chloride of silver 
with 3 parts pearlash, \\ part common salt, and 1 part whiting, 
and rub the mixture on the surface of brass or copper (previously 
well cleaned) by means of a piece of soft leather, or a cork 
moistened with water and dipped into the powder. 



An alloy of copper, 15 parts ; tin, 2 - 3-t parts ; lead, 1*82 parts ; 
antimony, 1 part — forming a bronze with the addition of lead 
and antimony— practically resists the attack of most acids and 
alkaline solutions. 



Gilding Solution. — A gilding solution is thus described in 
La Monde de la Science: Crystallised phosphate of soda, 60 
parts; bisulphide of soda, 10 parts: cyanide of potassium, 1 
part ; chloride of gold, '2\ parts ; distilled or rain water, by 
weight, 1,000 parts. To prepare this bath properly the water is 
divided into three portions, namely, one of 700 and two of 150 
each. The sodic phosphate is dissolved in the first portion, the 
chloride of gold in the second, and the bisulphide of soda and 
cyanide of potassium in the third. The first two portions are 
gradually mixed together and the third is afterwards added. 
With this solution the artisan uses a platinum anode — a wire or 
strip — adding fresh portions of the gold salt as the solution 
becomes exhausted. 



Simple Method of Silvering. — The following, given in an 
American journal, is an expeditious way for silvering metallic 
articles. Freshly precipitated chloride of silver, after it has been 
thoroughly washed with hot water, is mixed with equal parts of 
table salt and cream of tartar, transforming it into a thin paste 
by adding water, if necessary. The article to be silvered is first 
well washed with a hot soda solution and soap and a stiff brush, 
in order to remove all dirt, and it is next to be rinsed thoroughly 
in hot water. A second day cleaning with fine washed chalk, 
pumice powder or quartz powder, is to be recommended. After 
having been well rinsed with cold water, and before drying, it is 
coated with finely pulverised table salt, so that the article is 
covered with a thin layer; a little of the silver paste is next 
rubbed on, whereby its surface to be treated is well and uniformly 
silver-washed. This treatment is quickly followed by rubbing in 
a little cream of tartar, which is also to be applied with the same 
kind of ball, and it is finally washed. The coating is very hand- 
some, clear, and as white as snow. 



A solution of hyposulphite of soda, applied with a soft 
brush, is said to be one of the best means of cleaning silver or 
silver-plated goods. No powder being necessary, there is no fear 
of filling the chiselling or other intaglio ornamentation. When 
powders are not objectionable, tripoli may be employed with or 
without ammonia. In place of tripoli, the fossil silica (found in 
this country and sold under a variety of names) serves an 
excellent purpose. 

Distillation and Purification ' of Mercury. — It is 
generally accepted that mercury cannot be fully purified by 
distillation, and by earlier observations the author of an article 
on the subject in a Berlin journal had found that these distillations 
left crude mercury quite impure. Some experiments have now 
been made to ascertain whether the foreign metals are vaporised 
with the mercury, as water vapour carries over other substances, 
or whether they are carried off mechanically. The mercury was 
mixed with lead, bismuth, tin, sodium and copper, and then 
distilled, first from porcelain, afterwards from glass retorts. As 
long as the metal is very impure, the glass retorts are destroyed, 
hence the necessity of distilling first in porcelain. After twelve 
distillations, the retorts contained no residue, and the mercury 
was perfectly pure, as was proved by dissolving about two 
grammes in nitric acid, evaporating in a weighed platinum 
capsule and igniting ; the weight of the capsule was unchanged. 



H 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[July 1, 1887. 



To restore the original white colour of silver filigree jewellery 
when tarnished by wear or shop- worn, first wash the articles in a 
solution of one fluid ounce of liquid potassa in twenty of water, 
rinse, and then immerse in a mixture of salt one part, alum one 
part, saltpetre two parts, dissolved in four parts water. Let 
them remain for five minutes. Wash in cold water, and dry 
with chamois leather. 



The best lacquer for articles of brass, such as mountings for 
optical instruments, &c, depends somewhat on the colour of the 
brass. For a light brass a dark lacquer is required, and vice 
versa. The following are some receipts given by an American 
exchange: — 1. Seed-lac, dragon's blood, annatto and gamboge, 
each 4 ozs.; saffron 1 oz., spirits of wine 10 pints. 2. Turmeric 
1 lb., annatto 2 ozs., shellac and gum juniper each 12 ozs. 
3. Gamboge ^ oz., aloes 1^ oz., shellac 8 ozs., spirits of wine 
1 gallon. See that the finished articles are clean, heat them as 
hot as the hand will bear, and distribute the lacquer quickly with 
a brush or rag at one operation over the surface. When the 
articles are very small, they require to be heated in an oven to 
harden the lacquer. Several coatings of a thin lacquer give the 
best results. 

Cyanide Sores. — According to Mr. Alexander Watt, these 
painful sores may arise from two principal causes : first, from 
dipping the hands or arms into cyanide baths to recover articles 
which have dropped into them — a very common practice, and 
much to be condemned ; and second, from the accidental contact 
of the fingers or other parts of the hand, on which a recent cut 
or scratch has been inflicted, with cyanide solutions. In the 
former case, independent of the constitutional miscbief which 
may arise from the absorption by the skin of the cyanide salts, 
the caustic liquid acts very freely upon the delicate tissue of the 
skin, but more .especially upon the parts under the finger-nails. 
Instances have been known in which purulent matter has formed 
under the nails of both hands from the cause, necessitating the 
use of the lancet and poulticing. Again, when cyanide solutions 
come in contact with recent wounds — even very slight cuts or 
abrasions of the skin — a troublesome and exceedingly painful 
sore is sure to result, unless the part be at once soaked' in warm 
water ; indeed, it is a very good plan, after rinsing the part in 
cold water, to give it a momentary dip in a weak acid pickle, 
then soak it for a few moments in warm water, and after wiping 
the part dry with a clean rag or towel, apply a drop of olive oil 
and cover up with a strip of thin sheet guttapercha. 



APPLICATIONS FOR LETTERS PATENT. 



7,512. 

7,559. 

7,686. 

7,797. 

7,834. 

7,891. 
7,909. 

8,210. 
8,245. 
8,334. 
8.427. 

8,589. 



following List of Patents has been compiled especially for The Watchmaker, 
Jeureller mid Silversmith, by Messrs. W. P. Thompson & Boult, Patent Agents, 
of 323, High Holborn, London, W.C.; Newcastle Chambers, Angel Row, Notting- 
ham ; and 6, Lord Street, Liverpool. 

. G-. Pritchard, Birmingham, for " Improvements in solitaires, collar 
and shirt studs, cuff links and other like dress fasteners and 
ornaments." (Complete specification.) Dated May 25, 1887. 
W. P. Greaves, Birmingham, for "An improved collar stud attach- 
ment device." Dated May 25, 1887. 

E. Morin, a communication from T. Walther. Germany, for " Im- 
provements in bracelets and other articles of jewellery." Dated 
May 27, 1887. 

G. E. Walton, Birmingham, for " Improvements in fastenings for 
solitaires, sleeve links, studs, scarf rings and other similar 
articles." Dated May 28, 1887. 

H. Edmunds, London, for "Improved means for controlling, 
transforming, regulating, synchronising and registering electric- 
currents. Dated May 28, 1887. 

George Edwin Hart." London, for " Improvements in Watches " 
(Complete specification.) Dated May 31, 1887. 
W. G. Harris, Birmingham, for "Improvements in adjustable 
watch keys, entitled 'The Simplex Adjustable Watch Key.'" 
Dated June 1, 1887. 

N. Federgreen, London, for " Improvements of precious stones and 
jewellery. ' Dated June 8, 1887. 

K. H. Jones and T. Lee', Birmingham, for "Improvements in 
bracelets." Dated June 8. 1887. 

J. Nicholls, Sheffield, for "Improvements in 'silver cleaning' 
paste. Dated June 10, 1887. 

J. B. Thompson and W. White, London, for " Improvements in 
the manufacture of aluminum and its alloys, and apparatus for 
the purpose." Dated June 11, 1887. 

F. K. Baker, Birmingham, for "Improvements in watch keys," 
Dated June 15, 1887. 



S.614. 
8,750. 

S.754. 
S.764. 
8,788. 

8,872. 



J. L. Garsed, Halifax, for ••Improvements in timekeepers ami 
time indicators." Dated June 15. 1887. 

T. White, London, for " Improvements in the application of the 
electric light to watch stands, clucks, ships' compasses, and for like 
purposes."' Dated June 17. 1887. 

A. J. Ready. London, for " A new or improved mode ami aus 

for indicating time and for other purposes." hated .June 17. 1887. 
S. Smirke. London, for "An improved stud, chiefly designed for 
use with shirts, collars ami similar articles." Dated June 17. 1887. 
A. Lovekin. Birmingham, for "An improved spring clip for 
attaching coins, medals or stones to brooches and other articles of 
jewellery." Dated June I s . 18N7. 

J. F. Clasen. London, for" Improvements in safety screw fastenings 
for studs, solitaires and other purposes." (Complete specification.) 
Dated June 20, 1887. 



Recent American Patents. 



Aluminum and Aluminum Bronze, Production of. R. Gratzel 

Bracelet. A. Williams 

Button, Sleeve. E. J. Coombs 

Button. Sleeve. F. W. Richards 

Castings, Making Metal. J. Walker 

Chuck. Stearns & Waterstreet 

Clock Cover. W. 0. Camp 

Clock Movement, Secondary Electric. C. D. Warner 

Clock, Night. C. C. Adams 

Clock, Primary Electric Pendulum. J. Zeiner 

Clock System, Pneumatic. P. G. Puttemans 

Clocks. Electric Striking Device for. S. C. Dickinson 

Cuff Holder. E. S. Smith 

Cuff Holder. C. H. Tappan 

Cutlery Show Case. ELDechent 

Cutter Head. J. B. Mahaffey 

Cyclometers, Mechanical Movement for. M. H. Downes 

Electrolyte. A. C. Tichenor 

Emery Wheels. Tool fur Dressing. A. E. Convers 

Eyeglass. M. C. Brackett 

Eyeglasses. Manufacture of Cases for. W. B. White 

File-Cutting Machine. A. Weed 

Gem Settings, Construction of. O. 'J'. Smith 

Initial Ring, Interchangeable. W. Meerbott 

Lathe. Watchmaker's. B. Rivett 

Metal Articles, Machine for Dressing the Surfaces of. T. Baum 
Metal Plates and other Metal Surfaces, Cleaning. Preparing 

and Coating. F. J. Clamer 

Metals by the direct application of the Electric < lurrent, Process 

of the Apparatus for working. De Benardos & Olszewski 

Micrometer Gauge. A. E. VVhitmore 

Micrometer Gauge. A. H.Emery 

Musical l'.ox. C. H. Jacot 

Rolling Mill. J. M. Price 

Screw-cutting Die. W. Murchey 

Sheet Metal, Ornamenting. T. W. Burger 

Spectacles. L. Hanimel 

Spectacles. P. S. Reid 

watch Mainsprings, Manufacture of. F.Sedgwick 



362.441 
363,309 

3112.426 
362,315 
31:2.337 
363.431 
3,;2,!I32 
363.440 
362,140 
363,498 
362,462 
363,215 
363,691 
363,699 
362.207 
368.753 
363.735 
3';:s.:,i;2 

3;i2.3i;o 
863.201 
363.2 .7 
363,492 
363,556 
363,076 
363,000 
362,054 

363,593 

368.320 
363.709 
362.149 
362,087 
363,482 
363,754 

363.2115 

363,«32 
363,484 

363.550 



A printed copy of the specifications and drawing of any patent 
in tbe American list, also of any American patent issued since 
18Gf>, will be furnished from this office for 2s. Gd. In ordering, 
please state the number and date of the patent required, and 
remit to J. Truslove, Office of The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 
Silversmith, Imperial Buildings, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 



gazette. 



Partnerships Dissolved. 
W. & E. Mimpriss, Davies Street, Berkeley Square, jewellers. Paulson & 
Co., Nottingham, pawnbrokers, so far as regards F. Paulson. J. 
Sew ill ami M. R. Sewill (trading as J. Sewill). Cornhill, chronometer 
makers. Green & Fuidge, Stratford-on-Avon, actinometer manu- 
facturers. John Wragg & Son, Sheffield, cutlery manufacturers. 
Bailey Brothers, Market Terrace. Wood Green, and elsewhere, watch- 
makers. Sturla & Monday, Liverpool, pawnbrokers. 



THE BANKRUPTCY ACT, 1883. 
Receiving Orders. 

To surrender in London. — William Van Walwyk, Clerkenwell Road, 
diamond merchant. F. Hummell, Montpelier Street. Knightsbridge, 
watchmaker. Exuperious Turnor. Broadway, Hammersmith, jeweller. 

To surrender in the Country. — Joseph Joseph and Maurice Joseph 
(trading as J. Joseph & Sons, and as Scott & Co.), Birmingham and 
elsewhere, jewellers and export merchants. Henry Simon Anscll. 
Birmingham, jewellers' case maker. _ Rosina Ash, Birmingham, 
pawnbroker. George Whitehouse (trading as G. Whitehouse &. Co.), 
Birmingham, electro-plate manufacturer. James Sutton (trading as 
J. P. Cuffs. Sutton & Sons), Sheffield, optician. James Henry Smith. 
Birmingham, ornamenter in gold. 

Amended Notice. 

Edward Welbourne, Ilkley, Yorkshire, jeweller. 



July 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



15 



Public Examinations. 

In London. — W. Van Walwyk, Clerkenwell Road, diamond mounter ; 
July 12, at 12.30. 

In the Country. — G. Whitehonse (trading as G. Whitehonse & Co.), Bir- 
mingham, electro-plate manufacturer : July 7, at 2. 
Adjudications. 

In London. — S. Lazarus, Hatton Garden, optician. F. Hummell. Mont- 
pelier Street, Knightsbridge, watchmaker. E. Tumor, The Broadway, 
Hammersmith, jeweller. 

In thr Country. — R, H. Cheetham, Southampton, cutler. H. S. Ansell, 
Birmingham, jewellers' <-,isp maker. M. Baum, Coventry, watch 
manufacturer, G. Whitehonse (trading as G. Whitehonse & Co.). 
Birmingham, electro-plate manufacturer. J. Sutton (trading as J. P. 
Cutts. Sutton & Sons), Sheffield, optician. J. H. Smith. Birmingham, 
ornamenter in gold. 

Notices of Dividends. 

In the Country. — J. F. Bayfield (trading as J. F. Bayfield & Son), 
Lowestoft, watchmaker : Is. 10|d., first and final : July 1, 77, Colmore 
Row, Birmingham. J. H. Wood. Northampton, watchmaker: 3s. (Id., 
first and final ; June 27, 6, St. Paul's Square, Bedford. W. S. Jones, 
Bolton, watchmaker ; 3s. (ifd.. first and final ; June 29. Official 
Receiver. Bolton. H. A. Dightam, Armley. Yorkshire, jeweller ; 7id., 
first and final : June 25. Official Receiver, Leeds. T. A. Hockaday. 
Rochester, watchmaker: Is. 2|d., first and final : July 6. 5. Hatton 
Garden, E.C. 

Scotch Sequestkations. 

J. O'Mahoney. Dundee, pawnbroker. W. Lumsden (deceased), Alford, 
watchmaker. 



Lonbon Bankruptcy Itourt. 

In re Lund & Blocklev. 
/£%|N the 9fch ult. this case came before Mr. Registrar Hazlitt, 
\*y} at the above Court. The debtors, Messrs. George Lund 
and Frederick M. Blocklev, carrying on business as watch 
and chronometer makers in Pall Mall, and also at Bombay,' 
petitioned the Court on February 28 last. Their liabilities were 
returned in the statement of affairs at £15,8 10, with assets 
estimated to produce £8,511. The case was now brought before 
the Registrar on an application to confirm a scheme by which 
the debtor Blockley agreed to pay all preferential debts in full, 
and a composition of 5s. in the pound to the unsecured creditors by 
instalments extending over a period of twelve months, in exchange 
for the assets of the business in England. — Mr. Aldridge 
appeared for the Official Receiver, and Mr. F. C. Willis for 
the debtors. — It would appear that Messrs. Lund & Blockley 
commenced business in 1869, each partner introducing £1,000 
as capital, and they attributed their failure to losses on the 
trading, excess of expenditure over profits consequent upon 
competition by co-operative stores, and to general depression in 
trade. The Official Receiver reported that, having regard to the 
nature and actual value of the assets in England, the proposed 
scheme did not appear unreasonable. For the debtors' interest 
in the Bombay business an offer of £2,000 had been made, which 
would suffice to pay a further composition of 8s. in the pound. 
It was stated that by the failure of Messrs. Grant & Peake the 
firm incurred a loss of £1,700. No creditor appeared to oppose, 
and the Registrar made an order confirming the scheme. 



In re Walter George. 
On the 10th ult,, before Mr. Registrar Brougham, this 
bankrupt, who was a wholesale jeweller, carrying on "business in 
King Square, Clerkenwell, applied to pass his examination. 
His liabilities were returned in the statement of affairs at £7,668, 
of which £5,949 will probably rank, with assets £1,750.— 
Mr. Aldridge appeared for the Official Receiver, Mr. Norman 
for the trustees, and Mr. Hermann Myer for the debtor. — The 
debtor commenced business about twenty years since, with 
borrowed capital, in partnership with his brother, as W. & S. 
George. In April, 1883, they filed a liquidation petition, under 
which a composition of 7s. 6d. in the pound was accepted by the 
joint creditors. S. George retired in January, 1884, and the 
bankrupt attributed his present failure to financial difficulties, 
originating from the payment of too large a composition under 
the former proceedings, and to falling off in his trade, owing to 
want of capital, depression and other causes. He stated in the 
course of his examination that he was not aware of his insolvent 
position until the present year. His Honour allowed the debtor 
to pass his examination. 



Jfleetings of Societies, &c, for the Jflonth. 



Societies. July. 

Geologists' Association, University College ... ... 1 

Queckett Microscopical Club, University College ... 8,22 

The Annual Dinner of the Horological Club will take place 
on Saturday, the 9th inst., at the Cock Hotel, Epping. Tickets 
can be obtained on application, from the Hon. Secretary, Mr. 
Henry Bickley, 33, Half-Moon Crescent, N., before July 6. 



lorresponrjence. 



All Letters for Publication to be addressed to the Editor of The 
Watchmaker. Jeweller and Silversmith, Imperial Buildings, 
Ludyate Circus. E.C. 

All communications must bear the name and address of the sender, not 
necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 



To the Editor of The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 
Silversmith. 

[PRIZES FOR ART WORKMANSHIP.] 

Dear Sin, — The Council of the Society of Arts will be much 
obliged if you can assist them in bringing the enclosed particulars 
of a competition for Art Workmanship under the notice of any 
persons interested in the subject. 

Yours faithfully, 

11. Trueman Wood, Secretary. 

[The particulars of the competition referred to were published 
in full in our last issue. In compliance with the above request 
we beg to direct our readers' attention to them. — Ed.] 



[KEW CERTIFICATES.] 

Sir, — -I think the questions raised by your correspondent, 
Mr. Arnold, as to the relative merits of Swiss and English 
watches, and the value of Kew certificates, deserve consideration 
by those interested in English watchmaking. Mr. Arnold asks 
in his last letter, as the point of his question, " Do the Swiss 
watches give better results in the pocket than English ones ? " 
But his question which follows seems to me to be the one he is 
most desirous of obtaining information upon ; that is, "Are 
the Kew trials a measure of the probable performance of the 
watch in use ? " Mr. Arnold seems a little confused, as, although 
he has evidently made up his mind as to the proper answers to 
his questions, he quotes the results of the late Melbourne 
Exhibition and the opinions of Mr. Whipple against his own 
convictions. The Melbourne Exhibition proves nothing : in the 
first place the Swiss watchmakers formed a syndicate and ex- 
hibited under one head, and the first prize was awarded to the 
best of all the Swiss watches exhibited, while the second best 
was a Clerkenwell-made watch which gained 95 out of a possible 
] 00 marks — -the maker of this watcli being unaware of the fact 
that it was to be exhibited, and other English exhibitors at that 
Exhibition were not informed and were in ignorance of the manner 
in which the watches were to be tested ; and it was notorious that 
the jury who awarded the prizes at that Exhibition gave the 
greatest dissatisfaction to the English exhibitors. Mr. Whipple's 
opinion is based entirely on the results of the Kew trials wdiich 
are published, and therefore no special importance can be 
attached to it. 

Although your remark in the May number of the journal, 
" That none but a good watch can fulfil the requisite conditions 
for obtaining an A certificate " is quite true, still I think I can 
show that a watch that would not fulfil these conditions would go 
better in ordinary wear for a long period than one that may have 
obtained an A certificate ; and I am not relying on theory alone, 
as I have more than one example of watches, which, having 
obtained that coveted prize, have gone very badly afterwards. 



1G 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[July 1, 1887. 



It is shown by the Kew rates, and is well known to watch 
springers, that there is little difficulty in getting good results in 
the temperature trials, and that timing in positions is the real 
trouble. It is not difficult to get equal time in the hanging and 
lying positions, but the quarters or one of them will generally 
be out. Now if the balance lias a sufficiently great arc of 
vibration to overcome the cbange in the condition of the oil, dirt 
or other obstructions for a long period, it would be useless to 
attempt to manipulate the balance screws with the object of 
rectifying the difference in time in the quarter positions, as, if the 
balance vibrates more than a full turn, putting it out of poise 
would not have the desired effect. Therefore, the balance arc 
must be reduced to one turn by the application of a suitable 
mainspring, and then any very little additional weight to one 
side of the balance, by drawing out the quarter screw, will 
cause the watch to gain when that side is downwards and will by 
this means equalise the time in positions ; and if all the other 
conditions are satisfactory, the watch will have an excellent rate 
while the oil is fresh and the watch clean during the interval of 
the Kew test, but at the end of a few months every change that 
shortens the arc of vibration of the balance intensifies the evil of 
putting the balance out of weight, and a short arc of vibration 
(an evil in itself) soon results in bad timekeeping if the balance 
is out of poise. 

If this watch had only been made with a view to giving a 
wearer satisfaction, instead of being prepared for a Kew trial, the 
balance arc would (or should) have been sufficiently large to 
enable it to disregard a slight change in the oil ; and as the 
balance would have been perfectly in poise, a slight alteration in 
the arc would not affect the time in positions ; and, therefore, this 
watch, which might not have obtained an A certificate, would 
certainly be superior to the one timed on the lines I have 
described. I do not say that all watches sent to Kew are 
prepared in this way, but I know many of them are ; and many 
timers defend the practice by saying it was the common way 
of adjusting, or rather timing, pocket chronometers. But the 
comparison is not relevant : pocket chronometers rarely had a 
vibration of over a full turn of the balance, as it is not safe to 
give them a larger arc of vibration without some provision to 
prevent their tripping ■ and as the chronometer impulse requires 
no oil, the rate does not vary as does that of a watch with a lever 
escapement, which will not go without oil. If the Kew trials 
were to extend over six months, the results would be different 
and of more use to the public. 

As to the good these trials have done watchmakers, I believe 
there are few of us who have not been disappointed. An in- 
dependent trial seemed at first to be nothing but a gain to men 
who had been labouring all their lives to make the name and 
fame of others, as it was thought that it would be a means of 
bringing the makers of high-class watches before the public and 
the buyers of watches who hitherto had no means of doing so 
themselves ; but when it was announced that the Kew authorities 
were ready to give a duplicate copy of a certificate, and to alter 
the name of any depositor or maker "of the watch to that 
of enterprising tradesmen who call themselves watchmakers 
for the trifling cost of one shilling, it became a discouragement 
to good men, as it only helps the quack and ceases to be an 
honourable distinction to be sought after or prized. 

Yours, &c, 

" A London Watch Manufacturer." 
June 24, 1887. 



Answers to fcorresponbents. 



W. Morris. — Plate Licences. — The licence would be un- 
necessary in your case. '1 lie clause (33 & 34 Vict., cap. 32) 
reads : " On and after the sixth day of July, one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy, it shall not be necessary for any person 
to take out a licence as a dealer in plate, in order to enable him 
to sell watch cases which shall have been made by him." 



3n tbe 1btgb Court of Justice, 

CHANCERY DIVISION. 

between DRUIFF & DRUIPP . . Plaintiffs 

(Trading as WILLIAM HERBERT & GODFREY) 

and JOHN TAYLOR. . . . Defendant 

In consideration of your withdrawing the proceedings you have 
instituted against me for infringing your Trade Mark for Spectacles, 
registered as William Herbert & Godfrey's "Aqua Crystal," by 
advertising myself as a maker thereof, I hereby apologise to you 
for so doing, and undertake to discontinue all use of such words 
and empower you to advertise this apology once in four newspapers. 



Witness, 
GEORGE T. SMITH, Solicitoi 
Birmingham. 

To Messrs. Druiff & Druiff. 



JNO. TAYLOR, 

May 28, 1887. 

R. FREDERICK HILL & Co., 
24, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

Plaintiffs' Solicitors. 



Buyers' $uibe. 



The Sheffield Smelting Company, Sheffield. Sell Gold and Silver 
(pure and alloyed). Birij all materials containing Gold and Silver. 

F. W. Powell (now Fowler & Powell), Colonial Buildings, Hatton 
Garden, E.C. Wholesale only for Gold and Silver Jewellery ; Silver 
Cigar, Cigarette and Card Cases, Match Boxes, Salt Cellars ; Silver 
and Glass Smelling Bottles ; Sovereign Purses. 

Jones, E. A., Wholesale Manufacturer of Whitby Jet Ornaments. A 
Large Assortment of the Newest Patterns always in Stock. Export 
Orders promptly executed. Persons not having an aecount open 
will avoid delay by forwarding a reference with their order. 
< ustomers' Matchings and Repairs with despatch. 93, Hatton Garden, 
London, E.C. 

For cheap, quick, reliable Watch and Jewellery Repairs, 
by the most Experienced Workmen, send to Alexander Edwards, 
Watch Material and Tool Dealer, 88 & 89, Craven Street, and 2. Holy- 
head Itoad. Coventry. Lists : all Horologieal Literature. 

M. W. Skelton, Inventor and Manufacturer of Fusee Keyless and 
other Watches, Liverpool. Manufactory : (>. Park Place. New 
Wheels and Pinions. Conversions and Jobbing done in general for 
the trade. Country orders promptly attended to. 

W. Scott Hayward & Co., 59, Deansgate, and Barton Arcade, 
Manchester. Wholesale Jet Ornament Manufacturers, Jet Cameo 
Cutters and Rough Jet Merchants. Approval parcels sent on receipl 
of order, if accompanied with trade references. Repairs and matchings 
executed on the day received. Works : Manchester and Whitby. 
Agents at Liverpool, Leipzig and Paris. 

WANTED. 

\ VERY Experienced SPECIALIST MANUFACTURER 
1\_ seeks some GENUINE FACTORS for a NEW CHRONOGRAPH 

which defies all competition as to price, soundness and efficiency. The 
Chronograph acts as a simple chronograph, counter and fly-back. Offers 
to be addressed in writing to H. 730 Q, a Messrs. Haasenstein & 
Vogler, Bale, Switzerland.— [Ad vt.] 

REQUIRE!) by JEWELLER'S DAUGHTER, a 
SITUATION in the above Business. Experienced and good 
Saleswoman. Can give estimates for Repairs. &c. — H. Rudkin, High 
Cross Street, Leicester. — [Advt.] 

TO BE LET. 

MANUFACTURING JEWELLERS, WATCHMAKERS 
and others.— TO BE LET, most Desirable PREMISES, No. 15, 
Albemarle Street, Clerkenwell. Newly built, with every convenience. 
Capital Shop and Eight good Rooms, in perfect repair. Rent £60 per 
annum. — Wag-staff & Warman, Highbury Corner, N. — [Advt.] 

TO BE SOLD. 

WATCHMAKER'S and JEWELLER'S BUSINESS, 
established 17 years, in busy manufacturing city ; stock moderate 
and will be reduced. Excellent opening for a young man starting 
business. For particulars, address The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 
Silversmith Office, London. — [Advt.] 



WATCH MANUFACTURING BUSINESS, for sale 
of Superior Goods only, WITH OR WITHOUT the PREMISES. 
Extensive additions can be made if required. The present Owner no 
objection to remain two or three years to Superintend and Instruct Work- 
people, to part Assist in Office, or Travel. Address Manufacturer, 
Office of this Journal.— [Advt.] 



eT'fu 






Entered at Stationers' 'Hall.'] 

Vol. XIII.— No. 2.] 



Edited by D. GLASGOW, Jun. 
AUGUST 1, 1887. 



[Registered for Transmission Abroad. 



' Subscription, 5s. ( Post 
per Annum. ) Free. 



CONTENTS. 



Editorial ... ... 

General Notes 

Birmingham News. From Ouh Correspondent ... 

British Horological Institute 

Mr. Cave Thomas On Applied Art 

Jubilee Fountain and Clock Tower for Stratford-on-Avon 

British Association ... ... 

The Merchandise Marks Bill 

The Ruby Mines of Burmah 

The Birmingham Jewellery Trade 

The New Gold Jubilee Medals 

The Princess of Wales and the Birmingham Jewellery Trade 
Kashmir. Bv William Simpson, E.T., F.R.G.S., Hon. Assoc 

R.I.B.A. Illustrated .... > 

American Items ... 

The Gold Supply 

Note on the Temper of Steel and the means of obtaining it 
The Use of the Eyeglass ... 
Jem Carney's Belt 

A Casket for Hi r Richard Moon, Bart 

The Koh-i-noor ... 

Isochronism in Flat and Breguet Springs. By M. Sandoz 

Horological Club ... ... 

Workshop Memoranda ... .. 

Applications for Letters Patent... ... 

Recent American Patents 

Gazette 

Buyers' Guide 



page 
17 
IS 
20 
20 
21 
21 
22 
22 
23 
23 
21 
24 

25 
27 
27 
28 
28 
29 
29 
29 
30 
31 
31 
31 
31 
32 
32 



(the Ulatchmaker, jeweller anb 
Siluersmith. 



A Monthly Journal devoted to the interests of Watchmakers, 
Jewellers, Silversmiths and kindred traders. 

Subscription. — A copy of the Journal will be sent monthly for one 
year, post free, to any address in the United Kingdom or countries in the 
Postal Union for 5s. payable in advance. 

Advertisements. — The rates for advertising will be sent on appli- 
cation. The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith will be found 
an exceptional medium for advertising. Special Notices, Situations, &c, 
per insertion, is. for two lines, prepaid. 

Correspondence.— Correspondence is invited on ail matters of interest 
to the trade. Correspondents will please give their full address in each 
communication, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of 
good faith. 

Address all business communications to 

THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & SILVERSMITH, 

Imperial Buildings, Ludgate Circus, London, E.C. 
. Cheques and Postal Orders to be crossed and made payable to J. TRUSLOVE. 



Agent for the Australian Colonies : 

EVAN JONES, 
Hunter Street and Royal Arcade. Sydney, N.S.W. 



Editorial. 




ITH the finish of the Jubilee preparations manufac- 
turers might naturally have expected a return to 
what has been, unfortunately, of late years, the 
ordinary jog-trot output ; but that such a complete stagnation of 
trade should have come about as at present exists was certainly 
never anticipated by the most confirmed pessimists. 

We have lately had to bewail the condition of the English 
watch trade, but from all accounts the jewellery and plating 
industries are in even a worse plight. Never since what may be 
termed its renaissance (which is said on good authority to date 
from the Great Exhibition of 1851) has the former trade been in 
such a depressed state. Reports from Birmingham show a con- 
dition of things amounting to almost a panic ; while from other 
manufacturing centres the state of business, if not equally bad, is 
sufficiently serious to afford matter for anxious contemplation. 

Without going any length with the uncomfortable alarmists, 
the constant iteration of whose chronic grumblings has begotten 
the inevitable resultant of familiarity, it would be wilfully foolish 
to disregard the present aspect of affairs. It is estimated that 
the failures during the past twelve months represent an aggregate 
loss of upwards of £300,000 to the Birmingham manufacturers 
alone, and doubtless statements from other quarters would show 
proportional amounts. 

Although the universal business depression is unquestionably 
the prime cause of the slackness in the jewellery trades, which 
are a kind of reflex index to the general prosperity of the country, 
it is not in itself sufficient to account for the altogether abnormal 
condition of those industries, and other elements are, therefore, 
to be looked for by those interested in their amelioration. As in 
other trades during periods of depression difficult to account for, 
numberless suggestions have been made of. means for infusing a 
healthier tone into business, and one of the best recently thrown 
out seems to us to be embodied in the letter of Mr. S. Wall 
Richards, published in another column. 

No doubt Mr. Richards has hit the mark when he says 
jewellers take no measures to educate and stimulate public taste 



18 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[August 1, 1887. 



through the medium of suitable organs of the press, as is done 
in almost every other business wherein changes of fashion are 
desirable. 

But, after all, the distributers should deal with the public ; and 
we go a step farther than Mr. Richards and say that, other 
considerations apart, in order that the retailers shall be able to 
do so successfully, it is necessary that they be brought into 
closer relations with the manufacturers by the elimination of the 
factor element. This result is certain to be brought about, 
soon?r or later, by the increasing keenness of foreign competition, 
which will not allow of the third profit of a middleman between 
the producer and the distributer. 

We are glad to see that the obvious advantages which would 
accrue to the trade by getting rid of an unnecessary anomaly, 
that has hitherto hindered business and absorbed so large a share 
of the results, is at last wisely being recognised on all sides. 



Seneral Notes. 



flrf HE Merchandise Marks Bill passed through Committee of 
1 



^1 



the House of Commons on the 8th ult., after having been 
considered by a Select Committee. The Bill was read a 

third time in the House of Commons on the 12th, and afterwards 

was read a first time in the House oE Lords. 



The story is going the rounds of the society journals that a 
young lady visited a West End jeweller and told him that her 
father was going to buy her a pair of diamond earrings, and that 
she would like to look at some. The jeweller, knowing her 
father by reputation, spread out a number of costly gems before 
her. She looked them over critically and, having selected the 
most handsome pair, asked if she might take them home and 
examine them more at her leisure. The permission was promptly 
accorded, and the next day the young lady brought back the ear- 
rings and said that she was not quite satisfied with them, and 
she thought that after all it might be some time before her 
father would indulge her taste for diamonds. " That's a great 

pity," replied the jeweller ; " I was at reception last night, 

and I thought them very becoming to you." 



The German papers continue to publish numerous anecdotes 
of the late Herr Krupp. The Vienna Kxtrablatt gives the fol- 
lowing interesting incident which marked the visit of the 
Emperor William to the Essen Works. The Eurperor displayed 
great interest in the working of the steam hammer, and Heir 
Krupp took the opportunity of speaking in high jn'aise of the 
workman who had special charge of it. " Ackermann has a sure 
eye," he said, "and can stop the falling hammer at any moment. 
A hand might be placed on the anvil without fear, and he would 
stop the hammer within a hair's breadth of it." " Let us try it," 
said the Emperor, "but not with a human hand — try my watch," 
and he laid it, a splendid specimen of work richly set with bril- 
liants, on the anvil. Down came the immense mass of steel, and 
Ackermann. with his hand on the lever, stopped it just the sixth 
of an inch from the watch. When he went to hand it back the 
Emperor said kindly, "No, Ackermann, keep the watch -in 
memory of an interesting moment." The workman, embarrassed, 
stood with outstretched hand, not knowing what to do. Krupp 
came forward and took the watch, saying, "I'll keep it for you if 
you are afraid to take it from His Majesty." A few minutes 
later they again passed the spot, and Krupp said, " Now you can 
take the Emperor's present from my hand," and handed Acker- 
mann the watch, wrapped up in a thousand mark note. 



The Technical Education Bill. — Writing to a contem- 
porary, Mr. Edward J. Watherston says : — Every effort should 
be made to get the Government to reduce the standard to which 
it is proposed to limit facilities for technical handicraft instruc- 
tion. Standard VI. is absurdly too high. It would limit the 
number of children to 128,151 (roughly ,"80,000 boys and 50,000 
girls), scattered throughout 19,173 elementary schools. In many 
schools, in districts where the necessity for manual instruction is 
most apparent, there are but few, if any, sixth and seventh stan- 
dard scholars, and those that are are being technically trained 
already as pupil teachers or for walks of life other than 
mechanical. Standard IV. is quite high enough, opening the 
door of handicraft instruction to 848,041 children. I would go 
lower, to Standard III., permitting 1,400,000 children to have 
such instruction as may be possible, commencing at ten years of 
age, as in Continental schools. However, do not let us be con- 
tented with any higher standard than the fourth. In point of 
fact, it should be left to the discretion of the school managers. 
It will be most unwise to tie their hands by an Act of Parlia- 
ment. Depend upon it, nothing will do more to get regularity 
of attendance than manual workshop half-time schools — literary 
work in the morning, workshop in the afternoon ; only children 
who have been at the morning school to be allowed to go to the 
afternoon workshop school. 



The American testimonial to Mr. Gladstone, a description of 
which was given in our last month's issue, was presented to the 
right hon. gentleman on Saturday, July 9, at Aberdeen House, 
liollis Hill, Willesden. 



The Manufacture of Artificial Ruisies. — In a paper 
recently read by M. Fremy before the French Academy of 
Sciences, the author, in describing the successful researches made 
by him, with the assistance of M. Verneuil, for obtaining arti- 
ficial rubies, stated that he discovered the first method of 
producing rubies some years ago, but that all the specimens 
obtained were pasty, and wore away in scales. He adopted 
another process, and by letting alumina dissolve in fluoride of 
calcium, he obtained crystals of alumina — that is to say, perfect 
rubies, which defied the closest scrutiny, of even higher value 
than natural stones. By the latter process, according to M. 
Fremy, stones of almost any size can be produced. 



The first stone of the Imperial Institute was laid by Her 
Majesty the Queen on the 4th ult. 



The Proposed International Exhibition in Glasgow. — 
The guarantee fund for the proposed International Exhibition, to 
be held in Glasgow during the summer of next year, already ex- 
ceeds £240,000, and is being increased. The objects of the 
Exhibition, as stated in the prospectus, are "to promote and 
foster industry, science and art, by inciting the inventive genius 
of our people to still further development in arts and manufac- 
tures : and to stimulate commercial enterprise by inviting all 
nations to exhibit their products, both in the raw and finished 
state." Examples of the manufactures of Glasgow and the sur- 
rounding districts — chemical, iron and other mineral products, 
engineering, shipbuilding, electrical and scientific appliances, and 
textile fabrics — will be shown; and similar and more varied 
exhibits may be expected from other parts of Great Britain and 
from the Continent. Promises of support have also been received 
from America, India, the Canadian, Australian, Cape and other 
Colonies. The site, which has been granted by the Glasgow 
Corporation, extends to 60 acres, and the buildings will cover 
about 10 acres. 

A New Unit for Absolute Time. — Mr. Lippman (Comptes 
Rendu.?, 104, 1,070) proposes a unit of absolutely invariable 
time, which, as independent of every astronomical hypothesis, 
would serve as a check on the universally adopted unit, the 
second. The proposed unit of time is the specific resistance of 
mercury in absolute electro-static units. The constancy of this 
resistance, the fact that it is indifferent what units of length and 
mass are used, and the high degree of accuracy that the available 
experimental methods for its determination promise, are cited in 
its favour in detail. 



August 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



19 



Brussels International Exhibition. — A complete pro- 
gramme of the " Grand Concours International des Sciences et 
de l'lndustrie," in connection with the Exhibition, to be held at 
Brussels in 1888, has been prepared by M. Leon Somze'e. It 
contains a series of questions proposed in connection with the 
different divisions of the Exhibition. The classification consists 
of 50 "Concours," commencing with professional and industrial 
instruction, and ending with the ornamentation of the galleries. 
A communication has been received from the Foreign Office, 
through the Science and Art Department, containing a copy of 
the circular letter addressed by the Prince de Chimaz to the 
Belgian Consuls, in which he asks for their assistance. The 
Comte Adrien d'Oultremont, member of the Belgian Chamber 
of Representatives, has been appointed Commissioner-General of 
the Government at the " Grand Concours." The Moniteur Beige 
of the 3rd ult. contains a royal decree nominating Vice-Presi- 
dents, Secretary-General and Secretaries. 



The Melbourne Exhibition. — We learn on going to press 
that the date of receiving applications for space at the Centen- 
nial International Exhibition, to be held at Melbourne next year, 
has been extended to October 31 next. 



Hobbs, Hart & Co. — The prospectus has just been issued of 
Hobbs, Hart & Co., Limited, the capital of which is £100,000, 
with debenture stock for £20,000. The company has been 
formed for the purpose of taking over as a going concern, and 
working and extending the business of Hobbs, Hart & Co., 
manufacturers of locks, safes and strong-rooms. The firm com- 
menced operations in 1851, and now their locks are in use in 
first-class hotels in London, Government departments, museums, 
hospitals, workhouses, prisons and asylums, while their carriage- 
door locks and handles are used on the principal railways. Safes 
and strong-rooms have been constructed by the firm for Her 
Majesty's gold and silver plate and jewels, and for a number of 
banks, including the Bank of England. According to the pro- 
spectus, medals were awarded at the International Exhibitions, 
London, 1851 and 1862; and Paris, 1855 and 1867; the grand 
medal for progress, at Vienna, 1873 ; gold medals, Paris Exhi- 
bition, 1875, and Melbourne, 1881 ; and Edinburgh International, 
1886. The reason assigned for the conversion of the business 
into a joint-stock enterprise is the recent death of Mr. Hart, the 
sole proprietor. An investigation of the books of the firm has 
been made by a well-known firm of chartered accountants, and 
the directors are of opinion that the result fully justifies them in 
placing the business before the public as a sound investment. 
The capital is divided into 30,000 preference shares of £1 each, 
bearing 6 per cent., and 70,000 ordinary shares of £1 each. 



Aluminum Co., Limited. — This company has been formed 
to acquire the patents and work and develop the inventions 
of Mr. James Webster for the manufacture of pure alumina 
and certain metallic alloys and compounds, together with the 
business now carried on by Webster's Patent Aluminum Crown 
Metal Co., Limited, in Birmingham, Sheffield and London ; and 
also to acquire the patents and work the invention of Mr. H. 
Y. Castner, for the manufacture of sodium and potassium. The 
processes are stated to have been made the subject of exhaustive 
examination by Sir H. E. Roscoe, M.P., F.R.S., Mr. George 
Gore, LL.D., F.R.S., and Mr. James Mactear, F.C.S., F.I.C. 
The first-named gentleman will join the board after allotment. 
The share capital is £400,000 in £5 shares, and the debenture 
capital £100,000. These debentures will bear interest at 6 per 
cent, per annum. Applications are invited for the debentures 
and 53,334 A shares. 



Professor Tyndall was entertained at dinner on June 29, 
on his retirement from the Chair of Natural Philosophy at the 
Royal Institution, and, in replying to the toast of his health, he 
alluded to- the advance made with scientific education, remarking 
that schools, colleges and universities were now rising in our 
midst which promised to rival those of Germany. 



Marie Antoinette's favourite pearl necklace, consisting of 
sixteen rows of pearls, formerly belonging to the Crown Jewels 
of France, is now to be seen in the shop of Berlin's chief 
jewellers, Herren Friedberg und Soehne. 

Messrs. Uibel & Barber, of 576, Hatton Garden, Loncloi. 
E.C., are manufacturing a new and beautiful line of goods — of 
sea beans and alligator teeth. They work them up into 
bangles, brooches, scarf pins, charms, &c, the workmanship on 
which is perfect ; and as they employ steam power in their 
factory they reach the highest perfection in the polishing of the 
sea beans and alligator teeth. The sea beans, which are of 
varied and beautiful colours, are gathered on the coast of Florida, 
where they wash ashore from the Coral Islands on which they 
grow. Being of an exceedingly hard nature, they are susceptible 
of an extremely high polish. The alligator teeth are from 
alligators hunted in the bayous of Texas and everglades of 
Florida, where they are sought for their teeth and hides. 



The Diamond Market. — The Amsterdam market has been 
comparatively quiet throughout the month ; prices for finished 
goods remain low, and only the smaller stones go off. There is, 
however, a hopeful tone pervading ; manufactories are fully going, 
and a change for the better is expected to take place in prices 
shortly. Few foreign buyers are in town. 

The Paris merchants are in the midst of their holiday season, 
and very little local business is being done, but a few unimportant 
transactions are being effected with strangers who are visiting 
the city. 

The steamers " Drummond Castle," " Pretoria," "Pembroke 
Castle," "Moor" and "Garth Castle" arrived at Plymouth 
during the month, bringing large consignments of current goods 
from the fields. But, although considerable business was done, 
the high quotations ruling restrained speculation, the buyers 
saying that, as finished goods are so difficult to sell this season, 
they have to exercise unusual caution. A good many parcels are 
on hand, and, as the market is well stocked, a fall in prices may 
be expected shortly. 

Latest from Kimberley report more buoyancy ; prices better 
for yellow ; all goods very firm, with a tendency to advance. 

Silver. — The market has been comparatively unchanged 
throughout the month, which has been marked by unusual quiet- 
ness. When the Mint orders were completed a fall in prices was 
expected, but this did not seem to make much difference, and the 
order by the Chinese Government for coinage presses, which we 
noticed in our June issue, has left the market equally undisturbed. 

Some of the latest arrivals from Chili were disposed of at 
44ld. per oz. Mexican dollars are quoted at 43^d. 



The Technical Education Bill. — In the House of 
Commons on Tuesday, July 19, Sir W. Hart-Dyke, in moving 
leave to bring in a Bill to facilitate the provision of technical 
education, justified the introduction of a new question so late in 
the session by the fact that the subject had for a long time 
excited considerable interest among the artisan class. Other 
nations had secured to themselves the advantage of special 
industrial training for their youth, and had, in consequence, out- 
stripped us in some branches of industry. This Bill would enable 
the local authorities to make provision for the establishment of 
technical schools, or for assisting in the establishment of technical 
schools, and it would give them power to supplement existing 
teaching in elementary schools by technical instruction. The 
ratepayers would be consulted before the Bill came into operation, 
and would have a power of veto, and it was proposed that it 
should be administered by the Science and Art Department, 
The rating authority would be the School Boards, where they 
existed, and in other places the Town Councils. He believed the 
measure would be essentially popular among the working classes, 
and that it would do an enormous amount of good. — Mr. Mundella 
deprecated discussion till the Bill was in the possession of members, 
but promised assistance in its progress. — Leave was given to 
brine: in the Bill. 



2<) 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[Au..rsT 1. 1887. 



Birmingham News, 

From Our Correspondent. 



British Horological 3nstitute. 



FjFfHE watch trade still remains in a very depressed condition, 
'^f' both here and at Coventry : and there are a number of 
Coventry watch case makers seeking employment in 
Birmingham, but the makers here are already overhanded. 

* # # 

One of the foremen of the English Watch Co., Villa Street 
(Mr. I, own), committed suicide last week by jumping from a 
railway bridge in front of a passing train. The cause is said to 
be a notice of reduction in wages of the employes of the firm, 
and this so affected the deceased as to cause this sad result. He 
leaves a widow ami one child. 

* # # 

When the leading evening paper (The Birmingham Daily 
Mail ) has two articles in one week upon the deplorable state of the 
jewellery trade, and calls attention to the rotten system of trading 
now pursued, it certainly means a black outlook. But it was as 
C'.rtainly a great mistake on the part of the writer — if he wished 
to assist the trade — to attempt to do so by those means. My 
advice is. do not advertise to the public that jewellery is out of 
fashion, by writing leaders such as those referred to : do not 
complain to the public that the trade is conducted upon a " rotten 
system." The public cannot alter this : in fact, the public in 
general do not care a rap about it. Why should they ? It only 
makes the trade a laughing-stock for other business men, who 
conduct their affairs upon more rational principles. Let the 
manufacturers combine and place a limit upon the approbation 
system and long credit. Take Wall Richards' advice and show 
the public that jewellery must be worn at certain times and places. 
Do not tell them not to wear it, as has been done in the Daily 
Mail. Was ever anything seen that was more shortsighted than 
those articles ? ^ # 

As to the abuse of the "appro." system, here is an instance 
in the affairs of Sclmler, Warstone Lane, Birmingham. At 
the time of calling his creditors together he held a number of 
goods on " appro.," returns from which should have been 
made in order to enable the owners to charge in sales to the 
estate, and thus prove their debt. But in this instance the 
debtor refuses to return parcels in the usual way, but sends to 
each creditor a statement of his sales to be charged to the 
account. If any creditor accepts this arrangement the trade will 
have him to thank for a new opening for risk and loss which 
might be avoided by a little common sense, which, to be candid, 
appears to be a very scarce commodity in bankruptcy cases 
among the jewellers. # # # 

The new transparent lacquers introduced here from America 
are being used by several Birmingham firms, and they find them 
a great preventive against oxidisation, and as it is colourless it 
is suitable for gold and silver as well as commoner metals. A 
manufacturer here showed me some silver articles to which it had 
been applied that were perfectly white and good as new after 
hanging in the fumes of their pickling vat for some three 
months — a tolerably severe test. I think it has a promising 
future, the only drawback being the cost, which is £1 per gallon. 

* * * 

A novel and useful article, just got out by a Birmingham 
firm, is a cyclist's companion in the shape of a watch case, with 
a place in front for the club ticket and a set of dials to record 
the distance made, backed by a purse to contain the necessary 
cash for touring purposes : it will be in the market shortly. 
The dials may also be used as a whist marker. 

* * * 

Medallists still report a fair amount of business, but the 
general trade is still far from active. Out-workers, such as 
engravers, enamellers, setters, &c, are working very short hours. 

* * * 

The gilding and plating branch is quite overdone here, several 
new works having opened lately, and the competition is most keen. 



>f the members of the British Horo- 
in union with the City and Guilds 



flM'HE annual meeting 
f^ 1 logical Institute 

Institute) was held on Tuesday, 19th ult., at the offices, 
Northampton Square, Clerkenwell ; Mr. D. Glasgow presided. 
The report submitted by the Council for the half-year ended June 
:'»!> Ias1 stated that though, taken as a whole, the balance sheet 
For the first half of the year might be said to be satisfactory, it 
\\a> a matter of grave concern that even the modest sum received 
on account of the annual subscriptions of members ami associates 
in the corresponding period of last year hail not been maintained. 
It must, of course, be expected that this item would continue to 
be in some measure a reflex of the general prosperity or otherwise 
of the horological trades: still the Council ventured to believe 
that any considerable shrinkage in the .-1111011111 mighf be avoided. 
even in times of depression, if 1 he members who believed in the 
work of the Institute, and had its welfare at heart, would briny- 
its claims before the notice of their friends. 

The progress of the educational work was set forth in various 
reports, and. as the Council anticipated, a considerably improved 
tone bad resulted from the introduction of the new rules for tin- 
conduct of the classes. The ( llass Visiting Committee, in a reporl 
io the Council, testified to the continued efficiency ami excellence 
of the educational work. They said that on the whole the Council 
of the Institute might congratulate themselves on the work of the 
year, and feel that their efforts had added to the sum of the skill 
of horological interests. The theoretical work had, concurrently 
with the practical, been carried on with considerable energy. The 
t 'lass Visiting Committee, in concluding their report, observed that, 
while being in full sympathy with the principle of teaching the 
student to rely on his own ability, rather than be dependent on 
the excellence of tools of precision not always accessible, they 
thought that the teaching would be profitably augmented by 
instruction in the use of some of the advanced lathes now produced 
for watchmakers, to thos • students who had already acquired 
manipulative skill. This Committee also suggested that it would 
be desirable if the Council would provide a transit instrument, the 
use of which might be taught as a portion of the instruction to 
all students advanced sufficiently to profit by it. 

The report of the Council proceeded to state that a Select 
Committee of the House of Commons had been engaged in 
taking the evidence of watchmaking experts iii reference to the 
Merchandise Marks Amendment Bill of the Government, but 
beyond sending to the Chairman of the Committee the previously 
formed opinion of the Council, to the effect that no remedy for 
the prevention of the sale of foreign watches as English would be 
efficacious unless the Hall-marks of the British assay offices were 
confined to such cases as were of British make, the Council has 
taken no part in the matter, in deference to a section of the 
trade who desired to place certain restrictions on manufacturers. 
Fourteen members and two associates had been elected during the 
half-year. There were at present on the books 452 members and 
fifteen associates. 

The Chairman moved the adoption of the report, remarking 
that he thought that more support should be giren to the 
Institution by the members. He held that it was not the business 
of this Institute to provide machine tools to teach the young men 
in their classes, though expressing the opinion that this country 
would be able to go as far as it was profitable to go in the use of 
machine tools. 

The motion was seconded by Mr. H. Gannev, who thought 
that the pupils should learn something about the use of machine 
tools. 

Mr. Corke suggested the establishment of a factory where 
watches could be made on a lanj-e and cheap scale to meet foreign 
competition. 

The report was adopted after a discussion, and the meeting 
proceeded to formal business. 

The following officers were elected : — President, The Rt. Hon. 
Lord Grimthorpe ; Vice-Presidents, Daniel Buckney, David 
Glasgow, Julien Tripplin, F.R.A.S.; Treasurer, Thomas Mercer; 



August 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLEE AND SILVERSMITH. 



■21 



Members of Council, Richard Atkins, Charles Bacon, William 
Barnsdale, Thomas Baxter, James Bray, Richard Bridgman, 
Daniel Buckney, Lewis Donne, Charles Dunn, Robert Gardner, 
John Hammersley, G. H. Harwood, James Haswell, Thomas 
Hewitt, H. P. Isaac, Ami Jaccard, E. D. Johnson, F.R.A.S., 
Victor Kullberg, James Oliver, Edward Perrett, Edward Rigg, 
M.A., J. B. Smith, Richard Strachan, F.R.M.S., Julien Trip- 
plin, F.R.A.S., F. W. Troup, Joseph Usher, F. R. Warman, 
A. W. Webb, T. J. Willis, Philip Woodman. 



Jftr* £aue Chomas on Applied Art. 



fjffHE terms "Applied Art" and "Applied Arts'' may pos- 



sibly be suificiently understood by painters, sculptors and 
architects, but the classification adopted by the late Sir 
Henry Cole, the "Fine Art Manufactures," would be better 
understood by the many ; moreover, " Applied Art " is not a 
sectional, but a general term. All fine art is applied art, art 
applied to painting, to sculpture, to architecture, to mural decora- 
tion, &c. We should recollect, too, that the word "art" is 
applicable to the mechanical as well as to the fine arts, and the 
question naturally arises whether there be any great generalisa- 
tion that formulates the aim of all art, that of the fine arts as 
well as that of the mechanical ? There is — and it may be thus 
concisely expressed — adaptation to purpose, that adaptation to 
purpose which, in its complete fulfilment, constitutes perfect 
fitness. The exaltation of the beautiful, to the disparagement of 
of the fit, is the demoralising art tendency of modern asstheticism. 
The good old English practice of aiming at perfect fitness would 
have led the fine arts, and the art manufacturers, into the right 
path. The Greeks recognised the principle of adaptation to 
purposes as the true art-motive, hence the chaste simplicity that 
characterises all their works. The beauty of the oviform was 
shown to be an accident of the organic fitness of the egg, the 
mere coincidence of its appositeness to taste — the form itself 
may be separated, or divorced, from the natural fitness of the 
organism to which it belongs, and may be used in a number of 
different ways for the gratification of the eye, and for many 
purposes with which it had originally nothing to do. Now this 
separation or divorcement of the beauties of nature from the 
organisms of which, scientifically speaking, they were the acci- 
dents, is an important function of fine art. We not only 
separate the oviform, but the human form, and other beautiful 
forms from the organisms, the organic fitnesses in nature to 
which they belong, and emjiloy them in fine art' productions. 
How, then, it may be asked, are we to reconcile the fine arts with 
the principle of adaptation to purpose ? In this wise, every work 
of fine art has some purpose of its own to subserve, a purpose 
determined chiefly by its subject, and in proportion as it fulfils 
this end is it successful, and if the end be great, is it fit and 
excellent. The satisfaction of the critical judgment, of good 
taste, is an end and purpose in itself. The greatest works of 
fine art now existing have been rated excellent from their adapta- 
tion to their purposes as works of art. Moreover, when we come 
to apply fine art to utilities, the critical taste demands that it 
have some consistent relation to them, although the forms of the 
utilities themselves be merely used as pegs, or pretences, on 
which to hang fine art, as in the case of Flaxman's Achilles 
Shield, the Portland Vase, &c. The principle of adaptation to 
purpose is as applicable to works of literature as it is to the 
plastic arts. Let societies and individuals, however, strive as 
they may to promote good taste, little or no progress will be 
made towards a higher development of the fine arts, and of the 
art manufactures, till a consensus of educated opinion be brought 
to bear upon them. A discriminating demand by the titled and 
by the wealthy for their continuous production has ever proved a 
most potent and effective stimulus to excellence. In default of 
such a demand, any attempt to force art by technical procedure 
will, in n great measure, prove abortive, as well as a waste of 
time and a wast? of money. — Journal of the Society of Arts. 



]ubilee Fountain ano itloch Cower for 
Stratforb-on-Auon. 



|X| LOFTY, spire-like and highly ornamental drinking 
<^^> fountain, with clock tower, is now being built in the 
Rother Market, Stratford-on-Avon, at the expense 
of Mr. George W. Childs, of Philadelphia, who, by this 
munificent and noble gift to the birthplace of Shakespeare, 
supplies the inhabitants of the town with what has long been 
felt to be one of its most pressing needs. It will be a durable 
and beautiful memorial of the friendly feeling existing between 
the two nations in this Jubilee Year. 

The base of the tower is square on plan, with the addition of 
boldly projecting buttresses placed diagonally at the four corners, 
terminating with acutely pointed gablets surmounted by a lion 
bearing the arms of Great Britain alternately with the American 
eagle associated with the stars and stripes. On the north face 
is a polished granite basin, having the outline of a large segment 
of a circle, into which a stream of water is to flow constantly 
from a bronze spout ; on the east and west sides are large 
troughs, of the same general outline and material, for the use of 
horses and cattle, and, beneath these, smaller troughs for sheep 
and dogs. On the south side is a door affording admission to 
the interior, flanked by two shallow niches, in one of which will 
be placed a barometer, and in the other a thermometer, both of 
the best construction. Immediately over the basins and the door 
are moulded pointed arches, springing from dwarf columns, with 
carved capitals. The tympanum of each arch is filled by 
geometric tracery, profusely enriched with carvings of foliage. 

In the oblong spaces between the margins of the basins and 
the opening of the arches are the following inscriptions, cut into 
the stone : — 

i. 
The gift of an American citizen, George W. Childs, of Philadelphia, to the 
town of Shakespeare, in the Jubilee Year of Queen Victoria. 
II. 
In her days, every man shall eat, in safety 
Under his own vine, what he plants ; and sing 
The merry songs of peace to all his neighbours. 
God shall be truly known ; and those about her 
From her shall read the perfect ways of honour, 
And by those claim their greatness, not by blood. 

Henry VIZ, Act V., Scene 4. 
III. 
Honest water, which ne'er left man i'the mire. 

Tinum of Athens, Act I.. Scene 2. 

IV. 

Ten thousand honours and blessings on the bard who has gilded the 
dull realities of life with innocent illusions. — Washington Irri?ig's 
" Stratford-on-Avon." 

The next story of the tower has on each face a triple arcade 
with moulded pointed trefoiled arches on slender shafts. The 
arches are glazed, and light a small chamber, in which the clock 
is to be placed. At the corners are cylindrical turrets, terminating 
in conical spirelets in two stages, the surfaces of the cones 
enriched with scale-like ornament. In the next story are the 
four dials of the clock, under crocketed gables, with finials 
representing " Puck," " Mustard Seed," " Peas Blossom " and 
" Cobweb." The clock faces project slightly from a cylindrical 
tower flanked by four other smaller three-quarter attached turrets 
of the same plan ; from the main central cylinder springs a spire 
of a slightly concave outline, and the four turrets have similar 
but much smaller spirelets, all five springing from the same level, 
and all terminating in lofty gilded vanes. Immediately below 
the line of springing is a band of panelling formed of narrow 
trefoiled arches. The central spire has on four opposite sides 
gableted spire-lights, and, at about one-third of its height, a 
continuous band of narrow lights to spread the sound of the 
clock bells. The height from the road to the top of the vane is 
50 feet. The clock will be illuminated at night. 

The materials of which the monument is being constructed are 
of the most durable kind — Peterhead granite for the base and 
troughs, and for the superstructure a very hard and durable 
stone, of a delicate grey colour, from Bolton Wood, in Yorkshire, 
The architect is Mr, Jethro Cossins, of Birmingham, 



22 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[August 1, 1887. 



British Association. 



fHE fifty-seventh annual meeting of this Association will be 
held at Manchester, and will commence on Wednesday, 
August 31, 1887. The first meeting of the General 
Committee will be held on Wednesday, August 31, at 1 p.m., for 
the election of the president and sectional officers, and the despatch 
of business usually brought before that body. The General Com- 
mittee will meet again on Monday, September 5, at 3 p.m., for 
the purpose of appointing officers for 1888, and of deciding on the 
place of meeting in 1889. The concluding meeting of this Com- 
mittee will be held on Wednesday, September 7, at 1 p.m., when 
the report of the Committee of Recommendations will be received. 

The first general meeting will be held on Wednesday, August 31, 
at 8 p.m. precisely, when Principal Sir William Dawson, C.M.G., 
M.A., LL.D., F'.R.S., will resign the chair, and Sir H. E. 
Roscoe, LL.D., M.P., F.R.S., President-elect, will assume the 
presidency, and deliver an address. On Thursday evening, 
September 1, at 8 p.m., a soiree ; on Friday evening, September 2, 
at 8.30 p.m., a discourse on "The Rate of Explosion in Gases," 
by Professor H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S.. F.C.S.; on Monday 
evening, September 5, at 8.30 p.m., a discourse on " Explorations 
in Central Africa," by Colonel Sir Francis de Winton, K.C.M.G., 
R.A.: on Tuesday evening, September 6, at 8 p.m., a soiree : on 
Wednesday, September 7, the concluding general meeting will be 
held at 2.3J p.m. 

The following is a list of the sectional officers : — .1. — Mathe- 
matical and Physical Science — President, Professor Sir R. S. 
Ball, M.A., LL.D.. F.R.S., Astronomer Royal for Ireland : 
Secretaries, R. E Baynes, M.A (Recorder) : P. T. Glazebrook, 
M.A., F.R.S.: Professor H. Lamb, M.A. . F.R.S.; W. N. Shaw, 
M.A. B. — Chemical Science — President. Edward Schunck, 
Ph.D.. F.R.S.; Secretaries, Professor P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc. 
I Recorder) ; H. Forster Morley, M.A.. D.Sc: W. Thomson, 
F.R.S.E. €.— Geology— President, Henry Woodward, LL. I >., 
F.R.S.: Secretaries. J. E. Marr, M.A.: J. J. H. Teall, M.A.; 
W. Topley (Reorder): W. VV. Watts. B.A. D.— Biology- 
President, Professor A. Newton, M.A.. F.R.S.: Secretaries. C. 
Bailev, F.L.S.: F. E. Beddard, M.A.: Walter Heape (Recorder) ; 
W. L. Sclater, B.A.: Professor H. Marshall Ward, 31. A. E.— 
Geography — President, Major-General Sir Charles Warren, 
R.E., G.C.M.G, F.R.S.; Secretaries. Rev. L. ('. Casartelli, 
M.A.. Ph.D.: J. S. Keltie : H. J. Mackinder : E. G. Ravenstein 
(Recorder). F. — Economic Science anil Statistics — President. 
Robert Giffen, LL.D.: Secretaries. Refc W. Cunningham, B.D., 
D.Sc (Recorder): F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A.; T. H. Elliot: 
Professor .I.E. C. Munro, LL.D. G. — Mechanical Science — 
President, Professor Osborne Reynolds, M.A. , LL.D.. F.R.S.; 
Secretaries. 0. F. Budenberg, B.Sc: W. Bayley Marshall : E. 
Rigg, M.A. (Recorder). H. — Anthropology — President, Pro- 
fessor A. H. Sayce. M.A.: Secretaries. G. W. Bloxam. M.A. 
(Recorder) ; J. G. Garson, M.D.: A. M. Paterson, M.I). 



Che Jfterchanbise fflarhs Bill. 



fjIjfHE following are the amended clauses of the Bill which 
^M 1 relate to watchmakers, to which, for the purpose of com- 
partson, we append the original clauses. 
8. Where a watch case has thereon any words or marks which 
constitute, or are by common repute considered as constituting. 
a description of the country in which the watch was made, those 
words or marks shall prima facie be deemed to be a description 
of that country within the meaning of this Act; and the pro- 
visions of this Act with respect to goods to which a false trade 
description has been applied, and with respect to selling or 
exposing for or having in possession for sale, or any purpose of 
trade or manufacture, goods with a false trade description, shall 
apply accordingly. 



9. (1.) Every person who sends or brings a watch case, 
whether imported or not, to any assay office in the I T nited 
Kingdom for the purpose of being assayed, stamped or marked, 
shall make a declaration declaring in what country or place the 
case was made ; if it appears by such declaration that the watch 
case was made in some country or place out of the United King- 
dom, the assay office shall place on the case such a mark (differing 
from the mark placed by the office on a watch case made in the 
L nited Kingdom) and in such a mode as may be from time to 
time directed by Order in Council. 

(2.) The declaration may be made before an officer of an assay 
office, appointed in that behalf by the office (which officer is 
hereby authorised to administer such a declaration), or before a 
justice of the peace, or a commissioner having power to administer 
oaths in the Supreme Court of Judicature in England or Ireland, 
or in the Court of Session in Scotland, and shall be in such form 
as may be from time to time directed by Order in Council. 

(3.) Every person who makes a false declaration for the 
purposes of this section shall be liable, on conviction on indict- 
ment, to the penalties of perjury, and on summary conviction to 
a fine not exceeding twenty pounds for each offence. 

Original Clauses. 

N. Where a watch case lias thereon any words or marks which 
constitute, or are by common repute considered as constituting, a 
description of the country in which the works of the watch were 
made, those words or marks shall prima facie be deemed to be a 
description of that country within the meaning of the principal 
Act and this Act ; and the provisions of the principal Act and 
this- Act with respect to goods with a covering to which a false 
description relating to the goods has been applied, and with 
respect to selling or exposing for sale goods with a false descrip- 
tion, shall apply accordingly. 

9. Whereas the marks placed upon watch cases bj the assay 
offices in the United Kingdom have been frequently treated as 
indications of the British origin of the cases so marked, and also 
of the works contained therein, and for the purpose of preventing 
fraud in connection with watches it is expedient to make further 
provision respecting the marks to be placed on watch cases : be 
it therefore enacted as follows : — 

(1.) When a watch case imported into the United Kingdom 
is sent to an assay office in the United Kingdom for the 
purpose of being assayed, stamped or marked, the assay 
office shall place on the case such a mark (differing from 
the mark placed by the office on a watch case made in the 
Dinted Kingdom) and in such a mode as may he from 
time to time directed by Order in Council. 
(2.) Every person who semis a watch case, whether imported 
or not, to any assay office in the United Kingdom shall 
make a declaration as to the country of origin of the works 
which, according to the best of his information and belief, 
the case is intended to contain : and where such a declaration 
is made, the assay office shall mark on the case, in addition 
to any other mark, such words indicating the country of 
origin of the works, ami in such mode as may be from time 
to time directed by Order in Council. 
(3.) Any person who makes any such declaration falsely shall 

be liable to punishment for perjury. 
(4.) In this section " country of origin " means the country 
where the works are made. 

In the House of Lords, on the 26th ult., Lord Stanley of 
Preston moved the second reading of the Bill. 

Lord Herschell expressed his satisfaction that there was 
now a prospect of a Bill dealing with the important subject of 
fraudulent trade marks passing into law. 

The Lord Chancellor observed that, as the Bill tended to 
reverse the principle of the criminal law by throwing the onus of 
proof on the accused, the principle would require to be somewhat 
safeguarded in Committee. 

The Bill was read a second time. 



August 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



23 



Che Buoy Jflines of Burmah. 

JN the House of Commons last month, Sir J. Gorst, in 
]*L reply to Mr. Bradlangh, said : — The position of Messrs. 
Streeter in reference to the Burmah Ruby Mines is at 
present one of expectancy. They have offered an annual 
payment of four lakhs of rupees for a licence to work the 
Ruby Mines under certain conditions in a certain defined 
area. Their offer is now before the Secretary of State in 
Council. Their first application was received by the Government 
of India in February, 1886. The negotiations were conducted 
by the Chief Commissioners of Burmah. No tenders for working 
the mines were invited by the local authorities, but the willingness 
of the Government of India to receive tenders was well known 
at the time when Messrs. Streeter's first application was received. 
No person other than a Mr. Ungar applied for permission to 
visit the Ruby Mines, and was refused by the local authorities. 
His application to visit the mines was made in December, 1886. 
No engineer and staff in the employment of Messrs. Streeter, 
together with machinery for working the mines, has ever been 
escorted to Mojok. Despatches have recently been received from 
India on the subject. The Secretary of State lias directed these 
despatches to be laid before Council in the usual way, and the 
question of the best mode of disposing of the mines will be in 
due course considered by the Secretary of State in Council. As 
soon as any final decision has been arrived at, the Secretary of 
!r-tate will bejiappy to communicate it to Parliament, and he will 
willingly present such papers on the subject as can, with advan- 
tage to the public service, be laid upon the table of the House. 

Later on Sir J. Gorst stated that he wished to be allowed to 
amplify an answer he gave last week to the hon. member for 
Northampton respecting the Ruby Mines in Burmah. The 
Secretary of State had received the following telegram from the 
Viceroy : — " I find the statement that Streeter's people are not 
at work on the mines requires qualification, for Crosthwaite has 
just informed us that he had authorised his Deputy-Commissioner 
to permit persons who wished to dig for rubies to do so under 
the old system and without the use of machinery, as provisional 
means of enhancing revenue until final decision can be arrived at 
in regard to the disposition of the mines, and that a written 
permit had been issued to Streeter's son, as it might have been 
to any or similar applicant. Crosthwaite adds that he con- 
sidered this an ordinary act of the local Executive, and not of 
such importance to be reported to the Government of India. It is 
quite a distinct matter from leasing of Crown monopoly right, on 
which action is suspended pending your decision" — that was the 
Secretary of State. 

Mr. Bradlaugh would hardly call that an amplification, for it 
was rather a contradiction ; and said that in view of the absolutely 
contradictory answers which he had received during the past 
twelve months with reference to the Burmah Mines, he begged to 
ask the First Lord of the Treasury whether he would take care 
that papers dating from February, 1886, were laid on the table 
forthwith, so that the House might form a judgment on the subject. 

Mr. W. H. Smith said there would be no delay in laying the 
papers on the table. 

On the 26th ult. Sir J. Gorst, replying to a series of questions 
on this subject by Mr. Watt, said :— The Secretary of State can, 
after careful inquiry, find no trace of any assurances being given 
to Mr. Streeter, Jun., before he left London, that he would get a 
permit to work the Ruby Mines. He had no information about 
Mr. Streeter's arrangement for a staff. The Secretary of State 
has no information as to the third member of the syndicate. 
The inquiry now instituted by the Secretary of State has reference 
solely to the best mode of disposing of the Ruby Mines. The 
allegation that certain Government officials were interested in 
the syndicate Is now heard of by the Secretary of State for the 
first time. If any such allegation is made by a responsible 
person and supported by prima facie evidence, the -Secretary of 
State will cause inquiry to be made. I could not state to the 
House, in answer to a question, the nature of recent despatches 
without unduly trespassing upon the time of the House. 



£he Birmingham ]eojeUery Urabe. 



jfPN a letter to the Birmingham Daily Post, Mr. S. Wall 
JiL Richards says : — I am deeply interested in all that pertains 
to my native town, good old Brum ; and as I see the Daily 
Post every morning I keep in touch with all that is going on, 
rejoicing in its triumphs and sympathising with its misfortunes. 
Having been engaged for many years as a manufacturer in one 
of the branches of the jewellery trade, I should like, if you would 
permit me, to offer a few suggestions in reference to this 
industry, and what I consider its probable future, for I do not 
for a moment think that it is going to die, though it is sick. 

Just for a moment we will consider the jewellery trade " a 
fashion trade," pure and simple. Compare it with other fashion 
trades and then see how it stands. Do we hear of prostration in 
the millinery and dressmaking branches and the trades that are 
adjuncts to the filling in of the many divisions of a lady's 
wardrobe ? Do we hear of such depression in the fashion brandies 
of the tailorins- or outfitting, or the hatters' or hosiers' ? On 
the contrary, 1 maintain that all of these are growing in im- 
portance, are flourishing in fact. And if so, how is it ? My 
answer is this, that when the jewellers collectively (individually 
it is almost impossible) do for their industry what is done for 
those fashion branches I have mentioned, the jewellery trade will 
be a steady and prosperous branch of industry. I shall at once 
be asked : What do the fashion trades do that the jewellers 
omit ? My answer is that they deluge the country with fashion 
literature. Look at the weekly fashion journals and magazines, 
the press notices that are constantly appearing in every con- 
ceivable and imaginary form ; even ordinary weekly newspapers 
have their " Ladies' column" devoted to the same end — namely, 
educating and stimulating the public wdiat to wear, what to 
appear in, what is most becoming, and how to look nice, which 
every woman will do, or strive to do, to the end of time. If 
all of these mediums suddenly ceased their teaching an I 
preaching, what a collapse ! What a widespread depr. ssion there 
would be in every fashion trade I have referred to. Writers who 
like to dwell upon the progress of the age, not unfrequently refer 
to the improved taste in dress as now worn by both sexes — 
thanks to the teaching of the fashion journals. 

To me, Sir, it is remarkable that so little effort has been made, 
so little done, with reference to developing a taste for jewellery — 
how to buy it, and how it should be worn. It may be ungallant 
to say so, but I am afraid that very few know how to wear 
jewellery properly. A lady would be shocked if she were told 
that the same kind of dress she wore at breakfast would do to 
appear in at dinner, or that a walking costume would do for a 
ball, or that it would be in order to pay a visit of condolence to 
a bereaved friend in the attire in which she would attend a 
concert. She has been taught differently by the fashion journals, 
and that a suitable costume is required for each occasion. But 
how about the jewellery to be worn with each ? There would be 
minute particulars about the trimming of each bonnet, the colour 
of the gloves, &c. ; but whoever sees a paragraph about jewellery — 
how that should be worn ? The probability is that half a suite 
of coloured gold would be made to do duty on three of the 
occasions I have enumerated, and a mutilated suite of bright gold 
jewellery on the others. Till ladies are told, and told often, that 
it is bad taste to wear jewellery only according to certain rules 
and canons, they will continue to wear it as they do now — and 
that is anyhow. When ladies are taught to be as careful in 
selecting their jewellery as they are in selecting their wardrobes, 
they will be as proud of one as of the other, and then a bright 
future is in store for the "trade." I could enlarge upon this, 
but your space forbids until some future occasion. 

What is the immediate remedy ? Why, the jewellers of 
Birmingham should combine and originate a fund so that the 
fashion journals could be subsidised, and a column (more or less) 
be devoted to their trade every week, in which well-written articles 
should appear and notices in every form. The public have yet 
to be educated, the demand has to be created as well as supplied. 
I do not know an industry which has such resources for producing 



U 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[August 1, 188?. 



articles of beauty and novelty as the jewellery trade, and I speak 
with knowledge when I say that the jewellers of the continents of 
Europe and America are nowhere in the race, compared with 
Birmingham, in the variety and elegance of their productions. 
But many, very many, of the choicest novelties, for the want of 
publicity, are in vain, and with the poet one may say — 

" Full many a gem of purest ray serene 
The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear," 

for beyond being seen by a few capricious middlemen, the public 
know them not ; whilst an enterprising maker of a pretty garter 
or a hideous "dress improver"' can, by advertising and judicious 
advocacy in fashion journals, stimulate demand and make a 
market. 



Hhe Hew $olo jubilee Jftebals. 



sTpT the Trial of the Pyx, at Goldsmiths' Hall, the new gold 
tJ&k Jubilee Medals were privately shown to the jury of the 
S_G ^ Company, and they are now being issued from the Mint. 
With regard to the crown, as is observed by a contemporary, the 
same objection will probably be taken as has already been raised 
with respect to it in the coins. This "round and top of 
sovereignty," like the other, looks rather unbecomingly small, 
and does not poise so securely on the head as it might do. The 
artist, it may be presumed, depicted accurately what was placed 
before him for the purpose. He is not to be held responsible for 
the shape or relative dimensions of the crown, or for the position 
it holds upon the head. But neither the shape nor position is 
nearly so satisfactory as in the beautiful medal struck to com- 
memorate the proclamation of Her Majesty Empress of India. 
Nevertheless, Mr. Boehm's large medallion, of which this obverse 
is a reduced copy, is an exquisite work of art. It has undoubt- 
edly suffered somewhat in the process of translation from a 
large plaster cast to a small steel die. For this translation Mr. 
Boehm is also responsible, and it may be presumed, therefore, 
that whatever deterioration may be detected in the second phase 
of the work has occurred in spite of the most painstaking effort, 
and must be considered unavoidable. In the medal there is a 
certain hardness of feature not to be found in the medallion, and 
in the veil and bust are one or two stiff and awkward lines 
entirely the work of the steel die. The back edge of the veil, 
scarcely perceptible in the original work, comes out from the die 
a strong, straight line, very objectionably forming a right angle 
with the lower extremity of the bust, and doing much to impart 
the tilting appearance to the crown. The elaboration of the lace 
in the veil has also, unfortunately, come out in two or three hori- 
zontal lines, which to a large extent destroy the idea of lace. The 
tool marks beneath the bust are moreover unpleasantly empha- 
sised, though quite unobjectionable in the plaster. These 
awkward little details are to be especially deplored, because, 
though each is slight in itself, together they seriously detract 
from an otherwise admirable work of art. This obverse of the 
gold medal is almost a thing of beauty. In the original work, as 
we have said, it is quite so. But after all criticism, the wonder 
really is that such a work as Mr. Boehm has produced as a 
medallion can be reduced to so small a size and reproduced in a 
steel die with so little loss of its original artistic merit. On the 
bust are shown the Victoria and Albert Order and the Imperial 
Order of the Crown of India. 

The reverse of the medal is from a design by Sir Frederick 
Leighton, P.R.A. This is not open to the same kind of criticism, 
partly no doubt from the nature of the design, which consists of 
an allegorical group of small figures. For a description of it we 
may quote from what we take to be the artist's own account : — 
"In the centre, the British Empire sits enthroned, resting one 
hand on the sword of justice, and holding in the other the symbol 
of victorious rule. A lion is seen on each side of the throne. At 
the feet of the seated figure lies Mercury, the god of Commerce, 
the mainstay of our Imperial strength, holding up in one hand a 
cup heaped with gold. Opposite to him sit the geniuses of Elec- 
tricity and Steam. Below, again, five shields banded together 



bear the names of the five parts of the globe — Europe, Asia, 
Africa, America and Australasia — over which the Empire 
extends. On each side of the figure of Empire stand the per- 
sonified elements of its greatness — on the right (of the spectator), 
Industry and Agriculture ; on the left, Science, Letters and Art. 
Above, the occasion of the celebration commemorated is expressed 
by two winged figures representing the year 1887 (the advancing 
figure) and the year 1887 (with averted head), holding each a 
wreath. Where these wreaths interlock, the letters V.I.R. 
appear, and over all the words 'In commemoration.'" This 
elaborate group was first designed by Sir Frederick Leighton in 
a medallion about eleven inches across, and it will be easily 
understood that when a medallion of this size, comprising so 
large a number of figures, comes to be reduced to the size of a 
crown piece or so, there can be no very great minutia; of detail. 
Its beauty must consist mainly in the grouping and posing of 
the figures, and in these respects we think the general verdict 
will be that this reverse is a work of consummate skill. 

Of course the work has involved consultation between the 
respective artists and the Deputy Master of the Mint, the Hon. 
C. W. Fremantle, C.B., who, with the superintendent of the 
operative department, Mr. Robert A. Hill, is responsible for the 
actual production of the medals, which in point of workmanship 
fully sustain the high reputation of the English Mint for first- 
rate execution. So far as the mechanical production is concerned, 
these medals probably cannot be surpassed. 



Che Princess of lilales anb the Birmingham 
jewellery iTraoe. 



COMMUNICATION has been received by Mr. J. Jacobs 
from Colonel Stanley Clarke, private secretary to the 
Princess of Wales, to the effect that Her Royal Highness 
had been pleased to inspect the whole of the specimens of 
jewellery submitted to her by the deputation of Birmingham 
jewellers appointed for the purpose at a meeting recently held at 
the Grand Hotel. The Princess expressed herself well pleased 
with the work and selected several articles for purchase. The 
class of work selected by Her Royal Highness is of the heavy 
filigree description, which gives greater employment to working 
jewellers than any other. Among the articles selected are 
brooches and earrings, and it is earnestly hoped that the action 
of the Princess will revive a fashion in the wearing of jewellery 
which will be of the utmost benefit to the trade. If this class of 
work can be successfully introduced by the shopkeepers through- 
out the country to the customers, a large amount of employment 
will be found for hundreds of men who are at present existing 
under most depressing circumstances. Councillor Charles Green, 
one of the committee of jewellers appointed to submit the speci- 
mens to Her Royal Highness, returned on the 23rd ult. to Bir- 
mingham, taking with him the remainder of the. articles. 

The Birmingham Daiij/ Gazette understands that, at an early 
date, it is intended to call a meeting of the whole trade in Bir- 
mingham to consider the primary cause of the great and almost 
unparalleled depression, and also certain grievances which have 
long been talked over amongst jewellers, but which have not yet 
been definitely dealt with. Among other matters to be discussed 
will bi the extremely low prices obtained for such articles as Hall- 
marked alberts in silver and gold, and Hall-marked bracelets. The 
retail prices of these, it is said, bring scarcely any remuneration 
to the manufacturing jeweller or to the working men. Other 
matters which will be brought up are the excessively long terms 
in vogue in the trade and the ruinous system of "appro.," and it 
is hoped that the outcome of the meeting will be some arrange- 
ment between merchants and manufacturers, and, if possible, 
retail dealers, by which prices may be adjusted on more equitable 
terms. It has become painfully apparent to everyone that some- 
thing must be done to relieve the trade of the heavy depression 
which exists, the failures of late having been of alarming 
frequency. 



August 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



25 



Kashmir. 



By William Simpson, R.I., F.R.G.S., Hon. Assoc, R.I.B.A. 



KASHMIE i 



If "woman can make the worst wilderness dear, 

Think, think what a heav'n she must make of Cashmere ! " 

now the official form for the word we have so 
long known as " Cashmere." The Indian Government 
have adopted a new spelling for most of the names of 
places, and this will explain why the quotation from " Lalla Rookh" 
differs from the word as given at the head of this article. The 
description of Kashmir as a " valley " is accurate enough, but 
the term does not quite convey the character of the locality. It 
is agreed on all hands that it was at one time a lake, and that 
as the waters of the Jhelum slowly wore away the opening at 
Baramula, the level of the lake fell, and in time the bed became 
dry land ; even yet much of it is jeel or marsh, besides which 
there are lakes : among them is the celebrated " Lake of Cash- 
mere ; " near to Baramula is the Wulur Lake, a large sheet of 
water — it is ten miles in one direction and about six in the other 
— which might be described as part of the original lake not yet 
dried up. Instead of being like a valley, this old lake bed has 
the appearance of a great plain, for it is stated as being about 100 
miles in length, and that in its widest part it extends to 60 
miles. Being surrounded by high mountains, like a rampart all 
round, which are white with snow the greater part of the year, 
it is a perfect realisation of the "Happy Valley'' of Rasselas. 
By all it is familiarly known as the " Happy Valley," and Moore 
calls it the " Valley "of Bliss." Being about 6,000 feet above the 
sea, these descriptive terms require no arguments for their 
acceptance to those who reach its grateful coolness from the 
plains of India when the summer sun is blazing. 

The visitor to Kashmir will find himself on his first arrival 
surrounded by a crowd of boatmen, and the mode of escape from 
their presence is to hire one of them. The engagement includes 
boat and men as well, at so much a month : they attend upon you 
at all hours, for the boat takes the place of a horse or carriage ; by 
means of the river, the canal and the lakes, your boatman can 
take you to almost any spot. The first point of attraction is 
generally the dull or lake ; this lies close to the town of 
Grinugger, and is reached by the "Apple Tree" canal. That 
part of the lake nearest the town is shallow, while the opposite 
shore skirts the base of the hills, where there is more depth of 
water. The shallow side is covered with aquatic plants, which 
grow in such profusion that the boats can only pass along narrow 
channels kept open for the traffic. Among the vegetable growths 
are many flowering plants with bright tints ; but the queen of 
flowers here is the lotus. Great stretches of space are covered 
with it ; its large green leaves float on the surface, and the 
flowers are in such profusion, that the eye as it gazes along the 
distance catches bright gleams of a beautiful rose tint. It is 
this ample crop of leaf and flower which justifies Moore's 
description of the lake as being " like a garden " — 

" With the rich buds that o'er it lie, 
As if a shower of fairy wreaths 
Had fallen upon it from the sky ! " 

The seeds of the lotus are not unlike green peas ; they are 
very pleasant to eat, and ate supposed to produce the feeling of 
forgetfulness. Moore realised the beauty of the spot from the 
accounts of others, and it is surprising to find how accurate he 
has been. " Lalla Rookh " is a. perfect guide-book to the lake of 
Cashmere, and the reader may be referred to it if he desires 
further information ; although tempting it might be to describe 
such a spot, and recall the many memories of my visit, 1 must 
refrain, as I have other things to describe which may be of 
some interest to the readers of this journal. 

Whoever reads "Lalla Rookh" — and I refer more particularly 
to the last tale in that book, winch is called " The Light of the 
Harem," where the scene is laid in Kashmir — he will find that 
although there is so much minuteness of detail, Moore gives not 
the slightest hint in relation to the personal ornaments or the 
jewellery worn by the fair creatures of his fancy ; his authorities 
had evidently overlooked such information, or, more probably, 



they had not had the opportunities of seeing how the Kashmir 
ladies decked themselves. In former times, visitors to the 
Happy Valley were few, but now this is all changed, and every 
summer sees a crowd of people who are glad to escape from the 
plains to the less fervent climate of the hills. My visit took 
place as far back as the summer of 1861, when I spent about 
six weeks in the valley. I had the advantage of visiting the 
different localities with General van Cortlandt and his family, he 



being the Resident for that year. The event which enables me 
to write this article resulted from the visit of two friends, who, 
knowing that my object was to see and sketch whatever was 
characteristic of the country, proposed that they would try, for my 
benefit, to realise the days of " Lalla Rookh." To do this, they 
proposed to have a Nautch, and some of the most noted dancing 
girls were engaged ; and to carry out the idea fully, it was to 
take place in the Shalimar Gardens, and in the very building, 
described by Moore, where Noor Mahal had sung — 

" And, oh ! if there be au Elysium on earth, 
It is this, it is this." 

Moore (in a footnote) calls it a " saloon " — a term not very 
Oriental in its associations, and in this case not very accurately 
descriptive — it is a class of erection common in Indian gardens, 
and is called a baradurreh, which means twelve doors. It is a 
summer house, with three doors on each of its four sides, to allow 
the air to come in from any quarter it may chance to blow. 
This particular one in the Shalimar is very handsome, being 
constructed of black marble, and very beautifully carved. A 
small stream, flowing from the hills, has been led through the 
gardens, and the water surrounds the baradurreh'; small cascades 
have been formed, and jets of water can be made to play around, 
giving a touch of beauty along with the feeling of coolness to 
the spot. 

Our party was to be a very small one ; if I remember right 
there were only three invitations, among which was the General, 
with whom I went, crossing the lake in a boat, reading " Lalla 
Rookh" as we were paddled along. The programme included a 
dinner, which we sat down to about sunset ; the fountains were 
playing, and a cascade had been turned on where there were 
small niches in the wall : lights had been placed in these and the 
water fell in front of them, producing a very beautiful effect. 
While we were at dinner the men had been busy lighting chirags; 
these are small earthen cups containing oil and a wick, with 
which illuminations are produced : they were put in rows along 
the edge of the water. When we had finished dinner and moved 
into the other verandah, where coffee and cigars were to be 
enjoyed, the whole place was bright with the illuminations, the 
fountains were murmuring, and we found the Nautch girls had 
arrived, each with her baji- wallahs or musicians, and were ready 
to begin. I forget now what the first song was, most probably 
it was " Taza be taza — Now be now" — a very beautiful song : 
the words are by Hafis, and it is a great favourite in Kashmir. 
The effect was wonderful. I had been to nautches* before, but 
they are performances which no one cares to see a second time ; 
in this case everything was different. The beauty of the spot may 
be imagined from the description already given : it was purely 
Oriental, the word " enchanting " might be used to describe it, 
but that was only a small part of the influence. We knew it was 
the scene as pictured in " Lalla Rookh," and which we had all 
been reading — page by page we had gone over the book, often on 
the very spot described — if Moore's descriptions were all faithfully 
true,, the fair creatures before us were equally so. We had all 
become " lotus eaters," and had forgotten the outer world entirely. 
While the dance went on our thoughts only turned to the times 
of Jehanguire and jSToor Mahal. The illusion was complete; 
for the moment we seemed as not belonging to the 19th century. 
Had a jin or a giant appeared amongst us, or a peri from 
paradise, such an appearance would not have been thought out 
of place ; we had reached such a state that none of us would, for 
the time, have doubted a single tale in the "Thousand and One 
Nights." On comparing notes afterwards, this was the condition 
we all admitted ourselves to have reached. A very slight incident 

*Nautchna is the verb " to dance." 



26 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[Adgust 1, 1887. 



at the end of the dance showed how perfectly we had been 
entranced. When the two girls had finished the first performance 
and sat down among their followers, hookahs or pijjes — better 
known perhaps as " hubble-bubbles " — were ready for them ; the 
gurgling sound produced by the smoke as it is inhaled through 
the water is so familiar to everyone in connection with the 
natives, and more particularly with one's own servants at the 
present day, that the first gurgle of the smoke at once produced 
the disenchantment, and we were brought back instantly to the 
usual life of to-day as it is in India. The transition back to 
reality was thorough, but it showed how strong the spell upon us 



Goolee. The first impression will be that the two are entirely 
different in style, but this is more apparent than real. Goolee 
wore a small cap of rich khin-khobft and the ornaments are 
attached to this ; but these ornaments, it will be noticed, have 
a marked identity with those worn in the other case. This 
resemblance consists in both being in the form of crescents, with 
small pendants round their outer edge ; the Delhi lady wore 
hers irregularly grouped, while Goolee had them symmetrically 
arranged — a large one in the centre and two smaller ones on each 
side — only two of these last are seen in the portrait, as the 
chuddar hid the others : the stones within the crescents were 




Fig. 1. — Goolee, a Nautch Girl of Kashmir. 



had been. The sensations of these few minutes were in them- 
selves an ample reward for the pilgrimage to Kashmir. 

Luckily, in addition to a general sketch of the scene, I took 
portraits of some of the girls, and as these include the ornaments 
they wore, I am able to give some details. It may be mentioned 
that some of the Kashmiris are so fair that they have a touch of 
red in their cheeks. This was the case with Goolee (fig. 1), the 
principal performer of the evening : her name means rose or rosy.* 
To understand her head-ornaments it would be as well to look back 
to the number of this journal for October last, where there is a 
sketch of a Delhi lady, and compare it with the portrait of 



* Gi ol, or gul, is Persian, and means generally a flower. 



emeralds and rubies. A Nautch girl could not be expected to 
have the same wealth of jewellery on her person as that worn by 
a rich lady, still she had a heavy necklace of gold with stones in 
it, and a smaller one with pearls. There was a third, with a 
large pendant attached ; this was of gold with rubies, and con- 
tained an emerald of considerable size. It need scarcely be 
repeated here that the nose ornament in the left nostril is common 
to all Indian women, rich or poor. In some cases it is a small 
jewel, often a pearl, but oftener it is a gold wire ring, which 
varies a good deal in size (sometimes it is quite three inches in 
diameter). (To be continued.) 



f Kltin-khob is a kind of cloth made of silk and gold. 



August 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



27 



American 3tems. 



fljf HE Waltham Tribune says the Waltham factory is making 
<alg 1,232 watches per day, and that the hands average a 



(sTq) 



monthly earning of 52 dols. 



The New York correspondent of the American Manufacturing 
Jeweler says that fashions remain about the same in that city, 
with the exception, perhaps, of a resuscitation of the pendant 
earrings. Almost all of the retail jewellery stores in the city 
report a demand for these, but the manufacturers do not seem to 
be aware of it. Why they should be called for no one knows. 
It is one of the caprices that the public sometimes enjoys, but it 
will be a good thing for the makers of gold jewellery, and enable 
them to get some of the patronage which the precious stone 
dealers have enjoyed so long. The gem-set objects still find 
favour, however, and insect pins appear to be as fashionable as 
ever. Silver belts, either in plain bands or in massive links, are 
much worn, the bands appearing to have the preference. This 
display of the precious metals in articles of raiment, which we 
have been accustomed to look for among Oriental and barbaric 
peoples, appears to be steadily growing among our ladies. Even 
the parasol finds room for jewels incrusted in its stick and for 
yellow gold effects elsewhere that enhance its value to three or four 
hundred dollars each. These, however, cannot be called staple 
articles, and few have them except the newly rich and ostenta- 
tious folk. Both brooches and bar pins have a continued demand 
without apparent interference one with the other. Pendant 
settings for jewels are assuming a strong leadership, for the 
reason probably that the swinging motion shows to best advan- 
tage the brilliancy of the stones, and we may expect soon to see 
the fair sex with earrings of this description as well as other 
objects. Some years ago it was deemed bad taste for a lady to 
wear diamonds when on the street, but now one can hardly meet 
a well-dressed woman who has not diamonds in her ears, upon 
her breast and arms, or in the shape of rings which one ungloved 
hand gives an opportunity for display. Silver jewellery also, while 
in no way competing with the gold, is greatly worn, and in 
all the forms which its white colour allows. In fact, nearly 
everything which ingenuity can invent, whether artistic or 
not, seems to find some person whose taste is gratified by 
possession. The difference in forms is regulated solely by the 
difference in tastes. 



The strike of the New York silversmiths is nearly over. 
Most of the men, with the exception of the chasers, have returned 
and agreed to sever their connection with the arbitrary and dicta- 
torial unions. Too much credit cannot be given the manufac- 
turers for their firm stand in the undoubted right which they 
possess of managing their own business without outside inter- 
ference. So far as they are concerned, it has settled the question 
for a lone; time to come. 



The Jewelers' Weekly says that as an example of the way 
fashion leaves no stone unturned in her unwearied search for 
novel effects, the present rage for antique and quaint jewellery 
conspicuously presents itself. Tired of the elegant ornaments 
with which her dressing-case is replete, seemingly because they 
are all in good taste and therefore present no striking peculiarity 
to the eye, my lady starts in quest of something odd — something 
that will arrest the attention. She delights in Indian moon- 
stones cut into hideous, leering demons' heads, with deep-set 
diamond or ruby eyes. She orders opals in heavy, rude settings, 
as they are made by Indian smiths with no other tools than a 
charcoal brazier and a hammer. A heavy silver belt, fashioned 
generations ago by village artisans, is her special delight. She 
decks herself with these quaint suggestions of barbarism and 
simplicity and feels satisfied that she is a la mode. Surely fashion 
is a wilful and capricious mistress. 



Che 1B0I6 Supply. 



lectur 



WN a recent 

■J1L, graphical Society, 



at the meeting of the Manchester Geo- 
Mr. Thomas Cornish, after observing 
that he had had the opportunity of acquiring a large and 
varied experience of many of the gold fields of the world, said the 
great benefits derived from gold mining, or the production of 
new gold, appeared to him not so well understood as they should 
be. It had become, he considered, one of the important, if not 
the most important, industries of the day. It created new wealth, 
or purchasing power, of a fixed value. It was the direct-acting 
means of opening up new avenues of industry, which but for it 
would not be known or required. It had a similar effect on the 
finance, trade and commerce of the world as steam had on loco- 
motion. All the trade of London for a year would not add an ounce 
of new gold or four new sovereigns to the coin currency or actual 
capital of the world. Any party of gold miners, producing any 
given quantity of gold from the earth, did more real good to the 
community than did business transactions of any similar body of 
men engaged in other operations, because the gold so raised 
became an addition to the working capital of the community by 
affording additional means of extending its credit and securing 
its liabilities. The great wave of depression felt in this country 
during the past few years, and the scarcity of money and 
remunerative labour which had been and was now so severely felt 
by our industrial classes, must in a great measure be accounted 
for by the decreasing supply of new money from our gold-producing 
Colonies. This had arisen not from want of plenty of auriferous 
country for exploration and profitable investment, but more from 
the fact that the gold-mining industry had been neglected and 
virtually ignored by the general public, and especially by those 
who had derived the greatest benefits by the production of gold. 
With the vast mineral resources of the world there need be no 
fear of exhaustion of the gold supply. What was wanted was 
increased attention to the industry, the greater use of improved 
appliances, and a more judicious direction of capital and labour 
in the development and practical working of the mines and 
extraction of the gold. There was no reason why the gold supply 
could not be largely increased and permanently maintained to 
meet the increasing requirements of nations and individuals. 

The rapid strides of material progress in wealth, population, 
finance, trade, commerce, and industries in America in conse- 
quence of the discoveries of gold had been of a massive and 
wonderful character. The lecturer instanced Denver, Colorado, 
as a city whose marvellous growth had been built on the 
prosperity of gold and silver mining. After reviewing at length 
the gold fields of the Western States of America, of British 
Columbia, the Central States of America, Guiana and Brazil, 
the Gold Coast of West Africa, the Transvaal, New Zealand 
and Australia, he said that gold was also being produced in 
Russia in considerable quantities, and the Ural Mountains and 
other districts no doubt contained large tracts of auriferous 
deposits and quartz reefs. In Transylvania and other parts of 
Europe gold was also found, and we should probably ere long 
hear of the Welsh gold mines being set to profitable work. Gold 
had also been got in Scotland and Ireland, and in all probability 
further discoveries would yet be made there. He was satisfied that 
there was ample scope for the profitable employment of _ tens and 
hundreds of thousands of extra miners for gold and silver, and 
would prove more remunerative than any other form of labour. 

Professor Boyd-Dawkins said: So far as he could form an 
opinion, gold seemed to be valuable because it was so hard to 
get, and the question of putting money into gold mining was 
exactly the question whether it would pay us or not. In many 
cases where gold mining had been entered upon, most of the gold 
obtained came out of the shareholders' pockets. Reef mining 
was very costly, and prevented us from getting gold where it was 
undoubtedly plentiful. While we had too little gold, it seemed that 
we had too much silver. From his own examination of vast areas 
of silver-producing country in America, he believed there was any 
amount of silver there almost as yet unworked. He agreed with a 
remark by the lecturer that it would be well if we had gold mining 
conducted more scientifically and without a swindling element, 



28 



THE WATCHMAKER. JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[August 1, 1887 



Note on the {Temper of Steel an6 the means of 
obtaining it. 



1»E know that tempered steel loses little by little (in 
>-.1l\./ ; '' proportion to tin- degree to which it is re-heated) the 
^^ properties the temper had given it. Up to about 21")°, 
the effects of the annealing are hardly perceptible, but between 
215° and 325° they become very marked and allow of the required 
quality being given to the steel. 

The essential point for obtaining always the same effects is to 
heat to a determined temperature. The colours the metal takes 
accordingly as it is heated aid us in this determination, but we 
may also readily ascertain the temperature directly in a bath or 
stove by means of a suitable instrument. Mercury boiling at 
357°, the thermometer constructed with this liquid can be easily 
read up to about 330°. 

For these high temperatures, the makers furnish thermometers 
in which a small quantity of azote is introduced above the 
mercury, which prevents the rupture of the mercurial column and 
regulates the readings. It is only necessary to take into account 
the fact that the glass of thermometers exposed to rather 
extensive variations of temperature itself varies : the capacity of 
the reservoir changes, and results in a lowering of the zero. The 
readings given by the thermometer are then too small : but it is 
easy to determine the correction by plunging the instrument 
into melted ice, and noting the degree marked : the figure of 
the degree shows the correction to add to the indications of the 
thermometer. It is well to repeat this test from time to time, 
the displacing of zero being often very slow end being able to 
remain so a loner time. 

From the practical point of view it is unnecessary to know 
exactly the temperature other than that to which we are working, 
provided that the same can always be certainly reproduced : and 
it is easy to manage with a thermometer of any kind, by making 
preliminary experiments upon object- of the same nature as those 
we wish to temper. For heating the objects, we may employ a 
hot air stove, or better still — especially if it is large enough — a 
liquid bath in which can be plunged an iron receptacle capable 
of being closed, containing the objects to be tempered. The 
thermometer is not plunged in the bath, but in an iron tube 
immersed in the liquid ; this facilitates getting it out and lessens 
the chance of breaking it. With regard to the liquid, the best 
is a mixture of lead and tin : the more tin it contains, the more 
it is fusible. Oil is not suitable, on account of the bad odour it 
gives off at high temperatures : but paraffin may be used, which 
has not this" inconvenience. If a bath of somewhat large 
capacity is employed, it is relatively easy to maintain its tem- 
perature constant"; the objects are thus submitted to the same 
temperature and tempered uniformly. The temperature not 
varying, they may also be left a longer or shorter time in 
the bath. 

In the above remarks, gas is indicated as the heating agent ; 
if that cannot lie used, petroleum furnaces are recommended for 
the purpose, provided other conditions allow of an easy and 
prompt regulation of the temperature. In the case of an air 
stove, where the variations of temperature are many more 
to fear, it would be well to have an automatic regulator of 
the temperature. There exist many models of such among 
the makers of instruments for the use of chemists. — Journal 
Suisse (CHorlogerie. 



Accorui.no to the correspondent of Industrie*, the export of 
machine-made Swiss watches is still on the increase. This is 
specially the case as regards the consular district of Chaux-de- 
Fonds,'where the value of exports in round figures was as follows : 
1886 'April £12,000, May £12,900, June £12,000, total 
£36,900 ; 1887, April £16,700, May £18,700, June £16,500, 
total £51,900. 



Che "Use of the Eyeglass. 



TATJJILE in the opinion of Mr. Brudenell Carter and other 
■•Ik-IL' 5 eminent ophthalmists, the judicious use of the magnifying 
glass is by no means injurious to the eye, it is as well to 
point out that this opinion is but conditional and does not apply 
to its abuse. On this subject a correspondent of the Deutsche 
Uhrmacher Zeitung says that a watchmaker more often than 
not thinks to make use of his ordinary sight. It is then the 
duty of a master to make the pupil appreciate from the beginning 
of his apprenticeship the advantages he will find in the employ- 
ment of the eye, and how much time and pain he will by that means 
avoid, especially in measurings and rough work. Want of habit 
in the estimation of sizes, or rather, in their exact comparison ; 
inexperience, vanity or convenience; perhaps also the idea of 
giving more rapidly to the eye the necessary dexterity — all much 
induce beginners to use the eyeglass which they see employed by 
the more advanced apprentices. They do as the clown who, not 
knowing his alphabet, thinks that by putting on spectacles he 
will be able to read immediately. The responsible master should 
absolutely interdict the eyeglass to beginners, and, later, not 
authorise its use until that is necessary. That which at first was 
only due to vanity or inexperience, becomes in time a necessity 
and cannot lie done without. Bui what a grotesque and at the 
same time deplorable effect. Only certain pieces are produced, 
the thick pieces hardly roughed out. when made by the aid of 
the glass. It i- no excuse to say the work has been badly done 
because the executor has bad i-yvs ; if he has Hot a good sight, 
let him put on suitable spectacles. I know a good many watch- 
makers who rarely use the eyeglass, and only for fine work. 
What can be done by one can be done by others : nothing is 
requisite but a firm will. Those who are not able to dispense 
with the eyeglass, commit also from habit the unpardonable fault 
of using glasses too stroDg, which leave an interval of only two 
or three centimetres between the work and the ghiss. This is 
pernicious for the eyes, because in using short focus glasses the 
eyes become pained, and if they are continued an enfeeblemeni of 
the sight is produced, and in consequence of the excitation of the 
optical nerves headaches result which in some circumstances may 
become chronic. The eyeglass for ordinary uses should be weak 
and allow of an interval of from six to eight centimetres between 
it and the work. It is quickly got used to and will not produce 
tiredness of the eyes : this shows that no inconvenience will 
result. Besides the weak glass, it is necessary to have a strong 
pebble eyeglass, but the latter is required very exceptionally. 
With use it sometimes happens that when the eyeglass is held 
a long time near the eye. the glass becomes blurred, which is 
very disagreeable. This proceeds from the vapours which emanate 
from the eye and become condensed upon the glass. It is easy to 
prevent this by making two holes opposite one another to make 
the interval between the eye and the glass communicate with the 
exterior air. These holes are made just above the glass, so that 
the current of air circulating touches it lightly and prevents the 
condensations. The glasses of eyeglasses are wiped ordinarily 
with an old piece of linen or with the leather. These two 
means are bad, because in proceeding thus the glass is covered 
with imperceptible rays. It is preferable to make use of 
silk, or still better, of unglazed porous paper that is not frayed, 
or filtering paper. Tt is necessary to breathe on the "las-, before 
wiping it. 



Perry & Co., Limited, Steel Pen Makeks. — The Directors 
of this Company have resolved to pay on September 1, out of 
profits, an Interim Dividend on the Ordinary Shares for the first 
! six months of this year, at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum, free 
of Income Tax, being at the same rate as for the corresponding 
period last year. The half-yearly Dividend on the Preference 
Shares will be paid as usual at the fixed rate of 5 per cent, per 
annum. 



Ai-.a-M' 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



29 



]em karney's Belt. 



vT!EM CARNEY, the light-weight pugilistic champion of the 
02 world, arrived in Birmingham on the 11th ult. Tlie belt 
he has brought back with him has excited a great deal of 
interest. In design and solid value it is far superior to many 
of the English belts. At the Victoria Hotel, Liverpool, it has 
been inspected by hundreds of persons, and in Birmingham it lias 
likewise attracted large numbers of the curious. The trophy, 
which is of silver and gold studded with diamonds and emeralds, 
was made in Boston and scales 6^ lbs. [t is 38 in. long : the 
shield or centrepiece is 9 in. deep and 6 in. wide. The upper 
portion represents a star, and in the centre is set a diamond. 
There are two plates on each side neatly enamelled and raised 
from the surface, representing America. England, Ireland and 
France. On the top of a golden globe are the initials of the 
donor of the belt, '• E. C. H.," studded with diamonds. On 
both sides are raised laurel leaves. Directly across the face and 
attached to the lower portion of the globe is a streamer bearing 
the inscription, " Holske International Challenge Belt."' Each 
side of the medallion is a gold border holding a streamer on 
which are the words " Light weight." Under the medallion is 
a large gold eagle holding from its mouth a streamer with the 
inscription, " Champion of the world." The shield has a neatly 
engraved border to set off the raised work. Each side of the 
centrepiece are fourteen gold rods connecting the side plates. 
The plates each side of the centre are 6 in. deep and 4 in. wide. 
A photograph of Holske is fixed prominently on the belt, and 
there are two gold figures, one of Harry Gilmore, and the other 
of -Jack McAuliffe, in fistic attitude. Other adornments are in 
the shape of a good-sized gold thistle, an emerald, a wreath of 
oak leaves, and an eagle with wide-spread wings. There are 
three plates bearing records — one of the contest between Gilmore 
and McAuliffe, one of the forfeit bj r McAuliffe to Carney, and 
the third of the victory of Carney over Jem Mitchell. The belt, 
as originally ordered, was made for 800 dols., but additional 
labour has been added, bringing the actual cost up to 965 dols. 
Carney is very proud of his trophy, and perfectly confident of his 
power to keep it against all comers. 



A £ashet for Sir Bicharb Jftoon, Bart. 



Wf HE ceremony of inaugurating a few days ago one of the 
Qm^ many benefactions of the London and North- Western 
Railway Co. to the town of Crewe was marked by an 
interesting personal incident. Sir R. Moon, the Chairman of 
the Company, whose energy and ability in this post had marked 
him out for one of the Jubilee distinctions conferred by the 
Queen, was presented with a valuable casket enclosing an illu- 
minated scroll constituting him the first honorary freeman of 
the borough of Crewe. The casket was manufactured by Messrs. 
T. & J. Bragg, of Birmingham, commissioned by Mr. J. 
Blackhurst, of Crewe, whose local knowledge enabled him to 
furnish a series of details which have been turned to excellent 
account in the design. The shape is severe, with justly balanced 
lines, and mouldings as befitting the great engineering centre of 
the London and North-Western system, and above a border 
decorated with British oak leaves and acorns, is a miniature 
representation in a series on the four sides of the casket of steel 
rails and the new patent steel sleepers, one of the latest inventions 
of Mr. Webb, the present Mayor, which have been produced at 
Crewe Works. The body of the casket, which is richly decorated, 
has the obverse and reverse divided by caryatide ornaments, 
indicating respectively Industry, Commerce. Prudence and 
Progress. The arms of Crewe in enamel, with the motto, 
" Never behind." occupy the centre in front, while a series of 
enamel plaques, carefully arranged with the ornament, go entirely 
round the box. These plaques, carefully painted in colours, have 
a very brilliant effect against the decorated gold surfaces. The 
subjects are illustrative of the progress in locomotion which has 
resulted in the present railway system. First, canal traffic is 



J ry.D 



illustrated, the boat being slowly towed by horse along the bank, 
in a pretty country landscape ; next, coaching, as in the old 
days. After that comes a correct rendering in enamel painting 
of the old " Rocket " engine, the badge of the London and North- 
western Railway Co.: and, finally, Mr. Webb's most recent 
locomotive engine — a copy of the 3,000th example turned out 
at Crewe Works. Enamelled views of the old Crewe Works 
and of the Mechanics' Institution — the gift of the railway com- 
pany to the town — occupy the sides. The lid bears, amid other 
decoration, the crest and monogram of Sir R. Moon, a view of 
Euston Station in 1837, and of the magnificent tubular bridge 
over the Menai Straits. The inscription is on the reverse slope 
of the lid, and the whole work has been carried out to the 
satisfaction of all concerned. 



iUhe Koh-i-noor. 



'CCORDING to Burnham, the Koh-i-noor is the oldest 
known diamond in the world. No diamond has probably 
had a more romantic history, or has figured more largely 
in the affairs of nations and individuals. Tradition assigns it an 
exceedingly great antiquity, it having been found in the Godavery 
river, Southern India, between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago, 
previous to the Indian war celebrated in the great epic, the 
"Makabharata," and was worn by one of the chiefs who fell in 
battle on that occasion. 

ft came into possession of the family of one of the ancient 
native princes, the Rajah of Malwar. and was transmitted to his 
successors through many generations, until it passed into the 
hands of the Mohammedan conquerors of India, at the beginning 
of the 14th century. It constituted one of the most valuable 
gems of the Imperial treasury of Delhi, until it was carried off by 
Nadir Shah, the Persian conqueror, in 1739. After the assas- 
sination of Nadir, this gem became the property of the Afghan 
monarchs, and from them was transmitted to Runjeet Singh, the 
Sikh hero of the Punjaub, who had it set in a bracelet, and just 
before his death, in 1839, he was advised to devote it to Juggernaut, 
but the act was not consummated, and it was left among his other 
treasures. 

The story is told that Nadir Shah possessed himself of the 
diamond by artifice. He believed that it was concealed in the 
turban of the dethroned emperor, since it could not be found in 
the treasury at Delhi, and on the pretext of restoring the con- 
quered ruler to his dominions, which the wily Persian made the 
occasion of a grand display, he artfully proposed, as a mark of 
friendship, to exchange turbans with his Imperial guest, an act of 
courtesy the prisoner did not deem it politic to refuse, and the 
famous diamond came into the hands of the conqueror, who, on 
beholding it, exclaimed : " Koh-i-nur," Mountain of light ! 

On the fall of Nadir Shah's extensive empire Ahmed Hiah, 
the Afghan chief, who established a new dynasty, became the 
fortunate, or the unfortunate, possessor of this ill-omened treasure 
— a stone of fate — and from him it descended to his heirs. The last 
of the line, Shah Soujah, kept this one cherished treasure during 
his imprisonment and exile, until Runjeet Singh compelled him 
to sell it for 150,000 rupees. After the subjugation of the Sikhs 
by the English, and the annexation of the Punjaub to British 
India in 1.849, the civil authorities took possession of the treasury 
at Lahore, under the stipulation that all the property of the State 
should be confiscated to the East India Co., and that the 
Koh-i-noor should be presented to the Queen of England: thus 
the talisman of Indian sway passed from the land of its birth to 
the royal treasury of Windsor Castle. 



Whitehall. July 28. — The Queen has been pleased, by 
Warrant under Her Majesty's Royal Sign Manual, dated 26th 
inst., to place the name of Samuel Montagu, Esq. (in lieu of 
that of Lionel Louis Cohen, Esq.. deceased), upon the Royal 
Commission appointed to inquire into the recent changes in the 
relative values of the precious metals. — Gazette. 



30 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[August 1, 1887. 



3sochronism in Flat and Breguet Springs. 

By M. Sandoz. 



T) Y the won] isochronism, which is derived from the Greek, 
aM^| meaning equal time, is indicated the property possessed 
by the pendulum and balance spring of accomplishing their 
arcs of vibration of different amplitudes in the same space of' 
time. In a pendulum, the only condition required is that its 
length be such as to make the centre of gravity move according 
to its cycloid curve ; but in the balance spring the means change 
with the form of the spring. In the spherical or conical springs 
the extreme curves, constructed after the mathematical rules 
discovered by Professor Philipps, of the Polytechnic School of 
Paris, will produce an isochronism very nearly perfect. In the 
flat springs these curves cannot exist ; therefore other means 
must be resorted to. I shall now give the results of several 
years of experiment and study embodied in the following 
theorems : 

1. In the flat spring every coil has, theoretically, a point 
where the vibrations are isochronal. 2. That point of isoch- 
ronism is determined by the relative position of the two points 
connecting the balance spring with the collet and stud, called 
points d'attache. 

These two propositions form the base of isochronism in the 
flat spring ; therefore the idea generally accredited among 
watchmakers that the isochronal properties of a flat spring depend 
on its length is incorrect, since the tenth as well as the twentieth 
coil of the spring is able to produce isochronism, the only limit 
being .such size of springs as would perfect the freedom of its 
action. 

Freedom of action being necessary for the isochronal properties 
of the spring to develop themselves, the spring must be bent to 
the centre. If the first coil is too near, or the curve too flat, so 
that even a minute part of the spring touches the collet, it will 
hinder isochronism. Next, the spring must be pinned perfectly 
tight in the collet and stud, and move freely between the 
regulator pins. 

These conditions being complied with, the watch is run three, 
six or twelve hours with just strength enough to keep it going ; 
the result is compared with a regulator and set down. Next, 
the watch is fully wound up, and after a space of time equal to 
the first trial, the result is again set down. 

The watch will generally run slower in the short vibrations 
than in the long ones, and consequently lose time in the pocket 
in the last twelve hours of its running. Having set down as a 
principle that every coil has an isochronal point, we have now to 
determine that point, remembering that, as a general rule, every 
increase of length of the spring over that point will cause the 
watch to gain in the shortest vibrations, and every decrease back 
of that point will cause it to gain in the long vibrations. This 
rule is correct only for certain limits, as I shall explain. Sup- 
posing that a balance spring of fifteen coils is perfectly isochronal, 
with the two points d'attache just opposite each other, the 
fourteenth and sixteenth coil, as well as the fifteenth, will produce 
the isochronism very nearly at the same point. Suppose that we 
increase gradually the length of that balance spring of fifteen 
coils, pinned up so that the two points d'attache are placed 
opposite each other, so that its length will now be fifteen-and-a- 
half coils, the two points d'attache are now in a position where 
they are said to be pinned to the half-coil. The result will be 
that the balance spring will cause the watch to gain in the short 
vibrations in the very same proportions in which it has been 
gaining by the increase of the length of the first half. That 
change will continue until we reach the same point on the 
sixteenth coil that we started from on the fifteenth, and the two 
pins are opposite to each other, at which point we shall again 
have isochronism. The same method is applicable to the four- 
teenth coil, with the same results. 

Now, it is immaterial whether we take half the coil to the 
centre or to the outside of the spring, because both of these 



operations will produce the same results, viz., the change of the 
relative places of the points d'attache of the spring. Therefore 
the workman has his choice, and is guided by the size of the 
spring and the weight of the balance ; for, taking half a coil to 
the centre of the spring will not much affect the rate of the watch, 
but taken outside, the difference will be great. On the other 
hand, a very short cut to the centre will greatly affect the 
isochronism, and at the outside a full half-coil will generally 
produce from fifteen to twenty-five seconds' difference in twenty- 
four hours. If, then, the watchmaker would produce the greatest 
possible changes of isochronism in a watch, the change of position 
of the two points d'attache of the spring of one coil around will 
give him the two highest degrees of gaining and losing in the 
short vibrations. 

It follows from the foregoing remarks that if a watch loses in 
the last running (short vibrations), the first thing to do is to 
increase the length of the balance spring from the outside : if 
the result is good, but not yet sufficient, give still more length ; 
if the result is still worse, it shows that you are too far on the 
coil. Take back the whole length that you had given in the 
first operation and draw more length, so as to affect the spring 
the other way; or, if your spring is already small, or your balance 
pretty heavy, cut to the centre, so as to come around to the 
required positions. 

Some springs cannot produce the isochronism because of a 
defect in their make, or on account of a want of homogeneity in 
the metal. The only remedy for this is a new spring. 

In the Breguet spring the isochronism is produced in the same 
manner as in the flat springs ; but great care must be taken in 
making the curve, for if it is not made in conformity with the- 
principles of Philipps, the isochronism will be disturbed. 

Few watchmakers understand the art of adjustment in positions, 
and those few make it a regular business. It requires of the 
operator considerable manual skill and reflective powers. The 
great principle is to equalise the frictions, so that the pivots will 
offer to the action of the spring the same resistance in the four 
positions generallv required, viz., dial up, XII. up, cock up and 
III. up. 

After having inspected and corrected the train, so that the 
motive-power is transmitted uniformly to the balance, the pivots 
and jewels of the lever should be polished and shortened, so as to 
have very little friction : next, the lever should be poised as 
perfectly as possible, the notch in the fork where the ruby pin 
acts should be polished, and the balance jewels made short enough 
to have the holes square, rounded inside and perfectly polished, 
the balance pivots well burnished, their ends half-rounded, and 
the balance poised very carefully. The English method of 
throwing the balance out of poise, to obtain the same rate in 
different positions, is not generally accepted, and is considered a 
bad practice by the most eminent watchmakers. The balance 
spring is put in its position without the balance, and bent so that 
the collet of the cock jewel will have the same centres. 

The watch being now in good running order, is put on trial 
for twelve or twenty-four hours, and the rate in each position 
carefully noted. If there is any difference in the running with 
the cock up or dial up, this slight defect can probably be remedied 
by making the ends of the pivots even and equally polished. 
If the watch loses with XII. up, which is generally the case, and 
the friction on the balance jewels is reduced as. much as possible, 
the remedy is to increase the friction when the watch is either 
dial up or cock up. This is done by throwing the balance spring 
a little out of the centre of the cock jewel, thereby adding to the 
friction on the pivot end a lateral pressure against the balance 
jewels. If the watch is well regulated with XII. up and loses 
with III. up, throw the spring a little toward the figure III.; 
this operation lifts up the balance when the watch is in losing 
position, and diminishes the friction of the pivots in the par- 
ticular case. Making the ends of the pivots perfectly flat has a 
tendency to cause the watch to gain with dial up or cock up. 
The sound of the watch must be clear in all positions, or else 
friction is indicated, such as is due to rough jewels or pivots and 
the rubbing of the safety pin against the roller. 



August 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



31 



Horological (Hub. 

fjljf HE Annual Dinner of the Horological Club took place at 
|Jt| the " Cock " Hotel, Epping, on Saturday, July 9. The 
Chair was filled by Mr. J. Oliver, and the Vice-Chair by 
Mr. H. Bickley, Honorary Secretary of the Club. Among those 
present were Mr. D. Glasgow, Mr. W. Evans, Mr. A. Jaccard, 
Mr. T. J. Willis, Mr. L. Donne, Mr. H. P. Isaac, Mr. G. Cotton, 
Messrs. C. Curzon, W. G. Schoof, F. W. Knight, Willis, Jan., 
Newbold, Bromley, Robinson, &c. After dinner the loyal toasts 
were given from the Chair and duly honoured. 

In proposing " Success to the Horological Club " Mr. Glasgow 
observed that the Club was now in the eighth year of its ex- 
istence — a sufficient proof, if any were needed, of its necessity. 
Of course, during that time there had been changes in the mem- 
bership, though many then present had been members from the 
beginning. As Treasurer of the Club he could assure them — 
thanks in a great measure to the exertions of their Honorary 
Secretary — of its sound financial condition, and thought it might 
now be regarded as a permanent institution of the trade. 

"The Benevolent Institutions of the Trade" was proposed by 
the Chairman and responded to by Mr. Bickley. The toast of 
" The Club Committee " having been proposed by Mr. Cotton 
and duly acknowledged by Mr. Evans, Mr. Glasgow, in eulogistic 
terms, gave the health of the Honorary Secretary. Mr. Bickley, 
in responding, remarked on the value of social intercourse as a 
factor in the world's progress. An American philosopher had 
said that civilisation culminated in bringing a few men round a 
table ; and it was astonishing to think how much art, science 
and literature were indebted to social intercourse and good 
fellowship. 

In proposing the health of the Musical Director, the Chairman 
said that the members were much indebted to Mr. Knight and 
his able coadjutors for their very enjoyable musical evenings, 
which had become quite a feature of the Club. 

Mr. Knight acknowledged the compliment in graceful terms. 

The remaining toasts were " The Chairman," proposed by Mr. 
Willis and duly responded to, and " The Visitors," for which 
Mr. Donne returned thanks. 



"Workshop Jttemoran&a, 

SIMPLE method of making emery wheels, which could also 
be utilised for making grinding discs or sticks of various 
shapes, is described in the Guide Scientifique. Gelatine 
of good quality is dissolved in its own weight of water, the opera- 
tion being conducted in a dark room. To the solution one-and- 
a-half per cent, of bichromate of potash is added, which has been 
previously dissolved in a little water. A quantity of very fine 
emery, equal to nine times the weight of the gelatine, is intimately 
mixed with the gelatine solution — pulverised flint may be substi- 
tuted for emery. The mass is moulded to the desired shape and 
then consolidated by heavy pressure. It is dried by exposure to 
strong sunlisrht. 



156 parts 



For Plating the better qualities of German Silver, 
cyanide of silver is dissolved in a solution of carbonate of 
ammonia. The proportions used are : — 

Sulphate of silver 

Carbonate of ammonia (dissolved in distilled 

water) 70 ., 

Or, Cyanide of silver ... ... ... ... 134 

Carbonate of ammonia ... ... 70 

The silver salt in each case is boiled with the solution of the 
carbonate of ammonia until it is dissolved. Sulphate of silver 
is formed by adding a solution of sulphate of soda (Glouber's 
salt) to a solution of nitrate of silver, or by boiling silver with 
its weight of sulphuric acid. 

For coating- common German silver, Tuck adds half-an-ounce 
of sulphate of silver to a solution containing 107 grains of 
bicarbonate of ammonia. 



To Remove Soft Solder from Gold and Silver Work. — 
The following method is given by Mr. A. Watt: — Place the 
soldered article in a hot solution of perchloride of iron — made by 
dissolving crocus or jewellers' rouge in muriatic acid — diluting 
the solution with four times its bulk of water, and there leaving it 
until the solder is removed. A formula recommended by Gee 
for this purpose is composed of protosulphate of iron (green 
copperas), 2 ozs.; nitrate of "potassa (saltpetre), 1 oz. ; water, 
10 ozs. Reduce the protosulphate of iron and nitrate of potassa 
to a fine powder, then add these ingredients to the water aird 
boil in a cast-iron saucepan for some time ; allow the liquid to 
cool, when crystals will be formed ; if any of the liquid should 
remain uncrystallised, pour it from the crystals and again 
evaporate and crystallise. The crystallised salt should be dis- 
solved in muriatic acid in the proportion of 1 oz. of the salt to 8 
of acid. Now take 1 oz. of this solution and add to it 4 ozs. of 
boiling water in a pipkin, keeping up the heat as before. In a 
short time the most obstinate cases of soft solder will be cleanly 
and entirely overcome and the solder removed without the work 
chansina; colour. 



APPLICATIONS FOR LETTERS PATENT. 



The following List of Patents has been compiled especially for The Watchmaker, 
Jeweller and Silversmith, by Messrs. W. P. Thompson & Boult, Patent Agents, 
of 323, High Holborn, London, W.C.; Newcastle Chambers, Angel Bow, Notting- 
ham ; and 6, Lord Street, Liverpool. 
W. A. Murray, Loudon, for " Improvements in solitaires and 
studs." Dated June 24, 1887. 

F. Nockold, London, for "An improved method of cutting- 
diamonds and other precious stones." Dated June 25, 1887. 
J. Kobinson, London, for "A new or improved sliding stop for 
watches." Dated June 28, 1887. 

J. G. Lorrain, London, for '■Improvements in chronoscopes." 
Dated June 29 ; 1887. 

H. Bush, Hull, for ' ; Improvements in combination lamp and blow 
pipe for gasfitters. jewellers, &c. Dated June 30, 1887. 
M. F. L. Ehrlich and C. T. Storek, Berlin, for "Improvements in 
a method of producing a bright printing gold, silver or platine." 
(Complete specification.) Dated June 30, 1887. 
9,292. M. F. L. Ehrlich, Berlin, for "Improvements in the method of 
producing dead gold (silver, platine) decorations on china, 
crockery ware, glass, enamelled metals, &c." (Complete specifica- 
tion.) Dated June 30, 1887. 

A. Mann, London, for " Improvements in alloys of aluminum 
with other metals." Dated June 30, 1887. 

C. A. Burghardt and W. J. Turning, Manchester, for " Improve- 
ments in the production of aluminum." Dated July 2, 1887. 
T. D. Harries, Aberystwith, for " A watch key." Dated July 4, 
1887. 

F. K. Baker, Birmingham, for "Improvements in sleeve links, 
solitaires and other like dress fasteners." Dated July 4, 1887. 
F. Price, London, for " An improved fastener for attaching and 
detaching pencils, whistles, scent bottles and pendants to watch 
guards or chains." (Complete specification.) Dated July 6, 1887. 
A. Mann, London, for "Obtaining aluminum and alloys of 
aluminum with other metals." Dated July 7, 1887. 
A. N. Contarmi, D. Forbes and R. Matthews, London, for "A 
novel means and apparatus for the extraction of platinum from 
any ore containing same, and also gold from auriferous, ferru- 
ginous sand." Dated July 9, 1887. 



8,995. 
9,063. 
9,151. 
9,264. 

9,287. 
9,291. 



9,313. 
9,389. 
9,430. 
9,436. 

9,550. 



9,586. 
9,681. 



Recent American Patents. 



364,015—: 



Cuff Fastener. D. Stone 

Earring Fastening. T. \V. F. Smitten 

Barring. H. Knickman 

Jewellery, Mounting for. G. W. Byan 

Metal Drawing Machine. W. A. McCool 

Watch. G. E. Hart 

Watch Balances, Manufacture of. G. E. Hart ... 

Watch Case. C. K. Giles 

Watch Case Pendants, Manufacture of. G. E. Hart 

Watch Dial. G. E. Hart 

Watch Movement Plate. G. E. Hart 

Watch, Stem Winding. G. E. Hart 

Watches, Transparent Dial for. C. Humbert, fils 

Eyeglasses. Ga Nun &; Parsons 

Quicksilver, Apparatus for Saving Floured. J. H. Rae 

Watch Barrel. F.Parker 

Watch Safety Guard. J. Lehr 

Wheels, Manufacture of Metal. J. P. Little 

Barometers. Rotary Indicator and Dial Scale for Aneroid. 

H. S. S. Watkin 

Clocks, Street. A. Staib 

Clocks, Electric, Synchronising Apparatus for. Ramel & Dean 

Micrometer Guage. A. H. Emery 

Watch. F. B. Von Wechmar 



364.143 
364,140 
364,179 
363,915 
364,126 
364,105 
364.107 
363,817 
364,108 
364,109 
364,110 
364,106 
363,959 
364,340 
364,372 
364,370 
364,528 
10,843 

364,692 
364,971 
365,023 
364,193 
365.032 



32 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[August 1, 1887. 



Files, Making. C. M. Fairbanks 

Spectacle Frame. J. L. Newell 

Clock. Electric Alarm. M. Steelier ... 

Cuff Holder. C. A. Howell 

Cuff Holder. A. S. Pattison 

Eyeglasses, Bow Spring for. J. F. White .. 
File Cutting Machine. PI. J. Gosling 
Metal. Machine for Cutting. L. L. Hazen 

Watch Regulator. C. E. Jones 

Watch. Stem Winding. \V. W. Hastings .. 



365,249 
3<i5,090 
365,493 
365,685 
365,626 

3h7).49h 

365,4«9 
365,517 

hi;:,. ess 
365,595 



A printed copy of the specifications and drawing of any patent 
in the American list, also of any American patent issued since 
1860, will be furnished from this office for 2s. Gd. In ordering, 
please state the number and date of the patent required, and 
remit to J. Truslove, Office of The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 
Silversmith, Imperial Buildings, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 



tBazette 



Partnerships Dissolved. 
Tuck & Godfrey, St. James' Street. Clerkenwell. manufacturing jewellers. 
Briggs, Bennett & Newton. Sheffield, cutlery manufacturers. 
Waterfall & Habgood. Wimborne Minster, watchmakers. Allcard >.v 
Co., Sheffield, electro-plate manufacturers. Flavelle Brothers & 
Roberts. Ely Place. Holborn and elsewhere, jewellers. John Swain 
i: Co., Bristol, watchmakers. Henry Nicholls & Co.. Liverpool, 
wholesale jewellers. Gourdel, Vales t v Co.. Old Change, City, 
importers of French jewellery. Wertheini cV Hirschhorn. FTatton 
Garden, goldsmiths. Collett ^ Co.. Birmingham, wholesale jewellers. 
Faraday & Davey. Hatton Garden, jewellers. 



To 



FOWLER & POWELL, 

COLONIAL BUILDING, HATTON GARDEN, E.C, 



THE BANKRUPTCY ACT, 1883. 
Receiving Orders. 
surrender in London. — Edwin Henrj Watts. Carnaby Street. Regent 

Street, goldsmith. 

surrender in the Country. — John Sharpe (trading as J. Sharpe ..v Co.), 
Birmingham, wholesale jeweller. Robert James Dick. Birmingham, 
jeweller. Henry Nathan Owles. Ipswich, watchmaker. William 
Smith Wigg, Great Yarmouth, jeweller. John Jennings. Ewell Road. 
Surbiton, watchmaker. Samuel Hyani Weingold and Maurice Levy. 
Manchester, wholesale jewellers. Albert Chesterton. Nottingham, 
watchmaker. William Hayward. Christchurch. Hampshire, watch- 
maker. William Henry Stokes. Birmingham, manufacturing jeweller. 
Thomas Marson (trading as T. Marson i: Co.). Birmingham, jeweller. 
Frederick George Baker. Shanklin. watchmaker. 
Receiving Order Rescinded. 
W. H. Peake (trading as Grant & Peake), Gerrard Street. Soho, manu- 
facturing jeweller ; June 30. 

Public Examinations. 
/;/ the Country. — W. S. Wigg. Great Yarmouth, jeweller : August 15, at 11. 
J. Fletcher (trading as John Fletcher & Co.), Birmingham, jeweller. 
&c; August 3. at 2. S. H. Weingold and M. Levy, importers of 
foreign fancy goods ; August lo. at n. W. Hayward. Christchurch, 
Hants., watchmaker : August 10, at 12. J.Jennings, The Pavement, 
Surbiton. watchmaker : October 14. at 3.-30. A. Chesterton. Notting- 
ham, watchmaker ; August 9, at 10. 

Adjudications. 

In London. — W. Van Walwyk. Clerkenwell Road, diamond mounter. 

In the Country. — J. Sharpe (trading as J. Sharpe & Co.), Birmingham, 
wholesale jeweller. J. Joseph and M. Joseph (trading as J. Joseph «!c 
Sons, and as Scott & Co.), Birmingham and elsewhere, jewellers and 
merchants. J. Wragg (trading as J. Wragg & Son). Sheffield, spring 
knife manufacturer. W. S. Wigg. Great Yarmouth, jeweller. R. J. 
Dick, Birmingham, jeweller. S. H. Weingold and M. Levy, Man- 
chester, wholesale jewellers. Rosina Ash, Birmingham, pawnbroker. 
A. Chesterton, Nottingham, watchmaker. 

Notices of Dividends. 

In London. — C. Marx (trading as C. Marx & Co.). New Bond Street and 
Regent Street, jeweller : 1 r ! ; d . , second and final ; July 2."). W. Hurlbatt, 
8, Old Jewry. G. E. Welsman. Fenchurch Street, metal merchant : 
84d., first and final : anv day except Saturday, Chief Official Receiver. 
33, Carey Street. 

In the Country. — W. Ellison. Bradford, working jeweller ; 3s. 4d.. first 
and final : July 4. Official Receiver, Bradford. G. H. Smith (trading 
as G. H. Smith ..V Co. ). Walton and Liverpool, pawnbroker; 6£d.~, 
second and final : any day. T. T. Rogers & Co., Liverpool. T. 
Wheeler. Preston, watch manufacturer : r>s. 7id., first and final ; July 
16, .">. Winckley Street, Preston. T. Prescott, Prescot, watch material 
dealer ; (id., first and final ; July 19, Official Receiver, Liverpool. 
T. Harrison. South Stockton, pawnbroker ; 3s. 10d., first : July 27, 
Official Receiver. Middlesbrough. A. J. Cotton. Great Yarmouth, 
silversmith : 4s. 2fd., first and final : July 22, Official Receiver. 
Norwich. F. J. Braund, Banbury, jeweller ; ^d.. first and final : July 
21. 120, Colmore Row. Birmingham. 

Amended Notice. 
.1. F. Bayfield (trading as J. F. Bayfield & Son ), Lowestoft, watchmaker ; 
Is. I0fd., first and final : January 31. 77. Colmore Row. Birmingham. 

Scotch Sequestkation. 
N. A. Myers (trading as N. A. Myers & Son). Edinburgh, jeweller. 



IRicfcd, plain 

(55. (3D. 

EtniravcC* 7s. 6&. 




Manufacturing 
Jewellers and 
Importers of 

Fancy 
Jewellery. 

Gold. 

Silver. 

Steel. 

Gilt. 

Jet. 

Black Glass. 

Oxydised. 

Paste. 

Ac, &c. 
Wholesale- 



Buyers' (Buioe. 



The Sheffield Smelting Company, Sheffield, Sell Gold and Silver 
(pure and alloyed). Buy all materials containing Gold and Silver. 

F. W. Powell (now Fowler & Powell). Colonial Buildings. Hatton 
Garden, B.C. Wholesale only for Gold and Silver Jewellery ; Silver 
Cigar, Cigarette and Card Cases, Match Boxes. Salt Cellars ; Silver 

and Glass Smelling Buttles: Sovereign Purses. 

Jones, E. A., Wholesale Manufacturer of Whitby Jet Ornaments. A 
Large Assortment of the Newest Patterns always in Stock. Export 
Orders promptly executed. Persons not having an account open 
will avoid delay by forwarding a reference with their order. 
< lustomers' Matchings and Repairs with despatch. 93, Hatton Garden. 
London, E.C. 

For cheap, quick, reliable Watch and Jewellery Repairs, 
by the most Experienced Workmen, send to Alexander Edwards, 
Watch Material and Tool Dealer. SS & 89, Craven Street, and 2. Holy- 
head Road, Coventry. Lists : all Horological Literature. 

W. Scott Hayward & Co., r>9, Deansgate, and Barton Arcade, 
Manchester. Wholesale Jet Ornament Manufacturers, Jet Cameo 
Cutters and Rough Jet Merchants. Approval parcels sent on receipt 
of order, if accompanied with trade references. Repairs and matchings 
executed on the day received. Works : Manchester and Whitby. 
Agents at Liverpool. Leipzig and Paris. » 

WANTED. 
A VERY Experienced SPECIALIST MANUFACTURER 
J\ seeks some GENUINE FACTORS for a NEW CHRONOGRAPH 
which defies all competition as to price, soundness and efficiency. The 
Chronograph acts as a simple chronograph, counter and fly-back. Offers 
to be addressed in writing to H. 730 Q. a Messrs. Haasensl'EIN & 
Vogler. Bale, Switzerland.— [Ad vt.J 



w 



TO BE SOLD. 

ATCHMAKERS and JEWELLER'S BUSINESS, 
established 17 years, in busy manufacturing city ; stock moderate 



and will be reduced. Excellent opening 
business. For particulars, address The 
Silversmith Office, London. — [Advt.] 



for a young man starting 
'iitchmaltcr. Jeweller and 



WATCH MANUFACTURING BUSINESS, for sale 
of Superior Goods only, WITH or WITHOUT the PREMISES. 
Extensive additions can be made if required. The present Owner no 
objection to remain two or three years to Superintend and Instruct Work- 
people, to part Assist in Office, or Travel. Address Manufacturer, 
Office of this Journal. — [Advt.] 

/\LI)-ESTABLISHED WATCHMAKING and JEWEL- 
\ / LERY BUSINESS for DISPOSAL, through death of Proprietor. 
Incoming low. Capital opportunity for energetic young man. Good 
position. Excellent premises. — Apply, Dawson & Sons. Accountants. 
Grimsby. — [Ad VT.J 



AUNIER'S MODERN HOROLOGY for • 

1 "condition. Published at 
Street. Birmingham. — [Advt.] 



ft 



SAL JNIlliKS MUDUKJN riOltULULr V tor ZOS., in per 
^condition. Published at 42s. Address W. Hall. 60, Albion 



S-fi^ 




atel^akcr, jeweller 



Entered at Stationers' Hall.'] 



Edited by D. GLASGOW, Jun. 



[Registered for Transmission Abroad. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 3.]' 



SEPTEMBER 1, 1887. 



I" Subscription, 5s. ( Post 
per Annum. I Free. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

Our correspondents are kindly requested to note that the 
Office of this Journal has been removed to more com- 
modious premises at No. 7, St. Paul's Churchyard. 



CONTENTS. 



By Herman Bush 
Illustrated 



Editorial 

General Notes 

Trade Notes. Illustrated 

London Watch Trade Association 

The Merchandise Marks Bill 

Birmingham News. From Our Correspondent 

American Items ... 

A Relic of Old London 

Local and Universal Time. 

An Improved Trial Frame. 

The Burmah Ruby Mines 

Kashmir. By William Simpson, R.I., F.R.G.S. 

R.I.B.A. Illustrated 

Magnetism in Watches and Chronometers. By 

^Toppin, U.S.N 

The Times are Out of Joint ... 

Tempering Steel with Electricity 

Workshop Memoranda 

Correspondence ... 
Answers to Correspondents 
Applications for Letters Patent... 

Recent American Patents ... 

Gasrette 
Buyers' Guide 



, Hon. 
Lieut. 



Assoc. 
F. W 



PAGE 

. 33 

. 34 

. 35 

. 36 

37 

. 37 

. 38 

. 38 

. 39 

. 40 

. 40 

41 



43 
46 

46 
46 
47 
47 
48 
48 
48 
48 



tChe Watchmaker, jeweller an6 
Siluersmith. 

A Monthly Journal devoted to the interests of Watchmakers, 
Jewellers, Silversmiths and kindred traders. 

Subscription. — A copy of the Journal will be sent monthly for one 
year, post free, to any address in the United Kingdom or countries in the 
Postal Union for 5s. payable in advance. 

Advertisements. — The rates for advertising will be sent on appli- 
cation. The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith will be found 
an exceptional medium for advertising. Special Notices, Situations, &c, 
per insertion, is. for two lines, prepaid. 

Correspondence. — Correspondence is invited on all matters of interest 
to the trade. Correspondents will please give their full address in each 
communication, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of 
good faith. 

Address all business communications to 

THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & SILVERSMITH, 

7, St. Paul's Churchyard, London, E.C. 
Cheques and Postal Orders to be crossed and made payable to J. TRUSLOVE. 



Agent for the Australian Colonies : 

EVAN JONES. 
Hunter JStreet and Royal Arcade, Sydney, N.S.W, 



Editorial. 




HE Bill usually styled the Merchandise Marks Bill, 
but which, to give it its full title, should be called 
the Merchandise Marks Law Consolidation and 
Amendment Bill, has at length passed the Upper House and 
will have by the time this article appears in print received 
the Royal sanction ; and it is not too much to say that the 
members of the watch trade especially are to be congratulated 
on the large share they have had in its induction, and the 
valuable additions since made to it which are the outcome of 
their suggestions. 

In our previous comments on the Bill we animadverted some- 
what strongly on certain clauses that rendered the measure as 
then contemplated generally inoperative, and unduly interfered 
with the principle of freedom of trade ; and these, we are pleased 
to note, have been for the most part either omitted altogether 
or so far modified in the necessary direction as to make their 
retention comparatively unimportant. As it stands, the Bill, 
although by no means perfect, is likely to prove of immense 
benefit to English manufacturers in their competition in this 
country with foreign producers, and the replies of Sir Henry 
Holland and Lord Cross to the deputation from the Manchester 
Chamber of Commerce hold out hopes of its provisions being 
extended to the Colonies ; as to foreign markets, nothing but 
private energy can prevent damage to English trade and repu- 
tation by fraud and misrepresentation. Meanwhile the gratitude 
of the whole trading community is due to Baron de Worms, 
Mr. Attorney-General and Mr. Stuart- Wortley for introducing 
it, and for their unremitting attention during its progress through 
Parliament. The Bill as passed errs more from faults of omission 
than commission. Its weak points, as it affects watchmakers, 
are the too general character of the clause referring to the place 
of origin of the movement, and the confusion and litigation the 
absence of any definition concerning the same may possibly give 
rise to. 

With regard to the succeeding clause and paragraphs, minor 
exception might perhaps be taken to the method therein indicated 



34 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [September 1, 1887. 



of making declarations as to the make of the case ; but this is a 
matter of detail which the Council, after taking the opinion of 
officers of the Assay offices, may safely be trusted to arrange 
with the least amount of vexation to the casemaker. 

The difficulty of drawing the line between what is allowable as 
a trade puff and what amounts to a fraudulent mis-description 
of goods was never more clearly manifested than throughout the 
course of the present Bill, and it says much for the sound 
judgment of those who have carried it through that they should 
have produced a measure which is as moderate in the one direction 
as it is workable in the other. There are, of course, various points 
of view to every question, and objections are now to be heard 
that the Bill is a manufacturers' Bill, and that the public require 
protection from the home manufacturer quite as much as the 
latter does from his foreign competitors. But, after all, legis- 
lation of this kind can only go a certain way, and an Act of 
Parliament that should undertake to deal with every species of 
fraudulent ingenuity would be both endless in its ramifications 
and of questionable utility in its results. Advertisers have a 
prescriptive right to indulge in descriptive flights of fancy, any 
attempt to check which would assuredly end in failure. In our 
opinion the Act, in dealing with trade marks, has gone as far 
as is within the scope of practical legislation ; the further 
regulation of trade ethics can only be left to the common sense 
of purchasers. 



general Notes. 



;7]nS will be seen from the special notice on the first page, 
jEXs the address of this journal has been changed from 



s-iah 9 



.1 
Imperial Buildings, Ludgate Circus, to No. 7, St. Paul's 
Churchyard. 

The Mappin Art Gallery, which has been built at a cost of 
£15,000, and provided with pictures valued at about £50,000 — 
a bequest to the town of Sheffield by the late Mr. John Newton 
Mappin — was opened on Friday, July 29. Sir Frederick 
Mappin, Bart., M.P., nephew of the donor, made the presenta- 
tion, and a collection of paintings, valued at £20,000, given by 
himself, was presented on his behalf by Mr. Mundella. The 
Mayor, Sir Henry Stephenson, accepted the gifts on behalf of 
the Corporation. 

The Cutlers' Co. held their annual meeting at Sheffield 
on the 2nd ult., when Mr. James Dixon, of the well-known firm 
of Messrs. James Dixon & Sons, was nominated as Master for 
the ensuing year. Although Mr. Dixon is one of the youngest 
members of the Company, he is particularly well qualified for the 
office to which he has been called, having travelled extensively 
and being generally a well-informed and able man. His firm is 
the oldest and largest in the trade. The senior warden for the 
year is Mr. S. E. Howell, and the junior warden Mr. S. G. 
Richardson. The Cutlers' Feast is to take place on the first 
Thursday in September, when Mr. Dixon will be installed 
according to the quaint and picturesque ceremonial of this 
ancient corporation. 

The various Chambers of Commerce of the country have been 
informed by the Foreign Office that Mr. Frederick Witty, 
British Vice-Consul at Barcelona, a local commission agent and 
broker, is well qualified to supply information to persons who 
may wish to obtain particulars respecting the International 
Exhibition to be opened in that city next spring, and to act as 
agent for persons who may desire to avail themselves of this 
opportunity to bring their goods into public notice in Spain. 



The case of Short, Short & Deykin came before the Court of 
Bankruptcy on August 16, upon an application for the approval 
of a scheme of arrangement agreed to by the creditors at the first 
meeting. The debtors filed their petition on May 17 and 
furnished accounts showing joint liabilities £63,461 and assets 
£20,776. It was agreed that the pnmerty should vest in and be 
administered by Mr. A. O. Miles, accountant, as trustee, under 
the supervision of a committee of inspection. The executors and 
beneficiaries under the will of the late Mr. Thomas Short 
(creditors for nearly £20,000) also agreed to postpone their 
right to a dividend until the other creditors should have received 
5s. in the pound, after which they were to receive 4s. 6d. in the 
pound ; and the residue of the assets were to be distributed 
rateably among all the creditors. His Honour considered that 
the scheme was a beneficial one, and made an order for its 
approval. 

A new Company, under the designation of the New South 
Wales Bingera Diamond Fields, Limited, has been formed to 
purchase and work diamond fields in the locality named. The 
capital is £90,000, in £1 shares, of which 30. (HID arc reserved as 
fully paid up in part payment to the vendor ami 60,000 are 
offered for subscription. Mr. Sewill, of 30, Cornhill, states that 
his name has been inserted in the prospectus of the Company 
without his knowledge or consent, and that the statement that 
diamonds from the property that the Company has agreed to 
purchase are on view at his address is without foundation. 

Metallic alloys form the subject of four patents issued in 
the United States to Mr. Charles Auguste Paillard, of Geneva. 
The materials composing the alloys are palladium, copper, nickel, 
gold, platinum, silver, steel and iron, some of the alloys having 
only a few of these ingredients, and all of them being in varying 
proportions, with special methods for their combination. The 
object sought by this invention is to make metallic alloys espe- 
cially adapted for different parts of clock, chronometer and fine 
watch work, which shall be neither oxidisable nor magnetic, with 
small capabilities of dilatation, and having hardness and elasticity 
and more or less of the properties of steel, according to the 
• particular use to which the alloy is to be put, and the grade of 
watch, clock or chronometer to be made therewith. 



The Emperor William's Jubilee gift to the Pope is a 
magnificent gold mitre, profusely studded with diamonds, rubies 
and emeralds. 

Technical Education. — In the House of Commons, on 
August 16, Sir W. Hart Dyke, questioned by Mr. Howard 
Vincent and Mr. Stanley Leighton, said it was intended to give 
freedom to localities, on the sanction of the Science and Art 
Department, in respect of technical instruction. Grants were 
not made at present for manual instruction in the use of tools. 



Brussels Exhibition of Science and Industry, 1888. — 
The Executive Committee of this Exhibition are offering prizes 
for designs for bills, diplomas and medals to be used by the 
Committee, also for designs for small buildings to be erected in 
the Exhibition gardens, and for a method of constructing and 
arranging the water closets, &c, in the Exhibition. The 
Secretary of the Society of Arts has received a supply of the 
conditions for the various competitions, and these he will be 
happy to send to any person requiring further information. 



The ruby was called by the Greeks anthrax, or live coal, from 
its brilliant blood-red colour and exquisite beauty, which, like 
the diamond, is rather improved than diminished when seen by 
artificial light. From the intense blaze of blood-red, the colours 
of the ruby pale down, by admixtures of blue, through rose-red 
to lilac. Exposed to the rays of the sun, or heated, the ruby, 
like the diamond, becomes phosphoric. In the Middle Ages it 
was supposed to be an antidote to poison, and to warn its owner 
of misfortune by a darkening of its colour until the danger was 
past. 



September 1, 1887.] THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



35 



lUra&e iNotes. 



The Airedale Harriers' Championship Cup. — -The cup 
we illustrate below is a handsome massive vessel of solid silver, 
60 ozs. in weight, standing 19 in. high, and valued at £10. 
Poised on the top of the cover is 
the representation of a fleet "hare" 
dashing along with his bag of "trail." 
Below, an elegant monogram is made 
of the letters A. H v intertwined, 
this being on the neck of the cup, 
which is beautifully chased and 
ornamented. Below again, on the 
body of the cup, the Bradford arms 
with crest and motto appear. The 
handles are appropriately formed of 
five-barred gates. A large elongated 
panel stretches across the front of 
the vessel, and on this is engraved 
a pack of " hounds " in full cry ; 
two swift runners are in advance 
scudding along at full speed, a third 
leaps a fence, and the remainder 
are hurrying up in the rear. A 
wooded landscape, in which the old 
ruined tower of Kirkstall Abbey is 
a conspicuous object, forms the back- 
ground. A similar panel adorns the 
back of the cup, on which is 
engraved the following inscription, 
" The Airedale Harriers' Cham- 
pionship Cup, Three Miles Steeple- 
chase, Bradford, Yorkshire, 1887." 
These panels are surrounded by 
richly chased arabesques, whilst bands 
of floral ornaments complete the 
decorations. The stem on which the 
cup stands is formed of a chased 
fluted column, bearing round it a 
bulky ring of finely embossed shields 
making provision for inscribing names 
of winners, further accommodation 
for the same object being made 
beneath each handle. A broad richly- 
decorated foot completes the whole, 
which, whilst being solid and com- 
pact in appearance, is also singularly 
free and graceful in effect. It is a 
piece of silverware of which the 
Airedale Harriers and such fortunate 
ones as may become its holders may 
be deservedly proud. It is the work- 
manship and design of Messrs. 
Fattorini & Sons, of Bradford. 



Mr. John Jefferys, the well- 
known specialist for solitaires and 
studs, has just introduced what he 
calls his " Omega." This is a one- 
piece eccentric round-back solitaire, 
having all the advantages of the 
popular " Bi-Climax." The eccentric 
movement of the shank is effected 
by the ingenious and simple arrange- 
ment of turning the top, the perfect action of which is ensured 
by the manufacturers, Messrs. Hammond, Turner & Sons, 
and Messrs. Perry & Co., Limited, both of Birmingham, before 
it leaves their works. This novelty, which is likely to become a 
public favourite, is made in a variety of designs, and can be 
obtained of the wholesale and fancy goods warehouses generally. 
It is patented in America, Germany and elsewhere abroad. 




In the window of the Moorgate Street showrooms of Messrs. 
Elkington & Co. is now to be seen an elaborate specimen of the 
silversmiths' art manufactured by them, which is to be presented 
by the Hop Bitters Co. to the National Rifle Association 
for annual competition. The base of the trophy is of an 
octagonal form with two projecting divisions, having semi-circular 

ends, each end supporting a figure, 
one representing Hygeia and the 
other Panacea, the daughters of 
iEsculapius, each figure accompanied 
by their classic attributes, viz., the 
staff, serpent, globe, cup, &c. The 
base is further beautifully decorated 
and enriched with mouldings of a 
Grecian character, and at regular 
intervals are depicted four shields, 
bearing the national emblems in 
enamel of England. Ireland, Scotland 
and Wales. A running frieze of the 
hop plant, elaborately embossed, 
chased and pierced, decorates the 
whole of the exterior of the base, 
whilst prominently placed in the 
centre is an enriched shield with the 
symbols of iEsculapius and Mars, 
and a conventional arrangement of 
the sun's rays indicative of curative 
powers. Rising majestically from the 
base is a second platform of a circular 
form bearing on one side a group 
illustrating the various volunteer 
corps in the United Kingdom, and 
on the opposite side a handsome 
shield for inscription, and on the 
other two shields facing the ends of 
the trophy are bas reliefs with 
representative groups of military and 
medical appliances. Between these 
bas reliefs are suspended wreaths of 
hops, &c. Above the bas reliefs are 
four emblematical figures of the 
nationalities supporting shields en- 
amelled with the insignia of their 
patron saints. From the centre 
rises a canopy or temple enclosing a 
magnificently modelled statuette of 
iEsculapius, the temple being en- 
riched and supported by four pillars 
elaborately decorated with the hop 
plant, flags, wreaths, &c. The base 
of the temple is in the form of a 
square, and is embellished with four 
scenes of important events in the 
reign of Queen Victoria, viz., the 
Coronation, the opening of the 
1851 Exhibition, the inauguration of 
the Volunteer Camp at Wimbledon, 
and the proclamation of the Queen 
as Empress of India. The whole is 
surmounted by a winged figure 
carrying an escutcheon with the 
well-known green hop cluster and 
words " Hop Bitters," the former 
enamelled in green and the latter 
in black, exactly as appears on the 
labels of the Company's bottles. The trophy weighs upwards of 
2,000 ozs., and is of the value of 1,000 guineas. 

A new patent safety catch for brooches, the invention of Mr. 
W. T. Brahani, of 392, Stratford Road, Manchester, supplies 
such a universal want and is of such obvious utility, that the 
wonder is it has never been thought of before. The innumerable 



36 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [September 1, 1887 



cases in which valuable articles of jewellery fastened with the 
conventional pin have been lost, owing to the insecurity of this 
mode of attachment would, one would think, have stimulated 
enterprise in this direction, but, as far as we are aware of, 
nothing of the kind has ever been attempted before. The device 
under notice consists of a small spring which comes against the 
catch, and while allowing of the pin entering freely, effectually 
prevents it from becoming unfastened until released by the wearer, 
which can readily be effected. Its further recommendations are 
its extreme simplicity and the fact that it can be applied to any 
kind or form of brooch. 

The new alloy which is placed on the market under the name 
"Afghan silver," and the registered trade mark C. T. & S., is 
experiencing a ready sale, and the manufacturers now find it 
necessary to issue a circular to the trade in which jewellers are 
cautioned against the number of spurious imitations which are 
put forward. as "Afghan silver," but which are in most cases 
either brass or German silver thinly plated with nickel. The 
"Afghan silver" on the other hand is an alloy, which, while 
always retaining its brightness in wear, is of the same whiteness 
throughout, and has without doubt a future before it, being well 
adapted for many uses besides those to which it is at present 
applied, which have hitherto been confined to articles of jewellery 
for personal wear. As the manufacturers claim to be able to 
produce it as cheaply as German silver can be obtained, it 
should quickly supersede the latter as soon as its merits become 
generally appreciated. 

We have received from the designers, Messrs. Mitchell & 
Cooper, of Northampton Street, Clerkenwell, a specimen sheet 
of their " Designs for Engraving," which is just published. 
The work, which must have cost the authors much time and 
trouble, will supply a want long felt by engravers and others, 
to whom a variety of well-executed and original designs is a 
desideratum ; and as the book, to judge from the sheet before us, 
fulfils this condition — comprising all kinds of armorial bearings, 
monograms, ciphers, club and hotel badges, &c. — and its price 
(2s. 6d.) brings it within the reach of all, it should quickly reach 
a second edition. 



The Diamond Market. — The Amsterdam trade has been very 
quiet during the past month, although the factories are reported 
to be fully occupied with work, and several are increasing their 
premises. 

The continued dulness is not likely to last much longer, and 
is not of much moment, as this time of year is always the slack 
season. No change is expected, however, until after the great 
Russian fair of Nishni-Novgorod, which, if successful, usually 
brings in large numbers of Polish and Russian buyers to replenish 
their stocks. 

Complaints are still the rule as to the high price of rough, 
and hopes are expressed that the amalgamation going on among 
the different companies at Kimberley may result in easier prices. 

Paris trade in finished goods is very quiet. This being the 
summer vacation, most of the speculative merchants are still 
holiday making, and the prices obtainable are in consequence low 
through want of competition. A few foreign buyers are pur- 
chasing small parcels, but the local demand is insignificant. 

The steamers " Garth Castle," " Trojan," " Roslin Castle," 
" Spartan " and "Warwick Castle " arrived at Plymouth bringing 
plentiful consignments, which generally went off well, numerous 
foreign buyers being in the market. The best business was done 
for the American account. 

Latest advices from Kimberley report the market as continuing 
very firm, as although the official returns show an increased 
production in comparison with those for the corresponding period 
of last year, shippers are generally complaining of scarcity of stuff. 

The De Beers Co. are going to buy out the French Diamond 
Mining Co. for about £950,000, giving the option to the French 
shareholders to take payment in cash or in shares of the De 
Beers Co., a new issue of which will, if necessary, be created for 
the purpose. Messrs. N. M. Rothschild & Sons are at the head 
of the syndicate which is at the head of this business. 



According to Mr. Crump, of the Times " City article," the 
value of raw diamonds exported annually from Kimberlev is 
considerably over three millions sterling, and so far this enormous 
output has not depressed the diamond market, as the consump- 
tion has increased considerably. 

Silver. — The market has continued most unusually steady 
throughout the month, showing increased strength after the 
Indian Council allotments on the 24th. Latest quotations are 
bars -14-j-Sd., Mexican dollars 43^d. per oz. 



London TJJatch Crabe Association. 

fjjMHE monthly meeting of members of the London Watch 
^| Trade Association was held on August 3, at the Martyrs" 
Memorial Church Schoolroom, St. John Street Road, 
Clerkenwell. There was a numerous attendance, Mr. S. A. 
Brooks in the chair. 

Mr. Newman, the secretary, read the minutes of the previous 
meeting. 

The Chairman said he had told them at the last meeting he 
hoped he should be able, at this meeting, to congratulate them 
on the final success of the Merchandise Marks Bill. He was 
sorry he could not do that, but he had ascertained frcm their 
president, Captain Penton, that the final reading in the House 
of Commons of the Lords' amendments would take place on 
Thursday evening, so his promise was very near fulfilment. 
They had not long to wait for the law which he hoped would help 
to restore to Clerkemvell her staple trade. The clauses of the 
Bill would not permit foreign work being sold in an English 
Hall-marked case, unless the vendor specified in writing the 
foreign works to the vendee at the time of the purchase. 
Neglect of this would render the vendor liable to a charge of 
fraud any time within three years of the sale. It would be well 
for manufacturers to face the position at once, and determine on 
using only English material and English work in their manu- 
facture, if they desired the English Hall-mark in the case. Of 
course, if they could sell their watches with the foreign or dis- 
tinctive mark, they could continue to make a bastard watch ; but 
all agree that the English watch, pure and simple, is still the 
favourite timekeeper, and for a sound, knockabout, useful time- 
keeper, none excel the full-plate, capped and jewelled watch : it 
is less expensive to wear, because stronger, and less liable to get 
out of repair. Since the last meeting the secretary had been in 
correspondence with associations at Birmingham, Coventry, 
Liverpool and Prescot. Every amendment of the Bill had been 
watched by the committees, and the interests of the watch trade 
cared for. He (the chairman) was sorry to see that the 
Horological Institute had rejected Mr. Chapman and placed Mr. 
Glasgow at the bottom of the list of vice-presidents. As one of 
the founders of the Institute, he felt the old love, and was sorry 
to see the ingratitude exhibited towards men who had rendered 
some service to the Institute. He had not always agreed with 
the gentlemen named ; he did not think the Institute had done 
for the English watch trade what it might have done. The 
success of the London Watch Trade Association was a proof it 
had not. Still the council were not wholly to blame ; they had 
to consider their subscribers, many of whom were interested in 
upholding the foreign watch, and this was the stumbling-block in 
the way of those who desired that the Institute, originally founded 
as the British Horological Institute, should represent English 
interests. The London Watch Trade Association had avoided 
the error of the Institute. No man was eligible for membership 
in the Association unless born under the British flag ; nor unless 
a manufacturer, or engaged in some branch of watch or clock 
manufacture. They were no longer taunted with disunion. 
Their interests being identical, they were all agreed, and he 
believed there was a great future for the society. 

Mr. Andrews enjoined upon all present to advocate the 
interests of the London Watch Trade Association, and add to 
the already large list of members. 

Votes of thanks to the chairman and secretary closed the 
proceedings. 



September 1, 1887/] THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



Che fflerchan&ise Jftarhs Bill. 



"fjjjf HE above Bill passed the House of Lords and received the 
^| Boyal Assent last month. The second reading of the 
measure was agreed to in the House of Lords without a 
division ; but, when the House went into Committee, Lord 
Stanley of Preston, who had a number of amendments on the 
paper, said that the purport of the Government amendments was 
this — it had been found that selling goods with fraudulent marks 
bad been placed amongst those offences which were obviously 
committed with intent to defraud, while a -man might sell goods 
marked with forged trade marks quite innocently. The proposal 
now was to take out the first part of the clause and make a 
separate matter of it. On Clause 2 several amendments would 
be proposed, and he would move the omission of the words re- 
ferring to the sale of articles marked with forged or fraudulent 
trade marks. These were agreed to. 

Lord Stanley of Preston next moved to insert, as a 
separate paragraph in Clause 2, these words : — 

(2.) Every person who sells or exposes for or has in his 
possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manu- 
facture any goods or things to which any forged trade mark 
or false trade description is applied, or to which any trade 
mark or mark so nearly resembling a trade mark as to be 
calculated to deceive is falsely applied, as the case may be, 
shall — unless he proves (a) that, having taken all reasonable 
precautions against committing an offence against this Act 
he had at the time of the commission of the alleged offence 
no reason to suspect the genuineness of the trade mark or 
trade description ; and (J) that on demand made by or on 
behalf of the prosecutor he gave all the information in his 
power with respect to the persons from whom he obtained 
such goods; or (c) that otherwise he had acted innocently — 
be guilty of an offence against this Act. 
This was agreed to. 

Lord Macnaghten moved to insert in Clause 3 the following 
new paragraph : — 

The provisions of this Act respecting the application of a false 
trade description to goods shall extend to the application to 
goods of any such figures, words or marks, or arrangement 
or combination thereof, whether including a trade mark or 
not, as are reasonably calculated to lead persons to believe 
that the goods are the manufacture or merchandise of some 
person other than the person whose manufacture or merchan- 
dise they really are. 
This was agreed to, and Clauses 2, 3 and 4, as amended, were 
agreed to. 

After some further verbal amendments the Bill passed through 
Committee, and on Tuesday, the 2nd ult., the Bill was read a 
third time and passed. 



Fraudulent Marking of Goods. — A deputation from the 
Manchester Chamber of Commerce waited upon Lord Cross on 
Thursday, the 4th ult., at the India Office, to urge the necessity 
before the present Merchandise Marks Act Consolidation and 
Amendment Bill, now before the Lords, should come into force, 
of extending its provisions to India. Lord Cross said he entirely 
agreed in the views placed before him, and he had anticipated the 
views of the deputation to a great extent by writing a strong 
despatch to the Viceroy, pointing out the difficulties of the whole 
matter, and inviting the Government of India to consider the 
expediency of early legislation upon this point. The moment the 
Bill passed the House of Lords in its final shape it would be sent 
to India for consideration. He should be glad to do all he could 
to stop falsification. Subsequently the deputation proceeded to 
the Colonial Office to ask Sir H. Holland to urge upon the 
Colonial Parliaments the advisableness of passing a similar 
measure to that which is now before the House of Lords. Sir 
H. Holland promised that as soon as the Bill passed he would send 
a circular to all the Crown Colonies asking them to take such 
measures as may be necessary to give full effect to the Act. 



Birmingham Neuis, 

From Our Correspondent. 



fHE Birmingham metal work at the Art Gallery, which has 
been purchased with the balance from the Exhibition 
funds, is the most unfortunate selection that could have 
been made, and has caused an enormous amount of dissatisfaction, 
and not without cause. The jewellery part of it is, with few 
exceptions, especially weak, and, instead of raising the fame of 
the Birmingham jewellers, it will actually tend to decrease it. 
Who is responsible for this I am not in a position to say; but I 
will guarantee that if any jeweller's apprentice, who is also a 
student at the School of Art, had been called in as judge, that 
he would have made a more artistic selection. The whole of the 
articles, with the exception of a brooch with a damascened centre, 
are below criticism as art work. This is certainly " a little more 
than kin and less than kind" that the "little hardware village" 
which lias fought its way bravely to the front, and has succeeded 
in producing artistic works in metal in which she is unrivalled, 
should be " sat upon " by the bungling of a few gentlemen who 
thought they were judges of art, and who have exhibited their 
own ignorance and done a great injury to the fame of the town 
by their injudicious selections. 

* * * 

Solitaires, especially the various spring arrangements, still 
keep in fair demand, and they are the only " steady line " that I 
know of. General jewellery is worse than bad, and that Art 
Gallery exhibit will not " help the lame dog over the stile.'* The 
almost daily failures of wholesale houses are shaking some of the 
manufacturers seriously, and a rush out of the trade has already 
commenced — a large stock of a manufacturer being brought to 
the hammer this week, which realised miserable prices. Well, 
during this " panic," so to speak, the weak are going to the wall 
in the natural course of things ; history repeats itself, and this 
is not the first time this state of things has hajjpened in the 
jewellery trade, and it will not be the last until the unlimited 
credit, approval, and accommodation bill system has been ex- 
terminated root and branch. In the meantime, those strong birds 
who can keep at the top must thank God and pay their debts. 

* * * 

I suppose the trade, from what I hear, is going to accept a 
dividend of 12s. in the pound from a large wholesale house who 
held a private meeting last week, instead of investigating affairs 
and letting daylight into the otherwise obscure and curious 
balance sheet submitted. Well, all I can say is, they must not 
be surprised if they are called upon to accept a few more 
dividends if they will be weak and disunited. 

* * * 

As manufacturers are running short time and short handed, 
the question is often asked, what has become of the workpeople ? 
I find a srreat number have arone abroad — some of them findine 
good situations as jewellers, others taking any work they can get. 
One of the shipping agents has booked over 300 jewellers to 
America this year from Birmingham alone. 

* * # 

I hear some complaints from Canadian buyers that they come 
year after year to England to replenish their stock, and that 
manufacturers show them the same or similar patterns. This 
may, of course, apply to a few, but, generally speaking, makers 
leave nothing unturned in order to produce novelties ; and it is 
to be regretted that this rage for novelties has acted against the 
production of really artistic work — for if makers find that an 
idiotic arrangement of a tennis net with a hat soldered in the 
middle will sell, while a good piece of wrought and decorated 
work will remain in stock, they are almost compelled to produce 
the saleable one: but please to give the blame to the right 
persons, namely, the public, and not the makers. A good deal 
of this could be remedied if the factors had a better and more 
artistic education. They all have a good knowledge of what 
will sell, but as a rule their ideas of art are nil; and I 
could give numerous instances where an artistic and enthusiastic 



: J >8 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [September 1, 1887. 



maker has been quite discouraged by the sarcastic criticism of 
an ignorant buyer. I can vouch for the truth of the following : 
— A maker was showing a Jew factor some very high class work 
of the Pompeian style, and recommended it to him as Pompeian 
art work. "Vat!" said the Jew; "Vat! Oh, pump on de 
Devil." The maker " took a back seat" and sold the Jew some 
of his most atrocious "novelties," which were more to his taste. 
Well, in spite of this, we must not cry " Ichabod," but the 
public must be educated up to a better standard. No doubt this 
is being gradually done, and the wholesale houses might help to 
do it ; but that unfortunate Art Gallery exhibit will certainly 
retard it. 



American Jtems. 



npHE counsel for a trade organisation of workmen recently 
1JM 1 sent a letter to the American Walthatn Watch Co., 
in which he protested against the importation by the 
Company of alien workmen under contract, and further stated 
that, if the practice was continued, the association would 
prosecute. A representative of the Jewelers' Weekly waited 
upon Major F. R. Appleton, of Robbins & Appleton, agents 
for the Company in New York city, to inquire into the truth of 
the story. The major said that he had received the letter 
referred to, and that in it the Company had been accused of 
importing alien workmen in direct violation of the law. "All I 
have to say," continued Major Appleton, " is that we are innocent 
of the charge, and that I should be pleased to be waited upon by 
representatives of the association which accuses us." " Have 
you recently hired aliens to work in your factories ? " asked the 
scribe. " Yes. You see there is a scarcity of good engravers in 
this country, and as a good many foreign experts are coming 
here, they find plenty of employment. It was some of these men 
who came to us and asked for work, and we gave it to them. 
We did not go to the other side, nor was a representative sent to 
make contracts with the men. They came here without solici- 
tation, and scattered over the country looking for work. Some 
came to us and we hired them. That's all there is in the 
matter." 



The Providence correspondent of the same journal says : — 
Thus far the season has been more profitable to the manufacturer 
than any for several years past, and at present the demand for 
plated goods by the jobbers throughout the South and West is 
very large, and the outlook for fall trade is excellent. Shops are 
running full time and with all the hands that can be hired, while 
in some of the factories the help is required to work until 9 and 
10 o'clock in the evening five days of the week. Advertisements 
for help are appearing daily in the local papers. 



The San Francisco correspondent of the Jewelers' Weekly 
writes : — " A reaction in the diamond market seems to have set 
in on the Pacific Coast," said a leading diamond merchant to your 
correspondent, " and it is much better than it has been for five 
years past. These goods were at a discount here several years 
ago, but of late they have become very saleable. The gem most 
in demand now is the ruby. It is greatly sought after and its 
popularity seems to be on the increase. Pearls are not in large 
demand on this coast. The European capitals seem to be 
the great centres for them. The demand for sapphires and 
emeralds is about the same ; but while opals were until very 
recently a drug in the market, they are now largely looked for 
and command good prices." 



The Jewelry News says the American watch factories are 
producing so few key-winding movements that large dealers have 
resorted to the importation of Swiss key winders. Notably 
among these are Messrs. Henry Ginnel & Co., who are showing 
the trade a Swiss key winder, bearing the trade mark of 
" Newport," which has jumped at once into public favour, if then- 
orders for them are indications of their popularity. 



Probably the most productive industry in the jewellery line 
in this State is the manufacture of California quartz jewellery. 
This finds its best market among Eastern tourists, who not only 
prize it as a souvenir, but for its novelty. .The work of the 
manufacturing jewellers of San Francisco in this line is not to be 
excelled, as all who visit their establishments can attest. 



A Costly Diamond Necklace. — According to Harper s 
Weekly, the costliest necklace of diamonds ever owned in 
America was worn by the late Mrs. Mary Jane Morgan. She 
had a real passion for diamonds, and wore them in hairpins, 
brooches, bracelets and rings as well : but her special pet was a 
necklace, a riviere of diamonds, which cost her originally perhaps 
£7,000, and to which she has made various additions until its 
total value was £50,000. One day she astonished a clerk at 
Tiffany's by buying a diamond for £12,000 and ordering it to be 
set in her riviere as the centre stone. Diamonds that once 
glistened in her brooches, hairpins or bracelets were transferred 
In tliis necklace, and diamonds that no longer pleased her in the 
necklace were reset in the brooches, hairpins or bracelets. To her 
it was a perpetual pleasure to see the magnificent necklace 
increasing its magnificence. When she died the largest of the 
stones were sold singly ; but the necklace without them was so 
valuable that Messrs. Tiffany bought it for £15,000. Soon 
afterwards they broke it up, and for many months it has ceased 
to exist. 



A Belie of iDlo Lon6on. 



R. J. W. BENSON, of Ludgate Hill, has just finished 

s=j the repair of a very interesting clock. When old St. 
Dunstan's, Fleet Street, was pulled down, in 1831, the 
clock was sold by public auction to the late Marquis of 
Hertford, who had it re-erected in the grounds of his villa in 
Regent's Park, a residence designed by Decimus Burton. By 
the courtesy of Mr. Benson we are enabled to give the following 
particulars of this interesting relic of Old London : — The clock 
frame is of the ancient bedstead pattern, all the wheels in each 
train being fixed in perpendicular bars, so that if it is necessary 
to remove any part for cleaning or repair, the wdiole train must 
be taken to pieces. The escapement is a dead-beat with a slight 
recoil, the pallet arms being differently arranged to the modern 
style, one is at top and the other is at the side of the scape wheel. 
The clock has a locking-plate with " ting-tang " quarters, the 
hammers being raised from pins on the main wheels. 

The peculiarity of the. clock is, that instead of striking with 
hammers in the usual manner, two automaton giants, armed with 
clubs, deliver the blows alternately on the bells ; and the wdiole 
apparatus was exposed to the view of an admiring public, and 
used to be one of the sights of London to country visitors. The 
pendulum beats 1^ seconds, the whole of the wheels are brass, 
the barrels are very large to carry hemp ropes, the movement is 
above the dials, and there is a lead down to a pair of bevelled 
wheels and a further lead to two copper dials, six feet in diameter, 
fitted with a drum, which is supported by a massive oak beam 
and brackets. 

In the grounds of the modern villa the old clock appears pre- 
cisely as it did in the City, and the giants still go through their 
performances. Although the clock is over 200 years old it 
goes well now and keeps good time ; no maker's name appears 
on the movement. The present repairs are new brass bushes 
throughout, new fans and springs to striking fly, repairs to bevel 
and motion work, the entire movement being taken to pieces, 
thoroughly cleaned, the brasswork re-lacquered and the iron 
painted. 

Considerable interest is attached to this clock ; Cowper refers to 
it in his "Table Talk" in lines that are certainly complimentary: — 
" When Labour and when Dulness, chib in hand, 
Like the two figures at St. Dunstan's stand, 
Beating alternately, in measured time, 
- The clockwork tintiunabulum of rhyme, 
Exact and regular sounds will be ; 
But such mere quarter-strokes are not for me." 



September 1, 1887.] THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



It may be remembered that Mr. Frith, R.A., in last year's 
Exhibition at the Academy, introduced the old clock in his 
picture, "Dr. Johnson's Tardy Gallantry." 

The ancient timepiece now belongs to a private gentleman, 
for whom it has been faithfully restored on the original model, 
no alteration of any kind being made. 

The following further particulars of this clock are from Wood's 
" Curiosities of Clocks and Watches :" — 

This remarkable clock, that projected over the street in the 
manner of those of several of the City churches at the present 
time, was set up in the year 1671. Thomas Harrys, or Harris, 
received for his work the sum of £35, and the old clock. It 
appears, from the parish books, that on May 18, 1671, Thomas 
Harrys, who was then living at the lower end of Water Lane, 
LondoD, made an offer to build a new clock with chimes, and to 
erect two figures of men with poleaxes to strike the quarters. 
This clock was so constructed as to afford one dial plate at the 
south front and another at the east end of the church. All this 
he proposed to perform, and to keep the whole in constant repair 
for the sum of £80 and the old clock ; at the same time 
observing that his work should be worth a hundred pounds. He 
further adds these woi'ds : "I will do one thing more which 
London shall not show the like ; I will make two hands show 
the hours and minutes without the church, upon a double dial, 
which will be worth your observation, and to my credit." It 
appears that the vestry agreed to give to Harrys the sum of £35 
and the old clock for as much of his plan as they thought proper 
to adopt ; and on October 28, in the same year, 1671, his task 
being completed, he was voted the sum of £4 per annum to keep 
it in repair. We find that the idea of chimes was given up, as 
well as the dials at the east end. Originally, in 1737, this clock, 
with its large gilt dial, was within a square, ornamented case, 
with a semi-circular pediment, and the tube from the church to 
the dial was supported by a carved figure of Time, with expanded 
wings, as a bracket. In 1738 it cost the parish £110 for repairs. 
Above it, in an alcove and in a standing posture, were two life- 
sized wooden figures of " savages or Hercules," as Strype 
describes them, or "two wooden horologists," as Ned Ward calls 
them, with clubs in their right hands, who struck the quarters of 
every hour on the two suspended bells, moving their heads at the 
same time. These figures much excited the interest of the 
passers-by, especially provincial visitors to London, who would 
stop in crowds to see these automata strike the quarters with 
their clubs. Leigh, in his " New Picture of London," calls them 
the " pets of cockneys and countrymen." They were one of the 
sights of London, and many a gazer at them has unwittingly 
enriched the pickpockets and cutpurses who used to mix with the 
crowd of gaping idlers assembled under this clock, to the no 
small obstruction of the foot and carriage-way. One historian 
tells us that they were " more admired by many of the populace 
on Sundays than the most eloquent preacher from the pulpit 
within." A writer in the Mirror, 1828, says, " It would be 
needless to describe the two brazen striking Saracens who attract 
the gaping multitude ; when they perform operations one would 
really suppose they were in league with the pickpockets, who are 
below striking into the pockets of their admirers sans ce're'monie." 
The author of " London Scenes and London People," an eye- 
witness of the old clock, says, " The giants stood in front of the 
building, about 30 feet from the road, on a covered platform, 
each wielding a club — the bell being hung between them, which 
at the quarters, as well as whole hours, they struck, but so in- 
dolently, that spectators often complained that they were not well 
up to their work. The mechanism, too, was rough and clumsy; 
you could not help noticing the metal cord inserted in the club, to 
which its motion was due." Sir Walter Scott speaks of the 
savages in his " Fortunes of Nigel ;" but he places them in 
position before they were known to the gaping cockneys. When 
the old church was pulled down the clock and figures were 
purchased by the Marquis of Hertford and removed to his villa 
in Regent's .Park, where the clubbers still do their duty every 
quarter of an hour. We read, under date October 22, 1830, 
"Mr. Creaton, auctioneer, sold by private contract to the Marquis 
of Hertford the clock-tower, with its two figures, for £210." 



Local an6 "Universal iUme. 

From the German by Herman Bush. 



"W N an interesting and lengthy article on " Chronology and 
jILi Calendar," just finished in the Allgemeines Journal der 
Uhrmacherkunst, the author concludes with the following 
sentences : — 

The earth rotates, within 24 hours, on its axis from west to 
east ; it exposes every part of the globe during the diurnal 
culmination to the rays of the sun, and has all places situated 
on the line between north and south so exposed at noon or 
midday, generally called the geographical meridian. 

The circumference of the earth in the centre between north 
and south, called the equator, is, like every other circle, divided 
into 360 degrees; and every one of these degrees passes the sun 
once in 24 hours and remains exposed the 360th part of 24 
times 60 minutes = 1,440, or an equivalent of 4 minutes. When, 
for example, it is noon or midday at Greenwich, the next degree 
eastwards has had noon 4 minutes previously, whilst the next 
degree westwards will have noon 4 minutes later ; and at the 
180th degree from Greenwich eastwards and westwards, the 4 
minutes for each degree will accumulate to 12 hours. The 
Antipodes will have midnight when the meridian of Greenwich 
indicates midday, and vice versa; and the same phenomenon will 
manifest itself at any opposite degrees of the globe. We have, 
therefore, midday and midnight, and all intermediate parts of 
day and night, simultaneously represented on the face- of the 
globe, and this variation of time at each place is called local 
time. 

The different local times cause, in the continually increasing 
international intercourse, many drawbacks and confusions for 
defining the time of the day and even the date of the month 
between the despatch and arrival of telegrams to or from distant 
places, or for establishing a uniform time table for railway 
traffic in countries of extensive territory. This existing and 
unalterable state of confusion has induced the Governments and 
astronomers of civilised nations to establish an antidote, for the 
object of which International Conferences were held at Rome 
and Washington, where the subject was ably discussed by the 
delegates, who recommended the adoption of a universal time 
for the whole of the civilised globe, by establishing the prime 
meridian at Greenwich to start the world's time and cosmopolitan 
date ; and, in order to effect this, it was suggested and 
unanimously accepted, to abandon the twice twelve hour calcu- 
lation of time for the day and night, and substitute a 24 hours' 
system for the world's time. 

The notation of local time may still remain for local use until 
the inhabitants of the various parts of the globe get properly 
accustomed to the comparing of the two notations, when all 
obstacles will be removed for universally adopting one time for 
the whole of the earth. 

The middle of the vertical spider threads in the tube of 
the transit instrument at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 
indicating and representing the plane of the renowned prime 
meridian, which forms the guide for calculating distances east 
or west from Greenwich to nautical and seafaring men, by con- 
verting the difference of local time at sea with the Greenwich 
time of the marine chronometer on board into space, would, by the 
establishment of universal time, assume a higher importance, as 
the transit of noon before these fine threads would form the base 
for the calculation of universal time. 

The astronomical regulator at the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich, which commands in England the dropping of the 
time-balls for transmitting Greenwich time — the adopted time 
standard — would, in another direction, mediate an international 
unity by initiating the elevated promotion of the lofty reali- 
sation of universal time, and pave the way for the adoption 
of universal money, universal weights and measures, and 
universal language, thereby affording to the human aspiration 
for universality the means of celebrating an international 
triumphal feast. 



4(t 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [September 1, 1887. 



An 3mproue& Urial Frame. 

MjWHE accompanying illustrations show a new trial frame for 
|^g the use of oculists and opticians that has several points of 
excellence not found in others. It is the invention of 
the Geneva Optical Co., of New York. Fig. 1 is a front view, 
fig. 2 a side or sectional view. The steel rods P P P P are 
fastened rigidly in the metal block M and make the backbone of 
the frame. The screw B B governs the distance between the 
temples and the lens holder, carrying them towards or away from 
the centre by the right and left-hand thread. The nose rest is 
faced with shell and is easy to the wearer, and has an up and 
down and in and out motion, and can be placed in any desired 
position with reference to the lenses. The lenses can be adjusted 
to the pupillary distance quickly. The lens holders K K are 
attached to steel shanks / I which pass up into tubes H H, and 




are held there by cap, nut and spring, but free to rotate on their 
axis as shown in fig. 2. 

The cumbersome rotation rings are omitted, and the operator 
finds the method of holding the lenses is practically easier to 
manipulate than with the concentric rings. The principal points 
of superiority ai"e that it is but about half the weight of the 
Nnchet or other ordinary frame. It is made of steel where 
possible, and is therefore more rigid and durable. It allows 
three lenses for either eye, or, after a combination of spherical 
and cylindrical is made, it allows that they may remain in position 




while testing the other eye, a solid disc being placed with them 
to shut off vision. 

The frame does not have to be taken from the face to exchange 
the lenses or to test improvements made by the lenses, as either 
eye can, by a touch, be swung on its shank outwards. This 
frame allows the lenses to be brought about half-an-inch nearer 
together to get pupillary distance on children or narrow-faced 
people than any other, a point frequently of great value. 

The nose rest is much easier than any other as it is faced with 
shell. The vertical adjustment to nose rest is excellent, and the 
horizontal movement in and out to throw lenses away from or 
towards the eyes is a great improvement. 



Jubilee Clock Tower at Basingstoke. — The ceremony of 
unveiling the new clock tower, presented to the town as a Jubilee 
memorial by the Mayor (Major May), was performed on July 
28 by the Hon. Diana Sclater- Booth. The ancient clock, 
nearly a century-and-adialf old, has been thoroughly restored by 
Benson, of Ludgate Hill, the dials enlarged from 4 ft. diameter 
to 5 ft. 9 in., and a new train of wheels and two bells added, to 
chime the four quarters. Numerous visitors, besides the Town 
Council, were afterwards entertained at luncheon by the Mayor. 



Che Burmah Ruby 3¥Une$. 

fP'IIE correspondence on the subject of the Ruby Mines in 
!^| Burmah was published on the 16th ult. The Viceroy 
telegraphed to the Secretary of State for India, on 
February 25, 1886, that it was proposed to lease the mines pro- 
visionally to Messrs. Gillanders & Arbuthnot, of Calcutta and 
Rangoon, on condition of an annual payment of two lacs and free 
examination by the Government. The Secretary consented : but 
on March 27 Lord Dufferin again telegraphed that a syndicate, 
formed by Messrs. Streeter, had offered three lacs per annum, and 
again, on April 14, that the local house offered three lacs, while 
Messrs. Streeter 's agent offered four. The Secretary of State 
telegraphed, leaving the matter to the decision of the Viceroy, 
but asking that the value of the mines and the rights of the 
Government should lie carefully ascertained before pledging the 
Government. The matter there rested until May last, when, on 
the 19th, Lord Cross telegraphed asking whether it was true 
that a contract on behalf of the Government had been signed, and 
that an application to visit the mines had been refused. Lord 
Dufferin replied that the terms under which the ruby mines were 
to be worked was still under consideration, but a memorandum 
had been signed which did not bind the Government, indicating 
tlie terms which the Government representative would recommend 
the Government to offer, and this had been communicated to 
Messrs. Streeter. At the same time the Viceroy in Council was 
of opinion that should the ruby mines regulation and terms of 
agreement finally decided on prove acceptable to Messrs. Streeter, 
they were entitled to be granted a lease in consideration of having 
sent in the highest tender. The Viceroy subsequently forwarded 
a statement of the proceedings in the matter of the ruby mines 
since the occupation of Upper Burmah, showing that the agree- 
ment on lease with Mr. Streeter had still to be settled by the law 
officers of the Government, and that it was not to commence 
until November 1 next. They had been careful to protect the 
rights and interests of the native miners. As to an agent named 
Lnger, who had complained that he had not been allowed to 
inspect the mines, the Viceroy said he had never made a definite 
offer, and he never mentioned that Messrs. Rothschild, of 
London, were connected with the syndicate of which he was the 
agent. The Chief Commissioner did not consider his proposals 
sufficiently serious to justify him in postponing his decision in 
regard to the specific offers of two firms, especially as, when 
pressed to produce his credentials, Unger had declined to respond 
to the invitation. Lord Cross telegraphed to the Viceroy on 
June 6 asking his Excellency to make no arrangement with 
anyone without sanction from home. Replying on July 8 to 
a telegram from Lord Cross, the Viceroy said that Mr. Streeter's 
son had been granted a licence to dig for rubies under the old 
system, without machinery, but it was quite a distinct matter 
from the leasing of the Crown monopoly right, on which action 
remained suspended. Lord Cross finally wrote, on August 4, 
to the Viceroy that he had not sufficient information before him 
as to the value of the mines, or the effect of using machinery on 
them, and that before sanctioning any lease or agreement he 
proposed sending out experts to scientifically examine the mines. 
This decision was also communicated to Messrs. Streeter and to 
Messrs. Ogilvie, Gillander & Co. 



A new monthly comic contemporary has just been started in 
New York under the title of the Waterbury, for circulation 
among the jewellery trades. It is very comprehensive in its 
scope, and alternates in style between the serious gravity, almost, 
of the Jewelers' Circular and the humorous levity of Stuff and 
Nonsense (a very funny page from which latter is reproduced in 
the number before us) in a way well calculated to dissipate the 
most stubborn secretions superinduced by occupations of a 
sedentary nature. 

After a trial extending over three days, Robert Felton was 
found guilty at the Middlesex Sessions, on the 19th ult., of 
stealing a quantity of jewellery belonging to Louisa, Dowager 
Lady Meux, and sentenced to five years' penal servitude. 



September 1, 1887.] THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



41 



Kashmir. 

By William Simpson, R.I., F.R.G.S., Hon. Assoc, R.I.B.A. 



(Continued from page 26.) 

^jtNDIAN ear ornaments have a peculiarity which may he worth 
J1L describing. It will be noticed that in Goolee's case these 
ornaments are in the form of a rosette which does not hang, 
but preserves a position with its outer surface parallel with the 
wearer's face. The Delhi lady has a similar ornament ; but in her 
case it is smaller, and is not so noticeable from the profusion of 
gems around it. This position of the ornament is attained by 
means of a large hole in the ear. The lobe is first bored, and a 
small piece of bamboo is inserted; the bamboo is regularly changed 
for larger pieces, till the hole is widened to nearly half-an-inch in 
diameter. On the back of the ornament is a small tube which 
fits into this hole, and it is thus held in its place — exactly in the 
same way that the small jewel is held on the side of the nostril. 
I give a drawing of this tube (fig. 1) from an ear ornament I 



appeared to me to be made of tinsel, gold wire and pearls. In 
my former account of a visit to a Delhi zenana, I mentioned that 
it was the custom with the women of India to have their ears 
bored with a number of holes for smaller rings ; Goolee was no 
exception to this rule — she had three or four gold rings, but they 
are concealed behind the rosette. 

I give a sketch of another Kashmiri dancing girl (fig. 4), 
as it shows a variety in the head ornaments : instead of the 
crescent forms we have here triangles. She also has rosettes in 
her ears, and the necklaces with the large pendant are similar in 
style to Goolee's. 

It must be remembered that jewellery is not confined to the 
gentler sex in India. Men in that country, if they have the 
means, decorate their persons quite as much as the women. 
Rajahs, Avhen they appear on state occasions, are often covered 
with an extraordinary amount of wealth. I remember the late 
Maharajah Holkar appearing at a durbar held in Jubblepore by 
Lord Canning, and it was whispered round that he carried on his 
body something like a million sterling. This high value often 
results from some celebrated gem being worn, the worth of which 





Fig. 1. — Back part of an Earring. 



Fig. 2 — Head from a Painting in the 
< ^T~> 1 Ajunta Caves. 








MoV-vc? ,,. 



Fig. 3. — Heao of Buddha, Ajunta. 

brought home with me ; its length is exactly three-eighths of an 
inch, and its diameter is between that and half-an-inch. In some 
parts of India this hole in the ear is made still larger : in the 
Madras Presidency I have seen them quite an inch in diameter. 
In ancient India this practice of making large holes in the lobe of 
the ear was more prevalent than it is now. I give the copy of a 
man's head (fig. 2) from one of the old Buddhist caves of 
Ajunta, in which this will be seen. In the figures of Buddha 
(fig. 3) this peculiarity is one of the conventional points which 
the sculptors always represent ; the ears are in every case shown 
as elongated — often as far down as the line of the shoulder — and 
with a long opening in the lobe. Buddha being an Ascetic, he 
has no ornaments on his person ; but in the old sculptures we 
see other persons with large rings and ornaments, whose weight 
at once explains the elongation of the lobe. Goolee had large 
pendants to her ear ornaments, but these were not heavy : they 



F4G. 4. — MuTTEE, A KASHMIR NAUTCH GlRL. 



may cover the largest part of such a high estimate. When the 
Prince of Wales went to India, I was allowed the privilege of 
making a sketch of the Guikwar of Baroda ; he was then a mere 
boy, and on this occasion he wore the celebrated necklace of 
diamonds, said to be worth two millions sterling. Rajahs are 
animated by the strongest desire to possess stones that are unique. 
The story is well known how Runjit Singh managed to get the 
Koh-i-noor ; all his offers to Shah Soojah for this purpose had 
failed, and at last, during an interview, he forced an exchange of 
puggrees or turbans, which is a mark of great friendship in India : 
but in this case the Koh-i-noor was in Shah Soojah's puggree. 
The main objects of a Rajah's existence are to possess a splendid 
elephant, to ride upon on state occasions — the elephant must be 
large, and have all the points which are considered to form the 
perfect type of that animal — a larger gun than any of his neigh- 
bour Rajahs ; and the largest and finest gems he can procure, 



42 



THE WATCHM AKER, JEWELLER AtfD SILVERSMITH. [Se.-tkmkek 1, 188?. 







Fig. 5. H.H. Runbir Singh, Maharajah of Jummoo and Kashmir. 



September 1, 188?.] THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



43 



historical ones if possible. Since the British Raj has introduced 
salutes, to the above must be added a burning ambition to increase 
his right to an extra couple of guns. Anyone who could gratify 
these royal tastes may command all that the Rajah's exchequer 
contains. 

I do not know if Runbir Singh, the late Maharajah of Jummoo 
and Kashmir, had any celebrated jewels, or if he appeared in his 
richest gems when he sat to me for his portrait. I had to visit 
Jummoo, his capital town — this is the capital of the State of 
Jummoo, a territory between Kashmir and the Punjaub, the 
name of which comes first in his title. I spent a week there 
as his guest, and took portraits of him and' his son, Pertab 
Singh, who is now the Rajah, as Runbir died about two 
years ago. I give a rough copy of the late Maharajah's 
portrait (fig. 5). The aigrette on the puggree* is the same 
as that usually worn by Rajahs. I did not learn the name of 
the material in the central parts of this ornament : it was white 
and transparent ; the upper portion was too large for one piece, 
and the small leaflets which ornament the sides were filled with 
what I take to be the same substance. Around the square 
central panel are four large rubies, and below are three pendant 
emeralds ; the pendant from the top of the aigrette is also an 
emerald. He wore a tuft of heron's feathers in the puggree; the 
heron is a sort of royal bird in Kashmir, and it is a capital crime 
to kill one of them. The Rajah's ears must have been bored, for 
he wore gold rings, to each of which were attached three emeralds, 
one large and two small. He seemed to have a penchant for 
emeralds, for in addition to these he had a collar formed of them, 
and he also wore a necklace of two or three strings of pearls. 
The gold ornament in front of these had in its centre what 
seemed to be the same whitish substance which is in the aigrette. 
The circular form which is seen behind is his shield; it is held in 
its position by a belt of cloth of a deep yellowish brown. The 
other belt on the left shoulder with an ornamental buckle is the 
sword-belt ; the buckle is of gold with six rubies, three above 
and three below. The dress was of plain white cotton, with a 
scarf of the same material over the left shoulder. 

[NOTE.— Owing to a misprint in the first part of this article, Srinugger, the capital of 
Kashmir, appears as " Urinugger."] 



Magnetism in "Watches anb Chronometers. 

A Paper presented to the New York Electric Club by 
Lieut. F. W. TopriN, U.S.N. 



TIMEPIECE for the determination of a ship's longitude 
was unknown at the beginning of the 18th century ; 
ships went to sea with the most primitive means for 
laying their course to distant ports, sailing by day and furling 
their sails by night, lest they might strike some unknown shore. 
Sea voyages were long, tedious and extremely perilous. In 
consequence, the maritime nations, and England especially, 
keenly felt the want of an instrument or timepiece for the 
determination of the longitude at sea. In the year 1711, during 
the reign of Queen Anne, the English Parliament passed an 
Act constituting a Board of Longitude, with certain powers. 
This Board found it expedient to offer three prizes of £10,000, 
£15,000 and £20,000 for the production of a good timekeeper, 
which would be the means of enabling mariners to find the 
longitude at sea within 60, 10 and 30 miles respectively. For 
fourteen years the offer remained fruitless, when one John 
Harrison, a self-made man from Yorkshire, presented himself 
with the offer to solve the problem ; he had experimented on 
pendulums and invented the gridiron compensation. 

His experiments on the effects of temperature on various 
metals suggested to him the principle of compensation to watches, 
in order to counterbalance the variation in rate by the expansion 
and contraction of the balance spring in heat and cold. 

Harrison's compensation was effected by a laminated j)iece 
fixed to the plate at one end, and at the other carrying curb or 
regulator pins, between which the spring acted, and it was by 

* Turban is a word unknown in India., puggree is the name alwaya used. 



the movement of these pins, to and from the stud, into which the 
terminal end of the spring was pinned, lengthening or shortening 
the acting portion of the spring, that the watch was regulated, 
this curb acting in the same manner as a watch regulator is 
moved by hand. 

But, notwith standing Harrison's suggestion that the com- 
pensation should be effected by the balance, the honour of 
constructing the first compensation balance is acknowledged to 
belong to Julien le Roy, the famous French watchmaker. 

Harrison, having satisfied himself of the satisfactory per- 
formance of his timepiece by trials on board a barge, proceeded 
in one of the Government vessels to Lisbon. On this voyage he 
was able to correct the reckoning to within one degree and thirty 
minutes, and the Board of Longitude granted him £500 to 
enable him to improve his timekeeper. 

After laborious exertions he was enabled to ascertain the 
longitude to within ten miles, or twenty miles less than the 
distance required by the Board of Longitude — but he did not 
obtain the full amount of the prize, set upon his accomplishment, 
till the year 1757, nine years before his death. Harrison was a 
man of extraordinary genius and perseverance, as he had a great 
many disappointments to encounter, and the present perfection of 
the ship's chronometer is greatly due to his exertions. 

From this time forward to the present day unremitting 
exertions have been made to perfect the chronometer ; both the 
English and French Governments have encouraged, by rewards, 
the improvement of the instrument. For a number of years the 
English Government has paid premiums of three, two and one 
hundred pounds yearly for the three best chronometers sent to 
Greenwich for competitive trial, knowing that there remained 
serious defects to be eliminated. But, as it was finally' de- 
monstrated that these premiums bore no fruit, they were 
withdrawn, and a Government purchase is the only stimulus given 
to individual effort beside the privilege, that the fortunate vendor 
may assume the title of " Maker to the Admiralty." 

The defects still existing in our timepieces of precision 
appertain mainly to the adjustment for temperature and to such 
errors as are produced by the tendency of the metals, used in 
construction of certain parts, to influences which cannot be 
controlled. Harrison found that the adjustments for changes of 
temperature ought not to be made by a device acting on that part 
of the machine which was the principal cause of the error, namely, 
the balance spring,, as such adjustments totally destroyed its 
isochronous properties, which were already unavoidably impaired 
by the balance spring losing its elasticity in changes of 
temperature. This adjustment had to be made on the balance 
by causing its lamina?, free at one end, to move to and from the 
centre. By this means, the momentum of the balance was 
changed in a direction to counteract the evil effects of the change 
of temperature on the length and elasticity of the spring balance 
pin. But all the corrections attained have failed to accomplish 
what was needed. 

Astronomers, scientists and men of the greatest mechanical 
genius have grappled with the problem and report no progress, 
except the conclusion reached, that the employment of steel and 
brass in the manufacture of the spring is not desirable, moreover, 
failing as it does to meet the causes of disturbances, which cannot 
be controlled. 

One of the most prominent of these uncontrollable causes of 
disturbances is magnetism. Until within a few years the only 
errors sought to be eliminated were those principally due to the 
changes of temperature. But a new problem has now presented 
itself, and that is, to meet the evil effects of magnetism. 

The earliest scientific records notice the operations of a subtle 
natural agency, peculiar in many repects to bodies containing iron 
and acting more especially on iron and steel. By this agency 
ferruginous particles are drawn together and frequently in 
opposition to the force of gravity. 

Notices of such phenomena are found in very ancient manu- 
scripts, especially in those of China, and also in the writings of 
the Greek and Roman philosophers. 

The existence of this subtle agency was first observed as a 
property of a mineral substance of a greyish black colour. The 



44 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [September 1, 1887. 



Greeks obtained it from the province of Magnesia, and termed it 
" magnes," from whence the term magnet and magnetism, the 
one designating the mineral substance itself, the other the peculiar 
agency supposed to reside in it. 

In a celebrated philosophical poem by the Roman poet 
Lucretius, who flourished about 60 B.C., we find the magnet, with 
illustrations of its power, very beautifully treated. 

In the translation of this poem by Dr. Busby, he thus renders 

the passage : — 

" Now. chief of all. the magnet's power I sing. 
And from what laws the attractive functions spring : 
The magnet's name the observing Grecians drew 
From the magnetic region where it grew ; 
Its viewless potent virtues men surprise, 
Its strange effects they view with wondering eyes. 
When, without aid of hinges, links or springs. 
A pendant chain we hold of steely rings 
Dropt from stone — the stone the binding source — 
Ring clings to ring, and owns magnetic force : 
Those held superior, those below maintain, 
Circle ,'neath circle downward draws in vain, 
Whilst free in air disports the oscillating chain." 

The earth is a great magnet, and currents of electricity are 
induced in all conductive material in which motion takes place at 
its surface. Consequently every piece of metal capable of 
polarity must be " magnetised," or in a magnetic state. 

There are secular, periodical and irregular changes, to which 
the earth's magnetic force is subjected. Secular changes are such 
as are slowly progressive, and which run through a certain course 
in a very long period of time, returning finally to their original 
value. Periodical changes are certain regular changes or 
variations, happening in short periods of time, such as a day, a 
month, or even a year. Irregular changes are such as cannot be 
traced through any uniform course, and which are apparently not 
subject to any given law. 

Magnetic storms come under the head of this latter class of 
perturbations, and it is to the illustrious Humboldt that we owe 
all our first knowledge of these facts. Being engaged at Berlin, 
in 1806 and 1807, in examining the changes in the declination 
of the compass needle for every half-hour, his attention was called 
to certain capricious agitations in its position, not referable to 
any accidental or mechanical cause, and which occasionally caused 
so great an oscillation as to lead him to refer it to a sort of 
magnetic reaction propagated from the interior of the earth. He 
accordingly designated those disturbances as " magnetic storms," 
as being analagous to the sudden changes of electric tension, 
which ensue in the electric storms of the atmosphere. 

Magnetism meets us at every step, because steel and iron have 
entered largely into the process of construction and manufacture. 
Ships built of iron must not only be strongly magnetic, because 
of the vast quantities of this metal, which is subject to the action 
of terrestrial induction, but that by reason of the hammering of 
hundreds of thousands of rivets as well as from the bending of 
plates and bars during the process of construction, there must be 
an extremely high development of permanent magnetism. Each 
iron ship must have a special individuality of the magnetic 
distribution, depending essentially on the position of the keel and 
head whilst building, such a distribution having in each individual 
case a polar axis and equatorial plane conformable to those of the 
earth at the place where the ship is built. An iron ship may be 
looked upon as in itself a large permanent magnet. 

Changes of condition of polarity are continually going on in 
all moving metals — the iron in a ship as well. Every time the 
ship pitches or rolls the polarity changes and has an influence 
on the compass needle and on the chronometer. Every time the 
direction of the ship is changed its magnetic condition is changed, 
and will have a consequent influence on the metal. 

Magnetism is a condition, and it is the natural condition of 
the molecular atoms composing iron and steel. This condition 
may be made more or less "intense" by causes; the balance 
wheel of the chronometer is "polarised " and is a good compass 
needle in itself, as you will see by floating it on water, and is as 
sensitive to polar conditions and surroundings as the compass 
needle, although it does not show it to the eye, because the 
mainspring is driving it through these lines of polarity so rapidly ; 
but it will show the result in its "rating." These variations in 



rating will show in every degree, from the fraction of a second an 
to the point of stopping, according to the strength of the 
magnetic force applied. The force of the influence exerted on 
a chronometer is exactly the same as on a compass needle. The 
same polarity which causes the needle to lurch one way or the 
other will have a corresponding effect on the chronometer 
balance, and a consequent change in " rate," or irregular time. 

The practical application of electricity has made giant strides, 
and electricity applied mechanically means magnetism in some 
form. The appliances for generating electric light and motive 
power are pregnant with magnetism, contaminating the whole 
atmosphere surrounding dynamos, motors and wires. 

The chances of injury to chronometers and to watches especially 
by magnetism, have been greatly multiplied by the development 
of the dynamo and its extensive application to electric lighting 
and other purposes ; so it is very common to find magnetised 
watches in the hands of persons having no connection whatever 
with electrical appliances. A watch readily becomes sufficiently 
magnetised to derange its action and render it entirely unreliable. 
If the regulating part of a chronometer or watch — that is to say, 
a balance, together with the hair spring — should be badly 
affected by magnetism, which happens very often, it is clear that 
the timejiiece will suffer more or less, according to the fineness of 
construction and delicacy of adjustment. 

All these changes herein referred to have their influence upon 
magnetic metals, and, as I have before stated, those metals 
entering largely into the construction of the balances and balance 
springs of chronometers and watches, can we wonder why our 
timepieces are found inaccurate and unreliable ? 

The greatest case of error, as maybe inferred by the foregoing, 
is our present compensation balance and our steel balance spring. 

Little did John Harrison imagine, when trying to provide a 
corrective for the expansion and contraction of the balance and 
balance spring in changes of temperature, that, as shown by 
Berthoud, the changes in the elasticity of the balance spring were 
the real evil, and the expansion of the metal was really an 
insignificant factor compared to the former, as the combined 
expansion or contraction of the balance and balance spring is 
about one-fifth in effect, demanding compensation, while the 
changes in the elasticity of the balance spring demand the other 
four-fifths of the compensation needed. 

The invention of the compensation balance is rather the result 
of inventive genius and practical experiment than a contrivance 
based on well defined mathematical and scientific principles. But 
without entering further into this part of the subject, it can be 
stated as a fact that, having a steel compensation balance and 
hardened steel balance spring, and our present annular com- 
pensation balance, the laminae of which are made of steel and 
brass, we can obtain compensation for changes of temperature 
approximating accuracy for a change of 30° Fahrenheit only, 
unless the auxiliary compensation device is used, when we can 
obtain compensation for a wider range of temperature. 

Makers of compensation balances are very particular about the 
quality of brass they employ for melting on the steel rim of their 
balances. Unsound balances frequently result from the quality 
of the brass ; but it is not an uncommon occurrence that even in 
the best balances the laminae separates when exposed for a long 
time to a very low temperature. Chronometers used in whaling 
ships stationed for a year or more at Behring Straits often meet 
with such a mishap. A sliding of the brass on the steel may be 
the cause. The unequal progression of the ratio of the two metals 
is a source of error, for steel has a decreasing ratio of expansion 
in heat, and brass has an increasing ratio. 

Some English chronometer makers have demonstrated by 
experiment, without any practical result, however, that the 
necessity for compensation for temperature can be reduced to 
nearly one-tenth by employing glass balance springs ; but these 
springs have to be made of great length and require much room, 
aside from the difficulty of making and applying them ; they 
certainly never could be employed in watches. 

In a competitive trial of a number of chronometers at the 
Bureau of Navigation at the Navy Department, Washington, 
during the first six months of the year 1886 three chronometers 



September 1, 1887.] THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



45 



were withdrawn from the trial on account of rust having developed 
on the balance springs. Now, if rust is liable to show itself so 
early as that, may I ask how many chronometers at sea are likely 
to be afflicted with this malady, particularly in the tropics ? 
May I ask how many ships have been out of their reckoning on 
account of rusty balance springs ? — for nothing destroys 1 the time- 
keeping of a chronometer or a watch so effectually as the most 
diminutive speck of rust on the balance spring. The deep-seated 
conviction of this fact has induced watch manufacturers doing 
business with tropical countries to fit the better grade of watches 
with gold balance springs, but the life of the elastic properties of 
these springs was found to be short ; and in observatory trials 
chronometers fitted with gold springs stood low on the list, and 
did not compare favourably with those having steel springs. 

By the foregoing remarks and by some subsequent references 
emphasising the high and growing importance of possessing 
portable machines for accurate timekeeping, and the difficulty of 
attaining them, I desire to acquaint the members of the Club with 
what Mr. Paillard, a celebrated adjuster of Geneva, Switzerland, 
has really accomplished, and to show how far Mr. Paillard's 
efforts have contributed in eliminating or reducing the errors 
enumerated ; for if he has succeeded, and bulletins from the 
Government Observatory at Geneva would indicate that he had, 
then to him belongs the credit of having made a most decided 
improvement in our portable timepieces and rendering a great 
service to modern horology. 

Various metals have been suggested to take the place of steel, 
but it seems to have been left to Mr. Paillard, after fourteen 
years of experiment, to finally succeed in producing, in an alloy 
of palladium, a metal which is uninfluenced by magnetism or 
corrosion, and still retains those properties necessary to obtain 
the finest adjustment for changes of temperature. 

Balances and balance springs made of this alloy are of an 
expansive property, and a specific gravity slightly in excess of 
steel, but possessed of the very important qualification that they 
retain their elasticity in heat in a high degree, as verified in 
observatory trials in various countries, thus reducing one of the 
worst errors inherent to a steel balance and spring, aside from 
its magnetic and oxidable properties ; giving us a material which 
enables us to get a compensation approximating accuracy for a 
wider range of temperature. 

Palladium is a metal of the platinum group, and was discovered 
by Woldston in 1803. Its specific gravity is 11-3, that of gold 
being 19, steel 7*7 and palladium alloy 8 - 5. It is more fusible 
than platinum and melts easily before the oxyhydrogen blowpipe 
at 2,840° Fahrenheit. In its pure state it is not so ductile as 
platinum. 

In producing his balance Mr. Paillard used two different alloys 
of palladium having a differential expansive ratio in similarity to 
that of steel. In so doing he at the same time gave us a superior 
balance ; for the two metals composing the laminaj of his balance 
are congenial, both being made of a palladium alloy and being 
fusible under different degrees of heat, having the necessary 
hardness and other qualifications. Numerous searching tests 
with balances in connection with the palladium alloy springs have 
given the most flattering results, and we have had in chronometers 
and watches containing these balances and springs superior time- 
keepers uninfluenced by the hygrometric condition of the at- 
mosphere or any spasmodical electrical condition of the same, 
and excelling all j'revious attainments with the steel and brass 
balance and steel balance spring. 

This question of magnetism and the' necessity for protection 
of chronometers and watches against magnetic influences has 
called forth inventions of machines and devices for demagnetising 
timepieces that had become affected ; also a sort of soft iron 
shield or armour for enveloping the watch movement, as a defence 
preventive against magnetic influences. These are mostly cures 
after harm has been done. There would be no need of these 
devices if those parts of the chronometers and watches which 
control the timekeeping qualities were made of metal absolutely 
unaffected by magnetism, and yet possessing the other necessary 
qualifications. 

In the face of the certain fact, that electrical appliances shall 



become wider and wider in their range, and the aggressive 
tendency of electricity for lighting and as a promotive power, 
both at sea and on shore, we must be prepared to meet its 
magnetic influence at every step in our industrial occupations. 
In the discovery of this alloy of palladium, a timepiece has been 
produced that is non-magnetic and non-oxidable, and possessing 
those requisite and necessary qualities for fine and accurate 
adjustments to temperature and isochronism and will take rank 
among inventions of the highest order in horological science. 
Discussion. 

Mr. C. J. H. Woodbury, of Boston : Although the paper 
naturally refers to the greater interest of life and property in 
navigation, as far as magnetism in the balance of a ship's 
chronometer is a factor in the question, yet it is doubtful whether 
there is a single watch in the room whose steel portions are not 
magnetised, attended with all the interferences with the rate which 
magnetisation causes, unless the balance and hair spring is free 
from steel. The first palladium hair spring which I ever saw 
was shown to me by Mr. Charles F. Brush, at Cleveland, in 
January, 1882. Of course it was absolutely unaffected by 
the magnetic fields of the electrical apparatus, but possessed 
physical properties equivalent to those of steel, as it was an 
excellent timepiece. 

One of the morning papers to-day contained a telegram from 
Chicago stating that the North- Western Railroad were to inaugu- 
rate a quarterly inspection of watches carried by their men, and 
one of the requirements was that the watches should be provided 
with an anti-magnetic shield. Now, if this be correct it shows 
that the matter is receiving deserved attention, although the 
attempt at annulling the effects of magnetism, by either placing 
a magnetic force larger than the irregular and disturbing magnetic 
forces, or by applying magnetic forces in opposite directions, 
must in the nature of things be approximate methods, and 
inferior to those which carry the portions of watches beyond 
the pale of magnetic influence by the use of non-magnetic 
material. 

The method of adjusting the compasses of iron ships by placing 
masses of iron, such as cannon balls, near to the compass, in such 
positions as may be determined by experiment to act with equal 
force and in opposite direction to the vessel's component of 
magnetism, is a similar process. 

This invention of Sir William Thompson has been of great 
value to the interests of commerce by rendering the use of the 
compass practicable in iron vessels. But this method of adjust- 
ment is confessedly approximate, remaining correct after once 
applied, only so long as the local attraction which the masses of 
iron counterbalance remain constant. 

The steamship " Pavonia," while making the port of Boston last 
March, had sailed for 500 miles by dead reckoning on account of 
foul weather, and approached the shore near to Duxbury, while 
the captain is reported to have said that the vessel must be 
somewhat north of Boston. The cause of this error of some 
30 miles was due to the change in the component of the ship's 
magnetism, which may have been produced by the buffeting of 
the waves, an unusual distribution of the cargo, or by some other 
cause, making changes in the stresses applied to the vessel. 

One of the earliest experiments in magnetism set forth in 
text-books on physics, shows how a bar of steel can be mag- 
netised by striking it a few sharp blows ; while we have a more 
homely illustration in the fact that steel drills are universally 
magnetic after being used. 

I have with me a realistic example of the effect of electricity 
upon watches, showing you this watch which I wore when struck 
by lightning in the Pacific Mills, at Lawrence, six years ago 
this week. I had been thoroughly drenched by the shower 
before reaching the shelter of the mill office, and experienced no 
personal effects from the shock, which destroyed my watch, 
beyond a paralysis of the throat, which passed away after a 
few minutes. 

[The watch was passed around the table for examination and 
showed on the back two straight black stripes, each about half- 
an-inch in width, extending across the back, and joining each 
other at one end, like a letter V. Three of the arbors in the 



46 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [September 1, 1887. 



movement were broken by the lightning ; but there was no 
discolouration inside.] 

Mr. W. C. Kerr said he had gained some very interesting 
information by being present. A few years ago he had a watch 
sent him from Switzerland. It was not affected by electricity, 
had been worn among dynamos and electric generators generally, 
and it always kept perfect time, and the conclusion he had come 
to was that there was not this general danger in electricity to 
timepieces that was imagined. This evening he had discovered 
that the reason his watch had not been affected was because it 
was one containing the non-magnetic parts mentioned in the 
paper of the evening — was, in fact, one of the early watches in 
which Mr. Paillard's invention had been used. This was a 
surprise to him, and he was pleased to now be informed why his 
watch had always been such a satisfactory timepiece when others 
so often failed. 

Lieut. Toppin stated, in response to Mr. Woodbury's remarks 
about the " Pavonia," that between Patchogue and extending up 
the Atlantic coast towards Rockaway there was an outlying ledge 
of rocks consisting almost entirely of magnetite. There was a 
deposit of black sand on the beach from this ledge when there 
was a south-easterly storm, which, on being tested, proved to be 
95 per cent, pure magnetite. Can we wonder that ships go 
ashore off this coast on account of such magnetic influences on 
their compasses ? 

In reply to the statement of Mr. Woodbury that he had 
noticed in the daily press that an order had been issued by the 
management of a Western railroad to require improved time- 
pieces to be carried by all its trainmen, Mr. A. Conkling stated 
that such a proposition was under consideration by the road, but 
had not been adopted. 



Che ilimes are iDut of joint. 



the above heading a correspondent of the New 
York Jewelers' 1 Weekly writes : — Every day in the year 
this question — " What time is it?" — is asked a thousand 
times, either of those who. carry watches or of the public clocks. 
The latter, however, so far as New York is concerned, are by no 
means reliable. This fact was first brought to the writer's 
attention by a gentleman from a suburban town, while on a visit 
to New York. He was a man of punctilious habits, and was for 
ever adjusting the hands of his watch in order to bring them to 
an exactness in time that might be counted by seconds. 

He had set his watch in the morning by the clock in front of 
the Fifth Avenue Hotel, where he was stopping, and during his 
peregrinations about town had found occasion to change it back 
and forth at least a dozen times. He became bewildered. Finally 
he came to the logical conclusion that either his watch was 
worthless or the public clocks wrong. Investigation proved that 
the latter surmise was the correct one. 

A number of local reporters recently made a tour of the town, 
having set their watches by the Western Union time-ball on a 
day when it dropped precisely at noon, and, taking that as a 
standard, they compared it with the principal public clocks of the 
city, with the following result: — 

Gilsey House clock ... 12.05.00 

Fifth Avenue Hotel clock 12.02.00 

Tiffany's clock 12.00.00 

Con. Ch., Twentv-ninth 

Street and Fifth Avenue 12.00.30 
Brick Church. Murray 

Hill ' 12.00.00 

Grand Central Station ... 12.01.00 
Barrett House clock ... 11.59.00 
St. George's Church ... 12.01.00 



Western Union time-ball... 12.00.00 

Trinity Church clock ... 11.58.30 

Benedict's time 11.59.30 

St. Paul's clock 12.00.30 

Tribune clock 12.01.00 

Thurber's clock 12.01.00 

St. John's clock 12.00.00 

Jefferson Market clock ... 11.59.30 

Union Dime clock 11.59.30 

Parker House clock ... 12.01.00 

The greatest difference, in time lies between Trinity Church 
clock and the clock on the cupola of the Gilsey House. This 
difference amounts to 6 minutes 30 seconds. Of all those 
examined, only three clocks in the city coincided with the Western 
Union time — namely, St. John's, Tiffany's and the Fifth 
Avenue Brick Church. 



tempering Steel with Electricity. 

\T the shop of the Sedgwick Mainspring Co., 19 and 21, 
South Canal Street, Chicago, can be seen a very in- 
teresting application of electricity to the arts. It consists 
of tempering watch springs by means of the electric current. In 
one part of the room stands what is known to the trade as a one- 
light dynamo. The conductors from the dynamo lead to another 
part of the room, to a bench on which stands an ordinary oil 
tempering bath. One of the conductors connects with a point 
within the oil bath, and the other to a point without. The piece 
of flat soft steel wire that i? to be tempered to the blue colour is 
fed under the contact point on the outside of the bath first, and 
then under the one on the inside. When it reaches the latter 
the circuit is complete, and the wire immediately and uniformly 
becomes heated. No means have been taken to measure the 
current exactly for the purpose of doing the whole work mechani- 
cally. The variation in the percentage of carbon in different 
pieces of steel forbids the delicate process of tempering from 
becoming a purely mechanical piece of work. Therefore, with the 
electric current as with a fire, the colour of the steel determines 
the length of time that it shall be heated. 

Several advantages are claimed for this process of tempering. 
The chief one is that the steel does not have time to oxidise 
after it has been heated to the proper colour before it is under 
cover of the oil, and consequently that the steel wire is of the 
same thickness when it is tempered as it was before it entered the 
process. The heating is uniform throughout the length of the 
spring, and there is less liability of defective spots. The process 
is a rapid one, the springs being heated and passing into the 
bath at the rate of four inches a second. 

The large watchmaking concerns look with great favour on 
the new process, and the Sedgwick Mainspring Co. are just 
about to double their capacity for the purpose of keeping up witli 
their orders. 



lilorhshop ITlemoranba. 

To Temper small Drills. — Mr. Charles Riess,in the American 
Jeweler, says : — The tempering of small drills for drilling holes in 
arbors, staffs, &c, which we find are very hard and difficult to be 
perforated, may be effected in the following manner. After 
having filed the drill to its proper size (being careful not to 
flatten the cutting face), you then warm it moderately, avoiding 
its becoming red, and run it into borax. The drill is thereby 
coated over with a crust of borax and secluded from the air. 
Now it may be hardened by heating it only cherry red ; after this 
it is inserted into a piece of borax, or what is better still plunged 
into mercury ; care should be taken not to breathe the mercury 
fumes in the latter case. By the heat of the drill the borax 
accommodates itself to it as it melts and cools off. Experiments 
made in various ways, by cooling in water, petroleum, &c, after 
the drill had received its coat of borax, were not followed by as 
favourable results as if the drill had been plunged into borax or 
mercury ; without being brittle it will become exceedingly hard, 
and the watchmaker will be enabled to drill articles which could 
not otherwise be perforated with a drill tempered in the ordinary 
way. The use made by many watchmakers of broken broaches 
for making these small drills, with the belief that the broaches are 
made of the best steel is not always the case, because the steel used 
for them is frequently burned, which, of course, renders it 
thereby unfit for such small tools. Now, in order to make 
the quality of your drill a certainty, always take a new piece of 
round steel for that purpose. 

To restore the lustre of dead silver-work, gild clock-cases, &c, 
dissolve one ounce of cyanide of potash in one quart of pure 
water, empty it into a bottle, and label it "poison." When to 
be used, place the article in an earthen vessel, cover it over with 
the solution, and in five minutes the lustreless appearance will 
be removed ; preserve the fluid for future use. 



September 1, 1887.] THE WATCHMAKEE, JEWELLEK AND SILVERSMITH. 



47 



Fine silver jewellery or filigree work can be cleaned and 
re-wliitened in the following manner : — Take one ounce of borax 
and dissolve in eight ounces of water, put the articles to be 
cleaned into a porcelain dish with the solution, placing it over a 
lamp for about ten minutes and letting it boil. A clean pickle 
composed of one part of sulphuric acid to twenty parts of water, 
should be kept in a clean copper or porcelain dish, and when 
ready for use should be hot. Take the articles from the boiling 
borax and place them on a piece of charcoal, and with the spirit 
lamp and blow-pipe bring them to a dull red heat. Having 
satisfied yourself that the articles have been thoroughly and 
equally heated, let them drop into the hot pickle, being careful, 
as soon as the article whitens, to remove it from the pickle into 
hot water, immediately washing it with a soft, clean brush, using 
aqua ammonia and soap, and drying in boxwood sawdust. The 
parts required to be bright should be touched up with a burnisher. 
Great care must be taken that everything you use is clean and in 
good order. 



lorresponbence. 



All Letters for Publication to be addressed to the. Editor of The 
Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith, 7, St. Paul's Church- 
yard, E.C. 

All communications must bear the name and address of the sender, not 
necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 



To the Editor of The Watchmaker, 
Silversmith. 



Jeweller and 



[TRADE MARK LEGISLATION.] 

Sir, — The Merchandise Marks Law Consolidation and 
Amendment Bill having now passed its final stage, the Board of 
Trade are entitled to the thanks of the mercantile community, 
and Lord Stanley of Preston and Baron de Worms, personally, 
to the fullest recognition of the perseverance and tact with which 
the measure has been piloted through both Houses of Parliament. 

Exactly 25 years have elapsed since the passing of the 
Merchandise Marks Act of 1862, which, as a Bill, together with 
the Trade Marks Bill introduced in the same session, had been 
referred to a Select Committee, over which the late Mr. Roebuck 
presided. I remember how generally it was then felt that so 
great a change in the commercial dealings of the country as 
would be enforced under the new law should not, without ample 
notice to those concerned, be brought to bear adversely against 
the trading community. 

Representatives from Provincial Chambers of Commerce and 
of those Committees on which I had previously been acting, with 
the object of securing increased legal protection for Trade Marks 
generally, and the establishment of a Government system for 
their registration, met in London. In the result, the Government 
Bill, to which the Royal assent was given on August 7, 1862, 
so far as concerned its most stringent clauses against dealers and 
factors, and in some respects manufacturers also, was so framed 
as not to come into operation until January 1, 1864. An 
interval of one year and five months was thus placed at the 
disposal of all concerned to prepare themselves for the great 
change about to be inaugurated. 

The late Mr. Samuel Morley, on his own premises in 
Wood Street, pointing to the shelves by which we were there 
surrounded, told me at the time that he feared it would be im- 
possible for any warehouseman or dealer, howsoever honestly he 
conducted his business, to avoid occasional, if not frequent, 
liability under the penal sections of the Act. That which applied 
to Manchester heavy goods and small wares, such as those to 
which Mr. Morley was referring, in no less degree affected the 
food and drink and tobacco industries, together with most others 
included within the 50 classes into which, for the purposes of 
the Registration Act of 1875, goods have since been divided. 

The earliest proceedings taken of which I have any record were 
by Messrs. Broadwood and Messrs. Guinness, and were in both 
instances successful ; but the value of the Act has always been 
rather of a deterrent than of an active character ; and this in all 



probability for the reasons that transpired during the recent 
debate in the House of Lords on the second reading of the 
new Bill. 

What was equitable in 1862 is no less so in 1887, even were 
the further legislation less severe in its bearing on traders. But, 
on the contrary, it is more severe, as has been throughout the 
avowed intention of the Government, and approved by Parliament. 

It is thus that I am emboldened to ask the aid of the public 
Press, in order that by the giving of publicity to this letter the 
Government may be induced to devise, by the aid of the law 
officers, some means of suspending the coming into operation of 
the new law until, say, January 1, 1888. 

The intervening period would then in no way prove more than 
sufficient for exhausting the stocks in the hands of retailers or in 
warehouses ; and at least partially to consume what manufac- 
turers, in some instances at very considerable cost, have still 
under their own control. In pressing for the delay asked, I am 
giving expression to the wishes of those who desire to conform, 
but are at the same time naturally anxious to minimise the 
financial loss involved ; and, above all, to save their factors and 
retail agents from the annoyance and attendant risk of proceed- 
ings taken under the Act. 

Henceforth, when their labels, &c, have been remodelled so as 
to comply with the requirements of the Act, manufacturers will 
secure the full protection obtainable under registration. Illusory, 
in many instances, heretofore, have been the rights believed to be 
gained in respect of certain marks (mostly as labels) placed on 
the Register. As has been recently held by the Courts, no 
exclusive property can be maintained in that which embodies 
statements which are untrue in fact. There is no protection in 
equity against, nor possibility of obtaining damages in respect of, 
imitations of trade labels of this character, so that the misrepre- 
sentation made by any one trader could be repeated ad libitum by 
any number of other traders, and the public deceived, or not, as 
the case might be, by all or none. 

Manufacturers who for the moment may be under the impres- 
sion that their interests are likely to suffer by the enforced 
system of truthfulness that must prevail in the statements in 
future attached to their goods will in the end discover that the 
contrary is the result. 

The public here when buying British manufactures, honestly 
draped in native garb and described in plain English words, on 
finding the goods purchased — whether tobacco, clothing, articles 
of food or drink, or aught else — identical with what has been 
hitherto put forward under foreign plumage with fictitious names 
and addresses, will experience no regret that the petty deceptions 
too long sanctioned by trade usage are now brought to an end. 

Similar will be the result in our Colonies ; whilst in foreign 
countries the fair repute for commercial honesty long claimed 
by the United Kingdom will be re-established, and the best of 
examples set to all the other trading nations of the world. 
I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

Edmund Johnson, 
Hon. Secretary of the London Trade Marks 
Committee, and Manager of the Trade 
Marks Protection Society. 

1, Castle Street, Holborn, London, August 13. 



Answers to Horrespon&ents. 



Ignoramus (Leeds). — The only useful mode of giving the 
technical instruction you suggest would be in combination with a 
practical course such as is given at some of the institutions you 
mention. If the latter cannot be obtained, the next best thing 
for a beginner to do is to read up the numerous standard works 
applicable to his craft, and to experimentally put in practice the 
theories therein dealt with. Want of necessary space only allows 
us to deal summarily with the many subjects of interest to our 
various readers, and the course you propose is beyond our scope. 
We are afraid you are only one among a great, many who have 
afterwards had to find out for themselves what should have been 
taught them during the period of their apprenticeship. 



48 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [September 1, 1887. 



APPLICATIONS FOR LETTERS PATENT. 



The following List of Patents has been compiled especially for The Watchmaker, 
Jeweller and Silversmith, by Messrs. W. P. Thompson & Boult, Patent Agents, 
of 323, High Holborn, London, W.C.; Newcastle Chambers, Angel Eow, Notting- 
ham ; and 6, Lord Street, Liverpool. 

10.2(17. W. H. Sheldon and G. Mason, Birmingham,- for " Improvements in 
jewellery and articles connected therewith."' Dated July 22. 1887. 

10.289. W. Greenwood, York, for ■•The protection of watches." .Dated 
July 23, 1887. 

10,812. A. R. Wilson, London, for ••Improvements in the method of 
securing the bows of keyless and other watches to their pendants." 
Dated July 25, 1887. 

10,588. F. Fenton, a communication from J. Woolford, France, for 
'■Improvements in extracting gold from simple, re impound and 
refractory ores, or slags, wastes, cinders of ores or metals con- 
taining gold or gold blends.'' Dated July 30, 1887. 

10,59-1. J. Vautin. London, for "An improved method of extracting geld 
from the various auriferous ores." Dated July 30. 1SS7. 

10.742. H. Duboulet, London, for " Improved mechanism for winding up 
clocks, watches and the like." Dated August 4, 1887. 
J. G. Lorrain. London, for " Improvements in self-winding 
clocks/' Dated August 5, 1887. 

10.792. J. G. Lorrain. London, for "Improvements in self-winding 
clocks.'' Dated August 6, 1887. 

10.930. P. Brimelow, Bury, for " Improved automatic clock indicator for 
measuring any required length of fibrous materials, such as 
cotton, worsted, silk, <fcc." Dated August 10, 1887. 
J. Coombs, London, for " Improvements in ore separators or gold 
extracting machinery." Dated August 12. 1887. 

11.134. H. O. Stauft'er. London. for " Improvements in repeating watches." 
Dated August 15, 1887. 

11.191. H. Steinheuer, J. Steinheuer. H. Rabe and E. Rabe. London, for 
" Improved apparatus for winding up the driving mechanism of 
clocks." Dated August 16, 1887. 

11.27S. H. N. G. Cobbe. Birmingham, for ••Improvements in self-winding 
clocks." Dated August 18, 1887. 



10,785 



11,025. 



Becent American Patents. 



...307.159 



purposes. 



Alloy. C. A. Paillard ... 

Alloy, Metallic. C. A. Paillard 

Burglar Alarm. Wade & Burras 

Chuck. G. L. Jones 

Clock-winding Mechanism. A.Robinson 

Dead Centres, Device for overcoming. S. T. Shortess 

Dial Figuring Machine. A. T. Westiake 

Drilling Machine. J. Bailey 

Emery Wheels, Tool for Dressing. H. K. Forbis 

Engravers' Tool or Scraper. A. Bonniol 

Eyeglass Holder. M. Riggs 

Eyeglasses or Spectacles. I. Fox 

Metals, and utilising the same for Metallurgical 

producing Silicious. C. Hensler (»•) ... 

Music Box. A. Junod 

Ore Concentrator. H. F. Learnard 

Pendulums, Electric Controlling and Regulating Device for. 

W. S. Scales 

Ratchet Drill and Die Stock combined. A. Loehner 

Rolling Mill Appliance. C.H.Morgan 

Scarf or Necktie Holder. G.S.White 

Sheet Metal Bending Machine. P. Kinimel 

Sheet Metal, Ornamentation of. J. Wood 

Soldering Machine, Can. W. H. H. Stephenson 

Watch Case. C. K. Giles 

Watch Cases, Machine for Making. E. Keller ... 

Wind Vane Motor for Clocks. A. Hitt 

Window Clock. H. Pennington 

Window Reflector. K. Frekker 



to 367,161 

367.15s 
366,537 
366,485 
366,429 
366,433 
366.987 
366,366 
367.2S7 
366.297 
366,345 
366.471 

10,852 

366.325 
366.631 

366,513 
366,965 

3(16.236 
366.284 
366.4*6 
366.2m; 
366,271 
367,288 
366,778 
366.S34 
366,683 
366,624 



A printed copy of the specifications and drawing of any patent 
in the American list, also of any American patent issued since 
18GG, will be furnished from this office for 2s. Gel. In ordering, 
please state the number and date of the patent required, and 
remit to J. Truslove, Office of The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 
Silversmith, 7, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 



Gazette. 



Pabtneeships Dissolved. 
Quin & Romer, Newman Street, Oxford Street, jewel case makei 



Phelps 



Brothers, Birmingham, goldsmiths. William Washington and Samuel 
Washington, Morecambe, Lancashire, polishing paste manufacturers 
Bishton & Fletcher, Birmingham, jewellers. John Baker & Co. 
Sheffield, cutlery manufacturers. Button & Powers. Lower Broughton 
and Manchester, silversmiths. B. & L. Hammett, Barking Road 
Canning Town, and Cambridge Place. Plaistow. pawnbrokers. 

THE BANKRUPTCY ACT, 1883. 

Receiving Orders. 

To surrender in London.— Andreas Furtwangler. Strand, watchmaker 

.Bryce McMurdo Wright, Regent Street, mineralogist. 
To surrender in, the Country.— -Edwin Buswell, Brecon, jeweller. Ben- 
jamin Sargent, 12, King's Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex, jeweller 



Joseph Bromage and Frederick Bromage (trading as J. & F. Bromage), 
Birmingham, manufacturing jewellers. Isaac Eisner, Birmingham 
and Edgbaston. pawnbroker. John Green, Sheffield, pawnbroker. 
Clara Ann Rollaston (otherwise Twist). Birmingham, pawnbroker. 

Public Examinations. 
In the Country.— -W. H. Stokes (trading as John Stokes & Son), Bir- 
mingham, manufacturing jeweller; September 9. at 11. T. Marston 
(trading as T. Marston & Co.), Birmingham, jeweller : September 12, 

it 9 

Adjudications. 

In London.— A. Paillard (trading as A. Paillard & Co.), Holborn Viaduct 
and elsewhere, musical instrument importer. 

In tlio Country. — J. Jennings. The Pavement, Surbiton, watchmaker. E. 
Buswell. Brecon, jeweller. J. Fletcher. Birmingham, jeweller. W. 
Hayward, Christchurch. watchmaker. F. G. Baker, Shanklin, watch- 
maker. B. Sargent. St. Leonards, jeweller. 

Notices of Dividends. 

In London. — George Charles Haider. 65. Hattou Garden, diamond mer- 
chant : ljd., second and final : any Wednesday, Seear, fiasluck&Co., 
23. Holborn Viaduct. E. Scott and J. F. Beckett I trading as Scott i; 
Beckett), Myddelton Street, manufacturing jewellers : Is. 8d., second 
and final : any Wedpesday, Seear. Hasluck &Co.,23, Holborn Viaduct. 

Ln tin- Country. — B. Whitaker, Burnley, working jeweller: 8d.,firstand 
final : August 4, Official Receiver, Preston. J. A. Ensden, Gains- 
borough, jeweller; 7s„ first : on and after August 5. (.;. Gay, Lincoln. 
A. Carson, Manchester, watch importer ; 4s. 6d., first : November 27. 
5, Winckley Street, Preston. C. Taylor and \V. Taj Lor (trading as ('. 
vV- W. Taylor). Coventry, watch manufacturers : 3s.. second and final ; 
August 12, Official Receiver, Coventry. R. II. Cheetham, South- 
ampton, cutler ; Is. Hd., first and final : August 15, Official Receiver. 
Southampton. .J. G. Needham. Sheffield, watchmaker; 3s. 4d.. first 
and final : August 18, Official Receiver, Sheffield. J. Sheldon, Stock- 
port, jeweller; Is. 24d., first and final: any day, Official Receiver 
Macclesfield. " Amended NoT ice. 

H. G. Bloor. Sheffield, electro-plater ; Is. 5d., first and final: April 4. 
Official Receiver, Sheffield. 

Scotch Sequestration. 
■ I. Waddell, Glasgow, watchmaker. 



Buyers' Suibe. 



The Sheffield Smelting Company, Sheffield, Sell Gold and Silver 
(pure and alloyed). Buy all materials containing Gold and Silver. 

Jones, E. A., Wholesale Manufacturer of Whitby Jet Ornaments. A 
Large Assortment of the Newest Patterns always in Stock. Export 
Orders promptly executed. Persons not having an account open 
will avoid delay by forwarding a reference with their order. 
Customers' Matchings and Repairs with despatch. 93, Hattou Garden, 
London, E.C. 

For cheap, quick, reliable Watch and Jewellery Repairs, 
by the most Experienced Workmen, send to Alexander Edwards, 
Watch Material and Tool Dealer. 88 iV. 89. Craven Street, and 2. Holy- 
head Road. Coventry. Lists : all Horological Literature. 

W. Scott Hayward & Co., 59, Deansgate, and Barton Arcade, 
Manchester. Wholesale Jet Ornametit Manufacturers, Jet Cameo 
Cutters and Rough Jet Merchants. Approval parcels sent on receipt 
of order, if accompanied with trade references. Repairs and matchings 
executed on the day received. Works : Manchester and Whitby. 
Agents at Liverpool, Leipzig and Paris. 

WANTED. 

AVERY Experienced SPECIALIST MANUFACTURER 
seeks some GENUINE FACTORS for a NEW CHRONOGRAPH 
which defies all competition as to price, soundness and efficiency. The 
Chronograph acts as a simple chronograph, counter and fly-back. Offers 
to be addressed in writing to H. 730 Q, a Messrs. Haasenstein & 
Vogler, Bale, Switzerland. — [Advt.] 



"UAUNIER'S EOROLOGY," 

O Huddy, Fore Street. Liskeard — 



Second-hand copy. — W. H. 
[Advt.] 



TO BE SOLD. 

JEWELLERY BUSINESS for Sale, in one of the principal 
Seaside places on the South Coast and occupying a commanding 
position. The business has been carried on with success for the past 
twelve years, and is only now offered for sale in consequence of the ill- 
health of the proprietor. The Stock, &c, is valued at about £4,000. 
All particulars may be obtained from Messrs. B. H. Joseph & Co., 20, 
Frederick Street, Birmingham. — [Advt.] 

U/ATCH MANUFACTURING BUSINESS, for sale 
V V of Superior Goods only ; established 35 years, with good Jobbing 
Trade attached, extending over England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. 
Incoming can be reduced to Four or Five Hundred Pounds, chiefly or 
quite covered by goods, comprising movements, material, tools, &c. 
Owner no objection to remain two or three years to part work at 
finishing or assist in any way required. Age only reason for wishing to 
decline business. — Address Manufacturer, Office of this Journal. — ■ 
[Advt.] 



cViVe 



{XJatel^akcr, 




Hib/crsrrjitl^. 



Entered at Stationers' TTall.~\ 



Edited by D. GLASGOW, Jun. 



[Registered for Transmission Ahmad. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 4.] 



OCTOBER 1, 1887. 



r Subscription, 5s. ( Post 
|_ per Annum. | Free. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

Our correspondents are kindly requested to note that the 
Office of this Journal has been removed to more com- 
modious premises at No. 7, St. Paul's Churchyard. 



CONTENTS. 



Editorial ... 
General Notes 

Trade Notes ... ... ... 

Birmingham News. From Ouk Correspondent ... 
The Birmingham Jewellers and Silversmiths' Association 

American Items ... 

Electro Deposition of Iridium ... 

Electro Gilding Watches ... 

East Indian Jewellery ... 

The Effect of Centrifugal Force on the Balance 

The Merchandise Marks Act, 1887 

The Ruby Mines of Burmah ... 

Fashions in Jewellery 

Workshop Memoranda ... 

London Bankruptcy Court 

Bankruptcy Proceedings... ... 

Gazette 

Applications for Letters Patent... 

Eecent American Patents ... 

Correspondence ... ... 

Buyers' Guide ... 



PARK 
49 
50 
52 
52 
53 
56 

■ 56 
57 
57 
58 
58 
59 
60 
61 
61 
61 
62 
63 
63 
63 
64 



IChe "Watchmaker, jeweller an6 
Siluersmith. 



A Monthly Journal devoted to the interests of Watchmakers. 
Jewellers, Silversmiths and kindred traders. 

Subscription. — A copy of the Journal will be sent monthly for one 
year, post free, to any address in the United Kingdom or countries in the 
Postal Union for 5s. payable in advance. 

Advertisements. — The rates for advertising will be sent on appli- 
cation. The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith will be found 
an exceptional medium for advertising. Special Notices, Situations, &c, 
per insertion, is. for two lines, prepaid. 

Correspondence.— Correspondence is invited on all matters of interest 
to the trade. Correspondents will please give their full address in each 
communication, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of 
good faith. 

Address all business communications to 

THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & SILVERSMITH, 

7, St. Paul's Churchyard, London, E.C. 
Cheques and Postal Orders to be crossed and made payable to J. TRUSLOVE. 



Agent for the Australian Colonies : 

EVAN JONES, 
Hunter Street and Royal Arcade, Sydney, N.S.W. 



Editorial. 




OME time since, one of the comic papers (we think it 
was our old friend Mr. Punch) published the fol- 
lowing "Conundrum' for the considerate:" "Why 
is happiness like an Act of Parliament?" the answer given 
being, "Because you can never tell its value until it is passed." 
Well, what, in some of its clauses, is essentially a watchmakers' 
Act is passed, and whether or not the various branches of the 
horological trades were happy before, it is at least quite certain 
that many of them are not so now it has become un fait accompli. 

In previously commenting on the measure as it was at first 
proposed, we attempted to deal with its possible effects on the 
trade as a whole ; and, while avoiding as much as possible the 
invidiousness due to a more detailed consideration of the subject, 
pointed out at the same time the difficulties of satisfactorily 
formulating and administering enactments of the kind. 

The appositeness of our remarks is now sufficiently manifested 
by the state of uncertainty and apprehension prevailing among 
many branches of the trade which the Bill was never intended by 
the majority of its advocates to affect, and to whom it must, if 
vexatiously administered, do an incalculable amount of injury. 
There can be no doubt about the facts of the case, and English 
watchmakers should, in their own interests, study it in all its 
bearings. The Bill is the direct outcome of the on all sides 
admitted grievance of foreign-made goods being made in imita- 
tion of and sold as English ; and, so far as watches were con- 
cerned, this was rendered possible mainly in consequence of their 
bearing the English Hall-mark in the case, which, from usage, 
has become to all intents and purposes a trade mark. 

Having already fully discussed this part of the question, it is 
unnecessary to further enlarge upon it here, saving to remark 
that, had legislation been limited to the remedying of this point, 
a good deal of the present complication would have been avoided. 

However, those responsible for the Act did not apparently see 
their way to stopping at this stage, and so we have, according to 
Section 7, the Hall-mark " constituting, or considered as consti- 
tuting, a description of the country in which the watch is made," 

P 



50 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[October 1, 1887. 



prima facie. The Hall-mark is in future to be considered a trade 
description within the meaning of the Act, and, for the purposes 
of Section 7, the expression "watch" means all that portion of 
a watch which is not the watch case. 

What effect the Bill is to have on the future trade of the 
country is an_qpen question, upon which opinion is very much at 
variance ; those in favour of it saying it will greatly benefit the 
trade by stimulating various branches of English manufacture 
and re-introducing others that are lost ; while those opposed to 
it say it will react favourably on foreign-made goods, and 
eventually overcome prejudice, against the same by demonstrating 
their relative cheapness in comparison with home productions. 
But whatever the general consequences may be to manufacturers 
here, there can be no doubt but it will fulfil one of its best 
objects if it effectually prevent the sale of foreign-made imitation 
English watches. The wholesale trade that has been done in 
these goods is one of the chief causes for the summary manner 
in which the Bill has been introduced. On the other hand, how- 
ever, there is always a danger, in the inconsiderate application of 
such drastic measures, of doing injustice to persons perfectly 
innocent of any desire to trade under false pretences or act 
in any other than good faith. Such are the numerous manu- 
facturers of bona fide Swiss watches (bar-watches, having not 
the least resemblance to English work), who would indignantly 
repudiate the charge of unfair dealing; and of all those English 
manufacturers who have availed themselves of opportunity of 
using Swiss parts (bearing, however, a small proportion to the 
entire watch, from jewel screws to the repeating mechanism, 
which cannot be made in this country), to the mutual advantage 
of the public and their own reputation. 

To class such persons in the same category with the dealers 
before mentioned is obviously both unfair and illogical ; yet this 
is what the Bill literally interpreted does, and the fact that it 
does so shows the necessity existing for a test case. That com- 
paratively few repeaters and other complicated watches are sold in 
this country, is no reason for English watchmakers handing over 
a small but profitable branch of the trade to the Swiss. Besides, 
a clearer definition, or, as Dr. Johnson says, such an explanation 
as is equivalent to a definition, of the meaning of the Act is 
necessary on principle. As a matter of fact, hardly a manu- 
facturer could be found in England who would not be amenable 
to the law in some form if it were to be construed au pied de la 
lettre, in accordance with the notions of certain sections of the 
trade, who imagine such a construction would create monopolies 
in their favour. 

Mr. Edward Waterton, F.S.A., whose death was recently 
announced, distinguished himself as a collector, and was engaged 
at the time of his death in forming a collection of rare editions 
of Thomas a Kempis. It is, however, for his splendid collection 
of rings (especially episcopal) that he is best known. This, 
exhibited at the South Kensington Museum, will be familiar to 
most of our readers. Mr. Waterton, who was the son of the 
famous naturalist, Charles Waterton, descended collaterally 
from Sir Thomas More ; and among the many souvenirs he 
possessed of that distinguished man is the curious clock painted 



by Holbein in the well-known picture of Sir Thomas More and 
bis family. This clock still stands in the old ball of the 
Waterton mansion, and, we hear, keeps pretty good time. 

Speaking of the old hall reminds us of an odd incident. The 
Watertons have ever been- strict Roman Catholics ; and Charles 
Waterton especially observed the fasts of the Church with 
rigorous exactness. One alay a friend of his .called at the 
house. The would-be guest, a Member of Parliament for a 
southern county, found that it was a strict fast day, and that 
Waterton was not to be seen on any pretence. The visitor 
described the circumstance to~a friend in these words: — 
" There were cases of stuffed birds 

All round the old hall ; 
But my case was a case 

Of no stuffing at all." 



Seneral Notes. 

filfHE September number of Good Words contains the first 
l^g part of a paper entitled " The Experiences of a Meteo- 
rologist in South Australia." It is from the well-known 
pen of Mr. C. L. Wragge, F.R.G.S., and will be found well 
worth perusal. 

Mr. Henry Irving has promised to visit Stratford-on-Avon 
on the 17th inst., to inaugurate the Memorial Fountain and Clock 
Tower which was described in our August issue. The United 
States' Minister (Mr. Phelps) and Mr. Lowell will also be present. 

The Superintendent of the Indian Geological Survey has 
reported on the auriferous tracts in Mysore. He found many 
workings where the reefs were of promise. In a hurried tour he 
chanced upon no fewer than five sets of old workings unknown 
to previous surveyors. 

From the Burmah Ruby Mines comes the news that revenue, 
collected at 30 per cent, ad valorem, is coming in satisfactorily, 
and will likely greatly exceed Messrs. Streeter's bid ; so that 
already, asserts an Indian paper, the folly of giving leases without 
knowledge of the circumstances is apparent in this case. 

The sale of the French Crown Jewels, it is now officially 
reported, has produced the net sum of 7,207,252 fcs. and 50 
centimes. The historical heirlooms which were not sold represent 
a far larger amount. Such of them as have been transferred to 
the Louvre Museum are estimated at £510,000 sterling. 

We are informed by Mr. Sidney Webb that the Working 
Men's College, 46, Great Ormond Street, W.C., now provides 
technical instruction in all subjects for which a minimum 
audience of twelve be guaranteed by any responsible club, insti- 
tute or other organisation. Applications for information should 
be made to the Secretary. 

According to a contemporary, there is reason to believe that 
the Colonial Governments, in conformity with the views expressed 
at the recent Colonial Conference, will shortly propose legislation 
similar to that embodied in the Merchandise Marks Bill just 
passed. As will be seen by the recent speech of M. Rouvier, the 
French Government also contemplate action with the view of 
suppressing false trade marks. 

The Manchester Chamber of Commerce recently discussed 
and confirmed a claim of a special annexe for Lancashire at the 
forthcoming Melbourne Exhibition. Various speakers at the 
meeting pointed out the importance of maintaining and cul- 
tivating our trade with the Australian Colonies. Here is a good 
opportunity for our movement makers and others to show they 
are alive to the altered conditions of the watch trade likely to be 
produced by the Merchandise Marks Bill, 



October 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



51 



The proceeding's of the British Association at Manchester 
came to an end on September 7, when the President read a 
communication from the Economic Science and Statistics Section 
to the effect that the Council be requested to consider the 
advisableness of organising an International Scientific Institute, 
with power to correspond with other existing institutions on 
the Continent and in the United States. The proposal being- 
discussed was disapproved. 



Speaking at the meeting of the British Association on 
September 2, the Hon. John Forrest, C.M.G. (Commissioner of 
Crown Lands and Surveyor-General of Western Australia), said 
that during 1886 about 10,000 diggers proceeded to the gold 
fields at the head waters of the Fitzroy and Ord rivers, and 
that, although many returned disappointed, the permanency and 
richness of fields is now firmly established. By the last mail 
from the colony, he learnt that one man had recently obtained a 
hundredweight of gold, and that in one ship 3,000 ounces were 
exported from the district. 



On the occasion of the marriage of his daughter, Mr. B. H. 
Joseph (of Messrs. B. H. Joseph & Co.) entertained his 
employes, numbering over 60, for a day in the country. On 
the previous day they presented the bride with a very handsome 
oak despatch box of stationery, the lid of which bore a silver 
plate with the following inscription : — 

Presented to Miss Annie Joseph, on the occasion op 

her Marriage, by the Employes op 

Messrs. B. H. Joseph & Co., September 9, 1887. 



A new alloy has been discovered by Herr Reith, of Bocken- 
heim, which is said to practically resist the attack of most acids 
and alkaline solutions. Its composition is as follows : copper, 15 
parts; tin, 2-34 parts; lead, 1*82 part; antimony, 1 part. 
This alloy is therefore a bronze with an addition of lead and anti- 
mony. The inventor claims that it can be very advantageously 
used in the laboratory to replace vessels or fittings of ebonite, 
vulcanite or porcelain. 



A tool to be used for the heating of shellac, &c, as employed 
in the setting of jewels, pallet stones and similar work, has been 
patented by Mr. Frank Heller, of Oakland City, Ind. It is 
made by forming twists or coils in the discharge end of a blow- 
pipe, and surrounding these twists or coils by a ball or jacket of 
metal, the nozzle projecting outward through a proper opening. 
This bail or jacket of metal having been previously heated, the 
air forced through a tortuous course within such body of heated 
metal affords a hot blast, which may be delivered against the 
shellac without subjecting the surrounding parts to the action of 
the flame by which the heat is produced. 



The Parisian watchmaker, Schwob, has brought out a new 
chronographic watch (montre-observateur ) which is a marked 
improvement on the ordinary stop-watch. The face is furnished 
with a second small dial similar in size to the seconds' dial. By 
touching a knob, the hands of this dial, which is a complete copy 
of the large one, are at once replaced to twelve o'clock and then 
continue their progress from that point. This method is very 
practical, as it not only shows the time of commencing an 
observation, but infallibly determines its duration without the 
least trouble, all the observer having to do for this latter purpose 
being simply to read the time indicated by the small dial, and 
to subtract that time from the true hour of the large dial. 
This can all be done without exercising any memory or making 
any note. We think the invention invaluable for making- 
astronomical or other observations ; the eye need not be even 
turned to the watch in touching the knob, which can be done in 
perfect darkness. A sleeper in suddenly awakening from a 
nightmare, or hearing a strange noise at night, and wishing to 
fix the time of the occurrence, need only press the knob of his 
watch and turn his head quietly round on the pillow, knowing 
that in the morning he will have the exact hour and minute 
correctly registered. 



The Winterthur (Switzerland) correspondent of Industries 
says: — The establishment of a large association, embracing all 
the smaller societies in the clock and watch making trades, is 
one of the most important events in the industrial history of this 
country. For a long time past the Geneva watch trade has 
been in an unfavourable condition, and the great success which 
resulted from the Association of Machine Embroiderers seems to 
have given an impulse to the formation of a powerful society 
containing both masters and men engaged in the watchmaking 
industry. At the present moment the Association contains 9,000 
members, but it is expected that this number will shortly be in- 
creased to 12,000. The affairs of the Association are adminis- 
tered by a standing committee, to which men, foremen, managers 
and masters have to apply for information and advice. Trade 
disputes are to be settled amicably by a special committee con- 
sisting of a president and fourteen members, half of the latter 
being workmen and the other half masters ; the president, 
however, must not belong to either category, so that his judgment 
may not be biassed. Provision has been made in the rules for 
the affiliation of foreign societies and syndicates, in case such a 
step should appear desirable at a future time. 



Adelaide Exhibition Awards. — The awards of the jurors 
were completed on the 14th ult. Of the 237 British exhibitors, 
93 have secured recognition in the shape of medals and certificates. 
Messrs. Dent & Co., of London, and Ellis & Co., of Sheffield, 
receive gold medals for watches and cutlery respectively. 



The Paris Exhibition. — A semi-official communication 
relative to the Exhibition of 1889 is published, in which it is 
stated that it is proposed to fix April 1 as the very last date 
for demands for space. Pending the regular working of the 
committees, foreign exhibitors may apply direct to M. Georges 
Berger, in Paris. Intending exhibitors are invited to send in 
their applications as early as possible, " in order to enable the 
Superior Administration of the Exhibition to allot spaces to the 
advantage of all." 



The Diamond Market. — The Amsterdam and Antwerp folk 
are still grumbling at the price at which rough is maintained, 
but probably as the factories are all reported to be in full activity, 
not much attention need be paid to these complaints. After all 
it resolves itself into a question of supply and demand, and as 
there is plenty of stuff in the market, those who have it to dispose 
of must obviously get rid of it somewhere. The success of the 
great Russian fair of Nishni Novgorod brought many buyers 
into the market, but the competition among the sellers prevented 
good prices being obtained. Small goods are the only ones in 
demand, but prospects are thought to be improving generally. 

Paris reports state that the market for finished goods has 
revived a little, considerable parcels having been bought for 
foreign account, but the home trade is still in a dull state. 

The steamers " Warwick Castle," " Tartar," " Hawarden 
Castle," " Athenian " and " Norham Castle " arrived at Plymouth 
during the month, bringing large consignments of current stuff. 
Numerous Continental buyers have been attending the sales, and 
valuable parcels have changed hands. 

Latest from Kimberley, dated August 20, states that during 
the early part of the week there was a strong demand for all 
classes of fresh stuff, but after the receipt of cablegrams reporting 
on the shipment, the inquiry became less active; there is," however, 
no appreciable change in quotations. 

Cablegram from the Central Diamond Mine, Kimberley, reports 
results for the first fortnight of the past month : hauled, 30,000 
loads blue ; washed, 35,000 ditto ; diamonds found, value 
£51,000. 

Silver. — Slight fluctuations in nominal prices have characterised 
the market during the past month, very little business having 
been transacted. Towards the end of the month, however, some 
business in bars for the East has left the quotations very firm 
at 41id. per oz. for bars, smd 43§d. per oz. Mexican dollars.;, s 



52 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[October 1, 1887. 



Crabe Wotee. 



NOVELTY in watches has just been brought out by the 
Berne firm of Joannot Baltisberger. This consists of a 
keyless watch with a compass at the back, both watch 
and compass having luminous dials. It has been recommended 
by the French War Minister for use by the officers of the army. 



We commend to the notice of the jewellery trades a little 
pamphlet just published by Moody's Printing Co., 10, Dale End, 
Birmingham ; price 3d. It is entitled " The Advertiser's Guide 
to Publicity," and contains extracts from the utterings of public 
men, from Demosthenes to T. P. Barnum, which are well worth 
perusal. 

Mr. Thomas Jeffery, late Controller of the London Postal 
Service, has been presented by the clerical staff, on his retirement, 
with a magnificent hall clock, which chimes the Cambridge 
quarters on four gongs, and strikes the hours on a powerful tenor 
gong. The case is richly decorated in the Louis IX. style. Mr. 
J, W. Benson, of Ludgate Hill, is the maker. 



We have received from Messrs. J. Radges & Co., of Coventry 
and 5, Thavies Inn, Holborn, their newly published price list of 
sterling silver and 18-carat Hall-marked English lever watches. 
The catalogue, which is well got up, is fully descriptive and is 
furnished with upwards of 40 illustrations. Particular attention 
is paid to the requirements of the Colonial trade, and at the 
present juncture it should be in the hands of all watch exporters. 



Messrs. Askham Brothers & Wilson, Limited, are the 
makers of a new patent ore separator, in which a continuous 
current of air circulating through a descending stream of partially 
crushed material, separates the fine particles from the coarse, the 
latter being returned to the grinding machinery to be further 
reduced. The separator occupies but little space-, and is driven 
at a slow speed. It can be applied to most descriptions of 
crushing or grinding machinery. 



Complaints of the supineness of our art workers in the matter 
of originating designs are (although too often not altogether 
without foundation) more easily made than answered. It is 
therefore pleasant to be able to occasionally practically demon- 
strate the unfounded nature of sweeping charges of this kind. 
' On an advertisement page in our last issue will be found an 
illustration of a masonic emblem, which in a limited field shows 
high artistic merit. The jewel is made by Messrs. B. H. Joseph 
& Co., of Frederick Street, Birmingham, whose name is a 
sufficient guarantee as to the quality of the workmanship. 



Messrs. Haswell & Sons, of Spencer Street, E.C., have 
introduced a very useful adjunct to the "Boley" lathe. This is 
a nest of drawers (fixed underneath the box which contains the 
lathe and its parts) for containing the ordinary requisites of a 
watchmaker. As it has a separate cupboard arrangement which 
may be locked up, it can be used with or apart from the lathe 
itself. The one we inspected was made in walnut, and formed a 
very portable and handsome addition to the " B " size lathe to 
which it was fitted. It should prove an exceedingly valuable item 
iu the equipment of watchmakers going to the Colonies, &c. 



Goldsmiths and Jewellers' Annuity - and Asylum Insti- 
tution. — The annual dinner of the above institution is announced 
to take place on October 31, at the Holborn Restaurant, on which 
occasion the chair will be taken by the President, Major George 
Lambert; and the Committee make a special appeal to subscribers 
to support him, both by their presence and contributions, not 
only as a testimony to the general respect in which he is held, 
but also with 'a view to add another item to the memorable 
character of the year, by rendering more happy the prospects 
of those now applying to the institution for assistance. 



Birmingham News, 

From Our Correspondent. 



"W HEAR that some of the Jubilee work is getting returned 
M> as unsaleable, and the only outlet for most of it will be 
the melting pot ; but I suppose no one will be surprised 
at this. 

£fe 3|e 3R 

I have seen a few samples of Florentine mosaic work, which 
are very pretty and artistic, but as these do not find much work 
for the jeweller I expect they will not be pushed. 

* * # 

There is evidence of a fair amount of trading for the jewellers 
after this month has closed. Several firms have commenced full 
hours again and filled up some of the vacant places in the 
workshops ; and there is a possibility of a fair trade up till the 
end of the year, though I think that " overtime " will scarcely 
be needed. 

* * * 

The two extremes (low priced and expensive) seem to be the 
classes of goods going. There are some large orders about for 
silver jewellery of a showy common quality, set with " foiled back 
paste," and on the other hand some of the diamond mounters 
are fairly busy, but the medium class of coloured gold work is still 
very flat. 

* * * 

There are still numbers of workmen in the jewellery branches 
seeking situations. They are for the most part indifferent work- 
men, still I know of some few to whom this does not apply — men 
who are capable and willing, and such as would have commanded 
good wages a few years back. Gem setters are in the greatest 
demand, there being no good ones to be found out of employment. 

* * * 

The rising generation of jewellers and metalworkers have 
some opportunities for technical learning that their predecessors 
were quite unable to get, and it will be their own fault if 
they do not obtain a considerable amount of knowledge of the 
chemistry of the metals they work in. If they will look down 
the very extensive list of classes in metallurgy at the Birmingham 
Midland Institute, and select the one which applies to their 
particular branch, they will find that Mr. Hiorns and his staff of 
very able and obliging assistants will do their best to assist them 
in every respect. Of course they will require a considerable 
amount of industry on their own part, but they will have every 
facility given them, and at very low fees : the total list of classes 
for the winter session really strikes one as being magnificent. *If 
they will add to that the art education, to be obtained at the 
School of Art in Edmund Street, under the management of 
Mi - . Edward R. Taylor and staff, or at the numerous branch 
classes attached, they will receive such a training as will enable 
them to compete with the world and to uphold the reputation of 
their town. I have had the pleasure of attending both institutions 
as a student, and hold them in very high esteem. It is by such 
means only that we can hope to rise above mediocrity. 

* * * 

Watch jobbing is passing through a very trying ordeal at 
the present time here ; a few indifferent workmen having com- 
menced repairing at starvation prices (which cannot possibly 
last long), are doing considerable injury to that branch of the 
trade by creating a false impression among the public that 
a watch can be cleaned for one shilling. The public will find 
in time that this is quite impossible, and that they have been 
imposed upon by bogus workmen ; they will arrive at this con- 
clusion when their watches have been " cleaned and repaired " 
about six times where once should have sufficed, and that their 
watches have been considerably damaged into the bargain. In 
the meantime conscientious workmen are suffering, but they will 
reap their harvest later on. [Let us hope so. — Ed.] 



October 1, i887.] 



THE 'WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



53 



(The Birmingham ]eweUers an6 Siluersmiths' 
Association. 



MMHE Committee that were appointed in August last to 
l^l formulate the. rules and objects of the Association which 
was then decided upon, having completed their labours so 
far, a second meeting of the trade was called on the 12th ult., at 
the Middle Class Schoolroom, Frederick Street, Birmingham, 
to thoroughly discuss the rules as drafted by the Committee. 

In response to the invitations, about 60 members of the 
wholesale and manufacturing trades attended, including Messrs. 
J. W. Tonks (T. & J. Bragg), Charles Green (C. Green & 
Sons), H. Payton (C. Payton & Sons), J. Jacobs, Cox (Cox 
Brothers), J. M. Davis, H. Hyde, Wainwright, J. Adie (Adie 
& Lovekin), W. J. Ginders, J. M. Banks, B. H. Joseph, Geo. 
Basnett, Freeman, Izon, Fridlander, Platnauer, Smith (Smith 
Brothers) and Holmes. 

On the motion of Mr. Green, Mr. Jacobs was voted to the 
chair, and, after the reading of the minutes of the previous 
meeting by the Honorary Secretary (Mr. J. W. Tonks), 

The Chairman remarked that, in accordance with the resolu- 
tion passed at the previous meeting, the Committee had met 
together on several occasions to take into consideration the rules 
now before them, and it was for those present to say if they 
should be passed. If so, the Association would commence its 
existence at once. He believed in the establishment of a 
thoroughly sound Association, whose chief object should be the 
protection of thoroughly honest traders against dishonest traders, 
and by its influence a better trade amongst jewellers would be 
brought about. He then read the objects and rules, and asked 
that comments be made on each. 

The name, " The Birmingham Jewellers and Silversmiths' 
Association," was decided upon without comment. 

Then followed the objects : 

" (a) The advancement of taste in the manufacture (and pur- 
chase) of jewellery and personal ornaments of gold, silver 
or other materials (by judicious suggestion and sound 
criticism in the public papers, by giving due attention to 
the movements of fashion in society, and by seeking to 
direct those movements into artistic channels) ; by com- 
bined efforts to develop the art education of employers 
and employed ; by taking measures for the continuous 
instruction of apprentices and young persons in the true 
principles of decorative and constructive art ; by bringing 
practical and educated influence to bear on the modes of 
instruction in schools of design (and in the selection of 
examples for display in public galleries)." 

Mr. Wainwright wanted to know if the articles proposed to 
be purchased were to be of Birmingham manufacture. 

Mr. Tonks explained that the objects of his clause was more 
especially to provide that articles sent to exhibitions shall 
effectually represent the trade. 

The Chairman thought this matter had better be left to the 
Committee, who, being practical men, would be best qualified to 
select jewellery. 

Mr. Green said the words in parentheses were really inserted 
for further discussion, and he moved that they be expunged. He 
did not think it was part of their business to educate the buyers. 
Every man, he contended, was the best pioneer of his own busi- 
ness, and they did not want the Association to give them 
" grandmotherly " advice. 

Mr. Payton, in seconding the proposition, said they did not 
want criticisms of their own work to appear in the Press for the 
sake of educating buyers. He further contended that this matter 
was quite out of their line ; they had to go to work in a stern, 
business-like manner, but did not require the Association as a 
crutch to help them. 

Mr. Wainwright also spoke in support of Mr. Green's 
amendment, and, in the course of his remarks, said he thought 
the manufacturers were better able to judge of the wants of the 
public than the Press. 



Mr. Banks also thought it would be impracticable to carry out 
this clause, and instanced the injustice that might be done to one 
branch of the trade while benefiting another. They had, he said, 
fichu brooches and lockets, and one or other only would be 
fashionable at the same time ; therefore, to recommend to the 
notice of the public the locket as a fashionable article would be 
detrimental to the fichu brooch maker, and the same would apply 
to the locket maker it fichu brooches were commended. It would 
be unjust to lead fashion to one branch. 

Mr. Tonks counselled them to leave the rules as elastic as 
possible and have objects wide, as at some time such a clause 
might be of benefit. 

On being put to the vote, this clause was carried with the 
amendment proposed by Mr. Green. 

The next clause, as follows, was passed in its entirety : 
" (6) To watch all measures brought forward in the Imperial 
Parliament in any way affecting the interests or position 
of the trade — whether for the establishment of technical 
schools ; the relations of debtor and creditor ; working 
and trading regulations ; the recovery or disposal of 
stolen property ; the working of the Acts relating to 
pawnbrokers ; the detection or punishment of fraud or 
crime — and to use its best endeavours to have such Acts 
passed in a form calculated to place the trade on a sound 
commercial basis." 
The Chairman then read the next clause : 
" (c) To ensure united action in all cases of the failure of 
persons engaged in the trade to meet liabilities in full ; 
to initiate a distinct line of policy in reference to com- 
mercial fraud or reckless trading, and to bring to bear 
the full weight of its membership to promote a sound and 
healthy system of trading." 
Mr. Wainwright said it appeared to him that this clause 
was a most important one to the Association ; they had consider- 
able difficulty in coping with the law, which was stronger than 
the strongest man amongst them. When a case of dishonesty 
was disclosed they were all pretty unanimous on the subject of 
taking action, but they were not always provided with funds for 
the purpose ; they had a difficulty in finding men who would take 
up such cases. But if they had an Association, prompt action 
could be taken to bring a dishonest trader to justice, and if this 
were done they would not have so many failures. 

Mr. Tonks explained that as soon as a failure was announced, 
the Secretary would send to those concerned, and a meeting 
would be held at which the Committee would be empowered to 
take combined action. 

Mr. Holmes wanted to know whether the protection would 
apply to shopkeepers as well as wholesale and manufacturing 
houses. 

The Chairman said the Association would take up the case of 
any man ; his idea was to see the whole of the trade, manufac- 
turing, factoring and retail, combining together. 

Mr. Stokes inquired if the subscription would be the same for 
a factor as a small manufacturer. 

Mr. Green said the remarks of Mr. Holmes should be well 
considered ; there must be differences in an Association which 
covered so much. If the factor were to be protected as well as 
the manufacturer, they would spend as much money in punishing 
a man who failed for £300 as it would take to liquidate an 
estate of £20,000. He personally objected to the factors receiv- 
ing this protection at the hands of the Association, but would 
leave it to the Committee. 

Mr. Banks thought the clause should be passed in its entirety. 
It had been shadowed forth that it should cover all, but the title 
said nothing about retailers ; he suggested that they take the 
beam out of their own eyes before attempting to take the mote 
out of others. As manufacturers they should attend to their own 
trade. Let them pass the clause as it stood, and if they wanted 
to combine afterwards they could do so. 

Mr. Basnett agreed that it was best the clause should be 
passed as it stood, and it could be discussed afterwards. They 
were all of opinion that fraudulent traders should be punished. 
This clause was then passed. 



54 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[October 1, 188?. 



The Chairman then asked for discussion on the following 
clause : 

" (d) To secure the detection and punishment of all dishonest 
and nefarious dealing on the part of workmen and 
employes ; the more certain and regular prosecution of 
receivers of stolen property, whether on a large or small 
scale ; and the development of a system of inquiry and 
reference, which may tend to secure more reliable work 
and better service." 

This was passed without comment. The following clause was 
then read : 

" (e) To assist as far as possible in the establishment of a 
General Provident Institution among the workpeople and 
employes in the jewellery and kindred trades, involving 
support in case of sickness or accident, and insurance in 
case of death." 

Mr. Wainwright, in commenting upon this clause, remarked 
that as the employes had an Association of their own it would be 
unwise to set up an opposition one, and he moved that this be 
not adopted. 

Mr. Basnett seconded this amendment, arguing that if they 
introduced a provident institution they would not have sufficient 
time to develop the Association. 

Mr. B. H. Joseph believed this to be a good object, and ex- 
plained that, although in many workshops they had provident 
societies, the workman received no aid when he removed from one 
workshop to another, all he had paid in contributions being lost. 

Mr. Banks most heartily supported the present clause, and 
said it was pitiful to see the journeymen jewellers so poor ; if they 
had not acquired the habit of thrift, it would be a kindness to 
teach them. He averred it would do more good to the Associa- 
tion than anything else to lend a helping hand to the workpeople. 
This trade had had many wealthy men connected with it, but 
who had left anything for the working men, who, when their 
sight or health failed, drifted into the workhouse ? 

Mr. Payton said they had left out the decayed masters 
altogether, and he moved that the same assistance be given to 
decayed masters as to the employes. 

Mr. Tonks seconded this. 

Mr. Adie thought this was a matter for the men themselves. 

Mr. Green was pained by the last few speeches he had heard. 
They should, he said, think of the people who laboured for them. 
There was no trade but the jewellery trade in which they could 
find men so early in life incapacitated for work — a man's eyesight 
failed him, or he became unable to follow his trade through 
continual sitting at the bench — and they would be doing him a 
kindness by showing him how to become provident ; they had no 
funds to provide, the men would find the money themselves, and he 
certainly thought they should have a uniform system by which a 
workman could rely on aid. 

On being put to the vote Mr. Wainwright's amendment was 
carried, and the clause therefore rejected. 

The next clause was, on the motion of Mr. Payton, seconded 
by Mr. Green, altered to the following : — 

" (/) To assist in the development of Colonial and Foreign 
trade in jewellery and personal ornaments, by efforts to 
secure a Museum or tabulated collection of specimens of 
the general form and decoration of articles worn in each 
colony, dependency or foreign country." 

Following this came the rule relating to members : 

" 4. — This Association shall be composed of Manufacturers, of 
Wholesale and Retail Dealers in Jewellery and personal orna- 
ments in gold, silver or other materials, who shall subscribe a sum 
of not less than one guinea per annum, payable in advance, and 
who, after the first enrolment, shall be subject to election at the 
quarterly meetings of the members." 

Mr. Joseph proposed that the words " retail dealers " be struck 
out. He thought they would have enough to do with the manu- 
facturers, and it would be sufficient to include the manufacturers 
and factors. 

Mr. Wainwright seconded this. 

Mr. Payton said this was a most important clause. If they 
admitted factors for a subscription of one guinea a year, they 



would lay upon themselves a heavy burden. If the funds were 
sufficient to carry it out he would then have no objection, but he 
did not think one guinea would be sufficient for a man who had 
customers in the three kingdoms. The very travelling expenses 
to Inverness would swallow up the subscriptions, and he was 
convinced that if they prosecuted traders from John o' Groat's to 
Land's End they could not do it for a guinea a year. 

Mr. Hyde did not see how it could be practicable for factors 
and manufacturers to work together. He would rather have an 
Association entirely confined to manufacturers. 

Mr. Joseph said it would be difficult to draw a line between 
wholesale and manufacturing houses. 

Mr. Freeman wanted to know how many shopkeepers to one 
factor were wound up in a year. This Association would be 
formed to punish people whom the manufacturer had nothing to 
do with. 

Mr. Green was also of opinion that none but manufacturers 
should be members. 

Mr. Basnett said that by keeping the factor they would keep 
themselves, and thought if they commenced to draw a hard and 
fast line differences would arise. He quite agreed that the 
retailer should not be admitted ; it was a question whether or 
not they should support the honest factor. He thought an effort 
should be made to join London with Birmingham, and if they 
could work with the watchmakers of Coventry, they would get a 
stronger combination. 

Mr. Tonks thought it would meet the matter if they had an 
increased subscription for wholesale jewellers. 

Mr. Banks said it must be an association of manufacturers. 
Mr. Payton was pleased with the suggestion that watchmakers 
be admitted ; he had known many cases where watchmaking 
firms held a number of proxies at creditors' meetings, and in 
large failures they would often have the power to paralyse the 
action of the Association. As regards the factors, he thought 
they had best have confidence in them — "better let them in at 
the front door than the back," said the speaker. 

Mr. Banks proposed that wholesale jewellers be not admitted, 
but found no seconder. 

The Chairman said one of the objects of the meeting was to 
take away the petty jealousies existing between manufacturers 
and factors, and if they would only bind themselves together 
they would become a much stronger body. Jealousy, he con- 
tended, had done much harm in the trade. He then put the 
clause to the meeting with alterations as proposed by Mr. Joseph, 
that "retail dealers" be omitted and "watch manufacturers" 
added, and it was duly passed. 

The other Rules, as under, were passed without much discussion. 
" (a) The minimum subscription of One Guinea per annum 

shall entitle a Member to one vote. 
" (b) A Firm or Company may be admitted to Membership 
as represented by one Member of such Firm or Company, 
for every Guinea subscribed, such Member's name, as 
representing the Firm or Company, being entered on the 
Books of this Association, and none other shall be eligible 
to attend, to speak or vote at Meetings on behalf of such 
Firm or Company. 
" (c) Any Member failing to pay his subscription, after having 
been applied for, within three months of its falling due, 
or becoming bankrupt, or making any arrangements with 
his creditors, involving the payment of less than twenty 
shillings in the pound, or divulging to persons, not 
Members of this Association, any confidential reports- 
or other information from time to time supplied him by 
the Committee, he shall, ipso facto, cease to be a Member ; 
and, on the discovery thereof, his rights of Membership 
shall forthwith determine. 
" (d) The Committee may, by a resolution passed by a 
majority of two-thirds of the Members present at any 
given Meeting, expel any Member (including any Firm 
or Company), providing a notice of motion to that effect 
has been sent to each Member of the Committee, with the 
notice calling such Meeting. Provided always that any 
Member so expelled shall have the right of appeal to the 



October 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



55 



next Quarterly General Meeting of Members to reverse 
such decision, on giving notice to the Secretary fourteen 
days previous to the date of such Meeting. 

Meetings. 

" 5. — General Meetings of the, Association shall be held four 
times in each year — in the months of January, April, July and 
October, or as near thereto as in the discretion of the Committee 
for the time being may be convenient. The Meeting in January 
shall be the Annual Meeting, at which reports shall be presented, 
officers elected, and the course of action for the ensuing year 
decided on. At these Meetings twelve shall form a quorum. 
Ten days' previous notice shall be given of each Meeting, and 
tbe subjects to be brought forward shall be stated on the notice 
calling such Meeting. No other subject shall be brought forward, 
except by permission of the Meeting, to be granted by a show of 
hands, but any resolution arrived at in such case must be 
confirmed, after due notice, at a future General Meeting. 

" (a) A Special General Meeting of Members shall be called 

by the Secretary, on receipt of a requisition signed by at 

least twenty Members of this Association, the date of 

such Special Meeting to be fixed by the Committee at its 

next Ordinary Meeting following such notice, unless, in 

the opinion of the Chairman, the subject of such Special 

Meeting is urgent, when the Emergency Committee shall 

have power to fix the date. 

" (b) At all General Meetings, questions shall be decided by a 

show of hands, except when a ballot shall be demanded 

by at least five Members present. It shall be in the 

discretion of the Chairman to take a vote by ballot at once, 

or to adjourn the Meeting for a period not exceeding 

seven days for the purpose. 

" (c) The Chairman of the Association, if present, shall preside 

at each General Meeting ; if absent, the Vice- Chairman 

shall preside, and in case of his absence, a Chairman shall 

be elected by a majority of the Members present. 

" 6. — Ordinary Meetings of Committee shall be held monthly, 

at such times and places as may from time to time be decided on 

by the Committee itself, and Special Meetings by resolution of 

the Committee. An Ordinary Meeting may, however, be omitted 

at the discretion of the Committee, expressed by resolution at a 

previous Meeting. Five Members and ex-officio Members shall 

form a quorum. 

" 7. — Meetings of the Emergency Committee shall be held at 
twelve hours' notice from the Secretary or Honorary Secretary, 
as may be most convenient. That it shall be the duty of the 
Secretary, on hearing of a failure, to call a Meeting of those 
interested and report same to the Committee. 

Officers. 

" 8. — The officers of this Association shall consist of a 
Chairman, who shall also be Chairman of Committee ; a Vice- 
Chairman ; a Treasurer ; Honorary Secretary ; Secretary ; and 
Auditor. All these officers, except the Secretary, shall be 
ex-officio Members of Committee. These officers shall be elected 
for one year only, but shall be eligible -for re-election at the 
Annual General Meeting. 

" (a) The Chairman shall have the right to preside at all 
General Meetings during his year of office, and shall have 
a casting vote, in addition to his original vote, in case of 
equality of voting. 
" (b) The Vice-Chairman shall have the right of presiding at 
all Meetings in the absence of the Chairman for the time 
being. In case of equality of voting, he shall also have a 
casting vote, in addition to his original vote on the same 
question. 
" (c) The Treasurer of the Association shall keep a separate 
banking account, and accounts of all receipts and dis- 
bursements, in books provided for the purpose, and shall 
present to the Annual General Meeting a detailed state- 
ment, made up to December 31 last, duly audited, and 
previously accepted by the Committee. 



" (rf) The Honorary Secretary shall conduct all correspondence, 
and generally direct and superintend the salaried Secretary 
in the keeping of Minute Books, pursuit of inquiries, 
tabulation of statistics, and all other work usually per- 
taining to the office of Secretary, in accordance with the 
resolutions of the Committee. 

" (<?) The Auditor shall go over the accounts of the Association, 
and if correct, vouch for the same previous to each Annual 
Meetintr. 

Committee. 

"(9). — The Committee shall consist of the above specified 
officers of the Association, and ten other Members, five of whom 
shall retire by rotation, but who shall be eligible for re-election at 
the Annual General Meeting. The Committee shall appoint five 
of its number to form an Emergency Committee. 

" The Committee shall carry on the business of this Association, 
and, guided by the resolutions from time to time passed by 
General Meetings of the Members, shall be empowered to carry 
out the objects specified in these Rules. They may fill up any 
vacancy caused by the death, resignation or ceasing to be a 
Member of the Association, of any one or more of their Members. 
They shall also fill up any vacancy, so caused as above, in the 
list of officers of the Association, and may provisionally decide 
any question not otherwise provided for in these Rules. They 
shall have power to elect and fix the rate of salary, and to limit 
or extend the duties of the Secretary or any other paid officer of 
this Association whom they may see fit to appoint. They may 
also, if they deem it necessary, remove any such paid officer by a 
resolution of two-thirds in number of those present at any 
Meeting, at which due notice of such action shall be given. And, 
providing that no action taken is in contravention of the Rules 
in force for the time being, or of any previous resolution of the 
Association then still remaining in force, no Member of the 
Committee shall incur personal responsibility for any act done on 
behalf of this Association. 

Rules. 

" (10). — No alteration of or addition to these Rules shall be 
valid, except it be supported by a vote of two-thirds of the 
Members present at a General Meeting, given after due notice 
as aforesaid." 

The Election of Officers. 

The Chairman thought it would be as well to leave this until 
they had an Association formed, so that they could be elected by 
the members. 

Mr. Basnett proposed that the present Committee form a 
Committee jiro tern, for carrying out the work : seconded by 
Mr. Wainwright. 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman closed the proceedings. 



Gold melts at about 2,016° to 2,190° Fahr., according to 
different authorities. It is neither affected by water nor air at 
any temperature, and is not attacked by ordinary acids. It is 
the most malleable of all the metals, and may be beaten into 
sheets of surpassingly wonderful thinness. Its very great mal- 
leability renders it unfit for use for jewellery or for coinage until 
its hardness, and consequent durability, are increased by alloying 
it with silver or copper. Exposed to the heat of the oxy-hydrogen 
blowpipe, it is known to be vaporised ; and it was formerly 
supposed that it was not volatile at lower temperatures ; but the 
researches of Napier and Makins show that volatilisation occurs at 
temperatures of an ordinary muffle furnace when alloys of silver 
and gold are cupelled with lead. An analysis of deposits taken 
from the chimney of a small reverberatory furnace, in daily use for 
cupelling gold for months, showed 14 per cent, of silver and 7'1 
grains of gold for every eight ounces of silver. Still, after the 
destruction of a quantity of jewellery by a fire, a great proportion 
of the gold should be recoverable, since but a small quantity, if 
any, would be volatilised ; and the metal is not at all affected by 
air or water, as before remarked. 



56 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[Octobeii 1, 1887. 



American Jtems. 



§HE Elgin National Watch Co. is so busy at the present 
time, that it can with difficulty fill its orders. Manager 
Cutter reports that jobbers are eagerly taking goods even 
without orders, and that things are so strained at the factory 
that they are unable, in spite of their constantly increasing- 
facilities, to keep pace with the demand. 



Mr. A. Lyons, 36, Maiden Lane, New York, has obtained the 
American agency of Messrs. Borgzinner Brothers, of London, 
England, manufacturers of watch and jewellery cases, in reference 
to which the Jewelers' Weekly says : The firni could hardly have 
made a happier selection, as Mr. Lyons, with his long experience 
in the trade and his hosts of friends, cannot fail to handle its 
interests here successfully. 



A unique watch fob worn by a young society' man, who is 
visiting friends in St. Louis, is a live turtle about an inch long, 
which is attached to his watch chain by a gold ring. The turtle 
was caught about five months ago by the young man in Lake 
Winnebago, and is released each day for a banquet of Mies and a 
swim in a bowl of filtered water. 



The report of Messrs. George F. Kunz and J. S. Diller, who 
were sent by the Director of the United States' Geological Survey 
to make an examination of the reputed diamond fields in 
Kentucky, furnishes considerable food for speculation. Although 
the carbonaceous shale of the Kentucky field contains only -681 per 
cent, of carbon to nearly 38 per cent, of the same element in the 
Kimberley shale, it is thought that the remarkable similarity of 
the peridotite and the residuary deposits, which so closely 
resemble the diamondiferous material of the South African mines, 
hold out astrong prospect that patient and diligent search may 
yet result in the discovery of diamonds in paying quantities. 



The New York Herald has published a series of interviews 
with representative business men, giving in full their views of the 
business outlook. The opinions expressed are, without exception, 
of a hopeful character. Though a good trade was done by a 
majority of the houses last year, they judge, from the volume of 
1887's business so far transacted, that this year will be even more 
prosperous. With its usual good sense, says the Jewelers' Weekly, 
the Herald devotes more space to jewellery than to any other 
branch, and publishes interviews with several of the leading 
American firms, all of whom express themselves as satisfied with 
the spring trade and the substantial promise it holds forth of an 
exceptionally prosperous fall season. Commenting editorially 
upon the various views which it publishes, the Herald says : 
Trade is not booming just now, but is on a solid basis of 
enduring prosperity. There have been few periods when the 
affairs of the country were so evenly adjusted as they are at 
present, and when the talents and energies of the people were so 
exclusively given to production and to development of natural 
resources. 



It ha 



for 



ms gotten to be a chestnut, says the Jewelers' Circular, 
man to speak of the "prospects" for the fall trade; 
and yet a careful look at the present condition of things shows 
trade to be in a remarkably active and healthy condition, and 
extensive preparations are being made on all hands for a large 
fall trade. This is most noticeable at the fancy goods dealers' 
and dealers in kindred lines, possibly because of their wares being- 
kept in sight upon shelves and tables; and the quantity of 
novelties for the fall is truly astonishing. It does not seem' that 
the buyers for these houses have used sufficient caution in 
purchasing such large stocks, but when spoken to they speak 
most confidently of their ability to dispose of them. In jewellery 
a brisk demand is noticeable for all classes of goods. Manufac- 



turers of all kinds of gold, silver and plated goods have made up 
an imposing variety of patterns for this season, and have made 
them in large quantities. The jobbers are not buying largely, so 
they say, but they are still buying more than in previous years. 
The best sign of all, however, is that retail dealers are exercising 
more caution in buying. They are buying many goods, it is true, 
but not more than they are able to dispose of. Goods are 
moving fast, and the coming autumn months will tell whether 
the strong indications for good business have had any foundation 
under them. 



Electro Deposition of 3ri6ium. 



]fj!N a patent recently issued by the L'nited States Patent 'Office 
Jj^ to Mr. William L. Dudley, the inventor describes a process 
of depositing iridium, by means of which a bright, flexible 
reguline deposit is obtained. The inventor uses either aqueous 
solution of the double chloride or iridium and sodium, or of the 
double chloride of iridium and ammonium, containing about two 
ounces of metallic iridium to the gallon, and acidified with about 
half an ounce of sulphuric acid to the gallon. The solution of 
the double chloride of iridium and sodium is prepared as follows : 
The hydrate of iridium is dissolved in the least possible quantity 
of hydrochloric acid and evaporated in a water bath to expel the 
excess of acid. The residue is then dissolved in water and an 
amount of sodium chloride is added sufficient to combine with all 
of the chloride of iridium present to form the double salt. The 
solution is then diluted to the required amount, so as to contain 
about two ounces of metal to each gallon of liquid. The required 
amount of sulphuric acid is then added and the solution is ready 
for the electro deposition. 

The solution of the double chloride of iridium and ammonium 
is prepared as follows : The hydrate of iridium is dissolved in 
the least possible quantity of hydrochloric acid and carefully 
neutralised with ammonium hydrate. It is then acidulated with 
sulphuric acid until all of the precipitate produced by the ammo- 
nium hydrate is dissolved, and finally diluted with water until 
each gallon of the liquid contains about two ounces of the metal. 
The solution is then ready for work when acidified, as before 
mentioned. From both of these solutions Mr. Dudley obtained 
a thick, bright and reguline deposit of iridium ; and he has found 
that a plate of iridium or phosphide of iridium, as made by the 
Holland process, if used as an anode, will dissolve in these solu- 
tions while the current is passing. As in electro-plating with 
other metals, it is essential, to obtain good results, that the 
articles to be plated should be perfectly clean. A brighter and 
smoother deposit is obtained if the articles are highly polished 
before they are introduced into the iridium bath. In plating 
articles which are readily attacked by the solution, it is of course 
desirable to first coat them with some metal not. appreciably 
affected by such solutions. 

In the deposition of iridium from any of its solutions it is 
necessary to avoid battery power of too great intensity ; and in 
case the intensity be too great, it can be recognised by the deposit 
becoming dark and powdery, and also by an excessive evolution 
of gas from the surface of the anode and cathode. In managing 
the solution, alkalinity should be avoided, although neutral solu- 
tions may be employed ; but acid solutions are to be preferred. 
During deposition, where a thick deposit is required, it may be 
found necessary to remove the articles from the solution from 
time to time, and to wipe them in case the deposit should have a 
tendency to become black ; but this blackness may be avoided, by 
proper manipulation of the solution and battery power, and also 
by proper cleansing of the articles. It is also found that when 
the articles to be plated are kept in gentle motion during deposition , 
the deposit will take place faster and be brighter and thicker 
than if they are allowed to remain stationary. Mr. Dudley 
does not claim, however, that the plating produced by his 
process will resist the action of acids which will dissolve finely 
divided iridium. 



October 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKEK, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



57 



Electro (Biloing "batches. 

^N reply to a correspondent of the Deutsche Uhrmacher 
M Zeitung, Mr. Behrends says that the ill- success in gold 
plating is generally due to circumstances so trifling that 
they are apt to be overlooked, and for this reason it is often 
difficult to find the offending cause that occasioned the trouble ; 
but still more difficult is it to specify it without a personal 
examination of all the single parts. 

The interrogator says that the first pieces were handsomely 
gilt. This is the best evidence that everything was in good order, 
and entitles us to conclude that equally good results should in 
the future have been expected, if no alteration was effected 
meanwhile with the element or bath, or that a new bath had been 
substituted. To judge from the expressions of the interrogator, 
this is not the case, and I therefore will endeavour to point out 
a few features calculated to produce a disturbance. 

It is of chief moment for the good success and handsome colour 
of the gilding, that the articles subjected to this manipulation be 
thoroughly cleansed, rinsed and scratch brushed. These processes 
have repeatedly been described in divers publications, and I will 
simply state at this place, if the gilder desires to dispense with 
the preliminary silver graining, the cleanliness of the article must 
unconditionally be beyond question. An imperfect cleansing 
produces a dirty colour of the. gilding. We will find this 
frequently demonstrated on watch barrels, the interior and 
exterior of which have been insufficiently cleaned, in consequence 
of which said barrels frequently turn black. 

When preparing the chloride of gold, great attention must be 
paid to entirely evaporate the acid, or if, in place of the chloride, 
the ammoniacal oxide of gold is used, then that the precipitate is 
well washed and filtered, so that no trace of acid is carried into 
the bath. If this bath contains any acid the articles suspended 
in it will turn black. This can only be explained by the 
occurrence that the copper wire will become covered with verdigris, 
which, however, has never yet happened to me, and theoretically 
I cannot explain it in any other manner. It is advisable to only 
use covered conduit wires, by which their repeated cleansing is 
dispensed with. 

The elements must, from time to time, be cleansed in all their 
parts, and the clamps, screws, &c, are to be rubbed off with 
emery paper, since otherwise the strength of the current is 
deteriorated. When the battery is not to be used for a length of 
time, it is advisable to pour off the liquid, and to store it separately. 

Before each use of the elements it is necessary to be satisfied 
that everything is in due working order, and the electrical current 
is generated in sufficient strength. This test is most easily 
performed by bringing the ends of the Conduits tor a moment in 
contact. An electrical spark will pass over if the current is 
sufficiently strong. If it does not, then the current is either too 
feeble or there is none at all, and the reason must be looked for, 
which will generally be found due to foreign bodies, such as dirt, 
or collections of metallic solutions or salts, or to too great a 
porosity of the cells, mutual contact of the generator or its 
conduits ; beside this, it may also be owing to the bad condition 
of the filling of the element. 

When a bath has remained standing for some time it is 
advisable to boil it ; it may also be employed in a warm condition. 
The precipitation in a warm bath will be more rapid than in a 
cold, but it will not be as uniform, and the cathode, as well as 
the anode, must constantly be moved to and fro in it. But when 
gold plating only a few articles at a time this occasions no 
difficulties. 

Again, the magnitude of the surface of the anode to that of 
the cathode, as well as the mutual approach toward each other, 
must be fully considered. Too great a proximity, or too great a 
magnitude of surface of the anode, produces too rapid and too 
strong a precipitation, which will also be produced by too strong 
a current and too great a percentage of gold in the bath. The 
articles in the process of gilding soon begin to colour a dark red 
or dark brown, but when the distance between the anode and 
cathode is either too large or too small, or that the current is 
too feeble, or the gold percentage of the bath almost exhausted, 



the precipitation will then be too slow and too thin, or else there 
will be none at all, and the articles assume a dirty, dead and 
spotted colour. 

There is another probability : that your bath contains either 
too much or too little cyanide. All these defects can be 
ascertained only on examination, and corrected by adding one or 
the other of the components wanted. 

Articles which have assumed an "off-colour" in the bath must 
be carefully scratch brushed until it has entirely disappeared ; if 
necessary they are to be ground anew, thoroughly cleansed and 
grained. 

The above are about the principal vexations of the bath and 
current, and if the interrogator will devote a little time to the 
study of his bath and current, he will soon find where the blame 
is due. 



"£a$t 3n6ian 3euuellery. 



>MONG Signer Castellani's collection of antiquities, nu- 
merous examples occur which bring one back to the lost 
art of making Etruscan jewellery. It is believed that 
valuable hints of how the ancient goldworkers operated may 
be gathered from the itinerant goldsmiths of the East 
Indies. These craftsmen carry their tools with them in 
their wanderings, and, where employment can be found, 
transform coins and bits of metal into filigree ornaments re- 
sembling the antique, whilst still following their natural style. 
U Union Ilorlogere has the following regarding the tools and 
manner of working of these artists : " A low earthern pot full 
of chaff or sawdust, on which he makes a little charcoal fire, a 
small bamboo blow-pipe about six inches long, with which he 
excites the fire, a short earthern tube or nozzle, the extremity of 
which is placed at the bottom of the fire, and through which the 
artist directs the blast of the blow-pipe, two or three crucibles 
made of the fine clay of ant-hills, a pair of tongs, an anvil, two 
or three small hammers, a file, and, to conclude the list, a few 
small bars of iron and brass about two inches long, differently 
pointed, for different kinds of work. It is astonishing what an 
intense little fire, more than sufficiently strong to melt silver and 
gold, can be kindled in a few minutes in the way just described. 
Such a simple portable forge deserves to be better known. It is, 
perhaps, even deserving the attention of the scientific experimenter, 
and may be useful to him when he wishes to excite a small fire, 
larger than can be produced by a common blow-pipe, and where 
he has not a forge at command. The success of tins little forge, 
it may be necessary to state, depends a good deal on the bed of 
the fire being composed of combustible materials, and a very bad 
conductor of heat. The smiths at Ceylon use a composition as a 
hone for sharpening knives and cutting instruments that is worth 
noticing. It is made of the capitia resin and of corundum. The 
corundum, in a state of impalpable powder, is mixed with the 
resin rendered liquid by heat and well incorporated. The mixture 
is poured into a wooden mould, and its surface levelled and 
smoothed while it is hot, for when cold it is extremely hard. It 
is much valued by the natives and preferred by them to the best 
of our hones. 



Mother-o'-Pearl. — In the western suburbs of Vienna 
flourishes an industry which as a general rule does not attract 
much public attention, although it is of some importance. This 
is the manufacture of articles and ornaments where mother-o'- 
pearl is used. Attention has lately been drawn to this industry, 
owing to the breaking out of a strike amongst those engaged in 
it. The value of the crude mother-o'-pearl which is annually 
consumed in the district is, according to the Vienna correspondent 
of Industries, 3,600,000 fl. (about £300,000), whilst the value 
of exported articles is 8,000,000 fl. (about £670,000). In the 
latter figure are not included the articles which are sold in the 
home market, so that, making an allowance for this item, the annual 
value of mother-o'-pearl articles produced in the neighbourhood 
of Vienna may be set down at about £1,000,000 sterling, showing 
that this industry is one of considerable importance, 



5-8 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[October 1, 1887, 



Che Effect of (Dentrifugal Force on the Balance. 



lyKR. KULLBERG, being of opinion that the effect of 
-A-yJt, fcntrifii.Lfal force on the isochronous vibrations of a 
chronometer balance were greater than generally supposed, 
and being desirous of having the fact tested by an independent 
authority, applied to the Astronomer-Royal, who granted per- 
mission to send a chronometer to the Royal Observatory, and 
undertook to rate it. 

The chronometer, an ordinary large two- day, was deposited at 
the Observatory on April 18, and with it were left four balances, 
described below. The balances were practically of the same 
diameter, but of different elasticity. 

1. A plain brass balance, not cut, with four quarter timing 
screws ; thickness of rim, 0-085 inch. 

2. An ordinary compensation balance, two timing screws, and 
two compensation weights. Thickness of rim, 0-038 inch ; length 
of acting lamina?, 135° from point of fixture or bar ; distance of 
centre of compensation weight, 98 c from bar. 

3. A steel balance with brass inlaid, two timing screws, two 
compensation weights. Thickness of rim, 0*035 inch ; length of 
acting lamina 1 , 141° from point of fixture at the bar ; half the 
laminae on each side compensated next to bar ; distance of centre 
of compensation weight, 100° from bar. 

4. Same as No. 3, but with lamina? 0-024 inch thick ; acting 
length of lamina?, 150° ; two small screws at ends of acting 
lamina?, each weighing three grains ; distance of centre of com- 
pensation weight, Gl° from bar. 

The balances in large arcs made one turn and a fifth, and in 
short arcs three-quarters of a turn. The last throe balances were 
accurately adjusted for temperature, and as the variations of 
temperature were so small, it can be assumed that the rates are 
unaffected by temperature. 

When balance No. 1 was fitted, the chronometer was placed in 
the oven at an even temperature. Below are the daily rates : — 



Long Arcs 
—166-4 
—165-7 
—166-0 
—167-4 



+ 0-7 
+ 0-5 
+ 0-3 
+ 0-5 
+ 0-4 
+ 0-3 
+ 0-2 



+ 6-5 
+ 6-7 
+ 6-7 
+ 5-4 
•+6-2 
+ 6-0 
+ 5-6 



+ 9-2 

+ 10-7 
+ 8-2 
+ 8-0 
+ 7-8 
+ 10-8 
+ 10-7 



Balance 


No 


. 1. 


Temperature 




Short Arcs 


88-9 




—172-1 


88-9 




—177-3 


90-4 




—176-5 


90-5 




—1720 


Balance 


No 


2. 


54-6 




+ 2-5 


54-6 




+ 2-4 


56-0 




+ 2-0 


55-8 




+ 3-4 


56-5 




+ 2-8 


55-8 




+ 2-8 


56-4 




+ 2-5 



Balance No. 3. 

54-7 +21-3 

54-2 +21-4 

55-7 +21-4 

55-8 ' +21-9 

55-4 +21-6 

55-6 + 22-0 

56-0 +21-4 



Balance No. 
59-0 
58-0 
62-4 
62-4 
62-8 
63-7 
65-0 



4. 

+ 41-5 
+ 40-2 
t-40-2 
+ 39-4 
+ 39-0 
+ 3S-0 
+ 40-4 



Temperature 
90-5 
90-4 
90-6 
90-4 



53-0 
52-0 
51-2 
62-2 
51-4 
50-8 
54-1 



54-4 
54-0 
52 5 
53-6 
54-5 
54-8 
55-9 



55-4 
56-0 
56-0 
57-7 
59-5 
59-8 
60-0 



Mean Daily Kates. 

Long Ares Short Ares 

Balance 1. —166-4 —174-5 

2. +0-5 -t- 2-6 

„ 3. +6-1 +21-6 

4. +9-3 +39-7 

Mr. Kullberg thinks had balance No. 4 had its rim compensated 
at the free end of the rim, instead of, as now, next to the point 
of fixture or bar, the compensation weights would have been at 
the extreme end, and the chronometer would probably have gained 



about 40 seconds more in short than in long arcs, without any 
change whatever in the balance spring or escapement. 

The chronometer from which the above results were obtained 
was exhibited in the Paris Exhibition, 1878, and Mr. Kullberg's 
experience of theoretical springs and centrifugal force laid before 
the jury, of which M. Saunier was president. 



£he 3¥lerchan6ise fflarhs Act, 1887. 



fjMHE following circular is being sent round the trade by the 
f^S London Watchmakers' Trade Association : — 

" 42, Spencer Street, Clerkenwell, E.C., 

" September, 1887. 

" Dear Sir, — I am instructed by the Committee of the above 
Association to call your earnest attention to the ' Merchandise 
Marks Act,' 50 and 51 Vic, cap. 28, recently become law, and 
which makes offences punishable by fine or imprisonment the 
selling of foreign watches as English, or the selling of foreign 
movements in English Hall-marked cases, or if any marks or 
words be on the case or movement which are liable to deceive as to 
place of origin, unless at the time of sale a statement to such 
effect be given in writing to the customer (it not being necessary 
for the customer to ask for the same). 

" We would particularly call your notice to Clauses 7, 8 and 
17, although the whole of the Act ought to be carefully studied. 
Copies of the Act can be obtained of Messrs. Eyre and 
Spottiswoode, East Harding Street, Fleet Street, or through any 
bookseller, or of. this Association (in which case the charge is 4d., 
to cover postage, &c). 

" The reason we beg to impress the above upon the attention 
of all shopkeepers is that they may have in stock watches pur- 
chased of some manufacturers (Clerkenwell, Coventry or other- 
wise) that are part Swiss work, and which they (the shopkeepers) 
have bought as legitimate English work. They should therefore 
see to this directly, as this Association considers it its duty to 
enforce the Act, and give prosecutors every assistance possible, 
in the shape of experts' evidence, &c, to ensure conviction. 
" I am, dear Sir, yours respectfully, 

" J. T. Newman, Secretary:' 

We published in our August issue the clauses as then 
amended referring to watches, but as they have since received 
some further slight modifications, we herewith republish them as 
they are now the law, together with Section 17, to which attention 
is drawn in the above circular, and Section 18, which is of general 
interest to manufacturers. The words printed in italics are the 
additions referred to. 

7. Where a watch case has thereon any words or marks which consti- 
tute, or are by common repute considered as constituting, a descrip- 
tion of the^country in which the watch was made, those words or marks 
shall prima facie be deemed to be a description of that country within 
the meaning of this Act ; and the provisions of this Act with respect to 
goods to which a false trade description has been applied, and with 
respect to selling or exposing for or having in possession for sale, or any 
purpose of trade or manufacture, goods with a false trade description, 
shall apply accordingly ; and for the purposes of this section the expression 
" watch'" means all that portion of a watch which is not the watch case. 

8. (1.) Every person who after the date fixed by Order in Council 
sends or brings a watch case, whether imported or not, to any assay 
office in the United Kingdom for the purpose of being assayed, stamped 
or marked, shall make a declaration declaring in what country or place 
the case was made. If it appears by such declaration that the watch 
case was made in some country or place out of the United Kingdom, the 
assay office shall place on the case such a mark (differing from the mark 
placed by the office on a watch case made in the United Kingdom) and 
in such a mode as may be from time to time directed by" Order in 
Council. 

(2.) The declaration may be made before an officer of an assay office, 
appointed in that behalf by the office (which officer is hereby authorised 
to administer such a declaration), or before a justice of the peace, or a 
commissioner having power to administer oaths in the Supreme Court of 
Judicature in England or Ireland, or in the Court of Session in Scotland, 
and shall be in such form as may be from time to time directed by Order 
in Council. 

(3.) Every person who makes a false declaration for the purposes of 
this section shall be liable, on conviction on indictment, to the penalties 



October 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



59 



of perjury, and on surnmar3 r conviction to a fine not exceeding twenty 
pounds for each offence. 

17. On the sale or in the contract for the sale of any goods to which 
a trade mark, or mark, or trade description has been applied, the vendor 
shall be deemed to warrant that the mark is a genuine trade mark and 
not forged or falsely applied, or that the trade description is not a false 
trade description within the meaning of this Act, unless the contrary is 
expressed in some writing signed by or on behalf of the vendor and 
delivered at the time of the sale or contract to and accepted by the 
vendee. 

18. Where, at the passing of this Act, a trade description is lawfully 
and generally applied to goods of a particular class, or manufactured by 
a particular method, to indicate the particular class or method of manu- 
facture of such goods, the provisions of this Act with respect to false 
trade descriptions shall not apply to such trade description when so 
applied : Provided that where such trade description includes the name 
of a place or country, and is calculated to mislead as to the place or 
country where the goods to which it is applied were actually made or 
produced, and the goods are not actually made or produced in that place 
or country, this section shall not apply unless there is added to the trade 
description, immediately before or after the name of that place or country, 
in an equally conspicuous manner, with that name, the name of the 
place or country in which the goods were actually made or produced, 
with a statement that they were made or produced there. 



Che Ruby Jflines of Burmah. 



XN an interesting communication to Murray's Magazine Mr- 
M> Streeter says the above mines are of three distinct kinds. 
The metamorphic or gneiss rock furnishes the first, and 
probably in the near future the most important, of these. Huge 
fissures traverse its mass in all directions, caused by shrinkage in 
long past ages, and these fissures hare been filled, probably at 
an early stage of transformation, with a soft reddish and blackish 
clayey earth, generally containing rubies. These have escaped 
much of the water-wearing process to which the stones in the 
lower valley appear to have been subjected, and it is reported that 
some of the best gems have been found in such fissures. These 
crevices are called by the Burmese " Loos " or caves ; they work 
them in a most superficial manner, simply following the veins of soft 
earth between the walls of rock as far as practicable, or until they 
are stopped by poisonous gas. The earth is extracted and washed 
by hand in small round flat trays of bamboo basket-work. The 
most remarkable example of this system of mining is found on the 
Pingoo-Doung, or Pagoda Hill, near Kiapien, a huge black mass 
of rock rising high above the valley and carrying ruby-bearing 
earth both in its fissures and flanks. On its summit a gilt 
pagoda has been erected which forms a landmark for miles round, 
sparkling in the sun above its less favoured neighbours. The 
workings on it are of a dangerous character, and fifteen miners 
were killed a little while ago by a landslip. The second variety 
of mines is found on the sides of these rocky hills, where diversi- 
fied strata of a red and white clayey consistency have been upheaved. 
The earth contains masses of harder material, undergoing rapid 
disintegration wherever exposed to the action of the air ; some of 
it is almost as light as pumice stone and other portions nearly as 
hard as granite. The original material from which this red and 
white clayey stuff has proceeded is believed to be the matrix of 
the corundum which furnishes the ruby and sapphire in their now 
existing state. But repeated transformations must have been 
undergone since the formation of the original rock, during which 
selections and distributions of the valuable stone have occurred ; 
for although the natives say that such stones may be found 
throughout almost the entire mass of this reddish earth, yet only 
certain places have been systematically worked for them. This 
is done by a simple system of hydraulic mining on a small scale. 
Water is brought in an open conduit from the side of the hill 
in channels, never more than 18 in. square, and delivered with 
very little pressure. The water is employed to wash the earth, 
generally along a natural channel, to the lowest part of the 
working, and at night is diverted into hamboo pipes which throw 
a spray on to different sides of the excavation. The earth thus 
softened is dug out in the morning by hand, usually with tools 
like gardeners' spuds, and then washed in the stream. Thus the 
Whole of a hillside is slowly eaten away and its rubies extracted. 
The third and last system of mining employed is by sinking pits 



in the lower or plain parts of the valleys. The ruby strata here 
are of a different character, and a final process of discrimination 
appears to have distributed pockets of ruby-bearing earth under 
the entire area of the flat land in the different valleys. The 
earth is called by the natives "Byun," and is generally found 
at two different depths : the first layer at about 4 ft., and the 
second and richer one, at 20 to 30 ft. below the surface. It 
is generally extracted by a company of miners, ten or twelve 
in number. Pits are dug about 8 ft. square, lined with rough 
timber and stayed with four cross-pieces at intervals. Water 
enters the pit on sinking a short distance below the surface, and 
the principal work and source of expense is keeping the mine free 
- from water. Upright posts are let into the ground at a short 
distance from the mouth and a fork is cut in the upper end of 
each. In this fork is balanced a lever, the longer arm of which 
hangs over the pit, while the shorter arm carries a bucket 
weighted with stones to counterbalance the contents of the basket, 
which is connected with the longer arm by a bamboo which reaches 
to the bottom of the pit. This contrivance forms a most efficient 
though simple means of raising both water and earth by manual 
labour. Generally six or eight of these levers overhang each pit 
in actual working, and probably the proportion of water buckets 
in constant use to earth baskets is two to one. Three men at 
least are below, occupied in filling both baskets and buckets ; they 
rise and fall incessantly during the working hours, which rarely 
exceed six daily. The ruby earth thus extracted is placed in a 
heap at the side of the pit, and on first exposure, while wet, 
sparkles in the sun with myriads of small stones, brilliant in colour 
but not large enough, unfortunately, to be of any value. When 
a sufficient quantity has been obtained it is washed in bamboo 
trays and handed over to the sorters, who, after carefully examining 
it, and taking out any stones of value, pass it on again to a small 
colony of women and children who generally surround every pit, 
and who again sort it slowly over in the hopes of finding some 
smaller stones that may have been missed by the men. It is a 
ludicrous sight to see two or three little children who, perhaps, 
can scarcely walk, sitting down before aheap of this washed earth 
and sorting away with most serious faces, as if they realised that 
their existence depended upon their exertions. No machinery is 
apparent in the whole district, though it is stated that a pump 
Avas brought up a few years ago from Mandalay ; but it soon got 
choked, and was thrown away as useless, probably because no one 
understood how to work it. These gangs of miners are presided 
over by a "Gyoung" or head-man, and they appear to work on a 
co-operative system, the result of their labour being divided 
according to merit. Some curious superstitions exist among 
them, and they are great believers in dreams. No miner will 
dare mention or talk about an elephant, tiger or monkey while at 
work ; and lately they greatly feared that a few elephants, 
belonging to the commissariat department, which came down near 
the mines to feed, would frighten away all the rubies in the district. 
It is also thought that, if a man secretes a stone found Avhile 
working at the diggings, he will sooner or later meet with some 
great misfortune and probably die some horrid death. This, 
however, does not prevent smuggling being carried on to a great 
extent, though the Burmese kings have resorted to many expe- 
dients in order to stop it. One Lord of the White Elephant 
had all the ruby earth brought down to his palace and washed 
and sorted there by his numerous wives under a guard. In the 
late King Min-dolm-Min's reign, any smuggler or illicit dealer 
in rubies was publicly flogged at the street corners of the town 
and all his property confiscated. The expedients for passing 
rubies through the King's guards that were stationed at different 
places on the road between the mines and Mandalay were 
surprising in their variety. Some of the miners or traders would 
make flesh wounds in their arms and legs and place rubies in 
the different cuts. These would heal over and completely hide 
the gem beneath, which might be extracted when occasion served. 
Others would place packets of stones in the top-knots of their 
hair or would carry them in small hollow bamboos with false 
bottoms. These devices must have been often successful, for 
numerous valuable stones reached Rangoon yearly from unknown 
sources. 



60 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[October 1, 1887. 



Fashions in jewellery. 



MM HAT a revival in the direction of an increased taste for 
l^g* personal adornment in the way of jewellery is taking place 
in fashionable society has been evident for some time. As 
this change of taste on the part of the leaders of our own beau 
(or rather belle) monde is likely to be more lasting than arbitrary 
changes of fashion usually are, it should afford hope that the 
jewellery trade may be raised from the slough of despond into 
which it has fallen. Any indications that the fashion referred to 
is not purely local or confined to any one circle, tend to strengthen 
the idea as to its enduring. Although the sale of the French 
Crown Jewels has had the usual fate of a nine days' wonder, there 
are not wanting signs that French feminine inclination for 
jewellery has in no way declined ; and that our Trans-Atlantic 
cousins are following the European lead is shown by numerous 
articles on the subject in American papers. 

An excerpt from a leader in the Jeweler s Circular will be of 
special interest just now, as showing what is being done by the 
jewellery trade to keep the matter of personal adornment abreast 
of the times. 

While marked progress is being made in literature, science, the 
arts, &c, and the human race becoming more appreciative each 
day of all that is beautiful either in nature or art, it is but 
reasonable to suppose that an industry that is devoted to the 
production of articles of luxury, and in which , so many millions 
are invested, should contribute its full share to the progress of 
the age. In no branch of artistic work has there been greater 
advancement than is manifest in the productions of the gold and 
silver smiths. All the other arts and sciences have been made 
tributary to these productions, and whatever of progress has been 
developed in painting, sculpture, &c, may also be found in the 
modern examples of the handicraft of the gold and silver smiths. 
This has been abundantly demonstrated in the recent sales of the 
collections of some of our wealthiest citizens, whose death made 
necessary the dispersion of their art collections which they had 
spent their lives in collecting. At the sales of these famous 
collections, no articles offered attracted more attention than the 
examples of art work in gold and silver. The cabinets containing 
these were surrounded at all times by admiring throngs, whose 
admiration extended not only to the artistic ideas embodied in 
the works before them, but to the workmanship as well, and the 
highest encomiums were lavished upon the skill that had wrought 
out in the precious metals the beautiful conceptions of the artists 
who designed these masterpieces. At the sales these works of 
art and of value brought liberal prices, and the competition for 
them was very great, showing that there is a wide and growing 
appreciation of artistic work of this kind. That such is the fact 
is demonstrated by a visit to the salerooms of the leading 
manufacturers, where will be found exhibited a profusion of gold 
and silver work in the greatest varieties of design and patterns 
that have ever been exhibited anywhere at any time. These 
productions are in response to a demand that is constantly 
increasing as the country grows in wealth, and the number of 
persons who can afford to gratify their longings for the beautiful 
multiplies with such rapidity as it does in this country. Our 
manufacturers are stimulated to renewed effort by the demand, 
and vie with each other in the beauty and elaborateness of their 
productions. The mere fact that these beautiful and costly 
works are produced is all the evidence that is required that the 
demand for them not only exists but is increasing, for our shrewd 
manufacturers are too good business men to put their money and 
their time into work that is not likely to be remunerative. If 
there was no market for them there would be no goods, whereas 
the fact is that there never was such a profusion of fine goods, 
embodying the highest artistic ideas, as there is at present. 
These goods take on all forms that are known to the jewellery 
trade, from elaborate pieces that are cherished simply for their 
artistic beauty to the most utilitarian articles of every-day use. 

What is true of the demand for the best examples of the gold 
and silver smith's art, is true, also, as regards those examples of 
the jeweller's art designed for personal adornment. There was a 



time, a few years ago, when fashion, in its fickleness, decreed 
that gold jewellery should not be worn to any great extent ; but 
even fashion could not enforce this decree fully, for each individual 
will insist upon following his or her own tastes in such matters 
and wear such things as are appropriate and becoming. There 
are few ladies who do not realise that jewellery, that is in itself 
beautiful, adds to their attractiveness when displayed with 
judgment, and hence jewellery has always been fashionable, in 
spite of all efforts to taboo it, since it was first invented. At 
times it has been less conspicuous than at others, but never has 
it been regarded as in bad taste when exhibited with judgment. 
One may be bejewelled to excess and so appear ridiculous, as 
another may be dressed in bad taste ; but dresses are nevertheless 
demanded, and so is jewellery. But Dame Fashion has recalled 
her decree against jewellery, and those devotees who formerly 
wore but little or none, do not now feel that they are dressed 
unless they are adorned with certain articles of jewellery, the kind 
and amount varying with individual tastes. Necklaces, brooches, 
earrings, finger rings, lace pins, pins for the hair and for the 
bonnet, cuffs buttons, &c, are worn on all occasions, and our lady 
contributor, "Elsie Bee," is our authority for the statement that 
even the garters worn by ladies are ornamented with gold, silver 
and gems. Of this we have no personal knowledge, although we 
remember having seen in the stores some very beautiful articles 
which we supposed to be bracelets of novel design until our fair 
contributor awakened our suspicions in the matter. But we can 
testify positively to the fact that the other articles we have 
mentioned are worn freely and openly by ladies at home, at 
parties, in the street and on all occasions. The poet remarks 
that " beauty unadorned is adorned the most," but our modern 
ladies act upon the belief that judicious personal adornment 
heightens their beauty, and American women the world over are 
noted for their loveliness. As for the gentlemen, a certain 
amount of jewellery has become with them a matter of necessity. 
They must have their collar and cuff buttons, their watch and 
accompanying vest chain, a handsome scarf pin, studs for full 
dress, charms for their watch chain, and one or more finger rings 
and other articles of ornament according to taste. These are 
worn by everybody, at all times and at all seasons, some of them 
being absolutely indispensable to full dress occasions. 



A New Dodge. — An attempt, of a somewhat novel character, 
to extort money from pawnbrokers, has, according to the 
Birmingham Daily Mail, been made within the past few days. 
The dodge adopted is not exactly new, but it is nevertheless a 
decidedly ingenious one. Two respectably-dressed men, evidently 
with a fair knowledge oE the jewellery trade, call upon the pawn- 
brokers, and upon being told that money is advanced on jewellery 
one of the pair produces either bracelets or scarf pin of a valuable 
description, and requests an inspection. When -the customary 
acid test has been applied, and the articles found genuine, an 
extremely high price is asked, which, of course, is refused. The 
owner declines to accept a smaller sum, so that the pawnbroker 
has no alternative but to hand back the jewellery. Immediately 
this is done the owner discovers that the articles have been 
disfigured, and forthwith accuses the pawnbroker of having 
filed the gold instead of applying the acid. The confederate, 
who is waiting in the loan office, declares that he saw the file 
used, and in his' estimation it has depreciated the value of the 
goods to the extent of two sovereigns. The unsuspecting broker 
then begins to perceive that he is dealing with swindlers, and 
finds himself in an awkward predicament. He is threatened that 
unless he makes some compensation or purchases the jewellery an 
action will be brought against him. Knowing that it would be 
a delicate matter to refute such a charge if the sharpers upon 
oath say that they witnessed the filing, the pawnbroker in some 
cases chooses the lesser of two evils, and prefers paying a sove- 
reign rather than run the risk of losing a much greater amount 
by defending the threatened action. The only way to defeat 
these rogues would be to apply the acid test in all cases in the 
presence of two or three witnesses, and with this warning probably 
pawnbrokers will be on their guard. 



October 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



61 



"Workshop ffiemoranba. 



WWTCKEL-PLATED brass or iron, which has become coated 
■p^H 1 with burned grease and dirt, may be cleaned without 
injury to the nickel surface, by boiling in a strong solution 
of soda or potash : rinse in water, and rub first with moistened 
and then with dry rouge or chalk. 



Steel which has rusted can be cleaned by brushing with a 
paste composed of \ oz. cyanide potassium, . 1 oz. Castile soap, 

1 oz. whiting, and water sufficient to form a paste. The steel 
should first be washed in a solution of \ oz. cyanide potassium in 

2 ozs. of water. 



To Clean Pearls. — Soak them in hot water, in. which bran 
has been boiled, with a little salts of tartar and alum, rubbing 
gently between the hands when the water will admit of it. When 
the water is cold, renew the operation until the discolouration is 
removed ; rinse in lukewarm water, and lay the pearls in white 
paper in a dark place to cool and dry. 



A Grained Surface on Brass. — The following simplified 
mode of effecting the graining upon brass, and one which does 
not require much skill, will be advantageously followed by the 
watchmaker who is but seldom called upon to perform this work. 
It is given, in L 'Union Horlogere : — Dissolve a little culinary 
salt in a mixture of equal parts of nitric and sulphuric acid. 
This will produce a grained surface upon either brass, copper 
or German silver. A coarser grain can be obtained by the 
addition of a little more salt. Before the procedure it should 
be understood that the articles are to be well ground and 
thoroughly cleaned. Next they are suspended to a horse hair, 
and dipped into the said mixture for the space of a few seconds. 
They are then withdrawn and afterwards dipped into hot water, 
after which they are scratch brushed with beer, for which operation 
you can use a brush of brass, German silver, or of glass thread. 
This being done, the parts are silvered with ease, and again 
scratch brushed and then gilt. In this manner an equally 
grained surface of a uniform and desirable colour is obtained. 



Two Methods of Demagnetising Watches. — The magnetic 
influence of dynamo machines on watches is a constant source of 
annoyance to electricians ; the delicate steel parts, such as the 
balance wheel and escapement, being so readily affected in their 
action by the slightest degree of magnetism as to render the 
watch worse than useless. An apparatus was constructed by 
Swan for the purpose of demagnetising watches. It consisted 
of a horse-shoe magnet made to rotate. The damaged watch 
was placed on a revolving disc turning in the reverse direction 
to that of the poles of the magnet, and was thus allowed to 
approach quite close to the magnet, the distance being gradually 
increased until the watch was entirely removed from the influence 
of the poles. The repeated alternate passing of the magnet's 
poles and gradual lessening of distance had the desired effect of 
demagnetising the steel parts. Hopkinson has invented the 
following method : — He commences by completely magnetising 
the watch, not by subjecting it to the influence of a magnet, but 
by suspending it inside the copper coil of an apparatus, having a 
commutator which reverses the electric current twice in every 
second of time, its strength being at the same time gradually 
diminished until it becomes nil. The success of the operation 
depends upon the reversals of the current and the gradual 
diminishing of its force being obtained with the utmost regularity ; 
and to effect this, the apparatus, which is a battery, has to be 
constructed with the greatest nicety. A windlass, with ratchet 
wheel, is employed for the slow raising of the zincs out of the 
solution. 



The Glasgow Exhibition. — The building for the Inter- 
national Exhibition at Glasgow, which will be opened in May 
of next year, is now being proceeded with. The ground to be 



occupied by the Exhibition buildings extends to 10-| acres, and 
already the framework of the central hall is being carried forward 
to completion. The artisans' section is expected to be instructively 
complete, and an exceptionally interesting exhibition of pictures 
is being arranged. The Fine Arts Committee have now issued 
their prospectuses, applicable to the sale and loan sections. The 
Queen is patron, and the Prince of Wales hon. president. The 
corresponding members include Mr. L. Alma-Tadema and Mr. 
Hamo Thornycroft, and the Committee comprises many leading 
citizens, Sir James King (Lord Provost) being the chairman of the 
Executive Council. The art section is to include sculpture 
(original works in marble, bronzes, &c, terra cotta, wax and 
plaster of Paris), oil paintings, water-colour drawings, works in 
black and white (charcoal, crayon and sepia drawings, &c), 
engravings and etchings (steel and copper engravings, lithographs, 
&c), architectural drawings and models, and objects illustrative 
of Scottish history and archaeology. The art galleries are to be ten 
in number, occupying an area equal to 3,200 square yards, and 
affording about 2,450 lineal feet of hanging space. It is proposed 
that objects illustrative of Scottish history and archaeology shall 
be placed in a separate building, specially constructed for that 
purpose. Electric light will be used throughout the Exhibition, 
and the mode of its application in the fine art galleries will 
obviate the risks incidental, under other conditions, to the use of 
artificial lights. An art union is to be organised in connection 
with the fine arts sale section. The price of tickets will be limited 
to Is. each, and the receipts are to be divided into prizes to be 
selected from works exhibited in the fine arts sale section. In 
connection with the Loan Exhibition, the Committee undertake to 
collect and return the works of art and other exhibits lent, and 
to bear all cost of transit. When required to do so, they will 
insure, at their own expense, all loan exhibits against every risk, 
whether in transit or during the Exhibition. It may be added 
that, while detailed arrangements are still in prospect, it is 
contemplated that music, both choral and orchestral, shall enter 
largely into the daily life of the Exhibition. 



jCon&on Bankruptcy Court 

Ee Bryce McMdrdo Wright. 

§HIS was a first meeting, held on Friday, 16th ult. The 
debtor, a mineralogist and jeweller, carrying on business 
at 204, Regent Street, had a receiving order made against 
him in August last, and has filed accounts showing gross debts 
£16,792 9s. lid., of which £13,418 2s. 7d. is unsecured, and 
assets £1,713 6s. 2d. A long discussion took place upon the 
debtor's proposal, which was to vest the estate in trustees to 
secure the payment of a composition of 5s. in the pound, extending 
over twelve months, which was accepted. 



Bankruptcy Proceedings. 

Re Joseph and Frederic Bromage. 
121 MEETING of the creditors of Joseph Bromage and 
^Eak Frederic Bromage, carrying on business at 113, Vyse 
S ~ J ^ Street, Birmingham, manufacturing jewellers — Joseph 
Bromage residing at Warwick Place, Francis Road, and 
Frederic Bromage at Carlyle Road, Edgbaston — was held on 
the 20th ult., at the office of the Official Receiver, Colmore Row. 
The statement of affairs showed the liabilities to be £4,609 16s. 6d., 
of which amount all but £175 10s. 6d. was due to unsecured 
creditors. The net assets amounted to £2,101 17s. Id., thus 
leaving a deficiency of £2,507 19s. 5d. The report of the 
Official Receiver stated that the debtors commenced business in 
April, 1882, with a capital of £1,000, which they received as 
part of their interest under the will of their late father. Sub- 
sequently they received a further sum of £800. They had not 
prepared a balance sheet since they commenced business, but in 
December, 1884, they went through their affairs roughly, and 
found they were about solvent. In June, 1886, they commenced 



62 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLEE AND SILVERSMITH. 



[October 1, 1887. 



pawning goods, and the pawning was continued up to April 
29 last. At the date of the petition a pawnbroker held stock 
estimated at £8,328 19s. 7d., upon which advances amounting 
to £2,277 had been made. Only two lots of goods had been 
redeemed. For some time past the debtors experienced difficulty 
in trading through the want of capital, and for the last six 
months the profits of the business had been insufficient to pay 
the expenses. In May last they found they were unable to meet 
several payments becoming due, and a private meeting of the 
creditors was held. The statement of affairs showed liabilities 
£4,229 16s. 6d., and assets £2,351 19s. 5d. An offer of 
composition of 7s. 6d. in the pound was not accepted, and one of 
the creditors presented a petition, but the debtors endeavoured to 
resist the proceedings, and to prevent the receiving order being 
granted. No purchase ledger had been kept, and the invoices of 
the goods had been destroyed. In the separate estate of Joseph 
Bromage the liabilities were £654 12s. 4d., and the assets nil; 
and in that of Frederic Bromage the liabilities were £475 12s. 10d., 
and the assets nil. — In reply to Mr. J. Randall, one of the 
creditors, the debtors stated that they had given pawntickets as 
security. Most of them were given to Mr. Dick, but Dick had 
returned them since his failure. Dick gave them up because he 
was asked for them. — In answer to the Official Receiver, the debtors 
stated that they had left the tickets at home. — Mr. Randall asked 
how many tickets Mr. Smallwood, of Small Heath, had. — One of 
the debtors replied that he did not think Mr. Smallwood ever had 
one. The tickets were given to Dick about four months before 
their failure. — The Official Receiver : Why did you give them to 
him ? The debtors replied that he had a bill with them, and he 
pressed them to give him some security or goods, and as they 
could not pay him they gave him the tickets. Dick returned 
them about a fortnight ago when asked for them. They owed 
him about £1,700. — Mr. Harris, who appeared for the debtors, 
said there was no offer of composition. — Mr. Hill, accountant, 
was appointed trustee, and Messrs. Randall, Westwood and 
Evans the committee of inspection. 



In reference to the above case the Birmingham Daily Post 
says : It is hardly to be wondered at that the Birmingham 
jewellery trade should be in a suffering state when such reckless 
trading as that revealed in the case of Messrs. Bromage yesterday 
is resorted to by so many of its members. This is not the first 
or the second bankruptcy we have reported lately in which the 
systematic pawning of jewellery has been frankly acknowledged 
by the debtors ; and though this desperate expedient is doubtless 
resorted to in the first instance in good faith, as a temporary one, 
to tide over a particular crisis, it invariably proves to be the first 
Of a series, each representing the link of a steadily lengthening 
chain, which is destined to drag the debtor into bankruptcy, and 
seriously aggravate the difficulties of the liquidation. In this case, 
it appears that the debtors, finding themselves unable to meet 
their engagements in June, 1886, commenced pawning goods, 
upon which they obtained advances to the amount of £250. 
In the following month two fresh transactions with the 
pawnbroker resulted in an advance of £170, and then the 
downward impetus being fairly given, the pledging business went 
on crescendo at the rate of five, six, seven and nine transactions 
a month, until, at the close of April last, the pawnbroker held 
stock of the estimated value of £3,328 19s. 7d., upon which 
advances had been made to the amount of £2,277. Out of 50 
parcels of jewellery pledged at various times, only two, it seems, 
had been redeemed, and the marvel is under these circumstances 
that the debtors, who owe more than £4,200, should be able to 
offer any composition or show any assets at all. As it is, the 
creditors find themselves left, as Mr. Fitter yesterday described 
it, with the wreck of an estate in the shape of an equity of 
redemption, otherwise the pawntickets of the goods pledged, 
which the estate w r ould probably never see again. If the mischief 
were confined to the creditors concerned in the case, other 
Birmingham jewellers would doubtless be able to bear the 
misfortune philosophically ; but, as they are well aware, the injury 
done by the wholesale pawning of goods at one -half or two-thirds 



of their invoice price, is one that is felt by every member of the 
trade. For every pawning transaction by a manufacturing 
jeweller or factor there are probably a dozen cases of underselling, 
as no loss that can be incurred in this way is likely to equal the 
loss by pledging. But a still worse service is done to legitimate 
trade when the pawned goods are thrown upon the market, as 
they must be sooner or later, and the public are invited to buy 
jewellery by auction at something like one-half the regular retail 
price. Scarcely a week passes in this town without one or more 
auction sales at which jewellery is sold at prices for which it could 
not be produced; and Birmingham is only one of many distributing 
centres where similar bargains are constantly offered to the public 
at the expense of the jewellery trade. Even if the demand for 
ornaments w r ere much more active than it is, the trade could 
hardly be in a healthy condition, when it is being systematically 
sapped in this irregular manner ; and until some effectual method 
of stopping the leak is devised it seems to be hopeless to pray for 
improvement. The approbation system doubtless is at the bottom 
of the evil ; but even if it were abolished it would not wholly 
prevent the pawning of goods obtained on credit or paid for with 
long-dated bills. It is the pawning that must be stopped, and if 
the law as it stands is not adequate to meet the case an amending 
Act should be obtained to prevent the disposing of manufacturers' 
stock otherwise than in the legitimate way of trade. It is not 
always the pawnbroker whose friendly agency is invoked in these 
irregular and mischievous transactions. Even bankers are not 
always proof against the temptations to obtain valuable portable 
cover for their advances. But whatever form the pledging takes, 
it ought to be equally illegal, seeing that the goods pawned must 
always represent, to a great extent, the property of the pawner's 
creditors. We are referring, of course, to wholesale pawning by 
a trader, which is obviously on a very different footing from retail 
transactions with private customers, who part with their own 
personal property to meet a pecuniary exigency. Had such a law 
as we have suggested been in existence, it is clear that Messrs. 
Bromage could not have gone on pledging from £200 to £700 
worth of their creditors' goods every month, and the trade 
altogether would be in a healthier position than it is just now. 



Gazette. 



Partnerships Dissolved. 
Truseott & Morgan. Tenby, watchmakers. Phillips & Kahn, Strand. 
jewellers. Mill & Jones, Swansea, watchmakers. Lezard & Sonj 
Holborn Viaduct, City, watch manufacturers. P. Edge «fc Co., 
Tyldesley, pawnbrokers. Hirst Bros., Arlington Street, Clerkenwell, 
watch case makers. Forbes & Howe, The Broadway, Streatham , 
jewellers. 

THE BANKRUPTCY ACT, 1883. 
Receiving Orders. 
To surrender in the Country. — Harry Ambrose, Bath, jeweller. Charles 
Ionian McKenzie, Dover, watchmaker. James Varley, Bishop 
Auckland, clockmaker. William Whitehall, Leicester, watchmaker. 
William Snook, Southsea. watchmaker. Henrj^ Bird, Coventry, 
watch manufacturer. Benjamin Graham, Wakefield, jeweller. Thomas 
Coventry Judge, Chard, clockmaker. Charles Fitzgerald and Thomas 
Young, Bristol, watch manufacturers. George Henry Simmons, 
Builth, jeweller. Charles Roberts, Abergavenny, watchmaker. 

Poblic Examinations. 

In London. — B. McM. Wright, Regent Street, mineralogist; October 4, at 
11.30. A. Furtwangler, Strand, watchmaker; October 18, at 12. 

In the Country. — H. Ambrose, Bath, jeweller; October fi, at 11.30. Clara 
Ann Rollason (otherwise Twist ). Birmingham, pawnbroker; October 3, 
at 2. J. Green, Sheffield, pawnbroker ; October 6, at 11.30. J. Bromage 
and F. Bromage, Birmingham, manufacturing jewellers ; October 4, 
at 2. J. Bromage (separate estate), Edgbaston, manufacturing 
jeweller; October 4, at 2. F. Bromage (separate estate), Edgbaston, 
manufacturing jeweller ; October 4, at 2. W. Whitehall, Leicester, 
watchmaker ; October 5, at 10. W. Snook, Southsea, watchmaker ; 
October 6, at 12. Bi Graham, Wakefield, jeweller ; October 6, at 11. 
C. Fitzgerald and T. Young, Bristol, watch manufacturers ; October 
28, at 12. T. C. Judge, Chard, clockmaker ; October 12, at 2.30. 

Adjudications. 

In London. — A. Furtwangler, Strand, watchmaker. 

In the Country. — T. Marson (trading as T. Marson & Co.). Birmingham, 
jeweller. W. H. Stokes, Birmingham, manufacturing jeweller. 
J. Green, Sheffield, pawnbroker. Clara Ann Rollason (otherwise 
Twist), Birmingham, pawnbroker. C. J. McKenzie, Dover, watch- 
maker. J. Varley ,. Bishop Auckland, clockmaker. W. Snook, South- 



October 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



63 



sea, watchmaker. J. Eisner, Birmingham, pawnbroker. H. Bird, 
Coventry, watch manufacturer. B. Graham, Wakefield, jeweller. 
W. Whitehall, Leicester, watchmaker. J. Bromage and F. Bromage, 
Birmingham, manufacturing jewellers. C. Fitzgerald and T. Young, 
Bristol, watch manufacturers. 

Notices of Dividends. 

In London. — E. Turnor, The Broadway, Hammersmith, jeweller; 2s. llkl., 
first and final ; any day except Saturday, Chief Official Receiver, 33, 
Carey Street. 

In the Country. — W. Banks. Bolton, optician ; 2s., final ; September 5, 
S. Greenhalgh, Bolton. J. Lee, Manchester, jeweller; Is., first; 
forthwith, J. Eckersley. J. Bickall, South Molton, silversmith ; 4s., 
first ; September 12, Official Receiver, Taunton. Selina Tan tarn and 
W. Tantam, Birmingham, pawnbrokers ; Is. 6|d., first, and final ; 
September 19, 25, Colmore Row, Birmingham. 



APPLICATIONS FOR LETTERS PATENT. 



The following List of Patents has been compiled especially for The Watchmaker, 
Jeweller and Silversmith, by Messrs. W. P. Thompson & Boult, Patent Agents, 
of 323, High Holborn, London, W.C.; Newcastle Chambers, Angel Row, Notting- 
ham ; and 6, Lord Street, Liverpool. 



4,135(7. 

11,465. 
11,469. 

11,522. 
11,542. 
11,616. 

11,770. 

11,938. 
11,939. 
12,096. 

12,147. 

12,259. 

12,306. 
12,332. 

12,354. 

12,452. 
12,498. 
12,607. 
12,649. 

12,688. 



Nordmann, United 
liments to watches." 



H. J. Haight, London, for " Improvements in electro-magnetic 
clock-time transmitters." (Complete specification.) Dated March 
18, 1887. 

H-. Conant, London, for "An isochronal clock." (Complete 
specification.) Dated August 23, 1887. 
J. G-. Tongue, a communication from P. 
States, for " Improvements in repeating attac 
(Complete specification.) Dated August 23. 1887. 
N. C. Reading, Birmingham, for "Improvements in watch chains." 
(Complete specification.) Dated August 24, 1887. 
A. J. Boult, a communication from P. Amiel, Spain, for "Im- 
provements in clocks." Dated August 24, 1887. 
A. E. Hotchkiss, London, for "Improvements in the manufacture 
of lantern pinions for clocks, watches and the like, and in 
machinery or apparatus for use in such manufacture." (Complete 
specification.) Dated August 26, 1887. 

J. Juillerat-Berthoud and Alfred Leiser, Consul Suisse a Londres, 
for "A watch system Callote, bearing but one cover and a dome 
on the side of the dial." Dated August 30. 1887. 
J. G-. Lorrain, London, for " Improvements in or connected with 
self-winding clocks." Dated September 2, 1887. 
J. G. Lorrain, London, for " Improvements in or connected with 
self-winding clocks." Dated September 2, 1887. 
W. C. Aldridge, Birmingham, for " Improvements in collar and 
shirt studs and other like dress fasteners." Dated September 7, 
1887. 

N. Hall, a communication from C. C. Hall, Mauritius, for "An 
improved watch stand and watch regulator combined." Dated 
September 8, 1887. 

A. F. Small and F. W. Small, London, for "An improved fastening- 
device, applicable for studs, solitaires, waistcoat buttons, brooches, 
neckties and similar articles." Dated September 9, 1887. 
G. Reimann, London, for " Improvements in automatic calendars 
forelocks." (Complete specification.) Dated September 10,1887. 
S. Pearson, A. W. Turner and W. Andrews, Birmingham, for "A 
new process for extracting aluminum from minerals, and also 
making aluminum alloys therefrom." (Complete specification.) 
Dated September 12, 1887. 

E. J. Taylor, London, for "An improved method of fastening or 
securing collar studs, solitaires, sleeve links and like articles." 
Dated September 12, 1887. 

F. R. Baker, Birmingham, for " Improvements in solitaire, button 
or other similar fastenings." Dated September 14, 1887. 

J. Adie and A. Lovekin, Birmingham, for "Improvements in 

bracelets and bangles." Dated September 15, 1887. 

H. N. G. Cobbe- Birmingham, for " Improvements in self-winding 

clocks." Dated September 17, 1887. 

H. Dalgety, London, for "Improvements in solitaires and the 

like." Dated September 17, 1887. 

E. G. Staniforth, London, for "An improved clasp stud for shirts." 

Dated September 19, 1887. 



Becent American Patents. 



Burglar Alarm. A. E. Hathaway 

Burglar Alarm. B. F. Hough 

Chain and Pen and Pencil Holder. Combination Watch. 

■'''• ■-•'-N; Frere 

Clock Cases, Die for Forming Metallic. M. Fowler 

Clock, Electric Programme. A. J. Reams 

Clock, Isochronal. H. Conant 

Clock, Programme. A. J. Reams 

Clocks, Controlling Device for. W. S. Scales 

Cones, Apparatus for Making Sand. J. Foran 

Cuff Holder, Adjustable. C. H. Murray 

Cuff Holder. S.' B. Ellithorp 

Cuff Holder. G. H. Phelps 368,305- 

Cuff Retainer. A. Bond 

Cutlery or similar articles, Manufacture of. H. A. Brognard 

Cutlery, &c, Manufacture of. H. A. Brognard ... 

Emery Wheels, Dresser for. W. W. Brisben 



368,336 
367,523 

367,804 
368,526 
367,663 
368,814 
367,662 
368,689 
368,915 
368,350 
368,081 
-368,306 
368,750 
368,061 
368,060 
368,062 



Eyeglasses. E. B. Meyrowitz 368,226 

Files, Machine for Cutting. C. M. Fairbanks 367,382 

Finger Ring. J. Scott 367,449 

Finger Ring. R. Weidmann 368,743 

Ingot Manipulator. F. Heron 368,395 

Ingot Mould. H. Wright 367,571 

Ingots, Forming Metal. E. Wheeler 368,176 

Jewellery. C. W. Hartmann 367,976 

Jewellery. J. Lamont 367.414 

Lathe. C.Smith 368J021 

Lathe Tool Holder. J. L. Bogert 368,749 

Micrometer Gauge. F. Spaulding 368,554 

Micrometer Pipe Gauge. D. G. Brown 368,563 

Ore Concentrator. J. H. Pemberton 368,683 

Ore Detector, Electrical. L. Mellett 367,422 

Ore Indicator, Electric. Mellet & Prince 367,541 

Ore Separator. E. A. Wall 368,033 

Platinum, Deposition of by Electricity. W. A. Thorns ... 367,731 

Rings or Chain Links, Manufacture of. W. A. Peck 367,923 

Rolling Mills, Device for Balancing Rolls of. F. G. Tallman... 367,464 
Sand, Machine for Screening and Moistening Moulding. 

G. Guntz 368,333 

Scarf Holder. W.P.Clarke 368,380 

Screw Cutting Die. G. Emig... 368,462 

Spectacle Frame. W. Ramsay 368,852 

Spectacle Joint. F. Scheidig 367,552 

Thermometer, Recording. W. H. A. Bogardus 368,319 

Wire Drawing Machine. W. H. Sawyer 367,667 

Wire Drawing Machine. W. Wallace 367,733 

Watch Case Spring. G. A. McCay 368,100 

Watch, Repeating. A. P. Pfister 368,002 

Watch, Repeating. G. Aubert 368,904 

Watches, Push Button for Repeating. C. Morlet 367,995 

A printed copy of the specifications and drawing of any patent 
in the American list, also of any American patent issued since 
18G6, will be furnished from this office for 2s. 6d. In ordering, 
please state the number and date of the patent required, and 
remit to J. Truslove, Office of The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 
Silversmith, 7, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 



lorresponbence. 

All Letters for Publication to be addressed to the Editor of The 
Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith, 7, St. PauVs Church- 
yard, E.C. 

All communications must bear the name and address of the sender, not 
neeessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 



To the Editor of The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 
Silversmith. 

Sir, — The Prime Meridian Conference, held at Washington in 
1881c, recommended for universal adoption : — 

1. Greenwich as the initial meridian. 

2. Longitudes to be reckoned east and west to 180° from 

Greenwich. 

3. A universal day for all purposes for which it may be 

found convenient, and which shall not interfere with 
the use of local or other standard time where desirable. 

4. The universal day to begin for all the world at midnight 

at Greenwich, and to be counted as 24 hours. 

5. The civil day to be used for all purposes, abolishing the 

astronomical day and the nautical day so called. 
Are these recommendations ever likely to be acted upon, and 
if so, when and to what extent ; or are they merely the ghostly 
reminiscence of a pleasant holiday trip experienced by the 
Conferees at the public expense, according to the usual outcome 
of such conferences ? 

Yours faithfully, 

R. Strachan. 
11, Offord Road, N., September 3. 



[MELBOURNE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION.] 

Sir, — I have the honour to inform you that it has been 
decided by the Government of the Colony of Victoria to hold an 
International Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures, Agricultural 
and Industrial Processes and Products in the City of Melbourne, 
in celebration of the Centenary of the Settlement of Australia ; 
and that the Exhibition will be opened on August 1, 1888, 
and will close on January 31, 1889. 



64 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[October 1, 1887. 



An Executive Commission lias been appointed by the Governor, 
under the Seal of the Colony, to conduct the Exhibition ; and 
its London Committee, who have control of all questions con- 
cerning the exhibitors of the United Kingdom, consists of the 
following gentlemen : — The Hon. Sir Graham Berry, K.C.M.G., 
Agent-General for Victoria, Chairman ; The Right Hon. Hugh 
C. E. Childers, M.P., Sir Henry Barkly, G.C.M.G., Lieut.- 
General Sir Andrew Clarke, R.E., G.C.M.G., Sir James 
McCulloch, K.C.M.G., Sir Samuel Wilson, M.P., The Hon. 
James Service, The Hon. J. Dennistoun Wood, Charles E. 
Bright, Esq., O.M.G., John Badcock, Esq., John H. Blackwood, 
Esq., John Maclntyre, Esq., John M. Paterson, Esq., William 
Peterson, Esq., Robert Rome, Esq. 

The offices of the Commission in England will be at 8, Victoria 
Chambers, Westminster, adjoining the offices of the Agent- 
General for the Colony, and all communications should be 
addressed to the Secretary at that address. 

Her Majesty's Government propose to. issue a Royal Commis- 
sion, of which His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales has 
graciously consented to be President, to co-operate with the 
Government of the Colony in ensuring a due representation of 
the Arts and Manufactures of the Queen's dominions, and have 
promised to use their good offices with the Governments of 
Foreign States, of the Indian Empire, and of the Colonies 
other than those of Australasia, to make the Exhibition truly 
representative of the works of all nations. 

I am instructed to request your particular attention to the 
following figures, which give a general view of the trade of the 
United Kingdom with Australasia, and which are published 
on the authority of Government returns supplied to the 
Commission : — - 

" During the year 1885 Australasia, with a population of 
3,500,000, imported from Great Britain goods to the amount 
of £32,000,000. The United States, France and Germany, 
whose combined populations number 133,000,000, imported 
during the same period from Great Britain, to the amount 
of £53,000,000. Calculated at per head of the population, 
Australasia therefore imported nearly 23 times as much as the 
above-named countries combined ; and this in addition to a 
large and increasing trade, with other countries." 

The last International Exhibition held at Melbourne, in the 
year 1880, was followed by a most remarkable increase in the 
imports of the Colony, due no doubt in great part to the stimulus 
thereby given to trade. The imports of Victoria, which in 
1880, the year in which the Exhibition was held, were 
£14,556,894, rose in 1881 to £16,718,521, and in 1882 to 
£18,748,081. The capitals of the adjoining Colonies, Adelaide 
and Sydney, are now connected with Melbourne by railway, and 
before next year the line to Brisbane will be open, so that the 
population of the greater Colonies will be placed within easy 
access of the Exhibition. It may thus be fairly hoped that the 
stimulus given to British trade, not merely with Victoria, but 
with all the Australasian Colonies, will even exceed the re- 
markable results which followed the Exhibition of 1880. 

The main buildings erected for that Exhibition are of a 
permanent character and fine design. To these will be added 
annexes of iron, covering, according to a telegraphic despatch 
just received from the Colony, a total area of 24 acres. No 
charge will be made for space. The detailed prospectus and 
forms of application can be obtained on personal or written 
inquiry at the above address. Applications for sjDace should be 
returned to the London offices on or before August 31 ; but it 
is requested that, in view of the distance at which the Exhibition 
is held, and the time necessarily involved in correspondence 
respecting the arrangements for the perfect accommodation of all 
exhibitors, the applications may be sent in at as early a date as 
possible. I am to add that every facility will be afforded to 
exhibitors respecting customs, transit from wharves to Exhibition, 
and supply of motive-power. 

In conclusion, it may be stated that the Government of 
Victoria are determined to use all their influence to make the 
Exhibition in every way worthy of the great historical event which 



it commemorates, hoping besides that it may, like its predecessor 
of 1880, be the direct means of promoting a largely-increased 
personal and commercial intercourse between the Colonies and 
the United Kingdom. And it is in this spirit that the Executive 
Commission at Melbourne invites exhibitors from all nations in 
the following words : — 

" In view of the remarkable growth of Australasia in all 
things relating to population, production, and general dis- 
tribution of wealth among all classes, the facilities for rapid, 
economical and easy transit, and its many other advantages, 
the Commissioners confidently invite all desirous of extending 
commercial relations with these rapidly-extending communities 
to exhibit the fullest and most complete representations of 
their Raw Products, Skilled Industries and Arts at the 
Centennial International Exhibition, Melbourne, 1888." 

I have the honour to be, your obedient servant, 

J. Cashel Hoev. 



Buyers' Suibe. 



The Sheffield Smelting Company, Sheffield, Sell Gold and Silver 
(pure and alloyed). Buij all materials containing Gold and Silver. 

Jones, E. A., Wholesale Manufacturer of Whitby Jet Ornaments. A ■ 
Large Assortment of the Newest Patterns always in Stock. Export 
Orders promptly executed. Persons not having an account open 
will avoid delay by forwarding a reference with their order. 
Customers' Hatchings and Repairs with despatch. 93, Hatton Garden, 
London, E.C. 

For cheap, quick, reliable Watch and Jewellery Repairs, 
by the most Experienced Workmen,, send to Alexander Edwards, 
Watch Material and Tool Dealer, 88 & 89, Craven Street, and 2, Holy- 
head Road, Coventry. Lists : all Horological Literature. 

W. Scott Hayward & Co., 59, Deansgate, and Barton Arcade, 
Manchester. Wholesale Jet Ornament Manufacturers, Jet Cameo 
Cutters and Rough Jet Merchants. Approval parcels sent on receipt 
of order, if accompanied with trade references. Repairs and matchings 
executed on the day received. Works : Manchester and Whitby. 
Agents at Liverpool, Leipzig and Paris. 

WANTED. 

mO JEWELLERS or WATCHMAKERS.— Toa Gentleman 
JL of experience in the Retail Trade, and having the command of 
£2,000. an exceptional opportunity offers to join an eminent firm in the 
West End of London as Partner. — Address Excel, Office of this 
Journal— [Advt.] 

YOUNG MAN (21), of five years' experience, seeks a Situation 
as Improver. Well up in Clock and Jewellery Work. — Pursek, 
Temperance Hotel, Leamington. — [Advt.] 



TO BE SOLD. 

WATCH AND CLOCKMAKER'S BUSINESS, 
BRIGHTON.— In consequence of the death of the late Pro- 
prietor, an old-established and genuine WATCH and CLOCKMAKER'S 
BUSINESS, of high class, in main thoroughfare, close to Post Office, is 
TO BE DISPOSED OP, immediately, at a moderate price. Ample 
stock of first-rate goods. Lease, nearly nine years, at moderate rental. 
Good connection, capable of great extension. Excellent opening for 
young man, with small capital, starting in business. — Full particulars 
on application to Messrs. J. W. Stride & Soxs, Auctioneers, 163, 
North Street, Brighton, or to Messrs. Freeman Gbll &. Co., Solicitors, 
58, Ship Street, Brighton.— [Advt.] 

WATCH MANUFACTURING BUSINESS, for sale 
V V of Superior Goods only ; established 35 years, with good Jobbing 
Trade attached, extending over England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. 
Incoming can be reduced to Four or Five Hundred Pounds, chiefly or 
quite covered by goods, comprising movements, material, tools, &c. 
Owner no objection to remain two or three years to part work at 
finishing or assist in any way required. Age only reason for wishing to 
decline business. — Address MANUFACTURER, Office of this Journal, — 
[Advt.] 



S"Ik 



ilVevBiriitli. 




Edited by D. GLASGOW, Jun. 



Entered at Stationers' Wall.'] 



[Met]ist,e.red for Transmission Ahroad. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 5.] 



NOVEMBER 1, 1887. 



I" Subscription, 5s. ( "Prut 
L per Annum. , I Free. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

Our correspondents are kindly requested to note that the 
Office of this Journal has been removed to more com- 
modious premises at No. 7, St. Paul's Churchyard. 



CONTENTS. 



Kditorial 
General Notes 

Trade Notes. ( Illustrated ) 

Birmingham News. From Ouit Correspondent 
A Watch Factory for Prescot ... ... ' ... 

Trade and Navigation Returns 

Pearls 

The Use of Gold for Ornaments 

The Merchandise Marks Act and the English Watch Trade 
David Glasgow, V.P. British Horological Institute ... 
The Lever Escapement. By M L.-A. Grosclaude. flllustr 
Four Large South African Diamonds. By George F. Kunz 
American Items ... 
The Watch Trade and the Merchandise Marks Act 

Workshop Memoranda 

Gazette 

Applications for Letters Patent... 
Recent American Patents 
Buyers' Guide 



By 

•a tea 1 ) 



65 
66 
67 
69 

70 
71 
72 

72 

73 

71 
76 
78 
78 
79 
79 



80 



Che Watchmaker, Jeiueller anfr 
Siluersmith. 



A Monthly Journal devoted to the interests of Watchmakers, 
Jewellers, Silversmiths and kindred traders. 

Subscription. — A copy of the Journal will be sent monthly for one 
year, post free, to any address in the United Kingdom or countries in the 
Postal Union for jjs. payable in advance. 

Advertisements. — The rates for advertising will be sent on appli- 
cation. The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith will be found 
an exceptional medium for advertising. Special Notices, Situations, &c, 
per insertion, is. for two lines, prepaid. 

Correspondence. — Correspondence is invited on ail matters of interest 
to the trade. Correspondents will please give their full address in each 
communication, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of 
good faith. 

Address all business communications to 

THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & SILVERSMITH, 

7, St. Paul's Churchyard, London. E.C. 

Cheques and Postal Orders to be crossed and made payable to J. TrUSLOVE. 



Agent for the Australian Colonies : 

EVAN JONES, 
Hunter Street and Royal Arcade, Sydney, N,S.W. 



Editorial. 




HE constantly growing foreign competition in all 

kinds of cheap watches, and the success attending 

the general systematisation and the factory system 

abroad, have lead to many suggestions being made from time to 

time for the establishment of watch factories on a large scale 

in this country. 

But most of the suggestions thrown out have been of the most 

vao-ue and shadowy description, and have been more of the 

nature of colloquial "we ought to's" than of that of practical 

proposals. At any rate the plan of Mr. T. P. Hewitt, for the 

establishment of a watch factory at Prescot (which we publish 

on page 70), is the first that has been publicly formulated 

since the time of Ingold. Mr. Hewitt says "that the cheap 

class of work is fast leaving the town must be known to 

anyone acquainted with the trade ten or fifteen years ago," 

and that it is no use hiding the fact that our watches are too 

dear for the present demand ; we are making watches that the 

public either will not or cannot afford to buy, and they are 

supplying themselves with cheaper watches of foreign make. 

It will avail us nothing to say or think these watches are not 

as good as ours ; it is better we should see that while we are 

idle these watches are being made and sold. And again, he 

says that our present system of manufacture is far behind that 

of other countries, so far as applies to the production of cheap 

watches. Further, he states that movement makers have long 

seen this and have modified their system of manufacture 

accordingly; but that all has been of no avail on account of the 

finishing processes in the manufacturers' hands being too slow 

and expensive. Having carefully gone into the question of 

cost with makers of machine-made watches and persons engaged 

in the manufacture of machine tools, Mr. Hewitt comes to the 

conclusion that £100,000 in round numbers would be a sufficient 

sum with which to start a factory in full working order, leaving 

an ample margin for contingencies and working capital. This 

sum would, he estimates, start a factory capable of turning 

e 



66 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[November 1, 1887. 



out 1,250 watches a week, which at a very small profit would 
yield a return of over 10 per cent, on the capital employed. 

Now this is something like a proposition and a way of meeting 
foreign competition. As to its feasibility — only show the public 
something like a possibility of getting 10 per cent, for their 
money, and you could soon raise a million. From an outsider's 
point of view, it is simply incomprehensible why a country, 
commanding unlimited capital (which is forthcoming at any and 
every demand), where any amount of labour (skilled and unskilled) 
is obtainable at the lowest rates, and which is the matrix of every 
kind of machinery, cannot hold its own in the manufacture of a 
class of goods in which it has long been pre-eminent. It may be 
that very pre-eminence in the past has a good deal to do with 
the question. It is, however, necessary in dealing with this 
subject to give a more particular regard to details. Looking at 
such a question commercially, one would naturally weigh, one 
with the other, all the circumstances for and against any 
particular project ; and before being able to do so with a 
satisfactory result it would be necessary to consult repre- 
sentative men of the trade in which the proposed change is 
to be effected. But although there is not a more intelligent 
body of men in the world, as a class, than those engaged in 
the English watch trade, nor one better able to give an opinion 
upon their trade under existing conditions, it should be con- 
sidered in consulting them that they have been working in one 
particular groove for so long that it is not without an effort 
they will be brought to consider the subject from more than one 
standpoint, any radical departure from which they will as likely 
as not strenuously oppose. All possible details should there- 
fore be collected without loss of time and circulated throughout 
the trade, so as to secure their concurrence to the scheme, as well 
as with a view to educating them up to the point of departure. 



t&eneral Notes. 



fSlCCORDING to a telegram in the Melbourne Argus, dated 
JSpk " Perth, September 5," a pearl, weighing 62 grains, and 
valued at £800, was found on the Ninety-mile Beach by 
Mr. George Roe. 



It is officially announced that the Exhibition of the Queen's 
Jubilee Presents at St. James' Palace will close after Wednesday, 
the 23rd inst. 

Antwerp Exhibition.— Out of 39 British exhibitors, nine- 
teen have gained the highest awards in their respective classes. 
Messrs. Haywood & Co., cutlers, Sheffield, have been awarded 
the Diplome d'Honneur ; while Messrs. Wellmann & Co., London, 
and John Round & Son, Sheffield, have gained the gold medal 
for cutlery and electro-plate respectively. 



The Brussels Exhibition of 1888. — The Executive Com- 
mittee of the International Competition and Exhibition which 
is to be held at Brussels next year has, we hear, with the 
consent of the Belgian Government, nominated Mr. Lee-Bapty, 
the General Manager of the Royal Jubilee Exhibition at Man- 
chester, Commissioner-General for the British Empire. A space 
of 20,000 square metres has already been retained for the British 
gection of the Exhibition, 



The Glasgow Exhibition. — The buildings for the Exhibition 
to be held in Glasgow next year are rising rapidly on the borders 
of Kelvingrove Park. Everything seems in an unusually forward 
condition, and the opening is definitely fixed for the first week 
in May. The Queen will be asked to officiate on the occasion, 
but in all probability the Prince of Wales will be deputed to 
perform the ceremony. 



A collection of jewels, including some unusually fine opals,- 
pearls and rubies, was offered for sale by Messrs. Debenham, 
Storr & Sons on the 25th ult. The following are among the 
prices realised : A brilliant pendant, 222 gs. ; a brilliant head 
ornament, 210 gs.; a brilliant head ornament, 126 gs.; a sapphire 
and brilliant bracelet and earrings, 315 gs.; a set of rings, com- 
prising a brilliant ring, a ruby ditto, a sapphire ditto, and coral 
ditto, 538 gs.; and a brilliant and ruby ring, 115 gs. 



The London Chamber of Commerce has proposed to form a 
Watch Trade Section, for dealing with purely commercial matters 
in connection with the trade. In the circular convening the 
preliminary meeting for October 27, it is stated that on all the 
subjects which might be considered, the recommendations which 
the Section could make to the Council would be of special value, 
and the influence of the Chamber with the Government De- 
partments, with Parliament, with Provincial and Colonial 
Chambers of Commerce, and public bodies generally, would 
greatly assist in carrying them out. 



Ox Tuesday, the 11th ult., a meeting was held in Prescot 
Town Hall, Lancashire, for the purpose of considering a proposal 
to establish a factory in Prescot for the complete manufacture of 
watches. The chair was occupied by the Rev. Harry Mitchell, 
vicar, and there was a large attendance of watch manufacturers 
and others. During the discussion references were made to the 
American competition, and the opinion was expressed that the 
drifting trade of the town could be again made prosperous if a 
company were formed to complete the watchmaking in all its 
branches, a resolution to this effect being carried. 



One of our Birmingham friends sends the following cutting 
from a local newspaper : — Councillor Lawley Parker the other 
day, referring to the delay in the laying down of the cable trams, 
said it was partly caused by the extreme care which had to be 
exercised in fixing the works. He said the parts had to be fitted 
together with as much mathematical accuracy as the works of a 
watch. Judging by the appearance of the appliances, the worthy 
Councillor must wear a Waterbury, and at some time or other 
been curious enough to raise the cap. The comparison is by no 
means a bad one. A Waterbury has many things in common 
with a cable tram, and I should think they were both invented by 
the same man. 

The shareholders of the Opal Mines of Queensland, at the 
statutory meeting held on October 20, inspected the several gems 
sent over from the Colony. Some of them are really very fine 
and large. The shares, it appears, have been well distributed 
amongst a large body of investors, and the Company has already 
commenced operations. The Chairman (Mr. George Hopkins), 
in the course of his speech, said they had a sufficient quantity of 
opal in stock to commence sales ; but it would be evident to every 
shareholder present that in dealing with an article like precious 
stones, it was very desirable not to make sales in such quantities 
as would have the effect of flooding the market. They had 
already effected some sales, and had numerous inquiries from 
various quarters which would, he felt, satisfactorily enable them 
shortly to effect considerably larger sales. He believed that in 
this country there had been, in times past, some prejudice against 
the opal stone, but he thought that this was gradually dying out 
as a superstition ; and certainly in Russia, and on the Continent 
generally, no such prejudice existed. The directors hoped to pay 
a dividend at no very distant period. 



November 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



67 



The death is announced of Mr. George Sim, F.S.A. Scot., 
a well-known Scotch antiquary, in his 73rd year. Devoted to 
the science of numismatics from an early age, he amassed during 
his life a collection of Greek and Roman coins which for extent 
and variety is said to be unequalled by any other in the country. 
It comprises upwards of 13,000 specimens, many of them very 
fine and rare, and the collection is especially rich in Consular 
and Imperial coins, as well as in the Greek, Bactrian and Parthian 
silver series. Mr. Sim catalogued the coins, so that they might 
be made useful alike to students of geography, mythology, history 
and art. As Curator of Coins at Edinburgh he contributed to 
the transactions of the Society of Antiquaries numerous papers 
on the discovery of coins in Scotland. He was also a contributor 
to the Numismatic Chronicle, and at the time of his death was 
engaged in an important work on the coinage of Scotland, which 
he took up on the death of the late Mr. Burns, F.S.A. This 
work will shortly be published. 



Mr. B. H. Thwaite, of Liverpool, and Mr. A. Stewart, of 
Bradford, have discovered a new process of steelmaking which 
is particularly applicable to small foundries. It is carried out by 
melting the pig metal in what is known as a "rapid" cupola, 
and collecting it in a receiver, from which it is run into a vertical 
converter, and from thence drawn off in the ladle. In its passage 
through the converter the metal is subjected to the blast from 
the cupola blower. As soon as the metal is collected in the ladle, 
the latter is raised from its trunnions and rapidly revolved. 
Stirrers effectually mix the metal, and the steel is then ready 
for the moulds. It will thus be seen that the process is rapid 
and the plant simple. The system can be applied to existing 
open-hearth furnaces, in which case the special converter is 
placed in the centre over the furnace roof. The metal is run 
from the cupola either by means of a runner or ladle, and in its 
descent into the open-hearth furnace it is subjected to annular 
jets of air from the cupola blower. The conversion of the metal 
is completed in the open-hearth furnace in the ordinary way. 
The " rapid " open-hearth steel plant has a decarburising cylinder 
placed at a slight angle with the horizon and through which the 
metal flows into the open-hearth furnace and is partially converted 
therein. The completion of the process is effected by a highly 
oxidising and plenum character of combustion. The gaseous 
fuel is supplied from a Thwaite gas-producing plant. The time 
of conversion is stated to be about one-third that of the ordinary 
open-hearth process. The "rapid" process is in course of 
adoption at various works, the plant being manufactured at the 
works of Messrs. Thwaite Brothers, of Bradford. 



The Diamond Market. — Amsterdam. — The demand for 
finished goods has been steadily increasing throughout the 
month. Roses have been in strong request, and from -4 to 6 
grain stones. As stocks diminish a visible improvement for 
sellers is to be observed, although, owing to their not regulating 
the prices among themselves and sticking to fixed terms, 
buyers have the best of it, and no very good prices are obtainable. 
Rough remains dear, but factories are fully occupied. 

The Paris trade towards the end of the month greatly 
improved. Important parcels have changed hands, and the 
trade in mounted goods, both for the home and English markets, 
has been very lively. 

The steamers "Pretoria," " Norham Castle," "Trojan," 
" Grantully Castle," and " Mexican " arrived at Plymouth during 
the month, bringing large consignments ; and as prices were 
quoted somewhat lower, some large parcels changed hands. 

Latest from Kimberley state that while prices continue firm, 
less buoyancy has latterly distinguished the market, in con- 
sequence of which, while fresh goods are in fair demand, dealers' 
parcels are neglected. 

Silver. — The market has remained weak throughout the 
month, but notwithstanding some fluctuations in the Indian 
exchanges, it has continued steady, il^d. per oz. being about the 
average nominal price for bars, 



Urabe Notes. 



The London Watch Trade Association. — The first annual 
meeting of the above Association was held on Wednesday, 5th ult., 
in the Schools of the Martyrs' Memorial Church, Clerkenwell, 
Mr. S. A. Brooks (president) in the chair. There was a large 
attendance. — The Secretary (Mr. Newman) first read a letter from 
Captain Penton, M.P., in which he wished every success to the 
Association, and enclosed a cheque for £50. Messrs. J.W. Benson 
also wrote enclosing a cheque for £10 10s., and stating they were in 
perfect accord with the objects of the Association, had supported 
and would continue to support the English trade. — Mr. Brooks, 
in a short resume of the year's work, spoke of the readiness with 
which members of the trade came forward to protect their own 
interests, the result of which was that at their first meeting, just 
twelve months since, 150 members joined. This number had 
been increased at each succeeding meeting ; and they had a 
committee who went about their work so thoroughly and educated 
Members of Parliament so well up to what was required to protect 
the English watch trade, that now, at their first annual meeting, 
they had to report the passage of a Bill through Parliament 
which well protected them. The London makers had got the 
sympathy and co-operation of fellow watchmakers in Prescot, 
Coventry, Liverpool, and a few from Birmingham, and when 
they had to go before the Committee of the House of Commons 
they had nine Members of Parliament with them ; and when the 
Government saw the earnestness of the men they promptly dealt 
with the question. The result was that they had a measure which 
enacted that no one could sell a watch with the English Hall- 
mark if any portion was of foreign make. It was no exaggeration 
to state that the shopkeepers were fairly " struck " by the Act ; 
they did not believe the Government would pass a measure which 
would place them in the difficulty in which they now were, viz., 
that they had to give to the customer a descriptive account of 
the contents of the case unless of entirely English make. But 
from information received from all parts, he believed there would 
be an honest endeavour all round to comply with the Act of 
Parliament. The foreigners, however, were still Hall-marking 
their cases, and it was said that one Swiss firm was going to 
bring over its workmen to England in order to produce its 
watches. — Several votes of thanks were passed, and the proceedings 
closed. 

The Opsiometer is the name of a new instrument for measuring 
the sight which has just been brought out by Messrs. 
J. Raphael & Co., wholesale opticians, of 13, Oxford Street, W. 
It consists of a handsome mahogany cabinet of about a foot 
square by 15 inches high, the back part of which lets down on 
to the counter with two eye-holes in front. At right angles to the 
back is fixed a piece of board which, when the former is let down, 
stands up at exactly 14 inches (the prescribed optical focus) from 
the eye-holes. The interior of the box contains two slips of 
velvet worked on rollers, each carrying a complete set of test 
glasses in all sights — from strongest to weakest, in convex and 
concave. Upon looking through the eye-holes two knobs at the 
sides of the box are turned until glasses of suitable sight are in 
position, when it can at once be seen what strength glasses are 
required, by means of numbers stamped on the velvet which 
appear through two smaller holes at the side of the eye-holes. 
As each set of glasses is shifted independently of the other, 
persons with odd sight can be accommodated without trouble. 
The Opsiometer is a great advance on any of the primitive and 
troublesome arrangements for suiting customers heretofore em- 
ployed by retail opticians and others ; while affording a speedy 
and certain method of ascertaining all possible focal requirements, 
its use obviates the necessity for overhauling and soiling stocks, 
which is one of the chief worries of the retail optician's business. 
Its advantages are manifold and obvious : being at once 
portable and compact, it forms an attractive addition to 
the counter ; and as its price brings it within the reach of 
all, it is sure to be in strong demand by all who deal in 
optical goods. 



68 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[November 1, 1887. 



New Mayoral Chain for Hanley. — At a special meeting" 
of the Hanley Town Council, held on the 11th ult., the 
presentation of a new mayoral chain to the borough, the gift of 
Herbert Keeling, Esq., Shelton Hall, in commemoration of 
Her Majesty's Jubilee, was made. The chain is a magnificent 
work of art, and for beauty of design and chasteness of pattern 
is probably unrivalled throughout the boroughs of the United 
Kingdom. It is GO inches in length, and weighs nearly 40 
ounces of solid 18-carat gold, Hall-marked throughout. The 
chain is composed of the letter H (the initial letter of the 
borough name) with Staffordshire knots at intervals and a series 
of 26 escutcheons, each bearing a shield. On the front of the 
shields are the monograms in enamel of the 26 mayors who have 
held office since the incorporation of the borough, and at the back 
of the escutcheon is inscribed each of these mayors' names and the 
date he held office. Over each escutcheon is a handsomely wrought 
mural crown — corona muralis. Dependent from the chain is a 
massive and gorgeous badge, bearing the arms, crest and motto of 
the borousrh in enamel and gold, f nil v emblazoned in colours. On 



facturers are Messrs. T. & J. Bragg, Birmingham, whose high 
repute is fully maintained by their latest chef -d' centre. The 
commission was given to Messrs. Henry Pidduck & Sons, Hanley. 



The "Dorcas " thimble, is, we think (although apparently 
a very small matter), destined to play an important part in the 
household economy of the future. Most people are aware of the 
want of durability of the ordinary silver thimble, and mam- 
have experienced the pains of pricks received from needleheads 
going through holes in partially worn out thimbles. The 
invention under notice, which is the patent of Mr. Horner, of 
23, Northgate, Halifax, is practically everlasting in this respect, 
as it consists of two parts of silver and an intermediate one of 
steel, which are all struck up together and form a light and 
durable thimble that is sure to be in strong demand as soon as 
its properties become generally known to the sewing community. 

The " Triumph " Lathe. — Since our last notice of this useful 
tool, it has had added to it several valuable improvements in the 
shape of fittings and attachments, as shown in the annexed cut. 




one side of the badge and forming part of the general design are 
the Royal arms and crest of England, and on the other side the 
Jubilee memorial, consisting of the Royal Crown of Victoria 
with the initials V.R. in monogram, skilfully wrought in upon 
an artistic representation of the Tudor rose. The style is Renais- 
sance, imparting a harmonious effect throughout. Above the 
pendant badge is an elegant centre link, in the form of a shield, 
with oak and laurel wreath, and the initials of the donor 
surmounted by his crest and surrounded with a motto, " Per- 
severentia Vincit" On the back of the badge is the following 
inscription : — " Presented to the Corporation of Hanley by 
Herbert Keeling, Esq., Shelton Hall, Hanley, in commemoration 
of the Jubilee Year of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, October, 
1887." The badge is constructed so that it can be detached from 
the general chain and worn as a special and separate decoration 
when required. The cost of the chain is about £300 ; its rnanu- 



Country dealers, watchmakers and jewellers should write to 
Messrs. H. J. Cooper & Co., 150, Oxford'Street, W., for their new 
illustrated catalogue and price list just published. It is very 
clearly descriptive, and the illustrations of patterns, especially of 
chains and rings, a re unmistakable. 



When Swift made Mr. Lemuel Gulliver put on his glasses to 
protect his eyes from the darts and arrows of the Lilliputians, it 
is doubtful if it ever occurred to him that his idea would one 
day be put into actual practice. Such, however, has been the case 
in the origination of shot-proof spectacles for sportsmen, just 
introduced by Mr. A. W. Newbold, of 37, Spencer Street,. 
Clerkenwell. These are made in all sights in crystal pebbles, 
and in every description of mounting ; and in view of the accidents 
that are constantly occurring among the stubble, will doubtless by 
their ready sale soon repay the enterprise of their inventor. 



November 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



69 



Birmingham News, 

From Our Courespondent. 



SXl MUCH brighter and more hopeful tone prevails here than has 
tJs2& done all the year. Some of the makers of silver jewellery 
have orders which have made it necessary to increase their 
number of hands, and the general report is that trade is stirring. 
A walk round the " jewellers' quarter " after 7 p.m. reveals a 
number of workshops with their lights still going, a clear proof 
that they are anxious to make up for the time lost during the 
awful summer stagnation, and also that they have the orders to 
enable them to do so. 

* * * 

Unemployed workmen have mostly all obtained situations 
during the last fortnight, and one of the manufacturers was 
complaining to me that he wanted a good man and could not 
get one : this is one of the strongest proofs of an improvement 
in trade that I could give. 

* # # 

There is always a certain amount of gossip going about the 
trade with more or less truth attached to it ; the latest is, 
that the wife of a recent bankrupt is boasting to her lady friends 
that her husband is £3,000 better off than he was before the 
bankruptcy. What do the creditors think about this little matter ? 
Those lady friends were no doubt instructed " not to mention 
this for the world," but there was evidently a " traitor in 
the camp." 

* * # 

A practical man once described a jeweller as " a person with 
the patience of Job and the ingenuity of the devil ;" but judging 
by prices paid to workmen lately, patience and ingenuity must 
have become very prolific, or, on the other hand, they manage to 
get along without them. There certainly cannot be much of either 
brought to bear when one gross of studs and solitaires is required 
to be made for 6s., all soldered together and no press-work ; or, 
as in another case, to turn out one gross of silver brooches per 
day : no wonder at the market getting overstocked. 

* * * 

Bank failures always affect to a large extent the purchasing- 
capabilities of one or more sections of society. Some of the 
ever-complaining souls in the Birmingham trade are promising 
the spoliation of the shopkeepers' trade for the winter in 
Warwick, Leamington and adjoining districts, by the collapse of 
Greenway's Bank ; and as the source they obtain their jewellery 
from is Birmingham, the aforesaid complaining ones are meeting 
sorrow half-way by making out, no doubt, that they will thus be 
deprived of a certain part of their winter trade. Well, it may 
affect a few who depend solely upon the home trade, but I think 
they are very few and far between. 

* * * 

The watchmakers in the district appear to be anxious to 
supply the public with the " time of day " in a gratuitous manner 
that is quite refreshing. Mr. Riley, Vyse Street, had a clock 
placed by the side of his window some few years ago ; since then, 
Mr. Krauth, Great Hampton Street, has erected an imposing 
pedestal in his front garden, supporting a clock ; and, lately, Mr. 
W. H. Brown, Great Hampton Street, has eclipsed them all by 
erecting over his shop a large illuminated clock with three dials, 
which is certainly an addition to the neighbourhood, and is par- 
ticularly convenient at night. Evidently Mr. Brown does not 
intend to be outdone in generosity, and this will no doubt be 
appreciated by his numerous customers and the public generally. 

* * * 

I am always pleased to find practical men putting aside old 
prejudices and adopting new ways of working which are more 
economical, speedy and scientific ; and, in the course of con- 
versation with a number of them, I am convinced that technical 
education is making itself felt. For instance, quite a number of 
them have adopted the use of T. Fletcher & Co.'s new melting 



arrangement — the one with the crucible and ingot combined. 
They report it as being eminently successful, and, for small 
quantities of gold or silver up to about 5 ozs., as being the most 
speedy and accurate in its results : a few of them have used this 
from the time of its invention, but it is only lately that any 
number of them have been in use. The arrangement is par- 
ticularly adapted to working jewellers in small towns who want 
to melt a clean little ingot of from 5 ozs. to 10 ozs. or less, 
without the trouble of a coke furnace. The whole apparatus with 
blower takes up very little room, and the cost is trifling : from 
30s. upwards complete. If any of our country readers wish to 
adopt this method, they can obtain the apparatus with instructions 
from Mr. A. Osborne, 89a, Spencer Street, Birmingham. 

# # * 

Numerous are the devices that have been brought to bear in 
order to prevent the pilfering of gold and silver by workmen and 
boys in the manufactories ; but the failures attending each have 
been as numerous and frequent. That there is an enormous 
amount of it takes place every year is a well-known fact, the 
difficulty being to fix upon the thief. The usual methods for 
checking workmen is to weigh out to them all the gold, silver 
solder, &rc, and weigh back again the work produced, and any 
scrap, lemel, &c, that may accrue in the working, allowing a 
small margin for the unavoidable loss which occurs. If the man 
" weighs up " short of the proper amount, it is clear something is 
wrong ; but then comes the difficulty. The man in question is 
perhaps one of your oldest and most trustworthy hands ; you feel 
sure that he is not the culprit — the thief would most probably 
prefer to rob another man's box than to weigh back short himself — 
you are more inclined to'let the thief go than to accuse an honest 
man whom you have respected for years ; but some steps must be 
taken in the matter. Perhaps the best plan is to watch very 
carefully for the next few weeks ; the thief will gain confidence 
by being able to repeat the offence, and you will be much more 
certain of your man in this way than by trusting entirely to the 
weighing up plan ; then, having seen enough to decide upon the 
culprit, communicate with the detective department, and insist 
upon having the man watched as he leaves work in order to find 
the receiver. This is an important point, as the receiver is the 
greater rogue of the two, and he is the man who generally gets 
off (and the detectives know why): so I say, insist upon him 
being tracked, as "no receivers, no thieves" is an old adage and 
true. This is the modus operandi just pursued by Messrs. G. E. 
Walton & Co., Hylton Street, Birmingham (an account of which 
will be found in another page), and with immense success; the 
receiver being convicted and awarded five years' penal servitude. 
If this plan was adopted and pursued more rigorously, there would 
be much less pilfering, as in all cases the receiver suggests the 
theft to his dupe, and he nearly always selects a boy or very 
young man : in the case referred to, the culprit is 22 years of 
age and the receiver 50 years. The verdict and sentence are most 
just and very satisfactory. 



In South African diamond mining, according to Mr. G. F. 
Kunz, the well-known American expert, the enormous sum of 
over £1,000,000 is annually expended for labour. This mammoth 
investment of European capital has been profitable to the share- 
holder, and it would have been still more so were it not for the 
thievishness of the native diggers, who, instigated by the vicious 
whites that congregate at the fields, steal and dispose of from 
one-fifth to one-quarter of the entire yield. More improved 
methods of surveillance, recently introduced, have diminished 
this loss. None but authorised agents are permitted to purchase 
or possess rough diamonds, and a large detective force is on the 
alert to prevent any infringement of the rules. The lengths to 
which the natives and their white accomplices go in their fraudu- 
lent traffic may be judged from the fact that chickens have been 
decoyed to the mines by them and made to swallow diamonds. 
A post-mortem recently held on the body of a Kaffir, who had 
died suddenly, revealed the fact that death was caused by a 60- 
carat diamond which the native had swallowed. 



70 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [November 1, 1887. 



A Thatch Factory for Prescot. 

§ = HE following circular has been sent to prominent members 
of the trade by Mr. Hewitt : — 
You are doubtless aware that an Act has been passed 
during this Session of Parliament which, it is expected, will 
beneficially affect the watchmaking industry of this country. 
For some months it has been contemplated to form a company 
in Prescot for the purpose of manufacturing good, sound, English 
watches, of special designs, and at prices that would command 
ready sales, and compete successfully against all other watches 
offered to the public ; and the present time is considered oppor- 
tune for commencing operations. In order to effectively carry 
out this enterprise it would be necessary to erect large and 
suitable premises, with a full complement of automatic and other 
machine tools of the most advanced type, and it is estimated that 
a capital of £100,000 (made up as follows) would be needed for 
the purpose : — 

Buildings, fixed machinery, shafting and 

other plant, say ... ... £10,000 

Automatic machine tools, say ... ... 30,000 

Materials, stock-in-trade, say ... ... 15,000 

Working capital, wages, &c, say ... ... 20,000 

Contingencies — Capital probably not re- 
quired to be called up until works 
further developed ... ... ... 25,000 

£100,000 

That there is a large and increasing demand for watches and 
other timekeepers is evidenced by the vast number imported from 
Switzerland, Germany, America and France, together with the 
quantity manufactured in this country, which annually amounts 
to upwards of 675,000. 

The manufacture of watch movements in Prescot has hitherto 
been upwards of 2,500 weekly (one firm alone having made 
about 1,200 of that number) ; and it is fully believed that this 
quantity could be largely increased by the further development of 
the factory system, and the economical completion of e eery part 
of the watch. A well-equipped factory, such as is contemplated, 
would be capable of turning out at least 1,250 watches a week; 
and at the very small profit of 2s. 6d. on each watch, would 
produce a return of over 10 per cent, on the capital employed, 
[t is reasonable to assume that this output would be increased 
on the qualities of the watches becoming known, and such increase 
would necessarily lessen the cost of production on the whole, and 
ensure 12^ per cent, profit all round. In addition to the manu- 
facture of the special designs in complete watches, the Company 
would, with their machinery and ample appliances, be able to 
supply against very little, if any, competition, the demand formove- 
ments by makers of hand-finished watches. The advantages of im- 
mediately forming a watch company in Prescot are many, and 
amongst others may be mentioned the abundance of skilled male 
and female labour, and the employment of automatic tools and 
machinery which have been gradually developed during the last 
twenty years, and have now passed their experimental stages. I 
shall be glad to have your endorsement of this scheme, and to 
learn that it will have your co-operation and support. 

Yours faithfully, 
Prescot, Lancashire, Thomas P. Hewitt. 

September, 1887. 

And the following letter appeared in the Prescot Reporter ; — 
Sir, — In response to your further invitation, I now forward 
to you my views on the management for the projected watch 
company. It suggests itself to me that the stockholders would 
appoint on the directorate gentlemen who would be sufficient 
guarantee that the funds would be properly handled, and who 
would also command respect as being men of good business 
capacity. The board of directors would at once appoint a general 
manager of the whole undertaking. I need scarcely say that this 
person would require to have a good knowledge of watchmaking 
generally, as well as some experience of machinery as used in the 



manufacture of watches, and ought also to have large commercial 
experience. It would then be necessary to engage a specialist in 
the engineering department. This person would undertake the 
superintendence of the whole of the machinery to be constructed 
and purchased, as well as see that it was kept in the most 
effective repair and the highest state of efficiency. The 
manufacture of the watches would be entrusted to the master 
watchmaker, who would devote the whole of his attention to the 
designing of the watches to be put on the machinery, and would 
also have the reponsibility of seeing that the production was kept 
up to its fullest capacity. I need hardly say that on the selection 
of these three persons would depend in a large measure the 
success of the undertaking, and I would most respectfully suggest 
that it would be a matter of prudence and economy to get the 
very best men possible. If the opportunity presented itself, appli- 
cations would be sure to be sent in, out of which careful and 
judicious selection could be made. Minor appointments would 
then follow in each of the departments — the commercial, the 
engineering and the watchmaking. With regard to the ap- 
pointments in the commercial department, I think it will be 
generally admitted that little or no difficulty would be experienced 
there. As we are in close proximity to Manchester and district, 
where the construction of machinery (both large and small) for 
all purposes has long been established, I am satisfied that this 
department would be as well supplied as it is possible to have it. 
In the watchmaking department would be required foremen of 
the several branches, such as case making, frame making, pinion 
making, escapement making, balance making, dial making, 
jewelling, springing, timeing, &c. The most intelligent watch- 
makers have for some years past seen that watchmaking in future 
would have to be conducted on the machine system, and have 
been devoting their energies and attention to devising plans for 
producing several parts on the interchangeable method. From 
these you would be sure to draw men thoroughly capable of 
carrying out all details required, as I am sorry to have to admit, 
as present conducted, the watch trade offers no such advantageous 
occupations as these suggested. I do not know that it is necessary 
to give any further information on this subject ; but would most 
earnestly recommend that this enterprise be carried out without 
further delay, being persuaded that if not done in Prescot it will 
be done in some other part of the country, as there is a general 
consensus of opinion existing among all classes of watchmakers, 
th.it the manufacture of watches in future can only succeed on 
such lines as I have ventured to lay down. As a Prescot man, 
it would give me the greatest delight to see Prescot (having 
devoted itself to the watchmaking industry for centuries past) 
again to the fore, prosperous and happy, not only supplying her 
own country, but sending her watches into all parts of the world, 
stamped and branded with the honest guarantee of the Prescot 
Watch Co. 

Yours faithfully, 

T. P. Hewitt. 

In commenting on the above scheme, The Reporter says : As 
was not unlikely, he (Mr. Hewitt) travels over some ground 
which has already been trodden by former correspondents. But 
in doing so he gives emphasis to facts which cannot be too 
strongly impressed upon the minds of local watchmakers. His 
argument is, that however low the cost of an English-made watch 
is brought, when it reaches the market its price is too high for 
competition with the foreign watches. The skeleton of the 
watch,' the movement, is made at Prescot at an exceedingly low 
price, but the movement is not a watch. It has to go elsewhere for 
its completion — finishing, dialing, casing, and what not. Finished 
machinery, accurate and rapid in its production, produces the 
movement, which then leaves Prescot to go through a consider- 
able number of old-fashioned slow processes before it can be made 
into a timekeeper. Slow labour means costly labour, as it may 
in some cases mean also more finished and artistic labour. In 
the production of a cheap watch it is necessary that the machine 
tool should be made to do as much as it is possible for it to do, 
so as to leave as little as possible for the file, or cutter, or polisher 
in the fingers of a workman. Then the production of the watch 



November 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



should not be the woi'k of different sets of workmen in different 

parts of the country, or in different parts of a town. If the least 

cost has to be readied the watch must be the result of the 

combination of machine and hand labour under one roof. With 

respect to this Mr. Hewitt's words are assuring. He says that 

the modern machine tools for making all the parts of a watch on 

the gauge or interchangeable principle can " now be bought as 

readily as machinery for spinning or weaving cotton, or for 

making boots or shoes." As any intelligent man would naturally 

expect, the cost of automatic and machine tools for the rapid 

production of the varied and numerous pieces which, when put 

together, form a watch, will be very great. For a factory capable 

of turning out 1,250 watches per week, he estimates that these 

tools would cost £30,000, besides the cost of fixed machinery, 

shafting and plant. The total sum required for such a factory 

he puts down at £100,000, the exact figures we had ventured to 

name previously. We cannot follow Mr. Hewitt when he speaks 

of the profits likely to be realised, simply because we are outside 

of the watch trade and have no intuitive perceptions of what the 

profits would be likely to be. At the same time Mr. Hewitt's 

expectations of profits do not appear to be unreasonable. At 

this stage a consideration of the highest importance arises. We 

believe there will be in Prescot now the most finished, accurate 

and rapid machinery, and machine tools, for the production of 

the skeleton movements, whilst all others required for completing 

a watch would have to be purchased and laid down at the factory. 

From Mr. Hewitt's letter it would appear that there would be no 

difficulty in this respect, the necessary capital having been 

subscribed. The importing of the machinery and tools into 

Prescot would be a mere trifling matter, but how about the 

competent skilled managers of the departments in the watch 

factory which would be new to Prescot movement manufacturers ? 

The most automatic machinery will but remain lifeless and 

inert until it is brought under the power and control of trained 

and experienced men. Can such men be readily procured, and 

are they in such numbers that their services can be procured 

at reasonable rates of remuneration ? When we speak of creating 

a new factory for the production of machine-made watches there 

are many questions to be answered in a satisfactory manner, and 

one of the number is whether the men absolutely required to 

preside over departments can be easily obtained at reasonable 

rates of pay. This is one point as to which we are sure the 

readers of The Reporter would like to hear from Mr. Hewitt. 

We have before given expression to the belief that there are many 

wealthy gentlemen in the neighbourhood of Prescot who would be 

willing enough to put money into a watch company, which could 

be shown to be likely to result in reasonable dividends. People 

who have thousands at their bankers yielding one-and-a-half per 

cent., or otherwise invested at from two to three-and-a-half per 

cent., are not slow to encourage healthy projects which promise 

something over five per cent. But their confidence is not secured, 

nor their money obtained, until full and complete information is 

given them as to all matters in which they may be in doubt 

or ignorance. 



iTrabe ano Navigation Beturns. 

fHE Trade and Navigation Returns for the month of 
September were published on October 7. In the imports 
there is a decrease of 6 per cent., but the exports have 
been better by 4f per cent. Although the imports for the 
month are poor, those for the nine months are still 3 per cent, 
better than they were a year ago. Imports have been rather 
declining for some time past, and exports have been mending, so 
that the deficiency visible in the latter earlier in the year has 
now disappeared, and the total for the nine months is 2^ per 
cent, to the good. It is, therefore, fair to assume that the 
improved exports will now begin again to stimulate the lagging 
imports. The heaviest deficiencies in the imports of the month 
occurred in articles of food and drink, and in raw materials 
for textile and other industries. Metals alone were imported to 
a. larger extent than a year ago, and all the leading heads of 



import, except metals, are liable to great variations in September. 
For the nine months the total trade of the country is valued as 
follows: — Imports, £264,437,000; exports, £163,099,000; re- 
exports (estimated), £44,416,000; grand total, £471,952,000. 
The bullion movements of the month have not been important, 
as measured by these returns. A notable increase has taken 
place in the export of "metals and ironwork." 

The clocks and parts thereof imported during September are 
valued in the Board of Trade Returns at £33,772, in comparison 
with £31,179 for the same month of 1886, and £27,892 for 
that of 1885. The sources of the supply are as follow : — 

1885. 1886. 1887. 

From France £15,366 £15,028 £15,763 

'„ United States ... 4,777 6,820 9,393 

„ Other Countries.. 7,749 9,331 8,616 

For the nine months of this year the total of clocks imported 
show a record of £278,540, against £269,280 for the same 
period of last year, and £289,575 for that of 1885. 

The watches and parts thereof imported last month are valued 
at £56,252, in comparison with £69,349 for the same month of 
last year, and £47,202 for that of 1885. The nine months of 
this year show a total value of £538,882, against £493,955 for 
the same period of 1886, and £448,512 for that of 1885. 

The plate, plated and gilt wares exported during September are 
valued at £29,878. In the same month of last year the amount 
was £36,520, and in that of 1885 £28,442. For the first nine 
months of this year the exports have reached £215,554, in com- 
parison with £254,309 for the same period of last year, and 
£233,420 for that of 1885. 

The total value of imports for September was £27,161,594. 
In the same month of last year the figures were £28,898,505. 
The September of 1885 had a record of £29,863,788. 

The exports for last month reached £19,833,830, against 
£18,928,975 in the September of 1886, and £18,621,664 in 
that of 1885. 



The Diamond Industry of Amsterdam. — -The Consul of the 
United States at Amsterdam, in his last report on the trade of 
the Netherlands, devotes a section to the diamond trade and 
industry of the Dutch capital. In 1886 the import of the 
"rough stuffs" was very large, but not in excess of the demand 
for "polished goods." The prices were higher than those ruling 
for some time previously ; this is said to be due to the operations 
in the diamond fields being more expensive now than in years 
gone by, and also to the fact that the mines have now generally 
got into the hands of wealthy corporations, which put the produce 
in the market in such a way as to obtain fair prices. It is esti- 
mated (an accurate statement is impossible) that about 20,000 
carats of rough diamonds reach the hands of the Amsterdam 
manufacturers each week. When finished, these vary in price 
from 16s. to £11 per carat, while some stones command very 
much higher prices. The capital invested in this trade is not all 
Dutch, for a very large proportion of the diamonds manipulated 
in Amsterdam belong to London and Paris houses. Berlin, 
Frankfort, St. Petersburg, Moscow, Rome, Naples, Barcelona 
and Madrid, as well as Paris, London and New York, are all 
markets for diamonds prepared in Amsterdam. Besides Antwerp 
the diamond industry is carried on extensively nowhere else. 
The trade is usually conducted on the cash system, credit being 
generally short. The aggregate paid in wages to diamond 
workers in Amsterdam is about £600,000 per annum, and it is 
estimated that from 7,000 to 8,000 persons are employed in the 
industry, and in the business of buying and selling the rough 
and polished stones. The wages of the men engaged in the 
various operations of cleaning, cutting and polishing, are de- 
creasing, because of the constant increase in the number of 
skilled workmen and the never-ceasing accession of apprentices. 
The declared export of diamonds from Amsterdam to the United 
States in 1886 amounted to £275.708, but this by no means 
represents the total export, but those the invoices of which were 
presented to the Consul to be certified. A large quantity is sent 
to Paris and London, to be despatched to America, and many 
diamonds are also taken on the person. 



THE WATCHMAKEE, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[November 1, 1887. 



Pearls. 



fljWHE great development in the fashionable taste for wearing 
'fM? pearl ornaments of various kinds may render the following 
extracts from Mr. Streeter's charming book on the above 
subject of interest to many of our readers. 

In the time of Charlemagne (born 742, died 814 a.d.), a 
favourite decoration consisted of large gold rings, set with 
precious stones and pearls, worn on the neck and arms and in 
the ears. The women interwove gold thread or strings of pearls 
in their hair, and bound fillets round their heads, which were 
often richly decorated with precious stones and pearls. The 
embroidered borders of their robes and their shoes, too, were 
richly worked with pearls. 

The 12th and 13th centuries, the age of chivalry, were 
particularly luxurious, and the coats of arms worn by the knights 
were made of gold or silver stuff, velvet or silk, and embroidered 
in gold, silver, pearls or precious stones. 

Pearls were used so extravagantly, not only by the nobles, but 
also among the middle classes, in rich towns, that certain laws 
were passed to put a limit to their use. Philipe le Bel of France 
(born 12G8, died 1314 A.n.) forbade the burgher classes to wear 
ornaments of gold, precious stones or pearls. The Council of 
Zurich, held in 1411, published an order forbidding women or 
girls to wear more than one pearl head-band, which was not to 
weigh more than six ounces. Many noble families having been 
ruined by their excessive expenditure on clothes, a council of 
knights was called before the 28th Great Tournament at Wurz- 
burg, which decided that no gold or pearl ornaments should 
be worn, unless hidden from view ! Women also were not to have 
their dresses embroidered in pearls. In Saxony, even imitation 
pearls were forbidden ; and in Hamburg, women so loaded 
themselves with gold and jewels that a mandate was issued 
forbidding them to wear more than one gold chain : copies of this 
mandate were posted on the town wall and at the corners of the 
principal streets. The church, too, preached against luxury in 
dress, but all to no purpose : the women continued to wear 
pearls and precious gems in spite of ecclesiastical denunciation. 
But the greatest splendour of the Middle Ages was to be seen at 
the court of the great house of Burgundy, from the time of 
Philip the Bold to that of Charles the Bold. Their magnificence 
far outshone that of the kings of France and the German 
emperors. Magnificent jewels, that can be traced back to the 
time of the last dukes of Burgundy, are to this day reckoned 
among the most valuable possessions of the crowns of France 
and Austria. Charles the Bold surpassed all other princes of 
his line in magnificence. When, in 1473, he attended the 
Imperial Diet at Treves, he wore a dress of cloth of gold, richly 
embroidered with pearls. At the banquet which he gave to the 
Emperor Frederick III., the goblets shone with precious stones 
and pearls. When in the same year he went to Dijon, he was 
resplendent with pearls and diamonds ; and the crown which he 
wore on his triumphal entry into Nancy in 1475 was so covered 
with diamonds and pearls as to be worth the value of a " whole 
duchy." 

At the famous meeting between Henry VIII. and Francis I. 
on the Field of the Cloth of Gold (a.d. 1520), the banqueting 
chamber was hung with tissue raised with silver, and framed 
with cloth of silver raised with gold ; while the seams were 
covered with broad wreaths of goldsmiths' work, set with precious 
stones and pearls. When Henry VIII. met his bride, Anne of 
Cleves, he wore, we are told, a coat of purple velvet, embroidered 
in gold and clasped with great buttons of diamonds, rubies and 
Oriental pearls ; and a collar richly ornamented with pearls and 
precious stones. Anne of Cleves' wedding dress was a gown of 
cloth of gold thickly embroidered with large flowers of pearls. 
Queen Mary wore at < her wedding a dress richly brocaded in 
gold, and a train magnificently bordered with pearls and 
diamonds. The sleeves were turned up with clusters of gold set 
with pearls and diamonds. Elizabeth wore at a tournament 
given in Mary's reign, on December 29, 1554, a white satin 
dress decorated with large pearls. 

Queen Elizabeth had a perfect passion for ornaments, especially 



jewellery of all kinds, and her courtiers were constantly im- 
poverishing themselves in order to minister to her foibles. The 
costly parure of pearls belonging to the unfortunate Mary Queen 
of Scots, which Elizabeth bought for much less than its value, 
is thus described by the French ambassador at the English court : 
" There are six cordons of large pearls strung as paternosters, 
but there are five and twenty separate from the rest, much finer 
and larger than those which are strung ; these are for the most 
part like black muscades." 

To return to the history of pearls in Europe ; we find them 
much worn both by men and women during the 16th and 1 7th 
centuries. Marie de Medici, wife of Henry IV. of France, wore 
at the christening of her son (1G01) a gorgeous dress ornamented 
with 3,000 diamonds and 32,000 pearls, valued at 60,000 crowns. 

The Elector Maximilian of Bavaria, in 1635, sent his bride, 
the daughter of Emperor Ferdinand II., a present of a string of 
300 selected pearls each of which cost 1,000 gulden (about £100). 

Table decorations were also very magnificent at that time, and 
Charles II. of Spain, in 1680, presented his wife with an 
ornament in the form of a salad, in which the leaves were 
represented by enormous emeralds, the vinegar by sparkling 
rubies, the oil by yellow topazes, and the salt by pearls. 

Notwithstanding the dire consequences of the Thirty Years' 
War, immense sums were expended during the 17th century upon 
ornaments and luxury of all kinds. Knightly orders, sword and 
hat knots, rings, shoe buckles, waistcoat buttons — all glittered 
with gems. The stomacher and the enormous collar and ruff, 
both richly trimmed with pearls and jewels, were also introduced 
about this time. In the 18th century precious stones were 
less lavishly employed, especially after the French Revolution, and 
dress in general came to be characterised by greater simplicity. 



Che "Use of $olo for iDrnaments. 



fHE most interesting question of all about gold (says the 
Cornhill Magazine) is, how did it come to be the root of 
all evil ? What has made this particular yellow metal, 
above all stones and minerals, the standard of value, the medium 
of exchange, and the object of all men's ardent devotion ? In 
order to solve that curious problem we must look at the origin of 
its use among mankind and the gradual evolution of its employ- 
ment as money. Primitive man, hunting about in the rivers for 
fish and in the forests for venison, had other wants (philosophers 
tell us) than those of mere vulgar food and drink; the noble 
thirst for trinkets, the aesthetic desire for personal decoration, 
which now gives rise to fashion plates, and drapers' shops, and 
jewellers' windows, was already vaguely alive within his swelling 
bosom. He adorned himself even then with necklets of bears' 
teeth and shining fossils, and girdles of shell and bits of vampum : 
all which things are found, in company with the white chalk 
and the red ochre that made primitive woman beautiful for ever, 
among the coveted flowers of the Dordogne caverns. Primitive 
woman was not fair to outer view as other maidens be ; on the 
contrary, she was no doubt distinctly dark, not to say dusky — 
somewhere about the precise complexion of the modern negress, 
her nearest surviving representative — but already she knew how 
to keep in the fashion ; she loved gold (as Walpole long afterward 
remarked of her remote descendants), and, when she could get 
them, diamonds also. Ages before any other metals were melted 
or manufactured into useful implements, gold and silver had 
attracted the attention of our savage ancestresses. There was 
every reason why this should be so. They are generally found 
in the native state ; they have glitter and brilliancy and beauty of 
colour ; they are soft and workable and easily pierced ; they can 
be readily strung in ingots, as beads for necklets, and at a 
somewhat higher grade of culture they can be hammered with 
ease into rude ornaments. Hence it is not surprising that from 
a very early age primitive man should have prized nuggets of 
gold and ingots of silver for personal trinkets, just as he prized 
the shells and pebbles, the garnets and cornelians, the jade and 
crystal, the ivory and feathers, from which he manufactured his 
rude ornaments, 



November 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



73 



£he Jfterchandise 3¥larhs Act an6 the English 
Iftatch Cra6e. 

By David Glasgow, V.P. British Horological Institute. 



|S the question of tlie Merchandise Marks Amendment Act 
has lately been exercising the minds of watchmakers, it 
may be interesting to some of your readers if I give a 
short outline of the movement that has resulted in this rather 
ambiguous measure ; at least, in that part of it relating to watch- 
making. 

A few years ago the Council of the Horological Institute, 
seeking some means of reducing the cost of the production of 
English watches, to enable them to compete with the Swiss, 
thought that the Swiss had a great adA r antage in the almost 
nominal control of the Government over the quality of the gold 
in the cases of watches, and also in the liberty they had of putting 
metal domes to their cases. The Council asked for an interview 
with the Wardens of the Goldsmiths' Co., which was granted, 
and an influential deputation of watchmakers waited upon 
them at their hall, stating their grievances and requesting a 
reformation in the manner of scraping and stamping gold watch 
cases ; also complaining of the charges for the same, and other 
matters. The deputation (as usual) did not agree as to their 
wants or on the modes of redress. Two well-known shopkeepers 
wished to abolish Hall-marking altogether, as a survival of the 
feudalism of the Middle Ages, while others thought the marking 
of watch cases should be made optional as the marking of most 
articles of jewellery is optional. The Company took the matter 
up at once, and sent an assayer to Paris to ascertain the French 
mode of assaying and marking watch cases, which had been 
represented to them as superior to that practised here. The 
Company declined to use the French plan ; but they so far 
acceded to the wishes of the deputation, that a marked improve- 
ment in the treatment of cases sent to the hall was the immediate 
result. This more delicate handling of cases at the hall enabled 
the Swiss to send their light cases to be marked here, although 
the Swiss system of testing and marking was both cheaper and 
simpler than that of our halls, the presumption being that a 
Swiss watch with the English Hall-mark in the case would sell 
for more than if the watch was purely Swiss. 

This facility for marking Swiss cases, and threats by some of 
the watchmakers that they would have their cases made in 
Switzerland, alarmed the case makers, who immediately began to 
agitate for a measure to abolish the Hall-marking in England of 
foreign-made watch cases. Coventry and Lancashire came to the 
assistance of the London case makers, and of course enlarged 
their demands so as to meet their own wants ; they not only 
asked for the abolition of the Hall-mark on foreign-made cases, 
but for an Act which would prohibit the use of any foreign 
materials or parts in the manufacture of English watches. As the 
art of making the repeating or clock part of repeating watches and 
other parts of complicated mechanism for watches had long been 
located in Switzerland, and the last repeating-motion maker in 
England had been dead for the greater part of a century, it was 
felt by many people that these demands were not in accordance 
with the spirit of the times, and were rather retrograde ; but 
Sir Henry Jackson, who was then Member for Coventry, being 
persuaded by his constituents, took the matter in hand, and 
obtained a Committee of the House of Commons to inquire into 
the Hall-marking of gold and silver wares. 

This Committee sat for some time, examined many witnesses, 
and gave the House of Commons the benefit of their deliberations 
in a report, on a part of which Sir Henry Jackson framed a Bill 
which was before the House for part of two sessions. This Bill 
provided that all foreign-made watch cases should have a 
distinctive mark put on them, in addition to the usual mark, and 
that the distinctive mark should indicate the country of origin ; 
also that no foreign materials or parts should be used in the 
manufacture of English watches under some very severe penalties. 
But this Bill met with much opposition, both from Members of 
Parliament and the watch trade, and so it was dropped. Some- 
how, up to the date of this agitation, there had been no complaints 



here of the sale of Swiss watches as English; and the imitation 
of English watches by Swiss manufacturers was not urged in 
favour of Sir Henry Jackson's Bill, although it was shown in 
evidence before the Committee, by those opposed to the Bill, that 
it had long been a practice of the Swiss, not only to imitate 
English watches, but to forge the Hall-mark- and the names of 
almost every English watchmaker who had a reputation in 
countries out of England : but as this piracy only affected a few 
people they had to put up with it. 

From that time the number of watch cases of foreign make 
marked at the Goldsmiths' Hall increased considerably each year, 
and the rapid popularity of keyless watches with going barrels, 
and the adoption by the Swiss of the lever escapement to their 
commoner watches, tended to assimilate the character and appear- 
ances of Swiss and English watches. A still further development 
of this similarity was brought about by the manufacture of 
movements in Switzerland in exact imitation of a Lancashire 
keyless movement, when, of course, if these movements were 
finished in Switzerland and placed in English Hall-marked 
cases only an expert could tell the difference between such watches 
and those finished here. 

I think the question is likely to occur to some — Then what is 
the difference if it is so hard to detect ? The difference is in the 
word finishing, as these movements only cost as many shillings 
as the completed watch costs pounds. The difference in the 
quality of the watch is easily accounted for, and the importer 
has assured me that he can make watches from these movements 
in England at the same or even a less cost than he can have 
them made for in Switzerland, if the quality of the work is 
equal. But although it requires an expert to see the difference in 
the external appearances of these English watches and the Swiss 
imitations of them, the difference is easily detected if they are 
taken to pieces, as, like all imitations, they are very much inferior 
to the originals. But as they were much lower in price than 
English watches, they were spread all over the country ; and I 
have it on good authority that there are few watchmakers in the 
provincial towns who have not some of these watches with their 
names upon them : and the London shopkeepers have been 
trading in the same articles, with, of course, some exceptions. 

The injury thus inflicted upon the English watchmakers became 
so serious, that they were quite ready to adopt any measure that 
promised to relieve them by putting a stop to so nefarious a 
system. So a public meeting was called at the beginning of 
last year, at the Horological Institute, under the presidency of 
Lord Grimthorpe, at which several Members of Parliament 
attended, and resolutions, carefully drawn up, were passed, 
condemning the practice of selling Swiss watches as of English 
make, and asking Eor legislation to prohibit the English halls 
from marking Swiss cases, to the injury of both the trade and 
the public ; but these resolutions were not sufficiently strong for 
the deputations from Coventry and Lancashire and a great 
many of the Clerkenwell workmen, who formed associations and 
fell back on the Bill of Sir Henry Jackson, with all its prohibi- 
tory clauses, its affidavits and penal enactments. 

It would not be either amusing or instructive to make any 
comment on the Bill in its present form, as portions of the Act 
which apply to our trade have not yet come into operation. Some 
of the clauses have to be regulated by an Order in Council, 
and this order will not be issued until all necessary preparations 
are made ; these preparations I understand to be the agreement 
as to the form of the stamps that are to indicate the origin of 
the work and the preparation of the same. I would not like to 
prophesy, but I do not think the halls in England will be 
troubled with much Swiss work, if they impress such a legible 
mark upon watch cases as will attest their origin at first sight. 
While I am greatly pleased that some means have been found of 
putting a stop to a system which was defrauding the public and 
demoralising all who had a share in it, I feel sure that to carry 
out the clauses of the Bill in the spirit of a circular issued by 
the Clerkenwell Watchmakers' Protection Society is impossible, 
and if possible, would be ruinous to the trade, the welfare of 
those engaged in it being what we have to consider above all 
local interests. Then may I ask — Will the enforcement of these 



74 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [November 1, 1887. 



clauses that interfere with the freedom of English watch manu- 
facturers, and prevent them making up repeaters and other 
complicated watches, reduce the price of our manufactures, or 
enahle us to compete with foreigners in foreign markets who are 
now able to undersell us in certain classes of goods in our own ? 
I have seen, lately, watches made in Coventry, both by the 
splendid machinery of the Messrs. Rotherham and others made 
on the old system, and for quality and price they would compare 
favourably with any watches I have Seen ; but on inquiring into 
the condition of the producers of the latter, it was quite evident 
a decent existence could not be maintained on their earnings : 
therefore, competition with foreigners under such circumstances is 
neither desirable nor possible. Instead of relying on our old 
system for the production of our commoner watches, we must 
leave that branch of the trade to the now various establishments 
in the country and London (that are either in existence or in 
embryo for the manufacture of watches, principally by machinery, 
who are well able to take care of themselves); and as the producers 
of high-class watches, take care that we do not lose the men 
and consequently the power of still making watches that will 
maintain our old superiority, and that the world cannot beat. 



Two Methods of Welding Metals by Electricity. — 
This comparatively new application of electricity is one that has 
an interesting future before it. The processes of welding metals 
by electricity at present known, although producing an undoubted 
closeness of adhesion, cannot boast of the same amount of 
strength or tenacity obtained by the ordinary method of welding 
or by riveting ; the latter quality will no doubt in time be attained 
also by the inventors. One method is that of the Russian in- 
ventors, Messrs. Nicholas de Bernados and Stanislas Oszewski, 
of St. Petersburg. It consists of the direct application of the 
luminous arc of a dynamo-machine. The pieces of metal to be 
united are tightly pressed together by means of an iron clamp 
which is connected with the negative pole of the machine, the 
positive pole being connected with a suitable non-conducting 
handle to hold the carbon point, which is passed over the adjoin- 
ing portions of the two pieces of metal ; fusion immediately 
takes place and the welding is accomplished. The handles for 
holding the carbon point are contrived both to be guided by the 
hand and to be mechanically moved, according to the nature of 
the work. For long joinings of metal plates, for instance, a 
sliding runner is used to carry the point evenly along. The in- 
ventors of this process have already established a small workshop 
in St. Petersburg with a 25 horse-power dynamo-machine, and 
have recently exhibited its working to representatives of the iron 
industries, practically demonstrating to them that metal plates, 
bars, &c, can be thus satisfactorily and expeditiously welded. 
Articles of hardware, such as kettles, saucepans, &c, were also 
made by the process in substitution of soldering, iron plates of 
various thicknesses being used. Iron sheeting of one-eighth-of- 
an-inch admits also of holes being bored through it by the passage 
of the electric current. Petroleum casks are some of the chief 
articles the workshop is at present employed in making, of which 
it turns out ten to twelve daily, the process being particularly 
applicable to the joining of vessels where no possibility of leakage 
can be allowed, on account of the perfect contact it produces. 
The number of applications in store for the process are of course 
innumerable, supposing that the inventors succeed in combining 
with the present quality of close cohesion that of great tenacity, 
a difficulty they are in hopes of surmounting. Another method 
of electric welding is that of the American inventor, Mr. Elihu 
Thomson, which consists, not like the above described, of the 
application of a luminous arc, but of simply passing the electric 
currents through the metals to be joined. He uses a dynamo, 
producing alternating currents of great tension, which are con- 
verted by a transformator into a current of lesser tension but 
condensed quantity ; the jjarts to be welded being, as before, 
closely clamped together. This process is more adapted to the 
welding of metal bars, tubing, steel tops to tools, &c, than to 
sheeting or plates, and, for general utility, holds a place second 
to the Bernados-Oszewski method. 



iUhe Leuer Escapement - 

CONSIDERED WITH REGARD TO ITS FORM, INERTIA, 
FRICTION, &c. 

By M. L.-A. (xrosclaude, Professor at the Geneva School 
of Horology. 

(Translated from the French.) 

§HE lever escapement is undoubtedly that which, up to the 
present, tends more and more to supplant the others in 
pocket watches that are intended to perform with exac- 
titude. This has been proved to us in all the recent trials at 
the observatories, where the great majority of the pieces have 
been provided witli this escapement. It is not, then, surprising 
that its adoption should be so general, nor that so much should 
already have been written and discussed upon its construction. 

Our aim in taking up this subject in our turn is more espe- 
cially to pass in review the different points which may have an 
influence upon its good construction — to point out their reciprocal 
advantages and the importance that should be accorded them. 
Those who will follow us closely will find in the following pages, 
we think, some novel details, but also many others that are not 
so. We have not, therefore, the pretension of diminishing in 
anything the merit of those who have preceded us in this way ; 
we have simply essayed to go a step further in this question, 
already so well considered, both in a general manner by M. 
Grossmann and by many others from special points of view. 

Our intention is to consider the plan of the lever escapement 
under different aspects : it is thus only that it is possible to base 
an accurate judgment and to make a judicious choice — this 
subject, like so many others, having a certain number of different 
conditions which should all be carefully examined. It is only 
after having well weighed the pros and cons that we can, in dis- 
cussions of this kind, arrive at anything satisfactory. 

We propose, then, in the first place, to determine a general 
procedure for the form of this escapement ; then we shall examine 
it with regard to the impulse, the influence of oils, the inertia of 
the matter, and, lastly, the friction. 

We shall endeavour to be brief, without in the meantime 
neglecting to dwell upon certain points which, in our opinion, do 
not appear sufficiently well understood by a large number of 
practitioners. We do not wish it to be thought that we^have 
any pn tension to completely settle the complex question, but 
hope we shall succeed at least in introducing to the subject some 
u sef ul eclair xissements. 

Lever escapements may be elassed in different categories, as 
follow : 1st. The distance of the rest with regard to the centre of 
the anchor (levers,* or equidistant lockings); 2nd. The number 
of teeth of the wheel ; 3rd. The distribution of the incline (all on 
the anchor, or divided between the anchor and the wheel in 
different proportions) ; 4th. The total angular movement of the 
anchor and the locking angle ; 5th. The drop. 

The determination of all these quantities rests at the choice of 
the constructor ; and here he will be influenced by very diverse 
considerations, some of which will be treated of later on. 

In considering the plan of the escapement we shall accept the 
following data, which, if necessary, may be modified : — 

An escape wheel of fifteen teeth : consequently, a total angular 
movement of the wheel for each impulsion, 12°; Total angular 
movement of the anchor, 10°; Movement of the anchor necessary 
for unlocking, 11°; Drop: 1st, for escapements with club- 
toothed wheel, 1°; 2nd, for escapements with ratchet-toothed 
wheel, 2°. 

We leave the other data variable ; meanwhile our study will 
bear especially upon the four following systems : — 

1st. Equidistant lockings, pointed teeth, the wheel travelling 
over 10° during the impulse, and the drop being 2°. 

2nd. Equidistant pallets, pointed teeth, same movement of the 
wheel, same drop. 

* We substitute for the term generally and improperly applied, "lift" (levie), that 
of " lever" (leviei'), to designate the jewelled pieces upon whieh the teeth of the wheel 
act ; the word " lift " being reserved for the angular movement of the anchor. 



November 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



75 



3rd. Equidistant lockings, lift divided — taking 4° for the width 
of the tooth, 7° for that of the pallet, and 1° for the drop : 
total, 12°. 

4th. Equidistant pallets, lift divided, the same distribution for 
tooth and pallet as in the preceding case. 

Plan of the escapement with equidistant lockings and -pointed 
teeth. — Describe a circle a b a' b' (fig. 1) to any scale. Draw 
three radii, oa, or, oa', at distances apart of 30°, since the opening 
which corresponds to two-and-a-half teeth of a wheel of fifteen 
teeth is 60°. At the ends a and a of the two extreme radii draw 




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of the wheel to b, then 10° (total angle of lift of the anchor) 
around the centre of the anchor to c, and, lastly, turn it back 1^° 
(amount of penetration of the locking) to d. The junction of 
the point d with the point of departure a gives us the incline of 
the pallet. Therefore the point b is where the tooth will leave 
the incline, because to arrive there it has travelled 10°; there 
then remains 2° for drop, and the point c will have traversed in 
all 10° to come to b. 

Produce the line a d and describe the tangency circle s t u. 
The tangents passing by the points c and b give us the incline in 

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y 

two tangents : the point of intersection upon the intermediate 
radius, produced, gives the centre r of the anchor. 

For this escapement the point a (if we confine ourselves at first 
to the entering lift (levee cV entree) is the point of the tooth. To 
find the heel* of the pallet turn the point a 10° around the centre 

* The part of the tooth that comes first in contact with the pallet is nsually termed 
the point, and the part which actuates it the heel (talon). We shall, therefore, in order 
to facilitate description, apply "point" and "heel" to the parts of the pallets which 
come first and last into action respectively. The impulse begins, then, by the contact 
of two points and terminates in that of two heels. It is hardly necessary to say that, as 
regards the pointed toeth, the point and heel are identical. 



Y 

its two extreme positions with regard to the wheel. As regards 
the exit lift (levee de sortie) the same process is observed : 
The point a' is first taken 10° around the centre of the 
wheel to b', then 10° towards that centre around the centre of 
the anchor to c' and brought back again 1^° to d) the line a' d' 
will be the incline of the exit pallet. The tangency circle v x y 
will serve to draw this incline in any desired position between the 
two extreme positions. 

Plan of the escapement with equidistant pallets and pointed 
teeth. — To set out the second escapement in our above classifi- 



n 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[November 1, 188' 



cation exactly the same process is .gone through, save that since 
the pallets are equidistant and correspond to 10° of the wheel, 
the point for the tooth a (fig. 2) is taken 5° to the left of the 
radius o k, from there 10° to b, then 10° interiorly to c, and, being 
turned back again l\ c , brought to d, as before ; a d will be the 
incline. At the exit lift take the point a', similarly, 5° to the 
left of the radius o I, and proceed in the same way ; that is to say, 
bring it at first to b', then to c', and lastly to d'; the incline of 
the exit pallet will be d' a 1 . 

The question of "draw" has been designedly left aside until 
we have finished with the inclines. 

Plan of the escapement ivith equidistant lockings and club teeth. 
— We have already seen that the angular movement of a wheel of 
fifteen teeth is 12° for each impulse. As the club tooth allows of 
the pallet freeing it easier at the back than in the case of the 
pointed tooth, we shall only take here 1° for the drop instead of 2°. 
There remains, therefore, 11° which may be distributed according 
to taste between the incline of the tooth and that of the pallet. 
We have selected 4° and 7°; had we desired a tooth almost hs 
wide as the pallet, we could have chosen 5° and 6°, or any other 
optional proportion. 

Describe a circle a h b a' V b' (fig. 3), representing the exterior 
size of the wheel. In order to obtain the centre of the anchor it 
is necessary to find the point of the tooth, seeing that up to the 
present it has always been considered best that the centre be 
upon the tangent to the circumference which touches that point 
(we shall see later on the importance that should be given to this 
detail). To be able to proceed then, take a provisional centre of 
the anchor r as nearly as possible in its proper place. We can 
never be far out in this, as we know it should be a little nearer 
to the wheel than that which was found for the ratchet-toothed 
wheel. In any case an error of judgment in this respect can 
readily be corrected. 

Since equidistant lockings are required, take, starting from 
the point k, a point a making an angle of 4° witli this last, the 
centre o of the wheel forming the summit of the angle. 

Mark a point b 7° from k or 11° from a, then with the 
centre r of the anchor as centre, carry the point b 10° inwards 
to c and again recoil it 1^° to d, as 11° is always required 
for the locking. 

If now the point a be joined with the point d by any line or 
curve, the condition will be effected as regards the anchor having 
an angular movement of 10° for its total movement and of 1^° 
for attaining the position where the inclines can act upon one 
another. This allows of any form of incline being selected 
without destroying our proposition. 

Assuming that we have chosen the broken line a e d, the part 
a e will be the incline of the tooth, and the part e d the incline of 
the pallet. Produce this last and describe the tangency circle 
s t u; two tangents, c and b, to this circle will give the innermost 
and outermost positions of the incline. 

A line touching the point e of the tooth perpendicular to the 
radius of the wheel touching the same point can now be drawn, 
which will enable us to find the centre of the anchor; if the 
provisional centre is appreciably out of its proper position the 
drawing must be done over again ; but the point b will not 
change its place and only the points c and d will require to be 
moved. From the centre r describe the arc b d c, which most 
frequently will only imperceptibly modify the points c and d, 
even in a drawing on a very large scale. It is thus apparent 
that selt.don of a provisional centre of the anchor does not 
present any serious inconvenience, while at the same time it 
affords a uniform means of drawing different systems of escape- 
ments ; and it will be seen later on the advantage there is in 
placing the centre of the anchor upon the tangent which passes by 
the point of the tooth. As regards the exit pallet, take in the same 
manner a point a' 4° to the left of the equidistant radius o V, the 
point b' 7° to the right ; find a point c' and a point d' at 10° and 
8^ c by turning around the centre of anchor towards the wheel. 
Here the points a and d' can no longer be joined by any straight 
line, the incline of the tooih being already determined. Move 
then the point e through an nrc of the circle to e and join e' and d'. 
Producing this last line the tangency circle v x y is obtained and 



the incline of the exit pallet, in its interior position, m c\ and in 
its exterior, n' b 1 , drawn. 

Plan of the escapement with equidistant pallets and club teeth. 
— The directions given for drawing the preceding escapement 
serve, with a little modification, for this one, so it will only be 
necessary here to generally indicate briefly the mode of procedure 
without going into details. 

Assuming that the tooth is to be four-sevenths the width of 
the pallet, as before, take two points, /and b (fig. 4), 3^° to the 
left and right of the equidistant radius o k, and mark the point a 4° 
still further to the left ; this will be the heel of the tooth. Turn 
the point b 10° and 8^° around the centre of the anchor and join 
d and a; this gives a e for the incline of the tooth and e d for 
that of the pallet. Try if the centre of the anchor be upon the 
tangent passing by the point of the tooth, and correct it if it is 
not. This tangent for the escapement with equidistant lockings 
cannot, as is shown in the drawing, be ascertained by the point of 
the tooth, because it would not intersect upon the line of centres 
the tangent passing by the point of the tooth in the exit lift. 
The point g on the equidistant radius o k takes the place of the 
point of the tooth, and from this point the perpendicular is drawn 
for obtaining the centre of the anchor. 

At the exit lift take in a similar manner the points/' and b' 
3^° to the left and right of the equidistant radius o V, and the 
point a' (heel of the tooth) 4° further to the left. Turn the 
point b' 10° and 8^° and join the point d 1 with the point e'of the 
tooth which had been carried over when previously drawing the 
entrance lift. By the same system of tangency circle the incline 
of the pallet may be drawn in any desired position. 

(To be continued.) 



Four Large South African Diamon6s. 

By George F. Kunz, New York. 



argest brilliant 



MODEL of the Victoria (the great White Diamond), or 
the Imperial, as it has been more recently called, having 
been sent to this city lately, and nothing having been 
published in any scientific periodical concerning this stone, it 
occurred to the writer that some particulars concerning its 
natural uncut form, as well as after cutting, might be of interest. 
Concerning its early history very little is known ; in fact, where 
the stone was found is only a matter of conjecture — a remarkable 
circumstance when we consider that this is the ] 
in the world. 

An explanation by a letter in the Times was given as 
follows : — " That this stone was not found in English dominions 
at all, but in the neighbouring Orange Free State ; that it had 
been found by a Boer on his farm, who, knowing it to be a 
diamond, but fearing being turned out of his farm by a mob, kept 
the secret a whole year, until a Mr. Allenberg, of Port Elizabeth, 
saw it and forwarded it to London." 

It is, however, believed that it was found by someone in one 
of the Kimberley mines, South Africa. The first intimation that 
any of the various mining companies had of its existence was 
when they heard of its safe arrival in London. It is generally 
supposed that in the month of June or July, 1884, the stone had 
been found by one of the surveillance officers' of the Central 
Mining Co. in the Kimberley mines. It being his duty to 
search others, he had the privilege of not being searched himself, 
and so the stone was passed through the searching-house, and 
he was afterwards supposed to have found means of communi- 
cating with four illicit diamond buyers. Owing to the stringency 
of the diamond laws of Griqualand West, the trading in rough 
diamonds is forbidden anyone not owning one of the "patents" 
or " licences" as they are called, costing £200 and a guarantee of 
£500. All purchases made by them must also be entered in a 
special registry, and are duly signed every week by the police 
authorities. £3,000 was the price paid to obtain the stone from 
the first possessor. To prepare themselves for the ordeal of 
transporting the stone out of the district they assembled at 



November 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



77 



night, commenced drinking, then gambling, and, after a night's 
debauch, two of the party lost their share in the big stone. The 
other two reached Cape Town in safety, where the diamond laws 
are not in force, and from a dealer there received £19,000 in 
cash for their stone. An outward duty of one-half per cent, is 
collected on all shipments of diamonds from Cape Colony ; but 
this diamond is said to have been carried by one of the passengers 
of a mail steamer, and was hence undeclared. 

We next hear of it in London, causing considerable sensation 
at Hatton Garden, the great diamond market. After considerable 
time had been spent in trying to find a capitalist who could afford 
to buy such a, gem, it was at last arranged by a former resident 
ol the Cape mines to form a company of eight persons, who 
bought the stone together for £45,000 cash, on condition that if 
they should dispose of it, each should receive a ninth share in the 
eventual profits. 

Before cutting it was estimated that the crystal would furnish 
either of the following gems : If cut as a briollette, 300 carats ; 
as a drop, 230 to 240 cnrats ; as a lozenge, 250 carats ; and as 
a mathematically perfect brilliant, 150 carats. If cut in the 
latter form it would have furnished cleavages that would cut into 
one 40 carat, one 20 carat stone, and 40 carats of smaller stones. 
It was finally decided to cut it into the largest possible brilliant, 
still preserving a good shape, and Amsterdam was selected as the 
place where the gem could best be cut. 

It was accordingly sent to the polishing mills of Jacques Metz, 
who erected a special workshop for the purpose. In order to 
better obtain the brilliant form of cutting, a piece was cleaved 
off which furnished a 19-carat diamond, and was sold to the 
King of Portugal for £4,000. The cutting of the large stone, 
which was commenced on April 9 in the presence of the 
Queen of Holland, took about twelve months, since, instead of 
being cut by abrasion witli another diamond, as diamonds are 
usually cut, it was polished down on the scaif ; and a great 
amount of time was consumed by the cooling of the stone, as it 
heated after an hour's running on the wheel. The cutter of the 
stone was M. B. Barends. The stone in its finished condition 
weighs 180 carats, is a beautiful, perfect steel-blue diamond, and 
is the largest brilliant in the world. 

It is 39.5 mm. (1 T 9 ^ inches) long, 30 mm. (1|| inches) wide, 
and 23 mm. (' | of an inch) thick, being exceeded in size by one 
diamond only, the Orloff, belonging to the Russian crown, which 
weighs 194f carats, but is a large deep rose, and not a brilliant. 
The Victoria exceeds the Regent in weight by 44^ carats. The 
Koh i-noor weighs only 106^ carats. 

The form is not entirely even, and on one side of the girdle 
there is quite a flat place, a natural unpolished surface, necessary, 
in cutting, to preserve the large weight of the stone. It is, 
however, a perfect 58-facet brilliant. 

The original weight of the stone was 457-^ carats — over 3 ozs. 
troy. The stone to-day is held by a London syndicate for 
£200,000. The ownership is divided into 32nd parts, some 
holding only one and others four or more. 

The Tiffany large yellow diamond weighs 125§ carats, is 
absolutely perfect, is a " double-deck " cut brilliant, as it is 
termed, and is undoubtedly the finest large yellow diamond 
known. It was found in the Kimberley mine about nine years 
ago, and was cut in Paris. One of its most pleasing features is 
that it not only retains its rich yellow colour by artificial light, 
but is even more beautiful than by day. It has 40 facets on the 
crown, 44 facets on the pavilion or lower side of the stone, and 17 
facets on the girdle : total number, 101. Because of its deep colour 
this is a finer stone than the historical Star of the South (125 
carats), which was purchased by the Mahratta, ruler of Baroda, 
for 400,000 dols., at the French Exposition, 1867. It also rivals 
the Florentine, which, according to Schrauf's determination 
(Sitzb. d. k. Akad. d. Wissench., Band 54, Abtheil i. Nov., 
18(56) weighed 133| carats, and was sold for 2,000,000 florins, 
but is only a long double rose or drop, and not a brilliant. 

The Tiffany No. 2 diamond weighs 77 carats, is of a light 
yellowish colour, is absolutely perfect, and is one of the few large 
stones that have been cut for beauty and not for weight. It is 
so evenly cut that it will stand on the culet, which is only of the 



regular size. This stone was exposed to a strong blazing sunlight 
for 30 minutes, tw r o thermometers registering 110° to 120° F. 
during the whole time of exposure : and only a very faint, if any, 
phosphorescence was observed, although the stone was placed in 
a dark room within 30 seconds after exposure. It had been laid 
on a black velvet case during the whole time of the experiment, 
and nothing came in contact with it while it was being carried to 
a place of darkness. Its specific gravity is 3.523+ at 60° F.; it 
measures 26 mm. (I^L- inches) in length, 25 mm. (1 inch) in 
width, and 17 mm. (^ of an inch) in thickness; there are 33 
facets on the crown or upper side of the stone and 25 facets on 
the pavilion or back; and, in addition, there are 55 small facets 
evenly distributed around the girdle. 

A fine yellow diamond, weighing 51§- carats, also from South 
Africa, and recently recut by Tiffany & Co. in New York City, 
is absolutely perfect and without flaws. It measures 22 mm. 
(| of an inch) in length, 22 mm. in width, 23.75 mm. (f^- of an 
inch) at the corners, and 15.75 mm. (§ of an inch) in thickness ; 
there are 73 facets on the crown or upper side of the stone, and 
49 facets on the pavilion or back ; and the cutting, which is 
that of a double-deck brilliant with some of the lower crown 
facets divided in two, is quite unique, forming' a remarkably 
beautiful gem. 



Madagascar Trade in Watches and Ornaments. — There 
are in Madagascar, writes a correspondent, no special dealers in 
watches and ornaments, these goods being kept by most of the 
traders as supplements to their stocks, and their sale is prin- 
cipally amongst the European circles of inhabitants. As mantle- 
pieces are unknown in the island, there is no demand for the 
ormolu class of clocks, candlesticks, vases, &c, which are so com- 
monly in request in England ; but small timepieces, inkstands and 
such like for writing tables are very saleable. There is also a fair 
demand for travelling clocks with or without alarums, and such 
goods may with safety be shipped to Tamatave on consignment. 
Massive gold watches of medium quality (especially keyless ones) 
and large and showy chains with pendants are very marketable 
goods ; the same can be said of nickel and aluminum-cased 
keyless watches, but these latter should only be sent out if their 
winding gear is oE reliable make, for should an article of this 
kind get a bad name through a few purchasers being let in, a 
whole consignment will probably be doomed. Exporters should 
remember that in sending goods to out-of-the-way places witli 
limited populations, their sale is readily affected by a bad 
reputation, chance custom being a much less important factor 
here ; neither should it be forgotten that cheap mechanical 
articles, whose prices in the country of manufacture are so low 
as hardly to make it worth purchasers' while to complain if they 
turn out badly, by the time they are offered to retail purchasers in 
the above-mentioned places have their prices increased 100 per cent, 
or more, and a greater importance is attached to the purchase. 
It is therefore an error to export this class of manufacture in the 
lowest qualities. The same remark applies to gilt or plated 
goods, which should always be of a moderately fair quality at 
least, and not mere wash, if an3'thing like a continuous trade is 
wished for. When a Madagascar), or say an Otaheitian, indulges 
himself in a splendid gilt warming-pan cased watch or princely 
looking chain, paying, as he would have to, a by no means 
inconsiderable price for the gratification, his mortificatk*« will be 
great on finding the glitter all gone after a few weeks^wear, or 
that the keyless movement of his wonderful watch has broken 
down ; and he does not, as an Englishman would do similarly 
circumstanced, keep the article out of sight and say nothing 
about it, but protests loudly to everyone he meets against the 
manner in which he has been " swindled," and makes others 
suspicious of the manufacture. The women in Madagascar, 
both Europeans and natives, have a great aptitude for adorning 
themselves with jewellery, choosing not the gaudiest patterns, 
but for the most part showing good taste ; and medium quality 
gold necklets, bracelets, earrings, hairpins, &c, will always find 
ready purchasers. The import duty on these goods is 10 per 
cent, on declared value. 



78 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[November 1, 1887. 



American 3tems. 



VCR. CHARLES L. TIFFANY, one of the founders of 



the house of Tiffany & Co., which reached its 50th anni- 
versary on September 21, was presented with a handsome 
testimonial or address from his employes on that occasion. 
The address was an illuminated one on vellum, consisting of 
eleven large sheets attached to an ivory roller. It was encased 
in a finely polished rosewood case, with a solid gold plate on top, 
hearing the inscription, "Charles L. Tiffany, 1837 — 1887." 



The Canadian Government has recently taken to seizing all 
catalogues, price lists, &c, that are sent into the Dominion by 
mail and levying a duty on them. A dealer in machinery 
complains that a catalogue sent by him to Hamilton, Ontario, 
was so seized, and on his writing to the collector at that place 
he was informed that all such publications were dutiable. This 
is rather a petty business (says the Jewelers' Circular) for a 
great government to indulge in. It has always been represented 
that Canada desired to cultivate the closest commercial relations 
possible with us, and our people have reciprocated that sentiment 
fully ; but if such paltry hindrances as this are to be thrown in 
the path of trade and commerce, it is not likely to be developed 
very rapidly. 

Says the Jewelers' Circular : Manufacturers and jobbers alike 
have been kept unusually busy during the past month, and no 
one is now heard complaining of dull times. The universal 
response to the inquiries regarding trade is, " never better ;" and 
instead of the former complaints of dulness, with which we have 
been so familiar in previous years, the grumbling, when there is 
any, is because of overwork. One extensive jobber informed 
us recently that his business for the first eight months of this 
year was 40 per cent, more than it was for the corresponding 
months of last year; and that if lie were to close up then he 
would be ahead of last year's business, so far as the quantity 
disposed of was concerned. Others speak with nearly equal 
satisfaction as to the condition of trade ; and unless something 
unforeseen occurs, the quantity of goods sold will be largely in 
excess of the sales of 1886. But there comes in the old cry 
regarding excessive competition, and the cutting of prices till 
the margin of profit is whittled down to a point that is almost 
indistinguishable. A large manufacturer of a general line of 
jewellery informed us that his firm kept a large force employed in 
making chain ; yet he did not believe that they had made a dollar 
on chain in several years, because the prices had been cut away 
until there was scarcely enough left to pay for material and 
labour. When asked why he continued to make goods on which 
there was no profit, he replied that they were obliged to in order 
to keep up their stock and sell their other goods. Their 
customers demanded full lines ; and so they had to go on making 
chain and to sell it without a profit, because the competition was 
so great that prices were cut all to pieces. He was certain that 
he could make chain as cheaply as anyone, and if he could not 
make a profit out of it he was sure no one else was getting rich 
by it. So it is with other goods, and the general feeling seems 
to be that the profits of the business this year will not be 
commensurate to the quantity of goods sold. It is something, 
however, to have sold the goods. 



HZhe "ftlatch IUra6e anb the Jflerchanbise 
Jflarhs Act. 



MEETING was held on Tuesday, the 11th ult., at the 
offices of the London Chamber of Commerce, Botolph 
House, Eastcheap, of watch importers and manufacturers, 
for the purpose of receiving a report "As to the bearing of the 
Merchandise Marks Act, 1887, on the watch trade." Mr. L. 
Platnauer presided, and there were present : Mr. J. Rotherham, 
Sir John Bennett, Mr. E. J. Leyard, Mr. M. A. Perrier, Mr. J. 
Tripplin, Mr. J. Elkan, Mr. T. Wordley, Mr. T. W. Vine, Mr. 
J. A. Lund (Messrs. Barraud & Lund), Mr. J. L. Langman 



(Goldsmiths and Silversmiths' Co.), Mr. H. M. Frodsham, 
and others. The Secretary (Mr. Kenric B. Murray) read the 
report and opinions obtained from reliable sources, which showed 
that the Merchandise Marks Act appears to apply to the watch 
trade except in regard to those matters which are to be regulated 
by the future issue of an Order in Council ; that this Order in 
Council will not be issued until all necessary preparations have 
been made ; that while the English Hall-mark does not rank as 
a " trade mark," it does rank as a " trade description," and 
consequently nothing must be placed upon a watch tending to 
mislead the public as to its origin ; that the Act will apply to 
existing stocks without any allowances, but that if watches Hall- 
marked prior to the passing of the Act are sold on a special 
declaration of their origin the spirit of the Act will be complied 
with ; the declarations at an assay office as to origin of watches 
and cases will immediately on the issue of the Order in Council 
have to be made in person, or by an accredited representative ; 
that the most convenient possible arrangements will be made by 
the authorities ; and that new stamps were proposed for marking 
watches, different and distinctive from gold and silver. 

The Chairman said the meeting would recognise the value of 
the means by which they could legitimately dispose of present 
stocks by giving a certificate declaring the origin of the watches 
they sold. In reference to the proposed new distinctive marks 
for gold and silver Hall-marking of watch cases, he thought they 
would oppose any such change. The public now looked upon 
the Hall-mark of the lion as a standard, and it should be main- 
tained. What was necessary, however, was that in the instance 
of Swiss or other goods they should educate the public into 
understanding what a Swiss or other Hall-mark meant. Questions 
were then replied to. The Chairman said, in course of his 
answers, that although a retailer need not necessarily describe a 
watch as other than a " Swiss horizontal " or a " Swiss lever," yet 
it would be advisable to add the words "of Swiss manufacture" 
for the purpose of safety. For instance, if Mr. Benson sold a 
watch marked as " Benson, London," the public were supposed 
to be buying a watch made by Mr. Benson — not one made in 
Switzerland or Clerkenwell. The true origin of a watch must be 
declared so as to prevent fraudulent representation, or fraudulent 
description. 



Serious Charge against a Birmingham Jeweller. — At 
the Birmingham Quarter Sessions, Friday, October 21, 1887, 
George Griffin, jeweller, of Hunter's Lane, Birmingham, was 
indicted for receiving 2 ozs. of gold scrap, the property of Messrs. 
G. E. Walton, Limited, from James Ravenscroft, well knowing 
it to have been stolen. Mr. Stnbbins (instructed by Messrs. J. 
C. Fowke & Son) prosecuted, and Mr. Hugo Young (instructed 
by Mr. BenbowHebbert) defended. A second count charged him 
with stealing the gold, but this was not gone into. James 
Ravenscroft said that up to July 20 last he was in the employ- 
ment of the prosecutors. The prisoner had previously been in 
the same employment, but left it about three years ago. On 
July 13 last he met the prisoner in Hamstead Road, and 
prisoner asked him if he could get him any stuff. Witness 
said he would try, and an arrangement was made that they 
should meet on July 27 in Icknield Street, Hockley. They 
met on that day, and witness gave prisoner about 2 ozs. of 
gold scrap which he had stolen from his employers. Another 
meeting was arranged for August 4 for the same purpose, 
and for prisoner to pay witness for what he had already given 
him. On July 28, however, Mr. Walton made a charge against 
witness, who confessed to it and made a statement to Mr. 
Walton in the presence of Detective-Sergeant Baker. On 
August 4, as arranged, witness went to Icknield Street about 8 
o'clock in the evening and met. prisoner, who asked him what 
was the matter at the shop, and why witness had been discharged ; 
was it for theft? Witness said it was. Witness lived in a 
house at Priory Road, Handsworth, with his mother: the house 
belonged to Mr. Walton. On Saturday, October 15, prisoner 
came to the house, and in the presence of witness's mother he 
asked witness what he had done for him, what had he said. 
Had he made any admission as to what had passed between them ? 



November 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



79 



Witness said he had, and prisoner remarked, " Well then I'm 
well done for." Witness was subjected to a rigid cross- 
examination by Mr. Young. He said he commenced to steal 
gold about a fortnight before July 27. He had never stolen 
gold before, and then he only stole a few pennyweights. A 
policeman was sent for, when he was charged with the theft 
and told that if he said what he had done with the gold he 
would not be prosecuted. Re-examined : Witness said the first 
thefts of a few pennyweights of gold followed upon his first 
meeting with the prisoner. Prisoner gave him 5s. for that 
amount. Mr. Foxall, manager to Messrs.. Walton, said he 
made up his gold account on July 11, and next on July 27. On 
the latter date he should have had 13 ozs. 1 dwt., and he had a 
deficiency of 6 ozs. 13 dwts. By Mr. Young : We have heard that 
Ravenscroft only stole 2 ozs. and a few pennyweights. — Can you 
tell us what became of the other 4 ozs.? — I cannot. — Mr. 
Frederick Walton said prisoner was in his employment up till 
about three years ago, and Ravenscroft worked under him. 
Witness further deposed to Ravenscroft being charged by him 
with theft and to his confessing. Detective- Sergeant Baker 
deposed to hearing the Ravenscrofts' statement and to arresting 
prisoner and charging him with the offence of receiving. He 
denied the charge. Police-Constable Thomas said on the evening 
of August 4 he went to Icknield Street by instructions, and saw 
the prisoner loitering about as if waiting for someone ; soon after 
Ravenscroft came along and joined him, and they talked together 
for some time. Louisa Ravenscroft, mother of the first witness, 
said on the 15th inst. prisoner came to her house in Priory Road, 
Handsworth, and saw her son. He asked her son, "Jimmy, 
what have you been saying about me ; have you told them that 
you brought me any stuff ?" Witness's son replied, "I have," 

and prisoner remarked, "I'm well done for." Witness 

was waited upon by Detective-Sergeant Baker on the same day, 
before her son returned from the Police Court, and she then dic- 
tated to Baker an account of prisoner's interview with her son 
that morning, and which she signed.— This concluded the case 
for the prosecution. The prisoner was found guilty, and the 
Recorder sentenced him to five years' penal servitude. 



"Workshop JFlemoranba, 

Phosphate of Soda. — This salt, easily to be had in commerce, 
similar to borax, in a melted condition takes up metallic oxides, 
consequently it acts like borax. Since it is a very thin fluid in 
heat, it is especially useful in cases when soldering with very hard 
solder are necessary. The crystallised commercial phosphate of 
soda also contains water of crystallisation, and this has a dis- 
turbing influence when soldering ; consequently the crystals are 
exposed to the air, when they will lose their water, by becoming 
air slaked, and fall into a delicate white powder, which is imme- 
diately used for soldering. 

Tarnish on Electro-plate Goods. — This tarnish can be 
removed by dipping the article from one to fifteen minutes — that 
is until the tarnish shall have been removed — in a pickle of the 
following composition : — Rain water two gallons, and potassium 
cyanuret one-half pound ; dissolve together, and fill into a stone 
jug or jar and close tightly. The article, after having been 
immersed, must be taken out and thoroughly rinsed in several 
waters, then dried with fine clean sawdust. Tarnished jewellery 
can speedily be restored by this process ; but be careful to 
thoroughly remove the alkali, otherwise it will corrode the goods. 



" Mystery Gold." — An alloy of this kind entered the market 
many years ago, in the form of watch chains and other articles 
of jewellery, the composition of which was, copper sixteen parts, 
platinum seven parts, and zinc one part. This alloy, when 
carefully prepared, bears a close resemblance to 16-carat gold, 
and when electro-gilt would readily pass for the genuine article. 
The manufacture of this variety of spurious gold seems to have 
received a check for a certain period ; but somewhat recently, in 
a modified formula, it has reappeared, not only in the form of 
articles of jewellery, but actually as current coin, and from its 



highly deceptive character, being able to resist the usual test, it 
has acquired the name of " Mystery Gold." It appears that, 
when converted into jewellery, the chief aim of the " manu- 
facturers " is to defraud pawnbrokers, to whom the articles are 
offered in pledge ; and, since they readily withstand the nitric 
acid tests, the " transactions " are often successful. According 
to Mr. W. F. Love, in a communication to the Chemical News, 
a bracelet made from an alloy of this character had been sold to 
a gentleman in Liverpool, and when the gilding was removed the 
alloy presented the colour of 9-carat gold. The qualitative 
analysis proved it to be composed of platinum, copper, and a little 
silver. A quantitative analysis yielded the following result : — 

Silver 2-48 

Platinum 32-02 

Copper (by difference) ... ... ... 65 - 50 

It was found that strong boiling nitric acid had apparently no 
effect upon it, even when kept in the acid for some time. 

To Clean and Renew old Files. — Collect all the old files 
that are clogged up with grease and dirt and boil them for half 
an hour in saleratus water (4 ozs. saleratus to 1 quart water). 
Then wash them in clean water and place them in a solution of 
sulphuric acid and water (4 ozs. of sulphuric acid to 1 quart 
water). Remove the smaller and finer files at the end of about 
45 minutes : the larger and coarser may remain in the solution 
from two to three hours ; they should be examined from time to 
time, however, to see that they do not cut too much. Afterwards 
wash thoroughly with a stiff brush and plenty of clean water, and 
dry and oil them to prevent rusting. It will be found that many 
files which were apparently useless, will, after having undergone 
this process, cut almost as well and last almost.as long as new ones. 

Setting Jewel Holes. — The following directions are given 
by Saunier : — Whether it be a plate, cock or bouchon in which 
the stone is to be set, the piece must always be cemented to a 
chuck and the whole accurately centred. Turn it out to a depth 
corresponding to the thickness of stone, and make a circular 
groove round the hole thus made with a round-pointed graver, 
only leaving a very thin fillet of metal on the inside. The stone 
should fit easily in the hole, but without play, and should pass in 
to such a depth that its surface is slightly below that of the 
plate, &c, when there is an endstone ; in others it must of course 
often depend on the endshake to be obtained. At the same 
time it appears desirable that it should always be slightly below. 
Clean out the setting and place a small quantity of oil in it to 
prevent the stone from flying out when made to rotate ; or it 
may be rendered still more safe by a pointed pegwood stick held 
in the hand. The stone is fixed in position with a small conical 
burnisher (as,- for example, the point of a round broach) very 
carefully polished so as to avoid all abrading action ; if an excess 
of metal is forced over the surface of the stone it is removed with 
a graver. The surface of the brass is finally smoothed with a 
hemp stem or pegwood and tripoli in oil, followed with polishing 
rouge in spirits of wine. English jewel-setters often do not turn 
the groove, but leave a projecting edge round the hole which is 
pressed on to the stone with a burnisher. 



Sazette. 

Partnerships Dissolved. 
Satchwell Brothers, Birmingham, manufacturers of jewellers' requisites. 
P. Lawson & Nephew, Hatton Garden, City, diamond merchants. 
Julius Cohen & Co., Hatton Garden, diamond merchants. John 
Watson & Son, Bradford, watchmakers. 

THE BANKRUPTCY ACT, 1883. 
Receiving Orders. 

To surrender in London.— Robert James Griffiths, St. Martin's Lane, 
Westminster, jeweller. William Jardine (trading as Jardine & Co.), 
Great Winchester Street, City, diamond merchant. 

To surrender in the Cou?itry.—Kenry James Hayhurst, Hastings, jeweller. 
James Henry Hunt, Birmingham, electro-plate manufacturer. Charles 
Madrell Caine and George Oscar Caine (trading as Caine Brothers), 
Liverpool, pawnbrokers. Thomas Arthur Temhn, Sheffield, watch- 
maker. Frederick Birchall, Liverpool, jeweller. Richard Barnaby 
Baines Preston and Liverpool, pawnbroker. Richard Barnaby 
Baines' and James Baines (trading as R. B. & J. Baines), Liverpool, 



80 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[November 1, 1887. 



pawnbrokers. Frederick Francis Peasley, Wolverhampton, pawn- 
broker's manager. 

Public Examinations. 

In London. — M. Sugar, Waltham Buildings, Holborn Circus, fancy goods 
dealer : November 8, at 12.30. 

lathe Country. — H. J. Hayhurst, Hastings, jeweller: November 7, at 1. 
J. H. Hunt. Birmingham, electro-plate manufacturer ; November 15, 
at 2. 

Adjudications. 

In London. — R. J. Griffiths. St. Martin's Lane, jeweller. M. Sugar. Holborn 
Circus, fancy goods dealer. 

In the Country. — H. J. Hayhurst, Hastings, jeweller. T.'C. Judge. Chard, 
clockmaker. G. H. Simmons. Builtn, jeweller. T. A. Ternlin, 
Sheffield, watchmaker. F. Birchall, Liverpool, jeweller. C. M. Caine 
and G. O. Caine (trading as Caine Brothers and as J. Edwards & Co.), 
Liverpool, pawnbrokers. R. B. Baines, Preston and Liverpool, pawn- 
broker. R. B. and J. Baines, Liverpool, pawnbrokers. F. F. Peasley. 
Wolverhampton, pawnbroker's manager. 

Notices of Dividends. 

In London. — A.Jack, Cheltenham, jeweller : 8s. (id., first : any Wednesday . 
Seear, Hasluck & Co., 23, Holborn Viaduct. J. Dubois (separate 
estate), Camden Road and Hatton Garden, watch manufacturer; 20s., 
first and final : any Wednesday, Seear, Hasluck & Co.. 23, Holborn 
Viaduct. S. Thomas, Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, jeweller: 2s. 6d., 
first; any day. except Saturday, Chief Official Receiver, 33, Carey 

Street. 

In the ('ountyy. — J. Joseph and M". Joseph (tra ling as J. Joseph iV Sons 
and as Scott & Co.). Birmingh imand elsewhere, jewellers : 5s., payable 
by three promissory notes at six. twelve anl eighteen months : 120. 
Colmnre Row, Birmiugha'n. F. H. Tritschler, Carlisle, jeweller: 
3s. 7d., first and final: o:i an after October 26, Official Receiver, 
Carlisle. 

Scotch Sequestration". 

0. Faller (trading as Faller Brothers), [nverness, watchmaker. 



APPLICATIONS FOE LETTERS PATENT. 

The following List of Patents lias been compiled especially for The Watchmaker, 
Jeweller mid siirmrnitli, by Messrs. \\". P. Thompson & Eoult, Patent Apents, 
of 323. High Holborn. London. W.C ; Newcastle Chambers, Angel Row, Notting- 
ham ; and 6. Lord Street, Liverpool. 

12,711. James McClelland, Birmingham, For "An improved stand for 
clucks and other articles." Dated September 20. 18K7. 
T. Baxter. London, for "A balance-spring-collet shifter for the 
use of watchmakers." Date! September 21, 1887. 
F. J. Britten, London, for "Winding work for marine chro- 
nometers." Dated September 23, 1887. 

H. E. Webb. London, for "An improved key for winding watches 
and for opening watch cases." Dated September 24, IS^T. 
Mariano Vian, London, for •• Electric motor for clocks." (Com- 
plete specification.) Dated September 27, 1887. 
J. J. Rowley, Lewisham. for "An improved combined shirt and 
collar stud or fastener and necktie retainer." Dated September 28, 
1887. 

W. Falk, London, for "An improved kevless watch." Dated 
October 1. 1887. 

H. D. Cole, London, for "An improvement in or in connection 
with clocks and other timepieces.' 7 Dated October 3, 1887. 

C. A. Burghardt and W. J. Twining, Manchester, for " Improve- 
ments in the production of aluminum." Dated October 6, 1887. 
E. Golay, London, for "An improved manufacture of com- 
pensating balance wheel » for watches and clocks." Dated 
October 8. 1887. 

E. H. Durban and W. N. Last, Birmingham, for " Improvements 
in the method of mounting or setting certain or various designs 
or articles of jewellery or coins in brooches, breast pins, solitaires 
and other similar articles." Dated October 17. 1887. 

D. G. FitzGerald. London, for "An improved electro-chemical 
process for the extraction of the precious metals from their ore: . 
Dated October 17, 18S7. 

M. Weber, Liverpool, for "Improvements in studs for collars, 
cuffs and other like purposes." Dated October IS, 1887. 
J. S. MacArthur, R. W. Forrest and W. Forrest, London, for 
" Improvements in obtaining gold and silver from ores and other 
compounds." Dated October 19, 1887. 

A. B. Cunningham, London, for "Improvements in the reduction 
of lead, silver and other metals, and apparatus therefor." Dated 
October 19 1887. 

J. A. Lund, London, for " Improvements in self-winding clocks 
or clockwork." Dated October 20, 18S7. 



12,799. 
12,898. 
12.955. 
13,091. 
13.132. 

13,330. 
13,373. 
13,522. 
13,663. 

14,037. 

14,054. 

14,128. 
14.174. 

14,221. 

14.252. 



Recent American Patents. 



Brazing Machine. N. H. Roberts 

Button, Cuff. W. E. Gillman 

Celluloid, Die for Moulding Hollow Articles of. J. A. Furman 

Chain, Watch. H. Fritsche 

Clock, Calendar. E. W. Morton 

Clock Case Mould. C. Hellebush ... 

Clock, Electric Alarm. A. J. Wooley 

Clock for Timing Watches, Striking." J. F. Beyerle 

Clock-striking Mechanism. J. L. Sullivan 

Clock, Universal. S. S. Moyer 

Clocks, Electric Synchronising Attachment fo 

Cuff Holder. C. E. Cander 

Cutting and Burnishing Tool. J. P. Lewis 
Drilling Machine, Portable. J. Moffet . ... 
Eyeglass or Spectacle Frame. J. J, Minster 



!■:. f 



369.077 
369,106 
369,784 
369,053 
368,961 
369,337 
369,672 
37U.H38 
370.219 
3K9,462 
369,386 
369,160 
369,252 
369,120 
369.544 



File-cutting Machines ; Chisel Holder for. J. Buyer 369,690 

Gold and Silver Refining. Johnson & Ryan 370,338 

Grinding and Polishing the Interior of Hollow Ware. Machine 

for. J. T. Duff 369.326 

Jewellery. Manufacture of Shell. C. Moegling 369^649 

.Metals. Electric Welding and Tempering. E. E. Hies 370,282 

Metals from their Ores. Separating. D.W.Birmingham ... 370,366 

Metals. Machine for Drawing. H. R. Kennedy 369/290 

Micrometer Gauge. J. Moftitt " 369,357 

Music Box Comb. Paillard & Recordon-Sultiger 369,258 

Pendulum Power. D. Gerstein ... ... 369,176 

Polishing Lap. G.E.Brown 369.431 

Rock Drill. Diamond. W. Odgers 369,654 

Screw Threads, Die for Boiling. C.D.Rogers 370.354 

Watch. A. Junghans 370.146 

Watch Balances. Machines for Turning and Polishing Rims of. 

E. A. Marsh 3fi9,8';6 

Watch Case. C.F.Morrill 369,871 

Watch Regulator. J. W. Hurd 369,006 

Watch Springs. Apparatus for Tempering. V. Sedgwick ... 369,560 

Watchmaker's Tweezers. L. Hirscn 369,182 

A printed copy of the specifications and drawing of any patent 

in the American list, also of any American patent issued since 

I860, will be furnished from this office for 2s. 6d. In ordering, 

please state the number and date of the patent required, and 

remit to J. Truslove, Office of The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 

Silversmith, 7, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 



Buyers' (kuibe. 



The Sheffield Smelting Company, Sheffield. Srll Gold and Silver 
(pure and alloyed). Bui/ all materials containing Gold and Silver. 

Jones, E. A., Wholesale Manufacturer of Whitby Jet Ornaments. A 
Large Asiortment of the Newest Patterns always in Stock. Export 
Orders promptly executed. Persons not having an account open 
will avoid delay by forwarding a reference with their order. 
Customers' Matchings and Repairs with despatch. 93, Hatton Garden. 
London. E.( I. 

For cheap, quick, reliable Watch and Jewellery Repairs, 
by the most Experienced Workmen, send to Alexander Edwards, 
Watch Material and Tool Dealer. 8S & 89, Craven Street, and 2. Holy- 
head Road, Coventry. Lists: all Horological Literature. 

W. Scott Hay ward & Co.. 59, Deansgate, and Barton Arcade, 
Manchester. Wholesale Jet Ornament Manufacturers, Jet Cameo 
Cutters and Rough Jet Merchants. Approval parcels sent on receipt 
of order, if accompanied with trade references. Repairs and matchings 
executed on the day received. Works: .Manchester and Whitby. 
Agents at Liverpool. Leipzig and Paris. 

WANTED. 
ITALY.— A FIRST-RATE .MERCANTILE FIRM, 
J_ travelling regularly over the whole peninsula — Sicily, Malta and 
Tunis — with large experience and extensive connections in the Jewellery, 
Watch and Clock line, is open to enter into correspondence with some 
Imp u'tant Manufacturer for the Sale of their Goods in the above 
quarters. References of the highe-t standing — Please address, A. A., 
110, Naples.— [Advt.] 

TO BE' SOLD. 
1T7ATCHMAKER'S, JEWELLER'S and SILVER- 

VV SMITH'S BUSINESS.— Established over 100 years in good 
Agricultural and Training Districts. Stock moderate, and can be 
reduced. — For particulars, apply to Mrs. J. Staniland. Malton, Yorks. 
[Advt.] 

U/ATCH MANUFACTURING BUSINESS, for sale 
VV of Superior Goods only : established 35 years, with good Jobbing- 
Trade attached, extending over England. Scotland, Ireland and Wales. 
Incoming can be reduced to Four or Five Hundred Pounds, chiefly or 
quite covered by goods, comprising movements, material, tools, &c. 
Owner no objection to remain two or three years to part work at 
finishing or assist in any way required. Age only reason for wishing to 
decline business. — Address Manufacturer, Office of this Journal. — 
[Advt.] 

TO JEWELLERS and WATCHMAKERS.— BUSINESS 
FOR SALE. In a leading West-End thoroughfare, under ex- 
ceptionally favourable circumstances to a responsible purchaser. The 
Stock, Goodwill, &c, and Tenure of Premises. Rent £150 per annum; 
no rates or taxes. About £700 required ; £300 in cash, and the balance 
would be taken in approved bills extending over twelve or eighteen 
mouths. — Apply to A. B.. care of Messrs. Saunders & SHEPHERD, 
Bartlett's Passage and Buildings, Holborn Circus, London, E.C. — [Advt.] 

mO WATCHMAKERS and JEWELLERS.— A Well- 
J_ Established BUSINESS TO BE SOLD in an improving Market 
Town. Incoming about £200. — Apply to J. Watts. Business Agent, 
Wokingham, Berks. — [Advt.1 



ST^e- 



^JJatel^akcr, jeweller 



Entered at Stationers' Wall.'] 



Edited by D. GLASGOW, Jusr. 



[Registered for Transmission Abroad. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 6.] 



DECEMBER 1, 1887. 



|~ Subscription, 5s. ( Post 
|_ per Annum. ( Free. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

Our correspondents are kindly requested to note that the 
Office of this Journal has been removed to more com- 
modious premises at No. 7, St. Paul's Churchyard. 



CONTENTS. 



Editorial ... ... 

General Notes 

Trade Notes. (Illustrated) ... ... ... ... 

The Diamond Cutting Industry... ... ... 

The Pawnbrokers and the Merchandise Marks Act ... 

Birmingham News. From Our Correspondent 

Delhi Jewellers. By William Simpson, R.I., F.R.G.S., Hon 

Assoc. R.I.B.A. (Illustrated) 

The Deeds of Arrangement Registration Act... 

Mining in New South Wales 

The Lever Escapement. By M. L.-A. Gbosclaude 

Abstract of Chronometer Rates... 

Casket for Lord Magheramorne 

Goldsmiths and Jewellers' Asylum 

Christmas and New Year's Presents ... 

Localities of Gems 

Gazette ... ■ ... ... ... ... ... 

Applications for Letters Patent... ... 

Recent American Patents ... 

Correspondence 

Buyers' Guide ... 



PAGE 

81 
82 
. 81 
. 85 
. 86 
, 86 

87 

89 

89 

90 

. 92 

. 94 

94 

. 94 

. 95 

, 95 

. 95 

. 95 

. 96 

. 96 



IChe Watchmaker, jeweller anb 
Siluersmith. 

A Monthly Journal devoted to the interests of Watchmakers, 
Jewellers, Silversmiths and kindred traders. 

Subscription. — A copy of the Journal will be sent monthly for one 
year, post free, to any address in the United Kingdom or countries in the 
Postal Union for 5s. payable in advance. 

Advertisements. — The rates for advertising will be sent on appli- 
cation. The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith will be found 
an exceptional medium for advertising. Special Notices, Situations, &c, 
per insertion, is. for two lines, prepaid. 

Correspondence.— Correspondence is invited on all matters of interest 
to the trade. Correspondents will please give their full address in each 
communication, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of 
good faith. 

Address all business communications to 

THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & SILVERSMITH, 

7, St. Paul's Churchyard, London, E.C. 

Cheques and Postal Orders to be crossed and made payable to J. TRUSLOVE. 



Agent for the Australian Colonies : 

EVAN JONES, 
Hunter Street and Royal Arcade, Sydney, N.S.W. 



Editorial. 




HATEVER may be the result of the Merchandise 
Marks Act on the future of the English watch 
trade, upon which so much divergence of opinion is 
expressed, there can he no doubt that it is having the immediate 
effect of greatly stimulating manufacturing enterprise in many 
directions. This is evidenced by the activity reported from various 
centres, the formation of companies, &c. Although it seems to 
have become the fashion to depreciate ourselves, our methods 
and our resources, a better and more intimate acquaintance with 
what is here being done and what can be done, is, we are con- 
vinced, only what is wanted to create a different and more 
favourable impression. Of course, while so much difference of 
opinion exists among leading manufacturers as to the respective 
merits of old and new methods of production, there can be no 
hope of the definitive adoption by the whole trade of a particular 
system. But, while there are such unanswerable arguments in 
favour of both, we cannot see what is to prevent their beino- 
successfully worked concurrently. Various causes have been 
assigned for the alleged decadence of the English trade, but 
whatever else may have affected the home industry, there can be 
no doubt that increased foreign competition has had much to do 
with the existing depression. This was the result, first, of the 
introduction of the factory system into America and the necessity 
of watch factories there creating fresh markets for their large 
output ; and, secondly, of the increased activity of the Swiss 
who were some few years since awakened to their shortcomings, 
by the report of Monsieur Favre-Perret on the American system 
of manufacture. 

Let the English trade then, in like manner, learn first what 
are the bases of American and Continental procedure and then 
inquire into their own systems and resources, and there can be no 
fear as to the result. 

The idea that is so prevalent among watchmakers of the old 
school that there is at present any practical limit to the demand 
for all classes of watches will not bear the , most superficial 



82 



THE WATCHMAKEE, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[December 1, 1887. 



examination of statistics on the subject. At any rate this idea 
is not yet entertained by the largest Transatlantic producers, 
who are extending their operations in every direction. 



As we took notice of, in our last issue, a scheme for the 
establishment (on a larger scale than has yet been attempted) of 
an English watch factory, is on the carpet, and from the progress 
that has already been made, there is every reason to sujrpose that 
the undertaking will shortly become un fait accompli, at nil 
events, as far as the formation of a company and the establish- 
ment of a factory are concerned. But the practical working of 
such a concern presents many points that should be exhaustively 
considered,' both' by the promoters and those who contemplate 
embarking capital in the enterprise, before a final decision as to 
the modus operandi is arrived at. 

Foremost among these considerations come, of course, questions 
as to the class of goods that are most in demand, with other 
economical particulars involved in the detailed arrangements of 
the manufacture. 

It is not our intention to go into these matters just now, as, 
whatever arrangements may be come to at first, even after the 
most careful statistical studies and consultations with experts, 
will most likely require considerable modification before the 
factory has been long in practical operation. 

What we would point out, however, is the necessity, in order 
to successfully carry out such a project, for starting the working 
of the factory on the right lines. 

These would comprise uniformity of gauging on a scientific 
basis, and the adoption of a recognised standard for the pitches 
and diameters of screws, such as is in use among Continental 
manufacturers. 

In August, 1888, a sub-committee of the British Association, 
appointed to consider the latter subject, pointed out the desira- 
bility of securing a system of small screws international in its 
character, and recommended that a thread of a certain form be 
adopted. They concluded the report by saying they would only 
advocate the definitive adoption of certain modifications, previously 
recommended by them, after consultation with the Swiss Com- 
mittee appointed to consider the same subject, as they considered 
the absolute identity of English and Continental screws to be of 
primary inqxutance. 

Since the issue of the above-mentioned report we are not 
aware of any steps having been taken by English watchmakers 
in the direction indicated. As the want of uniformity in our 
system of gauging is admittedly one of our primary weak points, 
is not the subject worthy of the attention of those who are now 
going in for the new departure ? 



General Notes. 



We learn from the Hydrographic Office of the Admiralty that 
the officer in charge of India Marine Survey has reported that 
the following additional time signal has been established at 
Madras : — The signal is a gun fired daily by electricity from a 
battery near the lighthouse, at noon, Madras mean time, equivalant 
to 18h. 39m. 00.6s., Greenwich mean time. 



tf^O- UIIRIG, who in the 188G Chronometer Trial was first 
J^i'J^ and second, has again gained premier honours at 
Greenwich, his two chronometers being this time first 
and twelfth respectively. 



On the 18th ult. the shop of Mr. Walker, Finchley High 
Road, was burglarised and some £40's worth of watches, 
rings and other jewellery carried off. The thieves, who effected 
their object by cutting a large hole through the plate-glass front 
and a revolving shutter, are believed to belong to the same gang 
that, on the previous Monday, stole from the residence, near 
Barnet, of the Dowager Countess of Caledon jewellery worth 
£800. 



The Winterthur (Switzerland) correspondent of Industries 
states that the value of exports of watches from the consular 
district of Chaux-de-Fonds to the United States for the third 
quarter of the current year amounted to £G4,338, as compared 
with £59,055 in the same quarter of 188C. The value for the 
first nine months of this year was £172,229, as against £129,855 
in the corresponding period of last year. 



The Anniversary Dinner to celebrate the eighth anniversary 
of the opening of the Horological Club is announced to take 
place in the club room at the Horological Institute on 
Friday, the 2nd inst. The musical arrangements will be in 
charge of Mr. F. W. Knight, who on similar former occasions 
has so successfully carried them out. Tickets, price 3s. Gd. each, 
may be obtained of any member of the committee, or of the 
Hon. Sec, Mr. Henry Bickley, 33, Half Moon Crescent, 
Barnsbury. 

At the close of the Exhibition of specimens of hand turning, 
held at the Mansion House, under the auspices of the 
Worshipful Company of Turners, on October 28th last, fourteen 
of Messrs. Ford & Wright's apprentices were awarded prizes 
for excellence in diamond cutting and polishing. All the 
specimens shown bore evidence of the high quality of the work- 
manship turned out by this now well-known firm, and it is grati- 
fying to be able to note such tangible proof of the reality of the 
revival of an industry that not long since was quite lost to this 
country. 

A curious story is attached to the gift of the new mayoral 
chain to Hanley, which was described in our last month's issue. 
It seems that when the Stoke boroughs were incorporated, a 
Mr. Richards, one of the first members, presented the Hanley 
Corporation with a mayoral chain ; but a short time ago it was 
found to have been made of base metal, on which discovery being 
made Mr. Keeling promised a new chain. It would be interesting 
to know how the worthy burgesses of Hanley found out that 
their chain was of base metal. Was the original donor imposed 
upon ? or has the corporation been mistaken all along as to its 
intrinsic character ? 

Professor Roberts-Austen, F.R.S., and Messrs. Courteney 
Boyle, C.B., and Henry J. Chaney, are the members of the 
committee appointed by the President of the Board of Trade to 
confer with the officials of the Assay Office of the United Kingdom 
with regard to the steps to be taken under the watch clauses of the 
Merchandise Marks Act. They have been attending meetings of 
the wardens of the various corporations at Edinburgh, Glasgow, 
Sheffield, Birmingham and Chester, in pursuance of their inquiries 
in the matter, and the trade will doubtless soon be relieved from 
the state of suspense in which it has been for so lcng by the 
publication of the Order in Council, based upon their recom- 
mendations. 

The fourth course of Cantor Lectures at the Society of Arts 
will be delivered on March 12, 19 and 26 by Professor 
W. Chandler Roberts- Austen, F.R.S., on "Alloys." 



December 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



83 



Manufacturers, traders and others interested in the opera- 
tion of the Merchandise Marks Act should obviously make 
themselves familiar with its provisions. For this purpose we 
recommend the following pamphlets (in all of which it is fully 
embodied) to their notice : — " The Merchandise Marks Act, 
1887," by Albert Gray, of the Inner Temple, price 3s. 6d., Wm. 
Clowes & Sons, 27, Fleet Street. " The Merchandise Marks 
Act, 1887," by Newnham Browne. " The Law of Trade 
Marks," by J. F. Bennett, 82, Queen Street, Cheapside, E.C. 



The Annual Ballad Concert in aid of the funds of the 
Clerkenwell Benevolent Society is announced to take place 
on the 19th inst., at the Agricultural Hall, Islington. As 
the Committee announce in their annual report, the high- 
class character and consequent success of these concerts have 
become proverbial, the last one realising a net profit of nearly 
£150, which, after paying for the relief tickets and general 
expenses, left a balance of £51 17s. lid. to be carried to the 
general fund for continuing the charitable operations during the 
ensuing winter. The useful work done by the Society last 
season was represented by the distribution, through its subscribers, 
of some 2,000 sacks of coal and the like number of quartern 
loaves to the deserving poor of the district, and the amount of 
comfort thus bestowed can only be partially realised even by 
those well accustomed to house to house visitation. The recent 
severe depression in the watchmaking and jewellery trades is 
likely to make the present winter peculiarly distressing to those 
who have been thrown out of employment in consequence. There 
can be no better way of finding out and realising deserving cases 
(which would probably be otherwise overlooked in the ordinary 
course of eleemosynary relief) than in the system of distribution 
adopted by the Society, and we trust the financial results of the 
forthcoming concert will be as favourable as its object is 
meritorious. 

With reference to the montre-observateur brought out by the 
Parish watchmaker Schwob, which we noticed in our October 
issue, Monsieur A. Redier says, in the Revue Chronometrique : — 
In point of inventions proclaimed as new, without real novelty, 
we may cite the watch sold under the name of montre-observateur. 
A small dial of hours and minutes, placed between the IX. 
and the centre of the ordinary dial gives the time correspond- 
ingly with the two large hands ; but, on pushing a bolt, the two 
little hands are returned to zero, from whence they go on 
again. If, for example, we return them to zero at the moment 
of taking a coach by the hour, when the time comes for paying 
the coachman it is only necessary to read the hour marked by 
the little hands in order to know, without calculation, the time 
passed. The method is not new. At the time when the Societe 
des Petites Voitures was founded, about 1854, many arrange- 
ments of this kind were constructed. We believe that the house 
of Oudin, of the Palais-Royal, originated the painting of an 
arrow-point upon the glass of the watch. This glass could be 
turned easily by the hand ; and at the time of engaging a 
carriage the hour hand and the painted arrow were superposed. 
This was a simple reminder. A number of carriage counters 
which have, by the researches made, caused so much loss in 
horology, are based upon this idea. One or two hands were 
returned to zero at the moment of departure — the one indicated 
the time elapsed ; the other the amount to pay. The writer 
has himself constructed such watches with, however, but one 
(hour) hand and the dial divided into six figures, so as to 
facilitate the reading. Monsieur Redier goes on ironically 
to say : " What a good opportunity for the new constructor ; 
the idea is excellent, useful and serious. The means employed 
may be simplified ; that which the undersigned used long ago, 
and which he put at the disposal" of the first who demanded it of 
him, may be applied to all watches." " But it is not even with 
ideas of this kind that one will relieve the state of an 
industry which is truly in consumption." 

The Barcelona Exhibition — The Barcelona Exhibition 
will be opened on April 8 next. Intending exhibitors will be 
required to enter their names before the close of the current year. 



It is stated that the guarantors of the Liverpool International 
Exhibition of 1886 are to be called upon to pay nearly 22 per 
cent, of the amount of their guarantee towards the liquidation of 
about £20,000, as shown in the accounts issued by the auditors. 



Edinburgh Exhibition. — At a meeting of the Edinburgh 
International Exhibition Association, held on November 11, it 
was announced that the total receipts of the Exhibition amounted 
to £110,525, and the total expenditure to £101,830, leaving a 
surplus of £5,695. Some time ago it was expected that the 
surplus would reach £15,000 or £16,000, but that idea has 
proved too sanguine. The question of how the money left over 
is to be disposed of will be submitted to council for an opinion. 



Paris Exhibition of 1889. — M. Berger, on behalf of the 
General Committee, has issued a circular warning intending 
exhibitors that certain unauthorised persons are calling on 
manufacturers, offering for a fee to obtain for them specially 
favourable space at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. These 
self-styled " agents " have, it seems, been at work among the 
foreign exhibitors. The Ministers of Commerce and Public 
Works have asked the railway companies to concede 50 per cent, 
of their rates for the carriage of raw materials to the great 
Exhibition of 1889. This concession was made to the exhibitors 
of 1878. 

A case of mistaken identity, which might have had very 
unpleasant consequences to at least one of the parties concerned, 
occurred last month at the Westminster Police Court, in which 
Mr. W. F. Steel, a watchmaker and jeweller of repute, and 
member of the District Board of Works, was charged by a woman 
with detaining a silver belt valued at £5, which she stated she had 
left at his shop for repairs, and in which she was coiToborated by 
two witnesses. Luckily for Mr. Steel, Mr. Brenchley, watch- 
maker, of Churton Street, Pimlico, came to the rescue at the right 
moment, and producing the belt, stated that it had been left with 
him. Most people will concur in the magisterial censure on the 
complainant and in the justice of her being mulcted in the five 
guineas costs which she was ordered to pay. But such cases 
afford food for serious reflections on the equivocal position in 
which men may be at times placed, and on the value of evidence 
generally. 



The Diamond Market. — The continued demand for finished 
stones has slowly but steadily increased, which has enabled sellers 
to hold out for somewhat better prices than were before obtainable. 
Serious fears are entertained, however, among the Continental 
workers that the amalgamations now going on among the South 
African Mining Companies will soon affect the market to the 
disadvantage of buyers. As it is, rough still continues dear. De 
Diamant advises smaller manufacturers to hurry on with their 
goods, even if it involves paying more to workmen, in view of the 
generally increased demand towards the end of the year. 

Paris workers have been busy all round, including the setters ; 
and many parcels have changed hands, mostly for the United 
States account. High-class goods are readily saleable, and a 
good demand exists for roses. 

The steamers " Mexican," " Garth Castle," " Spartan," " Roslin 
Castle" and "Tartar" arrived at Plymouth during the month, 
bringing large parcels at somewhat higher prices from the fields, 
but, as large numbers of Foreign buyers are in the London market 
at present, competition is pretty brisk and not much remains un- 
appropriated. " Cleavages," " Givreux " and " Yellows " are much 
sought after, and most of the last that was on hand has been dis- 
posed of. 

Latest from Kimberley report that the market has hardened 
and quotations are very firm. 

Silver. — There has been little business done in the market 
throughout the past month, and although quotations have been 
characterised by the usual slight fluctuations in sympathy with 
the Indian Exchanges, 43£d. and 13d. per oz. for bars and 
dollars respectively have been the ruling prices. 



84 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[December 1, 1887. 



IUra6e JNotes. 



Mayoral Chain for Haverfordwest. — Following the 
examble of Pembroke, the town of Haverfordwest is now having 
an elaborate mayoral chain, which in style and treatment will 
hold its own with the finest civic chains in Wales. It is privately 
presented in honour of the Jubilee Year of the Queen, and has 
been manufactured by Messrs. T. & J. Bragg, of Birmingham. 
The central object of the badge, the cognisance of the town, 
belonging to the "castle" period of British heraldry, shows a 
quaint castle with three towers, oriels and closed doors, the 
warder with trumpet on the central watchtower and banners 
flying on the others. The supporters are a dragon and an eagle, 
while on the green sward in front of the castle is crouching the 
wyvern or red dragon of Wales. This is rendered in enamel in 
the true mediaeval spirit, and the name of the borough is given in 
the circular border. Four circular escutcheons are arranged 
round the centre device, all richly enamelled. The upper one 
represents the Royal emblem, the Tudor rose; the lower one the 
crest of Wales ; those at the sides record the various charters 
from Edward II. to James I., a subject which is further illustrated 
on the chain itself by the enamelled arms of the respective 
sovereigns. Between the four circles come the civic mace and 
the fasces, placed crosswise and interspersed with oak and laurel. 
Above the badge is a smaller pendant, appropriately decorated, 
containing an enamel painted miniature of the Queen, executed 
on a plaque of gold 18-carat quality. The centre link of the 
chain itself consists of the Royal arms, garter, crest, supporters 
and motto, all carried out in best style and in correct colours, 
forming a most effective starting-point for the main body of the 
chain. 

Mayoral Chain for Penrhyn. — Mr. John Bisson,the Jubilee 
Mayor of this ancient Cornish borough, has by gift and subscrip- 
tion secured a handsome gold chain of office for its chief magis- 
trate, in commemoration of the fiftieth year of Her Majesty's 
reign. The order was given to Messrs. T. & J. Bragg, of 
Birmingham, who have now completed the work in a way that 
will add even to their well-earned reputation. The chain is of 
gold, Hall-marked on every link, the larger links having civic 
crowns surmounting Crusader shields, some portion of which are 
already engraved with the names and years of office of past mayors 
as subscribers to the chain — the others being left for future occu- 
pants of the chair. The centre link is a Jubilee trophy, shown 
by a pretty device in enamel and including the name of the present 
mayor. The badge, which depends from the centre link, takes a 
general circular form — the ancient shield of the town — a saracen's 
head with band — the shoulders, covered with antique armour, 
being finely treated in enamel ; the shield gold, on a crimson 
diaper, leads to the old inscription, " Burgus Penryn," as in the 
borough seal, given here in gold letters on a blue enamel field ; a 
bold wrought, open wreath of oak one side and laurel the other 
completes the circle. But the interest of the badge is much en- 
hanced by a facsimile in miniature of a superb loving cup, 
presented in 1618 by Lady Jane Killygren, and also in saltire, 
reduced copies of the two fine old maces in the possession of the 
corporation. The arms of Mr. Bassett, a large contributor, are 
placed on reverse of badge, and the effect of the whole is quaint 
and original. 

Photo frames have come into general use in the decoration of 
the home and as a receptacle for the photographs of those we are 
desirous of retaining in our memory. Of the many that have 
come under our observation, one of the most excellent is the new 
registered " Renaissance" frame manufactured by Messrs. King & 
Sons, of 222, Goswell Road, E.C. This unique work in the 
Renaissance style of art, a beautiful pierced repousse scroll, is 
made in all sizes (carte-cle-visite, boudoir, imperial, panel, &c), 
and being plated and lacquered, will not tarnish. The samples 
of mirrors just finished are most handsome, particularly some 
mounted on plush velvet. The firm report a large sale of these 
goods. Another frame, manufactured by the same firm, is a 



pierced flower and leaf pattern of very tasty design, for which the 
prices quoted seem very low. Among their various patterns of 
antique and early English silver and silver-plated frames may lie 
mentioned a neat-bordered one with cherubs, surrounded by a 
small scroll, and another, of a bolder and broader design, with 
figures introduced in the corners and centre and pierced work 
surrounding. It is curious how from simple designs an effective 
result is produced which always pleases : and this is probably why 
the early English designs, not only of jewellery but of all decora- 
tions and adornments, have again taken such a hold on public 
favour. Messrs. King & Sons make a speciality of this style in 
buckles, clasps and chatelaines, &c, while the pincushions, 
matchstands, &c, manufactured by them in pierced repousse' 
work are very pretty and useful adjuncts to the mantlepiece and 
toilet table. 

The accompanying illustration shows the new "opsionieter" of 
Messrs. J. Raphael & Co., of 13, Oxford Street, W, which was 
fully described in our last issue. 




The New Edition of Kelly's "Directory of the Watch and 
Clock Trades" is now ready and will be sent from this office, as 
advertised on another page. It is the most complete directory of 
the watch, clock, jewellery and kindred trades yet published, and 
should prove of great service to those to whom such a guide is a 
desideratum. 

The Albert Memorial in Gold. — A model of the Albert 
Memorial in gold is amongst the Jubilee presents to Her 
Majesty, being presented by His Highness Abu Bakar, Sultan of 
Johore, who was very recently in England, when he was raised 
by treaty to the dignity of Sultan. It stands unique in the 
collection of gifts now on view. The Sultan entrusted Mr. 
Benson, of Old Bond Street, with its production in the early 
part of the year. The model is faithfully carried out in every 
architectir-al detail to scale from the plans of the late Sir 
George (_■ .ibert Scott. It stands 21 inches high, and is made 
entirely of fine gold, as are the railings and four corner groups 
of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, the steps being frosted 
silver. The model is enriched by the use of enamel to express 
the onyx and gem-like stones of the tabernacle work in the 
original. The mosaic pictures in the gables are delicately 
painted enamels by special artists. The canopy over the statue 
of the Prince is likewise enamelled. The podium or pedestal is 
a striking part of the model, as the numerous figures of the 
frieze — poets, painters, architects, and sculptors — are reproduced. 
The groups at the angles representing the industrial arts of the 
country, as well as those of the four quarters of the globe, have 
all the details of the originals. Against the pillars are the tiny 
statues of allegorical figures representing the greater sciences and 
Christian virtues, and again, above these the angels beautifying 
the- spire. 



December 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



85 



Visiting the watch factory of Messrs. P. & A. Guye, 77, 
Farringdon Road, E.C., last month, we were agreeably surprised 
at the extent of the preparations there made for complying with 
the watchmaking clauses of the Merchandise Marks Act, and for 
generally extending the manufacture. Although the factory 
system has long been in operation with them (nearly a 100 opera- 
tives being employed), the firm hare hitherto used their discretion 
in availing themselves of certain foreign materials and parts for 
economical and other reasons. But all this is now altered, and 
the new find improved plant will enable them to turn out in future 
the con pbte watch, from the movement to the case, on the most 
approved methods, besides doubling the number of hands employed. 
Mr. A. Guye informed us that they are now bringing out a cheap 
watch of a new calibre which, by increasing the output, will still 
further enable them to economise in the different processes. As 
all the parts of their watches are strictly interchangeable, and as 
there is plenty of skilled labour obtainable for finishing and 
adjusting processes, there can be but little doubt that the future 
productions of the firm will maintain their past high reputation, 
and enable them to successfully compete with other organisations, 
to the obvious advantage of the London watch trade. 



Of the numberless contrivances that have from time to time 
been invented for the purpose of obviating the broken finger nails 
and crumbled linen consequent on the use of the ordinary form of 
cuff buttons and sleeve links, and perhaps of promoting the 
morality of the wearers, most have been open to objections on 
account of liability to get out of order, or loss, from the parts 
being- detachable. The sleeve-link shown in the annexed cuts, 





Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

however, is entirely free from these drawbacks, and being exceed- 
ingly simple and easily adjusted, is doubtless destined to become 
generally adopted. The clearness of the illustrations render a 
description almost unnecessary. To fix the link in the cuff the 
moveable ring is slid to the outer end of the slot, as shown in fig. 1, 
and the end A is inserted through the two holes of the cuff from 
the outside, and when through the top is slid into the position for 
holding as shown in fig. '2, where it is securely held by a pressure 
spring. It is the invention of Mr. Thomas Hart, of 4, Heathcote 
Street, W.C., and its manufacturers are Messrs. Appleby & Co., 
of 55, Frederick Street, Birmingham. 



Birmingham Silver. — The following is circulated by the 
Birmingham Assay Office : — It having come to the knowledge 
of the Guardians of the Standard of Wrought Plate in Birming- 
ham that silver lower than the standard recognised by law is 
being used in the manufacture of silver plate, and that such 
silver plate is being manufactured and exported without having 
been assayed and marked, notice is hereby given as follows : — It is 
contrary to law to use in the manufacture of silver wares (other than 
those expressly exempted from the operation of the Assay Office 
laws) any silver of a lower standard than that prescribed by law — 
viz., 11 oz. 2 dwts. of fine silver to every pound weight troy. 
All silver wares (except as aforesaid) must, before they are sold, 
exchanged or exposed for sale, be duly assayed or marked. All 
persons offending against these regulations are liable to be 
proceeded against according to law. And notice is hereby 
further given that a reward of £25 will be paid by the 
said Guardians to any person who shall give information 
to them as will lead to the conviction of any manufacturer 
or dealer offending as aforesaid. — Thos. Martineau, Law 
Clerk to the Birmingham Assay Office, Birmingham, October 
6, 1887. 



LLhe Diamond itutting 3n6u$try. 



Iff N an interesting article (of which the following is an abstract) 
JgL the Statist calls attention to this industry, with the expressed 
object of awakening Englishmen to its importance and the 
expediency of re-establishing it in this country. 

The paragraphs referring to the possible earnings of the work- 
people employed are particularly deserving of attention. We 
notice, however, that the writer of the article makes no mention of 
what has already been done here in this direction, and should very 
much like to hear something from Mr. John Jones, Sir Henry 
Bessemer, or Messrs. Ford & Wright (the last of whom could 
without doubt afford some valuable, practical and statistical in- 
formation) on the subject. 

Following an introductory part, the writer states that 
it has been from official sources ascertained that the rough 
stones exported from the Cape during the four years 1883-6 
weighed no less than ten-and-a-quarter millions of carats, valued 
at eleven-and-a-half millions sterling, but no reliable data can be 
obtained prior to September, 1882. Of course no accurate esti- 
mate can be made of diamonds taken away on the person or 
stolen or smuggled away. Further, it is estimated that 33 
millions of carats, realising upwards of 40 millions sterling, had 
been extracted from the mines of Kimberley, De Beer, Bultfontein 
and Dutoitspan collectively up to the end of 1886. 

The diamond cutting industry in Amsterdam, which employs 
in all some 10,000 persons, appears to have been in a state 'of 
transition for some years past, and it is a fact that much of the 
capital employed in this lucrative enterprise is controlled by 
London and Paris houses. The original system, by which the 
owners of the so-called diamond cutting mills in Holland simply 
provided the motive power, lighting and necessary space at fixed 
rates to contracting cutters, seems to be gradually giving way to 
the establishment of large diamond cutting works employing 
regular cutters, who are paid wages according to their capability. 
The number of mills in existence in the Dutch capital cannot be 
less than 6,000 to 8,000. Not only is this number rapidly in- 
creasing, but the cutting industry has extended from Amsterdam 
to Antwerp, to Hanau, near Frankfort — where the diamond 
cutting and polishing is almost exclusively for London account — 
and even to Switzerland. 

It would be difficult — in fact impossible — to give any thing- 
approaching to correct statistics of the quantity of diamonds 
passing through the Amsterdam mills, owing to the special 
character of the trade and the fact that the stones, both rough 
and cut, are carried backwards and forwards between Amsterdam 
and the markets on the persons of the dealers — thus escaping 
observation of the State authorities — and also from the number of 
private cutters engaged in the business ; the best judges, how- 
ever, estimate that about 20,000 carats of rough diamonds are 
weekly manipulated by the Amsterdam craftsmen. 

As regards wages it is not easy to give any absolute figures 
which would serve as a basis, nearly all the work being done by 
the "piece," the price of which varies with its nature and the 
size and value of the stones; hence the tariff has a very wide 
range. A skilled cleaver and polisher can almost command his 
own price. In the large establishments which employ cutters the 
wages paid are about as follows : — Women and girls for rose 
cutting, 25s. to 35s. per week ; cutters, 35s. to 75s. per week ; 
cleavers, 50s. to 130s. per week; polishers, 40s. to 120s. per 
week, working twelve hours daily. 

There is no doubt that some of the skilled and private work- 
men can and do earn more than the maximum figures. These 
workmen under the old system have to pay for space and motive 
power about 2s. to 2s. 6cl, per day of twelve hours — the weekly 
rental of about 15s. per mill, showing a profit of about 50 per 
cent, after deduction of expenses and interest on capital. 

The earnings of workmen employed in the Amsterdam trade 
are gradually decreasing, and probably will continue to do so, as 
the new system of large works conducted on wages payments, 
and with powerful mechanical appliances, develops. Hence, 
even if skilled English workmanship were not immediately pro- 



86 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[December 1, 1887. 



curable here, there would be little, if any, difficulty in inducing 
Amsterdam diamond workers to come to London at about the 
same rate of wages as hitherto paid them in Holland. The 
poorer Jews, who are so largely engaged in this industry, are 
nomadic, fond of change, and soon make themselves at home in 
their new surroundings ; moreover, the surplus labour will, ere 
long, make itself felt in the Dutch capital. 

After giving these particulars the writer in the Statist adds 
that there is no presumption in stating that this art would be 
capable of employing thousands of artisans, both male and female, 
and distributing in wages an amount which would reach annually 
at least half-a-million sterling. There are in our midst skilful 
and competent Englishmen, able and willing, if only properly 
backed up and encouraged, to implant anew in this country, and 
to direct with intelligence and entire success, this most lucrative 
business. There can be no question of our ability to erect and 
equip workshops equal, if not superior, to anything to be found 
in Holland or elsewhere, and to carry on operations at a reduced 
cost. The trade admits that factories solely laid out for cutting, 
and capable of turning out workmanship of the highest excellence, 
would receive hearty support, and that if such were efficiently 
organised they would undoubtedly be successful. Under these 
circumstances it certainly appears desirable that the trade should 
foster any movement which may have for its object the restoring 
of the lost art to its ancient stronghold, and of making world- 
wide the fact that British workmanship is equal to-day to any 
that can be procured abroad. The time has arrived for action, 
the Held of operations is open, and the demand is greater than 
the supply. 



Che Pawnbrokers an6 the Jflerchanoise 
Ittarhs Act. 



\T the meeting of the Metropolitan Pawnbrokers' Protection 
Society held on Wednesday, October 26, the solicitor 
submitted the opinion of counsel upon the provisions of 
the Merchandise Marks Act. They were read at length and 
set forth a statement of the very difficult position in which it 
would place the pawnbroker. 

Mr. Telfer observed that this was a result of the mischievous 
opinion existing as to the idea of making people virtuous by Act 
of Parliament — of compelling them to be honest from outside 
instead of in. It was an example of the danger of the Legis- 
lature interfering at the instigation of persons who knew nothing 
of the intricacies of business — a course calculated to make more 
misfortunes than it would cure. His own idea was that the 
matter should be submitted to the Liberty and Property Defence 
League. It would be necessary that something should be done 
to mitigate the severity of the Act, which placed restrictions upon 
innocent as well as upon dishonest men. If a copy of that report 
and opinion came into the possession of the Liberty and Property 
Defence League, some good might result in getting rid of the 
more unbearable restrictions of this Act. 

Mr. H. A. Attenboroogh said that no watch had been made 
in England for the last 10 years which had not some part of it of 
foreign manufacture. 

Mr. James Russell said the Act was not likely to touch the 
pawnbrokers at present, and they had best wait and see how it 
affected others. 

Mr. Telfer moved that a copy of this document be sent to the 
Liberty and Property Defence League. 

It was finally, after some discussion, agreed that the matter be 
left in the hands of Mr. Telfer to deal with as he thought fit. 



The Pawnbrokers' Gazette says that this Act promises a 
mass of difficulty to the pawnbroker. He is bound by law to 
sell by public auction all his forfeited pledges for more than 10s. 
But how can he venture to do so with this Act hanging over 
him? The Metropolitan Protection Society have taken the 
opinion of counsel upon the bearing of the Merchandise Marks 
Act on their operations, and the result has been eminently dis- 
couraging. The position of the trade, in common indeed with 



all other occupations, is girt about by such a host of pains and 
penalties that they cannot see their way, and have therefore 
thought it wisest not to give publicity to the report. There is 
no use, they assume, in instructing those who may desire to make 
a profit — or to extort hush moneys — from members of the trade, 
who will in many cases be involved in serious difficulty by this 
Act. In all probability it will not be the pawnbrokers who will 
first feel the evils of the new system, and they will do well to 
wait and watch, so as to see how the new law works before its 
operation reaches them. 



Birmingham News. 

From Odr Correspondent. 



§HE Deeds of Arrangement Registration Act, 1887 (an 
account of which will be seen on another page) is generally 
accepted here as a useful and important move, the usual 
remark being, " A sensible bit of legislation at last." 

# # # 

It is a pleasure in these degenerate times of cheap workman- 
ship and inferior goods to find instances here and there of nice 
artistic work still being produced. I was fortunate enough last 
week to see a specimen of the silversmith's art in the shape of a 
very beautiful key, the handle being composed of an heraldic 
shield surrounded by a floral design of a very suitable conventional 
character, supported by a handsome column or shaft leading 
down to the wards of the key, which are so arranged as to form a 
monogram, the whole made of silver, richly gilt and enamelled. 
It is the production of Messrs. S. Blanckensee & Son, Frederick 
Street, Birmingham, upon whom it reflects great credit as a 
specimen of nineteenth century art work. I believe that this 
firm are competing very successfully for tins class of work, 
several instances having come to my notice of their taking orders 
over the heads of other makers. 

The hopes that we should have a run of good business up 
till Christmas seem to have been suddenly nipped in the 
bud, and after some six weeks of brisk work and a con- 
siderable increase in the number of smiling faces and numerous 
expressions of "I really think trade has taken a turn for the 
better," the report again is that trade generally is ilat ; there 
arc a few exceptions — some firms working early and late — and I 
think that they are all diamond mounters : perhaps the gossip 
about the "Diamond Corner" has something to do with this. 

# # # 

There is a large amount of talk about that same "Diamond 
Corner;" the first question generally being "How much capital 
will it take to make a success of it ?" Some of the mounters are 
hoping for it to " come off." Having heavy stocks, the prospect of 
a rise in the price seems very rosy ; but I think, as far as the 
mounters are concerned, the opinion I heard given by the head of 
a firm in a lai-ge way of business in that branch is the most 
reasonable — he argues thus : " The great increase in our branch 
of the jewellery trade that we have experienced in the last few years 
is mainly owing to the fact that diamonds are cheap and have 
thus come within reach of another class of wearers than hitherto ; 
raise the price of these stones to the old-fashioned scale and what 
will be the result ? some of us who have large stocks may make a 
fair increase of profit upon the sale of them, but it will curtail the 
number of our orders for the future, and for my part I prefer the 
large turnover at popular prices." Well, I think that this is the 
right argument ; but the gentlemen who propose forming the syn- 
dicate to buy up diamond stock and if possible to limit the out-put 
for the future, are not, I suppose, doing this for the benefit of 
the diamond mounters or jewellers, but in order to put a few 
thousand pounds into their own pockets, consequently they will 
be unable to see the logic of this way of reasoning. It is of course 
a matter of some considerable doubt whether they will be able to 
do it, as the diamond fields are rather more numerous than they 
were some years ago ; however, the effect of the gossip on the 
subject is a tendency towards increased prices, and this will put 
money into some cash-boxes. 



December 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



87 



Delhi 3eujellers. 

By Willlam Simpson, R.I., F.R.G.S., Hon. Assoc. R.I.B.A. 

Filjf HE jewellers of India are an important class. In no other 
|*g country in the world is his work in such demand. This 
will be understood when it is remembered that men, 
women and children all wear personal ornaments, and that, too, 
to the fullest extent that the means of each individual will admit 
of. The poorest man, if he can procure a " firozeh," that is, a 



some particular verse from the Koran. Almost all, young and 
old, wear articles of this kind ; with the poor they are made of 
copper, but with the wealthy, silver and gold is the material, and 
the more costly are set with jewels. It should also be remembered 
that in India no banking system existed, and that savings were 
either buried in the ground or converted into jewellery — this last 
being perhaps the favourite alternative. It will thus be seen 
that the peculiar ideas and conditions of the people all tend to 
develop the craft of those who work in the precious metals. 
There is scarcely a village in India that has not its jeweller ; in 




turquoise stone— however black and dirty it may be— from a 
belief in its being lucky and that it will save its wearer from 
accidents, has it mounted on a ring made of the smallest amount 
of silver. This is one kind of talisman ; but charms of many 
kinds are carried on the person. With the Hindus the symbol 
of the particular deity a man worships is worn in a small case, 
rV?/ ■ arm; W ' th the M^ammedans the "faswir," or 
relic-holder, is suspended by a chain round the neck and contains 



A Jeweller's Shop in Delhi. 



the larger towns they are of course numerous ; and it will convey 
some idea of their numbers when it is stated that, according to 
official returns, there were in 1875, in Bombay, 2,875 goldsmiths, 
who found " constant and lucrative employment." In the villages 
of Afghanistan there are generally a few Hindus who act as 
traders, and among them will usually be found one who is a gold- 
smith and money-lender. There are " shrofs," or money- 
lenders, in all parts of India, but the jeweller is often the' banker, 



88 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[December 1, 1887. 



and in most cases Ms productions, in the shape of ornaments, 
take the place of a deposit account. 

In two countries so very opposite in many respects as England 
and India, it is very difficult for the people of each to_ form 
correct ideas regarding the other. I had a capital illustration of 
this with my servant in India, who was a very able and intelligent 
fellow ; he had a great desire to come to England, and talking 
with him one day about it, I asked him what he would do about 
his food — he was a Mussulman, and animals have to be killed, as 
with the Jews, in a particular manner — " Oh, Sahib," he said, " I 
would go to the bazaar and buy a kid and kill it myself." He 
thought he saw his way quite clearly, but he was estimating 
the shops of London by the bazaars of India. It is the shops of 
the dealers which constitute a "bazaar"; and Jungli Khan, 
which was the man's name, would have had an interesting search 
along such bazaars as Oxford Street or the Strand for an 
establishment in which to buy a kid. Most people at home here 
may have just as strange notions of shops in India : they may 
naturally imagine that in a great city like Delhi — the old Imperial 
capital of Hindostan, that jewellers' shops will be rather hand- 
somely got up ; that plate glass windows will be laid out with 
bangles and other articles such as were seen at the late Indian 
Exhibition, which was supposed to represent India, and might, 
in this case, help the imagination. 

A bazaar in India is generally a narrow dirty street, with a 
series of booths or open recesses which have neither doors nor 
windows, in these the people sit on the ground with their hips 
on their heels, either waiting for customers — if they are merely 
dealers — or at work on the particular articles they produce. 
The jeweller's shop in Delhi of which I give an illustration is 
rather a superior sort of place. It is built of the red sandstone 
which is peculiar to the locality, on which it will be seen there is 
some carving on the mouldings, and instead of thatch projecting 
to protect those within when the sun is strong, there is a purdah 
of striped cloth to stretch out. The reader may be assured that, 
for India, this represents rather a superior kind of an establish- 
ment : it is not a picture of the Clerkenwell, but the Regent 
or Bond, Street of Delhi. It will be noticed that the floor of the 
shop is a few feet above the level of the street ; we have here a 
peculiarity of all shops in the bazaars of India ; the principal 
object of this is to place the occupant and all his goods in 
a safe position from .invasion by horses, cattle, or other animals 
passing in the street. 

The marked feature of a Delhi jeweller's shop is the curious 
object formed not unlike the gigantic head of some monster fish ; 
this is made of clay or mud, and holds the fire necessary for a 
goldsmith's operations — a fervent heat being produced by means 
of a blow-pipe. All the tools used by these men are of the 
simplest description ; and the marvel is how they can produce 
the beautiful work for which they are celebrated with such very 
primitive materials. Europeans at times employ jewellers at 
their own bungalows ; the man will bring his implements, with 
a small pot of fire, and will produce whatever is wanted, sitting 
on the floor of the verandah. He weighs the gold or silver 
which is supplied, and weighs it again when the articles are 
made, charging a very small sum for his day's work. Not long 
ago servants used to receive about six or eight shillings a month, 
on which they could feed themselves and keep their families. 
Jewellers would be paid better than this ; still, the mode of esti- 
mating the finest work produced was to weigh the gold and add 
six per cent, as the value of the labour upon it. It may be 
noticed that the men in the picture have left their shoes outside 
the shop: this is an Eastern habit as old as the time of Moses. 
Near the shoes is the clrillum, or water-pipe. It consists of a 
vase, which holds the water, with a wooden tube, on the top of 
which is the tobacco in a small cup. This is often referred to as 
the work goes on, and from the gurgling sound produced by 
the smokers, Europeans generally call it a "hubble-bub- 
ble." Although this sketch was made on the spot as far 
back as 1860, I remember that the bird in the cage was a 
mina : it is a kind ^of blackbird with a yellow bill, and some of 
them can speak a word or two. The cage was formed of slips of 
bamboo. 



In Delhi there are men who go about with jewellery for sale. 
They are always on the look-out for the arrival of Europeans. 
These " sona-wallahs " — sona is the word for gold — will sit 
patiently before their expected customer, unfolding their articles, 
which are carefully wrapped up in bits of cotton cloth. I re- 
member one day that a fellow had turned out a large stock, and 
by a little sleight of hand I transferred some of the objects into 
my pocket. When I reproduced them he gave a single smile, 
which might have meant that he had seen it all, or that he was 
confident the Sahib would not cheat him. When I paid him for 
some purchases I am not quite sure that I was quite so safe as 
he was in that respect ; for they put on very high prices, and the 
stranger has considerable trouble in knowing what would be fair 
and just. 

Already in this article some of the conditions which give work 
to the " sona-wallah " of India have been given, but it would 
take a long time to enumerate all. One or two more may be 
here hinted at. India is not celebrated for its pottery ; there is 
manufacture of this kind, but it never reached the quality of such 
productions in China or Persia. Religious caste has been the 
original influence in this case. If a European in a village he 
passes through chances to get a drink out of a rude earthen- 
ware cup, he returns the cup with thanks, but he is astonished 
to see the vessel thrown away, or perhaps broken before his eyes; 
and he discovers, rather to his astonishment — probably producing 
at the moment a touch of anger — that his touch had defiled it. 
A metal dish can be purified by scouring with mud or sand and 
water ; on this account nearly all domestic vessels, particularly 
those used for eating from, are of metal — brass is the usual 
material. We are familiar with porcelain from China; and here is 
the explanation of the brass articles generally called " Benares 
work" — which are so common now in the shops of London — from 
India. Few or none of those who deck their drawing-rooms 
with such articles are aware that they are an expression of 
Brahininical exclusiveness. Where the ordinary people use brass 
the wealthy — the Nawabs and Rajahs — will have silver and gold. 
A Rajah, who always eats alone, has his dinner brought in on a 
sort of dumb-waiter — the food being in a number of dishes. He 
eats with his fingers, and the dumb-waiter is turned round to 
bring each dainty within reach. The dumb-waiter will be of 
silver-gilt, and the dishes may be either silver or gold, and all 
ornamented. Here it will be seen that the dinner table of the 
rich in India, with all its belongings, is the production of workers 
in the precious metals. The state howdahs — that is, the seat 
fixed on the back of the elephant — of Rajahs are usually of 
silver-gilt, and are highly ornamental and often enriched with 
jewels. The state howdah of the Viceroy is a very handsome 
one of silver. Chairs of state are the same ; there was one 
which had been sent as a present to the Prince of Wales, in the 
Durbar Hall of the late Indian and Colonial Exhibition. The 
throne of the Viceroy is of silver, with gilt lions for the arms, 
and the emblems surmounted by a crown of the Order of the 
Star of India on the back. The celebrated peacock throne of 
the Emperors of Delhi was so enriched with precious stones that 
it was specially a work of the jeweller's craft.* Rajahs have 
always carried in their presence on state occasions a number of 
royal insignia ; they are of silver, highly ornamented and gilt. 
Most of the Hindoos have small shrines in their houses ; these 
small ornamental stands, with figures of their gods upon 



are 



them. The greater quantity of such articles are of brass, but 
with the wealthy they are made of the precious metals, and often 
with jewels upon them, the gifts of their votaries. The story of 
" The Moonstone," by Wilkie Collins, is based on a celebrated 
stone that had belonged to one of the celebrated gods of India, 
and the Koh-i-Noor is also reputed to have at one time belonged 
to an idol. These very slight sketches of the requirements of 
life as it is in India — and it has been the same for ages back — 
will show you how great must be the demand upon the jeweller 
and the worker in the precious metals. 

» This throne, which was of the forcn of a peacock, covered with jewels, was carried 
off from Delhi by Nadir Shah. It, or what is left of the original, is said to be now in 
Terhan, and I regret much that I missed seeing it when in that city about three years 
ago. According to some accounts the throne was broken up at Delhi, and Nadir had 
only a copy of it made on his return to Persia. 



December 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



89 



The Emperors of Delhi had within the palace boundaries a 
large establishment of all kinds of skilled artisans ; these included 
painters, inlayers of gold and damascene workers — who were 
principally employed in decorating weapons — enamellers, embroi- 
derers, jewellers and workers in gold, silver, crystal and carnelian. 
The Ayin Akbary gives a detailed list of the great number of people 
who were thus employed by the Emperor Akbar. He personally 
superintended the work and rewarded all who showed signs of 
superior ability. Jade articles may be said to be almost peculiar 
to China, but the Mogol Emperors introduced the manufacture of 
articles from it ; the Chinese only carve the jade, but in India it 
was not only cut, but encrusted with gems. ■ Some of the finest 
specimens of this work are in the Indian Collection at South 
Kensington — from the Guthrie Collection, if I am not mistaken — 
among them is a bowl on which it is said one family in Delhi 
were employed for three generations. 

The Princes of India had similar establishments to that at Delhi; 
and there is reason to suppose that those who had the means 
kept skilled workmen about their houses. Rajendralila Mitra, a 
learned Sanscrit scholar of India, quotes* from a play written 
in the first century of the Christian era, called the " Toy Cart," 
which describes the scene in the court-yard of a courtezan's 
house, where there are "jewellers' shops," and "skilful artists 
were examining pearls, topazes, sapphires, emeralds, lapislazuli, 
coral and other jewels; some set rubies in gold, some work gold 
ornaments on coloured thread, some string pearls, some grind 
the lapislazuli, some pierce shells, and some cut coral." From 
the same play, Eajendralila Mitra gives us another aspect of the 
jeweller's trade at that early date. It is evidence, from what 
follows, that those who could not afford geniune articles had 
imitations to wear, so that the fabrication of false jewellery was a 
practised one. There is a passage in the " Toy Cart " which deals 
with the indentity of certain ornaments, which takes place in a 
court of justice. A question is asked by the Judge: " Do you 
know these ornaments?" Mother — " Have I not said ? They 
may be different, though like ; I cannot say more ; they may be 
imitations made by some ' skilful artist.' " Judge — " It is true. 
Provost, examine them ; they may be different, though like- — the 
dexterity of the artists is no doubt very great, and they really 
fabricate imitations of ornaments they have once seen and in such a 
manner that the difference shall scarcely be discernable." The 
Judge here pays a very high compliment to the ability of the 
workman. As far back as the laws of Manu there were punish- 
ments for the debasing of gold with inferior metal ; there were 
also in the same code a curious law that a fine was to be imposed 
for " piercing fine gems as diamonds or rubies, and for boring 
pearls or inferior gems improperly ."f The spirit of the legislation 
would seem to be that precious stones, from their indestructible 
character, did not altogether belong to the holder of them for the 
time, and that he had no right to injure or destroy such objects, 
which should descend intact to posterity. If this is the 
spirit, Cleopatra, had she lived under such laws, might have got 
a sentence of twelve months when she dissolved the pearl. 



Che Deeos of Arrangement Registration Act. 

fHE Deeds of Arrangement Registration Act, 1887 (50 & 51 
Vic, c. 57) , provides that every deed of arrangement between a 
debtor and his creditors shall be absolutely void unless it is 
registered with the Registrar of Bills of Sale within seven days 
of the first execution, by the debtor or any creditor. A register 
of deeds of arrangements is to be kept, showing the date of the 
deed, the name, address and description of the debtor, with the 
titles of his firms and the addresses of his places of business ; 
a short statement of the effect of the deed ; the date of registration ; 
and the amount of property and liabilities included in the deed. 
This register may be inspected at any time by any person on 
payment of a shilling fee, and cojnes of any deed of arrangement 
may be procured. The register is not to be confined to London. 
Whenever the debtor's place of business or residence is outside 
the London Bankruptcy District, the registrar is, within three 



* " Indo-Aryans," Vol. I., p. 239. 



■f Ibid. 



days of the registration of the deed, to transmit a copy of the 
deed to the County Court in the district of which the debtor's 
place of business or residence is situated. Thus there will not 
only be a register for all England at London, but in every town 
there will be a register, equally accessible to the public, of all 
the local transactions of the kind. It will be a difficult 
matter to discover a loophole in the Act. The term " deed of 
arrangement," as used in the Act, receives a very precise and 
exhaustive definition. The term is to include any instrument, 
whether under seal or not, made by, or for, or in respect of the 
affairs of a debtor, for the benefit of his creditors generally, 
whether it takes the shape of an assignment of property or a deed 
of, or agreement for, a composition ; and it is to include cases in 
which creditors obtain any control over the business or property 
of a debtor, so that a deed of inspectorship for the purpose of 
carrying on or winding-up a business, and a letter of license, 
agreement, or instrument authorising the debtor or any other 
person to carry on or to realise a business, with a view to the 
payment of his debts (a definition which will include the arrange- 
ment so often made by which creditors join in giving a debtor 
time in which to pay his debts), will require registration. 
Deeds of arrangement are to be burdened with a stamp duty, 
in addition to that now imposed by the Inland Revenue, of 
Is. per cent, upon the sworn value of the property passing 
by the deed, or the amount of composition payable under the 
deed. The Bankruptcy Act, 1883, is subjected to a small but 
important emendation. One of the causes mentioned in the Act 
for which the Court may refuse, or suspend, or make conditional 
the discharge of a bankrupt, is " that the bankrupt has upon any 
previous occasion made a statutory composition or arrangement 
with his creditors." The present Act strikes the word "statutory" 
out of this provision. Henceforward the fact that a bankrupt 
has made a private arrangement with his creditors will operate 
against the obtaining of his discharge. The Act applies to 
Ireland, but does not apply to Scotland. 



Jflining in jNew South "ftlales. 

RECENT advices show that the operations at the various 

Ms 



mining centres have retained the increased activity recently 
reported. A few fresh discoveries of gold, silver, tin and 
lead-bearing localities have been recorded, although no further 
phenomenal yields are on record. The boom in silver shares has 
continued almost without abatement, and the interchange of 
scrip has been a marked feature on the Mining Exchange. It 
appears to be evident that the proved extensiveness of the New 
South Wales argentiferous districts is causing what may be in 
some fairness compared to a mining revolution. The successes of 
individual proprietaries have induced capitalists to risk their 
moneys for prospecting purposes, with the general result that 
new finds, with attendant satisfactory mint assays, have been 
forthcoming. In connection with tin-mining also, increased 
prosperity has to be recorded. Gold-getting, despite intermittent 
fluctuations, continues to be brisk. Several new fields have been 
opened up in comparatively unexpected quarters, [and a steady 
yield is reported from most of the recognised reefing and alluvial 
quarters. In diamonds but little is doing, the owners of the 
fields having been for some time in communication with English 
and Continental syndicates and capitalists in reference to opening 
up our diamond-bearing drifts upon a wholesale scale. It has 
been somewhat conclusively pointed out that to ensure a payable 
return in this particular connection, operations will have to be 
carried out upon a much more extensive scale than has been 
heretofore, the case. In four or five districts the existence of 
probably millions of diamonds has been established beyond a 
doubt, but their size, lustre and general merit are such that (so 
far as has been ascertained up to the present time) quantity must 
be relied upon to ensure an European market. The upper drifts 
on the diamond-bearing grounds have only been tapped, but 
a movement is on foot to expend capital in the opening up 
of lower strata, in which, it is confidently believed, the larger 
and purer class of stones may be looked for. Copper-getting 
continues active. 



90 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[December 1, 1887. 



Che Leuer Escapement 

CONSIDERED WITH REGARD TO ITS FORM, INERTIA, 
FRICTION, <kc. 

By M. L.-A. Grosclaude, Professor at the Genera School 
of Horology. 

(Translated from the French.) 
(Continued from page 76.) 



The Draw. 
jRfET us now say a few words of the "draw" in order to 
3*g»i have finished concerning the form of the escapement. 
What is the draw for ? Is it for the purpose of equalising 
the resistance to disengagement of the pallets from the wheel? 
or is it that, should the anchor become accidentally displaced, 
the wheel may bring it back into place in order to eliminate all 
friction of the dart upon the roller ? It seems to us that this 
latter is the true object. 

Now, when will this draw be nil? that is to say, when will it 
not have the effect of driving the anchor in any sense, as if it 
had no friction ? This will be when it presses upon a surface 
perpendicular to a radius going from the point of the tooth to 
the centre of the anchor, which should give the j^osition of the 
centre of the wheel. But if it be required that this pressure 
bring back the fork against the safety stops, this surface must 
be inclined a certain number of degrees sufficiently to overcome 
the resistance clue to friction. An angle of 12° is enough, 
because the passing inertia neutralises all friction up to 0, 20. 
Proceeding then, at the entering lift (equidistant lockings, fig. 1, 
page 75) the flank of the pallet m h makes an angle of 12° 
with the perpendicular in z erected upon the radius e r. 

It may be remarked that when the entering pallet leaves the 
tooth, the draw of 12° is increased to 13^°, since the anchor 
makes l-|-° before the tooth can act upon the incline of the pallet, 
while, if the exit pallet has similarly 12° at the commencement, it 
will be reduced to 10^° when the point of the tooth leaves the 
locking. 

We will give, then, to this latter pallet at first a draw of 13^°, 
for two reasons : in the first place so that it be always at least 
12° ; and to obtain at the same time the advantage of the wheel 
offering the same resistance to unlocking upon the two faces, 
because, upon the first, the draw will go from 12° to 13^°, while, 
upon the second, it will go from 13^° to 12°. The mean will 
then be the same. 

The equidistant pallets do not afford the same facilities for 
obtaining the draw, the corner of the tooth being at a different 
distance from the centre of the anchor. To obtain the impulse 
angle it is sufficient that it have at least 12°, and the same 
results might be obtained as in the escapement with equidistant 
lockings. But if, at the same time, the effort of disengagement 
is to be the same for both pallets, the draw of the exit pallet 
must be increased inversely as the lengths of the pallet arms 
from the respective lockings to the centre of the anchor. This 
calculation gives 16-|° of draw for the exit pallet, and 15° at the 
moment the tooth leaves the locking. The angle, it is true is 
greater than is necessary to assure the impulse, but, on the other 
hand, the draw is thus equalised. 

It is then, with the line m z, perpendicular upon e r, at the 
entrance pallet, that an angle of 12° is formed, and at the exit 
pallet, with the line m 1 z', perpendicular upon the line e' r that 
the angle of 16^° is formed. 

The Impulse. 
Having seen the proper mode of drawing the escapement, so 
as to give always to the anchor the exact angular movement pro- 
posed, modifying at will the relations of the inclines upon the 
pallet, and upon the tooth and the form of the pallets, the 
question which naturally presents itself is: which of all these 
designs should be chosen as giving the best means of trans- 
mitting the motive force at our disposal ? To this we reply 
that if the questions relating to the oils, inertia of the matter, 
and friction be left out, and an equal drop be adopted for all, all 
the forms are of equal value. As this contention may appear 



somewhat extraordinary to some of our readers, they would do 
well to allow us to explain here some mechanical principles too 
frequently ignored. 

Every machine or mechanical combination has for aim the 
transmission of the motive force, or work. 

By work is meant the product obtained by multiplying the 
pressure, the force, or the resistance, by the distance traversed.* 
In the case in which we are interested, the work done by the 
escape wheel during one impulsion is equal to the pressure 
exerted by the point of the tooth, multiplied by the distance 
traversed by that point during one impulsion. Assuming that 
this point exerts a pressure of ten units of weight, and that the 
space traversed by the point of the tooth during one impulsion 
(corresponding to an angular movement of 12° of the wheel) be 
ten linear units, the work transmitted by this wheel at each 
impulsion will lie expressed by 10 x 10=100. 

We have taken for the distance traversed by the point of the 
tooth, and the pressure it exerts in a point of the circumference 
of the wheel, arbitrary quantities, because this study is only for 
the purpose of comparing different systems and not of measuring 
absolute quantities. 

It is important to observe that the amount of work the escape 
wheel has to transmit to the balance is exactly the same what- 
ever be the point of the wheel from which it is calculated. 
Thus, if we take a point in the wheel at half the distance from 
its centre, it will exert double the pressure, but at the same time 
the lineal distance it will travel over for an angular movement of 
12° of the wheel will be only half, the product of the two 
quantities remaining the same. 

This motive force is not transmitted entirely to the balance, 
by reason that the tooth of the wheel does not act continually 
during the 12°, because the action should be followed by a drop 
of 2° at least for the wheel with pointed teeth, and of \\° for 
the others. In the former case it can only transmit 10-12ths, 
or 83^- per cent, of work, and, in the latter, only UH-12ths or 
87^ per cent. 

All things being otherwise equal, it will be advantageous to 
diminish the drop as much as possible, because, as we have before 
seen, for each 1° or drop saved Ave economise more than 4 per cent, 
of transmitted work. In fact, there the work is absolutely lost, 
because there results from the drop upon the locking face of the 
pallet a shock which has no other effect than of producing wear. 
In mechanics shocks are always to be avoided, as they present 
only inconveniences with no conqjensating advantages. It is of 
course understood that we except the case where the shock is 
sought for the purpose of forging, for example ; but even then, 
mechanicians have recognised that if the same end can be 
obtained by pressure, it is better to use it. 

In our case, in the meantime, the drop cannot be completely 
avoided because we have to take into account the irregularities, 
more or less inseparable, for execution ; and as it is necessary to 
insure the freedom of the pieces, it must be accepted. 

Now, is the work done by the wheel during one ireqralsion 
transmitted to the anchor as well by one of our designs as by the 
other ? We reply affirmatively, if, we repeat, the influence of 
inertia and of friction be subtracted. In effect, the work, per- 
formecl in the manner before explained, transmits itself always in 
totality, whatever be the mechanism employed to transmit it. 

Let us take some examples outside horology. What effort 
must be exerted to raise a weight by means of a pulley ? An 
effort equal to the weight, because the distance traversed by the 
force is equal to that traversed by the resistance. 

In a system of tackle of three pulleys in one, a weight six times 
as great as the force exerted upon the cord can be lifted, but the 
speed is six times less. Let us consider again the platform 
scales which are used for weighing bulky goods, such as waggon 
loads of materials, hay, &c. ; if a weight of 1 kilogramme, 

s In mechanics, the unit of work adopted is the work done in raising 1 kilo- 
gramme to the height of 1 metre, or in a more general manner, a resistance of 1 
kilogramme overcome in a distance of 1 metre, and this unit is called a kilogramm&tre. 
Another unit, by means of which dynamics of different forces may be compared, is the 
horse power, which is equal to 75 kilogrammetres produced in 1 second ; thus, a steam 
engine of 1 horse power is that which can raise 75 kilogrammes to the height of 1 
metre in 1 second, or 1 kilogramme to 75 metres in 1 second, or lastly, 1 kilogramme 
to 1 metre in l-75th second. 



December 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



91 



placed upon the beam, succeed in balancing 1,000 kilogrammes, 
any vertical movement of the goods will have a corresponding 
movement of the weight exactly 1,000 times greater. 

The pressure exerted by the tooth of the centre wheel would be 
60 times weaker measured upon the tooth of the seconds' wheel 
if these two wheels were of the same size, because the one tooth 
would travel 60 times further than the other. We always find 
the same product of the pressure by the distance traversed, what- 
ever point of the machine we calculate it from. It is from this 
the well-known law proceeds, that what is gained in power is lost 
in speed. 

Passing now to a rather more complicated, example, that of the 
piston of a steam-engine acting by the intermediary of a bearing 
upon a crank. Supposing this latter turns an arbor on which is 
wound a cord carrying a weight at its extremities. Assume that 
the diameter of the arbor be such that its circumference is equal 
to the distance travelled through by the piston during one turn of 
the arbor ; the result will be that the piston for any number of 
turns of the arbor will travel through the same distance as the 
weight to- be raised. In this particular case the weight the 
machine will be able to raise will be exactly equal to the pressure 
exerted upon the piston. It is well known that with a crank the 
force or pressure transmitted varies at each instant ; it attains 
its maximum when the bearing rod acts perpendicularly upon the 
crank, and it becomes nil at the dead points. This irregularity 
in the impulsion, following the different positions of the crank, 
has not then the effect of interfering with the transmission of 
total work. 

From the preceding we must conclude that if, from an equal 
angular movement of the wheel, we obtain an always equal 
angular movement of the anchor and its fork, the mean pressure 
exerted will be always equal, whatever be the form adopted. Never- 
theless we would point out that we have not said that the pressure 
of the escape wheel would be transmitted in a uniform manner 
throughout the whole duration of an impulse, but only that the 
total transmission of the work will be the same. 

Then, in order to choose among the different data for making 
the most mechanically advantageous design, we must abandon 
all that concerns the theoretical impulse and limit our study to 
the causes which may modify it ; and these causes, which we 
shall have to examine successively, are the numerous resistances, 
in particular those of the oils, of the inertia of the matter, and 
above all, of the friction. 

Inertia and Shocks. 

Setting out from the principle that matter continues in the 
state in which it is found ; that is to say, that a body in repose 
cannot be moved by itself, and that a body in movement will con- 
tinue that movement indefinitely unless somh perturbing force 
act upon it, it results that each time we shall have to alter the 
speed of a body, either by accelerating it or tetarding it, we must 
expend work. The resistance matter offers to a change of speed 
is called inertia. It would be well to know whether or not the 
work necessarily expended in order to overcome it is to be 
grudged. But this resistance is only really hurtful when it leads 
to shocks between non -elastic bodies. Let us take some 
examples in order to make this understood. 

Supposing several workmen are pushing a railway waggon in 
order to put it in motion. Many resistances, such as frictions and 
the resistance of the air, will have to be overcome, but it is to 
the resistance of the inertia of the mass of the waggon that the 
principal expenditure of labour is due. If the labourers at a given 
moment cease to push the waggon forward, the latter will continue 
iu motion indefinitely upon a level railway, allowing the non- 
existence of friction and the other resistances. But these 
resistances cannot be got rid of, and the speed acquired by the 
waggon is utilised in overcoming them and preserving the move- 
ment for a certain time. The work expended in the first place 
finds here, then, its employment. It is seen by this that the 
property of inertia of matter is often advantageous, in that it 
allows of the storage of work in the form of vital force ; the only 
work really expended and lost, without useful results, is that 
caused by injurious resistances, frictions, shocks, resistances of 
the air, &c. 



The fly-wheel of a steam-engine, heavy in itself, only loses 
work on account of the increased friction due to the heavy weight 
of the wheel. If by reason of this great mass it requires a 
little more time to attain a determined speed, the machine 
benefits by having a more regular one and the power to continue 
its function, which the motive power by itself would not be equal 
to were it to be discontinued for a moment. The preceding 
example is equally applicable to the balance of a chronometer. A 
billiard player exerts an effort to give an impulse to a billiard 
ball ; this last will continue its motion even after striking the 
cushions, and will only stop, if these are perfectly elastic, on 
account of the friction produced by the cloth. 

An elastic ball falling to the ground will rebound to nearly the 
same height from whence it dropped ; but in the case of a non- 
elastic substance, such as a ball of lead, it will remain on the 
ground and all the work produced by the drop will be absorbed 
by a deformation of the matter and a production of heat. 

We have said that shocks between elastic bodies do not expend 
any work ; this is only true, however, if the elasticity is perfect — 
and, unfortunately, this condition is not absolutely realised by any 
body. We have bodies more or less elastic, but none attains 
perfection in this respect. So we must conclude that shocks are 
always to be avoided ; while it is not so of the inertia of matter so 
long as it does not result in shocks. 

Let us now consider what takes place in an escapement that 
is in action. The balance oscillates its full amplitude. The ruby 
pin is taken by the fork at the instant the balance has acquired 
its greatest speed. As the spring is almost at rest at this 
moment, we may consider the movement of the balance uniform ; 
and since the fork is forced to participate in this movement, the 
anchor will also have a sensibly uniform motion. This will be so 
milch the more true inasmuch as the mass of the balance will be 
greater with respect to that of the anchor and its fork. The 
latter must then pass suddenly from rest to the same speed ; so 
that we have here a very serious shock, which will certainly pro- 
duce temporary perturbations, detrimental to the good perfor- 
mance of the escapement. The inventive genius of our readers 
might here be exercised with advantage in the direction of 
finding a mechanical disposition of the ruby pin and the fork 
that would permit of giving the movement to the anchor without 
shock. We have then to consider the pallet moving before the 
tooth with a uniform speed sufficiently great. Assuming the 
escape wheel to have a given mass, it will have to pass from 
rest to motion ; for this a certain time is necessary — as much 
longer as the motive force is less and as the mass of the wheel is 
greater. This case presents itself where the tooth only comes in 
contact with the incline of the pallet for a quarter or third of its 
length, &c. The condition will be plainer if it be observed that 
when the tooth leaves the locking free of the pallet, the wheel 
makes a slight quick retrograde movement, which still further 
retards the instant when the point of the tooth comes in contact 
witli the incline of the pallet. It is not easy to verify the impor- 
tance of this retardation in the contact, since it is only observable 
when the balance is vibrating at a high speed. Practical men 
who have had in hand escapements, anchor, cylinder, &c, that 
have been going a long time, will, however, be in accord with 
the foregoing considerations if they examine those parts of the 
nclines which have been worn. 

The above observations indicate a shock that it is important 
to get rid of. This is arrived at by diminishing as much as 
possible the weight of the escape wheel without weakening it too 
much. Another means would be by devising such a combina- 
tion of forms of levers, that to a uniform movement of the 
pallet a corresponding movement of the wheel be given, which 
should somewhat resemble the action of the piston and crank of 
a steam-engine. In this case the piston passes from rest to a 
rapid motion, and from the latter to rest by an insensible pro- 
gression ; thus each deperdition of force is imperceptible, since 
there is no point of shock. For the escape wheel with pointed 
teeth, an incline of a form which would give the required result 
could be contrived: one part would be convex and the other 
concave. 

(To be continued.) 



92 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[December 1, 1887. 



ABSTRACT OF THE PRINCIPAL CHANGES OF RATE DURING THE FIFTEEN 

AT THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY, GREENWICH, 



NAME 

OF 

MAKER. 



No. 





ro 




l*i 


Ol 


oi 




o 


- 
— 


CO 


£ 


o 




•N 



ADDRESS 

OF 

MAKER. 



Construction of Escapement and Balance, 

from the 

Description furnished by the Maker. 



Least 
Weekly- 
Rate. 



Extremes 

of 

Temperature. 



Uhrig 

Mercer 

C. Frodsham and Co... 

Johnson and Son 

Johnson and Son 

Hume 

Kullberg 

Johannsen and Co 

Johannsen and Co 

Johannsen and Co 

Isaac 

Uhrig 

David Reid 

Webster 

Hume 

Pyott 

Isaac 

Kullberg 

Oram and Son 

Brockbank and Atkins 

Mann 

Reid and Sons 

Glover 

Edward and Sons 

Williams 

Davison 

Keys 

C. Frodsham and Co... 

Webster 

Oram and Son 

Webb 

AVebb 

James Poole and Co. .. 

Reid and Sons 

Hewitt 

Sewill 

Hewitt '. 

Keys 

Brockbank and Atkins 
Williams 

Sewill 

Sewill 

Oram and Son 

Webster 

Pyott 

Mercer 

David Reid 

Oram and Son 

Klean and Co 

C. Frodsham and Co... 

James Poole and Co. .. 
Schoof 



458 

4592 

0011 
3780 
3779 

2013 



3500 
3516 
3588 

1670 

450 

1788 

16968 

2014 

887 

1688 

4738 

18432 

2038 

4603 

867 

366 

4936 

4465 

3367 

888 

0012 

16704 



510 

513 

5800 

5785 

5626 

4420 
5552 
884 
2054 
8798 

4419 

4418 

19181 

15083 

878 

4827 

850 

19107 

1006 

3600 

5801 
6059 



8, Quadrant Road, Essex Road. N. 
Prospect Road, St. Albans, Herts. 

84, Strand, W.C. 

35, Victoria Street, Derby. 

36, Victoria Street, Derby. 

No. 6 Side, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
105, Liverpool Road, N. 
149. Minories, E.C. 
149, Minories, E.C. 
149, Minories, E.C. 

10, Spencer Street, Clerkenwell, E.C. 
8. Quadrant Road, Essex Road, N. 
39, Grey Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

5, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 
No. C Side, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

74, West India Dock Road, E. 

10, Spencer Street, Clerkenwell, E.C. 

105, Liverpool Road, N. 

1!». Wilmington Square, W.C. 

6, Cowper's Court, Cornhill, E.C. 

The Cross, Gloucester. 
41, Grey Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
8. Wrotham Road, Camden New Town, 
1, Poultry, E.C. 

3, Bute Docks, Cardiff. 

No. 6 Side, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
15, Craven Street. Strand, W.C. 
84, Strand, W.C. ' 

5, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 
19, Wilmington Square, W.C. 

90, High Street, Islington, N. 

90, High Street, Islington, N. 

33. Spencer Street, Clerkenwell, E.C. 

41, Grey Street. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

4, Spencer Street, Clerkenwell, E.C. 

30, Cornhill, E.C. 

4, Spencer Street, Clerkenwell, E.C. 
15, Craven Street, Strand, W.C. 

6, Cowper's Court, Cornhill, E.C. 
3, Bute Docks, Cardiff. 

30, Cornhill, E.C. 
30, Cornhill, E.C. 
19, Wilmington Square, W.C. 

5, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 
74, West India Dock Road, E. 

Prospect Road, St. Albans. Herts. 
39, Grev Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
19, Wilmington Square, W.C. 
70, Myddelton St., Clerkenwell, E.C. 
84, Strand, W.C. 

33, Spencer Street, Clerkenwell, E.C. 
99, St. John's Street Road, E.C. 



Uhrig's continually acting auxiliary. 

Auxiliary compensation. 

Ordinary Balance. 

( Auxiliary compensation acting in extremes of 

) temperature. 

Auxiliary compensation for heat. 
Reversed detent, with short spring. 
Auxiliary acting in heat and cold. 
Auxiliary acting in heat. 
Auxiliary acting in heat and cold. 

Palladium balance spring. 
Dhrig's continually acting auxiliary. 
Auxiliary compensation. 
Palladium balance spring. 
Auxiliary compensation. 

Auxiliary compensation. 

Ordinary balance ; bright steel spring. 

Reversed detent, with short spring. 

Auxiliary compensation. 

Ordinary balance. 



Auxiliary compensation. 

Ordinary balance, with auxiliary acting in heat. 

Ordinary 1 alance, with auxiliary compensation. 

Auxiliary compensation. 
Improved balance. 
Ordinary balance. 
Ordinary balance. 
Ordinary balance. 

Auxiliary compensation acting in heat. 
Auxiliary compensation acting in heat. 
Poole's auxiliary. 
Poole's auxiliary. 
Poole's auxiliary. 

Ordinary balance. 

Poole's auxiliary. 

Auxiliary compensation. 

Ordinary balance. 

Ordinary balance, with auxiliary compensation. 

Ordinary balance. 

Ordinary balance. 

Auxiliary compensation. 

Ordinary balance. 

Ordinary balance, with slight alteration. 

Auxiliary compensation. 
Auxiliary compensation. 
Ordinary balance. 
Poole's auxiliary. 
Ordinary balance. 

Poole's auxiliary. 

Schoof's resilient lever escapement. 



— 12 

— 18 

— 15 

— 4 
+ 1 



+ 



+ 



— 3 

— 17 

— 25 

— 5 
+ 3 

+ 2 

— 13 

+ V 

— 10 

— 3 

— 9 

— 8 

— 18 
+ 

— 29 

— 6 

9 

— 21 

— 



— 10 

— 10 
+ 4 

— 10 

— 15 



130 

7- 



0—91 
0—54 
0-95 
0-58 
0—54 
0-58 

1—71 
3-59 
1—71 
0—58 
1—71 

1—71 
0-54 
1—71 
9-61 
0—90 

0—54 
4—51 
0-90 
0—90 
4—51 

4—51 
0—58 
0—96 
0—55 
1—71 



4—51 
0—58 
0-95 
0—95 
4—51 



1—71 
1—71 
0-90 
9-61 
0—96 

4—51 
0-58 
0-58 
4—51 
0-91 

4—51 
4-51 
3—66 
3—66 
0-95 

4—51 
0—54 
0-95 
0—54 
0—90 



40-4—51-5 
88-0—90-3 



The sign + indicates that the rate is gaining 



December 1, 1887.] THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



93 



WEEKS OE CHRONOMETERS ON TRIAL EOR PURCHASE BY THE ADMIRALTY, 
EROM MARCH 5, 1887, TO JUNE 18, 1887. 



Mean 


Temperature. 


O 




89 


8 


1 47 


6 


} 93 


7 


54 


3 


47 


6 


54 


3 


68 


3 


53 


8 


68 


3 


54 


3 


68 


3 


68 


• 3 


47 


6 


68 


•3 


58 


•0 


89 


•4 


47 


•6 


45 


■2 


89 


.4 


89 


•4 


45 


•2 


45 


•2 


54 


•3 


94 


•3 


48 


■3 


68 


■3 


45 


2 


54 


.3 


93 


•7 


93 


7 


45 


2 


68 


3 


68 


3 


89 


4 


58 





94 


3 


45 


2 


54 


3 


54 


3 


45 


2 


89 


8 


45 


2 


45 


2 


63- 


6 


63 


6 


93 


7 


45- 


2 


47- 


6 


93. 


7 


47- 


6 


89- 


4 


45- 


2 


89- 


4 



Greatest 

Weekly 

Rate. 



Extremes 

of 

Temperature. 



Mean 
Temperature. 



Difference 

between the 

Greatest 

and 

Least. 

fa) 



Greatest 
Difference 
between one 
Week and 
the next. 



Mean 

Temperatures 

for these 

two Weeks. 



a+21> 



NAME 

OF 

MAKEE. 



No. 



s 
7-2 

12-9 

7-0 

4.1 

10.5 

11-3 

14-5 
7-5 

11-7 
5-3 



6 
5' 

14> 
7 

15' 



19-2 
6-4 

18-5 
4.3 

12-8 



7-2 

5-8 

16-4 

13-2 

7.2 

14-4 

5-8 

5-9 

15.5 

3.3 
30.9 

6-6 
16-8 

2-6 



+ 


9-1 


+ 


80 


+ 


20-7 


+ 


80 


+ 


12-5 


+ 


12-2 


+ 


8-1 


+ 


21-2 


+ 


2-0 


+ 


19-6 


+ 


18-6 


+ 


17-6 


+ 


36.5 


-1- 


17-8 


+ 


12-3 


+ 


17-7 


+ 


25.9 



390 
49-3 

64-1 

49-3 
88.0 

40-4 
92.0 
920 
40-4 
92.0 

88-2 
92-0 
90-2 
39-0 
92-0 

92-0 
64-1 
49-3 
49.3 
64-1 

64-1 

40-4 
60-3 
64-1 
92-0 

88.0 
49-3 
44-0 
39-0 
54-9 

49-3 
920 
49-3 
390 
390 

641 
880 
64-1 
64.1 
50-0 

64-1 . 
64-1 
92-0 
39-0 
49-3 ■ 

64-1 . 

50-0 
60-3 - 
64-1 ■ 
54-9 ■ 

92.0 - 

60-3 - 



55 

■ 59 

71 
59 
91 

■ 51 

• 96 
96 

■ 51 

■ 95 

■ 94 
95 

• 95 

■ 55 
96 

■ 96 

• 71 

59 

■ 59 

■ 71 

• 71 

■ 51 

• 66 

• 71 
- 95 

■ 90 

■ 59 

• 54 

■ 55 

■ 61 

■ 59 
96 

• 59 

■ 55 

■ 55 

71 
90 
71 

71 
57 

71 
71 

96 
55 
59 

71 

57 
66 
71 
61 

96 
66 



483 

53-8 

683 
53-8 
898 

45.2 
94.3 
94.3 
45-2 
93-7 

92-6 
93-7 
93-6 
48-3 
94-3 

94-3 
68-3 
538 
53-8 
683 

68-3 
45-2 
63 6 
683 
93-7 

894 
53 8 
47-6 
48-3 
58 

53-8 
94-3 
53-8 
48-3 
48-3 

68-3 
894 
68-3 
683 
529 

68-3 
683 
94-3 
48 3 
538 

683 
52-9 
636 
683 
580 

94-3 
636 



49 

60 

82 
8-3 
8-9 

8.4 
101 

91 
12.1 
11-9 

101 
11-9 
10-7 
121 
11-6 

171 
201 
110 
14-6 
16-3 

186 
152 
130 
161 
16-1 

13-6 
13-7 
150 
15-8 
15-9 

184 
22.0 
15-9 
197 
22-7 

25-2 
14-3 
230 
24-8 
16-1 

277 

24-7 
235 
28-2 
22-3 

29-1 

28-4 
316 
28-2 
27-3 

30-7 
33-7 



13 

10 

9 

15 

10 
12 
13 

11 
15 

13 
18 
18 
20 
21 

23 

29 



3 

6 


3 
7 

3 — 

8 — 

3 — 

6 — 

7 — 

3 — 

3 

3 

3 

4 



89-4 

68-3 

63-6 
52-9 
54-3 

89-4 
89-8 
580 
45-2 
54-3 

89-4 
89-4 
580 
58-0 
92-6 

89-8 
58-0 
54-3 
89-8 
89 4 



58 
58 
58 
58 
54 

89 
54 
89 
54 
58 

89 
63 
54 
89 
93 

89 
58 

54 
45 
89 

89 
58 
58 
89 
89 

58 
89 
58 

89 
58 

89 

89 



s. 
11-5 

14-0 

15-2 
19-3 
21-1 

22-6 
22-9 
22-9 
23-7 
23-7 

23-9 
24-1 
25-1 
26-1 
264 

28-3 
303 
304 
31-2 
31-5 

33-6 
338 
34-8 
35-1 
351 

35-4 
361 
37-4 
38-2 
38-5 

39-4 
39-8 
40-1 
41-3 
41-5 

41-6 
42-1 
43-6 
44-2 
46-5 

49-1 
50-1 
505 
51-6 
535 

55-3 
64-4 
68-2 
68-8 
70-3 

77-9 

92-9 



Uhrig 

Mercer 

C. Frodsham and Co, 
Johnson and Son .., 
Johnson and Son 



Hume , 

Kullberg , 

Johannsen and Co.... 
Johannsen and Co.... 
Johannsen and Co... 

Isaac 

Uhrig 

David Reid 

Webster 

Hume 

Pyott 

Isaac 

Kullberg 

Oram and Son 

Brockbank & Atkins 

Mann 

Reid and Sons 

Glover 

Edward and Sons ... 
Williams 

Davison , 

Keys 

C. Frodsham and Co, 

Webster 

Oram and Son 

Webb 

Webb 

James Poole and Co 

Reid and Sons 

Hewitt 

Sewill 

Hewitt 

Keys 

Brockbank & Atkins 
Williams 

Sewill 

Sewill 

Oram and Son . 

Webster 

Pyott 

Mercer 

David Reid 

Oram and Son 

Klean and Co 

C. Frodsham and Co. 

James Poole and Co. 
Schoof 



458 

4592 

0011 
3780 
3779 

2013 
4689 
3500 
3516 
3588 

1670 

450 

1788 

16968 

2014 

887 

1688 

4738 

18432 

2038 

4603 

867 

366 

4936 

4465 

3367 

888 

0012 

16704 



510 

513 

5800 

5785 

5626 

4420 
5552 
884 
2054 
8798 

4419 

4418 

19181 

15083 

878 

4827 

850 

19107 

1006 

3600 

5801 
6059 



The Chronometers are placed in order of merit, their respective positions being determined by consideration of the irregularities of rate 

exhibited in the Table above. 



94 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [December 1, 1887. 



Itashet for Loro 3ttagheramorne. 



PTjf HE elevation of Sir James Macnaghten Hogg, M.P., to the 
M Peerage, has led his friends in Truro — which city he repre- 
sented in Parliament for many years — to offer him an 
address of congratulation enclosed in a ve'ry special and artistic 
casket, which has been manufactured by Messrs. T. & J. 
Bragg, of Birmingham. The commission was given to Mr. 
Veen, of Truro, and the oak which forms the body of the box 
is a part of the timber taken from the old church on the partial 
adaptation of it to the first portion of the new Cathedral, which 
was consecrated last week. Upon the oak box are a series of 
panels and divisions in silver-gilt and enamel, so that the oak, 
appearing only at intervals, affords a very effective contrast. A 
richly moulded and decorated plinth supports the oblong casket, 
the obverse of which displays the enamelled arms of the city, 
with miner and mariner supporters, the civic power being indi- 
cated on another division by the enwreathed mace, a trophy of 
Neptune's trident dolphins and sea-weed forming a third. One 
end is illustrated with the enamelled shield of the diocese of 
Truro; on the opposite an Unionist trophy, also in colours, with 
crown over. The fourth side has the inscription plate. The lid 
is appropriately decorated in repoussee panels, while a richly 
wrought scroll handle has the emblazoned arms of his lordship 
in front, with monogram on reverse and the crest surmounting 
all. The finish is of the highest class, and every detail carefully 
rendered. 



(Bolbsmiths ano jewellers' Asylum. 



fHE twenty-first annual dinner of the Goldsmiths and Jewel- 
lers' Annuity and Asylum Institution was held, on October 
31, at the Holborn Restaurant. Major George Lambert, 
F.S.A., the president of the institution and Prime Warden of 
the Goldsmiths' Co., occupied the chair, and was supported 
by, among others, Mr. E. J. Watherston, Mr. J. B. Ball, the 
Rev. J. H. Rose (Vicnr of Clerkenwell), Mr. Churchwarden 
Spiers, Mr. Hagon, Mr. Taylor, Mr. F. B. Thomas, Mr. Under- 
Sheriff Rose-Innes, Mr. J. Mortimer Hunt, Mr. J. Wellby, 
Mr. D. Wellby, Mr. R. H. Seeker, Mr. Henry Summers and 
Mr. J. L. Innocent (Secretary). 

The Chairman, in proposing the toast, "Prosperity to the 
Goldsmiths and Jewellers' Annuity and Asylum Institution," 
said the institution was founded as far back as 1827 for the 
relief of everyone in connection with the goldsmiths' trade who 
was really in need of assistance, and it had continued to carry 
out that object with a liberal hand. It had met with a good 
deal of support, but nothing like the amount it deserved. .In 
times gone by it had done a vast amount of good, and would 
continue to do good, but it was to be hoped that it would be 
more liberally supported. The way the affairs were managed 
were as perfect and inexpensive as it was possible to conceive. 
Indeed, it was managed free of expense if they excluded the 
small amount paid to their collector. Many institutions estab- 
lished in later years had been glad to adopt their rules, a fact 
that showed what a great amount of care was bestowed upon 
them by the promoters. He knew of no institution that was 
carried on upon better principles and with better results. There 
were, however, many large firms, some of whose workmen had 
been assisted by the society, who did not contribute at all to the 
funds. This ought not to be, and he hoped when they met 
again next year there would be no ground for complaint on that 
score. Their funds were not small, it was true, but the calls 
upon them increased from year to year, and consequently 
increased subscriptions were necessary. 

Mr. E. J. Watherston said it was pretty well known that 
he was very much in favour of a reform of the City Guilds, but 
he was not, and never had been, in favour of any reform which 
would sweep them away altogether. On the contrary, he believed 
there was a grand future before them ; that they had passed 
through the bad time of their existence^ and were about to 



become of great use and service to London. Some of the Guilds 
had already clone much to promote technical education, and this 
was a matter in which they could — and he believed would — do 
very much more. 

The Chairman said the Goldsmiths' Co. — of which he had 
the great honour of being the Prime Warden, after having 
begun life as an apprentice — were by no means an idle body. 
They were very busy at the present time, but in spite of the 
temptation held out to him in Mr. Watherston's speech, he was 
not at liberty to say what it was they were doing. 

Mr. J. Mortimer Hunt gave the toast of " The Executive of 
the Institution." 

Mr. F. B. Thomas replied, and said it was very satisfactory to 
find that the funded property of the institution continued to 
increase. The fact that 1,200 workmen were members of the 
institution was a splendid evidence of its great usefulness to 
members of the trade. 

Before the close of the evening the Secretary announced 
subscriptions in connection with the dinner amounting to about 
£320, including £105 given by the chairman, and £20, the result 
of a workshop collection. 



Christmas and New Year's Presents. — The following 
notice has been issued by the Post Office : — Senders of parcels 
desirous of availing themselves of the facilities offered by the 
Foreign and Colonial Parcels' Post to despatch Christmas and 
New Year's presents to relatives and friends abroad are reminded 
that, in order that parcels should reach their destination on or 
about the desired date, such parcels, more especially those ad- 
dressed to the Colonies, must be posted some time in advance. 
The following are the latest dates when parcels can be forwarded 
so as, in due course, to reach their destination about Christmas 
or New Year, as the case may be : — For the Continent of Europe : 
Not less than from three to ten days before Christmas Day or 
New Year's Day, according to the locality ; for British Colonies 
and Possessions and Egypt : The first date to reach about Christ- 
mas Day, the second to reach about New Year's Day ; Cape 
Town (other towns in the Cape Colony will, of course, receive 
the parcels later) : December 1, December 8 ; Natal : November 
24, December 1; Ascension and St. Helena: December 1, De- 
cember 8 ; West Indies (Antigua, Barbadoes, British Guiana, 
Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitt's, St. 
Lucia. St. Vincent, Tobago, Tortola, Trinidad) : December 1, 
December 15; Gibraltar, Tangier and Malta: December 14, De- 
cember 21 ; Cyprus : November 30, December 7; Egypt: Decem- 
ber 7, December 14 ; Aden: November 30, December 7; India 
(Bombay) : November 23, November 30 ; Ceylon : November 16, 
November 30 ; Straits Settlements, Labuan and North Borneo : 
November 16, November 30 ; Hong Kong : November 2, Novem- 
ber 16 ; South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Tas- 
mania : November 3, November 10 ; Western Australia : Novem- 
ber 10, November 17 ; Dominion of Canada (New Brunswick, 
Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Province of Ontario) : De- 
cember 8, December 15 ; North- West Territories, Province of 
Manitoba, British Columbia, Vancouver's Island : December 1, 
December 8 ; Newfoundland : December 6, December 20. With 
the exception of the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland, 
the dates given are those on which the mails are made up in 
London ; in the case of Canada and Newfoundland the mails 
are made up at Liverpool. In order to be included in the mails 
despatched as above mentioned, parcels must be posted in time 
to reach London or Liverpool, as the case may be, by the night 
mails preceding the day of despatch, and, to prevent disappoint- 
ment, care should be taken to make inquiry in good time at the 
local post offices. On almost every occasion of the despatch of 
a parcel mail abroad, parcels reach the despatching office too late 
to be included in the outgoing mail, although obviously intended 
to go by such mail, and more or less delay is necessarily the 
consequence. In these cases the parcels have been posted by the 
senders on the days appointed for the closing of the mail or for 
the departure of the steamer, and the parcels consequently reach 
the despatching office too late to be forwarded. 



December 1, 1887.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



95 



Localities of (Bems. 



WjMHERE is no law, according to Burnham, regulating the 
"gig 1 geographical distribution of mineral species, as is the case 
with plants and animals, hence climate has little or no 
influence upon their development ; yet it is a fact that the richest 
coloured gems are found in tropical regions. They occur in 
different geographical formations, but the most valuable are found 
in the oldest. Sometimes they are embedded in a mass of rock ; 
at other times they are near the surface, in diluvial or alluvial 
soil, gravels, and sands of river beds (where they are seen as river 
pebbles) ; and not unfrequently do they appea'r in derivature rocks, 
far from their original home. 

They are most abundant in warm countries, and from this 
circumstance it has been thought that volcanic agency may have 
had some influence in producing them. It would seem that some 
peculiar conditions in the laboratory of Nature must have been 
required for the production of these, her choicest gifts. Some of 
the southern countries of the eastern continent yield the finest 
and the largest quantities of the most valuable gems — the ruby, 
sapphire, topaz, spinel, jacinth and other coloured stones. How 
can this be accounted for, except on the ground that climate has 
to some extent a controlling effect upon the formation of precious 
stones, though it cannot be the only influence, since they occur, 
in some of their species, in nearly every country on the globe ? 

North Carolina, in the New World, is probably the richest 
State in the American Union for its gem minerals, many of 
which are of the first class. A few specimens of the diamond, 
of small size but excellent quality, have been discovered in six 
different counties in this State. 

California offers a considerable variety of ornamental stones, 
including the diamond, corundum opal, garnets, various kinds of 
the quartz species, malachite, azurite, selenite and absidian. 



Gazette, 



Partnerships Dissolved. 

Schultis, Schwar & Co., Goswell Road, E.C., and Pretoria, South Africa. 
Johnson & White, Red Lion Street, Clerkenwell, electro-plate manu- 
facturers. Castle & Turton and D. Miller & Son, Sheffield, cutlery 
manufacturers. Wright Brothers & Shires, Doncaster, pawnbrokers. 
Bentley, Powis & Co., Hanley, jet ware manufacturers. Stacey Bros., 
Sheffield, cutlery manufacturers. Charles Jones & Co., Liverpool, 
jewellers. Herz, Smalz et Cie, and Herz, Rosenfeld and Co., Paris, 
and St. Andrew Street, Holborn Viaduct, diamond merchants, so 
far as regards C. Smalz. L. Courlauder & Co., Kimberley, South 
Africa, merchants. 

THE BANKRUPTCY ACT, 1883. 
Receiving Orders. 

To surrender in London. — George Warwick, Poland Street, Oxford 
Street, goldsmith. 

To surrender in the Country. — Walter Teale Densham, Bude, Cornwall, 
jeweller. Owen Allen, Bath, watchmaker. Samuel Bradley (trading 
as John Payne), Blackpool, jeweller. Thomas Swaine, Macclesfield, 
watchmaker. Walter Green, Birmingham, manufacturing jeweller. 
George Handsom. Bedale, Yorks, jeweller. James Bate, York, watch- 
maker. John Britton, Nottingham, watchmaker. Henry Harris 
(trading as Henry Harris & Co.), Edgbaston, jewellers' factor. William 
Frederick Sanders, Staines, clockmaker, Thomas Lucas, Quorudon, 
Leicestershire, watchmaker. William Dyer, Birmingham, jeweller. 
James Smith, Cheltenham, jeweller. 

Public Examinations. 

In London. — W. Jardine (trading as Jardine & Co.), Great Winchester 
Street, diamond merchant ; December 16, at 12.30. 

In the Country. — J. Britton, Nottingham, watchmaker; December 6, at 10. 
J. L. Ward, Jun., the Globe Spoon Works, Smethwick, spoon manu- 
facturer ; December 12, at 11. S. Bradley (trading as John Payne). 
Birmingham and Blackpool, jeweller ; December 22, at 2. W. Green, 
Birmingham, jeweller ; December 22, at 2. J. Smith, Cheltenham, 
jeweller; December 22, at 12. T. Lucas, Quorndon, watchmaker ; 
December 14, at 10. 

Adjudications. 

In the Country. — 0. Allen, Bath, watchmaker. J. Bate, York, watchmaker. 
T. Swaine, Macclesfield, watchmaker. G. Handsom, Bedale, jeweller. 
W. T. Densham, Bude, jeweller. J. L. Ward, Jun., Smethwick, spoon 
manufacturer. W. Dyer, Birmingham, jeweller. J. Smith, Chel- 
tenham, jeweller. W. F. Sanders, Staines, clockmaker. 

Notices op Dividends. 
In London. — E. Bassett, High Street, Camden Town, pawnbroker ; 3\d., 
second and final ; any day except Saturday, Chief Official Receiver, 
33, Carey Street. T. W. Cooper and A. Cooper (trading as Thomas 



W. Cooper & Son), Amwell Street, Clerkenwell, watch manufacturers; 
5£d., second and final; any day except Saturday, Chief Official 
Receiver, 33. Carey Street, T. W. Cooper (separate estate), Amwell 
Street, Clerkenwell, watch manufacturer ; Us. 3d., first and final ; any 
day except Saturday, Chief Official Receiver, 33, Carey Street. A. 
Cooper (separate estate), watch manufacturer ; 2s. 4d., first and final ; 
any day except Saturday, Chief Official Receiver, 33, Carey Street. 
In tin- Country. — W. J. Anderson, Carnforth, watchmaker ; Hi., third and 
final ; any Wednesday between 12 and 2, Seear, Hasluck & Co., 23, 
Holborn Viaduct, E.C. W. Rawlin, Newark-upon-Trent, watch- 
maker ; 7Ad., first ; any Monday, Official Receiver, Nottingham. W. 
S. Wigg, Great Yarmouth, jeweller ; 8s. 0£d., first and final ; November 
29, H. P. Gould. Norwich. 



APPLICATIONS FOR LETTERS PATENT. 

The following List of Patents has been compiled especially for The Watchmaker, 
Jeweller and Silversmith, by Messrs. W. P. Thompson & Boult, Patent Agents, 
of 323, High Holborn, London, W.C.; Newcastle Chambers, Angel Row, Notting- 
ham ; and 6, Lord Street, Liverpool. 

14,449. J. A. Lund, London, for " Improvements in the striking apparatus 

of clocks.'' Dated October 24, 18S7. 
14,451. T. Elford, G. Ackland and R. Morgan, London, for" Improvements 

in calcining and melting copper, lead, and other ores and regulus." 

Dated October 24. 1887. 
14,482. E. B. Smith, a communication from James Brown, New Zealand, 

for " Improved construction or arrangement of surfaces for 

separating gold or other fine metal particles from quartz or earthy 

matters." Dated October 25, 1887. 
14,609. H. T. B. Dumelow, London, for " Improvements in solitaires and 

studs." Dated October 26, 1887. 
14,647. H. H. Lake, a communication from Adalmar Breden, Austria, for 

" Improvements relating to the electro-deposition of silver and 

nickel upon iron, steel and other metals." Dated October 27, 1887. 
14,697. I. J. T. Newsome, London, for "Improvements in keyless and 

key-winding watches." Dated October 28, 1887. 
14.792. H. J. Allison, a communication from James Bowyer D'Arcy 

Boulton, United States, for " Improvements in process for casting 

metallic ingots." (Complete specification.) Dated October 31, 

1887. 
14,904. C. W. Kitto, London, for " An improved apparatus for distributing, 

mixing, separating, grinding, cleaning and amalgamating gold 

or other ores or tailings." Dated November 2, 1887. 

F. D. Dencker, London, for " Improvements in chronometers." 

Dated November 7, 1887. 
15,223. H. Barrett, London, for " An improved method of mounting coins, 

stones, compasses, &c. (or an improved mount for coins, &c.)." 

Dated November 8, 1887. 

J. F. Cassidy, Birmingham, for " A safety centre pinion for going- 
barrel watches ; can be applied to clocks, musical boxes and all 

going-barrel machines." Dated November 10, 1887. 
15,504. A. N. Contarini, London, for " Improvements in the process of 

separating precious metals from their ores, and in apparatus to be 

employed therein." Dated November 12, 1887. 

H. Ostermann and A. Prip, London, for " Improvements in the 

manufacture of balance wheels for watches and chronometers." 

Dated November 14, 1887. 

C. T. J. Vautin, London, for " Improvements in apparatus for the 

extraction of gold from crushed or other finely-divided auriferous 

material." (Complete specification.) Dated November 14, 1887. 
15,638. W. Hardy, jun., London, for "Improvements in regulating 

watches." Dated November 15. 1887. 
15,660. A. J. Thomas, London, for "Improvements in electric clocks." 

Dated November 15, 1887. 
15.767. L. P. Guignard, London, for " Winding-up indicator for watches, 

clocks and horological works of any kind with going-barrel." 

Dated November 17, 1887. 
15,849. L. Weill and H. flarburg, London, for "A combination of a 

watch,- sovereign purse, stamp case and match box." Dated 

November 18, 1887. 
15,866. E. Weis, London, for "Imitation jewellery and ornaments." 

Dated November 18, 1887. 
15,881. C. A. Meygret and P. Marino, London, for "A new alloy and 

process for manufacturing the same, and for electro-plating or 

typing therewith." Dated November 18, 1887. 



15,165. 



15,334. 



15,561. 



15,574. 



Recent American Patents. 



Darby & Blakeslee 
, Woerd 



Chamois Skin with Rouge, Impregnating. 
Chuck for Watch Movement Plates. C. V. 
Clock, Astronomical. H. Conant ... 

Clock, Electric Alarm. E. J. Colby 

Clock, Electric Alarm. S. P. Meads 

Coffee Pot. J. S. Stringer 

Drilling Machine. A. L. Stanford 

Files, Manufacturing Double Cut. W. M. iMcDou^al 

Furnaces, Refractory Lining for Metallurgical. T. Twynam ... 

Earring Fastening. T. VV. F. Smitten 

Grindstones, Treadle for. J. H. Simonson 

Ingot Mould. S. R. Wilson 

Jewel or Toilet Set Box. F.W.Evans 

Lathe for Forming Pivots of Balance Staffs. C. V. Woerd ... 
Mechanical Movement. D. H. Bennett 



372,207 
372,002 
371,306 
370,932 
371,696 
370,827 
371,859 
371,778 
371,233 
371,283 
371,856 
371,907 
371,182 
372,001 
371,024 



96 



THE WATCHMAKEE, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [December 1, 1887. 



Metals from their Ores, Apparatus for Agitating Solution 

in the leaching of. F. F. Hunt 370,871 

Opera Glass. F. Scheidig 370.975 

Pliers. C. B. Manlev 370,960 

Hatchet Drill. A.L.Stanford 371,858 

Ratchet Drill. A. W. Linton 370.956 

Safe Lock, Electrical. C. J. Kintner 372,02fi— 372.028 

Screw Nicking Machine. OF. Roper 372.227 

Screw Tap. J. Wike 371,015 

Screws, Machine for Sharpening Heads of. C. F. Roper ... 372,276 
Sheet Metal by Electro-deposition, Apparatus for Forming. 

E. Emerson. :.. 371.256 

Sheet Metal Shears. J. H. Mason .. 371,961 

Spring Motor. A. F. George 370,779 

Tool Handle. C. Willms ■ 370.913 

Watch. D.Green 372,261 

Watch. W.Hanson 371.139 

Watch Case. G.C.Smith 371.282 

Watch Case Spring. N.J.Felix 372,018 

Watch. Pendant Winding and Setting. C. Kistler 371,595 

Watch, Pendant Winding and Setting. J. Bachner 37L539 

Watch; Stem Winding and Setting. "D. H. Church 370,929 

Watches, Device for Setting Ruby Pins in. D. H. Abney ... 371,019 

Watches, Forming Bearings for. F. P. Bonneau ... 372,113 

Watches, Forming Pendants for. H. Lefort 372.158 

Watches, Jewel Supportfor the Balance Staffs of. H. Knickman 372J269 

A printed copy of the specifications and drawing of any patent 
in the American list, also of any American patent issued since 
1866, will be furnished from this office for 2s. 6d. In ordering, 
please state the number and date of the patent required, and 
remit to J. Tkuslove, Office of The Watchmaker, Jeiveller and 
Silversmith, 7, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 



torresponbence. 

All Lrtters for Publication to be addressed to the. Editor of The 
Watchmaker. Jeweller and Silversmith, 7, St. Paul's Church- 
yard, E.C. 

All communications must bear the name and address of the sendt / . nut 
necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 



To the Editor op The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 
Silversmith. 

Sir, — Many articles have appeared in the daily papers lately 
on the subject of diamond production and diamond cutting. 
The person who writes these articles can know little about the 
subject, and by misleading the public, does a great amount of 
injury when he tells them that six-and-a-half tons of rough 
diamonds were taken out of the mines in six years. Although 
this statement may be correct, the writer does not seem to know 
of what these six-and-a-half tons are composed. That absence 
of knowledge may frighten the owners of diamonds, especially 
private people. Some ladies hold as much as £20,000 worth of 
diamond jewellery, and the above statement is likely to give them 
a wrong impression as to the real value of their possessions. 
But let us look at the facts by experience. Now, three parts of 
this six-and-a-half tons which were taken out of the mines are 
nothing but what we term in the diamond trade " common 
boart " — valued at 2s. 6d. per carat — a class of diamond used to 
make powder for polishing other diamonds ; it is also used by 
engineers for electrical purposes, and for many other uses. Now 
there are one-and-a-half tons to be accounted for ; of this 
weight a large proportion is too common to cut profitably. The 
next quality is cut in large quantities and held by rich diamond 
merchants, or, as soon as possible, distributed over the whole 
world. Now comes the fine quality, white and perfect. This 
class is dearer at this time- than it has been since the discovery of 
the South African mines. Rough stones, that will produce from 
one to three carat brilliants when cut, cost, in the rough, from 
£5 to £12 per carat, and they lose two-thirds of their 
weight in cutting to make them of fine proportion and shape. 
We have had rough diamonds sent us to cut and polish lately, 
estimated at £50 per carat, showing the scarcity of fine rough 
diamonds even in the trade. It is now certain that the rough 
material must have a great rise in price, on account of the 
mining companies amalgamating with a gross capital of about 
£14,000,000 sterling. When this amalgamation takes place 
the great company will corner the market ; they will be able to 



regulate the output of rough to suit the demand, and keep prices 
even higher than at the present time. 

By inserting this in your valuable Journal you will do a justice 
both to diamond merchants and wearers of diamond jewellery. 
We will take the liberty of sending you an article on diamond 
cutting for your next issue, to prevent the public being deluded 
by inexperienced theorists. 

Yours truly, 

Ford & Wright. 
Clerkenwell Road, and 

18 and 19, Clerkenwell Green, 
November 21, 1887. 



Dear Sir, — Perhaps some kind reader of your Journal would 
explain the best method for extracting broken cylinder plugs 
from very small cylinders. 

I find it a difficult task when the plug is very tight, and it 
generally involves putting a new cylinder altogether, which one 
lias not always by him, therefore causing a considerable loss of 
time. The only tool I should imagine suitable is a hardened 
steel stake, having a varying size of gradual bevelled chamfored 
poles. 

Do watch-tool manufacturers keep tools of this description ? 
If they do, I should like to know where to obtain one. Could 
you enlighten me on this subject, you would greatly oblige 

Anxious Brighton. 



Buyers' $uibe. 



The Sheffield Smelting Company, Sheffield, Sell Gold and Silver 
(pure and alloyed). Buy all materials containing Gold and Silver. 

Jones, E. A., Wholesale Manufacturer of Whitby Jet Ornaments. A 
Large Assortment of the Newest Patterns always in Stock. Export 
Orders promptly executed. Persons not having an account upon 
will avoid delay by forwarding a reference with their order. 
Customers' Matchings and Repairs with despatch. 93, Hatton Garden, 
London, E.C. 

For cheap, quick, reliable Watch and Jewellery Repairs, 
by the most Experienced Workmen, send to Alexander Edwards> 
Watch Material and Tool Dealer, 88 & 89, Craven Street, and 2, Holy- 
head Road, Coventry. Lists : all Horological Literature. 

"W. Scott Hay ward & Co., 59, Deansgate, and Barton Arcade, 
Manchester. Wholesale Jet Ornament Manufacturers, Jet Cameo 
Cutters and Rough Jet Merchants. Approval parcels sent on receipt 
of order, if accompanied with trade references. Repairs and matchings 
executed on the day received. Works : Manchester and Whitby. 
Agents at Liverpool, Leipzig and Paris. 



WANTED. 
TTALY.— A FIRST - RATE MERCANTILE FIRM, 

JL travelling regularly over the whole peninsula — Sicily, Malta and 
Tunis — with large experience and extensive connections in the Jewellery, 
Watch and Clock line, is open to enter into correspondence with some 
Important Manufacturer for the Sale of their Goods in the above 
quarters. References of the highest standing.— Please address, A. A., 
110, Naples.— [Adyt.] 

TO BE SOLD. 
TTTATCHMAKER'S, JEWELLER'S and SILVER- 

VV SMITH'S BUSINESS.— Established over 100 years in good 
Agricultural and Training Districts. Stock moderate, and can be 
reduced. — For particulars, apply to Mrs. J. Staniland, Malton, Yorks. 
[Advt.] 

\\/ATOH MANUFACTURING BUSINESS, for sale 
VV of Superior Goods only ; established 35 years, with good Jobbing 
Trade attached, extending over England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. 
Incoming cam be. reduced to -Four or Five Hundred Pounds, chiefly or 
quite covered by goods, comprising movements, material, tools, &c. 
Owner no objection to remain two or three years to part work at 
finishing or assist in any way required. Age only reason for wishing to 
decline business.— Address Manufacturer, Office of this Journal. — 
[Advt.] 



%\v 







^atcl^akcr, jeweller 



Entered at Stationers' Hall."] 



Edited bt D. GLASGOW, Jun. 



[Registered for Transmission Abroad. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 7.] 



JANUARY 2, 1888. 



t Subscription, 5s. ( Post 
per Annum. ( Free. 



CONTENTS. 



Editorial ... • .... 

General Notes 

Trade Notes ... ... 

The Merchandise Marks Act. (Illustrated) 
The New Hall Marks for Foreign Watch Cases 
Birmingham News. (Illustrated) 

New Books... ... 

A New Compass 

The Rating of Watches at Kew Observatory 

The Legend of the Koh-i-Noor 

The Lever Escapement. By M.L.-A. Grosclaude. (Illu 
The Theory of Adjustment. By M. L. Lossiee. (Illusti 

American Items ... 

Anniversary Dinner of the Horological Club 
The Dresden Collection ... 
Workshop Memoranda ... 

Gazette ... 

Applications for Letters Patent... 
Recent American Patents 

Correspondence ... 

Answers' to Correspondents 
Buyers' Guide ... 



itratei 
ated) 



d) 



PAGE 

. 97 

. 98 

. 99 

. 100 

. 101 

. 102 

. 103 

. 103 

. 104 

. 105 

105 

107 

108 

109 

110 

110 

no 

111 
111 
111 
111 
112 



Che Tllatchmaher, Jeweller an6 
Siluersmith. 



A Monthly Journal devoted to the interests of Watchmakers, 
Jewellers, Silversmiths and kindred traders. 

Subscription.— A copy of the Journal will be sent monthly for one 
year, post free, to any address in the United Kingdom or countries in the 
Postal Union for $s. payable in advance. 

Advertisements.— The rates for advertising will be sent on appli- 
cation. The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith will be found 
an exceptional medium for advertising. Special Notices, Situations, &c, 
per insertion, is. for two lines, prepaid. 

Correspondence.— Correspondence is invited on all matters of interest 
to the trade. Correspondents will please give their full address in each 
communication, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of 
good faith. 

Address all business communications to 

THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & SILVERSMITH, 

7, ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD, 

LONDON, E.C. 

Cheques and Postal Orders to be crossed and made payable to J. TRUSLOVE. 



Agent for the Australian Colonies : 

EVAN JONES, 
Hunter Street and Royal Arcade, Sydney, N.S.W. 



Editorial. 




NOTHEE year has passed and gone, and by the 
time the present number of the journal is in the 
hands of our readers, the New Year will have been 
ushered in with all the honours. 

To state that the events of the past twelve months have 
been of very great moment to the trades with which we are 
especially concerned, would be merely to utter a truism with 
which everyone is acquainted. Whether they are to operate 
beneficially or otherwise in the future is a matter of speculation. 

Still, speculation is better than apathy ; it is a healthy sign 
in itself, indicative of a nervous awakening and prospective 
action, and that it exists at present to a greater extent than has 
been the case for a great number of years is an undoubted fact, 
as it is a matter for congratulation. 

The business outlook for the next year is far from being so 
cheerless as it was this time twelve months back. On all sides 
we see signs of activity and preparation, and while the general 
trade of the country shows an improved tendency, the special 
causes which produced local depressions are either removed or 
are disappearing. 

Thus, the dulness in the watch trade during the latter portion 
of the year has undoubtedly been chiefly due to the uncertainty 
prevailing as to the probable effect of the special clauses of the 
Merchandise Marks Act affecting that trade, which, coupled 
with the delay attending the publication of the Order in Council 
with respect to the Hall-marking of cases, has prevented 
retail buyers from adding to their stocks ; while, with a decrease 
in the number of names appearing under " Receiving Orders " 
in the Gazette, a marked improvement is observable in the 
jewellery and fancy trades, in which confidence had been pre- 
viously so much shaken as to seriously interfere with business. 

With regard to the first-named trade, efforts are everywhere 
apparent of a desire to comply with the requirements of the law, 
and, as it has been almost officially announced that the Act was 
intended to operate more as a deterrent measure than to be used 
as a means of punishment, not much inconvenience need be 



98 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[January 2, 1888. 



apprehended from its application by those who only desire to act 
honestly. The foregoing remarks may, to some extent, apply 
to the construction to be placed upon the retrospective character 
of the measure, although, in the absence of any authoritative 
decision on the subject, it would not be safe to assume that all 
watches stamped before the publication of the Order in Council 
will not require any further distinctive marks. 



Seneral Notes. 



fHOSE who are interested in or contemplate speculating in 
gold mining shares should read a paper on "The Goldfields 
of the Transvaal," contributed to last month's Longmans' 
Magazine, by George J. Nathan. 



The Queen has received a magnificent Jubilee present from 
the diamond fields of South Africa in the shape of an ivory 
casket lined with curled ostrich feathers. The lid is mounted 
with gold filigree-work and profusely studded with diamonds. 



The death took place last month of Mr. Samuel Roberts, of 
Sheffield, aged 87 years. Mr. Roberts was descended from an 
ancient Yorkshire family which took a leading part in the intro- 
duction of the silver-plating industry into Sheffield. He gave 
munificently to church, educational, and social objects. 



The death took place last month of Mr. George Garritt, of 
Smith Street, Northampton Square. The deceased gentleman, 
who was well known and respected in connection with many 
parochial and trade associations, has held the positions of Chair- 
man of the Goldsmiths' & Jewellers' Annuity Asylum and 
Secretary to the Precious Metals Dealers' Protection Society. 



Orders have been issued to the Customs officials of the 
United Kingdom to lay anembargo on all watches bearing the 
English Hall-mark in the case, imported after the present date, 
unless the place of origin be distinctly marked on the movement, 
pending further action under the Merchandise Marks Act with 
a view to their confiscation, &c. 



One of our Coventry friends informs us that the dulness of 
trade is by no means over as regards the watchmaking industry 
in that town ; as a proof of which he adduces the fact of lever 
escapements being now made at Is. 9d. This is indeed a poor 
look-out for the workmen engaged, and the effects of depression 
could, we think, hardly go much farther in that direction. 



It is perhaps not very generally known that the mechanical 
figures, &c, of many of the old musical clocks known as twelve- 
tuned Dutchmen, made by Rimbault, who kept a shop in Great 
St. Andrew's Street, Seven Dials, about the middle of last 
century, were painted by the afterwards celebrated dramatic 
portrait painter, Johann Zoffany. It was through Rimbault, 
who introduced him to Benjamin Wilson, that he became known 
to David Garrick, the actor, who subsequently became his warm 
friend and patron. 

In Some Official Correspondence of George Canning, edited by 
Edward J. Stapleton, and published by Messrs. Longmans, 
Green & Co., we find a curious petition from the watchmakers of 
London, begging that Mr. Canning will encourage their trade 
by substituting watches for snuff boxes as diplomatic presents to 
foreigners. The petition incidentally mentions that the cost of 
"the best gold repeater that could be required " would not exceed 
100 guineas. Canning answers that the subject is entirely new 
to him, and that he will take it into his consideration. The 
" correspondence " covers Canning's last term of office, from 
1821 to 1827. 



The prospectus of the British Diamond-cutting Co., Limited 
(R. E. North & Co.) states that the proposed capital is 
£100,000, in £1 shares, but the present issue is to be £75,000, 
including the "fully paid" shares given to the vendors. It is 
an entire mistake, says the prospectus, to suppose that diamonds 
can be cut well and cheaply only in Holland. Messrs. North's 
business has been bought as a nucleus of a large experiment 
which is to prove this statement true. 



Mr. Thomas Jessop, who died at Sheffield on November 30, 
was for many years proprietor of Brightside Steel Works, the 
largest works engaged exclusively in the manufacture of steel in 
the world, and was chairman of the limited company which took 
over the business. He was Mayor and Master Cutler, and 
founded and furnished Jessop's Hospital for Women, costing 
£30,000. Mr. Jessop was 84 years of age. 



The death of Professor Stewart, of Owens College, Manchester, 
took place last month at his house near Drogheda. He held for 
about ten years the directorship of the Kew Observatory. At 
the time of his death he was president of the Physical Society of 
London and of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical 
Society. In 1870 he was appointed Professor of Physics at 
Owens College, and director of the Physical Laboratory. 



A man, who declined to give any account of himself, was 
arrested last month at Birmingham, on suspicion of being 
concerned in some jewellery robbery. A " dress improver" 
containing new jewellery worth about £200 was accidentally 
left at an hotel in the town on Friday by a woman who 
had been staying there along with the prisoner and another 
man, and the prisoner was arrested on calling to claim the 
valuables, which bore upon them shopkeepers' price tickets. 



In reply to the inquiry of a correspondent as to how the Mer- 
chandise Marks Act will affect stocks of watches purchased 
before the new law came into operation, Mr. Courtenay Boyle 
states, on behalf of the Board of Trade, that they have no power 
to place an authoritative opinion upon an Act of Parliament, 
but that they may call attention to the exempting words in Section 
7 of the Act — " and the watch bears no description of the 
country where it was made." 



Mr. Lowinski, diamond expert, having made an examination 
of some newly-purchased ground in Purtyal, India, on behalf of 
the Hyderabad Company, reports the discovery in the plot of a 
rich diamond mine. He states that the ground contains millions 
of tons of diamondiferous layers which have never been touched, 
and that the finding of diamonds in largely-paying quantities is 
only a matter of time and labour. As the Company was to have 
commenced work within a month from the time of his report, 
it is doubtless by this time carrying on operations. 



In an interview with a representative of the Coventry Herald 
a leading manufacturer stated that the depression in the watch 
trade of Coventry was partly due to the transition state of the 
type of watch produced, but that the same genius which enabled 
Coventry to take the trade from Liverpool and London will 
enable it to win back on new lines the old supremacy. He had 
a distinct hope for the future of the Coventry watch trade. 
Gauged by the progress in the article produced, Coventry's 
advance, during the past five years, is greater than that of either 
Switzerland or America ; and should that be continued, a new 
future for Coventry, based on the new type of watch — the keyless 
and going-barrel — the improved method of manufacture, and the 
highly-organised factory system, may fairly be predicted. He 
was emphatically of opinion that, though prices had gone down, 
the quality of Coventry watches had improved ; the type of goods 
produced was certainly more in touch with modern demands, and 
time was on the side of local trade, 



January 2, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



99 



The representative of the Macdonald Ranges Ruby Mining 
Co. has received a very favourable report upon the gems 
which he has brought to this country from the Central Territory 
of Australia. It is drawn up by a well-known firm of expert 
brokers in Hatton Garden, who state that they have come to the 
conclusion that the Co. has made a valuable discovery, and 
possess " stones which will sell freely at high prices." The 
report further states that a large quantity of these stones have 
been cut and are gradually being introduced to the London 
market, and there is no doubt in time they will command a ready 
sale, for many of them are of extreme beauty. It is worth 
notice that experts both in Melbourne and Adelaide laughed the 
" find " to scorn, holding out the hope that some of the rubies 
might be garnets. 



The Centennial International Exhibition at Melbourne in 
1888 is being actively supported by the various Chambers of 
Commerce on this side, some of which are using their influence 
with a view to British industry being adequately represented at 
Melbourne. The Council of the London Chamber has had 
under consideration letters received from the Royal Commission 
for the Exhibition in this country, reminding it of the keenness 
of foreign competition with British trade in Australia, and the 
importance, therefore, of British commercial interests being 
well represented. The same letters were brought before the 
Australasian Trade Section of the Chamber at a special meeting 
held the other day, when it transpired that previous efforts 
made by the Chamber had had good effect, the Association 
of Chambers of Commerce of the United Kingdom having 
been induced to issue a circular in favour of, the Exhibition. 
Sir Vincent B. Kennett-Barrington, a member of the Council of 
the London Chamber, who has just returned to England, was 
stated to have rendered valuable service in inducing foreign states 
to take part in the Exhibition. Some discussion took place as 
to the unsatisfactory treatment of exhibitors at the recent 
Adelaide Exhibition, more especially in regard to an alteration of 
the tariff which it was alleged was applied to goods sent to 
Adelaide for sale, on the understanding that they could be 
disposed of on payment of the duties in force when they were 
originally received. The system of awards was also stated to be 
unsatisfactory. The hope was therefore expressed that no 
changes of this kind would be made in the course of the 
Melbourne Exhibition. One or two members interested in 
Victorian trade were of opinion that this was extremely unlikely, 
and, in support of this, attention was drawn to the prospectus of 
the Exhibition. 



The Diamond Market. — Although the latest reports from 
America state that brisk sales are the order of the day, none of 
the Continental markets are as yet affected thereby. However, 
the holidays are considered sufficient to account for the present 
dulness, and a lively Spring trade is confidently anticipated. 
Probably, to the same cause is attributable the scarcity of buyers 
in the London market, which, coupled with the high quotations 
from the fields, makes things very flat. 

Latest from Kimberley report the prices firm for all classes of 
goods, with a less active demand. 

Silver. — The fluctuations, which are a distinguishing feature 
of this market, owing to the varying rates of the Indian ex- 
changes, followed a slightly upward tendency throughout the last 
month ; quotations for bars closing at 44^d. per oz., while 
Mexican dollars remain nominally at 43|d. 



City and Guilds op London Institute. — Dr. A. K. Miller 
will deliver a course of ten lectures on the " Chemistry of Oils 
and Fats," at the Central Institution, Exhibition Road, on 
Mondays, at 4 p.m., during the Spring term, commencing on 
January 23, 1888. The lecturer will treat of — 1." Oils of 
mineral origin ; petroleum, including shale oil, paraffin, and 
manufacture of oil gas; 2. Oils, fats, &c, of vegetable and 
animal origin, volatile oils, including turpentine, fixed oils and 
fat, 



Crabe 3Sfotes. 



'filiWHE Prince of Wales has ordered a set of Harrison's Patent 
14| Tube Chimes (which we spoke of in connection with the 
Manchester Exhibition and elsewhere) for the church of 
St. Alban's, Copenhagen, and Mr. Harrison has gone over to 
superintend their fixture. 



The decoration and diploma of the Legion of Honour have 
been awarded by the French Government to Mr. James Kendal, 
of the firm of Kendal & Dent, watchmakers, 106, Cheapside, 
London. This firm was also fortunate in receiving the Gold 
Medal at the Paris Exhibition. 



Jobbers should write to Messrs. A. Flavell & Co., 59, Spon 
End, Coventry, for their new price list of materials and parts 
used in watch repairing. The prices quoted for the various 
repairs appear to us extremely low, while the well-known reputa- 
tion of the firm is a sufficient guarantee of the quality of the work. 

We are informed by Mr. James Rigg, the well-known manu- 
facturer of technical education apparatus, that his business has 
been taken over by a company, under the style of Rigg's Tech- 
nical Education Appliances, Limited. The new offices and show- 
rooms are at 20, Bucklersbury, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 

Messrs. Thompson & Vine have dissolved partnership. Mr. 
E. J. Thompson, whose long and active business and public 
career has well merited a much needed rest, having retired, the 
business will in future be carried on by his nephew, Mr. T. W. 
Vine, who has long been the active partner. 



The New Romney Household Almanack, which has now 
reached its fifth year of publication, is interesting as being the 
only work of its kind we know of that owes its being to the 
enterprise of one of our craft. It is published by Mr. J. N. 
Masters, jeweller, of Rye and Romney, and, judging from the 
number of advertisements which appear in it, is well appreciated 
by local patrons. The present number is well got up, and con- 
tains a large amount of local and general information. 



Another Almanack that is deserving of a word of praise is 
the publication of Messrs. P. & A. Guye, of 77, Farringdon 
Road, E.C. It contains, besides many memoranda likely to be 
of interest to watchmakers, useful monthly notes, and an 
appendix comprising the firm's new price list and telegraphic code. 



Mr. J. W. King, of 13, St. John's Square, Clerkenwell, 
celebrated the anniversary of his new plating and gilding works 
by lighting the premises by the electric light. His plant for 
lighting and for plating and gilding purposes consists of three 
dynamos, the largest being an Edison machine of one-and-a-half 
tons' weight, and several sets of accumulators ; the motive power 
being an Atkinson gas engine. The whole installation, which is 
no doubt, the most complete in Clerkenwell, has been erected by 
Mr. King and his own workmen, assisted by his son, who is a 
pupil to a firm of electrical engineers. Mr. King gained a 
further certificate in electro-metallurgy at the last May exam- 
ination of the City Guilds. 



A Novelty in Post Cards. — A novel post card has been 
patented by Mr. William Evans, of Rowley Park, Stafford. 
This invention embodies a method for dispensing with publicity 
of names and addresses of senders of post cards by the substitu- 
tion of indexes, which are letters or numbers or letters and 
numbers combined. The index on any post card represents the 
sender, and corresponds with a similar one in possession of the 
addressee, and so refers him to the name and address of the sender. 
The invention doubtless would cause a certain saving of time and 
obviate unnecessary formalities in simple business communications 
of "Sir" or " Dear Sir," "Yours obediently" or "Yours truly," 
and such like (besides the non-publicity of name and address of 
sender), all of which may be taken for granted under the index, 



100 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[January 2, 1888. 



Che 3¥lerchan6ise Marhs Act. 



Customs Regulations. 

Prohibition on Importation. 

From the London Gazette, December 2, 1887. 

1. Goods prohibited to be imported as hereinbefore recited,* 
having applied to them forged trade marks, false trade descrip- 
tions, or marks, names, or descriptions, otherwise illegal, which, 
upon examination, are detected by the officers of Customs, are 
to be detained by them without the requirement of previous 
information. 

2. In giving information with a view to detention, an 
informant must fulfil the following conditions, viz.: (i.) He 
must give to the Collector or Superintendent, or the Chief Officer 
of Customs of the Port (or Sub-Port) of expected importation, 
notice in writing, stating the number of packages expected, as 
far as he is able to state the same ; the description of the goods 
by marks or other particulars sufficient for their identification ; 



four days in double the value of the goods with two approved 
sureties. The ad valorem deposit will be returned upon com- 
pletion of the bond, and will not be required if, as an alternative 
where time permits, the informant prefers to give a like bond 
before examination, upon estimated value of the goods declared 
to by him under statutory declaration. If the security is not 
duly given as above required, there will be no further detention 
of the goods. 

5. In the above regulations the words "officer of Customs" 
mean an officer acting under general or special direction of the 
Commissioners, and the words " value of the goods " mean 
value irrespective of duty. 

6. The " notice " and " bond " required as above shall be in 
the forms contained in the schedule to regulations, or in such 
other forms as the Commissioners may from time to time order 
and direct. 

7. The security taken under these regulations will be given 
up at the times following — that is to say: Where given before 
examination, and if no detention, forthwith ; where given on 
detention — if the forfeiture is completed, either by lapse of time 



FIGURE I. 



FIGURE II. 



* o 

Shield for Foreign Gold Case. (Actual size.) Shield for Foreign Silver Case. (Actual size.) 

FIGURE' III.— Particular Mark for each Hall. 




London. 
(Phoebus.) 



A 



Birmingham. 
(Equilateral Triangle.) 





Chester. 
(Acorn and Two Leaves.) 



Sheffield. 
(Crossed Arrows.) 





$\TtJ\: 




Edinburgh. 
(St. Andrew's Cross.) 



22, and -917. 
20, and -833. 



Glasgow. 
(Bishop's Mitre.) 

FIGURE IV.— Carat Marks for Gold. 

18, and "75. 
15, and -625. 



Dublin. 
(Shamrock.) 



12, and -5. 
9, and '375. 



the name or other sufficient indication of the importing ship ; 
the manner in which the goods infringe the Act ; the expected 
day of the arrival of the ship, (ii.) He must deposit with the 
Collector or other officer, as aforesaid, a sum sufficient, in the 
opinion of that officer, to cover any additional expense which 
may be incurred in the examination required by reason of his 
notice. 

3. If, upon arrival and examination of the goods, the 
officer of Customs is satisfied that there is no ground for their 
detention, they will be delivered. If he is not so satisfied, he will 
decide either to detain the goods, as in a case of detention upon 
ordinary examination, or to require security from the informant 
for reimbursing the Commissioners or their officers all expenses 
and damages incurred in respect of the detention made on his 
information, and of any proceedings consequent thereon. 

4. The security thus required must be an immediate ad 
valorem deposit of £10 per cent, on the value of the goods, 
as fixed by the officer from the quantities or value shown by the 
entry ; and, also, subsequently a bond to be completed within 

* See Section 16, Merchandise Marks Act. 



or ultimate condemnation by a Court of Justice, then on such 
completion of forfeiture ; if the forfeiture is not completed, then 
if the goods are released by the Commissioners, and no action of 
suit has been commenced against them, or any of their officers 
in respect of the detention, then at the expiration of three 
months from the time of detention ; or, if the goods are released 
for failure of proceedings taken for the forfeiture and condemna- 
tion thereof upon information under Section 207 of the Customs 
Consolidation Act, 1876, and no action or suit has been com- 
menced against the Commissioners, or any of their officers, in 
respect of the detention, then at the expiration of three months 
from the trial of such information ; if within such periods as 
aforesaid any such action or suit as aforesaid has been commenced, 
then upon the ultimate conclusion of such action or suit, and the 
fulfilment of the purpose for which the security was given. 

8. These regulations apply to trans-shipment and transit 
goods as well as to goods landed to be warehoused or for home 
consumption. 

9. The 1st day of January, 1888, is, by these "regulations," 
fixed as the day from which Section 2 of the Revenue Act, 1883, 



fANUARY 2, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER JEWELLEK AND SILVERSMITH. 



ioi 



shall be repealed, subject to the terms of the recited Act ; and 
tbese regulations will take effect from the date of such repeal. 

r, . . . TT ( Charles Du Cane, 

Commissioners or Her 1 „ ■•«■ 

, f . , , . ~, . ■< H. Murray, 

Maiesty s Customs. j tt a 

J J ( Horace Seymour. 

Custom House, London, December 1. 



not, to any assay office in the United Kingdom for the 
purpose of being assayed, stamped, or marked, shall make 
a declaration declaring in what country or place the case was 
made. If it appears by such declaration that the watch case 
was made in some country or place out of the United 
Kingdom, the assay office shall place on the case such a 
mark (differing from the mark placed by the office on a 



(Gold) 



FIGURE V.— REPRESENTATION OF MARKS. 
(Six times the actual size.) 
London. Birmingham. 

(Silver) (Gold) (Silver) 



^ I'll 





0TO1DIBK] 




\ 



A 

F©[MQ©KI 

m 



Chester. 



(Gold) 



(Silver) 





Sheffield. 
(Silver) 



iFMiadK] 



y 



(Gold) 



Edinburgh. 



(Silver) 



(Gold) 



Glasgow. 



(Silver) 






iFOKHIKglM 
^ — . »31 




F®KII1©N1 



(Gold) 



Dublin. 



(Silver) 



11 f°\ 

IFTOIKBRI 



IF ©EI I ©C 



The annual variable date-letter is to be inserted in position as shown above. The proper gold carat value is also to be inserted in position 

as shown above. 



Form of Declaration and the new Hall Marks for 
Foreign-Made Watch Cases. 

From the London Gazette, December 9, 1887. 

Whereas by the Merchandise Marks Act, 1887, 50 and 
, 51 Vic. c. 28, it is, amongst other things, provided that — 
(1.) Every person who, after the date fixed by Order in 
Council, sends or brings a watch case, whether imported or 



watch case made in the United Kingdom) and in such a 
mode as may be from time to time directed by Order in 
Council. 
(2.) The declaration may be made before an officer of an assay 
office appointed in that behalf by the office (which officer is 
hereby authorised to administer such a declaration) or 
before a Justice of the Peace or a Commissioner having 
power to administer oaths in the Supreme Court of 



102 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[January 2, 1888. 



Judicature in England or Ireland or in the Court of Session 

in Scotland, and shall be in such form as may be from time 

to time directed by Order in -Council. 

(3.) Every person who makes a false declaration for the 

purposes of this section shall be liable on conviction or 

indictment to the penalties of perjury, and, on summary 

conviction, to a fine not exceeding twenty pounds for each 

offence. 

Now, therefore, Her Majesty, by and with the advice of Her 

Privy Council, and in exercise of the powers vested in Her by 

the above recited provisions of the said Act, is pleased to order 

and declare, and doth hereby order and declare, that where it 

appears by such declaration that such watch cases have been 

made in some country or place out of the United Kingdom, then 

the following Authorities, that is to say: — 

The Wardens and Commonalty of the Mystery of Goldsmiths 

of the City of London ; 
The Guardians of the Standard of Wrought Plate, 

Birmingham ; 
The Company of Goldsmiths of the City of Chester ; 
The Guardians of the Standard of Wrought Plate, Sheffield ; 
The Incorporation of Goldsmiths of the City of Edinburgh ; 
The Goldsmiths Company of the City of Glasgow; 
The Fraternity or Company of Goldsmiths of the City of 
Dublin ; 
shall respectively cause to be placed on such watch cases the 
marks more particularly described and delineated in Schedule II. 
hereunto annexed, and no other mark or marks, and such marks 
are hereby authorised accordingly. 

And it is hereby further ordered and declared that the 
declaration to be made shall be in the form set forth in Schedule I. 
hereunto annexed. 

This Order shall come into operation on the first day of 
January, one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight. 

C. L. Peel. 

SCHEDULE I. 
Form of Declaration. 
I (a) do hereby declare that the [watch 

case] or [watch cases] [brought] or [sent] by me this 

day to the Assay Office at 

and in a parcel marked 
made in 

Declared at this 

18 . 

Before me (c) 

Officer of the aforesaid Assay Office appointed in that behalf 
or, Justice of the Peace for 

or, Commissioner having power to administer oaths in the 
Supreme Court of Judicature in England 
[Supreme Court of Judicature in Ireland] 
[Court of Session in Scotland]. 
(a) Here insert name and address of declarant. 
(&) Signature of declarant, 
(c) Signature and title of person before whom the declaration is made. 



in number 

[was] [were] 

(b) 
day of 



SCHEDULE II. 

On a foreign gold case: — 

Within a shield of the form of a Cross, and of the size 
shown in Figure I. of the Appendix hereto, the word 
" Foreign," over which a Hall mark particular to each 
office shown in Figure III. and the carat value of the gold, 
and under which the decimal equivalent of the carat value 
of the gold together with the variable annual date letter. 
On a foreign silver case: — 

Within a shield of the form of a regular octagon and of the 

size shown in Figure II. of the Appendix hereto, the 

word " Foreign," over which a Hall mark particular to 

each office shown in Figure III. and under which the 

variable annual date letter. 

The particular Hall mark above referred to for each of the 

seven assay offices at which foreign cases may be stamped is 

shown in Figure V. of the Appendix hereto. 



Birmingham N eui s. 

From Odr Correspondent. 



tECEMBER has proved a rather flat month as far as 
business among the Birmingham jewellers is concerned. 
The usual rush before the Christmas holidays has not 
come with anything like the usual pressure, and most manu- 
facturers have been hoping for the New Year, 1888, to bring 
something better in its train. 

# # # 

The English Watch Co., Villa Street, Birmingham, are now 
full up with orders, many of them being distinctly traceable to 
the new law upon the putting of foreign movements in English 
Hall-marked cases; several large dealers in that class of Geneva 
watches afterwards English levers, having placed their orders 
during the last month with bond fide English makers. We 
want a little more of that kind of legislation, and considerably 
less of the " Irish Question." This reminds me of a point in 
connection with the duties existing upon silver goods, a maker 
was expressing his sorrow to me that he was unable to make an 
article of use, in silver, to sell at a reasonable price, on account of 
the duty, although the present low price of silver would enable 
him to do it. Cannot we petition Government to remove this and 
put it, say, upon whiskey instead — it is only a delusion for the 
working man, and the proof can be seen any Saturday night in 
Birmingham, although trade is bad ; or put it, say, upon cats, 
and make ample apologies to all the maiden ladies ? 

# * # 

I send you illustrations of the latest novelty produced by the 
enterprising firm of Messrs. G. E. Walton & Co., Limited, of 
Hylton Street, Birmingham, which is in the form of a com- 
bination cedar pencil watch-key, to wind any watch, and a watch- 




opener combined, each part of which would be in daily use by 
most people. It is intended to offer it at a price which will 
enable it to be retailed at twopence to the public ; and this fact, 
combined with its general utility, should certainly command a 
ready and an immense sale. 

* * # 
There has been a good deal said and written from time to 
time about a little mischievous imp yclept the Printer's Devil, 
and many a trick has been laid to his charge, either wrongly or 
rightly : but I think it is quite time that something very strong 
and (if there is any part in his constitution that is touchable 
without the aid of a lathe strap or some equally forceable 
argument) something very touching were done about a very 
mischievous and incorrigible young person known as a "Jewel- 
ler's errand kid." He varies in age from a reputed thirteen years 
(there are no boys under thirteen now seeking employment, thanks 
to the School Board, though I feel bound to suggest that boys of 
thirteen are nothing like so big now as they used to be) to fifteen 
years, is somewhat dirty in appearance, and is equal to the 
occasion, whatever it may be, from " pitch and toss " to 
"manslaughter." To tack some nickname upon any peculiar 
person walking about the neighbourhood and follow him about 
in packs like wolves and howling at him until they drive him to 
madness and even death, as was the case recently, or to throw a 
paper bag of soot in the face of some passing lady (this I have 
seen), are some of his mildest forms of amusement. It is no use 
preaching sermons at him, he only sings " Wait till the Clouds 
roll by,", and prepares for more tricks ; it is very little use to 
bring force to bear, for if you kill one, " about 40 immediately 
come to the funeral." I leave this little matter for the con- 
sideration of his daily instructors, whoever they may be. 



January 2, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



103 



It appears that there is an old superstition still present in 
some peoples' minds about the figure eight and the combination 
of a number of figures eight being lucky ; and so, in accordance 
with this belief and in hopes of finding new fields for their labours, 
a number of the jewellers are busy in designing brooches, pins, 
charms, &c, bearing all sorts of arrangements of 1888, &c. ; 
and no doubt the figures can be made to produce a very pretty 
design, arranged with floral forms in combination, and if people 
will believe in luck, the Figure Jewellery may be made to take as 
great a footing as the Horse-shoe has had for so many years. 
Perhaps a few reminders of the light in which some ancient 
nations have regarded the figure eight may be useful to jewellers 
who are investigating this point of the subject, and who are too 
busy to hunt up their Ancient Mythology, Roman History, $c. 
According to the ancient " Calendaria," the Romans divided 
the entire year, beginning with the 1st of January, into weeks' 
of eight clays each. A similar usage is still known in some 
countries, where the expression, eight days, is frequently used as a 
week ; this accounts for the eight-day clock of our grandfathers. 
October, the eighth month of the old Roman year (as the 
name signifies), was sacred to Mars, and a horse, called the 
" October Equus," was sacrificed to the deity. The Greek 
philosopher Pythagoras, who professed a belief in the mystical 
properties of numbers, dedicated the figure eight to Cybele, the 
Mother of all the Gods, whose image, in the remotest time, was 
only a cubical block of stone ; so that we see that some centuries 
ago profound and learned people were "in a stew" about the 
figure eight, and the pot has been kept boiling ever since. 
Well, if the jewellers can add another fagot to the fire, the 
year 1888 will, no doubt, be grateful ; and, if the idea takes, it will 
keep a large number of real and actual pots to be kept boiling — 
so I wish them every success. 



Weu) Boohs. 



Les Mervielles de L'Horlogerie.* This work, which is 
one of Hachette & Co.'s " Bibliotheque des Mervielles " series, 
is the joint production of MM. Camille Portal and H. de 
Graffigny — the former being an old student of the National 
School of Horology and the latter ex-chief editor of " La 
Science Universal." As the title indicates, it is rather popular 
than technological in character ; nevertheless it contains a vast 
amount of information both interesting and instructive, com- 
bining the two in such a way as differs from any book of the kind 
that has hitherto been published either here or on the Continent. 
Thus we find a historical disquisition on ancient clocks and 
watches, closely followed by a chapter on the marine chrono- 
meter, involving technical details and the regulations for their 
trial and purchase by the French Marine under the law pro- 
mulgated in 1883. It will be news to English chronometer 
makers to learn that " it has been proved that French chrono- 
meters are always superior to analogous instruments constructed 
by the foreigner." All the essentially French inventions are 
described in the book, the remaining most interesting chapters 
being those devoted to the pneumatic clock system of Paris, 
electric clocks, and those ingenious contrivances which are com- 
prehended under the term " myste'rieuse." To those acquainted 
with the language the book would prove exceedingly attractive 
reading, both from its peculiar lines and intrinsic merits as a 
whole ; it is illustrated with 112 blocks. 



Calvert's Mechanics' Almanack and Workshop Com- 
PANiON.f This useful little book has now readied its fifteenth 
year of publication, and the present number is in every respect 
worthy of its predecessors. As a work of reference for the 
artisan and handicraftsman it stands unrivalled. Among a 
variety of useful information scattered throughout its pages may 

* Paris: Librairie Hachette ET Cie., 79, Boulevard Saint-Germain, 
t Price 4d. Loudon : John HEYWOOD, 11, Paternoster Building; ; and 01 all booksellers. 



be mentioned a very clear abstract of the Merchandise Marks 
Act and a paper on " Taking out Patents." 



An appropriate book for the season has just made its appear- 
ance in the " Playground of Science, "J by Johnston Stephen. 
Although the experiments described in this little book do not 
bear dh - ectly upon any of the industries with which we are 
concerned, many of them are sufficiently cognate thereto to 
interest and afford valuable suggestions to practical minds, for 
which the wide extent of the ground covered gives an infinity of 
applications. As Mr. Stephen (whose name will be familiar to 
many of our readers in connection with former contributions to 
this journal) is a purist, it is almost supererogatory to add 
that the book is written in language intelligible to all, every 
experiment being accurately described and illustrated. We note, 
however, a slight mistake in the chapter on " The Pendulum and 
Tuning-fork," where Mr. Stephen has fallen into the not un- 
common error of assuming the metre to be the length of a 
simple seconds pendulum. The book is well got up and care- 
fully printed on good paper; and its modest price, together with 
the fact that the experiments described in it can be easily per- 
formed with the simplest apparatus by those totally unacquainted 
with science principles, should render its popularity assured. 



A jNeuu itompass. 



TiIffHE Alta California gives an account of the test of a new 



compass, invented by Mr. Leon Sirieix, a Frenchman by 
birth, and a graduate of the French Polytechnic. The 
compass as exhibited consists of a brass cylinder divided into two 
compartments. The lower compartment contains the corrector 
of the needle, while the upper division contains the* compass card, 
which is swung on a pivot, as in the ordinary compass. On one 
side of the cylinder, close to the base, is a screw, and in the 
centre of the base is another. These are the adjusting screws, 
the first being used for correcting the permanent magnetism and 
the other for the correction of the induced magnetism. The 
inventor placed his compass on an imaginary ship, and laid her 
head due North, or, in other words, made the •' lubber line " form 
one with the pole on the wall. The needle then pointed due 
North. On the other courses the same result was attained. 
The needle never deviated one degree from the North. Iron was 
placed around the compass, and the needle was observed to 
deviate a degree West. The inventor moved the second screw, 
and adjusted the needle carefully. The imaginary vessel was 
swung again, and on every course the needle pointed due North. 
It was also shown that the compass had no " heeling error," 
which was caused by the rolling of the vessel. A more severe 
test was applied, but the card remained perfectly horizontal : — ■ 
The Sirieix compass was revolved at a great rate, much more 
than ever could be attained in swinging a ship, and directly the 
motion was stopped the compass card was seen to be still pointing 
North, and it had moved little more than half a degree on each 
side of the " lubber line." The compass card was swung round 
at a great rate — left to itself it became dead in about one 
minute's time ; an ordinary compass would revolve probably 
five minutes or more. Mr. Sirieix has in his compass avoided 
the use of compensating magnets placed in the desk or binnacle, 
vertical bars, and other arrangements necessary to the compass 
mentioned. He has, to use his own expression, " centralised 
and neutralised " the magnetism of the ship in a spot directly 
beneath the /compass card, thus succeeding where others have 
failed. 

The Alta says : " Prof. Sladky, of the University of California, 
has testified in writing to the splendid performance of Mr. Sirieix's 
instrument, and it has also been examined by Lieutenants J. B. 
Milton/ E. J. Lorn and G. M. Stoney, of the U. S. N., all of 
whomy'agree as to the efficiency of the compass." 

t Prir/is. London : Published by TRUSLOVE & SHIRLEY, 7, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 



104 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[January 2, 1! 



H-he Eating of "batches at Keuu iDbseruatory 
during the year ending October 31, 1887. 

(From the Report of the Kew Committee.) 



WjjfJHE arrangements for rating watches mentioned in previous 
*&£& Reports have been carried on during the year with con- 

" . tinueck success, and up to the present 1,344 watches hare 
been examined and reported upon. 

•510 entries of watches were made as contrasted with 490 
duringithe corresponding period of last year. They were sent 
for testing in the following Classes : — 

For Class A, 463 ; Class B, 25 ; and Class C, 22. 

Of these 174 failed to gain any certificate ; 19 passed in C, 21 
in J3, 296 in A, and i3 of the latter obtained the highest possible 
form of certificate, the Class A, especially good. 

In Table I. will be found statements giving the results of trial 
of the 26 watches which obtained the highest numbers of marks 
during the year, the premier position being attained — with 88-1 
marks — by a keyless, double-roller, going-barrel watch, submitted 
by Jos. White, Earlsdon, Coventry. 

This total exceeds that of last year, and it is also extremely 
satisfactory to note that a very marked increase has taken place 
in the number of watches which have gained more than 80 
marks. 

As some inconvenience was caused by the employment of 
temporary expedients to maintain the large watch-safe at an 
average of 65° F. for the " middle temperature " test, a burner 
was procured and fitted up with a shield, and the safe can now 
be kept at the desired point, whilst at the same time no 
deleterious fumes of coal-gas can penetrate into the interior 
chamber. 

The three-rating safes are therefore now maintained* by means 
of gas and ice at practically the three constant temperatures of 
40°, 65°, and 90° F. respectively, all the year round. 



Special attention continues to be given to the examination of 
pocket chronographs, in accordance with the request of the 
Cyclists' Union. 

Hating of Chronometers. — Since the institution of chronometer 
trials, as mentioned in last year's Report, 27 movements have been 
examined, and certificates issued giving the mean daily rate and 
variation of rate at each change of temperature. 

The trial occupies 35 days, divided into 5 periods of 6 days 
each, and 5 intermediate days, namely, 1 day at the commence- 
ment of each period of test : — 

1st period. Chronometer at temperature of 55° F. or 13° C. 

70° 21° 



2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 

Certificates are 



85° „ 29°,, 
70° „ 21°,, 
55° „ 13°,, 
which have under- 



granted to chronometers 
gone 35 days' test as specified above, and whose performance is 
such that : — 

1. The mean of .the differences in each stage of the exam- 
ination, between (a) the average daily rate during that period, 
and (£■) the several daily rates, does not exceed one second in 
any one of the stages. 

2. The mean daily rate has not been affected by change of 
temperature more than one-sixth of a second per 1° F., which is 
about a quarter of a second per 1° C. 

3. The mean daily rate has not exceeded ten seconds in any 
stage of the test. 

A Kullberg's temperature regulator has been fitted by the 
maker to the chronometer oven, and a Richard thermograph is 
also arranged to work in the case with the chronometers, affording 
a continuous record of the temperatures which they have ex- 
perienced during the whole of their trial. 

The range of temperature from 55° to 85° F., to which the 
marine chronometers are submitted, has been decided upon after 
careful consideration as being amply sufficient for determining 
the behaviour of chronometers under conditions to which they 
are usually exposed at sea, and no serious objections have yet 
been received from makers or others to the adoption of the above 
range. 



Table I. 
Uksults ok Watch Trials. Performance of 26 Watches which obtained the highest number of Marks during the year. 









Mean 


>> 


o 


Difference of mean daily 
rate. 




Mark 


- awarded for 










'cs 




























daily 






£• 


= ;= 


a 


5 


§ = 




ii 


, 






Number 




rate. 


o 




g 


*^ -X? 




a 


^ d 


o 


£|5 


s 

c 


Total 


Watch deposited by 


of 
Watch. 


Balance Spring, Escapement, &c. 


+ Gain- 
ing. 


C3 


o 

SO 

P 


§.§" 




d — 


le . 




p 


si 


3 = " 


Marks. 
0—100. 








— Los- 


•C-H 


£ 


R "~ 


- S 


- = 


T. c 


c - x 


3 


°s 


Is .2 










ing. 


k 


'o 




- - 


£ a 


9 'S 


? .5 


> 


S5? 


£ 55 


















pq - 


I 1 


I* 


Ei - 
fee 
goo 


1? 
P u 


r. 1 

5° 












sees. 


sees. 


Sees. 


- ■ S. 


sees. 


sees. 


SrC-. 


SUUS. 










Jos. White, Coventry 


2999!) 


Single oven-oil, *d.r., c g.b 


+0-4 


0-4 


0-03 


-0'5 


+ 1-3 


+ 06 


+ 0-4 


4-5 


32-7 


37-7 


17 7 


88-1 


Baume A Co.. Loudon 


264iif 


Single overcoil, d.r„ g.b 


+ 2-4 


0'5 


0-02 


—1-5 


-2-1 


-2-6 


—1-8 


4-25 


30-0 


36-2 


18-9 


85-1 


W. Holland, Rockferry 


3503 


Single overcoil, d.r., fusee 


+ 33 


0'6 


0003 


—0-2 


—1-1 


+ 0-5 


+ 2-8 


5-25 


27-1 


36-2 


19-8 


831 


StaufEer & Co., London 


120 ISO 


Single overcoil, d.r.. g.b., bar-lever 


+ 3'8 


0'4 


0-04 


4-0-8 


—4-5 


—1-1 


—1-1 


6-25 


31-4 


34-3 


17-2 


82-9 


Donne & Son, London 


1545 


Duo-in-TJno, d.r., resting barrel 


—1-1 


06 


003 


-01 


+ 0-6 


+ 2-0 


—0-5 


5-0 


27-9 


37-0 


17-8 


827 


D. Buckuey, London 


30191 


Single overcoil, d.r., fusee 


+ 0-8 


05 


0-02 


—08 


+ 3-9 


+ 2-7 


+ 3-7 


675 


30-4 


33-1 


18-9 


82-4 


Baume & Co., London 


2528 


Single overcoil, d r., g.b., bar-lever 


+ 34 


0-4 


o-io 


—1-3 


—1-3 


—0-8 


+ 1-8 


65 


31-5 


37-4 


13-2 


82-1 


Stauft'er & Co., Loudon 


123174 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b., bar-lever 


+ 1-9 


0-7 


0-03 


+ 0-1 


—1-6 


+ 08 


—0-8 


5-25 


26-8 


37-2 


17-9 


81-9 


Stauft'er & Co , London 


111353 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b 


+ 1-5 


0'5 


0-H3 


-4-7 


—1-3 


+ 0-2 


+ 3-0 


8-5 


29-0 


34-6 


18-0 


81-6 


Stauffer & Co., London 


122288 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b 


+ 09 


0-6 


0'06 


4-2-3 


+ 2-7 


+ 0-7 


—0-8 


4-5 


28-7 


36-6 


16 3 


81-6 


Stauft'er & Co , London 


1 14351 


Single overcoil, dr., g.b 


+ 2-4 


0-4 


0-05 


+ 24 


—2-8 


+ 39 


+ 0-7 


8-25 


32-9 


31-4 


17-0 


81-3 


Banme & Co., London 


2529 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b., bar-lever 


+ 4-3 


05 


0-06 


—0-2 


—3-5 


— 1-7 


-0-4 


675 


29-8 


354 


16-0 


81-2 


J as. White, Coventry 


29026 


Single overcoil, s.?\, g.b 


-0-9 


0-6 


0-06 


+ 0-6 


—1-3 


—2-8 


—1-4 


6-0 


28-6 


36-2 


163 


811 


Jas. White, Coventry 


29024 


Single overcoil, s.r.. g.b 


+ 0-4 


0-6 


0-02 


—4-7 


—0-4 


—1-4 


+ 3-6 


8-5 


27-5 


35-0 


185 


81-0 


StaufEer & Co., London 


123173 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b., bar-lever 


+ 1-9 


0-5 


0-04 


—1-7 


—3-0 


-5-3 


+ 1-9 


7-75 


30-9 


330 


17-1 


81-0 


Stauffer & Co., London 


122289 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b 


+ 36 


0-6 


0u3 


+ 4-1 


+ 1-5 


—0-3 


—1-4 


7-75 


28-8 


34-1 


18-0 


80-9 


Usher & Cole, London 


25738 


Flat spring, s.r., g.b 


+ 0-5 


0-7 


0-03 


—1-5 


—29 


—08 


+ 1-6 


6-75 


26-5 


363 


18-0 


80-8 


R. Crook, London 


899 


Single overcoil, s.r., g.b 


—2-3 


0-6 


0-04 


-0-8 


+ 2-3 


—30 


+ 0-1 


7-25 


28-4 


34-8 


17-6 


808 


Baume & Co., London 


2530 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b., bar-lever 


+ 1-5 


0-4 


0-10 


+ 1-4 


+ 1-0 


+ 3-8 


--2-5 


70 


31-8 


35-4 


13-5 


80-7 


Stauffer & Co., London 


123158 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b., bar-lever 


—4-8 


0-4 


009 


—0-4 


+ 0-4 


+ 3-1 


—1-0 


8-0 


312 


35-5 


14-0 


807 


Stauft'er & Co., London 


120184 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b., bar-lever 


—10 


■0-5 


0-05 


+ 0-8 


—2-0 


—37 


—1-2 


6-0 


29-6 


34-3 


16-7 


80-6 


A. V. Roger, Guernsey 


123172 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b 


— 0'5 


0-6 


001 


+ 1-0 


•— 07 


—34 


—4-6 


80 


28-5 


330 


191 


80-6 


J. Player, Coventry 


24619 


Single overcoil, dr., g.b 


+ 57 


0-6 


0-08 


+ 01 


—0-7 


-o-i 


—0-8 


5-75 


27-1 


38-6 


14-7 


80-4 


H. Golay, London 


14776 


Double overcoil, d.r., g.b 


+ 3-0 


0-4 


0-05 


+ 0-5 


— 4'6 


+ 22 


—2-5 


7'5 


32-0 


31-8 


16-5 


80-3 


A. E. Fridlander, Coventry ... 


52465 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b 


+ 2-8 


04 


0-09 


+ 1-2 


—2-1 


—2-2 


—0-2 


5-75 


310 


34-5 


14-6 


801 


Stauffer & Co., London 


120S42 


Single overcoil, d.r., g.b., bar-lever. 


+ 1-6 


0-5 


0-08 


+ 4-0 


+ 1-3 


+ 1-9 


—0-6 


6-5 


30-8 


34-9 


14-4 


80-1 



d.r., double-roller ; s.r., single rolle ■ ; g.b., going-barrsl. 



t Split seconds chronograph without minute-recorder. 



January 2, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



105 



Table II. 
Highest Records obtained by Complicated Watches during the year. 



Description of Watch. 


Number. 


Deposited by 


Marks awarded for 


Total 
marks, 
0—100. 


Varia- 
tion. 


Position. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


^Minute and seconds chronograph and repeater ... 


14768 
14750 




32-1 

27-7 


34-2 
33-3 


10-7 
11-3 


77-0 
72-3 






Perpetual calendar and repeater 


01922 
14759 


S Smith & Son, London 


26-1 
2 8 '3 


'34-2 
35-5 


16-7 
10-7 


77-0 
74-5 




H. Golay, London 




Split-seconds and minute-recorder chronograph 


9S18 
07369 




26-6 
28-8 


34-5 
30-2 


17-6 

14-7 


787 
73-7 


H. Golav, London 




Split- seconds chronograph (without minute dial) 


2646 


Banme Sc Co., London 


30-0 


36-2 


18-9 


85-1 




Ordinary minute and seconds chronograph 


2427 

123820 

2426 




27-6 

27-8 
28-0 


35-8 
32-4 
33-2 


16-4 
16-9 
15-5 


79-8 
77-1 
767 




StaufEer & Co., ., 










31578 
14752 


H. Capt, Geneva 


30 
26-8 


343 
33-9 


14-2 
13-8 


78-5 
74-5 









ithe Legenb of the Koh-i-3Sfoor. 



SN a recent article of mine which lately appeared in ' this 
JJL journal, a reference was made to the oft-repeated tale of the 
manner in which Runjit Singh' got the Koh-i-Noor from 
Shah Shoojah. Since writing that article I have found that 
there is no truth in the story, and I write this as a correction. 
The usual relation is, that after Runjit Singh had exhausted all 
his wiles to make Shall Shoojah deliver the diamond, he resorted 
to an interview, and taking advantage of the Oriental obligations 
of ceremonial customs, suddenly proposed, at the end of the 
interview, an interchange of puggerees or turbans, as a mark 
of friendship. This, according to the story, the Shah could not 
refuse, and the Koh-i-Noor was in' the puggeree. In Cunning- 
ham's History of the Sikhs, p. 154-5, the action is very briefly 
told : — that Runjit used every effort to cause Shah Shoojah to 
deliver up the gem — sums of money were offered and refused. 
At last the Sikh monarch paid a visit to the Shah, and after 
mutual declarations of friendship, and the promise of a jaghire, 
or landed estate, with a rental of 50,000 rupees, or £5,000 a 
year — 100,000 rupees had been demanded — the diamond was 
given up. The promise was never carried out. From another 
source I learn that it is understood that a document was drawn 
up, giving the terms of the negotiation. This was in 1813 or 
1814, and it is confirmed by what took place in 1832. Shah 
Shoojah was anxious at that date to make an effort to regain 
his throne. He applied to Runjit Singh for assistance in men 
and money ; for which he offered a number of advantages, among 
which was an offer of acquittance for the Koh-i-Noor diamond. 
History of the Sikhs, p. 201. Another evidence may be referred 
to which would in itself throw a doubt upon the matter, even if 
we had not the reliable data which has just been given. It is 
this: the very same story is told as the stratagem by which 
Nadir Shah got the Koh-i-Noor from the Delhi emperor on his 
famous raid into India. This is not likely to. be true. From 
what we know of Nadir, he would not have performed such a 
roundabout trick ; his plan would have been to have ordered 
the emperor's nose and ears to be cut off ; if that failed, the 
eyes would be gouged out ; and, finally, the order to cut off the 
head would have been given. That was the kind of diplomacy 
he was accustomed to. I take this story to be an old legend, 
and would not be surprised now to find it coming down to us 
associated with the history of any celebrated gem in India. 

William Simpson. 



Che Leuer "£scapement 

CONSIDERED WITH REGARD TO ITS FORM, INERTIA. 
FRICTION, &C. 

By M. L.-A. Grosclaude, Professor at the Geneva School 
of Horology. 

(Translated from the French.) 
( Continued from page 91.) 



fHIS shape is shown in fig. 5 ; but workmen will be but 
little disposed to accept such an inconvenient form. On 
the other hand, if we are only willing to adopt such forms 
as can be easily executed, we find that we cannot entirely satisfy 
the requirements of theory, and we must only seek to approach it 
as nearly as possible. 

In figs. 8, 9 and 10, for the club-tooth escapement, three 
different designs are represented, which have their advantages 
and their drawbacks. Thus, in fig. 8, where the inclines of the 
pallet and tooth are convex, the advantage of having at the 
commencement of the impulse a slow movement of the wheel is 
counterbalanced by the considerable acceleration which takes 
place at the finish, producing a drop with a relatively violent 
shock. In figs. 9 and 10, where one only of the inclines is 
convex, this disadvantage is the same, though in a lesser degree. 
The concave inclines are so bad for club-tooth escapements that 
we abandon them here entirely. They might be made use of for 
the escapement with ratchet teeth (fig. 7), but the fault of the 
tooth striking the incline at a distance from the locking corner 
would be still greater than in the case before spoken of. The 
convex form (fig. 6) would be certainly preferable; but it should 
not be forgotten that with it the speed of the wheel is increased 
at the moment the tooth leaves the incline. 

To sum up. excepting the half-convex- and half-concave form 
from the club-toothed escapement, we do not see any advantage 
to be gained by departing from the right lined incline such as is 
generally adopted. But, among all those that may be traced in 
the club-toothed escapement, we have before selected a broken line, 
a, e, d, a' e' d ; (fig. 3, page 75, reproduced at a and a', tigs. 13 
and 14). It now remains to justify our choice. 

If the incline of the pallet is steep (fig. 11), and if that of the 
tooth is little, or vice versa (fig. 12), the depart will be good, but 
the drop will be strong. It is necessary then to approximate to 
the right line ; we say approximate, because the perfectly right 
line itself would be imperfect. In fact, for greased or oiled 
surfaces the resistance to the sliding is greatly increased when 



P-l 

6 

gq 

►> 



S3 




£> 






03 



CO 

tip 






Co 








Vv< 







. \rf\ 



^ 



* 

i* 

■s 



Si 



V 




L 



5 



3>< 



si 




January 2, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



107 



the surfaces are touching one another ; the two inclines should 
be arranged at such an angle that the surfaces do not come into 
complete contact with one another. 

The line a, e, d is, therefore, bent to a small angle in order to 
conform to the preceding arguments. 

At a, b, c, d (fig. 13), and at a', b', c', d' (fig. 14), are 
represented four different positions of the entrance and exit 
pallets respectively. The lift is effected by, in the first place, the 
point of the tooth sliding along the incline of the pallet, and then 
by the heel of the pallet sliding along the incline of the tooth. 
The same thing takes place for the exit lift. We think this 
arrangement preferable to that which would make the point of 
the pallet slide (fig. 12) at first upon the incline of the tooth, and 
then the heel of the latter act upon the incline of the pallet. 

We do not expect our selection will please every watchmaker, 
because other conditions that have escaped us may perhaps cause 
another arrangement to be preferred; but it will be acknowledged 
at least that our method for drawing the escapement has the 
advantage of allowing everyone to choose, as regards the relation 
between the inclines, their forms and directions without, by 
changing the point of departure that shall have been chosen, 
knowing the drop, the angle of lift, and the locking. It remains 
now to study the effect of friction, which constitutes, like inertia, 
one of the most important points for consideration. 

(To be continued.) 



IThe Cheory of Adjustment. 

By M. L. Lossier. 

After the Memoir of M. Jules Grossmann. — From the Journal 

Suisse D'Horlogerie. 



FIRST ARTICLE.— Introduction. 

^Igj^OR some considerable time the adjustment of watches and 
JEP chronometers has been a long and patient search for the 
best conditions to secure the good performance of these 
instruments — a pure matter of groping in the dark — among the 
greater part of those engaged in it who depend on the data of 
experience, valuable without doubt, but not generally depending 
on any rational consideration. It is only since the works of 
Phillips — that is, since a mathematician and engineer of the 
greatest eminence, ceasing to see in horology a special and 
distinct art, essayed to apply to it the principles of rational 
mechanics — that the adjustment has really become a scientific 
study ; and it is since that time that we have seen born and grow, 
year by year, the marvellous results that our Observatory trials 
verify. 

It is even in the same spirit that the following work has been 
written. The adjustment is related to the precise and clearly 
defined principles of mathematical mechanics, and if all the points 
of detail have not yet been submitted to analysis, it may almost 
be affirmed that the springers and timers should give place to 
scientists, and that the time is not far off when it will be possible 
to adjust a watch almost to the extreme limits without having 
seen it go. 

This assertion may appear rash to many horologists, and yet, 
when a constructor makes a locomotive he is able to say in 
advance, and before the least grain of coal has been burnt in the 
furnace, the speed his machine will have ; when an engineer 
erects an iron bridge, he knows beforehand the exact amount of 
flexion of each fibre under the weight of a train — he has calculated 
the precise effort that each rivet will have to support. It is with 
machines as with the large constructions — all the forces in play, 
all the functions have been, from the beginning, submitted to a 
hard mathematical dissection which, calculating all, leaves 
nothing to chance. Why has it not been the same in horology ? 
Let us leave to others the care of answering this question and 
prove only that it was in applying, purely and simply, mechanics 
to horology — in adapting to the balance spring the laws of 
elasticity and the formula? he had found for the springs- of 
railways — that Phillips was conducted to his admirable works. 



The director of the school of horology of Locle, Mr. Jules 
Grossmann, following this fertile course, gave, in a series of articles 
published in the Deutsche Uhrmacher und Zeitung (1882-83), 
a supplement to the theory of Phillips, extending it to the 
particular cases that present themselves in watchmaking, studying 
the influence of various disturbing causes, notably of frictions, of 
the curb pins, of the escapement, &c, and precising the. 
differences that exist between the cylindrical and flat springs. 
Unfortunately these studies, like the rest of Phillips's memoir, 
require, in order to be understood, a knowledge of mathematics 
inaccessible to watchmakers. And if, as I have above said, I 
think that mathematical mechanics should be understood by 
watchmakers, it is convenient meanwhile to amplify nothing and 
to reduce this study to a suitable limit ; that is, to that winch a 
young man of medium intelligence can learn in a professional or 
industrial school. 

It is this which has induced me to essay to translate Mr. 
Grossmann's memoir, not precisely into vernacular language, 
but into language accessible to anyone who has followed an 
elementary course of algebra and mechanics. I have kept as 
much as possible to the lines followed by Mr. Grossmann, so 
that the better part of his arguments are translated literally ; 
but the task I have undertaken of eliminating too difficult 
demonstration has rendered it necessary to transform entirely 
certain parts. I do not claim to have improved upon the 
author in anything, but am only forced to leave out the greater 
number from a work whose incontestable utility is only accessible 
to the privileged few. 

To facilitate the reading of these pages to those who cannot 
readily call to mind the elementary principles of mechanics, I 
have added notes wherever the knowledge of rules or formulas is 
necessary for the comprehension of the principal text. 

Besides, as certain demonstrations essentially algebraical will 
appear perhaps a little difficult to some persons to read, these 
will appear printed in smaller characters in order that they may 
be, at a first reading, left on one side. 

It will be understood meanwhile, from what has been said 
above, why I have not thought fit to take away from this work 
its character of mathematical study. Mathematics are the 
language of theoretical mechanics — a language admirable in 
clearness and precision (a simple little formula often saving more 
than ten pages of explanations) ; and to form the theory of 
horology without mathematics is, to my mind, as difficult as to 
make a watch with neither file nor graver. 

Nevertheless, I have wished to take into account also, to a 
certain extent, the wants of practical watchmakers of the old 
school, who, being content with the results obtained, have n«ither 
the time nor the desire to follow the long developments from 
which these results proceed ; it is, then, for their sake that I 
have condensed the general conclusions of Phillips, Grossmann, 
and others, in a resume which will terminate this work and 
which will be completely exempt from formula?. 

L. Lossier, 
Directeur de VEcole d'Horlogerie de Besancon. 

Note. — The units of measure adopted in this memoir are : 
the millimetre, the gramme, and the second. 

Angles are always represented in the formula? by the 
Greek letters, «, /3, y, &c, and should be measured — unless 
special indication — in length of arc, the radius being taken 
of unit ; the unit of angle will be then 7r = -i- circumference, 
and all the angles will be figures in multiples of t. 

g indicates the acceleration due to gravity = 9808 mm , 8. 

The mass m of a body is the weight p of the body divided 
by 9 ■— P . 



General Notions. 



CHAPTER I. 

Laws of the Balance and Balance 

Spring. 

The Pendulum— .Although it is the adjustment-of -watches that 
is specially treated of here, that is to say, the study of the 
spring and the balance, we lay the first bases of this study by 



io6 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[January 2, 1888. 



treating on the movement of a pendulum, because the demon- 
stration of the formulas respecting the latter are easier to 
establish and more evident. We shall see presently that these 
formulas are easily applied to the movement of the balance spring. 
The simple pendulum consists of a heavy weight without 
magnitude, suspended from a fixed point by means of a fillet 
without weight. 

When the heavy point is moved from the vertical . it returns, 
under the effect of gravity, with an accelerated speed to the 
neuter point ; then, by the speed acquired, it passes farther, 
ascending with a retarded speed ; and so on. 

The movement from one extremity to the other of the course 
of the pendulum is called an oscillation. 

Let us find on what factors the duration of an oscillation 
depends. For that it is necessary at first to seek a formula 
which allows us to calculate the speed at different points of its 
course ; and that is very simple in taking into account the laws 
of falling bodies. 

In effect we know that the pendulum descending from H to 
B (fig 1) will reach this point with the speed it would have 
acquired in falling from the vertical height h B ; its speed will 
be then* : — 




2 g x h B. 

The length h B being un- 
determined, may be expressed by I, 
the length of the pendulum, and 
a, the space traversed, by recalling 
the fact that a chord is the mean 
proportional between the diameter 
and its projection upon this dia- 
meter (Geomtery, Andre, Book 
III., 241). Assuming the oscil- 
be very small, and 
chord for the arc, we 



lations to 
taking the 
lave : 

h B : 

rom whence 



2 / 



h B = 



a 2 

■1 I 



nd 



/ 



= •> 



9 x 



2 / 



*J^[ 



It is also quite easy to determine the speed of any point D at 
a distance y from the point B. 

Assuming the height h d = h B — d B, and replacing h B 

2 y 2 

by its value _ — and d B by [ , which we had found by the 
same reasoning, we have : — 



h d 



— y 



2 I 



-/ 



r 2 ). 



and, for the speed of the pendulum at D, 

l v 

The speed neither being uniform, nor uniformly varied, we are 
not able to deduce directly by elementary algebra, from the 
expression of the speed, the time occupied by the mobile in 
descending from H to B ; but can ascertain it indirectly by 
comparing the movement of a pendulum to that of a ruby pin 
whose plan of rotation is that of the figure. 

* When a mobile A, start- 
ing from a point //, descends 
the length of an inclined 
plane HD, its speed, on 
arriving at the lowest point 
D is the same as if it had 
descended vertically from the 
same height HO, that is to say 




V 2g xH 0. 



It is found indeed that, if we turn upon a circumference 
(fig. 2) having the length H B = a. for radius, a mobile D 



travelling with a speed V 



-y* 



the projection of its 



movement upon the right line HBH 1 will follow strictly the 
movement of the pendulum. 

We find thus very easily the time occupied by the pendulum in 
making one oscillation, since it is the same as that taken by the 
mobile of comparison in making a half turn. 

The time T will be : 




T _ space traversed 

speed u I g 



T = « J 



To prove the similitude of the two movements : (1) Describe, 
with a. for radius, a half circumference (fig. 2) traversed by a 
mobile D having a speed V, and ascertain what will be the speed 
of the projection of the mobile D, at a point d, at a distance y 
from the centre B. 

While the mobile goes from D to D\ its projection will 
traverse d d' — D P. 

The arc D D' being taken very small, identifies itself with its 
chord, and we have two similar rectangular triangles D D 1 P 
and D B d, in which 



D /' 



D d 



D B 



= J 



from whence, calling the speed of the projection 
V == / « s — y 



(The speeds are between them as the 
distances travelled over.) 



and, replacing V by its value a I JL 



or v 



J 



-(« 2 _ ,y2) 



This is the speed of the projection of D upon the line B H 
at a distance y from B, and is also the speed of a pendulum 
at a distance y from its neuter point ; then, the two movements 
are identical. 

(To be continued.) 



American 3tems. 



W T is difficult to understand in these days of easy communica- 
S tion, says the Waterbury, when manufacturers can as readily 
send forth travellers and canvassers as can the jobbers, why 
the maker and the seller do not come into direct contact, The 
retailer is the direct support of the manufacturer, and he should 
enjoy all the advantages there are to be had. If the goods can 
be sold a few cents cheaper to the jobber, then why is not the 
retailer entitled to these few cents ? 



January 2, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



109 



The two following paragraphs will interest some of our 
Lancashire readers : — 

The Jewelry News (New York) says : According to one 
of our English exchanges, the project of starting a watch factory 
at Prescot, Lancashire, is heing vigorously pushed, and from 
appearances, with every hope of success. As the East India 
British Possessions contain a population of 250,000,000 souls, a 
protective tariff might secure to the English watch industry a 
profitable market. It is hoping too much, however, that a 
success of the enterprise lies in the near future. 



The Jeweler's Weekly (New York) says : At last the Rip 
Van Winkles of the English watch trade have awaked from 
their long sleep. They are busily engaged rubbing the cobwebs 
of prejudice from their senile eyes, and like the luckless hero of 
Washington Irving's legend, are amazed at the changes which 
have taken place since they gave themselves up to the drowsy 
god of conservatism. And what an awakening it is ! Par- 
liament, the nobility, capitalists and tradesmen, all combine to 
support the ancient industry in its commendable efforts at 
rejuvenation. With such co-operation, the factory to be estab- 
lished at Prespot on the American plan has every prospect of 
ultimate success. Columbia looks on approvingly meanwhile. 
If she can be of any assistance to the old gentleman across 
the water let him say the word. And that reminds us that she 
was three-and-a-half generations old last sky-rocket day. 



The Herald cup, won by the sloop yaclrj;,, " Volunteer " at 
Marblehead, is now completed, and has lately been on 
private exhibition at the showroom of Bigelow, Kennard 
& Co., the makers. It is a massive punch bowl with three 
heavy silver handles, the whole supported by three large and 
handsomely carved silver legs. Upon one side is a shield 
inscribed " The Boston Herald Cup," while the reverse bears 
another shield inscribed : "Won by the ' Volunteer,' Charles J. 
Paine, owner, Marblehead, August 11, 1887." The whole is of 
oxidised silver, lined with gold, and is the largest and most 
elaborate piece of this kind ever made in Boston. It will shortly 
be placed on public exhibition. 

From Canadian exchanges we learn that the Toronto retail 
jewellers and watchmakers are highly indignant at the competition 
they have discovered in a new and unexpected quarter. The 
leading stationers are engaging hands to run a watch repairing 
department in connection with the stationery business. In 
consequence it is expected that the watch repairing business will 
become stationary. . . . The Canadian Custom authorities 
have seized smuggled jewellery to the amount of 6,000 dols. 



Anniversary Dinner of the Horological Club. 



MjWHE Eighth Annual Anniversary of the Horological Club was 
Y*§ > celebrated by a dinner at the Horological Institute, 
Northampton Square, last month. The chair was rilled 
by Mr. D. Glasgow, treasurer of the club, and the vice-chair 
by Mr. C. Dunn. Among the numerous company assembled 
were Messrs. D. Buckney, T. Mercer, V. Kallberg, W. 
Barnsdale, L. Donne-Donne, jun., W. Evans, A. Jaccard, 
J. Oliver, T. J. Willis, T. Willis, jun., F. Willis, T. Buggins- 
Buggins, jun., C. Curzon, W. G. Schoof, W. Bromley, H. Bickley, 
hon. sec, &c. 

The Chairman, in proposing " Success to the Horological 
Club," remarked on the great pleasure he had derived from his 
connection with it. He always looked forward to the meetings 
of the club as a great source of enjoyment, and undoubtedly 
some of the pleasantest hours of his life had been the Friday 
evenings spent in that room. The club had done much to 
promote good fellowship among the various members of the 
trade. He hoped it would long flourish and give to future 
members as much pleasure and enjoyment as it had given to him. 

Mr. Buckney, in responding, said that he was proud to be a 



member of the club, and only wished he could attend oftener. 
He would like to see a better attendance at their ordinary 
meetings. Everything was done to make members feel at home, 
and they hardly knew how much they lost by being absent, 
especially on musical nights. 

The Chairman next gave " The Charitable Institutions of 
the Trade ;" and in doing so, observed that the long and terrible 
depression under which the trades of Clerkenwell had suffered 
had told on its charitable institutions in a double sense, inasmuch 
as while the applicants for relief had been more, the income of 
the charities had necessarily been less. It behoved them all to 
do something, however small, to help those who could no 
longer help themselves, and in this spirit the committee had 
placed a box (given by their good friend and member, Mr. Pitkin) 
on the club table for small contributions in aid of the Clock and 
Watchmakers' Pension Society. The sum obtained might not 
be much, but it would, at any rate, be an earnest of their good 
intentions. 

Mr. Barnsdale, past chairman of the Clock and Watch- 
makers' Asylum, returned thanks. 

The Vice-Chairman, in proposing " The Health of the 
Committee," spoke in appreciative terms of the valuable work 
done by those gentlemen. 

Mr. Willis, in reply, said that if the committee continued to 
pull together as they had hitherto done, they were bound to 
succeed. 

The Chairman next gave "The Health of the Honorary 
Secretary." This, he said, was a toast that needed but few 
words, or, for that matter, no words at all, to ensure its hearty 
reception. They all knew with what earnestness their honorary 
secretary had applied himself to the duties of his office from the 
first. His untiring exertions in the service of the club were 
worthy of all praise ; he not only grasped its aims and purpose, 
but entered with the most self-denying labour into the smallest 
detail connected with its working. He (the Chairman) felt 
himself restrained by the presence of their honorary secretary 
from saying all that he would wish, but he would ask them to 
join heartily in drinking to Mr. Bickley's good health, and, if it 
were not too selfish a wish, in hoping that he might long remain 
their honorary secretary. 

Mr. Bickley, in returning thanks, said he was glad to find 
that "time did not wither nor custom stale" the spontaneous 
expression of their good wishes towards him. Their club 
embodied a principle that had always been dear to the people of 
this country, namely, the principle of social intercourse and 
good-fellowship. It would be impossible to say how much the 
history and progress of this country in art, science, literature and 
politics was indebted to the happy custom of men meeting 
together and exchanging ideas in a social and friendly way. 
Considering that this custom prevailed in all ranks ami 
professions, it would indeed be strange if watchmakers stood 
alone in ignoring its pleasures and advantages. He thought 
they might congratulate themselves on the eight years' work 
of the club. There had, of course, been changes in its personnel, 
that was inevitable — and they would be glad of more members ; 
but they were financially sound ; and with a better attendance on 
ordinary meeting nights, there would be nothing to complain of. 
In again thanking them, he hoped they might meet together for 
many years to come. 

"The Health of the Chairman" was proposed, in eulogistic 
terms, by Mr. L. Donne. The watch trade, he said, was much 
indebted to Mr. Glasgow for the manner in which he had always 
upheld its interests. The Horological Institute especially owed 
him a deep debt of gratitude for the time he had given to its 
affairs. The erection of the building they were then in was in 
no small measure due to his exertions. 

The Chairman in response said that he should always look 
back to the time he had spent in connection with the Horological 
Institute and the Horological Club as the most useful of his life. 
Mr. Bickley, in giving the toast of " The Musical Director 
and Horological Glee Party," said they had to regret the absence 
of their esteemed musical director, Mr. Knight, and read a letter 
from that gentleman excusing his absence. In speaking to the 



110 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[January 2, 1888. 



toast, Mr. Bickley alluded to the monthly musical meetings of 
the club as one of its most attractive features. For himself he 
hardly knew of a pleasanter way of spending an evening than in 
listening to good music in familiar company. He had heard 
visitors to the club speak in the highest terms of the musical 
entertainment, and for this result they had chiefly to thank 
Mr. Knight and his able coadjutors, the Horological Glee 
Party. 

Mr. C. R. Coppendale returned thanks. He was sorry 
Mr. Knight was not present to participate in the thanks so 
warmly given. He knew that he took a great deal of trouble 
to make the musical evenings successful, and that their appre- 
ciation would form his highest reward. Speaking for the 
Horological Glee Party, he could assure them they were delighted 
to give their services, and hoped to be able to make them still 
more acceptable. 

Among the remaining toasts were " The Vice-Chairman," — to 
which Mr. Dunn, in reply, urged upon the members to be more 
regular and early in their attendance, — " The Visitors," and 
" The Ladies." 

The concerted music, given by the Horological Glee Party, 
added much to the pleasure of the evening, as did also the solos 
of Messrs. E. Bennee, Coppendale, Stevens and Willis. Mr. 
A. 65. Bennett ably presided at the pianoforte. 



"Workshop Jftemoranba. 



Che Dresben Collection. 



fHE Historical Museum of Dresden contains among its 
treasures a very extensive miscellaneous accumulation of 
articles in precious stones, which are the progeny of a 
period extending from the close of the 16th to the beginning of 
the 18th centuries. It was begun in the reign of Duke George 
(about 1539); but the Elector Augustus (1553 — 1586) was the 
first to deposit this accumulating wealth of art treasures in the 
apartments of the Saxon royal palace called the "green vaults." 
These rooms, eight in number, preserve one of the most unique 
collections of precious things found in Europe. These orna- 
mented tilings comprise military weapons and defensive armour 
belonging to the Saxon Kings: cups, vases, goblets, snuff-boxes, 
spoons, knives, cane-heads, drinking horns, fruits, musicians, 
harlequins, dancers, peddlers, dwarfs, animals, and various other 
objects all more or less decorated with precious stones and 
pearls. 

From this bewildering mass one can select specimens which 
afford interesting and curious studies illustrating the skill, 
ingenuity and patience of the artist, and, sometimes, beauty in 
design. Here is seen a fireplace decorated with pearls and different 
species of precious stones ; a monument constructed of corals, 
enamels and gems ; a grotto of misshapen pearls ; an oak cabinet 
covered with amber mosaics ; portraits of the popes and emperors 
cut in gems ; a mirror of rock crystal ; a ball, 22^ inches in cir- 
cumference, of the same kind of stone ; and a crystal beer-pot, 
embellished with jewels and camei', valued at 5,000 dols. Court 
dresses, royal trinkets, orders, decorations, chains, badges or 
favours, all loaded with gems, show the barbaric splendour of the 
Saxon court. This museum contains a large onyx, measuring 6-| 
by 4^ inches, set in a gold crown, adorned with emeralds, diamonds 
and pearls. One of the productions of Dinglinger — jeweller to 
Augustus the Strong, whose skill won for him the title of the 
" German Cellini " — represents the Mogul Emperor of India, 
seated on his "Peacock Throne," surrounded by numerous courtiers 
and ambassadors paying homage to the great potentate, all exe- 
cuted in gold, enamel and precious stones. This royal toy cost 
the artist eight years of labour, and the Prince for whom it 
was made paid 58,485 thalers, or more than 40,000 dols. There 
are more than 400 different objects made of ivory, embellished 
with gems and enamel, and 200 portraits engraved on gems. 
The diamonds are numerous, one ornament alone, for a lady's 
hair ? comprising 62 of these gems, 



To Clean Pearls. — Soak them in hot water in which bran 
has been boiled with a little salts of tartar and alum, rubbing 
gently between the hands when the water will admit of it. When 
the water is cold, renew the operation until the discoloration is 
removed ; rinse in lukewarm water and lay the pearls in white 
paper in a dark place to cool and dry. 

The following is a liquid which will dissolve silver — without 
attacking copper, brass or German silver — from silvered objects, 
plated ware, &c. It is a mixture of one part of nitric acid with 
six parts sulphuric, heated in a water bath to 160° Fahr., at 
which temperature it operates best. 



A very good poising tool can be made by adapting to an end 
of an ordinary depthing tool two new centres of steel wire — about 
a half-inch of the inner end of each of which is filed away 
somewhat beyond the diametrical line. Harden and polish these 
ends, and they will present, when properly fastened in the tool by 
the set screw, a very nice sharp angle on which to poise the 
balance. The adjustment for the length of the staff is, of course, 
made by the screw which opens the tool. 



Soldering. — To repair a ring, the shank of which requires 
soldering, bury the head in a crucible full of wet sand, place a 
small piece of charcoal against one side, coat the break, previously 
cleaned by filing or scraping, with borax, and charge with solder ; 
blow a flame against the ring and charcoal until the solder runs 
in. For articles which require to be protected against discolour- 
ing in the process of soldering, coat them with a mixture of burnt 
yellow ochre and borax, adding a little dissolved gum tragacanth 
to make it lay all over ; allow it to dry, then charge with borax 
and solder and heat sufficiently. Boil out in weak pickle made 
of nitric or sulphuric acid. One important point is to wash the 
piece well in hot water with a little ammonia in it before attempt- 
ing any repairs ; this removes all dirt and grease, which, if 
burned on, cannot be removed. If the article be of coloured gold, 
boil out in pickle made of muriatic acid, and never coat with any 
protecting mixture. The solder must vary in regard to fusibility 
according to the quality of the article. For repairing most filled 
work, very easily melted solder is required, which may be made of 

1 ounce of fine silver, 10 pennyweights hard brass wire, adding 

2 pennyweights zinc just before pouring ; or, to make it more 
fusible, use bar tin instead of zinc ; or, for stronger silver solder, 
use only the silver and brass For repairing most bright gold 
work, use gold coin, 3 pennyweights ; fine silver, 3 pennyweights; 
fine copper, 2 pennyweights. For coloured work : fine gold, 1 
pennyweight; silver, 17 grains; copper, 12 grains; hard brass 
wire, 2 grains. A good solder for repairing spectacles or other 
steel work is made by melting together equal parts of silver and 
copper. In soldering steel, plenty of borax should be used. 



iBazette. 



Partnerships Dissolved. 

Crouch & Clemence, Poultry, goldsmiths. Thompson & Vine, Aldersgate 
Street, watch manufacturers. A. & T. Lashmore, Oswestry, jewellers. 
Pearson & Forrester, Birmingham, electro-platers. Nathan & Davis, 
Birmingham, manufacturing jewellers. 



THE BANKRUPTCY ACT, 1883. 

Receiving Orders. 

To surrender in London— Jane Bache, Wilmington Square, jeweller. 

J. Otto Schuler, Hatton Garden, goldsmith. 
To surrender in the Country.— Samson Manoah Ayers, Dewsbury, watch- 
maker. Francis James Tyers, Birmingham, late jeweller. Thomas 
Turner, Whitby, jet ornament manufacturer. 
Public Examinations. 
In London. — Jane Bache, Wilmington Square, jeweller ; January 18, at 
11.30. (J. Warwick, Poland Street, Oxford Street ; January 24, at 12,30. 



January 2, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



Ill 



In the Country, — W. Dyer, Birmingham, jeweller; January 6, at 2. 
H. Harris (trading as Henry Harris & Co.), Birmingham, jewellers' 
factor ; January 9, at 2. S. M. Ayers, Dewsbury, watchmaker ; 
January 17, at 11. 

Adjudications. 

In London. — W. Jardine, (trading as Jardine & Co.), Great Winchester 

Street, diamond merchant. Jane Bache, Wilmington Square, jeweller. 

J. 0. Schuler, Hatton Garden, goldsmith. 
In the Country.— S. Bradley (trading as John Payne), Birmingham and 

Blackpool, jeweller. S. M. Ayers, Dewsbury, watchmaker. J. H. 

Hunt, Birmingham, electro-plate manufacturer. 

Notices of Dividends. 

In London. — H. J. Van Dieren, High Holborn and Brighton, jeweller, 4Jd., 
first and final ; January, F. G. Clark, Brighton. 

In the Country. — C. W. Hurt '(trading as Hurt & Son), Birmingham, 
watchmaker. Is. Id., first and final ;- December 15, or any subsequent 
Thursday, Fisher & Randle, Birmingham. T. Marson (trading as 
T. Marson & Co.), Birmingham, jeweller, first ; December 28, 25, 
Colmore Row, Birmingham. A. Wilcox, Birmingham, manufacturing 
jeweller, 13s., first ; September 8, 120, Colmore Row, Birmingham. 
J. Lee, Manchester, l£d., second and final ; Decebmer 21, J. Eckersley, 
Manchester. W. Snook, Southsea, watchmaker, 6d., first anS final ; 
December 30, 1KB, Queen Street, Portsea. E. Welbourn, Ilkley, 
jeweller, Is. 6|d., first and final ; Dec. 28, Official Receiver, Wakefield. 



APPLICATIONS FOR LETTERS PATENT. 



The following List of Patents has been compiled especially for The Watchmaker, 
Jeweller and Silversmith, by Messrs. W. P. Thompson & Boult, Patent Agents, 
of 323, High Holborn. London, W.C.; Newcastle Chambers, Angel Bow, Notting- 
ham ; and 6, Lord Street, Liverpool. 

16,008. G. D. MacDougald, Dundee, for " Improvements in apparatus 
for the driving and controlling of clocks." Dated November 27, 
1887. 

16,027. C. E. Tripler, London, for" Improvement for amalgamating and 
separating precious metals from powdered ore or earth." (Com- 
plete specification.) Dated November 22, 1887. 

16,051. M. V. B. Ethridge, H. E. Waite and J. Swann, London, for 
" Improvements in timepieces." Dated November 22, 1887. 

16,074 W. Jeannot, London, for " Improvements in chronographs or stop 
watches." Dated November 22, 1887. 

16,079. T. James, London, for ''A time indicator." Dated November 23, 
1887. 

16,126. J. Friedberger, C. Hammer, F. F. Mack, A. Bucher, and M. 
Haderer, London, for "An Improved safety fastening or brooch." 
Dated November 23, 1887. 

16,138. F. V. Hawley, London, for " Prevention of watches being stolen, 
viz.: the patent automatic swivel." Dated November 21, 1887. 

16,183. J. B. Spence, London, for " Improvements in the treatment of 
ores containing gold for the purpose of extracting the gold there- 
from." Dated November 24, 1887. 

16,192. P. J. Ogle, London, for " An improved arrangement of the 
amalgamated plates employed in the treatment of gold ores, in 
supports for the same, and in apparatus connected therewith." 
Dated November 24, 1887. 

16,270. H. Hutchinson, London, for " Improvements in the treatment of 
refractory gold and silver ores." Dated November 26, 1887. 

16,313. W. S. Leete, London, for " Securing the bows of keyless watches." 
Dated November 28, 1887. 

16,333. A. B. O'Connor and G. W. Butterfield, London, for "A 
mechanical appliance adjustable forelocks, watches, locks, rail- 
way switches, electric lights, gas lights, and other machinery 
requiring regular periodic application of power for adjustment." 
Dated November 28, 1887. 

16,401. T. B. Sharp, Staffordshire, for " Improvements in attaching 
stones, jewels or ornaments to finger rings and other rings." 
Dated November 29, 1887. 

16,414. P. H. Lawrence and F. L. Turner, London, for " Improvements 
in or relating to centre seconds stop watches." Dated November 
29, 1887. 

16,468. W. H. Lord, Birmingham, for " Improvements in watch chains." 
(Complete specification.) Dated November 30, 1887. 

16,503. M. Myers and J. Lowe, Birmingham, for " Improvements in com- 
bined spring clips and hooks or devices for holding watches, 
jewellery and other articles and descriptive tickets of the same." 
Dated December 1, 1887. 

16,518. R. F. Dorendorff, London, for "A bracelet, garter and napkin 
ring cord." Dated December 1, 1887. 

16,553. A. Schanschieff and D. Marks, London, for " Improvements in 
extracting gold, silver and other metals from their ores and alloys." 
Dated December 1, 1887. 

16,564. W. Leuchars, London, for "Improvements in bracelets, girdles or 
bangles." Dated December 2, 1887. 

16,611. E. De Pars, a communication from Kuhn andTieche, Switzerland, 
for "Improvements in keyless watches." Dated December 2, 1887. 

16,639. E. L. Downing, London, for " Improvements in joints and catches 
for the pins of brooches, shawl pins and the like." Dated 
December 3, 1887. 

16,838. J. Kendal, London, for " Improvements in watch keys for 
winding any size watch." Dated December 7, 1887. 

16,926. T. Fenwick, London, for " Improvements in the electro-deposition 
of metals." Dated December 8, 1887, 



17,033. A. Parkes, London, for "Improvements in the extraction of gold 
and silver from ores or compounds containing the same, and in 
solvents for such metals." Dated December 10, 1887. 

17 037 W. Robinson, London, for "Improvements in ingot moulds." 
Dated December 10, 1887. 

17 129. H. East and F. Llewellyn Turner, Birmingham, for "Improve- 
ments in securing watch-bows to the pendants of keyless and 
other watches." Dated December 13, 1887. 

17,316. H. Aitken, Glasgow, for " Improvements in treating ores con- 
taining gold and other metals." Dated December 16, 1887. 



Hecent American Patents. 



Buttons, Machine for making Collar. G. Krementz 

Button or Stud. G. E. Adams 

Button, Spring Cuff. E. K. Haynes 

Button, Stud, Locket or other article of Jewellery. L. B. Byrne 

Casting Steel Wheels, Metal Mould for. W. Sellers 

Chain Hook, Watch. H. M. Herring 

Chuck, Lathe. C. R. Mead 

Clock. W. D. Chase 

Clock, Calendar. J. A. Shimp 

Clock Dial. A. Staubitz 

Clock, Pendulum. H. O. Deuss 

Clock Striking Mechanism. Ethridge & Waite 

Clocks, Chiming Apparatus for. J.Harrington 

Cuff Holder. H. C. Frank 

Eyeglasses. C. H. Farley 373,349- 

Jewel Case. Valfer & Weil 

Metal, Device for Clamping Sheets of. S. McCarter 

Metal Shears. W. J. Bavrer 372,784- 

Micrometer Gauge. J. P. B. Wells 

Screw Cutting Machine. T. B. Smith 

Screw Cutting Tool. J. C. Williams 

Screw Tap. L. D. Castle 

Sheet Metal Shearing Machine. C. Wais 

Spectacles. C. B. Bishop 

Spectacle Temple. W. J. Suttie 

Spectacle Temple. R. Bradley, Jun. 

Steel, Welding. W. B. Middleton 

Thermometer, Recording. W. F. Brewster 

Watch Case. E. C. Chappatte 

Watch Case. E. C. Chappatte 

Watch Case. E. Heffernan 

Watch Case. W. K. Kennedy 

Watch Case. C. F. Morrill 

Watch Pendant. W. S. Richardson 

A printed copy of the specifications and drawing of any patent 
in the American list, also of any American patent issued since 
1866, will be furnished from this office for 2s. 6d. In ordering, 
please state the number and date of the patent required, and 
remit to J. Truslove, Office of The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 
Silversmith, 7, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 



372,683 
373,041 
373,401 
373,514 
372,336 
372,675 
372,4K2 
373,441 
372,575 
372,642 
373,727 
373,771 
372,849 
373,556 

-373.350 
372,345 
373,672 

-372,785 
373,705 
372,434 
372,504 
373,270 
373,038 
372,954 
372,437 
373,006 
372,696 
373,719 
373,011 
373,723 
373,364 
372,540 
372,558 
372,868 



Horresponbence. 



All Letters for Publication to be addressed to the Editor of The 
Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith, 7, St. Paul's Church- 
yard, E.C. 

Ail communications must bear the name and address of the sender, not 
necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 



To the Editor of The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 
Silversmith. 

Sir, — Can any of your readers tell me whether I must take 
out a license to go round the country to sell jewellery, &c, and 
to get work ? 

" Country Watchmaker." 



Answers to Correspondents. 



Sir, — Your correspondent, Anxious, asks for an explanation 
" of the best method of extracting broken cylinder plugs from 
very small cylinders." 

The best way to extract plugs from any sized cylinders is to 
punch them out on a riveting stake — which should not be made 
of hardened steel but of brass — the holes of which stake should 
be broached with a taper broach from the under side ; and the 
holes should not be chamfered from the top side (a chamfered 



112 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[January 2, 1888. 



hole might be used to start the plug, but that is not necessary if 
the cylinder is placed over the hole in the stake). The punch 
used should be in the shape of a crank ; the point or pivot of the 
crank to be very short and the' crank of sufficient length and 
divergence from the centre to be free of the body of the cylinder 
and the boss of the balance when the punch is used to remove 
the bottom plug of the cylinder. 

One would think that any person who could work in a cylinder 
might, with very little thought and trouble, invent ami make such 
a tool (the shape is so obvious and the trouble so little) and thus 
help themselves, without having recourse to the German tool 
makers for every trifle required by the watch jobber, even to the 
making of a drill. 

If beginners and apprentices would spend a little of their 
spare time in thinking out and making small tools and appliances 
for various purposes, they would help themselves out of many 
difficulties, and save a wonderful amount of the time they lose 
in evoking others to help them. -«y tt 



Buyers' $ui6e. 



The Sheffield Smelting" Company, Sheffield, Srtl Gold and Silver 
(pure and alloyed). Buy all materials containing Gold and Silver. 

Jones, E. A., Wholesale Manufacturer of Whitby Jet Ornaments. A 
Large Assortment of the Newest Patterns always in Stock. Export 
Orders promptly executed. Persons not having an account open 
will avoid delay by forwarding a reference with their order. 
Customers' Matchings and Repairs with despatch. 93, Hatton Garden, 
London, E.C. 

W. Scott Hayward & Co., 59, Deansgate. and Barton Arcade, 
Manchester. Wholesale Jet Ornament Manufacturers, Jet Cameo 
Cutters and Rough Jet Merchants. Approval parcels sent on receipt 
of order, if accompanied with trade references. Repairs and matchings 
executed on the day received. Works : Manchester and Whitby. 
Agents at Liverpool, Leipzig and Paris. 



For cheap, quick, reliable Watch and Jewellery Repairs, 
by the most Experienced Workmen, send to Alexander Edwards, 
Watch Material and Tool Dealer, 88 & 89, Craven Street, and 2, Holy- 
head Road, Coventry. Lists : all Horological Literature. 

WANTED. 
TTALY.— A FIRST - RATE MERCANTILE FIRM, 

JL travelling regularly over the whole peninsula — Sicily. Malta and 
Tunis — with large experience and extensive connections in the Jewellery, 
Watch and Clock line, is open to enter into correspondence with some 
Important Manufacturer for the Sale of their Goods in the above 
quarters. References of the highest standing. — Please address, A. A., 
110, Naples. — [Advt.] 

TO BE SOLD. 

WATCHMAKER'S, JEWELLER'S and SILVER- 
SMITH'S BUSINESS.— Established over 100 years in good 
Agricultural and Training Districts. Stock moderate, and can be 
reduced. — For particulars, apply to Mrs. J. Staniland, Malton, Yorks. 
[Advt.] 

WATCH MANUFACTURING BUSINESS, for sale 
of Superior Goods only ; established 35 years, with good Jobbing 
Trade attached, extending over England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. 
Incoming can be reduced to Two or Three Hundred Pounds, chiefly or 
quite covered by goods, comprising movements, material, tools, &c. 
Owner no objection to remain two or three years to part work at 
finishing or assist in any wayrequired. Age only reason for wishing to 
decline business. — Address Manufacturer, Office of this Journal.— 
[Advt.] 

WATCHMAKER'S and JEWELLER'S BUSINESS 
for sale, situated in the centre of a good manufacturing town. 
Stock. Fixtures and Fittings, about £500. — Apply. \\\. Office of this 
Journal, 7, St. Paul's Churchyard, London. — [Advt.] 

IT10R SALE, at once, WATCHMAKER'S BUSINESS 
_T in capital position, doing splendid trade; genuine good opportunity 
rarely to be met with ; death cause of selling. All particulars given. 
W. Dawson, Bridge Street, Bradford. — [Advt.] 




fIDakers ano 3mporters of all lunos of 

WATCHES, JEWELRY, 



AND 



WATCHES, 



GOODS SUITABLE FOR 
THE TRADE. 



GENTS' SILYER *• 

* ENGLISH LEVERS, 

Going Barrel, 35s. 6d.; Fusee, 38s. 6d. 



<< LADIES' SWISS, t> 



English Hall-marked, lis. 3d 
Metal Domes, 9s. 



JEvcvy kino of H'(flatcb 
tn Stock. 





Brooches, 

Earrings, Bracelets, 

Bangles, Lockets, Necklets 

flings, Studs, Links, &c, in all 

LATEST STYLES & EVERY MATERIAL 

Old Gold & Silver bought or taken in exchange. 

HALL-MARKED S/LTER rESTA BOXES, CIGARETTE <3- CARD 

CASES. FRUli &■ BUTTER KNIVES, NAPKIN RINGS, SALT 

SPOONS, &■(., drc. MEDALS, /or all Sports, JOS. per dozen. 

(pencils, Uootbpichs, Hbarms, Ubimblcs an» all IWovclties as tbcv> issue 



ILLUSTRATED PRICE-LISTS FREE ON APPLICATION. 

TICKETS, CARDS, HOOKS, JEWELRY CASES, CARD BOXES, TISSUE PAPER, 5s. Ream; and WOOL, specially 
prepared for resisting tarnish— White, 1s. 8d r , 2s. 6d.; Pink, 3s. 6d. and 4s. 6d. per lb. 



cme 






Edited by D. GLASGOW, Jun. 



Entered at Stationers' Hall."] 



[Registered for Transmission Abroad. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 8.] 



FEBRUARY 1, 1888. 



[" Subscription, 5s. ( Post 
per Annum. ( Free. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Editorial 113 

General Notes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ••• 114 

Trade Notes 115 

The Merchandise Marks Act and the Jewellery Trade 115 

Further Facilities for the Insurance of Watches and Jewellery ... 11 & 

Birmingham News ... ... ... .. ••■ 116 

The Demagnetising of Watches... ... ... 117 

Exhibition of Japanese Art ... ... 117 

American Items ... ... ... 118 

The Theory of Adjustment. By M. L. Lossier. (Illustrated) ... 118 

The Lever Escapement. By M. L.-A. Grosclaude 120 

A Simple Watch. By Bill Nye 121 

To Our Young Friends 122 

Silver Ware Manufacture in the United States 123 

Workshop Memoranda 124 

Gazette 125 

Applications for Letters Patent ... 125 

Recent American Patents ... ... ... 125 

Correspondence — 

Important Regulations with regard to the Hall-marking of Swiss 

Watches. (Illustrated ) 

Buyers' Guide ... ... ... 



125 

126 



(The Tilatchmaher, jeweller an& 
Siluersmith. 



A Monthly Journal devoted to the interests of Watchmakers. 
_ Jewellers, Silversmiths and kindred traders. 

Subscription. — A copy of the Journal will be sent monthly for one 
year, post free, to any address in the United Kingdom or countries in the 
Postal Union for 5s. payable in advance. 

Advertisements. — The rates for advertising will be sent on appli- 
cation. The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith will be found 
an exceptional medium for advertising. Special Notices, Situations, &c, 
per insertion, is. for two lines, prepaid. 

Correspondence. — Correspondence is invited on all matters of interest 
to the trade. Correspondents will please give their full address in each 
communication, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of 
good faith. 

Address all business communications to 

THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & SILVERSMITH, 

7, ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD, 

LONDON, E.C. 

Cheques and Postal Orders to be crossed and made payable to J. TRUSLOVE. 



Agent for the Australian Colonies : 

EVAN JONES, 
Hunter Street and Royal Arcade, Sydney, N.S.W. 



Editorial. 




Y the kindness of Mr. Walter S. Prideaux, Clerk to 
the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, we are 
enabled to give on another page the full text of the 
new regulations of the Swiss Federal Council affecting the Hall- 
marking of Swiss watches intended for the English market. 

While the choice of English or Swiss marks in the cases is 
still arbitrary, the promptitude with which their government have 
accepted the challenge tacitly embodied in what may be termed 
the watchmaking clauses of the Merchandise Marks Act, affords 
a clear proof, if any were wanting, of the determination of Swiss 
manufacturers to trade honestly on their merits. 

Should the great majority of makers, as is not unlikely, elect 
to adopt the latter marks, a good opportunity will be afforded 
for testing the estimation in which the productions of the two 
countries are, respectively, to be held in the home and (shortly, 
it is to be hoped) colonial markets. Tlie much talked of " two- 
edged sword " will then have an opportunity to develop its back- 
cutting properties. As it is, English makers are just now very 
confident of being able to hold their own in fair competition 
with all comers, and the new rules referred to (which a careful 
consideration of will show are very precise) should do much to 
promote a good understanding among the trade, as they are 
calculated by the removal of vexatious anomalies to beneficially 
affect honest traders. 

As we have before said (in previous remarks upon the subject 
of Hall-marking) the Swiss Government assay is quite as severe 
a test as those of our own Halls, and it was only required (in 
order that the mark should be an equally reliable guarantee of 
the quality of the case) that a rule be introduced such as that 
comprised in the second decree which makes obligatory the 
assaying of the case as a whole. 



On another page will be found the report of the first case 
directly affecting jewellers heard under the Merchandise Marks 
Act. As the decision arrived at is likely to be of great importance 
to the trade, we recommend a careful perusal of the stipendiary's 
judgment. Pending an appeal being taken, however, we shall 
reserve our comments on the subject. 



114 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[February 1, 1888. 



$eneral Notes. 



WIjWHE Queen's Jubilee presents have been removed from 
y^- Windsor Castle to the Bethnal Green Museum, where 
they will be on view until further notice, for the benefit of 
residents at the East End. 



The annual dinner of the Foreign Watch and Clockmakers' 
Society took place on January 7 at the Holborn Restaurant. 
The report which was submitted by the Secretary showed the 
Society to be in a flourishing condition, there being 112 members 
on the books, and the balance sheet showing a total j)rofit for 
the year of over £98. 

The Director of the United States Mint has estimated the 
values of the standard coins of the various nations of the world, 
to be proclaimed by the Secretary of the Treasury on January 1. 
The valuation of the silver coins has been reckoned according to 
the price of silver in London during the three months ending 
December 24. Accordingly the value of the Mexican silver 
dollar is 75-9 to 79 cents. 



The methods of production of jewellery work at Pforzheim, in 
Baden, says Scientific News, are very similar to those in the 
United States, except that the German has the advantage of 
being provided with a very excellent technical school, or Gewerbe 
schule, in which children intended for employment in the jewellery 
shops receive a thorough theoretical training long before they see 
the inside of a factory. Instruction here is practically free, the 
manufacturers paying about 8*. a year for the pupils whom they 
intend to employ. 

A remarkable instance of close adjustment for temperature 
compensation has just come under our notice in a watch sprung 
by Mr. J. F. Cole. The watch, which is a minute chronograph 
by Mr. C. H. Golay, has gained an "A" certificate with a total 
of 81 "7 marks ; the mean change of daily rate for 1° Fahr. was 
0*002 seconds, and the number of marks awarded for temperature 
compensation is 19 - 9 out of a possible 20. The total number 
of marks would have been much greater but for its partial failure 
in one of the "quarter" positions. 



M. de Freycinet (Comptes Rendus) proposes the following 
New Units of Length, &c, in place of those of the metric 
system ; the unit of length is the length of the velocity acquired 
at the end of a second of mean time by a body falling freely in a 
vacuum at Paris. This unit will be ■ 98 metre. The unit of 
volume is a cube of which the side is -^^ of the unit of length. 
The unit of mass is the mass of water at 4 ■ 1°C. contained in the 
unit of volume. The unit of weight is the weight of the unit of 
mass. The unit of force = the unit of weight. 



The Council of the Manchester Technical School have 
recently purchased a valuable collection of apparatus, of German 
manufacture, illustrative of the principles of mechanism, and of 
sound, light, and chemistry in their technical applications. They 
have also made arrangements for a course of twelve lectures on 
" Chemical Engineering," to be delivered by Mr. G. E. Davis, 
late Government Inspector of Alkali Works. This school enjoys 
considerable prosperity, and is at present attended by 2,304 
students, as compared with 2,136 at this time last year. 



An electrically-wound clock has been patented by Mr. W. J. 
Barnsdale, of Brunswick Place, City Road. According to this 
invention electrical contact points or springs are placed with 
relation to the centre wheel, and a corresponding pin wheel 
driven thereby or acting in unison therewith. The winding is 
effected by means of the revolving armature of an electro-motor, 
which acts upon suitable wheel trains in connection with the 
mechanism, but sifch motor is only actuated when the circuits 
are completed through the contact points, and ceases to act so 
soon as such circuit is broken. 



A Company called the Platinum Plating Co. (Limited) has 
been formed to buy up the patent rights of this form of electro- 
plating and to carry out the process in the British Empire (Canada 
excepted). The capital is £60,000, in 59,100 ordinary and 900 
founders' shares, and the former are now offered to the public. 

An improvement in the manufacture of aluminum is the 
subject of a patent of Mr. Edward Cleavers, of Stockwell, Surrey. 
This is effected by baking alumina and dissolving it in sulphuric 
acid. The sulphate of alumina thus obtained is mixed with 
finely-divided carbon, which when dry is heated out of contact 
with air, thereby causing a reduction of the alumina salt. The 
material so obtained is mixed with iron in a divided state, and 
the temperature raised sufficiently to melt the metal, when an 
alloy of aluminum and iron is obtained. 



The Rev. Harry Mitchell, in the Prescot Parish Magazine, 
says : — One subject now uppermost in the minds of many of you 
is, I know, the proposed watch factory. It is a matter of life or 
death to the staple trade of Prescot; for, owing to the rapid 
introduction of new methods in the manufacture of watches, we 
must either accommodate ourselves to the change, and take the 
lead in England, or see the whole of the present trade gradually 
drift away to more enterprising centres. The sudden death of 
Mr. W. L. Evans was a crushing blow to the company. He had 
just been appointed its chairman, with Mr. Pilkington, of The 
Hazels, and Mr. Willie, of Halsnead, as directors ; and, had he 
lived, I have little doubt but that by this time we might have 
been getting ready to lay the foundation stone of the factory. 
We have not yet succeeded in finding another chairman, and 
nothing more can be done until a report shall have been made to 
the Company by two gentlemen who have been commissioned to 
make full inquiry into the conditions of the trade both at home 
and abroad. 



The Society for Promoting Industrial Villages is circulating 
in printed form Mr. Cookworthy Robins's important lecture on 
the depreciation of landed property, and its ultimate recovery. 
The report of the discussion thereon is appended, and accom- 
panied by a special New Year's appeal to those who may feel 
disposed to eo-operate in the movement. The Council believe 
that favourable opportunities now exist for the establishment of 
village industries side by side with agricultural operations ; and 
they invite assistance by granting the use of drawing-rooms for 
private meetings, with a view to form Village Branches or 
Ladies' Auxiliaries, and by keeping the Society informed of 
opportunities for action. The writing and compiling of practical 
handbooks on simple inexpensive village industries is also con- 
sidered a valuable aid. Among these the Council class candying 
and preserving fruits, bee-keeping, poultry and rabbit farming ; 
culture of fruits, tomatoes, and fine vegetables ; flax growing, 
spinning and hand-loom weaving, rope-net and twine making, 
lace, glove and embroidery making, straw and shaving plaiting, 
basket and chair making and mending, small metal embossing, 
working, and wire-net making. The Hon. Secretary of the 
Society is Mr. G. J. Knight, 32, Craven Street. 



The Diamond Market. — The Amsterdam market is just 
waking up after the holidays, during which hardly any business 
was done, and only Russian and Polish buyers were on hand to 
take advantage of the low state of the market. Factories are 
again fully going. 

At Paris, merchants are inclined to speculate for stock, but at 
present are offering impossible prices. 

The steamers " Athenian," " Grantully Castle,". " Trojan," 
" Norham Castle " and " Mexican " arrived since our last report, 
and although quotations have been somewhat higher, a good deal 
of business has been done at normal prices owing to the large 
quantity of stuff in the London market. 

From Kimberley latest advices report a very active market and 
Companies' parcels in good demand. The news from home good, 
the shipments realising a profit of from two to three per cent. 

Silver. — Bars 44^d. per oz. 



February 1, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER ANT) SILVERSMITH. 



115 



Cra6e Wotee. 



|T the recent Apprentices' Exhibition at the People's Palace, 
Mile End, two of the apprentices of Messrs. Botwright 
& Grey, of 13, Spencer Street, E.C., were awarded 
medals for excellence of workmanship. 

Messrs. C. Westwood & Sons, of Hall Street, Birmingham, 
inform us that they are now making the small punches for 
marking watch cases with the word SWISS, as required by the 
recent Act of Parliament. 



Mr. T. P. Hewitt and a commercial expert sailed for 
America on the 14th ultimo, with a view to obtain information 
on which to frame a prospectus for the proposed Prescot Watch 
Company. 

A new set of chimes, for performances of Wagner's 
"Parsifal," has been manufactured by Mr. John Harrington, of 
Coventry. Madame Wagner has pronounced them entirely 
satisfactory, and they will, according to the Athenceum, be used 
at the performances in July and August next. 



Mr. E. Barnard, of Cirencester, has patented an opsiometer. 
He describes it as an instrument whereby lenses, fixed at a normal 
reading distance from printed matter, shall, by means of a disc, 
cylinder, or other means, be made to revolve before both eyes of 
a person who looks through two eye openings (shaped something 
like an opera-glass), who thus readily ascertains the power of 
lens required in selecting a pair of spectacles, &c. 



" The Merchandise Marks Act, 1887, together with the Orders 
in Council in Regard to the Marking of Foreign Watch Cases," 
is the title of a pamphlet issued by Mr. George I). Ham. It 
contains the full text of the recent Act, with the Customs regula- 
tions in regard to the importation of goods bearing trade or 
descriptive marks, with notes by the author. It is published by 
Effingham Wilson, 11, Royal Exchange Buildings, E.C. 

Under the failure of Jacob Otto Schuler, of 12, Hatton 
Garden, goldsmith, accounts have been furnished, accompanied 
by the official receiver's observations. The aggregate liabilities 
are put down at £44,837, of which £33,420 are expected to 
rank, and assets estimated at £5,690. The debtor states that 
he commenced business in partnership with another person in 
January, 1874 ; that his partner retired about the end of 1875, and 
the debtor continued the business, having a capital of about £1,600 
at the time. He further states that in 1881 he became part 
proprietor of the Spitzkop Gold Mine in the Transvaal, and that 
since 1885 he has received therefrom and paid into the business 
about "£10,000. He attributes his failure to bad debts and a 
large falling off in his trade since the beginning of 1887. The 
official receiver observes that the books of accounts appear to 
have been well and properly kept and balanced. The debtor has 
been adjudged bankrupt. 

Although a simple means for demagnetising watches has long 
been a desideratum in the trade, and, as exposing such, the 
article we publish in this issue is a very valuable contribution to 
what is known on the subject, seeing that almost every watch in 
use is liable at some time or other to be affected, still it is 
obviously beginning at the wrong end to aim only at curing what 
can be prevented. The increasing dangers to watches accruing 
from the extensive employment of dynamos and electrical appli- 
ances of all kinds in the manufactures, has of late very seriously 
exercised both wearers and makers. It is therefore with satis- 
faction we call attention to the new advertisement, appearing on 
another page, of Messrs. Baume & Co.'s anti-magnetic Longines 
watches. The reputation of the ordinary Longines lever is so 
well established that anything we could say with regard to it is 
rendered unnecessary. The addition of the non-magnetic parts 
will doubtless cause these watches to become still more popular 
with the trade, - - : 



It has been frequently found that complicated watches having 
numerous steel parts in action become magnetised, and this, in 
the case of repeaters, has undoubtedly originated in the per- 
cussion of the hammers on the gongs. With a view to obviate 
this source of error, Mr. H. Golay, of 46, Myddelton Square, 
E.C, has introduced a gong composed of a new non-magnetisable 
alloy. The new gong has all the properties of the steel ones, 
having a rich, mellow tone, and, besides, has the advantages of 
neither rusting nor tarnishing. 

If the past year of Jubilee was disappointing in its results to 
many manufacturers, it is quite certain that our turret clock 
makers cannot be included in the category. The old-established 
firm of W. F. Evans & Sons, of Handsworth, near Birmingham, 
were exceptionally fortunate, and, among many other orders com- 
pleted during the year, sent out large Jubilee clocks to Yorkshire, 
Lancashire, Gloucestershire and London ; large chime clocks to 
Liverpool and Freemantle town halls ; and, as instancing the 
general prosperity of the trade, this firm finished fifty lever 
escapement clocks during the last quarter of the year for South 
America, in one order. 



Che Merchandise Tftarhs Act an& the 
Jewellery Crabe. 



fjp?HE first case under the above Act affecting jewellers was 
l^i heard at Birmingham on the 5th ult., when Mr. Alfred 
Peel, a jeweller, was summoned for having, as alleged, 
falsely described a quantity of silver goods supplied to Mr. Albert 
Heymann, of the firm of Messrs. Sachs & Co., Birmingham and 
Berlin. The goods were invoiced as " 800 in 1,000," meaning 
that in every 1,000 parts there were 800 parts of silver. The 
complainant had the goods assayed, with the result that the 
highest point reached amongst the various articles was 746 in 
the 1,000. The defendant pleaded that he ordered the goods to 
be made of 800 silver, and when he invoiced them believed them 
to be as described. After hearing arguments from both sides, 
the stipendiary, Mr. Kynnersley, reserved judgment for a week. 



On Tuesday, 10th ult., the stipendiary magistrate gave his 
decision in the above case. 

The judgment was given in writing, and was as follows : — 
" Section 2 of the Act states (1) that ' Every person who (a) 
applies any false trade description to goods ' shall be subject to 
the provisions of this Act, and unless he proves that he acted 
without intent to defraud, be guilty of an offence against this 
Act. (2) Every person who sells any goods or things to which 
a false trade description is applied shall, unless he proves (b) 
that on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecution, he gave 
all the information in his power with respect to the persons from 
whom he obtained the goods or things ; or (c) that otherwise he 
had acted innocently — be guilty of an offence against the Act.' 
By Section 3 the expression 'trade description ' means any 
description, statement, or other indication, direct or indirect; 
(a) ' as to the material of which any goods are composed, and 
the use of any figures, word, or mark, which, according to the 
custom of the trade, is commonly taken to be an indication of 
any of the above matters, shall be deemed to be a trade descrip- 
tion within the meaning of the Act.' The expression ' false 
trade description ' means a trade description which is false in a 
material respect as regards the goods to which it is applied, and 
includes every alteration of a trade description, whether by way 
of addition, effacement, or otherwise, where that alteration makes 
the description false in a material respect. By Section 5 a person 
shall be deemed to apply a trade description who (a) uses it in 
any manner calculated to lead to the belief that the goods in 
connection with which it is used, are designated by that trade 
description. A trade description shall be deemed to be applied 
whether it is woven, impressed, or otherwise worked into or 
annexed or affixed to the goods, or to any covering, label, reel, 
|or other thing." After briefly recapitulating the facts of the 



116 



THE WATCHMAKEE, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[February 1, 1888. 



case, as given above, the stipendiary proceeded to say: — "The 
questions that arise are (1) Did the defendant apply a false 
trade description by sending with the goods in the way mentioned 
the invoice which described the goods as ' 800-1 ,000 silver ? ' 
(2) Was it a trade description ? (3) Was it a false trade 
description ? I am of opinion that a false trade description was 
applied. The invoice was applied to the goods or covering, and 
was used in a manner calculated to lead to the belief that the 
goods were designated by the trade description mentioned in the 
invoice. I find as a fact '800-1,000' was a trade description 
well understood in the jewellery trade. I also find that it was 
false in a 'material respect' as regards the quality of the goods 
to which it was applied. The defendant not having proved that 
he acted without intent to defraud — in fact, he admitted he 
knew of the false description as to quality — I must, therefore, 
convict him of applying the false trade description ; and, not 
having proved that he acted innocently, I must convict him of 
unlawfully selling the goods. As this is the first prosecution 
under the Act in Birmingham, I shall impose a nominal fine of 
20s. in each case, and shall be glad to grant a case for the 
opinion of the High Court." 

Mr. Hugo Young : What about the summons for December 14? 
I have heard nothing about that case. 

Mr. Barradale (magistrates' clerk) : I understand Mr. Kyn- 
nersley that that is dismissed. 

Mr. Hugo Young said that the defendant would certainly 
appeal. On consideration he thought that the Quarter Sessions 
would be the best tribunal to deal with the case. 

Mr. Alfred Young applied for costs for the complainant. 

Mr. Hugo Young objected, remarking that two summonses 
had been withdrawn and another had been dismissed. The 
defendant had been willing to meet all the cases on their merits. 

Mr. Barradale said that the last case was clearly investigated. 

The Stipendiary allowed the complainant four guineas costs, 
and said that if he heard from Mr. Hugo Young within a week 
he would grant an appeal. 



Further Facilities for the 3nsurance of 
UJatches an6 Jewellery. 



Mjf HE Postmaster-General has issued the following notice : — 
|^| With the view of affording further facilities for the trans- 
mission by Registered Letter Post of watches, jewellery, 
and other small articles of value, the fee of Id. for the Insurance 
up to £5 of a Registered Letter will, on and after the 15th 
instant, be discontinued. 

Thenceforward, except in the case of Letters containing coin, 
compensation for loss or damage to an amount not exceeding £5 
will be given without payment of any Insurance Fee, provided 
that the Registration Fee of 2d. and the Postage at the ordinary 
Inland rate have been prepaid. In the case of letters containing 
coin, compensation will still be given up to £2. 

Thus, without payment of an Insurance Fee, compensation up 
to an amount not exceeding £5 
Registered Letter. 

The average weight of a watch-packet is from 4 to 6 ozs., 
and that of a packet containing jewellery is probably somewhat 
less. The charge for such packets will therefore be as follows : — 

I Postage - - - - l^d. 
\ Registration Fee - - 2d. 



If the weight do not exceed 2 ozs. 



will be given in respect of a 



If the weight do not exceed 4 ozs.- 



If the weight do not exceed ozs.- 



f Postage - - - 
1 Registration Fee - 



Postage- - - - 
Registration Fee - 



2d. 
2d. 

4d. 

2d. 
4ld. 



When a Registered Letter is posted a certificate of posting is 
always given, and when it is delivered a receipt is always taken. 

The arrangement under which for a fee of 2d. compensation 
will be given for loss or damage to an amount not exceeding £10 
will continue, and, except as altered by this Notice, the existing 
rules as to compensation for loss and damage of Registered 
Letters will remain in force. 

The public are reminded that to secure compensation for 
damage, Registered Letters must be securely packed, and the 
words " Fragile, with Care " must appear on the cover in bold 
and legible characters. These words should, when possible, be 
inserted above the address. " Inland Parcel Post — Watches and 
Jewellery." 

In view of the foregoing regulations, all Packets containing 
Watches or Jewellery should be sent by the Registered Letter 
Post, and after the 15th instant the Insurance of such articles 
by Parcel Post will cease, and compensation in respect thereof 
will thenceforth in no case be paid. 



Birmingham News, 

From Our Correspondent. 



And so on, at the rate of Id. for every additional 2 ozs, 



^MANUFACTURERS in the fancy trades generally report 
.~ii^ a very quiet trade during January ; the new year has 
not opened with a "grand flourish of trumpets" as it 
did last year, when the prospects of the Jubilee caused a con- 
siderable stir of a speculative character, but we are all hoping 
that there will be a much firmer tone, taking the year through, 
than there was last, as some of the staple trades are picking up 
nicely- * * * 

The New Merchandise Marks Act is of course a much 
discussed subject ; the recent litigation between two Birmingham 
houses having brought it before the public in a rather forcible 
manner, some manufacturers declaring " that if the recent 
decision is confirmed they may as well shut up, as it is impos- 
sible to make work without solder ; " others thinking that the 
Act will be productive of great good and impart a better tone to 
the jewellery trade. There is no doubt that at present it is 
causing a considerable stir in the trade as to the probability of 
some fancy trade marks holding good, and no doubt that there is 
a certain amount of holding back orders in consequence ; and yet 
in the face of all this there are a number of manufacturers who 
will not take the trouble to read the Act, and in point of fact 
quite ignore it, and excuse themselves as I heard one the other day, 
by saying, " We do not represent goods to be what they are not, 
and therefore it does not apply to us." But it appears to me 
that the great question is, of what does a misrepresentation 
consist ? I dont think the lawyers quite settled it the other 
week — at any rate not to the satisfaction of the practical jeweller. 

# # *• 

One of the oldest, and at one time one of the largest manufacturing 
jewellers, (Messrs. J. & W. Randall, Vittoria Street, Birmingham) 
have, during the last month, finally withdrawn from the trade. 
The fixtures, dies, tools, &c. have been sold by auction, and the 
business premises are in the market and are vacant. As the 
premises are one of the largest in the trade there will be difficulty 
in disposing of them as a whole, and they will no doubt be 
eventually divided up as the best way of utilising them. I think 
as a rule, that such extensive buildings for the jewellery trade is 
a mistake, as the jeweller is, or should be, an artist, and it is 
practically impossible to carry on a huge business that will occupy 
premises on such an imposing scale. There are a few instances 
of jewellers — so called — occupying premises containing 200 
workmen or thereabouts ; but they are scarcely jewellers proper, 
making as they do a variety of fancy articles which would better 
come under the head of light brass foundry. 

* # # 

There are still a number of jewellers working short time, 
while on the other hand there are a few that are pushed for work, 
and are adding to their number of hands, 



February 1, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER ANT) SILVERSMITH. 



117 



Che Demagnetising of Thatches. 

SN an interesting article on the above subject in Scientific 
M, News, the writer states that it is only when a watch 
becomes magnetised as a whole that harm is done. 
Several different methods of demagnetisation have been devised, 
but none of them is so certain as the separate demagnetisation of 
each part. In carrying out this remedy, there are two conditions 
of neutrality, both of which can rarely be attained. The one is 
to make the part under treatment unable to pick up the smallest 
iron filing, and the other is to leave it so that it will not affect a 
compass-needle more than a piece of soft iron, which would feebly 
attract either pole. It is as a rule better to aim at the first of 
these conditions, unless, which is not likely, it should, when almost 
perfect in this respect, exert considerable influence on the compass. 
The easiest method of demagnetising the separate pieces is, 
after carefully examining how it is magnetised, both by the 
compass and by iron filings, to oppose its magnetism by bringing 
an ordinary horseshoe magnet near it. A large magnet held at 
a few inches distance is better than actually stroking the part 
with a magnetised sewing needle, as the magnetisation of the 
latter is more liable to be altered than that of a large magnet. 
In some complicated parts, such as a compensated balance, it is 
necessary to use a needle. Balances have been constructed by 
M. Paillard of two different alloys of palladium having different 
expansive qualities. Phosphor bronze is used for levers, and 
might be used in conjunction with platinum for balances. 

The balance is the most important part, for a watch provided 
with a non-magnetisable balance, though having spring, lever, 
regulator arm and escape wheel of steel, will keep fairly good time 
after having been subjected to the influence of a powerful magnet, 
although it has been temporarily stopped while in the magnetic field. 
To test a piece, such as a lever, with a compass, it is sufficient 
to offer first one end and then the other to the needle, holding it 
at right angles and at a fixed distance. The needle should be 
attracted by either end, but should it be magnetised, one end will 
attract the needle, and the other end repel it, or only attract it feebly. 
Sometimes the magnetism is destroyed by heating each part 
to dull redness, and re-tempering and polishing. Such a method 
cannot be recommended, as it not only involves considerably 
more labour, but is likely to do more harm to the watch than a 
little residual magnetism. 

It is probable that the separate parts could be completely 
demagnetised by placing them one by one in the centre of a 
bobbin of insulated wire, like a small induction coil, but wound 
with rather thicker wire. A current should be sent through the 
coil, and rapidly alternated by means of a commutator, the 
strength of the current being at the same time gradually 
diminished by introducing a resistance. The piece under treat- 
ment would be magnetised first one way, and then the other, but 
with gradually decreasing strength. This method has been 
applied in various ways, with some success, to the demagnetisation 
of a watch as a whole, without taking it to pieces. It has the 
merit of simplicity, and does not need any knowledge of watch- 
making. The simplest way of carrying it out is to spin the 
watch rapidly, near a dynamo or powerful magnet, and withdraw 
it while spinning. This is almost always enough to start a 
watch which has been stopped, but its rate will probably remain 
affected. Mr. Maxim has constructed an instrument for the 
purpose ; it consists of a magnet which can be rotated so as to 
present the north and south poles in succession, and a holder for 
the watch. This holder is attached to a long screw, and during 
the rotation of the magnet, the watch is gradually withdrawn 
from its influence. A similar arrangement has been used with 
an electro magnet, and provision is made for gradually reducing 
the strength oE the current. These methods are free from the 
risk of injury which might occur from the violent spinning, but a 
very strong magnet would be required to destroy the effect of 
bringing a watch nearlyinto contact with the polepieceof a dynamo, 
an event which may often happen while it remains in the pocket. 

There is one other method of treating the watch as a whole. 
It is placed on a table, face upwards, on a sheet of paper with 
two lines crossing at right angles. The dial is placed so that 



XII and VI are just over one line, and III and IX are over 
the other. The deflection of the compass is noted, and the 
watch is turned so as to bring I and VII over one line, and IIII 
and X over the other. The deflection is again noted, and a 
table made for the strength of the magnetism in each position. 
The maximum and minimum, or north and south points, can 
then be determined, and the watch is removed and passed 
backwards and forwards in front of a strong magnet in such a 
way as to neutralise the magnetism which has thus been 
measured. It must then be replaced and a fresh exploration 
made, and the process may be repeated until the compass fails to 
detect any unusual distribution of magnetism. Although good 
results are recorded as having been effected by this means, it can 
hardly be expected to cure effectually, unless in experienced 
hands, and it must be a tedious operation. 

A complete protection from magnetisation is afforded by an 
iron case. It is not necessary that it should completely encase 
the watch, but it may consist merely of a piece of tinned iron, 
bent over with the corners rounded. The effect is to offer an 
easy passage to the magnetic lines of force, which will then pass 
round, instead of through the watch. 



Exhibition of 3apanese Art. 



LOAN Exhibition of Japanese Art, forming by far the 
most important collection of the kind that has yet been 
seen in England, was opened last month at the galleries 
of the Fine Art Society, 1-48, New Bond Street. It contains 
some of the choicest specimens of lacquer, metal work, porcelain 
and pottery, wood and ivory carvings, enamels, bronzes and em- 
broideries that have been brought into the country, and both 
Mr. Huish, the able director of the society, and Mr. Kataoka, 
whose reputation as an expert is a sufficient guarantee for the 
value of his services in anything connected with the art of his 
country, have been occupied for upwards of two months in the 
work of selecting, cataloguing and doing their best to make the 
most of the space at disposal. The gallery leading to the two 
principal exhibition rooms has been tastefully decorated and fur- 
nished for the occasion by Mr. G. Faulkner Armitage, of Altrin- 
cham, in well-harmonised tones of red, brown and russet. 
Although many of the exhibits, especially the smaller objects, 
are necessarily somewhat crowded, being packed in as many cases 
as there are letters in the alphabet, they are so classified and 
arranged that it is easy to study and compare them without 
fatigue. In the catalogue, temporarily provided by Mr. Kataoka 
while a more exhaustive illustrated volume is in the press, will 
be found an interesting introductory note, to which we may refer 
our readers for special and technical information on the various 
branches of work exhibited. Here we may make acquaintance 
with the great "old masters" of the Land of the Rising Sun, 
and if their names are not destined to become household words 
like those of their illustrious contemporaries in art in Italy, 
Holland, France and other European countries, they must at 
least be revered in the abstract for the relics of patience, inge- 
nuity and taste which they have left behind. Many of them 
were highly esteemed in their day, and held Court appointments 
and titles of honour. Until 30 years ago, Japan, as far as its 
art-wealth was concerned, was to the Englishman an unexplored 
country ; but so many treasures have accumulated over here since 
that time, and are so highly prized for their beauty, that col- 
lectors are ready to pay fabulous sums for choice pieces of lacquer 
and ivory carvings. Amongst the principal contributors to the 
Exhibition are the Duke of Edinburgh, Mr. G. Salting, Mr. 
Seymour Trower, Mr. Marcus Huish, Mr. Ernest Hart, Mr. W. 
J. Stuart, Mr. Cyril Flower, Mrs. Ahrens, Mr. E. Gilbertson, 
Sir Frederick Leighton, M. Bing, Sir Trevor Lawrence, Lieut.- 
Col. Alt, Mr. Phene Spiers, Mr. W. C. Alexander, Mr. Massey 
Mainwaring, Mr. F. Y. Edwards and Dr. Anderson. There are 
upwards of 2,000 objects on view, and days might be spent in 
studying them before any adequate idea could be formed of the 
wealth of art produced in a country where patience and skill 
are so wonderfully combined. 



118 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[February 1, 1888. 



American 3tem$. 



fHE Trenton Watch Company are said to be turning out 200 
complete watches a clay, and are selling them as fast as 
they can make them. They are only waiting for some 
new pinion cutting machines to largely increase their output. 
The cases are now made with a hinged bezel, which is a great 
improvement. 

According to the "Jewelry Neivs" the watch industry must 
be in a nourishing condition, in spite of spasmodic rumors of 
over-production. Plans for the formation of new factories are 
discussed, and capital for investment in such enterprises is not 
wanting. Several parties are said to be prospecting for the 
location of sites for the building of such factories : both for the 
manufacture of cheap and for the better grade of watches. 



Lamenting the disadvantage under which American diamond 
cutters are placed owing to foreign competition, the same organ 
expresses regret, that an increase of duty on cut diamonds is not 
practicable, because it furnishes greater temptations to smugglers. 
The smuggling of diamonds is carried on successfully to a 
greater or less extent; and one of the reasons for imposing a 
low duty on the importation of diamonds is to remove the 
temptation to smuggling. 



The death took place on the 2nd ult., at Boston, Massachusetts, 
of Mr. Henry Dutton Morse, who was well known in the trade 
as the first American diamond cutter. By the aid of a machine 
of his own invention he cut the first diamond ever cut in 
America. It was known as the "Dewey" diamond, and weighed 
in the rough about 50 carats. Subsequently he cut the large 
diamond known as the "Tiffany No 2," which was described by 
Mr. George F. Kunz in our November issue. Mr. Morse was in 
his 62nd year at the time of his death. 



The recent rise in copper, says the Manufacturing Jeweler, 
Prov., R.T., has been so extraordinary, and it affects our jewellers 
so materially, that a word here may not be out of place. Chili 
bars are used as a basis for speculation, and London is the 
leading market of the world for these bars. When Chili liars 
go up in London, American copper rises in New York, and vice 
i-ersa. A syndicate formed in Paris had been so successful in 
forcing up the price of tin, increasing the price from twenty to 
thirty-two cents a pound in two months, that they conceived the 
idea of cornering copper in the same way. They have been very 
successful also in this latest effort. On October 20, Chili bars 
were selling for £36 a ton in London. The syndicate bought 
all the visible supply in England and on the 27th of December 
the price was £85 a ton. As if to aid the bull movement of 
this syndicate, the Calumet and Hecla mine, the leading mine of 
the Lake Superior district, caught on fire, and this seems certain 
materially to decrease the product of the mine. The New York 
Evening Post says that at Butte, Mich., new works, with a 
capacity of 3,000 tons of ore a day, are being put up by the 
Anaconda mines, but they will hardly be ready before April or 
May, and then, if the company chooses, it can put out 200 tons 
of fine copper a day, at least doubling the output for 1887. 
It is believed that this abnormal price of coj:iper cannot be 
maintained very long, and that when the crash comes it will be 
severe. ■ The winter weather, however, will keep the output of 
the American mines down to a low point until spring, and 
probably the drop may be deferred until that time. The rise in 
copper has of course greatly affected the price of brass. Instead 
of forty per cent, discount, buyers now receive ten or less. There- 
fore manufacturers of cheap jewellery will be obliged to reckon 
a third increase in the price of their brass stock and copper for 
alloys. 



Che Cheory of Adjustment. 

By M. L. Lossier. 
After the Memoir of M. Jdles Grossmann. — From the Journal 

Suisse D'Horlogerie. 

CHAPTER I.— (Continued from page 108.) 

Qj^ECTION 2. — In order to find the time occupied by the 

^SP pendulum in making a portion of oscillation d B, the same 

comparison can still be made use of, and to calculate the 

time required for the mobile D (fig. 3) to traverse the corres- 




ponding distance D F upon the semi-circle II F H'. The time 

/ that the mobile will take to go from D to F will be : — 



space traversed — 
speed 



arc D F 



VT 



The arc D F is the arc of which the sine* is -v^— f, == — 

U B a 



it is then : — 



arc sin 



But if we seek in the tallies a length of arc corresponding to a 
given sine, it will be found indicated witli the radius for unit. 
To have this length in millimetres, it is necessary then for us to 
multiply it by the length of the radius, or by «, and we shall 
have : — 

7 



« arc sin 









or, bv eliminating: «. 



-y 



(2) 



Numerical Example. — Find how long in time the lift (30') 
of a Graham anchor escapement adjusted to a seconds pendulum 
of 3° amplitude will last. The demi-oscillation will have then 
an amplitude of 1° 30' or 90', from whence 

2- = — = 0.3333 ; 
a. 90 



the corresponding arc- 



arc sin 



continuing; 



/_/_ / 094 

V a V 1)808. 



■v 9808.8 
from whence t = 0.318 x 0.3403 



0.3403 

= 0.318 



0.108 sec. 



angle /3 is 



a V 



h The sine of any angle /3, 
is the length of the line b c 
(letdown perpendicularly from 
the extremity of the radius 
a b upon the diameter d e) 
divided by the length of the 
radius, and the cosine is the 
line a c divided by the same 
radius. Thus the sine of the 



and the cosine of the same ansrle is — r- 

° a b 




February 1, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLEE AND SILVERSMITH. 



119 



Section 3. — The foregoing formulae (1) — see page 108 — and 
(2), found for the pendulum, apply directly to the balance of a 
watch. 

The balance is maintained in its neuter position, or in repose, 
by means of a spiral spring. When it is disturbed from that 
position it performs a series of oscillations analogous to those of 
the pendulum. 

Here, the action of the weight is replaced by the elastic force 
of the spring, and the influence of the length of the pendulum by 
the influence of the radius and of the weights of the balance. 
We shall have then to replace, in the formula for the pendulum, 

1 



r - \ j : 



9 



I by a certain quantity A depending on the dimension and the 
weights of the balance,, and g by another quantity M depending 
on the elastic force of the spring. 
This formula will thus become : — 



T 



V M 



(3) 

which we cannot admit as exact a priori, but which we will 
reserve for demonstration later on. Let us say now that the 
quantity A is called the moment of inertia of the balance, and 
the quantity M the moment of elasticity of the spring. 

Section 4. — Moment of inertia. — It is demonstrated, in 
mechanics, that a force, f may be measured by the acceleration, 
w, that it imparts to a mass, m* which is expressed by the 
formula f = m w. (a) 

Take a mass m constrained to turn around a point (fig. 4), 
from which it is distant r. 

Here the acceleration is not rec- 
tilineal, but angular ; that is to 
say, that if this acceleration is 
expressed in linear measure, this 
measure must be in respect to 
a unit of radius, because it is 
evident that for the same angle 
travelled over, the length of arc 
will be different according to the 
distance of the mobile from the 
centre of rotation. 
These two kinds of acceleration are connected by the formula : 
f iv = w r (b) 

in which w expresses the angular acceleration. 

On the other hand, the force / must be replaced by its 
moment F \ with respect to the point 0, and we postulate : — 

/ r = F, 
from whence 

: /-± 

r 

In other words, / will be the force which, applied to the unit of 

distance from 0, will be able to produce the same effect as f 

applied to the distance r. 

Replacing in the equation (a) w and / by their values ascer- 

F 
tained from (b) and (c), we shall have — = m eo r, and the 

r 

angular acceleration becomes : — 

F 




r*m (d) 

It is easily seen that the mass m, which we have considered as 

a point, may be distributed over an infinity of points, along a 

distance r from the centre 0, that is to say, upon a circumference 

having r for radius. 

This term r is what is called the radius of gyration, and the 

expression r 2 m, which, in the formula (d), constitutes the 

* Mecanique appUquee de Bocquet, I., p. 162. 

f Mecanique appliquee de Bocquet, I., p. 94. 

\ By the moment of a force is understood the product of that force by 
the length of its leverage. — Mecanique de Bocquet, I., p. 32. 



resistance to the acceleration, is called the moment of inertia ; it 
is applied to a watch balance by assuming all the mass of the 
balance concentrated upon a circumference having a radius r. 
The circumference of gyration is then, for the balance, what the 
centre of oscillation is for the pendulum. 

The moment of inertia, which we have expressed by A in the 
formula (3), may be defined as — the weight F divided by g and 
multiplied by the square of the radius of gyration : — 

In practice, the radius of a balance to the interior of the bi- 
metallic rim may be taken as the measure of the radius of 
gyration. 

Numerical Example.— Find the moment of iner.tia of a 
balance weighing 0.6 gr., and measuring 16 nmi .5 to the interior 
of the rim : — ■ 

0.6 X 8.25 2 



A = 



9808.8 



0.00416 



Section 5. — Moment of Elasticity. — A. spring attached to its 
balance, without any action being exerted in any way, is in equi- 
librium, or at the dead point. If, at this moment the balance is 
rotated a half turn upon its axis, the molecular equilibrium of 
the spring will be broken, and it will require a certain force to 
maintain the balance in its new position. 

The moment of this force will be the force itself p multiplied 
by the distance r from its point of application to the axis of the 
balance : — 

m = p r. 

Numerical Example. — 

p = 0s r -,3963, r = 10 mm -; 
the moment of the force will be : — m = 3.963. 

The angle the balance has been turned = \ circumference 
= 7r (taking the radius as unit). If yet another turn is given 
to the balance, the angle will be 3 nv, and we shall see that the 
weight necessary to maintain the balance in this position will be 
three times the initial weight ; that is to say, the force is propor- 
tional to the angle the balance has been turned. 

We shall have then, by dividing the moment of this force by 
the angle, a constant quantity dependent on the elastic force of 
the spring, and which is the moment of elasticity which we have 
denoted by M in the formula (3) : — 

m = ILL. 



M = 



= 1.02725. 



In the above example we have : — 
3.963 
3.1416 
the moment of force of the spring will be then M «. 

We have found this by experience, and it remains now for us 
to demonstrate it by calculation, basing the latter upon the laws 
of elasticity. 

The laws of elasticity developed by tension, that is, by an 
effort exerted in the direction of the length of a body, are the 
following : — 

1. — For an equal bar, the lengthening which is produced by an 
increase of the effort exerted, remains the same, whatever 
be the initial tension. 

2. — The lengthening is proportional to the increase of the 
tension. 

3. — It is proportional to the length of the bar. 

4. — It is in the inverse ratio of its section. 

It is assumed that the limit of elasticity is not passed ; that is 
to say, that the body returns to its first length when it is left to 
itself. 

Let us suspend now to an iron wire of l mm - square in section, 
upon which we have measured a given length (1 metre for 
example), a weight of 1 kilog. This wire, under the effort of the 
weight, will be lengthened a certain quantity (0.05 ram .) which we 
will call, I.. 

It is evident that the more elastic the metal the greater will be 
this quantity. In order to compare bodies with one another, the 



120 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[February 1," 1888. 



lengthening I undergone under a given weight P is ascertained, 
and from the figure obtained is calculated the weight E that 
would be necessary to produce an equal lengthening to the primi- 
tive length L of the wire ; — 

P :'i=E : L 
from whence 

PL 
E= —' (5) 

If the section is irregular, s, the formula becomes, taking 
count of law (4) : — 

PL 

E = TV' (6) 

and in order to have P, or the force of traction corresponding to 
a given lengthening, 

El s 
P -~L- 
The quantity E is called the coefficient of Elasticity • it would 
be for iron, from the above example : — 

1000 y 1000 „.„ A 

= 20,000,000. 



E = 



0.05 



For the steel of a spring : — 

E = 20,000,000. 

V r 

Erratum. — In the last equation but one in page 108. for — read -p 

(To be continued.) 



Che Leuer Escapement . 

CONSIDERED WITH EEGAED TO ITS FORM, INERTIA. 
FRICTION, &c. 

By M. L.-A. Grosci.aude, Professor at the Geneva School 
of Horology. 

(Translated from the French.) 
( Continued from page 107.) 



Friction. 

UtTr MOTION constitutes, with the inertia of the matter, one 

X<9' of tlic points having the greatest influence upon the 

, practical result of the performance of the lever escapement. 

Our readers will therefore 'perhaps pardon us if we renew the 
question from the first elements. 

What is friction ? The well-known definition is this : — ■ 
Friction is the resistance that must be overcome in order to 
make one body slide upon another when a pressure exists between 
the two bodies. Numerous experiments made under varied 
conditions and with different materials, have led to the following 
principle laws : — - 

When two bodies rub one against the other in a dry state, 
that is to say when nothing but the air interposes between the 
surfaces in contact : — 

1st. — Friction varies according to the degree of polish of the 
surfaces in contact, and according to the nature of the 
materials ; 

2nd. — Friction is proportional to the pressure which exists 
between the two surfaces ; 

?rd. — It is independent of the extent of the surface in contact ; 

4th. — Under the ordinary conditions of practice, it is indepen- 
dent of the speed of bodies in motion. 

Then, in order to estimate friction, it is necessary, from the 
second of the above principles, to know in each particular case, 
the pressure which exists between the two surfaces, pressure 
which is always normally exerted at these surfaces. If the body 
slides upon a horizontal plane it is the weight" of the body itself 
which indicates the pressure. Since friction is proportional to 
this pressure, it is usual to designate it by a name called 
coefficient of friction, which indicates what part of the weight, or 
rather of the pressure, should be taken in order to obtain the 
friction. It is expressed in centiemes. This coefficient varies 



(first principle) according to the nature of the materials, wood, 
metal, &c, used, and the degree of polish of the rubbing surfaces. 
It can only be determined by experiments, the enumeration, more 
or less complete, of which is found in all treatises on mechanics. 
It must be stated, however, that there exists on this subject a 
great divergence of opinion among writers. It could hardly 
be otherwise, the nature of the polish and the quality of the 
material being so various. 

Since; after the third principle, friction is independent of the 
extent of the surface in contact, we need not take the latter into 
account. 

As regards the fourth principle, it is well to remark that 
although it is usual to say that friction is independent of speed, 
this is no reason for altogether ignoring the. speed. 

The effort required in order to obtain the gliding is the same, it is 
true, whatever be the quickness of the movement : but what is very 
important, the mechanical toork expended is not. Because this 
latter, being the resultant of an effort, and of the distance 
traversed by that effort, will be as much greater as the speed is 
greater. And let us not forget that it is work which is the 
true criterion for judging of the value of a mechanism. At the 
risk of repeating ourselves, we recall here that if a machine were 
perfect, whatever its mechanism, it would always render an equal 
amount of work to that which it consumes. In practice it is not 
thus, and this fact proceeds from the prejudicial losses produced 
by various causes, among which is friction, which diminishes the 
result. In order to explain clearly this difference between ejj'ort 
of friction and work of friction, let us take two examples. 

Let us assume that an effort of fifteen grammes be required to 
move a weight of one hundred grammes upon a polished metallic 
surface. 

This effort will be sufficient to maintain the movement) 
whatever be the speed, but, in this case, the work dispensed will 
be much more considerable as the distance traversed is greater. : 

The friction of a j)ivot turning in its hole is the same if the 
pivot is thick and if it is supported in a long hole ; but, for one 
turn cf the arbor, the rubbing surface travels over a greater 
distance with a thick pivot than with a thin one, while the length 
of the pivot does not increase this distance, nor consequently the 
work of friction. It is for this reason that mechanics make 
spindles as small as possible but do not fear to make the bearings 
a certain length. 

We will say later on why watchmakers depart from these rules, 
and avoid always having large surfaces in contact. 

We have spoken up till now of friction as it exists between 
two surfaces without any lubricants ; the use of which last has 
the effect of diminishing friction. Here again, books of science 
give us coefficients of friction when the rubbing bodies are 
covered with different substances, such as water, lard, fats, oils, 
&c. Only in this case, these coefficients do not conserve the same 
signification. In effect, if any oil has the effect of diminishing 
the friction between two metallic surfaces, it introduces on the 
other hand a new resistance, that of cohesion of the molecules of 
the oil. This resistance, it is true, has not great importance in 
comparison with that of friction, above all if the oil is fluid and 
if the pressure has a certain importance ; and it is for this reason 
that mechanics are accustomed to neglect it. But, in small 
mechanics, and especially in horology, where the pressures are 
relatively feeble, it would be imprudent not to consider closely 
this question. 

Here the reader will ask if the principles which we have 
enumerated in speaking of simple friction are maintained when 
the surfaces in contact are lubricated. The response is negative ; 
it may observed in effect that, in these circumstances, the 
resistance to the sliding becomes proportional to the surfaces in 
contact, and moreover, it is so much the greater as the surfaces 
approach one another. In fact, two metallic plates perfectly 
joined and thoroughly lubricated, so as to prevent the air from 
penetrating between the surfaces, are found to adhere very 
strongly to oue another and thus offer a resistance very much 
greater than ordinary friction. 

We have here then the explanation of the fact that in watch- 
making the frictions of points is always preferred to those of 



February 1, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



121 



large surfaces. In fact, if the pressure is feeble, friction properly- 
called will be necessarily feeble also, and such a circumstance 
may certainly present itself, where, according to the extent of the 
surface of contact, the resistance from the oil will be greater. 
But if we only rub a fine point, we reduce the resistance of the 
oils to a minimum, and it is here the friction properly called 
which constitutes the greater part of the resistance to the gliding. 
If it be admitted that the oil can produce a greater resistance 
than that of the friction which it is intended to diminish, it may 
be asked what advantage is there in lubricating certain surfaces. 
It is well to represent that, in one way or the other, there is 
always a resistance to overcome, a work to do ; and if the surfaces 
are not lubricated, this work results in a wear of the rubbing 
parts ; but if a fatty substance has been interposed, it is this that 
supports a good part of the wear ; and as this last case is 
preferable for the good preservation of the mechanism, it is this 
means that is generally resorted to, since it is easy to renew the 
oil. Meanwhile, when the body rubbed is of a very hard nature 
and the pressure is not very great, the lubricant may be dispensed 
with. This condition presents itself in certain parts of the spring 
detant escapement, where it is known that the absence of oil does 
not produce any bad effect. 

(To be continued.) 



A Simple TJlatch. 

By Bill Nye. 



IpfjOR thousands of years men have sought the best means by 
JP| which to measure time. Clocks have ranged all the way 
from a plain stick stuck in the ground to the ornate town 
clock and gorgeous depot clock of to-day. It mattered little to 
the savage how slowly or how rapidly time passed, for he had no 
promissory notes to mature, no rent to fall due at a certain day, 
and no bills to pay. The dial, of course, was about the first open 
face timepiece of which we know, but it was not satisfactory to 
the employer, because the hired man spent so much time walking 
from the farther side of the farm to the dial to ascertain the hour, 
that it wasn't more than 500 years before an enterprising man, 
realising the needs of the time, invented the hour glass, a neat 
little instrument which only required two men to run it, one to 
up-end it during the day and one to perform a similar office at 
night, whenever the sand in one end had sifted into the other. 

King Alfred next patented the candle scheme, consisting of 
twelve candles so graduated as to burn two liours each, which 
was a great boon. It required only a little over three hundred 
pounds of candles per year for such a timepiece, and to snuff 
them and light one as soon as the other had burned out, was a 
light and cheerful occupation for two men with a common 
school education at say 30 dols. per month and board. 

The clepsydra was a water clock which consisted of a jar, 
the contents of which would run out of a graduated orifice in 
twelve hours. The man who attended to it, however, might 
or might not have graduated. 

This jar was opaque, and so you might ascertain the hour by 
stabbing a notched stick into the water and observing carefully 
how far up it got wet. It was indeed a cheerful sight to witness 
the old gentleman stealing down the stairway on Sunday night 
while his daughter and a young friend, who could never be aught 
but a brother to her, sat in the parlour. The parent immerses a 
graduated shingle in a crock of rain water, looks at it thought- 
fully, and then sets the dog on the now thoroughly terrified youth. 

The clepsydra was introduced into Rome 158 B. C. by Scipio 
Nasica, who sold a great many of them and warranted them for 
one year. 

They were a poor clock, however, in a cold climate, for they 
would most always stop in northern Asia or Dakota during the 
extremes of temperature peculiar to those climes. Still they 
were durable and versatile, for if you wearied of them in the clock 
line you could readily use them as butter crocks. 

This instrument was finally arranged to operate a water- 
wheel, and from that the weight was introduced into the 



clock-economy. The machinery was added in the eight or ninth 
century. Then the escape was introduced, so that about nine hun- 
dred years ago tower clocks began to show their faces to the world. 

We cannot help comparing the crude dial and the hour glass 
of two or three thousand or more years with the gorgeous and 
elaborate Waterbury watch of to-day. 

I know that much sport is made of the Waterbury watch on 
account of its great simplicity, but that is an error. This watch 
is not simple. It is the man who thinks he can fix the 
Waterbury watch himself that is simple. 

Two years ago I left my handsome gold watch at a place in 
Chicago, where the proprietor agreed to regulate it. I had it 
there over a year getting it regulated, until the charges had 
reached 45 dols., though I must state frankly that 43 dols. was 
money that the proprietor had advanced to me out of hisown pocket. 

That is the reason I hated to go and ask him for the watch 
even after I knew it must be thoroughly regulated. 

I therefore purchased a Waterbury watch nine months ago 
and began the arduous task of winding it up. I had not owned 
it a week before I could wind it up partially at least without 
being frightened at the sound. A Waterbury watch can now be 
wound within ten feet of me without scaring me much. 

But my great mistake was, that after a few months I got 
foolhardy and opened the watch to learn its ways. One dreamy, 
hazy afternoon in October, while the early apples were falling 
with a mellow plunk on the soft bosom of the earth, and the 
gaudy glory of a full-grown year was bursting forth on the brow 
of the mountain like the first rich red blossom on the bugle of 
a man who can drink or let it alone, I sat in my room in a 
reclining position meditating. 

Some claim that I meditate too much, but I do not think so. 
Let others pitch in and work if they feel like it, but give me 
enough plain food and time to meditate and I am content. 

But that has nothing to do with what I was speaking of. 
In a thoughtless moment I decided to open my Waterbury 
watch and see what made it tick so loudly. I did so. 

When I opened the rich and highly-chased case, I began 
to see strange, fantastic forms flashed before my eyes. In a 
short time my lap was full of little wheels and small fragments 
of the future which this watch had concealed about its person. 

I accumulated a bureau drawer full of fly-wheels, hair 
triggers, cams, eccentrics, doflickers, bull wheels clogged with 
forgotten moments, ratchets with a thin falsetto voice, small 
brass wheels with axle grease on their circumference, brassy 
smelling axle trees, little yellow screws, large steel screws with dark 
blue heads, and other things that I do not know the names of. 

Then there was a low, asthmatic sound in among the 
intestines of this timepiece and a big, blue backward spring 
sprang forth, hit me between the eyes, danced back on its hind 
feet, jumping up and punched a hole in the ceiling, tried to spit 
on its hands, smote its heels together and darted up my trousers 
leg, meanwhile snarling at me in that gutteral, mean, quarreh 
some way that a Waterbury watch knows so well how to assume. 

I arose to go out into the hall when three bushels more of the 
spring boiled out of that yelping, muttering turnip, and gliding 
to the door shut it in my face. 

The front end of the spring had now emerged through my 
shirt collar and began to bore holes in my head. I called for 
help but nothing save the low and desolate murmur and rumble 
of the watch answered me. 

In a short time the room was full of this spring. I was on 
the bed doing the Laocoon act in my poor, weak way, and 
everywhere I could see evidence of the spring. 

Finally the landlady came to see if I had them again. She 
opened the door just as the watch seemed to slip a new cog and 
betray some more of its true inwardness. It shot some more 
of that blue steel out into the hall, caught the lady by her back 
hair and hurled her down stairs. 

When the police got there and got a line repairer to come and 
unwind me, that Waterbury watch had entire possession of the first 
and second floors of the house and was on its way down cellar. 

And yet we meet men most every day who claim that the 
Waterbury watch is a model of simplicity. 



122 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. [Fekruary 1, 1888. 



tUo ifJur young Frienbs. 

WHAT OUGHT TO-BE DONE. 

(From Eugene Fontenay in La Revise Professionnelle.) 



We know too much. Our knowledge renders us useless and paralyses 
our imagination. It would be better to throw overboard — first, all this 
cumbrous load, viz., the acquaintanceship of different styles — and then 
after that set ourselves to work. Augtust, 1880. 

X HAVE purposely taken the above as an epigraph, to comment 
g£L on it and develop it as may seem suitable — for, although the 
author, I cannot disguise from myself that it seems to 
express a rain and unrealisable desire. 

Before then discussing the matter, it will be well to know 
exactly the meaning to be attached to the two words which are 
to be frequently referred to in this discourse ; these two 
words are character and style. I do not wish to enter into 
rivalry with the dictionary, but you have doubtless remarked, 
that in conversation, misconstructions often crop up, because in 
spite of the definitions of the dictionary — with which we should 
all assuredly be acquainted — one cannot always very well catch 
the value of an expression, this value being always subject to 
vaTy according to the surroundings in which each finds himself. 

Each thing, each individual, has by nature, through some 
peculiarity, a form, a turn or trait particularly his own. It is 
that that we would call character. Characteristics are not visible 
to every one ; one must, indeed, confess that men are for the 
most part unconscious of them. Some again endowed with more 
attention, with more skill, delicacy or sensibility remark them, 
understand them, and give their attention to reproducing them. 
Those men are the artists. 

But each artist has his particular apprehension, his manner of 
seeing, of feeling, and of remarking what he has felt — in a word 
his originality ; from whence it results that if a copy of the same 
object be made by ten different artists, each of them will have 
interpreted the model in his own way ; and the ten copies, which, 
I will presuppose have all been done by people of ability, although 
they resemble the model, will differ from each other in some point. 
This difference certainly proceeds from the personality which each 
artist has introduced into his copy. This inevitable and invol- 
untary introduction is more or less intelligent, more or less 
remarkable. When it is very remarkable, it adds a characteristic 
•to the model, or rather it is so identified with the model — all 
the traits and shades have been so turned to account, that the 
: copy reveals to all, beauties which had hitherto remained 
undiscovered. 

This art of seizing the characteristic trait of each thing ought 
to be the constant endeavour of the designer ; the mind plays a 
greater part than merely the hand ; those who possess the 
faculty are not numerous, but they know how to put character 
into their drawings, and this character borders sometimes even 
on the threshold of genius.* We may conclude therefore by 
saying that a drawing holds its character, more from the talent 
of the artist than from the character even of the model. 

Style is the mode of expression employed at each epoch. 
Styles are determined by various causes — the form of a govern- 
ment — the beliefs of a people — public or private events — the, 
fashions make a part of these causes, but the principal and first 
of all are as to mode of life. The products of the ground on; 
which we live, by their constant action, exercise a considerable 
influence on our conceptions. All our imagination springs from 
it, but also, so to speak, modified by a certain conventional fashion, 
after having been subjected to the influence of current ideas 
belonging to each epoch or population. 

Thus, for example, the lotus is actually the base of Indo- 
Chinese ornamentation, as it has been from a remote period that 
of the Egyptian, and yet those two styles have nothing in 
common. The palm is employed otherwise by the Persians than 
by the Indians. Foliage and flowers are presented differently in 

'"It is told (jf a; great' Japanese designer that he had an admirable faculty for 
seizing tfee particular character of everything. Ok-Sai, when already at a great age, 
'said that if he' could hbpe' to live to 150 years of age, though working steadily, he would 
always, he thought, manage to draw a fresh subject. ...... 



the works of the Greeks and in the illustrations of manuscripts 
of the middle ages — in the compositions of the Restoration and 
in, the decorations of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
The epoch of Louis XV. in bringing fancy leathers into its 
system of ornamentation, changed the former by the style. 
Bows of ribbon have been differently interpreted in each different 
style employed, and even to the more precise forms which the 
animal reign furnished ; all have come under different interpre- 
tations. Do we not see in heraldic art, lions, leopards and 
eagles extraordinary ? they are not even like each other but van- 
according to the place and to the time. 

The current, therefore, of ideas of certain favourable periods 
furnishes characteristics whence styles are composed, and thoso 
characteristics are so marked that they have permitted of a 
method of classing and instruction after which we have been led 
to study them. # 

# # 

It results from the foregoing, since the style is composed from 
certain recognised characteristics, more than to the subjects 
which have been successively employed, that in many cases the 
characteristics have existed before the style. If you would 
permit me to make a comparison, I would say that the style to 
me represents a phrase of which the characteristics form the 
words. That may appear paradoxical but rest assured it is not 
so — hence, no words, no phrase ; so no characteristic, no style. 

When you quit school you are acquainted with the styles, and 
have reason to think yourself well armed. In effect you will 
draw at first attempt a pretty design of Henry II. for a brooch, 
or else a sentimental composition in the style of the eighteenth 
century with turtle-doves, torches, quivers, &c.,. &c. 

When you have gone on with that for some time and with 
success, I am sure your talent will be appreciated ; you will have 
earned the reputation of knowing your styles well. By-and-by 
they will come and say to you, " Why ! it is always the same 
thing, male us then something new." 

Do we not in fact hear repeated in conversations, in journals, 
in books, everywhere, " Our age is absolutely wanting in 
originality ; it has found out nothing new ; it can do nothing 
but copy the ancients ;" and why ? it works in the same groove. 

It is thus that taking up again my present comparison I would 
say to you, " Leave off all phrases composed by the ancients, 
that is to say style, and go back to the study of words. Do as 
your forerunners have done; put yourselves freely in communica- 
tion with nature, it is she who was their master. 

Take then a pencil and paper, which you should never omit to 
have with you. Go every spare day from morning to night to 
the meadows, to the woods, to the wastes by the roadside. At 
first— -Ah ! at first, you will find nothing ; it is well to warn you 
beforehand against the disagreeable surprise. It is in fact very 
rarely that a beginner finds an object that seems to him worthy 
of his attention and talent, and beyond all of his pencil and 
paper. But persist, and if your fancy does not happen to be 
seized upon by some object, well copy ; copy all the same : do 
not leave off copying : little by little, conviction will come to you 
with experience, with the knowledge of beauties, which you will 
be then astonished not to have discovered at the first glance. 
Copy the leaves of the trees, the grass of the fields, the thousand 
little flowers that lie hidden there, patiently one by one, without 
gathering them — they would fade. Especially examine them 
thoroughly before commencing your drawing, and try to know 
what you are going to do, and to grasp well their characteristic. 

You will have, in spring-time, all the buds — those growing on 
the trees, as also those of the cultivated flowers and of wild 
herbaceous plants, with their mysterious foldings spreading to the 
light of day. They will lay before you a store of endless 
surprises. In summer you will contemplate the splendid 
developments of the vegetable world ; it is the period when the 
formation oE outline is confirmed and is the realisation of all the 
lovely promises of spring. In autumn you will have the verdure 
with its changing colour — fading, curling and contracting — the 
fruits, the husks and the seed ; then the uncultivated grasses 
spread all around, astonishing you by their infinite variety. Let 
everything be the object of your research ; nature, has made 



February 1, '1888.] THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



123 



nothing that is unworthy of interest ; seek to reproduce in their 
movements, insects, and those animals you may happen to 
encounter in your wanderings. Unfrequented places and water- 
edges will furnish you with subjects innumerable. 

But in your pursuit do not allow yourself to be seduced by 
grand scenery, for whatever charm that might offer you it would 
turn you aside from your work. Do not let it escape you that 
you are a jeweller and not a lanclscapist. Study forms and not 
their effects ; store them in your brain, if it is possible by 
thousands. Especially guard against the desire to draw imme- 
diately from your labours or to seek a direct application — you 
would make a false start. What is necessary, is to gather as the 
bee, which never thinks of making her honey till her harvest of 
pollen is abundant. One day you will be astonished to see with 
what facility, new arrangements and elegant forms will spring 
up from under your pencil, and if nature has gifted you, all that 
you draw will have character. 

Suppose that others do the same as you, from this assemblage 
of work, from the comparison which each of you will make, a 
style or particular method cannot fail to spring up. I have 
already shown you that the same subjects interpreted by different 
people have furnished different styles ; in the same way, the mode 
in which you and your comrades will interpret them, if you have 
been able to succeed in rendering your mind independent of 
school memories, will undoubtedly set up characteristics which 
will be personal to the generation to which you belong, and which 
one day taken together will form a style. And lastly, remember 
that to do a thing well one must have one's heart in one's work. 

W. A. Smith, Aberdeen. 



Siluer TjrJare Manufacture in the "United States. 



MjfHE origin of the manufacture of silver ware in the United 
<yM> States is quite within the memory of old silversmiths who 
are still in the business : according to an American con- 
temporary it dates from the year 1842. Prior to that year there 
were no regular factories of plate in the country. The few 
silversmiths who had opened shops in the commercial and other 
cities for the repair of watches and imported plate, made cups, 
snuff-boxes, watch chains and other small articles, in a desultory 
way ; but there was no regular manufacture. The few expert 
workmen of those days had little capital of their own. They 
had only their tools and their skill ; and the usual thing lor them 
to do was to go to the jeweller and silver merchant and obtain 
from them orders to make special pieces of plate. The merchant 
supplied the ingot, or sheet of silver, and the workman hammered 
it out and wrought it into the object desired, bringing back to the 
merchant the finished work and the surplus scraps of metal, both 
of which were carefully weighed to see that the workman had not 
abstracted a part of the raw material. In 1842 a number of the 
silversmiths of New York City and other places got together to 
consult about the interests of their trade. Mr. Clay was agitat- 
ing at that time for a protective tariff, and the silversmiths 
regarded the hour as auspicious for an effort to obtain some 
recognition of their art from the Government of the country. 
A delegation was accordingly sent to Washington to see Mr. Clay. 
Mr. Clay asked the men what the prosperity of their business 
required, and promised to do what he could for them. It was 
a very easy matter to obtain recognition in the bill which was 
being drawn up, silver ware being so exclusively an article' of 
luxury ; and accordingly, when the Act passed in August of that 
year, a duty of 30 per cent, was levied by it upon all importa- 
tions of gold and silver ware, whether solid or plated. This 
protection is said by old silversmiths to have given the industry 
in this country its first decided impetus. Nearly all the shops 
enlarged their business immediately after the law was passed. 

About this time the art of electro-plating came into use ; and 
this gave a still more remarkable impulse to the industry in the 
United States by cheapening the cost of silver table ware, and 
vastly extending its sale. Early in the century it had been 
discovered that copper or gold held in solution might be made" to 



settle upon the faces of objects suspended in the solution, and to 
form upon them a thick film, by passing a current of electricity 
through the bath to the object to be gilded or coppered. It was 
found. that the film of metal, once formed, might be taken off 
and used as a mould to produce an exact copy of the original upon 
which it had been deposited. It was thenf ound that metallic objects 
might be gilded by this process, and made to appear like solid 
gold. The invention was at first regarded as a curiosity. It was 
not until about 1840 that its value for the gilding and silvering of 
articles of common use was realised. .Numerous experiments 
were then made with the invention both in the United States and 
Europe. Professor Silliman suggested that prussiate of potash 
would hold silver in solution without oxidising the baser metals. 
This was a step in advance. Subsequently it was found that the 
solution of cyanide of potassium would do the work better, and 
silver plating then became practical and popular. The idea was 
taken up by New England manufacturers, and several very 
important factories of plated ware and cutlery were started to 
manufacture for the American market. It was found that the most 
elaborate dinner and tea sets could be produced by the new 
process, coated with the purest silver to any thickness, for about 
one-fourth the expense of solid ware ; and Yankee push and 
enterprise soon found a way to create a demand for it in every 
part of the country. The public taste had begun to crave elegant 
table sets, and the low cost of the new class of goods secured for 
them a ready recognition and great favour. Iron forks and knives 
were virtually banished from the tables of all people of taste, and 
from hotels and steamboats ; plated ware and dinner and tea sets 
made their appearance everywhere. 

The earliest silversmiths of the United States made their 
dinner and tea sets, punch bowls, goblets, &c, by hammering 
the various dishes from flat sheets of solid metal, shaping them 
upon iron forms called " stakes." The process of building up 
all round and oval dishes is still the same in principle, only that 
the hammer is no longer used, and the iron stake is thrown 
aside for a block of wood. Suppose the dish to be a sugar bowl : 
A perfectly round disc is cut from a flat sheet of solid silver, 
weighed, and turned over to a workman, to whom it is charged 
on the books. The workman has a block, made in pieces like a 
hat block, so that if a certain key be removed it will fall apart. 
The block is put together and keyed, and put into a lathe touch- 
ing the flat disc of silver. The block and silver disc are then 
made to revolve at great speed. A smooth steel tool is pressed 
against the disc, and the malleable metal is made to bend down 
upon the block little by little, and gradually enclose it, forming 
the body of a perfectly symmetrical and smooth sugar bowl, 
without joint or flaw. The top and bottom are properly trimmed 
with a sharp tool, and the bowl taken from the lathe. It would 
be impossible now to get the wooden block out of the silver bowl 
were it not that the block is made in pieces. The workman 
loosens the key which binds the block together, and shakes the 
pieces out of the narrow mouth of the sugar bowl. The bottom 
of the sugar bowl is shaped upon an appropriate block by the 
same process, which is called " spinning up." The handles are 
cast, and the different parts fastened together by soldering under 
a blow-pipe. This is in principle the manner in which all round 
and oval dishes, presentation-pieces, goblets, &c, are made from 
solid silver. For convenience the bodies are sometimes made in 
several parts, so as to permit the insertion at different places 
of a flat strip of decorated metal which has been rolled in 
a machine, and they are then subsequently assembled by the 
silversmiths proper, and united by soldering. The soldering is 
so perfectly done that the finished article is in fact one piece of 
solid work, — as much so as though it had been cast. All scraps 
are carefully collected and weighed, and credited to the workman 
to whom they were previously charged. Large objects like 
punch bowls, and all others of irregular shape, are hammered out 
by hand from flat sheets of metal and put together by soldering. 
Projecting ornaments, like monograms, flowers, handles, &c, are 
frequently cast solid and put upon the piece in the usual way ; 
but by far the greater part of the decoration is done by chasing 
and engraving. The pattern is drawn in black and white upon 
sheets ef paper. The workman goes all over the inside of the 



124 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[February 1, 1888. 



goblet, teapot, or other piece, whatever it may be, with a delicate 
hammer, and beats clown the metal, so as to raise the large 
leaves, flowers, scrolls, &c, of the pattern into relief on the out- 
side of the piece. The dish is then filled with melted pitch and 
resin, which is allowed to solidify and form a backing, in order 
that it may not lose its symmetrical shape in the subsequent 
processes. The workman next goes carefully over the whole of 
the surface outside which is to be decorated, and fashions it by 
indenting and beating down the metal with little chisels and a 
hammer, so as to leave a clear, sharp-cut pattern raised in high 
relief upon the beaten-down background. The pitch is then 
removed by melting, and the dish goes on to be smoothed, bur- 
nished, frosted, satin-finished, or gilded, as the case may be, for 
the store. The ornamentation of flat surfaces is sometimes done 
by etching. Spoons and forks are made by rolling in a machine, 
the pattern of the fork or spoon being engraved on the surface 
of the rollers. The edges of surplus metal are removed by 
clipping and filing, and the article receives its final shape under 
a die. The. handles of nut-picks and knives, when hollow, are 
stamped in a die, in halves, and united by soldering. In the 
solid-silver shops great care is exercised to prevent waste of 
metal. The waste in polishing, clipping, filing, &c, is enormous, 
amounting to, in large shops, from four to six hundred ounces a 
week in the progress of polishing with leather and cotton alone. 
All the refuse of the shops, the grease, the dirt of the floor, the 
water in which the silver is washed, &c, is carefully saved, and 
sent to the furnace for the extraction of the metal. With all the 
precautions that intelligence can suggest, it is still found that 
five per cent, of the metal weighed out to the workmen is never 
recovered. 

In the factories of plated ware a large part of the work is done 
by stamps, dies, and presses, and more of the ware is cast than 
in the solid-silver shops. The metal forming the basis of the 
pieces is usually German silver (an alloy of nickel, copper and 
zinc), britannia, white metal, and brass and copper arc some- 
times used for very cheap work. The original method of plating 
the ware with silver was to dissolve the metal in nitric acid and 
precipitate it as a cyanide by cyanide of potassium. The preci- 
pitate, being washed, was dissolved in a solution of cyanide of 
potassium. The object to be silvered was then connected with 
the negative pole of a powerful battery, dipped in nitric acid, 
and then suspended in the solution of silver. After a few 
moments it was taken out and well brushed, and then replaced 
in the solution. The silver begins to make its appearance on the 
surface of the object, and in a few hours has covered every part 
of it with a uniform deadwhite coating of pure metal. The pro- 
cess may be stopped when the plating has reached the thickness 
of tissue paper, or may be continued until the piece is double or 
triple plated. The stronger the current of electricity, the harder 
will be the plating. When taken from the solution the piece is 
washed and then burnished and finished in the ordinary manner. 
Latterly, plating is carried on by a variation of this process. 
The silver is not dissolved and held in suspension, but is put 
into the bath of cyanide of potassium in the form of a plate 
attached to the positive pole of the battery. The electrical 
current decomposes the silver, and the dish attached to the 
negative pole then becomes covered with the dissolved metal as 
before. 



British Horological Institute. — The half-yearly general 
meeting of the members of this institute was held at the Institute, 
Northampton Square, E.C., on Tuesday, 17th ulto., Mr. J. 
Tripplin, V.P. presiding. The report for the half-year ended 
December 31, 1887, submitted a financial statement for the first 
half of the year ended June 30. It showed an increased income 
as compared with the corresponding half of the previous year, 
and a balance in the hands of the Treasurer of over £75. An 
alteration, increasing the number of vice-presidents to six was 
carried by a large majority, and it was arranged to present to 
Mr. Jones an illuminated address recording his eminent services. 
A silver medal was offered for competition by the Worshipful 
Company of Turners for 1888, among students- of the practical 



classes for the best specimen of hand-turning left from the 
graver. By the kindness of Mr. Samuel Jackson and Messrs. 
Henry Picard and Frere, who each gave five guineas for the 
purpose, the Council of the Horological Institute had been 
enabled to offer a prize of five guineas for the second best 
practical essay on "Modern methods of turning, drilling, boring, 
pivotting, and polishing applicable to watch work, by means of 
modern appliances, and either the hand or foot wheel." There 
were at present 369 members and nineteen associates on the 
books. The report, which was moved by the chairman, was 
seconded by Mr. D. Buckney, and adopted, and after the usual 
thanks, the meeting adjourned. 



lilorkshop jTlemoranba. 

Easv Flowing Silver Solder. — The following ingredients 
make an easy flowing silver solder : 2 dwts. coin silver ; 1 dwt. 
brass ; 3 grains zinc. 



The Welding of Metals by Electricity. — Professor 
Elihu Thomson, of Lynn, Massachusetts, has invented a process 
of welding metals by electricity. The welding of iron and steel 
by means of excessive heat is nothing new, but one of the great 
advantages of the new process is, that it is applicable not only to 
the metals named, but also to cast iron, alluminum, brass, copper, 
zinc, German silver, &c. The last named metals have always 
been considered as metals to which the welding power could not 
be applied successfully for practical use, but by the new process 
anv two of the metals named can be welded successfully. The 
reason of this lies in the following particular nature of applying 
electricity to the heating of metals : — Cold metal is a better con- 
ductor for electricity than hot metal, and by this feature metals 
are heated evenly during electric welding, and brought up to the 
necessary degree of heat simultaneously. 



Particulars of a new departure in brazing and welding have 
been communicated to the Society of Art* Journal by Mr. Thos. 
Fletcher, of Warrington. The cheapening of oxygen by BriVs 
process of manufacture has put into the hands of metal workers 
a new power. Having recently made a few experiments with the 
compressed oxygen and coal gas, he found that with a half-inch 
gas supply a joint could be brazed in a two-inch wrought iron 
pipe in about one minute, the heat being very short, the redness 
not extending over one inch on each side of the joint. The 
appearance of the surface after brazing led him to experiment 
further with welding, a process which is not possible with 
ordinary coal gas and air, owing to the formation of magnetic 
oxide on the surfaces. Contrary to his expectation, a good weld 
was obtained on an iron wire one-eighth of an inch diameter with 
;i very small blow-pipe, having an air jet about ^V-inch diameter. 
This matter requires to be taken up and tried on a large scale, 
for such work as welding boiler plates, which, it appears to me, 
can be done perfectly with far less trouble than would be required 
to braze an ordinary joint. The great advantage of this would 
be that the boilers would require no handling, but could be 
welded with an ordinary large blow-pipe in position, and with 
about one-tenth the labour at present necessary. The cost of the 
oxygen is trifling, and it is evident, from the results obtained in 
brazing, that the consumption of gas would be considerably less 
than one-fourth that necessary with an air blast, irrespective of 
the fact that welding is possible with an oxygen blast, whereas 
it is not possible if air is used. The surface of iron, heated to 
welding heat, by this means comes out singularly clean, and free 
from scale, and a small bottle of compressed oxygen, with a 
blow-pipe, and a moderate gas supply, would make the repairs 
of machinery, boilers, brewing coppers, and other unwieldy 
apparatus, a very simple matter. The trouble and difficulty of 
making good boiler-crowns, which so frequently "come, down," 
would be very small indeed, when the. workman has an unlimited 
source of heat at command, under perfect and instant control. 



February 1, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



125 



(Bazette, 



Partnerships Dissolved. 
Seear, Hasluck & Co., Holborn Viaduct, E.C., chartered accountants. 
Skinner & Co., Birmingham, goldsmiths. W. Tilley and J. E. 
Wilkins, Forest Gate, pawnbrokers. J. Rosenthal & Son, Man- 
chester, wholesale jewellers. Anthony Schwarz and Augustin 
Schwarz (trading as A. Schwarz), Holywell and Flint, watchmakers. 
T. Wilkinson & Sons, Birmingham, electro-plate makers. Thwaites 
& Reid, Bowling-Green Lane, Clerkenwell, clock manufacturers. 
Collis & Co. and S. W. Smith k Co., Birmingham, electro-plate 
manufacturers. Ward '& Frith, Sheffield, steel manufacturers. Bash 
& Rodrigues, Hatton Garden, diamond polishers. Raban & Son, 
Luton, watchmakers. Ebenezer Stacej' & Sons, Sheffield, Britannia- 
metal manufacturers. W. Osborn and J. H. Bailey, Birmingham, 
manufacturing jewellers. 



THE BANKRUPTCY ACT, 1883. 
Receiving Orders. 
To surrender hi London. — William Fitch, Mare Street, Hackney, watch- 
maker. 
To surrender in the Country. — David Elias and John Elias (trading as 
David Elias & Son), Bangor, watchmakers. Louis Desgardin, 
Bristol, jeweller. Clara Foord and Ellen Pickersgill (trading as 
J. B. Foord &: Son), Hastings, jewellers. 

Public Examinations. 
In the Country. — H. N. Ray, Brighton, watch-maker; February 9, at 11. 

F. J. Tyers, late Aston, Birmingham, jeweller : February 2, at 2. 
L. Desgardin, Bristol, jeweller ; February 10, at 12. Clara Foord and 
Ellen Pickersgill, Hastings, jewellers ; February 13, at 1. 

Adjudications. 
In the Country. — H. N. Ray, ^Brighton, watchmaker. D. Elias and J. 
Elias, Bangor, watchmakers. F. J. Tyers, Aston, Birmingham, 
jeweller. R. Stuart, Bolton, clock-spring maker. L. Desgardin, 
Bristol, jeweller. 

Notices of Dividends. 

In London.— W. Van Walwyk, Clerkenwell Road, diamond mounter ; 
3s. 10d., first and final ; any day except Saturday, Chief Official 
Receiver, 33, Carey Street. 

In the Country. — G. W. Barrow, late Cheltenham, jeweller ; 2s. 6d., first 
and final ; January 24, J. Villar. Cheltenham. J. Sutton (trading as 
J. P. Cutts, Sutton & Sons), Sheffield, optician ; 3s. 6d., first and 
final : W. H. Tasker, Sheffield. J. Sharpe (trading as J. Sharpe & 
Co.), Birmingham, wholesale jeweller; 3s. 3Ad., first and final; 77, 
Colmore Row, Birmingham. T. O. Judged Chard, clockmaker ; 
3s. 4d., first and final ; January 23, 17, Colmore Row, Birmingham. 

G. H. Simmons, Builth, jeweller ; 6^d., first and final ; January 27, 
Official Receiver, Llanidloes. 



APPLICATIONS FOR LETTERS PATENT. 



The following List of Patents has been compiled especially for The Watchmaker, 
Jeweller and Silversmith, by Messrs. W. P. Thompson & Boult, Patent Agents, 
of 323, High Holborn, London, W.C.; Newcastle Chambers, Angel Row, Notting- 
ham ; and 6, Lord Street, Liverpool. 

17.493. E. Kohn, a communication from Joseph Pallweber, Germany, for 
" Improvement in clocks." Dated December 20, 1887. 

17.494. J. H. Pollok, Glasgow, for '■ Improvements in the wet method of 
extracting gold from crushed ores or other finely divided auriferous 
material." Dated December 20, 1887. 

17.495. J. H. Pollok, Glasgow, for " Improvements in the wet method of 
extracting gold from crushed ores or other finely dividedaurif erous 
material. Dated December 20, 1887. 

17,582. E. F. H. H. Lauckert, London, for "Apparatus for indicating the 

time during which electricity is used for lighting or other 

purposes." Dated December 21, 1887. 
17,728. J. Wood, Birmingham, for "An improved, bracelet- fastening." 

Dated December 24, 1887. 
17,773. C. H. Bingham, London, for "Improvements in motive-power 

for clocks and similar apparatus." Dated December 27, 1887. 
4. T.Bauerle, London, for "Improvement in lamp locks." (Complete 

specification.) Dated January 2, 1888. 
289. W. Owston and F. Wilton, Forest Hill, for " 'Multum in parvo ' 

key case or combination key case pocket book, purse or knife." 

Dated January 7, 18S8. 
421. H. R. Lewis and 0. B. Phillips, London, for "Improvements 

relating to the extraction of metals from refractory, complex and 

other ores." Dated January 10, 18; 8. 
572. H. Forman, London, for " Improvements in shirt and collar studs, 

cuff studs, or solitaires and other dress fastenings andiornaments." 

Dated January 13, 1888. 
587. W. Becker, London for " Improvements in or pertaining to the 

casting of metal ingots." Dated January 13, 1888. 

661. A. Lugrin, London, for "Improvements in repeating watches." 
Dated January 16, 1888. 

662. A. Lugrin, London, for " Improvements in the striking mechanism 
of repeating watches." Dated January 16, 1888. 

765. E. L. Gyde, Birmingham, for "An improved night clock." 

Dated January 18, 1888. 
780. W. J. Mayell and A. R. Molison, Swansea, for " Improvements in 

pins for brooches and such like ornaments." Dated January 18, 

1888. 



804. 
835. 



M. Pulvermann, a communication from Carl Bohmeyer, Germany, 
for " Improvements in electric clocks." Dated January 18, 1888. 
C. R. Richardson, London, for " The making of a combination 
bracelet and purse in all metals." Dated January 19, 1888. 



Becent American Patents. 



Burnishing Machine. E. B. Allen 
Button. Collar. W. Scott 



H. Van Hoevenbergh 



Button or Stud. W. W. Covell 

Button or Stud. B. Lyon 

Button or Stud. G. W. Prentice 

Casket Handle. W.H.Blackford 

Castings. Device for Truing Metal. H. Runt; 

Chuck. B. F. Chappell 

Chuck. L. D. Jones 

Chuck, Drill. A. D. Goodell 

Chuck, Lathe. F. L. Gregory 

Clock Case. A. Bannatyne 

Clock Winding Mechanism. A.E.Hall ... 

Coffee Pot. W. A. Krag 

Cuff Holder. J. M. Bolton ... 
Dial, Timepiece. E. A. Lewis 
Electro Mechanical Movement 
Eyeglass Holder or Hook. VV. J. Rand 

Eyeglasses, Manufacture of Blanks for. H. Lenfant 

Files, Machine for Cutting Edges of Flat. C. M. Fairbanks ... 

Hammer Tool, Revolving Electric. W. G. A. Bonwill 

Horometer, Electrical. B. M. Hammond ... 

Jug Cover. E. A. Brownfield 

Lathe Tool Holder. J. L. Bogert 

Moulding Emery or other Plastic Wheels, Machine for. C. 

Heaton 

Music Box. L. Campiche 

Music Box Motor. C. H. Jacot 

Musical Box. O. P. Lochman i. 

Musical Instrument, Automatic. J. McTammany 

Riveting Machine. C. Hall 

Rolling Machine. Metal. Bagaley & Hainsworth 

Sheet Metal, Ornamentation of. F.Rudolph 

Tag, Jewellers'. E. S. Burbank 

Tap Hole Closer. T. A. Taylor 

Temperature Controller. R. Newton .. 

Temperature Indicator, Electric. J. C. Boyle ... 

Tools to their Handles, Device for Securing Edged. T. H. Neal 
Tooth Crowns. Instrument for Forming. H. W. VVatkins 

'Watch Case Spring. A. Humbert 

Watch, Stem-winding. S. C. Smith 

Watches and Clocks, Mainspring Brace and Fastener for. 

C. T. Higginbotham 



374,885 
374,429 
374,115 
374,336 
374,626 
374,110 
373,855 
374,732 
374,743 
374,593—374,594 



374,405 
374,516 
374,061 
374,603 
374,579 
374,605 
374,883 
374,702 
374,546 
374,051 
374,580 
373,975 
374,238 
373,878 

374,065 
374,394 
374,410 
374,127 
374,616 
373,891 
374,335 
374,559 
374,823 
374,855 
374,847 
374,581 
374,369 
374.382 
374,535 
374,760 

374,359 



A printed copy of the specifications and drawing of any patent 
in the American list, also of any American patent issued since 
1866, will be furnished from this office for 2s. 6d. In ordering, 
please state the number and date of the patent required, and 
remit to J. Truslove, Office of The Watchmaker, Jeweller and 
Silversmith, 7, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C. 



(Correspondence. 

All Letters for Publication to be addressed to the Editor of The 
Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith, 7, St. PauVs Church- 
yard, E.C. 

All communications must bear the name and address of the sender, not 
necessarily for publication, but as a yuarantee of good faith. 



To the. Editor of The Watchmaker, Jeweller arid 
Silversmith. 

[IMPORTANT REGULATIONS WITH REGARD TO 

THE HALL-MARKING OF SAVISS WATCHES 

INTENDED FOR THE ENGLISH MARKET.] 

Sir, — The Swiss Government have lately passed a Law with 
reference to Watch Cases which seems to me of considerable 
importance to the British Manufacturer. 

I have therefore had a translation made, and I send you a 
copy in case you should think well to insert a notice thereof in 
your journal. 

Walter S. Prideaux. 

Goldsmiths' Hall, London, E.C, January 23, 1888. 



DECEMBER 24, 18S7. 

THE SWISS FEDERAL COUNCIL 

In virtue of Art. 1 of the Federal Law concerning the control and 
guarantee of the standard of gold and silver wares of December 23. 
1880, and of Art. 8 of the Executive Ordinance of May 17, 1881, 



126 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[February 1, 1888. 



And making, moreover, use of the powers conferred upon them by the 
complementary disposition added by the Federal Law of December 21, 
1886, to Art. 2 of the Federal Law of December 23, 1880. 

On the proposition of the Federal Board of Trade and Agriculture 
Decrees : — 

1. — For gold watch cases bearing the 18-carat or 0*753 standard mark 
or both these marks together, and for silver watch cases bearing the 
standard mark 0*935 or sterling silver 0*935, marking is obligatory. 

The signs indicating the standard must be encircled. 

2. — Gold and silver watch cases intended for England and bearing 
either of the above standard marks, cannot receive the official stamp 
unless the assaying practised on each proves that they really are in their 
entirety, as well as in all their component parts, including the inner caps, 
of the described standard, under reservation of the dispositions of Art. -1 
of the Regulations of May 17, 1881 with regard to ornaments placed on 
the exterior. 

The stamping of bow-rings is obligatory. 

3. — The manufacturer who presents for stamping, watch cases intended 
for export to England, must make express mention of the same upon the 
declaration required by Art. 2 of the Regulations of May 17, 1881. 

4. — The marking (stamping) of the articles mentioned sub. Art. 2 of 
the present decree must be done in the following manner : — 

For the standard 18-carat gold or 0*755: by two imprints of the 
stamp, " Large Helvetia," and one imprint of the stamp, " Small 
Helvetia." 

For the standard of 0*935 silver : by two imprints of the stamp. 
"Large Bear," and one imprint of the stamp, " Small Bear."' 

These imprints must be stamped on the inside of the cases. Instruc- 
tions from the Federal Board of Trade will determine in a precise 
manner the way in which the indication of the standard and the assay 
marks shall be placed, so as to form a regular and uniform design. 

Gold bow-rings destined for cases of the 0*755 standard, and silver 
bow-rings destined for cases of the 0*935 standard shall bear, the former 
two imprints of the stamp, " Small Helvetia," the latter, two imprints 
of the stamp, "Small Bear." 

As to the stamping of all other parts of the case the existing disposi- 
tions remain in force. 

5. — If gold or silver cases which have been presented to be assayed, 
are not of the standard indicated thereon, due consideration being 
given to the margin allowed by Art. 2 of the law of December 23, 1880. 
the assay offices shall proceed according to the legal dispositions. 

6. — The present decree comes into force immediately. 



DECEMBER 27, 18S7. 
INSTRUCTIONS TO THE ASSAY OFFICES. 

Art. 4 of the decree of the Federal Council, dated December 24, 1887, 
with regard to the control and marking of gold and silver watch cases 
intended for export to England, prescribes that the Federal Board of 
Trade shall issue instructions as to the manner in which the indications 
of the standard and the official marks (stamps) shall be placed, so as to 
form a regular and uniform design. 

We have the honour to give you in the present circular, the instruc- 
tions referred to. 

1. Indication of Standard. 

The standard shall be indicated in conformity with the following 
designs : — 



for gold P°,™ 18 C 


ou 


0.755 


ou 
encore 


18 C 




0.755 






























for silver P° ur . 
1 argent 


0.935 


ou 


Sterling Sil 

0.935 


E R 


OU 

encore 


0.935 


Sterling Silver 



2. Marking (Stamping). 

For gold : two imprints of the "Large Helvetia," and one imprint of 
the "Small Helvetia." 

For silver : two imprints of the " Large Bear," and one imprint of the 
" Small Bear " shall be the characteristics of the marking as prescribed 
by the above decree. 

The respective marks are to be arranged so as to form a triangle, at the 
top angle of which the small mark shall be placed, the two large marks 
being placed at the base ; the marks shall be 3 millimetres apart from 
each other. 

We give below designs of this mode of marking. 

The lids (covers) of cut hunters (boites guichet) shall bear on the top, 
under the pendant, the signs showing the standard, and below, above the 
joint, the three official marks. 

It is optional, according to the decree of the Federal Council of 
December 24, 1887, to present for assay bow-rings with the cases or 
separately, but the marking of bow-rings being obligatory for this kind 
of cases, those of which the bow-rings should not be marked would be 
considered irregular. 

■_ The two imprints which bow-rings must bear shall be placed on each 
side of the maker's mark. 



3. Composition of the Mode of Marking. 
Or (Gold.) 



18 C 



0.755 



18 C 



0.755 



Argent (Silver.) 



0.935 



SterlingSilver 

935 



0.935 



SterlingSilver 



Dear Sir, — In the Report on the watches rated here last 
year, printed on page 104 of your present volume, there is a 
misprint in the table, which I shall be obliged if you will kindly 
call attention to. 

The watches Nos. 13 and 14 on the list should have the 
maker's name Jos. White not Jas. White, the depositor being 
the same as the manufacturer named higher up as the successful 
competitor for the premier position. 

Yours faithfully, 

G. M. Whipple, Superintendent. 

Kew Observatory, Richmond, Surrey. January 25, 1888. 



Buyers' $ui6e. 



The Sheffield Smelting Company, Sheffield, Sell Gold and Silver 
(pure and alloyed). Buy all materials containing Gold and Silver. 

Jones, E. A., Wholesale Manufacturer of Whitby Jet Ornaments. A 
Large Assortment of the Newest Patterns always in Stock. Export 
Orders promptly executed. Persons not having an account open 
will avoid delay by forwarding a reference with their order. 
Customers' Matchings and Repairs with despatch. 93, Hatton Garden, 
London, E.C. 

W. Scott Hayward & Co., 59, Deansgate, and Barton Arcade 
Manchester. Wholesale Jet Ornament Manufacturers, Jet Cameo 
Cutters and Rough Jet Merchants. Approval parcels sent on receipt 
of order, if accompanied with trade references. Repairs and matchings 
executed on the day received. Works : Manchester and Whitby. 
Agents at Liverpool, Leipzig and Paris. < 

WANTED. 
TTALY.— A FIRST - RATE MERCANTILE FIRM, 

JL travelling regularly over the whole peninsula — Sicily, Malta and 
Tunis — with large experience and extensive connections in the Jewellery, 
Watch and Clock line, is open to enter into correspondence with some 
Important Manufacturer for the Sale of their Goods in the above 
quarters. References of the highest standing, — Please address, A. A., 
110, Naples. — [Advt.] 



TO BE SOLD. 
-WATCHMAKER'S, JEWELLER'S and SILVER- 

VV SMITH'S BUSINESS.— Established over 100 years in good 
Agricultural and Training Districts. Stock moderate, and can be 
reduced. — For particulars, apply to Mrs. J. Staniland, Malton, Yorks. 
[Advt.] 

WATCH MANUFACTURING BUSINESS, for sale 

V V of Superior Goods only ; established 35 years, with good Jobbing 
Trade attached, extending over England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. 
Incoming can be reduced to Two or Three Hundred Pounds, chiefly or 
quite covered by goods, comprising movements, material, tools, <kc. 
Owner no objection to remain two or three years to part work at 
finishing or assist in any way required. Age only reason for wishing to 
decline business. — Address Manufacturer, Office of this Journal.— 
[Advt.] 






$4\<e> 



{XJatcl^akcr, jeweller 
1 0il x/ersn^itl^. 



Entered at Stationers' Hall."] 



Edited by D. GLASGOW, Jun. 



[Registered for Transmission Abroad. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 9.] 



MARCH 1, 1888. 



I" Subscription, 5s. ( Post 
|_ per Annum. ( Free. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Editorial 127 

General Notes 128 

Trade Notes 129 

Birmingham News. From Our Correspondent. (Illustrated) 130 

The Merchandise Marks Act 131 

The English Hall-Mark upon Foreign Watch Cases 131 

Lord Salisbury on The Merchandise Marks Act ... 132 

Fraud on Messrs. Grant & Peake 132 

The Theory of Adjustment. By M. L. Lossier. /'Illustrated)... 133 

New Book 134 

Ancient Microscopes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 134 

The Lever Escapement. By M. L.-A. Grosclaude. (Illustrated) 135 

Annual Trial of Chronometers, 1887 137 

On the New Artificial Rubies. By. George F. Kunz. (Illustrated) 137 

Gazette 139 

Applications for Letters Patent 139 

Becent American Patents ... ... ... 140 

Correspondence .. ... 140 

Buyers' Guide ... 140 



Che "Watchmaker, jeweller anft 
Siluersmith. 



A Monthly Journal devoted to the interests of Watchmakers, 
Jewellers, Silversmiths and kindred traders. 

Subscription. — A copy of the Journal will be sent monthly for one 
year, post free, to any address in the United Kingdom or countries in the 
Postal Union for 5s. payable in advance. 

Advertisements. — The rates for advertising will be sent on appli- 
cation. The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith will be found 
an exceptional medium for advertising. Special Notices, Situations, &c, 
per insertion, is. for two lines, prepaid. 

Correspondence.— Correspondence is invited on all matters of interest 
to the trade. Correspondents will please give their full address in each 
communication, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of 
good faith. 

Address all business communications to 

THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & SILVERSMITH, 
7, ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD, 

LONDON, E.C. 

Cheques and Postal Orders to be crossed a?id made payable to J. TRUSLOVE. 



Agent for the Australian Colonies : 

EVAN JONES, 
Hunter Street and Royal Arcade, Sydney, N.S.W. 



Editorial. 




HE vagaries of public clocks is a theme upon which 
writers might have descanted and horologists 
waxed poetical. 

The feelings engendered, however, by these misleading libellers 
of old Chronos have usually found expression hitherto in that 
form of deprecable profanity (which has no direct application) 
evoked from persons of highly nervous temperament by any 
unwonted excitation consequent on disappointment generally ; 
and we are not aware that it is on record that any much more 
practical method of evincing disapproval of the irregularities 
referred to has ever been taken, except in a few isolated cases. 
As regards those people who live in the vicinity of public 
clocks, their want o f concurrence in their behaviour is manifested 
in a precisely similar (but possibly more passive) manner, with 
the addition of a strong disinclination to contribute their quota 
for the repair and maintenance of the same. 

That such a subject should be neglected by writers is the 
more surprising in that it contains elements of originality which 
might be utilised collaterally and eloquently developed ; but the 
negative result is mainly to be deplored on account of the 
excellent opportunity which has been missed of adding to the 
fasciculus of horological literature a unique contribution, which 
might have been treated without any regard to chronological 
order. 

As compared with the larger Continental towns, London is 
vastly worse off in regard to a uniform system of public time ; 
while our own provincial towns are likewise far ahead of the 
metropolis. 

As we are referring here only to the larger public clocks, 
we shall say nothing about the various existing synchronising 
systems, although doubtless some of them could be adapted, 
if desirable, to the control of turret clocks. What we would 
draw attention to is the unsatisfactory state of things which 
leaves the provision and distribution of public time in incom- 
petent and irresponsible hands. Take, for example, our parish 
church clocks ; most if not all of them have been purchased out 



128 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[March 1, 1888. 



The inquiry into the working of the Merchandise Marks 
Act by the London Chamber of Commerce has not, according 
to accounts received from all sides, been undertaken one minute 
too soon; and it is to be hoped that, as watchmaking is the 
only manufacturing industry which has been directly interfered 
with by special clauses in the Act, special attention is being, 
or will be, directed to its effect on and application to that 
industry. 

An accepted doctrine in modern Parliamentary procedure has 
been that protective and repressive legislation is dead ; yet the 
Merchandise Marks Act, it' applied literally, would have the 
effect of severely handicapping English watchmakers in their 
competition with foreign producers — like all special Acts of 
Parliament, a good deal depends on the mode in which it is 
interpreted and administered. 

But although the ethics of watchmakers are so patemallv 
cared for by the Act, watchmaking is by no means the only 
trade affected ; and as, happily, the shipping trades' interests 
are so seriously threatened by recent exploits of the Customs 
authorities, the former stand some chance of being relieved 
from some of their present disabilities. 

We give in another column the translation of a letter from 

an officer of Customs to the Swiss Horological Journal, while 

the following is a list of a few only (as stated) of the seizures 

effected at the port of Harwich during two days of last month, 

as given by the correspondent of a contemporary : — 

Buttons marked " Not metal," metal buttons marked " The fashion," 
trinkets marked ■' Rivetted Jet Trinkets," buttons marked ''Superior 
quality," cards marked " By Boyal Letters Patent," portions of sewing 
machines marked " Trade Mark Patent," buttons marked " Winged 
Crown," lamp wick marked " Super quality," toys bearing labels marked 
in English words, lace . described " Oriental lace," clocks marked "Eight 
days' strike clock," case of gold leaf marked '• Deep gold," knives marked 
" Superior cutlery," scissors with the word " Bleckmann," tools marked 
" H. Boker's best," paints marked " W. Bell & Co., Bombay," telephone in- 
struments marked " Telephone Manufacturing Company," buttons called 
" Pearl buttons," cigar-ash trays bearing the English words, " Gentlemen 
are requested not to drop any cigar ashes on the floor, By order of the 
lady of the house;" metal buttons labelled "Fast shanks," sewing 
machines stamped " Wiseman's hand-stitch sewing machines," jewel cases 
with cartoons marked " Brooch cases," " Earring cases," clocks labelled 
on the cartoons " The Darwin 30-hour timepiece," clocks marked " Bade- 
win clock manufactory," clocks marked " F. V," egg beaters stamped 
'! Dover egg beater" and the words " Great American." 
. The following goods seized are all of German make, those described 
above being German, Swiss, Austrian, Sec, combined : — 



of the rates — yet, what control have the ratepayers, as a rule, 
over these clocks ? It was only the other day that a body of 
the Southwark vestrymen tried to shirk the responsibility of 
paying for the winding of the parish church clock (which 
payment, by the way, is the only connexion the vestry has with 
the clock), which was originally paid for by the ratepayers. 
This is obviously wrong, and is alike opposed to technical and j 
public interests and common sense. Every public clock should 
be under the immediate control of the_ public. We go further: 
Every clock in the metropolis of obvious public utility should be 
brought under the control of the public. In the absence of a 
central controlling body, surely horology is of sufficient im- 
portance in the metropolis to be able to secure local repre- 
sentation in vestrydom. 



Buttons marked "Eagle make," tooth brushes marked " Extra fine," 
glass inkstands bearing the label " Inkstands," pins labelled " Pins." 

Whether the Act is to result in a permanent benefit or 
otherwise to the trade is, as we have before pointed out, entirely 
dependent on the manner in which it is acted upon. The above 
is a slight indication of the present state of the official mind on 
the -subject. 



Senerat Notes. 



rJTHE Birmingham gold and silver spectacle makers have 
'^§ resolved to form a trade protection association, in order to 
endeavour to raise the price of the work and to look after 
the sreneral interest of the trade. 



During the winter ten tons of coal per day are said to be used 
at the Waltliam Watch Factory. 



A syndicate has decided to erect a gold-smelting works at 
Burryport, Carmarthenshire for the purpose of smelting gold. 
Several hundred workmen will," it is said, be employed in the 
smelting. 

Mr. David Glasgow, Sen., has resigned the vice-president- 
ship of the Horological Institute, as a protest against the last 
half-yearly meeting overriding his ruling at the annual general 
meeting last year, with respect to the election of officers. 



Notice is given by the Hydrographer that the time signals at 
Mount Wise, Devonport, now consist of a ball and gun, both 
automatically worked by a standard clock, which is daily syn- 
chronised with Greenwich by means of the electric telegraph. 



The second lecture of. the Third Course of Cantor Lectures at 
the Society of Arts on the Modern Microscope (being a con- 
tinuation of the recent course of Cantor Lectures on the " Mi- 
croscope,") will be delivered on the 5th inst. by John ilayall, 
Junr. 



The Board of Trade returns issued last month show that the 
imports for January amounted to £34,802,988, an increase of 
£3,755,566 as compared with the same month last year. The 
exports for January amounted to £18,583,671, or an increase of 
£774,936 as compared witli January, 1887. 



By decree of the Minister, Mons. A. H. Rodanet, President 
of the Paris Syndical Chamber of Horology, Officer of the 
Legion of Honour, &c, has been nominated Officer of Public 
Instruction, and Mons. Albert Villon, Mayor of St. Nicolas 
d'Aliermont, has been appointed Officer of the Academy. 



A gentleman of the name of James Moran, who made his 
way into the kitchen of a house in Gloucester Place, Marylebone, 
and was seen by a page who came down the steps to take up a 
silver mug, worth £5, explained at the Middlesex Sessions that 
he was a dealer in old clothes, and merely took up the mug out 
of curiosity. He was sentenced to three months' imprisonment. 



The will of the late Mr. Thomas Jessop, whose death we 
alluded to in our January issue, for many years head of the 
firm of William Jessop & Sons, engaged at Sheffield exclusively 
in the manufacture of steel, was proved last month. The gross 
value of the personal estate in England is sworn at £656,449. 
The probate duty amounted to £19,626. The value of the 
personalty in America is not yet ascertained. Mr. Jessop had, 
in addition, large freehold estates. He leaves £4,000 to the 
Jessop Hospital' for Women, which he erected at a cost of £30,000. 



March 1, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



129 



James Taylor, alias Bearder, who was arrested in December 
on a charge of being concerned in a robbery at Melbourne, in 
which jewellery of the value of £1,000 was stolen, was on 
February 6 brought before the Birmingham magistrates, and, in 
the absence of the prosecutor, was released on his own recogni- 
sances, the police detaining about £200 worth of stolen property 
which was found in the prisoner's possession. 



Fifteen stamps were at work during last month, at Mr. 
Pritchard Morgan's gold mines at Dolgelly, and crushing opera- 
tions are now in full play. An Australian gold miner who has 
paid a visit to the Dolgelly mines says he believes the average 
yield will be about 6ozs. to the ton. He says the mistake the 
first prospectors made was to confine their attention practically to 
the surface. The deepest shaft hitherto sunk is 140 feet, but it 
is Mr. Pritchard Morgan's intention to descend GOO or 700 feet. 



The Depreciation of Silver. — In the House of Commons 
last month the Chancellor of the Exchequer, in reply to Mr. 
Kimber, said he could not anticipate his Budget statement by 
indicating the intention of the Government with respect to the 
laws relating to the manufacture and sale of articles of silver 
plate in the United Kingdom, with a view to remove all 
hindrances to the consumption of the raw material, silver, for 
manufacturing purposes. 



A number of competitive designs and models for the gift from 
the Corporation of the City of London to the Prince and Princess 
of Wales on the occasion of their silver wedding have, says The 
Standard, been submitted to the authorities, who have selected 
that of Messrs. Elkington & Co., (Limited). They have been 
ordered to produce a model in silver of the Imperial Institute, 
at a cost of five hundred guineas, which it is intended to present 
to- the Princess of Wales in March next; 



Mr. W. F. Nye of oleaginous renown, has just completed 
his new vial filler, upon which he was granted a United States' 
patent two years ago. The machine consists of a brass plate, 
covered by an enclosed pan, which has ; 144 tubes leading from 
it to the same number of bottles, every bottle being filled exactly 
alike, as each tube is fitted with a self-acting lever, which 
regulates the filling, The filler is arranged for one, two and three 
ounce bottles, and, it is said, thirty gross can be filled in one 
hour. 



Since my last, says " Anglo-Australian " in the European 
Mail, some of the rubies which have been sent from South 
Australia have been shown to the Agent-General. Although 
not equal to the famous pigeon blood hue of the best gems, they 
are really very fine stones, and may be taken as coming between 
a Burmese and a Siamese ruby. There can be no doubt of 
their genuineness, for they have been carefully tested by a degree 
of heat that, were they only ruby garnets, would have reduced 
them to nothingness.' The lowest price of these stones is 40s. 
a carat. By the way, I suppose everybody knows that the ruby 
is only a red sapphire. 



The case of Howard v. Clarke, heard last month before 
Justices Mathew and Smith, was an appeal from the decision of 
a County Court in a case which was the first of the kind under 
the Pawnbrokers' Act of 1872. Some time ago a massive gold 
horse-shoe pin, set with seven diamonds, was stolen from someone 
in the neighbourhood of Nottingham. The police sent printed 
descriptions of the pin to the pawnbrokers. The plaintiff pre- 
sented one he had got from a publican at the shop of the 
defendant, a pawnbroker, and the latter, thinking the article 
answered the police description, gave the plaintiff into custody. 
It turned out that the plaintiff acted bond fide, and that the pin 
he presented was not the stolen one. The plaintiff sued the 
defendant for false imprisonment, and the jury gave him a verdict 
for £25, on the ground that the pawnbroker acted without 
reasonable ground for suspicion. The Court sustained the 
appeal, holding that there was no evidence of want of reasonable 
suspicion. ... ". 



The Diamond Market. — Although business has so far been 
better than it was this time last year, there is nothing very 
phenomenal, being done. Medium quality goods sell best, but 
the prices to be obtained are very low, and the Dutch organ of 
the diamond trade says it requires a thorough knowledge of rough 
to guard against losses being incurred. 

All the factories are going. 

.The buyers at Paris are mostly looking out for bargains on 
spec. There is a demand for the best stones, but prices offered 
are low. 

The "Pembroke Castle," "Spartan," " Roslin Castle" and 
" Tartar " arrived at Plymouth during the month, and the 
London market has been very active, many foreign buyers are 
here and important sales have been effected. The prices coming 
from the fields are very firm at a somewhat higher rate. 

Latest from Kimberley report increased activity, all classes of 
goods in demand. Home reports encouraging, and shipments 
profitable. 

Silver. — Bars, 44^d. ; Mexican dollars, 42fd. 



iTrabe iNotes. 



JgtpR. A. W. NEWBOLD, Junior, of 37, Spencer Street, 
^Yg§b E.C., requests us to state (in connection with our recent 
note respecting the award of prize medals at the Ap- 
prentices' Exhibition at Mile End), that the first-class silver 
medal for excellence of workmanship was gained by one of his 
apprentices. 

The "Silver Wedding" jewellery of Mr. J. N. Masters, Rye, 
Sussex, should also not escape the attention of jewellers The 
designs are of marked originality and artistic merit ; they 
consist of various appropriate combinations of the national 
emblems : Rose, Shamrock and Thistle ; Prince of Wales' 
Feathers, &e, with suitable mottoes. 



We call the attention of those manufacturers who are now 
seeking for a means of a more systematic and economic produc- 
tion of watches, to the new catalogue of the American firm of 
Messrs. Mosely & Co., of Elgin, Illinois, which is now before us. 
It contains a complete list of the lathes and adjuncts (on the 
well-known "Whitcomb" principle) manufactured by the 
Company, with other details that cannot fail to be instructive. 



We have received from Messrs. Vaughton, of Gothic Works, 
Birmingham, their new illustrated catalogue and price list. 
Although the firm point out the impossibility of including every 
article they manufacture among the illustrations in the catalogue, 
the latter is very complete in this respect, and jewellers doing 
business in sporting localities with athletic clubs, etc., would do 
well to obtain it, before completing stocks for the forthcoming 
season. 

The Report of the Directors of Messrs. Perry & Co. is just 
published. After deducting the usual payments amounting to 
£9,645, and adding the balance from last year, £475, there is 
shown to remain a balance of £13,523, with which it is proposed, 
after carrying £2,000 to the reserve fund, to pay> a dividend at 
the rate of 5 per cent, on Preference and 10 per cent, on 
Ordinary shares for the year, the latter of which is the same as 
that paid for the last four years. 



The celebration of the Prince of Wales' silver wedding is 
likely to produce as much stir in the fancy trades as did the 
past year of jubilation, and signs are visible in many directions 
of designers turning their attention to the fact. Among various 
specialties that have come under our notice, some very effective 
and elegant designs in photograph frames may be mentioned as 
deserving attention. They are called " The Prince and Princess" 
and .are manufactured by Messrs. King & Sons, Goswell Road, 
E.C. 



130 



THE WATCH MAKEE, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[March 1, 1888. 



Messrs. Nicole Freres have on one of their price lists a 
quotation from the press to the effect that the difference between 
a musical box made by them, and one of common construction, 
is as great as that between an "Erard" pianoforte and one of 
those which Mr. Middlewick, in " Our "Boys" would professionally 
pronounce to be a "Shop 'un." Certainly, some of the later 
productions of this firm are models of finish and development in 
many ways, perhaps the greatest advance being that of inter- 
changeable cylinders, by means of which, what is practically a 
new musical box is obtainable at a small cost The extra cylinders 
are contained in a drawer in the box and can be readily changed 
at will by inexperienced persons. 



Birmingham News, 



From Our Correspondent. 



'fifjflS proverbial that every black cloud has its silver lining, 
^M§ and although the lining is not always visible, it is certainly 
consoling to accept the proverb as a fact to be proved 
sooner or later. The black cloud floating in the commercial 
sky of the jewellers' quarter is the fact that another manufacturer 
has filed his petition for liquidation, and to add to the blackness, 
there is a considerable amount of gossip abroad to the effect that 
there are others following, which piece of gossip may or may not 
have some foundation ; in fact, 'tis a weakness of the business 
man — this disposition to prophecy — and it always seems to be 
most rampant when it would be best if kept in the background, 
for although coming events may cast their shadows before them, 
yet shadows are very unstable things, and seldom prove anything 
better than a Will-o'-the-Wisp to those unfortunate travellers 



I have before me a price list of French optical goods for- 
warded to me this morning by the manufacturer direct from 
Paris, and there are some wonderfully cheap lines in opera 
glasses, field and marine glasses, spectacles, &c. It would be 
worth while some of our makers who are suffering so keenly from- 
this fact, making a deeper study of the matter. Why should 
the Frenchman be able to produce so much cheaper an article ? 
Do we really know why ? I am aware that numerous reasons 
are given, but are they the actual whys and wherefores of 
the case ? Why can the foreigner live so much cheaper than we 
can ? I am being informed that this is so daily, but I should 
like a little more actual proof of the fact. 

* * * 

I am constantly advising my jeweller friends and acquaintances 
who express the difficulty that they find in getting really new 
designs, to go to nature and make a closer study of her never- 
exhausted supply ; and if they will add to this a search after any 
art work of ancient nations or tribes of people, they will often be 
rewarded for their trouble. By the kindness of Mr. Dent, the 
Librarian of the Aston Free Library, I was able to make a close 
inspection of a small collection of some native handicraft, produced 
by the Australian Aborigines, at present on loan to the Library 
Committee, and was surprised to find a real work of art in the 
shape of a calabash knife ; it is very much like a modern paper 
knife in shape and would do very well for the purpose ; the 
handle, which is carved with some very quaint and appropriate 
detail — all the ornamentation being of such a nature as to assist 
in holding it firmly in the hand — is turned at a different angle to 
the blade, which gives the holder greater power when using it, 
and the article as a whole leaves little to be desired, and certainly 
contains a good many lessons applicable to modern work. I was 
unable to make a drawing of it at the time, but hope to be able 
to trespass upon the generosity of the owner so far as to do so at 
some future time. 




who are sufficiently credulous to believe all that they may chance 
to hear. The silver lining consists of the fact that the present 
catastrophe is not due purely and simply to bad trade, so much 
as to bad trading — obtaining customers by means of champagne 
suppers and other expensive and unbusiness-like performances, 
which never ends in a steady and reliable connection, as too 
many bad business men have already found to their cost. It is 
the steady, non-drinking, early-to-bed and early-to-rise part of 
the community that make money and pay their debts, while 
others are floundering through the bankruptcy court and com- 
plaining of bad trade. There are a good few of the steady, 
hard-working manufacturers still fairly busy, making overtime, 
and their men getting decent wages — these are they who go 
with the times and adopt new methods of working, new designs, 
and plenty of healthy activity. 



Constant complaints of foreign cheap goods coming into the 
markets and causing a downward tendency in prices are still 
floating about, but we have the remedy in our own hands, as 
foreign goods stand a small chance of being sold as English 
make (thanks to the Merchandise Marks Act) ; let every 
Englishman be true to the cause and refuse to buy foreign 
manufactured articles. For instance, a number of the jewellers 
prefer French tools to our own make because they are cheaper. 
Suppose the public take a fancy to French jewellery — where are 
you then ? Oh ! Birmingham working men, say no more about 
your foreign competitors as long as you are so inconsistent ; you 
have the cure in your own hands, but if you will feed the 
foreigner you must not be surprised that he is willing to live upon 
you ; and yet you have a greater power in your own hands than 
any protective tariff could possibly wield. 



The " Precious Stone " dealers are all more or less suffering: 
by the failures of manufacturing houses ; as they give long 
credit, their accounts generally assume large proportions ; losses 
are correspondingly heavy and dividends of three and sixpence 
in the pound are something like equal to total loss. Some of 
them have been very " badly hit " lately, and long faces and 
short purses are the inevitable consequences. 
* * * 

I have been able at the last moment to make a drawing of 
the calabash knife referred to above. 



Copper. — Great attraction, says a contemporary, is still 
centred in the copper market and the doings of the so-called 
French Syndicate, and prices are continually fluctuating. Under 
the circumstances, it is not surprising that consumers show no 
inclination to purchase except in such quantities as are for the 
moment required. Throughout the country the stocks of 
consumers have been very materially encroached upon of late, 
and are consequently getting low, so that much anxiety is being 
experienced in several quarters as to the probable state of the 
market a little time hence. There seems to be almost a general 
want of confidence in either the legitimacy or permanence of the 
rise, and the prevailing opinion is that prices will gradually drop 
until about £60 is reached for Chili bars. To show the uncertain 
state of the market and fluctuation' of prices, it may be noted 
that in the early part of the last week of January one morning 
it was reported that transactions had taken place at £79, sharp 
cash ; but, while at first there were appearances of higher prices 
during the day, £77 7s. 6d., sharp cash, was the price about 
middle day, and the afternoon was rather quiet, metal changing 
hands at £75 5s. At the close of the week prices were 
£73 12s. Qd. at one month, or £73 7s. 6d. cash. 



March 1, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



131 



iLhe Jfterchanoise Httarhs Act. 



^IiWHE official treatise on the Act by Mr. Howard Payn is 
l^g 1 now in the hands of the officers of the various Customs 
Houses. With regard to marks on goods which may be 
taken to indicate the place of origin, and which have up to the 
present been so little understood, Mr. Payn says : — 

" The indication of origin may be direct or indirect. With 
regard to direct false indication of origin the matter is simple 
enough. If knives are imported marked Sheffield, when they 
have been manufactured in Germany, it will constitute fraud. In 
the case of indirect indications of origin, the matter is less 
simple. The use of the English language in descriptions, such 
as 'superfine make,' in goods coming from a foreign-speaking 
country would be a false indication unless accompanied by a 
counter-statement. The same observation applies to the use of 
single words, such as ' patent,' ' registered,' or ' warranted,' 
or English measures such as yards, feet, inches, or dozens, or 
abbreviations of such words. Words which might imply manu- 
facture by English firms, such as ' and Co.' if the goods came 
from a foreign-speaking 'country, would also require a definite 
indication of manufacture abroad. As an instance of false 
indications in foreign languages, the description ' Paris mode ' 
on goods brought from Germany would clearly be a misdescrip- 
tion, but such words would be legal if the goods came from 
France. Besides the use of the English language there may be 
other indirect indications, such as V.R., the Royal Arms, the 
Queen's Crown, the Lion of Scotland, the Harp of Ireland, or 
similar devices implying a national character. Such marks on 
goods of foreign origin must have some counter-statement, such 
as ' manufactured abroad ' added to prevent an infringement of 
the Act. With regard to goods from America or other English- 
speaking country, in the case of towns having similar names to 
towns in this country, the place of origin must be distinctly 
indicated. The letters ' U.S.A.' would be a sufficient indication 
in the case of such American towns. 

" False descriptions as to mode of manufacture or as to the 
material of which goods are composed, such as goods marked 
' hand-made ' when they are really machine-made, or ' cast-steel ' 
when they are merely run metal, would render them liable to 
detention on importation, but, as a general rule, the Customs 
would only detain them upon information by persons affected." 

Dealing with Sections 7 and 8 which refer especially to 
watches, he says : — 

" The directions to be observed in applying the new law relate 
to — (a) Watch cases with assay marks imported alone ; (b) like 
watch cases imported with the watches— that is to say, watches 
of foreign manufacture in them. If the cases are wholly un- 
marked, or are duly marked in accordance with the Order in 
Council, or with a foreign assay mark, and there is not in 
addition any wording on any part of the case proper, or on the 
dome, indicating make or produce in the United Kingdom, the 
goods may be delivered. If, on the other hand, there is any 
such wording the goods must be detained and the matter referred 
to the Board. If the cases are marked with the British hall- 
mark, as placed on watch cases made in the United Kingdom, the 
goods will be detained unless they are entered as ' British goods 
brought back,' in which case they will be admitted under the 
usual regulations, (c) If the cases are wholly unmarked or are 
marked either in accordance with the Order in Council, or with 
a foreign assay mark, or with a British assay mark as placed on 
a watch case made in the United Kingdom, and with an equally 
conspicuous statement of make abroad as regards the watch 
itself, either above or below the assay mark, and if there is no 
wording either as an addition on the case or dome or upon the 
watch itself, whether on the dial, or on the plate, or any part of 
the works, indicating make or produce in the United Kingdom, 
then the goods will be delivered. If, on the other hand, there 
is any such wording the goods will be detained, and the matter 
referred to the Board. Jf the cases are marked with a British 
assay mark as placed on a watch. case made in the United King- 
dom, and with no statement of foreign make on the case, as 
required, they will be detained as a seizure unless there is upon 



the dial of each watch, and also on the top plate (where the 
watch is of that construction) or on the bottom plate, visibly 
between the ' bridges,' an indelible and definite indication of the 
place or country of manufacture. Such a definition should 
contain the name of the place or country of origin ; if, in 
addition, it contains the name of a place in the United 
Kingdom, as, for instance, ' Geneva and London,' or if 
there is anywhere on the watch an indication by figures, 
words, or otherwise that the watch might be the make of 
the United Kingdom, then in addition to the name of place 
of origin there must be a distinct statement that the watches 
were there made." 



iLhe English Hall-jRarh upon Foreign 
liUatch itases. 



^|]NDER the above heading the Journal Suisse d' 1 Horlogerie 
I publishes a letter from a correspondent, of which the fol- 
lowing is a translation : — 

Mr. Editor, — Being Swiss — and, as such, having at heart the interests 
of my country, I should like, if possible, to give some information to 
those of my compatriots doing business with England. 

Being employed in an English custom house, I am astonished at the 
quantity of merchandise which our little Switzerland sends here ; but 
that which astonishes me still more is to see these goods, which, nearly 
all, do honour to the country which produces them, arrive here without 
marks or makers' names. 

The French goods we receive here nearly all bear the name and 
address of the makers, and I think, Mr. Editor, that the English goods 
which you receive in Switzerland bear the name of English makers. 
Why are our Swiss afraid of making themselves known ? It is what I 
do not understand. 

Since the new law upon Merchandise Marks has been in force in 
England, I have seen many confiscations here. I think that our Swiss 
makers do not well understand all the aims of this law. 

Lately we have received many cases of Swiss-made watches, the covers 
bearing a mark similar to the adjoining. It is not necessary to tell you 




that these watches have been immediately confiscated for two reasons ; 
firstly, the alloy - 800 is not of sterling silver, and the English public is 
not supposed to know that there is any other silver than sterling silver ; 
secondly, Warranted Silver are two English words, and nothing upon 
the watch indicates its place of origin ; consequently, these two English 
words may very well denote that the watch has been made in England 
and be sold as such. 

Other watches received here had neither English nor Swiss marks, 
but were marked Patent Chronograph ; again two English words, and 
nothing to denote the place of origin of the watch, consequently they 
are again seized. Others had nothing upon the watch, but the case is 
marked : these are stopped ; others yet had only Fast and Slow upon 
the regulator, still two English words not indicating the place of origin, 
these are confiscated. 

All these stoppages could be avoided if our makers would put their 
name and address in the watch and on the case, so as to indicate the 
place of origin. Many manufacturers prefer to put Swiss Make upon 
their watches rather than their address. 

All this that is applicable to watches is also so to musical boxes. 
Why do not our Genevese makers put their name upon the magnificent 
mrsical boxes which we receive ? I do not comprehend. 

We receive here quantities of cotton embroideries from St. Gall, silks 
from Zurich, &c. I have been here four years, and during that time I 
have seen hundreds of cases arrive, but not a single one having its con- 
tents marked with the name of a Swiss maker. I mistake, there are 
three exceptions : the potteries of Thoune, the machines of Zurich, and 
the aniline colours of Bale ; these three merchandises are marked with 
the names of the makers, but the cottons and the silks never. Some boxes 
of embroideries are marked Swiss -Embroideries, two English words 
denoting the place of origin of the goods ; but the greater part have 
only English words proving nothing, except that the goods have been 
made in England, and in virtue of this new law, the word yard is 
sufficient for their detention. 

The ribbon makers are the first I have seen to have made a step in the 
right direction : two putting their initials and their address, the others 
putting Swiss make upon their boxes and ribbon rollers. 

Hoping. Mr. Editor, that these indications will be of some use to 
your readers, 

I am, &c, 

A Swiss. 



132 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[March. 1,. 1.888. 



Loro Salisbury on nhe TOerchanoise Jflarhs Act. 



IjKl PUBLIC meeting, convened by the London Chamber of 



Commerce, was held at the Cannon Street Hotel, on 
February 8, to consider the question of pirating English 
trade marks and names by foreign dealers, and the expediency of 
altering or modifying the Merchandise Marks Act, as a means of 
preventing the evil. Mr. Herbert Tritton presided, and there 
was a very large attendance, among those present being Mr. 
Heneage, M.P., Mr. Howard Vincent, M.P., and Mr. McArthur, 
M.P. The Chairman, in opening the proceedings, said that 
while the Chamber of Commerce had not adopted any position 
hostile to the principle of the Merchandise Marks Amendment 
Act, there could be no doubt that its effects had been detrimental 
to different portions of the trading community, both with respect 
to some of the details of its provisions and in regard to the way 
in which the measure had hitherto been administered. The 
Secretary (Mr. R. B. Murray) read the following letter that had 
been received from the Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs on 
behalf of Lord Salisbury : — 

Foreign Office, February 7. 
Sir, — I am directed by the Marquis of Salisbury to acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter of the ISth ult., on the subject of the pro mble 
effect on British interests in certain cases of the Merchandise Marks 
Act, 1887. In reply, I am to state that the Act of last session was 
passed with the view of preventing the fraudulent use of marks, and 
that it materially strengthened the power of the Customs authorities to 
stop the entry of goods so marked in this country. It was foreseen by 
Her Majesty's Government that where foreign goods had been improperly 
marked and forwarded through this country from abroad for tranship- 
ment to the Colonies or to foreign countries, there might be some risk 
that the difficulties interposed by the new Act would lead to the importa- 
tion into such Colonies or foreign countrns of the goods wrongly marked 
directly from the country of origin. To that extent the shipping trades 
may be affected. But this possibility was foreseen, duly weighed, and 
was regarded by Her Majesty's Government as being an inferior con- 
sideration to the purification of trade. One of the main principles of 
the Act, as the London Chamber of Commerce is aware, is that every 
country should have the credit and advantage of its own manufactures, 
and against that principle it is not understood that the Chamber contend. 
1 am also to inform you that a circular was addressed on October 8 last 
to Her Majesty's representatives in those countries who are parties to 
the International Union for the Protection of Industrial Property, 
enclosing copies of the Merchandise Marks Act. 1887, with copies of a 
Memorandum explaining the nature of its provisions, for communication 
to the Governments of those countries. I am to enclose a copy of the 
Memorandum in question for the information of the London Chamber 
of Commerce. It was also pointed out to Her Majesty's representatives 
that, in framing the Act, Her Majesty's Government had sought to protect 
not only the interests of British subjects, but also those of subjects of 
foreign States, by providing remedies against the fraudulent practices in 
question, whether committed to the detriment of British or foreign 
manufacture, and that Her Majesty's Government felt confident that the 
passing of the Act would be recognised by foreign Governments as an 
attempt to carry out in their complete spirit the principles of the Union, 
of which the main motive is the prevention of fraudulent practices of 
this description. And they were instructed to state, in communicating 
the Act and Memorandum, that whilst Her Majesty's Government invited 
a careful consideration of the Act, they appealed with some confidence 
to the States comprising the International Union to take any steps 
which might be in their power to initiate legislation in the same direction, 
whereby reciprocal protection might be afforded abroad in similar circum- 
stances to British subjects. I am to add that, with a view to minimise 
the present evil, the British Colonies have been invited to adopt a law 
similar to the Imperial Act. — I am. Sir, your most obedient humble 
Servant, (Signed) James Fergusson. 

A communication had also been received from the London, 
Chatham and Dover Railway Company, stating that a large 
quantity of goods which were formerly sent by that line en route 
for Liverpool were now sent direct to America from German 
ports, in consequence of the provisions of the Act. Mr. Phillips 
moved — " That this meeting approves of the initiative taken by 
the London Chamber of Commerce in giving the commercial 
community an opportunity of expressing its grievances re the 
Merchandise Marks Act, and requests the council to take such 
steps as may appear requisite to enable the Act to operate with 
the minimum of detriment to the distributing interests." Mr. 
Buckingham, in seconding the motion, said that the Act would 
continue to be necessary as long as British traders had foreign 
competitors who were prepared to adopt dishonest methods of 
selling their goods. Several amendments were proposed, but 



not agreed to ; and after considerable discussion the original 
motion was unanimously carried. On the motion of Mr. W. 
Leaf, seconded by Mr. V. Barrington, a further resolution was 
passed welcoming the formation of an association (the Merchan- 
dise Marks Association), to obtain and distribute information as 
to the working of the Act, and to protect the interests of those 
affected by it, whether by test cases or by promoting such amend- 
ments in the law as might prove necessary. 



Fraub on Jflessrs. 6rant anb Peahe. 



j|T the Marlborough Street Police Court last month, Charles 
Max Schroder, 37, a well-dressed man, from Sydney, New 
South Wales, having no occupation, was brought up 
before Mr. Newton, in custody of Inspector Jarvis, of Scotland 
Yard, on the charge of feloniously forging and uttering certain 
acceptances to six bills of exchange, amounting in the aggregate 
to over £2,200, in the year 1886, with intent to defraud William 
Henry Peake, a jeweller, of Gerrard Street, Soho. — According to 
the opening statement of Mr. Inman, solicitor (from the office of 
Messrs. Wontner & Sons), who prosecuted, it appeared that in 
July, 1886, defendant absconded, and for a long period nothing 
could be ascertained as to his whereabouts. Recently, however, 
it was discovered that he was living near Sydney, where he was 
arrested by Inspector Jarvis and brought back to this country. 
As the prisoner had only arrived in London on the previous 
afternoon, he (Mr. Inman) proposed then only to read the sworn 
information on which the warrant was granted, after which he 
would ask for a remand. The information stated that the 
prosecutor carried on business in Gerrard Street, Soho, as a 
jeweller, under the style of Grant & Peake. He became acquainted 
with the prisoner some years ago in reference to a bill for £110, 
which had been passed over to Mr. Peake for value by a Mr. 
Thomas, of Rue Castiglione, Paris. This bill was accepted by 
Schroder, who called upon the prosecutor and made various repre- 
sentations in respect to his monetary position, and induced him 
to hold over the bill and at the same time to sell him a bracelet. 
He informed Mr. Peake that under the will of his grandfather, he 
was entitled on the death of his father and mother to a very large 
sum of money — many thousands of pounds — and that he was at 
liberty to raise money on his reversion. Owing to his statement 
that he was negotiating a considerable advance upon his reversion, 
the prosecutor agreed to accept — and did accept — drafts which 
the prisoner should draw to the extent of over £3,000. These 
the accused was to discount and to take them up at maturity. 
Parcels of jewellery were also sold to Schroder to the extent of 
over £1,000, for which he gave his acceptances. The acceptances 
were handed to the prisoner, and were discounted by him through 
a Mr. Magnin, of the Boulevard Sebastopol, Paris. Some of 
them were subsequently renewed, but ultimately when called upon 
Schroder failed to take up the bills, whilst the acceptances which 
he gave to the prosecutor, after being several times renewed, were 
dishonoured. As Mr. Peake had to pay those which he had 
given early in July, the prisoner was owing him, without the 
expenses of certain actions that had been brought in Paris to re- 
cover the money, the sum of £4,400. From time to time the 
accused promised that he would pay, and still kept up the state- 
ment that he was negotiating a large advance on his reversion, 
promising that he would pay the debt on July 30. On the 6th 
of that month Schroder called upon the prosecutor in a state of 
great agitation, and said that having been pressed for money, and 
•in anticipation of the certainty of getting the advance, he had 
forged the names of Grant & Peake to acceptances which he had 
discounted in Paris, and which were due on the following day, 
and had been made payable at the Argyll Street Branch of the 
Union Bank. He added that he believed his uncle would pay 
them, and begged Mr. Peake to take no action in the matter, 
saying that the whole indebtedness would be cleared off. The 
accused wrote a memorandum to the effect that the bills were not 
genuine, but although his uncle was communicated with, nothing 
was done in the matter, and Mr. Peake therefore gave notice to 
his bankers that the six bills referred to, did not bear the firm's 



March 1, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



133 



signature, and had been drawn without their authority. Five of 
them were presented during the day, and he (the prosecutor) 
again repudiated theni, hearing afterwards that they had been 
taken up by Schroder's uncle. Before the end of July, however, 
he heard that the accused had left the country without first 
making arrangements, and therefore, in order to prevent a repe- 
tition of the forgery, he applied for and obtained a warrant for 
Schroder's arrest. It had been ascertained that accused had no 
power to part with his reversion without his parents' consent, 
and that had not been obtained. — At the conclusion of the 
reading of the information, the prisoner was remanded for a week. 
On the remand, Mr. St. John Wonter conducted the prosecu- 
tion, and Mr. Gill, barrister (instructed by Mr. C. 0. Humphreys), 
defended. — William Henry Peake having been examined, and 
other evidence of a formal character been given — Inspector 
Jarvis, of Scotland Yard, said that on the warrant being read, 
the accused remarked that he did not understand what it was for, 
and on it being further explained, he said "I have had a good 
deal of business with Mr. Peake." He admitted, also, the au- 
thenticity of certain documents, but said the confession was a 
forgery. — Mr. Gill remarked that he did not propose to address 
the magistrate for the defence, which would be reserved. — The 
prisoner was thereupon committed for trial. 



Che Cheory of Adjustment. 

By M. L. Lossier. 

After the Memoir of M. Jules Grossmann. — From the Journal 
Suisse D'Horlogerie. 



ness 

10mm. 

tension. 



THIRD ARTICLE.— (Continued from page 120.) 

ECTION 6. — Let us see now what takes place in a spring 
of circular form. Let A B (fig. 5) be a spring which we 
assume is composed of five turns each of mm -,03 in thick- 
its radius, R, measured to the middle of its thickness* is 
As represented in the diagram, it is free and without 




We will designate by /3 the angle formed by the spring around 
its centre, o, which is here three-quarters of a turn. The length 
of the lamina from the middle will be then three-quarters of a 
circumference of 10 mm . radius, or : — 



L = 10 

or, algebraically : — 



3 x 3.1416 

2 



= 47 mm -, 124, 



Li=B-p. 



* The thickness of the spring has been, in the figure, considerably 
exaggerated, in order to show more clearly the division of the coils. 



The length of the exterior lamina will be three-quarters of a cir- 
cumference of a radius 10 mm -, plus two thicknesses of lamina?, or 



(10 + 0.06) 



47 mn % 407, 



or, calling the length of any lamina L\ and the distance from the 
middle of this lamina to that of the middle lamina k : — 

V = (R + k) /3. (7) 

Bending now the spring so that it includes a greater angle, 
/3 + a , or seven-eighths of a turn, the end A will go to A 1 , and 
B to B' ; the radius r will be smaller, the exterior lamina will 
become longer and the interior lamina will become shorter; the 
middle lamina, on the other hand, will preserve its same length, 
which we have found equal to R (3, and which, expressed with 
the new radius r for unit, will be : — 

L = r (,3 + a); 



then 



from whence 



R j3 = r (/3 + 

R ff 

r = /3 + « ' 



0. 



(8) 



in figures : — 



10 x 



60 

7 



57. 



The length L 



of the exterior lamina becomes : — 
L" = (r + k) (/3 + «) ; 
or, substituting for r its value taken from the equation (8), 
R j8 " 



L "=(T+« + ') (/3 + a) 



or, 



The lengthening that has taken place is then : — 

L" — L' = R |3 + k jS + h-et — R — k /3, 
or, 

L" — V =ku; 

or. in figures : — 



(9) 



0,06 x 



= 0" 



047. 



(10) 

This lengthening is positive, but it will become negative for 
k negative, that is to say, for the interior lamina? ; it changes 
likewise its sign accordingly as the angle « adds to or diminishes 
the angle /3. 

A negative lengthening is a shortening. 

If the two terms are negative, their product is naturally 
positive. 

It is. to be remarked that the lengthening is independent of 
the radius R, and consequently of the curve of the spring, which 
may be circular, cylindrical, spiral or otherwise. 

To ascertain the effort exerted, we have only to substitute in 
the equation (6)* for the term I its value k «, and we shall have 

E k a s 

~L~- (11) 

In figures, taking the width of the spring = l mm ', s will be 
worth mm -, 03, and the effort exerted by the single exterior 
lamina will be : — 



P = 



P 



26,000,000 x 0, 047 x 0.03 



= 773 gr. 



47, 407 

The interior lamina tends to lengthen itself, and will inversely 
exert the same effort. 

The moments of the forces will be : 



for the exterior lamina, 



P(r + k), 



and for the interior lamina, 



P (r 



See Erratum, page 120. 



134 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[March ], 1888. 



Their sum will be then : — 
m = P (r 
or 



+ /,) -P(r- k), 



m = 2 P k ; 

it is independent then of the radius of the spring. 
Substituting its value for P (11), we shall have 

E k a. s 



(12) 



m = 2 £ x 



or, 



L 
2 E P a s 



TO = 



This equation represents the moment of simultaneous efforts, 
exerted in inverse senses, of an interior lamina and an exterior 
lamina at equal distance from the middle lamina. 

The distance k from the middle of the middle lamina to that 
of tbe first or of the fifth, is equal to the thickness of two lamina?, 
and, if we call / the total thickness of the spring, k will be 

k = 0.4 e and k 2 = 0.16 e 2 . 

For the second and the fourth lamina the distance k, which is 
that of one thickness, becomes 

k = 0.2 e and k 2 = 0.04 e 2 ; 

the sum of the two values of lc 2 is then : — 

0,16 e 2 + 0.04 e 2 = 0.2 e r . 

The total moment of the effort exerted by the spring, and 
which is the same thing as we have designated at section 5 by 
M ot, will thus be : — 

2 E x .2 e 2 x a s 
L 



nf<* = 



The section s of each coil being equal to its thickness, 0.2 e, 
multiplied by the height of the spring h, or 

s = 0.2 e h, 
we have, by substituting 

2 E x 0.2 e 2 x a X 0.2 e h 



M, 



or, 



M a = 



L 

0.08 E h e 3 a 



L 

We have obtained the figure 0.08 by dividing the spring into 
five lamina?, but if we make the calculation from dividing the 
spring into a large number of very fine coils, we shall arrive at a 
more exact figure of 

0.08333. ..or -^. 

The formula giving the moment of force of a spring becomes 
finally : — 

E h e 3 a. 
12 L " (U) 



M , 



i E = coefficient of elasticity. 

h = width of the spring. 

e = thickness of the spring. 
L = length of the spring. 

a = angle which the balance has turned. 
Or, figuring from the numerical example that we have taken 

26,000,000 x 1 x 0.0034 x 0.7854 



M* = 



12 x 47.124 



M « = 122 grammes. 

In other words, to make the spring bend one-eighth of a turn, 
it would necessitate, on an arbor of l mm - radius, an effort of 122 
grammes ; or, on a barrel of 10 mm - radius, ^ = 12? r -, 2. 

By eliminating a. from the equation (14), we shall have : — 
lr Ehe 3 

M ~~V2L* (15) 

which is the algebraical expression of the moment of elasticity. 

The equation (14) may also be employed for calculating the 

force of a mainspring. The angle a. becomes then very large, 



being sometimes as much as 2 v that there are turns, less the 
turns the spring makes when it is entirely developed;* 

Numerical Example. — Being given a mainspring of 628 mm - in 
length, 0.18'" m - in thickness and 2.23"""- in height, to calculate its 
force when fully wound up. 

In the free state, and without the barrel, the spring makes 5^ 
turns ; rewound it makes 18. 

The angle u will be equal to 

(36— 10§) 7T = 25^ x 3.1416 = 79.59. 
We shall have then : — 



Ma = 



26,000,000 x 2.23 x (0.18) 3 x 79.59 
12 x 628 



M ol = 35718% 2. 

Direct experience has demonstrated that, in order to hold in 
equilibrium the wound up spring, it was necessary to suspend to 
a lever 123 mm - in length, fixed to the square of the arbor and 
carefully balanced, a weight of 29 grammes, 

The moment of this force was then : — 

29 x 123 = 3567 grammes, 
a figure very near to that found by the calculation, 
(To be continued.) 



iNeui Booh. 

The "Watchmaker's Handbook," f translated from the 
French of M. Claudius Saunier by Messrs. Julien Tripplin, 
F.R.A.S., and Edward Rigg, M.A. (which has, since the first 
edition was published by Mr. Tripplin in 1881, been acknow- 
ledged as the most complete work of the kind in the English 
language), has now reached a second edition, and the translators 
are to be congratulated upon the great improvements, typo- 
graphically and otherwise, effected in the new issue, the text of 
which is well illustrated by numerous woodcuts.' In the present 
edition such corrections as were found necessary on a careful re- 
vision of the work have been made ; but, as the authors state, 
these have been, in nearly all cases, of an unimportant character, 
which speaks well for the care with which the former edition was 
prepared. Nevertheless, a great many valuable additions have 
been made to the book, which is further brought up to date by 
an appendix containing an account of advances made in relation 
to watchmakers' tools and other matters since the first edition 
was published. The " transition " state, as it has been called, 
of the English watch trade, renders the present appearance of 
the book particularly well-timed. As it is eminently practical, 
notwithstanding the comprehensiveness of the ground travelled 
over, no watchmaker who aspires to thoroughness can afford to 
be without it, and the publishers may confidently look forward 
to a large sale and a speedy demand for a further edition. 



Ancient Microscopes. 



§NE of the most interesting of the series of Friday evening 
lectures at the Royal Institution was that on the above 
subject delivered last month by Mr. Frank Crisp, Vice- 
President and Treasurer of the Linmean Society, and one of the 
secretaries of the Royal Microscopical Society, while its popularity 
was attested by the numerous audience. Mr. Crisp is well known 
to possess one of the finest collections of microscopes in the 
world, and to have spent a fortune in making it ; and the 
members and friends were aware also that the lecture would be 
illustrated by rare specimens of microscopes of bygone make. 

* In order to obtain an exact calculation, it is necessary that the 
spring had been previously wound up in a barrel, then set free. The 
number of turns that it makes then (permanent curvity) is always 
greater than it had on coming out of the maker's hands. 

f Price 9s. London : Crosby Lockwood & Son, 7, Stationers' Hall 
Court, E.C. 



March ,1, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



135 



The' audience spent a delightful hour in front of these strange 
scientific instruments, under the genial guidance of the lecturer, 
who . ; explained that a more correct title for his address would 
have been, " Ancient Microscopes in their relation to Modern 
Thought." Regarding the word "ancient" as, after all, only a 
relative term, Mr. Crisp stated that from the microscopist's point 
of view he designated as ancient those persons who lived more 
than 100 years ago, and those microscopes which were made in 
or before the last century. Before discussing the merits and 
shortcomings of their ancestors modern microscopists were invited 
to remember what the essentials of a microscope really are. To 
compare what was with what is requires a standard. For all 
present purposes Mr. Crisp therefore defined a microscope as a 
thing that magnifies, at the same time admitting that scientifically 
such, a description was both inexact and incomplete. To assist in 
the work of comparison there was placed in front of the lecturer 
a typical large microscope of the present day with its four 
essential parts': the general support of the instrument, the stage 
on which the "object is supported, the illuminating mirror, and the 
magnifying lenses.' This -typical microscope, having the three 
special features of stability, subservience of everything to utility, 
and absence of any fanciful or incomplete arrangements, certainly 
looked, what it was, a costly and beautiful specimen of the 
modern instrument, with its manifold developments. To some, 
Mr. Crisp remarked, it might seem as if the glittering appearance 
of the instrument was intended to please the eye, but as a matter 
of fact there was nothing about it that was designed for orna- 
ment or,!to..gratify aesthetic taste. When microscopes were first 
made, although it was reckoned an essential in the construction 
of a telescope to have a firm foundation, the principle was not 
applied to them. The difference between the instability of the 
old and the substantial foundations of the new was apparent 
when the lecturer passed from his modern type to the ancient 
forms around it. The collection represented but a small pro- 
portion of the microscopes that had been Hescribed . and figured, 
as a reference to the books placed by Mr; Crisp 1 upon the library 
table showed. Looking at these antique specimens, one could 
not fail to be struck with their extraordinary diversity. They 
were made of paper, parchment, leather, wood, and even tortoise- 
shell ; and some of them were profusely ornamented. The most 
remarkable in this respect was a microscope which belonged to 
Pope Benedict XIV. at the end of the 17th century. The in- 
strument is fixed to the top of a square box Or cabinet, ornately 
decorated with the Papal insignia. Even the holder for ths 
objects, and the tube of. the microscope are richly ornamented, 
while the inside, of the cabinet and the drawer are lined with silk. 
A Roman ormolu microscope Mr, Crisp likened to some of our 
cheap upholsterer's work,, upon which a piece of brass or ormolu 
is clapped on wherever it can be made to stick. One of the 
ornamented examples looked not unlike a Queen's reading lamp 
in general shape. The Jena tripod is a curious design with an 
elaboration of paint and carving which Mr. Crisp claimed as a 
triumph of meretricious decoration. There were eight instruments 
in succession pointed out in all of which ornamentation was the 
prominent feature, and one of them (a De Chaulnes) had a tube 
of tortoise-shell. Judging by a scientific standard, the lecturer 
concluded that the aesthetic tastes of the old opticians led them 
far astray from their proper path. . The microscopes seemed to 
have been built to give the least possible trouble when the time 
came for them to tumble down. There was a Divini, for example, 
which a breath of wind would blow over. The great difficulty of 
the " ancients " was the illumination of the object. The mirror 
of the modern microscope is one of its most important develop- 
ments, and its adjustment one of the arts to which the early 
attention of the student is directed. The old microscopists 
of course knew about the laws of the reflection of light, but their 
microscopes -were made without mirrors. A similar lack of 
practical genius was also displayed in focussing.. The unsteady 
movements of an elegant ebony and ivory, and a itall wooden 
microscope of Italian make, were made to. point the moral. Mr. 
Crisp, indeed, conclusively proved that whatever the " good old 
times " -might have - been in other, respects, they left much to be ; 
desired in the condition of microscope-making. At the same 



time the old makers deserve all credit for what they did with 
their defective tools ; and they never arrived at the absurd degree 
of specialisation characteristic of. the present. Some highly 
effective illustrations on the screen added to the appreciative 
enjoyment of the lecture, which was delivered extemporaneously, 
and was in parts very humourous. Altogether there were 300. 
of Mr. Crisp's microscopes shown in the lecture , theatre or, 
library — to use Mr. Crisp's words, " many of them rescued from 
attics and dustbins all over Europe." 



Che Letter Escapement 

CONSIDERED WITH REGARD TO ITS FORM, INERTIA, 

FRICTION, &c. 

By M. L.-A. G-rosclaude, Professor at the Geneva School 

of Horology. 

(Translated from the French.*) 
(Continued from page 121.) 

^jpfET us now try to give an explanation of friction cor- 
JLJ, roborating the results that have been obtained by practice. 
To what cause is attributable the resistance to one body's 
sliding upon another ? It is that the surfaces are not perfectly 
polished : that is to say, that they are covered with an infinity 
of little projections which, catching in one another, force the 
mobile body to rise a small distance in order to pass from one 
projection to the other. Seen very much magnified, we can 
imagine the surface upon which friction occurs to be in the form 
of the line A B (fig. 15), where the projections are represented 

Fie. f5 



/ 














1000 CR."" 
.£ _==,_ 


*D- 


I 


y I 


G 


. iP~"---. 


"p HE 


I 











1 



by a regular succession of inclined planes. Upon this surface 
let us place a body having a similar uneven surface, C D. Let 
us admit that by experiment a coefficient of friction of 0,20 has 
been found ; which means that in order to make a body weighing, 
say 1,000 grammes slide, an effort of 1,000 "x 0,20 = 200 
grammes is necessary. If we give to our little inclined planes a 
slope of twenty-hundredths, or of one-fifth — that is to say, of 
which the height G H is the fifth of the base H F — we shall 
have to., exert absolutely the same effort to cause the sliding. 
We may then consider friction as the effort required in order to 
cause a body to ascend an inclined plane, B 1, of which the 
slope will be equal to the coefficient of friction. 

If our argument is correct, the work dispensed in order to 
operate the sliding should be equal to that required for making 
the body ascend the length of the inclined plane having the 
same activity as that of our little projection. This is in effect 
the case, since the effort of friction, 200 grammes, multiplied by! 
the; distance A B, traversed by this effort, is equal to 1,000 
grammes raised to the height A 1, which is the fifth of A B. 

The foregoing leads to the fact that if the surface were 
theoretically smooth, friction would not exist. Thus, the friction 
of molecules with one another is nil; resistance to sliding only 
exists because the inequalities have to pass by other inequalities, 
and thus to force the body to rise. 

That friction produces wearing and heating is explained by the 
fact that the projections fall again at each instant to the bottom 
of the inclined planes, the result being shocks which produce 
the two effects in question. 

* We are informed by M. B. Gardy that the above article was origin- 
ally Written for the Journal Suisse. d'Horlogerie; our translation is from 
a pamphlet published, in Geneva by M. Georg. 



139 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[March 1, 1888. 



We will now return to the principles of friction and see if 
they are verified by our theory of inclined planes. One of these 
principles says that friction is proportional to the weight, or, 
better, to the pressure, where the surfaces in contact are not 
altered. In effect, if instead of 1,000 grammes we have 2,000, 
we shall have to raise a double weight to the same height, in 
which case we shall have done double the amount of work. 

Let, us mow extend the surface by adding another projection, 
~D E ; the body will not by that have to rise any higher when the 
sliding takes place. We have, then, here the confirmation of the 
principle that the extent of surfaces in contact has no effect upon 
the resistance to.be overcome. If the body travels over the 
space A B in a quicker or slower time, the work expended will 
remain the same ; but the work will be so much the greater as 
the number of projections is increased. This gives us the 
principle that the effort is independent of the speed, but that 
the work is proportional to the distance travelled over by the 
rubbing surface. If we assume now that there is a great speed, 
and that some projections are not found in a right line with the 
others, it may be that, given the inertia of matter, the moving 
body passes above a certain number of these projections, which 
would confirm the fact that, in great speeds, the work of friction 
is a little less. 

Let us consider now the case of a body sliding the length of 
an inclined plane, noting the friction which must necessarily 
result. If the body A (fig. 16) weighs p grammes, we take a 




linear length, A P, equal to p in the direction of gravity, since 
we shall resolve this force, by means of the parallelogram of 
forces, into two others — the one, A G, acting perpendicularly, 
the other, A H, parallel, to the inclined plane. The force which 
tends to make the body A descend is represented by A H, and 
the friction, which acts in the contrary way, is obtained by 
multiplying the pressure A G by the coefficient of friction which 
we will call /, A G X /. The difference will give us the in- 
tensity of the real force which makes the body descend the 
length of the inclined plane. But there must be an instant 
when the friction will be sufficient to prevent the body from 
sliding. In this particular case it is necessary to have — 

A H = f x A G. 
If from thence we seek the value of/, we find : 

AH 



f = 



A G 



— tea. 



designating by « the angle A P H, or that formed by the 
inclined plane with the horizon, as MNO. This angle is called 
the angle of sliding, and is independent of the weight of the 
body. 

If we represent de novo our inclined plane by a rough surface 
(fig. 17), we shall see that we shall obtain the sliding at the 

Fig. 17 




instant the face of the projection will occupy a horizontal posi- 
tion, if this face makes with the plane an angle equal to that 



which the plane makes with the horizon ; consequently its slope 
will here be again equal to the coefficient of friction. 

Let us renew our first case of a body sliding upon a hori- 
zontal plane (fig. 18), and ask ourselves in what direction it 





H . 


- ia 


-^;F 




A 






1 








. p 





must act in order that the resistance due to friction be a 
minimum. Should this direction be horizontal ? We shall see 
it should not. If we act in a direction and with an intensity 
represented by A F, we shall resolve this force into two others : 
the one, A G, parallel, and the other, A H, perpendicular, to 
the plane ; this latter diminishing the pressure A P. It is now 
equal only at A P — A H, and the friction to be overcome 
will be this last, multiplied by the coefficient of friction, or 
/ x (A P — A H). In order that the sliding take place, we 
require the equation 

AG = f x (A P — AH). (1) 

But we can replace A G and A H by their values, expressed by 
means of the force A F and of the angle a, that makes this force 
with the plane, thus : 

A G = A F x cos a, 
A H = A F x sin « ; 

substituting these values in the equation (1) it becomes : 

A F x cos a = x (A P — A F x sin a), 

from whence is obtained : 

f x AP 

AF = ; 

cos « + f x sin «. 

This fraction may become small in three cases : when the co- 
efficient of friction /and the weight A P are small, this is well 
authenticated ; but also when the denominator cos a. + f X sin « 
becomes the greatest possible : this will be when 

f = tg «, 

a result that is easily obtained by the differential calculus. We 
see here, then, that in order that the effort be the most feeble 
possible, we must act in a parallel direction, not to that of the 
surface itself, but to that of the face of the projection (fig. 19), 



F.a. 19 




this representing always as pent the coefficient of friction. 

It will equally be demonstrated that, in order easily to obtain 
the sliding of a body upon an inclined plane (fig. 20), it is 



Fjc.20 




necessary to act in a direction which makes, with the inclined 
plane, an angle of which the trigometrical tangent is equal to 
the coefficient of friction. 

These examples show that, when desired, the friction can be 
represented by an inclined plane whose slope represents the 
coefficient of friction. 



March 1, 1888.] 



THE WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



137 



1 From the foregoing it is easy to comprehend the effect that 
a liquid substance interposed between the rubbing surfaces 
produces ; in effect, it fills up the crevices and thus diminishes 
the roughness of the surface. 

' Better than this : if a hard grease is • employed, friction 
properly so called disappears completely ; and if there still re- 
mains a resistance to - overcome, it is because the greased 
molecules possess a cohesion known as viscosity of oils, which 
then takes the place of friction. So we see, in short, that the 
friction of a greased point ought to be the same as that of a dry 
surface. 

(To be continued.) 



Royal iDbseruatory, iBreenunch. 

ANNUAL TRIAL OF CHRONOMETERS, 1887. 



NAME OF MAKER. 



Uhrig 

Mercer 

Kullberg 

Uhrig 

Kullberg .., 

J. Poole and Co. .. 
Edward and Son 

Blair 

Blair 

Isaac 

Mercer 

Pyott 

Penlington 

Penlington 

Moore 

Brockbank and Co 
Whyte and Co. . . , 

Sewill 

Isaac 

Moore 

Pyott 

Sewill 

M. F. Dent ........ 

Whyte and Co. ... 

Gardner , 

Oram and Son 

Klean and Co 

Schoof 



No. of 
Chronometer. 



452 
4513 
2517 

482 
2759 
5818 
4756 
1887 
1888 
1780 
4824 

886 
2515 
2517 
5736 
2063 
2828 
4516 
1789 
5754 

902 

4518 

29564 

2825 

5 

18431 
1007 
6059 



, Greatest ' 
Difference 

between one 
Week and 
the next.' 

(») ' 



3-2 
3-7 
4-1 
4-8 
3- 
7 
7 
10 
7 
9 



11- 
9- 

10-8 
15-5 
15-8 
14-9 
18-0 
16-2 
19 0' 



14> 
21 
22 
15 
14 
14 
30 



57-5 



"Difference 

between the 

Greatest 

and Least 

Weekly Hates 

00 



6 

10 
9 
10 
13 
10 
14 
i2 
19 
16 
21 
17 
29 
31 
22 
21 
23 
19 
24 
22 
32 
27 
27 
43 
46 
47 
53 
66 



Trial' No. 
a+lb 



13-2 
17-6 
18 
20 3 
20-8 
24-5 
28 8 
33-5 
34-2 
34-3 
390 
40-0 
48-9 
52-6 
531 
53-2 
53-5 
55-2 
56-6 



60' 
61 
71: 

73 
74 
75 
76 
113 
181 



The trial occupied 29 weeks and the temperature varied from 37" F 
to 99° F. 

THOMAS LEWIS, 

For the Astronomer Royal. 

Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 
February 23, 1888. 



iDn the HSfeuu Artificial Rubies. 

By George F. Kunz. 



Ifiljf HE subject of artificial gems is at the present moment of 
<^M considerable interest, not only financially, but also as fur- 
nishing an example of the manner in which the microscope 
is constantly called into use by almost every profession. Early 
this summer the Syndicate des Diamants et Pierres Precieuses 
were informed that certain stones, which had been sold as rubies 
from a new locality, were suspected to.be of artificial origin. 
They were put upon the market by a Geneva house, and it was 
surmised that they were obtained by the fusion of large numbers 
of small rubies, worth at the most a few dollars a carat, into one 
fine gem worth from 1,000 dols. to 2,500 dols. a carat. 



Some of these artificial stones were kindly procured for me by 
Messrs. Tiffany & Co. I was not, however, permitted to break 
them for analysis, to observe the cleavage, or to have them cut 
so that I could observe the optical axes more correctly. I would 
at any time have detected the artificial nature of this production 
with a mere pocket lens, as the whole structure is that peculiar 
to fused masses. Examination elicited the following facts : 
The principal distinguishing characteristic between these and 
the genuine stones is the presence in- them of large numbers of 
spherical bubbles, rarely pear-shaped, sometimes containing 
stringy portions showing how the bubbles had moved. These 
bubbles all have rounded ends and present the same appearance 
as those seen in glass or other fused mixtures. They are nearly 
always in wavy groups or cloudy masses. When examined 
individually they always seem to be filled with gas or air, and 
often form part of a cloud, the rest having the waviness of a 
fused mixture. Some few were observed inclosing inner bubbles, 
apparently a double cavity, but empty. In natural rubies the 
cavities are always angular or crystalline in outline, and are 
usually filled with some liquid, or if they form part of ,a 
" feather," as it is called by the jewellers, they are often arranged 
with the lines of growth. Hence the difference in appearance 
between the cavities in the natural gem and those in the fused 
gem is very great, and can readily be detected by the pocket 
lens. I have failed to find in any of the artificial stones even a 
trace of anything like a crystalline or angular cavity. Another 





Fig. 1.— Spherical cavities in artificial Fig. 2.— Spherical and irregular cavities 

ruby as seen ac one time (enlarged iu artificial ruby as seen at one 

75 diameters). time, evidently from the lower 

part of the crucible (enlarged 25 
diameters). 

distinguishing characteristic is that in many genuine rubies we 
find a silky structure (called "silk" by the jewellers) which, if 
examined under the microscope, or under a -j% to t 8 q inch objec- 
tive, we find to be a series of cuneiform or acicular crystals, 
often iridescent and arranged parallel with the hexagonal layers 
of the crystal. AVhen in sufficient number these acicular and 
arrow-shaped crystals produce the asteria or star effect if the 
gem is cut in en cabochon form with the centre of the hexagonal 
prism on the top of the cabochon. I have failed to find any of 
them in the stones under consideration, or even any of the 
marking of the hexagonal crystal; which can often be seen when 
a gem is held in a good light and the light allowed to strike 
obliquely across the hexagonal prism. Dr. Isaac Lea has sug- 



$:■£> i 




Fig. 3. — Liquid cavities in natural ruby and sapphire (enlarged 100 diameters). 

gested* that these, acicular crystals are rutile, and interesting 
facts and illustrations have been published by him. From my 
own observations on many specimens I believe there is little 
doubt of the truth of this hypothesis. t My explanation is that 
they were deposited from a solution, either heated or cold, while 
the corundum was crystallising, and I doubt very much whether 
they will ever be found in any substance formed by fusion. 

The hardness of these stones I found to be about the same as 
that of the true ruby, 8-8,. or a little less than 9, the only differ- 
ence being that the artificial stones were a trifle more brittle. 
The testing point used was a Siamese green sapphire, and the 
scratch made by it was a little broader but no deeper than on a 
true ruby, as is usually the case with a brittle material. After 
several trials I faintly scratched it with a chrysoberyl, which will 
also slightly mark the true ruby. 

* Proc. Philad. Acad. So., Feb. 16, 1869, and May, 1876. 
t Paper on Star Garnets, N. W. Acad. Sc, May, 1886. 



138 



THE WATCHMAKEE, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH. 



[March 1, 1888. 



The specific gravity of these stones I found to be 3.93 and 
3.95. The true ruby ranging from 3.98 to 4.01, it will be seen 
that the difference is very slight, and due doubtless to the pre- 
sence of the included bubbles in the artificial stones, which 
would slightly decrease the density. As a test this is too delicate 
for jewellers' use ; for if a true ruby were not entirely clean, or 
a few of the bubbles that sometimes settle on gems in taking 
specific gravities were allowed to remain undisturbed, it would 
have about the same specific gravity as one of these arfcificia 
tones. 

I found, on examination by the dichroscope, that the ordinary 
image was cardinal red, and the extraordinary image a salmon 
red, as in the true ruby of the same colour. Under the polari- 
scope what I believe to be annular rings were observed. With 
the spectroscope the red ruby line, somewhat similar to that in 
the true gem, is distinguishable, although perhaps a little nearer 
the dark end of the spectrum. 

The colour of all the stones examined was good, but not one 
was as brilliant as a very fine ruby. The cabochons were all 
duller than fine, true stones, though better than poor ones. 
They did not differ much in colour, however, and were evidently 
made by one exact process or at onetime. Their dull appearance 
is evidently due in part to the bubbles. The optical properties 
of these stones are such that they are evidently individual or 
parts of individual crystals, and not agglomerations of crystals or 
groups fused by heating. 

In my opinion these artificial rubies were produced by a pro- 
cess similar to that described by Fremy and Feil (Comptes liendus, 
1877, p. 1029), by fusing an aluminate of lead in connection with 
silica in a siliceous crucible, the silica uniting with the lead to 
form a lead glass, and liberating the alumina, which crystallises 
out in the form of corundum in hexagonal plates, with a specific 
gravity of 4.0 to 4.1, and the hardness and colour of the natural 
ruby — the latter being produced by the addition of some chromium 
salt ; by this method rubies were formed that, like the true gem, 
were decolourised temporarily by heating. 

It is not probable that these stones were formed by Gaudin's 
method (Comptes Eendus, xix.,p. 1342), by exposing amorphous 
alumina to the flame of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe and thus 
fusing it to a limpid fluid, which, when cooled, had the hardness 
of corundum, but only the specific gravity 3.45, much below that 
of these stones ; nor is it at all likely that they were produced 
by fusing a large number of natural rubies or corundum of small 
size, because by this process the specific gravity is lowered to 
that of Gaudin's product. The same also holds good of quartz, 
beryl, &c. 

The French syndicate referred the matter to M. Friedel, of the 
Ecole des Mines, Paris, supplying him with samples of the 
stones for examination. He reported the presence of the round 
and pear-shaped bubbles and determined the hardness and 
specific gravity to be about the same as in the true ruby. On 







Fig. 5. — Cuneiform crystals in ruby and 
sapphire (enlarged 200 diameters). 



Fig. 4. — Acicular crystals in sapphire 
(enlarged 100 diameters). 

analysis he found them to consist of alumina, with a trace of 
chromium for the colouring matter. The cleavage was not in all 
cases distinct, and the rough pieces given to him as exanrples of 
the gem in its native state had all been worked, so that nothing 
could be learned of their crystalline structure. When properly 
cut according to axes they showed the annular rings. The 
extinction by parallel light was not always perfect, which he 
believed to be due to the presence of the bubbles. He states 
that he himself has obtained small red globules with these inclu- 
sions by fusing alumina by oxyhydrogen flame ; and although 
having no positive evidence, he believes these stones to be 
artifically obtained by fusion. 

Gn the receipt of M. Friedel's report the syndicate decided 
that all cabochon or cut stones of this kind shall be sold as 



artificial, and not precious gems. Unless consignments are so 
marked the sales will be considered fraudulent and the mis- 
demeanour punishable under the penal code. All sales effected 
thus far, amounting to some 600,000 or 800,000 frs., shall be 
cancelled and the money and stones returned to their respective 
owners. 

The action taken by the syndicate has fully settled the posi- 
tion which this production will hold among gem dealers, and 
there is little reason to fear that the true ruby will ever lose the 
place it has occupied for so many centuries. These stones show 
the triumph of modern science in chemistry, it is true ; and 
although some may be willing to have the easily attainable, there 
are others who will almost want — what the true ruby is becoming 
to-day — the unattainable. One will be nature's gem, and the 
other the gem made by man. 

The* following recapitulation of the progress made from time 
to time by the different investigators in the artificial reproduction 
of ruby and sapphire may be of more than passing interest at 
this moment : — Gaudin (C. R„ 1857, Vol. IV., p. 999, and 

1857, Vol. XLIV, p. 716.— LTnst., t. XXV., p. 110. — T. pr. 
Chem., LXX , p. 381— Bibl. univ. de Geneve, t. XXXIV, p. 68. 
— Jahrb. f. Min., 1857, p. 444) was the first to reproduce 
corundum, which he did by heating before the oxyhydrogen 
blowpipe a closed crucible containing equal parts of alum and 
sulphate of potash and charcoal. It was fired for fifteen minutes 
and then slowly cooled. The mass was then lixiviated and 
attacked with diluted aqua regia, which left a sand formed of 
small corundum crystals, 1 mm