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3 1175 01915 1839 

The Resources Agency 

epartment of Water Resources 

BULLETIN No. 160-70 

; mm 





i JUL 19 1900 li 


Secretary for Resources 
The Resources Agency 




State of California 



Department of Water Resources 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Kahle/Austin Foundation and Omidyar Network 

The Resources Agency 

Department of NVa ter Resources 

BULLETIN No. 160-70 



of th 

s bulle 

in at $5.00 each may be orde 
of Coliforriia 

ed from: 



Box 20191 


mento, California 95820 








odd 5 percent sales tax. 



Secretary for Resources 
The Resources Agency 



State of California 



Department of Water Resources 


Over the past 30 years, California has undergone one of the 
most rapid growth cycles ever experienced by a civilization. 
From less than 7 million in 19^0, the State's population has 
climbed to almost 20 million in 1970. Today, California is 
still growing, although at a reduced pace. Recent growth trends 
suggest a population of 29 million in 1990 and 45 million in 

As California continues to grow, so will the demand for water — 
for homes, for industry, for agriculture, for recreation and 
for a quality environment for future generations. Moreover, 
with increasing population will come equally increasing poten- 
tial for water pollution. As we face the water problems of the 
future, we must respond to emerging concepts of environmental 
enhancement. Many of our past ideas must be modified to 
accommodate changing environmental conditions. 

Bulletin No. 16O-7O provides a summary of our current planning — 
a look at what California is doing, within the framework of the 
California Water Plan, about the need for water and protection 
of the environment. The California Water Plan has demonstrated 
that California has sufficient water supplies to meet future 
needs. However, we cannot take nature's abundance for granted. 
As we face the challenges of the 1970s and beyond, we must con- 
tinue to assess, plan, and use our water resources in an 
intelligent and thoughtful manner. 

Fortunately, the projected slower growth of statewide population, 
together with the additional water supplies being made available 
by projects under construction or authorized, will provide a 
"breathing spell" in the development of California's water 
resources. This will afford additional time to consider alter- 
native sources of water supply and develop policies for the 
maximum protection of the environment. 

William R. Gianelli, Director 
Department of Water Resources 
The Resources Agency 
State of California 
December 1, 1970 










Outlook in 1970 2 

Organization of Report 6 


Emphasis on Water Quality 9 

Environmental Awareness 10 

Recent Environmental Legislation 11 

Federal Environmental Legislation 11 

National Environmental Policy Act of 19^9 H 

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (P.L. 90-5^2) 11 

Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970 12 

California State Environmental Legislation 12 

California Protected Waterways Act 12 

Assembly Select Committee on Environmental Quality .... 12 

Progress in Interstate and Federal-State Water Relationships .... 14 

The Water Resources Planning Act (P.L. 89-80) 1^ 

National Water Commission Act (P.L. 90-515) 1^ 

Colorado River Basin Project Act (P.L. 90-537) 15 

Federal -State Framework Studies 15 

Western United States Water Plan I6 

Western States V/ater Council I6 

Progress in 'Water Resource Development I6 

Local Water Development 17 

Federal Projects 18 

State Water Project 19 



Planninf; Considerations 21 

Planning Process 22 

Policies J Goals and Plans 23 

V/ater Resource Management Analysis Process 25 

Decision and Implementation Activity 26 


Future Economic Development 31 

Population 31 

Industrial Development 3" 

Electric Povjer Development 3° 

Agricultural Developm.ent ^1 

V/ater Demand ^3 

Urban Water Demands ^5 

Agricultural V/ater Demands ^9 

Water Demands for Electric Povjer Generation 51 

Recreation, Fish and VJildlife and Related Water Development .... 52 

Major Policies of Federal and State 

VJater Development Agencies 52 

Recreation Financing 52 

Fish and Wildlife Planning 53 

Streamflow Maintenance for Fish and Wildlife 5^ 

Fish and Wildlife and Recreation V/ater Demands 55 

Flood Damage Prevention 56 

V/ater Quality 56 

V/ater Quality and Water Use 56 

Municipal and Industrial Use 57 

Agricultural Use 57 

Recreation 58 

Fish and Aquatic Life 58 

Water Quality and Water Reuse 58 

Water Quality Control 60 




Surface V/ater Development 63 

Sacramento Valley Development Potential 65 

North Coastal Area Development Potential 66 

Ground v;ater Development 67 

Availability of Ground V/ater 67 

Ground V/ater Management 70 

Future Ground V.'ater Use 72 

Desalting 72 

Department's Desalting Program 73 

Federal Desalting Program 74 

Current Status and Cost of Desalting Jk 

Desalting in the Future 75 

Water Reclamation 76 

The Department's Role in Water Reclamation 76 

Potential Future of Water Reclamation 77 

Present Status and Use of Reclaimed V/ater 78 

V/ater Reclamation Studies 80 

Cost of Water Reclamation 82 

Legal Requirements and Public Acceptance 82 

Other Possible Sources of Water 83 

Western States Water Developm.ent 83 

Weather Modification 84 

Watershed Management 86 

Undersea Aqueduct 87 

Geothermal Water Resources 88 

Nonstructural Alternatives 9I 

Reallocation of Water Supplies 9I 

Pricing Policies gi 

Increased Efficiency of Water Use 92 

Mitigation of Colorado River Salinity 92 

Summary 93 




North Coastal Area 95 

San Francisco Bay Area 98 

Central Coastal Area 103 

South Coastal Area 107 

Sacramento Basin Ill 

Delta-Central Sierra Area 117 

San Joaquin Basin 121 

Tulare Basin 125 

North Lahontan Area 129 

South Lahontan Area 133 

Colorado Desert Area 137 

Regional Water Demand -Water Supply Summary 1^2 



The Central Valley Project 1^7 

The State Water Project 1^8 

Operational Characteristics and Flexibilities 150 

Water Supply Capabilities 151 

The Role of the Peripheral Canal 153 

Projected Water Demands on the Federal and State Systems 15^ 

Possible Central Valley Project Expansion 15^ 

Possible State Water Project Expansion 157 

San Francisco Bay Area '. 157 

Tulare Basin 158 

Colorado Desert Area 158 

South Coastal Area 158 

Central Valley Project Water Demand-Supply Relationship .... 158 

State Water Project Water Demand-Supply Relationship 159 

Recreational and Environmental Accomplishments 162 

Environment and the Central Valley Project l62 



Environment and the State Water Project I63 

Summary I66 



Study Criteria 170 

Impact of Population Dispersal on Water Development 

and the Environment 17'+ 

VJater Demand and Supply 17^^ 

Northern Model "A^' 175 

Central Ftodel "B" 17t3 

Southern Model "C" I76 

Waste Disposal 176 

Electric Power Requirements I78 

Other Considerations 178 



1 Relationship of California Water Plan to Other 

State Environmental and Development Policies and Plans . . 24 

2 Planning for Water Resources Management 

in California 29 

3 United States Fertility Series 32 

4 Hydrologic Study Areas of California ..... 35 

5 California's Historical and Projected Population 

Growth 36 

6 High, Median and Low Population Project, 

State of California 37 

7 Generation of Electric Energy by Prime Source to 

Meet Future Power Demands 39 

8 Present and Projected Land Use 43 

9 California's Historical and Projected Net 

Irrigation Acreage, 1930-2020 44 

10 California's Historical and Projected Applied 

Water Demands, 1930-2020 44 

11 Projected Growth of Applied Water Demands, 

State of California 48 


FIGURES (continued) 

Number Page 

12 Average Annual Full Natural Runoff 6^ 

13 Areas of Ground Water Occurrence 68 

14 Location and Relative Quantities of Municipal V.'aste 

Water Discharged in Coastal Counties of California, 19^8. . 79 

15 Projected Water Supplies and Net VJater Demands, 

North Coastal Hydrologic Study Area 96 

16 North Coastal Hydrologic Study Area 97 

17 Projected V/ater Supplies and Net Water Demands, 

San Francisco Bay Hydrologic Study Area 100 

18 San Francisco Bay Hydrologic Study Area 101 

19 Projected Water Supplies and Net Water Demands, 

Central Coastal Hydrologic Study Area 10-^ 

20 Central Coastal Hydrolo,;;ic Study Area 105 

21 Projected Water Supplies and Net Water Demands, 

South Coastal Hydrologic Study Area 108 

22 South Coastal Hydrologic Study Area 109 

23 Projected Water Supplies and Net Water Demands, 

Sacramento Basin Hydrologic Study Area 11^ 

24 Sacramento Basin Hydrologic Study Area 115 

25 Projected V/ater Supplies and Net V/ater Demands, 
Delta-Central Sierra Hydrologic Study Area Il8 

26 Delta-Central Sierra Hydrologic Study Area 119 

27 Projected Water Supplies and Net VJater Demands, 

• San Joaquin Basin Hydrologic Study Area 122 

28 San Joaquin Basin Hydrologic Study Area 123 

29 Projected Water Supplies and Net Water Demands, 

Tulare Basin Hydrologic Study Area 126 

30 Tulare Basin Hydrologic Study Area 127 

31 Projected Water Supplies and Net Water Demands, 

North Lahontan Hydrologic Study Area 130 

32 North Lahontan Hydrologic Study Area 131 

33 Projected Water Supplies and Net Water Demands, 

South Lahontan Hydrologic Study Area 13^ 

3^ South Lahontan Hydrologic Study Area 135 


FIGURES (continued) 
Number Page 

35 Projected Water Supplies and Net Water Demands, 

Colorado Desert Hydrologic Study Areas 138 

36 Colorado Desert Hydrologic Study Area 139 

37 Present and Projected V.'ater Demand-Water 

Supply Relationships 1^3 

38 Major Authorized Features of the State Water Project 

and the Central Valley Project 1^9 

39 The Central Valley Project, Projected Net VJater 

Demands and Dependable Water Supplies I60 

40 The State Viater Project, Projected Net Water 

Demands and Dependable VJater Supplies I6I 

41 2020 Population for Base Projection and Population 

Dispersal for Models A, B and C 172 

42 Population Dispersal to Nevj Urban Areas for 

Models A, B and C 173 

Number Page 

1 Total Population in California by Hydrologic 

Study Area, I967, 1990, 2020 34 

2 Present (1967) and Projected Land Use and 

Irrigable Land in California by Hydrologic Study Areas . . 42 

3 Estimated Urban Water Use 46 

4 Present (1967) and Projected Applied and Net V/ater 

Demands in California by Hydrologic Study Areas 47 

5 Irrigated Agriculture, Applied Unit Water Use Values ... 49 

6 Streamflow Maintenance Agreements by Hydrologic Area ... 54 

7 Ground Water in California 69 

8 Summary of I967 and Projected Net Water Demands and 

Water Supplies by Hydrologic Study Areas l44 

9 Major Features of Basic Central Valley Project and 

State Water Project System 152 

10 Summary of I967 and Projected Future Water Demands 

on Existing Facilities of the Central Valley Project 

and State Water Project 155 


TABLES (continued) 
Number Page 

11 Suiranary of Possible Future V/ater Demands Anticipated 
to be Supplied by Future Facilities of the Central 

Valley Project and State Water Project 156 

12 Central Valley Project, Recreation-Use in I969 I65 

13 Recreation-Use at State Water Project Facilities I67 

ih Net Urban Water Demands in 2020 for Selected Alternative 

Patterns of Future Urbanization 17^ 

(in pocket at back of bulletin) 

1 Water Resource Development in California 

2 Irrigated, Irrigable and Urban Lands 


state of California 
The Resources Agency 

NORMAN B. LIVERMORE, JR., Secretary for Resources 
V/ILLIAM R. GIANELLI, Director, Department of Water Resources 
JOHN R. TEERINK, Deputy Director 

Herbert W. Greydanus Division Engineer 

This bulletin was prepared under 
the direction of 

Albert J. Dolcini Chief, Statewide Planning Branch 


Robert A. Williams Supervising Engineer, Water Resources 

Donald K. Cole Senior Resources Economist 

Assisted by 

Ralph G. Allison 
Marilyn J. Bennett 
Edward F. Chun 
Stanley W. Cummings 
Eugene H. Gunderson 
Roy N. Haley 
Jacob W. Holderman 
Jean H. Jaquith 

*James C. McDade 

James C. Mosley 

George E. Reiner 

Maurice D. Roos 

Glenn B. Sawyer 

Carol E. Stevenson 

**Robert C. Tharratt 

E. Philip Warren 

Assistance was provided by the District Offices of the 
Department of Water Resources 
under the direction of 

Gordon W. Dukleth District Engineer, Northern District 

John M. Haley District Engineer, Central District 

Carl L. Stetson District Engineer, San Joaquin District 

James J. Doody District Engineer, Southern District 

* Department of Parks and Recreation 
** Department of Fish and Game 


state of California 

Department of V.'ater Resources 


IRA J. CHRISMAN, Chairman, Visalia 
CLAIR A. HILL, Vice Chairman, Redding 

Mai Coornbs Garberville 

Ray W. Ferguson Ontario 

William H. Jenning? La Mesa 

Clare Wm. Jones Firebaugh 

William P. Moses San Pablo 

Samuel B. Nelson Northridge 

Ernest R. Nichols Ventura 

R. Dean Thompson, Executive Officer 
C. A. McCullough, Engineer 


This bulletin presents an up-to- 
date appraisal of water demands 
for various 'beneficial purposes 
throughout the State for 1990 and 
2020, and the potential sources of 
water supplies to satisfy those 
demands. It discusses accomplish- 
ments in both planning and water 
development implementation in the 
four years since publication of 
Bulletin I6O-66, the first of the 
Bulletin I60 series. The Bulle- 
tin 160 series reports on progress 
in the implementation of the 
California Water Plan and updates 
certain of the concepts embodied 
in that Plan. 

Considerable confusion has been 
evident concerning the California 
Water Plan and its relationship to 
the State Water Project. It is 
important that the distinction 
between the two be explained at 
the outset to facilitate under- 
standing of the information pre- 
sented in this bulletin. 

The California Water Plan is a 
long-range planning framework for 
the development of California's 
water resources. The State Water 
Project, currently nearing comple- 
tion by the Department of Water 
Resources, is a specific system 
of physical facilities which will 
satisfy water demands in large 
areas of the State in the immediate 
future. The State Water Project, 
as well as all projects whether 
local, state or federal, contrib- 
utes toward achievement of the 
objectives of the California Water 
Plan as they become implemented. 

This bulletin and supporting 
studies deal with demands for 
water and sufficiency or supplies 
to satisfy those demands to 1990 
and 2020, some 20 and 50 years 
hence, respectively. Such projec- 
tions are increasingly subject to 
change with the passage of time 
due to changing factors and events 
that cannot be foreseen today. 
Accordingly, the estimates and 
projections concerning the future, 
as presented in this bulletin, 
represent only the magnitudes or 
conditions foreseen at the present 
time . It is fully recognized that 
periodic revision will be necessary 
in the light of additional infor- 
mation and experience, and that 
such revisions may well be substan- 
tial--either upward or downward. 

Major emphasis is placed on the 
1990 projections, as these will 
have considerable influence on 
decisions that will be made in the 
next few years. The major purpose 
of the 2020 estimates is to provide 
perspective for those decisions 
necessary to implement plans for 
water supply sources to meet demands 
in the 1990s. 

Findings from the studies reported 
in this bulletin are set forth 
under the heading "Outlook in 1970". 
They are a series of concise state- 
ments summarizing the information 
of significant importance for which 
supporting data and information are 
presented in detail in the ensuing 
chapters . 


Outlook In 1970 

In General -- 

• Sufficient water is developed by completed water projects, or will 
be developed by those under construction, to satisfy most urban 
and irrigation needs for about two decades. However, shortages in 
dependable supplies presently exist in certain areas arid ccnveyence 
facilities are needed to deliver developed supplies to those areas. 

• The favorable status of developed water supplies affords time to 
evaluate potential alternative sources of water and devote more 
attention to the emerging environmental problems associated with 
water conservation projects and the evolvement of definite public 
policies on such problems. 

• VJhereas major storage projects are not immediately needed for 
water conservation, flood problems are increasing, and the control 
of floods may warrant construction of storage reservoirs, which 
should include conservation storage when justified. 

• The quality of water supplies is generally satisfactory throughout 
most of the State, with the principal exception of supplies from 
the Colorado River, and care must be expressed to maintain the 
good quality. 

On Growth -- 

• The rapid growth of California's population that followed World 
War II decreased sharply by the mid-1960s because of reductions 
in births and migration. 

• Recent trends indicate that the present population of 20 million 
in California will increase to about 29 million in 1990 and 

45 million in 2020, instead of 35 million and 54 million as 
projected four years ago on the basis of the higher growth rates 
following World War II. 

• Urban land use is expected to nearly double from 2.3 million 
acres at present to about 4.5 million acres in 2020 to accommodate 
the projected population of 45 million. 

• Irrigated acreage is expected to increase about 10 percent from 
8.9 million acres at present to 9.8 million acres in 3990, onJ to 
increase only an additional 4 percent to 10.2 million acres in 
2020. This projected growth in acreage is less than proportional 
to the projected growth of state and national requirements for 
food and fiber because improved agricultural methods are 
expected to produce greater yields per acre. 

• Projected increases in both leisure time and extra income suggest 
a rapid growth in the per capita demand for water-associated 
recreation, especially near urban areas. The annual demand for 
recreation is projected to increase from the current 2l8 million 
visitor-days to 2.5 billion visitor-days by 2020. 


« Consumption of electrical energy has generally doubled about every 
10 years. This trend is expected to continue for about 20 years 
and then decline slightly after 1990. Electrical-generation 
requirements are expected to increase from 32,000 megawatts in 
1970 to 110,000 megawatts in 1990 and Ul2,000 megawatts in 2020. 
As more steam-electric powerplants are constructed, demands for 
cooling water will Increase substantially. 

On Needs -- 

• Statewide urban water demands are expected to increase from about 
3.7 million acre-feet at present to 6.4 million acre-feet in 1990 
and to 10.3 million acre feet in 2020. Overall per capita water 
demands are expected to increase some 20 percent by 2020; however, 
the growth of per capita demands in large metropolitan areas is 
expected to be somewhat lower because of the projected increase in 
high-rise multiple dwellings and a consequent reduction in demands 
for water to irrigate lawns and gardens. 

• Demands for agricultural water will generally increase; in 
proportion to the growth of irrigated acreage, i.e., from 

2k. h million acre-feet at present to 27.4 million acre-feet in 
1990, and 28.7 million acre-feet in 2020. 

• More than 80 percent of the additional electrical-generating 
capacity in 1990 and 2020 is expected to be derived from fossil- 
or nuclear-fueled steam plants, which requre very large amounts 
of cooling water. If 50 percent of the projected increase in 
generating capacity between now and 2020 is located at inland sites, 
due to limited acceptability of coastal sites, about 3 million 
acre-feet of cooling water will be required each year. The possible 
water demands for cooling inland plants are not included in the 
projected demands in this report. They could comprise one of the 
largest increases in future water demands. 

• Intensification of land use, resulting from the increasing 
population, will require a vigorous flood control program. Local 
agencies should carefully consider floodplain management in 
addition to the construction of flood control facilities. 

• The increasing demand for water-associated recreation will require 
the development of additional water surface and shoreline, 
particularly near major urban areas. 

c Studies of hypothetical patterns of distribution of California's 
future population indicate that, regardless of where population 
centers may be located, total statewide water demands will be 
essentially unchanged. Whereas the requirements for water 
conservation will remain the same, new population centers would 
require different patterns of water transportation facilities. 

On Present Water Supplies -- 

« All major urban areas have adequate water supplies from existing 
projects or facilities authorized or under construction to meet 
water demands for the next 20 or more years. 


» Adequate quantities of water are generally available for irrigation, 
but in some areas, particularly in the San Joaquin Valley, ground 
water is being overdrafted and in other areas, such as the Imperial 
and Coachella Valleys, significant water quality problems are 

« Construction has been initiated or completed on a number of major 
water supply projects during the last four years. 

• The U. S. Bureau of Reclamation has completed the federal-state 
San Luis Dam, Pumping Plant, and Canal and has initiated con- 
struction of the Tehama-Colusa Canal, the San Felipe Division, 
the San Luis drain, and the Auburn-Folsom South Unit, all 
features of the Central Valley Project. 

• The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has initiated construction of 
New Melones Dam on the Stanislaus River; Warm Springs Dam on 
Dry Creek, a tributary of the Russian River; Martis Dam on 
Martls Creek, a tributary to the Truckee River; Mojave Dam on 
the Mojave River; Hidden Dam on the Chowchilla River; and 
Buchanan Dam on the Fresno River. 

• The State Water Project is more than 95 percent complete or 
under construction, with water being delivered to the Sacra- 
mento Valley, San Francisco Bay area, and the San Joaquin Valley. 
Initial water delivery to Southern Calif ornia is scheduled for 1971. 

• Local agencies contributed to water development by completing 
or initiating construction on 35 reservoir projects. Major 
projects completed were New Bullards Bar on the Yuba River (Yuba 
County Water Agency), New Exchequer on the Merced River (Merced 
Irrigation District), Hell Hole on the Rubicon River (Placer 
County Water Agency), Lopez or Arroyo Grande Creek (San Luis 
Oblsop County Flood Control and Water Conservation District), 
and New Don Pedro on the Tuolumne River (City of San Francisco 
and Modesto and Turlock Irrigation Districts). In addition, 

the City of Los Angeles completed the second pipeline of the 
Owens River Aqueduct, and several agencies in the San Joaquin 
Valley have completed or are constructing major distribution 
systems to deliver imported water to individual users. 

On Future Water Supplies -- 

• The alternative sources of water considered available for meeting 
future demands include surface water development by federal, state, 
and local agencies; increased use of ground water in conjunction 
with surface supplies; desalination; reclaimed waste water; 
weather modification; and geothermal resources. 

• Ground water will continue to be an important source of water. The 
primary value of ground water basins lies in their use for water 
storage and distribution in coordination with local and imported 
surface supplies as integrated systems. 


Desalination offers promise of a supplemental source of fresh water 
particularly in California's coastal areas. However, the future 
of desalted water as a major source of supply cannot be fully 
evaluated until the economics of desalination have been tested 


with a large-scale prototype development. The Department of Water 
Resources and the U. S. Office of Saline Water are cooperating in 
a program to lead to such a development by the late 1970s. 

« Reclamation of waste water presents a potential source for 

partial fulfillment of increasing water demands in major coastal 
metropolitan areas, particularly for environmental enhancement 
projects such as irrigation of recreational and agricultural 
greenbelts . 

• Desalination of geothermal water may eventually produce significant 
quantities of fresh water and electrical energy. The Department 

of Water Resources is participating in studies to determine the 
feasibility of development of geothermal resources in the Imperial 

• Modification of the weather may eventually become a feasible 
method for augmenting natural water supplies. The Department of 
Water Resources has been participating in experiments with weather 
modification since 1951- 

, As a result of the projected slower growth of statewide population 
as compared with projections made four years ago, future water 
demands are also expected to increase more slowly. This slower 
projected growth of water demands, particularly in the South 
Coastal area, is expected to delay the time of need for an addi- 
tional conservation facility for the State Water Project about 
10 years until the mid-1990s. However, the time of need for an 
additional facility could be advanced by (1) greater-than-planned 
outflows of fresh water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, as 
might be required by the State Water Resources Control Board; 
(2) the needs of additional service areas; or (3) increased water 
use in areas tributary to the Delta. 

• About 1 million acre-feet of imported supplemental water will be 
needed annually for the east side of the San Joaquin Valley to 
offset existing large overdrafts of local ground water. The 
proposed East Side Division of the Central Valley Project is a 
sound engineering proposal to eliminate existing deficiencies and 

to permit expansion of agricultural development. Through provisions 
for stream maintenance releases, the East Side Canal has the 
potential for environmentally enhancing the Sierra Nevada streams 
between Dry Creek in Sacramento County and the Kern River in Kern 
County. Specific plans for such releases should be developed. 

• The Joint federal-state Peripheral Canal should be authorized by 
Congress and constructed to enhance the environment of the 
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and to provide good-quality water in 
the Delta and for other areas of California. 

• Local water agencies will continue to play an important role in 
the development of California's water resources. Local agencies 
are expected to develop about 20 percent of the new water supplies 
required between now and 2020. They will also predominate in the 
construction of distribution facilities for water delivered from 
state and federal projects. 


)n Special Environmental Issues -- 

• The rivers of California should be classified to identify their 
potential for various future uses, such as scenic and wild rivers, 
fisheries management, water conservation (including "lood control), 
or hydroelectric power. The Department of Water Resources has 

a program for characterizing the State's rivers; and the Resources 
Agency is conducting a study of outstanding scenic and recreational 
waterways under the California Protected Waterways Act. 

• Studies of the protection and enhancement of fisheries and wildlife 
habitat should be expanded to include more complete consideration 
within the perspective of total resources planning and decision 
processes . 

• Acceptable water quality is of paramount importance in the 
conservation, use, and disposal of water. The maintenance of 
acceptable water quality requires an intensive effort by all 
levels of government. 

of Report 

The text of this bulletin is pre- 
sented in seven chapters. Chapter 
II, "An Era of Change", discusses 
changing public values and atti- 
tudes toward water development 
and its impact on the environment. 
It also describes activities and 
events since the publication of 
Bulletin I6O-66 that have signif- 
icant bearing on California's 
water resources. 

Chapter III, "Planning for Water 
Resource Management", considers 
environmental and social goals 
in relation to water resource 
planning and discusses a broad- 
ened planning concept of water 
resource management planning. 

Chpater IV, "Water Demands", 
summarizes California's water 
needs on a statewide basis. It 
discusses the various factors of 
demand for developed supplies, 
with particular emphasis on pro- 
jections of population, industrial 
development, irrigated agriculture, 
and land use. It also discusses 
the water demand-related consid- 
erations of water quality, flood 
control, recreation, fish and 

wildlife, and other environmental 
factors . 

Chapter V, "Potential Water Supply 
Sources", describes the various 
possible sources of water that 
offer potential for meeting future 
water needs. However, no conclu- 
sion is drawn as to the timing or 
indicated priority of any particular 
source . 

Water S 
in some 
for wat 
each of 
areas o 
of exis 
those d 

VI, "Regio 
upply Reiat 

detail the 

and projec 
er and rela 

the 11 maj 
f the State 
ting and de 
s available 
emands . 

nal Water Demand- 
ionships", covers 

derivation of 
ted future demands 
ted services by 
or hydrologic 

and an inventory 
velopable water 

toward satisfying 

Chapter VII, '"Meeting Water Demands 
Through Central Valley Project and 
State Water Project Facilities", 
describes the role of the State 
Water Project and the Central Valley 
Project and explains the manner in 
which they could be expanded and 
operated to provide continuing 
water service, if such service is 


Finally, Chapter VIII, "Population 
Dispersal--Impact on Resources 
Development", considers the impact 
of possible future alternative 
patterns of population distribution 
on water development, use and dis- 
posal, and other environmental 
considerations such as sources and 
transmission of electric energy, 
highway transportation, and air 
pollution . 

It will be noted in the ensuing 
chapters that the "present" is 

designated as 19f-7 . This is -^he 
base year chosen to reflect as 
nearly as possible present (1970) 
conditions, while at the same time 
representing the actual development 
status as determined from the most 
recent land and water use surveys 
which have been in progress over 
the past four years. For the most 
part this information, combined with 
trend data and the preliminary 1970 
census, has been considered repre- 
sentative of present conditions. 



Since publication of Bulletin No. 3, 
"The California Water Plan", in 
1957j the Department has been en- 
gaged in an intensive statewide 
planning program to supplement and 
update the California Water Plan. 
This program involves: (l) peri- 
odic reassessment of existing and 
future demands for water and the 
economic and social needs for re- 
lated services such as flood con- 
trol, hydroelectric power, and rec- 
reational and fish and wildlife 
opportunities; (2) periodic reevalu- 
ation of local water resources 
available to satisfy estimated 
demands, and the magnitude and 
timing of need for additional water 
supplies that cannot be provided 
from local sources; (3) evaluation 
of the various alternative sources 
of water supplies to meet future 
demands in areas of deficiency, 
including dams and reservoirs, de- 
salination, reuse of reclaimed watei) 
weather modification, and other 
possibilities; (4) evaluation of the 
need for protection and preservation 
of the water resource for environ- 
mental enhancement; and (5) exami- 
nation of alternative water resource 
management plans . 

The objective of the statewide plan- 
ning program is to provide a guide 
to the selection of the most favor- 
able management plans for 
California's water resources, con- 
sidering all reasonable alternative 
courses of action. Evaluation of 
these alternatives is premised not 
only on physical and engineering 
considerations but also takes into 
account changing economic, social, 
technological, political, and 
cultural factors, as best those 
factors can be foreseen. The re- 
sults of the program are documented 
in the Bulletin 160 series. 

Since publication of the Bulletin 
No. 160-66 in 1966, California has 
experienced a dynamic era, not only 
in the area of water project 

implementation, but also in the 
evolution of the broad consideration 
of water resource development within 
the framework of the overall envi- 
ronment. Certainly, this evolution 
is desirable and needed, as water is 
a most valuable natural resource and 
must be considered in its broadest 
ramifications. The scope of plan- 
ning must be broadened to encompass 
fully the environmental and total 
resources considerations. 

Studies reported In this bulletin 
indicate that estimates of future 
water demand are lower than at the 
time of publication of Bulletin No. 
160-66, and that more time is 
available to develop new water 
supplies. However, concern for 
environmental quality and especially 
emphasis on "clean water" necessi- 
tates much more effort on water 
resource management. The beneficial 
uses of our water resources must be 
protected, and Increased effort must 
be made to clean up our rivers, 
lakes, estuaries, and ocean conti- 
nental shelf. 

Emphasis on Water Quality 

Water resource management Implies 
the integration of water supply with 
water quality. Two major goals in 
water resource management are: (l) 
the management and use of the water 
resources to meet the needs and 
desires of the people as best those 
needs can be determined; and (2) the 
management of the water and related 
resources of land and air to pre- 
serve and enhance the resources for 
indefinite use and enjoyment. 

The importance of maintaining the 
quality of the waters of California 
has long been recognized by the 
State. A major step was taken in 
1967 to strengthen the water quality 
control programs through the estab- 
lishment of a State Water Resources 
Control Board. Functions of the 


five-member State Board are divided 
into water rights and water quality. 
The water quality functions Include 
the control and prevention of water 

The State Board guides the nine 
Regional Water Quality Control 
Boards, enabling state policy for 
water quality control to be admin- 
istered regionally, within a frame- 
work of statewide coordination and 
policy. The Regional Boards, with 
boundaries generally based on major 
watershed areas, are regulatory 
agencies, each gearing its work to 
the specific problems of its 
particular region. The Boards 
formulate water quality control 
plans for waters of their regions, 
establish and enforce waste dis- 
charge requirements, and implement 
policies of the State Board. 

The authority of the State Water 
Resources Control Board and the 
California Regional Water Quality 
Control Boards was substantially 
increased on January 1, 1970 when 
the Porter-Cologne Water Quality 
Control Act became effective. This 
Act, considered the most compre- 
hensive water quality control law 
in the Nation, completely revises 
the state water pollution and water 
quality control laws and also 
enables the State Water Resources 
Control Board to carry out water 
quality objectives through its water 
rights function. 

A significant element of the Act is 
the provision for development by the 
State Water Resources Control Board 
of state policy for water quality 
control and regional water quality 
control plans. These policies and 
plans become a part of the 
California Water Plan upon sub- 
mission to the Legislature. 

Environmental Awareness 

The recent emergence of environ- 
mental awareness and concern stems 
from two major considerations: 
first, the obvious deterioration of 
our surroundings today--air pollu- 
tion, water pollution, debris of 

our industrial society, urban 
sprawl, loss of our natural fauna 
and flora, ecological disruption, 
and many other distressing aspects 
of contemporary society; and 
second, the predictions of what may 
happen in the future as the popu- 
lation pressures Increase, and the 
related Impact of our expanding 
technological society is Intensified. 
That these problems must be solved 
within a framework of comprehensive 
environmental and resources policy 
is becoming increasingly clear. 

The real issue is the problem of 
planning adequately for the use of 
one resource--water--in a near 
vacuum of other equally contro- 
versial and interrelated problems 
such as population and land use. 
Planning for water use is made con- 
siderably more difficult by the 
absence of any firm policies and 
direction in these other areas which 
are the focal point of much concern. 
The need for such policies is par- 
ticularly manifest in water resource 
development because of the long time 
required for planning and 

The Department of Water Resources 
recognizes the need for a compre- 
hensive policy framework to provide 
keener perspective with regard to 
water resource development. Until 
such policy is articulated by the 
State, the Department must continue 
its philosophy and policy of ensur- 
ing that the water needs of the 
people are satisfied, as best those 
needs can be determined now and in 
the future. The needs of people 
Include not only the demand for 
use, but also the need for preser- 
vation of those resources. This 
necessitates an awareness of the 
need for planning for the mainten- 
ance of a proper balance between 
the preservation and protection of 
water resources and the development 
and use of those resources. 

While there is much talk about popu- 
lation control, no expectation of 
some population Increase is unreal- 
istic. As population Increases, 
and there is every indication that 
it will, water deraainds will increase 


proportionately. Proper considera- 
tion of environmental Issues must 
be premised on the acknowledgment 
that people and their related 
activities will continue to need 
water, no matter how the future 
pattern of population growth and 
distribution may occur. Therefore, 
the question should not be whether 
further water development should 
occur, but how such development can 
best be accomplished, fully taking 
into account the Interrelation with 
the environment and population and 
land use policy, as such policy may 

Recent Environmental 

With the approach of the 1970s, the 
environment and environmental prob- 
lems have become the watchword not 
only of the public but also of the 
Governor, the executive departments, 
and the lawmakers. In fact, both 
the State Legislature and the 
Congress have declared the 1970s to 
be the decade of the environment. 
This is reflected at the state level 
in the passage of three significant 
bills, and at the federal level by 
enactment or extension of important 
policy statutes. While this legis- 
lation is somewhat broadly based, 
it will profoundly affect future 
water resource development. 

Federal Environmental 

Many bills concerning the environ- 
ment are now pending before the 
Congress, and a number of bills 
dealing in various degrees with the 
environment have been passed 
recently. Three significant policy 
enactments concerning water resource 
environment are worthy of particular 
note and are briefly discussed in 
the following paragraphs. 

National Environmental Policy Act 
of 19 b9 ^ This Act declares national 
policy to encourage productive and 
enjoyable harmony between man and 
his environment; to promote efforts 

which will protect the environjnent 
and stimulate the health and wel- 
fare of man; and to enrich the 
understanding of the ecological 
systems and natural resources 
important to the Nation. It de- 
clares that the continuing policy 
of the Federal Government in 
cooperation with the state and 
local governments and other con- 
cerned public and private organi- 
zations will be to use all 
practicable means, including 
financial and technical assistance, 
to foster and promote the general 
welfare . 

The Act provides that all federal 
agencies incorporate environment in 
planning and decision-making, and 
Include in every recommendation or 
report a detailed statement on the 
environmental impact and other con- 
siderations Involved. It also re- 
quires those agencies to Include 
the comments of other agencies 
affected. The Act also establishes 
a Council on Environmental Quality 
in the Executive Office of the 
President. The Council assists and 
advises the President and reviews 
the federal agency programs and 
attitudes . 

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (P.L. 90- 
5^2 j. The Act, passed in 196^, 
established the basic principle that 
certain selected rivers of the 
Nation which, with their immediate 
environments, possess outstanding, 
remarkable, scenic, recreation, 
geologic, fish and wildlife, 
historic, cultural, and other 
similar values, are to be preserved 
in a free -flowing condition and 
protected for the benefit and the 
enjoyment of present and future 
generations . 

The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act 
established the Wild and Scenic 
Rivers System, composed of eight 
initial rivers, including the 
Middle Ford of the Feather River, 
and Identifies 27 other rivers to 
be studied for possible inclusion 
in the national system. In addition, 
the Act also authorizes the 
Secretary of the Interior to provide 


technical assistance, advice, and 
encouragement to the states, politi- 
cal subdivisions, and private 
organizations in their efforts to 
establish state and local wild, 
scenic, and recreation river areas. 

Congress has made clear that the 
task of preserving and administering 
outstandingly remarkable, free- 
flowing streams is not solely the 
domain of the Federal Government ; 
and that the states should be 
encouraged to undertake as much of 
the Job as is possible. To date, 
12 states, including California, 
have active scenic river programs 
to enhance the values of free- 
f lowing rivers. 

Water Quality Improvement Act of 
1970 . The Act is aimed essentially 
at strengthening federal water 
pollution control authority, set- 
ting up an all-inclusive federal 
office to give policy guidance to 
environmental quality improvement 
programs, and improving effective- 
ness of the federal construction 
grant program in combating water 

California State Environmental 
Legislation ~~~ 

As with the Congress, a number of 
bills concerning the environment 
have been passed or are under con- 
sideration by the Legislature. 
Three legislative acts have been 
recently passed that have direct 
bearing on water-related environ- 
ment. Moreover, the California 
Assembly Select Committee on 
Environmental Quality was appointed 
because of growing concern about 
California's environmental problems. 

California Protected Waterways Act , 
This Act, passed as Chapter 127W, 
Statutes of I968, has two major 
aspects. First, it declares that 
it is state policy to conserve 
those waterways of the State 
possessed of extraordinary scenic, 
fishery, wildlife, or outdoor 
recreation values. Second, it 

requires the Resources Agency to 
prepare the initial elements of a 
plan and report thereon to the 
Legislature by January 1971. The 
Act defines waterways as "The waters 
and adjacent lands of streams, 
channels, lakes, reservoirs, bays, 
estuaries, marshes, wetlands, and 
lagoons" . 

Assembly Select Committee on 
Environmental Quality ^ The growing 
concern about California's environ- 
ment prompted appointment of the 
Assembly Select Committee on Environ- 
mental Quality in January 1970. 
This committee reviewed the major 
environmental problems confronting 
California and published a report 
entitled "Environmental Bill of 
Rights" in March of 1970. The re- 
port includes 3^ recommendations 
covering a wide range of recommended 
state actions. Major conclusions of 
the report cover population growth 
and distribution, land use patterns, 
need for a greatly expanded public 
investment, formation of regional 
planning agencies and preparation of 
regional environmental protection 
and enhancement plans, abatement of 
pollution caused by the automobile, 
and protection of resources of the 
coastal zone. 

Two important bills resulting from 
the report were passed during the 
1970 Legislative Session. They are 
AB 2045, "The Environmental Quality 
Act of 1970", and AB 207O, which 
abolishes the existing State Office 
of Planning and creates an Office of 
Planning and Research in the 
Governor's Office to assist the 
Governor in developing and achieving 
environmental goals . 

AB 2045 will require state agencies 

1. Include a detailed statement 
of specific environmental 
information in any report on 
any project they propose to 
carry out which could signifi- 
cantly affect the environment. 

2. Include a detailed environ- 
mental statement in the official 


Californio's "Environmental Sill of Rights" is concerned with protection of resources of the coastal zone. 

In .some areas, land choice fta.s already been made 

^ ^4^^ 



1. .:.^' 


DPW - Drvii, lofi v< Ml 

In other areas, opporlunities lor allernatlve uses still exist 

state review of any proposed 
federal project which could 
significantly affect the 
environment. (This also is 
consistent with the Federal 
Environmental Policy Act of 
1969 requiring federal 
agencies to present similar 
environmental information 
on their proposed projects.) 

3. Request in their budgets, 
funds necessary to protect 
the environment from problems 
caused by its activities. 

4. Require from local agencies 
detailed statements of 
specific environmental infor- 
mation prioi* to allocation 

of state or federal funds for 
projects which may have a 
significant effect on the 
environment . 

Under AB 2070 the new Office of 
Planning and Research will serve 
the Governor and his Cabinet as 
staff for long-range planning and 
research, and constitute the compre- 
hensive state planning agency. It 
will have authority to assist in the 
preparation of all environment -related 
programs of state departments and 
agencies. Including water develop- 
ment, and to assist the Department 
of Finance in preparing the annual 
state budget as it relates to 
environmental goals and objectives. 

Progress in Interstate and 

Federal-State Water 


During the nast several years a 
number of steps have been taken by 
California in cooperation with other 
states or with the Federal Govern- 
ment, and by the Federal Government, 
which will have significant influ- 
ence on the State's water develop- 
ment. Three of the most important 
federal laws enacted were : the 
Water Resources Planning Act (P.L, 
89-80), the National Water 
Commission Act (P.L, 9O-515), and 
the Colorado River Basin Project 
Act (P.L. 90-537). California and 
the other 10 western states have 

moved toward better understanding by 
their participation in the Western 
States Water Council and in the 
recently authorized Western United 
States Water Plan Study. 

The Water Resources Planning 
Act (P.L. 89-80 ) 

As stated in the preamble, this Act 

" ... to provide for the opti- 
mum development of the Nation's 
natural resources through the 
coordinated planning of water 
and related land resources, 
through the establishment of a 
water resources council and 
river basins commission, and 
by providing financial assis- 
tance to the states in order 
to increase state participation 
in such planning." 

Primary responsibility for imple- 
mentation of this far-reaching law 
rests with the Water Resources 
Council, which was created by the 
Act specifically for that purpose. 
The Council consists of the 
Secretaries of the Interior, Agri- 
culture, the Army, and Health, 
Education, and Welfare, and the 
Chairman of the Federal Power 

The Water Resources Council is re- 
quired to prepare national assess- 
ments of the adequacy of supplies of 
water necessary to meet each water 
resource region in the United States 
and the national interest therein. 

The "First National Assessment" was 
published by the Council in 
November 1968. 

National Water Commission 
Act CP.L. 9O-515J 

This Act, passed by the Congress in 
1968, promises to be of importance 
to western water development. The 
Act created a seven-member National 
Water Commission which is responsi- 
ble for (1) review of present and 
anticipated national water resource 


problems; (2) consideration of 
economic and social consequences of 
water resource development, includ- 
ing the impact of water resource 
development on regional economic 
growth, and on institutional 
arrangements and esthetic values; 
and (3) advice on specific water 
matters. The Commission is also 
required to consult with the Water 
Resources Council, and to furnish 
its reports to that body for review 
and comment prior to submittal to 
the President and the Congress. 

The responsibilities and authority 
of the Commission are very general. 
During I969 it sought the views of 
federal and state agencies, private 
consultants, and the public in an 
attempt to delineate a scope of 
effort in which it could produce a 
report that would give more meaning- 
ful direction to the planning and 
development of the Nation's water 
resources. The Commission plans to 
submit its final report to the 
President and the Congress early in 

Colorado River Basin Project 
Act (P.L. 90-537) 

This law was enacted in 1968 after 
four years of interstate negotiations 
and congressional hearings. It 
authorized the Central Arizona Proj- 
ect and five Upper Colorado River 
Basin projects, established a devel- 
opment fund, delineated principles 
and priorities for operation of 
Colorado River reservoirs, condi- 
tionally authorized one project and 
reauthorized another project in Utah, 
and provided for assumption of the 
Mexican Water Treaty burden by the 
United States when the Colorado 
River is augmented by 2.5 million 
acre-feet. The Act gave existing 
California, Arizona, and Nevada 
Colorado River water contractors a 
priority over the Central Arizona 
Project whenever the annual usable 
supply is less than 7.5 million acre- 
feet, with California's priority 
limited to 4.4 million acre-feet per 

The Central Arizona Project was 
authorized with reference to the 

1964 U. S. Supreme Court Decree 
which apportions the waters of the 
Lower Colorado River Basin among the 
States of California, Nevada and 
Arizona. Under that decree, Cali- 
fornia is apportioned 4.4 million 
acre -feet per year plus 50 percent 
of any surplus. California agencies 
have contracts with the Secretary of 
the Interior for 5.362 million acre- 
feet per year. It is anticipated 
that California's supply in the 
Colorado will be reduced when the 
Central Arizona Project becomes 
operational, which is expected to be 
sometime during the 1980s. The 
principal effect of this reduction 
will be to reduce the annual deliv- 
eries to the Metropolitan Viater 
District of Southern California from 
the present 1,212,000 acre-feet to 
550,000 acre -feet. The Imperial, 
Palo Verde, and Coachella Irrigation 
Districts will also lose rights to 
300,000 acre-feet of second-priority 

The Act recognizes the shortage of 
water in the Colorado River Basin 
and acknowledges the need for augmen- 
tation of the natural water resources 
of the Basin. It directs the 
Secretary of the Interior to conduct 
reconnaissance investigations for the 
purpose of developing a general plan 
to meet the future water needs of the 
Western United States. However, the 
Act imposes a 10-year moratorium on 
studies of any plan for importation 
of water into the Basin from any 
other natural drainage basin lying 
outside the States of Arizona, 
California, Colorado, and New Mexjco 
and outside of those portions of 
Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming which are 
in the Colorado River Basin, until 
September 30, I978. The Secretary has 
assigned responsibility for this study 
to the Bureau of Reclamation, which 
now refers to it as the "Western 
United States Water Plan Study". 

Federal -State Framework Studies 

The Federal Government inaugurated the 
Type I Framework Studies in 1966 under 
the Water Resources Planning Act, with 
the objective of providing compre- 
hensive water planning in all regions 
of the Nation. This is basically a 


federal interagency program in 
which the states are encouraged to 
participate. The responsibility 
for initiation and overall coordi- 
nation has been administratively 
assigned to the Water Resources 

Framework Studies in the Pacific 
Southwest area cover the Great 
Basin, the Upper and Lower Colorado 
Basins, and the California Region. 
The State of California is the lead 
agency for the California Region 
Study, which has been in progress 
since I967. All Framework Study 
reports for the Region are scheduled 
for completion by June 30, 1971. 

The Framework Studies are being 
conducted at the reconnaissance 
level, with the objective of devel- 
oping a framework plan to meet the 
projected needs for water and re- 
lated land resources through 2020. 
The state agencies participating in 
the California Region study are the 
Departments of Water Resources, 
Pish and Game, Parks and Recreation, 
Navigation and Ocean Development, 
Conservation, and Public Health, 
and the Reclamation Board, Colorado 
River Board, and State Water 
Resources Control Board. 

June 30, 1977. Interregional trans- 
fers of water from the Northwest to 
the Southwest will not be studied 
in this investigation because it 
will conclude before the 10-year 
moratorium in P.L. 90-537 expires. 
However, it was envisioned by the 
Congress, in enacting P.L. 90-537, 
that such transfers will be con- 
sidered and a comprehensive water 
plan for the entire West will be 
formulated by the Secretary after 
September 30, 1978. 

Western States Water Council 

The 33 -man Western 
Council was create 
governors of the 1 
states lying wholl 
of the Continental 
purpose is to fost 
cooperation among 
States in planning 
leading to Integra 
of water resources 
and other agencies 
are to: 

States Water 
d in 1965 by the 
1 contiguous 
y or in part west 

Divide. Its 
er effective 
the Western 

for programs 
ted development 

by state, federal. 
Its functions 

Prepare criteria for plans 
for regional development of 
water resources to protect 
and further state and local 
interests; and 

Western United States 
Water Plan 

The Bureau of Reclamation launched 
this planning study early in 1970. 
The states have been invited and 
urged to participate in the investi- 
gation. Insofar as possible the 
study will use information to be 
provided by the federal Type I 
Framework Studies and any other 
relevant studies for the Pacific 
Northwest and the Pacific Southwest. 

Progress reports are to be submit- 
ted by the Secretary of the Interior 
to the President, the National Water 
Commission (while it is In existence), 
the Water Resources Council, and 
the Congress every two years . The 
first report will be due on or 
before June 30, I971. The study is 
to terminate with a final recon- 
naissance report not later than 

2. Undertake continuing review 
of all large-scale interstate 
and interbasln plans and 
projects, and advise the 
governors regarding their 
compatibility with the orderly 
and optimum development of 
the water resources of the 
Western States. 

Progress in 
Water Resource Development 

The State Water Project, the federal 
Central Valley Project and other 
major federal projects are widely 
known, because of both the public 
and governmental process of authori- 
zation and the financing and indi- 
vidual project scope and magnitude. 
However, the extensive efforts of 
local agencies, largely unhearalded, 
have provided the backbone of 


California's water resource devel- 
opment achievement to date. Estima- 
tions have been made that local 
agencies have invested nearly $5 
billion in surface water and ground 
water projects. This estimate is 
based on dollars expended over the 
years, and would be substantiallj' 
greater based on the value of tlie 
dollar today. 

It is estimated that local agencies 
have expended more than $1 billion 
in water conservation, conveyance, 
and major distribution systems over 
the past four years. The State has 
invested a similar amount on the 
State Water Project, and the 
Federal Government has expended 
about plOO million on the Central 
Valley Project and other facilities. 
Although state and federal construc- 
tion expenditures may exceed local 
agency investment in the future, 
because of the increasing scope and 
magnitude of interbasin projects, 
state and federal water development 
will continue to supplement rather 
than supplant local development, 
fulfill in-; onlv - \. .. ■ I.:- '\\' 

local agencies are unable to 
provide for. In this regard, local 
agencies will play the lead role in 
developin,^ distribution systems for 
state and federal water facilities. 

This concluding section presents a 
brief description of the progress 
in water development project con- 
struction during the four years 
since pub-licatlon of Bulletin 
No. I6O-66. In this regard a map 
showing existing and possible future 
water development and conveyance sys- 
tem.s in California is enclosed in the 
jacket at the back of this bulletin 
as Plate 1, entitled "Water Resource 
Development in California". 

Local Water Development 

During the past four years local 
agencies completed or initiated 
construction on 35 reservoir proj- 
ects. Major projects completed 
were New Bullards Bar on the North 
Yuba River by the Yuba County Water 
Agency; New Exchequer on the Merced 

New Bullards Bar Dam - North Yuba River 

Yuba County Water Agency 

Local projects provide the backbone lor Calilornia's water resources development 


River by the Merced Irrigation 
District; Hell Hole on the Rubicon 
River by Placer County Water Agency; 
Lopez on Arroyo Grande Creek by 
San Luis Obispo County Flood Control 
and Water Conservation District: and 
New Don Pedro Project on the 
Tuoluntne River by the City and 
County of San Francisco and the 
Turlock and Modesto Irrigation 
Districts . 

In addition, major aqueduct and 
distribution systems were completed 
or are in progress. The City of 
Los Angeles completed the second 
barrel of the Los Angeles Aqueduct 
which conveys water from the Owens 
River. The Metropolitan Water 
District of Southern California is 
constructing a major distribution 
system to deliver water from the 
State Water Project to member 
agencies. Some $217 million in 
construction was under contract on 
June 30, 1969. The completed 
facilities are expected to cost 
about $1.4 billion. 

Several major water districts in 
the San Joaquin Valley have com- 
pleted or are in the process of con- 
structing distribution systems to 
deliver imported water to individual 
users. The Arvin-Edison Water 
Storage District in eastern Kern 
County has completed a $38 million 
system for distribution of water 
from the Central Valley Project. 
The agencies on the west side of 
the Valley are constructing similar 
facilities for distribution of water 
from the State Water Project, with 
an aggregate expenditure of about 
$40 million as of December I968. 

The foregoing projects by no means 
represent the total local agency 
construction effort over the past 
four years. But they do serve to 
indicate the very important role of 
the local agencies in fulfilling 
California's water needs. 

Federal Projects 

Highlights of progress on the 
Central Valley Project during the 
past four years include the 

completion of the J 
state San Luis Dam 
and San Luis Canal, 
construction of the 
Canal, and initiati 
tion of the San Fel 
Construction of the 
South Unit (authori 
the San Luis drain 
in progress . 

oint federal - 
and Pumping Plant 
initiation of 
on of construc- 
ipe Division. 

zed in I965) and 
is also currently 

Central Valley Project deliveries 
have increased 50 percent over the 
past four years, reaching 60 percent 
of the estimated total area contem- 
plated under the presently autho- 
rized project. Water deliveries in 
1969 totalled 4.9 million acre-feet 
as compared to 3.6 million acre-feet 
in 1965. Installed hydroelectric 
capacity also increased 50 percent, 
currently exceeding 1,500,000 
kilowatts. This represents nearly 
85 percent of the presently autho- 
rized total capacity. 

Other noteworthy construction accom- 
plishments by the Bureau of Recla- 
mation include completion of 
Stampede Reservoir on Little Truckee 
River and first power transmission 
to the Central Valley Project over 
the Pacific Northwest-Pacific 
Southwest intertie . 

The Corps of Engineers continued its 
construction program to provide for 
navigation, beach erosion and flood 
control projects. The Corps began 
construction on six reservoir proj- 
ects: New Melones on the Stanislaus 
River, Warm Springs in the Russian 
River Basin, Martis on the Truckee 
River, Mojave on the Mojave River, 
Hidden on the Fresno River, and 
Buchanan on the Chowchilla River. 

The Flood Control Act of I966 autho- 
rized Marysville and Knights Valley 
Reservoir Projects on the Yuba 
River and in the Russian River Basin, 
respectively, and the Flood Control 
Act of 1968 authorized Butler Valley 
Reservoir Project on the Mad River 
in Humboldt County. 


state Water Project 

Notable progress has been made since 
1966 toward completion of the State 
Water Project. Oroville Dam has 
been in operation for over three 
years and has performed very suc- 
cessfully its multi-purpose duties 
of flood control, conservation, 
power generation, and recreation. 
In fact, Oroville Reservoir not 
only completely filled during its 
first year of full operation, but 
also performed adm.irably in con- 
trolling the substantial floodflows 
during January and February of I969 
and January of 1970. 

The first phase of the North Bay 
Aqueduct was completed early in 
1968. Del Valle Dam on the South 
Bay Aqueduct was completed in 1968 
and Lake Del Valle was full by the 
spring of I969. 

The favorable water conditions 
during the spring of I969 enabled 
the complete filling of San Luis 
Reservoir, the key facility of the 
San Luis features which were com- 
pleted in 1968. 

Deliveries of project water to con- 
tracting agencies in the San Joaquin 
Valley began in I968, and a total 
of nearly 200,000 acre-feet of water 
was delivered to nine water service 
agencies along the west side of the 
Valley in Kings and Kern Counties in 
both 1968 and I969. An estimated 

300,000 acre-feet was delivered in 
1970. Of the 75,000 acres currently 
irrigated from project deliveries, 
only 12,000 acres had previously 

been irrigated. 

As of December 1970 the California 
Aqueduct was operational from 
Clifton Court Forebay at the souther- 
ly edge of the Delta to Wind Gap 
Pumping Plant, some 28O miles to the 
south. Included in that reach are 
five of the nine major pumping 
plants on the aqueduct. 

The Tehachapi Crossing facilities 
(Tunnels Nos. 1, 2, and 3, and the 
4 .7-mile-long Carley V. Porter Tun- 
nel) were completed during 1970. 
The lengths of these tunnels total 
nearly 8 miles. Water will begin 
flowing through the Tehachapis in 
June 1971. The West Branch facili- 
ties needed for Initial water 
delivery will be completed in the 
fall of 1971, and water deliveries 
are expected to be initiated from 
Castaic Dam in October of that year. 

A contract for construction of 
Perris Dam at the terminus of the 
aqueduct was awarded in October 
1970. The project is on schedule, 
and the prospects of meeting the 
target date for delivery of project 
water to the West Branch contractors 
in 1971 and the East Branch contrac- 
tors in 1972 and 1973 seem excellent 



The State of California has long 
recognized that the growth and well- 
being of its economy require ade- 
quate water supplies. The State 
has traditionally assumed responsi- 
bility for providing guidance and 
leadership in planning for the 
orderly use and development of its 
water resources, as enunciated in 
Section 105 of the California Water 
Code, which states: 

"It is hereby declared 
that the protection of the 
public interest in the devel- 
opment of the water resources 
of the State is of vital con- 
cern to the people of the State 
and that the State shall deter- 
mine in what way the water of 
the State, both surface and 
underground, should be devel- 
oped for the greatest public 

This policy has been elaborated and 
detailed in many subsequent pro- 
visions of the Water Code and forms 
the basic and primary objective of 
the planning program of the Depart- 
ment of Water Resources. 

Planning Considerations 

Planning for resources in general is 
influenced by public goals and 
values as reflected in laws, rules, 
regulations and accepted practices. 
In the case of water resource plan- 
ning, the Flood Control Act of 1936, 
which declared that benefits of 
federal projects should at least 
equal costs, provided a legal basis 
for an era of planning which empha- 
sized "benefit-cost" in the analysis 
of river basin projects. This con- 
cept was progressively developed 
over the years and today, as defined 
in Senate Document 97 (adopted by 
the Eighty-seventh Congress in 
1962) represents what might be con- 
sidered the "traditional approach 

to water development planning. This 
traditional approach encompasses 
both the established concepts and 
techniques of economic and financial 
analysis, some consideration of 
recreational and social benefits, 
and specific Informational and 
technical criteria which underlie 
the project formulation process. 

Recent events reveal that social 
objectives considered desirable by 
society have been significantly 
expanded and that certain of these 
may not be consistent with the most 
economically efficient use of re- 
sources. The public interest in 
recreation, quality of environment, 
healthful ecology, and esthetics 
Implies a willingness to forego 
opportunity or to spend money in a 
way that does not necessarily yield 
the highest economic efficiency as 
it is now computed. The extent of 
public commitment to some of the 
emerging environmental demands has 
not been defined. Trade-offs of 
benefits and/or new financial obli- 
gations will be involved. 

Most resources planning and develop- 
ment have been Initiated from 
essentially a single-purpose view- 
point for a primary resource, even 
though particular developments may 
have multiple uses and benefits, 
affecting other resources. Water 
resource projects have brought into 
sharp focus the interrelationships 
of resources and resource management 
problems with the environment and 
economic development. They have 
emphasized the need to begin to con- 
sider how to carry out coordinated 
comprehensive resource management 
planning in the total context of the 
environment. This indicates the 
need for a statewide land use policy 
as a prerequisite to the management 
of California's resources. 

Planners are confronted with the 
need to develop new philosophies. 


new concepts, new methodology and 
new techniques. The rapid develop- 
ment of technology has opened possi- 
bilities for new alternative 
approaches to water development; and 
the increasing concern of the people 
regarding environment demands the 
development of new and more refined 
methods of evaluating the environ- 
mental benefits and detriments of 
water development. 

The Department of Water Resources is 
broadening its planning and evalu- 
ation processes and techniques to 
cover a wider range of water devel- 
opment alternatives and th_e increased 
application of techniques and con- 
cepts of systems analysis. Systems 
analysis in the broader sense is the 
process of explicitly identifying the 
fundamental problems requiring solu- 
tion and analyzing a wide scope of 
alternatives from the standpoint of 
both monetary and nonmonetary values 
for the purpose of aiding the 
decision-makers in making decisions. 
A systems approach might be de- 
scribed as a sensitive, analytical 
process which helps in formulating 
and acting upon required decisions. 

The systems analysis methodology has 
been widely applied in both business 
and government. However, full use 
of its techniques in water resource 
planning must be further explored 
and developed. Successful applica- 
tion of this technique holds promise 
of broadening the range of alterna- 
tives for meeting water development 
and other resource needs of the 
State, and in incorporating a wider 
range of considerations into the 
evaluation process. 

Decisions regarding management and 
utilization of water resources 
should be based on a thorough com- 
parison of the need for action with 
the virtues of retaining options for 
the future. Benefits foregone are 
real and every effort should be made 
to evaluate such benefits before 
final decisions are made. All effort 
should be made to ensure that deci- 
sions made now will minimize delete- 
rious effects that might have been 
avoided had decisions been made in 

such a way as to retain flexibility 
for future action. 

Water quality assumes increasing 
importance as greater pressures 
develop on the resources and as the 
environmental objectives considered 
desirable by society are broadened. 
The Department of Water Resources is 
charged with broad and continuing 
responsibilities toward water quality 
management as a part of its role in 
water resource management. In order 
to exercise this role, new methods 
and techniques must be developed for 
evaluating the relationship of water 
quality to the environment and de- 
fining benefits and equating 
consequences of water resource 

Increased communication with a more 
environmentally conscious public is 
also important to focus their atten- 
tion on water quality management 
alternatives and the consequences of 
management strategy. There must be 
an expanded range of alternatives 
available to meet this demand. 

Planning Process 

The planning process covers the full 
range of activities in which objec- 
tives are identified and evaluated, 
information is analyzed and inte- 
grated, plans are formulated and 
updated, alternative approaches are 
developed, and decisions are made. 
The identified objectives are, of 
course, a function of the complex 
and interrelated social, environ- 
mental, ecological, and physical 
factors, constituting both forces 
and constraints, which must be con- 
sidered in developing alternative 
management approaches. In reference 
to water resources, the planning 
process includes not only the phys- 
ical needs for urban and agricultural 
uses, but the emerging environmental 
needs as well. Problems of environ- 
mental quality, however, have made 
necessary the development of better 
methods of identifying and evaluating 
water-related environmental ob- 
jectives, which requires a wider 
range of coordination and an 


expansion of evaluation procedures. Policies, Goals and Plans 

Finally, the planning process 
provides a procedure for the ratio- 
nal selection of specific plans and 
programs which leads to the end 
product of planning--the implemen- 
tation of specific courses of action 
to meet the needs of the people. 
Public review and comment is an im- 
portant aspect of the planning 
process . 

Development of an overall planning 
concept is important to the refine- 
ment of the planning process. In 
this regard, Figure 1 illustrates 
the relationship of the California 
Water Plan within the governmental 
organization, including policies 
and plans; and Figure 2 at the end 
of this chapter illustrates the 
planning concepts and process for 
water resource management in 
California. Together, these figures 
indicate the relationship of water 
resource management to overall 
statewide planning, and present the 
basic concept of integrated water 
resource management planning. These 
charts represent both established 
relationships and processes and 
areas where developmental efforts 
are being made. 

Figure 2 represents the idealized 
planning process which generally 
guides the Department. The begin- 
ning point and foundation of the 
planning process is the California 
Water Plan, as updated and supple- 
mented by Bulletin No. I6O-66 and 
Bulletin No. 16O-70. The studies 
and analyses which provide the 
basis for supplementing the 
California Water Plan are largely 
represented by the process de- 
scribed in this schematic chart. 
However, several significant areas 
of the planning concepts and tech- 
niques shown in the schematic are 
being improved and refined. 

The overall water resource management 
planning process as illustrated in 
Figure 2 consists of three major 
sections. These are described in 
the following sections. 

Although planning is a continuous 
process with feedback and readjust- 
ment of earlier phases, this portion 
of the diagram in Figure 2 is the 
beginning point. It is represented 
by the California Water Plan as 
supplemented and updated by the 
Bulletin I60 series; and the various 
policies, goals and statewide plans 
which have impacts upon water 
resource management. 

The policies and plans of the State 
of California as a whole and the 
specific state development policies, 
shown in Figure 1, provide the basic 
framework, within which the state 
water resource management planning 
process may be conducted in proper 
perspective. The state development 
policies embrace five major areas: 
population and human resources; 
economic development; land use and 
resources; environment; transpor- 
tation. These policies provide the 
foundation for the development of 
the various state agency management 
plans. Other departments in the 
Resources Agency are in the process 
of developing their specific de- 
partment plans. The California 
Water Plan, as updated by Bulletin 
No. 160 of the Department of Water 
Resources and supplemented by the 
water quality control policies and 
water quality control plans of the 
State Water Resources Control 
Board, represents the master plan 
for water resource management in 

Although the state planning process 
and the State Development Plan 
Program have not been completed, 
developments in this direction will 
substantially improve the total 
planning process of the State, and 
will have important influences upon 
water resource management. It is 
through the further integration of 
these policies and plans that the 
State of California will be able to 
consider the problems of resources 
management and environment as a 
totality, and to develop plans and 
programs which are more capable of 











(As supplemented and updated 
by Bulletin 160 Series) 

(1) The California State Development Plan Program Report discusses these environmental and development 
policies in terms of a comprehensive state planning process. 

(2) California Water Plan takes into account the impact of the plans of other resources agencies and other 
State Departments. Sec. 13141 of the Water Code states that state policy for water quality control and 
regional water quolity control plons shall become a part of the California Water Plan. Sees. 13145 and 
13225 require consideration of effect of water quality actions on the California Water Plan. 


meeting the interrelated and complex 
problems of an expanding technolog- 
ical society. The refinement of 
the water resource planning process 
and the integration of this process 
into the total state planning 
process is a major step in this 

Water Resource Management 
Analysis Process 

This process constitutes the 
formulation of alternative water 
resource management plans and pro- 
grams and is diagramed in the central 
part of Figure 2. The central anal- 
ysis is carried as a central coordi- 
nated statewide planning activity. 
At this point in the process all 
pertinent information relating to 
water management in California is 
collected, integrated and analyzed. 
This analytical process results in 
changes in the California Water 
Plan based upon existing conditions, 
and provides the necessary infor- 
mation for the specific alternative 
plans and programs to meet the pre- 
sent and emerging water management 
needs of the State. It takes into 
account water resource management 
activities at all levels — federal, 
state, local and private. Through 
the analytical process, existing 
conditions, the emerging problems, 
environmental and technological 
factors and constraints, and public 
policies are brought together and 
analyzed from the standpoint of 
their impacts upon water resource 
management needs and possible 

The process is carried out simulta- 
neously at two levels of planning 
studies. First, on a statewide 
basis, overall systems analysis is 
provided, incorporating those fac- 
tors affecting water availability, 
use, and disposal, and the economic 
and environmental-ecological conse- 
quences of changes in availability, 
quality, use, and disposal of water. 
The second level is concentrated on 
a more detailed analysis, focused 
on the local regions, service areas, 
and individual streams. This 

detailed information is required 
as input and parameters necessary 
for statewide systems analysis of 
water management. 

The specific factors which go into 
the water resource management anal- 
ysis are shown in Figure 2 by the 
type of studies which are carried 
out. The analysis takes into 
account all relevant water resource 
management alternatives and the 
estimated consequences of their 
implementation . 

Formulation of water resource man- 
agement plans and prograjns through 
continuous coordinated statewide 
planning analysis (broad white 
central arrow) is the process in 
which all of the information is 
integrated and synthesized in a 
systems analysis approach. Through 
various analytical techniques, in- 
cluding simulation, input-output, 
and other models, it brings together 
projections of future economic de- 
velopment, analysis of present land 
use patterns and projections of 
future trends , water supply-demand 
relationships, projection of demand 
for water-associated services, in- 
tegration of water supply disposal 
considerations, and other relevant 
factors for identification of those 
specific alternative plans and pro- 
grams to be considered in meeting 
the water management needs of the 
State. At many points in the 
process, information and opinion 
from the public will be sought. 

The major areas of expansion and 
refinement of the evaluation process 
are in the analysis of environmental, 
ecological, social, economic, water 
quality, beneficial use, and insti- 
tutional factors that are pertinent 
to water management plans. Advanced 
techniques, utilizing computer 
technology and associated modeling 
techniques, will facilitate consid- 
eration of these interrelated 
factors. Further, expanded use of 
the systems analysis approach will 
provide additional input for the 
analysis of alternative plans and 
programs and the selection of 
specific plans and programs for 
implementation . 


ot her Resources Agency studies of 
water resources (upper left arrow) 
cover the monitoring, coordination 
where appropriate, and interpreta- 
tion of the studies and plans of 
federal, state, and local agencies 
that have an impact on the 
Department's water resource manage- 
ment planning responsibilities. 

Definition of future services 
(lower left box) is the activity 
defining the requirements and objec- 
tives for water management plans. 
Included in this activity are 
studies of the magnitude and timing 
of future water demand and water 
management needs. Consideration of 
water-associated recreation plans, 
water quality control plans , flood 
control, and floodplain management 
are all important aspects of this 
phase of planning process. 

Capability of major water development 
options (lower right box) includes 
studies to determine the yield, 
physical configuration, and poten- 
tial accomplishments of those options 
that can physically provide signifi- 
cant additional water supplies. 
Options available include surface 
water impoundment and related convey- 
ance systems, ground water basin 
operational schemes, interstate 
water development (Department par- 
ticipation in the U. S. Department 
of the Interior's Western United 
States Water Plan Study) which 
might lead to an out-of-state supply 
of supplemental water to California, 
desalting, and any other techno- 
logical development that might make 
available a large supply of fresh 

Effect of major changes in social , 
economic, environmental, techno -~ 
logical, and governmental factors 
on water demand (upper center box) 
is basically the study of "non- 
structural" alternatives to water 
development. Studies cover investi- 
gation of the extent to which major 
changes in present institutional 
arrangements would reduce or post- 
pone the need for additional water 
development in California, the 
economic and environmental 

consequences of such changes, and 
the political and legal practicality 
of attempting to implement them. 
Studies would include consideration 
of: (1) reallocation of existing 
water supplies and water rights; 
(2) planned location of industries, 
educational facilities and other 
public services; (3) technological 
research and development; (4) re- 
duction in water use, demand, and 
waste water disposal through 
pricing policies; and (5) land use 

Effects of water reuse and conser - 
vation on water supply, demand, and 
environmental quality (upper right 
box) is an evaluation of the roles 
of water reclamation, watershed 
management, evaporation and seepage 
suppression, and phreatophyte erad- 
ication or control in water resource 
management plans. Most of these 
options would have economic benefits 
of extending the use of an existing 
developed water supply. However, 
they also have the potential of 
greatly affecting the environment. 

Water reclamation may offer the 
opportunity to reduce overall water 
supply and waste treatment costs or 
to realize significant environmental 
benefits by irrigating recreational 
areas and agricultural greenbelts 
adjacent to metropolitan areas. 
Other options, such as phreatophyte 
eradication or watershed management, 
can have detrimental ecological con- 
sequences by eliminating or reducing 
wildlife habitat. Comprehensive 
evaluation of each of these options 
is important to ensure that all 
benefits and detriments are iden- 
tified and evaluated, including all 
environmental and ecological 

Decision and Implementation 

This is an objective of the planning 
process, resulting in specific plans 
and programs to meet the water 
resource management needs of the 
State. It is in this phase that the 
planning process enters into the 


area of decision-making . Also it 
is at this point that the tradi- 
tional planning process encounters 
a major criticism--the criticism 
that a broader range of technically 
feasible alternatives for meeting 
water development objectives should 
be made available to the public for 
consideration, along with both 
tangible and intangible costs and 
benefits for each alternative. 

Through the use of advanced analyt- 
ical techniques it is possible to 

analyze alternative approaches, 
particularly those based upon devel- 
oping technology, and to provide a 
more intensive analysis of the 
environmental, social and economic 
impact of these alternatives for 
public review. Thus, an essential 
product of the analytical process 
is to provide a broad range of 
alternatives which may be considered 
by the public and the Legislature. 
These alternatives or options would 
be presented in terms of economic, 
social, and physical consequences. 
An important consideration at this 
point of the process is that the 
final decisions should provide a 
wide degree of flexibility for the 
future, and foreclose as few choices 
as practicable. 

The identification of alternative 
plans and programs lays the founda- 
tion for the necessary public and 
legislative reviews which lead to 
the selection of specific water 
resources proposals and plans. 
Selected plans and programs would 
be implemented to meet the water 
resource management needs of the 
State after review and comment by 
the public. 

At each step of the process--whether 
it be in the analytical process 
where information is fed into the 
system, the identification of alter- 
native plans or programs, the 

selection of specific water resources 
plans and programs, or the actual 
implementation of such plans and 
programs--and at whatever govern- 
mental level this may take place, 
the resulting information, decisions 
and actions influence the developing 
California Water Plan. Periodically 
in the Bulletin l60 series, the 
Department of Water Resources ana- 
lyzes and evaluates all of the 
changes, present and projected, and 
supplements the California Water 
Plan as best it can be foreseen at 
the time of publication. 

In Summary, as we enter the decade 
of the '70s the planning program 
of the Department must be and will 
be further broadened to reflect 
adequately the increasing concern 
for environmental and ecological 
considerations. Many of the tra- 
ditional concepts and techniques 
that were both relevant and suffi- 
cient for water development planning 
in the past must be scrutinized and 
reevaluated to reflect both changing 
technology and changing values. 

The Department must provide for the 
water needs of the State in such a 
way as to minimize the adverse 
effects of project construction on 
the natural environment and, at the 
same time, to enhance the environ- 
ment. This approach necessitates 
the broadening of choice among 
alternatives to consider parameters 
other than maximization of net 
economic benefits and least cost 
only. It also requires flexibility 
in the planning process so as not 
to foreclose the available options 
by premature selection of a course 
of action. The concepts of re- 
duction of damage to the environ- 
ment and enhancement of the 
environment will loom large in the 
decision-making process in the 









































specific plans an 
'rograhs for hj-e 











Following publication of Bulletin 
No. 16O-66 the Department undertook 
a four-year study and analysis of 
demands for water service through- 
out the State. These demands were 
projected to years 1990 and 2020 to 
provide an analytical framework for 
long-range planning necessary for 
the most effective development and 
use of additional water supplies 
from the various potential sources. 

This chapter summarizes the demands 
for water on a statewide basis. 
Some of the principal determinants 
of future demands such as popula- 
tion and irrigated agriculture are 
discussed, as are the important 
aspects of recreation, fish and 
wildlife, flood control, and water 

Future Economic 

Urban and agricultural uses of 
water account for nearly all of the 
water presently consumed in 
California. Estimates of popula- 
tion and related industrial and 
commercial development provide the 
basis for determining urban water 
demands. Agricultural water needs 
are dependent upon food and fiber 
requirements and irrigated acreages 
considered necessary to meet those 
requirements. This section dis- 
cusses these aspects of water use. 


Projection of population is basic 
to water planning studies. In 
many respects it is the key to 
other water development needs such 
as agricultural production, flood 
control, electric power, recreation, 
fisheries, wildlife and water 
quality. Population growth has 
become the focal point for many 
environmental and ecological con- 
siderations which are becoming of 

increasing concern. For these 
reasons it is important to under- 
stand the direction and general 
level of present and anticipated 
future population trends. 

Between 1940 and 197O the State's 
population more than tripled, grow- 
ing from about 6 million people to 
slightly under 20 million. Gener- 
ally California's population has 
doubled every 20 years since i860. 
A continuation of such rates would 
suggest a state population of 
40 million in I99O and about 60 
million by the turn of the century. 
Two factors have occurred in the 
past decade which indicate that such 
levels of population growth in 
California are unlikely. The first 
relates to a national phenomenon-- 
people's attitudes toward population 
and family size in particular. The 
second relates to a particularly 
important component of California's 
growth- -namely, massive in-migration. 

As to the first, the rapid decline 
in fertility rates during the past 
decade is one of the most striking 
of recent demographic trends. As 
recently as I967 the U. S. Bureau 
of the Census published a series of 
population projections for the 
Country as a whole, corresponding 
to four birthrate series. These 
are depicted in Figure 3 as A through 
D. Each has been experienced at 
some time in the past. In August 
1970 the Bureau revised its esti- 
mates, dropping series A as unreal- 
istic and adding series E which 
would result in a more or less 
stable population The magnitude of 
the difference in total population 
may be seen in the tabulation at the 
top of the following page. 

A constant net migration of 200,000 
was used to depict the impact of the 
change in birthrates on the popula- 
tion projections for the State. The 
200,000 figure is quite significant 
in that it reflects a reduction 


U. S. 


: Correspond! 

ng California 


(millions ) 

: Population 

(millions ) 

: 1980 

: 1990 

: 2000 : 2020 

: 1980 

: 1990 : 

2000 : 





337 488 








321 440 








301 386 








281 336 








266 299 





from 300,000 vjhich for so many years 
was typical in California. However, 
in the period since 1964 there has 
been a progressive and substantial 
drop in annual net migration to 
California, leading to the choice of 
the lower level as the basis for 
the Department's presently adopted 
projections, as Indicated in the 
following paragraph. 

In view of the changes occurring in 
fertility rates and migration levels, 
the California Department of Finance 
made extensive revisions of popu- 

lation estimates for California in 
January 1970. Projections were 
made for five-year intervals to 
year 2000. Series D birthrates and 
an average annual net migration of 
200,000 were assumed throughout the 
period. These estimates were 
adopted by the Department as repre- 
senting the "official" projections 
of the State and are so reported in 
this bulletin. They are the basis 
upon which the water demands for the 
State have been determined. 











5^%j*-^^^ ^^ "^- ^: 

Wildlife an important water demand consideration 


U.S. Bureau of Reclamati 

Since the Department of Water 
Resources' planning period extends 
to 2020, it was necessary to 
extrapolate the Department of 
Finance population estimates to that 
date. It was also necessary for the 
Department to distribute the state 
totals among the 11 hydrologic areas 
adopted for the studies reported on 
in this bulletin and depicted in 
Figure 4. Allocations to the study 
areas were based on an analysis of 
trends, including natural increase 
and net migration for individual 
counties within the appropriate 
hydrologic areas . The projections 
of population for California and 

the 11 hydrologic study areas are 
summarized in Table 1 and Figure 5. 

In general, the projections reflect 
a continuation of historic growth 
patterns. Those areas with large 
present populations that have under- 
gone the largest growth in the past 
are expected to record the largest 
gains in the future. The coastal 
area of California, extending from 
San Francisco Bay southward to the 
Mexican border, is the prime growth 
area, accounting for all but 
5 million of the expected 25 million 
increase in population between 1970 
and 2020. 




1967, 1990, 


(in 1,000 


Hydrologic Study Area 




North Coastal 




San Francisco Bay 




Central Coastal 




South Coastal 




Sacramento Basin 




Delta-Central Sierra 




San Joaquin Basin 



1,0 00 

Tulare Basin 




North Lahontan 




South Lahontan 




Colorado Desert 









F igure 4 






SF - 
CC - 
SC - 
SB - 










Stretch-out of some 10 years before 
an additional source of water is 
needed to augment the initial facili- 
ties of the State Water Project. 
This will be discussed in 
Chapter VII. The impact involves 
not only the reduction of urban 
water demands, but also a lower 
agricultural water demand. On the 
other hand, if there is a resurgence 
in California's growth, as there has 
so often been in the past, an addi- 
tional water supply could be needed 
at an earlier date. 

Other aspects of future population 
growth should be recognized. There 
are many pressures, problems, and 
concerns growing out of the con- 
gestion and pollution associated 
with large urban areas . It is 
possible that changing federal, 
state, and local planning policies 
would significantly affect future 
urban development. One approach 
might be a redistribution of people. 
This possibility is explored in 
some detail in Chapter VIII with 
emphasis on its impact on water 
development needs, use, waste dis- 
posal, and other possible impacts 
such as air pollution. It also 
serves to illustrate the possible 
Impact on water demands in highly 
urbanized areas as a result of a 
drastic change in population growth. 

The projections shown in Table 1 
represent the Department's best 
Judgment at this time. Although 
the listed projections reflect 
recent downward trends in birthrates 
and net migration to California, 
they should not be considered either 
the possible high or possible low, 
but a median projection. As shown 
in Figure 6, the general range of 
possibilities has shifted downward. 
The median projection now approxi- 
mates very closely the low projec- 
tion made by the Department some 
12 years ago. 

The impact of future population 
levels on the timing of need for 
future water supplies can be quite 
significant. The difference 
between earlier estimates published 
in Bulletin No. 160-65 and those 
in this bulletin suggest a 

Industrial Development 

Employment is expected to grow at 
about the same rate as population, 
resulting in approximately 4 million 
new Jobs by 1990. At the same time 
shifts in employment are expected to 
continue between major industrial 
categories. On-farm employment, 
reflecting further technological 
advances, wLll show declines while 
other natural resource-based 
Industries such as mining, forestry, 
and fisheries, may reflect modest 
gains. Manufacturing employment 
will have increased by about 700,000 
over the next 25 years, but the 
largest increases are expected to 
occur in the service and govern- 
mental categories in response to 
the demands of an expanding and 
affluent society. 







Industries requiring large quantities 
of water will reflect the general 
growth trends. For the most part 
the most significant water-using 
industries are directly related to 
Califor-iiia's population and its 
growth in the demands for goods and 
services. Ten industries are either 
related to agricultural or timber 

In preparing estimates of urban 
water demands, the general practice 
is to include industrial water needs 
with the other components of urban 

use, making Judgments concerning 
overall per capita water use in 
each area. However, in certain 
areas, analysis indicated that 
specific high-water-using industries, 
independent of the size of the 
local population, would account for 
large proportions of the total 
urban water use. In these cases 
growth and needs of such industries 
were evaluated separately. The 
resulting industrial water demands 
were added to the water needs 
related directly to population to 
determine total urban water demands. 


Electric Power Development 

Increases in population per capita 
consumption, and industrial- 
commercial uses of electricity have 
resulted in a phenomenal rate of 
growth in electric power demands, 
especially in recent years. These 
same factors will contribute to the 
very substantial growth in genera- 
ting requirements shown in the 
tabulation at the bottom of this 

Until the 1950s, the chief source 
of electrical power in California 
was hydroelectric generation. 
However, as hydroelectric sites 
have become more scarce and costly, 
other sources of power have become 
increasingly important in meeting 
the growing power demands. While 
it is anticipated that some addi- 
tional capacity will be realized 
through enlargement of existing 
facilities, the major sources of 
additional hydroelectric power 
during the next 50 years will prob- 
ably come from the installation of 
pumped storage plants. 

A pumped-storage plant uses lower- 
cost energy available from other 
generating sources during periods 
of low power demand to pump water 
from a lower to an upper reservoir. 
When additional generating capacity 
is required, the water is allowed 
to flow from the upper to the lower 
reservoir through a pumplng- 
generating unit and thus generate 
higher-value electric power. 

The quick response and generally 
superior operating flexibility and 
reliability of hydroelectric equip- 
ment make the pumped-storage unit 

ideal for peaking operation and for 
system reserve service. 

Steam electric plants will be relied 
upon to supply a greater portion of 
total power requirements in the 
future. Of the estimated 412,000 
megawatts of the power resources 
required in 2020, more than 300,000 
megawatts or over 80 percent may have 
to be provided by additional thermal 
plants. In 1970 fossil fuel plants 
were the primary source of energy 
with a generating capability of 
about 20,000 megawatts. Nuclear- 
fueled plants had a capacity of 
about 493 megawatts. In all prob- 
ability nuclear-fueled plants will 
be emphasized in the coming decades 
for environmental and economic 
reasons . 

The projected emphasis on nuclear- 
fueled plants will enhance the 
desirability of pumped storage. 
Nuclear plants are relatively high 
capital cost and low energy cost. 
To obtain their full economic poten- 
tial, nuclear plants must be kept 
operating at or near maximum plant 
capability to the extent possible. 
Pumped-storage plants require low- 
cost pumping energy for economical 
operation. Thus, when a power sys- 
tem includes both nuclear and 
pumped-storage units the nuclear 
units can be kept operating at or 
near full capability during periods 
of low power demand, and furnish 
energy for operation of the pumped- 
storage plants. Also, the nuclear 
units provide the low-cost energy 
necessary to make the pumped- 
storage operation economical. 

The projections of electricity 
generated by primary sources of 
power is illustp?ated in Figure 7. 

Generating requirements 

(megawatts ) 
Peak Demand (megawatts) 
Population (millions) 
Per Capita Energy Require- 
ment ( megawatt -hours ) 
















F igure 7 






Careful consideration will be neces- 
sary in siting future plants. Until 
recently, utilities have been able 
to find suitable locations for steam 
plants. However, serious problems 
exist at this time for a number of 
reasons: land area requirements; 
waste heat discharges; air pollution 
from fossil-fuel-fired plants; 
seismic design requirements; and 
required distances from population 
centers for nuclear plants. Because 
of the many and varied siting 


problems involved, a State of 
California Powerplant Siting Commit- 
tee has been established. The Com- 
mittee is charged with evaluating 
all proposed steam electric power- 
plant sites. 

The availability of land will be an 
important consideration. The tabu- 
lation below indicates the land 
requirements for three types of 
thermal powerplants of 6,000 megawatts 
using various cooling arrangements. 

Cooling System 

Plant Type (acreage requirements) 


Gas and Oil 


Cooling Towers 
Cooling Pond 






Spence Air Pho 


r ft 

Spence Air Pho 


"/n Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside 
taken place on agricultural lands. " 

Counties over 90 percent of urban expansion . . . has 

Agricultural Development 

California has been the Nation's 
leading agricultural state for more 
than 20 years. In 1970 the value of 
production approximated $^ billion. 
V/hile California is expected to 
retain Its prominence in agriculture 
during the ' 70s and beyond, the 
Industry will undoubtedly experience 
substantial problems, including: a 
dampening of prices caused by over- 
production of som.e commodities; 
rising production costs; a highly 
competitive market for credit; and 
continued pressure on land resources 
with attendant rises in land values 
and taxes. In fact, urban pressures 
are one of the foremost problems 
facing the industry. 

During the past two decades 30,000 
to 40,000 acres a year have been 
required to accommodate California's 
growth in population and commercial 
developments. Generally, about half 
of this growth has occurred on 
highly productive agricultural 
lands. In Los Angeles, Orange, 
Riverside, and Santa Clara Counties 
over 90 percent of the urban expan- 
sion, or 14,000 acres annually, has 
taken place on agricultural lands. 
In some counties during the past 
few years all additional urban 
development took place on crop-land. 

Anticipated reductions in the future 
rate of population growth, coupled 
with higher densities, will reduce 
the absorption rate somewhat. But 
the value of land will remain high 
and there will be increasing pres- 
sures from an assortment of uses 
including recreation, wildlife 
habitat and preserves. Figure 8 
illustrates the decrease in remain- 
ing irrigable lands (lands suitable 
for crop production) over the next 
50 years . 

It will be noted in Figure 8 that 
in 2020 California will still have 
a significant supply of lands avail- 
able for agricultural development. 
However, in the major agricultural 
regions of the State much of the 
best agricultural land will have 
been put to some use by 2020 if pres- 
ent trends continue. In the San 

Joaquin and Tulare Basins an esti- 
mated 72 percent of total irrigable 
lands will be developed by that 
date. In prime agricultural areas 
such as Yolo and Sutter Counties 
and in Salinas Valley there probably 
will be practically no remaining 
undeveloped agricultural areas. In 
the highly urbanized regions of the 
San Francisco Bay and South Coast, 
agriculture will be virtually elimi- 
nated by urban encroachment. 

Because of the many and varied pres- 
sures on agriculture, it is antici- 
pated that California farming will 
continue to evolve Into larger more 
efficient operations. Crop patterns 
will become even more Intensive with 
an emphasis on high-value crops. 
Generally, the trend is expected to 
be toward the vegetables, fruit, 
and nuts categories in which Califor- 
nia has a proven competitive 
advantage . 

The present (I967) and projected 
irrigated acreage in California is 
shown by hydrologic study areas in 
Table 2. The location of presently 
irrigated and potentially irrigable 
lands is shown on Plate 2 entitled 
"Irrigated, Irrigable, and Urban 

The specter of overproduction men- 
tioned at the beginning of this 
section will be a matter of periodic 
market adjustments as it has been in 
the past. The next few years are 
expected to be particularly difficult 
for the producers of commodities 
such as fruit, nuts, cotton, and 
perhaps others. Adjustments are 
expected to take place either in the 
form of price reductions, reduced 
acreages, changing crop patterns, or 
an increase in California's share of 

The longer-ran^^e projections of Irri- 
gated acreage appearing in this 
bulletin presume that the adjustments 
will have been made and that there 
will be a need for the additional 
irrigated acreages shown in Table 2. 
This has been accomplished by relat- 
ing the supply of food and fiber to 
demand. The latter has been deter- 
mined from Increases in the projected 


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population, changes in per capita 
consumption, and export requirements. 
Taken together, these factors result 
in a total production requirement 
for food and fiber. Based upon work 
of the University of California 
Agricultural Extension Service an 
allowance was made for increasing 
future crop yields. Acreages 
necessary to meet anticipated food 
consumption were derived by dividing 
production requirements by the 
yields per acre. 

In summary, the projected Increase 
in irrigated acreage over the next 
50 years will show a marked de- 
crease from projections based on 
earlier trends. Historical 
increases from 19^0 to the present 

and projected increases to 2020 are 
shown in Figure 9. 

The lower projections result from 
continued improvements in crop 
yields, enabling increased produc- 
tion on less acreage, and lower 
trends in the State's and the 
Nation's population. 

Water Demand 

Future urban and agricultural water 
demands for 199O and 2020 were 
derived as the product of economic 
growth, as discussed in the previous 
section, and appropriate water use 
factors. Needs for other uses such 
as recreation, fish and wildlife are 


1930 — 2020 


also Included. The statewide sum- 
mary of water demands presented in 
this section is actually a composite 
of regional studies conducted by 
the Department and presented in 
Chapter VI. The possible ways and 
means of meeting the projected 
water demands are discussed in 
Chapters V and VI. The resulting 
impact on the need for future facil- 
ities in the State Water Project and 
Central Valley Project is presented in 
Chapter VII. 

In total, the Department's findings 
indicate that water demands in the 
State are expected to increase 
between 11 and 12 million acre-feet 
from 1967 to 2020. The historical 
and projected growth pattern of 
applied water demands for urban and 
agricultural purposes is shown in 
Figure 10. 

The remainder of this chapter dis- 
cusses the principal uses contrib- 
uting to increased water demand, 
namely for urban and irrigated 

agricultural uses. It also covers 
other uses of water including recre- 
ation, fish and wildlife, and flood 
control. The chapter concludes with 
a discussion of water quality 
considerations . 

It will be noted in the discussion 
that water demands have been refer- 
red to as either applied or net. 
In water resource planning it is 
necessary to know and understand 
both. Applied water is an expression 
of the quantity of water that must 
be made available at the actual 
place of use. Net water demand is 
the quantity of water that must be 
delivered to a service area as a 
whole, including conveyance losses 
within the area that are not recov- 
ered for reuse. As a general rule, 
net demand is less than applied de- 
mand due to the possibilities of 
reuse within the service area. An 
exception to this definition occurs 

Figure 10 



1930 — 2020 

.14 n. 

in the Colorado Desert where very 
little reuse is possible because of 
water quality considerations. In 
this case net demands at the actual 
place of use are essentially the 
same as applied demands. However, 
conveyance losses, amounting to 
about one-half million acre-feet, 
do not reach the place of use, 
thereby constituting an increment 
of net demand. This results in the 
net diversion demand being greater 
than the applied demand. 

Urban Water Demands 

California is a highly urbanized 
and industrialized state. The need 
for water to meet requirements for 
household uses, fire protection, 
irrigation of lawns and gardens, 
parks, golf courses, and indus- 
try and commerce has generally 
increased with the population and 
growth of the economy. 

Over the years the Department has 
collected urban use values for 
cities throughout the State and 
from a large number of water 
agencies and manufacturing estab- 
lishments. Per capita water use, 
or average water used per person, 
has been determined by relating 
total water deliveries for all 
urban purposes to the population 
served. Historical data identify 
trends in water use; when combined 
with the many factors influencing 
use, such as climate, urban densi- 
ties, and industrialization, they 
serve as a basis for projecting per 
capita use. 

Generally, the historical trend in 
per capita water use has been up- 
ward. The evidence seems to indi- 
cate that use increases with a 
rising standard of living. The 
projections, however, have been 
tempered by several considerations. 
Anticipated pressures on land and 
attendant development costs will 
tend to increase densities and de- 
crease average lawn and garden 
areas, thereby decreasing outside 
water use. There is also some 
likelihood of reduced water use in 
the industrial sector. The growing 

concern over pollution and stronger 
effluent controls may result in 
less water intake. Increasing water 
costs and waste water treatment will 
encourage technological changes and 
economies in water use. 

On a more localized basis, water 
use varies considerably from city 
to city, region to region. The per 
capita projections shown in Table 3 
are weighted average values derived 
from historical data and Judgments 
regarding a number of factors influ- 
encing water use in each region. 
These factors include the nature of 
the urban complex, whether heavily 
industrialized or primarily resi- 
dential; densities as related to 
average lot size; climate; and 
others, A more complete discussion 
on this subject is published in 
Department of Water Resources 
Bulletin No, 166-1, "Municipal and 
Industrial Water Use". 

The combination of changes in per 
capita use, increases in population, 
and expansion of the economy results 
in an applied urban water demand of 
nearly 12 million acre-feet by 2020. 
This compares to 4,4 million acre- 
feet in 1967 and 7.4 million acre- 
feet in 1990. Applied and corres- 
ponding net water demands are 
summarized in Table 4, Unless there 
are drastic reductions in Califor- 
nia's future growth or a dramatic 
shift in population distribution as 
suggested in Chapter VIII, most of 
the increased water demands will 
occur in regions that are already 
importing water. Even if population 
shifts occur, the findings in 
Chapter VIII indicate that further 
water developments will be necessary. 
However, the date at which addi- 
tional water must be made available 
for urban use has been affec1;ed by 
the general reduction in population 
increase . 

In the South Coastal area, a very 
important water import area, the 
combination of a slower buildup in 
urban growth and less per capita 
water use has contributed greatly 
to lower net water demands than pre- 
sented in Bulletin No. I6O-66. As 
stated earlier, these considerations 




(gallons per capita— per day) 

Hydrologlc Study Area 
North Coastal^ 
San Francisco Bay 
Central Coastal 
South Coastal 

Sacramento Basin—' 







































Delta-Central Sierra—' 
San Joaquin Basin 
Tulare Basin 
North Lahontan 
South Lahontan 
Colorado Desert 

1/ Average number of gallons of water used per person, per day. 

Based on projected urban water demands and urban population served, 

2j VJater demands for pulp and paper production not included in per 

capita values. 

^/ Based on urban use in valley floor portion only. Recreational 

and "second home" use in Sierra foothills not Included. 

4/ Total urban water demands for this area, as shown in Table 4, 

were determined by means other than per capita water use values. 

Note: The above figures are weighted averages and 
reflect a considerable range of per capita 
values for communities within the study areas. 
The Department's Bulletin No. I66-I should be 
referred to for a more detailed breakdown of 
urban water values and discussion regarding 
the various factors affecting urban water use. 

will delay the timing of need for an 
additional water supply in relation 
to the timing estimated in Bulletin 
No. 160-66. 

The significance of the projected 
growth in urban demands may be seen 
in Figure 11. Comprising only 

13 percent of total water demands 
in the State in I967, urban needs 
will account for 25 percent by 2020. 
On an incremented basis, total 
applied water demands are expected 
to increase about 12 million acre- 
feet during the I967-202O period. 
Of this amount, 7.5 million 


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11,850,000 A.F 






acre-feet, or more than 60 percent, 
will be due to population and 
related urban growth. 

Agricultural Water Demands 

Agriculture remains far and away the 
largest water user in California and 
is expected to remain so throughout 
the period of analysis. Total 
applied water demands for irrigated 
agriculture amounted to 31 million 
acre-feet in I967 and is projected 
to increase to 3^ million acre-feet 
in 1990 and to more than 35 million 
acre-feet in 2020. Although this 
increase is only about half that 
expected for urban purposes, irri- 
gated crops will still account for 
73 percent of total applied water 
demands in 2020 (Figure 11). 

Applied water requirements for irri- 
gated agriculture are determined by 
multiplying the estimates of irri- 
gated acreage for specific crops by 
appropriate unit water use values. 
Like urban per capita water use 
values, crop requirements vary from 
area to area depending on climate, 
farming practices, and soil con- 
ditions. Weighted averages reflect 
the crop pattern In each region and 
are summarized in Table 5. 

In general, comparatively little 
change in unit water use values is 
expected during the study period. 
Change that does occur will result, 
to a large extent, from changes in 
cropping patterns and increases In 
irrigation efficiencies, especially 
in areas having high water costs. 







(acre-feet per 


Hydrologic Study Area 



North Coastal 



San Francisco Bay 



Central Coastal 



South Coastal 



Sacramento Basin 



Delta-Central Sierra 



San Joaquin Basin 



Tulare Basin 



North Lahontan 



South Lahontan 



Colorado Desert 



■^Weighted average for 

all present and 


future crops. 



March 1968 


October 1970 

Impact of water on agricultural development State Water Project serving western Kern County 

Total applied agricultural water 
demands summarized in Table 4 exceed 
those in Bulletin No. I6O-66 by more 
than one and a half million acre- 
feet in 1990. This occurs in spite 
of a reduction in projected irri- 
gated acreage. Field studies con- 
ducted over the past four years 
Indicate that the consumptive use 
of water of some crops is signifi- 
cantly greater than earlier esti- 
mated values. By 2020 the reducticn 
in projected irrigated acreage is 
significant enough to more than 
offset the increase in unit use 
values and applied water demands 
are less than previously 

Bulletin No. I6O-66 did not report 
net values for individual purposes. 
Therefore, a comparison of net agri- 
cultural water demands cannot be 
made. With a few exceptions, 
however, agricultural water demands 
are far and away the most signifi- 
cant element of a region's total 
demand, and changes in total net 
demands largely reflect changes in 
that sector. For the most part, the 
implication is that net agricultural 
water demands are greater than 
reported in Bulletin No. I6O-66. 

The reason for this increase is 
that the Department's studies 
since publication of that Bulletin 
have provided much new and addi- 
tional information regarding return 
flows in areas throughout the 
State. This information, in combi- 
nation with additional knowledge of 
consumptive use of water and on- 
farm irrigation efficiencies, 
served as a basis for making sig- 
nificant changes in some areas. 

Since the need for additionally 
developed water supplies is con- 
tingent upon the needs of a service 
area (represented by net water 
demands), the determination of the 
latter carries great importance. 
Chapter VI describes the relation- 
ship of net water demands and sup- 
plies in each hydrologlc region, 
and Chapter VII discusses the 
impact of the projections In re- 
lation to water supplies on the 
timing of future facilities to the 

State Water Project and the Central 
Valley Project. 

Water Demands for Electric 
Powei* Generation 

All large thermal powerplants con- 
tain condensers requiring large 
quantities of water for cooling 
purposes. Once-through cooling, 
the most economical cooling process, 
requires a large body of water from 
which the water is withdrawn and 
returned. To reduce costs it is 
desirable that such plants be 
located close to a water supply. 

Today, the cooling water required 
for a 1,000 megawatt unit is 
roughly 1,500 cubic feet per second. 
The amount of water actually con- 
sumed In the cooling process is 
considerably less. A modern 1,000 
megawatt unit operating essentially 
continuously will use between 
15,000 and 20,000 acre-feet of water 
per year. 

The unit amount of water required 
for cooling will undoubtedly de- 
crease with more efficient plants 
in the future. While waste water 
can provide a limited supply, the 
limited supply of fresh water and 
the availability of sea water 
coupled with the expected growth In 
population along California's coast 
will influence the siting of a 
significant portion of future 
thermal plants . 

The amount of fresh water to be used 
for cooling in thermal powerplants 
will be dependent on a large number 
of factors, such as siting consid- 
eration, cost and availability of 
water. However, it is presently 
estimated that only about 100,000 
acre-feet of fresh water will be 
used annually for powerplant cool- 
ing by 2020, on the premise that 
powerplants will be located near the 


Recreation, Fish and 

Wildlife and Related 

VJater Development 

It is the policy of the State of 
California to provide its citizens 
with the fullest possible oppor- 
tunity for recreation. This 
involves a variety of facilities 
throughout the State. The task 
required to meet this obligation 
will be formidable. Estimates 
place outdoor use at 1.5 billion 
recreation-days a year by 1990 and 
2.5 billion in 2020. This compares 
to 218 million in 196O. The 
increase in demand for recreational 
facilities comes at a time when the 
competition among land and monetary 
resources is very keen. Government 
at all levels, the private sector 
and a general willingness of people 
to spend additional dollars for 
recreation will be required to meet 
the growing demand. 

Since about 60 percent of all out- 
door recreation involves water- 
associated activities, water devel- 
opments have a major role to play. 
This section discusses some of the 
more important policy and financial 
considerations affecting this role. 

Major Policies of 
federal and State 
Water Development Agencies 

Both the Federal Government and the 
State of California have had long- 
standing policies with regard to the 
incorporation of recreation services 
into water development projects. At 
the federal level, the most recent 
policy statement having far-reaching 
implications is P.L, 89-72. Very 
briefly, the document states that 
outdoor recreation and fish and 
wildlife development will receive 
full consideration as purposes in 
project formulation and evaluation, 
and provides for federal financial 
participation in the development and 
operation of recreation and fisheries 
and wildlife enhancement features, 
if there is major financial partici- 
pation by nonfederal activities. 

In California, the Davis -Dolwlg Act 
of 1961 serves as the primary source 
of state policy concerning recreation 
and fish and wildlife at state- 
constructed water projects. The Act 
declares recreation and fish and 
wildlife enhancement to be among the 
purposes of state water projects, 
and requires that all reasonable 
actions be taken to preserve fish 
and wildlife. It makes clear the 
legislative intent of substantial 
action to promote recreation develop- 
ment. A more complete discussion of 
the Act and the implementation of 
Its provisions may be found in 
Department of V/ater Resources Bulle- 
tin No. 117, "Recreation and Fish 
and Wildlife Program for the State 
Water Project", 1968. 

Recreation Financing 

Lack of money poses the major 
obstacle to recreation development 
and the fulfillment of the State's 
objective to provide its people with 
the fullest possible recreational 
opportunities. The seriousness of 
the situation has been recognized 
by the State Legislature which is 
attempting to find ways and means 
of meeting the problem. It is 
generally recognized that it will 
require the cooperative efforts of 
governmental and nongovernmental 
agencies alike. In spite of large 
expenditures of funds by the govern- 
ment and private sectors in the 
past, the need for recreational 
facilities remains larger than the 

This "dollar shortage" has necessi- 
tated a critical review of the state 
program for the planning and develop- 
ment of recreation and fish and wild- 
life enhancement facilities in 
connection with the State Water 
Project. A task force was appointed 
by the Secretary for Resources of 
California's Resources Agency to 
study this problem, and its findings 
and recommendations have been pub- 
lished in the "Report of the Recre- 
ation Task Force on the State Water 
Project", August I967. Further 


discussion on this matter appears 
in Department of Water Resources 
Bulletin No. 117. 

The State Electorate on November 3j 
1970 approved an amendment to the 
Davis-Dolwig Act which provides for 
a total of $60 million in general 
obligation bonds to finance the 
design and construction of recre- 
ation, fish and wildlife enhancement 
features for the State Water Project — 
$5^ million to be allocated to the 
Department of Parks and Recreation 
and $6 million to be allocated to 
the Department of Fish and Game and 
the Wildlife Conservation Board. To 
carry out this program, the legis- 
lation created a Recreation and 
Fish and Wildlife Enhancement Com- 
mittee consisting of the Governor or 
his designee, the State Controller, 
the Director of Finance, the State 
Treasurer, and the Secretary for 
Resources . 

Design and construction of recreation 
facilities at the State Water Proj- 
ects will be implemented by the 
Department of Parks and Recreation. 
It is estimated that these water- 
oriented recreation facilities 
built In the next 5 to 7 years will 
provide for an additional I6 million 
recreation visitors. Activities to 
be provided for Include boating, 
fishing, water skiing, camping, 
picnicking, riding, hiking, sight- 
seeing', and swimming. 

The $6 million specifically allo- 
cated to fish and wildlife enhance- 
ment includes the expansion of fish 
hatcheries for production of trout 
and warmwater fisheries, and the 
provision of angler access to fish- 
ing waters which has a potential of 
realizing millions of recreation 

Some 17 reservoirs and more than 
500 miles of canals and streams will 
benefit from the "Recreation and 
Fish and Wildlife Enhancement Bond 
Act Program". The tentative 
schedule for development in the next 
5 years is to expend $8 million on 
facilities in Northern California, 
$4.5 million In Central California, 
and $42 million in Southern California. 

The Legislature has declared that 
state costs for enhancement of fish 
and wildlife and recreation should 
be nonreimbursable as distinguished 
from other water project purposes 
which must be repaid by the water 
and power users. Furthermore, plan- 
ning, land acquisition, and the 
Joint project costs allocated to 
recreation are repaid to the extent 
available from tidelands oil reve- 
nues. Such repayment is limited to 
$5 million per year. 

Because of the magnitude of recre- 
ation expenditures and allocations, 
the Department expects the full 
$5 million of reimbursements to be 
required each year for the fore- 
seeable future. In the long run, 
the Department's expenditure of 
funds for recreation will be repaid 
In full. But there is a delay 
between actual outlay and repayment. 
When funds are in short supply, as 
they have been in recent years, such 
a delay puts a tight squeeze on the 
availability of project funds, 
intensifying the financing problem. 

Solution of the financing problem 
will not come easy or without cost 
to the user. The implications of 
the projected demands for recreation 
suggest that annual expenditures 
over the next 20 years should in- 
crease sevenfold over present levels, 
This allows for Just the Increase in 
demand and does not include making 
up deficiencies that now exist. 

Fish and Wildlife Planning 

Prevailing state and federal law and 
policy (Water Code 233> Davis -Dolwig 
Act, and P.L. 85-624, P.L. 89-72) 
prescribe that fish and wildlife be 
given full and equal consideration 
with other project purposes In the 
planning and design of water devel- 
opment projects. These laws and 
policies have evolved in realization 
that the past role of fish and wild- 
life interests in earlier water 
development olanning, was largely 
ineffective in implementing project 
modifications in the Interest of pro- 
tecting or enhancing fish and wild- 
life resources. 


Current planning efforts are direc- 
ted toward assessment of the impact 
of proposed water development proj- 
ects on fish and wildlife, and the 
recommendation of measures necessary 
for preservation and enhancement of 
these resources. Special attention 
is being directed toward future 
water needs for fisheries, and 
measures necessary for the preser- 
vation of wildlife habitat. 

Streamflow Maintenance for Fish and 
Wildlife : In addition to the water 
reserved for wildlife management 
areas shown in Table 4, various 
governmental, public, and private 
water and utility agencies have 
entered into agreements with the 
California Department of Pish and 
Game to ensure adequate streamflows 
and reservoir water levels to pro- 
tect and improve fishery, wildlife, 
and recreational values. Agreements 
currently in force cover virtually 
all the major developed watersheds 
in California. It is most desirable 

that these agreements be developed 
early in the planning process so 
that adequate steps may be taken to 
ensure maintenance of water quality 
in the project area and downstream 
during project construction. Like- 
wise, periodic review and revision 
of flow schedules can improve proj- 
ect operations and optimize flow 
regimens in the interests of fishery, 
wildlife and recreation. Table 6 
lists current streamflow amounts by 
hydrologic area to indicate the 
extent of this important phase of 
water project operations. 

Existing agreements are as varied 
as the watersheds they covero Mini- 
mum flows may be for a stipulated 
amount for a specified time period, 
or adjusted flows may be called for 
to raise existing flows to desirable 
levels. Some stipulate the level of 
water withdrawal from a reservoir 
to bring downstream water tempera- 
tures to optimum levels for spawning. 
A few provide for hatchery water 
supplies or spawning channels or for 











for > 

Streamflow Maintenance* | 

Hydrologic Area 
Sacramento Basin 




Delta-Central Sierra 



San Joaquin 



Tulare Basin 



North Coastal 



San Francisco 



Central Coastal 



North Lahontan 



South Lahontan 



*Water allocations shown are based 





Actual releases may be 


less where agreements | 

provide for the alternative release 


the natural 

flow in 

lieu of a stipulated fl 

ow . 


U.S. Bureou o( Reclamation 
Sprinklers are becoming increasingly popular as a method lor improving irrigation efficiency 

waterfowl management areas . Where 
possible and desirable, certain flows 
over and above those stipulated are 
released to optimize spawning flows 
for salmon and steelhead. 

While streamflow maintenance agree- 
ments have obviously alleviated 
critical water shortages that would 
have otherwise occurred in many 
streams, water allocated for these 
purposes, in some instances, has not 
been sufficient to maintain fisheries 
resources at satisfactory levels. 
Turbidity, sediment, and temperature 
problems have arisen under condi- 
tions of controlled flows. Correc- 
tive measures are being sought by 
the State where such problems exist. 

Fish and Wildlife and Recreation 
Water Demands . The present and pro- 
jected applied and net water demands 

for recreation and fish and wildlife, 
shown in Table 4, are for water used 
in fish and wildlife management areas 
and refuges, and that used consump- 
tively by recreationists. In total, 
the consumptive uses of water for 
these purposes are comparatively 
small, amounting to only 2 percent 
of the 2020 state total water re- 
quirements. However, in individual 
areas, they can be very important 
and create serious water problems. 
Another very important demand for 
water not reflected in the projec- 
tions is the demand for water for 
various environmental purposes, such 
as water quality, fishery or recre- 
ational enhancement, and instream 
requirements for fish, wildlife, and 

The explosive growth in recreational 
homesites throughout much of the 
State is illustrative of impact of 


man's activities on the resources of 
an area, and the need for new local 
water supplies. In the Tahoe Basin, 
for example, the nonresident popu- 
lation accounts for about three- 
quarters of the area's water 
requirements. In Nevada County, a 
popular mountain recreation area, 
it is estimated that 36,000 new 
lots covering 48,000 acres have 
been formed through subdivision 
since 1964. When all of the exist- 
ing lots are occupied, the treated 
effluent discharge is expected to 
exceed the normal minimum stream- 
flows in the area. Major new water 
supplies will have to be developed, 
not only to meet domestic needs, 
but also to maintain suitable water 
quality standards in streams and 
rivers where such development occurs. 

Flood Damage Prevention 

Despite extensive planning and con- 
struction of flood control works 
over a period of many years in 
California, considerable flood 
damage continues to occur as a con- 
sequence of the State's continued 
growth and occupation of active 
floodplains . 

All levels of government in the 
State have assumed some degree of 
responsibility in an effort to pre- 
vent flood damage. Since the pas- 
sage of the federal Flood Control 
Act of 1936, however, the U. S. Amy 
Corps of Engineers has taken the 
lead in planning and constructing 
flood control measures for major 
basins with financial aid from the 
State for the cost of lands, ease- 
ments, and rights-of-way. Means of 
mitigating urban flood drainage 
problems have been left to the 
resources of local agencies. 

Examination of future flood control 
needs in California conducted under 
the Comprehensive Framework Study, 
California Region, mentioned briefly 
in Chapter II, indicates the 1965 
average annual flood damage of 
around $100 million will increase 
to about $160 million by I98O if 
no additional flood control measures 
are implemented. This means that a 

vigorous flood control program will 
be needed to reduce these potential 
future flood damages. 

Despite a continued project-oriented 
flood control program, the histori- 
cal increase in flood damages sug- 
gests a need to adopt a more bal- 
anced approach to mitigating future 
flood damage. This approach should 
Incorporate more nonstructural 
measures either as alternatives to, 
where circumstances permit, or in 
conjunction with structural 
measures . 

In this regard, the Cobey-Alquist 
Flood Plain Management Act of 1965 
mandates local government to regu- 
late floodplain use within desig- 
nated floodways prior to construc- 
tion of economically justified 
projects as a prerequisite to state 
financial assistance in the cost of 
lands, easements and rights-of-way. 

When considering future flood con- 
trol measures, greater attention 
should be directed to desires of 
the beneficiaries for environmental 
enhancement. This suggests a 
responsibility on the part of local 
beneficiaries to become more in- 
volved in the planning and selection 
of such measures and in financial 
participation where costs are 

Water Quality 

Water quality is an essential and 
critical element of water resource 
planning and management in Califor- 
nia. Water of suitable quality 
must be available in adequate 
quantity at the times and places 
needed for all intended beneficial 
uses which may Include domestic, 
industrial, agricultural, recre- 
ational, fish and wildlife, and 
other requirements. 

Water Quality and Water Use 

The term "water quality" has practi- 
cal meaning only when associated 
with specific beneficial water uses. 
A suitable water supply is one which 


satisfies water quality criteria 
for the intended uses. Quality, 
therefore, is inseparable from 
quantity and must be evaluated along 
with the purposes and uses for which 
water supplies are developed. 

Adequate planning for maximum use 
and preservation and enhancement 
takes into consideration the complex 
interrelations of water quantity 
and quality, of supply, use, and 
disposal. Water systems are 
dynamic . Changes in one part of a 
water system may materially affect 
other parts, whether those changes 
are in the water or on the sur- 
rounding land. 

Water management and development 
implies quality changes. The dams 
on a river which are essential for 
reliable water supplies also result 
in a changed water environment, 
such as different water temperatures, 
alteration of turbidity, and changes 
in aquatic habitat. Changes in land 
use under different water use con- 
ditions may alter the runoff pat- 
terns and erosion characteristics. 

Water use is clos 
waste disposal, 
contain not only 
of the original s 
trated form, but 
added or properti 
the use. Moreove 
area may influenc 
water supply to a 

ely related to 
The wastes often 
the constituents 
upply in concen- 
also materials 
es changed during 
r, wastes from an 
the quality of 
downstream area. 

The effects of water use and waste 
disposal on the water resources may 
be reflected in depletion of dis- 
solved oxygen in streams and estu- 
aries, toxic effects on aquatic 
life, mineralization which renders 
the supply unfit for further use, 
and the m.ore subtle changes of 
eutrophication. They can include 
increased nitrates in ground water, 
sea water intrusion, or compaction 
of ground water aquifers by lower- 
ing water levels . 

Environmental changes may not be 
detrimental. In fact, any water 
resource management program is 
designed to change the environment 
for the benefit of mankind. The 

major concern is to predict and con- 
trol changes which will occur. 

Municipal and Industrial Use . Water 
for municipal supplies is used for 
drinking, bathing, washing cars, 
irrigating lawns, flowers and trees, 
waste disposal, manufacturing pro- 
cesses, and other purposes, some of 
which may require special treatment 
to meet particular needs. Drinking 
water should be clear, colorless, 
odorless, and pleasant tasting. It 
must be free from disease-causing 
organisms and other impurities which 
endanger public health and should 
not contain excessive amounts of 
dissolved minerals. The most widely- 
used guide, or criterion, for deter- 
mining the suitability of water for 
municipal use is the U. S. Public 
Health Service Drinking Water Stan- 
dards. These standards specify 
limits for bacteriological, physical, 
radiological, and chemical constitu- 
ents in a water supply. 

Industrial water supplies vary 
widely in water quality requirements, 
depending upon the types of indus- 
trial processes involved. In gen- 
eral, water suitable for drinking is 
also suitable for most industrial 
uses. Cost of treatment is an 
important factor. Treatment costs 
to soften hard water to desirable 
levels may range from ^h to more 
than $20 per acre-foot, depending 
upon the use of water and the 
method of softening. 

Agricultural Use . Quality require- 
ments for agriculture (irrigation) 
depend upon many factors such as 
crop types, so,il and drainage con- 
ditions, climate, and irrigation 
practices. Some crops are particu- 
larly sensitive to certain constitu- 
ents, especially boron. 

Drainage of irrigated lands is of 
major importance for continuing 
successful irrigation. In irrigaticn 
use relatively insignificant amounts 
of dissolved minerals are consumed 
in processes of evaporation and 
plant growth, and salts are left 
behind. Excess salts must be 


leached from the soil and carried 
off in drainage water. The content 
of dissolved minerals in applied 
irrigation water can have a signi- 
ficant influence on the amounts of 
irrigation water required for 
leaching. In general, the lower 
the total dissolved mineral concen- 
tration in the water supply, the 
lower the leaching water require- 
ments. Also, the possibilities for 
reuse of the return water are 

Recreation . For recreational pur- 
poses, clarity, color, temperature, 
and bacterial quality are especially 
important. The best quality of 
water is needed for swimming and 
other water contact sports. Bacte- 
riological safety is of primary 
importance for those activities. 

General esthetics at water recre- 
ation sites also may be affected 
by water quality conditions. The 
water must be protected from 
obnoxious sights such as floating 
oil, grease, foam and debris, and 
from unpleasant odors. Levels of 
turbidity, alkalinity and dissolved 
oxygen must be held within desir- 
able limits. 

Fish and Aquatic Life . Water 
quality considerations for main- 
taining suitable environments for 
fish and aquatic life include con- 
trol of dissolved oxygen, tempera- 
ture, turbidity, pH, and prohi- 
bition of toxic materials or lethal 
concentrations of trace constitu- 
ents. Spawning or propagation of 
fish also requires consideration of 
bottom deposits and careful selec- 
tion of temperature levels which 
maintain optimum spawning conditions. 

The aquatic environment has re- 
ceived increased attention in 
recent years because of the recog- 
nition that accelerated changes in 
the environment to meet population 
needs can radically change the 
habitat upon which fish, wildlife, 
and the aquatic community are 
dependent for their continued sur- 
vival. Habitat is the collective 

conditions in an area contributing 
to the particular needs of an 
animal for food, cover, space, and 
reproduction. Each species has its 
own highly restricted habitat needs. 
Often the disruption of one small 
but key element in the environment 
can result in complete elimination 
of desirable species. 

Isolated occurrences of accidental 
pollution such as oil spills or the 
discharge of toxic materials into 
receiving waters get most of the 
publicity: and, of course, they are 
cause fbr concern. However, chronic 
pollution can occur without the 
realization that harmful alterations 
are taking place; and this In the 
long run could cause more lasting 
detriments to the aquatic environ- 
ment. Changes caused by chronic 
pollution may result in a "domino 
effect" where the elimination or 
change of one critical factor may 
trigger a vjhole series of reactions 
leading to the eventual destruction 
of a healthy aquatic community. 

Water Quality and Water Reuse 

The quality of a water supply is 
directly related to its reuse capa- 
bility. A single cycle of domestic 
use generally results in an Increase 
of 100 to 300 parts per million of 
dissolved mineral content. As pre- 
viously noted irrigation return 
water also becomes more saline than 
the supply water. Therefore, in 
terms of total mineral content, 
water containing 100 to 200 ppm dis- 
solved salts could successfully be 
used and reused two, three, or even 
four times, as compared to water 
which Initially contains 700 to 
800 ppm of dissolved salts, which 
may not be used feasibly more than 
once. Of course, reuse could also 
be limited by the accumulation of 
toxic materials or the presence of 
individual mineral constituents even 
though the total mineral concentra- 
tion might be relatively low. 

In the southern part of the State, 
the Departmentof Water Resources is 
engaged in a number of programs to 
protect and conserve the quality of 


Oroville Reservoir 

High quality water is essential lor water contact sports 

local water supplies and to encour- 
age reclamation and reuse of waste 
water for the ultimate purpose of 
reducing the quantities of supple- 
mental fresh water. These programs 
range from monitoring and surveil- 
lance of surface and ground water 
and waste discharges, to working 
with local water entities in the 
formulation of plans and criteria 
for conserving and improving ground 
water quality, and developing plans 
for ground water basin operation 
and use. 

Some areas in California contain 
ground water that is virtually 
unused because of its marginal or 
brackish quality. Such is the case 
in the Lower San Dieguito and Lower 
San Diego River Valleys of San Diego 
County. It may be possible to blend 
this poor quality water with North- 
ern California or other water sour- 
ces to produce an acceptable water 
supply at reasonable cost. By 
Judicious operation of these ground 
water basins it is also possible 
that water quality might eventually 
be so improved that the basins them- 
selves could be used as storage 
reservoirs . 

term "beneficial uses" of California's 
waters to include esthetic enjoyment 
and the preservation and enhancement 
of fish, wildlife and other aquatic 
resources or preserves. Practically, 
the addition of these beneficial 
uses will enable more stringent 
regulation of water use and waste 
disposal to protect and enhance 
water quality. Philosophically, the 
inclusion of esthetic enjoyment and 
enhancement of fish and wildlife is 
a major departure from most existing 
regulatory statutes. It recognizes 
a new environmental awareness and 
the growing public concern over the 
water resources of California. 

A most significant element of the 
Water Quality Control Act provides 
for development by the State Water 
Resources Control Board of state 
policy for water quality control and 
regional water quality control plans. 
"State policy" includes: 

1. Water quality principles and 
guidelines for long-range 
water resource planning, 
including ground water and 
surface water management pro- 
grams and control and use of 
reclaimed water. 

Water Quality Control 

The State Water Resources Control 
Board and the nine Regional Water 
Quality Control Boards are the 
principal state agencies with 
primary responsibility for the coor- 
dination and control of water 
quality (VJater Code Section 13OOI). 
The Department of Water Resources 
is also mutually involved with the 
water quality control agencies but 
in a separate area of responsibility. 
While the control agencies are 
responsible for regulation of water 
resources in a quasi- judicial sense, 
the Department provides for develop- 
ment and utilization of the resource 
through planning and implementation 
of physical works or management 

The new Porter-Cologne Water Quality 
Control Act protects water quality 
from both a practical and a philo- 
sophical standpoint by expanding the 

2. Water quality objectives at 
key locations for planning 
and operation of water 
resource development projects 
and for water quality control 

3. Water quality control plans 
adopted by the State Board 
for interstate or coastal 
waters or other waters of 
interregional or statewide 
interest . 

4. Other principles and guide- 
lines deemed essential by 
the State Board for water 
quality control. 

The regional water quality control 
plans for each hydrographic area of 
the State encompass (l) the bene- 
ficial uses to be protected, 
(2) water quality objectives neces- 
sary to ensure the reasonable protec- 
tion of beneficial uses and the 


prevention of nuisance, and (3) a 
program of implementation and 
enforcement . 

These policies and plans become a 
part of the California Water Plan 
upon submission to the Legislature. 

The Act also provides for regulation 
of wastes which could affect the 
waters of the State. Any person 
proposing such a discharge, includ- 
ing disposal of solid waste, must 
file a report of discharge with the 
appropriate regional board. That 
board establishes, in accordance 
with state policy and water quality 
control plans, requirements under 
which a waste discharge may be made. 
The requirements may prescribe the 
quality of the discharge, the effect 
upon the receiving water, or both. 
They may include a monitoring system 
and a time schedule. The Board may 
specify conditions on areas whei'e 
no discharge is permitted. Viola- 
tion of requirements may be abated 
through board and court actions. 
The violator may be subject to a 
fine up to $6,000 for each day of 

violation, or in the case of a 
public sewage facility, may be pre- 
vented from adding services to the 
system until the discharge is in 
compliance with requiremients . 

Waste discharges into waters of the 
State are privileges and not rights. 

Thus, in addition to combining the 
water rights and water quality 
policy and regulatory functions Into 
a single board, the Water Quality 
Control Act strengthens and broadens 
the integration of quantity-qual J ty 
planning relations . It provides a 
focal point through the California 
V/ater Plan to ensure, in accordance 
with the original precept of the 
Plan, that the waters of the State 
will serve the needs of the people. 
As basic policy It provides that 
activities which may affect the 
waters of the State shall be so • 
regulated to attain the highest 
reasonable water quality levels, the 
various needs to be met, and 
related economic, social and other 
considerations . 



California's water demands generally 
have been met from traditional water 
developments by storage and/or 
diversion and transportation of 
surface supplies, and extraction of 
underground supplies. As the 
State's economy has expanded, sur- 
face water supply systems have 
expanded from local developments to 
large-scale systems involving 
storage and long-distance conveyance 
of water from intrastate and inter- 
state streams. 

However, rapidly advancing technol- 
ogy has focused considerable atten- 
tion on other possible sources of 
water which are being studied 
seriously as potential economic 
water supplies. Most notable of 
these are desalting of the inexhaust- 
ible supply of sea water bordering 
California's 1,200 miles of coast- 
line, and reuse of reclaimed waters 
instead of sewering them to the 
ocean after a single use. 

This chapter discusses various possi- 
ble water supply sources which could 
provide for increasing needs for 
beneficial uses and purposes. It 
covers development and transporta- 
tion of additional surface water 
supplies, the significance of ground 
water and its relation to local and 
imported surface water supplies, de- 
salting, water reclamation, weather 
modification, geothermal water, 
watershed management. Western States 
water development, and possible non- 
structural alternatives. 

The potential water supply sources 
described in this chapter are not 
presented in the sense of one alter- 
native to be developed at the 
exclusion of another. The antici- 
pated rate of growth in California's 
demand for water and water-related 
services in relation to the various 
potential sources of supply indi- 
cates that a combination of the 
water supply sources discussed may 

well be required; and the selection 
of that combination will be based on 
the determination of how best to 
schedule the development and use of 
the various sources to effect the 
optimal overall long-range satis- 
faction of demands. 

As we begin the 1970s, the accent on 
environmental considerations requires 
that a careful balance be maintained 
between the preservation and protec- 
tion of the water resource and the 
development and use of that resource. 
Moreover, as Indicated in Chapter IV, 
the slowdown in growth of future 
water demands In comparison with 
earlier projections suggests that 
more time is available for making 
decisions regarding further conserva- 
tion projects. These considerations 
emphasize the need for maintaining 
flexibility in the analysis and 
choice of future options from among 
the various alternatives. 

Surface Water Development 

While surface water resources are 
ample to meet foreseeable statewide 
needs on an overall basis, they are 
maldistrlbuted geographically with 
respect to the areas of need. For 
example, about 75 percent of the 
water resources occur north of the 
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, while 
some 75 percent of the requirements 
occur south of the Delta. The geo- 
graphical distribution of runoff 
originating within the State is 
illustrated in Figure 12. 

About 60 percent of the total pres- 
ent statewide applied water demands 
is supplied from surface water 
sources, comprised primarily of 
local agency surface water develop- 
ment, local agency imports, the 
federal Central Valley Project and 
other federal water developments. 


F I GUR E 1 2 















Imports by local agencies include 
the Hatch Hotchy, Mokelumne, 
Los Angeles and Colorado Aqueducts. 
The "other federal water develop- 
ments" category Includes imports 
from the Colorado River for irri- 
gation in the Imperial and Coachella 
Valleys. The local surface water 
developments will be specifically 
identified in Chapter VI which will 
present a comparison of demands and 
supplies on a regional basis. A 
number of existing and possible 
local and major projects are shown 
on Plate 1. 

The potential for major additional 
development of water supplies in 
California is for the most part 
limited to the Sacramento Basin and 
the North Coastal regions. In the 
other regions the available surface 
supplies from the principal river 
systems will have been largely 
developed by existing reservoirs or 
by those presently under co-is truction. 

The potential remains for many 
localized surface water develop- 
ments on the smaller streams. 
However, as with major develop- 
ments, opportunities for such 
developments occur primarily in the 
North Coast and Sacramento Valley, 
with limited potential in the North 
San Francisco Bay area and the 
Central Coastal area. 

In addition to on-stream develop- 
ment, a further conservation of 
surface water resources could be 
provided through the development of 
off -stream storage facilities within 
the Central Valley Basin. Off- 
stream storage consists of a diver- 
sion from a stream and conveyance 
to a storage site where adequate 
capacity is available. San Luis 
Reservoir on the west side of the 
San Joaquin Valley is an excellent 
example of an off -stream storage 
facility. Such reservoirs have 
been proposed in connection with 
the V/est Sacramento Canals Unit 
(Sites Reservoir); the East 
Side Division (Montgomery and 
Hungry Hollow Reservoirs); and the 
Delta Division (Kellogg Reservoir) 
of the Central Valley Project. 
Investigations have already been 

made of the possibility of construc- 
ting additional off -stream storage 
sites at locations along the align- 
ment of the California Aqueduct to 
complement that presently provided 
at San Luis Reservoir. Potential 
storage facilities could be located 
at the Los Banos site in western 
Merced County or the Sunflower site 
in Kings County. 

Sacramento Valley Development 

Two major streams with potential for 
storage remain in the Sacramento 
Valley. These are Cottonwood Creek, 
the largest remaining unregulated 
tributary of the Sacramento River, 
and the Ihomes -Stony Creek system. 

The Corps of Engineers has proposed 
two reservoirs within the Cottonwood 
Creek Basin at the Dutch Gulch and 
Tehama sites. These storage facili- 
ties could provide a high degree of 
flood protection and a new water 
supply of some 260,000 acre-feet 
annually for local and statewide 
service. The two reservoirs could 
also provide fisheries enhancement 
through control of the flows in the 
principal spawning areas of the 
Cottonwood Creek Basin located down- 
stream from the damsites. 

The Bureau of Reclamation has investi- 
gated a reservoir development at the 
Paskenta-Newville site on Thomes and 
North Pork Stony Creeks. This poten- 
tial facility could develop a new 
water supply of as much as 300,000 
acre-feet annually if coordinated 
with existing features of the Central 
Valley Project and the State Water 

Additional large storage could also 
be provided on Stony Creek at the 
Rancheria site. Rancheria Reservoir 
has been studied by the Department of 
Water Resources both as an indepen- 
dent project and as a part of a 
Middle Fork Eel River development. 
Rancheria Reservoir also has potential 
for development of an economical addi- 
tional vater supply by a pump- storage oper- 
ation, with a diversion of Sacramento 
River floodflows. Studies of the 



San Lui.-5 Kcocfioir — — an c\cimpU- ut ull-^treaiii .^lur-if^i.- 

latter possibility are in progress. 

North Coastal Area 

Development Po"te"ntial 

The long-term mean annual runoff 
from the large river basins in 
northwestern California is approxi- 
mately 27 million acre-feet, most 
of which is unregulated. Prior 
Department studies have indicated 
that a physical potential exists 
for the development of a total 
dependable water yield within the 
North Coastal region of up to 10-12 
million acre-feet annually. Those 
studies have also indicated that 
such development could be adverse 
to fisheries and wildlife resources, 
particularly in relation to the 
construction of large storage 
facilities within the lower Klamath 
River Basin. 

Other problems of an environmental 
and ecological nature may also be 
created by traditional surface water 
development through reservoirs with- 
in the Klamath River Basin and else- 
where in the North Coast. The 
Department and the federal water 
agencies are well aware of these 
problems and of the need for more 
sensitive analysis of the conse- 
quences on the ecology and environ- 
ment of future surface water devel- 
opment within the North Coastal 

Within the upper Eel River Basin 
two major developments have received 
considerable study since I965. 
These are the English Ridge Project 
on the upper main Eel River, investi- 
gated by the U. S. Bureau of 
Reclamation, and the Dos Rios Proj- 
ect on the Middle Pork Eel River 
which was proposed for authorization 
in 1968 by the U. S. Army Corps of 
Engineers . The Dos Rios Reservoir 


proposal generated considerable 
controversy, particularly because 
of the inundation of Round Valley 
in Mendocino County, and the 
necessity of relocating the com- 
munity of Covelo and the local 
Indian population. 

In 1969 Governor Reagan expressed 
his concern for these displacements 
and directed the Department of 
Water Resources to work with the 
Corps of EIngineers to develop 
further information on alternatives 
to the proposed large Dos Rios 
Reservoir. These alternatives to 
the Dos Rlos Project, involving I6 
project configurations, are pre- 
sented in the Department's Bulletin 
No. 172 entitled "Eel River Develop- 
ment Alternatives", December I969. 

The U. S. Bureau of Reclamation is 
engaged in a reconnaissance-level 
study of possible project configu- 
rations within the lower Trinity 
River Basin. The study also in- 
cludes consideration of possible 
diversions from the Mad and Van 
Duzen Rivers to the Trinity River 
system. The work to date has been 
concentrated on three reservoirs -- 
Eltapom Reservoir on South Fork 
Trinity and Helena and Schneiders 
Bar Reservoirs on the main stem of 
the Trinity River. 

Very preliminary studies are also 
being made by the Bureau of Recla- 
mation of plans for direct diver- 
sion from the Klamath and Trinity 
Basins. Such plans would avoid the 
need for main-stem reservoirs on 
the Klamath and Trinity Rivers and 
would appear to be the least dis- 
ruptive to the fisheries and wild- 
life environment. Holdover storage 
would be provided in the Sacramento 
Valley. These direct diversion 
possibilities would involve extremely 
large tunnels and would be more 
costly than the previously examined 
on-stream storage plans. However, 
they could possess certain advan- 
tages from the standpoint of main- 
taining the Trinity-Klamath River 
systems more nearly in their natural 
environment, while at the same time 
conserving the floodflows for con- 
sumptive use purposes in other 

regions of California. 

Ground Water Development 

Use of ground wa 
began about I87O 
Coastal area whe 
approximately 10 
drilled. Since 
century, use of 
resources has sp 
State and now pr 
40 percent of th 
of the State. 

ter in California 

in the South 
re, by I9OO, 
,000 wells had been 
the turn of the 
underground water 
read throughout the 
ovides about 
e total water needs 

Continued and extensive use of this 
vast resource has not been without 
effects, the most apparent of which 
are increased pump lifts and the 
"drying up" of some surface streams 
and ponds and swampy areas. Less 
obvious are sea water intrusion 
into coastal aquifers, migration to 
wells of sea water entrapped inland 
from earlier geologic periods, and 
local subsidence of some land sur- 
faces. In addition, legal actions 
associated with ground water use 
have occurred. 

The characteristics of a ground 
water basin must be deduced from 
well water level measurements, well 
logs, and other hydrologlc and 
geologic data. This is a lengthy 
and costly process which frequently 
has led investigators to recommend 
a decrease in ground water pumping 
to stabilize pumping llfts--or to 
import supplemental surface water 
supplies, without fully understand- 
ing the storage and transmissive 
potential of underground aquifers. 
However, the successes realized 
from such actions have demonstrated 
that ground wq.ter resources are, 
indeed, subject to deliberate 
planned management to achieve a set 
of established goals. 

Availability of Ground Water 

Ground water can be obtained in 
many areas in California. Produc- 
tion varies from a few gallons per 
day to several thousand gallons per 
minute. Interest of the Department 
of Water Resources has been directed 











to those areas in which ground water 
is a significant water supply source. 

Recent alluvial material (the valley 
fill areas of the State) provides 
the most prolific areas of occur- 
rence of ground water. Alluvial 
fill areas and other areas of occur- 
rence of ground water are shown in 
Figure 13. Most ground water 
studies have been made in these 
areas. Older alluvial materials 
which frequently underlie and are 
adjacent to the recent alluvium 
have also been studied where they 
are significant producers of ground 

Measures of the availability of 
ground water include (l) annual 

natural replenishment or recharge 
(a measure of the annual yield), 
which is generally about half the 
permissible sustained pumpage; (2) 
total storage capacity, a relatively 
small portion of which is used to 
develop the annual yield; (3) total 
water in storage, which measures 
the magnitude of possible extraction 
of ground water in excess of annual 
yield; and (4) usable storage capac- 
ity, which indicates the portion of 
total storage capacity usable in 
conjunction with surface storage to 
develop a reliable system yield. 

The measures of availability of 
ground water in known ground water 
basins are summarized by regions in 
Table 7 . 




Acre-Feet ) 


Known Ground Water Areas | 



in Storage 

: Annual , 
: Primary^./ 
: Recharge 


: Usable 

North Coastal Area 





San Francisco Bay Area 





Central Coastal Area 





South Coastal Area 





Central Valley Area— 

608, 000 




Lahontan Area 





Colorado Desert 








1/ Includes natural recharge plus recharge from local reserve 
operated to augment natural stream channel percolation. 


2/ Combined areas of Sacramento Basin, Delta-Central Sierra area, 
San Joaquin Basin, and Tulare Basin. 


The table Indicates a total state- 
wide ground water storage capacity 
of more than 1 billion acre-feet. 
This estimate is compiled from pub- 
lished data based on varying depth 
criteria, ranging from 200 feet in 
the Sacramento Valley to 1,000 feet 
in other areas, except where / 
limited by the occurrence of saline 
water or by non-water-bearing 
materials. The table also indi- 
cates that more than 800 million 
acre -feet of ground water is in 
storage. These large values are 
in a sense academic, as they do not 
represent a measure of availability 
of the ground water resource. Sub- 
stantial withdrawal from the 800 
million acre-feet of ground water 
in storage is analagous to the 
mining of oil or natural gas re- 
serves, as it would not be replen- 

The two items of most significance 
in Table 7 are the usable ground 
water storage capacity and the 
annual primary recharge. Usable 
capacity, totaling about 123 
million acre-feet, is only a frac- 
tion of total storage capacity. 
This estimate has been developed 
from studies of varying intensity. 
Limitations of usable storage 
capacity reflect economic, legal, 
quality (such as sea water Intrusion 
into coastal basins), and other 
constraints. Further, more detailed 
studies are needed for refinement 
of estimates of usable ground water 
storage capacity in the individual 
major ground water basins, taking 
into account the various constraints. 

The annual primary recharge shown 
in Table 7 Includes natural ground 
water replenishment under present 
conditions and the recharge accom- 
plished by operation of local reser- 
voirs for detention and gradual 
release of water to augment natural 
stream channel percolation. It 
does not Include the incidental 
recharge resulting from the distri- 
bution and application of surface 
water supplies, which is considered 
reuse. Such incidental recharge is 
substantial, and will become more 
significant in the future as greater 

amounts of surface water supplies 
are used. In addition, recharge 
from deliberate spreading of local 
and Imported water will increase. 

Ground Water Management 

Management of a ground water basin 
Involves the planned use of ground 
water storage in conjunction with 
local and Imported surface water 
supplies to effect the most econom- 
ical use of total available storage 
in meeting overall water demands. 
Such management requires deliberate 
augmentation of recharge to place 
necessary quantities of water under- 
ground, which necessitates planned 
extraction patterns and facilities 
to control internal transmission. 
It also will necessitate measures 
for protection of the ground water 
resource from degradation from 
accumulation of salts, sea water 
intrusion into coastal aquifers, or 
from pollution. 

Increased ground water basin re- 
charge often will require the use 
of additional storage capacity. 
Thus, while ground water replenish- 
ment is a most important resource, 
the availability of usable storage 
capacity, which can provide regu- 
lation to both local and Imported 
water supplies to develop additional 
yield, is an equally valuable 

The use of ground water storage 
capacity can be divided into three 
general categories which relate to 
certain areas of the State. 

In water-deficient areas, such as 
Southern California and the San 
Francisco Bay area, ground water 
storage capacity may be required to 
provide terminal regulation to 
Imported water supplies. In this 
case ground water storage capacity 
provides regulation of uniform 
deliveries to varying monthly demand 

In the San Joaquin Valley, ground 
water storage can be used to provide 
regulation of surplus water Imported 


from Northern California during wet 
years for later local and possible 
export use during subsequent drier 
periods, thus complementing off- 
stream surface reservoir storage. 
In the Sacramento Valley, ground 
water storage capacity similarly 
could be operated in conjunction 
with surface storage facilities. 
This would allow some additional 
storage of flood waters with an 
increased firm water yield to meet 
local and statewide needs. 

With regard to augmentation of re- 
charge, planned ground water replen- 
ishment has been practiced on a sub- 
stantial scale for a number of 
years . The spreading of water by 
the Los Angeles County Flood Control 
District in the Montibello Forebay 
in coastal Los Angeles County is a 
notable example of such operation. 
The principal areas of deliberate 
recharge on a large scale are the 
South Coastal area, San Joaquin 
Valley, and the Santa Clara Valley 
south of San Francisco Bay. Spread- 
ing basins, pits, and modified 
channels are the principal methods 
of placing water underground. 

Prevention of sea water Intrusion 
is an essential management element 
in coastal ground water basins. 
Tills involves the operation of a 
hydraulic barrier to create a sea- 
ward gradient along the coast. This 
gradient can be established by 
injection of fresh water into the 
aquifer, such as is being accom- 
plished in the Los Angeles Coastal 
Plain by the Los Angeles County 
Flood Control District; a combined 
injection-pumping extraction system, 
such as is being employed at the 
Alamitos Gap by the Orange County 
Water District and the Los Angeles 
County Flood Control District; and 
a ground water extraction barrier, 
such as constructed on an experi- 
mental basis in the Oxnard Plain 
near Ventura by the Department of 
Water Resources. 

During the early 1960s the Depart- 
ment of Water Resources developed a 
ground water model which permitted 
studies of the integrated use of 
surface and ground water facilities 

by providing information enabling an 
economic comparison of a range of 
alternative plans. The computer- 
ized model has been and is being used 
in a number of cooperative ground 
water basin management studies 
jointly funded by the Department and 
local agencies. The purpose of the 
studies is to provide a basis for 
local agency selection and imple- 
mentation of the most advantageous 

Such studies are being used by local 
agencies to determine questions of 
zones of benefit (Kern County), 
benefits of possible modification of 
classic court decrees for ground 
water operation (Raymond Basin), 
optimization of a water distribution 
system (San Bernardino Valley 
Municipal Water District), and 
selection of a ground water storage 
system rather than a dam and reser- 
voir for regulation of imported 
water (San Diego County). 

The delivery of water from the State 
Water Project aqueduct will provide 
an opportunity for an additional 
application of ground water manage- 
ment practices. It involves the use 
of excess aqueduct capacity during 
the earlier years to deliver surplus 
water for recharge and storage under- 
ground as a reserve to meet future 
Increased needs. Examples of such 
practices are indicated in the 
operations presently being conducted 
in Santa Clara and Alameda Counties 
in the San Francisco Bay area, in 
the San Joaquin Valley, and in San 
Bernardino County and the San Gabriel 
Valley in the South Coastal area. 
Such an operation could enable the 
deferral of capital investment for a 
subsequent water supply facility. 

The foregoing ground water management 
possibility is the opposite of 
practices of the past, wherein vigor- 
ous economies have developed by con- 
tinued ground water overdraft, 
thereby developing a financial base 
for construction cfan importation 
project. Carefully planned over- 
draft of a ground water basin could 
be practiced until a supplemental 
water supply could be made available. 
However, this could be only an interim 


measure, as an additional water sup- 
ply would be necessary to sustain 
the economy and provide for future 

Future Ground Water Use 

The widespread availability of ground 
water in California and the increas- 
ing cost of the development of sur- 
face sources suggest a larger role 
of ground water in the future. 
However, a number of physical, 
economic, legal, legislative, and 
political factors must be identified 
and resolved before broad-scale 
planned management can be realized. 

Management of ground water resources 
within the framework of an adopted 
management plan requires that the 
local agency be able to: (l) use 
ground water basin storage capacity 
to regulate local or imported sur- 
face waters; (2) take steps to con- 
trol sea water intrusion in coastal 
areas; (3) regulate extraction 
patterns; (k) finance needed facili- 
ties; and (5) distribute benefits 
equitably. Procedures are already 
available for distribution of the 
annual yield of the ground water 

Some local agencies have powers to 
create hydraulic barriers to sea 
water intrusion, but no local agency 
has the power to control extraction 
patterns, except as accomplished 
through the economic pressures of a 
pump tax. A variety of financing 
measures, from direct taxation to a 
tax or assessment on water pumped, 
are available to local districts. 
In the future, financing methods 
and a method of distributing bene- 
fits could evolve into a single 
financial system accomplishing both 
purposes . 

Finally, California's statutes are 
not clear regarding ownership of, or 
rights to, the use of ground water 
storage capacity. The only laws and 
regulations In this regard are those 
established by the courts as prob- 
lems have arisen and suits have been 
filed by the aggrieved. A constitu- 
tional amendment might be necessary 

to define the right to withdraw 
water that has been conserved through 
use of this storage. 

Agencies that are operating artifi- 
cial recharge projects at this time 
record the amounts of water placed 
In storage as a basis for later 
withdrawal, but no legal basis 
exists for such withdrawal. Little 
has been done to determine the 
losses connected with use of under- 
ground storage, or the apportionment 
of losses among those agencies using 
storage capacity. There have been 
a number of proposals for a permit 
or license system to use underground 
storage, but no proposal is univer- 
sally supported. 

In summary, ground water in storage 
and ground water storage capacity 
constitute an extremely valuable 
resource at present and will con- 
tinue to be in the future. The 
value of ground water resources lies 
in the use of ground water in stor- 
age and underground storage capacity 
(l) to provide regulation of natural 
replenishment, and (2) operated 
coordlnatedly with both local and 
imported surface supplies, to effect 
the most economical use of total 
available storage, both surface and 
underground, as an Integrated sys- 
tem. Full realization of such inte- 
grated surface water-ground water 
system operations in areas where the 
ground water resource is available 
will require legal and legislative 
action and social and political 


Desalting is undoubtedly the most 
talked-about potential source of 
water supply to meet future needs 
not only in California but also in 
other areas of the Nation and the 
world. The prospects for desalting 
depend considerably on one's point of 
view. In some arid regions of the 
world adjacent to the ocean, 
literally the only alternative to 
desalting is water delivered by 
barge. In such areas the art of 
desalting has been practiced for 
many years . Many of these 


Installations have very small capac- 
ities, and relatively large-capacity 
plants were ordered only recently, 
during the 19dOs . 

In California, with an abundant 
water supply from surface and 
ground water, desalting has played 
essentially no part to date in 
water development. From the stand- 
point of economics it is not con- 
sidered that desalting will play a 
significant role in supplying sub- 
stantial quantities of water in 
California much before the turn of 
the century. Large -capacity de- 
salting is expected to be by that 
time a technical alternative and, 
possibly, an economical alternative 
to other water supply sources, 
particularly in coastal areas. 
Already, however, existing or 
planned coastal cities with a popu- 
lation of up to 50,000 and isolated 
inland communities could be provided 
with a supply of high quality de- 
salted water from commercially 
available apparatus at costs accept- 
able for municipal and industrial 
uses. The subject of desalting has 
been reported on in depth in the 
Department's Bulletin No. 134-69, 
"Desalting--State of the Art". 

Department's Desalting Program 

The Department of Water Resources 
has had a program in desalting 
since 1957. Close cooperation has 
been maintained with the federal 
Office of Saline Water in an attempt 
to develop and expand desalting 
technology. The Department was 
authorized to cooperate with the 
Office of Saline Water, and the 
California Legislature appropriated 
funds for a 50-50 sharing of capital 
costs for the federal Office of 
Saline Water Demonstration Plant at 
Point Loma in San Diego. The State 
of California contributed about 
$820,000 to the project during its 
construction. After the United 
States moved the plant to Guantanamo 
Bay in Cuba, California, by mutual 
agreement, transferred its interest 
in the Point Loma plant to the 
Office of Saline Water test facility 
in San Diego. 

Under provision of the Cobey-Porter 
Saline Water Conversion Law desalted 
water from this test facility is 
delivered to the City of San Diego 
through a pipeline constructed by 
the Department of Water Resources. 
The desalted water is used in the 
San Diego area. By the end of fiscal 
year I969-7O the Department had de- 
livered over 650 million gallons 
(2,000 acre-feet) of desalted water. 
In addition to gaining experience 
from handling the desalted water, 
the Department is gaining experience 
regarding the effect of desalted 
water on various materials and 
coatings from the study of 10 differ- 
ent test sections in the pipeline. 

In furtherance of its cooperative 
efforts in areas of mutual interest 
with the Office of Saline Water, the 
Department of Water Resources updated 
on November 17, I969 its 1958 coop- 
erative agreement for mutual assis- 
tance in the development and appli- 
cation of desalting. Under the 
current agreement the Department 
will intensify its cooperative 
efforts in the development of poten- 
tial desalting applications and 
sites, and in the development of a 
large -capacity prototype desalter. 
One of the early efforts will be to 
explore thoroughly the possibilities 
for the construction and operation 
of a prototype desalter in Califor- 
nia. Toward that end the Department 
signed an agreement with the Office 
of Saline Water on May 1, 1970 to 
undertake a siting study for a 
prototype desalting plant. 

The prototype desalter program is 
intended to develop a desalting 
plant with a nominal capacity of up 
to 50 million gallons per day (equi- 
valent to 50,060 acre-feet per year). 
The exact capacity will be a balance 
between the need for technology and 
the market for the desalted water. 
Several years will be required in 
the selection of a water service area 
and a site; in obtaining authoriza- 
tion; and in the design and construc- 
tion of the plant. 

This program Is needed in the 1970s 
to develop large-capacity desalting 
technology so that operating and 


cost information can be available 
for decision-making purposes in the 
1980s concerning the role desalting 
may play in meeting some of 
California's future water require- 
ments. Specifically, the program 
is intended to accomplish: 

1. Determination of technical 
and operating information 
from a prototype desalter 
needed for the design and 
cost estimate of large- 
capacity desalters; 

2. Operation of a prototype 
desalter in conjunction 
with an electric generation 
unit to evaluate interface 
problems between water and 
power production; 

3. Utilization of the water In 
a water service area in 
order to gain experience in 
the best means of integrat- 
ing a supply of desalted 
water with other water 
supplies ; 

4. Establishing means of environ- 
mentally acceptable operation, 
especially in connection with 
the discharge of warm sea 
water and brine back into the 

Federal Desalting Program 

Since congressional enactment of the 
Saline Water Act in 1952, the 
Federal Government has been actively 
developing desalting technology. The 
Act provides for the development of 
practicable low -cost means of pro- 
ducing water of a quality suitable 
for various beneficial uses on a 
scale sufficient to determine the 
feasibility of production and distri- 
bution on a large-scale basis. The 
term saline water includes sea water, 
brackish water, and other mineral- 
ized or chemically charged water. 

Federal expenditures for desali- 
nation were modest until the mid- 
1960s when a large expansion was 
made in the program. Expenditures 

during; fiscal year I969-7O were 
about $25 million. The larger 
budget has permitted the federal 
Office of Saline Water to substan- 
tially expand the reserach and de- 
velopment work it can support. 

Current Status and Cost of 

The aggregate capacity of desalters 
on a worldwide basis has increased 
from 60 million gallons per day in 
1961 to about 310 million gallons 
per day at the start of 1970, for 
an annual growth rate of 18 percent. 
The total desalting capacity by 1975 
is projected to increase to 1,250 
million gallons per day. 

Prior to 1967 the largest single- 
unit sea water desalter had a capa- 
bility of producing about 1.7 
million gallons per day (1,700 acre- 
feet per year). In I967 a desalter 
was placed in operation in Key West, 
Florida, with a capability of pro- 
ducing 2.6 million gallons per day 
(2,600 acre-feet per year) in a 
single-unit plant. The Key West 
plant desalts sea water for about 
85 cents per 1,000 gallons, or $280 
per acre-foot. It was the largest 
in the world until late 1968 when a 
plant was completed at Rosarito 
Beach, Mexico. It has a capability 
of 7.5 million gallons per day 
(7,500 acre-feet per year) from 
twin-unit desalters, each with a 
capacity of 3-75 million gallons per 
day. Desalted water from the 
Rosarito Beach plant has been esti- 
mated to cost in the 65-to-75-cents- 
per-thousand-gallon range ($210-245 
per acre-foot). 

In 1969 Kuwait purchased five desalt- 
ing units, each with a capacity of 
6 million gallons per day for a 
total capacity of 30 million gallons 
per day. These plants are expected 
to be placed on the line starting in 
1971. The projected cost of desalted 
water from the 6-million-gpd plants 
is expected to be about $100 per 
acre -foot. However, in Kuwait the 
cost of fuel is only about one-tenth 
the cost in California. 


studies and plans are under way in 
many countries for much larger de- 
salting plants, usually in combina- 
tion with power production. A 
nuclear reactor is the most likely 
energy source for these very large 

One of the most complete studies 
for determining the probable cost 
of desalted water in large-capacity 
plants was the Bolsa Island Project, 
a dual-purpose nuclear power and 
desalting plant, studied by the 
Metropolitan Water District of 
Southern California, local power 
utilities, the U. S. Office of 
Saline Water, and the U. S. Atomic 
Energy Commission. 

The desalted water from the Bolsa 
Project delivered to the Diemer 
filtration plant for distribution 
was estimated in 1965 to cost $88 
per acre-foot ($0.27 per thousand 
gallons), and estimated in 1968 to 
cost $143 per acre-foot ($0.44 per 
thousand gallons). This project 
did not proceed largely because of 
escalation and the cost and uncer- 
tainties associated with licensing 
of the nuclear reactors. 

Desalting in the Future 

As the technology of removing 
dissolved solids from water is de- 
veloped and the cost of such proces- 
ses is lowered, the economic feasi- 
bility of supplying desalted water 
to more areas of the State will in- 
crease. It is anticipated that 
developments in desalting will pro- 
vide new and promising means to 
assist in the future development of 
California's water resources and 
must be considered as an option in 
the development of future water 
supply sources. 

Reduction in the cost of desalted 
water from large -capacity plants of 
the future can be achieved through 
the application of nuclear energy, 
most likely in dual-purpose plants. 
However, nuclear desalters will 
encounter the same licensing and 
safety problems as will nuclear 
power-only plants. A satisfactory 

solution to siting on the California 
coast will not be easy. Failure to 
achieve resolution of the siting 
problems may add materially to the 
cost of desalting as an alternative 
source of supply to meet future 
needs in California. 

At the present time the distillation 
methods (the use of heat to boil 
water) of desalting show the most 
promise for large-capacity sea water 
desalting. Developments have been 
substantial with the reverse osmosis 
process (the separation of water 
from the salt solution by passage 
through an organic membrane). It 
seems entirely possible that con- 
tinued developments in this tech- 
nology could substantially widen 
desalting options in the future in 
terms of sea water, brackish water, 
and waste water desalting and in the 
flexibility of plant locations. 

The distillation method of desalting 
produces almost salt-free water. 
This high-quality water would have 
a value in "stretching" existing 
supplies and in water quality 
management in general . This poten- 
tial exists in several areas of 
California where the water supplies 
presently available are slightly 
brackish but could be made more 
usable through a blending process. 

Looking into the future, the expec- 
tation is that the technology needed 
to build dual-purpose nuclear sys- 
tems could be developed so that con- 
struction of large-capacity sea 
water desalters might be initiated 
in the mid-1980s for operation in 
the 1990s. Also in the 1990 time 
frame the reverse osmosis process 
utilizing electro-energy may be 
developed so that such desalters for 
sea water and other salt waters, 
including waste waters, can be 
located close to the point of water 
demand and at the same time at a 
considerable distance from the 
necessary power source. As larger 
capacity facilities are built, 
brine disposal problems will become 
more f ormi dab 1 e . 

Many factors that will Influence the 
cost of desalted water In the future 


cannot be determined with certainty, 
Expectations, however, appear to be 
sufficiently attractive to warrant 
continued consideration of desalt- 
ing as an alternative for future 
augmentation or supplementation of 
water supply. 

Water Reclamation 

The 2 million acre-feet of munici- 
pal waste water discharged annu- 
ally in California represents a 
significant flow of water to be 
considered in planning for future 
water supplies. At the present 
time less than 8 percent of this 
waste water is reclaimed for bene- 
ficial uses. Although certain 
technical, economic and other fac- 
tors would preclude renovation and 
reuse of all waste water generated, 
there would still be an Important 
residual that could be put to bene- 
ficial use, thereby stretching the 
use of a primary water supply to 
meet increasing water demands in a 
region. Water reclamation also can 
reduce overall waste disposal costs 
and translate potential water 
quality control problems into en- 
vironmental enhancement. 

Conditions are becoming increasing- 
ly more favorable for water recla- 
mation. Current emphasis on "clean 
water", for example, necessitates 
higher levels of treatment solely 
for the purpose of waste water dis- 
posal. Also the public is becoming 
more receptive to the idea of water 
reclamation and reuse. In consid- 
ering the feasibility of water 
reclamation as a potential source 
of additional water supply, all 
benefits, costs, constraints, and 
other factors must be evaluated, as 
Is done with any other potential 
water supply source. 

This section discusses the role of 
the Department of Water Resources 
and the potential and present status 
of water reclamation In California. 

The Department's Role in 
Water Reclamation 

In planning for water supplies to 
meet future needs the Department of 
Water Resources considers water 
reclamation of significant potential. 
Since 1952 the Department has col- 
lected Information on waste treatment 
facilities, quality and quantity of 
major waste discharges, and waste 
water reclamation projects in 
California. At the present time an 
inventory is maintained on the quan- 
tity of significant waste discharges 
in the metropolitan areas of the 
South Coastal and the San Francisco 
Bay areas . 

This inventory serves as a basis for 
more detailed studies of the feasi- 
bility of waste water reclamation to 
meet a part of the demand for addi- 
tional water supplies. Data are 
obtained on the quantity of reclaim- 
able water, beneficial uses, and 
costs of producing reclaimed water. 
The objectives of such studies are 
to evaluate the practicality of re- 
claiming water from waste flows and 
to encourage and stimulate the plan- 
ned reuse of waste waters of suitable 
quality, where warranted. 

The Department considers three 
general ways in which waste water Is 
recovered for beneficial use: (l) 
by discharging effluent into a 
natural water course such as a river 
or ground water basin, without 
deliberately intending to reclaim the 
water, (2) by constructing and oper- 
ating facilities for the express 
purpose of reclaiming water from 
wastes, and (3) by directly putting 
to beneficial use effluent from a 
treatment facility intended primarily 
for sewage disposal . 

Water reclamation as defined under 
item (l) occurs incidentally in 
nonnal water use and waste water dis- 
posal practices In Inland areas and 
is not included in any estimates of 
quantity or cost In this section. 
Items (2) and (3), but primarily 
item (2), deliberate renovation of 
water, are of concern In this dis- 
cussion. The major factors of con- 
cern in deliberate renovation and 


reuse of waste water are protection 
of public health, concentration of 
dissolved minerals, costs, and 
public acceptance. 

Most existing water reclamation 
projects employ conventional sewage 
treatment processes to remove objec- 
tionable materials from the waste 
water. For example, the secondary- 
sewage treatment process, if proper- 
ly designed and operated, can pro- 
duce a clear, odorless effluent, 
almost completely free of organic 
and bacterial content. Additional 
treatment, such as filtration and 
disinfection, can ensure destruction 
of most disease agents; however, 
these processes produce very little 
change in the mineral content of 
the water. Reclaimed wateris not 
used directly to meet domestic 
water demands because of problems 
of detection, identification, and 
removal of virus and other disease 
agents . 

Potential Future of 
Water Reclamation 

The most favorable opportunity for 
economical direct reclamation of 
waste water appears to be in those 
locations in the State where import- 
ed primary water supplies are expen- 
sive, and where large quantities of 
water with low mineral content are 
discharged to the ocean after only 
one use. These conditions prevail 
largely in California's South 
Coastal and San Francisco Bay areas. 
Moreover, the present national, 
state and general public interest in 
high levels of water quality impose 
increasingly stringent waste dis- 
charge requirements. Compliance 
with these high standards will 
necessitate expensive and more 
advance treatment facilities whether 
or not water reclamation is intended. 
Any additional costs for reclamation 
should be relatively small and this 
should encourage a trend for more 
waste water reuse. 

In the Central Valley and other in- 
land regions of California almost 
all waste water is reused inciden- 
tally. Quantities are taken into 

account in planning for future water 
supplies to serve these regions, but 
are not identified specifically as 
water reclamation. Also, agricul- 
tural return flows are not con- 
sidered as waste water in the context 
of this discussion, as flows, for 
the most part, are retained in the 
water supply system and are avail- 
able for reuse. Accordingly, they 
are regarded as part of the avail- 
able supply in the Department's 
planning studies. 

In the North Coastal region, water 
supplies are basically plentiful: 
therefore, the necessity for recla- 
mation and reuse of waste water is 
not considered of immediate impor- 
tance. As in the Central Valley, 
water is indirectly reclaimed where 
waste water is returned to streams 
and becomes a part of the downstream 
water supply. 

In evaluating the potential of water 
reclamation a determination must be 
made of the quantities of water that 
can be feasibly reclaimed from waste 
discharges in each area. Feasible 
water reclamation may be defined as 
the amount of water produced by the 
waste water treatment process that 
can be reclaimed and directly used 
in an area to meet the economic 
demand for water without causing 
physical, economic, and public 
health detriments. Feasible water 
reclamation quantities are con- 
sidered in the Department's water 
supply projections and are based on 
project feasibility studies. These 
studies include consideration of 
costs, demands for reclaimed water, 
and physical constraints such as 
ground water recharge capacity. 

Quantities of waste water generated 
in an area are directly proportional 
to quantities of water supply. Con- 
sumptive uses and system losses re- 
duce the total quantity of municipal 
waste water to about 30 percent of 
the total municipal water supply. 
The quantity of waste water that can 
be feasibly reclaimed may be limited 
by the quality of waste water, cost 
of treatment, prospective uses, and 
location of prospective use sites. 
Also a certain amount of water would 
still be needed to transport residual 


wastes to the ultimate disposal site 
such as the ocean. In general, not 
more than about 20 percent of the 
total municipal water supply in 
coastal communities should be con- 
sidered available for reclamation 
on a practical basis. 

Waste water containing total dis- 
solved solids in excess of 1,000 
parts per million generally is 
unsuitable for most beneficial uses 
and is not considered potentially 
reclaimable at this time. Also, 
the presence of specific chemicals, 
such as mercury, arsenic, cyanide, 
fluoride, boron, phenols, nitrate, 
and sulfate, as well as other toxic 
materials, could cause waste water 
to be unsuitable for reclamation. 
Additional research is needed on 
detection, removal, and effects of 
toxic materials in the water 
environment , 

Although there are certain restric- 
tions on its use, reclamation of 
waste water is increasing in the 
South Coastal area and other areas 
where it can be put to beneficial 
use locally. At the present time 
the City of Los Angeles and the 
Los Angeles County Sanitation 
Districts dispose of approximately 
700 million gallons of waste water 
per day (780,000 acre-feet per year), 
mostly through ocean outfalls into 
Santa Monica Bay. However, there is 
a trend toward constructing the new 
waste water treatment plants farther 
inland. This is more economical 
than constructing long trunk sewers 
and ocean outfalls. Also, rela- 
tively inexpensive water supplies 
become available to downstream areas 

of use with little or no pumping 

The potential amount of water which 
may be reclaimed from wastes in the 
South Coastal area, where about 
90 percent of the State's potential 
lies, is estimated to increase from 
110,000 to 1.1 million acre-feet 
per year between 1970 and 2020. 
This is shown in the tabulation at 
the bottom of this page which also 
Indicates that feasible reclamation 
in that area could range from about 
50,000 acre -feet per year at the 
present time to 600,000 acre-feet 
per year by 2020. The difference 
between potential water reclamation 
and feasible water reclamation, as 
shown in the tabulation, could be 
considered as a possible additional 
supply to satisfy uses not included 
in the projected water demands dis- 
cussed in Chapters XV and VI. 

In the future, uses for reclaimed 
waste water undoubtedly will expand, 
including uses for landscaping, 
greenbelts, fire suppression, and 
recreational lakes. In brushy areas 
waste water could be used to reduce 
fire hazards. On an Integrated 
system basis, digested sludge from 
the waste treatment plant could be 
used as a soil conditioner and 
fertilizer. Also, nutrients in 
waste water are major fertilizer 
ingredients and could be beneficial 
in an irrigation water supply. 

Present Status and Use 
of Reclaimed Water 

Figure l4 shows locations of all 
coastal municipal waste water 

1,000 Acre -Feet 

Waste Water Production 
Potential Water Reclamation 
Feasible Water Reclamation 


: 1990 

: 2020 




















facilities which discharged more 
than 1 million gallons of effluent 
per day in I968. Also shown, 
graphically, are total quantities 
in 100 million gallons per day of 
municipal waste water discharged in 
each coastal county. The figure 
illustrates the greater concentra- 
tions of individual waste water 
facilities as well as the greater 
quantities of municipal waste water 
discharged in the San Francisco Bay 
and South Coastal areas. 

A directory compiled by the Califor- 
nia Department of Public Health in 
1969 listed 172 water reclamation 
projects either under construction 
or in operation in California. The 
directory included the use or uses 
to be made of the reclaimed water. 
Irrigation of agricultural crops, 
principally fodder and pasture, was 
carried out in 138 projects. 

Present water reclamation in Cali- 
fornia aggregates about 135^000 
acre-feet per year with irrigation 
as the major application. In I967 
about 95*000 acre-feet of reclaimed 
water was used to irrigate nearly 
23,000 acres of land at various 
locations. The following examples 
cover some of the major types of 

At Golden Gate Park in San Francisco 
reclaimed water supplies about 1 
million gallons of water per day 
(1,100 acre-feet per year) from the 
middle of January through November 
for use in the park's ornamental 
lakes and irrigation system. This 
source supplies about 25 percent of 
the 1,017-acre park's water needs 
for horticultural purposes. 

The Whittier Narrows Water Recla- 
mation Plant of the Los Angeles 
County Sanitation District has 
established the practicality of 
large-scale planned ground water 
replenishment operations using 
reclaimed domestic waste water. The 
facility reclaims 14 million gallons 
per day (15,000 acre-feet per year) 
of domestic sewage for downstream 
ground water replenishment. 

At Santee in San Diego County the 
Santee County Water District oper- 
ates a planned water reclamation 
system of small lakes for recre- 
ation. About 4 million gallons per 
day of domestic sewage, after 
secondary treatment and pond oxi- 
dation, is pumped upstream to Syca- 
more Canyon where effluent percolates 
through the alluvium to collection 
galleries for use in the recreation- 
al lakes. Six lakes have been cre- 
ated, four of which are used for 
fishing and boating. Some of the 
lake water is further treated and 
used in a nearby swimming pool. A 
park adjoins the lakes with picnick- 
ing and playground facilities. Some 
of the reclaimed water is used to 
irrigate a nearby golf course. 

The Indian Creek Project of the 
South Tahoe Public Utility District 
was also implemented because of a 
need to dispose of waste water. 
There were indications that nutrients 
from waste water discharged into 
Lake Tahoe were stimulating the 
growth of algae which could eventu- 
ally destroy the alpine-blue color 
of the lake. As a partial solution 
to the problem waste water generated 
on about one-half of the land sur- 
rounding the lake is now given 
advanced tertiary treatment in a 
plant designed for 7.5 million 
gallons per day and pumped out of 
the basin into Indian Creek Reser- 
voir in Alpine County. The water is 
used for Irrigation in the downstream 
Carson River drainage. Indian Creek 
Reservoir also has developed an 
abundance of aquatic life and the 
beginning of what may turn out to be 
one of the best fisheries in 
Northern California. 

Water Reclamation Studies . It was 
mentioned earlier that the Depart- 
ment has conducted studies of the 
feasibility of waste water reclama- 
tion in meeting a part of the demand 
for additional water supplies. 
Studies have been completed for the 
San Francisco-San Jose area, 
Watsonville area, Los Angeles metro- 
politan area, coastal San Diego 
County, Coachella Valley, and 
Ventura County. A study Is now 


Water Reclamation Projects 

Santee Onv ol four lakt-s used lur iishing cind Ixxiling 


South Tohoe Public Utility District 
Indian Creek Reclaimed water supply to lake exceeds U.S. Public Health Service drinking wali-r slandardt^ 

under way in San Luis Obispo County. 
Bulletins which have been published 
to present the findings of the com- 
pleted studies are listed below. 
Unpublished reports or data on addi- 
tional studies are available in the 
Department's files. 

1. Bulletin No. 67, "Reclamation 
of Water from Sewage and 
Industrial Wastes, Watsonvllle 
Area, Santa Cruz and Monterey 
Counties", 1959. 

2. Bulletin No. 80, "Feasibility 
of Reclamation of Water from 
Wastes in Los Angeles Metro- 
politan Area", I96I . 

3. Bulletin No. 80-2, "Reclama- 
tion of Water from Wastes : 
Coastal San Diego County", 

4. Bulletin No. 80-3, "Reclama- 
tion of Water from Wastes: 
Coachella Valley", I966. 

Evidence exists that these programs 
and reports have stimulated interest 
in the reclamation of water from 
wastes, particularly in Southern 

Cost of Water Reclamation . Costs 
assignable to water reclamation are 
a function of costs of water supply 
and waste disposal and depend to a 
large extent on pricing policies of 
the agencies involved. In general, 
the cost assignable to the reclama- 
tion of waste water is the cost over 
and above the cost of treatment for 
disposal plus the cost of delivery. 
In evaluating the cost of water 
reclamation a major consideration is 
that any costs for primary and secon- 
dary treatment should be allocated 
to waste water disposal because this 
level of treatment is required for 
disposal whether or not reclamation 
occurs. For most uses waste water 
receiving secondary treatment is 
generally satisfactory, and the cost 
of the reclaimed water is the cost 
of delivery. 

Water receiving no more than secon- 
dary treatment can generally be 

used for ground water replenishment 
and controlled Irrigation. The 
delivered cost of this water depends 
on the capital cost of the trans- 
mission facilities, the amount of 
pumping required, and the quantity 
of reclaimed water involved. For 
existing reclamation projects, esti- 
noated costs range from $5 to $20 per 
acre-foot. Reclaimed water injected 
Into wells for sea water intrusion 
barriers must receive tertiary treat- 
ment, including possibly coagulation 
and sedimentation. This increases 
the cost of the water by $15 to $20 
per acre-foot. Estimated costs of 
reclaiming waste water ranged up to 
about $50 per acre-foot in several 
feasibility reports prepared by 
local agencies and to more than $100 
per acre-foot for a small reclamation 
project producing less than 1,000 
acre-feet per year. 

Legal Requirements and Public 
Acceptance . Regulations and re quire- 
ments for quality of water from all 
sources that can be used by the 
public have been set by state and 
local authorities . To ensure protec- 
tion of the public health, and other 
social benefits, state and local 
authorities impose stringent regula- 
tions and requirements upon reclama- 
tion of water from wastes. These 
authorities include the State Depart- 
ment of Public Health, the State 
Water Resources Control Board, the 
California Regional Water Quality 
Control Boards, the State Department 
of Fish and Game, and county and city 
agencies . 

Pursuant to the Water Reclamation Law 
(Division 7, Chapter 7 of the Water 
Code), the Department of Public 
Health has promulgated a set of 
standards for safe reuse of waste 
water for specified purposes. The 
regional water quality control 
boards are empowered by this law to 
apply these standards in setting 
requirements for the reuse of re- 
claimed waste water. 

The renovation of waste water in the 
past has generally met requirements 
for the uses intended. In the future, 
as the technology of reclaiming waste 


water improves, water of even better 
quality may be produced. 

Reclaimed water has been used in 
California for many years and the 
public now appears to be more fully 
accepting its use. As the costs of 
new water supplies and waste water 
disposal continue to rise, it may be 
anticipated that the public will 
react favorably to any project that 
will reduce the cost of either or 
both of these necessary services. 
These factors, along with advances 
in technology on reclamation, indi- 
cate that planned reuse of reclaimed 
water will become an increasingly 
significant portion of the total 
water supply in the South Coastal 

Western States Water 

Among the alternative sources of 
water that should be considered in 
planning to meet California's future 
water needs is importation through 
western states or international 
water development. Such a develop- 
ment might deliver water (l) near 
California's northern border for 
distribution via natural streams and 
existing or new aqueduct systems in 
the Central Valley and adjacent 
areas; (2) near the eastern boundary 
to serve portions of the area east 
of the Sierra Nevada; or (3) to the 
Colorado Desert and South Coastal 
areas probably, at least in part, 
through augmentation of and rediver- 
sion from the Colorado River. 

Other Possible 
Sources of Water 

The possibilities offered by new or 
nontraditional sources of water are 
intriguing. In general, the public 
seems to be keyed to the potential 
rather than the limitations of new, 
economically unproved methods for 
developing water supplies. This is 
a proper public attitude, for such 
an attitude is a necessary climate 
for advancement in technology; but 
it is also necessary that enthusiasm 
for the potential be tempered by 
knowledge of the physical, economic, 
and social constraints so as to 
enable valid comparison with other 
alternative available sources. 

This section discusses several possi- 
ble sources of water which could 
assist in meeting California's 
future water demands. Among the 
possible new sources are weather 
modification, watershed management, 
and geothermal energy for desalting 
of saline ground water. New or 
expanded concepts of long-distance 
transportation of water are repre- 
sented in an interstate transfer of 
surplus water within the Western 
States, and in a proposed undersea 
aqueduct. Finally, the possibility 
of stretching available water sup- 
plies through reassignment of uses, 
pricing policy, and greater efficiency 
in water management is discussed. 

Developments of this scale, involv- 
ing importation from the North- 
western States or even from Canada 
or Alaska, would be of such magni- 
tude that they would probably be 
practical only in conjunction with 
a general plan to augment the waters 
of the Colorado River stream system. 
The cost of such a development 
would be very large and necessary 
political arrangements would be com- 
plex. Thus, it could be considered 
only a possibility for meeting the 
long-term needs of the State some- 
time after the turn of the century. 

It is widely recognized that the 
Colorado River stream system is over- 
committed by existing and authorized 
projects and water uses under the 
Mexican Water Treaty, the Colorado 
River Compact, and related legal 
documents. The insufficiency of the 
Colorado River became well-known 
during the lengthy U. S. Supreme 
Court litigation in Arizona v. 
California . The decree in that case 
provided that California's annual 
apportionment is 4,400,000 acre-feet 
when 7,500,000 acre-feet of main- 
stream water is available to the 
lower basin states. California is 
entitled to 50 percent of any sur- 
plus water above 7,500,000 acre-feet. 
In the event of shortage, the decree 
provides that the Secretary of the 
Interior may apportion the remaining 
available supply. The Colorado 


River Basin Project Act of I968 
directed the Secretary to follow 
certain specific priorities in the 
event of shortage . 

Soon after the Supreme Court opinion 
in 1963, the Bureau of Reclamation 
published a report describing its 
^'Pacific Southwest Water Plan". The 
chief proposal of this plan was to 
import water to the Colorado River 
from Northwestern California. In 
presenting this report, the Secre- 
tary made it clear that this plan 
was only a proposal, and he invited 
alternative suggestions. In re- 
sponse to that invitation, and on 
the basis of other motivations, a 
total of about 22 proposals' were 
made according to a report by the 
Western States Water Council 
entitled "A Review of Inter-Regional 
and International Water Transfer 
Proposals", dated June I969 • These 
include not only possible diversions 
from the Columbia and Missouri Rivers 
systems to augment waters of the 
Colorado River and other water supply 
sources in the Southwest, but also 
proposals to divert water from 
Canada or from Alaska to meet needs 
not only of the Southwest, but also 
of the Great Plains area, portions 
of Central Canada, and the Great 
Lakes area. 

While these proposals identified 
possible future sources of water and 
demonstrated various physical means 
by which large quantities of water 
could be moved, they were based on 
very cursory Information. Little 
attention was given to the highly 
significant political, legal, insti- 
tutional, and social factors. More- 
over, potential economic demands for 
water in the areas to be served were 
not given real consideration, and 
hydrologic and cost data were only 
very rough approximations. 

Information is now being accumulated 
through state water planning studies, 
federal Type I Framework Studies, 
other studies under the aegis of the 
federal Water Resources Council, and 
by boards and agencies within Califor- 
nia, which hopefully will provide a 
foundation for more detailed studies 

in the future, possibly involving 
such large-scale plans. 

The first westwide investigation was 
authorized in Public Law 90-537, the 
"Colorado River Basin Project Act" 
of 1968 (discussed in Chapter II). 
This act directed the Secretary of 
the Interior (l) to determine the 
water supplies available and the 
long-range water requirements in 
each water resource region of the 
Western United States; (2) to develop 
a reconnaissance general plan to 
meet the future water needs of each 
region, but within the limitations 
of the 10-year moratorium (see page 
page 15); (3) to continue to develop 
a regional water plan to guide the 
coordination and construction of 
water projects in the Colorado River 
Basin; and (4) to recognize the 
Mexican Water Treaty as a national 
obligation when the Colorado River 
is augmented (see page 15). 

This investigation is to culminate 
with a final report by Jrly 1, 1977. 
Following September 30, j--.'^, the 
Secretary, under other authoriza- 
tions, can proceed with examining 
sources of supplemental water out- 
side the area just described, 
including the Pacific Northwest. 

Beyond the need for augmentation of 
Colorado River supply is the prob- 
lem of increasing salinity in the 
Lower Colorado River, which impairs 
the usefulness of the water for 
agricultural and other purposes, 
both in the United States and in 
Mexico. Thus, to both increase its 
quantity and improve its quality, 
augmentation of the Colorado River 
will probably eventually come to 
pass and provide a potential means 
of meeting part of California's 
future water demands. 

Weather Modification 

For centuries man has sought means 
of making rain to end drought periods. 
However, it has been only in the 
last two decades that serious 
research and experimentation have been 
undertaken toward inducing rainfall 
through cloud seeding. Research and 


experimentation activities have also 
been directed to clearing of fog 
from airports and to suppression of 
hail or lightning storms. 

Considerable progress has been made 
during the past several years in 
advancing the state of the art of 
weather modification; and it has 
been demonstrated that, under 
favorable conditions, precipitation 
can be Increased on the order of 
5 to 10 percent. The most common 
method of seeding clouds is by the 
dispersal of silver iodide either 
from airplanes or from ground 
generators . 

During the 1968-69 season, 11 
weather modification projects were 
conducted in California, mainly to 
Increase surface storage in reser- 
voirs for municipal and irrigation 
use and for electric power genera- 
tion. Additional purposes were for 
augmentation of ground water storage, 
fog dispersal, and for applied re- 
search. Silver iodide and dry ice 
were the agents dispersed, except 
for a project in San Diego County 
which employed an electrical dis- 
charge method. 

Direct measurement of results of 
weather modification activities so 
far is impossible because of the 
great variety in natural weather and 
rainfall patterns, and the sometimes 
conflicting evaluations; but certain 
conclusions are becoming apparent. 
It is evident that there are certain 
conditions under which precipitation 
can be increased by cloud seeding. 
Evaluations, by the operators, of 
results of cloud seeding in the 
Kings River (by Atmospherics Incor- 
porated) and San Joaquin River (by 
North American Weather Consultants) 
watersheds Indicate a relatively 
high degree of confidence in average 
increases of runoff of 6 and 8 per- 
cent, respectively. Estimated 
annual precipitation increases of 
5 percent have been reported by 
Pacific Gas and Electric Company for 
the Lake Almanor watershed In the 
Feather River Basin. 

A weathsr modification project in 
Santa Clara County has increased 

average precipitation over the 
watershed by an estimated 10 to 
15 percent, as reported by the Santa 
Clara County Flood Control and Water 
District. A continuing weather mod- 
ification program in the drainage 
basins above the reservoirs of the 
Los Angeles County Flood Control 
District Indicated, according to 
consultants, overall increases 
ranging from near zero to 20 inches 
during the eight -year period from 
1960-61 through 1967-68. These 
Increases, averaged over the entire 
basin, have been estimated to be in 
the neighborhood of 5 percent of 
the mean annual precipitation. 

The Office of Atmospheric Water 
Resources, U. S. Bureau of 
Reclamation, has stated that results 
of Project Skyvjater and other pro- 
grams in the United States and 
abroad indicate that precipitation 
can be increased by an average of 
10 to 20 percent. This average 
includes cases of large increases, 
small Increases, no increases, and 
some decreases. The foregoing 
reference also reported that costs 
for indicated increases in runoff 
will range from $0.50 to $1.50 
per acre-foot when the program 
becomes operational rather than 
experimental. Reported costs of 
programs in California have generally 
been within this range. 

It should be recognized that these 
costs have been estimated for 
"successful" projects. The cost per 
acre-foot is a function not only of 
the procedure used but also of the 
water yield from the project. Project 
yield, in turn, is dependent on both 
the meteorological and hydrological 
characteristics of the particular 
area being see'ded and the prior 
availability of facilities for con- 
trolling and storing the water 

Success of increase in precipitation 
also depends on the dryness or wet- 
ness of the particular year. In 
this regard the favorable chances 
for cloud seeding are minimal during 
the dry years when water is most 
needed, resulting in somewhat 
smaller Increases in runoff than 


those expected during normal or wet 
years. This means that while a 
weather modification project would 
be effective where normal and wet- 
year increases could be stored 
either in surface or underground 
reservoirs for use in ensuing drier 
years, the value of this increased 
supply would be minimal compared to 
an increase during drier years. 

The yield of the Central Valley 
Project, the State Water Project, 
and major local projects cannot be 
materially enhanced by increases 
during the wet years, because sur- 
plus water is already available in 
those years . An augmentation of 
water supplies would have the 
greatest economic benefit during 
the dry and average years . 

There are many unresolved technical 
and legal problems in weather modi- 
fication. More experience is re- 
quired to detennine which conditions 
are favorable for seeding and the 
best methods of seeding for given 
conditions. Not much is yet known 
about possible downwind effects of 
cloud seeding. Indications so far 
include possible decrease, no 
effect, or increase in precipitation 
downwind from seeding project areas. 
Pertinent legal questions relate to 
the responsibility of cloud seeding 
operators for any downwind effects 
and the effect of cloud seeding in 
increasing floodflows. In Califor- 
nia, seeding with silver iodide 
seems to be most effective on the 
colder storms; and operations are 
carried out to enhance snowpack in 
critical flood regions, thereby 
reducing the direct flood hazard. 

The Department of Water Resources is 
participating with Fresno State 
College Foundation in studies con- 
cerning weather modification for 
increase in precipitation In the 
Sierra Nevada. The work, scheduled 
for completion in 1973-7^, consists 
of development of planning guide- 
lines for evaluating potential water 
yield estimates and costs of weather 
modification in California. 

It is anticipated that experience 
gained from increasing experimental 
and operational activity in weather 

modification will lead to resolu- 
tion of many problems, greater 
physical control, and an Increase 
in potential for future weather 
modification activities. On the 
more exotic side, decreasing an 
overabundant water supply on the 
windward side of some mountain 
ranges and increasing that precipi- 
tation on the water-deficient lee- 
side may sometime be possible. In 
a program sponsored under the Bureau 
of Reclamation program, the State of 
Washington is investigating this 

The day of much more extensive 
efforts to change the weather or 
climate by altering worldwide wind 
circulation or by steering entire 
storms from ocean areas onto nearby 
lands in need of rain is, as yet, 
only in the visionary stage. Many 
problems must be solved before this 
can be accomplished or even shown to 
be desirable. The solution of prob- 
lems will be based in large degree 
on knowledge gained from research on 
programs of current interest with 
more modest objectives. 

Watershed Management 

Watershed management embraces a 
broad spectrum of land treatment and 
related measures to optimize overall 
productivity, considering food, 
forage, timber, wildlife, minerals. 
recreation, and water. For purposes 
of this bulletin, however, watershed 
management will be discussed from 
the standpoint of possible means of 
modifying vegetation to improve run- 
off characteristics, including 
quantity, quality, and timing. 

The physical potential for increas- 
ing water yield production through 
manipulation of the vegetative cover 
has been demonstrated through experi- 
mental research conducted by the 
U. S. Forest Service, University of 
California at Davis, and other 
organizations . The Department of 
Water Resources has cooperated in 
this work and has contributed 
funds on the order of $900,000 over 
the past decade. The research ^has 
generally concluded that runoff can 


be increased w 
by a reduction 
use associated 
native vegetat 
shown that the 
extended later 
that the magni 
and the change 
difficult to p 

Ithln certain areas 
in consumptive water 
with the growth of 

ion. It has also 
duration of flow is 
into the summer, but 

tude of the increase 
in timing of flow is 

redict . 

The three categories of vegetative 
manipulation which are applicable 
to certain areas in California are : 
selective timber cutting within the 
snowfield portion of the commercial 
timber zone; clearing of deeper- 
rooted vegetation within the foot- 
hill and brushlands regions and a 
replanting to grasses ; and eradi- 
cation of riparian phreatophytlc 
(water-loving) vegetation which is 
most prolific along the lower eleva- 
tion reaches of California water 

Within the commercial timber zone, 
selective strip cutting of timber 
at widths of about one tree-height 
has been demonstrated as a means of 
reducing snowpack evaporation and 
Increasing runoff without hastening 
snowmelt. The clearing of larger 
blocks of forest appears to Increase 
both runoff and rate of snowmelt. 

For brushland areas where the annual 
rainfall exceeds about 15 inches, 
the clearing of deep-rooted plants 
and conversion to grass can result 
in an increased water yield on the 
order of 2 to 3 Inches annually on 
the treated areas. It is estimated 
that up to 800,000 acres of brushland 
in the Sacramento Basin may be suit- 
able for such conversion. A 3-lnch 
reduction of consumptive use could 
provide an increase in total basin 
runoff of perhaps 200,000 acre-feet 

Eradication of streamslde and lake- 
side vegetation can reflect a sal- 
vage of water of up to 0.5 acre-feet 
annually per acre eradicated. 
Although the eradication of phreato- 
phytes is important in localized 
situations, the area of plant growth 
is small and the amount of water 
which may be salvaged is not of 
great consequence In consideration 

of California's total statewide water 
needs. Also, this streamslde vege- 
tation often has scenic value and 
provides food and shelter for wild- 
life. Extreme care must therefore 
be exercised in determining those 
areas where plants may be removed 
without detrimental effect on the 
environment . 

While each of the foregoing measures 
has merit in certain areas, there 
would be many difficult problems with 
respect to a large-scale vegetation 
modification practice throughout the 
State required to significantly 
Increase California's usable water 
supplies. Tl-iese problems include: 
legal rights to alter native vege- 
tation on private and public lands, 
the compatibility of such modifica- 
tion with scenic and ecological 
values, and the rights to the water 
supply which may be salvaged. More- 
over, as a large portion of the lands 
are under private ownership, any 
modification of cultural practices 
would have to be demonstrated to be 
economically advantageous to the 
individual owners. 

From the present s 
and in view of the 
watershed manageme 
volving modlflcati 
vegetation do not 
attractive option 
significant water 
to meet increasing 

Un de rsea Aqueduct 

tate of knowledge 

nt practices In- 
on of native 
appear to be an 
for providing 
supply quantities 

statewide needs. 

A concept for conveying water sup- 
plies from California's North 
Coastal rivers to Central and South 
Coastal regions via an undersea 
aqueduct has been proposed for study 
over the past decade by private and 
public water planners. 

This Is not a new source of 
water, but is discussed in this 
chapter because it is a subject of 
interest to those who are concerned 
with water development alternatives. 
The plan most commonly envisioned 
would consist of a large offshore 
pipeline, possibly on the order of 
30 feet in diameter, anchored on the 


continental shelf at a depth of 
about 300 feet. The pipeline would 
extend a total distance of some 700 
miles from the mouth of the Klamath 
or Eel Rivers to delivery points in 
the Central and South Coastal areas. 

Various materials have been sug- 
gested for the aqueduct. These in- 
clude heavy-duty plastic, flexible 
rubber, fiber glass, concrete, 
steel, and aluminum. Considerable 
additional research and testing is 
required to determine the engineer- 
ing feasibility and to provide 
reliable estimates of costs associ- 
ated with the fabrication, place- 
ment, and maintenance of a large- 
diameter undersea pipeline. 
Additional study is also required 
to determine the effects of the 
pipeline upon the marine 
environment , 

An undersea aqueduct is principally 
an alternative method of conveying 
water supplies for the coastal 
areas. Its utilization would re- 
quire the development of dependable 
water supplies by onshore facili- 
ties in much the same manner as 
required for an overland aqueduct 
system. Because of the highly 
variable runoff characteristics of 
Northern California rivers, major 
storage reservoirs would be needed 
in conjunction with either an under- 
sea or overland aqueduct system to 
provide regulation of the water 
supplies to the more uniform con- 
veyance schedules required. 

An undersea aqueduct would also 
necessitate location of a diversion 
structure near the mouth of the 
river which provides the water 
supply source. The diversion 
structure would require facilities 
for passage of fish over the struc- 
ture and screening facilities to 
protect fish from being carried into 
the aqueduct. 

In December 1969 the U. S. Bureau of 
Reclamation published a report en- 
titled "California Under Sea Aque- 
duct Prereconnaissance Study". The 
report outlined the considerable 
additional research needs and rec- 
ommended an initial six-year 

reconnaissance study program. The 
recommended program was adopted by 
the Congress and funds were appro- 
priated for the first-year studies 
now in progress . 

Geothermal Water Resources 

The term geothermal literally means 
earth heat, and it refers to the 
natural heat that is generated 
beneath the earth's surface. While 
rock temperature generally Increases 
slowly with depth, the rise (or 
geothermal gradient) is markedly 
steep in certain localities. These 
regions are called geothermal 

Recently attention has focused on 
the intriguing possibility of uti- 
lizing geothermal heat to distill 
fresh water from sea water or from 
the saline ground waters that some- 
time occur in geothermal regions. 
Since the initial temperatures of 
geothermal waters are much higher 
than sea water, little or no heating 
may be required for their distil- 
lation. In this respect, geothermal 
brines are preferable to ocean water 
for conversion to fresh water. 

The necessary conditions for a geo- 
thermal distillation facility in- 
clude a geothermal heat source, an 
adequate supply of brine, and a 
favorable market for fresh water and 
such by-products as surplus energy 
and residual minerals. A feasible 
means for disposal of waste products 
which will neither pollute the 
environment nor endanger wildlife Is 
also essential. Although more than 
182 thermal springs have been found 
throughout California to date, only 
3 areas have attracted interest from 
the standpoint of commercial produc- 
tion of geothermal energy. These 
are: The Geysers, near Cloverdale in 
Sonoma County; Casa Diablo, north- 
west of Bishop in Mono County; and 
southern Imperial Valley. At The 
Geysers, two steam powerplants with 
a combined rated capacity of 82 
megawatts are operated by the Pacific 
Gas and Electric Company and an 
increase to 4ll megawatts is contem- 
plated within the next few years. 

Advancing Technology — — Promises additional sources of water 

Clair Engle Plant 

Sea water conversion 

Weather modification studies continue 

Mexico's development ot same geothermal 
province found in California 

The Casa Diablo region has been 
prospected and tested but does not 
at this time appear worthy of 
exploitation. Neither The Geysers 
nor Casa Diablo Is endowed with 
large quantities of brine from 
which fresh water could be produced 
by distillation. The southern part 
of the Imperial Valley, on the other 
hand, appears to possess the physi- 
cal conditions required for a geo- 
thermal distillation facility. It 
is the only place known at present 
in California where geothermal 
energy and heated brines are avail- 
able in abundance. 

Serious attempts to develop a natu- 
ral steam source in Imperial Valley 
began with the drilling of an unsuc- 
cessful steam well in 1927. Since 
that date approximately 30 wells 
have been completed which have 
established Imperial Valley as a 
major geothermal province. The 
area considered likely for possible 
desalination extends generally from 
the southern end of the Salton Sea 
to the Gulf of Mexico. It covers 
an area of about 2 million acres. 

Production of steam has commenced in 
the Mexican sector of Imperial 
Valley at the Cerro Prieto field 
which lies about 15 miles south of 
the border town of Mexican. Pres- 
ent arrangements call for the in- 
stallation of a 75-megawatt steam 
electric powerplant at Cerro Prieto 
which is expected to be ready for 
service in 1971. The plant will be 
operated solely for power produc- 
tion. The brines produced during 
the process will be conveyed through 
an open ditch for disposal In the 
Gulfcf California. 

A preliminary evaluation of the geo- 
thermal potential of the Imperial 
Valley, California, has been covered 
by Dr. Robert W. Rex of the Univer- 
sity of California at Riverside in 
two reports entitled "Investigation 
of the Geothennal Potential of the 
Lower Colorado River Basin, Phase I" 
and "Investigation of Geothermal 
Resources in the Imperial Valley and 
Their Potential Value for Desalina- 
tion of Water and Electricity Produc- 
tion, June 1, 1970". Dr. Rex's 

geologic, geophysical and geochem- 
ical studies have established that 
six and possibly as many as nine 
geothermal hot spots exist in the 
region lying between the Salton Sea 
and the Mexican border and that 1 to 
3 billion acre-feet of heated brine 
may be stored In the sedimentary 
formations between depths of 5,000 
and 20,000 feet. Chemically these 
waters appear to be no more saline 
than many oil field brines. Their 
temperatures range from 500 to 700 
degrees Fahrenheit, as measured in 
the formations at depth. 

According to the University report, 
brine reserves may be sufficient to 
support 1,000 to 3,000 geothermal 
wells at an average yield per well 
of 1,200,000 pounds per hour of 
steam. This is equivalent to 10.6 
acre-feet of fresh water per day for 
each well. The total projected 
production rate for full operation 
therefore would range between 3.6 
and 10 million acre-feet per year. 
At this rate, it would take from 
100 to 850 years to exhaust the 
available brines. A suggestion has 
been made that the productive life 
could be extended and possibly 
doubled by recharging the geothermal 
aquifers with sea water imported 
from the Gulf of California. 

If the geothermal water resource In 
the Imperial Valley should prove to 
be a practicable water supply, it 
would be strategically located to be 
of assistance in solution of the 
water quantity and quality problems 
relating to the Colorado River. It 
could be a potential substitute for 
Colorado River water diverted to the 
Imperial and Coachella Valleys and 
to the Coastal Plain of Southern 
California, thus making those sup- 
plies available for diversion to 
other areas within California, and 
to other states or Mexico. It might 
also be used to dilute diversions 
from the Lower Colorado River to 
Improve their qualities. If electri- 
cal energy from geothermal resources 
could be produced at a favorable 
cost, desalination of a portion of 
the drainage waters from Imperial 
and Coachella Valleys and their re- 
use might be feasible. Conceivably 


problems of the increasing salinity 
of the Salton Sea might also be 
solved, at least in part, by the use 
of such waters. 

Further investigation of the 
Imperial Valley province is required 
before the feasibility of a large- 
scale geothermal operation can be 
reasonably examined. In particular, 
more knowledge is needed of geologic 
factors (l) to permit refining the 
estimates of available geothermal 
heat and ground water brines, (2) 
to explore procedures for recharging 
brine aquifers and for the return 
of saline residual fluids by relnjec- 
tion into deep formations, and (3) 
to develop more definitive cost 

Study of the region is continuing 
by the University of California, 
Imperial Irrigation District, U. S. 
Bureau of Reclamation, and the 
Department of Water Resources. 

Nonstructural Alternatives 

In planning to meet future water 
resource needs, alternatives should 
be considered that could result in 
reduction or redirection of those 
needs. These are referred to as 
"nonstructural" as they do not 
involve the physical construction 
of projects; rather, they consist 
of major changes in social, econcmic, 
environmental, technological, and 
governmental factors that may affect 
water demand. Examples of such 
alternatives are direct reallocations 
of water supplies to more valuable 
uses, reductions in water use and 
waste water disposal through pricing 
policies, technical improvements 
that increase efficiency of water 
use, improvements in water quality 
management, land use policies 
(including floodplain management), 
and planned location of industries. 
Reallocation of water supplies, 
pricing policies, and Increased 
technical efficiency in water use 
are discussed in this section. Other 
nonstructural alternatives concern- 
ing environmental impacts on water 
needs are discussed in Chapter VIII. 

Reallocation of Water Supplies . 
This would be a direct means of 
bringing about the transfer of water 
use from lower-return to higher- 
return purposes, such as from irri- 
gation to urban use. Reallocation 
of water supplies from an agricul- 
tural to an urban economy was, in 
effect, accomplished by the City of 
Los Angeles in the purchase of water 
rights in the Owens Valley for ex- 
port to Los Angeles via the Owens 
River Aqueduct. The practicability 
and advisability of such a course of 
action in the future remains to be 
seen and involves many considerations. 
Possible economic and social disrup- 
tion, both present and future, in 
one area must be weighed against the 
benefits accruing to another. Gradu- 
al reallocation of water involving 
relatively small reductions through 
increased efficiency of water use 
could minimize the problem. Serious, 
practical difficulties remain, how- 
ever. Perhaps the most notable 
involves legal and institutional 
constraints related to California's 
complex water rights structure. Any 
transfer of such rights could entail 
lengthy negotiations or condemnation 
procedures, involving, among other 
things, appropriate compensation for 
all interests directly or indirectly 
affected by the transfer, such as 
users of return flow, ground water, 
etc . 

Pricing Policies . Appropriate pric- 
ing policies, combined with increased 
marketability of water and/or water 
rights, could ultimately accomplish 
the same end as would a direct re- 
allocation of water between uses. 
Water use generally is influenced by 
prices charged by retail water 
agencies, such as irrigation districts 
and city water departments. These 
prices, in turn, are partially 
affected by the pricing policies of 
local wholesale agencies, and those 
of the federal and state agencies. 
The pricing policies of the latter 
are determined by provisions of 
reclamation law and by the provisions 
of the State's contracts with the 
wholesale agencies. 


Local agencies can and do influence 
the types and quantities of water 
use through pricing policies which 
can be adjusted to meet changing 
situations. For example, water use 
per capita can be reduced by shift- 
ing from a flat rate (water charges 
per month not affected by use) to 
metering (water charges affected by 
use). In metered systems, water 
use per capita can be reduced by 
shifting from a utility to an in- 
verted utility rate structure, in 
which the unit price of water 
increases as the quantity of water 
increases; or by increasing water 
charges and decreasing taxes on 
assessed valuation. Such shifts in 
pricing policies may appear increas- 
ingly attractive to local agencies 
as the costs of new supplies in- 
crease. The development of new 
water pricing policies would require 
detailed study of their social, 
environmental and economic conse- 
quences. The actual impact of a 
price chang,e on the quantity of 
water used would have to be deter- 
mined more accurately before pricing 
policies could be properly included 
in the water planning process. Pre- 
liminary studies by the Department 
Indicate that for the urban South 
Coastal area a 10 percent increase 
in price would reduce per capita use 
by 3 percent. The Impact upon cer- 
tain industries and some agricul- 
tural crops would be greater, how- 
ever. In addition, any increase in 
the price of water sufficient to 
curtail water use would have to be 
weighed against the possible impact 
on Industrial expansions and employ- 
ment or the possible Increase in 
prices paid by consumers for the 
products of the affected industries. 
Consideration also must be given to 
the impact upon lower income groups — 
those who could least afford a price 
increase. The economically dis- 
advantaged may be forced to use less 
water on lawns, shrubs and trees 
causing a blighted local environment. 

Increased Efficiency of Water Use , 
frice increases can encourage 
farmers to invest in more efficient 
techniques of irrigation and encour- 
age recycling in industry. Household 

uses could be reduced by non-water- 
using toilets, underground sprinkler 
systems, etc. Efficiency of water 
use can also be encouraged through 
information, education, and social 
and cultural pressures that increase 
awareness of conservation. In par- 
ticular, increased corporate social 
responsibility for water quality 
will encourage reuse of water to 
avoid social costs associated with 
waste discharges. 

Mitigation of 
Colorado River Salinity 

This chapter has mentioned earlier 
that the problem of increasing 
salinity in the Colorado River may 
eventually be solved, at least in 
part, by the importation of good- 
quality water from outside the 
Colorado River Basin. However, it 
is unlikely that this solution, if 
found to be desirable, would be 
available before 2000. 

In the meantime, estimates in a 
report of the Colorado River Board 
of California, entitled "Need for 
Controlling Salinity of the Colorado 
River", August 1970, are that pro- 
jected developments in the Upper and 
Lower Divisions of the Colorado 
River Basin will cause the salinity 
of the River to increase. For 
example, the report predicts that 
salinity of the River at Imperial 
Dam, the diversion point for the 
Imperial and Coachella Valleys, will 
increase from an average of 85O 
parts per million between I963 and 
1967, to an average of 1,3^0 parts per 
million by 2000, if no preventative 
measures are taken. 

The report describes possible pro- 
grams to control salinity of the 
River. In addition to augmentation 
with water supplies of low salinity, 
it mentions removal of salts from 
the River or its tributaries and 
reduction of water losses by phreato- 
phyte control and water salvage proj- 
ects. It also lists a number of 
sources of salinity in both the 
Upper and Lower Divisions of the 
Basin which it states could be con- 
trolled by individual projects. The 


report estimates that, with these 
projects in operation by 2000, the 
projected concentration of salinity 
at Imperial Dam would be reduced 
from 1,340 parts per million to 
1,010 parts per million. 

In addition to the projects des- 
cribed in the report, there may be 
other ways of preventing increases 
in the River's salinity or of miti- 
gating their effects in the various 
service areas. The possible uses 
of geothermal water resources and 
desalination have been mentioned 
earlier in this chapter. In the 
South Coastal area, Colorado River 
water could be diluted with water 
of low salinity from the State 
Water Project. Alternative ways of 
utilizing water resources of the 
Basin may also result in different 
salt loads and different economic 
returns to the respective areas. 
A possible range of the magnitudes 
of future salinity problems and all 
reasonable alternative solutions 
should be examined first on a 
reconnaissance basis. Then a pro- 
gram should be initiated to imple- 
ment those solutions that are found 
to be most desirable and are proven 
to be economically sound through 
feasibility studies. 


This chapter has discussed the 
array of possible future water sup- 
ply sources and management measures 
for augmenting California's depend- 
able water supplies. It has pointed 
out that to the present time water 
demands have been met primarily 
through traditional development 
approaches involving the regulation 
and conveyance of surface water 
from natural sources and the extrac- 
tion of underground supplies. 

In addition to the discussion of 
traditional approaches, information 
has been summarized regarding the 
potential for several other possible 
measures which the Department of 
Water Resources believes will become 
more significant in the future and, 
therefore, warrant serious further 
study. These potential sources 

include : greater reuse of present 
water supplies through water recla- 
mation practices: more effective 
management of ground water resources 
in coordination with surface sup- 
plies; desalting of sea water and 
brackish water; weather modification; 
watershed management; and the poten- 
tial which may exist for obtaining 
usable water supplies at economi- 
cally competitive costs from geo- 
thermal sources. 

Chapter V contains brief discussions 
on the status of investigative 
activity concerning a Western States 
water program and on the research in 
progress regarding the possible 
future role of an undersea aqueduct. 
It has also mentioned certain insti- 
tutional measures concerning supply 
reallocations, pricing policy modi- 
fications, and increased efficiency 
of use, which could be implemented 
to stretch the existing supplies 
and to discourage wasteful practices. 

The Department of Water Resources 
considers the various measures dis- 
cussed in Chapter V to be comple- 
mentary. Although many of them are 
not presently considered to be 
acceptable for either technological 
or social reasons, additional re- 
search and investigation may very 
well indicate that each of the 
options discussed will have a role 
in the management of California's 
water resources to meet future 
demands . 


Eel River North Coastal Are 

Eureka Newspaper, Inc 

Most ol the water is produced during the \i'inter stomts, frequently causing devastating tloods 

DPW - Division o( Highv, 

Regulation is needed to reduce Hood flows and make the water available during the sunmer months 


Chapter IV discussed statewide water 
demands and summarized pertinent 
water demand information by the 11 
hydrologlc study areas. This chap- 
ter discusses the derivation of 
present and projected demands for 
water to 199O and 2020 by Individual 
hydrologlc study area, and the out- 
look for satisfaction of those 
demands from additional local sources 
and other possible potential sources 
described in Chapter V. It indi- 
cates for the areas of water defi- 
ciency the timing and magnitude of 
need for additional water supplies 
in excess of the local development 
potential that may have to be made 
available from other sources. 

The water demand-water supply rela- 
tionships for the individual study 
areas are depicted graphically in 
Figures I5 through 36. The loca- 
tions, boundaries and designations 
of the hydrologlc study areas are 
shown on Figure 4. 

North Coastal Area 

The North Coastal area is by far 
the most water-abundant area in 
California, producing about 40 per- 
cent of the State's total surface 
water runoff. The area sustains 
lumbering, recreation, and fishing 
industries which are the mainstays 
of the economy. Although only 
13 percent of the area consists of 
valley land, agriculture also is 
important and accounts for the 
primary applied consumptive water 
demand. In I967 total agricultural 
demand approximated 660,000 acre- 
feet per year. More than 80 per- 
cent of 1967 irrigated acreage was 
located in the upper Klamath River 
Basin (including Shasta and Scott 
Valleys). The Klamath River Project 
of the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation 
provided about half of the upper 
Klamath water supply and the remain- 
der came from local stream diversion 

and ground water. The remaining 
irrigated agriculture is scattered 
throughout the area and is served by 
stream diversions and ground water 
development . 

Irrigated acreage is not expected to 
expand greatly in the future 
(30,000-acre increase by 2020) 
because of the constraints of cli- 
mate and marketing; however, chang- 
ing crop patterns and increased use 
of sprinklers will be significant 
in raising the economic level of 
agriculture. The greatest increase 
in irrigation is expected to be in 
the Scott-Shasta Valleys area. 

In 1967 total urban water use in the 
North Coastal area approximated 
100,000 acre-feet per year. Of this, 
about 70 percent or 70,000 acre-feet 
was attributable to lumbering and 
related wood products industries. 
Although technological advances in 
the industry are expected to stabi- 
lize emplojTnent at about present 
levels, output of the industry is 
projected to increase with fuller 
utilization of available raw 
materials. As a result, the 
lumbering and wood products indus- 
tries will account for at least half 
of the projected increase in the 
area's total net water demands. 
An increase In population and re- 
lated domestic and other uses will 
account for the remainder. 

The present (1967) and projected 
1990 and 2020 population, land use, 
and water demands in the North 
Coastal area are shown in Figure 15. 

The North Coastal streams support 
annual runs of 350,000 to 400,000 
king salmon, 125,000 silver salmon 
and perhaps a million steelhead. The 
magnitude of these resources for 
sport fishing and commercial catch 
is comparable to those of the 
Columbia River. 






2 3 

100,000 PERSONS 








5 6 

_1 L 

100,000 ACRES 





100,000 ACRE -FEET 



LO — 

0.9 — 


^^,»»'*'^ Required Additional Supplies* 


X ^^^^--^"^ UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN 1,000 AF/YR. ~ 

1967 1990 2020 

Local Surface Water Development 550 590 600 

Groundwater 150 180 200 


Klamath Project 250 250 250 — 

Total Net Supplies 950 1020 1050 

* Potential additional supply sources: Local area surface water developments including 

Butler Valley Project. 

1 1 1 1 t 











E: Bar Chart Units Are Million Acre-Feet Per Yeor 


These streams make a major con- 
tribution to the commercial salnon 
catch in California and to a less- 
er extent in Oregon and V/ashington. 
Commerical salmon catch in 1967 at 
Northern California ports totaled 
5.3 million pounds with a value of 
S2.8 million. I^rge volumes of 
water are required not only for 
transportation of adult and younr; 
fish to complete their life cycle, 
but also to "flush out" sediment 
accumulations in spawning and 
nursery areas, keep water auality 
at a level compatible to fish, and 
prevent the encroachment streamside 

At the present time contracts 
between local and federal agencies 
and the Department of Fish and Game 
are in effect on three North Coastal 
rivers for releases aggregating 
680,000 acre -feet per year to main- 
tain salmon and steelhead population. 

The North Coastal area is inter- 
laced with a variety of scenic 
flowing streams and rivers. Increas- 
ing each year are the numbers of 
sightseeing, rafting, canoeing and 
swimming enthusiasts who place high 
value on the environmental aspects 
of flowing streams, proper forest 
practices and clean air. Mainte- 
nance of flowing streams for recre- 
ational purposes is important and 
the North Coastal area with appro- 
priate water projects has an oppor- 
tunity to preserve and improve 
streams for these activities. 

The expected future demands for 
water in the North Coastal area is 
small in comparison to the amount 
of water available. However, most 
of the water is produced during the 
winter storms, frequently causing 
devastating floods. Regulation is 
needed to reduce the floodflows and 
to make the water available during 
the dry months when it is needed. 

In summary, total net water demand 
in the North Coastal area, exclud- 
ing fish environmental needs, is 
forecast to increase by about 
200,000 acre -feet by 2020, one -half 
of which will be for pulp and paper 
industry. It is expected that 

nearly 25 percent of the total in- 
creased demand will be met from 
extension of service from existing 
developed surface sources, another 
25 percent from additional ground 
water extraction, and about half, or 
100,000 acre-feet, will have to be 
provided from new sources. Based on 
the assumption that the future pulp 
and paper plants would be located in 
the Humboldt Bay area, water could 
be provided by the authorized 
Butler Valley Project on the lAad 
River, with a water supply capability 
of 160,000 acre-feet per year. 

North Coastal water supply-demand 
relationships are depicted graphi- 
cally in Figure 15; and the area's 
location and a geographical compari- 
son of water supplies and demands 
are shown in Figure I6. 

San Francisco 
Bay Are'a 

When considered as a whole the 
San Francisco Bay area has suffi- 
cient water supplies to meet its 
needs until sometime after 2000. 
Like so many other areas of the 
State, however, such broad treat- 
ment neglects localized conditions 
which may indicate water defi- 
ciencies in certain areas at a much 
earlier date. The Bay area has a 
complex system of water supply and 
can logically be treated in two 
parts — the area north of and the 
area south of San Francisco Bay. In 
the ensuing discussion these parts 
will be referred to as the North 
Bay area and the South Bay area. 

The North Bay area is both agri- 
cultural and urban in character, 
with irrigated agriculture account- 
ing for about 60 percent of the 
total present water demands. How- 
ever, the area is experiencing rapid 
urbanization which is expected to 
continue, particularly in Marin and 
southern Sonoma Counties. While 
Irrigated agriculture is expected 
to show some increase, urban de- 
mands are anticipated to account for 
about 70 percent of the total wat-- 
demand by 2020. 


At present, water needs in the North 
Bay area are being met from ground 
water, several local projects, two 
important federal projects (Lake 
Mendocino on the East Fork of the 
Russian River in Mendocino County 
and Lake Berryessa, a feature of the 
Solano Project, on Putah Creek in 
Napa County) and the North Bay 
Aqueduct of the State Water Project. 
Not to be overlooked is the aque- 
duct system serving Sonoma and 
Marin Counties, constructed by local 
water agencies. 

Some areas in Napa and Sonoma 
Counties, however, are currently in 
a state of ground water overdraft 
which will continue unless addi- 
tional facilities are built to meet 
the projected increase in water 
demands. In fact the North Bay 
area \')ill have an aggregate annual 
supplemental demand for water of 
about 50,000 acre-feet within the 
next 20 years, increasing to 
approximately 350,000 acre-feet by 
2020. This increase will result 
primarily from expansion of urban 
development . 

An analysis of proposed projects 
indicates that most of the addi- 
tional water needs can be met by 
further development of local sup- 
plies. The Russian River and its 
tributaries offer the greatest 
potential, although additional sup- 
plies will be necessary from 
various other local projects and the 
North Bay Aqueduct. 

The South Bay area ranks second 
only to the South Coastal area in 
urban growth. It is highly urban- 
ized at the present time and is 
expected to become mare so in the 
future. Population is forecast to 
more than double between 1970 and 
2020. Irrigated agriculture, with 
a net demand of 166,000 acre-feet 
at present (1967) is expected to be 
virtually eliminated by urban 
encroachiment by 2020. 

The generally excellent water supply 
situation in the South Bay area is 
due largely to the forward-looking 
planning and development of both 
local and importation systems by 

the major local agencies. Local 
surface and ground water supplies 
have been almost fully developed 
and the area depends heavily upon 
four major import projects: the 
Hetch Hetchy Water System of the 
City of San Francisco; the Mokelumne 
Aqueduct of East Bay Municipal 
Utility District; the Contra Costa 
Canal of the Central Valley Project; 
and the South Bay Aqueduct of the 
State Water Project . 

The total amount of water delivered 
in 1967 by the four systems was 
nearly 500,000 acre-feet. Planned 
expansions would bring the total 
import capacity of these systems to 
an estimated 1,150,000 acre-feet 
per year. In addition a new pending 
contract between the East Bay 
Municipal Utility District and the 
U. S. Bureau of Reclamation will 
provide for 150,000 acre-feet of 
water annually in 2020. This addi- 
tional water has been included in 
the Central Valley Project water 
supply for the areas as shown in 
Figure 17. 

In addition, provision must be made 
to correct a serious ground water 
overdraft situation in Santa Clara 
Valley which has contributed to 
salt water intrusion near the Bay. 
Possible solutions include advanc- 
ing planned delivery schedules of 
water from the South Bay Aqueduct, 
and the federal San Felipe Division 
of the Central Valley Project. 
Waste water reclamation may become 
a more important factor in balancing 
the area's water supplies and needs. 
A small allowance has been made for 
this possibility. Desalting may 
also provide a water supply at such 
future time as costs become 
competitive . 

The principal sources of impairment 
to the quality of water in the 
San Francisco Bay area include 
domestic and industrial wastes, 
irrigation return water, and saline 
water intrusion into ground water 
aquifers. Saline water has 
seriously degraded once usable 
ground water supplies in basins 
adjacent to the Bay. This condition 
has been caused by prolonged periods 











— . 1_ 



— L_ 

1.000.000 ACRE- FEET 




1990 2000 








N NOTE: Bar Chort Units Are Million Acre-Feet Per Year 


of overdraft and progressive lower- 
ing of the water table below sea 
level. Continued urban growth Is 
Intensifying the problems of domes- 
tic and Industrial waste disposal. 

The recently completed study by the 
State Water Resources Control Board 
of water quality of the 
San Francisco Bay-Delta estuary 
showed that toxicants and biologi- 
cal growth stimulants from indus- 
trial, municipal and agricultural 
waste waters pose the largest water 
quality control problem for those 
waters. With a continuation of 
existing methods of disposal, the 
present waste water inflows of 
600,000 acre-feet a year would 
increase to 2,100,000 acre-feet by 
2020 at the projected level of 
urban development. The biochemical 
oxygen demand (BOD) and nitrogen 
loads generated (before treatment) 
would Increase about fourfold. 

To reduce the potentially adverse 
effects of these increased waste 
discharges the study proposed a 
regional system for waste water 
collection and disposal that would, 
by 2020, reduce Inland discharges 
in favor of ocean outfalls located 
off San Mateo and/or Marin Counties. 
An additional recommendation covered 
reclamation plants at Inland sites 
where waste water from residential 
areas could be diverted and reno- 
vated for uses such as Delta out- 
flow, ground water recharge, and 

The State Water Resources Control 
Board Is following up the Bay-Delta 
study by sponsoring and financing 
an l8-month supplementary investi- 
gation by the Departments of Water 
Resources and Fish and Game that 
will cover sources, effects, and 
control of toxicity and growth 
stimulants in Bay-Delta waters. The 
studies conducted so far have indi- 
cated that area-wide planning for 
water quality management using a 
systems approach Is necessary, as 
change in water quantity or quality 
within any portion of the Bay-Delta 
system can have an Impact on the 
entire environment. Progressive 
damage to the aquatic environment 

will result unless an adequate 
system of facilities for treatment 
and disposal of these waste waters 
is developed, or other preventive 
action is taken. 

Demands for recreation in the 
San Francisco Bay area, the S::ate's 
second largest population center, 
are not being met and will probably 
not be met in the foreseeable 
future due to the lack of facilities 
caused by lack of funds, increasing 
population, decreased work-week 
time and increased spending power 
per capita. An attempt to keep up 
with these demands will be made, 
and many new facilities will be 
developed utilizing available urban 
and natural park settings, the 
available shoreline and man-made 
features. The State estimates that 
outdoor recreation demand In this 
area will approximately double In 
1980 over i960 levels. The Califor- 
nia Outdoor Recreation Plan (i960) 
indicates 60 percent of all recre- 
ation is oriented around water- 
associated areas, and that the 
majority of recreation needs are 
within 1 hour travel time from 
urban areas. The San Francisco Bay 
area has the physical attributes 
for meeting these recreation needs, 
and the area can expect heavy 
future recreation use. 

Major fish and wildlife resources 
exist in the San Francisco Bay area. 
An Important segment of the State's 
8 million striped bass inhabits 
San Francisco, San Pablo, and 
Suisun Bays. It is an important 
flyway for waterfowl, in addition 
to having a sizable deer population. 
Approximately 80,000 steelhead and 
salmon spawn in the area, 50,000 in 
the Russian River drainage alone. 

The preservation and, where possible, 
enhancement of recreational, fish 
and wildlife resources of the 
San Francisco Bay area are major 
considerations in planning for the 
area's water needs. Of particular 
importance are the compensatory 
measures required when dams and 
reservoirs are constructed on anad- 
romous fish streams and the provi- 
sion for replacing wildlife habitat 


due to project development or other 
competing; land uses. In this re- 
gard, streamflow releases aggregat- 
ing some 120,000 acre-feet are made 
under agreement between project- 
operating agencies and the Depart- 
ment of Fish and Game. Moreover, 
Joint studies are currently under 
way by the Departments of Fish and 
Game and Water Resources to define 
the amount and quality of water 
required to maintain the Suisun 
Marsh under future salinity con- 
ditions . 

The consumptive use of water by 
recreationists at outdoor camping 
and picnic facilities is not large. 
However, the water needs of the 
hundreds of thousands of annual 
visitors to the Bay area is sub- 
stantial and have been included as 
part of the urban water demand. 

In summary, the total net water 
demands in the San Francisco Bay 
area are projected to include from 
1,150,000 acre-feet per year at 
present (1967) to an estimated 
2,740,000 acre -feet in 2020. 

Prospects in general appear to be 
good for satisfying water demands 
in the San Francisco Bay area until 
about 2000 through local projects, 
ground water supplies, and existing 
local, state, and federal import 
systems. Although the total South 
Bay area overall water supply 
appears adequate beyond 1990, 
individual communities and service 
areas may have problems either as to 
supplies or in distribution system 
capacity and reliability. One 
example is the Contra Costa County 
Water District where new or enlarged 
conveyance and storage works will be 
needed in the mid-1970s to enable 
the District to meet peak water 
demands and to give protection 
against interruption of the water 
supply. The District is actively 
promoting the modified Kellogg 
Project as the solution to their 
Immediate water supply problem. 

Water demands and existing and 
potential supplies are equated 
graphically in Figure 17. A geo- 
graphical comparison of water 

supplies and demands within the area 
is shown on Figure I8. 

Central Coastal Area 

The Central Coastal area essentially 
spans the coastal interval between 
the metropolitan centers of the 
San Francisco Bay and the South 
Coastal area. Mountain ranges that 
follow the coast extend through the 
area with many fertile valleys 
between them. The major drainage 
basins are the Pajaro, Salinas, 
Santa Maria, and Santa Ynez Rivers 
and their tributaries. 

The economy is based primarily on 
agriculture and related activities; 
but the extraction and refining of 
petroleum, mining, commercial fish- 
ing and lumbering are also important. 
A number of military establishments 
also contribute significantly to the 
economy of the area. 

In 1967 about 25 percent of the 
truck crops produced in California 
were grown in the intensely devel- 
oped valleys of the area. That yeai) 
about 800,000 acre-feet of water 
from local ground and surface water 
supplies were used to irrigate 
approximately 350,000 acres. Irri- 
gated acreage is not expected to 
expand greatly in the future 
(390,000 acres by 2020) because of 
scattered parcels that would be 
difficult to farm economically, 
considering water costs. 

The major urban centers of the 
Central Coastal area are situated 
in the Monterey Bay urban complex 
and the cities of San Luis Obispo, 
Santa Maria and Santa Barbara. 
Present urban net water demands 
amount to about 150,000 acre-feet 
per year. A rapidly increasing 
population is expected to increase 
these demands to 470,000 acre-feet 
by 2020. Also, the present water 
requirement of 5,000 acre-feet per 
year for fish, wildlife and recre- 
ation is expected to double by 2020. 

The present (I967) and projected 
1990 and 2020 population, land use 
and water demands in the Central 













? 1 9 ? '9 '^ 





1 1 



1,000,000 PERSONS 

100,000 ACRES 

1,000,000 ACRE- FEET 

.4 — 

.0 — 






DEMANDS — — ^...^^^^^ ^.^'^^ 


^^^''^ Required Additional Suppl 


^^^"^ potential additional supply sources: loc 

Jl surfac 


^„,^''^ development, desalination, additional CVP-SWP 


, ground 



^e:^ — IN 1,000 AF/YR. 




Local Surface Development 40 



Ground Water: Safe Yield 730 



Ground Water: Overdraft 120 




Central Valley Project 


110 — 

Other Federal: Twitchell, Salinas, Cachuma 50 



State Water Project 
Total Net Supplies 940 
1 1 1 1 

















NOTE: Bar Chart Units Are Million Acre-Feef Per Year 

8 16 24 


Coastal area are shown in Figure 19. 
Water demand and supply relation- 
ships are also depicted on Figure 
19 and the geographical distribution 
in Figure 20. 

Ground water is the main source of 
supply in the Central Coastal area. 
However, agricultural growth and 
urban expansion has caused water 
levels to fall in many areas such 
as the Salinas Valley. A complex 
of dams, canals and percolating 
basins has been constructed to con- 
serve runoff from the principal 
streams and to place the water in 
underground basins. San Antonio, 
Nacimiento and Twitchell Reservoirs — 
three of the largest in the area-- 
conserve more than 100,000 acre -feet 
annually for ground water replenish- 
ment, but water levels continue to 
decline in some areas. 

The present annual net water demand 
of 940,000 acre-feet exceeds the 
firm water supply by 120,000 acre- 
feet as shown In Figure 19. The 
difference is obtained from extrac- 
tion of ground water in storage 
(overdraft). The future ground 
water overdraft shown is primarily 
in Cuyama Valley in inland Santa 
Barbara County, where no reasonable 
alternative supply exists. Studies 
indicate that there are large 
volumes of water in some ground 
water basins of the Central Coastal 
area; and, it is likely that well 
owners will continue to pump in 
excess of the safe yield of certain 
basins. Pumping will probably con- 
tinue until limited by economics, 
quality problems, legal restrictions, 
or organizational controls. 

Central Coastal Area lettuce bowl produces one-half ol California's and one-third of Nation's lettuce 


Local water districts in San Luis 
Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties 
have executed contracts with the 
State for delivery of more than 
80,000 acre-feet annually from the 
State Water Project by 1990. Also 
the authorized San Felipe Division 
of the Central Valley Project is 
scheduled for annual deliveries of 
80,000 acre -feet by I99O and 
110,000 acre-feet by 2020. When 
these projects are in full operation 
the Central Coastal area will still 
be deficient by about 130,000 acre- 
feet In 1990 and 360,000 acre-feet 
by 2020. 

Almost all of the 1990 estimated 
demand for supplemental water is in 
the northern portion of the Central 
Coastal area, mostly in the lower 
Salinas Valley and to a lesser 
extent in Santa Cruz County and the 
coastal Monterey Coast-Carmel 
Valley vicinity. 

About half of the projected 360,000 
acre-feet annual deficit In 2020 is 
estimated to occur in the lower 
Salinas Valley. The balance Is 
forecast to be about equally divided 
between Santa Cruz County, Monterey 
Coast-Carmel region, and Santa 
Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. 
Importation of water from the San 
Felipe Project is expected to pro- 
vide for the foreseeable demands of 
the South Santa Clara and Holllster 
areas . 

The question of identifying the 
sources of water which could most 
beneficially meet these deficien- 
cies should be considered in terms 
of the relative economics of alter- 
native water supply possibilities 
physically available to satisfy the 
specific deficiencies within the 
area. They Include the options of 
additional local surface and ground 
water development, although this 
potential Is small in Santa Barbara 
County; and the possibilities of addi- 
tional Imported water supplies, and 
desalting for urban purposes. In 
addition, the reuse of reclaimed 
urban waste water should be seri- 
ously considered for ground water 
recharge and/or Irrigation use. 

South Coastal Area 

The South Coastal area is the most 
populous and the leading Industrial 
and commercial center In the State. 
It is one of the fastest growing 
areas in the entire Country, and 
this growth is likely to continue. 
There has been a shift from an 
almost entirely agriculturally 
based economy to one of industry 
and commerce. The resultant econom- 
ic diversification and prosperity 
can be attributed to the discovery 
of oil and the development of the 
petroleum Industries and its 
favorable climatic conditions, which 
attracted the aircraft and national 
defense-oriented industries. 

Reflecting the increasing urbaniza- 
tion, the total water demands of 
the South Coastal area, including 
agricultural demand, are projected 
to grow from about 2.5 million acre- 
feet per year at present to 5.3 
million acre-feet in 2020, more 
than twice the present demand. 

To meet present water demands, the 
South Coastal area presently 
depends on: (l) local surface and 
ground water supplies, which are 
almost fully developed if the use 
of water is based on the average 
annual natural replenishment; 
(2) the Los Angeles Aqueduct, which 
was enlarged in 1970 to deliver 
approximately 480,000 acre-feet 
annually to the City of Los Angeles; 
and (3) the Colorado River Aqueduct, 
now delivering water at almost full 
capacity of about I.I8 million acre- 
feet per year to the Metropolitan 
Water District of Southern Califor- 
nia. Currently, the total water 
supply available to the area Is 
approximately equal to Its water 
demand (2.5 million acre-feet in 

Potential future local surface 
water supply projects in the South 
Coastal area are limited, and water 
available from them will not offer 
a long-term solution to the area's 
needs. Fallbrook and DeLuz Reser- 
voirs on the Santa Margarita River, 
as well as additional surface water 












1 2 3 
1 r 1 





1. . 

1,000,000 PERSONS 

1,000,000 ACRES 

1,000,000 ACRE-FEET 

2 — 


^ Required Additional Supplies: Potential additional supply sources — desalii 
further waste water reclamation, additional SWP imports, ground water withdr 



^^ Local Surface Wate 

r Dev. 




Ground Water: Safe Yie 





Ground Water Overdraft 

Los Angeles Aqueduct 




State Water Project 



Colorado River Aqueduct 




Waste Water Reclamation 




Total Net Supplies 




* May increase 

to 600,000 acre 

















NOTE: Bar Chart Units Are Million Acre-Feet Per Yeor 


development in the San Dieguito 
River watershed in San Diego County, 
are currently being studied. Proj- 
ects were proposed for Sespe Creek 
in Ventura County, but their near 
future construction is not considered 

In 1971 deliveries will begin from 
the State Water Project to the 
service areas of the Metropolitan 
Water District of Southern CfeLLifornia 
and other water agencies in the 
South Coastal area. The total max- 
imum entitlement to Project water 
amounts to 2,204,000 acre-feet per 
year . 

The water supply from the Colorado 
River will be reduced to about 
550jOOO acre-feet per year when 
the Central Arizona Project becomes 
operational. It is expected that 
this reduction will occur in the 
mid-1980s. Nevertheless, the total 
supply available to the South 
Coastal area, including the full 
State Water Project entitlements, 
should be adequate to meet water 
demands until beyond 2000, when a 
demand for supplemental water is 
anticipated to begin. Delivery of 
full State Water Project entitle- 
ments will require additional con- 
servation developments, as the 
presently developed firm Project 
water supply is somewhat less than 
the contract entitlements. The 
water supply capabilities of the 
State Water Project will be dis- 
cussed in Chapter VII. 

A substantial amount of water may 
be made available from waste water 
reclamation. By 2020, reclamation 
of about 600,000 acre-feet annually 
is believed feasible, even though 
definite plans have been made only 
for 300,000 acre-feet. However, 
additional information and experi- 
ence must be gained before the full 
potential can be realized as a 
long-term source of water supply. 
For example, more definitive knowl- 
edge must be gained regarding the 
adequacy of underground recharge 
capacity to accept (percolate) 
large amounts of reclaimed water on 
a continuous basis. Also, further 
evaluation must be made concerning 

the physical and economic require- 
ments to maintain adequate quality 
of the replenishing and receiving 
waters to meet water quality cri- 
teria specified by the Regional 
Water Quality Control Boards. 

Converted sea water probably will 
satisfy a portion of the demand for 
supplemental water in the South 
Coastal area. While current costs 
preclude its consideration as a 
major source for the near future, 
it may well become economical on a 
large scale as technology in de- 
salting processes continues to 
develop and costs are reduced. 

The quality of ground water, a 
significant source of water to the 
South Coastal area, ranges from 
excellent to extremely poor. The 
quality of water from San Gabriel 
Valley, Upper Santa Ana River water- 
shed, and San Fernando Valley is 
generally excellent and the concen- 
tration of dissolved minerals is 
generally below 400 parts per million 
(ppm), reflecting the quality of the 
runoff from mountain ranges. The 
quality of ground water in the 
Coastal Plain of Los Angeles County 
and the Coastal Plain of Orange 
County reflects substantial influence 
of man and the mineral concentration 
reaches about 5OO ppm. Some iso- 
lated areas, however, have concen- 
trations exceeding 1,000 ppm, 
reflecting the quality degradation 
from sea water intrusion. The 
quality of ground water in much of 
San Diego County is generally poor-- 
700 to 1,U00 ppm. Ground water in 
portions of Ventura County has poor 
quality--above 700 ppm. 

The quality of water imported to 
the South Coastal area varies with 
the source. Water from Mono-Owens 
Valley has a dissolved mineral con- 
centration of about 250 ppm. 
Colorado River water at Parker Dam, 
above which the Colorado River 
Aqueduct originates, has a concen- 
tration of about 750 ppm. A recent 
report by the Colorado River Board 
of California ("Need for Controlling 
Salinity of the Colorado River", 
published by the Colorado River 
Board of California, August 1970) 


presents estimates that st^linity of 
Colorado River water at Parker Dam 
will increase to 860 ppm by I98O 
and 1,110 ppm by 2000, in the 
absence of salinity control mea- 
sures. If certain salinity control 
projects identified in the report 
are implemented and if they reduce 
salt loadings as estimated, the 
respective salinity values would be 
820 and 830 ppm. Without such 
projects or other measures, costs 
of treatment would be increased 
substantially and usefulness of the 
water for some purposes would be 
impaired. To the extent such water 
could be diluted with water from 
the State Water Project, its adverse 
effects could be eliminated or re- 
duced. Water to be delivered by 
the State Water Project will re- 
flect the quality objective of 
220 ppm, which is incorporated in 
the water supply contracts. 

The water demand-supply relation- 
ships in the South Coastal area 
are depicted graphically in 
Figure 21, and the geographical 
locations of water demands and 
available supplies are shown in 
Figure 22. 

It can be seen from an inspection 
of Figure 21 that the assumed level 
of reuse of reclaimed water has a 
considerable effect on the timing 
of need for supplemental water. 
The line on that figure depicting 
available supplies is based on the 
definitely planned reclamation of 
waste water in the amount of 
300,000 acre-feet per year. If 
this value were increased to 
600,000 acre-feet per year, as 
future experience may well prove 
to be the case, the effect would 
be to delay the need for supple- 
mental water. 

In addition to the further use of 
reclaimed water, the total demand 
for supplemental water in the 
South Coastal area in 2020 could 
be met from several alternative 
sources: surplus deliveries of 
Project water during the earlier 
years, to be stored underground for 
later use; water from supplementary 
facilities to State Water Project; 

converted sea water; and possible 
interim use of ground water in 
storage. It is probable that a 
combination of some or all of 
these alternatives will be employed 
to meet the area's water demands. 

Sacramento Basin 

The Sacramento Basin is the second 
largest water-producing area in the 
State. On the average, about 21 mil- 
lion acre-feet of natural runoff 
annually originates in the basin, 
amounting to about 30 percent of 
California's total natural runoff. 
The Sacramento River is the largest 
stream in the State. It provides 
for year-round navigation for 
shallow-draft craft upstream as far 
as Colusa. This is made possible 
by releases from Shasta Reservoir, 
the largest regulatory reservoir in 
the Basin. 

Like the North Coastal area, the 
Sacramento Basin is subject to 
periodic devastating floods. An 
extensive system of flood control 
works has been constructed over the 
years by various agencies including 
the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 
and reclamation and flood control 
districts. The system includes 
hundreds of miles of levees along 
the Sacramento River and tributaries 
and Shasta and Folsom Dams. The 
recently completed Oroville Dam on 
the Feather River and New Bullards 
Bar Dam on the Yuba River are sub- 
stantial additions to the flood 
control system. 

In all, the flood control works 
within the Sacramento Basin have 
functioned well in recent years to 
minimize the disastrous flooding 
which has been part of the history 
of the Basin. Damages during the 
extended periods of high runoff in 
1969 and 1970 were light in compar- 
ison with damages which would have 
occurred without satisfactory 
operation of the system. 

Completion of Auburn Dam, now under 
construction and construction of 
the authorized Marysville Dam will 
significantly increase protection 


from major flooding in some of the 
more urban areas of the Sacramento 
Basin. The Corps of Engineers has 
recently proposed construction of 
two reservoirs on Cottonwood Creek, 
a major west side tributary of the 
Sacramento River near Redding. 
Other possible projects are under 
study on a number of streams. In 
addition, proposals for channel 
improvements and levees are under 
consideration. Floodplain manage- 
ment programs are also being ini- 
tiated by local interests. 

More than 90 percent of the water 
used today in the Sacramento Basin 
is for farming. Agricultural 
water use is expected to increase 
moderately in the future with an 
annual applied water demand in 2020 
of about 7.5 million acre-feet, 
an increase of approximately 20 per- 
cent over present (I967) levels. 

Agricultural demands are expected 
to rise at a more rapid rate prior 
to I99O; after that date the in- 
crease is expected to slow, partly 
because of urban encroachment and 
partly because most of the best 
land with convenient water supplies 
will be under irrigation by 1990- 

Urban demands are expected to 
approximately double by 2020. Most 
of the urban growth is expected to 
continue near present cities. In- 
cluded in the future urban demand 
is an allotment of about 60,000 acre- 
feet for the paper and wood products 
industry in the northern Sacramento 

The Sacramento Basin accounts for a 
substantial portion of the statewide 
fish, wildlife, and recreation water 
requirements. This is due primarily 
to several existing wildlife refuges. 

Sacramento Valley 

the area is well suited to rice culture. 

In addition, many private organi- 
zations flood farmlands in the fall 
to provide waterfowl hunting 
opportunities . 

The present (I967) and projected 
1990 and 2020 population, land use, 
water demand, and usable water 
supplies in the Sacramento Basin 
are shown in Figure 23. The 
geographic distribution of water 
supplies and demands is shown on 
Figure 24, 

Total basin-wide developed water 
supplies exceed total foreseeable 
water demands in the Sacramento 
Basin. Some water agencies in 
favorable locations have more de- 
veloped water available than the 
indicated demand in 2020, partic- 
ularly in the southeastern portion 
of the Basin. Other areas do not 
have sufficient supplies to fully 
meet expected future needs. 

Areas of indicated water shortages 
are (1) the west side of the 
Sacramento Valley, mainly in Yolo 
and Solano Counties; (2) the Pit 
River Basin, mainly in Big Valley; 
and (3) scattered foothill and 
mountain areas both on the east 
side and west side, including Lake 
County. Future supplemental de- 
mands in Yolo and Solano Counties 
can be met by the Indian Valley 
Reservoir on Cache Creek to be con- 
structed by the Yolo County Flood 
Control and Water Conservation 
District, and the West Sacramento 
Canals Unit of the Central Valley 
Project. The proposed Allen Camp 
Unit would meet the projected 
deficits in the Pit River Basin 
and would make possible development 
of a new wildlife refuge in Big 
Valley. The authorized Lakeport 
Project by the U. S. Army Corps of 
Engineers could take care of a 
significant part of Lake County 
needs, while the proposed Middletown 
Reservoir in the upper Putah Creek 
drainage (part of the proposed West 
Sacramento Canals Unit) would permit 
agricultural development in that 
portion of Lake County. Other 
possibilities are the proposed 
English Ridge import from the Eel 

River and additional Cache Creek 
storage . 

Other areas of water shortage are 
projected to occur in scattered 
mountain and foothill areas on the 
western slopes of the Sierra Nevada- 
Cascade Range, as a result of the 
influx of people taking advantage of 
the pleasant environment. 

There is a substantial amount of 
additional land suitable for many 
irrigated crops in the Sacramento 
Basin. Water costs for new develop- 
ment generally will be less than in 
other areas of the State. Climatic 
conditions for agriculture are almost 
as favorable as in the San Joaquin 
and Tulare Basins; therefore, a 
shift in new land development to 
the north is possible with corre- 
sponding effects on the projections 
shown here. 

Because of its high water require- 
ment, the future of rice acreage is 
an important factor in projecting 
future water demands in the Sacramento 
Valley. With many acres of fine- 
textured clay soils, inexpensive 
water and high yield potential, the 
area is well-suited to rice culture. 
Projection of future rice acreage is 
particularly uncertain, as it is 
subject to governmental controls 
and foreign markets. Reported rice 
plantings in 1967 in the Sacramento 
Valley were about 320,000 acres; 
rice acreages for the 1990 to 2020 
period were assumed in this bulletin 
to remain essentially constant, 
approximating the 1967 level. 

Preservation of the present high 
quality of water in the Sacramento 
River is of paramount importance. 
It concerns local water uses, fish 
and wildlife, and uses dependent 
upon water exported from the river 
by the Central Valley and State Water 
Projects. Quality of the river has 
been under surveillance and inves- 
tigation for a number of years. 

In January 1969, the California 
Regional Water Quality Control Board, 
Central Valley Region, proposed 
water quality control policy for the 







~~] URBAN 









2 4 6 
1 1 1 





1,000,000 PERSONS 

1,000,000 acres 


1,000,000 acre -feet 


7.0 — 

6.5 - 

6.0 — 

5.5 - 



* Potential additional supply sources: ^^^^^^ 

West Sacramento Canal Unit, CVP; Allen Camp Unit, ^^^^"'^ 

CVP; Indian Valley Reservoir; Lakeport Project; ^^^^ Required Additic 

nal Su 


English Ridge Reservoir. ^^-''^ 



projected net WATER DEMANDS -p^'"'^^ ^^^^"""'^ 



y^ ^^ TION IN 1,000 AF/YR 

>r y^^ 1967 



y y^ Local Surface Water Dev. 1960 


2380 — 

y y^ Ground Water: Safe Yield 1010 



^ y^ Ground Water: Overdraft 140 

/^ y^ Echo Lake, Little Truckee Diversions 10 



/ y^ Central Valley Project, including 

/ / Sacramento River and American River 

' y water rights 2210 



/ Other Federal 170 



State Water Project 



Total Net Supplies 5500 
1 1 1 1 1 

6 280 
















NOTE: Bor Chart Units Are Million Acre-Feet Per Year 



1967 1990 2020 

I -2.0 1 1 1 

,^^-of— l^J 


J ''n — rzn/ / 

r '5 




1967 1990 ^020 i^'J 

1967 ,1990 2020 

1 ^' 




1967 1990 2020 


8 16 24 


Sacramento River to apply from 
Sacramento to Keswick Dam. Local 
interests became concerned about 
the possible consequences of the 
proposed policy with respect to 
future irrigated agriculture, and 
in May I969 requested the Department 
to assist them in a one-year study 
of the impact of anticipated future 
expansion of irrigated agriculture 
on the quality of water in the 

Preliminary results of the study 
showed that, although the 1990 an- 
nual average mineral concentration 
(as measured by electical conduc- 
tivity) would be higher (30 to 58 
percent at Preeport) than historic 
values, the overall mineral quality 
would not approach the historic 
monthly extremes. No serious qual- 
ity problems with respect to total 
dissolved mineral concentrations 
were indicated for the hydrologic 
conditions studied. 

A similar cooperative study was 
initiated in January I97O for the 
Feather River. Continuing water 
quality studies of the Sacramento 
Basin are necessary to keep abreast 
with changes in water development 
and project operations, as well as 
changes in land use and industrial 

Water releases from reservoir proj- 
ects serve the multiple purposes not 
only of maintaining fish habitat 
and the riparian, or streamside 
habitat, upon which many birds and 
mammals depend, but also of pro- 
viding for beneficial consumptive 
uses and purposes. Considerable 
success has been achieved in ef- 
fecting downstream releases in the 
Sacramento Basin. This has been 
accomplished by agreements usually 
negotiated between the construction 
agency and the Department of Fish 
and Game. At the present time 26 
such agreements representing 13 
different agencies are in effect. 
The streams and quantities are shown 
in the tabulation at the bottom of 
this page. 

In summary, the overall outlook for 
sufficiency of water supplies to 
meet future demands in the Sacramento 
Basin is excellent. Although much 
of the Basin will have surplus water, 
such surpluses generally are not 
transferable because of location, 
topography, or other factors, and 
certain areas are expected to have 
a future deficiency. By and large, 
however, proposed local and federal 
projects could satisfy these defi- 
ciencies. In addition to the water 
demands of an expanding agricultural 
economy, the Basin will remain an 


Streamflow Releases 
(Acre-Feet Per Year) 

Upper Sacramento 


Sacramento at Keswick Dam 

Clear Creek at Whiskeytown Dam 

Feather River at Oroville 

Feather River Tributaries, 

including New Bullards Bar Dam 

American River and Tributaries 







290 , 000 

390 ,000 



attractive and desirable area for 
fish and wildlife and other recre- 
ational pursuits. 

Delta-Central Sierra Area 

The Delta-Central Sierra area con- 
tains the Delta of the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin Rivers and the 
watersheds of the Calaveras, 
Mokelumne, and Cosumnes Rivers. 
The Delta consists of many islands, 
often below sea level, among a maze 
of meandering channels . Behind pro- 
tective levees, irrigated agricul- 
ture has flourished for many years 
on the rich peaty soils, which are 
especially suited for asparagus 
growing. East of the Delta, valley 
lands rise gradually for quite a 
distance before reaching foothills 
which blend into the rugged mountains 
of the Sierra Nevada. 

The flat valley lands are similar in 
appearance and potential use to lands 
of the Sacramento Valley to the north 
and the San Joaquin Valley on the 
south. However, there is more ma- 
rine influence due to prevailing 
summer winds coming in through the 
gap in the Coast Range to the west. 
This more moderate climate makes 
possible the culture of the famous 
Tokay variety of table grape near 
Lodi and also the pear orchards 
along the Sacramento River in the 

Estimated I967 agricultural water 
demand was 2.3 million acre-feet 
per year, of which a little over 
half was in the Sacramento-San 
Joaquin Delta. Some increase in 
irrigated land is expected in the 
future, mostly in valley areas sur- 
rounding the Delta. As a result, 
on-farm water demands are projected 
to increase to 2.5 million acre- 
feet in 1990 and 2.6 million acre- 
feet in 2020. 

Water demands for urban purposes are 
expected to approximately triple by 
2020. Included in the future urban 
demand is an allotment of 75,000 acre- 
feet of cooling water to be imported 
from the American River for the 

Rancho Seco nuclear powerplant now 
under construction by the Sacramento 
Municipal Utility District. 

The present (1967) and projected 
1990 and 2020 population, land use, 
water demands, and estimated water 
supplies in the Delta-Central Sierra 
area are shown in Figure 25. Fig- 
ure 26 illustrates the geographical 
distribution of water demands and 

Major existing surface sources of 
water are the Mokelumne River, which 
also serves as a supply for the East 
Bay Municipal Utility District in 
the San Francisco Bay area; the 
Calaveras River; and the channels 
of the Delta. The amount of water 
available from the Mokelumne River 
is anticipated to decline somewhat 
in the future when full East Bay 
Municipal Utility District exports 
are made; hence, the reduction in 
local surface supply on Figure 25. 

In addition, water is served in 
areas west of the Delta from the 
Putah South, Contra Costa, and Delta- 
Mendota Canals. Ground water com- 
prises an important source, meeting 
over 30 percent of the demand today, 
partially at the expense of ground 
water overdrafts which aggregate 
slightly more than 100,000 acre-feet 
in the area east of the Delta. A 
major new facility just beginning 
construction is the Folsom South 
Canal, which would serve a large 
area of the valley east of Sacramento, 
Lodi, and Stockton. 

After allowing for the capabilities 
of existing water sources and those 
under construction, a deficiency, or 
supplemental demand, of about 
90,000 acre-feet in 1990 and l80,000 
acre-feet in 2020 is forecast for 
the Delta-Central Sierra area. These 
additional demands would be located 
in three areas: (l) Solano County 
to the northwest of the Delta; 
(2) Contra Costa and San Joaquin 
Counties to the southwest of the 
Delta; and (3) higher valley, foot- 
hill, and mountain regions east of 
the Folsom South Canal service 
area . 














2 4 6 8 10 
..1. 'Ill 



1 2 

3 4 
1 1 . 

100,000 PERSONS 

100,000 ACRES 

1,000,000 ACRE-FEET 


2.0 - 


.0 - 




'^i ~ "ReauireH Addit.-^- 

al Snnnlieo * 

_^^;;-s:::==:===^^^^^^^ ""^^^^^^^^ter supplies existing or 

^^.,*!*=^- under CONSTRUCTION in 1,000 AF/YR. " 


1967 1990 
Local Surface Water Development 190 160 
Ground Water: Safe Yield 570 560 
Ground Water: Overdraft 100 
Central Valley Project, including Delta channel 





diversions 980 1270 

Other Federal: Putah South Canal, New Hogan 90 120 

Total Net Supplies 1930 2110 

2170 — 

* Potential additional supply sources: Cosumnes Division, CVP; West Sacramento C 
Unit, CVP; New Melones Reservoir, CVP 

.1 1 1 1 1 
















NOTE: Bar Chorf Units Are Million Acre-Feet Per 

r Year /* ) ^ / 



rs / F( 








Eastern Solano County shortages 
could be met from the proposed West 
Sacramento Canals Unit of the 
Central Valley Project, by possible 
direct diversion from one of the 
Delta channels, or by interim ground 
water overdraft pending the con- 
struction of an import project. 

The supplemental demands of the 
strip of valley and foothill lands 
southwest of the Delta could be 
partly supplied from the proposed 
Kellogg Unit of the Central Valley 
Project. Those in San Joaquin 
County, which are expected to be 
almost entirely for farm purposes, 
could possibly be met from the 
Central Valley Project or from ex- 
panded State Water Project sources 
via the California Aqueduct. 

In the remaining area future 
deficiency, east of Folsom South 
Canal service area, supplemental 
water demands are forecast to be 
about 50,000 acre-feet in 199O and 
120,000 acre-feet in 2020. A sig- 
nificant portion of this demand is 
for agriculture and may not materi- 
alize unless a relatively low-priced 
supply, such as the proposed 
Cosumnes River Division of the 
Central Valley Project, is available. 
A large share of the forecast short- 
age could be provided from the 
proposed Cosumnes River Division. 
It would appear that one upper 
reservoir plus Nashville Reservoir 
would be adequate for meeting most 
local future demands on the Cosumnes 
River drainage area. 

Additional water demands in the 
northern tip of Stanislaus County 
could probably be best provided 
from the New Melones Project, 
possibly via Oakdale Irrigation 
District. Supplemental water could 
also be made available from El 
Dorado County's Central Valley 
Project reservation in Folsom Lake, 
the Malby diversion from Folsom 
Lake, the proposed Swiss Ranch 
development in Calaveras County, 
and other mountain area small 

The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's 
700 miles of waterways form a 

unique aquatic environment for the 
greatest variety of fish and other 
aquatic life found anywhere in 
California. Substantial populations 
of striped bass, salmon, steelhead, 
shad, catfish, and sturgeon are 
dependent on this area during all 
or part of their lives. About 80 
percent of California's commercial 
salmon fishing depends upon the 
Delta estuary in one way or another. 

In addition to its local agricul- 
tural, industrial, recreational, 
and esthetic values, the Delta is 
the common point of collection and 
diversion of waters southward to 
meet the growing water needs of the 
San Joaquin Valley and Central and 
Southern California. 

Water quality has been a problem in 
the Delta from the time that low- 
lying lands were originally re- 
claimed and farming began. In the 
past the problems have been caused 
primarily by the intrusion of ocean 
salinity from the tidal movement, 
especially during periods of very 
low outflow of fresh water, such as 
occurred in 1924 and 1931. During 
such low-flow conditions much of 
the Delta could not be irrigated 
because of the intolerable salinity 
in the channels and sloughs which 
served as a water supply source. 

Summer releases of stored water 
from Shasta Reservoir, together 
with Folsom and Oroville in more 
recent years, have vastly reduced 
the salinity intrusion problem. In 
fact, no significant intrusion of 
salt water has occurred since 19^4 
when Shasta Dam was completed. 

Water quality problems in the Delta 
have been intensified with the in- 
creasing discharge of agricultural 
drainage and industrial wastes into 
Delta channels, expanded use in the 
Central Valley, and increasing 
export of Central Valley water to 
the Bay area. It has been recognized 
that these problems will become more 
aggravated in the future unless 
steps are taken to protect and pre- 
serve the Delta environment. 


In studies leading to the State 
Water Project, it became apparent 
that facilities in the Delta would 
be needed to transfer project water 
across the Delta without undue loss 
or deterioration in quality; to 
assure an adequate supply of good- 
quality water and protection of 
Delta lands from the effects of 
salinity intrusion; to protect the 
valuable fishery resources of the 
Delta, and where possible, provide 
for their enhancement. Consequently, 
an interagency committee, composed 
of representatives of the Bureau of 
Reclamation, the Corps of Engineers, 
and the Department of Water Re- 
sources, examined all previous 
plans for a multi-purpose Delta 
water facility. The objective was 
to recommend a mutually acceptable 
plan that would provide for the 
various needs of the Delta and 
satisfy the needs of the Central 
Valley Project and State Water 
Project for water transfer. The 
committee recommended the Peripheral 
Canal plan as the only acceptable 
plan of the several alternatives 
that could meet the various criteria 
considered essential to provide a 
suitable environment in the Delta 
while simultaneously meeting water 
delivery requirements elsewhere. 

San Joaquin Basin 

The San Joaquin Basin consists of 
the entire drainage area of the 
San Joaquin River and its tribu- 
taries upstream from the San Joaquin 
River gage near Vernalis, at the 
southerly edge of the Delta. 

The average annual runoff of the 
Basin is about 6 million acre-feet. 
The major streams are the San 
Joaquin River and its three major 
east side tributaries--the Stani- 
slaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers. 
In addition, large amounts of water 
are imported via the Delta-Mendota 
Canal, partly as water exchange, 
permitting diversion of San Joaquin 
River water at Friant Dam. 

As in other parts of the Central 
Valley a wide variety of crops can 
be grown in the San Joaquin Basin. 

The area is noted for its truck, 
tomato, fruit, and nut production. 
Dairying is also prominent. Ir- 
rigation development began in the 
1870s with diversions of water 
from major rivers. Expansion of 
irrigated acreage has continued 
at a rate of about 10 to 15 percent 
per decade. 

Total water applied for all uses in 
the Basin in 1967 amounted to 
about 5.7 million acre-feet, of 
which 5.5 million was for agri- 
cultural purposes. Corresponding 
total net water use (consumptive 
uses plus irrecoverable losses) 
was about 4.4 million acre-feet, 
which was provided by firm local 
and imported surface and ground 
water developments, including 
depletion of ground water storage 
by nearly 200^000 acre-feet. 

The rate of irrigated land expan- 
sion, as forecast in this bulletin, 
is expected to diminish appreciably, 
increasing about 25 percent over 
present levels by 2020. Due to a 
predicted change in crop patterns, 
the need for applied water for 
farming is forecast to increase at 
a much slower rate from an esti- 
mated 5.5 million acre-feet at 
present to 6 million acre-feet 
in 2020. 

Urban applied water demands , 
currently about 150,000 acre-feet, 
are expected to nearly triple by 
2020. Even so, urban water use 
will be only about 7 percent of 
the total water demand. 

Fish, wildlife, and recreation 
demands were taken from preliminary 
federal-state Framework Study work. 
These are primarily for waterfowl 
refuges. The San Joaquin Basin 
affords important winter waterfowl 
habitat, especially in the grass- 
lands region near Los Banos . The 
projected increase envisions sub- 
stantial expansion of federal and 
state waterfowl management, areas . 

The present (1967) and projected 
1990 and 2020 population, land 
use, water demands, and water 
supplies in the San Joaquin Basin 






100,000 PERSONS 





6 10 14 
J I I I I i_ 




1 3 5 
1 1 1 1 1 

1 1 1 

100,000 ACRES 

1,000,000 ACRE -FEET 


In 45 





Local Surface Water Development 

Ground Water: Safe Yield 

Ground Water: Overdraft 

Central Valley Project 

Other Federal: Hidden and Buchanar 

State Water Project 

Total Net Supplies 

* Potential additional supply sources; East Side Divi 
ground water withdrawals from storage. 
I I I 














Unit, CVP; 















NOTE: Bar Chart Units Are Million Acre-Feet Per Yeor 



are shown in Figure 2J. The geo- 
graphical distribution of water 
demands and supplies is indicated 
on Figure 28. The major share of 
the increase in water use is ex- 
pected to occur on the southeastern 
portion of the valley floor and 
along the foothills of the Sierra 
Nevada. The slight decrease in the 
local surface supply between 1990 
and 2020 on Figure 27 is due to 
slightly decreased net demand in 
major irrigation districts as a 
result of projected urban 

Existing projects and possibly some 
localized additional ground water 
pumping are considered adequate to 
meet the future needs of the Oakdale, 
South San Joaquin, Waterford, 
Modesto, Turlock, and Merced Irri- 
gation Districts until 2020. West 
side supplies appear adequate until 
sometime after 1990. 

Construction of Hidden and Buchanan 
Reservoirs on the Fresno and Chow- 
chilla Rivers will provide about 
50,000 acre-feet of average yield 
annually, and at the same time give 
badly needed flood protection to 
the Madera and Chowchilla areas. 
The water yields from these two 
projects will be needed in the 
water-short valley floor areas 
before 1990. 

New Melones Reservoir, now under 
construction on the Stanislaus 
River, will develop nearly 300,000 
acre-feet of yield. Its water 
supply will be incorporated into 
the Central Valley Project and 
could be made available to areas 
of need within the Basin if yet 
unauthorized conveyance works are 
built. In addition to the water 
supply aspect, planned fishery and 
water quality releases from New 
Melones Dam will help to alleviate 
existing water quality problems in 
the lower San Joaquin River. 

Water supplies, mostly small and 
widely distributed throughout the 
Sierra Nevada, must be developed 
to meet the expected additional 
upland area needs in 1990 and 2020. 

The projected east side valley 
floor deficiencies of 300,000 acre- 
feet in 1990 and 560,000 acre-^'eet 
in 2020 can be met either by tempor- 
arily continuing to mine water 
from underground storage or by 
importing supplemental water into 
the Basin. Considering the magni- 
tude and location of the deficiencies 
in both the San Joaquin and Tulare 
Basins, and the probable alignment 
of the proposed East Side Canal of 
the Central Valley Project, it 
appears that importation is the 
most practical long-range solution-- 
most likely via the proposed East 
Side Division. 

It is possible tha 
Canal may permit d 
surface supplies i 
upland areas where 
been inhibited bee 
water users hold a 
rights. Perhaps e 
negotiated in whic 
users would be fur 
Canal water in exc 
stream development 
poses . The propos 
Canal also has the 
improving downstre 
in all the signifi 
the San Joaquin Ba 

t the East Side 
evelopment of 
n thosp Sierra 

development has 
ause downstre'^m 
11 the water 
xchanges could be 
h the downstream 
nished East Side 
hange for up- 

for local pur- 
ed East Side 

potential for 
am fishery flows 
cant streams of 
sin . 

Streamflow maintenance agreements 
in the San Joaquin Basin provide 
water for diverse fish and wildlife 
needs. In the San Joaquin and 
Stanislaus Rivers, the flows pro- 
vide for trout stream habitat that 
would be otherwise depeleted 
through diversion for power devel- 
opment, irrigation, and domestic 
use. The Merced River flows are 
utilized for salmon and steelhead 
spawning. The purpose of the 
agreements with the U. S. Bureau of 
Reclamation is to mitigate the loss 
of waterfowl habitat inundated by 
the San Luis and Los Banos 
Reservoirs . 

Several local agencies and the 
U. S. Bureau of Reclamation have 
signed agreements with the 
California Department of Fish and 
Game for streamflow releases as 
shown in the tabulation at the top 
of the next page. 



San Joaquin 



Los Bancs - 
San Luis 


Southern California Edison Company 
Merced Irrigation District 
Tuolumne County Water District No. 
Oakdale and South San Joaquin 

Irrigation District 
Calaveras County Water District 

U. S. Bureau of Reclamation 

Streamflow Releases 
(Acre-Feet Per Year ) 



The Corps of Engineers is studying 
flood problems throughout the San 
Joaquin Basin. Current studies in- 
clude the Merced Stream Group. 

Tulare Basin 

The Tulare Basin compri 
entire drainage area of 
Joaquin Valley south of 
Joaquin River. It is g 
ficient in natural wate 
yet, in contrast, it is 
agricultural producer i 
Satisfaction of water d 
the Basin, which are th 
of the 11 hydrologic st 
relies to a considerabl 
imported supplies and g 
overdraft . 

ses the 

the San 

the San 
rossly de- 
r resources; 

the largest 
n the State, 
emands in 
e greatest 
udy areas, 
e extent on 
round water 

Natural water supplies of the Basin 
are derived primarily from Sierra 
Nevada runoff in the Kings, Kaweah, 
Tule and Kern Rivers. These 
streams provide a source for direct 
diversion for agricultural and 
urban uses and also replenish the 
underlying ground water basin by 
direct percolation from channels 
and from the unconsumed portion of 
applied waters. 

Use of water in the Tulare Basin has 
long exceeded the natural water 
supplies, and supplemental supplies 
have been imported via the Friant- 
Kern and Delta-Mendota Canals of 
the federal Central Valley Project. 
In 1967 the total amount of all 
water available for firm and sus- 
tained use in the Basin averaged 
about h .6 million acre-feet, while 

the net use of water amounted to 
about 6.h million acre-feet. The 
excess of use over available firm 
supplies is met by a long-term 
average annual net depletion of 
ground water of about 1.8 million 
acre-feet . 

Currently, the State Water Project 
and the San Luis Unit of the 
Central Valley Project are deliv- 
ering water to the Basin. Under 
full delivery those two projects 
will provide a total of about 
2.6 million acre-feet annually. 
However, even with local develop- 
ments and these large import 
projects operating at full con- 
tractual opacity, the Basin's 
economy is expected to grow to 
such an extent that the annual 
water demand in excess of its 
existing combined yield will be 
about 1.2 million acre-feet by 
1990 and about 2.1 million acre- 
feet by 2020. This growth in 
economy is projected on the basis 
of the extremely favorable combin- 
ation of soils and climate and 
advantageous market location for 
a thriving agricultural industry. 

The geographical distribution of 
present and projected supplemental 
water demands is important in the 
consideration of likely water 
sources to meet the total water 
needs of the Tulare Basin. Supple- 
mental water needs west of the 
valley trough could be served by 
additional deliveries from the 
San Luis Unit of the Central Valley 









1,000,000 PERSONS 

1,000,000 ACRES 


2 4 


10 12 14 

1,000,000 ACRE- FEET 





Local Surface Water Development 




Ground Water: Safe Yield 




Ground Water: Overdraft 


Central Valley Project 




Other Federal: Pine Flat, Success, Ter 

ninus, Isabella 




State Water Project 



Total Net Supplies 







1990 2000 










NOTE: Bar Chart Units Are Million Acre-Feet Per Yeor 





1967 1990 2020 










1967 1990 2020 





c^ -'' 






Project and the State Water Project. 
These deliveries would initially be 
needed around 1990 and are estimated 
to increase to about 5OO5OOO acre- 
feet annually by 2020. While the 
California Aqueduct could trans- 
port the additional water with 
relatively inexpensive augmentation 
of capacity, this water service is 
not included in present contracts. 

Supplemental water service for the 
eastern slope of the valley floor 
could be provided by a project 
such as the proposed East Side 
Division of the federal Central 
Valley Project. East Side delivery 
requirements are projected to be 
about 1.2 million acre-feet in 
1990 and about 1.6 million in 2020. 

Whereas presently contracted sup- 
plies from the federal San Luis 
Unit and the State Water Project 
appear sufficient to serve the west 
side of the valley floor until 
about 199O) the easterly slopes of 
the valley floor are in need of 
supplemental water now, and a rapid 
buildup in use of imported supplies 
is anticipated when they become 
available from the East Side 

Preliminary economic studies indi- 
cate that at the proposed canalside 
prices the water users could real- 
ize significant savings in their 
total water cost if the full deliv- 
ery capacity of the East Side 
Project were utilized at an early 
date. This would enable the ground 
water basins to refill, thereby 
decreasing the unit pumping costs 
for the remaining large amount of 
ground water which still must be 
pumped to meet the total applied 
water demand within the area. 

Further examination should be made 
of the possible economic and oper- 
ational advantages of fully co- 
ordinated operation of the existing 
and future surface and ground water 
resources of the Tulare Basin. 
This should include the effects of 
continuing to draw upon the ground 
water basin and the operational 
flexibility which could be obtained 

for the major aqueduct systems if 
the east and west side projects 
were joined either physically or 
by exchange agreements. 

Full realization of the economic 
potential of the Basin would also 
require future construction of the 
San Joaquin Valley master drain to 
avoid crop losses and serious 
degradation of the ground water. 

With regard to fish and wildlife, 
streamflow maintenance agreements 
in the Kern River drainage cover 
flow releases below various power 
diversions of the Southern 
California Edison Company system. 
The stipulated flows include about 
l4,000 acre-feet annually for a 
water supply to the Kern River 
Fish Hatchery at Kernville. Kings 
River water releases maintain flows 
below Pine Flat Dam. Stabilized 
flows in the Kings have permitted 
development of a popular year- 
round trout fishery, including a 
special fly-fishing season during 
the winter. 

While the principal tributary 
Sierra Nevada streams have major 
reservoirs that provide downstream 
flood protection in most years, 
intense rainfall (such as occurred 
over the Kaweah River watershed in 
the winter of I968-69) or the 
combination of warm weather or an 
extremely deep snowpack, which 
resulted in severe flooding in the 
Tulare Lake bed in January 1969 
still posesa serious flood threat. 
The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 
is conducting a basin-wide study 
on water resources development and 
flood problems in the entire San 
Joaquin Valley. The Corps is also 
assisting local agencies in flood- 
plain management through the prep- 
aration of floodplain information 
reports . 

In summary, it appears that because 
of the location of the Tulare Basin 
with respect to potential water 
supply sources, future increases in 
water demand could most logically 
be served by federal and state 
project facilities which already 


have the capacity to deliver some 
4 million acre-feet annually to 
the area. 

The supply-demand relationships 
for the Tulare Basin from the 
present (1967) to 2020 are illus- 
trated graphically in Figure 29 
and geographically in Figure 30. 

North Lahontan Area 

The North Lahontan area is the 
narrow strip of State lying east 
of the Sierra Nevada along the 
California-Nevada border. It 
extends approximately 270 miles 
from the vicinity of Bridgeport in 
Mono County to the Oregon border. 

The economy is dependent upon agri- 
culture, recreation, lumbering and 
mining. The principal agricultural 
activities are livestock production 
and forage crops. Lake Tahoe and 
vicinity provides the stimulus for 
year-round recreation important to 
the area's economy. 

While the total annual runoff ex- 
ceeds present water demands, lack 
of streamflow regulation and carry- 
over storage contribute to water 
shortages during part of the full 
irrigation season. With possible 
minor exceptions, paucity of eco- 
nomical reservoir sites preclude 
surface water development from 
serious consideration in the future. 
In recent years, increased use of 
ground water has partially alle- 
viated seasonal irrigation short- 
ages. The trend is expected to 
continue, prompting concern from 
local interests regarding the lack 
of adequate knowledge of the safe 
yield of the various ground water 
basins . 

Total irrigated acreage in the 
North Lahontan area is not ex- 
pected to increase in the future; 
but an anticipated change in crop 
patterns is expected to increase 
the total agricultural water de- 
mand, creating shortages in water 
supplies amounting to 30,000 acre- 
feet by 1990 and 50,000 acre-feet 
by 2020. The water demand-water 

supply relationship is illustrated 
in Figure 31 and geographically in 
Figure 32. 

The tremendous recent growth in 
recreation development within and 
adjacent to the Lake Tahoe Basin 
is expected to continue. It is 
estimated that there will be a 
fourfold increase in total summer 
population by 2020. This assumes 
no restrictions other than land 
availability. In this regard, the 
Lake Tahoe Regional Planning Agency 
was recently created to control 
land use in that Bpsin. The land 
development policies that may 
emanate from this agency could 
result in a different mode and 
level of development than was 
projected in this study. 

Water demands propagated from 
urban recreation development can be 
met by supplies until sometime after 
1990. By 2020 the supplemental 
water demand would be about 70,000 
acre-feet, of which 60,000 acre- 
feet would be in the Lake Tahoe- 
Truckee River Basin. Water use 
by the permanent population is, 
and will continue to be, only a 
small portion of the total urban- 
recreational water demand. Possible 
me.Tns of meeting this future sup- 
plemental demand have not been 
identified. Estimates of available 
future supplies were based largely 
on U. S. Bureau of Reclamation 
feasibility reports and the pro- 
posed California-Nevada Interstate 
Compact. The authorized Stampede 
Unit of the Washoe Project was 
considered a part of the available 

The California-Nevada Interstate 
Compact divides the waters of Lake 
Tahoe and Truckee, Carson, and 
Walker River Basins. The proposed 
compact was ratified by the 
California Legislature in amended 
form at the 1970 session. It is 
hoped that the amended contract 
will be ratified by the Nevada 
Legislature in 1971 so that it may 
be submitted to the Congress for 
approval during the next session. 















12 3 4 5 
1 1 ' 1 1 

1,000 PERSON 

100,000 ACRES 




100,000 ACRE-FEET 

.5 — 

.4 — 

.3 — 



^^^^^ Required Addi 

tional Sl 


^^^^......-.^--'''''^^l]^---^^ WATER SUPPLIES EXISTING 










Local Surface Water Development 290 
Ground Water SO 
Tule Lake Import 10 

Stampede ^ 

Total Net Supplies 350 











♦Potential additional supply sources: Local streams development. Sierra tunnel di 
1 1 1 1 















/lassen group i^ 

t . . . . . 





1967 1990 2020 





NOTE: Bar Chart Units Are Million Acre-Feet Per Yeor fj I 









1967 1990 2020 


a 16 24 



DWR employee 

North Lahontan Area 

— nciture provides ample wiiter resources, hut in^ullicienl carryover storage 
to meet lull summer demands 

Briefly, the allocation of water 
to California consists of (l) the 
right to divert 23,000 acre-feet 
per year for use in the Lake 
Tahoe Basin; (2) recognition of 
existing exports from the Lake 
Tahoe, Truckee River, and 
Walker River Basins; (3) the right 
to divert 10,000 acre-feet per 
year for use within the Truckee 
River Basin, the right to deplete 
the 6,000 acre-feet of the annual 
yield of Stampede Reservoir, and 
the right to develop and deplete 
an additional yield of 10,000 acre- 
feet from the Truckee River and 
Lake Tahoe Basins, if available; 
(4) the right to divert water to 
irrigate approximately 5,600 acres 
along the West Fork of the Carson 
River and 3,820 acres along the 
East Fork of the Carson River, to 
develop by storage 2,000 acre-feet 
of water per annum in Alpine 
County, and to develop for use in 
California 20 percent of the re- 
maining water after the foregoing 
California users and existing 
users in Nevada have been supplied; 
and (5) recognition of existing 
rights and uses in the Walker 
River Basin plus the right to 
develop 35 percent of the remaining 
water after Nevada's existing 
rights and uses are satisfied. In 
addition, ground water and springs 
may be used in the Truckee, Carson, 
and Walker River Basins provided 
such use does not reduce the 
amount of water which Nevada would 
otherwise receive under the 

In addition to water supply-water 
demand inequalitites , the North 
Lahontan area has other problems 
related to its areal growth and 
development, namely flood control 
and water quality. 

The whole area is periodically 
subjected to widespread storms and 
subsequent flooding. Aside from 
the normal November to April 
season for rain floods , snowmelt 
in late spring can cause damage 
during exceptional snowpack years. 
Damage areas occur principally 
along the Truckee and Walker 

Rivers, the Susan River in Surprise 
Valley and in the community of 
Susanville, and communities along 
the shore of Lake Tahoe. Only 
5 percent of the area subject to 
flooding now has protection by 
structural measures. Scattered 
damage centers for the most part 
will preclude project justification 
in the future. The most logical 
means to mitigate flood damages 
would be through regulation of 
floodplain use to limit encroach- 
ments in active floodways and an 
improved flood warning system. 

Water quality problems have arisen 
in recent years due to waste dis- 
charges into Lake Tahoe. This 
problem has been partially solved 
by exporting treated sewage out of 
the Tahoe Basin into Indian Creek 
Reservoir near the town of Woodfords 
in the Carson River Basin. Studies 
are now under way to find a solu- 
tion to the problem of waste dis- 
charges in the North Tahoe Basin. 
Any solution to this problem will 
be complex because of the implica- 
tion of water rights, as well as 
the physical plan of waste disposal. 

South Lahontan Area 

The South Lahontan area encompasses 
the portion of Lahontan Hydrologic 
Drainage Province from Mono Lake 
south and is characterized by a 
large number of enclosed basins and 
sinks. It has the greatest ex- 
tremes in elevation within the 
contiguous United States, ranging 
from 282 feet below sea level in 
Death Valley to 1^,495 feet above 
sea level on Mount Whitney, only 
80 miles distant. 

The economic development of the 
area as a whole was slow in the 
1960s but has begun to quicken 
recently in the Antelope Valley 
and south of Victorville in San 
Bernardino County. Lockheed Air- 
craft Corporation provided the 
recent stimulus by building a plant 
just northeast of Palmdale and 
began the manufacturing of air buses 
in 1969. The planned Palmdale 








4 6 8 10 12 
1 1 1 1 1 

100,000 PERSONS 




20 24 
_I L. 

100,000 ACRES 




100,000 ACRE-FEET 



Local Surface Water Development 
Ground Water: Safe Yield 
Ground Water Overdraft 
State Water Project 

Total Net Supplies 

♦Potential additional supply sources: Ground water withdrawals from storage, exchanges. 

1 1 ! I L__ 






















NOTE: Bar Chart Units Are Million Acre-Feet Per Year 


Intercontinental Airport will 
provide another stimulus. The 
impact of this airport will be 
considerable reaching into Kern 
County to the north and into San 
Bernardino County to the east. 
Construction of the first runway 
is expected to begin in 1973 and 
to be ready for the first flight 
scheduled in 1977- The number of 
passengers to be handled is pro- 
jected to grow from 1 million in 
1980 to 50 million by 2000. 

Plans for an additional freeway 
and a mass rapid transit system 
connecting the Antelope Valley with 
Los Angeles have been discussed by 
various agencies. The airport will 
employ several thousand people 
directly and create many Jobs in- 
directly through related industries 
and services, which will result in 
a greatly increased population of 
the Antelope Valley. Consequently, 
some irrigated agriculture may move 
from Los Angeles County to Kern 
County in the South Lahontan area. 
Economic development of the south- 
ern part of Kern County around the 
community of Mojave also will be 
generally enhanced. 

The western strip of Victor Valley 
bordering Los Angeles County will 
also undergo development; but the 
recently started subdivision 
activity in western San Bernardino 
County in the vicinity of Victor- 
ville is largely independent from 
the planned Palmdale Intercontinen- 
tal Airport. Two large real estate 
developments at Spring Valley Lake 
and at the southern outskirts of 
Victorville are geared, at least 
in part, toward providing second 
homes and retirement homes. 

Agricultural water demand of the 
area is anticipated to remain 
approximately the same until 1990 
and to diminish slightly there- 
after, due to the anticipated 
urbanization centered around Palm- 
dale. The total net water demands 
are estimated at about 420,000 acre- 
feet per year in I967 and 500,000 
acre-feet in 2020. 

The South Lahontan 
for discussion purp 
Mono-Owens Valley, 
area, encompassing 
area from Indian We 
Nevada, and the Ant 
Mojave River area, 
tude and geographic 
of water demand and 
area are illustrate 
and 34. 

area is divided 
OSes into the 
the Death Valley 
the huge desert 
lis Valley to 
elope Valley- 
Relative magni- 
al distribution 

supply in the 
d in Figures 33 

In the Owens 
Los Angeles 
will be a su 
available in 
to meet urba 
mands and al 
irrigation s 
18,000 acres 
out endanger 
supplies to 
a critically 

Valley, the City of 
estimates that there 
fficient water supply 

the Mono-Owens Valley 
n and recreational de- 
so to provide a firm 
upply for approximately 

of agriculture with- 
ing the integrity of 
the City, even during 

dry period. 

In recent years, the City exported 
over 3^0^000 acre-feet per year-- 
the full capacity of the first 
aqueduct. A parallel aqueduct com- 
pleted in June 1970 increased the 
total export from the area to about 
510,000 acre-feet annually. This 
yield and the firm local water 
supply will be obtained from oper- 
ation of the Owens Valley ground 
water basin in conjunction with 
surface supplies from the Owens 
River and the streams of Mono Basin. 

Water supplies for local use in the 
area outside the Mono-Owens Valley 
will come from local ground water 
basins. However, there are limited 
amounts of water available from 
surface diversions. Currently, the 
use of ground water exceeds the 
annual replenishment of the basins 
by an estimated 240,000 acre-feet, 
resulting in falling ground water 
levels . 

The estimated water demands for 
the Antelope Valley-Mojave River 
area also include those of Lucerne 
Valley which is included in the 
Mojave Water Agency even though 
physically located in the Colorado 
Desert area. In 1972 Antelope 
Valley-East Kern, Crestline-Lake 


Arrowhead and Mojave Water Agencies 
and Palmdale and Littlerock Irriga- 
tion Districts (in the Antelope 
Valley-Mojave River area) will 
begin receiving water from the 
State Water Project; their maximum 
entitlement is 215,000 acre-feet 
per year. 

The water supply estimates on 
Figure 33 assume a 10 ,000-acre-foot 
per year safe supply in the Death 
Valley area. The safe yield has 
not been determined for this large 
desert region, so that figure must 
be regarded as approximate. The 
continuing overdraft shown in Fig- 
ure 3h in 1990 and 2020 represents 
the amount that the Death Valley 
area demands will exceed the as- 
sumed 10,000-acre-foot safe yield 
supply. No reasonable alternative 
to the use of ground water in 
storage seems apparent for this 

There are possible alternatives 
for meeting future demand for water 
in the Antelope Valley-Mojave River 
area. These are (1) continuation 
of the depletion of ground water in 
storage; (2) purchase of additional 
farm supplies from an expanded 
State Water Project; and (3) in- 
terim use of available capacity in 
the California Aqueduct to augment 
ground water in storage '"or with- 
drawal at a later time. The first 
and third alternatives, however, 
can be considered only as interim 
measures . 

In summary, the Mono-Owens Valley 
has adequate water supplies to 
meet its urban and recreational 
demands and also to provide a firm 
irrigation supply for about l8,000 
acres of agriculture. The Death 
Valley area and the Antelope Valley- 
Mojave River area will continue to 
be water deficient. Demands in 
the Death Valley area in excess of 
the estimated annual safe ground 
water yield of 10,000 acre-feet 
are expected to be met from con- 
tinued extraction of ground water 
from storage. Importation of 
State Water Project contractual 
supplies will not completely sta- 
bilize falling ground water levels 

in the Antelope Valley-Mojave River 
area, particularly in 1990- and a 
demand for supplemental water will 
continue. The water demand-water 
supply relationships in these areas 
are depicted in Figure 3^- 

Colorado Desert Area 

The Colorado Desert area occupies 
the extreme southeastern portion of 
California, encompassing Imperial 
County and portions of San Diego, 
Riverside, and San Bernardino 
Counties. The main geographic 
features are the Colorado River and 
Salton trough containing the Salton 
Sea and Imperial and Coachella 
Valleys. The area drains into the 
Colorado River and into the Salton 
Sea, the lowest part of a closed 

The Colorado Desert area is char- 
acterized by the driest climate in 
the State along with generally mild 
winter and very high summer temper- 
atures. This area has not enjoyed 
a rapid urbanization because of its 
extreme summer temperatures and its 
distance from metropolitan centers. 
The lack of higher-paying employment 
opportunities also has contributed 
to the slowness of its growth. 
However, the area has become popak-rts 
a retirement and recreational 

Much of the area in the Salton 
trough is below sea level and vir- 
tually frost -free which permits the 
growing of agricultural crops 
throughout the entire year. This, 
along with availability of low-cost 
water, has enabled the development 
of an irrigated agricultural economy 
second only to the vast Central 
Valley area. Because of the sub- 
stantial remaining amount of land 
that could be developed, urbanization 
is not likely to curtail irrigated 

Although the quantities of water 
used for recreation are small, water- 
related recreational activities 
have increased in the Colorado 
Desert area in recent years. Salton 
Sea has become an increasingly 






1 f 


4 5 ( 
1 • 


100,000 PERSONS 






2 3 4 
J I L 

^ T ? 

100,000 ACRES 




1,000,000 ACRE -FEET 


4.0 — 

3.8 — 

o 3.6 

34 — 


Reomred Additional SuDolies • 


^— ' -1 — 





1967 1990 2020 
Ground Water: Safe Yield 60 60 60 
Ground Water: Overdraft 90 20 60 
Colorado River Diversions 3830 3850 3850 

80 80 
Total Net Supplies 3980 4010 4050 


Potential additional supply sources: Geothermal desalination, Salton Sea, desalination, _ 
xchanges, ground water withdrawals from storage. 

1 1 1 1 1 

1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 








NOTE: Bar Chart Units Are Million Acre-Feet Per Yea 

■ ^ 


Much of the Colorado Desert's Valley 
floor looked like this to the "old-timer". 

Now. agriculture is important to 
the area — — 

grapes with date garden in background 

And. of course 

J urbanites find fun in the sun, too 

Urvi - Division o) Hiqhv. 

popular recreational area for the 
populous Southern California 
coastal cities. A federal-state 
reconnaissance report of October 
1969, "Salton Sea Project, 
California", stated that the Sea 
presently has a use rate of I.5 mil- 
lion recreation-days annually. The 
report also stated that related 
public and private investments 
total more than $900 million. How- 
ever, the recreational value and 
its attendant investment value will 
diminish considerably unless mea- 
sures are taken to control the 
increasing salinity of the Sea. 

The Colorado River also provides 
excellent recreational opportunities 
to Southern Californians and others 
because of warm winters, picturesque 
settings, and ample opportunities 
for boating, water skiing, and 
fishing. Growth of recreational 
activities along the river is 
expected to be consistent with the 
general population and economic 
growth in Southern California. 

The total water demands of the area 
are projected to increase from 
3,980,000 acre-feet per year in 
1970 to i;,l40,000 acre-feet in 2020. 

Four agencies in the area--the Palo 
Verde and Imperial Irrigation 
Districts, Yuma Project Reservation 
Division, and Coachella Valley 
County Water District--have usable 
annual diversion rights to 
3,850,000 acre-feet of Colorado 
River water, according to the 
Seven-Party Agreement of August 18, 
1931. The decision of the U. S. 
Supreme Court in Arizona vs. 
California and the Colorado River 
Basin Project Act will make it 
possible for diversions to continue 
at that level. In addition to 
Colorado River water, more than 
100,000 acre-feet of ground water 
is used, mostly in Coachella Valley. 

Colorado River water available to 
California historically has had a 
relatively high salt content. From 
1963 to 1967 it averaged 7^0 ppm of 
dissolved minerals at Parker Dam 
and 850 ppm at Imperial Dam, where 

diversions to the irrigation 
districts are made. This has re- 
quired the installation of exten- 
sive networks of tile drains and 
the application of quantities of 
water considerably in excess of 
the actual requirements for plant 
growth to prevent salt buildup 
and ensure continued successful 
farming operations. 

The quality of the river water 
varies from season to season, de- 
pending chiefly on its flow and 
the effects of various upstream 
uses. Projections of the future 
quality of Colorado River water 
were made recently by the Colorado 
River Board of California. These 
projections were based on estimated 
effects or the presently authorized 
and planned projects in the Basin. 
They indicate that unless correc- 
tive measures are taken the average 
salinity of river water at Imperial 
Dam will increase to 1,3^0 ppm by 
2000. Under these circumstances 
some crops, which are marginal with 
today's salinity, could no longer 
be grown. If salinity control 
projects mentioned in the report 
were implemented, it was estimated 
that average salinity at Imperial 
Dam could be held to about 
1,000 ppm. 

Salinity at Imperial Dam also 
varies substantially from month to 
month, with the greatest concentra 
tions occurring during the winter. 
In some recent years the peak 
salinity has exceeded 1,000 ppm. 
This has had an adverse effect on 
the germination of seeds for 
winter-planted crops. 

The quality of ground water in the 
Coachella Valley is surprisingly 
good. Dissolved minerals in the 
area are generally less than 200 ppm. 
Small amounts of ground water used 
in the Palo Verde Irrigation District 
have dissolved minerals in excess of 
800 ppm, reflecting the quality of 
Colorado River water used for 
irrigation in the area. 

The quality of ground water in the 
Imperial Valley is considered to be 


unsuitable for domestic and irriga- 
tion purposes except for a few 
isolated areas. This has limited 
the use of ground water in the 
area to extremely small amounts. 

The Coachella Valley County Water 
District, the Desert Water Agency, 
and the San Gorgonio Pass Water 
Agency have contracted with the 
State for a maximum annual entitle- 
ment of 80,000 acre-feet of State 
Water Project water. These agencies 
are all located in the Coachella 
Valley vicinity. However, even 
with the addition of this water 
the demand for supplemental water 
is expected to continue and may be 
met by the use of ground water in 
storage, as has been done in the 
past; by supplemental supplies 
from the State Water Project; or 
by water from other potential 
sources. For other areas where a 
demand for supplemental water is 
expected to exist and there are no 
proposed plans for imported water, 
it is anticipated that this demand 
will be met by ground water 
storage depletion. 

The water demand and supply rela- 
tionships in the Colorado Desert 
area are illustrated in Figures 35 
and 36. 

Regional Water Demand - 
Water Supply Summary 

Present (I967) and future (1990 
and 2020) water demand and supply 
relationships for each of the 11 
hydrologic study areas and the 
state total are summarized in 
Table 8 . The total net water 
demands shown as the first item 
represent the requirement for de- 
veloped water, whether from local, 
imported, or other sources. The 
total net water supplies represent 
the sums of all sources of water, 
both local and imported (including 
facilities under construction) , 

available toward satisfying net 
demands . 

Note in Table 8 that sa^'e ground 
water yield is included within the 
dependable water supplies, but that 
ground water overdraft is also 
included as a source of supply at 
the present (I967) time for several 
areas. In most cases such over- 
draft is considered to be only an 
interim source and is assumed to 
be phased out by 1990. However, 
there are exceptions in the Central 
Coastal area and for localized 
situations in the South Lahontan 
and Colorado Desert areas where 
ground water is the only source of 
water supply. In these cases, 
ground water overdraft was assumed 
to continue indefinitely. 

It is anticipated that local agencies 
will provide 20 to 25 percent of 
the increased dependable water 
supplies between the present time 
and 2020. This includes additional 
surface developments, increased 
ground water use, and reclamation 
of waste water and represents 
essentially full development of 
the available local water supplies. 
In addition, local agencies will 
play a key role in the construction 
of distribution systems to deliver 
water from state and federal, as 
well as, local water projects. 

The indicated shortages shown in 
Table 8 represent the quanti- 
ties of water that must be made 
available over and above the net 
water supplies to fully satisfy 
the indicated net demands. Finally, 
the table lists potential supply 
sources that might prove feasible 
for development in the future. 

The water demand-water supply 
relationships for each of the 
11 hydrologic study areas are 
summarized graphically in 
Figure 37. 




NC - 

SF - 

cc - 
sc - 

SB - 
DC - 
SJ - 
TB - 
NL - 




1970 1990 2020 

-14 3- 

ti O 

LU — * 

:; o 




8 SJ 


s s 

8 . 

-^ 5) 

R R 


3 S 


8 e 



a e 


SIS ss 

5 S 3 







Si S5&I 

(0 O (D ^ C ^ 
+> '^ 5 M 

o "Si to ^ 


■s a 




■J ^ 


S t-^l^ 5 

O « Q O 


e §, 

s s 


g 5 . 

S 3 . 

s s . 

S S 3 

« § ° 

g R 3 

S & 

» S R 


R R 

S R 

g 8 


S B 

g 1 

i § 

g § 


S S 

i ^ 



5^ 5 H C 
•3 m 

i^- ^- da 
° g R ^& 


^ i 

i g 

s s 

t S 

I i 

5:s I 

= ^11 g 

? s 3 s '5 I 

« If w >, 

a p Q 1- X) 

O Si -3 Ml -P 

*§ <0 "" C >< M 

3 ^ ♦> 3 &i 

c S S S o * 

« * a; *H > o 

*" M O ^ 

O (D Q O 

ID 41 *5 H TJ 

:^-sr)-^, ^i;^ 





The California Water Plan and 
subsequent reports of the Department 
of Water Resources were published to 
provide a basic planning framework 
for ensuring that the State's long- 
range water demands are met. Two 
major multi-purpose projects systems 
which are presently fulfilling this 
general objective and which possess 
the potential for continuing to do 
so to an increasing extent in the 
future are the Central Valley Proj- 
ect of the U. S. Bureau of 
Reclamation and the California 
State Water Project, currently 
nearing completion by the Department 
of Water Resources. 

These two developments are unique in 
their utilization of the coordinated 
systems approach to interbasin water 
resource preservation and management. 
In essence this operational princi- 
ple, including the utility and 
pooling concepts employed by the 
State Water Project, makes possible 
the future extension of water ser- 
vices to areas of California which 
could neither physically nor eco- 
nomically be provided by smaller 
local or independently operated 
developments alone, or from other 
alternative sources. 

This chapter presents information 
concerning the present and potential 
future water supply, recreation, 
flood control, and water quality 
control accomplishments of the State 
Water Project and the Central Valley 
Project and the advantages of 
their coordinated operation. With 
regard to the future, it is rec- 
ognized that water demands over and 
above those to be satisfied by 
existing or authorized facilities 
of the Central Valley Project or 
State Water Project may not be met 
exclusively or even principally by 
future additions to those projects. 
Other potential alternative sources 
described in Chapter V may well 

play a substantial role in meeting 
future demands in areas that could 
be served by these projects. The 
means of satisfaction of future 
water demands remains to be deter- 
mined; but because of the indicated 
slower rate of buildup in demand 
discussed in Chapters IV and VI, 
there is time to make such 

However, the assumption is made for 
purposes of this chapter that future 
water demands in areas that could 
logically be served by state and 
federal projects will be met by 
expansion of those projects. This 
procedure serves to illustrate the 
operational characteristics and 
flexibility of the Central Valley 
Project and State Water Project, 
including exchange potentials and 
the forecasted timing of need for 
additional conservation and 
transportation facilities. 

The Central Valley 

The Central Valley Project was 
federally authorized for construc- 
tion in 1935 under provisions of 
the Emergency Relief Act and as a 
federal reclamation project in 1937- 
In 1967 the project celebrated its 
twenty-fifth anniversary of pro- 
viding water service via the Contra 
Costa Canal, an initial unit of the 
Delta Division. This project marked 
the beginning of a new phase of 
water development in the Central 
Valley, as development in various 
parts of the Valley had been largely 
independent of each other prior to 
its initiation. However, use of 
water had reached a stage where any 
additional facility in one part of 
the Valley affected existing and 
possible future development elsewhere. 
Hence the need for a truly compre- 
hensive and fully coordinated 


interbasin development program was 
recognized and undertaken through 
construction of the federal Central 
Valley Project. 

Major reservoirs of the Central 
Valley Project completed or under 
construction include Lake Shasta on 
the Sacramento River, Folsom Lake 
and Auburn Reservoir on the American 
River, Millerton Lake on the San 
Joaquin River, and New Melones 
Reservoir on the Stanislaus River. 
Major aqueduct systems serving ag- 
riculture and industry in the Valley 
are the Delta-Mendota Canal, Friant- 
Kern Canal, Madera Canal, Contra 
Costa Canal, Folsom South Canal, 
Tehama-Colusa Canal and the Corning 
Canal. Other key features of the 
Central Valley Project are the San 
Felipe Division, Trinity Division, 
and the San Luis Division. The 
latter consists of San Luis Reser- 
voir in western Merced County and 
the San Luis Canal, which are joint 
features with the California State 
Water Project. The total cost of 
the Cent];'al Valley Project to date, 
including constructed and authorized 
features, is on the order of $2.6 
billion. These major facilities 
are shown on Figure 38. 

Current annual water deliveries 
under the Central Valley Project 
total some 6 million acre-feet. By 
about 1990 project water deliveries 
are anticipated to be some 10. 7 mil- 
lion acre-feet to meet the in- 
creasing demands for new and supple- 
mental water supplies within the 
service areas of the Central Valley 
Project. These annual demands are 
projected to grow by an additional 
2 million acre-feet between 1990 
and 2020. Authorization and con- 
struction of additional Central 
Valley Project facilities, princi- 
pally the East Side Division and 
the West Sacramento Canals Unit, 
would be needed to provide this in- 
crease in water deliveries. 

While the initial features of the 
Central Valley Project have been 
virtually completed and other facil- 
ities have been authorized and are 
under construction, the project is 
nevertheless anticipated to continue 

to evolve over the next quarter 
century to meet the demands within 
its service areas on an orderly and 
timely schedule. Priority additions 
include extension of the project's 
transportation systems--namely , the 
East Side Division Aqueduct System 
and the West Sacramento Canals, and 
the joint federal-state Peripheral 
Canal. These and other proposed 
additions to the Central Valley 
Project will be discussed in 
subsequent sections of this chapter. 

The State Water Project 

In 1951 the California Legislature 
authorized the Department of Water 
Resources to construct the Feather 
River Project, later designated the 
State Water Project, to conserve 
surplus water supplies in the north- 
ern portion of the State in excess 
of local needs and to convey those 
supplies to areas of deficiency in 
Central and Southern California. 
The Project was designed to provide 
other water services in the cate- 
gories of flood control, hydroelec- 
tric power generation, water-oriented 
recreation, salinity control in the 
Delta in coordination with the 
federal Central Valley Project, and 
the enhancement of fisheries and 
wildlife habitat. 

Construction was initiated in 1957 
through special legislative appro- 
priations following the disastrous 
December 1955 flood, but the prin- 
cipal financial base for the 
Project's implementation was provided 
in i960 by the citizens of California 
through their approval of the Cal- 
ifornia Water Resources Development 
Bond Act, commonly referred to as 
the Burns-Porter Act. 

Features of the State Water Project 
are shown on Figure 38. The Project 
is described in detail in Department 
of Water Resources Bulletin No. 132-70, 
"The State Water Project in 1970", 
and is described and illustrated in 
digest form in Appendix C to that 
bulletin. Upon completion, the 
major physical facilities of the 
State Water Project will include 
21 dams, 6 hydroelectic powerplants 










/Vorf/} Bay Aqueduct 


South Say Aqueduct- 

and 22 pumping plants. The total 
length of the conveyance systems 
including canals, tunnels and 
pipelines will be about 700 miles. 
Current estimates indicate that 
the total cost of the State Water 
Project will be some $2.8 billion. 

Upon full project deliveries the 
State Water Project will supply 
4,230,000 acre-feet annually to a 
total of 31 water service agencies 
which presently hold contracts with 
the Department of Water Resources. 
These agencies are located within 
8 of the 11 hydrologic study areas 
of California. These contracts 
for project water by hydrologic 
areas are as shown in the tabulation 
at the bottom of this page. 

In addition to the delivery of 
maximum annual entitlements under 
full project operation, the State 
Water Project will also make deliv- 
eries of water supplies for specific 
recreational use on a nonreimburs- 
able basis of approximately 45,000 
acre-feet per year. This latter 
supply plus diversions of approx- 
imately 250,000 acre-feet per year 
to offset operational losses, such 

as seepage and evaporation, bring 
the total present maximum State 
Water Project diversion requirements 
to 4,525,000 acre-feet per year. 

Operational Characteristics 
and Flexibilities 

As the Central Valley Project and 
State Water Project use common 
stream channels and conveyance 
facilities, and the water supplies 
conserved and distributed become 
physically indistinguishable, there 
is a need for close coordination. 
Such coordination also enables a 
high degree of very desirable oper- 
ational flexibility among the 
facilities of the two-project 
systems. Coordination of the op- 
eration of the two projects will 
become even more important in the 
future as the Central Valley Basin 
supplies become more fully utilized. 

In recognition of this need, an 
important operating agreement has 
recently been negotiated between the 
U. S. Bureau of Reclamation and the 
California Department of Water 
Resources. It is presently under 

Hydrologic Area 

Sacramento Basin 
San Francisco Bay 
Central Coastal 
San Joaquin Basin 
Tulare Basin 
South Coastal 
South Lahontan 
Colorado Desert 







Maximum Annual Entitlement 
(Acre-Feet Per Year) 









1/ One agency in both South Coastal and Colorado Desert areas. 
?/ One agency in both South Lahontan and Colorado Desert areas. 


Portion of San Luis Joint-Use-Fycilities 

Federal-State use involves close coordination 

review by the Secretary of the 
Interior. The agreement provides 
the operators of the two projects 
with the procedures necessary to 
achieve the objectives set forth in 
the various laws, orders, policies, 
and other instruments under which 
the Central Valley Project and State 
Water Project are authorized to 
operate. These procedures include 
preparation of forecasts for pro- 
posed operations, language for the 
transfer or exchange of facilities 
use, criteria for the allocation of 
shortages, and procedures for 
assigning the responsibility for 
maintaining the objectives of the 
operating agencies. While accom- 
plishing the objectives of the 
agreement, the separate identity of 
facilities, resources, and contri- 
butions of each project is 

Water Supply Capabilities 

Current estimates by the Department 
of Water Resources indicate that 
the combined dependable water yield 
for the "basic facilities" of the 
Central Valley Project and the 
State Water Project is on the order 
of l4.4 million acre-feet annually. 
"Basic facilities" are defined as 
those facilities which are either 
existing or under construction for 
the federal Central Valley Project 
and the "Initial facilities" of 
the State Water Project as defined 
in the Burns-Porter Act. The 
principal basic facilities of the 
two projects are listed in Table 9« 

The indicated yield capacity of the 
Central Valley Project-State Water 
Project basic facilities is ref- 
erenced to the 1990 time frame for 










Central Valley Project 

State Water Project 

Major Reservoirs 



Clair Engle (Trinity) 

San Luis* 






Silverwcod (Cedar Springs) 

San Luis* 


New Me lone s 

Millerton (Friant) 

Major Canals 


North Bay Aqueduct 

Tehama -Colusa 

Peripheral Canal* 

Folsom South 

South Bay Aqueduct 

Peripheral Canal* 

California Aqueduct, including 

Contra Costa 
Delta Mendota 

joint San Luis Canal, Coastal 

Branch and V/est Branch. 

San Luis* 

San Felipe Division 



; Water 


ect joint-use facilities. 

* Central Valley Project-State 

local upstream depletions within 
the Sacramento River Basin. Pro- 
jections are that by 2020 the 
continuing development in these 
upstream areas by local agencies 
will reduce the 1990 level annual 
yield of the combined federal-state 
project system by about 200,000 
acre feet. 

The State considers its share of 
this reduction as a commitment in 
accordance with the "Delta Pooling 
Concept". That concept, which is 

premised on the counties of origin 
and watershed protection statutes 
of the California Water Code, 
provides, in effect, that no water 
shall be exported from an area in 
which it originates, or from areas 
immediately adjacent that can be 
conveniently served by such water, 
which is needed for the development 
of those areas. Water supplies 
may be depleted for upstream uses 
in the counties of origin, and 
local agencies in the area in and 
above the Delta have a prior right 


to contract for water service from 
the State Water Project. These 
principles are incorporated in the 
contracts between the State and 
the 31 water service contractors 
for water deliveries from the State 
Water Project. 

Of the ik.H- million acre-foot 
nominal yield for the 1990 time 
period, approximately 3-9 million 
acre-feet can be provided by the 
initial conservation facilities of 
the State Water Project and 
10.5 million acre-feet by the 
Central Valley Project. Correspond- 
ing estimates taking into account 
the 2020 level of upstream local 
development are approximately 3-8 
and 10.4 million acre-feet per 
year, respectively. 

These estimates of water supply 
capability for the Central Valley 
Project and State Water Project are 
premised on a minimum Delta outflow 
of 1,800 cubic feet per second. 
This minimum outflow should not be 
construed as representing the 
average outflow which can be ex- 
pected in a normal or above-normal 
year. For example, estimates are 
that under full 2020 development, 
normal-year outflow would frequently 
exceed 1,800 cubic feet per second. 
As a comparison, 1,800 cubic feet 
per second continuous outflow would 
amount to I.3 million acre-feet per 
year, whereas normal outflow to the 
Bay under 2020 development would 
average 7 million acre-feet per 
year, or about five times the 
minimum outflow. 

The Role of the Peripheral Canal 

The Peripheral Canal is an important 
feature of the Central Valley 
Project-State Water Project system. 
The State has authority to construct 
the Canal alone or by joint venture 
under the 1959 Burns-Porter Act. 
However, congressional authority is 
needed for the Bureau of Reclamation 
to participate in the Canal as part 
of the federal Central Valley 

The Peripheral Canal will not add 
any new service 'sreas to the state 
or federal projects nor will it 
increase the authorized amount o'" 
water slated for delivery by these 
projects. The Canal simply solves 
the water conveyance, water quality, 
and fishery problems in the Delta 
related to carrying water across 
the Delta to the existing state 
and federal conveyance facilities 
and, at the same time, makes pos- 
sible the redistribution of water 
within the Delta itself. 

Specifically the Canal would: 
(1) protect and enhance the com- 
mercial and sport fisheries and 
other aquatic life that are 
dependent upon the Delta by elim- 
inating flow reversals and making 
releases from the Canal; (2) avoid 
using existing Delta channels as 
conduits for conveyance of Project 
water, thereby eliminating possible 
channel scour and levee erosion 
problems; (3) provide a firm supply 
and improve water quality in the 
interior Delta by redistributing 
water through release facilities; 
(4) provide salinity control in 
the Delta in accordance with con- 
ditions established by the State 
Water Resources Control Board and 
agreements with local interests; 
and (5) fulfill the water transfer 
and water quality requirements of 
the State Water Project and the 
federal Central Valley Project, 
including the proposed Kellogg Unit, 
or some similar project, to provide 
water to the Contra Costa County 

The Peripheral Canal will consist 
of a 43-mile-long unlined channel 
that will skirt the easterly edge 
of the Delta region. It will 
originate at a diversion structure 
on the Sacramento River near Hood, 
and will terminate in the Clifton 
Court Forebay at the southwesterly 
portion of the Delta. Twelve 
outlet structures will provide 
freshwater releases at the crossings 
of Delta channels in amounts 
necessary to best control and improve 
water quality in many interior 
waterways . 


The release works and the isolation 
of water transfer from the existing 
Delta channels will eliminate the 
reverse flow problem during the 
migration season for salmon, shad, 
steelhead and striped bass. This, 
in conjunction with adequate 
waste discharge treatment, is ex- 
pected to assist in a restoration 
of San Joaquin River migratory 
fish runs and enhance the Delta 
fishery, particularly the striped 
bass. The separate transfer 
channel will also eliminate the 
possibility of scour and levee 
erosion in certain Delta channels, 
and water level drawdown in south- 
ern Delta channels. Salt water 
intrusion from San Francisco Bay 
can be better controlled by canal 
releases . 

Operation of the Peripheral Canal 
will enable a very high degree of 
flexibility. With its many release 
gates and with control of pumping 
rates, coordinated with upstream 
reservoir releases, a wide variety 
of flow and water quality patterns 
could be provided within the Delta. 

Recent operation studies conducted 
by the Department indicate that 
for water transportation purposes, 
completion of the Peripheral Canal 
should be scheduled not later than 
1980. However, fish and game 
interests want the Peripheral 
Canal constructed as soon as 
possible to prevent the further 
deterioration of the Delta envi- 
ronment and its fishery and to 
provide for enhancement. 

Projected Water Demands on 
the Federa l and State Sy stems 

Upon completion of those facilities 
of the Central Valley Project and 
the State Water Project now under 
construction, this federal-state 
water resource development system 
will be capable of providing water 
services to all hydrologic areas of 
California except the North Lahontan 
area. Although no direct deliveries 
for use within the North Coastal 
area are anticipated from existing 

facilities, the Trinity Division 
of the Central Valley Project 
possesses the potential to make 
such deliveries if and when a 
demand may occur. 

Table 10 indicates the water 
service anticipated to be supplied 
from facilities of the two projects 
new being completed and Table 11 
shows the additional service which 
could be provided from future 
expansion of these projects. 

Possible Central Valley 
Project Expansion 

An expansion of service under the 
Central Valley Project by addition 
of the planned major conveyance 
facilities, namely the initial 
East Side Division and the West 
Sacramento Canals Unit, appears to 
be the most favorable option for 
meeting the bulk of the supple- 
mental water demands anticipated 
to occur within the Central Valley 
Basin. Other areas of projected 
deficiencies in dependable water 
supplies in the Central Valley 
could be served through addition 
of the Cosumnes River Division and 
the Allen Camp Unit, plus an ex- 
tention of service under the 
existing San Luis Unit. These 
possible future additions to the 
Central Valley Project are 
illustrated on plate 1. 

The East Side Division could provide 
new and supplemental water service 
to potential service areas along 
the east side of the San Joaquin 
Valley from the vicinity of 
Stockton to Bakersfield. This 
proposed extension could also pro- 
vide beneficial services in the 
categories of water quality control, 
flood control, recreation, and 
fishery and wildlife habitat en- 
hancement. It is envisioned that 
the Initial Phase would serve 
1,500,000 acre-feet annually to 
Fresno, Kings, Tulare and Kern 
Counties. The water supply would 
be derived from operation of ex- 
isting storage facilities. Auburn 
and New Melones Reservoirs which 



(1,000 Acre-Feet) 

^^-- I 

'• Central Valley Project- • State Water Project 
Hydrologic Study Area . ^^^^ . ^g^^ . 5020 : 1967 : 1990 : 2020 

San Francisco Bay 60 220 

Central Coastal 80 
South Coastal 

Sacramento Basin 2,210 2,750 

Delta-Central Sierra 98O 1,270 1.330 














San Joaquin 







Tulare Basin 







South Lahontan 






Colorado Desert 






Recreation Deliveries 
& Conveyance Losses 







Total Demands on 
CVP £[nd SWP 








1/ Includes facilities under construction. 

2/ Includes conveyance via project facilities of exchange 

supplies in consideration of water rights. 

3,/ Additional recreational deliveries and conveyance losses 

for Central Valley Project are included in the study area values, 




(1,000 Acre-Feet) 

• Central Valley Project— • State Water Project- 

Hydrologic Study Area 





San Francisco Bay 
South Coastal 
Sacramento Basin 
Delta-Central Sierra 
San Joaquin Basin 
Tulare Basin 
Colorado Desert 
Conveyance Losses 

























Total Supplemental Demands 

on CVP and SWP 1,970 








1/ Supplemental CVP facilities required to meet these demands include: 
East Side Division, West Sacramento Canals Unit, Cosumnes River Unit, 
Allen Camp Unit, and service extension within the existing San Luis 
Unit, plus future conservation facilities yet unidentified. 
2/ Supplemental SWP facilities required include parallel North Bay 
and South Bay Aqueduct facilities, California Aqueduct modifications, 
plus future conservation facilities yet unidentified. 

are presently under construction, 
and the offstream storage features 
to be associated with the East Side 
Division. This surface water sup- 
ply could offset the present annual 
ground water overdraft (in excess 
of 1,000,000 acre-feet) and the 
projected future increase in demand. 

Physical features of the Initial 
Phase include the East Side Canal, 

five reservoirs, associated pumping 
plants, and a distribution and 
drainage system. The East Side 
Canal, with source connections to 
the Sacramento River by means of 
the Hood-Clay connection, and to 
the American River by means of the 
authorized Folsom South Canal, 
would extend 330 miles to its ter- 
minus at the Kern River. Two of 
the five reservoirs, Montgomery and 


Hungry Hollow, would serve as 
major offstream storage facilities 
with 986,000 acre-feet of combined 
active storage. 

Through provisions for stream 
maintenance releases for fisheries, 
recreation and water quality im- 
provement purposes the East Side 
Division would have the potential 
for considerable environmental 
enhancement of the Sierra-Nevada 
streams from Dry Creek in Sacramento 
County to the Kern River in Kern 

The West Sacramento Valley Canals 
Unit could provide future water 
service from the Central Valley 
Project to the Yolo-Zamora, Lower 
Cache Creek, and Solano service 
areas in Yolo and Solano Counties. 
Principal features would include 
an enlarged portion of the Tehama- 
Colusa Canal, presently under con- 
struction; an extension of that 
canal; and Sites Reservoir, a 
1,200,000 acre-foot pumped-storage 
reservoir. This new lake would be 
located in western Colusa County 
on lands which do not appear to 
have significant recreational value 
or high development potential. The 
West Sacramento Canal could pro- 
vide for an annual water conveyance 
of 360,000 acre-feet, a portion of 
which is developed by existing 
Central Valley Project conservation 
facilities, with the remainder to 
be supplied through operation of 
the Sites pumped-storage facility. 

The Cosumnes River Division could 
develop and convey 120,000 acre- 
feet of water per year for irri- 
gation and an additional 25,000 
acre-feet annually for municipal 
and industrial use, by means of 
three reservoirs and an extensive 
distribution system to service 
areas in the foothill regions of 
Sacramento, El Dorado, Amador and 
San Joaquin Counties. The main 
storage feature of the Cosumnes 
River Division would be the 
900,000-acre-foot Nashville Reser- 
voir. Recreation facilities would 
be provided at the reservoirs, and 
flood protection would be provided 
for floodplain lands now subject 

to overflow. The meager fishery 
resources of the lower Cosumnes 
River system would be enhanced by 
reservoir releases , and a new reser- 
voir fishery W'.al'i be estribli shed . 

The proposed Allen Camp Unit would 
provide benefits to the Big Valley 
area of Lassen and Modoc Counties 
through irrigation, flood control, 
fish and wildlife enhancement, and 
recreation. Flows of the Pit River 
would be controlled and conserved 
by the proposed 190,000-acre-foot 
Allen Camp Reservoir which could 
provide a dependable annual yield 
of 50,000 acre-feet. Diversions 
would be made to irrigate 22,000 
acres . 

Possible State Water 
Project Expansion 

Current water demand studies by the 
Department indicate that supplemental 
water service from the State Water 
Project may be desired within four 
hydrologic study areas commencing 
sometime after 1990. These are the 
San Francisco Bay area, Tulare 
Basin, and the Colorado Desert and 
South Coastal areas. The term 
"supplemental water service", as 
used here, refers to the delivery 
of water over and above the present 
contract entitlements. The quan- 
tities of potential supplemental 
water service presently projected 
to 2020 for these areas are listed 
in Table 11. 

San Francisco Bay Area . Within the 
San Francisco Bay area possible 
supplemental water demands from the 
State Water Project could be on the 
order of 30,000 acre-feet annually 
by 1990 and 300,000 acre-feet an- 
nually by 2020. Of this amount the 
30,000 acre-feet in I99O and 
170,000 acre-feet in 2020 would be 
contingent upon location of an 
industrial complex in the Collinsville 
area of southern Solano County. The 
additional 130,000 acre-feet of 
anticipated supplemental demand by 
2020 would develop in Santa Clara 
County and the inland portions of 
Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, 
if recent growth trends continue. 


Tulare Basin . Most of the fore- 
casted supplemental water demands 
within the Tulare Basin would be 
located on the east side or within 
areas contiguous to the present 
federal San Luis Unit service area. 
However, an additional 250,000 acre- 
feet of annual supplemental water 
service is estimated to be required 
in western Kern County by 2020, 
mostly in the Antelope Plain area 
adjacent to present service areas 
of the California Aqueduct. It is 
assumed that the supplemental demand 
in this area would be met by the 
State Water Project. 

Colorado Desert Area . A sizable 
amount of urban growth is projected 
for the Colorado Desert region 
because of its proximity to Southern 
California urban centers. Water 
available from the State Water 
Project could make possible the lo- 
cation of new urban developments in 
areas that are without water today. 
Other urban areas may desire State 
Project water because of its better 
quality than from other available 
sources . 

Expanded State Water Project deliv- 
eries to the Colorado Desert areas 
would primarily serve increasing 
municipal and industrial demands, 
especially in Coachella Valley and 
the uplands to the west and north 
of that valley. Possible supple- 
mental water service to accommodate 
urban growth within the Colorado 
Desert areas is assumed here to be 
40,000 acre-feet annually by 2020. 

South Coastal Area . The combined 
dependable water supplies available 
to the South Coastal area from ex- 
isting sources, from facilities 
under construction, and from waste 
water reclamation projects now 
definitely planned appear adequate 
to meet water demands in this area 
until after the turn of the century. 
Projections are that by 2020 con- 
tinued growth will require supple- 
mental supplies on the 
order of 650,000 acre-feet per year. 
The shortage in supply is indicated 
to begin by about 2010 (refer to 
Figure 21 on page 108) . 

Table 8 and the discussion in 
Chapter VI identify three principal 
options for meeting this projected 
long-range demand for supplemental 
supplies. These are: future 
waste water reclamation in addition 
to the 300,000 acre- feet per year 
which is now definitely planned, 
desalination of sea water, and sup- 
plemental imports via the State 
Water Project. Although these de- 
mands may possibly be met from any 
one of these supply options, they 
will probably be met by a combination 
of these sources. 

The State Water 
potential for p 
service to the 
as arrangements 
Southern Califo 
provide future 
certain reaches 
Aqueduct. This 
about 190 cubic 
Kettleman City 
delivery equiva 

Project has the 
roviding expanded 
South Coastal area, 
have been made by 
rnia contractors to 
use capacity in 
of the California 
reserve capacity is 
feet per second for 
southward or an annual 
lent of 130,000 acre- 

For purposes of this analysis, this 
reserve capacity is assumed to be 
utilized and the State Water Project 
is assumed to supply supplemental 
water service of 130,000 acre-feet 
annually to the South Coastal area 
by 2020. The remainder of the 
projected supply deficiency could 
be met by waste water reclamation 
and/or desalination. Future studies 
by the Department and the concerned 
water agencies may, of course, in- 
dicate the desirability for either 
greater or less future deliveries 
from the State Water Project than 
assumed here. Considerable addi- 
tional study is needed; however, 
ample time is available for such 
study and for a determination by 
the people concerned regarding the 
most favorable course of action. 

Central Valley Project Water 
Demand-Supply Relationship 

Figure 39 illustrates the water 
demand-supply time relationship for 
the Central Valley Project with the 
East Side Division, West Sacramento 


Canals Unit, Cosumnes River Division, 
and the Allen Camp Unit added. The 
solid blue line indicates the water 
supplies that could be made avail- 
able by the expanded Central Valley 
Project, incorporating those facil- 
ities. The broken blue line 
indicates the dependable water 
supplies developed by present proj- 
ect facilities, including both 
those completed and under construc- 
tion. The solid and broken red 
lines represent the demand on the 
expanded project and the present 
project, respectively. 

The figure illustrates that suffi- 
cient supplies are presently 
developed under the Central Valley 
Project (broken blue line) to 
accommodate a considerable expansion 
in future service without a require- 
ment for additional conservation 
features. However, a requirement 
exists for construction of major 
conveyance facilities, namely the 
East Side Division and West 
Sacramento Canal, to serve areas 
of present and incipient defi- 
ciencies in the Tulare and Sacramento 
Basins . 

Figure 39 further illustrates that 
additional conservation facilities 
(exclusive of those identified in 
that figure) may not be required 
under the Central Valley Project 
for water supply purposes alone 
until about 2000. The figure 
also indicates that by 2020 the 
possible expanded service could 
require additional water conser- 
vation features to provide new and 
supplemental supplies on the order 
of 1 million acre-feet annually. 
These additional features are not 
presently identified. They may 
include the full spectrum of the 
potential supply options which 
were discussed in Chapter V. 

State Water Project Water 
Demand-Supply Relationship 

Figure 4o illustrates graphically 
the current assessment by the 
Department of Water Resources of 
the rate of buildup in water demand 

from the State Water Project and 
the water supplies available from 
the initial conservation facilities. 
The blue line indicates the de- 
pendable water yield capability of 
the initial conservation facilities. 
The solid red line shows the proj- 
ected total buildup in water 
demands, and the broken red line 
indicates the demand buildup under 
the present water service contracts, 
as estimated by the Department as 
a result of a review with the water 
supply contractors. 

Figure kO indicates 
tional conservation 
first be needed in 
on the basis of the 
mated rate of build 
deliveries under pr 
This represents a d 
10 years from the p 
of need for an addi 
as published in Bui 

that an addi- 
facility would 
the mid-1990s 

currently esti- 
up for water 
esent contracts, 
elay of some 
rojected timing 
tional facility 
letin 160-66. 

Figure ^ also shows that on the 
basis of projected total demand 
from the State Water Project, ex- 
panded conservation facilities may 
also be needed commencing in the 
mid-1990s, and that these facilities 
might need to provide a further 
dependable annual water supply of 
about 700,000 acre-feet by 2020, in 
addition to the existing contract 
entitlements . 

It should be emphasized that the 
forecast of timing of need for 
additional water is premised upon 
assumptions regarding future events 
which cannot now be foreseen. For 
example, the Department of Water 
Resources believes that the commit- 
ments to provide good quality water 
in the Delta can be met by a mini- 
mum Delta outflow of 1,800 cubic 
feet per second. Should a decision 
by the State Water Resources Control 
Board impose conditions which might 
require greater releases than 
l.oOO cubic feet per second, the 
timing of need for additional 
water would be advanced. 










< 6 







'existing FACILITIES 


1990 2000 



Figure 40 





















Other factors that would accelerate 
the need for additional water are: 
(l) problems of quality of Colorado 
River Water which might necessitate 
substitution of water from the State 
Water Project; (2) more rapid pop- 
ulation increase than presently 
anticipated; (3) a demand for proj- 
ect water in service areas not now 
under contract; and (4) Increased 
water use in areas tributary to the 

Factors that would tend to delay 
additional need for water are: 
(l) a slower population growth than 
now anticipated; (2) more rapid 
development in technology of de- 
salting than now anticipated; and 
(3) a greater reuse of reclaimed 
water than now projected. A 

continuing evaluation of all these 
factors will be necessary to effect 
the overall most acceptable means 
of satisfying future demands. 

The Department of Water Resources 
is presently conducting studies of 
the various options for meeting its 
commitments to water contractors 
under the State Water Project and 
for supplying the future supple- 
mental service which may be requested. 
Because of the slowdown in demand 
Increase in relation to earlier 
estimates and the Indicated delay 
in timing of need for additional 
facilities, the Department will 
have sufficient time available to 
study and analyze alternative 
sources with full consideration of 
environmental factors. 


Recreational and Environmental 


The water demands and the supply 
capabilities of the Central Valley- 
Project and State Water Project 
have been presented In some detail 
to demonstrate their abilities to 
fulfill obligations to the water 
supply contractors and to meet 
probable future supplemental water 
demands. In addition to meeting 
these obligations, however, the 
multi-purpose facilities of the 
Central Valley Project and the 
State Water Project have made pos- 
sible an array of other Important 
services. These include: flood 
control, hydroelectric power pro- 
duction, water quality control, 
water-oriented recreation oppor- 
tunities, and the improvement of 
fisheries and wildlife habitat. 
Each of these services is Indeed 
a water resource management purpose 
in its own right. In most instances 
these services could not have been 
economically provided except through 
the advantages Inherent in the 
multi-purpose management concept. 

Contributions of the two projects 
in providing these services have 
substantially enhanced California's 
natural human environment. Flood 
control has eliminated the threat 
of damage to the lives and property 
of many of the State's citizens; 
hydroelectric power production 
provides a significant portion of 
the electric energy needed without 
pollution of the atmosphere or the 
water supplies; and water quality 
control provides for the availabil- 
ity of dry-period streamflows in 
many of California's rivers and 
estuaries for salinity repulsion 
and other purposes that were not 
available under natural or 
pre-project conditions. 

The increase in population and the 
general movement from rural to 
highly urbanized areas have devel- 
oped an unprecedented demand for 
water-oriented recreation and other 
experiences related to enjoyment of 
the environment. The following 
sections briefly describe what the 

State Water Project and the Central 
Valley Project are doing toward 
providing for the recreational and 
environmental needs, including flood 
control, of the people of California, 

Environment and the 

Central Valley Project 

Recreation has long been recognized 
by the Bureau of Reclamation as one 
of the benefits to be derived from 
the creation of new lakes. To 
enhance the public enjoyment these 
large bodies of water have been 
provided with campgrounds, picnic 
areas, piped water, sanitary facil- 
ities, riding and hiking trails, 
beaches, boat-launching ramps, and 
boat docks. As the need is dem- 
onstrated these facilities are 
improved and expanded. The major 
structures of the project are 
themselves an attraction to sight- 
seers, and many visitors stop each 
year at the visitor facilities to 
view the dams, powerplants . and 
related facilities. 

The project lakes are stocked with 
fish, and in many cases the fishing 
in streams below the dams Is en- 
hanced by maintenance of more stable 
flows, either specifically for fish 
enhancement or as a result of other 
project flow requirements. The 
operation of Shasta Reservoir and 
the Coleman Fish Hatchery has been 
largely responsible for the enhance- 
ment of the valuable steelhead 
trout fishery on the Sacramento 
River. Three fish hatcheries are 
operating to replace spawning areas 
cut off by dams on the Trinity, 
Sacramento, and American Rivers. 

Central Valley Project reservoirs are 
also used by waterfowl for nesting 
and for resting during migration. 
It is estimated that in I969 there 
were about 1,130,000 use-days by 
ducks and geese on project water 
areas. Hunters took about 3^,000 
waterfowl during the hunting season. 
In addition, for a number of years 
the project has supplied supple- 
mental water for the State's 
Mendota Waterfowl Management area 
in the San Joaquin Valley. 


Two facilities of the Central 
Valley Project now under construc- 
tion. Auburn and New Melones 
Reservoirs, will contribute ben- 
efits from further recreation, 
fisheries and wildlife enhancement. 
In addition to the new lake areas 
for fishing and recreation, these 
deep reservoirs will supply water 
at temperatures lower than presently 
available for releases to maintain 
downstream trout and salmon fish- 
eries. Also, the operation of 
Auburn Reservoir in conjunction 
with Lake Folsom will enhance the 
already high-quality recreation 
provided by the latter through a 
reduction in water level fluctu- 
ations and the maintenance of 
generally higher storage levels. 

Located adjacent to the Sacramento 
metropolitan area. Lake Folsom has 
been the most popular of the project 
reservoirs. In 19^9 more than 
2.U million visitor-days were re- 
corded. Second in use was Lake 
Shasta, the largest of the project 
reservoirs, with more than 1.7 mil- 
lion visitor-days of recreation 
use . 

The overall Central Valley Project 
provided a total recreation-use in 
1969 of about 6.5 million visitor- 
days, as shown by project facility 
in Table 12. 

The regulation of streamflow 
extremes is another significant 
environmental benefit inherent in 
the operation of the Central Valley 
Project conservation facilities. 
The catastrophic floods of 1964, 
which caused record damage in the 
North Coastal area, also produced 
new record peak runoff in the 
Central Valley Basin. In the latter 
area, however, operation of flood 
control facilities prevented exten- 
sive damage. On the American River, 
for example, the December 1964 peak 
inflow to Lake Folsom was 280,000 
cubic feet per second. Downstream 
releases were limited by the oper- 
ation of Lake Folsom to 115,000 cubic 
feet per second, the design capacity 
of the channel. Without Folsom Dam 
and Reservoir, the Sacramento 

metropolitan area would have been 

During the storm of January 1970, 
Lake Shasta experienced its greatest 
peak inflow of record--210 ,000 cubic 
feet per second. Downstream re- 
leases were held to a maximum of 
15,000 cubic feet per second at the 
time of peak inflow into the lake 
and were increased to a maximum of 
only 79,000 cubic feet per second, 
subsequently, during that storm 
period, thus minimizing overflow 
damage in the Sacramento Valley. 
Lake Shasta has regulated five such 
major flood flows since its 
completion in 1944. 

Finally, mention should be made of 
improvement to salinity conditions 
in the Delta since Shasta Dam com- 
menced operation in 1944. During 
the 25 years prior to construction 
of Shasta Dam there were seven years 
of severe salinity intrusion into 
the interior Delta channels, and in 
1931 salinity from the ocean in- 
truded upstream beyond the City of 
Stockton. Since 1944 water released 
through operation of Shasta Reservoir 
has prevented serious intrusion of 
saline water into interior Delta 
channels. Had no releases from 
storage been made, salt water would 
have advanced well into the interior 
of the Delta in 7 of the 10 years 
from 1955 through 1964. The State 
Water Project will share responsi- 
bility for, and maintenance of, 
water quality in the Delta. 

Environment and the 
State Water Project 

Completed facilities of the State 
Water Project have already seen 
intensive use by recreationists. 
The three Upper Feather area reser- 
voirs (Frenchman, Antelope, and 
Lake Davis), designed primarily for 
recreational purposes, were among 
the first units completed and have 
supported an increasing use, with 
933,000 recreation-days recorded in 
1969. These projects are providing 
new lake habitat for fish, water- 
based sports opportunities, onshore 


camping and picnic areas, mainte- 
nance of downstream summer flow for 
fish, and general improvement of 
the streamshore environment. 

Downstream on the Feather River, 
Lake Oroville became available for 
recreation-use in I968; and the 
Oroville complex, including 
Thermalito Forebay and Afterbay, 
supported 517,^00 recreation-days 
of use in 1969- In addition to the 
usual boating, fishing, and onshore 
recreational activities at Lake 
Oroville and Thermalito Forebay, 
the Afterbay, with 4,500 surface 
acres, offers waterfowl hunting. 
Besides the waterfowl habitat pro- 
vided by the reservoirs, the 
5,700-acre Oroville Borrow area 
will be developed for waterfowl 
and upland game habitat and for 
warmwater fishing in the numerous 
sloughs and ponds. 

The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta 
perhaps has received more attention 
than any other area in the study of 
the effects of proposed water 
control facilities on the preser- 
vation and enhancement of the 
aquatic environment. Consideration 
of fish and wildlife ecological 
requirements had much to do with 
the choice of the Peripheral Canal 
as the Delta facility for the State 
Water Project. The canal was pro- 
posed by a joint interagency com- 
mittee as the best means of 
conveying water to the pumps of the 
U. S. Bureau of Reclamation Delta 
Mendota Canal at Tracy and the Delta 
Pumping Plant of the California 
Auqeduct, while at the same time 
providing for controlled releases 
into the Delta channels for salinity 
repulsion, maintenance of a balanced 
ecology in the Delta necessary for 
preservation and improvement of 
sports and commercial fisheries, 
and improvement of the general Delta 
environment as it relates to agri- 
culture and recreation use. More 
than $9 million has been invested 
by the state agencies in planning 
and investigation related to rec- 
reation and fish and wildlife 
protection and enhancement in 
the Delta. 

On the South Bay Aqueduct, in 
Alameda County, Del Valle Dam has 
been completed adjacent to the San 
Francisco Bay metropolitan area. 
The reservoir replaces a stream of 
intermittent flow with no fishery. 
It has been stocked with fish by 
the Department of Fish and Game and 
onshore facilities have been pro- 
vided by the Department of Parks 
and Recreation for the many nearby 
residents who are this year begin- 
ning to enjoy the many recreational 
activities offered by this stra- 
tegically located body of water. 

Further south along the California 
Aqueduct, San Luis Reservoir. 
O'Neill Forebay, and Los Banos 
Reservoir present an opportunity 
for water-based recreation in an 
area historically void of signif- 
icant bodies of water. Initial 
facilities for recreationists have 
been constructed at O'Neill Forebay 
which has had the heaviest use; 
however, facilities at three areas 
on the shore of San Luis Reservoir 
are now available and are coming 
into increasing use. Waterfowl 
shooting is also available at all 
three reservoirs. 

The 280-mile completed section of 
the California Aqueduct in the 
San Joaquin Valley already possesses 
a sizable fish population, chiefly 
catfish and bass. Four fishing 
access sites have recently been 
constructed along the aqueduct by 
the Wildlife Conservation Board 
and opened to public use. More 
will he constructed as the demand 
develops . 

South of the Tehachapi Mountains in 
Southern California, three 
reservoirs--Pyramid, Castaic and 
Silverwood--are under construction 
and Perris will soon be underway. 
They will help meet the demand in 
that heavily populated area for 
recreational experiences associated 
with large bodies of water. Plans 
for stocking of fish and for shore 
developments are progressing and 
will be implemented to provide 
access to and use of the reservoirs 
when they become operational. Also 




Feature Recreation -Days 

Clair Engle Lake(Trlnlty ) 148,000 

Lewlston Lake 45,000 

Whiskeytown Lake 1,044,000 

Shasta Lake 1,717,000 

Keswick Reservoir 5,000 

Jenkinson Lake (Sly Park) 223,000 

Folsom Lake 2,405,000 

Lake Natoira (Nimbus) 370,000 

Mlllerton Lake (Priant) 366,000 

Lake Woollomes 108,000 

San Luis Reservoir * 

O'Neill Forebay * 

Los Banos Reservoir * 

San Luis Wasteway 12,000 

Contra Loma Reservoir 58,000 

Red Bluff Diversion Dam 4,000 

Delta Mendota Canal Angling Access Sites 25,000 

TOTAL 6,530,000 

•Federal -state Joint-use features reported under State Water 
Project in Table 13. 


O. 3872-5 

One ot lour fishing access sites constructed along the Calilomia Aqueduct 

under investigation is the develop- 
ment of wildlife habitat within 
the aqueduct right-of-way, partic- 
ularly in the San Joaquin Valley 
and in the Antelope Valley-Mojave 

Table 13 presents recorded 
recreational use of State Water 
Project facilities in 1969 and 
estimated use under full develop- 
ment for those units presently 
shceduled for construction. Addi- 
tional developments such as aquatic 
recreation areas and ecological 
areas in connection with the Project 
facilities are under consideration 
for inclusion as the demand develops 
and as funding becomes available. 

The State Water Project made its 
first major contribution in the 
interest of flood control during 
the period of the extensive I964 

flood. Oroville Dam, although only 
partially completed, received a 
maximum record peak inflow of 
253,000 cubic feet per second and 
impounded 155,000 acre-feet of 
water during the storm period. The 
reduction of the peak flow to 
158,000 cubic feet per second out- 
flow from the reservoir is estimated 
to have prevented $30 million in 
damages in the Yuba City-Marysville 


This chapter has described the roles 
of the Central Valley Project and 
the State Water Project in the 
management of California's water 
resources. It has indicated the 
present services provided by these 
projects, the coordination aspects 
of their operation, and their 


(in recreation -days) 


Antelope Lake 

Lake Davis 

Frenchman Lake 

Lake Orovllle and Thermalito 
Porebay and Afterbay 

Peripheral Canal 

Bethany Reservoir 

Lake Del Valle 

San Luis Reservoir, O'Neill 

Porebay, and Los Banos Reservoir 

Silverwood Lake 

Lake Perris 

Pyramid Lake 

Castaic Lake 

Aqueduct Angling Access Sites 

Frenchman Flat-Piru Creek Fishery 


Annual Recreation Use 





: Estimated Under 
: Pull D evelopment 







4,483, OOoi-'"'^ 


1/ Federal -state Joint-use facilities. ,-,-,,, 

2/ Four sites were opened in late 1969 and 1970. More sites will be 
opened as the demand develops. 


potential for providing future 
services to the people of 

The chapter has identified and 
discussed the need for certain 
priority additions to the convey- 
ance facilities of the two projects 
Those additions are the joint 
federal-state Peripheral Canal and 
the East Side Division and West 
Sacramento Canals Unit of the 
Central Valley Project, Other 
proposed Central Valley Project 
extensions discussed, for which an 
incipient demand is forecast, are 
the Cosumnes River Division and 
the Allen Camp Unit. 

The text and 
Chapter VII 
will be a ne 
servation fa 
Central Vail 
State Water 
these latter 
be required 
poses as ear 

illustrations in 
indicate that there 
ed for future con- 
cilities for both the 
ey Project and the 
Project, but that 

facilities may not 
for water supply pur- 
ly in time as previous 

estimates had shown. This possible 
deferral in the need for the addi- 
tional conservation facilities 
results primarily from the slower 
growth rates in population, 
industry and agriculture which are 
now projected for California. 

No attempt has been made to identify 
or recommend, from among the array 
of potential source options (as 
discussed in Chapter V), those 
future water conservation measures 
or facilities which may be reauired 
after the mid-1990s. It is pres- 
ently believed that ample study 
time is available before specific 
recommendations must be made and 
that ample review time is like- 
wise available for public 
consideration of those recommendations. 

The chapter concluded with brief 
discussions of the environmental 
accomplishments of the Central 
Valley Project and the State Water 
Project with emphasis on the 
recreational opportunities afforded. 



The population projections discussed 
in Chapter IV are based upon recent 
population trends. Generally these 
trends indicate the continued rapid 
growth of existing urban areas. The 
purpose of this chapter is to ex- 
plore an approach based on possible 
alternative land use policies 
involving a redistribution of people 
and estimate the impact of these 
policies on water management. Time 
limitations have precluded an in- 
depth evaluation. As Indicated in 
Chapter III, a thorough systems 
analysis is required to define the 
impacts and consequences of such land 
use policy alternatives. However, 
it has been possible to explore on 
a superficial basis, at least, some 
of the pertinent ramifications. 

Considerable concern has been 
expressed by legislative and public 
groups that a continuation of the 
growth pattern may have serious 
social and environmental conse- 
quences. It is argued that existing 
metropolitan areas, particularly the 
South Coast, already are overcrowded 
and that the resultant environmental 
problems, such as urban congestion 
and air pollution, are so serious 
that a further population increase 
should not occur. Some proponents 
of land use and urban population 
control advocate control of popu- 
lation in Southern California by 
halting construction of the State 
Water Project. Others express the 
belief that the people should move 
to the northern areas of water sur- 
plus to avoid the necessity of 
sending more water to the south. 

The need for land use and population 
policy has been widely discussed. 
This need is closely related to the 
view that resources development 
planning should take into account 
the total environment. Both the 
Federal Government and the State are 
taking steps leading toward defini- 
tion and implementation of such policy. 

At the federal level, legislation is 
being considered which calls for a 
National Land Use Council responsi- 
ble for general land use policies. 
In addition, under the new communi- 
ties provisions of Title IV of the 
Housing and Urban Development Act 
of 1968, the Department of Housing 
and Urban Development can guarantee 
debt to a maximum of $50 million on 
a single new town or new community 
project . 

Chapter II mentioned that two impor- 
tant measures were passed by the 
State Legislature in 1970. '^ The 
first, AB 2045, required all state 
agencies, boards, and commissions 
to include In any report on any 
public program which could have a 
significant effect on the environ- 
ment of the State a detailed state- 
ment setting forth specified infor- 
mation concerning the Impact on the 
environment. The second, AB 2070, 
established a comprehensive state 
planning function in the Office of 
the Governor known as the State 
Office of Planning and Research. 
This Office will be responsible for 
the development of long-range state- 
wide goals and policies for land 
use, population growth and distri- 
bution, open space and other factors 
influencing quality of the State's 
environment. One of the first tasks 
will be to provide an analysis of 
alternative approaches to accommo- 
dating future population growth and 
urbanization within the State. The 
study will examine the probable 
consequences of continuing to 
accommodate future population within 
existing metropolitan and urban 
areas and will assess the physical, 
social and economic Impacts which 
would result if a substantial num- 
ber of people were located in areas 
where urbanization is not now 
anticipated. The Department of 
Water Resources is assisting in the 
land use and population policy 


f Highways 

Concern has been expressed that a continuation of present urban growth patterns may have serious 
social and environmental consequences 

The remainder of this chapter dis- 
cusses the possible impact of three 
hypothetical alternative patterns 
of population distribution on water 
development, use and disposal. It 
also briefly discusses related con- 
siderations of electric power, 
transportation and air pollution. 
These three population distribution 
patterns, or models, are premised 
on the projected statewide total 
population of 45 million in 2020 
described in some detail in 
Chapter IV, but with different geo- 
graphical locations and densities. 
The distribution based on historical 
trends is included as a "base" pro- 
jection to facilitate a more valid 
comparison of the impacts of these 
three models. 

Study Criteria 

As a first step in selecting hypo- 
thetical areas of future urbaniza- 
tion for study, the Department of 
Water Resources updated its mapped 

information on all lands presently 
irrigated and capable of irrigation 
(see Plate 2). The study was prem- 
ised on the preservation of irri- 
gable lands for agricultural pur- 
poses, and the identification of 
large blocks of land in both public 
and private ownership throughout 
the State which would be physically 
capable of accommodating urban 
development while avoiding agricul- 
tural lands. Other criteria for 
selecting these lands were that: 
lands have a slope no greater than 
30 percent; urbanization would not 
result in the loss of lands with 
Important value for resources manage- 
ment; weight be given to those 
lands that were (l) located in the 
coastal environment, (2) located in 
close relation to recreation 
resources (mountains, foothills, 
forests, reservoirs, desert areas, 
etc.), and (3) accessible by exist- 
ing transportation facilities. 

While the majority of land areas 
selected for analysis are in private 


ownership, some of the areas are 
within the public domain, adminis- 
tered by the Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment. Public lands in National 
Forests, national parks, wildlife 
refuges, and Indian and military- 
reservations were excluded from 

A basic assumption underlying the 
selection process was that the 
economic conditions required to 
support urbanization would exist. 
It was also assumed that different 
combinations of land areas would be 
capable of accommodating approxi- 
mately 50 percent of the 25.2 million 
anticipated population growth dur- 
ing the period from 1970 to 2020. 
This would involve 12.6 million 
people. The remaining 12.6 million 
people were considered to be located 
within existing but expanded areas 
of metropolitan and urban 
development . 

Three models for population distri- 
bution were developed within the 
context of the foregoing criteria 
and assumptions. Model "A" empha- 
sizes a greater allocation of 
population to the northern portion 
of the State, Model "B" is oriented 
to the central portion, and 
Model "C" to the southern portion 
of the State. Figure 4l depicts 
the distribution of the total popu- 
lation in 2020 by hydrologic areas. 
Figure 42 illustrates the distribu- 
tion of people for each of the 
three models. 

The primary focus in the develop- 
ment of the three hypothetical 
population distribution models was 
to provide a basis for evaluation 
of the impact upon the California 
water development program. It 
should be emphasized that the 
assumptions and parameters placed 
upon the study are very general 
and broad , and that tHe models 
should not be Interpreted as 
recommended development policies . 
The models were selected to provide 
a diverse set of options for review. 

The northern model (Model "A") 
emphasizes the area from the Delta 
north to the Oregon border and 

reflects essentially a pattern of 
statewide development which would 
bring a far greater number of people 
to the primary sources of water. 
Approxim.ately 50 percent of the 
12.6 million distributed population 
would go to the northern area. 
Excepting the San Francisco Bay, 
Stockton and Sacramento areas, most 
of the distribution would be in the 
upper Sacramento Valley and adja- 
cent foothill areas of the Coast 
Range and Sierra Nevada. The 
remaining 50 percent would be 
distributed to the central and 
southern areas of the State in 
roughly the same portions as would 
be expected by a continuation of 
current growth trends in these 
areas . 

The central model (Model "b" ) 
emphasizes the area between the 
Delta and the Tehachapi Mountain 
Range in Kern County. Most of the 
distributed population would be 
allocated to the Santa Cruz-Monterey 
and San Luis Obispo-Point Conception 
areas of the Central Coast, and to 
the Sierra Nevada foothill areas in 
Fresno, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, 
Stanislaus and Tuolumne Counties. 
Lesser allocations were made to the 
eastern slope of the Coast Range 
along the west side of the San 
Joaquin Valley. 

The southern model (Model "C") 
emphasizes the area between the 
Tehachapis and the Mexican border 
and reflects in large degree a con- 
tinuation of current trends in 
population growth within the 
Southern California region as a 
whole . However, the model directs 
substantial population to essen- 
tially nonurban desert areas and 
to South Coastal areas between San 
Diego and San Clemente. Desert 
areas involve primarily lands in 
the public domain in the Palm Desert 
and in the vicinity of Blythe in the 
Mojave Desert. Lesser concentratiors 
of urbanization are also shown in 
the foothills bordering the 
Antelope Valley. 

The selection of areas for each of 
the three models was somewhat 
arbitrary, as there are other lands 















O 5 - 













that meet the criteria and assump- 
tions described. The amount of 
land utilized in each of the models 
is capable of accommodating the 
number of people allocated to the 
area, based on the assumption that 
future development in new areas 
would occur at roughly the same 
densities of development as exist 
in currently developed areas. 

Impact of Population Dispersal 

on Water Development 

and the Environment 

In considering the impact of the 
population dispersal models upon 
long-range planning and development 
of the State, particular considera- 
tion was given to the impact on 
water demands. Other aspects such 
as waste disposal, electric power 
requirements, transportation and 
air pollution are only touched upon, 
recognizing that more intensive 
planning and study would be required 
for an adequate assessment. 

Water Demand and Supply 

The three hypothetical population 
distribution models Illustrate the 
consequences of a range of disper- 
sions of future population growth 
with regard to water demands. The 
projected water demands in 2020 for 
the "base" projection and each of 
the three models are shown in 
Table 14. 

The water development facilities 
presently existing and under con- 
struction by federal, state and 
local agencies throughout Califor- 
nia have the physical potential 
and flexibility to accommodate a 
wide range of alternative future 
patterns of population growth and 
dispersal. Technological advance- 
ment in such areas as desalting and 
water reclamation further increase 
this potential and flexibility. 
Chapter VI provides information and 
estimates on the dependable water 
supplies which could be provided by 
these developments. 



(1,000 acre-feet) 

Study Area 

North Coastal 
San Francisco Bay 
Central Coastal 
South Coastal 
Sacramento Basin 
Delta-Central Sierra 
San Joaquin Basin 
Tulare Basin 
North Lahontan 
South Lahontan 
Colorado Desert 

State Total 




Population Models 







































Table 1^ shows that the three popu- 
lation dispersal models reflect a 
lesser population increase and 
resultant slower buildup in net 
urban water demands within the San 
Francisco Bay and South Coastal 
hydrologic study areas than would 
occur under the "base" projection. 
However, there is essentially 
either the same or a greater future 
net urban water demand in each of 
the other study areas. It is also 
interesting to note that the total 
statewide water demand in 2020 is 
greater under P'^odel "A" than under 
the "base" projection, and that 
demands are essentially the same 
under Models "b" and "C" as under 
the "base" projection. The higher 
water demand under Model "A" 
reflects the impact of dispersing 
people to inland areas where per 
capita water use is generally 

The following paragraphs provide a 
very general discussion of the 
potential for supply exchanges in 
connection with existing develop- 
ment and the additional water 
supply measures and options indi- 
cated by the population growth 
patterns envisioned by the three 
models. It must be recognized that 
numerous legal and administration 
issues would need resolution to 
carry out some exchanges. 

Northern Model "A" . The resultant 
increase in anticipated urban water 
demands in the North Coastal region 
could be met by local streams 
development along the Mendocino 
Coast. In the Central Coastal 
region, future demands around 
Monterey Bay could be met from 
reserve supplies from the South San 
Francisco Bay area (water which 
would not be needed with a shift of 
future population increase); and 
similar demands in the southern 
portion of the region could be off- 
set by transfers of reserve supplies 
from the South Coastal area. 

Water demands for the new urban 
center in the upper Sacramento 
Basin could be provided by reserves, 
local streams development or by 

importation from the North Coastal 
area. Additional demands in the 
Delta-Central Sierra area could be 
supplied in part from American and 
Cosumnes Rivers sources with addi- 
tional supplies obtained from 
reserves available to the San 
Francisco Bay area or by other im- 
ports from the Sacramento Basin. 

New cities in the Sierra foothills 
and other new demands in the San 
Joaquin Basin could be served from 
the Friant Unit and the proposed 
East Side Division of the Central 
Valley Proj'ect. New urban develop- 
ments on the east and west sides of 
the Tulare Basin could be served, 
respectively, by the East Side 
Division and by diversions of water 
supplies from the California Aque- 
duct that would not be needed in the 
South Coastal area under this popu- 
lation distribution alternative. 
Additional demands in the North 
Lahontan area could only partially 
be met by developing local streams 
and probably would require imports 
from the Sacramento Basin. 

The projected additional urban water 
demands in the South Lahontan area 
could be supplied by diversions of 
water supplies from Los Angeles 
Aqueduct or the California Aqueduct 
that would not be needed in the 
South Coastal region under conditions 
imposed for this population model 
study. The Colorado Desert could 
similarly be served by diversions 
from the Colorado Aqueduct. 

Central Model "B" . Under this cen- 
tral-oriented model major new popu- 
lation centers are envisioned along 
the Central Coastal areas of Monterey 
Bay and the Santa Maria and Santa 
Ynez Valleys. New cities are also 
envisioned along the Sierra foothills 
in the San Joaquin Basin. As in the 
other models, the population increase 
in the San Francisco Bay and South 
Coastal areas would be less than 
anticipated under the "base" pro- 
jection. The much larger demands in 
the Central Coastal area could be 
satisfied by a transfer of reserve 
supplies from the San Francisco Bay 
and South Coastal areas, coupled 


with local streams developments and 
by the desalting of sea water. 
Also, water reclamation could assist 
in extending the water supply. The 
additional Model "B" urban water 
demands in the Sacramento Basin 
could be supplied from reserves ; 
and those in the Delta-Central 
Sierra could be met from American 
River sources. For the most part, 
the new communities along the east 
side of the San Joaquin Basin could 
be supplied by the proposed East 
Side Division of the Central Valley 
Project. The new cities on the 
east side of the Tulare Basin could 
also be served by the East Side 
Division, and the California Aque- 
duct could provide the necessary 
water supplies for those cities on 
the west side of the Basin. Demands 
in the North Lahontan area could be 
met by the development of local 
streams. Supplies for the new 
urban centers in the South Lahontan 
and Colorado Desert areas could be 
provided by diversions of water 
from the Los Angeles and Colorado 
Aqueducts that would not be needed 
in the South Coastal area under the 
assumptions of this population 
model . 

Southern Model "C" . For the 
southern-oriented population model 
the largest new cities are suggested 
in the South Lahontan and Colorado 
Desert areas. New cities in the 
desert region would require an 
Importation of more water from 
greater distances than in the other 
models . 

The large new cities suggested in 
the Mojave area could be served by 
increased deliveries via the 
California Aqueduct. Extension of 
the aqueduct could also serve por- 
tions of the water demand created 
by the suggested cities in the 
Colorado Desert. Colorado River 
water supplies presently allocated 
to the South Coastal region could 
also be used to meet part of the 
needs in these new cities. 

The additional urban demands sug- 
gested by the southern-oriented 
model in the North Coastal, 

San Francisco Bay, South Coastal, 
Sacramento Basin, Delta-Central 
Sierra, Tulare Basin and North 
Lahontan areas could be met by 
essentially the same means as the 
projected demands in the central 
model. New cities in the Central 
Coastal area could be served by a 
reserve supply available to the 
San Francisco Bay area, by develop- 
ing local streams, desalting, and 
water reclamation; and those in the 
San Joaquin Basin could be served 
in part by supplies from the San 
Francisco area and by the proposed 
East Side Division. 

From the analysis of the water 
demand-water supply relationships 
for the "base" projection and the 
three hypothetical models it can 
be concluded that: (l) no matter 
how the population may be distri- 
buted in the future, demands for 
developed water will remain essen- 
tially the same, and it will be 
primarily a matter of the optional 
sources of water supply and 
variation of patterns and costs of 
transportation of supplies to areas 
of need (Table 14 ) ; (2) the water 
supplies available from existing or 
definitely planned facilities would 
be some 5 million acre-feet per 
year short of satisfaction of 2020 
demands, thus requiring development 
of 5 million acre-feet annually frctri 
new sources (see Table 8 in 
Chapter VI); and (3) as compared 
with the "base" projection there 
would be a reduced opportunity for 
sea water conversion for Models 
"A" and "C", because of their 
greater inland concentration of 

Waste Disposal 

The concept of new cities offers an 
opportunity for applying a compre- 
hensive systems approach to the 
entire problem of waste management. 
In existing urban areas, corrective 
measures generally are not taken 
until considerable damage has 
already been done to the environ- 
ment. In a new city, however, waste 
management facilities can be 
designed concurrently with the 


total urban coinplex so that the 
most safe, esthetically pleasing 
and efficient results can be 
obtained. With proper zoning and 
other controls over growth and 
types of development, facilities 
for disposing of wastes need never 
become inadeauate. 

New cities in coastal locations 
would present about the same waste 
water disposal problems that would 
be e>:pected if an equivalent devel- 
opment should take place adjacent 
to existing coastal metropolitan 
areas. The better quality waste 
waters could be reclaimed for 
selected reuse applications, such 
as environmental enhancement 
projects or ground water recharge 
with the poorer quality water dis- 
posed of in the ocean after ade- 
quate treatment. Carefully designed 
deep ocean disposal of adequately 
treated waste water should cause 
little ecological degradation and 
may be beneficial in some areas 
where present nutrient levels are 
not adequate for desirable bio- 
logical growths. The future, 
however, holds the possibility of 
much greater recycling of waste 

In the Central Valley large con- 
centrations of people and the 
industrial base to support them 
could present major waste water 
management problems . The problems 
would intensify with distance from 
the ocean as the ocean is the 
ultimate natural repository of 
wastes, and added mineral loads in 
the water supply must be removed or 
find their way to the ocean. 

Water reclamation would appear to 
be an essential element of any 
waste vjater management plan for new 
cities in the Central Valley. 
Excessive algal growths could cause 
particular damage to fisheries, 
recreational uses and esthetics. 
On the other hand, nutrients 
retained in the treated effluent 
when used for irrigation help meet 
fertilizer requirements and further 
reduce nutrient concentration in 
the return water. Overall salt 

loads returned to streams would 
remain about the same with or with- 
out a reclamation phase, however, 
because neither treatment methods 
nor irrigation would reduce dissolved 
minerals in the waste water. 

In the Colorado Desert area disposal 
of waste water from large population 
centers may be even more complex 
than in the Central Valley. Waste 
effluents cannot be discharged into 
the Colorado River without adding to 
the already highly dissolved salt con- 
centrations of the river. One solu- 
tion that appears reasonable would 
be to allow waste water, after bene- 
ficial reuse, to drain into artifi- 
cial salt lakes where evaporation 
would concentrate the salts and no 
further use would be intended. Sites 
would have to be selected where per- 
colating highly mineralized water 
would not degrade usable ground 
water supplies. The ecologic impact 
of such new sinks would require 
study. Deep-well injection of waste 
water may be a possible alternative 
to evaporation lakes. 

The problem of disposal of solid 
wastes is one which is growing more 
intense as our society becomes more 
affluent, complex and sophisticated. 
Solid waste disposal covers a wide 
range, including garbage, trash, 
clothing, furniture, automobiles, 
other miscellaneous household and 
commercial discards, debris from 
building construction or demolition, 
sewage sludge, agricultural wastes, 
industrial refuse, and last but not 
least, hazardous wastes such as 
explosives and radioactive materials. 
While production of solid wastes 
presumably would be the same, 
irrespective of population distri- 
bution, the disposal sites would be 
substantially influenced. 

At the present time many methods of 
handling solid waste are being 
experimented with, including land fill, 
composting, improved methods of 
Incineration, dumping at sea, 
destructive distillation, pyrolytlc 
decomposition, wet digestion or 
combinations of these techniques. 
Most of the disposal methods create 


further pollution problems in other 
areas, i.e., land fill may pollute 
underlying ground water and may 
produce gaseous or other noxious 
effects, and sea dumping may pollute 
coastal areas . 

Electric Power 

In the "base" projection it was 
assumed that the primary source of 
additional electric power in the 
future would be from steam electric 
plants, mostly nuclear. In gen- 
eral, the plants would be located 
along the coastline, because of the 
need for large quantities of cooling 
water and because most of the popu- 
lation, and therefore power require- 
ments, would be located in the 
coastal areas. 

The hypothetical models would, in 
general, move the population inland. 
However, it is anticipated that the 
location of powerplants would remain 
along the coastline, with the power 
transmitted to Inland areas of need, 
as necessary. This would require 
the construction of substantial 
transmission facilities of high 
capacity. Significant environ- 
mental issues would be involved. 
It is considered that the popula- 
tion dispersal would not have a 
significant effect on overall power 
requirements . 

Dispersal of population to Northern 
California probably would be the 
most advantageous from an electric 
power standpoint. With the increase 
in population in Northern Califor- 
nia, plants could be moved farther 
north into less populous coastal 
areas. In regard to transmission, 
power that would be wheeled to 
Southern California over the exten- 
sive grid traversing the valley 
could be absorbed enroute by con- 
struction of minimum facilities. 

In the case of population increase 
along the foothills of the Sierra 
in Central California, extra trans- 
mission would be required from the 
coastal powerplants to the Sierra 
foothills. However, the major 

north/south bulk transmission grid 
in the Central Valley would minimize 
the additional transmission facilities 
which would be required. 

The most difficult possibility with 
regard to electric power would 
result from dispersal of the popula- 
tion into the southern portion of 
the State. In this assumption, 
large numbers of people would be 
located in the desert areas in the 
Colorado Desert and the southern 
portion of the South Lahontan area. 
This would require substantial 
amounts of transmission facilities 
to serve the people in the desert 
areas . Due to the high population 
density of the Southern California 
areas, the addition of transmission 
facilities is difficult from an 
environmental as well as practical 
standpoint, and quite expensive. The 
southern dispersal of population, 
particularly to the desert areas, 
would require special attention 
with regard to electric power. 

Other Considerations 

Population dispersal would have an 
impact on a number of environmental 
and other factors which were not 
considered in the analysis of the 
hypothetical models. However, other 
state agencies provided some insight 
on air pollution and transportation as 
related to population distribution 
patterns . 

V/ith regard to air pollution, the 
Office of Planning and Research is 
undertaking a study to evaluate the 
impact of alternative population 
distribution patterns. It is antic- 
ipated that the Air Resources Board 
and other state and local agencies 
will be involved in providing a 
detailed assessment of this problem. 
At this point it is possible to do 
no more than draw attention to the 
major issues concerning air pollution 
and to hypothesize as to the relation- 
ship between population distribution 
and the problems of air pollution. 

Land use and population policies can 
be utilized to control the quantity 
of pollutants emitted in an area. 


with a substantial effect on air 
quality. Generally the greater the 
population in an area, the greater 
the number of sources and the total 
emissions. Thus, prevention of 
concentrations of harmful pollutants 
may necessitate control of one or 
more of the following: (l) the 
total number of people in an area, 

(2) the population density, and 

(3) the location, size, number, and 
strength of sources of pollution. 

Meteorological conditions determine 
the amount of air available to 
dilute concentrations of pollutants 
emitted to the air. Therefore, 
population policies which locate 
people in areas with favorable 
meteorological conditions will be 
beneficial in elim.inating future 
pollution problems within the State. 
Generally, dilution is greater along 
the California Coast than Inland 
and greater in Northern California 
than Southern California. The 
implication is that the air pollu- 
tion problem can be reduced in 
intensity in metropolitan areas 
through population dispersal; but 
insufficient knowledge is available 
to enable a quantitative determina- 
tion of the overall impact. 

In our present automobile -oriented 
society, highways have served a 
dual role of reacting to develop- 
ment pressures whil^e at the same 
time stimulating further develop- 
ment in and adjacent to the areas 
served. The approach being investi- 
gated by the Office of Planning and 
Research suggests new transportation 
priorities and probable shifts of 
resources . 

All three models contain population 
redistribution centers within the 
Pacific Coastal Mountain Ranges to 
one degree or another. Primary 
corridor linkages in this area lie 
on a north-south axis, with only 
limited east-west connections to 
the central interior. Expansion of 
the number of large urban centers 
in the coastal area will require 
expansion of the north-south 
corridor facilities. Further, 
vastly Improved connections between 
the coast and the central interior 

probably would be essential to 
improve communications between these 
two areas. 

Current transportation corridors in 
the Sierra-Cascade foothills area 
lie on a north-south axis on the 
valley floor. Development of large 
urban centers within the foothills 
areas would require expanded trans- 
portation facilities within the 
north-south corridors as well as 
improvem.ent of east-west corridor 
connections to urban centers on the 
valley floor and in the North and 
Central Coastal areas . 

Development of new urban centers in 
the southern portion of the State 
would require expansion of the 
corridor facilities between the 
desert interior and the southern 
coastal area. Improved north-south 
corridor facilities within the 
southern coastal zone would probably 
be necessary to maintain an adequate 
level of intraregional com,municatlon. 
Expanded north-south corridor facili- 
ties between Southern California and 
Northern California areas most likely 
will be necessary to accommodate the 
demand generated by the growth 
centers in these respective regions. 

Transportation is therefore easily 
identifiable as a major factor 
impacting upon population distribu- 
tion. The type, speed, cost, con- 
venience and com.fort of various 
transportation modes can signifi- 
cantly affect the distribution of 
population and land uses. 

In summary, the impacts of popula- 
tion dispersal discussed in this 
chapter are based only on very 
cursory examination. With exception 
of the Impact on water demands, the 
conclusions that can be drawn are 
more significant in the questions 
raised rather than in definitive 
information. They point out the 
need for careful study of any pro- 
posed population center to evaluate 
meaningfully the potential problems. 
It is apparent that suggestions to 
direct people to areas of surplus 
water involve various problems, all 
of which must be considered together. 




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