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Full text of "Water & sewage works"

oHomc 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/watersewageworks48chic 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 

The World's Leading Municipal Publication 



Contents— April, 1915 



Editorial. 

The New Municipal Engineering — Prospective Municipal Improvements 235 

Improvement of Pogue's Run, Indianapolis, Indiana 236 

The Municipal Gas Plant of St. Petersburg, Florida 240 

Road and Boulevard Construction in Philadelphia, Pa 242 

Commission Government and an Engineer Manager for Lakeland, Florida. 

By H. D. Mendenhall, Consulting Engineer 249 

Public Comfort Station in Salt Lake City 251 

Municipal Improvements for 1915. 

Street Pavements — County Roads — Street Grading — Road Grading — Sidewalks — Curb and Gutter — Sewer 
Construction — Drains — Sewage Disposal — Water Works — Lighting — Bridges and Buildings — County 
Road Bridges — Garbage Disposal — Street Signs — County Road Signs — Fire Department — Police De- 
partment — Public Improvements in Philadelphia, Pa 252-271 

Question Department. 

Treating Water with Chemicals — Cinders for Road Construction — Fibered Asphalt Pavement — Specifi- 
cations for Patented Pavements — Practical Aid Wanted for Civic Improvement 272-273 

Workers in the Field. 

Ordinance Governing City Forester — Method of Proportioning Materials for Concrete Pavements and 
Sidewalks — Where Good Roads are not Wanted — El Oso Asphalt — Politics and the City Manager in 
Phoenix — Box Car Unloader and Conveyor 274-276 

Miscellaneous. 

Canadian Bitulithic Patents Sustained — Pan-American Road Congress — Syracuse Pavement Guaranty 
Reduced to Five Tears — The Good Roads Tear Book — Technical Associations — Civil Service Exami- 
nations — Technical Schools — Personal Notes 277-279 

Machinery and Supplies. 

Durability of Bitulithic — Gasolabra for Modern Ornamental Street Lighting — Medusa Waterproofing 
Paste — The Hetherington and Berner Road Plant — Grouting Brick Pavements — A Valuable Addi- 
tion to the Fire Department — Minerva Waterproofing — Conveyors and Loaders for Contractors — 
Trade Publications 280-282 




Published Monthly by ENGINEERING PUBLISHING COMPANY, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Entered at Postoffice, Indianapolis, Indiana, as Second-Class Matter. 

A. P. FOX, President. C. C. BROWN, Editor. C. S. SALE, Gen'l Manager. 

Subscription Price in U. S. and Possessions, Cuba and Mexico, $2.00. Canada, $2.40. Foreign, $2.75. 

Changes of address, subscriptions, remittances and editorial matter, should be addressed to Municipal Engineering, 

Indianapolis, Indiana. 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 






Why Architects Say: "SACKETT" 




The Athenaeum Bldg., Kansas City, Mo., Has "SACKETT" Lined Walls. 

ARCHITECTS specify "Sackett" Plaster Board because of its 20 
years record of efficiency in saving hundreds of buildings from 
L destruction by fire. They know that under actual test Sackett 
will not burn. They know that it is effective in preventing sound from 
passing from one room to another — VA times more sound-proof than 
wood lath, as was proven by researches at Lewis Institute, Chicago. 
Finally they know that with Sackett there is no swelling, warping, bulg- 
ing, shrinking or staining — that it affords a perfect plastering surface. 

A "Sackett" Partition ^ , . , , ., , Get this Book 

bvery architect and builder , 

— every one interested in 

the safeguarding of life and 

property should read 

A Thrilling Camera Story 

telling what Sackett is and demon- 
strating by photographs what actu- 
ally takes place when Sackett is sub- 
jected to a hot fire. Write for it today. 

ED STATES GYPSUM COMPANY 





'World's Largest Producers of Gypsum Products" 



205 West Monroe Street 

NEW YORK CLEVELAND 



MINNEAPOLIS 



CHICAGO 

SAN FRANCISCO 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 

The World's Leading Municipal Publication 



Contents — May, 1915 



Editorial. 

Competition of Private and Government Engineers — Future Business 283 

Municipal Water and Light Plant of Kansas City, Kansas. 

By P. W. Morgan, Kansas City, Mo 284 

Price and Cost of a Road. 

By H. E. Bilger, M. Am. Soc. C. E., Road Engineer Illinois State Highway Department, Spring- 
field, 111 286 

Chicago's Municipal Repair Shop. 

By C. C. Saner, C. E., Chicago, 111 289 

Toledo Swimming Pool 291 

Wood Fiber and Asphalt as Paving Materials. 

Staff Article 292 

Making Ice With Purchased Electric Power. 

By Charles A. Tripp, Consulting Engineer, Indianapolis, Ind 294 

Terms of California Waterworks Franchises 296 

Private Claims to New York City Water Supply Sources Groundless 296 

The New Water Filtration Plant at Quincy, III. 

By W. R. Gelston, Superintendent, Quincy, 111 297 

Advertising a City by Moving Pictures. 

By Albert Marple, Tropico, Cal 298 

Question Department. 

Statistics of Street Pavements — Use of Asphaltic Macadam and Asphaltic Concrete for Pave- 
ments — Garbage Reduced to Fertilizer * 299 

Frcm Workers in the Field. 

Cost of Asphalt Repairs in Pittsburg — Closed, Open, or \i ornate Paving Specifications — EI 

Oso Asphalt — Refuse Collection in River Forest, 111. — Clean-Up Week in Philadelphia 300-301 

Legal Decisions. 

Decisions of the Higher Courts of Interest to Municipalities — Warren Paving Machinery Pat- 
ents Sustained . 302 

Sanitation. 

A Comprehensive Clean-Up Campaign for Cincinnati — Making Fuel out of Garbage — Compara- 
tive Cost of Street Sweeping and Sprinkling with Mules and with Motors — Rochester Can 

Specify Bitulithic — Specification of "A Sufficient Quantity" is Valid 303-305 

Water. 

Improved Water from Deep Wells in Northern Illinois — Efficient Municipal Operation of Clarks- 
burg Water Works 306-307 

Roads and Pavements. 

Replacing Brick Pavements After Street Excavations — Illinois Specifications for Concrete and 
Brick Pavements — Difficult Construction of Concrete Road — Brick Pavement on Old Mac- 
adam Base 308-312 

Miscellaneous. 

The New Professor of Civil Engineering at Illinois — London in the Dark — Technical Associa- 
tions — Personal Notes — Publications Received 313-315 

Machinery and Supplies. 

French Engineer Advocates Wire-Cut-Lug Brick — Small Highway Culverts — Koehring Catalog 
a Valuable Book on Mixer, Machine Placing and Crew Handling — Machine Vs. Hand Sweep- 
ing — Efficient Lighting Service — Strengthening the Macadam Road to Meet Modern Traffic — 
How to Clean Streets — New Pavements for Old — An Efficient Power Trench Tamper — A 
Perishable Dividing Plate for Expansion Joints in Concrete — Wireless Truck Tires on Ex- 
position Busses— Trade Notes 316-326 



A. P. FOX, President. 
C. C. BROWN, Editor. 



Subscription Pr 



C. S. SALE, Gen'l Manager. 
C. A. DICKENS, Adv. Mgr. 



Published Monthly by 

ENGINEERING PUBLISHING COMPANY 

Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Entered at Postoffice, Indianapolis, Indiana, as Second-Class Matter. 

in U. S. and Possessions, Cuba and Mexico, $2.00. Canada, $2.40. Foreign, $2.75. 



Western Ofhce 

8 S. Dearborn Street 

Chicago 



Changes of address, subscriptions, remittances and editorial matter, should be addressed to Municipal Engineering, 

Indianapolis, Indiana. 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




Contrast the "slow-poke" methods of these street cleaning athletes 
with the proven efficiency of 

Baker's Dustless "Pick-up" Sweeper 

with sprinkling attachment 

The fellows in the photograph above have never 

seen the photograph belcrvv — that's why! And that's the reason 
why we want you to send to-day (right now) for illustrated particulars on this 
Baker machine which sprinkles and cleans streets in one operation!! One 
man does it— at a cost approximating 10 cents ^er block in most cities, and so 
can you! 

Get the latest perfected mechanical street clean- 
ing department — sprinkler, sweeper, pick-up and "carry 
away" — all rolled into one! One man is all you need and he drives 
the horses!! Why not be up-to-date? Why not save the taxpayers 
money — and give him clean streets at the same time? 

The two tanks hold 150 gallons of water. The water 

is applied through a pipe in which there are drilled very small 
holes one inch apart. The valves controlling the flow of water are operated 
by pedal. 

The Baker Mfg. Co. 

570 Stanford Avenue 
SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS 







It will save for you. Just 
ask us for details NOW. 






The Easy "Why 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 

The World's Leading Municipal Publication 

Contents— June, 1915 

Asphaltic Oil Well on Island of Trinidad Front page of cover 

Editorial. 

National Highways 327 

Financing and Building a County Highway 328 

Street Lighting of London. 

By W. B. Conant, Concord, Mass 333 

Wood Block and Granite for Bridge Floors. 

By Edward A. Byrne, Assistant Chief Engineer Department of Bridges, New York City 337 

Garbage and Refuse Collection and Disposal in St. Louis, Mo 340 

Regulation of Jitney Busses in St. Louis 341 

Street and Sidewalk Improvement in the United States and Canada 343-358 

Changes in Specifications 343, 358 

Asphalt Pavements 1st col. 344, 346 

Brick Pavements 2d col. 344, 346, 348, 350, 352 

Concrete Pavements ■ 3d col. 344, 346, 348, 350, 352 

Concrete Pavements with Bituminous Top 1st col. 345, 347 

Bitulithic 2d col. 345, 347 

Water-bound Macadam 3d col. 345, 347 

Bituminous Macadam 1st col. 347, 349, 351 

Oiled Roads and Streets 3d col. 347, 349, 351, 353 

Asphalt Block 1st col. 348 

Creosoted Wood Block 1st col. 348, 350, 352 

Bituminous Concrete 2d col. 349, 351, 353 

Stone Block 1st col. 351, 353 

Gravel Streets 3d col. 351, 353 

Sidewalks 1st col. 352-358 

Curbs 2d col. 352-358 

Gutters 3d col. 352-355 

Concrete Combined Curb and Gutter 3d col. 355-358 

Roads and Pavements. 

Improvement of Sheridan Road in Highland Park, 111. — Colloids in Relation to Manipulation 
of Structural Materials — A Shockless Railroad Crossing — Profits of San Francisco Munici- 
pal Railway — Tires for Fire Apparatus — Signs for National Highways and Their Feed- 
ers 359-363 

Miscellaneous. 

International Engineering Congress — Portland Cement Production and Cost — Commercial Ed- 
ucation for Foreign Trade — Of Interest to Employers — Public Service Commission for Os- 
wego — The Engineering Foundation — Civil Service Examinations — Technical Schools — Tech- 
nical Associations — Conventions at the Panama-Pacific Exposition — Personal Notes — Publi- 
cations Received 364-366 

Machinery and Supplies. 

Badger Water Valve — The Rocmac Road — Buckeye Berea Curbing — Three-Unit Asphalt Plant 
on Highway Construction — How to Prevent the Reflection of Light and Heat from Concrete 
Pavements — An Edge Protector for Concrete Structures — Power-Driven Distributing Spout 
for Concrete Mixer — The Master Concrete Mixer — New Type of Pressed Steel Building Con- 
struction — A Contractors' Pump — Trade Notes — Trade Publications 367-380 



A. P. FOX, President. Published Monthly by C - S - SALE . Gen'l Manager. 

c. c brown, ED.TOR. . ENGINEERING PUBLISHING COMPANY C A DICKENS ' Adv Mgr 

Eastern Office T ,. ,. T ,• Weste 

1127 world Building Indianapolis, Indiana. 608s.p ea rbc 



Subscription Price in U. S. and Possessions, Cuba and Mexico, $2.00. Canada, $2.40. Foreign, $2.75. 

Changes of address, subscriptions, remittances and editorial matter, should be addressed to Municipal Engineering, 

Indianapolis, Indiana. 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




The Excavator 

That Pays Out — 

The MANEY 

Four Wheel C^f^T* A T>171> 
Cubic Yard OV^JLVrVX £iJ\ 

Easily Saves 5c to 10c per cubic yard 



An Automatic Loading- and Dumping Excavator that is used by 

hundreds of Reliable Contractors and recommended by well known Road Officials 
and Authorities on Dirt Moving. Contractors have moved as high as 60 cubic yards 
an hour with Maneys. 

CUTS COSTS on LIGHT AS WELL as HEAVY DIGGING 




The Maneys on New York State Highwa Work 



The Maney is saving big money on street excavation, 
road construction, railroad grading, quarry stripping 
and canal construction. 

They Pay for Themselves Quickly 

Mr. John Tibey, of Tibey Bros., Paving Contract- 
ors, Dubuque, Iowa, says: 
"1 was able to pay for my Maneys in 30 days and 
found that I had more money than I would have 
had if I had not bought." 




Does the work of Steam Shovels and Elevating Graders — operates cheaper. 
Delivers to the dump easily twice as much material as two wheeled scrapers 
at very little more expense. 

Write now for catalogue and guarantee proposition. 

THE BAKER MFG. CO. 



570 Stanford Avenue 



SPRINGFIELD, ILL., U.S.A. 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 

The World's Leading Municipal Publication 



VOL. XLVIII. 



APRIL, 1915. 



EDITORIAL 



With this number the change 
THE NEW in size of page of Municipal En- 

MUNICIPAL gineering, which has been in con- 

ENGINEERING templation for some time, is 
made effective. A material im- 
provement in the internal appearance of the magazine 
has been made and the cover, while more fixed in con- 
tent and appearance, is not a retrogression. 

A few subscribers prefer the magazine size, which 
has been followed rather closely since the fourth vol- 
ume, but it is believed that the majority will be satis- 
fied with the change when they see the improvements 
which accompany it. Of course the advertisers like 
it, their opportunity for display is so much improved. 

The difficulty arising from changing the size in the 
middle of the volume can be met by binding the pres- 
ent volume in two parts. This office meets it, how- 
ever, by binding the first three numbers in the same 
book with the preceding volume and the next three 
numbers in the same volume with the last six months 
of the year. 

Other improvements are in contemplation and will 
be made as rapidly as the improvement in business 
conditions will warrant. 



PROSPECTIVE 

MUNICIPAL 

IMPROVEMENTS 



The tables of work in pros- 
pect for the year 1915 given 
in this number as the annual 
estimate of the demands upon 
contractors for public im- 
provements show that the states, cities and counties of 
this country will not be idle this year. 

A comparison with last year's tables shows several 
interesting facts. It will be seen that the number of 
cities reporting work in prospect is materially shorter 
than last year's list. This is due to two conditions: 
The first is that no work is to be done. Not a few 
cities have made this report and it is probable that a 
considerable number of the failures to report are due 
to the fact that the city engineer prefers not to report 
that the city is to do no work. The second is that 



some cities are slower than usual in deciding what 
work they will do this year and so the reports do not 
arrive in time for inclusion in these tables. 

It is natural that taxpayers should object to the im- 
position of improvement taxes when their income is 
supposed to be somewhat uncertain, and that all should 
consider the increase in the rates of bond issues. If 
bonds are issued they will be paid in later years, when 
the present unpleasantness has passed, so that the 
advantages of constructing public works at the present 
time should have great weight in overcoming the dis- 
inclination to issue bonds. The real question is as to 
whether these advantages will reduce the cost enough 
to make up for the increase in interest charges. This 
question must be answered for each individual locality, 
but the probability is that present prices for labor and 
materials will not continue long. The most far-seeing 
financiers believe that the increased rates for money 
will probably last for a long time. The present de- 
mands for capital for war purposes will be succeeded 
by large demands for capital to repair the ravages of 
war and to put old and new industries on their feer, 
so that the available •money will be working overtime 
to keep up with the demand. Municipal bonds are now 
favorites in the market and can usually be placed read- 
ily, tho a good many bids have been rejected because 
the interest demanded was too high. The opinion of 
financial authorities generally is strongly in favor of 
the immediate issue of bonds for public improvements 
as in the long run most economical. They do, how- 
ever, advise against undertaking improvements which 
are really not needed for some years to come. 

The amount of county road work to be done is very 
materially larger than last year. This is doubtless due 
to the rapid increase during the past few years in the 
sentiment in favor of really good roads, which has cul- 
minated in a greatly increased demand for construc- 
tion, which may continue to increase for several years. 
This demand has overcome the handicaps which the 
cities have had, and has resulted in the larger amount 
of work in prospect for this year. County and town- 
ship bonds are quite as salable as city bonds and large 
amounts are placed on the market each month. 



April, 1915 



IMPROVEMENT OF POGUE'S RUN 

INDIANAPOLIS. INDIANA 



been one of the troublesome 
drainage problems of Indianapolis. The plans for 
track elevation thru the center of the city hare final- 
ly demanded a solution. This article sketches the 
methods of design ana" construction adopted, the 
photographs making a large part of the slwze: 



PS l;i X is a small st iram running thru the central 
portion of the cit> of Indianapolis, Ind., from northeast 
uthwest and discharging at present into White river near 
the southern bounds ity. It was the natural location 

railroads entering the city from the east and north 
and the I'nion Station is located in part over the stream. 

Ix)\v water in the run shows scancly 5 cubic feet of water 
flowing per second, while freshets have increased the flow at 

times to 3, cubic feet a second. Old bridges carrying streets 

the stream, the arches carrying it under the Union 
Hon and under other buildings, the walls and superstructures 
carrying the railroads along and over it. have obstructed its 
How to a greater or less extent, and its improvement has been 
ed for twenty or thirty years. 
Track elevation has been delayed by differences of opinion 
as to the improvement of the stream and the lowering of its 
bed if the streets were to be depressed to any extent in 
rating the grades, but finally the administration preceding 
the present incumbents worked out an agreement with the 
railroads by which the improvement of the run and the recon- 
struction ami enlargement of the Union Station train sheds 
and appurtenances should be parts of the track elevation plans 
and paid for by the companies and municipalities interested 
in the proportions fixed by law. It was also provided that 
the run should have its bed lov I to feet where it 

J under the tracks to be elevated and part of the streets 
should be depressed corresponding amo 



DIMENSIONS AND LAYOUT o 

* a in this drawing, which 
s the standard ts fur the full 



When the present administration took the matter up it 
found the contract with the railroads made, but has succeeded 
in keeping the streets practically at their present grades and 
has somewhat enlarged the dimensions of the concrete struc- 
ture to carry the waters of the run at the rather flat grades of 
0.15 and 0.20 per cent. 

The twin concrete conduits of the new structure follow 
the bed of the run except for a thousand feet or so above 
Washington street and a similar distance near the Union Sta- 
tion, where it follows Meridian street and an alley for 3 or 4 
blocks instead of running under the Union Station and other 
buildings as at present. It also leaves the present course of 
the run where that stream turns south and continues directly 
w,st on a much shorter route to the river, as described below. 

The drain follows the old line of Pogue's Run to Ohio street, 
then it parallels the C, C, C. & St. L. tracks nearly to Wash- 
ington street, where it again follows the old bed until it crosses 
Pennsylvania street. Here it runs across to Meridian street, 
down Meridian to Merrill street, then to the old site of the run 
at tlie alley west of Meridian. It then follows the run to Nor- 
wood street, where it again leaves the old line and runs in a 
Westerly direction to White river just south of the Kentucky 
avenue bridge. 

The drain consists in general of two boxes each 8 feet high 
and of lS-foot span, built of reinforced concrete and connected 
by "equalizers," openings in the center wall every 100 feet. 
These openings are 5 feet by 6 and the form and method of 
reinforcing are shown in one of the photographs. The bot- 
tom and top slabs vary from 19 to 34 inches in thickness. The 
walls are IS to 20 inches in thickness. There is a heavy sec- 
tion where the drain runs under the Vandalia siding and an- 
other where it runs under the Illinois Central tracks; also 
where the run parallels the C, C, C. & St. L. Railway. 

The contract includes the replacing of all pavements by 
tie contractor, the removal of bridges and connecting the ends 
of pavements where bridges formerly were. 

The excavating is being done with a Browning hoist with 

-hovel attachment. It consists, as a rule, in the old bed 

of the run, of some slime, below which is sand and gravel. 

Where it is suitable this gravel is being used in the concrete. 

The reinforcements consist of steel rods of Jj-inch to l'_- 
inch diameter, which are unloaded and bent to the proper 
shape in a yard near the work. It is reported that the cost. 



'_ j«1 S- _ -*S. l, , ! <*_/ \ \. V 







i 



£K <K N 8>^ «\ I | / /^ / / 



^^MJ 









IMPROVEMENT OF POGUES RUN— INDIANAPOLIS 



237 




of unloading, bending and stacking is about $1 per ton. The 
steel is placed in position and wired, at night, by a crew con- 
sisting of a foreman and ten men, at an estimated cost of from 
$2.50 to $3.00 per ton. This crew can place from 20 to 25 tons 
in a night. The steel requirements vary In the different sec- 
tions, being quite heavy under the railroad crossings. The 
lighter sections run below 900 pounds of steel per linear foot 
of the drain, while the heaviest runs 2,460 pounds per linear 
foot. In such sections the specifications call for only a straight 
( not twisted ) deformed square bar for the main transverse 
reinforcing, in order to have as great a space as possible be- 
tween the bars on account of the extra heavy reinforcing. 

The floor is concreted from a 40-foot tower with a %-yard 
Lakewood mixer, with 40 feet of spouting from the dump, 

END VIEW OF FORMS in place for roof slab over 
one-half of the double conduit. In the foreground is 
the completed floor; on the left the reinforcement is 
in place for the wall between the two conduits: on 
the right the reinforcement for one side wall. The 
mixer gang is at work placing concrete for the walls 
and roof slab. 



THE HEAVIEST SECTIONS ol the conduit nulls 
ami the floor and roof slabs are found under the rail- 
way crossings, where the weights to be carried <in 
heaviest. The thickness and amount of reinforcing 
ruins nl different cross-sections between the extremes 
shown in the two dranHngs, as the special conditions 
uf each im uiii a demand. 



® 



which is 30 feet high. The contractor has concreted SO lineal 
feet of flooring in a short day by dragging the concrete some 
at the start of the run. 

The tower is placed in the bottom of the trench just ahead 
of the day's run contemplated. The material is hauled to it 
by a dinky engine, which runs on the top of the bank. It is 
dumped into the ditch and wheeled to the mixer in wheel- 
barrows. 

The walls and top slab are run from a mixer placed on top 
of the completed drain and just behind the day's run. The 
concrete is pushed by hand in dump cars from the mixer to 
the work. 

The wall forms are lined with galvanized iron and are 
made in sections that are used over and over. Some of these 




MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




HEAVY ROOF REINFORCEMENT in place. Com- 
pare with drawing of cross-section to see the location 
of reinforcement near bottom of slab in centers of 
spans, near top and bottom of slab over center wall 
and near outside walls, and the connection of the two 
systems of reinforcement by occasional bent bars reg- 
ularly spaced. 



sections are shown ready to place in one photograph. The 
concrete in the floor and walls is 1:2%: 5 and in the top slab 
is 1:2:4. 

Concreting was commenced on September 5, 1914, and by 
February 1, 1915, there had been placed 8,514 cubic yards ot 
1:2:4 concrete and 11,722 cubic yards of l:2M>-5 concrete and 
1,800 tons of steel, being an average of 136 yards of concrete 
and 12 tons of steel a day including Sundays. The lower 
mixer is run by steam power and the upper by electric. 

The top of the roof slab is trowelled smooth and water- 
proofed with one coat of coal tar, one coat of pitch, then throe 
layers of felt with pitch in between. 

The plans have been in formation for a number of years 
but the contract with the Union Railway Company was for 
mulated and signed under the direction of H. W. Klausmann 
former city engineer. The modified plans, under which the 
work is being constructed, were made under the direction of 
the present city engineer, B. J. T. Jeup. D. C. Hayne is 
assistant city engineer, having the construction work under 
his supervision. Frank C. Lingenfelter has had the working 
out of the plans as his particular duty during the whole period 
of their formulation into their present shape. J. \V. Stearns 
is the engineer in direct charge of the construction work ana 
Dunn & McCarthy, of Chicago, are the contractors. The 
amount of the contract as let was $907,000, but extras for sup- 
porting buildings and the like during construction were esti- 



mated at $31,000 and it is probable that the ultimate cost will 
be practically one million dollars. 

The contract for the improvement of the run is one of the 
track elevation contracts and is handled by the city. The ccn 
tracts for track elevation proper are to be handled by the 
Union Railroad Company. A settlement at the close of the 
work will show which party has expended the most money 
and must reimburse the other. 



# 



REINFORCEMENT ABOUT RELIEF OPENINGS 
in wall between the twin conduits. Careful study of 
the photograph will show the system used to carry 
the weight above down to the foundation around the 
openings. 




IMPROVEMENT OF POGUE'S RUN-INDIANAPOLIS 




Attention is called particularly to the large photograph 
on this page which shows the lay-out of the work while in 
progress. Actually, the mixer in the foreground is operated 
first to lay the floor and while it is moving forward ready for 
another day's work the walls and roof are placed over a previ- 
ous day's work of floor by the mixer in the background, which 
then takes its turn at moving forward. In this way the con- 
creting gang is kept busy at one mixer or the other all the 
time and there is no waiting either for setting of concrete or 
for moving of mixers. The result is large records for con- 
crete placed per day and rapid forward movement of the com- 
pleted work. 



COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF WORK in progress 
on Pogue's Run Improvement. In the foreground the 
concrete mixer is supplying concrete to be distributed 
over the floor thru the trough distributer. In the 
rear a second concrete mixer is in place to supply con- 
crete to hand dump cars on tracks for distribution 
over the roof forms and in the side and center wall 
forms. 



# 



$J 



OUTLET OF POGUE'S RUN twin conduits. Side 
walls, end wall and outfall paving all of reinforced 
concrete. 



COMPLETED ROOF of the twin conduits of the 
Pogue's Run improvement ready for earth covering. 
This covering will vary from practically nothing under 
some street crossings to perhaps 20 feet where the fill 
for the track, elevation is carried on the roof. 





THE MUNICIPAL GAS PLANT 

OF ST. PETERSBURG, FLORIDA. 



lUit few municipalities in this country own and 
operate their own gas plants, and the increase in the 
number of such plants is not rapid. The plant de- 
,/ in this article is apparently up-to-date and 
should aire efficient service for a long time if prop- 
erly managed and operated. 



TIIK fust municipal gas plant in the State of Florida has 
just been completed at St. Petersburg and was put in 
operation in the latter part of November. The new proj- 
ect «ill be watched with interest by city officials and engineers 
as one more answer to the question of whether a municipal 
gas plant is advisable. The plant is one that the city may 
well be proud of and both the city officials and the engineers 
look for the fulfillment of their hopes tor its successful 
operation. 

The completion of the gas plant is the culmination of much 
agitation and debate on the question of municipal ownership. 
as more than once the city was on the point of granting a 
franchise for the construction of a plant by a private indi- 
vidual. The people themselves finally decided not only to 
retain this right but to endorse the policy of municipal owner- 
ship ei' all public utilities. 

The city of St. Petersburg, altho having a permanent popu- 
lation of only 10 to 12 thousand, has a transient winter popu- 
lation of two or three times that number; all coming from 
homes in the large cities of the North, where they are in the 
habit of using gas for various purposes: and even the year- 
round population of the city is largely composed of people 
who have used gas at some time and are familiar with its con- 
venience and economy. For this reason, St. Petersburg offered 
a belter field for a gas plant than most cities of its size, and 
the subject had been talked to a greater or less extent for as 
long as eight or ten years. Main houses which were built ten 
years ago are piped for gas. 

The tirst definite move taken toward securing a plant was 
in the latter part of Hill, when the question began to be de- 
bated in the city council and a committee was appointed to 
investigate and report to the council. From that time until 
March, 1913, the matter was much discussed and bids for 
franchises were received several times, some of which were 
favorably considered by the Council. Mayor Pheil maintained 
that the prices fixed, which ranged from $1.40 to $1.90 per 
thousand cubic feet, were too high, and advocated a municipal 
plant, 'fli.. fight came to a head in March. 191::. when the 
couneil had voted to grant the franchise to W. C. McClure, of 
Peoria, 111., who offered to sell gas at $1.45, which seemed to 
be a reasonable price compared to other places in the state. 
McClure. in order to bind his contract, started construction a* 
nine. Shortly after this tlie city government was changed 
to commission form, consisting of three commissioners, re- 
spectively, Public Works and Utilities. Affairs and Pin 
and ''' Commissioner of Public Works and 

Utilities, Mr C i' Hammond, immediately after going int., 
office, reviewed the frauehise and contract and notified Mr. 
McClure Unit his frauehise v.as invalid and would not 1" I 
nized by the commission. Mr. McClure did not see fit to test 
the validity of his contract in the courts, and the foundation 
of his building can still be seen in the outlying part of the 
city, a relic of private ownership in St. Petersburg. 

Realizing th ; of a gas plant to the continued 



growth of St. Petersburg and feeling that such an enterprise 
should be owned by the municipality, Commissioner Ham- 
mond employed the J. B. McCrary Company, of Atlanta, Ga., to 
prepare plans, specifications and guaranteed estimates for a 
municipal gas plant. The engineers' report showed that the 
plant would be a paying investment to the city and recom- 
mended a bond election for $148,000.00, which provided a lib- 
eral amount beyond the cost of plant for meters, cut-ins and 
other necessary expenses incurred in. putting the plant in oper- 
ation, and a reasonable amount for future extensions. 

The matter was formally placed before the people of the 
city, and in March, 1914, they voted the bonds necessary for 
the installation of the plant. 

Also in March a letting was held and several bids were 
received, but it was found that no bid or combination of bids 
came within the guaranteed estimate submitted by the engi- 
neer, and after due consideration the city decided to give the 
McCrary Company the contract for construction on a percent- 
age basis with their guaranteed estimate as the fixed maxi- 
mum, as this plan saved the city at the outset several thou- 
sand dollars. 

The gas-making machinery was furnished and installed by 
the Gas Engineering Company of Trenton, N. J. The boilers, 
holders and structural steel for the building were installed by 
the R. D. Cole Company of Newnan, Ga. The building and the 
laying of the mains were contracted out by the McCrary Com- 
pany to the Mutual Company and Frank J. Stamm & Son, re- 
spectively, both local concerns of St. Petersburg, Fla., as it 
was their policy to have as much work done locally as possible. 
Construction was started the latter part of May and the plant 
was completed in an unusually short time, barely seven months 
elapsing from the time ground was broken until gas was 
turned on the first consumer. 

Although there are no strikingly novel or unusual features 
about the installation, it is in many respects a model plant as 
to arrangement, etc., as will be seen from the accompanying 
illustrations. It occupies the entire length of a city block, 
allowing plenty of room around the plant and eliminating any 
crowding of the apparatus. The part of the yard around the 
building and between the building and the purifiers is paved 
with brick laid flat on the natural sand foundation, which adds 
greatly to the appearance of the plant and facilitates the 
handling of fuel and oxide. The rest of the yard is sodded. 

The building is of strictly fireproof construction, having a 
steel frame with brick curtain walls and concrete roof. The 
end walls have large steel frame windows, six in each end, 
while each side has five 10-foot openings on the ground floor 
and five on the operating floor, provided with steel roller shut- 
ters and with only 4 feet of brick between them, thus pro- 
viding a maximum of ventilation for the warm climate of 
Florida. 

The arrangement is such that there is plenty of room for 
convenient operation with all the machinery located in the 
same building. About two-thirds of the length of the building 
is occupied by the water-gas sets and next to them are located 
the boilers. Beyond the boilers, in the end of the building. 
are the meter room on one side and all the pumps on the 
other. By this arrangement the pumps can be attended to by 
the fireman with the least possible trouble. There are no par- 
tition walls in the building except those around the meter 
room, as they were not necessary with this thoroly fireproof 
construction and by this design it is possible for the gas maker 
at till times to watch the fireman and the pumps without leav- 
ing the operating floor, since the space in front of the boilers 



April, tan 



THE ST. PETERSBURG MUNICIPAL GAS PLANT 




and over the pumps is not floored over. The operating floor, 
which is of steel plates supported on I-beams, extends as far 
as the boilers and behind them; this extension, together with 
a reinforced concrete slab over the meter room, affording 
ample space for two turbine-driven Sturtevant No. 7 blowers, 
which are operated by cords from in front of the water-gas 
sets. 

There are two 80-h.p. vertical Manning-type boilers of 
heavy construction, making a compact boiler plant and doing 
away with the trouble incident to a brick-lined furnace. The 
The small floor space occupied by this type permitted the ex- 
hauster, a Roots No. 4, to be located on the ground floor be- 
hind the boilers. 

There are two 5-foot water-gas sets with 6-foot generators, 
giving a present capacity of 500,000 cubic feet per 24 hours. 
This apparently large capacity was thought necessary on ac- 
count of the large winter population, which is constantly 
growing. Space is provided in the end of the building for the 
addition of a third and larger set when it is needed. The sets 
are of standard construction, provided with up and down run 
connections, with single reversing valve between generator 
and carburetor. Each set has a separate seal located on the 
operating floor with seal pot in front for ready inspection. 

The take-offs of the seals join before running to the scrub- 
bers, which are located just outside of the building. There 
are two scrubbers arranged with by-passes so that either one 
can be cut out or both used in series or in parallel. 

The scrubbers deliver the gas to a relief holder of 25,000 
feet capacity and from there it is taken by the exhauster and 
forced thru the rest of the apparatus to the storage holder. 
Only one exhauster is installed at present, but by-passes are 
arranged so that the pressure can be maintained by the relief 
holder in case of breakdown, and space is provided for the 
installation of a duplicate exhauster when necessary. 

After leaving the exhauster the gas passes thru a tar- 
extractor, water-tube condenser, shaving scrubber, two 12-foot 
oxide purifiers and an S-foot station meter to the storage 
holder. This is a two-lift holder of 150,000 cubic feet capacity. 
A standard Connelly governor is located directly at the outlet 
of the holder. Every piece of apparatus is by-passed accord- 
ing to the best practice to insure against interruption of 
service. 

As previously stated, all the pumps are located in one cor- 
ner of the building. These consist of two oil pumps, two feed 
pumps and one circulating pump. The oil pumps are con- 



MUNICIPAL GAS PLANT at St. Petersburg, Fla., 
a modern water-gas plant. In this view run h, seen 
nil the outside features of the plant mentioned in the 
article, except one or two of the smaller storage tanks. 

& 

nected for filling the oil-storage tank of 25,000-gallon capacity, 
if desired, but this is so situated that it can also be filled 
by gravity thru a 2-inch line from the railroad siding built for 
the plant. The feed pumps take their suction direct from the 
city mains or thru a Stillwell heater, which is supplied with 
water passing thru the condenser. They also have a connec- 
tion to a creek which passes near the plant, so that this soft 
water may be used in the boilers if desired in case of trouble 
with scale from the city water. The circulating pump sup- 
plies liquor from the tar-separator tank to the overhead 
storage tank, and thence to the two wash-boxes, thus allowing 
a minimum to overflow into the creek, which flows thru a 
residence part of town. 

The distributing system consists of a main 12-inch feeder 
leading from the plant to the central part of town, with 6-inch 
and 8-inch trunk lines branching off on each side of town and 
in the center and 4-inch laterals laid in all the alleys. This 
forms a gridiron covering practically all of the territory in 
town with very few dead ends. The trunk lines run full size 
to the city limits to provide for extensions into new territory 
which is being added very rapidly. 

The price of gas has been fixed at $1.25 per thousand. In 
the engineers' report it was estimated that at this price, with 
1,000 consumers, the city would net something over $250.00 
per month above operating expenses and interest on invest- 
ment. This was based on oil at 5 cents per gallon and coke at 
$6.00 per ton. The city is now using anthracite at $7.65 per 
ton and oil at 4 cents, so that this estimate should at least 
be met if the number of consumers is secured in a reasonable 
time. At present writing it appears that this will be the case, 
for there were about 100 consumers when gas was turned on, 
and after the plant had been in operation three weeks there 
were over 300. Late in February the number of actual con- 
sumers had increased to 450. With as good a start as this it 
will be surprising if the plant does not soon become self- 
sustaining. Everything points to the success of the under- 
taking and there is every reason to believe that the city will 
have reason to be proud of the showing made by the end of 
the first year. 



April, i9ir, 



ROAD AND BOULEVARD 
CONSTRUCTION 



IN PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



The City of Philadelphia covers the entire county 
and has many miles of country road as well as of 
streets with little traffic, on which forms of road im- 
provement can be used which are less expensive than 
regular street pavements. The Bureau of Highways 
has fully recognised that fact, as this article clearly 
shows. In connection with the regular road con- 
struction work some interesting experiments are un- 
der way, the progress of which is also reported in 
this article. 



THE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA occupies the entire county 
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and therefore has a large 
mileage of country roads to construct and maintain. 
The city is also developing a boulevard system which is re- 
quiring a large amount of attention. 

These two classes of roads are similar in some respects 
and very dissimilar in others. They are both in the charge 
of the Bureau of Highways and Street Cleaning, of which 
William H. Connell is the chief, and the following facts and 
photographs are from the portions of his reports covering these 
subjects: 

In 1914, $684,644.16 was expended for the construction and 
maintenance of macadam roads', and all the important thoro- 
fares of the city have been constructed with improved types 
of pavement, leaving the streets of local importance yet to be 
done. The accompanying map shows the work done on roads 
and boulevards during 1912 to 1914, inclusive, and the condi- 
tion of the roads not improved during that time. 

Recognizing that the durability of bituminous pavements 
is largely dependent upon the stability of the foundation, the 
greater part of them are placed upon concrete base with 
thickness of 4 inches when laid upon old macadam foundation, 
and 5 inches for new road construction. This base has added 
an average of 10 to 15 cents per square yard to the first cost, 
but the increased life of the pavement and the cheaper cost of 
renewals of the bituminous surface, when these renewals be- 
come necessary, will far more than offset the slightly increased 
original outlay. 

The most important macadam thorofares in poor condition 
are those occupied by three independent trolley lines. Their 
franchises provide that they shall maintain the pavements on 
the entire area of these roads, but traffic conditions have so 
changed that the railway companies have refused to make the 
necessary repairs and an attempt to force an issue by serving 
notice that if immediate repairs were not made the road would 
be barricaded, as is provided in the franchise, resulted in an 
injunction against the enforcement of the order aud the matter 
is now pending in court. 

During 1914, tinder 170 grading contracts, 22.22 miles of 
streets have been graded, which have done much to develop not 
only the actual streets, but the surrounding territory. 

While the surfacing of macadam roads and bituminous and 
concrete road construction has been performed by contract, it 
has been so clearly evidenced by the experience of former years 
that the resurfacing and patching of waterbound macadam 
roads should be handled by city forces that practically all of 
this work was during the year performed in this manner. 



During 1914, 18.2 miles of macadam roads were resurfaced by 
the city forces at an average unit cost of 39 cents per square 
yard, which compares most favorably with the unit price of 
51 cents per square yard, the average price for contract work 
under similar conditions. The reason this work can be so 
much more effectively performed directly by the city forces is 
that the repairs to be made on any given road cannot be defi- 
nitely determined in advance and no contractor bidding to do 
this work can tell before its commencement what quantities 
of material or how much labor will be required. He is there- 
fore, compelled to bid a rather high price to protect himself, 
but this condition does not obtain when the work is performed 
directly by the city forces. 

The application of bituminous surface treatments on mac- 
adam roads, which practice was introduced in 1912, has been 
one of the great successes in the work of the bureau and has 
probably proved of more benefit to the residents living on 
these roads than any one thing done during this administra- 
tion, as it has not only eliminated the dust nuisance and the 
mud in wet weather, but has added very much to the appear- 
ance of the streets and makes an ideal road for suburban 
traffic. These surface treatments are being placed on all the 
waterbound macadam roads which have been resurfaced or 
which have been placed in a suitable condition to permit of 
this kind of treatment. The remaining roads that are badly 
worn are being treated with an asphaltic oil dust layer until 
such time as funds are available for resurfacing them and 
applying the regular bituminous surface treatment. As the 
amount of bituminous material required each year is progres- 




PHILADELPHIA ROAD AND BOULEVARD CONSTRUCTION 




sively less for the first three years, the unit cost of this work 
has been materially reduced, the average cost of surface treat- 
ing waterbound macadam roads in 1913 being 7.3 cents per 
square yard and in 1914 5.8 cents. These surface treated roads 
are to all intents and purposes as satisfactory for the second- 
ary streets as the roads constructed of bituminous concrete, 
and their cost is greatly less. During the year 98 miles of 
roads were given bituminous surface treatments and 100.8 
miles were treated with a dust layer. 

As the use of concrete roads thruout the country is becom- 
ing increasingly extensive, it was considered desirable to con- 
struct some roads of this type in order to make a comparison, 
under local conditions, with other methods of country road 
construction. Two roads of this type were placed under con- 
tract; the Oxford pike service test concrete road in the north- 
east section, on Oxford pike between the Boulevard and Sec- 
ond street, and Monument avenue, between Belmont avenue 
and Ford road, in West Philadelphia. 

The Oxford pike service test concrete road will have a 
total length of a little over two miles, and a width of 18 feet, 
and will consist of five principal sections of 2,250 feet in 
length, each differing in the composition of the concrete, and 
each section will be sub-divided into two sections of 1,050 and 
1,200 feet each, and the 1,200-foot sections will be again 
divided into four sections to provide for different types of 
bituminous wearing surface. These sections will be surface 
treated with refined coal-gas tar (Tarvia), refined water-gas 
tar (Ugite), asphalt cut-back and Unionite (a mixture of 
rock asphalt and stone grit) : in addition to which a portion 
of each section will be left without any surface treatment. 
Transverse expansion joints will be placed every 30 feet; 
two types of joints will be used, armored and prepared bitu- 
minous. 

The composition of the five concrete sections is as follows: 
First section: 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, 3 parts gravel: 
second section: 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, 3 parts crushed 
trap rock: third section: 1 part cement, 1 part trap rock grit, 
1 part sand, 3 parts crushed trap rock; fourth section: 1 part 
cement, 2 parts trap rock grit, 3 parts crushed hard limestone; 
fifth section: 1 part cement, 2 parts trap rock grit, 3 parts 
crushed trap rock. 

The Monument Avenue road was laid in accordance with 
the design and methods of construction that were considered 



FINISHED SURFACE of test length of concrete 
roadway on Oxford Pike, showing method employed 
in finishing the surface. 



® 



best adapted to meet local conditions and which in most par- 
ticulars conformed to the latest practice, the exception being 
that stone grit and sand, in equal proportions, were used in 
the aggregate instead of sand, which has been the usual prac- 
tice. This road is also 18 feet in width, with transverse 
armored expansion joints every 30 feet. 

Both of these roads are under construction and will be com- 
pleted early in the spring. 

The Byberry and Bensalem Pike service test road, com- 
prising twenty-six different sections, each constructed in 
accordance with one of the recognized standards for the con- 
struction of country roads, was begun in 1912 and completed 
in September, 1913. A preliminary report detailing the method 
of construction used in each section and the cost was made 
last year. As the road is but little over a year old, it is im- 
possible to reach any final conclusions. It is part of a thru 
route to Trenton and New York, and is being observed with 
much interest by all the motorists in this section, and it is, 
of course, being carefully followed up by road engineers thru- 
out the country. 

The first section of the road, laid with Amiesite of trap 
rock and asphaltic cement, is in good condition, a few waves 
having developed. Repairs for two years, November 18, 1912, 
to December 31, 1914, have cost $3.00. 

The second section, a bituminous pavement, mixing method, 
Topeka specification, trap rock and Pioneer road asphalt, is in 
good condition, but commencing to wave slightly, and has cost 
nothing for repairs. 

The third section is of 5-inch concrete pavement with a 
bituminous top composed of one-half gallon of Pioneer road 
surface asphalt per square yard and stone chips. The bitu- 
minous surface has disintegrated and peeled off the concrete 
base, which latter has developed a number of longitudinal 
and transverse cracks. The renewal of the bituminous surface 
would cost about $64, or 12 cents per square yard for the 533.3 
yards area of pavement. 

The fourth, eighth, tenth, thirteenth, fifteenth, eighteenth 
and twenty-sixth sections, of vitrified brick block on 4-inch 



April, 1915 



244 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



concrete base, are in good condition, except a slight longi- 
tudinal crack in section S, and have had no repairs. 

The fifth section is 5-inch concrete pavement with bitu- 
minous top part laid with 1/6 gallon per square yard of 
Ugite A applied by hand and % gallon of Ugite No. 3 applied 
hot In pressure distributer with •"•,-inch thickness of dry trap 
rock chips, followed by ', gallon of hot Ugite No. 3 covered 
with torpedo sand and rolled. It is in good condition and no 
repairs have been made. On about 260 feet of this section 
Tarvia B and A were applied about as above described for 
Ugite, except the second coat was omitted. About 20 per cent, 
of the surface has pulled off and is in poor condition. Repairs 
if made would cost about $9: or 1.9 cents per square yard. 

About 230 feet was coated with Texaco applied very nearly 
as the Ugite was applied except the omission of the second 
coat. Practically all of the bituminous top has peeled off. 
Repairs, if made, would cost about $30, or 12 cents per square 
yard to renew the surface. 

The sixth section, of Filbertine, a bituminous pavement, 
mixing method, of limestone aggregate and asphaltic cement, 
2 inches thick, is in good condition, requiring no repairs. 

The seventh section is a bituminous pavement, mixing 
method, of trap rock and asphaltic cement, part of the area 
having a seal coat of % gallon hot asphaltic cement per square 
yard and %-inch clean trap rock chips. It is all in good con- 
dition, not requiring repairs. 

Part of the ninth section is a 5-inch concrete pavement 
with Dolarway bituminous top, which is generally in good 
condition, the slight repairs which might be made being esti- 
mated to cost $3. Part of the concrete was covered with % 

THE LAST SECTION of the Byberry-Bensalem 
test road, on which many kinds of bituminous surfaces 
are tinder test, with sections of brick roadway be- 
tween. This last section, No. 26, is of brick. Burks 
County is seen in the background. 



gallon per square yard of Bicomac with trap rock chips and 
dust and more Bicomac. Half the surface was covered with 
trap rock dust and half with trap rock chips and rolled 
lightly. Ninety per cent, of the top has peeled off and the 
cost of repairs if made would be $13.44, or 11 cents per square 
yard. 

Part of the concrete was covered with 0.4 gallon per square 
yard of asphalt in naphtha, the naphtha burned out and trap 
rock chips spread and rolled. Practically all the bituminous 
surface has peeled off and it would cost $13.80, or 12 cents 
per square yard, to resurface it. 

Another section to which Bicomac and asphalt were both 
applied has peeled off completely, leaving the concrete base in 
good condition. This would cost $22.92, or 12 cents per square 
yard, to resurface. Another section of concrete was left bare 
and is in good condition, with no repairs except that the sur- 
face is slightly pitted in a few places. 

The eleventh section is a variety of bituminous pavement, 
mixing method with seal coat, which was laid late in 1912 and 
required $25 worth of repairs in 1913, or 2.3 cents per square 
yard of the pavement, probably due to the weather conditions 
during construction, as the pavement is now in good condition 
except a few small holes that require patching. 

The twelfth section is also a variety of binuminous pave- 
ment, mixing method, with gravel and asphaltic cement, part 
having a seal coat of asphaltic cement and trap rock chips 
and part covered with sand. It is in good condition without 
repairs except that the surface is slightly wavy. 

The fourteenth section is of 5-inch Hassam concrete pave- 
ment with bituminous top. 2%-inch trap rock, 1 %-inch trap, 
and crushed pebbles being used in the three parts, and hot 
Ugite No. 3 in the surfacing. It is in good condition, with no 
repairs. 

The sixteenth, seventeenth, nineteenth, twentieth, twenty- 
first, twenty-second, twenty-third and twenty-fourth sections 
are bituminous pavements, penetration method, trap rock 




PHILADELPHIA ROAD AND BOULEVARD CONSTRUCTION 




TYPICAL. CftOSS-SEGTIOM 

Or THE f//VA3f1£0 3U*FJU~E O" 

THE NORTHEAST BOULEVARD 



aggregate, binder applied hot, and having seal coat. Section 
16 has Ugite binder and is in fair condition but raveling in 
spots. Repairs from October 1, 1913, to December 31, 1914, 
cost $9.67, or 1 cent per square yard, and another dollar will 
put it in good condition. 

Section 17 has Byerlyte asphalt binder. It raveled so badly 
that it was rebuilt in 1914 with Tarvia X, costing $473. S2, or 
74 cents per square yard. It is now in good condition, tho 
more or less open. 

Section 19 has Tarvia X binder applied with pressure dis- 
tributer. The pavement was laid in July, 1913, and rebuilt in 
November, 1913, the original material having been burnt in 
preparing for laying. It is now in good condition, tho more 
or less open. 

Section 20 has Texaco asphalt binder. The repairs from 
October 1, 1913, to December 31, 1914, cost $4.36, or % cent 
a square yard. It is now in fair condition, tho slightly rough 
and breaking in a number of places, repair of which would 
cost $7.50 

Section 21 has Standard binder B. It is in good condition, 
without repairs, except for a slight rut about 50 feet long. 

Section 22 has Pioneer road asphalt binder. It is in fair 
condition, without repairs, showing only slight wear on the 
seal coat. 

Section 23 has Bermudez asphalt binder and is in good con- 
dition, without repair, showing only slight wear on the seal 
coat. 

Section 24 has Sun Hydrolene asphalt binder. It is in 
good condition, without repairs, showing only slight wear on 
the seal coat. 

The twenty-fifth section is Bicomac concrete pavement with 
4-inch concrete covered before setting with cold bituminous top 
of Portland cement, sand, trap rock and Bicomac and water. 



It is in fair condition, with a few transverse cracks and a 
surface roughening under traffic. Repairs from January 19. 
1913, to December 31, 1914, cost $127.95, or 11% cents per 
square yard, the repairs probably being required because a 
part of the pavement was laid in freezing weather. 

Of all the noteworthy accomplishments of the bureau dur- 
ing 1914, the one that is probably of greatest importance to 
the city, and of greatest value to the users of the highways, 
has been the opening of the Northeast boulevard, from Broad 
street to Rhawn street. This not only has provided a mag- 
nificent thorofare tending to increase property values and 
encourage building in its immediate vicinity, but it will also 
have a far-reaching influence on the development of the north- 
eastern portion of the city, which heretofore has been handi- 
capped thru the inadequacy of its main arteries of travel. 

The opening of the boulevard to Rhawn street now pro- 
vides a continuous improved road from City Hall, over Broad 
street to the Northeast boulevard, thence to Rhawn street, 
Bustleton pike, over the service test road to the county line, 
and thence to Trenton and New York. The completed boule- 
vard is 6.58 miles long and 300 feet wide, having a central 
driveway 60 feet in width, two side driveways each 34 feet in 
width; the remaining space being used for footways, planting 
and lawn areas. 

The $1,000,000 contract executed in 1913 for the completion 
of the boulevard from Second street to Rhawn street, consist- 



METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION of center drive- 
trail mi Xurtli'ust Boulevard; ronrrrtr with paint 
coat ami six-inch concrete euros separating the water- 
bound macadam shoulders from the bituminous strip 
in the. center of the rc< du ay. 




MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




COMPLETED SECTION OF NORTHEAST BOU- 
LEVARD, showing the thre< grass iilais. 
and sid( icalks, an ideal method of separation of speed 
classes of travel. 

ing of all grading, sidewalks, drainage, planting and the pav- 
ing of the central driveway for the entire length and the side 
driveways from Second street to Tacony Creek bridge, is prac- 
tically completed. In addition another contract in the amount 
of $385,000 has ben executed for reconstructing the central 
and side driveways from Broad street to Second street, and 
paving the side driveways, together with the necessary inci- 
dental work, between Second street and Rhawn street. Work 
on this contract was begun in September of 1914 and its 
progress has been so rapid that the entire paving has been 
completed between Broad street and Second street. The total 
cost of construction of the boulevard from Broad street to 
Rhawn street is $2,807,790.96, which includes the four con- 
tracts and six supplemental contracts awarded since April, 
1903. 

Plans are now being prepared for the extension of the 
boulevard from Rhawn street northward, for which $400,000 
has been appropriated, and work will be put under contract in 
the spring of 1915. 

The Southern boulevard develops South Broad street from 
Oregon avenue to the Navy Yard at League Island. From 
Oregon avenue to Bigler street the boulevard is 70 feet in 
width, this portion running thru and being part of the Plaza, 
which forms an entrance park to the boulevard proper. From 
Bigler street to Pattison avenue the boulevard is 300 feet wide, 
consisting of a 50-foot central driveway, two 26-foot side drive- 
ways, and six different lines of footways, four 8 feet in width 
and two 10 feet wide, the remaining 146 feet being utilized for 
planting and lawn areas. From Pattison avenue southward 
the boulevard lies within the boundaries of League Island 



Park and in this portion its width is 143 feet, made up of a 
central 50-foot driveway, on either side of which is a footway 
18 feet in width. On the extreme easterly side is a space 21 
feet wide in which the trolley tracks are temporarily located. 
The remainder of the space consists of planting areas. 

Owing to the projected work of eliminating grade cross- 
ings in South Philadelphia, it was impossible to arrange for 
physical construction between Pollock and Packer streets, 
where the boulevard will pass over the tracks of the Belt Line 
Railway. Plans for the improvement of this portion of the 
boulevard are now being prepared and the work will be placed 
under contract as soon as funds become available for the pur- 
pose. The present $210,000 contract for the completion of the 
boulevard from Oregon avenue to a point 1,650 feet south of 
Pattison avenue, due to many unfortunate delays, has not been 
completed this year, as was anticipated. About 90 per cent, 
of the work under this contract, however, has been finished, 
and the remainder will be entirely completed early in the 
spring of 1915. 

In 1912, at the beginning of the present administration, 
the specifications in use in the bureau for all classes of road 
construction did not conform to the requirements of modern 
practice. The details of practice in highway work are by 
no means finally standardized on account of the continued 
improvements in construction which are devised from year to 
year, and hence the specifications must continually be altered 
in many details. In September of 1914 the bureau issued a new 
set of standard specifications covering all the classes of im- 
proved pavements which are now being laid in Philadelphia 
and in the compilation of these specifications has performed a 
service of great value to the city, and has developed a specifi- 

A TYPICAL COUNTRY ROAD pavement. With n 
bituminous strip in the center and water-bound mac- 
adam shoulders. 




PHILADELPHIA ROAD AND BOULEVARD CONSTRUCTION 



cation that is in much better form than that used by most of 
the larger cities. 

This single-standard specification covering all classes of the 
so-called improved types of city pavements, and combining the 
material covered by twelve former specifications, not only 
effects an economy, but makes the requirements more readily 
available for reference. Great care has been exercised in the 
phrasing and arrangement of the general clauses and the inac- 
curacies and inconsistencies that crept into the former specifi- 
cations have been eliminated. 

A similar standard specification comprising all the differ- 
ent varieties of work performed on country roads has also 
been compiled and will be published and put into effect during 
the coming year. The final drafting of these specifications is 
undoubtedly one of the most important accomplishments, for 
the nature of all construction work is primarily dependent 
upon the specifications and no matter how effective the organ- 
ization may be, it is impossible for it to accomplish the proper 
results unless the specifications under which the work is per- 
formed conform to the best standards. 

While a complete system of inspecting and testing mate- 
rials independently of the field inspection was inaugurated 
last year, it has been only during 1914 that this work has 
been systematized. Inspectors have been stationed in each of 
the eight bituminous paving plants in the city and are given 
definite instructions relative to the preparation of the mate- 
rials required for each specific street. Heretofore, bituminous 
materials have been prepared according to a single standard 
without varying the proportions of the materials to conform 
to the specific requirements of the individual location where 
it is to be used, but under the present system it is possible to 
make a definite study of the traffic conditions and to prede- 
termine and obtain a definite material which will best serve 
in that particular location. This feature of the work is a 
distinct advance over the former practices employed in this 
city and permits of an exact control of the construction which 
is enjoyed by few cities. 

The inspectors stationed at the bituminous plants, in addi- 
tion to controlling and regulating the materials used, make 
periodical tests of the ingredients, check the proportions and 
methods of combination, regulate the temperatures, and sub- 
mit samples to the laboratories for analysis both of the in- 
gredients and the final mixture. The analyses of the materials 
are made a portion of the street record and will in the future 
furnish an invaluable aid to the proper design of bituminous 
pavements. Had such data been available in regard to work 
performed in the past, the work of the bureau would have been 
much simplified and the proper results could have been ob- 



$J 




TYPICAL COUNTRY ROAD CONSTRUCTION in 
the city of Philadelphia. A bituminous pavement 
with conereti curb; shoulders to be filled in later. 



® 



THIS TABLE SHOWS THE DETAILS of the costs 
of bituminous surface treatment done during 1914, 
1,034,470 square yards of roadway having been treatt </ 
with a total of 334,377 gallons of the materials named. 



tained in a much shorter time. All other materials used in 
highway construction are thoroly inspected and tested and no 
material is allowed to enter any work until it has been exam- 
ined and found to conform to the specification requirements. 

An illustration of the effect of this careful inspection of 
materials is given by the withdrawal from the local market 
of a number of brands of vitrified block which were used 
extensively prior to 1912, but which could not meet the present 
requirements for wearing qualities. The elimination of unsuit- 
able material has continued even thru the past year, with the 
result that only blocks of assured quality are now being 
shipped for use upon city contracts, and at the same time addi- 
tional brands of superior blocks are being introduced to re- 





:::"«%"„ 


~";« X°°l '°" T 


~%"~^— „— 


™~. 


TOTAL 




Hi: 


'-": 


a«CEPIN. 


....* 


^r" 


w ~. 


m °;; 


"-•<* 


Z7S 


PER S«Y«»P 
,'J &. Z-V TRE*T 


»^~o 


««►.. 


1914 


1913 


REFINED COAL TAR -HEAVV- (Target A) 1 3T Tr«e»frr>«nt 


-4.&A 


is. a 


.aos i 


eo,i 


OOAi 


.OOZ.& 


.OXAO 




.0,TS 


OA4S 


oeaa 


06 4l 


Ofl£-+ 


RCr.NED COAL TAR - MCAVV -(T ar „ A) FV^c.,™-, 


Z3, 


is. e 


.0 03 3 


.0003 


.0112 


OOtA 


.oiez 


.C2*4 


■ 0\G7 


„,, 


oea» 


RETIMED COAL TAR- LIGHT -(TarviC. 3) 1 » T T--eotmonl 


.333 


iS.T 


,ooe>& 


.„„ 


.OOG7 


,0047 


.0207 


OZSG 


o.se 


oazc, 


ae.33 


OSS6 


oasa 


REFHsiED COAL TAW- LIGHT -(Tarv.a B) Retreatrr-ent 


.Jl* 


1 A <5 


.OOAA 


OOI, 


.OOSS 


003A 


O.AA 


czoo 


o,ss 


OJSi 


.OA33 


RCriMEP tVATCrt GA3 TAR-l_ISHT-(Uc)itc) J» T Treatment 


.293 


1 © J 


0C30 


OOOA 


.0 033 




OOS3 


OZ46 


D,7, 


OAl3 


OS 13 






Atrifsj£D *ATtfl &A3 TAR-LIGMT-(uqit«) RfTrrormcnt 


.30 1 


13 A 


0O3A 


OOOG 


j,,,, 


OOOi 


o,,o 


OcL^S 


.Ol+B 


o2.se 


.■*.-.> 




«"»HT CUTOAC" 


.3*6 


17 S 


OOST 




.00,1 


.OOA^ 


.0,0, 


OAZO 


.oi&e 


C6,S 


r .' :•■■• 




*»-"UT CUT„C» H«.,„,^„, 


.237 


IBS 


.ooae 


«>■* 


.OOS7 


o«a 


o I3Q 


OJO S 


«» 


.05J2 


OS77 


o»a 





MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 

UNIT COSTS FOR REPAIRS MADE BY CITY FORCES 
1914. 

RESURFACING WATKRBOUND MACADAM 



DISTRICT 


84.YD8. 


LABOR 


TEAMS 


MATERIAL 


TOTAL 


AVERAGE 
UNIT COST 


1 

2 


9021 
700 


1620.66 
130.32 


1121.00 
15.73 


280 5.90 
131.25 


5547.56 
277.32 


.615 
.396 


3 


.... 










.... 


4 
5 
6 
7 


10075 
32702 

55951 


1136.64 
3361.24 
3994.05 


1682.00 

674.03 

3704.75 


2299.73 

6781.43 

11743.11 


5118.37 
10816.70 
19441.91 


.508 
.331 
.348 


TOTAL 


108449 


10242.91 


7197.53 


23761.42 


41201.86 


.38 


7 


3378 


123.21 


105.25 


106.99 


335.45 


.10 



spiked up and rolled, very little material used. 



1 


9609 


2 


.... 


3 


.... 


4 

5 
6 
7 


4477 

14357 

9449 



PATCHING WATSRBOUND MACADAM 
2113.45 1511.36 



824.74 
1701.42 
1095.71 



679.58 

599.89 

1117.67 



TOTAL 



37892 



5735.32 



3908 . 50 



1445.15 


5069.96 


.528 


57 5.12 


2079.44 


.464 


1419.09 


3720.40 


.259 


1428.66 


3642.04 


.385 


4868.02 


14511.84 


.383 



GENERAL PATCHING WATERBOUND MACADAM 

(Done previous to Symbol Code) 

720.52 233.39 1162.02 



2115.93 



.121 



place the inferior grades that can no longer be used. As an 
indication of the quality and improvement of block tested by 
the city, of all the material received for use during 1913 there 
was rejected 7.2 per cent., while in 1914, under the same specifi- 
cations and system of testing, the rejection amounted to only 
2.7 per cent. 

The rigid examination of all materials has greatly enhanced 
the value to the city of the pavements laid during this admin- 
istration, and the much longer life of the present construction, 
together with the lower maintenance costs, will ultimately 
prove a great economy to the municipality and will demon- 
strate the advantage of scientific engineering control over the 
operations of the Highway Bureau. 

The total mileage of pavements constructed during the year 
1914 was as follows: 

Miles. 

Asphalt 21.15 

Granite block 1.01 

Vitrified block 6.53 

Wood block 1.7S 

Bituminous pavements 15.08 



Waterbound macadam 30.5G 

Concrete roads 1.12 

Making a grand total of 77.2". 

The length of streets graded during the year was 22.22 
miles. This brings the total mileage of streets and roads in 
the city to 1,612.77, which consists of 1,089.43 miles of im- 
proved streets. 75. 48 miles of bituminous macadam, 242.15 
miles of waterbound macadam, 1.12 miles of concrete roads and 
204.59 miles of dirt roads and graded streets. 

Country roads in the city of Philadelphia, December 13, 
1914: 

. . Miles. Sq. Yds. 

Concrete roads 1.12 28,1 50 

Bituminous pavements 75.48 984,813 

Waterbound macadam roads : . 242.15 2,822,254 

Totals 31S.75 3,835,217 

Earth roads 204.59 miles 



Commission Government and an Engineer Manager 



FOR LAKELAND, FLORIDA 

By H. D. MENDENHALL, Consulting Engineer. 



This article (/ires the steps by which the people of 
Lakeland, Florida, finally succeeded in securing a 
commission form of government for themselves. Ap- 
parently, the special form adopted was formulated on 
the spur of the moment, and the product shows it. 
In a small city zvhere every one knows every one 
else, as loosely drawn a charter as this one may be 
sufficient, because, after all, it is the officials elected 
and not the form of government upon whom we de- 
pend for the results. But in a larger city a much 
more carefully drawn instrument , from a legal point 
of view, would be necessary to keep the professional 
taxeaters away from the banquet which this char- 
ter would allow them to set for themselves. 



ANOTHER engineer-manager was added to the roll of such 
officials in commission-governed cities of this country 
when, on May 1, 1914, Donald L. McLeod, Assoc. M. Am. 
Soc. C. E., assumed the duties of city manager for the city of 
Lakeland, Fla., under its new commission form of govern- 
ment. This put the finishing touches to a commission form 
of administration that is different from the usual in several 
ways, due to its having to be adjusted to unusual conditions, 
and yet a form that in spirit and actual operation conforms 
strictly to the accepted ideas of such government. Further- 
more, the form of call and code voted on are distinctive in 
that they effect the complete transfer of authority from the 
old aldermanic system to the new and outline a complete 
method of procedure in the most condensed form that has yet 
been used. 

As engineers are taking an active hand in the establish- 
ment of this form of government, and engineers are usually 
selected to fill the managing positions, a brief story of the 
steps taken to procure this form in Lakeland may be of inter- 
est in assisting some other engineers to get similar forms 
established in other cities. 

In the revised and amended charter of Lakeland as granted 
by the state legislature of 1911, there was inserted a clause 
which read as follows: 

"Sec. 70. The city of Lakeland is hereby authorized at 
any future time to establish a commision form of government 
and to elect its commisioners by popular vote as it may de- 
termine. Such commission form of government shall be estab- 
lished in the following manner, to-wit: Upon two-thirds vote 
of the city council to adopt such commission form of govern- 
ment, the city council shall make a code of laws governing the 
city which may be enforced by three commissioners. The said 
code shall be published for a period of thirty days in a news- 
paper published in the city. An election shall be called by 
the mayor and the city council for the purpose of submitting 
the question of ratification of such commission form of gov- 
ernment to the voters of the city, which election shall be held 
not less than thirty days from the adoption by the city council. 

"If the majority of the qualified electors voting at the said 
election shall vote in favor of the said commission, the same 
shall become operative and in full force and effect as a method 
of city government. The code of laws so adopted and pub- 
lished shall thereupon become operative and be a portion of 
this act." 

In 1913, a petition signed by several hundred citizens was 



presented to the city council requesting them to call an election 
for a form of commission government as authorized by this 
amendment. At about the same time a mass meeting under 
the auspices of the Board of Trade was held at which it was 
decided that the people preferred a form having five commis- 
sioners and a manager, the commisioners to serve at a nomi- 
nal salary, and they to elect a manager who was to receive a 
sufficient salary to attract an efficient man. Accordingly the 
council was memorialized to that effect and requested to have 
the charter amended to permit the change. 

As is frequently the case, a majority of the city adminis- 
tration was opposed to the change, and so action on the peti- 
tion was deferred from time to time until another memorial 
from the Board of Trade suddenly awakened them to the real- 
ization that if the will of the majority of the people was to be 
considered, very rapid action would be necessary to get the 
amendment before the state legislature, which was then in 
session. Accordingly a hasty resolution was passed incorpo- 
rating the changes desired, submitted to the city attorney, who, 
incidentally, was opposed to the scheme, and he instructed to 
get it in shape and forward it to the county representatives in 
the legislature, with a request for them to get it passed. 

The form of resolution submitted to the legislature by the 
city attorney will never be known, as no copies could ever be 
found, but the amendment finally passed and made a law read 
in part as follows: 

"The city of Lakeland is hereby authorized at any future 
time to establish a commission form of government; to elect 
five (5) commissioners by popular vote, one to be elected from 
each ward of the city of Lakeland, and one at large, to serve 
for two years each from the date of their qualification, or until 
their successors are elected and qualified. * * * * 

"The provision of such commission form of government 
shall include the powers commonly known as the initiative, 
the referendum and the recall, same to be submitted to the 
voters for their aceptance or rejection. 

"If a majority of the qualified electors voting at said elec- 
tion shall vote in favor of the commission form of government 
the same shall become effective and of full force and effect as 
the method of government of the said city. 

"In the event said commission form of government should 
be ratified, the commissioners so chosen shall have the right 
to employ a municipal manager to have complete control of 
the business interests of the said city as a business manager, 
subject always to the direction, supervision and control of the 
said commissioners, at a salary fixed by the commissioners and 
subject to be removed by them at their pleasure, with or with- 
out cause." 

As there are no rigidly defined lines for a "Commission 
Form of Government," this was considered too indefinite by its 
opponents to be constitutional. However, its advocates insisted 
upon the city fathers framing a code and calling an election. 
This was done hastily, as the date for calling the regular elec- 
tions under the old form was drawing near. The code and 
call here given were evolved by one member of the city coun- 
cil and his attorney between the hour of adjournment one night 
and 10 o'clock the next morning. 

Notice of Election. 

"Whereas, a petition signed by a number of the qualified 
electors of the city of Lakeland has been presented to the city 
council of said city asking for the calling of an election for 
the purpose of submitting to the qualified voters of the said 



April, mis 



250 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



city of Lakeland the question of establishing a commission 
form of government for the city of Lakeland; and, whereas, 
the city council of the city of Lakeland did, by a two-thirds 
vole, pass favorably upon the petition, now, therefore, in pur- 
suance of the power vested in me as mayor under the charter 
and ordinances of the said city, 

"Be it known, that an election will be held in the city of 
Lakeland, on the eighth day of October, A. D. 1913, for the 
acceptance or rejecting of a commission form of government, 
and for the election of five commissioners, one to be elected 
from each ward, and one from at-large, the commissioner from 
at-large to be known as mayor; said election to be held in ac- 
cordance with the revised ordinances of the city of Lakeland." 

"O. M. EATON, 
"Mayor of the City of Lakeland." 

"A resolution to establish a form of commission government. 
Approved September G, 1913: 

"Be it resolved by the council of the city of Lakeland, 
Fla., that in manner and purport hereof a form of commission 
government is adopted: 

"Section I. Status of Corporate Powers. — The adoption 
of this form of commission government shall in no sense be 
construed to increase or diminish the powers vested in the 
municipal corporation in Polk County known as the City of 
Lakeland. 

"Section II. Transposition of Powers. — All governmental, 
legislative, executive and judicial powers of the said city are 
vested in the said commission, subject to such limitations as 
officials or functionaries labored under prior to the adoption 
of this form. 

"Section III. Powers of the Commission. — Powers, duties 
or capacities, the exercise, performance or fulfillment of which, 
respectively, as designated under the laws or ordinances as 
they now obtain for a named official or functionary, shall be 
exercised, performed or fulfilled under this commission form 
in manner and form hereinafter directed, and such acts or 
ordinances shall be of effect as tho the official or functionary 
still obtained, except that the persons directed or provided 
for shall fill the capacity or function. 

"Section IV. Differentiation of Powers. — Powers of govern- 
ment heretofore vested in the variously named city officials 
or functionaries shall be in the commisisoners, in scope fol- 
lowing: There shall be five commissioners, one from each of 
the four wards of the city and one at-large. The commissioner- 
at-large shall be known as "mayor," shall preside at meetings 
of the commissioners, and shall vote on all questions, but shall 
not have the right of veto. The commissioners shall, at their 
first meeting, elect a vice-president or mayor pro tempore. The 
commisisoners shall exercise the general governmental powers 
in them vested, in manner deemed wise, having ever the power 
to determine upon and employ a municipal manager, to create 
such departments upon their election as are deemed expedient, 
to determine upon and employ persons for various duties and 
functions of the said municipality. Provided ever, that per- 
sons not elected by the people shall be removable arbitrarily. 

"Section V. Elections Generally. — Qualifications of Com- 
missloners. — Commissioners shall qualify as councilmen do 
under the present form of government. 

"Time, Call and Manner of Holding.— Election shall be held 
at such times as are required by the laws and ordinances en- 
acted or ordained, or to be enacted or ordained; shall be called 
by the commission, except in cases provided otherwise, when 
occasion exists, shall be held in manner provided or to be pro- 
vided, by the Board of Commissioners. 

"Section VI. Initiative, Refer adum and Recall. — Initia- 
tion or reference of laws or ordinances shall be preceded bj 
a petition signed by twenty-five (25) per centum in number of 
the electors who voted at the preceding election for commis- 



sioner-at-large, and shall be determined by a majority vote of 
the electors; thereafter law or nullity, respectively. Commis- 
sioners shall be subject to recall upon affirmative majority vote 
of the qualified electors, preceded by petition to the Governor 
of the State of Florida, signed by twenty-five (25) per centum 
in number of those who voted in the preceding election for 
commissioner-at-large. Upon receipt of such petition the Gov- 
ernor shall call such election within thirty days. Upon recall 
the term expired shall be filled in the manner provided gen- 
erally for elections. The first twenty-five signers of petitions 
of initiation, referendum or recall, shall give under oath, their 
residence and vocation. 

"Section VII. All Laws and Ordinances of the City, not In- 
consistent, Retained. — Laws or ordinances not inconsistent 
with the form of commission government herein adopted, re- 
main in force and effect. 

"Section VIII. Term, Qualification and Compensation of 
Commissioners. — The commissioners shall be elected for two 
years, shall be qualified voters of the city of Lakeland, and 
shall receive compensation in the sum of one hundred dollars 
($10ii.0(i) per annum. 

"Section IX. Time of Inception. — This form of government 
shall be in force and effect on January 1, 1914, upon acceptance 
by the people." 

Upon the appointment of a municipal manager, this ordi- 
nance was ordained by the Board of Commissioners of the city 
of Lakeland. 

As it stands it is a monument of conciseness, and, despite 
the strenuous efforts of opposing legal talent to discountenance 
it, it has stood the test of both the lower courts and the 
supreme court of the state, and is the basis on which a com- 
plete system is being evolved. 

It will be noted that the handicap of a legislative require- 
ment that a commissioner be elected from each ward of the 
city has been cleverly denatured by the provision for recalling 
by a vote of the citizens of the entire city, thus preserving the 
true commission spirit and yet conforming to the legislative 
conditions, and it has not been demonstrated that the form 
as it now stands is not an improvement over the idea of elect- 
ing all of the commisisoners from the city at large, since under 
this form every part of the city is insured a representative. 

On October 8, 1913, by a comfortable majority, the voters 
of the city decided in favor of adopting the form as outlined. 
Immediately the opposition raised the question of the consti- 
tutionality of the act, the good old standby of opponents of 
any progressive measure. In order to establish its status, 
it was decided that the newly elected commissioners request 
the circuit judge to enjoin the mayor and old council from 
holding the regular fall elections the following month. The 
judge's decision in this case would be one step towards estab- 
lishing whether or not the legislative authority would hold. 
The injunction was granted and the judge's decision in refus- 
ing to dissolve the injunction stands as a masterpiece of com- 
mon-sense logical argument based on the fact that it was the 
obvious intention of the legislature to grant the powers desired 
to the city, and the obvious desire of a majority of the voters 
of the city to adopt the form outlined, and therefore a possible 
ambiguity in wording should be interpreted in favor of the de- 
sires of the majority of the people interested. 

This decision slill did not satisfy the opponents, and the 
matter was taken to the supreme court. Here so much time 
was consumed that January 1st rolled around before anything 
was definitely settled. This gave the opponents a chance, and 
so the old council, on which the majority were opponents, and 
who would automatically succeed themselves were no election 
held, enjoined the new commisisoners from taking their seat 
until such time as the supreme court made a decision. Chaos 
reigned as a result, for each body insisted that the other was 
illegal. 

April, 1915 



COMMISSION GOVERNMENT AND AN ENGINEER MANAGER 



251 



Fortunately, neither side attempted to make appointments. 
so the machinery of the city continued under the old employes, 
and. as the mayor under the old form was elected mayor under 
the new form, his signature on cheeks continued legal 
Finally, after about two weeks of this rendition, the supreme 
court rendered a decision sustaining the commission form. 
the old council stepped down and the administration has boon 
running stnoothh and efficii nth ever since. After several 
months of readjusting, the time was considered ripe for the 
appointment of a manager, with the results already mentioned. 
Seen after the manager was appointed the following ordinance 
outlining his powers and duties was passed, and contains the 
instructions under which he is working: 

"Ordinance creating the Office of City Manager and Defining 
the Duties, Powers and Character of the Office. Approved May 
7. 1914. 

"Be it ordained by the Board of Commissioners of th< i 
of Lakeland, Florida: Section 1. That the office of city man- 
ager is herein created, to have such emolument incident there- 
to as the Board of Commissioners may determine in any par- 
ticular instance. 

"Section II. The incumbent of the said office shall be si 
ed by the Board of Commissioners from available applicants. 
and he shall hold office during such period as the Board of 
Commissioners may then or thereafter designate. 

Section III. The said officer shall be vested with the pow- 
ers and charged with the duties in the city of Lakeland, Fla., 
hereinafter defined: (a) To occupy an office in the City 
Hall, (b) To require the enforcement of the laws and ordi- 
nances, (c) To exercise control of all the officers and em- 



ployes of the city, and to prescribe and direct their activity, 
employ and dismiss officers and employes of the city, 
d that before employing or dismissing any department 
head, the manager shall receive a favorable opinion on hi 
templated action from at least three of the commissi* 
(el To superintend works of construction in all respects over 
which the city may have jurisdiction, (f) To attend the meet- 
ings of the Board of Commissioners, igi To advise the Boai 1 
mmissioners, at regular metings of the financial condi- 
tion of the city. To make at appropriate times reports of any 
phase of city activity. To sngg.st needs and means of city 

betterment, (hi To perform such other duties as the Board 

of Commissioners may require by resolution or by ordinance. 
iii To approve or disapprove the requisition of any officer 
or employe of the city, prior to the purchase or other trans- 
action in respect to the requisitioned article. 

"Section IV. That the said city manager shall not be 
deemed vested with control of the judge or the city attorney, 
provided, however, that if the said named officers are not in 
harmony with the policy of the city manager it shall be his 
duty to so report to the Board of Commissioners. 

.--non V. That th.' said city manager shall act subject 
to the approval of the Board of Commissioners in tin' in- 
stances Stated: (a) Courses of acts that tend to form the 
policy of the city in respect to any institution, (b) Purchases 
of a current nature requiring an expenditure of more than 
five hundred dollars ($500.00)." 

At the present writing the system is working entirely 
satisfactorily. 



Public Comfort Station in Salt Lake City 



The public comfort station erected by the city engineering 
department of Salt Lake City, Utah, near the intersection o 
South Temple and Main streets, is designed to accommodate 
100 persons per hour. The inside dimensions of the men's 
station are 17 by 2] feet, of the women's section 17 by 23 feet. 
It is built of reinforced concrete and placed below the wide 
sidewalk, with sheltered entrances located next to the curb 
line of the street. Its cost is about $13,000. It is equipped 
with the most modern sanitary fixtures, lavatories with hot 
and cold water and drinking fountains of the latest design. 
It is heated with steam and electrically lighted, besidts tie- 
sidewalk lights placed in the ceiling. 



The floors are set in white, vitreous bexagon tile. The 
walls are finished in glazed tile to the top of tin stall 
the rest rooms. The upper portion of the walls and the ceil- 
ings are finished in Keene's cement, painted with white- oil 
paint and coated with enamel. All partitions are white Alaska 
marble with nickel plated top railing. The women's section 
contains an additional room for babies' attendance. The 
doors are finished in dark mahogany. Ventilation is effected 
bj motor driven fan. changing air every :: minutes. 

Sylvester a Cannon is the efficient city engineer, under 
whose direction many excellent improvements are under con- 
struction. 




Municipal Improvements for 1915. 

What the Cities and Counties of the United States 
expect to construct during 1915. 



By April 1 of each year a very fair idea of the amount of 
public improvements to be done during the construction sea- 
son can be formed, and this annual construction number of 
Municipal Engineering is published a few days late that the 
latest information up to the date named may be included. 

The tables are devoted mainly to the cities of more than 
10,000 population, a very large proportion of which have re- 
sponded to the requests for information. Our thanks are duj 
to the Mayors and City Engineers in particular and to many 
other officials for their courtesies in making the estimates 
and returns. 

Some information from cities of less than 10,000 population 



has been obtained from city officials and from other sources, 
and it is included in the tables also. 

All the information is fresh, all of it having been received 
in this office since February 10. 

The data concerning pavements in cities and county road^ 
have been tabulated as that seems to be the method of presenta- 
tion most desired by the reader. The information concerning 
other improvements has been arranged in paragraphs. In all 
cases the arrangement is first alphabetical by states, then 
alphabetically by post offices in the states. In the tables of 
< ounty work the arrangement is alphabetical by county seats 
under each state, the name of the county being given with the 
county seat. 



STREET PAVEMENTS-1915 



n 






Alabama — 



Arkansas — 

Fort Smith 

Hot Springs 

Pine Bluff 

California — 

Alhambra 2m 

Long Beach... 5.5m lm 

Los Angeles 

Pasadena 

Pomona 9.5m 

Porterville 472,750y 3 

S. Bernardino 

San Francisco. .300, OOOy 

San Jose 4m Gm ... 

Santa Barbara. 60, OOOy 

Santa Rosa.... 26,288y 

Colorado — 

Boulder not yet determined 

Canon City None 

Denver 25, OOOy 

Trinidad Not yet determined. 



Danbury 

Danielson not yet determined. 

Meriden 

New Haven 

Rockville None 

Torrington 

Waterbury 



Pensacola 

St. Augustine. 

Tallahassee 

Georgia — 

Americus 

Atlanta 

Cordele 

La Grange. . . . 

Rome 

Valdosta 

Waycross 



lOO.OOOy 372. OOOy 



12b 

16 j 

28691 

10, OOOy 

$14,000 

6m 

2.570y 

$5,000 

0.75m ...... 

2m 

40. OOOy 20,000y 

11, 000y' '..'...'. 



$4,600 sev'r'l m 

3.6m 

23.715y 

lir 

66.0391 

30.000y 

9.000y" 

10. OOOy 

i'tra 

$20,000 

12. OOOy' ...... 



50ma 

$l,600a 

......' 6.0001n 

158. OOOy 

Ipa 

9.240y 

$115. 000a 

6.000ya 

$27. 000a 

. . ... $700.000as 
20.000yg 

April, 1915 



STREET IMPROVEMENTS- 1915 






City 

Illinois — 

Alton 

Aurora 10 

Berwyn 

Bloomington . . 
Blue Island.... 

i 'alio 

Charleston 

Chicago Hghts. 

Cicero 

Clinton 

Decatur 

Duquoin 

Elgin 

El Paso 

Galesburg 

Joliet 

Kankakee 

Litchfield 

Minonk 

Moline 

Oak Park 

Pana 

Peoria 

Quincy 

Rushville 

Spring Valley. . 

Sterling 

Ta-ylorville ■■• 
Waukegan 

Indiana — 

Anderson 

Angola 

Brazil 

Clinton 

Frankfort 

Gary 

Hammond • • ■ 
Hartford City 
Huntington . • 
Indianapolis . 
Kingman . . ■ • 
Logansport .. 

Madison 

Nappanee . ■ ■ 
Noblesville . • 

Peru 

Richmond .. • 
South Bend... 
Xerre Haute. 
Valparaiso . • 
Vincennes . • 
Wabash 
Warsaw 



Not yet determined. 
.. 20.260y 
. 25.300y 



Not yet determined. 
lO.OOOy 



$53,S60 



2,'659y 131,360y 
No estimate yet. 

Not yet determined. 



Not yet determined. 

None 

2.050y 



15.490yd 

2". >>' 



5.5m 

2.100V 

. 11.050y 

, $8,000 00 

. l,500y 




10< 

-n.hUOy 




171. 
■S.l 




'.'. 101. 




.'. 3fi.546vd 
.. 16,456y 


"... , 16yd 




$6,000.00 


. . S.ODOv 





lO.OOOy 
15'4'9'0'yd 15,490yd 15.490yd 
..' lm im 

4.000y 



"l4pd «P a 

:'.00Oy'd 8 >'' 

...... $20,000.00 

5.500y 



s 



40.000yd 40.000yd 
.'.'.'... 22,900y 



6.200y 

Ymi 



£ C 



15.000y 5.000y 



25.000yd 



Not yet determined. 
Not yet determined. 



.S5.000y 



Belle Plain 

Burlington • ■ - ■ 

gX U Fa,. s ::::4o ."oy 7.«* 

'cfdar Rapms..70.000yd70.000yd d 

Clarinda 

Clinton 

Council Bluffs. 

Des Moines . . ■ 

Dubuque 

Emmettsburg 

Forest City 

Fort Dodge 

Grinnell 

Iowa City 

Keokuk 

Mason City. 

Sigourney 

Washington . . • 

West Liberty.. 

Kansas — 

Arkansas City. 

Chanute 

Clyde 

Coffeyville 

Fort Scott...- 

Fredonia 

Holton 

Independence . 

Leavenworth ■ 

Newton 

Ottawa 

Pittsburg 

Salina 



OOOj 

1 655 



1.(1001 
22,obiyo 22.000yd 




$60,000 

$29,000 

3 1 

1.200y 
25.000y 
20.000y 
1.6m 
1.25m 
29.400y 



nil 



Kentucky — 

Covin 
Hopk 
Lexington 

Mayfleld . 
Middlesbor 
Owensboro 
Paris 



5.15m 

. $110.000d 

None 



15,000y 20.000y 
lm 

'.'.'.'.'. '.$110. OOOd 



April, 1915 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Maine — 

Old Tov 



Massachusetts 

Adams 





I : 

B dine 

Cambridge Nol ye] deti 

Gloucester 

La \\ rence 

Lowell 

Not yet dete 

Newburyporl 

Palmer 

Reveri 

Salem 2,000y 

Stoneham 

Webster Not yet detE 

Westfleld 

Woburn None . . . . 



MJchigau — 

Alpe 



Arbor lD.OOOy 

Benton Harbor T.OOOy 

Cadillac 

Detroit 

Dowagiac 

Flint S4.950y 

Ionia Not yet detern 

Manistee 

Marquette 

Menominee 5,000y 

Monroe 

Port Huron 

Royal Oak 

Saginaw 33.500y 

Minnesota — 

Austin 

Duluth 17,000y 

Eveleth 

Mankato 

Owatonna None 

SI I 1 1 



ined. 

0.75ii 



§2 


.5 a 




Sh 


El 




3c 






Be 


HS 


n 

40.000y 
2,000 



Mississippi— 

Gulfport 

Hattiesburff 

Laurel 5,700y 

Meridian 

Vichsburg 

Missouri — 

Carthage None 

Columbia 1,11'Oy 

Kansas City... od 

Maryville 

St. Louis 

Sedalia 

Webb City 

Montana — 

Billings 35,000y 

Bozeman 40.000y 

Great Falls 9.200y 

Helena 

Missoula 10,305yd 10,305yd 10,305yd 



5md 



Grand Island. 








. lO.OOOy 


70.000y 


Omaha 


. 35,40Sy 


20,721y 


S. Omaha 




ll.SBOy 


New Hampshl 


re 










New Jersey — 








. 94,300y 














determined. 


Montclair 




Ira 








Pi it i, v, „!,,,. 






Pbillipsburg . 






Princeton . . . 




13.000y 


i : i ■ 1 ■ < '!imi 






Roselle Park. 






Wellington 


. .Not yet 


determined. 


Westfleld .... 






New Mexico— 






Roswell 




35,365y 


Silver CltJ 


12b 





1.123y 


2.5m 


26,590y 


° 




4,000y 


900y 
5.000y 


1.2001 
4.6m 


55, v 


60,0003 




20,000y 


od 


4,083y 


5p 
40.000y 


lO.OOOy 


lO.OOOy 
10.305yd 




5md 




20.000V 
20.000y 





0.75m 6 OOjbj 

$900.00 



ll.OOOy 54,6003 



:; \ I.".. y 



14 SISv 12.550y 7,1061 

34,S18y 53,0611 

20.450y 20,780y 



l.OOOy 
13,850y 



20.800yd 
lS.OOOy 



■a 

I 5 

12,000yr 

Kma 

Ipd 

9,0001 



l I! 

I 960ys 

2401 

1 l : ( 

. 13.048y 

1,8001a 

. 20,000y 

10.S50yr 

70.000ya 

28,660yl 

i 5ml 

od 

75.000ya 

10,305yd 

'.'.'.'.'.. ll.aTL'yli 



21,060ya 

9.200yd 



April, 1915 



STREET IMPROVEMENTS-1915 



'.Not yet determined. 



i'li'be'done by the city. 



City 

New York — 

Batayia 
Corning 
Cortland • ■ ■ 

Dunkirk 

Elmira 

Geneva ■ - - 
Gloversville 
Herkimer . 

Hornell 

Hudson 

Jamestown . •• 

Kingston 

New York City 
Bronx Boro. 
Newburgh 

Norwich 

Oswego 

Pelham Manor 

Plattsburg , 

Poughkeepsie... Proposals 
Schenectady . ■• ™? 

Utica 2.61md 

Watertown 

North Carolina— 

"hr.rlotte 4 "•-' ,-■ t cOy 

?"^mviiie. Nothing >:. determine: 

bj**i tz isci:yi • 

Newbern None "" 



3,0001 

5 imnv 



3.0001 
956y 



lO.OOOy 
I0,610y 
1,400s 



i'.OOOyd 7id00y' 28.000yd 






27,000y 



12.000ydz 



. 173.700y 



12.000yd 



G5.500y 



not yet made up 

3m . • 
.61md 



2.61md 



North Dakota — 

Minot 

Ohio- 
Akron 

Athens 

Cambridee 
Chillicothe • 
Cincinnati .. 
Cleveland . • 
Columbus .■ • 
Coshocton . • 

Dayton 

Delaware •• ■ 
E. Liverpool 
Fremont . - ■ 
Greenville . 
1 1 imilton .. 
Lancaster . 
London .... 
Lorain 
Mansfield . ■ 
Marion • ■ ■ 
Midclletown 
Nelsonville 

Newark 

Newcomerstown 

Norwood 

Painesville 
Portsmouth 

Sandusky 

Springfield 

Steubenville 

Tiffin 

Tippecanoe 

Troy 

■Warren 

Wash. Ct. House 

West Park 

"VVooster 

Oklahoma — 

Bartlesville 

Chiekasha 
Dorant 



None 



29.6S0 y 



$32,000 
lpd 



V v 

■■.:: \ 



5.150V 



3.000y 



2.Glmd 

lp 



1 1 



....125 n n 

,,469 
IE 000y 
2,240y 

Z3m 

"... 2,0001 
'.'.... 80.400M 

2m 



110.200g 



!.000y 






10,000y 



3,600y 

3,700y lOO.OOOy 



lu.mliiv 



$24,000.00 



35.722.V 
lpd 

l 1 

, 3,B90y 



2,S00y 



5,000y 



4,6001 



.. $20.00 



l.OBOy 



lS.OOOy 



None 



Enid 
Tulsa . • 

Oregon — 

Astoria - - ■ 
Baker City- 
Eugene . ■ ■ 

Med ford .. 

Portland ■ 



None 
. .40.000y 



S,730y 



12b 

s'.OOOy 



lO.OOOy 



contemplated. 
19,000y 



20,000y 
16,000y 
2 12m 



Pennsylvania — 

/Ulentown 

Arehbald 

Ashley 



36,070y 



a.oooy 



2.700y 



None 



Beaver 

Bradford 

Carbondale . . ■ 

Carlisle 

Catasauqua . . 

Coalclale 

Coraopolis 

Dubois 

E. Pittsburgh. 

Erie 

Farrell 

Franklin None '.■••• 

Freeland proposed. 

Glassport -^v"" 

April, 1915 






6.000y 

786y 

45,oooy •■;;" 

i3b?oy 8.500y 

" ' ' ' " ' lm 

toccy 3°00y 



.SO.OOOy 

None 



16.250y 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



So 



None 



:ided yet. 



T1..ni< stead . . 
Jersey Shore. 

Juniata 

Kane 

Lebanon .... 
McKeesport . 
Meadville. ... 
Middletown .. 

Milton 

Monaca 

Morristown None contemplated. 

Nanticoke 

N. Braddoek 

Oil City 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburgh 5.2251 

Plymouth None 

Tamaqua None 

Tltusville None 

Tyrone Not yet determined. 

Williamsport 

Windber None 



Rhode Island — 

Cumberland 

Newport 21,S50y 

Pawtucket Not yet determined. 

Westerley Not yet determined. 

Woonsocket . . . . No estimate yet. 

Sou tli Carolina — 

Anderson 5250, OOOd $250,000d 

Blackville 

Columbia 45, OOOy 

Greenville 

Newberry None 

Orangeburg 

South Dakota — 

Lead 

Sioux Falls 63, OOOy 

Tennessee — 

Jackson 

Johnson City. . . 2m 

Texas — 

Abilene 

Corsicana . . . 

Ft. Worth. . . . 

Houston 

Laredo 

Lufkin 

Paris 

Sulphur Spgs. 

Taylor 

Terrell 



Not yet dete 



lined. 

lm 

50,000yd 



Virginia — 

Danville Not yet determined. 

Newport News. None 

Richmond Not yet determined. 



Staunto 



Xot 



Washington — 

Aberdeen 20.000y 5,000y 

Bellingham .... 2m 

Everett 20.000y 

Seattle 7m 0.3m 

Spokane .'10.000y 

Vancouver None 

Walla Walla 20.0003 

West Virginia — 

Charleston .... 3.000yf 

Elkins 

Huntington 

Parkersburg 

Wisconsin — 

Appleton 23.000y 

Beloit 120,000yd 120,000yd 

Fond du Lac 

Green Bay None 

Jefferson 

La Crosse 

Madison 

Marinette .... 

Neenah 

New London. . 

Racine 

Richland Ctr. 
Sheboygan .... 
Stevens Point. . 

Superior 

Watertown . . . 

: 

West Bend 



20.000y 



831.000 129.000 



OOOy 
600yd 



50, yd 

"'3p' 



35. OOOy 
Ipd 



15.000y 

0.4m 
40,000y 



S0.000V 

1.5m 

$23,000 

i i01 



l,600y 

3ba 

1,3001 Foot note 



51 I, a 

v a 



2. OOOy 
3.600yd 





3. OOOy 


120,000yd 




2.9001 




1.5md 




18 570yd . . . 




7. OOOy 





,216yd 



8,216yd 



Foot note — Pittsburgh. Pa. also 23,150 lin. ft. Block Stone. Ligonier and Relaying 400.000 sq. yds. asphalt and 10.000 sq. yds block stone. 

a — Kind not decided, b — Blocks of street, d — Of one or more kinds marked with "d" on same line, e — Plank, f — Fibered asphalt, g — Chert, 
h — Vertical fibre brick. i — Novaculite resurfacing. 1 — linear feet. m — Miles, n — 4-inch concrete base. .^-ineh oil surface. o — Amount not yet 
determined, p — Contracts, q — Granite repaying, using old foundation. r — Resurfacing with Tarvia. s — Paving and sewers, v — Resurfacing, y — 
Sq. yds. z — Asphalt blocks. 

April, 1915 



COUNTY ROADS-1915. 



City and Co 



Ec 

n 



None. 



Alabama — 

State 

Andalusia, Covington... 

Clanton. Chilton 

Geneva, Geneva 

Guntersville. Marshall.. 

Hamilton. Marion 

Jasper. Walker 

Luverne, Crenshaw 

Monroeville. Monroe . . . 

Prattville, Autauga 

Scottsboro, Jackson.... 

Talladega. Talladega 

Tuscumbia, Colbert 



MS 



.liable from the 



So 



STREET GRADING 
IN CITIES-1915. 



of state aid roads. 



Some road construction already contracted for. 



Pine Bluff: About S 

California — 

San Jose: 5 miles 
Santa Rosa: 310.000 

Colorado — 

Canon City: 3 miles. 
Connecticut — 

Branford: 6 miles. 
Bristol: 2.5 miles. 
Rockville: 2 miles. 
Torrington: 1 mile. 
Waterbury: $10,700 



Arizona— About $1,500,000.00 will be expended 



Stat 

Holbrook, Navaj 

Yuma. Tuma . . . 



Arkansas — 

Benton. Saline 

Grannis, Polk 

Malvern, Hot Springs. 

Monticello. Drew 

Morrilton. Conway 

Paragould. Green 



Georgia — 

1.1 ■ ;. ajige 
VaJdosta: 

Illinois — 

Elgin: 10 
Oak Park: 



69.000 



tiles. 



:ity labor. 
1. yds. 



etion yet. 



California- 

State i T „_- 

Colusa. Colusa None. 

Downievilie, Sierra £ „; 

El Centre Imperial No ot 

Eureka. Humboldt None. lm 

Fairfield, Solano 

iaJSI?^.^ 1 ":::' *:,*. t»™ s =«* t- * 

Marysville, Yuba 

p or i W nn(1 Pitv San Mateo " " ' 

SalS M-nt^y **"* 000.00 on rorf. M 

San Diego. San Diego 

Santa Ana. Orange 

Visalia. Tulare 

Woodland. Yolo 



of Calif. State highways 



Colorado — 



Florida — 

Brooksville, Hernando 

De Funiak Springs. Walton. 
Green Cove Springs, Clay... 

Key West. Monroe 

Miami, Dade 

Ocala, Marion 

Palatka. Putnam 

St. Augustine. St. John 

Tavares. Lake 



Probably $350,000.00 



state. 
I bridges. 



liable for grading. 



of $S53.733.37 to exp 



■nd to Oct. 1, 



Idaho — 

Blackfoot. Bingham «° 

Grangeville. Idaho No 

Lew iston. Nez Perce 



ete and brick. 35 mile 



Albion, Edwards 

Aledo, Mercer 

Alton, Madison 

Ancona. Livingston 

Cambridge. Henry 

Canton. Fulton 

Carlyle, Clinton 

Carmi. White 

Danville, Vermillion ... 
Effiingham. Effingham 
Freeport. Stephenson . 
Highland. Madison . . . 

Jerseyville. Jersey 

Joliet, Will 

Kankakee. Kankakee . 
Lawrenceville. Lawrenc 
Mackinaw. Tazewell .. 
Marion, Williamson .. . 
Monmouth. Warren . . 

Monticello. Piatt 

Morris. Grundy 

Mound City. Pulaski.. 
Mt. Carroll. Carroll... 
Nashville, Washington 

Oswego. Kendall 

Paris, Vermillion . - 



Pi m 



Bur 





9.250y 




7001 


60md 


fiOmd 




1.5m 


lmd 


lmd 




5 8001 


. . . S.0001 


0.7 im 


lr 


lr 
4i 




15 mb 




1.25m 



Robinson. Crawford . 
Rockford, Winnebago 
Rushville, Schuyler 



Kansas — 

Hutchinson: 10 miles. 
Salina: 12,000 cu. yds. 
Topeka: 21,000 cu. yds 

Kentucky — 

Hopkinsville: 3 miles. 
Mayfield: 2 miles. 

Massachusetts — 

Gloucester: About 3 rr 

Michigan — 

Benton Harbor 2 mile 
Cadillac: 4 miles. 
Manistee: 700 cu. yds 

Minnesota — 

Austin: 40 blocks. 
Ev< rett: $7,000. 
Mankato: One-hall m 
2 ma 

Mississippi — 

Meridian: 23,214 CU. ! 

Missouri — 

Carthage: 2 miles. 
Sedalia: l\i miles. 
Webb City: 1% miles 



and 



$29.9S2b 



Montana — 

Billings: 10 miles. 
Great Falls: 2.000 ft. 

Nebraska — 

Omaha: 200,000 cu. yds 
South Omaha: 60.000 ct 

New Hampshire — 

Laconia: 1 mile. 

New Jersey — 

Montclalr: 2 miles. 



Norwich: 20 miles. 
. : ady: 1 mile 

North Carolina — 

:, 11 mill a 

North Dakota — 
Minot: 2 miles. 

Ohio — 

Cleveland: 3 

Hie: 2 miles. 

t, ... ::. '" yds 

Oregon — 

Utoria: 70.00 

Medfo'rd: 3 miles. 

,,,i : is 1 miles, 

Penns] Ivanla — 
i-, , eland 1.500 ft. 

3 :n.i 22.000 cu. yds 

Nantieoke: About 2 m 
Oil City: 2.700 cu. yds. 

South Dakota — 

I 2,463 ft. 
SIOUX Falls: 



Texas — 

Taylor 



2 miles. 



Virginia — 

Newport Ni ' 
Washington — 

Aberdeen: 500 

. . ,1 \bout 2 

Seattle: -'< miles. 
Spokane 2 miles. 

w igconsin — 



,::'' 







MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



ROAD GRADING 
IN COUNTIES-1915. 



ind County 

Shelbyvllle, Shelby .... 
Id, Sangamon . . 

st, i i,i.ii. i., i lavii ss 

Tuscola, Douglas 

Watseka, Iroquois 

in. Lake 



K 



I i 
So 



thing defin 



Indian it — 

Bloomfield, Green 

Bluffton. Wells 

Boonville. Wan 
Brownslown, Jackson . . . 
Columbia City. Whitley.. 
Columbus. Bartholomew . 

Dana. Vermillion 

Bvansville, Vanderburg .. 

Fairland. Shelby 

Flora. Carroll 

Goshen. Elkhart 

Greencastle, Putnam . . . 

Greenfield. Hancock . . . . 

own. Wayne .... 

Kentland. Newton 

Laporte, Laporte 

Lagro. Wabash 

Lebanon. Boone 

Lawrenceburg, Dearborn 

Madison. Jefferson 

Martinsville, Morgan . . . 

Montieello, White 

Mt. Vernon. Posey 

Peru, Miami 

Petersburg. Pike 

Plymouth. Marshall .... 

Portland. Jay 

Princeton. Gibson 

Rockville, Parke 

Salem. Washington 

Shelbyville. Shelby 

South Bend. St. 

Spencer, Owen 

Sullivan Sullivan 

Terre Haute, Vigo 

Upland. Kosciusko 

Vevay. Switzerland 

Vincennes. Knox 

Washington. Davis 

Winamac, Pulaski 

WolCOtt, "White 

Worthingtnn. Green .... 

Iowa — 

State 

Brett. Hancock 

Clarion. Wright 

Clinton, Clinton 

Davenport. Scott 

Des Moines. Polk 

Dubuque. Dubuque 

Estherville. Emmett .... 
Ft. DofU:< W ebsti 
Knoxville. Marion 






Log 



ll.i- 



Manchester. Delaware . . . 
Mason City. Cerro Gordo. 

Nevada, story 

, Sac 

Tipton. Cedar 



Kansas — 

Abilene, Dickinson 

Clyde. Cloud 

El Dorado, Butler 

Emporia. Lyon 

Fredonia. Wilson 

Gates Center, Woodson 

Hoxie. Sheridan 

Johnson, Stanton Nothing. 

Leavenworth. Leavenworth... Nothing. 

Minneapolis. Ottawa Nothing. 

Mound City, Linn 

New riysses. Grant Nothing. 

Russell Springs. Logan Nothing. 

Topeka, Shawnee 

Wichita. Sedgwick 



Kentucky — 

Statr- 

Ashland. Bovd 

Barawell, Carlisle 

Bedford. Trimble 

Bowling Green, Warren. 
Brownsville. Edmonson . 

Burlington, Boone 

Caneyville, Grayson 

Danville. Boyle 

Frenchburg, Menifee . . . 

Glasgow. Barren 

Harlan. Harlan 

Hodgenville. LaRue 

Hyden. Leslie 

Lockwood. Boyd 

Louisa. Lawren* 



6,5001 

4.000.V 1 ' 

8, 

6, 2m 

1.5m 

Mil 

0.75m 0.75m 

1.3001 

5m 



1.2m 

3m 

3m 

17m 

lm 

I! ; - 

9.400y 



2.6m 

17m 



70m 


5m 


31m 

3m 
2m 


4mh 

15m 

1 25 m 


3m 


S7.S2S 


16m 


7.75m 
12.0001 


20m 

60m 




14.6m 

IS 

in lull 

8m 
6,7511 

5m 


3m 

5.691?1 




10m 


15m 


8m 



|16,280r 

i ii\ i 



S12.000r 
lmn 



"tog 



200m 300.000yk 75.000yp 

6m 

15m 



14m 
9m 

lOmh 



Alahama- 










Clantoi 


. Chilton countj 


35 


miles. 




Hamilt 


,n. Ma linn < ,,utit\ 


: 4( 


miles 




. 


Walker co, it.lv 


50 m 


lies. 






nty: 


:'.", m 


le 



Arizona — 

II, ,11, t',, ok. Navajo county: 
K ingman, Moha ve count y 
Tucson, Pima i ounts : 2i 
Yuma, Yuma county: 5 n 



Mt i'.. i a. Hot Springs 

Monti, olio. In, co 

I ';i ragould, Grei n 



tltj : 



200 mile 



California — 

lunty : 4 miles. 
Fairfield, Solano county: 5 miles 
Los Angeles, Los Angeles county: 30 m 
San Diego, San Dfego county: About 

Weaverville, Trinity county: 4 miles. 

!■ lorida — 

Si vugustine, St. Johns county: f,0 mile 
ires, Lake county: 329,630 cu. yds. 

Idaho — 

About 400 miles of road grading to be c 

in the state. 
L,. wist, ,n. Nez Perce county: 75 miles. 

Illinois — 

I'atttii, White county: 300 miles. 
Galesburg, Knox county: 500 miles. 
Garrison. Hamilton county 500 
Jerseyville. Jersey county: 500 ml! 

maintenance. 
Kankakee. Kankakee county: SO to 

miles. 
Louisville, Clay county: 12., 
Mackinaw, Tazewell county: S.000 cu. 
Monmouth. Warren county: 20 miles. 
Morris, Grundy county:. 30 miles. 
Mound City. Pulaski county: 100 
Mt. Carroll. Carroll county: 400 mil 

in:, intenance. 
Mt. Sterling, Brown county: 500 miles. 
Paris. Vermillion county: 2 S00 cu. yds 
Peoria. Peoria county: 100 miles. 
Prim , t,,n. Bureau i ounty 1 50 mil< s. 
Robinson, Crawford county: 16 miles. 
Rockford, Winn.l.ago county: 20 miles 
Rushville, Schuyler county: 300 miles. 
Son nto Bond county: 400 

mon county 1.200 nvl 

mghurst, Henderson county: 100 m 

Taylorville. Christian county: 850 miles 

Indiana — • 

Columbia City, Whitley county: 85 mil' 
Goshen. Elkhart , 01 
Miami count' 

Rockville. Pa: 1 ■ miles. 

Spi in , r. Owen count' 

Iowa — 



Sta 






: 



lies 



\,i, i. Dallas counts 

Kossuth ,,,, M 

■,. . eolintV 

Brett. Hancock county 1" 
Carroll, Carroll county: 6 n 
'!]... Appanoose count 
Floyd county: 
Cherokee. Cherokee county: 
Clarion. Wright eomm : 70 
Clinton, Clinton county: 10 
Dai enport. s. ,,it .ounty: 3 
1 1. ins. ,ii. Crawford county: 1 
Des Moines. Polk i ounty: 2: 
Dubuque. Dubuque county: 

ito conn 
Estherville. Emmett county: 

Id, Jefferson county: 
i'i Dodge, Webster county: 
Forest City, Winnebago coon 
tunty: I 
ton, Franklin county: 

Ida county 60 m 

Iowa City, Johnson county: 
1 1 1 1. \ : 1 



Bur 



Ki 



'-ill, 



Mar 



! arrison county : 
M.i toll, st. r. I"', 

■ : 
Montezuma. Poweshiek c 
■ . ii Story county: I 
Red ''ii 

Rapids, Ly 
Sac City. S*c coi 
Sigourney. Ki-.l-i 



20 



ROADS AND STREETS— 1915 



259 



P o 
HO 



Madisonville, Hopkins 

Mason. Giant 

Mentor, Campbell .... 

Middlesboro. Bell 

Montieello. Wayne .... 
Paducah. Mel !ra< I - n 

Pineville, Bell 

Preston. Bath 

Richwood. Madison ... 
Shelbyville, Shelby . . . 
Shepherdsville, Bullitt 

Stanford, Lincoln 

Tomkinsville, Monroe . 

Vaneeburg. Lewi? 

Versailles. Woodford . 



Louisiana — ■ 



Welsh, Jeffe 

Maine — 

State 



St. Tamany 
les. Calcasie 
Davis 



Mar> land — 

Cambridge, Dorchester 
Centreville. Queen Ann 

Easton. Talbot 

Frederick, Frederick ... 
Rockville. Montgomery 
Snow I lill, Worcester... 



.Massachusetts- 
State 



Michigan — 

Beaverton. Gladwin 
Corunna. Shiawassee 
Crystal Falls, Iron .. . 

Detroit, Wayne 

Eseanaba, Delta 

Hart. Oceana 

Hillsdale. Hillsdale .. 
Houghton. Houghton. 



n. i 



ell, Livi 



Iron Mt.. Dicki 



Kalamazoo. Kala 

Kalkaska. Kalkaska 

L'Anse. Baraga Nothing. 

Manistee. Manistee 

Menominee, Menominee 

Mio, Oscoda None. 

Munising, Alger 

Rogers. Presque Isle 

St. Ignace, Mackinac 



Tr.i' 



Cii 



Gr 



nd Traverse 



West Branch. Ose 



State 
Alex; 



,iK hi 



Cambridge, Isanti 

Foley, Benton 

Granite Falls, Yellow Medii 

Ivanhoe, Lincoln 

Red Lake Falls. Red Lake 

Shakopee, Scott 

Walker, Cass 

Wheaton, Traverse 

Willmar. Kandiyohi 

Windom, Cottonwood 

Worthington. Nobles. . . 



Mi si 

Colu 



ippl— 

jus. Lou 



Missouri — 

Bolivar, Polk 

Brays Miller 

Clayton, St. Louis 

Columbia. Boone 

Dixon. Pulaski 

Farmington, St. Francois. 

Exeter. Barry 

Jackson, Cape Girardeau. 

Jefferson City. Cole 

Ironton. Iron 



Kingston. Caldwell . . 
Linn Creek, Camden . 

Luray. Clark 

Palmyra, Marion . . . . 

Potosi, Wash 

Roll.t. Phelps 

St. Charles. St. Charle 

Trov. Lincoln 

Warrenton. Warren .. 



Smb 

20mh 



26mr 
$400,000 



! 



121'n.d 120md 12t)md 



2 ill mil 

4ni 

10m n 5m 



lOmf 



ROAD GRADING 

(Continued 1 



Tipton, ' i .1. ml v : IBS miles. 

Toledo, Tama county: 8 miles. 

Washington .Washing untyi 10 mil 

h.avy grading; 35 miles tractor. 

Kansas — 

Ibilene, Dickinson county: 50 miles. 
Ashland. Cla.rk county: About 35 miles. 
Beloit. Mitchell county: 80 miles new 



iBlliill 



80 



..lily: 



Cimarron. Gray 

Clyde, Cloud county: 173 miles regrading. 

Council Grove. Morris county: 50 miles. 

ly. Ford county: 200 mill 3 

El Dorado. Butler county: 60 miles new. 

Fredonia. Wilson county: 25 miles 

tunty: 75 to 100 miles. 



Greensburg, K 

Holton, i 

ii"" Sheridan county: I miles 

I.ila. Allen county: HO miles. 

i e, Hodgeman counts GS 

i..ii.i'i Kearney county: 30 mil« 
Leavenworth, Leavenworth coi 

miles — maintenance. 
Lyndon, Osage county: 40 miles 
Newton, Harvey county: 3:: mil 
Russell, Russell county: 15 mil. 
Sabetha, Nemaha coun! \ 90 m 
Topeka, Shawnee county: 210 i 
Ti ibum . Greeley county : 20 mih 
Wichita, Sedgwick coui 

Kentucky — 

Bardwell. Carlisle county: -mo 

Bedford. Trimbl intj 10 m 

Bowling Green, Warren coun J 
Burlington. Boone county: 275 i 

Dixon, Wi bster counts : I m 

Henderson, Henderson county: 

maintenance. 

Hodgl hi ill.-. LaRu mil y 351 

Madisonville, 1 1 o 

Mentor Campbell county: 20 . 
i 'adui ah, Mi i lra> ki n county : 31 
Pineville, Bell counts : 34 mile? 
Owingsville, Bath counl 
Richmond, Madison c ity: 

maintenance. 
Stanford, Lincoln county: 100 i 
Vaneeburg Lewis county: 50 i 
Versailles. Woodford county: s 

Maryland — 

Easton. Talbot county: 20 mile: 

Michigan — 

Bes . mi i i log Is : m 

Crystal Falls. Ir lOuntJ !0 

Es ba. Delta counts 

Hillsdale. Hillsdale county: 20 
iron Mountain, Dickinson county 
Kalkaska, Kalkaska county: 5 

Manistee. Manlsl :ounty . i 

Rogers, Presque Isle counl j 5 
St, [gnace, Mack Inac counl j 



il,s- 



Clty, Grand r 



innesota — 
Uexandria. Douglas county: 12 

Hi iiinl M Ii. III. mtj ' ' m 

Blue Earth, Fanibaull 



in to 15 

llll" 

Ml 'I "mi 



miles. 

Martin eountj 

oh s ton county: 

Granite Palls, Fell 



rvanhoe, I 

I.i sin in- Cent. 



W I"'" ton T 

Will. ii. ii, Kandiyohi 
Windom, Cottons 



Bethany, Harrlsoi inty: 120,000 cu. yds. 

Brays, Millei nl i 125 ...lies. 

Dall 35 miles. 

I'nlnnil luntj 1 miles. 

Dixon, Pulaski counts 40 mil. 

Barry enmity: 75 in 
Fulton, Calls way count y: 7 
i , i ,,,, Cap. Gil irdi hi i ounty: 5 miles. 

Jefferson i 111 y, C miles. 

Ironton, I.m nty: 

laldwell county: 20 

i .. ..ii" i si. .ii, v eountj 

Linn Creek C I. n i oui ■ 1 3 mil. 3 



r." 



Clark 



M 



700 mile 
1,100 ft. 



260 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Nebraska- 

Blair, Wa 



ii., 



isluir 



i: , 



New Jersey — 

Beh !d< n , Warren 

Newton, Sussex 

Mt. Holly, Burlington None. 

Somei \ hi-, S .mei s< i 

New Mexico — 

State $4S8.1f 

Alamagorda, Otero 

Las Cruces, Dona Ana 

i,as Vegas, San Miguel 

Raton, Colfax 

New York — 

State 

Albion, Orleans Nothing definite. 

Auburn, Cayuga 

Canandaigua, Ontario 

Ellicottville, Cattaraugas 

Fonda, Montgomery 

Friendship, Allegany 

Herkimer, Herkimer 2.5m 

Ithaca. Tompkins 

Johnstown, Fulton 

Lockport, Niagara 

Malone. Franklin 

Oneida, Madison 

Saratoga Springs. Saratoga 

Penn Yan, Yates 

Utica, Oneida Nothing definite y 

Waterloo, Seneca 

Watertown, Jefferson 

Watkins, Schuyler 

North Carolina — 

Bryson City, Swain 

Camden. Camden None. 

Edenton, Chowan None. 

Glen Alpine, Burke None. 

Greensboro, Guilford 12m 

Hillsboro, Orange None. 

Kernersville, Forsyth 

Lexington, Davidson 

Mt. Airy, Surry 0.5m 

Troy, Montgomery 

Wilmington, New Hanover 

North Dakota — 

Crosby. Divide 

Stanton, Mercer None. 

Ohio— 

State 

Akron. Summit 

Bainbridge, Ross. 

Bowling Green, Wood 

Cambridge, Guernsey 

Canton, Stark 

Celina, Mercer 

Cincinnati, Hamilton 

Columbus. Franklin 

Dayton. Montgomery 

Defiance. Defiance 

Delaware, Delaware 

Diamond, Portage 

Eaton. Preble 

Fostoria, Seneca 

Hillsboro, Highland 

Howard, Knox 

Jefferson, Ashtabula 

Logan, Hocking 

London. Madison 

Mansfield, Richland 

Marietta, Washington 

Marysville, Union 

McConnelsville, Morgan 

Medina", Medina 

Millersburg, Holmes 

Mt. Gilead, Morrow 

Newark. Licking Some State Aid n 

North Lima. Mahoning 

Nova, Ashland 

Ottawa, Putnam 

Painesville. Lake 

Ravenna, Portage 

St. Clatrsville, Belmont 

Lucas lnmd 

Troy. Miami 

Urbana, Champaign 

Van Wert. Yan Wert , 

Wakeman, Huron 

Washington, Fayette ...... 

Wauseau. Fulton 

Waverley, Pike 

Wilmington. Clinton .[ .'.'..[[ 

Woodsfield, Monroe 

Youngstown, Mahoninsr . . . . . 

Zancsville, Muskingum [,"' 



5 available for road construction 



275md 275md 



1.25m 

2ms 

10.0001 



0.75ms 
35m 
4.5m 



S.66n 
2,71n 



3m . 20ma 
12.25m 5.55mk 





5300. OOOr 


14. Sm 

30m 
2ma 
6m 
60md 
10m 
40m 


2,0001p 
$10, OOOr 

S.OOOlt 


35m 

lOma 
10m 


20mr 
$7,000 

$33, OOOr 


1.5m 
15m 


l,075yo 

lOmk 
lOmas 


Sm 
1.8Bm 


lOmg 


ff.5m 
25m 




65m 

4mh 


$12.000r 
$26.000r 


1.5m 


30mh 


lm 

:.i 

17m 


$13.000r 
4.r.mk 


10m 




J1S 

12m 



ROAD GRADING 

(Continued) 



New Madrid, New Madrid county: 

miles. 
Ozark. Christian county: 30 miles. 
Palmyra, Marion countv: 200 miles 
Troy. Lincoln county: 26 miles. 
Warrenton. Warren county: 12". miles. 



Bozeman, Gallatin ...i 
Great Falls, Cascade 
Roundup. Musselshell 



300 



Nebraska — 

Beatrice. Gage county: 2! 
Blair, Washington county: 
Center. Knox county: 50 miles. 
Fremont. Dodge county: in miles. 
Kimball. Kimball county: 3 miles 
Osceola. Polk county: 50 miles 
Pender, Thurston county: 10 to 20 
Sidney. Cheyenne county: 30 miles 
Springview, Keyapaha county: 10 

New Jersey — 

Newton, Sussex county: 50.000 cu > 



New Mexico — 

Alamogordo, Otero county: 
Las Cruces, Dona Ana coui 
Porlales, Roosevelt countv 
Raton, Colfax county: 21 



New York — 

Auburn, Cayuga county 
Canandaigua. Ontario > 
Fonda. Montgomery co 
Friendship. Allegany ci 
Ithaca, Tompkins coun 
Lockport. Niaga 
Malone. Franklii 
Watkins, Schuyl 



county: 12 miles, 
county: 50 miles, 
county: lr.n.ono m. yds 



North Carolina — 

Bryson City. Swain county: 
Kernersville. Forsyth county 
Marshall: 6.9 miles. 
Mt. Airy. Surry county: 35 
Troy, Montgomery county: 
Wentworth. Rockingham cou 

North Dakota — 

Center. Oliver county: 10 to 
Crosby. Divide county: $40, i 
Dickinson. Stark county: 25 
Rolla, Rolette county: 20 ti 

Ohio — 

Celina. Mercer countv: 67.6 
Columbus. Franklin county: 
Howard. Knox county: 7 n 
Marietta, Washington county 
Mt. Gilead, Morrow county: 
Troy. Miami county: 100 mi 
T'rbana. Champaign county: 
Wans. on. Fulton county 21 
Zanesville, Muskingum count 



Ver 

Virginia — 
Courtland. Southampton county: 
Grundy. Buchanan county: 3 to 
Oldtown, Grayson county: 2 mil 
Rosslyn. Alexandria county: On. 

Wisconsin — 

State estimate. 600 miles. 
Algoma. Kewannee county: 7 or 
Balsam Lake. Polk county 12 
Danbury. Burnett county: 15 m 
Darlington. Lafayette county: 
Hayward, Sawyer county: 22 m 
Madison. Dane county: 45 miles 
Milwaukee. Milwaukee county 3 



Rhinelander, Oneida count: 
Rice Lake, Barron county : 
Richland Center. Richland 
Shawano. Shawano county: 
Sparta, Monroe county: s 
Sturgeon Bay Door county 
Superior. Douglas county: 



24 



ROADS AND STREETS-1915 



SIDEWALKS IN CITIES 
-1915. 



§1 s si I §§ 

City and County. 2 _~ - g^ g uc 

Oklahoma— W|1| spend about $3,000,000 for roads and 

State 

Pennsylvania — None 

Emporium, Cameron *°™- 

Lock. Haven, Clinton . . • 

McConnellsburg. Fulton "°" e ' 

Pittsburgh, Allegheny •••• 

Tionesta, Forrest ™' ' 

Tunkhannock. Wyoming None. 



Carolii 



.About $1,000,000 



ill be spent in construction of permanent highways. 



Texas 

Angleton. 
Bay City. 
Bellville, 
Bremond. 
Clarksvill 



Brazoria 

Matagorda. . 
Austin 

Robertson . 
2. Red River. 



Nothing decided yet. 



Dallas. Dallas 

Daingerfield. Morris. . . 

Edna, Jackson 

Ft. Worth, Tarrant . . 
Galveston. Galveston.. 
Greenville, Hunt 

Hemphill. Sabine 

Henrietta. Clay 

Hillsboro, Hill 

Houston, Harris 

Huntsville. Walker. . . 

Johnson City. Blanco. 

Karnes City. Karnes. 

Loekhart. Caldwell. . . 

Marshall. Harrison... 

Montague. Montague.. 

New Braunfels, Comal 

Palo 



staff: Cemi nt, 9 mill a I p 

Arkansas — 

Smith: Cement. 3 miles. 
Springs: Cement. 25,000 sq. ft. 
■ Bluff: Cement, 5 miles. 

California — 

Alhambra: Cement, 5 miles. 

Long Beach: Cement, 6 miles. 

Los Angeles: Cement. S5 miles (public). 

Pasadena: Cement, 4,449 lin, ft. 

San Francisco: Cement, 30,000 sq. yds. 

San Jose: Cement. 100.000 sq. ft. (private). 

Connecticut — 

Roekville: Cement, 1,( 
Torrlngton: Cement, 1 
Waterbury : Tar cor 
labor). 



it. 



■ ty 



Miami: Cement. 433,000 sq. ft. (public). 

Georgia — 

Americus: Cement. 5.000 sq. yds. 
Rome: Cement, 4.000 sq. yds. (private). 
Valdosta: Cement, 4.000 sq. yds. 

Illinois — 

Alton: Cement. 1,000 Un. ft. 
Berwyri: Cement. 50,000 lin .ft. 
Chicago Heights: Cement. 3.000 sq. ft. 
Decatur: Cement. 3 miles (private). 
Elgin: Cement, 3 >,. 1 miles (private). 
Litchfield- Cement, 3 miles. 
Oak Park: Cement. 8.81 miles. 
Rushville: Brick. 2 miles; cement. :> ml 
Waukegan: Cement, 5,000 Un. ft. 



5mc 

36.7mr 

20mc 



Shi' 



Ha 



ilt., 



Vernon. Wilbarge 
Waco, McLennan 
Waxahachie. Elli 
Wharton. Wh 
Wichita Falls 



Wichita 



Virginia — ■ 

State 

Amherst. Amherst 

Bland, Bland 

Buckingham. Buckingham.. 

Courtland. Southampton 

Eastville. Northampton.... 
Harrisonburg. Rockingham 

Lunenberg. Lunenberg 

Palmyra, Fluvanna 

Rosslyn, Alexandria 

Suffolk. Nansemond 

Washington — 

State 

Bellingham. Whatcom 

Chehali=. Lewis ■ • • ■ ■ 

Walla Walla, Walla Walla. 



Will spend about $7,000,000 



I > i ■<■■■■■>- > — 

imlrrson: Cement. 1 mile 
Brazil: Cement. 1% miles. 
Crawfordsville: Cement. 3 miles 
Frankfort: Cement, 57,500 sq. ft 
Gary: Cement, 15 miles. 
Hammond: Cement, 3 miles. 
Huntington: Cement, 10.000 sq 
Logansport: Cement. 2.000 sq. ft. 
Richmond: Cement. 30,000 sq. ft. 
Valparaiso: Cement, 25,000 lin. ft 
Vincennes: Cement. 1 mile. 



(public). 



ft. 



Cedar Falls: Cement, 15.00" II 
Cedar Rapids: Cement, 12 to 15 mile 
Bluffs: Cement, 239,1 

En tsburg Cement, 9.000 sq yds 

Bsthervllle: Cement, 10.000 sq. ft. 
Iowa City: Cement, 5 miles. 
Keokuk: Cement, 1 mile. 
Rock Rapids: Cement, % mil- 



Kansas — 

Arkansas City: Ceme 
Cimarron: Cement. 6 
Coffeyville: Cemi nl o 

-, miles. 



nil. 



brick", probably 4 or 



Wisconsin — 

State 

Algoma. Kewannee 

Baraboo. Sauk 

Chippewa Falls. Chippewa. 

Crandon. Forest 

Darlington. Lafayette 

Eau Claire, Eau Claire 

Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac. 

Ft. Atkinson. Jefferson 

Janesville, Rock 

Madison. Dane 

Milwaukee. Milwaukee 

Nelson. Buffalo 

Oshkosh. Winnebago 

Osseo, Trempealeau 

Rhinelander. Oneida 

Rice Lake. Barron 

Richland Center, Richland.. 

Shawano, Shawano 

Sparta, Monroe 

Stevens Point. Portage 

Sturgeon Bay, Door 

Superior, Douglas, *t 

Thiensville. Ozaukee 



Cement, 2 miles. 
Cemi nt, $2,000. 
r: Cement, 2 miles. 
Holton: Brick. 22 blocks. 
Hutchinson: Cement, r> miles 

indepen. C m. nt, 3,000 lin 

Newton: Cement, sq ! 

i', m, nt or bi lek, I i 
Bi ,. i . :: 000 lin. ft.: ce 
lin. ft. <i"' iv ■'' ' 
Topeka: Cement, so.ono 
Troy: < 



Fori Scott: 
Gates Cente 



Pittsburg: 



ent, 2.000 lin. ft. 



20,000y 5 
35m 



. . . i: I ' 

in. oooi l, la 



Kentuckj — 

1 i;ui\ [lie: 

Lexlngto 
Ma: Held 



Cement, i mile. 

[it, 1 mile. 

Cement, 6 miles Cpu 

i i mi nl i Iin '*■ 



Massachusetts— 

v ,i im . ■ Cemi in i I 

Bl ■ 






Wyoming— Will probai ! " nn 

^Sanrl clay. d-One or more 
•ith tar 



a— Oiled macadam, b— State Aid. 
arked "d." e-Granite-disintegrated 

- rfaeing. 1-Contracts for road <^ ea ^ lMm 
s — Sand-clay, shell, 
yards. 



ent 



linear feet. m — Miles. n— Asphalt 
Roads, s — State highway, 
oiled macada 



Surface treat ... 

—Earth road, k ' ="'' ! 
p_Woorl block. 

,,„. Rocm 



... stone. 

r,i, 1 



crete, «.000 sq. . 

IM, ' ' 

I sq. yds. 

hi. ono sq. yds. 

2.500 sq. 
.„ 2.000 sq. yds. 

sq. yds.: tar concn te, I > 

;e , 5,000 ., 

lin. ft. 



-Pqua 



April, 1915 



262 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



SIDEWALKS IN CITIES (Continued) 



Michigan— 

Alpena: Cement, probable !'.■ miles 
Benton Harbor: Cement, 4,000 Lin. Et. (pub- 
lic). 
Cadillac: Cement, 5,856 lin. ft. 
Flint: Cement, IB. 700 sq. yds. 
Marquette: Cement. 1 mile (public) 
Port Huron: Cement. 1% miles. 
Saginaw: Cement, 10 miles (public). 

Minnesota — 

Austin: Cement. 1.100 lin. ft. (public; 

9,890 lin. ft. (private). 
Duluth: Cement. $10,000; wood. $6,000. 
Mankato: Cement. 4,000 lin. ft. 



1 mile (private). 

Missouri! — 

Carthagi Brick, 3.000 lin. ft.; stone. 

4,000 lin. ft. 
I lolumbia i lement, 4.000 lin. ft. i publii I 
Sedalia: Cement, 3 miles. 
Webb city: Cement, 12.000 sq. ft 

Montana — 

Billings; Cement, 25 000 sq. ft. 
Bozeman: Cement. 15.000 lin. ft. 
Great Falls: Cement, no. ooo sq. ft. 
Helena: Cement. 73.000 sq. ft.: wood. 23.- 
000 sq. ft. 

Nebraska — 

Beatrice: Cement. 12 miles. 

Grand Island: Cement. 1 mile. 

Lincoln: Cement. 6 miles, 

Omaha: Brick, 5.000 lin. ft.: Cement, mo.. 

000 lin. ft. 
South Omaha: Brick or cement, about 3 

miles. 
New Hampshire — 

Laconia: Ta.r concrete. 1.000 lin. ft. 

New Jerses — 

Bayonne: Cement. 9.530 sq. ft. 

Montclair: Cement. 10.000 lin. ft. 

Ridgewood: Cement, 2 miles. 

Westfield: Cement. 2 miles (public). 
New Mexico — 

Silver City: Cement. 5.000 lin. ft. 
New York — 

Corning: Cement. 3,000 lin. ft. 



20,i 



(pr 



Hudson: Cement, 

New York City, Bronx Bor ement, 391.. 

900 sq. ft.; stone. 30.100 sq. ft. 
Plattsburg: Cement, S.OO0 sq. yds. 
Schenectady: Cement. 4 miles. 
Utica: Cement. 112.000 sq. ft. 

North Carolina — 

Charlotte: Cement. 7,500 sq. yds. 
Kinston: Cement. 30.000 lin. ft. 

North Dakota — 

Minot: Cement, 3 



lies (public) 



! 1 a 



Cen 



Ohio- 
Akron: Cement. 375.125 sq. ft. 
Cambridge: Cement. 4,000 sq. yd? (privat 
Chillicothe: Cement. 2.800 sq. ft. 

Cincinnati: Cement, 920,( sq ft 

Cleveland: Brick. ' mile; cement, 

miles: stone, 24 miles. 
Coshocton: Cement. 5.000 lin. ft. fpubll 
Dayton: Cement, ?.o. oiio sq. ft. (priva 

10.000 sq. ft. (public). 
Delaware: Cement. 50,000 sq. ft 

Greenville: Cement. 6 so ll 

London: Brick. 4 bloi I B 

Lorain: Stone. 40.000 sq. ft., new: 40. c 

sq. ft. relay. 
Mansfield: Cement. 1.000 lin. ft. 
Marion: Stone. 30,000 SQ. ft. 
Middletown: Cement. 2 miles. 
Norwood: Cement. 27.000 sq M 
Painesville: Cement, 6 miles (public). 
"Warren: Cement. 2 mlle3: stone, 1 mile 
Troy: Cement, 20.000 sq, ft 
Woostcr: Stone. 5.000 sq. ft. 

Oklahoma — 

Bartlesville: Cement. 1 mile (private) 
Durant: Cement. 1 mile fprivati I 

Enid: Cement, 1,000 lin. ft 
Tulsa i lement, 65.000 sq. ft. 

Oregon — 

Astoria: Cement, S00 lin. ft. 

Eugene: Cement, 28.000 lin. ft. 

Mi .11'. .r.l - ''. m.nl 2,000 lin ft. 

Portland: Cement, 18.5 miles 

Pennsylvania — 

Ashley: Stone. 3 300 sq. yds. 

Carbondale: SI , 12.000 lin. ft. 



Catasauqua: Cement, 560 sq. yds. 

Du Bois: Cement, 1% miles. 

Freeland: Cement. 2 miles. 

Juniata: Brick, 3,845 ft.; cement, 3.810 ft. 

stone, 5.084 ft. 
North Braddoi k: Ci mi nt ' ;. mile. 
Pittsburgh: Cement. 13a. 000 sq. ft. 

Khode Island — 

Cumberland: Cement, $2,000. 
Newport: Cement, 7,000 sq. yds. 

South Carolina — 

Columbia: Cement, about 6 miles. 
Orangeburg: Cement, 5,000 lin. ft. 

South Dakota — 

Lead: Cement. 7,414 lin. ft. 
Sioux Falls: Cement. 3,000 lin. ft. 



Cement, 10,000 sq. ft. 



Texas — 

Ennis: Cement. 5 miles. 
Laredo: Cement. 8,000 sq. yds 
Midlothian: Cement, 5,000 lin. 
Taylor: Cement. 2 miles. 



Stanardsville 



nt, 1 mile 



Washington — 

Aberdeen: Cement. 10.000 sq 

1 000 sq. yds. 
Bellingham: Cement. 5 miles. 
Everett: Cement, 7,500 sq. yds 

Seattle: Cement. 20 miles; I 

Spokane: Cement. 4 miles. 

Walla Walla: Cement. 120.000 sq ft. 

Wisconsin — 

Appleton: Cement. 3 1*: miles. 
I-v.nd du Lac: Cement, 3 to 5 

vate). 
Madison: Cement, about 10 miles (private). 
Marinette: Cement, 1 mile, 
Neenah: Cement. 2 000 lin. ft. 
Sheboygan: Cement. 12,000 sq. ft. (public) 
Wausau: Cement. 4 miles 



(prl- 



SIDEWALKS IN COUNTY WORK 



Arkansas — 

Grannis, Polk county: Cement 5.( li 

Monticello, Drew county: Cement. 1 
Paragould. Green eountj C -ni. 6 n 



Idaho — 




Lewiston 


, Nez Perce 


miles. 




Illinois — 




Kankake 


e. Kankakee 


lin. ft. 




Ml Sterl 


ing. Brown < 


sq. ft 




Iowa — 




Clarion 


Wright cotl 


sq. ft 




Bmmettsburg, Palo A 


yds 




Kansas — 




Ashland 





I. akin. Kearney county 


: Cemei 


It, 3 miles. 


Nebraska — 






Russell, Russell county 


Cemei 


it. 1 mile. 


Kimball. 


Kimball county 


Ci ni.nl. 500 








ft. (private). 




Michigan — 

Hillsdale. Hillsdale ci 


sunty: 


Cement, ty 


Springvie\ 
3.000 lil 


v. Keyapaha 
l. ft. 


county: Cemi 


mile. 






North Carol 


ina — 




Rogers, Presque Isle ci 


Hiiily: 


3 miles. 


Mt. Airy. 


Surry county: 


5 mile: 








North Dakota — 




Missouri — 






Dickinson 


Stai i: county: 


Cemen< 


Dixon, Pulaski county: 


Cemer 


it. 12.000 sq. 


yds. 






yds. 
ter Barry county: 

wood. t/ 3 mile. 
Linn Creek, Camden 

mile. 
Macon. Mai on county: 


Ceme 
county: 


nt, 2 miles; 
Cement, Vi 


Ohio- 
Mansfield, 
sq. yds. 
Texas — 


Richland cou: 


ity: i '. in. aii 


Cl in. ail 


3.500 lin. ft. 


Bay City. 


Matagorda co 


unty: Cement 


New Madrid. New Madrid cou 


ntv: Brick. 


miles. 






300 lin. ft ; cement, 


l.ooo lir 


i. ft. 


Virginia — 






Po'osi. Washington coi 


tnty: C 


lement, 2.000 


Rosslyn, 


Alexandria ct 


mnty: 



CURB AND GUTTER IN CITIES 



Arizona — 

Flagstaff: Concrete curb and gutter. 24 
blocks . 

Arkansas — 

II. a Springs: Concreti curb, 5.000 lin. ft.; 

concrete curb and gutter. 15.000 lin. ft. 
Pine Bluff: Concrete curb and gi r, 2 

miles. 

California — 

Alhambra: Concrete curb and gutter, 5 
miles. 

Long Beach: Concrete gutter. 11 miles. 
Los Angeles: Cement curb, 85 miles 
Pasadena: Concrete gutter, 55,518 lin. ft.; 
concrete curb, 58,739 lin. ft. 

San Francisco: Brick gutter. 1,000 sq. yds.; 
cobDle gutter, 2.000 sq. J ds. : conci eti curb 
and gutter, 70,000 lin, ft.: granite curb, 
lin. ft. 
San Jose: Concrete curb and gutter, 25,- 
sq. ft.; granite curb and guti. 
Iln. ft. 



Santa Barbara: Concrete gutter, 12.000 sq. 

yds.; concrete curb. 3.700 lin. ft. 
Santa Rosa: Concrete curb and gutter. 10,- 

000 lin. ft. 

< onnccticut — 

Torrington: Cobble gutter, 1,000 lin. ft.; 
concrete curb and gutter. 1 mile; granite 
curb, V6 mile. 
Waterbury: Concrete curb, $6,000. 



Florida — 

Miami: Concrete gutter. 24.000 lin. ft.; 
concrete curb and gutter. 24.000 lin. ft. 

(ieorgia — 

Americus: Concrete curb and gutter. 9 000 

lin. ft. 
Rome: Concrete curb and gutter. 7.000 lin. 

ft. 



Alton: Concrete curb and gutter 11 miles; 

limestone curb. 1.000 lin. ft. 
Aurora: Concrete curb and guttei 

lin. ft. 
Berwyn: Concrete curb and gutter 7. (inn 

lin. ft. 
Blue Island: Granite curb. 44,775 lin. ft. 
Chicago Heights: 14.136 lin. ft. 
Cairo: Concrete curb and gutter. 2S,ooo n n . 

ft. • 

Clinton: Concrete gutter. 6,000 n n . ft. 
Decatur: Sandstone curb, 13.r,00 lin ft. 
Elgin: Concrete curb and gutter. 4% miles. 
Joliet: Concrete curb and gutter. 11.000 lin 

ft.: limestone curb. 1 800 lin. ft. 
Oak Park: Concrete curb and gutter. 18.58 

miles. 
Rushville: Concrete curb and gutter. 3 

miles. 
Waukegan: Concrete curb and gutter. 

6.500 lin. ft. 

April, J.0/.7 



ROADS AND STREETS— 1915 



Curb and Gutter in Cities— Continued 



Concrete gutter 



Concrete curb, 8,700 1 
l i mi i. 2,100 1 
ncrete curb 
cnrb. 5 mil 



ft. 



< -Mil. |i I'- 



ll 



4.500 lin. ft. 



nd gutter, 11 miles 
urb and gutter, 10 
gutter. 



jrb 



i n.l 



Vim ei 
milt 



gutt 

:urb and gutter, 
urb and gutter, 



Cedar Falls: Concrete curb and gutter, 
22.000 lin. ft.; marginal curb, 5.000 lin. ft. 

Cedar Rapids: Concrete curb and gutter, 
20.000 lin. ft. 

Council Bluffs: Concrete curb and gutter. 



l :, . 7 2 



ft. 

Concrete curb and gutte 



Iowa City: 

000 lin. ft. 
Keokuk: Concrete curb, 11.000 lin. ft. 



2 1.- 



Concrete curb and gutte 



Kansas — 

Arkansas City: 

6 miles. 
Chanute: Concrete curb and gutter, 1 mi 
Fort Scott: Concrete curb. 2 miles. 
Hutchinson: Concrete curb and gutter. 



Cone 
Concrete 



n-i. 



Indcpendenc 

6.000 lin. ft. 
Leavenworth: Concrete curb. 6.000 lin. ft. 
Ottawa: Concrete curb and gutter. IS, 000 

lin. ft.: marginal curb. 1.000 lin. ft. 
Pittsburg: Concrete curb and gutter, 



m. 



Hopkinsville: Concrete 

Lexington: Brick gutt 

curb 3 miles: concre 



in 



rb and gut 

gutter. 1 ' i miles 
r, 4 miles: concrete 
e curb and gutter 



limesto 



urb, 4 



Massachusetts — 

Beverly: Granite curb. 15.000 lin. ft. 
Brookline: Granite curb, 3.000 lin. ft. 
Lawrence: Granite curb. 20.000 lin, ft. 
Lowell: Granite curb. 10.000 lin. ft. 
Revere: Granite curb. 1.800 lin. ft. 
Salem: Cobble gutter. 1.200 yds.; granite 

.orb. 5.000 lin. ft. 
Soneham: Granite curb. 400 lin. ft 
Woburn: Granite curb, 500 lin. ft. 



Benton Harbo 

18.000 lin. f 

Cadillac: Con 



cret 



e curb and gutter. 11,- 
icrete curb and gutter, 
curb and gutter, 14.341 



ft. 



Flint: Concrete curb and gutter. 25.010 lin. 

ft.; sandstone curb. 44.410 lin. ft.; stone 

header, 9.550 lin. ft. 
Manistee: Concrete curb and gutter. 3.466 



ft. 



ft. 



Marquette: Marginal curb. 5.C 
Port Huron: Concrete curb. 1 mile. 
linnesota — 
Austin: Cement curb. 47.492 lin. ft. 
Duluth: Concrete curb. 20.000 lin. ft.; 
crete curb and gutter. 12.000 lin 
sandstone curb r..noo lin. ft. 
Everett: Concrete curb and gutter. 

nun 00 

Mnnkato: Concrete curb and gutter. 3,000 



*7.- 



ft. 



Clo 



Concrete 



jrb. 



M 1 li 

id gutte 



ft. 



Limestone 
Concrete 



and gut 
and gutte 



Sedalia: Concrete curb and gutter. 1 mile. 
Webb City: Concrete curb ami gutter, 
S.000 lin. ft. 

Montana — 

Hillings: Concrete curb. 10.000 lin. ft. 
Bozeman: Concrete curb, 8,000 lin. ff. 
Great Falls: Concrete curb. 6.000 lin. ft. 
Helena: Concrete curb. 15.000 lin. ft 

Nebraska — ■ 

Beatrice: Concrete curb and gutter. 10 

miles 
Lincoln: Concrete curb and gutter. 50,000 



ew Jersey — 

Bayonne: Concrete 

lin. ft. 1 
Montclair: Concrete 



rli. 1.000 lin- ft. 

curb and gutter, 1,900 
11 1. I" 150 lin. ft. 
curb. 16.000 lin. ft. 



nd gutter, 1 



Westfield: Concrete curb and gutte 



u Mexico — 

Mbuquerque: Concrete gutter. 2 miles. 
toswell: Concrete gutter. 9.704 lin. ft.; 

concrete curb and gutter. 3.000 lin fl 
Silver City: Concrete curb and gutter, 4,000 



ft. 



Hudson: Concrete curb. 1 mile. 

Newburgh: Bluestone curl, and gutter, 

3.600 lin. ft.; 4.500 feet, material not 

chosen. 

New York. Bronx Boro: Bluestone curb. 

lin. ft. 

Plottsburg: Concrete curb and gutter. S.000 

lin ft. 

Schenectady: Concrete curb. Hi mile: 

granite curb. 6 c. miles. 
Utica: Concrete curb and gutter. 28.000 

lin. ft. 
Watertown: Concrete curb and gutter, 1 

mile. 

North Carolina — 

Coldshoro: Granite curb. 2, 000 lin ft 
Kinston: Concrete curb and gutter, 30.000 
lin ft. 

North Dakota — 

Mm, it Concrete curb and gutter. 2 miles: 
granite curb. 300 lin. ft. 



Akron: Concrete curb and gutt. 1 

lin. ft.: limestone curh. 7S.1S0 lin. ft. 
Athens: Concret. curb. 4.796 lin. ft. 
Cambridge: Sandstone curb, s.000 lin. ft. 
Chillicothe: Concrete gutter. 2.100 sq. ft.: 

concrete curb. 2.900 lin. ft. 
Coshocton: Concrete curb and gutter. 

2,000 lin. ft. 
Greenville: Concrete curb and gutter. 3 

miles; sandstone curb. 1.000 lin. ft. 
Marion: Sandstone curb. 2 miles 
Middletown: Concrete curb anil gutter, 2 

miles. 
Newark: Concrete curb and gutter. 2.1 so 

lin ft : marginal curb. 115 lin. ft. 
Norw 1 Concrete curb and gutter. 13.000 



Troy: Concrete curb. 4.000 lin. it 
crete curb and gutter, 1l', I lin. 1 

Washington: Concrete gutter, son |j 
s indstone, 5 1 10 lin ft. 
ginal curb, 190 lin. ft. 



Eugene 1 oni 



Port lam i 



1 1 , ,iii,| gu 1 
urb and gi: 

lib. 1V1 111 



Pennsj Ivania — 

Ashli 500 sq. yds.. 

Carbondale: Com rete cm b and 

3,247 lin. ft. 
'ii isauqua: Concrete curb and gutter. 

800 lin. ft. 
Du Bois: Concrete curb and gutter, 3.000 

lin ft.: marginal curb. 300 lin. ft. 

curb and gutter 2 

Juniat.i ' '.hi. :.t. . in 1. 4.400 lin. ft : 

sandstone curb, S8 3 lin. ft. 
North Braddock: Concrete curb on.' 

1 1 miles. 
Oil City: Concrete gutter. 5.500 lin. ft.: 

concrete curb and gutter. 2 100 lin. fl. 
Pittsburgh: Concrete curb. 30.000 lin. ft. 



curb. 7,100 lin 
South Carolina — 
Orangeburg 
marginal e 

South Dakota — 

Lead: Concrete curb. 2.S10 lin. ft. 
Falls: Concrete curb and 

. n. ft. 

Tennessee — 

Jackson: Concrete < 
Johnson City: Cone 



Concrete curb and gutter, 4 



Taylor: 


Concrete 


curb and gutter, 


7 mil. 


Utah— 

Logan : 


Concrete ( 


:urb and gutter, : 





Washington — 

Aberdeen: Concrete curb and gu" 

000 lin. ft. 
Bellingham: Concrete gutter. 2 miles 
Everett: Concrete curb and gutter. 6.500 



lin. ft. 



Seattle: Brick gutter, 10 

curb. 12 miles. 
Spokane: Concrete curb and gutter. 5 
\\ all . Walls 1 1 



concrete 

5 miles. 

10. lin it 



Appleton: Concrete curb and gutter. 4 

Belolt: Concrete curb and gutter 

Fond du Lac: Concrete curb and gutter, 6 
miles. 

Concri te curb and gutter, 16,- 

r,nn lin. ft. 
Madison* Concrete curb and gutter. 6 

N'eenah: Concrete curb and gutter, r. ^00 
lin ft. 

1: gutter, '"50 sq. yds.; 

concrete curb and gutter, 39.000 lin ft 

town: Concrete curb and gutter. 



3.735 lin. ft. 



Concrete curl, and gutter. 1 mile. 



Arkansas — ■ 

Paragould. Gree 



CURB AND GUTTER IN COUNTY WORK 



60 rods 



1,800 lni ft 



Iowa— 

Emmettsburg. Palo Alto 
gutter. 8.000 lin. ft. 

Estherville. Emm.lt 
curb. 2 500 lin. ft. 

Forest City. "Winnebago 
glitter, 1 mile. 



ounly: I 
inty: 



gutte 
Kentucky — 

... 1 :,, ,1 



urb and 

Concrete 



Michigan — 

county: Conei 
and gutter, K mile. 
Mi-si,iiri — 

Pulaski county: Co 
in. ft. 

ExeteJ i' I Concreti S 

miles. 



264 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Curb and Gutter in County Work— Continued 



n county: 

rb, 2,000 ft. 



Concrete gut- 



.ew York — 

Canandaigua, Ontar 
j miles; concrel 
miles. 
Herkirn, r, 



onh . ■ -,.1.1.1. 
urb an,] g 

county : 



Herki: 
nd gutter. B miles. 
Malone, Franklin county: Cobble 
3.000 lin. ft. 



Penn Yan. Tatea 

and gutter, 1 n 

Waterloo, Seneca 



county: Concrete 
le. 

bounty: Granite cu 



North Carolina — 
Mt. Airy, Surry c< 
1 mile; granite c 

North Dakota — 

Dickinson. Slark 
and gutter. 1.200 11 



Concrete gutte 



rb, 1 
o-unty: 



urb, 23 



lilt'S. 



Wisconsin — 

Green Bay: Concrete gutter, 6.000 lin. tt. 
Madison, Dane county: Concrete curb an 

gutter, 13.000 lin. ft. 
Milwaukee, Milwauki unty: Concrel 

curt and gutter. 10.000 lin. ft. 



SEWER CONSTRUCTION— 1915 



Anniston: Vitrified pipe, 2 miles. 

Arizona — 

Pine Bluff: Vitrified pipe, 6,000 ft., 12 in. 
to 27 in. 

Arkansas — 

Hot Springs: Vitrified pipe, 8,000 ft.; man- 
holes. 60. 
McGehee: $30,000. 

California— 

Alhambra: Brick, 24 to 30 in.; vitrified 
pipe, 10 to 14 in. 

Long Beach: Concrete pipe, 7 miles; vitri- 
fied pipe, 30 miles; manholes, 400. 

Los Angeles: 120 miles sanitary sewer; 75 
miles storm sewer. 

Pasadena: Vitrified pipe. 7,020 ft.; man- 
holes, 18; catch basins. 5. 

Pan Bernardino: Vitrified pipe, 7.000 ft. 8- 
in.; manholes, 20. 

San Francisco: Vitrified pipe, 10,200 ft., 10- 
in. ; manholes. 500; catch basins. 350. 

San Jose: Vitrified pipe. 2,500 ft. 6-in.; 
manholes. 75; catch basins. 500. 

Santa Barbara: Vitrified pipe, 5 miles, 6 
to 12-in 

Santa Rosa: Vitrified pipe. 3 miles. S to 
12-in.; manholes, 20. 



Connecticut — 

Danbury: $20,000. 

M. n,l,n: Will spend $7,500; city labor. 

Rockville: Vitrified pipe. 2.000 ft . ; man- 
holes, 20: catch basins, 40. 

Torrlngton: Vitrified block. 3.700 ft : vitri- 
fied pipe. 6.000 ft.; manholes. 20; catch 
b his. 20. 

Waterbury: $15,000 vitrified pipe. S to 12- 
in; $12,000 storm sewer. 

Delaware — 

Wilmington: Concrete pipe. 8,000 ft.. 30 
and 36-in.; vitrified pipe, 2.000 ft., 24-in. 

Florida— 

■ Clearwater: Sanitary sewers, $1S,000; 
storm sewer. $4,900. 
Miami: Vitrified pipe. 20 miles, S to 24-in.; 

manholes. 200: catch basins, 75. 
Pensacola: Vitrified pipe. 7.900 ft.. 8-in. to 
36-in. 
Georgia — 

Americus: Vitrified pipe, 1 mile. 18-in. ; 

manholes, 10; catch basins. 2S. 
La Grange: Vitrified pipe. 2 Vi miles. 4 to 
15-in ; manholes, 12; catch basins, 8. 

Vitrified pipe, 2,200 ft., 12 to 24-in. 
storm. 
Idaho- 
Moscow: $11,000.00. 
Illinois — 

Alton: $150,000 system. 9-ft. to 8-ln., con- 
crete and vitrified pipe. 
Aurora: Vitrified pipe. 3 miles. 
Berwyn: Vitrified pipe. 35.000 ft. 
Cairo: Vitrified pipe. 7,500 ft,. 6 to 12-in.; 

manholes, 20; catch basins. 50. 
Chicago Heights: Vitrified pipe. 7,700 ft.. 
12 to 24-in.; manholes. 22; catch basins. 






12-ln., 



Vitrified pipe. 2,000 ft.. 
2.000 ft. 15-in.; manholes. 20: catch 
basins, 30. 
Crete: Vitrified pipe, 34.25S ft, 6 to 20-in.: 

I I Iron Pipe. 105 ft.; manholes ,208. 
Decatur: Vitrified pipe, 7,000 ft.. 10 and 

lS-in.: manholes. 45: catch basins. 75 
Joliet: Vitrified pipe, 43.000 ft.. 6 to 36-in.: 

manholes, 150: catch basins. 300 
Oak Park: Brick. 100 ft.; vitrified pipe, 
ral miles 12-in. to 18-in.; manholes 
every 100 ft., and 60 to 80 catch l 
Wenona $26 000. 



Frankfort: Vitrified pipe, 3.S00 ft.. 10 and 
12-in.; manholes, 15; catch basins, 30. 

Garrett: $3,000. 

Gary: Concrete, 1.000 ft., 36-in.: vitrified 
pipe. 15.000 ft.; manholes. 90; 
basins. 25; outlets. 25. 

Hammond: $700,000.00 system. 

Indianapolis: $9,652. 

Logansport: Vitrified pipe, 1,850 ft. 



catch 



hole 



10. 



Richmond; Vitrified pipe, 5,000 ft. 

onerete 



Iowa — 

Burlington: 15,600 ft. 
vitrified pipe. 

Cedar Falls: Vitrified pipe. 2.000 ft. 

Cedar Rapids: Brick, 1,680 ft.. 36-in.: 
vitrified pipe. 7,600 ft. 6 to lS-in.; man- 
holes 2S; catch basins, S; flush tanks, 3. 

Council Bluffs: Vitrified pipe. 32.795 ft. 

Forest City: 3.000 ft. storm. 

Grinnell: Sanitary sewer. 69.000 ft. S to 



24- 



Leon: Vitrified pipe, 9 miles. 

Mason City: Vitrified pipe. 23.000 ft . S to 

15-in. 
State Center: 24.200 ft.. 8 and 10-in. 

Kansas — 

Arkansas City: 94 mile storm. 

Hutchinson: Reinforced concrete. 75.000 ft. 
30-in.: vitrified pipe. 5 miles. 

Independence: Brick. 2.000 ft.; reinforced 
concrete. 1.500 ft,: vitrified pipe. 3.000 ft. 

Leavenworth: Vitrified. 5.000 ft. S-in. : 
manholes. 6. 

Ottawa: Vitrified pipe. 1.300 ft.. 8 in. 

Pittsburg: Vitrified pipe, 1.300 ft. S-in 

Salina; 2.500 ft. of 36-in. sewers. Kind un- 
decided. Vitrified pipe. 7.000 ft. 

Topekn : Reinforced concrete, 2. son ft. 6 
bv 9: vitrified block. 2.600 ft., 33 to 45- 
in.. 4.000 ft. 8 to 24-in.; manholes 24; 
catch basins. 142. 

Kentucky — 

Covington: 3.900 ft. of 4-ft. sewer. KinO 

not decided. 
Lexington: Vitrified pipe. 62.000 ft. 8 and 

15-in.; manholes, 40; catch basins. 14. 



Massachusetts — 

Adams: Vitrified pipe. 3.600 ft.. S to 24-in.; 
manholes. 12: catch basins, 15. 

Brookline; Concrete. 1,600 ft.. 60-in. ; vitri- 
fied pipe. 2 miles. 

Gloucester: Vitrified pipe. 1.000 ft. 

Lawrence: Vitrified pipe. 17.500 ft.: man- 



hole 



65. 



Lowell: Brick, 1.250 ft. 30-in.. 85 ft. 72-in. : 
vitrified pipe. 1 mile; manholes, 50; catch 
basins. 50; outlets. 2. 

Newburyport: Vitrified pipe, 1,700 ft.; 
catch basins, 20. 

Orange: $600.00. 

Revere: Vitrified pipe. 10.800 ft., 8 to 18-in. 

Salem: Vitrified pipe. 1 mile. 

Stoneham- Vitrified pipe. 5.000 ft.; man- 
holes. 25; catch basins, 4. 

Westfleld: Vitrified pipe. 10.000 ft. 
Michigan — 

Benton Harbor: Vitrified pipe. 5.500 ft. 
10-in. 

Cadillac: Vitrified pipe. 3.400 ft.: man- 
holes. 14. 

Flint: Concrete pipe. 10.560 ft. IS to 24-ln.; 
vitrified block. 8.180 rt.. 27 to 42-in.: vit- 
rified pipe. 44.600 ft.. 6 to 22-in.: man- 
holes. 242: catch basins. 20(1. 

Grand Rapids: $4,000.00. 

Marquette: None 

Saginaw: Concrete pipe. 3 or 4 miles. 
Minne-nta — 

Austin: Vitrified pipe. 5.550 ft.: manholes. 
26. 

niiluth: Vitrified pipe. $100,000.00. 

Kveleth: $26,000 for 24-in. storm sewer. 

Mnnkato: Vitrified pipe, 1.300 ft.: man- 
holes. 4. 



St. Cloud: Vitrified pipe, 5,295 ft.. S to 15-in. 
Wadena: Brick. 3.700 ft.; tile. 1.575 ft. 30- 
in., 3.800 ft. 12-in. 

Mississippi — 

Gulfport: Vitrified pipe. 2.000 ft. 10-in. 
Hattiesburg: Vitrified pipe. >£ mile S-in.; 

manholes. 6. 
Meridian: Reinforced concrete, 1,000 ft.; 

vitrified pipe. 3 miles. 
Okolona: $5S,000. 

Missouri — 

Carthage: Vitrified pipe. 1% miles. 
Sedalia: Vitrified pipe. 2 miles, s to 15-in,: 

manholes, 10. 
Webb City: Concrete. 500 ft.; vitrified pipe, 

1,800 ft. 8-in.; manholes, 4. 

Montana — 

Billings: Vitrified pipe, 6.000 ft. 
Bozeman: Vitrified pipe. 2.500 ft. 6-in.: 

manholes. S. 
Butte: 13 miles. S to 12-in. 
Great Falls: Vitrified pipe. 1.530 ft.. 6 to 

12-in : manhole, 1; catch basins. 3: out- 



lets 



S to 10-ln. 



Grand Island: Vitrified pipe, possibly 3 

miles. 
Lincoln: Vitrified pipe. 3 miles. S in.: 

manholes. 30. 
Omaha: Probably spend nearly $200.000. on 



'e\v Jersey — 

Bayonne: Vitrified pipe. 

holes every 120 ft. 
Camden; Brick, about 2 
Dover: None. 
Montclair: Vitrified pipe. 



to 



10-i 



North Wildwood: $32,000. 
Oaklvn: Sanitary sewer Bystem 
Princeton: Vitrified pipe, 3,500 ft. 
Ridgewood: Vitrified pipe. 6.3nn ft.. 12 to 

24-in.; manholes. 31: catch basins. 56. 
Westfleld: Vitrified pipe. 4,000 ft.. 27 and 

30-in.. 2.000 ft S-in. 

New YoBk— 

Corning: Vitrified pipe, 3.505 ft.; manholes. 

11; catch basins. 2. 
Cortland: Vitrified pipe. >.» mile. 
Ebenezer: $25,380. 
Elmira: Vitrified pipe. 8.000 ft.; manholes 

25. 
Dunkirk: Intercepting sewer. 
Gloversville: Vitrified pipe, 550 ft. 20-in.. 

3.260 ft. 18-in.. 580 ft. 15-in.. 1.045 ft. 

12-in.; manholes. 19; catch basins, 45. 
Mount Morris: Sewer system. 
Newburgh: Vitrified pipe. 1,275 ft. 
New York. Manhattan Born: Brick. 13.736 

ft.. 2-ft. 9-in. to 9-ft 6-in.: concrete. 

S.050 ft. 5-ft. to 10-ft. : wooden. 1.772 ft., 

3-ft. to 5-ft.: cast iron pipe. 326 ft.. 12-ln. 

to 24-in.: vitrified pipe. 19.760 ft.. 8-in. 

to 30-in.: manholes. 363: catch basins. 5S: 

outlets. 2. 
New York. Bronx Boro: Concrete. 8.900 ft.; 

reinforced concrete. 31.500 ft.; vitrified 

pipe, 13.700 ft.! manholes. 400: catch 

basins, 38. 
Oswego: $50,000.00. 
Plattsburg: Vitrified pipe. 2.000 ft. 
Ravenna: Vitrified pipe. 5 miles. 8 to 

12-in. 
Schenectady: Vitrified pipe. 5 miles: man- 
holes. 80: catch basins. 50. 
Utica: Vitrified pipe. 1.6 miles. 8 to 20-in.: 

manholes. 9. 
Yonkers: $13.00000. 



SEWERS AND DRAINS— 1915 



Durham: Vitrified pipe, 1,800 ft. S-in , 6 200 
ft. 12-iri ; manholes, 16. 

Goldsboro: Vitrified pipe, 2.000 ft.; man- 
holes , catch basins. 

Klnston: 8 miles of 8 to lS-in. sewer, 

Southport: $43,000. 
North Dakota — 

Minot: Vitrified pipe. 1,548 ft., 10 to 15-in. 
vitrified block. 2,000 ft. 30-in.; manholes. 



50; 



ten 



20. 



Akron; $20,000 to $30,000 storm s. ivpr 

Cambridge: Vitrified pipe. 5.394 ft. 

Chillicothe: Reinforced concrete. 3.280 ft. 
7 by 10; vitrified pipe. 1,200 ft.; man- 
holes. 6: catch basins. 22. 

Cincinnati: Brick or concrete. 14.375 ft.. 
30 to 120-in. ; brick, concrete or block. 
8,590 ft.. 30 to 57 in.; reinforced concrete, 
16,000 ft., 90 to 120-in.; vitrified pipe, 
74.200 ft.. 12 to 27-in. ; manholes. 532. 

Cleveland: Brick: 9 miles: concrete, 
plain. 3.250 ft. 12-ft.. 3.300 ft. 8-ft.; vit- 
rified pipe. 6 miles: manholes, 150; catch 
basins, 300. 

Dayton: Vitrified pipe, 90 000 ft,. 5-in. to 
24-in. ; concrete, 5,355 ft., 30 to 60-in.: 
manholes. OS; catch basins. 12: inlets 126 

Delaware: Vitrified pipe. 3,000 ft. S-in.; 
manholes. 10; catch basins. 4. 

Greenville: Vitrified pipe, 600 ft. 12-in. 

Kent: $90,000 00. 

Lancaster: Vitrified pipe, 8,968 11 , 6-in 
to 24-in. 

Lorain: Vitrified pipe. 2 miles. 

Mansfield: Vitrified pipe. 420 ft. S-in.; 



ili.il. 



Mai 



bas 



40. 



Newark: Vitrified pipe. 4.500 ft.; man- 
holes. 16; catch basins, 41. 

Neweomerstown : $55 ooo. 

Norwood: Vitrified block. SOO ft 60-in., 
200 ft. 48-in. 

Painesville: Vitrified block. 550 ft. 36-in . 
725 ft. 42-in.: vitrified pipe, 3,700 ft., 10 
to 24-in : manholes. 16: catch basins, 28. 

Portsmouth: Cement. 1.500 ft. 

Salem: $10,000,00. 

Troy: Vitrified pipe. 10,560 ft.. 10 to 24-in.; 
manholes, 10; inlets, 90 

Warren: Vitrified pipe. 3.000 ft, 24-in : 
manholes. 50; catch basins 100. 

Washington. C. H. : Vitrified pipe. 1 mile. 

Wooster: Vitrified pipe. 3.155 ft. 10-in.: 
manholes 1 1' 



Sewer Construction — Continued 

Oregon — 

Astoria: Vitrified pipe, 4.SS4 ft., 24 and 30- 
in. ; manholes, 23 ; eaten b isins 
lets, S. 

Eugene: Concrete pipe, 8,000 ft S-in, and 
10-in. 

Portland: Reinforced concrete, 1.940 ft.. 

33 to S4-in.: concrete pipe 17,576 ft.. 30 

to 60-in.; vitrified pipe, 60.000 ft. S to 

24-in.; manholes. 250; catch basins, 300. 

Oklahoma — 

Enid: Vitrified pipe. 3.000 ft 

Tulsa: Concrete pipe, 8,000 ft. S-in.. 2 000 
ft. 10-in.; 50 manholes; loo catch basins. 
Pennsylvania — 

Ulentown: Reinforced concrete, 2.652 ft., 
Sx7 to 2x2% ft.; vitrified pipe 
15-in. ; catch basins, 16. 

Bradford: Vitrified pipe. 800 ft.. 10 and 12- 
in.; catch basins. 8; outlets. 2. 

Carbondale: Vitrified pipe, 43,721 it.. 6 to 
15-in.; manholes, 174. 

Carlisle: Vitrified pipe. 1,500 ft. S-in. 

Catasauqua: Concrete. 375 ft. 

Du Bois: Vitrified pipe, ■■■-, mil< 
3.000 ft. 8-in.; manholes. 10. 

Erie; Vitrified pipe, 13,000 ft.; m 
40. 

Homestead: Vitrified pipe. 2.200 ft. 12-in.: 
manholes. 9. 

Juniata: Concrete pipe. l.GOO ft.; man- 
holes. 6. 

Nanticoke: Vitrified pipe. 3 miles. S to 
20-in 

North Braddock: Vitrified pipe, VS mile 
8-in.. 600 ft. 36-in.; manholes, 10 
basins, 10. 

Oil City: Vitrified pipe. S.500 ft., to 12-in. 

Philadelphia: $200,000. 

Pittsburgh: Brick. 2,080 ft., 36 to 60-in.; 
concrete, plain. 7.570 ft.: concrete, rein- 
forced, 200 ft.; vitrified pipe, 39,750 ft., 6 
to 36-in.; manholes. 186; catch basms. 150; 

outlets. 3. 

Williamsport: Vitrified block, 1.351 ft. 
vitrified pipe. 3.47S ft.; manholes. 12; 
catch basins, 2. 
Rhode Island — 

Newport: Vitrified pipe, 2.550 ft. 
South Carolina — 

\ ndersor : Tei ra cotta, 5< 1 1 8 in 

Columbia: Ri i rete, 1.400 ft 

36-in.; vitrified pipe. 2,500 ft. 
Orangeburg: Vitrified pipe, 8.100 ft , 8 to 
12-in.; manholes, 20; catch basins. 20. 
South Dakota — 

Lead: Vitrified pipe. 3.160 ft.. 6 to 12-in. 



Mitchell: $12,611. sanitary. 
Sioux Falls: Vitrified pipe, 5.000 ft. 
i ' mnessee — 
Jackson: Vitrified pipe, 100 ft. S-in.: steel 
!i|" 1,600 ft. II. -in. 
Lafayette: Sewer system. $17,500. 
Texas — 

Laredo: Vitrified pipe. 3.600 ft. 30-in : man- 
holes 3; catel sms ,24; outlet, 1. 

'■ nl , i i .in sanltai - sew. i 

San Benito: $5,000. 
I tab- 
Logan: Vitrified pipe. $10,000.00. 
Virginia — 

I 'anvilh : Vitl iii.d pipe, 6.000 ft. s-in. 
NewpoTl News: Vitrified pipe 7m ft. lS-in 
3 300 ft. 15-in., 1.320 ft. 12-in 1 000 ft! 

S-in. : 30 maul s; i atch basins, 

w asliington — 

* ' en: Reinforced i ete, 

36-in.; vitrified pipe, 65.100 ft.. 8 to 24-in.; 
manholes. 225; catch basins, 50. 
Et erel I I lonci ete pipe, 5,000 ft. 

Bellingham: Vil pipi 2 miles, 8 to 

24-in. 
Seattle-: Vitrified pipe. 20 miles; manholes. 

350; catch basins. 650. 
Spokane: Reinfoi ced I 50 ft. or 

5-ft. 6-in.: vitrified pip,, 2 miles , 
Walla Walla: Vitrified pipe, 10,000 ft. 
\Ves( Virginia — 

Huntington: 2.S00 ft. of 10 and 12 in 

laterals. 
Parkersburg: Vitrified pipe, $50,000.00. 
Wisconsin — 

M'i'i' mi- Vitrified pipe 1,500 ft. 
Beloit: Vitrified pipe. 5,000 ft. S-in.; man- 
holes. 12. 
Fond du Lac: Vitrlfia ,i pipe 1 miles, 8 to 

15-in. 
Kenosha : (102,000 

La • a,,-., Vitrified pipi . " 500 ft. 12-in 
on: Cast iron, in, ooo ft, If 
vitrified pipe, 5 miles 6 to nan ; man- 
holes. 100. 
Manitowoc: $1S300, 

Milwaukee: $212,000 intercepting sewer 
Neenah: Vitrified pipe. 2.500 ft.: man- 
catch basins, 12; outlets, 2. 

Sheboygan Vitrified i i ! ri I , man 

hob ■ 60: Catch basin 
Watertown: Vitrified rope. 6,000 ft.: S-ln. 

10 18-in.; manholes, II: catch .-.. 
YV.ousau: Vitrified block. 4.050 ft.. 30-in. to 
4 ft. s In.; pipe. 7,960 ft. 12 to 24-ln.; 
manholes. 30; catch basins. 60 



DRAINS FOR COUNTY ROADS 



Alalnm 

Han 



Ma 



000 to 6.000 ft. 
600 ft. 15 and 



vitrified pipe. 

Talladega. Talladega cou 
lS-in. vitrified pipe. 
Arkansas — 

Malvern. Hot Springs county: 500 ft. 20- 
in. concrete pipe. 

Paragould. Green county: Tile drains. 
California — 

Los Angeles. Los Angeles county: 40.000 ft. 
reinforced concrete pipe. Start on $15.- 
000.000.00 storm drain system. 

San Diego. San Diego county: 2,000 ft. 4-ft. 
reinforced concrete. 
Illinois — 

Rushville. Schuyler county: 1,000 ft. rein- 
forced concrete. 

Springfield. Sangamon county: 3 miles, 
tile. 



Martinsville. Morgan 
Plymouth, Marshall 

20 miles dredge. 5 
Iowa— 

Algona. Kossuth co 

concrete pipe. 5- 

pipe. 
Fort Dodge. Webste: 

60.000 ft. small d 
ain 



iinty: 6 miles dredge 
jnty: 10 miles tile 
lies open ditch work 



ill be let in April 



county 

May. 
Estherville. Emmett county: 10 miles open 

ditch. 2 miles 30-in. tile. 5 miles 20 to 

30-in. tile. 15 miles tile under 20-in. 
Forest City. Winnebago county: Large 

amount of 6 to 36-in. vitrified pipe. 
Hampton. Franklin county: 70 miles 6 to 

42-in. vitrified tile. 
Knoxville. Marion county: 6 miles new 

channel for river. 
Manchester. Delaware county: 1.300 rods 

6-in. tile. 



lola. Ul ml s 8 or miles vitrified 

pipe. 
Kentucky — 

Bedford, Trimble county: 12 to 60-in. 

drains. 

Danville. Boyle county: G reinforced con- 
crete, various sizes. 200 ft. vitrified pipe. 
Maryland — 

Centreville, Queen Anne couinv Corru 
gated iron pipe. 
Michigan — 

Corunna, Shiawassee county: 1.000 ft. 12- 
in., 500 ft. 18-in., 200 ft. 24-in. concrete 
pipe. 

Hillsdale. Hillsdale county: 25 miles. 8 to 
24-in. vitrified pipe. 
Minnesota* — 

Albert Lea. Freeborn county 050,000 coun 
ditches. 

Fairmont, Martin county: $200,000 tile 
drainage. 

Le Sueur Center, Le Sueur county: 6 ditches, 
estimated total cost, $27,400. 

Wheaton, Traverse county: 70 miles ditches. 
Missouri — 

Brays. Miller county; 15 reinforced con- 
crete drains, from 3 by 3 ft. to 6 by 12 
ft. and from 16 to 20 ft. long. 

Dixon, Pulaski county: 2 14-ft. reinforced 
i oi te, 25 plain concrete. 

Exeter. Barry county: 60 reinfoi, 

Crete culverts. 90 10 by 12-in. concrete 
pipe. 

Fulton. Callaway cminiy: 4.000 ft. vitrified 

pipe - 

Jackson. Cape Girardeau county: 20 rein- 
forced concrete culverts. 500 ft. vitrified 
pipe. 

Jefferson City, Col unty: 60 ft 4 by 10 ft. 

reinforced concrete. 100 ft. 30 to 4S-ln. 
concrete pipe. 340 ft. 12 to 24-in. vitrified 
Pipe. 



[ronton, Iron county: 25 corrugated Iron 
drains 12 to 24 in. 
i Hark counts : : 
, oncrete culverts 

M 20 2-ft, to S-ft. by 

IS-ft. 
Warrenton, Warren county: 20 plain con- 
up ',, :■ i In, is reinforced concrete 
up to 12 ft. 21 vitrified pipe up to 24 in. 

New Jersey — 

Newton, Sussex county: 5. ooo ft, t ami 6 in. 
vitrified pipe. 
New Mexico — 

Raton. Colfax county; 15 concrete pipe 
drains. 3 to 4 ft, opening by 18 ft. long. 
New Fork— 

i' la, Montgomery county: 500 ft. vitrified 

I'll"'- 

Ithaca, Tompkins county: 60 plain con- 

2 to 5 ft. 200 concrete pipe, 12 lo 

18 in. 

I', inklln county: i 

Pipe. 
Ohio— 

Troy, Miami county: 2", to 30 miles. 6 to 

Il am Ml' 

Zanesville, Muskingum county: 1,200 ft. 
vitrified pipe. 

\m:l, ton Hi,,/", i.i county: 200 mm 

Ba: Clt; M tai ounty: 20 miles main 

ditches, 10 miles laterals. 
Dallas, Dallas county: 600 reinforced con- 

2.000 ft. steel pipe. 
Hlllsboro. Hill county: 250 corrugated Iron 
pip, culverts, 24 to 48 In. 
Wisconsin — 

Rhinelander, Oneida county: 30 plain con- 



Superlor, Dougla 
culverte. 



ty: 75 plain concrete 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



SEWAGE DISPOSAL PLANTS 



filtration bed. $2.0f>0. 



California — 

Long Beach: Settling tank, 1. 

Al ham bra, Pasadena and So. Pasadena are 

planning a complete disposal plant for 

the three cities. 

< Minn-t'ticut — 
Danbury: 1 
Illinois — 

Aurora: Settling tank, 1. 
Crete: Contact beds and ImhofT tank. 
Pana: Settling tank. 1. 
Septic tank, 1. 
Indiana — 

Brazil: Probably a new plant. 
Indianapolis: Plans for §2.000.000.00 plant 

being made. 
Richmond: Small settling tank. 2 5-in 
siphons. 
Iowa — 

Grinnell: Sewage disposal plant. 
Kansas — 

Chanute: Septic tank. $20,000.00. 

i»tt: Septic tank. $25,000.00. 
Hutchinson: Pumping station. 
Kentucky — 

Lexmgton: Vote on bond issue in Novem- 
ber. 



Missouri — 

Sedalia: Imhoff tank, contemplated. 

One septic tank with 4 contact beds. 
Springfield: Disposal plant for northwestern 

part of city contemplated. 

Montana — 

Bozeman: Experimental tank on small 
scale. 

New Jersey — 

Montclair: Joint disposal works (Imhoff 
type) for Orange. East Orange and Mont- 
clair. 

Oaklyn: Sewage disposal plant. 

Ridgewood : Possibly Imhoff. 

West field: 4-acre sand filter. 



New York — 

Ravena: Settling tank, sludge bed. 
well and house. 



\«.ri h Carolina — 

Charlotte: Proposed plant for 30.000 popu- 
lation, type not determined. 



Pump. 1. 

Ohio — 

Coshocton: Settling tanks. 2 

Dayton: $30,000 bonds sold to carry on 
work and plans for sewer system and dis- 
posal plant. 

Grandville: Disposal plant to be built. 

Mansfield: Plans being made for plant. 

Pennss 1\ ania — - 

Beaver: $40,000.00 plant. Plans approved. 
DuBois: Plans being made for plant. 
Tyrone: Site purchased. 
Tork: Sewage disposal works. 

Texas — 

Corsicana: Kind undecided. 
Ennis: Settling tank. 1. 

Filters. 2. 

Septic tank. 1. 



WATER WORKS IMPROVEMENTS 



Alabama — 

Bessemer: City figuring on pu 
water works. 

Arkansas — 

Fort Smith: Distribution mains. 7 miles 
6 and S-in., c. i. 

California — 

Pomona: Acquisition of private plant be- 
ing considered. 

San Bernardino: Mains. 4,500 
steel. 

Santa Barbara: Mains. 2 miles 4 and 8- 
in. c. i. 

Santa Rosa: Meters. 65. 

Connecticut — 

Bristol: Supply mains, 1,200 ft. 12-in. 

Danbury: 2 miles 6-in. c. i. 

Waterbury : Reservoirs. 2 concrete storage 

tanks cap. 1.000.000 gal. each. Mains. 

$5,000.00 c. i. 

Georgia — 

Americus: Pumps, 1 10-in. centrifugal. 1 

1,000-ft. air compressor. Mains. 3.000 ft. 

6-in. c. i. 
Valdosta: Mains, 500 ft. 8-in. c. i. 

niii 



Alto 



Mains. 7,500 ft. 6-il 



Plug 



Aurora: Mains. 1(1,010 ft. 4 and 6-in. c. i. 

Berwyn: Mains. 50.000 ft. c. i. 

East Peoria: Pumping station and stand- 
pipe. $10,300. 

Elgin: Mains. 1.700 ft. 4 to S-in. c. i. 

Elmhurst: Deep well. 

Joliet: Reservoir. 5.500,000 gal. Mains, 
29.000 ft. 6. S and 10-in. c. i. 

Litchfield: Boilers, 2. Buildings. 1. Fil- 
ter plant. 1. Intake, 1. 

Indiana — 

Anderson: Pump. S. 000, 000 gal. 

Garrett: New engine and accessories. 

S5.500. 
Gary: Extension. 11 miles 6 to 20-in. pipe. 

54 hydrants. Cost S112.000.00. Private en. 
Loganspert: Mains. 2.000 ft. 6 to 12-in. c. i. 
Madison: 5 deep wells. 
Peru: One elec. centrifugal pump. Mains. 

7.000 ft. of 6 and S-in. c. i. 

Iowa — 

Cedar Rapids: Pump. 6,000.000 ga!. Well 
1 artesian. 

Kansas — 

Arkansas City: Completing $97,000 im- 
provements. 
Burrton: $25,000 bond issue pass, 
stalling system. 

- :ott: Filter plant. $32,000. 
Independence: Mains. 500 ft. Meters. 600. 
Reservoir contemplated. Main* 
3 miles c. i. 

Kentucky — 

Mains, 4 1 - miles 24-in. c. i. 
Igenville: $14,300. 

Mars land — 

East New Market: "Water works system. 
Kensington: "Water works system. $22,239. 
Massachusetts — 

Beverly: Mains. 10.000 ft. c i. 



. Brookline: Settling basin, filter plant, 
wells, reservoir. $200,000. 

Fitchburg: $99,105. 

Gloucester: Mains. 3.000 ft. 12-in. 

Lowell: Pumps. 2 — 7,500.000 gal. Build- 
ing. 1 for pump. Setling basins, 2. Fil- 
ter plants. 6. "Wells. 200. Reservoir. 1. 
Mains. 5.000 ft. S and 12-in. c. i 

Revere: Pump. 1 Mains. S.000 ft. 6. S and 
10-in c. i. 1 auto truck. 

Salem: Pumps. 2 10.000-gal. Reservoir, 
10.000.000 gal. Mains. 14 miles 6 to 20- 

in. c. i. and 5 miles 36-in. e. i. 

Stoneham: Mains. 1,500 ft. c. i. 

West field: Reservoir. 200.000.000 gal. rec- 
ommended. Mains. 2 miles S-in. c. 1. 

"Woburn: Mains. $15,000 to $25,000. 

Michigan — 

Albion: Going to bond for $20,000 for 

auxiliary plant. 
Benton Harbor: Boiler, 1. "Wells. 3 new. 

150 ft. deep. Mains, 35.300 ft. 6 to 12-in. 

c. 1. 
Marion: Standpipe and system of water 

pipes. SO-ft. water tower. Mains. 5.000 

ft 4 and 6-in. 
Marquette: Mains. 900 ft. 4-in. c. i. 
Saginaw: Bond issue. $750,000 to be voted. 
Schoolcraft: $22,000 system. 

Minnesota — 

Austin: Office building. 

Winona: 4 artesian wells. 490 ft. deep. 

Missouri — 

Carthage: "Well. 1. Mains. U mile steel. 

Columbia: Reservoir. 3.000.000 gal. con- 
crete. Mains, about 1 mile. 

Kansas City: Steam turbine, centrifugal 
pump of 20.000.000 gal. cap. 

Sedalia: Filter plant. $60,000. 

St. Louis: Engine and centrifugal pump. 

Montana — 

Billings: Pump and motor, $1,950.00. Build- 
ings. 2. Settling basin, 1. Filter plant. 
1. Mains. 6 miles. 

Bozeman: Mains. 2.500 ft. 6-in. c. i. 

Nebraska — 

Grand Island: "Wells, 2. 1.000 gal. per min- 
ute. 
Lincoln: Boiler. 1 500-h.p. Mains. 4 miles 

4 to 8-in. 
Omaha: Improvements, $6,000. 

New Jersey — 

Bayonne: Mains, 1 mile. S-in. c. i. 

Camden: Pumps. 5,000.000 gal. 
House for pumps. 
New York- 
Barker: Standpipe, filter, reservoir and 4% 
miles mains. 

Cortland: Mains. 14 mile S-in. c. i. 

Dunkirk: Mains 2.000 ft. 6-in. c. i. 

Hudson: Mains. 1.000 ft. 6-in. c. i. 

Plattsburg: Mains. 4.000 ft. 16-in. c. i. : 
2.000 ft. 6 and S-in. c. i. 

Schenectady: Pumps. $30,000.00. Build- 
ings, $3,000.00. Reservoir. $250,000.00, 
10.000.000 gal. Mains. 19.000 ft. 6 and s- 
in. c. i. 



North Carolina — 

Durham: $500,000.00. Bids April 21. 
North Dakota — 

Minot: Intake, 1. Mains. 10.560 ft. 6-in. 



Akron: $000,000 bonds authorized. 
Athens: Mains, 5.027 ft. 6 and 14-in. c. i. 
Cambridge: $235,000 bonds sold for com- 
plete system. 
Canton: Reservoir and improvements to 

■25.000 recommended. 
Cincinnati: Mains, 33% miles 4 to 42-in. 

Coshocton: Reservoir, concrete covered, 
3.000.000 gal. 

Dayton: $150,000 bonds sold for distribu- 
tion system. 

East Liverpool : Rebuild city water plant, 
pumps, station, standpipe, etc. 

Greenville: $10,000 appropriated to test 
present well field. 

Lorain : Boilers. 2. 

Mansfield: Pumps. 2 Each has 375.000 
gals. cap. per 24 hrs. Mains, 5500 ft. 

Middletown: Boiler, 1. 

South Charleston: $30,000 bond is; 

be voted on. 
Troy: Mains. 1.000 ft. 3-in. c. i.. 500-h.p. 

heater for boiler supply. 
"Wooster (probably): Boilers. 2. Pumps. 4. 

Buildings, boiler, pump and filter house. 

Settling basin. 1 60-ft. by 61-ft. Filter 
plant. 1 2,000,000 gal. Reservoirs. 1 

1.000.000-gal. steel tank. Mains. 12.000 ft. 

12 and 16-in. c. i. 

Oklahoma — 

Enid: Mains. 1.200 ft. 6-in. c. i. 

Tulsa: Settling basin. $60,000. Mains, 5.000 

ft. 6-in. c. i. ' 
"Wilburton: To vote on $100,000 bond issue. 



Fairview: Municipal plant. 

Pennsa Ivania — 

DuBois: Reservoir to be raised 4 ft. Mains. 

3.000 ft. 6 and S-in. c. i. 
Franklin: Mains. 2.500 ft. 6-in. c. i. 
Homestead: Mains. 1.S00 ft. 6-in. c. i. 
Oil City: Mains. 2,000 ft. 6. S and 12-in. 

Pittsburgh: Boiler. 1.000 tip. Pumps. 50.- 
000.000 gal. centrifugal. Mains. 5 miles 
•: to 20- in. c. i. 

South Canlina — 

Orangeburg: Boilers, 2. Pumps, 1. Build- 
ings. 1. "Wells. 1. Reservoirs. 2. Mains, 
100 ft. 6. S and 10-in. c. i. 



voted. 
Tennessee — 

Maryville: $55,000 bond issue proposed. 
Texas — 

Ennis: Pump. 1. Building, 1. Mains. 

16.000 ft. 4 and 8-in. c. i. 
Houston: Magnolia Park "Wa:er Works. 
$S5,900. 
I tah— 

Logan: Reservoir. $10,000. Intakes, $2,000. 
000 bond issue for improve- 



WATER WORKS, LIGHTING, BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 



267 



Water Works Improvement— Continued 



Washington — 

Aberdeen: Oil burners. Pump, 1 cen- 
trifugal, 250-ft. head. Reservoir. 7,250,000 
gal. Mains, 7,000 ft. 6 and 8-in. c. 1. 

Bellingham: Mains, 1% miles, 6 to 12-in 
c. 1. 

Everett: Plans under way for bringing 
water to city from mountain stream 24 
miles. Cost about $600,000.00. 



2S.000 ft. 4 to 12-in 
4 and 6-in. 
Walla Walla: Reservoir, 80,000 gal. 



Sh« boygan: Boilers. 300 h.p. Pumps, - 

000 gal. per day. Buildings, addition tc 
pump house. Mains, 23,000 ft. 4 to 20-in, 



Wyoming — 

Cheyenne 
Laramie: 



Filter plant. 
Mains, 24,000 ft. 



Arkansas — 

Horatio: Electric light plant contem- 
templated. 

California — 

Alhambra: 3 to 5 miles extension of orna- 
mental lighting. 

Long Beach: 6 miles ornamental lighting. 

Pasadena: 5 miles ornamental lighting. 

Pomona: 206 posts, 3 lights each, now be- 
ing advertised. 

Santa Barbara: 1 mile ornamental light- 
ing. 

Colorado — 

La Junta: J75.000 bonds voted for munic- 
ipal plant. 

Connecticut — 

New Haven: 20. 4-amp. luminous an 
Welsbach gas lamps. 60-c.p. 

Georgia — 

Cordele: Preparing to construct electric 

lighting system. 
Rome: 2 blocks white way extension. 

Illinois — 

Elgin: Bond issue for $125,000.00 new plant 

to be voted on. 
Waukegan: 164 ornamental lights. 

Indiana — 

Connersville: 10-yr. street lighting con- 
tract soon. 

Covington — $5,500 improvement to plant. 

Garrett — Rebuild $500 worth electric light 
lines. 

Huntington: City plant being rebuilt. 

Lebanon : Overhead street lighting system 
and ornamental post lighting system to 
be let in April. 

Peru: Car load of poles. Ornamental light- 
ing under consideration. 

Richmond: Ornamental lighting contem- 
plated. 

Valparaiso: Poles, 500. Lamps, 300 nitro- 
gen. 

Vincennes: 60 ornamental light posts. 

Iowa — 

Cedar Falls: Poles. 1 car load. O 
tal lighting, 22 poles. 

Council Bluffs: Municipal plant cont 
plated. 



Independence: One dyn 



LIGHTING IMPROVEMENTS 

Leavenworth: 200 5-lamp ornamental light- 
ing poles. 

Topeka: 6S 5-lamp poles. Cost $9,750. 
Kentucky — 

Covington: Joint municipal plans tor Cov- 
ington and Newport urged. 

Lexington: $14,000 ornamental lighting. 
Louisiana — 

New Orleans: Publicity owned lighting sys- 
tem l>ciim uiq.il. 



lights. 
Michigan — 

Benton Harbor: 2 miles ornamental curb 
lights. 

Cadillac: Boulevard lighting system to be 
installed. 

Dowagiac: 125 k.w. engine and generator. 
1 car cedar poles. 

Hancock: $100,000 bond issue lor municipal 
plant. 

Monroe: One new ensin. 

Pontiac: Boulevard lighting system con- 
templated. ' 

Saginaw: 500 luminous arc or nitrogen street 
liffhts. 

-Minnesota — 

Mankato: Ornamental lighting system. 
Mississippi — 

Hattiesburg: Municipal plant contemplated. 
.Missouri — 

Columbia: Rebuild l>/ 2 miles of line. Wire. 
1.1.000 lbs. No. 20. Poles, car of 40-ft. 
and car of 20-ft. 

Montana — 

Billings: 50 5-lamp ornamental posts. 
Bozeman: SO single light poles. 

Nebraska — 

Beatrice: $10,000 for extensions. 

Broken Bow: $10,000 bond issue voted in 
April. 

Omaha: $90,000 fund for municipal plant 
recommended. 

Sidney: $35,000 being spent on plant. 
New Jersey — 

Perth Amboy: $150. bond issui 

struct Municipal plant 
New York — 

Batavia: Dynamo and motors to be pur- 
chased. 

Bath: Lighting system, $24,350. 



Buffalo: 1,200 magnetite arc lamps 

Utica: 15 arc lights. 101) latest mean- 
descent lamps as experiment. \i 
place 1,000 aerial lamps with same kind. 
North Carolina — 

Kinston: $25. to be spent In iddltlon 

to electric light plant. 
North Dakota — 

Minot: 60 ornamental lighting P'isis 
Ohio- 
Cincinnati: 320 4-amp. magnetite lights. 
«ire, 56 miles. Poles 1,100 [daho 
Ornamental lights, 36 400-watt nitrogen 
l,as lamps and posts, 100 Welsbach 
mad n: N<iW contract for Eas "shts to be 

Elyria and Lorain considering erection of 
lotnt electric light plant. 

Man3fleld: Hi, Is t ,, , ,. lv ](l 

\e,u contract. 

Middletown: Ornamental - 

Nelsonville: Engine, l. Gas pi: mmovi 

ments. 

Newark: 500-k.w. turbo-generator. 

Springfield: Cluster lighting system In cen- 
ter of city contemplated. 

Troy: 1 67-k. v. a. generator, 
mental bridge lights and posts. 

Washington C. H. : 600-c.p. nitrogen lamps. 
Oklahoma — ■ 

Woodville: Electric light system being con- 
sidered. 

Pennsylvania — 

High Spire: Municipal electric light plant 

being considered. 
Kane: 2 miles electric lights. 
PItl iburgh: 300 are lamps 300 mantle 

gas lamps. 

South Carolina — 

: eki .He: Plant to be Imp 

Orangeburg: $30,000 bond Issui to i ted 

on. 

South Dakota — 

Raymond: Municipal plant proposed. 
Texas — 

Ml " 1 - Munii Ip il plant i ontemplated. 

Laredo: Ornamental park lighting 

Sulphur Springs: Will lmpro\ i eli otric 
lighting system. 
Wisconsin — 

Madison: 400 ornamental lights. 

Wausau: $1,300 changing art 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS IN CITIES 



Alabama — 

Anniston: Several small bridges. 
Bessemer: $30,000 school bonds to be sold 
in April. 

Arkansas — 

Ashdown: High school. 

California — 

Alhambra: $200,000 schools now being con- 
structed. $35,000 library now being con- 
structed. 

San Francisco: Two subways. 

San Jose: 100-ft. concrete arch. 

Santa Barbara: Seven concrete bridges. 

Santa Rosa: Two bridges. 

Colorado — 

Canon City: City hall. 
Greeley: Court house, $137,355. 

Connecticut — 

Bristol: Two concrete bridges. 

Danbury: $30,000 to $40,000 bridge over 

N. T. & N. H. R. R. 
Torrington: One steel girder bridge. One 

concrete bridge. 
Waterbury: $75,000 3-span concrete bridge. 

One high school. Two grade schools. 



Georgia — 

Rome: Three concrete bridges, $260,000. 
City hall and auditorium, $100,000. Hos- 
pital. $50,000. 
Valdosta: One concrete brii 

Illinois — 

Alton: One viaduct. One sul 
Aurora: One concrete bridge. 
i :i iro : Subway. 
Decatur: $60,000 concrete subway. 

Indiana — 

Anderson: Possibly $150,000.00 city hall. 

Connersville: Tin :oncreti brld ge 

Gam it . $2,000 to I- hall. 

Logansport: City hall. $60,000. 
Rich Valley: $1S.000 school house. 
Valparaiso: $50,000 city hall. 
Vincennes: City hall i 
WhltestOWn: High school. 

Iowa — 

Ames: City hall and Are slat ion. 

Kansas — 

Atchison: School house. $34 
Independence: Four small concrete bridges. 

$45,000.00 city building. 
Leavenworth: 2 stone arches 40 ft. by 

40 ft. 
Leavenworth: 2 stone arches 40 by 40 ft. 



Sallna: One 2-span 160-ft. concrete arch. 
Topeka : Two 100-ft 

Inl i concrete viaduct. 

Kentucky — 

Mayfleld: T 

Massachusetts — 
Idam Hospital. 

Beverly; I brldgi 

Brookline Two 

Chlcopee: School house, $75,000. 
tei Hospital. 

Newburyport: Two brick school h 

Rome: Two schools. 

Salem: Slxteen-roora school, $i50.ooo. Fire 

stations, 2. 
Wt mi. M gixi n room hoo a ^Ued for. 

Michigan — 

in Harbor: Post office site to be chosen. 
Flint: 60-ft. concrete arch. 1,500-yd. as- 
phalt plant. Reinforced concreti 
54 ft. by 110 ft. 
Marquette: One stei brid re, 20 ft. 

by 60 ft. 

Minnesota — 

.\ list in: One concrete bridge. 
Mankato: <-,,, 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Uisslsslppl — 

ill. High ■ . hool 

Gulfporl II.' 

M. i i.h.m I '.' <" reti bridges 

I'm hall, J100, Jail, 

Missouri — 

u el h 



Bridges and Buildings in Cities— Contin 

Ohio— 



tied 



'n. l.i i.l 

i c mplated. 

I Ml. ■ I, Li .1 . 



■ 15, 1.00 Si ii 



Nebraska — 



I..,. 



18- 



eti brld 



\.-» Jersey — 

i -iin hall 

i amdi ■ 
I... i 

i 30 I 1 steel elrdei in .,! iiii 

\,„ %„rl> — 

- i . 0, ■ '.hi. ■ 

i '..I ii. iii. I s 

Gloversvllle Oni concreti bridge 
Plattsburg : 1 i .ml ■ 

■• ' ii> ii ill .ii. i hi., ii 

in .i i ' in ii si hool 

North l>iil*ota — 



\ki 






■i.i 



i.lll 



.'.... i ,i,.i Modi i high -. hi 

iiii. ." i 

' 'i i • i . 

:. ii i • reti lep 

i '..m i i, .., i . i : . ISO. 00, Bath ho 

\ i .. te, 180- 

i i.i 

. llmlnai Ion \ ladui Is, 

D 



p i 



Oregon — 

m. .ii. ...I \., hall. 

i'.. i 1 1 hi. i ohoo i... ka 

-mi. iMi i, building ■ ■ i 

■ .■ i.. i epltal 

I; i.i Idgi i . i.i 

Pennsylvania — 

All, -111. iv, i, in. 

Archbold in 

\siii.-i ■ i. brld 

DuBol I Hi. "1 ft, CO] 

Harrisburg*: I 

Susquel 
Juniata: Markel house. 



II ,,,, 




c 


,. 1, 


\, i 


M 







. : Imal , 








M, .', 


..,.'. 


. ,i i hall 


$8, 160. 






\,,T« 


1 






oli do 


i ... 




1,: 


ill. 


Vand 


111 


Scl in 








Wan 


•en: 


Two I.i 






Oklahoma— 










i .in.! 


i M,, , ,,n, , . 




'I 


i 


Tills. 











Mi i.u mi, . • I.. ,...i. line . Itj hall, 

North Brad 1 1 Si I i hou 

Plttsbui nil 16-fl 

Rhode Island — 

' 'Nil I. ... 

\. wport : Si 

South Carolina — 

... 
Rldgeland Co 

South Dakota — 

building. 
Lead 3 Ifi ds. o 

Tennesse, — 

Jack ■ 

Memphis : School ho 



i' ■ 
Washington 



Tw 



lordeen : SI] ulc bridge. 

\ii.in ■ 

alia \\ iii. i ' 



\\ Isconsin — 

\ ii i "I' H ■ mi. i.i. 

1 1 Baj ■ 

Vladls ■■- . . i 

Rai m. .i ; brldgi it H 
Shi boj ".hi iii" h a. i I 



COUNTY ROAD BRIDGES 



■ 

: . . I I ■!■ 



Alabama- 
Hamilton, Marlon county: 

bridges. 
Jasper, Walker county ; 

I- ni . ■ 
tfonl $30,000 

I- I.: 

Talleda 5a counts i 110 
glrdei 
Tuscumbla Colbi pi county: L 1 01 
girder bridges. 



■ lei I 1 



hi.' 



.!• 



.!, I 



I.. 1. 1.. ,, pan 



Arkansas— 

DeWltl ■■ 1. 1 "■ 1 ■ ou it] ■■■ 

b [dges. 

California— 

• 'niiisii ' !olusa count] . 59 1 ■ mci • 1 e brld ges, 

nty: 7 c " '' ■ 

Los \ ngeles, 1 >oa Vng» les counl j 2 1 

st.'.'i truss I 

1,1 T 

■ -"-■■ Dii ■ 1 ', 

bi Idgt !B to 

\\ .'.!\ ei vllle Trlnits counl j 1 tne suspen- 
sion cabli brldgi 

Delaware — 

town, Sussex counl y: 10 d 

cosl J 1,1 ni hi ■ 

$3.00C 

1 1.. 1 1.1. 1 — 

Dade 
000.00. 
S1 i.ui hi 1 mm . si John 1 ountj 1 I 

Idaho — 

10 steel 'i.i,: 
bridges in thi 



bi ldg< s an 1 concrete 



Illinois— 



Bluff, Scott county: Id ges, 60- 

, ,. 
Bunker Hill, ,. 

I . ■ 

Cambi Idgi 1 1 ■ 

coui 
brldi e 

girder 

hriil 1 

■ 
■ 



, . ■ . 






■ 

■ 

Kankakee, Kankakee counts 

Loul 1 unty: 5 steel 

-1 1 lin.iu , Tazewi II 1 oui 

brldj ■ 
Marion. Williamson counl 

Mount.. in ii u arren ■ 1 ml 1 1 steel girders. 

concreti 
Mound City, Pulaski 1 6 small con- 

or Id gi 

vii. < Jarroll, « !ai roll count] 1 creti 

bridges, B to 50 fl " subv ay) 

Mi. Sterling, Brown counl \ i 1 - ■ 

Nash vi ■ 
■ 

Newton, .Tasp-r count > ?l s 1 ■ !»■ 

bridge. 

Ki ndall 1 "nut v 12 1 1 • te 

brld 

1 1 . -I la P ■ im - 1 1 1 i. arch 1 

concrel 1 brldgi 

Polo ' >glc counl j steel 1 den 

.1.1. bridges, 
Pontlac, Livingston count} (8,670.00 con- 

ixch 
Prlncetoi 1 1 ■ 1 ■ ■ Irdei 

85-ft, spans. K com reti D-fl 

spans, 

Robli i truss 

■ 
Rock ford, w Innebago coui 
bi Id ges, 

i . [sland counl 1 Ste< 1 

1 
Rush> HI*'. Si I 

Shelbyvllle, Shelby 1 ounl 1 1 1 

brldgi 
Soi ento, Bond counts 

Sangamon count 
dera 

I 1 1 

Stronghursl 1 ■ 

dges. 

1 
24-ft .''■■■ 
: 

1 ... 

Indiana — 

, le, Wan It k 1 ov 
■ 
Brownsto'n n Jackson county : t: 

Columbia City, Whitl 

bri.l: , 



■ 
:: steel glr- 



$10, I 



' !olumbu Bar! holomi ■■ m j 1 st.'.'i 

Irdei ■ ■ 01 irldgi 

Dans V> ....■, , , 

Greencastle, Putnam counts I wood bridge. 
ere 1 1 br id ges. 

1 1 ■ ■ ounty : 1 st. 

■if.- brld --■ - 
i.au iv,,, , bui ■■■. 1 ti ai born 1 ounty 5 bridges, 

■ Bpans 

' 1 1 «Iai .1 ■■ 1 te< 

ulverts. 

P ! 1 11 h Man hall 1 

bridge i, \ 1,8 h 

Rock vl 11 e. Pari 
brldgi ■ 

Owen counts I I 1 6-ft. con- 

bridge. 

1 girders. 
SO-fl 
Winchester, Randolph county 3 

Iowa — 

,: 

a.i. 1. 1 'alias ■ ounty: $60,000.00 1 

■ 
\ ona, Kossuth counts 
bridges, 

1 ■ 

■ , 1 ■ , - 
Brett. Hancock counl 

and culverts, 
cai-roii. Carroll county 1 steel bridge. 1 
■ Idge 

■ 1 I ill. . \pp..n 

bridges and culverts. 

1 :hei oke« , • Ihei okee cot 

bridges. 
Clarion Wright 



1 'Union 1 'lint OM COUtttS ! 
., , ,, 

,, ., . 

concrel •■ brld ges. 

ants ■ J 10,0 10 worth 









Polk 






1 ', mi-mi - 'r.iw ford 

■ 

Dubuqui 

■ 
subtt .. ■■ 1 s and bridges, 

ider. Clayti !4 culverts ::-ft. 

., 
Emmettsburg, 1 inty: 4 girders, 

I . . ! 

1 viaduct 
Fairfield, Jefferson county: 2 steel truss 
brldgi 









Forest City, Winnebago coi 

m, 1 nih erta 
Fi Dodge, Webster counts I I 

bridges. 1 steel truss brld 

deck girder concrete bridges. 
Fort Madison, Lee county: 10 ■ 

April, 1915 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS— 1915 



, 1,1 



14i 



bridges and culverts. 
Ida Grove. Ida county: 11 steel truss 

bridges. — concrete culverts 
Iowa City, Johnson counts 12 steel gir- 
ders. 30 c i < I e bridges. 

Jefferson. Greene county: 7 concrete bridges, 

93 
Keosauqua, Van Buren county: 1" 

i.i Edges. 
Knoxville Mai unty: :• steel trus 

bridges. 1 steel beam bridges. S n- 

, . i, bridges and i 
Logan, Harrison county: 10 steel truss 

bridges. 2 5 concrete bridges. 
Hani hestei Di Ian a unl ] 

bridges. 4 I-beam bridges. 50 to 

creti bi idges and culverts. 
Marion, Linn county: 14 bridges and cul- 

Mason City, Cerro Gordo counts : 2 stei I 

bridges. 50 concrete bridges. 
Osage, Mitchell county: 130 concrete bridges 

and culverts. 
Montezuma, Poweshiek county: 6 steel 

truss bridges. 2 concrete bridges 

viaduct. 
Nevada, Story county: 6 steel truss. 

concrete bridges and culverts. 
Oskaloosa. Mahaska county: 41 

In idges. 
- Rock Rapids. Lyon county: 30 concrete 

bridges. 4 to 30-ft. 
Sac City. Sac county: 200 concrete cul 

verts 
Sigourney. Keokuk county: 30.000 concrete 

bridges. 
Tipton. Ada county: 7 steel bridges 1. 

concrete bridges. 
Toledo. Tama county: $50,000 steel and 

concrete bridges. 
Washington, Washington county: SO con- 
crete bridges. 

Kansas — 

Cimarron, Gray county: 4 small concrete 

111 illgeS. 

Clyde. Cloud county: 5 concrete. 20 l -ft. 

Council Grove, Morris county: 1 steel truss 

bridge. 14 concrete bridges. 
Dodge City. Ford county: 3 small concrete 

bridges. 
Eldorado. Butler county: 2 stone arches, o 

concrete bridges. 
Eureka. Greenwood county: 80-ft. steel 

truss. Some small concrete bridges. 
Fredonia, Wilson county: 100-ft. 2-span 

concrete arch. 
Garfield: Pawnee county: liri.lg. osm m 



steel 



eh briils: 



concrete 



Gates Center. Woods 

der bridges. 4 sto 

Crete bridges. 
Hoxie. Sheridan c 

bridge. 
Jetmore. Hodgeman county: $1,500 concrete 

bridges. 
Lakin. Kearney county: 4 concrete bridges. 
Lyndon. Osage county: 2 or 3 concrete 

bridges. 
Newton. Harvey county: or 7 concrete 

bridges. 
Russell. Russell county: 2 steel girder 

bridges. 1 concrete bridge. 
Topeka, Shawnee county: One 3-span con- 
crete bridge. 4 32 to 80-ft. concrete 

bridges. 
Troy. Doniphan county: One steel girder 

5 concrete, flat top. 
Washington. Washington, county: One steel 
truss. 150 to 200 concrete bridges. 

Kentucky — 

50 steel bridges and 400 concrete bridges 

and culverts in the state. 
Bardwell, Carlisle county: 4 steel girders 
Bowling Green. Warren county: 3-span 

289-ft. steel girder. 
Burlington. Boone county: 2 steel girders. 

100-ft. and 160-ft. 
Caneyville, Grayson county: 1 steel girder 

bridge. 
Danville. Boyle county: 2 concrete bridges. 
Henderson. Henderson county: 15 steel and 

concrete. 
Hvden. Leslie county: 300-ft. gird 
Madisonville, Hopkins county: 9 concrete 

In nl g.-s 
Paducah. McCracken county l 

ders. 12 concrete bridges 
Stanford. Lincoln county: 12 steel girders. 

2 concrete brio 
Vanceburg, Lewis county: Several concrete 

»i . i ■ . - 
Versailles Woodford county: ?500 concrete 

bridge. 

Maryland — 

Centreville, Queen Anne count: 

bridges. 
Easton. Talbot county: 2 concrete bridges. 

300-ft. and 100-ft. 



County Road Bridges — Continued 



Michigan — 

Bi ssi iii. i Gog : >'. ■ ■■ n 
,1. i in ii ■ ..,,. i . 

' | si.ii Falls Iron count: :i ete, 50 

ft. span. 

aba, Delta county: 342-tt. St. 
der. 

Hillsdale Hillsdi n*s ■ concrete 

bridges. 

m mis • . i ountj . Ste. 
i . i i d g. 
St. Ignace, Mackinac county: 

bridges. 
West Branch I igeman i ountj 10 steel 

girders. IS :rete i i i.lges. 

Minnesota- 
Alexandria. Douglas county: $1,600 con 

crete bridge. 
Bomidji Beltram tntj 1" - I and 

concrete bridges. 
Blue Earth, Fat ibault county: 

bridges. 

Fairmount. Martin nmnn - 1 '0.00. 

Granite Fulls. Sellow Mi di' ine county: 

$13,500.00. 
Ivanhoe, Lincoln county: 5 steel girders 

: , in 50 concrel e bridges. 
Mora, K i milii nts : steel I russ 

bridges. 40 to 90-ft. 
Red Lake Falls. Red Lake county: 

girder bridges. 
Shakopee, Scott county: . concrete bridges. 
\\ h. Lton, Traverse county 1:1 si- "1 Hid 

concrete bridges. 
Willmar, Kandijohi conuty 16 stei i girdei 

bridges. 
Windi.iii Cottonw I ■ ountj 10 to 15 con- 
crete bridges. 

Missouri — 

Bethany, Harison county 22 girdi i 

bridges. 3 truss bridges 

bridges. 

Bolivar, Polk county 30 2-fl I -fl 

Buffalo, Dallas counts 30 2-fl to 10 tl 

culverts and bridges. 
Chamois, Osage county: 300-ft, steel bridge. 

5 or 6 concrete bridges. 
Charleston, Mississippi county: 15 sir. I 

truss bridges. 40 to 65-ft. 
Clayton. St. Louis county: 5 girders 
Columbia, Boone county: 30 girders, 

Barry county: 1 girdei 10 con 

crete bridges. 
Jackson. Cape Girardeau county: 4 girder 

bridges. 2 concrete bridges. 
Jefferson City, Cole county: 50-ft. and 170- 

ft. steel truss bridges. 
Ironton. Iron county: 2 concreti bridges 
Kingston. Caldwell county: $1,200 girder. 

1.000 cu. vds. concrete bridgi 
Lentner Snelbs i ounty: 25 girdei 

l in r.ii bridges and culverts. 

I.uray, Clark county: 10 concrete 
Macon. Macon county: 20 steel bri 
New Madrid, New Madrid county: 10 steel 

girders. 30 to 75-ft. 

St. Charles. St. Charles county: I 

i ,i » bridge. 
Troy Lincoln county: 6 concrete bridges. 
Warrenton, Warren county: 4 girder bridg' - 

i. i ete bridges. 

Montana — ,. , 

Billings, Sheridan counts Bi idge over 5 el- 

lowstone river. 
Bo i man. Gallatin i ountj 30 girdi i bridgi s 

12 to 32 ft. long. 
Roundup. Musselshell counts 9 girder; 

subwa s s. 

Nebraska — 

Beatrice. Gage county 15 girders I" con- 

ii .I. l. ridges. 
Blair. Washington county: 

each. 30 con. i ete bri. 
Center. Knox counts ' bridges. 
Has county: $10,000 for 

bridges. 
Pre, mini.. IiniU- tints 10 girders, 18 to 

4 0- ft. 
Kimball. Kimball ■ 

sew "<;^':"- gan M 

girder. 

:.n. .ii Colfa 
l 900 00 



New York — 

Auburn ' i 
34-ft. 

Igua, ''in 



gird. 



to 









Bllicottville, Cattaraugus county: 

.1. rs 

Fonda. Mums 

crete bridges. 
Friendship HI. B '"' ' °" nt y : 

bridgesi 






He 



bi i 



Helki 
Tompkil 



ml> 



rete 



its : girdi - 

70-ft. 18 con S to 30-ft 

Lockport, Niagara county: 

!0 c rete bridges up to 300-ft 

Malone, Franklin county: : steel girders. 

idgi s. 
I inei.ia. Madison count y: 
i -, concrete ! 

steel ti us- iimn i oi ■ 

sum ii concreti 
Watertow n, Jefferson ■ o 






in els;, s 150 

North Carolina — 






Ml 



Sun 



Jim 



North Dakota — 

i.i 1 ■• inl.ina c 
16-ft 

' !en1 er, Olis I 

i in 

Dickinson, Stark c 
,ver 1 ittle Missoui 

: l-.il 1,< , ii 



stom ircl 

rum.. 



nil,, 



Cambridgi Guei nsi s tj 

ft. span 

Canton. Stai k counts ! girder 

concreti bridges 
. -i in i Mercer i ounty : 8 girdei 

iiliiinlius. Franklin coc 
bridges 1 subway. 

Dayton, Monl i 

Hamilton. Butler county 

Howard, Knox county: 1 girder bridgi 

concrete bi idgi s 

London, M son counts ' ■> 

McConnellsvill Ho 

. rete bi idge. 
• hi. us. i Putnam county: 

bridge. 

i ..I. .in. Lucas counts - bi Idges 

Van Wert, Van Werl county: 12 concret. 

bridges. 
Wauseau, Fulton county: $8,000 girdei 

$5,000 for 10 concrel i bridge; 
w ilmington, Clinton i ounl s 14. 

bridges. 
Zanesville, Muskingum county: 2 girder: 

contemplated. 



rete 



• te 



Pennsylvania — 

Honesdale, w is n. . 

3 concrete bridges. 
Huntingdon, Huntingdon 

crete bridge. 
Lebanon. Lebanon coun 

bridges. 
Pittsburgh, Allegheny cot 

concrete bridges. 
Reading, Bei ks counl y : i 



i •! 



S. i 



una 



bridge 



Texas — 

Bay City, Ma 

ders. 
Dallas, Dalit 

Film.. .Iii 
ml s 



ntS 



1 sti-.-l I 

ii . : m rete 



Fori Win Hi ' '.iiii.is . ountj : 

bridges, 10 to CO-ft. 
Gatesville. Coryell emu. is : 
Hillsboro, Hill count] 

in 

I....-1. i, .in Caldwell c ts 



Fredericl 
.i.,i,,i bridge ove 

I, inpl. ii. i 

i 'ea rlsbu 
Suffolk, N< 



oncrete bridges In the 
county: 

ounty: $2,000.00 steel 
ounty: 



Washington — 
b. nine w i i o 

in Idge, $30 713 Sevi 

... 
,., i, d, m.. i 'M by II ' Can- 

tilever bri by 20 ft. 

M is, iillsi.l — 

150 tru 

■ . i niiiets in the state 

.; ,,■ 

Poll CO 

' 

bridges. 

.unty: 20 con- 



April. 19ir, 



270 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Darlington, Lafayette county: 8 large con- 
crete bridges. SO small concrete bridges. 

Green Bay: 7 girders. 29 concrete bridges. 

Madison. Dane county: 12 concrete bridges. 

Milwaukee, Milwaukee county: 17 concrete 
bridges. 

Osseo, Trempealeau county: 9 bridges. 

Rhinelander. Oneida county: 10 bridges. 



County Road Bridges — Continued 

Rice Lake. Barron county: 1 girder. 4 con- 
crete bridges. 

Richland Center, Richland county: 1 gir- 
der. 4 concrete bridges. 

Shawano. Shawano county: 3 girders 3 
concrete bridges. 

Sparta, Monroe county: 36-ft. girder. Two 
16-ft. concrete bridges. 



Stevens Point, Portage county: 7 girde 

bridges. 
Superior, Douglas county: 2 girders. 

concrete bridges. 
Thiensville, Ozaukee county: $5,800 fo 

concrete bridges. 



GARBAGE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL 



DeKalb : Disposal of sewage demanded. 
Rock Island: Incinerator or disposal plant. 



Kansas — 

Arkansas City: Planning incinerator. 
Coffey ville: New equipment for handling 
garbage. 



Fort Scott: $25,000 to be spent for dispo 

plant. 
Independence: $5,000 for disposal plant. 

Massachusetts — 

Revere: 2 garbage carts. 5 horses. 
Stoncham: Carts, 1. Horses, 2. 

Michigan — 

Benton Harbor: In 
Monroe: Wagon, 1. 

Minnesota — 



erator proposed. 



Disposal plant contem- 



Akron: Equipment for new plant. 
Dayton: $45,000 for equipment a 
Norwood: Incinerator. 

Pennsylvania — 

Coraopolis: Inci: 
York: Disposal 
tion. 

Virginia — 

Newport News: 
plated. 

Washington — 

Everett: Dock. 1. 
Wagons, 3. Horses, 

West Virginia — 

Huntington: ! 
plant. 

Wisconsin — 

Sheboygan: 
Welt Allis: 



purchased for disposal 



STREET SIGNS 



Connecticut — 














Kansas — 


Bristol: Copper bronze, 


3% 


by 


4% 




i., to 


Fort Scott: $400. 


number c 


:ity complete. 












Independence: New woo 


New Havei 

$450. 
Waterbury: 


i: 500 iron, 


300 


Eli 


1SS 1 


;o 


cost 


Kentucky — 


$3,000. 












Covington: 2,100 enamel. 
















Massachusetts — 


Illinois — 














Revere: 50 wood. 


Oak Park: 


100 enamel. 












Salem: 806 wood. 


Waukegan: 


35 enamel. 












Stoneham: 100. 


Indiana — 














New York — 


Gary: 200 


enamel. 












New burgh: 210 ingot iroi 


Indianapoli 


00 street 


name 




igns, 


North Carolina — 


$2,043.75. 














Durham: 230 enamel. 


Iowa— 














North Dakota — 




Renaming of 


streets 


planned. 


Minot: 200 4-way enamel 



stamped signs. 



Painesville: Kind and number not decided. 
Wooster: 2 Lincoln Highway signs. 

Oregon — 

Eugene: 960 wood. 
Portland: $800. 

Pennsylvania- 
Allen town: 44 3 enameled steel signs. 
Freeland: Porcelain enameled iron street 

signs. 
Pittsburgh: 500 Early crisscross model. 25 

Lincoln Highway signs. 



COUNTY ROAD SIGNS 



Arizona — 

Holbrook, Navajo county: 30 metal. 
Kingman, Mohave county: All county roads 
to be signed. 

Arkansas — 

Grannis, Polk county: 50 wood signs. 
Paragould, Green county: 6 signs. 

Florida— 

St. Augustine, St. Johns county: 24 large 
"safety first." 



Hamilton county: 100 sign boards. 
Mt. Carroll. Carroll county: 150 permanent 

cross-roads signs. 
Mt. Sterling, Brown county: 25 signs. 

Indiana — 

Dana, Vermillion county: 150 sound Klaxon. 
100 Goodyear tire. 

Iowa — 

Fairfield, Jefferson county: 50 lS-in. by 24- 

in. Klaxon danger signs. 
Iowa City. Johnson county: 160 mile posts 

and road names. 

Kansas — 

Abilene, Dickinson county: Signs for 200 
miles road. 



Beloit. Mitchell c 
Dodge City, Ford 
El Dorado. Butle 
Lakin, Kearney c 
Newton, Harvey county : 
Tribune, Greeley county: 

vanized plates. 
Wichita, Sedgwick county 

will be marked. 



nty: 20 wood sigi 
ounty: Distance s 
county: 20 board 
nty: 20 signs, 
.unty: Considerab 
unty: 36 iron post 



100 to 150 



Maryland — 

Easton, Talbot 
danger signs. 

Michigan — 

Corunna. Shiawassee cnunty 
Crystal Falls, Iron county: 

age signs. 
Manistee. Manistee county 
Rogers, Presque Isle cour 

at every cross road. 

Missouri — 

Exeter, Barry county: 2 
Ironton. Iron county: 50 
Lentner. Shelby county: 

Ocean Highway. 
Linn Creek, Camden cot 

signs. 



nty: 50 road signs. 



20 route signs. 



) sign boards, 
sign boards. 
Mark Ocean 



Macon, Macon county: 60 boards on Ocean 

to Ocean Highway. 
Ozark, Christian county: 35 wood signs. 

Montana — 

Great Falls. Cascade county: Main roads 
will be posted by Goodrich Tire Co. 

Roundup, Musselshell county: 100 wood 
signs. 

New Mexico — 

Portales, Roosevelt county: 50 painted tin 

signs. 
Raton, Colfax county: 133 metal signs. 

New York— 

Canandaigua, Ontario county: 50 concrete 

posts and wood signs. 
Lockport, Niagara county: 200 wood signs. 
Malone, Franklin county: 30 metal signs. 
Watkins, Schuyler county: 10 highway 

signs, 20 guide signs. 



Mason, Mason county: 300 wood signs. 

Virginia — 

Courtland, Southampton county: 12 distance 
signs. 



FIRE DEPARTMENT ADDITIONS 



Hose, 50 ft. 



!;,ii h;tr 



Ho 



and chemical, 1. 



Colorado- 
Denver: Auto hook and ladder. Auto triple 
combination. 
Connecticut 

Hartford: Auto apparatus, 2. 
Torrington: Auto combination, 1. 



Waterbury: Horses. $700. Hose, $2,000. 
Tractor, $5,000. Combination auto hose 
and chemical, $9,000. Signal system, 
$2,750. 



Georgia — 

Valdosta: 



Auto eombinati* 



gon. $7,000. 
April, 1915 



MISCELLANEOUS IMPROVEMENTS - 1915 



Illinois — 

Aurora: Combination auto, 1. 

Chicago Heights: Hose, 500 ft. Auto com- 
bination, 1, Chief's car, 1. Signal sys- 
tem extension. 

Elgin: Hose, 600 ft. Combination autos, 2. 
Signal system, $250. 

Oak Park: Auto ladder truck, 1; auto triple 
combination, 1. Signal system being 
planned. 

Indiana- 
Anderson: Hose, 1,000 ft. Combination 

motor, 1. 
Brazil: Horses, 2. 
Connersville: Auto hose wagons, 2. Auto 

ladder wagon, 1. 
Elwood: Auto fire truck, 1. 
Gary: 90-h.p. ladder truck. Cole. 60-h.p. 

chief's car. 
Logansport: Combination auto, 1. 
Noblesville: Auto combination, 1. 
Richmond: Auto aerial truck. 
Vincennes: Hose, 500 ft. 
I own — 

Clinton: Auto combination, 1; cost $5,500. 

Kansas — 

Arkansas City: Hose cart building. Hose 

500 ft. 
Fort Scott: Combination auto. $5,500. 
Independence: Hose, 2,000 ft. Pump and 

hose auto, 1. 

Kentucky — 

Covington: $10,000 hose house. 
Hopkinsville: Auto combination. 1. 
Lexington: Station. $8,000. Hose, 2,000 ft. 

Maryland — 

Baltimore: Hose, 1.000 ft. Auto tractors. 7. 
Chief's car, 1. Signal system extension. 

Massachusetts — 

Beverly: Building, 1. Hose. 1,500 ft. Auto 
ladder tractor. Auto chief's car. 

Brookline: Auto ladder tractor. Triple 
combination auto. Chief's car. 

Lowell: Hose, 2,000 ft. 2% -in. Auto appa- 
ratus, 2. 

Newburvport: Auto combination. 1. 

Orange: Hose, $300. 

Revere: Auto hose cart. 

Salem : Fire stations, 2. Auto combina- 
tion. 1. Auto ladder truck. 1. 

Stoneham: Fire station. 1. Hose, 500 ft. 

Woburn: Auto hose truck, 1. Triple com- 
bination, 1. 



Fire Department Additions— Continued 

Michigan — 

Albion: Hose, 500 ft. Auto truck 1 

Cadillac: Hoso, 250 ft. 

Orand Rapids: May motonz" 2 depts. 

Manistee : May motorize. 

Marquette: Two-horse combination truck, 
1. Hose, 1.000 ft. Chief's car. 1. Siren 
signal, 1. 

Monroe: Auto combination. 1. 

Saginaw: Probably motorize prut of equip- 
ment. 

Missisippi — 

Gulfport: Hose, 2,000 ft. Auto apparatus 

$5,500. 
Hattiesburg: Auto fire truck, 1. 
Meridian: Auto chemical. 1. 



Nebraska — 

Beatrice: Auto combination, 1 
Lincoln: Auto chemical trucK, 



Xew Jersey — 

Camden: $90,000 for motorizing dept. 
Jersey City: Auto aerial trucks, 3. Auto 

fuel wagons. 3. 
Westfield: Hose, 1.000 ft. 

New York— 

Batavia: Auto apparatus probably. 
Cortland: Auto hose cart. 1. Auto ladder 

truck. 1. 
Norwich: Hose, 1.000 ft. 

Plattsburg: Auto hose or chemical. $9,000. 
Schenectady: Auto combination. 1. Auto 

triple combination, 1. 
Utica: Auto apparatus, 5; cost $37,500. 



Akron: Building, 1. 

Cambridge: Auto combination, $3,000. 

Canton: Auto service truck; auto triple 
combination, 1. 

Cincinnati: Hose, $5,000; automobile appa- 
ratus, 23; new signal system, $150,000. 

Dayton: $37,365 for motors. 

East Liverpool: Building. 1. 

Fostoria: Auto chemical extinguisher. $$.- 



Girard : Auto fire truck, l. 
Greenville: Auto hose car, 1. 
Lorain: Hose. 1,000 ft. 
Newark: Auto ladder truck, 1 ; 

bination, 1. 
Portsmouth: Will motorize. 
Troy: Auto truck. 1. 
Wooster: Hose, 1,000 ft. 

Oklahoma — 

i Ihickasha: Hose, 1,000 t\ 
Enid: Hose, 1.200 ft. 



Pennsylvania — 

Allentown: Hose, 1,000 ft.; signal system 

extension, 10 boxes. 
Ashley: Auto combination, $4,500. 
Carlisle: Auto engines, 2. 
Coaldale: Auto engine, 1. 
Easton: Will motorize. 
Franklin: Auto combination. 1. 
nil city. iios.-. : n signal -■ ■ 

tension. 
Pittsburgh: Auto combination. 1. 
Reading: Auto hook and ladder truck, 1. 
TTniontown: Auto fire truck, 1. 
Williamsport : Auto combination. 1. 

Rhode Island — 

Newport: Hose, 1.000 ft.; auto app 
6; chief's car, 1. 



iple combination, 
Texas — 

Ennis: Auto combination, i signal 

tern, com plel ■ 
in eao: Building. 1. 
Sulphur Springs: Auto combination. 

Virginia — 

Newport News: Hose, 1,100 ft.: autoi 
apparatus, 4. 

Washington — 

Everett: Buildings, 3; hose. 1,000 ft. 

apparatus, 6. 
Spokane: Auto hose carts, 2 ; auto 1 

trucks, 2. 

Wisconsin — 

Marinette: Hose, 600 ft. 
Neenah : Auto combination. 1. 
Sheboygan: Horse. 1; hose. 2,000 ft. 
w au ■ in \n!" appai atus 



POLICE DEPARTMENT IMPROVEMENTS 



Auto patrol wagon, 1. 

$2,500. 

Illinois — 

Elgin: Signal system, $500; combination 

patrol and ambulance. 
Oak Park: Signal system being planned. 



Independence: Motorcycle, 1. 

Massachusetts — 

Lowell: Signal system, $1,500; touring 
for superintendent. 



Newburypnrt: Signal system. 
Revere: Automobile. 1. 
Salem: Patrol. 1: ambulanc 
car, 1: motorcycle, 1. 



New York — 

Corning: Auto patrol wagon. 1. 
Cortland: Auto patrol wagon, 1. 
Gloversville: Motorcycles, 2. 
Newburgh: New signal system; 
cle, 1. 



Engine house. $40,000. 
ti: New signal system. $45,000. 
Auto patrol wagon. 1. 



patrol wagon. 1; motor- 



Rhode Island — 

Newport: Auto patrol wagon, 1: motorcy- 



cle 



Washington — 

Everett: Auto patrol wagon, 1: mote 

cle, 1. 
Spokane: Auto patrol wagon, 1. 

Wisconsin — 

Racine: Auto police ambulanci 
Sheboygan: Combination auto patrol 
ambulance. 



PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS IN PHILA- 
DELPHIA, PA. 

The following estimate of the proposed 
expenditures of the Bureau of Highways & 
Street cleaning of Philadelphia, Pa., on 
construction and maintenance work during 
1915, was received too late for inclusion in 
the tables on preceding pages. 
Grading streets (by contract).? 476.939.73 
Paving intersections and in 
front of unassessable prop- 
erty (by contract) 219,532.58 

Paving in front of assessable 

property (by contract) .... 880,000.00 
Resurfacing asphalt streets (by 

contract) 132.S11.65 

Repaving (by contract) 986,834.44 

Surfacing and resurfacing mac- 
adam (by contract) 559.263.95 

Repairs on all classes of streets 

and roads (by contract).... 443.437 59 

April, 1915 



Repairing and painting bridges 

(by contract) 56,191.15 

Repairs to meadow banks, 
water courses, etc. (by con- 
tract) 6,554.27 

Grading, curbing and paving 

footways, etc. (by contract) 10.912.07 

Removal and disposal of garb- 
age (by contract) 323,58s. 00 

Cleaning and sprinkling streets 

(by contract) 1,232,847.00 

Removal of ashes, rubbish, etc. 

(by contract) 543,681.00 

Sprinkling macadam and dirt 

roads (by contract) 25,000.00 

Removal of snow and ice (by 
contract) 2.500.00 

Hire of teams (by contract).. r.o.ono.OO 

Hire of equipment (by con- 
tract) 

Improvement of the parkway 

(by contract) 188,923.01 



Improvement of South Broad 

street boulevard (by con 

tract) 59,4 I ' 9 I 

Improvement of Northeast 

boulevard (by contract).... 77.".. T^ 1 - ::i 
Improvement of League Island 

Park (by contract) 447, . ' , I 

Contract work (7,417,475.23 

For labor to be employed by the Bureau 
of Highways 
Wages for labor on all classe 

of streets and roads 400,000.00 

Repairs to sewers, etc 45,000.00 

Repairs to bridges, etc 

Repairs to meadow banks and 

water courses 10,S50.0« 

Wages for entomologist's 

work 2,500.00 

Labor 483,350.00 

Grand total $7,900,825.23 




Treating Water with Chemicals 

Can you refer us to back numbers of your magazine 
containing articles giving information in regard to the 
treatment of water to be used for domestic purposes 
with chemicals only. M., Pittsburg, Pa. 

The following articles will be of interest in this line: 

In vol. xlvii: Calcium Hypochlorite as a Water Disin- 
fectant, p. 137. 

In vol. xlvi: A Novel Method of Sterilization of London's 
Water Supply, p. 47; An Automatic Tiltometer for Applying 
Chemical to Water in Purifying Process, p. 322; Water Ster- 
ilization Plants, i). 11; Sterilization of Water Supplies. Results 
of Hypochlorite Process, p. 314; Where Should the Coagulant 
Be Added to Water, p. 235. 

In vol. xlv: New Process for Purifying Drinking Water, 
p. :,:>:; ; Water Softening and Decoloration at Grand Rapids. 
Mich., p. 34:;. 

In vol xliv: Efficient Handling of Lime and Chemicals at 
the Columbus. O., Watering Softening and Purification Works. 
I>. 543; Chlorine or Hypochlorites for Sterilizing Waler, p. 14.". 

In vol. xliii: Purification of Bath Water, p. 1.59. 

In vol. xlii: The Chloride Process for Water Purification, 
p. 159. 

In vol. xl: A New Reisert Water Filtration Plant, p. 305; 
Chemical Clarification of Water, p. 433 

In vol xxxix: The Sterilization of Water, p. 222. 

In vol. xxxviii: Experience with and Results from Munic- 
ipal Water Softening, p. 383. 

In vol. xxxvii: The Sterilization Plant of the Jersey City 
Water Supply Company, pp. 6, 86, 158. 



Cinders for Road Construction 

Our support has been asked in connection with the 
use of cinders in building up certain roads or streets 
where there is little chance of pavement being put in 
for a great many years, and where the traffic is rather 
heavy. Some of these roads are located within indus- 
trial centers, where there is considerable amount of 
clinkers and ash from the power plants, and in some 
instances the roads are made up of a certain amount 
of clay which might serve with the cinders or ashes as 
a binder. Of course, we are not at all familiar with this 
matter, but it occurred to us that you might possibly 
inform us to a certain extent, and you doubtless have 
some records on cinder roads, their relative costs, etc. 
M., Minneapolis. Minn. 
The writer's rather limited experience with cinders as ?. 
paving material has been such that he would not recommend 
it except for private driveways to stables or garages, where 
tlie traffic is very light, and then only when the surface and 
sub-soil drainage is perfect, so that neither cinders nor founda- 
tion can be softened by water. Cinders are usually too soft 
and porous to stand any material amount of wear from traffic. 



Slag from blast furnaces is ordinarily much harder and 
more desirable than furnace cinder, but this material is sel- 
dom successful where the traffic is heavy, even when made 
into concrete with Portland cement. This experience supports 
the statements regarding cinder. 

If cinder is mixed with clay, the latter acting as the binder, 
something like a sand-clay road results. If surface and sub- 
soil drainage are both good, such a road may be somewhat 
more satisfactory than cinders alone, but the road cannot be 
used safely in wet weather and is suitable in any event only 
for the light traffic of farm roads leading to the main roads. 



Fibered Asphalt Pavement 

1 would appreciate any information you could give 
me in regard to cork asphalt paving, where purchased 
and price of same, or any other surface suitable for 
tennis courts. P., Billings, Mont. 

Cork asphalt pavement was tested some years ago in Lon- 
don and elsewhere and there was some attempt to introduce 
it into the United States. If any of our readers know of its 
use for any purpose our correspondent would like to know- 
where it has been used and from whom it can be obtained. 
It was probably too expensive for use for general p:iving pur- 
poses and therefore could not be generally introduced. 

The Wood Fiber Asphalt Company, of Charleston W. Va . 
is developing a pavement made largely of a certain kind of 
wood fiber and asphalt which may answer the purpose. 



Specifications for Patented Pavements 

You probably know that, altho a great deal has been 
written and published concerning the procedure inci- 
dental to the "Specifying and Adapting of Specifications 
for Patented Pavements, and the Methods of Calling 
for Bids Thereon," the fact still remains that no cor- 
related data are available that cover the current prac- 
tice in the various units of government in the United 
States. 

Realizing this and believing that such data will be 
of considerable interest and value to the engineering 
profession, the writer has selected the foregoing sub- 
ject for a thesis. 

In order to obtain all the reliable information pos- 
sible, inquiries are being sent to the highway depart- 
ments of each state, to the engineers of several of the 
larger cities, to the technical press, to a number of 
consulting engineers prominent in the highway work in 
America, and to the parties interested in the well- 
known proprietary pavements. 

As the public representatives and exponents of the 
engineering profession, you will naturally be interested 
in the results of the inquiry, and will appreciate that the 
value of such an investigation is directly proportional 
to the information received. Your co-operation is there- 
fore earnestly desired. An expression of your personal 
opinion, if you are not averse to giving it at this time. 



THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT 



273 



is particularly desired. If you are familiar with any 
peculiar or otherwise interesting legal statutes covering 
the use of patented paving materials or construction, ref- 
erences or comments upon these will be very acceptable. 

C. 
The writer is not disposed to agree with the statement 
made above that there are no correlated data covering current 
practice on this subject, tho possibly not quite all the states 
in the Union are covered by the collections of data made. 

Roughly the states may be arranged in three classes: 
Those in which the use of patented pavements is strictly pro- 
hibited; those in which their use is carefully restricted, usually 
by requiring that ordinary competition in bidding by con- 
tractors for the work shall not be restricted and that all con- 
tractors pay the same prices for the use of the patented 
method or for the patented material; and those in which there 
are no restrictions. 

Most states belong to the last named class except indirectly 
thru application of certain general law's. Very few belong 
to the first named class at the present time, Indiana being 
perhaps nearest occupying the prohibition column. 

Two owners of patents on methods of construction of munic- 
ipal improvements have tried out the laws in most of the 
states having restrictive legislation, and have crystallized prac- 
tice in those states. A study of the various cases decided con- 
cerning the Warren Brothers Company's patents or bitulithic 
as a paving material and concerning the D. B. Luten patents 
on reinforced concrete arches will give practically all the„nec- 
essary information concerning the best methods of admitting 
patented methods and materials to competition and the laws 
in the states and ordinances in the cities concerned will give 
the variations in wording of the provisions intended to safe- 
guard the public at the same time that the public is given 
the advantages of the improvements covered by the patents. 

One publication by Warren Brothers Company, 59 Temple 
Place, Boston, Mass., entitled "Municipal Powers," gives the 
decisions in several cases decided in Michigan, Alabama and 
Now York, in which the validity of their patents was involved: 
ami in many cases deciding the validity of contracts for pat- 
ented pavements in some 15 states. A recent decision of a 
Rochester ( New York ) case involving the right of the city 
to specify a patented pavement is reported in full in another 
pamphlet, together with the briefs of the attorneys and exten- 
sive references to all prior cases having bearing upon the 
subject. 

D. B. Luten, Traction-Terminal Building, Indianapolis, Ind.. 
has published the decisions in many suits for infringement 
brought by him and in suits to prevent the use of patented 
bridges. While the nature of the patents is not the same, the 
nature of the practice in securing and safeguarding their use 
is very similar and much of value for the thesis referred to 
can be gathered from Mr. Luten's publications. 

In reference to the request for the editor"s personal opinion, 
he would say that there seems to be no valid reason why tho 
public should not have the advantage of the best there may 
be in paving or any other municipal improvement. That the 
best may be patented is no valid reason for depriving the city 
of the right to use it. 

A patent is a monopoly so far as the use of whatever is 
covered by it is concerned. If there is nothing else in the 
field, it is an unrestricted monopoly, and prices are governed 
only by what the traffic will stand, or rather by what the 
owners of the patent think it will stand. But patents on 
pavements are restricted by the competition of other forms 
of pavement and must show the superiority of the structures 
built under them in order to have them accepted. Large 
profits can be made only by showing qualities high enough to 
warrant high prices, or because the patented methods result 
in similar qualities to other pavements at lower cost. In 
either case the public can avail itself of the benefits of the 
April, i'.ii'< 



patent at prices which are reasonable as compared \* ith those 
which must be paid for other pavements of similar quality. 
It is only necessary to safeguard the making of specifications 
and the receiving of bids so that the city will have the benefit 
of all the competition possible between the patented pavement 
and other possible materials. 

There is a tendency in some laws toward sell cting the 
pavement to be bid upon by vote or petition, and thus re- 
stricting competition to those engaged in the construction of 
that particular class of pavement. It is specially necessary 
to safeguard the letting of the contract in case a patented 
pavement is chosen, that the price may be restricted by some- 
thing more than the immediate self interest of the bidders. 
This is well done by the general practice of fixing a definite 
price for the use of patented features, thus putting all con- 
tractors on a par. fixing what is previously determined to be a 
reasonable price for the use of the patented article or method, 
and leaving the remainder of the construction open to com- 
petitive bids. 



Practical Aid Wanted for Civic Improvement 

A co-operative campaign has been planned between 
our business men and the city authorities, for a physical 
rehabilitation of both residential and business districts, 
to serve the purposes of efficiency, cleanliness and 
beauty. On one point of this campaign I am instructed 
by the committee in charge to ask your advice and aid. 

It is proposed to perfect in the city a system of street 
and park commissions, of unpaid citizens, who shall be 
the medium of contact between the population and the 
city authorities and the agency of action by both. 

It is proposed, further, to conduct a systematic and 
careful campaign of education, thru the newspapers, by 
ward and precinct meetings, in business and in residen- 
tial districts, so that the population will respond to the 
best efforts of their commissions and likewise stimulate 
them to better efforts. 

To represent the city, to guide these commissioners, 
to enlighten the volunteer organizations of citizens, it 
is proposed to employ the services of a man who shall 
have had technical instruction in architecture and in 
landscape, street and boulevard designing, and practical 
experience therein; a man who is in touch with modern 
movements to clean and beautify and render more con- 
venient the physical arrangement of cities. 

We do not want a man to make a "city plan," tho 
we want a man who knows what city planning is. We 
want a man, young, but with experience and knowledge; 
enthusiastic, but practical; who values beauty, but ap- 
preciates utility; who can come into an old, rather dirty, 
haphazardly built city, and to a population rather provin- 
cial and untraveled, and in this environment work with 
a group of public officials and a body of business men 
who want to do the practical at-hand things that most 
cry tu l»' done and that can most practically he done. 
We want a man who can discuss with the commissioner 
of streets and public property and the dean of the local 
architects how a certain street may be best and most 
practically improved so that it will fit into a city plan; 
who can discuss with the commissioners of a certain 
street, either residential or business, the practical things 
to be done: and who can then go to a ward or precinct 
citizens' volunteer "clean-up" or "improvement" meet- 
ing and lead them into the right line of thought and the 
right line of action. 

Our means are rather restricted. We are trying in 
educate ourselves as we go. We have no large funds 
upon which to draw. Nevertheless, we believe we can 
obtain the needed funds. Will you tell us the sum neces- 
sary to employ such a man as we have described, for a 
year? 

We want you to recommend to us, or put us in touch 
with a group of men from among whom we may select 
one for this service. Will you help us thus far'.' 

Si BSCE1BER. 

This problem is passed on to our readers. We will put a in 
one in communication with our correspondent, who is willing 
to undertake the work outlined in his letter. 




WORKERS IN 
THE FIELD 




Ordinance Governing City Forester 
The Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — I note in your last issue on page 196 a request for a 
city ordinance creating the office of city forester, and take 
pleasure in enclosing one which amply covers the require- 
ments. P. S. Ridsdale, 

Executive Secretary, American Forestry Association. 

An ordinance to regulate the planting, trimming and re- 
moving of trees, in the streets of Baltimore; and providing for 
a city forester and assistants for that purpose. 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the mayor and city council of 
Baltimore, that the city engineer be and he is hereby author- 
ized and directed to regulate the planting, protection, remov- 
ing, regulating and controlling of all the trees, growing, plant- 
ed and to be planted in the streets of Baltimore, not under 
the jurisdiction of the Board of Park Commissioners, and to 
appoint a city forester and such other employes and assistants 
as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this ordi- 
nance. Such forester shall be a person of knowledge and ex- 
perience in the care and culture of trees. 

Sec. 2. And be it further ordained, that it shall be the duty 
of the city engineer to superintend, regulate and encourage 
the preservation, culture and planting of shade and ornamental 
trees in the streets; to prune, spray, cultivate and otherwise 
maintain such trees, plants and shrubbery, and to trim or 
direct the time and method of trimming the same; and to take 
such measures as may be deemed necessary for the control and 
extermination of insects and other pests and plant diseases 
which may injuriously affect trees that are now growing or 
may be hereafter growing in the streets. 

The city engineer shall cause all statutes and ordinances 
for the protection of trees in the streets to be strictly observed. 

Sec. 3. And be it further ordained that no person shall 
plant any tree in any street without first having obtained a 
written permit therefor from the city engineer setting forth 
the conditions under which such trees may be planted, includ- 
ing the kind and variety thereof, and until the city forester 
has designated on the ground the location thereof, and without 
in all respects complying with the conditions of such permit. 

Sec. 4. And be it further ordained, that no person, except 
the city forester or his assistants, shall spray, mulch, fertilize 
or otherwise treat, remove, destroy, break, cut or trim any 
living tree or any part thereof, growing in any street, with- 
out first having obtained a written permit from the city engi- 
neer; and no cutting or trimming of any tree in any street 
in connection with the work of any other city department or 
of any public service corporation or other person having a 
right to use said street shall be done except in such manner 
as directed by said city forester. 

Sec. 5. And be it further ordained that no person shall 
fasten any horse or other animal to any tree or shrub in any 



street ; nor shall any person cause or permit any horse or 
other animal to stand or be near enough to any tree, plant or 
shrub, to bite or rub against it or in any manner injure or 
deface the same; nor shall any person attach or place any 
rope, wire, sign, poster, hand-bill or other thing or substance 
on any tree or shrub in any street or on any guard or protec- 
tion of the same; nor shall any person remove, injure or mis- 
use any guard or device placed or intended to protect any 
tree, plant or shrub now or hereafter growing in any street. 

Sec. 6. And be it further ordained, that no person shall, 
without first having obtained a written permit from the citv 
engineer, attach any electric wire, insulator, or any other 
device for holding electric wire to any tree now or hereafter 
growing in any street; and every person or corporation having 
any wire or wires charged with electricity shall securely fasten 
or change the location of same so that such wire or wires 
shall not injure any tree in any street. 

Sec. 7. And be it further ordained that no person, firm 
or corporation owning, maintaining or operating any gas pipe 
or mains laid beneath the surface of any street or private land 
in the city of Baltimore shall permit any leak to occur in 
such pipes or mains within a radius of forty feet of any tree 
now or hereafter growing in any street in said city, and in 
the event that a leak exists or occurs in any such pipe or 
main, it shall be the duty of the person, firm or corporation 
owning or operating such defective pipe or main to repair 
the same immediately and stop such leak in a manner so as 
to prevent a recurrence of the same after receiving a notice 
in writing from the city engineer calling attention of such 
person, firm or corporation to the fact that such leak exists 
or has occurred, and if such person, firm or corporation fails, 
within five days after the receipt of such notice, to stop such 
leak in a manner so as to prevent a recurrence thereof, such 
person, firm or corporation shall be subject to the payment of 
a fine of not less than ten nor more than fifty dollars, and a 
separate offense shall be regarded as committed each day 
during which such person, firm or corporation shall continue 
such violation, after such notice. 

Sec. S. And be it further ordained, that no person shall, 
without first having received a written permit from the city 
engineer, place or hereafter maintain, upon the ground in a 
street, stone, cement or other substance which shall impede 
the free entrance of water and air to the roots of any tree in 
such street, without leaving an open space of ground outside 
the trunk of said tree, in area not less than four square feet. 

Sec. 9. And be it further ordained that no person shall in 
any way interfere, or cause any person to interfere, with the 
city forester or his assistants, in and about the planting, 
mulching, pruning, spraying or removing of any tree in any 
street, or in the removing of stone, cement or other sidewalk, 
or stone, cement, or other substance, about the trunk of any 

April, 1915 



FROM WORKERS IN THE FIELD 



275 



tree in any such street; all of which the said city forester and 
his assistants are hereby authorized to do. 

Sec. 10. And be it further ordained, that in the erection, 
alteration or repair of any building or structure, the owner or 
owners thereof shall place, or cause to be placed, in accordance 
with the directions of the city foresters, such guards around 
all nearby trees in the street as shall effectually prevent injury 
to such trees. 

Sec. 11. And be it further ordained, that every permit 
granted by the city engineer shall expire at the end of not 
exceeding thirty days. 

Sec. 12. And be it further ordained, that the word "trees" 
as used in this ordinance shall not be construed to include 
shrubs which do not grow higher than fifteen feet, and the 
word "person," whenever used in this ordinance, shall be con- 
strued to include individuals, firms and corporations. 

Sec. 13. And be it further ordained, that all ordinances and 
parts of ordinances heretofore passed which are inconsistent 
with this ordinance, or any of its provisions, be and they are 
hereby repealed. 

Sec. 14. And be it further ordained that any person vio- 
lating any of the provisions of Sections 3, 4, 5, 6, S, 9, or 10 
of this ordinance shall be subject to a penalty of not less than 
one dollar nor more than twenty-five dollars, in the discretion 
of the court. 

Sec. 15. And be it further ordained, that the Board of 
Estimates of Baltimore City shall provide annually, in the 
ordinance of estimates, for the salaries, and shall define the 
duties, of the city forester and his assistants, and the number 
of such assistants. 

Sec. 1C. And be it further ordained, that this ordinance 
shall take effect from the date of its passage. 
Approved August 17, 1912. 

James H. Preston, Mayor. 



Method of Proportioning Materials for Concrete 
Pavements and Sidewalks 
The Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — The following article describes in a general way the 
method adopted by the city of Aberdeen, Wash., in the pro- 
portioning and checking of materials used in the construction 
of concrete pavements and concrete sidewalks. 

In all the concrete pavements and sidewalks laid in this 
city only screened sand and gravel have been used. This mate- 
rial is obtained from the bed of the Chehalis River, and the 
pit material is screened and washed before delivery to the 
scow. 

Our pavements are all of two-course construction, consist- 
ing for the most part of a 6-inch base and a 2-inch top, the 
base containing enough water so that when well tamped the 
surface will flush and none of the mortar will be taken from 
the top course when it is placed. This base also marks a 
solid body upon which the workmen can walk in spreading 
the 2-inch top. doing away with any chances of the workmen 
tramping holes in the base and allowing them to fill up with 
the surface mortar, thus insuring a straight two-course pave- 
ment. The top course is mixed as a very soft mortar that is 
easily rodded to the shape of the crown desired. 

In our lower course we call for one sack (94 pounds) of 
cement to be used in each 12 square feet of 6-inch base in 
place. This is based on one sack of cement to each 6 cubic 
feet of mixed concrete, sand and gravel to be proportioned as 
3 to 5, or as directed. The "as directed" clause is placed in 
our specifications for the reason that our materials vary as 
to fineness, making it necessary to often shift our propor- 
tions of sand and gravel as they require. 

In our 2-inch top course we call for one sack of cement in 



every 14 i L . square feet of 2-inch top in place, aggregate mixed 
1 sand to 2 pea gravel, or as directed. 

The inspector can, by keeping the sub-grade, base and top 
to the required thickness at the time they are placed, compute 
the amount of cement used against the amount required under 
the specifications. On work where a boom mixer is used the 
inspector takes a check on each move of the mixer, which is 
about every 20 feet. 

In our concrete sidewalk construction we call for one sack 
of cement to be used in each 24 square feet of 3%-inch con- 
crete base in place, aggregate proportioned 1 sand to 2 
gravel, or as directed. This is based on one sack of cement to 
each 7 cubic feet of mixed concrete. In place of calling for a 
straight proposition on the ^.-inch top for sidewalk work, that 
is, 1 cement to 2 sand, we limit the contractor to one sack 
of cement (94 pounds) to be used in each 15% square feet of 
sidewalk in place, top and bottom included ; the top to be com- 
posed of sand and cement in such proportions as will not 
exceed the limit as set out in the specifications for the distance 
that one sack of cement will run. For the most of the sands 
which we have used we have found that this is very close to 
a l-to-2 proportion. 

This system of specifying how far a sack of cement shall 
run in concrete pavement and sidewalk construction, we have 
found has some good advantages from an engineering point of 
view. 

First: We have found that we can handle a job with onlv 
one inspector, where, in many cities using the other method 
of mixing, that is, straight proportions, they are using two in- 
spectors, one at the mixer and one at the grade where the 
concrete is being placed. 

Second: From this method of specifying, the contractors 
in making up their bids can compute the amount of cement 
that is actually required on any certain piece of work, and it 
also guards against the contractor shaving his price at the 
time of letting the contract on the theory that he ran run a 
leaner mixture than is called for. 

Third: The inspector on the work, after once adjusting the 
proportions of sand and gravel desired, has left the watching 
of the cement, the empty cement sacks, the sub-grade and the 
placing of the concrete, and by measuring up the base at inter- 
vals, can at once detect any change in the proportions of 
sand and gravel. 

During the last two years we have placed some 26,000 
square yards of two-course concrete pavement and 17,000 
square yards of concrete sidewalks under this type of specifi- 
cation, and we find that this method is giving us good satis- 
faction. Louis D. Kelsey, C. E., 

City Engineer, Aberdeen, Wash. 



Where Good Roads Are Not Wanted 

The Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — This county has never gone into road building to any 
extent, and the 7 miles of grading I have shown on the accom- 
panying blank will be done by private subscription. With tin' 
exception of the southwestern part of the county, which is 

under the irrigation project, this is a ranching country, and 

practically no farming is done. It is rut up into one section 
tracts and these have gradually been going into (he hands 
of moneyed men, so that at the present time the county is 
pretty generally cut up into ranches of from 4 to 20 sections. 
Naturally, these people do not care for roads on account of 
cutting their holdings in two. 1 am of the opinion that there 
is not to exceed 100 miles of fenced roads in the county, with 
the exception of the southwestern pari above referred to, and 
this is the fourth largest county in the state in point of area. 

As to bridges, will say that we may put in a dozen steel 



April, mi:, 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



girder bridges and we nun not put in any at all. ff we have 
plenty of high water this spring and it takes out one or more, 
they will he replaced with steel bridges, with concrete abut- 
ments. 

As to sidewalks. — — is the only town in the county, 

and, as its population is not to exceed 125, the sidewalk propo- 
sition does not worry us much. However, what walks we have 
are of concrete. We haye no paving, except what nature 
gave us. 

As to road signs, will say we may put up a few wooden 
ones, if the local commercial club ceases to hibernate. 

We have no county engineer, and as our county surveyor 
lives some fifteen miles out of town and never visits us unless 
he is wanted to locate some corner to settle a fence quarrel. I 
have taken the liberty of writing this in response to your 
request for information. I have been mixed up with commer- 
cial clubs in other towns and am strong for good roads, hut 
as I find it is poor "politics" here, I have to keep pretty well 
bottled up and seldom get a chance to "uncork." 

, County Clerk. 



El Oso Asphalt 
The Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — In answer to query concerning El Oso asphalt in your 
March number, I will say that this brand was sold by Mr. 
Blake, who was the originator of asphaltic concrete pavement. 
I met Mr. Blake at Wellington. Kas.. when I was city engineer. 
He was then promoting asphaltic concrete paving, which was 
quite new. The early literature circulated by Mr. Blake about 
this form of paving recommended El Oso asphaltic cement. 
Since his death I think there has been none upon the market. 

H. A. Rowland, 
McPherson, Kas. 
It seems to have appeared in one or two places recently, 
but apparently not in such way as to receive advertisement. 



Politics and the City Manager in Phoenix 
Tin' Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — What may happen when politics gets into the new 
forms of government is exemplified in Phoenix. Ariz., where 
charges and countercharges of inefficiency and incompetences- 
are Hying and there is a contest between old and new city 
managers for the office. 

The city commissioners discharged city manager W. A. Fa- 
rish, who denies their authority to do so under the terms of 
i In resolution and refuses to give up his office to his appointed 
successor. 

Mayor George U. Young belongs to the Progressive party 
and is opposed by prominent Republicans, one of whom files 
charges against him. Commissioner Peter Corpstein is a Dem- 
ocrat who is facing charges filed by a prominent Democrat. 

The trouble began when Citj Manager Parish proposed to 
discharge the chief of police and appoint a Democratic poli- 



tician in his place. The commissioners then discharged him 
and named Robert Cray to succeed him. 

At present the charges against the city manager are failure 
to manage the tiro and police departments successfully, $15,000 
increase in expense id' operating the city for six months beyond 
that under the aldernianic form, failure to bond street railway 
to repair damage caused by building lines in the city, accept- 
ance of inferior fire hose substituted under a contract. Charges 
against the mayor are incompetence, lack of practical ability in 
city government, lack of sympathy with the commission-city 
manager form of government, conspiracy with the other com- 
missioners to destroy the city manager's usefulness and make 
him subservient to the will of the commission, and attempting 
to dictate appointment and discharge of city officials and em- 
ployes. Similar charges are made against the other commis- 
sioners and the recall of all three of them is demanded by 
many citizens. 

The clearing up of the muddle and the placing of all parts 
of the city government on an efficiency basis seem difficult to 
accomplish, but strong effort by public spirited citizens work- 
ing for the public benefit and not for party advantage could be 
successful. K. 



Box Car Unloaders and Conveyors 
The Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — Your issue for February, 1915, publishes, on p. 113, an 
inquiry about box car loaders and conveyors. This inquiry 
evidently refers to handling raw materials in a glass works, 
and as we are manufacturers of such apparatus — in fact are 
referred to in your reply — we take the liberty of sending you 
print of our drawing to forward to your correspondent. 

The plan is to unload the materials from the box cars bv 
means of a power shovel into the foot of the elevator. From 
the elevator the material is distributed by means of spouts to 
two sand bins, while the lime and soda are transferred by 
means of a screw conveyor into their respective bins. Under- 
neath the bins in a tunnel is a scale car, which draws the 
sand, lime or soda off thru the undercut gates and carries the 
total quantity to a second elevator, and this elevates it and puts 
it into the rotary mixer. After being tumbled in the drum of 
this machine for a time, the mixed materials are dropped 
again into the foot of the elevator, lifted, carried up and dis- 
charged onto the 46-foot belt conveyor, which runs diagonally 
over to the storage over the melting tanks. The mixed ma- 
terial is, of course, dumped at the time when the scale car is 
collecting its materials, and the two operations do not con- 
flict in any way. 

For large plants we sometimes make the scale car carry the 
mixing drum, so that the materials can be mixed while the car 
is in transit. In other plants the materials can be collected by 
means of a belt to the stationary scale and mixer. 

Details can be worked out to suit local arrangements. 

Chief Engineer. 



W. A. Parish, former city 
manager of Phoenix, Ariz. 




George V. Young, mayor of 
Phoenix, Ariz. 



April. 1915 




Canadian Bitulithic Patents Sustained 

Final judgment has been rendered by Mr. Justice Hyndman. 
of the Supreme Court of Alberta, in the case of Bitulithic & 
Contracting Ltd. and Warren Brothers Company vs. Canadian 
Mineral Rubber Company Ltd. and the City of Calgary. This 
suit was brought for an infringement of the basic Canadian 
patent of Warren Brothers Company for the wearing surface 
of a street pavement. The defendants in their answer denied 
both the validity of the patent and also the fact of the infringe- 
ment. 

The contract was let by the city of Calgary to the Canadian 
Mineral Rubber Company to construct 100,000 square yards of 
pavement, which, as the specifications provided, should be 
"identical with a pavement which the plaintiffs, Bitulithic & 
Contracting Ltd., had laid down in Calgary in 1910 and 1911." 

At the time of letting the contract the city required the 
contractor to file a surety company bond in the sum of $75,000 
indemnifying the city against loss by reason of infringement. 

Construction of the work was begun by the contractor and 
the suit in this case was commenced by application before 
Justice Stuart for the issuance of a preliminary injunction. In 
view of the fact that the streets of the city were then in a 
deplorable condition and required improvement, and that the 
work had been commenced, the issuance of a preliminary in- 
junction restraining the further prosecution of the work at 
that time was refused. The defendant, however, was required 
to pay into court the sum of $3,000 as punitive damages if the 
patent in suit upon final hearing should be found to be in- 
fringed, and was also required to file with the court a surety 
bond in the sum of $60,000 to secure any damages which the 
plaintiff might recover by reason of the infringement of his 
patent, trade-mark and copyright. The city also retained out 
of the moneys due the defendant for work done approximately 
$21,0on as further protection against any liability for damage- 
under the pending suit. The work under the contract was 
finally completed in the summer of 1914. 

The court said: 

"There is ample testimony which establishes infringement. 
* * * The specifications used were similar to those of the 
plaintiff in laying the 'bitulithic' " 

The court further held that: 

"The validity of the patent must be decided according to the 
state of knowledge at the date of the patent. * " I can- 

not find that there had been any pavements similar in ion 
struction to that of the plaintiff. It is quite true that density 
and stability had been for many years considered most desir- 
able, and in fact were sought to be accomplished in various 
countries, but there does not appear to have been any fixed or 
known working scheme which would insure it with any degre.? 
of certainty." 

After describing the nature, structure and defects of the 
various kinds of pavements known, and in use at the time of 



the Warren invention, — "the old familiar macadam, tar mac- 
adam, tar concrete for sjdewalks and sheet asphalt"— the court 
says : 

"It appears without doubt that the great object in view 
was the production of a pavement with the least number of 
voids, with inherent stability, waterproofness, resistance to 
wear, as well as being dustless, noiseless and sanitary and free 
from liability to fracture" 

In defining the scope of the Warren patent the court says: 

"His invention was the discovery that an aggregate of large 
and small pieces of stone graded down to an impalpable powder 
mixed together in certain proportions would produce a mixture 
having less than 21 per cent, of voids and when so assembled 
and compacted together would form a dense, solid, homo- 
geneous body with the smallest percentage of voids and possess- 
ing the highest degree of stability and one in which the 
largest and smallest pieces are associated with each other indis- 
criminately thruout the structure and one which because of the 
sizes of the pieces and their arrangement with respect to each 
other offers the smallest areas of surfaces for the attachment 
of the plastic composition to them so that not only is a su- 
perior binding effect or union obtained but a smaller quantity 
of the plastic composition is necessary for the purpose of ob- 
taining the superior result or product. A good deal of evi- 
dence was given on the subject of stability. It is not claimed 
by the inventor that his mineral aggregate has absolute or per- 
fect stability, but merely a high degree or greater than air- 
other known pavement." * * * 

"It seems to me from the evidence that, altho it might be 
admitted that other pavements, e. g., macadam, may possibly 
possess as great a density and great stability, still the process 
is altogether different and full of uncertainty. There was no 
way of ascertaining the density until after il was laid and 
treated and rolled on the street. The bitulithic as to all these 
features is prepared and may be known in advance and is laid 
down with at least an approximate certainty of its density 
The inventor reduced the composition of the mineral aggregate 
to a certainty which before was uncertain and usually mixed 
in a haphazard way "hit or miss." as Engineer Craig put it. 
and this both as to quality and quantity of mineral ingredients. 

With regard to the sufficiency of the specifications set out 
in the patent, about which some question had been raised, the 
court said: 

"The very fact that the defendant company was able to 
successfully construct the pavement under their contract with 
out apparently any difficulty tends to prove this very point." 

As to the utility of the invention, the court a 

"There is ample evidence that it is a very useful Invention 
and, according to City Engineer Craig and other witnesses, 
the bitulithic pavement is a highly satisfactory one. 

"I therefore find that the patent is valid and has been in- 
fringed — and the plaintiffs entitled to an injunction. There 



April, mij 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



will be a reference to the clerk of the court to ascertain what, 
damages the plaintiffs have sustained by reason of such in- 
fringement" and for costs. 

This is the first decision involving the validity of any of 
the Canadian bitulithic patents, and it follows that of the 
United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, 
in the Owosso case, which has been recognized and followed 
by five of the nine circuits in the United States. 



Pan-American Road Congress 

Preliminary plans were completed at a meeting in Mont- 
pelier, Vt, March 18 for what promises to be the largest gath- 
ering of good roads advocates ever held. This meeting will 
be held at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, and 
will be known as the Pan-American Road Congress. It will be 
under the joint auspices of the American Road Builders' Asso- 
ciation and the American Highway Association. The tentative 
date selected is that of the week of September 6. 

The plans for the forthcoming congress will be handled by 
an executive committee of five. This committee is made up 
of Governor Charles W. Gates, of Vermont, chairman; W. W. 
Crosby, former state highway engineer of Maryland, and E. L. 
Powers, editor of "Good Roads," representing the American 
Road Builders' Association, and James H. MacDonald, former 
state highway commissioner of Connecticut, and J. E. Penny- 
backer, chief, Division of Economics, U. S. Office of Public 
Roads, representing the American Highway Association. 

Governor Gates was elected the fifth member and chairman 
of the committee by the other four members. Sub-committees 
were appointed as follows: finance, Jas. H. MacDonald; pro- 
gram, W. W. Crosby; publicity, E. L. Powers, and arrange- 
ments, J. E. Pennybacker. 

The organizations under whose auspices the joint congress 
will be held are the two leading good roads associations of the 
United States. 

Governor Gates for ten years or more was the s:tate high- 
way commissioner of the state of Vermont, and his record in 
that office produced one of the largest majorities ever given a 
governor in that state. 

The executive officers of the American Road Builders' Asso- 
ciation are as follows: President, George W. Tillson, con- 
sulting engineer to the president of the Boro of Brooklyn, 
New York City; first vice-president, A. W. Dean, chief engineer, 
Massachusetts Highway Commission; second vice-president, 
Austin B. Fletcher, state highway engineer of California: third 
vice-president, S. Percy Hooker, state superintendent of high- 
ways of New Hampshire; secretary, E. L. Powers, editor Good 
Roads: treasurer, W. W. Crosby, former state highway engi- 
neer of Maryland. 

The executive officers of the American Highway Association 
are as follows: President, Fairfax Harrison, president South- 
ern Railway Company: vice-president, Logan Waller Page, 
director U. S. Office of Public Roads: chairman board of direr- 
tors, James S. Harlan, chairman Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission; chairman of executive committee, Leonard Tufts: 
treasurer, John Burke, treasurer of the United States. 



Syracuse Pavement Guaranty Reduced to Five Years 
An ordinance providing that the time guaranty on all pave- 
ments in the city be reduced from ten to five years has been 
passed by the city council of Syracuse, N. Y. The passing of 
the ordinance is a victory for Mayor Will, for he had been 
striving for weeks to see that it went thru. 

Alderman Davis of the Ninth Ward did his best to see that 
the ordinance was defeated. A similar ordinance was passed 
during Mayor Schoeneck's administration and Alderman Davis 



recited the words which Mayor Schoeneck used in vetoing the 
ordinance to support his position. 

Alderman Davin supported the ordinance, declaring that 
the only objection to it came from those who would restrict 
the competition in the building of pavements in the city. He 
declared that the reduction in the time guaranty would mean 
that contractors from other cities who at present were pre 
vented from taking contracts would come to the city. 

Chairman Quick of the Chamber of Commerce committee 
on paving addressed the council, saying that the best engineers 
in the country were agreed that the five-year guaranty foi 
pavements was correct and that his committee strongly recom 
mended that the ordinance be passed by the council. 



The Good Roads Year Book 

Six states, namely, Illinois, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New 
Jersey, New York and Wisconsin, now have civil service law? 
providing for appointment of highway engineers and employes 
in accordance with the merit system. A description of the 
system in effect in each of the six states appears in the Gooc 
Roads Year Book just issued by the American Highway Asso 
ciation at Washington. The summary of automobile legisla 
tion in all the states is of timely interest in view of the fad 
that nearly 1,900,000 automobiles were registered in the United 
states during 1914. for which more than $12,000,000 in license 
fees was paid. 

A majority of the states are now trying out the plan ol 
working convicts on public roads. In some states the honoi 
system prevails and guards are partially or wholly dispense 1 
with. In other states guards are deemed essential, and be 
tween the two systems much controversy rages. The Yea: 
Book, with its complete digest of convict labor laws for all th. 
states and its many references throw much light on the sub 
ject. That convict labor will go far toward solving the roa< 
problem is demonstrated by the experience of Georgia witi 
its army of nearly six thousand road convicts and Virgini: 
with about fifteen hundred. The progress reports from these 
two states appearing in the chapter devoted to highway prog 
ress show remarkable gains in mileage of improved roads. 

The American Highway Association finds the Year Bool- 
one of its most effective mediums for carrying on the cam 
paign for efficient and adequate improvement in the construe 
tion, maintenance and administration of the public roads. 



Technical Associations 

The ninth annual convention of the Illuminating Engineer- 
ing Society will be held at the New Willard Hotel, Washing 
ton, D. C September 20-23 inclusive. E. S. Marlow, of the 
Potomac Electric Power Company, Washington, D. C, is chair 
man of the convention committee. 

The "electrical prosperity week" celebration will be hel 
everywhere the first week in December under the auspices ol 
the Society for Electrical Development. 

The International Engineering Congress, to be neld at the 
San Francisco Exposition September 20 to 25, 1915, will he 
preceded on September 1G to 18 by the meetings of four ol 
the American engineering societies under whose auspices th' 
congress is held, viz: The American Society of Civil Engi 
neers, the American Institute of Mining Engineers, the Amer 
ican Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Insti 
tute of Electrical Engineers. Arrangements have been mad- 
for a special train leaving New York September 9 by the Xe^ 
York Central for passage, on which application should be 
made to G. S. Hamer, passenger agent, 121G Broadway, New 
York. 

At the sixth annual meeting of the New York State Con 
ference of Mayors and Other City Officials, to be held in Troy 



April, 19 V 



MISCELLANEOUS 



June 1, 2 and 3, a municipal exhibit will be held, consisting 
largely of implements and manufactured wares most com- 
monly used and purchased by municipalities. Motion pictures 
of municipal activities are solicited from the various cities of 
the state. C. R. Metzger, general secretary of the Troy Cham- 
ber of Commerce, is secretary of the committee having the 
matter in charge. W. P. Capes, 105 E. 22d St., New York, is 
secertary of the conference. 

S. J. Hoexter, Ann Arbor, Mich., is secretary and treasure 1 ' 
of the Michigan Engineering Society. 

The Civic League of St. Louis, Mo., has issued its thirteenth 
year book for 1914-15. The recital of its activities shows that i f 
is a power for civic betterment in .its community and the pro- 
gram for its future activities shows that it is not averse to 
attempting the solution of large problems. Its past success 
insures measurable attainment of its objects. 

At the meeting of the New York Electrical Society March 
25, T. Commerfonl Martin gave an address on "Electrical As- 
pects and Lessons of the San Francisco Exposition," with some 
consideration of the lighting of the San Diego Exposition. 

The Brooklyn Engineers' Club on March 11 listened to an 
illustrated paper by Frank W. Skinner on "Underpinning. 
Raising and Moving Structures," and on April S to M. H. Free- 
man and J. F. Sanborn, on "Grouting the Shafts, Tunnels and 
Other Structures of the Catskill Water Supply System." 

The Cement Products Exhibition Co., after its experience 
with the 1915 cement show, has secured the First Infantry 
Armory in addition to the Coliseum and its Annex for the 
1916 Chicago Cement Show. 

The National Municipal League has established an annual 
prize of $20, called the "Cincinnati Prize," to be awarded to 
the student in any department of the University of Cincin- 
nati who submits the best original essay on a subject bearing 
upon the municipal government or the civic life of the city 
of Cincinnati. The subject selected for the 1915 composition is 
"The Transportation Problem in Cincinnati." 

Charles V. Eades, with the Standard Asphalt and Rubber 
Company, will speak on "Waterproofing and Insulation" before 
the Colorado Association of Members of the Am. Soc. C. E., 
April 10. 



Civil Service Examinations 

The U. S. Civil Service Commission will hold examinations 
at the usual places as follows: 

April '20: Gas waste engineer, Bureau of Mines. Depart- 
ment of Interior, at $2,400 to $3,600 a year. 

April 28-29: Surveyor-draftsman in Forest Service, De- 
partment of Agriculture, at $1,200 to $1,500 a year; hull drafts- 
man in office of Chief of Engineers, War Department, at $1,S00 
a year. 

May 12-13: Inspector of machinery, Electric Boat Co., Gro- 
ton, Conn., at $5.04 a day. 



Technical Schools 

Horace M. Swetland, president of the United Publishers' 
Corporation, delivered a lecture on March 24 in the series on 
industrial journalism given at New York University under the 
auspices of the New York Trade Press Association. Mr. Swet- 
land has owned or now owns thru various organizations, jour- 
nals in the automobile, iron, dry goods, power, architectural, 
municipal, engineering and mining fields, and speaks with a 
large measure of authority. 

Bulletin serial No. 709 of the University of Wisconsin is on 
Public Recreation, prepared by the Extension Division, 
price $1. 

Professor W. M. Wilson, of the department of civil engi- 
neering of the University of Illinois, recently presented a 



paper before the Western Society of Engineers on "Wind 
Stresses." The new method of computing wind stresses, which 
has been developed by Professor Wilson and Mr. G. A. Maney, 
was described in this paper, and comparisons were given of 
the wind stresses in a twenty-story building as figured by 
various approximate methods and by the proposed new method. 

Bulletin, serial No. 721, of the University of Wisconsin, con- 
tains the program of the first national university extension 
conference, held at Madison, Wis., March 10-13. 

Methods and apparatus have been developed by the depart- 
ment of physics of the University of Illinois whereby the 
reflection, absorption and transmission of sound for different 
materials may be tested experimentally. A large basement 
room in the physics laboratory, with cemented walls, ceiling 
and floor, serves as a resonance chamber for the absorption 
tests, while a specially constructed resonator and organ pipe 
are used to measure the reflection and the transmission. The 
work has been developed by Dr. F. R. Watson, under whos2 
direction the correction of the acoustic properties of the uni- 
versity auditorium was so successfully carried out. This equip- 
ment is to be used in connection with a proposed course of in- 
struction in architectural acoustics. 

Professor C. R. Richards, of the department of mechanical 
engineering of the University of Illinois, has designed a 
hydraulic absorption dynamometer, several of which have been 
built in the college shops. One is to be connected to the new 
60-h.p. six-cylinder Peerless automobile engine in the mechan- 
ical engineering laboratory. 

The engineering experiment station of the University of 
Illinois is conducting tests of various building materials to 
determine their coefficients of heat transmission. The work is 
being done by L. C. Lichty, Research Fellow, under the direc- 
tion of Professor L. A. Harding of the department of mechan- 
ical engineering. The results of the tests are expected to be 
of especial value to heating and ventilating engineers. 

The Manitoba Engineer is the annual publication of the Engi- 
neering Society of the University of Manitoba, at Winnipeg. 



Personal Notes 



H. B. Pullar, recently of the H. B. Pullar Company, asphalt 
chemists, Detroit, Mich., has become the general manager of 
the new Pioneer Asphalt Company, producers of "highest 
quality asphalt products," at Lawrenceville, 111. 

W. G. Kirkpatrick has resumed practice as consulting engi- 
neer, specializing in hydraulic and municipal work, with offices 
in Birmingham, Ala. 

John H. Neef was appointed city engineer in addition to his 
duties as superintendent of streets and public Improvements 
in Hoquiam, Wash., under the city commission which took 
office December 21, 1914, thus saving one official, as Mr. Neef 
is one of the elected city commissioners. 

Walter A. McFarland, for nearly nineteen years the super- 
intendent of the water department of the District of Columbia, 
Washington, D. C. died of pneumonia on March 17. Mr M< 
Farland's high reputation as an engineer was established 
by his work in reorganizing the water department of Wash- 
ington and rearranging the. water distribution system of the 
city to tit that rapidly growing and beautiful municipality. 

Walter L. Hempelmann, for the past eight years superin- 
tendent of bituminous roadways for the street department of 
St. Louis, Mo., has resigned to take a position with John Baker, 
Jr., dealer jn asphalt and asphalt products in his Chicago 
office. 

Professor W. K. Hatt, of Purdue University, gave his lec- 
ture on "Flood Prevention in Indiana" before the faculty and 
students of the College of Engineering of the University of 
Illinois. 



April, 1915 




MACHINERY 

AND 

SUPPLIES 




Durability of Bitulithic 
Reports from Rome, X. Y.. state that, as usual, after the 
winter season, a great many repairs will have to be made to 
the city's brick and asphalt pavements as soon as the weather 
will permit. They show the effects of wear and tear from 
the action of the frost, which gets in through the many cracks 
and heaves the pavements. There is a strong object lesson 
between these kinds of pavements and bitulithic, the first mile 
of which was laid in North James street thirteen years ago. 
In spite of the very heavy traffic over that street to the plant 
of the Fort Stanwix Canning Company, the fair grounds, 
Oneida County Home and Hospital, this pavement is practically 
as good today as when laid. The brick and asphalt have been 
a source of expense, while the bitulithic has cost nothing. 
Rome has standardized on this, and nothing but bitulithic has 
been laid in the city since 1904. As Mayor H. C. Midlam said 
in his last annual message to the Common Council: "The con- 
fidence of the public in bitulithic pavement is fully justified. ' 
In the many miles of this pavement in the city there is not a 
crack. 



tribute to the expense of the ornamental lighting of the busi- 
ness sections of the city, yet it is now taking under considera- 
tion the adoption of these splendid ornamental illuminants for 
an extended "Gas White Way" in other parts of the city, and 
the citizens in general are clamoring for such an extension of 
ornamental lighting. 

In the city of Canton the Sun Street Light Company com- 
menced with about fifteen standards in front of some of the 
enterprising business blocks, and in a very short time the 
number was increased to over one hundred and is steadily in- 
creasing in the business sections. 

The accompanying photograph will give an excellent idea of 
the ornamental appearance and brilliancy of these gasolabra 
in one of the busy business sections of Canton. 



Gasolabra for Modern Ornamental Street Lighting 

"Gasolabra" is the word adopted by the manufacturers of 
the ornamental gas cluster standards which are creating so 
much favorable comment thruout the United States, and espe- 
cially in cities and towns where natural gas is delivered. 

Gasolabra are manufactured by the Sun Street Light Com- 
pany of Canton, Ohio. In the city of Canton, Ohio, so well 
known thruout the country as "McKinley's Town,'' there are 
some 150 five-way ornamental cluster standards of this gaso- 
labra type. The city itself does not contribute to this very 
beautiful and efficient ornamental lighting of its business sec- 
tions, as that expense is at present borne by the business men 
and merchants themselves. It is remarked by visitors to Can- 
ton that these gasolabra produce a great deal more efficient and 
better quality of illumination than similar types of ornamental 
standards which use electric bulbs inside the globes. 

Altho the city of Canton does not at the present time con- 



Medusa Waterproofing Paste 

To meet a growing demand and preference among archi- 
tects and cement users, for a waterproofing which can be dis- 
solved in the water to be used in mixing mortar or concrete. 
Medusa waterproofing has been perfected in paste form by the 
Sandusky Portland Cement Company, Sandusky, Ohio. 

The only difference from regular Medusa waterproofing is 
the greater ease and convenience of mixing which the paste 
form offers. In consequence of this, perfect waterproofing 
effect is more certainly obtained with the paste than with the 
powder, altho if the mixing of the powder with the cement is 
thoroly and carefully done, equally good results can be ob- 
tained with either form. 

Medusa waterproofing paste is shipped in square cans, with 
large friction seal, of 1 gallon (8 lbs.) and 5 gallons (40 lbs. i 
each, packed for shipment in substantial crates of 6 one-gal- 
lon or 2 five-gallon cans each. 

The Medusa waterproofing paste is to be dissolved in the 
water with which' concrete or mortar is to be mixed. To 
obtain easy solution, use soft and slightly warm water. Hard 
water tends to precipitate the paste in a curdy form: however, 
the addition of a slightly increased quantity of the paste 




April, 1911 



MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES 



281 



will overcome this trouble. Cold water, below 60 degrees F., 
also dissolves the paste with difficulty. 

To save time and labor in dissolving, empty the paste from 
the can into a pail or tub. add an equal volume of water, and 
stir thoroly until a smooth cream is formed: then add this 
mixture to the balance of the water to be used. 

A barrel of Portland cement requires about 20 gallons or 
water to make 1:2 mortar or 1:2:4 concrete. For best water- 
proof qualities, 1 gallon of ■waterproofing paste, or 8 lbs., should 
be used to each barrel of cement. One gallon of paste is there- 
fore to be dissolved in approximately 20 gallons of water, 
this volume of water to be varied as found necessary to give 
a soft plastic concrete which may easily be made to flow into 
all parts of the forms by slight spading, without ramming. 

A cubic yard of concrete, 1:2:4. requires 1% gallons, or 12 
lbs., of waterproofing paste, for best results. This corresponds 
to 2 per cent., of the weight of cement used, which is always 
recommended. It is, however, understood that when extreme 
resistance to water is not essential, or in the case of large 
masses of solid concrete, the amount of waterproofing paste 
may be reduced to 1% per cent., or even to 1 per cent, of the 
weight of cement used. 



The Hetherington & Berner Road Plant 

The accompanying illustration shows the new Hetherington 
& Berner road plant as it appears when established in the 
field all ready for manufacturing paving mixtures. This plant 
embodies a sand drum which has in its design and construe- 

NEW PLANT for making bituminous paving mixtures 
which can lie hauled over ordinary roads and set up anywhere 
With a minimum of labor and time. 



tion several important improvements and by means of which 
much greater capacity can be obtained than could be had 
from a drum of this size of the ordinary type. In the outfit as 
here shown the plant mechanism is in the simplest possible 
form; a trolley rail extends from the side of the storage bin 
over the melting kettles and the hot asphaltic cement is ladled 
by hand from the kettle into the asphalt bucket. For those 
who prefer to have this material handled by mechanical means 
another method is used. The overhead storage bin provided 
with this plant is sub-divided and arranged so that any kind 
of bituminous paving mixtures may be made, as well as ordi- 
nary sheet asphalt. As here shown, the dryer wagon and the 
kettle wagon are set in line with each other and sufficiently 
separated so that a driveway for carts is provided between the 
two, after the plan used in the original Hetherington two-car 
railway plants, excepting that in the case of this portable road 
plant the driveway is lowered below grade two feet. This 
plant is designed in two units, a melting-kettle unit and a 
dryer unit, in order that the weight may be divided and neither 
unit be too heavy to be practicable in getting over ordinate 



Grouting Brick Pavements 
It was long thought that the cement grout for filling the 
joints in brick pavements could be applied only by hand, but 
of late the Marsh-Capron Company have devised a machine 
which is thoroly dependable and is approved by the leading 
paving contractors and paving brick manufacturers. The 
Marsh-Capron grouter is built for service, is simple in design, 
sturdy in appearance, and of rigid, honest construction. It is 
operated by a 2-h.p. gasoline engine of approved type, which 
engine is protected by a steel house. It has extra wide-rimmed, 
strong wheels, and five points at which the weight of the ma- 




282 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



chine is distributed, insuring againsl vibration and the loosen- 
ing up of the brick from the cushion. 

The frame is constructed of steel channels, braced and rein 
forced. The drum is of boiler plate, with blades and buckets 
so arranged as to give an excellent mix. It is driven by cut 
steel gears, no chain. 

The machine stands 5 feet 6 inches high, is 51 inches wide, 
and weighs approximately 1,000 pounds. 

Particular attention is called to the chute, which is fur- 
nished at the bottom with a plate, perforated with thirty 1-inch 
holes — a convenience best realized by those who have seen the 
machine at work. 

The Marsh-Capron Manufacturing Company, 461 Old Colony 
building, Chicago, will send full particulars about it. 



A Valuable Addition to the Fire Department 
Statistics show that 80 per cent, of all the fires in the 
United States are extinguished by chemicals. The general 
adoption of a small chemical automobile machine would in- 
crease this percentage considerably, as the most essential part 
of successful fire fighting is to get at the fire at the start. The 
Dayton tri-car chemical can get to a fire sooner than a heavier 
motor driven apparatus, and very much sooner than horse- 
driven apparatus. 

The size of the machine enables the driver to drive between 
buildings, on sidewalks, thru narrow allys, as well as on 
rough country roads or streets. There is great advantage in a 
machine of this sort where colleges, insitutions or factories are 
located beyond the reach of the water works, as is often the 
case in the smaller towns. 




uniformly thru the mass. The tensile strength and consistency 
of volume of the cement are not affected. 

The weight is the same as that of water, so that the pro- 
portions for mixing can be measured either by volume or by 
weight. The proportion of Minerva to be used in the mortar 
is by weight, however, the amount required being 2V 2 per 
cent, of the weight of cement or less according to the use 
to which the mortar is to be put, for mortar or concrete. Two 
per cent is sufficient for cement stucco and one per cent for a 
cement wash. F. William Stocker, Inc., 1031 Clinton street, 
Hohokon, N. J., are the manufacturers. 



SMALL CHEMICAL FIRE ENGINE mounted on three- 
wheeled automobile, which is very convenient and valuable in 
both small and large fire departments. 



The method of driving this machine by the third or rear 
wheel is the same as that adopted by the United States gov- 
ernment in parcel post duty, and makes it possible to traverse 
rougher roads, for the reason that this wheel is between the 
regular tracks which are caused by heavy wagons or trucks 
and gives better driving power. A very important feature is 
that the controls and engine are very nearly the same as the 
motorcycle, therefore it requires no expert to run a machine 
as there are motorcycle drivers in any village or town. 

The machine can be stored in a small garage, not requiring 
the extra expense of building a special engine house. 

The accompanying photograph gives a side view of this 
valuable addition to any fire department, but especially to the 
small fire department. Indeed, it may fill the place of a fire 
department entirely in small towns with little or no water 
supply. 



Minerva Waterproofing 
Minerva waterproofing is a white paste which is mixed 
with the water used for tempering concrete, cement mortar or 
cement stucco, and is thus held in suspension and distributed 




Conveyors and Loaders for Contractors 

The little book, the cover of 
which is shown in this photograph, 
is of much interest to contractors, 
especially those handling quantities 
of stone, gravel and sand, for it 
shows a large number of installa- 
tions of conveyors from continuous 
elevators with capacity of GOO tons 
an hour down to 2 tons per hour 
and all their parts, belt carriers for 
like materials to and from bins and 
cars, sand, gravel and stone screens. 
It shows the efficient Link-Belt 
wagon loader, which is simply a 
conveyor of similar type carried on 
a three-wheel carriage. This ma- 
chine loads auto trucks fast enough 
to make it pay to use them for hauling concrete material. It 
may be fitted with two chutes so that it can discharge into 
wagon or wheelbarrow at the same time. By fitting the loader 
with rotary screen, belt conveyor and chutes it can he used at 
the same time for screening and loading with saving of tiin"- 
and expense of one operation. 

One form of the loader is constructed specially for handling 
sand. Another is self-propelled for short distances. 

The locomotive crane, a car unloader traveling on a special 
track running parallel to the train of cars to be loaded, a 
stationary car unloader to be located at a stationary paving 
plant or storage area, are also illustrated, as well as the Twen- 
tieth Century portable asphalt paving plants, which have ca- 
pacities of 500 and 800 square yards per 9-hour day. 

The Link-Belt Company will send this booklet if request is 
made for Book No. 189 of the nearest office or of the general 
office in Chicago, 111. 



Trade Publications 

The decision of the New York Supreme Court on the 
Rochester case regarding specification of patented pavements, 
which was quoted in part in the December, 1914, number of 
Municipal Engineering, has been reprinted by Warren Broth- 
ers Company, Boston, Mass., together with the brief of attor- 
neys for the defendant contractor and the corporation counsel 
of Rochester, and copies can be obtained on request by inter- 
ested parties. 

The Koehring mixer publication, winter number, has been 
issued. 

The Sun Street Light Co., Canton, Ohio, issues a handsome 
illustrated catalog of the "Sun" gasolabra for ornamental street 
lighting of various artistic designs, in which the modern high- 
candle-power gas burners give high efficiency also. 

The Philadelphia Wood Paving Block Co., 1225 Filbert St., 
Philadelphia, Pa., has issued some new circulars regarding 
the Acme non-slip wood paving block, giving full informa- 
tion about it and photographs of blocks and streets laid with 
them. 

April, ms 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 

The World's Leading Municipal Publication 



VOL. XLVIII. 



EDITORIAL 



COMPETITION There are evidently two 

OF PRIVATE sides to the case involving 

AND GOVERN- the drainage plans of Harris 

MENT ENGINEERS county, Texas, concerning 
the treatment of which there 
has been some criticism by engineers involved in the 
transactions. The U. S. Geological Survey has always 
been ready to co-operate with governmental organiza- 
tions in making surveys of areas not already covered 
by the detailed work of that office and to pay a reason- 
able share of the cost of the work, usually one-half. 
So long as the contracts for such co-operative surveys 
have been made with the states there has been no criti- 
cism of them, whether the work was done by the na- 
tional and state forces in co-operation or was done by 
either under the supervision or direction of the other, 
and the cost divided. In the present case the contract 
has been made with a county, which is a still smaller 
division than levee districts with which similar con- 
tracts have been made, but the principles of co-opera- 
tion and of expert service with maximum economy are 
the same. 

The criticisms should apparently be made of the 
county commissioners of Harris county and of the 
Houston Chamber of Commerce for lack of co-opera- 
tion, and of the former for advertising for bids for 
making a topographical map of the county before the 
negotiations with the U. S. Geological Survey had re- 
sulted in a contract. 

The county commissioners will also be criticized 
for attempting to select the engineers to make the sur- 
vey by a competition on price for doing the work. 
The range of bids from $40,000 to $190,000 is evi- 
dence of at least two things. One is that some of the 
bidders were not familiar enough with the ci st <>i such 
work to bid intelligently, some of them greatly over- 
estimating the cost and others as greatly under-esti- 
mating it. The country would suffer in either case b> 
paying- too much for the work in the one case, and, 
most probably, by lew value of the work done in the 
other, or failure of the contractor, to be followed later 
by a re-letting at a higher price, but few engineers 
having capital enough to be able to stand a heavy loss 
on an error in estimate of cost of work or of the quality 
of work required. The second thing indicated is that 
some engineers are willing to work for much less com- 
pensation than others, and their employes are paid low- 
wages, so that an award to the lowest bidder is almost 
certain to insure poor work. This is said without any 
knowledge as to who was the lowest bidder. 

This is a case in which, not having the co-operation 
of the governmental survey, it would be highly ad- 
visable that the commissioners choose the best topo- 
graphical engineer available and put him in charge of 

May, 1915 



the survey, with power to choose his own assistants and 
methods, and to hold him responsible for the results 
But it is, first and foremost, a very proper case, in 
which to solicit the co-operation of a national organiza- 
tion which has made such co-operation its business for 
many years, and has demonstrated its ability to secure 
the desired results. The engineering profession will 
be in better condition and will have better standing if 
such competitions as that for the Harris county topo- 
graphical survey are discouraged by its members. 

The employing engineer the contractor for the work, 
is the only one who can be benefited specially in any 
case, and thirteen of the bidders must have had their 
expense to carry without compensation, so that in the 
long run, the average of such special benefits may well 
be less than nothing. So far as nearly all other engi- 
neers employed on the work are concerned, their condi- 
tion is probably better under the governmental em- 
ployment than under private employment on the 
work. 



FUTURE A recent living trip, almost from the 

BUSINESS Atlantic to the Pacific, thru the central 
part of the United States, showed that 
the spirit of advance is in the air and has begun to 
demonstrate its presence by the renewal of activity 
in nearly every direction. Building is particularly 
active, and large and small buildings are being pushed 
ard as rapidly as possible in every cit) visited. 
Contracts for some of these buildings have been rushed 
with little preparation for the actual detail of the 
work, in order to take advantage of present prices, the 
tendency toward higher prices becoming daiB more 
evident, thus demonstrating the correctness of the 
arguments made several times during the winter in 
this department. 

Municipal work is becoming active, especially in the 
ties, and the prospects are for as much 
as in any past season, notwithstanding the fact thai 
there is a tendency toward a slight increase in thi 
interest rates on bi nd issues. The prospect for hi 
prices for materials in the near future does not have 
as much effect in hastening the letting of public 
tracts as it has in private work. 

A few contractors with the ability to retain th 
vantage of the present prices for materials are holding 
off until the hungrv ones are loai thai they 

can profit both ways, but most contractors are e 
for the work that is offered from day to da\ . I he daily 
bulletin set I accu 

rate barometer of the times, and it is unusually full 
and valuable at this lime. 



MUNICIPAL WATER and LIGHT PLANT 



OF KANSAS CITY, KANSAS. 

By P. W. Morgan, Kansas City, Mo. 



Kansas City, Kansas, began municipal ope- 
ration of its water plant in 1909 and of its 
electric light inn plant in 1912. The success of 
these plants has induced the city to enlarge 
the electric plant to furnish power and both 
light and water plants are enlarged from time 
to time to allow for growth of their business. 
The author gives a brief history of the plants 
with some account of their success and states 
the nature of the improvements which have 
recently been made and those which are in 
progress and in prospect. The desirability of 
continuous expert supervision of such muni- 
cipal plants may be considered exemplified by 
the retention of one firm of consulting engi- 
neers from the beginning of municipal owner- 
ship. 



FIVE years of municipal ownership and operation of 
water works have given the people of Kansas City, Kan., 
a city of 100,000 population, an abundant supply of pot- 
able water for all domestic uses, as well as for all city pur- 
poses and for factories, packing houses and railroads. Like- 
wise two years of municipal ownership and operation of an 
electrical plant, operated in conjunction with the water plant, 
have given those same people all electrical current needed for 
righting and cooking, as well as for illuminating streets, pub- 
lic buildings and business houses, and for power. And it has 
been a paying investment from the start. Every month of oper- 
ation of both water and electrical plants has shown revenues 
earned in excess of all requirements for operating, mainte- 
nance, repairs, interest on bonds and a proportional amount set 
aside as a sinking fund to retire bonds when due. 

Kansas City. Kan., is the largest city in Kansas. It has 
extensive industrial interests, but it is not a wealthy city in 



the sense of having rich citizens. It is wealthy, however, in 
the fact that its citizenship is largely made up of industrial 
workers, and a larger proportion of these people own the 
homes in which they reside than is found in any other city cf 
its population. 

The city first began municipal ownership of its public 
utilities in 1909, when the people voted $1,097,000 for the pur- 
chase of the old plant of the Metropolitan Water Company. 
The plant was inadequate for serving water to the entire city, 
having a capacity for supplying only about 8,000,000 gallons 
daily, and a very poor quality of water at that. To enlarge 
the plant and build up a thoroly modern system, $400,000 of 
bonds were voted in 1909 and $500,000 in 1910. With the pro- 
ceeds of these bonds the city, thru its water commissioners, 
built a new pumping station and equipped it with new high- 
pressure Corliss cross-compound condensing pumping engines, 
and compound condensing duplex pumps, until the capacity 
for pumping water was increased to more than 30,000.000 gal- 
lons daily. Large settling basins, constructed with reinforced 
concrete, were added to provide ample storage capacity, and 
nineteen filters, ten of wood and nine of reinforced concrete, 
provided a filtering capacity for 22,000,000 gallons daily. These 
improvements, with a new intake in the Missouri river and 
other necessary equipment, together with the extension of the 
system of mains and flow lines to reach practically every part 
of the city, gave Kansas City, Kas., a water system entirely 
adequate for its present needs and for twenty years to come. 

The remarkable success of the venture, not only in the city's 
ability to supply an abundance of water of the right quality, 
but in -its ability to make the plant pay for itself and to pay all 
expenses of operation and maintenance, appealed to the people. 
It was then demanded by them that a municipal electrical sys- 
tem be added and operated in conjunction with the water sys- 







THE MUNICIPAL WATER AND LIGHT STA- 
TION of Kansas City. Kans. Electrical plant at the 
right; water pumping plant adjacent on the left; 
settling basins at the left of the photograph. The 
filtration plant is in the background, showing over a 
corner of the settling basins. 




MUNICIPAL WATER AND LIGHT PLANT OF KANSAS CITY, KANSAS 



285 



tem. For this purpose $350,000 of bonds were voted in the 
fall of 1911. 

Altho the water works power plant and pumping station 
were on the hank of the Missouri river on the Kansas side 
four miles above the city, it was thought best to combine the 
water and electrical plants, as it would lessen the cost of oper- 
ation. The result of this arrangement during the two years 
the two have been operated together has proved conclusively 
the advisability of combining public utilities wherever possible. 

The electrical plant was first started in November, 1912, 
supplying the entire city with street lights and about 200 do- 
mestic customers. The lowering of light rates, however, and 
the good service which the plant was able to give, soon made 
the demands upon the plant greatly exceed the expectations 
of the most ardent supporters, also the demand for power 
service was such that in less than a year the plant was over- 
loaded to such an extent that the city in the summer of 1913 
voted an additional $200,000 of bonds to double the capacity 
of the plant and make needed line extensions. 

The plant was first built primarily for lighting service and 
had for the first installation one 500 and one 1000-kw., 
2,300-volt, 60-cycle, 3-phase Allis-Chalmers turbo-generator. 
With the above additional bond issue another 3,000-kw. gener- 
ator of the same make was installed and provision made for 
supplying power to private industries. 

The domestic service demands during this time had been 
such that over 4,000 customers had been taken on, and over 
1,000 h.p. in power had been served. In the summer of 1914 
it was discovered that, owing to the excellent service being 
given, and the increasing number of new industries being es- 
tablished in the city, the plant could, if enlarged, furnish 
several thousand horse power, altho the capacity of the plant 
was ample for lighting purposes for some time to come. These 
facts, together with the figures showing that the plant was 
operating at a profit, were submitted to the people, and in 
August another bond issue of $450,000 was carried by an over- 
whelming vote of 4 to 1, the proceeds of the bonds to be used 
as needed to develop the plant to its maximum capacity, lim- 
ited only by the size of the buildings. A sufficient amount of 
water works building had been turned over to the electrical 
department to increase the maximum capacity to 17,000 k. v. a. 
as required. 

In November, 1914, an additional 5,000-k. v. a. Allis-Chal- 
mers generator was purchased and will be in operation during 
the coming summer. Additional space for another 5,000-k. v. a. 
generator is provided and probably it will be added in a short 
time. 

Power is being furnished at 6. GOO volts thru step-up trans- 
formers and provision is being made for supplying 10,000 
horse power. 

As before stated, the plant was originally built for lighting, 
but, seeing the advantages of having a power plant as well, 
and the last bond issue being the largest one voted, it is in- 
tended to make the plant up-to-date in every respect, with 
duplicate service in all parts of the plant. 

In addition to the generator to be installed, contract was 
awarded to the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Com- 
pany to install a 22-panel switchboard with double bus-bars 
and electrically controlled switches and all necessary auxiliary 
apparatus to make the whole electrical installation complete 
and modern in every way. 

The boiler equipment at present for both water and light 
departments consists of five 350-h.p. Heine, one 300-h.p. B. & 
W., two 500-h.p. Bonus and two 500-h.p. Murray, a total of 
3,700 h.p. Their units are all set 6 feet above the grate and 



equipped with Jones under-feed stokers. Space for additional 
boiler capacity of 4,000 h.p. is provided by widening the boiler 
room and erecting another stack. 

The boiler room is now being equipped with overhead coal 
bunkers, with a total capacity of 350 tons, and a coal and ash 
conveyor of the overlapping pan type manufactured and in- 
stalled by the Link Belt Company. Auxiliary boiler room ap- 
paratus for the increased capacity recently purchased, to be 
installed this spring, includes 5,000-h.p. Blake heater, a turbo- 
driven centrifugal boiler-feed pump, a 6-inch Venturi meter, 
four 500-h.p. Cappus turbo blowers for auxiliary forced draft. 

The electrical plant is now selling approximately 750,000 
kw. hours per month and the records show that during the 
year 1914 the financial results of operation were as follows: 

Total income $169,175.59 

Operating expense $87,644.08 

Interest on $550,000 bonds at 4% per cent. 24,750.00 

Sinking fund, $550,000 at 4 per cent 22,000.00 

Maintenance fund, $550,000 at 2 per cent. 11,000.00 

145,394.08 



Net income $24,781.51 

The demand for power and lights is such that in two years 
time the plant will show a net income of approximately $50,000 
per year, and as the plant is entirely for the people a reduction 
in light rates will be possible after all back expense has been 
taken care of, such as interest during construction, together 
with interest and losses during the first year of operation. 

A 24-hour test run of the boiler plant made February 2 and 
3, 1915, under the direction of Prof. Shaad, of the University 
of Kansas, showed an operating efficiency of 74 per cent., with 
the load varying from 750 to 1,850 h.p. during the run. 

Under the present administration of Mayor C. W. Green, 
Mr. L. H. Chapman is Commissioner of Water and Light for 
the city and he has complete charge of the operation. E. M. 
Stevens & Co., as consulting engineers of the city, designed 
the electrical plant from the start and at present are design- 
ing and supervising the improvements. 

ENGINE ROOM of municipal electric light and 
power plant of Kansas City, Eans. Tito turbo-gener- 
ator sets are seen in operation, one of 1,000 kv.-a. ca- 
pacity and one of 500 kv.-a. capacity, in the space in 
the foreground u generator of 3,000 kv.-a. capacity was 
recently installed. 




■ I 




PRICE AND COST OF A ROAD 

By H. E. Bilger, M. Am. Soc. C. E., Road Engineer Illinois State Highway Department, 
Springfield, Illinois. 



I ii this paper presented at the recent short 
course in Highway Engineering for County 
Superintendents of Highways of Illinois at 
Springfield, the author discusses the elements 
entering into the price which must be paid for 
a road, including not only the cost, which 
seems to be considered as the cost of const tui- 
tion, but also the legal and administrative ex- 
penses, the interest on bonds, the maintenance 
uf tin mud from year to year, which make up 
the price which must be paid, not restricted to 
the first payment alone, but including the sub- 
sequent annual payments of interest and 
maintenance. The total price paid for tin 
road appears to be paid not alone by the prop- 
erty owner assessed for the first cost but to be 
shared In/ the rarious governmental organisa- 
tions and their taxpayers. 

The author takes occasion to compare the 
ultimate prices of rarious pavements and road 
materials muter his definition of price. While 
comparisons must be worked out for each ease 
and his figures mag not apply In any particu- 
lar case, his discussion is of interest and a 
study "f his methods will aid the engineer in 
making the comparisons which come into his 
practice. 



IN attempting to present some thoughts for consideration 
upon the subject, "The Price of a Road," an effort will be 
made to avoid remarks that would tend to either stimu- 
late or retard the good roads movement; but, rather, an inter- 
pretation will be made of the conditions as they actually ex- 
ist, with a view of inviting attention to proper channels of 
reasoning in contemplation of highway improvement. 

If there is needed any evidence that the reasoning process 
in connection with highway improvement matters is not al- 
ways confined within the proper channels, one need only come 
in contact with the work of some popularly elected officials 
who supposedly are directing the interests of the tax-paying 
public in financing, constructing and maintaining the rural 
highways of America. 

A full appreciation of the situation is hardly possible with- 
out having previously obtained an acquaintanceship with the 
methods employed and the results gotten by our corporations 
in the direction of their expenditures. However, there will 
exisl some contrast between the efficiency of the ex- 
penditure of private funds and that of public funds. This 
contrast is not due to its being impossible to obtain for public 
work men equally qualified with those serving in private 
work, but the difficulty is inherent in the very nature of a 
democracy, in that the method of selecting the men, and also 
their tenure of office, is not such as to promote the highest 
possible efficiency in the expenditure of public funds. 



The highway problem, however, cannot be turned over to 
a corporation for exclusive management, but it must remain 
directly in the hands of the people, and consequently be sub- 
ject to all the influences that are brought to bear by the never- 
settled public mind. Directly in proportion as the principle 
of home rule is allowed to prevail will the tax-paying public 
be obliged to submit to public highway improvement along 
more or less uneconomical lines. 

Not until one has had some years of experience with the 
rural highway problem is it possible for him to realize how 
meager, indefinite and unclassified are the data upon which 
his assumptions must be made for computations in directing 
the expenditure of capital. If the general tax-paying public 
could be brought to realize the actual facts of the case, public 
expenditures would more nearly approximate in efficiency the 
expenditures of private capital. 

The purpose of this paper is not to present any definite 
data with regard to any particular type of road, nor with re- 
gard to any particular expense of operation in connection with 
the highway problem in general. Each specific highway prob- 
lem constitutes a case of its own, and as such requires indi- 
vidual treatment. There are, moreover, certain general prin- 
ciples in harmony with which the specific treatment will be 
administered for any particular highway problem, or phase 
thereof. It is to these general principles that the following 
consideration will be confined, with the idea of attempting to 
invite the attention of the tax-paying public to the real price 
of a road. 

It will be necessary at the outset to appreciate the dis- 
tinction between the meanings of the terms, "price" and 
"cost." The cost of an article or piece of work may be de- 
fined as the sum required to produce it complete ready for 
consideration by the consumer; whereas, the price is the total 
sum given in exchange by the consumer for the complete own- 
ership and use of the article or piece of work. In reference to 
construction work, the cost is frequently spoken of as the 
actual cost, meaning the actual expense that has necessarily 
been incurred in the construction without any allowance for 
profit. Cost and actual cost in this paper are synonymous, 
and mean the actual construction expense or its substantial 
equivalent. The term price let us understand to mean the 
sum that is actually paid by the tax-paying public, without 
any regard to the items of expense or to the time of payment. 
The measure of the cost will be largely a function of the ratio 
of supply to demand of labor, material, etc., while the meas- 
ure of the price will in addition be a function of the condi- 
tion of the money market. It will be noted that with respect 
to highway improvement, the price is always greater than the 
cost, and that in general the sum of all the cost items, plus 
a certain more or less indefinite constant, equals the price — ■ 
that is, the total expense to be met by the tax-paying public 
With these definitions in mind, it will be seen that the price 
of a road is made up of the following, namely: construction 
cost, interest cost, upkeep cost and depreciation cost. The 
character of the construction cost is more or less understood 
and appreciated by the general public. The interest cost is 
not sufficiently appreciated by the public to enable the prob- 
lem to be economically worked out. It matters not whether 
the funds required for the construction are procured by long- 
term bond issues, or whether they are raised by present taxa- 
tion, the fact remains that the capital invested has an almost 
definite money-making value, and, consequently, this annual 



Way, /.'"i 



PRICE AND COST OF A ROAD 




value must be taken into consideration in determining the 
price of a road. 

The upkeep cost is the total expense necessarily incurred 
to preserve the improvement in serviceable condition until 
such time as an entire reconstruction is necessary. It will be 
seen that the upkeep cost is the sum of the costs for such 
items as strict maintenance, repairs, resurfacing and partial 
reconstruction. 

The depreciation cost is properly an item that enters to 
make up the total price of a road. While this cost is a vital 
factor in connection with the manufacturing world, the use 
of machinery, etc., yet it is very seldom considered by those 
having to do with the direction of the expenditure of capita] 
for highway improvement. Highway engineering as yet falls 
so far short for even approximating an exact science that it 
would appear almost folly to attempt to consider the depre- 
ciation cost in its contribution to make up the price of a road, 
until more progress has been made in adapting road types to 
traffic requirements, and establishing adequate and econom- 
ical systems of upkeep. We are scarcely warranted at this 
time in going so far as to consider the depreciation cost while 
we are falling so far short of economically handling the costs 
nearer home, such as costs for construction and upkeep. The 
'uncertainty of traffic requirements, even in the near future, 
is such as to demand our concentrated energy upon problems 
nearer home that at least appear to be susceptible of ultimate 
economical solution. For this purpose, therefore, it will be 
considered that the construction cost, the interest cost and the 
upkeep cost, all combined, constitute the price of a road. 

In the light of the present road situation in Illinois it will 
be interesting to consider, so far as available data will per- 
mit, the probable price to the tax-payers of our three popular 
types of road, namely, vitrified brick, Portland cement con- 
crete and water-bound macadam. During the latter half of 
the year 1914 the Illinois Highway Commission entered into 
contract for the construction of eighteen vitrified brick roads, 
aggregating 114,188 square yards, in 17.7 miles, and located 
in eleven counties. During the same time contracts were en- 
tered into also for the construction of fifty-seven Portland ce- 
ment concrete roads, aggregating 539,933 square yards, in 
seventy-five miles, and located in thirty-seven counties. From 
having awarded these contracts we are practically assured 
that if we exclude such items as rough grading, bridges and 
culverts, and the like, the brick pavement proper can be built 
at a construction price to the tax-payers of $1.90 per square 
yard, and the concrete pavement proper at a corresponding 
price of $1.20 per square yard, where the haul does not exceed 
about two miles. Excluding, for comparative purposes, the ex- 



CONCRETE ROAD near La Salle, 111., eighteen 
feet wide and on seven per cent, grade. Thi "haii 
pin" bend is nearly a half circle and the curve is re- 
ed in the background 'it the ends of the tangents, 
making the total curvature 309 degrees. This road 
was built under the supervision of the Illinois State 
Highway Department 

p< qsi s incurred for rough grading, bridges and culverts, etc., 
let us consider the approximate price to the tax-payers of the 
brick, concrete and macadam roads. For the brick road we 
have a construction cost of $1.90 per square yard. Assuming 
the issuance of twenty-year serial bonds, payable annually, 
and rating interest at 5 per cent., the interest cost on this 
$1.90 is $1.00. From the experience that various cities 
thruout Illinois have had with vitrified brick pavements, we 
are reasonably well assured that the total upkeep cost on the 
pavement proper for the first twenty-five years would not ex- 
- ei I an average of one cent per square yard per year These 
three costs give us a price to the tax-payers of $3.15 
square yard for a 4-inch vitrified brick pavement for the first 
twenty-five years. As mentioned before, the depreciation cost, 
with respect to so-called permanent highway improvement, is 
such an excessive refinement in this day as not to warrant 
much consideration, providing the construction, interest and 
upkeep costs are duly considered. 

For the concrete pavement we have a construction cost oi 
$1.20 per square yard. Computing interest as before, ■ 
an interest cost of 63 cents per square yard. In the prol 
upkeep cost for the concrete pavement is where the greatest 
uncertainty lies. One would be presumptuous, indeed, to as- 
sume that under our mixed traffic conditions tli ncreh 

pavement would endure longer than some fifteen year with- 
out economically admitting of a resurfacing. From present 
knowledge it would appear that the most practicable low tirst- 
cost resurfacing for a concrete pavement, unevenly worn, 
would be a bituminous concrete some three inches in ,i 
thickness. Considering the necessarily high qualitj ti 
surface would need to be, it. is quite likely that its ap] 
tion would incur an expense t<> the I ixpayeri of as much as 
75 cents per square yard. To meet tl pensi II 

five-year serial bonds, payable annually, and computing Inti • 
erest as before, we gel an interest cost of n cents. Hut In 
addition to this, the pavement would need what might I' 
termed strict maintenance thruout the 25 years. From our 
present knowledge of this type of construction, we are not 
warranted in estimating that this strict maintenance cost 



v.' 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




BRICK ROAD near Monmouth, III., built undei 
the supervision of the Illinois State Highway Depart- 
ment. The brick purr/unit is ten feet wide and has 
- oncri te curbs. The grout filler is being placed in the 
ound. 



& 



would be less than 2 cents per square yard per year, making 
50 cents for the 25 years. These four costs, namely, construc- 
tion cost, $1.20; interest on same, 63 cents; resurfacing cost 
with interest, 86 cents; strict mantenance cost, 50 cents, total 
up to $3.19 as the probable price to the taxpayers for the 
concrete pavement proper for the first 25 years. 

For the macadam pavement we are warranted in saying 
that under conditions similar to the foregoing, its average 
construction cost would be about 75 cents per square yard. 
On this 75 cents the interest cost would amount to 39 cents. 
It is quite probable that where macadam as a type would 
appear on the face of the situation to prove a feasible prop- 
osition, its total upkeep cost per year for the first 25 years 
would not exceed 5 cents yer square yard, making a total up- 
keep cost of $1.25. These three costs, namely, construction 
cost, 75 cents; interest cost 39 cents, and upkeep cost, $1.25, 
total up to $2.39 as the probable price to the taxpayers of a 
macadam road for the first 25 years. Summarizing we get 
the following prices per square yard to the taxpayers for the 
first 25 years: Brick, $3.15: concrete, $3.19; macadam, $2.39. 

It becomes interesting to consider this matter a step 
further. For the macadam pavement, the sum of the con- 
struction and the interest costs amounts to $1.14. Deducting 
this amount from the total price to the taxpayers of a brick 
pavement, we have $2.01 as the amount that would need to 
be spent on the macadam pavement during the first 25 years, 
in order to make the total price to the taxpayers the same 
as that for brick. Without question there are many counties 
in Illinois where the total upkeep cost on a macadam pave- 
ment for the first 25 years would considerably exceed $2.01 
per square yard, and consequently, under these conditions, 
the macadam pavement could not be considered the econom- 
ical type. There are many other counties in Illinois, more- 
over, where the conditions are such that the total upkeep ex- 
pense per square yard on the m •, ment for die first 
25 years could not reach $1.00, and, under these conditions, 
the tax-paying public will do well to look deeply into the real 
economics of the various types of construction b=fore com- 
mitting their expenditures to the so-called fool-proof types. 

Under present conditions, however, we are warranted in 
adopting types of construction that run higher in construc- 
tion cost than the foregoing mathematical consideration would 
seem to justify. One reason for this is because of the rapidly 
changing character of our traffic conditions. The service de- 
manded of our public highways is growing more sereve each 
year, so in anticipation of more exacting traffic requirements 
expenditures for highway improvement must be directed by 



considerations looking somewhat into the future. Another 
reason why we are warranted in adopting a higher type of 
construction than would seem to be justified, is that the types 
most expensive in construction cost presuppose the existence 
of a methodically handled and economically administered sys- 
tem of maintenance, which has not yet been developed in Illi- 
nois. Until such a maintenance inauguration has taken place, 
wisdom in expenditures for road improvement would seem t<3 
suggest that the types least expensive in construction cost 
should be avoided, unless their economy seems assured by at 
least a fair preponderance of evidence. 

The price of a road, moreover, cannot be measured by 
monetary considerations alone. Entering into the problem 
there are other factors to which no tangible value can be as- 
signed, yet they contribute with the monetary consideration in 
making up the price of a road. When once the will of the 
people has become favorable toward road improvement in gen- 
eral, the battle is practically won, but during the develop- 
ment of this favorable sentiment there is being paid a price 
that never appears on the finished road. 



fy 



MACADAM ROAD, twelve feet wide, with earth 
road <tt the side, near .Sheldon. III., built in 1909 un- 
der the supervision of the Illinois State Highway De- 
partment. 




Legal Peculiarities of Arkansas Improvement Districts 
Kirby's Dig., Sec. 5675, provides that in case of the con- 
struction or acquisition of water works by any improvement 
district, or districts, the city or town council, after such 
works are constructed, shall have full power to operate and 
maintain and may supply water to private consumers, making 
uniform charges for such service and applying the income to 
the payment of operating expenses. An improvement district 
which did not include the whole of the municipality acquired 
a water works. The water supply was more than sufficient 
for the needs of the improvement district, and another por- 
tion of the city organized itself into an improvement district, 
laid mains to connect with those of the first district, and pre- 
pared to purchase water. Held, That while the city which 
controlled the water works x-ould not do any act detrimental 
to the interests of the district owning the plant, it might un- 
d> r the statute sell water to consumers residing in the second 
district, that being for the benefit of the first district because 
increasing its income. 

That the supply of water might in time become insufficient 
to supply the second district is not ground for restraining the 
city at the present from supplying persons in the second dis- 
trict—Armour v. City of Ft. Smith (Ark.1 et al., 174 S. 
W., 234. 



May, mi', 



CHICAGO'S MUNICIPAL REPAIR SHOP 



By C. C. Saner, C. E., Chicago, Illinois. 



In a large city, repair shops for the various 
departments are very necessary and shops of 
considerable size have been developed in Chi- 
cago in water, fire, police and street depart- 
ments. Equipment is duplicated in these var- 
ious shops and frequently labor is lost because 
no one simp has work enough to keep one man 
busy on some special ivorlc for which a com- 
petent man must be on call. Some one has 
conceived the idea that Chicago could save 
money by concentrating all its repair work in 
a single shop, and the result is the central 
group of municipal shops described in this 
article. Probably each pumping station, fire 
or police station or garage will still have its 
bench with facilities for small repairs but 
those of any magnitude are expected to go to 
the central shop. Whether the concentration 
of the shops and probable reduction in cost of 
labor, poiver and interest and depreciation on 
duplications of original equipment under the 
old system will offset the loss of time and cost 
of transfer of apparatus, etc., to be repaired 
and of repair parts to be taken out of station- 
ary machinery and put back again, not to 
speak of delays in putting the machinery 
back at work is to be determined when the 
plant has been in operation two or three 
years. 



CHICAGO'S first pumping station, constructed in 1853, 
contained pumping equipment of 8,000,000 gallons ca- 
pacity per day. The water works system has been de- 
veloped until to-day, sixty-two years after the first station was 
constructed, there are nine pumping stations, with a capacity 
of S40,750,000 gallons per day from forty-two pumps. To fur- 
nish steam to these pumps, all but two of which are steam 
driven, requires sixty-two boilers, with a rating of 15,344 boiler 
horse power. 

The distribution system at the end of 1914 included 2,524.11 
miles of pipes of all sizes, 26,984 fire hydrants and 22.716 gate 
valves of all sizes. 



As this system grew it was necessary to establish repair 
shops to maintain the engines, boilers and buildings, also to 
manufacture and repair tools. As in any fast growing con- 
cern, the shops have been developed at different locations as 
space could be acquired. 

Parallel with the growth of the water department the fire 
and police department have grown and developed shops for 
repairing fire-fighting apparatus and police patrols, ambu- 
lances, etc. The following shops are located in separate build- 
ings thruout the city: Water works, fire, police, meter, and 
carpenter and sheet metal. These shops have been compelled 
to increase their output each year, until each is badly crowded. 
and the need of new quarters to place them in one group of 
modern buildings was taken care of by the purchase of land in 
1913 and the starting of the erection of buildings in 1914. 

The work done by the different shops is as follows: 

The water works shop repairs all machinery in pumping 
stations, manufactures all fire hydrants used in the city and 
all valves up to 12 inches in diameter. In connection with the 
present shop are a brass foundry, blacksmith shop and pattern 
shop. 

The fire department shop repairs all fire-fighting apparatus, 
including fire tugs. As the shop is located about one-half mile 
from the river, the cost of repairs on the fire tugs is high. 
This shop has an extensive carpenter and paint shop in con- 
nection with it, also a harness shop and a fire alarm telegraph 
shop. 

The police department shop repairs all patrol wagons and 
ambulances, also manufactures automobile patrols. This shop 
also contains a carpenter and paint shop. 

The meter shop tests, repairs and sets all water meters. 

The carpenter and sheet metal shop makes all repairs to 
city buildings. 

The shops are located on city property on the west fork of 
the south branch of Chicago river and a collateral channel 
connecting with the Chicago drainage canal, the latter run- 
ning along the south boundary of the property, with a railway 
right of way between. 

The machine shop, blacksmith shop and foundry, shown 



® 



EAST FRONT of Chicago's municipal foundry, 
photograph token March 20, 1915. Beyond is the 
frame o] the machine shop and at the right of the 
main building of the machine shop is the frame of 
the blacksmith shop as located at present. On the 
extreme left, outside the foundry, is the traveling 
crane, our tra< k being on the foundry unit and the 

other on the steel Innne slioirn. 




MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




WEST FRONT of Chicago's municipal rep i 
shops. The brick building is the foundry, with its 
traveling crane over the storage yard for flasks on the 
right. The frame of the machine shop is seen on the 
left. In front mil be the dock for the municipal re- 
pair plant and the industrial railway serving the dock 
and all of the buildings. 

Lfj 

under construction in accompanying photographs, are arranged 
along the west side of the lot, far enough back from the dock 
line on the collateral channel to give room for one line of the 
industrial railroad serving all the buildings. Next north of 
the machine shop will be located the garage and office build- 
ing. The warehouse shown in one photograph is near the 
southeast corner of the lot, and the carpenter, pattern and 
paint shop will be located north of it and southeast of the 
foundry. The plant is located at the intersection of the lines 
of South Sacramento and West Thirty-first streets produced. 

The buildings are so designed and arranged that extensions 
can be made easily. Two railroad connections will be made to 
facilitate handling of materials to and from the work. A con- 
crete dock is under contract for that portion of the grounds 
along the collateral channel, thus allowing the fire tugs to tie 
up for repairs within a few feet of the machine shop. A com- 
plete sewerage system for both sanitary and storm purposes 
has been installed. 

The shops have been so arranged and the industrial railroad 
so laid out as to facilitate the work and make the minimum 
amount of handling of the patterns from the pattern shop to 
the foundry and the casting from the foundry to the machine 
shop and thru the assembly rooms. A vast amount of repair 
work will come to the plant and will be placed in the machine 
shop or in the carpenter shop, as the nature of the repair re- 
quires. 

The foundry will have a capacity of twenty tons of iron 
and three thousand pounds of brass per day. Two outside 
cranes are provided, one for handling flasks in the flask stor- 
age yard and one for unloading and handling iron and scrap 
metal. Two cranes are provided in the iron foundry and one 
in the brass foundry. All the latest equipment for modern 
foundry practice is provided. The welfare of the employes is 
taken care of in ample locker rooms, provided with shower 
baths and the best toilet facilities. 

The machine shop and blacksmith shop are so constructed 
that when it is necessary to enlarge the machine shop the bay 
separating the machine shop and blacksmith shop will be filled 
in and the area between the blacksmith shop and north wing 



extended and roofed over, making a complete machine shop 
308 feet long. As planned at present, when such an extension 
is made a new building will be constructed for a blacksmith 
shop. 

The main shop of the machine shop will contain 'he heavy 
machine tools for working on large castings. All the modern 
tools in the present shops will be moved and about $25,000 
worth of new tools are now under contract. A 25-ton crane, 
with a 5-ton auxiliary hoist, will handle all heavy castings 
and machines in the main shop. The south wing, first floor, 
will contain the tools for manufacturing hydrants and valves, 
small jib cranes being provided to facilitate handling. The 
north wing, first floor, will contain the hydrant and valve as- 
sembly room and automobile and fire-fighting apparatus re- 
pair room. The second floor, south wing, will contain the 
meter shop for repairing and testing meters. The second floor 
of north wing is unassigned at present. 

A four-story reinforced concrete warehouse, in which city 
supplies and records will be stored, is nearing completion. 
Just north of the warehouse a four-story reinforced concrete 
building of the same type will be constructed. This building 
will contain the carpenter, sheet metal, pattern and paint shops 
and the pattern storage. These two buildings will be as nearly 
fire-proof as it is possible to make them. Metal sash and wire 



® 



INTERIOR OF CHICAGO'S MUNICIPAL FOUN- 
DRY, with traveling crane over the molding room for 
handling patterns, flasks and materials. 




CHICAGO'S MUNICIPAL REPAIR SHOP 



291 



glass are used thruout and sprinkler systems will be installed. 

To the north of the machine shop the administration, labo- 
ratory and garage building will be constructed. The main of- 
fices for the plant will be located in this building and 8,000 
square feet will be assigned to the testing laboratory. The 
testing laboratory tests all the coal used by the city, also lubri- 
cating oils, cements, steel and any other material entering 
into construction or that are bought on a test basis. The ga- 
rage will have a capacity of forty trucks, and will contain a 
vulcanizing plant and room and equipment for making repairs 
that do not require the machine to go to the machine shop. 

As this plant is located adjacent to the Bridewell ground?. 
and as a contagious disease hospital is being constructed on 
the eastern part of the new piece of property, it has been de- 
cided to combine the power houses of the shops and Bridewell 
and furnish heat, light and power to all the buildings from 
the one plant, using Bridewell labor for construction and to a 
great extent for operation. The details of this plant have not 
been worked out yet, but will be completed soon. 

The plant will operate as a division in city work, all de- 
partments now operating repair shops ceasing to maintain 
their shops. Requisitions will be made by all departments for 
all new work or repairs, as it is the aim to eliminate all du- 
plicated shops and have one shop under a well-organized, effi- 
cient management. 

All the work, with the exception of the dock, is being done 
by city day labor, under the direction of Mr. H. W. Clausen, 
engineer of water works construction, and Mr. W. H. Dean, 
assistant engineer in charge. The design of the buildings is 



under Mr. M. B. Reynolds, engineer of water works design. 
Mr. John Bricson is city engineer in charge of the work. 

The total estimated cost of the complete improvement, not 
including the contagious disease hospital, is $1,755,000. 



® 



MUNICIPAL WAREHOUSE , - with 

Chicago's municipal repair shop, a four-story rein 

oncrete structure for storing city supplies and 

records. 




TOLEDO SWIMMING POOL 



The swimming pool in City Park, Toledo, Ohio, shown in 
the accompanying photograph, is 180 feet by GO, and from 1 to 
4 feet deep, with two basins. A walk 12 feet wide surrounds 
the basin. The beautiful location, the building for dressing 
rooms, the fountains, are all well shown in the photograph. 

The pools were designed by F. E. Wirebaugh, engineer for 
the Board of Park Commissioners; Schillinger Brothers Com- 



pany, of Toledo, were the contractors, and Medusa waterproof- 
ing was used in walls and floors. There are similar pools in 
Navarre and Riverside parks. These pools were completed 
about five years ago and are in excellent condition, no leaks 
havins loped are indebted to the Sandusky Portland 

Cement Company for the photograph. 




May, 1915 



WOOD FIBER AND ASPHALT 
AS PAVING MATERIALS 



STAFF ARTICLE 



Wood block lias an enviable reputation for 
durability and noiselessness in pavements. 
Asphalt long ago demonstrated its value as a 
paving material. The pavement described in 
this article is more nearly noiseless than wood 
block and is less slippery than asphalt. A 
combination of tiro excellent paring mater- 
ials, it may, like other "Burbanked" prod- 
ucts, combine the good qualities of both and 
leave out the less satisfactory qualities of 
both. This is the first reed pavement laid with 
it and it is believed to be of enough general in- 
terest to warrant this description of the pro- 
cess. 



THE city of Charleston, W. Va., is a pioneer in the intro- 
duction of paving materials. It is stated definitely that 
the first bit of brick paving laid in this country was a 
few square yards laid by a merchant in Charleston before his 
store, in 1870, which proved so successful that it was extended 
in 1873 over a considerable length of street. Part of this pave- 
ment, including the original bit, was taken up and relaid with 
bitulithic about 1910, and the remainder has just been torn up 
to be relaid with bitulithic this year. It was laid on tarred 
boards, surrounded with a sand cushion, a foundation which 
proved remarkably durable, as the boards are still in fair con- 
dition after more than forty years in the ground. 

The city has just laid the first pavement of a new design 
and composition of materials which was first tested on a short 
but heavily traveled section of street in Memphis, Tenn., thru 
three winters and two summers, and on some small areas of 
street repairs thru a summer and winter. 

Morris street, on which the new pavement is laid, is one 



over which the traffic to and from freight depots passes on its 
way down town, and over which, at the present time, there is 
a large amount of hauling of materials for street, sidewalk and 
sewer construction, of which the city is doing a large amount 
this year. The pavement is 605 feet long, with a residence 
street entering it from one side near the middle of its length 
and at the top of the grade, which slopes down in either direc- 
tion, the maximum gradient being 1.38 per cent, down in the 
direction of the heaviest traffic. 

The pavement is 27 feet wide and is laid between combined 
curbs and gutters of concrete, the gutters being IS inches wide 
and the curbs 1G inches thick. It is laid on a 5-inch concrete 
foundation, part of it of broken stone being rather irregular 
in its surface, but most of it of gravel, with uniform surface 
with some roughness. The crown of the street is quite high, 
especially for the gradients of 1.38 per cent, in one direction 
from the center, and 0.5 per cent, and less in the other, the 
crown and the gradient both insuring rapid removal of water 
from the pavement. While the traffic test of the pavement will 
be rather severe, the other conditions are favorable. 

The pavement itself is composed of wood fiber of proper 
size, mixed with asphalt and a proportion of stone dust or 
other mineral matter, heated and mixed in a Hetherington & 
Berner road plant of a new design, and laid and rolled in place 
in a single layer. Most of the pavement is laid with Trinidad 
asphalt, but a small area in the center contains a mixture of 
Trinidad with Aztec. The plant for laying the pavement is an 
important factor in securing the desired product. 

rt] 

ROAD PLANT for laying bituminous pavements in 
operation, laying fibered asphalt pavement in Charles- 
ton. IF. Va. Dryer is fitted for icood fiber. Asphalt 
melting tank is in position to serve by weighing 
bucket the mixer seen under the hopper for weighing 
fiber into the mixer. Screen in top housing rejected 
the fiber too large for use seen in the pile beside llr 
machine. 




WOOD FIBRE AND ASPHALT AS PAVING MATERIALS 



293 




One of the accompanying photographs gives a view of the 
plant in operation. A traction engine pulled it into place on 
the street entering the street to be paved near its middle point, 
so that it was located conveniently for delivery of the ma- 
terial to the street in hand carts. This engine is shown op- 
erating the plant machinery. Immediately to the loft of the 
plant is a pile of bags of the dried fiber, the bags being emptied 
into the box in which a man is sitting, feeding the fiber to 
the elevator, a series of buckets on an inclined belt, of which 
only the lower end is seen. This elevator discharges into the 
dryer in which the fiber is heated, in such manner as not to 
come in contact with flame or hot gases. A vertical elevator, 
the top of which is seen at the top of the machine, discharges 
the fiber into a screen, which is readily set to reject any size 
desired. This screen discharges into a bin, the rejected large 
particles dropping thru the tube shown into a pile on the 
street. 

The asphalt is melted in the kettle on the right and may 
be aided by another kettle, the end of which is seen on the 
extreme right. Fiber is dropped into the hopper above the 
mixer to a definite weight, a weighed quantity of stone dust 
is thrown into the mixer with the fiber and a weighed quantity 
of hot asphalt. After sufficient mixing to insure thorough coat- 

NEWLY-LAID fibered asphalt pavement. At the 
right next the gutter shows a strip of the original 
mixture after receiving its first rolling. Next to the 
left is an irregular strip to which the squeegee coat 
has been applied. The whole of the remainder of the 
street to the left is covered with stone screenings 
ready for final full rolling. 



LAYING AND ROLLING fibered asphalt pavi 

on concrete base. 

ing of the particles of the aggregate, the mixture is discharged 
into the cart below and carried to the street. 

A second photograph shows a cart which has just dumped 
its load, which is being raked into place and immediately com- 
pressed under a heavy roller. The possibilities of rolling with- 
out supporting planks at the edge of the layer, and of produc- 
ing a smooth, even surface, are clearly seen in the photograph. 

The completed pavement is very resilient and is practically 
noiseless, a very dull thud from the beat of the horse's hoofs 
being the only sound. 

There are many special points of advantage in both ma- 
chine and pavement which have not yet been made public, but 
the results of their operation are apparent, and indicate a suc- 
ccssIl.1 pavement as to durability, cleanliness, noiselessness. 
absence of slipperiness, smoothness and sanitary qualities. 

We are indebted to F. A. Hetherington, of Hetherington & 
Berner, Indianapolis, Ind., for information concerning the pav- 
ing plant, which is applicable to other asphalt and asphalt 
macadam paving, and to the Wood Fiber Asphalt Company, 
of Charleston, W. Va., for courtesies in giving opportunity to 
observe the construction of the pavement, and to the Central 
Engineering Company, of Charleston, for photographs of the 
paving plant and the street. The latter company are the con- 
tractors laying the pavement. 

FINISHED FIBERED ASPHALT pavement ready 

for traffic. 





Making Ice with Purchased Electric Power 

By Charles A. Tripp, Consulting Engineer, Indianapolis, Ind. 



The possibilities of the manufacture of. ice 
using commercial electric power are demon- 
strated by the plant described in this article, 
which is abstracted from a paper before the 
Indiana Engineering Society. If so much' of a 
success can be attained by purchasing elec- 
tricity at the price obtainable if it is used 
when the load on the generating station is 
light, it would seem that electric light stations 
which arc sufficient in capacity to cany their 
peak loads could engage in the ice business 
with profit. Some are doing so. Some recent 
decisions have thrown doubt on the legality of 
municipal plants engaging in the ice business 
in some states, Init economy, reduction in cost 
of electricity and consequent reduction in 
rales, sanitation, especially in southern small 
eilies where ice is much desired and much 
needed but is unattainable at reasonable 
prices, are all arguments in favor of legisla- 
tive action, where it is needed, which will nice 
such cities the poiver which their cousins un- 
der private ownership already hare. This 
article is of interest, therefore to many opera- 
tors of municipal plants as well as to opera- 
tors and owners of private electric light 
plants. 



THE use of electricity in the manufacture of ice is one of 
the varied uses of central station power, which, under 
recent developments, offers great possibilities for both 
the public service company and the ice manufacturer. 

From the standpoint of the central station the load is ideal. 
It is not only "off peak," in the sense that no power need be 
used between the hours of 4 and 6:30 from November to Feb- 
ruary, but the yearly load curve corresponds closely with the 
average central station curve, with the peak in July instead 
of December. This is shown by the accompanying liagram, 
which shows a typical central station ' i an1 a typical 



ice plant load curve. If the ice plant load is made such that 
when added to the typical central station load it produces a 
peak in July equal to the peak in December the "combined" 
curve is obtained — a load curve of which any central station 
manager could well be proud. 

While this ideal balance is doubtless unattainable, never- 
theless any load of this character is one which should be 
warmly welcomed by the public service company. 

Until within the past few years electric power labored under 
a serious handicap in this field, on account of the fact that 
distilled water was required, calling for a boiler plant, and 
steam. The development of the raw water system, or the man- 
ufacture of clear ice from undistilled water, has removed this 
handicap, and given electric power an opportunity to 
into its own in this industry. 

The plant of the Irvington Ice Company is operated entirely 
by central station power. The buildings are of brick with 
steel sash and doors, concrete floors and reinforced concrete 
roofs. The office is located in the first story of the tower. 
The ceiling is a waterproofed concrete slab with drain open- 
ings above. The tower above the office contains the water 
tanks. The ice storage rooms are insulated with cork board 
and finished with cement plaster. The fact that the insurance 
rate on this building is 10.8 cents is a testimonial as to its 
fireproof character. No insurance is carried by the owners. 

A plant of this character may be divided into three sec- 
tions: (1) Ammonia Compression and Condensing: (2) Freez- 
ing and Storage: (3) Water Supply. 

The compri ssion and condensing equipment consists of two 
11'- by 15-inch two-cylinder single-acting vertical compressors, 
each driven by a 50-h.p. motor. One of these motors is of 
the standard squirrel cage type for constant speed operation, 
and the other of the slip ring type, with controller for varia- 
ble speed. Both of these motors are equipped with auto- 
starters, with no-voltage and overload release. This arrange- 
ment makes the starting and stopping of the slip ring motor 
independent of the speed control. The speed controller and 
resistance is located at the left of the switchboard. 

The condensers, as shown in Fig. 2, are placed directly be- 
hind the compressors. These consist of two S-pipe sections 
of the Shipley double pipe type. The cooling water passing 
thru these condensers is controlled by Sylphon automatic 
valves. These are standard hot water tank regulators, except 
that the valves are reversed so that a rise of temperature 
causes them to open intsead of close. The thermostatic bulb 
is placed in the water discharge pipe. The volume of water 




DIAGRAM showing typical load 
curves for a central lighting station 
'/nil a i ice plant lor tin- year. The 
daily operation of the ice plant can be 
so timed, and usually is so timed from 
the fact that it is operated mainly 
during the daylight hours, that the 
curve marked "combined," which is 
the load curve of a typical electric 
/ '/// uml ice plant for the year, can 
be approximated very closely at all 
hours. This means reduced charges 
for interest and depreciation on ma- 
chinery required only for the few 
hours of excessive load usual in small 
lighting plants. 

Man. Ml:, 



MAKING ICE WITH PURCHASED ELECTRIC POWER 



295 




COMPRESSING AND CONDENSING machinery 

for ammonia. Two motors in foreground of different 
design to suit requirements m-ade of them. Compres- 
sors and condensers in rear against the wall at the 
left. 



& 



flowing thru the condenser is thus so regulated that it leaves 
at a constant temperature. This not only produces a very 
great saving of water, but also maintains a constant head pres- 
sure without regard to the load on the compressors or changes 
in temperature or pressure of the water supply. 

The ammonia receiving tank is placed directly below the 
condensers, thus occupying no additional floor space. 

Freezing and Storage. — The freezing tank is 41 feet 3 inches 
long, 27 feet 3 inches wide and 03 inches high. The expansion 
coils consist of 8,500 feet of IVi-inch pipe, fitted with accumu- 
lator, and are operated flooded — that is, the liquid ammonia 
is admitted to the bottom pipe of each coil, so that the coils 
are always partially filled with liquid. The cold gas, and any 
unevaporated ammonia leaving the coils, enters the accumu- 
lator, where it surrounds a pipe coil carrying the liquid am- 
monia to the expansion coils, and cools it. 

The tank is divided into three sections by bulkheads, and 
equipped with two vertical agitators. Each of these is direct 
connected to a 5-h.p. motor. 

Fig. 3 is a view showing the tank room, accumulator and 
agitators. The ironclad starting switches for both agitators 
are seen on the wall at the left and also the switch for the 
circuit supplying the crane trolley wires. 

The tank contains 374 four-hundred pound cans, fitted for 
the manufacture of raw water ice — that is, of ice from undis- 
tilled water. The treatment of the water up to the point where 
it enters the cans will be described later in connection with 
the water supply. 

The only difference between the manufacture of ice from 
distilled and undistilled, or, as it is commonly called, raw 
water, is that the latter contains air and small amounts of 
solid mater in the form of salts, such as the sulphates and 
carbonates of lime and magnesia, which must be removed in 
order to produce clear ice. The air is removed by agitating 
the water while it is freezing. The solid matter is expelled 
from the water as it freezes, until a core of highly saturated 
water is left at the center of the cake. This core water is re- 
moved and the space refilled with fresh water, before the cake 
is finally frozen solid. 

The cans are filled with standard automatic can-fillers, the 
water being cooled to about 40 degrees in a cooling tank before 
it comes to the fillers. 

In this plant the agitation for removing the air is pro- 



duced by compressed air. A Connersville bio di ect geared 
to a 5-h.p. motor furnishes the air supply. The air is used 
at a pressure of 2% pounds. The motor shows a load of about 
4 h.p. The air from the blower passes thru a pipe coil in the 
cold water tank, which will be described later. This coil 
cools the air and condenses out a large part of the moisture. 
From the cooling coils it passes to headers, placed along each 
side of the tank and then thru lateral pipes placed between 
each two rows of cans. From these laterals rubber hose con- 
nections are used to the drop pipes in the cans. The air bub- 
bling up thru the water produces sufficient agitation to free the 
minute particles of air, which are expelled from the water bj 
the freezing and which tend to collect on the surface of the 
ice. If these particles are allowed to remain they are frozen 
into the ice and produce a white cake. 

The air agitation is continued until the cake is frozen 
except for a space about two inches wide thru the center. The 
air pipe is then removed. The water which is left in this 
space, called the core, contains all the solid matter which was 
contained in all the water in the can. This water is removed, 
the core is refilled with fresh water, and then the cake is left 
to freeze solid without agitation. 

The pump for withdrawing the water from the core is a 
double acting horizontal vacuum pump direct geared to a 
1-h.p. motor. On the wall directly behind the pump is the 
automatic vacuum controller. The suction of the pump is 
connected to a tank located in the pump room. The automatic 
controller is connected to this tank and starts and stops the 
motor as is necessary to maintain a vacuum of 10 inches in 
the tank. From this tank a pipe runs to the core suction head. 
The vacuum in the tank is thus available at all times to with- 
draw the core water, as the suction line valve is opened. 

This tank was designed for freezing in 00 hours, requiring 
a brine temperature of 17 degrees. 

After the ice is frozen, the cans are pulled from the tank 
by an electric hoist mounted on a traveling crane and placed 



TI 



FREEZING TANK ROOM of electric ice plant. 
Cans in which the ice is frozen are seen in the lower 
left-hand rorner. When in use they are under the 
covers in the floor, of which purls of three rows are 
seen in the foreground. The blower, the small elet 
trically driven pump at the left, near the door, and 
the automatic vacuum controller on the wall behind 
it are useii tor iHiitatinii the water in the tanks to re- 
move air, and to remove tin water from the cori o) 
each ><■< • ake, as described in the text. 




MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



in the "thawing dumps." Water which has heen warmed by 
passing thru the ammonia condenser is piped to these dumps, 
where it is sprayed on the outside of the cans until the cake 
is thawed loose. The cake then slides from the cans and enters 
the daily storage room thru automatic doors which are opened 
by the weight of the ice cake. Ice which is to be delivered 
during the day remains in this room, which is kept below 
freezing by ammonia expansion coils placed about the walls. 
Any excess of ice manufactured over that required for the day 
is taken into the main storage room, which has a capacity 
of 225 tons, and is kept at a temperature of about 2S degrees. 
Water Supply. — The water supply for this plant is obtained 
from a ij-inch well. SOS feet deep — about 200 feet of this being 
in rock. The temperature is practically constant summer and 
winter, at 53 degrees. The pump on this well has a capacity 
of 110 gallons per minute, and is driven by a 5-h.p. motor. 
The discharge line is connected to a 10,000-gallon tank located 
in the top of the tower. A float switch in this tank stops and 
starts the pump motor thru a main line solenoid switch. 
shown on the wall. 

The water, as it comes from the well, is used for the am- 
monia condensers, compressor jackets and general purposes. 
All water used for making ice is softened and filtered thru 
sand. Two water-treating tanks are used alternately, treated 
water for the filter being drawn from one while treatment and 
settling are taking place in the other. 

Each tank is fitted with a float switch connected thru a 
three-point snap switch with the solenoid valve, so that this 
valve can he controlled by either one or the other of the float 
switches. After water has been admitted to one of the tanks 
by opening a hand valve and turning a switch, so that the 
solenoid valve is controlled by the float switch of the same 
tank, no further attention need be paid to the filling, as. when 
the water has reached the proper height, it is automatically 
shut off by the action of the float switch and the solenoid valve 
The tanks are also fitted with agitating paddles and only 
one agitator can be operated at a time. The motor is con- 
trolled by a time switch which is arranged to open thirty 
minutes from the time it is closed. As soon as water is ad- 
mitted to a tank the clutch lever is thrown to connect the 
agitator of this tank to the motor, and the motor started. 
After operating thirty minutes it is automatically stopped. 

The proper quantity of lime and soda ash for treating a 
tank of water are mixed in a tank and pumped into the treat- 
ing tank. This tank then requires no further attention until 
it is desired to use the treated water from it. which, in the 
ordinary operation of the plant, is twelve hours. 

During this time treated water is being drawn from the 
other tank thru a floating pipe arranged so that water is 
always drawn from near the surface. 

The filter is a galvanized iron tank with a layer of 3-inch 
drain tile in the bottom. This tile supports a perforated 
plate, on top of which is a total of 30 inches of gravel and 
sand. A discharge pipe from the bottom of the tank enters 
the treated water cister thru a float valve, which closes when- 
ever the cister is full, so that the operation of the filter is en- 
tirely automatic. The distributing trough has a sewer con- 
nection, and a pressure connection is made to the bottom [if 
the filter so that water may be forced upward thru the sand 
for cleaning, the overflow into the distributing trough going 
to the sewer. 

A float sw itch is placed on top of the filter, and connected 
to a red light in the compressor room. Whenever the tank' 
from which the water is being drawn is empty, so that the 
water level falls to the sand in the filter, this switch closes 
and lights the red lamp, as a signal to change over to the other 
tank. 

The treated water is taken from the cistern by a pump 



and discharged to a cooling tank located above the daily stor- 
age room. This pump is fitted with double suction and dis- 
charge connections and is used both for this service and for 
pumping the treating solution, the latter service only requir- 
ing five minutes every twelve hours. This pump is a 3 3 4 by 5 
horizontal type, geared to a 1-h.p. motor. It is controlled by- 
two float switches and a double-throw hand switch. 

The cooling tank is 12 by 5 by 5% feet. It contains an 
ammonia expansion coil for cooling the water to about 40 
degrees. 

All of the lighting in the plant is by tungsten lamps placed 
close- to the ceiling without drop cords. The compressor room 
was figured on a basis of 2%-foot candles and the illumination 
is entirely adequate without the use of any drop lights about 
the machine's. 

The importance of "uniform" illumination in contrast with 
the too common "bright spots" illumination in a plant oper- 
ating 24 hours per day can hardly be overstated. It not only- 
means comfort to the operators, but better care of the machin- 
ery and more output. 

As this plant was not completed until the middle of last 
August, there has been very little opportunity for full load 
operation. However, from the data obtained for the short 
time that it was operated at approximately full load, it is 
evident that this plant will produce a ton of ice. including 
the pumping of all water, the operation of all auxiliaries and 
the refrigeration of both storage rooms on less than 40 kw. 
hours. 



Terms of California Water Works Franchises 

Under Const.. Art. 11. Sec. 19, providing that in any city 
having no public works to supply water, any individual or 
company shall have the privilege of using the streets for lay- 
ing conduits as necessary to supply the city and its inhabit- 
ants with water for domestic and all other purposes, on con- 
dition that the city shall have the right to regulate the 
charges thereof, a franchise, granting the right to an individ- 
ual who was the highest bidder to use the streets of a city 
for the distribution of water to its inhabitants on condition 
that he and his assigns pay to the city ''<. per cent, of the 
gross earnings arising therefrom, as authorized by St. 1S97. 
p. 135, was unconstitutional in so far as it provided for such 
payment, and therefore unenforceable, though it also provided 
that it should not be construed as granting an exclusive fran- 
chise. Neither the municipality nor the legislature could 
grant an exclusive franchise for that purpose. — Town of St. 
Helena I Can v. Ewer et al.. 146 Pac. 191. 



Private Claims to New York City's Water Supply 
Sources Groundless 

The groundlessness of the claim that the provisions of N. 
Y. Laws 1S95. Chap. 9S5. empowering a water company to ac- 
quire title to land and water for its corporate purposes in the 
manner specified by the general railroad act (Laws 1S50. 
Chap. 140), gave such company, as the result of filing a map 
without notice to landowners or other preliminaries, a vested 
right to exclude the rest of the world from a drainage area or 
watershed covering a thousand square miles, is so obvious as 
to require the dismissal for lack of jurisdiction of a suit in a 
Federal District Court to enjoin municipal interference with 
such alleged right on the ground that due process of law is 
denied and contract obligations impaired by the laws under 
which the municipality is acting. — Ramapo Water Co. v. City 
of New York et al.. 35 Sup. Ct.. 442. 



The New Water Filtration Plant at Quincy, 111. 



By W. R. Gelstoo, Superintendent, Quincy, Illinois. 



The author describes in this paper, which 
was read before the Illinois Section of the 
American Water Works Association, the new 
reinforced concrete plant for treating Missis- 
sippi River water for use by the citizens of 
Quincy. It is a modern water-purification 
plant in every sense and replaces one of the 
oldest mechanical filter plants in the country, 
which was installed in 1891 and operated until 
September 1, 1914, when the new plant went 
into operation. It is a good model for the 
smaller cities which obtain water from sur- 
face sources requiring sedimentation and fil- 
tration. 



ON the first day of September, 1914, one of the oldest 
mechanical filter plants In the United States was aban- 
doned and a complete modern purification system was 
placed in operation at Quincy, 111., to take its place. 

The old plant was built about the year 1891 under the O. 
H. Jewell patents and consisted of a stone masonry sedimenta- 
tion basin 70 feet by 70 feet in area and 9 feet deep and 14 
wooden tank filters 12 feet in diameter. There was also a 
small clear well under the filter tanks. This plant provided a 
sedimentation period of about one hour and the capacity of 
the filters was about 4,000,000 gallons per day under the usual 
rating for mechanical filters. 

The new plant is of reinforced concrete with brick super- 
structure, steel doors and windows, and it is absolutely fire- 
proof. Three thousand cubic yards of solid rock were exca- 
vated to prepare the site for the foundation and the entire 
plant rests upon solid rock. The east wall is also backed up 
by a solid limestone ledge which rises from 12 to 15 feet above 
the basin floors. 

The concrete structure is 172 feet by 89 feet and the high- 
est concrete walls rise 25 feet above the footings. Of the total 
area, the six 1,000,000-gallon filter units, with the pipe gal- 
lery, cover 40 feet by 89 feet at the north end. Adjoining the 
filters on the south, a space 12 feet by S9 feet is used for the 
main entrance and stairways leading down to the pipe gal- 
lery and up to the operating floor, and for the steam heating 
plant and coal bin. Then a space 24 feet by 89 feet is occu- 
pied by the forebays and mixing chambers. The remaining 
area, 96 feet by 89 feet, is used for sedimentation purposes. 

Two complete coagulating, mixing and sedimentation units 
are provided and connected in such a manner that they can 
be operated in parallel, in series, or either unit may be oper- 
ated alone. They are of unequal capacity. The No. 1 unit 
provides for two-thirds of the total capacity and the No. 2 unit 
one-third. 

Our short experience with this plant leads us to believe that 
the best results can be obtained by the series method of oper- 
ating. The plant is therefore being operated as follows: 

The low service pumps discharge into an open forebay 
where the water is treated with the first dose of sulphate of 
alumina. It then travels about 400 feet over and under the 
concrete baffles in the mixing chambers and finally passes 
thru sluice gates into sedimentation basin No. 2. This basin 



is 27 feet by 94 feet by 20 feet in depth and is provided with 
a vertical concrete baffle which extends nearly the entire 
length of the basin on the center line. When the plant is 
operating at a 6,000,000-gallon rate this basin provides a travel 
of about 175 feet and a period of one and one-half hours for 
sedimentation. From the outlet side of this basin the water 
is drawn from the surface, over a weir, thru a large sluice 
gate, and passes thru a concrete flume to the second forebay, 
where it receives its second dose of alum, as it begins its 
tortuous passage thru the mixing chambers connected with 
basin No. 1. This basin is 55 feet by 94 feet by 20 feet deep 
with one vertical concrete baffle on the center line around 
which the water must pass. The sedimentation period in this 
basin is about three hours, making the total for both basins 
four and one-half hours. The water passes from the outlet 
side of this basin to the filters. 

Steel storage tanks for coagulating solutions are provided 
in duplicate for the alum and lime. A small electric motor is 
used to stir the solutions constantly to keep them of uniform 
strength. 

The coagulant feed is accomplished by means of constant- 
head orifice boxes, the solution flowing by gravity from the 
orifice boxes to the forebays. 

A complete hypochlorite sterilizing plant is also installed in 
duplicate. This solution flows by gravity and it is introduced 
into the filtered water as it passes thru a 24-inch pipe line on 
its way to the high-service pumps. 

The six filters are grouped three on each side of the pipe 
gallery. They have a sand area 12 feet by 32 feet and they are 
10 feet deep. The regulation New York Continental Jewell 
Filtration Company strainer system, as designed for the com- 
bined air and water wash, is used. The strainers are covered 
to a depth of one foot with graded gravel and the sand has a 
depth of 30 inches. Ottawa sand of .38 of a millimeter effec- 
tive size is used. Two steel wash-water troughs run the entire 
length of the filters and provide a very uniform flow of water 
from the entire sand area during the washing process. 

The filters are equipped with loss of head gages, hydraulic- 
operated valves and the simplex Venturi tube type of rate 
controllers. The space under the filter beds is used for storage 
of filtered water. The two basins, 32 feet by 38 feet each in 
area and holding a depth of water of 9 feet, provide storage 
capacity for 160,000 gallons. Since water for filter washing is 
taken from the clear wells the capacity is rather small and it 
would be entirely inadequate if direct pressure were main- 
tained. Duplicate motor-driven centrifugal pumps and one 
motor-driven blower comprise the necessary mechanical equip- 
ment for filter washing. 

The brick superstructure is of handsome design. A buff- 
colored St. Louis hydraulic pressed brick with a dark red brick 
for quoins and Bedford stone trim comprise an exterior of 
pleasing as well as substantial appearance. 

The head house, which is 62 feet by 89 feet and two stories 
in height, is located over the forebays, mixing chambers, and 
a part of the sedimentation basins. The second floor is of re- 
inforced concrete supported by concrete columns and beams. 
This floor provides ample space for the storage and mixing of 
coagulants. The tops of the solution tanks extend 3 feet 
above the second floor and they rest upon concrete platforms 
which stand 5 feet above the lower floor. Numerous manhole 
frames and covers, set in the floor, provide access for cleaning 
and opportunity for study of the effect of the coagulants on 
the water as it passes thru the mixing chambers. Large rect- 



May. I9ir, 



298 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



angular openings over the inlet and outlet of the sedimentation 
basins also provide convenient points for sampling and observa- 
tion of the operating results. 

A well-equipped water-works laboratory is also located on 
this floor. It consists of four connecting rooms having a total 
floor area of G25 square feet, with well-lighted work benches 
and sinks, and all of the apparatus and utensils necessary for 
the preparation of media and for the bacterial and microscopic 
examination of water. 

The filters are covered by a one-story brick superstructure 
which rests upon the outside walls of the filters, leaving the 
entire area of the filter beds open for inspection. This room 
is well lighted by means of a monitor roof over the operating 
floor in addition to the windows in the side walls. 



The original designs for this plant were prepared by 
Messrs. D. W. Mead and C. V. Seastone, consulting engineers, 
of Madison, Wis. The contract for the construction of the 
plant was awarded to the New York Continental Jewell Fil- 
tration Company, and this company sub-let the building con- 
struction to the Coddington Engineering Company, of Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Mr. Carl Francis was resident engineer for the 
filter company during the construction period, and Mr. Gilbert 
H. Pratt was in charge of its operation during the official 
efficiency test which was conducted by Mr. W. F. Langelier of 
our State Water Survey. Valuable assistance was also ren- 
dered by Dr. Bartow and Mr. Paul Hansen, in the preparation 
of the plans and the final award of the contract. 



ADVERTISING A CITY BY MOVING PICTURES 



By Albert Marple, Tropico, Cal. 



THERE are many cities in this country which have estab- 
lished municipal utilities and departments of various 
kinds, but it remained for Redlands, Cal., to adopt a 
motion picture department as a regular feature of the city. 
This motion picture department was originally organized and 
is now being maintained for the specific purpose of advertis- 
ing that city. 

Something like a year ago there was a certain road sev- 
eral hundred yards in length, lying a mile or so north of Red- 
lands, that was in very poor condition. It was a road that 
was used by most of the business men of the city, and for 
that reason all of the merchants were affected by its poor 
shape. A day was set for a general clean-up and repair of 
that particular branch of road, and on the morning of that 
day practically every business man of Redlands was on hand 
with his pick and shovel, and in the single day the roadway 
was repaired. Prior to that day the members of the Chamber 
of Commerce of that city thought it would be a good plan to 
have a motion picture machine on hand to catch these mer- 
chants at work, and, simply as an advertising "stunt," to send 
the pictures around the country. This was done, the pictures 
were taken, the films first being shown in Redlands, then 
sent to other cities and towns along the Pacific coast. 

Well, the advertising received from that string of pictures, 
which constituted a complete reel, was so widespread and val- 
uable that the Chamber of Commerce decided to make this 
motion picture department a permanent feature of its work. 
There are no particular things about the city that are espe- 
cially photographed. Many of the various industries of that 
in have been taken. For instance, the orange industry, 
which is the largest business of that section, has been photo- 
graphed from start to finish. From the planting of the or- 
ange trees, picking, etc., to the packing and shipping of the 
fruit — everything has been shown, several reels, each consist- 
ing of about 1,000 feet, being required for this work. Then 
there are the special gala days that are held in the city, street 
dances, etc. As these things occur they are photographed, im- 
mediately finished and sent around the circuits. 

The outfit necessary for the equipment of a department of 
this nature is not so very expensive. The motion picture ma- 
chine owned by this city, the developing and finishing outfit. 
etc., cost something like $325 Redlands is fortunate in hav- 
ing one of their home men do their photographing for them. 
This man is an expert with the motion picture machine, and, 
in fact, knows the "movie" game from start to finish. Every 
reel of film that is taken by this "home talent" man costs the 



Chamber of Commerce about $150, while it is estimated that 
if an outside camera man were employed the expense would 
be between $500 and $600 per reel. At present the Chamber 
of Commerce pays for only the actual cost of the film, finish- 
ing, etc. The operator donates his time, or, rather, gives his 
time in exchange for the use of the camera at any time that 
it is not being used on some of the work of the municipality. 
It is safe to say that under ordinary circumstances a reel of 
pictures would cost the ordinary city, should they find a home 
man that could do the work, in the neighborhood of $250. 
Redlands is located close to the motion picture centers and 
everything is handy. 

Now, as to the method of exhibiting these films. Immedi- 
ately after being finished the pictures are shown in the local 
theaters. After this has taken place they are sent to the 
headquarters of the nearest motion picture circuit, and for 
weeks, sometimes months, they go from one motion picture 
house to another in that circuit, or until all of the houses 
have exhibited the pictures. After this circuit has been 
"worked" the outside circuits are given the opportunity of 
handling the pictures. A feature of this business is that the 
pictures are loaned to the various theaters without any ex- 
pense to the managements of the various play houses, and it 
might be said that these managers are more than willing to 
run the films, for in many instances they take the place of a 
string of pictures which the proprietor would otherwise have 
to pay for. If the show's regular program is not cut down, 
the pictures prove a "Special Attraction." Pictures like the 
orange industry and others of a similar nature are intensely 
interesting and instructive. As to how long the picture! 
be 1 ept running, it might be stated that this picture of the 
orange industry has been going the rounds of the various cir- 
cuits for almost a year. During that time it has been seen 
by hundreds of thousands of theater-goers, who have been 
informed that Redlands is on the map and the principal busi- 
ness of that section is the orange industry. The city an 1 the 
city's business are linked together in the minds of all these 
people, and consequently, when these people think of oranges, 
tiny instinctively think of Redlands. The value of this ad- 
vertising may at once be seen. The value of the news pic- 
tures, such as the street dances, etc.. is not so long-lived, how- 
ever, for no one cares to hear or see news events that hap- 
pened a year before. 

The boosters of Redlands believe that this is by far the 
most valuable kind of advertising for which they pay out 
their dollars. 

Man, 191S 




Statistics of Street Pavements 

I would like, if possible, to get some statistics in ref- 
erence to the total amount of pavements of different 
kinds laid in the United States in 1913 and 1914 and 
what the prospects are for 1915. S., Bogalusa, La. 

The only official statistics of this sort are those of the 
United States Census Bureau, which are supposed to be col- 
lected every two or three years for cities of more than 130,000 
population. Unfortunately the department has not been able 
to prepare the returns for publication rapidly and the latest 
volume is of the statistics for 1909 which were prepared for 
publication in 1913 and not actually published until 1914. 

The April number of Municipal Engineering contained es- 
timates of the prospective work for 1915 in a large number of 
cities, but is not complete, as many cities, this year in partic- 
ular, have not yet decided what they will do this season. Sev- 
eral journals publish annual tables of work done during the 
previous year, but are not any more complete than the tables 
of prospective work, and, except in a very few cases of single 
cities, can not be used for comparative purposes and do not 
give any adequate idea of the total amount of work done in 
all the cities of the country. 

Possibly if enough pressure were brought to bear upon the 
Census Bureau it could be induced to bring its publications on 
the statistics of cities nearer up to date. The latest volume of 
"Financial Statistics of Cities" is for 1912, but the latest vol- 
ume of "General Statistics of Cities" is for 1909. 



Use of Asphaltic Macadam and Asphaltic Concrete for 
Pavements 

Have you any information that you could give us 
with regard to the use of various materials for pave- 
ments? What is chiefly used? Are asphaltic concrete 
and macadam used very extensively? Have you any 
data as to manufacturers making equipment for mixing 
these materials? In your opinion, would you consider 
this field a very big one for the sale of mixing equip- 
ment? Any data or information that you have on this 
subject will be greatly appreciated. 

N., , Wis. 

The best source of information on the amounts of various 
kinds of pavement in use in cities is the U. S. Census report, 
giving general statistics of cities of 30,000 population or 
more. The report is five years or more behind in publica- 
tion, but is the only complete report. Bituminous macadam 
and bituminous concrete, as those terms are now understood, 
are comparatively recent additions to the list of pavements. 
tho bitulithic, which is the standard of quality for pavements 
made of stone and asphalt, is very largely used and has been 
for some fifteen years. 

For country roads the bituminous pavements of the cheaper 



qualities have been developed, especially near the east coast, 
in the far west, and where the freight rates on the materials 
are not excessive. 

The probable use of these pavements on both city pave- 
ments and country roads is shown in the tables of work in 
prospect for 1915, which were published in the April number 
of Municipal Engineering. The columns headed "Asphalt 
Concrete," "Asphalt Macadam." "Bitulithic." "Bituminous 
Concrete" and "Bituminous Macadam," together show all the 
varieties of such pavements which are in prospect for this 
year. 

A number of manufacturers produce mixers for this work 
of various kinds. Road plants have been devised, such as the 
Hetherington and Berner plants described in the April num- 
ber, the F. D. Cummer & Son Company's plant, and the East 
Iron and Machine Company's plant, all three advertised in the 
same number. All three of these manufacturers and also 
Warren Brothers Company and the C. B. Smith Company 
make stationary plants for mixing all kinds of asphaltic and 
bituminous pavements, also such plants mounted on railroad 
cars. The Link Belt Company may also be added to this list. 

Some manufacturers of concrete mixers have added meth- 
ods of heating the mixers, so as to make them available for 
mixing asphaltic macadam materials and one or two such 
small mixers have been designed expressly as hot mixers. 
The Koehring mixer of this class is advertised in the April 
number, also. 



Garbage Reduced to Fertilizer 

In the July, 1914, issue of Municipai Engineering 
appeared an article on garbage disposal, describing a 
method used in England whereby the refuse is converted 
into a marketable fertilizer. 

Being interested in the matter, I wonder if it would 
be possible thru your means to get in touch with some 
person or manufacturer who might furnish me with de- 
tailed information regarding said practice, as well as 
to the machinery employed. 

Whatever aid you may lend me, I will greatly ap- 
preciate, and thanking you in advance. I beg to remain, 
Yours very truly, 

I,. K., San Juan, Porto Rico 

This seems to be a plant similar to a French plant quite 
fully described in Municipal Engineering for July. 1913, vol. 
xlv, p. 25. E. B. Stuart, 36 S. Ashland Boulevard, Chicago, III., 
is the representative in this country of the French patentees. 

An article in this number of Municipal Engineering de 
scribes a new method now under trial of pulverizing garbage 
and refuse and turning them into fuel briquets. 

The Hirsh chemical system, described in vol. xlvii. p. 131, 
August. Mil 1. may also be of interest in this connection. 



Mill 











HP 3 

■fit" 









WORKERS IN 
THE FIELD 




Cost of Asphalt Repairs in Pittsburg 
The Editor of MrxniPAi. Engineering: 

Sir — That the best previous record in the patching and re- 
surfacing of asphalt streets in Pittsburg was far outstripped 
during 1914 is revealed in the annual report of James D. 
Strain, superintendent of the two municipal asphalt plants, to 
John F. O'Toole, superintendent of the Bureau of Highways 
and Sewers, and Director Robert Swan, of the Department of 
Public Works. The number of square yards of asphalt laid 
in 1914 exceeded by 41 per cent, the amount laid in 1913, 
which was the highest record up to that time. 

Last year 418,723.6 square yards of asphalt were laid by 
the municipal plants. The record in 1913 was 296,715.65 
square yards, and in 1912 the total was 229,462.60 square 
yards. The figures do not include, of course, the asphalt laid 
in connection with the complete paving or repaving of streets, 
that work having been done entirely by contract. 

Superintendent Strain said that he has no figures on 
which to make a complete comparison with other cities, but 
expressed himself as doubting that any municipal plant in 
the county did more work last year than the Pittsburg plants. 
The new Pittsburg plant, on the north side, known as No. 2 
plant, was in operation during only three months of the pav- 
ing season last year. 

Not only in the quantity of work performed, but also in 
the matter of cost, the great worth of the municipal plant to 
the city has been demonstrated. 

The total cost of asphalt laid by Plant No. 1 in Pittsburg 
last year was $0.8672 per square yard, and for that laid by 
Plant No. 2 the cost was $0.89S per square yard. The over- 
head and general charges for both plants are figured into the 
cost per square yard. 

No patching or resurfacing work has been done by con- 
tract for a number of years. The cheapest contract ever given 
by the city for resurfacing work was awarded about nine 
years ago. and the contractor received $1.25 per square yard 
for the asphalt laid. 

The cost for No. 2 plant was somewhat higher than for 
No. 1, because considerable time is required after a new plant 
is placed in operation to bring it to its greatest efficiency. 
The overhead and general charges for No. 1 plant last year 
amounted to $0.1455 per square yard of asphalt laid, and for 
No. 2 the same charges totaled $0.0846 per square yard. The 
difference is largely represented by the fact that all the road 
equipment is charged to Plant No. 1. and a valuable property- 
is owned by No. 1 plant, for which a charge of interest at the 
rate of 6 per cent, is made in the accounts. No. 2 plant is on 
leased ground, the rental being $1,500 a year. 

The showing as to the cost is all the more gratifying to the 
city officials, because the labor cost to the city is consider- 



ably higher than the contractors. The city paid its laborers 
last year 25 cents an hour, and the average wage paid by con- 
tractors was 17% cents an hour. The city paid rakers $2.50 
for eight hours, and contractors paid $2.75 for ten hours. 
Tampers received $2.25 from the city for eight hours, as 
against $2.00 paid by contractors for ten hours. 

Much of the work done by the plants is patch work, and 
all pavers recognize this as being much more tedious and 
costly per square yard than resurfacing work. Of the 418,- 
723.6 square yards of asphalt laid by the city asphalt plants 
last year, 142,815.65 yards represented patch work. The plants 
also found, in a few instances, that it was necessary to re- 
build some foundations in streets before resurfacing. In 
doing this, 2,161.6 cubic yards of concrete were laid at a cost 
of $9,764.78. The resetting of curbs cost $1,681.78. Both the 
concrete and curb setting costs are charges against the plants 
and are reflected in the unit cost given for the patching and 
resurfacing. John B. Towneey, 

Superintendent Bureau of Publicity, 

Pittsburg, Pa. 



Closed, Open or Alternate Paving Specifications? 
The Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — What would happen to a business concern or an indi- 
vidual who adopted a policy of buying only the cheapest ma- 
terials offered? The answer to the question is obvious, so 
obvious that the query seems foolish. And yet municipali- 
ties in a good many instances are adopting a policy which 
results in shutting off the possibility of getting any but the 
cheapest supplies if the rule (or the law, as it is in many 
cases) as to acceptance of the lowest bid is followed. This 
policy is the result of a laudable endeavor to increase compe- 
tition and remove opportunity for graft and favoritism of the 
kind that has cost cities a good many dollars in the past. 
But these two aims can better be achieved than by means of 
"wide-open" specifications, which admit almost anything and 
which (when accompanied by the low-bid rule) result in the 
purchase of cheap instead of good materials. 

Suppose that a dozen office tables were wanted and the 
specifications on which bids were asked provide only that the 
tables must be of wood, with tops 4x6 feet. It would be 
known in advance that the buyer, if he accepted the lowest 
bid. would not get mahogany or oak or even pine tables. He 
would get only the cheapest and poorest tables. Competition 
is not increased; good tables are barred out. The only bidder 
who has any chance is the one who intends to furnish the 
poorest tables on the market. 

Wide-open asphalt paving specifications work out in ex- 
actly the same way. 

Under such a specification it is attempted to make one 



Man, 1915 



FROM WORKERS IN THE FIELD 



301 



description fit a variety of products which differ chemically, 
physically, intrinsically and in cost, market value and price. 
To do this it is necessary to make the limits of the descrip- 
tion so wide that it will include almost everything. Some 
specifications of this kind do, in fact, cover products as dif- 
ferent in cost and character as natural lake bitumens, fluxed 
gilsonite and residual asphalts made from petroleum, and in 
the latter class include blown products. In other words, there 
is no discrimination as to classes of asphalts nor as to the 
products belonging to various classes. 

This is done in the name of competition. But what is the 
result? Competition is not increased; it is destroyed. There 
can be no competition between mahogany tables and cheap 
pine tables, nor is there any competition on a price basis 
between the asphalt that costs most and that which sells for 
the lowest price. Under the wide-open specifications, where 
the lowest bid must be accepted, instead of competition a 
monopoly is created, a monopoly for the cheapest and pre- 
sumably the most inferior goods or workmanship or both. 

The alternate specification provides a means of avoiding 
the absurdity of the state of things just described, and at the 
same time increase competition, not in word but in fact. 
What is just as important, the alternate specification leaves 
the authorities of a city free to get exactly what is wanted : 
to discriminate in their purchases as between what is good 
and what is merely cheap. Under the alternate form of as- 
phalt specification there may be described all classes of as- 
phalt; each is in the specifications on exactly the same terms 
as the others, and separate bids are called for on the differ- 
ent classes of materials. The city can then award the work 
to the lowest bidder in any class. If it is considered that the 
lowest bid contemplating the use of the cheapest asphalt is 
the best bid, it can be accepted; or, on the other hand, if the 
conditions warrant the acceptance of the lowest hid for the 
highest class of materials, that may be done. The city has 
not restricted itself; it has enlarged its freedom of choice. 
Competition has not been limited; it has been enlarged. 

The enactment of equal-price laws is extending yearly. 
But ahead of this tendency is the establishment of uniform 
prices for staple products of high reputation. It is only the 
refuse of trade that is sold for "what it will bring." This 
makes it safe enough for a city to close its specifications with 
a feeling of perfect security that it will not be held up for a 
higher price than is paid under competitive conditions. But 
the prejudice or objection to closed specifications is, never- 
theless, likely to control, except where there are officials who 
know exactly what tbey want and do not hestitate to say so, 
in spite of any clamor that their stand may create. In view 
of this the recourse to alternate specifications is a necessity 
if officials are to have full opportunity to buy most economi- 
cally (which does not mean buying the cheapest materials') 
for municipalities. This, of course, applies to many products 
besides asphalt. 

Indianapolis and Washington, D. C, among many other 
municipalities, have operated under alternate paving specifica- 
tions for years and have found this policy a paying one from 
every viewpoint. The logic of the situation is producing 
many converts to the adoption of a similar policy, and it may 
be expected to spread year by year in spite of effort on the 
one hand to close specifications, or on the other hand to open 
them so widely as to confer a premium on cheapness without 
regard to quality or worth. Daniel T. Pierce, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



Blake, with offices at St. Louis. Mr. Blake owned a refinery 
in or near Los Angeles. El Oso asphalt was used in two or 
three pieces of work at Little Rock, and has been used quite 
extensively, I understand, by the Kaw Paving Company, of 
Topeka, Kans. It is the same quality of material that is 
gotten out by the Union Oil Company and other California 
asphalt concerns. The writer has found no difference between 
EI Oso brand of California asphalt and other brands of the 
same material. The El Oso Asphalt Company have offices at 
Los Angeles and operate their refinery at that point, under 
the management of two of the Blake boys, who were in busi- 
ness with their father. A Subscriber. 



Refuse Collection in River Forest, 111. 

General Manager Karl M. Mitchell, of River Forest, 111., 
prints in the local weekly paper the following information 
for and instructions to citizens, showing how to aid in making 
the collection of garbage as sanitary and economical as pos- 
sible : 

The winter schedule for the collection of ashes and gar- 
bage is as follows: 

Monday — North of the Northwestern railway, Harlem to 
Lathrop. 

Tuesday — North of the Northwestern railway, Ashland to 
Park. 

Wednesday — North of the Northwestern, Forest to Key- 
stone. 

Thursday — North of the Northwestern, Thatcher to Edge 
wood. 

Friday — South of the Northwestern railway, Thatcher to 
Forest. 

Saturday — South of the Northwestern railway, Park to 
Lathrop. 

During the cold weather it is important that garbage he 
thoroly drained of water and wrapped in paper before placed 
in the can. Ashes should not be wet during the winter. The 
contractor cannot be expected to remove frozen contents from 
cans, whether garbage or ashes, nor be responsible for injury 
to cans resulting from this practice. 



El Oso Asphalt 
The Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — El Oso Asphalt is a trade name used by the late F. O. 



Clean-Up Week in Philadelphia 

Mayor Blankenburg, of Philadelphia, Pa., designated the 
week of May 3 to 8 as the time for all citizens to clean ii|i 
within and without their premises. It is the third annual 
"Clean-up Week for a Spick and Span Philadelphia." 

To make a "spick and span city" of such a great metropo- 
lis as Philadelphia would seem a tremendous task. But the 
administration declares it to be simple. As to cost, less than 
$20,000 will do the whole work. 

The essential factor is that every householder, every prop- 
erty owner, every business man, shall see to it that during 
"clean-up week" he turns over to the city rubbish-collection 
contractors everything in and about his premises that he does 
not want, and which is occupying space he could use, and, at 
the same time, insure better sanitary conditions, both for him- 
self and his neighbors. 

Such riddance of rubbish last year amounted to 140,000 
cubic yards, and this accumulated waste and rubbish was cart- 
ed away to reclamation stations and dumped at a total cost to 
the city of $17,087.44. It would have covered an ordinary city 
block, "00 feet square, to a depth of 42 feet. 

The gross cost to the city for the collection and disposal of 
the rubbish was only slightly more than 12 cents a cubic yard. 

On the basis of population the assessment would have been 
11/10 (mi i per Inhabitant, or a contribution, possibly, of less 
than 5 cents per family. 




Decisions of the Higher Courts of Interest to 
Municipalities 

EXEMPTION FROM TAXATION AS COMPENSATION FOB WATEB FUR- 
NISHED CITY. 

Xo legislative authority being shown authorizing the boro 
to make a contract exempting the property of the water com- 
pany from taxation, such a contract is not valid, but if in 
form the contract is one to exempt from taxation, and is really 
one to pay for water supplied to the boro for its municipal 
purposes, a sum equal to the amount assessed for municipal 
taxes, such a contract is valid. — Montclair Water Co. v. Mont- 
Hair, si X. J. Law, 573 ; 79 Atl., 25S. 

The covenant to furnish water and the covenant to exempt 
from taxation are independent, and there is no connection 
between the amount of tax to be released and the value of 
the water to be supplied. Section 4 of the ordinance, and 
also of the contract, provides that the water shall be furnished 
free of charge. If the prosecutors are right, the water would 
not be furnished free of charge, but w-ould be paid for, and 
at a price apparently in excess of the ordinary charge. The 
consideration for the agreement to furnish the water free of 
charge seems to have been the consent of the municipality to 
the incorporation of the water company. 

The fact that for years after the contract was made the 
water company did not claim any exemption is of some signifi- 
cance as a contemporary construction. 

The tax is affirmed, with costs. — Point Pleasant Water 
Works Co. v. Mayor and Council of Boro of Point Pleasant 
Beach (X. J.) et al., 93 Atl.. 94. 

PRO< llMM.s FOB CITY TO ACQUIRE PRIVATE WATER WORKS PLANT. 

In mandamus by a municipality to enforce its right to in- 
spect the records and plant of a water company as a step in 
the acquisition of the plant pursuant to act of April 29, 1S74 
I P. L. 73 l , the owner of the water works is the proper party 
defendant, and the lessee of such works, though operating 
same, is improperly joined where the lessor and lessee have 
not been merged by the terms of the lease and the former 
maintains its corporate existence and a supervision over the 
business and shares in the net receipts, as to w-hich the lessee 
is required to render an accounting. 

Proceedings by a municipality for the acquisition of water 
works, if instituted since Utilities Act, July 2G, 1913 (P. L. 
1374), are invalid, unless they have been previously sanc- 
tioned by the Public Service Commission. — Boro of New 
Brighton ( Pa. I v. Xew Brighton Water Co. et al., 93 Atl., 327. 

Act May 31, 1907 (P. I,. 355 I, providing a method of deter- 
mining the price which a municipality may pay for a water 
company's plant, not being inconsistent with Act April 29, 
1^74 iP 1.. 95), Sec. 34 CI. 7. providing a procedure by which 



a municipality may compel a conveyance to itself of a pri- 
vately owned water plant within its boundaries, does not re- 
peal the earlier statute. 

Mandamus will issue at the instance of a municipality 
which has elected to take over a water company's plant under 
Act April 29, 1874 (P. L. 73), to compel the company to allow 
access to its books and papers that information may be se- 
cured as to the value of the plant. 

Act July 26, 1913 (P. L. 1386), Art. 3, requiring the ap- 
proval of the Public Service Commission to a municipality's 
acquisition of a water company's plant, does not effect a mere 
change of procedure, but qualifies the former rights of mu- 
nicipalities to take over the property of water companies 
within their limits, and hence, in the absence of an express 
provision, is not retroactive, so as to require the approval of 
the commission to proceedings pending when the act became 
effective. — Burgess, etc., Boro of Reynoldsville ( Pa. I , v. Rey- 
noldsville Water Co.. 92 Atl., 1082. 

CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS OV HOME-RULE CITY CHARTERS. 

The rule requiring statutes to be so construed as not to 
infringe constitutional inhibitions, if reasonably susceptible of 
such construction, applies to so-called home-rule city charters, 
and the provisions of such charters are not to be held void 
if they can reasonably be construed so as not to transgress 
such inhibitions. — State ex rel. Oliver Iron Mining Co. v. City 
of Ely (Minn.) et al., 151 X. W.. 545. 

SPECIFICATION OF "AX APPROVED PATTERN" INSUFFICIENT. 

Where a city sewer ordinance provided for catch-basins, 
each provided with a cast iron cover weighing not less than 
325 pounds, and of an approved pattern, the words "approved 
pattern" were meaningless, and the ordinance was therefore 
invalid, and was not cured by a subsequent ordinance declar- 
ing that they should be held to mean a cover of the same 
form, size, quality and pattern as one then in use at a certain 
street intersection in such city. — City of Xorth Chicago (111.) 
v Cumrnings et al.. 107 X. E.. 7 7H. 



Warren Paving Machinery Patents Sustained 

The Texas Asphalt Paving Company is restrained from 
using paving machinery which is covered by patents held by 
the Warren Brothers Company, in a decree rendered by Judge 
Henry D. Clayton at El Paso, Tex. The injunction of the 
court is entered against John W. Eubank, who represents the 
defendant company. Suit was entered against the Texas Pav- 
ing Company several months ago by Warren Bros., who 
charged the defendants with unlawfully using machinery 
which belonged only to them by right of patent. 

Man, 19'S 




A Comprehensive Clean-Up Campaign for Cincinnati 

The Chamber of Commerce of Cincinnati, O., is preparing, 
thru its civic and industrial department, a campaign for a 
general cleaning up of the city which is more comprehensive 
than is possible in the "clean-up week" movement and is in- 
tended to be continuous in most of its lines. 

C. R. Hebbie, the manager of the department, has thoroly 
organized the work and put its details into the hands of a 
number of committees which have numerous meetings sepa- 
rately and in groups as the developments of their work de- 
mand. There are eighteen of these committees, whose duties 
are briefly stated as follows. The organization is one whicn 
may be found extremely useful in any city having a public- 
spirited citizenship. 

Speakers. — To provide speakers for meetings of district 
organizations, welfare associations, civic and other interested 
bodies. To see that the speakers are provided with "Clean 
Up and Paint Up" campaign lantern slides where they are 
desired. These lantern slides will be provided either by the 
Chamber of Commerce or public library. 

Publicity. — To take steps to have the campaign given proper 
publicity thru the press and otherwise. This may involve the 
distribution of circulars on various subjects, campaign but- 
tons, window cards and other means of publicity. 

Inspection — To arrange, plan for and direct i complete 
general inspection of the city, beginning at the tnd of the 
campaign. To secure co-operation and assistance of citizens 
and municipal departments, State Fire Prevention Association 
and state fire marshal. To provide for a reinspection follow- 
ing the general inspection. 

District Organization. — To lay the city out in districts and 
determine upon plans of organization of these districts. To 
provide instruction and recommendations in accordance with 
these plans. To have general supervision of district work. 

Laws and Ordinances — To provide the executive committee 
with legal advice and to recommend such changes in city 
ordinances as may be desirable in the light of the results of 
this campaign. Where necessary to bring to the attention of 
city officials violations of laws which are brought to the notice 
of this committee. 

Expenditures. — To authorize and pass upon all expendi- 
tures before they are undertaken. To authorize all bills and 
approve same for payment. 

Planting and Sodding. — To supply publicity committee with 
subject matter for the encouragement of planting vines to 
cover unsightly structures, the planting of shrubbery and 
flowers, and the sodding of bare spaces. To give advice as to 
when, how and what to plant. This advice is to be given to 
all individuals, local committees, organizations, etc., and per- 
haps also to be published in the shape of printed circulars 



for distribution. To secure the co-operation of the park de- 
partment and encourage increased activity in school garden 
work. 

Vacant Lots — When requested to do so by local organiza- 
tions render it aid in providing it proper facilities to clean up 
vacant lots, . attend to the removal of unsightly structures, 
and, when necessary, invoke the assistance of city officials and 
the committee on laws and ordinances. To examine carefully 
into the problem of vacant lots and make recommendations to 
the committee on laws and ordinances as to the solution of the 
problem. 

Fly Extermination. — To devise means for fighting the house 
fly in every possible way, and supervise the carrying out of 
such plans. 

Sanitation. — To give careful consideration to the general 
subject of "sanitation" both in the home and the problem of 
the city. To render every assistance to district organizations 
on this subject, and after a complete survey of the situation, 
to make definite recommendations to the committee on laws 
ami ordinances and confer with them to the end that such 
amendment as may seem desirable may be formulated and 
secured. 

Public- Dumps and Waste Disposal. — To give careful consid- 
eration to the difficult problem of public dumps and disposal 
of waste to the end that the number of these dumps may be 
reduced and that ultimately their use may be discarded. To 
work out some scheme for disposal and incineration of the 
city's waste, and to stimulate public sentiment toward such 
action on their part as will make possible the sale of waste 
paper by the city in order that revenue may be derived there- 
from. To encourage upon the part of citizens the burning of 
all combustive waste in order to lighten the work of the street 
cleaning department. 

Smoke Elimination.— in every way possible to encourage 
propaganda against the smoke evil. To plan for and secure 
the co-operation of Cincinnati people in this matter. 

Clean Streets. Alley and Sidewalks. — To devise and exe- 
cute plans to secure the co-operation of citizens of this CitJ in 
order that our streets, alleys and sidewalks may be lei pi i lean 
To make a careful examination of city ordinances affecting 
this question and to make definite recommendations to the 
committee on laws and ordinances on this subject and to coa 
lei- with them in regard to the revision of present in-. 

School, Y. M. C A. and University Organizations.— To de- 
vis.- and execute plans for securing the co-operation of all 
organizations existing in the public schools and univer ttj 

and to secure- the co-operation of the Y. M. C. A., Hoy Scouts 
and other similar organizations. 

Garbage.— To give careful attention to the question of the 
f|j ,i of the city's garbage. To stimulate compliance with 



May, WIS 



304 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



the law upon that part of citizens, and to assist the city offi- 
cials in this matter, and to make any desirable recommenda- 
tions to the committee on laws and ordinances. 

Women's Organizations. — To secure the co-operation of all 
women's clubs and organizations in the city, thru communi- 
cation of their officers, and by speaking at their meetings. 

General Committee. — This committee is composed of all the 
members of all the committees, and shall act in an advisory 
capacity to the executive committee. 

Executive Committee. — This committee is composed of the 
members of the Chamber of Commerce committee on continu- 
ous clean up and fire prevention campaign, and is in immedi- 
ate charge of the "Clean-Up and Paint-Up" campaign. The 
chairman of this committee is general chairman of the cam- 
paign and the secretary its general secretary. 



Making Fuel Out of Garbage 
By W. D. Hornaday, Austin, Tex. 

Manufacturing a high-grade fuel from garbage is a new in- 
dustry that promises to solve the problem of disposing of the 
waste of towns and cities. In October of last year the first 
experimental plant of the new garbage disposal process was 
established in San Antonio, Tex. It has proved so successful 
that a large plant is to be erected in Austin, Tex., by E. L. 
Culver, who is the inventor of the new process, and his asso- 
ciates. They have entered into a contract with the city by 
which they receive 25 cents a ton for all the waste, delivered 
at the plant. This is about 50 cents per ton less than it now 
costs the city to dispose of its garbage. 

The important feature of the new method of handling the 
trash and waste that comes from the streets and alleys is that 
it is converted into a fuel that is said to be the equal of bitu- 
minous coal. Mr. Culver began investigating the possibility 
and practicability of commercializing municipal garbage about 
five years ago. As a result of a long series of experiments he 
proved the adaptability of a method for making fuel bricks 
out of the refuse. This is accomplished in much the same 
manner that stiff-mud bricks are made. He employs prac- 
tically the same machinery that is used in making mud cut 
bricks. There is this difference in the process, however: the 
fuel bricks are not required to be as smooth and perfect as 
building bricks. The fuel bricks are dried in the sun or open 
air instead of in kilns. To produce this new fuel from garbage 
a mixture of equal quantities of coal dust and garbage, witn 
an addition of 7 per cent, of water gas tar from gas plants or 
oil refineries, is used. 

It takes one thousand of the fuel bricks to make a ton. 
They are clean and dustless and are easy and convenient to 
handle. In San Antonio the new fuel is being used by many 
people in their homes. The demand for it is said to be much 

FUEL BRIQUETS made from garbag< 








-'•*» *KJ 



■ 



SECTION OF PLANT for turning garbage into 
fuel briquets. Garbage is dumped at upper right- 
hand, carried on conveyor to chute at left, dumped 
into the garbage pulverizer, thence elevated to the 
roll feeder, where it meets coal coming up the coal 
conveyor from the coal pulverizer, is mixed with coal 
iiinl tar, and the mixture is dropped to the press for 
making briquets. 



C?3 



greater than the supply. Among its advantages are that it will 
not slack, no matter how long it is kept in storage, that it is 
impervious to water, and that it burns to ashes without leaving 
a semblance of clinkers. It produces no odor and little smoke 
when being burned. Dr. William B. Phillips, of Austin, di- 
rector of the Bureau of Economic Geology and Technology of 
the University of Texas, who recently experimented with the 
fuel bricks by burning a number of them in an open grate at 
his home, made a report on the results, as follows: 

"The briquets had no disagreeable odor whatsoever, smell- 
ing faintly of tar; they were easy to handle, cleanly, easy to 
fire, gave no excess of smoke over ordinary bituminous coal, 
did not clinker and did not give any trouble at all in the grat\ 
These briquets were entirely consumed and preserved their 
rectangular shape, even when in the form of ashes. I was 
pleased with the results of burning the briquets, and would 
use them regularly if they could be supplied at a price com- 
parable with that which we pay for bituminous coal here, gen- 
erally $8.50 per ton." 

The remarkable spectacle of seeing old shoes, hats, paper, 
rags, straw, manure, house garbage, night-soil and a variety 
of other waste products, being thrown into one machine and 
emerging from another in the shape of a perfect fuel brick, is 
to be witnessed daily at the plant which is in operation at San 
Antonio. The finished product bears no resemblance to the 
raw materials that enter into its manufacture. The process 
performs the important work of sanitation, which is consid- 
ered of the utmost importance in disposing of municipal gar- 
bage. In San Antonio the experimental plant is to be enlarged 
so as to handle the garbage of the entire city, a contract to 
this effect having just been entered into by the municipal au- 
thorities and the fuel company. The city commission of Aus- 
tin, after a thorough investigation, decided to abandon its gar- 
bage incinerator and adopt the new process. 

Dr. F. M. Gunn, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, who recently delivered a series of lectures on sanitation 
and garbage disposal at the University of Texas, expressed 
the opinion that the process which Mr. Culver invented is one 
of the most promising schemes so far advanced for handling 
city refuse. 

The mechanical arrangement of the garbage fuel plant is 
simple. The refuse is unloaded from wagons upon a sorting 



Mau. mir, 



SANITATION 



platform and sprayed with creosote as a sanitary precaution, 
as well as to allow the sorters to work with comfort. Thru 
holes in the platform the different kinds of garbage are 
dropped onto conveyors, which carry it to the various depart- 
ments of the plant. The iron is carried into storage bins, dead 
animals are conveyed to the fertilizer department, bottles to 
the washing tank, ashes, stone and brick to a dump, tin cans 
to an incinerator, which removes the solder, and the remain- 
ing tin pieces are baled. All of the residue of the garbage is 
conveyed to the fuel-manufacturing department, where it is 
ground, mixed and made into bricks. 

The entire plant is tightly inclosed so as to keep dust from 
escaping. 

The cost of manufacturing the fuel bricks is about $1.80 per 
ton. They sell in San Antonio for $6.50 per ton. 



One-half foreman 1.50 



Comparative Cost of Street Sweeping and Sprinkling 
with Mules and with Motors 

The Street and Bridge Department of the Chicago (111.) 
Department of Public Works has made some careful com- 
parisons of the cost of operating street sprinklers and street 
sweepers, both broom and pick-up, when drawn by mules and 
by motors, from which the following figures are taken. 

In street sweeping, two Kelly-Springfield motor trucks 
hauled two street brooms and one Peerless motor sprinkler 
ran in advance of the two sweepers. Three mule teams 
hauled three street brooms, one mule-drawn sprinkler run- 
ning in advance of the three sweepers. Three chauffeurs and 
seven men, including the foreman, made up the gang. The 
cost is tabulated as follows: 

Sweeping — Motor-Drawn Equipment — Cost Per Day. 

Three chauffeurs $10.20 

Two trucks hauling one broom each — 

Depreciation, charged off 4.70 

Gasoline and lubricants 2.00 

One motor sprinkler ahead of truck brooms — 

Depreciation, charged off 3.60 

Gasoline and lubricants 1.50 

Two broom men 4.00 

Broom up-keep and depreciation 6.00 

One-half of foreman 1.50 



$33.50 
Sweeping 343,200 square yards street surface; cost. 9%c 

per thousand square yards surface. 

The actual cost for upkeep of motor equipment was $4.05 

per day less than charged off on account of depreciation. 

Sweeping — Mule Team Equipment — Cost Per Day. 
Three teams hauling street brooms, one team sprinkling 
ahead. 

Four teams, feed and depreciation $6.80 

Four men 8.00 

One-half of foreman 1.50 

Broom upkeep and depreciation 5.70 



$22.00 
Sweeping 148,000 square yards street surface daily; cost, 
practically 15c per thousand square yards. 

Pick-up Siveeping — Motor Equipment — Cost Per Day. 

Two motor trucks, same as sweeping cost $13.50 

Ten men 20.00 



$35.00 
Picking up sweepings from SO blocks of streets, 110,400 
square yards street surface, cost reduced to $31.20 by virtue 
of excess in amount charged off, cost to pick up being actually- 
only 2Sc per thousand square yards of surface. 

Pick-up Sweeping— Mule-drawn Equipment— cost Per Day. 

Eighteen men $36.00 

One-half of foreman ... 1.50 

Eight teams mules, feed and depreciation 13.60 

Wagon and equipment depreciation 4.00 



$55.10 
Picking up sweepings from 140 blocks of streets, 27%c per 
thousand square yards of street surface. 

'I'hi' cost of street sprinkling is tabulated as follows: 
Sprinkling — Motor Sprinkler — Cost Per Day. 

Chauffeur $3.40 

Oil and lubricants 1 .50 

Depreciation charged off 3. 60 



$8.50 
Sprinkling 624 blocks per day, 892,320 square yards sur- 
face: cost, practically 1c per thousand square yards of surface. 

Sprinkling — Mule Equipment — Cost Per Day. 

Eight men $10.00 

Eight teams of mules, feed and depreciation 13.60 

Equipment depreciation 1.40 



$31.00 
Sprinkling 1.2S0 blocks daily, 1,S30,400 square yards of sur- 
face; cost, practically l%c per thousand square yards of sur- 
face. 

The motor equipment was actually operated two shifts a 
day, or 16 hours in all. 



Rochester Can Specify Bitulithic 
A further order in the case of Whitmore, Rauber and Vi- 
cinus against the city of Rochester, N. Y., the decision in 
which was reported in Municipal Engineering, vol. xlvii, p. 
455, has been entered. It may be remembered that the deci- 
sion was to the effect that the city of Rochester can specify 
bitulithic as one of the kinds of pavement to bid upon andean 
let the contract for constructing a street with the same if the 
property owners designate it. The new order, issued April 7, 
is made in accordance with the order of the Appellate Divi- 
sion, to which appeal was taken from the original decision. 
It affirms the same and assesses on the plaintiff in the orig- 
inal case the costs of the contractor and of each of the city 
officials included in the complaint, some twenty-seven persons 
in all. 



Specification of "A Sufficient Quantity" Is Valid 
An ordinance for a street improvement, providing that, 
after the roadway had been rolled and compacted, a sufficient 
quantity of half-inch stone or torpedo sand should be spread 
on the surface, is not invalid because leaving discretionary 
powers to the public authorities. — Cii.. 01 W'alscUa (111.) v. 
Orebaugh et al.. 107 N. E., 8S7. 




Improved Water from Deep Wells in Northern 
Illinois 

By C. II. Williams, Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineer, Chicago. 

111., before the Illinois Section of the American 

Water Works Association. 

The geology of Northern Illinois is fairly well known from 
the numerous wells drilled thruout this district, but the qual- 
ity of the waters supplied by various strata of water-bearing 
rock has not been so well investigated. 

Most deep wells thruout this territory supply a water which 
is a composite, being a mixture of all good and bad water en- 
countered in the sinking of the well. 

The distinction between good and bad is not made from ;> 
sanitary standpoint, as most of the deep-well supplies are ot 
unquestioned hygienic purity, but rather from their suitability 
for commercial and domestic purposes. Nearly all of these 
waters are unsatisfactory for boiler and laundry uses, as they 
are extremely hard and often contain objectionable iron salts. 

In making a selection among the various strata of water- 
bearing rock, it is apparent that the lime rock may be elimi- 
nated as a medium for producing a soft water, hence we neces- 
sarily turn to the two sand rock strata as being the only pos- 
sible sources for a satisfactory water. A study of the general 
information of these strata, the nature and conditions of their 
source of water supply, gives a clew to the kind of water we 
may expect to obtain from each. 

The Potsdam sandstone lies just above the Archean be 1 
and varies in thickness from a few hundred to over 1,500 feet, 
and is interspersed with layers of limestone and shale. Lying 
over the Potsdam sandstone is a rather thin, generally imper- 
vious blanket of limestone known as the lower magnesium. 
Over this limestone is the St. Peter sandstone, usually several 
hundred feet thick, which in turn is overlaid with the Trenton 
limestqne, Hudson shale and Niagara limestone successively, 
the latter two having been eroded in the central part of the 
field. 

These successive layers of rock rise gradually toward the 
north and west and outcrop in Wisconsin, Minnesota and 
Northern Michigan. The Archean rock outcrops the farthest 
north, in a broad irregular area, extending as far south as 
Chippewa Falls and Wausau, Wis. South of the Archean rock- 
is the Potsdam outcrop in a V-shaped belt covering about 
14,000 square miles, the apex of the V extending as far south 
as Madison, Wis. Next south is an outcrop belt of lower mag- 
nesium limestone and southerly from this is the outcrop of the 
St. Peter sandstone in Southern Wisconsin and Northern Illi- 
nois, having an area of about 2,000 square miles. 

These outcrops, mostly covered with a pervious blanket of 
soil and gravel, are the intakes, so to speak, of these sand- 
stone underground channels. The general surface drainage of 



the main part of this territory of Wisconsin is south and south- 
westerly, hence the numerous streams crossing the Potsdam 
outcrop rise in and flow over the Archean and sand rock an 1 
are less liable to become charged with lime and magnesium 
salts; on the contrary, the streams feeding the St. Peter sand- 
stone have previously traversed the limestone district of the 
lower magnesium outcrop, thereby becoming impregnated with 
the hardening salts of lime and magnesia. 

Thes eobservations would lead us to believe that the Pots- 
dam sandstone would furnish a softer water in general than 
that from any other strata, and as a verification of this the 
results obtained from some wells sunk in Cook County are of 
interest. 

The Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company and 
the Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company have both suc- 
cessfully improved their water supply for boiler purposes by 
casing off portions of the waters sunk in their wells. Also 
the village of Western Springs has sunk a deep well and cased 
out certain waters, thereby greatly improving its supply, but 
not to the same extent as in the case of the railroads. 

The Milwaukee wells are located on the Chicago & Council 
Bluffs division, about two miles west of Mannheim. There are 
at least five, the records of which are available, and all of 
which show similar characteristics. 

The log of well No. 1, following, is typical: 

Ground level, 679 feet above sea level. 

Niagara limestone, from 62 ft. to 260 ft. 

Hudson shale, from 260 ft. to 455 ft. 

Trenton limestone, from 455 ft. to 785 ti 

St. Peter sandstone, from 785 ft. to 1,060 ft. 

Lower magnesium limestone, from 1,060 ft. to 1,262 ft 

First Potsdam sandstone, from 1,262 ft. to 1,450 ft 

Limestone, shale, etc.. from 1.450 ft, to 1.705 ft. 

Second Potsdam sandstone, from 1,705 ft. to 1,804 it 

Limestone, from 1.804 ft. to 1,820 ft 

Third pels. lam sandstone, from 1,820 ft. to 2,290 tt 

Caves were encountered at 570 to 590 feet, 1,060 to 1,070 
feet and 1,085 to 1,095 feet. These caves were taken care of 
by casing. The lower and third Potsdam sandstone is com- 
posed of beds of different thickness, color and hardness. 

The well is cased from the surface to a depth of 1,262 feet, 
where the casing is sealed to the rock walls by concrete. 

The following are the analyses of the water at various 
depths below the casing, given in grains per gallon: 

Depths in Feet 1,450 '2. 030 2,128 2,290 

Oxides TJndet. I'ndet. Undet Undel 

Calcium carbonate 2.94 5.34 6.64 10.22 

Calcium sulphafe 4.61 .... .... 3.95 

Magnesium carbonate 27 2.10 2.87 3.88 

Incrustating solids 7.S2 7.44 9.51 18.05 

Alkali carbonates 7.81 8 92 

Alkali sulphates 7.47 10.50 4 S2 ::.17 

Alkali chlorides 3.38 4.68 12.44 50.9'6 

Non-inerustating solids 10.S5 22.90 26.18 54.13 

Total IS. '17 30.43 35.69 72.18 

This well, which is the deepest, shows a large increase in 
incrustating solids toward the bottom, and also a large increase 

J/ri«. ion 



WATER 



307 



in salt contents. This was avoided in the other wells of the 
series by lessening the depth by about 50 feet. The yield of 
these wells varied from 130 to 170 gallons per minute. 

The Northwestern Railway drilled a chain of wells at Pro- 
viso, Cook County, 111., on the Galena division, about four 
miles south of the Milwaukee wells. These wells were spaced 
from 300 to 600 feet apart, and all showed similar character- 
istics as to depth of strata and as to quality of water. The 
log of well No. 3 is typical. 

Surface of ground, elevation above sea level, 645 feet. 

Niagara limestone, from 73 ft. to 245 ft 

Hudson shale, from 245 ft. to 47S ft 

Trenton limestone, from 47s ft. to sin ft. 

St. Peter sandstone, from S10 ft. to I," I E1 

Lower magnesium limestone, from 1,010 ft. to 1,220 ft 

Sandy shale, from 1,22(1 ft. to 1,320 ft. 

First Potsdam sandstone, from 1.320 ft. to 1.520 ft. 

Limestone, from 1.520 ft. to 1,747 ft. 

Second Potsdam sandstone, from 1.747 ft. to 1,830 ft. 

Caves were encountered here only between the St. Peter 

sandstone and the lower magnesium limestone. This well was 

cased to a depth of 1.G90 feet and was only drilled to a depth 

of 1,830 feet. The following is an analysis from the water at 

that depth given in grains per gallon: 

Calcium carbonate 4.20 

Magnesium carbonate 1.46 

Iron and aluminum 0.06 

Silica 0.46 

Incrustating solids 0. 1 x 

Alkali chlorides 4.10 

Alkali sulnhate« 4.04 

Alkali carbonates 10.08 

Non-mcrustating solids 18.22 

Total 24.411 

This well, as the others in the series, were cased to a 
greater depth than the Milwaukee series on account of the 
poor quality of water found in the first Potsdam sandstone. 
The yield varied from about 60 to 150 gallons per minute, and 
the pumping of two alternate wells GOO feet apart to a depth of 
242 feet lowered the water in the third intermediate well 97 
feet. 

The village of Western Springs. 111., has just completed a 
well in which the results obtained conform generally to those 
found in the Milwaukee and Northwestern wells. 

This well is ten miles due south of the Milwaukee well in 
the township of Lyons about one-half mile from the west line 
of Cook County. 

The following is a log of this well: 

Surface of the ground above sea level, 048 feet. 

Niagara limestone, from 73 ft. to 360 ft, 

Hudson shale, from 360 ft. to 4 74 ft, 

Trenton limestone, from 474 ft. to 7'."> 1 1 

St. Peter sandstone, from 790 ft. to 1,244 fl 

Lower magnesium limestone, from 1,244 ft. to 1,33!/ fl 

First Potsdam sandstone, from 1,337 ft. to 1.490 ft. 

Limestone, from 1.490 ft. to 1,765 fl 

Second Potsdam sandstone, from 1.70., ft. to 2.040 ft. 

This well was cased down to a depth of 1,765 feet, as the 
waters from the first Potsdam and underlying limestone were 
very unsatisfactory, as -may be seen from the following 
analyses, given in grains per gallon. 

*J 4-1 

g Jgio to 

■a oj* S 

Sjj 2 »rt" . ton" 

a o^ op' fe S ■ 

s^s fcjs lis 

<ij _ _- . =8 _' - '_ 

Calcium carbonate 21.33 2140 13.42 

Calcium sulphate 3.74 1.11 .... 

Magnesium sulphate 15.11 1 5.12 2.10 

Iron carbonate .27 .12 

Undetermined 55 2.21 .99 

Incrustating solids 40.63 4 0.17 21.43 

Sod'um sulDbate 2.09 5 i" 

Sodium chloride 29 7 . .' I 06 

Sodium nitrate .04 

Non-Tncrustating solids 2.98 «.2fi 32.91 

Total 43.61 40 4:: 54.34 

This well is rather unique in that in placing the casings 
the one thru the drift is made big enough to allow small suc- 

May, 191S 



tion pipes to be dropped between it and the inner casing, thus 
making the water from either the upper or lower strata avail- 
able. The available supply from the lower strata for a draw- 
down of 150 feet was about 110 gallons per minute. 

A study of these three wells bears out to a large degree the 
assumption that the Potsdam sandstone will give a more satis 
factory water than the 'St. Peter sandstone. It also is evident 
that all parts of the same strata cannot be relied upon to give 
exactly the same quality. This is shown by a comparison of 
the water from the first Potsdam of the Milwaukee well, which 
shows 7.82 grains per gallon of incrustating solids, while the 
same stratum in the Northwestern well was reported as bad 
and the Western Springs well showed 40.17 grains per gallon. 

Ir further appears that increasing the depth beyond a cer- 
tain point will probably increase the hardness without any 
great return in quantity of water, and that the capacity is lim- 
ited to approximately 170 gallons per minute, according to the 
tests on these wells. In the territory around Chicago, at least. 
a limit to the depth is fixed by the increased amount of salt 
in the lower levels. 

More data are needed to establish the conclusions as drawn 
from these limited areas, and they should cover the territory 
more completely. If, with more data, it is found that the above 
conclusions are generally borne out, it opens up an improved 
supply for small towns and industrial establishments that may 
be well worth the extra cost to obtain. 



Efficient Municipal Operation of Clarksburg Water 
Works 

Officially declared by high authority to be the best con- 
ducted public office in West Virginia, the report of the audit 
of the accounts and transactions of Scotland G. Highland, sec- 
retary and. general superintendent of the Clarksburg (W. Va. I 
Water Works and Sewerage Board, covering a period of eight 
years, from 1907 to 1914, has been filed by State Tax Commis- 
sioner Fred O. Blue. The receipts for the period were $503,- 
S24.93, and of this sum approximately $400,000.00 were ex 
pended in enlargement and betterment of the system. 

The State Tax Commissioner says: "The examination 'dis 
closes that the financial records of the board are well kepi an I 
entries made up to date. We find that losses on account of 
delinquent water rents amount to practically nothing, rentals 
being charged to the property owner. It is the practice to pur- 
chase supplies and materials on quotations from bidders and 
discount bills by cash payment. Receipts are shown for all 
moneys paid out on the labor pay rolls. A minute record is 
kept by the secretary and all disbursements made by the board 
are shown on this record." 

At the close of the audit period there was a cash balance 
on hand of $15,014.83. showing the department to be a finan- 
cially sound institution. 

Mr. Highland is the author of several valuable water 
works books and is a liberal contributor to the technical press 
on water works subjects. He is chairman of the national 
committee on "Sanitary Plumbing" of the American Water 
Works Association and is widely known among water works 
men thruout the country. 

Mr. Highland is considered an authority on the subjects of 
sanitary control of waterways and sewage disposal and the bill 
of which he was author pertaining to these subjects bad mam 
strong supporters in the last West Virgi la legislature. 

Business men interested in public health work, civic organ- 
izations and, heads of water departments will shortly begin a 
campaign for clean waterways, and for the preservation ,,i the 
natural purity of the potable mountain streams of West Vir- 
ginia, famous for their coolness and salubrity. 



p*^ 





ROADS AND 
PAVEMENTS 





Replacing Brick Pavements After Street Excavations 

By P. J. Masterson, Superintendent of Street Repairs, 

Cleveland, 0. 

So much of the mechanism of a modern city lies under 
the surface of its streets that the question of street repair 
is scarcely less vital than that of good original paving con- 
struction, if streets are to be constantly serviceable. The ex- 
cavator is the worst foe of any pavement and the efficient re- 
pair man is its best friend, and will be so long as sewer, water, 
gas, phone, power and steam lines are laid in conduits or 
trenches. 

Foresight will cut down the number of openings that it 
is necessary to make in a completed pavement, but no pave- 
ment is ever laid in a growing town without the certainty of 
being disturbed from time to time. In Cleveland, where we 
have a preponderating mileage of brick streets, it has been 
necessary to work out careful methods for the replacement of 
brick paving that has been disturbed. While the process calls 
for workmanlike exactness, we pride ourselves on patching 
brick streets so that their strength is unimpaired, and, ii 
many instances, so that the patch cannot be noticed at casual 
observation. This is more than can be said for some other 
forms of pavement. 

Our first precaution is to have the city relay all of thp 
disturbed pavement. Service corporations and other private 
concerns are permitted to make openings in streets upon filing 
proper application. With this application must come a deposit 
sufficient to cover the cost of replacing the pavement. The 
city inspects the methods of excavation and particularly dic- 
tates the methods of backfilling. But when it comes to the 
actual repaying, no one but the employes of my department 
are entrusted to do the work. The cost is deducted from the 
deposit and the balance, if any, returned to the party making 
the excavation. 

I am a firm believer in the policy of compelling the return 
of all excavated earth to the trench. Only in the case of rock 
excavation would I make any exception. It may be argued 
that the pipe or conduit takes up a certain amount of space 
and therefore a corresponding volume of earth may be left out 
of the trench. But experience shows that, by tamping, more 
earth can always be returned to a trench than was removed 
from it, and the practice of requiring it all to be returned 
leaves no pretext for spongy backfills, which are a dangerous 
menace to the security of any pavement. 

In replacing a brick pavement over a trench, we adhere 
closely to the original specifications used in constructing the 
pavement, leveling the sub-grade and laying, successively, the 
concrete base, the sand cushion and the brick. 

The joint of the completed patch with the original pave- 



ment must, of course, be in the original serrated pattern. In 
making the cut thru the pavement, alternate brick will some- 
times be broken in the middle, leaving a series of broken 
bricks along the edge of the cut. These half bricks must be 
"toothed" out with a chisel. We use one about eighteen inches 
long, so that none but whole bricks remain. It is then pos- 
sible to break joints in patching. A patch which does not 
dove-tail into the original pavement, but leaves a long 
straight longitudinal joint between patch and pavement, can- 
not be too strongly condemned. 

I may remark that a long-handled chisel is the best in- 
strument to use in making the original cut in a pavement. 
After an opening has been broken with a maul, the chisel can 



# 



TRENCH FILLED and brick paring toothed so as 
to rut out all broken brick and leavt good surfaces to 
join with thi new brii 1, la <1 over the trench. 




KOAD3 AND PAVLMENTS 



309 




BRICK REPLACED OVER CONDUIT in East 
Ninetieth street, Cleveland, 0.. shotting the matching 
of bricks and uniformity of repaired surface with the 
original pavement which can be secured by proper 
methods of repair. 



be used to cut and pry out each brick separately, making a 
cleaner opening and facilitating the patcher's job. 

Matching brick for the patch is an important matter. If 
the color and size coincide with the original pavement, the 
patch will be scarcely noticeable. The brick should be care- 
fully measured in matching for size. Where the new brick 
are a hair's-breadth thicker than the old ones, the courses 
are thrown out of series and good joints are impossible. 

The proper compacting of the sand cushion presents a dif- 
ficulty that is not found in new jobs of paving. Sand has 
probably been lost from the original cushion during the ex- 
cavation and it is necessary not only to compress the sand 
cushion downward in making the repair, but to force it lat- 
erally under the edges of the old pavement. For this purpose 
we use a form of sand rammer, consisting of an iron handle 
six feet in length, with a rectangular head turned at an angle 
of 45 degrees from the line of the handle. This compacts the 
sand at the edge of the cut and an ordinary wooden rammer 



or a narrow hand roller does the same service for the width 
of the patch. 

Grouting must be done with care and exactness, two to four 
applications being swept into the joints and the brick swept 
clean at the last application. The remaining part of the task 
is simple precaution against disturbances while the grout is 
setting. The patch should be covered with three inches of 
moist sand and barricaded for a period of ten days or two 
weeks. It is a good extra precaution to barricade the entire 
street, where conditions permit, and thus avoid the jar of 
passing vehicles. But this is rarely possible on the ordinary 
busy street, so the best that we can do is to keep traffic off 
from the patch during the period of setting. 

These were the methods used in replacing over 42,000 feet 
of pavement last year. Our department deals with many 
kinds of pavements and while there are others upon which 
superficial repairs can be made more easily and promptly, 
there is none in which the original strength of the pavement 
is more fully restored than in a brick pavement where there is 
due care in the workmanship and a careful selection of ma- 
terials. 



Illinois Specifications for Concrete and Brick 
Pavements 

The new specifications for concrete and for brick road con- 
struction, under state aid, of the Illinois State Highway De- 
partment, have been issued. 

They provide for furnishing of cement and machinery for 
construction by the department, if so desired. In such case 
the specifications provide: 

"Cement will be furnished the contractor for the work in 
hand, without charge, under the following conditions: 

"He must notify the engineer in writing at least twenty 
(20) days in advance of the time he expects to be ready to use 
the cement, and he shall also indicate the amount per day he 
expects to use. 

"The contractor must be prepared to unload and properly 
protect all cement from the weather and dampness, and he will 
assume and be responsible for all demurrage charges. 

"The contractor shall assume all responsibility for the value 
of the cement sacks from the time the seal is broken on the 
freight car door until the credit memorandum for the return 
of the sacks in a satisfactory condition is issued by the cement 
company. The value of the missing or damaged sacks indi- 
cated on the memorandum shall be withheld from the amount 
eventually due the contractor. 

"All cement sacks shall be collected, cared for, bundled, 
carted and shipped, freight prepaid, back to the cement mill, 
all in accordance with instructions below, and entirely at the 
expense of the contractor. The contractor shall be reimbursed 
for the prepaid freight, plus 10 per cent. (Here follow the in- 
structions for returning empty cement sacks as provided by 
the cement companies.) 

"If any cement is damaged by dampness or otherwise, after 
removal from the cars by the contractor, he shall be charged 
with the cost of the same, including freight charges, and all 
such amounts it is hereby agreed are to be withheld from any 
sums that may be due the contractor under the terms of this 
contract. 

"If for any reason the state does not furnish the cement at 
the time it is needed, then the contractor may, with the writ- 
ten consent of the State Highway Commission, purchase the 
cement on the open market and will be allowed therefor only 
the prevailing market price at the time. 

"The cement will be ordered by the state for delivery at 
the time and in such quantities as the contractor may indicate 
is required, but cement will not be ordered in less than car- 
load lots. 



Man. 



310 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



"It is expressly understood by the contractor that no re- 
sponsibility is assumed by the State Highway Commission for 
the delivery of the cement at the time desired and that no 
claim for any extra compensation is to be made by the con- 
tractor except as hereinabove stipulated. 

"If any machinery is to be furnished the contractor, there 
will be inserted a paragraph, on a separate sheet of paper, 
stating specifically just what machinery and the conditions un- 
der which it is to be furnished." 

The specifications differ in detail from the standard speci- 
fications adopted by the American Society of Municipal Im- 
provements, in all but one item, being somewhat more severe. 
Cement is required to meet the specifications in Circular No. 
33 of the U. S. Bureau of Standards rather than the American 
Society for Testing Materials. 

Not more than 3 per cent, of clay and loam combined is 
permitted, rather than 7 of the standard specifications. 

The largest size of coarse aggregate is l J i rather than 2V6 
inches and co-efficient of wear (8) and toughness tests (G) are 
required, and certain percentages of three grades of size of 
coarse aggregate (1%, % Vi-inch round mesh), and of four 
grades of fine aggregate ( %, 1/16, 1/50 and 1/100-inch) are re- 
quired. Gravel must be separated and again mixed in the 
proper proportions of the specified sizes before using. 

Proportions of materials are: 1 cement, 2 fine aggregate and 
3% coarse aggregate, by volume, a sack of cement being 0.95 
cubic foot, as compared with 1 to 2 of fine and coarse aggre- 
gate and 1 bag (94 pounds) of cement to 4 cubic feet of con- 
crete in place for single-course pavement of the standard spe- 
cifications, which also provide for a 2-course pavement, the 
lower course as above, but with 1 bag of cement for 5 cubic- 
feet of concrete, and a 1-inch wearing surface of 1 to 2 cement 
and fine aggregate. 

The specification requires 1.61 barrels of cement per cubic 
yard of cement, assuming 40 per cent, voids in the coarse ag- 
gregate, subject to change if voids are more or less than 40 
per cent., as against 1.69 barrels required by the standard spe- 
cification for single-course pavement. 

The engineer compares the calculated amount of cement 
required with the actual amount used each day, and if the lat- 
ter is 2 per cent, too low the contractor agrees to replace the 
concrete without charge. If it is more than 2 per cent, in 
excess, the contractor is charged with the value of the excess. 
The cement being furnished by the state, this operates simply 
to make the contractor exact in his measurements. 

At least twelve turns of the mixer are required, and water 
is added as the other materials are run in, rather than after 
the dry materials have had a thoro mixing. The definition for 
consistency is also quite different. 

Joints are provided for every 100 feet and at the close of 
each day's work, but not less than 40 feet apart, as compared 
with 30 feet regularly in the standard specifications. A bitu- 
minous filler for temperature joints is specified in detail. 

Finish of surface, covering for curing, tests for crushed 
stone macadam, earth or bituminous shoulders, earth or con- 
crete gutters, are also provided in some detail. 

Unless certain of these specifications have been worked out 
carefully to suit the best materials available, they may result 
in material increase in cost over construction under the stand- 
ard specifications without corresponding increase in value. 

In the specifications for brick pavements the width ol 
blocks is made 3% instead of ::v 2 inches, a departure from the 
endeavor of manufacturers and engineers to make the sizes 
standard. Straight wire-cut brick are excluded. 

The average loss in the abrasion test is fixed at 22 per cent. 
or less, no individual brick to exceed 26 per cent, except wire- 
cut-lug bricks, which are allowed 23 and 27 per cent., respec- 
tively. 



Finer sand is used than under the standard specification — 
Ui-inch instead of 'i-jnch to 50-mesh. 

Fine aggregate for concrete base, in addition to rather more 
severe specifications than the standard, must make briquettes 
of 1:3 mixture equal in tensile strength to briquettes made 
1 : :: with standard Ottawa sand and the same cement. 

As in the specifications for concrete pavements, the re- 
quirements for fine and coarse aggregates may materially in- 
crease cost unless the local materials conform closely with 
them, while not very materially improving the product under 
standard specifications; so will the requirement that gravel 
must always be graded, and then remixed in the fixed propor- 
tions. 

Sand for grout filler is less than 1/16-inch instead of the 
standard, between No. 20 and No. 100 sieves.. 

A longitudinal expansion joint at one curb of :: s -inch wool 
felt, treated with tar or asphalt, is specified instead of the 
standard 1-inch bituminous filler expansion joint at each curb. 

A batch mixer for concrete is definitely specified, and at 
least twelve turns of each batch before discharge. 

Side forms of 2-inch plank or steel are specified in detail. 

In other particulars these specifications agree quite closely 
in intent with the standard specifications. It may be said 
that as a whole they are not as strict as the standard specifi- 
cations. They probably secure a pavement fully equal to the 
traffic over country roads and a cost somewhat less than that 
of the standard city brick street pavement. 



Difficult Construction of Concrete Road 
The Cedar Point automobile road just completed for the 
Cedar Point Improvement Company is a private boulevard 
projected for the purpose of connecting with the mainland the 
summer resort located on the northern extremity of a sand bar 
averaging 200 feet in width and about S miles in length, which 
divides Sandusky Bay from Lake Erie. There were some diffi- 
culties as to foundation and as to methods of construction, and 
the manner of overcoming these difficulties is of much interi st 
The new road is designed for motor-driven traffic exclu- 
sively. The total length is 7 miles, of which 6 miles is along 
the summit of the sand-bar adjoining the lake side and closely 
following the long curve of the shore line. The remaining mile 
is across the marsh land lying between the bar and the main- 
land and on the main land to the main public road known as 
the Lake Shore Road," now being improved by the Ohio Stat.' 
Highway Department as a part of the system of main market 
roads. 

The general type of construction is a 6-inch concrete found- 

$j 

FILL ACROSS MARSH, two thousand feet long, 
which was settled sufficiently during the period o) 
struction to permit construction of concreti pai 
i, nut. Tin concrete was reinforced with woven wirr. 
however. 




ROADj AND PAVEMENTS 



311 




CEDAR POINT CONCRETE ROAD in winter. 
The bank was covered with stone to withstand the ac- 
tion of the ice which is forced against it by wind and 
u-avts. The concrete of the pavement was finished, 
but the bituminous wearing surface hud not been ap- 
plied when this photograph was taken. 



® 



ation IS feet in width, covered with a wearing surface of bitu- 
men and gravel. Adjoining the concrete on each side is a 
3-foot strip of macadam, the total width of available driveway 
being 2-1 feet. The main entrance for a distance of 1,200 feet 
is paved with concrete 24 feet wide, with concrete curbs and 
concrete walks. One section, 2,000 feet in length, crossing the 
marsh on an earth fill, is reinforced with woven-wire triangu- 
lar-mesh reinforcement. 

Asphaltic felt expansion joints, '■_. inch thick, were placed 
transversely 33 feet apart, but expansion was so excessive that 
slab lengths were finally reduced to 20 feet The concrete is 
'composed of 1 part Medusa Portland cement, 3 parts sand and 
:i parts crushed stone, this mixture being adopted after a care- 
ful analysis of the available materials, and with a view to the 
ultimate requirements of the pavement and the various other 
conditions peculiar to this road. 

The greatest difficulty encountered in the construction of 
the road was due to the fact that the entire length was prac- 
tically isolated from connection with the outside world, at 
least for purposes of construction: and that transportation of 
any kind was impossible along the route of the road. All 
materials, supplies and equipment had to be handled from 
the south terminal, located seven miles from the city of San- 
dusky, being brought to that point over an electric interurban 
railway, and there transferred to a narrow-gage railway built 
in advance of the construction of the road. 



The road after leaving the south terminal, or entrance, runs 
north for 3,000 feet on the mainland, then crosses the marsh 
on an earth embankment 2,000 feet long, to the sand bar 
which separates the marsh from the lake, and thence along 
the top of this sand bar to the Cedar Point resort, which occu- 
pies the northerly end of the peninsula. 

The construction of the embankment across the marsh was 
started in the winter of 1912-13, the railway track being laid 
directly on the ice. Material was brought from the excava- 
tion for the roadway between stations 4 and 30, in 5-yard 
dump cars, and pushed ahead of the locomotive out onto the 
fill as far as the track would safely support the train. In 
dumping it was usually necessary to chain the trucks to the 
track, as the unstable character of the latter allowed tilting 
sufficient to cause derailments. The track was immediately 
jacked up, the material shoveled under it and temped around 
the ties, and work continued upon one section of track about 
the length of a five-car train until an embankment 3 feet high 
and 20 feet wide on top was completed, before extending the 
embankment the length of another section. The material was 
excavated and loaded with picks and shovels, altho a steam 
shovel would have been considerably cheaper and would have 
shortened the time of construction materially. The loading 
crew averaged ten men besides foreman, plow team and driv- 
er; the train crew consisted of engineman and brakeman; the 
embankment end was handled by four men spreading the dirt 
and four men raising, shifting and maintaining the track. 
The cars are usually loaded to 6-yard capacity, loose mate- 
rial, and handled in 5-car trains, the average rate being about 
one train per hour and seldom exceeding a rate of one and 
one-half trains per hour, the rate being largely controlled by 
the progress made by the track crew in maintaining and ex- 
tending the spoil track. 

The embankment was carried in this way entirely across 
the marsh and then widened and raised to approximately the 
finished section, with allowance for shrinkage, the weight of 
the material being sufficient to settle the surface of the marsh 
gradually during construction. This marsh surface varied in 
thickness from three to eight feet, the settlement of the bottom 
of the superimposed fill in general being about half of that 
amount. As most of the earth that was used entered the fill 
in a partially frozen condition, the shrinkage was quite marked 
after the spring rains and the high water in the marsh satu- 
rated the embankment, and considerable difficulty was encoun- 
tered in maintaining the track, even after the top crust of the 
embankment became hard and dry; but a liberal use of crushed 



CEDAR POINT CONCRETE ROAD 
under construction. Concreting gang 
in thr rear, concrete covered for cur- 
ing in foreground. Service industrial 
railroad on left supplies materials. 




MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



stone ballast solved the difficulty in a very satisfactory 
manner. 

original plans provided for tie roadway on this em- 
bankment to be bnilt of bituminous macadam, on the supposi- 
tion that the embankment would not have reached a condition 
of sufficient stability by the time it was necessary to complete 

- _p in the pavement, to admit the laying of a concrete 
-nt without danger of excessive cracking. However, de- 

g the balance of the work allowed th - 
tion to be left open during the following winter and spring, 
so that when the time came to complete the section, measure- 
ments indicated that the settlement had practically ceased. 
and it was determined to continue the concrete pavement 
acros; using a cross-section 7 inches thick in the 

- and 5 inches at the sides, reinforced with woven wire. 

:. i Wire Company's No. 2S triangular mesh, 
es wide, in rolls 150 feet in length, was used, four strips 
laid lengthwise giving about 6 inches overlap, 1-inch trans- 
-xpansion joints being placed 150 feet apart This sec- 
tion has been in use about nine months under average traffic 
conditions, and so far has shown no evidence of cracks or un- 
usual settlement, although no measurements have been made 
to determine whether or not there has been some degree of 
uniform settlement tbrueut the section. 

Clifford M. King, civil engineer, Sandusky, O., was the en- 
in charge of design and construction. W. 8. Pace, of 
Chicago, was the contractor. We are indebted to Mr. King for 
the data regarding methods of construction and photographs 
showing the nature of some of the special conditions met with. 
The success " :ction may lead others to attack sim- 

ilar problems of like nature, which have seemed well-nigh im- 
possible. 



Brick Pavement on Old Macadam Base 
By Ett 8. 8mith, County E ,? County. 

Toungstoicn. 0. 
To save Mahoning county's investment in macadam roadi. 
after the traffic had far outgrown the durability of such a sur- 
as a problem that confronted me as county surveyor in 
The problem has been solved by utilizing the macadam 
as a base for a modern brick surface. As a result we have 
many miles of rural brick road in Mahoning county which 
compare favorably, in point of service, with brick construc- 
tion that is installed from the ground up in a single contract 
and is superior in point of having a thoroly settled base. 

As many other localities have an extensive mileage of 
macadam, unsuited to the traffic and imposing a heavy an- 
nual charge for m: in account of my methods may 
. iiterest. In a very large number of cases, I am satis- 
nua] repairs will much more than pay in- 
on a brick surface expenditure. 
Brick requires practically no repairs and the public is freed. 
not only from the expense, but also from the nuisances that 
arise from continued road work or even the worse condition, 
that of continued out-of-repair - 1 I 

The first road resurfaced was the Toungstown-Boardman 
ungstown. This was done in 
as planned to resurface only a few hundred 
:t when the economy of this arrangement became ap- 
parent, coupled with the satisfaction it aff ' era, w& 
concluded to carry the ii t a distance of four miles. 
The Youngstown-Canfield road, two and one-half miles in 
was laid tt - and another mile was added 
the following year. The Boardman road leads toward the 

::nbiana com I 
that it is subjected to a heavy traffic from ma - 
and its improvement br. I in stabilizing the 

supp r. market. 



- ral stretches of county road, now included in the 
city limits, were saved from deterioration in the same way. 

In 1913, Belmont avenue was brick surfaced to the county 
line, and the following year the same type of construction 
was continued for a mile and a half into Trumbull county. 
Hubbard road was paved for three-quarters of a mile, and 
jnty of Trumbull has also taken up this work and 
carried it to the "village of Hubbard, three and a fifth miles 
distant. 

On several of these roads it would have been bettei to 
make the improvement twenty feet wide, rather than the 
sixteen feet which the state law prescribed. In two instances, 
however, the sixteen-foot limit was exceeded. A half mile 
of paving on Logan avenue was laid thirty feet wide at the 
instance of property owners, who. with the traction company, 
bore the additional expense. In the other instance a part of 
the Hubbard road, with the assistance of the property owners. 
a thirty-six-foot pavement was laid where there had formerly 
been a fourteen-foot macadam road. 

The total mileage of brick has now reached thirty-six and 
one-half miles, of which seventeen miles have been laid on 
maradam, and more paving of this type will be laid during 
the coming year. 

Our methods of surfacing were simple. Where the road 
was rough it was scarified and new stone used to fill the de- 
pressions. Where the old surface was smooth and level, we 
disturbed it as little as possible. Stone curbs 4x12 inches in 
size were set on the two sides of the road. New road metal 
was used to extend the width of the macadam from fourteen 
Is original width, to the required e Over 

this macadam surface we laid a course of finely granulated 
slag, a materia] which is easily secured from local blast fur- 
naces, and on the slag cushion our brick surface was laid. 

Much credit is due to the contractors for the success of 
these roads. They took a genuine interest in the quality of 
the job. and the grouting, in particular, was done in a work- 
manlike manner. Kennedy Brothers and Hannan Brothers 
divided the work on the Boardman road. Kennedy Brothers 
and Kain & Smith built the Canfield road. The McGuffey, 
Belmont and Hubbard roads were built by James MeCarren. 

A road from Youngstown to Akron is being built by state 
aid and is destined to be one of the most used inter-county 
highways in the state. Nearly six miles of this road will be 
constructed this year over an old macadam road between the 
towns of North Jackson and Austintown Center, Mahoning 
county, upon specifications similar to those which I h:- 
scribed. 



::: 



BOARDMAN ROAD, near Young stove n. Mahoning 
County. Ohio, fire miles long, resurlacd with re- 
pressed Bessemer block on old maead-am foundation* 






- ■ ■ 



r — = : :' 



■ - 



- 



- 



■ - 



F. H. XEWELL. in eke 
Engineering o; Illinois Uniiirsiiy. Vrbana, IB. 

:;: 

The New Professor of Civil Engineering at Illinois 
Frederick Hayn^s Newel], wic has recently been appointed 
Professor of Civil Engineering and head of the Department 
of Civil Engineering of the University of Illinois, entered 
npon his duties on May l, in order to be fully prepared for 
active work at the beginning of the next college year. He 
- ;i - _. _■ _ ... .... f .. yeajg m g • --;;;- service pria- 

cipally as chief engineer and later as 
States Reclamation Service. 



Growing steadily but rapidly fron 
organization expanded until several hundred engineers, teehni- 

- - - 

1 business judgment to a high 

- . ■ .- - 

- 

-abBc welfare has 



to his careful selection of men. 

~ broad experience had in discovering conditic- 
- 
—-en of high character and sharing 



314 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



London in the Dark 

By Rn ii m ond K. Cu minings. 

We read of "darkened London," but details of the actual 
conditions in the world's metropolis somehow never seem to 
have been printed. The English are not really afraid of a Ger- 
man air raid, or, if they are, they will not admit it, even to 
themselves, but nevertheless they are neglecting nothing to 
minimize the danger. In the first place, all the ordinary street 
lamps of the city are painted black on the top and sides, or 
have little black oil-cloth caps fitted on them. The bottoms of 
the lamps are left white, and thus the effect is to throw a nar- 
row beam of light straight down thru the fog, striking the 
pavement as a slightly larger round spot of light. All adver- 
tising signs are kept dark; shopkeepers' windows are not 
lighted, except in some cases where a light has been specially 



HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT from th, 
rith darkened Unfits. 



river side, 




designed that throws its illumination inward, and, while show- 
ing up a portion of the window contents, reflects hardly any 
glow into the street Railway trains entering and leaving Lon- 
don bear in each compartment a sign to the effect that, "Owins 
to the present crisis, passengers are requested to pull down all 
blinds as soon as the lights are lighted," and the order is near- 
ly always obeyed. 

Altho, of course, London cannot be hidden, even were all 
lights reduced below the minimum of absolute necessity, it 
seems to be the aim of the government to so disguise its fa- 
miliar landmarks and to create false landmarks, that a hostile 
airman would have difficulty in locating any building he spe- 

THE THAMES EMBANKMENT, with darkened 
lights. Tin in I'll,, i,i the background is the saint 
shown in the preceding photograph. Note darkened 

tops of globes of the lighted lump*. 





THE EMBANKMENT ns it is lighted in time of 
peace, showing the contrast with the preceding war- 
time photograph. 

cially desired to hit. To this end, while the streets themselves 
are darkened, some of the open spaces of the parks have long 
parallel rows of little acetylene lights quite close to the ground. 
These, when lit at night, convey from above the impression ot 
looking down upon a street or boulevard. 

Another interesting and ingenious device concerns Picadilly 
Circus. The customary arrangement of lights here is sup- 
posedly familiar to German airmen. The circle is therefore 
rather more than ordinarily darkened, and an imitation Pic- 
adilly Circus, having the same light arrangement, has been 
constructed, and is set up in different parks of the city, 
changed in locality from time to time. So that it is hoped, 
should a German air fleet succeed in getting over London, the 
aspect of the city will be so changed and some of its appar- 
ently familiar spots wrongly located, that bombs aimed at 
notable buildings or important points will altogether miss 
their mark. 

Preparations for active defense against an air raid are, of 
course, in force, and day and night aeroplanes and aviators are 
ready to ascend at the warning of sentries, who patrol the 
roofs of all the public buildings. 

And so London awaits, with a remarkable calmness and an 
almost morbid curiosity, the coming of the German air fleet, 
that all its better-class citizens regard as inevitable. As to 
what will happen few do more than hazard a gues*. but all 
hope that "London in the dark" may prove an effective defense 
against the long-heralded German attack. 



Technical Associations 

At the last meeting of the Indianapolis-Lafayette section 
of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, A. R. Holli- 
day discussed "Rural Electrical Development in Indiana." in 
which he has had a prominent part. 



Way, wis 



MISCELLANEOUS 



315 



The nineteenth annual meeting of the National Fire Pro- 
tection Association was held in New York, May 11-13. P. H. 
Wentworth, secretary, 87 Milk street, Boston, Mass. 

The Municipal Art Society of New York receives drawings 
until May 22 in competition for prizes of $300, $200 and $10u 
for the best architectural solution of the intersection of two 
streets, which, by the description, are probably Fifth avenue 
and Forty-second street, Xew York, to provide for the handling 
nf the heavy traffic on the two streets, which now produces 
great congestion at the crossing of the two double streams, 
one in each direction on each street. 

For its meeting, May 13. the Brooklyn Engineers' Club has 
scheduled a paper by Charles Ekstrand on "Asphalt. Its His- 
tory, Manufacture and Uses." 

The Pan-American Road Congress will be held at Oakland. 
Cal., during the week of September 13. This date was fixed 
upon, owing to the advantageous arrangements that could be 
made for halls for meeting places, and to enable engineers 
to attend also the International Engineering Congress. It 
will be held under the joint auspices of the American Road 
Builders' Association and the American Highway Associa- 
tion, by an executive committee of five, of which Governor 
Charles W. Gates of Vermont is chairman, and the other 
members are James H. MacDonald, former state highway 
commissioner of Connecticut; Major W. W. Crosby, former 
state highway engineer of Maryland; .T. E. Pennybacker, chief 
Division of Economics, United States Office of Public Roads, 
and E. L. Powers, editor of GoofZ Roads. Charles P. Light, 
field secretary of the American Highway Association, has been 
loaned by the directors of that organization to the Pan- 
American Road Congress for work with the sub-committee 
on finance, of which James H. MacDonald is chairman. Mr. 
Light will also confer with city and county officials, com- 
mercial and road organizations and others interested in the 
road movement for the purpose of making known the charac- 
ter and scope of the annual Road Congress and to urge that 
strong delegations be named. 

Colorado state highways will be discussed by J. E. Maloney, 
secretary and engineer of the State Highway Engineer, at 
the May meeting of the Colorado Association of Members of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers. 

The convention of the American Water Works Association 
meets in Cincinnati, Ohio, May 10-1 t. 



Personal Notes 



Professor I, O. Baker, of the department of civil engineer- 
ing of the University of Illinois, recently gave an address on 
"Selecting the Road Surface," before the students of the short 
course in highway engineering at the University of Michigan. 

Professor A. M. Buck - , of the railway engineering depart- 
ment of the University of Illinois, has been making an analyt- 
ical investigation of the proportions of resistances used in 
electric railway motors. He has devised graphical methods 
which simplify the calculation of such resistances. 

Funds have been authorized by the city council of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, for carrying out the recommendation of Jerry 
O'Shaughnessy, superintendent, and C. P. Hoover, chemist in 
charge, sewage disposal division, for adapting the original 
sewage sedimentation tanks to those of the Imhoff type. Plans 
for the same have been prepared under Mr. Hoover's direction 
by Mr. J. J. Morgan. These plans will be reviewed by a boar 1 
of consulting engineers consisting of George W. Fuller, John 
H. Gregory and George A. Johnson. 

Mr. James Shakman, formerly assistant chief chemist, 
bureau of streets laboratory. Chicago, has joined the staff of 
"Walter H. Flood, consulting chemical engineer, 326 River 
street, Chicago, and has assumed the direction of the road 



materials laboratory which has recently been considerably 
enlarged. Mr. Shakman is a graduate chemical engineer, hav- 
ing received his degree from Armour Institute of Technology, 
and has had long experience in this line of work. 

.lames Walker and George H. Cressler have announced then- 
association under the firm name of Walker & Cressler, con- 
sulting engineers, with offices at 742 First National Bank 
Building. Chicago. Mr. Walker has been engaged in consult- 
ing practice in Chicago for ten years, being identilied during 
that period with work in connection with the Chicago Ele- 
vated Railways Company, the Chicago surface lines, the 
Chicago Association of Commerce committee of investigation 
on smoke abatement and electrification of railway terminals 
various electric railroad, lighting and power companies, an 1 
financial institutions interested in public utility properties. 
Mr. Cressler, for the past ten years vice-president and chief 
engineer of the Kerr-Murray Manufacturing Company, Fort 
Wayne. Ind., is a member of the American Society of Median 
ical Engineers, American Gas Institute, National Commercial 
Gas Association, and several state and district associations. 
He has designed and constructed gas works installations in 
more than one hundred cities of the United States and Canada. 
The firm is now engaged in work embracing all phases of the 
relation of railway, gas and electric utilities to the investor 
and the public, including construction, operation, management, 
examinations, appraisals, reports, determination of rates and 
representation in connection with the exercise of public 
authority. 

Louis E. Van Norman, of New York, has been selected as 
editor of The Nation's Business, the official publication of the 
Chamber of Commerce of the United States, published monthly 
in Washington, D. C. 



Publications Received 

An address before the American Economic Association at 
Princeton, N. J., December 29, 1914, by Samuel Unternteyer, 
of New York, on "Speculation on the Stock Exchanges and 
Public Regulation of the Exchanges," lias been issued in pam- 
phlet form. 

National and State Revenues and Expenditures, 1913, and 
1903, and Public Properties of States, 1913. U. S. Bureau of 
the Census, Washington, D. C. Paper. 44 pp. National and 
State Indebtedness and Funds and Investments, 1870-1913 
Paper, 204 pp. Taxation and Revenue Systems of Stat, and 
Local Governments. Paper, 275 pp. 

The Operation of Sewage Disposal Plants; a manual for the 
practical management of sewage disposal works, with sug- 
gestions as to improvements in design and construction, by 
Francis E. Daniels, A. M., director of water and sewerage in- 
spection, Board of Health of the State of New Jersey. Illus- 
trated from photographs by the author. Published by Munit 
ipal Journal. New York. 

Weiss's "Preservation of Structural Timber." $3 net. Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Co., New York. 

National Standard Hose Couplings and Fittings for Public 
Fire Service is the subject of circular No, 50 of the U. S. 
Bureau of Standards. Washington, D. C. W. S. Stratton, 
Director. 

Concrete Pavements in Western Washington is a booklet 
of 37 pages compiled by Reitz, Story & Duffy, Inc., general 
engineers, Seattle, Wash., giving descriptions and costs of 
pavements laid since 1900 and the specifications for their con- 
struction. 

George W. Perkins delivered an address on "The Outlook 
for Prosperity; Economics New vs. Economics Old" before 
the Economic Club of New York, which lias been reprinted 
hv the Market World and Chronicle of Xew York for distribu- 
tion to those interested. 



May, i'.n; 



n 


PTT )f 





MACHINERY 

AND 

SUPPLIES 




French Engineer Advocates Wire-Cut-Lug Brick 

Wire-cut-lug brick has attracted considerable attention 
abroad and has been favorably commented upon by M. Vug- 
non, an eminent French engineer, in a series of articles pro- 
fusely illustrated and published in the "L'Edilite Technique." 
M. Vugnon spent several months in the United States looking 
up the subject of pavements, with a view to a substitute for 
the expensive and, under modern traffic conditions, expensive 
and unsatisfactory roads of France. The visitor's attention 
was attracted by the wire-cut-lug brick advertisements, and 
he made a thoro investigation of this brick, its form and 
its uses, and he was so impressed that, upon going home, he 
wrote a series of articles, illustrated with cuts of wire-cut- 
lug brick and brick making machinery, and cutter, and views 
of city streets and country highways in America, highly 
extolling wire-cut-lug brick as a paving material and assert- 
ing that it was a practicable thing for use in France, both 
on account of the cost and its durability and for various 
other reasons. He entered very minutely into a discussion, 
giving cost data in detail, and dwelling upon the superiority 
of a brick pavement, and urging the manufacturing of paving 
brick in France. He said that the five principal reasons 
which point in favor of this type of road are "resistance, 
economy, ease of locomotion, appearance, cleanliness and 
hygiene." He declared brick pavements to be the ideal type 
of pavement, and he described the wire-cut-lug brick as the 
ideal type of paving brick. 

The series of articles by M. Vugnon has apparently ex- 
cited considerable interest and not a little comment in the 
French technical journals. This testimonial from an inde- 
pendent source, from an expert French engineer, who is com- 
paring American brick highways and pavements with vaunted 
roads of France, to the disadvantage of the latter, both on 
account of expense and durability, is a high testimonial of 
American brick pavements in general and wire-cut-lug brick 
in particular. 



Small Highway Culverts 

J. W. Strack, county engineer, Spokane, Wash., has the 
following to say in The Highway Magazine regarding the use 
of corrugated pure iron pipe and concrete for culverts: 

For a number of years I have been engaged in the con- 
struction of good roads, and the culvert question has been one 
of the most important, and, as a result, has been carefully 
investigated by me. 

Like most engineers, I was prejudiced in favor of the idea 
that concrete was the proper material for culverts, and so 
started out to make all our standard culverts of concrete. 

Right at the start I found that a question of economy en- 



tered; at prevailing prices in this locality it was cheaper to 
build culverts, with less than 4 square feet of area, of corru- 
gated metal pipe. 

The initial cost of a pipe culvert 30 inches in diameter, 
with an area of 4.9 square feet, was approximately equal to 
that of a concrete culvert having the same area, while a 24- 
inch diameter pipe was considerably cheaper than a concrete 
culvert of the same area. 

However, the smaller sizes of concrete pipe apparently had 
some advantage as to price over the corrugated metal pipe, 
and I had a number of these installed. The result has been 
far from satisfactory; these concrete pipes are brittle and a 
sharp blow will shatter a section of the pipe; they are heavier 
and the cost of handling is consequently much greater than 
the corrugated metal. In case of a concrete pipe clogging up 
and subsequently freezing, the ends are almost invariably 
shattered, while corrugated culvert, under similar circum- 
stances, would be elastic enough to remain undamaged. With 
the small amount of frost which we have in Spokane county 
the danger to the larger sizes of concrete culverts is negli- 
gible. 

The objection frequently urged against concrete culverts, 
that of developing cracks which permit loss of water and con- 
sequent undermining of the culvert, is of minor importance. 
Deep cut-off walls on the upper and lower ends are necessary 
to prevent scour, anyway, and these will minimize the danger 
from leakage. 

Care must be exercised in building concrete culverts, both 
in the selection of the materials and in the preparation of the 
subgrade to receive the structure. The building of concrete 
culverts cannot be left to inexperienced hands, and therein 
the metal pipe culvert has an advantage, for an ordinary 
"handy man" can lay a good pipe culvert without special 
training. 

In some vicinities the condition of the soil and water de- 
teriorates concrete. If there is any suspicion of the presence 
of alkali in either soil or water, concrete should be used spar- 
ingly and with great care. 

Corrugated metal culverts are, I believe, the solution of 
the small culvert problem. They are easily installed by inex- 
perienced men, their first cost is below other satisfactory con- 
struction, and, if made of proper material, they are durable. 
In cases where alkali or other detrimental materials are en- 
countered corrugated metal gives the only durable culvert, 
and this material should be used. 

In metals used for culverts I compel the sellers to furnish 
an analysis of their metals, showing the various impurities in 
them, and subject the material to further test if it is deemed 
advisable. These analyses are scrutinized for the presence of 
detrimental elements, particularly carbon, manganese, sul- 



Ifatj. ms 



MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES 



317 




CORRUGATED IRON CULVERT, part 
circle, showing the load it can carry 
when properly set. 



phur, silicon and phosphorus, and a maximum scale is adopt- 
ed. If the analysis shows excessive impurities, the metal is 
rejected. This is, I believe, the common practice among en- 
gineers. 

The design of these metal culverts is important. Certain 
forms on the market are too liable to crushing under the 
traffic and should be avoided. 

I am convinced that for culverts from S inches up to 24 
inches in diameter, or less than 4 square feet of area, pure 
iron culverts are the best, from the viewpoint of both first 
cost and maintenance, while for culverts having an area of 5 
square feet and over, concrete of proper design is advisable, 
unless local conditions show that concrete will deteriorate; 
then pure iron should be used up to a diameter of 6 or even 
7 feet. 



Koehring Catalog a Valuable Book on Mixer, Machine 
Placing and Crew Handling 

The new catalog of the Koehring Machine Company, ex- 
clusive manufacturers of concrete mixers, Milwaukee, is be- 
ing offered to contractors. This is in many ways of value to 
the concrete contractor, outside of its information and de- 
scription of Koehring mixers. 

The catalog itself is an unusually large one of ninety-nine 
pages, with cover printed in four colors, and inside pages in 
three colors. 

It illustrates and describes the entire Koehring line: 

Side loaders: 4, 7, 10, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30, 44 cubic feet. 

Pavers: 6, 11, 18, 22 cubic feet. 

Hot mixers: 10, 18, 20 cubic feet. 

A special feature which will be especially valuable to con- 
tractors are the innumerable photographs showing Koehring 
mixers on the job. These photographs are large sized and 
show good detail of the contract. They offer an opportunity 
to study crew-handling, the placing of mixer, materials, etc., 
with a view of minimizing labor costs, and securing the great- 
est possible efficiency. 

The catalog, of course, contains detailed descriptions of 



construction, of special automatic features including the 
Koehring batch-meter, of new features of side loaders which 
permit discharge to be controlled from four positions, two on 
either side of the mixer, increased leverage of discharge 
lever securing easier operation. It also shows new auto- 
matic knockout and brake on loading skip by which the load- 
ing skip automatically stops at charging position, and stays 
there until released. Another improvement, which has the 
importance of invention, is the power-driven platform-con- 
trolled distributing spout, by which the distributing spout is 
lengthened or shortened, or swung to any position by the 
operator on the control platform, with the same flexibility as 
the boom and bucket system. The spout maintains uniform 
distance from the ground at every point of delivery. 

While the Koehring mixer, as described in the new cata- 
log, remains standard in principal features, many improve- 
ments and refinements in detail have been made which add 
materially to smoothness of operation and low maintenance. 



Machine vs. Hand Sweeping 

The city of Litchfield, 111., has conducted some tests with 
the pick-up sweeper manufactured by the Baker Manufactur- 
ing Company, Springfield, 111., the purpose of which was to 
determine the relative cost of machine and hand street sweep- 
ing. The tests were conducted by Mr. Frank Hagerdorn, su- 
perintendent of streets. 

The following description of the tests is abstracted from 
his report: 

Hand sweeping creates, when streets are dry, as much 
dust as would be raised by sweeping with ordinary open 
sweeping machine, but as the dust created by hand sweeping 
is spread over a much greater length of time, it is not noticed 
nearly so much as the clouds that are raised by a passing 
open broom machine. Heretofore the brick-paved streets out- 
side of a few blocks in the business district have been cleaned 
by hand with push brooms on an average of about three times 
each year. 

Sweeping by hand costs from 75 cents to $1.00 per block, 
according to the energy expended by men employed to do the 
work with push brooms, and a fair average estimate would 
be 85 cents per block. The Baker pick-up sweeper, on the op- 
eration of which this report is based, can be operated success- 
fully with one team and driver, and will sweep forty blocks 
per day, at a cost of $4.00, the regular price for one man and 
team for city work, or at the rate of 10 cents per block. 

What is termed the business district, cleaned daily, does 
not exceed six or seven blocks, there being seventy-three 
blocks of brick paving outside of that district. All hand 
sweeping is done without sprinkling and the comparative 
cost with the same work done by the Baker sweeper would 
be as follows: 

Hand sweeping 73 blocks, at 85c per block $62.05 

Pick-up sweeper. 73 blocks, at 10c per block 7.30 

Difference $54.75 

Saving, sweeping 73 blocks dry three times $164.25 

Light sprinkling, calculating the cost at the highest price 
charged by Mr. Bishop, will average 14 cents per block, which 
would make the total cost of cleaning by pick-up sweeper after 
light sprinkling, 24 cents per block, a saving over dusty hand 
sweeping of 61 cents per block. The ag on seventy-three 

blocks, one cleaning, would be $44.53, and on three cleanings 
per year, $133.59. 

On the above basis the Baker sweeper would, used without 
sprinkling, more than pay for itself in three years, would Bave 
the street department much trouble and annoyance, would do 
better work in less time, would leave sweepings piled on street 



May, 1915 



318 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




BAKER PICK-UP street sweeper 
in Litchfield, III., just as driver has 
operated the dump, showing pile of 
sweepings on pavement. 



so that much time could be saved in gathering and would not 
create any more dust than hand sweeping. With light 
sprinkling the Baker sweeper would save nearly its cost in 
three years, and would also save the expense of gathering 
sweepings and would entirely eliminate the dust nuisance. 

In these estimates nothing has been allowed for the ex- 
pense of refilling sweeper brush, as push brooms used for 
hand sweeping will cost more for the same amount of work 
than the refilling of brooms for Baker machine. 

The above figures do not include the business district, 
and, in addition to the saving made as shown herein, a con- 
siderable amount should be allowed in favor of machine 
sweeping, as the machine can be used to great advantage in 
the business district. In figuring costs the expense of operat- 
ing has been calculated at $4.00 per day for man and team, 
which is the regular price paid where team is employed for 
one day at a time. The cost of sweeping can be considerably 
reduced if arrangements can be made to employ a team regu- 
larly or if the city should provide its own horses for street 
work. 

It takes one team eight hours to sweep forty blocks. It 
takes another team eight hours to clean up this dirt and haul 
it away to make fills. Sometimes it is hauled seven or eight 
blocks, but it is all cleaned up in about eight hours, so that it 
costs 10 cents a block to clean up the dirt and haul it away. 
The blocks are generally "00 feet square, not including the 
widths of the pavements. The streets are 60 feet wide, with 
24 feet of pavement, except State street, which is 100 feet wide, 
with 84 feet of brick pavement. So figuring, the blocks would 
be about 324 feet long ordinarily. 

When sweeping is done by hand the superintendent of 
streets, in order to secure good results, must give the work 
his personal attention, which prevents him from doing or look- 
ing after other work, and his salary, when hand sweeping is 
being done, should be charged against the cost of hand sweep- 
ing in addition to the figures shown herein. 

The Baker sweeper will not only pay for itself within the 
time specified, but it will be a great advantage to the depart- 
ment, in that it will be able to keep the streets in much better 
condition than heretofore, and also because of the fact that 
whenever it is desired on special occasions to put the streets 
in perfect order the work can be done on short notice, and for 
further reason that after show or circus days, or the times 
when large crowds are present and the streets are littered 
with refuse, it will be possible for the department to clean up 



after midnight, so that the streets will be in good condition 
for the next day. This advantage is worth much, as it will 
remove one cause for complaint. 

In connection with the street sweeping there should be 
used a light bottom-dump wagon for removing refuse and 
street sweepings without littering the streets, saving much 
time in dumping refuse as compared with ordinary leaky 
wagon beds and dump boards. 



Efficient Lighting Service 
On May 1, 1915, the Mitchell Vance Company became a 
part of Johns-Manville lighting service. Under this arrange- 
ment, the Mitchell Vance Company will devote its entire 
effort to the development, design and manufacture of light- 
ing equipment, while the marketing of this product will he 
solely in the hands of the H. W. Johns-Manville Company 
thru its country-wide service-sales organization. 

The real significance of this arrangement reaches further 
in the combined efforts of these two companies, for it estab- 
lishes under one guidance three great divisions of lighting 
effort. For highly specialized and localized illumination the 
well-known Frink and .T. M. Linolite systems of lighting; in 
i thetic and commercial lighting the Mitchell Vance product, 
whirl] for fifty years has figured in the lighting of Ameri- 
ca's representative buildings: linked with this the profes- 
sional co-operation and installation service of the Johns-Man- 
ville Company thru its lighting specialists and construction 
departments thruout the United States and Canada. 



Strengthening the Macadam Road to Meet Modern 
Traffic 

For many years the navies of the world have seen a con- 
test between the maker of armor plate and the gun. It began 
when the Merrimac sailed out before the fleets of the United 
States and let the cannon balls bounce off its iron-plated sides, 
whereupon all the naval guns in the world became obsolete. 

So guns of higher power were created, which punctured 
the armor plate of that day with neatness and dispatch. 
Thereupon the armor maker produced heavier and stronser 
steel; whereupon the gun maker again produced more power- 
_ ful guns. 

A similar contest, as old as man, has been waged between 
the vehicle and the road. Thanks to the genius of MacAdam, 
there was a long period in recent history when the road 

May, 1915 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 





Preserves Roads 
Prevents Dust- 



40 miles 

of Tarvia Roads — 



and \\ ashinglon Boulevard. 
Treated with "Tarvia B" 



The great automobile boulevard be- 
tween Washington, D. C, and Balti- 
more, Md., is tarviated from end to 
end. 

The Tarvia treatment has given the 
road a firm, waterproof, durable sur- 
face — free from dust and mud — and 
one that is not affected by the wear 
and tear of swift motor car traffic. 



Another great Maryland state road — 
the Baltimore-Annapolis Boulevard — 
also is tarviated for about twenty miles 
of its twenty-eight mile length, and re- 
sults have been most satisfactory. 

Owing to its very low cost and satis- 
factory results, the Tarvia form of road 
treatment and construction is growing 
more popular every year. 



Special Service Department 



This company has a corps of trained engin- 
eers and chemists who have given years of 
study to modern road problems. 
The advice of these men may be had for 
the asking by anyone interested. 



If you will write to the nearest office re- 
garding road problems and conditions in 
your vicinity, the matter will have prompt 
attention. 



BARRETT MANUFACTURING COMPANY 



:*Jik 



•Jew York Chicago Philadelph 

Pittsburgh Detroit Birmingham Kans 
The Paterson Mfg. Co.. L 
St. John, N 



Boston St. Louis Cleveland Cincinnat 

;as City Minneapolis Salt Lake City Seattle 

Montreal Toronto Winnipeg Vancouver 
Halifax. N. S. Sydney. N. S. 



320 



MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES 




WEST WEBSTER STREET, Chillicothc, 
Mo., showing condition of road before Tarvia 
was used. 



easily withstood the vehicle. The smooth, hard, macadam 
road, however, invited the development of the automobile and 
still more recently the motor truck, and macadam roads were 
doomed to swift and general destruction. 

Now, however, the road is getting the better of it again, 
thanks to the development of the modern bituminous binders, 
of which Tarvia is the best known. 

Many of the old macadam roads do not require rebuilding, 
and processes have been developed for applying Tarvia to the 
old surface in such a way as to preserve them from the ravages 
of modern traffic. In building new roads or rebuilding the 
old, Tarvia binders are used which are so strong that the 
stones are held in place, despite the efforts of traffic to dis- 
lodge them. 

It is now ten years since these modern binders were intro- 
duced into this country, and the experience of many communi- 
ties runs back over the whole period. In Newton, Mass., for 
instance, there is a section of Newton boulevard which was 
treated nine years ago with Tarvia, at a cost of 14 cents per 
square yard. The cost of maintenance of the whole Newton 
boulevard, subsequently all treated, comprising five miles of 
the heaviest traveled automobile road out of Boston, 60 feet 
wide, has been brought down to $1,200 per year. This in- 
cludes cleaning and all work done on the surface of whatever 
nature. 

Cleveland, Ohio, has a stretch on Bellflower road which 
was put down in 1905. It has been in service ten years. 



Many other towns experimented with Tarvia in the early 
days, and have now settled down to the use of this material as 
a fixed policy. 

Plainfield, N. J., is one of these, and it now has thirty-six 
miles of well-kept, tarviated road, the result of a consistent 
and economical policy that was inaugurated in 1908. 

Another town is Westfield, N. J., with upwards of nineteen 
miles of smooth roads that have been maintained and made 
dustless with Tarvia at a very low cost. 

Important parks and cemeteries have adopted Tarvia for 
their roads. The tarviated roads are clean enough and dry 
enough to use as walks, and at the same time the surface will 
withstand the transportation of heavy monuments. Grace- 
land Cemetery, in Chicago, began in 1909 to tarviate its roads, 
and now has completed the treatment of its entire system. 

Government engineers have been using Tarvia largely in 
the roads about Washington, the White House driveway hav- 
ing been maintained with this material since 1911. 

Undoubtedly the use of Tarvia-reinforced roads is still only 
in its infancy. The automobile has already spread over the 
continent and the motor truck is fast following. The latter 
is already a serious problem in England and in some of the 
most congested centers of the United States. 

The more efficient the motor truck becomes the larger loads 
it will carry and the greater will be the burden it imposes on 
the roadway. Motor bus and jitney, which threaten to become 
scMiinis competitors of the street car. also bring their prob- 



WEST WEBSTER STREET, Chillicothc. 
Mo., showing condition of same street after 
Tarvia was used. 




MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



QUALITY and SERVICE 

YOU GET BOTH IN 

BITULITHIC 

This name stands for the finest monolithic bituminous construction that the ingenuity 
of man has yet devised. Bitulithic represents a high degree of "Quality," renders un- 
failing "service." 

We could build Bitulithic cheaper but we won't. 
We would build Bitulithic better but we can't. 

The integrity of the construction of Bitulithic and the satisfaction of municipalities 
which have and are still using it, far outweigh any saving in first cost. 




Dartmouth Street, Boston, Mass., June 15, 1914, from Marlboro Street, looking toward Beacon Street. 
Bitulithic surface, laid on old macadam foundation in 1903. 

In these days of frenzied competition in the paving field, we believe this declaration 
of principle is needed. And our reputation of many years' standing in the street paving 
industry will back it up. 

Bitulithic can be laid as satisfactorily over sound macadam foundation as over con- 
crete foundation. 

Do not hesitate— Investigate at once— Specify Bitulithic and have a pavement which 
is "built up to a high standard and not down to a low cost"— a pavement suitable under 
varying climatic conditions and all kinds of traffic. 

Write today for illustrated booklets— it will be worth your while. 

Warren Brothers Company 

Executive Offices: BOSTON, MASS. 



NEW YORK, N. Y 
50 Church St. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 
10 S. LaSalle St. 
NASHVILLE, TENN. 
606 First National Bank Bldg 



DISTRICT OFFICES: 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. LOS ANGELES, CAL 

303 Main St., W. 926 Calif. Bldg. 

RICHMOND. VA. 
Virginia Railway & Power Bldg. 



PORTLAND. ORE. 
Journal Bldg. 

ST. LOUIS, M0. 
Railway Exchange Bldg. 



PHOENIX. ARIZ. 
204 Noll Bldg. 



322 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



lems. The public, since it maintains the right of way gratis, 
is interested in furnishing the new traffic proof surfaces. 

Accordingly, it is easy to prophesy that plain macadam 
without bituminous treatment will become everywhere a thing 
of the past, as it has already in many localities. Unfit for 
modern traffic, it must be discarded in favor of roads that are 
firmly united by some plastic bituminous binder like Tarvia. 



Studebaker is distributing the book without charge to all 
who ask for it 



How to Clean Streets 

Clean streets, how to best keep them clean in the most 
economical manner, is the subject of a new booklet published 
by Studebaker, of South Bend, Ind. 

For over half a century Studebaker has been supplying the 
farmers of the United States with welcome information rela- 
tive to stock, seeds, soils and the thousand and one things a 
farmer might be supposed to be interested in. 

The new booklet gives city and county clerks, municipal 
engineers, street cleaning departments, boards of works, etc., 
a mass of statistical information about street cleaning which 
is bound to be just as valuable to the civic expert as Stude- 
baker farm hints have been to the farmer. 

The book deals with methods of keeping streets clean. 
Street sweeping, sprinkling, oil distribution on city and coun- 
try roads, are all worked out in easily understood formulas 
and in such a way that the overworked city clerk or boro en- 
gineer can turn to its pages and get the information he seeks. 

The number of square yards sprinkled by different types 
and sizes of sprinklers, the angles at which brushes of street 
cleaners should be set to get maximum results, and the easy 
conversion of water sprinklers into tree sprayers or oil 
sprinklers are discussed at length. 

The detailed costs of street cleaning per square yard per 
year offer material for interesting comparison by any one 
who must keep watch over such expenditures. An important 
feature is the part devoted to the reports of a number of 
street cleaning departments. Here are collected in one place 
the conclusions of experts that one could get in no other way 
except by reading many volumes to find the important sta- 
tistics the Studebaker compiler has arranged in a few pages. 

While the information is primarily for municipalities, it 
also contains valuable information for managers of country 
clubs, race tracks and large estates. Dump wagons, auto- 
matic pressure oil distributers and gravity road oilers come 
in for distinctive treatment. There are parts of the book that 
cover particularly matters of interest to village improvement 
associations. 



STUDEBAKER STREET SWEEPER mtn sprinkl- 
ing attachment, so that separate sprinkling eart is not 
required. 




New Pavements for Old 

Many communities have worn-out brick pavements which, 
while they are worse than useless as pavements, nevertheless 
afford an excellent foundation. 

Street surfaces of this description can be made over into 
good pavements by placing a sheet asphalt or asphaltic con- 
crete top on the old brick. Concrete pavements which, by 
cracking or disintegration of the surface, have reached an un- 
satisfactory condition can be resurfaced in the same way. 

Resurfacing of this description, when properly done, pro- 
vides a new pavement for the price of the asphaltic top. 

The cost of reconstruction of this kind will, of course, 
vary with local conditions, but it will be far below the cost 
of a new pavement, even when the best asphalts are used. 

It is the worst kind of waste to throw away the invest- 
ment in old brick, concrete or even macadam highways, when 
these can be used as foundations for new pavements, which, 
at very moderate cost, can be made a big improvement over 
the old ones. 

The Barber Asphalt Paving Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
which has laid many successful asphaltic tops on worn pave- 
ments of brick, concrete and macadam, using Trinidad and 
Bermudez asphalts, gives the following instructions as to how 
the work should be done to produce the good results which 
they have shown are possible: 

The first essential in work of this character is that the old 
pavement shall be thoroughly clean. Dirst must be not only 
swept from the surface, but removed from the cracks. This 
can be done with wire brooms. However this is done, it must 
be done thoroly. Use of a fire hose will ascomplish the re- 
moval of dirt even more effectively than sweeping, but if 
water is used the surface must be allowed to dry off thoroly. 

Preparing the Old Surface. — Minor depressions in the old 
pavement may be brought up to a uniform contour by the use 
of binder (half-inch stone with about 4 per cent, asphalt ce- 
ment), but no depressions of more than 2 inches should be filled 
in this way. These latter should be cut out and filled from 
sub-base to surface with hydraulic concrete. 

The Paint Coat. — To secure perfect adhesion between the 
foundation and the asphaltic top, the brick or concrete should 
receive a paint coat composed of equal parts by volume of 
commercial naphtha and asphalt cement of 50 penetration, 
applied at the rate of not more than one gallon per square 
yard of surface. 

Do not attempt to put this paint coat on a dirty or wet 
foundation. If a surface heater is available it will pay to 
warm up the street before the paint coat is applied. Dust or 
dampness prevents proper adhesion of the paint coat to the 
brick or concrete. Fill all depressions with concrete or binder 
as indicated: then clean and apply the paint coat. 

The Wearing Surface. — As soon as the lighter parts of the 
paint coat have evaporated, and before it has had a chance 
to accumulate dust and dirt, the surface mixture should be 
placed and rolled. Either sheet asphalt or asphaltic concrete, 
each of 2 inches in thickness, may form the new wearing 
surface. 

In cases where the curb is very low, and for this reason it 
is undesirable to make the wearing surface 2 inches thick at 
the curb, it may be reduced from 2 inches at the crown of the 
street to a lesser thickness at the curb. In one case where 
very successful resurfacing of this description has been done 
the asphalt top ranges from 2 inches at the crown to 1 inch 
at the curb: but so thin a wearing surface, even at the curb 
line, is not recommended as safe practice. 



Man. 1915 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




Neighborizing the Farmer 



One of the most significant facts 
of our telephone progress is that one- 
fourth of the 9,000,000 telephones in 
the Bell System are rural. 

In the days when the telephone was 
merely a "city convenience," the farms of 
the country were so many separated 
units, far removed from the centers of 
population, and isolated by distance 
and lack of facilities for communication. 
But, as the telephone reached out 
beyond cities and towns, it completely 
transformed farm life. It created new 
rural neighborhoods here, there and 
everywhere. 

Stretching to the farthest corners of 
the states, it brought the remotest vil- 
lages and isolated places into direct 
contact with the larger communities. 
Today, the American farmer enjoys 
the same facilities for instant, direct 



communication as the city dweller. 
Though distances between farms are 
reckoned in miles as the crow flies, the 
telephone brings every one as close as 
next door. Though it be half a day s 
journey to the village, the farmer is but 
a telephone call away. 

Aside from its neighborhood value, 
the telephone keeps the farmer in touch 
with the city and abreast of the times. 
The Bell System has always recog- 
nized rural telephone development as 
an essential factor of Universal Service. 
It has co-operated with the farmer to 
achieve this aim. 

The result is that the Bell System 
reaches more places than there are post 
offices and includes as many rural 
telephones as there are telephones or 
all kinds in Great Britain, France and 
Germany combined. 




AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY 

And Associated Companies 

One Policy One System Universal Service 



324 



MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES 



An Efficient Power Trench Tamper 

In recent years there has been a constant demand from con- 
tractors, public service companies and others engaged in lay- 
ing of pipe lines for a more efficient, convenient and cheaper 
method of tamping trenches. To meet this demand a number 
of tamping machines have been placed on the market or tried 
out experimentally. One of the latest and one of the most 
satisfactory machines of its kind is that which is manufac- 
tured by Pawling & Harnischfeger Company, Milwaukee, Wis. 

It is a power trench tamper, the wheels being carried on 
stub axles of steel which may be raised or lowered, throwing 
a leverage of 5 inches on either side from the center of the 
upright members of the main frame to which they are at- 
tached. This device makes it possible to keep the machine 
level even tho one wheel may raise 10 inches above the other. 
This adjustment enables the machine to he used satisfactorily 
on streets having a very steep crown or on curb and gutter 
bases. 

The axles of the "P & H" power traction tamper are car- 
ried out far enough to allow for the widening of the wheel 
tread 12 inches on either side or 24 inches in all. The mini- 
mum tread is 4 feet S inches and the maximum fi feet S 
inches. 

The tamping head moves across the machine on a solid 
steel runway. The tamping head is 12 inches wide and has a 
maximum cross-travel of 20 inches enabling it to actually 
cover about 32 inches of trench. Since it is never necessary 
to tamp closer than 4 inches to the wall of a trench, the 
machine will handle a 40-inch trench. The tamping ram is 
operated by means of a large segment brought in contact 
with the hard wood ram by spring pressure on a large pulley 
on the opposite side of the ram. This segment is caused to 
revolve from 50 to 60 times per minute, causing a stroke of 
the ram at every revolution. This stroke has an average of 



22 inches' travel, and the ram and tamping head together 
weigh 150 pounds. 

The machine is operated by means of a 4-h.p., 4-cycle 
gasoline engine fitted with friction clutch pulley with 4-inch 
face, water cooled. The transmission is accomplished by 
means of friction clutches and chains. All high speed chains 
are of hardened steel. The steering gear consists of worm 
and wheel on cross-shaft steel cable connected to the front 
axle. A track speed of 1 1/3 miles per hour is provided for 
road travel, and this may be varied by changing the governor 
of the engine. 

Full specifications and more detailed description of this 
machine are given in Bulletin No. S of Pawling & Harnisch- 
feger Company, Milwaukee, Wis. 



TRENCH TAMPER mnfl<: 
in operation on trench. 



by Pawling ami Harnisrhirn> , r. 



A Perishable Dividing Plate for Expansion Joints in 
Concrete 

A new invention has reference to improvements in dividing 
plates for expansion joints for concrete curbing and the like, 
and may also be used for sidewalk and other concrete work. 
Such dividing plates are usually of metal and temporarily in- 
serted between two doncrete sections. When the concrete at- 
tains its initial or final set, the dividing plates are removed, 
whereby a slot is created between two adjoining concrete sec- 
tions which permits of their expansion and contraction. 

Recognition of the necessity of providing certain means 
for securing definite joints as a protection against possible 
damage to the concrete sections, due to expansion and con- 
traction, led to the use of these so-called dividing plates. The 
dividing plates originally took the form of slotted metal 
strips about one-eighth of an inch thick. Some of those de- 
vices made of metal are held by long steel pins, which provide 
a rigid, accurate and durable means for separating the con- 
crete sections. Flexible strips may be used for curves of any 
desired radius and means for making the form and dividing 
plates a single unit are known. 

Concrete curbing, sidewalks, concrete roads, etc., are laid 




■1 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




That's the kind of work 
users get out of their 



Photo above shows Austin Trenching 
Machine handling huge boulders, along 
with other hard material in the trench. 



Photo at left shows a No. 1 Austin cut- 
ting 530 lineal feet a day — 42 in. wide, 
16 feet deep — through clay. 



AUSTIN 

Trenching Machines 



If you have a machine of superior me- 
chanical design like the Austin Trenching 
Machine, you can rest assured that you 
are not going to have any breakdowns on 
the job. 

Among the highly-important advantages 
of the Austin Trenching Machine are: 
Multipedal Traction. Buckets dig full 
width of the trench instead of being at- 
tached to a weak, uncertain operating- 
boom which shifts laterally. The buckets 
dig by a powerful straight pull, which 
means the excavating of the maximum 
quantity of earth for the fuel and power 
expended. There is practically no loss of 



power through gears, from generation of 
power at boiler to point of actual digging. 
The use of belt eliminates breakages when 
obstructions are encountered. 

Buckets are automatically self-cleaning 
by means of a positive mechanical method, 
enabling quick and efficient digging in any 
kind of soil. 

Bear in mind that the AUSTIN is the 
machine that has made such low-cost sea- 
son records as 3 2 3 cents per cubic yard of 
material removed — also that it is built in 
nine sizes, and that we can most certainly 
take care of your requirements, whatever 
they are. 



Write for a copy of Catalogue No. 106- A 

F. C. AUSTIN DRAINAGE EXCAVATOR CO. 

Railway Exchange, CHICAGO. 

Pacific Coast Agents: P. B. Engh, Los Angeles, Pacific Electric Bldg.; San Francisco, Hooker-Lent Bldg. 
The Beebe Co., Portland, 186 W. Morrison St. 

AGENTS WANTED FOR OPEN TERRITORY. 



326 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERINU 



in sections of suitable length and not continuously monolithic 
for several reasons: First, to accommodate expansion and 
contraction of the concrete; second, to guard against breaking 
and damage in case of settlement of the sub-structure; third, 
to facilitate sectional construction without removing tempo- 
rary obstructions in the right of way. The usual method em- 
ployed to accommodate the foregoing is the employment of 
steel, wood or iron dividers, or, as they are called, dividing 
plates of suitable shapes and thickness, which are set or 
placed at intervals. After their removal the open joint or 
space displaced by it is filled with sand or other suitable ma- 
terial. 

The disadvantages of this method are clearly shown when 
the following is considered: First, it is had policy to leave 
the plates in position antil the concrete has attained its in- 
itial or final set, as it may bond together. The removal of the 
plates then certainly becomes at times dangerous and trouble- 
some. Second, the premature removal of the plates often de- 
stroys all edges, which have to be replaced after the forms 
are stripped. Third, it prevents a continuous, uninterrupted 
operation and saving of labor, as the forming as well as the 
filling of the joints with the filler can only be made after the 
concrete has become sufficiently hard or set. 

It is the purpose of the present invention to overcome the 
described defects and to produce what I term perishable di- 
viding plates, which deteriorate under atmospheric influences 
and crumble up so as to allow of expansion and contraction of 
the concrete sections, and the narrow opening formed by the 
deterioration of the perishable plate will be filled up gradually 
bj ilirt or dust which settles therein. Thus the novel divid- 
ing plates which are perishable will be applied between the 
concrete sections and will remain therein, so that no removal 
is necessary, whereby time and wages are saved. To attain 
this purpose the perishable plates consist of an organic sub- 
stance such as sawdust, wood meal and the like, a mineral 
substance such as common sand, and a glutinous binding ma- 
terial such as water-soluble glue, gum tragacanth or the like. 
The proportions in which such materials are mixed may vary 
according to the time they are intended to stand and accord- 
ing to the atmospheric condition prevailing in certain regions. 
The sawdust or wood meal, for instance, is mixed with some 
fine sand and some powdered glue and the perishable plates 
are pressed into shape of the desired size. The surfaces of 
each plate are treated with an oily substance to prevent bond- 
ing with the concrete. Each plate may be made of one or 
more layers which are pressed or joined together to attain 
sufficient strength or stiffness. A perishable plate thus pro- 
duced is sufficiently strong to act as a dividing plate and 
elastic enough in itself to accommodate expansion and con- 
traction; in the course of time, however, by atmospheric 
influence and action it will deteriorate and leave the desired 
joint. The glutinous substance is dissolved and the sand and 
sawdust settle in loose form. In the case of a curb the desired 
opportunity for expansion is given. Similar action takes place 
in any joint so far as the destruction of the dividing plate is 
concerned, which leaves the joint open to receive whatever dirt 
may reach it. 

The invention is put on the market by F. William Stocker, 
Inc., 1031 Clinton St., Hoboken. X. J., who deal also in pro- 
tection bars, waterproofing and other appliances and mate- 
rials for concrete construction. 




FLEET OF TRANSPORTATION COMPANY'S 

motor busses in use in Ban Francisco, Cal. 



Each bus is fully equipped with Goodrich wireless truck 
tires — ideal for passenger service, inasmuch as they afford 
maximum resiliency and add materially to the comfort of the 
ride. Extra resiliency also relieves the mechanism of much 
of the shock it would otherwise sustain from unevennesses in 
the road, and means longer life to the vehicle as well as a 
diminution in repair bills. 

When you reach San Francisco this year keep a lookout 
for a LTniversal bus, note the condition of the wireless tires, 
ask the courteous driver regarding the mileage already deliv- 
ered, and then enjoy a restful, vibrationless ride. 



Wireless Truck Tires on Exposition Busses 

A fleet of ten Jeffrey 1%-ton passenger busses has just 
been put into service by the Universal Bus and Taxi Com- 
pany, of San Francisco, for the accommodation of visitors. 
Seven of these are shown in the illustration. 



Trade Notes 

The Southwark Foundry and Machine Company, Philade! 
phia, Pa., will hereafter manufacture the Harris valveless 
Diesel engine which will be known as the Southwark-Harris 
valveless engine. 

The Atlas Portland Cement Company is preparing to build 
a large new cement plant costing about $1,000,000, one mile 
east of Tippecanoe City, Ohio. 

Keuffel & Esser Company, New York, have a new circular 
descriptive of their surveyors' duplex slide rule. 

The Lynchburg Foundry Company have moved their gen- 
eral sales office from Lynchburg, Va., to Chicago, 111., where 
they have located in the People's Gas building, with G. R. 
Johnson as general sales manager. Their pipe factories are 
at Lynchburg and Radford, Va., and Anniston, Ala. 

The American Granite Company, Milwaukee, Wis., have 
just closed a lease of their Lohrville, Wis., quarries, the 
largest in the west, to the Universal Granite Company. ?9 
South La Salle street, Chicago, 111., who will erect a new- 
large crushing plant and go into the granite block and crushed 
granite business. The American Granite Company will take 
over the monumental granite business and continue the op- 
eration of their Red Wausau quarries and their Milwaukee 
plant. They report business very good. 

A. D. Cook, Lawrenceburg, Ind., is now the manufacturer 
and selling agent of the Cook Well Company's goo Is. that 
company retiring from active business. 

The Philadelphia Quartz Company, of Philadelphia. Pa- 
has extended the work of its Rocmac road department by 
opening a branch office in Harrisburg, Pa., with M. T. Calef. 
road engineer for the company, in charge, and one in Ander- 
son, Ind., with B. E. Miller in charge. 



it ay. ifir, 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 

The World's Leading Municipal Publication 



'^7 



VOL. XLVIII. 



JUNE, 1915. 



EDITORIAL 



In a democratic form of govern- 
NATIONAL nient the legislative and executive 
HIGHWAYS departments follow the demands of 
their constituents and seldom or 
never attempt the control or influencing of the people 
by the methods used in countries whose forms of gov- 
ernment are more or less paternal. 

To be sure, much legislation is enacted which has 
an educational or paternal object more or less clearly 
indicated, but such laws are passed under the pressure 
of constituents of the law-makers and do not express 
any definite theory of the principles of government. 
Moreover, unless a large 'majority of the people are 
favorable to the laws thus pushed thru the legisla- 
ture, the executive departments, in their turn con- 
sidering their constituents and their votes, fail to en- 
force the laws and conditions are worse than if the 
laws had not been passed, even from the standpoint 
of education. 

It is a common experience among those who are 
trying to develop some movement for the benefit or 
the advancement of the public that the need and the 
value of the project must first be demonstrated thru 
private initiative and that then, public opinion being- 
aroused in its favor, the governmental body takes it 
over and thereafter operates and develops it as a pub- 
lic charge. 

The projects for the establishment and construction 
of national highways have been following the line 
above laid out. Very attractive general systems of 
national and inter-state highways have been laid out 
and Congress has been besieged by many organiza- 
tions and to some extent by the general public with 
requests and even demands that the National Govern- 
ment assume the construction of such a system. I'p 
to the present time, public opinion in general has not 
been positively in favor of such an extension of gov- 
ernmental activities and the majority in Congress has 
really represented the ideas of the majority of the 
people. The same is true in some states, such as In- 
diana, where public opinion is not yet favorable to 
state construction and control of main highways, not- 
withstanding the successful experience of neighboring 
and other states where state highway construction has 
been satisfactory in proportion to the extent of the 
state control. 
June, i9ir, 



Meantime, the National Old Trails road, the Lin- 
coln highway, the National Parks highway, and within 
a few days the Dixie highway, have been promoted 
by those most interested in these lines, and their con- 
struction is being induced by every means possible. 
This construction must be irregular in quality and 
cost because it must be done by the local communi- 
ties. Numerous other long north-and-south and east- 
and-west lines, as well as shorter lines, have had their 
days of prominence and have proved too serious prob- 
lems for private initiative to solve. All of them, as 
well as the agitation in Congress and the few laws 
and appropriations which have found their way thru. 
have been educative, and ultimately, the promoters of 
the roads mentioned, and others yet to come up, will 
demonstrate the value of national lines and a national 
system sufficiently to influence a majority of the peo- 
ple to consider them favorably, when legislation and 
appropriations will follow. 

Perhaps because of the rivalries stimulated by the 
promoters between competing lines for the location of 
the national line, especially in the case of the Dixie 
highway, the influence of local conditions and of local 
organizations upon the location of the main line has 
been fully demonstrated, and will in time form the 
basis of a strong argument in favor of control of the 
lines of the system by a national authority, which can 
be outside and influenced but little by local jealousies 
and special interests, at the same time that it will take 
into consideration the demands of local traffic and 
take care of the national characteristics of the line. 

This conflict of local interests has been more pro- 
nounced in the case of the Dixie highway than in that 
of the National Old Trails or the Lincoln highways 
because the latter follow closely old established con- 
tinental lines of travel and the location of but little 
of their lengths could be contested or changed by in- 
terests off of those continental lines. Indeed, the great 
majority of the local as well as national interest is 
concentrated on those lines. 

We may soon look for greater favor for the project 
of national highways under some form of national 
control and financing, tho it may be some years befi " 
national highway expenditures will vie with river and 
harbor appropriations. 



FINANCING AND BUILDING 
A COUNTY HIGHWAY 



The financing of the construction of a road is 
a problem of engineering as well as the construc- 
tion itself, the only difference being that in the 
first case men are to be brought into proper rela- 
tions with the improvement and in the other the 
materials are to be placed where they will do the 
most good. This article shoivs the problems aris- 
ing in a Michigan case, where the conditions are 
similar to those in many other counties in the 
state, the public-spirited way in which they were 
attacked, and the marked success resulting from 
intelligent, concerted effort on a well considered 
course of action. 

The story of the financing of the road is supple- 
mented by brief descriptions of the methods and 
apparatus used in building the road, which is now 
ivell under way, the first section to be completed 
this summer. 



MICHIGAN has a township system of building roads 
which has been in operation for many years. Some 
years ago this system was supplemented by an op- 
tional county system. Under the provisions of this law, the 
county could by vote choose to build roads under a board 
of county commissioners, who have certain powers of issuing 
bonds and levying taxes. The state has a system of awards 
whereby the townships and counties building roads receive 
state aid in the shape of a certain payment toward the cost 
of a road, which is proportional to the mileage and also bears 
a certain relation to the quality of the road, and therefore 
to a certain extent to its cost per unit of length. The state 
has set definite amounts per mile which it will pay for each 
class of road built under the specifications and supervision 
of its highway department. Applications are made for these 
awards and they are made as rapidly as the appropriations 
made by the legislature will permit and the county and town- 
ship authorities comply with the provisions of the law and 
the regulations of the state highway department. 

In Bloomfield township, southeast of Pontiac, Oakland 
county, and running up to the village of Birmingham, is a 
district composed principally of the large estates and coun- 
try homes of influential and wealthy Detroit business men. 
Among them is Edwin S. George. The road he travelled be- 
tween Detroit and his home was a fair sample of a much- 
used, little-cared-for trunk-line highway. In spots it was 
tolerably good. In other spots it was rutted and gullied, and 
in wet weather immeasurably muddy. In the village of Bir- 
mingham itself, there was a hilly mile of the worst highway 
to be found in the county, a spot where stalled autos were 
the rule rather than the exception in bad weather. The 
road has one section of improved roadway, representing the 
enterprise of one township in Oakland county and one in 
Wayne county. 

Mr. George lost patience and put the situation before the 
board of supervisors in Pontiac in no uncertain way and 
asked why the road could not be concreted during the next 
season. 



He was informed of the peculiar system of county road 
building in effect in Oakland county. There are twenty-five 
townships in the county. From a large number of them 
there had come objections, two years before, to the abandon- 
ment of the old township method of highway improvement, 
and it had finally been necessary to make practical pledgas 
that each township would receive each year at least one 
mile of improved road, unless arrangements were made 
among townships to exchange their shares in any particular 
year. The bond issue had failed to carry and the county 
depended for funds on the two-mill tax which the county 
board is authorized by law to levy. 

Should the county board of supervisors undertake the 
improvement of a long stretch of road in Bloomfield town- 
ship, it would consume so much of their funds as to make 
impossible the completion of the of the roads pledged to 
other townships. 

As a means of removing the difficulties, Mr. George, after 
conference with a number of friends, proposed that if the 
county would complete in 1915 a 16-foot concrete road from 
Birmingham toward Detroit to the end of the existing road 
already built in Royal Oak township, he would duplicate the 
reward paid by the state, namely $3,400 a mile. The further 
condition was imposed that Birmingham must pave its mile 
of main street. With the mile in Birmingham the road is 
nearly six miles long. 

This offer met the approval of the state highway com- 
missioner and was duly considered by the board. It meant 
the obtaining of half the trunk-line highway at a cost to 
Oakland county of about $8,000 a mile. The result was that 
the county accepted the offer. That was last October. This 
spring Mr. George, jointly with the board, signed the con- 
tract which gave the work of building the road to the R. D. 
Baker Construction Company, of Detroit. They are to com- 
plete it by August 15 and the work is now under way. 

It is generally understood that Edwin S. George has 
levied on a number of his friends and neighbors to make up 
that $3,400 a mile for about five miles of road, but that is 
not an official announcement. 



TRANSVERSE EXPANSION JOINT having steel plates 
to protect the edges of the sections of concrete, the plates be- 
ing anchored in the concrete as shown by the dotted lines, and. 
the space between them filled with a compressible asphait 
felt. 




FINANCING AND BUILDING A COUNTY HIGHWAY 



329 




EXPANSION JOINT and its protection (is they show in the 
surface of the pavement when in use. 

rfj 

This successful bit of highway promotion woke up the 
business men of Pontiac. That busy county seat saw a con- 
crete highway, broad and inviting to motorists and farmers 
alike, coming within six miles, and stopping there. More 
than that, Pontiac is the terminus of three miles of improved 
road running in a northwesterly direction, tapping farm 
country and forming the first step in better travelling facili- 
ties to the towns of Holly, Clarkston and Waterford. This 
break of nearly six miles in a line now having nearly 
seventeen miles of concrete highway is hilly, rough and hard 
to travel. 

O. J. Beaudette, manufacturer of auto bodies, and W. L. 
Day, manager of the General Motors Truck Company; E. P. 
Waldron, since made president of the Pontiac Commercial 
Association because of his connection with this enterprise, 
and others, began work. Mr. Beaudette started a subscrip- 
tion list with $1,000 and the idea that what George had done 
other people could do. 

Regular and occasional users of the road, two hundred out 
of four hundred automobile drivers in Pontiac, and many 
others subscribed sums ranging from $10 to $100. Real es- 
tate men and owners, cottagers who find pleasure at the 
various lake resorts, non-resident property owners were ap- 
proached and replies and checks were received from Maine 
to Missouri. 

The subscription reached $15,300, duplicating the state 
reward on all of the missing link except about a mile which 
would have been built during the present year as Bloom- 
field township's share of the general fund. The list is said 
to be one of the best testimonials to the value and apprecia- 
tion of good roads that has ever been compiled in Michigan. 
It represents free gifts from every class and condition of 
road users from the business firm which will use the high- 
way daily, to the summer resident who may drive over it 
half a dozen times in a season, and the man living across the 
county who will probably get most satisfaction from it sim- 
ply because he knows it is there. 

Then the committee went before the supervisors, wanting 
the road completed in 1915. The townships rebelled. The 
Birmingham-Royal Oak five miles of construction, even at 
$8,000 a mile or thereabout, would drain the general road 
fund until there was just about enough money left for those 
scattered twenty-three bits of road promised the rest of the 
county. Some local statistician figured out that it was going 



to take seventy-six years at the present rate of work 
to finish all the county roads, and not one was willing 
to make it seventy-seven. The board left the matter 
in the hands of the road committee. This committee 
raised the further objection that there was not room 
for the double-track interurban line of the Detroit- 
Pontiac railway on about a mile of the road on which 
it was located. 

So the subscription committee went forth once 
more and interviewed property owners on the line 
in the Bloomfield district, and imparted so much of 
their own enthusiasm to those property owners that 
a promise of a free gift of enough land for the tracks 
was made. 

Then the workers tackled the apportionment prob- 
Iem. They showed that each township would lose 
from $250 to $1,000 if the gifts of the subscribers 
were turned back. At this moment they also pro- 
posed a compromise, which was that the road be pre- 
pared between Pontiac and Birmingham in 1915 and 
the work actually finished before July 1. 191(1. This was ac- 
cepted. The compromise included the building of one and a 
third miles of concrete road on that stretch this year and 
work will shortly be started on it. 

The entire road is now assured, linking the two automo- 
bile building cities of Detroit and Pontiac with a continuous 
modern pavement. That it is to be ready next year, instead 
of several years from this time, is due to the efforts of the 
committee, E. P. Waldron, chairman; O. J. Beaudette, treas- 
urer; W. L. Day, Dr. R. Y. Ferguson and Harry Coleman. 
The chief thing, however, is that Oakland county has awak- 
ened to the need of a bond issue for good roads, large enough 
to make possible the completion of all main highways within 
three or four years, before the state of Michigan gets thru 
paying rewards. Oakland has been contributing to the work 
in other counties and is just beginning to realize that she 
must hurry to get a return on her money. 

The board of county road commissioners of Oakland coun- 
ty, Mich., of which Pontiac is the county seat, is composed of 
John Adams, chairman; Thomas Lytle and Robert Gamer. 
Martin Deglopper is the engineer, Floyd B. Babcock, clerk, 
and Stanley C. Rogers, deputy clerk. 

The contract for the section southeast of Birmingham was 
taken by the R. D. Baker Construction Co., of Detroit, at the 
following prices: 

Grading per 100 feet, including preparation of road bed, 
rolling, forming shoulders and improving ditches, $14.22. 

Concrete in roadway, complete in one course, including 
rolling sub-grade and sprinkling completed pavement, per 
square yard, $1.67. 

Hard-burned clay tile, per linear foot, 4-in., 10 cents; 6-in., 
15 cents; 12-in., 40 cents; 15-in., 70 cents. 

Furnishing and placing headwalls, culverts, culvert exten- 
sions or repairs per cubic yard, $6.00. 



Slli]': FORMS for lonercte road and method of placing pro- 
tection for expansion joint, showing their relations in use. 




June, 1915 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




Pl'MP which supplies watei 

road is of a type similar to th 
piston force pump. 



is C. H 



pipi line along the 
and E. power-driven 



® 



Furnishing and replacing reinforcing steel in culverts, per 
pound, 3 cents. 

Building concrete catch-basins with cast-iron inlets, each, 
$1.25. 

Completed road constructed according to specifications, 
based on quantities as estimated, but without steel protection 
plates, $58,400.06. 

Complete road, including joint protection, $59,674.27. 

The width of the concrete is 16 feet and its total area is 
42,000 square yards. The cement is 8 inches thick in the 
center and 6 inches at the sides and it has no curb. 

The specifications used are those of the Michigan State 
highways. Class F, cement concrete. Under them the con- 
crete roadway is made 6 inches thick in one course, the 
mixture being 1 part Portland cement, 1% parts of clean, 
sharp sand and 3 parts of broken stone or gravel. 

The sand must be free from loam, clay, vegetable matter 
and dust, well graded from fine to coarse so that the voids 
shall not be greater than 33 per cent, as determined by sat- 
uration, all the sand passing a %-inch mesh screen when dry. 
The coarse aggregate may be either clean, hard, durable 
crushed stone or screened washed gravel, graded in size from 
material retained on %-inch mesh to that passing 2%-inch 
mesh screen. Batch mixer is required. 

Transverse expansion joints are required at least every 30 
feet of the length of the pavement. The joints may be made 
concrete are then smoothed off and the joint filled with 
paving pitch not soft enough to bleed in hot weather nor 
of heavy 3-ply tar paper, or may be formed by placing a 



beveled Mi-inch board shaped to fit the crown, which is with- 
drawn after the concrete has set. The rough edges of the 
brittle enough to chip in cold weather. The lower price for 
the completed pavement, quoted above, is for the use of this 
sort of joint. The Baker steel joint protection plate was 
also bid upon, and increases the total cost of the pavement 
about $1,275. 

The supply of material for a concrete road is one of the 
most important practical details connected with its construc- 
tion. The contractors have supplied themselves with the 
Weller elevating, washing and storage equipment, which re- 
duces the hand labor to a minimum. It is made by the 
Weller Mfg. Co., of Chicago. The pit gravel and sand are 
delivered in drop-bottom cars which dump into a track hopper 
placed below the railroad track. In this hoppe/ Is an apron 
conveyor which delivers the material to a standard Weller 
stone and ore elevator, which carries it to a sand washer 
set on top of the storage bins, about 20 feet above the ground 
level, making the total left about 30 feet. The washer de- 
livers sand to one of the two storage bins and gravel to the 
other. Each bin is about 11 feet square and 11 feet deep and 
is set about 10 feet above the ground, so that teams or in- 
dustrial railway cars run under them and receive their loads 
directly. 

The approved method of delivery of materials to a con- 
crete road under construction is by an industrial railway 
with a small locomotive and trains of contractors' dump cars. 
If the sand and gravel washing plant can be located near 
the middle point of the work on the railroad or a temporary 
track running from it, the cost of preparation and delivery of 
materials is reduced to a minimum. 

The washer for concrete material is made by the Stocker 
Material Washer Co., of Highland, 111. It has the advantage 
that the dirty water is discharged from the machine at the 
end where the unwashed material enters, and the clean water 
enters the machine where the clean gravel and sand are dis- 
charged, the material having been alternately dropped into 
the water, agitated, lifted out and carried a short distance 
forward and again dropped into the water, each time advanc- 
ing into cleaner water. The chutes handling the material 
can be set so as to change the time which it takes the ma- 
terial to pass thru the machine according to the amount of 
washing it requires. 

The water used on the work is pumped three hundred 
yards, three-inch pipe being used. 

TRACTIOX-EXGIXE-ROLLER and trailer used for rolling 

sub-grade and hauling materials. 




FINANCING AND BUILDING A COUNTY HIGHWAY 




UPPER CUT SHOWS side forum ioined to make tin m con- 
tinuous. Lower cut shows tico sections of the channel-shaped 
side rail with fish-plate attached to one of them. The plate 
slides under the eccentric roller on the other channel find the 
pins slip into the holes. A port turn ot the roller hinds the 
plate in place and makes the joint rigid. 

In preparing the sub-grade for the reception of the con- 
crete pavement the Baker company use Port Huron road 
rollers, and other apparatus from the line of road-making ma- 
chinery made by the Port Huron Engine and Thresher Co., 
Port Huron, Mich. The design of these rollers is exceed- 
ingly simple because the operation of a road roller is often 
intrusted to unskilled labor and the danger of accident, as 
well as the frictional wear of the machine from neglect, 
must be reduced to a minimum. Outside gear trains, re- 
duced to four in number, location of shafts so that they are 
outside and easily accessible, simple modern valve motion, 
are' some of the points of simplicity and convenience of main- 
tenance which are prominent in the design. 

The front rollers are so attached to the yoke that they 
conform to great unevenness in the roadway without strain. 
The rear rollers are side hung, so that the wheel base is 
short enough to permit short turns, a very great convenience, 
if not an absolute necessity many times. The axles are re- 
movable and reversible for renewal of bearings and the hubs 
have renewable bushings. 



The concrete mixer used on the work is the batch mixer 
made by the Koehring Machine Company, Milwaukee, Wis. 
This is a modern design which may be fitted with a batch 
hopper or the automatic loading skip, a great time-saver in 
charging the mixer. It may be used with a distributing chute 
or with boom and bucket delivery. Another new Koehring 
idea is the batch meter. This may be set to ring a bell at 
the end of a fixed time of mixing, and counts the number of 
batches, so that there can be no doubt as to the thoroness 
of the mixing of the concrete and there is an exact measure 
at the machine of the volume of concrete turned out. This 
is one of the most valuable accessories of the concrete mixer 
that has been devised. 

Concrete pavements are protected from the formation of 
longitudinal cracks due to settlement, contraction and traffic 
if they are lightly reinforced with such material as Kahn 
road mesh, which is furnished with diamonds of two sizes. 



fy 



AUTOMATIC STRIKE AND FINISHING MACHINE for 
concrete, giving it any desired crown; and a float in the rear 
transvt rsely of the road. U-veiiua the concrete to the desired 
depth; a vibrator pan about eighteen im hes back of the strike, 
irhich is twenty inches wide and compresses and shapes the 
concrete, giving it any desired crown, and a float in the rear 
which finishes the surface. The machine moves by its own 
•power, a three-horse-power gasoline engine. 




332 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



6 by 12 and 6 by 16 inches, the amount of metal varying 
in the four sizes of mesh bars used from 0.027 square inch of 
longitudinal area per foot of width to 0.079 square inch of 
transverse area per foot of width. The cold-drawn process 
used in manufacturing insures great unit strength and high 
elastic limit thruout. The mesh bars will bend fiat when 
cold thru 180 degree angle without a sign of fracture. 

Reinforcing material is used only in those sections of 
road where local conditions make such reinforcement neces- 
sary. Such conditions may be due to unstable foundations, 
bridges or fills where settlement is likely to occur. Approxi- 
mately one-third of the section under contract will be rein- 
forced, Kahn mesh being used as reinforcing material. 

At the outset, the Oakland county commissioners made a 
careful inspection of the concrete roads which were built in 
Wayne county and decided that it would be wise to follow the 
practice of using armor plate joints. In the beginning of the 
work in Wayne county, armor joints were not used and roads 
so constructed have given relatively poor results, cracks 
soon appearing and the joints themselves soon showing seri- 
ous disintegration. Later roads constructed in Wayne county 
with armor joints are now in good condition with the excep- 
tion of a few longitudinal cracks which are repaired by 
tarring. On the Oakland county road. Baker armor joints 
are being used. These are %-inch thick and present only a 
thin surface of metal on the wearing surface of the road. 
This metal strip wears down evenly with the road surface. 
The joint in position in the surface of a road is shown by 
the accompanying illustration. 

The contractor is using side rails to insure true grade. 



These are of the Baker type and consist of 6-inch by %-ijich 
channels locked by means of an eccentric pin and fish plate. 
These rails are of unusual strength so as to permit of the 
direct compacting of the concrete and rolling of the road 
surface before their removal. They are set in place by means 
of small supporting stakes driven in line at the side of the 
road and teed to grade from one supporting stake to another. 
The rails are held true to grade and line by means of di- 
ametrical guys and braces operating in connection with the 
supporting stakes. The accompanying illustration shows the 
position of the side rails in place. 

Instead of finishing the road surface by hand as has 
usually been the case, this work is finished by means of a 
machine, which permits the use of a plastic mix instead of 
a wet or sloppy mix, such as has generally been used in con- 
crete road construction where hand finishing has been em- 
ployed. In hand finishing the workmen are often inclined 
to take advantage of any opportunity to lessen the physical 
labor involved, and since the wet or sloppy mix is easier to 
handle than the plastic mix, it has generally been employed, 
with the result that much of the cement is washed thru and 
the finished surface is impoverished and weak, cracking or 
breaking easily and sometimes quickly disintegrating. The 
Baker automatic strike and finishing machine used on this 
road produces a uniform texture for the entire road surface 
and does away with three to five men, depending upon the 
width of the road. 

When finished the concrete surface is covered with earth 
and kept dampened for a period of seven days. 




THE FINISHED PAVEMENT. 



June, 1915 



STREET LIGHTING OF LONDON 



By W. B. Cooant, Concord, Mass. 



London, England, is not a city under one cen- 
tral city government, nor is it a system of co-ordi- 
nated boros, like New York City. It is rather a 
series of areas, each under its own boro govern- 
ment, with certain sanitary and improvement fea- 
tures under more or less control of a body called 
the London County Council, whose sphere of in- 
fluence includes many of the boros ivhich go to 
make up the metropolitan district called by the 
general name London. 

The city of London proper covers but a square 
mile or so near the center of the 4,000,000 or 
5,000,000 population which may be counted as 
within the reach of its attraction. 

Street lighting is not one of the matters under 
the control of the London County Council, and so 
the boros within Greater London shoiv as great 
differences in lighting practice as may be found 
in a like number of municipalities anywhere. This 
article describes some of the installations in the 
central city of London and adjoining boros, 
enough to show what varieties of lighting systems, 
both electric and gas, may be found in the more 
progressive sections of London. 



THE public lighting of the streets of London, England, 
presents some interesting features, partly because for 
the most part it is a recent adaptation of modern 
equipment to antiquated conditions. Tho the modernizing 
of London street lighting came tardily, the present installa- 
tions in several of the boros comprising the Metropolitan Dis- 
trict are admirable. 

Beginning with "the City," London's original square mile, 
now given over to wholesale and financial houses, the prin- 
cipal lighting provision is by means of 430 new Oliver "Ori- 
flamme" arc lamps, of 2,000 and 3,000 candlepower, mostly 
centrally suspended over the narrow streets, at the intersec- 
tion of two taut guy wires secured to the buildings on either 
side. At intersecting ways the lamps, pendent from their sup- 
ports, which are secured to the corners of buildings diagonally 
opposite, are thus located opposite the centers of the cross 
streets. A parliamentary act gives the city authority to at- 
tach necessary wires and fixtures to private property. In the 
case of the suspended arc lamps the winch box from which the 
lamp is controlled is located on the building wall, while on 
a wall opposite are located the conduit containing the feed 
wires and a cutout controlling the lamp. Incandescent lamps 
in clear globes are also installed as auxiliaries on refuges in 
streets, etc. Exceptions to the prevailing type of arc lamp 
in the city are 14 Excello arcs of 4,000 candlepower each, 
which are erected on tall iron poles in the center of Holborn 
(street), which from Newgate to Holborn Bar is sufficiently 
wide to make suspension wires impracticable. Several arc 
lamps of this type are also installed on the intersecting 
Farringdon street. 

The city let the contract for supplying current to the 

June. 1915 



2,000 candlepower lamps, on a ten-year contract, to the City 
of London Electric Lighting Company, at £17 or about ?S3 
per lamp a year, and for the 4,000 candlepower lamps £21 or 
about $102 per year. 

The next boro to the west of the city is Holborn. This 
boro is divided between business and residential sections, the 
latter known as Bloomsbury. The principal thorofare is the 
street called High Holborn, continuing westward as New Ox- 
ford street. The lighting of Holborn boro is divided about 
equally between gas and electricity. Roughly, the former is 
typical of the western and the latter of the eastern half of 
the boro. The electrical equipment is entirely of incan- 
descent lamps, in clear glass lanterns. Those on the main 
thorofare are of 600 watts, while on secondary and side streets 
lamps of 400, 300 and lower wattage are installed. 

New Oxford street, from Kingsway west, is lighted by high 
pressure gas lamps, which are practically equivalent per unit 
to the 3-lamp groups of 600-watt tungsten lamps which light 
High Holborn, the continuing street toward the City. Like- 
wise, side streets are lighted with gas lamps of equivalent 
candlepower to the incandescent electric lamps of the east 
half of the boro. Notable features of the High Holborn 
lamps are several group lamps which are installed at the 
foot of Gray's Inn road, this locality being known as Holborn 
Bar, the site of an early gate to the City. Group incandescents 
of GOO watts each, with a few nitrogen-filled lamps in experi- 



HOLBORN STREET, in the "City" of London, is wide 

enough to allow this 4,000-p.p. Excello lamp on a refuge <<>r 
pedestrians in the center of the street, an exception to the 
general plan of arc lamps suspended by cross-wires. 




334 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



■ '"■• ; J 




HIGH HOLBORX, in Holborn boro. has want/ 600-waM in 
candescent lamps in clusters of clear glass lanterns. Note lo- 
cation on n refuge in the renter of the street, with refuse box 
and entrance to underground men's lavatory. 



® 



mental use, are installed at lavatories located in the center 
of High Holborn. 

Still continuing westward, the next boro is St. Marylebone, 
with the famous Oxford street as its southern boundary, and 
the fashionable region of the "West End", located just to the 
north of this street of fine shops. Oxford street roadway 
comes within the jurisdiction of the municipal lighting plant 
of St. Marylebone boro. On the opposite side of the street 
the city of Westminster begins. Oxford street, thruout its 
1.5 miles of length, is lighted by 84 flaming arc lamps of 
10-ampere capacity and of the type known as the Union Ex- 
cello. Generally, lamps are installed in pairs pendent by 
swan necks from high poles erected in the center of the 
street. There are also six lamps similarly installed on Regent 
street. 

The posts are of iron, with ornamental iron work between 
the branches at the top, and are painted black. They are 
spaced at 50 to 65-yard intervals, and the arc of the lamp is 
uniformly 25 feet above the roadway. The lamps are con- 
nected nine in series and are operated on 4sn-volt direct cur- 
rent, exerting 1,500 to 2,000 candlepower. Of the 90 arc 
lamps in service, 52 are operated ordinarily all night, with 
3,940 hours of service a year, and 38 are operated until 12:30 
a. m., with 2,400 hours of operation a year. For the 90 
lamps the lighting department charges the. boro £1,837 or 
practically $9,000 a year. 

Thruout the secondary business streets and the residential 
section, incandescent lamps are operated. Xitrogen-filled 
lamps are being gradually introduced where large units are 
required. This is particularly true of the region about Maryle- 
bone road and Baker street, where an ornamental lighting ar- 
rangement is installed, consisting of 5-lamp and 3-lamp stand- 
ards at intersecting streets and in front of the Baker Street 



station. The incandescent units are of 300, 2nn and 100 watts, 
and are enclosed in alba balls. 

Gas lanterns have been converted to uses of electricity. 
Three-burner lanterns at street intersections, and in central 
locations on refuges, now contain three 80-watt tungsten 
units: double-burner gas lanterns are equipped with two 60- 
watt lamps, and single burner lanterns now have two 40-watt 
tungstens. The municipal lighting plant supplies 240-volts 
direct current. 

The mode of adapting the gas posts and lanterns to elec- 
tric uses is of interest. The conductor was carried up thru 
the center of the lantern by a small pipe to a position above 
the reflector, which is of double convex shape and white 
enameled. The pear-shaped bulbs are installed thru openings 
in the lower side of the reflectors, just large enough to admit 
their stems. All two-lamp lanterns are square, the lamps 
being installed at right angles with the street. The poles 
are 10 and 11.6 feet high. Three-lamp lanterns are hexagonal, 
on 15-foot posts, and the reflector is slightly convex, the 
lamps being grouped closely in the center. Refuge posts and 
lanterns are painted a dull red, while those at curbs are dark 
green. 

All incandescent lamps in this system are controlled by 
a hand switch located in the crotch of the supports of the 
lantern. The same force of men that cleans and renews at- 
tends to the lighting, each man caring for 150 lanterns. 
There are 3,550 incandescent lanterns in St. Marylebone. 85 
of them 3-lamp refuge lights and the remainder 2-lamp curb 
lights. 

The city of Westminster, lying directly south of St. Maryle- 
bone, is at present provided with a rather mixed and ineffi- 
cient street lighting system. Old-style arc lamps and high- 
oressure gas lamps are interspersed. The latter provide a 
fairly brilliant lighting for the important Victoria street. 



® 



FLAMING ARC LAMPS in centet 
line between St. Marylebone and Wi 



of Oxford street, on the 
stminster boros. 




STREET LIGHTING OF LONDON 



335 




STREET LIGHTS IN ST. MARYLEBOXE. 
Three-light group of incan- Tuo incandescent lamps in 

descent lamps in old gas Ian- an old gas lantern, 
tern. 



& 



while the Strand is helped out hy the many electric signs 
and window lighting. Otherwise, this noted thorofare would 
he dismal by night. 

Lighting of the Thames embankment is cared for by the 
London County Council. The installation consists of large 
eandlepower incandescents in gas globes supported on 
"dolphin" iron standards erected on the embankment wall, 
and arc lamps on high poles on the opposite curb. Grouped 
incandescent units in the center of the refuges are auxiliaries. 

The lighting of the western boros of Fulham and Ham- 
mersmith is much alike, and is marked improvement over the 
gas lighting that formerly prevailed. In both boros the prin- 
cipal streets are lighted by groupings of 4, 5 and 6 100-watt 
tungsten lamps in clear glass bowls. The electricity supply 
of Fulham is by a municipal plant which also does a general 
commercial and residential lighting business. Present light- 
ing equipment is an adaptation of arc lamp posts to the uses 
of the glass bowl groups and the conversion of gas lanterns 
on secondary and side streets to the uses of incandescent 
lamps in much the same manner as the boro of St. Maryle- 
bone has accomplished this end. 

The electric lighting of Fulham is co-extensive with the 
streets in which the municipal cables are laid, only a few 
unimportant ways not so provided having the gas installation 
that was general thruout the secondary streets of the boro 
a few years ago. 

The poles and brackets formerly used for arc lamps were 
remodeled and an arm of 2-inch iron pipe 8 feet long, suit- 
ably braced, was provided to replace the circular bracket in 
which the arc lamp was formerly suspended. At the end of 
the arm is suspended the plain glass bowl, attached to the 
hood of the old arc lantern. The bowl hangs 22 feet above 




STREET LIGHTS IX FULHAM. 
One-hundred-watt groups of A single incandescent lamp 
incandescent lamps in old in an old gas lantern on a 
arc light fixtures. side street. 



& 



the street, and contained in it is a group usually of 6 100- 
watt tungsten lamps, tho in certain instances 5-lamp group- 
ings are employed. The lamps are of the round-bulb type 
and are socketed thru round openings in the flat, vitrified 
enamel metal reflectors, the central lamp of the group being 
installed 2 inches lower than the other units, whose shoulders 
fit closely into the apertures in the reflectors. There Is a 
space of about 2 inches between the cheek of the central 
bulb and those of the units ranged around it. The lanterns 
have an overhanging hood extending 3.5 inches outside the 
radius of the glass bowl. The Croydon arc-lamp clutch is 
employed to hold the lantern in position in the socket. A 
wire running from a winch contained in the base of the post 
and thence up the pole and thru the arm enables the lantern 
to be lowered from its position for the purpose of cleaning 
and renewing, after the same manner as an arc lamp is con- 
trolled. The posts carrying these incandescent groupings are 
125 to 150 feet apart, zigzagged on opposite sides of the 
street. To the casual observer, the spacing seems excessive, 
considering the relatively small capacity of the groups Of 
units, viz: 500 to 600 eandlepower, as compared with the 
1,800-candlepower incandescent groups on the chief strei I ol 
Holborn boro, or the 3,000-candlepower pairs of arc lamps in 
Oxford street. St. Marylebone. The streets of Fulham are 
not, however, so important as those of the other boros men- 
tioned, but, considering the frequent omnibus and taxicail 
traffic in Fulham. the lighting provisloi cannot be regarded 
as adequate. 

In wiring for these incandescent circuits the cables for- 
merly used as the power conductors for the arc lamps were 
utilized. The 6 and 5-lamp groups are the lighting provision 
in Fulham Road, Fulham Palace Road, North End Road and 



June, nur, 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Lillie Road. In the ordinary refuges in these streets, central 
posts, carrying a single glass bowl on a swan-neck-shaped 
bracket, contain four 80-watt round-bulb lamps. Double-arm 
posts are provided on the refuges at the intersection of im- 
portant streets, each arm carrying a 4-lamp group, installed 
in the same manner. The side streets are lighted by two 
80-watt pear-shaped lamps contained in the converted square 
gas lanterns, having slightly convex enameled reflectors, 
the two units being installed on a line at right angles with 
the street and sidewalk. 

The posts of all the street lamps are painted a dark green, 
except those indicating the nearness of fire stations, which 
are a dark red. The incandescent units are installed in 
series of a half dozen and are switched on by separate 
switches for each series from group switchboard. The cir- 
cuits on the side streets are used for residence lighting as 
well as for the street lamps and are 3-wire circuits, one of 
the negative wires being used as a switch line for the street 
lamps. All the units are operated on 200 volts alternating 
current. 

In Fulham Palace Road, on which tramways of the Lon- 
don County Council operate, 2-lamp groups are installed, one 
unit on an arm on either side of the pole which carries the 
suspension wires for the overhead conductor. The lamps 
are on a line parallel with the street curb. These are mainly 
100-watt units, and have horn-shaped reflectors of opaque 
glass. 

The street illumination of the boro of Hammersmith 
closely resembles that of Fulham, which it borders on the 



southeast. The character of this district is similar to that 
of Fulham, in that it contains the homes of middle class 
workers, with many little local businesses and small manu- 
facturing industries. The principal streets are lighted by 
5-lamp groups of 100-watt units, of the improved drawn-wire 
type, known in England as the Mazda, Osram and Ediswan. 
The groups are arranged in clear glass inverted bowls, the 
reflectors being flat, of white enamel, thru which the necks 
of the bulbs enter their sockets, which are installed just 
above the reflector, except that the central lamp of the group 
is installed with a 2.5-inch section of duct. The faces of the 
surrounding lamps are 2 inches distant from that of the 
central unit. The bowls are provided with a 3-inch hole in 
the bottom, for the better ventilation of the lamps. 

On the streets on which tramcars operate, a single 100- 
watt lamp is installed on an arm on either side of the trolley 
pole. These lamps are provided with conical opaque glass 
reflectors. On the streets of secondary importance are 5- 
lamp groups in inverted glass bowls, suspended on goose- 
necks formerly used for arc lamps. These lights overhang 
the roadway, and are spaced about 125 feet apart, alter- 
nately. The side streets are lighted by single 100-watt metal 
filament lamps in white enameled, slightly convex reflectors, 
in square lanterns formerly used in gas lighting. The lamps 
in the boro are operated on 220-volt alternating current. The 
main groups in the principal streets are switched on in series 
from the station, but the side street lanterns are lighted 
singly by the operator throwing a switch for each lantern. 




STREET LAMPS IN HAMMERSMITH. 
One-hundred-ioatt incandes- Six-hundred watt incandes- 

cent lamp with reflector in old cent lamp in an old arc lamp 
pas lantern, on a side street. fixture. 



WOOD BLOCK AND GRANITE 
FOR BRIDGE FLOORS 

By Edward A. Byrne, Assistant Chief Engineer, Department of Bridges, New York City. 



The bridge floor problem of New York, espe- 
cially on the bridges over the East River, is one 
of particular difficulty because of the exceptional 
conditions under which the pavements are laid, 
the enormous traffic to which they are subjected, 
and the manner in which this traffic must be 
handled, bringing unusual severity of wear upon 
the pavements. This article, which is extracted 
from a paper by Mr. Byrne before the American 
Road Builders' Association, gives some account of 
the difficult conditions experienced and the suc- 
cess of the department in meeting them as well as 
a statement of the practice which has been de- 
veloped after years of experience. 

The article treats of the floors of the many 
small bridges under the department, as well as 
of the long bridges over. the great river. The spe- 
cial means devised for meeting a particular diffi- 
culty in connection with the traffic over the Brook- 
lyn Bridge will be of interest. 



blocks were cut from 3-inch by 8-inch planks, the untreated 
yellow pine blocks from 2V&-inch by 10-inch planks, and the 
spruce from plank of the same size. 

The creosoted blocks have given the most satisfactory 
results, and we expect to pave the main bridge with this 
kind of block. This pavement weighs 26% pounds per square 
foot. 

The pavement of the approaches consists of granite blocks 
on Portland cement concrete foundation. In relaying this 
pavement, granite blocks 5 inches in depth were used, laid 
on a 1-inch sand cushion with cement grout joints. The 
blocks removed were 8 inches in depth on a 2-inch cushion 
with tar and gravel joints. The foundation of the old blocks 
was in good condition and was not removed, but an additional 
layer of concrete was laid on top of the old foundation, so 
that the new blocks when laid would be at the old grade. 

In connection with this repaving, I designed a cast iron 
and concrete block to be laid along the curb. Most of the 
vehicles crossing the bridge use the curb for a brake, and 
consequently the blocks along the curb wear out before the 
balance of the pavement. This wearing of the blocks was also 
quite irregular, producing a series of ridges and depressions 
which interfered with the speed of the movement of the ve- 
hicles, as well as causing severe jolting of their springs. 
These blocks required frequent repair, and where traffic is so 
concentrated these repairs were of great annoyance to the 
traveling public. 



THE Brooklyn bridge has had an excessive cost of main- 
taining the roadway pavements and the bridge depart- 
ment is doing much with a view of decreasing this cost. 

The bridge has two roadways, each 16 feet 9 inches in 
width, and a trolley track is laid on each of them near the 
inner curb; this arrangement permits of the passing of but 
a single line of vehicles. This concentration of traffic tends 
to wear out the pavement very rapidly. 

The main bridge is 3,455 feet 6 inches in length, and the 
two approaches 2,550 feet 6 inches in length, a total length 
of 6,006 feet. 

The pavement of the main bridge consists of 2%-inch by 
10-inch spruce plank, laid transversely on 3%-inch to 5-inch 
creosoted yellow pine timber, laid longitudinally. This under- 
flooring is carried on steel cross beams. The daily traffic 
averages 4,000 vehicles, and this necessitates the renewal of 
the spruce planking twice during the year. The planking on 
the up grade averages four months' wear, while that on the 
down grade averages six months, and that on the part near 
the center, which is nearly level, averages eight months. 

The question of weight is of vital importance, and any 
change in design must provide that the dead load on the struc- 
ture be not increased. The present pavement weighs only 
25 pounds per square foot. 

It was finally decided to lay several sections of wood 
blocks and cork asphaltum blocks on an underflooring of un- 
treated yellow pine timber. The cork asphaltum blocks failed 
completely and they have been replaced by wood blocks. 

The accompanying diagram shows the plan for the experi- 
mental pavements. 

The wood blocks all were 2% inches deep, the creosoted 



"Dept of Bridges -City of Me.w^f.k 

Brooklyn brdge: 

EXPERIMENTAL ROADWAY' PAVING 
191 J 
far/>er»/y &V c*3sfcr/70ay/ty fo't/ as per s/e/c/> fc/err 










72 



June, 1915 



338 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




CAST-IRON AND CONCRETE PAVING BLOCK designed 
for special servia next the euro on New York's long bridge, 
where the wear is exceptionally heavy. 



The cast iron and concrete blocks have proved satisfac- 
tory and their cost has fully justified their use. The blocks 
are of cast iron 6 inches deep and iV 2 inches wide, and are 
made in two lengths, one 5 inches long and one 10 inches 
long. These blocks are cast hollow with a top face 1% inches 
thick. They may be best described as an open box or crate, 
having ends and bases of %-inch square metal. Recesses are 
cast in the top face to prevent slipping. The hollow space 
is filled with Portland cement concrete (1:2:4), which is 
thoroly set before the block is placed in position in the pave- 
ment. The blocks are laid in conjunction with the granite 
blocks, with which they bond with a lap joint of 5 inches. 
In order to decrease the cost of the block I have reduced 
the length of the 10-inch block to 8 inches. 

It may be of interest to mention the great amount of 
traffic the four East river bridges accommodate. 

From a traffic count taken October 30, 1913, these four 
bridges carried: 

10,128 Elevated Railroad Cars 
21,364 Surface Railway Cars 
24,251 Vehicles 



314,797 Elevated Railroad Passengers 
365,185 Surface Railway Passengers 

I7..""'~,x Passengers in Vehicles 

15,452 Pedestrians 



742,992 Total people crossing bridges 



This shows an increase of 12.6 per cent, over 1912 traffic, 
which in turn was an increase of 4.7 per cent, over 1911. 

The traffic count of vehicles taken during the years 1909 
to 1914 on Queensboro bridge may be of interest, as it shows 
a most remarkable increase. 

In 1909 the daily average was 1.170 

In 1910 the daily average was 2,110 

In 1911 the daily average was 2,190 

In 1912 the daily average was 3,640 

In 1913 the daily average was 6,570 

In 1914, May, the daily average was 7,500 

In 1914, June, the daily average was 8,760 

The increase in vehicle traffic over the Williamsburg 
bridge since its opening has been over 250 per cent. In 1904 
the daily average was 2,026, and in 1913 the daily average 
was 7,417. 

The Williamsburg bridge, which was opened to vehicle 
traffic in December, 1903, is a suspension bridge, having two 
roadways, each 20 feet in width. The main bridge is 2,793 
feet in length from anchorage to anchorage, and the two ap- 



proaches have a combined length of 4,515 feet, making a 
total length of bridge of 7,308 feet, which means an area of 
32,480 square yards of pavement to be maintained. 

The approaches are paved with Medina (N. Y.) sand- 
stone blocks on a Portland cement concrete foundation 
(1:2%:4%). This foundation varies in depth according to 
the different bases on which it rests. On the earth fill it is 
6 inches in thickness; on buckle plates, with buckles up. it 
varies from 4 inches to 7 inches; and on the corrugated 
trough plates from 3*4 inches to 12 inches. 

This pavement, of which there are 20,065 square yards, 
has worn very rapidly. The Medina block is a very soft 
stone and the blocks at and near the curb have shown a re- 
duction in depth of 4 inches, due to wear. The specifications 
for these blocks required a thickness of not less than 4 
inches, nor more than 5 inches, a depth of not less than 6 
inches, nor more than 6% inches, and a length of from 7 
inches to 12 inches. The department, when making repairs. 
has substituted a granite block for the Medina. 

The main bridge is paved with creo-resinate long leaf 
yellow pine blocks, 4 inches in depth and cut from 4-inch by 
8-inch planks. 

In addition to the four East river bridges, the department 
has under its jurisdiction 38 smaller bridges, which have 
cost the city of New York over $37,000,000 to construct. The 
sum includes the cost of land taken for bridge purposes. 

The policy of the department has been to replace all the 
various types of pavements, with the exception of granite 
block and wood block, and to eliminate the use of Medina 
block, sheet asphalt, asphalt block, plank and macadam, 
which, together with granite and wood block, constitute the 
various kinds of pavements in use on the city's bridges. 

The original cost of the wearing surfaces of all the bridges 
of the department is less than 1 per cent, of the cost of con- 
struction of these bridges, and altho the city authorities have 
expended money for the construction of bridges it has been 
quite a difficult matter to have them appropriate funds for re- 
pavement purposes, and consequently it is only on the smaller 
bridges that progress along this line has been made. 

The first bridge in the department where the pavement 
was entirely reconstructed was the Meeker avenue bridge 
over Newtown creek, a branch of the East river. 

The bridge cost the city $142,500. It was built in 1890, 
and in 1903 its roadway pavement, which consisted of 3-inch 
yellow pine plank on a base of similar material, was replaced 
by a wood block pavement. 

The plans for this work were prepared by me and the 
work was done under my direction. It was the first bridge 
in New York City where wood blocks were used. Since this 
pavement was laid in 1903 — eleven years ago — it has not re- 
quired any repairs and has not cost the city one cent for its 
maintenance. 

The bridge is a center bearing draw span 200 feet in 
length and has two steel approaches having a length of 85 
feet, making a total length of bridge of 285 feet. The road- 
way is 20 feet wide. It accommodates an average daily 
traffic of 900 vehicles. 

I believe it would be of interest to state how this pave- 
ment was laid. All the old timber was removed and the 
steel work was thoroly cleaned and painted. On the stringers 
was laid a sub-base of 3-inch by 12-inch untreated long leaf 
yellow pine, dressed on sides and edges to 2% inches by 11", 
inches. This planking was bolted to the steel stringers by 
%-inch hook bolts and spiked to four lines of wooden 
stringers, which in turn were bolted to the steel stringers. On 
the flooring was laid a waterproof course, consisting of four 
layers of single-ply roofing felt, tarred to each other and on 
top, but not tarred to the flooring. 

June. WIS 



WOOD BLOCK AND GRANITE FOR BRIDGE FLOORS 



339 



This waterproofing was laid with the ends turned up at 
the curbs and at the ends of the draw and approach spans, 
so as to form a trough or pan. On this waterproof course 
were laid the wood blocks, 3 inches in depth, cut from 2%- 
inch by 6-inch plank. These blocks were long leaf yellow 
pine and were treated by the creo-resinate process. They 
were laid at right angles to the traffic, with close joints. 

After the blocks were laid, coal tar was poured on them 
and squeegeed into the joints, one-half gallon of coal tar 
being used to a square yard of pavement. A layer of white 
beach sand, which had been artificially dried, was spread on 
the blocks and broomed into the joints until they were com- 
pletely filled. The under side of the sub-base was painted 
one coat of graphite paint. 

The pavement has worn remarkably well. About 10 per 
cent, of the blocks have splintered, but they have never 
heaved up or shown any signs of swelling. 

The waterproof course is perfect and the steel structure 
under the pavement is always clean. All the work, with the 
exception of the waterproofing, was done by department me- 
chanics, at a total cost of $3.75 per square yard, including 
sub-base and waterproofing. 

On five other bridges I Metropolitan avenue, Washington 
avenue, Strong's Causeway, Little Neck, Third street) in the 
department, wood block has replaced wood plank. 

On four bridges (Vernon avenue, Willis avenue, Uni- 
versity Heights, City Island ) wood block has replaced asphalt. 

Two old structures which had wood plank for pavements 
have been rebuilt and wood block has been used as pavement. 

We have two of the ten bascule bridges (Hunters Point 
avenue, Third street) paved with wood blocks, including 
their movable spans. 

In the design of new bridges I am of the opinion that 
when weight is the factor, wood block on a timber base is 
the most satisfactory pavement that can be used — where the 
conditions permit of the use of a heavy material, granite 
block is preferable. We have had most satisfactory results 
with untreated yellow pine timber as a sub-base with a water- 
proof course of felt, and equally good result with creosoted 
yellow pine timber without this waterproofing course. 

Where the design calls for a wood block pavement on a 
timber floor, the following is suggested as a specification 
which will give a satisfactory result: 

The sub-base shall be of untreated long leaf yellow pine 
timber of prime inspection, dressed on sides and edges to a 
uniform size, laid with close joints and fastened to the sup- 
porting stringers by means of screw bolts % inch in diameter, 
so spaced that every course of planking shall be bolted at 
each supporting stringer by two bolts. 

The heads of bolts shall finish flush with top of timber, 
have flat wrought-iron washers under head, aird at the end 
have wrought-iron clips, shaped to the form of the top flange 
of the supporting stringer. Lock nuts shall be provided for 
each bolt. 

The countersunk bolt holes, after bolts have been fastened, 
shall be flush with cement mortar, affording an even surface 
on which to lay the wood block pavement. On this untreated 
flooring there shall be laid four layers of single-ply felt, 
tarred to each other and on top. 

The wood blocks to be not over 3 inches in depth and cut 
from plank not over 3 inches thick and 8 inches wide. The 
blocks to be laid with close joints at right angles to the cen- 
ter line of the bridge, with each longitudinal joint broken by 
a lap not greater than one-half the length of the block. 

After the blocks have been laid, coal tar or paving pitch 
shall be brushed into all joints in the proportion of V 2 gallon 
to 1 square yard of pavement. This quantity to be used with 



3-inch blocks; proportionate amount when blocks are of less 
depth. 

Immediately following the brushing of the tar or pitch, 
fine beach sand, which has been artificially heated, shall be 
thoroly brushed into the joints, filling these joints completely. 
On top of the pavement there shall be laid a layer of fine 
brown sand y 2 inch in depth. 

It is quite important that the drainage outlets be designed 
and located so that they will actually drain the surface of 
the pavement. 

Transverse angles to arrest movement of the blocks under 
traffic should be placed at points most suitable to the condi- 
tions. The spacing will depend on the amount of traffic and 
design of the structure. 

These angles should rest on the supporting stringers, to 
which they should be bolted, and the vertical legs shall finish 
Vz inch below the surface of the pavement. 

In plans that call for the placing of trolley tracks within 
the roadway limits, the details should be so designed that the 
rails can be installed and maintained with the least possible 
interference with the pavement. 

This has been done at two of the department bridges 
where wood blocks are used. At one (Vernon avenue bridge) 
the rails can be removed without any interference with the 
pavement; the rail bonds can also be replaced in like man- 
ner. At another (Borden avenue bridge) the tracks can be 
renewed with the removal of less than one-third of the area 
of the pavement that generally is necessary in work of this 
kind. 

We have been able to do this by supporting the rails on 
the steel underflooring independent of the timber sub-base 
of the pavement and by laying longitudinally two courses of 
wood blocks along each side of the four rails. 



Dzpt.otBhidoe3-Cityof Ne.wY&flk 

QUE1ENSBORO BRDGEI 

Experimental Roadway Paving 

1913 

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— #■*<, 







Garbage and Refuse Collection and Disposal 



IN ST. LOUIS, MO. 



The city of St. Louis has been studying and dis- 
cussing methods of collection and disposal of gar- 
bage and refuse for a number of years, but has 
not yet been able to put all the results of its 
studies in operation. This seems to be in part be- 
cause of the reluctance of the city council to pro- 
vide the funds for a complete system, and in part, 
perhaps, to considerable difference of opinion as 
to the best methods.. 

This article gives a brief statement of the pres- 
ent practice in collecting garbage and the results 
of a study of the motor tractor as a reducer of ex- 
pense in making the long hauls necessary from 
some city districts under present conditions. 

Collection of ashes and refuse at city expense 
was begun two or three years ago, but discon- 
tinued because the appropriations were stopped 
by the city council. A semi-annual clean-up week 
helps a little in keeping the city clean and at a low 
cost which the council is willing to meet. The re- 
sults of these clean-up weeks are shown in the 
article. 



THE collection of garbage and dead animals in St. Louis, 
Mo., is in charge of the assistant street commissioner, 
Charles L. Laxton, and is made from all public and 
private places within the city limits. 

The department does not have full power to require 
proper receptacles in which garbage is to be held until the 
city wagons call for it, and consequently more than half the 
complaints regarding the service are due to the failure of 
the public to observe the rules governing the removal of 
garbage. Water-tight receptacles are recommended, of size 
to be handled by one man, and thoro washing after the gar- 
bage collector has emptied them is suggested. Drainage of 
the garbage and keeping lids on the cans, especially in cold 
weather, would keep the material from freezing enough to 
make it difficult to empty the cans. 

For collection purposes the city is divided into two sec- 
tions, in one of which garbage is collected Monday, Wednes- 
day and Friday, and in the other on Tuesday, Thursday and 
Saturday. 

At a recent meeting of the St. Louis Engineers' Club, 
C. M. Talbert, director of streets and sewers, gave the fol- 
lowing statistics: The department owns 125 wagons and 
459 horses, and has 120 men in its employment. The mini- 
mum number of wagons in use in winter, November to April, 
is 70 and the minimum daily collection is 80 tons. In sum- 
mer, 115 wagons are in use on some days, and the maximum 
daily collection is 115 tons. The garbage wagons weigh 
2,400 pounds, and the average weight of a load of garbage 
for the year is 1% tons, or 3,000 pounds. In addition, the 
department removes about 12 large dead animals a day and 
perhaps 65 small animals and fowls. 

At present all the garbage is hauled to two dumping 
stations at the river, making it impossible for a team from 
the western or southern part of the city to collect and carry 



to the dump more than one load a day. In the new contract 
for reduction of garbage is included the construction of two 
elevated dumping stations, so that the wagons will not be 
obliged to drive down to the garbage barges to unload, but 
can drive out and dump from the edge of the elevated plat- 
form into the barge and thus save climbing up and down 
the steep slope of the levee. Wagons will hereafter be 
lighter on account of the difference in dumping, and many 
of them will be one-horse carts instead of two-horse wagons. 
Mr. Laxton recommends four receiving stations instead of 
the two now in use, three being on the river and one in the 
western part of the city. With steel cars and properly de- 
signed dumping platforms, the cars can be filled during the 
day and hauled away at night. Lighter wagons and shorter 
hauls will largely reduce the cost of collection. 

Some months ago computations were made, comparing the 
present cost of hauling garbage from the long-haul district 
with mule teams and the probable cost with tractors. The 
motor apparatus was assumed to be a Knox tractor with two 
trailers, and on the assumed haul of seven miles from Burd 
avenue and North Market to Mullanphy street this would 
replace ten teams. 

The investment would be for 10-ton tractor, $3,750, and 
two trailers, $1,000, or a total of $4,750 for the motor ap- 
paratus. Ten teams of mules cost $3,000, and ten wagons 
cost $1,350, a total for animal power of $4,350. 

The cost of operating per day is assumed to be for the 
motor making three trips a day, 42 miles: 

Gasoline, 5 gallons, at 20 cents $1.00 

One-half gallon lubricating oil 20 

Chauffeur at $75 per month 2.50 

Repairs, etc., 10 per cent 37 

Total $4.07 

Ten teams cost the city $20.00 

Ten drivers 16.50 

Repairs, etc., at 2 per cent 73 

Total $37.23 

This computation assumes a loading station located at 
Burd avenue and North Market street, the center of the 
long-haul district, which, including lot, building, paving, plat- 
form, sewer and water connections, would cost $6,300. The 
total investment required for the installation of the motor 
equipment would, therefore, be $10,650. Interest on invest- 
ments is computed at 6 per cent. 

The total annual charges against the motor equipment 
would therefore become: 

Interest $ 639.00 

Depreciation, 10 per cent, on truck and 2 per cent on 

building 561.00 

Cost of maintenance, $4.07 for 156 days 634.92 

Two men at dumping station 1,200.00 

Making a total of $3,034.92 

The year is assumed at 156 days, as the district is col- 
lected from three times a week. 

The charges against the team equipment are as follows: 

Interest $ 261.00 

Depreciation, 10 per cent 435.00 

Maintenance, 156 days, at $37.23 5,807.88 

Total charges against team equipment $6,503.88 

June, 1915 



GARBAGE AND REFUSE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL IN ST. LOUIS MO. 



341 



The saving in adopting the truck system is thus $3,468.96 
a year for this long-haul district. Under these assumptions 
the equipment is idle half the time, certainly enough to allow 
for time lost in repairs. 

St. Louis had its first clean-up week in June, 1913, and 
followed it up with other clean-up weeks in May, 1914, and 
October, 1914, and this spring, from which no report is yet 
available. The number of loads of material hauled increased 
from 1,333 in June, 1913, and 1,415 in May, 1914, to 1,508 in 
October, 1914, and the cost per load has decreased from $2.02 
in June, 1913, to $1.64 in May, 1914, and $1.48% in October, 
1914. The cost of clean-up week has remained very nearly 
the same, the highest cost being $2,695,40 for the first, 
$2,321.26 for the second and $2,239.44 for the third. 

The city is divided into six districts, one for each day 
in the week, and tenants in these districts are notified in 
every possible way by the city and the local civic organiza- 
tions of the day on which the collection for their district 
will be made. More than 250 loads a day were moved, or 



1,508 tons, during the week, by an average of 66 teams at 
work all the time. 

The number of complaints of poor service during clean- 
up week was 104, many of them because the material was 
not ready on the day assigned for the district from which 
the complaint came. About 15 teams worked for a week 
after the clean-up on such notices and collected about 100 
loads of additional material. 

City wagons from various sources were used largely in 
the clean-up, men and teams being hired as were necessary, 
and paid by the day. It is estimated that if payment had 
been made by the load, the average cost for making these 
special collections would have been reduced almost to $1.30 
per load. Many of the wagons used belonged to the defunct 
ash division of the department, which purchased 80 wagons, 
each of 4 cubic yards capacity, and collected ashes for one 
year at a cost of 56 cents a cubic yard. On account of with- 
drawal of appropriations this work was stopped, and citizens 
pay for their own ash and refuse material, aside from gar- 
bage and the semi-annual clean-up week. 



REGULATION OF JITNEY BUSSES IN ST. LOUIS 



The regulation of the jitney bus has been un- 
dertaken with various purposes in the cities of the 
country. In some the intention seems to have been 
to legislate them out of business. License fees 
and bonds have been fixed so high that the traffic 
would not bear them and elimination teas the re- 
sult. In other cities the technical regulation of 
the jitney traffic has not been undertaken, some- 
times because the ordinance makers admitted 
their inability to solve the problem, and sometimes 
because public opinion demanded the continuance 
of the service, and regulation was feared because 
it might drive the jitney out of business. 

The Street and Sewer Department of St. Louis, 
with the co-operation of the Police Department, 
has undertaken the physical regulation of condi- 
tion of autos, qualifications of drivers, permissible 
number of passengers, routes within certain con- 
gested districts, and has succeeded in keeping the 
traffic in operation and in reducing the liability 
of accident. 



The problem of regulation of jitney busses is still under 
consideration, but few cities having taken any very definite 
steps in this direction. A few western cities have, by ordi- 
nance, required such heavy bonds of jitney runners to cover 
damage from accidents, that they have run them out of the 
business. Other cities regulate them under the ordinary 
police powers of the city. 

The city of St. Louis takes care of them under a system 
devised by the Department of Streets and Sewers, which does 
not require the authorization of a special ordinance regulating 
jitney bus operation. 

Each applicant, for authority to operate a jitney bus, 
takes his automobile to the city garage for examination and 
receives a certificate, of which the following is the blank 
form: 



Registration No 19 . . 

Automobile make, manufacturer's carrying capacity 

persons, bearing State License Xo has this day hem 

examined and the following conditions found: 

Service brake emergency brake clutch 

Wheels , springs axles , steering gear 

Rejected on account of 

Accepted 

Examined by 



Supt. City Garage. 

He also receives a card, of which the following is a copy, 
which admits him to registration and which he also carries 
as evidence that his car has been examined and of the date of 
the last examination: he must show this card to the police 
on demand and must keep his car examination up to date. 

The automobile, when approved by the city garage, is 
registered, when an application is filled in and presented at 
the office of the Director of Streets and Sewers. Following is 
the form of this application blank: 

Examination of Jitney Car Service. 

THE CITY OF ST. LOUIS, 

Department of Streets and Sewers. 

City Garage, Vandeventer Ave. and Forest Park Blvd. 

(Date) 

This is to certify that automobile 

(Name of Maker) 

carrying State License No Manufacturer's rated 

carrying capacity persons, has this day been ex- 
amined as to its general external conditions and no defects 
have been found which would indicate that it is unsafe to 
operate upon the public thorofares of the city in this serv- 
ice. This car, if retained in this service, is subject to further 
examination within two weeks of the date stamped herein. 



Supt. City Garage. 
THE CITY OF ST. LOUIS. 
Office of the Director of Streets and Sewers. 

Registration No 

Application Is hereby made for the registration of the fol- 



312 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



lowing described automobile to be used on tbe public thoro- 
fares of St. Louis, in what is commonly known as the "Jitney" 
service. 

Make of car 

Manufacturer's rated carrying capacity persons. 

State License No 

To be operated between and 

General route to be followed 

In consideration of this registration number being given 
by the city, it is agreed that the following regulations will be 
observed : 

Number of Passengers — If car has a standard touring or 
limousine body, it shall at no time carry more than two addi- 
tional persons in excess of the manufacturer's rating, as given 
in this application. This total number shall include the 
driver. If the car has other than above bodies, it shall not 
carry more persons than can be comfortably seated therein, 
and the total weight carried shall not exceed the weight the 
manufacturers state may be safely carried thereon. 

Method of Seating — No persons shall be allowed on the car 
other than those entirely in the body thereof, and no persons 
shall be allowed to sit upon the doors. 

Loading and Unloading — This car shall not, while on a 
public thorofare, receive or discharge passengers at any time 
other than -when standing at the curb. 

Racing — This car shall not pass another car for the pur- 
pose of securing a passenger. 

Drivers — The driver or chauffeur will comply with Section 
S510 of the Revised Statutes of Missouri 1909. which calls for 
state registration of auto drivers and will carry the badge 
upon his person. Drivers will at all times observe general 
traffic regulations and such special regulations as may be 
established for cars in this service. 

Car Examination — This car shall be examined at least once 
every two weeks by an employe of the city at the city garage, 
Vandeventer avenue and Forest Park boulevard, as to its me- 
chanical condition. The examiners shall make such tests as 
may be prescribed by the superintendent of the city garage. 
It is not intended that such examination shall amount to a 
thoro test covering latent defects or minute details. The 
examination shall be only for the purpose of ascertaining 
whether any visible or obvious reasons are disclosed why the 
car would be unsafe. If no such defects are found, the su- 
perintendent of the garage will issue a certificate of inspec- 
tion and deliver to the owner. 

Date 

( Signature) 

(Address) 



Approved : 



Directors of Streets and Sewers. 
A card for conspicuous posting on the car is then issued as 
authority to run and statement of number of persons who can 
be carried at any one time. Following is the form of this 
card: 

CITY OF ST. LOUIS. 

Registry No 

State License No 

Allowed Capacity Persons. 

(Including Driver.) 
This registry number indicates that this car is operated 
under rules formulated by the City, covering Number of Pas- 
sengers, Method of Seating, Loading and Unloading, Racing, 
State Registration of Drivers and Car Examination. 

No charges are made for the examinations and permits. 
as there is no ordinance authorizing such charges. 



No automobiles are permitted to stand for public hire at 
any place in the city unless they have filed an application 
for permi.t and permission from the owner or lessee of the 
property in front of which he proposes to stand, as shown in 
the following copy of the form of application, permission and 
permit. It will be noted that this form requires, also, the 
approval of the chief of police. 

Permit No 

OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF STREETS AND SEWERS. 

Room 322, City Hall. 

APPLICATION FOR PERMIT TO STAND AUTOMOBILES 

FOR HIRE ON PUBLIC STREETS. 

St. Louis 1914. 

Honorable Board of Public Service: 

Gentlemen — Application is hereby made for permission to 

stand automobiles for public hire on 

side of (street) (avenue) between 

and in front of No between the hours 

of and Make of cars 

Capacity of cars passengers. Charges: $ 

first hour, $ each additional hour. 

Name of driver of car 

I (we) propose, if granted this permission, to be governed 
by the following conditions: 

To use space designated in such manner as to give the 
public the best service consistent with the number of cars 
we operate. 

To keep the cars clean and in a presentable condition and 
in first-class mechanical order. 

That all drivers will be licensed and that both the police 
and the Department of Streets and Sewers will be notified 
when changes are made in the drivers or when the stand is 
discontinued. 

That this permit is subject to revocation at any time the 
public interests demand it. 

(Signed) 

St. Louis 1914. 

To Whom It May Concern: 

This is to certify that the undersigned owner or lessee 
of abutting property has no objection to the issuance of per- 
mit set forth in above application. 

(Signed) 

St. Louis 1914. 

The above mentioned driver of car approved. 

( Signed ) '. 

Chief of Police. 

St. Louis 1914. 

The above application is granted under the provisions set 

forth for the period from 191... to 

191.. . 

Director of Streets and Sewers. 

The jitneys are, of course, required to obey all the general 
and special traffic regulations, of which there are many in 
some districts, routing traffic up one street and down another, 
designating parking spaces, protecting street car passengers 
in taking and leaving cars, etc. 

The two photographs give some indication of the jitney 
traffic, one in a down-town street and one at an uptown cen- 
ter, where the automobiles are collecting their loads to go 
down town. These photographs, if they are typical of St. 
Louis conditions, indicate that the problem is not as serious 
in St. Louis as it is in some other cities, notably Los An- 
geles and San Francisco, where the streets are greatly over- 
crowded at the rush hours, and the jitney busses form a pro- 
cession moving rapidly in both directions, with frequent in- 
terruptions by autos stopping to drop passengers. 

7 » ii r. 1915 



STREET & SIDEWALK IMPROVEMENT 
IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA 



THE following tables give the latest statistics regarding 
the construction ot pavements in the United States 
and Canada. Practically all of the data are taken from 
blanks filled out by city engineers or men in the departments 
of public works and are as accurate as the differences in 
methods of keeping records and accounts permit, as all are 
reduced to a common basis of areas, lengths and costs per 
unit of length or area, as nearly as possible. Differences in 
definitions make some differences in classifications, so that it 
has been necessary in some cases to include a street under 
more than one classification because the information given 
was not sufficient to translate the definition in the mind of 
the city engineer into the terms of the standard definition 
used in making out the blank. 

Bituminous pavements are those in which the variations 
in definition are greatest. The original asphalt pavement 
there can be no difference of opinion upon, but pavements on 
a concrete base with asphalt used in the wearing surface are 
of several varieties. Bitulithic is one, concerning which there 
can be no question. But the several variations, some using 
concrete base and some not, some using broken stone and 
some gravel, but all containing asphalt prepared in hot mixers, 
are classed by various engineers under "Concrete with Bitu- 
minous Top," "Bituminous Concrete," or "Bituminous Mac- 
adam," and unless full data regarding details of design and 
construction are given, it is impossible to re-classify exactly. 
Some streets are laid with concrete protected by a thin layer 
of asphaltic material on the surface, which are also classified 
as "Concrete with Bituminous Top." 

By repeating a few cities in these various lists and by ex- 
planatory notes these differences have been reconciled as 
nearly as possible. 

In the April number of Municipal Engineering were given 
extensive tables showing the prospects for all kinds of mu- 
nicipal improvements for 1915. A column in each of the 
following tables is given to a statement of the prospective 
amounts of construction for 1915. Reference should be made 
to the April number, however, for there are numerous items 
in the April tables which are not included in these tables, be- 
cause repetition has been avoided in order to save space. 

These tables show, also, the amount of work done in 1914 
and the most important items in the design and construction, 
including the cost per unit. As usual in statements of cost, 
there are many variations in the amounts of work included, 
so that the figures given can be compared only in the most 
general way. 

It is common to include the entire cost of the pavement 
in the cost per square yard, from grading to finishing, but not 
to include the overhead charges of engineering, making and 
collecting of assessments, interest on bonds and the like, and 
most of the figures given are on this basis. The item of 
grading admits a possibility for considerable differences in 
cost, especially between hilly cities where cuts and fills are 
"heavy, and level or gently rolling streets where grading means 
only excavation enough to make place for the new pavement. 

In a few cases the cement, the brick or granite blocks or 
wood blocks are furnished by the city. These are noted where 
the cost does not include them. 

But little change has been made in specifications during 
1914. Those noted by the engineers include the following: 

General Specifications. — LaPorte, Ind., has entirely rewrit- 
ten its specifications to conform to the latest practice. 



Imperial City, Cal., will use new specifications for next 
paving. 

Newton, Kan., has made a number of elaborate changes. 

Topeka, Kan., has made slight changes to get better con- 
trol of materials. 

Ann Arbor, Mich., has completely revised its specifications 
according to the best modern practice. 

Saginaw, Mich., has reduced concrete base from 6 to 5 
inches. 

West New York, N. J., has reduced time of guaranty of 
pavements from 1 year to 6 months. 

Okmulgee, Okla., has prepared a new set of specifications. 

Xenia, 0.. includes asphalt, asphaltic concrete, brick, wood 
block, water-bound and tar-bound macadam. 

Portland, Ore., has made a number of changes. 

Charleroi, Pa., has entirely rewritten its specifications to 
conform with modern practice. 

Philadelphia, Pa., has issued new standard specifications 
for all types of pavement. 

Beloit, Wis., has issued new specifications. 

West Allis, Wis., will make some changes in its new speci- 
fications. 

Asphalt. — Des Moines, Iowa, has made asphalt specifica- 
tions entirely open. 

Olympia, Wash., specifies 4-inch concrete base and 2-inch 
asphalt top coat only. 

Appleton, Wis., has reduced the thickness of asphalt wear- 
ing coat from 2 to l'j inches. 

Brick. — Pueblo, Col., has new specifications for this year's 
work. 

Springfield, 111., reduced the sand cushion from 2 inches to 

1 inch in thickness, and will use prepared bituminous ma- 
terial in expansion joints instead of poured asphalt. 

Richmond, Ind., reduces thickness of sand cushion from 

2 to VA inches. 

Des Moines, la., has reduced thickness of sand cushion 
from 2 inches to IV2 inches. 

Emmetsburg, la., has its first specifications for its first 
pavement in 1915. 

Oskaloosa, la., will put in more expansion joints when 
grout filler is used. 

Dodge City, Kan., will use 2'j-inch brick instead of 3-inch, 
and 4M.-inch concrete base instead of 5-inch. 

Ottawa, Kan., will use 3-inch vertical fiber brick with as- 
phalt filler instead of repressed brick with grout filler. 

Pittsburg, Kan., has made some changes in mixture Cor 
concrete base. 

Salina, Kan., has lowered the rattler test for brick 2 pet- 
cent, and has admitted vertical fiber brick. 

West Covington, Ky., will use "elastic" expansion joints. 

Baltimore, Md., will use a mortar cushion instead of sand. 

Flint, Mich., has reduced thickness of sand cushion from 
2 inches to 1 "j inches. 

Sedalia, Mo., has adopted asphalt filler for all brick pave- 
ments and is using vertical fiber brick on residence streets. 

Clyde. N. Y., has adopted the new New York State standard 
specifications. 

Jamestown, N. Y., has omitted all transverse expansion 
joints. 

Mt Vernon, O., will use 1-inch sand cushion instead of 2 
inches and wire-cut-lug brick instead of repressed brick. 
(Continued on page 358.) 



June. 13B 



Asphalt Pavements 



Street Improvements in the 



Brick Pavements 



Concrete Pavements 



CitJ 



:- £ no 



-'/. 






ningham 



Little Rock. 



Alhambra 
Berkeley 



ALABAMA. 

37,655 SI. 77 

ARKANSAS 

60.000 

CALIFORNIA. 

30,000 

9,881 

53.000 1.50 

jigeles. .825.000 S24.223 1.00 

Los Angeles 1-60 

Oakland U 

Pasadena 3 ■ i 88 

S. Bernardino 72.422. 

S. Francisco. .300,00d 

Santa Monica 12,816 

So. Pasadena 2 " 

So. Pasadena. ,700 

Vallejo 10,566 

Venice 12,719 

CONNECTICUT. 

Bridgeport 3,205 

Derby 2.000 19,600 

Hartford 20,260 23.SS9 

New Haven.. 20,700 r, 4 . 1 7 .". 1.68 
DISTRII 'T i >V COLUMBIA. 



1.66 
1.9S 
2.19 
2.07 
1.41 
1.23 
2.00 
1.65 

2.01 
2.15 
1.69 



Washington 



Cord el e 



Aurora . 
Chicago . 
Chicago - 
Oak Park 
Peoria . . 
Rock Island 



Elkhart . . . 
Evansville 
Ft. Wayne . 

Gary 

1 1 

Newcastle 
Portland 
South Bend 



28j882 

FLORIDA. 

9.500 

GEORGIA. 



ILLINOIS. 

16,000 4s. 4V. 
816.623 



1.73 
1.53 
1.6S 



9 



43.667 



INDIANA. 
9,000 



!'■■ 
1% 



1% 

1 '•_■ 



44.120 

:. .; . 4 7 s 

10.150 

2i',. 47" 



1.50 
1.95 

1.S0 



C. Rapids d 
Des Moines. 
Mason City 
Waterloo . . 

Waterloo .. 

Arkansas Cy. 
Kansas City 

Lexington . . 
Louisville d. 
Nicholasville 

New Orleans 





II >WA. 
70,000 15,130 



1.95 



s:.. 

2,260 
17,516 



Boston . . . 
Holyoke . . 
Watertown 



57.300 1.92 
37.200 1.60 
14.247 2 2T. 
71,906 1.90 
KANSAS. 

9,000 1.37 

5,850 1.70 

KENTUCKY. 
77,250 20.955 
50,000 97,275 

48.000 

LOUISIANA. 

37,820 41,738 

MARYLAND. 

. .194,610 332.659 1.65 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

5,562 2.45 

17.227 1.70 

7,306 1.15 

MICHIGAN. 

21,698 

187,873 
191 



1% 

1 <■; 



1.90 
1.74 
2.17 



2.40 



1% 

1 "j 
1% 



3.14 
1.40 

2.85 



Detroit 

Detroit 

Flint 92.1 

Grand Rapids 7.920 1.30 

Highland Pk. 35,000 45,486 1 6 

Saginaw 18,443 37.277 1 6 

MINNESOTA. 

Duluth 17.000 1.S32 2.30 2 

Minneapolis . 15.000 15.704 1.49 2 

St. Paul 10,000 23,657 1.16 2 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Jackson s 12,625 .90 1% 

Laurel 29,470 22.086 1.88 2 

Vicksburg 25.371 2. OS 2 

MISSOURI. 

Excelsior Sp. . 6,000 1.8 

Kansas City.. 15,000 1.80 2 

St. Louis 27,850 1.90 1% 

NEBRASKA. 

Lincoln 10.000 7,712 1.88 1% 

Omaha 35,408 43,217 1.80 1% 

Omaha 4.927 1.62 2 



Citv o - c -2 . mo 1 r.~ 5 

z. Jm o O E 

ALABAMA 

Birmingham 1,421 $1.99 ...gp 

ARKANSAS. 

Fort Smith 33,000 .82 3 s 

Jonesboro 10,000 1.96 2 g 

Little Rock 5,000 

CALIF! IRNJ \ 

Los Angeles. . . 5.500 4,850 2.50 1% .. 

Pasadena 510 2.97 1% g 

San Francisco 2,262 2.53 I 1 ., g 

i '■ 'i.. iR VDi I 

Pueblo 22,000 2.50 1% a 

Cl INNECTICUT. 

Meriden 2,135 2.55 1 y 

Norwalk 1.700 I 336 2 15 2 g 

DELAWARE. 

Wilmington 5,600 .... 2 y 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Washington c 7,115 1.35 ' _• g 

FLORIDA. 

Bradentown S2.400 1.34 s .. 

Gainesville 2,500 1.71 

Jacksonville 19,337 2. OS ... s 

Orlando 43,900 1.35 ... s 

GEORGIA. 

Savannah 7,501 1.57 

ILLINI 'IS 

Alton S2.500 40,092 1.61 1V4 U 

Anna 27.750 1.98 2 g 

Aurora 2.100 3,854 1.88 2 o 

Blooming-ton . :^ 1.80 2 a 

Champaign 43,368 1.S5 2 as 

Chicago 523. 76S 1.61 1% g 

Ilgts. . 45,000 57,000 2.12 2 </ 

Cicero 7,900 17,052 2.33 2 p 

Danville 44,174 1.70 2 g 

Decatur 7,261 1.77 2 a 

I lecatur 29,062 1.66 2 o 

Dixon 57.915 1.64 2 a 

Du Quoin 16.576 1.80 1 o 

E. St. Louis 21.487 2.21 2 p 

Elgin 12,000 15.431 1.85 2 g 

Farmer City 7,700 1.75 1% g 

Forest Citv 10,000 1.79 1% n 

Fulton 13.000 2.10 2 s 

Galesburg 20.742 51,372 1.81 1% a 

Herrin 9,560 24,862 2.02 2 a 

Hillsboro 1,800 25,000 1.80 1% s 

Kankakee 33,000 2.10 2 g 

Kewanee 600 1.75 1% a 

Lawrenceville 13.892 1.S4 2 a 

Marion 1.600 2.04 2 a 

Mattoon 6.000 1.58 H- a 

Moline 36.546 66,619 2.11 2 a 

Mt Carmel 13,500 1.66 ... g 

Murphysboro 12,000 2.02 2 g 

Newton 6,635 1.73 IV, g 

Oak Park 18,526 12,000 2.07 2 a 

Ottawa 128.500 1.80 ... g 

Pana 34,000 1.67 2 o 

Paris 3,450 6.750 1.S0 1 o 

Peoria 63,838 1.47 2 g 

Quincy 41.627 1.99 1 g 

Rockford 58.S18 1.90 P, a 

Rock Island 54.425 2.08 1% p 

Springfield ... 19,500 46.050 1.65 2 ' a-o 

Spring Valley 5.083 2.05 2 » 

Taylorville 44.412 1.77 2 n 

Venice 18.008 2.00 1% <7 

Waukegan ... 8,000 29,800 2.06 1% g 

Wilmette 33.250 1.57 2 s 

INDIANA. 

Bremen 15.9S5 2.02 2 g 

Crawfordsville 10,266 1.32 2 g 

Decatur 18.015 1.20 2 s 

Elkhart 15.000 1.082 1.95 ly, g 

Evansville ... 8,300 12.102 1.7S 1 g 

Fort Wavne 66.550 1.76 2 g 

Frankfort .... 4.590 5.764 1.6S 1% g 

Garv 5560 22,540 2.15 2 a 

Huntington . . 10,100 1.964 1.98 2 a-g 

LaFavette 7.155 1.76 2 g 

LaPorte 10.000 12.394 2.19 ly. g 

Lebanon 10.60S 1.70 2 g 

Lo^ansport ... 6,000 5,900 1.S0 2 a 

Muncie 3,792 1.7S 2 g 

Noblesville 4.804 1.33 2 q 

Portland 10.550 1.73 2 g 

Richmond .... 40,ooo- 2O.620 1.85 1% g 

Salem 4,383 2.32 



Birmingham 
Gadsden . . . 
Opelika .... 
Selma 


ALAE 

ARIZ 

12.000 

AUK A 

CALlFt 
40.000 

3,074 

7,500 

COLO 

CONNEC 
2.700 

14.666 

3.900 
5,000 

V,666 

DELA 1 


AM A. 

27,952 

3.300 

15,000 

41.500 

ONA 

6,67 I 

1.670 

NSAS 

130.000 

91,650 

50,000 

1,400 

5RNIA 

24,400 

47,600 

28,691 

192.500 

3,284 

995 

1ADO. 

1,795 

2.000 

men t 

70.100 
4.000 

7.138 
1 1,300 

31.000 
17,386 
8,800 
16,4 50 
8.750 
9,000 


1.25 
1.35 
1.25 


I 
1 


8 


Phoenix .... 

Argenta .... 
Fort Smith.. 


1.66 

1.14 
1.25 


1 
i 


6 
6 










Los Angeles 
Palo Alto . . 
i \i sadena . . 
Santa Ana . 
So. Pasadena 
Venice 

Boulder .... 
Denver .... 

Ansonia . . . 


1.20 
1 2 2 
76 
1.00 
1.44 
1.16 

0.90 
1.40 

1.20 


1-2 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 


5-6 

5 

4 

4 

8 

4 

6 
6 


Clinton .... 
Greenwicli . 
Hampden . . 
Hartford . . 
Manchester . 
Meriden .... 
Middletown 
New Britain 


: 2', 


1 


6-S 


1.10 
1.37 

1.32 
1 33 


1 

1 

1 
1 
1 


6-S 

6' ' 

6 


Norwalk a. . 


1.25 


1 


7 


So. Norwalk 
Wallingford 


9.000 

3, 60S 

15.600 

TARE. 

700 

15.000 


1.24 

1.35 


2' 


6* 


Georgetown 
Wilmington 


1.37 


1 

2 


6" 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 
Washington 21,000 IS. 000 0.94 

FLORIDA. 

Fort Myers 1,500 

Port Tampa a 13,052 

Tampa 1,300 

GEORGIA 

Athens 10,000 16,278 

LaGrange 20,000 

Macon 1 50. 000 17.292 

Savannah 3,300 

IDAHO. 

Caldwell 800 

Kellogg 9.000 

Lewiston 5,000 

Moscow 5,000 

ILLINOIS. 

8,000 

134,000 



1.50 2 


5 


1.12 2 
1.36 1 


8 


1.60 1 


6 





20,001, 



Bartonville 
Belleville . 
Bloomington 
Champaign 
Charleston 
Chicago . . . 
Chicago Ht 
Dalton .... 
Delevan . . 
Des Plaines 
Dixon 
Eldorado 
Evanston 
Fulton . 
Geneseo 
Glencoe 
Highland Pk 
Higliwood 
Kankakee 
Lyons . . . 
Marion 
Marion . 
Moline .. 
Morgan Park 
Morrisc 
Morton Grov 
Mt. Carmel 
Mt. Morris. 
Naperville 

Niles 

Park Ridge 

Peoria 4,000 



54.400 
1,312 

21,268 

1.200 

101,888 



1.4S 
1.4S 
1.42 
1.60 
1.50 
1.08 
1.19 
1 23 



40,080 

32,300 

41.500 

7.000 

5,300 1.20 

2.400 1.60 

12,500 1.40 

11,016 1.66 

3,400 1.47 

17.200 1.07 

9.100 

13.700 

12,200 

519 



3.000 



10.199 

41,000 

12.000 

1.400 

8,195 

1,900 

5.500 

48.000 

15,500 

2,394 



1.22 
1.63 
1.54 
1.34 
1.56 
1.10 
1.39 
1 28 



1.40 

1.25 
1.25 
0.94 



United States and Canada 



Concrete Pavements with 
Bituminous Top 

Sea also "Bituminous Concrete" 
items having concrete foundation. 



Bitulithic Pavements 



Water-bound Macadam 



City. 



303 



O" 



o 






■•/. 



ARKANSAS. 

Pine Bluff 12,000 1.00 

CALIFORNIA. 

Imperial ...a 58,522 2.66 

Los Gatos 43,174 1.26 ■ 

Pasadena ... 10,114 31,109 1.62 

Pomona 4,127 0.93 

San Bern'dino 69,808 0.90 

San Francisco 81,259 .... 

Santa Ana 19,800 0.99 

Santa Barb'ra 64,418 1. In 

Santa Monica 4,254 1.16 

CONNECTICUT. 

Danbury 31,400 1.75 

I Ireenwieh 55,021 1.52 

Hartford .' 10,090 1.12 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Washington 14,674 0.94 

FLORIDA. 

Bradentown 22.S10 1.43 

Jacksonville 32,411 0.93 

GEORGIA. 

Athens 10,000 16,278 1.12 

ILLINOIS. 

Chicago 13,021 1.70 

Marion 12,511 1.25 

Mt. Carmel 14,400 1.00 

Springfield . . 11,600 1.37 

INDIANA. 

Connersville 2,000 .... 

Elkhart 14,690 15,812 1.49 

Evansville 9,433 1.40 

IOWA. 

Cedar Falls 7,200 1.40 

Clinton 1,380 1.45 

Waterloo 6,439 1.69 

KANSAS. 

Abilene 45,400 1.44 

LOUISIANA. 

New Orleans 4,160 1.48 

MAINE. 

Bangor 5,988 .... 

Westbrook 3,158 1.60 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Holvoke 9,561 1.49 

Somerville 30,000 1.36 

Springfield 2,009 1.18 

Worcester 3,244 1.58 

MICHIGAN. 

Ann Arbor 11,832 1.25 

Highland Pk. 5,000 38,950 0.80 

Ludington 12,000 1.33 

Manistee 1,438 1.03 

Petoskey 9,831 1.50 4- 

MINNESOTA. 

Duluth 750 1.90 

Rochester ... 29,120 18,520 1.54 
MISSISSIPPI. 

Clarksdale 2,400 1.83 

MISSOURI. 

Cape Girardeau .... 16,893 1.02 

ChillJcothe 8,768 1.40 

Columbia 3.706 1.50 

NEBRASKA. 

S. Omaha 20,178 1.86 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Laconia 1,200 1,200 1.65 

Portsmouth 15,000 2.31 

NEW JERSEY. 

Irvington 14,026 1.37 

Ocean City 9.000 1.17 

Roselle Park 17.000 1.28 

NEW MEXICO. 

Roswell 17.553 2.02 

NEW YORK. 

Binghamton . 2,642 6,438 1.52 

Jamestown 12,329 1.36 

Seneca Falls 3,048 1.54 

OHIO. 

Cleveland 23,795 1.86 

Geneva 4,600 1.55 

OKLAHOMA. 

Okmulgee 6.S32 1.70 

OREGON. 

McMinnville 73,503 1.52 

Portland 8,484 1.28 

Salem 12.4S7 1.26 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Warren 830 2.65 

TENNESSEE. 

Memphis 14,599 1.32 

June, WIS 



Birmingham . 
Montgomery . 
New Decatur 



Helena ... 
Little Rock, 
Paragould . 



ALABAMA. 

6,790 1.90 

12,914 ... 



ARIZONA. 

in, 190 .' 13 

59,195 ... 



ARKANSAS 

11,314 1.97 

75.0110 . . . 

36,705 



CALIFORNIA 



Berkeley 

Dinuba . . 

El Centro 

El Centro 

Lindsay . 

Hermosa Beach 

L. Angeles... Mi.:: in 

L. Angeles. 

Oroville 

Pasadena 6 

Richmond 

Venice w . . 

Wilmington 



Bridgeport 
Wilmington 



3,000 
22,500 
30,000 

33,494 



13 miu 

30,000 

26,050 

49,053 w 

57,587 

4,366 ir 

::::. I I 80 l ' . 3-6c 



27,1100 1.85 

20,618 1.58 

:: I ,r.s7 L.79 

47,361 I 92 

I 7 , V, I 



Lewiston 
Pocatello 

Wallace . 



IDAHO. 
. . . 55,859 
. ... 14,600 

2S.NN5 



I. iV\ \ 

Des Moines 29,843 2.10 2 

Pella 36,1114 2.06 2 

Perry 44,000 2.00 2 

KANSAS. 

12.051 

. 13.S64 1.95 2 



KENTUCKY. 

21,000 2.1 1 

8,910 ... 



LOUISIANA. 

Alexandria 14,920 2: 

New Orleans. 50,300 14,370 2.' 
MASSACHUSETTS. 



Boston 




54,842 


2.50 


Brookline . . 


. 10,500 


11,230 


1.01 


Cambridge .. 


. 4,350 


22,453 


1 lb 


N. Bedford s 




43,692 


I.IjO 


Springfield . 




14,705 


2 ::i 



Springfield 12.140 

MICHIGAN. 

Grosse Pointe 11,168 ... 

MINNKSi it \ 

Aurora 12,625 . . . 

Buhl 11.010 . . . 

Hibbing 8,550 . . 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Columbus 11,000 ... 

MISSOURI. 

Maplewood 4.727, 

St. Louis 2,000 ... 

MONTANA. 

Billings 35,000 11,872 1.98 

Kozeman 40,000 29.001 1.97 

Butte 21,761 2.85 

Great Falls.. 9,200 77,530 2.00 

Lewiston 55,859 ... 

Missoula 10,300 8.475 2.27 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



Manchester . 

Bloomfield . 
Boonton e. . 
East Orange 
Hoboken . . . 
Kearney . . . 
Newark .... 
Woodbury . 



8,000 
NEW JERSEY. 
2,000 16,000 2.23 

9,511 1.08 

10,423 2,08 

6.321 ... 

5.710 ... 

20,000 136,953 2.25 

9,791 ... 

NEW YORK. 

8,946 2.33 

3,100 ... 



ARKANSAS. 
Ft. Smith. . . . 53,000 12,000 0.60 . . . 
CALIFORNIA. 

Oxnard S.500 0.45 3 r 

Richmond 1,061 0.60 8 8 

R" i iside 7S.433 0.41 

S. Bernardino 261, 9S6 0.86 

Santa .Monica 1 so.ii::" 

CONNECTICUT. 

Danbury IS, 000 0.50 ... . 

Hartford 3.05m 4.2Sm 0.61 8-10 

Killingby 5,760 ... 7 u 

Meriden 5,578 0.33 

New Britain. 13,500 32,500 0.68 7 i 

Rockville 12,000 0.75 . 

DISTRICT OF COLUMUI \ 

Washington 58,182 0.73 

FLORIDA. 

Bradentown 5,400 0.65 6 s 

Dade City 140,000 1.40 4 

ILLINOIS. 

Cicero 22,900 1,549 1.20 .. 

Lyons 11,000 0.88 



Gary 

Huntington 

Laporte . . . 

Lebanon 

Muncie 

Richmond 

Washington 

Dubuque . . 



Frederick 

Boston . . 
Brookline . . 
Easthampton 
Framingh am 
Greenfield 



50,375 

92,344 0.72 

INDIANA. 

- . Oil. 1 12.7,80 0.90 :; 7 

.. 5,573 0.71 9 

12.S44 1.00 

8,444 1 00 

750 1,650 0.60 8-12 . 

. . 5,000 23,000 0.40 5 e-(j 

12,286 

IOWA. 

. . 7, .".02 16.545 0.69 6 a 
KANSAS. 

3.100 0.58 

KENTUCKY. 

1,104 0.36 

MAINE. 

3,904 0.93 

2,600 1.00 

MARYLAND. 

5,502 0.40 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

1,199 0.75 

100.000 0.45 

8,000 1.33 

1,733 0.91 
8,300 ... 4 o 

42,569 0.85 4-6 n-o 



S.000 

Lowell 25,000 

New Bedford S7.446 

Peabody .... 16, ooo 20, 860 0.2:. r, 

Revere 12,000 4,000 0.70 4-6 

Southbridge 4,200 0.72 . . . 

Springfield 6,523 0.57 6 

Waltliam 13,356 

Watertown 3,653 0.55 ... 

w ebster 3,839 0.75 . . . 

Westfield 2,8 94 0.83 ... 

Woburn 3.800 0.63 ... 

MICHIGAN. 

Menominee .. 3,000 7.373 0.67 9 

Negaunee 1 S.000 0.49 ... 

Norway 15,000 0.40 9 

MINNESOTA. 

Stillwater 11,000 

.MISSISSIPPI 

Jackson 8,000 0.35 ... 

MISSOURI 

Columbia 1,633 1.04 S 

Excelsior Spgs. 2,600 1.20 4 

St. Louis 100,000 . . . 

MONTANA. 

Dillon 45,000 4,800 . . . 

Great Falls 4.750 0.35 

NEW HA MI 'SI IIKIO. 



Berlin 

Boonton . . . 
Hackensack 
Montclair b 
Morristown 
Plainfield . . 
Ridgewood . 
Rutherford 



4.738 0.73 
NEW JERSEY. 

5,000 . . . 

3,600 0.56 

1,700 0.93 

6,400 0.66 

17,900 0.57 6 

13,000 0. 10 1 
23.750 0.66 

2.5 IS V 

12.979 0.7S 
32,000 0.52 . . . 

1,930 

1,400 0.59 .. . 



8.200 

20.000 
4,000 

Trenton 

Westfield ... 20,000 

W. N. York 

W. Orange 

NEW Y. .1:1 

Auburn 36,000 36,000 0.70 

Glens Falls 2,000 ... 

Hudson 5,000 0.45 

Kingston 17.900 0.18 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Asphalt Pavements (cont.) 

NEW JERSEY. 

Atlantic City. 7,575 150,570 1.77 1', 1% 

94,300 163,336 1.S4 1% 1 

Camden 34.754 1.90 2 1 

i,r i ! its mi •■-•■■ 1% 

30,000 11.947 2.04 2 1% 

Pas^air 104.000 14,547 1.71 1% 1% 

Ventnor Cy 1.200 1.73 1% 1% 

NEW YORK. 

Vlbanv 80,560 2.11 2 1 

Buffalo : 74.600 3.53 2 1% 

Buffalo r 136,376 3.26 2 1% 

New York City— 

Bronx Boro 71,628 1.81 ■•■ ■•• 

:7.ov, 1.64 2 1 

Mann, Um-o "-' ' ■''' ls r jj ] 

Queens Boro 66.660 1.85 2 1 

1 psie 7,350 2.44 2 1 

Rochester 96,466 1.80 2 1 

adv . 40.000 7,286 2.00 2 1 

. . 100,000 62,800 1.87 2 J 

17.23S 2.45 2 1 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

Charlotte 40,000 1.54 2 1 

Greensboro .. 12,750 ...... 1.50 1% 1% 

Raleigh 24,36:. 1.70 1% 1 

r;ck - M:.unt 4: 4' 1:8 1% 1% 

OHIO. 

Amherst 11050 1.60 2 ... 

, -ant. mi 13.709 1.73 1% 1 

Cincinnati ... 29.6S0 15.S50 2.53 1% 1% 

Columbus 130.1S7 2.00 2 1 

Conneaut il . . 1 5.000 • • ■ 

Gallon 37,000 

Hamilton .... 17,000 15,000 1.90 1 <A \ 

Lorain 27,453 1.60 1% J 

Marion 4.000 2.02 2 1 

Middleto'wn . 38.611 21,390 2.00 1% 1% 

Sandusky 23.397 1.80 1% 1 

eld 20,100 1.95 2 1 

5S.0d4 1.98 2 1 

Frbana 4.200 2.10 2 1 

OKLAHOMA. 

Shawnee 16,000 1?2 J% l 

Tulsa 40,000 53,400 1.49 2 

OREGON. 

Eugene 14.410 1.48 2 1 

Portland 5.000 40,44, 1.54 2 1 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Chester 46,000 1.75 2 1% 

Dunmore 2 - 4T 5 ?42 ?,/ },, 

Erie 50.000 96,579 1.53 1% 1% 

H irrisburg 30,000 5S.009 1.90 2 

Johnstown 29,435 2.05 2 1 

Larksville IT. 1 2-28 ... • •■ 

Philadelphia 3R3 -" 4 Hi 7, , 

Pittsburgh .. 15.000 55.000 2.35 1', 1% 

Scranton 29.610 1.96 2 1 

Wilkesbarre 41.000 43,887 2.0" 2 1% 
RHODE ISLAND. 

Pawtucket 1,276 .... ... ■•• 

Providence ... 28,095 24.909 2.43 2 1 
SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Charleston 26,360 1.65 1% 1% 

Columbia .... 49.400 1.64 1 IV. 

Greenville ... 15,000 1.5o 2 1 

TENNESSEE. 

Johnson Cy.. . 30.000 16.044 2.00 2 1 

Memphis 18,854 2.012 1 

TEXAS. 

Dallas 24.326 1.98 2 

Hillsboro 3S.000 ... 

Houston 7,637 81,881 2% ... 

LTTAH. 

Ogden 12.550 54,418 2.10 1V, IV, 

Salt Lake Cy. 34.700 281,542 1.79 2 1% 

WASHINGTON. 

Aberdeen . . . 20.000 11,531 1.68 2 1 

Bellinsham .. 50.283 46,139 1.45 2 1 

Everett 40,000 37.114 1.45 2 1 

Olympia 24.364 25.1S1 1.30 1% 1 

Seattle 105,000 217,685 1.40 2 1 

Tacoma 33.981 2.01 1 % 1 

WISCONSIN. 

Aonleton 23,000 1.89 1 v, 1 

Beloit 50.000 1.37 1% 1 

Green Bav 51.373 1.89 1% 1 

Madison 29.904 1.80 2 1 

Milwaukee -.250,000 296.826 1.88 1 2 

Racine 9,055 2.03 2 1 

Superior 54,629 1.74 1% 1 

West Allis... 23.000 2 1 

CANADA. 

Edmonton 4,654 2.45 2 1 

Vancouver 1.350 2.47 2 1 

Victoria 112,301 1.97 2 1 

Kingston 7.999 2.35 2 » 4 

London 65,400 43.260 2.36 2 1 

Ottawa 120.000 2.20 2 % 

Toronto ft 316.694 1.23 2 1% 

Westmount 4.514 3.18 2 1 

Regina o 25,755 2.S5 2 1 

ft — without base. 

d — total prospective paving — kinds not yet 

decided. 
p — paint coat. 

s — asphalt surface on old brick pavement, 
r — repaying, constructing new base. 



Brick Pavements (cont.) 
South Bend 10.116 l.l 



Concrete Pavements (cont.) 



1: 10,457 



Anamosa 

Belle Plaine 

Burlington ... 5,500 
Cedar Rapids.. 42,500 

Clinton 12.23m 

Council Bluffs. 4,423 

Davenport 

Des Moines 

Dubuque 22,069 

Kmmettsburg . 41,000 

Fort Dodge 

Fort .Madison.. 34. 000(i 

Marshallto.wn 

Missouri Valley 

Muscatine 

Oskaloosa 

Pella Some. 

Sioux City 

Waterloo 



i.OOO 
,200 
691 



2 00 

2.14 
1.60 



;,000 
1,130 
,416 



18,000 2.1 

4,499 1.6 

2 . " L' 7 1.71 

25.000 1.91 

1,246 

17,072 2.0! 



1% 

iv, 



Arkansas City 
Atchison 
Chanute .... 
Dodge City.. 

Emporia 

Fort Scott... 
Herinuton . . . 
Hutchinson .. 
Independence 

Iola 

Kansas City. 
Neodesha .... 

Newton 

Ottawa 

Pittsburg . . . 
Rosedale .... 

Salina 

Topeka 



KANSAS. 

12,000 

5,500 6,000 

lo.OOOrf 11. mom 

15,000 25,500 

10,( 

35,000 6.700 

10,000 

20,000 

9, ) 8,533 

640 

19.146 

23,000 

10,157 

4.356 
13,000 
23,405 

KENTUCKY. 

4.167 

60,0 OOd 

6,000 S.00O 
. 16,000 



25,( 

25,000 
22,400 
40,000rf 

3o!ooo 

29, 100 



1.51 


1% 


1.63 


1 v. 


1.75 


1 


1.63 


1% 


1.85 


1 v. 


1.70 


1% 


1.30 


1 v. 


1 65 


1 


1.82 




1.43 


IV, 


1.X5 




1 55 


2 


1.45 


1 1, 


1 85 


1 ' .. 


1.76 


1 v. 


1.50 


1'.. 



Lexington .... 
Louisville .... 
Morganfield . . 
W. Covington 

LOUISIANA. 
Lake Charles.. 15.000 50,000 
Shreveport ... 2,000 303 



2.25 1 

1 7S 1 V. 
2.05 2 
1.24 1% 

1.96 2 
2.35 2 



MARYLAND. 
. 67,230 102.772 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



2.95 
2,900 
2,230 



Cambridge 

Greenfield . 

Walden . . . 

Norwood . . 

rittsrield . . 

Somerville 3,000 

MICHIGAN. 

Ann Arbor 2.350 

Rattle Creek.. 5.000 51,194 

Benton Harbor. 37,000 6,000 

Detroit 33,365 

Flint 27.441 46,232 

Grand Rapids. 55,800 42.100 

Kalamazoo ... 19.583 4,784 

Menominee ... 770 

Niles 10,000 

Port Huron... 4,000 

Sturgis 20.000 20,506 

MINNESOTA. 

Duluth 55,000 64.642 

Mankato 12,000 

Minneapolis .. 10,000 

Red Wing 

St Paul 

Winona 33,540 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Vicksburg 27.739 

MISSOURI 

Brool Held 1.760 

Chillicothe 8,768 

Jefferson City 875 

Kansas City ft. 75,000 45.282 

Mexico 4.225 

St ( 'Carles 3.0S7 

St. Louis 130,000 

Sedalia 30,000 

Sikeston 12.500 

University Cy. 5.900 11.346 

Warrensburg . 1,564 7,328 



1 % a-g 

2.90 1% <7 
2.63 1 g. 



1.75 IV, 
1 67 1-, 
1.60 1% 
3.13 1 
2.5 2 2 
1.25 1 % 
1.98 1% 
2.17 2 
1.68 2 



1,01s 


2.12 1 


619 


1.62 2 


7.74^ 


2.48 IL. 


9.423 


1.48 2 



NEBRASKA. 

Auburn 11,500 

Grand Island.. 20.000 11.000 

Hastings 679 

Havelock 9.000 

Lincoln 20,000 15.221 

Omaha 34. SIS 17,562 

Seward Some 25,000 

So. Omaha 20.450 58,708 

York 50.000 1.84 iv 

NEW JERSEY. 
Atlantic City 14.690 2.60 1% 



1.40 3 

1.76 . . . 

2.00 2 

2.03 1 

1.67 2 

1 82 1 

L.35 1 '■• 

2.2 4 IV, 

1.S5 1 

1.9S 1% 



2.10 1% a 

2.10 1% a 

1.87 1% 

2.12 1% a 

2.30 2 a-o 

2.10 1% p 

2.19 1% a 

2 2 1 1 •. a 



Princeton . . 
Prophetstowi 

Riverdale . . 
Riverside . . 
Robinson 
Rock ford . . . 
Sheridan . . . 
Springfield 
Summit ft.. . 
Taylorville 
Wilmette . . 
Winnetka . . 
Woodstock . 



3.S00 

3,600 

5,300 

600 



800 



1.22 

1.23 
0.89 



550 1.50 2 



Albion 

Ambia 

Anderson . . 
Bluffton . . . 
Connersville 
Connersville 
Elkhart . . . 
Evansville .. 
Ft. Wayne. . 
Frankfort . 

Gary 

Gary 

Hammond 
•Huntington 
Indianapolis 
Knightstown 
Lafayette . . 
Laporte .... 
Logansport . . 
Michigan Cy. 
Newcastle .. . 

Osgood 

Richmond . . . 
Richmond . . . 
Roanoke .... 
ter ... 
Rushville ... 
Se] mour .... 
South Bend. . 
Sullivan .... 
Terre Haute. 
Washington . 

Algona 

Atlantic .... 
Belle Plaine.. 
Bloomfield . . 
Burlington .. 
Cedar Rapids 
Clarinda .... 

Clinton 

Council Bluffs 

Cresco 

Davenport . . 
Des Moines. . 
Dubuque .... 
Eagle Grove. 
Forest City . . 
Ft Madison.. 
Indianola . . . 

Keokuk 

Marsballtown 
Mason City. . 
Monticello . . . 

Nevada 

Newton 

Sac City 

Sheldon 

Sigourney . . . 
Sioux City . . . ! 
Storm Lake.. 

Vinton 

Washington . 

A bilene 

Atchison .... 
Fredonia .... 

Iola 

Kansas City.. 
Manhattan .. 

Newton 

Pittsburg . . . 
Salina 



31,200 
3.6 1s 
3.627 
6,500 

44.4mm 



6,670 

22,702 

4,200 

5,000 

'972 
7,270 
3.816 

14,488 
12.000 



1.38 2 

1.15 1 

1.40 1 

1.13 .. 

1.35 .. 

1.44 1 
1.35 1- 
1.59 . . 
1.02 1 
1.35 2 
1.43 1 
1.52 1 

1.45 2 



6-S 
7 



6-8 
8% 



45,000 
1,500 
6,000 



4. 

1.111 

4.1mm 

32,100 

5, 

500 
7,900 
3.000 
1,210 
1.S00 
5.747 
8,790 



2,500 
20,215 

6.153 

2.600 

26.900 

1.144 



1.58 
1.15 
1.32 
1.49 
1.45 
1.53 
1.40 
1.26 
1.54 
1.12 
1.37 
1.10 
1.30 



IOWA. 

2,532 
. . . 51,927 



10,300 

3.100. 

30,500 

38, 1 

1.379 
18.617 

2 2.5 00 
4.581 

65.364 
2.390 
4,241 

' "992 

56.047 

7. I 

5,987 
150 



21,000 
3,000 
5,400 
14.500 
10,001 
50,000 156.373 



53,1 

1,000 
1,000 

12,000 

30,1 

3 5.000 



1.46 . . 

1.20 . . 

1.30 2 

1.37 .. 
1.45 1 

1.38 1 
1.33 .. 
1.00 1 

1.50 1 
1.30 1 

1.51 1 
1.24 1 



1.10 1 
1.30 2 
1.23 2 



51,920 



KANSAS. 

5,000 

2.000 2.500 

2,000 

8.450 



1.250 
15,000 

540 



2,673 
5.000 
5,839 
1.025 

KENTUCKY. 

5,269 

105 



1.00 2 
0.84 1 
1.05 1 



New Orleans. 



Riddeford .. 
Portland . . . 
S. Portland. 



Adams 
Fall River. 

Lvnn 

Revere . . . 



14.000 

3.558 2.12 1 
67.595 1.16 1 
1.50 .. 



6-7 
6 

6-8 









1.22 




. 6 


1.22 


1 


6 


1.33 


1 


5 


1.40 




• ' 


1 10 


1 


6 


1.15 


2 


6 


1 13 


-> 


6 









MAINE. 

30,000 23,000 1.65 

5.000 7.164 1.65 ... 6 
12.884 1.31 1 6 

MARYLAND. 
7.700 9.696 1.17 ... 6 
2,600 1.20 . . . 5-1 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



STREET IMPROVEMENTS 



Austin .... 
Dallas .... 
Denison . . . 
Hillsboro .. 
Waxahachie 

Aberdeen . . 
Spokane 



Concrete, Bit. Top (cont.) 

TEXAS. 

1.227 

5,902 



Bitulithic (cont.) 



2.36 



731 
600 

'WASHINGTON. 
5,197 



1.64 

1 ;.ii 
1.80 



32 298 
WEST 'VIRGINIA. 

Charleston 2,820 1.31 .. 

Oshkosh 20.SS6 1.63 5 

CANADA. 

Toronto 3.240 1.65 6 

Windsor 1,190 

a — Reinforced concrete. 

b — Concrete surface oiled with 90 

cent, asphalt. 
t — Tarvia A and sand surface finish. 
v — Vibrolithic. 



Bituminous Macadam 



o 



S oco 



Ft. Smith. 



Alhambra 

Berkeley 

EI Centro 

Hermosa Beach .... 

Hollister 

Los Angeles 

Manhattan 

Beach 

Oxnard 

Pasadena . . . 88,624 
Redondo Beach .... 

Riverside 

S. Francisco. 230,000 

S. Pasadena 

Vallejo 

Venice 



ALABAMA. 

2,500 1.40 . . . 

ARKANSAS. 

7,000 0.75 . . . 

CALIFORNIA. 

46,344 0.66 4V. 

17,400 

49,053 

4,366 

32,805 0.S8 6 

6,300 1.00 6 



Danbury 
New Haven . 
Putnam 
Wallingford 

Wilmington 



56.510 

S.500 0.45 3 
43.374 0.72 1-7 

6,979 

4,464 

35,444 

3,000 0.27 2 

12,130 

15,480 0.68 4 

CONNECTICUT. 
35,000 30.000 0.95 . . . 

105.383 0.63 2 

10,000 0.S0 4 

13,2 90 1.17 7% 

DELAWARE. 

43,000 ... 2 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Washington 4,500 

GEORGIA. 

Atlanta 85,311 

ILLINOIS. 

Chicago 580,594 1.23 10y, 

Elgin 42,852 1.25 . . . 

Hinsdale 9,000 1.32 ... 

Murphysboro 41.000 1.25 2% 

Quincy 31,175 1.49 . . . 

INDIANA. 

3,576 0.67 3 

.. 30,000 0.85 

5,018 1.13 . 

1,791 0.9S 8 

IOWA. 
9.302 16.545 0.69 6 
KANSAS. 

13,000 0.72 9 

2,430 1.29 . 

15,735 0.90 9 

21,062 0.92 3 

250 0.90 . 

MAINE. 

Gardiner 2,800 ... . 

Portland Some 7,033 1.08 . 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

15,000 1.00 6 
85.807 1.00 6 
40,000 0.63 
30,785 1.25 
10,792 0.50 
30.7S3 1.33 
30,778 1.19 
1.582 1.11 
36,884 1.10 6 
28,757 0.95 4-5 
10.767 1.37 ... 
71,000 0.56 



Decatur .... 
Greencastle 
Laporte tp. . 
South Bend.. 

Dubuque 

Atchison 
Kansas City. 
Osawatomie . 

Ottawa 

Wellington .. 



:% 



Brookline . . . 30.000 

Cambridge 

Clinton 

Everett 

Fall River 

Framingham 

Haverhill . . . 34.070 

Lowell 50,000 

Medford 

Newton 

Norwood .... 50,000 
Peabody .... 2,775 

Revere 10,000 

Somerville 

Southbridge 

Springfield 

Stoughton 

Waltham 

Watertown 

June, 1915 



3 

0.70 6 

8,000 1.05 4 

60,000 0.88 . . 

8,400 1.12 6 

143.747 1.06 2 

3.550 0.80 . . 

9,864 0.66 . . 

10,306 0.55 . . 



2.22 



18 

7. ! IS 

1,799 2.4", 
9.i;iiii 2.28 

327 . . . 

145 ... 



Binghamton 

Frankfort 

Hempstead 

Herkimer . . . 12,000 

Ilion 

Johnstown 

Little Falls 

Lowville 

Mohawk 

New York City — 

Queens Boro." 92,7::n I 65 2 

New Rochelle 8,819 

Oriskany Falls 11,219 

Saratoga Spgs r, . 7 s .", 1.60 

Troy 28, 109 2 61 

Utica 40.000 30,496 2.26 :: 

Yonkers 24.S47 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

Asheville 45.400 2 10 2 

Hendersonville 30.550 

Rockingham 9.359 

Wilmington IS, 000 

OHIO. 
Norwood .... 18,000 21,000 1.75 2 

OKLAHOMA. 
Bartlesville .. 10,000 3,780 2.15 2 
OREGON. 

Eugene 16,000 29.050 1.7S 2 

Forest Grove 



Marshfield 
North Bend . 
Pendleton . . 
Portland . . . 
Seaside 
Sheridan .. . 



11,684 

16.500 2.10 2 

10,524 

35,515 

33.041 1.85 s 

2S.046 

3,057 



PENNSYLVANIA. 
Hanover to... 35,500 16,000 2.05 2 

Scranton 6,721 2.39 3 

Lansdowne .. S.000 1.20 3 

York 11.829 

Marcus Hook 13,815 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Paw tucket w 6,472 ... 2 

Providence .. IS, 375 77,495 2.26 2 

TENNESSEE 
Jackson . . 
Jackson g 
Nashville 
Nashville 



Austin 



Salt Lake. 



Richmond 



.16 2 



1.30 2 



3,428 2.17 2 

4,557 1.75 . . 

50,000 118,000 1.70 2 

35.000 1.55 . . 

TEXAS. 
7,705 42.0X7 

Corpus Christi 7S.068 

Dallas 86,983 

El Paso 66, . 6 

Ft Worth 143,715 

Houston 91.050 2.4s 2-2% 5-6 

San Antonio 109.692 

Waco 70,017 

UTAH. 
30,000 93,000 1.93 6 h 
VIRGINIA. 

29,800 

WASHINGTON. 

Olvmpia 3.65s 1.0S 1% 4% 

Pullman 36.202 

Sumner 6.720 w 

Walla Walla. 17.600 11,440 1.4S l'j 2%a 
WEST VIRGINIA. 



Charleston 
Edgewood 
Sheridan . . 



Edmonton 

Nanaimo 

N. Westminster . 

Point Grey 

Reveistoke 
Saanich 



17.07, 

25,500 . . . 

74.000 21,040 2.12 
CANADA. 



5.737 
98,419 
22,051 
12,350 

IS, 143 
23,16 



70 



_. Vancouver 10,594 2.45 

Vancouver 7,369 1.35 

St. Boniface 10,207 2.70 

New Glasgow 4.958 

Berlin 12,0s.; 2 53 

Chatham 796 

Gait 3.7S0 .. 

St. Catherines . 
Sault Ste Marie . 

Sudbury 

Toronto 

Waterloo 

Lachine 

Montreal 

St. Lambert. . . 

Regina 

Saskatoon 

« — Asphaltic concrete. 

b — Included in "Concrete, bituminous top," 

table also, 
c — Concrete. 
e — Amiesite. 
/ — Bitustone. 
g — On gravel macadam. 
h — On bituminous macadam base. 
* — Crushed stone base. 
u> — Warrenite. 



20,180 

29.2S4 1.65 2 

47,629 1.55 2 

15.090 

22,896 

95,208 

6,001 2. si 2 

28,349 3.00 2 

4,900 



Water-bound Macadam (cont.) 

Little Falls 3,000 1.00 . 

Mamaroneck 1.10S 80 . 

Middletown 15,000 0.50 ... 

New York — ■ 

Queens 99,320 

Ogdensburg 22,909 

Saratoga Spgs 14,660 

Solvay 5,460 0.65 . . . 

Watertown 30,000 0.55 . 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

Charlotte 17,000 0.50 6 

Raleigh 94 812 

OHIO. 

Ada 

Bellefontain 
Cincinnati . 
Fostoria . . 
Greenville . 
Marion .... 
Middletown 
Norwood . . 



Bethlehem 
Coatesville . 
Columbia .. . 
Hazleton . . . 
Lansdowne . 
Philadelphia 
Pottsville . . 
Waynesboro 
Wilkes-Barre 



. 1 1,870 2,217 1.29 . , 

2,831 0.5S .. 

. 6,200 5,085 0.60 8 

10.747 0.50 8-12 c 

9,473 1.36 2V 2 6c 

. 15.000 3,000 0.56 9 n 
OREGON. 

5,900 0.70 1 5 

100,000 32.25S 0.46 6-8 n 
PENNSYLVANIA. 

6,609 1.77 



,S25 



4.000 0.28 

3S.607 0.35 

15,000 0.80 

95.952 1.0S 

30,217 0.37 

4,000 0.42 



1.100 
RHODE ISLAND. 

Pawtucket 0.42m 

Providence . . 4S.106 69,600 0.63 6 

Westerly 2m 0.63 . 

■ SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Lead 6,000 ... . 

TENNESSEE. 

Clarksville 34,700 0.14 . 

TEXAS. 

Dallas 3.640 . . . S 

Houston 12.S41 ... . 

Longview 7.790 0.94 9 

VERMONT. 

Rutland 2.425 0.45 6 

VIRGINIA. 

Bristol 15,000 0.30 . 

Newport News 7,036 ... . 

WASHINGTON. 

Kent s.573 0.85 6 

N. Yakima 2,970 0.48 . 

Sunnvside 10.000 0.27 4 

WISCONSIN. 

8,000 0.65 

6.000 



Baraboo 
Green Bay . . . 
Janesville . . . 
Madison .... 
Marinette . . . 
Milwaukee . . 

Oconto 

Waupaca . . 

Cheyenne . . . 

Vancouver . . 
Brantford . . . 
Kingston 



1,278 1.24 9 

6,849 0.51 

2,669 1.00 8 t 

2.401 0.70 

15.000 33.022 1.05 SVj 6 

3,200 0.75 

3,600 0.36 5-8 n 

\\ YOMING. 

. . .. 17,335 0.27 ::'■■ n 
CANADA. 

16,701 0.80 

15,000 0.50 

12.475 0.40 



a — Crushed stone base, 

b — Clay-bound macadam. 

<■ — Concrete base. 

c — Clay base. 

,/ Gravel base. 

m — Miles in length. 

n — Natural soil base. 

n — Old macadam base. 

r — Resurfacing, 

s — Sand base. 

t — Telford base. 



Oiled Roads and Streets 





ARKANSAS. 




De Queen. 


80m 


60m 


0.04 




CALIFORNIA. 




Covina .. . 


120.000 


277,970 


0.082 






3,020 


0.032 


Hollister . 




28,394 


0.90 


Huntington 








Heach 


39,700 




0.90 


Huntington 








Hi -a rh 


9,000 




0.72 


Imperial . 








L. Angeles 


350,000 


353,334 


ii. or, 


Monrovia 


24.000 


11.000 


11,25 


Orange . . . 


Some 


45.000 




Pasadena . 


13,444 


86,929 


0.396 



348 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Asphalt Block 



City. 



\Si 



- 



:- x 



/. 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Washington S.092 J1.78 5 

GEORGIA. 

Savannah 17,545 1.90 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Holyoke 5,567 2.30 2 

MICHIGAN. 

Flint 1,960 3.16 12x5x2 

NEW JERSEY 
Newark 25,000 10.S17 2.53 12x5x 



2.25 12x5x2 

10-12x 
2.35 4-6x2 
2.30 12x5x3 



W. New York 26.650 

NEW YORK. 

Albany 3,238 

Jamestown 9,423 

Lockport 20,972 

New York — 

Bronx 1,650 

Manhattan 1,502 

Queens S.923 

Niagara Falls 34,000 

OHTO. 

Fostoria 12.279 

London 12,179 

Marion 7.000 12,219 

Tiffin 5,100 

Toledo 7,794 

TEXAS. 

Houston 72,038 . 

WASHINGTON. 

Seattle 52,500 . 

CANADA. 

Victoria, B. C 56,951 . 

Windsor, Ont. . ..... 32.57S 

Quebec, Que 4,586 . 

Regina, Sask 28,525 



Creosoted Wood Block 



1.S3 

2.15 5 

2.06 12x5x2% 

1.90 

1.75 12x5x214 





gs ss 




u 




a- 1 ■cS* 


- ■ «£ 





City. 










CU —7. 


O™ 2 j" 


fl 




CONNECTICUT 






Ansonia .... 


9,500 


$332 2n 


1.10 


Bridgeport . 


9,970 


3.14 16 






9,240 44,331 


3.20 .. 


1.08 


New Haven. . 


81,944 

FLORIDA. 


3.00 20 


to 
1.14 


Pensacola . . . 


1.600 

ILLINOIS. 


2.13 20 


1.12 
1.08 


Chicago .... 


139,914 


3.12 . . 


to 
1.12 


Decatur .... 


55,000 11,300 


2.43 18 


1.10 


Granite City. 


S.750 12,500 
INDIANA 


2.64 16 


1.0S 
1.08 


Muncie 


6 41 


2.69 16 


to 
1.12 




IOWA. 




Cedar Rapids 


5,921 
KENTUCKY. 


2.95 16 




Louisville . . 


9,133 

LOUISIANA. 


3.17 20 


1.0S 
1.10 


New Orleans 


47,370 L3.257 
MAINE. 


3.25 12 


to 
1.14 


Augusta .... 


1,157 


3.42 If, 


1.10 


Bangor 


720 

MARYLAND 


6.11 . . 




Baltimore .. 


. 2.195 1,647 


3.40 . . 




MASSACHUSETTS 




Boston 


2,522 


:: :ai 20 


1.12 


Cambridge . . 


23,900 29,037 


4.00 22 


1.12 


New Bedford. 


1.520 


3.50 .. 




Southbridge . 


7,300 


2.4s . . 




Springfield . . 


10.S44 

MICHIGAN. 


10 
16 


1.10 




145,000 114, SIS 


2.52 to 





Brick Pavements (cont.) 

Boonton 5,790 .... 2 i 

Camden 611 2.10 1 i 

Elizabeth 10.000 2.11 1% < 

Garfield 9.071 2.34 2 « 

Jersey City 8,649 2.11 1% , 

Newark 10,000 33,389 2.20 1% g 

Ridgewood . . . 20,000 2.25 2 < 

Rutherford 20,000 2.15 1 1/2 < 

Trenton 4,540 7.022 2.24 1%. < 

NEW YORK. 

Albany 72.774 2.01 1 % i 

Auburn 2,634 5.246 2.45 I 1. . 

Ballston Spa 4,013 2.55 2 - 

Binghamton .. 23,000 35,257 1.98 1 % I 

Buffalo 40,467 3.29 1% S, 

Canastota .... 5.0S9 2.15 1% J 

Carthage 7,500 2.49 1 j 

Catskill 5,000 

Clyde 4,220 2 £ 

Corning 956 33,498 2.01 !'■■ 

Cortland 9,850 2.28 1% .. 

Elmira 10,000 27,690 2.33 1% <8 

Fairport 4,870 2.25 2 £ 

Fulton 7,200 4.222 2. IS 1% ,, 

Gloversville 6.000 3.00 2 £ 

Hornell 800 3,700 2.03 IV2 S 

Ithaca 4,316 .... 1 c 

Jamestown ... 50.000 38,580 1.65 IV, 5 

Kingston 2.000 2.40 2 fl 

Little Falls 1,100 2.65 

Lockport 17,037 2.25 2 fl 

Middletown 5,000 

Newark 9,000 3,000 1.60 1V> fl 

New York Citv — 

Brklyn. Boro. 12,700 1 fl 

Richm'd Boro 4,365 1.63 1% fl 

Niagara Falls 5,000 2.62 p' <j 

Norwich 14,000 2.20 1% g 

Olean Some 12,552 1.95 2 g 

Oswego 23,140 27,737 2.43 1% g 

Plattsburg ... 3,000 5,420 3.05 1% g 

Port Jervis... 6,900 5,790 2.45 1% g 

Poughkeepsie 25,924 2.50 2 g 

Rochester 7S.791 1.83 1% g 

Salamanca 800 2.25 1% p 

Schenectady 7,536 2.33 1 g 

Solvay 15.351 2.67 1% g 

Syracuse 100,000 73,480 2.19 1% g 

Troy 4.21S 2.73 2 17 

I'tica S70 2.36 . . . 

Watertown 10,000 2.53 1% g 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

Asheville 7,040 2.45 1'. p 

Charlotte 1,920 2.45 4 t/ 

Raleigh 9S0 , 

OHIO. 

Ada 12,000 p 

Akron 125,417 1SS.711 1.47 2 g 

Alliance 16.000 1.75 2 41 

Ashland 2.236 1.95 2 p 

Ashtabula 8.8S8 1.64 2 a 

Barberton 4,051 1.65 2 p 

Bellefontaine 9.S73 1.45 1 g 

Bryan 4,000 1.74 2 g 

Bucyms 650 1.39 2 g 

Cambridge ... 15,000 3,750 2.61 1% g 

Canton 100. 72S 1.63 2 " p 

Chillicothe ... 11,500 5,450 1.41 1 g 

Cincinnati 99,411 2.28 2 g 

Cleveland 2S3.344 509,097 2.07 1% g 

Columbus 216,195 1.75 2 g 

Conneaut .... 16,350d 1,610 1.50 1% g 

Coshocton .... 2,000 2,274 1.50 2 " p 

Davton 80,400 60,130 1.72 IV, g 

Delaware .... 7.000 19,000 1.60 2 " g 

E. Liverpool .. 30,000 14,110 1.35 2 "s 

Elyria 27,352 1.95 2 a-g 

Galion 57,000 9.555 2.13 2 g 

Geneva 5,308 1.65 IV, g 

Greenville 550 1.70 . ." .. 

Ironton 28,100 1.33 2 p 

Lakewood 60,24 9 1.68 1% 17 

Lancaster .... 37,000 24.140 1.00 2 " s 

Lima 28,069 1.83 1% g 

Lorain 20,000 21.119 1.68 1'. «/ 

Mansfield .... 27,650 9.700 2.39 1'. p 

Marietta 19,094 1.15 2" 5 

Marion 20.000 16.471 1.S5 2 g 

Massillon 29.000 1.74 2 p 

Middletown S.1S9 LSI 2 g 

Mingo Junction 4.700 1.30 2 s 

Mt Vernon - . 9,800 1.211 1.80 2 ,; 

Newark 3,590 19.S56 1.-15 2 g 

Norwalk s.000 1.90 2 a 

Norwood 1,420 1.49 1 g 

Oberlin 2,700 9,400 1.65 1% g 

Ottawa S.000 1.97 1 v. „ 

Painesvllie ... 20,650 1.66 1% g 

Portsmouth .. 15,000 80,347 2.00 2 p-'g 

Sanduskv 13.000 1.S1 2 g 

Sidney 54,980 2.33 1 g 

St.eiubenville 22.570 1.63 ... .". 

Tiffin 7.400 1.85 2 .; 

Tippecanoe Cy 22,200 1.78 2 g 

Toledo Some 6S.514 2.03 1% a-g 

CTrbana ls.oOO 1.89 1 >■• 

Van Wert 6.900 r; 



Concrete Pavements (cont.) 



Allegan 

< ' ." I ' 1 i 1 1 : 1 . 

Detroit 
Do wagia c 



36.S71 

116 

MICHIGAN. 

14,500 

38,000 29,334 

165,700 

6,000 



2.28 2 



Flint 19,381 



Frankenmuth 
Grand Rapids 
Highland Pk. 

Howell 

Lansing 

Laurium .... 
Manistee .... 
Menominee .. 

Monroe 

Munising .... 
Paw Paw.. 
Petoskey .... 
Plymouth . . . 
Port Huron a 
Royal Oak. . . 
Spring Lake. 
Three Rivers. 
Union City. . 
Vicksburg .. . 
Wyandotte . . 
Ypsilanti . . . 



7,000 
:,.00il 1,710 
Some 12,480 
1.833 



1,000 
3.750 
3,500 



1.65 1 
0.S5 .. 
1.10 2 

1.41 2 
0.85 2 



6-8 
6% 



30,000 



Anoka 5,000 

Austin 

Duluth 35,000 

Faribault 

Mankato .... 4,000 
Minneapolis . 50,000 

Moorehead 

Mt. Iron 

Nashwauk 

Pipestone 

Red Wing 
Rochester 
St. Cloud . 
St. Paul . . 
Stillwater 



1,200 

2,000 
1,600 
2,785 

3,500 
9,132 
52.356 
4,300 
1,220 
4,800 
4,500 
3,960 
8,100 



300 
55,399 
980 
18,558 
64.SS6 
7.200 
4,300 
3,900 
8,300 



1.40 2 
1.27 2 
1.60 2 
1.50 1 
1.30 . . 
1.17 2 



1.80 
1 i:, 
1.02 
1.29 
1.65 
1.38 
1.65 
1.58 



4,100 
20.000 
10,000 



10.304 
6.677 
1,602 



Two Harbors 10,200 

Virginia 525 

MISSOURI. 
3,400 



Bethany 

Boonville 

C. Girardeau. 53,000 67,04 

Chillicothe . . 

Columbia . . . 

Excelsior Spgs 

Grant City.. 

Hannibal 

Joplin 



'.-.. 



19,900 
5.201 
1,400 
S.100 
3,000 
400 



1.51 1 

1.22 1-: 

1.35 2 

1.2 5 2 
1.86 . 
2.40 2 

1.40 . . 

0.84 1 

1.09 1 
1.40 1 
1.01 1 
1.34 2 

1.10 . . 

1.03 1 



6 ' ■• 
6-8 



Kansas City. 350.000 326. 94S 



Kirksville 

Liberty 10,000 

Poplar Bluffs 

St. Joseph 

Sedalia . . . 
Sikeston . . 
Springfield 



4.120 
2.100 
2,850 

61.275 



1.57 2 5V,-s 



1.25 . . 

1.23 1 

1.48 1 

lis 2 



S.000 

3,500 

19,925 

MONTANA 

Billings 5,970 

Bozeman 1,947 

Great Falls 4,545 

Missoula 643 

NEBRASKA 

Lincoln 12,550 1,951 

Nebraska Cy. 50,000 9,953 

Norfolk 40.000 1.25 1 

Omaha e 53.061 11,381 1.44 1 

Omaha c 6,055 1.59 

So. Omaha... 17,000 8,312 1.30 
NEW HAMPSHIRE 



1.95 1 

1.31 1 
1.S0 2 



1.18 



Nashua 

1: mlifld 

Elizabeth .. 
Red Bank . . 
Roselle Pk 

Albany 
Bay Shore. 
Canajoharie 
E. Islip . . . 
Ellenville . 
Gloversville 
Gowanda .. 
Interlaken 
Johnstown . 
Sag Harbor 



6,830 
NEW JERSEY. 
. 1(1.000 



1.65 



6.800 

14.759 

YORK. 

2,275 

18,750 

4,000 

7,800 

2.0 60 

5,500 

9,400 

1 1 000 

7.04U 

14.640 

Saratoga Spgs 12,500 



2,200 1.15 



1.10 1 
0.90 1 
1.54 .. 



Schenectady 1,150 

Schoharie 8,700 

Seneca Falls 1.9 4 7 

Tonawanda 23.000 

Troy 9.200 9,348 

W. Albany 3.100 

W. Carthage 8,! 2 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Bessemer Cy 21.000 . 

Charlotte 373 . 

OHIO 

Andover 14.900 

Canton 11.000 1 



1.45 1 


7 






1.44 1 
2.10 1 


6 



June, 1915 



STREET IMPROVEMENTS 



349 



Bituminous Macadam (cont 

WestfieM 5,042 1.00 

W. Springfield 2,140 ... . 

Winchester 12,643 ... 

Woburn 25,000 0.98 

Worcester 30,776 0.S7 

MICHIGAN. 

Grosse Pointe 11,168 ... 

Ludington 11,000 ... 

Norway 13,269 0.69 

So. Haven... 9,000 ».70 

MINNESOTA. 



Bituminous Concrete 

See also "Concrete with Bituminous Top.' 



Minneapolis 




958 1.73 . . 






MISSOU 




Columbia 




925 0.80 S 


6 


Jefferson City 


94,008 0.90 8 




Kansas City 


. 50.000 


55,037 1.30 3 


7 


Sedalia 


4.000 


1.00 s 


6 


NEW HAMPSHIRE. 




Berlin 




1,560 0.7S . . 




Laconia .... 


5,000 


3,153 0.S5 6 


n 




NEW JERSEY. 




Bloomfield . 


5,000 


8 




Garfield 


7,220 


57.S90 0.93 7 


n 


Kearney' .... 




."..7 10 


. w 


Montclair . . 


. 6,000 


5,900 0.87 3 


t 




. 12,000 


15,612 0.92 7 


m 




NEW 


YORK. 




Cartilage . . . 




3,150 1.10 12 




Fulton 




20,138 1.35 7 




Geneva 




:.:2,:::.s 0.50 . . . 




Gloversville . 


7,650 


14,200 1.3S 6 


m 


Gouverneur . 




4.000 




Hempstead . 




8,584 


w 


Herkimer . . . 




6,000 0.20 . .. 




Hornell 




1,000 




Jamestown . . 




12,338 1.35 . . . 




Johnstown . . 




3,500 1.52 8 




Mamaroneck 




2.368 




Middletown . 




15,000 




New York — 








Queens .... 




110,585 0.85 ... 




Richmond .. 




8,723 




Oneonta .... 


13,700 


1,639 1.12 7 


4 


Oswego 




16,121 1.73 6 


s 


Plattsburg . . 




16.460 0.S6 S 




Poughkeepsie 




1,526 1.30 7 




Syracuse .... 




13,650 1.50 9 


6 


Troy 




7.S00 1.09 . . . 




Utica 




11,666 1.01 . . . 




NORT 




Durham 


25,000 


1 1,500 0.74 6 




Rockingham . 




10,666 






OHIO. 




Bellefontaine 


1.300 


0.5S S 




Cincinnati 


15,325 


39,657 1.51 9 




Columbus . . . 




6,366 1.20 .. . 




Galion 


37,000 


. . 2 


6 


Massillon . . . 




2,500 0.75 . . . 




Middletown .. 




9,473 1.36 2% 


6c 


Springfield . . 




5.000 0.90 .. . 




Toledo 




6,155 1.19 4 


4 




OREGON 




Hood River.. 




9.000 1.00 6 




Portland .... 




10.000 




PENNSYLVANIA. 




Allentown . . . 




1,731 0.7" . . . 




Ben Avon . . 




2,000 1.08 4 


t 


Clearfield . . . 




1,200 0.85 3 


b 


Columbia . . . 




500 0.54 .. . 




Hanover .... 




16,696 2.05 .. . 




Lansdowne .. 


8,000 


5.200 1.20 6 


t 


Marcus Hook. 




13.815 


w 










Waynesboro . 




634 1.77 . . . 





RHODE ISLAND. 

Pawtucket 625 ... 2 

Providence .. 40.000 39.436 1.51 2 = 
SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Columbia 10,150 ... 2 

Union 7.500 1.00 . . 

TENNESSEE. 
75,000 35,000 1.40 3 
TEXAS. 

42.534 74 . . 

5,044 1.00 9 

1.400 1.35 . . 

28,595 1.13 9 

3,000 1.32 . . 

10,000 1.04 2 

VERMONT. 

Barre 3,600 0.62 . . 

Rutland 9.350 0.75 4 

VIRGINIA. 

Danville 1,000 0.76 2 

Newport News 10,000 0.60 .. 

WASHINGTON. 

6.720 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

30.800 1.48 21/ 

25.500 

WISCONSIN. 
1,500 



Nashville 

Abilene .... 

Dallas 

Hillsboro .... 
Longview . . . 
Marshall .... 
Mineral Wells 



Sunn 



Rlnefield . 
Edgewood 



Baraboo 
Chippewa Falls 
Columbus . . . 
Eau Claire . . 
Edgerton . 
Janesville 
LaCrosse . 
Madison 
Milwaukee 

June, 19 JS 



S.000 1.51 !>'., 

9,650 1.00 5 

1,900 1.000 1.10 7 

7.600 1.16 9 

4.245 1.05 9 
8.455 1.65 2L, 
34.908 1.28 2% 



18,000 

5,000 

10,000 



IV 



: .= e x - .: 



fe 



14.7119 1 27 



ALABAMA. 

Birmingham 17.22S 1 52 

1 ladsden 11,500 1 Is 

Mobile 20,603 1.36 

New Decatur 64,600 1.53 2 4<- 

ARIZONA, 

Phoenix 17,557 1.20 

CALIFORNIA. 

Hollister 32,805 0.88 6 

Marysville 5,48] 102 

Oakland 300.3S6 st s ' s " ' 

Pasadena :.. 2::. nun 1 is 4-7 

Richmond 25,100 1.52 7 

S. Pasadena. 40,000 73,791 1.34 .". »-»■' 

Stockton c 57.:: Is 1.25 

Vallejo 1:1.1, 13 I 25 ... '.".'. 

Venice 3."., 494 47,361 I 92 6 u 

CONNECTICUT. 
Bridgeport ..200.000 1,360 1.35 2 m-w 

I 'ni nam 10,000 

Wallingford 12,413 1.20 7 '.. 

DELAWARE. 

Wilmington 19,000 ... 2 c 

Wilmington 6.400 b 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Washington 12,000 1.64 

FLORIDA. 

Jacksonville 43,717 2.38 

GEORGIA. 

Atlanta 85,311 

ILLINOIS. 

Chicago 268,142 1.48 

Cicero 101,162 1.40 

Elgin 35,030 1.55 

I Hnsdale s, 1.42 S-10 . . . 

Kewanee 28,000 1.47 2 5c 

Lake Forest 12,000 1.00 5 m 

Marion 12.000 1.30 3V- 8c 

Murphysboro 41,000 1.25 2'". 7. 

Oak Park ... 99,118 131.103 1.35 2 " 6c 

Waukegan 10.832 1.60 

Wilmette 8.575 1.55 2 6c 

INDIANA. 

Elkhart 15,880 1.65 

Ft. Wayne 55,307 

Frankfort ... 1.955 5,531 1.44 2 5c 

Gary 4,210 16,232 1.33 3 6 

Laporte 13,561 2.69 

South Bend 15,986 1.78 

II IWA. 

Algona 36,427 1.53 2 4c 

Belle Plaine 28,187 1.61 2 4c 

Boone 49.000 70,000 1.55 2 5c 

Cedar Rapids 14,760 1.95 

Cherokee 40.517 1.66 2 4e 

Des Moines 5,966 1.76 2 5c 

Dubuque 2,200 1.67 ... c 

Dubuque 44.2(12 1.8] 2 5c 

Ft. Dodge 40,857 

Waterloo 6,440 1.69 

KANSAS. 

Abilene 12,000 45, 102 1112 4 '.. 

Emporia 35,000 1.40 2 4c 

Junction Citv 66,000 1.31 2 5c 

Manhattan 73,085 1.34 

McPherson 47,886 127 2 4c 

Newton 100.000 1.18 2 .... 

Parsons 10.000 1.2 1 2 I. 

Salina 14,000 1.50 

Topeka 2 1. Too 29,866 l.3>5 2 4 

KENTUCKY. 

Davton 4.500 1.19 9 

Louisville 10,138 0.87 ... o 

Li IUISIANA 

Lake Charles 35.000 1.70 : 

New Orleans 3,490 1 is 2 6 

Shreveport 33,23 I 1 63 

MAINE. 

Portland 7,033 1.08 

Rumford 1,200 1.18 

Saso 1,600 1.25 

MARYLAND. 

Frederick 5,183 1.60 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Pittsfield 30,567 1.94 3 

Springfield 25,861 1.40 2 c 

Springfield 15,335 89 2 .. 

Southbridge 1.700 1.22 8 .... 

Westfield .... 6,200 1,720 1.75 2 
MICHIGAN 

Ann Arbor... 19,000 2 

Battle Creek. 30,000 1:1:1 

Benton Harbor I : 1 15 

Detroit 190,610 2.44 2 



Oiled Streets (cont.) 

Richmond 72.775 0.91 

Santa Ana. Sonic 70,400 

S. Pasad'na 3,000 0.27' 

CONNECTICUT 

100, . . 0.015 



Ansonia 
Bridge- 
port . 
Hartford 
N. Britain. 
Putnam . . 



1,296,000 1,308,652 0.008 2 

1,386,108 0.1127 :: 

4c ::, 

30.000 30.000 0.03 2 
FLOKII >A 

4.000 0.55 . . . 

ILLINOIS 
475,180 464.100 0.01 1 
INDIANA, 
1.451 24.0007 0.02/ 1 
185,01)0 182,300 11 04 1 

10,000 

Logansp't 15,000 10,000 0.02 T 
M 1 \ ernon 

IOWA. 
Waterloo . 40,000 57,160 0.025 1 
KANSAS. 

Hutehins'n 40,000 0.04 • 

Newton 20,000 0.10 2 

MAINE. 

Augusta 234,310 0.020 2 

Portland 32,029 0.025 1 

MASSACHUSETTS 

31,976,396 0.016 4'.. 

210,000 210,000 0.025 2-3 

308.900 0.01 I 2 13 

16,020 

1,5011.1100 1.021.9117 0.012 3-4 



1 lade 1 'in 

Oak Park. 

Huntington 
Lafayette 
Laporte . . 



f 



Boston .. 
Greenfield 
Lawrence 
Lawrence 
Lowell . . 
Norwood 

1 V;ll>'i,l\ 

Revere . . 
Springf'ld 



Mankato 



300,000 2-3 

440,000 300,000 0.022 2-3 
38,000 20,000 0.02 2 

1,500.000 .... 1-4 

MICHIGAN. 

30,000 .... 1 

20,000k 10,000k 

MINNESOTA 
85,000 70.000 0.02 



Min'apolis 1,000,000 994,610 0.014 2 

Northfi'ld 80.000 

MISSISSIPPI 

Clarksd'le 12.000 18, 000 075 2 

Jackson .. 50,000k 

Meridian 10,000 0.15 i 

.MISSOURI. 

Milan .... 12,500 12,500 . . 1 

Sedalia . . 18,000 9,000 20 2 

Windsor . 30,000 24,000 0.03 2 
NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Laconia 150,000 0.02 1-2 

NEW JERSEY. 

E. Orange 800,000 0.025 3 

Montclair . 700,000 710,000 0.011 1-4 

Ocean City 12,000 0.120 ... 

Passaic . . 125,000 149.000 0.055 1-2 

Ridgewo'd 72,000 72.000 0.055 1 

Rutherf'd 140,000 27,000 0.200 2 

Summit .. 70.000 0.065 1 



Auburn . . 2 

Clyde 

Gloversv'le 

Hornell . . . 

N. Y. City — 

Br'klyn 

Boro . . 



NEW YORK. 



00,000 

14.. silo 
25. 



200,000 0.015 1 

7,400 0.003 3 

25,000 0.018 1 

40.000 0.05.S 1 



One 



ita 



. 2.1 14,226 0.017 1 

)0 67,000 0.01S 1 

10 107.000 0.018 1 

39,674 0.020 1 

OHIO. 



Gr'nville . 


IS, 000 27,000 0.030 


1 




Mansfield 


8,450 


1 


a 


Nnrw 1 


1S0.000 0.020 

OKLAHOMA. 


1 


s 


Enid 


13.195 




r 










Okmulgee 


15,000 

OREGON. 


3 




Hood Riv'r 


20,000 10,000 1.000 
PENNSYLVANIA. 


2 


V 


Ben Avon. 


8,000 9.000 0.120 


1 





Carlisle 


200. 1 160.000 0.008 


2 


T 


Coatesv'le 


1 1 : ! 13,32 1 .' 


1 




Lansdowne 


18,000 16,000 0.072 


1 





Parkersb'g 


3,400 3,400 .... 


2 




Phila- 








delphia 


1,064,71 

, i:\.\s. 


1 


" 


Longview 


18,500 

\ BRMONT. 


1 


r 


Rutland .. 


(10.000 40,000 0.020 
WASHINGTON. 


2 


a 


Sunnyside 


20.000 0.035 

WISCONSIN. 


3 


an 


. \ 1 1 1 i l; ■ 1 . . . 


125.000 1011.000 0.015 


2 


a 


i 'i.liniil.ii 


40.000 37.050 0.019 


2 


sn 


Eau 1 Maire 


75. 1H i'"" 112:1 


1 


s 


Mtlwa'kee 2 


, 1 IS. Mill 2.128,800 0.160 


1 





Oshkosh .. 






a 



350 

Wood Block (cont.) 

Detroit w 148,151 

Flint 9,028 3.04 16 

Highland Pk. 8,972 ...... 1.84 16 

Monroe 750 544 4.02 10 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Brick Pavements (cont.) 
Washington 



1.14 
1.10 
1.12 



Saginaw 



12,143 



.58 16 



MINNESOTA. 
Austin 11,000 5,064 



Eveleth 

Hibbing . . . 
Mankato . . 
Minn'p'lis a. 
Minn'p'lis b. 
New Ulm. . . 
Owatonna . 
Red Wing .. 
Rochester . . 



S.053 
7,584 

20,000 

250,0(10 182,930 

. 12,369 

.. 15,2 04 

.. 10,397 

6,766 

... 16,540 



St Paul . . 
Virginia . . 



.110,000 252,673 
16.073 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Laurel 9,200 7,447 

MISSOURI. 
Excelsior Sp. 605 . 

Kansas C. c. 50,000 



2 19 16 1.10 

2.50 16 

2.54 

16 

2.36 16 1.10 
2.08 16 1.10 

2.31 

2 11 16 1.10 

2.07 

2.17 16 1.10 

1.10 
2.43 16 to 

1.14 
2.48 16 1.10 

2.75 20 1.10 



,547 



5,000 2.60 tc 



Atlantic Cy. 
Jersey City. 



Albany 



MONTANA. 
5,285 



NEW JERSEY. 
, 30,850 3.01 



5,622 2.99 20 to 



40,000 73,151 3.34 18 to 



1.12 



NEW YORK. 
9,623 



Binghamton b 1,620 1,587 

Johnstown 1,118 

New York City — 

Brkvn. Boro 4,000 

Manh. Boro 109, o69 



3.50 20 
2.38 16 



Richm. Boro 26,775 1.90 IS ^ 

Rochester 3,390 2.90 

OHIO. 

Akron 18,840 2.46 ■ 

Cincinnati 3 "DC 44>lt >, 8S 18 1 1 



Cleveland 



6,295 2.98 16 



Dayton 

Gallon 37,000 

Norwood . . . 18,000 



3,670 15,440 2.42 20 
'22,666 2.20 18 

Toledo 23,729 3.15 16 

OREGON. 

Eugene 1,262 

Portland 12,108 2.60 14 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Philadelphia 40,000 31,224 3.29 18 



45,000 
35,000 



8,300 
94,000 



OKLAHOMA. 
5,675 



Bartlesville . . 

Okmulgee 808 

Tulsa 4,000 12,000 

OREGON. 

Portland 34,184 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Bloomsburg . . 12,300 6,555 

Bradford 800 4,150 

Carlisle 14,000 2,493 

Chambersburg 7,600 • 

Pharleroi 8,000 12,813 

Clairton 2,358 

Clearfield 3,900 

Connellsville .. 38,000 5,670 

Corry 6 125 



Donora n v 4 ?* 

DuBois 7,115 8,645 

Easton 6.418 

Edwardsville 9.000 

Ellwood City 11, ?2? 

Erie hi° 3 . 

Farrell 

Franklin 16,250 

Greensburg ... 10,000 

Greenvillo 

Hanover Tp 

Hazelton 

Homestead ... 1,100 

Jeannette 

Johnstown 

Kingston 

Lancaster 

Lansford .... 7,802 

McKees Rocks 

Meadville 

Monessen 

Mt. Union.... 12,000 

New Brighton \ 6, ?i )0 

New Castle ■ ■ 

N. Braddock. . 17.000 
East 



Pittsburgh .. 4,000 12,000 3.05 16 .tO g 

Reading 13.291 3.43 16 .... 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Providence . 39,820 7,479 3.25 IS 1.10 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Charleston 26,654 2.36 16 to 

1.1< 

Orangeburg . 2,100 2.46 16 . 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 
Sioux Falls. . 



16,000 

12,360 

2,567 

22,793 

1,556 

8,658 

2,760 

34.713 

12,230 

1,206 

5,997 

400 

69,327 

2,295 

6,500 



1.88 1 ] A 
1.60 1% 

2.70 1% 
2.20 2 
1.85 1 



1.45 1% 

2.07 1% 

1.36 1% 

2.20 ... 

1.63 2 

1.53 2 

1.85 2 

1.36 2 

2.15 1% 
1.74 ... 

2.16 2 

2.28 2' ' 
1.35 2 
1.67 1% 
1.45 1 
1.90 ... 
1.33 2 
1.95 1 
2.43 2 



Dayton 

Elyria 

Fostoria .... 
Greenville . . 

Newark 

Norwalk .... 
Norwood . . . . 
Plymouth . . . 
St. Bernard . . 
Sandusky ... 

Sidney 

Toledo 

Troy 

\\ ashington 

C. H 

White House 
Zanesville .- . 



to 
1.12 

1.10 

1.10 

1.04 
1.03 
to 
1.09 



Oil City . . 
Philadelphia . Much 

Pittsburgh 

Pottstown 

Pottsville ■ ■ • • 

Rankin 5,000 

Reading 

St. Marys 

Scottdale 

Scranton 

Somerset 

Uniontown 

Warren 

Wavnesboro 

W. Hazelton. 
W. Homestead 
Wilkes Barre. 
Wilkes Barre 
Tp. ....... 

Williamsport 



19.500 
21.000 



14,7: 

5,217 

21,174 

123,304 

36,500 

3,960 

13,113 

4,500 

21,268 

13,600 

6,100 

938 

2,250 

25,000 

9,357 

28,628 

14,691 

6,000 

IS, 069 



2.46 2 g 

2.10 1 g 

1.9S 2 g 

1.88 2 a 

1.92 1% g 

\'.ii 1% 9 

2.00 2 a 

2.02 2 p 
2.20 I % a-g 

2.75 1% g-V 

1.90 1% g 

1.08 2 y 

1.4 5 '.'.'. a 

2.45 2 g 

2.34 1V4 9 

1.55 2 s-g 

2.20 2 <7 

1.32 2 s 

1.60 2 s 

2.80 1% V 

2.25 2 g 

2.39 1 



27,486 



RHODE ISLAND. 
303 



2.2S 



2.58 2 



g 



1.05 
to 
1.10 

1.03 
to 



Columbia . . 
Greenville . . 
Orangeburg 
Spartanburg 



Memphis 
Nashville 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 

3,932 2.50 2 

16,000 1-99 ••• 

3,865 2.15 1% 

3,991 2.15 1% 



Memphis .. 
Nashville . 



13,900 

TENNESSEE. 

2,478 

50,000 50.000 

TEXAS. 
7,418 



2.67 16 1.10 



Denison 

Galveston 
Greenville 
Hillsboro 

Houston 

Longview 
Sulphur Spgs. 
Waxahachie . 

Pocahontas 



TENNESSEE. 

7.113 

110,000 

TEXAS. 

3,310 

. 13,800 21,483 
90,000 

2.200 

64,249 

3,350 



Concrete Pavements (cont.) 
4,500 



14,759 

VIRGINIA. 
3,200 



2.08 1% 
2.23 2 



1.70 ... 
2.22 2 
2.45 1 
2.28 2 
1.85 1V4 
2.16 2 



7,075 

50,666 



6,317 
1,065 
2,899 

'"456 

2,700 

10,235 

5,100 

500 

8,700 

10,110 

17,897 

2,680 

2,084 
6,300 



1.53 
1.40 
1.39 

1.13 
1.30 
0.95 



Durant 
McAlester 
Okmulgee 
Tulsa .... 

Corvallis . 
Portland 
Salem . . . 



WASHINGTON. 

Seattle 60,000 72,771 

Tacoma 525 



18,761 2.98 IS 



1.10 Bhiefield 



WEST VIRGINIA. 
1,800 



10,000 
OKLAHOMA. 

. 17.600 

. 12,900 1,563 

. 20,000 

. S.000 

OREGON. 

5,561 

. 4,391 70,304 

2,562 

PENNSYLVANIA. 



0.92 1 
1.24 1 
1.10 1 



Bangor .... 
Beaver Fall: 
Bellwood ... ■•••• 

Carlisle 3,500 

Catasauqua 

DuBois 3,000 

Freeland 

Hughesville 

Huntington • 

Indiana 700 

Juniata 8,000 

Lansdowne . 

Miffiinburg . 

Nanticoke 

Nazareth ... 

Nicholson 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburg . . 

Warren 



1,000 



1,350 
90,666 



320 
390 

200 
610 
3,953 
3,000 
125 
1,950 
3,000 
11,047 

'"336 

70,400 
1,400 
S.100 

28,150 
5,000 
3,572 



1.17 
1.3:5 
0.90 
0.80 
1.63 
1.43 
1.30 



1.25 2 
1.51 2 
1.35 2 
1.24 1 


6-8 
6-8 
6 

5-7 







1.51 
0.98 
1.35 
2.50 
1.41 



Williamsburg ,H- 4 A°„-, 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Cranston 1,520 0.68 

Cranston — UTH CARO LINA 

Columbia 2 .969 1-35 

Greenville d. 15,000 1-39 

Wee SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Aberdeen . . • 580 
Madison d... 2,750 
Sioux Falls.. 10,000 



Johnson Cy. 
Memphis . . 
Nashville . 



1,913 . 1.60 
600 1.80 

26,500 1-45 

TENNESSEE. 
f ... 2,313 

23,843 

2,000 

TEXAS. 

5.519 



1.75 
1.15 
1.00 



A ustin 1,658 

Rplton 16,380 

45.293 



Galveston 
Greenville ... 

Hillsboro 

Houston ■•• 

Taylor 100.000 

Vernon 

Waxahachie . 10.000 
Wichita Falls 30,000 



35,000 
7,875 
9,399 
82,134 
800 
7,830 
7,000 
UTAH. 
T n „ a r, 4 5,000 

ogSer, ::::.. 2,200 15,410 

Salt Lake .... U50 765 

VIRGINIA. 

Pocahontas l'o?n 

•'WXSHINGTON. 
30,000 2,768 
0.759 56.287 
6,000 1,500 



1.27 1 6-7 



Aberdeen . 
Bellingham 
Centralia 



Kent':...: 11.000 



Yakima. 

Olympia .... 

Seattle 6.000 

South Bend.. 5.000 

Spokane .... 40,000 

Tacoma - ■ 

Walla Walla. 15,000 



lfi.OSO 

2.732 

6,116 

975 



1.08 
1.25 
1.24 
1.25 
2.09 
1.34 



WEST VIRGINIA. 

Charleston 6,420 1.35 1 

Parkersburg .50,000 11,673 1.67 
Pennsboro 



W. Union 



.13.000 2.025 1.36 1 

10,000 1.55 . 

WISCONSIN. 

. 9,128 1.40 2 
2500 5,200 1.38 2 

15,800 

'. 1,250 1.25 1 

10,200 10.000 1.2, 1 



5io-?l 2 



Appleton . 

Berlin .. . 

Cedarburg 

Columbus 

Eau Clair 

F °Lac dU a ..45.000 41.859 1.49 2 

Greer? Bay d. 6.000 1.837 0.93 1 



5M>-8% 
7% 



6-8 
5%-6% 



5%-8 



5%-7% 

6-8 
6-8 

June, 1915 



STREET IMPROVEMENTS 



351 



Bituminous Macadam (cont.) 

Racine 7,614 1.69 10 

Wausau 15,000 10,500 0.63 ... 

CANADA. 

St. Vital S.44S 

St. John 15.5S6 1.05 6 

Ottawa 25,000 1.80 . . . 

St. Lambert 7,100 1.00 ... 

a — Sand foundation. 

b — On old brick pavement. 

c — Concrete foundation. 

e — Clay foundation. 

g — On old gravel street. 

m — On old macadam street. 

n — On natural sub-grade. 

r — Resurfacing. 

s — Crushed stone foundation. 

t — Telford foundation. 

w — Warrenite. 



Bituminous Concrete (cont.) 



Stone Block 



ALABAMA. 

4,979 $1.1 
CALIFORNIA. 



9,690 4.00 31 



S. Fran. o. 



Derby . 

Hartford 
Waterby. 



1,350 20,000 



2,900 



1,200 



6,200 

DELAWARE. 

mgt 2,250 

GEORGIA. 

annah 15,445 

ILLINOIS. 

fago 40,340 

KENTUCKY 
isville 29,500 6.165 
LOUISIANA 

Orleans 13,776 

MAINE 



1.74 10x5x4 

7-12x 

3.30 3 '.,-41.. 

4-4 i., 
1.70 10x5x4 
3.56 10x5x4 
2.37 



.90 



Augusta . 
Bangor . . 
Biddeford 
Lewistown 



6,293 0.69 

1,407 1.45 

14,000 

4,000 1.75 

4.004 4.648 2.14 

9.130 1.60 

MARYLAND. 

111,065 72.661 3.30 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



Boston .. . 
Cambrdg. 
Everett .. 
Fall River 
Haverhill 
Holyoke . 



3.25 4x4-5% c- 

3.75 

3.86 



Lawrence S.900 Sl'.."i9s 



13,439 
8,584 
5.S48 
8.405 
1.177 3.00 12x8x4 U 

3.400 1.70 

10-13X 



Lowell . . 
Maiden . . 
N. Bedford 
Revere . . . 
Somerville 
Springfield Some 

Woburn 

Worcester 



30,000 23.79S 



3,000 



3% -4% 
3.00 8x4x4 

2.96 

3.55 

2.75 3y 2 



Detroit . . 

Duluth /. . 
Minnapls. 
Red Wing. 
St. Paul f 

Kan. City. 



Bloomfield 
Camden . . 
Elizabeth 



3,000 

4,979 3.30 4 

364 2.77 

20.601 3.35 

MICHIGAN. 

12,495 3,13 

MINNESOTA. 

3,000 6,258 2.75 

5,000 7,931 2.28 6 

1,941 2.69 

14,000 1,136 3.33 

MISSOURI. 

11,000 3.40 5-6 

NEBRASKA. 

651 2.65 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

1,000 400 2.95 

NEW JERSEY. 

30,000 3.28 

58,872 2.82 

81,828 3.35 

9,094 3.40 3V 2 -4M.x4 

22,000 



Garfield . . . 

Irvington 

Jersey Cy 26,195 

Newark .. 50,000 
Newark d 25.000 
Passaic .. 8,800 



3.20 g- 

7-12x 
3.18 5Vjx4 
2.57 12x6x5ii, 

3.60 



Grand Rapids 


33,800 


22,226 


1.10 


2 


Kalamazoo . . 


20,581 


8,949 


1 19 


2 


Kalamazoo .. 




19,230 







Ludington . . . 




24.0OH 


1 92 


2 


Manistee .... 




5,151 


L.30 


2 




MINNESOTA. 






Minneapolis . 




26.91X 


0.S5 


2 


St. Paul 


48,000 


9,466 


1 62 


- 




MISSISSIPPI. 






Clarksdale . . 




2,500 


1.82 


I '-2 




MISSOURI. 






Kansas City. 


70,000 


78.5114 


1 B8 


2 


Marshal] .. . 




2,600 


1 ::.; 




Nevada .... 




30.000 


1.2S 


3 




NEBRASKA. 






Lincoln .... 




95,646 


1 S3 


2 


Omaha 




13,291 


1.63 


2 


NEW HAMPSHIRE, 






1,500 


1,145 


1.65 


2 




NEW JERSEY. 






Camden 




58,872 


_' 85 




Elizabeth . . . 




80,000 


1 10 


2 


Morristown . 




9.7II-J 


1 411 




Trenton 


25,000 


50,183 


1.-17 


2 


W. X. York.. 


NEW 


34,000 
YORK. 


1.80 




Albany 




3,436 


2 18 




Fulton 




19,810 


1.2 5 


7 


New York City — 








Bronx Boro. 


65,500 


122,969 


1.45 




Queens Boro 




110,585 


U.S.. 


4-5 


Richmond Boro .... 


62,876 


11 90 




Oswego 




1 6,193 


1.50 


5 


Poughkeepsie 




1,526 


1.30 


7 


Schenectady . 


107,730 


63,200 


1 5(1 


2 


Svraeuse .... 


2,000 


13,650 


1 ,.!i 


3 


Utica 




4,324 


1.112 





NORTH CAROLINA. 
Greensboro .. 60,000 33,247 1.10 2 
Raleigh 84,319 1.70 . . 



OHIO 

.. . 11,050 1. 

4,206 2.: 

6,782 1. 

3,680 1.1 

000 35,400 1. 



9,473 1.36 2V 2 6c 



Ashtabula 
Cincinnati 
Lake wood 
Lima .... 
Lorain .. . 
Middletowt 
Springfield 
Toledo ... 
Wapakoneta 12,700 1. 



OKLAHOMA. 
Tulsa 20,000 1.49 



!% 6c 
6c' 



Corvallis 
Eugene . 
Portland 
Portland 
Portland 
Salem . . . 
Yoncallo 



OREGON. 

16,050 1.43 1 V 2 4c 

24,590 6,231 1.68 2 5 

7,291 1.25 6V2 s 

138,085 1.38 5 

92,536 1.05 4 o 

12,487 1.26 

5.S17 2,627 1.32 2 4 



PENNSYLVANIA. 

Allentown 12,852 0.95 .. 

Ben Avon ... 4,000 12.000 1.54 2 
Catasauo.ua . 2,800 1,560 1.40 2> 

Clearfield 1,200 0.85 3 

Dorrancetown 26,710 1.5S 



Easton 

Lancaster . . . 

Philadelphia 

Phoenixville 

Reading 

Williamsport 



11,798 1.99 
8,470 1.40 

73,260 1.21 
4,600 0.85 

69,610 1.85 
7,834 1.20 



Pawtucket 



RHODE ISLAND. 
6,472 . 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Columbia 48,900 1.44 2 

Greenville . . 40,000 1.30 . . 

Spartanburg 86,362 1.45 .. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Sioux Falls 113,059 1.70 .. 

Watertown 23,000 1.71 2 

TENNESSEE. 

Johnson City 6,069 1.75 

Nashville ... 75,000 35,000 1.40 3 

TEXAS. 

Denison 10,970 26,731 1.35 2 

Greenville 30,000 1.59 2 



Oil Streets (cont.) 

CANADA. 

London, 

Ont. ... 545,600 545,600 0.022 1 a 

a — Asphaltic oil. 

b — Penetration method. 

c — Cars of oil. 

'' — Standard dust laying. 

e — Three inches of sand and asphaltic oil 
on rolled sand foundation. 

/ — Light, non-asphaltic oil, heavy asphaltic 
oil, Tarvia A and B. 

<i — Gravel. 

h — Cinders with coal tar binder. 

/,- — Gallons of oil. 

/ — Linear feet. 

hi — Miles. 

n — earth. 

— Refined tar. 

)i — Petrolithic. 

r — Non-asphaltic. 

s — Macadam. 

t — Clay. 

ii — Trinidad liquid asphalt. 

v — Placing of 2-inch top of oil bound mac- 
adam. 



Gravel Streets 



City. ° o g c 

ALABAMA. 

Birmingham 35,315 

Gadsden 2,200 

Mobile 300,000 

ARKANSAS. 

I '• Queen 50m 100m 

Los Angeles 240,000 

COLORADO. 

Oakland ;>4n.7 !_' 

Boulder 4.7m 

Leadville 4,000 

Longmont 37,000 

CONNECTICUT. 

New Canaan 2,7 50 

Southington 15,000 

IDAHO. 

Caldwell 5,000 46,933 

Nampa 3.800 6,175 

INDIANA. 

Anderson 5,000 

Crawfordsville 1,091 

Lafayette 5,263 

Lebanon 771 

Newcastle 2,000 

Noblesville 4,240 

Richmond 15,000 23,200 

IOWA. 

Cedar Falls 23,000 

KANSAS. 

Abilene 3,500 

Iola 38,000 22,600 

KENTUCKY. 
Paducah 8,400 

LOUISIANA. 
Lake Charles . . . S.000 9.000 

Shreveport 46,200 

MAINE. 

Augusta 1.23m 

Portland 997 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Framingham 18,700 

Greenfield 15,000 

Lowell 80,000 82.210 

Revere 1,800 1.200 

Springfield 9.000 

Stoughton 23,000 

Watertown 6,907 

Webster 2,384 

MICHIGAN. 

Bovne City 12,000 

Flint 30,855 

Grand Rapids . . . 59,164 60,800 

Port Huron 15,000 

MINNESOTA. 

Crookston 30,000 25,000 

Hibbing 15,000 

Owatonna 23.000 

Red Wing. 30,000 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Clarksdale 27,000 2,800 

Columbus 1.000 

Hattiesburg .... 5,000 5,000 

Jackson 50.000 

Laurel 21,500 

McComb 60,000 

MISSOURI. 

University City 23,855 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 
Berlin 7,000 



0.55 
0.65 


8 



o'.25 
0.26 


)'iii 
y 


1.10 




0.12 
0.07 


V 
2/4 


0.38 
0.90 
0.40 
0.90 
0.20 
0.40 


n5* 

c-<75 


0.35 
1.10 


2/7 
a 


0.45 




0.36 
0.80 


3 ¥2 


0.38 
0.07 


V 

T 


0.58 
0.20 

0.25 

0.47 
0.75 


V 

1/6 

2/2 

2/ 


0.73 
0.70 


nil 

2/9 

y 


0.17 


n6 



0.60 


2/9 


0.25 


y 

n6 
10 


0.80 


b 


n.i4 





352 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Wood Block (cont.) 







3 24 . . 


1.03 


Galveston . . 


5,199 


2.70 18 


to 

1.08 






16 


1.03 


Houston .... 


73,275 


.... and 


lo 






18 


1.10 


Waxahachie 


7,151 

VIRGINIA. 


2.63 20 




Bristol 


250 

WASHINGTON 


3.00 . . 




Aberdeen . . . 


3,960 


4 




Seattle . ... 


2,778 






Spokane .... 


2,500 9,809 
WISCONSIN. 


2.40 12 




Eau Claire.. . 


1,800 


1.60 16 


l!07 


Lake Geneva 


21,288 


2.14 16 


to 
1.10 


Milwaukee . . 


30,000 38,031 


2.62 16 


1.09 


Neenah 


2,051 






West Allis . . 


15,000 

CANADA. 


12 




S. Vancouver 


65,743 


3.55 . . 




Vancouver . . 


27,268 


3.14 12 


1.06 




10,372 


3.10 . . 




Ottawa 


22,000 


3.85 . . 




Toronto 


5.795 


3. 55 . . 




Welland .... 


6,098 


3.05 . . 




a — 3 Ms -inch blocks. 






b — 4-inch blocks on old foundation. 




c — on 6-inch 


foundation. $3.03 on 8- 


inch 


foundation. 






d — 4-inch blocks. 






w — white cedar. 







Brick Pavements (cont.) 

Charleston 2,500 1.93 1% 

Elkins 4,300 2.30 1% 

Huntington .. 54,526 172,606 1.70 ... 

Logan 18,168 2.33 l'/» 

Moundsville .. 7,500 S.800 1.03 2 

Parkersburg ..100,000 48,327 1.95 2 

WISCONSIN. 

Appleton 1,600 11.5S6 1.99 1 

Beloit 25,000 1.86 1% 

Eau Claire 3,800 2.34 1% 

Fond du Lac 3,095 2.34 1% 

Grand Rapids 7,612 2.11 2 

LaCrosse 5,500 4,613 2.23 2 

Lake Geneva 325 1.11 ... 

Madison 2,782 3,987 1.90 2 . 

Milwaukee ... 40,200 91.2S1 2.09 1 % 

Oshkosh 1,485 3,195 2.90 1% 

Racine 84,010 2.03 2 c 

Reedsburg 9,000 1.30 2 

Sheboygan ... 4,800 7,693 1.9S 1% 

West Allis ... 15,000 1 

CANADA 

Vancouver 13,958 3.83 1 % 

London 4,030 6,933 2.73 1% 

Toronto 38,117 2.07 1% 

Welland 6.14S 2.55 1 

a — asphalt. 

b — 3-inch brick, $1.75. 

c — cost does not include cost of brick. 

d — kind not decided. 

(/- uruul 

p — pitch 

s — sand. 



Concrete Pavements (cont.) 



.Marinette ...11,000 10.146 1.30 2 


7 




Milwaukee ...30,000 3,018 0.90 1 


r, 




Oshkosh a... 2,027 20.686 1.29 2-3 






Platteville 3,400 






Richland 






Center d. ..18,570 600 






Sheboygan ..50,000 52.139 1.39 2 


7% 




S. Milwaukee 8,500 1.20 . . 






Stevens Pt. . .23.000 24,267 






Superior ...105.000 43,103 1.33 2 


7% 




Watertown ..15,000 6,726 1.43 2 


6-8 




Waupaca 900 0.68 1 


5-7 




W. Allis d. ..23,000 1 


7-H 




Whltefish Bay 4,200 1.38 . . 


6-8 




WYOMING. 






Sheridan 3,500 1.70 


1 


7 


CANADA. 






Lethbridge . . 6,000 


2 




Vancouver 10,367 2.01 


2 




St. John 2,172 1.70 


1 


X 


Brantford 4,000 1.21 


2 


7 


Chatham 12,500 8,589 1.12 


1 


6 


London 9,680 4.755 1.55 


1 


7 


Oshawa 10,000 14,000 0.90 


1 


5-7 


Toronto 29,751 .... 


1 


6 


Windsor 67,348 1.25 


2 


6W, 


Westmount 5,235 2.75 


2 


6 


a Reinforced concrete. 






b Cost does not include cement. 






c Granite concrete for streets. 






d Kind not decided, will be concrete 


or 


some other kind named. 






e For alleys. 






f In street car tracks. 







Oiled Streets (cont. from p. 353, 2d col.) 

WISCONSIN. 

Appleton 45,000 0.35 1/11 

Eau Claire 12,600 

Green Bay 3,905 1.856 0.23 » 

Oshkosh 500 y 

Waupaca 1,500 2.000 0.19 n 

CANADA. 

London, Ont 9,060 11,036 0.75 y 

Estavan, Sask. . . . 5.000 0.12 j/ 

a — National pavement. 

b — Telford 7 inches, macadam 4 inches, 

gravel 1 inch. 
c — Clay foundation. 
/ — Gravel bitulithic. 
g — Gravel foundation. 
h — Slag and ashes. 
in — Miles of length. 
n — Not rolled, 
o— Oiled, 
r — Resurfacing. 
y — Rolled. 



Stone Block (cont. from 2d col.) 



Milwaukee 40,000 65.137 2.35 5-6 
Sheboygan 1,680 3.28 ... 





CANADA. 






Vancouver 


2,086 


3.75 




St. John. . . 


6,020 


4.05 




Halifax .. 


2,200 


4.25 




Kingston . 


5,255 


5.33 




i ittawa . . . 


15,000 


4.25 




Westmount . 


1.44S 


4.53 




Regina 6 . 


2,203 


5.40 : 


12x6x6 



a — asphalt filler. 

b — basalt block. 

o — cement grout filler. 

d — napped, reclipped granite, relaid. 

e — relaying old blocks. 

f — sandstone. 

g — gravel filler. 

p — pitch filler. 

« — sand filler. 



Stone Block (cont. from p. 353, 1st col.) 

7-1 2x 
Provid. .. 37,458 10,327 3.75 3%-4%x c 

Westerly 702 3.62 c 

Woonsocket 12,000 3.65 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Charleston 700 .... 12x4x7 s 

TENNESSEE. 

Nashville 18,000 35,000 2.45 10x4x5 c-p 

VIRGINIA. 

Danville 2,000 1.30 10x4x6 s 

WASHINGTON. 
Seattle f . . 3.000 3.694 c 

WISCONSIN. 

Appleton . 2,302 3.15 10x6x6 c 

Madison 436 3.00 10x4x4 c 

(Cont. in 2d col.) 



Sidewalks, Curbs and Gutters 



Sidewalks 



Curbs 



Gutters 



City 



Birmingham 
Birmingham 



ARIZONA. 



Phoenix 

ARKANSAS. 

De Queen c 6,000 

Ft. Smith c 

Helena c 

Pine Bluff c 

CALIFORNIA. 

Alhambra c 14,700 

Colusa c 

Covina <• 

Fresno e 

Huntington B'ch. c 3,000 

Imperial r c 

Los Angeles c 284,000 

Maryville c 

Monrovia c 2,000 

Oakland c 

Orange c a 

Oxnard c 

Pasadena c 7,696 

Richmond c 

Riverside c 

Santa Ana c a 



26,157 
1,681 

15,125 

10,000 

6,964 

550 

170,890 

14,636 

3,500 

10,000 

30,000 

¥4,544 

246,160 

1,630 

5,000 

125,746 

250 

2,000 

14,804 

20,161 

4,306 

17. 



0.99 
0.81 
0.99 
1.08 



1.00 

2.12 

0.90 

0.90 

0.S5 

9 

0.81 

1.00 

81 

1.23 



City « £ 03 

ALABAMA. 

Birmingham .... c 

Birmingham .... g 

Gadsden c 

Mobile g 

ARIZONA. 
Phoenix c 

ARKANSAS. 

Helena c 

CALIFORNIA. 

Alhambra c ..."... 

Covina c 

Fresno c 

Hollister c 7,168 

Huntington Bch . c 6,000 

Imperial <■ 

Los Angeles .... c 450.000 

Marysville c 

Monrovia e 2,000 

Oakland <• 

Oakland g 

Oakland h 

Orange c « 

Oroville c 3,010 

Oxnard c 

Pasadena c 39,860 



£?£ 



3.019 

1,510 

2,600 

13,500 



26.160 
1L , .T75 
21,000 
10,130 



5,000 
2,112 



City 



a 



0.50 
0.57 
0.50 



0.23 
0.28 
0.48 
0.30 
0.3b 
0.42 
0.33 
0.45 
0.85 
0.50 
1.54 
0.11 
0.81 



ALABAMA. 
Birmingham .... c 

AKIZONA. 

Phoenix c 

ARKANSAS. 

Helena c 

CALIFORNIA 

Alhambra 

Covina c 

Fresno e 

Hollister e 

Imperial vcy 

Los Angeles .... <• 
Los Angeles .... r 

Marysville c 

Monrovia 

Oakland c 

Oakland /.■ 

Oakland 6 

Oroville c 

Pasadena c 

Richmond r 

Santa Monica . . 
Venice c 



10,256 
500,666 



:: 



3.150 
57,902 



17,000 0.55 



29.956 
2,084 
21,000 
10,130 
35,500 
542,073 

"966 
20,867 

307,844 

6,618 

33,240 

5.S32 

4,881 

47,1 2^ 

29,652 

3,300 



CONNECTHTT. 



0.34 
0.23 
0.33 
0.22 
0.40 

0.1s 
0.35 
0.2 5 
0.21 
0.21 
0.17 
0.69 
0.30 
0.28 
0.25 
0.30 
0.45 



June. KlV, 



STREET IMPROVEMENTS 



353 



Stone Block (cont.) 

Trenton .. 1,430 1.546 4.00 5 

W. Hoboken 3,270 1.50 

W. N. York 5.21S 2.40 9x5'., \4'.. 



Bituminous Concrete (cont.) 



NEW YORK. 



Auburn /. 



ri3 



G-12x 
.45 31,-41. x 

7-12x 
3.53 3-5x 



Some 11,280 4.23 



L-51 



Buffalo 

Ilion 2.500 3.44 

Lit. Falls 1,800 4.00 

New York — 
Bronx ..110.200 86.4S6 
Brklyn. .100,000 94,908 
Manba t. 



Queens . 
Richm. 

Rochester 

Srlirnrrih 

Syracuse / 

Troy 

Utica /'. . . 



1,000 
1,000 



1 119,089 

90,775 

30,195 

7,480 

1,700 

3,500 

61,811 
496 



2.94 

2.S5 10x4x3 
2.S4 



Akron 

Ashtabula 

Cincinnati 17,700 

Cleveld. f. 51,744 

Columbus 

Norwood . 14,000 
Toledo 



3.50 
NORTH CAROLINA 

31,692 

OHIO. 
1,455 

2. 77s 



3.21 

2.61 

3.54 10x8x4 

7-12x 
3.50 3-5x5 
3.92 



3.20 

3.50 

70,505 3.43 

8-13x 
82,557 3.96 3%-5x 
6-6% 

3.52 

2. So 9x4x5 



2,520 

14.000 

3,200 



OREGON. 

5-Sx 
P'tland. b. 11,000 2,427 2.85 3-4x 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



Allentown 
Dunmore 
Johnstown 
Philad. . . 
Philad. d. 
Pittsbg. /.. 
Reading . 
Scrn'iton . 
W.-Barre . 



2,250 2.90 

2,500 3.50 ; 

10,922 3. 58 3%-4%xc- 
39,000 



513 3.25 

RHODE ISLAND. 



Houston 85,10.8 




n 




McKinnev ... 23,100 13,960 


1.46 


2 


5 


Mineral Wells 20,000 


1.62 




4r 


Waxahachie 17,185 


1.87 






UTAH. 








Salt Lake Cy. 10,000 


" 95 


2 


i)i 


WASHINGTON 








Aberdeen 2,727 


1 45 


2 


6c 


N. Yakima 9,643 


1 30 






Seattle 9,000 


1 :::, 






Spokane 64,900 32.29S 


1.35 


- 


1c 


WEST VIRGINIA. 






Bluefield 30.S00 


1.48 


2 1 . 


r 


WISCONSIN. 








Beloit 50,000 


1 VI. 


2 


.",< 


Chippewa Falls .... 8,000 


1 51 


91 . 




La Crosse .. . IS. 000 8,455 


1.65 


2'.. 


■:,<■ 


Madison 22,000 41,990 


1.35 




t 


Oshkosh .... 17,116 


1.6(1 




6 


Racine 7,614 


1.69 


10 




CANADA. 








Edmonton 64,368 


" 53 


2 


6 c 


Vancouver 98,401 


:■ 29 


•■ 


i'„- 


Vancouver 7,406 


1.6 5 


:: 





Belleville 19,330 


2.38 


3 


5, 


Ottawa 25,000 


1.80 






b — On old brick pavement. 








c — Concrete. 








111 — Old macadam. 








n — Natural soil. 








— On Old base. 








s — Crushed stone. 








t — Telford. 








w — Warrenite. 









352, 3d col.) 



Oiled Streets (cont. from 3d col.) 

Texarkana 50.000 0.25 ... 

Waxahachie 27,895 

UTAH. 

Richfield 8,000 4,000 0.35 nS 

VERMONT. 

Rutland 10,000 24,300 0.25 1/6 

VIRGINIA. 

Suffolk 2,000 0.37 

WASHINGTON. 

Aberdeen 5,000 9,315 0.32 y 

Bellingham 20.562 0.40 i/9 

Grandview 25,000 0.22 j/7 

Olvmpia 120,000 27,000 0.13 n 

Vancouver 11,760 O.09 ... 

(Cont. on p. 352, 1st col.) 



Oiled Streets (cont.) 
NEW JERSEY. 

Atlantic City.... 11.010 

Long Branch 100,000 

' icean City 10,000 

NEW YORK. 

Clyde 7,400 7. Inn 

Freeport 10.000 

I [erkimer 3,000 

Norwich 2,000 

Oneonta 105.916 37,973 

Port Jervis 60,000 

Utica 23,000 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

Greensboro 20.000 10.000 

Raleigh 36.783 

Roanoke Rapids. 2.000 5,000 

OHIO. 

1 >a\ ton 30,000 47,i; in 

Hamilton 24,000 

OREGON. 

Eugene 5,905 

Portland 128,084 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

1 Columbia 3,000 

Freeland 4,000 5,700 

S. Bethlehem 12.4:19 

Williamsport 10.000 

RHODE ISLAND. 
Pawtucket 10,000 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 
Columbia 20,000 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 
Aberdeen 10,000 

TENNESSEE. 

Clarksville 9,000 

Jackson 18,287 

Memphis 51,527 

TEXAS. 

Abilene 43.953 

Pallas 24,992 

I Inuston 158,317 

I. Hi In 156,400 

Longview 3,180 

Taylor 5.280 

(Cont. in 2d col.) 



0.4 1 ... 
o'.27 yS 



0.20 i/l 1 




0.35 




0.25 


2/ 


0.40 

25 




1 in 
1.43 


5f 


0.15 
0.34 


h 

y 



0.12 

0.40 
0.50 



0.70 y 

0.75 . . . 

n 55 V S 

0.96 . - 



Sidewalks (cont.) 

Santa Monica... e 

S. Pasadena c 

Vallejo c 

Venice c 712 

COLORADO. 

Boulder c 

Grand Junction. . c 

Leadville c a 

Longmont c 1,000 

Monte Vista c 500 

Pueblo c 

CONNECTICUT 

Hartford cs 35,200 

Meriden c 

Meriden s 

New Britain c 12.000 

Putnam c a 

Southington .... c 

DELAWARE. 

Wilmington .... p 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



31,161 


1.02 


1.122 


0.7S 


100,000 


0.75 


12.34S 


1.01 


1,900 


0.90 


2,500 


1.08 


1,840 


1.98 


3.000 


0.99 


35,000 


0.81 


35,200 


1.80 


7,522 


1.98 


497 


1.80 


10,735 


1.1 i 


500 


1.30 


2,700 


1.45 



Washington 

FLORIDA. 

Bradentown . . . . c 

Dade City c 

Gainesville c 

Jacksonville .... c 

Port Tampa c 



90.0HO 1.06 



GEORGIA. 



Americus c 

Atlanta d 

Dublin d 

Macon g 

Savannah c 



Caldwell . . 
Nampa . . . 
Twin Falls. 



15,000 
8,000 
2.500 
7,688 



1,777 

66.09S 

500 

8,000 

3,000 

1,650 

335 

1,000 



1.01 
1.26 
1.15 



Bloomington 



Curbs (cont.) 

Richmond c 

Riverside c 

Santa. Ana c a 

Santa Monica. . . c 

So. Pasadena ... c 

Vallejo c 

Venice c 9,387 

COLORADO. 

Grand Junction. . c 

Leadville c a 

Longmont c 4,000 

Pueblo c 

CONNECTICUT. 

Hartford gc 63,000 

Hartford 

Meriden c 

Meriden g 

New Britain . . . c 14,000 

New Canaan ... c 

Putnam c 

Putnam 9 

Southington .... c 

Wallingford . . . . c 

Wilmington . . . .gc 

FLORIDA. 

Bradentown .... c 

Bradentown . . . . g 40 

Dade City c 

Gainesville c 

Jacksonville .... c 

Jacksonville . . . . g 27 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBI 

Washington . . . . c jj 

Washington . . . . g 4i 

GEORGIA. 

Atlanta g •• G < 

Dublin r 14,000 2 

Macon <7 ** 

Savannah c 5 

IDAHO. 
Caldwell C 3.000 



,.(100 
,n::r, 
;,923 



,800 
,S40 
,000 
1,500 



.1 34 
0.30 
0.20 
0.33 
0.32 
0.50 
0.34 

0.35 



1,37 5 

'."7S 

1,164 

500 

:, 

.000 



0.91V 

1.05(7 

0.47 
0.40 
11 32 
0.40 
0.30 
0.70 
,1 38 
0.30 



P 

0.30 
0.41 
0.110 
.1 : 
0.34 
0.4 2 



Gutters (cont.) 

Meriden ft 

New Britain . .. c 1 6.1100 

Putnam h a 

Southington .... c 

Wallingford .... c 

DISTRICT OF COLU 

Washington .... c 

Washington .... h 



Bradentown 
Jacksonville 
Jacksonville 

Atlanta 



1 SEi Hull \ 



h 



ILLINOIS. 

Alton c 

E, St. Louis. . . . C 

E St. Louis. ... i- 

Herrin e 

Marion c 

« ittawa c 

Taylorville c 

ixni w \ 

Elkhart c 8 

' Ireencastle ■ ■ ■ ■ c 

Lebanon r 



7.9:11 
1 1,000 
3,000 

500 
15,612 

MB I A. 

s.soo 

9, 

13,000 

3,200 
7.212 
31,680 

87,030 

9,101 

9.7 'I 
• 1.411 

'.,11 

16 .11 

. in, 

2,881 

150 



l< i\\ A 

is,. ".Oil 
1.000 



Belle I'l.ii.i, 

Boone 

I lubuque <l 

Ige ....r 

Ft Pnilge s 

Marengo c 

Oskaloosa e 

KANSAS. 

\lnli lie c 2,600 

I lodge City . ... c 200 

Hutchinson c 16,840 

Manhattan 

Neodesha c 500 

Salina c 15,000 



2. 

460 

29,098 

1,115 

2IHI 



1,000 

I 1,3 l'9 
1,000 

1 1. 100 



0.10 
0.36 
0.20 



11 ;,| 

I 6 
5 I 
11 71 

II 5 I 
.1 30 
n. In 



.1 II 
11 ::.; 

i>. i;s 



11 in 



0.20 
1 
0.25 
'i '. 



354 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Sidewalks (cont.) 

Chicago c 10,^84,000 

Chicago e 329,000 

Chicago Heights, c 10,000 1,000 

Cicero c 23,502 

Decatur c 10,000 15,000 

E. St. Louis c 6,757 

Granite City.... c 35,000 

Lyons c 555 

Murphvsboro ... c 20,221 3,600 

Oak Park c 31,055 4.181 

Ottawa c 10,000 

Rock Island c 25,400 

Springfield c p 58.000 

Spring Valley... c 2.666 

Taylorville c a 2.790 

Waukegan c 2,800 2,907 

INDIANA. 

Anderson c 1,760 2.680 

Connersville .... c 500 

Crawfordsville .. c 20,533 3.224 

Decatur ft 6,700 42.600 

Elkhart c 4,560 5,415 

Evansville p 

Fort Wayne c 49,597 

Frankfort c 4,555 6,650 

Gary c 4,143 32,570 

Greencastle .... c 10,500 1,800 

Huntington .... c 1.000 6.7SO 

Lafavette c 2,521 

Laporte c 1.800 

Lebanon c 577 

Logansport c 2,000 2,200 

Muncie c 3,333 6,870 

Newcastle c 8,950 

Noblesville c 7,247 

Portland c 500 905 

Richmond c 19,000 19.4S4 

Seymour c 400 

Shelbvville c 6.000 

South Bend c 8.592 

Vincennes c 3,500 12,887 

Vincennes b 1.294 

Washington .... c 10,000 1 



Curbs (cont.) 



IOWA. 



Boone c 

Cedar Falls c 

Cedar Rapids. . . c 

Clinton c 

Council Bluffs.. . c 

Creston c 

Creston b 

Des Moines be 

Fort Madison... p 

Grinnell c 

Marengo c 

Marshalltow-n . . c 
Missouri Valley. . c 

Muscatine c 

Oskaloosa c 

Perry c 

Waterloo c 



2,000 

.-.mill 
35,000 



9.200 



3.000 
8,600 

35,200 
4,540 

16.136 
4,450 

.-,70 



5.850 

2.000 

6,160 

167.000 

2 22: 

16.700 



13,000 

1.000 
11.700 



50,000 



,000 



Abilene c 

Coffeyville c 

Dodge City c 

Hutchinson c 

Junction City. . . c 
Kansas City . . . c 

Manhattan c 

Manhattan b 

Neodesha c 

Newton c 

Ottawa c 

Salina c 

Topeka c 11.00C 

KENTUCKY. 

Louisville c 

Louisville b 

Morganfield .... c 

Paducah c 

Pikeville c 

LOUISIANA. 

Kentwood c 

Lake Charles. ... c 

Shreveport c 

MAINE. 

Augusta c 

Bangor c 

Bangor k 

Biddeford c 

Portland c a 

Portland b a 

S. Portland r 

Westbrook k 

MARYLAND. 

Frederick c 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston c 

Boston b 

Boston u .... 

Brookline k 

Brookline c 

Brookline r 

Dudley c 

E. Hampton c 

Everett r 

Framingham ... k 
Greenfield k 



6.000 
5,000 

5,500 



500 

1,666 

900 

14,600 



2.779 
1.100 
15.000 
8.000 
2,800 
7.050 



9,508 
1.355 
2,700 

16,283 
204 

100 
1,946 

2S.000 

1.115 

526 

24,345 

3.000 

6,025 
998 

3,565 
600 



72.660 
8,503 
7.509 
8,000 

2.7S0 
26.745 
1,220 

6.300 
1.3 1 4 
2.000 



1.08 
0.35 
1.08 
1.23 
0.99 
1.35 
1.16 
1.26 
1.17 
1.26 
1.35 
1.26 
0.99 
1.35 
1.41 
1.30 



0.90 
0.84 
0.18 
0.S2 



1.26 
0.72 
1.03 
1.10 
1.06 
0.77 
ii. 81 
0.90 
0.90 
0.94 
0.90 
0.33 
n mi 

o.ss 



0.90 
1.80 
0.90 

1.08 

0.81 
0.97 



81 
0.97 
0.90 
1.00 
0.99 
0.S1 
0.90 



0.90 
0.90 
0.80 
0.72 
0.95 
0.95 
0.80 
0.76 
0.90 
0.90 
0.75 
0.80 
0.85 

0.89 
0.89 
1.20 
0.99 
3.06 



1.70 
0.90 
0.65 



1.50 
1.00 
0.50 
1.80 

o'.54 

1.85 
1.26 
1.71 
0.31 
0.40 



ILLIXI IIS. 

Alton s 1,000 

Bloomington .... c 

Champaign .... c 

Chicago c 

Chicago Heights, c 8.481 

Decatur s IS, 200 

Delavan c 

E. St. Louis c 

Granite City . . . c 

Herrin s 4,458 

Hillsboro r 

Lyons c 

Moline c 

Oak Park c 

Robinson <• 5,000 

Spring Valley . . c 

Taylorville c 

INDIANA. 

Anderson c 40,500 

Crawfordsville ..sc 

Decatur s 

Elkhart c 830 

Frankfort c 7,200 

Gary c 6,737 

Greencastle c 

Huntington c 5,000 

Huntington . . . . s 1,512 

Lebanon c 

Noblesvilie c 

Portland c 12,000 

South Bend .... c 

Vincennes s 

IOWA. 

Boone c 3,300 

Creston c 

Des Moines c 

Dubuque c 9,050 

Kminettsburg .. c IS. 500 

Marengo c- 650 

Marshalltown ... c 

Oskaloosa c 

sroux City c 

KANSAS. 



900 
1,000 



500 
15,66b 



850 
. 800 

1,552 

20,436 
25,149 
583,687 
33,000 

15,666 

251 
35,000 
9,848 
8,000 
9,000 
47,955 
8,300 

' 3,020 
8,900 

13,200 

380 

11,693 

1,792 
12,969 
30,380 

4,200 

5,100 

998 

16.263 

7,672 



Abilene . 

Atchison c 

Chanute c 

Dodge City c 

Hutchinson c 

Iola c 

Kansas City . . . c 

Manhattan c 

Neodesha c 

Parsons s 

Salina c 

KENTUCKY. 

Louisville s 

Louisville c 

Paducah c 

LOUISIANA. 

Kentw'ood 

New Orleans . . . c 95,666 

Shreveport c 

MAINE. 

Augusta c 

Bangor g 

Biddeford c 

Portland g 

MARYLAND. 

Baltimore ds 64,000 

Baltimore e 119,010 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Boston <7 

Brookline g 3,000 

Cambridge g 

Dudley g 

Easthampton ... g 

Everett g 

Framingham ... c 

Haverhill g 

Holyoke g 

Lawrence g 20,o66 

Lawrence c 

Lowell g 5,000 

Lynn c 

Lynn g 

Medford g 

New Bedford . . g 

Newton g 

Peabody g 2.000 

Revere g 2.S00 

Somerville g 

Springfield g 

Springfield c 

Waltham <7 

Watertown g 

Westfield c 1,000 

Woburn g 566 

Worcester g 

Worcester c 



875 

1,404 

36,450 

1,100 

3,000 
10,000 

2,180 
26,400 
13.3S5 
67,988 
14,275 

1,000 

300 

14,200 

64,338 
13,383 
19.966 



634 
2.7S6 
7,200 
5,421 



Benton Harbor. 
Boyne City 
Flint 



MICHIGAN. 



0.54 
0.53 
0.50 
0.72 
O.60 
0.44 
0.25 
0.40 
0.13 
0.71 
0.35 



0.35 
0.52 
0.44 



0.5d 
0.40 
0.22 
0.40 
0.40 
0.47 
0.50 
0.20 
0.2b 
0.25 
0.18 
0.45 

0.39 
0.18 
0.32 
0.58 
0.42 
0.30 
0.34 
0.30 
0.37 

0.30 
0.38 
0.50 
0.22 
0.30 
0.41 
0.35 
0.20 
0.45 
0.60 
0.28 

1.12 
0.30 
0.76 



91,234 


0.90 


3,260 


0.80 


5.733 




2,500 


0.8a 


2,150 


0.83 


6,323 


0.95 


2,544 


0.67 


2,866 


0.70 


11,388 


0.50 


26,974 




628 


0.44 


4,126 


0.60 


21,037 


0.50 


13,667 


1.00 


22,032 


1.00 


17.342 




1,044 


1.20 


2,340 


1.00 


6,000 


1.00 


23,102 


0.93 


35,763 


0.58 


3.279 




4,119 


0.90 


1,229 


1.00 


1.284 


0.70 


3,603 


O.S0 


11,876 


0.83 


682 


0.53 


17.000 


0.34 


1,200 


0.35 


35,259 


0.35 



Gutters (cont.) 
Topeka c 

KENTUCKY. 

Paducah c 

LOUISIANA. 

Lake Charles . . c '. 

New Orleans ... d 95.000 ' 
MAINE. 

Portland hd 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston g i( 

Cambridge g 

1 mdley ft 

Framingham ... c 

Haverhill ft 

New Bedford ... ft 1! 

Newton ft 

Somerville g 

Somerville c < 

Worcester g 

Worcester c 

Worcester ft j 

MICHIGAN. 
Grand Rapids .. d 54,516 S 

Manistee ft 

Saginaw dq 14,481 ! 

MINNESOTA. 

Duluth c 

Faribault c 

Red Wing c 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Laurel c 

MISSOURI. 

Cape Girardeau . c 

Kansas City .... c 15.000 
MONTANA. 

Billings c 

Great Falls .... c 

NEBRASKA. 

Alliance c 1,200 

Grand Island ... c 

Omaha cu 

Omaha cr 

Red Cloud c 

S. Omaha c 1 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Leconia g 2,000 

NEW JERSEY. 

Atlantic City . . . d 6,560 A 

Bloomfield n 

East Orange ... g 

Garfield c 

Hackensack .... c 

Irvington g S 

Montclair ft 500 

Ocean City c 

Ocean City .... d 

Passaic c 14,532 

Plainfield p 

Ridgewood c a 

Summit ft 6,000 

Trenton c 2 

NEW MEXICO. 

Roswell c 9,704 

NEW YORK 

Albany g 

Auburn c 

Btnghamton ... c 

Corning c 

Herkimer c 

New York — 

Richmond .... g 

Richmond .... d 

Oneonta c 

Utica c 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Asheville c 

Greensboro c 8,000 



P.I.X99 n 2 5 



,400 


0.30 


,044 


0.51 


,832 


0.16 


,000 


0.46 


,733 




,998 


21 


,000 


0.22 


,814 


0.40 


000 




,196 


0.15 


,047 




,650 




,202 


0.32 


,891 


0.24 


,73 4 


0.18 


,950- 


•0,20 


2X 


0.20 


,rn 


0.59 


,814 


0.75 


775 


0.15 


,200 


0.30 



440 
,328 

i.S09 

::iiii 



OHIO. 

Ashtabula c 

Chillicothe c 3, 

Dayton c ... 

Massillon c 

Middletown . . . . c 2, 

Troy c 



2,639 

5.250 

178,020 

12,000 



OKLAHOMA. 



Bartlesville 

OREGON. 
Eugene c 



PENNSYLVANIA. 

Ben Avon c 

Bethlehem c 

Bloomsburg .... d 1,700 

Columbia r 

Corrv c 

Freeland c 3,900 

Hanover c 

Hazleton e 

Lansdowne d 10,000 

New castle c 

S. Bethlehem ... c 



0.40 
0.29 
0.48 
0.32 
0.50 
0.23 



I, ii 



610 


0.25 


,217 


0.27 


,830 




,834 


0.18 


,238 


0.20 


334 


0.30 


500 


0.19 


700 


0.35 


,086 


0.25 


920 


0.50 


(100 


0.19 


,201 


0.19 



3.700 0.23 



8,300 
2,126 

12,175 
500 


0.7 5 
0.60 
0.64 
0.70 


10,842 

27.25s 

50 

22,800 


0.24 
0.28 
0.22 
0.47 


6,133 


0.14 
0.30 



0.59 
0.30 
0.17 
0.10 



2.000 


0.35 


400 


0.50 


500 


0.18 


4.800 


0.35 


928 


0.30 


2,000 


0.63 


6,250 


0.20 


3,600 


0.35 


10,000 


0.73 


2.000 


0.55 


7.572 


0.30 


June 


, 1915 



STREET IMPROVEMENTS 



355 



Sidewalks (cont. 

Greenfield c 1.000 

Haverhill c 

Haverhill ft 

Holyoke c 

Laurence c 

Lawrence k 

Lowell c 1,500 

Lowell ft 10.000 

Lynn c 

Lynn k 

Med ford c 

Medford b 

New Bedford. ... c 

Newton k 

Pea body k 2,000 

Peabodv x Ion 

Revere c 4,800 

Somerville c 

Springfield c 

Springfield . . . . : b 

Stoughton c 

Waltham, k 

Watertown c 

Watertown ft 

Webster c 

Westfield c 6,000 

Woburn c 110 

Woburn ft 2S0 

Worcester c 

MICHIGAN. 

Alpena c 1,660 

Battle Creek. . . . c 

Bay City c 

Benton Harbor., c 2,200 

Detroit c 

Flint c 25,000 

Grand Rapids... c 32,540 

Highland Park., c 25.000 

Hinsdale r 

Ludington c 

Manistee c 

Menominee . . . . c a 

Monroe c a 

Negaunee c 

Niles p 

Norway c 

Port Huron c 2,500 

Saginaw c 30,000 

South Haven .... c 

Sturgis c 3,500 

Traverse City. . . c 

MINNESOTA. 

Austin c 7,800 

Chisholm c 

Crookston c 10.000 

Dulutb r 9,500 

Eveleth c 

Faribault c 

I [ibbing c 

Mankato c 40.000 

Minneapolis .... d 202,300 

Owatonna c 

Red Wing c 

Rochester c 4,000 

St. Cloud r 

St. Paul d 90.000 

Stillwater c 

Virginia c 

Winona c 1,625 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Clarksdale c 800 

Columbus c 

Hattiesburg . . . . c S00 

Jackson c 

Laurel c 6,000 

Meridian c 

Vieksburg c 

MISSOURI. 

Brookfield c 

Cape Girardeau, c 4,000 

Carthage s 2,200 

Carthage b 1,675 

Chillicothe c 

Columbia c 1.083 

Excelsior Spr'gs. c 

Fulton c 

Independence ... c 

Kansas City.... r 65.000 

Milan c 

St. Charles c 

Sedalia r 10.000 

University City., c 3,971 

Windsor c 2,000 



Billings c 

Bozeman c 

Dillon c 

Great Falls c 

Missoula c 



MONTANA. 



Fremont c 

Lincoln c 

Lincoln b 

Norfolk c 

Omaha c 

Omaha b 

Red Cloud c 

Seward c 

June. 1915 



NEBRASKA. 



5,000 

55,000 

2,800 

500 



1.571 

I, III! 

10,530 

il. -'27 
9. .'On 
648 
10,961 
16,727 
1,586 



] 1,308 

2ii2 
900 

2. :<\n 

1,200 
3,000 

2,454 
4.HS6 



33,625 

4S.543 

1,700 

82,28 I 

30.6HM 

18.137 

21,300 

720 

5.000 

3.S50 

9.6S0 

1,200 



636 
4,106 
1,096 



1.50 
0.50 
0.99 
1.03 
0.45 
1.63 
0.52 
1.50 

1.60 
1.10 
0.90 

ii 68 
ii 50 

ii.t:. 



1.34 
1.36 

1.75 
0.3S 
1.44 
0.70 



Curbs (cont.) 

44,410 
10,122 
GO.OOn 



15,840 
3,450 
2,500 



11,840 

n.ooo 

1,000 

59,1611 

3,063 



323 
4,500 
7,719 
1.629 



1.08 

il M 
0.S1 
0.9 9 



9,000 


0.81 


36,624 


1.27 


3,430 


0.72 


23,000 


1 05 


".tin 


1.71 


2,353 


0.85 


1.400 


1.21 


44.586 


0.75 


162.708 


0.75 


4.583 


0.75 


1,330 


0.99 


3,760 


II ss 


5.475 


r. 7 .". 


57.366 


0.63 


410 


II si 


14.361 


1.31 


23.767 


0.86 


1.100 


1.26 


°22 


11.911 


833 


0.90 


1.600 


0.80 


2.S00 


1.10 


2,470 


0.90 


2,250 


1.22 



1.26 
1.00 

1.10 

JO, 000 1.04 

2, 058 1.00 

370 1.13 

1. i 1 mi 

5.S0O 0.99 

77,830 1.11 

800 2.25 

2.233 2.35 

4,700 1.00 



1.40 
1.35 
1.06 
1.33 



1.08 
0.81 
0.90 
1.03 
0.98 



Flint s 

Grand Rapids.. . c 

Highland Park. . e 

Hinsdale c 

Manistee c 

Negaunee c 

Norway c 

Port Huron . . . . c 

Saginaw s 

Sag inaw c 

So I laven c 



Austin c 

Chisholm c 

I Irook -inn c 

Duluth o 

Eveleth c 

Faribault c 

Minneapolis .... g 

New rim c 

Owatonna c 

Red Wing c 

Rochester c 

St. i 'loud c 20,000 

SI Paul c 40,000 

Stillwater c 

Winona c 3,228 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Jackson c 

MISSOURI. 

Brookfield c 

''i!- Girardeau, c 10,000 

CI illii otbe c 

I Columbia c 2,231 

tor Spgs.. . c 

Independence ... c 

Kansas City .... c 200,000 

Mexico c 

Sedalia c 

University City., c 

Windsor c 



10,540 
1.2S0 
1,000 . 
MONTANA. 

Billings c 10,000 

Bozeman c 10,000 1 

Dillon c a 

Great Falls c 4,500 13 

Missoula c 

NEBRASKA. 

Alliance c 18,000 

Fremont c 

Grand Island ... c 

Hastings s 

Lincoln c 1 

Norfolk r 17,000 

Omaha c 

Omaha s 2 

Red Cloud c 500 

So. Omaha c 5 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Laconia g 2,000 

Portsmouth .... g 

Portsmouth .... c 

NEW JERSEY. 



689 
1,960 

.Mill 



,533 

:,45l 

200 

.997 

L08 

.61111 

,S77. 
i.634 
.99(1 
,7911 
,460 
.nun 
4 31 
,326 



,960 
,033 

.31111 

i,803 

,000 
i.OOO 
1,150 
1,328 
'..tin 
1,916 



.439 
,45(1 
,000 

, urn 
706 





400 
.718 



Atlantic City 

Bayonne s 

Bloomfield i s 

Bloomfield c 

Boonton s 

Boonton c 

Camden s 

Camden c 

E. Orange s 

Garfield c 

Hackensack .... c 

Irvington s 

Irvington c 

Jersey City .... g 
Jersey City . . . . c 
Long Branch ... c 

Montclair c 

Newark g 

Newark s 

Ocean City .... c 
Ocean City . . . . s 

Passaic c 

I tidgwood c 

Summit c 

Trenton c 

Ventnor City . . . c 
W Hohoken . . . s 
W. New York . . . s 



,870 26,240 

8,180 

1,000 30,495 

4.39S 



.000 

,,11911 

I, t 

;,soo 

!,260 

:,575 
i,277 
.97,(1 
.244 

,7,9 1 

', 

I. 

t,000 

l.llllll 

1,000 

199 

:.s7 I 
| 



452 2.21 
2,500 1.35 



NEW MEXICO. 
Albuquerque ... c 

Roswell r 

NEW YORK. 

Albany c a 

Albany g a 

Auburn s 

Auburn r 880 

Binghamton . . . . s 1,500 

Bingham ton . . . . c 2,000 

Clyde c 

Corning c 360 

Cortland s 

Elmira s a 

Elmira c « 

Freeport c 



1,136 

680 
1,234 
,500 
,.6011 
.900 

500 



it 30 
it 3 I 
0.30 
0.35 
0.24 
0.10 
0.28 
0.60 
0.48 
0.23 



0.40 

9.7,1, 
II .3(1 
II 7,7, 
n , 5 
0.40 
0.90 
it 38 
9.35 
0.30 
0.32 
0.2 I 
0.32 

9,39 

ii 36 



0.34 
0.25 

0.35 



0.4 9 
0.4S 
0.50 
ii til 
0.38 

0.33 
0.25 
0.25 
0.49 
0.52 
0.30 
0.46 
0.79 



1.10 
1.03 
0.43 
0.50 



9.4 7, 
0.3 j 

1.99 

0.60 

1.19 
0.60 

0.25 
II 77, 
1.17 
0.80 

II L".l 

0.40 
0.38 

n : . 
0.50 

H.39 
9 39 

0.60 

0.70 



9.72 
0.93 
0.96 
0.75 

0.45 
0.38 
0.35 
1.10 



Gutters (cont.) 

KM' tl IE ISLAND. 

Paw tucket h a 4,800 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Greenville c 60.000 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 
Watertown r 

TENNESSEE. 

Clarksville c 

Johnson City ... c 
Memphis ....... c 



Nashvil 



93,1 

TEXAS. 



i 1,040 

41.199 

133.1199 


9.31 
i'.7l 
9.1' 1 

9 ! ; 


7-1. 63S 
7,032 

is.: 

6,000 

17,1 1 1 


i 

o ■ 

9 39 

i 30 


13,000 


9. 14 


5,000 

17, 


0.3,3 


7. .'7,9 
21,857 


0.45 
0.28 



S. 11(111 


25 


3.799 


9 17 


21,500 


0.40 


4 40 


ii 23 


92,997 


II 7 1 


21,72 7. 


i : 


74 


ii lit 



4,000 



4,394 0.1S 



Dallas ... 

I <■ ■in. -on r ...... 

Hillsboro ,■ 

Taj lor c 

Waxahachie i 

UTAH 
Logan c 

\ IRGINIA. 

Hi i tol c 

Newporl News. . s 

WASHINGTI IN, 

Aberdeen c 

Everetl c 10,000 

No. Yakima . . . c 1 516 it 85 

Spol line ( z 11,350 

Vancouver <■ ,;• . . ,, 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

Moundsville .... c 594 0.52 

WISCONSIN. 

Chippewa Falls. . r 

Eau ( Haire <■ 

Janesville r 

Lake Geneva ... c 

Milwaukee d 70,200 

< ishkosh c 

Sheboygan c 

Sheboj inn ( ( 3,900 

W.-tii-,iii c 

WYOMING. 

Cheyenne c 

CANADA. 

Vancouver. B. C. c 23.2S5 0.32 

Kingston, Ont... c 5,525 1 

a — Amount indefinite. 

b — Basalt block. 

c — Cement concrete. 

d — Vitrified brick or block. 

e — Flagstone. 

g — Granite. 

h — Cobblestone. 

k — Crushed stone. 

n — Trap block. 

o — Length included with concrete gutter. 

p — Work done by property owners. 

Gutters are assumed IS inches wide, • ac- 
cept those marked as follows : 
q — Gutter, 30 inches wide, 
r — Gutter, 32 inches wide. 
5 — Gutter. 30 inches wide. 
u — Gutter. 3 I inches wide. 
v — Gutter. 1 3 inches « ide. 
x — Crosswalks. 
y — Reinforced. 

Relaid. 



Concrete Comb'd Curb and Gutter 



ALABAMA 

Birmingham 521,209 $0.75 

ARKANSAS. 

I '•■ l.n n 509 9.67. 

Ft Smith 88,6 In n.3 , 

Pine Blufl 5,090 0.55 

CALIFORNIA 

Colusa a 1,850 (ITS 

Los ( lulus 21,000 19. S I 

Venice 

i'i iI.ilRAI" i. 

Boulder 1,361 ■ 

Pueblo 101.000 9.17. 

C( INNECTICUT, 

Hart fori 1 l.-lmi 1. Hm ft s7, 

New Britain 2,000 1.537. 0.72 

Rockville 2,850 0.74 

FLORIDA. 

Bradentown 13,500 o.r>o 

Port Tampa 11,197. 0.51 

Sarasota 10,560 0.50 

GEORGIA. 

Americus 13.090 3.200 0.50 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Sidewalks (cont.) 

a 

. c 

- . KB. 

■ c 

■ 

fc 2,000 

ith - . . • c 



50,000 



Curbs (cont.) 



20.000 



2.S00 

"960 

E 

- 



S c 

- 

. . . r 

. . s 

. . c 

... s 

Bra i 

..ir c 

\ c 

. . o 
... c 
. . . p 

... c 

. . . . c 

. . . c 

Id s 

West Hoboken.. c 

'.v York, c 

- - 

. e 

NEW 

rque .... c 

NEW YORK. 
. . c 
■ 

. . . s 

e 

. . . h 

- 

■ 

Herkiv • 

• 

c 

... c 
. . . c 
. . . r 

rk c 

-■rk C5t5 — 
Bronx Bor 
Bronx Boro . . . c 
Brooklyn Boro c 

Richm'nd Boro s 

ra Fa - 

. '1 s. 

. . . r 

. . . r 



. . c 
- 
- 

c 

... c 
... c 

C 

Watertown 
i 






" Y.660 



,90* 



S.S40 
60.000 





1.46 


E 




2,008 




546 


. • 


999 


1.71 




2.43 


1.000 




7.040 








1.000 






- 


4.929 


• 




- 


S.124 












4.000 






1.S5 




1.62 


3.300 


1.62 


6.000 


1.00 




i 




1.26 




- 


• 


1.10 


2.047 






• 




0.90 


610 


1.26 


604 


1.5S 



S.655 
91.675 
! 

2.000 
3,000 

1.515 
5.500 

65S 
2.000 

- 

1.397 

P 

4.463 

13.041 

1.000 

6.504 

i 

14.200 

10.000 

100 



1.44 
1.44 
0.90 

1.32 



1.35 
0.99 

1.15 

-- 



0.90 
1.20 
LOS 

■ 

1.35 

1.35 
1.49 

1.35 
1.35 



- 

1.35 
• 
0.S1 
0.95 
1.10 

• 
1.44 

0.90 



Fulton c 

Gloversville .... r 

Herkimer s 

Hudson 

Ilion s 

Ilion < 

Johnstown g 

- wn i 

Little Falls 

Little Falls r 

Mamaroneek 

Newark r 

New York — 

Bronx s 

Brooklyn s 

Brooklyn c 

Brooklyn . - 

Queens c 

mond .... s 

inond .... r 

- 

. . . r 

S 

Oneonta s 

go s 

.r- 
■ 

vnca c 

tads 

. . . . r 

e 

s 

Syracuse . . . 
Utica s 



- 

a 

Goldsboro g 

Greer, s I ' - 
E 

- 



- 



Bismarc - 



Grand Forks .... 
Jamestown 

Ada 

Akron 

Barberton 

Bucyrus 

Bucyrus 

Cambridge 



c 3.000 

c 2.000 

omo. 

e 41.6S0 





1.34 


; 


1.00 


2.045 


1.04 




- 


- 7S 


0.50 










1.000 






1.26 


- 


1.06 




1.00 


1.740 


! 



2,400 

54.S6S 

; 

10,000 



0.90 

0.90 

0.90 

1.17 






50.000 



- 

1.350 
i 

. ■ 
10.000 
2,000 

1,000 

5.500 

1.4-r. 
1.500 

107. S90 

36,580 
65,139 

552 

40.000 

1.300 

: 
i 

1.347 



100 

4.542 



0.50 

O.90 
0.30 
0.63 
0.4 5 
0.55 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



lie c 

Charlotte c 

Goldsboro b 

Goldsboro g 

Greensboro . ... 15,000 

NORTH DAKOTA. 

£ c 

Grand Forks . . . c 

Jamestown c 

OHK 

Akron s 

a c 

Bellefontaine . . c 

the c 3,100 

Dayton c 

c 

e s 1.000 

Lakewood s 

Lorain s 25,000 

Marietta c 

s 

>n r 

Sit Vernon s 3,100 

Norwood c 

Oberlin s 

Sandusky c 

- - gfieM r 

Steubenville .... c 

Toledo o 

Troy e 4.000 

L'rbana s 

L'rbana c 

c 12,000 

OKLAHOMA. 

Bartlesvilte c 

sha ., 

- ■ ■ r 

ORE 



Marshfield £ 

md i 

r 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Bethlehem c 

Bloomsburg .... c 

sle c 

:-ersburg .. 

- roi r 

r c 

bia c 

Oonnellsville ... c 

dairy r 

Donora r 

Dubois c 

Farrell c 

Farrell s 

Freeland c 

Greensburg s 

Hanover o 

Harrisburg gc 

ban s 

Jeannette e 

Juniata c 

Juniata s 

Lansdowne s 

Lansford o 

MoKees Rocks. . e 

Oil City c 

Philadelphia ... (7 



5 



i 
1.02 
0.41 
0.56 
0.65 

0.45 

0.35 
0.60 

0.50 

0.60 

• 
0.30 

i 

Si 



23.000 



6,400 

5.591 

'40.400 
i 

14.169 
6.367 

12.000 
5.009 
3.200 
5.640 

15.600 

14.500 
1.S00 
■ 

15.864 
6.000 
1.500 



• 
0.30 
0.30 
0.30 

! 
0.50 
0.50 
0.4 5 
0.47 
0.33 
0.55 
0.45 
0.55 

! 
0.35 
0.42 
0.44 
0.30 
0.S6 
0.30 
0.60 
0.55 



2.040 

131.649 
7.500 






3.100 
9.000 



300 



6.171 

5.000 
4.S00 
2.191 
4,324 
6.500 
9.479 
i 

2,000 
i 

3.100 
26.625 
1,000 

sso 



0.51 
0.35 

0.30 



0.90 
0.40 
0.35 

V.70 

• 
0.47 
0.55 
0.76 
0.40 

i 
0.51 

-- 
0.66 
0.60 

1.00 



30.000 

916 
300 



0.60 
0.65 



Curb and Gutter (cont.) 

IDAHO. 

Caldwell 2.000 2 

ILLINOIS. 

Aurora 



Chicago Heights . . 

Cicero 

Decatur 

Galeslmrg 

Granite Citv 

Hillsboro 

Hinsdale 

Lyons 

.boro 

Newton 

Oak Park 

Ottawa 

Pana 

Rockford 

TaylorvUle a 

. in 

INDIANA. 

Connersyille 

Crawfordsville 

9.400 

Evansville 

Frankfort 

Garv 

Greencastle 10,600 

Lafayette 

Laporte 

Logansport 

Muncie 2.554 

Newcastle 

Portland 

Richmond 10,000 

ir 

::ie 

Ymcennes 

Washington 

IOWA. 



Belle Plaine 

Boone 

Cedar Falls 

Cedar Rapids 

Council Bluffs 

Dubuque 5.85 

Forest City 

Ft. Madison 

Missouri Valley ... 

Oskaloosa 

Pella 

Perry 



Waterloo 9,900 

KANSAS 

Abilene 

Arkansas City 

2,000 

Dodge City 5.000 

Herrington 5,600 

Independence 

Junction City 

Neodesha 

Newton 

Ottawa 16,000 

s 

Pittsburg 

Salina 

Topeka 2S.13S 

KENTUCKY. 

Morganfield 

LOUISIANA 

Lake Charles 

MARYLAND. 

Frederick 

MICHIGAN. 

Battle Creek 

Grand Rapids 

I on - • 

Kalamazoo 11,150 

Ludington 

Manistee 

Menominee >.8S 

Saginaw 

Sturgis 11.000 

Traverse City 

MINNESOTA. 

Crookston 

Hibbing 

Mankato 10.000 

Minneapolis 

Rochester 7.33S 

Virginia 

MISSISSIFPL 

Clarksdale 4.000 

Jackson 

Laurel 

Vicksburg 

MISSOURI. 
Cape Girardeau .... 1.000 

Chillicothe - - - 

Columbia 78l 

Excelsior Springs.... 1.600 

Jefferson City 

Nevada 

St. Charles 









0.64 




0.50 


i 


0.49 


23.649 




31.591 






0.90 




0.50 










33,119 


0.54 




0.45 




0.5S 








! 


67. 7-4 




41.139 


0.50 




0.60 




0.45 




0.41 




0.42 






- 


• 




i 




060 




0.46 






2,000 


0.50 






15.310 


0.40 




! 


. 


0.60 


4,800 


0.41 




0.55 


• - 






0.39 


i 






0.63 


17.000 


0.51 




0.50 




i 




0.65 


14.257 


0.66 




i 


2.434 






0.63 




i 




0.60 






9.662 






0.60 


16,418 


0.4S 




" 


4.000 


0.65 




0.43 




0.53 




I 


31.446 


- 




0.45 




0.50 


. 


0.55 


4.000 


- 


" 


0.45 




". 


. .- 


0.43 



14.547 


0.3S 


30,615 


0.40 


1.100 




2.133 


* 




0.33 


2.456 


" 


2.940 


0.4 5 


500 


- 


11.500 


0.43 




21 


1.S00 


0.35 


1.034 


0.5S 




: 


" 


0.34 








0.S1 


5.000 


0.50 


1.200 


- 


7.645 


0..-..1 




0.55 


1.400 


0.50 


3.600 


0.50 


1.417 


7! 




- 


44.569 


"" 


i 


0.35 


2.319 


0.65 


June. ISIS 



STREET IMPROVEMENTS 



357 



Sidewalks (cont.) 



Curbs (cont.) 



850 
100,000 

1 10, 



10,000 



5,000 

' s'ioo 

11.000 
245 

800 
3,300 

lv 



92.2H0 
26 !56 

1,800 
12,675 

5, 

1. 

7,000 

5,860 

21,120 

4,106 
9,504 

I 1 

6,800 



21,505 
7,884 

5,500 

1,270 

280 

12, 

IS, 130 



6.7 00 



20.197 

100 

12,000 

'53.666 



Chillicothe c 

Cleveland c 

Cleveland s 

Columbus c 

Conneaut c 

Dayton c 

Delaware c 

Galion s 

Greenville c 

Hamilton c 

Ironwood e 

Lakewood s 

Lancaster c 

Lima c 

I^orain s 

Mansfield c 

Marion s 

Massillon c 

Miildletown e 

Mingo Junction., c 

Mt. Vernon c 

Norwood c 

Painesville c 

Portsmouth .... c 

Sandusky c 

Sandusky s 

Sidney c 

Springfield c 

Steubenville .... c 

Toledo c 36,275 

Toledo s 24,351 

Troy c 2.200 1,333 

Wapakoneta ..... 1,100 670 

Washington C. H c 4,000 

Willoughby c S00 

Zanesville p 

OKLAHOMA 

Bartlesville c 5,000 4,900 

Chiekasha c a 200 

Durant <• 1.470 1.470 

Enid c 550 550 

Okmulgee c 3,300 

Ponca City c n 2,500 

s a nee r . 8,300 

Tulsa c 

OREG 

Ashland c 

Eugene c 

Hood River c 

Marshfield c 

Marshfield v 

Portland 

Salem c 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Beaver Falls ... c 2.400 

Ben Avon c 5,000 

Bethlehem c 3,000 

Bloomsburg . ... c 2,150 1.S50 

Bradford pbr 3.000 3,000 

Carlisle c p 4.375 

Chambersburg . . p 

Charleroi p 

Chester c 2.7S0 

Coaldale 1,200 900 

Coatesville c 1,400 1.220 

Columbia c 2,700 

Corry c 900 

Corry b 306 

Corrv s 271 

Donora c 92S 

Erie c 57,500 

Farrell c 250 

Farrell s 300 

Freeland e 

Hazleton c 

Hazleton k 

Indiana c 

Juniata c 

Juniata b 

Juniata s 

Lansdowne c 

McKees Rocks... c 

Meadville c 

North Braddock . c 

Oil City c >;.;n 

Parkersburgh ... c 1.600 

Philadelphia c 3,000 3.000 

Philadelphia b 800 300 

Philadelphia s 50 100 

Pittsburgh x 296,1 00 

Pottsville c 1.345 

Scottdale c 980 

Scottdale s 1,270 

Scranton c 74,200 

South Bethlehem c 20 

Tyrone c 1,660 

Tyrone b 670 

Uniontown c 2.000 

Warren e 8,8"00 

Waynesboro .... c 400 

Wilkesbarre ....cs a 6,470 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Pawtucket c a 4,155 

Providence P 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Charleston c 20,060 

Columbia c 17,600 26,000 

Greenville c 20,000 

Spartanburg .... c 16,518 

June, 1915 



4.000 



1,200 



300 



0.90 
0.90 

1.11 

1 I 2 

0.81 

0.95 
0.90 

1.22 

p 

1.02 



1.82 

1.44 
n :m 
0.90 
0.90 
n 80 
1.26 
0.90 
1.00 
1.21 
1.32 
n.72 



0.99 
0.S6 
1.06 
11. 'hi 
:-:i 
0.90 
0.90 



0.9V 
1.13 

0.90 
1.0* 

1.0s 

0.72 
0.99 

11 S3 



o.so 

1.35 
0.40 
0.90 
0.90 



0.90 
1.S0 
1.30 



1.44 
0.54 
1.00 



I 35 
0.96 
0.60 

II -'. 



1.60 
0.96 
1.35 
1.25 
1.00 
1.60 
n 99 
0.6 5 



0.S9 
1.25 
0.90 

11 s;: 



Ldelphia . . . s 
Philadelphia . . . c 

Pittsburg 

Pottsville c 

St. Marys c 

Scottdale e 

Scottdale s 

Scranton s 

S. Bethlehem . . c 

Tyrone e 

Warren c 

sboro . , . c 
Wilkes Barre .. .cs 



Curb and Gutter (cont.) 



i,831 



RHODE ISLAND. 

Pawtucket g a 4.7". r, 

Providence . . . . g 38,591 



Columbia 
Greenville .. 
Orangeburg 
Spartanburg 
Spartanburg 



25. c. 111 

2,400 



Aberdeen c 

M11. hell c 

Falls 
Watertown 
Yankton . . . 



SOUTH DAKOTA. 



3,000 



... C 5.5110 

TENNESSEE. 

Johnson City.. . . e 

Memphis g 

Nashville c 10,000 

TEXAS. 

Abilene c 

Amarillo c 1,500 

Austin c 

Dallas c 

Denison c 

Greenville c 

Hillsboro c 

Marshall c 

McKinney c 

Taj lor c 

i.'lli.- ... c 

UTAH. 

Logan c 

Ogden c 1,900 

VERMONT. 

Barre c 

Rutland c 1,200 



5.000 
1.884 



13,040 



VIRGINIA. 

Danville g 

WASHINGTON. 

Aberdeen ...... c 

Bellingham .... c 

Everett c 25,000 

>X. Yakima .... c 

Seattle g 

Seattle c 63,360 

Spokane ....... c 

Sunnyside ...... c 

Tacoma c 

Tacoma e 

Tacoma * 

Vancouver c 

Walla Walla . . . c 12,000 



:. 

.415 
!,165 
423 

1.726 
,S50 



WEST VIRGINIA. 

Elkins c 2,000 

Huntington c 23.6S0 119.508 

Moundsville . . . . c 4,966 



Chippewa Falls. 

Eau Claire C 

Lake Geneva . . . c 

Marinette c 

Merrill e 

Milwaukee s 

Milwaukee g 

s eboygan c 

gan s 

Waupaca c 

Wausau c 



Vancouver. B. C 
Victoria, B. C. . , 
Brantford, Ont. 
Chatham, Ont.. 
Kingston, Ont. . 
London, Ont.. . . 

Oshawa, Ont 

Quebec, Que 



WISCONSIN. 



a 



2,000 

2,300 

4.900 
4,000 



13,429 

1 1,954 

900 
5,938 

1,512 



a — Amount undetermined. 

b — Wooden curb. 

— Cement concrete curb. 

(I — Redressed and reset granite curb. 

e — Armored concrete curb. 

g — Granite curb. 

s — Sandstone or limestone curb. 



0.11 

0.41 
11 S3 

0.75 

H is 

O.SO 







56,864 43.151 0.78 



0.30 
0.35 
0.36 




1 

0.36 

0.3S 

0.24 
0.25 



44. 430 


0.30 


51,000 


IS 


23.000 


0.40 




0.40 


2.1 


0.30 




0.40 


1.153 




13.000 




490 


0.74 



11 211 

0.37 

0.40 
1.75 
0.30 
0.32 
0.31 
0.35 



1.00 
0.55 
0.25 



0.50 



0.50 



0.49 
0.41 
0.25 
0.30 
0.30 
0.30 
0.35 
1.00 



Se.ial.a 
Universl 

Windsor 



5,280 



2'. 000 

NEBRASKA. 

Alliance 4,500 

Grand Island 

Lincoln 51 

Omaha 

v °rk 50,666 

NEW JERSEY 

Bloomfield 

Montclair ^oOO ' 4 



Ridgewood a "3 

Rutherford 2,000 10 



Westfield 

NEW 



niton 

1,600 

Corning 1 

Fulton 

Little Falls 

Newark V,666 



.'. . 8,057 

.... 5,104 
teepsie 

i.iv 20 666 

Solvay 

svn .' 1 

NORTH CAROLINA 



060 
000 

I 



16,1 



11 

0.60 

.1 6 1 



.000 

vs.; 



in. 1 



NORTH DAKOTA 
'Bismarck 

OHIO. 

Akron 

Bellefontaine 

Conneaut 

Elyria '....'. 

ille 15,666 

Hamilton 

Ironwood 

Lima 

Middletown 

Mingo Junction .... 

Mt. Vernon 

Norwood 13 160 

Oberlin 

Painesville 13,218 

Portsmouth 



Sidney 

Steubenville 

OKLAHOMA. 

Bartlesville 6.000 

McAIester 

Okmulgee 

City 10.000 

OREGON 

Eugene 6,300 

Hood River 

Marshfield 

PENNSYLVANIA. 



Ben Avon 

Bradford 760 

Catasauqua 

Coaldale 4,000 

Coatesville 4,750 

Ellwood City 

Freeland 400 

Greenville 

Hanover 

Lansdowne 10.000 

Meadville 

North Braddock . . . 5.000 

Oil i'if 

Parkesburg 

Uniontown 

' .stead 



SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Yankton 

TEXAS 

Denison 

Greenville I 

Longview 

McKinney 18,480 1 

UTAH 

Ogden 

Salt Lake 20,000 IE 

VIRGINIA. 

Danville 1 

\\ A.SHINGTON. 

mi 25.500 1 

Olympia 10,868 2 

1 

\\ EST VIRGINIA. 

Bluefleld 3 

Logan I 

Moundsville 



1,310 0.76 



0.50 

0.51 
57 
0.50 

, 
to 
0,4 5, 
0.48 

... 

6 
60 

» 50 

1 1,1 
0.5] 

0.54 



,000 

sin 

5 2S 
.1 



,340 
,830 
1,400 

i.000 
800 
..500 

.000 
1,050 



;,2i.o 
1,000 

■ - 



1.115 






(I is 
1.17 
11 (9 
0.80 

11 17 



0.40 

0.90 

0.50 
n 65 

0.70 



60 

13 
0.60 

0.52 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Sidewalks (cont.) 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Aberdeen c 3,000 3,000 

Lead c 4,100 3,000 

Lead v 375 

Mitchell r 4,000 3,860 

Sioux Falls r 1,700 4,500 

Tankton c 600 850 

TENNESSEE. 

Clarksville e 7,200 

Johnson City c 8,750 

Memphis c 46,145 

Nashville c 25,000 50,000 

TEXAS. 

Abilene c 550 

Abilene s 390 

Abilene v 8,600 

Amarillo r 1.5S9 

Austin c 16.615 

Cuero p 

Dallas c 74.476 

Denison c 4,051 

Greenville r 36,000 

Hillsboro c 4,000 

.":i iew c o 4.000 

Marshall c 2,500 

McKinney c 2,000 

Quanah c a 

Sulphur Springs, c 2,000 

Taylor c 5,900 7,030 

Waxahachie .... c S.400 

Waxahachie .... h 1,640 

Waxahachie .... b 1.760 

UTAH. 

Logan c 9,500 13,400 

I Igden c 7,140 

Richfield c 3.000 3.106 

Salt Lake City., c 3,700 1,075,000 

VERMONT. 

Barre c 3.022 

Rutland c 865 

VIRGINIA. 

Danville e 14,000 

Suffolk c 10,000 

(Cont. In 2d col.) 



Sidewalks (cont. from 1st col.) 



1.25 
2 7 
0.60 
0.95 
0.99 
0.90 



1.13 

o 9 9 

O.HII 

1.10 

0.72 
0.60 
0.20 



0.99 
0.99 
1.17 



1.08 

1.26 
0.73 
0.12 

0.61 



Aberdeen c 

Aberdeen v 

Bellingtiam <• 

Bellingham .... i 

Everett c 

North Yakima. . . c 

Olympia c 

Seattle c 

Spokane c 

Sunnyside c 

Tacoma c 

Vancouver < 

Walla Walla. . .... c 



it.; 

I 1,700 



13.300 



10,905 

715 

22,549 

IX. 20.-, 
17.476 
27s 
16,37 

20,9 -'I 

3,000 

133,377 

7,136 

37.000 



WEST VIRGINIA. 

Bluefield c 

Elkins ji 

Moundsville .... c 



Antigo 

Appleton 

Chippewa Falls.. 

Columbus 

Green Bay 

Janesville 

Lake Geneva. . . . 

Madison 

Marinette 

Merrill 

Milwaukee 

Sheboygan 

Superior 

Waupaca 

Wausau 

West Allis 



1SCONSIN. 

c 5,000 

10,000 



70.500 
1.330 
30,000 



Prince Rupert. 

B. C 

Vancouver. B C 
Victoria, B. C. . 
Brantford, Ont . 



2.7S3 
16,296 
1,670 
1.240 
18,679 

2.500 
4,000 

7.04H 

6 roo 

70,6 40 
11,020 



30,' 
2.27 



0.77 
0.44 
1.02 
0.08 
0.87 
1.17 
0.80 
0.85 
0.90 
1.17 
0.99 
0.77 
1.04 

1.71 
1.13 



0.99 
1.08 

ii 81 
1.00 
0.97 
0.66 
1.10 
0.63 
0.83 

li 99 



0.9S 
vs 
0.90 



Curb and Gutter (cont.) 

WISCt iNSIN 

Beloit 80,1 

Columbus I, mm 

Eau Claire 800 

Green Bay 7,558 

LaCrosse 

Lake Geneva 2,131 

Madison 20,000 

Marinette 

Milwaukee 60,000 

Neenah 

Superior 21, 

West Allis 5.700 

WYOMING. 

Cheyenne 

CANADA. 





0.34 


800 


0.55 




|o 


34,774 


0.-9 


6 | iO 


0.52 


40M 


ii :,.i 


20. 


.. 55 


1 . ". 7 '. 


ii 14 


87.140 


i, 


4,800 


r. 


13,400 


0.60 



(Cont. in 3d col.) 



Vancouver. B. C 




7,646 


ii :,■ 


Chatham, Ont 




S4v 


r 


London, Ont 


2. .-,.2 4 II 




(1 :. 


Regina, Sask 





25,350 


0.72 


a — Amount undetermined. 






Sidewalks (cont. from 2d col.) 




Chatham, Ont. . . r 


6,000 


6,600 


91 


Kingston, Out. . . r 




13,115 


1 35 


London, Ont. . . . c 


21.142 


1-.. 146 


1 us 


Oshawa, Ont .... c 


2.7-11 


7.200 




Windsor, Ont.. . . c 




18,250 




Regina, Sask.. . . c 


6,000 


37,885 


1.50 


Regina, Sask. ... r 


2,900 


20,300 


0.8V 


a — Amount indefinite. 








b — Brick. 








c — Concrete. 








d — Cement tile. 








e — Cinders. 








q — Granite. 








7i — Sand and gravel. 








k — Tar concrete. 








p — Sidewalks laid bv 


property 


owners 


pri- 


vately. 








r — Reinforced with triangular 


mesh. 




s — Flagstone. 








u — Crushed stone. 








V — Plank. 








x — Asphalt concrete. 









Street and Sidewalk Improvement in the United States and 
Canada (Cont. from p. 343). 

Toledo, O., will use a combination sand and asphaltic filler 
for joints in brick, granite and Medina stone. 

Lansford, Pa., has substituted slag screenings for sand in 
cushion. 

Lehighton, Pa., makes cushion 2 inches. 

North Bradford, Pa., changed from repressed block with 
sand filler to wire-cut-lug block with cement filler. 

Orangeburg, S. C, has made its specifications agree with 
those of the National Paving Brick Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion. 

Concrete. — Fulton, 111., will use curb monolithic with con- 
crete pavement instead of combined curb and gutter, and a 
thinner expansion joint. 

Alpena, Mich., will build some one-course pavements and 
some one-course roadway without curb. 

Monroe, Mich., has decreased the width of transverse joints 
to "s-inch. 

Mankato. Minn., has increased the proportion of cement 
in the concrete. 

Norfolk, Neb., has prepared specifications for its first con- 
crete pavements. 

Toledo, O., has added metal reinforcement and expansion 
joint protection for concrete. 

Greenville, O., has specified prepared felt and asphalt ex- 
pansion joints. 

McAlester, Okla., will build concrete curb monolithic with 
concrete pavement. 



Erie, Pa., has changed specifications for concrete base from 
1:3:8 to 1:2%:7. 

Lake Geneva, Wis., specifies concrete instead of wood 
block pavements. 

Oshkosh, Wis., leaves it optional with property owners as to 
whether bituminous top shall be used on concrete pavements. 

Stone Block. — Portland, Me., is relaying old granite blocks 
on concrete base. 

Springfield, Mass , will use 4 to 5-inch granite blocks. 

Albany, N. Y., specifies dressed granite blocks 4 :! 4 to SU- 
inch depth. 

Toledo, O., will use a combination sand and asphaltic filler 
for brick, granite and Medina stone. 

IVood Block. — Decatur, 111., has changed from IS to 14 
pounds of creosote per cubic foot of wood. 

Granite City, 111., will hereafter use a dry mortar cushion. 
1 cement to 4 sand, instead of sand cushion, and reduces the 
concrete base from 6 to 5 inches in thickness. 

Portland, Ind., has included wood block in the kinds of 
pavement specified. 

Springfield, Mass., has adopted the standard specifications 
of the American Society of Municipal Improvements. 

Highland Park, Mich., has added wood block specifications. 

St. Paul. Minn., has made changes in specific gravity of 
creosote oil and in the standard of purity. 

Albany, N. Y„ has reduced amount of preservation oil from 
20 pounds to 18 pounds per cubic foot. 

Nashville, Tenn., has changed grade of creosote to meet 
war conditions. 

Lake Geneva, Wis., specifies concrete instead of wood 
blocks. 




Improvement of Sheridan Road in Highland Park, 111. 

By Stanley E. Bates, Chicago, III. 

Sheridan road is the name given to the main highway 
which extends from Lincoln Park in Chicago to Milwaukee 
along the shore of Lake Michigan. The southern end of this 
road is within the city limits of Chicago and is. under the juris- 
diction of the Lincoln Park Commissioners. 

Some time ago an act was passed hy the Illinois legislature 
enabling the Lincoln Park Commissioners to assume control 
of the entire boulevard, subject to the consent of the munici- 
palities thru which it passes. There are about a dozen of 
these different cities, villages and townships between Chicago 
and the Illinois-Wisconsin line, and the intention of the legis- 
lature was to unify the control of the road so that there would 
be a high-class pavement thruout its length, perpetually main- 
tained in good condition. However, nothing has yet been done 
by the park commissioners because some of the municipalities 
have declined to surrender jurisdiction. 

Highland Park is one of the cities which Sheridan road 
traverses and is located in Lake County about 25 miles north 
of Chicago. Many years ago, the road within the city limits, a 
distance of something more than three miles, was paved with 
macadam. Because the increase of automobile traffic neces- 
sitated frequent and expensive repairs, it was decided that a 
more durable pavement must be laid. 

Early last year, therefore, the board of local improvements 
of Highland Park decided to pave the road for a distance of 
a little more than a mile with reinforced concrete. 

The work of laying sewers, building of catch basins and 
grading the road was begun in the latter part of June, 1914, 
and was prosecuted vigorously to completion on about August 
3. Due to delay in getting granite on the job, however, con- 
creting did not start until September 15, and was completed 
November 10. The total amount of concrete laid v/as 17,200 
yards, the width being 23 feet from back to back of curbs. 

The sub-grade was prepared by grading, scarifying and re- 
surfacing the old macadam road, care being taken to preserve 
the old road bed in as compact a condition as possible. After 
this was done it was thoroly sprinkled and rolled with a 10-ton 
road roller. Drainage was provided for by means of 6, 8, 9 
and 12-inch tile laid in cinders along both sides of the street, 
three feet below the established grade. 

Upon this prepared sub-grade the concrete was placed s 1 4 
inches thick at the center and 5' ! i inches at the sides. Two- 
course construction was employed, proportions for the base 
being 1 part cement, 2'-j parts fine aggregate and 4 parts 
coarse aggregate and for the wearing surface, 1 part cement, 
0.95 parts fine aggregate and 1.25 coarse aggregate. 

Fine aggregate consisted of a very clean, hard silica con- 



taining not over 2 per cent, of silt. It was well graded from 
fine to coarse. 

Coarse aggregate for the base consisted of clean washed 
gravel graded from % to 1% inches, and for the wearing sur- 
face Wisconsin granite varying in size from Vi to V-i inch 
except some used on the last part of the work, when, in order 
to complete the pavement before freezing weather set in, a 
somewhat larger size was accepted. This material was perfect 
ly clean, well graded and an excellent material for the pur- 
pose. 

The equipment used by the contractor comprised a 10-ton 
gasoline road roller, a mixer of 12-foot capacity equipped with 
boom and dump bucket, and smaller equipment consisting of 
wheelbarrows, shovels, strike board, wood floats, etc. 

Mixing and placing of concrete was done in the ordinary 
approved method, both courses being struck off by means of a 
wooden steel-shod templet and finished by wooden hand floats, 
a man working from a bridge spanning the entire pavement. 

The reinforcing, consisting of No. 29 triangle mesh, was 
placed between the base and wearing courses of the concrete, 
with the heavy wires running at right angles to the center line 
of the street. The reinforcement was lapped two inches. 
Transverse joints were placed 33 1/3 feet apart and protected 
by steel plates % inch apart. The space between was filled 
with prepared felt. 

As soon as the concrete had set sufficiently it was covered 
with a layer of earth about two inches thick and kept wet by 
sprinkling two or three times a day, depending upon weather 

$J 

SECTION OF CURB AND GUTTER used on Sheridan Road. 
showing also '//■ method of sub-drainage to keep water out of 
Hi, sub-grade of the /mi ement. 



■ 2i'-0'-Width - 




Concrete 1:2(1:3) 
with i Lb Carbon Black 
per Sack Cement. 






Wire Fabric Reinforcement 



■Tile Dram S-O' below 
Established Grade offbi/emert 



June, 1915 



360 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




LAYING CONCRETE PAVEMENT in Sheridan Road hi 
Highland Park, III. Concrete mixing and laying in the back- 
ground: finishing concrete surface in middleground; completed 
surface in foreground ; curb forms shown in place. 

conditions. On work done after October 27, when cool weather 
set in, it was thought best not to cover the concrete, but during 
the hottest part of each day it was sprinkled lightly. 

Probably the two most interesting features of this construc- 
tion were the use of curbs built integral with the pavement 
and the darkening of the surface by means of carbon black 
added to the concrete. 

For the curbs, whose dimensions and forms are shown in 
the accompanying diagram and illustration, the same mixture 
was used as in the top course of the pavement, but in general 
with a little more water added. Except on curves at street 
intersections the concrete was placed between the forms and 
left to harden sufficiently, after which the inside planks were 
removed and the concrete finished with a special trowel formed 
to the required section. The transverse joints in the pave- 
ment were carried thru the curbs but without the steel protec- 
tion plates, the edges of the concrete next to the felt being 
rounded to a radius of %-inch to prevent possible spalling. 
Where the curbs were on a sharp curve the concrete was 
heaped up against the outside form and struck off to the proper 
shape with a small template. After hardening it was finished 
in a similar manner to the straight curb. 

One-half pound of carbon black to each sack of cement 
added to the mixture for the top course was found to give a 
very pleasing slate color to the pavement. This was desirable 
in this case, as Sheridan road is more in the nature of a boule- 
vard than a city street or. country road, in either of which 
cases this darkening of the surface would have been unneces- 
sary. 

The total contract price for the 17,260 square yards was 
$35,222.30. Subtracting the amount paid for grading, sewer- 
age, etc., the total price per square yard came to $1.07, exclu- 
sive of the cost of cement. 

Contractors were Goelitz and Johnson of Oak Park, 111. The 
engineer was Charles E. Russell, city engineer of Highland 
Park, who prepared the specifications and had general super- 
vision of the work. 

That this pavement is satisfactory in every respect and in 



fact, that it is a source of the greatest satisfaction and pride 
to the residents of Highland Park, was evidenced at the dedica- 
tion, which took place on November 28, 1914. This dedication 
was organized by the Highland Park Business Men's Associa- 
tion, and. consisted of a procession of automobiles, led by the 
city's new motor fire truck, and speeches by Mayor F. P. Haw- 
kins, of Highland Park, and W. G. Edens, president of the 
Illinois Highway Improvement Association and of the Asso- 
ciated Roads Organizations of Chicago and Cook County, the 
official letting down of the bars, the christening of the high- 
way and a luncheon. 



Colloids in Relation to Manipulation of Structural 
Materials 

For a year or more Clifford Richardson, long known 
as one of the foremost asphalt chemists, has been in- 
vestigating the colloidal state of matter as found in par- 
ticular in asphaltic substances. From a highly technical 
article in the Harvard Technology Monthly, the following 
has been abstracted to indicate the nature of his investiga- 
tions and conclusions regarding the colloidal state in as- 
phaltic paving mixtures and the corresponding conditions 
developing in the use of other building materials. 

The colloidal state is not limited to any particular class 
of matter, since, according to recent theories, all substances 
can be brought into this state by appropriate means. The 
quality of the colloidal state of most interest for the pur- 
poses of Mr. Richardson's paper is the very high degree of 
dispersion in which the matter exists. A disperse colloid 
must exist in a system of two phases; the internal or dis- 
perse phase, which may be solid or liquid, and the exterior 
or continuous phase in which it is dispersed. A solid in the 
disperse phase in the colloid form ordinarily is in a state 
of subdivision or degree of dispersion, in which the particles 
are smaller than 0.0001 mm. in diameter, and in some solids 
no larger than 0.000,006 mm. 

The peculiar characteristic of disperse colloids lies in the 
enormous surface area which they present in comparison 
with the amount of solid material which they represent, the 
great surface energy developed thereby, and their capacity 
for selective adsorption. A realization of this may be arrived 
at from the fact that if the amount of material represented 
by a cube, one side of which has a dimension of one cm., 



ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 



361 



is reduced by decimal subdivision only to the coarsest colloidal 
size, a ten-thousandth of a millimeter in diameter, the num- 
ber of cubes produced would be 10 to the 15th power, while 
the surface would be increased to GO square meters, or 100,- 
000 times more than that of the original cube. The enormous 
surface area displayed by colloidal material is, in this way, 
made evident. The chemistry of colloids is, therefore, one 
of surface, of films and has a large bearing on bituminous 
highway construction. 

A substance existing in a colloid state or solution differs 
from an ordinary solution in that, although highly dispersed, 
it is not in a state of molecular diffusion. For this reason 
colloidal solutions do not readily diffuse thru semipermeable 
membranes in the manner observed with molecular solu- 
tions. This can be illustrated by the formation of colloidal 
silica by adding an acid to a solution of silicate of soda. A 
jelly-like mass of colloidal silica and common salt are formed 
with water. The salt can be removed from the jelly by 
diffusion thru a semipermeable membrane, into water, owing 
to the fact that it is in molecular solution. The colloidal 
silica remains within the membrane containing it. By ap- 
propriate means salt can be obtained in a colloid condition, 
indicating that crystalline as well as other forms of matter 
can be transformed into the colloidal state. 

As colloids are not readily diffusible thru semipermeable 
membranes, as is the case with crystalline substances in 
molecular solution, a study of substances in this state may 
be carried on with interest, as for example, that of the 
native bitumens, including petroleum. It appears that some 
of them form colloidal solutions, as determined by the fact 
that with appropriate solvents, carbon disulphide or benzol, 
they will not diffuse thru a semipermeable membrane into 
the same solvent, while others, on the contrary, of a crys- 
talline character, as for example, paraffine scale, will diffuse 
from their solution readily. This enables us to differentiate 
the native bitumens or petroleums into two classes, those 
consisting of bitumens forming colloidal solutions and those 
which readily diffuse when in molecular solution. 

Different oils can be characterized and differentiated by 
the relative amount of colloidal and diffusible matter which 
they contain, on subjecting them to diffusion. That this 
goes on readily has been determined by adding a certain 
amount of crystalline paraffine scale or sulphur to an as- 
phaltic colloidal bitumen and subjecting the mixture to dif- 
fusion. The crystalline scale or the crystalline sulphur can 
be separated from the colloidal bitumen in this way and 
recovered. This will afford a means of studying the character 
of our native bitumens and petroleums with interesting re- 
sults. As an example of some preliminary data obtained in 
this way, the following figures will serve: 

dlffusibility of asphalts and petroleum products thru 
Semipermeable Membranes. 
Weight of Residue 
Sample By Diffusion from 1 Gram Description 
Gr. % 

1. Bermudez Asphalt 

5% paraffine scale 0433 4.33 Paraffine 

2. Bermudez Asphalt 

5% sulphur 047S 4.78 Sulphur 

3. Blown oil residue 039 3.9 Oil & Sulphur 

4. Texas residual 020 2.0 Colorless wax 

5. California residual 017 1.7 Brown wax 

6. Mexican residual 005 .5 Colorless oil 

7. Paraffine residual 0025 .25 Colorless oil 

8. Trinidad residual 000 .0 

9. Bermudez asphalt 000 .0 

10. Bitumen from Trinidad 

asphalt 000 .0 

June, 19U 



It appears that there are evident differences in the char- 
acter of the various bituminous materials occurring in na- 
ture which have been examined by diffusion, and it is a 
striking fact that the native asphalts from Trinidad and 
Bermudez are the only forms of bitumen which yield noth- 
ing in this manner. This method of study will, when com- 
pletely worked out, be an interesting means of differentiating 
the various bitumens which are in use in the construction 
of pavements and highways. 

A still more interesting fact from the point of view of 
colloidal chemistry is that one of the native asphalts, that 
from the Island of Trinidad, contains a considerable amount 
of clay in the disperse solid colloid form, in fact, as a bitusol, 
that is to say, a colloidal solution of clay in bitumen. Its 
colloidal nature is demonstrated by the fact that when Trini- 
dad asphalt is dissolved in a solvent such as carbon disul- 
phide or benzol and the solution is allowed to stand for some 
months, or when sedimentation is accomplished by centrifugal 
force, it will still be found to contain from 8 per cent, to 4 
per cent, of mineral matter in colloidal solution, as recov- 
ered by ignition, which cannot be separated from the bitu- 
men except thru what is known as an ultra-filter. This clay 
is so impalpably tine that it is, therefore, in a colloidal state 
and remains suspended in the solution indefinitely. It is in- 
visible under the ordinary microscope, but under the ultra- 
microscope, which makes it possible to detect particles of 
colloid size, these are seen in the microscopic field in the 
highly characteristic state of motion which distinguishes dis- 
perse solid colloids and is characteristic of the form of 
matter. 

The importance of the presence of colloid clay in Trinidad 
asphalt is due to its great power of selective adsorption and 
to the great surface energy developed by the enormous sur- 
face area of the disperse solid colloidal particles. The im- 
portance of this in the construction of bituminous highways, 
especially sheet asphalt pavements, and the great stability 
which it contributes to the cementing or binding material 
and to the mass as a whole must be evident, and it is suffi- 
cient explanation of the greater satisfaction obtained with 
surfaces made with bitumen containing colloidal clay. 

The formation of colloids by the action of water on the 
fine material, or even to some extent on the coarser particles 
of a water-bound macadam road, accounts for the hard crust 
which results in this form of construction of road surfaces. 
Colloids, which are always present in different degrees in 
clays, are also responsible for the cementing of the particles 
forming the well-known sand-clay surface. 

In at least one other direction colloid chemistry is of 
great interest to the engineer; in connection with the set- 
ting of Portland cement. If Portland cement is ground in a 
tube mill for a long time with water, it is found that it is 
largely converted by the hydration of its components into a 
material of colloidal gel-form, and in this form it is used for 
special purposes which it fills with great satisfaction. If 
Portland cement is made into a mortar with water, the 
formation of colloid goes on during the setting of the cement 
while at the same time a certain crystallization of other 
products of the hydration of the cement takes place in the gel. 
The colloid imparts hardness to the cement, being converted 
into a glassy mass, such as that obtained by drying out the 
gel of silica produced by the action of acid on water-glass. 
The setting of thp cement is, therefore, explained in part by 
the formation of colloids. 

Colloids play important roles in many industrial processes, 
notably in the preparation of tungsten filaments for electric 
lamps, in the ceramic industry, adhesive and glu 
bleaching, and clearing of liquids by the adsorption of col- 
loids, tanning, the manufacture of soap, brewing, greases for 



362 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



lubricating, and emulsions of various kinds. In fact, it is be- 
coming recognized that colloidal chemistry, regarded from 
the point of view which now governs our conception of it. 
is of more general application than has been heretofore 
imagined. 



Shockless Railroad Crossing 
By E. S. Cobb. Los Angeles, Cal. 

For many years there has been a strong demand for 
a shockless railway crossing from the general public 
in cities, that the noise incident to crossings shall cease, 
whatever the expense or the benefits to a railroad corpora- 
tion may be; and from railway officials themselves, who are 
vitally interested in reducing the tremendous cost of upkeep 
of railway crossings, special work, and the adjacent road bed 
and the high depreciation of wheels, axles, brakes, wiring 
and the general fittings of rolling stock, due to the present 
forms of crossing construction. 

A design intended to meet these demands, consists in ar- 
ranging the four or more rails forming the closing members 
of the intersection, so as to give them vertical motion be- 
tween solid fixed guides. The ends of these movable rails 
are framed at an angle with one another, thus forming an 
interlocking joint, and they are given a vertical motion by 
the action of two wedges under each rail. These wedges move 
longitudinally as compared to the rail, and when in position 
to hold the rail in its uppermost position, they extend to 
the outer extremities of the rail and support the same in an 
absolutely safe and rigid manner, the same as the piers of a 
bridge support the bridge. These wedges are also designed in 
such a way that when they are withdrawn, they draw the 
rails downward. This construction, taken in connection with 
the solid guides provided to direct the vertical motion of the 
rail, results in the rail being under absolute control in all its 
positions and locked solid when in position for use. The 
wedges under the several rails are so connected that when 
one pair of rails is raised to an operating position, the other 
pair is drawn downward to its lowermost position. 

There are no moving parts in the whole construction 
which are subjected to any load or strain whatever due to 
traffic, except the wedges mentioned, and they are of such 
form and proportions as to give long and safe service. When 
the weight of any rolling load comes upon these rails and 



® 



A SHOCKLESS RAILROAD CROSSING set for the eleotri 
car to pass on continuous surface of rail parallel to the lint s 
of words. The rails in the steam railroad track are lowered 
out of the way. The positions of rails will be reversed when 
Ihr steam railroad train is to pass. Th< mechanism, for mak- 
ing the movements is miner the lettered plate and in the box. 
the cover of which is seen at the right of the railroad trade 
flu- rails of the electric line. 




wedges, all parts are locked in a fixed position. The rails. 
themselves, have only vertical motion. The covers shown in 
the illustrations closing over the mechanism between the sev- 
eral movable rails can be made in trough form, where the 
crossing is used in the city streets, in such manner as to 
be filled with the same paving material that is used in the 
remainder of the street surface. Under such conditions, 
then, the intersection would present no more metallic surface 
to observation in a public street than is at present in view 
with the ordinary intersections, and there are no moving 
parts above or along the surface of the ground. 

The mechanism below the surface of the ground, and 
contained in the main foundation frame of the crossing, is 
of the simplest character, comprising simply gears, links and 
wedges, all having slow motion, ample wearing surface, great 
strength of form, and only operating to raise and lower the 
individual pieces of rail. And all is so arranged that the 
rails when in position for use, are locked against motion in 
any direction, and they cannot be displaced from their po- 
sitions by any effort less than that which would destroy the 
rail itself. 

In the photographs, the smaller box shown between the 
rails, is water tight and contains in the particular case il- 
lustrated, the motor for operating the crossing. But these 
crossings can be equally well operated by hand, chain or rod, 
or switch throw, or by compressed air mechanism, or by any 
method deemed advisable or necessary at any particular lo- 
cation, the only requirement being that the main driving shaft 
running under the crossing shall make one-half revolution in 
one direction to bring one pair of rails into effective position, 
and then one-half revolution in the opposite direction, to 
bring the other pair of rails into effective position. 

Two of these crossings have been installed at the inter- 
section of two high-speed tracks of a four-track electric sys- 
tem with a single-track steam road, where the traffic is in 
both directions. One of these crossings has been in con- 
tinuous service over eight months and the other, constructed 
in exactly the same manner, for about four months less time. 

At the particular intersection where they are located an 
interlocking tower is in use controlling the switches, de- 
railers and semaphores, and these two crossings are likewise 
controlled from the same interlocking tower, and in the par- 
ticular case illustrated, they are each driven by an electric 
motor in the same manner as the electric motors are used 
for opening and closing the split switches and for operating 
the semaphores. 

Both of these crossings have been subjected on the elec- 
tric read, to a daily traffic of over 15,000 tons, consisting of 
360 high-speed heavy electric cars, made up in 240 trains: 
also to 5,000 tons traffic per day on the steam road, made 
up of heavily-loaded freight cars for the most part, and a 
few passenger trains. 

The time required to make the change from operating po- 
sition in one track to operating position in the other track, 
is about 3% seconds. 

The rails used in the construction of this intersection 
may be of any cross-section, the same as used in the adjacent 
tracks. The rails do not wear any faster than the rails along 
the main line of the track. The intersection provides a 
smooth rolling surface from the main road on one side to 
the main road on the other side, and the consequence is that 
the rails are only subjected to rolling wear without shock. 
Experience has shown that the rails of the intersection will 
last just as long as the rails of the remainder of the line 
wherein the intersection is placed. 

In the design of this intersection, there are no places 
where any foreign material can become compressed between 
any two surfaces, and when the intersections are constructed 

June. 1915 



ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 



363 




A NINETY-TON LOCOMOTIVE passing over the shockless 

crossing. Xotc the continuous line over which the wheel is 
passing, causing no drop of the wheel as it crosses the cut in 
the interesecting rail and consequently no shock. This con- 
tinuity is shown even more clearly in the contacts of the rails 
on the left, especially the farther rail where it intersects the 
left rail of the electric railway track. 

along the general designs shown, there is no way for any 
foreign substances to get at or into any of the working parts. 
There are no moving pieces of mechanism, not a rod, nor a 
rocker arm, nor anything that requires care or attention, 
above or along the surface of the ground. During the time 
this intersection has been in operation, it has never caused 
a moment's delay in train service and it has not cost a 
cent for repairs or maintenance; it has received the same 
general supervision and lubrication that has been given to 
the mechanism for operating the split switches and the sema- 
phores, and no more. And this experience has not developed 
the necessity of changing a feature or an element of the 
design. 

Experience has shown that the cost of installing these 
intersections is no greater than the cost of installing an 
ordinary intersection. But the main foundation portions of 
the shockless crossing need never be disturbed, and the rails 
or any other wearing parts can be replaced in a few hours' 
time without disturbing any of the tamping or adjacent pav- 
ing materials. The cost of manufacturing these intersections 
is only slightly greater than that of ordinary intersections, 
and the additional expense for most installations would be 
that represented by the cost of operating the crossing. It 
operated by electric motors, then the cost of the motor; if 
operated by hand, then the cost of the hand operating 
mechanism, etc. 



Profits of San Francisco Municipal Railway 
The excess of receipts over expenditures by the San Fran- 
cisco municipal railways has increased from month to month, 
and since the opening of the exposition at a rapid rate. 
During the four months, including June, 1914, of operation, 
the receipts exceeded the expenditures by $84,864.26, an 
average of $21,000 a month. In August, 1914, the excess of 
receipts was $45,851.74, in October, $49,859.64. 

The net operating revenue for 1914 was $336,905.58, an 
average of over $33,000- a month for the ten months of op- 
eration, including the low months of the start. The net 
profit for the year, after deducting allowances for deprecia- 
tion and interest, was $216,541.25. 



For the last two months reported the excesses of re- 
ceipts over expenditures are $64,515.26 for February and $74,- 
102.03 for March, so that the profits for 1915 promise to be 
materially greater than in 1914. This increase in gross profit 
is obtained notwithstanding an increase in expenditures from 
$54,887.20 in August, 1914, to $123,463.97 in March, 1915. 



Tires for Fire Apparatus 

Fire apparatus thruout the country is rapidly being mo- 
torized, the expense of maintenance under the conditions in 
most cities being much less with motor apparatus. Specially 
designed tires are necessary for the heavy machines traveling 
at high speed. Cushion tires are much safer than pneumatic 
tires. But the cushion tire must be of special design to pro- 
vide the necessary resilience under the heavy loads and to 
absorb the excessive vibrations under high speed. Ordinary 
commercial motor vehicle tires, designed for lighter weights 
and speeds of 10 to 15 miles an hour are not suited for 25 to 
30 miles an hour the impact at the higher speeds being at 30 
miles an hour nine times what it is at 10 miles. 



Markers for National Highways and Their Feeders 

Each of the most highly developed trans-continental high- 
ways has adopted a distinctive type of sign to mark its course. 
These signs are painted on telegraph and telephone poles, on 
suitable fences and buildings and are also made on metal or 
wood backgrounds to be set in place on posts or attached to 
existing objects. 

The National Old Trials Highway Association has adopted 
a special design with which the line has been marked from 
the Pacific coast to St. Louis, and at intervals along the old 
National Road. 

The secretary of the Dixie Highway Association is just 
now looking for a suitable concrete post to which to attach its 
markers and wants to buy the forms for making them to dis- 
tribute among the road authorities along the line so that they 
can make the posts and set them. 

The Lincoln Highway is well marked in many sections and 
has signs at all points of turning from end to end so that it 
can be followed without difficulty. The American Institute of 
Architects and a National Commission of Architects have been 
given the task of designing an appropriate marker. 

Meantime a temporary marker has been copyrighted for 
use only on the Lincoln Highway which is ordinarily painted 
on poles. It is rectangular, 21 inches high and of convenient 
width for the location. The top 3 inches is a red strip. The 
next 15 inches is white and the bottom 3 inches is blue. A 
letter L about 7V 2 inches high is painted in blue on the white 
and a small c, to indicate the copyright. The word Lincoln 
may also be painted in blue on the white above the large L 
and the word Highway below it. 

A second sign for use on branch lines leading to the Lin- 
coln Highway is 23 inches high with 4-inch red strips at top 
and bottom. In the 15-inch white space in the center arc ar- 
rows and nanus of localities at top and bottom and an arrow 
in the center pointing toward the Lincoln Highway with 

MI to above the arrow and Lincoln way below. The 

small c must also appear to indicate the copyright. 



The Hagar Portland Cement Co. 

A charter has been issued under the laws of Maine Incorpo- 
rating the cement company projected by Edward M. Hagar, 
who lately resigned the presidency of the Universal Portland 
Cement Company for the purpose of organizing a companj to 
acquire and operate a chain of cement plants to cover the ter- 



3^4 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



ritory between the Atlantic seaboard and the Rocky Moun- 
tains. It is called Hagar Portland Cement Co., and has a 
capital stock of $20,000,000, all common. 

The officers include Edward M. Hagar, president: Morris 
Metcalf, vice president; B. H. Rader, vice president and sales 
manager; Gordon Wilson, secretary and in charge of cost ac- 
counting; Leonard Wesson, assistant to president in operation 
and construction; J. P. Beck, assistant to president in exten- 
sion work: C. W. Lyon, engineer of economies; J. H. Barba- 
zette, superintendent of construction. Pending the election of 
a permanent treasurer, the office will be filled by Gordon Wil- 
son. The general offices of the company are located at 208 
South LaSalle street, Chicago. 



Ponding for Curing Concrete 
The pho'ograph herewith shows a peculiar method of treat- 
ing a concrete road, the sides being put in such condition that 
it was possible to cover the concrete with water in sections 
during the process of curing. This certainly supplies the de- 




sired water, but whether the result is better than with the 
usual covering with sand and earth kept moist is not stated. 
The method is not one generally applicable, grades being usu- 
ally too great. 



Philadelphia Posts Information About a Newly Paved 
Street 

Philadelphia, Pa., is just completing the paving of Ger- 
mantown avenue with improved granite block with grouted 
joint and laid on a 6-inch concrete foundation. 

Chief Engineer William H. Connell has had some very 
attractive frames made with glass front covering a large pos- 
ter card, explaining the construction of this street and calling 
the attention of the public to this pavement as a desirable 
pavement for a business street. These are put in prominent 
positions on Germantown avenue at various points, Market 
street and several other streets on which the improved granite 
block with grouted joint pavement has been laid. 

The information on the card reads as follows: 



Improved Type of 

GRANITE BLOCK PAVEMENT. 

On Six-Inch Concrete Base. 

Germantown Avenue. 

The construction of this pavement presents: 

The latest and best practice in granite block paving work. 
A type designed to withstand the extremely heavy traffic 
on this street. 

A surface which will be smooth riding for automobiles and 
afford a good foothold for horses drawing heavy loads. 



Foundation Course: 

The pavement is laid on a six (G) inch concrete base mixed 
in the proportions of one part Portland cement, three parts 
sand and six parts stone. 
Cushion Course: 

Between the concrete foundation and the block surface 
there is a one-inch sand cushion. 
Surface Course: 

The improved granite blocks are from eight to twelve 
inches long, three and one-half to four and one-half inches 
wide, and from five to five and one-half inches deep, accurately 
dressed. The heads are so cut that they have no more than 
three-eighths of an inch depression from a straight edge laid 
in any direction across the head and held parallel to the gen- 
eral surface of the block. The joints are not more than one- 
half inch wide at the top and for a depth of one inch, and not 
more than one inch wide in any other part of the joint. They 
are filled with a grout of Portland cement and sand in the pro- 
portion of one part of cement to one part of sand. 
For further information, apply to 
Chief Bureau of Highways and Street Cleaning, 
Room 232, City Hall Philadelphia. 



This is a novel way for city engineers to inform the public 
as to the nature of a pavement, tho it has been used to mark 
the limits of various kinds of construction used in experi- 
mental highways, the most detailed information being fur- 
nished in like posters along the experimental road surface laid 
on the highway thru Chevy Chase, Md., by the V. S. Office of 
Public Roads. 




Large Municipal Swimming Pool in St. Louis 
The accompanying photograph shows the fair ground pool 
St. Louis, which is just opening its third season as a swim- 
ming pool. It holds almost 4,000,000 gallons of water and ac- 
commodates 2,500 bathers at a time. It is said to be the 
largest artificial out-of-door swimming pool in the world. 



The National Parks Highway 
For the last three years all the towns and cities on the 
Yellowstone Trail have been making an effort to build a good 
automobile road from St. Paul and Minneapolis to Yellowstone 
Park by way of Lake Calhoun, Olivia and Ortonville, Minn., 
Aberdeen and Mobridge, S. D., Hettinger and Marmarth, N. 
D., and Terry, Miles City, Billings and Livingston, Mont. At 
the same time, western Montana has been building the Park- 
to-Park Highway, from Gardiner, Mont., to Belton, Mont., by 
way of Livingston, Butte, Missoula and Kalispell. Mont.; and 
the state of Washington, the Sunset Highway, from Spokane 
to Seattle. 



ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 



365 



In January, 1915, representatives of all these highways 
met at Seattle. It was then decided to amalgamate the three 
roads, so as to make a good connected road from Chicago to 
Puget Sound. It was recommended that the name of the amal- 
gamated road be "National Parks Highway." 

Id the last two years, a million dollars was spent in the 
construction of the eleven hundred and fifty miles between 
St. Paul and Yellowstone Park. In Minnesota, the work was 
done under the supervision of the state highway engineer, and 
is maintained by the state. 

Entering South Dakota at Big Stone City, the Trail is 
graveled from there westward, to a considerable distance be- 
yond Milbank, and is in splendid condition. Much of the re- 
mainder of the line in the state is graded but some is still the 
natural prairie road. 

The North Dakota section has some graded road, but most 
of it is the prairie soil. The same is true of many sections in 
Montana and much work must be done to make these sections 
and those farther west comfortable for thru travel. 



msr 


HP^^ 






■4^ 


Bl . -'"w^- 



The Water Supply of Hong Kong, China 

Hong Kong, China, is located on a mountainous island and 
obtains its water supply from the Pokfolum reservoir, located 
in a natural basin, with long slopes of the surrounding hills 
forming its watershed. One of the photographs gives a general 
view of this reservoir, which has a capacity of 68,000,000 
gallons. 

The water is impounded by two concrete dams across two 
water courses, which may be seen on the farther side of the 
reservoir in the photograph. One of these dams is shown in 
closer view in the second photograph. 




Lincoln Highway Promotion 

The national headquarters of the Lincoln Highway have 
issued a guide book and map of the highway which indicates 
that during the part of 1913 and the year 1914, which covers 
the time from the beginning of real work on the line, the 
communities thru which it passes spent nearly $3,000,000 on 
its improvement. In three states there are at present $1,9S0,- 
000 of contracts let and not yet completed and advertised for 
immediate letting. 

An effort is being made to promote the construction of the 
Lincoln Highway by means of moving pictures. The local 
communities were first interested to improve their sections 
of the highway and the films show them at work or show the 
completed road. Covering the whole 3,384 miles of the road 
requires some 7,000 feet of film. Local communities on pay- 
ment of fixed sums can have the use of the films they wish to 
show their people, and they are shown in cities and towns else- 
where in the promotion of the use of the highway as a trans- 
continental line. 

Brick is now in use and brick surfaces are now under con- 
struction, so that it will not be a continuous concrete highway 
as was at first intended. Until hard surfaces can be paid for 
and laid by the local communities or the states take up its 
construction, or the United States decides that it has a duty 
to perform upon the transcontinental lines, there will be many 
miles of macadam, gravel, oiled macadam, gravel or dirt, and 
plain dirt road to traverse along the Lincoln Highway. 

There is considerable rivalry between the Lincoln High- 
way and the National Old Trails Road and in the eastern 
states the latter has at present some advantage as the present 
year will see most of the gaps closed in the brick, concrete, and 
first-class macadam road from the eastern end to the Indiana 
line. 



Changes in Specifications for Curb, Gutter and Side- 
walks 

The following changes have been made in specifications 
for 1915 for curb and gutter and sidewalks: 

Comhi„,<l Curl and Gutter.— Caldwell, Ida., will use one- 
course concrete instead of two-course. 

Fulton, 111., will use curb monolithic with concrete pave- 
ment instead of combined curb and gutter, and a thinner ex- 
pansion joint. 

Des Moines, la., has discontinued construction of concrete 
combined curb and gutter. 

Wapakoneta, O, has changed dimensions of concrete com- 
bined curb and gutter. 

Curl).— Caldwell, Ida., will use one-course concrete instead 
of two-course for all curb, gutter and sidewalks. 

Fulton. 111., will use curb monolithic with concrete pave- 
ment instead of combined curb and gutter, and a thinner ex- 
pansion joint. 

Kansas City, Mo„ now makes curb of concrete without 

mortar face. 

Syracuse, N. Y.. limits the kinds of curb to Medina and 
Hudson River stone and Portland cement with steel edge pro- 
tection. 

Mansfield, O. will set curb in stone instead of concrete. 

Mt. Vernon, O, will use larger radius on round-corner 

curbs. 

McAlester. Okla., will build concrete curb monolithic with 
concrete pavement. 

nUcs— Caldwell, Ida., will use one-course concrete 
insti ad of two-course for all sidewalks, curbs and gutters. 

Richfield. Utah, changes thickness of top from '■• to ", 
i 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 ■ 




The International Engineering Congress 

The general program of the International Engineering 
Congress and engineering society conventions to be held at 
San Francisco, September 16-25, in connection with the Pan- 
ama-Pacific Exposition, has been issued and copies can be ob- 
tained on request of *W. A. Cattell, secretary, 417 Foxcroft 
Building, San Francisco, Cal. 

The conventions of four of the societies under whose 
auspices the Congress meets, will be held September 16 and 17 
as follows: That of the American Society of Civil Engineers 
at St. Francis Hotel; American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers at X. S. G. W. Hall: American Institute of Mining 
Engineers at Hotel Bellvue: American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers in the Civic Center Auditorium. 

September 18 and 19 will be devoted to execursions to 
points of engineering interest, from which members of the Con- 
gress and of the engineering societies must choose, as their 
periods overlap. They include the San Francisco high-pres- 
sure fire system, gas works, electric station, Spring Valley 
water works properties east of the Bay and those on the 
peninsula, the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquine 
rivers, the Feather river hydroelectric development, gold 
dredging at Oroville, hydroelectric development at Lake 
Spaulding, gold mines at Grass Valley and the oil fields at 
Coalinga. 

A special trian will be made up at New York to arrive 
in time for the meetings, and those who wish to travel on that 
train should notify the secretary where they will join it. 

The Pan-American Road Congress will be held the week of 
September 13 at Oakland, and its executive committee will also 
run a special train from the east which will be a few days 
earlier than the special of the engineering societies. 



Portland Cement Production and Cost 
For almost the first time since the phenomenal develop- 
ment of the American Portland cement industry began there 
has been a reduction in consumption for the year. Produc- 
tion in 1914 was 4.2 per cent, less than in 1913, and ship- 
ments were 2.54 per cent. less. The total production in 1914 
was 88,230,170 barrels, and the average price per barrel at 
the mill was 92.7 cents. The price was reduced from that in 
1913 by 7.76 per cent. 

Albert Mover has made a table with assumptions of costs 
of manufacture of cement in plants of 1,125,000 barrels ca- 
pacity and 2, 4 and 8 times this capacity, and capitalizations of 
$1,250,000 and 2, 4 and 8 times the capitalization, respectively, 
and overhead charges for each size of plant, including also 7 1 .. 
per cent, depreciation, obsolescence, etc., and of cost of manu- 
facture in each size of plant. He then assumes rates of opera- 



tion at 100, 75 and 62% per cent, of full capacity and the 
higher costs per barrel at the lower rates of operation. By 
making the computations from these assumed data he shows 
that with cement selling at 65 cents at the mill plants of 
every size will show loss and that the smallest plants will 
show loss if the price gets as low as 70 cents. Only the largest 
plants operating at full capacity can make a profit of 7.2 
per cent, on their capital stock with selling price at 75 cents, 
and the smallest plants can make only half this profit at that 
price. The smallest plant is bound to lose money at 75 cents 
sale price if it operates at a rate materially below full ca- 
pacity. The economy of large plants even at the same rate of 
capitalization per barrel of capacity is clearly shown and the 
necessity of operating even the largest plants at 75 per cent, 
of capacity or more at the 75 cent selling price is fully demon- 
strated. 



Commercial Education for Foreign Trade 
The questions as to how far the present American system 
of commercial education meets the need of our developing ex- 
port and import trade and what changes should be made to 
render the system more helpful, are the basis of an inquiry 
just begun by the National Foreign Trade Council through its 
committee on Commercial Education for Foreign Trade, of 
which the chairman is Wallace D. Simmons, president of the 
Simmons Hardware Company, of St. Louis. Business men en- 
gaged in foreign trade are requested to respond to the follow- 
ing five questions: 

1. Do you find difficulty in obtaining young men whose ed- 
ucation gives them the fundamentals which make it prac- 
ticable for you to rapidly promote them in your export busi- 
ness, and to send them abroad as your representatives? If 
so, explain the difficulty and to what you attribute it. Sug- 
gest remedies (the more the better). 

2. How effective and useful, in connection with foreign 
trade, is the customary two years' instruction in modern 
languages given in high schools? Suggest changes in these 
courses. 

:i. Do you find high school graduates efficient material for 
clerical work in the home office? If not, what appears to be 
their deficiencies? Suggest needed subjects for training. Sug- 
gest better methods of training. 

4. What changes in their general educational training 
would you suggest for those who expect to become stenog- 
raphers and corespondents in your export department? (This 
refers to work in the home office exclusive of that which re- 
quires a knowledge of foreign languages.) 

5. To what extent have you employed graduates of colleges, 
or graduate schools, in the work of your home office, and to 
what extent has their preparation qualified them for work of 



MISCELLANEOUS 



3<7 



this character? In what, if any, respect has their education 
appeared not to meet the requirements? Suggest subjects in 
which additional training would be helpful. 

The data obtained will be communicated to a large number 
of educators, and made the basis for a concentration of ed- 
ucational opinion, leading, it is hoped, to such changes in cur- 
ricula as are shown to be necessary. The inquiry will also 
bring to the attention of business men what already has been 
done by educators. 



Of Interest to Employers 

Few of our readers are, perhaps, aware that the United 
States government, thru the Department of Labor, has in- 
augurated, as a part of the division of information, a country- 
wide employment bureau. It is the belief of those connected 
with the work that it will go far toward improving business 
conditions in the United States. The underlying principle of 
the work is, perhaps, best expressed by the Secretary of the 
Department of Labor in the following words: "The Depart- 
ment of Labor . . . has . . . established distribution 
branches thruout the country for the purpose, on the one hand, 
of developing the welfare of the wage earners of the United 
States, and improving their opportunities for profitable em- 
ployment, and, on the other hand, of affording the employers 
a method whereby they may make application for such help 
as they need, either male or female, citizen or alien residents, 
and have their wants supplied thru said distribution branches. 
Comparative statistics show that there has been in some por- 
tions of the United States a surplus of labor, while in other 
portions a deficiency. It is believed that this condition will be 
almost, if not entirely, eliminated by this work. This will 
appear from the following brief explanation of the system 
under which the work is conducted: 

First, the United States has been divided into eighteen 
sections, or "Distribution Zones" as they are called, and in 
each of these zones an employment office has been opened. 
These zones in nearly every case have been subdivided and 
branch offices opened under the jurisdiction of the controlling 
zone office. This means that a larger number of employment 
offices have been opened by the United States government. At 
these offices the employer who needs help of any kind, skilled 
or unskilled, can secure what he wants without any trouble or 
expense other than the work of stating his desires and the ex- 
pense of a postage stamp if he finds it inconvenient to call at 
the distribution office in person. Neither is any fee accepted 
by the government from those seeking employment. It goes 
even further, every postmaster in the United States is a rep- 
resentative of the Employment Bureau. At every postoffice in 
the United States will be found, on application to the post- 
master, blanks for the use of employers in need of help, and 
of unemployed persons seeking employment. These blanks, 
upon being handed to the postmaster are transmitted by him, 
free of charge, to the proper zone office, where both blanks 
are properly registered and proper help selected for the em- 
ployer in need of help, either from applicants residing in the 
city in which the office is located or from the applications on 
file. On the day the employer's application is received by the 
distribution office a copy is sent to the Division of Information 
at Washington, D. C. At frequent intervals these applications 
are assembled and published in the form of bulletins and dis- 
tributed to all distribution offices, thereby making it possible 
for each office to know where help of any description is in 
demand. 

At the distribution office the best interests of the employer 
are kept constantly in mind, and only such help is selected 
for positions as are, in the opinion of the officer in charge, 
well qualified to perform the duties required. 

If any reader of this journal is now, or expects shortly to 



be in need of help of any description, it is suggested that the 
following coupon be filled out and mailed to the address given: 

Date 

U. S. Distribution Branch, 845 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

On or about 1915, I ex- 
pect to be in need of the following help : 

Please send me the necessary information blank to fill out. 
It is understood that no fee will be charged for obtaining this 
help for me. 

( Sign here) 

I Address) 



Public Service Commission for Oswego 
The legislature of New York has passed a law creating a 
public service commission for Oswego, for developing a muni- 
cipal hydro-electric plant. J. F. Flanigan is city engineer. 



The Engineering Foundation 
Ambrose Swasey, of Cleveland, O., made a gift of $250,000 
for fostering engineering research, for the administration of 
which a board was appointed and styled "The Engineering 
Foundation," by the United Engineering Society, representing 
jointly the national organizations of electrical, mining and 
mechanical engineers, with the co-operation of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers. 

The first regular meeting of The Engineering Foundation 
was held May 25, and officers were elected, including Gano 
Dunn as president and F. R. Hutton as secretary. Rules of 
administration were adopted and many applications for the 
use of funds were received. A committee was appointed to 
consider them and to prepare a schedule of requirements to 
be met by applications before they can be considered. Dr. A. 
R. Ledoux is chairman of this committee. 



Civil Service Examinations 

The U. S. Civil Service Commission will hold examinations 
at the usual places as follows: 

July 7-S: Illuminating engineer in office of Supervising 
Architect, Treasury Department, at $1,200 a year. 

June 23-24: Electrical engineer and draftsman, in office of 
Supervising Architect, Treasury Department, at $1,200 a year. 

June 23-24: Marine engine draftsman for submarines, in 
office of Inspector of Machinery. Electric Boat Co., Groton, 
Conn., and elsewhere, at $5.04 a day. 



Technical Schools 

The effect of boron upon tin' magnetic and other properties 
of electrolytic iron melted in vacuo, by Trygve I). 5T< tis.-n. lias 
been issued as Bulletin No. 77 of the Engineering Experiment 
Station of the University of Illinois. 

"A Study of Boiler Losses" by A. P. Kratz. in Bulletin No. 
78 ,it the Engineering Experiment Station of the University 
of Illinois, presents a critical analysis of the data taken from 
a series of twenty-five trials made on a 500-h.p. Babcock and 
Wilcox boiler in the universitj heating plant. The heat bal- 
ance has been subdivided so as to isolate and determine Hie 
amounts of the several losses chargeable to the boiler, furnace 
and sett in-. Complete forms for calculating a series of boiler 
trials are also given. Tests were made also upon some samples 
of weathered coal. No difficulty was experienced in burning 
this real, but it was found that it had deteriorated during Hie 
weathering until it was about the same composition and grade 
as fresh Vermillion county screenings. 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



The first annual letter of the Department of Civil Engi- 
neering of the University of Michigan shows an increase in 
enrollment in the past three years of more than 50 per cent, 
as a result of broadening the work of the department by in- 
creasing the number of groups of studies. Large increase in 
the amount of work done by the department is shown as the 
result of the two sources of increase, number of men and 
number of credit hours of work offered. 

The fiftieth anniversary celebration of Worcester Poly- 
tenchic Institute, Worcester, Mass., was held June G-10 in con- 
nection with the annual commencement. 

Columbia University has appointed the following non-resi- 
dent lecturers for the 1915-16 session of the graduate course in 
highway engineering: Charles J. Bennett, state Highway com- 
missioner of Connecticut; John A. Bensel, consulting engineer: 
Will P. Blair, secretary National Paving Brick Manufacturers' 
Association ; Sumner R. Church, manager research department 
Barrett Manufacturing Company: Frederick A. Cleveland, di- 
rector Bureau of Municipal Research, New York; William H. 
Connell, chief Bureau of Highways and Street Cleaning, Phil- 
adelphia; Morris Llewellyn Cooke, director Department of 
Public Works, Philadelphia; W. W. Crosby, chief engineer 
Maryland Geological and Economic Survey and consulting en- 
gineer; Charles Henry Davis, president National Highways 
Association; A. W. Dow, chemical and consulting paving engi- 
neer; Edwin Duffey, Commissioner of Highways, New York 
state; Lewis R. Ferguson, assistant secretary Association of 
American Portland Cement Manufacturers; C. N. Forrest, chief 
chemist the Barber Asphalt Paving Company; Wilson P. Foss, 
Sr., president the New York Trap Rock Company; Walter H. 
Fulweiler, chief chemist the United Gas Improvement Com- 
pany; E. P. Goodrich, consulting engineer; D. L. Hough, presi- 
dent the Cuban Engineering and Contracting Company; Wil- 
liam A. Howell, engineer of streets and Highways, Newark: 
Nelson P. Lewis, chief engineer Board of Estimate and Appor- 
tionment. New York; Walter R. Marden, vice president and 
chief engineer the United Construction Company; H. B. Pullar, 
general manager the Pioneer Asphalt Company; Philip P. 
Sharpies, manager general Tarvia department Barrett Manu- 
facturing Company: Francis P. Smith, chemical and consulting 
engineer; Albert Sommer, consulting chemical engineer: 
George W. Tillscn, consulting engineer to the president of the 
Borough of Brooklyn, New York; John Cassan Wait, attorney 
at law; George C. Warren, president Warren Brothers Com- 
pany. 



Technical Associations 

The eleventh annual convention of the Associated Advertis- 
ing Clubs of the World will be held in Chicago June 20-24. 

At the June meeting of the Municipal Engineers of the 
City of New York, W. J. Hammer, lecturer for the Wright 
Brothers, gave an address on aeroplanes and airships, illus- 
trated by models, photographs and lantern slides. 

The Committee for Immigrants in America, of which 
Frank Trumbull is chairman and Geo. A. Cullen is secretary, 
with offices at 95 Madison avenue., New York, is an organiza- 
tion to act as a clearing house for all work on immigration 
and has started the Immigrants in America Review. 

The board of directors of the National Paving Brick Manu- 
facturers' Association, at their quarterly meeting held in 
Cleveland May 27, affirmed arrangements tentatively made for 
holding its annual meeting October 11-12 at Dayton, Ohio. 
During this week, namely October 12. 13, 14 and 15, will be 
held the annual meeting of the American Society of Municipal 
Improvements. These arrangements enable the members of 
the National Paving Brick Manufacturers' Association to at- 
tend the meeting of the American Society. The central loca- 
tion of Dayton gives the engineers of Ohio, Indiana and Ken- 



tucky and other states who have not heretofore been members 
of the American Society of Municipal Improvements an op- 
portunity to attend that meeting and become enlisted in its 
roll of membership. There should be no absentee. 

A large good roads and drainage congress was held in 
Houston, Tex., June 3 and 4, participated in by federal, state, 
city and county officials in 72 counties of Texas. 

The Electric Power Club, engaged in the commercial stand- 
ardization of electrical machinery and composed of the lead- 
ing manufacturers of electrical machinery, at its annual meet- 
ing in Saegertown, Pa., May 13-15, elected E. R. Harding, of 
the Holtzer Cabot Electrical Co., president and C. H. Roth, of 
Roth Bros & Co., secretary. 

The Blue Island, 111., volunteer fire department will hold 
the annual tournament of the Illinois Volunteer Firemen's 
Association with a number of prizes offered and entertainment 
features. The local fire department is promoting the pur- 
chase of motor-driven apparatus for its use. A. C. Rohe is 
secretary and in charge of the preliminary work. 

The American Electric Railway Association will hold its 
annual convention in the Exposition civic auditorium, San 
Francisco, Cal., Oct. 4-8. 

The convention of the National Electric Light Association 
is held June 7-11 in San Francisco. This is the first of a 
dozen conventions of those interested in various electric uses 
to be held July 19, 21, September 16, October 4 and October 
23, most of them in connection with the American Electric 
Railway Association October 4. 



Conventions at the Panama-Pacific Exposition 

Up to date 822 conventions have announced their meetings 
in connection with the Panama-Pacific Exposition, holding 
them in San Francisco, Oakland or other cities around San 
Francisco Bay. Of these conventions 57 are international and 
525 are national, 68 are from the Pacific coast and 122 from 
California. August will have the largest number, 249, and 
December will have but 3. 

Educational conventions will be 129 in number, fraternal 
n7 and down to 7 historical and literary. The conventions are 
grouped by subjects at as nearly the same time as possible. 
Thus in June there are 24 conventions on medicine and re- 
lated topics. The educational period is August, 129 of them 
to be held, most of them in Oakland. The engineering and 
public improvement conventions, including road construction, 
are held largely in September and early October. 



Personal Notes 

Herbert M. Wilson, engineer in charge of the Pittsburg ex- 
periment station of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, has resigned 
to become the director of the Coal Mine Insurance Association, 
a new organization which is a combination of ten American 
and British insurance companies for the joint underwriting 
of coal mine accident insurance. 

Poul Lindholm, engineer of highways, Copenhagen, Den- 
mark, received the traveling fellowship of the American Scan- 
dinavian Foundation for 1915-16, and will spend the year in the 
graduate course in highway engineering at Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York. 

Gustave R. Tuska, M. Am. Soc. C. E., M. Am. Soc. M. 
E., consulting engineer, New York City, has been appointed 
lecturer in municipal waste disposal at Columbia University 
in the city of New York, and will deliver a course of lectures 
on this subject at the University during the coming year. Mr. 
Tuska has for some years been acting as consulting engineer to 
various garbage, refuse and waste disposal plants, both in this 
country and abroad. 

C. E. Smith, recently assistant chief engineer of the Mis- 



June, i9ir, 



MISCELLANEOUS 



369 



souri Pacific-Iron Mountain system, has opened an office as 
consulting engineer at 2075 Railway Exchange building, St. 
Louis, Mo. Mr. Smith is a member of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers, American Railway Engineering Association 
and American Society of Testing Materials. 

William S. Moore has been appointed city engineer of 
Grand Rapids, Mich. Mr. Moore is a graduate of Purdue Uni- 
versity, was city engineer of Mishawaka, Ind., from 1904 to 
1910 and city engineer of South Bend, Ind., since 1910, so that 
he has had training and experience which fit him well for his 
new duties. 

Robt. F. Hall, who succeeds J. P. Beck as publicity man- 
ager of the Universal Portland Cement Co., has spent the last 
six years in the sales department of that company. He is well 
known thruout the cement industry because of his activities 
in its association. His experience and education equip him 
well for the work he has now undertaken. 

P. A. McCarthy & Sons, consulting, designing and super- 
vising engineers at Lufkin, Tex., have opened a testing lab- 
oratory equipped for chemical and physical tests of structural 
materials and chemical tests and analysis of animal and 
vegetable matters generally. 



Publications Received 

John Wiley & Sons, New York, have published "The Pan- 
ama Canal," by two naval officers, R. E. Bakenhus and H. S. 
Knapp, and Prof. E. R. Johnson, which gives in 257 pages a 
resume of the history and description of the canal, its design, 
construction, sanitation, cost and elements of success, its 
relation to the navy, its position in international law and its 
commercial importance, the first three parts of the work 
itself being by Mr. Bakenhus, the fourth and fifth on its rela- 
tions by Capt. Knapp, and the sixth part by Professor John- 
son. The price is $2.50. 

Lefax. the monthly set of information cards, thoroly in- 
dexed for scientific filing, now comes in a wrapper with a 
table of the contents of the set on the outside. Price, $2.00 a 
year. 

Conservation of Water by Storage, by George P. Swain. 
LL. D., Professor of Civil Engineering in Harvard University 
and past president of the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, is a book of 384 pages, containing a series of lectures 
delivered by the author in the Chester S. Lyman lecture series 
before the senior class of the Sheffield Scientific School of 
Yale University. It is published by the Yale University Press. 
New Haven, Conn., at $3. 

The volume of proceedings of the second annual conven- 
tion of the League of Minnesota Municipalities has been re- 
ceived. It can be obtained from G. A. Gesell, Municipal Refer- 
ence Bureau. Minneapolis, for 25 cents. The next convention 
will be held in Virginia, Minn., October 20 and 21. 

The edition of the Good Roads Year Book, 1915, issued by 
American Highway Association, Colorado Building, Washing- 
ton, D. C, for $1.00, is fully up to the high standard of former 
issues and contains information worth many times the cost 
of the book to any one interested in better roads. Five copies 
will be sent for $4.00. 

The Universal Portland Cement Company has compiled 
and published a booklet on "Local Improvements by Special 
Assessment in Illinois," containing a brief outline of pro- 
cedure, references to court decisions and forms as they may- 
be applied to a concrete paving improvement. Illinois spe- 
cial assessment laws are very complicated and such a guide 
should be of much assistance. 

Hayes' "Public Utilities: Their Fair Present Value and 
Return" has just been published by D. Van Nostrand Com- 
panv. New York, at $2.00 net. 



Banking and Credit in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru 
are discussed in a report just issued by the Federal Trade 
Commission, Washington, D. G, which will be of interest to 
those engaged in the development of foreign trade. 

The New Winslow concrete computing slide-rule for com- 
puting strength and dimensions of reinforced concrete slabs, 
beams and girders is a very convenient combination rule 
with three slides with two scales each, and te stationary scales. 
Two extra scales are run in on parts of two of the sliding 
scales. The assumed standards are those of the Chicago 
building lavs, but changes to suit other standards are easily 
computed. The price is $3.00, and it is sold by Henry W. 
Tomlinson, 64 East Van Buren street, Chicago, 111. Its catch 
phrase is "Any beam problem solved in six seconds." 

John W. Alvord, consulting engineer, Chicago, 111., has a 
reprint of his article on "The Consulting Engineer in Water 
Works Practice," which he may send on request. 

Data, one of the monthly collection of data cards for filing, 
is published at $2.00 a year by Engineering and Contracting, 
G08 South Dearborn street, Chicago, 111. 

Scientific Paper No. 234 of the United States Bureau of 
Standards is on the insulating properties of solid dielectnes 
and is by Harvey L. Curtis. 

The National Conference on City Planning announces the 
issue of "Classified Selected List of References on City Plan- 
ning," by Theodora Kimball, librarian of the School of Land 
scape Architecture at Harvard University. Boston, Nationa 
Conference on City Planning, 1915. Forty-eight pages. Paper 
Price. 50 cents. The list consists of about one thousand refer 
ences on city planning, selected from many times that num 
ber. with a particular view to their professional value to those 
engaged in problems of city planning. 

The United States Geological Survey has issued Bulletin 
No. 371 on a Reconnaissance of the Book Cliffs Coal Field 
in Colorado and Utah, and 541-D on Oil and Gas Near Green 
River. Grand County. Utah. 

The report on the fire in the Edison Phonograph Works 
by the National Fire Protection Association and the- National 
Board of Fire Underwriters can be obtained from either or- 
ganization for 25 cents. 

Bulletin 600 of the U. S. Geological Survey is a handsomely 
illustrated pamphlet of 54 pages and two folding maps on The 
Glacier National Park, which is a popular guide to its geology 
and scenery, by Morris F. Campbell. The character of the 
scenery is indicated by the photograph used on the front page 
of Municipal Engineering for November, 1914. 

The monthly bulletin of tests conducted by the City of New 
York upon samples taken from deliveries of materials and 
supplies was begun with results for October, 1914, and is a 
very valuable compilation of reliable data. November and 
December numbers have also been received. 

The Directory of Cement, Gypsum and Lime Manufacturers 
for 1915, issued by The Cement Era, 538 South Clark street 
Chicago, 111., for $1. is received. It gives well classified infor 
mation regarding cement manufacturing companies, their offi 
cers, sales agents, brands, capacity, etc., and similar informa 
tion regarding the manufacture and sale of gypsum and lime 

The second volume of Metcalf and Eddy's "American Sew 
erage Practice," which is devoted to the construction of sewers 
is issued by the McGraw-Hill Book Co., at $4. A third volume 
on sewage treatment is to follow. 

An article on "The Nation's Business and the Nation' 1 ; 
Government," by Felix Orman in The Outlook, has been re- 
printed in pamphlet form by the Chamber of Commerce of 
the United States of America, and details the activities and 
the opportunities of that body. It can be obtained on applica- 
tion to Secretary Elliot H. Goodwin, Washington, D. C. 




Badger Water Valve 

The Badger water valve has been used on the Badger con- 
crete mixer for two years and has given satisfaction wher- 
ever city pressure was the source of water supply. The valve 
for city pressure is too small to deliver the required quantity 
of water from tank pressure and a larger valve is supplied 
for tank pressure service. There are three sizes of valves. 
No. 1. l^-inch for city pressure supply only and on small 
mixers; No. 2, 2-inch for both city and tank pressure on med- 
ium size mixers; No. 3, 2%-inch for both city and tank pres- 
sure for the larger mixers. 

A :; !-inch to l^-inch hose will supply the water for the No. 
1, l'j to 2-inch for No. 2, and 2 to 2%-inch for the Xo. 3. 

REGULATING VALVE for supplying exact quantities of 
water to concrete mixer. The regulating lever D can be set 
for the quantity of water desired and ■: quid pressure of the 
discharge lever A furnishes this quantity to the bateh of con- 
crete. 




Nothing is more important than the accurate quantity of 
water in making good concrete. The regulating lever can be 
turned to any point on the dial to furnish the required quan- 
tity per batch and then one quick pressure of the discharge 
lever furnishes the exact quantity of water to each batch. 

Experts and engineers in concrete say that 25 per cent, of 
water to the weight of cement makes weak concrete because it 
is too little water, than 30 per cent, makes weak concrete be- 
cause it is too much water, that 27% per cent, makes the 
strongest concrete, being one-third stronger than either the 25 
per cent or 30 per cent. This shows the very great importance 
of getting the exact percentage of water delivered into each 
batch of ingredients. Twenty -six and one-half pounds of water 
to every bag of cement used is recommended, deducting 1 pound 
weight of water because there are only 96 pounds of cement 
in a bag. All ingredients should be mixed by at least two 
revolutions of the mixer drum before discharging the water 
into it. 

Many engineers are specifying the use of the Badger water 
valve and the following of the above rules so as to insure 
good concrete. It is as essential with tank pressure as with 
city pressure. The Badger water valve is attached to the 
Badger mixer with all water pipe connections and the tank 
also, if required, at an additional cost, all connected up so 
that either city or tank pressure can be used. 

The Badger water valve works on any rotating drum 
mixer, and they are furnished generally to manufacturers of 
concrete mixers and to contractors using any make of mixer. 



The Rocmac Road 

A booklet recently received from the Rocmac Road Corpo- 
ration of America of Cleveland, Ohio, describes the methods 
employed in the Rocmac process of building roads. 

Rocmac is a chemical solution with a mineral base of sil- 
ica. When mixed with limestone screenings containing 50 pi r 
cent, or more of calcium carbonate an insoluble silicate of 
lime is formed which, with the aid of carbonic acid in the at- 
mosphere, becomes hard and tough. 

It is claimed that the Rocmac matrix has often proved 
harder and tougher than the stone itself and that the life of 
the road becomes dependent upon the wearing qualities of the 
stone used. The specifications .for building roads by the Roc- 
mac process are similar to those employed for ordinary water- 
bound or asphaltic macadam. If the natural ground is not 
soft, spongy or otherwise unsuitable, it is stated that a 4*A- 
inch Rocmac road makes a very economical and durable high- 
way. The foundation may be of macadam or gravel or may 
be of concrete if desired. 

t'pon the prepared foundation a stiff mortar or matrix 



June, wis 



MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES 



371 




DIAGRAMS SHOWING RESULTS of methods of laying 
Rocmae road surface. The middle diagrams show what hap- 
pens ivhen the pressure method is used, which is said to se- 
cure the best results. The lower diagrams show the results 
when the mixer method is used. The upper diagram gives the 
entire design for the Rocviac road. 

composed of limestone screening mixed with Rocmae solution 
in the proportion of 36 gallons of Rocmae to one cubic yard 
of limestone, is spread to a uniform thickness of 1% to 2 1 * 
inches. 

The mixing of the matrix may he done by hand on a mix- 
ing board or by a concrete mixer. When spread, it is cov- 
ered with a layer of crushed stone to a depth of 4 to G inches, 
loose. This stone is then thoroly rolled so as to puddle the 
matrix, causing it to flush up between the stone fragments. 
The rolling is continued until a grout forms over the entire 
surface. 

Rocmae may also be laid by the mixing method if desired. 
It is stated, however, that the best results are obtainable 
from the pressure method above described. The effects of the 
two methods are shown by the accompanying drawings. 

Rocmae is stated to be impervious to moisture. It is also 
stated that the first cost of Rocmae road is approximately the 
same as that of waterbound macadam. 

The accompanying photograph shows a Rocmae road in 
Monroe county, near Rochester, N. Y. This road was laid in 
1910 and there have been no repairs since that date. The 
surface is shown to be in excellent condition. 




Euckeye Berea Curbing 
A sandstone curbing of unusual durability is supplied by 
the Ohio Quarries Company, Cleveland, Ohio, and is known 
as the Buckeye Berea Curbing. Berea stone has been in use 
for curbing for more than a half century and its excellent 
qualities are evidenced by the satisfactory results it has pro- 
duced in many cities. 

The accompanying illustration shows the manner in which 
the curbing is split out of solid rock to the desired thickness 
and height. It is frequently shipped in this form to be 
dressed on the job. Some cities prefer to use the rough split 
curbing in order to provide employment for home labor, altho 
the machine dressed curbing is in greater demand. 

Curbing for use on country highways requires very little 
dressing and this is ordinarily ordered rough split and is set 
flush with the pavement. The Ohio Quarries Company also 
supplies machine dressed Buckeye Berea curbing. 

The following list shows some streets in which Berea sand- 
stone curbing was placed many years ago. It is still serving 
its purpose, the number of years of service being given with 
each street: 

Akron. OMo — E. Market St., from Howard St., 2 miles cast, 
30; -Main St., a portion in the downtown district. 27 years of 
service. 

Ashland, Ohio — Orange and Center Sts. and Cleremont 
Ave., all 22 years. 

Alliance, Ohio — Arch St., Main to Milner, 23: Seneca St., 
Main to Summitt, 18; Market St., Liberty to Mechanic, 18; 
Liberty St.. Main to Summitt, 18 years. 

Cleveland, Ohio— Carnegie Ave., E. 55th St. to E. 90th St., 
40: E. 49th St., Cedar to Scovil Aves., 40 (this street was 
graded and curber in 1 S74 : paved in 1899, using all the orig- 
inal curbing; no new); E. 51st St., Woodland to Julia, 23 (re- 
paved in 1909 and the old curbing used the second time) ; 
E. 93d St., Euclid to Hough Aves., 23 (repaved in 1909 and the 
old curb used the second time); Woodland Ave., E. 55th to E. 
79th Sts., 40; W. 32d St., Detroit to Franklin, 30 years (this 
street was graded and curbed in 1S84, paving in 1905, using 
the original curbing; no new). 

Chicago, Illinois — Sheridan Road, from Kenilworth Ave., 
north to city limits, 22 (most popular boulevard in Chicago ; 
Morse Ave. This street paved twice and the original curbing 
used, 22; Austin Ave., 26 (this is a heavy traffic street and has 
been repaved three times and the original curb at this writing 
still in perfect condition) ; Chase Ave., 18 years. 

Pekin, Illinois — There are several streets in the city 
curbed with Berea stone where the curb has been 
down 30 years. 

Rogers Park (now part of Chicago) — Ridge 
Ave., 22 years. 

Cambridge, Ohio — Wheeling Ave., 4th to 12th 
sts.. L5 years. 

Columbus, Ohio — Atcheson, 20th to Graham, 26; 
Beck, High to Front, 26; Belle, Broad to Kimball, 
26; Broad, Third to Parsons, 28; Bryden Road, 
Parsons to Miller, 26; Champion, Broad to Mt. 
Vernon. 26; Chestnut, High to Fourth, 28; Den- 
nison Ave., Big Four to Goodale. 26; 15th, High 
to Indianola, 27: 5th, Neil to Perry, 26; 5th, Broad 
to Long, 27: 1st Ave., High to Neil, 26; 5th, 
Naghten to Town, 28; Franklin, Washington to 
Parsons, 26; Front, Town to Naghten, 27; Gay. 4th, 
to 5th, 27; Grant, Broad to Long, 27; Grove, Jeffer- 
son to St. Clair, 26; Hamilton, Long to Mt. Ver- 
non, 27; High, 5th to 11th, 28: Hoffman, Broad 
to Oak, 28; Latta, Oak to Fair, 26: Lexington, Mt. 
Vernon to Felton, 26; Madison, Ohio to Hoff- 



372 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




METHOD OF SPLITTING Berea stone blocks to produce 
curb of specified thickness and depth. The surfaces of the 
sections of curb can be dressed at the quarry or on the job 
as desired. 



& 



man, 27; Main, High to Sixth, 27; Miller, Broad to Main, 26; 
Monroe, Broad to Mt. Vernon, 27; Naghten, Mt. Vernon to La- 
Fayette, 2G; 9th, Broad to Oak, 26; Ohio, Broad to Main, 26; 
Parsons, Main to Livingston, 26; 17th, Broad to Mt. Vernon, 
27; 10th, High to Neil, 26 years. 

Detroit, Michigan — Grosse Point Road, Detroit to Grosse 
Point (75,000) ft.), 10; Woodruff Ave. Past Fair Grounds, 
(20,000 ft.), 10; The Boulevard (100,000 ft), 20 years. 

Findlay, Ohio — Main St., Howard to Hind, 26 years. 

Fostoria, Ohio— Main St., Cubertson to B. & O. R. R., 20 
years. 

Lakewood, Ohio — Grace Ave., Detroit to Madison Aves., 19 ; 
Clarence Ave., Detroit to Franklin Aves., 20 years. 

Lorain Ohio — Broadway, Lake Erie to E. 21st St., 20 years 
(repaved in 1914 and practically all the old curb used, 14,000 
feet of old curb and very little new). 

Mansfield, Ohio — Park Ave., from Main to Sycamore, 21 
years. 

Marion, Indiana— 4th St., Washington to Western, 25; 
Booth St., River to 14th, 24; Fourth St., from Washington to 
Western Ave., 25; Boots St., River to 14th St., 24; Third St., 
Washington to "E" St., 22 years. 

Norwalk, Ohio — Whittlesey Ave., from Railroad to Main 
St., 27; North Main St., 26 years. 

Syracuse, New York — East Water St., 15 years. 

Toledo, Ohio — Emerald St., Morris to Logan, 25; Summer 
St., Garland to Ry., 25: Prescott St., Collingwood to Frank- 
lin, 25; Parkwood Ave., Bancroft to Virginia, 25: 21st St., 
Monroe tn Madison. 25: Robinwood Ave., Bancroft to Dela- 
ware, 25; Warren St., Adams to Bancroft, 25 years. 

Warren. Ohio — Mahoning Ave.. High St. to city limits, 20: 
Main St., Erie R. R. north to High St., 20 years. 

Wooster, Ohio — North Market St., from Public Sq. to Bow- 
man St., 23: West Liberty St., from Square to Grant St., 22; 
South Market St., from Square to Spruce St., 22 years. 



Three-Unit Asphalt Plant on Highway Construction 
The operation of the three-unit asphalt plant of the Cum- 
mer type on highways surrounding Ashokan Reservoir, New 



York, is reported by W. B. Spencer, Presi- 
dent, Continental Public Works Co., as fol- 
lows: 

We respectfully submit the following rel- 
ative to actual operation of asphalt plants 
on highway work, contract No. 151, Board 
of Water Supply, City of New York: 

The work, on which these plants were 
used, consisted of the laying of approxi- 
\. mately 32 miles of bituminous macadam 

|\ highways around the Ashokan reservoir. 
Wr Four plants were engaged in this work, two 
of which were of the Cummer road type. 
The first road plant which we ordered 
proved so satisfactory, that we gave a re- 
peat order shortly after the first one was 
put in operation. 

Before accepting the first plant a test 
was made at Cleveland. Sand containing 7 
per cent, of moisture was introduced into 
the dryer, and an average temperature of 
412 degrees Fahrenheit was obtained at the 
outlet of the dryer. During one hour's 
test ten and one-half tons of this sand was heated 
to the above temperature, the same being equivalent 
to about one thousand square yards of sand paving mixture 
per ten-hour day. The work at Ashokan, however, did not 
embrace the use of sand mixture, the specifications calling 
for crushed stone from 1% inches in diameter down to % inch. 
With this type of mixture the plant was able to show a 
largely increased capacity over the records made at the test 
in Cleveland. 

The first unit consists of the Cummer type of sand drum, 
having a rated capacity of 8 tons per hour, also a 6-cu.-ft. 
batch-type mixer, with a capacity of 5 cubic feet, sand bin, 
measuring box, asphalt bucket together with conveying and 
weighing mechanism, hot and cold sand elevators, sand bin 
and sand measuring box. The gearing on this plant is cast 
steel thruout, the main bearings being brass bushed and ad- 
justable. The sand bin has a capacity of 5% tons heated ma- 
terial, and is equipped with a rotary screen arranged to per- 
mit the mixing of sheet asphalt topping, or binder, or as- 
phaltic concrete without change. The sand measuring box is 
on a beam scale, and is so arranged that each ingredient can 
be weighed separately or combined. The asphalt bucket is on 
a double beam scale. The trucks for this unit are all steel 
thruout, the front wheels being 30 inches in diameter and 12 
inches wide, and the rear wheels being 36 inches in diameter 
and 12 inches wide. The plant is driven by a belt from the 
engine, transmission on the plant being by a main shaft of 
2 15/16 inches in diameter. The drum and mixer are con- 
nected directly with the main shaft. 

The second unit is a 30-h. p. horizontal engine, made by 
the Erie Engine Works, of Erie, Pa., mounted on the boiler, 
the entire outfit being mounted on an all-steel truck. The 
stack folds back when being moved. 

The third unit consists of a portable melting kettle, mount- 
ed on steel wheels and divided Into two compartments each 
with a capacity of 5 tons. The illustration shows this kettle 
with hinged platforms for men to work upon in charging the 
kettle, and the fire box under the round-bottomed melting 
compartments. 

As will be noted in the illustration herewith the plant con- 
sists of three parts, the first including the heating and mix- 
ing unit, the second the power unit, and the third, the asphalt 

June, ion 



MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES 













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ROAD ASPHALT PAVING PLANT of F. D. Cummer and 
Son, in three units for ease in moving. Power unit on the left, 
with engine mounted on boiler and folding stack can be set 
at any convenient distance from the sand dryer and mixer 
plant in the center. Asphalt melting kettle with two compart- 
ments is on the right and shoirs the folding platforms on 
which workmen stand. 



Cg3 



melting unit. These separate units, in our opinion, allow the 
plant to move from place to place much more easily than if 
they were all combined or even if there were two units in 
place of three. Another advantage is in the set up, for the 
three units can be placed very close together or the mixing 
plant and heating kettle can be set along side one another 
and the boiler and engine placed some distance away, using 
a long belt and a supporting pulley. This allows almost any 
kind of a set-up to be made. This plant can be loaded onto 
a flat car, the same as a roller. In shipping, the top of the 
bin containing the screen is removed and the upper 4 feet of 
the elevator (which is hinged) is laid over on its side. 

The average time to move this type of plant, including 
kettles, steam lines, labor camps, storehouse, road materials, 
etc., and to set same up, ready to operate, the move being 
about 4 miles, is four days. We find this type of plant to be 
economical in operation and extremely portable, for the par- 
ticular type of work on which it was operated. 



How to Prevent the Reflection of Light and Heat 
From Concrete Pavements 

Concrete sidewalks and other pavements that are laid in 
the natural cement color reflect the sunlight and heat so 
powerfully as to be very uncomfortable in hot weather and 
very injurious to the eyesight. This is being widely recog- 
nized by municipal authorities and every oculist and physi- 
cian will heartily endorse the movement to make our streets 
more tolerable, because this constant reflection severely 
strains the eyes. 

The accompanying illustration shows a condition that 
exists in some parts of the southwest where, on account of 
the wonderful clearness of the atmosphere the natural con- 
crete pavement does it worst in this respect. It shows one 
of the principal streets of Oklahoma City, and although the 
halftone screen has modified the reflection, it still vividly 
demonstrates what the inhabitants of that and other cities 
are suffering without fully realizing the cause. For exam- 
ple, a motorman in Oklahoma City whose car ran mostly thru 



a new avenue which had recently been constructed and paved 
with concrete, said that he felt the strain upon his eyes but 
did not realize what caused it until it was pointed out to him 
and then he easily remembered that his eyes had not trou- 
bled him until he began to run on this concrete street. 

The remedy is very simple, and in every way desirable. 

In many parts of the country, especially in New England, 
this fault in concrete pavements was early recognized, and 
after many experiments the practice of adding a small 
amount of lampblack in the wearing surface mix was uni- 
formly adopted. This gives them a cool, slate-gray tone, but 
it also overcomes the patchy, uneven results produced by the 
uncolored cement (which is sometimes yellowish, sometimes 
brownish and sometimes greenish gray), so that a very uni- 
form bluish tone covers the whole surface and makes it much 
more finished and attractive. 

Many cities and towns have adopted ordinances requiring 
the admixture of lampblack with the surface in all sidewalks 
and streets, and a great many others have adopted the practice 
without any ordinance requiring it, because it seemed the 
sensible thing to do. The cost is insignificant. 

In Portland, Ore., the municipal specification is as follows: 
"To each barrel of sand used in mixing the wearing surface 
1 pound of dry lampblack shall be added. The dry lamp- 
black shall be mixed with the sand before mixing with the 




MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




CONCRETE SIDEWALK IN OKLAHOMA CITY, showing 
the vivid reflection of light, which could tie greatly modified 
by coloring the walk with lampblack- 



cement." Around Boston the standard specification reads, 
"'From 1 to 2 pounds of Trimount Germantown lampblack 
shall be used per barrel of cement." The quantity depending 
upon the depth of shade required, and the natural color of the 
mix. This black is put up in 1 pound paper packages so that 
the quantities can be easily measured. It is sifted from the 
package into the mix or the sand and worked thoroly thru it 
in the mix. The coloring power of pure lampblack is so great 
that this quantity thoroly stains the mixture and it does not 
in any way weaken the bond. 

Lampblack is very much stronger than other colors, such 
as reds and browns, and the latter are so weak that in order 
to get a good color with them it is necessary to use such large 
quantities that the cement bond is appreciably weakened. 
This same thing is true of adulterated lampblacks. Many so- 
called lampblacks are either heavily adulterated with char- 
coal, ground coal or other similar minerals or are composed 
entirely of such substitutes, so that their coloring power is 
much weaker than that of pure lampblack. They are sold at 
lower prices but are so weak that they are actually much 
more expensive to use than a pure lampblack. Lampblacks 
for this purpose should be free from grease so that they will 
mix readily. 

A reform so simple as this and of such ultimate import- 
ance should not be delayed, and as it happens the sections 
that are the worst offenders are those in which the reform is 
most important, that is, in the south and southwest, where 
intense heat and strong sunlight prevail for long periods. The 
cost of the operation is so slight that contractors do not ob- 
ject to it as soon as they have tried it and observe the re- 
sult, and it has another important advantage to them in that 
it enables them to get a uniform tone even tho their cement 
may sometimes vary in color. 



An Edge Protector for Concrete Structures 

The initial application of concrete to the construction of 
all kinds of structures has demonstrated the fact that it is 
absolutely unfit to resist any form of impact on its edges 
and while in the early stages of the art this had been rem- 
edied to some extent by rounding of corners, it was evident 
that a protecting member made part of the structure was 
needed. 

Early experiments along these lines soon convinced engi- 



neers and constructors of this necessity and various protect- 
ing members were evolved giving more or less satisfaction. 
The requirements of an edge protector are as follows: 
The material from which it is fabricated must resist wear 
and deterioration from the action of the elements. Its sec- 
tion must be so designed that a maximum amount of metal 
shall occur where the wear is maximum. It must be suffi- 
ciently rigid in itself to distribute all shocks to the concrete 
in which it is embedded, it must be easily installed and have 
a method of anchoring which will make it part of the struc- 
ture. 

The member itself and the anchors should be of one piece 
thereby eliminating the possibility of omission or displace- 
ment of separate anchors. 

Such an edge protector has been invented by F. Wm. 
Stocker, Hoboken, N. J., which follows scientific lines in its 
design. It is of T shape the web being 1 to 1 3/16 inches 
wide and % to 3/16 inches thick and the cross bar having a 
circular arc for its outside surface, being 1% to 1"* inches 
wide over all and 5/16 to 7/16 inch thick at the center. Out 
of the flange are cut hook shaped strips, left attached at one 
end and bent back so that the hooks form anchors into the 
concrete. 

The T shape of the stocker curb nosing bar makes it rigid 
and capable of distributing shocks over a considerable area. 
The anchors extending well into the body of the concrete, 
fasten the curbing in a positive and powerful manner. 

The anchors are part of the bar thereby eliminating the 
labor of attaching them. 

The bulk of the metal occurs where the wear is maximum 
thereby making it more permanent. 

The entire section is galvanized after the bar has been 
punched and sheared thereby protecting every square inch 
of its surface from rusting. The section is designed for the 
protection of corners, curbs, steps, edges of loading platforms, 
in fact any concrete edge which is to be subjected to shocks 
of any kind. 

The importance of protecting concrete curbs at street in- 
tersections is well understood, as all such locations are sub- 
jected to more wear from vehicular traffic. The bar is fur- 
nished bent to required radius for use on curved corners in 
such places. 

The interlocking hooks in the concrete prevent distortion, 
and the form of the head insures sufficient wearing surface 
to meet existing conditions. 

The usual unsightly appearance of concrete steps with the 
edges broken is sufficient proof of the necessity of an edge 
protector; for this purpose the curb-nosing is ideal. 

It makes the steps everlasting, improves their appearance 
and by defining a true edge saves considerable labor in the 
execution of a contract. 

Expansion and contraction are controlled by the insertion 
of this bar to a considerable extent. 

Square or rectangular concrete columns and posts in 
structures where extensive traffic and trucking is in progress 
are subjected to blows from trucks, boxes, merchandise, etc., 
and injured materially. In factories, warehouses and build- 
ings of this class, it is essential that the column edges he 
protected to insure durability and neatness in appearance. 
Chipped corners are unsightly and weaken the column as well 
as open the way for disintegration of the concrete in places 
whire they are exposed to the elements. 

The angle which is a modification of the Stocker curb 
nosing, is superior in this respect to the regular curb-nosin™ 
in so far as it gives a larger area with no increase of weight 
in metal. The side prongs permit the usual installation of 
reinforcing bars in the corners of the columns which could 
not be accomplished were the curb-nosing used in its stead. 

June, 1915 



MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES 



The installation is most simple as the outer shape of the 
angle fits the form absolutely and does away with the danger 
of the bar turning while concrete is deposited. 

The angle can be fastened to the forms before they are set 
in place by simply nailing, or by means of hooks at the top 
and bottom. 

It consists of a 3/16 or :: *-inch plate bent to cover two 
sides of a column 1% inches on each side of the corner, with 
the hook shaped strips cut out of one side and bent back into 
the column, thus preventing interference with corner rein- 
forcing bars in the protected column. 



Power-driven Distributing Spout for Concrete Mixer 
An unusual feature of the Koshring mixer line, is a plat- 
form-controlled, power-driven distributing spout 20 feet long, 
which swings on an angle of ISO degrees. 

The purpose of this spout is to do away with the labor of 
pushing spout into position by hand, and to bring its control 
into the hands of the mixer operator, who also controls the 
loading skip, water tank, etc. 

Control levers for the new Koehring spout are all within 
reach of this operator, who lengthens and shortens, and 
swings the spout to any position. 




Besides the platform-control, the new Koehring spout has 
two especially important automatic actions, both of which 
overcome objections to the spout methods. When the spout 
is shortened, and the unused sections are elevated out of the 
way, the point of discharge of sections in use automatically 
lowers. This maintains the point of delivery at a low uni- 
form distance from the ground, regardless of how few sec- 
tions are in use. and prevents the separation of aggregates 
occasioned by a high drop. The other feature is an auto- 
matic lock which prevents swinging of spout by gravity, when 
mixer is not standing on a perfect level. 

The advantages of the new spout are: The elimination 
of the extra man to swing the spout, other than the regular 
mixer operator, and its more positive, faster action, which is 
practically equal to the boom and bucket method. 



The Master Concrete Mixer 
There are about a dozen features of the "Master" concrete 
mixer which are emphasized by the manufacturers. The 
Chalmers Machinery Co., Toledo, O., and make it worthy of 
the careful study of every contractor and engineer in charge 
of work done by day labor. 

One point is the steeel construction, there being only three 
castings of material importance in the machines, the two ends 
of the drum and the sprocket. This saves some thousand 
pounds in weight and with the larger wheels and short wheel 
base makes the mixer easily portable by hitching it to the 
back of a wagon. 




THE MASTER CONCRETE MIXER. Note form of tin 
side-loader, automatii water tank and enclosed engine. 



$ 



Chain drive, surplus power, trunnion rollers, positive lock 
washers, double-grip clutch with dust cover, pillow-block bear- 
ings, practical features which will be fully appreciated by the 
contractor, who must operate the machine and keep it in 
repair. 

The materials are loaded into the mixer by a side-loader 
which will not choke at the mouth or spill over the side when 
discharging. A jack brace can be hooked on the hoisting 
frame to support the hopper while the machine is being 
moved. A single handle controls all the operations of the 
hoist. 

The discharge is quite as easy to operate. Pressing the 
grip on a handle releases the chute which can be tipped for- 
ward to discharge any amoont of concrete desired, from a 
pailful up. The discharge is high enough to give the wheel- 
barrow plenty of room. 

The re-mixture of materials in the drum forty times a 
minute insures thoro mixture. 

The water-tank is automatic, discharging the exact amount 
required for a batch, an adjustable float governing the dis- 
charge. The closing of valve when tank is filled is also auto- 
matic. 



Oil-Mixed Concrete for Damp Proofing 

After extensive laboratory and service tests the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has secured results which appear to es- 
tablish definitely the value of oil-mixed concrete for damp- 
proof construction. Detailed results of these tests, which 
were carried out in connection with the work of the office of 
public roads, are contained in the new bulletin, No. 230, of 
the department, entitled "Oil-Mixed Portland Cement Con- 
crete." Briefly summarized, the conclusions to be drawn from 
them are that the mixture of certain mineral oils in small 
proportions, not to exceed 10 per cent, of cement used, does 
not lessen the tensile strength of mortar: that the decrease in 
the compressive strength of mortar and concrete is not 
serious: that concrete mixed with oil takes much longer to set 
hard, perhaps twice as long, but that the increase in strength 
is nearly as rapid in the oil-mixed material as in the plain con- 
crete. The use of oil does not make the concrete impervious 
to heavy water pressure, but it does make it practically non- 
absorbent under low heads. 

The value of oil-mixed concrete is said to be particularly 



ie. 1915 



37) 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



great in the construction of basement floors and walls, water- 
ing troughs, cisterns, barns, silos and in all parts of concrete 
structures that are to be made damp-proof. 

The oil should in no case exceed 10 per cent, of the weight 
of the cement and for the most part 5 per cent, is all that is 
necessary. Since a bag of cement weighs 94 pounds, 4.7 
pounds of oil, or about 2% quarts, should be added for each 
bag of cement used in the mixture. The sand and cement 
should be first mixed with the proper amount of water into a 
stiff mortar, to which is added the correct amount of oil, and 
the whole mass again thoroughly mixed until all traces of oil 
have disappeared. Particular care should be taken to insure 
that the oil is thoroly incoroporated in the mixture and the 
time of mixing should be practically double that when the oil 
is not used. For this reason a continuous mixer should not be 
used in oil-cement-concrete work, as it is difficult with this 
type of machine to increase the time of mixing sufficiently. 

The kind of oil is also important and the following tech- 
nical specifications are suggested in the bulletin in order to 
prevent the use of certain oils which might tend to impair 
the strength of the mortar or the concrete. 

(1) The oil shall be a fluid product and shall contain no 
admixture of fatty or vegetable oils. 

(2) It shall have a specific gravity not greater than 0.945 
at a temperature of 25 deg. 

(3) It shall show a flash point of not less than 150 deg. C. 
by the closed-cup method. 

(4) When 240 cc. of the oil is heated in an Engler viscosi- 
meter to 50 deg. C, and maintained at that temperature for 
at least three minutes, the first 100 cc. which flows out shall 
show a specific viscosity of not less than 15 nor more than 30. 

(5) When 1 part of the oil is shaken up with 2 parts of 
hundredth normal caustic soda, there shall be no emulsifica- 
tion, and upon allowing the mixture to remain quiet the two 
components shall rapidly separate in distinct layers. 

For practical use the addition of oil will be found par- 
ticularly useful in the construction of basement floors and 
walls. Many of these now in existence are continually damp 
and such a condition may be remedied by the application of 
an oil-mixed mortar coat to the old surface. A mortar com- 
posed of one part of cement and two parts sand and contain- 
ing 5 per cent, of oil should be sufficiently non-absorbent for 
this purpose. 

Watering troughs and cisterns made of oil-mixed concrete 
should also prove of considerable practical value in the con- 
servation of water. In the construction of barns, where oil- 
mixed concrete is used, the interior will be noticeably drier 
than when ordinary concrete is used. Owing to their dur- 
ability, cleanliness and resistance to fire, concrete barns are 
becoming more and more popular, but they suffer from the 
disadvantage that during a long beating rain the side walls are 
inclined to absorb much moisture, which ultimately penetrates 
into the interior. The addition of oil to the extent of 5 per 
cent, of the weight of cement in the concrete used in the side 
walls obviates this objection. Barn floors can also be con- 
structed in the same way with advantage. A damp-proof floor 
is warmer because of the lack of evaporation from its surface, 
and it is also more sanitary than an ordinary concrete floor 
because of its non-absorbent character. 

There are, of course, any number of other types of build- 
ings and structures of all sorts in which oil-mixed concrete 
may be used advantageously, or, if this is not necessary, a coat 
Df oil-mixed mortar may be applied effectively. 

Attention is called, however, to the fact that extreme care 
in proportioning, mixing and placing the concrete is absolutely 
necessary if the addition of any water-proofing agent is to be 
af value. The process of mixing oil with concrete has been 
covered by a public patent so that any one is at liberty to use 
it. 



The Mietz and Weiss Oil Engine is Popular 

Recent installations of Mietz and Weiss oil engines include 
the Grinden Art Metal Co., Brooklyn, N. Y., two 50-h.p. en- 
gines; the Town of Schleswig, Iowa, one 50-h.p. and one 75- 
h.p. engine to operate alternator in connection with munici- 
pal lighting plant; Belle Ellen Stock Farms, of Branchville, 
N. J., one 25-h.p. engine; I. H. Pitts & Son, Waverly Hall, Ga., 
one 30-h.p. engine; Marcus Mason & Co., So. Framingham, 
Mass., one 25-h.p. engine; Chas. N. Taylor, Salisbury, Mass., 
one 25-h.p. engine; Geo. Buckley, Menlo, Iowa, one 40-h.p. 
engine; the U. S. Government for Light Ships No. 101 and 
No. 102, two 200-h.p. M. & W. direct reversible marine type 
oil engines, and four 50-h.p. M. & W. oil engine air compres- 
sor outfits. 



New Type of Pressed Steel Building Construction 

The Trussed Concrete Steel Co., Youngstown, has just 
issued a pamphlet illustrating a new type of construction, 
consisting of pressed steel frame work with metal lath, stuc- 
co, concrete and plaster. The Kahn pressed steel construc- 
tion has a wide field of applications, its two principal fields 
being, first, in connection with floors of stores, apartment 
houses, and small buildings generally; and second, in multi- 
ple or group houses for mines and industrial plants. 

In floors the Kahn pressed steel beams eliminate inflam- 
mable wood joists giving a permanent construction of great 
strength. Upon these beams, which are placed 23% inches 
on, centers is laid %-inch Hy-Rib lath and concrete is ap- 
plied. Where wood floor is desired, wood sleepers are at- 
tached to the pressed steel beams by nailing between the 
channels. For the ceiling under the beams the %-inch Hy-Rib 
lath is readily attached by means of prongs on the underside 
of the beams. All of the pressed steel members are com- 
pletely fabricated in the shops, eliminating all labor on the 
job. A floor of this nature costs very little more than wood 
joists and lath and is constructed more rapidly and is much 
more economical owing to its fireproofness and permanence. 

In multiple houses Kahn pressed steel construction fur- 
nishes a permanent house which can be erected at minimum 
cost. This construction is a result of long years of study and 
experiment. All wood is entirely eliminated in the structural 
part of the building. In spite of this the construction can be 
erected more rapidly and easier than even the simplest wood 
construction. For instance, the house shown on the front 
cover of the pamphlet was erected in a few hours by work- 
men entirely unfamiliar with building construction. 

This construction has extreme simplicity. The pressed 
steel members are completely fabricated in the factory and 
provided with all connections, punching, etc., that may be 
necessary. No labor whatever is required on them at the 
building site. The steel members are placed 23% inches 
apart, as compared with 1G inches for wood construction. To 
join them together the simplest connection imaginable has 
been devised, one that entirely eliminates all bolting, punch- 
ing or riveting, much simpler and requiring less time than 
to join wood work. The Hy-Rib lath construction is merely 
hung over the prongs on the steel members, and the prongs 
are bent down by the blow of the hammer. After this all 
that is necessary is to plaster the inside and outside. 

Kahn pressed steel construction has all the advantages of 
fireproofness, permanence and sanitation. There is nothing 
about it that can burn or rot out. It is germ proof and sani- 
tary in every way. A house can be designed so that you can 
move out the furniture and. wash it out with a house. These 
houses are quickly erected by an ordinary mechanic, requir- 
ing less than half the time required in frame houses. The 

June, 191 ~> 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




Milwaukee 
likes Tarvia — 

Scores and scores of towns use Tarvia year 

after year to maintain their macadam roads 

and suppress the dust nuisance. 

The experience of Milwaukee is typical and 

we will let Mr. Charles 0. Davis, of the 

Department of Public Works, speak for 

himself: 

"During 1913 the City of Milwaukee purchased 
40,000 odd gallons of your 'Tarvia B' product. 
This year (1914) we used 150,000 gallons. 
These figures show what we think of 'Tarvia B' . 
"We have applied this material on tar pene- 
tration streets which had begun to ravel, and 
found that with a very good covering of this 
material the raveling was stopped, and gave to 
the road a nice, smooth surface. 



Third Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Treated with "Tarvia B". 



"Our experience also on waterbound macadam 
streets is satisfactory and the streets show up 
fine. One application sets up the surface, keep- 
ing out all water, with the result that the road 
is kept in good condition as well as it eliminates 
the dust nuisance. 

"In closing we heartily recommend 'Tarvia B' 
for treatment where good results are required." 

Tarvia is so low in price and adds so much 

to the life of the roadway that it has become a 

necessary feature of an economical road 

program. 

Booklets telling all about the treatment 

free on request. Address nearest office. 



Special Service Depart wen t 



This company has a corps of trained engin- If you will write to the nearest office re- 

eers and chemists who have given years of g ardin g ro ad problems and conditions in 

study to modern road problems. yQur vicimtyi the matter will have prompt 

The advice of these men may be had for a( , ent ; on 

the asking by anyone interested. ___ ___ _ _ im „ 



BARRETT MANUFACTURING COMPANY 



Chic; 
Detr 



Pittsburgh 

The Paterson Mfg. Co., Lim' 
St. John, N. B 



Philadelphia Boston St. Louis 

rmingham Kansas City Minneapolii 

• .---J- Montreal Torontc 

Halifax, N. S. 



Cincinnati 
Salt Lake City Seattle 



111 



378 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



cost of construction compares very favorably with wood 
houses, being much less expensive than any other type of 
permanent construction. 



A Contractor's Pump 

Water-bound macadam roads, concrete roads, in fact, all 
roads, when newly made, require a great deal of water in 
their construction. 

In country road building the water supply for both mixer 
and watering down the road, has been a problem to the con- 
tractor, and with the large building of roads, a portable pump 
to supply water fills this demand. 

The C. H. & E. power driven piston force pump has done 
good service on roads being built thruout the country, pump- 
ing to a distance as great as 2% to 3 miles. 

It is an outfit also suitable for small pumping stations, 
railway supply systems, small irrigation plants, country 
homes, etc. 

The pump gears are machine cut. the pinion and spur gear 
which drives the pump plunger from both sides of the pump, 
insures perfect alignment. The bearings are large and lib- 
erally provided with oil cups, and the entire construction of 
pump is built to withstand the great strain it is put to under 
constant service. 

Both C. H. & E. engine and pump are mounted on a rigid 
iron base, which is bolted to the skid or steel truck as ordered. 

A photograph of the pump will be found on page 330, as 
an illustration of machinery used in building a Michigan 
concrete road. 



Trade Notes 

The Wisconsin Granite Co. have moved their offices to 
1501-3 Lumber Exchange, Madison and LaSalle streets, Chi- 
cago, 111. They have added to their number of plants and 
quarries to care for the needs of the trade. 

The Cement Products Exhibition Co. has elected B. F. 
Affleck president, and Robert F. Hall as secretary, both of 
Chicago. 111. 

The Raymond Concrete Pile Co. has been awarded con- 
tracts for concrete piling for the foundation of a new stack 
for the Quindaro Pumping Station, Kansas City, Kan.: for 
concrete piles for the foundation of the Connally Building. 
Whitehall and Alabama streets, Atlanta, Ga.; for placing 
concrete piles for the foundation of a warehouse for Mr. Louis 
Miller, Baltimore, Md. ; for the design and construction of the 
foundations, tunnels, etc., for the new Ordnance Department 
buildings of the Crucible Steel Co. of America at their Atha 
plant, Harrison, X. J.: for placing concrete piles in the foun- 
dation for the Church of St. Gregory, Brooklyn avenue and St. 
Johns Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. : for the concrete piles in foun- 
dations for the new Syria Temple, Pittsburgh, Pa.; for con- 
crete piles in foundation for the new reinforced concrete 
warehouse for the P. H. Butler Co., at Seventeenth and Pike 
streets, Pittsburgh, Pa.; for concrete piling for the founda- 
tion of a warehouse for the Eagle Pencil Co.; for concrete 
piles for foundations at Christy Park Works, McKeesport, 
Pa., of the National Tube Co. 

MacArthur Concrete Pile & Foundation Company, 11 Pine 
street, New York, has been awarded contracts for pedestal 
concrete piles at the Eagle Works of the Standard Oil Com- 
pany, Claremont, X. J.; for foundation of the new Boston 
National League Baseball Co. grandstand; for foundations of 
the new fountain in Grant Park, Chicago: for foundation of 
addition to Malleable Iron Fittings Co., Branford, Conn.; for 
the pile foundation of the Y. W. C. A. building, San Jose, Cal. 

The Port Huron Engine & Thresher Company have sold 



their plant Xo. 1, at Port Huron, Mich., to the Grand Trunk 
Railway Company for car building shops, and will remove 
to the property known as their plants Xos. 2 and 3, at South 
Park, a mile south of the present location. Their new quar- 
ters are on twenty-seven acres of land, giving ample room for 
expansion. The buildings are modern in plan and construc- 
tion, and additions have been begun to give more shop room. 

The Universal Portland Cement Co. makes the following 
announcements: R. F. Atkins, formerly . assistant credit 
manager at Chicago, has been appointed eastern credit man- 
ager at Pittsburgh, vice L. S. Fuqua, deceased. Ray S. Huey, 
formerly assistant general superintendent, Buffington plant, 
Buffington, Ind., has been appointed superintendent of the 
Duluth plant, Duluth, Minn. Fred Robinson has been ap- 
pointed assistant superintendent of that plant. C. O. Soder- 
quist, formerly superintendent of Mill Xo. G, at Buffington 
plant, has been appointed assistant general superintendent, 
Buffington plant. J. H. Kempster, formerly chief chemist, 
Buffington plant, is now superintendent of Mills 3 and 4 of 
the Buffington plant. M. S. Humphreys, formerly chief drafts- 
man, has been appointed superintendent Mill Xo. C, at Buf- 
fington, Ind. 

The Uniform Asphalt Distributor Co.. Meridian, Miss., held 
a demonstration, on June 31, of their machine for distributing 
asphalt in road construction or surface treatment, at Meridian. 

Little Falls, N. Y., is following the other cities in the Mo- 
hawk valley, rsing bitulithie by laying it with concrete curb- 
ing on Garden street and on Monroe street. 

Bridgeport, Conn., will lay $200,000 worth of Warrenite on 
its streets this year, at a cost of $1.20 a square yard, under 
five-year guaranty. 



Trade Publications 



Bulletin Xo. 5S of the Hauck Manufacturing Company, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., shows kerosene burners, heaters and torches 
for contractors, water works, highways, gas and sewerage de- 
partments, for lead melting, stone breaking, ground thawing, 
night and tunnel lighting, asphalt surface heating, asphalt 
melting, etc. 

"Montezuma Asphalt" is the subject of a handsomely illus- 
trated booklet with that title, which is issued by the Warner- 
Quinlan Asphalt Company, New York and Syracuse, X. Y. 

The Kerr Turbine Company, Wellsville, X. Y., have just 
issued bulletin No. 52, describing and illustrating "Economy" 
steam-turbine-driven pumps for water supply, boiler feeding, 
fire service, circulating condenser water, circulating water in 
heating systems, draining mines, etc. 24 pages. 6x9. A copy 
will be mailed on application. 

Warren Brothers Company have published in pamphlet 
form the decision of the New York Supreme Court in the 
Rochester case, to the effect that patented pavements can be 
specified and that bitulithie is a kind of pavement and not 
merely a brand of material: also the judgment of the Su- 
preme Court of Alberta, Canada, sustaining the validity of the 
Canadian basic bitulithie patent. 

The Koehring Machine Company, Milwaukee, Wis., issue 
a striking circular regarding their mixers, with the title, 
"Care Right Xow Means Profits Then." 

Century creosoted wood blocks for interior use are shown 
in Booklet B, issued by the Pittsburg, Ohio and Michigan 
Wood Preserving Companies, whose general offices are in the 
Commonwealth building, Pittsbure, Pa. 

The Cement Tile Machinery Co., of Waterloo, Iowa, has a 
new catalog of S. & S. concrete machinery devoted to Winne/ 
and Money Maker brands of concrete mixers. 

The calcium chloride supplied by the Semet-Solvay Co., 
Syracuse, X. Y., is described in a booklet on Solvay granu- 

Jvne, 1915 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Protected with PYROBAR 




Y. M. C. A. Building, Brockton, Mass. Shattuck & Hussey, Chicago, Architects. 

Maximum efficiency and economy — used in countless public buildings 
of the first class. Scientific tests— official approval such as that of the 
National Board of Fire Underwriters— these are some of the reasons 
for the swiftly growing popularity of 

PYROBAR GYPSUM TILE 



ECONOMY 

In labor and many ways, 
and particularly in dead- 
load saving. Pyrobar is 
40% lighter than Terra 
Cotta Tile. 




Booklet on Request. 



SOUND PROOFING 

Pyrobar has been proved 
(by researches of the 
Lewis Institute, Chicago) 
60'?r more sound proof 
than Terra Cotta Tile. 



UNITED STATES GYPSUM COMPANY 

"World's Largest Producers of Gypsum Products" 

205 West Monroe Street CHICAGO 

New York Cleveland Kansas City Minneapolis San Francisco 



380 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



lated calcium chloride, published by the company, with figures 
of cost and illustrations of the method of applying it with a 
spreader to city streets, state highways, park and cemetery 
driveways, tennis courts, play grounds, cricket grounds, etc. 

S. B. Parker, Chicago, 111., issues circulars and catalog 
of reversible friction hoists and other machinery for contrac- 
tors' use. 

Albert E. Langfahl, Monticello, Utah, is representing the 
Baker Mfg. Co.. of Springfield, 111., making road graders, street 
sweepers and other such machinery and supplies and also 
represents the caterpillar tractor. 

The Russell Grader Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, Minn., have 
issued a new catalog of their road graders, wheel and drag 
scrapers, corrugated iron culverts, plows, road drags, etc. 

The Kinney Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass., have issued an edi- 
tion of Bulletin No. 1 on Kinney rotating plunger pumps, 
which include railroading asphalt or other bituminous mate- 
rials from tank cars, agitating asphalt cement in paving 
plants for heating, and the like; also catalog of machinery for 
handling bituminous materials on highway work. 

The Baker Mfg. Co., Chicago office 337 W. Madison St., 
send a circular on the Witten one-horse and hand automatic 
dump carts with illustrations of its many uses in street 
cleaning and in handling gravel, sand, farm products, pack- 
ages for shipment, etc. 

A new circular of Studebaker, South Bend, Ind„ fully de- 
scribes their uniform-pressure power street flusher and its 
use in cleaning streets. 

The Clip-Bar Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa., sends a circular 
on their method of protecting curb corners. 

The new Kissel-Kar booklet is a handsome example of work 
by the offset process and is devoted to the Kissel sixes. 

The Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, Ohio, issue a periodical bul- 
letin devoted to the many electric and railway appliances 
which they manufacture. 

The 1915 presentation of the Ashley system of sewage dis- 
posal for single houses and institutions and small groups of 
houses marks the tenth year since the system was first pre- 
sented and the material progress which the system has made. 
It will be sent on request by the Ashley Sewage Disposal Com- 
pany, Box 24, Morgan Park Sta„ Chicago, 111. 

The Universal Concrete Bar Co., 167 W. Washington St., 
Chicago, 111., will send on request a copy of a circular de- 
scriptive of their corner bar for protecting corners of side- 
walks, curbs, etc., and their joint protector for pavements. 

The Quantity Survey Co., 30 E. 42d St., New York, have 
issued a booklet on their application of the method of supply- 
ing guaranteed statements of quantities required in bidding 
on a contract which has long been in use in some form in 
European countries. 

In air meter bulletin A5 the New Jersey Meter Co., illus- 
trate and describe their Tool-om-eter, which is an improved 
type of compressed air meter. 

The Cement Gun Co. has issued bulletin No. 40 on protec- 
tion of structural steel in a ferry terminal by their method. 

Contracts have been awarded to the Raymond Concrete 
Pile Co. for concrete piles in the foundation of apartment 
building for Nels Gross, Chicago, 111.; by the Maryland Steel 
Co., Sparrows Point, Md., for building marine railway at their 
plant; by the McLennan Construction Co., Chicago, for con- 
crete piles for the Hardy apartment; and for concrete piling 
for the foundation of the Union National Bank Bldg., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

The Turbine Sewer Renovating Machine is very success- 
ful in cleaning sewers, as shown by a circular illustrating and 
describing work done by it in Portland, Ore., and Oshkosh, 
Wis., which can be obtained on application to the company 
at Milwaukee, Wis. 

The Link-Belt Co., Chicago, 111., sends two new circulars 



descriptive of the Wendell centrifugal coal drier and the Link- 
Belt electric hoist. 

Ransome concrete forms are shown in a recent booklet of 
the Ransome International Conduit Co., New York. 

The rapid loader for use in loading wagons from gondol.i 
cars and the rapid sand and gravel washer are the subjects of 
two circulars issued by the Bonney Supply Co., Rochester. X. 
Y. Both are great time and money savers for the contractor 
and the dealer in materials of construction. 

The new catalog of the Metropolitan Paving Brick Co., of 
Canton, Ohio, is deserving of hearty commendation. It is 
the most attractive catalog of its kind that has been reci ive 1, 
at the same time that it gives the advantages of the various 
processes thru which bricks pass in the course of manufacture 
and a full idea of the methods of making and burning vitrified 
paving blocks and other forms of brick. 

Pioneer expansion joint compound and asphalt filler are 
special products of the Pioneer Asphalt Co., Lawrenceville, 
111., which are described in a booklet issued by the company, 
which illustrates their use. 

D. Van Nostrand Co. have issued their 1915 catalog of Van 
Nostrand books, technical, industrial, engineering and scien- 
tific, and will send it on request of intending purchasers. 

"Permanent Paving" is the title of a handsome booklet 
issued by the Granite Paving Block Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion of the United States, which shows the durability of 
granite pavements and the advantages of improved granite 
pavements with dressed blocks and grouted joints. It will be 
sent on request by Zenas W. Carter, field secretary, 54 Devon- 
shire street, Boston, Mass. 

The Grand mortar mixer of the Hall-Holmes Mfg. Co., 
Jackson, Mich., is illustrated in a recent circular, together 
with a concrete mixer and a sand sifter. 

The E. D. Coddington Mfg. Co., North Milwaukee, Wis., 
issue a pamphlet descriptive of E-Cod fabric for concrete en- 
cased buildings. 

The Maney four-wheel scraper, self-loading and self-dump- 
ing, is fully shown in a booklet issued by the Baker Mfg. Co., 
Springfield, 111. 

The Orangeburg Conduit is the subject of a complete de- 
scriptive catalog and price list of 84 pages, fully illustrated 
with photographs and tables, which is issued by the Fibre 
Conduit Co., Orangeburg, N. Y. 

Studebaker carriages are shown in Catalog 1002 of the 
Studebaker Corporation, South Bend, Ind. 

The American Playgrounds Device Co., formerly The 
American Playground Device & Swing Co., of Terre Haute, 
Ind., have outgrown their old quarters, and have secured a 
new site and buildings at Anderson, Ind. They have also re- 
organized, increased their capital stock, and are now manu- 
facturing a very complete line of park and playground equip- 
ment and porch and lawn furniture at the latter place. 

Acme non-slip wood paving block are explained in a cir- 
cular of the Philadelphia Wood Paving Block Co., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Y concrete sockets for support of pipes, motors or any 
other apparatus, are shown in a circular of the Concrete 
Socket Mfg. Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 

The Hotchkiss Lock Metal Form Co., Binghamton, X. Y.. 
furnish gang forms for block construction, also post forms, 
silo, cistern and catch-basin forms. 

Kerr Turbine Co., Wellsville, X. Y., are distributing Bul- 
Ietin Xo. 53, on "Economy" exhaust steam turbines, which 
describes and illustrates typical installations and explains 
the conditions under which exhaust turbines can be made to 
produce large increase in power output practically without 
other expense than the cost of the turbine installation. A 
copy of this bulletin will be mailed upon request. 

June, 1915 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 
INDEX 



Vol. XLVIII. Nos. 4, 5, 6. April-June, 1915. (pp. 235 to 380.) 



Capital Letters, E., Q., W., L., M., Indicate Department Under Which Articles are Classified. 



Advertising a City by Moving Pttcures, 

by Albert Marple, Tropico. Cal 29S 

Asphalt as Paving Materials, Wood 

Fiber and 292 

Asphalt Block Construction Statistics. . 348 

Asphalt, El Oso 276, 301 

Asphaltlc Macadam and Asphaltic Con- 
crete for Pavements. Use of 299 

Asphalt Pavement, Fibered 272 

Asphalt Pavements, Construction Sta- 
tistics 344 

Asphalt Repairs in Pittsburgh, Cost of. 300 

Bitulithic, Durability of 2S0 

Bitulithic Patents Sustained. Canadian . .277 

Bitulithic Pavements, Construction Sta- 
tistics 345 

Bituminous Concrete, Construction Sta- 
tistics 349 

Bituminous Macadam, Construction Sta- 
tistics 347 

Bitulithic. Rochester can Cpecify 305 

Boulevard Construction in Philadelphia, 
Pa., Road and 242 

Brick Pavement on Old Macadam Base, 
by Ett S. Smith, County Engineer of 
Mahoning County, Youngstown, 0....312 

Brick Pavements. Construction Statis- 
tics 344 

Brick Pavements after Street Excava- 
tions, Replacing, by P. J. Masterson, 
Superintendent of Street Repairs, 
Cleveland, 30S 

Brick Pavements, Grouting 280 

Brick Pavements, Illinois Specifications 
for Concrete 309 

Bridge Floors, Wood Block and Granite 
for, by Edward A. Byrne, Assistant 
Chief Engineer, Department of 
Bridges, New York City 337 

Bridges and Building's in Cities, Con- 
struction Statistics 267 

Bridges, County Road, Construction Sta- 
tistics 268 

Building Construction, New Type of 
Pressed Steel 376 

Buildings in Cities, Bridges and. Con- 
struction Statistics 267 

Business. Future 283 

Car Unloaders and Conveyors, Box 27(1 

Charters, Constitutional Limitations of 

Home-Rule City 302 

Chemicals. Treating Water with 272 

Chicago's Municipal Repair Shop, by C. 

C. Saner, C. E., Chicago, 111 289 

Cincinnati, A Comprehensive Clean-Up 

ampaign for 303 

Cinders for Road Construction 272 

Civic Improvements. Practical Aid Want- 
ed for 2 73 

Civil Engineering at Illinois, The New 

Professor of 313 

Civil Service Examinations 279. 367 

Clarksburg Water Works, Efficient Mu- 
nicipal Operation of 307 

Clean Streets, How to 322 

Clean-Up Campaign for Cincinnati, A 

Comprehensive 303 

Clean-Up Week in Philadelphia 301 

Comfort Station in Salt Lake Citv, 

Public 251 

Commission Government and an Engi- 
neer Manager for Lakeland. Fla . by 
H. D. Mendenhall. Consulting Engi- 
neer 2 4 9 

Compensation for Water Furnished City. 

Exemption from Taxation as 302 

Competition of Private and Government 

Engineers 283 

Concrete and Brick Pavements, Illinois 
Specifications for 309 



Concrete, A Perishable Plate for Expan- 
sion Joints in 324 

Concrete, Bituminous, Construction Sta- 
tistics 349 

Concrete Combined Curb and Gutter. 

Construction Statistics 355 

Concrete for Damp Proofing, c hi Mixed. 375 
Concrete for Pavements, Use of Asphal- 
tic Macadam and Asphaltic 299 

Concrete Mixer, Power-Driven S] i 

for 375 

Concrete Mixer, The Master 375 

Concrete Pavements. Construction Sta- 
tistics :: i i 

Concrete Pavements and Sidewalks. 
Method of Proportioning Materials 

for 275 

Concrete Pavements, How to Prevent the 

Reflection of Light and Heat from... 373 
Concrete Pavements with Bituminous 

Top, Construction Statistics 345 

Concrete, Ponding for Curing 364 

Concrete Road, Difficult Construction of. 310 
Concrete Structures, An Edge Protector 

for 374 

Contractors, Conveyors and Loaders for. 282 

Contractors Pump, A 37S 

Conventions at the Panama-Pacific Ex- 
position 36S 

Conveyors and Loaders for Contractors. 2S2 

Conveyors, Box Car Unloaders and 276 

Cost of a Road. Price and, by H. E. 
Bilger, M. Am. Soc. C. E., Road Engi- 
neer, Illinois State Highway Depart- 
ment. Springfield, 111 286 

Cost of Asphalt Repairs in Pittsburgh. . 300 
Cost, Portland Cement Production and.. 366 
Cost of Street Sprinkling and Sweeping 

with Mules and Motors. Comparative. .305 
County Roads, 1915. Construction Statis- 
tics 257 

Creosoted Wood Block. Construction Sta- 
tistics 348 

Crossing, Shockless Railroad, bv E. S. 

Cobb, Los Angeles, Cal 362 

Culverts. Small Highway 316 

Curb and Gutter, Concrete Combined, 

Construction Statistics 355 

Curb and Gutter in Cities. Construction 

Statistics 262 

Curb and Gutter in County Work, Con- 
struction Statistics 263 

Curb, Gutter and Sidewalks, Changes in 

Specifications for 365 

Curbs, Construction Statistics 352 

Damp Proofing, Oil-Mixed Concrete for. 375 
Decisions of Higher Courts of Interest 

to Municipalities 302 

Drains for County Roads. Construction 

Statistics 265 

Edge Protector for Concrete Structures, 
An 374 

Education for Foreign Trade, Commer- 
cial 366 

Electric Power, Making Ice with Pur- 
c ased, by Charles A. Tripp, Consult- 
ing Engineer, Indianapolis, [nd, ..294 

El ' >so Asphalt 16 101 

Employers. Of Interest to \6'i 

Engineering Congress, The Interna- 
tional 366 

Engineering Foundation, The 

Engineer Manager for Lakeland, Kla . 
Commission Government and an, by 
H. D. Mendenhall, Consulting Engi- 
neer 2 4 9 

Engineers. Competition of Private and 
Government 2S3 

Exemption from Taxation as Compensa- 
tion for Water Furnished City 302 

Exnansion Joints in Concrete, A Per- 
ishable Plate for 324 



Fertilizer, Garbage Reduced to 299 

Fiber and Asphalt as Paving Materials, 

Wood 292: 

Fibered Asphalt Pavement 272 

Filtration Plant at Quincy, 111., The 
New Water, by W. R. Gelston. Super- 
intendent, Quincy. Ill 297 

Fire Apparatus, Tires for ?63 

Fire Department Additions, Construc- 
tion Statistics . . 270 

Fire Department, A Valuable Addition 

to the 281 

Foreign Trade, Commercial Education 

for 36u' 

Forester, Ordinance Governing City.... 274 
Fuel out of Garbage. Making, bv \v i 
Hornaday. Austin, Tex 304 

G irbage and Refuse Collection and Dis- 
posal in St. Louis, Mo 340 

Garbage Collection and Disposal, Con- 
struction Statistics 270 

Garbage, Making Fuel out of, by W. D. 

Hornaday, Austin. Tex 304 

Garbage Reduced to Fertilizer 299 

Gasolabra for Modern ornamental Street 

Lighting 2X0 

Gas Plant of St. Petersburg, Fla., The 

Municipal 240 

Grading in Cities — 1915, Street, Con- 
struction Statistics 257 

Grading in Counties — 1915, County, Con- 
struction Statistics 258 

Granite for Bridge Floors. Wood Block 
and, by Edward A. Byrne, Assistant 
Chief Engineer, Department of 

Bridges, New York City 337 

Gravel Streets, Construction Statistics. 351 

Grouting Brick Pavements 281 

Guaranty Reduced to Five Years, Syra- 
cuse Pavement 27S 

Gutter and Sidewalks, Changes in Speci- 
fications for Curb 365 

Gutter, Concrete Combined Curb and. 

Construction Statistics 355 

Gutter in Cities, Curb and Construction 

Statistics 262 

Gutter in County Work, Curb and, Con- 
struction Statistics 263 

Cutters. Construction Statistics . ... 352 

Hagar Portland Cement Co., The 363 

Heat from Concrete Pavements, How to 

Prevent the Reflection of Light and. . .373 
Hetherington and Berner Road Plant, 

The 281 

Highland Park, III., Improvement of 

Sl-eridan I toad in. I>v Stanley E. Bates. 

Chicago, III 350 

Highway Culverts, Small 316 

Highway, Financing and Building a 

County 32S 

Highways and Their Feeders. Markers 

for National 363 

Highways, National 327 

Highway, The National Parks 364 

Home-Rule City, Charters. Constitu- 
tional Limitations of 302 

Hong Kong, China, The Water Supply 

of 365 

Ice with Purchased Electric Power, 
Making, by Charles A. Tripp. Con- 
sulting Engineer. Indianapolis, Ind...294 

Illinois Specifications for Concrete and 
Brick Pavements 309 

Illinois, The New Professor of Civil En- 
gineering at 313 

International Engineering Com i 

The 366 

Jitney Busses in St. Louis, Regulation 
of S41 



INDEX 



Joints in Concrete, A Perishable Plate 
for Expansion 32 4 

Kansas City, Kan., Municipal Water and 
Light Plant of, by P. W. Morgan 
Kansas City, Mo 28* 

Lakeland, Fla., Commission Government 
and in Engineer Manager for, by H. 
D. Mendenhall, Consulting Engineer. .249 

Light and Heat from Concrete Pave- 
ments, How to Prevent the Reflection 
of 373 

Lighting, Gasolabra for Modern Orna- 
mental Street 280 

Lighting Improvements, Construction 
Statistics 267 

Lighting Service, Efficient alS 

Lighting of London, Street, by W. B. 
Conant, Concord, Mass 333 

Light Plant of Kansas City, Kan., Muni- 
cipal Water and, by P. W. Morgan, 
Kansas City, Mo ;'S?„ 

Loaders for Contractors, Conveyors and. 282 

London in the Dark, by Raymond K. 
Cummings 314 

London, Street Lighting of, by W. B. 
Conant, Concord, Mass 333 

Macadam and Asphaltic Concrete for 
Pavements, Use of Asphaltic 299 

Macadam Base, Brick Pavement on old. 
by Ett S. Smith, County Engineer, Ma- 
honing County, Youngstown, 312 

Macadam, Bituminous, Construction Sta- 
tistics • ■ -347 

Macadam Road to Meet Modern Traffic, 
Strengthening 318 

Macadam, Water Bound, Construction 
Statistics 345 

Machine vs. Hand Sweeping 31 1 

Mixer, Machine Placing and Crew 
Handling, Koehring Catalog a Valua- 
ble Book on 317 

Mixer, Power-Driven Spout for Con- 
crete • * o7.t 

Mixer, "The Master Concrete 375 

Motors, Comparative Cost of Street 
Sweeping and Sprinkling with Mules 
and 305 

Municipal Engineering, The New 235 

Municipal Gas Plant of St. Petersburg, 
Fla - •" 

Municipal Improvements for 1915. What 
the Cities and Counties of the United 
States expect to Construct during 
1915 252 

Municipal Improvements, Prospective. . 23o 

Municipal Operation of Clarksburg Water 
W r orks, Efficient 307 

Municipal Railway, Profits of San Fran- 
cisco 363 

Municipal Repair Shop, Chicago's, by 
C. C. Saner, C. E., Chicago, 111 289 

Municipal Swimming Pool in St Louis, 
Large 364 

Municipal Water and Light Plant, of 
Kansas City, Kan., by P. W. Morgan, 
Kansas City, Mo 284 

Mules and Motors. Comparative Cost of 
Street Sweeping and Sprinkling with. 305 

Oiled Roads and Streets, Construction 

Statistics 347 

Oil Engine is Popular, The Mietz and 

" Weiss 376 

Oil-Mixed Concrete for Damp Proofing. .37 5 

Ordinance Governing City Forester 274 

Oswego, Public Service Commission for. 367 

Panama-Pacific Exposition, Conventions 
at the 368 

Patented Pavements, Specifications for.. 272 

Patents Sustained, Canadian Bitulithic. .277 

Patents Sustained, Warren Paving Ma- 
chinery 302 

Pavement. Fibered Asphalt 272 

Pavement Guaranty Reduced to Five 
Tears, Syracuse 278 

Pavement on old Macadam Base, Brick, 
by Ett S. Smith, County Engineer, 
Mahoning County, Youngstown, O. . .312 

Pavements after Street Excavations, Re- 
placing Brick, by P. J. Masterson, Su- 
perintendent of Street Repairs, Cleve- 
land, O 308 

Pavements and Sidewalks. Mettiod of 
Proportioning Materials for Concrete. 275 

Pavements, Asphalt, Construction Sta- 
tistics 344 

Pavements, Bitulithic, Construction Sta- 
tistics 345 

Pavements, Brick Construction Statis- 
tics 344 

Pavements, Concrete, Construction Sta- 
tistics 344 

Pavements for Old, New 322 

Pavements, Grouting Brick 280 

Pavements, How to Prevent the Reflec- 
tion of Light and Heat from Con- 
crete 373 

Pavements, Illinois specifications for 
Concrete and Brick 309 



Pavements, Specifications for Patented. 272 

Pavements, statistics of Street 299 

Pavements, Use of Asphaltic Macadam 

and Asphaltic Concrete for 299 

Pavements with Bituminous Top, Con- 
crete, Construction Statistics 345 

Paving Machinery Patents Sustained, 

Warren 302 

Paving Specifications, Closed, Open or 

Alternate 300 

Paving Materials, Wood Fiber and As- 
phalt as 292 

Personal Notes 279, 314, 368 

Philadelphia, Clean-lip Week in 301 

Philadelphia Posts Information about a 

Newly Paved Street 364 

Phoenix, Politics and the City Manager 

in 276 

Pictures, Advertising a City by Mov- 
ing, bv Albert Marple, Tropico, Cal. .298 
Pittsburgh, Cost of Asphalt Repairs in. 300 
Pogue's Run, Indianapolis, Ind., Im- 
provement of 230 

Police Department Improvements, Con- 
struction Statistics 270 

Politics and the City Manager in 

Phoenix 276 

Ponding for Curing Concrete 364 

Price and Cost of a Road, by H. E. 
Bilger, M, Am. Soc. C. E., Road Engi- 
neer Illinois State Highway Depart- 
ment, Springfield, 111 286 

Proceedings for Citv to Acquire Private 

Water Works Plant 302 

Publications Received 315, 369 

Publications, Trade 282 

Public Service Commission for Oswego. .367 
Pump, A Contractors 378 

Quincy, 111., The New Water Filtration 
Plant at, by W. R. Gelston, Superin- 
tendent, Quincy, 111 297 

Railroad Crossing, Shockless, by E. S. 

Cobb. Los Angeles, Cal 362 

Railway, Profits of San Francisco Muni- 
cipal 363 

Refuse Collection and Disposal in St. 

Louis, Mo., Garbage and 340 

Refuse Collection in River Forest, 111.. 301 
Regulation of Jitney Busses in St. Louis. 341 
Repair Shop, Chicago's Municipal, by C. 

C. Saner, C. E., Chicago, 111 289 

Repairs in Pittsburgh. Cost of Asphalt. 300 
Road and Boulevard Construction in 

Philadelphia, Pa 242 

Road Congress, Pan American 278 

Road Construction, Cinders for 272 

Road Bridges, County, Construction Sta- 
tistics 26S 

Road, Difficult Construction of Con- 
crete 310 

Road Grading in Counties — 1915, Con- 
struction Statistics 258 

Road Plant, The Hetherington and 

Berner 281 

Road, Price and Cost of a, by H. E. 
Bilger, M. Am. Soc. C. E., Road Engi- 
neer, Illinois State Highway Depart- 
ment, Springfield, 111 286 

Roads and Streets, Oiled 347 

Roads are Not Wanted. Where Good... 275 
Roads, Drains for County, Construction 

Statistics 265 

Road Signs, County, Construction Statis- 
tics 270 

Roads Year Book, The Good 27S 

Road, The Rocmae 370 

Road to Meet Modern Traffic, Strength- 
ening Macadam 318 

Rochester can Specify Bitulithic 305 

Rocmae Road, The 370 

St Petersburg, Fla., The Municipal Gas 
Plant of 240 

St. Louis, Large Municipal Swimming 
Pool in 364 

St. Louis, Mo., Garbage and Refuse Col- 
lection and Disposal in 340 

St. Louis, Regulation of Jitney Busses 
in ..' 341 

Salt Lake Citv, Public Comfort Station 
m 251 

San Francisco Municipal Railway, Pro- 
fits of 3S3 

Sewage Disposal Plants 266 

Sewer Construction — 1915, Construction 
Statistics 2 04 

Sheridan Road in Highland Park. 111., 
Improvement of, by Stanley E. Bates, 
Chicago, 111 359 

Sidewalk Improvement in the United 
States and Canada, Street and, Con- 
struction Statistics 347 

Sidewalks, Construction Statistics 352 

Sidewalks, Changes in Specifications for 
Curb, Gutter and 365 

Sidewalks in Cities— 1915, Construction 
Statistics 261 

Sidewalks in County Work. Construction 
Statistics 262 

Sidewalks, Method of Proportioning Ma- 
terials for Concrete Pavements and.. 275 



Signs, County Road, Construction Statis- 
tics -7n 

Signs, Street, Construction Statistics .... 270 

Specifications, Closed Open, or Alternate 
Paving 300 

Specifications for Concrete and Brick 
Pavements, Illinois 309 

Specifications for Curb, Gutter and Side- 
walks, Changes in 365 

Specifications for Patented Pavements. .272 

Specification of "An Approved Pattern" 
Insufficient 302 

Specification of "A Sufficient Quantity" 
is Valid 305 

Spout for Concrete Mixer, Power-Driv- 
en 375 

Sprinkling with Mules and Motors, Com- 
parative Cost of Street Sweeping and. 305 

Statistics of Street Pavements 299 

Steel Building Construction, New Type 
of Pressed 376 

Stone Block, Construction Statistics. ... 351 

Street ard Sidewalk Improvement in the 
United States and Canada, Construc- 
tion Statistics 343 

Street Excavations, Replacing Brick 
Pavements after, by P. J. Masterson, 
Superintendent of Street Repairs, 
Cleveland, 308 

Street Grading in Cities — 1915, Con- 
struction Statistics 257 

Street Lighting, Gasolabra for Modern 
Ornamental 280 

Street Lighting of London, by W. B. 
Conant, Concord, Mass 333 

Street Pavements, Statistics of 299 

Street, Philadelphia Posts Information 
about a Newly Paved 364 

Streets, Gravel, Construction Statistics. 351 

Streets, How to Clean 322 

Street Signs, Construction Statistics. ... 2T0 

Streets, Oiled Roads and, Construction 
Statistics 347 

Street Sweeping and Sprinkling with 
Mules and Motors, Comparative Cost 
of 305 

Sweeping and Sprinkling with Mules and 
Motors, Comparative Cost of Street. . .305 

Sweeping, Machine vs. Hand 317 

Swimming Pool in St. Louis, Large Mu- 
nicipal 364 

Swimming Pool, Toledo 291 

Tamper, An Efficient Power Trench 324 

Taxation as Compensation for Water 

Furnished Citv, Exemption from 302 

Technical Associations 278, 314, 368 

Technical Schools 279, 367 

Tires for Fire Apparatus 363 

Tires on Exposition Busses, Wireless . .326 

Trade Notes 326, 378 

Trade Publications 282, 378 

Traffic, Strengthening Macadam Road to 

Meet Modern 3 1 S 

Trench Tamper, An Efficient Power 324 

Valve, Badger Water 370 

Water and Light Plant of Kansas City, 
Kan., Municipal, by P. W. Morgan, 
Kansas City, Mo 284 

Water Bound Macadam, Construction 
Statistics 345 

Water Filtration Plant at Quincy, 111., 
The New, by W. R. Gelston, Superin- 
tendent, Quincy, III 297 

Water from Deep Wells in Northern Illi- 
nois, Improved, by C. B. Williams, Hy- 
draulic and Sanitary Engineer, Chica- 
go, 111., before the Illinois Section of 
the American Water Works Associa- 
tion 306 

Water Furnished City, Exemption from 
Taxation as Compensation for 302 

Waterproofing, Minerva 282 

Waterproofing Paste, Medusa 280 

Water Supply of Hong Kong, China, 
The 365 

Water Valve, Badger 370 

Water with Chemicals, Treating 272 

Water Works, Efficient Municipal Ope- 
ration of Clarksburg 307 

Water Works Improvements, Construc- 
tion Statistics 266 

Water Works Plant, Proceedings for 
City to Acquire Private 302 

Wells in Northern Illinois, Improved 
Water from Deep, by C. B. Williams, 
Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineer, Chi- 
cago, 111., before the Illinois Section of 
tiie American Water Works Associa- 
tion 306 

Wire-Cut-Lug Brick, French Engineer 
Advocates 316 

\\ 1 Block and Granite for Bridge 

Floors, by Edward A. Byrne, Assistant 
Chief Engineer. Department of 
Bridges, New York City 337 

\\ I Block, Creosoted, Construction 

Statistics " 348 

Wood Fiber and Asphalt as Paving Ma- 
terials 292 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



INDEX 



July — December, 1915 



VOLUME XLIX 



Engineering Publishing Company 

INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA 
NEW YORK, N. Y. CHICAGO, ILL 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 

INDEX 



Vol. XLIX. June-December, 1915. 



Capital Letters, E., Q., W., L., M., Indicate Department Under Which Articles are Classified. 



Activated Sludge Experiments in Canada 

by R O. Wynne-Roberts, I ' -m ing 

Engineer 68 

Alley I'aving in Chicago, Concrete. W. .147 
i >nal Ownership of Public Utili- 
ties in, b yMilo A. Jevvett, Kehl, Ger- 
mans' 65 

Americ i n Society of Municipal Cm] ro 

rm nl ' ' ii I '■' I. 119, 1S9 

Anchors, New Model Drive and Twist. . .158 
Armor Plates, The Installation of Kahn. 37 
Asphalt and Brick Pavements, Life and 

Maintenance Cost of. Q is 

W 23 

Asphalt "i. Export of ir.fi 

Mixing Plant, New Portable. ... 36 
Asjhalt Plant for Calcutta. .Municipal. . .122 
Asphalt Plant, Los Angeles, Municipal .. 116 
Asphalt Repairs in Small Municipalities 

by W. H .Taylor, Jr., Norfolk, Va 171 

Asphalt Roadways for Very Light Traf- 
fic I in 

What is Natural 121 

Assesment on Railroad P ■ gal 
ity of Street 210 

Bear Grass Creek Improvement, Louis- 
Ill Ky 213 

Bitulithii nristi 37 

Bitulitbic, Resurfacing Macadam Sti 

with SS 

Bituminous Construction, Types of, bj 
Francis P. Smith, New York City, L68 

Btiuminous Surfaces on Country Roads. 

ruction of 71 

Bond, Provision of Contract for Paving 
and tls Surety. Q 179 

Rook, Lincoln 1 1 ■ ■' ■ ■ ■■ . i li.ide 34 

Books on A I ■ i in ■_: 179 

Books on Si isal US 

I ii .- ibn i - on Eni ranee on, 

by W. B. oCnant, Concord, Mass 13 

Brick Makers Organize to Improve Their 
Art 119 

Brick Pavements. Life and Maintenance 

if Asphalt and. Q IS 

Brick Paving, Vertical Fiber, bj Ja i 
Tucker. Norman Okla Ill 

Brick Road Construction, A New I pe 
of :, ; 

Brick Roads c trow in Favor i 

Brick, Vitrified Paving 77 

tent, Concrete ami 
Cast Iron Blocks for. W 62 

Bridges and i Qghways, Width of 114 

ing, by Frank R. Lai 



r Oi 

34. Nil, 121, 153, 

Calgary, Street Cleaning in 72 

Cameron Septic Process Patent Still in 

Force, United States Court Holds, bj 

H. D. Wyllie. :\ , 

i 'url'V Svstotu of Lighting, 
Catch Ba | 

Cement G ction. M: J 

Cement, Yardage of Pavement Base per 

Sack of. Q 20 

Charter for Newark, N. J., Pri 

New 1411 

Chemical Engine, Efficiency of tin 

Irving W. Sibrel, South Bend, Ind . . . .149 
.i I Extinguisl mi nt ol 

Large Seal.- ■ "i 

Chemical, The Ford First Ud. . . i 

Chemical Treatment of Garbage. Q. ... 59 
Chicago, and Electrification oi ' 

Smoke Prevention in 202 

Chicago Smoke Problem Preei] ta 
Chimney in a Cyclone. A 82 



Chlorine Gas. Water Sterilization by... 210 
Cities in Municipal Trading, Legal Pow- 
ers of 24 

City and Its Problems, The Modern 68 

| ii Engineer's Records in Frankfort, 
Ind., by R.'II. Boynton, City Engr. . . . 7S 
i Forms of Government 

Commission and 52 

Civil Service Examinat.ons 

34, M. 121, 154, 190, 235 

i Ilea ''in:' .i nd s» ■■•■ . n" Machinery, 

Street 244 

< 'loaning Apparatus and Appliances, New 

York Exhibition of Street 32 

' 'loaning in Calgary, Street 72 

Cleaning, Machinery and Methods for 

Street. Q 20 

Cleaning, Modern Street 12 4 

Cleaning, Motor Truck Catch Basin. ...241 
Cleaning Reservoirs, Portable Drilling 
Rig on Road and Stroet Work — Per- 
formance Records in Cutting Trenches 

and 123 

Collection and Disposal of City "Wastes. 219 
Commission and City Manager Forms of 

Government 52 

Commissioners, Engine, i Rrge Qualifi- 
cations of Utility 116 

Commission Manager, Dayton's Progress 
Under, by Wm. S. Crandall, Davton, 

Ohio 67 

Computer, The Ross Precision 242 

Concrete Alley Paving in Chicago. W. .147 
Concrete and Cast Iron Blocks for Bridge 

Gutter Pavement. W 62 

Concrete by the Use of Hydrated Lime. 

Improving 211 

Concrete for Country Roads, Increase in 

Use of 182 

Concrete, Gravel. E 1 

Concrete, Gravel Aggregate for, by W. 
EC. Tlatt. Director of Laboratory for 
Testing Materials, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind 2 

Concrete Mixers, Standard Rating of 

Batch 162 

' loncrete I'm emeni on I leave i irade in 

Wisconsin 30 

i loncrete I'm ements, Integral ' !urb for, 

by C. D. Prank in; 

Concrete Pavements on Cook Co, Roads, 
New . .182 

1 i .iiling. Q. 60 

Concrete Road, Plan for Curve on G 

Novel 6 9 

Concrete Roads of Wayne County, 

'i ii igan 23,1 

Surfaces, Wate) proofini 106 

Concrete, Temperature and Strength of. 188 

1 loncrete Viaduct al San Diego 1 05 

i longress, International Engineering. .. .120 

i s, Pan-American Road so. 120 

■ ■ i mi. Proposed New York. E...129 

for I'm ing and Its 

Bond, Provisions of. Q 179 

Contract, Liability -for Dan Bo 

by Dynamite Cap Left on Street 216 

Contractor and Engineer, Business Re- 
lation Between, by H. B. Bushnell. . . 73 
Contractor and of Mortgagee in Sti 

ture Attached to Real Estate, Rights 

of 215 

Contractor, Diversion of Special Fund 

Not Bar to Recovery from City by*. . .210 
Contractor's Surety Liable, for Sup] 

but Not for Equipment 116 

Contractor, The Motor Truck and the. 

W 180 

Contract, Sufficiency of Description of 

Work Under 216 

Contract Work, Liability of City for 

Damages for Injury on 215 



Convention, A Notable. E 163 

Convention of A. S. M. 1 119 

Convict Labor on Highways. W 23 

Convict Labor on Montana Roads 7fi 

Convict Road Work Pay? Does 77 

Cost of Asphalt and Brick Pavement, 

Life and Maintenance. Q IS 

Cosi of Roads, Non-resident Users 

Should Pav Their Share Of. ... 
Cost of Wood Block Paving in Findlay, 

Ohio 195 

Costs of Operation. Recent Develop- 
ments in Fire-Fighting Apparatus — 

Comparative Statements of 185 

Councilman, Disqualified for Other Of- 
fice by Voting on His Own Resigna- 
tion as 216 

ted Block Pavements Increasi 
by Modern Methods of Treatment, 
Durability of, by Frank W. Cherring- 

: ii. Toledo, 230 

Creosote Oil, Improved 36 

Creosoting Wood Pa\ ng Blocks, Speci- 

ficati mis of c til for 233 

Curb at Street Corners. Increased Ra- 
dius of 183 

Curb for Concrete Pavement, Integral, 

by C. D. Frank 116 

1 'mil Forms, Steel Side and 83 

Cyclone, A Chimney in a 82 

Damages for Change of Grade of High- 
way 217 

Dayton, Ohio, Flood Prevention Plans 

for, by Wm. S. Crandall, Dayton. ... 103 
Dayton's Progress Under Commission 
Manager, by Wm. S. Crandall, Day- 
ton, Ohio 67 

Denver, Colo., Connecting Roads to 
Mountain Parks of, by Otto B. TI111111, 

Denver, Colo 15 

I 'esigns Protected. Engineering 121 

Directory of Cement Manufacturers. 

Q 18 

Disposal of City Wastes, Collection and.. 219 
I hilling Rig on Road and Street Work% 
Performance Records in Cutting 
Trenches and Cleaning Reservoirs. 

Portable 123 

Drills and Rammers, Pneumatic 197 

Drinking Fountain. A Novel 70 

Dryer Tunnels with Pavement Roof.... S4 



Electrical Apparatus for Thawing Out 

Water Pipes 1S8 

city and Lime, Treatment of 

ee with 222 

Electric Light Plant of South Norwalk, 

Conn 137 

Electric Pump Wagon 28 

p:iectric Street Lights, Gas and 96 

Electrification of Railroads 2nl 

Electrification of Railroads, Smoke Pre- 
vention in Chicago and 202 

Electrolytic Sewage Treatment Plant at 
Durant. Okla., by W. L. Benham. Okla- 
homa City 141 

El Oso Asphalt. W 23 

Engine, Efficiency of the Chemical, by 

Irving W. Sibrel, South Bend. Ind 149 

Engineer. Business Relation Between 

Contractor and, by H. B. Bushnell.... 73 
Engineering Congress, International. ... 120 
Engineers, American Association of... 120 
Engineers Urge Qualifications of Utility 

Commissioners 116 

Engine Receives High Award at Pan- 
ama-Pacific Exposition. Mietz Oil.... 198 
English Motor Fire Engines 26 



Excavating and Handling Material, Time 

Study on 77 

Excavation in Busy Street, Shovel 157 

Excavator and Loader. Albrecht S3 

Excavator Operation, Gumbo Wheel, by 

C. D. and J. T. Pierson, Lewis, Ind. . 193 
Excavator, Sewer Construction in Chi- 
cago, 111., with a Ladder Type, by 

Stanley E. Bates 193 

Exhibition ot Street Cleaning Apparatus 
and Appliances, New York 32 



Filtration Plants, Small. W 21 

Financial Outlook. E 45 

Fire Apparatus as Philanthropist's Gift 

to Village, Motor 196 

Fire Apparatus Increases Fire Depart- 
ment Efficiency, Motor 22 

Fire Apparatus. Knox Four-Wheel Trac- 
tor for 198 

Fire Apparatus, Motor 107 

Fire Department Notes 152, 1ST, 228 

Fire Department, The Municipal. E... 31 
Fire Engineers. Cincinnati Convention of 

the International Association of 153 

Fire Engines, English Motor 26 

Fire-Fighting Apparatus — Comparative 
Statements of Cost of Operation. Re- 
cent Developments in 185 

Fire Losses as Affected by Motor-Driven 

Equipment. E 1 2 9 

Fire Loss, Water Co. Liable for 215 

Fire Prevention Exhibition at Boston.. 240 
Fire Service Systems in Operation, High- 
Pressure 161 

Fires on a Large Scale, Cliem ca! Ex- 
tinguishment of 239 

Flood Prevention Plans for Dayton. O . 

by Win. S. Crandall 103 

Flush Tank, Combined Swimming Pool 

and 212 

Forms, Steel Side and Curb 83 

Franchise, New Telephone. Q 60 

Franchise Rate for Street Railway Fare. 
Public Service Commission Cannot In- 
crease 1S4 

Frankfort, Ind.. City Engineer's K. . - 
ords in, by R. H. Boynton, City En- 
gineer 7 S 

Garbage and Refuse Disposal in San 

Francisco, Plans for 223 

Garbage and Refuse Disposal Methods. 

Q 19 

Garbage, Chemical Treatment of. Q. . . 59 
Garbage Collection, A Sanitary Method 

of. W '. 61 

Garbage Collection by the City IS 

Garbage Destructor, Gas Burning House- 
hold 191 

Garbage Trucks, Wagons and Carts. 

Makers of. Q 18 

Gas and Electric Street Lights 915 

Gas Burning Household Garbage De- 
structor 191 

Government Changes, Recent City US 

Grade of Highway, Damages for Change 

of 217 

Grading Machine Loads Nine Two-Yard 

Wagons in Ten Minutes 124 

Gravel Aggregate for Concrete, by W. 
K. Hatt. Director of Laboratory for 
Testing Materials, Purdue University, 

Lafayette, Ind . 2 

Gravel Concrete. E 1 

Gutter Pavement, Concrete and Cast 
Iron Blocks for Bridge. W 62 

Highway Construction, State Expendi- 
tures for 74 

Highway, Damages for Change of Grade 

of 217 

Highway Guide Book, Lincoln 34 

Highway Location. E 1 

Highway, Program of Permanency on 
the Pacific, by Arthur P. Denton, En- 
gineer. King Co., Wash 30 

Highways, Convict Labor on. W 23 

Highways in the War, French 32 

Highways, Transcontinental .' . 77 

Highways, Width of Bridges and 114 

" Rule for Kansas. Municipal 23.". 

Hydrant Thawing Apparatus 117 

Ice Plants, Municipal US 

Illinois Road Law, Changes in the 75 

Illumination of Charleston, W. Va. W. 181 
Injury on Contract W r ork, Liability of 

City for Damages for 215 

Iron Blocks for Bridge Gutter Pave- 
ment, Concrete and Cast. W 62 

Irrigation System of Prosser, Wash.. 
Municipal 2 OS 

Koehring 1916 Changes 42 

Law T n Motors. Motor Driven 191 

Legal Powers of Cities in Municipal 
Trading 24 



Liable for Damage. Citj Musi Care for 

Sewage — Individual Not 215 

Liable for Supplies, but Not for Equip- 
ment, Contractor's Surety 216 

Liability tor Damage from Settlement ol 

Trench 216 

Liability for Damage to Boy bv Dyna- 
mite Cap Left on S 

Liability for Defect i\ • '.liar I ■ in 

Sidewalk 215 

Liability lor Failure of Water Supply. 

E 

Liability of Sun . .', hen .215 

Library Building of the Charleston, S. 

C, Library Society 1112 

i a I- ixtu're, New T\ pe 

Lighting System Before You Buy, You 

See Your 122 

I ligl i in-:. Tl e I 'at bi< Sysi m of 240 

Lighting I'nils, Nov Designs for Strict. 221 
Light Plant of South Norwalk, Conn., 

Electric 137 

Lights, Gas and Electric Street 96 

Lime, Improving Concrete by the Use of 

Hydrated 211 

L me, Treatment of 

trieitv and 

London, Wall of the City of 12 

Los Angeles Municipal Asphalt Plant. . .116 
Louisville, K. i: im- 
provement 2 13 

Macadam Streets with Bitulithic, Resur- 
facing 88 

Maintenance Cost of Asphalt and Brick 

Pavements, Life and. Q is 

Metal structures, Protection of 33 

Meter Holding Yoke ami Expansion Con- 
nection, The New Ford 192 

Meters, Best nay to Sel iVater to. Q 179 
.Mixers, .standard Rating of Batch Con- 
crete 162 

Mixer, Toe No. 10 Rex LS*i 

Mixing Plant. New Portable Asphalt... 30 
Motor Driven Equipment, l-'nv l,o--. 

Affected by. E 129 

Motor Driven Lawn Mowers 191 

Motor Driven Squeegee i sed for First 
Time on Streets ol Milwaukee, Wis... 123 

Motor Fire Apparatus 10 7 

Motor Fire Apparatus as Philanthro- 
pist's Gift to Village 196 

Motor Fire Engine, English 26 

Motor Rollers for War Country 22 

Motor Traffic, Increase in 209 

Motor Truck and the Contractor. V'v . . . . M' 

.Motor Truck, A New Light 237 

Motor Ti iM Catc.i Ba n i ',. aning . .241 

Motor Truck Data 201 

Motor Truck Operation ail Account- 
ing, by Chas. A. Dick.ms hi, I 10 

Motor 'i i uck, >•■> ere 1 22a 

Municipal Engineering, Books on. Q..179 
.Municipal Improvements, Dayton Con- 
vention of Amer. Sec, of 189 

\llinicipa hi,. • I i. I- ..f l ho I iiyln.-r 

Courts of Interest to 215 

Municipal Ownership, Growth of 79 

Municipal Plant Shows Profit. A' 147 

Municipal Reports? Who Reads. E....129 
Municipal Than] Service, A 2.5 



New York Constitution. P ... K..I29 

Oil Engine Receives ' tigh Award at 
Panama- Pa citi. i ■ .n, Mietz....l98 

Oiler, New Chicago < "pe Road 44 

Oil for Creosoting Wi c Paving B'ocks, 
Specifications of 

Oil, Improved Creosote. . 36 

Ownership of Public Utilities in Alsace, 
Dual, by Milo A. Jewett, Kehl, Ger- 
many 65 

Patent Still in Force, United States 
Court Holds Cameron Septic Pro. 
by H. D. Wyllie, Chicago, 111 217 

Pavement Base per Sack of Cement, 
Yardage of. Q 2 

Pavement, Concrete and Cast Iron 
Blocks for Bridge Gutter. W 62 

Pavement for Small City, Best. Q 60 

Pavement, How to Repair Tar Macadam. 
Q 59 

Pavement Materials, Proposed Standard 
Definitions of Road and .0 

Pavement on Heavy Grade in Wiscon- 
sin, Concrete, by Stanley E. Bates... 30 

Pavements, Des Flames. 111., Dedicates 
New 233 

Pavements Increased by Modern Meth- 
ods of Treatment. Durability of Creo- 
soted Block, bj i rank W I ' erring- 
ton, Toledo, 230 

Pavements, Information Al \\ 1 

Block. Q 59 

Pavements, Integral Curb for .' ivio 

by C. D. Frank 116 

Pavements, Life and Maintenance Cost 
of Asphalt and Brick. Q 18 



Pavements on Cook Co. Roads, New Con- 
crete 182 

Paving and Its Surety Bond Provisions, 

Contract for. Q 179 

Paving ! : 

Paving Brick, Vitrified 77 

Paving Data. Q „ 59 

Paving in Chica Alley. W.147 

Paving in Cleveland, Experimental, by 

Maurice Brown Greenougb 184 

Paving in Findlay, Ohio, Co 1 of Wood 

Block las 

Paving in Great Brim 

Blocks for 225 

Paving in Philadelphia .... 77 

Paving Specifications, Closed. Open or 

Alternate. W 22 

Paving, Vertical Fiber Brick, by Jas. I 
Tucker, Norman, Okla 114 

Philadelphia, Prices for Paving in 77 

Pipe Cutter, S'trickler Ratchet 156 

'.In. a ion. Sewer 79 

Piles, Electrical Apparatus for Thawing 

Out W r ater 1 SS 

riant of Havana Gas and Elec- 
tric Corporation 86 

eived . . .81 121 155 190 
Public Service Commission Cannot In- 
crease Franchise Rate for Street Rail- 

wa y Fare 1 s 4 

Public Utilities in Alsace. Dual Owner- 
ship of, by "Milo A. Jewett. Kehl, Ger- 
many 6.5 

Pumps for City Water Works, by J. E. 

Craig, Jacksonville. Fla .' 69 

Pump Wagon, Electric 2S 

Purification in Columbus, O, Water.... 101 
Pump Equal to 1 . , 1 , ., Making 

. .242 

Quequechan River in Fall River, M 
vements of 

Rammers, Pneumatic Drills and 197 

Railroad Property, Legality of Street 

Assessment on 2 1 fi 

Railroads, Electrification of 201 

Railroads, Smoke Prevention in Chicago 

and Electrification of '2 

Rate for Street Railway 1 are. Public 
Service Commission Cannot Increase 

Franchise 1S4 

Records in Frankfort, Ind.. City Engi- 
neer's, R. H. Boynton. City Engr. ... 78 
UefUM- I Hsposal in ;- i . Plans 

and 223 

Refuse Disposal Methods. Garbage and. 

Q .19 

1 agons Cor I 'oil. cting 

Municipal 22] 

Repair in Cleveland, Ohio, Street 174 

Repair of Street Crossing Over Railroad. 

Removal of Obstructions in Street. . . .215 
Repairs in Small Municipalities, Asphalt, 

H. Taylor, Norfolk, Va 171 

Sheet, The Monthly, by John A. 

Welsh, Columbus, Ohio 150 

oirs, Portable Drilling Rig in Road 
and Street Work — Performance Rec- 
ords in Cutting Trenches and Clean- 
ing Reservoirs 123 

oir, Waterproofing Concrete. Q.. 60 
Plesignation as Councilman, Disquali- 
fied for Other Office by Voting on His 

Own 216 

Ilex Mixer, The No. 10 157 

Rights of Contractor and of Mortgagee 

in Structure Attached to Real Estate. 215 
River in Fall River, Ma- I 

of Ouequecl an 21S 

River, Winchester Germanizing Its. ... 56 

Road Accounting, State. E 45 

Road and Pavement Materials, Proposed 

Standard Definitions of 76 

Road Congress, Pan-American SO. 120 

Road Construction, A New Type Sf Brick 57 
Road Construction in Oregon, Extensive 36 

Road Law, Changes in the Illinois 75 

Road Oiler. New Chicago-Type 44 

Road Plan for Curve on Grade, Novel 

Concrete 69 

Road-Ripper, The Austin 160 

Roads Converted into Booster for Hard 

Surfaced S 

Roads, Convicl Labor on Montana 76 

Roads for Truck Traffic, Build. E 91 

Roads. Increase in LTsi of Concrete for 

Country 

Roads, New Concrete Pavements on 

Cook County 1S2 

■ • ■ ■ ' : ; ' I Pa V 

Their Share of Cost of 232 

Novel Device Prevents Washing 

of Maryland 214 

Roads of Wayne County. Michigan, Con- 
crete 231 

Roads to Mountain Parks. Connecting of 
Road Values, The Determination of. 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 

INDEX 



Vol. XLIX. June-December, 1915. 



Capital Letters, E., Q., W., L., M., Indicate Department Under Which Articles are Classified. 



Activated Sludge Experiments in Canada 
by R. O. Wynne-Roberts, Consulting 

Engineer 68 

Alley Paving in Chicago, Concrete. W. .147 
Alsace, Dual Ownership of Public Utili- 
ties in, b yMilo A. Jewett, Kehl, Ger- 
many 65 

American Society of Municipal Improve- 
ments, Convention of 24, 119, 1S9 

Anchors, New Model Drive and Twist. . .158 
Armor Plates, The Installation of Kahn . 37 
Asphalt and Brick Pavements, Life and 

Maintenance Cost of. Q 18 

Asphalt, El Oso. W 23 

Asphalt from Trinidad, Export of 156 

Asphalt Mixing- Plant, New Portable. ... 36 
Asjhalt Plant for Calcutta, Municipal. . .122 
Asphalt Plant, Los Angeles, Municipal .. 116 
Asphalt Repairs in Small Municipalities 

by W. H .Taylor, Jr., Norfolk, Va 171 

Asphalt Roadways for Very Light Traf- 
fic 1 !i I 

Asphalt, What is Natural 121 

Assesment on Railroad Property, Legal- 
ity of Street 216 

Bear Grass Creek Improvement, Louis- 

ille, Ky 213 

Bitulithic in Corpus Christi 37 

Bitulithic, Resurfacing Macadam Str< 

with SS 

Bituminous Construction. Types of, by 

I'. Smith. New York City 168 

Btiuminous Surfaces on Couj 

Construction of 71 

Bond, Provision of Contract for Paving 

and tls Surety. Q 179 

Book, Lincoln Highway Guide 34 

Books on Municipal Engineering 179 

Books on Sewage Disposal US 

Boston Subways Station Entrances on, 

by W. B. oCnant, Concord, Mass 13 

Brick .Makers Organize to Improve Their 

Art Ill' 

Brick Pavements, Life and Maintenance 

Cost of Asphalt and. Q 18 

Brick Paving, Vertical Fiber, bv Jas. I. 

Tucker, Norman Okla 114 

Brick Road Construction, A New Tvpe 

of 57 

Brick Roadsi Gr< w in Favor :':: 1 

Brick. Vitrified Paving 7 7 

Bridge Cutter Pavement, Concrete and 

Cast Iron Blocks for. W 62 

Bridges and Highways, Width of 114 

Surfacing, by Frank R Lander. 50 



alendar oi Meeting? 

34, mi 121, 153, 190, 236 

Calgary, Street Cleaning in 72 

Cameron Septic Process Patent Still in 

Force, United States Court Hold! 

H. D. Wyllie, Chicago, 111 217 

Carb'c System of 3 

Catch Basin Cleaning, Motor Tim Ml 

Cement Gun Construct! 21? 

Cement, Yardage of Pavement Base per 

Sack of. Q 20 

Charter for Newark, N. J., Proposed 

New 140 

Chemical Engine. Efficiency of thi 

Irving W. Sibrel, South Bend, Ind. . .'.149 
Cbemical Extinguishment of Fires on a 

Large Scale 

Chemical, The Ford First Aid il 

Chemical Treatment of Garbage. Q.... 59 
Chicago, and Electrification of Railroads. 

Smoke Prevention in 

Chicago Smoke Problem Precipitated. . . 21 
Chimney in a Cyclone, A 82 



Chlorine Has. Water Sterilization by... 210 
Cities in Municipal Trading, Legal Pow- 
ers of 24 

City and Its Problems, The Modern 68 

City Engineer's Records in Frankfort, 
Ind, by I:.' II. Boynton, City Engr 78 

City Manager, Forms of Government 

Commission and 52 

1 'ivil Service Examinat.ons 

34, 81, 121. 154. 190, 235 

Cleaning and SweeniuL- .Machinery, 
Street 2 it 

Cleaning Apparatus and Appliances, New 
York Exhibition of Street 32 

Cleaning in Calgary, Street 72 

Cleaning, Machinery and Methods for 
Street. Q 20 

Cleaning, Modern Street 124 

Cleaning, Motor Truck Catch Basin. .. .241 

Cleaning Reservoirs, Portable Drilling 
Rig on Road and Street Work — Per- 
formance Records in Cutting Trenches 
and 123 

Collection and Disposal of City Wastes 219 

Commission and City Manager Forms of 
Government 52 

Commissioners, Engineers Urge Qualifi- 
cations of Utility 116 

Commission Manager, Dayton's Progress 
Under, by Wm. S. Crandall, Dayton, 
Ohio 67 

Computer. The Ross Precision 242 

Concrete Alley Paving in Chicago. W. .147 

Concrete and Cast Iron Blocks tor Bridge 
Gutter Pavement. W 62 

Concrete by the LTse of Hydrated Lime, 
Improving 211 

Concrete for Country Roads, Increase in 
Use of is-? 

Concrete, Gravel. E 1 

Concrete, Gravel Aggregate lor. by \Y 
K. Hatt, Director of Laboratory for 
Testing Materials, Purdue University, 
Lafayette, Ind 2 

Concrete .Mixers. Standard Rating of 
Batch 162 

Concrete Pavement on Heavy Grade in 

1 -in 30 

Concrete Pavements, Integral Curh for, 
by i'. D. Frank 111; 

Concrete Pavements on Cook Co. Roads, 
New 1 s 2 

Concrete Reservoir, Water-proofing. Q. 60 

Concrete Road. Plan for Curve on Grade, 
Novel 6 9 

Concrete Roads of Wayne County, 
MicMgan 231 

Concrete Surfaces. Water-proofing 106 

Concrete, Temperature and Strength or. 1*8 

Concrete Viaduct at San Diego 105 

Congress, International Engineer! n- 

■ 1 Pan-American Road 80, L20 

Constitution, Proposed New York. E...129 

Contract for Paving and Its Surety 
Bond, Provisions of. Q 179 

Contract, Liability -for Damage to Boy 
by Dynamite Cap Left on Street 216 

Contractor and Engineer, Business Re- 
lation Between, by H. B. Bushnell . . . 73 

Contractor and of Mortgagee in Struc- 
ture Attached to Real Estate. Rjgl ts 
of 215 

Contractor, Diversion of Special Fund 
Not Bar to Recovery from Citv by. . .216 

Contractor's Surety Liable for Supplies, 
but Not for Equipment 216 

Contractor, The Motor Truck and the. 
W ISO 

Contract. Sufficiency of Description of 
Work Under 216 

Contract Work, Liability of City for 
Damages for Injury on 215 



Convention, A Notable. E 163 

Convention of A. S. M. 1 119 

Convict Labor on Highways. W 23 

Convict Labor on Montana Roads 7 6 

Convict Road Work Pay? Does 7 7 

Cost of Asphalt and Brick Pavement, 

Life and Maintenance. Q 18 

Cost of Roads, Non-resident Users 

Should Pay Their Share of 232 

Cost of Wood Block Paving in Findlay, 

Ohio 195 

Costs of Operation. Recent Develop- 
ments in Fire-Fighting Apparatus — 

Comparative Statements of 185 

Councilman, Disqualified for Other Of- 
fice by Voting on His Own Resigna- 
tion as 216 

Creosoted Block Pavements Increa 
by .Modern Methods of Treatment. 
Durability of, bv Frank W. Cherring- 

ton, Toledo, 230 

Creosote Oil, Improved 36 

Ci oting Woi d Paving Blocks, s eci- 

ficati ins of 1 lil for 233 

Curb at Street Corners, Increased Ra- 
dius of 183 

Curb for Concrete Pavement, Integral, 

by C. D. Frank 116 

Curb Forms, Steel Side and 83 

Cyclone, A Chimney in a 82 

Damages for Change of Grade of High- 
way 217 

Dayton, Ohio, Flood Prevention Plans 
for, by Wm. S. Crandall, Dayton. ... 1 03 

Dayton's Progress Under Commission 
Manager, by Wm. S. Crandall, Day- 
ton, Ohio 67 

Denver, Colo., Connecting Roads to 
Mountain Parks of, by Otto B. Thum, 
Denver, Colo 15 

I 'esigns Protected, Engineering 121 

Directory of Cement Manufacturers. 

Q IS 

■Disposal of Citj Wastes, Collection and. .219 

Drilling Rig on Road and Street Work c. 
Performance Records in Cutting 
Trenches and Cleaning Reservoirs. 
Portable 123 

Drills and Rammers, Pneumatic 197 

I n-inking Fountain. A Novel 70 

Dryer Tunnels with Pavement Roof.... 84 



Electrical Apparatus for Thawing Out 

Water Pipes 1SS 

Electricity and Lime. Treatment of 

Sewage with 222 

Electric Light Plant of South Xorwalk, 

Conn 137 

Electric Pump Wagon 28 

Electric Street Lights, Gas and 96 

Electrification of Railroads 2fil 

Electrification of Railroads, Smoke Pre- 
vention in Chicago and 202 

Electrolytic Sewage Treatment Plant at 
Durant. Okla.. by W. L. Benham, Okla- 
homa Citv 141 

El Oso Asphalt. W 23 

Engine, Efficiency of the Chemical, by 

Irving W. Sibrel. South Bend, Ind.... 149 
Engineer, Business Relation Between 

Contractor and, by H. B. Bushnell. ... 73 
Engineering Congress, International ... .120 
Engineers. American Association of.... 120 
Engineers Urge Qualifications of Utility 

Commissioners 116 

Engine Receives High Award at Pan- 
ama-Pacific Exposition. Mietz Oil.... 198 
English Motor Fire Engines 26 



Excavating and Handling Material, Time 

Study on 77 

Excavation in Busy Street, Shovel 157 

Excavator and Loader. Albrecht S3 

Excavator Operation, Gumbo Wheel, bv 

C. D. and J. T. Pierson, Lewis, 1ml. . 193 
Excavator, Sewer Construction in chi- 
cago, 111., with a Ladder Type, by 

Stanley E. Bates 193 

Exhibition of Street Cleaning Apparatus 
and Appliances, New York 32 

Filtration Plant*. Small. W 2i 

Financial Outlook. E 45 

Fire Apparatus as Philanthropist's Gift 

to Village, Motor I 96 

Fire Apparatus Increases Fire Depart- 
ment Efficiency. Motor 226 

Fire Apparatus, Knox Four-Wheel Trac- 
tor for 19S 

Fire Apparatus, Motor 107 

Fire Department Notes 152, 187, 228 

Fire Department The Municipal. E 9 1 

Fire Engineers, Cincinnati Convention of 

the International Association of 153 

Fire Engines. English Motor 26 

Fire-Fighting Apparatus — Comparative 
Statements of Cost of Operation. Re- 

cent Developments in 185 

Fire Losses as Affected by Motor-Driven 

Equipment. E 129 

Fire Loss, Water Co. Liable for 215 

Fire Prevention Exhibition at Boston. .240 
Fire Service Systems in Operation^ High- 
Pressure 161 

Fires on a Large s ah-, Chem'cal Ex- 
tinguishment of 239 

Flood Prevention Plans for Dayton, O., 

by Win. s. Crandall 103 

Flush Tank, Combined Swimming Pool 

and 212 

Forms, Steel Side and Curb 83 

Franchise, New Telephone. Q 60 

Franchise Rate for Street Railway Fare, 
Public Sen-ice Commission Cannot In- 
crease 184 

Frankfort, Ind., City Engineer's Rec- 
ords in, by R. H. Boynton, City En- 
gineer 7 S 

Garbage and Refuse Disposal in San 

Francisco, Plans for 22 3 

Garbage and Refuse Disposal Mriln»l- 

Q 19 

Garbage, Chemical Treatment of. Q... 59 
Garbage Collection, A Sanitary Method 

of. W 61 

Garbage Collection by the City 18 

Garbage Destructor, Gas Burning- House- 
hold 191 

Garbage Trucks, Wagons and Carts. 

Makers of. Q IS 

Gas and Electric Street Lights 9U 

Gas Burning Household Garbage De- 
structor 19 ] 

Government Changes, Recent City IIS 

Grade of Highway, Damages for Change 

of 217 

Grading Machine Loads Nine Two-Yard 

Wagons in Ten Minutes 124 

Gravel Aggregate for Concrete, by W. 
K. Hatt, Director of Laboratory for 
Testing Materials, Purdue University, 

Lafayette. Ind 2 

Gravel Concrete. E 1 

Gutter Pavement, Concrete and Cast 
Iron Blocks for Bridge. W 62 

Highway Construction, State Expendi- 
tures for 7 4 

Highway. Damages for Change of Grade 

of 217 

Highway Guide Book. Lincoln 34 

Highway Location. E 1 

Highway, Program of Permanency on 
the Pacific, bv Arthur P. Denton, En- 
gineer. King Co.. Wash 30 

Highways, Convict Labor on. W 23 

Highways in the War, French 32 

Highways, Transcontinental .' . 77 

Highways, Width of Bridges and 114 

'' Rule for Kansas. Municipal . 235 

Hydrant Thawing Apparatus 117 

Ice Plants, Municipal IIS 

Illinois Road Law, Changes in the 75 

Illumination of Charleston, W. Va. W. 181 
Injury on Contract Work. Liability of 

City for Damages for 21 "» 

Iron Blocks for Bridge Gutter Pave- 
ment, Concrete and Cast. W T 62 

Irrigation System of Prosser. Wash.. 
Municipal 2 OS 

Koehring 1916 Changes 42 

Law-n Motors. Motor Driven I 111 

Legal Powers of Cities in Municipal 
Trading 24 



Liable for Damage. City Must Care for 
Sewage — Individual Nfot 216 

Liable for Supplies, bul Not for Equip- 
ment, i lontraetor's Surel y 216 

Liability for Damage from Si enl oi 
Trench 21(1 

Liability lor I '.. ■■.. by Dyna- 

mite Cap Lefl on Contra 

Liability for Defective Cellar Door in 
Sidewalk 215 

Liability for Failui Vater Supply. 
E it;:; 

Liability of Surety Werues, When 215 

Library Building of the C 

C, Library Society 162 

Ligi ting Fixture, New Type 

Lighting System Before You Buy, You 
See Your 122 

Lighting, 1*1 e Carbi 240 

Lighting Units, New I 

Light Plant of South Norwalk, Conn., 
Electric i : ; 

Lights, Gas and Electric Street 96 

Lime, Improving Concrete b; 

Hydrated 311 

L me, Treat mi nl i Elec- 
tricity and 222 

London, Wall of the City of 12 

Los Angeles Municipal Asphalt Plant... 116 

Louisville, Ky , Bi Creek im- 
provement 213 

Macadam Streets with Bitulithic, Uesur- 

facing 

Maintenance Cost of Asphalt and Brick 

Pavements, Life and Q IS 

Metal .structures, Protection of 33 

Meter Holding Yoke and Expansion Con- 
nection, The New Ford 192 

Meters. Best v\ ay to Sel i'a1 
Mixers, Standard Rating ol Batch Con- 
crete 162 

Mixer, The No. 10 Rex 157 

Mixing Plant, New Portable Asphalt... 30 

M Drive] I tpment, Fire Losses as 

Affected by. E 129 

Motor 1 'riven Lawn .Mowers 191 

Motor Driven Squeegee Used tor First 
Time on Streets of Milwaukee, \\ i 

Motor Fire Apparatus 107 

Motor Fire Apparatus as Philanthro- 
pist's Gift to Village 196 

Motor Fire Engine, English 26 

Motor Rollers for War Country ,22 

Motor Traffic, Increase m 209 

Motor Truck and the Contractor. W...3S0 

Motor Ti i i i%, A Ni b Light 2 , . 

Motor Ti a. i, Catc i ea ii 

Motor Truck Data iOl 

Motor Truck Operation an 1 Account- 
ing, by Chas. A. Dickens 13, 130 

Motor 'truck, Severe Test of 229 

Municipal Engineering, Books on. Q..17 9 
Municipal Improvements, Davton Con- 

£ Am. -r. Sec. of 1S9 

Municipalities, Decisions of the Higher 

Courts of Interest to 215 

Municipal Ownership, Growth of 79 

Municipal Plant Shows Protit. A' 147 

Municipal Reports? Who Reads. E....129 
Municipal Thanksgiving* Service, A. .235 



New York Constitution, Proposed. E..129 



Oil Engine Receives High Award at 
Panama-Pacific Exposition, Mieta....l98 

Oiler, New Chicago Type Road 44 

oil for Creosol ing P i P ■ B 

Specifications of 233 

Oil, Improved Creosote 36 

Ownership of Public Utilities in A 
Dual, by Milo A. Jewett, Kelil, Ger- 
many 65 



Patent Still in Force, United SI 
Court Holds Cameron Septic Proi 
by H. D. Wyllie, Chicago, III 2 17 

Pavement Base per Sack of Cement, 
Yardage of. Q 20 

Pavement, Concrete and Cast Iron 
Blocks for Bridge Gutter. W 62 

Pavement for Small City, Best. Q 60 

Pavement, How to Repair Tar Macadam. 
Q 59 

Pavement Materials. Proposed Standard 
Definitions of Road and 76 

Pavement on Heavy Grade in Wiscon- 
sin, Concrete, by Stanli i Ba 

Pavi in. aits. Des Plaines, tl Dei 

New 233 

Pavements Increased bj Modern Meth- 
ods of Treatment, Durability of Creo- 
soted Block, by Frank W. Cherring- 
ton. Toledo, O 230 

Pavements, Information About \\ 

Block. Q 59 

Pavements, Integral Curb for Concrete, 
by C. D. Frank 116 

Pavements, Life and Maintenance Cost 
of Asphalt and Brick. Q 18 



Pavements on Cook Co Road \ Con- 
crete is:' 

Paving and Its Surety Bond Provisions, 

Contract for. Q 17:1 

I 'aving Brick Men, Tie . . 23i 

Paving Brick, Vitrified 77 

1 'aving I lata, Q , 59 

Paving in Chicago, Concrete Alley. W.147 
Paving in Cleveland, Experimental, by 

Maurice Brown GreenougK 1S4 

Paving in Findlay, Ohio, Cost of Wood 

Block 11,5 

Paving in Great Brit a 
Blocks for 

n Philadelphia, 1 'r ce ■ Eor 77 

Paving Specih. ■■ r 

Alternate. W 22 

Paving. Vertical Fiber Brick, by jas. I. 

Tucker, Norman, Okla 114 

Personal Notes....:::,. 31. ] 

Philadelphia, Prices for Paving in.. .' 77 

Pipe Cutter, S'trickler Ratchet 156 

Pipe Production, Sewer 79 

leetrical Apparatus for Thawing 

Out Water js\ 

Power Plant of Havana Gas and Elec- 
tric Corporation S6 

Publications Received si 12 1 ' 

Public Service Commission Cannot In- 
crease Franchise Rate for Street Pail- 
way Fare 1^1 

Public Utilities in Alsace, Dual Owner- 
ship of, by *Milo A. Jewett, Kehl, Ger- 
many (J5 

Pumps for City Water Works, bv J. E. 

Craig. Jacksonville. Fla .' 69 

Pump Wagon, Electric 2s 

Purification in Columbus, O,, Water.... 101 

Pi up Eqti tin E , Making 

DI aph ragm ,242 

: River in Fall River, Mass., 
1.111 n ements of 218 

Rammers, Pneumatic Drills and 197 

Railroad Property, Legality of Stn 

Assessment on 116 

Railroads, Electrification of 

Railroads, Smoke Prevention in Chicago 

and Electrification of 

Rate for Street Railwaj Fare, Public 
Service Commission Cannot Increase 

chise iS4 

R "Is in Frankfort. Ind., City Engi- 

R. 1 1. P." . nton, 1 'tty Engr. . . . 7S 
i nsposal in San 1 ta .. 
■i 1 I a , Lag.- a. 1, 1 . . 223 

Disposal Methods, Garbage and. 

Q 19 

San tary Wagons for Colli 

Municipal 221 

Repair in Cleveland, Ohio, Street 174 

01 Street ' (rossing 1 >\ er Railroad. 
Removal of Obstructions in Street. . . .215 
Repairs in Small Municipalities, Asphalt, 

by W. H. Taylor, Norfolk, Va 171 

sheet. The Monthly, by John A. 

Welsh, Columbus, Ohio 150 

us, Portable Drilling Rig in Road 
and Street Work — Performance Rec 
ords in Cutting Trenches and Clean- 
ing Reservoirs 123 

i.rproofing Concrete. Q.. 60 
Resignation as Councilman. Disquali- 
fied for Other Office by Voting on His 

Own 216 

Rex Mixer. The No. 10 157 

Rights of Contractor and of Mort- 

in Structure Attached to R 
River in Fall Ki rer, Mass., [mi 1 0*. em nl 

of Q uechan 

River, V • :. rmanizing Its.... 56 

Road Accounting, State I : 4a 

Head and Pavement Materials, Proposed 

Standard Definitions of 76 

Road Congress. Pan-American... 
Road Construction, A New Type "f Brick 57 
onstruction in Oregon, Extensive 36 

Road Law, Changes in the Illinois 75 

■ ler, New Chicago-Type 44 

Road Plan for Curve on c 

Concrete 69 

Road-Ripper, The Austin 160 

Roads Convert'-. 1 into Booster for Hard 

Surfaced 8 

■ on Montana 76 

Roads for Truck Traffic, Build. E 91 

Roads, Increase in Use of Concrete for 

Country 182 

\. v 1 ',.11. n 1, 1 'avements on 

Cook County 182 

Shou'd Pav 

Their Share of Cost ..1 222 

Roads, Novel Device Pri rents Washing 

of Maryland 214 

I load ■ "i \\ 111,. lount , . Mid igan, Con- 

231 

Roads to Mountain Parks, Connecting of 
Road Values, The Determination of. 



INDEX 



Roadways for Very Light Traffic, As- 
phalt 191 



Safety Zones on Busj Street Crossings, 
Marking; by .las. F Hobart, M. B., 

Indianapolis, Iml 99 

San Diego, Concrete Viaduct at 10.. 

Scraper Back I iller, Nevi Power 156 

Scraper, Maney Four-Wheel L2o 

Septic Process Patent Still in Force, 
United States Court Bolds Cameron, 
by II. I > W > lii.-. Chicago, III 217 

Sewage Disposal, Books on. Q 19 

Sewage — Individual Not Liable for Dam- 
age. City Must Care For 215 

Sewage Treatment Plain at Durant, 
Okla., Electrolytic, by W. L. Benham, 
Oklahoma City HI 

Sewage with Kit . tr.e.t \ and lame. 
Treatment of 222 

Si , ,r i lonstrucl ion in t Ihicago, III., With 
a Ladder Type Excavator, by Stanley 
E. Bates 193 

Sewer -Machine for (.'leaning Difficult 
Sewer Stoppages. The Turbine 37 

Sewer Pipe Production 79 

Sewer Stoppages, The Turbine Sewer Ma- 
chine for Cleaning I >ifricult 37 

Sewer Trench in < Inicago, i '..-■. fin; a F- 
Foot 6-Inch • 238 

Sidewalk, Liability for Defective Cellar 
Door in 215 

Sludge Experiments in Canada Activated 
by R. i >. Wynne-Roberts, Consulting 
En'gr 6S 

Smoke Prevention in Chicago and Elec- 
trification of P.ailroads 

Smoke Problem Precipitated, Chicag 

Specifications, Closed, Open or Alternate 
Paving. W 22 

Snec.flcat:ons of o.l for Creosotmg Wood 

g Blocks 233 

Spout Attachment. The Lansing 160 

I.! [or First Time on Streets 
of Milwaukee, Wis., Motor-driven .... 1 23 

State Expenditures for Highway Con- 
struction 7 4 

Sterilization by Chlorine (las. Water. ...210 

Storage Battery Drive Tractor, by Geo. 
Boughner, Grand Rapids. Mich 130 

Street Assessment on Railroad Property, 
Legality of 216 

Street Cleaning and Sweeping Machin- 
ery 244 

Str.ct Cleaning Apparatus and Appli- 

N.u Fork Exhibition of 32 

Street Cleaning in Calgary 72 

Street Cleaning, Machinery and Methods 
for. Q 20 

Street Cleaning. Modern 124 

Street Contract. Liability for Damage 
to Boy by Dynamite Cap Left on 216 

Street Crossings, Marking Safety Zones 
on Busy Streets, by Jas. F Hobart. In- 
dianapolis, Ind 99 



Street Lighting Units, New Designs for. 224 

Street Lights, Gas and Electric 96 

Street Railway Fare, Pub. Ser. Com 
Cannot Increase Franchise Rate for L84 

Street Repair in Cleveland, i ihio 174 

Street — Repair of Street Crossing Over 

Railroad. Removal of Obstructions in. 215 
streets with Bitulithic, Resurfacing 

Macadam SS 

street Work- -Performance Records in 
Cutting Trenches and Cleaning Reser 
voirs. Portable Drilling Rig on Road 

and 

Studebaker's New President 60 

Subways, Station Entrances on Boston, 

by W. D. Conant. Concord. Mass 13 

Surety Accrues, When Liability of 215 

Surety Liable for Supplies but not for 

Equipment, Contractor's 2 16 

Sweeping Machinery, Street Cleaning 

and -'II 

Swimming Pool and Flush Tank, Com- 
bined 212 

Tar Macadam Pavement. Ihm to Repair 59 
Technical Associations 

34, 80, 121, 1 53, 1 90, 236 

Tec! i) cal Schools. . . .34, 121, 154, 190, 235 

Telephone Franchise, New. Q 60 

Temperature and Strength of Conn. 

'I est of Motor Truck Severe 229 

Tests, Kelly .Makes Successful Trailer.. 12 

Thawing Apparatus, A Hydrant 117 

Thawing Out Water Pipes, Electrical 

Apparatus for 188 

Tires, Heavy Duty Truck 15s 

Tractor for Fire Apparatus. Knox 1 

Wheel ins 



Tractor, The storage Battery I 'rive, by 
Geo. Boughner, Grand Rapids, Mich, 150 

Tractor Truck, The c Villi I S3 

Trade Notes 39, xt, l:,, 159, 200, Ji; 

Trade Publ'cation? 90, 127, 200, 246 

Traffic, Asphalt Road Ways for Very 

Light I "I 

Traffic, Increase in Motor 209 

Trailer Tests, Kelly Makes Successful.. 42 
Trenches and Cleaning Reservoirs. Port- 
able Drilling Rig on Road and Street 
Work — Performance Records in fm 

ting 123 

Trench Filler, A General Utility 85 

Trench in Chicago, Digging a 7-Foot 6- 

Inch Sewer 238 

Trench, Liability for Damage from Set- 
tlement of 216 

Trench Tamping, Mechanical, by W. A. 
Kellogg. General Foreman of Water 

Works, Columbus, Ohio 39 

Trinidad. Export of Asphalt from 156 

Truck and the contractor, The Motor. 

ISO 



Truck, A New Light Motor 

Truck, Boston's Versatile 

Tt nek ' 'at.-! [lasin CI, atnu-. M' I 



Truck Construction, The New Little 

Giant (i Wl I 11)2 

Truck Data, Motor 2nl 

Truck Operation and Accounting, Motor, 

Truck. Severe Test of Motor 2 211 

bj chas, A. Dickens 46, 130 

Trucks for all uses, Motor 84 

Trucks Used on Tunnel Job 239 

Trucks, Wagons and Carts. Makers of 

Garbage. Q 18 

Truck, The Centiped Tractor 83 

Truck Tires. Heavy Duty 158 

Truck to Deliver Building Materials. .. .239 

Truck Traffic, Build Roads for. E 91 

Tunnels with Pavement Roof, Dryer.... M 



Valparaiso, Ind., Water Works of. by E. 

I, Loomis, Supt. Valparaiso Water Co. 9 
Viaduct at San Diego, Concrete 105 



Wagon, Electric Pump 28 

Wagons tor Collecting Mimic pal Refuse, 

Sanitary 221 

W all of the City of London 12 

Washing of Maryland Roads, Novel I 'e- 

vice Prevents 214 

Wastes, Collection and Disposal of City. 239 
Water Company Liable for Fire Loss . .215 
Water Main Under New York Harbor, 
from Brooklyn to Staten Island, by 

J. F Springer, New York Citv 92 

Water Meters, Best Way to Set. Q. . . .179 
Water Pipes. Electrical Apparatus for 

Thawing Out 188 

Water Plant Derives Income from Water 
Power, Municipal, by W. D. Conant, 

Concord, Mass 117 

Waterproofing Concrete Reservoir. Q. . 60 

Waterproofing Concrete Surfaces 106 

Water Purification in Columbus, Ohio... 101 
Water Sterilization by Chlorine Gas. ...210 
Water Supply. Liability for Failure of. 

E 163 

Water Works Appliances, New 126 

Water Works at Valparaiso, Ind.. by E. 

L. Loomis, Supt. Home Water Co 9 

Water Works Directory, The New 34 

Water Works, Pumps for City, by J. E. 

Craig, Jacksonville. Fla 69 

Water Works. Reconstruction of Hamil- 
ton, Ont, by Andrew F. Macallum, 

i 'it s Engineer 164 

Wheels, Ail on Four 34 

Winchester, Germanizing Its River 56 

Wood Block Pavements, Information 

About. Q 59 

Wood Block Paving in Findlay. io, 

Cost of 195 

Wood Blocks for Paving in Great Brit- 
ain. Canadian 225 

Wood Paving Blocks, Specifications of 

Oil for Creosoting 2 3 3 

Worm Drive Combination, New 1 5S 




MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 

The World's Leading Municipal Publication 



VOL. XLIX. 



EDITORIAL 



There has been much discussion 
GRAVEL over the relative values of gravels of 

CONCRETE various grading of sizes for making 
concrete, but the number of tests 
has been small and the tendency has been to follow 
the specifications which have been developed for the 
harder varieties of crushed stone. We are able to pre- 
sent this month the results of some tests to determine 
the relative values of two grades of gravel, one hav- 
ing been passed thru a screen with 1 54-inch no i es anc j 
held on one of %-inch mesh, the usual specification, 
and the other having the same upper limit and held on 
3^-inch mesh. 

Curves 3 and 4, on Plate III, show the proportions 
of each size of material in each of the grades. From 
this it will be noted that the gravel held on the small- 
er mesh contains 52y> per cent, of material less than 
34-inch in size, and J^-incli gravel contains about 
1/J4 per cent, of less than j4-' ncn size, probably be- 
cause screened from the bank when somewhat moist, 
and because it was run rapidly over the screens. The 
difference is 35 per cent., which is approximately the 
amount of clean material rejected by the 54 -inch speci- 
fication. This material is practically waste at the 
gravel plant, which is expensive to get rid of or at best 
must usually be sold at a very low price. 

The results of these tests indicate that the rejection 
<>f this material between y& and 54 inch in size is not 
an advantage to the concrete, but, on the contrary, 
appears to be an appreciable disadvantage. The pro- 
portion of cement being the same in both sets of tests, 
this excess of strength in the aggregate held on the 
J/fj-inch screen may be due to the fact that the percent- 
age of voids, as shown on Plate I, is but 32' !> per cent, 
as compared with 3654 per cent, in the larger aggre- 
gate, so that the mortar filled the voids more com- 
pletely in the former case. 

This set of tests is the first of a series which it is 
proposed to make for the purpose of determining as 
nearly as may be the most economical and advantage- 
ous proportions of cement, sand, and larger aggregate 
in gravel concrete, as well as the proper gradation of 
sizes in the gravel and in the sand and the best point 
at which to make the division between gravel and 
sand for gravel concrete purposes at least. 

The practical result of a specification embodying 
the results of these tests would be a reduction in the 
price of gravel roughly proportional to the 35 or more 
per cent, of the finer materials admitted and thus 
saved to the consumer, and a consequent reduction in 
the cost of gravel concrete. It is possible that the 
other tests in prospect will reduce the amount of ce- 
ment required. At any rate they will give informa- 
tion on which to base the most economical and efficient 
proportions of cement, sand and gravel. 



The wrangle over the Dixie High- 
HIGHWAY way has reached an apparent deadlock 
LOCATION in the effort to select one line for the 
route, and a half dozen routes, each 
with its variations in choice of connections at common 
points, are now clamoring for precedence. The de- 
mand for an inter-county system of good roads and 
for an inter-state system of main highways is becom- 
ing each day more insistent as a consequence of the 
publicity given to the seemingly insurmountable diffi- 
culties in making a choice. 

There is no trouble in states having the inter- 
county road systems in operation or under construc- 
tion, because the roads are there or are provided for 
in the near future, and the tourist or traveler can have 
his choice of good roads. But in the states on this 
north-and-south line between the lakes and the gulf 
or the southeastern Atlantic coast, there are either no 
state road systems or the organizations are not yet 
strong enough to push the location and improvement 
of the roads as fast as they are needed. 

It is very evident that these thru lines are called 
for by the long-distance travelers, and that they should 
help pay for them. It is also very evident that the 
difficulties in the way of the location of the main line 
arise from the demands of the localities which would 
be affected by the location that the route pass thru 
their districts. So it is evident that the local districts 
should help pay for the roads in the proportion that 
they would benefit by them. 

Is it not clear as day-light, therefore, that a svstem 
of building the main highways should be established 
which will insure the building of the roads and mak- 
ing them good enough to carry all the traffic that will 
come to them, local and thru, carriage, wagon, auto- 
mobile, truck, or traction engine as the case may be ; 
and that will distribute the cost where it belongs, a 
small part on the farmers who have probably laid the 
foundations for the roads already, a larger part on the 
county whose inhabitants will use it largely, and still 
more upon the residents of the state and of other 
states, whose convenience and business will be served 
by them. 

While such rancorous wrangles are ordinarilv un- 
fortunate, this one, and others like it but less strenu- 
ous, bid fair to develop a sentiment alone- the lines, 
which together cover a large part of the states seek- 
ing the location of the roads, which will demand of the 
legislatures to come adequate laws to insure good de- 
sign and construction, and to distribute the cost prop- 
erly, so that it will not all fall upon the abutting prop- 
ertv or the local township. Then every main north- 
and-south road will be a Dixie Hiehwav. and everv 
east-and-west main road will be a Transcontinental 
Hiehwav, and no city or town of importance will be 
left off the line. 



GRAVEL AGGREGATE for CONCRETE 

By Professor W. K. Hull. Director of Laboratory for Testing Materials, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana. 



The series of tests on gravel concrete, of 
which this is a report, teas made by the author 
in response to a request made by the Indiana 
Sand and Gravel Producers' Association, 
whose officers are H. C. Huffstetter, presi- 
dent, Indianapolis ; J. E. Swango, vice-presi- 
dent , Terre Haute; B. E. Neal, treasurer, In- 
dianapolis, and V. G. Pogue, secretary, In- 
dianapolis. 

This organization wished to know the dif- 
ference in value for the purposes of making 
concrete of gravel passing a iy 2 -inch screen 
and held on a y±-inch mesh and held on a 
5/32-inch mesh, termed lyi to y s -ineJi size. 
The request stated the association's desire 
that the material be subjected to all the tests 
usually made in determining the value of con- 
crete aggregates; that the voids in the two 
gravel aggregates and in the sand used be de- 
termined, and the proportions of cement, 
sand and aggregate be stated. 

The results are of great interest, especially 
where gravel is the standard aggregate, and 
add much to our knowledge of the action of 
this standard material for making concrete. 

The repori is addressed to the association 
and is given in full. 



Introductory Note. — Specifications for concrete to be made 
of gravel and sand usually state that the fine aggregate shall 
be "graded from fine to coarse and passing when dry a screen 
having %-inch openings" and that the coarse aggregate shall 
be retained on a screen having 14-inch openings. 

The specifications ordinarily indicate the proportions to be 
used. An arbitrary proportion of 1:2:4, which is commonly 
used, provides that 2 parts of finer aggregate and 4 parts of 
coarse aggregate, measured by volume, be mixed with the re- 
quired amount of cement. This results in a large waste of 
fine material since the natural gravel bank usually has an ex- 
cess of the material ranging from %-inch to %-inch in size. 

If the "fine aggregate" were graded down from the y s -inch 
instead of the %-inch and the coarse aggregate graded up 
from the y 8 -inch instead of the %-inch, there would be ap- 
proximately twice as much "of the material from %-inch to Vi- 
inch used in filling a specification similar to 1:2:4 by volume. 
This would result in less waste of fine material and, if the 
quantity of the resulting concrete were not materially af- 
fected, would result in an economic gain. 

Purpose of Tests. — The tests hereinafter reported were 
made to ascertain the relative strength of concrete of an arbi- 
trary 1:2:4 proportion: (1) When the line of division be- 
tween the fine aggregate and the coarse aggregate is the %- 
inch sieve, and, (2) When it is the %-inch sieve. 

Scope of the Tests. — The following is an outline of the 
tests which have been made in this investigation: 



(1) Preliminary Tests: 

(a) Determination of specific gravity of sand and 

and gravel. 

(b) Determination of effect of contained moisture on 

the weight per cubic foot and per cent, voids. 

(c) Sieve analysis of the dry aggregates. 

(2) Relative Value of the fine aggregates, i. e., below %-inch 

screen and "below %-inch screen, as shown by strength 
of 1 to 3 mortar. 

(3) Relative strength of concrete in arbitrary 1:2:4 propor- 

tion; measurement being on basis of moist volumes 
fairly loose. 

Materials Used in the Tests. — Two shipments of sand and 
gravel were received for the tests. The material was said to 
have been taken from the plant of the Brown-Huffstetter Sand 
Co., under the supervision of Mr. W. C. Shoemaker, of the 
Atlas Sand and Gravel Co., both of Indianapolis, Ind. The 
samples were said to have been taken from cars ready for 
shipment to customers. 

The moisture content in the samples as determined soon 
after arrival was as follows: 

Material Shipment No. 1 Shipment No. 2 

%-inch sand 3.05 per cent. 2.96 per cent. 

%-inch sand 2.10 per cent. 3.43 per cent. 

%-inch gravel 1.81 per cent. 

14-inch gravel 1.66 per cent. 

(Percentages on basis of dry weights.) 

The sand and gravel were clean, with no clay or silt pres- 
ent. The relative size and appearance of these aggregates 
may be seen from the photographs accompanying this report. 

METHOD OF TEST. 

(1) Preliminary Tests. 

(a) Determination of Specific Gravity. 

Two determinations" were made for each sam- 
ple by the method of introducing a given 
weight of aggregate into a graduate contain- 
ing a given volume of water. 

(b) Sieve Analysis of Aggregate. 

Two determinations were made for each sam- 
ple. The dry aggregates were separated into 
their constituent sizes by means of a set of 
Tyler standard screen scales. The percent- 
age by weight passing the various size screens 
was determined. 

(c) The effect of the contained moisture on the 

weight per cubic foot and per cent, voids of 
the fine aggregates. This determination con- 
sisted in obtaining the weight of a given vol- 
ume of fine aggregate with different amounts 
of contained moisture. To approximate con- 
ditions of practice, the material was shoveled 
from the floor into the measuring vessel as in 
service. 

(2) Relative Value of Fine Aggregates, as shown by strength 

of 1 to 3 mortar. 

Two-inch cubes for compression tests were 
made, using 1 part by weight of a mixture 
of Alpha, Atlas, Lehigh and Universal ce- 
ments to 3 parts of dry fine aggregate. Two- 
inch cubes were also made up, using the same 
materials, but the proportions were by loose 
volumes as in service with an average mois- 
ture content. The test pieces were tpsted in 
in compression at end of 7, 28, 47 and r>2 days. 

(3) Relative Strength of Concrete of '..-inch separated ma- 

terial and of 1 + -inch separated material for an 
arbitrary 1:2:4 proportion, measurement be 
ing on basis of moist volumes fairly loose. 

July, WIS 



GRAVEL AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE 



"S^m^-- 




• '-tJ r 

PH0T06BAPH IX ACTl'AI, S1ZI 
OF SAND PASSING ^-INCH 
MESH AND GRADING DOWN TC 
DUST. 







Photograph in actual si/i> 
op sand passing 's-incii 
mis ii and grading down tc 

DUST. 



July, 1915 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



' ' ■'£&&" 


ftl-'N'. "fflf 


t : y 


■V 




1 

"* 




^> 


J^L 




m ^91 


,r-i 


■W"? 


\.ML V 1 ! 


^ 


_ 1 


\-\ 






i *i 


L 


V 


•^^^^ 


I^H 










^dttr^^^k 






■T ^isss 


^ 

™ 


ft 


l 




R. «tgfi>»:' 






*^^. 








4ft 


■tr 


■ : ^Bwft^M 


Wtitin&L^- * ; 


aas» 








B^>^ 


fef 




i 


K& *^» 


3Hj- 


rSs ' w ^ i 










9k ,^81 


^^""^^^^HL ^^^ 








^mX^^J 




|< 




fc*.! 


I IN ACTUAL SIZF 
G li/i-INCH SIEVE 
14-INCH MESH. 






L ^ 




■Bfcfe^ 




4 

* 

1 


^K 


PlIOTOCUAI'I 
GRAVEL PASSU* 
AND HELD ON 


fr" 


Mr ■- -^ 




Photograph in actual size 
gravel passing 1%-inch sieve 
AND held on %-incii mesh. 
Note lower proportion op 

VOIDS. 



GRAVEL AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE 



PLATE. I 
Relation op Unit Weight ahdVoios 

TO 

Moisture. Content 




j 1 ifnxt weight, .. Aimi '{passing, .^.nvssh. 
:.R..'l2riit weighty Sonet jcwssotj y^.mesh. 
..!.•?.. .^& j&.s&itii -passing ,.£,m&sh-. :. 
.'^k. Vo)as in 'rSiind pas&ihg^.mesh. ■ . 



f"T-<iI&tv!re Cbffkt>nt 



[PeF.Ceht\\Bas>3 <ifiD^y weights 



(f) 

July, 1915 



In this there were two series. I and II. Two 
series of compression test cylinders were 
made, using Lehigh cement and the aggre- 
gates with an average moisture content. For 
accurate proportioning by volume, it was 
thought necessary to determine the weight 
per cubic foot with the moisture present, and 
then fractions of cubic feet by weight. This 
weight was determined in each case by shov- 
eling the moist aggregate into a cubic foot 
measure, thus approximating commercial 
practice of measurement. 
In each of Series I and II a set of three test pieces 
was made, using each size of aggregate. The conditions 
of manufacture were exactly the same in the case of 
each kind of aggregate. The various steps involved 
were as follows: 

(a) Aggregates were brought to the same conditions 

as to moisture. This was judged by the eye. 

(b) The weight per cubic foot was determined under 

approximately the conditions of commercial 
measurement, i. e., deposited in a measuring 
box by hand with a shovel. 

(c) Determination of the per tent, moisture present 

at time of measuring. 

( d I The required weight of aggregate and cement 
were then placed in a Chicago cube mixer and 
mixed for 1 minute. The water was then added 
and mixing continued for 3 minutes longer. 
All batches were mixed to the same medium wet 
consistency. 

(e) Three 8-inch diameter by 16-inch height cylinders 
were molded from each batch with slight pud- 
dling and sides spaded by means of a trowel. 
The forms were removed from all test specimens 



after 1% days. The specimens were stored un- 
der moist sand until four days before a test. 
They were then removed and capped with plas- 
ter of Paris to give smooth ends, 
(g) Specimens were all tested at age of 28 days. 

Series III and IV were made with the same methods 
as above, but the proportions for the mixture using ma- 
terial divided on the %-inch screen, were varied in the 
attempt to produce a stronger concrete. The new pro- 
portions used were such as to make the sieve analysis 
curve of the mixture of cement plus aggregate, approach 
more closely to that of the 1:2:4 mix of the %-inch 
divided aggregate. 

Series V. These specimens were made up, using an 
entirely different aggregate and cement. An aggregate 
from Lafayette banks was screened on a %-inch screen. 
The material passing the %-inch screen was divided and 
recombined according to the requirements of Fuller & 
Thompson's maximum density curve for cement plus 
aggregates. 

One set of test specimens was made up, using the ma- 
terial divided on the No. 8 screen, and another set, using 
material divided on the %-inch screen. 

The actual proportions used in Series V were as 
follows: 

Material divided on No. 8 screen, 1:1.1:3.9 by dry 
weight. 

Material divided on 14-inch screen, 1:2.04:2.96 by 
dry weight. 

RESULTS OF TESTS. 

A summary of the averages of the different determinations 
may be found in the following tables: 

Table 1. Specific Gravity. Two determinations for each ma- 
terial. 

%-inch sand Specific gravity 2.65 

%-inch sand Specific gravity 2.645 

%-inch-l %-inch grave i Specific gravity 2.655 

%-inch-l %-inch gravel Specific gravity 2.655 

Table 2. Effect of Moisture on the Weight per cubic foot and 
per cent of Toids of the Fine Aggregates. 

Moisture Weight Voids 

(percent.) (lb. per. cu. ft.) (percent! 

%-inch Sand — 

(air dry 1 111.8 32.4 

0-5 109.0 34.2 

1-28 99.9 40.2 

1! "5 98.7 42.25 

3-31 99.9 41.3 

4.01 101. S 40.7 

%-inch Sand — 

(air dry) 105.2 3C.5 

1.64 99.4 40.3 

1-64 93.7 43.9 

2.36 92.8 44.8 

3.18 93.4 45.0 

4-94 95.3 45.0 

Note — Percentage is on basis of dry weight. Material was 

deposited in 1 cubic foot measure by shovel. 

These results are shown graphically on curve Plate I. 

Table 3. Voids in the Coarse Aggregate. Three Determina- 
tions for each material. 



Gravel 



%-inch to 1 %-inch 
%-inch to 1 %-inch 





.= 3 


r = 






S 








s 


££ 


C. 




£ 


w 


Air dry 


105.8 


34.1 


Air dry 


100.7 


38.75 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




TEST CYLINDERS after compression in testing 
machine. The left cylinder is one taken out at the 
point of failure. The central cylinder shoirs the char- 
acteristics of concrete with gravel aggregate held on 
%-inch mesh. The right cylinder shows the character- 
istics of concrete until grace] aggregate held on i i -inch 
mesh. 



Table .}. Sieve Analysis of Aggregates. 
for each material. 



Three Determinations 









Per cent 


passing 

Gravels 






Sieves 


Sand 


s 


^-in.-li,- 


in. 




No. 


Size In. 


i„-m.-0-in. i, 


-in.-0-in. 




14 -in. 


1 i,-in. 


1% 


1.25 






100 




100 


1 


1.00 






99.5 




98.75 


% 


.75 






96.3 




92.4 


l., 


.50 




100.0 


S7.0 




7S.6 


% 


.25 


100.0 


98.7 


52.5 




17.5 


4 


.185 


99.5 


90.5 








6 


.131 


97.4 


78.0 








8 


.093 


91.2 


67.3 


9.1 




0.1 


10 


.065 


81.0 


57.0 








14 


.046 


69.6 


17.7 








16 


.042 












20 


.0328 


5S.6 


39.5 


2.1 




00 


28 


.0282 


12.5 


27.4 








35 


.0164 


23.1 


14.2 








48 


.0116 


11.0 


6.3 








65 


.00S2 


5.0 


2.:. 








100 


.0058 


1.8 


0.8 








200 


.0029 


0.8 


0.3 









Table ■'>. Relative Strength of 1 to 3 Mortar Made with Each 
of the Fine Aggregates. Compressive strength (lb. per 
square inch). 

1 to 3 by weight 1 to 3 by moist loose vol. 

%-in. sand 14-in. sand 's-in. sand 1 4 -in. sand 

7 days 1603 2165 2173 2575 

28 days 2798 3730 3455 3843 

52 days 3201 4043 *3718 *4138 

Each value is average of three tests. *47 days. 

Table 6. Relative Strength of Concrete in Arbitrary 1:2:!, 
Proportions. Measurement Being by Moist Volumes. Each 
value is the Average of three tests. 



div 



Series I — Av. Compressive 
Strength at 28 days (lb. per 

sq. inch) 

Series II — Av. Compressive 
Strength at 2S days (lb. per 
sq. inch) 



rregates 

ided on 
n sieve 



;gregates 
tided on 
-in. sieve 



Proportion (moist 
volume) 1.2.4 
i ■ gates 
divided on 

1 i-in si . ■ v e 



Series III — Av. Compressive 
Strength at 2S days (lb. per 

sq. inch) 2540 2 

Different batch of cement from Series I and II. 



Proporti" 



Proportions i moist 
1 :o'.534 



Series IV — Av. Compressive 
Strength at 2S days (lb. per 
sq. inch) 



Aggregates 
divided *>n 

14-in. sieve 



GRAVEL AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE 



PLATE H 
Relative Strength of /to >3 Mortar. 
Sand Passing — I' Mesh 
Sand Passing -^"Mesh 




Proportions 1 to 5 by dry weights. 

Material: Lafayette bank gravel passing %-inch sieve. 
Cement was mixture of Atlas, Alpha, Lehigh, Universal. 



Series V — Av. Compressive 
Strength at 28 days (lb. per 
sq. inch) 



Aggregates 
divided on 
No. S sieve 



2655 



Aggregates 
divided on 
H-in. sieve 



2375 



DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. 

1. The average specific gravity of 2.65, as given in Table 
1, shows the material to be of average grade as to weight and 
quality. 

2. Table 2 and curve Plate II illustrate the variation of 
each fine aggregate as to weight and voids when the contained 
moisture varies from to 5 per cent, of the dry weight. It 
is seen that as the per cent, of moisture in each of the sands 
increases the unit weight decreases and the voids increase. 
An average moisture content of these sands may be taken as 
from 2 per cent, to 5 per cent. 

On account of the change in weight and volume of these 
sands with a change in amount of moisture, it is necessary, 
for accurate work, to assume an average moisture content and 
then determine an average unit weight and thereafter to de- 
termine by weight amounts of material for any given pro- 
portion. 

The voids are greater and the weight per cubic foot less 
for all moisture contents in the fine aggregate screened thru 
the %-inch screen than in the fine aggregate screened thru 
the ^-inch screen. 

3. In Table 3 may be seen the voids and weight per cubic 
foot of the coarse aggregates. The weight is greater and 
the voids less in the material graded from %-inch to 1%-inch 
than in the material from V r inch to l^-inch. 



4. The average grading of the materials as to size is 
shown in Table 4 and curve Plate III. By inspection of the 
curves and data, it will be seen that the amount of material 
between %-inch and 14-inch in the various aggregates is as 
follows: 

Per cent, by dry weight, of contained ma- 
Aggregate terial between %-in. and %-in. screen. 

Vs-in.-O-in 4 per cent. 

^-in.-l'/i-in 38.5 per cent. 

^-in.-O-in '. . . .24 per cent. 

^-in.-lVi-in 14 per cent. 

5. The relative value of the fine aggregates as a mortar 
producing material is shown in Table 5 and curve Plate II. 

One to three mortar from ^-inch-O sand is stronger than 
1 to 3 mortar from Vs-inch-O sand. This is probably due to 
its better grading. The difference in strength is less when the 
proportion of cement to aggregate is taken on a basis of moist 
loose volume as measured in practice, rather than by dry 
weight. 

6. The strength of the concrete for a 1:2:4 proportion by 
volume is greater when the line of division between the fine 
and coarse aggregate is the %-inch screen, than when line 
of division is the 14-inch. This is shown by the averages 
from Series I and II. 

In Series III and IV, Table 6, in which the amount of %- 
inch-0 sand is reduced, the difference in strength is not so 
clearly defined. In Series III, the aggregate divided on the 
%-inch screen has greatest strength, while in Series IV, using 
a little less of %-inch-0 sand, the aggregate divided on the 
!4-inch screen has the greatest strength. In Series III and IV 
the comparison in strength is made between the adopted 
standard 1:2:4 mix of aggregate divided on the %-inch and a 

plate m 

Sieve Analysis Curves 
of 

Sand and Gravel as Received 




£...&aad r p&s^.^:i$zshJ v -■■■„ j 



Ml 3tr i<k> : .150 J60 ATS tBH :90 

■ij?/>e pfTTfash \(Incfies) [■■- 



July. Kir, 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



new proportion for the aggregates divided on the %-inch 
screen, as explained in Method of Tests. 

Series V indicates that for an aggregate whose maximum 
size of particle is %-inch such a proportion may be selected 
using materials divided on the %-inch screen that the strength 
of the resulting concrete will be equal to, if not greater, than 
when the aggregates are divided on the 14-inch screen. 

No comparisons may be made between series because dif- 
ferent batches of cement were used in making up the different 
series. 

PLATE LV 

%5iEva AnALYSis Curves ShiowiriG 

Mixtures ofCemeht Pl-uj Aggregate 

In Series I,H,M,JY 




l..li£iQuFtit£pjaI&it{d&&a r £.i5£Eeea- 
[S • .!• ^i^AMav^at.Diviikii^sa's'Screen.. 



.10 .pa ;po .&a ;fS2; Ja? JjH: .po-. ;so jpo 
■$ize-'pf. ffsGh\ {f/7ches}\ : 



CONCLUSIONS. 

The results of the tests as reported would seem to indi- 
cate that for the aggregate tested and the assumed proportion 
that the resulting concrete is as strong if not stronger when 
the line of division is on the Vs-inch screen than when the 
line of division is on the 14-inch screen. 

Whether this would be true for all ranges of aggregates 
and all proportions remains a subject for further investigation. 

Acknowledgement. — The skill and care of Professor Sco- 
field in carrying out these tests are thankfully acknowledged. 

PL A TE Y 
iS/eve Ahalysis Curves 

OP 

Aggregate. Used in Series JT 




Si GrAvethitweek^:. and §? : 

£.$aef4-P45SUJ$. '£'. ] ..._,.. i 
4\G'ray el. between, -^"and^. 

Si ito'£ HA. of : £ and S. 
J,l±Q&Mi'i. B/ : i#Lw?rf...sL . 



D : «;/ ftJEr all "ffcjf : Ot5 • ffilr : -Op 

; %Sij&a afti&f.h. (fochetf 



Converted Into Boosters 
for Hard Surfaced Roads 



A prominent banker from Kansas City stated he had toured 
across New York state, thru the Adirondacks, into Vermont 
and the White Mountains, then to Maine and along the east 
coast to Boston and the shore line to New York. Prom there 
he drove along the coast roads of New Jersey, and then inland 
to Washington. Commenting on his trip, he said: 

"From the time we started east from Buffalo until we 
arrived here we have hardly been off a hard surfaced high- 
way, and it is certainly a revelation to know so many miles 
may be traveled with such perfect comfort and such surety 
of road conditions as has been our experience. I am told that 
we are not yet thru with it, as we shall continue on this thru 
Maryland on our homeward trip. During this trip we have 
met many a westerner and several friends on tour, and each 



is enthusiastic in his praises; each is a convert to the type 
of road we have experienced and all of us are going back 
home with two fixed resolves; one is to repeat our trips next 
year, but more important than that will be the propaganda 
of education which we shall spread as to the value of the 
hard surfaced road out in our great prairie land. We have 
the wealth, but it has only been such experiences as ours that 
will teach the value of the highway that can be traveled 
regardless of weather, both as automobilists on pleasure bent 
and as raisers of foodstuffs that must be hauled to market 
regardless of weather conditions and with regard only to 
market conditions. We have all become converts and boosters 
for the hard surfaced road." 



WATER WORKS of VALPARAISO, IND 

By E. I . Loomis, Superintendent Valparaiso Home Water Company. 



This description of the plant and de- 
velopment of the ivater company serving 
the city of Valparaiso, Indiana, is of a na- 
ture not usually obtainable from operators 
of ivater plants owned by private corpora- 
tions. It is what every plant operator 
should be willing to supply, and if all were 
equally free with their statements of condi- 
tions, methods and results there would be 
less complaint concerning private owner- 
ship of public utilities, because there 
would be more knowledge of the difficulties 
to be overcome and better appreciation of 
the efforts of the companies to overcome 
them. Of course, there are companies 
which could not afford to be as frank as Mr. 
Loomis is, but the majority of the privately 
owned plants would find it to their advan- 
tage to take the public into their confidence, 
at least as far as this paper does. 




T 



iHE city of Valparaiso, Indi- 
ana, obtains the principal 
portion of its water supply 
from Flint Lake, the largest and 
lowest of a chain of six lakes situ- 
ated three miles distant from the 
city. These lakes aggregate about 
one square mile in area, and owing 
to the fact that they are exclusively 
fed by the natural rainfall over a 
watershed about four square miles 
in extent, the water is of excep- 
tional softness, and when filtered, 
it becomes of ideal quality, both for 
family and industrial uses. 
Until five years ago, notwithstanding the constant pump- 
age during a period of twenty-five years, these lakes showed 
practically no decrease in supply. On account of the light 
rainfall which was far below normal at Valparaiso for a few 
years, however, the water line of the lakes steadily receded, 
thus making a system of wells necessary as an additional 
source of supply, temporarily at least. Altho resulting in 
much harder water than that obtained from the lake, and 
therefore, not so desirable, the wells were sunk thru a depth 
of fifty feet of fine water-bearing sand, where it is believed an 
inexhaustible supply of clear, cold and healthful water has 
been found. 

In 18S5 the original plant was constructed by the Michigan 
Pipe Company, of Bay City, Mich. In 1904 it was purchased 
and has since been owned and operated by the Valparaiso 
Home Water Company, a corporation composed of citizens of 
Valparaiso. 

Since taking over the property, the local company has 
practically rebuilt and equipped anew the entire power plant, 
including boilers, coal storage room, wells, electric lighting 
system, laboratory, new pumping engine and a complete con- 



crete filtration plant. Much of the old equipment, however, 
has been repaired and left in position for reserve or emer- 
gency use. 

The main superstructure and wings of the plant are of 
brick and concrete, being of ample dimensions and suitably 
divided into boiler, engine, filter, machinery, laboratory and 
chemical rooms. The concrete coal supply room has storage 
capacity for 750 tons. 

Pumping direct from the plant to the city, the plant has 
a total daily capacity of 4,500,000 gallons, the following pumps 
being available for this service: 

fl. Gaskell-Holly, horizontal, crank and fly-wheel, non- 
compound, condensing, poppet valve gear, inside center-packed 
plunger, with attached air and feed pumps. Size, 20 by 12 by 
18 inches. Capacity, 1,500,000 daily. Installed 1885. 

2. Dean of Holyoke, duplex, plunger and ring type. Size, 
16 by 10% by 10 inches. Capacity, 1,000,000 daily. Installed 
in 1902 for emergency use only and not for regular duty. 

3. Canton-Hughes, Wooster, Ohio, cross-compound, crank 
and fly-wheel, Meyer gear, outside center-packed, with con- 
denser in suction and attached air and feed pumps. Size, 
10% by 19 by 9% by 18 inches. Capacity, 2,000,000 gallons 
daily. Installed 1913. Guaranteed duty eighty million foot 
pounds per thousand pounds dry steam at one-half capacity. 

Water gravitates thru two 12-inch pipe lines from the lake 
to the intake well. It is then lifted to the sedimentation basin 
of the filter plant by a 6-inch Lawrence "Vortex" centrifugal 
engine-driven pump. A No. 8 Lawrence "Vortex" centrifugal 
engine-driven pump is used for washing the filter beds. These 
two Lawrence machines are inter-connected so that the wash 
pump may also be used for pumping raw water, and that the 
raw-water pump may also be used for emptying the sedimenta- 
tion basin. 

Two 10 by 36-inch and one 12 by 30-inch A. D. Cook deep 
well pumps, combined capacity 1,120,000 gallons daily, lift 
the water from the wells when they are in use, and deliver 
the same either into the intake well or into the clear-well 
reservoir where it may be mixed with the filtered water from 
the lake before being pumped to the city. 

During the outing season each summer a large number 



CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS for lifting water to mixing 

chamber, to flow thence thru coagulating basin and 
filters to the main pumps: and for pumping water to 
wash the filters. 




Ill 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




THE PLANT of the Valparaiso Home Water Com- 
pany. Pumping and filter station in background, small 
ini in/} houses over deep wells in foreground. Residence 
of employe at the right. 

of cottages about the shores of the lakes are occupied by 
persons from Valparaiso, Chicago and other cities, the natural 
scenery and forests surrounding the lakes affording a most 
inviting spot to those seeking outdoor pastime and recreation. 
An interurban street railway line passes the shores of the 
lakes, connecting the same direct with the cities of Gary, 
Hammond, Laporte, Chesterton and Valparaiso. Thus, the 
summer population is very rapidly increasing from year to 
year. With a number of good hotels, dancing pavilions, the 
various amusements, all in addition to the fascination of good 
fishing and fine bathing beaches, it is small wonder that there 
are always hundreds, and many times, upon special occasions, 
several thousand persons present and participating in these 
enjoyments. Naturally, the drainage from ground about these 
places is toward the lake, and while no bad effect has thus 
far been observed, the possibility for contamination of the 
water supply from this source is considerable, to say the 
least. In addition to the possibilities of contamination from 
drainage, there has always been more or less complaint from 
water consumers during a portion of each summer because 
of an algae growth in the lakes, with the resultant odors 
emanating from the decomposition of the same. 

On account of these conditions, unusual to most water 
plants, and acting upon the advice and counsel of the State 
Board of Health, as w-ell as experts whose aid was sought in 
order to overcome these difficulties, the Home Water Company 
installed a complete concrete mechanical filtration plant, a 
detailed report of which would here seem to be worth while 

In designing this plant provision was made for the aera- 
tion of the water during the troublesome algae period. The 
general design was intended to minimize as much as possible 
the labor required in operation and at the same time to install 
a plant that would be low in first cost and also give satisfac- 
tory efficiency. 

The plant consists of three concrete filter units, having 
a total capacity of 2,000,000 gallons per day. Two of these 
units are fully equipped, the third to be placed in operation 
as the growth in water consumption may require. Below the 



filters is located the clear water basin of approximately 100,- 
000 gallons capacity. Immediately adjoining the filter build- 
ing is the concrete sedimentation basin which, with a ca- 
pacity of 135,000 gallons, is partially inclosed and partially 
exposed. An ell or wing of the building is carried over one 
end of this basin, and in this wing are installed the coagu- 
lating apparatus and storage room for coagulants. 

From the intake well the water is pumped in its raw state 
into the mixing chamber, where, discharging over a funnel 
about four feet above the water line and dropping freely 
thru the air, it has an opportunity for aeration in the fall 
and the carrying down of the air into the mixing chamber 
produces the desired result in eliminating the odors. 

Whenever more air becomes necessary for oxidation than is 
available in this way, however, there is provided a small air- 
compressor and storage tank. This is arranged to pump air 
thru a perforated grill of brass pipe that is placed across and 
near the bottom of the inlet chamber. The water passes out 
of the inlet chamber at the bottom thru a sluice valve into 
a perforated conduit which extends across the end of the 
basin, passing around the baffle wall dividing the basin and 



Cg3 



NEW CANTON-HUGHES PUMP of 2.00(1 000 gallons 
capacity, one of three used to pump intend water by 
direct pressure thru the distribution system to con- 
sumers. 




WATER WORKS OF VALPARAISO, IND. 



under the building, coming back to the outlet overflow box, 
which is connected to a concrete conduit which conveys the 
water to the filters. This outlet box also is connected to the 
inlet chamber by a sluice gate, so that when the necessity 
arises for cleaning out the coagulant the filter plant can be 
continued in operation by by-passing the water directly to the 
filters from the inlet chamber. 

In the center of the filter is a double valve which is used 
for admitting the treated water to the filter beds and, in the 
process of washing, allowing the wash water to pass from the 
beds thru a connecting conduit into the sewer which is formed 
in the supporting wall of the front of the filter. 

Thus, the only pipe line in the gallery is the wash water 
line for conveying the water under pressure from the wash 
pump to wash the filters. These filters were installed with- 
out the use of any agitating apparatus, it being considered 
that because of the character of the water to be treated, sat- 
isfactory results would be obtained with the use of water 
alone for washing. Experience, however, taught the con- 
trary to be true, and a complete air-wash system has been in- 
stalled. Passing thru a conduit and admitted to the filter 
beds, the water then passes or filters thru the sand beds and 
is received into the clear-well beneath the filters, whence the 
high-service pumps deliver it into the city mains. 

Altho the plant is equipped for the use of lime, iron or 
alum, the coagulant thus far used has been exclusively alum. 
In all, there are four concrete solution tanks, which are 
equipped with mechanical agitators. These tanks are about 
six feet square and five feet deep. The discharge from them 
is into the concrete orifice box, the solution passing thru 
finely graduated orfices and being carried from there to the 
point of application by gravity. 

The low service pumps are connected up so that they can 
be used interchangeably, thus accomplishing practically the 
same result as a double installation for service in case of 
emergency. 

After a visit to this plant and having made many careful 
analyses of the filtered and raw water, Dr. H. E. Barnard, 
state food and drug commissioner and chemist, once said: 
"When in efficient operation, this method of treatment will 
remove all suspended matter, abstract practically all color 
due to organic decomposition and will remove 9S per cent, 
of the bacteria present. Such purification renders the ordi- 
nary water quite safe and potable, and water of the type ob- 
tained from Flint Lake should be of unquestionable quality. 
It is greatly to be regretted that water of such ideal charac- 
teristics for drinking and domestic purposes as that normally 
supplied by Flint Lake should be subject to pollution. But 
as this unfortunate condition cannot be relieved, proper fil- 
tration must be relied upon to protect the health of the com- 
munity. This can be obtained with the system installed." 

The distributing system of the plant consists of over twen- 
ty-two miles of "Michigan" improved water pipe, ranging in 
sizes from 4 to 12 inches, as follows: Four-inch pipe, 74.44C 
feet: 6-inch pipe, 23,453 feet; 8-inch pipe, 718 feet: 10-inch 
pipe, 2,475 feet; 12-inch pipe, 16,177 feet. There are 145 hy- 
drants on the lines. 

Altho much of this pipe has been installed twenty-eight 
years, during all of which time it has been under constant 
direct pressures ranging from 40 to 125 pounds, it has thus 
far shown but slight signs of deterioration, and it is confi- 
dently believed to be good for many years' service yet to 
come. The system is free from leakage and the annual main- 
tenance cost is meager. In fact, so satisfactory has experi- 
ence demonstrated this pipe to be that it is used exclusively 
in all the new installation work. When properly made and 
installed, if kept constantly filled with water and free from 
air, the life of this pipe is apparently interminable. More- 








^^^ j ■■■<■]_ 


g^i 


fil£.y 



PURIFICATION' PROCESS of Valparaiso Some 
Wati'r Company. ABOVE, chemical solution tanks: 
CENTER, portion of coagulating basin: BELOW, por- 
tion of filter beds, showing part of operating gallery. 



over, on account of its high economy in construction, as well 
as for its sanitary service in keeping the water cool, fresh 
and pure, it has proven itself to be especially desirable. The 
entire distributing system at Valparaiso is made to withstand 
a pressure of 200 pounds. 

Since the local management began the operation of the 
plant in 1904, improvements to the plant equipment and ex- 
tensions to the distributing system have been made at a total 
cost of $70,000.00. Not only have these improvements been 
made and paid for out of the earnings of the plant, but the 
bonded debt has been reduced to the extent of $35,000.00 as 
well, leaving at the present time outstanding a bonded debt 
of only $55,000.00, with no floating indebtedness of. any kind 
vhatsoever against the plant. 



July. 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




OFFICE of Valparaiso Home Water Company, show- 
ing Superintendent Loomis at his desk, accessible im- 
diately to all callers. 



# 



The difference in cost of pumping under the various con- 
ditions is indicated for the Holly-Gaskell pump by the average 
cost of pumping direct from the wells thru the distribution 



being 1.G37 cents per 1,000 gallons; pumping thru the filters, 
2.231 cents per 1,000 gallons, and pumping from the wells, 
2.2 cents per 1,000 gallons. The Canton-Hughes pump gives 
somewhat lower cost. 

During one year over 300,000,000 gallons of water are 
pumped and delivered to the citizens of Valparaiso. The total 
cash receipts for this period are over $30,000, and the total 
operating expenses are about $17,000. 

The business affairs of the company are directed by a 
board of five directors, all of whom are local business men. 
The president of the company is Oliver P. Kinsey, vice presi- 
dent of Valparaiso University. Other directors are John W. 
Sieb, Stephen L. Finney, Schuyler C. Billings and Melvin J. 
Stinchfield. The active management of the business devolves 
upon the superintendent, E. L. Loomis. The power and filtra- 
tion plants are in charge of J. F. Bradley, chief engineer and 
bacteriologist. 

It is the constant aim of the company to maintain its plant 
in the highest state of efficiency and to give its patrons the 
very best service possible. 



THE WALL OF THE CITY OF LONDON 



Though Paris has well-preserved fortifications which com- 
pletely surround the older portion of the city, London's walls 
disappeared long ago, except for a half dozen fragments which 
are preserved as examples of Roman and medieval construc- 
tion. 

An interesting fragment of the original Roman work is 
found in the basement of a modern business block near Tower 
Green. Regular rows of Kentish ragstone alternate with flat, 
red tiles, and both are laid in cement which is harder than 
either the stone or brick. This old wall forms the rear foun- 
dation of the modern structure. 

Another section of Roman wall was recently unearthed in 
the courtyard of the new general postoffice. It is viewed by 
descending into a crypt built to contain the relic of antiquity. 

Sections of rebuilt Roman construction, with the red tiles 
irregularly mingled with courses of stone, are to be seen in 
the graveyard of St. Giles, Cripplegate, in what is said to 
have been a bastion of the old wall, and in two fragments, one 
of them in the churchyard of St. Alphage, and another at the 
rear of St. Botolph, Aldgate. 

Portions of the Tower of London were erected on the wall 
which, extending around the square mile comprising the ear- 
lier city, defines what is still known as the City of London, as 
distinguished from the great metropolitan area. 




Station Entrances on Boston Subways 



By W. B. Consul, Concord, Mass. 



Too often the designing of subivay sta- 
tions and similar openings upon the street 
has been a matter of routine, and it is a 
pleasure to read a description of a number 
of designs made with the express purpose 
of fitting the structures to their surround- 
ings as nearly as possible. The designs 
here shown are no two alike and show the 
attempt at conformity with adjoining exist- 
ing structures. The structures themselves 
show this even better than these photo- 
graphs, which are naturally taken in such 
manner as to emphasize the subway en- 
trances, ivhereas on the ground the effect is 
to make them relatively inconspicuous, tho 
sufficiently evident to advertise their pres- 
ence to those needing to use them. 



IN the construction of the new Boylston street subway, in 
Boston, Mass., the transit commissioners expended much 
care on the superstructures of the entrances and exits of 
the stations. The subway pierces the high-class Back Bay 
section of the city, has two stations between Boylston and 
Tremont streets and its outlet at Beacon street and Common- 
wealth avenue. The stations are Copley and Massachusetts, 
at the square and avenue respectively. 

At Copley Square is a single eastbound station superstruc- 
ture (Fig. 1) which provides both entrance and exit. It is 
of elaborate and tasteful design and stands near the north 
wall of the Boston Public Library. The station structure is 
composed of cast iron and wired glass, and harmonizes with 
the architecture of the library building. Except for the direc- 
tion signs on either side, of white on blue glass background; 
and a wooden sign which protrudes from the center of the 
hood, the structure might readily be taken for the entrance 
to a conservatory or other fine municipal building. The cost 
of th# above-ground erection was about $10,000. 

The westbound Copley station is provided with an entrance 
and exit (Fig. 2), one on either side of Dartmouth street, 
penetrating the broad sidewalk, which has been widened some- 
what to give room. For each of these openings a low hood 
is provided, which covers one-half of a granite base 4.5 feet 
high above the sidewalk. The arching hood is of concrete 
with a bronze and copper canopy over it. This type of en- 
trance-exit offers little obstruction to the view, being low and 
relatively inconspicuous, and is least objectionable to nearby 
property holders, which are here, on one side, a church, and 
on the other, stores and offices. 

The cost of the two substantial structures serving the 
westbound station was between $5,000 and $6,000 each, the 
polished stone and bronze castings representing considerable 
skill besides value of materials. 

The Massachusetts avenue station (Fig. 3) comprises a 
stairway entrance and exit, and a waiting room on the street 
level for transferring passengers. A concrete building about 
35 by 30 feet is erected above the tunnel on property that the 
Transit Commission acquired, demolishing the large building 
that stood on the lot. The entrance structure was left in the 



rough, so far as its exterior walls are concerned, it being the 
commission's purpose to sell the ground area surrounding the 
building, and eventually a business block will probably be 
erected around and enclosing the station. 

An earlier type of subway station, built at the time of the 
first subway construction in Boston, is of granite, with wired 
glass roof set in copper frame and sufficiently high to house 
the whole stairway and lobby area and also provide sign 
space over the entrances and exits. Of these structures there 
are eight on Boston Common— four at Park and four at Boyl- 
ton street— and one each at Adams and at Scollay Squares. 

The Common station superstructures have 15-foot stair- 
ways. The wall windows are covered externally with a bronze 
grill work, which gives the effect of small, triangular glass 
panes. The Scollay Square structure has high, arched win- 
dows, and the tile roof contracts to a square tower with a. 
clock on each face. The Haymarket Square station is of steel, 
with low, overhanging roof. 

The earlier structures of this general type were practicable 
where ample space was available, as on the Common. Their 
durability in the center of the squares mentioned is open to 
question, particularly with the increase in street traffic since 
they were erected. 

A third underground system in Boston is the Washington 
street tunnel. Here the prevailing type of entrances-exits is 
thru the street floor and basement of business buildings. 
Such use was made at Summer and Winter streets, at Boyl- 
ston and Essex, and at Milk street. The State street entrance 

SUBWAY STATION" at the Boston Public Library, 

mi ornamental iron and alass structure. 




July, 1915 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




ENTRANCE AND EXIT 
street subway .station. An 
hood with a granite base. 

is thru the lower floor of the old State House, and at Milk 
street an exit and entrance are provided by two concrete 
hoods in an area between the Old South church and a nearby- 
block. These coverings are relatively inconspicuous, obstruct 
no valuable light, and at the same time form adequate pro- 
tection from the weather. 

The East Boston tunnel is provided with a two-story struc- 
ture at State street and Atlantic avenue. The tunnel at this 
point is far below the street level, as the harbor under-pass 
is approached, and elevators are installed to convey passengers 
from the station platform to the street and to the level of 
the elevated railway above. A small emergency exit is lo- 
cated a few yards west of the main structure and is of the 
typical stone and pitched roof construction common to Bos- 
ton's earlier building. 

The Park street station's stairways are supplemented by 
escalators, which provide an outlet for the Cambridge tunnel. 
One, of the Reno or cleat type, comes to the sidewalk opposite 
the foot of Park street, and one, of the Seeberger or stair 
type, nearly opposite St. Paul's Cathedral (Fig. 4). Each is 
provided with a rectangular glass and steel hood, with sloping 



MASSACHUSETTS STATION ENTRANCE to Boyl- 
ston street subway, arranged for future commercial use 
of the premises, it being possible to erect a building 
around- and over it. 




copper roof, and affords a complete protection to the mechan- 
isms from the action of the weather. 

In the Dorchester tunnel, now under construction and due 
to be completed in one and a half to two years, there will be 
four stations — one at Washington street, where the exits and 
entrances will be thru private property; at Dewey Square, 
where the station will be reached directly from the street; 
a station near Broadway and Dorchester avenue; and one at 
or near Andrew Square, the present terminal. Both the latter 
structures are yet to be determined upon. 

The Transit Commission's engineers point out the practical 
advantages of the wholly-covered structures, in that they af- 
ford more complete protection from rain and snow and thereby 
minimizes the danger of accident particularly in freeing 
weather. On the other hand, in positions in front of business 
houses, where light and air are important considerations, the 
low, half-covered structure is demanded, and is the prevailing 
type under those conditions, in Boston and Cambridge. The 




PLAIN GLASS AND STEEL HOOD in a business 
street over the escalator at the Park street station, 
nearly opposite St. Paul's Cathedral. 

means of access thru private property have obvious disad- 
vantages in that less permanence is assured, such property 
being liable to reconstruction. However, where public area 
is lacking, either in the street or sidewalk space, it is in- 
evitable. 

The Boston Transit Commission consists of five members, 
of whom the mayor appoints three and the governor of Massa- 
chusetts two. The bonds for construction purposes are issued 
by the city of Boston and the construction is done under con- 
tract, on plans and under the supervision of the commission's 
engineer. The existing tunnels and subways are leased to the 
Boston Elevated Railway at a fraction of a per cent, above 
the yield of the bonds. The Cambridge tunnel was constructed 
by, and is the property of, the Boston Elevated Railway Com- 
pany. 

July, 1915 




Connecting Roads to Mountain Parks 

OF DENVER, COLORADO. 



By Otto B. Thum, Denver, Colo. 



The wonderful mountain /Kirk and road 
system of Denver, Colorado, is indicated in 
the west section of the above map and the 
roads connecting it with the city are shown. 
The county and state authorities are pav- 
ing these connecting roads so that Denver 
and the many tourists visiting the city can 
have the full benefit of the natural and arti- 
ficial beauties of the district. This article 
describes some of the icork in progress and 
completed, and the pictures tell the story of 
the methods of construction used. 



WHILE the Denver Park Department was developing 
the Mountain Parks System and constructing perma- 
nent roads throut, they did not lose sight of the fact 
that the parks and roads would be useless until something 
was done to overcome the conditions of the approaches. 
(Fig. 1.) 

About four years ago the commissioners of Arapahoe 
county had a mile of concrete road built by a contractor, who 
knew little or nothing about that kind of road construction. 
This road was built to overcome a bad soft spot on the main 
road from Denver to Littleton, the county seat of Arapahoe 
county. The road has proved to be a failure, as a smooth rid- 
ing highway, and is now practically worn out, even tho the 
commissioners have spent a great deal of money in upkeep. 
This piece of road on the Littleton course has always been 
an eye-sore and bugbear to the cement companies in Denver, 
they claiming that a cement road properly built would wear 
for years, with little or no up-keep. 

In order to prove this statement, the companies submitted 
the proposition that if the Denver Park Department would 
give them $7,000,000, and do the grading, they would guaran- 
tee to construct a mile of concrete road, on the Morrison road, 
beginning at, approximately, one mile south of Alameda ave- 
nue, on Sheridan boulevard, and running one mile west. The 

July, 1915 



companies further guaranteed to build the road in first-class 
condition, in every particular, under the supervision of a 
cement expert, the width to be 16 feet. 

After several conferences between the officers of the cement 
companies and the city, it was decided to alter the specifica- 
tions to read as follows: 

One-course work and one consistency thruout. 

The mixture to consist of 1 part Portland cement to 1% 
parts sand and 3 parts gravel. 

The thickness to be 7% inches in center and 5 inches on 
the side, making a slope of 2 x / 2 inches from the crown. 

The roadway to be 18 feet wide, with 14-inch joints, placed 
every 25 feet. These joints to consist of a trussed concrete 
steel bar, made by the Trussed Concrete Steel Company. 

The filler for the joints to be elastite, made by the Philip 
Carey Company. 

The city to pay $7,500, instead of $7,000. 

Immediately after the signing of the above specification, 
June 2, 1915, the park department made a new survey of the 
road and started to grade and drain, according to their agree- 
ment, and as soon as practical the cement companies started 
on the road building. The cement expert in charge turned in 
the following report after completion: 



& 



THE ROADS BEFORE IMPROVEMENT. 




MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 







T^T 1, %> ~fl2l 








IMtml 






m 


£ *'j£H92S5 





















PHOTO BY WISWALL, DENVER 




EXPANSION JOINT. ABOVE, the joint ready in its 
construction frame for placing. It is in reverse position. 
with the steel protecting plates below and the asphalted 
felt expansion cushion projecting up. BELOW, the 
joint in place, u-ith concrete slab laid on one side and 
anchoring projections ready for laying slab on right 
side. 



# 



As soon as practical after the concrete was poured, the 
same was covered with burlap for a few hours to protect it 
from the sun and wind. As soon as the concrete was suffi- 
ciently dry to justify it, the road was covered with dirt, this 
dirt was left on the road for thirty days, or until it was 
opened for traffic. The road was kept thoroly wet for two 
weeks after it had been poured. The photographs tell the story 
of the construction. 

While this road is not yet a year old, it has upset the gen- 
eral opinion that scientifically constructed and maintained 
roads are only for the wealthier communities. While this mile 
of roadway cost $13,098.23, there has not been one cent spent 
on upkeep and all indications are that there will be none spent 
this year or next. 

Statistics show that the average country road which is not 
a thorofare requires an average yearly expenditure of $500 
per mile to keep it in fairly good condition part of the time, 
protracted wet seasons making it practically useless just at a 
time when those who use the road have time to go and come. 

The unit costs of this mile of concrete road are as follows: 

Cement cost — $1.79 per barrel, net, sacks extra, f. o. b. the 
job, which figures approximately 51 cents per square yard of 
pavement. 

Sand cost — $1.40 per cubic yard, f. o. b. the job, which fig- 
ures approximately 11 cents per square yard of pavement. 



Gravel cost — $1.75 per cubic yard, f. o. b. the job, which fig- 
ures approximately 27 cents per square yard of pavement. 

Trussed concrete steel plate cost — $2.49 per joint, f. o. b. 
the job, the road being IS feet wide and two plates at each 
joint, which figures approximately 5 cents per square yard of 
pavement. 

Elastite — Used as a filler for the expansion joints, cost 57 
cents per joint, which figures approximately 1 cent per square 
yard of pavement. 

Laying cost — With all materials furnished at the job, was 
18 cents per square yard. 



rtj 



LAYING THE CONCRETE. ABOVE, the distribu- 
tion of materials and transfer to mixer: CENTER, the 
receiving end of the mixer; BELOW, the discharge end 
of the mixer. Xote wooden forms along sides of road. 




PHOTO BY WISWALL, DENVER 



CONNECTING ROADS TO MOUNTAIN PARKS OF DENVER, COLO. 




PHOTO BY WISWALL. DENVER 



COMPLETED CONCRETE ROAD covered with earth 
as promptly as possible after laying concrete and kept 
sprinkled until concrete is completely cured. 



& 



The South Golden road, which in time will be the main 
thorofare to the mountain parks, because it is a few miles 
shorter and runs thru a beautiful agricultural section, has 
not had any work whatsoever done on it. The reason for this 
is that the city is building a new viaduct over the railroad 
tracks, Platte river and Cherry creek. When this is completed 
thi' park department will push work on the South Golden road. 

The park engineers have under consideration for this road 
a 9-foot concrete road on one side of the roadway and a 9-foot 
disintegrated granite road on the other. Differences of opinion 
again arise as to the feasibility of this, as some claim that 
the junction of the two would be too noticeable, that when a 
vehicle turned onto the concrete the wheels would tear the 
granite away. 

The main idea of the department is to construct this road 
half and half so that the entire course may be built at ap- 
proximately $5,000 a mile, and in the future, if it so desires, 
it may widen the road at the same cost, thereby not throwing 
a heavy cost upon the department all at once. 



Haul — The average haul for all materials was ZV 2 miles. 

Total cost — Exclusive of grading and drainage, including 
superintendence, inspection and all incidentals not mentioned 
above, was $13,098.23. This figures $1.23 per square yard of 
pavement. 

Engineers hold different opinions as to the necessity of an 
lS-foot roadbed, stating that, in their idea, 16 feet is plenty 
wide, but this article deals with only what has been done, and 
not what people think. 

While the above work was going on, the department, with 
small financial aid from Jefferson county thru which the Mor- 
rison road runs, was busy widening and surfacing the balance 
of the 17 miles between Denver and Morrison. 

The North Golden or State Highway No. 1, runs thru a 
higher and more solid formation than either the Morrison or 
South Golden road. For this reason, the park department did 
what little work was necessary, such as widening out and sur- 
facing a few places. At the same time they built the first 
Mountain Parks System roads, thereby giving the tourist a 
good road to the system as soon as the mountain roads were 
opened. 



& 



THE COMPLETED ROAD is only less scenic and 
wonderful in beauty than the mountain park roads 
themselves. 






Makers of Garbage Trucks, Wagons and Carts 

Will you please inform me who makes garbage 

trucks or handles same? T., — , Mo. 

Sanitary garbage carts for one or two horses are made by 
George H. Holzbog & Bro., Jeffersonville, Ind. 

Studebaker Corporation, South Bend, Ind., are makers of 
garbage wagons and of motor trucks. 

The most satisfactory way of operating garbage collection 
with automobiles seems to be to collect the garbage in wagons 
or carts hauled by horses; these trucks, when full, being 
turned over as trailers to an automobile tractor, which hauls 
them rapidly to the dump and brings back the clean wagons 
to exchange for those that have been filled. 

The Knox Motors Company make the Knox tractor, which 
is adapted to this use. The wagons made by the firms named 
above can be fitted for use as trailers in this system. 

Steel garbage wagon tanks are made by the Buckeye 
Boiler Company, Dayton, Ohio, and the Sims Company, Erie, 
Pa., which are also applicable. 

The Troy Wagon Works Company, Troy, Ohio, make auto- 
mobile truck trailers, which can be fitted with the tanks. 

Any motor truck or truck trailer can be fitted with the 
steel garbage wagon tanks, regulations in many cities requir- 
ing that the tanks have tight covers, steel sectional lids in 
some cases and canvas in others. 

Several articles descriptive of garbage collecting devices, 
wagons and trucks will be found in back numbers of Munici- 
pal Engineering, lists of which will be found in vol. xlvii, p. 
292, and vol. xlii, p. 252. 



Directory of Cement Manufacturers 

Will you kindly advise me if you publish a directory 
of the cement manufacturers of the United States and 
Canada, with descriptions of plants and processes, and 
the price of same. 

Also if I could get a list of cement plants in the 
United States and Canada using marl for a raw material 
and a list of those plants using the wet or semi-wet 
process on dry raw material. 

Also if you could supply me with a detailed descrip- 
tion or write-up of the plant of the Sandusky Portland 
Cement Company, at Sandusky, Ohio. 

K., Calgary, Alberta. 

The Directory of American Cement Industries has not been 
published since 1909. A list of cement manufacturers is pub- 
lished each year by The Cement Era, of Chicago, for $1, which 
probably gives the information desired as to users of marl 
and the wet processes of making cement. Up-to-date descrip- 
tions of the Sandusky Portland Cement Company's plants are 
not at hand. Information concerning them can probably be 
obtained in considerable detail by writing to the company. 



Garbage Collection by the City 

We have a city of about four thousand people and 
the sanitary conditions are not very satisfactory. We 
want a model to go by in framing an ordinance for the 
handling of the garbage from the residences and busi- 
ness places. This refers both to the wastes from the 
dry closets and the solid wastes that accumulate around 
any place in the course of time, such as trash and the 
like. We are not able to agree whether or not we 
should attempt to haul all this stuff away for the peo- 
ple or try to make each attend to his own part of it. I 
advocate the city's doing the work, but there is much 
opposition to me in the city council. 

S., , Fla. 

The best results are obtained when the city collects and 
disposes of the garbage, if the work is put in charge of a 
competent department, which has adequate understanding of 
the necessity of sanitary methods and power enough to re- 
quire their use. Next best is the letting of a contract for the 
collection under rigid specifications, requiring sanitary meth- 
ods and complete removal. If the city pays the bill out of 
the treasury, the method which will bring the best results 
under local conditions should be chosen. 

If the city cannot pay the bill, the collection should be 
made preferably by the city and a schedule of charges for 
removal of garbage and refuse should be prepared, which 
householders are required to pay. The collection of the gar- 
bage may be let by contract under these fees, but there will 
probably be more friction between the contractor and the 
householders than between the city and the householders, 
especially as regards the required payments. 

An excellent form of ordinance, where the city collects the 
garbage and charges fees fixed by a schedule, will be found in 
Municipal Engineering, vol. xlvii, p. 41, with some account 
of the success of the system. 



Life and Maintenance Cost of Asphalt and Brick 
Pavements 

We are desirous of obtaining information relative 
to a comparison between the costs of sheet asphalt and 
brick pavements. 

We are especially interested in the comparison of 
maintenance costs after the pavement has passed the 
contractors guarantee period. Also comparative life of 
same. 

If you can give us any data on the above we assure 
you it will be greatly appreciated. 

W. C. Dickey, City Engineer, Conneaut, O. 

A direct reply cannot be made to this question, either as 
to cost of construction or cost of maintenance. 

Brick pavements are not in use in some eastern cities 
because their cost, due to the absence of good paving brick 
within a reasonable distance, is too high. The same is true 

Julil. imr. 



THE QUESTION DEPARTMENT 



of asphalt in some western cities. In Ohio, undoubtedly, the 
cost of good brick pavements is materially less than that of 
good asphalt pavements. The prices given from month to 
month in the department of Contracting News in Municipal 
Engineering show this. The exact difference is determined 
by the local conditions. 

As to durability and cost of maintenance the answers 
must be equally indefinite if made in a general way, and to be 
of much value must be made after a careful study of the 
local conditions. 

The maintenance of a poor brick street may well be more 
expensive than that of a good asphalt street, and its life 
shorter, but the statement may be reversed. 

The city of Buffalo has kept careful records for some 
years of the life of pavements and the cost of repairs and the 
annual reports give these results. They are for Buffalo condi- 
tions and cannot be applied directly to any other case. Possi- 
bly individual streets could be selected that would be com- 
parable with any particular street in another locality, but 
averages are only to be applied in the most general manner. 
With this warning, the following figures are given as taken 
from the latest report of the Bureau of Engineering of the 
Buffalo Department of Public Works. It should also be noted 
that the city has over 4,000,000 square yards of asphalt pave- 
ment in use and only about 530,000 square yards of brick. 

Costs are hardly applicable in other cities because both 
asphalt and brick pavements are laid under 10-year guaran- 
ties, which increases prices materially, the average increase 
in prices for brick pavements being about 15 cents per square 
yard more for 10-year guaranty than for 5-year. Some other 
change operated on asphalt pavements at the time the guar- 
anty period was extended, which caused a very great reduc- 
tion in price, fully one-third. 

As to durability, asphalt pavements laid in 1898 and sub- 
sequent years are still in use practically complete. Pave- 
ments laid prior to 1S98 have had greater or less amounts of 
replacement, and average age of pavements laid each year 
varies from 14 years for those laid in 1878 to 33 years for 
those laid in 1881, the latter being still in use and adding to 
its average life. The average lives given in the table from 
which these figures are taken are not yet complete, as a 
large majority of the streets are still in use and adding daily 
to the average lives. 

The same statement can be made even more emphatically 
in the case of brick pavements, as they are still all in use, 
the first having been laid in 1889, and only about 1,200 square 
yards having been taken up on account of street widening or 
construction of new street-car line. 

As to annual cost of repairs after guaranties have expired, 
the cost of repair of asphalt streets averaged on the total 
area of asphalt streets, varied from 1.02 cents per square 
yard in 1902-3 to 8.27 cents in 1913-14, having been less than 
5 cents each year up to 1907-8. 

The repair of brick pavements, the oldest of which is S 
years younger than the oldest asphalt pavement in use, has 
varied from 1.51 cents a square yard, averaged on the total 
area of brick pavements in use, in 1909-10 to 6.49 cents in 
1910-11, having been 4.98 cents in 1913-14. 

Whether these comparisons are unfavorable to brick or 
to asphalt cannot be determined on the face of the statements. 
The area of brick pavements is but one-eighth that of the 
asphalt pavements and there is no information as to whether 
the pavements are among the best of their respective kinds 
or have been carelessly constructed or with inferior mate- 
rials, or as to whether they have been properly selected and 
designed for the work expected of them. 

Information on cost of construction and of maintenance of 



pavements may be found in Municipal Engineebing in many 
back volumes, among the latest being the following: 

In St. Paul, Minn., vol. xlvii, p. 229, vol. xlv, p. 63; in Chi- 
cago, vol. xlvii, p. 184, vol. xliv, p. 542; in Buffalo, N. Y., vol. 
xlvi. pp. 57. 58: in Trenton, X. J., vol. xlvi, p. 102, vol. xliv, 
p. 240; in Baltimore, vol. xlvi, p. 2; in Detroit, vol. xlv, p. 
4:;.".; in St. Louis, vol. xlv, p. 324; in Winnipeg, vol. xlv, p. 
546; in Toledo, vol. xlv, p. 251; in Dayton, vol. xliv, pp. 127, 
332; in Cincinnati, vol. xlii, p. 458: in various cities, vol. xlvii, 
p. 414. vol. xlv, p. 448, vol. xliv, pp. 387, 334; on country high- 
ways, vol. xlv, p. 60, vol. xliv, p. 106. 



Books on Sewage Disposal 

May I ask you to cite me the best work on the de- 
sign of sewage disposal plants for small towns? 

W., , Iowa. 

If one may judge by the first two volumes of a series, the 
third volume of the work by Metcalf and Eddy on American 
Sewerage Practice, which will be devoted to sewage disposal, 
will be a full and accurate statement of the best in American 
practice under American conditions. Kinnicutt, Winslow and 
Pratt's "Sewage Disposal" ($3) is a general view of the whole 
field and does not go into the details of design and construc- 
tion. Fuller's "Sewage Disposal" ($6) is a larger book, cov- 
ering the whole field of American practice and the principles 
on which it is based and will be found most valuable by the 
engineer. Ogden and Cleveland's "Practical Methods of Sew- 
age Disposal" treats of the details of methods, apparatus and 
construction and may be used to great advantage as a supple- 
ment in these regards to the preceding book. 

Other books more or less devoted to particular methods of 
sewage disposal are Venable's "Methods and Devices for Bac- 
terial Treatment of Sewage" ($3) ; Allen's "Sewage Sludge" 
($2.50), covering Imhoff tank practice; Schmeitzner's "Clari- 
fication of Sewage" ($1.50). 

Most of the books on sewage disposal are by English 
authors and their methods must usually be modified as to 
some details to fit them for American conditions. Some of 
the more prominent are Banoise's "The Purification of Sew- 
age" ($3.50); Dibdin's "Purification of Sewage and Water" 
($6.50); Raike's "The Design, Construction and Maintenance 
of Sewage Disposal Works" ($4); Watson's "Sewage Sys- 
tems" ($4); Dunbar's "The Principles of Sewage Treatment" 
($4.50); Kershaw's "Modern Methods of Sewage Purification" 
($7.50); Moore and Silevik's "Sanitary Engineering," 2 vols. 
($14). 



Garbage and Refuse Disposal Methods 

Garbage and refuse disposal methods and appliances 
are interesting me and I would like information as to 
those of most efficiency now in use. 

Reader, , N. Y. 

The two principal methods of garbage disposal are- by 
reduction and by incineration. Refuse is usually incinerated. 
When garbage is incinerated it is preferable to mix the 
refuse and garbage together. 

Incineration is performed in high-temperature and in low- 
temperature furnaces. Possibly the high-temperature fur- 
nace is the more sanitary and the operation more complete, 
but the cost, including plant and overhead charges, may be 
greater by this method. 

Reduction of garbage seems to be profitable in the larger 
cities, but one or two small cities have been more or less 
successful with plants under private ownership. 

There seems to be an idea that foreign plants are more 
efficient than American plants. Possibly this is because con- 
ditions are different. 



July, 191$ 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Information about the higher-temperature destructors can 
be obtained from such firms as The Destructor Co., Ill Broad- 
way. New York; .1. B. Harris, 65 Life and Casualty Bldg., 
Nashville. Tenn.; Atkinson-Morse Destructor Co., 30 Church 
street, New York; Morse-Boulger Destructor Co., New York. 
Information about lower-temperature incinerators may be ob- 
tained of the Decarie Co., Minneapolis, Minn.: The Dixon 
Engineering Co., Toledo, O., and others. Information about 
reduction plants is available mainly from the municipal 
plants at Cleveland and Columbus, O., and will be later from 
the new plant at Akron, O. 

There are a number of recent projects for disposing of 
garbage by chemical treatment, by maceration, by pulverizing, 
followed if necessary by drying, producing fertilizers or base 
for fertilizers. Some of these have been described in Munici- 
pal Engineering. Some recent articles are given in the fol- 
lowing list: 

In vol. xlviii: Garbage Reduced to Fertilizer, p. 299; 
Making Fuel Out of Garbage, 304: Garbage and Refuse Col- 
lection and Disposal in St. Louis, Mo., 340; Disposal of Garb- 
age and Refuse in Seattle, p. 118; Garbage Disposal for North 
Yakima. 

In vol. xlvii: Street Cleaning and Refuse Disposal in 
Philadelphia, p. 19; Profitable Conversion of City Garbage, 
p. 25; Vancouver Garbage Collection and Disposal Ordinance 
and Methods, p. 41: The Harris Municipal Garbage Incin- 
erator and Steam Generator, p. 72; Garbage Incinerators and 
Destructors, p. 114; Garbage Disposal by the Hirsh Chemical 
System, p. 131; Refuse Destructor at Clifton, Boro of Rich- 
mond, New York City, p. 207; Garbage Reduction Systems, p. 
291; Plants Making Fertilizer from Garbage, p. 292; Methods 
of Collection and Disposal of Garbage, p. 292; Domestic Refuse 
Destructor, p. 413: Refuse Destructor at Savannah, Ga., p. 416. 

Two or three of these articles give references to previous 
articles and classified lists of the same, including one on 
Mixed Method Garbage and Waste Disposal in vol. xlv, p. 25. 

All the articles named above are descriptions of modern 
practice or of new methods of more or less value which have 
been tested or are seriously proposed for test. 

Morse's "Collection and Disposal of Municipal Waste" ($5) 
was at the time of its publication, 1908, the most complete 
record of operations in the United States covered by its title. 
Parson's "Disposal of Municipal Refuse" ($2) is a statement 
of New York practice. Venable's "Garbage Crematories in 
America" ($2) gives a full list of patents and descriptions of 
the plants using them up to 1906. Goodrich's three or more 
books give English destructor practice with brief mentions 
of American work of similar nature. 



Machinery and Methods for Street Cleaning 

I would like information on the most efficient ma- 
chinery and methods in use today in street cleaning. 

T., New York. 
The best place to get information on this subjeot is prob- 
ably the exhibition of street cleaning apparatus and appli- 
ances, held by the New York City Department of Street 
Cleaning. Notice has just been received that the next exhi- 
bition will be held in the First Regiment Artillery Armory, 
6Sth street and Broadway, New York, during the week of 
Monday, October 11, 1915. 

A very successful exhibit was held in 1914, concerning 
which information can doubtless be obtained from Jos. R. 
Buchanan, director of the exhibition under J. T. Fetherston, 
Commissioner of Street Cleaning, Municipal Building, New 
York. 

Soper's "Modern Methods of Street Cleaning" ($3) gives 



a brief account of methods in use in various foreign cities 
anil compares them with the methods in use in New York at 
the time the book was issued. 

Pending the street cleaning exhibition above referred to, 
much excellent information can be obtained from manufac- 
turers of such apparatus. The application of the motor to 
street cleaning, and especially to street sprinkling, is one 
of the latest developments. Such information can be ob- 
tained from the following, among the many sources: General 
Motors Truck Co., Pontiac, Mich.; American Car Sprinkler 
Co., Worcester, Mass.; E. D. Etnyre & Co., Oregon, 111.; Kissel 
Motor Car Co., Hartford, Wis.; Austin-Western Road Machin- 
ery Co., Chicago, 111.: Studebaker, South Bend, Ind.: Kindling 
Machinery Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

The reports of W. H. Connell, in charge of the street 
department in Philadelphia, are sources of information of 
value regarding the methods in use in that city. 

Municipal Engineering has had many articles descriptive 
of improved methods which are being introduced in large 
numbers, and of the improved machinery which is so impor- 
tant a part of the new methods. Following are a few of the 
latest of such articles, all in vol. xlviii, many more being 
available in earlier volumes: 

Comparative Cost of Street Sweeping and Sprinkling with 
Mules and with Motors, p. 305; Machine vs. Hand Sweeping, 
p. 317; How to Clean Streets, p. 322; Street Cleaning in New 
York, p. 46; Pueblo's New Street Sprinkler and Flusher, p. 
71: Combination Street Sweeper and Sprinkler, p. 139; A 
Snow Plow for Street Use, p. 147; Bituminous Streets Dam- 
aged by Street Flushing, p. 195, which refers to a number of 
earlier articles on street cleaning methods and results: Dust 
Laying on Streets and Roads, p. 196: Motor Snow Plow and 
Sweeper, p. 201; Combined Street Sprinkler and Sweeper, 
p. 220. 



Yardage of Pavement Base per Sack of Cement 

I wish you would inform me as to the number 
of square yards of concrete base for asphaltic 
concrete top that one sack of cement should lay, 
the base being 5-in. thick. 

Our specifications call for a mixture of 1 part 
by measure of Portland cement, 2% parts by 
measure of clean sharp sand and 5 parts by meas- 
ure of broken stone. 

What I want to know is, what would be a rea- 
sonable amount of concrete base laid according 
to this mixture, figured in square yards, and 
whether it would be possible to lay only 1.4 
square yards to 1 sack of cement on the above 
basis. M„ , Iowa. 

Tables of ingredients of concrete give the amount of 
cement required for broken stone concrete of proportions 
1:2.5:5 as 1.07 to 1.13 barrels, according to the size of the 
barrel. If a sack of cement is assumed as a cubic foot and 
as one-fourth of a barrel, the number of sacks of cement 
required for a cubic yard of the concrete would be about 4.4. 
As a cubic yard of concrete will lay 7.2 square yards of con- 
crete base 5 inches thick, one sack of cement will lay a little 
over 1.6 square yards, so that if in actual work 1.4 square 
yards are laid with one sack of cement, the concrete is a 
little richer than the average of the tables. 

Whether this is the proper amount of cement is another 
question, as the tables are based on assumed proportions 
of voids in the stone and the sand, and for any particular 
kinds of sand and stone the voids should be determined by 
trial in order to be able to choose the proper proportions of 
cement and of mortar to fill those voids. 



July, 1015 




WORKERS IN 
THE FIELD 




The Determination of Road Values 

The Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — The country is and has been expending enormous 
amounts of money for roads and pavements. Some of this 
work has been wisely done, but there has also been a consid- 
erable amount of guessing in the matter of judgment as to the 
adaptation of the types of roads to the uses to which they 
are to be put. 

If we are not to expend money foolishly in the future, 
one of the things that must be done in order that sound 
judgment may be exercised, is to provide proper cost account- 
ing data that will give us correct and accurate information. 
States, cities and counties have no fundamental system upon 
which a correct cost accounting system can be based. 

It is disclosed upon investigation that there are no meth- 
ods of watching and determining the results of expenditures 
in road building. The lack of a system of cost accounting 
would not be permitted in any private business. A reckless, 
careless board of directors in any corporation would be voted 
out at the first annual meeting at which such information 
was not forthcoming for the stockholders. Why should the 
larger co-operative bodies of cities and states, who furnish 
money with a liberal hand, be deprived of the information 
that is so essential to future proper expenditures? 

The following provision, the principles of which are ap- 
plicable to every state in the Union, has been under consid- 
eration in the State of Ohio. Its purpose is to require by 
law the establishment of a cost accounting system by which 
this indiscriminate, indefinite and uncertain expenditure of 
money may be prevented. 

SECTIONIZING THE HIGHWAYS. 
THE IMPROVEMENT, MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS BY DEFINITE SEC- 
TIONS AND THE COST ACCOUNTING THEREOF. 

Section 1. The County Highway Superintendent, within 
two years from the taking effect of this act, shall, with the 
Township Trustees, whose duty it shall be to aid and assist, 
divide the roads of his county into section of not less than 
two miles each, which shall be designated numerically. He 
shall prepare a road map of each township showing the loca- 
tion of every road therein, with its numbered sections and 
length thereof. As the maps are completed, they shall be 
recorded in the office of the County Highway Superintendent 
in a book especially provided for such purpose. As soon as 
said maps are completed, certified conies thereof in manner 
and form as directed by the State Highway Engineer shall be 
filed in the office of the State Highway Engineer. Upon receipt 
of such maps showing the location of the roads of the several 
counties of the state by the Highway Engineer he shall issue 
a public notice thereof in one weekly publication in each 
county of the state, naming a day upon which all legal pro- 
ceedings with reference to the roads of Ohio slnll be refp.rre I 
to and designated by their respective numbers of their re- 
spective townships and respective counties, namely: 

July, WIS 



Road , section Xo. . in Township , 

County of , State of Ohio. Thereafter all official 

proceedings, contracts, work of construction, improvement, 
maintenance and repair, and cost accounting thereof by all 
state, county and township officials shall be made to relate to 
the several sections as so named, numbered and recorded. 

Sec. 2. After notice of the operation of the requirements 
of this act by the State Highway Engineer it shall be the 
duty of the County Highway Superintendent and the Town- 
ship Trustees respectively to report and map, file and record 
in the County Highway Superintendent's record of roads any 
new road or change that may be brought about under the 
provisions of the law in such cases made and provided, and 
upon the same being made of record in the office of the 
County Highway Superintendent, he shall certify the same 
to the State Highway Engineer in such manner and form as 
may be directed by that officer. 

Sec. 3. The State Highway Engineer, the County Road 
Superintendent and the Township Trustee, in the exercise of 
their official duties of improving, maintaining and repairing 
the roads under their respective jurisdiction, shall be required 
to keep a record which shall show the character of the im- 
provement, its cost, the character of the maintenance of re- 
pair and cost which will disclose full information concerning 
the condition of each road section respectively — its improve- 
ment, the cost thereof and its maintenance and repair, its 
nature and the cost thereof. 

Similar provisions could be profitably adopted by every 
body corporate which is entrusted with the expenditure of 
public funds, whether city, county or state. 



Small Filtration Plants 
The Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — There is nothing so essential to the human body as 
good health, and one of the main requirements of health is 
good water, and in towns and cities where it must be had in 
large quantities and where it is subject to pollution the 
question of good water becomes an important one and often 
requires the installation of some kind of purification system. 
Rapid sand filters seem to be the favorite, usually in units 
of two. four or six beds. 

This system is very efficient if properly installed and 
operated. I find some plants without loss-of-head gages, 
rate controllers, and some without orifice boxes. Some have 
the air wash, some use water alone. To my mind a plant 
must be fully equipped to operate efficiently and economically. 
You can get your plant for from $500 to $2,000 less, without 
air wash, rate controllers and loss-of-head gages, but you 
pay for them many times over in chemicals and wash water. 

A filter operator should know at all times the condition 
of his beds, the exact amount of chemical to use, and the 
flow. He must have complete control of his plant to get 
results. 

To most people the cost of a filtration plant looks unrea- 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



sonable, until they see the tons of material in one and the 
numerous valves and fittings. I find some plants overloaded 
till they can not get results and other plants so large that 
they are only operated a short time each day; others in 
which they use turbine pumps, motor driven, which must 
run at full capacity and speed for economy, and of such size 
as to require all filters to be operated while pumping and 
on account of small, clear well must be stopped as soon as 
pump is stopped. They run two and one-half hours three 
times a day. While they need the large capacity for fire, it 
would have been economy to instal another small pump and 
use two of the filters and operate them continuously, both in 
electric current and in chemicals, besides giving constant 
pressure on the service mains. 

Host rapid sand filters are rated at tw^o gallons per square 
foot area. After numerous experiments I find that in some 
cases a flow of 1.75 gallons per square foot gets the best 
results. This should be tested out in each plant. 

The operator can work out a table by careful experiments 
for his turbidity and alkalinity and the amount of coagulant 
for each, so that at a glance he can tell just what is needed 
for any turbidity, and if he has figured his orifice for each 
he has it under his complete control. 

The washing of the filters is a very important part in the 
operation of a filtration plant. Where compressed air is used 
the water is allowed to drain down to within two to four 
inches of the top of the sand, to be governed by thickness of 
bed and condition at time of washing, also air pressure used. 
Then the effluent valve is closed and air valve opened for 
from three to eight minutes or till bed is thoroly agitated, 
then air is shut off and the wash water turned on, which 
must be turned on slowly so as not to blow holes in the bed 
and form young geysers. All air must be expelled before 
water reaches top of gutters, then the amount increased until 
you get about all the flow the bed will stand without carry- 
ing sand over. An amount of about seven and one-half gal- 
lons per square foot of bed for usually about three minutes 
will be sufficient for a good wash. The filter beds must be 
washed at least once every twenty-four hours. 

The loss-of-head gages should be adjusted at least once a 
week. The rate controllers should be examined often to see 
that they do not get air-bound, or they will pound them- 
selves to pieces. Chemical tanks should be of concrete and 
have some form of mechanical agitation. 

I think all plants should have two orifice boxes, one to 
feed the coagulant at the entrance of the raw water to the 
coagulation basins, and the other to feed at the effluent of 
the coagulation basins. There are times when the raw water 
is comparatively clear and clean and only needs a small 
amount of chemical, and if it is added at the entrance of 
coagulating basins it is all used up before it gets to your 
filters, but if the chemical was added at the effluent of 
coagulating basins, then you would get that much desired 
mat on your filters, the same as you would when using a 
large amount of chemicals when the raw water is muddy. In 
any case you must get some of your flock onto your filters 
if you expect to get efficient bacterial results. Conditions 
differ at each plant and must be worked out separately. 

While the general operation of a filtration plant is simple, 
yet it is like the Missouri mule — you must watch it. The 
ever-changing conditions of your raw water make it a con- 
stant and interesting study, and the operator should be a 
live man, -with a fair education. In small plants a great 
'many operators have other duties which take up so much of 
their time that the filters are not properly handled. And 
again the erecting engineer or filter company's man who 
makes the test run very often is on the job such a short 
time that he does not get time to explain and show the man 



who is going to operate the plant how to handle it in the 
many changes of the water to get the proper results. 

Instead of employing an experienced filter operator, some 
local man is put in and expected to catch on, which some- 
times proves all right and again proves very expensive. Get 
a good man and keep him and you will get water that is 
pure, clean and the pride of your town. Fully equip your 
plant with the best money will buy. Make your buildings 
substantial, with lots of light and room, and you will have 
erected a monument that will be a credit to you and your 
town for years to come. 



Closed, Open or Alternate Paving Specifications 
The Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — I note in the May issue of Municipal Engineering 
an article under the above caption, signed by Daniel T. 
Pierce, of Philadelphia. 

I have personally been connected with the asphalt paving 
industry for thirty-one years, and after carefully reading this 
article it does not appeal to me as being at all in accordance 
with the facts in the case of paving specifications. I cannot 
reconcile the proposition of advertising for an office table, 
specifying nothing but the size of the top, with the modern 
standardized asphalt paving specifications. 

Mr. Pierce must well know that these specifications were 
written by the best chemical engineers and best qualified city 
officials in the United States. He must also know that the 
company he represents are members of the association which 
wrote the standardized specifications. It is also a fact that 
all of the large cities in the country are virtually working 
under these standardized paving specifications, and are adver- 
tising for their pavements to be laid under these specifica- 
tions. They are not advertising for a plastic pavement with- 
out any reference to the method of building it, which would 
be in conformity to Mr. Pierce's wooden-table reference. 

I can see no objection to an alternate specification pro- 
viding it is written without prejudice, which is not true of 
some of the alternate paving specifications which have come 
under my observation. 

I also wish to refer to the closing paragraph in Mr. Pierce's 
article in the matter of Indianapolis and Washington, D. C. 
If the gentleman is familiar with the specifications of those 
two cities it seems to me a strange comparison, and as this 
article is undoubtedly written for the benefit of the uniniti- 
ated and newly elected city officials, I desire to copy verbatim 
the Washington, D. C, specifications of 1914 and the Indian- 
apolis specifications of 1914. Previous to 1914 the Indian- 
apolis specifications were standardized, but change of city 
government in Indianapolis wrote the present specifications, 
altho T am advised they are not entirely satisfied and will 
undoubtedly be changed in the near future. The present 
Washington specifications have been in operation for many 
years. The Washington, D. C, specifications are as follows: 

Asphalt. — The asphalt shall be refined until homogeneous 
and free from water and shall not at any time be heated to a 
temperature high enough to injure it. The refined product 
shall contain at least 90 per cent, of bitumen soluble in car- 
bon bisulphide and 100 parts shall not require more than 30 
parts of the flux to produce the asphalt cement described in 
Paragraph 8c. 

Preference will be given to an asphalt cement that is not 
readily affected by the action of water, provided it is satisfac- 
tory in other respects. If an asphalt cement is accepted that 
is affected by water some provision satisfactory to the Engi- 
neer Commissioner must be made to guard against the results 
of such action, and such work must be included in the price 
bid. The use of an asphalt under these specifications shall 
be subject to the aproval of the Engineer Commissioner, and 
if an asphalt has been proposed for use by the contractor and 
approved by the Engineer Commissioner no change in the 
asphalt to be used shall be made unless with the approval of 

July, 1915 



FROM WORKERS IN THE FIELD 



the Engineer Commissioner. If an asphalt or flux is submit- 
ted for use which has not been successfully used for a period 
of at least two years for paving under conditions similar to 
those existing in the District of Columbia, its use may be lim- 
ited to such extent as may be deemed advisable, or it may be 
rejected for use entirely in the discretion of the Engineer 
Commissioner. 

The Indianapolis specifications are as follows: 

The refined asphalts for sheet asphalt pavements shall be 
either Trinidad Lake, Cubanel, Texaco, Bermudez Lake, Mex- 
ican or California. These asphalts are divided into three 
grades and contractors shall submit bids stating grade or 
grades of asphalt bid upon. 

First Grade. Trinidad Lake Refined Asphalt. 

Second Grade. Cubanel and Texaco Refined Asphalts. 

Third Grade. Bermudez Lake, Mexican and California Re- 
fined Asphalts. 

The reader cannot help but note that while Trinidad Lake 
Refined Asphalt is the only asphalt admitted as first grade in 
Indianapolis, it is virtually taboo in Washington under the 
clause, "Preference will be given to an asphalt cement not 
readily affected by the action of water," and while it seems to 
be the preferred material in Indianapolis, the best informa- 
tion I have is that no Trinidad Asphalt has been laid in 
Washington, D. C, for ten years or more. 

Who is to decide, the officials at Washington, D. C, the 
officials at Indianapolis, Mr. Pierce or the prominent engi- 
neers of this country who have written the standardized pav 
ing specifications? My judgment would be the standardized 
specifications. Geo. W. Lamson, Chicago, 111. 



El Oso Asphalt 

The Editor of Municipal Engineering: 

Sir — After years of careful study and using all the differ- 
ent paving asphalts known at the time, Mr. F. O. Blake came 
to the conclusion in the early 90's that with proper care 
being taken and methods used in refining and with proper 
care taken in mixing and laying pavements, it was possible 
to obtain the best results with the California asphalts. 

Sor several years he shipped the crude brea, or so-called 
natural rock asphalt, from various points in California to 
Denver, Colo., where it was refined and prepared for use 
as an asphaltic paving cement. Later on a refinery was 
built near Santa Maria, Cal., which was operated until the 
controlling interest in the refinery was taken over by eastern 
purchasers, at which time it was closed down and moved 
away, as it was thus hoped to stop the use of California 
asphalt. The trade name under which the material was 
produced up to this time was "Grizzly," but as the control 
of the name went with other things it was necessary to 
adopt a new name. Since Mr. Blake did not intend that all 
the work he had done should go in this manner, and as the 
same ideas and methods were to be continued, the name 
"El Oso" was adopted. (In Spanish "El Oso" means "the 
bear.") Arrangements were then made with another refining 
company, then operating, to produce "El Oso" asphaltic 
cement in accordance with Mr. Blake's specifications. 

In 1909 El Oso Asphalt Company was established and a 
refinery was acquired at Los Angeles, where all the special 
apparatus necessary for producing El Oso was installed. 

The claim of superiority of El Oso is that it is of a uni- 
form grade and penetration, possesses high ductility and 
malleability and is pure, there being less than one percent 
insoluble in carbon disulphide or carbon tetrachloride, show- 
ing that no overheating has taken place in the refining pro- 
cess. This one thing alone spoils more asphalt than any 
other. 

The "Blake" asphalt mixing plants, built under the Blake 
patents, now in use in many places, are portable and are 

July, 1915 



very simple in construction, and claim is made that better 
and more uniform results can be obtained with their use 
than with any other plant built. One feature of the plant is 
that it mixes large batches, a whole wagon load at a time. 
It is practically impossible to burn material with this plant. 
These plants are not sold, but a're leased to customers for 
El Oso asphalt. 

There is well over one million square yards of El Oso 
pavement now in use in this country and in Canada, and all 
of it is giving entire satisfaction. Among the cities where 
this pavement has been laid are Cincinnati and Columbus, 
O. ; Pittsburg, Pa.; Rochester, N. Y.; Creston, Iowa; Topeka 
and several other cities in Kansas; Portland, McMinnville, 
Salem and Springfield, Ore.; Tacoma and Hoquiam, Wash.; 
Los Angeles and Long Beach, Cal.; Denver, Col. 

At Topeka, Kan., under Mr. Blake's supervision the now 
well-known "Topeka Mix" was laid, using Mr. Blake's mixing 
appliances and EI Oso asphaltic cement. This pavement was 
laid under an EI Oso specification which was originated by 
Mr. Blake. Feed C. Blake, 

Pres. El Oso Asphalt Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Convict Labor on Highways 

Thirty states have laws providing for the use of state 
prisoners in road building. The state highway commissioners 
have control in Arizona, Arkansas, Idaho, Louisiana, Mary- 
land, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Ore- 
gon, Virginia and Washington, the prisoners being turned 
over by the prison authorities on requisition. 

The prison commission has charge of the work of the con- 
victs in Colorado, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, 
North Dakota, Oklahoma and Wisconsin. 

County authorities have the prisoners turned over to them 
in Florida, Georgia, North and South Carolina, a procedure 
not approved by the best authorities. 

New York divides the responsibility for construction of 
highways and maintenance of camps between the state high- 
way department and the county commissioners, with the state 
superintendent of prisons in final authority; a division of 
responsibility which is far from satisfactory. 

Massachusetts has just passed an act allowing county com- 
missioners to arrange for working prisoners on highways, 
with the state highway commission or city and town officials. 
One rather objectionable provision allows them to arrange 
with private owners to use prisoners in improving waste land. 
On highway work, the prisoners are under control of the 
prison officials and the work is done under the supervision 
of the state highway authorities. 

The boys of the Connecticut reformatory are to build a 
modern roadway from the reformatory to Milldale and pos- 
sibly farther and will be paid 50 cents a day for their work. 
The highway department will see that the work is properly 
done, provide materials and tools and pay the wages. The 
honor system in the Mutual Welfare League among the in- 
mates is expected to keep the boys at work during the term 
of their sentences until paroled. 

The highway and prison departments co-operate in Utah, 
West Virginia and Wyoming, also, the prison department be- 
ing wholly responsible for the care and discipline of the pris- 
oners and the road department for the work done. 

California has just passed an act similar to that in force 
in Colorado, permitting the Highway Department to make 
requisition for convicts, organize and maintain camps and 
supervise the road work, the prison department to retain con- 
trol over the discipline of the prisoners, who will be worqed 
under the honor system. The men will probably be at worq 
on the roads by August 1. 




LEGAL 
DECISIONS 




fliTilffi 



Legal Powers of Cities in Municipal Trading 
By J. Simpson. 

A well-known authority, referring to the increasing com- 
plexity of character of municipal corporations in this coun- 
try, has said: "Cities and other municipalities in Great 
Britain are now to he found which own and operate street 
railroads, river steamboats, gas and electric light works, 
waterworks, markets, slaughterhouses, cold air stores, ice 
manufactories, bathing establishments, lodging houses, build- 
ings for entertainments and for music, and engage in the 
sale and distribution of milk, brick making, etc., the building 
and renting of dwellings for laboring men, and other commer- 
cial and altruistic enterprises, which, twenty years ago, were 
considered to be within the sphere of individual effort alone. 
The question whether it is expedient to embark in these 
enterprises has been referred to the people, and cannot be 
solved upon a philosophical or economic basis. Municipalities 
have acquired the right to manage their own affairs, and the 
will of the voters, however mistaken, will determine what 
powers should be obtained and exercised. We therefore find 
an increasing diversity in the character of the public enter- 
prises now undertaken by municipalities and a resulting 
complexity in their powers, rights, duties and obligations." 
Dillon on Municipal Corporations (5th ed.), vol. I, sec. 21. 

In the case of Holton v. Camilla, 134 Ga., 560, G8 S. S., 
472, 31 L. R. A. ( N. S.) 116, it was held, for the first time, 
that, given the necessary statutory authority, a municipality 
might operate an ice plant in connection with its water and 
lighting plant, for the purpose of furnishing ice to the inhab- 
itants of the city. In that case the court refused to admit 
the idea that the city would be engaged in a manufacturing 
enterprise, and rejected the doctrine that liquid water may 
be delivered by the city to its inhabitants by flowage thru 
pipes, but that water in frozen blocks cannot be delivered by 
wagons or otherwise. Yet in an earlier case in the same 
court, Keene v. Mayor of Waycross, 101 Ga. 58S, the court 
said: "It might as reasonably be urged that, in order to 
satisfy its patrons, it was necessary for the city to embark 
in the ice business as an incident to its right to supply goo! 
drinking water to its citizens." 

Plumbing. In the case of Keene v. Waycross, 101 Ga. 
588, 29 S. E. 42, a plumber engaged in business in the city 
sought an injunction on the ground that the water works 
commission had entered into active competition with him in 
the plumbing business and the keeping for sale and selling 
plumbers' supplies and furnishings. It appeared that the 
city was in fact engaged in a more or less general plumbing 
business, having purchased supplies and furnished materials 
to and did work for such of its citizens as had applied to 
its superintendent to have pipes and fixtures placed in and 
upon their premises. This work had realized a reasonable 



profit for the city, which contended that, as the plaintiff was 
an unskillful and incompetent plumber and did not do work 
to the satisfaction of the city's patrons, it had become neces- 
sary for the water works commissioners to engage, to the 
extent indicated, in the plumbing business in order to ren- 
der the city's water works system efficient and self-sustaining. 

The court stated the general principle governing its deci- 
sion to be that: "The primary design of the creation of a 
municipal corporation is that it may perform certain public 
functions as a subordinate branch of government; and while 
it is invested with full power to do everything necessarily 
incident to a proper discharge thereof, no right to do more 
can ever be implied. Accordingly, in the absence of express 
legislative sanction, such a corporation has no authority to 
engage in any independent business enterprise or occupation 
such as is usually pursued by private individuals. In other 
words, its legitimate duty is to deal with public affairs, and 
not those which are purely private and entirely unconnected 
with a proper administration of its governmental duties." 

Applying this principle to the facts of the case, it was 
held that it was lawful for the water commissioners, as inci- 
dent to the general powers conferred upon them, to order 
all work done which was necessary for connecting the city's 
mains with the pipes of water consumers, or for protecting 
the city's property from injury or destruction, or for requir- 
ing citizens to pay for the water furnished to them; but 
they could not, without overstepping the bounds of their 
authority in the premises, engage in a business purely for 
gain, and the carrying on of which was not essential to the 
accomplishment of any of these purposes. The commission- 
ers also, it was held, had the power to require that all 
plumbing connected with the water works should be done in 
such manner as would effectuate these purposes, and to that 
end might supervise the plumbing; but it was one thing to 
devise a plan by which such work should be done, and quite 
another thing to do the work itself. 

Brick Building. It has been held that, in the absence of 
an excess grant of power, a city cannot engage in the man- 
ufacture of paving brick for use upon its own streets, brick 
being an article in common use and purchasable in the open 
market. Atty. Gen. v. Detroit, 150 Mich. 310. 113 X. W. 1107 
(1907). 

Operating Quarry. In Wisconsin it has been held that a 
city which has express authority to pave and grade its streets, 
and to purchase such real estate as it deems reasonably nec- 
essary or convenient for the city's use, possesses, by impli- 
cation, all the powers reasonably necessary to the proper 
exercise of such express powers, including the implied power 
to purchase a stone quarry either within or without the city 
limits, for the purpose of obtaining raw material from which 
to manufacture crushed rock. Schneider v. City of Menasha. 



July, 1915 



LEGAL DECISIONS 



25 



118 Wis. 298, 95 N. W. 94 (1903). In Virginia the opinion 
of the court is against the maintenance or operation of a 
quarry either within or without the city limits. In Duncan 
v. Lynchburg, 2 Va. Dec. 700, 3; S. E. 964 (1900), altho 
it was merely decided that a city had no implied power to 
maintain a quarry outside its limits, its power to hold prop- 
erty necessary for its purposes being only exercisable within 
its limits, it was said that, while it might be convenient for 
a municipal corporation to own and operate a rock quarry, 
it is not indispensable that it should do so, in order that it 
may accomplish the objects of its creation. Following this 
case it was decided in Switzer v. Harrisonburg, 104 Va. 533, 
52 S. E. 174, 2 L. R. A. (U. S.) 910 (1905), that charter 
authority to repair its streets does not empower a municipal 
corporation to operate a rock quarry outside of its corporate 
limits to procure material therefor. In City of Radford v. 
Clark, 113 Va. 199, 73 S. E. 571 (1912), it was held that 
the right of a city to operate a rock quarry, either within or 
without its limits, is neither necessary to, fairly implied in, 
nor incident to, the duty of the city to keep its streets in a 
reasonably fair condition, nor essential to the declared ob- 
jects and purposes of the corporation. 

Supplying Electrical Fixtures. In Atty. Gen. v. Leicester, 
74 J. P. 304, it was held that, where the statutory authority 
of a municipal corporation to supply electricity was com- 
pleted at the consumers' terminals, the business of supplying 
lamps and fittings could not be conducted by the municipality, 
the supply of such lamps and fittings being incidental to the 
use, but not to the supply of electricity. 

Selling Fuel. In Op. of Justices, 155 Mass. 59S, 30 N. 
E. 1142 (1892), five jhdges held that the legislature of 
Massachusetts had not the power, under the constitution, to 
authorize the cities and towns within the commonwealth to 
buy coal and wood for the purpose of sale to their inhab- 
itants for fuel; one, Justice Barker, was of the opinion that 
the legislature could not authorize them to engage in trade 
merely that it might be better carried on, but might authorize 
them to deal in fuel, if the necessities of the people could 
be met only in that way; one, Justice Holmes, was of opinion 
that the legislature had power to authorize them to deal in 
fuel. The opinion of Justice Holmes was as follows: "I 
am of opinion that when money is taken to enable a public 
body to offer to the public without discrimination an article 
of general necessity, the purpose is no less public when that 
article is wood or coal than when it is water, or gas, or 
electricity, or education, to say nothing of cases like the 
support of paupers or the taking of land for railroads or 
public markets." The ruling of the majority was followed 
in The Municipal Fuel Plants, 1S2 Mass. 605. 66 N. E. 25, 
60 L. R. A. 592 (1903), whether the fuel was to be sold at 
cost, at less than cost, or at a profit. 

In Baker v. City of Grand Rapids, 142 Mich. 087, 106 N. 
W. 208 (1906), it was held that the transfer of $10,000 
from the contingent fund as a special fund to be used for 
the purpose of selling coal to the citizens of Grand Rapids 
at actual cost during a time of scarcity of fuel was not a 
public use and was unauthorized under existing legislation. 
But it was also held that the city authorities had the right, 
through the board of poor commissioners, to provide fuel for 
needy citizens, and under the then existing emergency, where 
a coal famine appeared imminent, were authorized to pur- 
chase such amount of fuel in any market, as, in their opinion, 
would be necessary for that purpose. 

In a very recent case, Laughlin v. Citv of Portland. 111 
Me. 486. 90 Atl. 318. 51 L. R. A. (N. S.) 1143 (1914), it 
was said that the above mentioned opinions of the Massa- 
chusetts justices, while entitled to great consideration, did 
not have the force of decision. It held that a statute. Me. 



R. C, ch. 4, sec. S7, authorizing and empowering cities and 
towns to establish and maintain within their limits a perma- 
nent wood, coal and fuel yard for the purpose of selling at 
cost, wood, coal and fuel to their inhabitants, is constitu- 
tional. "The courts," it said, "have never attempted to lay 
down with minute detail an inexorable rule distinguishing 
public from private purposes, because it would be impossible 
to do so. Times change. The wants and necessities of the 
people change. The opportunity to satisfy those wants and 
necessities by individual effort may vary. What was clearly 
a public use a century ago, may, because of changed condi- 
tions, have ceased to be such today. * * * On the other 
hand, what could not be deemed a public use a century ago, 
may, because of changed economic and industrial conditions, 
be such today. Laws which were entirely adequate to secure 
public welfare then may be inadequate to accomplish the same 
results now." 

Maintaining Moving Picture Theaters. A recent Ohio de- 
cision holds that, whether a municipality acquires authority 
"to exercise all the powers of local self-government by adopt- 
ing a charter, or adopts a charter as an indispensable mode 
of exercising the authority, the powers to be exercised, being 
governmental, do not authorize taxation to establish and 
maintain moving picture theaters." Wanamaker, J., dissent- 
ing. State, ex. rel. City of Toledo v. Lynch, 88 Ohio St. 71, 
102 N. E. 670, 48 L. R. A. (N. S.) 720. 

Dealing in Real Estate. A municipality has no power to 
engage in the business of buying or selling real estate for 
profit, either as principal or broker. Hayward v. Red Cliff, 
22 Colo. 33, 36 Pac. 796; Bloomsburg Land Improv. Co. v. 
Bloomsburg, 215 Pa. 452, 64 Atl. 602, where a town was 
held not authorized to lease a private pleasure park within 
its limits; Hunnicutt v. Atlanta, 104 Ga. 1, 30 S. E. 500; 
Champaign v. Harmon, 9S III. 491. But it has been held 
that a municipal corporation may own, control and manage 
a farmhouse within its limits which has come into its poa- 
sion in a lawful manner, disconnected from any public 
use. Libby v. Portland, 105 Me. 370, 74 Atl. 805. And it 
has been held that a purchase of real estate by a munici 
pality, within its limits, with a view to divide it into lots 
and streets and to resell it for the purpose of improving the 
cleanliness and salubrity of the city, and the convenience of 
the streets, is legal. New Orleans v. McDonough, 2 Rob. 
(La.) 244. 

Selling Lir/nor. A municipality has the power to engage 
in the sale of intoxicating liquors where express authority to 
do so has been conferred upon it by the legislature. The 
latter, under the police power of the state, may regulate the 
sale of intoxicating liquors; and, the traffic or business of 
selling such liquors being a mere incident to the regulation 
of the sale, and not the object of it, it has always been held 
that statutes authorizing the establishment of dispensaries 
for the sale of intoxicating liquors are not unconstitutional. 
Express statutory authority, however, is necessary to enable 
municipalities to establish and maintain such dispensaries; 
such power cannot be implied from the "general welfare 
clause." Leesburg v. Putnam, 103 Ga. 110, 29 S. E. 602: 
Barnesville v. Murphey, 113 Ga. 779, 39 S. E. 413; Lofton 
v. Collins. 117 Ga. 434, 43 S. E. 70S; Plumb v. Christie, 103 
Ga. 686. 30 S. E. 753: Shepnard v. Dowling. 1°1 Ala. 1. 2R 
So. 791; Equitable Loan & Securitv Co. v. Ed • ar IsviUe, 143 
Ala. 182, 28 So. 1016; Farmville v. Walker. 101 Va. 323, 43 
S. E. 558. The option to discontinue at wi'l a dispensary 
once established by a town can be d'-leeated to the town, 
notwithstanding that the statute establishing the dispensary 
provides that no liquors shall be sold in said town except in a 
dispensary. Fx parte Hall, 156 Ala. 642, 47 So. 199.— San 
Francisco Municipal Record. 



July. WIS 




English Motor Fire Engines 
In many English cities motor fire engines and motor ten- 
ders are used almost exclusively by the various fire depart- 
ments. One of the Wolseley motor fire tenders designed and 
constructed at Alderly Park, Birmingham, is utilized by the 
Birmingham Fire Brigade, a smaller tender of the same type 
also being employed, carrying eight firemen and driven by a 
24-horsepower engine. This larger tender carries fifteen fire- 
men without crowding. It is not provided with a pump, lad- 
der or fire escape, but simply carries a large supply of hose 
and several hand extinguishers. This English fire tender has 
a gasoline engine of 40 h. p. capacity, with four cylinders, five 
inches in diameter with a 5%-inch stroke. The car is a part 
of the equipment of the Birmingham fire brigade and is usually 
driven at a speed of about thirty miles an hour. 

The photograph, Fig. 1, shows an English combined ladder, 
fire tender and motor driven pump used in Bradford by the 
city fire brigade. This Dennis turbine pump motor fire car is 
also provided with a seating capacity for a number of firemen. 
A similar Dennis 60-h. p. 400-gallon turbine motor fire engine 
is utilized at Wimbledon, England. There are two engines 
employed by Wimbledon fire brigade, fitted with 50-ft. sliding 
carriage escape, a 30-gallon chemical tank, hose reel and ISO 
feet of hose, electric side and head lamps with dynamo and 
accumulators, non-skid tires, protectors and direct suction 
adapter. 

#J 

MOTOR FIRE LADDER AND PUMPING ENGINE, 
Bradford. England, fire department. Their conditions 
are somewhat different from ours as to danger of fire, 
but their practice in designing fire apparatus should Be 




This GO-h. p. 400-gallon turbine motor fire engine equipment 
is driven by a gasoline engine of enclosed vertical type, with 
cylinders cast in pairs, and valves mechanically operated and 
placed on opposite sides, with air-tight aluminum covers over 
same. It has a pressure feed lubricating system on latest 
principle. This engine will develop a maximum of approxi- 
mately 65-h. p. on the brake, and is 5-in. bore by 7-in. stroke, 
designed in all details essentially for fire brigade work. 

There is a high tension waterproof Bosch magneto used 
and also high tension electric accumulator and distributer, con- 
nected with two sets of sparking plugs with turnover switch, 
to be coupled up in such a way that each separately or both 
ignitions together can be used, eight sparking plugs being used 
in all. The clutch is leather lined, cone-shaped, of large diam- 
eter, with outside adjustment for spring tension and a univer- 
sal joint contained in the clutch to avoid all strain on the 
crank shaft thru any distortion of the frame which may occur 
on uneven ground. 

The speed gear has alloy aluminum casting, with four 
speeds and reverse, which would enable the machine to attain 
a speed of 30 miles per hour on the level. There is a gate 
control with ball bearings. It is said that the machine is 
capable of ascending a gradient of 1 in 5 with full load. The 
cooling system has a water circulation by gear-driven centri- 
fugal pump of large capacity, and radiator, having brass en- 
velope with a suitable fan for the induced draught. A sepa- 
rate by-pass from the pump is taken to the top of the radiator 
to afford additional cooling when pumping. 

The fire pump is a centrifugal multi-stage high pressure 
turbine type of the Gwynnes design. The pump approximately 
delivers 400 gallons per minute at 120 lbs. pressure and will 
deliver up to 500 gallons per minute at lower pressure when 
working thru a 100-ft. length of 2%-inch unlined canvas hose, 
and is also capable of drawing water 27 ft. with ease and cer- 
tainty. There are pressure and vacuum gauges attached to 
the dashboard in front of the driver. 

The air-pump charging apparatus is of interest. This 
charging apparatus is in duplicate, there being two double 
acting cylinders, each working independently and constructed 
of a capacity capable of obtaining water from 26 ft. to 27 ft. 
in 20 to 25 seconds. The air pump is brought into action by 
a lever from the driver's seat, and on the water being obtained, 
the outlets, if required, automatically open. 

The car is electrically lighted, the lamps including two side 
and one tail with 4-volt electric battery operated by a switch 
placed on dash. The storage battery consists of an accumu- 
lator set with 40-ampere-hour 4-volt continuous current for 
ignition and one GO-ampere-hour 4-volt battery for the electric 
lamps. 

The illustration, Fig. 2, shows another English motor fire 
engine designed at Alexandria. Dumbarton, by Argylls, Ltd., 

July, 191 i 



MOTOR VEHICLES 




GASOLINE MOTOR FIRE PUMPING ENGINE, 6- 
cylinder, lo-horse-power, with compressed-air starter, 
four forward speeds and reverse. High pressure turbine 
pump, capacity J,. r jO to 500 gallons a minute with 28 feet 
suction and l.'/O pounds water pressure, with starter to 
save time in starting. Carries 10 men. 2,000 feet of hose 
and 30-foot telescoping ladder. 



& 



when fully extended are 63 feet long. In addition to this 
there are three pompier hood ladders. The equipment in- 
cludes a jumping sheet and fifteen 63-ft. 2y 2 -inch hose sec- 
tions and seating accommodation for eight men. There is 
attached to this machine a hose cart and a coupling arrange- 
ment has been fitted at the rear for this purpose. 

Another most practical automobile fire car of English con- 
struction is the Hallford motor fire tender, designed by J. and 



and this type of fire car has been very successful thruout 
Great Britain. 

The 75-h.p. Argyll 6-cyIinder gasoline motor fire pump is 
equipped with a self-starter. The motor has a bore of 133 mm. 
and a stroke of 160 mm. The engine is self-starting by means 
of compressed air. The gear box is arranged for four forward 
speeds and reverse, with switch on dash. 

The fire pump is a high pressure Worthington turbine 
pump, discharging 450 to 500 gallons per minute with suction 
lift of 28 ft. and maintaining pressure of 140 lbs. per sq. in. 
The Argyll starter gives the pumps an immediate start. The 
body is designed to seat ten men and to carry 2,000 ft 2%- 
inch canvas hose, also a 30-ft. telescope ladder. 

The accompanying illustrations, Figs. 3 and 4, show an 
English equipment- delivered to the Austrian naval authori- 
ties. Fig. 3 shows a Lacre-Worthington fire engine, used in 
the dock yards at Pola and the surrounding districts. The 
chassis of this vehicle is of 2-ton capacity and is fitted with a 
4-cylinder 38 to 50-h. p. engine. The speed of this machine, 
fully equipped and manned, is about 22 miles per hour, and 
it can negotiate gradients up to one in four, these figures 
being specified by the naval authorities. 

The chassis is fitted with the Worthington pump of cen- 
trifugal 4-inch 6-stage type, with three-way distributer, and is 
capable of throwing 140 gallons per minute to a height of 9G 
feet, and lift from a depth of 20 feet, the pump working at 
1,820 revolutions per minute. A rotary exhauster is fitted for 
priming the pump when starting, and both the pump and 
exhauster are controlled by a lever which is situated on the 
left-hand side of the driver's seat. 

Fig. 4 shows a fire escape so mounted on the vehicle that 
the weight is equally distributed over the front and rear 
axles. The ladders are of the 3-stage sliding pattern, and 



$ 



FRONT VIEW OF MOTOR DRIVEN fire engine with 
turbine pump. 




July. I9ir> 



28 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




COMBINATION LADDER AND MOTOR tuu- EN- 
GINE developed for use in London, England. 



& 



E. Hall. Ltd.. of London. This motor fire hose tender chassis 
has an aluminum crankcase and four cylinders, with 110-mm. 
bore and 140-mm. stroke, giving 32 h.p. at 1,000 revolutions 
per minute- The inlet and exhaust valves are operated by 
camshafts placed on opposite sides of the engine. The valves 
are of nickel steel, and are interchangeable and the timing 
wheels and governor are entirely enclosed. The ignition is 
by Bosch high tension magneto. 

The crankshaft, mounted in large ball bearings, is of 
chrome nickel steel. The system of lubrication is by pump 
providing a constant level of oil, into which scoops on the 
connecting rod ends dip at every revolution. This fire engine 
is controlled by levers conveniently placed in front of the 
driver, one mounted on the steering wheel and connected to 
the throttle valve which regulates the supply of gas to the 
engine, the other being connected to the ignition timing 
mechanism. An accelerator pedal is fitted so that the driver 
can operate the throttle valve without removing his hands 
from the steering wheel. The engine is also fitted with a 
governor, which controls the speed of the engine and thereby 
economizes the consumption of petrol (gasoline). 

Provision is made for cooling by a large radiator and fan, 
the circulation of the water being maintained by a pump. 
This fire car has a speed of approximately 15 and 25 miles 
per hour. There are two brakes provided, the first acting on 
a drum on the gearshaft and the second acting inside of drums 
on the rear road wheels. There are long flat springs utilized 
to allow of easy riding at high speeds and the driving chains 
are enclosed in aluminum oil-tight casings. 

The steering gear is of the Ackerman front axle type with 
worm and sector steering. The wheels are of cast steel fitted 
with 36-in. by 3%-in. twin tires on rear wheels and 34-in. by 
3%-in. front tires. The gasoline tank has a capacity for 30 
miles' run with full load. The body is of mahogany panneling 
with oak framing. There are two compartments, the former 
compartment measuring approximately 22 inches long, 33 
inches wide and 21 inches deep, and the hose box under gear 
measures approximately 25 by 28 by 15 inches. The body is 
fitted with sliding doors at side and hinged door at rear with 
a bottom hose box left open. The hand rails are of polished 
brass, and the footboards and dashboard are edged with brass 



and covered with 3-16-in. cork carpet, the footboards being 
stiffly stayed and ironed to stand heavy usage. 

A 35-ft. Ajax trussed extension ladder is mounted on the 
top and so constructed that the sliding ladder may be detached 
and used independently, the ladder supported on stanchions 
and rollers, so that it may be removed by one man. The 
chemical tank has a capacity of 30 gallons and the hose reel 
is conveniently located on the top, as shown in the protograph. 



Electric Pump Wagon 
By R. E. Plimpton 

The Edison Electric Illuminating Company, of Boston, has 
in service at the present time two pump wagons. The pump 
wagon is a 2,000-pound electric wagon, which has mounted in- 
side its panel body a motor-driven rotary pump. The pump 
motor is connected to the vehicle battery and the pump thus 
driven will litf 90 gallons of water a minute from the man- 
hole. The work was formerly done with hand pails. Two 
men with a small hand cart were sent from manhole to man- 
hole and could take out about 5 gallons of water a minute. 

The Edison Company has found the greater speed of the 



# 



ELECTRIC PUMP on automobile truck for pumping 
out manholes on underground distribution system of 
Boston's electric light and power system. 




July, 19 is 



MOTOR VEHICLES 



29 



place, especially advantageous in the downtown district of 
Boston, where the traffic conditions are notoriously bad. 

While the pump wagons are assigned regular routes, they 
are also used a great deal for emergency work. The drivers 
outfit not only in pumping but also in moving from place to 
have strict orders to telephone headquarters hourly. The ac- 
companying log, for instance, shows that the G. V. pump 
wagon after pumping out some manholes at the big L street 
generating station, made a number of stops for inspection and 
test at manholes. This means that the pump wagon was turned 
over to an underground trouble gang which made tests at 
various manholes. Wherever necessary these manholes were 
pumped out. Just as soon as the trouble was cleared, the 
pump wagon again proceeded on its regular work. 



The pump wagon averages 20 miles a day of actual travel 
and during that time will clean out from 15 to 20 manholes. 

This figure does not represent the number opened and in- 
spected. During the first ten months of 1914 the crews of the 
two wagons opened 13,700 manholes, from 9,500 of which was 
pumped 3,130,000 gallons of water. 

On the day the log was taken the G. V. pump wagon ac- 
tually removed 10,080 gallons from 13 manholes, using 5S am- 
pere hours from the vehicle battery for the work. So that 
while the battery discharge was 164 ampere hours, only 106 
were used for driving the vehicle the 16.6 miles. In ordinary 
weather the consumption for driving vehicle averages 4.7 per 
mile, while the total consumption (driving and pumping) is 
about 5.7 ampere hours per mile. 



DAILY Till < K 111' HUM'. 



Location of Stop An 
Hour 

Edison Garage 

L. street Edison Power Plant 8: 

*L. street Edison Power Plant 8: 

L. street Edison Power Plant 

Eargo and E street 9 : 

Summer street and Dorchester avenue 9: 

Farnsworth street and Congress street 9: 

Pittsburgh street and Congress street 9 

♦Pittsburgh street and Congress street 9 

♦Pittsburgh street and Congress street 10 

Pittsburgh street and Congress street 

Columbus avenue and Berkeley street 11 

Columbus avenue and Granville place 11 

Edison Garage 12 



H. tracks. 
H. tracks. 
H. tracks. 
H. tracks. 



Fargo street and B street 
*Fargo street and B street 
* Fargo street and B street 

Fargo street and B street 

Summer and B street. . . . 
♦Summer and B street.... 
♦Summer and B street. . . . 

Summer and B street. . . . 

Summer near N. Y. N 
♦Summer near N. Y. N 
♦Summer near N. Y. N 

Summer near N. Y. N. 

Congress and Stillings street 
♦Congress and Stillings street 

Congress and Stillings street 

Congress and Sleeper street. 
♦Congress and Sleeper street . 

Congress and Sleeper street. 

Congress and Estes place. . . . 

Congress and Estes place.... 

Congress and Estes place. . . . 

Washington and Savoy street 
♦Washington and Savoy street 

Washington and Savoy street 

Edison Garage 



Left 
8:19 



10:04 
10:15 
11:08 
11:45 
11:58 
1:39 

2:15 
2:21 
2:23 

2:39 
2:52 
2:59 



3:17 
3:19 



4:06 
4:09 



4:50 



sti;.s 

S79.S 
879.8 
879.8 
880.5 
881.4 
881.6 
881.7 
881.7 
881.7 
881.7 
883.3 
8S3.5 
886.0 
889.6 
889.6 
889.6 
889.6 
889.7 
889.7 
889.7 
889.7 
SS9.S 
889.8 
889. S 
889.8 
889.9 
8-S9.9 
889 9 
S90.0 
890.0 
890.0 
890.2 
890.2 
890.2 
891.8 
891.8 
891.8 
893.4 



Ampere 

: Meter 



15 

36 

36 

41 

. 46 

47 

48 

51 

52 

52 

64 

65 

78 

100 

103 

105 

105 

106 

113 

119 

119 

121 

124 

127 

127 

128 

131 

131 

133 

137 

137 

139 

140 

140 

152 

153 

153 

164 



Pumping 



Insp. and Test at manholes 
Insp. and Test at manholes 

Pumping 
Pumping 

Insp. and Test at manholes 
Insp. and Test at manholes 
Lunch 

Pumping 
Pumping 



Pumping 
Pumping 
Grade Crossing delay 

Pumping 
Pumping 



Pumping 



Pumping 



12 min. to grease pumps 
Pumping 



Heavy traffic 
Pumping 



TIME OUT OF GARAGE. 

i Percent 

Hrs. Min. total time 

Running Time 2 26 28.6 

Pumping Time 1 52 21.9 

Lunch and other delays 4 13 49.5 

Total 8 31 100. 

Capacity and make of truck— 2,000 pounds, G. V., 60-A6 Ed. 
Batt. 

In service of Edison Electric Illuminating Co., Boston, Ed., 
No. 86, G. V. No. 1897. 

Place — Boston, Mass. 

Weather conditions — rainy. 

Nature of service — Pumping out manholes. 

Road conditions — Belgian blocks. 

♦Entries with asterisk prefixed show time of starting and stop- 
ping pump motor. 




Concrete Pavement on Heavy Grade in Wisconsin 
By Stanley E. Bates. 

Grades greater than 15 per cent, on city streets are few 
and far between. Reports come in of 20 or 30 per cent, or even 
greater, but upon investigation these are generally found to be 
greatly exaggerated. 

Streets of even 10 to 15 per cent, are difficult of ascent for 
either horses or automobile traffic unless the pavement is both 
smooth and of such a character as to give a good gripping sur- 
face to horses' feet and automobile tires. 

In Milwaukee there are two stretches of steep grade, 
namely, on Eighteenth and Nineteenth streets between Cly- 
bourn street and St. Paul avenue, where the grades are 13.5 
per cent, and 15.3 per cent., respectively. Before improvement 
these streets were little better than storm water courses and 
it was an extremely rare occurrence for any kind of traffic to 
try the ascent. In order to remedy this condition it was de- 
cided last year to pave them with concrete. 

The concrete pavements of Sioux City, Iowa, some of which 
lie on 16 per cent, grades, were taken as a model for the con- 
struction, tho some changes were made from the Sioux City 
specifications. 

Both streets were paved 30 feet wide, the thickness of con- 
crete ranging from 6 to 8 inches. Unprotected, transverse 
joints of tar and felt were spaced 25 feet apart and the con- 
crete was crowned 4 inches. 

The aggregates used in this work were sand, which was 
clean and well graded, and crushed granite from Waterloo, 
Wis., ranging in size from 2 inches down. The surface was 
not corrugated but was finished rougher than is common for 
pavements on more level grades. 

The illustrations give evidence of the good traction afforded 
by the concrete to all types of vehicles. Both wagons and 
motor vehicles are shown ascendoing the 15.3 per cent, grade 
on Nineteenth street, without danger of slipping and with 



MOTOR TRUCK AND HORSE TRUCK ascending 
concrete pavement on Eighteenth street, Milwaukee, 
IVi.s.. with 15.8 per rent, grade. 




much less effort than one taking the steepness of the grade 
into account would suppose. The oil tracked on to the con- 
crete from the street below also indicates that a considerable 
amount of traffic now seeks this route. 

One of the horse vehicles shown is a delivery wagon of the 
Solvay Coke Co. and the motor truck is one just completed 
by the Sternberg Motor Truck Co., of West Allis, Wis. This 
company, as well as others in Milwaukee and vicinity, have 
been using these streets regularly, since the improvement, to 
test out all of their newly constructed trucks under a heavy 
load, before delivery to the purchasers. 

In spite of the fact that these pavements were laid on a 
crowned subgrade, and were not reinforced, they have come 
thru their first winter well. In a recent letter, in which the 
work was described in some detail, Mr. Simmons, commis- 
sioner of public works, concluded with the following para- 
graph : 

"The streets came through the winter in fine shape, an in- 
spection revealing no defects at the present time." 

Many other cities have used concrete on heavy grades with 
equally good results, among which may be mentioned Sioux 
City. Iowa, and Kansas City, Mo. 



Program of Permanency on the Pacific Highway 
By Arthur P. Denton, Engineer, King County, Washington. 

Following a successful brick paving venture in 1912, King 
county, Washington, elected to spend its entire share of the 
state permanent highway fund for the years 1913 and 1914 for 
this form of construction. For this reason, motor tourists 
who visit the exposition by a northern route this year will 
have opportunity to enjoy roads which compare well with any 
of the celebrated highways of the East. 

The first contract was let on May 9, 1912, for 2.75 miles 
of road at a cost of $59,523.92. This was during the regime of 
my predecessor, J. R. Morrison. Aside from the fact that No. 
2 brick were used, the specifications aimed at a substantial and 
permanent highway. The base was of concrete, 5 inches in 
thickness, with curbs molded in the same piece. There were 
longitudinal expansion joints. 

This road has given good service and the immediate satis- 
faction expressed with it, led to the adoption of this type of 
road at the time I took office in 1913 for three jobs under- 
taken that year. These included 2.9 additional miles on the 
Pacific Highway, 6.13 miles on the so-called North Trunk road 
and 3.3 miles on the Bothell boulevard. 

The contract called for $88,681 in the case of the Pacific 
Highway extension, for $151, 2S0 in the case of the North Trunk 
road and for $84,918 on the Bothell road. The first was 20 
feet in width and the others each 18 feet. 



July, 1915 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 




CLEARING AND GRUBBING required along the 
Cascade Scenic Highway in King, Snohomish and Chelan 
counties. Maximum, grade 7.2 per cent. Grading cost 
nearly $8,000 a mile. Xote the Jour men all standing on 
one stump. 



& 



With the completion ot a third contract on the Pacific High- 
way in the following spring, a thru pavement was given be- 
tween Seattle and Tacoma. Counts of traffic have shown as 
high as 5,000 vehicles per day on this road, rivaling some of 
the most used city streets in Seattle, yet the road exhibits 
very little sign of wear. The Bothell road has a traffic ap- 
proximating 3,000 vehicles per day at certain seasons. Its 
only repairs have been due to the settling of a fill in the sub- 
grade. There has been less traffic on the North Trunk road, 
but, as the city of Seattle is now laying a pavement to con- 



nect with it, there is a prospect of greater use in the near 
future. 

Our 1914 program also included a contract for 1.64 miles 
of brick on the Kirkland-North Bend road. This was an 18- 
foot roadway, laid at a cost of $42,978. It has required no 
maintenance to date, altho at times traffic reaches 1,200 a day. 

At the present time there is under construction 1.4 miles 
of 20-foot paving, which involves the expenditure of $52,755, 
including the tearing up of considerable worn-out macadam 
and 0.7 of a mile of new grade and drainage. 

Mention should also be made of 1,000 feet of experimental 
brick road laid in 1913 by the Denny-Renton Clay and Coal 
Company, partly at its expense. This is a part of the Pacific 
Highway and immediately adjoins the city limits of Seattle. 
It has required no maintenance. 

In all, we have 20.13 miles of brick road in King county, 
laid at an average cost of $27,900 per mile. In considering 
this cost, our generous widths should be taken into account 
and the structural difficulties due to a hilly country. Our 
practice on curves of greater than five degrees has been to 
raise the outer side of the pavement and to provide extra 
width on the inner side. From a scenic standpoint, as well 
as that of easy transit, our roads are a delight to the tourist. 
The Bothell boulevard, for example, skirts Lake Washington 
for nearly its entire length. But the practical advantage of 
these permanent highways, after all, outweighs the mere pleas- 
ure of travel. There is a constant stream of heavy trucks 



$ 



PACIFIC HIGHWAY, between Seattle and Bothell, 
called Bothell Boulevard, laid in 1013, IS feet wide with 
No. 2 brick on . r >4nch concrete base and with 5-inch con- 
crete curbs. 




32 



ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 



over many of them and the freight that they transport has had 
an appreciable effect upon the volume of railroad haulage. 
When present usefulness and long prospective life are con- 
sidered, I feel certain that such roads represent a decided 
economy. 

I feel certain that the continuance of this policy will make 
the Pacific Highway second to none of America's great roads. 



The exhibition is under the directorship of Joseph R. 
Buchanan, acting under J. T. Fetherston, commissioner of 
street cleaning of New York, with office on the twelfth floor 
of the Municipal Building. 



New York Exhibition of Street Cleaning Apparatus 
and Appliances 

Encouraged by the success which attended the exhibition 
of November 23-28, 1914, and by the generally expressed de- 
sire for its repetition, the New York department of street 
cleaning announces that it will hold its second annual exhibi- 
tion of street cleaning apparatus and appliances in the First 
Regiment Field Artillery Armory, Sixty-eighth street and 
Broadway, New York City, during the week beginning Mon- 
day, October 11, 1915. 

The exhibition of 1914 was more or less experimental, and 
its results made manifest beyond all doubt the newly awak- 
ened and constantly increasing interest of the people in the 
vital question of public cleanliness. It also made clear the 
eager desire of public officials to improve their methods, as 
well as the alertness of the inventors and manufacturers who 
are striving to meet the demand for improved mechanical 
equipment. 

During the nine months since the first announcement of 
last year's exhibition, there has been more discussion of 
street cleaning problems in New York than in the ten pre- 
ceding years. Health organizations, civic societies and busi- 
ness men's associations have given the subject a prominent 
place in their lists of preferred topics and the magazines, 
technical journals and general newspapers are giving liber- 
ally of their space to its discussions. For the foregoing, and 
many other reasons of lesser importance, there is assured 
confidence in the success of the forthcoming exhibition, and 
firm belief that it will be of incalculable benefit to the service 
of street cleaning and its contributing agencies. 

At the time of this year's exhibition it is expected the 
"Model District," for which a special fund was provided by 
the board of estimate and apportionment, and which is to 
be equipped with modern apparatus, will be well under way. 
The "Model District" should prove an attraction to manu- 
facturers and inventors, as well as to visiting officials. 

The street cleaning apparatus eligible to entry in the forth- 
coming exhibition includes all sorts of brooms, brushes, sweep- 
ing machines, flushing machines and other equipment or ap- 
pliances used in cleaning streets and removing snow; carts, 
wagons, motor trucks or other vehicles used for collecting 
garbage, ashes, rubbish and street sweepings; conveyances for 
transporting refuse, by water or by rail: methods for the 
disposal of garbage, ashes, rubbish and street sweepings, in- 
cluding garbage reduction work, garbage crematories, in- 
cinerators, destructors, etc. Exhibitors are not required to 
pay entrance fees; legitimate street cleaning apparatus and 
appurtenance will be given free space in the exhibition hall. 
Other costs of placing their exhibits and all risks must, how- 
ever, be borne by the exhibitors, excepting that storage will 
be provided, without charge, for pieces of apparatus which 
arrive in the city of New York prior to the evening of 
October 9. 

On Saturday. October 9, there will be a parage, under the 
auspices of the New York department, composed of the D. S. 
C. band, several hundred uniformed men ("White Winers'") 
and selected pieces of the department's equipment. Positions 
in the line will be assigned to exhibition entries whose own- 
ers desire to take part in the parade. 



French Highways in the War 

In a letter to one of his instructors, F. W. Zinn, a grad- 
uate from the Engineering Department of the University of 
Michigan in 1914, gives some of his experience as a soldier 
in the French army, one of the first Americans to enlist. He 
has the following to say concerning the French roads and 
their durability under the severe punishment they receive 
under army transport conditions, taken from The Michigan 
Alumnus: 

"I have had a very good chance to study French roads. 
In the two months of training we had in Paris and Rouen 
and later in Toulouse, we covered a good many miles of 
them and the localities were so widely separated that we had 
a good basis for comparison. No French roads are bad, but 
those in the Midi, especially the ones close to the Pyrenees, 
can't even compare with those on the frontier. 

"You can have no idea of the terrific punishment that some 
of these ordinarily light traffic highways have taken since the 
beginning of the war. The continual stream of Paris motor- 
busses that help make up the army transport, together with 
the heavy artillery and ammunition wagons, are enough to 
kill an ordinary road in a month, but these routes honestly 
seem to thrive under it. One of these department roads 
crosses the hill we occupy very close to this point. 

"From here to the rear every night there is a very heavy 
artillery traffic, while on the front side of the hill, where the 
road goes toward the German position in Craonne, there 
hasn't been a vehicle in months. We go along there some- 
times at night — no one, unless he wants to commit suicide, 
would go out there in the daytime — and from surface indica- 
tions at least, the road to the rear is in as good condition as 
this stretch. 

"In this country there are no fenced fields or scattered 
farmhouses to trouble the road engineer, but there are hun- 
dreds and hundreds of little villages to be linked up. A little 
farther south, in the grape country around Reims, the ques- 
tion of grades must be pretty bothersome. 

"The general details of design seem to be about the same 
here as they are in the States. There are plenty of chances 
to study the cross-section. Every "marmite" that explodes 
makes a good test pit. The depth of the metal isn't unusually 
great when you look at it, but when you have to dig thru it 
it is another proposition. 

"A while ago — the night before the Kaiser's birthday, to 
be exact — the Germans made a fairly heavy attack on our 
right. 

"Our section was detailed to cut the Pontivert road. 
French rockets and German flares were going up by the dozen, 
and all the artillery around us, even the 105's in the reserve 
batteries, were working up to full capacity, making such a 
racket that you couldn't hear an order. That was an ordi- 
nary harmless looking piece of road that we were trying to 
dig thru, but, say, I'd swear that it seemed as if the thing 
was four feet thick and solid rock all the way down. 

"We have helped the 14th artillery build a stretch of five 
kilometers of corduroy thru a swamp near here. The big 
timber has all been used for fortifications: so we used bundles 
of fagots instead of logs for the foundation. But the thing 
has to be watched pretty carefully, or the dirt covering wears 
thru, exposing the branches, and then it goes to pieces very 
rapidly." 

July, 19J5 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



33 



Protection of Metal Structures 



Boston is a city of bridges. Within the 
city limits are 1SG highway bridges, to say 
nothing of many railroad bridges. In the 
metropolitan district of greater Boston, the 
number of bridges of all kinds is well up 
into the hundreds. In this section, there- 
fore, experience in the use of steel in bridge 
structures under various conditions has been 
extensive. 

In discussing protection, Frederic H. 
Fay, of Fay, Spofford & Thorndike. consult- 
ing engineers, Boston, formerly division en- 
gineer in charge of bridges and ferries, city 
of Boston, in a paper before the Engineers' 
Society of Western Pennsylvania, considers 
particularly the subject of metal corrosion. 
He outlines the conditions under which 
metal structures decay and against which 
protection is necessary. Iron will not cor- 
rode in water unless air is present. The. 
agents present in the air which accelerate 
rusting, especially in or near cities where 
much fuel is consumed, are numerous. Sul- 
phur dioxide and soot are probably the most 
destructive, because together in the presence 
of moisture they produce sulphuric acid. 
The action of these two agents is most 
marked in railway tunnels and bridges. 

Experience in Boston has shown that the 
corrosion of metal bridges has been due 
principally to one or more of the following 
causes: Exposure to locomotive gases: ex- 
posure to sea water: exposure to surface 
water leaking thru bridge floors; over-stress 
of the metal, by which corrosion has been 
hastened. 

Two views show typical rust conditions 
caused by locomotive fumes. Striking ex- 
amples of corrosion are seen in the views 
of the old Washington street bridge of the 
Boston and Albany railroad. The webs of 
the plate girders beneath the bridge floor 
have been completely eaten away over large 
areas, leaving holes, in some cases, large 
enough for a man to crawl thru. 

While many paints have given satisfac- 
tory results on metal structures under ordi- 
nary conditions, they have not proved an 
effectual protection of metal work under 
extreme conditions, such as exist in bridges 
over railroads. The use of wooden ceiling 
protection confines locomotive gases and 
makes corrosion more rapid than in the 
open. Sheet lead has, in some cases, been 
worn away by locomotive blasts until it 
began to fall upon the trains beneath. 
Asphalt coating, after six years' service, 
has been found in good condition. 

But concrete or mortar has proved by 
far the most satisfactory protection for 
metal structures over railroads. It should 
be properly reinforced with steel. The best 
results and the greatest degree of safety 
will be obtained when the steel reinforce- 
ment is thoroly attached to the metal 
member. 




CORROSION OF IRON GIRDER in Washington 
Street Bridge over Boston and Albany Railroad in Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts. Tiro views. 




JiiIii. 1015 




Convention of American Society of Municipal 
Improvements 

The American Society of Municipal Improvements will 
meet in Dayton, O., October 12-15, with preliminary meetings 
of the committees on standard specifications and on standard 
forms on October 11. The city of Dayton is preparing a 
special program for two sessions of the convention, which 
will be of great interest and value, and the National Paving 
Brick Manufacturers' Association tenders the society a din- 
ner on one evening. The program in general is well under 
way. Three sets of specifications will be presented for con- 
sideration and adoption and possibly some changes in specifi- 
cations adopted last year. 

Northern Pacific Coast rates are in force until September 
30, good returning until October 31. California rates are 
only available on four days in August, except the regular 
9-months excursion tickets available at all times. 



camp and personal equipment, provisions, camping, state li- 
cense regulations, etc., should be of much help. 



The New Water Works Directory 
The McGraw Water Works Directory is now ready for 
delivery. It fills a need that civil engineers have felt since 
the last issue of the "Manual of American Water Works," 
edited by M. N. Baker, was published in 1897. 

It lists in its 615 pages, 5185 towns in the United States, 
Canada, Philippine Islands, Porto Rico and Hawaii, giving 
as to the water works in each, the essential facts about own- 
ership, management, supply, purification, pumping equipment 
and rates. It is arranged alphabetically by states, with the 
towns in alphabetical order under each state. The descrip- 
tion of each water works is given under the town which it 
supplies and a statistical summary by states closes the book. 
The price is $15 and it is published by the McGraw Publish- 
ing Co., New York City. 



Lincoln Highway Guide Book 
The Lincoln Highway Association, Detroit, Mich., has pub- 
lished a guide book of the entire route, from New York to 
San Francisco, in the standard automobile guide book form, 
which can be obtained for 50 cents. A map of the route with 
connecting lines and a list of the cities and towns passed thru 
may be obtained for an additional 25 cents, folded in a con- 
venient cover. 

Statistics of the cities and towns, information about hotels, 
prices of oil and gasoline, washing, etc., location of water, 
lodging and meals where they are scarce are given in the 
order the towns are reached from New York, and an alpha- 
betical index makes them easy to find. 

The instructions to tenderfeet about car and supplies, ear 



Technical Associations 

The general program of sessions and excursions of the 
International Engineering Congress and the engineering so- 
ciety conventions to be held in conjunction therewith between 
September 16 and 25, at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, San 
Francisco, Cal., is ready for distribution by Secretary W. A. 
Cattell, 417 Foxcroft Building, San Francisco, Cal. 

The New York Electrical Society at its meeting June 15, 
elected Elmer A. Sperry president, and Geo. H. Guy secretary. 



Technical Schools 



The University of Michigan is attempting the establish- 
ment of a Municipal Research Bureau under the Department 
of Political Science in connection with courses of study on 
municipal administration. Its purpose is to collect and collate 
material and circulate information concerning the problems of 
municipal administration, with special reference to Michigan 
cities, with such investigation of concrete conditions and prob- 
lems as may occur practcable. 



Civil Service Examinations 

The U. S. Civil Service Commission will hold examinations 
at the usual places, as follows: 

July 27: Instrument maker and mechanician in Bureau of 
Standards, Department of Commerce, at $900 to $1,020 a year. 

September 15: Aids and computers on Coast and Geodetic 
Survey; copyist topographic and topographic draftsmen in De- 
partmental service; junior engineer draftsmen in Engineer 
Department at large; junior chemist in departmental service; 
laboratory apprentice in Bureau of Standards; local inspectors 
and assistant inspectors of boilers and of hulls. 

October 13: Agricultural inspector, Philippine Service; 
aid Bureau of Standards; aid, cadet engineer and cadet offi- 
cer, Lighthouse service; fish culturist and apprentice fish cul- 
turist; assistant observer. Weather department: civil engi- 
neer and draftsman: computer, Nautical Almanac Office and 
Naval Observatory: mechanical and topographic draftsmen, 
Panama Canal service; ship draftsman. Navy Department; en- 
gineer. Indian service: junior mechanical or electrical engi- 
neer. Engineer Department at large; junior mining engineer, 
Bureau of Mines; laboratory assistant,. Bureau of Standards; 
library cataloguer; scientific assistant, Department of Agri- 
culture; statistical clerk, departmental service. 

July, 1915 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING 



Personal Notes 

H. M. Montgomery, chairman of the Chicago section of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, has been elected 
vice president and director of the Powdered Coal Engineering 
& Equipment Company, of Chicago, which is preparing elab- 
orate plans for the construction and equipment of a large 
demonstration plant and research laboratory in Chicago, 
where working demonstrations of the adaptation of powdered 
coal as a fuel to all forms of heat production will be carried 
on under engineering observation, aided by every influence 
that scientific research can bring to bear on the production of 
perfect combustion. 

E. A. Kingsley, formerly city engineer and superintendent 
of public works in Little Rock, Ark., the first state highway 
engineer of Arkansas, and more recently, until July 1, su- 
pervising engineer of the construction of the $700,000 highway 
system of Bell county, Tex., has been appointed paving engi- 
neer of San Antonio, Tex., by street commissioner Kearny. 
The city began a system of paving recently and under the 
new commission form of government plans to extend the sys- 
tem. At the last June meeting of the commission, the street 
commissioner was authorized to call for bids on thirteen pav- 
ing contracts on eleven streets, and bids were received for 
paving one street. Other streets will follow rapidly. Mr. 
Kingsley's experience has been ample to insure his success 
in his new position, which is in the nature of a deserved 
advance. 

H. E. Bilger, M. Am. Soc. C. E., road engineer, Illinois 
state highway department, Springfield, 111., was granted the 
degree of Master of Science, pro merito, by Bucknell Univer- 
sity, Lev isburg, Pa., on June 16, 1915. He is a graduate of 
the university and also of the University of Missouri. He has 
had extensive engineering experience in the service of rail- 
roads and in municipal and industrial projects. For six years 
he was with the Illinois highway commission as assistant en- 
gineer and division engineer, resigning to become senior high- 
way engineer with the U. S. Office of Public Roads, assigned 
to the southwestern states at the construction of object-lesson 
roads, and in the analysis of county road conditions and the 
formulation of reports thereon for the bases for bond issues 
for road improvement. In April, 1914, ke resigned from this 
position to accept his present position, which was won by an 
open examination with 103 competitors. He now has imme- 



diate technical charge, under the general direction of the chief 
state highway engineer, of all road work coming under the 
supervision of the Illinois state highway department. 



All on Four Wheels 

Each year increasing care is taken to conserve streets and 
highways. The top dressing of macadam pavements must be 
preserved by oiling which is also a great help in keeping down 
the dust. Then, too, the streets must be sprinkled daily dur- 
ing the dusty weather and periodically they should be thoroly 
cleaned and flushed. 

The city of Indianapolis. Ind., has provided for this atten- 
tion to its paths of transportation by purchasing a White com- 
bination sprinkler, flusher and road oiler. The apparatus is 
mounted on a White 5-ton chassis and the equipment includes 
a 1,200-gallon tank for either water or oil, a set of sprinkler 
nozzles, mounted under the rear of the tank, busher nozzles 
at the forward end of the tank, the necessary apparatus for 
road oiling and a rotary gear pump operated from the power 
transmission. The heater is operated by gasoline, supplied 
from a small tank mounted on the right side of the body. 
The oil nozzles, sixteen in number, are supported on a rack 
under the rear of the tank and are so constructed that the en- 
tire rack may be moved a distance of 2 feet from the center 
position to either the right or left. This shifting is controlled 
from the small seat at the extreme rear of the truck. 

The water or oil may be taken into the tank thru an open- 
ing in the top or pumped in thru the intake pipe at the front 
of the tank. When the apparatus is in operation, the water 
or oil, as the case may be, is pumped from the tank to the 
proper set of nozzles and the flow is controlled entirely from 
the driver's seat. Three-way valves are provided in the pump 
line so that when one set of nozzles is in operation, the other 
two may be completely cut off. 

The heater is placed on the rear of the frame and hot air 
is circulated thru coils in the tank and out thru a uue at the 
front of the tank. 

The entire equipment is very compact and so arranged on 
the chassis that everything is easily accessible and each op- 
eration is handily controlled. 



WHITE COMBINATION Sprinkler, Flusher and Oiler. 





MACHINERY 

AND 

SUPPLIES 






Extensive Road Construction in Oregon 

The commissioners of Multnomah county, Oregon, in which 
Portland is situated, have recently let contracts for 88 miles 
of road construction, at an average cost of $14,000 a mile, or 
a total of about $1,250,000, under a bond issue approved dur- 
ing the winter. The contracts for concrete roads aggregate 
13 miles and for brick 1 mile, the remaining contracts are 
for Warrenite, distributed among four contractors: Warren 
Construction Co., Portland, 40 miles; Pacific Bridge Co., Port- 
land, 12 miles; Oscar Huber, Portland, 10 miles; Clark & 
Henry, California, 12 miles. The standard width is 1G feet. 

As in most sections of the country, the macadam roads of 
Multnomah country have proved insufficient to sustain the 
ravages of modern automobile traffic, but provide an excellent 
foundation for a modern permanent road surface. The project 
for improvement on a large scale began nearly two years ago, 
when, at a conference meeting of the most prominent tax- 
payers of the city of Portland and Multnomah county, John 
B. Yeon and S. Benson were urged to accept the positions of 
roadmaster and deputy roadmaster respectively. They have 
since devoted nearly their entire time to investigation of the 
road problem, including roads of all types thruout the United 
States and Canada. 



New Portable Asphalt Mixing Plant 
A new portable asphalt mixing plant having a number of 
distinctive features has just been put on the market by the 
Iroquois works of the Barber Asphalt Paving Company, Buf- 
falo. For a plant of its size and cost it is unusual in having 
a minimum capacity of S00 square yards of 2-inch sheet as- 
phalt topping per day of 10 hours. The capacity for asphaltic 
concrete. Topeka mix, or asphalt macadam is much larger. 

The mixing platform of the plant is so elevated that a 
wagon can be driven under it to receive the load from the 




mixer without elevating the plant on its wheels or excavating 
for this purpose. The platform is arranged for one-man op- 
eration, the levers for controlling clutches and plant being 
within easy reach. The mixer is a two-shaft, pugmill type, 
with removable side and end liners: provided with two full 
sets of blades, the binder blades being solid manganese. The 
sand-measuring box and asphalt bucket are supported on scales. 
A drying drum of special construction has been designed for 
this plant to obviate the difficulties so often encountered in 
heating a sufficient amount of sand and stone. Features that 
count in the economical upkeep of such plants as this are the 
removable steel wearing plates in the material chutes, and 
chilled rims for all chain sprockets. 

As illustrated, the plant would be operated as two units, 
the second unit being the asphalt kettle. The mixing plant is 
also supplied, however, without boiler and engine. In other 
words, the contractor or municipality already provided with 
portable boiler, engine and kettles, can secure the mixing plant 
without making an additional investment for these units. 

The plant is designed especially to meet the requirements 
of contractors and municipalities having new construction and 
maintenance work to perform in scattered territory, or in an 
amount insufficient to make a stationary plant economical. 



Improved Creosote Oil 

The Republic Creosoting Co., of Indianapolis, are issuing 
a new booklet on improved creosote oil, which gives also the 
specifications for the Reilly improved creosote oil. 

The booklet presents an excellent argument for making 
clear distinction between creosote oil and mixtures of creo- 
sote with tar or petroleum or asphalt or resin or any other 
material, so that the names used for the various compounds 
will give an indication of their composition. This seems to 
be a fair proposition and it follows the principle on which the 
specifications thus far adopted by the American Society of 
Municipal Improvements are based. The compounds seem to 
be advocated because they are considered equally or even 
more valuable and should have the full advantage of these 
points of superiority. They do not have this advantage if 
they are called creosote. 

Bleeding of paving blocks is attributed in the booklet to 
the mixture with creosote of other materials to produce the 
oil with which they are treated. 

The distinguishing characteristics of the Reilly improved 
creosote oil are stated to be high degree of penetration into 
the fibers of the wood, stability, preservative properties, water- 
proofness, high specific gravity and high boiling point. The 
value of each of these characteristics is more fully set forth 
in the booklet than there is space for here. 

Full specifications for the Reilly improved creosote oil close 



MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES 



the booklet and include some of the tests for adulterants, with 
recommendation that other tests be used when other kinds 
of adulteration may be suspected. 

The claims for this oil are for properties which the writer 
has for years considered to be the essentials of a perfect oil 
for treating wood paving blocks, and it is now on the market 
to demonstrate its ability to meet these requirements. 



The TurLine Sewer Machine for Cleaning Difficult 
Sewer Stoppages 

The turbine sewer cleaner is claimed by its manufacturers 
to be able to clean any stoppage in a sewer no matter how 
difficult for other methods. The device consists essentially 
of runners and cutters, adjusted to fit the sewer, revolved by 
water pressure and pushed along with rods, or cables and 
" indlass or jack. In operation a hose is attached and water 
delivered to the turbine at 60 pounds pressure, giving 3 h. p. 
to the cutters which revolve at about the rate of an electric 
fan. The revolving cutters dislodge the material, cut the 
weeds, roots and other growths, grinding the other matter 
and carrying it away by the force of the water. At the same 
time the moving water scrubs the walls of the sewer. The 
runners and cutting knives can be adjusted so as to exactly 
fit the sewer. The special turbine windlass is simply con- 
structed and easily set up and is used with cable for drawing 
the turbine through the sewer. Where windlass and cable 
cannot be used, as in completely stopped sewers, the forcing 
jack and sewer rods are used. Special non-buckling galvan- 
ized iron rods with special couplings to withstand the strain 
may be obtained. Wooden rods which float in 2V 2 inche