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Full text of "Water-tube boilers; based on a short course of lectures delivered at University college, London"

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yA 'm PROPERTY OF ym 

Midiigan 



Muries^ 



»8»7 




ARTES SCIENTIA VIKITA$ 




/ 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



SED ON A SHORT COURSE OF LECTURES DELIVERED 
AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON 



Bv LESLIE S; ROBERTSON 

M.In«t.C.E,, M.I.Mech.K., M.I.N. A. 



IVJTH UPWARDS OF 170 ILLUSTRATIONS 



NEW YORK 
D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY 

I 90 I 



ENQIN. LIBRARY 

"IJ 









Printed in Great Britain 



I 



PREFACE 



When asked by my friend, Professor Hudson- 
Beare, to deliver a short course of lectures on 
Water-Tube Boilers at University College, London, 
it was not my intention to issue the lectures in 
book fdrm ; but so many of those who attended the 
lectures desired to have them put in a more 
permanent shape, that I have acceded to their 
request. I did so, because I felt that there was 
no popular book on Water-Tube Boilers to which 
students and practical engineers could refer. The 
Standard work by M. Bertin, the able Chief Con- 
structor of the French Navy, which I had the 
honour of translating into English, contains a mass 
of valuable information, much of which the author 



vi PREFACE 

has kindly allowed me to embody in the present 
Lectures, but the price of M. Bertin's work places 
it beyond the reach of many, and it is hoped that 
the present volume may serve as an introduction 
to his more exhaustive treatise. 

My thanks are due to the Admiralty for some 
of the information in reference to His Majesty's 
ships, and to the various firms who have placed 
valuable information at my disposal. I am in- 
debted to Messrs Babcock & Wilcox, Limited, 
for the loan of a large number of the blocks 
illustrating the historical part of the subject, and 
to M. le Marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat, Mr F. 
J. Rowan, Mr W. Worby Beaumont, and many 
others for the use of illustrations. 

My thanks are especially due to my assistant, 
Mr Charles Dresser, for the care he has given to 
the preparation of these Lectures, and their revision 
for the press. • 

The book has retained, more or less, the form 
of the Lectures, but they have been revised and 
adapted as far as possible to their present purpose. 
I should have preferred to recast the book, but 



PREFACE vii 

the time at my disposal has been too limited to 
allow of this. The subject of Water-Tube Boilers 
has, of late, been so much before the public, 
and the need of a short practical work of re- 
ference appears to be felt in so many quarters, 
that I decided to issue the book in its present 
form in the hope that it may prove of some 
value and interest. 

LESLIE S. ROBERTSON. 



Westminster, 

September 1901. 



The Author has much pleasure in acknowledging his 
indebtedness to the following, amongst others, for the use 
of Illustrations : — 

Institution of Civil Engineers . Fig. 62. 
Water-Tube Boilers^ by Thomycroft, vol. xcix. 

Institution of Naval Architects Figs. 39, 124. 

Wafer-Tube Boilers, by J. Fortescue Flannery, vol. xvii. 
Water-Tube Boilers, by J. A. Normand, vol. xxxvii. 



Institution of Engineers and ) Figs. 2, 8, 9, 16, 17, 52, 
Shipbuilders in Scotland / 86, 87. 

Water- Tube Boilers, by F. J. Rowan, vol. 41. 



North-East Coast Institution of 
Engineers and Shipbuilde 

Water- Tube Boilers, by Edwin Griffith, 1901. 



OF) 

ERs/ 



Figs. 143, 144. 



Babcock & Wilcox Ltd. 



SociAt6 des Ingenieurs CiviLS DE) Figs. 96, 148, 149, 150, 
France . . . ./ 154. 

Chaudiires Marines, by M. L. de Chasseloup-Laubat, 1897. 

Association Technique Maritime . Figs. 94, 95. 
Nouveaux Gtfntfrateurs Belleville, by M. Godard, 1 896. 

Figs. 3-5, 10, II, 19-22, 
25-29^ 32, 33, 37, 38, 

40-43, 45-51, 59-61, 
63, 64, 66-75, 85, 97, 

98, 121. 

Figs. 12, 14, 15, 18,23, 

24, 30, 34, 35, 44, 76- 
78, 92, 93, 107- 1 II, 
120, 123, 125-128, 

131, 133-135, 141, 
142, 146, 1 51-153, 
165, 167-169. 

\V. WORBY Beaumont {Motor Yehicles\ 

and Motors). . . .] Figs. 80, 81, 82, 83. 



M. Bertin {Marine Boilers) 



The Engineer 



Figs. 6, 7, 79, 84. 



CONTENTS 



.<>. 



CHAPTER I 

PAGE 

Definition of a Water-Tube or Tubulous Boiler — Classification — 
Difficulties attending any satisfactory classification of a 
practical nature — Short Chronological History of Water- 
Tube Boilers — Early Developments of Water - Tube 
Boilers in connection with Road Locomotion — Early 
attempts to use Water-Tube Boilers on board ship . . i 

CHAPTER II 

Circulation in Water-Tube Boilers — Necessity of rapid circulation 
in Water-Tube Boilers — Rate of transmission of Heat — 
Corrosion — Combustion — Most advantageous arrangement 
of Furnace and Tubes — Ratio of Heating Surface to Grate 
Surface — Efficiency of Heating Surface — Variation in value 
of Heating Surface according to position — Rate of Com- 
bustion — Forced Draught — Advantages of Forced Draught 
— Adaptability of Tubulous Boilers to Forced Draught — 
Tests, and results obtained . . . .54 

CHAPTER 111 

Large Tube Boilers — Belleville Boiler — Early Type — Later Type — 
Addition of Economiser — Details of Construction — Results 
obtained with Belleville Boiler — Babcock and Wilcox Boiler 
— Land Type — Marine Type — Results obtained — Niclausse 
Boiler— Diirr Boiler — D'Allest Boiler — OrioUe Boiler— 
Homsby Boiler — Stirling Boiler — Heine Boiler — Morrin 
"Climax" Boiler— Thornycroft-Marshall Boiler 74 



IX 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER IV 



PAUB 



Small Tube Boilers — Thornycroft Boiler — Speedy Type — Daring 
Type — Du Temple Boiler — Normand Boiler — Normand- 
Sigaudy Boiler — Mosher Boiler — Reed Boiler — White 
Boiler — Ward Coil Boiler — Ward Launch Boiler — Mumford 
Boiler — Fleming and Ferguson Boiler — Blechynden Boiler 
— White- Forster Boiler — Yarrow Boiler . . .118 



CHAPTER V 

Boiler Accessories — Reducing Valves — Belleville Reducing Valve 
— Belleville Automatic Steam Separator — Automatic Feed- 
Water Regulators — Belleville — Thornycroft — Sigaudy — 
Normand-Sigaudy— Yarrow — Niclaussc — Weir — Necessity 
for pure Feed Water — Filtering — Feed-Water Filters — 
Harris — Rankine — Mills- Berryman — Filters working at 
Atmospheric Pressure — Normand — Feed-Water Heaters — 
Kirkaldy — Normand — Weir — Weight and Space occupied 
by various types of Boilers — Advantages and Disadvantages 
of Water-Tube Boilers — Durability of Water-Tube Boilers 
— General conclusions . . . . .158 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



NOS. OF FIGS. 






PAGE 


I. Blakey Boiler ....... 3 


2. Woolf Boiler . 










4 


3. Stevens Boiler . 










4 


4, 5. Eve Boiler 










5 


6, 7. Gurney Boiler . 










7 


i5. Perkins Tubes 










8 


9. Alban Boiler . 










9 


10, II. Wilcox Boiler . 










10 


12. Belleville Boiler of the Bichc 










II 


13- Joly Boiler 










12 


14, 15. Sochet Boiler . 










12 


16. L. Perkins Boiler 










13 


17. Rowan Boiler, 1861 










13 


18. Belleville Boiler, 1861 










14 


19. Merryweather Boiler . 










14 


20,21. Rowan Boiler, 1865 










15 


22. Field Boiler, 1866 










15 


23, 24. Belleville Boiler, 1866 . 










16 


25,26. Field Boiler, 1867 










16 


27. Babcock & Wilcox Boiler, 1867 








17 


28,29. „ „ 1868 








17 


^0. Toessel Boiler . 










18 



XI 



Xll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



NOS. OF PICS. 

33- 
34- 
35- 
36. 
37. 
38. 

39- 
40. 

41. 

42, 43- 
44. 

45- 
46. 

47. 
48. 

49. 
50. 

51- 
52. 

53. 

54, 55- 
56, 57, 58. 

59. 
60. 

61. 

62. 

63. 
64. 

65. 

66. 



Root Boiler 

Fletcher Boiler 

Babbitt Boiler 

Belleville Boiler of HirondelUy 1869 

Separator . 

Howard Boiler 

Miller Boiler 

Maynard Boiler 

Watt Boiler 

Allen Boiler 

Phleger Boiler 

Wiegand Boiler 

Belleville Boiler, 1872 

Allen Boiler 

Kilgore Boiler 

Plambeck and Darkin Boiler 

Firmenich Boiler . 

Rogers and Black Boiler . 

Shackleton Boiler . 

Kelly Boiler 

Harrison Boiler 

Rowan's Tubes, 1875 

Sinclair Boiler 

Early P'orms of Niclausse Boiler 

Ward Coil Boiler . 

Hazel ton Boiler 

Corliss Boiler 

Thomycroft Coil Boiler of Peace 

Herreshoff Coil Boiler 

Morrin "Climax" Boiler . 

Lane Boiler 

Thornycroft Boiler — Speedy Type 



PAGE 

19 
19 

19 
20 
20 
21 
22 

23 
23 
24 
24 

25 

25 
26 

26 

27 

27 

27 

27 
28 

28 

29 

29 

30 

30 
30 
31 
31 



32 



'X'y 



33 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Xlll 



NOS. OF FIGS. 










PACK 


67. Field- Stirling Boiler ..... 34 


68. Roberts Boiler 








34 


69. Stirling Boiler 










35 


70. Wood Boiler 










35 


71,72. Herreshoflf Boiler 


% 








36 


73. Almy Boiler. 










36 


74. Henshall Boiler 










37 


75. Cahall Boiler 










37 


76. Towne Boiler 










39 


^^, Petit and Godard Boiler 








40 


78. Leblond and Caville Boiler 








41 


79. Griffith Boiler 








42 


80. Dance Boiler 








43 


81. Hancock Boiler 








45 


32, 83. Summers and Ogle Boiler . 








46 


84. Maceroni and Squire Boiler 








47 


85. Church Boiler 








48 


86. Rowan and Horton Boiler, 1869 








50 


87. Rowan and Horton Boiler of Propontis 






51 


158. Diagrammatic Sketch of Yarrow's Apparatus 




55 


89- » j> » 




57 


9^' >» >j » 




58 


91. Curve illustrating Niclausse's Experiments 




67 


92, 93. Belleville Boiler without Economiser 




75 


94. Belleville Boiler with Economiser. Front Elevation 


To face page yy 


95- )» M '^ide Elevation . yy 


96. Details of Tube joints .... 


80 


97. Babcock and Wilcox Boiler. Land type . 


83 


• 

98. Section showing Header, Tubes and Steam Drum 


84 


99. Babcock and Wilcox Boiler. Marine type 


86 


100. „ 


1 11 




« 


• 


. 87 



xiv 


LIST OK ILLUSTRATIONS 






NOS. OF FIGS. 


I'AGE 






01. Niclausse Boiler ...... 


89 






02. Tubes and Lanterns of Niclausse IJoiler . 


90 






03. „ „ „ 1900 type 


93 


- 




[04. Boiler of /^r/V^w/ ...... 


94 






[05. Diirr Boiler. Marine type . . . . . 


95 






loO. „ „ . . . . . 


96 




107, 


108. D'Allest Boiler ...... 


100 




109,] 


110. Oriolle Boiler ...... 


103 






[II. Caraman Joint ...... 


104 






[12. Homsby Boiler ..... 


105 






[1 3. Stirling Boiler ...... 


108 






[1 4- Heine Boiler .... To face page 


II I 






[1 5. Morrin Boiler ...... 


113 




116, 1 


[17. Thomycroft- Marshall Boiler. Sectional type 


115 




118, 


119. „ Boiler. Non- sectional type 


"5 






[20. Thorny croft Boiler. Speedy \.y^Q. . . . . 


119 






[21. „ Daring \y^^. 


122 






\i'2. „ Improved Z^rtr/;/^ type 


123 






[23. Du Temple Boiler ...... 


125 






[24. Modifications of du Temple Boiler 


127 




125, 


126. Du Temple- Nomiand Boiler . . . . 


129 




127, 


128. N or mand Boiler of /7?r^«« . . . . 


131 




129, 


130. Normand-Sigaudy Boiler . . . . . 


^l^ 






131. Mosher Boiler 




135 






132. Mosher Launch Boiler 




^yj 






133. Reed Boiler . 




. 138 






134. White Coil Boiler . 




139 






135. Ward Coil Boiler . 




141 




136, 


137. Ward Launch Boiler 




144 




138, 


139. Mumford Boiler 




145 






140. Tube Section of Mumford Boiler . 


146 






141. Fleming and Ferguson Boil 


er , . , 


149 





LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



XV 



KOS. OF FICiS. 








FACE 


142. Blechynden Boiler . .150 


143- White-Forster Boiler 








151 


^44- }) n • • 








153 


145. Yarrow Boiler 








154 


146. „ Torpedo-boat type . 








155 


147- }} Destroyer type 








156 


148. Belleville Reducing Valve . 








160 


149- n Steam Separator . 








161 


150. „ Feed- water Regulator 








162 


151. Thornycroft „ 








163 


152,153- Sigaudy 








165 


154. Normand-Sigaudy „ 








. 166 


155. Yarrow „ 








167 


156. Mumford „ 








168 


157, 158. Niclausse „ 




Toft 


ice pagi 


? 169 


159. Weir 








170 


160. „ 








171 


161. Harris Feed-Water Filter . 








176 


162. Rankine ., 








177 


163, 164. Mills-Berryman „ 








179 


165. Normand „ 








180 


166. Kirkaldy Feed- water Heater 








182 


167, 168. Normand „ 








183 


169. Wainwright „ 








183 


170. Weir „ 






■ 


185 


171. Weir Injection „ 








186 



1 



t 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



CHAPTER I 



Definition of a Water-Tube or Tubulous Boiler — Classification — 
Difficulties attending any satisfactory classification of a practical 
nature — Short Chronological History of Water-Tube Boilers — 
Early Developments of Water-Tube Boilers in connection with 
Road Locomotion — Early attempts to use Water-Tube Boilers on 
board Ship. 

1. Scope of Lectures. — In dealing with the question of 
** Water-tube " or " Tubulous " Boilers, it is utterly impossible 
in the space of the five lectures allotted to this course to 
deal with the subject exhaustively or in great detail. It 
will therefore be beyond the scope of these lectures to deal 
with the many cognate subjects which should rightly find 
a place in a course of lectures on boilers, such as the strength 
of riveted joints, stress in the metal, chemical theory of 
combustion, analyses of gases, and so forth, but the lectures 
will rather be devoted to : — 

1. An historical description of the better-known types of 
tubulous boilers, from the early attempts to the present day. 
No attempt will be made to deal with every description of 
water-tube boiler invented, nor is it proposed to cite all 
the early patents taken out for water-tube boilers. Further, 
it is almost impossible to attempt to keep them in strict 
chronological order, and this is more particularly the case 
with recent practice, and therefore, after 1890, no attempt has 
been made to deal with them in their chronological order. 

2, The consideration of the general principles underlying 

A 1 



2 water-tube: BOILERS [chap. 

the construction of steam boilers, but dealing with them only 
in so far as they immediately concern water-tube boilers. 

3. A discussion of the principles underlying the circulation 
of the water and the hot gases. 

4. Short description of the better-known types of water- 
tube boilers. 

5. Boiler mountings and accessories. 

6. Weight and space occupied. 

7. Advantages and disadvantages of this type of boiler. 

2, Definitioti of a Water-tube Boiler.— It is difficult to 

give an inclusive, and at the same time an exclusive, definition 

of what is popularly known as a " water-tube " or " tubulous ** 

boiler. The essential distincruishincr feature of the water- 

tube boiler is that the steam and water are contained within 

tubes, the fire being external to the tubes : further, the shell of 

the boiler is composed of a casing which is not subject to 

pressure, as is the case with the shell of the ordinary marine 

or Scotch boiler. Another distinguishing feature is that the 

metal forming the tubes in the tubulous boiler is in tension^ 

the pressure being internal, and not in compression, as is the 

case in the ordinary marine type boiler where the pressure is 

external to the tubes. In the tubulous boiler the furnace is 

usually external to the boiler proper, though of course within 

the casing ; in the " marine type " boiler, on the other hand> 

the furnace is within the boiler shell. Tubulous boilers are 

generally composed of small elements of cylindrical form, and 

therefore lighter and better able to withstand high pressures. 

In contradistinction, the marine boiler has a large shell 

completel}' enveloping the fire tubes, combustion chambers, 

and furnaces, and this shell has to be made sufficiently strong 

to stand the pressure. As the diameter is very great 

compared to the smaller elements of the tubulous boiler. 



1] 



CLASSIFICATION 



reaching sometimes to 17 or 18 feet in diameter, the thick- 
ness of the shell has to be considerable, and therefore the 
weight excessive : in tubulous boilers the elements are 
usually of small diameter, and the thickness and weight are 
consequently greatly reduced. 

3. Classification. — The classification of tubulous boilers is 
after all merely a matter of convenience. Its value is more 
academic than practical, and it is well-nigh impossible to 
find any classification which will be satisfactory, and which 
will include all the boilers of a given class, and at the same 
time exclude all others not belonging to that class. Different 
methods of classification have been adopted, such as classi- 
fying the boilers according to their construction, or according 
to the circulation of the water and steam. This latter 
method is the one adopted by M. Bertin, the Chief Constructor 
of the French Navy, in his work on Marine Boilers,* but, for 
simplicity's sake, we propose to deal with them under the 
two heads of " large-tube " and " small-tube " boilers, dealing 
with " large-tube " boilers in Chapter III., 
and with the " small-tube " in Chapter IV. 

4. Brief History of Water -tube 
Boilers. — It is difficult to decide upon the 
exact date to be attributed to the intro- 
duction of a boiler. In some cases, the 
date when the patent was taken out has 
been used ; in others, the date given is that 
of the introduction of the boiler on a 
practical scale. Perhaps the earliest form 
of water-tube boiler is that of John Blakey, 
which was designed in 1774 (Fig. i). It consisted of three 
water-pipes, alternately inclined, resembling a Z, and con- 

**' Marine Boilers," L. E. Bertin. Translated and edited by 
Leslie S. Robertson. John Murray, London, 1898. 



BLAKEY 
BOILER. 




FIG. 1. 



WATER.TUBE BOILERS 



[CHAF. 



nected at the ends by bent tubes, so that the steam formed 
in the lower limb had to find its way through the water con- 
tained in the upper tubes of the boiler in order to supply the 
engine. Passing over Voight and Fitch's pipe boiler, which 
was put into their steamboat on the Delaware River in 
America in 1787, Rumsey's boiler, patented in 1788, Pitts' and 
Strode's boiler, patented in 1792, Dale's in 1793, Barlow and 
Fulton's boiler, which was fitted to a boat on the Seine in 
1 793, and Wiilcox's boiler, patented in 1 801 , we come to Woolf s 
sectional boiler, which was patented about 1803 (Fig. 2). 

In this boiler a number of cast-iron water-pipes are 
placed horizontally in a 
WOOLF BOILER. „„. ,„d connected by 

branch pipes to a hori- 
zontal tube of lai^ 
diameter, placed above 
them at right angles. 
The water level was half 
PIQ „ way up the receiver, the 

upper space being .steam 
space. The pipes were laid transversely to the furnace, and 
the furnace gases passed alternately over and under them. 

STEVENS BOILER. 




Stevens in America employed a form of water-tube 
boiler (Fig. 3), which he fitted to a screw-boat in 1804, 



I.] EVE BOILER S 

This boiler contained lOO tubes of 2" diameter and 18" long, 
plugged at one end, and connected at the other to a central 
water leg, the furnace gases passing around and among the 
radiating tubes. 

Trevithick patented a boiler in 1815, formed of small 
tubes closed at one end and opening into a common chamber. 

In 1819 Seaward patented a boiler in which the tubes, 

EVE BOILER. 



FIG. 4. FIG. 5. 

which were nearly horizontal, were connected in series so 
as to form a zigzag course for the steam bubbles to follow. 
Griffith in 1821 (.see Fig. 79) patented a boiler with horizontal 
water- tubes, the ends of which were inserted into two down 
pipes ; the furnace gases passing over the horizontal tubes. 

Tubulous boilers were patented in 1821 by Congreve, 
in 1822 by Clark, 1824 by Moore. Paul, and M'Curdy, and 
in 1825 by Eve (Figs. 4 and 5), Teissier, and Gurney. The 
boilers of Congreve and M'Curdy were of what i.s sometimes 



6 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

called the " flash " type, in which there-is no reserve of water, 
the water being instantly converted into steam on passing 
into the boiler. 

Most of the early attempts at "water -tube boiler" 
construction were in connection with road locomotion. 
Between the years 1821 and 1835 several boilers of various 
designs were introduced for road locomotion, the main object 
in view being to obtain a powerful boiler with a minimum 
of weight. Between the years referred to, a very consider- 
able advance was made in water-tube boiler construction. 

In 1825 Goldsworthy Gurney brought out a tubulous 
boiler for driving his road carriage. In its later form 
(Figs. 6 and 7) this boiler consisted of a small bottom 
cylindrical reserv^oir, into which were screwed a number of 
welded iron pipes, which were brought out from this reservoir 
to a distance of about 4 J feet, and acted as the grate ; they 
were then connected by bends to short vertical pipes, the 
upper ends of which were jointed to nearly horizontal 
tubes connected to an upper reservoir parallel to the lower 
reservoir, to which it was joined by vertical water legs. 
The furnace was placed between the top and bottom row 
of tubes. A top steam and water drum was fitted over 
the upper water-drum. In 1827 one of Gurney's boilers 
had been running every day for two years without requiring 
repairs of any importance. 

In 1826 boilers were patented by Pearson, Witty, and 
Gillman, and by Pearson, and Hancock in 1827. Hancock's 
boiler of 1827 had flat leaves, or cells, stayed with partly 
counter-sunk rivets, but these gave trouble by leakage. 
This boiler, in common with those of many other inventors, 
was intended for propelling steam road carriages. Patents 
were taken out in 1826 by Hall, in 1829 by Poole, and in 1830 
by Summers and Ogle (see F^igs. 82, 83), and Rawe and Boase. 



GURNEY BOILER 



^ 




8 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap* 



PERKINS TUBES. 



I 



1^ 




© 



In 1 83 1 Jacob Perkins patented a boiler in which the 
water-tubes, closed at one end, hung vertically downwards 
into the furnace. These tubes were double (Fig. 8), there 
being an inner concentric tube open at both ends, which 

extended nearly to the bottom 
of the outer tube, but leaving 
sufficient room for water to 
circulate between the two tubes. 
This type is at present generally 
known as a " Field " tube, a 
form of it having been sub- 
sequently employed in the Field 
boiler. 

Besides Perkins' boiler, one 
was also patented by Brunton 
in 1 83 1. This was followed in 
1832 by Dance, who brought 
out a modification of Gurney's 
boiler. Church (see Fig. 85) 
and Trevithick also brought out 
boilers in this year. In 1833 Dance and Field (see Fig. 80)^ 
and also Maceroni and Squire (see Fig. 84) invented boilers. 
The boiler of the latter inventors had a working pressure 
of 150 lbs. per square inch, a pressure up to that time unheard 
of Hancock in this year patented the boiler shown in Fig. 8i> 
which was very successful. 

Water-tube boilers were patented by M'Dowall in i 834^ 
by Collier, and Beale in 1836, and in this year Schafhautl 
brought out what may be termed an " injection '* or " flash " 
boiler, on the same principle as the well-known Serpollet boiler, 
which has been so largely used for steam motor vehicles in 
France. Other forms of injection boilers, embodying the sa me 
principle, had been previously constructed by Payne, in 1736, 



kJ 




FIG. 8. 



I.] ALBAN BOILER . 9 

Pitts and Strode in 1792, Dale in 1793, Willcox in 1801, 
Congreve in 1821, M'Curdy in 1824, and Howard in 1832. 

In 1837 Anderson, and Gillman both patented water- 
tube boilers, followed by Morgan, and James in 1838, by 
Prosser in 1839, Craddock, and Hill in 1840, and Alban in 
1843 (Fig. 9). 

Dr Alban published the first description of his boiler 
in 1843, His boiler consisted of a group of horizontal 
water-pipes communicating with a vertical water -space. 
This water-space was connected with two reservoirs above, 
from which the steam was taken. The water-level was 

ALBAN BOILER. 



half-way up these top reservoirs, the upper halves being 
filled with steam. The water-pipes, 28 in number, were of 
copper, 4" in diameter, about .V inch thick, and from 4\ to 
6J feet in length, according to requirements. The tubes 
were closed at the back ends by a screw cover, and screwed 
into the back plate of the front water-space. Two openings 
through the plate into each pipe were made; one below 
the centre of the pipe for the inflow of water, one above for 
the escape of steam into the chamber. The pipes were 
slightly inclined upward towards the water chamber to 
facilitate the escape of steam. The pipes were arranged 
in eight rows, zigzag, so as to meet and divide the upward 



lo WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

current of the gases, and were spaced i i" apart. The 
steam rose at one side of the chamber into the left-hand 
reservoir, while the water descended from the right-hand 
reservoir into the chamber. The coal consumption of a 
10 H.P. boiler wa.s 7 to 10 lb.s. of coal per square foot of 
grate per hour. 

Water-tube boilers were patented by Craddock in 1844 
and 1846, in 1849 by Clarke and Motley, in 1850 by Green, 
and in 1855 by Isoard, and by Green. 

In 1856 Stephen Wilcox patented a boiler (Figs. 10 
and ri) with inclined tubes connecting water-spaces front 
and back, and with an overhead steam and water drum, 
WILCOX BOILER. 



FIG. 10. FIG. 11. 

The tubes were bent to a slightly reversed curve, extending 
over nearly the whole length of the tube, but were inac- 
cessible for cleaning, a fault which is common to most of 
the early forms of water-tube boilers. 

In 1856 the first Belleville boiler was fitted on board 
the Biche (Fig. 12). In this boiler the tubes were vertical 
and the water circulated in the opposite direction to the 
current of hot gases, and a feed-heater or economiser was 
fitted. This boiler was not howevt 



* " Marine Hoilers," L. E. IJertin. Translated and edited by 
Leslie S. Robcrison. John Murray, London, 1898. 



I-J 



JOLV, AND SOCHET BOILERS 




Joly in 1857 invented a boiler (Fig. 13) in which vertical 
tubes with closed ends were suspended over the furnace. 
They were provided 
with internal con- 
centric down - pipes, 
extending nearly to 
the bottom of the 
closed tubes, similar 
to the Field tube. 
In this year, Messrs 
Scott & Co., of 
Greenock, built the 
T/ietis, for which a 
tubulous boiler, work- 
ing at 120 lbs. pres- 
sure, was designed ^ 
and constructed _ by ^ 
Mr J. M. Rowan. *■ 

The "Sochet" 
boiler (Figs. 14 and 
15) appears to have 
been the first "small- 
tube " tubulous boiler 
of the du Temple or 
Thorny croft type 
used in France, but 
the boiler not being | 
a success, its use wa.s 
discontinued about 
1859. M. Sochet 
called it a "rapid 
circulation" boiler, and laid great stress on this point. 

In 1859 Messrs Rowan and Horton produced a sectional 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 
JOLY BOILER. 



FIG. 13. 
SOCKET BOILER. 




>■! 



L. PERKINS, ANU ROWAN BOILERS 



"3 



boiler, which was fitted on the Athanasian by J, R, Napier 
for the Glasgow and Bordeaux trade, and VVilliamson and 
Loftus Perkins patented a water-tube boiler, which in its later 
form is shown in Fig. 16, In i860 and 1862 several boilers 
by Rowan and Horton, similar to the AOianasian's boiler, 
were fitted for home and foreign trade. 

In i860 Barrans brought out a tubulous boiler, and about 
this time Lamb and Summer's water-tube boiler appears to 



L. PERKINS BOILER. 



ROWAN BOILER, 1861. 




Fia 18. FIG. 17. 

have been fitted on board a ship. In the following year 
water-tube boilers were patented by Williams and by J. M. 
Rowan CF'g- i/)- 

In this year (1861) Belleville fitted a new type of boiler 
(Fig. 18) to thft Argus and Saiiitc Barbe. The coils in this 
case were horizontal and continuous, and the furnace 
gases came first into contact with the tubes full of water, 
and then ascended vertically among the remaining coils, 
the steam being taken off from the upper part of the 
boiler. 



14 WATER-TUHE BOILERS [chap. 

In 1861 Mr Howdeii of Glasgow replaced Messrs Rowan 
and Horton's boiler on the Athanasian by a boiler consisting 
of a series of horizontal drums in tiers, and joined together 
by short connecting pipes. 

In 1862 Merryweather brought out a boiler (Fig. 19) 
with drop tubes hanging vertically from the crown of the 
furnace. 



BELLEVILLE BOILER, 1861. 




FtQ. 18. 
FIG. 18. 

In 1865 Rowan took out his British patent for a boiler 
made up of a series of units placed side by side, each 
unit consisting of an upper and lower horizontal drum, 
connected by a series of "bent-ended" heating tubes, and, 
at the front end, outside the setting, with down-take pipes 
of large diameter (Figs. 20 and 21). 

In 1866 Howard of Bedford patented a sectional boiler 
with vertical tubes, and. in the same year, Field brought 
out a cylindrical boiler, slightly inclined from the horizontal. 



I.] ROWAN, AND FIELD BOILERS ij 

with ^ drop tubes fitted to the under sides of the cylinder 
(Fig. 22). Belleville, in this year, fitted to the French trans- 
port, Vienne, and several gun-boats, a boiler verj' similar to 

ROWAN BOILER, 1865 



FIG. 20. FIG. 21. 

his Argus type of 1861. The steam was taken from the 
top of the boiler (Figs. 23 and 24) by a transverse tube 
or collector, which was .surmounted by a tube, called a 

FIELD BOILER, 1866. 



"separator," communicating with the collector by small 
orifices. The tubes were arranged " in series," the ends of the 



5 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS [cHAP. 

BELLEVILLE BOILER, 1S66. 



iJ 



am 



]^ 



tubes being joined by cast-iron junction boxes, so as to force 
the steam to traverse each tube successively. 



FIELD BOILER, 1867. 



FIQ. 26. FIG. 26. 

In 1867 Field (Figs. 25 and 26) commenced to use the 



I.] BA15C0CK AND WILCOX BOILERS 17 

internal concentric circulating tube which bears his name, but 
which had been previously used by Perkins and others. In 

BABCOCK AND WILCOX BOILER. 18&7. 



this year Babcock and Wilcox patented their first boiler 
(Fig. 27). 

In 1868 Babcock and Wilco.x built a boiler (Figs. 

BABCOCK AND WILCOX BOILER, 1868. 



28, 29) with straight, vertical headers. The tubes were 
brightened, laid in the mould, and the headers cast on. 
This boiler, to use their own words, "died very young." 



i8 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



About this time Joessel in France invented a steam boiler 
having fire-tubes inside the water-tubes (Fig. 30). 



JOESSEL BOILER. 




FIG. 30. 

In 1869 Rowan and Horton obtained a patent for a water- 
tube boiler, w^hich was subsequently fitted on the s.s. 
Propontis^ and is shown on page 51. In the same year 
Root brought out a tubulous boiler (Fig. 31), which consisted 
of a number of wrought-iron tubes, inclined at an angle of 
20 from the horizontal, and connected together in pairs 
back and front, in such a manner that the feed-water entering^ 



I.] ROOT, FLETCHER, AND BABBITT BOILERS ig 

the boiler at the rear passed through each tube in succession. 
The steam was taken off" from the top tube by short lengths 

ROOT BOILER. FLETCHER BOILER. 



of pipe, which connected it to the steam drum. Fletcher 
used a vertical fire-box boiler (Fig. 32), with horizontal cone- 



BABBITT BOILER. 



shaped water-tubes, radiating from the water -space at the side 
of the fire-box, towards the centre. Habbltt in New York 



WATER-TUBE IJOILERS [chap. 

BELLEVILLE BOILER OF HIROSDBLLB, 1869. 





I.] HOWARD BOILER 21 

made a boiler (Fig. 33) with vertical cast-iron tubes, connected 
tc^ether top and bottom. Each vertical tube had horizontal 
cast-iron tubes projecting from it on either side. The 
Belleville boiler of 1 866, improved by the addition of a feed- 
regulator and a vertical separator attached to the steam- 
pipe, was fitted in i86g to a fast jacht, the HirondeUe 
(Figs. 34, 35). 

HOWARD BOILER. 



FIG, 36. 

In 1869 J. Howard of Bedford patented another water- 
tube boiler, afterwards known as the " Barrow " boiler. 
Tubes of large diameter were employed, and were shghtly 
inclined from the horizontal upwards, towards the back of 
the boiler. Fig. 36 shows one form of this boiler, in which 
the inclined heating tube.s were closed at the front end, the 
rear end being connected at right angles to a header, from 
which the steam was taken to a steam-drum, placed trans- 
versely to the tubes. An internal concentric circulating tube 
was fitted inside all the tubes below and up to the water- 
level, which was in the tubes. The tubes above the water- 



22 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

level were fitted with horizontal partitions, which extended 
nearly to the end of the tubes, causing the steam to pass 
backward and forward along the upper tubes, on its way to 
the steam-drum, and so become slightly superheated. Two 
other forms of boiler are shown in the same patent, in which 
the tubes are connected to headers back and front. Internal 
circulating tubes were fitted in one of these designs, and 
were connected at their back end to an internal central 

MILLER BOILER 



FIG. 37. 

chamber in the header, thus separating the steam from the 
solid water, similarly to the method employed in the 
Niclau.sse and Diirr boilers. The other form of boiler was 
not fitted with any internal tube^. 

In 1870 Messrs Barret and Lagrafel patented a boiler, 
which, in its present improved form, is known as the d'AUest 
boiler (see Figs. 107, 108). In this year J. A. Miller brought 
out a tubulous boiler (Fig. 37), with cast headers, to which 
were fixed closed-ended tubes, with an inner circulating 
tube. These stood at an angle of 13° with the horizontal. 



1.1 MAYNARD, AND WATT BOILERS 23 

Maynard also introduced a boiler (Fig. 3S) with a horizontal 
steam and water cylinder above a bank of tubes slightly 

MAYNARD BOILER. 



FIO. 38. 

inclined from the horizontal, and communicating with them 
at each end. 

Watt patented in 1871 a boiler (Fig. 39) having tubes 
slightly inclined from ^^^-.p BOILER, 

the horizontal, and 
connected at each 
■end to strongly stayed 
rectangular headers. 
There was a steam- 
drum connected to 
the headers, and the 
tubes were staggered 
in the headers. 

In the same year 
Allen in America 
brought out a tubu- 
lous boiler (Fig. 40) FIG. 39. 

with cast-iron drop tubes screwed into a horizontal tube 
running along the top, and inclined to the vertical at an angle 




14 WATER-TUKE BOILERS [cHAr. 

of so"". This boiler was a variation of Joly's of 1857 and 
Field's of 1866, but did not get beyond the experimental 
stage. A tubuloiis boiler was also brought out by I'hieger in 

ALLEN BOILER. 



America, in which inclined U tubes were used as fire-bars, as 
in Gurney's 1825 boiler, but with additional water-tubes above 

PHLEGER BOILER. 



wik(;and, and bellfa'ille boilers 



25 



WIEGAND BOILER. 



them. A large steam 
and water drum was 
also provided (Fig. 

41). 

Wiegand's boiler 
of 1872 (Figs. 42 and 
43) had groups of 
vertical tubes, pro- 
vided with inside 
circulating tubes, con- 
nected to an over- 
head steam and water 
reservoir. 

In this year a new 
design of Belleville 
boiler (Fig. 44) was 



BELLEVILLE BOILER. 




a6 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

brought out and fitted to the Hirondelle, as the previous boilers 

had been unsatisfactory. The tubes were slightly inclined 

ALLEN BOILER. ^"^ connected to 

horizontal junction 

boxes instead of 

I the tubes being 

horizontal and con- 
nected to vertical 
junction boxes. 
Allen also patented 
a boiler (Fig. 45) 
with Gurney's U 
tubes, but havint: 
the fire beneath 

the bank of tubes, instead of in the middle, as in Gurney's 

boiler. 

KILGORE BOILER. 



In 18/! or 1872, Commander du Temple commenced the 
construction of his boiler in l-'rance, it being primarily 
intended for aerial navigation. 

In 1874 a boiler (Fig. 46). similar to Allen's 1872 boiler, 
was brought out by Kilgore in America, and somewhere 



I.] PrRMENICH, AND SHACKLETON BOILERS 27 



PLAMBECK & DARKIN FIRMENICH BOILER. 

BOILER. 



SHACKLETON BOILER. 



WATER-TUIJE BOILERS 



about this time Plambeck and Darkin (Fig. 47J and Fryer 
patented tubulous boilers. 



FIG. 51. 

The Firmcnich boilec of 1875 (Fig. 48) consisted of flat- 
sided horizontal drums, connected at the top and bottom 

HARRISON BOILER "' " '""'< "' '""S 

straight tubes. Tivo 

of these units were 
inclined like an A, 
with the grajte 
between them, and 
surmounted with 
a .steam drum at 
the top. 

In 1876 boilers 

were brought out 

by Rogers and 

Black (Fig. 49). 

Shackleton (Fig. 

so), and Kelly (I'ig. 

'''°' ^2- 51) in America, 

and by Harrison (Fig. 53), and Rowan in ICngland. The 

arrangement of Rowan's tubes is shown in Fig. 53. In 1877 



I] 



ROWAN, AND SINCLAIR BOILERS 



29 



tests were made in America on the Sinclair boiler (Figs. 54, 

55), and in 1878 the Belleville boiler of 1872 was further 

modified by the addition ROWAN, 1875. 

of a down-take pipe to 

convey the water from the 

separator back to the 

feed - collector, passing 

through a settling tank 

where solid deposits could 

accumulate on the way. 

In 1878 the du Temple 
boiler (see Fig. 123) was 
first fitted on some steam 
launches in France. This 
boiler consisted of a bank 
of tubes bent in a serpen- 
tine form rising out of a 
water reservoir and sur- 
mounted by a steam and FIG. 53. 
water drum. Large external down-takes were fitted to return 
the water from the top to the bottom reservoir. 
SINCLAIR BOILER. 



«,l 1 UL« 











° 


' 1 


(t 


> 






-u 






^~s=H m 




^^ 




1 


A 




y> WATER-TUUE BOILERS [chak 

In 1878 the first experiments were made with the 
Niclausse boiler, which was fitted with an internal 
NICLAUSSE BOILER. EARLY FORMS. 





FIG. Be. FIG. 57. Fia 58. 

concentric tube inside a lar[je tube, and a bolt running down 
the centre making a Joint at either end (Fig. 56). This 
arrangement was not satisfactory, and the next attempt was 
with a header back and front, connected by a forked tube at 
the top to the upper steam drum, and with a pipe leading 

WARD COIL BOILER. HAZELTON BOILER. 



FIG. Sa Fia 60. 

from the upper steam drum bringing the water to a 
horizontal bottom tube (Fig. 57J. This design was succeeded 



I.] CORLISS, AND THORNYCROFT COIL BOILERS 31 

by one in which two vertical rows of tubes were connected 
to the same header, the down pipe and bottom feed collector 
being dispensed with (Fig. 58). 

About the year 1879, Charles Ward in America intro- 
duced a circular coil boiler (Figs. 59 and 135), which has been 
used in the United States Nav>-. 

THORNYCROFT COIL BOILER. 



CORLISS BOILER. 



FIG. 62- 

Hazelton introduced a boiler (Fig, 60) in 1881, and in the 
same year Heine took out a patent for his boiler (see Fig. 114). 

Somewhere about 1882, Corliss in America invented a 
water-tube boiler (Fig. 61), and one was introduced in this 
year by Meissner, also an American. 



32 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 



About this time the Kingsley boiler, and Gill's 
injection boiler were brought out. Thornycroft's coil 
boiler (Fig. 62) was fitted on the "Peace" in 1883, and 
Herreshoff in America was at this time also fitting a coil 
boiler (Fig. 63) somewhat like Mr Thornycroft's " Peace" 
Boiler. In 1884, Thompson's boiler, Morrin's "Climax" boiler 
(Fig. 64), and Steinmuller's boiler were brought out, and 
Lane's (Fig. 6s) in 1885. 



HERRESHOFF BOILER. 



We now come to the introduction of Thornycroft's water- 
tube boiler (Fig, 66) into the Navy in 1887 when it was 
fitted on H.M.S. Speedy. This boiler consists of two banks 
of very long tub3s of small diameter, with the lower ends of 
each bank connected to separate water drums, the upi^er 
ends of the tubes being connected to the upper part of a 
common steam and water drum above the water level, and 
the tubes are curved in such a way as to form a complete 
arch over the fire grate. Yarrow in this year first used 



I.] LANE, AND THORNVCROFT BOILERS 33 

straight tubes for his boiler (see Fig. 145) which, like the 
Thornycroft, and many other makes of small tube-boilers, has 



a top steam drum connected by small tubes to two bottom 
^vater drums. The Yarrow boiler is a " drowned-tube " 

SPEEDY TYPE OF THORNYCROFT BOILER 



boiler, that is to say, the generating tubes enter the top 
drum below the working level of the water. 



34 WATER -TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

In 1887 Allan Stirliny produced his first type of water- 
tube boiler (Fig. 67), which had vertical tubes depending 

FIELD-STIRLING BOILER. ^•"^"^ ^^^ *°P '^'■"'"' ^""^ 

closed at the lower end, 
in combination with 
other tubes connected 
at the top to the steam 
and water drum, and at 
the bottom to a settling 
drum. This boiler was 
called the Field- Stirling 
boiler. Roberts of New 
York also introduced a 
boiler in this year (Fig. 
FIG. 67. 63). In Stirling's second 

design of 1888 the closed-ended tubes were discarded, and 

two extra top drums were added, making three in all 

(Fig 69). The tubes ROBERTS BOILER 

coming from these 

drums were attached to 

a common settling drum 

at the end of the 

furnace. 

In 1889 Cowles in 

America patented a 

boiler somewhat like the 

Thornycroft, but with a 

mass of tubes at tlie 

rear of the grate. Wood 

introduced a boiler (Fig. FIG. 63. 

70) very similar to Maj-nard's of 1870. 

In- 1890 Messrs Niclausse took out a patent for their 

boiler in its present form (see Fig. loi), which .consists 



I.] STIRLING, AND WOOD BOILERS 35 

of inclined Field tubes connected to a upright header 
divided internally by a vertical diaphragm. The water 
from one side of the diaphragm finds its way to the 
internal tul»s, and the STIRLING BOILER. 

Steam rises on the 
other side of the dia- 
phragm. The whole of 
the tubes could be with- 
drawn, cleaned, and 
replaced from the front 
of the boiler. 

About 1890 Monsieur 
P. Oriolle of Nantes 
introduced a boiler (see 
Figs. 109, no), which 
was fitted to some 
torpedo boats in the 
French Navy, and is still in use. Herreshoff, in 1890, brought 
out another form of boiler (Figs. 71, 72), very similar to the 

WOOD BOILER. 



FIG. 69. 



Fia 70. 
Belleville, but having a feed-water heater above the tubes 
made up of pipes and fittings. Almy in this year introduced 
a boiler (Fig. y^), made up of straight pipes, which were 



36 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [CHAP. 

connected by elbows and return bends to an overhead steam 
and water drum, and at their bottom ends to horizontal 

HERRESHOFF BOILER. 



Fia 71. FIG. 72. 

connecting pipes. Boilers were invented or brought out in 
1891 by Cook, and in 1892 by Wheeler, Henshall (Fig. 74), 
ALMY BOILER. Cahall (Fig. 75), and 

Mosher in America, and a 
new form of the Thorny- 
croft boiler was fitted on 
H.M.S. Daring (see Fig. 
121), In the early type of 
Daring boiler there was 
one large centra! bottom 
drum and two smaller ones 
for the pipes forming the 
side of the furnace; there 
were two grates, one on 
each side of the central 
bottom drum. In this year 
FIG. 73. (1892) Mosher obtained 

his English patent for a water-tube boiler (see Fig. 131), 
not unlike what would result from cutting Thornycroft's 



I.] HENSHALL, AND CAHALL BOILERS 37 

boiler in half vertically, and transposing the two halves, so that 
the tubes were back to back with the Steam drum outside. 

HENSHALL BOILER. 



In this boiler there are two steam and water drums, one foV 

each bank of tubes and a CAHALL BOILER. 

bottom water drum for each 

bank. The end of the furnace 

is formed by a tube wall. 

All the tubes deliver into the 

steam drum above the water 

level, as in the Thornycroft 

boiler. 

M. Normand modified and 
improved the du Temple 
boiler by reducing the number 
of folds and increasing the 
number and diameter of the 
tubes. These improvements 
ultimately led to the intro- 
duction of what is known 
as the Normand boiler (.see FIG. 75. 

Figs. 127, 128). Under this heading we might mention a 
further development, introduced by M, Sigaudy, which con- 



38 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

sisted in placing two Normand boilers back to back, and 
connecting up the steam and water drums. This boiler is 
known as the Normand-Sigaudy boiler (Figs. 129, 130), and 
is intended for use on large ships. 

In 1893 Hyde, and Pierpoint in America, and Blechynden, 
White, Reed, Anderson and Lyall and others in this country 
had boilers at work or in course of construction. 

The Blechynden boiler (see Fig. 142) bears a very strong 
resemblance to the .Yarrow boiler, there being no external 
down-takes, the water being supposed to return down the two 
outer rows of tubes. The tubes in this boiler are curved to 
arcs of different radii, which converge on two lines of hand- 
holes in the top of the drum. Hand-holes are studded along 
this drum sufficiently close to allow of all the tubes being 
easily withdrawn through them. 

Samuel White of East Cowes has brought out a boiler (see 
Fig. 134), consisting of a central steam drum and two lower 
w^ater drums, the drums being connected by a series of pipes 
coiled like helical springs. He has since discarded the use of 
this boiler in favour of a boiler with nearly straight tubes, 
known as the White-Forster boiler, and shown in Figs. 

143, 144 
The Reed boiler (see Fig. 133), brought out by Mr Reed, 

the Manager of Palmer's Shipbuilding Company of Jarrow-on- 
Tyne, resembles very closely in many points the du Temple 
and Normand boilers. Fleming and Ferguson have brought 
out a form of water-tube boiler (see Fig. 141) for the heavier 
class of marine work, which has been called the "Clyde" 
boiler. Mr Seat on has also designed more than one type of 
boiler, but they have not been largely used. 

Towne, in America, introduced a boiler (Fig. j6) which con- 
sists of narrow flat water-spaces on both sides of the furnace, 
connected by straight cross tubes intersecting at the centre. 



I.] 



TOWNE BOILER 



39 



Mumford of Colchester patented in 1893 a boiler of the 
small-tube type (see Fig. 138), in which the tubes are 
constructed in groups, each group being fitted at top and 
bottom into a box which communicates with the steam and 
water drums respectively. 

TOWNE BOILER. 




FIG. 76. 

Petit and Godard also used flat-water spaces, but the small 
tubes on leaving the bottom of the water-space formed a 
zigzag over the top of the furnace, and entered the same water- 
space at the top above the water level (Fig. TJ^ 

The Diirr boiler (see Figs. 105, 106) is a German boiler 
very similar to the Niclausse boiler, and has been fitted on 
several German men-of-war. Another boiler of German origin 



40 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



is the Schulz boiler, patented in England in 1894. It is a 
small-tube boiler very similar to the Thornycroft, but has a 
superheating apparatus fitted above the top central drum at 



PETIT AND GODARD BOILER. 




Back tubes. 



FIG. 77. 



From tubes. 



the base of the uptake. It is being largely used in the 
German Navy. 

M. Guyot designed in 1896 another modification of the du 
Temple boiler, which is being fitted on some of the French 
torpedo boats and large cruisers. 

In 1896 Leblond and Caville brought out a small-tube boiler 



I.] 



LEBLOND & CAVILLE BOILER 



41 



LEBLOND & CAVILLE BOILER. 



(Fig. 78) with a single steam and water drum above, con- 
nected by small curved pipes to a water drum below. In the 
same year M. d'Allest designed a very similar type of boiler, 
except that the lower water drum was superseded by a header, 
into which the lower ends of the tubes were expanded. 

The Babcock and Wilcox Marine type boiler (see Figs. 
99, 100) differs 
in some respects 
from their land 
type. The highest 
point of the boiler 
is at the back, the 
tubes sloping 
downward from 
back to front. In 
the boilers fitted to 
H.M.S. Sheldrake, 
several small tubes 
were substituted 
for each large tube, 
but latterly they 
have returtied to 
the use of large 
diameter tubes as 
in their land type. 

In 1896 the 

Belleville boiler was fitted with an economiser in the 
uptake (see Figs. 94, 95), the number of generator elements 
being at the same time reduced ; this had the effect of 
giving an increase in economy of coal of 20 to 22 per cent. 
Owing, however, to the rapid deterioration of the economiser 
tubes, the Boiler Committee appointed by the Admiralty 
have recommended its disuse. 




FIG. 78. 



42 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

5. Early Developments of the Water-tube Boiler 
in connection with Road Locomotion.— Many of the 



early water-tube boilers 



GRIFFITH BOILER. 



: designed for the purpose of 
propelling road carriages, 
their use entailing a great 
reduction in the total 
weight of the vehicle. The 
earliest record we have of 
the adaptation of a water- 
tube boiler to this purpose 
is contained in Griffith's 
patent of 1821. The boiler, 
as actually made (Fig. 79), 
consisted of horizontal 
tubes joining flat vertical 
water-spaces, the furnace 
being between these water- 
spaces and directly under 
the tubes. The boiler, 
however, was not a practical 
success, owing to the diffi- 
culty in keeping the tube 
joints tight, and in keeping 
the boiler supplied with 
water by the feed pumps. 
The failure of the carriage 
was mainly due to the 
boiler. It may be noted 
that in the patent drawing the tube ends were joined 
by bends and not by flat water-spaces as actually con- 
structed. In 1825 Goldsworthy Gurney brought out his 
road carriage, for which he designed the water-tube boiler 
shown in Figs. 6 and 7, and previously described. This 



FIG. 79. 



I.] DANCE BOILER 43 

carriage was for a time very successful, a regular service being 
established in 1S31 between Gloucester and Cheltenham. 

DANCE BOILER. 




Sir Charles Dance, who bought and ran several of Gurney's 
coaches, however, designed a modified form of this boiler, 

and subsequently he designed, in conjunction with Messrs 



44 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

Maudslay and Field, a tubulous boiler, with which he 
replaced Gurney's boiler in these coaches. Dance's boiler 
(Fig. 80) had two horizontal water-tubes F one on each side 
of the boiler, running fore and aft ; vertical tubes D rose 
from these to a certain height, whence by means of a 
junction piece or bend E, they were connected to pipes C 
which crossed to the other side of the boiler in a downward 
direction, at an angle of about 45°, and on reaching that 
side they were bent down and then returned nearly 
horizontally to the water-pipe from which the vertical 
pipes rose. The steam got away through pipes B connected 
to the bend at the top of the vertical pipes, the short pipes 
being connected by horizontal cross-tubes from which the 
dry steam was taken. The running of these coaches had 
to be discontinued, owing to the opposition of the turnpike 
authorities, who put down stretches of loose road-metalling 
at intervals, so as to render the roads impassable ; in fact, the 
opposition of the authorities rather than any serious 
mechanical difficulties may be said to have been the chief 
cause of the non-success of most of the early coaches 
designed for passenger traffic. 

The next road carriage fitted with a tubulous boiler 
which had any practical success was that of Hancock. The 
patent for this boiler (Fig. 81) was taken out in 1833. The 
boiler was made up of flat cells or chambers A, having pro- 
jections of nearly hemispherical shape upon the outside of 
each cell. These cells were placed side by side, so that 
the projections on one side touched the projections on the 
other, and left a space in between the cells for the flue 
gases. Each cell was formed of a single sheet of iron or 
copper, one half of the sheet at a time being hammered 
in a cast-iron mould to produce the projections referred 
to : the sheet was then bent over, and the ends riveted 



I.] HANCOCK BOILER 4S 

together, forming a kind of bag, the end without a riveted 
joint being exposed to the fire. Lai^e holes were made in 
the sides of each bag at top and bottom, perforated rings 
B, being inserted inside the bags, and unperforated rings C, 
outside. The bags tieing placed between stout wrought-iron 
plates GG, stay bolts E, were then passed through, and 

HANCOCK BOILER. 



the whole drawn together. Each chamber communicated 
■with the others through the annular space between the stay- 
bolts and rings. 

Hancock was probably the most successful steam-carriage 
builder of this period. He constructed ten or eleven 
road carriages between the years 1824 and 1840, all of which 
worked with a good deal of success. 

The next steam-carriage fitted with a water-tube boiler 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



was Summers and Ogle's (Figs. 82, 83). The vertical water- 
tubes were connected at the top and bottom to D-shaped 
tubes, and through them passed the smoke tubes. This boiler 
was followed by Maceroni and Squire's (Fig. 84), which was 

SUMMERS AND OGLE BOILER. 




FIG. 82. 



FIG. 83. 



also of the vertical water-tube type, but was provided with a 
central steam receiver. The working pressure was 150 lbs. 
per square inch. Maceroni and Squire's coach is said to 
have run 1700 miles without repairs of any importance. 
Both Summers and Ogle's, and Maceroni and Squire's 



I.] MACERONI AND SQUIRE BOILER 47 

coaches had to be discontinued for the same reasons that 
caused the withdrawal of Hancock's steam-carriages, namely, 
the opposition of the local authorities. 

The water-tube boiler designed by Dr Church for his 

UACERONI AND SQUIRE BOILER. 



FIG. 84. 

road carriages, which were built between 1832 and 1833, 
was also of the vertical type (Fig 85). The water-tubes 
descended vertically from the crown of the combustion 
chamber, and were turned through a quarter circle at their 
lower ends and connected to the annular water-space which 
encircled the bank of tubes. The hot gases passed vertically 



48 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

up among the tubes, and escaped at the top through four 
pipes, which passed through the concentric water-space into 
the uptake Church also patented another boiler with fire- 
tubes instead of water-tubes, which was to all intents and 
purposes his water-tube boiler turned upside down or inside 
out. 

These boilers were the last water-tube boilers brought 
out especially for road locomotion, for a period of over thirty 

years, as Holt's carriage of 
CHURCH BOILER. ^ ^ 

1867, Thomsons carnage 

of the same date, and 
Mackenzie's carriage of 
1 87s, were all provided 
with boilers fitted with 
Field tubes, Loftus Per- 
kins, however, in 1870, 
constructed a car running 
on one wheel, which was 
designed to be attached to 
the front of any vehicle. 
It was fitted with his 
FIG. 85. water-tube boiler working 

at a pressure of 450 lbs., 
and was sent abroad, but what became of it is unknown. 

Of recent years Messrs Serpollet, Thornycroft, the Liquid 
Fuel Engineering Co., Coulthard, Musker, and others have 
been applying various types of boilers to road carriages, 
but they can hardly be said to come under the head of 
" early " developments of water - tube boilers for road 
carriages. 

6. Early developments of Water-tube Boilers on board 
ship. — One of the earliest sea-going steamers fitted with 



I.] ROWAN AND HORTON BOILERS 49 

water-tube boilers was the Thetis, built in 1857 by Scott 
and Company, of Greenock, and fitted with a tubulous 
boiler by J. M. Rowan of Glasgow. The Thetis was built 
for experimental purposes, and, after a series of trials, was 
worked successfully for about a year, after which time her 
boilers gave trouble, the tubes ultimately failing through 
internal corrosion. In 1859 J« M- Rowan and T. R. Horton 
brought out a " cellular " boiler, which was fitted in 1 860 
to the Athanasian and some paddle steamers intended for 
river work in India. The boilers of these river steamers ran 
for ten or eleven years, and were then replaced by Rowan 
and Horton boilers of the Propontis type. The boilers of 
the Athanasian y however, had to be removed after being in 
use for nearly a year, owing largely to the corrosion of the 
tubes from the use of sea-water, and were replaced by a 
water-tube boiler, designed by Howden of Glasgow, who 
lias done so much for the development of forced draught 
with heated air. In 1870 the Marc Antony ^xiA the Fairy 
DellwQVQ fitted with tubulous boilers. They made two or 
three voyages, but, ultimately, both ships were lost, owing 
to the failure of the boilers. 

Perhaps the most interesting application of tubulous 
boilers of this class in the early days was the case of the 
Propontis. This ship was fitted with Rowan and Horton's 
1869 boiler, which is generally referred to as the Propontis- 
type boiler, though it was fitted to a steamer named the 
Haco two years before. There has always been a certain 
amount of mystery surrounding these boilers, but the facts 
of the case appear to be briefly these. The boilers fitted 
to the Haco and to the Indian paddle steamers when 
they were reboilered had a steam-pipe joining the two 
steam-drums of ea,ch boiler (Fig. 86), and this pipe is 
shown in the patent drawings. On the Propontis, however 

D 



so WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chaP. 

(Fig. 87), this connection was for some reason omitted, and 

the failure of the boiler was largely due to this. Mr Rowan, 

senior, died before the boilers were completed, and the 

importance of this connection was not apparently realised by 

any one who had 
ROWAN AND HORTON BOILER, 1869. ^ , .^. . 

to do with the 

boilers. In con- 
sequence of this 
omission, the 
water-level in the 
two sections of the 
boiler fluctuated 
considerably, and, 
as the water drums- 
were connected 
while the steam 
drums were not 
(except by the 
main steam -pipe), 
any rise of pressure 
in one section of 
the boiler forced 
the water out of 
it into the other 
section. The first 
FIG. 86. e ^t. 

voyage of the 

Propontis was from Liverpool to the Black -Sea and back. 
The boilers were fed with distilled water, the working 
pressure ranging from 130 to 140 lbs. The tubes, however, 
pitted badly, and were continually giving out, being tem- 
porarily repaired by binding a ligature round the tube over 
the hole. Owing to this cause, one of the four boilers 
was almost constantly disconnected. 



I.] ROWAN AND HORTON BOILER 51 

The boilers were repaired in 1875, some 300 new tubes 
being inserted, and were tested cold to a pressure of 250 lbs. 
On the next voyage, a small quantity of salt water was 
added as " make-up," and when the boilers were opened up 

ROWAN AND HORTON BOILER OF PROPONTIS. 



at the end of the voyage a slight amount of scale was found 
in the tubes. In September 1875 the wing chamber of the 
forward starboard boiler burst, though the pressure at the 
time was only 150 lbs. This chamber was patched at 
Lisbon with f plate. A short time afterwards another 
explosion took place, this time on one of the after boilers. 



52 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

the pressure in the boiler being 105 lbs. The drums which 
gave way were 21" diameter,!" thick, and were uncorrodedy 
so that the failure was probably due to shortness of water 
or overheating. After the explosion the small tubes were 
found to be thickly coated with scale, owing to the use of 
salt water in the boilers. Mr F. J. Rowan, the son of the 
inventor, states that this scale was purposely formed during 
the last voyage of the Propontis to try and stop the pitting 
of the tubes and enable the vessel to come home. 

In the light of modern express boilers, with their 
extremely long and small diameter tubes, the opinions 
expressed at the time with regard to the tubes of Rowan 
and Horton's boiler are very interesting, as showing the 
change of practice which a few years may produce. Their 
vertical tubes are referred to as " too attenuated,'' being 
8 feet long and 2V diameter. Quite a large tube to 
modern ideas. 

In 1876 the Montana and Dakota of the Guion Line were 
fitted with water-tube boilers similar to the Perkins boiler 
(Fig. 16), but the vertical necks which join the horizontal 
tubes were much smaller in relation to the capacity of the 
boiler. The Montana left the Tyne with eight boilers, but 
before she got to the Isle of Wight six of these boilers had 
burst. She was towed into Plymouth, and, after repair, con- 
tinued her journey to Liverpool. It was found during the 
voyage that the lower tubes contained steam only, and not 
water. The Board of Trade refused to certify the boilers, 
and a Commission was appointed, in conjunction with the 
Admiralty officials, to test the boilers on a six days' trip 
on the Atlantic, but the boilers proved so unsatisfactory 
that they had to be taken out. 

These may be said to be the last of the early attempts 
to introduce water-tube boilers for service afloat, and for 



I.] BELLEVILLE BOILER 53 

some considerable time after this no serious trials of water- 
tube boilers were made in this country, the ordinary marine- 
type Scotch boiler being exclusively used. In France the 
Belleville boiler, which since 1856 had been undergoing 
repeated alterations, had, in 1878, attained to practically 
its present form, and in 1880 was tried successfully in the 
French Navy on the Voltigeur, and has since become 
extensively used. 



CHAPTER II 

Circulation in Water-Tube Boilers — Necessity of rapid circulation in 
Water-Tube Boilers — Rate of transmission of Heat — Corrosion — 
Combustion — Most advantageous arrangement of Furnace and 
Tubes— Ratio of Heating Surface to Grate Surface — Efficiency of 
Heating Surface— Variation in value of Heating Surface according 
to position — Rate of Combustion — Forced Draught — Advantages 
of Forced Draught — Adaptability of Tubulous Boilers to Forced 
Draught — Tests, and results obtained. 

7. Circulation in Water-Tube Boilers.— Professor Wat- 
kinson in his paper before the Institution of Naval Architects 
in 1896, summed up the causes of circulation in these words : — 

" The causes of circulation are as follows : — 

"(i) The difference in density of the water due to difference 
in temperature when the fires are first lighted. This 
circulation is very sluggish. 

"(2) When the water is all at approximately the same 
temperature, and steam is being generated, but not 
with sufficient rapidity to cause a break in the con- 
tinuity of the water, a much more vigorous, but 
mainly local circulation is set up by the entraining 
action of the bubbles of steam rising through the 
water. 

" (3) When steam is generated with such rapidity, that in 
. some part of the circuit there is steam or foam only 
present, a very rapid circulation takes place, due to 
the difference in density between this steam or foam, 
and the continuous water in the down-comers, internal 
or external." 



CHAP. II.] 



CIRCULATION 



55 




A B 



That circulation is partly due to the bubbles of steam 
dragging or entraining the water with them when steam is 
being slowly generated, may be shown by introducing air 
through a pipe into one of the legs of a U-tube, when it will 
be seen that a very slow circulation is set up. Mr Yarrow 
made a very curious and interesting experiment on this in 
January 1896. The arrangement is shown diagrammatically 
in Fig. 88. He 
connected an air- 
pipe, which could 
be shut off with a 
cock, to the lower 
portion of each of 
the legs of a U- 
tube, the upper 
ends of which com- 
municated with a 
water - drum C, 
from which the 
tube hung verti- 
cally down. The 
endsoftheair-pipes 
communicated 
with a reservoir 
holding air under pressure. On admitting air from one of 
these pipes E into one leg A of the U-tube, circulation was 
established in an upward direction in that leg, and con- 
sequently in a downward direction in the other leg B, and 
was increased by opening the cock F, the bubbles of air 
from the second cock passing downward and rising in A. 
On shutting off the cock connected to A, the circulation 
still went on in the same direction. 

The circulation in the Belleville boiler is comparatively 




FIG. 88. 



56 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

sluggish. The water is forced into the lower tubes through 
a non-return valve, which effectually prevents the water being 
driven back by the steam up the down-comers and into the 
steam drum. The action is intermittent, as in all cases 
where the discharge from the tubes takes place above the 
water level, plugs of water and steam being pushed forward 
into the steam drum. In warming up rapidly there is a 
water-hammer action, owing to the form of the end boxes,, 
which are contracted, and also to steam being generated in 
several of the lower tubes at once. Steam formed in the 
lowest tube forces the water into the upper tubes ; the steam 
formed in the upper tubes tries to push this water back into 
the lower tube, at the same time forcing the water before it 
into the steam drum. 

In boilers with " free circulation,*' such as the Niclausse,. 
and Babcock and Wilcox, the circulation is partly due to the 
entraining action of the bubbles moving through the inclined 
tubes, but mainly to the difference of density that exists 
between the column of foam in the heating-tubes and the 
solid water in the down-comer. 

We pass now to the consideration of circulation in the 
boilers of the small-tube type, or those having " accelerated 
circulation.*' These may be divided roughly into two 
classes: — (i) Those with tubes delivering above the water- 
line, and (2) Those with tubes delivering below the water- 
line. Boilers of the latter class are usually distinguished 
by the name of " drowned-tube " boilers. In the "drowned- 
tube " type, such as the Normand, Yarrow, and Blechynden 
boilers, the water flows up the tubes nearest to the fire 
and down those more remote from it. Mr Yarrow at first 
employed an external down-comer of large diameter, the 
upward movement taking place in the small tubes. Sub- 
sequently, he found that this down-comer was unnecessary^ 



II.] 



CIRCULATION 



57 



as many of the small tubes acted in the capacity of down- 
comers. 

During Mr Yarrow's experiments on circulation, re- 
ferred to above, he also employed a metal water drum A 
(Fig. 89), from the bottom of which two glass tubes, B and C, 
projected vertically downward, being united at the bottom 
by a copper bend D. He had six 
bunsen burners arranged at 
different heights, three being em- 
ployed to heat each tube. Each 
of these burners could be used 
separately. On the top of the 
drum he arranged a balance, one 
arm; being suitably loaded and the 
other having attached to it by a 
thread an ebony bob F, which was 
suspended in the down tube in 
such a way that water when flow- 
ing downwards caused it to 
descend. A pointer was fixed to 
the balance by means of which 
readings could be obtained on a 
scale. On lighting the two lower 
burners, B^, Bg, of the up tube B, 
circulation commenced, and the 
ebony bob F descended, causing 
the pointer to travel over the scale. 




vf 



C 





FIG. 89. 



burner B3, the circulation increased. 



On lighting the third 
When the burners for 
heating the down tube C were lit (the others still being alight), 
it was found that the circulation still further increased^ and, 
in the experiments under pressure, when those on the up 
tube B were turned off, the circulation still went on, and in 
the same direction. By means of a small screw propeller, 



S8 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



fitted in the down tube and attached to a vertical spindle, 
Mr Yarrow was able to obtain some measure of the velocity 
of the circulation. 

He made some further experiments, by adding a third 
tube, G (Fig. go), taken off by means of a T from the bend 
between the two vertical tubes, and 
passing up to the bottom of the 
top drum outside the gas furnace 
which he was using for heating 
these tubes. When circulation 
was once started, it was found that 
heating the external down-comer 
had the effect of accelerating the 
circulation. From these exjieri- 
ments, Mr Yarrow found he could 
dispense with external down pipes 
without hindering the circulation 
in his boiler. 

In the Thornycroft boiler, the 

tubes of which deliver above the 

water level, when a certain rate of 

evaporation is exceeded the dis- 

chai^e of steam and water is 

intermittent, plugs of water being 

discharged from the tubes at 

intervals. At high rates of farcing, 

however, the action is more nearly 

continuous. This is more especially the case in the " Daring " 

type of boiler, which has internal heated down-comers, the 

circulation being very active. 

The inclination of the tubes in a boiler has a marked 
effect on the circulation. With boilers taking the water 
from a bottom water drum, and discharging directly into a 




II.] CIRCULATION 59 

steam drum, the circulation increases in rapidity as the tubes 
approach the vertical, provided that the ratio of length to 
diameter is not too great. With tubes discharging into, 
and taking their water from, vertical headers any inclination 
between 10° to 15° from the horizontal, does not appear 
to materially affect the circulation. When the tubes are 
nearly horizontal the only safe way to prevent the water 
being driven out of them is to use a non-return valve and 
restrict the opening at the lower ends of the tubes. This 
is done in the Belleville boiler. 

To ensure a proper circulation in a small tube boiler 
and prevent overheating, the following conditions must be 
observed. 

1. Direction of tubes, especially at their lower ends where 
nearest the fire, should be as nearly vertical as possible. 

2. Circulation must be very active. 

3. Ratio of length to diameter must not be too great. 

4. Section of down-comer must be sufficiently large. 

The failures that have occurred in some types of water- 
tube boilers have been caused through these points being 
disregarded. 

8. Necessity of rapid Circulation in Water - tube 
Boilers. — It will be abundantly evident that rapid and 
constant circulation is an absolute necessity in water-tube 
boilers. The areas through the different elements are often 
so small, and the volume of water so limited, that with 
fierce fires and rapid rates of combustion, steam is very' 
quickly generated, and unless it can get away freely, steam 
pockets will be formed. Should this occur, there will be 
no water present to absorb the heat, the metal will become 
locally over-heated, and the tube may be burnt. The only 
way to prevent this is to provide the steam with a ready 



6o WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

means of escape, and at the same time to ensure a plentiful 
supply of water to take its place. 

9. Rate of Transmission of Heat— It is not possible in 
these lectures to take up the physical aspect of the rate of 
transmission of heat through the metal of a boiler plate or 
tube. The natural laws underlying the transmission of 
heat will be the same whatever the class of boiler. Very 
little is actually known of the laws relating to the trans- 
mission of heat from the hot gases tg the metal of the 
water- tubes, and from the metal walls to the water. It is, 
however, known that the heat is transmitted very slowly 
by conduction, that is to say, transference of heat from one 
particle of water to another particle of water ; and that 
by far the greater portion of it is transmitted by convection, 
that is, bringing the particles of water in contact successively 
with the heated metal, and this exemplifies the need of 
rapid circulation. Mr Blechynden made some interesting 
experiments on this subject, which were communicated to 
the Institution of Naval Architects (1896); M. Henry, of 
the Paris-Lyon-Mediterran^e Railways, made some experi- 
ments on the efficiency of the heating surface in relation 
to its position in the boiler;* and Sir John Durston, the 
Engineer-in-Chief of the Navy, also made some experiments 
on this subject, the results of which were communicated 
to the Institution of Naval Architects (1893). 

It has been demonstrated that the heat passes far 
more readily between the water and the metal than 
between the hot gases and the metal. If, therefore, some 
obstructing cause, such as boiler scale, prevents the passage 
of the heat to the water, over-heating of the metal must 
result. This explains how necessary it is when working 

* "Marine Boilers," L. E. Berlin, p. 130. 



II.] CORROSION 6i 

at light rates of evaporation to keep the internal surfaces of 
the tubes clean, as it is well known that boiler scale is one 
of the most inefficient conductors of heat in existence. 

10. Corrosion. — A very general cause of wear in boilers 
is oxidation, due to contact with air and water. Pure water 
does not attack iron except in the presence of air. Neither 
pure water exhausted of air, nor dry air alone, have any 
chemical effect on iron, but if air be present in the water, 
pitting is certain to take place. The pitting action is, however, 
more severe if carbonic acid is present, and more energetic still 
with certain 'chlorides, especially chloride of magnesia ; and 
as sea-water contains this salt of magnesia, it should never 
under any circumstances where it can possibly be prevented, 
be admitted to the boiler. If the density of the sea-water is 
sufficient, hydrochloric acid is liberated at 212° Fahr. 
but even in a weak solution, after a temperature of 248° 
Fahr. is realised (corresponding to a pressure of 28 lbs. 
per square inch), this acid is given off. It follows therefore 
that in high-pressure boilers in which the temperature is 
considerably over 248° Fahr. the use of sea-water as 
** make-up" should be absolutely prohibited. Belleville 
suggested the use of lime as a reagent, so as to permit of 
the use of salt water to replace the loss of fresh water, 
and with good results. The use of lime is still continued, 
but the employment of sea-water has been abandoned. 

Another fruitful source of corrosion is the presence of 
fatty acids produced by the decomposition of animal or 
vegetable oils, used in lubricating the cylinders and other 
parts of the engines. 

These oils are all chemically composed of glycerine 
and a fatty acid. They are readily decomposed into their 
component parts at a temperature above 212° Fahr. In con- 



62 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

sequence of this, the glycerine is all separated out in the 
steam cylinders, and the fatty acids are carried on into 
the boilers, where they at once proceed to attack the metal, 
the resultant compound being " ferric soap," which forms the 
greater part of the greasy sediment to be found in some 
boilers. Recourse was had at one time to the injection into 
the boiler of carbonate of soda. This has the effect of 
neutralizing the fatty acids, the acids displacing the carbonic 
acid in the carbonate of soda. On the other hand, it was 
found that the carbonate only neutralized the fatty acids after 
corrosion had set in, and that the carbonic acid liberated had 
a pernicious effect of its own, as has been stated. Carbonate 
of soda is no longer in use, the only reagent still employed 
being lime. 

Pure mineral oils, which are now being largely used, 
consist only of carbon and hydrogen, and these are 
chemically harmless ; the addition of soda in this case 
would be unnecessary. 

Mineral oils deposited on a boiler plate, however, form a 
brown varnish which is a very bad conductor of heat, and 
readily gives rise to overheating of the metal. In Sir John 
Durston's experiments* made in 1893, with a temperature of 
fire varying from 2,190° to 2,500", the temperature of the 
metal at the bottom of an iron vessel half an inch thick when 
the surface was clean was 280^ On mixing 5 per cent, of 
mineral oil with the water it rose to 310°, and when the 
bottom of the vessel had a coating of grease ^V thick, it rose 
to 5 1 8^ 

11. Combustion. — The question of combustion in water- 
tube boilers is all important, and as in many instances the 
course of the gases through the boilers is very short, it is of 

* "Transactions of Institution of Naval Architects," vol. xxxiv. p. 130. 



II.] • COMBUSTION 63 

great consequence that combustion should be as complete as 
possible before entering the tubes, and that the tubes should 
be so placed as to abstract the greatest quantity of heat from 
the gases. 

The points to be borne in mind are the following : — 

1. The grate area should be as large as possible. 

2. The volume of the furnace over the bars should be as 
great as possible, so as to ensure the proper mixing of the 
gases before entering the tubes. 

3. Sufficient air must be introduced below and above the 
grate to ensure complete combustion. 

4. Gases must not enter the nests of tubes before 
combustion is complete. 

5. Gases should be forced to remain as long as possible in 
contact with the tubes. 

The amount of air necessary to ensure complete com- 
bustion is 143.5 cubic feet of air per lb. of coal burnt, on 
the supposition that the coal contains 85 per cent, of carbon 
and 5 per cent, of hydrogen, the remaining parts being made 
up of other constituents including oxygen. 

When combustion is complete, all the hydrogen in the 
coal combines with the oxygen in the air to form steam ; and 
the carbon in the coal combines with the oxygen in the air to 
form carbon dioxide or carbonic acid gas (COg). 

I lb. of carbon completely consumed evolves 14,500 B.T.U. 

I lb. of carbon burnt to carbon monoxide evolves 4,400. 

If the carbon monoxide meets with further oxygen, and 
combustion is completed, the remaining 10,100 B.T.U. are 
evolved. 

In actual practice coal requires for its complete com- 
bustion a considerably larger quantity of air than is 
theoretically necessar>% though the precise amount required 
in excess is unknown. In some experiments, made in 1877 



64 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

on a cylindrical tubular boiler, the ratio of the quantity 
of air actually supplied to that theoretically necessary was 
2.5 with natural draught when burning 20.5 lbs. of coal f>er 
square foot of grate ; 2 with forced draught when burning 
30.75 lbs., and 1.75 for a combustion of 41 lbs. per square foot 
of grate. 

The reason for this excess of air is pointed out by 
Mr Milton in his paper before the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, in 1896. As the mixing of the gases, though 
rapid, is not instantaneous, time and space must be allowed 
for their proper admixture ; but as they are hurried through 
the boiler at a very rapid rate (the total time not occupying 
more than f second in some instances), considerable excess of 
oxygen must be allowed to ensure all the carbon being 
combined, or, in other words, to ensure combustion being 
complete. 

This is why considerable advantage has been found in 
admitting air above the grate, as, though diminishing the 
draught above the grate and, in consequence, the passage 
of air through the coal, and, therefore, the amount of coal 
burnt, it ensures the more complete combustion of the coal, 
and appreciably increases the power of the boilers. 

While it is necessary that there should be a certain excess 
of air admitted to the furnace over and above the amount 
theoretically necessary to ensure complete combustion, it 
should be borne in mind that every pound of air over and 
above that necessary, carries off with it a considerable amount 
of heat The temperature of the unignited gases must not be 
lowered below the temperature of ignition before ignition is 
complete, or considerable heat will be lost. 

The proportion of heat actually utilized in a boiler may be 
estimated when the temperatures of the furnace and the out- 
going gases are known. If, for example, the furnace 



II.] ARRANGEMENT OF FURNACE AND TUBES 65 

temperature is 2,910'', which is a maximum value, and the 
temperature of the outgoing gases is 570', which is a 
minimum value, when the temperature of the water and 
steam is 390^, the loss of heat is then vVtV ^^ ^^-75 P^*" cent, 
and the boiler has an efficiency of 81.25 P^^ cent. 

12. Most Advantageous Arrangement of Furnace and 
Tubes. — The relative position of the heating tubes to the 
furnace is a matter of considerable importance, and, from 
a thermal point of view, the following is briefly the most 
advantageous arrangement : — 

1. The grate should not be too small for a given size of 
boiler, more particularly if the boiler is to be worked through 
large ranges of power. 

2. The tubes should not be too close to the furnace. The 
larger the mixing chamber the more perfect the combustion. 

3. A certain proportion of air should be admitted above 
the grate ; and if this air can be warmed, so much the better. 
Its admittance should be transverse to the direction of flow 
of the hot gases. The correctness of the principle enunciated 
was well exemplified in some experiments on a small-tube 
boiler, where an increase of 12 to 15 per cent, was obtained by 
blowing air into the furnace transversely to the direction of 
the hot gases by means of air jets above the grate. 

4. As large a surface of the tubes as possible should be 
exposed to the direct radiation of the furnace, as by far the 
greater proportion of the whole evaporation is done by those 
tubes so exposed. 

5. The tubes should be so arranged as to split up the 
gases as much as possible. 

13. Ratio of Heating Surface to Grate Surface.— The 
best proportion of heating surface to grate surface depends 

E 



66 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

largely on the class of boiler ; the way the tubes are 
arranged ; and the rate at which the boiler has to be worked. 
There are, however, acknowledged limits above which and 
below which it is not advisable to go. With natural draught 
for a combustion of 12 to 22 lbs., or slightly above this, the 
ratio should be about 35. With forced draught for a 
combustion up to 50 lbs., 45 to 50 is a good ratio. Little can 
be gained by increasing the ratio above this, and the quantity 
of water a boiler will evaporate is not directly dependent on 
the amount of its heating surface nor the amount of coal the 
grate will burn. 

14. Efficiency of Heating Surface.— The efficiency of a 
heating surface may be roughly defined as its capability for 
absorbing the heat contained in the gases and transmitting 
it to the water. It varies through wide ranges and depends 
mainly upon — 

1. Proximity of the heating surface to the furnace. 

2. Upon the cleanliness of the sides next to the water and 
the fire. 

Heating surface may vary enormously in value, and 
therefore the boiler with the greatest amount of heating 
surface is not necessarily the most efficient water evaporator 
or steam producer. The surfaces immediately exposed to 
the direct radiation of the furnace are the most efficient, 
nearly 40 per cent, of the total evaporation of a boiler being' 
effected through these surfaces, and therefore a well-designed 
boiler should have the maximum amount of surface exposed 
to the direct radiation of the gases. 

Dirt or deposit of any kind, whether external or internal, 
greatly reduces the efficiency of the heating surface, and 
should be studiously avoided. For this reason vertical 
heating tubes are better than horizontal, as dust and sediment 



II.] 



NICLAUSSE'S EXPERIMENTS 



67 



accumulate respectively on the top of the outside of the tube 
and on the bottom of the inside. Heating surface that is 
transverse to the normal path of the gases is usually 
considered more efficient than that which is parallel to it. 

15. Variation in Value of Heating Surface, according 
to Position. — In any tubulous boiler consisting of rows of 
tubes placed one row behind the other, it is obvious that 
the tubes with which the hot gases first come in contact 
must be more efficient than those which are next encountered, 
as the gases have then parted with some of their heat, and 




No. of Row of Tubes. 

FIG. 91. 

the succeeding tubes are also partially screened by the 
rows of tubes preceding them. The percentage of the total 
evaporation for which each row of tubes is answerable has 
been the subject of some interesting experiments by Messrs 
Niclausse, and the curve (Fig. 91) shows the results obtained. 
The tests were carried out, at atmospheric pressure, on a 
full-sized experimental boiler fitted with their form of 
generating tube, which consists of a closed-ended tube, with 
a smaller concentric water-tube fitted inside, and coming 
nearly to the bottom of the external tube. The water is 
delivered down the central tube and converted into steam 
in the external one. 

The rows of tubes were "staggered" or so placed that 



68 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

every second row came between the spaces in the first. 
The ratio between the total heating surface and the grate 
was 30. The tests, which were made with varying rates 
of combustion, ranging from 10 lbs. to 61 lbs. per square 
foot of grate, lasted eight hours each. 

The curve (Fig. 91) shows the mean results of the experi- 
ment, and the table below gives the actual evaporation of 
each row. 

The 1st row of tubes evaporated 22.3% of the total water evaporated. 



,, 2nd 


♦> 


i» 


14.8 


II 


11 


II 


„ 3rd 


>» 


II 


10.84 


11 


II 


• 1 


„ 4th 


»» 


II 


8.57 


n 


« » 


II 


„ 5th 


II 


II 


7-43 


II 


!• 


II 


,t 6ih 


>? 


II 


6.74 


II 


; 1 


It 


,t 7th 


j» 


II 


6.14 


II 


11 


11 


„ 8th 


f » 


i> 


5.53 


II 


II 


♦ 1 


,. 9th 


>» 


i» 


5.1 


II 


11 


II 


., loth 


II 


? J 


4.56 


II 


II 


II 


„ nth 


II 


II 


4-15 


II 


11 


II 


„ I2th 


II 


11 


3.78 


II 


11 


II 



It will be seen from this table that the first four rows 
of tubes evaporated 56.5170 of the total water evaporated. 

16. Rate of Combustion.— The rate of combustion of 
coal on a grate with natural draught but with different 
heights of chimney varies practically as the square roots 
of the heights of the chimney above the grate. Thus to 
double the combustion in any boiler with a certain height 
of chimney, the chimney would have practically to be four 
times as high. There is, consequently, with natural draught, 
a limit beyond which it is impossible to go, and which is 
soon reached under the conditions prevailing afloat : in 
consequence of \.h\Sy forced draught, that is to say, accelerat- 
ing the draught by some other means than increasing the 
height of the chimney, has had to be resorted to at sea. 



II.] FORCED DRAUGHT 69 

17. Forced Draught— The advantage of some method 
by which the intensity of combustion could be increased, 
had been recognised from very early times. Between 1830 
and 1850 Stevens in America tried various systems of 
induced and forced draught, including the closed stokehold 
system in 1846. In 1861 Isherwood fitted several gunboats 
with closed stokeholds. In 1866 the American frigates 
had been fitted with centrifugal fans, blowing into the 
ashpans, and Thornycroft, in 1876, fitted the steam-yacht 
Gitana with a closed stokehold. 

At first the most general system was to cause the 
draught by means of steam jets in the funnel, or beneath 
the grates. On the introduction of tubulous boilers, however, 
the necessity of economising fresh water led to the substi- 
tution of air for steam. 

Thornycroft may be said to have definitely introduced 
the closed stokehold system into the British Navy, when 
he employed it on his torpedo boats, and, since 1882, when 
it was fitted to the Conqueror and Satellite^ it is practically 
the only form of forced draught that is employed in the 
British Navy. The other two systems of forced draught 
employed afloat (principally in the Merchant service) are 
"the closed ashpit system," in which the fans, instead of 
forcing air into a closed stokehold, force it directly beneath 
the grate ; and the " induced draught system," in which the 
increased draught is caused by fans placed in the uptake. 
The former of the two is the system in most general use 
in the Mercantile Marine at the present time. 

Dealing first with the "closed stokehold system," one 
of the principal objections to this is the necessity for the 
provision of air-tight castings, air-locks, and double doors, 
in order to hermetically close the stokehold. On the other 
hand, this system lends itself very well to Naval require- 



70 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

ments, as for these it is necessary that the openings down 
to the engine and boiler-rooms should be kept as small 
as possible, and the machinery department would, in any 
case, be closed down, and air supplied artificially during 
an engagement One of the advantages of the closed 
stokehold system is that it reduces to a minimum the risk 
of any escape of smoke and flame into the stokehold, as 
the draught is all inward towards the fire. 

With the form of forced draught, known as the " closed 
ash-pit system,'* the air is forced into the ash-pit by means 
of a fan. In Howden's system, the air is heated in a 
heater attached to the boiler front before passing into the 
ashpit. This system has been very successful in the 
Merchant service with Scotch boilers, though it is not used 
in the Navy with tubulous boilers. 

"Induced draught" is obtained by placing fans in the 
base of the funnel, whereby a partial vacuum is caused in the 
furnace : the action being similar to that caused by a very 
high chimney. In this case, the stokeholds are quite open, 
and the stokehold temperature much lower than in the case 
of closed stokeholds ; the stokers work more comfortably, 
and, in consequence, the stoking is better. There are two 
systems of induced draught ; that known as the " Martin " 
system, in which the air is drawn freely from the stokehold ; 
and the " Ellis and Eaves " system, which is practically the 
same, except that in this case the air is heated by the waste 
gases before being introduced into the furnace. 

Experiments were made by the British Admiralty in 1890, 
on a boiler of H.M.S. Polyphemus^ as to the relative 
advantages of forced draught. The boiler on which the 
experiments were made was, however, a tubular boiler and 
not a water-tube boiler. The same boiler was used for both 
tests, induced draught being first employed and then dis- 



II.] 



FORCED DRAUGHT 



71 



mantled to give place to forced draught. The results were 
as follows : — 



Induced draught . 
Forced 



}» 



Duration, 
hrs. 



96 
96 



Lbs. water per 
II). coal from 
and at 212". 



II. 13 
9.3 



Lb.s. of coal 
per sq. ft. 

(i.S. 



40.4 



47-3 



Lbs. of water 
per sq. ft. Approximate 
G.S. from LH.P. 

and at I 



450 



444 



426 
395 



The necessity for the use of some kind of forced draught 
on board a ship makes itself felt mainly in three directions : 
Jirsty the nece.ssity of obtaining greater evaporation, and 
therefore larger powers for a given weight of boiler ; secondly ^ 
the frequency on board a war-ship of sudden calls for a large 
increase of power in a comparatively short space of time for 
manoeuvring purposes ; and thirdly^ for ensuring sufficient 
draught on small craft with a very limited height of 
funnel. It was only possible with natural draught to burn a 
given amount of coal per square foot of grate, varying accord- 
ing to the proportions of the boiler and the height of the 
funnel, etc. The firing could be pushed up to a certain 
point, but beyond that it was impossible to go ; further, 
when manceuvring, after the boilers had been pushed, if, 
due to the slowing down of the engines, the demand for 
steam suddenly ceased, the boilers were then left with very 
heavy fires upon them, and the dangers attending this state 
of affairs are considerable. 

With forced draught, on the contrary,' by accelerating the 
speed of the fans the power developed can be increased con- 
siderably, and in a very short space of time, and further, by 
reducing the speed of the fans, the power can be dropped 
equally quickly and without the attendant evils referred to 
above. 



72 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

The rates of combustion that can be realised by the 
employment of forced draught are remarkable. Sir John 
Durston * says that " with natural draught a much greater 
combustion than 25 lbs. per square foot of grate surface was 
rarely achieved ; with artificial draught the rate of combus- 
tion may be accelerated to any amount." In the marine type 
of boiler 40 to 50 lbs. may be burnt; in torpedo-boat practice, 
70 to 80 lbs., or even higher ; in locomotive practice on 
shore, 120 lbs. and over is not unusual. When forced draught 
was first introduced on marine type boilers, it was found that 
it was such an extremely easy and inexpensive method of 
increasing the power developed, that contractors were 
tempted to abuse this new method of obtaining increased 
power, and, consequently, very considerable troubles with 
leaky tubes and tube plates, " birds-nesting,"t and so forth, 
were experienced, and a reaction soon set in. The ability of 
tubulous boilers to stand excessive forced draught without 
injury was therefore the more appreciated. 

18. Advantages of forced draught.— Adaptability of 
tubulous boilers to forced draught. — The advantages of 
forced draught may be briefly summarized as follows : — 

1. In a properly constructed boiler the power may be 
increased 30 or 40 per cent., or even more if need be, without 
injury. 

2. With moderate forced draught and properly propor- 
tioned grates, an econom}- in coal consumption can be realised. 

3. A poorer and cheaper class of coal can be used. 

4. The draught is independent of the weather. 

*" Sonic Notes on the History, Pro^^ress, and Recent Practice in 
Marine Engineering,'' A. J. Durston. ** Transactions, Institution of Naval 
Architects," 1892. 

t Birds-nesting is the name given to the collection of cinders and 
scoriiv round the mouth of a boiler-tube at the end nearest the fire. 



II.] 



FORCED DRAUGHT 



73 



5. The draught is under complete control, and the hot 
gases can be cooled down to a greater degree (thereby 
increasing the economy), without affecting the draught, than 
is the case with a chimney. 

6. More perfect combustion can be assured, and smoke 
prevented. 

7. Better air supply and cooler stokehold, a point too 
often neglected. 

Tubulous boilers, on account of their mode of construction, 
are particularly well adapted for the use of forced draught. 

1. They are free to expand. 

2. The tube-joints are not exposed to the fire. 

3. The heating walls are not so thick nor so likely to 
become overheated. 



19. Forced Draught Results: — 

The following results are of interest as illustrating the 
increase in power of a boiler due to increasing the 
draught. 

RESULTS OF TRIALS OF SIMILAR SHIPS OF BRITISH 

NAVY {Trans, N.A., 1886) 

NATURAL DRAUGHT 



Open Stokehold 






Inflexible 

Colossus 

Phaeton 



Mean 



I.H.P. 
Per &q. ft. of grate. 


I.H.P. 
Per ton of boiler. 


10.21 
11.62 
10.23 


11.22 
12.61 
I2.I 


10.68 


11.98 



FORCED DRAUGHT 



Closed Stokehold 



fHowc . 
Rodney 
I Mersey 
\ScoiU . 



Mean 



15.54 


18.5 


16.83 


20.1 


16.61 


21.7 


16.28 


19.3 


16.81 


19.9 



CHAPTER III 

Large Tube Boilers — Belleville Boiler— Early Type — Later Type- 
Addition of Economiser — Details of Construction — Results 
obtained with Belleville Boiler^ Babcock and Wilcox Boiler — 
Land Type — Marine Type — Results obtained — Niclausse Boiler — 
Diirr Boiler — D'AIlest Boiler — Oriolle Boiler — Hornsby Boiler — 
Stirling Boiler — Heine Boiler — Morrin "Climax" Boiler — 
Thornycroft- Marshall Boiler. 

20. Large-Tube Boilers. — What are generally known as 
the large-tube boilers, are, roughly speaking, those boilers 
whose tubes are, say, 2V' or over, and which are used princi- 
pally on the larger class of boat, such as cruisers, battleships, 
etc., and also in land and electric light installations. The 
tubes are generally straight and inclined to the horizontal. 
The classification into large-tube and small-tube boilers is 
not strictly accurate, because, in several instances, some of 
the tubes of boilers usually classed under the large -tube 
type, are of no larger diameter than some of the tubes met 
with in the small-tube type. The large-tube boilers are 
heavier, more robust, and not so sensitive as the small-tube 
or express type of boiler. It is not possible in the space of 
one short lecture to cite all the various types of large-tube 
boilers in use, but only those which have been more pro- 
minently before the public. 

21. Belleville Boiler.— There are two types of Belleville 

boiler at present in use in the Ikitish Navy. 
74 



CHAP, ill.] BELLEVILLE llOILER 75 

The later type (Figs. 94, 95) diflers only from the earlier 
one (Figs. 92, 93), fitted to the Powerful and Terrible, in 
having a feed-heater, or " economiser," placed above the boiler 

BELLEVILLE BOILER WITHOUT ECONOMISER. 



proper, and having the number of rows of tubes in the boiler 
itself reduced, A description of the later type will, therefore, 
render a separate description of the earlier unnecessary ; as, 
ivith the exceptions noted above, and a few necessary and 



76 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

consequent alterations in minor details, a description of the 
later type will cover the earlier. 

The Belleville boiler (Figs. 94, 95) consists of a series of 
vertical rows of nearly horizontal tubes b placed side by side. 
Each vertical row is known as an " element." Each element is 
connected at the top with a common steam reservoir L, and 
at the bottom with a common horizontal feed-distributor, 
which supplies the feed-water to each of the different elements 
(see Fig. 96). 

The tubes in each element are inclined in alternate 
directions, and connected in pairs by horizontal junction 
boxes B, so that the tubes in each element form one continuous 
flattened coil or spiral. Water entering one end of an element 
from the lower feed-collector, has to travel each of the tubes 
in succession, before it is delivered as steam from the topmost 
tube. 

Hand-holes are fitted opposite the ends of the tubes in all 
the front junction boxes, the holes being closed by specially 
constructed doors. 

Above the rows of elements forming the boiler proper, 
is now placed what is known as an " economises" This con- 
sists of a number of elements, precisely similar to those of the 
generator elements, but composed of smaller tubes by The 
object of the economiser is to heat the feed-water before it is 
introduced into the top drum. The feed-water is supplied by 
the feed-pumps to the automatic feed -regulator \ and passes 
from thence to the bottom feed-collector G, of the economiser, 
which is similar to that of the boiler. After traversing the 
tubes of the economiser, the heated feed-water passes into 
another collector H (Fig. 95), communicating with the top of the 
economiser elements, and is then led into the steam drum L ; 
from the steam-drum the feed-water passes down an external 
down-comer with a settling drum at the bottom, to the 



III.] 



IlELLEVILLK IlOiI.ER 
BELLEVILLE BOILER. 

Side elevation 
SeeUon at XX. 




78 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

bottom feed-collector, and from thence into the generating 
tubes. 

" The water is distributed to the different elements by the 
lower feed-water collector of rectangular section placed above 
the fire-doors. PVom this collector the bottom junction boxes 
take their water through a conical nipple ;;/, screwed into the 
other part of the collector, the whole being held together by a 
bolt d (Fig. 96). The mixture of water and §team, emitted from 
the upper ends of the elements, passes through short junction 
boxes into the upper cylindrical reservoir L (Fig. 94). In this 
reservoir the water is separated from the steam. The steam 
stop -valve connections are fitted to this reservoir. The 
principle adopted in the various pieces of apparatus for 
separating the particles of water from a current of steam 
appears to have been applied for the first time in the 
separators of M. Belleville. It consists of giving sharp turns 
to the current in such a way that the liquid particles are 
deposited on the concave walls of the passages. The edges 
of the baffles are notched. 

The feed delivery is placed in the separator amidst the 
steam, and the jet of water, discharged at a very high pressure 
falls in the form of a highly divided spray. 

By spraying the water into the feed -col lector, M. Belle- 
ville probably intended to bring about a deposition of any 
salt that might be contained in the feed-water ; and, in fact, 
he reckoned on the possibility of using salt water for make-up 
when aided by this precipitation and the use of the settling 
tanks, or separating chambers." * 

The use of a separating chamber is the result of con- 
siderable experience, and was designed to prevent deposits 
on the heating surfaces by providing a receptacle in which 
impurities could be allowed to accumulate without danger 

* " Marine Boilers,*' L. E. Berlin, p. 231. 



III.] BELLEVILLE BOILER 79 

to the boiler. To facilitate this, the feed is mixed with a 
small quantity of lime. When raised to boiling point, all the 
lime in the sea-water, which may have been mixed with 
the feed, as well as the lime which has been purposely 
dissolved in the water, separates out in a solid but non- 
crystallizable form. This deposit, mixing with the particles 
of oil in the feed-water, forms a kind of mud, which 
settles to the bottom of the separating chamber or mud 
drum, owing to the water being comparatively quiet 
there. Practically no deposit is found in the heating 
tubes. 

The grate is composed of the usual arrangement of fire- 
bars, and the hot gases ascend vertically across the tubes. 
Horizontal screens or baffle plates are arranged among the 
tubes, so as to increase the length of travel of the hot gases, 
as without these baffles a good deal of heat would pass up the 
uptake without being utilized. In 1896, when economisers 
were added, the rows of generating tubes were reduced from 
10 to 8. The 1896 type of boiler .is shown in Figs. 94, 95. 
In the boilers of H.M.S. Diadevi^ there are only seven rows 
of generating tubes of 4^" diameter in each element ; above 
this is a space b^ corresponding to the combustion chamber 
in an ordinary return-tube boiler, and above this again 
is a nest of tubes, 2f" in diameter, and seven rows in 
height, forming the economiser. The furnace air-blowing 
engines supply jets of air to this space as well as to the 
furnaces below. The position of the air jets is shown at 
*g, Fig. 94, 

The use of the economiser is said to have resulted in a 
saving in coal of over 20 per cent. 

In the Belleville boiler, the junctions throughout are 
made with either bolted or screwed joints, no expanded joints 
being used. The tubes are screwed into the back junction 



8o 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



boxes, A (Fig. 96), which are made of malleable cast-iron or 
cast steel, with a slightly differing thread, thus ensuring a tight 
bearing. The joint with the front junction box B is made by 
means of a small piece of tube a^ screwed into the junction 
box, and a sleeve ^, which covers the joint. A small back 
nut c prevents the sleeve slipping back when once it has been 
screwed into position. There is a similar nut c at the back end 
of the tube where it is screwed into the back junction box A. 
The replacing of an element of which a tube has given way 
takes only two hours, but the replacing of a damaged tube in 
an element when spare or duplicate elements are not to hand. 








FIG. 96. 

takes between four and six hours. This is due to the fact 
that the back nuts c can seldom be unscrewed after being 
some time in service, and have therefore to be cut with a 
chisel, and the tubes themselves can not always be unscrewed 
from the junction boxes. 

The tubes are supported one upon the other by small 
legs, and being simply kept in place by their own weight are 
therefore free to expand or contract. 

The generating tubes are from 3i" to ^V diameter in 
war-ships, and 5" diameter in the French Merchant service. 
In the Canopus class of battleships, and the first-class cruisers 



III.] 



BELLEVILLE BOILER 



8i 



of the Argonaut class, the generator tubes are of 4V diameter, 
and the economiser tubes 2^' diameter. The thickness of the 
generator tubes is about J" for the two or three lower rows, 
and about ^V' for the others. These details vary slightly in 
different boilers. Weldless steel tubes are now being used 
with success. 

The following are particulars of the Belleville boilers of 
H.M.S. Diadem, They are thirty in number, twenty of them 
containing eight generator elements and six economiser 
elements, six with seven generator elements and six 
economiser elements, and four with nine generator elements 
and seven economiser elements. The tubes of the generator 
elements are of 4^' diameter, and those of the economiser 
elements of 2i" diameter. The following are the principal 
data for a boiler having eight generator and six economiser 
elements : — 











.sq. ft. 


(irate Surface 


• ■ 


• • ■ ■ 


• • 


49 


Heating Surface ( 


Lif eight generator elements . 


. 995 


19 


six economiser elements . 


• 355 


Total Heating Si 


I r face 


■ • • • 


. 1,350 


Ratio -^ . 

U. 0. 


I • 


• • • • 


- 27.5 




• • 


Diatietii. 


Argonaut. 


flogue. 


Jlermes. 


Numl^cr of boilers 


30 


30 


30 


18 


i-economisers 


sq. ft. 


10,950 


19,000 




— 


Heating (generators 
Surface \ 


if 


29,600 


28,300 






^Total 





40,550 


47,300 


51,500 


24,080 


<jrate Surface 


)i 


1,483 


1,390 


1,650 


S04 


Hatio "•^. 


. « 


27-34 


34.03 


312 


29.95 


I.H.P. 


. a 


17,262 


18,894 


21,000 


10,000 


Weight of boilers 


tons 


748 


794 


915 


439 


,, per sq. ft. of grate 


lbs. 


1,130 


1,279 


1,242 1 


1,223 


H.S. i^rLH.P. 


sq. ft. 


2.35 


2.50 


2.45 i 


2.4 


I. \l. P. f>er ton of boiler 


• • 


23.08 23.80 ' 


22.95 


22.78 






Y 









82 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

22. Babcock and Wilcox Boiler, Land Type— This 
boiler (Fig. 97) consists of elements composed of straight 
tubes, placed in an inclined position, and connected together 
at each end by a vertical header, which communicates with 
a top steam and water drum. 

In the land type the rear header is connected at the 
bottom to a mud drum or settling tank. The tubes, which are 
generally 4" diameter, and lapwelded, are inclined at an angle 
with the horizontal, and in land work the front end of the 
tubes is usually the highest. The end connections or headers 
are in one piece (Fig. 98), and of such a form that the tubes 
are " staggered," or so placed that each horizontal row comes 
over the spaces in the previous row. The holes are accurately 
sized, made slightly taper, and the tubes fixed therein by an 
expander. The .sections thus formed are connected to the 
top drum, and with the mud drum also, by short tubes 
expanded into bored holes, doing away with all bolts, and 
leaving a clear passage-way between the several parts. The 
openings for cleaning opposite the end of each tube are clo.sed 
by hand-hole plates, the joints of which are made in the most 
thorough manner, by milling the surfaces to accurate 
mechanical contact. They are held in place by wrought- 
iron forged clamps and bolts, and are tested under hydraulic 
pressure and made tight without the use of any rubber 
or other packing. The covers are placed outside, not 
inside as in ordinary boilers, and the pressure tends to 
force them off. The plug or dog placed inside the boiler 
is made in one piece with the bolt which passes through 
these plates, and is so formed that in the event of the 
breakage of a bolt and its door falling off, a slight leakage 
only will result. 

The steam and water drum is made of flanged iron or 



BABCOCK & WILCOX BOILER 



84 WATEK-TUliE BOILERS [chai-. 

steel of extra thickness, and double riveted. The mud drums 
are of cast-iron, as the best material to withstand corrosion, 
and are usually about l" thick. They are provided with 



FIG. 98. 

means for cleaning. The feed-water is introduced into the 
mud drum. 

The boiler when erected is entirely independent of the 
surrounding brickwork, being suspended from wrought-iron 
girders carried on iron columns. This allows of the ex- 



III.] BABCOCK & WILCOX BOILER 85 

pansion of the boiler without damage to the brickwork, which 
can be repaired or removed if necessary, without disturbing 
the boiler. 

This boiler has been largely employed for land purposes 
both here and in America, and particularly for Electric Light 
and Power work. As far as the results obtained by the 
Babcock and Wilcox boiler are concerned, they have been so 
numerous that it is rather difficult to select any one series of 
tests as representative. The mean of thirty tests of the land 
type of boiler made under varying conditions gives the 
following results : — 

Lbs. of combustible burnt per sq. ft. of G.S. . . I5«03 

)» ), 11. o. • . '3* 
Water evaporated per lb. of combustible ** from and 

at" 212' 11.38 lbs. 

23. Babcock and Wilcox Boiler, Marine Type.— 

The Company are now developing their marine work, 
and have fitted over a hundred ships, several of which 
belong to the United States Navy, and some to our own 
Navy. 

The marine type of Babcock and Wilcox boiler (Figs. 
99, 100) differs considerably from the land type. It consists 
of headers of square section, but curved in a sinuous 
form, into which are expanded tubes of much smaller 
diameter than in the land boiler. These headers com- 
municate with the top steam and water drum, which is 
transverse to the boiler. One main distinction between the 
land and marine type for naval purposes is that the higher 
end of the inclined generating tubes is at the back of the 
boiler and not at the front. The casing is composed of 
wrought-iron lined with non-conducting composition instead 
of the brickwork used in the land type. The furnace is 



86 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [cHAP. 

surrounded with refractory brick on all sides. The feed 
water in the earlier type was introduced either into the 
top steam and water drum or into a separate feed-drum 
purifier, where the impurities were deposited before the water 

BABCOCK ft WILCOX BOILER— MARINE TYPE. 



FIG. 99. 



BAliCOCK & WILCOX BOILER 87 

. into the boiler, but the use of a separate feed-drum 
purifier has now been discontinued. H.M.S. Sheldrake has 

BABCOCK ft WILCOX BOILER-MARINE TYPE. 



FIG. 100. 

been fitted with Babcock and Wilcox boilers of 3,500 H.l'., 
the weight of boilers complete with water being less than 



88 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



lOO tons. The following are some particulars of these 
boilers. 



Number of boilers . 
Total Heating Surface 
Total Grate Surface 

T. ■ HS- 

Ratio TTTV 

Boiler pressure 
Air pressure 



sq. ft. 



It 



lbs. per sq. inch 
, inches of water 



Temperature of gases at tase of funnel Fahr. 

Average I.H.P 

Weight of boilers tons 

,, per sq. ft. of grate . . . lbs. 
Coal per I.H.P. per hour . . . . 

H.S. per I.H.P sq. ft. 

I.H.P. per sq. ft. of grate . . . . 
I. H. P. per ton of boiler ..... 



Full Power. 


Half Power. 


4 


4 


9,424 


9,424 


252 


252 


37.4 


37.4 


151 


152 


0.5 


0.2 


550'^ 


550' 


4,050 


2,642 


96 


96 


853 


853 


1-57 


1-43 


2.3 


3.5 


16 


10.5 


42.1 


27.5 



The following are particulars of a land test of one 
boiler of U.S. Cmcinnati : '^ — 



Total Heating Surface . 


sq. ft. 


2,640 


Total Grate Surface 


51 


63-25 


Ratio - . 


• • ■ • 


41.74 


Boiler pressure 


lbs. per sq. inch 


209.3 


Air pressure . . . . 


inches of water 


0.25 


Temperature of gases at base c 


)f funnel . Fahr. 


466" 


I.H.P. (Contract) . 


■ • ■ • 


625 


U.S. per I.H.P. . 


sq. ft. 


4.22 


I.H.P. per sq. ft. of grate 


1 ■ • • 


9.88 


Dry coal per sq. ft. of grate 


lbs. 


20.45 


Weight of boiler, empty . 


tons 


23.80 


Weight of water 


• 1, 

lbs. 


4.24 


Weight of boiler and water 


28.04 


Weight per sq. ft. of grate 


992 


I.H.P. per ton of Boiler 


■ • • 


22.3 



* " 



Journal of American Society of Naval Engineers," vol. xii., No.. 4. 



III.] NICLAUSSE BOILER 89 

24. Niclausse Boiler.— The Niclausse boiler (Fig. loi) 

consists of a. number of vertical headers of malleable iron 

NICLAUSSE BOILER. 



placed side by side, each having a number of " Field " tubes 
fitted to them and slightly inclined from the horizontal. 
The tops of the headers communicate with the steam and 



go 



WATER-TUDE BOILERS 



[CHAP. 



u 



water drum. These headers are all at the front end of the 

boiler, none being provided at the back. 

The inclined heating- 
tubes are double, having a 
concentric inner water tube 
running down" them for 
nearly their whole length, 
and the external tubes are 
closed at the rear end by a 
screwed cap. The manner 
in which these tubes are 
secured to the front header 
is very ingenious, and 
readily allows of their re- 
moval. The headers are 
made of malleable cast- 
iron, and are divided by a 
vertical diaphragm parallel 
to the front and rear faces 
of the header into a front 
and a rear compartment. 
The feed-water descends 
the front compartment of 
the header, passes through 
the internal tube of the 
generating tubes, and the 
steam generated passes on 
the outside of the con- 
centric tube, and up the 

rear compartment of the header into the steam drum. 

The method of connecting the tubes to the headers is as 

follows : — 

The external tube (Fig. 102) was until quite recently 




III.] NICLAUSSE BOILER 91 

permanently connected at one end to a malleable iron 
casting which is known as a " lantern," but the two are now 
made in one piece. The end of the tube where it joins the 
lantern is slightly thickened and turned to a slight taper, 
and fits into a tapered hole in the rear plate of the header. 
The middle portion of the lantern, which is cylindrical and 
of slightly larger diameter, fits into the dividing plate or 
diaphragm of the header, and the extreme end, which is of 
larger diameter still, is coned and fits a coned hole in the 
front plate of the header. This end is screwed internally 
for the reception of a screwed plug, forming the end of the 
lantern of the inner tube. Any pressure in the boiler only 
tends to press the coned surfaces more firmly on their seats 
in the plates of the header. The object of making each 
succeeding bearing surface of the lantern of larger diameter 
than the one before it is to enable the lantern and tube 
to be drawn out from the front of the boiler. The central 
cylindrical bearing of the lantern is made an easy fit in 
the diaphragm dividing the header. 

The inner circulating tube is also provided with a 
lantern of somewhat different form. The end to which 
the inner tube is attached has a bearing inside the central 
cylindrical portion of the lantern of the outer tube at the 
place where it passes through the diaphragm, and the other 
end, which is slightly coned and also larger, screws into the 
outer portion of the external lantern, completely closing it. 
The inner tube is only supported by its lantern at the points 
where it screws into and closes the outer lantern, and where 
it passes through the middle cylindrical portion, but as it is 
exposed to the same pressure internally and externally, it can 
be made extremely light, the support afforded in the header, 
provided it is not excessively long, being quite sufficient. 
The various cones and the holes in the header and diaphragm 



92 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

are concentric. The outer lantern is fitted with lugs or 
ears to enable it to be removed from the header. The 
tubes are kept in place by means of a dog, which bears 
upon the centre portions of the plugs of two adjacent tubes, 
and is held there by means of a stud and nut. The external 
tube is slightly reduced in diameter at its free end, and closed 
with a cap to facilitate cleaning. At this end it is supported 
loosely in a steel plate, but the whole tube is free to 
expand and contract, being only held rigidly at the front 
end, and consequently the boiler is entirely free from 
trpubles due to expansion of the tubes. The headers are 
secured to the top drum by a cone connection somewhat 
similar to the method used in connecting the tubes and 
headers. 

One of these boilers was under trial at the Thames 
Ditton Works of Messrs Willans & Robinson more or less 
continuously for over a year, with practically no leak being 
seen in the io8 tubes of the boiler during the whole of that 
time, the working pressure being 200 lbs. per square inch. 
After a year's trial, partly in ordinary working, partly in 
tests of various kinds, involving frequent withdrawals of 
tubes, partly in standing idle, the joints were as good 
as at first. 

Several modifications have recently been effected in the 
construction of the headers and lanterns. 

Instead of being of malleable cast-iron as formerl)-,. 
the headers are now proposed to be made out of a weld less 
steel tube of square section, the apertures for the insertion 
of the generating tubes being stamped out by means of 
special tools. An improvement has also been effected in 
the tubes and lanterns, the 1900 model (Fig. 103) having the 
lantern made in one with the tube itself, by milling out 
portions of the tube, a tube of slightly larger diameter 



JII.] 



NICLAUSSE BOILER 



93 



being employed. By this means, any breaking away of the 
Jantern from the tube is avoided. 

In the boilers fitted to the French Ironclad Suffrcn^ there 
are two sets of tubes of different diameters in the same 
header: six lower tubes of a little over 3" diameter, and 
thirty upper tubes of about \V diameter. By this means, 

TUBES AND LANTERNS OF NICLAUSSE BOILER, 

1900 MODEL. 




FIG. 103. 

a greater heating surface is obtained without increasing 
the size of the boilers, as in this case the ratio H.S. to G.S. 
is 37 as against 31 in the boilers of the cruiser Gueydotty 
where only the larger tubes are fitted. There is also a 
slight saving in weight.* 

The Niclausse boiler was fitted to the first-class gun- 
boat Seagull for trial, and is now being placed in a new 
cruiser of 22,000 H.P. It has been very largely used in the 
French Navy, where it was first fitted on the cruiser Friant 
(Fig. 104), and has also been fitted on several war-ships in the 
German, Spanish, and Italian Navies, and it is now being fitted 

* The estimated I. H.P. per ton of boiler is 46.5 for the Suffrcn, 



94 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

on the armoured cruisers Colorado and Pennsylvania in the 
United States Navy. 

Trials have been carried out on this boiler by Professors 
Kennedy and Unwin in this country, and in America by 
Mr Jay M. Whitham, at the works of Messrs Cramp of 
Philadelphia. 

BOILER OF FRIANT. 



FIG. 104. 

25. Diirr Boiler.— The marine type of Diirr boiler 
(Figs. 105, 106), constructed by Messrs DiJrr & Co,, of 
Ratingen in Germany, like the Niclausse, employ.s an inclined 
" Field " tube : the chief parts of this boiler are as follows : — 

(i) A flat water-space or header, extending over the front 
of the boiler, divided into two parts by a diaphragm plate. 



III.] DURR BOILER 95 

which is made in portable pieces, each being secured by nuts 
threaded on the screw stays. 

(2) A number of slanting rows of tubes, communicating at 

DliRR BOILER-MARINE TYPE. 



FIG. 105. 
their upper ends with this water chamber, and closed at their 
lower ends, and containing concentric circulating tubes. 

(3) A steam receiver placed over the water tubes and con- 
nected at the front end to the water chamber. 

(4) A nest of superheater or drying tubes placed above 
the inclined generating tubes. 

The water tubes are made at their front ends with rings 



96 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

welded on and turned conically, the conical portions fitting 
into the milled holes in the back plate of the water chamber, 
without requiring any expanding, rolling, or jointing of any 
kind. As the tubes are placed at an inclination, while the 

DURR BOILER-MARINE TYPE. 



FIG. loa 
water chamber is nearly vertical, the tube ends have to be 
turned in a special manner to fit at the proper angle. The 
diameter of the tubes at the rear ends is somewhat reduced ; 
these ends are closed by a conical plug held in place by a 
bolt and washer. The tube ends are carried on an iron 
plate forming part of the frame-work of the boiler, protected 
with bricks, and the tubes are perfectly free to expand or 
contract. 



III.] DURR BOILER 97 

Circulation is obtained by means of internal concentric 
tubes fixed to the diaphragm plate, and communicating with 
the front part of the water chamber. These inner tubes reach 
nearly to the end of the water tubes. 

The water level of the boiler in actual working is about 
the centre of the steam receiver. The water passes from the 
receiver down the front part of the water chamber, and then 
through the inner tubes into the concentric space between the 
tubes, where part of it is evaporated. The steam and water 
then find their way out of this space into the rear part of the 
water chamber, whence they are led into the receivers. 

The water tubes at the sides are placed as near each other 
as possible to prevent loss of heat by radiation. This is 
effected by bending them alternately to the right and left 

A hole is provided in the front plate opposite each water- 
tube to enable it to be drawn out or replaced. The holes in 
the outer plate are closed by hollow caps with conical fitting 
portions placed from the inside, and like the tube ends these 
caps fit tight without requiring any rolling or jointing of any 
kind. The taper ends of the tubes and also of the caps are 
untooled at the extreme ends ; these portions therefore are of 
slightly larger diameter, the collar forming a stop, which is a 
safeguard against their being blown out from any cause. 

The tubes are cleaned on the outside by a steam jet, as in 
the Niclausse boiler. 

Baffle plates are fitted to ensure a proper circulation of 
the furnace gases among the tubes. 

The superheater consists of concentric tubes similar to 
the water tubes, and the steam circulates through them 
in the same way, first passing through the inner tube and then 
through the annular space between the tubes where it is 
dried or superheated. 

TThe Durr boiler has been fitted on the German Cruisers 



98 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



Victoria Luise^ Vineta^ Prinz Heinrich^ and a new cruiser 
now building, and on three second-class battleships, and since 
the issue of the Interim Report by the Boiler Commission 
appointed by the British Admiralty, arrangements are being 
made for trying this type of boiler in our own Navy. 

The accompanying table gives some particulars of the 
marine type boiler as fitted to the German cruisers Vineta 
and Prinz Heinrich : — 



Number of Boilers . 

Working pressure . 

(irate Surface (one boiler) 

Heating Surface ,, 

, . IIS. 
Ratio ;^, . . 

I.H.P. . 

I.II.P. per sq. ft. of H.S 
Oml per sq. ft. of grate 
Coal per I.H. 1*. per hour 
Air pressure . 
Weight of Boiler, dry 

,, water 
Total Weight . 
I. H. P. per ton of Boiler 

* Full power trial. 



lbs. per sq. inch 
sq. ft. 




S.M.S. 
yituta. 


S.M.S. 
Prinz Heinrich^ 


12 


14 


185 


213 


49-9 


72.66 


2,168 


3,059 


43-4 


42.1 



10,860* 
5.01 

41 (about) 

2.14 

1.4 

19.98 

4.92 

24.90 

43.61 
t Contract full power. 



i5,39ot 

503 
34 (about) 



28.9 
7.4 

36.3 
42.4 



The following particulars of tests * made on two Diirr 
land-type boilers are of interest : — 

sq. ft. 



Heating Surface 

Grate ,, 

H S 
Ratio of - • ' 

Boiler pressure 

Total water per hour 

K vaporation from and at 2 1 2", per lb. of coal , , 

Coal per sq. ft. of grate . . . • 1 > 

Temperature of gases at base of funnel Fahr. 



lbs. per sq. inch 

. li)S. 



2,727 
56 

48.7 

154 

5,310 
8.2 

13 

411^ 



2,160 
76 

28.4 

141 

4,060 

8.9 

14.5 
440-* 



* " Heat Efficiency of Steam Boilers," by Bryan Donkin, 1 898. 



III.] D'ALLEST BOILER 99 

26. D'Allest Boiler.*— The D'Allest boiler (Figs. 107, 
id8) which as now made, has been largely used in the French 
Navy, embodies the improvements in water-tube boilers, 
patented in France in 1870-71 by Barret and Lagrafel, and 
in 1888 by Lagrafel and D'Allest. From the first, these 
boilers were of similar construction to the present D'Allest 
boiler, the main difference being in the direction of movement 
of the hot gases. In the present boiler the gases are 
thoroughly mixed in a combustion chamber before entering 
the tubes, which was not the case in the earlier forms. 
The boiler consists of flat stayed water-spaces or headers 
at the back and front of the boiler, connected by tubes 
which are expanded into them. The headers are connected 
to a steam and water drum. The tubes which are inclined 
to the horizontal, enter the headers at right angles, the 
headers being inclined to the vertical. The top steam and 
water drum is also inclined to the horizontal, but not to the 
same degree as the tubes. The water level is in the steam 
drum. 

The combustion chamber which constitutes the 
characteristic feature of the D'Allest model of 1888, is 
situated at the side of the grate. A baffle of bricks 
resting on the bottom row of tubes, directs the flames 
into the combustion chamber, from whence they return 
across the generating tubes. The opening for the escape 
of the gases from the bank of tubes is placed among 
the lower rows of tubes, and leads into a smoke-box 
at the side of the boiler opposite to the combustion 
chamber. The space occupied by the tubes and the 
combustion chamber is closed at the top by a second 
baffle, resting on the highest row of tubes. Below this upper 

* For fuller description see "Marine Boilers," by L. E. Bcrtin, 
p. 249. 






WATER-TUISE I50ILERS 




HI.] D'ALLEST BOILER loi 

baffle there are a few rows of tubes in the combustion 
chamber, so as to prevent it extending upwards to the top of 
the nest of tubes. 

The direction given to the hot gases, though conducive 
to high efficiency, introduces a source of danger, the gravity 
of which has been illustrated by the accidents that have 
occurred on the Liban in 1890, on the Don Pedro, and 
finally on the Jaureguibcrry in 1896. The hottest portion 
of the furnace gases comes directly into contact with the 
upper tubes, which are never so effectively cooled by the 
circulation as the lower ones, and are liable to be filled with 
accumulations of steam, or even to run short of water, as a 
result of an accidental lowering of the water level. Since 
the accident on the Liban, the necessity of reducing the 
height of the combustion chamber has been recognised, and 
four upper rows of tubes are now carried across it instead of 
two rows, as formerly. 

Each boiler is double, having two furnaces, two sets of 
tubes, two steam drums and one combustion chamber in the 
centre common to both furnaces. 

Owing to the great length of this combustion chamber, 
^which is of the same length as the grate, its transverse width 
may be small and directly proportional to the width of the 
:grate. 

The tube surface is usually 31.5 times and the total 
heating surface 33.5 times the grate surface. 

Since the first trials of this boiler in the French torpedo 
gun-boat Bombe, Serve tubes have been adopted for the 
bottom horizontal row, and for the vertical row at the side of 
the combustion chamber, in order to prevent the bending of 
the tubes which then took place. A Serve tube is a tube 
having internal ribs ; in a fire-tube boiler it has the advan- 
tage of presenting a greater heat-absorbing surface than 



I02 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

ordinary tubes, while the heat-distributing surface remains the 
same. In water-tube boilers the contrary is the case, and 
the ribs are of little practical value except for stiffening the 
tubes. 

The tubes of this boiler are of 3" internal diameter, ex- 
panded into the tube plates. Weldless steel tubes have 
been used exclusively since the opening of a badly welded 
tube on t\iQ Jaureguiberry. 

The flat plates of the water-spaces are stayed together 
and the outside ones are provided with hand-holes opposite 
each tube. The joints for the hand-hole covers are made 
either with asbestos tightly enclosed between two sheets of 
lead with an edging of thin copper, or with a copper ring or 
washer between two lead ones, the three rings forming one 
complete washer. 

The two ends of the top drum are strongly stayed 
together by horizontal stays arranged in a circle around 
the inside of the barrel. A curved baffle is fixed inside 
the drum between the internal steam pipe, and the 
water level ; it acts as a steam separator in much the 
same way as those in the Belleville boiler, but is much 
simpler in form. The feed is introduced into the back 
water- space. 

27. OrioUe Boiler.— The Oriolle boiler (Figs. 109, no) 
somewhat resembles the D'Allest, consisting of a back and 
front water-space united by tubes. 

The rear water-space is the only one which com- 
municates with the steam receiver, the connection being 
made by means of a pipe. The tubes are placed directly 
over the fire, as in the D'Allest boiler, the headers 
being inclined to the vertical and the tubes entering 
them at right angles. Two vertical rows of tubes are 



111.] 



ORIOLLE BOELER 



103 



placed on each side of the grate to form the side of 
the furnace. The furnace gases pass immediately in among 
the lower tubes, which are about 2 ft. 3 in. above the 




grate, without enterins^ a combustion chamber, as in the 
D'Allest boiler. 

The water level is some distance below the upper rows of 
tubes. The direction of circulation of the water is upwards 
along the lower rows of tubes, into the front water chamber, 



I04 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

back along the rows of tubes nearest the water level, down 
the back chamber, then through the tubes again, and so on. 
The steam liberated in the front header passes by means of 
the tubes above the water level to the back header, and 
thence to the steam drum. The tubes used are about 2" in 
diameter, and it is stated that so rapid is the circulation that 
no deposit takes place in them, even if impure water is used. 
As the water level is some distance below the top, with a 
total of twenty rows of tubes the four or five upper ones are 
entirely filled with steam, and the three or four immediately 
below are, on account of their inclination, partly filled with 
steam and partly with water. 

The tubes were at first expanded into the tube plate, but 

latterly the Caraman joint (Fig. 

CARAMAN JOINT. m) has been used. In this 

method of jointing, two rings, 



^■■^^ "^^ TTv^ one of brass wire and the other 

of German silver, are pressed into 

— grooves in the thickness of the 

tube plate, and by the pressure 




•^:.:-Kv.v---^ of the expander are forced into 

the metal of the tube. 
PIQ ^^ No hand-holes for replacing a 

tube are provided in this boiler, 
and, consequently, if a new tube had to be inserted, it 
would be necessary to take the water-chambers to pieces. 
The flat water-spaces are strongly stayed, some of the 
stays being tubular so as to allow of the insertion of 
the steam jets used for cleaning soot from the generating 
tubes. 

The Oriolle boiler has been fitted on several sea-going 
torpedo boats in the French navy, and about eight first- or 
second-class torpedo boats. The earlier boilers fitted to the 



111.] HORNSBY BOILER 105 

second-class torpedo boats in 1890 completed three years' 
service without having undergone repairing. At the end of 
that time nearly the whole of the steam tubes required 
replacing, having pitted badly, owing to the use of sea- 
water as "make-up," The water-tubes were still in good 
condition. 

The boilers of the three first-class torpedo boats launched 

HORNSBY BOILER. 



FIG. 112. 

in 1892 had 48.4 square feet of grate surface, and the speed 
obtained slightly exceeded 21 knots while burning 61.4 of 
coal per square foot of grate. The boilers are very light, 
being only 573 lbs. per square foot of grate. 

28. Hornsby Boiler. — Messrs Hornsby & Sons of 
Grantham have patented a water-tube boiler (Fig. 112), for 



io6 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [CHAP. 

use on land, having flat front and back headers, connected by 
inclined tubes, and surmounted by a steam and water drum. 
The headers, formed of flanged mild steel, strongly stayed, 
are in the shape of a flat rectangular box. There is only 
one front and one rear header to each steam drum, the 
headers not being divided into sections, as in many other 
boilers. The headers are provided with hand-holes, opposite 
each tube, for cleaning, and are closed by internal oval 
doors of mild steel, the joints being made with asbestos 
packing-rings. There is one hand-hole for each tube, and 
the joints of the covers are made inside the header, so that 
the steam pressure tends to make them tight. They are 
pulled into position by an outside dog and nut. 

The feed is introduced into the steam and water drum, 
and passes through outside down-comers, at the rear of 
the boiler, to a mud drum, from which the rear header 
takes the water direct, the top of the rear header not being 
connected to the steam drum. The mud drum is connected 
to the rear header by short lengths of tube. 

A steam and water separator is placed in the front end 
of the steam drum, immediately above the tubes connecting 
the front header to the drum. It is an annular chamber 
formed in the steam drum, perforated by slots on its top 
side only, and, in passing through this, the steam is separated 
from the water, and there is very little disturbance of the 
water-level in the drum. 

Fire-brick baffles are placed among the tubes, causing 
the furnace gases to cross them, transversely, several times 
on their way to the chimney. 

The top drum is supported on iron columns, and the 
tubes and headers are suspended from it, so that the boiler 
is free to expand or contract, and the comparatively long 
length of rear down-comer assists this. The cleaning holes 



III.] STIRLING BOILER 107 

for the tubes are not exposed to the heat of the furnace 
gases. 

The circulation of the water through the tubes should 
be fairly rapid, as the hottest part of the furnace gases 
comes in contact with the hottest part of the water, and 
the inclination to the horizontal of about 10°, selected by 
Messrs Hornsby, is that which Mr Watt, in his experiments 
on the best inclination for tubes, found to be most efficient.* 
The tubes are straight, and therefore easy to clean, but, 
from their horizontal position, sediment and soot accumulate 
more readily on the inside and outside of the tubes, 
respectively. For economy at high rates of working, the 
combustion chamber appears to be too small, and the 
grate somewhat too near the tubes : the mud drum, if the 
circulation of the water in the bottom tube is very active, 
should, when working with dirty waters, be of large 
diameter. 

29. Stirling Boiler.— The Stirling boiler (Fig. 113) 
resembles in form, more nearly than any other of the large- 
tube boilers, the type most prevalent among the small- 
tube boilers ; that is to say, it consists of a number of upper 
steam and water drums, connected to lower water drums 
by curved tubes expanded into the drums at either end. 
The upper drums are connected together by small tubes 
above and below the water-level, and the bottom drums 
are also connected to one another. The number of the 
drums, both at the top and the bottom, vary according to 
the type of boiler and the power to be developed. The 
ends and back and front of the boiler are composed of 
brickwork, in which suitable doors are provided for cleaning, 

* " Transactions 'of the Institution of Naval Architects," vol. xxxvii., 
p. 263. 



WATER-TUKE BOILERS [chap. 



STIRLING BOILER. 



III.] • STIRLING BOILER 109 

etc. The circulation of the water is extremely simple and 
efficient. Taking the standard type of boiler, with three 
upper drums and two lower ones, the feed is introduced 
below the water-level in the- backmost top drum. It finds 
its way down the bank of' tubes to the lower water drum, 
where any solid matter contained in the water is deposited 
and can be easily blown off. The water then finds its 
way, by means of the vertical tubes, to the upper drums, or, 
by means of the tubes connecting the two lower drums, to 
the front water drum, and thence to the bank of tubes next 
the fire. The steam is taken off from the top central 
drum, through an anti-priming pipe situated in a dome 
over the drum. The course of the gases is easily 
followed. There is a very large combustion chamber 
over the furnace, which is an extremely good feature 
in connection w-ith this boiler, as the gases have ample 
time to become thoroughly mixed before entering the 
tubes. By means of suitable baffles, the flames are forced 
to pass up and down the various banks of tubes until 
they reach the 'flue. 

The advantages of this type of boiler may be briefly 
summed up as follows : — 

1. The body of the boiler being hung from metal framing, 
the whole boiler is free to expand without disturbing the 
brickwork. 

2. The distribution of the generating tubes is such 
that, for a portion of their length, they are transverse 
to the direction of the gases, and are thus well situated 
for dividing up the gases and abstracting the heat from 
them. 

3. The tubes approach the vertical, and, consequently, 
are not likely to become clogged with scale or deposit, 
besides being better adapted for a rapid circulation. 



no 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



4. The amount of water contained in the boiler is 
sufficiently large to overcome any great sensitiveness of 
the feed. 

5. The large combustion chamber ensures ample room 
for the mixing of the gases, and the presence of refractory 
brick, on three sides of the furnace, at a high temperature, 
should conduce to complete combustion. It also enables 
the boiler to work efficiently with a very low class of 
fuel. 

6. The tubes are so arranged that any one tube in 
the boiler can be replaced without disturbing any other 
tube. 

From tests carried out in America the following results 
were obtained. 



Number of Boilers . 
Total Grate Surface 
Heating 
U.S. 



sq. ft. 



}) 



1} 



}> 



Ratio 



G.S. 



Average temperature of escaping gases Fabr. 
Eflficiency of boiler .... per cent. 
Percentage of moisture in steam 
Water evaporated per lb. of dry coal, from and 

at 212" Fahr lbs. 

Water evaporated per lb. of combustible, from 

and at 212" Fahr lbs. 

Dry Coal per square foot of grate . . ,, 
Water evaporated, from and at 212° Fahr., per 

square foot of H. S. .... lbs. | 



3 

245-4 

12,480 

50.9 

497'* 

81.34 
0.58 

I2«44 

13-03 
13-3 

3.25 



Full power 
test. 



I 
48.94 
2,268 

46.4 

554^^ 
68.3 

0.61 

8.31 

9.57 
25.7 

4.62 



Max. 
Efficiency 



test. 



2 
75.94 

3»4i8 

45.01 

496" 
82.4 
0.81 

9.79 

11.55 
14.9 

3.24 



Professor Ewing of Cambridge carried out some tests 
on one of the boHers erected at the West Brompton 
Electric Light Station. 

Trial A was a natural draught trial to see whether the 



I' 



s 

t 

f 
I 

c 

t 
f 

t 
t 



1 

A 
E 

P 

D 



O 

E 



III.] 



HEINE BOILER 



III 



boiler came up to guarantee ; Trial B was a short forced 
draught trial. 



sq. ft. 



l"'alir. 



Total Grate Surface .... 

„ Heating ,, ... 

Ratioof H.S. toG.S. 

Average temperature of escaping gases 

Percentage of moisture in steam 

Water evaporated per lb. of coal (Nixon's Navi- 
gation), from and at 212" Fahr. . . His. 

Coal per square foot of grate . . , , 

Water evaporated, from and at 212" Fahr., per 
square foot of H.S. .... Ihs. 



A 


B 


43 


43 


1980 


1980 


46 


46 


455" 


590^ 


0.1 


0.15 


10.03 


lO.O 


22.2 


34.3 


4.8 


7.4 



80. Heine Boiler. — The Heine Boiler (Fig. 1 14) consists 
of a large upper steam drum, which in some cases is divided 
into two smaller ones, beneath which are situated a large 
number of nearly horizontal tubes, connected at either end to 
flat vertical water-spaces or headers. Opposite the end of 
each tube there is a hand-hole, the cover being jointed on the 
inside and held in place from the outside. The whole boiler, 
both tubes and drum, is slightly inclined, the front being the 
highest end ; the circulation of the water is down the back 
header, through the inclined tubes, and up the front header. 
The seating, as usual, is composed entirely of brickwork, the 
furnace being placed directly under the tubes.. Horizontal 
and vertical baffles are so placed as to force the flames to 
circulate among the tubes before passing to the chimney. 
Arrangements are also made for the introduction of auxiliary 
air to ensure complete combustion. The particular feature 
of the boiler appears to be the introduction of the feed-water 
into a large reservoir contained in the upper drum, the blow- 
off being fitted to the lower and opposite end of the reservoir 



112 WATER-TURE BOILERS [chap. 

to that from which the feed enters. The internal reservoir is 
open for a short distance on its top side ; thus the feed-water 
is brought up to the full temperature of the steam, and 
deposits its impurities before mixing with the other water in 
the boiler. The impurities are thrown down to the bottom 
of the internal feed-reservoir, and can be blown off by means 
of the blow-off cock. 

The following are some particulars of evaporation trials 
made on two Heine boilers. 



Heating Surface . . . sq. fi. 

Grate Surface ,, 

. U.S. 
Ratio T\~^ ....... 

Boiler pressure . . lbs. per sq. inch 

Total water per hour . . . lbs. 

Evaporation from and at 212° Fahr. per lb. of 

coal ...... lbs. 

Coal per sq, ft. ofG.S. . . . • ,, 

Temperature of gases at base of funnel Fahr. 



710* 


1 i,407t 


10.75 


27 


66 


52 


67 


123.3 


1,320 


7,799 


7.9 


10.74 


18.5 


31-7 


490^ 


644"^ 



* V Heat Efficiency of Steam Hoilers," by Brj-an Donkin, London, 1898. 
t " Boilers and Furnaces," by P^r, Philadelphia, 1899. 



31. Morrin "Climax" Boiler.— This boiler (Fig. 115) 
was first introduced in the United States, and consists briefly 
of a central vertical drum, into which are expanded large 
numbers of loop-like tubes, one end being a good deal higher 
than the other to assist the circulation. The tubes vary in 
diameter from i i" to 3". 

The central drum is welded and has no vertical riveted 
joint. It runs the whole length of the boiler, the bottom part 
below the grate being used as a settling drum. At the top of 
the drum there are baffle-plates which cause the steam 
generated to circulate through the upper rows of tubes, and 
so become superheated. The water-level of the boiler is 



MORRIN BOILER 
HORRIN BOILER. 




114 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

about two-thirds up the central drum. At the top there is 
a long, flat coil through which the feed-water circulates and 
is heated on its way to the boiler. 

The casing is cylindrical and composed of brick with 
outside metal casing. It is easily removable, and therefore 
the tubes are readily accessible. 

The good points of the boiler are briefly as follows : — 

1. Very small floor-space occupied. A boiler of looo 
H.P. is stated to occupy a floor-space of only 17 ft. 
diameter. 

2. Steam is superheated to about 80"" Fahr. 

3. Few joints — no screwed joints, or ground joints. 

4. Elasticity — quickness of raising steam. 

5. All parts are small except the central drum. 

6. Accessibility — facility for repairs. 

7. Tubes cross the course of the gases at right angles. 
The disadvantages may be summed up as follows : — 

1. Tubes cannot be cleaned (though circulation appears to 
be good). 

2. Circular fire-grate is objectionable. 

32. Thornycroft-Marshall Boiler.— Messrs Thornycroft 
& Co., of Chiswick, in conjunction with Mr Marshall of 
Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Ltd., of Newcastle, have recently 
brought out a form of large tube-boiler for marine work. It 
is made in two forms (Figs. 116, 117, 118, 119), the sectional 
form being due to Mr Marshall, the non-sectional to Messrs 
Thornycroft. 

As will be seen, the non-sectional type (Figs. 118, 119) 
consists of a number of inclined and slightly curved generating 
tubes, expanded at one end into the front plate of a rear 
water-chamber or header, and at the front of the boiler the 
tubes are united in pairs by junction boxes closed by doors. 



THORNYCROKT-MARSHALL ItOlLER 



THORMYCROFT-MARSHALL BOILER— SECTIONAL TYPE. 



Ii6 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [CHAP. 

By this arrangement only one door at the front end is 
required for cleaning two tubes. An opening, also closed 
by a door, is made in the back plate of the water-chamber 
opposite each tube, for the purpose of inspection and 
cleaning. 

The feed is introduced into the top-water drum, and from 
thence flows by means of two rows of tubes into the back- 
water space. The water flows into the lower tube of every 
pair, and the steam and \fater issue from the upper tube into 
the back-water space, from whence the steam passes into the 
steam and water drum by means of tubes which enter the 
boiler-drum somewhere about the water-line. Any water 
carried over by the steam is caught by the umbrella- 
baffle shown in the figure. The hot gases cross the tubes 
nearly at right angles, and, as their arrangement necessitates 
a lesser number of tubes in the lower part of the boiler, 
combustion is more nearly complete before the hot gases 
are cooled down by contact with the more closely spaced 
tubes. 

In the sectional type of boiler (Figs. Ii6, 117) the rear 
ends of the tubes are expanded into separate cast headers 
instead of into a flat water-space. This has the advantage 
that any section or element can be completely removed and 
replaced by another. In this boiler, owing to the arrange- 
ment of the sections, as shown in Fig. 116, a number of 
combustion - chambers are formed over the furnace, thus 
allowing for the more complete mixing of the gases. A 
common feed-distributing pipe supplies the lower ends of 
the elements with water, and external down-comers are 
provided to return the water from the upper drum to the 
feed-distributing pipe. 

The following are particulars of one of several eight- 



III.] 



THORNYCROFT-MARSHALL BOILER 



117 



hour evaporation trials, made on the non-sectional boiler 
in March 1901. 



I leating Surface . 


• • • • • 


i»q. ft. 


1200 


Grate Surface 


• • • • ■ 


>» 


32.5 


Ratio J?-^- 


• • • • ■ 


• m 


37 


Weight of boiler . 


• « • ff « 


tons 


14.25 


,, water . 


• ■ • • • 


j» 


3.00 


„ lx)iler complete 


with water . 


f f 


17.25 


Weight of boiler per square foot of grate 


ll)S. 


1 189 


Boiler pressure, lbs. , per square inch 


■ • 


211 


Evaporation, from and at 212" Fahr. per lb. of coal 


lbs. 


10.318 


Coal, per hour, per square 


foot of grate 


>♦ 


20 


Temperature of gases at base of funnel . 


Fahr. 


557 



CHAPTER IV 

Small-Tube Boilers— Thornycroft Boiler — Speedy Type — DarhfgTy^ — 
Du Temple Boiler — Normand Boiler — Normand-Sigaudy Boiler — 
Mosher Boiler — Reed Boiler — White Boiler — Ward Coil Boiler — 
Ward Launch Boiler — Mumford Boiler — Fleming & Ferguson 
Boiler — Blechynden Boiler — White-Forster Boiler — Yarrow Boiler. 

33. Small-Tube boilers. —Small-tube boilers or " express '* 
boilers, as they are often called, are, generally speaking, those 
boilers which, from their greater lightness, are used on 
torpedo boats and similar classes of vessels, where lightness 
and high speed are essential. They are far more sensitive 
than the large-tube boilers, contain less water, and the 
diameter of the generating tubes ranges from i" to if, or 
thereabouts. They usually consist of a large upper steam 
and water drum, connected by generating tubes of various 
forms, to two or more water drums below. Although there 
are many different types of these boilers in use, more or 
less resembling one another, time precludes us from describ- 
ing many of them which, though interesting, in themselves, 
have not, so far, come into general use. 

The employment of small-tube boilers is almost entirely 
restricted to Marine work, and more especially to Naval 
purposes. 

84. Thornycroft Boiler. — The Thornycroft boiler has 

been fitted to a very large number of boats in our own and 

foreign Navies, and Mr Thornycroft was the first in this 

country to bring the small-tube boilers to a successful 
lis 



CHAP. IV.] THORNYCROFT BOILER 119 

practical issue. The early form of Thorny croft boiler 
(Fig. 120) is what is known as the Speedy type, having been 
fitted on board H.M.S. Speedy, a torpedo gun-boat. 

The salient features of this type of the Thomycroft boiler 
are the large central upper steam and water drum, connected 

THORNYCROFT BOILER-SP££DK TYPE. 



FIG. 120. 

by long small curved generating tubes to two side bottom 
water drums. 

All the small or generating tubes deliver aboi-c the 
water-line, direct into the steam-space, and two large 
external pipes, termed " down-comers," are provided to 
return the water from the top drum to the lower drum.s. 



I20 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [CHAP. 

and to ensure a constant supply of solid water to the 
lower ends of the generating tubes. 

The two rows of tubes next the furnace are so spaced 
and bent in between each other, as to form what is called 
a "tube wall." That is to say, over a certain portion of the 
length of the tubes, they are so close together that no gases 
are able to pass between them, but openings are provided 
at the bottom near the water-drum, to allow the hot gases 
to pass in among the nest of tubes. The two extreme 
outside rows are also made to form a tube wall, so as to 
reduce radiation. The hot gases which are allowed to 
enter among the nests of tubes pass up between these 
two tube walls to the funnel, situated above the centre of 
the boiler. The course of the gases will thus be seen to be 
parallel to the tubes throughout the greater portion of their 
length, an arrangement which is not so efficient for the 
extraction of heat from the gases as if the tubes had been 
at right angles to their course. One great advantage of 
the Thornycroft boiler is its large combustion chamber, where 
the hot gases have an opportunity of becoming thoroughly 
mixed before being cooled down by contact with the 
comparatively cold generating tubes. In the earlier days 
of this boiler, Mr Thornycroft laid great stress on the tubes 
delivering into the top drum above the water level, and not 
below, as he considered that this arrangement ensured the 
direction of circulation being constant. From experiments 
that he made, he maintains that the circulation with tubes 
delivering above the water-level is double what it is in similar 
boilers, with tubes delivering below the water - level or 
drowned tubes. The water and steam being discharged 
into the steam space above the water-level, they have to 
be separated, and this was effected by means of a curved 
plate or umbrella, the edges of which were serrated or 
cut in such a way as to allow the water to fall to the 



IV.] THORNYCROFT BOILER 121 

lower half of the drum, and permit of the steam passing 
to the internal steam-pipe. 

Objections have been raised to the curved tubes above 
the water-level, on the ground that they are only filled with 
an emulsion of steam and water, though exposed to the hot 
gases; this, however, is not so serious a defect as the fact 
that, when out of commission, boilers are often filled up with 
an alkaline solution, to prevent oxidation, and that then 
these curved tubes form air-pockets, which cannot be filled. 
In consequence of this defect, Messrs Thornycroft have 
altered the form of their tubes, and the position in which 
they enter the upper drum, so as to avoid the air-pockets, 
and in their latest design (Fig. 122) this has necessitated the 
greater proportion of the tubes delivering below the water- 
level. 

The material of which the boiler is composed is now 
entirely steel, the small generating tubes being galvanized, 
though it is a moot point as to whether this galvanizing 
has any really great beneficial effect, and in some cases 
various contractors are dispensing with it, and increasing 
the thickness of their tubes ; but where galvanizing is still 
practised, electro-depositing has been substituted for pick- 
ling and dipping. In the early days of the introduction of 
tubulous boilers, a good many experiments were made by 
Thornycroft, Yarrow and Normand, to find out the most 
suitable material for the tubes. Copper was tried, as it was 
thought that it would prove a more satisfactory material 
than steel, not being subject to pitting, and it is also six 
times as good a conductor of heat. It was, however, 
ultimately discarded, no extra evaporative efficiency being 
detected over the steel. Brass tubes were also tried, but 
these had to be discarded, as they proved too brittle. 

In 1892 Mr Thornycroft brought out a modified form of 
his boiler, known as the Daring type (Fig. 121), as it was first 



THORNYCROFT BOILER- 
DARINQ TYPE. 



112 WATER-TUBE IJOILER [CHAP. 

used on H.M.S. Daring. This type has now been fitted on 

a lai^e number of boats, ranging from destroyers upwards. 

The Daring type of boiler has a large central upper steam 

and water drum, and a central bottom water drum, with two 

water drums at each side, 

the furnaces being placed 

between the water drums ; 

that is to say, there are 

two furnaces to each boiler, 

instead of one, as in the 

Speedy t>-i5e. In place of 

using the umbrella baffle 

of the Speedy type, Messrs 

T ho rnj' croft have used a 

vertical baffle, composed 

of V-shajJcd slats, placed 

one behind the other, and 

_.- staggered. These arrest 

the water, but allow the 

steam to pass. The latest design for the Daring type of 

boiler is shown in Fig. 122. 

The advantages of these boilers are : — 

(1) That they can be made in large units, thus reducing 
the number of boilers in the ship. 

(2) They lend themselves more easily to arrangement in 
targe vessels. 

One of the main drawbacks to the Thornycroft boiler, 
in common with the Normand and many other boilers, is 
that it is impossible to remove the majority o( the tubes, 
without disturbing those in the immediate vicinity. This 
difficulty is, however, more apparent than real ; the tubes 
are small and thin, and it is not so difficult to remove and 
replace them, as would have been the case had they been of 
similar diameter and thickness to those used in large-tube 



IV.] 



THORNYCROFT BOILER 



123 






Q 
> 

o 

S 



ex: 

o 
n 

h 

o 
0^ 
u 

o 
s 








CI 
CI 



g 

u. 



■(. • 




1 

a. 
r 


do ft 

[It ' , 


s 


i 1 s i 


L 
I 
9 


■ 

M 
U 

: 








2 * 


> 
: 






I. 

»- 





124 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



boilers. The curved form of the tubes absolutely precludes 
any internal inspection or passing of a cleaning tool through 
the tubes, except it be in form of a chain or wire rope. Soot 
is cleaned from the outside of the tubes by a steam jet in 
the ordinary way. 

The circulation in most of the tubes is very rapid, and 
therefore an accumulation of scale is not so likely to occur. 
Due to the form of his tubes, Mr Thornycroft is able to give 
his boiler a very large ratio of H.S. to G.S., being as high 
in some instances as 75 to i, but it must be borne in mind 
that this ratio, or amount of heating surface, cannot be 
accepted as a measure of the efficiency of any given boiler, 
as the relative value of a square foot of heating surface may 
vary enormously. For instance, the heating surface of the 
tubes next the furnace does far and away more than its 
share of evaporation (p. 6S\ whereas the heating surface, 
situated at the top and bottom of the outer rows of tubes 
more remote from the fire, can do very little work, if any, 
the gases not being brought properly in contact with them. 
The following are the results obtained on H.M.S. Speedy 
and Foam, 



Number of Boilers . 


• • 


Total Grate Surface 


sq. ft. 


,, Heating Surface 


>» 


Ratio ^•?" 
G.o. 


■ . 


Total weight of boilers . 


. tons 


,, per sq. ft. of grate 


lbs. 


Total I. II. P 


• • 


,, per sq. ft. of grate 


• • 


,, per ton of boiler . 


• • 


Coal per I.H.P. per hour 


. lbs. 


,, sq. ft. of grate . 


>j 



speedy. 


Foam, 


8 


3 


204 


196 


17,700* 


12,060 


86.7 


61.5 


87.45* 


55. 2 


960 


631 


4,704 


5,846 


23.1 


29.8 


53.8 


106 




2.2 




65.7 



* Minutes of Proceedings, Inst.C.E., vol. cxix., p. 29. 



IV.] 



DU TEMPLE BOILER 



12S 



36. Du Temple Boiler— The du Temple boiler was one 
of the first, if not the first, of what we have called the "small- 
tube " boilers, to be developed on anything like a practical 

DU TEMPLE BOILER. 




FIG. 123. 



scale. Curiously enough, its first application was intended for 
a flying machine, and in some respects, Hiram Maxim 
followed the design of the first du Temple boiler for his 
flying machine. Du Temple's flying machine was a failure, 



126 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chai*. 

but in 1878 some launches, and afterwards some torpedo 
boats were fitted with his boilers, and, certainly as far as the 
French Navy — which was the first to use small-tube boilers — 
is concerned, Commander du Temple must be given the 
credit for introducing the first " small-tube " boiler, though it 
was not until later, when M. Normand improved the du 
Temple boiler, that it can in any way be said to have been a 
really practical success. 

One of the earliest forms of du Temple boiler (Fig. 123), 
consisted roughly of one large central upper drum and 
two small side bottom drums, connected by small genera- 
ting tubes. These tubes were very long, of small diameter, 
and bent backwards and forwards several times over the 
furnace. 

The large upper central drum acted as a steam and 
water reservoir, the water level being about the centre of the 
drum. The generating tubes discharged below the water- 
level, and the steam was taken from a dome fitted on top 
of the central drum, by means of an internal steam pipe, this 
internal pipe being bent upwards into the dome to prevent 
as far as possible any water being carried over with the steam. 
Large external down-comers were provided to return the 
water from the top central drum to the lower drums. The 
small generating tubes were at first very thin and about 0.4" 
diameter, and were expanded into the central drum and the 
square cast - iron boxes which formed the bottom side 
reservoirs. Between the bottom and top reservoirs, the 
small-tubes were bent backward and forward no less than 
five times. Hand-holes were provided on the sides of 
the cast-iron boxes, for getting at the lower ends of the 
small-tubes, and the larger upper central drum was of 
sufficient diameter to permit of a man working in the 
drum. 



-1 



DU TEMPLE BOILER 



127 



As will be evident, the circulation of the water was down 
the lai^e outside down-comers and up- through the small 
generating tubes. 

The grate was situated between the two small lower 




reservoirs, and the gases, after passing in among the small 
generating tubes, passed out through the funnel situated over 
the centre of the boiler. It was not realized at this early 
date that pure feed-water is an absolute necessity for this 
class of express boiler, and owing to the smallness of the 
tubes, trouble was soon experienced by some of the tubes 



128 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

giving out. Due to the fact that the tubes were kept too 
close to the fire bars, and that consequently the combustion 
chamber was too small, at high rates of working combustion 
was incomplete, and excessive flaming at the funnel 
occurred. 

Commander du Temple died, and his boiler was improved 
and modified by other engineers, notably M. Normand of 
Havre. One of the principal improvements was that the 
number of folds or bends was gradually decreased (Fig. 124), 
and the diameter of the generating tubes increased. At 
one time the upper part of the tubes was made of a 
greater diameter than the lower part of the tubes, to 
facilitate the escape of steam. The idea of using two 
diameters, though it may have had some theoretical advan- 
tages, practically proved a failure, and the tubes are now 
made of uniform diameter. In 1889 the tubes were 0.67" 
external diameter; they are now 1.38. Another improve- 
ment was that the square cast-iron bottom reservoirs were 
replaced by cylindrical drums, and a baffle was added 
underneath the funnel, to force the flames to spread more 
evenly over the tubes at either end of the boiler (Fig. 
126). In 1896 M. Guyot, at Cherbourg, in common with 
M. Normand, appears to have adopted over a portion of 
the grate what is known as a "tube wall," placing the tubes 
so close together that they practically touched each other, 
and thus preventing any flame from passing between them ; 
the gases were thus forced to take a horizontal direction 
and return through the boiler to the front end. M. Guyot 
makes the joints of the tubes with the upper drum by 
means of a steel cone and nut on the inside of the drum. 
This arrangement facilitates removing the tubes, but the 
tubes naturally have to be spaced further apart than 
when simply expanded into the drum. This design of 



IV.] 



DU TEMPLE BOILER 




I30 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

boiler is known as the du Temple-Guyot boiler. One of 
the largest ships in the French Navy, the Jeanne cFArc, a 
boat of 28,000 H.P., is being fitted with this class of 
"small-tube" boiler. The du Temple boiler has been 
fitted in our own Navy on board H.M.S. SpafikeVy a boat 
of 3,500 H.P. 



86. Normand Boiler.— M. Normand's boiler (Figs. 127, 
128) is practically the outcome of his simplification of the 
du Temple boiler, and many of his improvements have been 
adopted by the du Temple firm. The principal ones, as 
has been stated, being (i) the suppression of the large number 
of bends in the generating tubes ; and (2) giving the gases 
a horizontal direction through the boiler instead of a 
vertical one — the funnel being placed either at the back 
or front of the boiler, whichever is best suited to the vessel. 
The boiler is said to be of either the "direct-flame" type 
or the " return-flame " type, according as the funnel is at the 
back or front of the boiler. 

The two inner rows of generating tubes next the furnace 
and the two outer rows next the casing are made, for a 
portion of their length, into "tube walls." M. Normand 
lays great stress on using what are technically known as 
" drowned tubes," that is to say, tubes whose upper ends 
deliver below the water line, in contradistinction to those 
of the Thornycroft and Mosher boilers, the generating tubes 
of which deliver above the water-line. 

The Normand boiler is extensively used in the French 
Navy, and has been fitted in the British Navy on a large 
number of torpedo-boat destroyers, H.M.S. Pelorus^ and 
other ships. 

The results obtained by M. Normand with this class of 



IV.] NORMAND BOILER 



132 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



boiler have been very interesting, as the following particulars 
will show : — 



Number of Boilers 

Grate Surface, total sq. ft. 

Heating Surface, total . ,, 

Ratio — '—• 

W.J. 

Weight of boilers without wa- 
ter .... tons 

Weight of water . . tons 

Weight of boilers complete, with 



water 



tons 



Weight per sq. ft. of grate 
surface .... lbs. 

Weight per sq. ft. of heating 
surface .... lbs. 

X.m Km m A • • • • ■ • 

I.H.P. per sq. ft. of grate . 
Floor-space per boiler sq. ft. 



H.M.S. 
Ferret 



4 
8,112 

52.7 



50-7 

738 

14.00 

4,774* 
31.0 



Forbtm 



2 
88.26 
4,628 

52.4 

24.4 
6.26 

30.66 

778 

14.84 

4,121 

^6.7 



Direct- 
flame, 
Lance 



2 

90.4 

4,780 

52.8 

23.38 
552 

28.9 
716 

13.54 



122.2 



Return- 
flame, 
Cyclone 



2 
103.4 

4,866 
47.1 

24.01 
5-5 

29.52 

639 
13.59 



152.7 



Minutes of Proceccliiigs, Inst.C.E., vol. cxix., pp. 29 and 87. 



The torpedo boat Fofhan was, at the time of her official 
trial, the fastest boat afloat, and some additional particulars 
of her trial may therefore be interesting. 






Speed on trial .... knots 
Displacement at full speed . . tons 

,, ,, 14 knots . . . ,, 

Consumption of coal at full speed, per sq. ft. of 

grate . . . . .lbs 

Consumption of coal at 14 knots, per sq. ft. of 

grate ..... lbs. 
Air pressure at full speed . inches of water 

Air pressure at 14 knots . ,, 

Consumption per 1. 1 1. P. at full speed . lbs. 
Consumption per I. II. P. at 14 knots . ,, 



31.03 
126.3 

149.7 

63.9 

7.06 
4.75 

• « • 

r.36 






* . • 



IV.] NORMAND-SIGAUDY BOILER 133 

37. Normand-Sigaudy Boaer— The Normand-Sigaudy 

boiler (Figs. 129, 130) is practically two Normand boilers 

placed back to 

back, with the 

upper and lower 

drums connected 

together. It was 2 

brought out by O 

M. Sigaudy of 

Havre, for use on 

large cruisers. 

The saving of ; 

weight by the use ^ 
of double-ended " 

tubulous boilers is O 

n 
not so great as in 

the case of double- 9 
ended cylindrical § 
boilers, and should « 
one of the boilers K 
< 
give out, a larger S 

proportion of the O m 

total power of the "" 

vessel is put out of jj 

action than if the 
boilers had been 
kept in single 
units. This type 
of boiler is, how- 
ever, being fitted 
on the Chateau- 
Renault, a cruiser 
of 23,700 H.P., 



134 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



under construction at Havre, but the official trials have not 
yet taken place. The following are particulars of one of the 
Normand-Sigaudy boilers of the French cruisers Dunois and 
La Hire, 



Grate Surface 
Heating Surface 

Ratio, -^ 

Weight of boiler and mountings, but without 

water 
Weight of water 

Weight of boiler with water 
Weight of boiler per sq. ft. of H.S. 

C'' *N 

Floor space per boiler . 



. sq. ft. 


63-5 


»» 


3232 


»» 


509 


without 




tons 


18.21 


>i 


4-23 


»f 


22.44 


lbs. 


15.56 


»» 


792 


. sq. ft. 


191. 2 



88. Mo3her Boiler. — The Mosher boiler (Fig. 131), 
which has been largely used for steam yachts in America, 
and also for many of the United States torpedo boats, 
consists of two bottom water drums and two upper steam 
drums, each water drum and steam drum being joined by 
curved tubes of about \" external diameter, entering the steam 
drum above the water-line. Two external down-take tubes 
are fitted on the front of the boiler. The grate is placed 
between the two bottom drums, and the generating tubes 
coming from these are curved over the furnace, until the 
inner rows meet ; they then curve outwards again and enter 
the steam drums, which are on the outside of the boiler. 
These steam drums have no communication with each 
other except through the main steam-pipe, so that each 
side is independent, though the grate is common to both. 

The steam and water drums are made of steel, and the 
tubes of weldless steel tubing. 

The crown of the furnace is composed of an unbroken 



IV.] MOSHER BOILER rjj 

wall of tubes for three-quarters of the length of the boiler, 
along which the gases pass to the back of the furnace 
where the tubes are staggered, forming openings through 
which the hot gases pass in among the intervening tubes, 
returning towards the front of the boiler. 

MOSHER BOILER. 



The two outside rows of tubes, which enter the bottom 
of the steam-drum and act as down-comers, are bent between 
each other so as to form a continuous tube-wall protecting 
the casing from the heat. 

The boilers of the U.S. torpedo-boat Foote, the official 
trials of which were made in 1896, had each a total heating 



136 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

surface of 2,630 sq. ft. and a grate surface of 47.5 sq. ft, 
giving a ratio of H.S. to G.S. of 55.39. 

The following are some particulars of an eight-hours' 
natural-draught trial of a Mosher boiler, which was carried 
out in America. 



Heating Surface .... 


sq. ft. 


1,108 


Grate Surface .... 


i> 


33 


„ . H.S. 

Ratio 7^ e .... 


. • 


33-6 


Coal per sq. ft. of grate per hour . 


. lbs. 


7.1 


Water eraporated per lb. of coal . 


»» 


9.12 


Wetness of steam .... 


per cent. 


1.5 


Temperature of funnel gases 


Fahr. 


442*= 



The following figures give the heat utilized and lost in 
the same boiler : — 



Heat utilized in evaporating water .... 76 per cent. 

,, lost in funnel 13 

,, ,, radiation 9.1 



evaporating water in ashpan . . . 1.9 



lOO.O 



The launch type of this boiler (Fig. 132) is practically 
only one-half of the boiler already described. The hot 
gases, however, on leaving the furnace, first enter at the 
lower portion of the tubes at the back end, pass upward 
and forward among the tubes, being deflected by the baffle 
plate which rests upon the inclined portion of the tubes ; 
they then turn and pass back along the upper portion 
of the tubes and through a feed-water heater. The drums 
in this case are placed transversely to the boiler. 

39. Reed Boiler. — The Reed boiler (Fig. 133) is very 
similar to the Normand boiler, and consists of a top steam 
and water drum and two lower water-chambers, joined by 
generating tubes very much bent, and delivering below the 



IV.) REED BOILER 137 

water level. The inside row of tubes used to be bent into 
a wavy form, which was somewhat unfavourable to the free 
escape of steam : this, we understand, has now been dis- 
continued. There is a lai^e external down-comer at each 
end. The generating tubes are connected at each end with 
nuts inside the chambers, in a similar way to the du Temple 



boiler, only that the joint instead of being made upon a conical 
face and a plane face, is made upon two spherical faces, which 
allows of a certain angular play of the tubes. The genera- 
ting tubes are of i^V" outside diameter, reduced at the bottom 
to 5", which allows extra space for the entry of the gases 
among the tubes. Baffles are fitted in the boiler to direct 
the movement of the hot gases over the tubes. Reed boilers 



138 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

have been adopted for several English torpedo-boat de- 
stroyers, amongst which are the Janus, Lightning, Porcupine 

REED BOILER. 




FIG. 133. 



and Star. In a coal -consumption trial on land, I3 lbs. of 

water, from and at 212° Fahr., was evaporated per lb. of coal. 

The following are some particulars (taken on the thirty 

hours' coal-consumption trial at half speed, and on the full 



WHITE COIL BOILER 



speed trial) of the Reed boilers of the third-class cruiser 
Pegasus* 







COTBU 


Number of boilers . 




Total Healing Surface 


s<l. ft. 


1 8,* 


Tolal Grate Surface 






Ratio ^ . . . . 






G.S. 






LH.P 




3. 


Coal per I.H.P. per hour 


. lbs. 




Coal per sq. ft. of grale . 


- ,. 


1 


Weight of boilers, complete' . 


. ions 




Weightpersq.fi, of grale 


. lbs. 


1, 


H.S. per LH.P. . 


. sq. ft. 


5 


LH.P.pertonofboiler . 







40. White Coil Boiler. 

134), built by Messrs 
J. S. White of East 
Cowes, the majority of 
the tubes joining the 
thres chambers are of 
spiral form, and divided 
into three portions by 
walls of uncoiled tubes, 
bent into a Z-shape. 
The hot gases pass 
among the .spiral tubes 
on the inside of the un- 
coiled tubes to the back 
of the boiler, and then 
return among the spiral 
tubes on the other side 
of the uncoiled tubes. 
In the double boiler, 

* Minutes of I'roceedings, Ii 



In the White coil boiler (Fig. 
WHITE COIL BOILER. 



FIG. 134. 



I40 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



which has been fitted to some torpedo-boat destroyers, there 
is a slight modification of this, only three rows of uncoiled 
tubes being employed, one row being common to both boilers. 
The uncoiled tubes are reduced at the ends, so as not to cut 
away too much of the plates of the drums. The front and 
back ends of the boiler are protected on the inside by large 
tubes arranged close together. 

The following are some of the mean results of the full- 
speed trials of four destroyers of the Conflict class, fitted with 
White coil boilers * : — 



Number of boilers 


• ■ 


3 


Total Heating Surface . 


sq. ft. 


11,250 


Total Grate Surface 


>> 


212.5 


^^'°"-s: • • • • 


■ ■ 


52.9 


^•^i«X^* • • • • 4 


• • 


4.931.6 


Weight of boilers, complete * 


. tons 


83 


Weight per sq. ft. of grate 


. lbs. 


875 


Heating Surface per I.H.P. . 


sq. ft. 


2.28 


I. H. P. per ton of boiler 


• ■ 


59.4 



* Including funnels, casings, and all boiler-room fittingpi. 

41. Ward Coil Boiler. — The Ward boiler has been in 
use for some considerable time in the United States Navy. 
There are several different types, the two principal being the 
coil boiler (Fig. 135) fitted to the Monterey, and the launch 
boiler (Figs. 136, 137). The Ward boiler fitted on the U.S. 
coast-defence vessel Monterey (in conjunction with cylindrical 
boilers) is a coil boiler, and consists of a central vertical drum 
surrounded by concentric coils or sections, A. Each section 
has a number of complete half circles of tubes placed one 
above the other. The tubes of each section are connected in 
half circles by screwed joints to two vertical headers, BB, 
diametrically opposite to each other. The tubes, A, are 



* Minutes of Proceedings, InstC.E., vol. cxxxvii., part iii. 



WARD COIL BOILER 



WARD COIL BOILER. 



142 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

about 2" in diameter, and are set at an angle of about 10'' 
with the horizontal to give direction to the current of circula- 
tion in them. 

The central vertical drum receives the feed-water from an 
internal pipe that passes through its lower portion and 
extends to near the water-line. The space above the water- 
line in the central drum forms practically all the steam- space. 

The headers, B, carrying the lower ends of the tubes. A, 
have a common connection at their bottom ends through 
pipes, B', with a water-collector, C. This collector com- 
municates with the central drum, and supplies the 
headers, B, with water. The upper ends of the headers are 
closed. 

The headers carrying the highest ends of the half circles 
connect with a horizontal receiver, D, at their upper ends, 
through which all steam generated passes into the top portion 
of the central drum. At their lower ends they connect with 
a bottom collector, G, which serves as a mud-drum. The 
headers proper do not extend below the level of the generat- 
ing tubes, the connections with the lower water-collectors, G 
and C, being made through iron pipes, B*, of about 3 J" 
diameter, screwed into the bottom ends of the headers, and 
joined to the water-collectors by shallow stuffing-boxes. The 
bottom collectors are below the grate, and they and the 
headers are of cast steel. The grate is circular, and composed 
of segments placed around the central vertical reservoir. The 
central reservoir is divided into two parts by a horizontal 
partition ; the feed-water finds its way down to the horizontal 
collector, C, and the steam issuing from the generating tubes is 
received at the upper end of the central reservoir. 

All the joints are very simple, and the entire boiler should 
have great elasticity, owing to the curvature of the generating 
tubes. Its principal disadvantage is the circular form of the 



IV.] 



WARD LAUNCH BOILER 



143 



grate, which renders the stoking difficult, especially at the 
sides, and necessitates clear room for stoking all round the 
boiler. 

The Ward boiler is one of the lightest in existence, the 
two boilers of the Monterey, with a total of 73.74 square feet 
of grate surface, weigh 15.08 tons without water and 17.5 tons 
with water, which makes only 532 lbs per square foot of grate. 
This type of boiler has been fitted on four of the U.S. revenue 
cutters. 

The following are some particulars of a Ward coil boiler 
tested under forced draught : * — 



Heating Surface 


sq. ft. 


2,473.5 


Grate Surface 


»f 


53 


. H.S. 

Ratio 7^-7.- 

0. 0. 


> • • 


46.67 


Weight of boiler, empty . 


tons 


11.84 


,, water 


>> 


2.01 


,, lx)iler and water 


>» 


13.85 


,, ,, per scj. ft. of grate . 


lbs. 


585.3 


»} >» 5) i».0. . 


»» 


12.5 


Evaporation from and at 2i2°Fahr. 


>» 


7.31 


Coal per sq. ft. of grate . 


>» 


55.05 



42. Ward Launch Boiler.— The Ward launch boiler (Figs. 
136, 137), of which there are a good many in use in the U.S. 
Navy, differs considerably from the preceding boiler. It is 
constructed of vertical water-tubes completely surrounding 
the grate and forming the walls of the boiler. The tubes are 
connected at their lower ends by screwed joints with right- 
and left-handed threads to a water-chamber or pipe, and are 
bent over at the top to enter the lower part of a vertical 
steam and water drum. 

A number of closed-ended tubes with an internal circulat- 



♦ " 



Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers," vol. ii. No. 4. 



144 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

ing tube are suspended over the furnace from the bottom of 
the upper steam and water drum, which is cone-shaped. The 




boilfr is made either cylindrical or rectangular in plan. The 
boiler is fitted with a fan, and a heater for warming the air 
supplied to the boiler, 



MUMFORD BOILER 



146 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

43. Mutnford Boiler.— The Mumford water-tube boiler 

(Figs. 138, i39)is similar tootherwater-tube boilers of this class 
in possessing one centra! upper steam and water drum, and two 
lower smaller water drums connected by small yeneratiny 
tubes. Instead of the generating tubes, which are of galvanised 
steel, being expanded direct into the drums above mentioned, 
they arc expanded into square 
forged steel boxes situated 
near these drums, and con- 
nected directly to them. 
Doors fitted on the back of 
the square boxes giving 
access direct to the tubes. 
The boxes are themselves 
connected by means of 
flanges and bolts to the latge 
tubes joining them to the top 
and bottom reservoirs, and 
thus have the advantage that 
should it be desired to remove 
any section, it can be easily 
lowered into the furnace, 
removed through the front 
FIG. 140. of the boiler, and another one 

substituted. One of these 
sections is shown in Fig. 140. A single tube can be 
stopjjed by merely taking off the doors of the boxes. A 
large down-comer is fitted at the back of the boiler to return 
the water from the top to the bottom drums. 

The gases can either be arranged to pass off through 
the funnel situated in the centre of the boiler, or by means of 
suitable baffles the flames can be forced to pass to the end of 
the boiler and thciicc back to the fuimcl, which is then 



IV.] 



MUMFORD BOILER 



147 



situated in the front of the boiler. This latter arrangement 
naturally gives much more economical results, as the flames 
are much longer in contact with the tubes, and the course of 
the flames is at right angles to the direction of the tubes. 
The boiler stands forcing well. 1 50 lbs. of coal have been 
burnt per sq. ft. of grate, and 22 lbs. of water have been 
evaporated per sq. ft. heating surface. Due to the form of 
the boiler it is evident that the weight per sq. ft of H.S. is 
more than in some of the other small-tube boilers. 

Four 1,000 H.P. boilers are fitted on board H.M.S. 
Salamander, and the following are the results obtained 
from one of these boilers on the Admiralty official 
tests : — 



Duration of trial hours 


4 


Heating Surface sq. ft. 


2,000 


Grate Surface , , 


45 


Ratio "f- 


44.4 


Lbs. of water per lb. of Coal 


9 


Coal per sq. ft. of grate . . , . lbs. 


25 


Temperature of feed .... Fahr. 


56^ 


Steam pressure . . lbs. per sq. inch 


'75 


Air pressure .... inches of water 


0.15 


Lbs. of water per lb of coal from and at 212° . 


10.9 


Weight of boiler, empty .... tons 


18.35 


water ,, 


2.15 


Total weight of boiler and water . . ,, 


20.5 


Weight of boiler per sq. ft. of H.S. . lbs. 


22.96 


>> ,, Lt. 0. . ,, 


1,020.5 



The small boilers for torpedo-boats, Nos. 63 and 64, are 
similar to the Salamander boilers as far as the form of the 
generating tubes is concerned, but dififer from them in that 
the. tubes are expanded direct into the top and bottom 
drums, and the section arrangement has therefore been 



148 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



suppressed. The results of trials on these boilers are as 
follows : — 



Grate Surface 
Heating Surface . 

^^''° E: ■ 

I.H.P. 
Temperature of feed 

Lbs. of coal per sq. ft. 

75 
100 



sq. ft. 



it 



Fahr. 



22 

850 

3«.7 
400 

58° 



Lbs. of water evaporated per 
lb. of coal. 

9.88 

9.05 

7.4 
6.317 



44. Fleming and Ferguson Boiler.— The Fleming and 
Ferguson boiler (Fig. 141) is composed of a large central upper 
steam and water drum connected below the water-line by 
banks of curved generating tubes to two lower water drums. 
The top drum is of such diameter that any of the small bent 
generating tubes can be drawn into it for removal. The 
I.H.P. per ton of boiler is about 26.5. 

45. Blechynden Boiler. — The Blechynden boiler (Fig. 142) 
is very similar in design to the Yarrow boiler described below, 
but the two lower water-chambers are rather larger. At the 
top of the steam drum there are a series of hand-holes arranged 
along the length of the boiler, sufficiently close to allow of the 
introduction or removal of any of the tubes independently of 
the others, the tubes being slightly curved to arcs of 30 and 
50 feet radius respectively, depending on their position, and 
converging on these hand-holes. In the earlier boilers there 
were two rows of these holes, one on each side of the centre 
line, but as now made there is only one row. There was also 
a wall of tubes formed by the two outside rows of tubes 
being bent in between each other in the usual way, leaving a 
space for the hot gases to escape at the top, but this has now 



v.] 



FLEMING AND FERGUSON BOILER 



"49 



been discontinued. The tubes discharge their steam and 

water below the water-line, and originally there were no 

external down-comers, the water returning to the bottom 

FLEMING AND FERGUSON BOILER. 




FIG. 141. 

drums through the outside row of tubes. Now, however, four 
down-comers, 3J" diameter, are fitted at each end between 
the steam drum and bottom collectors. This boiler has been 
fitted in the Navy on three destroyers and two third-class 
cruisers, and on several torpedo-boats. 

The following are some of the mean results of the full- 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 
BLECHYNDEN BOILER. 




FIG. 142. 

■speed trials of three destroyers of the Sturgeon class, fitted 

with Blechynden boiler.s." 

Xumbet of boilcis I 4 

Healing Surface .... si], fi. 10,022 

Crale Surface ' 176 

Ralio ^ I 56.9 

r.H.p 4,367 

Weight of boilers complete t . . . tons \ 62.2 

Wcighl per square foot of grate lbs. 785 

Healing snrface per I.II. P. . . sc|. (t. ' 2.I9 

I.H.P. per ton of boiler ..,,.] 70.2 

Coal per I. H.r. per hour. . lbs. j 3.29 

t Including funnels, rashig!, ami M l,oil<r-ruoni fillings. 

* Minutes of Proceedings, Inst.C.E., vol. cxxxvii., part iii. 



IV.J 



WHITE-FORSTER BOILER 



»5i 



II) 
-) 

o 

a: 
tti 

h 

en 
a: 
o 
{i« 

h 




■-^CT' 



152 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

46. White-Forster Boiler. — Messrs White brought out 
in 1898 another form of small tube boiler, called the 
White-Forster boiler (Figs. 143, 144). As will be seen, it 
consists of the usual steam and water drum, connected by 
banks of small " drowned " generating tubes to two bottom 
water drums, the grate being situated between them. These 
small tubes are all curved to the same radius, and each tube 
can be withdrawn into the top drum when it becomes 
necessary to replace a tube. Owing to the curved form of 
the tubes, the top drum can be made of smaller diameter than 
is usually the case in boilers where the tubes are withdrawn 
into the top drum, and a rigid tube brush can be used for 
cleaning the tubes. Large external down-comers are fitted to 
the back of the boiler. The boiler is being fitted to a 
number of boats in the British and foreign Navies. 

47. Yarrow Boiler. — In the Yarrow boiler (Fig. 145) there 
is an upper central steam and water drum and two lower water 
drums connected by straight tubes, which enter the upper 
drum below the water-line. In the small types (Fig. 146) the 
steam drum is made in two portions, which are bolted together, 
the top being removable to facilitate access to the tube ends. 
In large boilers upper barrels with bolted joints could not be 
constructed capable of supporting the pressure, and so they are 
made with the usual riveted joints (Fig. 147). In consequence 
of this, they lose the advantage possessed by the divided 
barrels ; but this is not of much importance, as their large 
size permits of ready access for the examination and replac- 
ing of tubes. The bottom ends of the tubes are expanded 
into a tube plate, to the under side of which a small water- 
chamber is bolted. The original type of this boiler, fitted on 
a torpedo-boat, had external down-comers. In the torpedo- 
boat destroyer Hornet, these down-comers were omitted, the 



IV.] 



YARROW BOILER 



153 



water returning down the rows of generating tubes farthest 
from the fire. A few of these tubes are sometimes screened 

WHITE-FORSTER BOILER. 



^ 




v_ 



^-* 



PNONT eueVATION. 



•fOTlON. 



FIG. 144. 



or shielded from the fire at the ends by means of baffle plates 
between the tubes to keep them cool, and so facilitate the 
return flow of water to the lower drums. Some of these 



154 WATER -TUHE BOILERS [CH.VP. 

boilers have had small return tubes fitted at each end, which 
also act as stays to the boiler. The casings of the boilers 
are portable to allow of removal for cleaning the outsides of 
the tubes. The feed-water is introduced into the upper drum. 
It was at first thought that, owing to the tubes being 

YARROW BOILER. 



straight, the joints would be started in ca.ses of unequal 
expansion. This, however, is not found to be the case in 
practice, as any small difference in length seems to be met 
by the elasticity of the material. Tubes of different materials 
have been used for these boilers. At first steel tubes were 



YARROW BOILKK 



155 



employed, but afterwards were discarded in favour of brass 
ones. At the present time Messrs Yarrow arc using solid 
drawn steel tubes of from 1" to i J" in diameter, and averag- 
ing 0'08" in thickness. 

YARROW BOILER— TORPEDO-BOAT TYPE. 




The Yarrow boiler has been fitted on ten of the torpedo- 
boat destroyers, on a larger number of torpedo-boats in our 
Navy, and on many foreign ones, besides several foreign gun- 
boats and third-class cruiser.s. 



156 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



The great advantage of the Yarrow boiler lies in its 
straight tubes, which enables them to be inspected and 
cleaned with an ordinary-pattern tube scraper. The boiler 
is a light and compact boiler for its work, but due to the 
shortness of the tubes, the ratio of H.S. to G.S. must be 

YARROW BOILER. 




FIG. 147. 



somewhat low, and due to this and to the short travel of 
the gases, funnel temperatures are apt to be slightly high. 
The course of the gases, though transverse to the tubes, is 
really comparatively short : the combustion chamber is lofty 
and roomy. 



IV.] 



YARROW BOILER 



157 



The following are some of the mean results of the full- 
speed trials of two destroyers of the Swordfish class, fitted 
with Yarrow boilers.* 



Number of boilers 
Heating Surface 
Grate Surface . 

Ratio S.-S- . . , 
\j» o. 

A* £ 1 • 1 • • a • • 

Weight of boilers complete f 
Weight per sq. ft. of grate 
Heating surface per I.H.P. 
I.H.P. per ton of boiler . 
Coal per I.H.P. 

t Including funnels, casings, and all boiler-room fittings. 



• • 


8 


sq. ft. 


7,694 


»i 


162.4 


• • 


47.4 


• • 


4,551.0 


. tons 


62 


. lbs. 


855 


• • 


1.69 


• 


73 


. lbs. 
•1 


303 

c» 



* Minutes of Proceedings, Inst.C.E., vol. cxxxvii., part iii. 



CHAPTER V 

Boiler Accessories — Reducing Valves — Belleville Reducing Valve — 
Belleville Automatic Steam Separator — Automatic Feed-Water 
Regulators — Belleville — Thornycroft — Sigaudy — Normand- 
Sigaudy — Yarrow — Niclausse — Weir — Necessity for pure Feed- 
Water — Filtering — Feed-Water Filters — Harris — Rankine — Mills- 
Berryman— Filters working at Atmospheric Pressure— Normand 
— Feed- Water Heaters — Kirkaldy — Normand — Weir — Weight 
and Space occupied by various types of Boilers — Advantages and 
Disadvantages of Water-Tube Boilers — Durability of Water-Tube 
Boilers — General conclusions. 

48. Boiler Accessories. — In water-tube boilers the various 
accessories play a far more important part in their working 
than in cylindrical boilers. Owing to the comparatively small 
quantity of water they contain, the regularity of the feed is of 
vital importance. This has led to the introduction of special 
fittings or accessories to regulate the feed automatically, 
which are known as feed-regulating valves. The generation 
of steam being far more rapid, and there being little or no 
steam-space compared to cylindrical boilers, should the rate of 
firing or the rate of taking steam from the boiler vary, the 
pressure will fluctuate through far wider ranges than in 
cylindrical boilers. To avoid corresponding fluctuations in 
the speed of the engines, and for other reasons, reducing 
valves have been fitted, notably in connection with the 
Belleville boiler. Further, at a high rate of working or with 
a sudden change in the rate of working, water is very apt to 

1.j8 



CHAP, v.] REDUCING VALVES 159 

be carried over with the steam into the steam-pipe, and as 
this may lead to grave accidents should it find its way into 
the engines, separators or steam-dryers are fitted in the main 
range of steam-pipes. It is true that these fittings or 
accessories are not integral parts of the boiler itself, but the 
smooth working of the boiler entirely depends upon them. 
Other accessories in connection with the feed-water, besides 
the feed-regulating valves, are the feed-filters, and feed- 
heaters. We will therefore treat the accessories under two 
heads. 

(i) Those in connection with the steam, such as reducing 
valves and automatic steam-separators, or dryers. 

(2) Those in connection with the feed, such as feed- 
regulating valves, feed-filters, and feed-water heaters. 

49. Reducing Valves.— A reducing valve, though 
strictly speaking not an integral part of the boiler proper, is, 
in such cases as the Belleville boiler, an absolute necessity. 
The advantages of its use are threefold. 

(i) It enables one of the principal features of the water- 
tube boiler to be taken greater advantage of, namely, the use 
of high pressures, and that without at the same time subject- 
ing the main engines to excessive pressure. 

(2) It wire-draws the steam, slightly superheats and 
dries it. 

(3) Considerable fluctuations of pressure may take place 
in the boiler itself without affecting the pressure at the 
engines. 

50. Belleville Reducing Valve.— The Belleville reduc- 
ing valve (Fig. 148) consists of a valve attached by means 
of a plunger D to the end of a lever E, and the pressure in 
the valve casting always tends to lift this plunger and close 



i6o 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[CHAP. 



the valve. This is counteracted by means of a set of springs 
H, whose tension can be altered by a hand-wheel and screw, F. 
As the pressure on the plunger increases, it tends to close the 
valve and increases the tension on the springs ; this reduces 




FIG. 148. 

the valve openings, thereby restricting the flow of steam, and 
consequently reducing the pressure on the plunger D, allow- 
ii^ the springs to again pull down the plunger and open the 
valve. A safety valve is fitted on the reduced pressure side 



v.] BELLEVILLE AUTOMATIC STEAM SEPARATOR i6i 

at 3, and pressure gauges are fitted to both sides of the 
valve. 

There are numerous other types of reducing valves, but we 
need not go further into them, as the mode of working is very 
similar. 



51. Belleville Automatic Steam Separator.— In order 
to rid the steam of the water that may have been con- 
densed in the steam piping, or carried over from the boiler, 
and so ensure dry steam being delivered to the engines, some 
form of steam-dryer or 
separator is usually fitted 
between the boiler and the 
engines. The Belleville 
automatic separator (Fig. 
1 49) consists of a cylindrical 
receiver, furnished with two 
steam openings for the 
inlet and outlet of the 
steam. The steam enters 
at the top of the separator, 
and is compelled by means 
of a partition to descend in 
order to enter the annular 
space by in which the 
orifice for the outlet of the 
steam is placed. This 
orifice is considerably 
smaller than that by 
which the steam enters, 
in order to prevent as far FIG* ^^9- 

as possible sudden alterations of pressure in the separator, 
and keep the water in the bottom of the cylinder from being 




i62 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

dragged over with the steam. The separator is drained by an 
ingenious automatic trap. The float G for the trap, which is 
placed in the bottom of the separator, does not, however, act 
directly on the drain-cock itself, as is most usually the case, 
but works a small steam piston, which in its turn works 
the draining gear. 

62. Automatic Feed- Water Regulators. Belleville 
Feed-Water Regulator. — The provision of an automatic 
feed-regulator is desirable in the case of water-tube boilers 
having a small reserve of water. The feed -regulator in- 
vented by M. Belleville, and at present attached to his 
boilers, has varied very 
little from his original de- 
sign. It consists (Fig. 150) 
of a chamber A, contain- 
ing a float B, actuating 
the lever C, which works a 
valve-spindle F, and regu- 
lates the opening of the 
valve and the speed of the 
water passing to the boiler. 
When the water-level is 
normal, the valve closes 
and is kept shut by means 
of a spring //, and weights 
g at the end of the lever. 
On the water-level falling, 
the float falls with it, and 
by means of the bell crank 
■^'Q- 'SO- lever C, raises the end of 

the lever E on the side which was held down by the spring 
and weights, and dcpres.ses the other end of the same lever 



v.] 



THORNYCROFT FEED-WATER REGULATOR 



163 



to which is hinged the feed-valve spindle F, thus opening the 
valve and admitting water to the boiler. Directly the water 
reaches the working level the float ceases to act through 





the lever C on the lever E, which is pulled down by the 
spring and weights, and closes the valve. A rod is provided 
for working the lever by hand independently of the iloat 
The vessel in which the float works is placed on the column 



i64 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

leading from the separator to the feed-collector. The suc- 
cessful working of the Belleville boiler hangs upon this feed- 
regulator, as the water-level is so disturbed in the boiler itself 
that it would be practically impossible to tell where the 
water-level was, were it not for this fitting. 

The level of the water in the float-chamber can be varied 
by means of the external dead weights g^ attached to the 
lever E, and the water-level has to be varied with the 
different rates of working, so as to give the head required to 
produce the circulation of the mixture of water and steam in 
the tubes of the elements. The Belleville regulator works 
with extreme regularity, and is thoroughly reliable. 

58. Thoraycroft Feed-Water Regulator. — The Thorny- 
croft feed-regulator (Fig. 151) consists of a float attached to 
a lever actuating a double-beat valve. The weight of the 
float is balanced by a counterweight. The position of the float 
can be varied from the outside by means of a hand-wheel 
and screw, and an indicator is fitted so as to show its 
position. As the water-level varies the movement of the 
float throttles or opens the passages through the double-beat 
valve. 

54. Sigaudy Feed-Water Regulator. — M. Sigaudy 
designed a feed-water regulator for use on board \h^ Jeanne 
cTArCy which consists (Figs. 152, 153) of a float and counter- 
balance suspended between two pairs of levers, the fulcrum 
of the levers actuating the plug of a cock outside the float- 
gear casting. 

55. Normand-Sigaudy Feed-Water Regulator.— The 

Normand-Sigaudy feed-water regulator consists of a casting 



SIGAUDY FEED-WATER REGULATOR 




166 



WATER.TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



A (Fig. 154) placed outside the boiler, in which works a 
float B, with a counterbalance C, through a lever D. 
A cylindrical valve E, worked by the float B, regulates the 
supply of feed to the boiler. The valve E has a central 
hole to equalise the pressure. The regulator is usually 

NORMAND'SIGAUDY FEED-WATER REGULATOR. 




Fia 154. 



placed slightly above the normal feed-level, and connects 
with the steam and water drum through a cock N, on to 
which is attached an internal pipe H, running down into 
a V-shaped receptacle L, near the centre of the steam 
drum. The receptacle L has a small opening at the bottom 
M, which secures it being filled with solid water. A small 
orifice, J, at the top of the chamber A causes a slight ascending 



V.) YARROW FEED-WATER REGULATOR 

current in the tube H. 

If the water-level in 

the main drum is 

below the opening of 

the internal tube, 

steam will pass up , 

the pipe H. If the 

water-level is above 

it, water will pass up 

this tube into the ! 

casting A. As the g 

water passes into A, t 

it raises the float and p 

reduces the opening JJ 

of the valve E. This 

diminishes the supply Ul 

of feed - water, the g 

level in the boiler ^ 

drops, and uncovers [J} 

the lower end of the 

internal pipe H, and g 

allows the level in Jg 

the casting A to 5 

drop, and again opens 

the valve E. 

66. Yarrow Feed- 
Water Regulator.— 
Mr Yarrow used in 
connection with his 
boilers an arrange- 
ment (Fig. iss) 
whereby, when the 



1 68 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



MUMFORD FEED-WATER REGULATOR. 

ELUNQ PIPE TO STEAM SPACE 




LeVELUNaPIFC TO WATER SPA 



WHEEL FOR ADJUSTING WORKfNC LEVEL 




Fia 166. 



I 

Section on E F. 



Section on a b. 



i69 

of an 
ind so 

AUSS slowed 

) drop. 
5 very 



mford 

spects 

of an 

lever 

box. 

)indle 

feed- 

to a 

rking 

indle 

icted 

)oise. 

^hole 

and 

;1 to 
; for 



eed- 
sing 
)sed 
'oir. 
:her 
lort 
Ive. 



Section on 





v.] MUMFORD FEED-WATER REGULATOR 169 

water-level rose in the top drum, it caused the end of an 
internal steam-pipe to dip below the water-level, and so 
send water to the feed-pumps instead of steam. This slowed 
down the feed-pumps and so allowed the water-level to drop. 
The arrangement has many obvious objections, was very 
uneconomical, and its use has since been discontinued. 

57. Mumford Feed-Water Regulator.— The Mumford 
feed-water regulator (Fig. 156) is similar in many respects 
to those already described. It consists of a casting of an 
oblong shape, in which works a float, connected to a lever 
which works on a spindle passing through a stuffing box. 
To the float lever is attached, inside the casting, a spindle 
and valve, regulating the flow of the water from the feed- 
pump to the boiler. A hand-wheel is also attached to a 
continuation of the valve-spindle, for adjusting the working 
level. Outside the casting, a lever is attached to the spindle 
or rocking shaft above referred to ; this lever is connected 
by means of a link to another lever carrying a counter-poise. 
The counter-poise weight is adjustable, and the whole 
arrangement can be worked by hand to see that the float and 
valve are free. 

Though the regulator is able to keep the water level to 
within half-an-inch, it does not appear to be too sensitive for 
the rough usage it receives at sea. 

68. Niclausse Feed-Regulator. -The Niclausse feed- 
water regulator (Figs. 157, 158) consists of an external casing 
A containing a balanced valve C, which is opened and closed 
by the action of a float B in the steam and water reservoir. 
The float, on rising or falling, rotates a spindle H, to the other 
end of which (inside the valve casing) is attached a short 
lever J, which connects by means of a link with the feed-valve. 




WATER-TUBE BOILERS 




WEIR FEED-WATER REGULATOR 



z 





i I 
j \ 




ftl 


\ 




1 ] 


... 




u 




'• if 


° > . 


V^ 


; 1 






s 




;■ ; 


^V^.... 


. .X . 


-<-v\. 


. ._.;' 


s L 


ll 


-^: 




*»• 




■r 


--m 


— -1 L 


11] 


: --'|- 


1 


f 


SsJ 




1 

s 


■^rn%^ 


W 


— 




s 


' 




i 





172 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

On the float rising, the spindle is rotated, and causes the short 
lever to press the valve on its seat, thus cutting oflF the supply 
of water to the boiler. On the float falling, the reverse 
action takes place and the valve opens. The spindle is not, 
however, continuous, but is made in two lengths H, H^ 
which are coupled together, so that the position of the float 
can be alter'ed relatively to the valve to suit different 
working levels. The float is balanced by a counterpoise, 
which is situated outside the boiler, and can be adjusted 
by hand. 

69. Weir Feed- Water Regulator. —A feed-regulator or 
distributor (Figs. 159, 160) has been designed by Messrs. J. and 
G. Weir of Cathcart, Glasgow, to work in conjunction with their 
feed-pumps. It is situated within the boiler, and consists 
mainly of a float A and counterbalance B, actuating a disc- 
valve C, which closes against the inlet orifice as the float 
rises. As the pressure in the feed-range D acts directly on 
the face of the valve C, the greater the difference of pres- 
sure between the feed-range and the boiler, the greater the 
delivery. Also, the lower the water-level, the greater will be 
the opening of the valve for any given difference of pressure 
between the feed-range and the boiler: hence the total 
quantity of water delivered to any boiler will depend partly 
on the pressure existing in the boiler, and partly on the 
position of the water-level. In most of the types of feed- 
regulators, where a double-beat valve is used, the question of 
the pressure has next to no influence on the delivery, which is 
regulated entirely by the level of the water and the position 
of the float. 

The apparatus has the merit of simplicity, but being 
entirely contained in the boiler, there is no means of ascer- 
taining whether the float is free or not. 



v.] FEED-PUMPS 173 

60. Feed-Pumps. — After what has been said about the 
great necessity for a regular feed, it will be readily under- 
stood that the feed-pump is a very important fitting, when 
tubulous boilers are used. Messrs Belleville make a special 
horizontal feed-pump of their own, which is used in conjunc- 
tion with their boilers in foreign Navies, and in our own 
ships those of Messrs Weir are largely used. These latter 
are vertical direct acting pumps, and work with extreme 
steadiness and regularity. The space at our disposal is, 
however, too limited to attempt a description of these pumps, 
but they will be found very fully described in Sennett and 
Oram's work on the " Marine Steam-Engine." * 

61. Necessity for Pure Feed- Water. — It has now come 
to be universally recognised that the purest feed-water 
obtainable must be used with tubulous boilers, if their circu- 
lation is to be maintained and their life not impaired. The 
introduction of sea-water as "make-up" always leads to 
trouble ; so much so, that in one Navy, although rigid in- 
structions were in force prohibiting the use of salt water, it 
was found necessary to blank-flange all the sea connections, 
and thereby absolutely preclude the possibility of any sea- 
water finding its way into the boilers. Sea-water has the 
effect of depositing its saline ingredients on the heating 
surfaces. If a tube becomes choked through any portion of 
its length, it reduces the rapidity of circulation throughout 
the rest of the tube ; should further depositing take place, it 
may lead to the blocking of the tube and to its ultimate 
failure. 

62. Filtering. — The question of filtering the feed water, 

* " The Marine Steam Engine," R. Sennett and H. J. Oram. Long- 
mans, Green & Co., 1898. 



174 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

although it might appear a small matter at first, is, with 
tubulous boilers, a matter of no mean importance. This 
was not realized in the early days of water-tube boilers, 
and was a fruitful source of many of the troubles that 
occurred. Water coming from condensing engines always 
contains a certain amount of oil, and if this is allowed to 
pass into the boilers and accumulate on the heating surfaces, 
it not only reduces their efficiency, but may eventually give 
rise to overheating of the tubes, and their ultimate failure. 
Sir John Durston made some interesting experiments on 
the effect of grease in feed-water, which are alluded to on 
page 62. 

The acids contained in the animal and vegetable oils 
sometimes used for lubrication are one of the principal 
agents in starting corrosion, and once corrosion is started, 
it gives rise to a local weakness, and renders the metal 
much more susceptible to further corrosion. When it is 
borne in mind that in tubulous boilers the tubes are 
usually comparatively thin, local pitting to the extent 
of ^Vnd or, say, xV^h inch, forms a very large proportion 
of the total thickness of the tube, and the localisation of 
any pitting action must be attended with much more 
serious consequences than in the Scotch boiler, with its 
comparatively thick plates and tubes. For the reason, 
given on page 62, mineral oils have, where possible, taken 
the place of vegetable oils in lubrication. 

At the high pressures and therefore higher temperatures 
now in vogue, the presence of oil in the feed-water becomes 
more dangerous. Mineral oil does not float for long on 
the water, but very soon deposits itself on the heating 
surfaces. When opening up some of the tubulous boilers 
after their trial trips in which a lot of oil has been used, 
some of which has found its way into the feed-water, a 



v.] HARRIS FILTER 175 

brown deposit, more nearly resembling chocolate than 
anything else, has been found at the bottom of the 
water-drums. 

There is no known practical chemical means of effec- 
tively depriving the feed-water of oil, and therefore 
mechanical means have to be resorted to. 

There are two distinct systems of filters. 

1. Those where the filtration takes place under full 
boiler pressure, which is the system in most general use 
in this country. 

2. Those at which the filtration takes place at atmos- 
pheric pressure, principally used abroad. 

The advantages of the first method are, that the filters 
are more compact, take up less room, and are more easily 
under control ; but the disadvantages are, that it adds to 
the number of vessels subjected to the full boiler pressure, 
it increases the load on the feed-pumps, and the pulsating 
action of the feed-pump might tend to dislodge some of 
the oil from the filtering medium. 

The second method where the filtration takes place at 
atmospheric pressure, between the delivery side of the 
air-pump and suction side of the feed-pump, avoids any 
interference with the main feed-range, and allows more 
volume for the filtration, but has the disadvantage of 
occupying a greater space, and making the supply of 
feed-water to the feed-pumps more irregular. 

68. Harris Filter.—Harris's filter (Fig. 161) consists of a 
casing containing a number of circular gratings placed one 
upon the other. Between each grating is placed a layer of 
filtering material supported by wire gauze. The gratings 
are so arranged that there is a large central chamber for 
the entrance of the feed-water, which passes into, and finds 



176 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [CHAP. 

its way out at the circumference of this chamber, through 
holes in the gratings, into the spaces between the layers 
of filtering material. After passing through the filtering 

HARRIS FEED-WATER FILTER. 



material, it makes its exit through similar holes in the 
circumference, and out at the top of the filter. 

64. Rankine Feed- Water Filter. — Rankine's patent 
feed-water filter (Fig. 162) consists of a series of cylindrical 



RANKINE FEED-WATER FILTER 



178 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

gratings, over which the filtering medium is stretched, and 
the feed-water on its way from the feed-pump to the boiler 
has to pass through one, two, or three thicknesses of filtering 
material, as the case may be. The filter is fitted with bye- 
pass, cut-out valves, etc., together with steam and drain 
cocks. The frame-work carrying the filtering medium can 
be very easily withdrawn for cleansing and renewal, by 
means of the door provided for that purpose. Sufficient 
allowance of area of filtering medium must be made, so 
as not to unduly increase the load on the feed-pumps ; 
this is done in the multiple type of filter, by substituting 
for one cartridge a number of smaller ones, thus giving a 
considerable filtering surface. In the Admiralty type of 
multiple filter, there are three separate chambers, each 
containing the same number of cartridges, and having the 
same filtering area, and the feed-water passes through each 
chamber in succession. 

65. Mills-Berryman Feed-Water Filter. — The Mills- 
Berryman "Sentry" filter, made by Messrs Storey (Figs. 163, 
164), is extremely simple in construction, and consists roughly 
of an outer casting, in which is enclosed a perforated basket 
filled with filtering medium. The water first passes through 
the fibrous material (which is generally wood wool) where 
the greater portion of the oil and any solid matter is 
retained, and then passes through one or two thicknesses of 
filtering cloth. The velocity through the cloth is nominally 
6" per minute. The perforated basket can be readily re- 
moved and another one substituted ready packed for use. 
The usual valves, bye-pass, pressure-gauge, drain-cock, etc., 
are fitted. 

66. Filters Working at Atmospheric Pressure— Nor- 
mand Filter, — The filter used almost exclusively till 



v.] FEED-WATER FILTERS 179 

recently in the French Navy is that introduced by M. 
Normand (Fig 165), which consists roughly of placing in the 
hot well or between the hot well and the discharge side of the 
air-pumps three layers of sponges. The water on its passage 

MILLS-BBRRYMAN FEED-WATER FILTER. 



FIG. 164. 
through these is deprived of the oil held in suspension. 
These filters, though satisfactory in some ways, are bulky, 
and do not completely extract the very fine particles of oil 
contained in the form of an emulsion in the feed-water, and 
the sponges are expensive to renew. 

The great benefit of using filters is that the oil contained 



i8o 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



in the feed-water is deposited in the filters from whence it is 
easily removed, and where it is not subjected to high 
temperatures, instead of being deposited on the boiler 

surfaces where the 

NORMAND FEED-WATER FILTER. ^ 

temperature is very 

high, and from 

whence it cannot 

easily be removed. 



67. Feed -Water 
Heaters. — The ad- 
vantages of heating 
the feed - water are 
two-fold : — 

1. It somewhat 
reduces the amount 
of work to be done 
by the boiler which, 
in all cases where 
tubulous boilers are 
fitted, is the weaker 
link in the machinery 
chain. 

2. The water on 
its introduction into 








FIG. 165. 



the boiler when hot is in a better position to take up the heat 
from the gases than if it had been introduced cold. 

There is a certain distinct advantage to be gained, due 
to the fact that the heated feed-water introduces with it a 
certain number of thermal units into the boiler, and liberates 
a certain amount of heat (which would otherwise be em- 
ployed in heating the cold feed-water) to perform the more 
useful work of converting the water into steam. This ad- 



v.] FEED-WATER HEATERS iSi 

vantage IS, however, small compared with that which is due to 
raising the total mean temperature of the water in the boiler. 

The quicker the water is turned into steam the more 
rapid will be the circulation ; the more rapid the circulation, 
the greater will be the heat-absorbing power of the heating 
surface. Experiments on this subject show that the co- 
efficient of transmission of a given surface varies from i to 
5 as the water in contact with the surface approaches the 
boiling point or is actually boiling. 

There are two methods of heating the feed-water : — . 

1. By mean of the waste gases. 

2. By means of live and exhaust steam. 

We will deal with the method of heating the feed-water 
by means of the waste gases first. 

Numerous attempts have been made to use the waste 
gases for heating the feed-water. M. Belleville, as we saw, 
used this form of heater in his earliest type of boiler in 1855 
(Fig 12). It was not then successful, and its use had to be 
discontinued. It was subsequently re-introduced in the form 
of the present economizer, and the Boiler Commission have 
now recommended that its use should again be discontinued.* 
There are inseparable difficulties attending this system of 
feed-heating, principally that of the corrosion of the tubes, 
and in all the various systems which have at one time or 
the other been tried on board ship, this same difficulty has 
ultimately led to their discontinuance. On land, however, 
the use of the escaping gases as a heating agent has been 
more successful, due to the somewhat different conditions 
surrounding their use, facilities for cleaning, inspection, and 
so forth. The well-known Green's Economiser and others 
of this type are examples of the success that has attended 
this class of heater on shore. 

* Appendix, p. 199. 



I §2 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



The second method, that is to say steam-heating, is really 
the only satisfactory method of heating the feed-water at 
sea, whether it be by direct steam, as used by Messrs 
Kirkaldy, or by steam from the receivers of the engines, as 
used by Messrs Weir or M. Normand, or whether it be by 
the exhaust steam from auxiliary engines, as is now being 
largely employed in the Navy. 

Feed-heaters using steam as a heating-agent may roughly 
be divided into two classes. 

1. Surface heaters. 

2. Injection heaters. 

As typical of the first class, we may cite the heaters of 
Messrs Kirkaldy and M. Normand. 

KIRKALDY HEATER. 



rceo iNLCT 




preo ou 



oirriXT 



FIG. 166. 

68. Kirkaldy Heater. — Messrs Kirkaldy's heater (Fig. i66) 
consists of a casing in which are placed a number of straight 
horizontal tubes, expanded into a tube plate at either end. 
The steam passes through the tubes, while the water to be 
heated is on the outside. 



69. Normand Heater— M. Normand's heater (Figs. 167, 
168) is the converse of this ; it consists of a thin copper casing 



v.] NORMAND, AND WAINWRIGHT HEATERS 183 



NORMAND FEED-WATER HEATER. 



WAINWRIGHT HEATER 



i84 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

surrounding a nest of straight vertical tubes, which are ex- 
panded into a tube plate at either end. The exhaust steam 
enters the heater at C or D, passing in among the nest of 
tubes, while the feed-water enters at A, passes through the 
tubes and out at B. BaHies are fitted so as to distribute the 
steam thoroughly among the tubes, bafifles also being fitted 
on the inside of the tubes to ensure all the particles of water 
coming in frequent contact with the heated sides of the tubes. 

The condensed steam and water is taken away at G by an 
automatic trap. Steam is taken from the L.P. casing, and 
enters the heater at C, or from the exhaust of the auxiliary 
engine, entering the heater at D. 

The heater is extremely efficient on a very small weight. 

The Wainwright heater (Fig. 169) is a surface-heater of 
American design on somewhat similar lines to M. Normand's. 

70. Weir Surface Heater— Weir's Surface Heater (Fig. 
170) consists of an outside shell of gun-metal or cast-iron, 
containing a nest of straight vertical tubes fixed in two plates 
at either side. The steam enters the top of the heater and 
passes through the tubes, the condensed steam being taken 
off by a drain at the bottom. The feed-water enters at the 
bottom of the heater, passes round the outsides of the tubes, 
and out at the top of the heater. 

71. Injection Heaters. — Injection heaters are principally 
used in the Mercantile Marine, as the head required for ensur- 
ing the satisfactory working of the feed-pumps would bring 
the heaters above the armoured deck, and so precludes their 
use in the Navy. 

Messrs Weir's injection heater (Fig. 171) consists of a 
circular vessel, in which the cold feed-water is sprayed in at 
the top, falls through the steam coming from the L.P. casing, 



v.] WEIR FEED-WATER HEATER 

WEIR FEED-WATER HEATER. 




r 




□onblaValT* Cheti. 



i86 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

and becomes heated and falls to the bottom of the heater. 
The bottom of the heater is fitted with a float which regulates 
the supply of steam to the feed-pumps, and controls the 
quantity of feed-water passing to the boiler. 
WEIR INJECTION HEATER. 



FIG. 171. 
72. Weight and Space occupied by Various Types of 
BoilerS' — The question of the saving of weight is most 



v.] WEIGHT 187 

important, and has been one of the chief factors in the 
introduction of the water-tube boiler. The saving may be 
said to be due to two causes : — 

1. The very much smaller volume of water contained in 
the boiler. 

2. The reduced thickness of the water receptacles (tubes, 
etc.) due to their smaller diameter. 

The amount of water in a water-tube boiler is about 5 lbs. 
per I.H.P. The amount of water usually present in a 
Marine-type boiler is about 44 lbs. per I.H.P., and in the 
locomotive-type 11 lbs. per I.H.P. 

These figures are of course only approximate, but it will 
be seen that the water-tube boiler has a considerable ad- 
vantage as regards weight of water over the Scotch boiler. 
There is, however, a disadvantage in making the contained 
volume of water small, to which we shall refer later. 

With regard to the saving due to weight A very con- 
siderable amount of this is due to the fact that in the ordinary 
cylindrical boiler the shell has to be made, not only to 
contain the steam and water, but also to enclose the furnace 
and passages for the gases. 

In the following table the average weights of some 
tubulous boilers are given, and also those for locomotive and 
Admiralty-type boilers. The Admiralty-type boiler differs 
from the Marine-type, in that the tubes are placed as a con- 
tinuation of the furnace, the combustion chamber being 
between the furnace and tubes, and consequently the hot 
gases do not return to the front of the boiler as in the Marine- 
type. This type of boiler was introduced into the Navy on 
account of the limited head-room available on a man-of-war, 
and this arrangement of the tubes reduces the diameter of 
the boiler. The boiler-room weights for the water-tube 
boilers, with the exception of those for the Babcock and 



1 88 



WATER-TUBE BOILERS 



[chap. 



Wilcox, Niclausse, d'Allest, and Oriolle boilers, are based 
on the figures of some official trials given in the paper by 
Sir John Durston and Mr Oram, before the Institution of 
Civil Engineers in 1899;* those for the cylindrical boilers 
from the paper by Sir John Durston, read in 1894.! With 
the exception of the Babcock and Wilcox boiler, the 
remaining weights and the vertical projections are taken 
from the figures given by the Chief Constructor of the 
French Navy in his work on " Marine Boilers." 

The horizontal space required by a boiler may be 
expressed by the ratio of the surface formed by the vertical 
projection of its horizontal dimensions to the vertical pro- 
jection of its grate area. This has been done where possible, 
and the results given in the following table : — 



Name of Boiler. 



Thornycroft 

Reed .... 

Normand 

Yarrow .... 

Blechynden 

White .... 

Belleville (without Econo- 

miscr) 
Belleville (with Economiser) 
Babcock & Wilcox . 
Niclausse 

D'Allest .... 
Oriolle .... 
Locomotive-type 
Admiralty- type 
Single-ended Return-tube 

(Naval) 
Double-ended Return-tube 

(Naval) 



Average Boiler- 
room Weight 
per I.H.P. 


Vertical I 
of Boiler. 


'rojection 
of Grate. 


Ratio. 


lbs. 
27 

35 
30 
34 
32 


105.8 


38.04 


2.8 


122.5 


41.4 


3.4 


38 

100 ^ 
98 J 


65.14 


40.4 


1.6 


69 








86 


155.4 


102.4 


1-5 


88 


126.4 


64.3 


2.0 


42 

70 

119 


48.1 


27.8 


1.7 


189.7 


60.3 


3.1 


119 


121. 7 


58.7 


2.1 


91 


275-7 


156.8 


1.8 



* Minutes of Proceedings, Inst.C.E., vol. cxxxvii. 
t Minutes of Proceedings, Inst.C.E., vol. c.\ix. 



v.] ADVANTAGES 189 

78. Advants^es. — Most things have good and bad points, 
and tubulous boilers are no exception to the rule, and the 
question as to whether their merits outweigh those of 
cylindrical boilers, or vice versa^ depends entirely on the 
requirements of the particular service for which they are 
intended. 

To deal first with the advantages of tubulous boilers. 
Tubulous boilers are particularly well adapted for generating 
steam at a very high pressure, because the majority of them 
are composed of cylindrical elements of small diameter, 
the pressure in all cases being internal. In the ordinary 
cylindrical boiler a maximum pressure is soon reached, 
which, as regards the shell, is strictly limited by the thick- 
ness of shell plates obtainable, and for the furnace, by 
difficulties in construction which have not as yet been 
overcome. In the tubulous boiler, on the contrary, no 
limit of pressure is imposed, except by considerations 
effecting the working of the engines. Tubulous boilers are 
now commonly made for a working pressure of 300 lbs. 
per square inch, a reducing valve supplying steam to the 
engines at a pressure of 260 lbs. per square inch. To quote 
recent practice, Mosher in America is at present engaged 
in fitting a steam yacht with his type of boiler, in which the 
pressure was originally designed to be 440 lbs. per square 
inch, the steam pressure being reduced at the engines to 
400 lbs. per square inch, but the boat is not yet completed. 

Another advantage claimed for the tubulous boiler is the 
comparative immunity from accidents of a serious nature. 
This depends partly upon the ability of the boiler to with- 
stand very much higher pressures than the working pressure, 
and partly on the small volume of water and steam contained 
in the boiler. Except in their immediate surroundings, 
tubulous boilers are undoubtedly a far less dangerous 



I90 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

neighbour to adjacent structures than tubular or cylindrical 
boilers, as the effect of an explosion is felt over a much 
smaller area. This is of particular importance in the 
Navy, as in case of damage to a boiler by shot or shell 
the result would not be so disastrous as in the case of the 
cylindrical boiler. 

The Thornycroft and du Temple boilers have had the 
inner tubes next to the furnace severely burnt, owing to 
shortness of water, without any injury to the stokers. It is, 
however, impossible to state that the stokehold staff incur 
no risk in the event of an explosion of a water-tube boiler, 
but the consequences are not so grave as those that would 
have resulted from a similar accident to boilers of the 
locomotive- or marine-type. 

Tubulous boilers have a special advantage over the 
marine-type of boiler for naval purposes, as they stand 
forcing much better. This is especially true of boilers of the 
small-tube type. The tube joints are more easily kept cool 
and much less subjected to the action of heat, and there are 
» no furnaces to bulge or collapse, and as a rule the boilers 
are able to expand, and contract more freely. In consequence 
of this freedom to expand, steam can be raised rapidly in an 
emergency, or the boiler can be cooled rapidly for the 
purpose of carrying out small repairs or cleaning, without 
developing leaky tube joints. The Sharpshooter^ fitted with 
Belleville boilers, raised steam from cold water in twenty 
minutes from the time of lighting the fires. 

Yet another point in favour of tubulous boilers for naval 
purposes is that the number of boilers at work is increased, 
and, in consequence, the failure of any one of them deprives 
the ship of a much smaller proportion of her total power 
than would be the case if fewer and more powerful boilers 
were fitted. 



v.] DISADVANTAGES 191 

A further point in connection with many water-tube 
boilers which is in their favour is that being built in sections 
a completely new section can be fitted to the boiler in a 
very short time, and also the re-boilering of a ship does not 
involve opening up the decks, as the boiler can be sent down 
piecemeal. 

74. Disadvantages. — With the undeniable advantages 
of tubulous boilers, it must be confessed there are also certain 
disadvantages. These may be stated as follows : — 

On account of the small amount of water they contain, 
tubulous boilers require most careful attention to the feed- 
water, as a short interruption in the feed supply will make 
a considerable alteration in the water-level. As an instance, 
take the case of a boiler of 55 square feet of grate, working 
under forced draught and evaporating 12 tons of water per 
hour. If the steam and water drum up to the working 
level contains one ton of water, an interruption of the feed 
supply would empty it in five minutes ; the fall of level 
in the tubes would then be extremely rapid. The top drum 
is not as a rule in contact with the hot gases, but the tubes 
are subject to temperatures capable of fusing the steel. 
The maintenance of the water-level and the management 
of the feed requires therefore very careful attention. In 
large ships where several boilers are fed from a common 
feed-pipe, the adoption of automatic feed-regulators used 
generally to be regarded as an absolute necessity, but 
recently the tendency has been to dispense with them. 

It is strictly necessary that the water for feeding 
tubulous boilers should be absolutely pure. The tubes 
can only withstand the intense heat when cooled by a 
constant current of water. Any tube in which deposit has 
commenced to form will soon become obstructed, as deposits 



192 WATER-TUBE BOILERS [chap. 

tend to increase, due to retardation of the circulation, and 
an obstructed tube means a burnt tube. The use of sea- 
water must be rigorously avoided, and the fittings used to 
purify the feed-water must be kept in full working order. 

The disadvantages of tubulous boilers lie mainly in the 
danger that may result from their breaking down, but this 
can be minimised by incessant and careful inspection. 

75. Durability. — As regards the comparative durability 
of water-tube and cylindrical boilers, it is impossible to 
state conclusions on this point with certainty, as experience 
with water-tube boilers has so far been limited. It is 
largely a matter of treatment, and it must be remembered 
that the present long life of cylindrical boilers is the 
result of years of experience in their management. At 
one time eight years was looked upon as an excellent 
result, and now twenty years' service is by no means 
uncommon in the Merchant service.* In the case of one 
of the White Star Liners, the original boilers were still 
being worked after twenty-four years' service. 

As our acquaintance with water-tube boilers grows, 
there seems to be no reason why, in the Navy at least, 
the water-tube boiler should not be equal in durability to 
the cylindrical boiler. 

76. General Conclusions.— In the interim report of the 

* This is, however, only true for the Merchant service. M. Bertin, the 
Chief Constructor of the French Navy, in his work on " Marine Boilers," 
gives eight, or at most, ten years, as the life of cylindrical boilers in 
warships, including one complete overhauling during that period. He 
concludes with these words : " On the other hand, when the conditions 
are altogether against durability, as on torpedo-boats, where locomotive 
boilers only last three years, tubulous boilers offer a decided advantage ; 
Mr Thornycroft states that his boilers usually stand eight years' service 
without extensive repairs, certainly without a thorough over-hauling." 
"Marine Boilers," Bertin (English Edition), John Murray. 



«!««■ «■«■■■ Miwnnrv^PHR^'vrTVBarM. ■ j* . ^ r^rm/^^ 



v.] GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 193 

Boiler Committee, which has recently been presented to 
Parliament, the Committee state " that the advantages of 
water-tube boilers for Naval purposes are so great, chiefly 
from a military point of view, that, provided a satisfactory 
type of water-tube boiler be adopted, it would be more 
suitable for use in His Majesty's Navy than the cylindrical- 
type boiler." 

This opinion endorses those of the Naval advisers of 
practically all the great sea powers. Rear-Admiral Melville, 
the Engineer-in-Chief of the United States Navy, has ex- 
pressed his opinion that "if the battle of Santiago taught 
nothing else, it certainly made very clear the absolute 
necessity of water-tube boilers on our modern war- 
vessels." 



N 



APPENDIX 



INTERIM REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE, AP- 
POINTED BY THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS 
OF THE ADMIRALTY, TO CONSIDER CER- 
TAIN QUESTIONS RESPECTING MODERN 
TYPES OF BOILERS FOR NAVAL PURPOSES. 

Copy of the Letter of Instructions sent to the President. 

S. 17864— 18248. 

Admiralty, S.W., 

tth September 190a 

Sir, — I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty to inform you that they are pleased to nominate you 
as Chairman of a Committee which they have decided to appoint 
for the purpose of considering certain questions arising in con- 
nection with the use of various modern types of boilers for naval 
purposes, as set forth in the terms of reference specified in the 
succeeding paragraphs of this letter. 

(2.) In addition to yourself, the Committee will be composed 
of the following members : — 

Mr J. A. Smith (Inspector of Machinery, R.N.). 

Mr John List, R.N.R. (Superintending Engineer, "Castle" 
line). 

Mr James Bain, R.N.R. (Superintending Engineer "Cunard" 
Line). 

Mr J. T. Milton (Chief Engineer-Surveyor of Lloyd's Register 
of Shipping). 

Professor A. B. W. Kennedy. 

Mr J. Inglis, LL.D. (Head of the firm of Messrs. A. & J. 
Inglis, Engineers and Shipbuilders, Pointhouse, Glasgow). 

195 



196 WATER-TUBE BOILERS 

Commander Montague E. Browning, R.N., and Chief Engineer 
William H. Wood, R.N., will act as Joint Secretaries to the 
Committee. 

(3.) The points which it is desired that the Committee should 
investigate and report upon are as follows : — 

(a.) To ascertain practically and experimentally the relative 
advantages and disadvantages of the Belleville boiler 
for naval purposes as compared with the cylindrical 
boiler. 

(/k) To investigate the causes of the defects which have occurred 

in these boilers and in the machinery of ships fitted 

with them, and to report how far they are preventable 

either by modifications of details or by difference 

of treatment, and how far they are inherent in the 

system. The Committee should also report generally 

on the suitability of the propelling and auxiliary 

machinery fitted in recent war vessels, and offer any 

suggestions for improvement, the effect as regards 

weight and space of any alterations proposed being 

stated. 

(c.) To report on the advantages and disadvantages of the 

Niclausse and Babcock and Wilcox boilers compared 

with the Belleville as far as the means at the disposal 

of the Committee permit, and also to report whether 

any other description of boiler has sufficient advantages 

over the Belleville or the other two types above 

mentioned as a boiler for large cruisers and battleships 

to make it advisable to fit it in any of Her Majesty's 

ships for trial. 

(4.) P'or the purpose of making direct experiments between ships 

fitted with Belleville and cylindrical boilers respectively, the 

Hyacinth^ fitted with Belleville boilers, will be placed at the disi>osal 

of the Committee as soon as the crew have been sufficiently trained 

and such trials have been carried out as to ensure that the machinery 

is in efficient order. A cruiser of similar type fitted with cylindrical 

boilers will also be placed at the disposal of the Committee w^hen 

required, for the purposes of comparison, 

(5.) For the investigation of defects, copies of the reports of all 
the defects of machinery and boilers which occurred during the 
recent naval manoeuvres will be placed before the Committtee, 
and they will be able to inspect ships specially commissioned for 
the manoeuvres, which include the Ariadne and Gladiator with 
Belleville boilers and the Perseus and Prometheus with Thorny- 
croft boilers, with any others that may have returned to any of the 
home ports. 

(6.) The Europa is now on passage from Australia, and it is 
desired that, at a suitable time, an investigation into the causes of 
her high coal expenditure and machinery defects shall be conducted 



APPENDIX 197 

under the directions of the Committee, and that she shall afterwards 
be put through such trials as the Committee think necessary. 

(7). Information on any special points connected with the 
behaviour of the boilers or machinery of water-tube boiler ships 
on ordinary peace service which the Committee may desire to have 
will be obtained by the Admiralty from any of Her Majesty's ships 
in commission, and opportunities can be taken when the Channel 
Squadron is in any of the home ports to examine the boilers and 
machinery of the Niobe^ Diadem^ Arrogant^ and Furious^ which 
have Belleville boilers, and the Pactolus^ which is fitted with 
Blechynden boilers. 

(8.) The Pe/oms, fitted with Normand boilers, which has recently 
returned from three years' continuous service in the Channel 
Squadron and at the Cape of Good Hope, and the Powerful ^ will 
also be available for examination during their refits. 

(9.) The Sharpshooter^ fitted with Belleville boilers without 
economisers, the Seaguli^ fitted with Niclausse, and the Sheldrake 
with Babcock and Wilcox boilers, will be employed in training 
stokers, and will be available for examination, and, if necessary, 
for any comparative experiments between these boilers that the 
Committee may wish to make, though the comparatively low 
pressure for which the machinery of these vessels was designed 
makes it impossible to try these boilers under the conditions under 
which they would work if fitted in a new ship. 

(10.) It is particularly desired that any conclusions the Committee 
may arrive at should be supported by experimental proof as far as 
possible, and that the Committee should propose any further 
experiments they think necessary for this purpose. — I am, Sir, 
your obedient servant, Evan Macgregor, 

Secretary. 
Vice-Admiral Sir Compton Domvile, K.C.B. 

Copy of Letter asking for an Interim Report 

s. 315—407- 

Admiralty, S.W., 

4M January 1901. 

Sir, — I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty to inform you that they will be glad to have an interim 
report from the Boiler Committee, as soon as possible, on any 
of the points referred to the Committee on which they consider 
they have collected sufficient evidence or experimental proof to 
enable them to form a reliable opinion. 

The questions to which my Lords especially desire an answer, 
are the following : — 

(i.) With the experience and information which have already 
been obtained, can it be stated whether water-tube 
boilers are considered by the Committee to be more 
suitable than cylindrical boilers for naval purposes ? 



198 WATER-TUBE BOILERS 

(2.) Should the answer to the above question be in the affirma- 
tive, do the Committee consider that the Belleville boiler 
has such an advantage over other types of water-tube 
boilers as to lead them to recommend it as that best 
adapted to the requirement of H.M. Navy? 
(3.) Generally, having regard to the importance of deciding on 
the types of boilers to be provided for vessels which are 
ordered in the immediate future, are the Committee pre- 
pared at present to make any recommendation, or to 
offer any suggestions on the extent to which any particular 
type or types of boilers should be fitted in new vessels? 
Whilst their Lordships are anxious to receive an interim report 
at as early a date as practicable, they in no way wish to press the 
Committee for a premature expression of opinion. 

I may add that any report made should be accompanied by full 
particulars of all the evidence and experimental data on which the 
recommendations of the Committee are based. — I am, Sir, your 
obedient servant, Evan Macgregor. 

The Secretary, 

Boiler Committee. 

Admiralty, 

19/// February 1901. 

Boiler Committee. 

Sir, — I have now the honour to submit for their Lordships* 
information the ad interim Report called for by their letter S. 
315/407 of the 4th January 1901 on the three questions to which 
the attention of the Committee was especially directed, viz. : — 

"(i.) With the experience and information which have already 
been obtained, can it be stated whether water-tube 
boilers are considered by the Committee to be more 
suitable than cylindrical boilers for naval purposes? 
** (2.) Should the answer to the above question be in the affirma- 
tive, do the Committee consider that the Belleville 
boiler has such an advantage over other types of 
water-tube boilers as to lead them to recommend it 
as that best adapted to the requirement of H.M. 
Navy ? 
"(3.) Generally, having regard to the importance of deciding 
on the types of boilers to be provided for vessels 
which are ordered in the immediate future, are the 
Committee prepared at present to make any recom- 
mendations or to offer any suggestions on the extent 
to which any particular type or types of boilers should 
be fitted in new vessels ? " 
The replies to these questions are given in the first three para- 
graphs of the Report, and the reasons for the replies in the remaining 
l)aragraphs, with all the advice the Committee are at present able to 



APPENDIX 199 

give on the subject of the future boiler for the navy, with suggestions 
for trying two new types of boiler as quickly as possible. 

The Report is unanimous with the exception of Mr J. A. Smith, 
Inspector of Machinery, who, though agreeing with the tenor of the 
Report as a whole, explains that, in his opinion, the Belleville boiler 
will give satisfactory results when carefully treated, and considers 
there is no necessity for delaying the progress of ships already 
designed for them. 

In conclusion, I should like to bring to their Lordships' notice 
the great zeal and trouble taken by the civilian members of this 
Committee to attend the meetings and trials necessary to form an 
opinion on this question, often at great inconvenience to themselves, 
being all busy men with their own special work to do. — I have the 
honour to be. Sir, your obedient servant, 

CoMPTON DoMViLE, Vice- Admiral, 
President^ Boiler Committee, 

The Secretary 

of the Admiralty. 

Ad Interim Report. 

(i.) The Committee are of opinion that the advantages of water- 
tube boilers for naval purposes are so great, chiefly from the military 
point of view, that, provided a satisfactory type of water-tube boiler 
be adopted, it would be more suitable for use in His Majesty's Navy 
than the cylindrical type of boiler. 

(2.) The Committee do not consider that the Belleville boiler 
has any such advantage over other types of water-tube boilers as to 
lead them to recommend it as the best adapted to the requirements 
of His Majesty's Navy. 

(3,) The Committee recommend : — 
(a.) As regards ships which are to be ordered in the future : — 

That Belleville boilers be not fitted in any case. 
(b.) As regards ships recently ordered, for which the work done 
on the boilers is not too far advanced : — That Belleville 
boilers be not fitted. 
(^.) As regards ships under construction, for which the work is 
so far advanced that any alteration of type of boiler 
would delay the completion of the ships : — That Belle- 
ville boilers be retained. 
(</.) As regards completed ships : — That Belleville boilers be 
retained as fitted. 
(4.) In addition to the Belleville type of boiler, the Committee 
have had under consideration four types of large straight tube boilers 
which have been tried in war vessels, and are now being adopted on 
an extended scale in foreign Navies. These are : — 
(a.) The Babcock and Wilcox boiler. 
(^.) The Niclausse boiler, 
(r.) The Diirr boiler. 
(d,) The Yarrow large-tube boiler. 



200 WATER-TUBE BOILERS 

(a) and (d) have also been tried in our own Navy with satisfactory 
results, and are now being adopted on a limited scale. 

If a type of water-tube boiler has to be decided on at once for 
use in the Navy, the Conimittee suggest that some or all of these 
types be taken. 

(5.) The Committee recommend that the completion of the two 
sloops and the second-class cruiser fitting with Babcock and Wilcox 
boilers, and the sloop and first-class cruiser fitting with Niclausse 
boilers, be expedited, in order that the value of these types of 
boilers for naval purposes may be ascertained at the earliest possible 
date. This is especially important, as the Babcock and Wilcox 
boiler adopted in the ships under construction differs materially from 
the Babcock and Wilcox boiler as fitted in the Sheldrake, 

(6.) The Committee recommend that boilers of the Diirr and of a 
modified Yarrow type be made and tested at the earliest possible 
date, under their supervision, with a view of aiding the selection of 
one or more types of water-tube boilers for use in His Majesty's 
ships. For this purpose the Committee suggest that two cruisers, 
not smaller than the " Medea " class, with vertical triple-expansion 
engines be placed at their disposal, and that they be empowered to 
order, at once, Diirr and Yarrow boilers to be fitted to them, and to 
order also the removal of their present boilers and the necessary 
modifications to their machinery, so that the performance of the 
types of boilers named may be definitely ascertained under ordinary 
working conditions from extended seagoing trials. The Committee 
suggest vessels not smaller than the " Medea " class, because the 
evidence before them shows that it has been difficult to draw from 
Torpedo Gunboat trials conclusions fully applicable to larger 
vessels. 

(7.) With reference to paragraph (i), evidence has been given 
before the Committee to the effect that three most important require- 
ments from the military point of view are : — 

(a.) Rapidity of raising steam and of increasing the number of 
boilers at work. 

(b.) Reduction to a minimum of danger to the ship from damage 
to boilers from shot or shell. 

{c.) Possibility of removing damaged boilers and replacing them 
by new boilers in a very short time and without open- 
ing up the decks or removing fixtures of the hull. 

These requirements are met by the water-tube boiler in a greater 
degree than by the cylindrical boiler, and are considered by the 
Committee of such importance as to outweigh the advantages of the 
latter type in economy of fuel and cost of up-keep. 

(8.) The opinion expressed by the Committee in paragraph (2) 
has been formed after a personal examination of the boilers in a 
number of His Majesty's ships, including the Diadem^ Niobey 
Europay Hermes^ Fotverful, Furious, and Ariadne ; upon the state- 
ments of defects which have been placed before them ; and the 



APPENDIX 20I 

evidence of the Chief Engineers of those vessels and other officers 
on the Engineering Staff of the Admiralty and Dockyards. This 
evidence is being printed, and will be forwarded when ready. 

(9.) The Committee consider the following points in relation to 
the construction and working of the Belleville boiler to constitute 
practical objections of a serious nature : — 

(a.) The circulation of water is defective and uncertain, because 
of the resistance offered by the great length of tube 
between the feed and steam collectors, the friction of 
the junction boxes, and the small holes in the nipples 
between the feed collector and the generator tubes, 
which also are liable to be obstructed, and may thus 
become a source of danger. 

(/\) The necessity of an automatic feeding apparatus of a 
delicate and complicated kind. 

(c.) The great excess of the pressure required in the feed pipes 
and pumps over the boiler pressure. 

(d.) The considerable necessary excess of boiler pressure over 
the working pressure at the engines. 

(e.) The water gauges not indicating with certainty the amount 
of water in the boiler. This has led to serious accidents. 

(/) The quantity of water which the boiler contains at different 
rates of combustion varying, although the same level 
may be shown on the water gauges. 

(g.) The necessity of providing separators with automatic blow- 
out valves on the main steam pipes to provide for 
water thrown out of the boilers when speed is suddenly 
increased. 

(/i.) The constant trouble and loss of water resulting from the 
nickel sleeve joints connecting the elements to the feed 
collectors. 

(/.) The liability of the upper generator tubes to fail by pitting 
or corrosion, and, in economiser boilers, the still 
greater liability of the economiser tubes to fail from the 
same cause : — 
Further : — 

(>&.) The upkeep of the Belleville boiler has so far proved to be 
more costly than that of cylindrical boilers ; in the 
opinion of the Committee this excess is likely to increase 
materially with the age of the boilers. 

(/.) The additional evaporating plant required with Belleville 
boilers, and their greater coal consumption on ordinary 
service as compared with cylindrical boilers, has hither- 
to nullified to a great extent the saving of weight effected 
by their adoption, and, in considering the radius of 
action, it is doubtful whether any real advantage has 
been gained. The Committee are not prepared without 
further experience to say to what extent this may not 
apply to other types of water-tube boilers. 



202 WATER-TUBE BOILERS 

(lo.) At the time the Belleville boiler was introduced into the 
Navy in the Powerful ^.nd. Terrible^ it was the only large tube type of 
water-tube boiler which had been tried at sea on a considerable scale, 
under ordinary working conditions. The Committee therefore con- 
sider that there was justification for then regarding it as the most 
suitable type of water-tube boiler for the Navy. 

(ii.) To obtain satisfactory results in the working of the Belleville 
boiler, in face of the defects named in paragraph (9), more than 
ordinary experience and skill are required on the part of the engine- 
room staff. It appears, however, from the evidence placed before 
the Committee, that the Engineer officers in charge of Belleville 
boilers have not been made acquainted with the best method of 
working the boilers^ and that which experience has shown to be 
most efifectual in preventing the pitting and corrosion of tubes. 

(12.) In view of the rapid deterioration of economiser tubes in 
several vessels, the Committee have specially considered whether the 
extra power per ton of boiler at high rates of combustion, obtained 
by the use of economisers, has not been too dearly purchased. The 
evidence before them indicates that at the lower and more usual 
rates of combustion the Powerful ty^^ of boiler has given results as 
satisfactory as the economiser type. It is at the same time less 
complex, and free from the special risks of tube deterioration which 
have proved so serious in many cases, notably in the Europa. They 
therefore recommend, for ships under construction, that the non- 
economiser type should be reverted to where practicable, with the 
tubes raised higher above the firebars to increase the combustion 
space, and that where possible the steam collectors should be made 
larger, and more accessible internally. 

(13.) The evidence before the Committee shows that a large pro- 
portion of the coal expended in the Navy is used for distilling and 
other auxiliary purposes, in harbour as well as at sea. For such 
purposes, the cylindrical boiler is, in the opinion of the Committee, 
more suitable and economical than any type of water-tube boiler. 
They recognise that there are objections to fitting cylindrical and 
water-tube boilers in combination, but they believe that those draw- 
backs would be more than compensated for by resulting advantages^ 
observing that the cylindrical boilers could be used for supplying 
distilled water in case of failure or insufficiency of the evaporating 
plant. On these grounds, it is considered desirable that all the new 
vessels of large power should be provided with cylindrical boilers to 
do the auxiliary work. 

(14.) The Committee have to state, for the information of their 
Lordships, that a series of comparative trials for determining economy 
in coal and water consumption were arranged in October 1900 for 
His Majesty's ships Minerva and Hyacinth, The trials of the former 
ship commenced on January 7th, as soon as she was ready, but were 
temporarily interrupted by recent events. The Committee are, how- 
ever, now informed that the Minerva will not be again available 
until after March 2nd, and that the Hyacinth will not be ready to 



APPENDIX 203 

commence her trials until the first week in April. It is proposed to 
include in these trials a full-speed run for both ships from Ports- 
mouth to Gibraltar and back. 

CoMPTON DoMViLE, Vice- Admiral and Chairman , 

Jas. Bain. 

John Inglis. 

Alex. B. W. Kennedy. 

John List. 

J. T. Milton. 



M. E. Browning, I r ,, c 

\\7 TT WT^^ I Joint Secretaries, 

Wm. H. Wood, J*^ 



I concur with the above Report, except as regards paragraph (3), 
and on the point dealt with in that paragraph my report is as 
follows : — 

(i.) Although the Belleville boiler has certain undesirable 
features, I am satisfied, from considerable personal 
experience, and from the evidence of Engineer officers 
who have had charge of boilers of this type in com- 
missioned ships, that it is a good steam generator, 
which will give satisfactory results when it is kept in 
good order and worked with the required care and 
skill. 

I am also satisfied, from my inspection of the boilers 
of the Messageries Maritimes Company's S.S. Laos^ after 
the vessel had been employed on regular mail service 
between Marseilles and Yokohama for more than three 
years without having been once laid up for repairs, that, 
with proper precaution, the excessive corrosive decay of 
the tubes which has occurred in some instances can be 
effectually guarded against. 
(2.) Having in view the extent to which Belleville boilers have 
already been adopted for His Majesty's ships, and the 
fact that there are now three or four other types of 
water-tube boilers which promise at least equally good 
results, I am of opinion that, pending the issue of the 
final report of the Committee, Belleville boilers should 
not be included in future designs. At the same time, I 
see no necessity for delaying the progress of ships which 
have been designed for Belleville boilers in order to 
substitute another type of boiler. Jos. A. Smith. 



INDEX 



Ability of water-tube boilers to stand 

forced draught, 73 
Accident to \\\^ Jaun^guibevry^ 102 
Acids, corrosive effect of fatty, 61 
Admiralty- type boiler, 187 

Weight, and space 
occupied by, 
188 
Advantages of forced draught, 72 

water-tube boilers, 189 
Air, admission of, above grate, 65 
in feed water. PIffect of, 61 
Loss of heat due to excess of, 64 
necessary for complete combustion, 

•63 
Ratio of, actually required for com- 
bustion to quantity theoretically 
necessar}', 63 
Alban Vx)iler, 9 
Allen Ijoiler, 1871, 23 
1872, 26 
Almy boiler, 35 
Anderson and Lyall boiler, 9 
Argonaut ^ Belleville boilers of, 81 

Size of tubes for Belleville 
lx)ilers of, 80 
Aix^s — Belleville boilers, 13 
Athanasiany Ilowden lx)ilers fitted to, 

Rowan and I lorton boilers 
fitted to, II, 40 
Automatic feed regulator — 
Belleville, 162 
Mum ford, 169 



Automatic feed regulator — contintted* 
Niclausse, 169 
Normand-Sigaudy, 164 
Sigaudy, 164 
Thornycroft, 164 
Weir, 171 
Yarrow. 167 



B 



Babbitt boiler, 19 
Babcock and Wilcox boiler — 

1867 design, 17 

1868 „ 17 

Average boiler-room weights per 
I.H.P., 188 

I^nd type, 82 

Marine type, 41, 85 

oi Sheldrake y 88 
Barlow and Fulton boiler, 4 
Barrans boiler, 1 3 
Barret and I^agrafel boiler, 22 
Beale boiler, 8 
Belleville l)oiler — 

1856 type, 10 

1861 ,, 13 

1866 „ 15 

1869 ,, 21 
1872 ,, 26 
1878 „ 29, S3 
1896 ,, 41, 75 

Average boiler-room weights per 

I.Il.P., 188 

Circulation in, 55 

Details of construction, 76 

205 



2o6 



INDEX 



Belleville boiler — cofitinued. 

Econoiiiisers condemned, 41, 181, 

202 
fitted, 41, 76 
Time required to raise steam in, 190 
replace tubes in, 80 
Use of lime in, 79 
Belleville feed- water regulator, 162 
reducing valve, 159 
steam separator, 161 
Biche^ Belleville boilers of, 1 1 
Birds-nesting, 72 
Blakey boiler, 3 
Blechynden boiler, 38, 148 

Average boiler-room 
weights per I.H.P., 
188 
Boiler heating surface— Durston's ex- 
periments, 62 
room weights per 1. 1 1. P., Table 
of, 188 
Boilers, Life of, 192 
Brass tubes, 122, 155 
Brunton boiler, 8 



Cahall boiler, 34 
Calorific value of carbon, 63 
Canopus — Diameters of tubes for Belle- 
ville boilers, 80 
Caraman tube joint, 104 
Carbonate of sotla in boilers, use of, 62 
Carl)on, Heat evolved in combustion of. 

Chemical action in boilers, 61 
Chloride of magnesia in boilers, 6i 
Church boiler, 8, 47 
Cituinnatit Test of Babcock and Wil- 
cox boiler of, 88 
Circulation- 
Conditions to ensure good, 
in a small-tube boiler, 59 
Direction of, 55, 57 
Effect of inclination of the 

tubes on, 58 

in Belleville boiler, 55 

Thornycroft boiler, 58 

Yarrow boiler, 56 

Necessity for rapid, 59 

of water in a Ixjiler, 54 



Clark boiler, 5 

Clarke and Motley boiler, 10 
Classification of water-tube boilers, 3 
** Climax" boiler, Morrin's, 32, 112 
"Closed ashpit" system of forced 

draught, 70 
"Closed stokehold" system of forced 

draught, 69 
"Clyde" boiler, Fleming and Fer- 
guson's, 38, 148 
Coal, Air required for complete com- 
bustion of, 63 
Collier boiler, 8 
Combustion in water-tube boilers, 62 

Conditions 
for effi- 
cient, 63 
of carbon, Heat evolved in, 

63 

coal. Air required for 
complete, 63 
Rate of, 62, 71 

with forced 
draught, 72 
Comparison of induced and forced 

draught, 71 
Conduction, Transmission of heat by, 60 
Conflict class, Trial of White boilers of, 

140 
Congreve l)oiler, 5 

Conqueror^ Forced draught fitted to, 69 
Convection, Transmission of heat by, 60 
Cook boiler, 36 
Copper tubes, 121 
Corliss boiler, 31 
Corrosion of boiler tul)es, 61, 174 
Cowles boiler, 34 
Craddock boiler, 9, 10 
CychfUy Trial of Normand boilers ot, 
132 



DAKOTA, Water-tube boilers of, 52 
Dale boiler, 4 
D'Allest boiler, 22, 99 

Details of construction, 

99 

Second design, 41 

Use of Ser\'e tubes, 10 1 



INDEX 



207 



Dance boiler, first design, 8 
Dance and Field boiler, 8, 44 
Daring type of Thorn}'croft boiler, 36 

Improved, 122 
Definition of a water-tube boiler, 2 
Deposits of mineral oil, 62, 175 
Diadem^ Belleville boilers of, 79, 81 
Direct tube or Admiralty boiler, 187 

Average boiler-room weights 
per I.II.P., 188 
Disadvantages of water- tube boilers, 191 
I>own-comers, effect of heating, 58 
•* Drowned " tubes, definition of, 33, 56 
Dunois, Test of Normand-Sigaudy 

boilers of, 134 
Durability of water- tube l)oilers, 192 
DUrr boiler, 39, 94 

details of construction of, 

96 

particulars of tests of the 
Land type, 98 
Marine type, 98 
Durston, Sir John. Effect of mineral 

oil in boilers, 62 
Du Temple boiler, 26, 29, 124 

Description of early 

forms of, 126 
Necessity for pure 
feed water em- 
phasized in, 127 
Normand's improve- 
ments in, 37, 128 
Du Temple-Guyot boiler, 128 
Du Temple-Normand boiler, 129 



EcoNOMiSERS in Belleville boilers. 

Effect of, 41, 80 

not to be fitted, 41, 202 
Ellis and Eaves* system of induced 

draught, 70 
Eve boiler, 5 



FAIRY DELL, Fitted with water-lube 

boilers, 49 
Fatty acids. Corrosive effect of, 61 
Feed- water. Advantages of heating, 180 



Feed- water, Effect of grease in, 174 
Filtration of, 173 
Necessity for pure, 173, 191 
Feed-water filter, Harris, 175 

Mills-Berr}'man, 178 
Normand, 178 
Rankine, 176 
Feed-water filters, 180 
Feed - water heater fitted to first 
Belleville boiler, 10, 181 

Kirkaldy, 182 
Normand, 182 
Wain Wright, 184 
Weir Injection, 184 
Weir Surface, 184 
Feed- water regulator, Belleville, 162 

Mumford, 169 
Niclausse, 169 
Normandy- Sig- 

audy, 164 
Sigaudy, 164 
Thornycroft, 164 
Yarrow, 167 
Weir*s, 171 
Feed-water regulators, 171 
Ferret, Test of Normand boilers of, 132 
Field boiler, 1866 design, 14 
1867 design, 16 
Field tul)e, 8 

Filtration of feed-water, 173 
Firmenich boiler, 28 
**Flash"boilers,6, 8 
Fleming and Ferguson boiler, 38, 148 
Fletcher boiler, 19 

Foam — Test of Thornycroft boilers, 124 
/w/^— Grate and Heating Surface of 

Mosher lx)iler, 135 
Forban — Test of Normand boilers of, 

Forced draught, 69 

Ability of water-tube 
boilers to stand, 73 

Advantages of, 72 

" Closed ashpit," 
system of, 70 

** Closed stokehold,-* 
system of, 69 

Comparison with in- 
duced draught, 71 

Experiments on Poly- 
phetuus, 71 



2o8 



INDEX 



Forced draught, Howden*s system, 70 

Increase of power due 

to, 73 
Necessity for, 71 
Kates of combustion 

with, 72 
Results of experiments, 

73 
Friant — Niclausse boilers, 94 

Fryer boiler, 28 

Furnace and tubes. Most advantageous 

arrangement of, 65 



G 



Galvanizing boiler tubes, 121 

Gill boiler, 32 

Gillman boiler, 6, 9 

Gitana^ fitted with closed stokehold 

system of forced draught, 69 
Grate surface, l^tio of heating surface 

to, 65 
Green boiler, 10 
Griffith boiler, 5, 42 
Gueydon^ Niclausse boilers of, 93 
Gurney boiler, 6, 42 
Guyot boiler, 40 

Improvement on du Temple 
boiler, 128 



H 



J/ACOj Fitted with Rowan and Hor- 

ton's 1869 type boilers, 49 
I lall boiler, 6 
Hancock boiler, 6, 44 
Harris feed- water filter, 175 
Harrison boiler, 28 
Ilazelton boiler, 31 
Heat, Transmission of, 60, 62 

P'ffect of grease 
on, 62 
Utilized in a boiler, 64 

Mosher boiler, 136 
Heating feed- water, Advantage of, 180 
surfiice, Efficiency of, 66 

Importance of cleanli- 
ness of, 66 
Niclausse 's experi- 
ments on, 67 



Heating surface, Ratio of, to grate sur- 
face, 65, 124 
Variation in efficiency 
of, according to f>osi- 
tion, 65, 124' 
Heine boiler, 31, 11 1 

Particulars of tests of, 112 
Henshall boiler, 36 
Hermes, Particulars of Belleville boilers 

of, 81 
Herreshoff boiler, 1890 type, 35 
Herreshoff coil boiler, 32 
Hill boiler, 9 

Hirotidelle, Belleville boilers, 20, 25 
Hogiie^ Particulars of Belleville boilers 

of, 81 
Hornsby boiler, 105 
Howard, James, boiler 1866, 14 

second design, 
21 
Flash boiler, 9 
Howden boiler, 13, 49 
Hyde boiler, 38 

Hydrochloric acid in boilers, formation 
of, 61 



I 



Inclination of tubes in a water-tube 

lx)iler, 58 
Induced draught, 70 

Comparison with forced 

draught, 71 
Ellis and Eaves' system 

of, 70 
Experiments on Poly- 

phemtts, 71 
Martin system of, 70 
Interruption of feed, Effect of, in waler- 

tube boilers, 191 
Isherwood. Forced draught in America, 

69 

Isoard boiler, 10 



James boiler, 9 

Jaun^gttibeny^ Accident on the, 102 
Tocssel boiler, 18 
Joly boiler, 1 1 . 



•^ r- 



INDEX 



209 



u 



Q 



K 

Kelly boiler, 28 
Kilgore boiler, 26 
Kingsley boiler, 32 
Kirkaldy feed-heater, 1S2 



Zl^ Hire — Particulars of Normand- 

Sigaudy boilers of, 134 
Lamb and Summers' boiler, 13 
Lance, Test of Noriuand boilers of, 132 
Lane boiler, 32 
Large- tube boilers, 74 
Leblond and Caville boiler, 41 
Life of boilers in the Na\y, 192 
Lime in boilers, Use of, 61 
Locomotive boilers — Average boiler- 
room weights per LH.P., 188 



M 



Maceroni and Squire boiler, 8, 46 
Magnesia in boilers, Effect of Chloride 

of, 61 
Marc Antony — Fitted with water-tube 

boilers, 49 
Martin system of induced draught, 70 
Maynard boiler, 23 
M 'Curdy boiler, 5 
M'Dowall boiler, 8 
Meissner boiler, 31 
Merry weather boiler, 14 
Miller boiler, 22 

Mills- Berry man feed-water filter, 178 
Mineral oil, Deposits of, 62, 175 
Montana, Water- tube boilers of, 52 
Monterey, Ward coil boiler fitted to, 

143 
Moore boiler, 5 

Morgan boiler, 9 

Morrin boiler, 32, 112 

Mosher boiler, 36, 134 

Heat utilised in, 136 
Launch type, 136 
Particulars of test of, 136 

Mumford boiler, 39, 145 

Feed-water regulator, 169 



N 

Natural and forced draught. Com- 
parison between, 73 
Niclausse — Experiments on efficiency of 

heating surfaces, 67 
Niclausse boiler. Average boiler room- 
weights per L H. P. , 
188 
Details of construc- 
tion, 89 
Early forms of, 30 
Present form of. 34, 89 
tubes, 1900 type of, 92 
Niclausse feed- water regulator, 169 
Normand — Improvements in du Temple 

boiler, 128 
Normand boiler, 37, 130 

Average boiler-room weights 
per I. H. P. , and space occu- 
pied, 188 
Direct flame type, 130 
Particulars of tests of, 132 
Return flame type, 130 
Normand feed-water filter, 178 

heater, 182 
Normand-Sigaudy boiler, 37, 133 

Particulars of, 

for cruisers 

Dttfiois and 

LaHire,\'^^ 

feed- water regulator, 

164 



Oil in boilers. Effect of animal or veget- 
able, 61 
mineral, 62, 175 
Oriolle boiler, 35, 102 

Average boiler - room 
weights per I.H.P., 
188 
Weight of, 105 
Over-heating due to boiler scale, 60 

defective circula- 
tion, 59 



Paul boiler, 5 
Payne boiler, 8 
Peace, Thornycroft coil boiler of, 32 







2IO 



INDEX 



Pearson boiler, 6 

Pegasus t Test of Reed boilers of, 139 

Perkins, J., boiler, 8 

Perkins, Loftus, boiler, 12 

fitted to motor- 
car, 48 
Petit and Godard boiler, 39 
Phleger boiler, 24 
Pierpoint boiler, 38 
Pitting, 61 

Pitts and Strode boiler, 4 
Planibeck and Dark in boiler, 28 
Polyphemus — Experiments with induced 

and forced draught on, 70 
Poole boiler, 6 

Powerful — Belleville boilers, 75 
Priuz Ileinrich, Test of DUrr boilers 

of, 98 
Propontis^ History of the, 18, 49 

Rowan and Horton boilers 
of, 49 
Prosser boiler, 9 



(JUANTITY of air required for complete , 
combustion, 63 



Rankine feed- water heater, 176 
Rapidity of raising steam in water-tube 

boilers, 190 
Rate of combustion, 62, 71 
Ratio of healing surface to grate sur- 
face, 65, 124 
Rawe and Boasc, 6 
Reducing valves, 159 

Belleville, 159 
Reed boiler, 38, 136 

Avcrat^e boiler - room 
weights per I. II. P., 188 
of Pegasus^ Test of, 1 39 
Regulator, Automatic feed-water — 

Belleville, 162 

Mumford, 169 

Niclausse, 169 

Normand-Sigaudy, 164 

Sigaudy, 164 

Thornycrofl, 164 

Weir, 171 

Yarrow, 167 



Regulators, automatic feed - water, 

necessity for, 162 
Repairs to Belleville boiler, Time re- 
quired for, 80 
Niclausse boiler, Facilities 

for, 90 
small-tube boilers, 122 
Return tube boiler — Average boiler- 
room weights [Der I.H.P., 188 
Road carriiiges. Water-tube boilers for, 

42 
Roberts boiler, 34 
Rogers and Black boiler, 28 
Root boiler, 18 

Rowan and Horton boiler 1859, 11, 49 

Propontis type, 18, 49 
Rowan, F. J., lx)iler, 28 
Rowan, J. M., 1857, ii, 49 

i860, 13 

1865, 14 
Rumsey, boiler, 4 



SAINTE Barbe, Belleville boilers. 

Salamander^ I*articulars of Mumford 

boiler of, 147 
Satellite^ Forced draught fitted to, 69 
Schafhautl boiler, 8 
Schulz boiler, 40 
Sea cocks on condensers condemned, 

173 
Scaf^ull — Niclausse boilers, 93 

Seaward boiler, 5 

Sea-water, Action of heat on, 61 

"Sentry" feed-water filter, Mills- 
Berry man, 178 

Separators, steam, Belleville, 161 

Serve tubes, loi 

Shackleton boiler, 28 

Sharpshooter^ Time required to get up 
steam on Belleville boilers of, 190 

Sheldrake — 

Babcock and Wilcox boilers, 41 

Tests of, 88 

Sigaudy feed-water regulator, 164 

Sinclair boiler, 29 

Small-tube boilers, 118 

Circulation in, 56, 

58 



INDEX 



211 



Sochet boiler, 1 1 

Space occupied by various types of 

boilers, i88 
Speedy^ Test of Thornycroft boilers of, 

124 
Speedy type of Thornycroft boiler, 32 
Steam separator, Belleville, 161 
SteinmUUer boiler, 32 
Stevens boiler, 4 
Stirling boiler, 1887 type, 34 
1888 type, 34 
Description of present 

type, 107 
Tests of, 1 10 
Sturgeon class. Test of Blechynden 

lx>ilers, 150 
Stiffren^ Niclausse boilers of, 93 
Summers and Ogle boiler, 6, 46 
Swordfish class. Test of Yarrow boilers 

of, 157 



Teissier boiler, 5 

Terrible^ Belleville lx)ilers, 75 

TItetiSy fitted with Rowan boiler, 11,49 

Thompson boiler, 32 

Thornycroft, Forced draught fitted on 

the Gitatia^ 69 
Thornycroft boiler, DaringXy^^^ 36, 122 

Improved 

form, 123 

Thornycroft boiler, Speedy \.y^, 32, 119 

Details of 
construction 
of, 120 
Objections to 
curved form 
of tubes of, 
121 
coil boiler, 32 
feed- water regulator, 164 
Thornycroft-Marshall boiler, 114 

Test of, 117 
Time required to raise steam in Belle- 
ville boiler, 190 
replace tubes in Belle- 
ville boiler, 80 
ToMme boiler, 38 
Transmission of heat, 60, 62 



Transmission of heat, Durston's experi- 
ments, 62 
Effect of grease 
on, 62 
Trevethick boiler, 5, 8 
Tube joint, Caraman, 104 
Tubes, Decreasing the diameter of, dis- 
continued, 1 28 
Difficulty of removing, in small- 
tube boilers, 122 
Galvanizing boiler, 121 
Inclination of the, in water- 
tube boilers, 58 
Most advantageous arrangement 
of, 65 

Most suitable material for, 121 

Serve tubes, 10 1 
Tube wall, 120, 128 
Tubulous boilers {jsee water-tube boilers) 



ViENNE, Belleville boilers, 15 
Vimia, Test of Diirr boilers, 98 
Voight and Fitch boiler, 4 
VoUigeur^ Belleville Iwilers, 53 

w 

Wainwright feed-water heater, 184 
Ward coil boiler, 31, 140 
launch boiler, 143 
Water per I. H. P. contained in boilers, 

average, 187 
Water-tube boiler — 
Alban, 9 
Allen, 187 1, 23 
1872, 26 
Almy, 35 

Anderson and Lyall, 9 
Babbitt, 19 

Babcock and Wilcox, 1867, 17 

1868, 17 
I^nd type, 82 
Marine type, 

41, 85 
Barlow and Fulton, 4 
Barrans, 13 

Barret and Lagrafel, 22 
Bealc, 8 



212 



INDEX 



Water-tube boiler — continued. 
Belleville, 1856, 10 
1861, 13 
1866, 15 
1869, 21 
^1872, 26 
1878, 29, 53 
1896, 41, 75 
Blakey, 3 

Blechynden, 38, 148 

Brutiton, 8 

Cahall, 34 

Church, 8, 47 

Clark, 5 

Clarke and Motley, 10 

** Climax," Morrin's, 32, 112 

** Clyde," Fleming and Ferguson's, 

38, 148 
Collier, 8 
Congreve, 5 
Cook, 36 
Corliss, 31 
Cowles, 34 
Craddock, 9, 10 
Dale, 4 

D'Allest, 22, 99 
Dance, 8 

Dance and Field, 8, 44 
Darr, 39, 94 
Du Temple, 26, 29, 124 
Du Temple-Guyot, 128 
Du Temple-Normand, 129 
Eve, 5 

Field, 1866, 14 
1867, 16 
Firmenich, 28 

Fleming and Ferguson, 38, 148 
Fletcher, 19 
Fryer, 28 
Gill, 32 
Gillman, 6, 9 
Green, lo 
Griffith, 5, 42 
Gurney, 6, 42 
Guyot, 40 
Hall, 6 

Hancock, 6, 44 
Harrison, 28 
Hazelton, 31 
Heine, 31, in 
Hen&hall, 36 



Water-tube boiler — lOfUinued, 
Herreshoff, 1890, 35 
Herreshoff coil, 32 
Hill, 9 
Hornsby, 105 
Howard, James, 1866, 14 

Second design, 21 
» Flash type, 9 

Howden, 13, 49 
Hyde, 38 
Isoard, 10 
James, 9 
Joessel, 18 
Joly, II 
Kelly, 28 
Kilgore, 26 
Kingsley, 32 
Lamb and Summers, 13 
Lane, 32 

Leblond and Caville, 41 
Maceroni and Squire, 8, 46 
Maynard, 23 
M*Curdy, 5 
M 'Dowall, 8 
Meissner, 31 
Merry weather, 14 
Miller, 22 
Moore, 5 
Morgan, 9 
Morrin, 32, 112 
Mosher, 36, 134 

Launch type, 136 
Mumford, 39, 145 
Niclausse, 30, 34, 89 
Normand, 37, 130 
Normand-Sigaudy, 37, 133 
Oriolle, 35, 1 02 
Paul, 5 
Payne, 8 
Pearson, 6 
Perkins, J., 8 

Loftus, 12 
Petit and Godard, 39 
Phleger, 24 
Pierpoint, 38 
Pitts and Strode, 4 
Plambeck and Darkin, 28 
Poole, 6 
Prosser, 9 
Rawe and Boase, 6 
Reed, 38, 136 



INDEX 



213 



Water-tube boiler — continued. 
Roberts, 34 
Rogers and Black, 28 
Root, 18 

Rowan and Horton 1859, 11, 49 

Propontis type, 
18, 49 
Rowan, P\ T-j 28 
Rowan, J, M., 1857, ii, 49 

i860, 13 
1865, 14 
Rumsey, 4 
Schafhautl, 8 
Schulz, 40 
Seaward, 5 
Shackleton, 28 
Sinclair, 29 
Sochet, 1 1 
SteinmuUer, 32 
Stevens, 4 
Stirling, 1887, 34 
1888, 34 
Summers and Ogle, 6, 46 
Teissier, 5 
Thompson, 32 
Thornycroft coil type, 32 

Daring type, 36, 122 
Sfcedyiy^t 32, 119 
Thornycroft-Marshall, 114 
Towne, 38 
Trevethick, 5, 8 
Voight and Fitch, 4 
Ward coil, 31, 140 
launch, 143 
Watt, 123 
Wheeler, 36 
White coil, 38, 139 
White- Forster, 38, 152 
Wi^and, 25 
Wilcox, Stephen, 10 
Willcox, 4 
Williams, 13 
Witty, 6 
Wood, 34 



W^ater-tube boiler — continued. 

Woolf, 4 

Yarrow, 32, 152 
Water-tube boilers — 

Ability to stand forcing, 190 

Advantages of, 189 

Circulation in, 3 

Classification of, 3 

Comparative freedom from serious 
accidents, 189 

Definition of, 2 

Disadvantages of, 191 

Early applications to road carriages, 

42 
High pressures in, 189 

History of, 3 

Life of, 192 

Quickness of raising steam in, 190 
Watkinson, Professor, on circulation in 

water-tube boilers, 54 
Watt boiler, 123 

Weight of water-tube boilers, 187 
Weir feed- water regulator, 171 
injection heater, 184 
surface heater, 184 
Wheeler boiler, 36 
White coil boiler, 38, 139 

Trial of Conflict class 
fitted with, 140 
White-Forster boiler, 38, 152 
Wiegand boiler, 25 
Wilcox, Stephen, boiler, 10 
W^illcox boiler, 4 
Williams boiler, 13 
Witty boiler, 6 
Wood boiler, 34 
Woolf boiler, 4 



Yarrow — Experiments on circulation 
of water in boilers, 55 
Feed-water regulator, 167 
Boiler, 32, 152 



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29 



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