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Vol. XXI : No. 5. SEPTEMBER, 1915. Price, Ten Cents.
THOS. E. WATSON, EDITOR
ARTICLES BY THE EDITOR IN
THE OFFICIAL RECORD IN THE CASE OF
LEO FRANK, A JEW PERVERT
THE DARK AGES, THE EXTINCTION OF
THE RENAISSANCE AND THE BEGINNING OF MOD-
ERN INTELLECTUAL INDEPENDENCE
THE JEFFERSONIAN PUBLISHING COMPANY
The Story of France
By THOS. E, WJiTSOni
THE ROMAN CONQUEST: The Gauls, the Druids, the
THE PRANKISH CONQUEST: Clovis, the Triumph of
Christianity, Defeat of Saracens, etc.
CHARLEMAGNE AND HIS TIMES.
THE DARK AGES: Feudalism, Superstition, Papal Power
and Tyranny, Religious Persecutions.
THE INSTITUTION OF CHIVALRY.
THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR.
JOAN OF ARC : Her pure girlhood; heroic nfission; saves
France ; burnt to death by priests of Rome; then cano-
nized as a saint.
THE ALBIGENSIAN CRUSADE: The Massacre of St.
THE OLD REGIME: What it was in Church and State.
The Rule of the Harlots, both in Church and State.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The Dragonnades.
COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION:
Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, and reorganization of
both Church and State.
In the preparation of this work, the author exhausted all
the known sources of information, and no work on the subject
has superseded his. It is standard, and will remain so.
Mr. Watson bought out his publishers, the MacMillans,
and he now owns plates, copyright and all.
THE SOLE PUBLISHERS ARE:
The Jeffetsonian Publishing Co.
July, 1914 Thomson, - Georgia
tncered as second-ciass matter January 4, 1911, at the Post Office at Thomson, Georgia,
Under the e/lct of March 3. 1879.
ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR — TEN CENTS'PER COPY
Vol. XXL SEPTEMBER, 1915 No, 5
FRONTISPIECE— Thos. E. Watson
SPECIAL e/IRTieLES AND EDITORIALS-Thos. E. Watson :
THE DARK AGES, THE EXTINCTION OF LEARNING (Concluded) 239
THE OFFICIAL RECORD IN THE CASE OF LEO FRANK,
A JEW PERVERT 251
Published Monthly by THE JEFFERSONIAN PUBLISHING COMPANY, Thomson. Ga.
Thos. E. Watson
THOS. E. WATSON, Editor
TKe Dark Ages; TTie Extinction of Learning
TRe Renaissance and the Beginning of Modern Intellectual
rHE Eenaissance, the Revival of
Learning, is itself a tremendous
indictment of Popery, Why
should there have been in Europe such
a night of ignorance and superstition,
that the old Pagan hooks had to he
called upon to sound the trump of
Is it not the utmost condemnation
of what the Roman Catholic hierarchy
had done for Europe, that the literary
genius of Paganism had to be invoked
to revive learning and civilization?
Blessed be the Revival: accursed be
they who made such a re-birth of
Who were the men, and what was
the influence which had put out the
light of learning, brought on the
Dark Ages, and made the Renaissance
an era in historj^?
It was a pope that had the vast
imperial libraries of Rome hurned!
The name of this foe to learning was
Gregory the Great. It was he who
proclaimed that ins^Diring and char-
acteristic papal dogma, '"'Ignorance is
the mother of devotion P''
In the destruction of the Palatine
collection of manuscripts, disappeared
forever some of the richest treasures
of the ancient world.
Among those lost treasures were
not only the missing books of Livy,
.over which scholars so much mourn.
but also the 20-volume history of the
Etrurian people which the Emperor
Claudius had caused the Roman sages
to carefully compile.
(See Old Etruria and Modem Tus-
cany, p. 10, by M. L. Cameron.
Methuen & Co., London. Publishers,
The Emperor Justinian was the
Catholic bigot who shut up the classic
schools, and dispersed the teachers.
How can the modern student doubt
the causes of the mental decadence of
Europe, when he learns that the
Roman priests burnt the vast accumu-
lations of books at Alexandria and at
Rome, and that they influenced the
emperors to abolish the schools?
What can the human race do, when
the religious caste gains such power
over the governmental machiner}'^, that
it can compel the destruction of liter-
How can the multitude learn, when
there is nobody to teach?
If the Roman Catholic Church calls
Gregory the Great, because that pre-
late gains such control over the State,
as to forbid school-teaching, burn the
Emperor's priceless libraries, and
annihilate culture, why should the
defenders of that church deny the
natural consequences ?
If men can become educated and
enlightened, without books and with-
out teachers, tell us how/
The pope whom the Catholics calk'd
"Great," gloried in his temporary
obliteration of existing literature, and
he established the maxim that, '"ignor-
ance is the mother of devotion."
That being done, the Dark Ages fell
upon Europe, and mankind groped in
Instead of Homer, Sophocles, Euri-
pides, Virgil, Horace, and Juvenal,
the little band of Europeans who
could read, bent their dutiful heads
over manuscripts which told of how
the Devil appeared here, and how
the Virgin Mary appeared yonder,
and how the mo.st holy bones of some
most blessed Martyr had wrought
ANCIENT LIBRARY IN ROMAN CATHOLIC ENGLAND. SHOWING BOOKS CHAINED.
. ■ i 1
midnight gloom for a thousand years.
Instead of the histories of Livy,
Tacitus, Suetonius, Thucidydes, Hero-
dotus, and Xenophon, those Euro-
peans who could read at all, had to
swallow such gruel as the ludicrous
writings of (iregory of Tours.
Instead of Plutarch, Plato, Seneca,
Marcus, Aurelius, and Epictetus, few
Christians who could gain access to
books had to debauch their common
sense with most blessed, most miracu-
lous, and most childish "Lives of the
marvels for them that truly believed.
In Ha Ham's Middle Ages, in
Buckle's History of Civilization, in
Draper's Intellectual Progress of
Europe, and in many other standard
works, you may find samples of the
mental hog-wash that the Roman
Catholic Church doted on, during
those Dark Ages she brought upon
In many of the books on subjects
hitherto neglected, we find references
to the contents of the libraries belong-
ing to kings, colleges, and universi-
Information of this sort throws a
flood of Wght on the mental culture of
the Dark Ages.
"Wlien we find that a great univer-
sit}' owns almost no books at all, ex-
cepting Roman Catholic "devotionals,"
we need no further evidence to con-
vince us that the people had no litera-
"Old English Libraries," is the title
of a volume issued in 1912 by A. C.
McClurg, Chicago: the author is
Ernest A, Savage.
The book is exceedingly valuable
because of what it reveals concerning
the attitude of the Church toward
Learning. One is amazed to find
that metallic chains were used to
fasten each Hymnal and Breviary,
and Selections from the Bible to the
walls; and we cannot understand why
it was necessary to chain these books
from the seizure of the reading
monks, until we read the following
passage from St. Jerome —
"Books are clothed with precious
stones, whilst Christ's poor die at the
We are told that the very few
copies of devotional works possessed
by the Catholic churches, were richly
adorned with gold, silver, and gems;
one of these — The Gospels of Lindau
— bearing nearly 500 gems encrusted
Obviously, they had to chain the
book, to keep some larcenous monk
from making off with the gems. (See
page 108, Old English Libraries.)
The Exeter Cathedral Library had
amassed a hoard of sixty devotional
In the Corpus Christi College, Cam-
bridge, there were, in 1327, a collec-
tion of 230 volumes, the harvest of
200 years of accumulation.
In the Salisbury Cathedral, there
were, in the fifteenth century, nearly
200 manuscripts, mostly devotional.
In St. Paul's Cathedral, 1245, the
inventory of the library showed thir-
Tlie University of Oxford had the
finest literar}^ collection in England.
Kings, lords ,and bishops made dona-
tions to it, until, in 1440, the volumes
numbered about 400.
The next best collection was at
Peterhouse, where they gloated over
380 volumes — all securely chained, to
prevent the "religious" from stealing
the be-jeweled covers.
So exceptional was it for a mere
clerk (a parish priest) to own a book
of any sort, that the poet Chaucer
mentions, as a distinguished fact, that
the fifth husband of the Wife of Bath,
an Oxford priest, "hadde a book."
Apparently, her other husbands had
never possessed so rare a treasure.
Yet the Papist writers of 1915 are
endeavoring to convince mankind that
there was never such a period as the
Dark Ages, and that literaiy culture
was more excellent and universal in
the Middle Ages than at present —
even though it was an age when hogs,
cattle, and outlaws ran loose, while
the pitiful little array of books was
chained to the walls inside the cathe-
drals, and the universities!
In 1910, a Boston publishing house
brought out a work entitled, "Royal
Palaces and Parks of France."
On page 83, we are told that King
John the Good of France, who reigned
in the middle of the fourteenth cen-
tury, had a royal library consisting
of eleven volumes, four of these books
being "devotional." When a crowned
head of such a progressive nation as
the French possessed only seven books
of any value, what must have been
the utter lack of literature among the
common people !
The successor of John the Good,
made great efl'orts to collect a library ;
and, after all his exertions, his cata-
logue, made in 1373, showed only 910
volumes, considered "an immense
number for those times."
WATSON 'S MAGAZINE.
The historians say that the Renais-
sance Ix'gan with "the lieretics," such
as Abehird. and the Arabian, Aver-
roes, and his great patron, Frederick
II., "the arch-heretic." They men-
tion Roger Bacon, the pioneer in
physical science, whom the Church
iiuprisoned for fourten years, because
of his independence of research.
Petrarch, they call the "almost, first
collector and loving studewt of Latin
Utanuscripts, the Christian who adored
the pagan thinkers."
If such a patrician, poet and scholar
as Petrarch was under the necessity
of searching, here and there, in
obscure corners and cup-boards, to
■find a hidden classic, what must have
been the ignorance of the common
No complete copy of Virgil could
he found until the year 1469. Greg-
ory the Great had burnt every Roman
classic he could lay his fanatical
hands on !
At that very time, the splendid
schools of the Mohammedan Caliphs
were malring Bagdad and Alexandria
seats of learning; the manuscripts
that had escaped Time and the
fanatics were being industriously col-
lected; and scribes were kept busy
making copies for general use. In
Spain, the Moors had established such
magnificent colleges that students
from all over Europe eagerly sought
among the disciples of Mahomet, the
learning which was a forbidden, im-
possible thing in the realm of the
(See Sismondi's History Literature
of Southern Europe, Vol. I.)
Another great forerunner of the
Revival of Learning, was the French
skeptic, Montaigne, who lived within
the Church — which he laughed at —
and kissed the foot of the pope, whose
monstrous imposture he punctured
with his pen.
As a conventional Catholic, he
resembled Rabelais, Abelard, and
Erasmus in doing enormous harm to
the hierarchy which sought, in Ciirist's
name, to rule the world through fear,
Ignorance, and superstition.
lie rejected all pojiish stories of
marvels and mirncles. used iiis shrewd
common sense in the study of all ques-
tions, was a devoted student of the
pagan classics, and held the Roman
Catholic literature in deepest con-
The supreme work of the Renais-
sance (at least of that of Italy), is
by John Addington Symonds, a
shorter version of which was prepared
by Alfred Pearson, in 1893.
(Charles Scribner's Sons, New York,
published an edition of it ; and this,
I am using.)
On page 136, is the statement:
"We are, however, justified in hail-
ing Petrarch as the Columbus of a
neAv spiritual hemisphere, the discov-
erer of modern culture. . . .
"From him the inspiration needed
to quicken curiosity and stimulate
zeal for knowledge proceeded.
"But for his intervention in tiie
fourteenth century, it is possible that
the Revival of Learning, and all that
it implies, might have heen delayed
too late. (Italics mine.)
"The vast influence he immediately
exercised" (because of his school of
disciples in Florence) "while Dante
inoperative, proves that the age was
specially prepared to receive his in-
Petrarch died in 1453. It was in
1478, twenty-five years later, that
Pope Sixtus IV. set up the devilish
Inquisition in Spain, and began to
burn Jews, Moors and Spaniards who
were tainted with mental indepen-
During the next four years, two
thousand human beings were burnt
alive, in the single province of Cas-
tile. Andalusia became a shambles;
m some places, a desert.
In 1492, Torqiiemada appeared be-
fore Ferdinand and Isabella, raised
his crucifix, and cried, "Judas sold
Christ for thirty pieces of silver; sell
ye him for a larger sum, and account
tor the same to God."
It was enough. In those days, when
a pope, or a priest, declared God's
pleasure, no man dared say that the
pope knew no more what God's pleas-
ure was than any one else. The
priest's will, is God's will, and if you
oppose a priest, vou are an enemy of
That is literally the priest's point
of view, and to the extent that he can
impress it upon others, he usurps
God''s place in this world, and the
And I fear that all organized priest-
hoods are dreadfuly alike, in that
As fast as they could flee the mur-
derous rage of the Roman Catholic
priests of Spain, 800,000 Jews got out
of the blighted land, leaving houses
and chattels, gold and silver, glad to
escape with their lives.
It was this lustful and savage beast,
Pope Sixtus, whose name is yet borne
by the Sistine chapel, at the Vatican,
where other popes, no better at heart,
carry on their pagan rites.
(Symonds' Short History of the
Renaissance, pages 67, 8 and 9.)
It was on June 1, 1501, Alexander
VI., the father of Caesar and Lucretia
Borgia, the pope who caused Savo-
narola to be burned, the pope who
murdered many, and who finally pois-
oned himself in his effort to poison
Cardinal Corneto — it was just a few
years after Columbus landed in the
Bahama Islands, that Pope Alexander
VI. endeavored to shackle the free
thoughts and pens of scholars, hy
estahlishing the Index of prohibited
By this Brief, the worst pope that
had reigned at Kome since the days
of Pope John, the Sodomist, created
a censorship of the press, requiring
that a papal license be obtained before
any book should be issued.
In the list of authors condemned by
this papal Brief, and placed on the
Index, from time to time, appear the
names of Dante, Arisoto, Francis
Bacon, Boccaccio, Bruno, Bishop Bur-
nett (who wrote the standard His-
tory of the Reformation in England),
John Calvin, Chambers (on account
of his Encyclopedia), Bayle (on ac-
count of his celebrated Historical Dic-
tionary,) COPERNICUS (on account
of his work on Astronomy, which is
now the accepted theory of all the
world), John Burchard (on account
of the Diary which revealed the
shameful private life in the Vatican),
ERASMUS (on account of his Praise
of Folly, Familiar Colloquies, Insti-
tution of Christian Marriages, «S;c.,),
MONTAIGNE (on account of his
Essays), MILTON, on account of his
Paradise Lost, as well as his defense
of free printing popular government.
But what had been, for a thousand
years, the attitude and the policy of
the Roman Catholic Church toward
classic culture'^ What had been her
principle and her practise, in regard
to the very masterpieces of ancient
learning and genius which are now
the text-books in all academies, and
the treasures of all libraries?
On page 132 of Symond's History,
"The Church, while battling with
paganism, recognized her deadliest foe
Therefore, the classic literature must
be destroyed. And so thoroughly was
the fatal work done in the pope's
kingdoms, that when Poggio acci-
dentally discovered a hidden copy of
Quintilian, his lucky find was the sen-
sation of the day !
There were European enthusiasts
who devoted their lives to the diligent
search for the exceedingly few ancient
manuscripts that had been hidden
awa}', and thus saved from the de-
vouring fanaticism of Papal Kome.
When Ciriaeo di Ancona was asked
the purpose of his continual wander-
ing in search of manuscripts, he
nobly answered, "/ go to awake the
(See Hudson's Renaissance^ page
The pagans had to be called back to
life in order that learning and civ-
ilization might once more bless man-
In the time of Petrarch and Boc-
caccia, there was no grammar and no
dictionary in existence, throughout
Italy: and the student had to depend
on oral instruction. (Hudson, page
Not only did Europe have to rely
upon the Mohammedans and the
Greek Catholics for teachers, but for
books, also; and without these Arab
and Greek teachers, it is impossible
to see how Koman Catholic Europe
would ever have emerged from dark-
After the pioneer teachers had
kindled enthusiasm for the pagan
classics, the great Medici family im-
ported literature by the ship-load
from the East, and even the popes
became purchasers of what their pre-
decessors had anathematized.
Nicholas V. paid 500 ducats for a
copy of Polybius, 1,000 florins for
Strabo, and is said to have collected
5,000 of the old pagan works. (Hud-
son, p. 44.)
Lorenzo de Medici (the Magnifi-
cent) sent the Greek scholar, Lascaris,
on two journeys to the East, in quest
of the precious books whose European
versions and copies had all been de-
stroyed by the Roman Catholic
Church. These treasures which the
Greek Catholics had preserved, were
brought to Florence, and from thence
copies travelled over Europe. It is
curious to note, that Lascaris obtained
200 of these ancient classics from the
Greek Catholic monastery at Mount
Athos, on the Sinaitic peninsula, the
same monastery which was in posses-
sion of an older Bible than that whicii
was kept under lock and key at
Rome. (Hudson's Renaissance^ page
Says Hudson, on page 38, "A bar-
rier of ignorance and misunderstand-
ing had been reared hy theology,,
between the mind of the mediaeval
man and that of the classic ages."
Why not confess the whole truth,
in the words of naked candor: the
Roman Catholic prelates realized that
they could not impose their system, on
the human race, UNLESS CLASSIC
LITERATURE WAS DE-
It would have been futile, to forbid
men to think, and at the same time
permit them to read the books which
supplied them with ideas.
The absolute fact is, that the almost
complete destruction of ancient litera-
ture was a necessary part of the
Roman system to enslave the European
We owe our emancipation, and our
salvation, to the Greek Catholics, to
the Arab scholars, to the dauntless
skeptics, and to such martyrs as
Arnold of Brescia, Jerome of Prague,
John Huss, Tyndale and Wyclitie, an<
the invincible ex-monk, Martin Lu-
The man and the occasion met,
when Martin Luther threw off the
yoke of Rome, appealed to the Bible,
and defied the Powers of earth !
Since then, the world has gone for-
ward, wherever the pope has been
scorned and defied, as Luther scorned
and defied him.
Learning heard a Gabriel's trump,
and came forth in radiant Resurrec-
Men breathed again, and the un-
shackled human brain started the loom
of Modernism, from which has been
woven such a wondrous garment for
the re-clothing of old earth.
For more than ten hundred years,
Europe had hardly advanced a step.
It was a deadly sin to inquire. It
was heresy to advance.
The tortured Galileo found it so:
Corpenicus found it so: Roger Bacon
found it so: Wyclitfe found it so:
Bruno found it so: Abelard found
The popes ruled by direct succession
from Jesus Christ: the kings ruled by
Divine Eight, as ascertained by the
popes: the people were nothing.
It was theirs to obey, to toil and
moil, to be thankfully content with
the condition in which they found
themselves. It was theirs to support
Sir Pope, Sir Priest, Sir King, and
The dogma that sovereignty is
vested in the people, and that all just
government is based on the consent of
the governed, was a damnable heresy,
a deadly sin.
In the eyes of popes, there was no
legality, or permissibility in democra-
cies and republics. Monarchies, alone,
were lawful, and pleasing in the sight
of the Lora.
For, look you ! did not the pope
appoint the cardinals, and did not the
cardinals appoint the pope?
Yea, verily. The laity and the
lower clergy had no voice in the mat-
ter. From generation to generation,
popes named cardinals^ and cardinals
A closer corporation was never
known. It was self-elective, self-per-
petuating, absolute in authority, and
beyond the reach of any Recall.
"What the popes had at length made
of the Church, they wanted the State
And they had it so in the Dark
Ages. They had it so, even in the
Middle Ages. They had it so, in
some countries, a dozen years ago.
In some parts of South America,
and of Europe, they have it so, right
now. (Peru, Austria, and — to a lesser
degree — Spain.)
To forever escape the paralyzing
clutches of Idngs, popes, and priest-
hoods, our forefathers fled to the
North American wilderness, and
founded this republic upon anti-papal
No truthful student will contradict
this statement, without contradicting
our Declaration of Independence, our
Constitution, and our Bill of Rights.
Unless we are cravenly false to the
principles of our ancestors, and totally
unworthy of the bloody sacrifices with
which they wrested our civil rights
and religious liberties from popes and
kings, the stealthy and sinister en-
croachments of the Italian hierarchy
will be met at all points, by Ameri-
cans who are ready to fight and to
die for our inheritance, as our fore-
fathers were to win it.
So far as the religions of Christen-
dom are concerned, popery is the only
system which has reduced the layman
to a cipher, voiceless, voteless, and
impotent. He luxuriates in one priv-
ilege only, that of taking orders from
the priesthood, and paying all the ex-
penses. The Roman church kindly
allows the laj'man to dip his fingers
into the holy water, and into his own
pockets. The priest furnishes the
water, and the layman furnishes
Even the candles have no virtues,
until the priests have blessed the
beeswax. When the laymen buy the
tapers, the clerical middleman enjoys
his unctions laugh at the expense of
industrious laborers on each side of
him — the busy bee that made the wax,
and the busy biped who sweated for
the coin which paid for the candle.
A "religion" which closes the mouth
and mind of the layman, while it
exercises unlimited sovereignty over
his pocketbook and his filial obedi-
ence, is most assuredly a sort of Tro-
jan horse entering the citadels of
Nothing is more puzzling to the
average non-Catholic than the mental
despotism Avhich a low-class, ignorant
priest can establish over educated and
really intellectual laymen.
We cannot grow accustomed to the
phenomena of this utter prostration
of Reason. We never get used to see-
ing brave citizens — manly, intelligent,
and progressive in all other respects —
quail before a threatened denial of
"absolution," cringe before a hint of
excommunication, and fall on their
knees when a flat little cake of bread
passes by, escorted by frock-wearing
men who say that they have turned
the wafer into Jesus Christ.
In every realm where facts can be
ascertained by research, and weighed
with an intelligent sense of propor-
tion, the human mind has achieved
marvellously; but in those mysterious
regions, where nothing can be laiown,
nothing seen, nothing proven, we sur-
render as tamely, as completely, as
pussillanimously, as the negroes of
San Domingo capitulate to the sav-
age, unkempt, utterly ignorant Papa-
loi and Mamaloi of Vaudroux.
It is the most astounding, appall-
ing, and insoluble phenomena of the
twentieth century. That the poor
black man should fall down and wor-
ship a god of his own making, is a
wonder m itself: that brown men and
yellow men should do it, excites our
derision and abhorrence: but that the
Caucasian should do it — the Caucasian
of the academy and of the exclusive
circles of high society, as well as the
Caucasian who does not know the
alphabet — is absolutely the most be-
wildering, stupifying and benumbing
miracle of the ages.
In Christendom, you will find shops
where idols are made for the heathen;
and these images are shipped abroad
m the ordinary course of trade, just
as though they were hats, shoes,
cigars, and rum. But the same shops
also manufacture Madonnas, Saints,
and Crucifixes for the Christians; and
these images are sold throughout the
lands of Roman Catholicism, to be
worshipped with exactly the same out-
ward manifestations that the heathen
The Romanist priest is quick to
explain that his devotees worship, not
the idol, but the idea bodied forth by
the image. The heathen priest tells
us the same story.
Whom shall we believe?
To our dispassionate eyes, there is
no discernible difference between the
heathen kneeling before his man-made
images, and the Christians prostrate
before man-made Virgin and Saint.
How can we know there is a differ-
ence? Particularly, when we see that
the Roman Catholics exercise a
decided preference for some idols over
others, and are ready to murder the
scoffer who breaks, or defiles, one of
those gods made out of wood and
In the years when our forefathers
were slowly drifting into the Revolu-
tionary War or 1T76, the Roman Cath-
olics of France seized, imprisoned,
tortured, and beheaded a young
Frenchman who failed to take off his
hat, as the priests carried the bread
and the idols through the streets. His
name was Chevalier De la Barre.
Before killing him, they tore out his
tongue by the roots, and chopped off'
his right hand. After chopping his
head from his shoulders, they burned
his body. All this was done in the
presence of the Bishop La Motte. It
was July 1, 1766.
The clergy of non-Catholic Chris-
tian sects do not claim any peculiar
powers. They do not pretend to work
miracles, forgive sins, and carry the
keys of an imaginary place called pur-
gatory. They do not claim that their
ownership of the disciple should ex-
tend from the cradle in which he is
born, to the bed in which he lies with
his wife, and to the cemetery in which
his bones shall decay. They do not
arrogate to themselves the right to
forbid civil marriage, dictate educa-
tion, and to say that no sinner shall
approach his bavior excepting througli
the priest — thus making a mediator
to the Mediator!
Much less do the non-Catholic clergy
usurp the right of the layman in the
matter of reading books, shutting him
otf from the inestimable privilege of
seeking the Truth in his own way,
with his own intelligence.
Pardon me for illustrating by a
recent example how this popish policy
cuts the Catholic laj^man otf from the
historic events which everybody else
knows. I quote from a newspaper
item which recently went the rounds
of the press:
London. — A curious little story is told
about King Alfonso of Spain. He recently
visited Bayonne and inspected the local
museum, which contained, among other
treasures, a realistic picture of the death
of Henry IV. of France.
After looking intently at the picture,
King Alfonso suddenly exclaimed:
"But Henry is not dying a natural
"Of course," remarked one of his
French guides, diplomatically, "your maj-
esty remembers that Henry was assas-
But King Alfonso did not remember.
"By whom was he killed, then?" he
"He was killed by a monk named
Ravaillac," said the guide.
Then the king appeared to comprehend,
for he exclaimed:
"A king killed by a monk! Now I
understand why the story was never told
If a king could be kept in absolute
ijrnorance of how another king, in the
adjoining Kingdom^, came to his death
by the hand of a fanatical agent of
the Romanist priests, how can you be
surprised that the peasants of Spain,
and other pope-ruled countries, are
the most illiterate and superstitious
people on earths
Let us try to understand clearly and
fully what it is that the Roman Cath-
olic priest claims for himself. Let us
bear in mind that every priest must
necessarily be the equal of every other.
If one of them possesses supernatural
power, by virtue of the sacerdotal
office, all the others possess it. If one
is incapable of sin, can pardon sin,
and compel Christ to leave Heaven
and come down upon the altar — to be
broken and eaten by the laity — then
the others are of the same supernat-
ural character, whether they be Celt
or Saxon, Jew or Gentile, Latin or
Cossack, black or white.
The proposition is stupendous, but
Romanist logic must face its inevitable
What are the supernatural qualities
of a popish priest?
Let Romanist priests be heard to
Cardinal Bernard Vaughan, of Eng-
land, said, in The Foreign Church
Chronicle., March 1, 1898, that the
priestly power enables a man "by
means of the word of consecration, to
cause the Body and Blood of Christ
to become present under the appear-
ance of bread and wine, and to offer
them up sacrifically.
He (the priest) is a priest solely
because he has the office and power of
effecting the real objective Presence
on ail altar of the true Blood and
Body of Jesus Christ, and thereby
offering Him up in sacrifice."
The French priests say, in Le
Manrez du Prefre —
"What is the priest? He is at once
God and man.''''
Addressing the priesthood, it says,
"Your creation, your daily creation,
IS no less than the Word Himself made
'T do not flatter you with pious
hyperboles when I call you gods.
"You are creators, as Mary was.
when she co-operated in the Incarna-
^^God can make other universes, hut
lie cannot make under the sun a
greater nation than your sacrifice.
"Jesus dwells under your lock and
key; his audiences are opened and
closed by you. He does not move
without your permission: He does not
bless without your concurrence. He
gives only by your hands, and this
dependence is so dear to Him that,
in more than 1,800 years, He has not
for one moment escaped jrom the
Church to return to His Father'^s
The Bible says otherwise, but
wherever the Bible conflicts with the
pope, it is a bad time for the Bible.
The German Cathoilc priests ex-
press it, this way —
"Go to make confession to an angel.
or to the Virgin Mary. Will they
absolve j'ou? No. The Virgin can-
not transform the Host into ne^
Divine Son. If there were 200 angei?^
liere, they could not absolve you. A
priest, poor as he may he, can do xo.
lie can say, 'Go in peace, I pardon
"Look at the power of the priest;
the word of a priest makes a God of
a piece of bread. That is more than
creating the world."
What do you think must happen to
society, to the human famih% Avhen
that sort of horrible blasphemy be-
comes the accepted creed, and ichen
negro priests become as plentiful in
the Southern States as the friars and
m,onks became in Portugal, Spain,
Italy, Poland, Catholic Ireland, and
It IS frightful to contemplate the
possibilities of such a catastrophe.
In 1904, there came from The Union
Press, of Phdadelphia, a book whose
name is, "Roads from Rome, a Series
of Personal Narratives," compiled by
the Cambridge scholar, Rev. (^harles
5. Isaacson, with a Preface by the
Uishop of Durham.
The \()hime contains the stories of
about forty Irishmen, Englishmen,
Italians, Spaniards, Frenchmen, and
Germans, who had been born and
reared in popery, but who had recently
left it. No venomous American priest
has dared to take notice of this dyn-
amic book, much less assail the char-
acter of the men and the women
whose reasons are therein given for
abandoning the church of the Italian
coterie, who call themselves the only
Abbe Vicar Charbonnel, a French
priest under the Archbishop of Paris,
wrote to his superior, October 14,
1897, a letter quoted on pages 225 and
6, of "Roads from Rome" —
"Your eminence, when I gave my
life to the Church, I desired, with all
the ardent sincerity of youth, to give
my whole life to God.
"Long and sad experiences have
convinced me, that to serve the Church
and those who profess to rule it, is
not to serve God.
"I cannot in future, without bitter
self-reproach, keep up an appearance
of union with an ecclesiastical organ-
ization which makes religion an engine
of administration, a domineering
power, a m^eans of intellectual and
social oppression, and a system, of in-
tolerance, and which fails to recogniz'^
that its (religion's) true character
consists in prayer, the lifting up of
the heart of God, a searching into the
Divine ideal, and the exercise of
Christian love and brotherly kindness,
but which has adopted a miserable
human policy, instead of the ennobling
faith of the Gospel."
With this declaration, manfully
made to the Archbishop of Paris,
Victor Charbonnel withdrew from the
priesthood, and from the Roman fold.
What will be the etiect upon our
civilization and social status, when
negro priests have hecoine numerous^
blind tools of this ^^domineenng
power^'' and this '"''system of intoler-
ance^^'' whose priests are not allowed
to marry, but are given the unresisted
and irresistible freedom of using the
imprisoned women of the cloistered
Those who know the black man, as
a sensuUst, must feel horrified at the
\QTy thought of what popery would
mean to the white people, if the
Romanist propaganda among the
blacks continues to be pushed.
On page 109 of "Eoads from Rome,"
we read :
"That the priests do interfere in
family aliairs, 1 most positively assert.
I know from my own experience of
husband and wife being set at vari-
ance, of improper questions put i
children in the confessional, and I
learnt that, if a husband or wife be
unfaithful, although the priest must
be told in the confessional, the wife
or husband need not be acquainted
with the sin, so that the priest claims
to knoio more aoout the loife than the
What will be the consequences to
our social and religious system, when
young negro men, who have no wives,
sit in the privacy of the confessional
and listen to the avowals of sexual
weakness made bj^ passionate young
What may we naturally expect to
be the results, when lustful black
priests inquire of women about the
details of marital intercourse in the
nuptial bed? and when the bachelor
buck of a negro, because he is a priest,
knows more about the wife than her
When such an embodiment of lust
as the typical African, can learn at
the confessional which ones among
the women have been unfaithful to
their husbands, who is to curb him.
when he lusts after those frail wives?
It is awful to think of what popery
may do against the whites of the
United States, in their furiously sor-
did ambition to "make America Cath-
olic." In some States, the blacks are
in the majority. Give them as many
priests as the Portuguese of Lisbon
had. and in less than 100 years it
would take an expert to tell a Por-
tugee from a Niggergee.
Don't flatter yourself that these
black priests will confine their func-
tions to black people. No, indeed!
Gods are Gods; and if the white
frocks are divine, the black frocks are:
and the natural inclination of Sambo
is to assert his "rights."
Teach him that he is a God, and
he'll act the part, just as he sees the
Avhite God do it. He will be like the
colored brother at a Republican con-
vention : his voice will be heard to
say, with raucous vehemence — "I'm a
Catholic, but they must treat me right,
or I'll raise h — 11."
All of us Iniow what the politicians
did for the country, when they lifted
Sambo into the electorate, and put
the ballot in his hand. All of us
know what tlie Days of Reconstruc-
But infinitely more threatening to
Caucasian civilization, is the aggres-
sive movement of the Latin church to
capture the black hosts of this Union.
Wherever popery has been carried
by the Italians, Spaniards, and Portu-
guese — into contact with Negroes, and
Indians, the people have been moa-
grelized, debased, pillaged, and en-
It was so in South America, in Cen-
tral America, in Mexico, in Cuba, and
The Latins have not the racial
aversion to amalgamation that we
Caucasians have always had.
Therefore, the Italian secret socie-
ties which rule Roman Catholicism
with a rod of iron, have no concep-
tion of the abhorrence with which we
regard the social equality of the
blacks, political equality with them,
and intermarriage with them.
In the eyes of the Italian cardinals
who domineer over the Roman Cath-
olics of the whole world, the negro is
as good as you. In the eyes of the
negro^ he is as good as you.
Now, when these black men are
taught by white priests that they are
your equals; and that, in being re-
ceived into the priesthood, they are
better than you, what are to be the
I do not address this vital question
to non-Catholics only: I most earn-
estly implore the Catholics themselves
to consider it.
When you realize that everybody,
in the Dark Ages, had to believe as
Rome commanded, or he burnt alive,
and that millions of the pope's slaves
believe in the same stuff, even now,
you may feel, as I do, the profoundly
depressing tear of another cycle of
This Roman Church is the same at
heart that it ever was. It is craftily
growing in power, and is gradually
compelling the acceptance of the Cath-
olic censorship of news, books, plays,
newspapers, magazines, and every
other medium of publicity. If it can
(Hctate what the people may read, it
will in time mould opinion, destroy
independent and dissenting propa-
ganda, crib the mind within the rigid
limits of a priest-ruled orthodoxy,
close all schools but its own, burn all
books but its own, proclaim again
that, '■'■ I gnorance is the mother of de-
votionf* and build the scati'old, dig
the dungeon, and pile the faggot for
the fearless souls that will not bow
What has been done, once, can be
When Cardinal Newman could
bring himself to believe that marble
images wept, you cannot wonder, if
the illiterate layman believes that he
eats his Redeemer, at the same time
that the priest drinks Him.
Ralph M. Thomson
Speed is a Jack-o'-lantern in the night —
A lambent flame whose mission is to guide
Th eventuresome, by its uncertain light.
To stagnant fens, where lurking dangers hide.
An evanescent but a beckoning spark,
It leads the foolish far from fragrant lea,
And, in a trice, when all about is dark.
Leaves them to sink in sloughs of vanity.
Lured by the wily Ignis Fatuus,
To grope for fame, for gold, for caste, for ease.
For every tawdry thing the frivolous
of earth, deaf to Discretion's pleas
And blind to safety, hail, and with each breath.
As benedictions, — often in accord,
It is the way of men to challenge Death,
Then charge disaster to a blameless Lord!
TKe Official Record in the Case of Leo
Frank, a Jew Pervert.
Copyriflhted. All Rights Reserved.
IN New York, there lived a fashion-
able architect, whose work com-
manded high prices. He was
robust, full of manly vigor, and so
erotic that he neglected a liandsome
and refined young wife to run after
As reported in the papers of Wil-
liam R. Hearst, Joseph Pulitzer, and
Adolph Ochs, the libertine architect
had three luxurious suites of rooms
fitted up for the use of himself, a con-
genial company of young rakes, and
the young women whom they lured
into these elegant dens of vice.
Stanford White's principal place,
however, was in the tower-apartments
of Madison Square Garden. Tn this
building, his preparations for sensual
and sexual enjoyment were as care-
fully elaborated and as expensi'.'cly
perfected, as though wine, women and
song were the chief end of man's
existence. The excavations at Pompeii
have revealed no Rose- door voluptous-
ness more Oriental than that of Stan-
ford White. Like the Roman sensual-
ist who stimulated his amorous pas-
sions by surroundings that promoted
desire and prolonged the pleasure,
White was artistic in his vices; and
it was the nude girl, of perfect
symmetry and beautiful face, that he
bore into his seraglio, where rich and
splendid appointments, soft lights,
hidden musical instruments, fragrant
flowers, and choice wines intoxicated
every sense to the highest pitch of
Into this golden harem, he took the
young, lovely and unmoral Evelyn
Nesbit: and, according to her state-
ment, she was brutally used. A
shocking fact in the case is, that
White seems to have given money to
the girl's mother, and that the mother
had, in effect, surrendered the maid
to the man — knowing why he wanted
Whatever the girl felt as to the
manner in which White had ac-
complished his purpose, she soon
afterwards returned to him, and their
relations continued for some months.
Then Harry Thaw happened to see
her, fell in love with her, and desired
so ardently to possess her, that he
They went to Europe, and during
the tour, the wife told the young hus-
band her terrible story. On their
return to New York, the architect had
the insane folly to again enter into
correspondence with Evelyn — this
time knowing that he had an excitable
young man to encounter — a husband
who might be supposed to have
learned his wife's secret. All the
world knows how Thaw was inflamed
beyond bounds, by seeing White sit-
ting in the eating-room, at the Gar-
den; and how the young husband
immediately shot the satyr who had
doped and rumed his wife.
The great legal battle that Thaw's
devoted mother has waged in her boy's
behalf, is a part of the history of the
times. For nine long years, that fine
old woman has borne her cross, and
made her fight, her son behind the
bars, all those bitter years.
At last, after nine years of impris-
onment, Harry Thaw is a free man —
for the court which tried him for
murder, pronounced him insane; and
the jury which recently tried him for
insanity, said that he is sane.
At least one of these verdicts was
correct, and hoth may have been; but
the jurors in the last trial have since
declared that Thaw ought to have
killed White, anyway; and about
three-fourths of the red-blooded men
and women of the country are of the
But the Jew-owned papers, and the
Jev,'-kired papers, and the Hearst
papers take a dilFerent view. They
are outraged. Their feelings are
deeply hurt. They lament the fail-
ure of the Law to hang this hot-tem-
pered boy who shot the man that had
virtually bought Evelyn from her
monstrous mother, and had then
drugged and forced her. In their
wrathful eyes, nine years' imprison-
ment is no punishment at all. They
rail at the influence of Money, and
deplore the disgrace which has fallen
upon New York — the righteous town
where Jacob Schiff, the banker, could
give a forty-3'ear sentence to an hum-
ble Jew, for entering clandestinely the
dwelling of a Jewish millionaire; the
righteous town wherein the Roman
priests could have the Mayor assassi-
nated without provoking hostile com-
ment from the Hearst papers, the
Jew-owned papers, or the Jew-hired
papers; the righteous town where the
priest, Hans Schmidt, can cut his con-
cubine's throat, dismember her body,
fling the pieces in the river, and still
escape punishment I
Let us regale our minds by reading
what the Hearst papers say about the
case of Harry Thaw :
It is quite true that but for the lavish
outpouring of the family fortune, Thaw
might have been electrocuted, or would
still be confined in a madhouse. It is
equally true that but for the contributions
of other rich young men, whose mone'
cursed them, bis fight for liberty would
not have been so prolonged or so costly.
Many will moralize over the powej- of
money as manifested in the escape of
Thaw from paying tlie extreme penalty
for the mur(^er of Stanford White.
Fewer will stop to think of the malign
power of money that pressed this rich
young man along the primrose path that
snded in the murder on the roof garden,
his prolonged imprisonment, and the
ineradicable disgrace which rests upon his
As it is, about the most the public can
say of him Is to express the hope that the
public mind shall no longr be assailed by
the fulminations of spectacular lawyers,
the imaginings of alienists, and the bathos
of hired pamphleteers. The world is weary
The world is not weary of Hearst,
fortunately: and if he can explain his
prolonged hostility to Thaw, and
reconcile it with his determined cham-
pionship of Frank, the world will
peruse his statement with interest.
Let us now read what another New
York paper — Jew-owned or Jew-hired
— published about the two cases,
Frank's and Thaw's. Concerning
Thaw, the yew Repuhlic says:
In the case of Harry K. Thaw, it looks
as if the State of New York had thoroughly
well got its leg pulled. The State deserved
it richly, for it asked a .iudge and a jury to
decide a question which they are simply
incapable of deciding. Those laj-men could
no more pass on Thaw's sanity than upon
the condition of his liver. Thus a man
may be highly educated, courteous, genial
in every relation of life, and still bear
within him a murderous disposition,
which breaks out only on special occa-
sions. The voluble juryman who has
been so much interviewed came pretty
close to the truth when he said that
Thaw would never kUl except when a
woman was involved.
What freed Thaw was in reality a com-
bination of prejudices. He behaved well
in court. The State's alienists behaved
badly in court. Thaw fought a long fight,
and men admire persistence. He had mur-
dered Stanford White, a man who hap-
pened to be a genius, but whose genius was
forgotten in the deep moral prejudice
against him. The brutal fact is that an
American jury is very ready to flirt with
the idea that there are un^^Titten laws to
justify the killing of men who seduce young
Concerning the Frank case, the
same New York paper says:
It is often foolish to indict a whole peo-
Dle. But in this instance the guilt of the
people is clear. They wrecked the only
trial Frank has had, they believed every
lie about him, they terrorized their pub-
lic officials. Tliey Iiave made democracy
liideous — they, tlie men and women of the
State. There was a minority that knew
better, a minority that did not wish to
make the courts of the State a vile spec-
tacle to the whole nation. But of that
minority many were too cowardly to speak
out. They allowed the mob to stamp its
own imprint upon the public character of
the State. The Governor who acted, and
the opinion which supported him, were
not enouf>l» to save Georgia from its degra-
A people which cannot preserve its legal
fabric from violence is unfit for self-gov-
ernment. It belongs in the category of
communities like Haiti, co'^^munities
which have to be supervised and protected
by more civilized powers. Georgia is in
that humiliating position today. If the
Frank case is evic'^^nce of Georgia's polit-
ical development, then Georgia deservs to
be known as the black sheep of the Amer-
It is a disagreeable discoverv of the
New Republic, that American juries
harbor a perverse sympathy for
fathers and brothers who kill the
seducers of young girls, and thus rid
the earth of the most dangerous vipers
that crawl. The New Republic says
that it is not only a fact that juries do
sympathise with the men who give
shot-gun protection to womanhood,
but that this fact is hrutal.
When the human race ceases to be
capable of brutality of that sort, civil-
ization will be the soup-kettle of
molly-coddles; and literature will
degenerate into a milk-sop effeminac}^
that won't be worth hell's room.
Coming to the Frank case, The New
Republic condemns, not only the jury
and the judges, but the whole State
in which the horrible crime was com-
mitted. 'Tt is often foolish to indict
a whole people," says this magazine.
Edmund Burke said it was always
foolish to do so.
The State of Georgia, as a whole,
is pronounced guilty. It has .'-^.ad no
evidence aarainst Frank: it has been
possessed of a Devil of blind hatred:
it has relentlessly persecuted: it has
tried to lynch an innocent man, uader
legal forms. Its mobs terrified the
witnesses; terrified the jurors; terri-
fied the trial judge; terrified the
Supreme Court of Georgia in both ot
its decisions, the last of which was
unanimous. Finally, the (Georgia mobs
terrified the Supreme Court of the
Ignited States. Avhich, under duress,
decided that Frank's lawyers — after
having had all the time, money, and
opportunity needed — had utterly failed
to show that Georgia had not given
to Leo Frank every right to which he
What do such editors care for the
calm decision of the highest court on
"The guilt of the people is clear."
"They have made democracy hide-
ous." AVhere? When? And how?
AMien justice was mocked in San
Francisco, some years ago, and Wil-
liam T. Sherman (afterwards the great
General) led the "mob," did the riotous
tumults of an indignant democracy
make it hideous? When justice was
derided and defied in NeAv Orleans,
and the outraged democracy flamed
into a vengeful conflagration, did it
\Mien our Revolutionary Fathers
lynched Tories, and drove traitors into
hasty flight, did they make democracy
"\Mien the Commons of old England
rose in bloody riots against the Lords
of Church and State, during the
Epoch of Reform, did these insurrec-
tionary Englishmen, battling for
human rights, make democracy hid-
"Wlien the Athenians of old furi-
ously fell upon and killed the Greek
who advised that Grecian freedom be
surrendered to the Persian King, did
those rioters make democracy hideous?
Away with milk-sops and molly-
coddles! Whenever the human race
degenerates to the point where intense
indignation is not aroused by enormi-
ties of crime, then mankind will be
ready for the last Fire: and the
sooner this scroll is given to the
Flames, as the trump of doom sounds
the requiem of a dying world, the less
will be the sum total of human de-
In Georgia, there was never a mob
collected while the Frank case was
on trial; never a scene of tumult,
never a disorder in the court room.
It was not until after the State
had patiently waited for two years,
whilo tho unlimited Money back
of Frank w^as interposing every
obstacle to the Law, travelling from
court to court, on first one pretext
and then another; ottering new affida-
vits which soon appeared, confessedly,
to have been falsehoods, paid for with
money; resorting to every criminal
method to corrupt some of the State's
witnesses, and to frighten others into
changing their testimony: it was not
until the people of Georgia had
waited so long, and seen Frank's law-
yers defeated at every point, by the
sheer strength of the State's case
against a most abominable criminal : it
was not until, after all this, when one
of Leo Frank^s own launjers basely
betrayed the State, upset all the courts,
and violated our highest law; it was
not until John M. Slaton, the partner
of Leo Frank's leading lawyers, cor-
ruptly used the pardoning power to
save his own guilty client — it was not
until then that the people broke into
a tumult of righteous wrath against
the infamous Governor who had put
upon our State this indelible stain.
And because our indignation took
the same direction as that of our
Fathers, in the days of '76: the same
direction as that of the Frenchmen
who stormed the Bastille; the same as
that of the Englishmen who sacked
the Bishop's palace, and the nobleman's
castle; the same as that of the Vien-
nese who rose in fury against the Em-
peror and his Metternich, forcing that
crafty and coldly ferocious old democ-
racy-hater to flee for his life — because
of the fact that we Georgians are just
human, we must be relegated to a Sai>
Domingo basis, and treated by other
States as though we were woolly-
headed worshippers of Vaudoux I
HOW ABOUT BECKER AND NEW YORK?-
The Becker case created a pro-
found and painful impression every-
where, because of its contrast to the
case of Leo Frank. The Hearst pa-
pers, the Jew-owned, and Jew-hired
papers, have found this contrast em-
barrassing to them, and they are
endeavoring to "distinguish the cases."
For example, the New Orleans-
Daily States says:
A patient perusal of all the mass of evi-
dence, considered in the light of the clash-
ing interests of those involved, directly
and indirectly, in the Rosenthal tragedy,
has left us unconvinced that the law's
reasonable doubt of Becker's guilt was
remoTed. That Becker was a police tyrant
and grafter, was amply proved. The fact
that he was more or less endangered by
Rosenthal's promised revelations of police
corruption furnished a motive which made
it easy for others who confessed they were
in the murder plot to fasten the crime on
him. But there will always be ^ound for
the suspicion that the Rose-Webber crowd
"frame<r' Becker to insure their o>vn im-
But whereas Frank was denied the safe-
guards and privileges which the State
pledges any person accused of a capital
crime, and was convicted in a community
rank with prejudice and mob spirit, on
the testimony of a vicious negro criminal,
Becker was robbed of no technical right
the law guaranteed him.
Few more deliberate and cold-bloded
murders have been committed in New York..
than the assassination of Rosenthal, and
public sentiment was powe fully exercised
against Becker in the face of clear evi-
dence that he was a grafter with a motive
for sealing Rosenthal's lips. But it would
be absurd to liken the atmosphere in New
York during the Becker trial to that in
Atlanta during the Frank trial, or to find
:any points of resemblance between the
-orderly conviction of Becker and the
utterly disorderly trial of Prank.
So! Another case of my bull and
•your ox. Do we not all remember that
when Bourke Cockran moved for a
continuance in the Becker case, and
Judge Samuel Seabury refused it, the
great lawyer threw up his briefj and
passionately exclaimed, '"''This is not a
ti'tal; it is an assassination?''''
Xo lawyer said that to Judge Roan,
''trying Frank; and there never was
the slightest evidence that Frank's
trial was "disorderly."
The Daily States asserts that
"Becker was robbecl of no technical
right the law guaranteed him."
Dees the States know that the U.
S. Supreme Court used those very
words in the case of Frank — used
'them in a well-considered decision.
•which is the amplest vindication of the
When the highest court in the world
judiciaJly affirms that the State which
'tried and convicted Frank accorded
him every right guaranteed to him
under the highest law, ought not the
•decision to be respected?
Before the United States Supreme
Court vindicated Georgia, the agencies
working for Frank expressed the most
exultant confidence in the outcome of
the appeal; and declared that, at last,
the case had reached a tribunal which
would not be influenced by "mob
•frenzy, psychic intoxication, jungle
fury," and the rest of it.
After the United States Supreme
Court patiently heard Frank's law-
yers, and solemnly assured "mankind"
that the State of Georgia had not been
-shown to have denied Frank any legal
right, was "mankind" satisfied? By no
means. "Mankind" gasped in silence
•a few days, and then broke out into a
•more furious roar than ever, just as
though the highest of courts had not
• decided the case in our favor.
It must have cost '"'' mankind'''' mil-
lions of dollars to lynch the Georgia
courts.) with outside mobs.
Frank "was convicted on the evi-
dence of a vicious negro criminal."
So says the Daily States, saying it, not
because it is true, but because all the
other Frankites say it. Without the
negro, James Marshall, Becker could
not have been convicted, and the high-
est New York court so held. Whether
James Marshall is a criminal, I do not
know; but the official record in the
Frank case shows that Jim Conley was
never a criminal until he became the
accomplice of his master, Leo Frank.
May I ask the Daily States to take
my word for it, that the laiv of Geor-
gia does not allow any man to he con-
victed on the testimony of an accom-
The so-called vicious negro criminal
was confessedly the accomplice of Leo
Frank; and therefore the laio made
it necessary for Solicitor Dorsey to
practically make out the whole case
against Frank., without relying at all
upon the negro''s evidence.
When that miserable little Jew jack-
ass, Clarence Shearn, of the New York
Supreme Court, was sent by his owner,
Mr. Hearst, to review the record in
the Frank case ; and when he wrote an
opinion in which he stated that there
was no evidence against Frank, save
that of the accomplice, he virtually
charged our Supreme Court — as well
as Judge Roan — with having violated
their oaths of office.
Little Shearn does not know enough
of Georgia law to be aware of the fact
that nobody can be convicted on the
evidence of an accomplice; and that,
under our Supreme Court decisions,
such evidence is almost valueless. The
case must he made out independently
of the accomplice^ to well-nigh the
same extent as though he had not tes-
This being the law in Georgia, how
can editors who wish to tell the truth.
continue to say that Frank was con-
victed by his accomplice?
Assuming that the great majority of
tlie American people want to know the
truth, and want the law enforced
wherever crime is proved, I invite
everj' fair-minded reader to come with
me as I go into the olficial record — a
summary of the sworn testimony,
agreed on by the lawyers for both
sides, and sanctioned by the trial
But before turning to the dry leaves
of the Brief of Evidence, let me ask
you to look upon the girl herself, as
she appeared in life to one who seems
to have known her well. Writing to
The Christian Standard, in protest
against an editorial in the Chri^tmn-
Evangelist^ A. M. Beatty says :
Mary Phagan was a member of the
Adrial class of the First Christian Bible
School, and the last act she did on earth
was to iron with her own hands her white
dress that she might be present the next
day and help in winning a contest. The
Sunday she expected to be at Bible School
she was lying on a slab in an undertaker's
in the same block as the First Church is
located, having met death in a horrible
It is very complete — that little pic-
ture, drawn in two sentences. Mary
Phagan, not quite 14 years old, iron-
ing the white dress she meant to wear
to the Bible school, next day. The
First Christian Church stands near
the morgue, and as she day-dreamed
of the morrow, and the contest in her
class, she saw the temple, and the
wliite-dressed girls who would be her
companions: she did not see the
The pity of it ! The garment which
she washed and ironed became her
shroud, after she had been to the
morgue, instead of to the church !
Surely, fate has seldom been more
cruel to a perfectly innocent child.
Mrs. J. W. Coleman was the first
witness for the State. She testified:
"I am Mary Phagan's mother. I
last saw her alive, on April 26th, 1913.
She was getting ready to go to the
pencil factory to get her pay envelope.
About 11:30 she ate some cabbage and
bread. She left home at a quarter to
twelve. She would have been fourteen
years old on the first day of June.
Was fair complected, heavy set, very
pretty, and was extra large for her
age. She had dimples on her cheeks."
(Witness described how her daugh-
ter was dressed, and identified as
Mary's, the articles of clothing shown
her — clothing taken from the corpse.)
George Epps, a white boy, was the
next witness. He A-as fourteen years
old, and was neighbor to Mary's fam-
ily. He rode on the street car with
MaiT as she came into the city. She
told him she was going to the pencil
factory to get her money, and would
then go to the Elkin-Watson place to
see the Veterans' parade at 2 o'clock.
•"She never showed up. I stayed
around there until 4 o'clock, and then
went to the ball game.
"AVlien I left her at the corner of
Forsyth and Marietta Streets . . .
slie went over the bridge to the pencil
factory, about two blocks down For-
The boy put the time of his separa-
tion from the girl at 12:07, but on
cross- examination, he said, first, that
he knew it by Bryant Keheley's clock,
and then, by the sun.
(The immateriality of the variations
in time, except on Leo Frankh own
clock, will be shown directly.)
The next witness for the State was
Newt Lee, the negro night-watch at
the factory. He had been working
there only about three weeks. Leo
Frank had taken him over the build-
ing, and instructed him in his duties.
On every day, except Saturdays, he
was to go on duty at 6 o'clocck p. m.
On Saturdays, at 5 o'clock.
On Friday, the 2oth of April, Frank
said to Newt, "Tomorrow is holiday,
and I want you to come back at 4
o'clock, I want to get off a little earlier
Newt then went on to say that he
got to the factory on Saturday about
three or four minutes before four.
The front door was not locked; he had
never found it locked on Saturday
evenings. But there are double doors
half way up the steps, which he had
always found unlocked before, but
which, this Saturday evening, he
He took his keys and unlocked this
stair-way door, and went on up-stairs
to the second floor, where Frank's
Newt announced his arrival, as he
had always done, by calling out, "All
right. Mr. Frank!"
"And he come bustling out of his
office, . . . and says, 'Newt, I am
sorry I had you come so soon: you
could have been at home sleeping. I
tell you what you do: you go out in
town and have a good time.' "
Newt stated that always before
when Frank had anything to say to
him, he would say, "Step here a min-
This time, Frank came bustling
toward the negro, rubbing his
hands; and when Newt asked to be
allowed to go into the shipping room
to get some sleep, Frank answered,
"You need to have a good time. You
go downtown, stay an hour and a
half, and come back your usual time
at 6 o'clock. Be sure to come back at
Newt did as he was told, returned
to the factory at two minutes before
six, and found the stair doors un-
locked. Frank took the slip out of
the time-clock and put in a new one.
"It took him twice as long this time
as it did the other times I saw him
fix it. He fumbled, putting it in."
After the slip had been put in, Newt
punched his time, and went on down
Mr. J. M. Gantt came to the front
door and asked Newt for permission
to go up stairs after an old pair of
shoes he had left there, some time
before, when be was employed at the
factory. Newt answered that he was
not allowed to let anyone inside after
"About that time Mr. Frank came
bustling out of the door, and ran into
Gantt unexpected, and he jumped
Gantt asked Frank if he had any
objection to his going up stairs after
his old shoes.
Frank answered, "I don't think they
are up there. I think I saw a boy
sweep some up in the trash the other
Gantt asked what sort of shoes he
saw the boy sweep out, and Frank
said they were "tans."
Gantt replied, "Well, I had a pair
of black ones, too."
"Frank says, 'Well, I don't know,'
and dropped his head down, just so"
"Then, he raised his head, and says,
'Newt, go with him and stay with
him, and help him find them," And
I went up there with Mr. Gantt, and
found them in the shipping room,
two pair, the tans and the black ones,
That night, after seven o'clock,
Frank telephoned to Newt, and asked,
That was the first time he had ever
phoned tlie night watch on a Satur-
day night. He did not ask about
There is a gas jet in the basement
at the foot of the ladder, and Frank
had told Newt to keep it burning all
"I left it Saturday morning burn-
ing bright. When I got there, on
making my rounds at 7 o'clock p. m.
on the 26th of April, it was burning
just as low as you could turn it, like
a light ning Inig. AVhen 3 o'clock
came" (after midniffht. of course,) "I
went down to the basement. ... I
went down to the toilet, and when I
got through I looked at the dust bin
back to the door" (the back door
opening on the alley) "to see how the
door was. and it being dark, I picked
up my lantern and went there, and I
saw something laying there, which I
thought some of the boys had put
there to scare me: then I walked a
little piece towards it, and I saw
what it was, and I got out of there.
"I got up the ladder, and called the
police station: it was after 3 o'clock.
"/ tried to get Mr. Frank, and was
still trying when the (police) officers
came. I guess I was trying (to get
Frank to answer the telephone) about
"I saw Mr. Frank Sunday morn-
ing (the same morning), at about 7
or 8 o'clock. He was coming in the
office. He looked down on the floor,
and never spoke to me. He dropped
his head down, right this way" —
"Boots Rogers, Chief Lanford,
Darley, Frank and I were there when
they opened the clock. Mr. Frank
opened the clock, and saw the punches
were all right. I punched every half
hour from 6 o'clock p. m. to 3 o'clock
"On Tuesday night, April 29th, at
about 10 o'clock, I had a conversation
at the station house with Mr. Frank.
They handcuffed me to a chair.
"They went and got Mr. Frank and
brought him in, and he sat down next
to the door. He dropped his head
and looked doAvn. We were all alone.
I said, 'Mr. Frank, it's mighty hard
on me to be handculi'ed here for
something that I don't know anything
"He said, 'What's the difference ?
They have got me locked up, and a
man guarding me.'
"I said, 'Mr. Frank, do you believe
I committed this crime?'
"He said, 'No, Newt, I know you
didn't; hut I believe you know some-
thing ahout it.''
'T said, 'Mr. Frank, I don't know
a thing about it, more tlian finding
"He said, 'We are not talking about
that now: we will let that go. // you
keep that up, we will both go to hell.''
"Then the officers came in. When
Mr. Frank came out of his office that
Saturday (evening) he was looking
down, and rubbing his hands. I had
never seen him rub his hands that
Newt stated, on cross-examination,
that he would not have gone so far
back in the basement, and would not
have seen the body, if a call of nature
down there had not caused him to
use the toilet which was near the
"When I got through, I picked up
my lantern; I walked a few steps
that way ; I seed something over there,
about that much of the lady's leg
and dress" — illustrating.
"I think I reported to the police
that it was a white woman. When I
first got there, I didn't think it was
a white woman, because her face was
so dirty, and her hair crinkled.
"When I was in the basement (the
morning the body was found), one
of the policemen read the note that
they found. They read these words.
'The tall, black, slim negro did this,
he will try to lay it on the nigh* ' and
when they got to the word 'night,' I
said, ''They must he trying to put it
off on me.'' "
(Note that the negro is corrobor-
ated on this point by Sergeant Dobbs.
the next witness; and bear it in mind
because of its extreme importance — as
you will soon see.)
Sergeant L. S. Dobbs testified that
a call came to the police headquarters
at about 3 :25, on the morning of
April 27th, and he went to the pen-
cil factory, descended to the basement
by means of the trap-door and ladder.
The negro led the officers back to the
body, about 150 feet.
"The girl was lying on her face^ not
directly lying on her stomach, with
the left side up just a little. We
couldn't tell hy looking at her whether
she was while or black, only by her
golden hair. They turned her over.
and her face was full of dirt and
dust. They took a piece of paper
and rubbed the dirt off her face, and
we could tell then that it was a white
girl. I pulled up her clothes, and
could tell by the skin of the laiee that
it was a white girl. Her face was
punctured, full of holes, and swollen
and hlack. She had a cut on the left
side of her head, as if she had been
struck, and there was a little blood
there. The cord was around her neck,
sunk into the flesh. She also had a
piece of her underclothing around
her neck. The cord was still tight
around her neck. The tongue was
protruding just the least bit. The
cord was pulled tight, and had cut
into the flesh, and tied just as tight
as it could be. The underclothing
around the neck was not tight.
"There wasn't much blood on her
head. It was dry on the outside. I
stuck my finger under the hair, and
it was a little moist.
"This scratch pad was lying on the
ground, close to the body. I found
the notes under the sawdust, lying
near the head. The pad was lying
near the notes. They were all right
'''Newt Lee told us it was a white
"There was a trash pile near the
boiler, where this hat was found, and
paper and pencils down there, too.
The hat and shoe were on the trash
pile. Everything was gone off it,
ribbons and all.
"/^ looked like she had been
dragged on her face hy her feet. I
thought the places on her face had
been made by dragging. That was a
dirt floor, with cinders on it, scattered
over the dirt.
"The place where I thought I saw
some one dragged was right in front
of the elevator., directly back. The
little trail where I thought showed
the body was dragged, went straight
071 down (from in front of the ele-
vator) where the girl was found. It
was a continuous trail.
"The body was cold and stiflF.
Hands folded across the breast.
"/ didn't find any blood on the
ground., or on the saw dust., around
where we found the body.
"The sign of dragging . . . started
east of the ladder. A man going
down the ladder to the rear of the
basement, would not go in front of
the elevator where the dragging was.
"A man couldnH get down that lad-
der loith another person. It is diffi-
cult for one person to get through
that scuttle hole. The back door was
shut: staple had been pulled."
''''The lock was locked still. It was
a sliding door, with a bar across the
door, but the bar had been taken
down. It looked like the staple had
been recently drawn.
"I was reading one of the notes to
Lee, with the following words, ''A tall.,
black negro did this; he will try to
lay it on the nighty'' and when I got
to the word 'night,' Lee says, ''That
means the night watchman!'
"I found the handkerchief on a
sawdust pile, about ten feet from the
body. It was bloody, just as it is now.
"The trap-door leading up from the
basement was closed when we got
City Officer John N. Starnes was
the State's next witness. Ho testified
to reaching the factory between 5 and
6 o'clock that Sunday morning. He
called up Leo Frank, and asked him
to come, right away.
"He said he hadn't had any break-
fast. He asked where the night
watchman was. I told him it was
very necessary for him to come, and
if he would come, T would send an
automobile for him.
"/ didn't tell him what had hap-
pened^ and he didn't ask me.
"When Frank arrived at the fac-
tory, a few minutes later, he appeared
to be nervous; he teas in a trembling
co7idition. Leo was composed.
"It takes not over three minutes to
walk from Marietta Street, at the
corner of Forsyth, across the viaduct,
and through Forsyth Street, down to
"I chipped two places off the back
door, tchich looked, like they had
blood]/ finger prints.''''
(Let me here remind the reader,
that Jim Conle3\ a State's witness,
could have been required by Leo
Frank's lawyers to make the imprint
of his fingers while he was on the
stand, and if these finger marks had
resembled those made on the back door,
Frank woidd have gone free, and the
negro would, have swung. The State,
however, could not ask Leo Frank to
make his finger-prints, for to have
done so, would have been requiring
him to furnish evidence against him-
My information is that Conley's
lawyer, W. M. Smith, after he had
agreed with the Burns Agency to help
them fix the crime on his client, went
to the convict camp, where Conley
was working out his sentence, a7id got
his firiger-prints, twice.
Be this as it may, Franl-^s attorneys
dared, not ask the negro to make the
prints, when they had him on the
You can draw your own conclu-
Burns and Lehon do not amount to
anything much as detectives; but even
these amateurs know something of
the Bertillon system; and if those
finger-prints on the back door had not
been Leo Frank^s, Burns and Lehon
would most certainly have proven
that much, by actual demonstration^
and thus put the crime on Jim Con-
ley, or upon some other person than
their client, Frank.)
The next witness was W. W. Rog-
ers. He and John Black went after
Frank, following Starnes' telephone
communication. Mrs Frank opened
the door, and was asked if Frank was
in. He came forward, partly dressed,
and asked if anything had happened
at the factory. No answer being
returned, he inquired, "Did the night-
watchman call up and report any-
thing to you?"
Mr. Black asked him to finish dress-
ing, and accompany them to the fac-
tory, and see what had happened.
"Frank said that he thought he
dreamt in the morning, about 3
o'clock, about hearing the telephone
Witness said Frank appeared ex-
tremely nervous, and called for a cup
(;f coffee. He was rubbing his hands.
When they had taken seats in the
automobile, one of the officers asked
him if he knew a little girl named
Frank answered, "Does she work at
Rogers said, "I think she does":
and Frank added, "I cannot tell
whether she works there or not, until
I look at my pay-roll book. I know
very few of the girls that work there.
I pay them ofl', but I very seldom go
back in the factory."
The witness spoke of Frank's con-
duct at the morgue, and although the
purpose of taking him there was to
have him view the corpse, the witness
never saw Frank look at it, but did
see him step away into a side room.
From tlie luoigue, the party went
to the pencil factory, where Frank
opened the safe, took out his time-
book, consulted it, and said: "Yes,
Mary Phagan worked here. She was
here yesterday to get her pay."
He said : "/ iciJl tell you about the
exact time she left here. My stenog-
rapher left about 12 o'clock, and a
few minutes after she left, the office
boy left, and Mary came in and got
her pay and lefty
(Note, later on. that other girls
were at Frank's office, the same Sat-
urday morning, and that he never-
theless fixed the exact time of the
arrival of the girl he did not know.
And he fixed it right.)
"He then wanted to see where the
girl was found. Mr. Frank went
around to the elevator, where there
was a switch box on the wall, and put
the switch in. The box was not
locked. As to what Mr. Frank ^aid
about the murder, I don't know that I
heard him express himself, except
down in the basement.
The officers showed him where the
body was found, and he made the
remark* that it was too bad, or some-
thing like that."
(Frank was not under arrest at this
time, and Newt Lee was. Nothing, as
yet, had been said about Conley.)
On cross-examination, the witness
stated that "we didn't know it was a
white girl or not until we rubbed
the dirt from the child's face, and
pulled down her stocking a little
piece. The tongue was not sticking
out : it was wedged between her teeth.
She had dirt in her eye and mouth.
The cord around her neck was drawn
so tight it was sunk m her flesh, and
the piece of underskirt was loose over
"'She was lying on her face, icifh
her hands folded up. One of her eyes
was blackened. There were several
littel scratches on her face. A bruise
on the left side of her head, some dry
blood in her hair.
"There was some excrement in the
elevator shaft. When we went down
on the elevator, the elevator mashed
it. You could smell it all around.
"No one could have seen the body
at the morgue unless he was some-
where near me. I was inside, and Mr.
Frank never came into that little
room, where the corpse lay. When the
face was turned toward me, Mr. Frank
stepped out of my vision in the direc-
tion of Mr. Gheesling's (the under-
taker's) sleeping room."
Miss Grace Hicks testified that she
worked on the second floor at the fac-
tory, Mary Phagan's machine was
riffht next to the dreesing room, and
in going to the closet, the men who
worked on that floor passed within
two or three feet of Mary. Between
the closet of the men and of the
women, there was "just a partition."
The witness had identified the body
at the morgue early Sunday morn-
ing, April 2Tth. "I Iniew her by her
hair. She was fair-skinned, had light
hair, blue eyes, and was heavy built,
well developed for her age. She
weighed about 115 pounds. Magnolia
Kennedy''s hair is nearly the color of
John R. Black, the next witness for
the State, testified that he went with
Rogers to Frank's house. "Mrs. Frank
came to the door: she had on a bath-
robe. I stated that I would like to
see Mr. Frank, and about that time
Mr. Frank stepped out from behind
a curtain. His voice was hoarse and
trembling and nervous and excited.
He looked to me like he was pale.
He seemed nervous in handling his
collar: he could not get his tie tied,
and talked very rapid in asking
what had happened. He kept on in-
sisting for a cup of coffee.
"When we got into the automobile.
Mr. Frank wanted to know what had
happened at the factory, and / asked
him if he knew Mary Phagan, and
told him she had been found dead in
the hasement. Mr. Frank said he did.
not know any girl hy the name of
Mary P hag an, that he knew very few
of the emploj'ees.
"In the iinaertaking establishment,
Mr. Frank looked at her: he gave a
casual glance at her, and stepped
aside: I couldn't say whether he saw
the face of the girl or not. There
was a curtain hanging near the room,
and Mr. Frank stepped behind the
"Mr. Frank stated, as we left the
undertaker's, that he didn't know the
girl, but he believed he had paid her
off on Saturday. Fie thought he rec-
ognized her being at the factory Sat-
urday by the dress that she wore.
At the factory, Mr. Frank took the
slip out (of the time clock), looked
over it, and said it had been punched
correctly. (That is, the slip showed
that Newt Lee had punched every
half-hour during the night before.)
"On Monday and Tuesday follow-
ing, jSfr. Frank stated that the clock
had been mispunched three times.
"I saw Frank take it out of the
clock, and went with it back toicard
"When Mr. Frank was down at the
police station, on Monday morning
(the next after the corpse was found).
Mr. Rosser and Mr. Haas were there.
Mr. Haas stated, in Frank's presence,
that he was Franks attorney. This
was about 8, or 8:30 Monday morn-
ing. Thafs the first time he had
counsel with him^.''''
(Observe that the Jews employed
the best legal talent, before the Gen-
tiles had even suspected Frank''s guilt.
Why did his rich Jewish connec-
tions feel so sure of his need of emi-
nent lawyers, that they employed
Eosser, evidently on Sunday, since
city lawyers do not open their offices
before 8 o^clock.)
"Mr. Frank was nervous Monday:
after his release, he seemed very
"On Tuesday night, Frank said, at
the station house, that there was no-
body at the factory at 6 o'clock but
Newt Lee, and that Newt Lee ought
to know more about it, as it was his
duty to look over the factory every
(Note Frank's deliberate direction
of suspicion to the "tall, slim night-
watch," upon whom the notes place
the crime. Frank was virtually tell-
ing the police the same thing that the
notes told, viz., that Newt Lee com-
mitted the crime.)
"On Tuesday night, Mr. Scott and
myself suggested to Mr. Frank to talk
to Newt Lee. They went in a room,
and stayed about five or ten minutes,
alone. I couldn't hear enough to
swear that I understood what was
said. ' Mr. Frank said that Newt stuck
to the story that he knew notlilng
"Mr. Frank stated that Mr. Gantt
Avas there on Saturday evening, and
that he told Lee to let him get the
shoes, but to watch him, as he knew
the surroundings of the office.
''''After this conversation Gantt was
(Observe that Frank's allusion to
Gantt could have had no other pur-
pose than to direct suspicion toward
him; and that, while Frank was seek-
ing to involve two innocent men, he
did not breathe a suspicion of Jim
Conley, whom he knew to have been
in the factory when Mary Phagan
came for her pay.)
After the visit to the morgue, the
party went to the factory, where
Frank got the book, ran his finger
down until he came to the name of
Mary Phagan, and said: "Yes, this
little girl worked here, and I paid her
"We went all over the factory. No-
body saw that blood spot that morn-
Mr. Haas, as Frank's attorney, had
told witness to go out to Frank's
house, and search for the clothes he
had worn the week before, and the
Frank went with them, and showed
them the dirty linen.
"I examined Newt Lee's house. I
found a bloody shirt at the bottom of
a clothes barrel there, on Tuesday
morning, about 9 o'clock."
On re-direct examination, the wit-
ness stated that Frank said, after
looking over the time sheet, and see-
ing that it had not been punched cor-
rectly, that it would have given Lee
an hour to have gone out to his
house and hacky
(Evidently, Frank knew where this
negro lived, and how long it required
for him to go home that Saturday
night, and return to the factory where
the girl's body lay. This new time-
slip gave Newt an hour unaccounted
for; and, in connection with the
l3loody shirt, the new time-slip began
to make the case look ugly for Newt,
"the tall, slim night-watch," whom
the writer of the notes accused.)
J. M. Gantt was next put up by
the State, and his evidence, in sub-
That he had been shipping clerk
and time-keeper at the pencil fac-
tory, and that Frank had discharged
him on April 7th, for an alleged
shortage of $2 in the pay-roll.
He had known Mary Phagan since
she was a little girl, and that Frank
knew her., too.
One Saturday afternoon, she came
in the office to have her time cor-
rected, by Gantt, and after Gantt had
gotten through with her, Mr. Frank
came in and said: ^''You seem to
know Mary pretty well.''''
After Gantt was discharged, he
went back to the factory on two occa-
sions, "il/r. Frank saiv me both times.
He made no objections to my going
One girl used to get the pay en-
velope for another, with Frank's
knowledge. Gantt swore' he knew
nothing of how the $2 shortage in the
pay roll occurred. Frank discharged
him because Gantt refused to make it
Gantt described how Frank had
behaved at 6 o'clock Saturday eve-
ning when he, Gantt, went for his
shoes. Standing at the front door,
Gantt saw Frank coming down the
stairs, and when Frank saw Gantt,
"he kind of stepped back, like he was
going to go back, but when he looked
up and saw I was looking at him, he
came on out, and I said, 'Howdy, Mr.
Frank,' and he sorter jumped again."
Then Gantt asked permission to go
up for his shoes, and Frank hesitated,
studied a little, inquired the kind of
shoes, was told they were tans, and
stated that he thought he had seen a
negro sweep them out. But when
Gantt said he had left a black pair,
also, Frank "studied" a little bit, and
told Newt to go with Gantt, and stay
with him till he got his shoes. Gantt
went up, and found both pair, right
where he had left them.
"Mr.. Frank looked pale, hung his
head, and kind of hesitated and stut-
tered, like he didn't like me in there,
somehow or other."
(On the strength of what Frank
insinuated against Gantt, he was ar-
rested before Frank was, and not
released until Thursday night.)
:Mrs. J. A. ^^^lite, sworn for the
State, said that she went to the fac-
tory to see her husband, who was at
work there, on April 26th. She went
at 11:30, and stayed till 11:50, when
she left. She returned about 12:30,
and saw Frank standing before the
safe, in his outer office. "I asked him
if Mr. White had gone back to work;
he jumped, like I surprised him, and
turned and said, 'Yes.' "
She went up stairs to see her hus-
band, and while she was np there,
about 1 o'clock. Frank came up and
told Mr. White that if she wanted to
get out before 3 o'clock, she had bet-
ter come doAvn. as lie ws going to
leave, and lock the door, and that she
had better he ready hy the time he
covld get his coat and hat.
Mrs. White testified to this tre-
mendously important fact :
"As I was going on down the steps,
/ saw a negro sitting on a box., close
to the stairway on the first floor.
"Mr. Frank did not have his coat or
hat on when I passed out."
On cross-examination, this lady
swore: "I saw a negro sitting be-
tween the stairway and the door^
about five or six feet fom the foot of
While Mrs. White was talking to
her husband, between 11 :30 and 11 :50.
she saw Miss Corinthia Rail and Mrs.
Emma Freeman there, and they left
before she did.
(Mrs. White did not work at the
factory, and did not know Jim Con-
ley. The place where she saw a
negro sitting, was where Jim sat when
he had nothing else to do. Picture to
yourself the interior of the factory, as
Mrs. White departs at about 1 o'clock
that fatal Saturday.
Two carpenters are at work on the
fourth floor, tearing out a partition
and putting up a new one. and they
are 40 feet bach from the elevator.
Frank is sitting on the second floor.
near the head of the stairs; and Jim
Conley is seated at the foot of the
same stairs, on the floor below, not
more than thirty feet from his white
The lady passes on out. leaving
these two men practically together.
According to his own statemen to the
police officers, Frank has already had
Mary Phagan, in his office., in his
possession, between the first departure
of Mrs. White at 11 :50 and her second
coming at 12:30!
Frank's own admission put the girl
alone with him in his private office,
shortly after the noon hour; and when
Mrs. White returns at 30 minutes
after the noon hour, the girl is no-
where to be seen.
AAHio can account for Mary between
these times? And who can account
Here is the tragedy, hemmed within
the first departure and the second
arrival of Mrs. White — a space which
could not be filled by any two human
beings, excepting Jim Conley and Leo
We will see, later, how each of the
two filled it.)
Harry Scott, the State's next wit-
ness, was Superintendent of the local
branch of the Pinkerton Detective
Agency. He was employed by Frank
for the pencil factory.
In Frank's private office, Monday
afternoon, April 28th. the detective
heard Frank's detailed account of hia
movements the Saturday before. Frank
told of his going to Montag's. and of
the coming of Mrs. White.
"He then stated that Mary Phagan
came into the factory at 12:10 p. m.,
to draw her pay; that she had been
laid otf the Monday previous, and she
was paid $1.20, and that he paid her
off in his inside office., where he was
at his desk, and when she left his
office and went into the outer office
she had reached the outer office door,
leading into the hall, and turned
around to Mr. Frank, and asked if the
metal had come yet. Mr. Frank re-
plied that he didn't know, and that
Mary Phagan, he thought, reached the
stairway, and he heard voices, but he
couldn't distinguish whether they
were men or girls talldng."
Later, witness stated that it was
before !Mary came that Frank said he
heard the voices — before 12 o'clock.
(Let me explain that Mary worked
on P^rank's floor, some distance back
of his office, and that she placed metal
tips on the pencils. The supply of
this metal gave out, and more was
ordered, but in the meantime Mary
was unemployed. Her question, "Has
the metal come?" was therefore equiv-
alent to, "AVill there be work tor me
Note particularly that in his private
conference with his own detective, he
did not pretend that he had not
knoicn Mary Phagan. On the con-
trary, see what Scott says further on.)
"He (Frank) also stated, during
our conversation, that Gantt knew
Mary Phagan very well, and that he
was familiar, and intimate with her.
He seemed to lay special stress on it.
at the time. He said that Gantt paid
a good deal of attention to her."
(The morning before, he did not
know her, and had to consult his book !
Although he had passed within three
feet of her, every day when he went to
the toilet, and had paid her off every
week, for about a year, he did not
know any girl of that name!)
Mr. Herbert J. Haas (later the
Chairman of the Frank Finance Com-
mittee) told the detective to report to
him. first, before letting the public
know "what evidence we had gathered.
We told him we would withdraw
from the case before ice would adopt
any practice of that sort.''''
Scott asked Frank to use his influ-
ence as employer with Newt Lee, and
to try to get him to tell what he Imew,
Frank consented, and the two were
put in a private room, in order that
Frank might get something out of
the "tall, slim night-watch."
"When about ten minutes was up,
Mr. Black and I entered the room,
and Lee hadn't finished his conversa-
tion with Frank, and was saying:
*Mr. Frank, it is awful hard for me
to remain handcuffed to this chair.
and Frank hung his head the entire
time the negro was talking to him,
and finally, in about thirty seconds,
he said, 'Well, they have got me, too.'
After that, we asked Mr. Frank if he
had gotten anything out of the negro,
and he said, ''No, Lee still sticks to his
"Mr. Frank was extremely nervous
at that time. He was very squirmy in
his chair, crossing one leg after the
other, and didnH know where to put
his hands; he was moving them up
and down his face, and he hung his
head a great deal of the time while
the negro was talking to him. He
hreathed very heavily, and took deep
sivalloirs, and hesitated somewhat. His
eyes were about the same as they are
"That interview between Lee and
Frank took place shortly after mid-
night, Wednesday, April 30. On Mon-
day afternoon, Frank said to me that
the first punch on Newt Lee's slip
was 6:33 p. m., and his last punch
was 3 a. m. Sunday. He didn't say
anything at that time about there
being any error in Lee''s punches. Mr.
Black and I took Mr. Frank into cus-
tody about 11:30 a. m.. Tuesday.
^''His hands were quivering very
much, he was very pale. On Sunday,
May 3, I went to Frank's cell at the
jail with Black, and / asked Mr.
Frank if, from the time he arrived at
the factory from Montag Bros.\ up
until 12:50 p. m., the time he went
upstairs to the fourth floor, was he
inside of his office the entire time, and
he stated, 'Yes:
•'Then I asked him if he was inside
his office every minute from 1% o'' clock
until 12:30, and he said, 'Yes.''
"I made a very thorough search of
the area around the elevator and
radiator, and back in there. I made
a surface search; I found nothing at
all. I found no ribbon or purse, or
pay envelope, or bludgeon or stick. I
spent a great deal of time around the
trap dooi\ and I remember running
the light around the doorway^ right
close to the elevator^ looking for
splotches of hlood^ hut I found noth-
(No effort was made to impeach
Harry Scott, and the whole brunt of
Rosser's cross-examination was to com-
pel the witness to admit that Frank
answered the girl's question about the
metal, by saying, "iVc," instead of, "/
If Frank answered, "TVc*," her in-
quiry ended right there, and there was
nothing for the girl to linger for: she
would go on down stairs. But if her
question, "Has the metal come?" was
answered by, "I don't know," the girl
herself would want to learn^ for cer-
tain^ ichether there loould he any need
for her to return Monday morning.
As the next day was Sunday, there
would be no work for her on Monday,
unless the metal were already on hand.
because, if it reached Atlanta Sunday,
it would not be delivered at the fac-
tory until some time after the work
hours began on Monday.
Therefore, when Frank told his own
detective, in their first confidential
talk, that he gave the girl's question
a reply which necessarily left her in
doubt, he stated a fact that leads to
the reasonable, if not inevitable con-
clusion, that either he or she proposed
that one or the other — or both — go to
the metal room, and see!
To make certain whether the new
metal had come, she would go to the
room where she worked, and look. If
the metal had come, and was ready
for use next week, it was there!
Now, when you examine page 25 of
the official Brief of Evidence, and
find that Eosser's assault on the wit-
ness was directed chiefly to this point,
you naturally ask, Why did it make
such a difference? Why did Frank's
lawyer so strenuously endeavor to
make it appear that the girl's inquirj^
was answered, "No," instead of, "I'
If she was murdered below, on the
first floor, or in the basement, what
did it matter^ whether or not she
went to the metal room^ on the second
If Jim Conley, sitting at the foot of
the stairway, assaulted the girl as she
was passing out, and either killed her
there, or threw her down into the
basement, where he afterwards killed
her, what difference did it make, if
the white man, at the head of the
stairway., told the girl he didn't know
whether the metal had come?
If the evidence places the crime on«
any other floor than Frank's own, why
battle with the witness as to what
was said and done on Frank's floor?
There is but one answer: the physi-
cal indications were on Frank's floor,
partly in the metal room, and partly
in the next, on the way to the ele-
vator. Rosser umnted to keep Frank
and Mary arc ay from, that metal roomy
where a tress of her hair hung on the
projecting crank of a bench-lathe, and
where some of her blood had stained
Rosser dared not leave unassailed
the answer of Frank to Mary, which
opened the way naturally for a visit
to the metal room, at the back end of
the building, where he could close the
door, and have her securely entrapped.
Let us now take the next witness,
Monteen Stover — a girl of about the
same age as Mary — and who also
worked at the facto^5^ She. too. came
for her wages on Memorial Day, April
2Gth. She testified :
"I was at the factory at 5 minutes
after 12 o'clock that day. I stayed
there 5 minutes and left at 10 minutes
after 12. I went there to get my
"I went in Mr. Frank's office: he-
was not there. I didn't see or hear
anj'bod}'' in the building.
^'The door to the metal room ivas
''I looked at the clock on my way
"/ icent through the first office into
the second office.''^
Pray note that the crucial minutes
in this terrible case are fixed by
Frank'' s own clock. The witnesses are
in full view of it, as they go up and
■down the stairs. Newt Lee, Mrs. J.
A. White, Miss Monteen Stover, and
all the others who testify as to what
happens in the factory, that Satur-
day, go by this clock. Presumably.
Frank himself does so, in telling his
detective about his movements that
The gubernatorial Benedict Arnold
who betrayed his people and became
the national hero of rich Jews, de-
clared to the world that Leo Frank
must haA'e been in his inner office
when ]Monteen Stover called. I men-
tion the fact, because it proves that
John M. Slaton must be morally cer-
tain where his client and his clienfs
victim were^ while Monteen tvas wait-
ing in the vacant offices. Nothing
but the closed door of that metal room
kept Monteen from catching Slaton's
guilty client in the very act!
While the one girl was waiting in
the empty and silent offices, the other
was in the metal room, unconscious,
and soon to be dead.
Slaton ravished the official record,
by telling an easily duped public that
Leo Frank was in his second office at
from 12:05 to 12:10. This corrupt
traitor knows that unless Frank can
be stationed in his office, at that iden-
tical time, he assaulted and murdered
the girl. Consequentl3^ Slaton rapes
the record, and puts his client where
he was not, in order that the Avorld
may not know where he teas; namely,
behind the closed door of the metal
room. Avhere the crime was being com-
mitted, as Monteen Stover waited for
(the missinj; Frank.
On page 243 of the official record
appears a statement made by Frank
to N. A. Lanford, Chief of Detectives,
on Monday morning, April 28th,
"The office boy and stenographer
were with me in the office mitil noon.
They left about 12, or a little after."
(This was true.) After they left, "this
little girl, Mary Phagan, came in, but
at the time I did not know that was
"She came in between 12:05 and
12:10, maybe 12:07, to get her pay-
envelope, her salar3^ I paid her, and
she went out of the office. ... It was
my impression that she just walked
This statement, which Frank knew
was being reduced to writing, accords
with what he told the officers who
went to his house Sunday morning.
He was accurate in fixing the time
when his stenographer left (as you
will see later), and he was also accu-
rate in fixing the time of Mary Pha-
He did not then know that Monteen
Stover had followed so closely upon
the heels of Mary, and was in his
office at the very time when ■ an inno-
cent Leo Frank would have been there.
Slaton knew that Frank had to be
in his office from 12:05 to 12:10, else
he lolled the girl; and of course
Frank knew it, too.
Therefore, the murderer tells his
detective, and the city officers, that he
was in his office, at the crucial time;
and when an unexpected, and unim-
peachable, witness turns up, and
swears that he was not in his office, at
the crucial time, one of his attorneys
issues a gubernatorial proclamation
which obliterates Monteen Stover^s
testimony, and restores his guilty
client to the place of innocence which
the murderer took for himself, before
he knew of Monteen'' s being in his
office while he was committing the
crime in the metal room.
After an intelligent white girl — of
flawless character, and Mith no con-
ceivable motive for perjiHT — swears
positively that she went to Frank';*
office to get her money, and that she
looked fgr him in both rooms — the
outer and the inner offices — Governor
John M. Slat on argued to the public
that his client was in the second
office, during the whole -five minutes
that the girl was looking and tcaiting
for h im !
Could there be moral turpitude
blacker than that of a Governor who
prostitutes his office to protect blood-
guilt, and who endeavors to hide his
own baseness by falsifying the oflScial
records of his State?
Slaton did, Avith a spurt of his pen.
that which Burns, Rabbi Marx,
Frank's wife, and Samuel Boornstein
were unable to do by persuasion or
by threat — he got rid of the evidence
which convicts Leo Frank of the mur-
der of Mary Phagan. The most per-
sistent, unprecedented, and illegal
methods were used by the Burns De-
tective Agency, and by Rabbi Marx
to induce this honest young woman,
Monteen Stover, to perjure herself;
but these outrageous efforts were
foiled by the old-fashioned honesty of
this poor daughter of the ivorking
It was the snob Governor, of high
society, gilded club-life, and palatial
environment, that proved to be the
rotten pippin in our barrel. Rich
Jews could not buy the work-people
whose daily bread is earned by the
toil of their hands. Rich Jews were
never able to move a single member
of the juiy which listened for weeks
to this damning testimony. Neither
could Judge Roan, or our Supreme
Court be moved. With splendid in-
tegrity, our whole system withstood
the attacks of Big Money, until, at
length, nothing was left but the per-
fidy of a Governor who, in the inter-
est of his client, betrayed a high
office, and a great people.
R. P. Bariett was the next witness
for the State.
He testified that he was the machin-
ist at the pencil factor}-, and that on
Monday morning, April 2Sth, he
"found an unusual spot that I had
never seen before, at the west end of
the dressing room, on the second floor.
That spot was not there Friday. It
was blood. The spot was four or five
inches in diameter, and little spots
behind these from the rear — six or
eight in number. I discovered these
between 6:30 and 7 o'clock. White
stuff (potash or haskoline) was
smeared over the spots.
"I found some hair on the handle
of a bench lathe. The handle was
in the shape of an L. The hair was
hanging on the handle, swinging
down. The hair was not there Fri-
day. It was my machine. I know
the hair was not there Friday, because
I had used that machine up to quit-
ting time, Friday, 5:30.
"I could tell it was blood by look-
ing at it. I found the hair some few
minutes afterward — about six or eight
strands, pretty long. When I left my
machine Friday, I left a piece of
work in it. AVhen I got back, the
piece of work was still there. It had
not been disturbed."
(Bear in mind, that all of this was
early Monday morning, when no Gen-
tile had accused Leo Frank, for whom
rich Jews had already, in secret, em-
ployed the best lawyers. When the
rascally Burns got into the case, an
effort was made to bribe this machin-
ist, but he refused to sell out,)
The State's next witness, Mell Stan-
ford, had been working for Frank
two years. He testified that he swept
up the whole floor in the metal room
Friday, April 25th. "I moved every-
thing, and swept everything. I swept
under Mary's and Barrett's machines.
On Monday thereafter, I found a spot
that had some white haskoline over it,
on second floor, near dressing room,
that wasn't there Friday when 1
swept. The spot looked to me like it
was blood, w'ith dark spots scattered
The extreme importance of the evi-
dence of Barrett and Stanford is,
that the hair and the spots were not
there on Friday. As Barrett's hands
had been turning his machine handle,
at 5:30 Friday evening, the tress of
woman's hair could not have been on
ii then. How came it there after the
men and girls quit work Fridaj?^? And
whose was it. if not Mary Phagan's?
As Stanford swept the floor Friday,
the blood spots could not have been
there then, for his small hroom icould
certainly have swept the white pow-
der. Whether paint or blood, how
came the spots, and the white powder
on the floor, after Stanford swept up,
Mrs. George W. Jefferson testified
that she worked at the pencil factory,
and that on Monday, "u'e saw hlood
on the second floor, in front of the
girls' dressing room. It was about
05 hig as a fan^ and something white
was over it. I didn't see it there Fri-
day. I have been working there f.ve
years. The spot I saw was not one of
the paints. The white stuff did not
hide the red. You could see it
R. B. Haslett testified that on Mon-
day morning he and ]\Ir. Black went
out to Frank's house, to request him
to appear at the station-house.
"I saw Mr. Rosser and Mr. Haas
at the station-house about 8 :30 or 9
o'clock. Mr. Frank was at the sta-
tion-house two or three hours."
E. F. Holloway, sworn for the
State: Was day watchman at fac-
tory. Forgot to lock the elevator on
Saturday, when he left the factory at
11 :45, Witness admitted that he had
previously sworn twice that he left
the elevator locked; once, in the affi-
davit he gave to Solicitor Dorsey
and, again, at the coroner's inquest.
(In other words, Holloway en-
trapped the State, which had his
sworn testimony, twice given, that he
had left the elevator locked at 11 :45
Saturday morning. He had not noti-
fied them of his change., otherwise the
State would not have put him up.)
On cross-examination, Holloway
stated that Frank got back from Mon-
tag's at about 11 o'clock. That Frank
was working on his books in the office.
That Corinthia Ilall^ and Emma
Clark were coming toward the factory
(at 11:1^5)., when he., Holloway., was
(Remember this: its importance
was not apparent to the witness when
he swore it., and he was doing what
he could to help his employer.)
He had often seen blood spots on
the floor, but didn't remember having
seen those Barrett found.
Witness had never seen Frank
speak to Mary Phagan, Cords like
that found on Mary's neck are all
over the place. They come on the
bundles of slats that are tied around
the pencils. Barrett found the blood,
hair, and pay-envelope.
Witness' explanation of the differ-
ence between his former testimony
about the elevator, and that which he
was giving at the trial, is quite sim-
ple and satisfactory: he says that he
sawed a plank for the two carpenters
on the fourth floor, and forgot about
it; and, as soon as he remembered
that he had sawed the plank, he recol-
lected that he had forgotten to lock
the elevator. Thus doth the little
busy bee improve each shining hour;
and, by association of ideas, remember
that forget fulness as to sawing one
plank, revives the memory to the
extent that one can recall what it was
N. X. Darley was Manager of a
branch of the pencil factory. He tes-
"Mr. Sig Montag is my superior,
Mr. Frank and I are of equal dignity
in the factory.
^'I was there Sunday morning
(April 27), about 8:20. *I saw Mr.
Frank that morning. When I first
saw him, I observed nothing unusual.
When we started to the basement, 1
noticed that his hands were trembling .
I observed that he seemed still nerv-
ous when he went to nail up the back
door. Frank explained why he was
nervous by saying he hadn't had
breakfast, and that the sight at the
morgue had unnerved him.
"T'Ae elevator was unlocked.
''''Mr. Frank told me in the hase-
ment that he helieved the murder had
been committed in the basement.
"When we started down the ele-
vator, he was shaking all over. He
looked pale. When riding down to
the police station, Mr. Frank was on
my knee: he was trembling. "\Vhen
my attention was called to it, I no-
ticed something that looked like blood,
with something white over it, at the
ladies' dressing room, Monday morn-
^''Barrett showed me some hair on
the lever of a lathe: six or eight
strands, at the outside.
"Pay-envelopes are found scattered
"The factory is supposed to be
locked and unoccupied by any person
"Frank usually started on his bal-
ance sheet in the afternoon.
"Frank is a small, thin man, about
125, or 130 pounds. Is easily upset,
and nervous. Eubs his hands. Sig
Montag had a fuss with Frank on
fourth floor, and Montag hollered at
him considerably, and he was very
nervous the balance of the evening;
he shook and trembled. He says, 'Mr.
Darley, I just can't work,' and some
of the boys told me he took spirits of
ammonia for his nerves.
"Scratch pads are scattered all over
"Mr. Frank told me that the slip
he took out of the clock Sunday
morning had been punched regularly.
/ made the some mistake.'''^
(Darley, like Frank, wanted to give
an innocent negro an hour of the
night, so that he might have time to
go home and back.)
W. F. Anderson, sworn for the
State, said that when the call came
from the night-watchman at the fac-
tory, Lee phoned that a woman was
dead at the factory.
"I asked him if it was a white
woman or a negro woman. He said
it vjas a white woman.''"'
Anderson went to the factory, used
the ladder to reach the basement, and
at about 3 :30 he began to use the tele-
phone trying to get Leo Frank. "I
heard the telephone rattling and buz-
zing: I continued to call for fve min-
utes: got no answer.
"/ called Mr. Tlaas^ and Mr. Mon-
tag, too; I got a response from both.
I tried to get Frank again at 4 o'clock.
Central said she rang, and couldn't
"There are plenty of pencils and
trash in the basement. The trash was
all uj) next to the boiler.''''
H. L. Parry, and G. C. February,
stenographers, swore to their reports
of Frank's statements to Chief Lan-
ford, and to the coroner's jury.
Albert McKnight, a negro, testified
that his wife, Minola, cooks for Mrs.
Selig. with whom Frank and wife
lived : on Saturda}^ April 2Gth, he
wos at the home of Frank to see
Minola. He saw Frank when he came
home, "close to 1:30. He did not eat
any dinner. He came in, went to the
sideboard of the dining room, stayed
there a few minutes, and then he goes
out, and catches a car. Stayed there
about five or ten minutes.
"I certainlv saw Mr. Frank that
day, from the kitchen, where I waa
Cross-examination failed to shake
the negro, and he was corroborated
later by white men who said he had
made the same statements to them,
soon after the murder.
Miss Helen Ferguson testified that
she worked at the pencil factory.
"I saw Mr. Frank on Friday, April
25, about 7 o'clock in the evening, and
asked for Mary Phagan's money. Mr.
Frank said, 'I can't let you have it.' "
Witness had got Mary's money be-
fore, but not from Frank.
R. L. Waggoner swore to seeing
Frank on Tuesday morning, walk to
the window of the pencil factory, a
dozen times in half an hour, look
down on the sidewalk, and twist his
hands. In the automobile, after his
arrest, Frank's leg was shaking.
J. L. Beavers, Chief of Police,
swore: "Saw what I took to be a
splotch of blood on the floor, near the
dressing room door. It looked like
R. M. Lassiter swore that he found
a parasol in the bottom of the elevator
shaft, Sunday morning; also a ball of
small wrapping twine; also a person's
"/ noticed evidenec of dragging
from the elevator in the basement .
The umbrella was not crushed. There
is a whole lot of trash at the bottom"
of the elevator shaft.
W. H. Gheesling, funeral director
and embalmer, testified :
"I moved the body of Mary Phagan
(from the factory) at 10 minutes to
4 o'clock, in the morning, April 27th.
This cord was around her neck.
There was an impress of an eighth af
an inch on her neck. The rag was
around her head, and over her face.
The tongue was an inch and a quarter
out of her mouth, sticking out. The
body was rigid ... in my opinion, she
had been dead ten or fifteen hours.
probably longer. The blood was very
much congested. The blood had set-
tled in her face, because she was lying
on her face.
"I found some dirt and dust under
the nails. Some urine and dry blood
splotches on the underclothes. The
right leg of the drawers was split
with a Imife, or ripped right up the
"/7er right eye was very dark^ and
very much swollen^ like it was hit
before death. If it had been after
death, there wouldn't have been any
"I found a wound 2^/4 inches on the
back of the head. It was made before
death, because it bled a great deal.
The hair was matted with hlood^ and
very dry. There is no circulation
after death. / dldnH notice any
scratches on her nose. I don't think
the little girl lost much blood."
Dr. Claude Smith testified that on
one of the chips brought him, he
found three, four, or five corpuscles
of blood. Couldn't say it was human
blood. A drop, or half a drop, or
even less, would have caused it. Ex-
amined the bloody shirt found at
Newt Lee's. It was smeared inside
and out. "I got no odor from the
armpits that it had been worn. The
blood was high up about the waist-
Dr. J. W. Hurt, County Physician,
testified to the wounds, one back of
the head, and the other on the eye.
"Black, contused eye. A number of
small minor scratches on the face.
Tongue protruding. Cord around the
neck. She died of strangulation.
There was swelling on the neck. The
wound on back of head, made by blunt
instrument, and the blow from down
upward. It was calculated to produce
unconsciousness. Scratches on face
made after death. Hymen not intact.
Blood on the parts. Vagina a little
large for her age: enlargement could
have been made by penetration before
death. Normal virgin uterus. She
was not pregnant.
"T^Ae body looked as if it had been
dragged through the dirt and cinders.
It was my impression that she was
dragged face forward."
Dr. H. F. Harris, a practising phy-
"I made an examination of the body
of Mary Pliagan on May 5th. On
DR. H. F. HARRIS, CHIEF STATES WITNESS AS
TO CONDITION OF MARY'S BODY.
removing skull, found a little hem-
orrhage under the skull, correspond-
ing with point where blow was re-
ceived. Blow hard enough to render
person unconscious. Injury to eye
and scalp made before death. Strang-
ulation by cord, the cause of death.
Examined vagina. No spermatazoa.
On walls of vagina, evidence of vio-
lence of some kind. Epithelium pulled
loose, completely detached in places,
blood vessels dilated immediately be-
neath surface, and a great deal of
hemorrhage in surrounding tissues.
"Indications were that violence had
been done to vagina some little time
before death. Perhaps ten or fifteen
"'There was evidence of violence in
the neighborhood of the hymen. This
violence to the hymen had evidently
been done just before death.
"Menses could not have caused any
dilation of blood vessels, and discol-
oration of walls.
"Contents of stomach showed that
very little alteration, if any, had
taken place in the cabbage and biscuit
eaten for dinner. She died in half-
an-hour, or three-quarters afterwards.
"The violence to the private parts
might have been produced by the
finger or other means, but I found
evidence of violence.''''
C. B. Dalton, sworn for the State,
said that he knew Leo Frank, Daisy
Hopkins, and Jim Conley. He had
been to the pencil factory several
times. Had been in the basement.
"Daisy Hopkins introduced me to
Frank. When I went down the lad-
der (into the basement) Daisy Hop-
kins went with me. We went back to
a trash pile in the basement. I saw
an old cot, and a stretcher.
"Frank had Coco-Cola, lemon and
lime, and bee)\ in his office. I never
saw the women in his office doing any
writing. The first time I went to
Frank's office, it was Saturday eve-
ning. I went in there with Daisy
Hopkins. There were women in the
office. I have been in there several
times. Conley was sitting at the front
S. L. Rosser: "I am city police-
man. On May th or 7th, I Imew that
Mrs. White claimed she saw a negro
at the factory on Saturday morning,
"Mrs. White volunteered the in-
formation about seeing the negro."
Harry Scott, recalled:
"I knew on Monday (April 28),
that Mrs. White claimed she saw a
darkey at the pencil factory. I gave
the information to the police depart-
"il/r. Frank gave me the informa-
tion when I first talked to him.''''
(Pray observe that Frank not only
told the detective whom he employed.^
that he knew Mary Phagan, and that
he knew J. M. Gantt was paying con-
siderable attention to her, but that he
knew Jim Conley was in the factory
on the day of the crime.
Yet he was directing the police to a
negro Avho was not there until night-
fall, and to a white man who merely
went in to get some old shoes!)
"I got information as to Conley
•writing, through my operations while
I was out of town. Personally, / did
not get the information from; the pen-
cil factory, I got it from outside
sources, wholly disconnected with the
Misses Myrtice Cato and Maggie
Grifiin, both swore that they had seen
Frank and Rebecca Carson repeatedly
go into the ladies' private room, on
the fourth floor, and remain fifteen or
twenty minutes. This was during
work hours. Rebecca Carson carried
the key to this room.
Let us now give the gist of the evi-
dence of Jim Conley, the accomplice,
whose confession blocked Leo Frank's
deliberate scheme to hang the innocent
negro, Newt Lee.
Jim told how Frank would have
private meetings with women in the
factory, while he, Jim, kept a watch-
out. He told of how another young
man (Dalton) visited the factory, and
how there would be "a lady for him,
and one for Mr. Frank."
J. M. GANTT, ARRESTED FOR CRIME ON AC-
COUNT OF FRANK'S STATEMENTS.
He told of how Frank would signal
to him, by "stomping" on the floor,
when a woman was alone with Frank,
and how he, Jim, was then to lock the
door. When Frank got through with
his woman, he would whistle, and Jim
would unlock the door.
Conley told of meeting Frank near
Montag"s, that Saturday morning, and
of their talk: on this point of the
meeting, and an apparently confiden-
tial talk, the negro was corroborated
by Mrs. Hattie Waites.
Tlie negro told of how the Jew
instructed him where to sit, and what
to do, when they reached the factoi-y
after Frank got back from Montag's.
Mary Phagan was expected; and
Frank was planning to prevent inter-
ruption, while he was alone with her.
The negro then told of how he sat
where Frank told him to, and he
named the several visitors that came
to the factory during the morning.
At length, he reaches the doomed
girl, and he said —
"The next person I saw. was the
lady that is dead.
"After I went upstairs. I heard her
footsteps going towards the office; and
after she went in the office, I heard
two people walking out of the office,
and going like they were coming
down the steps; but they didn't come
down the steps; they went hack
toicard the metal department.'^''
("Has the metal come? Will there
be work for me, next week?"
No more work for you, Mary Pha-
You can die in defense of 3^ our vir-
tue, but never more will you turn
the dull wheel of Labor!)
"'After they went back there, I
heard the lady scream, but I didn't
hear no more; and the next person
that came was Miss Monteen Stover.
She sta^'ed there a pretty good while
— it wasn't so very long, either — she
came back down the steps, and left.
"After she came back down the
steps, and left, I heard somebody from
the metal department come running
back there upstairs, on their tip-toes :
then I heard somebody tip-toeing back
to the metal department."
Next, he heard the "stomp," and the
whistle, and went upstairs.
"]\fr. Frank was standing there at
the top of the etairs, shivering and
trembling, and rubbing his hands, like
this" — illustrating.
"Pie had a little rope in his hands —
a long, wide piece of cord.
"liis eyes looked funny. His face
"After I got to the top of the
stairs, he asked me:
" 'Did you see that little girl that
passed here just a while ago?'
"I told him I saw one come along
there, and she come back again, and
then I saw another one come along
there, and she hasn't come back down.
"And he says, 'Well, the one you
say didn't come back down, she came
into my office, and I went back there
to see if her work had come, and I
wanted to be with the little girl, and
she refused me, and I struck her, and
I guess I struck her too hard, and she
fell and hit her head against some-
thing^ and I don't know how bad she
At the time Jim made this state-
ment first to the officers, he did not
Imow that there was a wound in the
back of the girl's head ; and, of course,
he did not know it rangea "from down
He did not know that her eye was
black and swollen, and that scientific
testimony would prove the two wounds
to have been given at practically the
Without Jim's story of the blow in
her face, and her fall against some-
thing, it would be impossible to take
the official record and explain those
two wounds — front and rear.
One man could not have made the
two wounds, simultaneously : the fall
against the handle of the machine
made the rear wound, and explains
its peculiar range.
Had Jim been making up a story,
he would have said that she fell
against the crank,, or against some
sharp corner, naming it.
In the excitement of the moment,
Frank himself did not know ichat it
was that the girl had struck in fall-
ing,, else he would have removed her
tress of hair from the crank.
Is it not an evidence of the veracity
of the negro's story, that he repre-
sents Frank as saying he had hit the
girl too hard, and in falling she had
hit something,, and he did not know
how bad she was hurt?
The fact is. Frank expected to over-
come the girl's resistance without any
more violence than rakes usually exert
on modest girls who stoutly resist,
and even cry out, at first.
Her determined fight enraged him;
and, knowing that he had but a few
minutes in which to accomplish his
purpose, he struck her, believing she
would then yield, through fear.
. When she fell on the floor, he may
have thought she was shamming un-
consciousness ; and he therefore ripped
her drawer-leg, clear up, and did the
violence to the vagina. HOW? Not
in the natural way.
Then, his passion cooled, he saw
that the girl was badly hurt ; and that
if he allowed her to leave, in her
pitiable condition, she would go out
into the streets, and make the city
ring with what she could tell,, and
what she could show.
Having gone that far — it was death
anyway — he ran for the cord, tied it
around her neck, as tight as he could
tie it; and left her, to call for help
from Jim, his confidential man, in
The strip from her underskirt was
probably torn off, and wadded under
the girl's head, when he pushed up
her clothes, and ripped the leg of her
Conley continued his testimony, as
to what Frank said to him:
" 'Of course you know / ain't huilt
like other men.'' "
Note, farther on, that Miss Nellie
Woods swore that Frank used these
identical words to her, when he had
her in his office, and was trying to get
his hands under her clothes.
Of course, Jim Conley did not know
that Frank had ever used those words
to a white girl, and the corroboration
The negro continued:
"The reason he said that was, I had
seen him in a position I haven't seen
any other man," etc.
The language is set forth in the
opinion of the two Justices of the
Georgia Supreme Court, who dis-
sented from the majority. They con-
sidered the evidence improper, and
their dissent was based upon this, and
upon other evidence of Frank's vices.
What Jim described, was the crime
"He asked me if I wouldn't go back
there, and bring her up, so that he
could put her somewhere; and he said
to hurry ! that there would be mone}''
in it for me.
"When I came back there, I found
the lady lying flat of her back, with a
rope around her neck. The cloth was
also tied around her neck, and part of
it was under her head, like to catch
blood. She was dead when I went back
there, and I came back and told Mr.
Frank the girl was dead, and he said,
'Sh, sh.' He told me to go back there
by the cotton box. get a piece of cloth,
put it around her, and bring her up.
I didn't hear what Mr. Frank said,
and I came on up there to hear what
he said. He was standing on the top
of the steps, like he was going down
the steps, and while I was back in the
metal department. I didn't under-
stand what he said, and I came on
back there to understand what he did
say, and he said to go and get a piece
of cloth to put around her, and I went
and looked around the cotton box, and
got a piece of cloth and went back
The girl was lying flat on her
hack', and her hands were out this
way. I j)ut hoth of her hands down
easily, and rolled her up in the cloth,
and taken the cloth and tied her up.
and started to pick her up, and I
looked back a little distance and saw
her hat and piece of ribbon laying
down, and her slippers, and I taken
them and put them all in the cloth,
and I ran my right arm through the
cloth and tried to bring it up on my
shoulder. The cloth was tied just like
a person that was going to give out
clothes on Monday; they get the
clothes and put them on the inside of
a sheet and take each corner and tie
the four corners, and I run my right
arm through the cloth after I tied it
that way and went to put it on my
shoulder and I found I couldn't get it
on my shoulder; it was heavy, and I
carried it on my arm the best I could,
and when I got away from the little
dressing room that was in the metal
department, I let her fall, and I was
scared and kind of jumped, and I said,
'Mr. Frank, you will have to help me
with this girl, she is heavy,' and he
come and caught her by the feet, and
I laid hold of her by the shoulders,
and when we got her that way I was
backing and Mr. Frank had her by
the feet, and Mr. Frank kind of put
her on me; he was nervous and trem-
bling, and after we got up a piece
from where we got her at, he let her
feet drop, and then he picked her up.
and we went on to the elevator, and
he pulled down on one of the cords
and the elevator wouldn't go, and he
said, '■Wait, let me go in the office, and
get the key; and he went in the of ice
and got the key and come hack and
unlocked the sicitchhoard, and the ele-
vator went down to the basement, and
we carried her out, and / opened tli
cloth and rolled her out there on the
floor, and Mr. Frank turned around
and went on up the ladder, and I no-
ticed her hat and slipper and piece of
ribbon, and I said, 'Mr. Frank, what
am I going to do with these things?'
and he said. 'Just leave them right
there,* and I taken the things and
jiitched them over in front of the
boiler, and after Mr. Frank had left,
I goes over to the elevator, and he
said, 'Come on up and I will catch
you on the first floor,' and I got on
the elevator and started it to the first
floor, and Mr. Frank was running up
there. lie didnH give me time to stop
the elevator, he icas so nervous and
tremhly, and before the elevator got
to the top of the first floor, Mr. Frank
made the first step onto the eleva'or,
and by the elevator being a little
down, like that, he stepped down on
it and hit me quite a blow right over
about my chest, and that jammed me
up against the elevator, and when we
got near the second floor he tried to
step off hefore it got to the floor, and
his foot caught on the second floor as
he was stepping ofl", and that made
him stumble and he fell back sort of
against me, and he goes on and takes
the key hack to his of ice and leaves
the hox unlocked.
"I was willing to do anj'thing to
help Mr. Frank because he was a
white man and my superintendent,
and he sat down and I sat down at
the table, and Mr. Frank dictated the
notes to me. Whatever it was, it
didn't seem to suit him, and he told
me to turn over and write again, and
I turned the paper and wrote again,
and when I done that he told me to
turn over again, and I turned over
again and I wrote ont he next page
there, and he looked at that and kind
of liked it .and he said that was all
right. Then he reached over and got
another piece of paper, a green piece,
and told me what to write. He took
it and laid it on his desk, and looked
at me smiling and rubbing his hands,
and then he pulled out a nice little
roll of greenbacks, and he said, 'Here
is $200,' and I taken the money and
looked at it a little bit, and I said,
*Mr. Frank, don't you pay another
dollar for that watchman, because I
will pay him myself,' and he said, 'All
right, I don't see what you want to
buy a watch for, either; that big, fat
wife of mine wanted me to buy an
automobile, and I wouldn't do it.'
And after a while Mr. Frank looked
at me and said, 'You go down there
in the basement and you take a lot of
trash and burn that package that's in
front of the furnace,' and I told him
all right. But I ivas afraid to go down
there hy myself^ and Mr. Frank
wouldnH go down there with me. He
said, 'There's no need of my going
down there,' and I said, 'Mr. Prank,
you are a white man, and you done
it, and I am not going down there and
burn that myself.' He looked at me
then kind, of fnghtened.^ and he said.,
*Let me see that money^ and he took
the Tnoney hack and put it back in his
pocket, and I said, 'Is this the way
jou do things?' And he said, 'You
keep your mouth shut, that is all
right.' And Mr. Frank turned round
in his chair and looked at the money,
and he looked back at me and folded
"his hands and looked up and said,
^Why should I hang? I have wealthy
people in Brooklyn^ and he looked
down when he said that, and I looked
up at him, and he was looking up at
the ceiling, and I said, 'Mr. Frank,
what about me?' And he said. 'That's
all right, don't you worry about this
thing; you just come back to work
Monday, like you don't know any-
thing, and keep your mouth shut; if
you get caught, I will ^(^i you out on
bond and send you away,' and he said.
•'Can you come back this evening and
do it?' And I said, 'Yes,' that I was
coming to get my monej'. He said,
'Well, I am going home to get dinner,
and you come bqck here in about
forty minutes and I will fix the
money, and I said. 'How will I get
in?' And he said, 'There will be a
place for you to get in all right, but
if you are not coming back, let me
know, and I will take those things
and put them down with the body,'
and I said, 'All right, I will be back
in about forty minutes.' Then I went
down over to the beer saloon across
the street, and I took the cigarettes
out of the box and there was some
money in there and I took that out,
and there was two paper dollars in
there and tw^o silver quarters, and I
took a drink, and then I bought me a
double-header and drank it, and I
looked around at another colored fel-
low standing there, and I asked him
did he want a glass of beer, and he
said no, and i looked at the clock and
it said twenty minutes to two, and the
man in there asked me was I going
home, and I said, 'Yes,' and I w^alked
south on Forsyth Street to Mitchell
and JNIitchell to Davis, and I said to
the fellow that was with me, 'I am
going back to Peters Street,' and a
Jew across the street that I owed a
dime to called me and asked me about
it and I paid him that dime. Then I
went on over to Peters Street and
staid there a while. Then I went
home and I taken fifteen cents out of
my pocket and gave it to a little girl
to go and get some sausage, and then
I gave her a dime to go and get some
wood, and she staid so long that
when she came back I said, 'I will
cook this sausage and eat it and go
back to Mr. Frank,' and I laid down
across the bed and went to sleep, and
I didn't get up any more until half-
past six o'clock that night.
That's the last I saw of Mr. Frank
that Saturday. I saw him next time on
Tuesday, on the 4th floor, when I was
sweeping. He walked up and he said,
''Now., remember^ keep your mouth
shvt,^ and I said, 'All right,' and he
said, '// you'd come, hack on Saturday
and done what I told you to do with
it doxim. there., there icould have heen
no trouble!' This conversation took
place between ten and eleven o'clock
Tuesday. ^Mr. Frank knew I could
write a little bit, because he always
gave me tablets up there at the office
so I could write down what kind of
boxes we had, and I would give that
to Mr. Fi'ank down at his office, and
that's the way he knew I could write."
On cross-examination — it lasted 8
hours — the negro stated that he was
•27 years old: that before he went to
the pencil factory, he worked a year
and a half for Dr. Palmer; that he
had worked for the Orr Stationery
Company, and for S. S. Gordon. Be-
for that, for Adams Woodword and
Dr. Howell. Got his first job with
S. M. Truitt. Next with W. S. Coates.
Went to school one year. Can write
a little. Worked for Truitt two years.
For Coates, five years.
He admitted he had stooled in the
elevator shaft, Friday evening.
"/ have never seen the night watch-
man^ Newt Lee.''''
(Notice that Lee had only been
there three weeks, and that Conley
had never seen him; and therefore it
was Franl\ not Conley, who knew
that the night-watch was a '■'■tall., slim,
Therefore, it was Frank., not Con-
ley, Avho was able to accurately de-
scrihe Lee, in the notes, where he is
twice described I
This immensely important detail has
heretofore been overlooked.)
''T heard them say there was a negro
night watchman, but I did not know
he was a negro.
"The lady that I saw with Mr.
Frank was Miss Daisy Hopkins. It
would alwaj's be between 3 and 3:30
(o'clock p. m.). I was sweeping the
second floor; (Frank's office floor).
Mr. Frank called me into his office.
Miss Daisy was with him."
Then Jim told of how Dalton and
another woman came'; how Dalton
and his went down into the basement,
and how Frank and his, remained to-
gether; and how, after the two men
got through, each paid him 25 cents
for watching while they were with
Then Jim told of the Avoman who
came down from the fourth floor, to
be with Frank in his office, while the
(The manner of Frank with these
women is set forth in Volume 141 of
the Georgia Reports, page 287. Any-
one can obtain a copy by writing to
the State Librarian, Atlanta.)
"I never was drunk at the factory.
Yes, I sometimes drank beer in the
basement with Snowball" — another
Jim admitted that he had told lies
about the case, until he decided to
''Mr. Quinn came in, and then went
away before Mary Phagan came. Mr.
Quinn had already gone out of the
factory when Mary Phagan came in.
I didn't see Mr. Barrett, nor Miss
Corinthia Hall, or Hattie Hall, or
Alonzo Mann, or Emma Clarke.
"/ never was in jail until April,
1913. I have been down at police bar-
racks several times. I was arrested
for fighting black boj^s. I have never
fought a white man, or woman.
"While I was writing the notes,
Mr. Frank took the pencil out of my
hand, and told me- to rub out that 'a'
"I saw Mary Phagan's mesh-bag,
or pocketbook, in Mr. Frank's office,
after he got back from the basement.
It was lying on his desk. He taken
it and put it in the safe.''''
"Mr. Frank told me he would send
me away from here if they caught
me. He would get me out on bond,
and send me away.
"I had orders from Mr. Frank to
write down how many boxes we
"il/n Frank knew for a whole year
that I could write. I used to write
for him, the name of the pencils we
made, 'Luxury,' 'George Washington,'
'Thomas Jefferson,' 'Magnolia,' and
"Yes, / wrote him orders to take
money out of my wages^
(See the importance of this — un-
known to the negro: Frank, familiar
with his writing, sees two specimens
of it in the basement, Sunday morn-
ing, soon after the corpse is found,
and yet never says a word about the
''''hand-write'''' being Conley'^s^ nor
about his, Frank's, knowing that
Conley could write.)
"The pocket-book was a white-look-
ing pocket-book, with a chain to it.
You could take it and fold it up and
hold it in one hand."
(Mary's mother referred to it as a
Ivie Jones testified that he met Jim
Conley on the street, between 1 and
2 o'clock, Saturday afternoon, of
April 26th; and that they walked on
together toward Conley 's home.
The State here "rested" its case.
It had traced Mary into Frank's pos-
session, and had thrown upon him
the burden of explaining what became
of her, for she was found dead, in his
possession (in law), and the condi-
tion of her stomach and limbs proved
that she was murdered at about the
time he got possession of her.
In the effort to save his life, he pre-
tended that she had gone into Newt
Lee's possession, after nightfall; but
he was foiled in his purpose to hang
the innocent negro, by unforeseen cir-
(1.) The inabilit}^ of his friends
to prove that anybody saw Mary
alive, after she had been traced almost
to the factory door:
(2.) The providential visit of
Monteen Stover to Frank's office, at
the time when he told Harry Scott —
and swore at the inquest — that Mary
was in his office, and that he himself
never left it:
(3.) The call of nature, 3 o'clock
after midnight, that same night,
which providentially caused the en-
dangered Newt Lee to discover the
corpse — which Frank had intended to
either drag out into the alley behind,
or bury in the dirt floor, or burn in
the furnace, when the fires were
started again, Monday.
(4.) The break-down and confes-
sion of Jim Conley.
Thus the circumstances forged a
pei-fect chain around l"'rank.
Like a shuttle in a weaver's loom,
the girl was on the stairs, between
Conley and Frank: both knew she
was there; each man knew the other
was there; and each man knew that
if he did not kill the child, the other
If she had left the hands of Frank,
she was flung towards the hands of
Conley, at the foot of the stairs; and,
as Frank knew Conley was there, he
knew the negro assaulted and mur-
dered the girl, if he himself did not
There isn't a law^yer living who can
get over this point, and explain
Frank's screening of Conley, save
upon the idea of their joint guilt.
The Jew^ never hinted a suspicion
of the negro, until after the negro
exonerated Newt Lee, and put the
awful crime where it belonged.
And, without the negro's evidence,
no man can possibly explain that hair
and blood on Frank's floor; the ab-
sence of blood or signs of struggle,
elsewhere; the loose cloth around the
head, which soaked up the blood; the
hands folded across the breast, and
so frozen into position that, when the
fiendish Jcav dragged her by the heels,
over a cinder-strewn and gritty dirt
floor, those little fingers remained in
position across the bosom, which was
never to pillow a husband's head, or
nourish an honest man's babe.
"I put both of her hands down,
easy;" and, as the negro had seen
people cross the hands of the dead,
he crossed hers upon her breast : and
so they found them, next morning.
Everlasting honor to the race which
produces girls of this heroic mold —
girls who will not live, unless they
can live purely I
Everlasting honor to the work peo-
ple, and the common people, who
have fought so grandly, for two long
years, to avenge that innocent blood I
xVnd honor forever to the brave men
of Cobb County who carried out the
legal sentence of the courts, after
one of Frank's own lawyers had
contemptuously upset the legal ma-
chinery which had judicially ascer-
tained Leo Frank's terrible guilt.
THE CASE OF THE DEFENSE.
The first two witnesses, Matthews
and Hollis, merely swore to street-
car schedules, and the time Mary
Phagan rode into the city.
Herbert SchitF, Assistant Superin-
tendent of the factory, testified to the
system of business, manner of paying
off, how pencils are made, etc.
He saw the blood spots, and the
hair. His most important statement
was made on cross-examination:
"/ knew on Monday that Mrs.
White claimed she saw a negro there^
Then, ISIr. Schiff, why didn't you
go after that negro, instead of Newt
Lee, who was at home, asleep?
Answer the question^ NOW^ Mr.
You knew, on Monday, that the
negro whom Mrs. White saw, must
have been Jim Conley ; and you swore
that you saw Conley in the shipping
room of the factory on Monday, and
on Tuesday, following: you did not
ask Conley a single question about
the crime; and yet you knew he must
be the guilty man, if Frank wasn't.
How do you explain your failure
to catechise Jim Conley?
Explain it, NOW, Mr. Schifff
A detail of Mr. Schitf's evidence
was, that '"''empty sacks are usually
m.oved a few hours after they are
taken off the cotton^
Frank's gubernatorial attorney
argued that there was no use for
cloth, or sacks, at a pencil factory.
Miss Hattie Hall, stenographer,
swore she finished her work, carried
it to Frank, and left at 12:02, Satur-
day, punching tlie clock as she went
She said Frank did not make up
his financial sheet that morning, but
admitted she had testified differently
at the inquest.
Miss Corinthia Hall, sworn for the
defense, stated she was forelady at
the factory. Got there Saturday about
25 minutes to 12 o'clock. Mrs. P^mma
Clark Freeman was with her. They
left at about 15 minutes to 12. Frank
was in his office.
On cross-examination, witness stated
that she and Mrs. Freeman met
Lemmie Quinn a few minutes later at
the Greek Cafe, and Quinn told them
he had just been up to see Mr. Frank.
Mrs. Freeman's evidence was to the
Miss Eula May Flowers merely tes-
itfied that she gave Schiff the data
for financial reports.
Miss Magnolia Kennedy swore that
Helen Ferguson did not ask for Mary
Phagan's pay envelope.
On cross-examination, she said:
"Barrett called my attention to the
hair. It looked like Marys. My
machine was right next to Mary's."
She had never before seen the spots
on the floor, but on Monday could see
them ten or twelve feet away.
Wade Campbell, another employee:
His sister, Mrs. White, told him,
Monday, that she had seen the negro
Saturday. "I saw the spots they claim
was blood. Have never seen Frank
talk to Mary Phagan. I knew that
Conley could write."
(Tlien, Mr. Campbell, why didn't
you suspect Conley, whom yon knew
to be the negro your sister saw there,
and whom you knew could write?)
Lemmie Quinn came next:
He is foreman of the metal depart-
ment. About 100 women work at fac-
tory. Couldn't tell color of hair Bar-
rett found. Noticed the blood spots.
"I was in the office, and saw Frank
between 12:20 and 12:25."
He "reckoned" the time, and did
not go by any clock or watch. He
admitted that he met Miss Hall, and
Mrs. Freeman after he had been to
(This was the only attempt at alibi :
and tioo of FranJvS own loitnesses
smashed if, hy FranJc's own clock.
Note how they were corroborated
by Mrs. White and Holloway, both of
whom swore that the ladies, Miss Hall
and Mrs. Freeman, were at the fac-
tory some 10 to 20 minutes before
The attem'pt to place Quinn in
Frank's office at 12 :20, shows how they
needed help, there and then: its
break-down, left them without a leg
to stand on.)
Harr}^ Denham, one of the carpen-
ters at work on the fourth floor, tes-
tified to the hammering, forty feet
from the elevator. Was pretty sure
elevator did not run that day. He
could have seen wheels moving, and
heard the noise. Finished and left
about 3 p. m. Frank was there.
Testified to Frank's natural and
regular conduct on Saturday and Sun-
day. Swore her husband bulldozed
her into making that affidavit about
Frank getting drunk Saturday night,
confessing to murder, and wanting to
"My husband tried to get me to tell
lies," she said. "All that affidavit is
Emil Selig, father-in-law to Frank,
testified to his natural conduct, and
conversation on Saturday. Flatly
contradicted Albert McKnight.
Miss Helen Kerns swore she saw
Frank on the street, that Saturday,
10 minutes after 1 p. m., on Alabama
Mrs. A. P. Levy: Saw Frank get
off car near his home, between 1 and
2 p. m., that Saturday. Was looking
at the clock, and knows it was 1 :20.
Mrs. M. G. Michael, of Athens, tes-
tified that Mrs. Frank is her neice.
She saw Frank at about 2 o'clock
Saturday. He greeted her. She saw
nothing unusual about him.
Jerome Michael, of Athens, swore
that he had his watch in his hand
Saturday, and saw Frank that day
between 1 and 2 o'clock. Saw noth-
ing unusual about him.
"I practise law. I had my watch
in my hand when I saw Frank."
Mrs. Hennie Wolfsheimer swore to.
about the same thing. She was
Frank's aunt. She was corroborated
by Julian Loeb, cousin to Mrs. Frank;
Cohen Loeb, and H. J. Hinchey.
Miss Eebecca Carson testified that
she was foreladj^ at the pencil fac-
tory; that the elevator is noisy when
running, and that Jim Conley told
her, on Monday, he was so drunk the
previous Saturday he did not know
where he was or what he did. She
also heard Jim say that Frank was
as innocent as an angel.
Mrs. E. M. Carson testified that
Conley said that Frank was innocent.
She has seen blood spots on floor.
Girls would hurt their fingers.
On cross-examination, she admitted
she had seen Frank and Conley, on
fourth floor, at the same time, the
Tuesday after the murder.
(This was an important corrobora-
tion of Conley 's evidence.)
Miss Mary Pirk, another forelady
at the factory, swore that on Monday
she accused Jim of the murder, and
that "he took his broom and walked
right out of the office." Miss Mary
swore she wouldn't believe Jim on
oath. She did not report to Frank
that she suspected Jim. "I accused
Jim before I saw the blood at the
ladies' dressing room."
Miss Dora Small testified that she
worked at the factory: saw Jim Con-
ley on fourth floor Tuesda3\ Didn't
see Frank talk to Jim. "I have never
seen him talk to that nigger in my
life." Miss Dora said that Jim worried
her for money to buy newspapers,
and that she wouldn't believe him on
oath. P^very time he heard a newsboy
yell "Extra!" Jim would go to Miss
Dora and beg to see it, before she had
finished with it.
Miss Julia Fuss, who also worked
there, testified that Jim said, on Wed-
nesday, after the murder, that Frank
was as innocent as the angels in
heaven; she added that Jim "was
never known to tell the truth."
She testified that Frank came up
stairs where Conley was, that Tues-
day moiviing, but she did not see
them in conversation.
Annie Hixon, a lady of color, testi-
fied that Frank called up the Ursen-
bach home, about half-past one, April
26, and told them he would not be
able to keep his engagement to go to
the ball game.
Alonzo Mann, office boy at the fac-
tory, swore he left at about 11:30 on
Saturday. Had never seen Frank
have any women there. Had never
seen Dalton there.
Mr. M. O. Xix identified the finan-
cial sheets as being in Frank's hand-
Harry Gottheimer travels for the
pencil factory. Saw Frank at Mon-
tag's that Saturday morning. Said
Frank invited him to call at the fac-
tory that afternoon.
Mrs. Rae Frank, mother of defen-
dant, identified some writing, especi-
ally' a letter written by him to his
uncle, Moses Frank, who "is supposed
to be very wealthy."
Oscar Pappenheimer, stockholder in
tlie pencil factfjr}', swore to receiving
i-oport ^Monday, April 28th.
C. F. Ursenbach, brother-in-law of
Frank, said he had an engagement
for the ball game with Frank, for
Saturday afternoon, and Frank called
it ort'; saw Frank, Sunday: seemed
I. Straus swore he was at Frank's
home, Saturday night, and while
others played cards, Frank sat in the
Mrs. P^mil Selig testified that the
contents of the Minola McKnight affi-
davit were false.
Sig. Montag, Treasurer of the fac-
tory, testified to Frank's coming to
his house, Sunday morning, after the
crime : looked all right : witness went
to the factory that morning: sent for
Haas and Rosser, Monday: made no
trade about fees. Don't know who is
paying Frank's lawyers.
Many witnesses for the defense
either confined themselves to the good
character of Frank, or to the bad
character of Conley, and to contra-
dictory statements made by him; and
not one of these witnesses swore to
any fact of real importance.
The defendant's lawyers carried the
character business too far, by putting
up Miss Irene Jackson, who, after
saying that Frank's "character was
very well," swore that he had a habit
of leering at the girls in their private
room, while they were partly un-
jNIiss Bessie Fleming testified that
Frank made out his financial sheets
on Saturday mornings.
Then came defendant's statement:
It covers forty-five pages of printed
matter, and less than five of these
touch the merits of the case.
He stated that after Hattie Hall
left (12:02), Mary Phagan (he did
not know her name, he said) came
into his office, ten or fifteen minutes
later, and that he did not know where
she went after he gave her the pay
He stated that Quinn came in, after-
wards, and that if he (Frank) left
his office, after 12 o'clock, before he
went upstairs at 12:45, he must have
"unconsciously^" gone back to the
(This toilet is back of the metal
room, and he had to go to the metal
room, and, if he went to it, then^ he
had to go to the metal room where
Mary Phagan's hair was, and over
the very spot where her blood stained
the floor ! )
Almost the entire statement of the
defendant, as shown in the record, was
taken up with a tedious and pro-
longed explanation of his manner of
doing his work at the factory.
One thing Frank did try to do :
he attempted to explain why his wife
would not come to see him at the jail.
He said he did not want her in that
crowd of reporters, detectives, and
(Three of Frank's male relatives
had virtually dragged her to the
police headquarters; but she would
go no further; and when she went
away, she stayed away three wee'ks.
In the Atlanta papers, Eabbi Marx
explained this by saying, she was ex-
pecting every day that Frank would
be released, although the ' fact was
universally known that he had been
bound OA'er for trial, and could not
be bailed out.
In rebuttal, the State proved that
Frank's character for lasciviousness
was bad. The witnesses who swore
it, were M^^rtie Cato, Maggie Griffin.
Mrs. C. D. Donegan, Mrs. H. R.
Johnson, Marie Karst, Nellie Pettis,
Mary Davis, Mrs. Mary E. Wallace,
Estelle Winkle, and Carrie Smith.
These white ladies had worked for
Frank, and not one of them was im-
peached, or cross examined^ by his
By Ruth Robinson, Dewey He well,
and W. E. Turner (white), it was
proved that Frank not only Imew
Mary Phagan, but talked to her by
name, had his hand on her shoulder,
tried to push his attentions on her;
and that she was holding him off,
repulsing his advances.
George Eppes made affidavit that
Mary told him, the Saturday morning
he saw her last, alive, that Frank had
been trying to flirt with her.
One of the notes found near the
"He said he would love me, laid
down play like night witch did it
but that long tall black negro did
The other read:
"Mam that negro fire down here did
this i went to make water and he
push me down a hole a long tall
negro black that had it wase long
sleam tall negro i wright while play
Note, that unnatural sexual inter-
course seems to be suggested; and
that Newt Lee is designated by occu-
pation once, and by personal descrip-
tion, twice; and that the place of tlie
crime is placed on the floor above — ■
not in the basement itself.
Excepting a mass of immateriMl
evidence, as to how long cabbage lies
in the stomach undigested, and as to
whether the girl's privates had been
violated, the defendant had nothing
except what I have stated.
How could he have?
The case hinged on the few minutes
after Hattie Hall left at 12:02, and
before Mrs. White's return at 12:30;
and the disappearance of Frank and
his victim, during the time that Mon-
teen Stover waited for him in his
office, could never be explained.
His conviction rested upon undeni-
able physical facts, and his own state-
ments, made hefore he learned how
Monteen could disprove them.
The lawyers for the defense took
three lines, and three only — each of
them leading into what the French
call a cul de sac. we Americans call
it, a blind alley.
A number of witnesses, following
one of these paths that didn't go any-
where, testified to a time or times
when they had seen varnish and paint
spilled, or when they had seen some-
body hurt at a machine, and bleeding
on the floor. None of these witnesses
made the slightest effort to explain
away the spots of red, with white
powder over them, which were not
on the floor when it was swept Fri-
day, but was seen there th-e first thing
Consequenth', this line of evidence
stopped in a cul de sac.
Another lot of witnesses were put
up, to prove that Frank had never
been seen by them to have had a
woman, or women, in the factory on
Even a layman will perceive, that
no matter how strong this point was
made, it did nothing more than con-
tradict Conley, as to one detail of his
testimony. The evidence of these
witnesses was consistent with the
idea, that Frank was too sly in his
secret vices to be caught up with by
the ordinary employees of the place.
Jim was his confidential man, and
Jim was just the sort of negro to
keep the secret, and to care nothing
about the sexual practices of his white
So you see that this path of the
defense also led to nothing: it did
not tend to clear up the mysterj' of
Mary Phagan's death, in Frank's
house., shortly after she went into his
The third line of the defense con-
sisted of scientific testimony as to the
cabbage in the girl's stomach,' and the
blood on her person.
An incredible amount. of time was
devoted to this point ; and the law-
yers of Frank really appeared to at-
tach tremendous importance to it.
Doctor after doctor gave the most
learned and exhaustive dissertations
on the digesti])ility of cabbage: and
doctor after doctor uttered wisdom,
on the possibility of ascertaining, from
the examination of a woman's corpse,
whether she had suft'ered sexual vio-
lence before she died.
Can you not see at a ghmce how
futile all this sort of tiling was?
There was no dispute about the girPs
going into Frank's possession, soon
after she ate her dinner; there was
no dispute that somebody murdered
her, in Frank's own house, almost im-
mediately after she entered it ; and
nobody was being prosecuted for any
other crime than murder!
Frank was not being tried for
rape, nor sodomy, nor adultery. He
was being tried for THE MURDER
OF MARY P HAG AN, who was found
dead, hij violence, IN HIS HOUSE,
shortly following her coming into his
He admitted the possession; fixed
the time by his own clock: and made
false statements as to his then where-
abouts; consequently the scientific tes-
timony concerning the contents of the
girVs stomach, and the condition of
her vagina, was almost ludicrously
That laborious path led nowhere,
for the simple reason that it threw no
light on the question in the case — that
question being, "TFAo fastened the
cruel cord around the child's neck,
and choked her to death f
The astounding fact to be learned
from this official Brief of Evidence
is, it fails to show that defendant'^s
lawyers had any consistent theory
as to who committed the crime. AND
WHERE. I never saw such an in-
stance of water-muddying, and beat-
ing about the bush. At no pivotal
point (lid Frank's attorneys grapple
with the facts. You search in vain to
find how they expected to show the
jury that Mary Phagan came out of
Frank's possession safely, after she
came in, next to Hattie Hall, and was
followed so closely by Monteen Stover.
The jury could see — as you do — that,
had she gone on down stairs, as Frank
said she did, "at 12:05, or 12:10, or
maybe 12:07," she would have met
Monteen; and that the negro, at the
foot of the stairs, could not have done
what icas done to her, without being
ta/icn in the act, hy the other white
When Frank told the jury he must
have been at the toilet during the
five minutes that Monteen waited, the
jury must have felt the cold chills
run up their spines, for the jury knew
that Mary had not "unconsciously"
gone to the toilet, at the same time
What the doomed man, and his
bewildered lawyers failed to see was
It was just as necessary for him to
explain WHERE MARY WAS, while
Monteen waited, as to explain HIS
OWN DISAPPEARANCE, at that
Frank's repeated statements en-
trapped him beyond escape. He said,
again and again, that Mary came next
to Hattie Hall, and he did not mention
Monteenh coming at all. This proved
to the jury that he did not know of
Monteen's coming. And he would
have known it, had he been in his
office, when he said he was. Now,
as he had (in ignorance of Monteen's
visit) placed both Mary and himself
in his office — while Monteen waited —
he had deliberately and repeatedly
lied as to Mary's whereabouts, as well
as his own. He might have "uncon-
sciously" gone to the toilet. Very
well; hut where did Mary go?
Her hair, and her blood, and the
only possible explanation of the
wounds— the swollen eye in front, and
the scalp cut on the back of the head,
ranging from down upward — were
all back there at the metal depart-
ment, where the toilet was.
Infatuated young degenerate! To
escape Monteen's evidence, and to
explain his absence from his office, he
supposed himself to have gone, "un-
consciously," to the only place in his
house where there were damning evi-
dences of the crime.
Ask the finest criminal lawyer of
your acquaintance, if he ever knew of
a great case of circumstantial evidence,
where the defendant was not con-
victed hy something which HE said,
or did. It happens so, almost invari-
ably. Guilt cannot talk, or be mute;
move, or stand still, without revealing
the difference between the slush and
the snow; the crystal fount, and the
turbid stream. God so made the
world that truths p: lies never do.
No innocent man ever pretended
not to know a murdered person with
whom he had been in daily contact,
for a year; with whom he had
familiarly conversed, and upon whom
he had put his hands: and no guilty
man ever took hold of the upraised
arms of his victim, crossed them
decently over her bosom, and then
bore her away from the scene of the
When the defendant made his ex-
traordinary motion for a new trial
(the Supreme Court having unani-
mously refused to grant a re-hearing
on his regular motion for a new trial)
there was developed the most amaz-
ing series of operations, conducted by
the W. J. Burns Agency, and by C.
AV. Burke, private detective of Gov-
ernor Slaton's law-firm.
Practically all of the employees of
the pencil factory, whose testimony
had made out the State's case, were
either threatened, or ottered money,
to change their evidence.
Much of this foul work was done in
the private office of Governor Slaton.
His detective, l^nrke, using the assumed
name of Kelley, tampered with George
Eppes, and took him to Birmingham.
Albert McKnight was tempted with
money, and with otters of employ-
ment at high wages. Burns tried to
get him to swear, that some injuries
he had received in a railroad accident
were caused by a beating given Albert
by the Atlanta detectives.
The work-girls were oti'ered money
to make affidavits contradicting the
evidence given at the trial.
Carrie Smith was threatened by
Burke with the exposure of alleged
misconduct, if she did not come across,
and make the statement Burke de-
sired. The girl, being innocent, defed
Governor Slaton'' s detective!
Burns kept an Atlanta negro, Aaron
Allen, several days in Chicago, talk-
ing to him daily, and having Burns'
underlings talk to him; and they were
assisted by Jacob Jacobs. They
wanted the negro to swear that Con-
ley had confessed that he alone com-
mitted the murder. One day, in Chi-
cago, Allen was ushered into a room
of the Burns suite of offices; where
somehody had left on the table a
large pile of money^ golci? silver, and
greenbacks. The negro was too wary
to touch it.
Marie Karst testified that Burke
and Lemmie Quinn came out to her
home, and "Lemmie set up to drinks,"
and Burke talked to her. Wanted her
to come to the office of Kosser, Bran-
don, Slaton & Phillips. "I didn't go."
Then Burke met her on the street,
and offered to employ her to work
for him. Gave her $2 a day for work-
ing in the afternoons. "Burke wanted
me to go around and see the girls who
had sworn for the State in the Frank
trial . . . and see if they would not
change their evidence.
"He told me that what I swore to
did not bind me, because I was not
cross-examined, and said it was not
"I saw several of the girls, and they
told mo they would not change their
evidence, because what they swore to
"Burke wanted me to see Monteen
Stover, and talk with her, and see if
I couldn't get her to change her evi-
"Ho wantea me to go down and
live with Monteen, and 'pick' her. My
mother refused to let me do it, aiid"
Avould not let me work for Burke any
"/ met Burke., and talked with him,.
in THE PRIVATE OFFICE OF
VOVERNOR JOHN M. SLATOX:'
Mrs. Cora Falta testified that she
had been working at the factory five-
"On Monday, April 26, 1913, we
were all at work, and Magnolia Ken-
nedy came running into the room, and'
said: 'TFe have found some of Mary''s
hair on the lathe machine!'' We all'
quit work, and went there and looked'
(Remember, that no one, at this
time, suspected Leo Frank.)
R. L. Craven swore that he heard
J. N. Starnes urge Minola McKnight
to tell something favorable to Frank,.
if she could, because they would rather
learn something in his favor than
something against him; and, in the
presence of Minola's husband, and'
her lawyer, Starnes told the woman
not to swear to her statement unless-
it was true.
This statement of Minola was in
reference to Frank'^s heing di^nk dur-
ing the night after the crime; his
wife sleeping on the rug on the floor;
and his calling for his pistol to kill
himself. After these exhortations, the-
■woman swore to the statement, and
Mrs. Carrie Smith swore that she
was offered $20 to sign an affidavit
favorable to Frank. She had worked
three A^ears at the factory, and knew
Frank's character was bad. The man,
Maddox, who wanted lier to change
her evidence, was in Governor Slaton's
private office, in the Grant building,
when she went there to see Marie
Mrs. ]\Iaggie Nash (formerly Grif-
fin) swore to the efforts of Burns to
(jet he)' to change her evidence as to
Frank^s had character, and Frank'' s
going into the private room, on the
fourth floor, with a forelady. She
told Burns he might try one hundred
years to change her evidence, but she
would never do it, because it was the
Ruth Robinson swore that she had
known Mary Phagan as a little girl,
in Cobb County; and that she had
seen Frank at Mary''s 7nachine, several
times a day, talking to her, and call-
ing her ''''Mary,'''' when it was not
necessary from any business reason.
"Mary had worked there a good, long
time, and understood her business."
"Sometimes Frank would remain at
Mary's machine fifteen or twenty min-
utes. I never saw him show that
much attention to the work of the
other girls on that floor. I have seen
Frank, in showing Mary about her
work, take hold of her hands, and
hold them. Frank's visits to Mary,
and talks with her, and assistance
given her, hecame more and more fre-
"The very last day I worked there,
T saw Frank talking to Mary. /
heard him call her 'Mary.''
"The said Leo Frank undertook to
give me seven dollars, when he knew
I was not entitled to the money, and
he endeavored to have an assignation
with me, some time the next week.
This occurred in his office."
Miss Nellie Pettis made affidavit
to the ell'orts of Frank's detectives,
and lawyers, to change her evidence;
but she reiterated with emphasis that
Frank had insulted her in his office,
by making an indecent proposition
which she indignantly rejected — fol^
lowing which she left his office and
Mrs. Mamie Edmunds (formerly
Kitchens) swore that when Frank,
without knocking, would open the
door of the ladies' private dressing
room, and see girls in there partly
dressed, she thought it would have
been as little as he could have done to
say, "Excuse me, ladies," and go
away. But instead of doing so, "he
would stand m the door, and laughed
or grinned. I don't know when a
Jew is laughing, or when he is grin-
ning; but he stood there, and made
no ert'ort to move."
"Miss Jackson exclaimed, 'We are
dressing, blame it!' and then he shut
the door and disappeared."
C. W. Burke tried to persuade wit-
ness that 1^'rank's conduct was all
right, and urged her to sign a paper
to that effect.
"I took Burke's word for what tlie
papers contained. I did not tell
Burke anything different from what 1
have sworn before."
C. B. Dalton swore that Burke
offered him $100 to sign a paper, "to
be used before the Pardon Board, to
keep Frank from hanging." He said
he went to Dublin, Ga., to do some
work for a bank, and two Jews came
to h'lm and offered him $400 to leave
the State. They came to him several
times, and renewed the offer, stating
that they meant to get Frank a new
"I have, on several visits to Frank's
( ffice. seen girls there. Have seen him
play with them, hug them, kiss them,
iind pinch them. I saw him, on sev-
eral occasions, take a girl and go back
of the room where the dressing room
is. On one occasion, Frank had six
bottles of beer, and I caried three
more to his ofiice. Frank told Dalton
he needn't rent a room; to take Daisy
Hopkins to the basement, where there
was a cot. ''I used this cot with
Daisy Hopkins half a dozen times."
Helen Ferguson swore that Jimmie
Wren, who worked for C. W. Burke,
offered her $100, if she would leave
Atlayita. Frank was going to get a
new trial, and her hoard and all ex-
penses would be paid while she was
out of the State. She said that Wrenn
made violent love to her, and tried to
persuade her to marry him! He took
her up to the Grant building, and in-
troduced her to his "father."
"Jimmie made love to me, and said
he wanted to marry me, hut wanted
me to sign an affidavit first.''''
They were worlring on the girl to
get her to repudiate her statement,
that Frank had refused to give her
Mary's pay envelope.
It was this refusal, on Friday eve-
ning, to give Helen the $1.20 due to
Mary, that compelled the girl to go
to Frank herself for it, next day.
Burns, Burke, and Wrenn were
working desperately, us'ing John M.
Slaton/s private office, to get out of
their way the evidence which tended
to show that Frank deliberately laid
a trap for Mary Phagan.
It was not until several weeks after
Jimmy Wrenn introduced Helen Fer-
guson to his "father," in Governor
Slaton''s private office., that she dis-
covered that Jimmy^s '"'' father'''' was
the unscrupulous scoundrel, C. W.
Burke, who was worlring for the firm
of Rosser, Brandon, Slaton & Phil-
lips, and trying, in the interest of this
law-firm, to criminally defeat Law
Miss Nellie Wood gave testimony
which corroborated Conley in a most
remarkable manner. She said:
"I told the Solicitor before he put
me on the stand, that I was in the
office of Leo Frank on one occasion,
when the said Frank made an indecent
proposal to me. My experience as a
trained nurse enahled me to fully un-
derstand and know what Frank in-
••He said, 'You know, / am not like
other people.'' and. drawing his chair
closer up to me, says, 'I don't think
j^ou understand me,' and put his hands
on me: and I resisted, and got up and
opened the door," etc.
Frank's detectives endeavored to
secure from this witness a statement
that would negative her former evi-
dence; but, as in every other instance,
they fell short of success.
Two white men — (iraham and Til-
lander — made affidavit that they went
to the pencil factory, Saturday. April
26th, between 11 and 12 o'clock; and
that they saw a negro seated near the
foot of the stairs. Being unacquainted
with the interior of the building, each
of these men asked the negro where
the office was located, and he directed
them to it. If the negro was drunk,
these men didn't notice it.
Mrs. Hattie Waites made an affi-
davit to the fact that, on Saturday
morning. April 26th. between 10 and
11 o'clock, she saw a white man and
a negro talking together on the street,
near Montag's place of business. She
afterwards recognized Frank as the
white man, and Conley as the negro.
The most abominable a'ttempt to
manufacture evidence was made while
Conley was in jail, awaiting trial. A
white convict, George Wrenn — who
had stolen $30,000 worth of diamonds,
but who was nevertheless a "trusty"
in the prison — was the instrument
used by the Frank detectives.
He. in turn, employed a negro
woman, Annie Maud Carter, a notori-
ously low character. Wrenn coached
this black strumpet, and put her into
Conley 's cell, to entice him into com-
mitting the unnatural act with her.
They wanted to show that it was
Conley who was the sodomist.
"Mr. Gillem (a prison oificial) told
me he would give me $2.00 if I would
go in there and see Jim Conley.
George Wrenn wrote a letter, and
gave it to me, and he said, 'Yon give
it to Jim Conley, and tell him it just
came in through the mail.'
"Gillem said to me, that Conley
was a (a most nasty term for
sodomite) and said, *I just want to
see if he will fool with you with his
— (the rest is too obscene to print). I
have asked Conley, and he said he
would never do a thing like that; said
he had never done except in
the natural way.
"The first Sunday in December, a
Jew came up — Mr. Pappenheim was _
there, too" — and the woman went on
to tell how the Jew told her she could
make a pot of money, and get rich
quick, if she would put something in
Jim Conley's victuals !
The Jew said to the negress —
"I want you to take this little vial,
and put a drop in his food, and give
it to him."
When the negress recoiled from the
Jew's offer, he said to her, "You're a
d — d fool," and walked off.
"I don't Ivnow his name, but he
comes up here" (where Frank and
Conley were imprisoned) '"''with the
Klein hoys. He has black hair, and
his hair stands up, and his hat is
pulled to one side."
The detectives not only tried to get
the Carter woman to inveigle Conley
into the unnatural vice of which
Frank was accused, but endeavored to
get up a marriage between the two !
Conley and the woman both swore
that their letters had been changed,
and that the unprintable filth put in
them, had been forged.
Forged time-slips against Newt Lee !
Forged bloody shirt against Lee !
Forged affidavits against the girls !
Forced letter of the dead Judge
Roan ! Forged letters of a couple of
The Avhole case of the defense
reeked with fraud, bribery, perjury,
Never in the world was there a
more infamous episode than which
followed the organization of the
Haas Finance Committee, after the
legitimate litigation in this case had
Having lost at every point in the
legal contest, the Haas Finance Com-
mittee was appointed for no other
purpose than to defeat Law and Jus-
tice, hy unparalleled and illegitimate
It is almost miraculous that the in-
domitable Solicitor, Hugh Dorsey,
was able to defeat the Haas Commit-
tee, defeat the detectives of Governor
Slaton's firm, and defeat the criminals
of the Burns "Detective" Agency — a
villainous gang whose work consists of
just such attempts to bribe witnesses,
as was seen in their manipulations of
the Frank case.
With the following, clipped from
current news reports in Atlanta, I
close the review of the corrupt prac-
tices used in the extraordinary mo-
tion for new trial:
Atlanta, Ga., Jan. 28. — The Rev. C. B.
Ragsdale, formerly pastor of a local
church, today testified he was paid $200
for signing a false affidavit in connection
with the Leo M. Frank case. Mr. Ragsdale
was the first witness in the trial of Dan S.
Lehon, soutiiern manager of the William
J. Burns National Detective Agency; Ar-
thur Thurman, a lawyer, and C. C. Ted-
der, a former policeman, who are charged
with subordination of perjury. It is
alleged they procured false affidavits from
Ragsdale and R. L. Barber shortly after
Frank's extraordinary motion for a new
trial was filed.
In the affidavits Ragsdale and Barber
declared they overhard James Cor ley, a
negro, tell another negro that he had
killed a girl in the factory where Mary
Phagan was murdered.
The former pastor still was on the wit-
ness stand when court adjourned for the
day. He testified to alleged meetings with
the defendants when he said the affidavit
was discussed, describing the signing of
the document in the office of Luther Z.
Rosser, who was one of Frank's principal
counsel, and told of the alleged payment
of the money later. He added that the
night he received the money "a man rode
up to my house on a motorcycle and told
my sons to tell their father not to say any-
thing to anybody unless it was a Burns
By the skin of his teeth, Lehon
escaped conviction, because the State
was not able to trace the payment of
the $200 cUreethj to him, beyond a
reasonable doubt. At least, that is
the most charitable view to take of
the verdict. Some man, or men, on
the panel may have suspected that the
$200 fell out of the moon, and just
accidentally dropped into Ragsdale's
But you Avill have no doubts as to
who hired, and paid, Ragsdale to
swear that he had overheard Conley
confess, because you have already seen
how Burns had vainly tried to bribe
Aaron Allen, in Chicago; and how
they had tried to bribe the white girls,
and how they tried to bribe R. P.
Barrett, and Albert McKnight: and
how they tried to use Annie Maud
Decidedly, it is the blackest record
of systematic effort to save the guilty,
destroy the innocent, debauch wit-
nesses, manufacture evidence, and
create a public sentiment in favor of
a fictitious case, AGAINST THE
REAL ONE, that ever has been
known in the New World.
The Appellate Court of New York
— the highest tribunal in that State —
said, in the Becker case :
Extensive as is the power of review
vested in this court on a judgment ot
death, the law does not intend to substi-
tute the cncUisions of fact, wliich mny
be fliawn by seven jud'-es. frr the conclu-
sions of the fact wliich have been drawn
from the evidence by twelve jurors,
unless we are clear that the view of the
facts taken by the jury is wrong. It is
our duty to affirm, if the trial was fair
and without legal error, and the verdict
was not u^ainst the weight of evidence.
We are to see to it that the trial was
fair and that there was suA'icieut evi-
dence witli recofoiized rules of law to
support the verdict. This done, the re-
.si>on.sibility for the result rests with the
Tiiat is good law — good wherever
the system of jury-trial prevails.
Our Supreme Court reviewed the
evidence in the Frank case, and found
it "sufficient to support the verdict."
(See page 284, 141 Georgia Reports.)
The Court held unanimously that
the new^ evidence, pretended to have
been discovered after the verdict had
been affirmed, was not of such a char-
acter as to warrant another trial.
The United States Supreme Court
decided that Frank's lawyers had not
been able to show that he had been
denied a fair trial, or deprived of any
Surely, a case should come to an
end, some time. Surely, Frank's case
ought to have ended when the highest
court on earth said the verdict must
stand. Surely, his own lawyer, Gov-
ernor John M. Slaton, had no legal
right to annul the solemn adjudica-
tions of the supreme heads of our
judicial system. Surely, the Law
never meant that a defendant'' s own
attorney should become his jury, his '
trial judge, and his reviewing court.
When Slaton comnnited the sen-
tence of his client, his act was null
and void. Time could not validate it.
Frank was legally under sentence
of death when the Vigilance Commit-
tee took him out, and hanged him by
the neck until he was dead.
All power is in the people. Courts,
juries, sherili's, governors draw their
authority from this original source:
when the constituted authorities are
unable, or unwilling to protect life,
liberty, and property, the People
must assert their inherent right to
Womanhood must not be left at the
mercy of the libertine: the Rich must
not trample upon the children of the
Poor: the Jew must learn to distin-
guish between the Midianite and the
Prison Commissions and Governors
must learn that it is dangerous to
usurp power, and to undo the official
work, done legally by the Judicial
In Frank's case, all legal tribunals
were appealed to, by the best of law-
yers; and every decision was against
him. They had to be: there was no
escape from it.
His own lawj'er then commuted his
sentence, and fled the State.
The Vigilance Committee took the
condemned man out of the State
Farm, carried him almost to the grav •,
of his little victim, and hanged him,
in accordance with the sentence which
had three times been pronounced from
It was a long, hard fight, and the
Law won, over Big Money.
There are some legal trials that are
more than mere hiAV cases.
There are some that involve a
dynasty, test a system, and throw
light upon national conditions.
There are some that change the
course of events, and leave their effect,
for weal or woe, upon the era in
which they are tried.
A court-house case, in France, drag-
ging into it a king's wife, a pope's
cardinal, and a corrupt judicial sys-
tem, led the way to the overthrow of
an ancient monarchy.
A court-house case, in Virginia, fol-
lowed by another, in Massachusetts,
set in motion the ball which never
ceased to roll until Thirteen Colonies
had become Thirteen Independent
States — the eloquence of Patrick
Henry, and of James Otis, rather
than the musket in the Ohio wilder-
ness, being the shot that was heard
around the world.
A law-case in England, rocked the
throne, and tested, with a supreme
severity, the strength of England's
The fabric stood the test: and the
vindicated system, which would not
bend, even though the king sought to
hend it., filled Englishmen with honest
It was the great case where George
IV. brought to bear all the powers of
a monarch and a bad mad, to crush
one friendless woman — AND
Not all the patronage of the crown,
not all the money of the Secret Ser-
vice, not all the clamor of place-
holders, place-seekers, time-servers,
court sycophants, and unscrupulous
politicians, could hend the Law of
Personally weak and without
friends, the foreign princess who had
married the king, saw a host of de-
termined supporters come to her re-
lief, when English ministers sought
to use the LaAV, as the instrument of
a had man.
When the long legal combat drew
toward its close, and Lord Brougham
had brought to shame and defeat the
crowned libertine, we are told that a
scene of indescribable excitement took
place in the House of Lords — the high
court which had tried the case.
The Prime Minister rose to "with-
draw the bill," equivalent to quashing
the indictment against the persecuted
"Cheers loud and long rose from
the opposiiton benches" — where sat
the champions of the Law.
"But the House hushed to silence,
when the venerable Erskme arose,
with eyes aflame" — Erskine. the in-
domitable lawyer who had fought so
hard, so long, and so triumphantly,
to vindicate the jury system,
"My lords," he said, and his voice
rang out with the clear tone that had
entranced the tribunals of thirty years
before — •
"My lords, I am an old man, and
my life, for good or evil, has been
passed under the sacred rule of the
"In this moment, I feel my strength
renovated and repaired by that rule
being restored — the accursed change
wherewithal we have been menaced,
has passed over our heads — there is
an end of that horrid and portentious
excressence of a new law, retrosf-ec-
tive, and iniquitous — a)id the consti-
tution and scheme of our polity is
once more safe.
"My heart is too full of the escape
we have just had, to let me do more
than praise the blessings of the sys-
tem we have regained," a system of
which Hooker, in his great work on
Ecclesiastical Polity, said —
"Of Law there can be no less
acknowledged than that her seat is
the bosom of God: her voice is the
harmony of the world; all things in
heaven and on earth do her homage.
the very least as feeling her care,
and the greatest as not exempt from
"Both angels and men, and crea-
tures of what condition soever . . .
admiring her as the mother of their
peace and joy.' "
"There was silence as the silvery
voice ceased. It was as if men wished
to hear the last echo of those won-
drous accents. Then broke out a cheer,
•such as was never before heard in
that august assembly."
The Law had won! against the
licentious king; against the truckling
ministers; against the servile aristo-
crats; against the detectives of the
secret service, and the hirelings of the
Yea, by the living God! the Law
had won ! and all men in England,
all women in England, all children in
England, ^VP:RE SAFER FROM
THAT HOUR, when the grand old
lawyer rose, with full heart and
flashing eyes, to quote the words of
the grand old preacher, whose tribute
to Law, is a tribute to the God that
inspired the Law.
Have the children of Moses the
right to break the Sinai tables?
Do they deserve death when they
slay Hebrews, only?
Is there some unwritten law, which
absolves them, when their victim is a
They are taught in their Talmud
that, "As man is superior to other
animals, so are the Jews superior to
all other men."
Do the Hebrews of today hold to
that, in their heart of hearts?
They are taught by their great
teacher, Rabbana Ashi, that "Those
who are not Jews, are dogs and
Are the Hebrews true to Talmud,
and to their learned Rabbana?
Was Mary Phagan — the Irish girl
— legitimate spoil for the descendant
of those who divided among them-
selves the daughters of the Midian-
Is there a secret tenet of tlieir re-
ligion, which compels the entire race
to combine to save the neck of sucli n
loathsome degenerate as Leo Frank?
They did not waste a dollar, nor a
day, on the Jews who were electro-
cuted for shooting Rosenthal: was it
because Rosenthal was a Jew?
If the victim in that case had been
an Irishman, would there have been a
Haas Finance Committee? a nation-
wide distribution of lying circulars?
a flying column of mendacious detec-
tives? a constantly increasing supply
of political lawyers? the muzzling of
daily papers? an attempt to enlist the
jSTorthern school-children. Peace So-
cieties, and Anti -Capital-Punishment
Money talks; and m this Frank-
case, money talked as loudly, and as
resourcefully, as though Baron
Hirsch's $45,000,000 Hebrew Fund
had been copiously poured into the
Like Thomas Erskine, I am noth-
ing but an old lawyer, no longer in-
clined to the hot combat of the arena
where I once loved to light; but I'm
not too old to make a stand for the
Law ; for the integi'it}^ of the system
which our fathers handed down to
us; and for the inflexible Justice, in
whose scales the murder of one little
factory girl weighs as heavily, as
though she had been the daughter of
Let the Jews of Georgia, and else-
where, look to it.
They are putting themselves on
trial; and, if they continue the malig-
nant crusade which they have been
waging, by libels and cartoons,
against a State which has never done
injustice to a single Jew, they will
reap the whirlwind.
// Mary Phagan had heen a rich
man'^s daughter, and Frank, a poor
man's son, his neck would have
cracked, a year ago!
This case is more than a law case.
This case involves the honor of a
State! This case drags the judicial
ermine into the ditch. This case is
an indictment against jury trial. This
case is an attack upon the fortress
of the Law. This case pollutes the
holy temple of Justice.
There never were such foul meth-
ods used to besmirch honest men,
mock the truthful evidence, gull a
generous public, and defeat the very
purposes of the criminal code.
There never were such prodigious
energies put forth to conceal the
Truth, and to put Falsehood in its
In the whole scope of American
history, no such campaign of abuse,
of misrepresentation, of deliberate
fabrications, and systematic elforts to
humbug outsiders, to close the mouths
of editors, to corrupt or intimidate
officials; and to ^''get axoay with it,^''
in defiance of the record, the verdict,
and the decisions of the courts.
They have never darned TO PUB-
LISH THE EVIDENCE!
It is a peculiar and portentious
thing, that one race of men — and one,
only — should be able to convulse the
world, by a system of newspaper agi-
tation and suppression, when a mem-
ber of that race is convicted of a tap-
ital crime against another race.
Does anybody in this country know
what was the truth about Dreyfus,
the French officer who was convicted
of treason, and, at first, sentenced to
Nobody does. All we know is, what
the newspapers told us; and it leaked
out, long afterwards, that the wife
of Dreyfus abandoned him, as soon as
he was turned loose.
Presumably, she was a Jewess; but,
like the other Hebrew champions of
Dreyfus, she dropped him, as soon as
she had accomplished her purpose.
One of the Eothschild banking
houses exerts a powerful influence
over French finances; another in
Frankfort, another in Vienna, and
another in London, have often stood
together to control the policies of
European governments: if they in-
sisted upon the liberation of Dreyfus,
the French Republic — beset by royal-
ists, socialists, and clericals — was in
no condition to resist the demand.
The peculiar thing, and the sinister
thing, is, that some secret organiza-
tion existed which could permeate the
whole European world, and the
United States, also, with the litera-
ture which clamored for Dreyfus.
The father of Dreyfus was an
Alsatian banker — a Jew, of course —
and a sijl)ject of the Kaiser. He was
a cog in the wheel of the German spy-
system; and he used his son, the
French officer, to secure for the Ber-
lin Government, the military secrets
of the French War Office.
France had not then formed her
defensive alliance with Great Britain,
and was not strong enough to fully
expose Dreyfus, and the Kaiser — thus
precipitating a war. The French
officer, Ricard, who was the stanch
champion of Dreyfus in every one of
the investigations, turned against the
Jew, after he himself was given a
position in the War Office and learned
the* truth, from indubitable docu-
The Beiliss case, in Russia, was
equally remarkable, in its progress
and its end.
A Gentile boy was found dead, with
more than forty small incisions in his
veins and arteries, from which prac-
tically every drop of his blood hnf^
been drawn — and the hlood had left
no marks, any ic here.
That much triclded through the
newspapers to the American people,
and they realized, of course, that here
was a novelty in deliberate and atroci-
Beiliss, a Russian Jew, was accused
of kidnapping the little boy, and
emptying his blood-vessels of their
contents, in order that it might be
used in "a religious sacrifice."
The Russian court found Beiliss
guilty; but, apparently, the same
mighty engine of agitation, and sup-
pression, that had worked for Drey-
fus, was put in motion for Beiliss.
Mankind was told, that there was
no such thing as "blood sacrifice'"
among Russian Jews; and that Beiliss
was the victim of jungle fury, race
hatred, lynch law, &c., &c.
In the meanwhile, the hysterical
public lost sight of the pallid corpse
of the Gentile boy, whose veins pre-
sented the pale lips of forty- five cuts,
made hy a sharp instrument.
Somebody had killed the lad — most
deliberately, most cruelly — and the
Russian courts, in full possession of
the facts, declared that Beiliss had
But the American people — not know-
ing the facts, and totally in the dark
as to who did get the blood out of the
boy's veins — were excitedly certain
that Beiliss didn't.
Consequently, a pressure of the
same peculiar and irresistible sort that
had saved Dreyfus, caused Russia to
stay her uplifted hand, and spare
To this day, the Americans who
blindly, hysterically helped to put thq
pressure on the Czar's Government,
have no idea who made the forty-five
slits in the blood-vessels of the little
boy; and, what's more, they don't
They accomplished their emotional
purpose, blew off their psychological
steam, and then forgot all about
Beiliss, and the boy.
Is there such a thing as "blood sac-
rifice" in Russia? We don't know.
Nobody can dogmatize on such a sub-
Even in our own country, there is a
blood sacrifice, practised in the re-
moter wilds of Arizona. The Indians
who practised it, welded Christianity
to some ancient tribal rite, and
adopted the custom of crucifying an
Indian, as Christ was crucified.
When I see Abraham with his
knife uplifted over the breast of his
boy; and when I see Agamemnon
covering his face to shut out the sight
of the priest and his knife — about to
slay the Greek king's daughter; and
when I see the sacrifice of the idolized
girl who ran out, radiant with joy, to
greet Jeptha on his return from bat-
tle — I feel myself lost in doubt as
to ichat a Russian fanatic might do.
Hidden Factors of Service
Records kept like^ this are practically
useless for the itianagement of a busi-
ness. Efficiency is impossible and funds
for improvement cannot be obtained.
Records, statistics and accounts kept
like this are available for a complete
knowledge of the cost and efficiency of
each department of the business.
Such methods result in a telephone line
which can give only poor service.
The result of such records is a telephone
'line like this, which gives good service.
The subscriber knows the difference! He demands
a well-informed, intelligent business management.
^%, American Telephone and Telegraph Company
And Associated Companies
One Policy One System Universal Service
Let all this be as it may, the other
races of men must "sit up and take
notice," if the repeated campaigns of
this Invisible Power seem to mean,
that Jews are to be exempt from pun-
ishment for capital crimes, when the
victim is a Gentile.
If the work of this Invisible Power
has been substantially the same in a
third case, as in the other two; and
this third case is that of Leo Frank,
then the Frank case assumes a nev
aspect, of new importance, and of
America is big enough to be "the
melting pot" of the Old World, pro-
vided the metals melt — otherwise, it
If the Jew is not to amalgamate
and be assimilated; if all the very
numerous foreign nationalities that
are being moved over into this coun-
try are to retain their several lan-
guages, customs, flags, holidays, ideas
of law, education, government, etc.,
then the melting pot will fail to fuse
into ore another, these conflicting ele-
In such a case, the melting pot be-
comes a huge bomb, loaded witli
Has the menace of secret organiza-
tion, of an Invisible Power, and of
cynical defiance of law, revealed itself,
in the Frank case?
Reflect upon it!
Reflect upon it, Avith especial refer-
ence to recent announcements, in
metropolitan dailies, that the Jews
mean to use the Baron Hirsch
Fund of $45,000,000 to carve out a
new Zion in this country. From all
over the world, the Children of Israel
are flocking to this country, and plans
are on foot to move them from Europe
en masse. Poland, Hungary, Kussia.
and Germany are to empty upon our
shores the very scum and dregs of the
The papers state that the- heads of
the vast Hebrew societies of this
Union will soon "submit a proposition
to the United States Government."
AVhat? The subject treat with the
This is what comes of unrestricted
Immigration, just as 90 per cent of
our crimes come from it.
What a fine illustration of Jewish
arrogance it will be, if such Amer-
ican citizens as Rabbi Wise, Nathan
Straus, Adolph Ochs, Joseph Pulitzer,
et al., make a proposition to our Gov-
ernment, for an American Zion, the
Jew millionaires negotiating with the
Government as its equals !
In 1813, the rich Jews compelled
Congress to abrogate the Russian
treaty, as a rebuke to Russia, for her
treatment of her own subjects.
They naturalized a German Jew,
Paul Warburg, and placed him at
the head of our new Jew-made finan-
Meditate upon these points:
(1.) Never before was a Jewish
or Gentile Finance Committee organ-
ized, and funds raised, to fight a case
which had already been thrice ad-
judged by a State Supreme Court :
(2.) Never before, was unlimited
money spent in publishing lies about
an official record which was accessible
to everybody, and which itself could
have been laid before the public for
less money than the lies cost:
(3.) Never before, did a murder
case, tried in Georgia, secure an ap-
peal to the Supreme Court of the
(4.) Never before, did any defen-
dant employ so many lawyers, in so
many different cities, as were em-
ployed for this degenerate Jew:
(5.) Never before, were the At-
lanta papers, the Hearst papers, and
the Jew papers so doggedly deter-
mined that the public should not have
a chance to learn what was the evi-
dence, upon which the Jew had been
(6.) Never before did a criminal's
WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 297
own liiwver, holding tlie office of Gov- Supreme Court of the Union said
ernor, defy and reverse all the courts, must die, ana whom Superior Court
and virtually pardon his own client. judges had, three times, sentenced to
(7.) Never before did the Jew bo hanged,
papers, and the Hearst papers, so When the Jews, and the Hearst
provoke a State, as to insolently de- papers, are especially and peculiarly
raand, from day to day, that the legal Avrought up over this land of a "lynch-
sentence on Frank be annulled, and ing,' you may feel quite sure that
that he he set at liberty. their unwritten law exempts a Jew,
(8.) Never before did a Vigilance when his victim is a Gentile.
Committee execute a criminal whom r:r:rrrrrr=:^^r=^^rr=rrrr=:=^
a iury had convicted, whom the Su- i--« ^i • ^ for the prospector.
J 'I > %^ - :. .^-^m.^ -■^^m.-m -mj^ j^ v-^"' cholce of 4 locatinff
preme Court of Georgia had declared J-/VCry llllll^ instrumentaj^frecK^ si^-
was properly found guilty, whom the gj'g^lfo" ut c^t^^i^fm^^'^^ novelty co., Dept. e."
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