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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



GIFT OF THE 

HISPANIC SOCIETY 
OF AMERICA 



} 



PENINSULAR SERIES 



OF AMERICA 



r 



HISPANIC 

NOTES & MONOGRAPHS 

ESSAYS, STUDIES, AND BRIEF 
BIOGRAPHIES ISSUED BY THE 
HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 

PENINSULAR SERIES 
1 



r 



^ 



SANTIAGO MATAMOROS 

(From an Illuminated MS. in the Hispanic 

Society of America) 



THE WAY OF 
SAINT JAMES 



By 
GEORGIANA GODDARD RING, M. A. 

Professor of the History of Art, Bryn Mawr 

College; Member the Hispanic Society 

of America 



In Three Volumes 

Volume III 
Illustrated 




G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

NEW YORK AND LONDON 

1920 



* •& HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

GIFT OF THE ♦ 

HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA * 

MAY 25, 1927 



Copyright. 1920, by 
THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 



Zbc fmfcfeerbocfter press, Hew gporfe 



CONTENTS 


■ • • 

m 


BOOK THREE: THE BOURNE 




CHAPTER 


PAGE 




I. ANO SANTO . 


3 




II. THE CHURCH OF THE APOSTLE 


i 34 




III. DIEGO GELMfREZ 


88 




IV. COMPOSTELLA . 


• 139 




The Church of a Dream 


163 




As Pilgrims Pass . 


• 173 




Castle and Church 


. 181 




Los Muertos Mandan 


196 




V. THE WORLD'S END 


202 




VI. THE PARADISE OF SOULS . 


221 




The Long Way 


• 245 




The Singing Souls . 


• 253 




The Bridge of Dread 


• 259 




VII. THE ASIAN GOD 


. 278 




The Constant Worship 


. 285 




The Star-led Wizards 


• 3M 




HISPANIC NO 


TES 


1 



XV 


WAY OF S.JAMES 




CHAPTER 


PAGE 




The Mortal Twin . 


334 




The High God 


347 




Along the Eastern Road . 


365 




BOOK FOUR: HOMEWARD 






I. SUMMING UP 


373 




The Chantier 


379 




Excursus on Some Twelfth Cen- 






tury Sculpture 


386 




Workmen of S. James 


396 




Sorting ..... 


407 




II. MA CALEBASSE, C EST MA COM- 


• 




PAGNE . . . . 


417 




III. THE TWO ROADS 


428 




Roncevaux .... 


449 




Envoy ..... 


453 




NOTES ..... 


457 




APPENDIX .... 


497 




Notes on S. James Major, S. 






Mary Virgin, and the Pillar 






at Saragossa 


497 




Miracles of S. James (AA. SS.) . 


508 


I 


HISP AN I C NOTES 



CONTENTS 


V 




PAGB 




Miracles of Our Lady of Villa- 






Sirga .... 


520 




The Great Hymn of S. James 


• 530 




The Little Hymn of S. James 


533 




La Grande Chanson des PHerin, 


s 




de S. Jacques 


536 




Thurkul's Vision . 




543 




Apocalypse of S. Paul 




553 




Frau Holde . 




558 




A Lyke-Wake Dirge 




560 




El Alma en Pena 




563 




Gallegan Romance . 




566 




Purchas his Pilgrim 




568 




Itineraries 




576 




BIBLIOGRAPHY . 


621 


1 


INDEX 


664 




AND MONOGRA 


PH 


s 


1 



vt 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



HISPANIC NOTES 



ILLUSTRATIONS 


•• 

vu 


ILLUSTRATIONS 




SA NTIA GO MA TA MOROS Frontispiece 




PAGB 




THE NORTH AISLE AND AMBULATORY, 




SANTIAGO CATHEDRAL 1 3 




THE FOUNTAIN AT SANTIAGO 




Photogravure facing page ... 54 




BLUB HYDRANGEAS • • 77 




A BEGGAR BY THE PUERTA SANTA IO9 




PUERTA DE LAS PLATERIAS . I45 




THE GREAT STAIR AT LE PUY 205 




MASTER MATTHEW'S PORCH 




Photogravure facing page . 262 




CHRIST AS PILGRIM — FROM SILOS 305 




AND MONOGRAPHS 


I 



Vlll 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



COINS 



PAGE 

353 



pilgrims' cross at mellId 



FINISTERRE IN THE MIST . 



- 399 



439 



HISPANIC NOTES 



S ; 

I 

r 

Ma! 

\ 
I 

1»: 



BOOK T HREE 



BOOK THREE 

THE BOURNE 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



Et sustulit me in spiritu in montem 
magnum et altutn, et ostendit mihi 
civitatem sanctum Jerusalem descen- 
dentem de coelo a Deo, kabentem 
claritatem Dei: et lumen ejus simile, 
lapidi pretioso tanquam lapidi jas~ 
ptdis sicut crystallum. Et ambulabunt 
gentes in lumine ejus: et reges terrae 
afferent gloriam suam et honorem in 
illam. Et portae ejus non claudentur 
Per diam, nox enim non erit illic. Et 
afferent gloriam et honorem gentium 
in illam. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



I 



ANO SANTO 

Droit a S. Jaqucs, le hair- 
on Galisois. — Anseis of 
Carthage. 

One night, I remember, as I travelled, the 
C amino de Santiago hung straight across the 
sky, frothy white as the surf on a night in 
August, and I knew that under it lay the 
grand church. The star-dust spun in puffs 
and whorls: Sagittarius drove full into it: 
Aquila hung poised on the green splendour 
of Alt air: Vega waited, calm and blue, for 
the long-attended coming of Bootes: stars 
that I did not know were there, stars that I 
had never seen, swarming like bees, various 
not in three or seven or ten but in fifty 
magnitudes, every one differing from 
another in glory. A shooting-star struck 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Stars 



Todos 
somos 
peregrinos 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Todos 
somos 
caminantes 



down for token that another soul was re- 
leased upon its far journey. The star- 
swarms reeled and danced, like fire-flies 
tangled in silver braid : I sped the wandering 
soul with the ancient blessing: "Dios-te 
guia y la Magdalena." . . . 

" Are all these people going to S. James?" 

At the junction the men had got down 
to walk upon the platform, smoking cigar- 
ettes and chatting under the white arc- 
lights, and as the long train began to get 
up speed the end carriage door was 
snatched open and a man belated, leaped 
tin. There in the third-class carriage, dim, 
close, dingy, full of sleeping children 
stretched out on the seats, and tired men 
who stood in the aisle to let them sleep, 
dropped down a member of the Spanish 
nobility and looked as surprised as I . Reck- 
oning that in half an hour we should reach 
Palencia and he would go back to his first- 
class seat, I opened conversation in French : 

"Are all these people going to Compos- 
tella, to the Apostle? " 

"I dare say," he answered, "I am. I 
always go." 



HISPANIC NOTES 



"1 



THE BOURNE 



So we talked, mighty civilly, till the 
glare of the station broke in at the windows 
and the shuffle of feet and hum of voices on 
the platform recommenced. At last I said: 
"Aren't you going to your own carriage? ,, 
and he, — "Aren't you?" 

"This is mine. I am making the pil- 
grimage." It was evidently unintelligible. 
Then the member of the Spanish nobility 
took off his hat and went to his own place. 
A child lay opposite asleep: under the 
mounting fatigue ot the long hours, his face 
turned to the colour of old ivory, and all 
the form of the little skull showed up. The 
dawn waked him, and he shrank into the 
corner by the window, looking out silent, 
rather apprehensive. 

That little thing, five years old, had all 
the responsibility of a large and growing 
family. His mother would never have any. 
Hers was the maternal function and no 
more: she was nursing a bouncing girl with 
four teeth and gold earrings. But he took 
life as it came, gravely; when commanded 
to accept a piece of chocolate, pocketed it 
without blinking, and later handed it to a 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Todos 
somos 
stmej antes 



Splendour 
in the 
grass 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



little sister, intermediate, who woke up 
crying. She sucked it disgustingly, and he 
looked out the window: presently announc- 
ing, without preparation: "Here comes a 
train going back to Madrid." Mark how 
the reasoning faculty operates at live years 
old. Nobody talked to him, he looked after 
the others. That was all. 

At the first tunnel he jumped and shrank, 
looked across the car to make sure it was 
on that side also, decided to treat it as a 
joke, and laughed bravely. At the second 
and third he was ready to laugh: then as 
the train dashed out of the dark into a 
mountain dell, he found means to raise a 
sudden small shout, to the echoing rocks. 
It was Wordsworthian, the human child's 
response to a sublime material pleasure. 

All the care of the world was inarticulate 
in him; but he had a quaint goblin mirth. 
Attuned to emotion, he showed himself of 
the very same clay as the Virgen de las 
Angus tias, with her tin swords and glass 
tears. The youngest baby was cross-eyed. 
The succession showed a steady decline 
into animalism. The children were all 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



long-headed; while the drovers who sat 
about me, and might have come out of the 
prints of Randolph Caldecott, in spite of a 
great length of skull fore and aft, had a low 
cephalic index. The lad alongside, asleep 
all night, was like a beautiful woman, but 
during the day his chin sprouted. 

It is well to travel with plain human 
nature, dependent on natural kindness. 
You feel how little you have yourself, and 
how many are the virtues of those about: 
patience, long-suffering, good cheer in dis- 
comfort. Men stood all night long, in the 
car, to let the children sleep at full length. 
A great deal of this is indifference, of course, 
but indifference of the right stoical sort, 
not through preoccupation with something 
bigger, but through proud disdain and 
personal dignity. What may lie back of 
this, one is always wondering. 

In view of the multitude on the train 
travelling and at every station, all bent 
toward the Apostle, it seemed wise to 
stay by the train until Corunna. There, 
I bespoke a seat twenty-four hours ahead, 
not by any of the regular lines which were 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Plain 

human 

nature 



8 



La bander a 
peregrin a 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



booked up solid three days in advance, 
but by a sort of freelance enterprise, which 
was also rounding up all the Boy Scouts 
in Galicia for a review and the blessing of a 
banner; and then found comfortable quar- 
ters and did a vast deal of business, there in 
the capital of the Province which was also 
a seaport town: and made pleasant and 
profitable acquaintance which will last my 
life out: and made an excursion by rail to 
visit a church, in returning from which I 
forgot the dates on which the rdpido runs 
and there being no train on Thursdays, 
had to walk five miles to get a country cart 
to drive into town: and after all this sub- 
mitted perforce to let an old woman carry 
my luggage to the starting place and sat 
down upon it while the crowd sorted itself. 
To me then came a gentleman and said: 

"Madam, I see that you have a ticket 
for the top: now I have a seat inside, and I 
shall be very glad to exchange if you care 
to." 

This was exceeding kindness, for his 
place cost much more, and with real grati- 
tude I explained that I preferred the outside 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



place for air and view and he withdrew a 
little mortified. He was quite right in his 
thought that up there was no place for a 
lady, and that I should hate it before we 
were five miles out. I did. 

A load of Boy Scouts kept just ahead: 
a company of Guardia Civil trotting the 
same way separated along the roadsides 
and closed up again, and private motors, 
one uniform pale grey with plastered dust, 
were all converging from bye-roads and 
speeding toward one goal. The road was 
perfect, rising and falling just enough for 
pleasure, winding just enough for changing 
winds and shifting lights. Between green- 
ish lands, now moor with outcropping gran- 
ite, now pasture with hedgerow leafage, we 
topped a slope, and saw a dust cloud ahead, 
and overtook it on a down grade, and 
turned to another rise crowned by a trotting 
figure against the grey-blue sky. The scent 
of rosemary and lavender that perfume the 
memory of Castile, is not present in this 
thick Atlantic air, but instead, whiffs from 
wet brook-sides struck across the brown- 
ish-tasting dust. In the milky blue sailed 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Company 
on the 
road 



10 



An old- 
fashioned 
inn 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



heaps of white clouds, that veiled the sun- 
light for a moment and were left behind. 
The machine rattled out its own click and 
clatter, the rhythm of machinery, but the 
sleek horses which we passed singly or in 
pairs or troops, played a pretty tune on 
the well-metalled causeway. 

At the hangar in Compostella hotel men 
were in waiting chiefly to warn off travel- 
lers, but I had telegraphed a week ahead 
and my friend of long standing, the head 
waiter of the Hotel Suizo, admitted when I 
decended, sole out of the hotel omnibus, 
that I could not be left in the street. 
"Every room has been bespoke for more 
than a month, but because we know you," 
quoth he, "and because you come every 
year, we shall have to find you something." 

I confess I like going every year to the 
Hotel Suizo: a good, old-fashioned inn 
where the front door is encumbered with 
orderlies, and the stair-landing blocked 
with valets brushing their masters' clothes 
and cleaning their boots; where the maids 
cannot answer the bell for gossiping with 
the men, and the house keeps a stock of 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



cots to set up in your room for your servant. 
Among the ladies' maids they found me a 
room in the roof, where a glazed trap-door 
was the window, but I could stand on the 
table to lean out and watch the white 
Camino francos running in, swiftly the 
last stage of it, where I had often come 
before. One night it rained and I lay warm 
and close, and listened to the splash and 
drip, the pattering on the slates and drop- 
ping on the floor, and forgot in snug content 
the peasants who had walked twenty miles 
or forty, chiefly for the fireworks, and would 
be sleeping, such of them as did sleep, in 
doorways and church porches, only to be 
disappointed of the fireworks after all. It 
was July weather, full of thunder-storms, 
and the great set-piece which should have 
kindled all the face of Santiago with living 
fire and uplifted a multitude of mounting 
stars and falling sparks, never came off at 
all. The review of the Boy Scouts, too, 
was deferred sine die, and their Mass and 
banner blessing hurried over between 
showers, too early for half of them to get 
there. As, however, the little church of S. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



ii 



Rain in the 
night 



12 



Crowds in 
the town 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Susanna, for which this function was ap- 
pointed, would not have held a quarter of 
them, that mattered the less. Their broad 
hats and ponchos, their well-set-up figures, 
like young men done in little, gave a brown- 
ish tinge to streets and squares, blending 
well with the rusty jackets and white 
stockings of country-men, the priests' sleek 
soutanes, and the vast black apron and 
coloured shawl and handkerchief of the 
solid, uncomely women. 

Misled by a popular rumour that the 
King himself was expected, I waited long 
one night to see him befor* the Episcopal 
Palace. A young guardsman on duty 
there, more for show than service, corrected 
me scrupulously when I spoke briefly of 
the master of that house, and explained 
with boyish care that he was the Cardinal 
Archbishop of Santiago. He is a terribly 
tiny old man whose ring I kissed once long 
ago, when he was doing me a kindness: 
and as we waited, carriages came, with 
livery, and flowing manes and tails, with 
cockades and varnish adorning the equip- 
age and, inside, Bishops and Cardinals 



HISPANIC NOTES 



r 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



and Monsignores and their secretaries and 
valets, with purple and scarlet stockings 
and green pipings and tassels and more 
costume in their quiet dignity than I could 
fathom, beside the intense, black respecta- 
bility of valet and secretary. Near me 
stood a sweet-faced country-man who had 
walked in, twenty miles, and would not go 
to bed, I suspected, till he walked home 
again: he had served in the Cuban War and 
bore no grudge to my country. We talked 
about all sorts of things: I remember, he 
told me he had never seen a bull-fight. He 
was not rare in that, many men have said 
the same to me, or else: " I saw one once 
but," in extenuation, "I was very young," 
in short, I knew no better then. On the 
other hand, it is notorious that English and 
Americans in the consular service, in com- 
merce, even in diplomacy, may never miss 
a fight during the season. It is said, popu- 
larly, that the King dislikes going, and he 
and the Queen evade all that they can: that 
the Queen Mother appreciates the sport 
and as for the Infanta, the King's aunt, the 
one who is so pious, she is quite mad about 



HISPANIC NOTES 



15 



Anent the 
Bull-Fight 



i6 



The grace 
of quietude 



Pilgrimages 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



it. A very beautiful Provencal lady, going 
home on a visit, with whom I travelled for 
some hours on the way between Paris and 
Nlmes, told me how she loved it, but it was 
not right, all the same. She said, " Ca fait 
de la ftevre." 

In this crowd, waiting for belated royalty 
at the end of a long day, what one felt most, 
as in the train, were the virtues of patience 
and submission. Nobody fretted, nobody 
joked, or fidgeted: we talked, and waited, 
or we waited in silence. There were few 
women, but I had no reason to regret that 
I was there, as I had on the omnibus with 
persons more well-to-do. We stood, not 
pushing or crowding, in simple humanity, 
like herded ponies, or docile goats. If no 
one was rude, neither was anyone curious; 
neither helpful, nor unkind; the not un- 
friendly indifference made an ambience 
temperate and pleasurable. 

For the big pilgrimages I was too late. 
Those come earlier, when work can be left, 
between haying and harvest, or between 
the labours of the spring months, with 
plough and pruning-knife, and the sharp- 






HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



ening of scythe and sickle. The pilgrims 
come iii y a few hundred strong, by parishes, 
and wander about the town for a few hours : 
for them the western doors are opened and 
the complicated staircase is thick with 
figures ascending and descending without 
molestation, as in Jacob's Dream. Some 
have come on foot, but most by train, for 
the railway is a matter of course in Spain 
and serves even for the periodic movement 
of vast flocks of sheep from one region to 
another as conditions of pasturage demand. 
I have often passed long trains of double- 
decked cars, moving slowly, warm-smelling 
with the soft huddled creatures. 

Though it is the bourne, the end of 
heart's desire, there is nothing strange in 
Compostella. The pilgrims can find there 
little round-arched churches like their own 
at home among the mountains of Leon, or 
plateresque and baroque, more grandiose, 
but not unlike such others as they have 
seen in cities of men. It is the gift of San- 
tiago to seem, for each man, the place 
where he would be. The low streets, ar- 
caded, with low-browed houses and a low 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



17 



and mestas 



The end of 

heart's 

desire 



18 



The place 
of a dream 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



hanging sky, are like places to which you 
come in a dream and remember that you 
have known them long ago. 

It is grey, being built of granite, as melan- 
choly as the rock-moulded hills that draw 
close about it, and as natural. The single 
commercial street, filled with the rustle of 
feet after dark, and with the double file of 
coming and going figures, is warm and famil- 
iar; homely, the shop that hardly flares and 
the shop that barely glimmers. Out from it 
lead dark archways, and darker descending 
streets: in it, the sparse little crowd sees 
itself, coming and going, up the street and 
down again: girls, old women, soldiers, 
priests, country-men, women in black veils, 
women in straw hats. 

Santiago is triste, mortally. It is grey of 
granite: greenish, tawny, blackened or 
lichened; but sombre and austere even in 
its heaviest pomp. The Puerto de las 
Platerias is gilded by weathering, but that 
opposite is stained with sea fog and greyed 
with mountain mist. 

Santiago is a dead city. The town is full 
of the crying of bells, for bells are voices of 



HISPANIC NOTES 



v 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



the dead, warning, impelling, urging, arrest- 
ing; calling to recollection, signalling to 
prayer, sounding for the passage of time, 
marking the years of one dead, clamouring 
at sunrise like sea-birds, clanging in the 
green clear twilight of early moonset, 
making the devotion appointed. La Ora- 
cidn, they call the Angelus in Spain, and 
riding toward a mountain city in the still 
pale light after the sun has dropped, you 
may hear them break out into a loud crying 
of their own: one after another takes it up, 
and rocking in their open arcades, echoing 
in the windless air, ringing against the red 
wall of the city and the blue wall of the 
mountain, they call and they compel. 

The dead that once lived are gone, and 
their place knows them no more, and the 
memory of them is a little pain, or a vague 
wraith, or a name and no more, or, at the 
last, nothingness, but the bells live yet, 
and cry and call. They call out of the past, 
they call to the times to come, and most of 
all they call out of the void to the heart of 
man to pause for a breath and brood upon 
the abyss. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



19 



The crying 
of bells 



Son tantos 
los muertos 



20 



In the 
hollow hill 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



Three places there be, sweet with the 
music of bells: Siena, and Oxford, and 
Compost ella; Siena ringed with rose-red 
walls, Oxford with her dreaming spires, 
Compostella in the hollow hill. As of Ox- 
ford, so of Compostella, it is hard to think 
of a life rooted there, of the saecular honour 
of old families, of a town habit of its own, 
apart from those who come and go, or those 
who come and stay. Whether English Don 
or Spanish Canon, when such have once 
come, they stay. But there are, back of this 
and beyond, ancient and noble families 
established there: and a stirring history of 
the townsmen's struggle for their liberties. 
The representative of one of these families 
who was long Mayor of the city, has a mar- 
vellous place at Puente de Ulla where, as 
in a memory of the Italian lakes, tall cy- 
press, and leafy pergola and the noble 
stone-pine, relieve the eternal sequence of 
chestnut and eucalyptus; and rose and 
jasmine, sweet as flowers of home, supplant 
the blue hydrangea, luxuriant and scentless. 

In Compostella, as in other Gallegan 
towns, sons are married and grandchildren 



HISPANIC NOTES 



k 



1 



THE BOURNE 



are reared: Sefior Murguia has a vast store 
of the folk tales and customs amid which he 
grew up there. " In the very city in which 
we write," he says, "in the very house in 
which we were reared, on Christmas Night 
our father bade lay two places more at the 
table as though these empty chairs should 
be filled, invisibly, by those who gave him 
life." Curiously, it is only the ancestors to 
whom the rite is due, he adds; for when a 
brother died, they laid no third cover. 

That testifies to a life deep-rooted; not 
to be overrun by the passing of pilgrims, or 
crowded and disarranged by the students 
of the university. The townsfolk have 
their share in the Afio Santo, not wholly a 
commercial share, and the Municipality 
made that year just such provision as in an 
American town, for competitions and prizes, 
band-concerts and fireworks, races and re- 
views : for exhibitions of cows and cabbages; 
for the promotion of orderly amusements 
and the suppression of the professional 
criminal. Two things were remarkable: 
the entire sobriety from the first day 
to the last of inhabitants and visitors: and 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



21 



Ancestral 
ghosts 



22 



Rain- 
maker and 
Son of 
Thunder 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

the literary nature of some of the competi- 
tions. There was a prize poem and a public 
award, a good deal of Gallegan verse and 
oratory, and along with the giants and 
their pipe and tabor, there was before all, 
the Gallegan bagpipe. The half -forgotten 
Scotch ancestry woke and stirred in my 
veins, and with the children I followed the 
piper. 

After the July thunder-storms were past, 
we settled down to grey Atlantic weather, 
that ranged from a fine drizzle to a fine 
downpour; the clouds dragging on the hills, 
or sitting, half-way down, in a curtain of 
heavy fog. The stones are patched and 
stained with lichen, like scabs and scars; 
unvenerable and rather leprous. But 
townsfolk took it with a practised patience. 
In the inevitable competition between 
Municipality and Chapter, the latter enjoys 
an unfair advantage in controlling the skyey 
influence, the power that makes la pluie et 
le bon temps. On Saturday when the Boy 
Scouts arranged for a Mass and review in 
the Park, it poured, and everyone who 
could, took refuge in the cathedral and 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



swelled the congregation for the great Mass 
of the Vigil. The downpour sounded in 
pauses of the organ: they stood close, cheek 
by jowl: motor-folk and labourers, mendi- 
cants and parsons on a holiday, professional 
pilgrims and substantial farmers. The 
beggars, tricked out in calico capes sewn 
over with scallop shells, and staffs on which 
the gourd is reduced to a symbolic knob, 
or in coats like Joseph's for patches, are as 
consciously unreal as the Roman soldiers 
in a play, embarrassed at showing their 
knees. Like the beadles in brocade gown 
and horsehair wig, they are dressed up for 
the occasion, and much less at home in 
their finery. 

One pilgrim I found, with an ecstatic 
face, who looked a little like S. Francis. 
His head was the same shape, and his 
brown frock helped the illusion. For a 
long time I watched him praying, and when 
he got up and went out I ran after and 
asked leave to photograph, readily yielded: 
then he asked an alms. Why not? Give 
and take is fair. 

Through all these days I saw gravity, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



23 



See Vol. II. 
page 483 



24 



Making 
Magic 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



but on the whole little devotion, except 
sometimes in the case of women: young 
women, who are afraid of life and take pre- 
cautions: or elder ones who have suffered 
in life, and look for anodyne. At the shrine 
you see men kneeling a little awe-struck, 
at the gold, or at the age? You find a group 
of women saying litanies. But S. James 
means nothing to them, he is only the 
means of making magic. You say a rosary 
or a litany because, presumably, Something 
wants it; or you get indulgences or you help 
some souls in purgatory, for there is some- 
thing you want. Give and take is fair. 
These are the appointed means, quite ir- 
relevant in nature, to some desired end. 
Not all who come are either peasant or 
tourist, not all who live there are mild- 
faced, ox-eyed Gallegans. In the street a 
woman passed of Aubrey Beardsley's, in 
black jacket and lace veil: the same curled 
lips and narrowed eyes and insolent bust, 
the same heavily waved hair in flat masses 
and crockets, and out of her dark eyes, 
between her level dark lashes, she looked 
cantharides. Others I have known, gentle 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



creatures, with the bearing of the saints, 
into whose hand you could put yours to go 
to the end of the world, in whom submission 
seems not a necessity but an instinct, a 
renouncement, an action of the will to 
negation. 

Only from Friday until Tuesday or Wed- 
nesday, was the town much altered: then 
squares were crowded with moving, staring 
folk, friends were meeting and exchanging 
the news of a year. You would see a priest 
who talked business of some sort half an 
hour with a country-man, and settled it, 
and took up something else with a woman 
that sought him out, all in the middle of 
the square. 

Masses were rich with sweet-stringed 
music and breathing horns, with glowing 
vestments, with processions of relics, with 
the solemn radiance of innumerable tapers. 
At Mass on the Apostle's day, pontifical 
and regal, and again at Vespers on Tues- 
day, Botafumeiro, the five-foot silver 
censer, came out in a little cart of his own, 
and was wheeled through the cloven crowd, 
attached by ropes to the machinery under 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



25 



Flammis 

mobilibus 

atria 




r 



26 



Bota 
fumeiro 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



the central dome and then at the moment 
of incense was hoisted a few feet, and swung 
by four strong men. The mechanism, 
somewhat like that which swings bells, 
gave not a creak: slowly the great, smoking 
creature began to move, rising higher at 
every return, cutting a wake through the 
transept crowd, mounting as a swing 
mounts by the life that grows in it, till vast, 
fragrant, dimly shining, it sped, it hung, it 
flew, it lay close under the vault at the 
north, at the south; and then the swinging 
slowly dwindled and died. There was a 
kind of exultation in the mass and power 
of it, as there is in great bells when they 
are rung, which redeemed the vulgarity 
and the riclame of the sacristan showing it 
every day. By the way, the renowned 
silver censer was melted down by the 
French a hundred years ago, and this one 
is only Britannia-metal. Botafumeiro, it 
must be admitted, divides the interest with 
S. James in the public programme and the 
visiting crowd: indeed, in the competition, 
Botafumeiro usually led. 
Already at nine o'clock in the morning 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



the church smelt warm and human in the 
dark aisles, which is rare, for on these grey 
stones the incense does not cling, and in 
these granite piers the fleas find cold har- 
bourage. If you remember the reek of a. 
great day at S. Gervais or S. Etienne du 
Mont, you need not fear it here, for Span- 
iards are much in the open air : the peasants 
are never unpleasant at your elbow, even 
the bourgeois are never quite unventilated. 
By the commencement of the choir office, 
we were standing each immovable on his 
own scrap of pavement, and kneeling in our 
tracks. Piety was a matter quite private 
and personal. Nobody venerated the relics 
as they passed in procession, but stared 
instead; nobody knelt for them; and for the 
Archbishop, who made, indeed, slight ges- 
tures of benediction with his scarlet glove 
and diamond cluster, nobody bent. I have 
seen in France the whole church swayed as 
by a great wind when the Bishop passed, 
swayed by the passing of the Spirit. This 
blessing was like water at the aspersion: 
none of it could hit anybody. 
They manage crowds strangely, in Spain, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



27 



The Office 



The wind 
that 
bloweth. . 



r 



28 



que es el 
del roquete 
bianco 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



though successfully. When the choir office 
began, the north transept, like all the rest of 
the church, was entirely filled with people. 
A few sacristans gently swept a clean path 
from the door to the crossing, not shoving 
or scolding, but preparing a way and 
making a path straight, as Scripture or- 
dains. Two stayed there. The square 



outside the door was also full, I doubt not. 
But at the appointed moment, vested, 
mitred, jewelled, from the Archbishops 
palace came out into the air and sun and 
multitude, a group of the cathedral clergy, 
the Cardinal Archbishop himself, five other 
Cardinals, of whom three were Archbishops, 
eleven Bishops, the Italian Nuncio, dark 
and alien in that blaze, moving like a figure 
in a Chronicle-play, and others of the Chap- 
ter with silver wands and brocaded copes. 
The music went on, and the office; their 
wake stayed there, slowly shrinking, till, in 
came a dozen or twenty uniforms, infor- 
mally as the sacristans, swept a neat path 
again, without so much as a silken cord, 
and stood, attentively, where they hap- 
pened to be when Royalty passed. Just a 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



few uniforms more were discoverable, and 
thin Spanish faces, accompanied by the civil 
power, white-gloved and white-breasted in 
the civic full dress which long since ceased 
to strike me strangely, which so sets off 
an order or a fine head. Escorting these, 
plump young comely canons in white man- 
tles with a red cross, the Order of Santi- 
ago: if they had been sleek horses or silky 
hounds, they might have been nobler. 
This is the end of /Santiago y cierra Espanal 
There we^e seats for all of these, hung 
with venerable and glorious brocades, in 
the Choir, and I think, the Royal Box, 
gilded and glazed and hung like an opera 
box in the triforium, was occupied by 
ladies, and there was a ceremonial presen- 
tation on the part of the Chapter of nose- 
gays of flowers, and a ceremonial offering 
in a silver-gilt basin, of gold on the part of 
Royalty. My neighbours on one side were 
ladies in the long black veil gathered tight 
at throat and waist and about the skirt, 
which is Spanish mourning and which 
becomes beauty as nothing else, meseems, 
could so adorn: in the long intervals we 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



29 



Tho 

Knights of 
S. James 



30 



caballero 

enlre 

cdballeros 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



held much discourse, and here at the Offer- 
ing I asked whether, if it were the King 
himself instead of his cousin, he would 
come through the crowd so confidently, so 
democratically. The answer was immedi- 
ate: that there would be no difference. It 
is commonly said the King believes en- 
tirely that some day bomb or pistol or knife 
will make an end of him, and since pre- 
cautions are vain, they are unworthy. It 
is ki the ancient Spanish tradition, not the 
Hapsburg or the Bourbon, tp live thus, 
caballero with cabaUeros. An engineer of 
my acquaintance who was living in Anda- 
lusia describes watching the King, expected 
to lunch at the Manager's house, as he 
drove his own motor up the steep street 
with one dirty boy standing on the running 
board, and two more hanging on behind. 
A noble man among noblemen: that made 
once the court of Spain, in the days of 
Alfonso II el Batallador and Fernando III 
el Santo. 

As the Mass wore on, good old ladies 
settled down on their knees to say prayers, 
and I saw three well-dressed girls kneeling 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



for the Office, but the crowd came and went, 
laughed and talked, and fanned. In the 
transept, whence the altar is hidden, you 
could not keep track of the Mass, by the 
familiar music, because it was so elaborate, 
with long interpolations, of which the royal 
offering was only one: and feet and voices 
drowned Antin and Or emus and In saecula 
saeculorutn. There was half an hour be- 
tween the Epistle and the Gospel. The 
crowd which had come for Botafumiero 
and was fairly stable till after this perfor- 
mance, then broke up and walked and 
rustled. At the sound of the bell outside 
which announced the Consecration, there 
was silence but not a hush; the crowd knelt 
the least possible time. 

Regaining my footing I watched the faces 
again. What Spaniards have and Ameri- 
cans lack is beauty of the bony structure: 
the more that shows, the finer they are. 
The men look finer than the women, and 
gentler. The handsome, elderly, middle- 
class sefioras would judge and execute their 
neighbours with a rare grace. The men 
of their class, indeed, also are more brutal. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



31 



Lucida 
belleux 



32 



To un- 
praise 
women 
it were a 
shame 



THE BOURNE 



A class below, the difference shows up. At 
the departure, the women (not ladies) 
rushed the steps up to the square, shoving 
and trampling like school-boys. Certainly 
something should be done about women: 
they are not tame housed creatures now: 
and the only hope seems to give them a 
few civic virtues. Here, in peasant and 
bourgeois alike I suspect the woman rules. 
Their husbands trail after, humorous and 
silent, and in the lower class their faces 
have the beauty of self-control and longa- 
nimity. 

The expedition of el Apostol, for these, 
shares a little the nature of the old-fash- 
ioned American camp-meeting. They are 
here partly for pleasure, but partly on busi- 
ness, to lay in some indulgences, to do some 
good to las dnimas, as well as to lay in 
thread and find out the price of wool. Give 
and take is fair: all things are arranged 
according to reason; you acquire merit by 
ordained observances and then you have it, 
ready, against need. 

Later in the summer, when everything 
was over, I used to kneel in the quiet church 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



1 



THE BOURNE 



before the great brass reja, blinking at the 
Apostle, and making it all out. S. James 
in his dim shrine, above the high altar, 
wears an enormous silver-gilt halo like a 
hatbrim, and a gigantic collar of the same 
that stretches nearly to his waist. His face 
of painted enamel over marble, is tawny 
and bearded and a little foolish : behind him 
hangs a rich darkness; before him, count- 
less constellated tapers; and the reflections 
about the silver shrine glimmer like the 
sunstreaks on water. With the multitudin- 
ous Salomonic columns, the heavy fruit 
garlands of the pilasters in between, the 
massy cornices, the piers and architraves, 
all of gold embrowned, the effect of the 
entire sanctuary is as of one of the lac- 
quered shrines for Buddha, and the imper- 
turbable, within, abiding there. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



33 



A shrine 
and a 
Buddha 



unper- 
turbed 



34 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



II 



THE CHURCH OF THE APOSTLE 

And I John saw the holy 
city, new Jerusalem, com- 
ing down from God out of 
heaven , prepared as a bride 
adorned for her husband, 
and I heard a great voice 
out of the heaven, saying: 
Behold, the tabernacle of 
God is with men and he 
will dwell with them. 



The Reverend F. Fita says explicitly, 
and he here presents the best tradition of 
Spanish ecclesiastical scholarship, that the 
disciples of S. James landed with his pre- 
cious body at Iria (which is Padron) and 
started off, and some four leagues north- 
ward on the Roman road that ran from Iria 
to Betanzos they came to a place called 
Liberodunum, x which means, "The Way- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



"1 



THE BOURNE 



side Tower." It is significant to find the 
Way figuring, thus, before sepulchre there 
was. 

The place was to be known, later, as 
Compostella: there they found, perhaps, 
a Roman tomb, and there they laid the 
Apostle. The MS. called Tumbo A, writ- 
ten in 1 129 and belonging therefore to the 
Santiago that we know, shows Theodo- 
mir discovering the three sepulchres in a 
barrel-vaulted crypt, in a church in the 
midst of a city: that church has towers at 
the west end, and eastward of the transepts, 
I should say. The MS. possibly preserves 
for us the disposition of the sacred crypt. 
A similar painting of the thirteenth century 
in the Historic Composteilana is no less 
explicit: the crypt consists of two aisles 
with a lamp swinging from the central 
capital on which descend cusped and 
pointed arches. Outside, the building is 
battlemented, the west front gabled, a 
transept steep-roofed, a circular staircase 
tower built at the west. Now, it is one 
of the peculiarities of the little crypt of 
Santiago Abajo, S. James Undercroft, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



35 



Miniature 
pictures 



36 



S. James 
Undercroft 



Area 
marmorea 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



constructed under Master Matthew's por- 
tico, and the great staircase which leads 
to it, that this has two aisles and a central 
row of shafts to carry the superincumbent 
weight. The crypt of the sepulchre lay 
eastward of this. 

In 1 139 the crypt was already a legend: 
the Gallegan translation of the Codex writes 
"In this very church lies buried under the 
high altar the body of the very honoured 
and blessed apostle S. James, and as men 
say, he lies laid in an ark of marble in a 
very fair sepulchre. " 2 So also it is written 
in the Libro de los Caballeros Cambeadores t 
the Gentlemen Moneychangers, in the 
fourteenth century, " O corpo de Santiago 
estava escondido una cova labrada con 
deus arcos de pedra debaixo da terra, num 
moymento de marmor." 3 Morales in his 
journey of 1572 could not descend into the 
crypt because all access had been cut off 
since unremembered time, but he knows 
that the body lay in a cavern or vault under 
the high altar. 

Alfonso the Chaste is credited with 
building a church immediately upon the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



discovery of the relics by the hermit 
Pelayo, with the idea of recommending 
himself and Spain to the guardianship of 
the Son of Thunder: this was some sort of 
a sanctuary or chapel over the sepulchre, 
dedicated to S. James. 4 The claim was 
made not a century later, that in or over 
against this he installed twelve Benedictine 
monks and their Abbot Ildefredo, and in 
829 the land for three miles round about was 
annexed, for the cult of the Blessed James 
and the maintenance of the monks. 5 The 
date of Ramiro's Voto which tells how 
S. James appeared and Clavijo was won 
to the cry of Adjuva nos Deus is 844, and 
thereafter Calahorra was taken. 6 In 853 
Ordoflo I doubled the radius. 7 

Alfonso III further dowered the church 
in 899, removed the rude stone and brick 
work of his grandfather and gave to it 
precious marbles, frieze and columns, 
fetched by captive Moors from the shores 
of Douro and Tamega, to raise a superb 
temple. He intended as he told S. James, 8 
Aulam tui tumuli instaurare et ampliare 
. . Aedificare et domum restaurare tem- 



n 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



37 



FUius 
Tonitrui 



Antique 
marbles 



f 



38 



from Ro- 
man ruins 



I 



WAY OP S.JAMES 



plum ad tumulum sepulchri Apostoli 
quod antiquitus construxerat divae me- 
moriae Dominus Adefonsus Magnus ex 
petra et Domini luto opere parvo." This 
appears to mean that he built a fine«new 
church where his grandfather's had stood: 
he built a House of God and raised a temple 
on the Apostle's grave-mound. Apart 
from the shrine, there was already a crypt — 
as will appear : if any one wants to make this 
a Mithraeum, nothing is wanting but an 
inscription by way of evidence. Only 
grave-stones have been found so far, dedi- 
cations to the Gods of the Dead. The King 
goes on to say that he fetched marbles from 
Aquae Flaviae where his ancestors the 
Visigothic kings had brought them from 
oversea and built palaces, that the Moors 
destroyed. This looks like an account of 
Roman remains, and if he was any judge, 
they were of oriental workmanship. Other 
marbles came by sea from Oporto. I do 
not take it that the carved lintel which he 
peculiarly prized, came from the little old 
church; rather from the ruins of Civitas 
Eabeca. 9 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Prom this we may discover that the 
ninth century church was basilican or 
cruciform, like the little churches of the 
Asturias whence the Bishop Sisnandus had 
come, with a nave of six bays, probably 
timber-roofed, that it had apparently a 
raised vaulted sanctuary and apse, like 
S. Maria de Naranco and S. Cristina de 
Lena, and an open portico, corresponding 
in form, at the western end, through which 
to enter, with some sort of tribune above. 
His carven columns have disappeared 
and left no trace, l ° for the exquisite marble 
shafts, wrought like wands of ivory, which 
grace the south portal and the central-west- 
ern, are contemporary and continuous 
with the fabric in which they are embedded, 
and the carvings in S. James Undercroft 
seem to be by the same hand as the great 
hall in the archbishop's palace, and cer- 
tainly of the same date, the end of the 
twelfth century. 

It was dedicated in 869, in the presence 
of seventeen bishops: the relics were de- 
posited in the altars and sealed up, enclosed 
in caskets of imperishable wood — that 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



39 



Pre- 

Roman- 
esque 
of the 
Asturias 



40 



Mith- 
raeum ? 



WAY OF S.JAMES 

would mean cypress. There is no indica- 
tion whence the relics came, or if any indeed 
were new. Something is said about golden 
reliquaries, rather vaguely, and there is a 
great deal of balm and incense, breathing 
fragrance about the sepulchres. The cen- 
tral altar was dedicated to S. James and 
S. Saviour like the church: there is some 
evidence that the first dedication was to 
S. Saviour alone and, in a hymn from the 
Book of S. James, the First Person of the 
Trinity is addressed as "Sother, theos 
athanatos. " x x This contained thrice seven 
relics of the Lord, of S. James, of the far- 
travelling Apostles, and of certain Spanish 
saints, including Vincent of Saragossa, 
Eulalia of Merida, Marina, Julian and 
Basilisa. The right hand altar was dedi- 
cated to S. Peter, the left to S. John Evan- 
gelist, the other son of Zebidee. Besides 
this there was another altar at the north 
side, apparently in a crypt; "In tumulo 
Altaris S. Joannis quod est sub tectu et 
constructu "... there is a flaw in the 
manuscript, but the relics are enumerated. 
The altar above S. James's body was not 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



touched: as their fathers had made it, so 
they left it, "nor none of us would be so 
hardy as to lift the stone." So the King 
ends with a prayer: "Poste Dominum te 
Patrone oro cum conjuge vel prole, ut 
digneris me habere famulum, et cum agnis 
vellere induar, nee . . . c . . . sancte sub- 
tractus cum edis nocens inveniar." It 
ends like the memory of a hymn. 

The foundations of the iconastasis and 
the steps were discovered in 1878. x 2 Under 
the tr ascot in 1895 a meter and a half 
below the present pavement, was found the 
floor of the porch. It was only five meters 
wide, and from it two steps went up into 
the church. A plan of this church is pub- 
lished by L6pez Ferreiro 13 but he does not 
give, his source. It is not plausible. The 
late good canon of Santiago was sounder 
in theology than in judgement, and what he 
prints cannot be accepted until verified. 
A good rule warns never to trust the word 
of a pious man or the bed of a pious woman. 

The dedication took place under Bishop 
Sisnandus, first of the name. 14 The name of 
his predecessor Ataulf is involved in strange 



41 



Tbe 

sacred 

pillar 



Piety vs. 
respon- 
sibility 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



42 



The Wolfs 
Den 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



matters, an accusation of sodomy and the 
killing of a bull. He retired to die in Asturi- 
as, and Sisnandus ruled for a while as Pres- 
byter. His case has some points of likeness 
with that of the predecessor of another 
king's favourite and great builder, the 
Metropolitan Gelmirez. He was eloquent 
and wise; Alfonso III, who was born and 
grew up in Santiago, loved him as a father; 
he built a palace, founded a new monastery 
called Sub Lobio, * s and alongside, a night 
refuge and the first hospice for pilgrims. 
He came from Li6bana and on February 
14, in 869, the King gave him the church 
and monastery of S. Martin de Li6bana: 
on the same day of the year in 874, he gave 
to the Apostle, S. Maria de Lie*bana. That 
church stands yet, being possibly of .the 
Visigothic age, and affords a perfect model 
for the church that King and cleric were 
then building at Compostella. 1 6 

The second of the name was driven from 
his See and S. Rosendo installed in his place : 
on the news of the king's death, the dis- 
possessed Bishop reappeared in Santiago 
and drew back S. Rosendo's bed-curtains 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



with the left hand holding a naked sword 
in the right : to this the words of S. Rosendo 
were, " He that draws the sword shall perish 
by the sword" : then he dressed himself and 
returned to Celanova. In truth, Bishop 
Sisnando II was killed under the walls, by 
Norman pirates. He had lived more like a 
mundane prince than like a shepherd of 

souls. 17 

The Asturian buildings, then, were 
copied at Santiago about a century later. 
There was nearly a century in which to 
finish and adorn this sanctuary, and then 
it came to an end. 

Almanzor reached Santiago twice, in 
988 and in 907. The shrine was known 
to the Moors from the beginning as a place 
of pilgrimage: I have already cited the 
visit of Al-Ghazal. The account of Edrisi, 
which I shall quote later, deals with the 
twelfth century. Spanish historians re- 
late that Almanzor respected the shrine 
and set a guard about it, while he burned 
the city. 18 "In 1002 Almanzor died and 
was buried in hell," and rebuilding was 
taken in hand. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



43 



Normans 



Almanzor 
testifies 



1 



44- 



King 
Veremund 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



S. Pedro Mozoncio, 986-1000, was then 
Bishop of Iria, for the translation of the See 
to Compostella was effected only at the 
Council of Clermont, by Urban II. He 
was rich, noble, and influential, and pro- 
ceeded to the rebuilding of the church, 
bettering it. * ° The Silense says that King 
Veremund with God's help "coepit res- 
taurare ipsum locum Jacobi in melius." 20 
A successor, Bishop Cresconio, 1048-1066, 
built two western towers, dedicated to SS. 
Benedict and Antolin: the Compostellana 
says for fortifying. 2 x The towers belonged 
to the original plan of the Benedictine 
Romanesque edifice. If this seems a rash 
word, the argument lies in the life of Bishop 
Peter, whose father was well-born and 
wealthy, from the Asturias, of a family long 
since famed for foundation and munificent 
endowment of churches, and whose mother 
was a princess's foster-sister. He grew up in 
the palace, was the infanta 7 s chaplain, en- 
tered into religion at Mozoncio near So- 
brado, and was abbot of Antealtares at 
the time of his election to the See. While in 
the tenth century Benedictine did not mean 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Burgundian quite as it did in the twelfth, 
yet there is a presumpti&n. Veremund was 
educated at Santiago and crowned there 2 2 ; 
whatever Spain could command would be 
used for the rebuilding. Cluny had, in 981, 
built a church with parallel apses and west- 
ern towers. 23 The work at Santiago by 
1066 had only reached the western end. 
But before the century closed it was seen 
that a much larger church was needed and 
the money for it was coming in steadily. 

To D. Diego Pelaez with his advisors 
belongs the project. His architect, Master 
Bernard the Marvellous, is more than 
likely to have been French by nation, for 
the intercourse with France was incessant 
already, and Bernard is a French and not 
a Spanish name; moreover, Bernard the 
Elder, Dominus Bernardus senex mirabilis 
magister, 2 * enjoys no patronymic of the 
Spanish sort, though Bernard the Younger, 
who was a canon in 11 20, is called Bernard 
Gutierrez. It was more irritating than 
amusing when M. Anthyme-St. Paul, who 
had lived long enough to know better, told 
the Archaeological Congress of Toulouse, in 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



45 



Cluny in 
the tenth 
century 



M agister 
Mirabilis 



4 6 



Plan 
French 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



1899, that "the first architect of S. Sernfn, 
having drawn up the plan of the whole 
church and begun the choir, was called to 
S. James of Compostella and went, leaving 
in the chantiers a pupil initiated in his pro- 
jects and apt to replace him in his ab- 
sences." 25 The only thing to match this 
assumption is M. Enlart's assertion that 
Petrus Petri, who made the plan of Toledo, 
was a Frenchman. In both cases the archi- 
tect may, indeed, have been French, I 
believe that he was, but the state^emains 
belief based on inductive reasoning, and 
not assertion based on knowledge of fact. 
The plan of Santiago is French unques- 
tionably. It belongs, along with S. Faith at 
Conques and S. Sernin at Toulouse, to the 
same great school as S. Martial at Limoges, 
built also under monks of Cluny, conse- 
crated by Urban II in 1095, but burned in 
part 1 167. S. Sernin was consecrated also 
by Urban II in 1096, again by Calixtus II 
in 1 1 19. S. Faith is the eldest of the group, 
built under Abbot Odalric, 1030-1065. 26 
The earliest consecration at Santiago was 
said in 1899 to have taken place in 1082. 



*Ji 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



I can only conjecture that M. Anthyme- 
St Paul took that date from the opening 
of Book III of the ComposteUana, which 
refers to the commencement of works. 
The earliest consecration that I know is 
1 102, when Diego Geknirez consecrated 
the altar of the Saviour and all the rest of 
the minor ap6es. a7 Normally the capUla 
mayor would be consecrated first, but here, 
the high altar was so sacred it needed 
nothing, as will appear later. 

The chantier was formed largely of 
French elements, as the succeeding analysis 
will show: to these Sr. Lamperez adds'* 
rather cautiously but, as I believe, with 
truth, "The cathedral of Santiago shows 
in some of its elements a nationalization of 
the style, produced by direct foreign in- 
fluences, e. g. Syro-Byzantine elements, and 
by national, that is Mahommedan ele- 
ments. " He does not however specify 
these in his great History of Architecture, 
and as his opusculi are deplorably hard to 
come by, we must take his word. 

The date of commencement is in dispute. 
The Book of S. James says 29 that it was 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



47 



Chantier 
French 



Syro- 
Byzantine 
and 

Moham- 
medan 



4 8 



Dates 



Pre- 
sumptions 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



begun in 1078, fifty-nine years before the 
death of Alfonso I of Aragon (1134 — 59 = 
1075), sixty-two before that of Henry I of 
England (1135 — 62 = 1073) and sixty- 
three before that of Louis the Fat of France 
(1137 — 63 = 1074). These dates are all 
inconsistent each with the other: but it 
seems likely that in Compostella, where the 
authors got all the material for this part 
of the text, the date of commencement 
would be preserved, though deaths of 
foreign kings might be misknown. In 
Part II of the Codex, the Book of Miracles, 
occurs another blunder about the death 
of the king of France. 

There is no record of work or of prepara- 
tion before. It were not amiss to point out 
that Diego Pelaez became bishop only in 
1070, and that his predecessor Gudesteo, 
who was related to the high Gallegan 
nobility, both quarrelled and fought with 
them, and was finally hacked to bits in his 
own bed over a question of the land between 
Ulla and Tambre. 3 ° The chances are 
against his beginning the preparations for a 
great building; and D. Diego could not 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



possibly have collected men and material, 
settled legal claims, and made all sure 
financially, within something less than a 
year and a half. The issue is further con- 
fused by a passage in the His tor ia Com- 
postellana to the effect that at the date of 
the opening of Book III, viz. a.d. 1128, 
forty-six years had elapsed since the begin- 
ning of the works, "ab inchoatione novae 
ecclesiae B. Jacobi." 3 x That would set the 
date at 1082 for digging of foundations and 
actual erection of walls. 

At any rate, in 1077 a concord was 
signed between Pagildo, the abbot of the 
convent of Antealtares, and the bishop 
Diego Pelaez. 32 The plan of the great 
church, on which work was beginning, 
forced them to sacrifice the church of the 
monastery and a part of the cloister. In 
a case like this the high altar stands over 
the original crypt, the confessio; and far 
beyond the probable three parallel apses 
of the eleventh century church, stretched 
the new ambulatory with its crown of five 
radiating chapels. The room for these had 
to be secured at once, and terms made with 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



49 



Con- 
tradictions 



Concord 
signed 



V 



5° 



A hard 
winter 



Com- 
mencement 
in 1078 



WAY OF S. J AME S 



the monks who still called themselves the 
Guardians of the Shrine. Another incident 
will have contributed to delay the com- 
mencement. 1077 was a hard winter, from 
Michaelmas to Quadragesima Sunday the 
bitter cold endured, memorable throughout 
Spain. a 3 While no building could be begun, 
D. Diego attended to the law business, 
awaiting the hour. 

In the capitals of the two columns at the 
entrance to the chapel of the Saviour, 
you may read: 



Regnante Principe Adefonso constructum opus 
tempore presulis Didaci inceptum opus fuit. 



The date of 1078, on the door-jamb of 
the south transept, is good evidence that 
the work of the church was begun in that 
year. At Val-de-Dios, in Asturias, the 
lintel-stone of the south transept records 
the date of commencement, in a curious 
form; and undamnitum, it says, and yet 
the portal is untampered with, and the 
word after the architect's name is construxit, 
which marks some sort of completion. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



Finally, the inscription must be read from 
bottom to top 34 : 



TERIO. Q.l BASIZ.IKAM. ISTAM. CONSTKVXXT. 

RTVS. POSITVM. BST. HOC. FVNDAMBNTVM. PRA3SRNTB. 

MAGISTRO. GAL- 

RPCANTKM OVKTBKSIS. IOHANNSS. ABBAS. VALLIS. DI. 

IOHAK. QVA- _ 

*{* XV. KXBS. IVJfll. BRA. M.CCLVI. REGNANTB. DNO. ALPH. 

IN. LBGIONE. 



The statement that work was begun on 
the first of May, 1218, and that the archi- 
tect's name was Walter, is made as ob- 
scurely as possible: but the position of 
the inscription corresponds precisely to 
that at Santiago. 

Earlier in the same chapter that pre- 
serves the dates, Aymery had said : 

"Of the master-builders who in the 
beginning built the church of Santiago, 
one was named Master Bernard the elder, 
and he was a very marvellous master, and 
Robert, with about fifty other masters. 
They worked on it steadily ": every day, 
says the Gallegan version. The original 
Commission of Administration consisted 
of the Abbot Gundesind, the treasurer 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



5i 



Master- 
builders 



52 



The old 
church 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Sigered, and one Wicart who was probably 
a canon, too. 35 

The Historia Cotnpostellana says, under 
the year of 1078, that the new building 
was so undertaken as not to involve the 
destruction of the old church, which was 
left in the new. In 11 12 the old -church, 
grown ruinous, was taken down, and the 
western towers before 1120. 36 What that 
signifies is that the Bishop and Canons 
could not afford to give up their sanctuary 
and place of pilgrimage through all the 
years the building might go on. The Chap- 
ter of Salamanca, in 151 2, had voted for 
the sake of comfort to retain the old Church 
while the new went up alongside, and the 
Chapter of Segovia had probably the same 
intention. Here more was involved than 
merely comfort: not money only but the 
business, which had a money value, like a 
physician's practice or the good-will of a 
shop. They wisely kept on with business 
as usual, and the high altar was never 
moved from its place above the tomb, till, 
the new building being entirely fit for ser- 
vice, the old was dismantled and carried 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



piecemeal out the three great doors. In 
the ninth Miracle we read that Bishop 
Stephen lived in the church in a straw hut 
over against the altar: intus in B. Apostoli 
basilica. 

About the origin of the little church of 
S. James Undercroft a suggestion seems 
plausible to offer modestly: it occurred 
because, like the pilgrims, I have known 
the great shrines of France, and climbed not 
only the hill of the Magdalen at Vezelay 
but also the steep stairs to Notre- Dame-du 
Puy. Of this chapel, Sr. Villa-amil, after 
disposing of the thick walls, narrow vesti- 
bule, and strait passage, added, some in the 
time of Archbishop Alfonso de Fonseca, and 
some in the seventeenth century, says 37 
that in the beginning the little nave had no 
doors, probably for the sake of light, but 
that doors were put further in; and that 
there were, moreover, doors which led to 
the church above, that opened in the rec- 
tangular niches just eastward of the cross- 
ing, and took one up, by inclined planes as I 
understand, to emerge in the nave of the 
cathedral. He admits that Master Mat- 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



53 



The Origi- 
nal Stairs 



54 



Lc Puy 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

thew rebuilt the whole more or less; it is 
safe to put stress upon the more, remember- 
ing that Master Matthew with his Portico, 
was more than doubling the weight those 
three central piers sustained. But descend- 
ing alongside by the street that runs under 
the Palace, or feeling the steep pitch of the 
ground approaching from westward .and 
measuring the strong ascent that begins in 
the gully at the foot of the town and ends 
far above the great church, I have seen in 
a flash the great front at Le Puy, where 
the steep winding street debouches into a 
yawning arch and continues up a flight of 
steps that once emerged in front of the high 
altar, and was only afterward turned to 
come out into the transepts. That west 
front, of which Diego Pel&ez approved the 
plan, and Diego Gelmirez saw the conclu- 
sion, carved with the great scene of the 
Transfiguration, was, it seems more than 
likely, comparable to Le Puy. About this 
of Le Puy, M. Enlart has a significant word, 
that would exactly describe what I conceive 
it was: he says "& la fois un porche, un 
perron couvert, et une crypte." 38 

HISPANIC NOTES 



r 



The Fountain at Santiago 



\ 



THE BOURNE 



This is confirmed by the passage in 
ThurkilTs Vision where souls standing in 
the grass outside the Basilica, look up the 
great staircase and see the altar. 

Inceptum opus: with the easternmost por- 
tion and the new-fangled possession-path 
and with them the building began. The 
consecration in 1102 indicates probably 
that the work had just passed the transepts, 
which originally had each two small apses 
eastward, and was starting on the nave. In 
1 1 16 and 1 1 1 7, popular risings did no small 
damage to the fabric, and when the towns- 
folk tried to smoke out the Archbishop and 
Queen they burned out entirely one of the 
western towers, and brought down the 
bells. These injuries to the fortifications 
would be repaired before anything else. 
Under the date a.d. 1128, the Historic Com- 
posteUana 39 relates that the church had 
yet no cloister, nor proper offices, nor was 
it adorned with edifices or decorated, like 
other churches less held in honour, and 
pilgrims, priests, and laymen, went about 
asking where were the cloisters and offices. 
Indeed, they wandered about and looked 

HISPANIC NOTES 



55 



Appendix 
VII 




< 



( 



J 



THE BOURNE 



mean something like the cloister of the Sar. 
In 1 134, on the occasion of the consecra- 
tion of a Bishop of Avila, an effort was 
made to start up the work again, which 
"aliis causis impedientibus neglectum et 
intermissum fuerat," and the Archbishop 
again gave generously. 41 In 1138, when 
King Alfonso tried to attach the alms- 
boxes and probably the great "ark " and 
had to remove his seals again, some of the 
money went to masters and workmen 
working on the cloisters. 4a Aymery when 
enumerating the doors of the church, calls 4 3 
the two in the south flank "de Petraria," 
which must mean, "of the chanticr "; it is 
possible that the cloister was going up in 
the midst of that. 

The next date of importance is that of 
the grants of Ferdinand II, in 1168, not 
only that for the works of the cathedral, 
for such had been given in 1107, n 29, and 
1 13 1, but that to Master Matthew, already 
in charge of the works: they exist in much 
the same form as Alfonso's to Peter the 
Pilgrim. He gets 100 maravedis a year. 44 
In the reign of this Ferdinand, Master 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



57 



and 
chanticr 



Master 

Matthew 



58 



Like Apo- 
lonius of 
Tyana 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



Matthew's porch was raised in the time 
of Bishop Peter the Third, who preceded 
Bishop Peter Mufioz the Necromancer, 
poet and theologian, great scholar and great 
teacher. He it was who being in Rome 
came back by wizardy on Christmas night, 
in order to sing the last lesson of Matins, 
which had to be performed by a dignitary 
of S. James's in Rome. 45 

From Aymery, 46 who came there not 
later than 1 138, you would think the church 
was finished. It was, however, consecrated 
by Archbishop Peter Munoz, in 121 1: the 
record exists in a set of Annals preserved 
in the MS. that is called the Tumbo Negro 
and adorned with miniatures. This is the 
date of the consecration crosses in the 
walls. 

The Poitevin saw in place, at any rate, 
the three great portals, the altars in use, 
the triforia accessible. There are to be 
nine towers, 47 he says; some are built, 
some are building. He does not mention 
the cloister, or the chapel under the stair- 
case, of Santiago Abajo, which is strong 
testimony to the theory earlier indicated, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



that in his day that was the staircase. 
For him, the crypt has become fabulous: 
there lies S. James in a marble ark, in a 
fair vaulted sepulchre, wonderful for size 
and workmanship; it is lighted heavenly- 
wise with carbuncles like the gems of the 
New Jerusalem, and the air is kept sweet 
with divine odours; waxen tapers with 
heavenly radiance light it and angelic 
service cares for it. 

Otherwise, his account is accurate to the 
last degree: on a plan of the church you 
may name the chapels, trace the doors 
he enumerates and place the towers: two 
over the south transept [two over the 
north] two over the west front; two stair- 
case turrets, and a glorious lantern over 
the crossing. The stone is strong and 
living, hard and brown, like marble [for 
polish] painted within, in divers ways: 
covered without with tile and lead. And 
he is scrupulous to add that the towers 
are not yet finished. 

In his day v the transepts had each two 
apses eastward, as you may discover from 
the dedications of the altars t to S. Nicholas 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



59 



The 

heavenly 

radiance 



6o 



S. Maria de 
la Corticela 



Doors 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



and Holy Cross, on the north: to S. Martin 
and the Baptist, on the south. Another 
behind the high altar, dedicated to S. Mary 
Magdalen, served for the early pilgrims , 
mass. The little church of the Corticela, 
was then as now connected with the church : 
the passage now has been cut through the 
chapel of S. Nicholas, but a glance at the 
plan will show how that church has a 
south door which leads by a winding pass- 
age into the square, and the other end of 
that passage once came into the transept 
between the two apses where now is the 
crooked little chapel of the Holy Ghost. 
The northern chapel of the corona or 
charolle is now dedicated to S. Bartholo- 
mew but once to S. Faith, and to its dedi- 
cation came the Bishop of Pampeluna 
who had been a monk of Conques. « 8 That 
corresponding to it on the south, was S. 
Andrew's. 

So with the doors: the first one named, 
that of the north transept, is called S. 
Mary's, for it led to the Corticela; the 
next, the Via Sacra y is still opened for 
A tics Santos. The third now goes through 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



what was once the southernmost transept 
apse: formerly, it must have led out be- 
tween the two little apses and was named of 
S. Pelayo. The fourth is called "de Can- 
onica"; it opens yet on the Sacristy where 
canons go to smoke a cigarette in between 
psalms. The fifth and sixth still exist in 
the south flank of the church, and opened 
then on the chantier; the seventh, in the 
north flank, was the grammar-school door 
and gave access to the Archbishop's palace. 
The usual entry, however, for the episcopal 
family seems to have been by an upper 
door into the triforium and Aymery's word 
for that is usually Palacio. The triforium 
had forty-three windows. The windows 
were glazed: the central chapel had three, 
the clerestory of the apse, five. This is 
entirely French. 

Although the transepts, like the nave, 
have aisles, the great portals have two 
doorways and not three: Aymery notes 
this with surprise. 49 It was not, however, 
uncommon in the south-west of France, and 
was the western arrangement at S. Faith 
of Conques and S. Sernin of Toulouse; also 



61 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



62 



La Aza- 
bacheria 



North 
facade 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



the cathedral of Bordeaux, though later, 
preserves the regional trait. 

The north door, named now from the 
Azabacheria, the market for pilgrim's 
trumpery and in especial the jet tokens for 
which Compostella was famous, was then 
called Porta Francigena. Twelve col- 
umns filled the door-jambs, reliefs the 
tympana; and by an adaptation of the 
Poitevin style, as it appears variously modi- 
fied in Notre Dame la Grande and in the 
Cathedral of Angouleme, the face of the 
wall above the doorway carried the most 
important sculpture. Here, in pariete, ap- 
peared a great Apocalyptic Christ, blessing 
with the book, enthroned within a mandorla 
that the four evangelists hold up, as the 
angels in the tympanum at Cahors and 
Autun. Eastward, on His right, the reliefs 
show Adam and Eve created and enjoined; 
on His left, dismissed from Paradise. And 
everywhere around, in a bewildering multi- 
tude that will recall the portals of Leyre 
and Sanguesa, and those of Notre Dame la 
Grande and Conques as well, are figures 
of saints, and beasts, men and angels, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



women and flowers, and what not, past 
telling. This suggests a whole scheme of 
Genesis i t 1-26. In the tympanum of the 
eastern door, under a tabernacle, you have 
the Angelic Salutation of the second Eve: 
the angel Gabriel speaks to her : 



"Che non sembiava imagine che tace, 
Giurato si saria chei'dicesse: Avel" so 



In the tympanum of the western are the 
signs of the zodiac and other lovely matters 
which we may guess to be the labours of 
the months: some of these, and parts of 
the Creation, and King David who must 
be counted among the cloud of witnesses on 
the face of the wall, still exist, built into 
the south side. Finally, the good Poitevin 
notes the odd little figures high up on the 
face of the jamb proper, four little apostles, 
blessing those who pass through: SS. 
Peter and Paul, John and James. Each 
stands on a bull's head, like the saints at 
Leon: and lions flank the doorway, watch- 
ing the doors, much as in Lombardy. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



63 



Genesis i 
1-26 



Labours 
of the 
months 



64 



South 
facade 



A 

wayfaring 
theme 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Here, however, they lean over and look 
down from the top of the doors. 

The northern fagade commemorated the 
Creation; the southern, the Judgement; 
the western, the Transfiguration. At the 
south transept, which still exists, the east- 
ern tympanum shows the Betrayal, the 
Scourging, and Pilate sitting as one in 
judgement: above that, S. Mary, God's 
Mother, with her son in Bethlehem, and 
the three Kings who bring offerings, and 
the star, and the Angel warning them. 
On the other tympanum is all the story 
of the temptation, "the evil angels like 
larves, and the candid angels which are 
the good," and what each offers: and 
others ministering with censers. The four 
apostles guard the jambs, as before [I 
think that he is wrong in one case and that 
there was, even then, the sign of the Lion] 
and four lions as well, two below, and two 
more again, above the central pier, back to 
back. Eleven columns are here, carved 
with all manner of images, flowers, birds, 
and the like, and these are of marble ; either 
those are gone and replaced by others filled 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



with kings and saints, or he has confused 
them with the western in recollection. 
In the tympanum appears, thus early, that 
sign of the Ram that M. Bertaux identified 
so cleverly, s i and the legend of the adulter- 
ous wife is told of it already, how her hus- 
band surprised her lover, and cut off his 
head, and compelled her to fondle and kiss 
it twice a day, while it corrupted in her 
hands. It was a bitter and sensual ven- 
geance but, after all, she might have been 
such a great lover as that in the story of 
William of Cabestang. 

Above, on the face of the wall, four 
angels trumpet to announce the Judgement 
Day, and Christ stands erect with S. Peter 
on His left, bearing the keys, and S. 
James on His right between two cypress 
trees, and his brother S. John alongside, 
and the other apostles spread out to left 
and right, and beyond them, and above and 
below, flowers, men, beasts, birds, fish, and 
other works. 

The west door surpasses far the others: 
it too has only two doorways, with many 
steps outside, and columns of divers 



65 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



verger s 
tale 



The Doom 



r 



66 



The 

Mount of 
Tabor 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



marbles, decorated in many ways: [here 
follows the same enumeration of all created 
things]. Above, is marvellously carved 
the Transfiguration upon Mount Tabor: 
the Lord in a white cloud [somewhat, 
perhaps, like the crimped clouds of Moissac] 
His face shining like the sun, His vesture 
gleaming as snow; and the Father above 
speaking to Him, and Moses and Elias 
who appeared with Him, talking of the 
sacrifice which was to be accomplished in 
Jerusalem. Here also are SS. James and 
Peter and John to whom before all the 
others the Lord revealed His transfigura- 
tion. Two things are to notice here: that 
there are no tympana, and that the descrip- 
tion has changed from exact observation 
into something literary. Aymery could not, 
stand close, and stare, and take notes, here: 
and the only explanation is that already 
urged, that if this first facade resembled 
structurally that at Le Puy, the steps were 
a very long way below the huge relief. « 2 

Recapitulation may serve, at this 
point. It is probable that: 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



i. Alfonso the Chaste built a little 
brick church, a local shrine. 

2. Alfonso III the Magnanimous 
built at the end of the ninth century a 
basilica of the Asturian type with marble 
columns. Almanzor burned this. 

3. The church of the eleventh cen- 
tury was Benedictine Romanesque, with 
three parallel apses, probably transepts, 
and western towers: the style of Cluny. 

4. The church of the twelfth century 
belonged to another French type of which 
the greatest examples were S. Martial of 
Limoges, S. Sernin of Toulouse and S. 
Faith of Conques. It kept however the 
towers, which were in France to be 
handed on to pure Gothic: it possibly 
borrowed a west end from Le Puy, and 
took over decoration from Poitou. All 
these regions are traversed by the Pilgrim 
Way. Something Syrian and Byzantine 
and something Mohammedan, were 
added on Spanish soil. 

5. At the end of that century Master 
Matthew rebuilt the west end, with a 
porch or narthex that shows acquaint- 
ance with the Burgundian and with 
Chartres. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



67 



Recapitu- 
lation 



68 



Master of 
the works 



and sons 
succeeding 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Wherever men work with level and 
square, the name of Master Matthew 
is revered, with those of Robert de Coucy 
and Pierre de Chelles. He was Master 
at the works before he began the Gloria in 
1 1 68: he had been living in Galicia at 
least since 1161 when he was at work on 
the Puente Cesures, the bridge below 
Padron. In 11 88 he set the lintel and 
the inscription underneath it: 



•fc Anno: Ab Incarnatione: Dni: 

m.° c.° lxxxviii.vo: Era I A ccxx H vI A : 
Die K-L, Aprilis: super: liniharia: 
Principalium: portalium. 
Ecclesiae: Beati: Iacobi: sunt collocata: 
Per: Magistrum: Matheum: qui: a 
Fundamentis: ipsorum: portalium: 
Eressit: magisterium. 

He was secular, married, with various 
sons, one of whom was booked to succeed 
him in the work, as at Burgos worked the 
generations of Colonia and at Toledo those 
of Egas. The Compostellan School was 
recognized as an organization from the end 



HISPANIC NOTES 



"1 



THE BOURNE 



of the eleventh century: in 1135 Alfonso 
VII enriched and protected it with various 
privileges and exemptions: Matthew's post 
was director and master of all the workmen 
of this. In 1 168 Ferdinand II, because he 
held in his charge the direction and magis- 
tracy of the works of the Apostle, granted 
him 100 maravedis a year "to be used for 
his own person and for the same work so 
that he might see the completion of his 
art." His name occurs as a witness in 
documents of 11 89 and 1192; in 1217 he is 
still working and is called Dominus: and in 
1352 and 1435 the houses in which he had 
lived in the Plaza de la Azabacheria were 
still called Master Matthew's houses. 53 
The kneeling figure beneath the portal, if 
it is indeed his portrait, in its strong so- 
briety, its inalienable youth, is a worthier 
monument than Peter Vischer's or Adam 
Kraft's quaint effigies in Nuremberg. 

The PMico de la Gloria is a narthex 
of the Burgundian type, taken off the 
lowest story of the nave. Above, the 
triforium gallery is continued over it, 
and opened by western arches into the 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



69 



and name 
surviving 



Narthex 



1 



70 



Bur- 
gundian 



and open 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



great nave, precisely as it is carried around 
the transept ends. In this it differs from 
those of Wzelay and Autun, but conforms 
to the same tradition as S. Pere-sous- 
V6zelay, the churches of S. Benigne and 
Notre Dame in Dijon, he Burgundian 
church of S. Sepulchre at Barletta. The 
cathedral at Chartres which was burned in 
1 1 94 approached possibly to this type, the 
three carved portals of the lower story 
standing back in line with the eastern 
wall of the towers, kept therefore in very 
low projection; the affect being something 
like that of S. Vincent of Avila. Like S. 
Vincent, probably, also, and like Autun, 
which was certainly known to the first 
builders of Avila, almost as certainly to 
those of Compostella, the portico at 
Santiago opened westward without tym- 
panum or door, by three lofty arches, 
adorned with statues on the four piers 
which enframed these. Roland, we know, 
in the fifteenth century, stood among them, 
and so probably did Charlemagne; and 
almost certainly such effigies of Solomon 
and David as are built in at Orense. 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



From Santiago was copied the portico 
at Orense called El Paraiso, with such 
scrupulous exactitude that its evidence 
may not be impeached on points where 
destruction or misinterpretation, at Santi- 
ago, must be supplied or corrected. Only 
a single bay in depth, and three across, the 
porch of Santiago is ribbed quadripartite 
vaulting very richly moulded, the ribs and 
arches adorned with flowers and leaves. 
In the four corners, four angels trumpet to 
Judgement. On the jambs, and the western 
piers, stand twelve Apostles, and the two 
Evangelists who were not of the twelve; 
prophets; Moses, Esther, and the Queen of 
the South; the hermit Pelayo; two sera- 
phim, high in the outer wall; and two 
angels with scrolls. Over the doors into 
the aisles the round arch in two orders is 
filled with sculpture; the central door is 
divided and the head of it filled by a 
sculptured tympanum: on the trumeau 
sits S. James facing westward, above a 
marble shaft carved with the Trinity and 
the Tree of Jesse; and on the eastern face, 
at the foot a figure kneels, which im- 

AN D MONOGRAPHS 



7i 



Western 
piers 



72 



Theophany 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



memorial tradition identifies with Master 
Matthew himself. It is indeed of the right 
age, with its smooth-shaven cheek and 
heavy curls: for this work, like the first 
doors of Ghiberti in Florence, belongs to 
the youth of a long-lived man. 

The theme of the whole is not the Last 
Judgement, though that enters in, nor even 
the terrible Four Last Things: rather, it is 
a theophany. On the tympanum, a gigantic 
Christ, seated, shows His. wounds, but the 
wide gesture has more of blessing in it than 
of terror. Shoulder and chest bare, He 
has neither book nor crown. Beside Him 
sit the four evangelists, S. Matthew writing, 
the other three fondling their symbolic 
beasts, like the jeune hotntne caressant sa 
chimbre. Seven angels display the instru- 
ments of the Passion, and -in the extreme 
corner on the Gospel side a kneeling 
figure testifies and intercedes: this is not 
the Blessed Virgin. It stands for S. John, 
the brother of James, the disciple whom 
Jesus loved, and the witness of the Revel- 
ation: "and I John saw these things and 
heard them." By the introduction of this, 

HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



the whole scene comes to bear to the Trans- 
figuration, which it supplanted, the same 
relation as the Gospel bears to the Old 
Testament: the Transfiguration was of 
earth, transitory, and a type: this is eternal 
in the heavens. 

In the upper part of the tympanum, on 
either side, are crowded tiny figures, the 
multitude whom no man could number, in 
their washed robes, who shall see His face, 
and His name shall be on their foreheads. 
Above the piers, on either hand, angels 
gather up little naked souls, "who are just 
born, being dead "; they shelter them in 
the folds of their garments, carry them in 
their bosoms, bringing them to swell the 
number. 54 Across the archivolt, on the 
radius of the arch, are seated the four- 
and-twenty elders, making music on 
divers instruments. Beneath the feet of 
Christ, which rest on the springing foli- 
age of the Tree of Life," the capital of 
the trumeau depicts on its four faces the 
scenes of the Temptation, the intention 
of which turns on Hebrews i, 3, ii, 18, 
iv, 14-15, this being one called of God 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



73 



White 
souls 



74 



The great 
and famous 
statue 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

a high priest after the order of Mel- 
chisedec. 

The grand figure of S. James seated 
here with Tau-staff and scroll from which 
the writing was erased long since — "Misit 
me Dominus" it read — is perhaps the most 
magnificent single figure of the Roman- 
esque age: his throne rests on the backs of 
lions, but his bare feet on cool green leaf- 
age. s6 The capital of the carved shafts 
which fills the remainder of this space, is 
dedicated to the Trinity: the Dove hover- 
ing above the Ancient of Days who holds 
the Son enthroned upon his lap as in a 
Sedes Majestatis. Angels adore with in- 
cense and offerings. This motive is very 
rare: I recall it however at Soria, on the 
church of S. Thomas. 

The rest of the shaft is carved most 
marvellously with the Tree of Jesse, that 
culminates in an exquisite young prin- 
cess, crowned, with long plaited tresses 
like the Virgin of Solsona, but without 
the Holy Child. This is not Mary Vir- 
gin, the lily-flower on the rod of Jesse; it 
is Mary Salome, the mother of Dominus 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Jacobus, whom a hymn calls preclarafilia 
Jesse. 57 

In hardly any other church the Mother 
of God gets so little attention: the high 
altar is occupied by S. James, the place of 
the Lady chapel by the altar of S. Saviour, 
in the chapel which celebrates the Feast of 
the Transfiguration; the statues that flank 
the transepts on the Gospel and Epistle 
side are James Minor and Mary Salome 
the Mother; the place in the porch, among 
descendants of David, is usurped by the 
younger sister. In each of the transept 
portals she figured once, in a symbolic 
capacity: on the north, as the second Eve, 
on the south, as present when the Kings of 
Earth brought their riches for an offering. 
Now-a-days, as in many Spanish churches, 
the altar of the trascoro is dedicated to her 
of Soledad; her widow's veil and heavy 
weeds draw crowds there to the morning 
Mass. 

The door of the south aisle represents 
the Judgement, in a form which, like all 
the imagery at Santiago, presupposes a 
good knowledge of Scripture but also some 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



75 



Stirpes 
Davidical 
digna pro- 
pago 



I 



76 



But the 
weighing 
is all past 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



acquaintance with apocryphal and tradi- 
tional lore. At the centre of the outer 
archivolt, a bust of Christ with the cross- 
marked nimbus and the hair white like 
wool, bearded, not very young, in the aspect 
of the Eternal Word, delivers the sentences 
upon two scrolls (the words are still painted 
on those at Orense), the Come, ye blessed of 
my Father y and, Depart from me! In the 
order below appears the Angel Michael, he 
who weighs souls, in adolescent beauty, 
with other scrolls; and on the Lord's right 
hand, angels gather and cherish little souls, 
and the elect abide in Abraham's bosom; 
on His left, correspondingly, four devils 
champ and mangle a multitude of the 
wretched reprobate. In the outer rim, 
which is carved at the north door with 
leaves and in the central with flowers, 
another row of figures finds place here, that 
represents the Wise and Foolish Virgins; 
the former five, in wedding garments, some 
just waking from sleep, some holding up 
their lamps; the other five tormented 
horribly for their sins. The sins here are 
explicit: gluttony reaches for grapes, pride 



HISPANIC NOTES 



Blue Hydrangeas 



r 



THE BOURNE 



has a beast tearing at the brain, envy a 
crocodile biting her tongue, luxuria is past 
describing, wrath is figured as that woman 
"wearing at breast a suckling snake " who 
reappears at Sanguesa and at Moissac and 
V&elay. 

The north door is more recondite: some 
have sought to see in the ten little figures 
and their Master, book in hand, all sitting 
in amid stiff luxuriant leafage, the ten 
Beatitudes, and others in those ten who 
lean over the great torus moulding of the 
outer order, with scrolls, the souls of those 
yet held in the bonds of death but found 
acceptable, with the works they did in 
statu vitae. Plastically the composition is 
easy to account for by a reference to the 
figures similarly held inside a chain, over 
the main portal of S. Croix at Bordeaux. 
The motive occurs, also, at Toro, on the 
north door. Symbolically, the learned 
Benedictine Dom Roulin 58 interprets the 
leafage as the locus pascuae of the twenty- 
third psalm, which in the Alexandrian 
liturgy is "virentia et amoena loca para- 
disi." 



HISPANIC NOTES 



79 



Perhaps 
Coptic 



8o 



Paradise of 

the West 



Also for 
S. Agnese 
in Via 
Nomentana 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Yes, these little figures all embowered 
are the souls expectant which await the 
resurrection of the body, in the Paradise 
of God. TundalTs Vision makes that 
plain. Here there seem to be fusion or 
confusion of the Paradise of the West 
which figures in classical and Celtic legend, 
where the deathless enjoy green trees and 
bird-songs, as well as tall grass and sea- 
cold springs, with the Earthly Paradise 
situate in Asia somewhere, there where 
Shelley lays the loveliest scene of his 
Prometheus, where the Phoenix goes to 
renew his ageless immortality, where Our 
Lady tends the unborn souls who live in 
the trees and sing perpetually. Thus 
Lazzaro Bastiani painted them on the 
organ-doors of S. Anne's in Venice. An 
unknown Roman painted them also in the 
Catacombs for the cemetery of SS. Peter 
and Marcellinus where on one side stands 
the Gentle Shepherd, a lamb over His 
shoulders and two springing up to lick 
his hands: on the other, the Good Lady, 
beguiling two birds which flit about in the 
branches of the Tree of Life. The Par- 



HISPAN IC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



adise of Souls is recalled again, for a 
moment, in Spain two centuries later, 
where on the western portal at Toro and 
Ciudad Rodrigo, in forms derived from 
France, the Doom figures, and S. Peter 
admits the redeemed through a gate into 
a fair garden full of trees and greenery, and 
the little souls walk under the shade, and 
look out from openings in the bowers. 59 

The bases of the clustered shafts rest 
on crouching monsters, splendid and not 
ignoble, grotesque yet terrible, that stand 
for sins: griffin-beaked, some, or lion- 
headed, with claw and hoof, with wing 
and tail, strong and deadly. One figure 
is wrath, one lust, and avarice and envy 
may be guessed at, but of the meaner sins, 
of sloth and gluttony, one can hardly 
make sure, and the wrinkled lips and sneer 
of cold command, proper to pride, appear 
repeatedly. The trumeau rests on a 
prostrate man hugging two Kons, whose 
intention once was indicated by the scroll 
he bears, now blank. 

The figures who stand close upon the 
jambs are not easy to make sure of: the 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



81 



The 

Garden of 
Paradise 



The 

Deadly 

Sins 



82 



L6pez 

Perreiro 

disputed 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

words have faded from their scrolls. Sr. 
Lopez Ferreiro's identification of them 
does not correspond with the figures at 
Orense, where, in all other respects, the 
imitation was close, nor yet does it agree 
with what is known of the iconography of 
the Apostles in Eastern and Spanish art. 
Certainly the figures on the north and 
left-hand side, counting from the tru- 
meau, are taken from the Old Testament, 
although that is the right hand of Christ, 
and those on the south are Apostles. They 
are as follows: 

North aisle: Left, Obadiah and Joel; 
right, Amos and Moses; this last is im- 
possible, perhaps Habbakkuk. 

Centre: Left, Jeremiah (the scroll is 
said to have been lately decipherable), 
Daniel, Isaiah, Moses with the tables: 
right, SS. Peter of the keys, Andrew 
the Greek bishop (though possibly Paul), 
Philip, and James Minor. 

South aisle: Left, SS. Thomas and 
Bartholomew; right, SS. Simon and Jude. 
The inner figure here, the next to the 
last, is plainly out of place. He is by 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



rights a prophet and should be inter- 
changed with that in the same place 
on the north door; then both will look 
toward the central Christ.. Of the re- 
maining three apostles, two are Evan- 
gelists and the third has the place of 
. honour. 



These figures, with the central seated 
S. James, constitute the noblest figure- 
sculpture between the Roman age and the 
Gothic, between the arch of Trajan and the 
sculptures of Chartres. If M. de Lasteyrie 
is right, 60 they are earlier than even the 
kings and queens of the western portal 
there. Now that Paris is restored and 
Rheums- is ruined, the Gloria, as a whole, 
is the most superb monument of the 
Middle Age that we possess. Chartres is 
more beautiful, this is more virile. 

Apart from that single figure, it is* hard 
to say what is earlier or later, master's 
work or pupil's: the whole is the fruit of a 
single brain, like Phidias's. The Christ is 
archaic of course, even at Amiens He is that, 
and the arrangement of angels in the lower 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



83 



Between 
Roman 
and Gothic 



un- 
matched 



7 



84 



The 
Witnesses 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



row and the crowding multitude in white 
raiment, and all that is not in one scale, is 
an admission of hesitation, but other ten- 
tatives there are none. The kings, the 
apostles and prophets, the side archivolts 
and angels, have an achieved perfection. 
I fancy the right door earlier than the left, 
and I judge from two statues in the Mu- 
seum of S. Clemente that after the portal 
came the angels and the witnesses that face 
east, Solomon and Saba the Precursor, and 
Judith in the Spanish widow's garb, a long 
veil over all. Last came the outer figures, 
now gone. This conclusion comes on 
studying the drapery and faces, which 
grow a little freer: without so much of 
difference as between the north and south 
porches of Chartres, but somewhat like 
that in kind. In the ends are four angels 
trumpeting; two with scrolls on the east 
face of the central piers, two wing-folded 
seraphs like knights with long shields, and 
the central figures all adoring toward the 
Christ. 

Here, in this portal, appear all stages 
of the statuary's art, from unmitigated 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



dogma in the central tympanum to pure 
arabesque in the lateral carved shafts. 
Much of the leafage, well curled over, is a 
very beautiful variant of the acanthus, free, 
soft, sappy, and rather strong, which does 
a little suggest the Gallegan cabbage of the 
field, and the name is convenient. In 
another form, the leaf curls little but is 
twisted on the bell of the capital. This, 
Spanish architects call Santiaguese. The 
figures in cast of feature are quite Gallegan, 
but the style is referable in certain respects 
to Chartres, in others to the great school of 
Toulouse. It is precisely in the turning 
of one to another, the placing and move- 
ment of the bodies, that these Apostles 
recall those of S. Etienne, but the chantier 
that had existed for a hundred years when 
these came to be made, has a tang of the 
soil: they are racy, regional, and varonil. 
It is hard to remember, looking at the San- 
tiago, that this is of the twelfth century: 
not France nor Italy can show anything so 
final. It was the last thing in place, pro- 
bably, and is ripe with the wisdom of a 
whole laborious life, and triumphant with 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



85 



Racy, 
regional, 
and varonil 



86 



The 

pilgrim's 

hour 



The 

Brother of 
the Lord 



WAY OF S. JAM ES 

the approved strength of an immense 
genius. 

About the end of July, toward six o'clock 
in the evening, when the sun lies pale on 
archivolt and capital, and the church is 
empty and echoing, they are like all the 
sacred company of heaven. Fixed in 
their changeless smile, they hold eternal 
colloquy; with unalterable gesture, in a 
sort of immutable life, they abide in per- 
manency. 

The Christ himself is not the Victor of 
the Psalmist for whom gates lift up their 
heads and the everlasting doors are lifted 
up, but the apparition of the Apocalyptic 
Vision: not the King of Glory, but the 
terrible Victim, gigantic, with hair white 
like wool, mouth passionless, and ageless 
eyes. But James the brother of the Lord 
has the likeness of His humanity, worn 
and very beautiful, graver than mild, and 
deeper than serene. His chair is set on 
lions for indomitable strength, but his feet 
are planted firmly and the staff is set be- 
tween his knees — those bare feet of the 
tireless journey, that staff of the uncounted 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



miles, going to and fro upon the earth and 
finding no place wherein to abide. His 
eyes look further than he has ever gone 
but he sits quietly at last. 



«7' 



The 
Wanderer 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



I 



88 



Bishop 

Diego 

PeUez 



WAY OF S. J AMES 



III 



DIEGO GELMIREZ 



<t 



He was a great man, 
good at many things, and 
now he has attained this 
also, to be at rest,'* 



In 1077 Bishop Diego Pelaez signed an im- 
portant document which refers to the com- 
mencement of the works: in 1087 or 1088 
he was deposed and in prison, accused of 
conspiring with Normans and English to 
invade the city and kingdom. Peter II, 
whilom Abbot of Cardena, was elected to 
succeed him; that is to say a Castilian, 
-eckoned by Royalty a safe friend. After 
him came Bishop Dalmatius, formerly of 
Cluny, to whom Urban II gave great con- 
cessions. He went on a visit to Cluny and 
died there in 1095; at the news of his death 



HISPANIC NOTES 



s. 



THE BOURNE 



Diego went to Rome and tried to be re- 
instated. 

The Bishop of Santiago was a great 
temporal lord. A proverb says: "Obispo 
de Santiago, bacula y ballesta," which 
means being interpreted that the Bishop 
can wield cross and cross-bow. He was 
lord of the city, all citizens being subject 
to him and to his courts, with all law suits 
civil and criminal; and also of a wide dis- 
trict in which he raised troops and led them 
himself. He had an organized body of 
knights to receive his orders and come at 
his summons. Diego Pelaez, with his an- 
cient Spanish name, had a part in the great 
losing fight to keep Spain for Spaniards, 
against the usurpation of Rome and the 
ascendancy of Cluny. A Spanish writer 
has said that in this struggle Cluny played 
the part of the trained elephant which 
beguiles and coerces the wild 1 : Gallician 
liberty being lost, the great abbey came in 
to help reduce the Spanish Church. If old 
Diego turned for help where he could, to 
the overflowing strength of Normandy, and 
the English who were Normans in 1087, he 



AND MONO GR A PHS 



89 



BAcula y 
ballesta 



fCierra 

Espafla ! 



90 



Norman 
alliance 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



showed wisdom, for the Normans and their 
establishments for a hundred years more 
were not particularly subservient to the 
chair of Peter, in England or in Sicily. The 
alliance with England was tried a dozen 
times, not the last being that of Philip II 
and Mary Tudor, out of which came the 
expedition of the Armada. The trend of 
things, however, was too strong for the old 
Bishop, and the other party, that sent him 
packing, put in men with a thousand 
French connections. They were to find, in 
the end, that their own creature, raised 
from a simple clerk to the pallium and the 
primacy, dreamed in his Spanish heart of 
setting on high his Apostolic seat, to be 
with Jerusalem and Rome equal and co- 
ordinate, a Tertium Quid in Christendom. 
When after some hard fighting Diego 
Pelaez drops out of sight, his epitaph in 
F16rez is that he was a man of a great spirit, 
but not lucky. 

Raymond and Urraca, the count and 
countess of Galicia, in 1090 had for chan- 
cellor a clerk named Diego Gelmirez. He 
was by 1094 administrator of the diocese, 
— — ^ — — , — -- 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



and with Bishop Dalmatius went to the 
Council of Clermont. He founded, or 
perhaps restored, the old hospice of San- 
tiago opposite the north door, he pushed 
on the cathedral building also, and in noo 
he received subdeacon's orders in Rome. 
Then he was elected Bishop. He made sure 
of the strong help of Bernard of Toledo, 
himself a Frenchman and a monk of Cluny, 
and he was going to Rome for consecration, 
but Diego Pelaez, in alliance with Peter I 
of Aragon, held all the roads into France. 
Therefore the Bishop of Maguelonne conse- 
crated him, noi, in conjunction with those 
of Lugo, Tuy, and Mondonedo, the point 
being apparently that while Braga was the 
Metropolitan, the Pope was the proper and 
immediate lord, and nothing was wanted 
from Toledo. An understanding of this 
sort was, of course, equally good for popes 
and bishops. In 1 102 he began a palace to 
entertain visiting bishops, such men as that 
of Pampeluna who had just consecrated 
an altar to S. Faith. It is pleasant to 
remember that intercourse went on, be- 
tween S. Faith of Conques and the greater 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



9i 



The clerk 

Diego 

Gelmlres 



1 



92 



The 

Canon's 
lodging 
and the 
fountain 



Montjoy 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



church. The palace is described as having 
three vaulted rooms above the ground 
floor, and a high and spacious tower. The 
Candnica he also rebuilt. He planned a 
cloister, but only got as far as the fountain 
basin in which fifteen men could bathe, this 
was used later for the Par also on the north 
side. There was trouble in the Chapter 
about rebuilding the High Altar : the canons 
wanting to keep the old one. He gave it, 
finally, to the Monastery of Antealtares, 
whither the precious altar and column of 
S. James had already proceeded in 1077 
when Abbot Fagildo had to move. But 
inside the new altar was enclosed still the 
oldest of all; so the chronicle. The silver 
frontal was finished in 1105, the baldachin 
by 1 1 12. 

In these years Gelmirez pulled down 
three churches and rebuilt them; first that 
of S. Cruz on the height called Montjoy, 
or Manxoi, a hillock covered with pines to 
the right of the Lugo road, very popular 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, 
abandoned in the seventeenth. Today you 
can hardly see its foundations. It was 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



called also Capilla del Cuerpo Santo, from 
one of the Miracles of S. James, in the 
matter of a Lorrain who stayed with a sick 
friend in Gascony, 1080. Then he rebuilt 
that of S. Sepulcro, called thereafter, 
from the relics he had secured in Portugal, 
S. Susanna, which stands on a hilltop in the 
midst of cattle-market: thirdly, that of the 
Sar, for nuns, whom he installed 11 29. 
There is a tradition that this church was 
founded by a French lady, called Rusinda, 
whose lover Alberic had died on the jour- 
ney. There she buried him and there she 
stayed. The Bishop planted for his nuns 
orchards of apple, cherry, and other fruits, 
and started fish-pools in the Sar. He did 
also much work abroad, for instance at 
S. Martin de Tiobre, and at Cacabelos, as 
elsewhere mentioned. 

In his day the church had seventy-two 
canons, of whom two became bishops of 
Leon, orie of Oporto, one of Mondofiedo, 
and two cardinals, and one an Archbishop; 
all these three being bishops at one time 

S. Giraldo, Archbishop of Braga, Diego, 



93 



Miracle IV 



Bishop of Orense, Alfonso, Bishop of Tuy. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



A great 
lover 



94 



Pilgrim 8 
as Couriers 



Customs 
of Cluny 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



They, like the rest, had to take their week 
of service when it came in rotation, and 
when the Cardinal of Rome, Deusdedit, 
was canon later, he writes to Gelmirez 
(mi) to send him the date of his week by 
the first pilgrims setting out for Rome. 
They had a common table and a common 
dormitory, but some had also their own 
houses, whence apparently they sent to the 
kitchen for their meals. Only seven seem 
to have been priests, or cardinals, the rest 
were in deacon's orders. The offerings of 
the week were counted on Sunday, and the 
canon of the week got a third; of the re- 
maining portion one third went to the 
fabric, one third to the Prelate, one third 
for a meal in the canonical refectory. Of 
the offerings at the altar of S. Cross and 
that of the Magdalen, half was for the 
hospital of pilgrims. 

He found the canons living more like 
soldiers than clerks: he introduced the rites 
and style of the churches of France. I am 
not sure whether this means that the Moz- 
arabic use had persisted until then. It does 
mean, amongst other things, that the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



canons must come shaven, in surplice and 
cope, they having been used to come 
spurred and cloaked and apparently with 
three days' beard. He improved the 
school, that taught oratory and logic, and 
fetched a doctor, Robert, from the school 
of Salerno to teach. He continually sent 
canons who showed promise, to France, 
probably to Paris, for study, besides send- 
ing frequent embassies to Rome, Cluny 
and other great later centres of culture. 
His Maestrescuela, he sought in Pistoja, 
Ramiro, a skilled musician who had studied 
in Quintonia a city of England: is this S. 
Mary Winton? One of the authors of the 
Historia is a Frenchman called Hugh, who 
was to become Bishop of Oporto. 

The canons had to swear (this was in 
1 102) to be always and in all things faithful 
and obedient, to defend his life and person 
and exalt his dignity. They hated him 



quite wonderfully. They had, however, 
plenty of dignity of their own: they call 
themselves cardinals and dress in scarlet, 
remarks Sobieski. 2 Finally he commis- 
sioned the canon Munio Alfonso and the 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



95 



Prom 
Salerno 



to Win- 
chester 



96 



Advice 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



French clerk Hugh to write the Historic 
Compostellana. 

In 1 104 he went to Rome, visiting on 
the way the possessions of Compostella in 
Gascony, in the dioceses of Bayonne, Agen, 
Auch, Toulouse and Aix: he stayed at 
Moissac, Cahors, Uzerches, Limoges, and 
thence came to Cluny visiting Abbot 
Hugh. The community came out in pro- 
cession to meet him and the old abbot 
gave him counsel, to the effect that the 
Court of Rome was, as we say, down on 
Santiago. The Council of Rheims, 1049, 
had excommunicated Bishop Cresconico 
for using the title "Bishop of the Apo- 
stolic See." 

Only forty years earlier, as I pause to 
note, some Milanese clergy had denied the 
jurisdiction of Rome over the Ambrosian 
church, and it was not until two hundred 
years later (in 1303) that Spanish bishops 
began to call themselves such by the Grace 
of God and of the Church of Rome. 3 The 
fisherman's successors were fighting hard 
for dominance. The great Pope Gregory 
once called his own instrument maldito, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



and wrote Abbot Hugh to fetch him home 
again 4 ; and Pons of Cluny, the friend and 
councillor of Gelmirez later, for prodigality, 
luxury and ambition was excommunicated 
by Pope Honorius with all his particular 
adherents — the word is his "push." s 

S. Hugh, who possibly had visited San- 
tiago in 1090, reminded the Bishop that his 
predecessor Dalmatius at the Council of 
Clermont, though habit-brother of Urban 
II, and though supported by many great 
prelates in his application for the Pall, did 
not get it. "This may be due," concluded 
the old monk, "to the way one earlier 
prelate treated a Roman legate: 'Go,' said 
he to his clergy, 'meet this cardinal and 
treat him as he treated you in Rome.' 
That was a mistake. Go on to Rome, but 
don't ask for the Pall yourself." However, 
Gelmirez got it. He went by S. Jean de 
Maurienne and Susa, by the old road of 
travellers before the railway; and he was 
the first bishop of Santiago of whom there 
was a memory, to visit Rome; and he pro- 
tested his entire submission to Roman 
pontiffs. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



97 



and 
anecdote 



So went 
Street 



1 



9 8 



Alfonso of 

Castile 



Queen's 
gifts 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



He kept somewhat out of politics in the 
years noo to mi; then he seems to have 
led the organized revolt against Alfonso of 
Aragon, in the name of Urraca and the child 
Alfonso, Raymond's son. September 27, 
mi, he anointed the child of seven and 
put sword and sceptre in his hands, crown 
on his head, and set him on the pontifical 
throne. The coronation banquet he held 
in the Episcopal palace, with all the great 
Gallegan nobles enacting their titular r61es, 
bearing bason and cup, undressing the 
King, and putting him to bed. 

They started with him for Leon: Lugo 
opened her gates at the summons: they 
spent a night at Viadangos on the old 
Roman road, and there they were caught 
by the cavalry of Aragon. D. Fernando, 
Count of Traba, was killed, Pedro Ansurez 
taken prisoner, but D. Diego got away with 
the boy and found a refuge in Astorga. 
Thence with the queen and young king he 
went home. 

The Queen called a Corks in Compostella 
for Easter, then wandered about Galicia, 
apparently looking for things to give to 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Santiago, odd granges and villages and 
little stray churches. She got up an army 
to invade Castile, and from Triacastela 
sent D. Diego back. Alfonso of Aragon, 
meanwhile, had taken what he could get, 
especially in the churches; for instance, at 
Sahagun a Lignum Cruris, on Palm Sunday 
of 1 1 12. He had fetched from Aragon 
three hundred knights and slingers {lorica- 
dos), was defeated, and had to shut himself 
up in Carri6n. The nobility and clergy 
were for Urraca, the burghers for Alfonso, 
those of Najera, Burgos, Carri6n, Palencia, 
Sahagun, and Leon. She, while she be- 
sieged, was considering the jewellery of 
Saragossa, presents from the Moorish 
king; meanwhile Galicia rebelled, and was 
sacked by an English pirate fleet on the 
way to Palestine. Possibly these ships 
came from the Orkneys, under Jarl Hakon 
Paalsson. 6 

On May 30, 11 13, the Gallegan army 
left Santiago by the pilgrim's road to come 
to her assistance. They kept meeting 
pilgrims with sorry tales. Urraca was 
angry because it was slow in coming. She 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



99 



Alfonso of 
Aragon 



IOO 



D. Diego 
in Castile 



A Lom- 
bard hat 



I 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



was now in Carri6n and Alfonso was march- 
ing on Burgos, which hastened the re- 
conciliation between the soldiers and the 
Queen and together they gained the hills 
above Burgos, where D. Diego celebrated 
Mass and preached, on Midsummer Day. 
Thence they struck over to Atapuerca. 
Nothing seems to have happened, except a 
general meeting in the cloister of S. Mary 
of Burgos, at which D. Diego denounced 
any reunion of the King and Queen. They 
had been separated on the usual ground of 
consanguinity, though, as old Briz Martinez 
says, they were no more near of kin than 
when they married and the Pope and 
bishops had known everything then. It 
must be remembered however that Alfonso 
had supported Diego Pelaez, which may 
have influenced the Bishop. The crowd 
was ill-pleased with him, and he did no 
good. He was mobbed in Carrion, and got 
away in a red cloak and a Lombard hat; 
he reached home in August. 

Then D. Pedro Froilaz "came in," as the 
Scots put it, with royal gifts and all his 
family, the matter being the recognition of 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE B OURNE 



the young king. He was Count of Traba. 
Alfonso was busy conquering Saragossa: 
he had kept Castrojeriz, Carrion, and the 
other towns, but did little there. Urraca, 
who was really a terrible woman, went 
into Galicia: she planned to imprison D. 
Diego and the Count, but failed: then she 
came back, insisting on an interview with 
him. 

After three days he met her, behind the 
quire of the cathedral, surrounded with 
armed men. The negotiations were long, 
and she had to leave hostages, twenty 
knights, in pledge, ten Gallegans and ten 
others. She 'collected in Galicia the ten, 
but no more. 

In 1115 Ali ben Mamon the Admiral of 
the Almoravide king, raided the coast, as 
well as Catalonia, France, Sicily, Italy and 
Constantinople, and thereafter Syria. 7 D. 
Diego sent to Genoa, Pisa, and Aries for 
shipbuilders; a Genoese called Engerio or 
Angerio came, and built in Iria two galleys 
which sacked, burned, and ruined. Where 
they landed, they burned houses and 
grain fields, cut down trees and vines, de- 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



101 



Arms to 
meet the 
Queen 



Galleys 



102 



Raids into 
Moreira 



Democracy 



I 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



stroyed and sacked mosques — the reader 
pauses here to remember the Spanish testi- 
mony to Almanzor's conduct in Santiago — 
after committing all sorts of outrages in 
them, cut the throats of women and child- 
ren, or loaded with chains those that 
seemed likeliest for slaves. When the 
galleys were crammed they came back and 
in the partition gave one fifth to the Prelate 
including gold and silver, besides his share 
as lord of the two galleys. In return, 
Seville and Lisbon blockaded the ports of 
Galicia for five years with twenty ships, 
then D. Diego broke the blockade and did 
the same again. 

At the end of 1116, the young Alfonso, 
who had been learning war under the Count 
of Traba, sent to claim his rights, and came 
with his party to enforce them. Met by 
D. Diego at Padr6n, in the cathedral of 
Santiago he took possession of his kingdom. 
Dona Urraca stayed in Mellid and gathered 
her forces. The people of Compostella rose, 
for "without the right to rise, and without 
changing masters at every step, they can- 
not conceive liberty," says the Composld- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



lana; and a conspiracy in the palace was 
directed to the same end, toward the Queen. 
Gelmirez had to fortify himself in the 
church towers, while the populace and sol- 
diery sacked and pillaged below, and he 
had to accept the Queen's conditions. Hie 
townsfolk formed an Hermandad or confra- 
ternity of which the Queen was Lady or 
Abbess. There are traces, even in the 
ecclesiastic's story, of such trouble between 
church and town as at Sahagun. They 
wanted to annul the authority of the Bishop 
in the city at least, and reduce him to the 
estate of a simple though decorative chap- 
lain. " Renovant leges et plebiscita" : they 
reorganized the city government. D. Diego 
had to sell his plate and rich stuffs to buy 
food. At last he went to the Queen, who 
was very kind, and gave him the head of S. 
James Alphaeus, that the Archbishop of 
Braga had brought from Jerusalem. On 
his return, at Ferreiros, he sent word ahead 
of his treasure. The procession came in 
barefoot, he laid the head on the altar, said 
Ma&, and assisted at the Solemn Office that 
day. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



103 



Town and 
Gown 



John of 
Wurtzburg 
testifies, 
P. 330 



104 



The Siege 



The 

Cathedral 
beset 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Peace for a while was kept. The Queen 
made peace with her son and helped D. 
Diego to punish the rebels in Compostella. 
She asked for those who had taken refuge 
in the cathedral and pointed out that arms 
ill befitted the state of sanctuary. Appar- 
ently within a few hours the Bishop's men 
were the besieged. 

She went up into the tribunes and all of a 
sudden the civil strife was alight again. In 
the attack men set a fire to burn them out: 
some of the roof was burned. Some of 
the Bishop's and the Queen's men were in 
the belfry; that burned out inside and the 
bells fell. The affair was desperate. Every 
one confessed himself, the Bishop confess- 
ing to the Abbot of S. Martin. Then said 
the Queen: "Get out, Father; get out of 
this fire and I can go with you." " None of 
that," came up the answer from below. 
The Bishop thought they wanted him par- 
ticularly, and the besiegers shouted up 
that the Queen could come. In the tribunes 
the crowd jostled her, they tore her clothes 
half off and knocked her down, and one old 
woman slapped her face. Some men forced 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



a way out through the swords and spears 
and D. Diego, wrapped in an old cloak, got 
away unnoticed to the little church of the 
Corticela, which is built in at the north-east 
corner of the cathedral. There he com- 
municated and waited. Presently came 
Dona Urraca, but for greater safety they 
stayed apart. She got away to the convent 
of S. Martin, he, over roofs and under walls, 
crept in by the window to the house of a 
certain Maurinus, a draper. Two French- 
men stood by him, and thence he moved to 
a cellar. While the Frenchmen went off to 
find horses on which he could escape after 
night-fall, through the garden of S. Martin, 
a committee of Peter the Prior, the Abbot 
of S. Pelayo Antealtares, and Pelayo Diaz 
a monk of the same monastery, waited on 
D. Diego and called him out. They hid 
him in the treasury of Antealtares. 

The Compostellans decided to depose the 
Bishop and make peace with the Queen, 
but D. Diego got away to Iria. Then the 
young king besieged Compostella and D. 
Diego joined him with vassals of the Tierra 
de Santiago, and the townsfolk had to 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



105 



The escape 



io6 



Etapes du 
chemin 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



surrender and the Queen had to be ap- 
peased. The citizens lost everything, were 
fined 1 50 marks of silver, many were exiled. 

The Metropolitan question was still the 
main one. Gelasius II needed money. The 
Bishop and his party melted down secretly 
the old altar frontal, which came to 120 
ounces of gold, and sent off Peter the Prior 
(D. Diego's nephew) and the Cardinal of S. 
Felix to Rome with it. They were caught 
at Castrojeriz and the King of Aragon got 
the money, gold and silver, stuffs, horses, 
and the rest. He kept the Prior in chains 
in the castle there, but shortly set the Car- 
dinal free. 

The exiles were strung along the pilgrim 
way at all the stages: — Castrojeriz, Villa- 
franca de Montes de Oca, Najera, Logrono, 
Estella, PuentelaReyna, Pampeluna, and 
Jaca. Another pair of messengers started 
from Gelmirez and were held up at Saha- 
gun : they could get no further. The Queen 
warned and finally herself fetched the Prior 
of S. Zoyl of Carrion, who got Prior Peter 
out of durance for 70 marks of silver, but 
the messengers had to give up their papers, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



50 marks of gold and the messenger Ger- 
ard's mule. 

Gelmirez got a safe conduct through the 
Prior of Najera and the Bishop of Jaca, to 
go to the council of Clermont in 11 19, but 
Alfonso swore he should not set foot in 
Aragon. He moved as far as Palencia and 
Burgos, and waited. Pope Gelasius died, 
and Guy, the Archbishop of Vienne, the 
brother of Raymond of Burgundy, was 
elected and took the name of Calixtus II. 
D. Diego met at Burgos a French knight, a 
relative of Calixtus, called Robert Francois, 
with a letter, telling the news and holding 
out great hopes. He sent off Gerard dis- 
guised as a pilgrim, with two more clerks: 
the presents were to be sent by Bernard, 
Sacrist of S. Zoyl, and another monk of 
Cluny called Stephen. They had a hard 
journey, but the Pope was cheering: then 
the presents went through for love of 
Cluny. There was, however, trouble some- 
where; the presents did not please as they 
should, and Bernard of Toledo and Alfonso 
VII wrote quite a shocking attack on 
Gelmirez. The letter was shown. The 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



107 



Episodes 

from 

Romances 



io8 



Diego 
Metro- 
politan 



Bishop 
Hugh's 
journey 



WAY OF S. J AMES 



Bishop of Oporto, Hugh, offered to go to the 
Council of Rheims, disguised, again, as a 
pilgrim, and he travelled fast enough for 
the King of Aragon's men to come to his 
lodging only the next day. By this time 
the Pope was reconciled with Abbot Pons. 

Finally, it was granted. The Metropoli- 
tan See of Merida was translated to San- 
tiago, and further, Hugh asked for the 
Apostolic Legacy over Menda and Braga. 
It cost much plate from the sacristy, how- 
ever, Spanish silver and Saracen gold, and 
Ordono's golden chasuble and crown. The 
Archbishop sent all this by a Norman ship. 

The investiture at the hands of Hugh 
took place late in 1 1 19. He had come back 
by 01or6n, where for a while he lay sick of a 
fever, and was warned that the King and 
the Bishop of Jaca were waiting for him, 
so he went back to Auch and thence around 
by Bayonne, the mountains of Santander, 
and along the coast, till he got somehow to 
Carri6n. A railway runs now down the 
river valley he followed, past Moarbes. 
There were no good roads, the heights were 
steep, the woods thick, and the inns bad. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



A Beggar by the Puerto Santa 



1 



THE BOURNE 



He was met in solemn procession by the 
Bishop and Chapter, the bulls were laid on 
the altar, and the cross that he was now to 
cany was raised ahead of them. 

The Palace had been burned in the rising 
of 1 1 17: the Archbishop rebuilt it as a fit 
lodging for kings and the great, ecclesiastic 
or secular, and in one corner dug a deep 
well, to which water was drawn by an ad- 
mirable artifice. This is when the earlier 
towers were taken down . He built a chapel 
over the north door of the church, which 
communicated with the Palace, and conse- 
crated therein altars to S. Paul, S. Gregory 
the Great, S. Benedict, and S. Nicholas: 
in n 22 he built over the south portal a 
chapel, in which the altars were dedicated 
to SS. Benedict, Paul, Antoninus, and 
Nicholas. There was also an altar to S. 
Michael in the gallery of the apse, but I do 
not know the date of its foundation. 

In 1 1 20 Dona Urraca came back to Gali- 
cia to claim all for herself: she bargained 
with Gelmirez, but he got her signature to 
boundaries of Church land between the 
Ulla and the Tambre, which had been 

HISPANIC NOTES 



in 



Dofla 
Urraca 's 
concessions 



112 



Conspiracy 



WAY OF S. J AMES 



given in 1112 but never confirmed. In 
return he gave only a silver service, en- 
tremesa. A knight of hers conspired with a 
knight of his household, who betrayed 
everything in the end. She forced the issue, 
denied all, and the two knights met the 
ordeal of battle: hers lost the wager and by 
her order lost his eyes. At this time Henry, 
abbot of S. Jean d'Angely, and Stephen, 
chamberlain of Cluny, were in Compos- 
tella, whom she used as intermediaries, and 
she made D. Diego governor of Galicia 
before she left. This was clever of her, for 
the Magnates, the great nobles, laid it 
against him and moreover she could thereby 
reduce the power of the Count of Traba. 
Others of the nobles were in rebellion 
against herself. D. Diego went campaign- 
ing and took the castle of Grallarfa on the 
Iso, and his men step by step, killed the 
garrison and destroyed the castle. 

The Count of Traba was Pedro Froilaz, 
and he was the guardian of the young king. 
His son, Fernando Perez, was the husband 
of Teresa of Portugal. D. Diego went with 
Dona Urraca to fight her sister Queen 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Teresa of Portugal, at Tuy, and took it: 
then he pointed out that neither his sacred 
character nor the fueros of the Compostel- 
lans, which did not allow them to be in 
fonsado more than one day, would permit 
of more war. The Queen urged that the 
success of the whole depended on him, the 
Compostellans could go home according to 
law but in that case the enemy would retake 
everything. She beguiled him : he dismissed 
the Compostellans and stayed on with his 
mercenaries and others who were obliged to 
serve. There was no opposition as far as 
the Douro: Gelmirez took the occasion to 
recover the lands and churches which be- 
longed to the Compostellan Mitre in the 
suburbs of Braga. 

Dona Teresa sent him a word of warning, 
offering him any castle for refuge or any 
ships for return: he disbelieved her. The 
expedition started back by Celanova and 
Castrelo, where the Mifio was to be crossed. 
At night they encamped, according to the 
orders of the Queen at encamping the 
night before. She gave orders now that 
Gelmirez's troops should cross early, she 



AND MONOGRA PHS 



"3 



Annexation 
of property 
and relics 



r 



114 



Cira 

always a 
menace to 
the Mitre 



William of 
Aquitaine 

and 
Clemence 
of Flanders 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



intending to come later with Alfonso and 
the Archbishop. This done, she arrested 
him, with his three brothers and Count 
Vermudo Suarez, and all his servants and 
familiars, who had much to bear from the 
insolence and rapacity of the soldiers. The 
Archbishop of Braga and the Bishop of 
Orense fled. He was moved about a little, 
from castle to castle, and finally shut up at 
Cira, near Puente Ulla. At Compostella 
the clergy and town inquired the Queen's 
intentions: they were indefinite. She came 
herself for the twenty-fifth of July : the can- 
ons kept the feast in black copes. She said 
she would free him if he (1) cleared himself 
of charges or (2) answered with his own 
and the Chapter's oath to take no revenge. 
He was accused of raising troops in 
France to put the prince on the throne of 
Leon and Castile, and in evidence letters 
have been quoted which he wrote to Count 
William of Aquitaine and Clemence the 
Countess of Flanders. They consist of 
civil nothings, that may or may not mean 
something. Certainly William of Aqui- 
taine had urged that the boy should be kept 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



in Gelmirez's guardianship or else sent to 
him by sea. So the case stands. 

The Pope urged, and his legates threat- 
ened: the King escaped from his mother 
and joined the Count of Traba. On the 
point of sending D. Diego to S. Maria de 
Oteres, in Valcarcel, the Queen burst into 
tears, said that she had not been able to 
help herself; the Castellan, turning up to 
take charge of his prisoner, was roughly 
hustled and the Archbishop was sent back, 
to be welcomed by a joyous crowd. The 
castles taken, however, were not given up. 
Battle was actually arranged on Pico Sagro, 
when a pause was called, and a committee 
of ten arranged a treaty between the Queen, 
the Archbishop, the Count, and the King. 

In 1122-24 he did much building, both 
in Compostella and abroad. Sr. Lopez 
Ferreiro puts here the commencement of 
the cloister. At this time he rebuilt S. 
Miguel, S. Felix, and S. Benito. He and 
Bernard the treasurer built a pool and 
fountain, repairing Sisnando's old aque- 
duct, and fetched water into the convent of 
S. Martin, by wooden conduits reinforced 



115 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Ii6 



The 
Paradise 



and 
fountain 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



by iron clamps and lead plates. The in- 
scription is Bernard's, dated April n, 1122, 
Aymery Picaud says of these 8 : 

We French pilgrims go into the 
church from the north side: before you 
get there, a hospital for poor pilgrims 
stands close to the street, and then as 
you go along further you come upon a 
certain Paradise, that lies down nine 
steps. At the bottom of the steps there 
is a marvellous fountain, whose like 
could not be found in all the world. On 
three steps of stone stands a vast stone 
basin, round and deep in which fifteen 
men could easily bathe at once: a bronze 
column rises out of this crowned by four 
spouting lions, and the water, which 
falls into the basin, is conveyed away 
by underground conduits, invisibly. It 
is wholesome water, clear and sweet, 
cool in summer and warm in winter. 
Under the lions' feet an inscription, in 
two lines runs as follows: 

— I Bernardo, treasurer of S. James, 
brought this water hither and made the 
present work for the cure of my soul 
and my parents*. Mt& MCLX, tertio 
idus Aprilis." 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



The Paradise, in Aymery's day, had 
nothing of a garden but the name. It was 
paved with stone. There were sold little 
crosses, and cockle-shells, fishes, and other 
tokens that pilgrims want, and also wine- 
flasks, shoes, horn mulls, pouches, shoe- 
strings, belts; all manner of medicinal 
herbs, spices, and everything else. These 
booths are set up now in the square behind 
the eastern doors of the church, and pretty 
much restricted to articles of religion. 

He built also a palace in Padr6n, where 
the church of S. James had been rebuilt 
about 1106 under Bishop Pelaez, because 
the servants would not stay in what had 
been the Bishop's palace at Iria, but left 
him alone and in danger there. In Torres 
de Oeste near Puente Cesures he built a 
new chapel and a new big palace to hold 
the archbishop, his clergy, their servants 
and escort, with the idea of having a sure 
refuge if he should need it. 

The Queen had been away in Castile, 
where someone had made a disturbance on 
the ground that Count Pedro Gomez de 
Lara had with Dona Urraca thore f amil- 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



117 



Pilgrims' 
tokens 
of jet 



Adorned 

with 

asulejos 



u8 



The Queen 

returns 



Bernard of 
Toledo 
died i i 24 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



iarity than was right. She came back in 
the spring of 11 23 and beguiled the young 
prince and got hold of the Count and 
Countess of Traba and put them and their 
children in prison. Galicia revolted and 
she made a treaty with the Archbishop. 
Pedro Garcia, who had been in his service 
and been disgraced, came to her with a 
plot to waylay him going from Iria to 
Honesto (Torres del Oeste) or else to assas- 
sinate him at night in his bed-chamber at 
Iria. She told of it and turned over the 
conspirators to Gelmirez: he locked them 
up for a year and fined them heavily. 

At Pentecost, May 25, 11 24, Alfonso 
VII was knighted at Santiago. Gelmirez 
blessed the arms and Alfonso took them off 
the Apostle's altar, giving, to redeem them, 
a great gift of land. 

There was, of course, from time to time, 
trouble with Bernard of Toledo over Sala- 
manca. Each archbishop in turn conse- 
crated a bishop, and the other complained. 
Also, Braga and Coimbra stayed away 
from a Metropolitan Council: La Fuente 
says that there were six hundred years of 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



struggle. Gelmirez wanted the Primacy 
and the Patriarchate, and he worked in- 
cessantly for that end; when Bernard of 
Toledo died, in 1124, Alfonso and Urraca 
had to write to him to stop perturbing the 
honour and jurisdiction of the Church of 
Toledo. His answer is a marvel of clever- 
ness: 

As the discord, which up to now, for 
our sins, reigned between you occa- 
sioned the destruction of the poor and all 
the churches, so the concord which by 
God's favour you have made at last will 
be the substance of holy peace and sup- 
port of religion. . . . 

He thanks God and the Blessed S. James 
who inclined them to it, so that it has come 
at last and sees it with joy, rejoicing, and 
congratulation: 

In respect of the humiliation of the 
church of Toledo, that we too are far 
from wishing, of which you speak in 
your letter, God knows well that in no 
wise I wanted nor now do want, to abase 



119 



The matter 
of the 
Primacy 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



120 



Dignities 
of Rome 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



the proper honour of that church or of 
any other. 

He repudiates the slanders of the envious, 
he is willing to face such and disprove: 

Note, however, that among the other 
things that your royal Prudence said to 
us, you promised, namely to do nothing 
in any wise to abate our Church and 
always to defend it, exalt and augment, 
supported by our help and counsel. If 
we, by God's grace, do receive and shall, 
something of the dignities of the Church 
of Rome, that we have always done and 
shall do, always reckoning on your help 
and counsel. 

And he sends his Mayordomo, Suero Froi- 
laz, to say what can't be written; they may 
tell him what they think and want. He 
ends by praying: "God omnipotent, by 
love and intercession of his most blessed 
Apostle S. James, keep your person and 
your kingdom and bring you into Eternal 
Life. Amen." 
At the Council which opened January 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



1 8, 1 1 2 s, he reached apogee. He published 
a bull for a crusade in Spain, "to open a 
short way to the Holy Tomb," in which he 
absolves from all sins those who will take 
part, and excommunicates those who will 
not, "with the authority of God, Father 
Omnipotent, Son, and Holy Ghost, and the 
Blessed Apostles Peter, Paul, and James." 
The only mention of the Pope is that the 
Council is called by his authority. 

On the 13th of December, 1 1 24, Calixtus 
had died. The first messenger to Honorius* 
II, with gifts, was robbed in church by some 
knights of Salamanca. The new Pope 
sends word that he is to tell the Bishop 
to punish them; it was a sorry hold-up. 
Meanwhile Gelmlrez must send fresh gifts. 
Anon the Pope sends a short letter, being 
very busy and new to the work, enforcing 
humility and meekness; he cannot at the 
moment answer the Archbishop's letter. 
It ends: "Procure the discreet prudence 
of your Fraternity to use, and not abuse, 
the dignity of the Pall, a sign of humility, 
that has been conceded to you by the 
clemency of your holy Mother the Church 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



121 



Apogee 
X125 



Death of 
Calixtus II 



122 



Queen 
Urraca dies 



Juan Diaz 
and Cira 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



of Rome": given at the Lateran, Janu- 
ary 10, 1 1 26. A letter pf July 11 is short 
again. He has heard tales which may not 
be true, he wishes to love him with real 
charity and not lend facile consent to what 
a detractor may say. "Do you, for your 
part, act humbly and devotedly, that with 
greater ease you may in all things keep 
the favour of the blessed Peter" and Ours; 
"given in Lateran." Aymeric, Cardinal 
Deacon and Legate, writes to his "dearest 
friend" that he has worked and will work 
for the desired end. 

Dona Urraca died at Saldafia on the 
eighth of March, n 26, and Alfonso was 
consecrated at Toledo. He was twenty- 
one; he combined force, power and ability. 
Gelmirez was called to Leon to assist at 
the coronation: Diego of Leon did the 
crowning, however, and he was passed 
over again at Zamora. There was humili- 
ation, also, about the castle of Cira. He 
had written to the King about the castle 
and had the promise of it, but one Juan 
Diaz came to court and got it and was con- 
firmed in it. This Juan Diaz, by the way, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



once held the Archbishop in that same 
castle of Ara. Now the King had confirmed 
him, but Gelmirez gave to the Mayor domo 
and a principal councillor each ten marks 
of silver and to the King himself fifty, who 
then said that if there were any way to 
oblige, saving his dignity, he would. So 
the matter was laid before the court: they 
pronounced for the Archbishop, but Juan 
Diaz got, in compensation, 1500 sueldos 
jaqueses. In the time of settling and 
securing the King in his inheritance, D. 
Diego helped to reduce Galicia to order, by 
argument or fight; for instance, he reduced 
the castle of Arias Perez with the help of a 
novel machine called a cat. He went on 
the Portuguese campaign. 

He was hated in the city, by the burghers, 
the nobles, and some of his own Chapter. 
Somebody suggested to the King to squeeze 
him; who deprecated bodily violence but 
went on a visit of state to Santiago in- 
continent, and the third day, in the Treas- 
ury, made known his needs. Gelmirez 
offered three hundred marks of silver, 
that is to say, 165 pounds. The King was 



AND M ON OGRA PHS 



123 



The king 
hardly 
saves his 
dignity 



124 



Yet Justus 
ut palma. . , 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



silent. At last he said he should like to 
deliberate with his councillors, and while 
they deliberated Gelmirez waited in the 
choir. The King asked, finally, six hundred 
marks and leave to get as much more from 
persons in the town. Gelmirez wanted 
names. They would be the treasurer 
Bernard, his son Peter Estevez, his nephew 
Gonzalo Pelaez. Then the old prelate 
spoke nobly: "I should not give leave," 
he said, "to take from the meanest rustic 
in the Tierra de Santiago, how much the 
less from persons' so worthy and so dear 
to me!" The councillors carried back 
what he said, and Alfonso sent word that 
he must find another thousand marks or 
lose the lordship of the Land of Santiago, 
of which, however, a little should be left 
to him on which he might live decorously. 
He called the Chapter, repeated the King's 
word, and bade them elect a new shepherd, 
for he would lay off all his honours before 
he would pay so huge a sum, that he knew 
not where to get. " t will be content for 
the remainder of my life to serve God Al- 
mighty in my Order and dignity that not 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



the King nor f any other can take away." 
They offered to make up the sum, the 
King's messengers coming in to hurry them, 
and D. Diego consented to pay, but got a 
pledge that no one else should have to pay, 
neither in the city, nor in the Land of 
Santiago. 

The King was lodging in a citizen's house, 
and mischief-makers, clerks among them, 
said that he had made a bad bargain, and 
themselves would give three thousand 
marks if he would give them the lordship 
of the City and Land of Santiago. The 
King consulted with a certain Count Jeru- 
salemito, so called because he had been 
twice to Jerusalem. I think he must have 
been Fernando Pe>ez de Traba. At any 
rate, he was husband of Teresa of Portugal, 
and on her death tried to take the king- 
dom, was defeated by Alfonso and retired 
to Galicia and to works of piety. He was a 
great friend of S. Bernard's and helped to 
found Sobrado, Osera, and Montero. In 
this crisis he told the King plainly that 
such action would do no good and would 
disgrace him forever. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



125 



Count 

Jerusalem* 

ito 



126 



Sepulture 
of the 
great 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



The King was a little ashamed and in 
compensation promised to Santiago his 
sepulchre, and a castle of Rodrigo Perez de 
Traba's, when the count should die, to be 
given to the Chapter. His sister Dofla 
Sancha likewise promised to be buried 
there, and to bequeath to them S. Miguel 
de Escalada. Her promises, like her 
brother's, were sheer civility: D. Alfonso 
was buried in Toledo, Dona Sancha in S. 
Isidro of Leon. Gelmirez at this time was 
eagerly collecting promises of sepulture. 
He had them amongst others from the 
Count and Countess of Traba, who are 
really buried there. 

Though once disappointed and once de- 
spoiled, he was still a very superb man, 
unimaginably strong and powerful, hated 
by all the rapacious, the cowardly wrong- 
doers and those who had done him wrong. 
There is a kind of parallel to his position 
in that of the archbishops of York, but 
with a vast difference in magnitude. He 
kept amazing state. Pascal II gave him 
the right to wear tunic and stole even in 
his familiar conversation. The accusation 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



was made that in his vestings and manner 
of receiving the offerings of pilgrims, he 
acted like a Pope, "Apostolico more uti 
imprudent ier. " Honorius questioned the 
prelates of Braga and Toledo, his accusers, 
and sent a Legate secretly; Gelmirez 
learned of it: his next move was to send 
the Pope money. Unluckily that was 
wasted, for at this point Honorius died, in 
1 130, and two Popes were elected, both 
bidding for Gelmirez. He recognized 
Innocent II. 

On May 25, 11 28, Alfonso signed a di- 
ploma by virtue of which, in case of vacancy 
the church and all the Land of Santiago 
should be untroubled, at the free disposi- 
tion of the Chapter, till a- new archbishop 
was named. Bernard, now chancellor by 
Gelmirez's recommendation and nomina- 
tion, had vowed a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; 
Gelmirez dissuaded him. Alfonso sent a 
goblet to sell, valued at seven hundred gold 
maravedis, Bernard bought it for one 
hundred marks of silver (about four 
hundred pesetas) and in addition went on 
with the works of the church. He begged 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



127 



Recog- 
nition 
bought by 
authen- 
tication. 
Vol. I, 
p. 68 



A golden 
cup 



128 



Cathedra] 
work 
recom- 
menced 



WAY OF S. JAM ES 



a rock-crystal vase from Raymond of 
Toledo, by the king as intermediary, and 
sent it home with another smaller but no 
less precious, and a chalice. On December 
1 8, 1 131, Alfonso gives privileges and 
exemptions in the same form as when the 
work of the cathedral began: releases the 
Chapter from fonsodo, etc. The work 
takes, in short, a fresh start. 

It took great revenues to meet the de- 
mands upon the Archbishop; for the up- 
keep of his palace, the pay of his knights, 
the incessant levy of papacy and kingdom 
like the two daughters of the horse-leech, 
gifts to the great, support for the cathedral. 
For revenue he had, first, what the Land 
of Santiago and the city of Compostella 
yielded, in some instances to the See, in 
others to the bishop; second, donations, 
endowments and gifts, of various sorts; 
we have seen how many of these were 
melted down; lastly, his private fortune. 
His ventures by sea were important, as 
business. Between Norman pirates, Moor- 
ish raiders, and the Archbishop's galleys, 
the difference will have been small, but 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



they served their end. In 1122 or there- 
abouts, for a young Pisan pilot named 
Fuxion, he built a new galley, which de- 
fended the Gallegan coasts and ravaged 
the others. Prom one expedition the Arch- 
bishop netted thirteen marks of silver, 
and some valuable objects: from another 
twenty-five marks of silver and a powerful 
Moor who promised great ransom. 

While the Archbishop in his wars by land 
was thus working to secure public peace 
among citizens, says Sr. Lopez Ferreiro 
with a serenity which outranks the best 
irony of the eighteenth century, he showed 
no less force against public enemies. His 
galleys attacked the Moorish pirates again 
and surprised four ships in Vigo harbour. 
One-fifth came to Gelmirez as lord of the 
land, and furthermore, a share as owner of 
the galleys. But the magnanimous gener- 
osity of Gelmirez passed the frontiers and 
the sea, and was felt in the farthest regions. 
The patriarch of Jerusalem, Veremund 
or Warmund, wrote that he had heard of 
him, his goodness and prudence, from 
Brother R — who had just come from Com- 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



129 



To seek 

peace and 
ensue it 



130 



Jerusalem 
and Cluny 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



postella, he thanks him for kindness to 
messengers, gifts and favours, and begs 
him to keep up help with his prayers, his 
alms, and the material means of defence 
against Saracens. 9 The Archbishop also 
sends gifts to Cluny for the church then 
building, entrusting letter and gifts to a 
knight named Hugh who is making the 
pilgrimage and who will bring back again 
any communication. 

There was trouble in the Chapter. In 
1 133 it came to a head with Dean Peter 
Elias and Treasurer Bernard. Bernard the 
treasurer was figuring in full court with 
fifteen canons; and he had made out that 
he was a more important person than he 
had supposed, till the Archbishop con- 
vinced him that he was mistaken. Alfonso 
as usual lent himself to the trouble. 
Bernard had to yield and take his title of 
Chancellor, not merely his nomination, 
from the Archbishop; then the King wrote 
to D. Diego to confiscate all the goods, 
real and personal of Bernard and his 
brother Pedro Ansurez as disaffected per- 
sons. The Archbishop replied that such 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



conduct would ill become him. The King 
insisted. The messenger was ordered back 
to the Archbishop by five successive cour- 
riers, and the unlucky pair, caught be- 
tween two millstones, were ~ imprisoned. 
Not unnaturally, Bernard was an enemy 
after that. 

In 1 133 the Archbishop published a tariff 
of prices lawful in the town: this was, of 
course, to protect the pilgrims. So much 
was fixed, and no more could be exacted: 
it touched the bakers, money-changers, 
bankers, fishers, old clothes men (revendi- 
dores), huxters, tavernors, shoemakers, 
smiths, etc. In 1136 he consecrated S. 
Maria del Sar, which had so rich a Chapter 
that various canons exchanged the cathe- 
dral for it. Any canon who wished to live 
the regular life in S. Maria could keep his 
week and his ration in the canonry and his 
part in the distributions, and when he came 
up on Sunday and holidays to the mother 
church could have his seat in choir and 
refectory with the other canons. 

The strong old frame of soldier and 
monk, began to break. D. Diego never was 



131 



Comisidn 
de Turismo 



AND MONOGRAPH S 



132 



The 

hierarch 
and the 
god 



WAY OF S.JAMES 

well after 1129, and the canons, possessing 
the diploma he had wrested from Alfonso, 
got impatient for him to die. If he would 
not die, then he ought to go, and give 
others a chance. They offered the king 
three thousand marks of silver and wrote 
to the Pope. His Legate came, but re- 
fused to depose without authority. The 
city was up again: on August 10, 1136, a 
mob broke into the church and battered 
the palace; the clerks fled. The Arch- 
bishop got out of bed and went into the 
church, they stoned him, but the canons 
got him into the capilla mayor and fas- 
tened the locks of the gratings there. But 
from the town came up the women, who 
loved him as Spanish women have always 
loved priests, with a more than human 
devotion, and they brought their hus- 
bands, and the mob had to go. D. Diego 
rested and got ready for the Council of 
Burgos. 

The first day of the Council a canon of 
Santiago told the story of the attack and 
denounced Guillermo Seguin. He sat still 
until he was removed. The Council ex- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



communicated the actors in the matter 
and the King (now called the Emperor) 
ordered the rigour of the civil law to be 
applied. 

Even allowing for the bias of the chron- 
iclers, it is hard to understand Alfonso the 
Emperor, in his relations with Galicia. 
Elsewhere he fills a grave rdle not unworth- 
ily. There, in the light of his recorded 
acts, he seems like that peculiarly offensive 
type called the mean-minded man, which 
is both weak and cheeky, which can do 
anything except blush. This will shortly 
appear plainlier than ever. 

On the second day, comes the Prior of 
Cluny with a letter from his abbot to the 
Emperor and the Cardinal Legate, urging 
them to treat the Archbishop of Santiago 
with the respect and consideration he de- 
serves, otherwise the Pope shall be in- 
formed. Hard upon this comes the Clerk 
Boson with the long-desired letters from 
Rome: the petitioners are not to molest the 
Archbishop but listen respectfully to his 
admonitions in council and any other time. 
It appears that a citizen of Pisa who had 



133 



The Mean- 
minded 
man 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



134 



En su 
noble, en su 
robusta 
mono . . . 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



been on pilgrimage, had seen the stoning 
and known the motives, and the Papal 
court being then at Pisa he presented him- 
self and told everything. 

Alfonso sent a messenger to the old man. 
He answered that they needed no third 
party but would talk face to face. Alfonso 
told of the offer of three thousand marks, 
said he had refused it, but begged for 
money. The Archbishop offered him four 
thousand marks: there you have again the 
grand gesture. 

On the last day of the Council the rebels 
appeared: there was a general outcry. 
The Archbishop calmed it. Some of the 
canons of Compostella asked the Cardinal 
to intercede with him. He pardoned them 
the canonical offences. The King re- 
frained from punishing the legal. 

Next year, the Archbishop helped the 
Emperor with men and two thousand suel- 
dos and the Emperor visited the Arch- 
bishop in triumph at Compostella after the 
Portuguese war and kept state there for 
twelve days. The Archbishop spent five 
marks of silver a day in entertaining him, 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



without counting the cost of the five pre- 
lates and the counts and grandees who 
accompanied him. On a Sunday in Chap- 
ter, Alfonso said that he would follow his 
advice in all matters in Galicia thence- 
forth, and that his annual tribute was a 
shame, the money he had been forced to 
give from year to year, that he should do 
so no more, and in confirmation of this 
promise he took a hat from one of his 
knights, bent his head, and kissed the 
Archbishop's hand. On this visit he did 
punish the stoning, and gave to the church 
all the goods of one of the ring-leaders, 
called Juan Lombardo. 

Shortly after, a new campaign against 
Gelmirez commenced. Alfonso listened: 
the plotters bid two thousand marks and 
he sent officers to seal up the alms-boxes. 
Gelmirez convoked the Chapter. The 
King was said to be coming, but in a short 
time came, instead, some of the conspira- 
tors escorting a royal delegate, a friend of 
the Archbishop's, with a faculty to open 
the alms-boxes again and ask something 
for the Royal Treasury, leaving the rest 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



135 



la cruz, 
el celro y 
el blazdn 
tenia . . 



136 



Death 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



for the masters and officials who were 
working in the cloister, and at the disposi- 
tion of the prelate. He offered five thou- 
sand marks of silver. 

Here the chronicle runs out and is lost 
in the sand. We know D. Diego received 
the Papal summons to the second Lateran 
Council, for April 2, 1139. Guy, Bishop 
of Liscar, his friend, brought it. He also 
witnessed for Gelmirez a document on 
October 9, 1 138. Alfonso came to Santiago 
but we have no records aside from some 
documents he signed, that are dated there 
and countersigned by Diego, Archbishop. 
Later, he witnesses one dated at Sahagun, 
April 17, 1 130, a donation tor Tuy, and 
another, lastly, for the monastery of Hoya, 
on June 24, n 39 . His anniversary & 
January 15th. He died in n 4 o and was 
buried in the cloister. F16rez calls him 
for an epitaph, Exemplar of heroic church- 
tften. 

His ambition was as high as his courage 
but it was for Santiago. His personality 
was too great ever to be concerned for itselL 
He was a good soldier, a great ruler, a 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



magnificent prince. Dona Urraca once 
outwitted him, but she was a woman of the 
rarest and subtlest charm, who had be- 
guiled everything in the four Spanish 
kingdoms. He stood, for a moment, fairly 
co-equal with the Pope of Rome, and then 
it was Calixtus' death, and no miscalcula- 
tion, which lost him that ascendancy. As 
years oppressed, and his fighting strength 
ebbed, his spirit burned more splendid. 
He is a more admirable figure at the 
Council of Burgos than at the Council of 
Compostella, and the scorn with which he 
bids against his canons to Alfonso, does not 
belittle the Archbishop, but the Emperor. 
He had, it seems, one unpleasant surprise: 
when Calixtus said, to his emissary, 
"Read that letter!" as Bernard of Toledo 
and the prince, his ward, tried to denounce 
him. All he needed to learn, he got from 
that lesson. His figure, against the ruddy 
twilight sky of his distant century, stands 
always superb; picturesque where he meets 
the fair glozing queen with his back against 
the choir, ringed round with fighting men, 
or where the Emperor, borrowing a hat 



137 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Una llama 
fuerte y 
beUa . . . 



138 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



that he may uncover and hold it in his 
hand, and stooping in conscious pride, 
kisses the carven gem on the strong old 
wrinkled hand. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



IV 

COMPOSTELLA 

Campanas de Bastabales 
Quando vos oyo tocar 
Morrome de soledades. 

The bells of Santiago are not to be 
named along with the carillons of the 
North, that had a prayer for every hour, 
and a song for every half and quarter, and 
a delicate warning like a recollection for 
the seven-and-a-half minutes in between. 
We that have heard them, say, in Ghent, 
or in Bruges most magical, or in Antwerp 
most musical, shall never hear the like 
again. So felt perhaps these townsfolk 
when Almanzor carried off the bells, on 
his great raid, and turned them upside 
down to burn sweet oils in the forest of 
pillars at Cordova : but for them a day was 



AND MON OGRA PHS 



139 



Carillons 



140 



Bell- 
founder 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

to come when, on the shoulders of captive 
Moors, S. Ferdinand should send them 
home, to swing in the familiar place and to 
echo abroad through the ancient airs. In 
the course of his rebuilding, meanwhile, 
as the bells had melted when the tower 
burned in 1117, D. Diego Gelmirez had 
fetched a bell-founder from across the 
Pyrenees: he made four bells, two -greater 
and two less, proportionate to the size of the 
church, and he got a fixed wage and his 
meals. In 1134 a master bell-founder 
was settled in Santiago: as witness to a 
document, he signs Aeimar campararius. 1 
Martillon, making the pilgrimage by proxy 
for a dead king, in 1484, brought with 
him founders to make goodly bells. 2 They 
rang a carillon in those days: Manier 
reports "Ton y sonne a la francaise." 3 

Under the year 11 22 the Historia 4 enu- 
merates the articles which were added 
to the treasury in the way of vestments, 
books and other ornaments, in the Arch- 
bishop's earlier time. The list includes: 
four citharas 5 adorned with Greek work: 
four pontifical copes, and twelve others 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



of silken stuff: two dalmatics: a black 
planeta: four complete sets of ornaments 
to celebrate pontifically, Hugh, the chron- 
icler and bishop, formerly archdeacon of 
Santiago, giving one, Muiio of Mon- 
dofiedo, formerly treasurer, another, Ge- 
rard the bishop of Salamanca a third. 
Then there is a purple gospel, which may 
be written on tinted vellum, and two silver 
ones, where the word may refer to the 
covers, as also in the case of a gold one, 
badly damaged, that the Archbishop 
restored and completed; a silver Missal 
and a silver Epistolary. Of vessels, there 
is a syan, or ewer of silver, a girdle of gold; 
two silver coffers, one with the head of S. 
James the Less; one of ivory; one of gilt 
metal enamelled and repouss6, with ad- 
mirable artifice; another of gold, that cost 
him three thousand sueldos and that he 
gave later to Pope Calixt; a Lignum Cruris 
that Dona Urraca had given; a gold cross 
that he gave later to Cardinal Bos6n — a 
good friend, one is glad that he got it; three 
silver chalices and one of gold that he 
gave to the Pope; a golden censer that had 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



141 



Inventory 

of 
treasures 



142 



Quant nox 
cum lacero 
vieta fugit 
Peplo 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



to be made useful to the church, i. e. y 
melted down, and that he replaced by 
another out of his own money, which in 
F16rez's text goes also to the Pope, but in 
the Cathedral MS. stays where it should. 
After three silver cruets, the plainer books 
are enumerated: an Antiphonary, an Office- 
book, and a Missal, three Breviaries, a 
Quadragesimal, two Benedictionals, S. 
Gregory's Pastoral Care, a book of Bishops' 
Lives, a collection of Canons and another 
of Divers Sentences, another on Faith in 
the Holy Trinity, another of Sentences, 
and a great volume with the Office for the 
year round. 

These are only the major accessions. 
The minor came constantly, not seldom 
offered in kind. In 1130 D. Diego peti- 
tioned the king, that since in the winter 
the number of pilgrims diminished and 
there was not wax enough to light the 
church properly, some place might be 
allowed him that would supply sufficient 
oil. The king gave him a property near 
to Talavera, on the river, 6 and he de- 
spatched the canons Pedro EsteVez and 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Fernando Perez with orders to take pos- 
session of the estate and if anyone tried to 
collect oil to arrest him and send him up 
to Santiago. The consumption must have 
been enormous, for it will be remembered 
that until 1529 the doors were open day 
and night. Laborde in 1808 says that a 
thousand candles burned about the altar 
every night and about a thousand faithful 
were prostrate day and night before it: 
"Imagine if you can," he breaks out, "the 
fairy spectacle with the reflexion of all 
these lights on these masses of gold and 
silver wrought in all fashions and covered 
with diamonds, precious stones, and 
pearls !" 7 There is nothing else quite so 
sparkling and splendid as this, not even 
the account of Edrisi: 



This great church frequented by travel- 
lers and sought by pilgrims from all 
the corners of Christendom, yields in 
size only to that of Jerusalem, and rivals 
S. Sepulchre in beauty of buildings, 
amplitude of distribution, and growth of 
wealth and donations. It has, between 



143 



O how that 
glittering 
taketh 
me! . . . 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Y 



144 



Tabula 
retro altaris 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



large and small, three hundred crosses 
wrought of gold and silver, incrusted with 
jacinths, emeralds and other stones of 
divers colours, and about two hundred 
images of these same precious metals. A 
hundred priests attend to the cult, with- 
out counting acolytes and other servitors. 
The temple is of stone and mortar, and 
the houses of the priests, monks, deacons, 
clerks and psalmists, surround it. In the 
city are markets much frequented, from 
near as well as far, and around it are 
large and populous villages with active 



commerce. 



»s 



Among the jewels of the Sanctuary he 
also mentions retables, i. e., plaques of 
gold or silver gilt, with enamels, like the 
Paliotto of Milan and the Pala d'oro of 
Venice. Santiago had, however, a true 
tabula retro altaris, 9 of precious substance 
and workmanship, adorned with antique 
gems and cameos perhaps, like the statue 
of S. Faith at Conques. The text says, 
"antiquitatibus laboratam." It was al- 
ready in place at some time before 1135, 
for in that year Bishop Berenguer of Sala- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



Puerto de Las Platerias 



THE BOURNE 



manca swore upon the altar, and the 
chroniclers pause thereupon to describe it: 
there it stayed until the end of the seven- 
teenth century. A number of years before 
its destruction the Candnigo FabriqueroVega 
y Verdugo sketched it. The design shows 
the Saviour in a mandorla that reaches 
from top to bottom, six-lobed, the like of 
which I know nowhere, but the Byzantine 
treatment of two intersecting glories might 
be thus misinterpreted, or such a quatre- 
foil as fills the tympanum at Estella, with 
four apostles on either hand under arcades 
below, and above, in a sort of pediment, 
the other two and an angel on each side, in 
diminishing half-lengths. The magnificent 
golden retable of Rhenish work in the 
Cluny Museum can help the imagination 
in restoring this. 

The frontal was already finished in 1105. 
Morales, who saw it five hundred years 
later, describes it as "like that of Sahagun 
but more massive, and not closed." It 
folded back in some way, to let pilgrims 
look upon the little original altar, placed 
inside the later. "The figures are in half- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



147 



The Pillar 

still 

revered 
in the 
twelfth 
century 



148 



Parallels 
in Castile 
and 
Navarre 



I 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



relief: God the Father with the four 
Evangelists around him, and the twelve 
Apostles, and the four and twenty Senores 
of the Apocalypse, with other things, and 
the whole with much majesty, l ° likewise 
an inscription in six lines running around 
the whole. It is not hard to call up: a 
little like the enamel frontal from Silos, 
or that still in the hill-top sanctuary of 
S. Miguel in Excelsis, but even more like 
in disposition and general effect, to the 
painted frontals in the Museums at Vich 
and Barcelona." Aymery Picaud, 1 1 being 
contemporary, is more correct in his de- 
scription, and more explicit; "a seat of 
Majesty, four evangelists as if sustaining 
it." The twelve apostles stand, on either 
hand, three above and three below, under 
arcades, and the four and twenty elders sit 
around about with golden harps and per- 
fume-vials in their hands. Flowers also 
are on the edge. "Of gold and silver," 
says Aymery, from which the work may be 
presumed repousse* and not enamelled. 

Over this altar stood the baldachin, 12 
that must have been finished before 1112. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



The account of it we can interpret partly 
by that of Gerona, partly by other Catalan 
structures of painted wood. Of a truth 
those poor little churches of the eastern 
Pyrenees that faithfully copied with their 
modest means, century after century, the 
splendours once divined of a rich and 
far-away world, have kept for us of today 
the ordinance of mosaics, the design of 
enamels, the pattern of ornaments and 
furniture, unimaginable without them. 
The Museums of Vich and Barcelona can 
interpret the description of the Poitevin 
traveller, helped by the recollection of the 
sort of mosaics that went in domes and 
vaults, for the scheme seems very Byzan- 
tine. The spandrels inside had "eight 
virtues figured as women, according to S. 
Paul, and above them angels standing with 
their arms upraised, holding a throne on 
which stands the Agnus Dei. Outside in 
the spandrels are four angels trumpeting 
the Resurrection, at front and back; and 
on the sides four prophets with scrolls: 
Moses and Abraham on the left, Isaac and 
Jacob on the right. Above, the twelve 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



149 



Cataldn 
copies 



of the 

gorgeous 

east 



V 



150 



Italian 
Ciboria 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



apostles sit around, S. James in the middle 
with a book, blessing: on his right hand is 
one of the Apostles and on his left another, 
in due order." 13 This I think makes 
a sort of cornice, above the arches and 
below the roof. On the cover four angels 
sit as guardians of the altar, but in the 
four corners are the four Evangelists. 
The three persons of the Trinity appear in a 
sort of upper stage that recalls those upon 
the marble tabernacles of Rome and south- 
eastern Italy, the Father looking west, the 
Son south-east, the Holy Ghost north-east. 
This is crowned by a silver globe sur- 
mounted by a precious cross. As the inside 
of the tabernacle is depictus but the out- 
side scttlptus et depictus, it is possible to 
conceive of the Evangelists sitting on the 
corners like antefixae and the angels also 
free statues, above them, but it is also 
possible that the angels were modelled 
in high relief, with the Evangelical beasts 
under their feet, and laid along the steep 
slope of the dome or pyramid, somewhat 
as figures appear in the pendentives of 
Romanesque buildings at Irache and Ar- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



mentia, for instance. The Book in saying 
that it is adorned without and within 
marvellously picturis et debuxationis specie- 
busque diversis, suggests enamels and some 
sort of anticipation of niello, or possibly the 
engraved copper ground used often at Li- 
moges, and all the bossy splendours of gems, 
cameos, crystals and agates, that S. Faith of 
Conques still wears. It was of gold and 
silver, says the Compostellana. * 4 

Three lamps burned before this, the 
central the biggest and made in the likeness 
of a great mortar with seven lights, in which 
burned seven flames for the seven gifts of 
the Holy Ghost, "and these have nothing 
within but oil of balsam or myrrh or 
ambergris or olive." The central light 
here is the largest and on the others* are 
carved two apostles apiece. "May the 
soul of King Alfonso el Batallador who 
gave this, it is said, rest in sempiternal 
peace !" A marginal note on the ca- 
thedral MS. adds that in 1399 there were 
nineteen silver lamps before the altar. 15 
In 1577 the Pelegrino curioso says, forty- 
four. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



151 



Lamps 



152 



Todos se 
visten de 
verde . . 



I 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



There is a description, dating from the 
twelfth century, of a procession in the ca- 
thedral, that glows and shivers with splen- 
dours through the incense-heavy air. It 
was the Feast of the Translation 16 of the 
Apostle, on the last day of the year, and 
the King was there with his knights, and 
the Archbishop with those other bishops 
who were canons of the cathedral Chapter 
and virtually suffragan to Santiago. The 
account was written by one who had been 
there : 

In the procession that day the King 
walked vested in royal robe and crown, 
surrounded by the multitude of his 
knights, escorted by the divers orders of 
hie counts and commanders, bearing in 
his right hand a silver sceptre adorned 
with flowers of gold and other rich work 
and set all over with many sorts of 
precious stones. The diadem with which , 
for the Apostle's greater glory, he girt 
his brow, was of chiselled gold, decked 
with enamels and niellos y precious stones 
and shining images of birds and quad- 
rupeds. Before the King was borne a 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



two-edged sword, adorned with golden 
flowers and glittering letters, with pom- 
mel of gold and hilt of silver. Before 
the King and at the head of the clergy, 
walked with the other bishops the Arch- 
bishop, pontifically vested, covered with 
a white mitre, shod with gilded sandals, 
and in his right hand, that wore a 
white glove and golden ring, grasping an 
ivory crozier. Of the two and seventy 
Compostellan Canons, some were vested 
in silken copes adorned with the loveli- 
ness of precious stones, silver morses, 
gold-flowered, and magnificent fringes 
hanging all around about. Others wore 
dalmatics of silk, and the apparels thereof 
from top to bottom were gold-embroid- 
ered. Others again walked there be- 
decked with golden collars sewn with 
precious stones, bands laced with gold, 
the richest mitres, fair shoon, golden 
girdles, stoles also broidered with gold 
and maniples set with pearls. What 
more? As many sorts as be of precious 
stones, as much as may be told of wealth 
of gold and silver, that the choir-clerks 
of Santiago displayed, some carrying 
silver candlesticks, others censers of the 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



153 



el obispo 
azul y 
bianco 



154 



De 

innumera 
rabies luces 
adorn- 

ados . . . 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



same, others crosses of silver-gilt; evan- 
gelaries they bore with golden covers 
set with precious stones, or coffers with 
relics of Saints, or phylacteries; others, 
finally, sceptres of gold or of ivory tipped 
with bosses of onyx, beryl, sapphire, 
carbuncle, emerald or some other like 
precious stone. On silver cars were 
carried two tables of silver-gilt, that held 
the tapers offered by the faithful. After 
the King's party came the devout folk, 
to wit; the knights, the governors, the 
Magnates, the nobles, the counts, some 
of this land, some outlanders, all habited 
in rich feast-day dress. Lastly came the 
choirs of honourable women, shod with 
gilded sandals, habited in furs of martin, 
of fallow-deer, of ermine, or of fox-skin, 
in silken petticoat, in dress of gris and 
mantle of fine scarlet cloth lined with 
vair; adorned with rich crescents of gold, 
and collars, combs, bracelets, ear-rings, 
girdles, chains, rings, owches, mirrors, 
golden baldrics, shawls of silk, with 
lacets and ribbons and veils of lawn, and 
other luxuries and jewels in attire; and 
in the tiring their hair was tressed with 
filaments of gold. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Of the Great Office composed for the 
Apostle's feast, as it was believed, by Ful- 
bert of Chartres, I have said something 
already. All the hymns of S. James have 
splendid passages, and among the anti- 
phons preserved at Compostella are two 
pieces, one very pretty and lyrical, where 
the waves dance about the God-led boat, 
and the golden stars hang low : the other a 
set of long sonorous triplets, in which the 
solemn chorus will have rung and rolled 
magnificently under the brooding vault. 
But I know of nothing to match this 
Farse, from the opening call of the Can- 
tors, while the celebrant is vesting, after 
the procession, in his chasuble stiffened 
with more than Byzantine pomp of gems 
and gold, 

"Ecce, adest nunc Jacobus — " 

to the closing doxology after the Benedic- 
tion, 

"Quia sedes aethereas 
Ascendid, Deo gratlas. " 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



155 



One of 

Pulbert's 

Masses 



156 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



The Introit is astounding, in its applica- 
tions of Scripture and its implications of 
adoration, and as these bull-voiced Boaner- 
ges, these hierophants of the Son of Thun- 
der, bellowed out, in antiphonal roaring 
that would rise and fall in the crowded 
darkness like the sound of great winds 
and mighty waters, the testimony which 
heavens declare and the firmament showeth, 
the multitude would hear the very Voice 
which thundered out of a terrible cloud 
on the Mount of Tabor, proclaiming 
that this was His beloved son. They had 
been summoned by the echoing and re- 
echoing choirs, Kings of the earth and all 
peoples, princes and all judges of the earth, 
young men and maidens, old men and 
children, to praise the name of their Lord, 
and to hear the word, how Jesus called 
James the son of Zebedee, and John the 
brother of James (for, repeated softly- 
breathing and soaring voices, it is good — 
how good it is! for brethren to dwell to- 
gether in unity), and He called them Sons 
of Thunder. Then came the voice out of 
the Cloud, that acknowledged the sonship, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



and there followed, like the breaking of a 
sea in storm " Quod est filii tonitrui." And 
when the heavens have declared, and the 
sea, and all creeping things, the calling 
comes again, and the sending to preach the 
Kingdom of God, and the thunder comes 
back, and a mighty voice from heaven "In 
the beginning was the Word," and once 
more the word is the same, "Quod est filii 
tonitrui. ,, So the Gloria rolls through the 
aisles and farthest chapels, dying away 
in the long rumble, in saecula saeculorum, 
amen. But the rapture bursts out once 
more: "O all ye people clap your hands, 
and praise ye God with a voice of exulta- 
tion, for the high Lord is terrible, a great 
king": and the answer takes it up, the 
calling, and the brothers' names, and 
Boanerges, and the Sons of Thunder. 

The Kyrie, however, depends on the 
music, on the wailing that rises and falls 
and never quite dies away, and it will have 
been very beautiful . Rex immense, it begins, 

Rex immense, pater pie, 
eleison, 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



157 



Coelum 
resultA 
laudibus 



I5» 


WAY OF S.JAMES 




Kyrie eleison, 
Palmo cuncta qui concludis, 
eleison, 

Kyrie, eleison, 
Sother, theos athanatos, 
eleison, 

Kyrie, eleison. 




Christe fili patris summi. . . . 




so it goes on, " qui de coelis descendisti . . . 
tuum plasma redemisti." The Paraclete is 
called: 




Consolator, dulcis amor . . . 

Qui Jacobum illustrasti . . . 
Cujus prece nobis parce, 
eleison, 

Kyrie, eleison. I7 


Cult- 
epithet 


There is nothing surprising here, except 
the application of the cult-epithet Saviour 
(SwcT^p, Soter, Salvador) to the first per- 
son of the Trinity; it is all tender, ex- 
quisite, delicately impassioned. The long 
passage which is headed Epistola, and in- 
cludes what takes the place of the Gos- 


I 


HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



pel, is partly narrative, partly lyrical, but 
all antiphonal. The hymn after the Sanc- 
tus is a wild rejoicing, broken upon by 
thunderous Amens, and the Agnus, as it 
says itself, pius ac mitis es, clemens aique 
suavis. But enough has been given to show 
the power and beauty of the composition, 
and the strange devotion, the concentrated 
and exclusive emotion, which was the 
worship of the Son of Thunder. To this 
day, that name is the favourite with Span- 
iards, such modern scholars for instance 
as the late Menendez Pelayo and Fr. Fidel 
Fita of the Academy. 

What this grand Office would have been 
like, I despair of conveying to the reader: 
but let him, if he will, take his part in a 
reading of an itinerant poet until, lifted 
up and borne on by the great wave of 
common feeling, he finds himself carried 
beyond what is of every day and of the 
single self, and new senses opening in him' 
to new emotions. That offers the nearest 
parallel that I know to the complex of rit- 
ual worship at a far-sought shrine, and the 
unguessed exaltation of the soul as though 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



159 



O Adonai 
el dux . . 



1 

J 



i6o 


WAY OF S.JAMES 




it should take the wings of the morning, 




and the incredible loss of the personality 


Monies 


as under the silent procession of the stars. 


et colles 


The words matter little, so long as they 


canta- 
bunt . . . 


are good words. What did you see in 




Palestine? will serve very well, or this: 




King Solomon he had four hundred 




oxen 




We were the oxen. 




You shall feel goads no more, 




Walk dreadful roads no more, 




Free from your loads 




For ten thousand years. . . . 




and the Congregation rises and joins the 




song: 




". . . . Glory, Glory, 


*et omnia 


We were his people." 


ligna 




silvarum 


So is the mystic ecstasy attained. 


plaudent 
manibus 


A document that L6pez Ferreiro pub- 




lished, 1 8 in which Dona Elvira, the daugh- 




ter of Ferdinand the Great, gives to the 




Apostle the monastery of Pilono along 




with many other properties, opens in the 


I 


HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



same sort of oriental rapture, and calls 
him by strange-sounding classical cult 
epithets, invictissimus and triumphatar. 
It goes somewhat as follows: 

In nomine genitalis ac unigeniti, 
patris et filii et Spiritus Sane t us. Ego 
indigna geloira Fredinandi principis filia. 
Timens et pauens oram extremitatis mee 
dum fatali casu deducere me volueris 
ante dignissimum conspectum tuum 
preuidens meo intellectu et memoria ut 
ex quo a te accepi iterum tibi concederem. 
Sicus dicit propheta. Cuncta que in celo 
et que in terra sunt, tua sunt domine. 
Tuum regnum, tue divitie, tue virtus et 
potent ia. Tu dominaris in omnibus et 
per omnia. Peregrinienimsumus coram 
te. Presta domine hec voluntas cordis 
mei ut maneat perheniter in tue venera- 
tionis auxilio. Ego jam predicta Geloira 
vobis domino meo invictissimo ale trium- 
phatori glorioso apostolo iacobo patrono 
meo, cuiis corpus manet reconditum 
manet arciuo loco, et ecclesia dignos- 
citur esse fundata et tuo sco. nomini 
dedicata in terra Galecie et finibus 
amaee. . . . 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



161 



1 62 



Salus, 
honor virtus 
Quoque . . . 



WAY OF.S. JAMES 



Amaya, these early donations call the field 
where the lights were seen, which seems to 
have been a town. I have copied the exact 
words here upon the page of the text, feel- 
ing that without them no reader would 
admit that it was possible for a Christian 
and a Queen, in the close of the eleventh 
century, to call a mortal man, however 
well-canonized, by the titles of God Al- 
mighty, to come before his countenance in 
fear and trembling, and say, "All things 
that are in heaven and earth are thine, O 
Lord ; Thine is the kingdom, Thine the riches 
and strength and power ['For Thine is 
the Kingdom and the power and the glory,' 
she had said often enough] ; Thou shalt rule 
in all and through all. " And in the close she 
looks to him that by his intercession her 
sins may be remitted, and she may attain 
eternal life, . . . and he shall cleanse her 
soul and those of her father and mother 
from the universal contagion, that they 
may enter the gates to everlasting life. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



The Church of a Dream. 

The mind shall build the 
fabric and shall keep 

Its nurslings in the room of 
dreams unsolved. 

Where lies their grim un- 
meaning horoscope. 

At the same time that he made the 
frontal and the baldachin, D. Diego made 
all fair in the confessio, to which steps went 
down from under the tabernacle. 1 This 
must not be conceived as an open crypt 
like those at Modena and Verona, under 
the Romanesque raised choir of parallel 
apses, nor even quite like the Confessio at S. 
Peter's, though that would fit the descrip- 
tion of the Compostellana, and agree with 
S. Eulalia's shrine at Barcelona, but a true 
subterranean chamber, to which the new 
stairs went down from between two columns 
of the baldachin and were lost in darkness, 
though the crypt was blazing carbunculis 
paradisiacis divinis, below. Over the tomb 
is an altar, and right above that the high 
altar stands: Aymery is clear as usual 
about that, and the measurements of that 
and the high altar, and the proper size if 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



163 



confessio 



Carbun- 
culis para- 
disiacis 
divinis 



1 64 



Three 
churches 



at 

Constan- 
tinople and 
at Assisi 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



anyone wanted to make pall or altar-cloth 
foi a gift. But I think he had never been 
inside that fairy place, with all its candles 
and all its perfumes. 

The notion of a secret and subterranean 
church, arid even of three churches, one 
above the other, is like a bit out of a fairy 
tale, that haunts the imagination. This was 
believed of S. Sophia at Constantinople: 
in the fifteenth century Bertrandon de la 
Brocquiere wrote that "it is of a circular 
shape . . . and formed of three different 
parts, one subterraneous, another above the 
ground, and a third over that." 2 The same 
story was told of Assisi, how S. Francis 
stood, hands crossed, head upturned, whole 
and uncorrupt, in an underground hidden 
church far surpassing in grandeur and 
beauty the Lower Church with Simone's 
frescoes and the Upper Church with Giot- 
to's. When Vasari writes soberly, "The 
tomb containing the body of the glorious 
saint is in the lowest church, where no one 
enters, and whose doors are walled up," 
he is simply rationalizing, after his kind, 
the local legend, and when the tomb was 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



violated in 1818, and the monstrous erec- 
tion of dark and heavy marbles was edified 
in the kindly earth, that every tourist 
might gape and chatter at his ease there as 
in his inn, the then Pope was only fulfilling, 
with a touching grossness of literality, 
this vision of the splendours of an " invisible 
church," a house not made with hands. 
In the Collis Parodist Amoenitas, published 
at Montefalconi in 1704, figures a plan and 
a picture of it, in which it corresponds 
roughly to the church above. "The 
vaulted roof is supported by slender 
columns with chiselled capitals, and the 
walls and floor are ornamented with marbles 
and mosaics of different colours," writes 
one who has examined the book of the 
Padre Angeli. Now the Pelegrino curioso, 
visiting Santiago in 1577, relates that the 
crypt was as big as the church above. 
This was entirely from hearsay, for Morales, 
five years before, armed with full authority 
from the King of Spain, could not penetrate, 
and wrote, in the Viaje Santo (1572), that 
it was Archbishop Gelmirez himself who 
closed up the entrance to the crypt where 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



165 



Francesco 



/. 



1 66 



Santiago 



The wind 
from a 
wide- 
mouthed 
grave . . 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



the apostle lay, that none might penetrate. 3 
In the Historia del Glorioso Aposiol Santiago 
the Fr. Hernando de Ojea affirmed (1615) 
that "D. Diego Gelmirez had closed with 
strong ashlar and mortar the doors of the 
chapel where the sacred body lies; so that 
not only the body but even the tomb and 
the chapel in which it lies, might not be 
seen thenceforward." Even when in 1589 
Drake came to Corunna, this remained 
intact. With the idea of removing these 
relics with the rest to Orense, the Arch- 
bishop D. Juan de S. Clemente commenced 
works, but a great wind and a great light 
came out of the sepulchre and he gave over 
the attempt. We know that wind, it has 
blown out of a thousand caves, on a thou- 
sand adventurers in magic places. Said the 
Archbishop, "Let us leave the Apostle, 
he will take care of himself and take care 
of us." In 1665 the Canon Vega y Ver- 
dugo, the same who sketched the retable, 
was officially enquiring "<£Por que nos dejan 
tapadas las escalerillas que bajaban al 
cripto del Santo Apostol?" It must be 
remembered, here, that the wide tribunes 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



at Santiago, turning as they did around 
the apse and spanning the western porch, 
actually constituted a sort of Upper Church 
and were thus used. The great Archbishop 
consecrated three altars in three chapels 
there; he entered habitually by this way 
from the palace: at times, for instance 
in the rising when they were besieged in 
one of the towers, he and Dona Urraca 
have the air of living there most of the 
time. Aymery calls them always Palacio. 
So, like Constantinople and Assisi, Com- 
postella counts three churches one above 
another. Certain pilgrims, arriving after 
nightfall and miraculously admitted saw 
the whole church blazing with light. 4 

In 1480 Erich Lassota of Steblova, an 
honest man and a loyal soldier, but heavy- 
witted, set down in his diary that there 
were two "b6vedas" or churches one 
above the other, i. e., an Upper and a Lower 
Church, crypt and nave, with a gallery 
above. s That was all he could take in. 

These churches underground, ablaze 
with lamps, breathless with perfume, filled 
with the rustle of awed movement and the 



167 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Sed Deus 
dum luce 

fulva 



as Erich 

Lassota 

knew 



r 



1 68 



Constan- 
tinople, 
Assisi, and 
Santiago 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



sound of sobbing, historically go back, 
probably, to the Holy Sepulchre and the 
other pilgrimage places about Jerusalem. 
An Italian traveller in 1306, Torsello 
Sanuto, 6 notes that the scene also of the 
Annunciation, of the Nativity, of the 
Marriage at Cana, lie all in caves, and 
churches are built above. And the legend 
has attached itself to the three churches in 
Christendom which have drawn men from 
far, have haunted their hearts and stirred 
them with a greater love, with a stranger 
longing, with a more exotic allurement, 
than any others. The name of Rome is 
like no other name, but there is not one 
sole Roman church like S. Sophia, or the 
shrine of Santiago or S. Francesco. And 
these two saints are those who have come 
nearest, in all Christianity, to supplanting 
the Founder himself. S. Francesco for a 
moment was a warmer, nearer rival of 
Jesus, and Santiago for centuries was more 
potent than the pale Christ who walked 
among the Golden Candlesticks. On the 
baldachin, as already described, S. James 
usurps the seat, the function, the very 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



gesture and attribute of his Master, and 
if Fr. Fita is right, then above his statue 
on the portal the nimbus is cross-marked, 
and if Fr. Dreves is right, then the pil- 
grims' song invokes Got Sanctiagu. 

The best description I know of the stairs 
that go down into sacred darkness, and the 
lights, and the devotion, is given by a 
French traveller: 



. . . Dans les echoppes . . . des ob- 
jets d'obscure ptete* chr£tienne: chapelets 
par milliers, croix, lampes religieuses, 
images. . . . Et la foule est plus serree, 
et d'autres pelerins . . . stationnent pour 
acheter d'humbles petits rosaires en 
bois, d'humbles petits crucifix de deux 
sous, qu'ils emporteront d'ici comme des 
reliques a jamais sacrees. . . . Cette 
place est encombree de pauvres et de 
pauvresses, qui mendient en chantant; 
de p&lerins qui prient; de vendeurs de 
croix et de chapelets, qui ont leurs petits 
6talages a terre, sur les vieilles dalles 
usees et venerables. ... La facade 
... a deux enormes portes du XII e 
siecle, encadrees d'ornements d'un arch- 



AN D MONOGRAPHS 



169 



Pilgrim s* 
tokens 



r 



170 



Les 

petites 
flammes 



WAY OF S; J AMES 



aisme Strange; Tune est muree; l'autre, 
grande ouverte, laisse voir, dans Pob- 
scurite* interieure, des milliers de petites 
flammes. Des chants, des cris, des 
lamentations discordantes, lugubres a 
entendre, s'en echappent avec des 
senteurs d'encens. . . . 

La porte franchie, on est dans Pom- 
bre seculaire d'une sorte de vestibule, 
decouvrant des profondeurs magnifiques 
ou brulent d , innombrables lampes. . . . 
Oh! Tinattendue et inoubliable impres- 
sion, pen&rer la pour la premiere fois! 
. . . De sanctuaires sombres ... les 
uns, sureleves, comme de hautes tribunes 
ou Ton apercoit, dans des reculs imprecis, 
des groupes de femmes en longs voiles; 
les autres, souterrains, ou Ton coudoie 
des ombres, entre des parois de rocher 
demeurees intactes, suintantes et noires. 
Tout cela, dans une demi-nuit, a part 
quelques grandes tombees de rayons qui 
accentuent encore les obscurites voisines; 
tout cela 6toi\6 a l'infini par les petites 
flammes des lampes d'argent et d'or qui 
descendent par milliers des vcutes. Et 
partout des foules, circulant confondues 
comme dans une Babel, ou bien station- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



nant a peu pres groupies par nation 
autour des tabernacles d'or ou Ton 
officie. . . . Sous les hautes colonnes, 
dans les galeries ten£breuses, mille petites 
flammes se suivent ou se croisent. Des 
hommes prient a haute voix, pleurent 
a sanglots, courant d'une chapelle a 
Pautre. . . , 7 



The eight piers and arches of the chevet 
were open and unencumbered, as they are 
today in the great Norman churches, for 
the Compostellana says expressly that the 
precious altar and the lofty baldachin over 
it, drew the eye from every side. The 
painted statue of S. James that is now en- 
throned there, belongs to the thirteenth 
century, like that above the place of offer- 
ings, on the north-east pier, and that of his 
mother which corresponds on the south- 
east, Mary Salome. Above the statue, as 
pilgrims tell, and a document confirms, 8 
hung a crown by a chain, and it was the 
pilgrims' custom to put that crown on their 
own heads. Erich Lassota thought 9 he 
remembered two crowns, one. at Iria and 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



171 



Chevet 



The Crown 






172 



Pilerinage 
deVAme 



I 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



one at Compostella: the Pelegrino curioso 
thought the crown was upon the seated 
statue, and pilgrims took it off and put it 
on their own heads. That hanging crown, 
however, was a bit of Byzantine imperial 
splendour, deliberately copied here in the 
West. Benjamin of Tudela in describing 
the throne room at Blachernes, wrote in 
1161, "the throne in this palace is of gold, 
and ornamented with precious stones; a 
golden crown hangs over it, suspended on a 
chain of the same material, the length of 
which exactly admits the emperor to sit 
under it." 10 This crown, moreover, is a 
part of the panoply of heaven; in Adam- 
nan's Vision it is placed above the Throne 
of God": in the Pblerinage de VAme the 
Virgin alone, exalted above all other 
creatures, like the Spouse in Canticles, has 
constant access to her Son in the God- 
head and, like Esther before Ahasuerus, 
goes in under the crown. 12 Finally, in 
the Chymical Marriage of Christian Rosen- 
creutz, it is still hanging above the King 
and Queen. 1 3 In the time of Manier the 
crown was gone, and pilgrims scrambled 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



up some steps behind the altar, such as 
acolytes use, to kiss the image, and put 
their tippets on his shoulders, their hats 
on his head. * 4 



As Pilgrims Pass 



Mas; j^ue fanalismo, 
locura mlstica, vertigo dele 
. . ./ Y como la mds bella 
cosa del mundo, me des- 
criba las escenas espantosas 
de la gran orgia mistica. 
— Gomez Carrillo. 



In the great years, and at the height 
of the season, this church must have been 
— God forgive me! — rather like Coney 
Island. Not that there were habitually, 
what the Knight of Rozmital once beheld, 
cows and horses stabled therein, people 
cooking, dressing and sleeping, z but simply 
that immense crowds kept arriving, and 
tramping through, like a dozen Cook's 
parties in a day, and everything had to be 
shown to them, and everything explained 
so that those on the outskirts could hear, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



173 



A dozen 

parties 

daily 



174 



One Lord, 
one Faith, 
one Sac- 
rifice 



•* 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



and offerings had to be accepted and if 
necessary stimulated, and the sacraments 
of penance and the Mass somehow put 
through, with the perpetual lisping rustle 
at confessionals and the perpetual tinkle 
of sacring bells at minor altars. At the 
high altar only once a day is offered the 
one Sacrifice. The pilgrims pushed about 
stupidly, in the dark, and asked each other 
where one went for the certificate of con- 
fession, and Where one went for the certifi- 
cate of communion, and how much money 
to have ready for each, in the exact 
change, because of the crowding. Like 
Erich Lassota, 2 Manier 3 copies out the 
formulae and sets down the prices of his 
day. 

Alms were given as well as accepted: the 
archbishop's almoner gave a cuarto to each 
of his party, and he found in the town a 
perpetual free lunch system. Here is the 
record of one day: Mass at nine, in the 
cathedral, then to dinner at S. Francisco 
at eleven precisely, on bread, soup, and 
meat. At twelve, soup at S. Martin, with 
stock-fish and meat and excellent bread. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



At one o'clock, to S. Teresa, for bread and 
meat: at two to the Jesuits for bread; at 
four to S. Domingo, outside the town, for 
soup, which does for supper. Then to the 
Hospital and to sleep in excellent beds; 
this was in November, when night falls 
soon. One day, when Manier was at S. 
Martin, he saw a Scotchman who was black 
as the chimney-back, and astonished the 
party; the reader may remember that Kip- 
ling, being equally astonished with the 
same anomaly, has preserved it in the 
coloured cook who spoke in Gaelic, of 
Captains Courageous. Travellers' tales, we 
say! 

Out of the Constituciones of the Holy 
Apostolic and Metropolitan Church Sr. 
Lopez Ferreiro has extracted a sort of order 
of the day for vergers and others, drawn up 
in the middle of the thirteenth century. 
"Haec sunt consuetudines quas custodes 
arche opens Bti. Jacobi consueverunt 
observare cum custodibus altaris." 

From the time the bell sounds for 
early mass, a clerk, with the verger in 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



175 



His tes- 
timony is 
confirmed 



^ 



1 76 



Instruc- 
tions as 
Beadles 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



charge of the ark, the chest which re- 
ceived offerings for the works, is to 
station himself, and the verger, with his 
wand, to touch pilgrims on back and 
arms, and keep them moving: they 
must not stop long enough for any 
writing, nor for any discussion and dis- 
turbance. The clerk is to be vested and 
to stand upon the ark, which is the most 
important thing in the church, and 
phrases are provided by which foreigners 
shall understand this. To the French 
he will say: Zee larcha de lobra monsefior 
Samanin; zee lobra de la gresa [C'est 
Parche de Tceuvre de Monseigneur Saint 
James; c'est Pceuvre de l'eglise]. To 
Lombards and Tuscans he shall say 
Micer Lombardo, queste larcha de la 
lavoree de Micer Sajocotne. Questo vay 
a la gage fayre. And to peasants he shall 
say: Et vos de Campos et del extremo, acd 
venide d la archa de la obra de Senor Sant- 
iago, las comendas que trahedes de mortos, 
et de vivos para la obra de sefwr Santiago 
acd las echade et non en outra parte. The 
last sentence seems meant for English: 
Betom a atrom Sang yama, a atrom de 
labro. There he stands, calling and cry- 



H I S PANIC NOTES 



T'H E BOURNE 



ing, all day long, and no man can get his 
pardon before giving up his money, 
except that while the indulgence is read 
out he and all the vergers must keep 
silence; but if any man wants to lay an 
offering on the altar, he is bound to point 
out to that man where the altar is, 
though he is permitted to show also 
where the ark stands. So, the order 
is prescribed in which the marvels are to 
be shown, first the altar, then the crown, 
then the cross-steps that go up thither, 
and the chain, and then the ark. Simi- 
larly, if someone wishes to carry some- 
thing to the treasury, the verger is to 
ask if the gift is made to S. James or 
to the works: if the former, he may put it 
himself on the altar, if the latter, put it 
himself in the chest. When necessary 
the clerk can unvest himself and help to 
carry offerings, but he must see that a 
verger remains in charge of the ark, or 
that some man sitting on the steps, with- 
out a wand, is watching the linen, wax, 
etc., without touching the pilgrims. But 
if at such a time any pilgrim asks where 
the ark is, he must show him well and 
truly. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



177 



Crown, 
cross, and 
chain 



r 



178 



Old rags 
hung up 



Shown at 

Jerusalem, 

also 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



To the Cruz de los Harapos on the roof, 
the pilgrims climbed, and thereon hung, not 
their travel-worn garments, exchanging these 
for new as some have held, but any rag or 
scrap of clothing, with magical intent, by a 
use most accident and primitive. 

The staff which S. James had used in his 
long wanderings was shown also and so is, 
indeed, unto this day, if anyone cares to 
ask for it. The Canon L6pez Ferreiro, who 
had as stout a stomach for marvels as 
the next, published a drawing thereof, 4 a 
column of cast bronze enclosing the re- 
mains of the pilgrim's staff, — borddn in 
Spanish and in French bourdon. It is 
adorned with a band of decoration wound 
spirally around, like the ornament of the 
marble shafts at the west : the whole topped 
with a capital leafy as the head of a date- 
palm. Lassota, who saw here Roland's 
horn, also took notice of this, s and Nicholas 
of Poppelau, 6 and the Secretary of Rozmi- 
tal: Tetzel, 7 naming the chain with which 
S. James was bound, adds that whosoever 
seeking sanctuary could reach that chain 
and wrap it about his body, was safe. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



They saw just such a banner as hung at 
I^eon, of the saint in a white cloak on a 
white horse, killing Moors. In this con- 
nection I should perhaps declare, touching 
the matter of the rather coarse relief built 
into a recess up in the south transept, that 
it is in its own way as fabulous as any of the 
rest. It is not "of great historical im- 
portance, " for it is Romanesque work of the 
twelfth century like the rest: if any com- 
mittee of Spanish architects recognized 
it as belonging to the church of Alfonso 
III they spoke unwisely. 8 

But the sacristan must have something 
to say, and of S. James Matamoros he has 
indeed but little, for that aspect of the 
cult of the Apostle belongs more properly 
to the Ebro basin and the region of the 
Iberian horseman, as you see him, Castor 
or another, on early coins. 9 Here at the 
world's end, the Apostle rules as Lord of 
the dead, as Far-traveller. He came weary 
and found rest, springs welled up to refresh 
him, and about the hillside where men 
saw the little lights, were leafy groves of 
fruit-trees 10 ; and to pilgrims it was told 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



179 



Springs, 
fruits 



I 



i8o 



harvests 



So to 
this day 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



how when S. James first sent his disciples 
through Spain, he -gave them good seed to 
sow, and how after he was buried there at 
the last, the nettles and tares that had 
sprung up, died down, and harvests were 
bountiful. x x 

The average pilgrim, however, muddle- 
headed or tired or foolish, conformed to the 
practices of the place, and was protected 
against extortion or outrage. In 1478 the 
Archbishop and Chapter were sending a 
special messenger to the king about the 
harm done to Romeyros and pilgrims who 
came to S. James. x 2 On the other hand, a 
reasonable provision was made to receive 
offerings in kind: of the oil I have spoken 
already, and the Constitutions already cited 
rule that the verger in charge may not re- 
ceive the image of a man or a horse, nor 
any other form, nor incense, nor any stuffs: 
nor anywhere in the church are iron staves 
received, nor iron nor leaden crosses, yet 
at the altar a good sword may be taken, 
or a good bell. 13 It is all astonishingly 
efficient. 

Sebastian Ilsung, who was there in 1448, 

HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



feels something more. "In olden days it 
was a great pagan temple," he says amaz- 
ingly, "... there was much to tell if there 
were time. Every day great miracles 
were done." 14 But he finds time to tell 
how he could not dine with the Archbishop 
because he 'was leaving, and so the Arch- 
bishop sent six pairs of pheasants and as 
many of capons to his lodging. Nicholas 
of Poppelau, forty years later, doubtless 
thought it all very magnificent, but cares 
more to relate what gift he accepted from 
the King of Portugal, viz. a brace of 



THE BOURNE 



niggers. 



is 



Castle and Church. 

Pensamiento mio 
no me dels tal guerra 
pues sots en la tierra 
de quien solofio. 
— Diego Hurtado de Mendoza. 

In between these two comes the visit 
of the noble Bohemian, Lev de Rozmital de 
Blatna, of whose journey through Spain and 
Portugal the two accounts, written one in 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



181 



A great 
pagan 
temple . 



The 

Knight of 
Rozmital 



1 82 



The ivy 
Tod 



I 



WAY OF S. JA MES 



Latin, and the other in some barbarous 
German by his secretaries, preserve strange 
matters, and amongst others a bit of 
Spanish history which his editors have 
thought was not elsewhere recounted. 
Schaschek, in the former, describes 1 the 
approach to the city from Padron, by a 
hilly road and the first view of it: 

"The city of Santiago is situated among 
high mountains, is very spacious, and is 
girt with a single wall, the battlements of 
which on one side are full of yellow violets 
that you can see far off, and on another 
the ivy is so thick that it seems a wood. 
A broad ditch goes around, and above rise 
square towers of an ancient kind, nowhere 
far apart." They arrived in August, to 
find the townsfolk had risen and held 
the city, the Archbishop, and twenty-three 
priests: they were besieging the cathedral, 
but the Prelate's mother and brother had 
barricaded the doors and were making a good 
resistance. Consequently Galicia lay under 
an interdict, the babes were not baptized, 
the dead were not buried. Nevertheless, 
the whole land sided with their lord, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



Bernard Yafiez de Moscoso who was be- 
sieging the city. The Lord Lev himself 
visited the Baron and courteously asked 
his leave to visit the Cathedral in precisely 
the terms we ail have ready at the tongue's 
tip: he had visited many courts and jour- 
neyed through many lands, even heathen- 
esse, to come to the place where lay S. 
James's bones, and these with him had a 
very earnest desire to see these famous 
places: and the Baron replied civilly, 
but doubted whether, if he should let the 
gentleman go in, the other party would let 
him get out again. His opinion of the 
Archbishop's mother was like what some 
have held of Dona Urraca. However, 
they tried it. The lady then pointed out, 
to begin, that they were all in a state of 
excommunication because they had had 
dealings with the besiegers, and they went 
through ceremonial purifications quite 
such as would be exacted if the besiegers 
had small-pox: they were taken into a 
tower where was a tank, but that was dry, 
for the besiegers had cut off the water; and 
all unshod and set on their knees. Then 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



183 



Ceremon- 
ial puri- 
fications 



1 84 



Los de 
aquel siglo 
pasado • . . 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



from the church issued the Legate with the 
choir of priests and clerks, a black cross 
going before, and in Master Matthew's 
porch, the Gloria, they stopped and intoned 
the requisite prayers, and the Legate came 
down the stairs and touched them all, 
from the Lord to the least, with his stole. 
Then they got up and went into church 
barefoot: the priest showed them every- 
thing, including the axe of S. James's mar- 
tyrdom, and they left a trophy of arms, 
apparently as an offering, and not with- 
out a dash of vanity. In a chapel where 
hung the armour of the Lords and Com- 
manders now long dead, "the Lord and 
his suite likewise left theirs," says Tetzel. 2 
Another traveller says: "So I took leave, 
hanging up my arms in the cathedral 
church where there were many. I had done 
the like already in the chapel at Finis- 
terre . ' ' 3 The Great Captain is said to have 
made the same offering when he came in 
pilgrimage to Santiago after taking Naples, 
and gave other rich ornaments and jewels, 
and a rich lamp which he endowed magni- 
ficently that it should burn night and day. 4 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Tetzel makes a longer story of the 
adventure, feeling quorum pars fui: he had 
been sent ahead with one Frodner, who 
found that the Baron besieging had just 
been wounded with an arrow in the throat, 
and who made a plaster to draw the arrow 
out. Notwithstanding, when the party 
came back from Finisterre to Padr6n, they 
heard that the Baron had died and the 
enraged mob had dragged the Archbishop 
before the church and cut his head off there. 
This, however, was inexact, for Archbishop 
Fonseca died in his bed, later. 

Sr. Fabie', who has edited a good bit of 
these travels for a pleasant volume of the 
Libros de Antano, confirms the rest of the 
story in a discreet footnote. At the end of 
the Historic Compostellana, published by Fr. 
F16rez, and taken from the last appendix 
of the MS. of Salamanca, he has read this, 
which is the closing paragraph: 

"Item, Dominus Alfonso de Fonseca 
ejus con sobrinus de Ecclesia Hispalensi 
ad Compostellam translatus, in 1° anno 
captus juit per Bernardum Joannis in 
Villa Doncia, anno Dni. 1465"* 



AND MONO GRAPHS 



185 



Tet«el' s 
story 



Libros de 
AntaHo 



Bernard 
Yafiez de 
Moscoso 



1 86 



Time- 
honoured 
Lancaster 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



The Gallegans knew the story however: 
Ruy Vasquez told it in his Historia Iriense 
and it serves Vasco de Aponte for another 
of the hazanas, the exploits, of his Ancient 
Houses of Galicia. 6 

The siege of 1117, and that of 1465, are 
not, belike, the only ones the old church 
has stood. When the Duke of Lancaster 
came, the town had no mind to sacrifices, 
the citizens made peace cannily,as Froissart 
relates 7 : 

And when the duke of Lancastre had 
sojourned at Coulongne [Corunna] the 
space of a month and more, then he was 
counsayled to dislodge themseife, and to 
draw towardes saynt James in Galyce, 
where was a better countrey and a more 
plentyfull for men and horses; so he 
departed and rode in three batayles; 
first, the marshal with CCC. speres 
and vi. C. archers; then the duke, with 
CCCC. speres, and all the ladyes and 
damoyselles in his company; and in the 
arrere garde, the constable syr John 
Hollande, with a CCCC. speres and vii. 
C. archers. Thus they rode fayre and 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



easely in iii. batayles, and were rydynge 
three dayes bytwene Coulongne and 
saynt James. . . . The marshaU with 
his vawarde came to Compostella, where 
the body of saynt James lieth, and the 
town was closed against him; howbeit, 
there were no men of warre there in 
garyson, but men of the towne that kept 
it, for there were no Frensshmen wolde 
undertake to keep it to the utteraunce, for 
it was not stronge ynoughe to be kept 
against such men of warre as the duke 
had brought thyder. The marshal! of 
the host sent thyder an herauld of armes, 
to know their ententes what they wolde 
do : the herauld came to the barryers, and 
there founde the capytayn of that warde, 
called Alphons of Sene. Then the her- 
auld sayde, Syr capytayn, here a lytel 
besyde is the duke of Lancastre's marshal, 
who hath sent me hyder, and he wolde 
gladly speak with you. Wei, said the 
capytayne, it pleaseth me well; let him 
come hyder, and we shal speak with him. 
The herauld returned, and shewed the 
marshall as they said. Then the mar- 
shall, with xx. speres with hym, wente 
thyder, and found at the barryers the 



AND MONOGRA PHS 



187 



An herauld 
of armes 



1 88 



The King 
Dampeter 



that died 
at Montiel 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



capytayn and certayn of the chefe heads 
of the towne; then the marshal lighted 
on fote, and iii. with hym, and the lorde 
Basset and syr Wyllyam Ferinyton. . . . 
Syr, sayd the capytayn, we wyl not use 
us but by reson: we wolde gladly acquyte 
us to them that we belong; we know 
ryght well that my lady Constaunce of 
Lancastre was doughter to kyng Dam- 
peter of Castel, so that if kynge Dam- 
peter had abyden peasybly still kyng, 
she had ben then ryghtfull enherytoure 
of Castell. But the matter chaunged 
otherwyse, for al the royalme of Castel 
abode peasybly to kynge Henry his 
brother, by reason of the batayle that 
was at Nantuel, so that we al of the coun- 
trey sware to holde kyng Henry for our 
kyng: and he kepte it as long as he 
lyved; and also we have sworn to hold 
kyng John his sone for our kyng. But, 
syr, shewe us what have they of Cou- 
longne done or sayd to you, for it maye be 
so, syth ye have lien there more than a 
month, that they have made some 
maner of treaty with you. Syr, sayd 
the capytayne, gyve us lytell leysure 
that we may speke togyder .... 



HISPANIC N OTES 



THE BOURNE 



The narrative is as leisurely as the 
proceedings; anon it continues: 

■ 

Within ii. lytell Frensshe myles of 
saynt James in Galyce, there came in 
processyon all the clergy of the town, 
with crosses and relykes, and men, 
women and chyldren, to mete with the 
duke and the duches. And the men of 
the town brought the keys with them, 
whiche they presented to the duke and 
to the duches, with their good wylles by 
all semblaunt; I can not say if they dyd it 
with theyr good hartes or no: there 
they kneled down, and receyved theyr 
lorde and lady, and they entred into the 
town of saynt James. And the fyrst 
voyage they made, they wente to the 
chyrche and all theyr chyldren, and 
made theyr prayers and offrynge with 
grete giftes, and it was shewed me that 
the duke and the duches and theyr ii. 
doughters, Phylyp and Katheryn, were 
lodged in an abbaye, and there kept 
theyr house; and that other lordes, as 
syr John Holande and syr Thomas Mo- 
reaux and theyr wyves lodged in the 
town, and al other barons and knightes 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



189 



Clergy and 

townsfolk 

together 



* 



igo 



the fevers 



white 
mules 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



lodged abrode in the felde, in houses, and 
bowres of bowes, for there were ynowe 
in the countrey. They founde there 
flesshe and strong wyne ynough, wherof 
the Englysshe archers dranke so moche 
that they were ofte tymes dronken, 
wherby they had the fevers, or elles in 
the mornyng theyr hedes were so evyl, 
that they coulde not helpe themselfe all 
the day after. 

While the princely pair stayed in San- 
tiago, the King of Portugal sent them a 
gift of white mules which was greatly 
prized, and they sent back to him in return 
two falcons, the fairest ever seen, and six 
English greyhounds. 8 

A traveller in the sixteenth century says 
oddly: "Cette eglise m&ropolitaine est 
archiepiscopal, tres forte, tres naturelle, 
en forme d'un gros donjon ou chastiau." 9 
The castle-church was a recognized type 
through southern France and Spain, and 
the hastiest recollection of incidents in the* 
history of Albigensian persecutions, will 
explain how it came into being. Froissart 
expounds the matter clearly: 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Well, said the king, what thing were 
best for me to do? Sir, said the knight, 
we shall show you: cause ye your towns 
and castles on the f ronter of Galyce to be 
well kept, such as be of strength: and 
such as be of no strength, cause them to 
be beaten down: it is showed us how 
men ot the country do fortify minsters, 
churches and steeples, and bring into 
them all their goods. Sir, surely this 
shall be the loss and confusion of your 
royalme; for when the Englishmen ride 
abroad, these small holds, churches and 
steeples shall hold no while against them, 
but they shall be refreshed and nourished 
with such provision as they shall find in 
them, which shall help to further them 
to win all the residue. ,0 



Tuy, close to the grey Atlantic, Elne in 
view of the Gulf of the Lion, are other in- 
stances familiar. Ujue* in Navarre evokes 
the memory of Mont-Saint-Michel: but the 
lonely sanctuary stands not in Peril of 
the Sea; her foundations are upon the holy 
hills. Of the towers of Santiago, which 
Sir John Berners calls steeples, some- 



AN D MONOGRAPHS 



191 



Castillo. 
igUsia 



192 



Thunder- 
bolt and 
S. James 



A warrior's 
grave- 
mound 
whence he 
will rise 



I 



WAY OF S.JAMES 

thing was said earlier. Travellers were 
never weary of counting them, and they 
were landmarks to the country-side. A 
curious refrdn associates them with the 
thunderbolt: 

"OS. Bastian corramos 
a cima d'e Pico-Sagro, 
para ver cal raya o sol 
n-as torres de Santiago." xx 

Remember, says Sr. ' Murguia, that the 
shrine of Santiago is founded upon a tomb 
and a castle: the hill was a castrum, the 
church was a fortress, in the tomb a 
warrior lies. Like Barbarossa he wakens 
sometimes, as Luke of Tuy testifies. 11 
Ferdinand the Great invaded Portugal, 
and fought the Saracens all over the 
north-west, and last besieged Coimbra. 
He went on a pilgrimage to Santiago and 
kept a triduum in the church, devoutly 
praying the Apostle to restore Coimbra to 
Christian worship, and gave much money; 
then went back to camp. "The Lord," 
says Luke, and Dominus Jacobus must be 
the one intended: 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



. . . heard King Ferdinand's prayers, and 
while he fought at Coimbra with the 
sword, the Apostle fought for him in 
heaven interceding with Christ. That 
the city was taken by the merits of the 
blessed Apostle, is manifestly known. 
For there had come from Jerusalem an 
insignificant Greek pilgrim, who abode in 
the porch of the church of S. James, in- 
sistent with vigil and prayer. When 
people entering sang, praising S. James 
as a soldier, he contradicted them, saying 
S. James was no soldier but a fisherman. 
While he watched the night in prayer, 
being suddenly rapt in ecstasy, S. James 
appeared to him, and holding some keys 
in his hand, with lively countenance 
spoke to him: " Look you here, you have 
mocked my men and said I was not a 
soldier." Then appeared a shining horse 
before the entrance to the church, 
and the glory about him lighted all the 
church, through the open doors. The 
Apostle mounted, and gave the pilgrim to 
understand that with these keys he was 
going to open the city of Coimbra and 
give it to King Ferdinand at about the 
third hour of the day: which said, he 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



193 



Graeculus 
quidam 



. . . et 
illuminabit 
abscondita 
tenebrarum 



194 



Buonafede 



I 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



disappeared. The Greek told it to the 
clergy, and when the news came, the day 
and hour agreed. 12 

That blaze of light which pilgrims some- 
times saw, filling all the church in mirk 
mid-night, is the same that burns above 
a warrior's grave-mound, on wintry head- 
lands of the northern seas. 

Yet brothers of S. John Gualberto have 
knelt on these same stones. What gifts 
they sought, the pilgrims brought: at 
times, pardon, and the grace to forgive; 
peace, and the gift of tears. The Bolognese 
Friar Gian Lorenzo Buonafede, almost 
contemporary with Manier, after long 
desire, made the journey: entering, he 
found the church crowded, and as, kneeling 
before the altar, he wept, he was not the 
only one. From day to day he went back 
and kissed the statue with sobs; tears came 
freely. He arranged to celebrate his daily 
Mass in the cathedral, and again we are 
reminded of Lourdes; the first one, he 
said for the intention of his father and 
mother. They put him up very kindly 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



at the Friar's convent, and he came back 
to the shrine: "After vespers," he says, 
"I sat there a long time with tears in my 
eyes. " 

Santiago still enjoys the great advantage 
of being open early and late, and is best 
of all at nightfall. One may kneel so long 
at the reja before the dim-glimmering 
sanctuary, that all sense of hands or feet, 
of brain or breathing, is lost. No other 
shrine except Chartres can so stir, can so 
draw back, but in Chartres the light 
all comes from the east, even at twilight, 
and here from the west. The transept 
doors stand open, pale patches in the 
luminous warm dark, and there are long 
lights down the aisles of the nave, and the 
cold green sky looks in at openings of the 
Gloria. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



195 



The grace 
of tears 



r 



196 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Los Muertos Mandan. 

Content thee, not the an- 
nulling light 

Of any pitiless dawn is 
here; 

Thou art alone with ancient 
night, 

And all the stars are clear. 



It is a dead town, monumental and 
triste; with gigantic edifices of churches 
and convents that were too rich for their 
own good. Here and there flowers a happy 
bit of Renaissance, as in the arcade Tras 
de Salome*, and one day we came suddenly 
upon a Gothic house, with the pointed 
arches of the lower story built up but the 
window still in use, and the corbels with 
bag-piper and tumbler still holding up the 
cornice. But most of the streets are 
oppressed with the heavy pomp of the 
seventeenth century, square doors and 
shallow mouldings. 

Santiago has, indeed, a University still in 
operation, but since when are University 
towns the less dead? Bologna with the 
monstrous horrors of the Spanish armouries 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



plastered against its fading brick; Padua 
with the thousand heraldries of students 
early dead painted upon its cloister vaults; 
Salamanca, choked up with convent 
churches; Alcald tawdry and dirty in the 
power of the Padres Escolapios; Oxford 
even, with the worn stone of its colleges 
that front along the High Street perpetually 
replaced and perpetually gnawed away by 
the insatiable tooth of time: — these towns 
are like ancient sepulchres where from 
time to time the living return to banquet, 
with tapers and baked meats, in memory 
of the else-forgotten. One day knows 
light and movement and mingling voices, 
then again closes down the darkness, the 
flowers drop their faded leaves, dry, and 
turn to dust, the wine thickens and then 
hardens in the golden cups, silence and 
sleep come home, brooded under the wings 
of night. 

The living cannot touch that life of the 
dead which the University enshrines: dead 
theories, dead ideals, dead dreams of earth 
and sky, of God and humanity. An instant 
long loud voices trouble it, then the old 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



197 



university 
town 



I 



198 



"Los 
muertos 
maudan " 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



ways resume. The Copernican system, the 
Mosaic cosmogony, the Tridentine dogmas, 
are there inurned: though the older are 
for long undisturbed and are at last for- 
gotten, you may lift a lid and stir the fine 
dust, or you may burn incense and evoke 
the pale wraith. 

Yes, the dead command us still, all the 
dead of the most ancient earth, not those 
of two millenniums alone. The children 
are crying in the market place, but though 
they pipe we may not dance, though they 
mourn we may not weep, for we hear other 
voices, our fathers' and our fathers' 
fathers'. The smug religion of pulpit 
and pew and parish house, which finds 
yet no room for the unemployed to sit 
down, and no supper for the striker to eat, 
that already is a thing of yesterday, and 
it shall not know tomorrow. The sweet 
religion of indulgence and confession, of 
drowsy rosaries counted through fragrant 
dim-lit hours, has fallen to women and 
children, and they are outgrowing it. 
The religion of the ancestral dead, which 
was before Confucius and before Buddha, 



HISPANIC NOTES 






THE BOURNE 



reclaims the heart. Make an inward 

* 

silence and listen, at last you shall hear 
the word. Though nationality be a fatal 
mirage and races mingled inextricably, 
the line in ascendance is real, and the 
heritage awaits inheritors. The accumu- 
lated illusions of the centuries fall down, 
the blood-built battlements, at the trump- 
etting from afar. 

They are everywhere, these dead, and 
most of all you meet them in the Mass. 
In the clouds of incense they throng and 
whisper, theirs is the commemoration, 
theirs the sacrifice. As day followed day 
and year came after year, they passed 
from the visible to the invisible, from the 
militant to the triumphant, but because 
they once were there, there are they still. 
In the mingled cup, in the broken wafer, 
the priest presents again the pain of all the 
world; the broken heart that yet could 
constantly endure; the intolerable wrongs, 
and griefs, that yet were borne. This 
anguish of the indomitable can fortify, 
this grief of the long-past can console. 
Not for nothing does the Italian hill- 



AN D MONOGRAPHS 



199 



Euchar- 
istic 

commemo- 
ration 



I 



r 



200 



The pain 
of all the 
world 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



peasant, in his procession of Good Friday 
night, dress the Childless Mother like any 
other widow, with veil of crape and hand- 
kerchief of lawn; so, other mothers, who, 
too, have lost their sons, steep their grief 
for anodyne in another's wide as the world. 
In the pale Host uplifted you recognize 
the supreme renouncement: the perfect 
becoming subject to imperfection, the im- 
maculate submitting to contamination, the 
supreme sharing the brotherhood of oppres- 
sion and ignorance and shame. 

In the strength of our forefathers we go, 
not in their tracks. Their stars we follow, 
not their dead campfires, their virtues not 
their acts, under cruel penalties. Those 
dear dead of all the world who come back 
when they can to direct or to console, for 
whom the Romans, not unmindful, brought 
fresh flowers to an image and poured wine 
above an urn, for whom the Tuscan family 
still spreads wreaths before a sepulchre and 
lights lamps upon a grave, in a loving 
service never quite intermitted, these dead, 
it would seem, in their own despite are 
at times a distress, a menace, a hideous 



HISPANIC NOTES 



"1 



THE BOURNE 



instrument of destruction. If the cup of 
saki be really set only to send the poor 
little ghost, hunger-appeased, back to bed, 
and the Lanterne des Marts kindled only to 
guide strayed souls back into the kindly 
covering earth, a little sadly; yet there are 
stories more terrible than these, troubled 
observances world-wide as they, of larves 
and lemurs, revenants, ghouls, vampires, 
women dead in child-birt}i, who seduce 
night-travellers in the jungle; and, with the 
hell-hounds of northern wintry forests, 
not the hunted alone, but dead souls 
hunters of souls. That the dead can betray 
and can destroy, primitive use and tale 
record for us in their wise, and our own 
life shows us in the lives about: it is a part 
of piety to set the perturbed spirits at 
rest where they can do no wrong. We 
are not better than our fathers, nor worse. 
There must be no sound of chanting in our 
ears, if we would hear the most ancient 
word. Let the dead bury their dead. 
He dicho. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



20 1 



Dead souls 



202 



"A great 
and famous 
idol." 
Page 350 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



V 



THE WORLD'S END 

Only the mists — only the weeping clouds: 

Dimness, and airy shrouds. 

Beneath, what angels are at work, what powers 

Prepare the secret of the fatal hours? 

See, the mists tremble and the clouds are stirred. 

"S. Yakob is the capital of Jalikijah, 
and is the greatest and most holy sanctu- 
ary which the Christians have. It is to 
them the same as our shrine is to us. 
Their Kabah is a colossal idol, which 
they have in the centre of the largest 
church. They swear by it, and repair 
to it in pilgrimages from the most distant 
parts, from Rome and from lands that 
are yet further, pretending that the 
tomb which is to be seen within the 
church is of Yakob one of the twelve 
Apostles and the most beloved of Isa, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



may the blessing of God and salutation 
be on him and on our prophet." l 

Abn-Edhari of Morocco, the author of 
the Bayen-el Mogrib, writing under the 
year 996, tells how Almanzor came to 
the Gulf of Iria "which is one of the 
sanctuaries of the same Santiago whose 
is the sepulchre. That sanctuary is second 
in importance only, the Christians feel, to 
the said sepulchre, and to it come the 
devout from the remotest lands; from the 
land of the Copts, from Nubia, and others." 
Abn-Edhari says again: 

Yakoub in their tongue is Jahcob, 
who was Bishop in Jerusalem and began 
to run over all lands preaching to the 
dwellers therein, and with that intent 
came to Spain where he attained the 
bound. Afterwards he went back to the 
land of Syria, and died there, when he 
had reached the age of one hundred and 
twenty solar years. His disciples fetched 
his body and gave it sepulture in this 
church, the furthest of those which re- 
ceived his influence. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



203 



A Holy 
Sepulchre 



204 



As at the 
Temple of 
the Sun 
and Thur- 
kill's Vision 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Thus appears the Far-traveller again, very 
old, and destined to return 



"beyond the sunset, and the baths 
Of all the western stars." 



When the disciples were in Padr6n, which 
is Iria Flavia, being oppressed with weari- 
ness and pursuit, they laid the precious 
body upon a stone, which softened under 
the touch and received it. Tetzel and the 
Latin secretary and all the party of the 
noble Slav, saw this stone, and their 
testimony 2 is true: all the pilgrims mention 
it, but because the enthusiasm of the 
throngs was chipping it to bits, it had 
been sunk in a pool of deep water. Steps 
led down to the pool, and the water was 
very clear so that it was well seen. The 
stone was probably genuine, i.e., not manu- 
factured to match the legend, for it was 
probably just such a stone coffin hollowed 
out to fit the head and shoulders, as was 
built up in the church wall at Mellid. It 
was shown to Erich Lassota, in 1581, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



From Cm*«f«ii '• Spain. The Century Co. 

The Great Stair at Le Puy 



THE BOURNE 



as S. James's bed. The Pelegrino curioso 
apparently saw such another at La Barca 
on the Ria de Camarinas, of which he tells 
that it had been sunk, in the same way, for 
the same reason: he says also that S. James 
sailed over sea in it. For parallel to this we 
need not look so far as the Isle of Penguins, 
for there is the journey of S. Cuthbert 
down the river to Durham. 

Erich Lassota confirms him 3 (1580); he 
calls it the Barca de S. Yago, and says that 
Nuestra Senora f s bark is at the bottom of 
the sea, though her statue is at Manxia 
(Mountjoy). On the road to Finisterre 
the Bohemians saw this, beside the way a 
ship with cables, hull and other tackle, all 
of stone, and were told that this ship 
transported God and his Mother, who dis- 
embarked there, and climbed the hill, and 
founded a chapel for the Virgin. 4 The 
compiler of the Cancionero popular gallego 5 
has a store of pretty songs about this Virgin 
that came from over sea: 

Ai! mifia Virxe d'a Barca, 
ai, mifia Virxe, valeime 

HISPANIC NOTES 



207 



The 

sea-faring 

adventure 



208 



A 

worshipped 

stone 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



qui estou n-o medio d'o mar 
sin ter barqueiro que reme. 

They are good to chant gaily all together, 
sorting and packing fish, or hauling nets; 
they are better to sing softly while the 
shuttle flies in the brown net, and the last 
line trails off in a long crying: 

Veno d'a Virxe d'a Barca 
veno d'abana-la pedra 
tamdn veno de vos ver 
Santo Cristo de Finisterra ! 

So, it appears, the rocking stone is still 
frequented. But the daintiest belongs on 
the beach with the mussel-fishers. 

Nosa Seflora d'a Barca 
ala va po-la ribiera 
collendo conchinas d'ouro 
metend'-as n-a faltriqueira. — 

According to Nicholas of Popplau, who 
was there just a hundred years before 
Lassota, in 1484, Nuestra Seflora de la 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Barca herself was the rocking stone: 
"We could move it with one hand," he 
says. 6 

The most curious thing, however, in all 
this trumpery, is Lassota's Shield of S. James 
at Padron, so-called because when the in- 
fidels pursued him he hid behind it, and you 
can see still how the stone yielded ' 'to receive 
his head and his right arm so he could hide 
in it " — I translate exactly the confused 
account. This recalls with uncommon em- 
phasis the sculptures of Mithras emerging 
from the rock, and it happens that among 
the few Spanish inscriptions which M. 
Cumont publishes, is one from Padron. 7 

Sebastian Ilsung, who had made the 
journey in 1446, records: "The cape of 
Pinisterre is two miles high, surrounded 
and beaten upon by the sea; there are the 
footmarks of our Lord S.* James and a well 
that he made himself with his own hands 
[there is one in the hillside above Padron, 
and one just before you get to Santiago, 
besides]; also a sort of chair in which sat 
S. Peter and S. James and S. John." He 
was a shrewd man, with a sound estima- 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



209 



Mithras 
emergent 



Footsteps 
of Buddha 
in Ceylon 



2IO 



The Cape 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



tion of political and social matters, not 
uncourtly, and though he could bolt mar- 
vels as a dog bolts sandwiches, he had 
the sense of awe. Of all the travellers 
whom I have read, he alone feels in San- 
tiago how venerable, how immemorial is 
the sanctuary, and here, again, he shrivels 
under the brow of the towering cape: 

The cape of Finisterre is two days' 
journey from Santiago [he goes on 
hurriedly], on horseback, on the worst 
road that I remember in my life. My 
servant fell sick, and I had to leave him 
behind. The second day I lost the road 
and went above and below by the coast, 
without knowing where I was, till God 
and S. James came to my help and I got 
to a village where I was very hungry 
because there was nothing to eat. There 
they told me the road to Finisterre. . . . 
I had a letter from the Archbishop to the 
Prior, who took me in. Otherwise I 
must have slept in the street. 8 

In a different temper the Friar Buonaf ede 
de Vanli went to Nuestra Senora and 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



copied out, with authenticating licenses, 
and the like, all of her miracles. He also 
visited Finisterre, and between the two 
places, S. Julian de Moraime. "On the 
twentieth, by a hard road, up a hill, ac- 
companied by the said Giuseppe Martinez 
in whose house I slept, I came to S. Julian 
de Moraime, which belongs to the Padri 
Cassinensi [i. e. Benedictines]. It is a 
place of no rarity. I drank the chocolate 
the Prior gave me. " 

Bartolome' ViUalbay, the Pelegrino cwri- 
oso, gleamed and fluttered all about like 
a heath-butterfly. He went to the Monas- 
tery of Noya, and picked up there two 
pilgrims with whom he shared sausages, 
cheese, and fruit; the place where they sat 
was full of mountain-pinks. They held 
witty talk, and they talked also of places 
that they hoped, or that they could not 
hope, to see: "the insigne city of Orense," 
Celanova, and S. Esteban de Ribas de Sil. 
In Santiago he called on the Abbess of S. 
Clare's, a very great lady, and he wrote 
some pious poetry for her; and called on 
other nuns, and had a monstrous fine time. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



211 



Ya has en- 
contra do 
elcamino 



I 



212 



Compare 
Lucian and 
Macrobius 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



The hospital he praised as well furnished 
and administered — this is the great founda- 
tion of Ferdinand and Isabel, — and found 
the wards all whitewashed. 

Everyone inspected the hospital. Sobi- 
eski said that it could rival the finest in 
Christendom, and his description of the 
court is worth pausing on, but Buonafede's, 
just a hundred years later, is even more 
curious. On the eve of the Festival of the 
Portiuncula, the richest, in the way of 
profit, of all Franciscan teasts, he wrote: 
"At the Hospital Royal to see a procession. 
First came men masked, dancing and 
singing spiritual songs with castanets, then 
priests vested with the cotta, in midst of 
whom they carried the silver statue of 
S. James 9 : then the Sacrament with many 
torches and various instruments, to the 
sound of which the whole people sang a 
verse of Pange Lingua" To hear this 
would have been worth living through 
even the spiritual songs to the castanets. 
"There was a curious thing: in the first 
cloister near the fountain, were three 
boxes, like opera boxes, one above the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



L 



THE BOURNE 



other; in the lowest, a statue in black of 
S. Ignatius or S. Francis Xavier; in the 
middle, the Punch and Judy show; and in 
the top one was represented a Priest cele- 
brating with Deacon and Sub-Deacon, the 
priest kneeling on the steps of the altar." 
This is only the beginning of things: but 
Buonafede is too good to snip out in bits. 

That most of this, however, is pretty 
poor stuff, this running and gaping over 
the countryside you must blame poor 
human nature. Mexican ladies, I am told, 
who are capable of swooning on Sunday 
morning with the ecstasy of the Sacrament, 
are capable of dancing all Sunday afternoon. 
One is not content, quite, to take Padr6n 
and Noya, Moraime and Corcubion, as 
simply as Fromista and Carri6n, yet they 
are much simpler places. I propose not to 
take them at all. As coastwise Gallegan 
they are interesting, and they shall be con- 
sidered later, in another book, along with 
hill-top Gallegan. But their connexion 
with Santiago is chiefly geographical. 

Noya still uses the old hospital, carved 
on the huge arch stones with shell and 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



213 



Coastwise 
Gallegan 



r 



214 



Noya 



I 



WAY OP S.JAMES 



bourdon and Noah's ark. The portal of 
S. Martin is imitated from Santiago, bar- 
barously: the interior has nothing to do 
with it. Up in the facade a beautiful wheel 
window dazzles like a wheel of stars: in the 
archivolt the crowded figures have a sort 
of massy beauty: the bestial heads at the 
bottom of the door-jambs are exceedingly 
like these of Master Matthew. By an 
unhappy device that Bamberg had antici- 
pated, the statues stand on top of each 
other, that they may all be seen, three 
and three in either jamb. Sea winds have 
worn the granite only to coarsen, and the 
work at newest was local, inexpert. The 
date is 1434. 

There is a sailors' song, that rings across 
the brimming tide in the ria, and is an- 
swered from under the grey, delicate eu- 
calyptus around the grey weatherworn 
church of S. Mary: 

— Os marneiros de Noya 
Cantan y poden cantar, 
T&ien os remos n-a lancha 
para poder traballer. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



— Ouh, campadre, a lancha e* mina: 

c'os remos atrevasados 

temos d'ir a romeria 

c'os nosos cestos colgados. I0 

Padr6n was a place of obligation, because 
the original landing of S. James was there, 
by tradition; aad historically, the shrine 
can be traced back as far as Santiago. 
Says a refrdn, enforcing the duty: 

Quien va A Santiago e* non va al Padr6n 
O faz romeria 6 non! 

So, wishing the pilgrimage to count, I 
went. From Master Matthew's bridge, just 
helow, the walking is easy, various enough: 
the approach, where hills rise on the left 
and roads fork at a double cross, is pictur- 
esque. Iria lies beyond the town qa the 
other side, and keeps nothing ancient but a 
few stones and a pointed doorway, in the 
tympanum an Epiphany entirely Gallegan. 
Where one meets lovely kindness, it seems 
ingratitude to say there is no beauty. 
Walking back into the town, I met a woman 
going home from work, and we talked as 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



215 



Padrin 



216 



The mov- 
ing waters 
at their 
priest-like 
task 



Moraime 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



we tramped through the dust, she ques- 
tioning, I trying to convey some image of 
the journey that took doce dlas en el mar. 
At last she asked, with no intent to blame 
or to mortify: "Hadn't you even a servant 
that you could bring with you?" 

All this Gallegan shore is fair with blue 
waters, serene and tidal water-ways em- 
braced by the gigantic earth. There is a 
cqncidn which says, borrowing perhaps from 
an early and lovely Romance: 

Camarinas, Camarinas, 
o rei te quixo vender; 
o que compre a Camarinas 
moito dinero ha de ter. 11 

The church at Moraime is very curious, 
set into a hillside above the sea, so that 
you go down steps into the porch and 
more into the church, and what was a 
squat chapel without, is seen a fair and 
lofty sanctuary. The walls outside have 
the huge arches that appear at Puerto 
Marin, and also in two churches near 
Orense with which S. Julian has more 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



affinity, Aguas Santas and La Junquera. 
But, though hidden by accretions and 
disguised otherwise at times, they also 
appear on the cathedrals of Santiago and 
Orense, the French trait being pretty 
nearly naturalized, and likely to be second 
or third-hand here. If the church is of 
the twelfth century, the portal cannot be 
earlier than the thirteenth, but that sort 
of abortion is ageless, like deep-sea jellies. 
The three shafts in the jambs, on each 
side, carry each two figures, or once did; 
the intention here being not to set figures 
in the recesses as at Noya but to put them 
on the shaft, as at Villaviciosa in Asturias, 
and in some measure on the north door at 
Orense. The intention goes back to Char- 
tres — to the west door and not the transept 
porches. In the archivolts are three rows 
of figures, laid over a torus, except the 
outmost row, which contains half-lengths 
in clouds. It would seem that the carver 
could not even count, for the figures run 
in fourteens; thirteen and the Saviour 
in one row, the others indeterminable. 
In the tympanum are six figures and a 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



217 



The Portal 



I 



r 



218 



A Dove: 

for 
S. Basilisa? 



(or indeed 
Cape Cod) 



WAY OF S.JAMES 

bishop blessing, under arches. On the 
eighteenth-century retable, within, S. Ju- 
lian figures, with a dove on his shoulder, 
in wig and steenkirk, wide skirts and huge 
cuffs, like a gentleman out of The Spectator. 
The only imitation of Santiago, apart from 
the portal, is a bit of arcading attempted 
in the north wall of the north aisle, two 
pointed arches under a round one, like the 
pattern of a triforium. x 2 Both Corcubion 
and Finisterre have good churches, of the 
square-apse, towered type, but they owe 
nothing to Santiago. 

On the Cape — the folk there speak of 
El Cabo as we of the North Cape and that 
of Good Hope — I found grey rock, and 
drenched heather, and a choking fog. 
"Mas alia no hay mas que las aguas del 
mar, cuyo t6rmino nadie mas que Dios 
conoce." We could not see the headland 
even that we stood upon, nor hear the 
call of the Atlantic: the green underfoot 
went up into the blinding white; the grey 
overside came invisibly out of the creeping 
white. At the extreme end of Europe, as 
we leaned and strained, we could see one 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



wave that lap-lapped on the rocks below, 
but not the ones behind, that always urged 
it. It was rather like magic to have gone 
to the end of the world and found nothing 
there: one had always known it, without 
admitting. A tag of Gaelic, picked up 
somewhere, went lap-lapping in my brain: 

Mar a bha as it was 

mar a tha as it is 

mar a bhitheas as it shall be 

gu brath ever more 

ri trdg adh with the ebb 

*s ri horiath with the flow 

The noble Slav found there a history 13 
that still calls to one out of the mist, like 
the sound ot people talking when in the 
fog a fishing boat slips by : 

It is written in the annals of history, 
the tale begins, that a King of Portugal 
, had three ships built, provisioned with 
all needful, including twelve scriveners 
in each with writing material to last them 
four years, to the end that they should 
sail so far as they might in that time, and 
every ship's scriveners were to write all 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



219 



At the end 
of the 
world, 
nothing 



I 



220 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



As Bran 
and Bren- 
den sailed 



the regions they reached and all that 
befell them in the sea. After they had 
sailed two years they came to a great 
mist that took two weeks to cross, and 
when they emerged they came to an 
island. They went on shore, and found 
subterranean houses full of gold and 
silver, but they touched nothing. Above 
the houses were gardens and vines. They 
sailed on, and saw waves mountain high, 
that went up to the clouds, and they were 
sore afraid, as if the Judgement Day had 
come. They discussed, and agreed that 
two ships should go on, and the third 
one wait a fortnight: this ship waited 
sixteen days but none came back. Then 
full of terror they turned back toward 
Lisbon: when they entered the port the 
townsfolk came and asked them who 
they were; when they said "We are those 
whom the king sent to explore the con- 
fines of the sea, that we should write the 
marvels we saw," the others answered: 
"We know those men, and they were not 
such as you, not worn, not hoary, but 
youngsters of twenty-six years." Indeed 
their own kin did not know them, for 
they were white as trees in hoar frost. 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



VI 



THE PARADISE OF SOULS 

The stars are threshed, 
and the souls are threshed 
from their husks. — Blake. 

The Dark Star, a phrase applied more 
than once by mediaeval travellers to the 
granite land that lies at the End of the 
World, it is usual to treat as a mere corrup- 
tion of the name of Finisterre, due to the 
stupidity of German tourists. But Gabriel 
Tetzel, who accompanied the Knight of 
Rozmital, is perfectly explicit, they found 
the name and did not invent it. "Vor 
Sant Jacob," he writes in his barbarous 
dialect, "ritt wir an den Finstern Stern, 
als es dann die Bauren nennen es heisst aber 
Finis terrae." 1 Nothing could be more 
exact. Nicholas of Poppelau quotes a 
phrase rather like Wagner's in Tristan, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



221 



The Dark 
Star 



222 



Folk-Cus- 
toms 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



that makes it the shadowy land. 2 A son of 
the land, the husband of a folk-poetess, Sr. 
Murguia, to whose intimate knowledge and 
faithful record not this book only but 
many another more learned owes so much, 
takes the name as familiar and explains it 
partly by reference to the land of the dead, 
partly "porque brillaba en occidente, ver- 
tiendo sus palidos resplandores sobre las 
aguas misteriosas en que concluia el mundo, 
y de donde las barcas que abandonan las 
tenebrosas orillas, jamas tornaban a la 
ribera." 

There, far in the west, the most ancient 
people, the most ancient faiths, retreating 
slowly, lingered: and thither came, carried 
by the pilgrims, all that the rest of the 
world had come to think and feel. 

The degree to which, in the centuries 
past, the land of Galicia was saturated with 
what the eighteenth century classed all 
together in one lump as superstition, may 
be measured, though inadequately, by the 
quantity which has survived. It is not in 
Galicia alone that survivals are met: we 
found the baskets for bread and candles on 



HISPANIC NOTES 



k 



THE BOURNE 



the church floor, at Monreal, and the 
hacker as which these explain, throughout 
Leon; we found the Gardens of Adonis 
withering at Corull6n. About the Cape of 
Pinisterre the souls still flutter and cry like 
seabirds. 

On the authority of Sr. Murguia, the 
Condesa Pardo Bazan, and the Gallegan 
Folk-lore Society, we may consider as still 
active two or three very ancient elements: 
in the first place, the relations still main- 
tained with the spirits of vegetation, and 
the natural magic intended to control the' 
principle of fertility; secondly, some prac- 
tices connected with death, the intercourse 
with ghosts and revenants and with other 
spirits; lastly, such vestiges as may be 
traced of very ancient beliefs that touch 
the whence and whither; and thereafter 
may perceive the part which these ele- 
ments had in the cult of the Son of Thunder. 

The night of the 29th of April is May- 
eve, the "Vispora do mes d'os Mayos." 
Then on the hills about Master Matthew's 
bridge, above Padron, fires are kindled, and 
the peasants run about waving lighted 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



223 



1. Fertility 

charm 

a. Ghosts 

3. The land 

of the 

dead 



224 



May-eve 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



brands, and singing an old spell which 
shall make "the ears of the green corn fill " : 

Alumea, pay, 

Cada grao, seu toledan! 

Alumea, fillo, 

Cada espiga, seu pan trigo! 

Alumea 6 lino 

Cada freba, seu cerrino! 3 

On that same night, at S. Maria de Roo, 
near Noya, a great bonfire is built and 
kindled in silence, but when it blazes high, 
the whole people join hands and dance 
around it, all night long, women, children, 
men, without an instant of intermission till 
dawn whitens. This is their song: 

Lume, lume! 

Ve* 6 pan 

Dios che de* 

Moito gran. 

Cada gran, com*' un bogallo, 

Cada p6, com* un carballo. 4 

These two, Sr. Murguia published in his 
volume EspaOa sus monumentos y artes. 
The Spanish Folk-lore Society publishes 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURN E 



amongst other odd spells, one to secure the 
safe delivery by a cow of her first calf: give 
her to eat ears of Indian corn with baby 
ears around, that is to say, little ears around 
the principal one. s What was manifestly 
a spell to secure a good crop, the present 
writer saw, near Padr6n in 1915, at the 
end of July, when corn was in tassel. On 
a wayside crucifix hung a yellowed ear of 
ripe corn, half husked, not weather-worn 
but rich and full. The maize which is, with 
tall cabbage, the staple of Galicia, is pre- 
served in corncribs on stone legs, well built, 
well roofed; and at one gable end rises a 
stone cross, at the other, the phallic symbol 
in pyramid or console form. 

Through the streets of Santiago and 
Corunna still goes the figure of May, 
dressed in young boughs like a Jack-in-the- 
Green, crowned with flowers, surrounded 
by young children who dance and beg for 
offerings, while May contents himself with 
bowing low in time to the cadence : 



Cantaran o Mayo 
e mais ben cantado. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



225 



Phallic em- 
blem 



1 



226 



La Se flora 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Then the children begin: 

Angueles somos, 
del cielo venimos 
bulsa traemos 
dinero pedimos. 

Deano-las mayas 

Senora Maria; 

deano-las mayas 

qu'estan bailando n-a criba. 6 

After this the song breaks into comedy, 
rehearsing the streets through which the 
procession passes, and enumerating the 
gifts of nun and soldier, lady and caballero. 
Mila y Fontanals publishes, from the re- 
cital of a Gallegan lady, a version which 
plainly puts the Virgin in her right place, 
not only as the Lady of all good gifts, but 
as the Good Lady of Tyrolean folk-lore, 
she who keeps the little unborn souls in her 
care, playing about her, as when a Tyrolese 
peasant saw the Good Lady pass once, with 
a flock of unchristened babes, and at Altar, 
again, in the valley of the Saal, a ferryman 
took the party across. 7 



HISPANIC NOTES 



L 



THE BOURNE 



"Este* 6 o Mayo 
Est6 e* o Mayo 
O noso Maya, 
Da de comer 
Velay o Mayo 
Velay o Mayo 

Angueles sotnos 



que Mahino 6> 
que anda d'o pe\ 
anque pequenino, 
a Virxen d'o Camiiio, 
cargado de rosas. 
que las trae mas her- 

mosas. 
del cielo venimos. 
Si nos dais licencia a la Reina le pedi- 

mos, 
Angueles sotnos dei cielo bajamos. 
Si nos dais licencia a la Reina la canta- 

mos." 8 



Coming back to the figure of May, "all 
bedashed with herbs, mosses, and flowers," 
the reader will remember that it was thus, 
most likely, that Sir Meliagrance disguised 
himself and his knight to entrap the Queen 
in an ambush, what time when "the Month 
of May was come, when every lusty heart 
beginneth to blossom," Queen Guenever 
rode a-Maying into woods and fields around 
Winchester, and was carried off, into the 
land whence none returns. 9 

S. James himself, it is possible to per- 
ceive, was once a vegetation god, or at any 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



227 



quealumbrd 
con estrellas 
su camino 



1 



228 



Vegeta- 
tion-spirit 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



rate has taken over the functions and signs 
of one. It is indeed one of the aspects of 
Sol Sanctissimus, that he is giver of good 
harvests. In a Life and Translation of S. 
James Major, that M. Paul Meyer has 
published from an unique MS., 10 we have 
the prose version of a thirteenth-century 
French poem derived, he believes, directly 
from The Book of S. James, As was said 
already, we know that pilgrims waited in 
turn to read that and make extracts, like 
Arnaut of Ripoll in 1173, and whatever 
in the poem was not in the Book, is likely 
to be pilgrims' talk. Well, S. James 
preached in Spain and converted "la gent 
Sarrasine," the Moors. The folk were so 
evil before S. James came thither, when 
God had given all the goods that the earth 
could yield of sustenance, that over all the 
land were nettles and briars, so that nought 
good could grow between them. ... To 
his seven disciples the saint ordained that 
they should go plucking out the nettles 
and the sharp thorns and the bad roots of 
evil plants from the evil ground, and then 
put good seed into the ground that the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



seed should not fail, for tempest nor 
thunder, to come to good. x x The poet at 
this point feels that there is something odd 
about the agricultural interest, and ex- 
plains that all this is to be taken as an 
allegory, but he resumes later on, after the 
sepulchre of S. James is made in Galicia, 
and the church consecrated, and the people 
baptized: "Now the land was changed in 
nature. Where the holy Apostle was 
buried, the land became so full of wheat, of 
fruit, and of all foods that profit man's 
body, that in all the land the people were 
filled, that aforetime swelled up and died 
of the great famine that was in the land." x a 
This is good matter for The Golden 
Bough: it is confirmed by the form of the 
voto de Santiago y which was certainly at the 
outset paid in kind and was calculated on 
the basis of tilth, of arable land recovered 
from the Moors. Turpin says that when 
Charlemagne established it, the dues in- 
cluded a measure of wheat and a measure of 
wine. It was levied, in the earliest docu- 
ment we have, on each yoke of oxen. 13 
S. James's oxen, which are also the oxen of 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



229 



The Tribal 
Hero 



230 



Chthonian 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

5. Isidro Labrador, as has been said, appear 
in a Gallegan spell or formula recited 
against S. Anthony's fire: 

Pico Sagro, Pico Sagro, 

Que te consagrou o bendito Santiago 

Con setts boys e con seu carro, 

Libranos d'este fogo airado; 

Por la intercesion de la Virgen Maria, 

Un padre nuestro y un Ave Maria! 14 

At Saragossa, the Apostle took care of 
the kindly fruits of the earth. That city 
figures chiefly in his legend as what is called 
the Happy Other World, where fruit will 
not rot, nor wheat must, nor anything 
spoil; but this is a part of his character as 
a chthonian power. Now the chthonian 
deities were likewise powers of fertility, as 
every one knows. x s 

The Spanish church keeps the feast of S. 
James Minor on May-Day: now S. James 
Minor, as his name implies, is only a pale 
doublet of the Son of Zebedee. We found 
the two confused on the north portal at 
Leon; and because S. James the Great, as 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



inheriting the form and the function ot Sol 
Sanctissimus, kept his feasts at midsummer 
and midwinter, the other is put in to fill 
another place of his, the May-Day feast. 
The Slavonian pilgrims, wrote Ojea in 
1600, time their arrival for the latter end of 
April, and on the third year of pilgrimage 
put garlands on their heads, and thus go in 
solemn procession about the church x 6 : this 
too must be a fertility-charm. The feast 
of the consecration of the cathedral of San- 
tiago, is also kept on May-Day. 17 To 
the same class of attributes as the oxen 
and the garlands belongs the olive tree of 
S. Torquato in Guadix, that was always in 
trait for the Spring feast, 18 and Guadix 
was the first site of the legend of S. James's 
preaching in Spain. Another curious paral- 
lel to the French story, is found in that 
half-remembered tale of the Senators at 
Rome tearing Romulus to bits and every 
one carrying off a bit in his robe to bury in 
his "field. So this scrap of folk-tradition, 
precariously preserved, 19 marks with un- 
expected force an aspect we might have 
failed to recognize, how the great S. James 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



231 



Excellent 
herbs of 
Paradise 



r 



232 



So the Wife 
of Usher's 
Well 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



is more than the Tribal Hero giving food 
to his people, more than Sol Sanctissimus, 
Lord and Life-Giver, though he is still 
before all the Lord of the Dead, the Leader 
of the wandering souls. 

Natural piety wears two aspects; the 
hope of new life, the unforgetfulness of 
death. Among ancient and long-remember- 
ing peoples, the two keep company. In 
Asturias and Galicia, the ancestral ghosts 
are made welcome year by year. A place 
is laid and a chair set on the last night of 
the year and, on All Souls' Night in Proaza, 
the bed is left for them, the hearth fire 
is fed with good logs, the light is left burn- 
ing on the table, and before the living with- 
draw to sleep, they eat magostos, chestnuts 
and new wine, in a kind ot commemorative 
banquet. 20 So the second Council of 
Braga denounced a practice already hoary: 
"It is not lawful for Christians to carry 
food to graves, and to offer to God sacri- 
fices of the dead," and it ruled also that 
it was unfitting for ignorant and pre- 
sumptuous clergy to carry the Mysteries 
[the Eucharist] out ot doors to grave- 

HISPANIC NOTES 



"1 



THE BOURNE 



stones, and distribute the sacraments there, 
but they must do it in the church or 
basilica in which were deposited the relics 
of the Martyrs {i. e. only those of the dead 
officially accredited) and offer there for the 
defunct. 31 Petitorios, real funeral baked 
meats, were forbidden by the synodals of 
Mondonedo in the sixteenth century 22 
notwithstanding the Canon Lopez Ferreiro 
publishes extracts "notable for the elegance 
and purity of the language" from the will 
of Cardinal Gomez Fernandez de Vivere, 
a familiar of the Archbishop Alvaro de 
Isorna, which provides that his grave shall 
be made in the old chapter-room, by the 
door of the chapel where Archbishop 
Isorno lies, and continues, in choice Galle- 
gan: " Item mando que o primeiro dia de 
mifia sepoltura leven co o meu corpo ofertas 
de cera, pan, vino e carne o pescado segund 
uso e costume da cibdade": and this was 
in 1484. 2$ A last curious vestige of this 
survived in the habit of up-country child- 
ren, and not only the poor, who begged 
food from door to door, singing, it would 
seem, as at Yule and Twelfth Night; then 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



233 



Custom in 

Santiago 

Cathedral 



234 



All-Souls' 
Eve 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



went off by themselves to eat the collec- 
tion, in child's play now, and not neces- 
sarily in the churchyard. In the eighteenth 
century an Ochogavia of Orense directed 
in his will: "Item, I bid ... to place 
upon my grave four great candles, four 
tapers, bread, wine, and baeta, for a year 
and a day." 24 

In Tuscany I have seen the lamps kindled 
on every grave and flowers strewn, for All- 
Souls' Eve, and the fires lighted on every 
threshing-floor on the eve of the eighth of 
September. In Mexico they beg : " Un co- 
brecito senorito para mi tumbita." In 
France I have seen even rich folk, of Paris, 
visiting their dead in November, and others 
lighting fires on the Savoy shore in August; 
and in Galicia I have a faint remembrance, 
that I cannot localize, of the fires of S. John. 
A stranger in Spain must depend largely on 
others 1 testimony, for the Spanish peasant 
is mistrustful as a cat: I repeat therefore 
at second hand. Along with the Beltane 
fire, Celtic in practice as in name, should 
be recorded the Yule log, which under the 
name of Tizdn de Navidad was prohibited 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



by the Synodals of Mondofiedo as late 
as the middle of the sixteenth century. 
Sr. Murguia will have it that the log was 
fetched and kept burning for the sake of the 
returning ghosts, to welcome and warm 
las dnimas: and records that in Tuy just 
such a log is still kindled on All-Souls' day. 
But not alone in the long nights of Mid- 
winter, or in November at the close of the 
natural year, are the souls abroad — they are 
about, everywhere, all the time. InCorunna 
the beggars beg in the name of the souls: 

"Para misas y bien de las benditas ani- 
mas, quien pudiere por el amor de Dios." a 5 
The twilight hour belongs to the family 
ghosts, and dim little churches are mur- 
murous with the rosaries and musical with 
the litanies, of widows and childless mothers 
in their close-drawn black veils. In San- 
tiago the unco* gude go begging, from shop 
to shop, at nightfall, for the same end. 26 
In return, in the region of Corunna, those 
who want to wake at a certain hour have 
only to say three Our Fathers to the dnimas 
benditas and these will see to the waking. 2 7 
Poor souls called blessed, a little as the 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



235 



Yule log 



236 



A dust- 
whirl in the 
road 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Eumenides were so called! Some lie yet in 
purgatorial fire, some go on pilgrimage, 
some wander in sad throngs, like flocks of 
migrant birds. The spectral Company, or 
Estadea, known also in parts of France, is 
made up of such souls: of them, as under- 
stood in the province of Orense, Sr. Mur- 
guia writes: 

By night the dead rise from their 
graves and meet inside the church: they 
start out together from the west door at 
the stroke of twelve. A living person 
leads the procession, man if the church 
is dedicated to a male saint, woman if to 
a female. The living carries the cross 
and the holy water pail with the aspergil 
of hyssop; he cannot turn nor observe 
what goes on behind him, he gets his 
orders, he knows not how. Each ghost 
carries a candle, but is invisible; you 
know their passage by the wind of their 
going and the smell of burning wax. The 
living cannot lay down his charge and 
he who goes with the dead, as the phrase 
is, may be recognized by pallor, weakness 
and sickness: he cannot tell what he has 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE B OURNE 



seen, nor where he went, indeed; he can- 
not give up his equipage until be meets 
upon the way another person in whose 
hands he places the cross and the pail: 
then that one must succeed him. The 
only escape would be as the Company 
goes by to draw a circle and stand inside 
it, or else drop face down on the ground 
and let the spirits trample over and on. 
The procession goes to announce some- 
one's death, a year ahead. 28 

In other parts, the souls go about other 
business, perhaps. A woman spinning late 
at her window, saw vagrant lights flitting 
about the meadows, drawing together, 
proceeding towards her cottage. The 
legend as told in Asturias has some grisly 
elements, the point of it for us lies in what 
her priest told her the next morning: viz. 
that what went down the road were souls 
in pain, to whom God has appointed this 
world as a place of penitence, for not all 
such souls are in Purgatory. 29 

The reader recalls here, realizing how all 
the land must be full of wandering ghosts, 
that Priscillianism, of which Galicia was 



237 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Wills o' 
the Wisp 



238 



Bees 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



the very source and stronghold , is thought 
to have been much concerned with the 
transmigration of souls; no wonder, since 
the adepts must have been cognizant of 
them on every side, with every breath; and 
recalls as well, wondering if the good 
Cura's word was a last reflection of it, the 
theory of Origen that the souls of men in 
the world are only a rebirth, another 
chance, granted to the unhappy angels, — 

quel cattivo coro 
degli angeli che non furon ribelli 
ne fur fideli a Dio, ma per se fero. 30 

Porphyry has said that souls come down 
from the moon to the earth under the form 
of bees, and a Gallegan proverb seems to 
sustain this: 

O que mata un abellon 
Ten cen anos de perdon, 
O que mata un-ha abella 
Ten cen anos de pena. 31 

One curious Gallegan use connects the 
bees with the dead, when the mourners 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE B OURNE 



circle around the bier with a humming 
noise, called el Abellon. When the dead 
are carried to the burial, in Vilancosta, 33 
there must be none asleep in the house, 
lest the soul of the sleeper should escape 
and accompany the departed. 

In Indian symbolism the bee is the soul, 
the hive is the body, the honey is sweet life. 
In Greek, the bees are associated with 
Zeus, and with fertility, much as when 
they are born from the buried ox in Virgil; 
but they are souls also, and when Hermes 
evokes a little dead figure from a burial jar, 
the soul hovers above in the form of a 
bee. Here, simply, the winged and fragile 
creatures are the family souls in some other 
than earthly durance. Therefore, in New 
England, within the memory of those now 
living, the bees must be told of any death 
in the family. To the shrine of S. Juan de 
Ortega, as already said, went childless 
women, to pray not vainly, and the white 
bees that lived in the Saint's tomb were 
the souls waiting to be born that they 
carried home in their bosoms. This is a 
better way to manage the process than 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



239 



are souls 



240 



The 

Orchard 

Saint 



I 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



that of drinking down the person who is to 
be reborn, like Cuchullain's race. 

Dante knew something about these white 
bees, though, according to his practice, he 
made his own use of old lore, when he de- 
scribed, about the Candida rosa, the swarm 
of bees, che volando vede e canta : 

Le facce tutte avean di fiamma viva, 
e Tali d'oro, e Taltro tanto bianco 
che nulla neve a quel termine arriva. 33 

A story which seems to belong here, as 
involving a bee, is that of a local saint. 
There is an early saint recorded by La 
Fuente, who, like a kind of northern and 
colder Dionysus, came from eastward and 
introduced his people to cider and taught 
them to plant orchards. 34 Once, when 
Christ went about in the world with 
S. Peter, he was thirsty and plucking and 
opening an apple to eat of it, out came 
S. Andres de Teijido. It is possible that 
this astonishing adventure may be asso- 
ciated, on the other hand, with the fruits 
of Paradise, for while the apple was es- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



peciaUy sacred among the Celtic peoples, 3 5 
his shrine, in the extreme north near Cape 
Ortegal, is much sought in pilgrimage: a 
proverb says, "A S. Andres de Teijido o 
que non vai de morto vai de vivo," and a 
pretty cancidn, one of many, is this: 

Fun o Santo San Andres 
al6 n'o cabo d'o mundo, 
i solo por te ver meu santo 
tres dias hai que non durmo! 36 

The souls go likewise on pilgrimage to 
Santiago, in such multitudes that they 
lighten all the sky, for in Galicia the star 
dust of the Milky Way, that to Shelley was 
a swarm of golden bees, is held for the in- 
numerable souls that have to make that 
journey. Sr. Aribau preserves a notion cur- 
rent in Asturias, that S. James was lonely 
in his grave, that lay in the far and out 
of the way, and God said to him: " Don't 
mind, for all men born have to come and 
visit you, and those who do not come while 
they are alive, will come after death." 
In Castile, a shooting star is recognized 



241 



Surrogate 

of 
S. James 



At the end 
of the 

world 



The elder 
version 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



242 



So 

hacker as 
are lighted 



and candles 

in 
February 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



as a departed soul, bound on its long jour- 
ney, and lest it go astray the poor wander- 
ing soul is sped with a prayer, "Dios te 
guia y la Magdalena." 37 

I have quoted already the Asturian 
romance of the Alma en pena. The soul, 
it will be remembered, crossed the running 
water on rays from such a consecrated taper 
as those that send their light to them that 
sit in darkness and in the shadow of death. 

It seems that the unbaptized babes, and 
those that died unborn, see light on Candle- 
mas Day. The cigar-makers of Corunna, 
on that day, set their lights on a sprig of 
rosemary — that's for remembrance — and 
all the sacred day the little souls are not 
in darkness. In Compostella those that 
should have been Godparents, 38 strew the 
church with fragrant herbs and flowers: the 
lights avail only for the hours of Mass time, 
when, also, a dove is loosed above the altar, 
in allusion nominally to the Feast of the 
Purification, but with a further reference, 
in the dim backward and abysm of time, to 
the souls that live as singing birds in the 
tree of life. The Good Lady, Our Lady, is 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



one with Venus of the doves, the Mountain 
Mother, and she is the mother of the 
motherless in Limbo, as indeed of all living. 
This is S. Bride, Christ's fostermother, 
who passes through the Highland in Feb- 
ruary and shepherds hear the crying of 
lambs and no bleating of ewes. 39 I have 
referred already to South-German and 
Austrian legends of Frau Holde, 4 ° and the 
baby souls she keeps, like S. Juan de Ortega, 
in a great chest, and that flutter before her 
and about her as she walks, like those little 
beings with angel faces, and wings changing 
like pigeon's breasts, that flutter in a crowd 
around Mantegna's Mater Dei in the Milan 
versions. S. Ursula, who habitually shel- 
ters 1 1 ,000 little souls under her cloak, in 
Carpaccio's Glorification at Venice stands 
in the Tree of Life, and the little souls are 
clustered around at the springing of the 
leaves, like the fruit of the date palm. 

In the end, however, the poor wee babies 
shall be delivered from their long night 
time, and coming back to this earth after 
the Day of Judgement, grow up to the age 
of thirty-three years, three months, and 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



243 



S. Bride 



S. Ursula 



1 



244 



The 

Western 
Isles 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



five days. There, at the blessed age 'of 
Our Lord, they shall stay, content, forever, 
and the earth shall be like Paradise before 
Adam fell, 4 x till at last, after a greater or a 
lesser expectation, they shall come to see 
the face of God. This is the end of a story 
that was told in Galicia by a very old man, 
about forty years ago. 

It was in Spain that Sortorius heard of 
that land which lay beyond, out in the 
strange Hesperian seas, beyond the straits 
of Hercules ooer the visionary sea: 

... an ancient lawn 
Far hidden down the solemn West: 
A gracious pleasaunce of calm things. . . 
And Captains of the older time, 
Touched with mild light, or gently sleep, 
Or in the orchard shadows keep 
Old friendships of the golden prime . . . 42 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



The Long Way 

Deh, peregrini, che pensosi 

andate 
forse di cosa che non v'e 

presente, 
venite voi da si lontana 

gente?. . . . 

— Dante. 

The pilgrims, perhaps from the very first, 
had a vague notion how long was the way 
to go. In the portico of Santiago, to ex- 
plain one sculptural motive, I invoked the 
Vision of Tundall. Now the author of that 
was one Brother Marcus, an Irish monk 
who wrote it in Ratisbon about 1 148. The 
date gives time for pilgrims to bring the 
book to Santiago, for the Irish convent of 
S. James in Ratisbon was a great one 
and, as the Schottenkirche, is known to 
tourists still, if even we do not suppose 
that the story came straight from Ire- 
land by the way of commerce. But 
Spanish and Irish authorities lay some 
stress on the relation between these re- 
gions; the Knight of Rozmital believed 
that on a fine day, he had seen Ireland 
from the coast of Spain. What he did see 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



245 



Tundall's 
Vision 



1 



246 



Beyond 
the stormy 
Hebrides 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



was Atlantis, for it lay about where he 
looked. 

The grey-eyed girls, the dirty, pretty, 
saucy children, the pigs that live in inti- 
macy with their owners: — a Gallegan 
proverb says, "la lady, you a lady, who 
will drive the pig outdoors? " — all these 
have suggested to casual travellers a 
possible kinship, if not colonization, be- 
tween the west of Spain and the west of 
Ireland. The drift of folk-lore, of tale and 
use, however, set elsewhere; on the conti- 
nent, towards Armorica, and in the islands 
toward the isles of the north. Striking 
correspondence may be found, notwith- 
standing, between the lore of Asturias and 
Galicia, and that of the Hebrides and the 
Highlands, between Finisterre and Ultima 
Thule. The strangest figures of the so- 
called Fiona Macleod, the Sin-Eater, and 
the Washers of the Ford, are familiar in 
Spain under the protection of Senora Pardo 
Bazdn and D. Jose* Menendez Pidal. 

"I doubt if any now living," writes the 
Gaelic poetess, "either in the Hebrides or 
in Ireland has heard even a fragmentary 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE B OURNE 



legend of the Washer of the Ford. The 
name survives, with its atmosphere of a 
remote past, its dim ancestral memory of a 
shadowy figure of awe haunting a shadowy 
stream in a shadowy land." But in the 
Biblioteca del Folk-lore among notes taken 
down from the talk of a girl of Proaza ir 
Asturias, is the following: 

In all Asturias there are Xanas, 
who are kings' daughters and live en- 
chanted in the springs. On Midsummer 
night before dawn, they wash their 
clothes and spread them in the dew. 
Those who get up early enough can see 
them lying on the grass. They are thin 
as though no hand had touched them, 
and white like snow. x 

As in dreams one is always coming some- 
where and never arrives, one gets to the 
next-but-one corner, one hears the voices 
and smells the flowers, and then one is out 
of reach again, so in following these " clues " 
of folk-tale, one is always coming in sight of 
the place where Galicia shall be named 
roundly as the land of the dead, or the 



AND MONOGRAPHS 

— n : 



247 



The 

Washers 
of the Ford 



248 



The green 
and grassy 
track 



The pil- 
grimage of 
the soul 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



western Paradise, or the Paradise of Souls, 
and then, instead, all is away again. The 
GaUegan's notion of earth, his earth, be- 
come another Eden; Aymery Picaud's 
insistence on a fair Paradise, fountain- 
watered, beside the bourne, though his own 
wits testified to a paved square and sellers 
of trinkets and notions; ThurkiU's im- 
pression that the resting place of the blessed 
dead was upon the Calzada and within the 
Basilica; that carving of souls in a green 
Paradise, above the north-western door, 
all may stand as evidence, fragmentary, 
indeed, but indubitable, that the pilgrim- 
age of the centuries was the pilgrimage of 
the soul. Stella obscura rules the ascendant, 
the long journey of the soul is known, and 
is prepared for. On the estuaries and 
among the Atlantic rocks of the extreme 
North-west, the dead is dressed decently for 
his journey, all the village if necessary con- 
tributing, and the clothes are washed and 
ironed and mended, though they must have 
neither pins nor hooks to catch and hold 
the soul at setting out. 2 
That from very early times S. James was 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



a chthonian power, there is another bit of 
evidence, likewise fragmentary but suffi- 
cient. Already Aymery Picaud stated, it 
will be remembered, in his guide book for 
pilgrims, how on the southern front of the 
great church the Apostle stood on the right 
hand of Christ between two cypress trees. 
Now the cypress belongs to the dead and 
appears in an Orphic guide book for the 
pilgrimage of the Soul after death. On the 
leaves ot gold inscribed with direction to 
the Alma peregrine, that have been found 
in southern Italy, a white cypress stands 
beside the House of the Lord of the Dead : 

Thou shalt find to the left of the House 

of Hades a Well-spring, 
And by the side thereof standing a 

white cypress. 
To this Well-spring approach not 

near. 3 

And the tablets from Crete tell the same 
story: 

I am parched with thirst and I perish. — 
Nay, drink of Me, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



249 



Ul cupres- 
sus in 
tnontem 
Sion 



250 



The 

Cypress 

Tree 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



The Well-spring flowing forever on the 
right, where the Cypress is. 

The cypress trees are wound about with 
the vine, by reason of a passage in the 
Apocryphal Acts of S. Matthew: — 4 

For behold, I shall plant this rod in 
this place, and it shall be a sign to your 
generations, and it shall become a tree, 
great and lofty and flourishing, — and its 
fruit beautiful to the view and good to 
the sight; and the fragrance of perfumes 
shall come forth from it, and there shall 
be a vine twining round it, full of clusters, 
and from the top of it honey coming 
down, and every flying creature shall 
find covert in its branches ; and a fountain 
of water shall come forth from the roots 
of it, having swimming and creeping 
things, giving drink to all the country 
round about. 

This was in the City of the Man-eaters, 
where SS. Matthew and Andrew had been 
before: but the tree is the Tree of Life, 
much as it appears in the Zend Avesta and 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE B OURNE 



the Edda. To this day in Sicily the cypress 
is the tree of immortality, and Pitre* re- 
cords, 5 that at Salaparyta on All Souls' 
Day, children play with cypress cones and 
with branches of cypress and rosemary, and 
then return home joyfully, and this signifies 
the life of the Blessed souls. The tree 
was brought back from Syria, probably, 
into Spain, by Templars or other Crusaders, 
for on a tympanum at Castrelo, above the 
Mifio, where Templars built, the Tree and 
the Cross alternate. 6 At S. Salvador de 
Sarria the figure of the Saviour is flanked 
by two cypresses on the Mount of Trans- 
figuration, but as the present church was 
built so late there, this seems likely to be a 
back-wash from Compostella with the 
symbolism misunderstood, as Aymery in 
the twelfth century preserves another mis- 
interpretation for our warning. The west- 
ern tympanum at Santiago had long been 
destroyed, with its scene of the Transfigura- 
tion, and the Last Judgement on the south 
face was as likely to be misread by a clerk 
in the thirteenth century as by a Canon 
in the twentieth. The cypresses of the 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



251 



Crusaders 
carry 



252 



Toulouse 

copies 

Santiago 



Replacing 
Serapis and 
Isis 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Puerto, de las Platerias are the attributes of 
S. James and so, on the transept portal of 
S. Sernin at Toulouse, where the figure is 
present, there are the trees. 

Nor may it be forgotten that in some 
versions of the Legend of S. Viril of Leyre, 
he was Abbot of Samos in Galicia (being 
sent thither, say the Navarrese chroniclers, 
to reform that abbey) and it was there that 
he listened to the little brown bird that 
sang on a low-hung bough, and heard the 
music of Paradise. 7 Samos had many rela- 
tions with Santiago, some of very ancient 
date, and the figures of SS. Julian and 
Basilisa, there revered, are among the 
elder lords of the land. 

It is, in a way, confirmation of this, to 
which indeed all of this study has been 
leading up, that about Saragossa, the only 
other place in Spain which properly belongs 
to the Apostle and was the scene of an 
Epiphany, clung also rumours that belong 
to the land of the dead. An Arab geogra- 
pher of Almeria reports 8 that a light shines 
over the city always, above a tomb: Mus- 
lims say that of one of the Companions of 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



the Prophet,— Christians for "the Prophet" 
would read "the Lord. " There nothing 
wastes nor spoils, neither moth nor rust 
doth corrupt. Fruits will not decay, nor 
wheat must, as who should say : 

There everlasting spring abides and 
never-fading flowers. 

It is only in Paradise that such things are 
found, or in the tales of such strange 
travellers as Irish legend loved. 

The Singing Souls. 

. . Sino yo triste, cuytado, 
que vivo en esta prision, 
que ni si quando es de dia 
ni quando las noches son, 
sino por una avecilla 

que me cantaba al albor 

— Romance. 

From Tundall the full text has not yet 
been quoted: 

Anon he came and saw a tree 
That wonderlymickel was and high. . . . 
With all kind fruit that savoured well, 
Of divers kind and several hue, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



253 



O happy 
harbour . 



254 



Rather 
like bees 



I 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



Some white, some red, some yellow, some 

blue, 
And all manner herbs of virtue. . . . 
Many fowls of diverse colours 
Sat among the fruit and the flowers, 
On the branches singing so merrily 
And made divers melody, 
Ilk of them in his best mannere 
That song was joyful for to here. 
Tundale listened fast and laughed 
And thought that was joy enough. 
He saw under that ilk tree, 
Wonning in cells, great plenty 
Of men and women shining bright 
As gold, with all riches dight . . . 
Each one had on his head a crown 
Of gold that was of seemly fashion . . . 
And sceptres in their hand they had, 
With gold they were full richly clad 
With bright clothes of rich hue, 
As they were kings crowned new. 
So richly as they were dight 
Was never earthly man of might. 
"Then spake the angel. . . . 
And said: This tree [signifies Holy 

Church]. 1 

On the doorway the souls sit up among 
the leaves, the saints and prophets stand 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



below, against the jambs, and all is blazing 
with yellow, red and blue, green and gold. 
Nothing else gives quite so sharp a vision 
of what such work looked like when it was 
still new. 

These singing souls appear elsewhere 
twice and may here be dealt with: one is 
in the fifteenth-century rendering ot S. 
Peter Damian's Ad Perennis Vitae Fontem, 
but the Elizabethan is responsible for their 
manifestation. The hymn begins "Hieru- 
salem, my happy home " and is signed 
P. B. D., and the passage is this: 

Quite through the streets with silver 
sound 

The flood of life doth flow, 
Upon whose banks on every side 

The wood of life doth grow. 

Those trees forevermore bear fruit 

And evermore do spring; 
There evermore the angels sit, 

And evermore do sing. 2 

That there can be no question that the 
singers in the trees, in spite of Dante and 
P. B. D., are souls and not angels, is shown 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



255 



S. Peter 
Damian 

and 
S.Perpetua 



256 



The 

Deathless 
Adven- 
turer 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



by a. set of episodes in the famous Irish 
Voyages. 

In the Vision of Adamnan, which may be 
of the ninth century, occurs the following: 
"This, then, is the preaching which Elijah 
is wont to make to the souls of the righteous 
under the Tree of Life in Paradise. Now 
when Elijah opens the book for the preach- 
ing, then come the souls of the righteous 
in the shape of bright white birds, to him 
from every point." 3 The same birds, 
beating their wings till blood-drops fall, 
come again in the Voyage of Snegdus, 
where in an island was a great tree with 
beautiful birds on its branches: melodious 
was the music of these birds a-singing 
psalms and canticles. 4 In the Voyage 
of Bran, the birds sing the Hours: 

An ancient tree is there with blossoms 
On which birds call to the Hours. 
'Tis in harmony it is their wont 
To call together every Hour. 5 .. 

In the Voyage of Maelduin it is told: "As 
they went from that place they heard in 
the north-east a great cry and chaunt, as it 



HISPANIC NOTE£ 



THE BOURNE 



were a singing of psalms. That night and 
the next day till Nones they were rowing 
that they might know that cry or chaunt 
they heard. They beheld a high mountain- 
ous island, full of birds, black and dim and 
speckled, shouting and speaking loudly. 
The next island contained many trees and 
birds and a man whose clothing was his 
hair. He said: "The birds whom thou be- 
holdest in the trees are the souls of my 
children and my kindred, both men and 
women, who are yonder awaiting Dooms- 
day. The next island had a golden ram- 
part about it . . . there was also a mar- 
vellous fountain, which on Wednesdays 
and Fridays yields water, on Sundays milk, 
but on feast days wine. . . ." 6 

In the Voyage of S. Brendan, the party 
comes to the Paradise of birds and the 
leader "flies down, his wings sounding like 
bells, and perches on the prow of Brendan's 
ship, and tells him they are angels who fell 
with Lucifer, but who refused to join with 
him in distinct rebellion. ... He re- 
joins the other birds, and as the Hours go 
by, they chant all the service." 7 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



257 



S. Brendan 



258 



Cockle- 
shells and 
cockle- 
burrs 



The land 
whence 
none 
returns 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Now the Voyages of Maelduin and S. 
Brendan are reckoned to come somewhere 
between the ninth and the twelfth cen- 
tury, and Kuno Meyer will have that of 
Bran as early as the seventh. 8 There was 
every chance for pilgrims to have heard 
about them, and to tell of them, one to 
another, while they waited for mass in the 
church, or for food-time at the convent 
door, or for sleep in the crowded hospice. 
The pilgrim is your great disseminator of 
lore, as birds are carriers of seeds. By the 
time he gets home and tells the marvels he 
has seen, and the marvels he has heard, to 
those in his own land, who can tell the one 
from the other? There inside the fair wall 
of the church, there close beside the mar- 
vellous fountain, angelic voices sing the 
Hours, and up in the green and gold of the 
carved leafage above the entrance door, 
sit little souls that sing as well. Critics 
are agreed that the Voyages belong some- 
how with that last long voyage that lies 
before all of us, to the land whence none 
returns, to the world of souls, and the voy- 
age, and the Western Isle, and the Hollow 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Land, and the road that goes to Hell, are 
confused in men's minds as the recollec- 
tions of a tired child at nightfall. 



The Bridge of Dread. 

. . . Ytenla 
Un tan estrecho puente, 
Que era una linea no mds t 
Y ella tan delgada y debit, 
Que a mi no me parecio 
Que sin quebrantarla, pudiese 
pasarla. 

— Calder6n. 

To explain the singing souls among the 
leaves, it was necessary to invoke one of the 
most famous instances in mediaeval litera- 
ture of those Visions of Heaven and Hell 
that beset men's minds. The jocular 
friar in the square getting ready to send 
around the bag, and the terrible monk in 
the darkening church thundering of the 
Doom, alike rehearsed them till the stages 
of that awful journey were as well known, 
the geography of that sad place as fixed, 
as the route of the Jerusalem pilgrims, or 
of those of Rome or Compostella. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



*59 



Apoca- 
lypses and 
P Merino ges 



260 



Hay 

caminos y 
destinos 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



"I knew," so the preacher would intro- 
duce the passage, "of a presumptuous 
monk who went to purify a church: he 
fasted three days, then fell asleep, and his 
soul was taken up by angels through the 
roof of the church." By the way, the 
beginning of the vision was that "he saw 
the church in which he was, all alight, and 
yet there was still a part of the night " un- 
spent: with which may be compared a 
similar experience not infrequent in San- 
tiago: 

. . . Thereupon he is let down north- 
ward into a great glen. It seemed 
as long to him as if he saw from the 
rising of the sun to its setting. He sees a 
great pit, as it were the mouth of a cave 
between two mountains, which they 
entered above. For a long time they 
went along the cave, till they came to a 
great high black mountain before them 
at the mouth of Hell, and a large glen 
in the upper part of the mountain. This 
was the nature of that glen: it was broad 
below, narrow above. That cave was 
the door of Hell, and its porch. And he 



HISPANIC NOTES 



i 



THE BOURNE 



saw the folk of the Island, whomsoever 
of them were, when in the body, under 
the displeasure of God. They were in the 
middle of the glen, wailing. . . . There- 
upon the man's soul went into Hell itself, 
even a sea of fire with an unspeakable 
storm and unspeakable waves upon it. 
And he saw the souls aflame in that sea, 
and their heads all above it, and they 
wailing and lamenting, crying woe with- 
out ceasing, through the ages. . . . x 

That is pretty fine, even read in transla- 
tion, and when a grand voice rolled it out 
in the bitter November dusk, or through 
the howling of March winds outside, it 
would not be forgotten, even when Advent 
resolutions and Lenten repentances were 
mouldered with the dead leaves of youth. 
The mountain looms at the end of a road 
that begins in fair country, with raspberry 
bushes along the way to pick from as you 
walk. Suddenly, as when Childe Roland 
comes to the dark tower, there is the glen: 

From thence a deep dale shalt thou have 
Up unto the Mount. . . . 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



261 



de perpetua 
maldicidn 



262 


WAY OF S.JAMES 




High hills, and of the Spains see a cry: 
The noise is full grievous, pardie! 2 




Ask the man what that noise is, he looks 




foolish. He does not know what he is 




talking about.. Ask other pilgrims, then: 


The sea 
and the 
waves roar- 
ing . . . 


Quand nous fumes au Mont-Etuve 

Avions grand froid, 
Ressentimes si grand froidure 

Quej'entremblais. . . . 
Quand nous fumes au Pont-qui-tremble 

Bien etonnes 
De nous voir entre deux montagnes 

Si oppresses, 
D'ouir les ondes de la mer 

En grande tourmente: 
Compagnons, nous faut cheminer 

Sails' faire demeuranoe. 3 




Owain Miles had felt that cold: 


^ 


Le pais fut orrible et grand, — 
le vent fut dur et anguissant; 
oncques sa vie n'eut si grand froid, 4 




He had gone down "par une mult gran 
vallee," and there had heard "pleurs et 


I 


HISPANIC NOTES 



Master Matthew s Porch 



THE BOURNE 



pleintes crians merci, . . . les pleints et les 
piteux cris." There the land was "noir et 
obscur," and the wind that blows between 
the worlds pierced and tortured him. 

Aqui el viento que coma 
Penetraba sutilmente 
Los miembros, aguda espada 
Era el suspiro mas de*bil, s 

writes Calderon, in his mannered, courtly 
style adapted to destroy conviction even 
when a good image is offered: not so the 
homely pilgrims : 

Quand nous fumes au Mont Etuve 
Qui est si f roid et si rude 
Et fait plusieurs coeurs dolents. . . . 
Quand nous fumes au Pont-qui-tremble 
Nous 6tions bien vingt ou trente, 
Tant Frangais comme Allemans; 
Nous nous disions Tun a l'autre, 
Compagne, marche devant. 6 

The Purgatory of S. Patrick which Sir 
Owain thus visited, was well known in 
Spain: Alfonso X made a Romance of it, 
and Calderon a play, though in truth the 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



263 



. . . Men's 
hearts fail- 
ing them 
for fear 



1 



264 



Para los 
hombres 
cabales 



todos son 

buenos 

caminos 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



play evades the subject until the last 
possible moment and then despatches it in 
a single set speech. 

Owain Miles had to make his fearful 
journey because of a sin he had committed, 
and he paid for it on the way. He was, in 
short, in the same case with those souls in 
Galicia whose accomplishment after death 
of what they neglected in life, is set for a 
sign across the night sky. He crossed the 
Bridge of Dread, and he came to Paradise, 
in the end, as one comes to a church door: 
in the high wall a door opened a little and 
a sweet smell blew out, and then came a 
procession of ecclesiastics richly vested, 
bishops, monks, canons, friars, and after 
them the laity. They bore banners and 
branches of golden palm trees. 7 But in- 
side that wall was the garden of Paradise, 
and in the midst the Tree of Life. 8 

The whole of the Apocrypha seems to 
have been especially familiar to Spaniards: 
the early church in the west suffered 
martyrdom for it. A frequent source, even 
if not the first, among these Visions, was 
that attributed to S. Paul, in Greek of the 



HISPANIC N OTES 



THE BOURNE 



fourth century. S. Paul after being up- 
lifted above the earth, and seeing, as in the 
Porch at Moissac and the capitals at Car- 
ri6n, the deathbeds of the righteous and 
the unjust, looks upon Heaven. Outside 
the gate of heaven stands a fruitless tree. 
He goes down into Hell, and after that he 
visits the Earthly Paradise, "sees the 
World tree with the four great rivers of 
Paradise gushing from its roots: he sees the 
Tree of Knowledge and the Tree of Life." 9 
Only in a later redaction does the Bridge of 
Dread figure. 10 

About 594, Gregory the Great had given 
the first Christian testimony to a bridge, 
but the theme was seized upon; Tundall 
had had to take two bridges: the second 
was spiked, and only a hand-breadth wide, 
and monsters waited in the lake to snap up 
whosoever should fall: 



He saw none that brig might pass 
But a priest that a palmer was, 
A palm in his hand he had 
And in a slavyn he was clad 
Right as he on earth had gone. 11 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



265 



Apocalypse 
of Paul 



I 



266 



The Bridge 
of Dread 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Scott quotes, from a MS. in the Advo- 
cate's Library, the essay of Sir Owain: 

This the Brigg of Paradise 

Thereover thou must go. . . . 
Owain beheld the brigge swert 
The water thereunder black and swert. 

And sore him gar to drede. . . . 
The brigge was as high as a tour, 
And as sharp as a razour, 

And narrow it was also, 
And the water that there ran under 
Brennd o' lightning and of thunder 

That thought him mickel woe." 

This is the "Brig o' Dread, na braider 
than a thread," of the Lyke-Wake Dirge 13 
preserved by Aubrey in his Remains 1 * as 
he had heard it in Yorkshire in the seven- 
teenth century, and as Scott printed it, 
substantially the same, in the Minstrelsy. z s 
By the same bridge the brother and sister 
pass into hell in Andrew Lang's translation 
of a French folk-song. It reads : 

They danced across the Bridge of Death 

Above the black water, 
And the marriage bell was tolled in hell 

For the souls of him and her. 16 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



In the former poem, as in Persian and 
Arab tale, the bridge, though it must be 
crossed, does not lead necessarily to hell. 
For S. Bona it led to Santiago. For Sir 
Lancelot and Sir Gawain, in the Conte de 
la Charette, it leads to the land whence none 
returns, where Guenevere must be sought. 
It is a bare sword's edge, 1 7 for the one, for 
the other, the Pont-qui-trethble of Manier, 
more than half submerged. Finally in the 
Regtdae Amoris of Andre* le Chapelain, "il 
vacillait et etait souvent submerge* par 
les flots." 18 In this tale a knight who is 
seeking Arthur to learn the laws of love, 
goes certainly to his realm after death, and 
finds him enthroned much like Cormac in 
Tundall's vision, but better off. The con- 
dition and name of the land that lies be- 
yond, let Gaston Paris pronounce, for he 
speaks as one having authority, and not as 
the scribe. 

Lancelot crossed the Bridge of Dread, to 
see* Guenevere in the land of the dead. 
"The land of the dead played a great r61e 
in ancient Celtic beliefs, and the informa- 
tion about the Gauls that the writers of 



267 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Blessed 
souls were 
at the 
Bridge 



268 



Celts, says 
Shelley, for 
Jugo-Slavs 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



antiquity have left, testify no less than the 
most authentic documents of Irish poetry." 
"The Celts represented the abode of the 
dead as an island situated in the west 
which was at the same time the abode of 
the blessed. There, under a sky always 
mild, heroes grew not old. 19 . . ." Guene- 
vere's Maying, which has dropped out of 
the story of Chretien, is a Celtic trait and 
recalls the Slavonian pilgrims, who for 
May Day, put garlands on their heads. 
This provokes on the one hand, a reminis- 
cence of Owain Miles who saw the pro- 
cession of bishops that came out smelling 
of incense and "bearing banners and 
branches of golden palm trees." But it 
is older than that, for these green branches 
grew by the gates of Paradise. When to 
the Wife of Usher's Well her three sons 
came, 

Their hats were of the birk: 
It neither grew in syke not ditch 

Nor yet in ony sclough; 
But at the Gates of Paradise 

That birk grew fair eneugh. 



HISPANIC NOTES 






THE BOURNE 



Scott quotes, as a gloss on these lines, from 
the Maase Book, the case of a returned 
ghost, Jewish, who says: "I wear the 
garland to the end that the wind of the 
world may not have power over me, for it 
consists of excellent herbs of Paradise." 30 
If it is, on the other hand, like all Maying, 
a spell to secure fertility for their far-off 
fields and gardens, then, like the ceremonies 
of Candlemas, it seems to offer more than 
a bare vestige of earlier worship than the 
Christian of S. James, in the city of the 
hollow hill. If indeed Frau Holde was dis- 
possessed by the warrior buried there, or 
was merged- in the Celtic Proserpine, yet 
she has out-lived, everywhere else in Spain, 
every other devotion. 

This warrior's grave, whence the dead 
hero comes out, in time of need, is not a 
Celtic element, but Scandinavian; so, the 
lights that burn above the barrow, the 
wind that rushes out on who would violate 
the hero's bed. Of souls that pass across 
the sky, moreover, I can recall no certain 
instance in Celtic lore, * 1 but there Wotan 
leads his warriors and the Wild Huntsman 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



269 



Windo* 
the world 



as at 
Verona 



270 



Lay of 
Helgi 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



his train, and Helgi returns with his host in 
that wild lay that chills the flesh and thrills 
the blood: 



Is it a mere phantom that . I think I 
see, or is the Doom of the Powers come? 
Can dead men ride? Ye are pricking 
your steeds with the spur! Or have ye 
been granted leave to come home? 

It is no mere phantom that thou 
thinkest thou seest, nor is it the end of 
the world, though we prick our steeds 
with the spur, but we have been granted 
leave to come home. Come out, O 
Sigrun from Sevafell, if thou desirest to 
see thy lord. The barrow is opened, 
Helgi is come. The sword prints are 
gory on him. The king bids thee come 
to stay the bleeding of his wounds. It is 
time for me to ride along the reddening 
roads, to let my fallow steed tread the 
paths of air. I must be west of Wind- 
helm's bridge before chantecler awakes 
the mighty host. 32 

In this aspect, for the only time, San- 
tiago is found on the hither side of the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



bridge, where quick and dead must part. 
An old rhyme says: 

On all Souls' night, on London Bridge, 
The quick and dead together walk, 
The quick and dead together talk. 

This matter of the Bridge of Dread, as I 
see it, may be summed up in ten lines, and 
affords an instance of the way folk-lore 
lives on: (i) The Bridge of Dread enters 
formal literature under ecclesiastical sanc- 
tion, in such Visions as those of Paul, Tun- 
dall, Owain, and Thurkill. The last has 
a very special bearing on Santiago. (2) 
They owe the circumstance to a body of 
legendary and religious doctrine, half- 
myth, half-dogma, Persian, Arab, and 
Norse, for the most part. (3) It haunts 
men's minds, and (a) appears in popular 
literature, which is precisely not tnttier de 
clergi, like "This ae night," Lang's "Bridge 
of Death," and the refrdn about London 
Bridge; and also it (b) intrudes in conscious 
literature sometimes unaware, sometimes 
half aware, sometimes when the only un- 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



271 



Out of the 
East 



272 



Literature, 
conscious 
and un- 
conscious 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



awareness is that it was not wholly voli- 
tional; for instance in Dante, Chrestien de 
Troyes, Andre* le Chapelain, and Bojardo. 
The loveliest work of d'Annunzio and of 
Maeterlinck illustrates what was said 
about the intrusion of folk-lore where the 
author is under the delusion that he selected 
his material. 23 (4) The Bridge, finally, is 
discovered on the Way of S. James in the 
journeys of S. Bona and Manier, and the 
Chansons de Pelerins. 

When the soul, by a curious variant on 
the motive of the Bridge of Dread, passes a 
flowing stream on rays from consecrated 
tapers, 24 with that water a Celtic element 
re-enters; for the problem is that which 
the souls meet on the Breton coast; by 
waking up a fisherman to ferry them over. 2 s 
This exactly corresponds to Manier's de- 
scription of the Pont-qui-Trenible: 

Of a Sunday we came to the little 
town so famous as the site of the quaking 
bridge (pont-qui-tremble). The city is on 
the seashore, one of the places most 
perilous and anxious in all the Spains. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE B OURNE 



The passage costs two cuartos, that is a 
sol. Ittakesahalf-hourtopass. It is at 
least half a quarter-league across. There 
must be at least fifty persons, and they 
go in a great boat built for the purpose, 
which is rowed. You see the frightful 
waves of the sea dash into the air, one 
against the other, that seem to menace 
you with ruin, besides the horrible noise 
they make. They shake the boat you 
are in, they drop the boat down between 
two waves as if it were falling down a 
precipice, when you think the waves 
are swallowing you up. Then another 
hastily dashes you up as if on a mountain. 
That is what happens through all the 
passage, which gives you hideous terrors 
so that you think every moment will be 
your last. That is why — because of the 
danger — that this passage is called the 
quaking bridge. 26 

Procopius tellsthesamestoryof thefisher- 
man, and I extract the account, like others 
before me, from an admirable version: 

I have read, [says Scott's figure, 
preluding the passage,] in the volumes 
of the learned Procopius, that the people 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



273 



An eight- 
eenth 
century 
euhemerist 



274 



•■ Going 
West" 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



separately called Normans and Angles 
are in truth the same race, and that Nor- 
mandy, sometimes so called, is in fact a 
part of a district of Gaul. Beyond, and 
nearly opposite, but separated by an arm 
of the sea, lies a ghastly region, on which 
clouds and tempest for ever rest, and 
which is well known to its continental 
neighbours as the abode to which de- 
parted spirits are sent after this life. 
On one side of the strait dwell a few 
fishermen, men possessed of a strange 
charter, and enjoying singular privileges, 
in consideration of their being the living 
ferrymen who, performing the office of 
the heathen Charon, carry the spirits of 
the departed to the island which is their 
residence after death. At the dead of 
night, these fishermen are, in rotation, 
summoned to perform the duty by which 
they seem to hold the permission to re- 
side on this strange coast. A knock is 
heard at the door of his cottage who holds 
the turn of this singular service, sounded 
by no mortal hand. A whispering, as of 
a decaying breeze, summons the ferry- 
man to his duty. He hastens to his bark 
on the seashore, and has no sooner 



HISPANIC NOTES 



k 



THE B OURNE 



launched it than he perceives its hull 
sink sensibly into the water, so as to 
express the weight of the dead with whom 
it is filled. No form is seen, and though 
voices are heard, yet the accents are un- 
distinguishable, as of one who speaks in 
his sleep. Thus he traverses the strait 
between the continent and the island, 
impressed with the mysterious awe 
which affects the living when they are 
conscious of the presence of the dead. 
They arrive upon the opposite coast, 
where the cliffs of white chalk form a 
strange contrast with the eternal dark- 
ness of the atmosphere. They stop at a 
landing-place appointed, but he disem- 
barks not, for the land is never trodden by 
earthly feet. Here the passage-boat is 
gradually lightened of its unearthly in- 
mates, who wander forth in the way ap- 
pointed to them, while the mariner 
slowly returns to his own side of the 
strait having performed for the time this 
singular service, by which these ferrymen 
hold their fishing-huts and their posses- 
sions on that strange coast. 27 

Sr. Murguia will have it that S. James 
himself, Apostolus peregrinus, was involved 



*75 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Blind as 
the fool's 
heart . . 



276 



A House 
of Dreams 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



in an adventure rather like the Voyages of 
Bran and Maelduin, and cites in evidence 
a relief at Caldas de Reyes, where the bark 
of S. James is guided by a figure half -girl, 
half-swan. 28 Caldas de Reyes is full of 
Roman remains and folk-lore; it figures 
also in the Miracles of Our Lady collected 
by el Key Sabio, 2 9 it was, in short, a seat of 
dreams. Furthermore, at Mugia, near 
Finisterre, where in 1446 was shown the 
bark in which Christ and his Mother came 
over-sea, you have the real Irish sea-faring 
adventure. 

The situation stands, then, thus: that 
there was an actual pilgrimage made by 
historical figures and plain people, extend- 
ing over many centuries, we admit freely. 
But notwithstanding, all popular (as dis- 
tinguished from courtly or scholarly) 
accounts of the journey which have sur- 
vived, are made out of well-known elements 
of literature and folk-lore: the Bridge of 
Dread, the Passage Perilous, the Pit of 
Hell, the crowded ferry, the Paradise at 
the journey's end, the fresh and perennial 
fountain, the singing at the Canonical 



HISPAN IC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Hours, the souls in trees, the voyage over- 
sea. Nay more, the present writer, if the 
reader will recall, rode up to the bridge 
and could not cross (for it was broken 
down) and had to be ferried over, as Lance- 
lot very nearly came to be; and thereafter, 
the next day, crossed Whinny Moor in that 
mist which is the souls of the dead, pressing 
close about, as Breton fishers know. 3 ° 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



277 



Souls in 
the fog 



I 



278 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



VII 



THE ASIAN GOD 



Magni deindeftlii tonitrui, 
Adepti fulgent prece matris indytae, 
Utrique vitae culminis insignia: 
Regens Joannes dextra solus Asiam 
Ejusque frater potitus Spaniam. 
— Mozarabic Office . 



The Romans, who lived always on good 
terms with their dead, have left inscrip- 
tions that testify to the presence, before 
Christianity, of las dnitnas. The Reverend 
F. Fita publishes 1 a stone of the third cen- 
tury which commemorates the apparition 
and good counsel of a dead husband; and 
Hubner publishes the memorial of a like 
apparition among the Lusitanian stones. 2 
In Roman days as in Catholic, the dead 
came back to ask for prayers and sacrifices, 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



for rosaries and Masses. An altar found at 
Cordova only a few years ago is dedicated 
to the Gates of Dream, or rather to the 
twin gates, 3 and on the sides are carved the 
cup and platter consecrated to the Com- 
munion of the deified dead. A lady, Cal- 
purnia Abana Aeboso, being inspired by a 
dream, vows an altar to the nymphs of the 
waters and raises it duly, 4 in the western 
regions; twenty-eight such dedications are 
included in the Corpus and in the same 
parts was found the mosaic of Hylas and 
the nymphs, who are the Xanas of Astu- 
rias, s the Washers of the Fords. 

We have seen already what good soil is 
this land of S. James for all manner of vague 
inherited beliefs, dim awareness of other 
than human presence, natural magic in the 
employment of spells and charms, religious 
ritual employed in precisely the same way. 
Warde Fowler remarks that the Romans 
associated divinity "with force and activity 
which could be brought by due propitiation 
into the service of man.' 16 To acquire 
merit by rosaries and litanies, fastings and 
vigils, gifts for las dnimas, is to have that 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



279 



The Gates 
of Dream 



Hylas and 

the 
Nymphs 



280 



Latins 
logical 
minded 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



merit afterwards at hand, like electricity 
in a storage battery. The logic of this 
position is impregnable and is merciless. 
It is not in the least Celtic. The most 
striking trait common to all Celtic lore is 
its indifference to logic and to what we 
fondly call the law of causation. In the 
Mabinogeon anything might follow as easily 
as anything else; in the Voyage of Bran the 
various islands are interchangeable; in the 
Lais of Marie de France, moral responsibil- 
ity has evaporated. The Irish stories of 
rebirth will illustrate this: to make a man 
his own grandson, except as a comic motive, 
would be difficult to a logical-minded 
people, 7 to a Latin-minded people. 

Celtic elements there are in this mass of 
Gallegan lore, and other elements which, 
if they were not installed earlier on the site 
than the Celtic, or imported by Roman 
legionaries and officials, are still common to 
other European stocks, Germanic or Sla- 
vonic : the journey of the soul, the Bridge of 
Dread, the passage among the stars— which, 
with the weighing, are all Asiatic at one 
or two or three removes. 8 But it seems 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



possible that the Romans as Latins count 
for more than hitherto was reckoned, 
throughout the spiritual and aesthetic his- 
tory of the Spanish people. The magnifi- 
cent development of the State portrait, 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth century, 
supplies one example of a legacy, possible 
and far, tempering and determining the 
spirit through a century and a half of the 
Renaissance. Another is that devotion to 
the family ghosts which has been shown to 
exist and to take visible form, from the 
bee-hive in the back garden to the sepul- 
tados at Sahagun, from the tomb of the 
Scipios to that of the Escorial. Consider 
the pantheons of all the kings of all the 
Spains, and Veremund carrying with him, 
as he fell back before Almanzor, the ashes 
of his house, and the altars of his race. 
Then recall the similar pantheons that the 
great families maintained, Ponseca at 
Coca, Gomez at Carrion, Carderera at 
Poblet. Consider how apt is a phrase 
like the following, to express the Span- 
ish temper in the greatest ages: — "Of 
these was the worship of the family, which 



AN D MONOGRAPHS 



281 



Portrait 
busts of 
Rome 



The ances- 
tral Ghosts 



Worship 
of the 
family 



1 



282 



Sol In- 
victus 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



continued to express in some degree the 
inheritance of a traditional animism, pass- 
ing at one or two points into something 
near akin to what we call divinity." 9 
Yet that was written of the Romans of 
Rome. Lastly the figure of the thauma- 
turge, of Santiago himself, is more than a 
little Latin. 

The figure of S. James is doubtless to be 
identified with that of Sol Sanctissimus, 
the Sol Invictus of Roman state worship. 
The QueenElvira called him invictissimus. 10 
His feast is kept as near as could be man- 
aged to the solstitial pause, his authentic 
legend is crammed with solar machinery, 
from the oxen of the Sun to the wolf who 
lent an epithet in Greek to Apollo, \vkiqi , x l 
and who stands for the sun in the Galle- 
gan legend that God condemned the moon 
to wander by night and to be eaten up by the 
wolf. 12 He is also the tribal Hero, the great 
first Lord, and Luke of Tuy's story is as old 
and as spirit-stirring as the Lay of Helgi. 
Even in the monkish version the kingly figure 
armed at all points like a warrior does more 
than announce the victory, he is on his way 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



southward to win it, he has got up out of his 
grave to fight for Spain; as on that other 
night in Leon, when likewise the other tribal 
heroes awoke and arose, and the Cid and 
Fernan Gonzalez came to call the great 
Ferdinand for the morrow's battle. 

S. James on his huge white horse at the 
battle of Clavijo is a figure not unfamiliar, 
not unparalleled. So looked the champion 
in Paul the Deacon's story how — 

Ariulf , after the victory at Camerino, 
inquired of his men whom that man 
was that he had seen fighting so vigor- 
ously in the war he had waged, and 
protecting him in every moment of 
danger, and said, "Surely I saw another 
man there much and in every way better 
than I." But no one else had seen him. 
Now when they drew near to Spoleto 
the Duke asked whose was that spacious 
abode he saw, meaning the church of 
the blessed martyr S. Savinus, invoked 
by those who went to war against their 
enemies: and when men told him, he, yet 
being a heathen, asked, "How can a dead 
man help the living." But he went into 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



283 



The White 
Horseman 



1 



r 



284 



A High 
god 



WAY OF S.JAMES 

the church with the rest and while they 
were at prayer he stared about and recog- 
nized in the figure of the saint his pro- 
tector in the battle, swearing to it with 
an oath. 13 

So looked, likewise, the Twin Brethren 
at the battle of the Lake. 

The Latin heroes of the Tuscan land 
appear and vanish away again, supplanted 
by the stable, the hieratic figure of the 
Imperator, 14 but in the farthest west of 
the Iberian land the great Knight lives on 
and gathers up into his own being, at need, 
all the tribal devotions, all the regional 
potencies and powers, and thence goes 
forth to confute the outlander, to expel the 
alien, to overthrow the invader. /Santiago 
y Cierra Espanal is the unforgotten word. 
S. James is Spain. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 


285 


The Constant Worship. 

Religions change but the 
cult remains the same. 

— Goblet d'Alviella. 

• 

So much, every traveller in Spain might 
see: but the matter need not be left here. 
There is evidence for whoever cares to seek 
it out, that the immemorial worship has 
never changed in the city of the hollow 
hill, 1 and that when successive religions 
overflowed the land, and ruled therein, 
and again after a while they were no more, 
yet the same lights burned on unquenched 
above the same shrine. 

Before entering upon a consideration, 
however brief, of cults in Spain that pre- 
ceded the Christian, where proof is intended 
and evidence is obligatory, a word must be 
said about the difficulty of obtaining evi- 
dence. The Spaniard, isolated in his 
peninsula at the world's end, ringed about 
by the waves of the sea and the heights of 
the Pyrenees, receiving everything and 
giving up nothing,' has been in the eyes of 
Europe a figure picturesque but quite 


One 

devotion 

atone 

shrine 


AND MONOGRAPHS 


1 



286 



Spain little 
known 



The 

argument 
from 
silence 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



strange. He is often reproached with his 
aloofness from others: their neglect, it 
might be fairer to call it. The single 
volume of the Corpus devoted to Spanish 
inscriptions makes a poor showing, yet 
Hubner kept up his Spanish correspond- 
ence, and few scholars so much as he have 
reckoned with Spain. Cumont in Les 
Religions Orientates, as in the Textes ei 
Monuments, shows a pleasant and friendly 
enthusiasm in his attitude to Spain, but 
little knowledge at command: Toutain, 
in Les Cultes Paiens, betrays a sulky deter- 
mination to belittle and explain away what- 
ever he has encountered. In truth, while 
on the one hand he abuses of set purpose 
the argument from silence, and for his 
own ends prefers to admit no evidence as 
to the antique world that is not cut on a 
stone and printed in the Corpus, yet on 
the other hand his knowledge of other 
sources is sadly limited. Gaul he knows, 
and the German frontier, because he is a 
Frenchman, and Africa because he was 
there once, and a little about Lusitanian 
cults because the book of Leite de Vascon- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



cellos 9 somehow fell into his hands alter 
Cumont had taken him sharply to task 
for his limited resources and restricted 
range. But for the rest, he feels still that 
what is not in the Corpus he can deny 
altogether, and what is found there he can 
usually explain away, and the upshot for 
the reader, of the three volumes so far 
published, is a discouraged sense that 
nobody of importance worshipped any- 
thing. 

Heiss, in Les Monnaies Antiques de 
I'Espagne, though he published superb 
plates of coins from the east coast and the 
south, stopped there, or nearly. Of the 
Conventus Asturum he says that Pliny 
names 22 peoples with a population of 
240,000 free men, and he shows two coins 
from Lancia: of the Conventus Lucensis, 
though it had 16 peoples and 166,000 free 
men, though therein lay Caldas de Reyes, 
Iria, Corunna, he has not a coin, yet 
there are plenty at Lugo, I am assured, 
and Murguia published, to prove one point, 
four from these parts. 3 Of the Conventus 
BracorensiSj Heiss knew of 24 cities and 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



287 



Heiss's 
coins 



288 



In the 
Ebro basin 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Fine ex- 
amples in 
Toledo 
Museum 



175,000 free men in Pliny's day, yet not a 
coin! 4 Notwithstanding, there is more to 
be learned about Roman Spain from this 
book than any other European .work that 
I have encountered. 

Prom it a few generalizations may be 
drawn, premising that other types than those 
relevant to the present argument are rarely 
enumerated. Throughout the Ebro basin, 
we find the horse alone, or with a rider 
(sometimes armed, of tener in a light native 
jerkin) and ridden with a halter and not 
a bit, as Spanish countrymen ride today, — 
excepting in the south, where sometimes 
a curb-bridle and two reins may be made 
out. At Lerida and elsewhere 5 a crescent 
or a star often hangs over it; at times 
the jinete rides with a palm; on other 
coins the gaunt wolf appears, or a wolf's 
head. At Jelsa, 6 near the Roman bridge 
of Celsa, are found the horse, the horseman, 
the bull, and the ploughman ploughing 
with a yoke of oxen, who certainly in this 
case is a peasant and not a priest. At 
Huesca, 7 the horseman has a lance on both 
Celtiberian and Roman coins, at Cala- 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



horra 8 both lance and palm are found, and 
superb bulls or bull's heads. At Cascante, 9 
on the Celtiberian coins, while the reverse 
of four coins shows the horseman or the 
horse, on the obverse may be seen, beside 
the head, the poor crooked plough. .At 
Bilbilis, 10 near Calatayud, the horseman 
either carries a levelled lance, like one 
running a tilt, or, as on a beautiful Augustan 
type, raises the weapon to spear a fallen 
enemy. On two, thunderbolts appear. 
From Belsinum, x * mentioned by Ptolemy, 
which is near Borja, comes a set of types in 
which the horseman raises his arm to 
brandish a short sword, curved in two 
instances. Saragossa, z a being the Colony 
of Caesar-Augusta, has the ploughman or 
priest shaking out his whip over the yoked 
oxen, and a very fine winged thunderbolt 
as reverse to a Divus Augustus Pater. 
Temples are on other Saragossan coins, 
and legionary ensigns, and a grand con- 
secrated bull. Here, then, at one seat of 
the cult of Santiago, and in particular 
Santiago Matamoros, all his particular 
attributes and cult figures preceded him. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



289 



The 
horseman 



thunder- 
bolts 



the bull 



r 



*- 



290 



S. Isidor 
Labrador a 
surrogate 
of Santiago 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Her pi 



or 
double-axe 



I include of course, S. Isidore the Plough- 
man, as sufficiently demonstrated, I hope, 
in the chapter and section on Doctor 
Egregius. 

At Corufia del Conde, x 3 in Old Castile, 
the- jinete and the bull are found, with a 
boar, and from that same region, at Salas 
de los Infantes, came the fine relief of the 
horseman on a Roman tombstone: 14 on 
a curious coin of Agreda 15 (in the north 
of Soria, close to the frontier) the horse- 
man bears a sickle, which on three of 
Olbega looks more like the herpt of Jupi- 
ter Dolichenus; at Sasamon he carries a 
trident, at Lancia 16 it is more like Sam- 
son's jawbone of an ass. In a type at 
Arsa again the weapon might be a corrup- 
tion of the Minoan double-axe: some- 
times, in this region between Castile and 
Leon, it is a hammer, again corrupted into 
what Heiss calls a missile weapon but which 
in all its variants might be still the double- 
axe. It must be remembered that Spanish 
coin-types of the south are often marked by 
Phoenician traits and others yet earlier, in- 
disputably Cretan: with Hercules, 17 Ca- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



bii i, x 8 and the homed altar, z 9 they show a 
sphinx, 30 the labyrinth, and Europa" on 
the bull. a 3 All influences are possible: but 
in these parts of Old Castile there are 
fewer traces of what we are concerned 
with. On coins at Tricio, 3 3 close to Najera, 
on the other hand, the horseman levels the 
lance. Many of the coins of Acci, which 
is Guadix,* 4 show magnificent legionary 
standards and the eagle perched between, 
or two eagles; now Acci was named Julia 
Gemella. One regrets the absence of the 
type from Legio VII Gemina, for the sake 
of comparison. Were the twin-legions, later, 
devoted to S. James because he was a twin? 
In the Conventus Cartaginensis 2$ there are 
horsemen with palms, and others with 
lances, as well as horses riderless, and it is 
at Iliberi, 20 near Granada, that we find 
the rider in flying cloak and round targe, 
and sometimes two horses. The types of 
Menda* 7 are chiefly trophies of arms, or 
the ploughman, or the city gate, a temple, 
or an altar with many horns: but nothing 
so fine as those in the east. Other coin- 
types of the south glory in its fruitfulness, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



291 



Cretan 
elements 



Twin 
legions 



292 



The bull 
Apis 



The « 

Iberian 

horseman 



. . . with 
him there 
was a 

ploughman 
was his 
brother " 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



with the wheat-ear, or the plough, or grapes, 
or the bull Apis belike, as in the exquisite 
figure resting under a setting moon. a8 

To these should be added the four 
coins published by Murgufa as belonging 
to Galicia, two of which show the bull with 
a sun, and a third the horseman with a 
palm. The lack of other coins from the 
north-west makes it difficult to finish out 
any conclusive argument: but that is the 
case with all Spanish studies. 

The horseman, however, is found invari- 
ably, though not exclusively, wherever twin 
saints are worshipped, at Calahorra and 
Sahagun, 29 and at Guadix in the south 
which is the first place in Spain associated 
with the cult of S. James. The superb 
bull type imposes itself on the imagination, 
but it is not universal: it is found by the 
Ebro, in the Conventus Cluniensis, at 
Merida, and in the south with a difference. 
The ploughman is the sign of a Roman 
colony, but at Saragossa and Celsa he is a 
peasant, bare-headed, in a short smock. 

Spanish scholarship is shy: it keeps as 
haughtily aloof as the Castilian in his cloak. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



The Spanish scholars have published 
mostly in periodicals or in very limited 
editions, often inaccessible outside of 
Spain: the European scholars often cannot 
read Spanish. Salomon Reinach, for in- 
stance, knows far less about what lies on 
the south side of the Pyrenees than what 
lies in the southern hemisphere. Research 
into Comparative Religion would be diffi- 
cult, doubtless, in Spain; Murguia guards 
himself scrupulously with a comical note, 
and of the precautions of Father Fita I have 
spoken already. Menendez y Pelayo when 
he rewrote the Historic de los Heierodoxos 
was an old man and rather indifferent. It 
is only possible, at this time, to stake out 
the line of argument and fix enough solid 
evidence to sustain something, I hope, 
more solid than a house of cards. 

What material exists consists, first, of 
legendary matter and folk-lore; secondly, of 
passages in early writers; thirdly, of monu- 
ments, coins, dedications, inscriptions. With 
the first I have dealt, in the last chapter; 
the second for our ends are almost negli- 
gible; the third will not take long. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



293 



Com- 
parative 
religion in 
Spain 



294 



Thesis 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Lapidary inscriptions are all Romanizing, 
but as they apply they will be mentioned. 
Of figured monuments, I know none in 
Galicia. I have ventured to reconstruct 
hypothetical Mithraic reliefs in two cases 
— a table-scene like the one on the Rhine, 
at S. Domingo de la Calzada, and Mithras 
emerging from the rock, at Padr6n: these 
being in the hypothesis cannot be used in 
the proof. The conspicuous cock and bull 
at Leon, with the Zodiacal snakes there, 
may be contributory, but they carry fatal 
associations in their names. There remains 
the Comparative Method. 

S. James is something more than a tribal 
Hero and a vegetation-spirit, he is more 
even than a faded sun-god: he is a High 
God in his own land, and with the mounting 
syncretism of the later empire he took up 
into himself all the other out-land gods. 
This happened everywhere in the time of 
the Roman conquests, it was the price of 
survival. 

Of the primitive Celtiberian religion, 
as of that of the north-west, little is known: 
Macrobius says however that "the Acci- 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



tani worship very devoutly an image of 
Mars with rays about the head, and call 
him Neto," 30 a war-god who is sun-god 
also. By reason of the early legend which 
associated with S. James the seven Spanish 
bishops and the town of Acci (Gaudix) 
we are permitted to infer a like cult in 
Galicia. At Tuy there is a dedication to 
a local Mars, 31 and Neto or some rela- 
tive of his, it would seem, is named on a 
stone at Padron. Now in many ways 
Tuy is a kind of lesser doublet of Compos- 
tella, and down to the time of the ruin of 
Galicia, which is to say until the Catholic 
Kings, Tuy and Orense, (Mondonedo and 
Lugo also in some degree) were either 
virtually or strictly suffragan to Santiago. 
It is all the land of Santiago. 

Endovelicus was a mountain god in 
Portugal, and belongs to a restricted area; 3 2 
but traces of the goddess Ataecina, the 
Iberian Proserpine, have been found 
throughout Lusitania and a part of B£- 
tica. "Saint Proserpine" says a stone 
that Florez published long and long ago. 33 
With her one would like to associate dedi- 



AN D MONOGRAPHS 



295 



Celtiberian 
warrior- 
and 
sun-god 



2<)6 



S. Proser- 
pine • 



S. Eulalia 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



cations to the twilight and the Shrine 
of the Morning-Star, 34 Lux Dubia, and 
Luciferi fanum, found, the former in the 
very same parts, and the other on the 
Andalusian shore, consecrated both where 
the wind falls faint as it blows with the 
fume of the flowers of the night: 

And the murmur of spirits that sleep 
in the shadow of Gods from afar 

Grows dim in thine ears and deep as the 
deep dim soul of a star. 

In the sweet low light of thy face, under 
heavens untrod by the sun. . . . 

At Menda she was worshipped, and in- 
voked by formulae analogous to some found 
in Cnidos, at the shrine of Demeter, Perse- 
phone, and Hades. 3 5 Her reincarnation in 
S. Eulalia, the sweet-spoken lady of the 
doves, 3 6 1 cannot stop here to demonstrate, 
but I must point out that the cathedral 
church was dedicated to the latter at Iria, 
where the body of S. James was landed, 
where legends of his presence and his preach- 
ing abound, and where there are traces, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



hardly at all effaced, of an attempt to estab- 
lish the cult-centre. AtHierapolistheLady 
of the Doves shared her temple with a bull 
god: from Padr6n the cult-image set out 
in a cart drawn by bulls, to find the wayside 
shrine of Liberodunum. Neto the sun- 
god who is a war-god, had then probably 
for a companion a dove-goddess, Ataecina, 
worshipped chiefly in her chthonian aspect. 
On Candlemas Day, her doves were loosed 
in the sanctuary at Santiago, at the Mass 
for the little souls in Limbo. But S. 
James, as I have shown, is himself a chthon- 
ian power. 

With Celtic cults we must take into 
account the possibility of some figure in 
Galicia like the Gallo-Roman Dis Pater, 
the ancestor of the Gauls, who holds a 
bowl in one hand and rests the other on a 
long-handled mallet, wearing in many cases 
a wolf -skin hood. 37 The coins of the 
Verones, j8 in Old Castile, show a hammer 
in the hand of the rider. This identifica- 
tion would explain the shrine at Com- 
pdstella sub Lobio, the bourdon on which 
S. James leans, and his death or that of his 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



297 



the Lady 
of the 
Doves 



The Horse 
of the God 



Wolf 



298 



Icono- 
graphy and 
legend 



Aidoneus 



Dioscuri 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



double, S. James the Less, by a fuller's 
mallet. It would also explain the Tau-staff 
carried by his effigy in the Gloria, on the 
church door at Noya, and in a miniature 
of 1328, in the manuscript known as 
Tumbo By where the Apostle is vested 
and seated on his altar, among nine stars, 
holding the same hammer-headed star!. 3 9 
The wolf -skin belongs also to the Etruscan 
Hades, whose aspect in the tomb-paintings 
discovered at Orvieto and Corneto, is very 
like S. James; it is an attribute of the 
underworld, of Aidoneus, a Zeus over- 
shadowed and graver. 

In the Renaissance a pair of twin columns 
was unearthed at Seville, 40 and set up 
again, with an effect not unlike, I suppose, 
to that at Edessa. The cult of the Dios- 
curi was established early in Spain: Tou- 
tain admits two inscriptions to Pollux in 
B£tica, 41 and to these must be added the 
mention of the two Castors at Caldas de 
Vizella. 

M61ida affirms that the Iberian horse- 
man, the jinete of the Celtiberian coin- 
type carried over into Roman times, should 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



be identified with Castor the horse-tamer, 
considered apart from the other of the 
Dioscuri, Pollux the boxer. Those speci- 
mens struck near Granada, on which a 
galloping rider is controlling another horse 
besides, should confirm this. Calahorra 
worshipped twin saints, or at any rate a 
pair of young soldierly brothers, Demetrius 
and Celadonius, Sahagun worshipped a 
like couple, Facundus and Primitivus; I 
have pointed out how the Sign of the 
Twins, at Leon, presents just such a 
pair holding the ark or casket in which 
their relics were revered. Orense, closely 
related to Santiago, claimed for herself 
Facundus and Primitivus; and Tuy, even 
more nearly related, the source of S. Elmo's 
fire in the body of S. Gonzalez Telmo, 
(ob. 1300). S. Elmo's fire has belonged to 
Castor and Pollux ever since the first 
Greek mariners observed it. Moreover, 
the Twins have a kind of special care for 
travellers, and the sea-faring Miracles of 
S. James, vu, vm, xi and x, are entirely 
within their province. 
A curious mediaeval relief found at Cal- 



299 



Castor 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



S. Elmo's 
fire 



300 



Swans 



and white 
horsemen 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



das de Reyes/ 3 shows the body of the 
saint in a boat drawn by a swan-maiden, 
something like a siren but winged and 
web-footed, very like Lohengrin's. Work 
of the fourteenth century, it includes a 
monk playing on a harp: this is entirely 
plausible and affords a perfect instance 
of the adaptation to older motives of the 
new grotesque monster-style in Gothic. 
Here falls pat an observation of Goblet 
d'Alviella about the degree to which certain 
pictures have taken such possession of the 
eye and the imagination that they become 
commonplaces of figured language, and the 
artist's hand cannot escape their influence 
in the production of new symbols; so also 
the copyist approximates a strange model 
to some thing known. 43 There is no 
question that this figure is in some sense a 
swan: now, as Reinach points out, 44 the 
Dioscuri have swan-horses and were once 
swans themselves; so, indeed, was Apollo. 
To the swan-nature may be attributed the 
dazzling whiteness which distinguishes the 
apparitions of Santiago Matamoros, for 
instance, in the lines of Gonzalo de Berceo 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



where the twin saints swoop down from the 
upper air like great birds, whiter by far 
than recent snow, on horses whiter than 
crystal. This is not the principal aspect of 
the Compostellan cult, but belongs rather 
to the Ebro basin, where at Tricio, close to 
N4jera, by the very field of Clavijo, the 
coin-type of the jitute was struck. But, 
indeed, Apollo was himself a twin, and the 
bearded sun-god at Heliopolis, as Mac- 
robius saw him, would pass anywhere for 
S. James of Compostella. 

Of the twin brethren, Pollux only was 
immortal and was taken up into heaven. 
Castor died and went to the underworld, 
and we have seen that S. James corresponds 
to Castor. Who was, in his case, the 
divine twin, will appear presently. Mean- 
while, it should be said that the river Limia, 
mentioned in a score or a hundred of dona- 
tions to Santiago or to Tuy, was called 
flunun oblivionis, and identified with 
Lethe. 45 To the Romans as to the Celts, 
the Tierra de Santiago was the Land of 
the Dead. 4 • 

This matter of Twins, so important in 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



301 



Apollo at 
Heliopolis 



The Mortal 
Twin 



The under, 
world 



302 



Twins 



Maiden 
saints in 
.Galicia 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

savage Africa as Rendel Harris and his 
friends the missionaries have shown, beset 
the Spanish imagination as well. S. Zoyl 
of Carri6n enshrines some sort of tale of 
twins, of which the misadventure and mi- 
raculous protection of the Countess Teresa 
is only the last-revised version, and Carri6n 
claimed for long to possess a head of S. 
James. It was S. James Major's so long 
as possible, then it was S. James Minor's: 
lastly Santiago de Compostella showed 
them both; all that matters here is that a 
S. James should once have been harboured 
in the abbey and on the altar. The 
Infants of Lara, in the earliest legend, 46 
were born seven at one birth, in Old Castile, 
and down on the confines of Galicia a like 
story exists, of girl-children now, born to a 
prostitute and in horror thrown into a 
pond or exposed by the side of it: someone 
riding by stirred up with the butt-end of 
his lance the litter of wretched babies* and 
one pluckily closed tiny hands on the wood, 
and clung and was saved. Of these, in a 
variant, S. Liberata was one, S. Marina 
another, others SS. Euphemia, Victoria, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Eumelia, Germana, Gemma, Ginevera, 
Quitera, — nine in all. 47 Now Libera is 
an epithet of Dea Ataceina, and Marina, as 
I noted at Puerto Marin, is only the Syrian 
word My Lord, a cult-epithet here of S. 
James's though associated in the east with 
Jupiter Dolichenus. 48 Of S. Marina in 
Spain the hagiographers could make noth- 
ing: the hymnographers identify her with 
Margarita and call her the Sea-Born. 
The Golden Legend recites an eastern legend 
like that of S. Restituta which may be 
encountered in Spanish calendars. 4 9 Hera 
Sancta was enthroned beside Jupiter 
Dolichenus, and Saint Proserpine, perhaps, 
beside Neto once: at any rate Cumont 
seems to say 50 that sanctus like dyun 
implies a Semitic influence, in our case a 
Syrian, perhaps. Malakbel, he adds, comes 
out as Sol Sanctissimus. The significance 
of the nine children, and the nine stars 
about S. James in Tumbo B, I do not yet 
fully understand. 

Another saint who appears unexpectedly 
at Compostella is S. Susanna, whose church 
D. Diego Gelmirez built on the hill where 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



303 



Libera 
with her 
lord in 
Libero- 
dunum 

S. Marina 



S. Susanna 



wsanc 



304 



Cavern 



Orphic 
mysteries 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



the cattle market is held, and carried off 
relics of her from Portugal. 5Z The shrine 
had previously been a Holy Sepulchre, 
say the his torians. The only thing notable 
about S. Susanna 52 is that she had twin 
trees, the place of her martyrdom was ad 
duos law os. If the hilltop cavern which 
belonged to the chthonian twin, had 
struck D. Diego as unseemly, scandalous, 
and possibly a seat of Pagan survivals, he 
could not have done better in changing 
the dedication. 

He built and rebuilt also at Cacabelos — 
a place oddly named, with nothing Spanish 
in the sound. But the cacubelus si em- 
ployed in the cult ot Augustus, must have 
sounded not "unlike those wheels of bells 
that Spaniards love to ring in the Mass- 
time, and that Street so fancied and 
sketched for his book. 

Before coming, however, to the imperial 
cults, I should point out that an Orphic 
reminiscence tinges the story of Calahorra, 
where the heads of the comely young 
martyrs were carried 

Down the swift Hebrus to the Lesbian shore, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



Christ as Pilgrim — Prom Silos 



r 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



or more correctly to the Cantabrian, 
for they were thrown into the Ebro and 
washed about until they turned up at 
Bilbao on the Bay of Biscay. The Orphic 
Guide for souls has been quoted earlier in 
interpretation of S. James's two cypress 
trees: it is necessary to add that Mithras 
seems to have fallen heir to the cypress 
trees along with the mysteries, and on the 
relief of Heddernheim 54 has enough for a 
respectable grove. The cypress in Baby- 
lonia was the property of the thunder-god 
Adad, before it was that of Atargatis 
the Syrian Goddess: Zeus takes it over 
on a coin of Ephesus. 55 By the law of 
syncretism all these instances converge 
upon S. James; the tree-and-vine pas- 
sage in the Acts of Andrew and Matthias 
would only serve as confirmation: 56 he 
inherits all these claims. To the syn- 
cretic mind there are. no rival claims. 
There is an apposite phrase which I recall 
hearing from a good lady of theosophical 
tendency, disposed, like others of her 
kind from Julia Domna down, to merge 
likeness in identity and ignore unlikeness: 



HISPANIC NOTES 



307 



Atargatis 
yielding it 
in the Re- 
naissance 
to Mary 



3o8 



S. Saviour 
Soter 



Serapis 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



"It is all a part of one and the same great 
truth!" 

For centuries the Spaniards reckoned 
time from the Era of Augustus; his head is 
set on some of their most beautiful coins, 
and his temple at Tarragona was the 
scene of a prodigy and the occasion of an 
epigram. Long before the imperial religion 
was established, the central and universal 
worship of Sol Sanctissimus, in Egypt 
statues were dedicated to the emperor as 
Soter, 57 though the epithet belongs pecu- 
liarly to Serapis: by one way or the other it 
came into Spain, and the earliest churches, 
the earliest Christian dedications that 
we know, are oftenest the Saviour's; at 
Oviedo and Saragossa the cathedral, at 
Leon and Santiago the central altar of a 
triad. I have quoted already the curious 
phrasing from Fulbert's Mass, Sother tkeos 
athanqtos, applied nominally to the First 
Person of the Trinity. 

The worship of Serapis was well estab- 
lished in Spain and the cult of Isis was 
marked by splendour. Toutain reckons 
nine dedications in Spain and the Nar- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



bonnais, which was a part of Spain in 
imperial times as it was in the Middle 
Age. At Guadix Isis had, as Cumont 
says with truth, 58 as many jewels as any 
Spanish Madonna. There she was wor- 
shipped as the protectress of young girls: 5 * 
it is possible that the beautiful couchant 
bull, under a setting moon, on a coin of 
Orippo, was dedicated to her; it came from 
the town called Las Dos Hermanas. 60 
Colleges and Confraternities were estab- 
lished in her honour at Valencia on the 
Mediterranean and at Igabrum in Bltica, 6 1 
where the fat Cordovan land swells up 
to the hills. 

Serapis is Jupiter, Sol, and also Pluto, as 
in Julian/ ' Zeus,Hades, Helios, Serapis, three 
gods in one god-head," 6j and when the 
wave of new devotion sweeping across the 
peninsula reached Compostella, the identi- 
fication with the local god was, so to speak, 
already made. That prayer which Con- 
stantine composed for Sunday morning, 
which might be recited by worshippers of 
Mithras, Serapis, Sol, and Jesus, 6 3 had been 
breathed for three centuries at least. Ser- 



309 



Twin 
Sisters. 
Compare 
Las dos 
Casas, Vol. 
II. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



3io 



Lord of the 
dead 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



apis had a temple at Emporiae; a stone in 
Portugal is dedicated to Serapis Pantheos, 6 4 
and another Greek inscription was found 
less than fifty years ago three leagues out 
of Astorga, with an inscription Etc Zeuc 
Sepaxts, and the semblance of a temple 
within which was seen an open hand 
pointing upward. 65 On the worship of 
Mithras and Serapis at Menda, a good deal 
had been published by Melida 66 just before 
the beginning of the war. He was, says 
Reville, 6 7 " the god of life in this world and 
before all in the world of the dead." 

If it is not the cap of the Dioscuri but 
the calathos of Serapis in which we must 
seek the original of S. James's broad- 
brimmed hat turned up in front, with a 
shell and with the crossed lines of staves 
flanking that, which may be substituted 
for the crossed withes of a basket, then the 
early appearance and stubborn persistence 
of that attribute may be explained. Serapis 
fixed the type of the Apostle in personal 
traits, the beard, the brow, the quiet eyes, 
the grave dignity, the solemn yet recollected 
character of the great images. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



For many, he came to be the sole god in 
the universe: but that was a process to 
which all the surviving gods tended, in the 
syncretism of the third century and there- 
after. 68 

They were still distinguished [says 
Reville], 69 and yet they were confounded. 
Each had his tradition, his history, his 
proper origin, his cult, his priests, his 
temples; and nevertheless they were so 
easily interchanged in the minds of 
worshippers that they seemed to be no 
more than diverse masks under which 
the same single divinity was hidden. 
. . . The divers clergy of the oriental 
deities being exclusively consecrated 
in each case to the service of a particular 
god, they took a personal interest. 
Each of the particular divinities, Serapis, 
Isis, Attis, Mithras, comes to be con- 
sidered all-powerful and universal, be- 
cause he has absorbed all the divine 
functions. The necessary outcome is 
confusion and combination among the 
gods themselves. 

What Reville says of the Roman women 
might have been written of the Spanish, with 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



3" 



Simul odor, 
antur et 
glorifican* 
tur 



312 



Blasco 
Ibafiez 
testifies 



WAY OF S. JAMES 






The Syrian 
Goddess 



all their Virgins, invoked diversely for differ- 
ent intentions, or interchanged from petu- 
lance or for want of novelty. The solemn 
business of changing from la Macarena, 
the V it gen dela Esperanza to another, and 
the discomfort of poor Dona Carmen in 
Madrid when she finds herself with the un- 
familiar Virgen de la Paloma, are typical 
episodes in Sangre y Arena. In Rome — 

When the devout went to the temple 
of the Syrian Goddess to take part in 
the spring festival, some were paying 
homage to Derceto, others were dealing 
with Rhea, others again, with Juno. 
They were no less united in one same 
cult, because they found there the reli- 
gious emotion that they sought, and be- 
cause they had the vague sentiment that 
these diverse goddesses held amongst 
themselves the closest possible relation. 7 ° 

Pagan syncretism by the third century 
had formed the habit of identifying all the 
gods. Christian polity was to be driven 
into the same practise, in self-defense. 
When Ambrose at a critical moment dis- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



covered the bodies of Gervase and Protase, 
he knew that the Milanese were devoted 
to the Dioscuri, and he meant to give 
them something fit to worship. 71 What 
Dussaud calls somewhere the exasperated 
syncretism of the later empire, is a process 
which may be a measure of expediency, or 
of edification ; it may ease a conversion, or it 
may lift the spirit on a wave of cosmical 
emotion. Like the Emperor Julian, Swin- 
burne and Alexander Severus both found 
in it the appointed means to the religious 
experience: 

To the likeness of one God their dreams 

enthralled thee, 
Who wast greater than all Gods that 

waned and grew ; 
Son of God, the shining son of Time 

they called thee, 
Who wast older, O our Father, than they 

knew. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



313 



They 

perish but 
thou shalt 
endure 



1 



3»4 



Nuestra 
Madre de 
A ngustias, 
men say in 
Zamora 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



The Star-led Wizards. 

Grefy without the autumn air 

But pale candles here prepare, . . . 

Let the choir with mourning descant 

Cry, In Pace requiescant I 

For they loved the things of God. 

Now, where solemn feet have trod 

Sleep they well, and wait the end. 

The oriental religions strictly so-called, 
the Asiatic, remain to be considered. The 
earliest of these is that of the Phrygian 
Goddess, the Great Mother. To Magna 
Mater Idaea four Lusitanian inscriptions 
are addressed: two at Lisbon, one at 
Medelli n, and one at Ventas de Caparra in 
the province of Caceres: at Port Mahon in 
Minorca there was a temple of Athys. 1 
For this the Celtic worship of the Mothers 
had prepared, to which testify five in- 
scriptions, one at Cortina del Conde being 
a dedication to the Gallegan Mothers. a 

Now it is a curious fact about the wor- 
ship at Compostella, that though S. James 
has nothing about him in the least like the 
wanton languid young Asiatic, the son 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



and the leman of the goddess alternately, 
whose decentest action is to die, and whose 
chief ritual is what Ezekiel saw of women 
weeping for Thammuz; yet the only re- 
lation you find there is that of mother 
and son. In the church, below the high 
altar, Mary Salome sits on the north-east 
pier, where James Minor occupies the 
corresponding place on the other side: and 
the Tree of Jesse in the Portico is crowned 
with the same figure. S. Mary Salome 
has a church of her own, and the street 
behind it is called Tras de SalomS, and of 
the little church of the Corticela, included 
now in the cathedral, behind the north 
transept, who shall say to what Mary it 
was dedicated once? A mysterious episode 
in the early history of the cathedral car- 
ries with it some implication of the cult of 
Cybele. 

Before the time of the Catholic Kings, 
perhaps, certainly before the close of the 
fourteenth century, Galicia had very little 
to do with Roman Christianity, and in 
the earlier ages, for long stretches of time, 
it had lapses from Christianity altogether. 



A N D MO NOGRAPHS 



315 



Intermit- 
tent Chris- 
tianity 



r 



316 



Friends of 
God 



Benedict 
XIII 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



A Visigothic king set up his capital at Tuy, 
and no word is bad enough for him in 
the ecclesiastical histories. To the sect of 
Priscillian, or, more truly, to his way of 
thinking and reform, belonged the whole 
north-west in the fifth century. There is 
an odd phrase of Mgr. Duchesne's 3 which 
seems to suggest that on the worship of 
S. James and his seven disciples the pas- 
sionate devotion to Priscillian and the 
seven martyrs of Priscillianism had some 
bearing. At the Council of Toledo in 400 
the bishop of Astorga never gave him up, 4 
the Gallegans went on mostly living in 
schism, dissociated from the rest of Christi- 
anity, as later they were to be adherents 
of Peter of Luna and other Anti-Popes. 
Anon came the heathen Suevi, and the 
bishops for a while did the best they could, 
but the very names of them are lost. 
Kings of Leon came in and cleared up the 
country; then, when the Moors arrived, 
what bishops were left settled in Oviedo, 
but the sheep were scattered. Under the 
Norman invasions they withdrew, or died, 
again: now all these interregna of official 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



THE BOURNE 



Christianity gave the chance for lapses 
into ancient paganism. At the end of 
the ninth century there was a bishop in 
Compostella called Ataulf ; I have spoken 
of him before. The same ugly charge was 
laid against him as commonly against the 
priests of Cybele, and his purification had 
something to do with the killing of a bull. s 
It is possible that Ataulf simply clung to old 
ways of the land, and was ruined to vacate 
his place for a new-comer and king's favour- 
ite, Sisnandus, as later Diego Pelaez the 
Spaniard of Spain was ousted by a creature 
of Cluny and of Raymond of Burgundy, 
Diego Gelmirez. It is possible, however, on 
the other hand, that the elder worships were 
not utterly forgotten, and that this was a 
taurobolium. 

Moreover at Iria, where the church, 
though once the See, was throughout the 
Middle Age only a pale reflex of Santiago, 
and thereafter nought, a pine tree grew in 
the fore-court, as a popular song says: 6 

Nosa Sefiora d'Adina 
Ten un pifLeiro no adro 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



317 



Tauro- 
bolium 



r 



318 



The pine 
of Cybele 



Mithras 
in Spain 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

Vota pinas en octubre 
Cereixas no mes de mayo. 

There may have been such another at 
Compostella, for the chronicle speaks of 
"Monasterium quod de ante altaria nun- 
cupatur, et Piniarium, ubi monasterium 
S. Martini ad honorem Dei constructum 
est." 7 

The Compostellana, describing the ordeal 
of Bishop Ataulf, says that he caught 
the bull by the* horns, and I have recog- 
nized earlier that this may be derived 
from a Mithraic relief of the familiar type, 
where Mithras slays the bull: as the rock 
with S. James's head and shoulders emerg- 
ing, seen at Padron in the fifteenth century, 
may be another, especially as there was a 
Mithraic dedication there. The base of a 
statue was found at M£rida long ago, and 
in excavating for a new bull-ring more 
than twenty statues and fragments were 
discovered. Cumont knew only thirteen 
Spanish inscriptions that are Mithraic, 8 in 
all; Toutain added a little more rather 
sullenly; 9 Melida has shown that Merida 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOU RNE 



had a community and a sanctuary. x ° The 
dedication to Dominus Invictus at Malaga 
might be out of Luke of Tuy. I have in- 
dicated the possible cult survival at Leon 
in the acceptance of oaths taken on the 
shrine of S. Isidore as inviolable and legally 
unimpeachable, and the strongly zodiacal 
character of the sculpture and the first 
saints, father, mother and twelve children, 
while aware that there were other star- 
worshippers than those from Persia. 

Mithras, however, was psychopompos, 
and along the Camino de Santiago, the 
souls were guided. Where once S. Michael 
had taken over this office along the Way, 
and led the souls and weighed them at 
Sanguesa and Estella and at the great 
cathedrals, and at Santiago in ThurkilTs 
Vision, these £. v James assumed the rdle, 
and at ComposteUa it is his toain business. 
Helios too in the East is psychopompos, 
as Dussaud note^jand is a rider, x x such 
another as that , in the. fourth Miracle of 
S. James. The Celtic Mercury, the pro- 
tector of wayfarers and merchants, as Me- 
nendez y Pelayo observes with truth, is 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



319 



Who leads 
the souls 



1 



320 



The Celtic 
Mercury 



Angelus 
Heliopo- 
litanus 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



less often to be found in Spain: he can 
only be identified with certainty twice, 
both times in the south, on the coins of 
Carmona that show the caduceus or a head 
with the petasus, z 2 and on an inscription 
at Cartagena where fishermen and fish- 
mongers consecrate a statue to Mercury. 
I think, however, the winged helmet, asso- 
ciated with the caduceus on coins of 
Sagunto and Valencia, is a sign of the 
Celtic Esus-Mercury who comes very close 
to Mars, and who carries also a scrip or 
wallet as his attribute. 13 The petasus, 
at any rate, is bound to evoke again the 
recollection of S. James's wide-leafed hat 
which is, along with the wallet or scrip, his 
most conspicuous badge and suggests an 
identification, and indeed the high god of 
Baalbek is associated with Mercury not 
only in his temple but his character, a 
text calling him Jupiter Optimus Maximus 
Angelus Heliopolitanus. x 4 

As Salambo, his mate the Syrian goddess, 
was worshipped in Seville, and the story of 
SS. Justa and Rufina reads like a Passion- 
week with the pasos going through the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



streets. 15 The complete correspondence 
of the worship of Atargatis with the 
Spanish Virgin's, in aspect, in cult-images, 
in attitudes, in emotion, would take as 
long to show as this other case of S. James; 
it must be said however that her only 
image at Santiago is that of the Virgen 
de las Angustias, which matches pretty 
exactly the simulacrum of Mount Lebanon 
that Macrobius described. 1 6 

For once a vague and convenient term 
like that of "the Syrian Baals" must be 
allowed for the divers births of godheads 
all more or less interchangeable. While 
there are parallels certainly between 
Santiago Matamoros and Jupiter Doliche- 
nus, who supplied the name to Galicia, as 
it appears, of Marina, for first his priests 
and then after a while a bishop of Doliche 
are found bearing the name; 17 yet the 
main business of this investigation will be 
with the high god of Heliopolis. He is 
associated at the shrine with Venus and 
Mercury; he has himself the eagle and 
the caduceus both for attributes, bulls 
for his throne, the thunderbolt, the 



321 



Nuestra 
SeMora de 
la Paloma 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



The high 
god of 
Heliopolu8 



322 



A Syrian 
triad 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



wheat-ear, and the whip. He is Adad the 
bull-god. 

There are traces of an early triad once 
installed in the land of Santiago, after the 
manner of the Syrian triads. The Gal- 
legan Chronicle of Iria says: 

Desfizo una eigrejo mui pobrecina, que 
estaba ende feita na ribeira de Sar, enda 
poseron o corpo de Sanctiago, cando 
o deceran da nave; e por honra de tan 
grande h6spede con grande uidustria 
repar6u e* fize una mui boa eigreje con 
tres cabezas e tres alt ares: o medio a 
honra de Ap6stol Sanctiago, porque 
cando o dec£ron da nave, ende fora 
recebudo o suo corpo; un a honra de 
sancta Maria Salome; y outro de S. Joan 
ap6stol y evangelista. Y a dita eigreja 
assi feita, poso nela candieiros e orna- 
mentos competentes ao culto ecresiasti- 



go 



18 



That is to say, where the disciples had 
landed at Padr6n with S. James's body, 
there was a little shrine where the image 
of the son of Thunder could be seen be- 



H I S PANIC NOTES 



THE BOU RN E 



tween a goddess and a beardless young 
god. D. Diego Gelmirez destroyed this, 
like a good many other old things: the 
Compostellana says: 

"Ecclesiolam sancti Jacobi de Patrono 
ab uno templi sabulo usque ad summa 



tecti f astigia, cum quodam bonae memoriae 
Pelagio presbytro aedificando construxit." * 9 
It has been shown already how D. Diego 
seems to have done away with a chthonian 



sanctuary at Compostella and installed a 
new saint there: on the whole, considering 
the efforts he expended in making a clean 
sweep of all the old disreputable vestiges 
of heathen cults, I think we are fortunate 
to trace so much still. 

The emigrant Syrians who worshipped 
Adad, found him already in Spain in- 
digenous. That the bull was a Spanish 
totem, especially among the tribes of the 
south, it would be hard not to believe, for 
even to this day he is so treated: — adored, 
protected, pampered, and then at certain 
times ritualry killed. How solemn, or- 
dained, fixed, and recognized is the ritual 
of the toreador, let others more learned, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



323 



Paint ves- 
tiges of 
shadowy 
cults 



324 



The Bull 
as Totem 



WAY OPS. JAMES 



expound, but the fact is matter of common 
knowledge. The great house of the Dukes 
of Osuna, in whose domain the finest bulls 
are bred, claims for mythical ancestor 
either a bull, or the herdsman Hercules 
when he was tending the flocks of Geryon. 
Doubtless that of the bull-ancestor is the 
earlier version. 20 Of the magnificent 
bulls of the coins enough cannot be said; 
before them came the bronzes of Costig 21 
and Cerro de los Santos. 22 It should be 
observed that the most complete and 
rapturous account which we have of a 
taurobolium, exists in the poetry of Pruden- 
tius, a Spaniard. 23 Menendez y Pelayo 
affirms that bull-worship may be recog- 
nized in Spain from the remotest age. 24 
So when thunder-gods and bull-gods come 
from the east, they find that already the 
land belongs to them and is their appointed 
rest and their native country and their own 
natural home, which they enter unan- 
nounced as lords that are certainly ex- 
pected and yet there is a silent joy at their 
arrival. 
The influx of Syrians into the western 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



world, described by Cumont, has been 
resented but not disproved. In a fine 
and famous passage, from which I can 
quote only bits, he says: 

The ever increasing traffic with the 
Levant induced merchants to establish 
themselves in Italy, in Gaul, in the 
Danubian countries and in Spain; in 
some cities they formed real colonies. 
The Syrian emigrants were especially 
numerous. Compliant, quick and dili- 
gent, they went wherever they expected 
profit, and their colonies, scattered as 
far as the north of Gaul, were centres for 
the religious propagation of Paganism 
just as the Jewish colonies of the Dia- 
spora were for Christian preaching. . . . 
At the same time the necessities of war 
removed officers and men from the Eu- 
phrates to the Rhine or to the outskirts 
of the Sahara, and everywhere they 
remained faithful to the gods of their 
native country. The requirements of 
the government transferred functionaries 
and their clerks, the latter frequently 
of servile birth, into the most distant 
provinces. Finally, the ease of com- 

AN D MONOGRAPHS 



325 



Dear 

pilgrim 

coming 



from the 
East . . . 



326 



. . one 
look 



across the 
water 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



munication, due to the good roads, in- 
creased the frequency and extent of 
travel. Thus the exchange of products, 
men and ideas necessarily increased, 
and it might be maintained that . . . 
the gods of the Orient followed the great 
commercial and social currents. 25 . . . 

Br^hier, taking up the same phenomenon 
at a later date, adds more of the same 
sort, and the whole passage is of value for 
the present argument: 

From the fourth to the seventh cen- 
tury you can follow the traces of their 
establishments ... at Rome, Ravenna, 
Treves, Lyons, Bordeaux, Narbonne, 
etc. . . . Far from assimilating with 
the native population, they exercised 
involuntarily upon it a fruitful action. 
They introduced new conceptions into 
the west and under their influence 
religious architecture, the decorative 
arts, religious iconography, and also 
religious ideas penetrated from the east 
into Gaul and Italy. . . . 26 

Like the rest, he knowfe not Spain, and 
so that name is missing from his enumera- 



HISP ANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



tions, but Lamperez has insisted on the 
signs of the passage of a Syrian architect 
in the twelfth century at Irache and at 
Zamora. Thus a way is prepared and a 
path made straight between the Lords of 
the east and the west, the high gods of 
Heliopolis and Compostella. 

The figure at Santiago was worshipped 
as a god of fertility, especially at Saragossa, 
as I have shown, and as a god of thunder, 
especially at Compostella, as folk-lore still 
testifies. 37 Arriaga mentioned in the sev- 
enteenth century that Spanish children 
thought the thunder was the galloping 
of Santiago, 38 and indeed in the Indian 
folk-lore of America it is the thunder-bird 
who returns followed by all the ghosts.* 9 
This seems reliable primitive stuff. Arriaga 
says that when the Peruvian Indians were 
converted, they called after S. James, one 
child of a pair of twins whom they had for- 
merly called the Son of the Lightning. 30 
For He is the Son of Thunder, as the litur- 
gies reiterate, quod est, filius tonitrui. 

Adad is the elder Babylonian storm-god, 
worshipped at Baalbek as Jupiter Optimus 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



327 



to this 

twilight 

nook 



328 



Adad 



his cypress 



and bulls 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



Maximus: he brandished in his raised 
right hand a whip, in his left he car- 
ried wheat-ear and thunderbolt. 3 x Certain 
coins show a cypress tree in the temple 
doorway, where others show the wheat- 
ear, and on other types a cypress tree, or 
possibly three cypresses, figure in the 
field. 32 In an ancient Babylonian ritual, 
where the purifier puts on dark garments 
as for underworld deities, and all the 
implements have a symbolic value, the 
cypress is associated with Adad. 33 The 
cult-image of Jupiter Heliopolitanus, 
swathed in a long strange strait-waist- 
coat, and flanked by a pair of bulls, 34 
might well give occasion to the effigy — as 
iconography misunderstood brings forth 
hagiography— of the mummy of S. James 
in the ox-cart. 

Furthermore, it corresponds exactly, of 
course, to the statue of S. Isidore the 
Ploughman with his insignificant oxen by 
his side, as we saw that at Cacabelos. I 
hope I have proved satisfactorily that 
S. Isidore the Ploughman is only one 
aspect of Doctor Egregius, cut off like a 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



gardener's slip and set to grow alone; 
and that the greater Isidore is still only 
a surrogate of S. James. 

Just why S. James at Compostella aban- 
doned the bulls it is hard to see, unless that 
they seemed too pagan and but little 
scriptural: the lions that flank his chair 
in the Gloria belong by rights to Atargatis 
the companion-goddess. There was how- 
ever a lion-god, Gennaios, at Heliopolis, a 
solar power, the djinn. 3S For long he abode 
there unforgotten, for Benjamin of Tudela 
in the twelfth century repeated what he 
heard, that when Solomon built that House, 
to move the huge stones he called in the 
djinns. 36 It is far from unlikely that the 
actual cult-images should have penetrated 
into Galicia, and not merely the tale of 
them, for at Nimes a cippus and at Avi- 
gnon a statue may be seen, 37 and the 
relation between Provence and Spain was 
close and constant. 

So indeed was the relation between Europe 
and the coast of Palestine. Now a famous 
pilgrimage-place, Tortosa, may have had a 
shrine dedicated to the Heliopolitan triad, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



329 



The Djinn 



1 



r 



330 



Tortosa in 
1280 



So Bur- 
chard of 
Mount 
Sion 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



I 



for the pilgrim Burchard of Mount Sion, 
who is entirely trustworthy, describes 
ruins where he saw the same sort of im- 
mense stones as amaze travellers still at 
Baalbek, and two beautiful bronze cult- 
images of Adad have lately been found 
there. 3 8 The old Dominican wrote in 1 280 : 

Beneath the Castle of Arachas and 
the town of Synochim is a great plain, 
exceeding beauteous and fertile, reaching 
as far as the Castle of Krach, which 
once belonged to the Knights Hospi- 
tallers of S. John, and as far as Antara- 
dus, now called Tortosa, being about 
eleven leagues long and six leagues 
broad. . . . Four out of these eleven 
sons of Canaan, to wit Sidon his first 
born who built Sidon, and Aracheus 
who founded Arachas, and Sineus who 
founded Synochion, and Aradius who 
founded Aradium as aforesaid, — these 
four, I say, remained in the land of 
Lebanon as hath been told. . . . The 
monuments and sepulchres of the first 
four are shown at this day one league 
before one comes to Antaradus, and 
they are exceeding rich and of wondrous 

HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



size. I have seen stones therein — for I 
measured the stone — four and twenty 
feet long, and as wide and deep as the 
height of a tall man, so that it is a marvel 
to behold them. How they can have 
been raised up and used for building, 
altogether passes man's understanding. 
. . . S. Peter preached for a long time 
at Antaradus when he was on his way 
to Antioch, as we read in S. Clement's 
Itinerary. Here Clement found his 
mother. Here also S. Peter built the 
first church in honour of the Blessed 
Virgin, which church exists at this day. 
I have celebrated Mass therein, for I 
abode there for six days. 3 9 

Now the god between bulls who had 
the herpi, whose figure is found every- 
where in Palestine, was also at Acre 
perhaps, certainly crusaders and pilgrims 
had a chance to see the image and identify 
it after their manner. The crusaders had 
raided Baalbek in 1176. 

At Byblus [says Benjamin of Tudela], 
when the Genoese took the town, in 
1 109, they found the place where was 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



331 



The first 
church of 
Our Lady 



What 

pilgrims 

saw 



332 



Heathen 
idol in 1 1 09 



This. 

Saragossa 

claims 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



once the temple of the children of Am- 
nion. There also was their abomination, 
which is to say their idol, sitting on a 
throne made of stone but covered with 
gold. There were two seated women, 
one at his right hand and one at his left, 
and one altar opposite where perfume 
was offered. 40 

The two earliest crusaders' churches in 
Palestine, says Phene* Spiers, were Byblus 
and Beyrout (n 20-1 130), with which was 
contemporary that of Tortosa. 41 It was 
a famous pilgrimage place. Says Joinville : 

Je demande* au roy qu'il me laissast 
aller en pelerinage a Notre-Dame de Tor- 
touza la ou il avoit moult grant pelerin- 
age, pour ce que c'est le premier autel qui 
onques fust fait en Tonneur de la Mere- 
Dieu sur terre, et y fesoit Nostre-Dame 
moult grant miracle. 

There is small doubt that the shrine 
of Our Lady was older than Mary the 
Mother of Jesus. Justinian built a church 
to Our Lady in the middle of a cypress grove 
at Byzantium, and we can guess Whose the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



grove had been before: so possibly here. 
The church at Beyrout, by the way it was 
built in the twelfth century, is standing yet, 
and is of a noble Romanesque architecture. 
Furthermore, S. Philip lived here with his 
daughters, unless that was at Caesarea, 
and there according to the Cite* de Jkcru- 
salem they were buried: Burchard says S. 
Philip and his two daughters had a man- 
sion at Caesarea 42 ; "at Caesarea, in a 
church there, was the chapel of S. Cornelius 
whom S. Peter baptized, and who was, 
after Monseigneur S. Peter, Archbishop; 
in this chapel lie the two daughters of 
Monseigneur S. Philip." 43 But Luke of 
Tuy says that S. Philip and his two daugh- 
ters are buried in Hierapolis of Asia, 44 and, 
indeed, it is the beardless Adad of the Syrian 
sanctuaries who fixes the type of S. 
Philip in Byzantine and western painting. 
Mgr. Duchesne speaks of a double tradi- 
tion in the Byzantine Catalogues, which 
sometimes bury S. James in Judea, some- 
times in Caesarea of Palestine. 45 It be- 
gins to look as if S. Philip and S. James 
were confused. 



333 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Icono- 
graphy of 
S. Philip 



334 



Romances 
of the 
Apostles 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



The Mortal Twin. 

Meat for my black cock 
And meat for my red . . . 
— George Peele. 

At this point it becomes necessary to 
consider those apocryphal Acts of the 
Apostles which brought Pricillian to mar- 
tyrdom, 1 and with them, the general con- 
fusion of mind, in the early centuries 
of the church, about the name and charac- 
ter of certain of the Apostles. There was 
a time when these pious romances supplied 
reading to the devout. S. Toribio, whom 
we have met on the Pass of Rabanal, 
as he came back from the Holy Land with 
relics some time before 440, 2 was very 
active against the Priscillianists and 
denounced them as reading the Acts of S. 
Thomas, S. Andrew, and S. John, and 
with these the Memorials of Apostles, 
which are not otherwise known. Yet S. 
Silva of Aquitaine, on her journey sixty 
years before, 3 had read the A cts ofS. Thomas 
at Edessa, and elsewhere those of S. Tecla, 
as a matter of course and with edification, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



precisely like those sentimental travellers 
who read Le Jardin de Berenice at Aigues- 
Mortes and the Chanson de Roland at 
Roncevaux. 

About certain of the twelve Apostles, 
and disciples, equally, the situation is not 
very clear: even the lists in the canonical 
Gospels do not agree. Some, like SS. 
Peter and Paul, John and Barnabas, are 
plain, their names, their burial places: 
but again, as Michael the Syrian says 4 
rather dolefully, there are only three names 
for six Apostles, which is hard. Some of 
them are brothers, some of them are 
commemorated in couples. James was 
the brother of the Lord, but which James? 
"Thy Mother and Thy brethren are with- 
out " — which are brethren? The genealogy 
which the Golden Legend offers, it will be 
remembered, is this: 5 

(i) Anna married (a) Joachim, (b) Cleo- 
phas, (c) Salomas, and had three daughters 
all called Mary: (2) Mary Virgin married 
Joseph and Jesus was^her son: (3) Mary 
Cleophas married Alphaeus and her chil- 
dren were James Minor, Simon, Jude called 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



335 



A Jacobite 
Bishop 



V 



336 



James 

called 

Justus: 

Compos' 

tellan 

Breviary 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



Thaddaeus (called also Addai, be it noted), 
and Joseph Justus called Barsabas (whom 
I know only as a name) : (4) Mary Salome 
married Zebedee and her children were 
James and John called the Sons of Thunder, 
Boanerges. But the situation was not 
so clear in earlier centuries nor in the east. 
Michael the Syrian (1166-1100) says, 6 for 
instance, that James Zebedee was per- 
secuted at Jerusalem and martyred by a 
fuller's mallet: with James Alphaeus he 
brackets Simon the Canaanite called 
Zelotes and also Nathaniel, who preached 
in Syria at Aleppo and Mabog (Bombyce, 
which is Hierapolis) and was martyred at 
Cyrrhus where his church is. But Theo- 
dosius in his treatise On the Topography 
of the Holy Land 7 says that "Cosmas and 
Damian he there at Cyrrhus, not the 
famous physicians however." The point is 
apparently that twins lie there and Simon 
is a twin. 

The next Apostle whom Michael the 
Syrian names is that Thaddaeus whose 
surname was Lebbaeus, who is Jude the 
son of James. He was sawn asunder at 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Berenice, which is Berytus, says Chabot; 
now Berytus, or Beyrut is the sea-port of 
Heliopolis. After the list of Apostles he 
proceeds with the seventy disciples, of 
whom the first is Addai that preached in 
Edessa and baptized King Abgar, died ang 
was buried there. Fifteenth comes Jude 
the brother of James; twenty-sixth Simon 
the son of Cleophas; twenty-eighth James 
who was killed with his brother; Mark 
and Luke figure as forty-third and forty- 
fourth; fiftieth, John who was thrown to 
beasts in the theatre of Baalbek! The son 
of Narses king of Persia who was born 
during a flight and was brought up in 
Membig which is Hierapolis, was sent to 
Edessa on an errand and saw the church 
built by Addai. 8 Prom this sample the 
confusion may be judged. 

In Jerusalem the two Apostles called 
James were for a long time confounded. 
Theodosius (c. 530) who makes Cleophas 
one of the pilgrims of Emmaus, says 9 : 

S. James whom the Lord ordained bi- 
shop with his own hand, after the Lord's 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



337 



. . . Qui tt 
Judas 



338 



S. James in 
Jerusalem 



The 
Mallet- 
God 



A good 
companion 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



ascension was cast down from the 
pinnacle of the Temple and suffered 
no hurt, but a fuller slew him with a 
pole on which he used to carry his things 
and he was buried on Mount Olivet. 
S. James, S. Zacharias, and S. Simeon 
m were buried in one tomb which S. James 
had built, he buried the others there and 
left directions that he should also be laid 
therein. 

Two things are notable here: one that 
the fuller's mallet belongs to S. James as 
the instrument of his martyrdom, but it 
was already the axe of Adad; and the 
other that the sepulchre with three bodies 
found at Santiago in the ninth century, 
existed at Jerusalem in the sixth. 

Antoninus Martyr, who was such another 
as Aymery Picaud, writing about 560-570, 
mentions the great earthquake at Berytus 
in which, the Bishop told him, 30,000 
persons perished there; this will be what 
shook down the sanctuary at Heliopolis. 
He testifies: "On the Mount of Olives 
rests James the Son of Zebedee, and 
Cleophas and many bodies of saints." 10 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



And he is trustworthy as Aymery, and 
like him took his notes on the spot. 

John of Wurtzburg (1160-1170) saw 
the church of S. James in the hands of 
Armenians, as it is still presumably: "He 
was beheaded by Herod and his body was 
placed by his disciples on board a ship at 
Joppa and carried to Galicia but his head 
remained in Palestine and is still shown to 
pilgrims" 11 . . . . An anonymous pilgrim 
who was in Jerusalem before 1 187 saw "the 
Lord's temple where He was presented and 
whence He cast out those who bought and 
sold and from whence James the Lord's 
brother was cast down." 12 The Citez de 
Jherusalem, composed after that date, says 
that there is the church of S. James of 
Galicia who was the brother of S. John the 
Evangelist; that at Joppa under a castle in 
the church of S. Peter is found the cloak 
of S. James of Galicia on which he crossed 
the sea; that on a mountain above Acre 
stands the church of SS. James and John 
where they were born. x 3 The buen seyni de 
Galise is fairly well-defined by the end of 
the twelfth century. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



339 



■ • • £X 

Gallegan 
without a 
head.. ." 



S. James 
the Less 



340 



—enclosed, 
but open to 
the iky — 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Burchard of Mount Sion went thither in 
1 232, and saw the place where S. James was 
beheaded by Herod Agrippa. x 4 But there- 
after he is almost forgotten in the east: 
and James the Less usurps his place. 
Marino Sanuto (13 21) who borrows freely 
from Burchard, has not a word to tell of the 
Son of Zebedee, but he relates that near 
the Virgin's Tomb is the Sepulchre of 
James the Less, for the Christian buried 
him here after the Jews had cast him down 



from the Temple; and elsewhere, that in 
the Chamber of the Last Supper, S. Mat- 
thias was elected, the Holy Ghost de- 
scended, the seven deacons were chosen 
and S. James the Less was ordained Bishop 
of Jerusalem. xs Leopold von Suchem, 
thirty years later, thought that James 
Minor, the Lord's brother, was martyred 
by the Jews casting him down from the 
Temple. 16 After this it seems no more 
than compensation, if Luke of Tuy makes 
S. James Major the protomartyr. 

His confused account of the Apostles 
represents the state of Spanish knowledge 
in the thirteenth century, which was no 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



better than the Syrian. It amounts about 
to this: 

Trajan [he says] built the bridge of 
Alcantara and allowed the Christians 
to be persecuted, and Simon Cleophas 
Bishop of Jerusalem was crucified. S. 
John died in Ephesus at ninety-nine, 
when Galen of Pergamo the great doctor 
flourished. [Then he starts a new 
paragraph.] 

Peter and Paul are buried at Rome; 
Andrew at Patras, a city of Achaia; 
James Zebedee in a marble ark and then 
carried to the farthest province of 
Spain, Galkia; John at Ephesus, Philip 
and his daughters at Hierapolis of Asia; 
Thomas at Calamia a' city of India; 
Matthew in the Parthian mountains; 
Martial, a disciple of the Apostles, at 
Limoges; Luke in Bithynia and Mark at 
Alexandria; James Alphaeus beside the 
temple at Jerusalem; Thaddaeus, that 
is Jude, in Beyrout of the Edessenes. 
Simon Cleophas who is Jude (qui et 
Judas) bishop after James, was crucified 
at the age of a hundred and twenty 
years in Jerusalem and buried there; 
Titus in Crete; Crescens the eunuch of 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



341 



S. Luke 
of Tuy 



But com- 
pare Abn- 
Bdhari, 
page ao3 



342 



A vegeta- 
tion spirit 



I 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



Candace the queen of Arabia Felix, in 
Gaul. 17 

It is worth noting, perhaps, as an instance 
of how these confusions come, that the 
Jerusalem pilgrims went to see the place 
where Philip baptized the eunuch; now 
Mgr. Duchesne says 18 that the Latin 
texts of the Apostolic Catalogues give 
Macedonia to S. Matthew, Gaul to S. 
Philip, and Spain to S. James, a few sending 
S. Matthew to Ethiopia. Philip having 
been placed in Gaul and then withdrawn, 
the eunuch becomes his substitute. Two 
more notes of Mgr. Duchesne's must be 
remembered: the first, that Mozarabic 
calendars place the Feast of Santiago 
on May-Day 19 ; now Tamayo de Salazar 
extracts from the Chronicle of Julian PeYez 
the Arch-priest of S. Justa, a statement 
that S. James the Less was commissioned 
by S. Peter, acting under orders from the 
Blessed Virgin, to attend to the interests 
of the Church and especially of Spain, and 
his feast fixed for May i. The other is, 
that he accepts as authentic the Ifymn 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



attributed to King Mauregato (783-788) 
which declares Jacobus Hispaniam: and 
adds that there seems to be no distinction 
between the two SS. James. 2 ° 

In the Apocryphal Acts of Andrew and 
Matthias in the City of the Man-Eaters, 
James and Simon are called the brothers 
of Jesus the son of Joseph the carpenter. 2 x 
The Acts of Thaddaeus relate how Thad- 
daeus was a native of Edessa, and after 
Christ had sent his likeness to King Abgar 
by Ananias the courier, then, after the 
Passion and the Resurrection and Ascen- 
sion, Thaddaeus went to Abgar and in- 
structed and baptized him, as S. Thomas 
did in the Acts which S. Silva of Aquitaine 
read there, and ultimately died and was 
buried at Berytus, a city of Phoenicia by 
the sea. 23 

Taking for a moment East and West 
together, the case may be stated about as 
follows: 

Thomas was a twin, Didymus; but 
Thomas = Jude, and also Thomas- 
Thaddaeus (Addai) 

Simon -f- Jude are a pair 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



343 



— in what 
sense ? 



— as Ren- 
del Harris 
shows — 



1 



344 



S. Philip 
surrogate 
of S. James 



Avatar of 
Dionysus, 



WAY OPS. JAMES 



James is brother of the Lord; but there 

are two Jameses 
James Major = James Minor and 

Philip ■+■ James are a pair 
These all are twins and all are inter- 
changeable. 
Philip = Adad at Hierapolis, but 
Philip + James Minor = James Major 
.*. James Major = Adad, especially at 
Heliopolis. 

It can be further proved. In the Acts 
of Philip, S. Philip is called the Son of 
Thunder; 23 he is subject to fits of rage like 
SS. James and John when they would have 
called down fire from heaven; 34 he directs 
the preparation of his mummy in wrappings 
that would bring it to the shape of the 
cult-image. 2 s But he bears in other ways 
more likeness to Dionysus, he is accom- 
panied by the leopard and the kid of the 
goats, 26 and by wild women, 27 and where 
his blood falls a vine springs up. 28 Now 
the minor temple at Heliopolis, as we know 
today, was dedicated to Dionysus. His 
companion and sister is Mariamne, who 
is a disciple of S. James in other legends, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



and who, by the way, is herself a twin!' 9 
Rendel Harris has expounded delight- 
fully how S. Thomas is the twin of Christ, 
and looks just like him, so that Christ on 
coming into a room is taken for S. Thomas 
who has just gone out. 3 ° "And the Lord 
said to him, I am not Judas who also is 
Thomas; I am his brother." In the Acts 
of Philip, when S. Philip is in the rdle of 
S. James, Christ appears in the luceness 
of S. Philip. 3 x Priscillian knew this twin of 
Christ's: "Ait Juda apostolus damans ille 
didymus domini". 3 2 As one of the Sons of 
Thunder, of course S. James was a twin, and 
again we have to thank Rendel Harris for 
all the instances of the twin-child that is the 
Lightning's child: 33 S. John was the twin 
brother to S. James, but S. John was other- 
wise disposed of. He lived to be very old, 
his place was Ephesus: S. John in Ephesus, 
5. Peter in Rome, S. James in ComposteUa, 
was an idea familiar to the twelfth century 
in Galicia, and doubtless elsewhere and 
earlier: so the world was distributed, east 
and west and in Italy. Therefore S. James 
must have another twin: and was he not 



345 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



and twin 
of Christ 



I 



r 



346 



One goes 
to the 
under- 
world 



Evidence 
from 
Icono- 
graphy 



WAY OP S.JAMES 



already, in Canonical Scripture, the Brother 
of the Lord? The mortal twin, the chthon- 
ian power, is S. James: the divine, in 
heaven, is Jesus: but on the baldachin at 
Compostella S. James ruled. 

Eastern Spain was peculiarly liable to 
influences from the East, and Syrian saints 
abound at Vich, Tarrasa, and thereabouts, 
who are often brethren, like SS. Cosmo 
and Darnian, SS. Abdon and Senen. But 
in Catalan painting of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth century, the twins are enforced, 
the likeness between S. James Major and 
his Master Christ is as marked as in the 
Gloria of Maestro Mateo. In the Last 
Supper of Solsona S. James in hat and 
slaveyn still looks like Christ; in the Serras' 
altar piece at S. Cugat the two SS. James 
are identical, except for attributes. In 
Borassa's retable of the Poor Clares at Vich, 
SS. Simon and Jude look precisely like the 
Veronica which they are presenting to King 
Abgar; so in the predella, only SS. Thomas 
and Matthias (= Matthew), so S. James 
Minor. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



347 



The High God. 

I stand at noon upon the peak of Heaven, 
Then with unwilling steps I wander down 
Into the clouds of the Atlantic even. 

This Adad the bull-god, whose emblem 
was a hammer, was Hittite, the Lord of 
Storms. He was a sky-god and associated 
readily with a sun-god. He was Zeus, he 
was also Helios. He was lodged at Delos 
in the second century before Christ, when 
Achaios son of Apollonius dedicated a 
temple to Adatis and Atargatis the gods 
of his fatherland and served there in 137- 
136 B.C. ; two other priests who followed, like 
himself came from Hierapolis. At Rome 
has been found a dedication to Adad of 
Lebanon and Adad of the mountain-top. z 
The great Temple of the Sun at Baalbek 
at which successive travellers have mar- 
velled even into our own century, was 
begun by Antoninus Pius (13 8- 161) and 
continued down to completion under Cara- 
calla (21 1-2 1 7). Macrobius (c. 400) de- 
scribes the worship of the sun under the 
name of Jupiter Heliopolitanus: 2 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



Lord of 
Storms 



348 



Whip, 
thunder- 
bolt and 
corn 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



That this divinity is at once Jupiter 
and the sun is manifest both from the 
nature of its ritual and from its outward 
appearance. It is in fact a golden 
statue of beardless aspect, standing like a 
charioteer with a whip in its raised right 
hand, a thunderbolt and corn-ears in its 
left — attributes which all indicate the 
combined power of Jupiter and the sun. 
In the cult attached to this temple 
divination is a strong point. . . . ^The 
image of the god of Heliopolis is carried 
on a litter resembling those used for the 
images of the gods in the procession of 
the Circus Games. ... To prevent 
my argument from ranging through a 
whole list of divinities I will explain 
what the Assyrians believe concerning 
the power of the sun. They have given 
the name Adad to the god whom they 
venerate as highest and greatest. . . . 
Him therefore they adore as a god mighty 
above all others. But with him they 
associate a goddess called Adargatis. 
To these two they ascribe all power over 
the universe, understanding them to 
be the sun and the earth. They do 
not mark the subdivision of their power 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Into this, that and the other sphere by 
means of numerous names, but prefer 
to show forth the manifold glory of the 
double deity by the attributes with 
which they are adorned. . . . Beneath 
this same image [of Adargatis] are the 
forms of lions, showing that it stands 
for the earth; just as the Phrygians 
represent the Mother of the gods, that 
is the earth, carried by lions. 

Here the Pagan worship died hard. In 
297 occurred the conversion and mar- 
tyrdom of S. Gin£s the player, 3 revered 
at Compostella and at Aries, as Aymery 
mentions, by pilgrims to S. James, and 
further up the Rhone valley as well, 
for I have seen a statue of him in 
Burgundy. He saw the same light that 
flooded the crypt at Santiago, for when 
his companions threw him into the pool, 
he cried: " I saw the terrible glory in the 
bath, and I am a Christian!" 4 Con- 
stantine, according to Eusebius, 5 de- 
stroyed the temple of Venus and abolished 
the ancient Babylonian custom of "prosti- 
tution" before marriage, which obtained 



349 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Syncretism 



S. Gines 
the Player 



r 



350 



Faiths and 

empires 

gleam 



1 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

there. In the rioting which follows, the 
outraged populace seems to have seized 
the Christian girls and made them go 
through it, possibly in expiation of the 
affront to the goddess and the old ways; 
the story of what happened to Cyril the 
Deacon 6 sounds like a revival of Di- 
onysiac orgies, for they tore him up and got 
their teeth into his liver. The great image 
lasted at least till nearly the end of the sixth 
century. Michael the Syrian says: 

In the epoch of Justinian II, 565-578, 
there was at Baalbek a city of Phoenicia 
between the Lebanon and Sanir, a great 
and famous idol, and (it was said) parts 
of the great house that Solomon had 
built. It was a hundred and fifty cubits 
high and seventy-five broad, built with 
stones entirely polished. It had huge 
columns, and cedars of Lebanon for 
timbers, covered with lead [which I take 
to mean roofed] with bronze ram's 
heads under each of the roof -beams. All 
the rest of the work was admirable. 
The pagans, seduced by the grandeur 
of the edifice, offered sacrifices to the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



demons there, and nobody could destroy 
it. God for their confusion struck it by 
lightning which devoured it and con- 
sumed the wood, the bronze, the lead, 
and the idols therein. A great sorrow 
fell on all the pagans; Now, they said, 
paganism is ruined. 1 



The thunderbolt was the fit ending for 
the thunder-god's shrine, whereof the huge 
stones had lent to it the name of TrilUhon, 
but through the narrative of the twelfth 
century echoed the message of the fifth: — 

Tell the king, on earth has fallen the 

glorious dwelling 
And the water-springs that spake are 

quenched and dead. 
Not a cell is left the God, no roof, no 

cover. . . . 

Theodosius the Great built a church in 
the ruins, says Malalas. 8 "Quid vero 
Heliopoli erat, Trilithum vocatum ingens 
illud et celeberrimum . . . " and Theo- 
dosius was a Spaniard, as he says; a Galle- 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



351 



like wrecks 

of a 
dissolving 
dream 



352 



The 

Temple of 
the Sua 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



gan, apparently. 9 But whether that church 
was dedicated to S. James, we have no way 
to know. It is not impossible. 

Half a century before, Constantine had 
established there a bishop with his pres- 
byters and deacons; the names of two 
other bishops, from the fifth century, are 
preserved. Maundrell saw one still legible, 
on an inscription, in his day. x ° According 
to the Germans who have explored the 
site, z z the church had three apses at the 
further end, which were all pierced with 
doorways at a later time when the orienta- 
tion of the church was reversed and a new 
apse erected at the east. It was built 
between the pools, around and about the 
great altar of the temple court, somewhat as 
Gelmirez's at Santiago was built over the 
tomb. The entrance to the temple was 
by a high and noble stair, the same down 
which Mar Rabbula was thrown about 
400 a.d. z 3 A wide colonnaded propylaeum 
between two towers made the background 
for this, and opened into the hexagonal 
court, arcaded round, with an open cloister 
like that of Bunate. Here should have 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



stood the cypress tree which is to be seen as 
plain and unmistakable on certain coins, 
standing in the central intercolumniation 
of the propylaeum as, on others, is a wheat 
ear. 

The court to which this in turn admitted 
was square, surrounded with colonnades, 
except on the side of the temple. z 3 In the 
porticoes were cxedrae, two on each side, 
that contained themselves five niches or 
absidioles. To this Syrian arrangement, 
which reappeared in the south-west of 
Prance, at Souillac and Perigeux, reference 
was made in the discusssion of S. Pedro la 
Rua of Estella. Two pools flanked at 
first the central altar and afterwards the 
church which enclosed this; a vaulted 
crypt or substructure existed below. 
From the court steps went up to the 
temple. It was encompassed by a broad 
ambulatory within a single row of columns, 
and the foundation was built of the gigantic 
monolithic pieces that impressed the 
imagination of every traveller, from John 
of Antioch to Bayard Taylor. 

A little to the left, with the same 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



353 



The 
cypress 



The 

stepped 

pool 



r 



354 



The great 
stone 



On the 
brink of 
the night 
and the 
morning . . 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



orientation and a parallel axis, stood the 
temple of Dionysus, about which Puchstein 
makes the same observation as Lucian 
about the shrine of Hierapolis, and Thurkill 
about that of Santiago, that those who stood 
outside could look up within and through, 
even to the sanctuary. That was not true 
either of Greek temples or of Christian 
basilicas, and where it occurred, it was 
remarked. The vine and ivy leaves of the 
door-frame are there still, as they caught 
on the imagination and flourished in the 
legend of the Serpent-worshippers and 
Philip the Apostle. 

The cult-image in the temple of Jupiter 
represented Adad the god of storms and 
fertility, sky-god and bull-god, with cala- 
thos, whip, wheat-ears and thunder-bolt, 
long sheath-like garment which Dussaud 
is right in understanding as a cuirass, 14 
and a pair of bulls. His mate, Atargatis, 
Allat or Venus, was not Astarte nor a 
moon-goddess, according to MM. Dussaud 
and Cumont, 15 but the star Venus: the 
lion is hers and the group of crescent and 
solar disk on coins. The lion-god called Gen- 



HISPANIC NOTES 





I and 2. The Bull and the Ploughman: From Saragossa. 

3. The Iberian Horseman: From Jelsa. 

4. Isis'sBull: From "Las dos Hermanas." 
Sand 6. Coins of Heliopolis showing the Stair and the 

Cypress. 



THE BOURNE 



naios, lodged in the sanctuary, is figured 
on coins of Berytus. 16 She was approxi- 
mated to Juno and to Isis. The third 
member of the trinity was a son, Hermes 
or Simios, sometimes a daughter Simia. 
About this figure Dr. Frothingham has 
made some investigation of great value, 17 
but it has nothing to do with Santiago. 
The western devotion in its patient syn- 
cretism took over the single most ancient 
figure of the high god, leaving the rest. 
Even that early dedication by Alfonso 
the Chaste, of altars to S. Saviour, S. Peter 
and S. John will not lend itself here 
to easy accommodation, though I have 
shown the tradition of another triad at Pa- 
dr6n which corresponds to the Syrian, and 
though I yet believe that the dedication 
to S. Saviour with its patronal feast of 
the sixth of August, the Transfiguration, 
was intended to glorify, with Rome and 
Ephesus, Compostella; with the centre of 
the world, the east and the west. 

For Atargatis and the cult at Hierapolis, 
we haveLucian's full account, x 8 quite trust- 
worthy as to what he saw, very dubious 



HISPANIC NOTES 



357 



Not of 
morning 
nor even- 
ing is thy 
day 



at Com- 
postella 



358 



Hierapolis 



So, Radix 
Jesse qui 
stas in 
signo 
populorum 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



as to what it meant. She is the Syrian 
Hera, she sits, girdled with sceptre and 
distaff, enthroned between lions, her mate is 
Zeus though they call him by another name, 
and he has bulls for lions. 

Between the two is a third effigy that the 
Syrians call a symbol, it possesses no parti- 
cular form of its own but recalls the charac- 
teristics of the other gods. A dove broods 
above. If this were such a monstrous 
pair of entwined serpents as appear upon 
the cup of Gudea, it would go far to explain 
why in the romance of Philip the townsfolk 
are called serpent-worshippers, but Lucian 
would have recognized a caduceus as easily 
as a phallus: — he saw phalloi, indeed, 
where probably there were none, but such 
twin pillars as have been dug up at Seville. 
He could not have said that the snakes 
had no form of their own. 

Dr. Garstang desires to elucidate 19 the 
passage by reference to the Hittites and 
their draped pillars, and such pillars are 
known to Minoan cults, and the dressed 
Virgins of Spain are their daughters. In 
this connexion I should like to point out 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



that the figure in the Gloria which I have 
called S. James Minor and which is usually 
interpreted as a reduplication of the Son 
of Zebedee, carries as his attribute a Tau- 
staff wrapped around with cloths. 

At Saragossa there was moreover a very 
ancient and long-enduring Pillar-cult, 30 
existent before the Moorish invasion and 
known to all travellers today. The evi- 
dence for that will be found in Appendix I; 
and the facts in the case, so far as we can 
make out the traces of them, are as follows: 

Before the Moors a tomb was wor- 
shipped, a light shone about the city. 
They received and held both beliefs. The 
Pillar of carved marble which was visible 
outside the mosque, and which determined 
the mihr&b, in which it was incorporate, 
was a marvel, a wonder, and a Holy Thing. 
The White Town was not so called because 
the walls were whitened, but conversely; 
perhaps because every several gate was one 
pearl. It had several characteristics that 
we recognize in the Happy Other World. 
The Christian church in Saragossa survived 
throughout the Moorish domination and 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



359 



The Pillar 

at 
Saragossa 



36o 



At 

Santiago 

likewise 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



had every chance to preserve its traditions. 
The Moors associated the Tomb there with 
one of the Companions of the Lord (no 
matter which Lord) and also associated 
Saragossa with Tortosa. 

After the conquest of the city in 1 1 18 the 
sacredness of the church was reaffirmed; 
the image may have been brought in then 
from the other side of the Pyrenees, but the 
Pillar was there. Conversely, there is a 
trace of a Pillar-cult at Santiago de Com- 
postella, in that shaft which held up the 
original altar of S. James, which the Dis- 
ciples, it is said, brought from Jerusalem but 
whichFather Fita shows they could not have 
brought: it was made over to the Monks of 
Antealtares as compensation for losing the 
Sepulchre. Sir Arthur Evans reports the 
existence of Pillar-cults in the Balearic 
Isles, and publishes Minoan gems that show 
a tree standing in the temenos quite like 
the pine at Iria, and a pillar in the shrine 
like that of Santiago. 2 x 

In 1253 a confraternity of the V it gen del 
Pilar was established at the taking of 
Seville, that is good testimony for the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



relative antiquity of the cult. In 1456, a 
bull of Calixtus III affirmed the tradition, 
in 1459 John II of Aragon gave privileges, 
in 1504 Ferdinand the Catholic, King of 
Aragon, assisted in promoting the devotion. 
Pray Lamberto, who represents local tradi- 
tion, claims as the earliest bishops the two 
Companions of the Apostle S. James, who 
may be substituted for the Geographer's 
Companions of the Prophet; and they 
involved in the beginning the Sepulchre, 
that their charge was to guard. He asso- 
ciates with Saragossa, Tortosa at the mouth 
of the Ebro, and claims for Saragossa in 
Spain what Tortosa in Syria claims, the 
first church built to Our Lady in all the 
world. If the Lady of the Doves was wor- 
shipped at Heliopolis, and probably Tortosa, 
along with a bull-god and a Pillar, and since 
the coins of Saragossa in Roman times show 
the bull-god as well as the horseman, then 
we have at Saragossa all the conditions of 
the same cult. 

There are other parallels at Hierapolis 
curious to note, like that brightness of the 
temple at night which proceeds here from a 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



36l 



A Borja of 
Valencia 



Adad, Our 
Lady and 
a Pillar 



362 



Clinging 
perfumes 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



stone in the goddess's calathos, and the 
stepped pool at the shrine described in 
Maundrell's Travels 2 2 and in ThorkuTs Vis- 
ion. The fragrance, which not only fills the 
temple but hangs in your garments, has 
been preserved for us also in the Legend of 
S. Isidore with the same vivid phrasing, " so 
that it hung long in the hair and beard 
of those about," as Redempto says or 
another. 2 3 Lucian's account throughout has 
the tang of actual memory, and it is not 
easily forgotten: 

The ascent to the temple is built of 
wood and is not particularly wide; as you 
mount even the great hall exhibits a 
wonderful spectacle and it is ornamented 
with golden doors. The temple within 
is ablaze with gold and the ceiling in its 
entirety is golden. There falls upon 
you also a divine fragrance such as is 
attributed to the region of Arabia, which 
breathes on you with refreshing influence 
as you mount the long steps, and even 
when you have departed this fragrance 
clings to you; nay, your very raiment 
retains long that sweet odour, and it 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



will ever remain in your memory. But 
the temple within is not uniform. A 
special sacred shrine is reared within it; 
the ascent to this likewise is not steep, 
nor is it fitted with doors, but is entirely 
open as you approach it. The great 
temple is open to all. * 4 

Besides the beardless Zeus, the Goddess, 
and the symbol set up under a baldachin 
and topped with a dove, Macrobius de- 
scribes a bearded Helios, armed, with cala- 
thos and spear, women below him some- 
how involved with serpents. Hierapolis 
was a famous pilgrimage place. Many cir- 
cumstances of the feasts, 2 5 — the throngs 
of strangers, the ritual, the carrying of the 
image, the emotion, — suggest what we 
know of Santiago in the crowded centuries, 
and Lucian and Sobieski are very com- 
parable in what they report, though the 
details are more often diverse. Those 
sacred songs to the sound of castanets, 
those dancing men, like the saises of Seville 
where the Syrian goddess once was wor- 
shipped with spring processions in the 
streets and the annual wailing for her lover, 



363 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



So 

Benjamin 
of Tudela 
testifies, 
page 33a 



364 



Syrian 

sanctuaries 

known: 

1. From 

books 

2. From 

travel- 
lers to 
the 
Bast 

3. From 
visitors 
to the 
West 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



seem as though they belonged on Asian soil. 
The customs came probably unawares, as 
men settled and practised their own wor- 
ship in their own way, but architectural 
likeness would be carried as men travelled. 
Macrobius and Lucian were both known 
to the whole Middle Age, and well known; 
if there were knowledge in bull-worship- 
ping Spain of the bull-god of Heliopolis, 
and in the City of the Pillar of the 
pillar at Hierapolis, and in the land of 
Santiago of the statue which expressed 
nearly every function and every attribute 
of the Tribal Hero, the descriptions would 
be scanned and the sanctuary examined. 
The early pilgrims all knew Baalbek, 
S. Jerome's Paula no less than S. Silva 
of Aquitaine, 25 Burchard no less in the 
thirteenth than Mukaddasi in the tenth. 
There was a bishop there who might even 
take a journey into Spain, like that other 
Syrian bishop whom S. Isidore confuted 
and convinced; as doubtless Benjamin of 
Tudela was not the only traveller to talk 
with men who had looked on idols. Euse- 
bius writing on the Theophany records that 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



the ancient worship was not yet abated. 
In the time of Valens the orgies 2 6 still went 
on. Now Theodosius followed Valens, and 
may well have had the same impulse as 
his contemporary Ambrose at Milan, to 
consecrate what he could not extirpate. 



Along the Eastern Road. 

Nimrod is lost in Orion, 
and Osiris in the Dog-Star, 
— Sir Thomas Browne. 

I have shown in earlier chapters how in 
certain aspects the sanctuary of Santiago 
resembles Jerusalem, as in the sepulchre 
and the chain, or Constantinople, as in 
the crown and the notion of three churches 
one over the other. These likenesses are 
deliberate. Other things included in Thur- 
kill's description have not been explained, 
as we can explain the weighing of the souls, 
and the devil on a great black horse. 
Chief of these are the stepped pool and 
the stairway through which you look up 
to the altar. That stairway was described 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



365 



Objects at 
Sion and 
Byzance 



Scales and 

White 

Horse 



The Great 
Stair and 
Pool 



366 



(Pages 205 
355) 



Our Lady 
of the 
Peak 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



by Lucian as he saw it at Hierapolis, and 
the great steps with the vista through the 
propylaeum and hexagonal court even into 
the Basilica of Theodosius, were there at 
Heliopolis likewise, and they were figured 
on the coins, * and they impressed Puchstein 
when he was digging for the German 
emperor. 2 The coin of Philip and the 
drawing of Mr. Pennell, which both adorn 
this book, express identical architectural 
inventions, and Aymery's description of 
the western staircase at Santiago supplies 
a third instance. The steps and the vista 
are not in the least Greek. There is 
nothing like them in any account of Jerusa- 
lem, they are found nowhere in Rome. At 
one shrine in France they may be seen, 
where the doors that close them at the foot 
were made by Syrian workmen, and that 
is the sanctuary of the Mountain Mother, 
Notre Dame du Puy. There were Syrian 
architects in Spain as well, along the 
Catnino francSs, and Sr. Lamp6rez postu- 
lated their share, although reserving his 
evidence, in the building of the cathedral 
at Compostella. 3 



HISPANIC NOTES 



THE BOURNE 



Let us not have over this, if any one is 
ever well-disposed toward the notion, such 
unseemly wrangling for precedency as in 
the case of Toulouse: let us say that in 
both cases the architectural impetus was 
Syrian, and the Storm God and the Moun- 
tain Mother alike were domiciled in the 
west. The consistent syncretism of the 
early centuries of our era was capable of 
this and more. 

The high god of Compostella had taken 
up into himself all the worships, all the 
devotions that reached his shrine, and they 
were many. They were borne in the dust 
of marching legions, of wandering peddlars, 
of returning pilgrims and crusaders. His 
sanctuary was like the Syrian goddess's, 
"with something of the traits of all others," 4 
Jerusalem, Byzance, and Baalbek. 

There is no other account that explains 
all the facts. There is no improbability d 
priori. The objection that in a Christian 
country S. James could not have come so 
near to being God, will hardly stand. His 
would not be the first devotion that thought 
it not robbery to be equal with God. The 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



367 



. . . Y aqud 
monie es la 
Iglesia 



donde os ha 
de velar 



368 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



early church when it was struggling for 
existence with all the other Syrian cults, 
and Egyptian, and Anatolian, and Asiatic 
from further east, was willing to identify 
Christ with the sun, 5 and on a glass the 
head of Christ is the rayed bust of Sol 
Sanctissimus. 6 The Manichaeans identi- 
fied Him with the sun: the Armenians then 
and still, it is credibly asserted, as Chris- 
tians have always worshipped the sun. 
S. Bridget in Celtic Ireland was identified 
with the Blessed Virgin Mary, 7 the local 
divinity with the exotic, she was called 
Mary of the Gaels, "the mother of my celes- 
tial king," and one verse of a hymn prays 
"that she will root out from us the vices 
of the flesh, she the budded rod, she the 
mother of Jesus." Reville and Cumont 
are authorities respectable even to the 
orthodox, and the facts about S. Bridget 
are given by Don Louis Gougaud in the 
Bibliothhque de V enseignement de Vhistoire 
eccttsiastique. These parallels have suffi- 
cient weight, it is hoped As late as the 
twelfth century the most astonishing 
implications were used for their emotional 

HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



THE BOURNE 



value at Santiago in Fulbert's Mass, and 
still more amazing phrases in Queen 
Elvira's donation fifty years earlier. S. 
James was still the high god, his was the 
worship and the kingdom, his the power 
and the glory. 

The ultimate fact is the worship: 8 reli- 
gions come and pass again; that changes 
not: 

As the soul whence each was born makes 

room for each, 
God by God goes out, discrowned and 

disanointed 
But the soul stands fast that gave them 

shape and speech. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



369 



The state 
of the case, 
page 488 



37o 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



I HISPANIC NOTES 



BOOKFOUR 371 



BOOK FOUR 

HOMEWARD 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



372 


WAY OF S. JAMES 




j 

1 

Now I face home again, very pleased and joyous, 
But where is what I started for so long ago, 
And why is it yet unfound? 

— Leaves of Grass. 


I 


HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



SUMMING UP 

I love and understand 
One thing: with staff and 

scrip 
To walk a wild west land, 
The winds my fellowship. 
— Lionel Johnson. 

Who goes in pilgrimage to a god must 
await his word: or soon or long, he can- 
not leave till he has his answer. It is well 
to abide in expectation, and make not haste 
in time of trouble. I have waited, some- 
times, on the great S. James, but I never 
went away without the word. And how- 
ever much a man had longed to set out 
upon the journey when spring came and 
he smelt the fresh clods in his own land, 
and with whatever delight he had packed 
a bag and taken passage in a ship, yet it was 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



373 



"Constant- 
ly abide" 



1 



374 



En Castillo, 
cotito antes 



regocijo de 
estudiantes 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



never without content, when the time came, 
that he turned his face toward home, 
"as one that travels toward the darken- 
ing east/' this being helped, perhaps, by 
a growing bodily weariness. Antonio had 
said, once, in our hearing, that you can't go 
through life as you go through a fair: 
Andar por el mundo como una romcria. 
I was going home, now, coming "back to 
do my day's work in my day." Like the 
pilgrims, who were wont to set out upon the 
return journey in the early morning, x I was 
ready betimes. 

Before leaving Galicia there were ac- 
counts to settle. Some Spaniards still 
assert, Sr. Casanova, for instance, that 
Santiago came down ready made like the 
New Jerusalem out of heaven. After read- 
ing all that could be secured of what he 
wrote and some others, and composing an 
exact and careful refutation of it, I have 
put that in the fire. The truth about San- 
tiago, Street declared, and Lamperez, and 
I have shown up perhaps a point or two, 
and Santiago can take care of himself. 
So I am not careful to denounce the ac- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



complished lady who has written of San- 
tiago in the series of the Mediaeval Towns. 
She gives herself away on every page, as 
one blind-folded whom the blind have led. 
As for the symbolism of the sculptures 
about the western door, they must be read 
in the light of the twelfth century: not 
what one thinks of one's self, but what the 
Middle Age thought, and read and recited 
must explain them. 



The Portico of Visions. 

Of stones full precious are 

thy walls, 
thy gates of pearles are tolde, 
There is that Alleluia sung 

in streetes of beaten gold. 
— W. Prid. 

I The theme of Master Matthew's porch 
is Apocalyptic, but the sources of the 
imagery are to be found less precisely in 
the twenty-first chapter of the Revelation 
of S. John the Divine than in the mediaeval 
literature of Visions, the Apocalypse of 
Paul, the Vision of Tundall and Thurkill's 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



375 



ddeite de 
romeros y 
alivio de 
caminantes 



The Gloria 



376 



Heaven- 
farers from 
of old 



Apocalypse 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Vision in especial. To Paul's Vision may 
be attributed three elements, of which the 
first is the company of the caressing angels 
who receive and defend the soul of the just 
man newly dead, and present it before God. 
Another passage explains the odd little 
figures set high on the door-jambs at the 
transept portals, by explaining their pro- 
totypes at Cremona. These are Enoch 
and Elijah, who receive the soul at the 
gates of the Heavenly City. Finally, in 
the midst of the city is an altar and there 
"David stands with harp in hands as 
master of the Quire " precisely as he sits 
on the outer wall at Orense, and sat once at 
Santiago before the facade was rebuilt. 1 
The Apocalypse of Paid is as old as the 
fourth century in Greek and was known to 
the whole western church. The two pass- 
ing quotations from a rendering of S. Peter 
Damian of which I have made much use, one 
about the angels and the trees and the other 
about David as choirmaster, may serve to 
illustrate its currency in the eleventh cen- 
tury. 
Tundall's Vision was seen in 1149 and 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOM E WAR D 



written before 1 1 53 : the striking parallel it 
offers to the north aisle door has been al- 
ready noted. The punishment of carnal 
sinners, 2 is equally close to the imagery of 
the south aisle door. Other passages fall 
pat to the pilgrims' story: 

They passed from that pain 
And comen to a great mountain, 
That was both great and high 
There on he heard a doleful cry: 3 

w 

and the Pont qui tremble is described: 
All quaking that bridge ever was. 4 

Lastly the insistence not only on the 
number but on the variety of musical in- 
struments in Paradise, explains the va- 
riety here in the archivolt, where at 
Moissac, for instance, you have simply 
two dozen fiddles. 

ThurkilTs Vision, s determined as it was 
by the accounts of returning travellers, 
supplies the fresh cool green stuff underfoot, 
beneath the sitting Christ and S. James, 
which, also, I think, is unique at Santiago. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



377 



. . . Quia 
incolaius 
mens pro- 
longatus est 



1 



378 



He made 
the world 



to be a 
grassy road 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



ThurkiU had greatly desired to make 
the pilgrimage to Compostella, as appears 
where S. Julian speaks of "Thy Lord S. 
James to whom thou hast already put it 
up in prayer ": he must have talked with 
returning pilgrims, and got together un- 
commonly detailed information about the 
place, which serves at times to complete 
our knowledge. In the account of the 
vision quoted with but little condensation 
from Ward's translation, in Appendix VII, 
I have indicated in brackets the bearing 
of the several details: — beginning with the 
Causeway, which is the camino de Santiago, 
and green grass unwithering, which is the 
path of redemption of sins, and corresponds 
to the scorched track that marked the 
way from Eden of Adam and Eve. 6 The 
church of Mountjoy is confused, as hearsay 
knowledge is usually, with the church of 
the Apostle, and the vista up the long steps 
and through the open door, even to the 
altar, confirms the theory that the first 
portal, at the west, was like that of Le 
Puy. 

If, as there seems a possibility, the idea 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



of that stairway and portal was carried to 
Santiago from Hierapolis, then Le Puy 
will have borrowed it. Indeed, Sr. Lam- 
perez has already pointed out that the 
doorway of S. Michel de 1' Aiguille, in the 
same town, so much resembles the cusping 
about the tribunes, outside the apse of 
Santiago, and so closely corresponds to 
that of what was once the Mihrab at Cor- 
dova, that we are justified in the hypo- 
thesis of an influence flowing northward 
into France, Hispano-Mahomedan in its 
nature. 7 



The Chantier. 

Par Dios, seHores, qui- 

temos el veto 
que turba y ciega asi 

nuestra vista. 
F errant Sanchez Talavera. 

Again, there is the question of the 
chantier. The cathedral works were a 
permanent corporation, or very nearly. 
Before or about the year iooo, the Spanish 
historians say, Spain was not so preoccu- 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



379 



before thy 
wandering 
feet 



I 



38o 



A white 
robe of 
churches 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

pied with terror of the end of the world, as 
were the northern peoples. Spain was occu- 
pied with Almanzor. But about the same 
time as the rest of Europe put on its white 
robe of churches, the Bishop and the King 
undertook to restore to S. James his sanctu- 
ary in better form. This was certainly 
not finished until the middle of the century, 
and by the end of the third quarter all 
was in train for the great rebuilding. The 
builders of Alfonso III were probably all 
Spanish or Oriental; the builders of the 
eleventh century knew Burgundy, for they 
planned for towers, and reared them. 
The absence of towers, reasoned Sr. Soler 
about Sahagun, is an argument that the 
builder was not French. The argument 
may count for what it is worth: S. Isidore 
has not twin western towers (possibly for 
special reasons) but'the building is admitted 
as French, and the elder part accepted 
for work of Ferdinand's dedication, 1063. 
That would make the elder Santiago and 
the elder S. Isidore quite contemporary. 
The point is, here, that though the great 
Santiago was not commenced before 1078, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



the chantier had already those characteris- 
tics which we have loosely called Benedic- 
tine and Burgundian Romanesque, and 
workmen were passing along the Way. 
Thus whatever is taken away with one 
hand, is restored with the other. The 
master-workmen of the twelfth century 
were trained in the great French monastic 
style that is often called Auvergnat, that 
produced S. Faith of Conques, S. Martial 
of Limoges, S. Sernin of Toulouse; and such 
smaller churches as those of S. Gaudens, 
Burlatz, Alet, Marcillac and Figeac; x they 
directed men who understood the style, 
for these had received from the same 
sources a little further up-stream. What- 
ever may be the case with the sculptures 
at Leon, there is no particular reason to 
suppose that the architect Petrus de Deo, 
who was buried at Leon in his church 
(consecrated 1149) was trained at Com- 
postella. Workmen must have passed 
along the roads and the better ones being 
fetched to Compostella would stay there, 
and not go home, so that S. Isidore, for 
instance, would get the first chance as 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



38i 



Bur- 
gundian 



Auvergnat 



Petrus de 
Deo 



I 



382 



Structure 

and 
decoration 
not always 
alike 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



they went by. But S. Isidore could 
import architects for himself, as we know 
that Avila did. 

As the workers in stone constituted a 
single craft, it is difficult to discuss the 
sources of architecture apart from sculpture. 
We have to remember, however, that, at 
any rate in lesser places, which depended 
on the Road for their supply, the structure 
and the decoration may be quite unlike. 
For instance, the decorative style of 
Santiago, in capitals, mouldings, flowers, 
cornices, and even figures, was used very 
widely: in parish churches that stay, 
structurally, as completely within their 
proper style as the English, like Noya; 
in straight Burgundian monastic, like 
Carboeiro; in pure cathedral-building, like 
Orense. The most surprising instance of 
this law occurred at Santiago, where on 
Auvergnat structure was imposed a Poite- 
vin scheme, and workmanship of Toulouse; 
the most absurd at Sanguesa, where on 
one portal the jambs go back to Chartres, 
the tympanum to Moissac, and the upper 
part to Poitou. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOME WAR D 



It has been proposed, unnecessarily as I 
think, to consider the portal sculpture at 
S. Isidore a back-wash from Santiago. The 
capitals go with the building, they are not 
Toulousan, but the tympana and figures 
about the doors belong, directly or in- 
directly, to the school of Toulouse. In 
discussing them I accounted for their ap- 
pearance in Leon, by a synthesis of what 
ivories, the antique, and the style of 
Toulouse could give. All over northern 
Spain, in the twelfth century, the style of 
Toulouse appears, from Soria to Oviedo, 
and in every halting-place along the pil- 
grim's road. Not all the workmen had 
seen Toulouse : the situation may be under- 
stood by considering the practice and the 
appearance in about 1895, of Impressionist 
painters in America who had never seen 
France, or in this year of grace, 191 7, of 
Futurists who know not Milan. In the 
twelfth century the wealth, as in the thir- 
teenth century the wretchedness, of Lan- 
guedoc, scattered its sons abroad. In the 
eleventh and the twelfth century the courts 
of the south were sought by everyone who 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



383 



The 

School of 
Toulouse 



384 



Trobadors 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



lived by the arts; and all the courts in turn. 
There was a current of trobadors circling 
in the great stream of pilgrims like a dance 
of motes in a ray of sunlight. Juan 
Rodriguez of Padron, Macias o N amor ado, 
and that Peter of Palencia who died of 
love for a grand-niece of Diego Gelmirez, 
will serve for one instance, the complete 
understanding of many and various instru- 
ments of music by quite provincial carvers, 
for another, of this free circulation of 
artists. In the end, the designation school 
of Toulouse, ceases to stand for locality 
and names a style: consider, for instance, 
the Christ, published by Senor Moreno, 
from 5. Maria de Tera, 2 or the pair of 
apostles from S. Juan de Rabaneyra, in 
Soria; the former is low provincial work, 
the latter very noble, both are entirely 
Spanish, but the style is Toulousan in the 
same sense in which Venetian marbles 
and Sicilian mosaics are Byzantine. The 
style is positive; easy to distinguish from 
that of Aries; not so easy, from that of 
Vezelay. At present it cannot be dated 
properly. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



Of the sculpture at Santiago we know 
nothing certainly earlier than the chantier 
of the present church. Of the carved 
columns and lintel that Alfonso HI im- 
ported, not a fragment has been found. 
They would have had elements perhaps 
immediately oriental, that are absent 
here. 

But the carving at the south door is not 
by Toulousan workmen. Some of it is 
provincial — the shafts, lovely though they 
be, conceived as decoration. A great deal of 
that which stretches across the face of the 
wall above, is affected by the school of 
Chartres. Between some of the figures 
high in the west corner, and the so-called 
King David of the Porte Royale, the 
likeness is strong, and when you have once 
caught it, then you see it also in the strange 
central figures of Christ and S. James. 
The placing of these great statues above 
the door and not about it, the absurd little 
saints fastened up on the jamb face as 
Brunehault hung her intending spouses 
on the wall, the plastic irrelevancy and 
incoherency of the tympana, are all marks 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



385 



The 

School of 
Chartres 



386 



Italian 
current 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

of provincialism: the chantier had more 
dexterity than imagination. The Cathe- 
dral, lying off there at the edge of the 
world, was rich as in a fairy tale: it could 
buy genius, but it could not buy centrality. 



Excursus on Some Twelfth Century Sculp- 
ture. 

Felix per otnnes Dei plebs ecclesias 
Devotee laudis Christo reddat hostias . . . 
— William, Patriarch of Jerusalem. 

We have seen, from time to time, an- 
other current than that of French architec- 
ture manifest itself, which is Italian, at S. 
Juan de la Pena and S. Cruz, Estella and 
Torres, Carrion and Moarbes, Leon, Tuy, 
possibly Armentia. At S. Sepulcro of 
Torres and S. Sepulcro of Estella there is 
positive borrowing, in the former case 
from Master Benedetto's tympanum of the 
Deposition, in the latter, of the Modena- 
Pistoja Last Supper. At S. Cruz and at 
Torres, as at Vera Cruz of Segovia, occurs 
the same odd device of piercing a window 
through two walls, one curved, at the 

HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



tangential point, and the only other cases 



of this I know, lie in Ban and the region 
round about or in Asia Minor. At S. 
Miguel of Estella the portal sculptures are 
carved on two wide steles that flank the 
jambs, as at S. Zeno of Verona and S. 
Biagio of Orvieto. 

The latter may be ignored, for it has a 
different life-history, the former deserves 
consideration. Work was begun in 1130, 
upon the church at Verona, and Master 
William and Master Nicholas are both 
named in inscriptions, the former as author, 
the latter as sculptor. They, or another 
pair of the same name, had worked at Lan- 
franc's Modena, begun 1099, consecrated 
1 106; and at Ferrara, 1135. The little fig- 
ures set in the mouldings of door-jambs at 
Ferrara 1 have a strong positive likeness to 
the school of S. Juan de la Pena. Though 
M. Emtle Male has proved the debt of these 
to France, yet no other work there has such 
a likeness that I know excepting that at 
Cremona, placed in 11 14, from which the 
Apostles of S. Miguel de Estella are copied, 
and also those of Verona. Elsewhere, 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



387 



Verona 



388 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



A Spaniard 

inFerrara 

ehantier 



Wayfaring 
themes 



I 



neither the figure sculptures nor the capi- 
tals resemble work in Spain. That looks 
as though a Spaniard had possibly worked 
in the ehantier at Ferrara. 

Northern motives came with French 
knights and pilgrims into Italy. The 
battle of Roncevaux was figured upon the 
pavement at Brindisi; northern knights 
like those of Modem on a side-door at 
Ban, where also are found two labours of 
the months. The labours and the knights 
are in conjunction at Modena in the 
Porta de la Peschiera, and here the knights 
are named: Arthur of Britain, Gawain, 
Kay, amongst others. Roland and Oliver 
stand on the outer door-jambs of Verona 
cathedral and at S. Zeno another cycle 
appears, where Theodoric as the Wild 
Huntsman rides to Hell. Bor jo S. Donnino 
is carved with pilgrimage themes: above 
the two prophets, angels lead journeying 
families, one rich, one poor, and on the 
tower is figured a long progress of kings. 
What happened in Spain was happening 
in Italy as well. Those grand prophets of 
S. Donnino, with their high cheekbones, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



389 



their curled and waving beards, their 
melon cap, who belong at earliest to the 
last quarter of the twelfth century, have 
nothing to do with the strange figures of 
Cremona, one with an Assyrian cap and 
beard, all without necks, who are not yet 
entirely disengaged from the rectangular 
slab. But they have much to do with the 
art of S. Denis that culminates at Chart res; 
compare them with the elders of the 
Apocalypse, the so-called King David. 2 
At Parma, close by, Master Benedetto 
worked long like a good Gothic artist. 
The tympanum and lintel of the Doom, the 
tympanum of the Epiphany, lead straight 
back into France. The Solomon and 
Sheba might be matched at Strassbourg 
and Pampeluna, but in the Solomon the 
features assume already the cast which is 
more marked by far in the seated prophets 
which make a pendant to the group, and 
which are grander if less lovely than the 
San Donnino figures. In the Deposition 
of the Parma cathedral, the Byzantine as- 
serts itself, seizing the opportunity in the 
slender figures of the Holy Women, just as 



AND MONOGRAPH S 



Another 
good 
Gothic 
artist 



390 



Meanwhile 
in France 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



at Armentla in Spain. All things con- 
sidered, I should make a hypothesis that 
work went on at the same time, at Parma, 
and S. Donnino, that the prophets were 
the culmination of that at Parma, and that 
those of S. Donnino came afterwards. 3 By 
this time the thirteenth century is well 
begun. 

Meanwhile the west front of Chartres, 4 
and the sculptures of Aries and S. Gilles, 
were long since finished. The artist who 
at S. Domingo de Silos, in the cloister, 
adapted the style of Toulouse to the rec- 
tangular panels of corners and buttresses 
must have known the cloister at Aries. 
There in Provence, in the north-west and 
the north-east angle, the space between the 
statues is filled by one or more scenes in 
relief. Lasteyrie cites an epitaph, in the 
north gallery, of 1165 s , that puts the 
work in the second third of the century. 
The reliefs at Armentla I believe were made 
with direct knowledge of those at Aries, 
for they have the same distribution into 
major and minor scenes, a larger and a 
lower relief, but there must have been 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



knowledge of the work at Silos also: a 
capital at S. Maria de Estibalez is identical 
with one at Silos. Lastly, it seems likely 
that men who had learned at Silos, worked 
in Estella, for the capitals of S. Pedro la 
Rua are copied after the abbey, and the 
portal of S. Miguel is decorated with reliefs 
disposed in large rectangles. But the 
workmen from Aragon who carved the 
figures at S. Miguel may well have known 
the arrangement at S. Zeno. 

There is, of course, documentary evi- 
dence that workmen from Lombardy passed 
into Spain. There is that Raymundo 
Lombardo whose contract Villanueva pub- 
lished, 6 who worked in Catalonia from 
1 1 75 with four other Lombardos, and as 
many masons. There are Lombard towers 
in the Valley of Andorra, in Catalonia, at 
Segovia, possibly at S. Isidore of Leon, 
certainly at Valladolid and Zamora. At 
Ripoll in Catalonia, as at S. Abbondio of 
Como, there are twin western towers. The 
builders seem to have gone where they 
were called, but they worked most in the 
wide domains of the kings of Aragon, who 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



391 



Master 

Raymond 

Lombard 



392 



Roman art 
in 

triumphal 
arches 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



had intercourse with Italy always. At 
Ripoll the architecture was as Lombard as 
at the Seo de Urgell, though double aisles 
and seven apses made something more 
magnificent, in its own way, than the Ital- 
ian models. Ripoll, like Silos, was mon- 
astic and not cathedral, by the way. The 
source of the facade I believe must be 
sought not in the arcaded portals of France, 
but in Italian memories of the antique. 
The one thing that it really looks like, is a 
Roman triumphal arch. There are found 
the narrative and dramatic reliefs, the 
figures grouped in a continuous relation, 
the superb frieze across the top. Into this 
is set, indeed, a church door instead of the 
open archway of the monument: the style, 
so far as it can, changes to correspond. 
The lions in the lowest range are the lions 
of Lombard porches: on the north side, the 
little fabulous figures below are found on 
the Parma Baptistery and on the south 
flank at Verona; the theme of David and 



his musicians was used by Master Bene- 
detto at Parma, later than this, and I dare 
say by mere coincidence. I see no reason 



HISPANIC NOTES 



H OME WARD 



to suppose that he knew Spain — if there 
were any reason, then the hypothetical 
Spaniard who worked at Ferrara might 
have passed through Ripoll first and then 
Parma, and in talking things over, have 
mentioned this. The labours of the months 
at Ripoll belong with the Italian and not 
the French series. 7 

In the past I have said that this great 
frontispiece was like a page of miniature, 
but I saw afterwards that it was not. It 
is like the Arch of Titus. To that Apo- 
calyptic Christ, above whose head the 
everlasting doors are lifted up, and his 
Apostolado y we must refer the lost first 
relief of the style of Carrion. I am dis- 
posed to place it, by hypothesis, in the 
porch of S. Zoyl. At Estella, as noted, 
the roof is lifted above the figure of Christ, 
in a curious imitation. The reliefs at 
Carrion and Moarbes are made for some 
similar exaltation. The style of those 
strange dancing figures, with solemn 
curled beards and priestly tiaras, like Asian 
hierarchs, is different from the sculpture 
of the narrative reliefs of Moissac and 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



393 



A hypo- 
thetical 
itinerary 



Apostolado 
at S. Zoyl 



394 



Adriatic to 
Atlantic 



WAY OPS. JAMES 



Toulouse on the one hand, and is related 
on the other to that at Ripoll. 

Yet one more note is needed, that carries 
the student from Grecian waters to Atlantic : 
the arrangement of wall-arcading at S. 
Nicholas of Ban is repeated on the north 
transept face at Tuy. The same grouping 
of arches, though the result is rather 
different, appears on the western doorways 
at Oloron and Vauvant, and in the Cloture 
S. Jean at Angers, with two doors under 
one wider circular arch, that leaves for 
tympanum a flattened figure bounded by 
three curves, one high and two re-entrant. 
Here, however, the interest is fixed on the 
wall-space; there, on the arching: this is 
the converse of that. 

Summing up it appears that: 

i. A current flowed in from Italy, 
that passed by the crusaders , route, from 
Brindisi through the Emilia and prob- 
ably around the Mediterranean shore: 
across the southern slope of the eastern 
Pyrenees. 

2. There was intercourse with Pistoja 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOME WAR D 



on account of S. James; with Parma and 
Ferrara because these lay on the Road; 
possibly with Verona and Modena, for 
the circulation was swift and strong in 
the north of Italy. 

3. Ripoll, and S. Juan de la Pefia, 
sent severally influences westward: that 
of S. Juan may be traced in the sculp- 
tures at Estella, the style in the north 
portal, and in parts of the western, at 
Leon, and is the source of the style of 
Soria and some of Carrion; the influence 
of Ripoll, and also of Toulouse via Ripoll, 
in S. Sepulcro of Estella and the Carrion 
group. 

4. The figures above the portal, on 
the transept at Santiago, owe something 
to Chartres but something to Carrion, in 
cast of feature and hair and beard. 

5. The figures of Master Benedetto at 
Parma and S. Donnino (if indeed the 
latter are his) and those of Master Mat- 
thew, are curiously alike in some ways, 
as is only natural since they both drew 
from the same sources. 

6. In Santiago, while Toulouse and 
Vezelay are strong, Carrion and Chartres 
are also present. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



395 



Recapitu- 
lation 



1 



396 



i. Transept 



2. Cloister 



3. Porch 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



Workmen of S. James. 

Mifia terra, mifia terra, 
mifia terra y-en ciqui, 
anxos do cey-o levaime 
d terra oud' en nacin. 
— Can tar Gall ego. 

At the time of the first consecration of 
Santiago, 1102, the transept portals were 
probably in use, though they need not have 
been completely finished. In France, how- 
ever, and I think in Spain, though not in 
Italy, the stone was usually carved before 
it was set. This may be observed at S. 
Pedro of Soria. In the time of Aymery 
Picaud, all three were completely finished, 
for he mentions no work going on. The 
carvers were probably, in the middle years 
of the century, engaged on the cloister: in 
1 168 Master Matthew began work on the 
Gloria. The date of 1 102 is important as a 
terminus ad quern for Chartres and Toulouse : 
these distant French chantiers are responsi- 
ble for work finished that year in Galicia. 
The style of Master Matthew is very 
different; racy, and in his pupils homely. 
He knew Vezelay as someone a century 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



before him had known Chartres: and Char- 
tres perhaps he even knew, for the great 
art there has left its mark on his figures. 
His genius could bend stone, flush it, warm 
it, but time and space were stronger. His 
genius, like Dante's, sums up the Middle 
Age, but the Gloria of Santiago, like the 
Divine Comedy, has not in any real sense 
fait tcole. 

It was copied, of course, with exactitude 
afr Orense, and once was deliberately imi- 
tated superbly at Avila. On the south 
porch of Avila the statues of a king and 
queen are copied from two at Autun that 
once adorned the shrine of S. Lazarus 1 : 
this I have already noted. But while the 
narthex (I think S. Lamperez has said it 
somewhere) is pure Burgundian, and the 
tympanum sculptures there are copied, 
like the scroll on the archivolt, from 
Avallon, and the draperies show a first- 
hand knowledge of work at Vezelay, the 
statues themselves turn and stand and 
hold converse together after the same 
wise as the Compostellan, and the Saviour 
on the central post (I have said this myself 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



397 



He went 
there, says 
Bertaux 



all the 
road and 
back again 



398 



A mingled 
style 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



in an article elsewhere) is fitter for a S. 
James. This last work at Avila, again, 
was copied for the central capital, above a 
plain post, at Leyre. 

In the article 2 on S. Marta de Tera full 
of illumination and suggestion, already 
referred to, Sr. G6mez Moreno will have it 
that the early sculptures at Santiago were 
executed by a supreme master from Con- 
stantinople, whose style spread all over 
the kingdom and finally reached Toulouse! 
There seems no way to meet a statement of 
this sort, except by a shorter and a harsher 
word which is spelled Bosh. The work at 
Compostella presents, a mixture, separable 
by analysis, of styles known in their purity; 
there appears a normal development, and 
imitation elsewhere later, but nothing an- 
tecedent; the dates alleged are untenable. 
French cathedrals were begun at the east 
end, and the Spanish that followed French 
models also, and an inscription confirms 
the fact here: now the ground on which the 
eastern chapel stands was not bought till 
1077. Lastly, there is truth in the neglected 
scholastic aphorism that a cause must be 



HISPANIC NOTES 



Pilgrims' Cross at Mellid 



HOMEWARD 



adequate to its effect: the art of Toulouse 
in the rich plain is the flowering of an 
exquisite, an exotic, a premature Renais- 
sance: not such the art of Santiago, in 
the granite hills. 

In the Gloria, the motive of the tym- 
panum is borrowed from southern France: 
from the Gloria the figures in the arch were 
in turn copied elsewhere. So little in Spain 
is dated with exactitude that I am unable 
to say whether this arrangement of the 
little figures on radii of a circle struck from 
the centre of the lintel, is Master Matthew's 
invention. If so, it passed into France up 
the road with the pilgrims almost as far as 
Anseis' messengers went. 3 It is found at 
Oloron, on the pilgrims' road, at Soria, 
where a king repeopled, at Zamora and Toro 
which have an architecture of their own; at 
Corunna and Betanzos in northern Galicia, 
applied to parish churches; at Carboeiro, 
adorning an alien style; at Puerto Marin, 
whither the pilgrims carried it; at Moraime 
in a hideous, at Noya in a beautiful imita- 
tion of the portal. There must be other 
instances: in brief, it was copied every- 



HISP ANIC N OTES 



401 



Ei semitas 
tuas edoce 
me 



402 



Orense 
passed on 
to Zamora 



Corullon 



WAY OF S. JA MES 



where. Right in the square before the 
porch and the door, in the sixteenth century 
it was strangely imitated at S. Jeronimo. 
I have said already how the whole Gloria 
was reproduced for the Paradise of Orense, 
and the nortn and south doors of that 
cathedral show later adaptations of the 
motives of the northern door, the Paradise 
of Santiago, fresh and fragrant and charm- 
ing. 

The porch at Tuy is not influenced in the 
least by Santiago; it does not belong in 
that class. It is a Gothic portal, and was 
designed like Burgos, Leon, Osma and 
Toledo; itself it probably determined the 
rich and beautiful side-portal built in the 
thirteenth century for S. Seurin of Bor- 
deaux. 

The capitals of Santiago, like the An- 
cients, were copied, and with more success. 
Sr. G6mez Moreno thinks he recognizes 
the school at Corullon, in the Vierzo, which 
was consecrated in 1 186. There were ways 
and time enough for the style to get there, 
for a parish church, I suppose, may also en- 
joy consecration before the last stone is 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



polished, and doors may even be built 
after a fabric is completed. This of S. 
Esteban opens under a western tower, 
quite in the manner of the region round 
about, and the capitals are, as we say, not 
so bad: I had thought them simply Rom- 
anesque. 

The other cathedrals of Galicia, Mon- 
dofledo and Lugo, Tuy and Orense, have 
also seemed to me, in their most important 
aspect, simply Romanesque, with a greater 
debt, or a less, to France, determined in 
each case by the history of the see. They 
are reserved for another book. But Senor 
Lamperez has analyzed so admirably, in a 
periodical so nearly inaccessible, the grad- 
ual absorption of the French elements and 
the production, by a change comparable to 
the chemical, of a true style, that it seems 
not irrelevant to summarize briefly his work : 

In studying the five Gallegan cathedrals, 
Santiago, Lugo, Tuy, Orense, and Mon- 
donedo, the distinguished architect begins 
by recalling the surprising instances of 
archaism in Galicia, cloisters like that of 
S. Francisco, in Lugo, built in the fifteenth 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



403 



A chymical 
marriage 



So D. 

Vicente 

Lamperez 



404 



Two 
currents 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



century with marked analogies to such 
very ancient ones as those of S. Juan de 
la Peria and Gerona. At S. Maria del 
Azogue, of the fourteenth century, in Be- 
tanzos, is a portal absolutely Romanesque; 
at S. Martin of Noya, of the fifteenth, the 
fagade presents forms and lines proper to 
the castUlos-iglesias of the twelfth, and the 
portal is inspired from Santiago directly; 
the pillars of S. Maria of Pontevedra are 
an exact translation into sixteenth century 
Plateresque of the bases, brackets and 
supports of the twelfth century Roman- 
esque. Two currents co-exist in Gallegan 
architecture, the Santiaguese and the real 
French Gothic; hence certain anachron- 
isms. Lugo shows the conflicting currents : 
pillars, vault and capitals in the radiating 
chapels, are full of reminiscences of the 
archaic Gallegan Gothic: the piers of the 
sanctuary, with a cylindrical core and 
chapiteaux & crochets, show the direct 
influence of a purer French style. Tuy 
was going to be completely Compostellan, 
in aisles, pillars, vaulting, tribunes, and 
system of ornament, and so it was up to 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



the crossing, but when the builders came 
to the eastern and upper part, a current of 
exoticism passed over Tuy. The piers grew 
complicated, ribbed vaults were built, and 
the triforium gallery, which inside is like 
Santiago and Lugo, now opens upon the 
nave by a fine arcade of the purest French 
Gothic. The art of Tuy is transitional in 
two senses: as a mingling of elements, 
having begun Romanesque and then been 
prepared for Gothic, and as a mingling of 
schools, beginning Compostellan, and ac- 
quiring French traits. The cloister has 
Gothic lines and Romanesque details, that, 
like a cloister at Orense (now built into a 
vestiary), represent the Gothic cloister 
tradition over against the Romanesque 
of the Franciscan cloisters of the region. 
Orense was begun about 1132: the three 
apses were demolished in the sixteenth 
century to build the present ambulatory 
and chapels; girola is the pretty word, 
allied to Villars's charolle, for which we 
have no English. The form of the plan 
and the composition of the piers show 
that it should have been Romanesque 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



405 



Tuy 



Orense 



406 



— and 
Toledo 



Mon- 
dofiedo 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



with aisle vaults groined and the nave a 
pointed barrel-vault. It had a wooden 
roof at first; in the second third of the 
thirteenth century it was roofed with rib- 
vaulting, and the diagonal ribs descend 
on culs-de-lampe. Without triforium, the 
church gets* direct light from the high nave, 
and by this belongs to the French transi- 
tional (romdnico-ojival) style, and is by so 
much the less Compostellan. The lantern 
of the crossing, begun in 1499 by Roderick of 
Badajoz, unites two systems, the Christian 
and the Mohammedan. It has a primary 
system of arches interlaced which leaves a 
space in the centre, covered in turn by a 
secondary system of arches which come 
to a keystone. This example of Mude^ar 
in Galicia is precious, for instances are 
rare; among them, the roofing of the 
transept of S. Francisco at Lugo, and the 
stairway of the college of S. Jerome in 
Santiago. At Mondonedo the vaulting 
shows the two systems, Compostellan and 
French, combined and not mixed, marking 
the complete progression of the style. On 
the whole, except for the presence of a 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



triforium arcade, within which exist tri- 
bunes spanned by quadrant arches under 
cover, the style is very near to the Cister- 
cian, pure and untroubled, 4 

A process of this kind, by which an early 
influence is received, reacted upon, and 
made a part of the living whole thereafter 
to appear in contrast with a later influence 
from the same source, is reasonable and 
common. History and literature are made 
out of it. There the case rests. 



Sorting. 

Santiago de Galicia 
Espallo de Portugal 
Axudadme d veneer 
esta balalla real. 

Looking back over the whole long jour- 
ney, the churches are recalled in groups 
which correspond to their function rather 
than geography. Beginning with cathe- 
drals, the list reads, Jaca, Pampeluna, 
Vitoria, Burgos, Leon, Astorga. Of these 
the first is the most isolated and also the 
eldest, it is contemporary with the great 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



407 



Sorted by 
styles 



4o8 



So at Car- 
boeiro 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



abbeys: the last is not ot the Middle Age. 
The others are French immediately, with 
all their rich local tone and difference in 
sculptural style. . 

Two monastic churches, of unparalleled 
power and great wealth, betray French 
builders, Las Huelgas, and Villa-Sirga. 
With these should be connected two city 
churches, S. Pedro in Vitoria, of which the 
portal is cathedral (though the interior 
approaches the typical Spanish lofty late 
Gothic), and S. Maria de Cambre, close to 
Corunna, as French as the east end of 
Lugo within, but quite strange and in some 
ways Gallegan in the fagade. 

Eunate and Torres, built for knights of 
the Holy Sepulchre, are more like each 
other than anything else, though the former 
is Romanesque and regional, the latter 
ogival and exotic. 

The roll of great abbeys is overpower- 
ing: S. Juan de la Pefia, Leyre, Irache, 
Fromista, S. Zoyl of Carrion, Benevivere, 
Sahagun, S. Pedro de las Duenas, S. Isidore, 
Samos, with these counting S. Lorenzo de 
Carboeiro because it copied Santiago. At 

HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



S. Juan the church was pre-Romanesque, 
the cloister of a Romanesque not perfectly 
explained but possibly Italian, another 
cloister Romanesque of the great French 
school that carved S. Eutropius at Saintes, 
Fontevrault, Aulnay, and a hundred other 
churches. Leyre is Poitevin, with a facade 
planned in the Poitevin style but Toulousan 
carving. Like S.- Juan, it stands not on 
the road, but up among the hills, and Uju6, 
on its hilltop crown, visible from half over 
Navarre, it almost seems, has the same 
Poitevin east end. Irache is transitional 
building, with the oddest suggestions of 
Cistercian despite the dome and apses that 
recall on the one hand the Salamantine 
group, on the other the domed churches 
of Souillac and Solignac, and with a possible 
Syrian strain. Fr6mista is domed in 
another way, also oriental, but otherwise 
French, eleventh century, with a pair of 
little Poitievin bell-turrets at the west. S. 
Zoyl of Carrion keeps nothing but the 
base of the belfry from the pilgrims' time: 
that window belongs with Frdmista: pro- 
bably S. Zoyl, which was bigger, was more 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



409 



Abbeys 



4io 



The richer, 
the more 
French 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



nearly transitional; Benevivere also. They 
were near together and near to Sahagun; 
they were Benedictine, in close relation 
with Cluny; they were rich, and it would 
seem, though not a law, yet a rough rule, 
that the richer the church, the more French. 
From Burgos to Leon was the very middle 
of the Way, crowded as Charing Cross: 
grandly the abbeys builded in Romanesque 
fetched from France. Sahagun was Bur- 
gundian Romanesque, and so was S. Pedro 
de las Duenas, which was to it as moon- 
light unto sunlight. Like the great mother 
church, these had a central tower. S. Isi- 
dore, narthex, apse and nave, is in the 
French style of the west, and as I write 
these lines the chisels are tinkling, the 
hammers are tapping, to free the imprisoned 
capitals of the original cloister from plaster 
and mortar that held them so long lost. Of 
Samos I know nothing but the present 
fabric: it was not directly on the feoad, but 
I should like to be sure whether tramping 
figures like Peter of Corbie and William 
the Englishman, did not design and rear 
the earlier church of S. Julian. S. Lorenzo 



HISPANIC NOTES 



L 



HOMEWARD 



de Carboeiro, is structurally, of the noblest 
Burgundian building that holds in its 
grand forms the seed of white Cistercian. 

Conventual and Collegiate churches may 
be classed together by the conditions of 
their organization and their endowment. 
S. Cruz de la §er6s, with much likeness to 
Jaca, and some noble Spanish traits, yet 
points to France by lantern and domical 
vaulting; Sanguesa is as curious within as 
outside, without counting the beautiful 
lantern, worthy to name with those of 
Orense and Tarazona; it has parallel apses 
and aisles almost as lofty as the nave, but 
no transept and no west end: the capitals 
at the east are archaic Spanish types, those 
in the nave, of a perfected kind that may be 
Spanish still. S. Domingo de la Calzada 
originally was in the same style as the 
minor cathedrals of Siguenza, Osma, and 
Tarazona, with girola and without towers; 
the origin of that style, nearer or more 
remote, is the French of France. Not- 
withstanding the importance of the foun- 
dation and the splendours of the monastic 
building, perhaps the church of Irache 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



411 



Conventu- 
al and 
Collegiate 
churches 



412 



Right 
Spanish 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



should for architectural reasons have been 
considered here. Castrojeriz is, as I under- 
stand, of a stubborner fashion, liker to S. 
Quirce in the oakwoods south of Burgos, 
and S. Juan in the thickets north of 
Burgos: like in the quality of building and 
the cutting of stone, that is to say, for S. 
Quirce has a dome and S. Juan has no 
nave, though it was grandly planned ; 
and S. Maria has flowered into a glorious 
rose. This style, derived originally from 
France, as appears the moment structural 
elements are examined, has become Castil- 
ian of the soil, just as the Compostellan 
has become Gallegan of the rock; it is 
Spanish by an adoption as fierce and in- 
domitable as when warriors gashed their 
arms and mingled the blood in one cup to 
drink. S. Maria del Camino, of Carrion, 
represents an earlier stage in the develop- 
ment of this. Here also fall the two 
churches near Vitoria, S. Andres de Armen- 
tia, with sculpture of Languedoc left from 
the old portal, beast-headed Evangelists 
in the pendentives, and capitals carved 
with the lusty beasts that flourished from 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



Saintes to Soria. In S. Maria de Estibalez 
the single nave and the dome recur, but 
the capitals within, while some are oriental, 
are some of the archaic school of Clermont- 
Ferrand, and the transept-face must be 
compared with Aulnay. The little church 
of the Sar, in a marsh below Compostella, 
with three barrel vaults of equal height, 
and a rising lintel, like Conques, finds 
parallels' and prototypes in the churches 
of the Charente. Though Armentia was 
once a cathedral, these three last named 
come very near to the grander sort of 
parish church: that of Barbadelo, for 
instance; and the pilgrims' church of S. 
Maria de Mellid should be compared with 
these near Vitoria. 

In the towns flourished and flowered 
every lovely sort of parish church, slender, 
lofty, and exquisite. The style is at last 
completely Spanish. The earliest examples 
of it, e. g., S. Miguel and S. Pedro in 
Estella, have, the one, a pure and north- 
ern sort of apse under pointed arches, the 
other apsidioles that recall Aquitaine; the 
loveliest, the three Maries of Najera, 



413 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Town 
styles 



r 



414 



The con- 
clusion of 
the whole 
matter 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Logrono, and Vitoria, pass by sensible 
stages into something rare and royal. In 
Puente la Reyna, Burgos, Fr6mista, Car- 
rion, Roncesvalles, these blossom like a 
hawthorn-bush, lift up their heads like 
palm trees by the waterside. Leon has its 
homely type of parish church, Galicia its 
granite chapels. Puerto Marin stands 
alone, French building of another sort. 

In the twelfth century the great abbeys, 
in the thirteenth the cathedrals, imported 
their builders. The monastic and collegi- 
ate foundations imitated so far as they 
could afford, but the Spanish leaven works 
more here, and here a very noble Roman- 
esque style, in a very real sense Spanish, is 
dominant. The burgher churches, mostly 
much later in date, are strictly Spanish 
and almost Renaissance: but they are 
made out of all that had gone before. The 
whole entrance of Cistercian, and the 
Friars' Gothic of Galicia, though they 
contributed to fifteenth-century art, are 
apart from the present question, as the 
monuments are apart from the camino 
francos. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



One other question must be considered 
briefly: the appearance of certain decora- 
tive elements not Latin, nor Byzantine, 
nor French, nor Syrian: the braid, the 
plait, and the twisted cord or rope, and the 
twisted and plaited knot that appears as a 
separate or separable ornament like the 
rosette and the helix, and has the same 
standing as honeysuckle and lotus, guil- 
loche and meander. Courajod had in- 
vestigated some of these elements shortly 
before he died, and he called them Northern 
and Scandinavian: had he lived longer, he 
might have exchanged the last word for 
Siberian. The twist and the knot both, 
are claimed for Gallo-Roman and proved 
for Frankish, they figure in Merovingian 
remains and on fibulae and brooches. 1 
They are found on pillars at Cravant. They 
are on the crowns of Guerrazar; they are 
also on the churches of Leyre and Sanguesa. 
One such knot is carved on a capital at 
Constantinople, as adorning an angers 
breast. 2 The marshy head of the Adriatic, 
like the mountain shore of the Asturias, 
need only be named, Cividale with Oviedo. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



415 



The knot 
and the 
twist 



1 



416 



From 

Colchis' 

Strand 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



If they are found in Gothland, and in the 
lands of -Ostrogoths and Visigoths, where 
did they take their rise? I was at some 
pains to disengage the Scandinavian ele- 
ment in Gallegan lore, precisely, because, 
by whatever road that came, these too 
might travel. If we could know for sure 
that it came after a thousand years, as 
some will have it, whence came the Golden 
Fleece, what good would that do? 3 The 
art would still be one alien to all that we 
mean by Gothic, which is an art purged, 
refined like silver thrice; and to all that we 
mean by Romanesque, grand with antique 
strength, precious with strange gifts from 
the East. It has no part in the glory of 
religion and of Spain: — Burgos massy and 
mighty, Leon all on flame, high-lying 
Orense, Tuy that the brimming Mino 
bathes, broad-girted Lugo, Santiago varonil. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



II 

MA CALEBASSE, C'EST MA 
COMPAGNE 

Pry thee tell me, how does 
the good Man S. James do? 
and what was he doing? 

— Why, truly, not so well 
by far as he used to be. 

— What's the Matter, is 
he grown old? 

— Erasmus' Familiar Colloquies. 

When Charlemagne came back from 
Spain, says Turpin's Chronicle, he dis- 
tributed the treasures he had taken among 
certain churches. At S. Romain de Blaye 
there are masses that he founded (it was 
said) for all those who should receive mar- 
tyrdom in Spain, and S. Denis promised 
eternal glory to those who had died or 
should die in the Saracen wars of Spain. 1 
These masses and vigils, these solemn feasts 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



417 



418 



Ask 

Siegfried 
Sassoon 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



with long-drawn neuvaine and triduum lead- 
ing up to them, were there the peculiar 
advantage of the good knights who crossed 
the mountains in the eleventh and the 
twelfth century. Knights of the Temple 
and the Hospital, Crusaders of Ferdinand 
the Great, and Alfonso VI, companions of 
My Cid Ruy Diaz, and of the Lord of 
Battles, Alfonso of Aragon, could count on 
them in some sort to neutralize things that 
happened at the taking of Toledo and 
Valencia, for instance, which they would 
not have liked to remember, which might 
not have let them sleep o* nights. In the 
heat of blood they did the best they could, 
and the outcome they could "throw on 
God, He loves the burthen." The Free 
Companions who took Peter's money to 
fight Henry, or Henry's pledges to fight 
Peter, were probably just as sure of drawing 
steadily from this same safe investment. 
The Black Prince, in Froissart, regularly 
opens battle with a prayer. 

The very poor, who went on the pilgrim- 
age to keep a vow made in mortal danger, or 
in youth because the fever of wandering 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOME WAR D 



was in the blood, or in age because there 
was no place else to go, the house having 
been burnt or sold, the earning capacity 
dropped below zero, the friends or child- 
ren's children tired of supporting a useless 
mouth, these probably expected little but 
what each day brought. But the bourgeoi- 
sie got infinite satisfaction out of the re- 
collection, and a kind of social status, such 
as membership in the Stone Church, or the 
First Presbyterian or the Old Swedes, in a 
class of American towns, affords. France 
was full of confraternities of the returned, 
which may have been mutual benefit 
societies but certainly were occasions of 
pleasure, and celebrated, besides, the 
monthly Mass and the annual banquet, 
and in some cases an evening meeting once 
a month, like the Royal Arcanum, or the 
Scottish Rite. 

The Confrerie des Pelerins de S. Jacques, 2 
in Paris, was founded some time before 
1298, but up to July, 1313, it was a mod- 
est confraternity of returned travellers 
with one annual mass at S. Jacques-la- 
Boucherie: then the king gave them the 



AND MON OGRAPHS 



419 



. . . Mas es 

preciso 
tetter buen 
lino 



para andar 
eslajornada 



>**aivw«n-if« 



420 



Confririe 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



right to assemble and deliberate their 
affairs. This was Louis le Rutin, short- 
lived, who left the throne to brothers deeply 
concerned with Spanish relations. Queen 
Jehane, the wife of Philip the Long, was 
much interested, but indeed king and 
princes and great lords together, found it 
expedient to enroll, for the confraternity 
grew to power and wealth. At the outset, 
however, royalty had a personal interest. 
Small wonder that Kings of Navarre pro- 
moted the travel; it meant more to the 
mountain kingdom than the Union Pacific 
to the States half a century ago. Under the 
date of 1324 exists a list of persons pledged 
to give in order to found, in the chapel, four 
places of chaplains; there were also be- 
quests, and some odd gifts in kind, e.g., 
thirty days of a mason and his assistant 
for building. The first large meeting was 
held on December 15, 1318, in the meeting 
place of the Butchers, the chapter-room 
of S. Jacques-la-Boucherie. Candles were 
provided, a good fire, and a sentier and a 
half of wine, the first items in accounts 
kept for four and a half centuries. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



In that year they had acquired the land 
near the Porte S. Denis, and the first stone 
was laid February 18, 1319, by the Queen. 
Robert de Lannoy began at once on the 
twelve apostles, and painted and gilded a 
great S. James: as the work was finished it 
was brought on a boat to the Louvre, and 
thence carried through the streets, child- 
ren singing before it. The church had three 
aisles, of five bays, a window above each 
pointed arch, chapels around the ambula- 
tory, a timber roof, and statues everywhere. 
It was not demolished till 1808, and five 
of the statues are still at the Cluny. The 
foundation included a cloister, the lodging 
for the canons or chaplains, a hospital, and 
a cemetery. The great banquet fell on the 
first Sunday after S. James's Day: a shed 
was put up for the tables, but then awnings 
had to be stretched on every side beyond. 
In 1338, 900 sat down, in 1340, 1080, in 
1341, 1273. The scraps went to the poor 
and, besides, a collection was taken up. 
Every beggar that day got something; in 
1324 there were 300 beggars. The estab- 
lishment, quite naturally, was down on 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



421 



City 
banquets 



422 



Compi&gne 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



the banquet, which fell into discredit and 
then disuse. In the year 1368 it had 
harboured 16,690 pilgrims. Finally, like 
other vested interests, the Revolution 
cleared it away. What became of the 
trtsor, rich both in relics and jewels, I do 
not know. Probably the establishment 
knew something. 

At Compiegne the confraternity acted a 
mystery play every year: it figures fre- 
quently in the town accounts from 1466 
to 1539. The members acted "la vie et 
mistere Saint James en personnages selon 
la legende," and these plusieurs jeunes 
compaignons de ceste ville were not paid, 
but their expenses were reimbursed, for 
scaffoldings, costumes, clothes, which may 
mean stage hangings, wax, torches, light 
and minstrels. It was a good deed; "pour 
Thonneur de Dieu et de Monseigneur S. 
Jacques et pour la recreation du populaire 
de la ville et des villaiges k Pentree d'icelle 
ville et ainsi qu'il est de coustume ancienne 
et par chascun an." This confraternity 
lapsed in the eighteenth century and was 
refounded in the church of S. James by one 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



Jean Raux, who possibly had made the 
journey in 1692. 3 

In 161 5 certain citizens of Moissac, who 
had made this pilgrimage, established a 
confraternity in honour of Monseigneur 
S. Jacques. The members, who had to be 
townsfolk in good standing, had all made 
the journey: they were bound to assist (in 
the French sense) at offices and funerals in 
a broad-brimmed hat, enfarolado, turned up 
after the familiar fashion. Even as late as 
1830 the figure of a pilgrim in cloak and 
hat, with staff and scrip, led the procession 
of the parish of S. James, on the day of 
Corpus Christi. 4 At Bordeaux the society 
existed before 1493, and at the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century there were 
still more than eighty members. It 
met in a chapel of S. Michael's church, 
dedicated originally to S. Apollonia but 
long since abandoned to the Apostle, and 
altered and reconsecrated April 29, 161 2. 
The society was dissolved at the Revolu- 
tion of 1830: Bordeaux museum possesses 
several of the jet tokens more prized 
by collectors now than once by pilgrims, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



423 



Moissac 



Helper and 
Wayfarer 



1 



n 



424 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Hunc 
ignem 
Populus . 



suetus sub 
dominis 
vivere bar- 
baris 



and among them a lovely figure of the 
saint. 5 

But even in the sixteenth century the 
pilgrimage had fallen off. In 1557 a pam- 
phleteer demands that the pilgrims' hos- 
pices in Paris shall be put to other use, 
"seeing that at the present time there be 
no more pilgrims going the said voyages 
and that the founders 1 intent was not that 
they should stand thus useless while the 
real poor are robbed of their revenues." 6 
In 1671 and 1678 Louis XIV, as noted 
earlier, forbade any pilgrim to set out with- 
out a permit signed and countersigned, 
royal and episcopal sanction. In 1738, 
dating from August 1, pilgrims are for- 
bidden, armed or otherwise, to go to S. 
James or elsewhere, or leave the kingdom, 
without express leave from king and bishop. 
In 17 77 five pilgrims of Monblanc (near 
Montpellier) were arrested, stripped, and 
sent to the workhouse at Pau. M. de 
Tray wrote, reporting the incident, on this 
occasion, "I make it a rule to take from 
these people everything I find, their goods, 
papers, gourds, leather capes, etc., and I 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



never give them back but tear them up and 
burn them, to make them understand they 
are getting off easily, since the king's orders 
about the pilgrimages, renewed by Mgr. 
d'Aine your predecessor, condemn pilgrims 
to the galleys for life. They get off cheap 
with the workhouse." 6 The Declaration 
of Independence had been signed already. 
The Revolution was only fifteen years off. 
Sr. L6pez Ferreiro has enumerated, 
unfortunately without dates, the numerous 
churches that in various countries were 
dedicated to S. James. In Italy he finds 
thirty-one, in Prance forty-two, in Belgium 
fifty-two, in Germany about fifty. The 
diocese of Liege alone had, counting chapels 
also, forty-five; the diocese of Breslau the 
surprising number of seventy-three; that 
of Prague forty. In England there are at 
present forty-four. 7 This sort of enumera- 
tion is unprofitable: it may end with a 
quaint bit of history: in the middle of the 
eleventh century the Consuls of Bremen 
offered to send every year a delegate to 
Santiago to represent them. The Pil- 
grimage was to the Middle Age, amongst 



425 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



jam liber 
sequitur 
longa par- 
via 



426 



Wayfarers 
talk 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



other things, a perpetual Centennial and 
Columbian Exposition, with the same 
business opportunities. But the Spaniard 
cannot seize them, for he cannot get himself 
liked. The score of early travellers whom 
I have read, did all most wonderfully hate 
Spain. 8 The road, George of Einghen 
found in 1457 sumamente penoso: the Span- 
iards themselves have a proverb about the 
fare encountered along it, Catnino francis, 
venden gato por res. English travellers are 
the loudest in their complaints, the most 
outrageous-mannered: Purchas's Pilgrim is 
chiefly concerned about getting the right 
change, and cannot call any of the foreign 
names right. Queen Mary Tudor's phy- 
sician is as splenetic in the sixteenth century 
as Dr. Tobias Smollett in the eighteenth, 
though the last, unluckily for readers, 
escaped Spain. Notwithstanding, it was 
an Englishman, the delightful Howell, who 
wrote in a temper of praise and honest 
liking that we ourselves might well emulate: 

But let the French glory never so 
much of their country as being the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



richest embroidery of Nature upon earth, 
yet the Spaniard drinks better wine, 
eats better fruits, wears finer cloth, hath 
a better sword by his side, goes better 
shod, and is better mounted than he. 9 

Par ende digamos en oraqion 

pater nosier et abe Maria et 

Credo in Deum 



amen. 



10 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



427 



So Howell 



I 



428 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



III 

THE TWO ROADS 



The green road and the 
grey road, they show no 
track. — Fiona Macleod. 



A learned German once thought that 
he saw the tombs, at Blaye, where Ro- 
land was buried alongside of Holyfernes; 
the occasion of the misunderstanding being 
Roland's horn Olifauni. Jehane, knowing 
that it was formerly shown at S. Seurin of 
Bordeaux, would have the lad exhibit it 
who took us about, being called for the 
purpose from sweeping up the church. He 
was a very quiet and care-worn Ion, who 
knew his Gallo-Roman treasures in the 
crypt, and his Merovingian, and to her 
question replied with discretion that others 
had enquired, but he did not know where it 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



HOMEWARD 



was, and indeed had never talked with any 
who remembered seeing it. That horn was 
sounding in our ears, day after day, among 
the steep defiles, the dark green cork trees, 
of Childe Harold's Spain, at Pancorbo and 
Villafranca, past Hernani where another 
French clarion caught up the falling echo, 
along the strands and shores, ringed in by 
blue and. vaporous mountains, where the 
grey sea chafes on every headland, and 
sleeps in every bay, from Fuentarabia to 
Bayonne. 

I was not careful to follow the confused 
trails along this road: James Cayley is no 
company for me, and that man of parts and 
of humour, Charles Marriott, was bent for 
Bilbao and not for Santiago. But Vitoria 
I sought out because the cathedral was 
said to be copied after Leon, and I had my 
reward, though not at the cathedral, which 
is a poor thing. 

The town itself is delightful, with that 
bright cool northern quality, so commonly 
and so pleasantly encountered in travelling 
about a country, which should teach us that 
such things as north and south, though one 



AN D MONOGRAPHS 



429 



Hernani 



Vitoria 



430 



Servus, 
gracioso 
and mozo, 
all one 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



may think them geography, are really only 
politics. The streets were so broad, the 
houses were so neat, the parks were so 
verdant, everything was so clean! A mozo 
in corduroy from the diligence began by 
carrying the little bag for me to a hotel 
large and fair and furnished, like a French 
provincial inn, and thereafter turned up on 
the sidewalk, in every nick of time, like the 
servant in classical comedy, till he had 
called for the same little bag on the third 
day and bestowed the owner thereof in 
safety on top of the yellow motor-omnibus 
again. He was conversational, he was well- 
informed, he desired to please: now those 
are not traits of the Castilian, nor the men 
of Aragon, nor the GaUegans. Certainly it 
seemed these first days Vitoria was not 
Spain but somewhere else, with a complete 
upper town, of trees that hung over high 
walls and grass-grown streets, Gothic 
oriels and Renaissance portals, safely set 
away, high up. The mozo could conduct, 
by divers ways, past every proud and pre- 
cious remnant of an idolized past, for beside 
the pride of the three Provincias vasconga- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOME WAR D 



das, the very top and front of Castilian 
pride looks small and slight. On the broad 
steps which, dividing, about the church of 
S. Miguel and enclosing it as a stream en- 
closes the rock-grown birch and harebell, 
might have given a lesson to the architect 
of Lourdes — on these long stairs I met one 
day an Old Soldier, and ventured to put a 
question of ceremony. Remembering what 
excuse the rival servants in Verona made 
for quarrelling one night, I asked, not when 
it was fit to take or yield the wall, but 
simply if, when two people met, each 
turned to the right. "Surely," said he, as 
if he said "we are Christians here," and un- 
covered his white head, and was going on 
his way, when a sudden thought turned 
him up-hill again. "That rule is modified 
by courtesy," said he. "If I, coming up 
here, met you coming down, I should have 
to turn out to the left, to leave you the 
wall." So the lesson first learned from 
insolent old ladies who held the wall stub- 
bornly and had to be walked around, like 
a post or a broken motor-car, had another 
ending. Old use dies hard, and women are 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



431 



Yielding 
the wall 



432 



A chantier 

in 
operation 



WAY OP S.JAMES 



the last to quit it, and many a bourgeoise 
will take the wall of a strange woman, but 
old courtesy is yet living, and warm at 
heart to the stranger/ 

They are building in Vitoria a New 
Cathedral in the lower town, at the oppo- 
site end from the railway station, and a 
man at the chantier said that the Old Cathe- 
dral had nothing of value. He was nearly 
right. Built in the second half of the 
fourteenth century, too new by half for the 
sleepy air, the quiet square, the soundless 
houses, up there in the blue where the 
tower sails among white clouds, it replaces 
a castillo-iglesia, or perhaps two, but was 
not, however, cathedral, for Vitoria had 
no bishop. The Catholic Kings made it 
collegiate in 1496. 

It is entirely possible that the building 
was begun by Bishop Juan del Pino of 
Calahorra, a great builder and a good one, 
who rebuilt the episcopal palaces in Vitoria 
and Calahorra, and the cloister in S. Dom- 
ingo de la Calzada. He ruled only eleven 
years, but he enjoyed the reversion of three 
sees, apparently, for Armentia had been 



HISPANIC NOTES 



N 



HOMEWARD 



the seat while Calahorra was lost, and S. 
Domingo when it was insecure. The date 
would suit. The church has suffered 
earthquakes, whereby low arches span 
all the aisles and spoil all the vistas; and 
restorations, whereby it is smug and 
clean as a maid-servant going to church. 
At any time the leafage of the capitals 
can hardly have been fresh or picturesque, 
for that mid-fourteenth century work 
suggests mid- June, the heavy scent of 
cabbage roses and the thick and breathless 
trees. The plan is curious, not quite 
successful, but beautiful in the perspective 
of arches that open and vaults that with- 
draw. It is like a fresh effort to solve the 
problem that Soissons and S. Yved posed: 
how to combine the transeptal apses, 
square-ended, here, and two on either side, 
with the three apsidal chapels radiating 
from a polygonal apse. The nave, exceed- 
ing lofty, and its aisles, are all too narrow 
for the crossing and what lies beyond thus 
broadened to the eye by illusive devices, 
and actually on a rather larger scale; and 
the sixteenth century porch again is too 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



433 



Carving 
and plan 



Porch 



434 



The froth- 
ing style of 
Eastern 
Prance 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



broad, too like a plump beauty. The 
statues that stand about the northern 
hemicycle therein, have a Renaissance look, 
like the SS. Peter and Paul of Pampeluna 
cloister. The style here in Vitoria is the 
same as that at Pampeluna, derived partly 
from south-western, partly from north- 
eastern France. Though the portal proper 
with its three doorways, its jamb statues, 
its careful legendary exposition, looks to 
Leon for suggestion, certain details recall 
work at Pampeluna, and a good many 
heads transport the imagination to that 
eastern border of a pure Frankish art, where 
the Church of Brou, and Rheims, S. Mihiel, 
and Troyes, are only outcrops of a con- 
tinuous line. The sensitive little S. Catha- 
rine explains herself: her kindred are in 
Champagne. 

Vitoria in some ways recalls such cities as 
Dijon and Rouen, especially in her posses- 
sion of smaller churches quite in her own 
style, good enough and grand enough to 
make the name of minor invidious. S. 
Michael is of that wide serene late Gothic 
that is really Renaissance, with round 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



columns and broad arches, about contem- 
porary with S. Michael's at Dijon and 
S. Peter's at Caen. Even the absurd 
pale blue and gilding of the interior cannot 
trouble its fairness, and under the vast 
portico the Virgin of Victories is enthroned. 
The tympanum of the door tells the whole 
of S. Michael's fairy ipopte in the same 
expressive and deliberate art that Pam- 
peluna had already employed, and that 
serves again, at the door of S. Peter's, this 
time a little under pressure, to tell the 
whole story of the Apostle and his Lord. 

The Spanish insistence on just orienta- 
tion has set the east end, side by side with 
the main entrance to S. Pedro, on an 
important street, so that the traveller 
descends the steep hill upon four apses 
and a porch, all in a row. Within, a very 
high nave of three bays and noble transept 
of two open, loftily together and intri- 
cately upon, chapels. The rotables are full 
of interest, the tombs that lie between and 
within the apses, beautiful in their chang- 
ing forms, from the thirteenth-century 
knight in the dress of peace, and the old 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



435 



S. Michael 



436 



Apostolado 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



king who wears steel under his robes, to a 
glorious Renaissance warrior of black stone, 
another, recumbent, in armour of Charles 
V's time, and a kneeling courtier contem- 
porary to Raleigh and Essex. The history 
of a free people who never unlearned their 
own peculiar pride, is laid up in these 
tombs, uncorrupt, unmouldered yet. Out- 
side, the porch is arranged under a tower: 
the Madonna occupies the central post and 
a complete Apostolado the sides, where 
holds S. James a place of eminence; on the 
buttresses of the apse were statues once, 
canopies and brackets yet remaining. 
Within and without, S. Pedro could set up 
for a cathedral. 

S. Andres de Armentia was a cathedral 
once: the see of Calahorra for four cen- 
turies. The last bishop of Armentia, D. 
Fortunio, at the end of the eleventh cen- 
tury, brought about a fine action recorded 
in the Codex EmUianensis. The bishops of 
Spain being resentful and indignant to see 
how stubbornly the papal legates strove to 
abolish the ecclesiastical order, the Office or 
Use which had been employed since the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



foundation of the monarchy, which was 
called commonly the Gothic Use, or the 
Isidorian, and later the Mozarabic, sent to 
Rome three bishops of whom Fortunio of 
Alava was one, who carried with them 
the codices of the ecclesiastical Use, to 
show them to Alexander II: he and the 
abbot of S. Benedict of Rome (which is to 
say Monte-Cassino) and other learned 
men, after maturely considering and care- 
fully examining these books, declared them 
pure and Catholic in all they contained, 
and bade under penalties that none should 
dare to trouble, condemn, or alter the divine 
office, according to the most ancient use of 
Spain. It did no good, the Mozarabic 
Use had to go, but Fortunio had fought a 
good fight. He died in 1088. Not for 
another while did the bishops seek con- 
firmation from the See of Peter: the con- 
stant practice of the kings of Castile being 
to establish cathedral churches, nominate 
bishops, fix their jurisdiction, settle their 
grievances, and ask no other sanction than 
kingship with the counsel of the grandees 
and prelates about the throne. z Fortunio, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



437 



Bishop 
Fortunio 



438 



Bishop 
Rodrigo 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



it may be judged, pr ef erred that way. 
After him bishops still used the title, 
though Calahorra was the see: Bishop 
Rodrigo de Cascante witnesses the Fuero of 
Vitoria, as bishop of Armentia, and to him 
may be assigned the building of the church. 
His time lasted from 1146 to 1181, and a 
stone recovered at the ruinous alteration 
in 1776 reads: "Huius operis autores Ro- 
dericus Eps. ..." There it breaks off. 

The church has a single nave, possibly 
still, under the plaster, barrel-vaulted like 
the transepts and apse. The ribs of the 
grand crossing come down on four winged 
figures with the heads of the Apocalyptic 
beasts: at Leon in the vault they were 
painted thus. Two coupled capitals from 
the devastated nave, that sustain the 
western gallery, are carved with the fauna 
of S. Pedro de Soria, Romanesque beasts 
orientalized, with long necks, carrying their 
heads down among their feet. The capitals 
of the crossing are of the same sort except- 
ing at the apse, where they are transitional. 
This is noble and native building, and the 
western door was once a glory, but the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOME WAR D 



eighteenth century pulled the sculptures 
down and a few poor remnants in the south 
porch and a somewhat rhetorical descrip- 
tion, are all we have to recall it. 

Said the Licentiate Bernard Ibafiez, in 
1752: 

The facade is peculiarly fine in this 
particular; it is divided into two parts 
and in the upper stands Christ with his 
Apostles full length. In the second is 
the Lamb of God, in an oval, waving 
the standard of the Cross, and around 
it this motto: Mors ego sum mortis 
vocor Agnus sum ho fortis. On the 
right stands S. John with this: Ecce 
Agnus Dei. On the left Isaiah, saying: 
Sicut ocis. Below is the Labarum of 
Christ and at the sides of it Alpha and 
Omega, that all deciphered together, 
means, Christus principium etc. finis. In 
the middle [between upper and lower 
parts of the facade] runs a ribbon, with 
this inscription: Porta per hanc celi fit 
per via unucuique fideli, and another, in a 
semicircle, goes around the whole, and 
says : Rex Sabaoth Magnus Deus etc . dicitur 
Agnus Dei Nuntius. . . 2 



HISPANIC NOTES 



441 



S. Andrgs 

de 
Armentfa 



I 



442 



VexiUa 
regis 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



The scheme almost certainly goes back 
to the church-front of Angoul&ne, where 
the Apocalypse is manifested, high up in a 
mandorla in an arched recess, and below, 
under arches, the Witnesses are grouped. 
Here, however, the Christ and Apostles fill 
a gigantic tympanum. The plan was modi- 
fied, apparently, by whatsoever tradition 
determined S. Miguel of Estella, for the 
two reliefs that have survived, of the En- 
tombment and the Harrowing of Hell, 
though built in under arches are mani- 
festly flat-topped sculpture, like the cloister 
reliefs at Aries and S. Domingo de Silos. 
Finally, two jamb-statues survive, and a 
third, shorter, figure of Abraham sacrificing 
Isaac with a swooping angel in the capital, 
is lifted to the right height on a broken, 
wonderful acanthus capital, turned upside 
down. Under the principal reliefs are 
others, that we may judge from the analogy 
of Parma, Borgo San Donnino, and Moissac, 
were once above the rest, and in an angle 
is built up such a bit of chamfered wall 
that monsters crawl on, as flanks the portal 
at Moissac and at Ripoll, but here the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOME WAR D 



reliefs are partly human and may just 
possibly be meant for Dives and Lazarus. 
Into the cloister wall close by this last, 
above a tomb recess, is set a tympanum 
where two apostles kneeling, adore the 
Agnus Dei in a roundel, and below, in 
another roundel, the labarum is sustained 
by two flying figures, one certainly bearded. 
The elements here are very various, and 
the style is not one. The figures in the 
large tympanum are of the school of Tou- 
louse, a later growth from those of the 
transept of S. Sernin; one in particular 
repeats the gesture and the forms, but the 
flying angels sprawl and swim as only in 
fourteenth-century Florence and on the 
churches of the south-west of France. That 
Toulousean transept portal was consecrated 
1096: these are not early, not archaic, 
simply not good: the thirteenth century is 
a safe guess. There is a sort of freedom, 
looseness, lightness, about drapery of the 
thirteenth century. On the other hand, the 
little tympanum, though the technique is 
the same, belongs by its motives to Aragon, 
where a parallel is found at S. Pedro in 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



443 



Pilgrims' 
argument 



Many 
sources 



444 



Byzantine 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Huesca: the chrism occurs at Jaca and S. 
Cruz de la Ser6s. The figures now at the 
end of the porch are really incorporate 
with the shafts, as at S. Bertrand de Com- 
minges, which lay directly on the Way; 
and it is quite possible that the Abraham 
always ranged with them, since the dis- 
parate size is no more marked than where 
at Aries the Martyrdom of S. Stephen re- 
places a statue. On the trumeau, the group 
would go well, with the two figures in the 
jambs. The great reliefs have much in 
common with those of Silos, but in the 
sudden gesture of Christ in Limbo, with 
which should be compared the mosaic at 
Torcello, and in the long veiled figures of 
the Maries, hieratic, immaculate, and the 
seated angel with strong unfolded wings, 
appears a first-hand acquaintance with the 
Byzantine. Where Aries drew from Rome, 
this draws from Byzantium. At this point 
the Byzantine tetramorph, there inside, 
should be recalled. The mixture is just 
what we should expect of an old place, 
once important, seated on a Roman and a 
pilgrim road: traditions of Aragon, of Con- 



HISPAN IC NOTES 



HOME WAR D 



stantinople, are grafted on that of Langue- 
doc, in the iconography and the Jacture; and 
the scheme of the whole, while in the main 
determined by that of Angoumois, was 
altered by the current we have encountered 
at Estella and at Carrion. Though the 
little tympanum in the eighteenth century 
was over the door, probably that, in the 
beginning, had none, like Saintes and Bor- 
deaux and Aulnay and the original Civray. 
The tympanum should belong to a side 
door, as at Leyre and Huesca. The great 
tympanum occupied the upper part of the 
facade, and an awkward concession to the 
artist's recollection of how they did the 
thing in France, is found in the immense 
size of the Christ, and the presence of ab- 
surd arches and tabernacles over the 
Apostles wherever there was room, though 
there was never room for columns. Below, 
flanking the door jambs wherein statues 
stood, stretched a pair of great slabs, as at 
Estella, carved with the eternal Hope, 
"Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell." 
The Apocalyptic Lord, who Himself rose 
put of the empty tomb, took with him our 



AN D MONOGRAPHS 



445 



and French 



446 



Wayfaring 
themes 



S. Maria de 
Estibaliz 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



first parents. These slabs, falling exactly 
halfway between the cloister sculptures at 
Silos and the portal sculptures at Estella, 
explain the last. Two other reliefs are 
built into this porch wall, that may have 
occupied the spandrels about the door: the 
Annunciation, and S. Martin, a pilgrim 
theme. In spite of their injured state, 
especially the weatherworn Apostolado, 
there is no reason to suppose any other 
considerable portions lost, that once 
existed. 

The white sanctuary of S. Maria of Esti- 
baliz, visible from very far on a high green 
hill, has always been a place of pilgrimage: 
it was a monastery in 1074 when Alvaro 
Gonzalez made a present to the abbey of S. 
Millan of various properties and the altar 
at the right in the monastery of S. Maria de 
Estibaliz. The poor pretty church has been 
" the stars' tennis ball, struck and bandied." 
Dona Maria L6pez gave it to Najera in 
1 138, and when Najera wanted to build 
the new church, it was sold to Fernan 
Perez de Ayala, for a good price in gold 
and an annuity in perpetuity. 3 Though 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



the contract was ratified by John II in 
Valladolid, March 15, 1432, there was some 
sharp practice, for shortly the annuity 
stopped, and the Adelantado mayor of 
Guipuzcoa, D. Pedro Fernandez de Ayala, 
or his heir, was discovered to have sold the 
property, at a profit, to the city of Vitoria. 4 
The city still keeps up the establishment, 
which is — "Item, one priest to say Mass, 
item, one old man to sweep." 

They both were charming to the visitor. 
The church has three parallel apses on the 
brow of the cliff, an early Gothic door that 
opens on sweet turf, and a grand south- 
transept facade that looks abroad, and is 
copied in a general way after Aulnay. The 
detail, however, is quite different, being 
diaper on the columns: on the jambs such 
a scroll-work as wreathes about the east 
window of Aulnay; and in the archivolts, 
leaf and guilloche. A little Annunciation is 
built in by the door: on one capital the 
demon or savage like a red Indian, who is 
familiar at Wzelay, Conques and Clermont. 
Inside, some of the capitals have oriental 
traits, some the Romanesque that reaches 



AN D MONOGRAPHS 



447 



John 
Mass- 
priest, Jack 
sweeper 



448 



Para andar 
conmigo 



me bastan 
mis pensa- 
mientos 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



from S. BenoJt-sur-Loire to Fr6mista, but 
these about the apse are of the school of 
Clermont-Ferrand. Another one is identi- 
cal with a cloister-capital at Silos. The 
sanctuary has a round barrel-vault in 
advance of the apse, the nave has two bays 
of pointed barrel-vault, the south transept 
one, the north transept, a cross-vault with 
wall-ribs; the crossing, strong ribs and 
windows in the four bays, a wider space of 
wall than usual being interspersed between 
the apses. This pilgrimage church owes its 
being to pilgrims and its form and charm. 
The carving everywhere is very precious. 

Beyond the wide meadow land that laps 
Vitoria the road turns and doubles among 
huge mountains, that earlier ages found 
depressing to the spirits, and comes at last 
to the easy way by sands and shores and 
desert wildernesses. 



HISPANIC N OTES 



1 



HOME WAR D 



Roncevauz. 

"Still alive and still bold t n shouted Earth, 
11 The dead fill me ten thousandfold 

Fuller of speed and splendour and mirth. 
I was cloudy and sullen and cold, 
Like a frozen chaos upr oiled, 

Till by the spirit of the mighty dead 

My heart grew warm: I feed on whom I fed. ' ' 

The whole region of Roncevaux is Pyr- 
enean and neither Spanish nor French. The 
mass of conventual buildings at the village 
with slate roofs hipped and pyramidal, 
ought to be in the Engadine or the Tyrol. 
The church was rebuilt in the fourteenth 
century, not ignobly: the well-ribbed apse 
and chevet, the piers, probably circular 
always, the multiplied mouldings of the 
portal, are all Navarrese, ripe, strong, and 
sound. On the Spanish soil, one cannot 
ask more. Hereabouts Brunette Latini, 
coming back from a political mission, heard 
bad news. 1 The Ossuary has a corrugated 
tin roof; the keys of S. James's chapel are 
not to be procured; the pilgrims' cross is 
lichened out of recognition; but still high 
are the mountains and dark are the rocks. 

The precise place of the battle, the prob- 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



449 



Domus 
venerabilis, 
domus 
glorioso 



Pirencis 
montibus 
floret stent 
rosa 



I 



r 



450 



In a mist 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



able path of the main army and the rear- 
guard, have all been discussed so learnedly, 
and with such knowledge of the ground, 
that they need not here be touched. a The 
grass is very green in the wide field, and in 
the narrow defile the. rocks stand up dark 
in the drifting mist, and the trees drip, 
softly shrouded in the pale vapour, and 
the brooks roar down invisible or, when the 
cloud lifts, hang like a white skein against 
the opposite green. As at Pinisterre, so 
here the souls of the dead were all about us, 
pressing close, calling, in the murmur of the 
living forest, in the hush of the rocky spur, 
calling so desperately it seemed they must 
make a sound. The white mist closed 
round on us, wrapped us about, came in 
between each and other. The echo of Ro- 
land's horn is in our ears: high are the 
mountains and dark are the rocks: and 
there follows a mist and a weeping rain. 
The souls of that bitter defeat are there yet. 
Roland, when all was lost, had turned 
and crossed the field alone; he had searched 
the valleys, and he searched the mountains 
an4 found his comrades one by one, and the 



HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



Chanson names them ; and he brought them, 
dead, for Turpin's benediction; "God the 
glorious have your souls, 1 ' says Turpin, 
"and put them in a fair paradise of flow- 
ers." His own death hurt him sore, that 
he should not ever again see the Emperor. 
Roland turned and crossed the field, he 
searched and found his comrade Oliver 
under a pine, beside an eglantine; he held 
him fast embraced. Turpin absolved him 



and blessed him — and the dule, the pity 
of it! Then Roland, seeing his peers dead, 
all the fair company of the knights of 
Christ, and Oliver whom he loved so well, 
wept and his face was changed, and will he 
or no, he was senseless. Said the Arch- 
bishop, "O Baron, the pity of it!" Then 
Turpin held up his fair hands to God and 
prayed for Paradise to be granted, and he 
died all alone: he had been a good knight, 
by deed and by speech : God give him bene- 
diction! So Roland knew that death was 
very near: the mountains were high, ther 
trees were very high, he could not see well, 
but four steps of marble shone in the grass 
and he got to them. There against a cross, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



451 



After the 
battle 



452 



The death 
of Roland 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



under a pine, lay the Count Roland, he 
turned his face to Spain, he began to re- 
member many things. He thought of all 
the lands the barons had conquered, of 
sweet France, of the men of his own line, 
his father and his father, of Charlemagne, 
his lord, who had bred him up; and he 
could not stir but the tears came and the 
sighs. And he would not forget. He made 
his penitence, he prayed God's mercy: 
"God of truth, and not a liar, who brought 
back Lazarus from the dead, and saved 
Daniel from the lions, guard my soul from 
what lies in wait for the sins I did in my 
life." He proffered to God his right-hand 
glove, S. Gabriel took it from his hand. 
Then he bowed his head on his arm, folded 
his hands and met his end. God sent 
his angel Cherubin, and S. Michael of 
the Peril, and with them both came S. 
Gabriel. The Count's soul they carried 
to Paradise. 

So Roland is dead — God keep his soul in 
Heaven — and Charlemagne is come to 
Roncevaux. But the good knights are all 
dead, the fair company of the White Horse- 

HISPANIC NOTES 



HOMEWARD 



men, knights of Christ, and the old man 
cried and plucked at his fair white beard. 

The splendour of Roncevaux is the splen- 
dour of a losing fight, the glory that shines 
on that field is the glory of martyrdom. 
Not today can we bear to speak of France, 
and of loss together. Charlemagne, like 
Frederick II and like Santiago, still sits 
in his tomb, crowned, armed, robed, and 
sword-girt, ready to come forth in the hour 
of France's need. 

All Souls' Day, 191 7. 



Envoy. 



Anda el tiempo y anda y 
todo se acaba. 



If it is murk, murk night, if the Way is 
all dark, there are lights that show which 
way to go. There are innumerable lights. 
The multitudinous stars in the great heaven, 
the countless little flickering lights of the 
sepultados, the thousand candles that burn 
stilly above the altar, all are the souls of 
the dead. The French knights of the 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



453 



Candor est 

lucis 

oeternae 



454 



Laus mortis 



WAY OF S. JAMES 

twelfth century thought the stars were their 
own knightly guidance, the host whose 
shout was: " / Santiago y Cierra Espanal " 
but they were all the time souls that had 
gone that way long and long before; before 
Altamira was painted or Cerro de los Santos 
carven. 

It was a favourite choice of the Middle 
Age to paint on churchyard wall and 
charnel-house how we all follow after 
death. A man will travel across half the 
broad earth to visit an empty tomb or a 
handful of mouldering bones. Death is the 
one sure guardian; all good things are safe 
there, immortally fair. Fair things mortal 
pass, and the things of art, and the dreams 
of a common brotherhood and of "a heart 
even as mine behind this vain show of 
things"; Death lays them away like the 
kings of Egypt in pyramids. 

Across the sky the souls are passing on 
the starry track, and in them the soul dis- 
cerns its brethren and its destiny. Look- 
ing up from the rimy, silvered earth, hour 
after hour, plunged in their ineffaceable 
multitude, one remembers a song that 

HISPANIC NOTES. 



HOMEWARD 



youth once made of the wandering souls 
along the unending track: 

The wind blows out of the door of day, 
The pine trees toss along the way, 
And the open road runs over and on 
Whither the souls of the dead have gone. 
Dead feet patter, dead voices say 
Over the hills and far away I 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



455 



456 



WAYOF S. JAMES 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



NOTES: BOOK THREE 

CHAPTER II 

Espana sagrada, XIX, XX, XXX— Fita y 
Guerra, Recuerdos de un viaje — L6pez Fe- 
rreiro, Historia de la S. A. M. Iglesia — 
Lamperez, Historia de la arquitectura — 
Fernandez Casanova, Monografia de la cate- 
dral de Santiago— Villa-amil, La catedral de 
Santiago, and Description historica-artistica 
arqueologica — Llaguno, Noticias de los ar- 
quitectos y la arquitectura, I — Fita et Vinson, 
Le codex de S. Jacques de Compostelle — R. de 
Lasteyrie, L 1 Architecture Religieuse en France 
— Ch. de Lasteyrie, VAbbaye de S. Martial de 
Limoges — C. Enlart in Michel, Histoire de 
VArt, I, ii and Opusculi — E.Bertaux in Michel, 
Histoire de VArt y II, i and II, ii — Abb€ 
Bouillet, S. Foy de Conques, S. Sernin de 
Toulouse et S. Jacques de Compostelle— Street, 
Gothic Architecture in Spain, — C. Gasquoine 
Hartley, Santiago de Compo Stella. 



69. 



1 Fita y Guerra, Recuerdos de un viaje, p. 



a Id. ibid., p. 74. 

* Id. ibid., p. 70; from Zepedano. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



457 



458 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



« Chronicle of Sampiro, Espafia sagrada, 
XI V, 439 ; Chronicon Irense in Espafia sagrada, 
XX, 6oi. 

s Espafia sagrada, XIX, 329. 

* Id. ibid., 331-3- 

ild. ibid., 335. These Scripturae majori 
ex parte ineditae that F16rez published, lead- 
ing up to the Historia Compostellana in Vol. 
XX, are invaluable for study of the twelfth 
century devotion, and their evidence is not 
involved with their authenticity. 

8 Espafia sagrada, XIX, 3^0. 

• Pita, who knows more than most Spanish 
scholars and immeasurably more than any 
others about the Spain of antiquity, identifies 
"Eabeca " with B£tica, the See that suc- 
ceeded Aquae Flaviae, where now is Boticas, 
west of Chaves; Recuerdos de un viaje, p. 61. 
On pp. 60-61 he publishes five of the inscrip- 
tions at Santiago ; others are in Hubner. In- 
scriptions have been found at Aquae Flaviae, 
including one to the nymphs (Corpus Inscrip. 
Lai. II, 2474). The description is quoted by 
Street, Some Account of Gothic Architecture, I, 
190 note; and printed by Florez, Espafia 
sagrada, XIX, 3^4. 

10 The original of the document does not 
exist; a copy, "in Gothic script," was pre- 
served at Oviedo which Castella printed in 
the seventeenth century. It can hardly be an 
authentic composition of the ninth century, 
— and indeed it pretends to neither title nor 
signature — because the emphasis laid on the 
church doors in the description belongs to 
Romanesque building with its jamb-shafts. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



But it embodies a constant tradition, and in 
certain details, like the inventory of relics in 
the altars, it may be trustworthy. 

11 Dreves, Analecta Hymnica, xvii, 201. 

" Villa-amil y Castro, La catedral de San- 
tiago (1909), p. 9. 

" Historic dtlaS.A.M. Iglesia, II, 184. 

m EspaHa sagrada, XIX, 86 sqq. 

l *Lovium, as the Compostellana calls it, 
suggests a wolf's den. EspaHa sagrada, XX, 
10. 

16 Lamperez, Historia de la arquitectura, I, 
236. 

"EspaHa sagrada, XVIII, 80. 

19 EspaHa sagrada, XIX, 177-178; Dozy, 
Recherches, I, 199-202. V. note p. 43: "E 
pensava e* dezia outro non avia eun o mundo 
senon o bon varon Santiago que era Deus dos 
cristianos." Pita, Escrit. Hist., Ill, 75 (1835). 

»• EspaHa sagrada, XIX, 174-178. 

"EspaHa sagrada, XVII, 301. 

" EspaHa sagrada, XIX, 195. 

"EspaHa sagrada, XIX, 177. 

*' Baum, Romanesque Architecture in France, 
p. viii. 

** Fita et Vinson, Le codex de 5. Jacques, 

P-59- 

**Note Archiologique sur S. Sernin, in 

Bulletin du ComitS de Travaux Historiques. 

96 R. de Lasteyrie, L* Architecture Religieuse, 

pp. 251, 282, 448; Ch. de Lasteyrie, L'Abbaye 

de 5. Martial de Limoges, p. 315; Bouillet, 5. 

Foy de Conques, 5. Sernin de Toulouse, S, 

Jacques de Compostelle, in MSmoires de la 

SocUti des Antiquaires de France, 1892, pp. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



459 



460 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



1 17-128; Street, Gothic Architecture in Spain, 

If 197. 

V EspaHa sagrada, XX, 52. The date, by 
the way, is given wrongly there, as appears by 
the context. 

28 Lamperez, op. cit. t I, 149-158, espe- 
cially, 158. 

2 * Fita et Vinson, op. cit., 59. 

*° EspaHa sagrada, XIX, 199-201. 

* x EspaHa sagrada, XX, 473. F16rez, by 
the way, accepts this date without question, 
EspaHa sagrada, XIX, 204; and I think the 
first occasion of dispute was the French claim 
to complete possession. I believe, myself, 
that the right date is 1078. 

* a Lopez Ferreiro, op. cit., Til, Appendix i, 
p. 3 ; Espana sagrada, XIX, 203. 

« Chronicles of Burgos, EspaHa sagrada, 
XXIII, 310. 

"Llaguno, Noticias de los arquitectos y 
Arquitectura, I, 41-42; Quadrado, Asturias y 
Leon, 280. 

« Fita et Vinson, op. et loc. cit. 

j« EspaHa sagrada, XX, 137, 308. 

*i La catedral de Santiago, p. 54. 

'* Manuel d'Archiologte Francaise, p. 244. 

*9 EspaHa sagrada, XX, 473. 

*°Id. ibid., p. 401. 

«* Id. ibid., p. 545. 

*' Id. ibid., p. 594. 

** Fita y Vinson, Le Codex de S. Jacques, 
p. 48. 

44 L<5pez Ferreiro, op. cit., IV, Appendix vi, 
Appendix, xxxvii. 

45 Lopez Ferreiro, op. cit., V, 73. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



«* EspaHa sagrada, XX III , 3 24 ; Ldpez Fe- 
rreiro, op. cit. t v, 57. 

"A painting of S. Ferdinand, in a MS. of 
Compostella, shows three towers that look 
to be at the springing of the apse, and over 
the crossing. These miniatures, however, 
are sadly conventional and untrustworthy: 
as in black letter books, a few figures do for 
all the kings and queens. The Knight of 
Rozmital saw six towers, four round and two 
square: one of these was in an angle near 
the porch. 

« 8 L6pez Ferreiro, op. cit., Ill, 229. 

4» I am not sure that travellers have noted 
the likeness to the one surviving, in pictures 
of that of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. 
From the fifteenth century there are plenty: 
yet I never look at a picture of the Puerto de 
las P later ias that this does not rise up. Cf. 
PP. Vincent et Abel, Jerusalem. The in- 
fluence may have been partly French at first- 
hand, but there were Spanish crusaders too, 
and pilgrims and sumptuous Spanish gifts 
that are still preserved in Jerusalem. V. 
G6mez Carrillo, Jerusalem y la tierra santa, 
p. 218-224, L° s tesoros de Santiago. 

5° Dante, Purgatorio t x, 39-40. 

5 l Michel, Histoire de VArt, II, i, 253. 

s a The description of Aymery, which con- 
stitutes in the Guide, Chapter ix, §§ 3-15, is 
reprinted by L6pez Ferreiro, op. cit. t III, Ap- 
pendix ii. 

S3 L6pez Ferreiro, El pdrtico de la gloria, 
Santiago, 1893. 

J* The importance given to this motive is 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



461 



462 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



to be explained from the Apocalypse of Paul. 
V. extract in Appendix VIII. 

" Cf. the figure of Christ cradled in the 
Tree of Life, in the legend of the Cross: e. g. t 
Cursor Mundi, 1. 1343. 

* 6 Cf. also Thurkffl's Vision, Appendix VII: 
the fresh turf of the Vision is very English, 
but it is Atlantic as well and not unknown to 
Galicia. 

"Dreves, Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi, 
XVII, 151. 

** Revue de VArt ChrHien, March, 1895. 

*» For a discussion of TundalTs Vision and 
this door, v. p. 253. 

60 R. de Lasteyrie in Monuments Piot, VIII. 

CHAPTER III 

Florez, Espafia sagrada, XIX, XX — La 
Fuente, Historic eclesidstica de Espafia — 
Lopez Ferreiro, Historia dela S.A.M. Iglesia, 
III, IV, V. The substance of this chapter is 
nearly all in the Historia Compostellana, which 
F16rez printed, but I have used in part besides 
La Fuente, the Spanish History of the Holy 
Apostolical Metropolitan Church of Santiago , 
by the late D. Antonio Ltfpez Ferreiro, who 
in his biography of the great Archbishop 
embedded therein, understood, and rendered, 
the epical character. 

1 La Fuente, Historia eclesidstica de EspaHa, 
III, 305, IV, 147 sqq. 

2 Riafio, Viajes de extranjeros, p. 247. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



3 La Puente, op. cit. t IV. 

4 La Fuente, op. tit., Ill, 305. 
s La Fuente, op. cit., IV, 149. 

6 Dozy, Recherches, II, 315-332. 

7 Espafia sagrada, XXI, pp. 359-360. 

8 Fita et Vinson, Le Codex de S. Jacques, 
pp. 48-49. 

9 Historia Compostellana, II, xxviii; see 
L6pez Ferreiro, Historia de laS.A. M. Iglesia, 
IV, 21. Cf. also Lopez Ferreiro, op. cit., IV, 
181 ; "When (about the year 1 135) there came 
to Santiago a Canon of Jerusalem called Aym- 
ery, with letters from the Patriarch Stephen." 
Is this the one in the Book of S. James? The 
Canon gives no references. 



CHAPTER IV 

Espafia sagrada — Lopez Ferreiro, His- 
toria de la S. A. M. Iglesia — Fita y Guerra, 
Recuerdos de un viaje — Villa-amil, mobiliario 
liturgico — Fita et Vinson, Le Livre de S. 
Jacques de Compostelle — Bonnault d'Houet,X^ 
Peterinage d'un Paysan Picard — Fabi6, Viajes 
por Espafia — Riano, Viajes de extranjeros — 
Dreves, Analecta Hymnica. 

1 L6pez Ferreiro, Historia de la S. A. M. 
Iglesia, IV, 71; Historia Compostellana, 11, 
xxvii, Espafia sagrada, XX, 427. 

a Murgufa, Galicia, p. 426. 

* Pelerinage d'un Paysan Picard, p. 87. 

* Espafia sagrada, XX, 379-380. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



463 



464 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



s Cltara is the name of a vestment cited in 
three documents of the twelfth century, 
though in an account of the fourth marriage 
of Dona Urraca in Leon, 1144, ^ ne word 
certainly means a musical instrument. Cf. 
Villa-amil, Mobiliario LMrgico, p. 349, pp. 
290, 291. 

* Historic Compostellana, in, xv; Espana 
sagrada, XX, 499. 

7 Alexandre de Laborde, Itineraire de- 
scriptif deVEspcgne, II, 194. 

'Saavedra's translation in Boletin de la 
Sociedad Geogrdfica de Madrid, XXIV, 166. 

9 Historic, de laS. A. M. Iglesia, III, p. 566, 
App. ii. 

10 Morales, Viaje santo, p. 153. 
"Lopez Ferreiro has reprinted from the 

Book of S. James the whole of Chapter ix 
in the Guide, the description of the church, 
and therefore I have not. Historic de la 
S.A.M. Iglesia, III, App. ii, pp. 8-24. 

xa Cf. Porreno, Nobiliario del Reyno de 
Galicia, in Murguia, Galicia, p. 505; also 
Villa-amil, Mobiliario Liturgico, p. 347-8. 

J J Fita et Vinson, Le Codex de S. Jasques, 

P-57- 

1 * Historic Compostellana, i, xviii; Espana 

sagrada, XX, p. 52. 

1 s Fita et Vinson, op. cit., p. 58; Lopez 
Ferreiro, op. cit., Ill, App. p. 20. 

16 On December 30, the feast of the Trans- 
lation, to be exact. L6pez Ferreiro publishes 
this as from the Codex {Historic de laS.A. M. 
Iglesia, III, pp. 301-303), but I have not been 
able to verify the reference. By Codex he 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



means sometimes the Book of S. James and 
sometimes the Historia Compostellana. 

*i Dreves, Analecta Hymnica, XVII, 201. 

18 Lopez Perreiro, op. cit., Ill, App. iii, 
pp. 25-27. From Tumbo A , fol. 34, verso. 

The Church of a Dream: 

1 EspaHa sagrada, xx, 52. 

'Quoted in Wright, Early Travels in 
Palestine, p. 337. The Lord of Vieuxchateau 
made his journey in 1432-3. 

i For Assisi, v. Lina Duff Gordon, The 
Story of Assisi, pp. 106, 136, and Vasari, Vite, 
I, pp. 280, 281. For Compostella, v. Rev. F. 
Fita, Recuerdos de un viaje, pp. 79, 80, 81 . 

Vasari's words are these: 

"Un maestro Jacopo Tedesco . . . de- 
signo un corpo de chiesa e convento bellissimo, 
facendo del modello tre ordini, uno da farse 
sorro terra e gli altre per due chiese; . . . 
e perche la propria sepoltura che serba il 
corpo del glorioso Santo 6 nella prima, ci6e 
nella piu bassa chiesa, dove non va mai 
nessuno e che ha le forte murale; intorno al 
detto altare sono grate de ferro grandissime 
con ricchi ornamenti di marmo e di musaico, 
del laggiu riguardano." Ed. Milanesi, 
Florence, 1878. 

* Cf. Miracle xviii, in Appendix II. 

s F. Riafto, Viajes de extranjeros por Es- 
pana, p. 136. 

6 Quoted in S. Baring-Gould, Lives of the 
Saints (1898), December, p. 131. 

1 Pierre Loti, Jerusalem, pp. 69-72. 

1 Murgufa, Galicia, p. 505. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



465 



466 



WAY. OF S.JAMES 



9 Riaflo, op. cil., 135, 136. 
*• Wright, Early Travels in Palestine, p. 75. 
1 x Boswell, An Irish Precursor of Dante,]). 32. 
"puillaume de Deguilleville, P&erinage 
de I' Ante, 1. 9601 sqq. 

" La dessous celle couronne 
Ou le roys ses graces donne 
Entre quand veut la royne, 
Et voit le roys sans courtine, 
Et se siet asses pres de li." 

* 3 There were three thrones: "On the 
middle one sat young persons wearing crowns 
of laurel. Over the throne hung a large and 
costly crown " . (p. 1 48) . "All the Royal- Per- 
sons before meat attired themselves in snow- 
white glittering garments. Over the table 
hung the great golden crown, the precious 
stones whereof without other light would 
have sufficiently illuminated the hall" (p. 
158)* By the way, a little earlier in the 
narrative occurs the weighing of the candi- 
dates, in as full detail as that in ThurkiU's 
Vision, on the third day (after one night, 
that is, in the strange castle). "Meanwhile 
the scales, which were entirely of gold, are 
hung in the midst of the hall. There was 
also a little table covered with red velvet and 
seven weights thereon: first of all stood a 
pretty great one ..." etc. (p. 122). 
The Chymical Marriage of Christian Rosen- 
creutz, c. 161 6, translated 1690: reprinted by 
A. E. Waite in The Real History of the Rosi- 
er ucians. 

r « Phlerinage d'un Paysan Picard t p. 79* 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



As Pilgrims Pass: 

1 Fabie\ Viajes por EspaHa,p. 173. 

* Riano, Viajes de extranjeros; p. 338-9. 

1 Pelerinagea'un Pay son Picard,pp. 74-76. 
« Historia delaS.A. M. Iglesia, III, 146. 
s Riano, op. cit. f p. 137. 
6 Id. ibtd., p. 16. 

I Fabi6, op. cit. t p. 173. 

8 Hartley, Santiago de ComposteUa, p. 170. 

* Cf. Melida, El jinete iberico in Botetin de 
la Sociedad EspaHola, 1900, VIII, 178-180. 

"Espafia sagrada, XIX, 64; XX, 6, 7, 8. 
. " P. 'Meyer, La Vie et la Translation de 5. 
Jacques le Majeur in Romania, XXXI, 253, 
sqq. 

II Lopez Ferreiro, Galicia en el ultimo tereio 
del siglo XV, I, 275. 

«s Lopez Ferreiro, Historia de la S. A. M. 
Iglesia, V, Appendices, 64-67. 

f « Viaje de EspaUa por un anonimo, 
Madrid, 1883. 
• ■ *« Riafio, op. cit., p. 25. 

Castle and Church: 

1 Fabi6, Viajes por EspaUa, p. 98. 

* Id. ibtd., p. 173. 

* Riafio, Viajes de extranjeros, p. 99. 

* Murguia, Galicia, p. 484. 
s Fabii, op. «"/., p. 99. 

6 Lopez Ferreiro, Galicia en el ultimo tereio 
del siglo X V, 1, 45, 46, quoting Recuento de las 
casas antiguas delreyno de Galicia. 

1 Froissart, Chronicles of France, England 
and Spain, II, xxxiv. 

8 Murguia, op. cit., p. 407. 



467 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



468 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



9 Premier Voyage de Philippe le Beau. I 
take the phrase from Bonnaflfe, Voyages et 
Voyageurs de la Renaissance, p. 47. 

10 Froissart, op. cit., in, xlviii. 

11 Cancionero popular gallego f in Biblioteca 
de tradiciones populates, XI, 137. 

12 Hispaniae IUustratae, Vol. IV, 93. 



CHAPTER V 

Viaje de Espafla pot un an6nimo~—Fo.bi& f 
Viajes por Espafla — Riaflo, Viajes de extran- 
jeros — El pelegrino curioso — Bonafede, Viag- 
gio Occidenkue a S. Giacomo — Ballesteros, 
Cancionero popular gollego. 

'This is taken from Mrs. Gallichan's 
Santiago de Cotnpostetta, p. 44, where it is 
quoted without source or author. I fancy I 
have met it elsewhere, and not quite believed 
in it: " Esa iiene algo de rancio," as Antonio 
said one day, but it is picturesque. The 
following two passages are taken from an 
article on the Cronica de los Francos in the 
Boletin de la Real Accidentia de Historia (I, 
461, note), written by the translator of the 
Bayen, D. Francisco Fernandez y Gonzalez. 

' Fabil, Viajes por Espafla, p. 95. 

* Riaflo, Viajes de extranjeros, p. 135. 

4 Fabil, op. cit., p. 104; Riaflo, op. ctt., p. 15. 

s D. Jose* Perez Ballesteros, Biblioteca de 
tradiciones popular es f VII, IX, and XI; these 
canciones are all found, VII, 196. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



6 Ria/fo, op. cit. f p. 16. 

'Cumont, Textcs et Monuments FigurSs, II, 
1 66. He is mistaken, however, in supposing 
Iria Plavia to be Caldas de Reyes : it is Padron. 

•E. G. R., Viaje de EspaHa por un and- 
nimo: this has no pagination being copied 
from the black-letter. 

9 Cf. Macrobius, Sat. i, xxii, § 13. 

10 biblioteca de tradiciones populates, IX, 
228. 

11 Id. ibid., 132. 

" The church was published by Sr. Garcia 
de Pruneda in the Boletin de la Sociedad 
Espanola, 1907, p. 156. 

x * Fabi£, op. ctt., p. 104. 



CHAPTER VI 

Murgufa, Galicia — Emilia Pardo Bazan, 
De mi tierra — Biblioteca de tradiciones popu- 
lates — Kelly, Curiosities of Indo-European 
Tradition and Folk-Lore — Mila y Fontanals, 
La poesia popular gaUega — Dante, Divina 
Commedia—-Boswe\\, An Irish Precursor of 
Dante — Meyer and Nutt, The Voyage of 
Bran— Turnbull, The Visions of TundaU— 
Ward, Catalogue of Romances — Ward, The 
Vision oflhurkUl— Perkins, The Revelation of 
the Blessed Apostle Paul— Walker, Apocry- 
phal Gospels, Acts and Revelations— Kolbing, 
Owen Mtles — Brown, I wain. 

1 The testimony of the two secretaries 
agrees: "A Divo Jacobo ad Stellam obscuram 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



469 



I 



470 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



quatuordecem milliarium via est . . . sub eo 
templo est pagus amplus, que vocatur finis 
terrae, nam ultra eum nihil aliud est quam 
agae et pelagus, eijus terminos nemo novit, 
praeter ipsum Deum." Des Bohmischen 
Herrn Leo von Rozmital Ritter- Hof~ und PU- 
ger-Reise, Stuttgart, p. 88. 

44 Von Sant Jacob ritt wir an den Finstern 
Stern, als es dann die bauren nennen, es 
heisst aber Finis terrae. Do sieht man nichts 
anders essethinuber dann himmel und wasser, 
und sagen mer do so ungestum sey, das nie- 
mand mug hinuber faren, man wiss auch 
nit, wass do gesset sey." Id. ibid., 177. 

2 Riafio, Viajes de extranjeros, p. 16. 

* Murguia, Galicia, p. 182. 

*Id.ib., 183. 

5 Bibliotecade tradiciones populates, IV, 129. 

6 Biblioteca de tradiciones popular es, IX, 194, 

1 Kelly, Curiosities of Indo-European Tra- 
dition and Folk-Lore, pp. 130, 132. 

*Mila y Fontanals, La poesia popular 
gallega, Romania, VI, 67. 

9 Malory, Morte d' Arthur, XIX, ii. 

10 Meyer, La vie et la Translation de S. 
Jacques le Majeur, mis en prose d'un poeme 
perdu. Romania, XXXI, pp. 252 sqq. 

» Id. ibid., 265. 
12 Id. ibid., 273. 
**EspaHa sagrada, XIX, 333. 
M Murguia, Galicia, p. 206. 
*» Cf. in especial Jane Harrison, Prole- 
gomena to the Study of Greek Religion, passim. 
x6 Murguia, op. cit., p. 425. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



1 7 Baranda, Clave de la Espatla sagtada, 

P. 331. 

16 Id. ibid,, 257. 

'•The prose version of a lost poem, exist- 
ent only in a single MS. and published for 
strictly conventional and erudite ends. 

20 Murguia, op. tit., 230. 

81 Id. ibid., p. 235. 

22 Id. ibid., p. 23d. 

2 * Galicia en el ultimo tercio del siglo, XV, I, 

309. 

a « Murguia, Galicia, 234. 

*s Biblioteca de ttadiciones populates, IV, 
103. 

26 Murguia, op. cit., 229. 

2 7 Biblioteca de tradiciones populates, IV, 90. 

38 Murguia, op. cit., pp. 188, 224. 

2 » Giner Aribau, Folk-Lore de Ptoasa, Bib- 
lioteca de tradiciones populates, VIII, 119, 120. 

3° Dante, Inferno, iii, 37. 

** Murguia, op. cit., p. 233. 

32 Biblioteca de tradiciones populates, IV, 
118. 

« J Dante, t Paradiso, xxxi, 1, 4, 7, 13-15. 

34 Historia eclesidstica, iii, 229. 

3s It figures also in the Visions of S. Per- 
petua, A A. SS. March, 1, 633. 

* 6 Cancionero popular gaUego, Biblioteca 
de tradiciones popular es, VII, 195. 

37 Giner Aribau, in Biblioteca de tradiciones 
populates, VIII, 140, 267 and 268. 

* 8 Murguia, op. cit., 236. 

3* Fiona Macleod, Where the Forest Mut- 
muts, p. 81. 

4° Kelly, op. cit., 124. The reader will not 



471 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



472 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



forget that in the spring, Frau Holde ham auf 
dem Berg empor! Cf. also Boswell, An Irish 
Precursor of Dante, p. 174. 

4'Murguia, op. cit., 237; again this recalls 
Origen. 

«* Lionel Johnson, Poems, pp. 11 2-1 13. 

The Long Way: 

x Giner Aribau, op. cit., VIII, 228. 

3 Murguia, op. cit., p. 231. 

* Gilbert Murray, in the Appendix to 
Jane Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of 
Greek Religion, 599, 664. 

4 Walker, Apocryphal Gospels, Acts and 
Revelations, p. 376. 

s Quoted by Gubernatis, Mythohgie des 
Plantes, II, 115-121. 

6 1 owe this to a communication of my friend 
D. Angel del Castillo, who has doubtless by 
now published the church in the Boletin de la 
Real Academic Gallega. 

1 Iturralde y Suit, Las grandes ruinas 
mondsticas, pp. 380-381. 

8 Rene Basset, Extrait de la Description 
d'EspagHe tirS de VOuvrage du Geographe Ano- 
nyme (TAlmeria: en Homenaje D. Francisco 
Cardera, pp. 642, 645. 

The Singing Souls: 

1 Turnbull, The Visions of Tundall. 
'Brooke, Christ's Victory and Triumph, 

p. 150- 

3 Boswell, An Irish Precursor of Dante, 
p. 76; Ward, Catalogue of Romances, II, 521. 

« Ward, op. cit., II, 520-27. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



* Kuno Meyer and Alfred Nutt, The Voyage 
of Bran, p. 6. 

•A. C. L. Brown, Iwain, in Harvard 
Studies, VIII, 63. 

7 Summary in Ward, op. tit., II, 527. 

• Op. cit., I, xvi. 

The Bridge of Dread: 

1 Vision of Laisren, assigned by Dr. Kuno 
Meyer to the ninth or tenth century, and 
published by him among Stories and Songs 
from Irish MSS: in Otia Merseiana, I, pp. 
117-118. 

2 Purchas his Pilgrims, reprint of 1905, 
VII, 530. 

*La Grande Chanson des Pelertns de S. 
Jacques, v. Appendix V. 

♦ Kdlbing, Engliscke Studien, I, 75. Cf. 
also pp. 74, 76. It should be stated that in 
dealing with poetry in French and English 
so old as to be perhaps unintelligible to the 
reader, the writer has taken the same liberty 
as our betters a hundred years ago, and 
modernized a bit, while supplying the exact 
reference for those who can deal with it. 

s El Purgatorio de S. Patricio, p. 165. 

6 From Soccard's Noels et CanHques. 

7 Kolbing, op. cit., p. 1 19. 

8 Ward, op. cit., II, 441. 

» From Summary in Ward, Catalogue, ii, 398. 

10 Id. ibid., 399. From a translation of the 
Coptic Version a short passage is extracted in 
Appendix VIII. 

« Turnbullj The Visions of Tundall, p. 14; 
the second bridge, p. 19. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



473 



I 



474 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



11 Scott, Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, 
II, 365. 

l * See Appendix X. 

x * Remains of Gentilism and Judaism, p. 
31 and pp. 220-22. 

*sOp.cit., II, 361. 

16 For this unfortunately he gives no pre- 
cise reference; it was reprinted in Ballads and 
Lyrics of Old France, T. Mosher, pp. 42-3. 

l i This is said not unaware of the sword- 
play theory. 

18 Gaston Paris, Le Conte de la Charette, 
in Romania, XII, p. 510. Gaston Paris, op. et 
loc. ciL, XII, pp. 473~4» §30-31. 

z » Wright, Catalogue of Romances, II, 441. 

30 Scott, Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, 

HI, 50. 

11 Cf. however Reinach, Cultes, Mythes 
et Religions, II, 60, 61, and I, 276. 

" Vigfusson and Powell, Corpus Poeticum 
Boreale, I, 142. 

** Cf also Morris, in The Blue Closet: 

O Love Louise, is this the key 

Of the happy golden land? 
O Sisters, cross the bridge with me, 

My eyes are full of sand. 
What matter if I cannot see, 

If ye take me by the hand? 

Also in this connexion may be cited Mr. 
Yeats, in such passages as: 

He made the world to be a grassy road 
Before her wandering feet. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



3 « Between the Lyke-Wake Dirge and the 
Alma en pena, the contrast, in the matter of 
what works shall avail, is quite typical: the 
southern, the Catholic ballad, lays the stress 
on acts of religion, the Spiritual Works, fast- 
ing, watching, prayer: the northern and Pro- 
testant, on the Corporal Works of Mercy, on 
feeding the hungry and clothing the naked. 

3 * C/. Kelly, op. cit. f 117, 123. 

36 Pelerinage d'un Paysan Picard a S. Jac- 
ques de Compostelle, pp. 99, 100. I have 
translated literally the stumbling phraseology 
that accords with the muddled thought. 

3 * Scott, Count Robert of Paris, pp. 120-12 1. 

38 Murguia, Galicia, p. 153. 

3 > Cantigas, civ. 

*° In brief, the whole story of the pilgrim- 
age, the whole tale of the writer, may be 
resolved into as neat and destructive an 
analysis of legendary themes, only in part 
Celtic, as ever furnish title to a Doctor's 
silken gown. 



CHAPTER VII 

Espafia sagrada — Murguia, Galicia — Me- 
nendez y Pelayo, Historia de los heterodoxos 
espaHoles — Osma, Catdlogo de azabaches com- 
postelanos—Fita y Guerra, Recuerdos de un 
viaje — Fita, Opuscule — Melida, Opuscula — 
Luke of Tuy — Heiss, Monnaies antiques de 
VEspagne — Cumont, Oriental Religions in Ro- 
man Paganism, and Monuments Relatifs au 
Culte de Mitkra— Toutairi, Les Cultes Patens 



475. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



I 



r 



476 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



dans V empire Romain — Reville, La Religion d 
Rome sous Us SSveres — Reinach, Cuties, Mythes 
et Religions — Dussaud, Notes sur la Mythologie 
Syrienne — Breliier, L'Eglise et V Orient ou 
Moyen-Age — Maury, Croyances et LSgendes 
du Moyen-Age — Saintyves, Les Saints Suc- 
cessors des Dieux — Delehaye, Les LS- 
gendes Hagiographiques — Babut, Priscillien 
et le Priscillianisme— Goblet d'Alviella, La 
Migration des Symboles — Dreves, Analecta 
Hymnica MediiAevi — Diederich, Eine Mithras 
Liturgie and Der Untergang der Antiken 
Religion — Wroth, Catalogue of Greek Coins — 
Walker, Apocryphal Gospels , Acts, and Revela- 
tions — Evans, Mycenaean Tree and Pillar 
Cults — Lawson, Modern Greek Folk-lore and 
Ancient Greek Religion 1 — Jane Harrison, Prole- 
gomena to the Study of Ancient Greek Religion 
— A. B. Cook, Zeus — Garstang, The Syrian 
Goddess — Mrs. Arthur Strong, Apotheosis and 
After-Life — Rendel Harris, The Dioscuri in 
the Christian Legends, The Cult of the Heavenly 
Twins, Boanerges — Prothingham, Hermes the 
Snake-God and the Caducous — Publications of 
the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society. 



1 F. Pita, in Boletin de la Real Academic de 
la Historia (1891), XIX, 528. 

* Corpus Inscrip. Lot., II, 140. 

* P. Pita, in Boletin de la Real Academia de 
la Historia, LII, 455. 

4 P. Pita, in Boletin de la Real Academia de 
la Historia, XLII, 393. 

* J. de Dios de la Rada y Delgada, in Boletin 



HISPAlSf IG NOTES 



^ 



NOTES 



de la Real Academia de la Historio, XXXVI, 

4*3- 

« Warde Fowler, The Raman Ideas of Deity, 

p. 12. 

» In the Lay of Helgi, that is precisely not 
done. 

1 They all occur in the Mazdean religion, 
and were taken over into the Mithraic. Cf. 
Cumont, Textes el Monuments Figures, I, 37. 

• Warde Fowler, op. cit., p. 12. 

10 Lopez Ferreiro, Historia de la S. A. M. 
Iglesia, III, App., p. 25. 

" Cf. Reinach, Cultes, Mytkes et Religions, 

1,59. 
"Murguia, Galicia,p. 18; cf. also p. 133. 

1 * Paul the Deacon, History of the Lombards, 
IV, xvi, pp. 160, 162. 

"« Mrs. Arthur Strong, Apotheosis and After- 
life, Lecture I. 

The Constant Worship: 

1 Murguia sustains me in this: cf. Galicia, 

pp. 134-135. 145- 

*J. Late de Vasconcellos, Religuloes da 

Lusttania. 

• Op. cit., p. 122. 

«Heiss, Les Monnaies Antiques de VRs- 
pagne, pp. 251-254. 
s Id. Aid., PI. £. 

• Id. ibid., PI. xi-xii. 
7 Id. ibid., PI. xiii-xiv. 

• Id. ibid., PL xiv-xvi. 
» Id. ibid., PL xvi. 
»Id.ibid.,Fi. xix-xx. 
» Id. ibid., PI. xx-xxi. 



477 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



J 



478 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



" Id. ibid., PL xxiii-xxvi: figured p. 354. 

l * Id. ibid., PL xxx. 

x « Mllida, Eljinete ibSrico, in Boletfn de la 
Sociedad Espafiola, 1900, VJII, 3, p. 175. 

*s Heiss, op. cit., PL xxxi. 

16 Id. ibid., PI. xxxii. 

«» Id. ibid., PL xlvi, lii-liii. 

**Id. ibid., PL lxiii, briv. 

x » Id. ibid., PL xxxvii, xlii. 

20 Id. ibid., PL xxxix, xl, xlvii. 

» Id. ibid., PL lxv. 

»/<*. ibid., PL x\. 

*Jtf. iWtf.; PL xxxii. - 

*« .fa. *taf., PL xxxiii. 

»* 74. *Wtf., PL xxxvi. 

-« A*. *W<*., PL xlviii. 

*i Id. ibid., PL lx-lxii. 

*• Id. ibid., PL lix: figured p. 354. 

*» Id. ibid., PL xxxii. 

'°Macrobius, Saturnalia, I, xix, 15. 

' x Corpus Inscrip. Lot., II, 5, 6, 12. The 
reference as thus given by Men&idez Pelayo I 
cannot verify, but the same inscription, as I 
think, is published by Pita y Guerra, Recuerdos 
de un viaje, pp. 15, 19, 28. 

* a Menendez y Pelayo, Historic de los 
heterodoxos espaHoles, I, 348. 

« Espaha sagrada, XIV, 108. 

*« Corpus Inscrip. Lot., II, 676, 677: Menen- 
dez y Pelayo, op. cit., 343. Poriz, VII, 80, and 
Hubner, who takes them from him, read Divi- 
ne, but I assume that the latest writer has 
grounds for the altered reading of 19 1 1 . The 
whole region of Trujillo is full of moon- 
masked stones (cf. d I. L. II, 673, 679, 68 1, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



684), but crescents and orbs, conjoined here 
as in Syria, as weU as stars, may refer to the 
planet. The other allusion is in Strata, iii. 

"Reinach, TraiU d'Epigraphie Grecque, 
p. 151. 

s* The worship of S. Eulalia was taken from 
Menda to Barcelona by S. Quiricus, a Gallegan 
and Bishop of Barcelona (656-669) : Gandara, 
Cisne Occidental, II, 302. S. Columba, another 
aspect of Her of the Doves, appears in Juan 
Tamayo de Salazar as saints, mostly Gallegan 
or Portuguese. Martyrologium aispanium, 

HI, 369. 

" Cook, Zeus, pp. 96-99; Pigs. 72, 73. 

»■ Heiss, op. cit., PI. xxxii. 

"Osma, Catdlogo de asabaches composte- 
lanos, p. 50. 

«• Espaha sagrada, IX, 84. 

4 1 Corpus Inscrip. Lat., II, 2100, 2122, 2407; 
Toutain, Les CuUes Patens, I, i, 41 1. 

4'Murguia, op. cit., p. 153. 

** La Migration des Symboles, p. 330. 

44 Reinach, CuUes, Mythes et Religions, II, 

pp. 50, 51, 53. 

"Livy, Epitome, Iv; Strata, Geographia, 

III, iii, 5. 

< 6 R. Menendez Pidal, La leyenda de los 
infantes de Lara, pp. 1 82-191. 

4* Espana sagrada, XIV, 134. 

4* Reinach, in Daremberg et Saglio, Die- 
Honnaire, II, 331, note 107, s. v. Dolichenus. 

49 Dreves,AnalectaHymnica, XVI, 2 19-222. 

s° Oriental Religions, pp. 249, 134. 

^EspaHa sagrada, XX; Lopez Ferreiro, 
Historia delaS. A. M. Iglesia, III, App. 64. 



479 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



48o 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



** Catholic Encyclopedia, s. v. Susanna: 
AA. SS. II February; II April. 

« Cumont, Textes et Monuments, I, 68. 

« Id. ibid., II, 362. 

« Cook, Zeus, p. 134, Fig. 100. 

** Walker, Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, and 
Revelations, p. 376. 

« Otto, Augustus Soter, in Hermes, XLV, 

454- 

* 8 Cumont, Oriental Religions, p. 96. The 

inventory is given in Meneiidez y Pelayo, op. 

cit. pp. 497-498. 

*» Corpus Inscrip. Lot., II, 3, 386. 

60 Heiss, op. cit., PI. lix, 2 and 4 and pp. 
380-300. 

61 Corpus Inscrip. Lot., II, 3730, 161 1. 

62 Wright, I, 369; Julian I, Discourse iv; 
Hymn to King Sun, in Macrobius, Saturnalia, 
I, xx, 13. 

" Eusebius, Ltfe of Constantine, iv, 19-20. 

6 4 Corpus Inscrip. Lot., II, 46. 

6 *Menendez y Pelayo, Historia de los 
heterodoxos, I, 500; Fita, Boletin de la Acade- 
mia de Historia, X, 242. 

66 Boletin de la Real Academia de la His- 
toria, 19171 April: Cultos emeritenses de Serapis 
y de Mithras. 

6 1 Op. cit., p. 60. 

68 Reville, op. cit., p. 61. 

•» Id. ibid., 105, 106. 

»• Id. ibid., p. 70. 

»* Dr. Rendel Harris is authority for this, 
in The Cult of the Heavenly Twins. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



N 



NOTES 



481 



The Star-Led Wizards: 

1 Corpus Inscrip. Lot., II, 178, 179, 606, 
805, 5260, 5521, 3706. 

3 Id. ibid., 2764, 5413; 2776— Toutain 
characteristically considers these mothers 
Gallican and not Galician — 2848; cf. Boletin 
de la Real Academic de la Historic (1910), 
LVI, 349; 2818; cf. Boletin de la Real 
Academic de la Historic (1900), XXXVI, 

507. 

3 S. Jacques en Galice, in Annates du Midi, 

1900; p. 161. 

«Babut, PrisciUien et It Priscillianisme, 
p. 192. 

* Espatia sagrada, XX, 9-10. 

6 Murguia, Galicia, published this. 

? Compostellana,ia Espafla sagrada,XX, 10. 
This can only be interpreted to mean that the 
pine tree stood before the shrine, or else that 
the shrine stood in a grove of pines, but both 
were there before S. Martin. It is still called 
S. Martin Pinario. 

•Cumont, Textes et Monuments Figurts, 
II, 166-167. By error he calls Iria Plavia 
Caldas de Reyes: that was Aquae Celenias. 

9 Toutain, Les Cultes Patens, I, ii, 145, to 
these must be added eleven more in the 
Narbonnais. Cf . Corpus Inscrip. Lot., II, 464, 
807, 2634, 2705, 5635, 1025, 1966, 5366, 4086. 
To the solar gods, 258, 259, 2407, 5319, 6308, 
4604, add to these: Bulletin Hispanique, 1904, 
p. 347; Annie Epigraphique, 1905, nos. 24, 25, 
26; Comptes-rendus de V Academic des In- 
scriptions, 1905, pp. 148-151. 

10 Pierre Paris, Restes du culte de Mithra en 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



r 



482 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



Espagne in Revue Archeologique, July-De- 
cember, 1 91 4. 

11 Notes de Mythologie Syrienne (1903), 
pp. 23 sqq. 52 sqq. 

l2 Historia de los heterodoxos, I, 469; Corpus 
Inscrip. Lat., II, 5929; Heiss, Monnaies 
Antiques de V Espagne, PI. lv. To this must 
be added, as I believe, a Celtiberian type of 
Sagunto (Heiss, xxvii, 1 and 2, and also 11; 
xxviii, 13, 15, 17, 18;), Valencia, xxviii, has 
the same winged helmet which at Sagunto 
was associated with the caduceus; Iliberi, 
xlviii, 6. 

'J Reinach, Cultes, Mythes et Religions, III, 
pp. 170-177 and indeed the whole essay on 
Mercure TricSphale, pp. 160 sqq. 

x « Dussaud, op. cit., p. 24. 

15 Espana sagrada, IX, 108 sqq., 310. 

16 Macrobius, Saturnalia, I, xxi, 5. 

1 * Reinach, s. v. Dolichenus, in Daremberg 
et Saglio, Dictionnaire. S. Marinus figures in 
various parts of the North-west and North- 
east: SS. Marinus and Patronus at Gerona. 
Tamayo de Salazar. Martyr. Hisp. 

x 'Fita y Guerra, Recuerdos de un viaje, 
pp. 28-29. There is something about this 
church in the singular letter which Alfonso 
the Chaste is supposed to have written to the 
clergy and people of Tours in the year 906, 
and which came from the Archives of Cluny: 
Espana sagrada, XIX, 348, 349. 

x 9 Espana sagrada, XX, 59. This is not the 
same as the original See of Iria, dedicated to 
S. Eulalia, for the Compostellana continues, 
4 ' et sicut altare S. Eulaliae in Iria. ' ' The state- 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



ment about the priest Pelayo, is repeated 
later (II, lv), pp. 373~374- 

20 This curious statement which, though 
it has suffered literary contamination un- 
doubtedly, yet seems a real piece of folk tradi- 
tion, I owe to the kindness of a correspondent 
at the Hispanic Society of America, New York, 
who reports it as picked up in South America 
from an old chaplain. 

21 P. Paris, Les Bronzes de Costig, in Revue 
Archeologique, 1897, 1» I 3&'> Essai sur I Art et 
V Industrie de I'Espagne primitif, I, 140-162. 

22 Melida, La Coleccion Vives, in Revtsta de 
Archivos, Bibliotecas y Museos, 1900, p. 156. 

*3 Peristephanon, Hymn X. Passio S. 
Rotnani Martyris, 11. 1010-1050. 
3 « Op. cit., p. 398. 

*s Cumont, Oriental Religions, p. 23. 
26 LEglise et VOrient au Moyen Age, pp. 

7-8. 

a ? Murgula, Galicia, pp. 183, 201-206. 

38 Extirpacidn de la idolatria del Peru, p. 33. 

3 » Rendel Harris, Boanerges, 20, note ; quoted 
from Pettitot, Traditions Indiennes du Canada 
Nord-Ouest, p. 283. 

3°Arriaga, op. cit., p. 32; Acosta, Natural 
and Moral History of the Indies, Hakluyt 
Society, p. 304. 

** Dussaud, Notes de Mythologie Syrienne, 
passim. 

* a Wroth, Catalogue of the Greek Coins of 
Galatia, Cappadocia and Syria, pp. 292, 294, 
295, PI. xxxvi; Cook, Zeus, p. 558, Figs. 421, 
422. 

33Parnell, Greece and Babylon, p. 288; 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



483 



I 



r 



484 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



Zimmern, Beitrdge, p. 123. I am indebted 
for this reference to my colleague Dr. W. C. 
Wright, and for a fresh translation of the 
Babylonian formulae to Dr. Morris Jastrow 
of the University of Pennsylvania. 

** Dussaud, op. cit., pp. 29-51. 

3« Dussaud, op. cit., pp. 85-86; G. P. Hill, 
Journal of Hellenic Studies (191 1), XXXI, 59. 

36 Leary, Syria the Land of Lebanon, p. 190; 
Charton, Voyageurs anciens et modernes, II, 

185. 

3 7 Best figured in Cook, Zeus, p. 569 and 
PL xxxiii. 

38 De Ridder, Catalogue des Bronzes de la 
Collection de Clercq, pp. 143 sqq. 

>9 Published by Palestine Pilgrims' Text 
Society, for Acre, 18-29. Cf. Cites de Jheru- 
sdUm, for Tortosa, p. 43, p. 48: in Palestine 
Pilgrims' Text Society. 

*° Charton, op. cit., p. 175, 

<* Phene Spires, Jerusalem Churches, in 
Architecture East and West, pp. 203, 206, 207. 
A fragment of the cult-statue has been found 
at Bey rout: Dussaud, op. cit., p. 129. 

* 2 Op. cit., p. 94. 

43 Citez de Jherusalem, p. 32: Palestine 
Pilgrims' Text Society. 

44 Hispaniae IUustratae, IV, 34. 

45 5. Jacques en Galice, p. 159. 

The Mortal Twin: 

z Babut, Priscillien et la PriscUlianisme, 

p. 130. 

a EspaHa sagrada, XVI, 39; Babut, op. cit., 

p. 238. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



* 5. Silva of Aquitaine, pp. 35, 43: Palestine 
Pilgrims' Text Society. 

<Chabot, Chronique de Michel le Syrien, 
I, 149. 

' Caxton's Golden Legend, V, 97, Nativity 
of our Lady. 

6 Chabot, op. tit., I, 148-149. 

I Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, p. 19, 
§86. 

8 Chabot, op. tit., p. 183. 

• Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, p. 11. 
10 Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, pp. 2, 

14. 

II Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, p. 45. 

12 Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, p. 33. 
x * Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, pp. 5, 

33, 43- 

*« Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, p. 78. 

x s Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, p. 42, 46. 

16 Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, p. 100. 

*» Hispaniae IUustratae, IV, 34. 

l% S. Jacques en Galice, pp. 151, 152. 

" Id. ibid., p. 166. 

20 Id. ibid., p. 153; Dreves, Analecta 
Hymnica, XXVII, 187. 

21 Walker, Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, and 
Revelations, p. 354. 

22 Id. ibid., pp. 440-443. 

« Id. ibid., pp. 308, 320, 323. 

2 * Id. ibid., pp. 309, 323. 

a * Id. ibid., p. 314. 

»« Id. ibid., pp. 314, 328, 329. 

2 * Id. ibid., p. 305. 

al Id. ibid., p. 315. 

*» Id. ibid., pp. 301, 303. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



485 



I 



486 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



29 Id. ibid., p. 394. 
* x Id. ibid., p. 316. 

* a Schepss, Corpus Scrip. Eccles. Lot., 
XVIII, 44. 

33 Boanerges, passim. 

The High God: 

1 Cook, Zeus, pp. 549, 551. 

2 Macrobius, Saturnalia, xxiii, 23, 10 sqq. 
I quote from Mr. Cook's version pp. 552-553. 

* Catholic Encyclopedia, s. v. Genesius. Ta- 
mayo y Salazar, Martyr. Hisp., I, 38. 

« Robinson, Later Biblical Researches in 
Palestine, III, 522. 

* Life of Constantine, iii, 58. 

6 Theodoret, Eccles. History, iii, 7. 

rChabot, Chronique de Michel le Syrien, 
II, 262. 

8 Niebuhr, in Corpus Soriptorum Historiae 
Byzantinae, p. 344. 

* Fita y Guerra, Keener dos de un viaje, p. 
30. Gandara, Armas y triunfos, pp. 31, 108. 

X0 Eusebius, op. cit., iii, 58; Robinson, op. 
cit., p. 522. 

1 1 0. Puchstein, in Jahrbuch des Kaiser I. 
Deutsch. Archaelog. Institut., 1901, XVI, pp. 
131 sqq., XVII, 87 sqq. 

12 Overbeck, Exploits of Mar RabbiUa. 

x * In 1852 Robinson saw there "two rows 
of pedestals as if for statues or sphinxes " 
(op. cit., 511). These sphinxes were found 
by Garstang elsewhere in the lands of the 
Hittite, and the Sphinx which stepped down 
from its pedestal and testified, in the city of 
the Man-Eaters, was most likely Hittite. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



Garstang, Land of the Hittite; Walker, Apo- 

cryfhal Gospels, Acts, and Revelations, p. 357; 

Reinach, Cultes, Mythes and Religions, I, 406. 

x *Dussaud, Notes de Mythologie Syrienne, 

PP. 49-51- 

»« Id. ibid., pp. 81-115. 

16 British Museum, Catalogue of Coins, 
Phoenicia, PI. xi, 6. 

1 ^ Babylonian Origin of Hermes the Snake 
God, in American Journal of Archaeology, 

1916, xx f ii, 175 sqq. 

18 Garstang, The Syrian Goddess, pp. 4c 
sqq. 57 sqq., 69-77, 79. 

J » Id. ibid, pp. 22-24. 

20 The Minoan and other parallels, both 
prehistoric and contemporary, in Evans, My- 
cenaean Tree and Pillar Cult, passim. The 
Cruz de los Harapos is here explained by ob- 
servations in modern Greece. 

" Lopez Ferreiro, op. cit., I, 309; II, 194. 

" Garstang, op. cit., pp. 91-92. 

a * EspaHa sagrada, IX, 410. 

a « Garstang, op. cit., pp. 69-70. 

2 s Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, The 
Pilgrimage of the Holy Paula, i, p. 4 ; S. Silva 
of Aquitaine, p. 34. 

a6 S. Lee, Eusebius Bishop of Caesar ea on 
the Theophania, quoted in Cook, Zeus, p. 550, 
note 8. 

Along the Eastern Road: 

'Wroth, British Museum Catalogue of 
Greek Coins, Galatia, Cappadocia and Syria, 
pp. 290, 291, 293, PI. xxxvi, 7; Cook, Zeus, 
pp. 566-567, figs. 433, 434. 



AND MON OGRAPHS 



487 



I 



488 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



2 O. Puchstein, Jahrbuch des Kaiserl. Deutsch. 
Archaeolog. Institut, 1902, XVII, 87, 97. 

* Historia de la arquitectura, I, 149-158. 

« So Lucian, Garstang, The Syrian Goddess, 
p. 71. 

* Reville, La Religion d Rome, pp. 286, 290. 
*Cumont, Textes et Monuments FigurSs, 

It 355-356. 

7 Gongaud, Les ChrStientes CeUiques, p. 261. 
•The case is this: 

(1) Stones were worshipped in proto- 
historic Spain, and the drawing of Santiago's 
pillar is identically like those on Minoan gems. 
A Pillar was associated with S. James, and 
worshipped at Saragossa, and at Compostella. 

(2) The Jinete is to be identified with 
Castor, and S. James involved, as warrior and 
as twin, wherever he was worshipped. 

(3) The High God of Compostella: he is a 
storm god, a sky god, and a sun god. His 
Mate is the Lady of the Doves, Dea Ataecina. 

(4) S. James is psychopompos and patron 
of wayfarers, succeeding the Celtic Esus- 
Mercury, and Mithras. He is a chthonian 
power. 

(5) The type of Serapis and the epithet 
Soter were given to him. 

(6) The relation of Mother and Son at 
Compostella must be connected with the 
Lusitanian inscriptions to the Mother of the 
gods. 

(7) He is a vegetation-god, and rain- 
maker: a bull-god. 

(8) He is the twin of Christ. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



NOTES 



(9) This combination, in the High God of 
Compostella, of sun god, fertility god, and 
war god, made easy this identification with 
the greatest of the Syrian Baals, the Zeus of 
Heliopolis. 

(10) The later empire and Middle Age 
knew all about Heliopolis from Lucian and 
Macrobius and also from travellers, John of 
Antioch, Michael the Syrian and Benjamin of 
Tudela, all writing in the twelfth century, 
and all describing what was there. 

(11) Syrian architects left their mark in 
Europe. 

(12) It is most probable that the stair at 
the west end of Santiago and Notre Dame du 
Puy, is fetched from Syria. 



NOTES: BOOK POUR 

CHAPTER I 

Compare for the matter of this chapter, the 
following authorities already so often cited: 
Lamperez — M. G6mez Moreno — Murgula — 
E. Male — E. Bertaux — R. de Lasteyrie — C. 
Enlart — A. Venturi — A. Kingsley Porter. 

1 Murgula, Galicia, p. 428. 

The Portico of Visions: 

1 V. Appendix, VIII. 

■ Turnbull, The Visions of Tundall, p. 30. 
* Turnbull, op. cit., lines 358-61, p. 12. 
4 Id. ibid., line 412, p. 14. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



489 



490 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



5 Ward, Journal of the Archaeological Asso- 
ciation, 1875, XXXI, p. 420 sqq. 

6 Adam says: 

Toward the east end of yonder vale 
A green way find thou shall. 
In that way shall thou find and see 
The steps of thy mother and me 
Following in the grass green 
That ever sithence hath been seen 
Where we came, going as unwise 
When we were put from Paradise 
Into this world s wretched slade [dale] 
Where I first myself was made, 
For the greatness of our sin; 
Since, might no grass grow therein. 
That same will thee lead thy gate 
From hence to Paradise's gate. 

Cursor Mundi, 11. 1251 

sqq. In Early English Text Society, Original 

Series, lvii. 

7 Lamperez, Historia de la arquitectura, I, 
365. 

The Chantier: 

1 V. Lasteyrie, V Architecture Religieuse en 
France, p. 448. 

3 Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Excur- 
sions, XVI (1908), p. 86. 

Excursus on some Twelfth Century Sculpture : 

1 Figured in Venturi, Historia dell' Arte 
Italiana, III, 191. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



N OTES 



3 Cf. Emile Male in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 
January, 191 8. 

* All figured in Venturi, op. cil., III, pp. 287- 

336. 

4 Lasteyrie decides that these sculptures 
fall between 11 45 and 1194, and probably 
within the first half of that time. Monuments 
Piot,\lU,2%. 

* Of. cit., p. 50. 

6 Villanueva y Geltru, Viaje literario a las 
iglesias de EspaHa, IX, 298-300. . 

7 These include Lucca, porch; Pisa, baptis- 
tery; Arezzo, pieve; Perugia, fountain; Fer- 
rara, cathedral. 

Workmen of S. James: 

1 Published by Lasteyrie, Monuments Piot, 
VIII, Plate x. 

2 In Boletin de la Sociedad Espaflola, 1908, 
p. 86. 

a Cf. Baum, Romanesque Architecture in 
France: at Bordeaux, Saintes, Aulnay, and 
Angers are personages thus arranged; at S. 
Maurice, Vauvant, Maillezais, are fabulous 
beasts. 

* Lamperez, Las catedrales gallegas, in Ilus- 
tracion EspaHola y Americana, 1903. 

Sorting: 

1 V. Congrls, Archiolopque de France, 1894. 
M. Anatole de Roumejoux, L'Ornementatton 
aux Spoques MSrovingiens el Carolingiens, with 
plates. 

'Photograph, Sebah et Joaillier, No. 54, 
Mosque of Kahrie. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



491 



492 



WAY OF S.JAMES 



* "This much seems clear: that the Siber- 
ian art as exemplified in the Nonocherkarek 
treasure would naturally lead on to the 
'Gothic' style, the ornamental style of the 
barbarians that overran the Roman Empire. 
Specimens of this work are distributed from 
Stockholm to Spain and from Ireland to the 
Caucasus, but there seems good reason to 
suppose that it arises in southern Russia. . . . 
The beast style seems to derive from the 
Scytho-Siberian. . . . [The patterns] held their 
own, longest as Island varieties in Ireland and 
Scandinavia, where they came to be thought 
autochthonous and characteristically Keltic 
or Northern." Minns, Scythians ana Greeks, 
p. 282. Cf, also, p. 266, " Scythic beast style," 
and xxxix, Addenda and Corrigenda, 



CHAPTER II 

1 L. Gautier, Les Chansons de Geste, note on 
verse 892. 

2 Henri Bordier, La Confririe des PHerins 
de S, Jacques, Memoires de la SocieU de 
VHistoire de Paris et de VIsle de France, vols. 
I and II. 

* Bonnault d'Houet, PUerinage d*un Pay- 
san Picard, 1890, p. xix. 

« M. TAbbe* Camille Daux, Le PUerinage de 
Compostelle. 

«M. Camille de Mensignac, La ConfrSrie 
Bordelaise de Mgr. S. Jacques de Compostelle 
a VEglise S. Michel de Bordeaux. 

6 Adrien Lavergne, Les Chemins de S. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



NOTES 



Jacques en Gascoigne, in Revue de Gascoinge, 
XX. XXI, XXVII, XXVIII. 

7 Lopez Ferreiro, Historia de la S. A. M. 
Iglesia, V, pp. 77"89- 

8 Fabie\ Viajes par EspaHa, p. 29. 

• James Howell, Instructions for Forraine 
Travel; Arber's English Reprints, XVI, p. 38. 

10 Colophon to a set of Miracles published 
from a MS. of the fifteenth century by Pita, 
Estudios Historicos, III (1885). 

CHAPTER III 

Espafta sagrada — Diccionario Geogrdfico- 
histdrico, Secci&n 1 — Lamperez, Historia de la 
arquitectura — Pirilla, Provincial vascongadas — 
Madrazo, Navarra y LogroHo 1 — Becerro de 
Bengoa, El libro de Alava — Iturralde y Suit, 
£a cruz de Roncesvalle — B6dier, Les iigendes 
Epiques. 

1 Marina, Diccionario geogrdfico-historico, 
Seccion 1, 1, 107. 

2 Lampgrez, Historia de la arquitectura, 
1, 610, n. 3. 

3 Marina, Diccionario geogrdfico-historico, 
Seccidn 1, 1, 272. 

« Garran, S. Maria la real, pp. 35, 36. 

Roncevauz: 

1 Tesoretto, cap. ii, 11. 27-40., 

2 BeMier, Les Chansons Epiques, IV; Pfo 
Rajna, Homendje a Menindez Pelayo, II, 387. 



AN D MONOGRAPHS 



493 



494 WAY OP S. JAMES 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 





1 



AND MONOGRAPHS | I 



r 



496 


WAY OP S. JAMES 




APPENDIX 




I. Notes on S. James Major, S. Mary 




Virgin, and the Pillar, at Saragossa. 




II. Miracles of S. James. 




III. Miracles of Our Lady of Villa-Sirga. 




IV. The Great Hymn of S. James. 




V. The Little Hymn of S. James. 




VI. La Grande Chanson des Pterins de 




S. Jacques. 




VII. ThurkuTs Vision. 




VIII. Apocalypse of S. Paul. 




IX. FrauHolde. 




X. A Lyke-Wake Dirge. 




XI. El Alma en Pena. 




XII. Gallegan Romance. 




XIII. Purchas his Pilgrim. 




XIV. Itineraries. 




1. Aymery Picaud's, 1120-40. 




2. De Caumont's, 141 7: 3. 




3. Bought in Leon, 1525. 




4. Villuga's Reportorio, 1546. 




5. Nicholas Bonfons', 1583. 




6. Pilgrim's Guide, 1718. 




7. Itinerario EspaHol, 1798. 


I 


HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



NOTES ON S. JAMES MAJOR, S. MARY 

VIRGIN, AND THE PILLAR, 

AT SARAGOSSA 

I. From the Description of Spain by the 
anonymous Geographer of Almeria, twelfth 
century. Composed before the Christians 
under Alfonso el BataMador retook Saragossa 
in 1118: 

Among the cities of Spain Saragossa is 
great, and built long since. They say it was 
built by Constantine in the time of Our Lord 
Mohammed, whom may God bless and save. 
One of the curious things is that it is entirely 
enclosed. Its wall is built of cut stones fitted 
one into the other. Without the city the 
wall is forty cubits high, more or less; within, 
it is level with the streets and lanes: the 
greatest difference of level is not more than 
five cubits. The houses project upon the 
ramparts. It is called the white city, because 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



497 



A ndnimo 
de Almeria 



Saragossa 



r 



498 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



it is whitewashed. Above it is a white light 
that everyone can see, day and night, in fair 
weather and foul. The Christians say the 
light has been there since the foundation. 
The Musulmans say that it happened since 
two virtuous men were buried there, Hanech 
es Sana'ani and Faeqad edi Chanadji. There 
are doubts about one of them but certainly 
the former was one of the Companions of the 
Prophet (whom may God bless and preserve) ; 
he went into Spain the year of the Conquest, 
that is to say the year 91, with Tarik. The 
second came with Musa ben Nesair in 92, as 
Ibn-el-Djezzar says in The Book of the Marvels 
of the Country. These two men are buried at 
the south-east, outside the mosque opposite 
the tnihr&b. That is made of a single block of 
marble carved with a marvellous and extra- 
ordinary labour: there is no like mihrdb in 
all the inhabited earth. 

Another marvel of this city is that any 
reptile or any serpent that enters therein, 
dies instantly. Among other extraordinary 
things, nothing spoils, neither fruits nor corn. 
I have seen wheat more than a hundred years 
old, grapes that have hung for six years more 
or less, dry figs, prunes (or apricots that are 
dried) plums, cherries, pears, dried peaches 

HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



four years old and more. You may see the 
beans and chick-pease of twenty years old 
and more. There are so many cereals, wines 
and fruits that in all the inhabited earth 
there is no land more fertile in fruits, and the 
inhabitants mostly eat them dried, there are 
so many. It abounds in gardens, flowers, and 
goodly buildings. The city is situate on the 
great river Ebro. . \ . From Rene* Basset, 
Extrait de la Description de I'Espagne, i tiro de 
Vouvrage du Geographe anonyme d'Almeria, 
in Homenaje a D. Francisco Carder a, pp. 
619-647. 

II. From Edrisi's Description of Africa 
and Spain: 

Saragossa is one of the capital cities of 
Spain, great and populous. The streets are 
wide, the houses very goodly, the city is sur- 
rounded by vine-garths and gardens. The 
walls are of stone, very strong; the city is 
built on the edge of the great river called the 
Ebro, which comes in part from the land of the 
Christians, in part from the mountains of 
Calatayud, and in part from about Calahorra, 
and the branches unite above Tudela. Then 
the river flows toward Saragossa, then to the 
fortress of Djibra (Chiprana), then it receives 
the waters of the Olive river (the Cinca), then 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



499 



Edrisi on 
Saragossa 



5<>o 



So Ireland 

and 

Iceland 



Tortosa 



Fray Lam- 
bert de 
Zaragoza 



I 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



it flows toward Tortosa and at the east thereof 
falls into the sea. Saragossa is called also 
al-medina al-braidhd (the white city) because 
most of the houses are covered with plaster 
or whitewash. One remarkable peculiarity 
is that there are no snakes there; if you bring 
in any, they die at once. At Saragossa there 
is a huge bridge, which you pass to enter the 
city, which has strong, walls and superb 
buildings. 

Tortosa is a city built at the foot of a 
mountain and girded by strong walls. There 
are bazaars, fine buildings, artisans and 
workmen. They build great ships with 
the timber from the mountains round about, 
which are covered with pines uncommonly 
large and tall; they use it for masts and 
yards of ships. It is reddish, with shiny 
bark, resinous and durable, and insects 
will not touch it. It is far-renowned. — From 
Edrisi, Description de VAfrique et I'Espagne, 
by R. Dozy, and M. J. de Goeje, pp. 230- 

231. 
III. From the Teatro Historico of Fray 

Lamberto de Zaragoza condensed : 

S. James left Jerusalem in 36, and having 

preached the Gospel in Judaea and Samaria he 

took ship for Spain; some would have it that 



HISPANIC NOTES 



i 



APPENDIX 



he disembarked at Carthagena but it is more 
likely that the place was somewhere about 
Tortosa. He came up the banks of the Ebro ; 
when he reached Saragossa he spent his days 
in expounding and his nights chiefly in prayer. 
Being with some disciples just outside the 
walls he saw a light and heard singing and 
perceived a multitude of angels bringing S. 
Mary on a throne from Jerusalem in a great 
glory, and by her a wooden image of her, and a 
column of jasper: she bade him build her a 
temple there where with her name his should 
be adored: "for this place is to be my House, 
my right inheritance and possession. This 
image and column of mine shall be the Title 
and Altar of the temple that you shall 
build. " (pp. 4 1-44) . When the Apostle had 
built the church, he gave it the title of S. 
Mary of the Pillar. He gave to the congre- 
gation of the faithful there an organized 
church and see, and seeing in Athanasius a 
disciple eminent in the faith, in wisdom and 
zeal, named him bishop and consecrated with 
the laying on of his hands; and in Theodore 
another disciple not inferior in the same 
tokens, ordained him priest, designating the 
former to the office of pastor of the Caesar- Au- 
gustan flock, and the other to the charge of 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



501 



— for Gua- 
diz 

Tortosa 

Saragossa 



The Pillar 



502 



Com- 
panions of 
S. James 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



the cult of the sacred image and other ex- 
ercises that lead to ecclesiastical discipline 
(p. 46). S. Athanasius was the first Bishop of 
Saragossa ; some think he was of Greek extrac- 
tion and was born in Toledo, and had been in 
Jerusalem and there been converted, return- 
ing to Spain with S. James (p. 49). S. Theo- 
dore the disciple of S. James was the successor 
of S. Athanasius in the see (p. 59). 

All the intent of the R. P. Risco . . . [says 
Fray Lamberto] is to deny that SS, Atha- 
nasius and Theodore were bishops of Sara- 
gossa, as where he says in Espana Sagrada, vol. 
XXX, p. 39, § 8, "as it is known by ancient 
monuments, the Epistle of Leo III, and the 
Instrument of Calixtus II, all we know of 
them is that they were in Galicia and always 
stayed there, guarding the Sepulchre of their 
holy Master, till they both died and were 
buried one on the left and one on the right 
hand of the Apostle's body," but in truth the 
Epistle says not one word about their bishop- 
rics, neither affirming nor denying. . . . 
(pp. 273-275). Et cetera, et cetera. 

From Teatro Historico de las Iglesias del 
Reyno de Aragon, tome II. By the R. P. 
Fray Lamberto de Zaragoza, of the Order of 
the Capuchines, 1782. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPEN DIX 



IV. From Risco, EspaHa Sagrada, XXX, 
1775* Condensed. 

The piety and religious devotion with 
which all the faithful venerate the holy image 
of the Column, and the respect with which 
they regard the temple of it, is a solid docu- 
ment for proof of the antiquity, the contin- 
uity, and the certainty of our tradition, for 
there is not known any other commencement 
of a cult so devout and so widespread through- 
out the world. ... S. Braul, who flourished 
in the seventh century, had a very especial 
devotion to this sanctuary. The ancient 
Breviary of Monte Aragon, and a volume that 
served for the Order of Jeronymites, refer to 
the holy bishop's living for a while in the house 
of the Pillar. It is certain that notwithstand- 
ing the great excellence of the temple of the 
Saviour, and the appreciation in which he 
held the church of the Innumerable Martyrs, 
as will be said in the proper place, his holy 
body was buried in this sanctuary, as his 
Life also will prove. Aymon, a writer of the 
ninth century, in the midst of celebrating 
the two churches, called that of the Pillar the 
mother of all the churches in the city. . . . 
The most authentic testimony which can be 
brought to confirm the fame and dignity of 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



503 



Fr. Risco 



The Pillar 

at 
Saragossa 



5»4 



Cistercians 
of S. Ber- 
nard, our 
Lady's 
great lover 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



this holy image throughout the Christian 
world, and the esteem in which it was held, 
is the bull of Pope Gelasius II, issued in 1 1 18 
and the encyclical of D. Pedro Librana, first 
bishop after the reconquest. This rejoices in 
the deliverance of the church of the Blessed 
and Glorious Virgin Mary [but names no 
Pillar which is only as might be expected]. 
Doctor Ferreras pretends that the image of 
the Pillar is as modern as certain very learned 
Aragonese aver, who say it was brought by 
some Gascon monks at the time of the Con- 
quest of Saragossa (pp. 75-79). 

The oppression that the Mozdrabes of 
Saragossa suffered during the dominion of the 
Moors was not always the same, but severer 
or lighter according to the temper of the pre- 
fects or kings. What I have been able to 
collect [says Risco] from the monuments that 
I have read concerned with this time, is that 
the servitude of the Christians in this city 
was not so harsh and calamitous as what they 
suffered at Cordova and in other towns near 
that court. ... In 848 this church enjoyed 
such peace, that not only the bishop Senior 
but also the prefect of the Arabs received 
benignly the Christians who passed through 
Saragossa, as S. Eulogius and Aymon testify. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



. . . From these notices it may be inferred 
that the Mozdrabes of this church enjoyed 
for long stretches of time such peaceable and 
happy existence as could hardly have been 
expected of the barbarity of the Saracens 
. . . they were however poor, what with the 
covetousness of the Mohammedans and the 
continuance of wars ... so that Pope Gela- 
sius allowed indulgences to those that gave 
any alms for the decoration of the walls of the 
Pillar, the provision of ornaments and sacred 
vessels, and the sustenance of the clergy there. 
There seems to have been no lack of instruc- 
tion in the city during the time called of her 
captivity, nor is it likely that the Christians 
fell into any error from living with such bar- 
barous folk. . . (pp. 208-210). The church 
of the Pillar was in this time the place of re- 
ligion and sanctity ... as Zurita says (p. 
207). The churches which the Arabs allowed 
to the faithful were that of the Santos Masas, 
now S. Engracia, and that of the Pillar, and 
they turned into a mosque that of the Saviour 
(p. 206). 

The tradition of the antiquity of the cult 
of the Pillar is proved by the Mass which of 
old time was sung in the holy chapel of the 
Pillar, with the codex which exists in the 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



505 



Mozdrabes 



1 



506 



Mozarabic 
Mass 



Later than 
the twelfth 
century 



I 



WAY OF S. JAl^ES 



archives of that church, and with other tes- 
timonies. The Mass was given up in the 
time of Pius V, to bring the chapter into con- 
formity with the Roman missal, but the 
chapter still sang the collect in the daily pro- 
cession to the chapel of Our Lady, and the 
whole substance of the apparition is in the 
collect. In a copy of the Morals of S. Gregory, 
belonging to the church of the Pillar which 
was shown at Rome in evidence as five hun- 
dred years old, the story of the apparition of 
the Virgin to S. James is written at the end 
with all the traditional circumstances . . . 
nevertheless, the codex is not so old as some 
think, but it embodied an ancient tradition. 
. . . The writing is that used in Spain much 
later than the time of Tajon, and even later 
than the twelfth century. . . . 

In 1459 John II of Aragon conceding singu- 
lar graces and prerogatives to this church 
mentioned the admirable apparition of the 
Virgin to S. James upon the marble Pillar. 
On May 9, 1471, the Chapter of the Pillar 
ordered that on the octave of S. James, 
though it was a double first, the little office 
of the Virgin should not be omitted as on 
other octaves, because it was meet and right 
in the whole festival to keep a memorial of 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



the prodigious apparition that the sovereign 
Queen vouchsafed to the holy Apostle in that 
city. In 1504 Ferdinand the Catholic in 
another diploma affirmed that the said tradi- 
tion was so celebrated and famous that none 
of the Catholics of the west were ignorant 
thereof (pp. 79-83). 

The bull of Calixt III, given in 1456, may 
be found in Espafia Sagrada III, Appendix 11. 
It declares that the church of the Pillar is the 
first that was consecrated and dedicated to 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, that before her 
Assumption she appeared to the Apostle S. 
James in Saragossa on a column of marble, 
whence the church took its name of the Pillar, 
that S. James by her orders built her a chapel, 
that the faithful came thither with great 
devotion, and that God in his mercy worked 
an infinity of miracles there. ... (p. 85). 

The whole has been accepted by the Roman 
curia, Benedict XIV, and the Bollandists 

(p. 95)- 
V. Prom Florez, EspaHa Sagrada, III, 

1754. 
The Arragonese at the conquest of Seville 

founded there a confraternity under the ad- 
vocation of Nuestra SeHora del Pilar, I, 253 
(p. «5)- 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



507 



Encour- 
aged in 
the early 
Renais- 
sance 



Borja of 
Valencia 



Perhaps 
they found 
there a 
Pillar and 
a Lady 



5o8 



Miracles 



II 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



II 



THE MIRACLES OF S. JAMES 

Printed, from The Book of S. James, in Acta 
Sanctorum, July, vol. VI, pp. 47 sqq. : from 
which they are here summarized in the original 
order, omitting the division into chapters. 

I. In the time of King Alfonso when the 
Saracen raged, a count named Ermengotus, 
taken as a prisoner into Saragossa and calling 
on S. James, saw him appear. The Apostle 
comforted him, took him out to the city gates 
which opened at the sign of the Cross, and 
carried him back to a Christian castle. 

II. In the time of Bishop Theodomir a 
certain Italian had sinned so greatly that he 
hardly dared confess and his priest dared not 
absolve. He wrote out his confession and 
going to Santiago laid it on the altar. On S. 
James's Day, when the Bishop went to sing 
Mass, the scroll was blank. [This miracle is 
told of Charlemagne and S. Giles, which is, 
after all, within the same cycle or current of 



HISPANIC NOTES 



A PPEN DIX 



legends. # Where Charlemagne must figure 
as founder and saint, it is wisely transferred 
to an anonymous Italian.] 

III. In the year 1 108 a Frefnch couple had 
no children: they went upon the pilgrimage 
and afterwards the wife was pregnant. [This 
is the opening of a Romance.] When the son 
thus given was fifteen years old they took him 
on the same pilgrimage and in the mountains 
of Oca the boy died. Then the mother called 
upon S. James: "You gave him once: restore 
him now!" S. James did. 

IV. In 1080 thirty soldiers of Lorraine set 
out, and all swore to stand by each other 
except one, who made no promises. When 
they reached Gascony and the Portatn Clau- 
sam (Port de Cize) one fell very sick and for 
two weeks lay sick there. Twenty-eight men 
went on, only the one who had made no 
pledge, stayed by him: the two kept vigil a 
night at the village of S. Michael [S. Miguel in 
Excelsis] and started again on foot, but the 
mountain was too rough and the sick man 
died. The survivor in solitude and night, 
amid mountains and Basques, called for help 
on S.James. The Apostle appearing on horse- 
back, took the dead in his arms, and the 
living behind him, and before sunrise the 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



509 



Miracles 



in 



IV 



5io 



Miracles 



Our Lady 
of Villa- 
Sirga. 
Volume II, 
page 167. 



VI 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



twelve days' journey was made and the pair 
set down on the hill of Mountjoy, with a 
promise that the dead man should be buried 
by the Canons of Santiago. [The mingling 
here of folk-lore and actuality is the quaintest, 
the sweetest, ever savoured.] 

V. In 1090 some German pilgrims [Vin- 
cent of Beauvais says French] going to S. 
James, came to Toulouse, and lodged with a 
rich man who coveted their goods. He made 
them drunk, and while they slept heavily hid 
a silver cup among their goods: then came 
with the guard at cock crow to arouse and 
search. He dragged two of them, father and 
son, before a judge, the son was hanged, the 
father continued the pilgrimage. Coming 
back thirty-six days later he found the son 
still alive, for S. James had held him up and 
fed him. The wicked host was hanged. 

VI. In 1 100 when Louis was King of 
Prance [he was not king until 1108] the land 
was invaded with a pestilence, and Count 
William of Poitiers went with his wife and 
two little children on the pilgrimage. In 
Pampeluna the countess died and the host 
robbed them even of the horse that carried 
the children. They met a good old man with 
an excellent donkey and finished the journey 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



with these. Returning to Pampeluna, they 
found that the host was hanged, the old man 



was the Apostle, and the ass was an angel. 
[Jacob Sobieski had an adventure in Pampelu- 
na that begins with his being robbed, but ends 
with the Bishop's repaying the lost money to 
save the innkeeper's daughter from hanging.] 

VII. In i ioo when a Frisian ship of Jeru- 
salem pilgrims was attacked by a Saracen 
named Avitus [here is the opening of a Ro- 
mance] a sailor in full armour fell overboard. 
S. James pulled him out and put him back on 
board. 

VIII. In 1 1 02 a pilgrim returning by sea 
from Jerusalem was sitting on the bulwarks 
singing to a psaltery, and was washed over- 
board. S. James saved him, and brought him 
safely to the haven where he would be. [In 
all these sea-faring miracles the rescued vows 
and accomplishes the pilgrimage to Com- 
postella.] 

IX. In 1 103 a French knight stationed at 
Tiberias and in the country near Jerusalem, 
being in danger of the Turks, vowed the pil- 
grimage and escaped. He forgot the vow, 
fell sick unto death, and was visited and re- 
minded by the Apostle. He set out. The ship 
was endangered in a storm and all on board 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



5ii 



Miracles 



VII * 



Sea-faring 



viii x 
Dionysus 
type 



IX 

Palestine 



1 



512 



The Dios- 
curi 

protected 
sea-farers 

x * 



XI 

Modena 



XII 

Compostel- 
lan 



*Caidlogo, 
p. 36 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



vowed the pilgrimage. S. James appeared 
among them in human form, they anchored 
safe and came to the haven where they would 
be, in Apulia. 

X. In 1 104 a pilgrim returning from Jeru- 
salem fell overboard, called on S. James, and 
swam after the ship three days and nights till 
he was heard and taken on board. 

XI. In 1 1 05 one Bernard of Castelcorgano 
in the diocese of Modena was a prisoner ijti a 
deep dungeon, loaded with chains. To him 
calling on S. James, the Apostle appeared and 
said: "Come, follow me into Galicia," then 
struck off his chains, and took him up to the 
top of the tower whence he jumped down 
without the least harm. 

XII. In 1 1 06 a soldier sick in Apulia of an 
affection of the throat, earnestly desiring to be 
.touched with a crusella fetched back from 
Compostella, was cured thereby and went 
on the pilgrimage. [The Bollandists opine 
that the dog-Latin here, crusillam, means 
a little cross and betrays the Spanish word 
crucecilla, and the Spanish provenance of the 
miracle, but Osma points out that it is the 
concha Venera, and in the Gallegan version 
is rendered cuncha* 

XIII. In 1 135 a soldier named Dalmatius 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



APPENDIX 



was badly beaten by a peasant: he appealed 
to S. James and the man's arm was broken, 
but on penitence and intercession was 
healed. 

XIV. In 1 107, to a merchant unjustly 
imprisoned S. James appeared and led him to 
the top of the tower whence he jumped down 
safe, and carried his chains to the church of 
Compostella. 

XV. In 1 1 10 when two Italian cities were 
at war, a soldier in danger escaped on horse- 
back. Fulfilling his vow he came with the 
horse to Santiago and the guard would not 
let him bring the latter to the altar. But the 
gates opened of themselves. 

XVI. Three soldiers of the diocese of 
Lyons, going on pilgrimage, met a little old 
woman who begged them to carry her bundle. 
One of them did, and when they met a poor 
man who begged a lift, he gave up his horse, 
and so went afoot, carrying the old woman's 
bundle and the beggar's staff. Then he fell 
sick, and was assaulted by devils, and kept 
them off with bundle for shield and staff for 
spear, and died' in piety. [Vincent of Beau- 
vais tells this; notwithstanding, it is pure 
folk-lore up almost to the close.] 

XVII. [Paraphrased in parts.] One Ger- 



AN D MONOGRAPHS 



513 



XIII 

Indetermi- 
nate 



XIV 

Chains 



XV 

Horsemen 



XVI 

Folk-tale 



I 



514 



XVII 

Atys type 



A friend of 
Gelmfrez 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



aid, a furrier, of a village in the diocese of 
Laon, supported his widowed mother and 
could not afford the journey to Compostella. 
Apparently he could not afford to marry, but 
he loved a girl. At last he was able to go on 
the pilgrimage with some neighbours, and the 
devil appeared in S. James's likeness and per- 
suaded him to despair for his sin against chas- 
tity. He drew his knife and punished himself 
like Atys and then committed hari-kari: but 
before the funeral was over he came back to 
life with a long relation. It seems, the devils 
carried off his soul toward Rome and he 
heard the howling of the wretched [the dis- 
tance is short from Rome to Hell]. When 
they came to the wood between the city and 
the village of Labica, S. James came up 
behind and questioned the devils, who said 
the soul was none of his. S. James was ruddy 
and brown and comely and young. So they 
all turned aside to S. Peter's where was a 
Council of Saints, the Blessed Virgin presiding 
(she was of middle height and very fair to see 
and exceedingly sweet-looking) and S. James 
argued his case before her, and fetched back 
the soul to the body, and the wounds healed 
but the scars remained. Hugh of Cluny, 
with many others saw and touched them. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



"1 



APPENDIX 



XVIII. A count of S. Gilles named Pons 
went to Compostella with his brother for a 
vow, and reached there after the doors were 
closed. The warder refused to open, and 
they opened of themselves. Again a party 
came with torches, and they opened, and all 
the church was ablaze with lights. [There 
lingers a trace here of that enchanted cham- 
ber, lighted and perfumed, that is also to be 
traced in Aymery's account of the crypt.] 

XIX. A Greek Bishop named Stephen left 
his office and honours and lived in the church 
in a vile habit in a straw hut ["intus in beati 
apostoli basilica "] where he could watch the 
altar over against him. When he saw the 
peasants invoking S. James as a good soldier 
he called them fools, for the Apostle was a 
fisherman. At night S. James appeared in 
shining armour and predicted the victory of 
Coimbra on the morrow at the third hour. 
[This miracle figures large in Luke of Tuy.] 

XX. Many miracles were worked for 
soldiers: e.g. there was a great war between 
the Count of Fontis Calcariae and a knight 
called William : his soldiers ran away and he 
was taken and about to be beheaded when he 
called upon S. James and became impene- 
trable, neck and belly. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



515 



XVIII 

The great 
light 



XIX 

Dioscuri 
type 



xx 

Unparal- 
leled ex- 
cept on 
page 518 



I 



5*6 



XXI 

Burgundy 
between 
1 134 and 
1x40 



XXII 

Chains 



1x20 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



XXL In our time one Guilbert from Bur- 
gundy, paralysed for fourteen years, travelled 
to Compostella slung between two horses, his 
wife and servants accompanying him. Thir- 
teen days in the church cured him. [Our 
Lady of Villa-Sirga was especially disposed 
to appropriate miracles of this type.] 

XXII. In 1 100 a citizen of Barcelona 
came and prayed never to be a captive, 
because his business took him to Sicily and he 
feared the Saracens. He was taken and sold 
thirteen times, into Carociana, Jazaram of 
Slavonia, Blavia, Turcopolis, Persia, India, 
Ethiopia, Alexandria, Africa, Barbary, the 
Desert, Bugia, Almaria: then the saint ap- 
peared and said: "Because you asked in 
Santiago deliverance of body and not of soul, 
these dangers have befallen, but because God 
is sorry for you, He has sent me to take you 
from this prison. " The merchant carried his 
chains and the wild beasts fled before them. 
Coming back to Santiago with them, barefoot, 
between Estella and Logrono I saw him and 
he told me this. [In their geography the 
Bollandists are all to seek, they conjecture 
that Estella and Logrono may be the names 
of two rivers in Italy.] 

XXIII. In 1 13 1 [Vincent of Beauvais says 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPEN DIX 



in 1 139] when Louis was King of France and 
Innocent, Pope, a man called Bruno, of S. 
Mary Magdalen of VezeTay, arriving back 
from S. James short of money, fell ill, and 
being ashamed to beg, when at three in the 
afternoon he had eaten nothing all day, he 
appealed to S. James where he lay alone under 
a tree. Then he fell alseep, and dreamed that 
the Apostle fed him. Waking, he found at his 
head a "loaf that he lived on for a fortnight." 
Another day he found bread in his wallet. 
[Another miracle, much like this, was worked 
for three returning pilgrims in 19 17.] 

XXIV. Follow some miracles that pun- 
ished peoples in Spain who did not observe 
S. James's Day, at Tudela, at Albinetum 
in Vasoongada, and that in the diocese 
of Bisontiensis befell one Bernard of 
Majorca. 

These belong all to the pilgrimage propa- 
ganda, and they were preserved in the Book 
of S. James. Just what Bishop Berenguer 
would have added and omitted, we cannot, 
alas, guess ! Caxton's Golden Legend rehearses 
ten of these again Jso prettily that it is hard 
not to copy them out] dividing one of them 
into two, and adding a twelfth. They stand 
in this order,— IX, IV, V, XVII split into 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



517 



XXIII 

V£zelay 
1 139 



XXIV 

Spanish 



5i8 



The 

Golden 

Legend 



Pistoja 
1238 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



two, and somewhat modified, so that the 
young man from Laon [Caxton says Lyons] 
for whom Hugh of Cluny vouches, was used 
to go on the pilgrimage every year, VI, XIV, 
XVI, XXIII, XXII. The last is this: 

It happened in the year 1238 in a castle 
named Prate, between Florence and Pistoja 
[Pistoia had relics of S. James and relations 
with Santiago] a young man deceived of 
simplesse by the counsel of an old man, set 
fire in the corn of his tutor, which had charge 
to keep him, because that he would usurp 
to himself his heritage. Then he was taken, 
and confessed his trespass, and was judged to 
be drawn and burnt. Then he confessed him, 
and avowed to S. James. And when he had 
been long drawn in his shirt upon a stony way, 
he was neither hurt in his body nor in his 
shirt. Then he was bound to a stake, and 
faggots and bushes were set about him, and 
fire put thereto, which fire burnt at his 
bonds, and he always called on S. James, and 
there was no hurt of burning found in his 
shirt nor in his body, and when they would 
have cast him again into the fire, he was 
taken away from them by S. James, the 
apostle of God, to whom be given laud and 
praising. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



APPENDIX 



The Epistle of King Alfonso III to the 
clergy and people of Tours (EspaHa Sagrada, 
XIX, 346-349) was printed by F16rez from 
Andrea Quercetano in Notts ad Bibliothecam 
Cluniacensam: Cluny being indeed just where 
you would expect to find it. Towards the 
close the King states that the Apostle's tomb 
they inquire about "is certainly known to be 
that of James Zebedee the Apostle, Boanerges, 
who was beheaded by Herod . . . and many 
marvels are worked at the Sepulchre, demons 
are cast out, the .blind receive light, the lame 
walk, the deaf hear, the dumb speak, and 
many other miracles are done, that we know 
and have seen and the pontiffs and clergy 
have told us." 

There must be still, moreover, countless 
other miracles told in lonely spots, like that 
of S. James's Leap related in explanation 
of the name Cave of Santiago in the Sierra 
Morena, in Estremadura. This belongs to 
Santiago Matamoros and to the Iberian 
horseman. In Aragon, on the other hand, 
when at Huesca, 1095, the Twin Warriors 
fought, S. George replaced S. James on the 
white horse. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



519 



S. James's 
Leap 

Bibi. de 
Trad. Pop. 
Esp., VI, 
281-284 

S. George 
in Aragon 



r 



520 



Our Lady 
of Villa- 
Sirga 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



III 



MIRACLES OF OUR LADY OP VILLA- 

SIRGA 

I (xxxi). How S. Mary took the bull-calf 
of the Segovian peasant who had promised it 
and did not want to give it. 

This is a miracle of her who is called the 
Virgin of Jesse, in her church which is at Villa- 
Sirga two leagues from Carrion. A peasant 
lived in a village, whose favourite cow died, 
and some other cattle were lost, or eaten or 
badly bitten by the wolves, so he vowed a 
bull-calf to S. Mary. And the bull-calf grew. 
One night he said to his wife that he was 
going to take it to market, he could not afford 
to give it. But when they set out for market 
the bull-calf galloped off, and was lost entirely 
and wandered about until at last it turned up 
at S. Mary's. And the moral of this, and 
the burthen of the song, is that some animals 
have more sense than some people. 

II (ccxvii). How a count of Prance who 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPEN DIX 



went to Villa-Sirga could not enter into the 
church until he had confessed himself. 

The burthen is that no man may enter into 
the Lord's church [which means Our Lady's] 
if his mortal sins have not been confessed 
before. This count came from France in 
rotneria [it is not stated that the pilgrimage 
was made to this church] and wanted to enter 
the church like the rest, but he could not get 
in. He had ten knights with him and they 
tried by main force to carry or push him in, 
striving so that blood gushed from the mouth 
and nose, and could not. So he bethought 
him, and said what he had omitted to say, 
with great repentance, and then a man might 
see him far up the church, singing and giving 
thanks. 

Ill (ccxviii). How S. Mary cured in 
Villa-Sirga a good man of Germany who 
was paralytic. 

A good man of Germany was long sick 
and at the end paralysed and poor; he saw a 
great pilgrimage of folk in his country going 
to Santiago. He wanted to go ; they hesitated 
because he was helpless and poor but at last 
for pity they took him. With great difficulty 
he made the journey, but for his sins God 
would not cure him. He became blind. On 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



521 



11 



in 



522 



Our Lady 
of Villa- 
Sirga 



IV 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



the way home when the party were in Carrion, 
they pushed on to Villa-Sirga, and left him 
there, knowing that there was a hospice, and 
went on home. In the church, abandoned, 
he called to the Mother and she heard his 
cries; he wept and called her Gloriosa; and 
within a few days he was able to go home. 
The moral is: 

11 We are of Jesus Christ 
Whose are all pardons. 
And He? What is to do? Praise 
The very Good Lady." 

IV (ccxxvii). How S. Mary fetched a 
squire out of captivity in such guise that the 
guards saw him not. 

It was a squire of Quintanilla de Osofia, 
who went every year to Villa-Sirga for the 
August feast, but being at Seville was taken 
prisoner by the Moors; and lying in very 
great misery, every night and every day 
with all his heart he prayed to the Virgin 
S. Mary of Villa-Sirga: and as August came 
on the Moors asked him why he wept so with 
bowed head and was so sad and sorry. But 
when he told them of the great feast in his 
land on that day, they were enraged and 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



threw him into a deep dark prison, and still 
he prayed the more. Then the Glorious ap- 
peared, lighting up the prison, lovely, and 
spoke to him. His fetters fell off and he 
went out into the midst of them that heard 
not, and passed before the Moors and saw 
them and was not seen; and carried to the 
Virgin S. Mary two fetters that were on his 
legs and offered them there. [This story, 
with its precision of name and place — for 
there was never a good lie without circum- 
stance, and the names and addresses of wit- 
nesses are as easy to get in this century for 
hysterical rumour as in the thirteenth — 
this story, then, stands midway between the 
twenty-second Miracle of S. James, and the 
legend of Nuestra Senora del Camino which 
may be found in this book. That is so close 
in its likeness, except for the normal process 
of amplification in the centuries, that it can 
only be supposed that when S. Mary of 
Villa-Sirga went out of business the other 
Virgin, a little way up the Road, took it 
over.] 

V (ccxxix). How S. Mary kept, at her 
church in Villa-Sirga, the Moors that wanted 
to wreck it, and made them blind and para- 
lyzed. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



523 



Page 5 16 

Volume II. 
page 282 



524 



Probably 

the 
slandered 
Alfonso IX, 
although 
date too 
early 



VI 



VII 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



When King Alfonso of Leon brought up 
Moors to invade Castile, at the church 
which was then building were many folk of 
the land to have God's pardon, and when 
they saw the hosts of Moors they fled to 
Carrion and left the church alone. Then 
the Moors went in and wanted to destroy 
and burn, but they could not loosen one 
single stone of all that were there, and could 
not use their members nor see out of their 
eyes. 

VI (ccxxii). How a knight that went 
hunting lost his hawk, and when he could 
not recover it took a waxen hawk to the 
Virgin S. Mary, and then he recovered it. 

It was lost for four months but when he 
got home from Villa-Sirga it was sitting on 
the perch and let itself be caught. 

VII (ccxxxiv). How S. Mary of Villa- 
Sirga made a deaf-mute to hear and speak 
because he kept vigil before her altar one 
night. 

The burthen is the same inverted moral 
as many of these songs have: "She who 
makes sinners repent of their sins can well 
make the mute and deaf to speak and hear." 
1 'He came from Saldafia and D. Roderick 
brought him up, and once he wanted to go to 



HISPANIC NOTES 



"1 



APPENDIX 



S. Mary, and slept a night before the altar, 
and commanded a mass next morning, and 
at the Consecration his tongue was loosed 
and his ears opened." [This reads like one 
of the recorded miracles at Lourdes.] 

VIII (ccxliii). How some falconers who 
went hunting were in fear of death in a 
stream and called on S. Mary of Villa-Sirga 
and she by her mercy saved them. 

Two falconers were hunting with King Al- 
fonso and wanted to hunt alone and solitary. 
The water-fowl got under the ice and it broke 
and let them in. They called on the Queen of 
Villa-Sirga and got out alive and went straight 
to Villa-Sirga and gave praise to S. Mary who 
is Lord of all Lords, and then they told the 
king. [This must have happened quite near.] 

IX (ccliii). How a romeu of France who 
was boune to Santiago paused at Villa-Sirga, 
and could not take away thence an iron staff 
that he carried in penance. 

He lived in Toulouse and loved the Glorious. 
He fell into sin and his confessor ordered him 
to go on pilgrimage to Santiago carrying a 
staff that weighed twenty-four pounds and 
leave it there before the altar, of " San Jame." 
He came to Villa-Sirga and asked the folk 
what manner of place that was and they said 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



525 



Our Lady 
of Villa- 
Sirga 



VIII 



Alfonso X 



IX 



526 



Our Lady 
of Villa- 
Sirga 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



a marvellous, in which the holy Virgin Mary 
worked many miracles. So as he loved her 
well he turned aside from the road and 
prayed to her in her church, asking pardon 
for his sins; and the staff oppressed him so 
that he laid it down before Her Majesty. 
Then it broke into two pieces and fell apart 
and nobody could lift the pieces, not even the 
tyrou of the church [is this quite literally the 
bouncer?] who was a good Christian in the 
matter of strength. So all sang Salve Regina. 
He did however continue his journey to 
Santiago in fulfilment of the vow, and then 
went home. 

X (cclxviii). How S. Mary cured in 
Villa-Sirga a noble lady of France, who was 
entirely paralysed. 

She was dragged around in a sort of little 
cart to pilgrimages, until pilgrims returned 
from Santiago told her of S. Mary of Villa- 
Sirga, so she wept and prayed and was drawn 
thither and placed close to the altar. So she 
was cured in all her members. [The parallel 
with Lourdes again obtrudes itself, especially 
for those who have lived through the long 
and terrible days of Zola's novel and remem- 
ber that other Frenchwoman of rank and 
fashion who was carried thither in a sort of 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



APPENDIX 



basket, with her pitiful pale-coloured ribbons 
and laced pillows. 1 Here, it may be noted, 
for the first time S. Mary really cuts out S. 
James.] 

XI (cclxxix). How a good lady of France 
who was blind came to Villa-Sirga and 
watched there and was cured and recovered 
light, and on her way home met a blind man 
boune to Santiago and advised him to go by 
Villa-Sirga. 

She had been to Santiago herself, and on 
the way home as they stopped at Carrion 
she said to her daughter they should push on 
and lodge a bit further along the road. As 
they came to Villa-Sirga with great anxiety 
she entered the church and before the altar 
made her blind prayer blindly, and she was 
healed, and blessed the Virgin. And the 
next day she went along on her road, and so 
going met a blind man, boune to Santiago, 
and counselled him to go by Villa-Sirga if 
he wanted to get his sight again, and added 
her own history. The blind man believed 
her and hurried to Villa-Sirga and the Virgin 
did not wait long to heal him. 

XII (ccci). How S. Mary of Villa-Sirga 
took a squire out of prison where he lay in 
Carrion for killing. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



527 



XI 



I 



528 



XII 

Compare 
S. James, 
Miracle xi, 
»v, pp. 
512. 5x3 



XIII 



S. Elmo's 
fire 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



He lay in heavy irons and chains in Carrion 
yet never ceased praying to her: his sentence 
was just yet he prayed her mercy that he 
should be pardoned, and promised thereafter 
to keep from folly. When she heard him, 
the Queen of Heaven appeared with a great 
company of angels, and took him out of his 
fetters and bade him go out of the dark 
prison. He went straight to Villa-Sirga 
where many saw him in the church, carry- 
ing his fetters which he laid before the 
altar. 

XIII (cccxiii). How S. Mary of Villa- 
Sirga delivered a ship in peril of the sea. 

A ship was in peril of the sea and those 
who were in it, after calling on the Lord God, 
on S. Peter, S. James, S. Nicholas, S. Matthew 
and many other saints who are male and 
female called on S. Mary of Villa-Sirga, and 
then the storm subsided. As a clerk sang 
Salve Regina a poomba [a ball or bubble of 
light?] came white into the ship as snow falls, 
and they all were filled with charity and the 
sea went down. So they came to a safe port. 
[This will be S. Elmo's fire, stolen from San- 
tiago.] They gave her a chalice, which the 
clerk carried to Villa-Sirga. 

XIV (ccclv). How S. Mary delivered a 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



529 



man from the gibbet that he should not die, 
for he gave a stone to her church. 

This was a young man of Mansilla de las 
Mulas, whose history may be read in full 
at that place. The story is the best of the 
set, racy and convincing, crammed with 
human nature. 

These Miracles are written in the Cantigas 
de S. Maria, by Alfonso X el Rey Sabio, 
and the number of each Cantiga is prefixed 
here. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



XIV 

Compare 
S. James, 
Miracle v, 
page 510 



1 



530 



The 

Legend of 
S. James 



Scripture 



General 
tradition 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



IV 



THE GREAT HYMN OF S. JAMES 

Ad honorem Regis summi, qui condidit 

omnia, 
Venerantes jubilemus Jacobi magnalia, 
De quo gaudent celi cives in suprema curia 
Cuius festa gloriosa meminit Ecclesia. 

Super mare Galilee omnia postposuit; 
Viso rege, ad mundana redire non voluit: 
Sed post ilium se vocantem pergere disposuit 
Et precepta eius sacra predicare studuit. 
Hermogiai et Phileto Christi fidem tribuit, 
Et Josiam baptizavit, et vim egro praebuit. 

Olim Jhesum transformatum vidit patris 

numine, 
Pro quo mortem ab Herode sumpsit fuso 

sanguine. 
Cuius corpus sepelitur in terra Galecie 
Et petentes illud digne sumunt vitam glorie. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



Jam per totum fulget mundum divinis 

miraculis: 
Qui viginti viros olim soluit ab ergastulis. 
Scedulaque peccatoris deleta apparuit; 
Matris natum jam defunctum ad vitam 

restituit. 
Hie defunctum urbi sue a Cisera detulit, 
Quern bis senas per dietas una nocte contulit. 
Hie suspensum post triginta dies vite reddidit, 
Et Frisonum f erro tectum de abysso emit, 
Presulemque mari mersum in navi instituit. 
Vim vincendi Turcos viro apostolus tribuit. 
Peregrinum mare mersum per verticem tenuit 
De excelsa arce saltans vir sanus ereptus est; 
Per crusille tactum miles saluti redditus est; 
Sanitati post vindictam Dalmatius datus est; 
A prostrata arce sane mercator egressus est. 
Militemque custodivit a suis sequentibus; 
Liberavit virum egrum pressum a demonibus ; 
Peregrino pictavensi asinumque tradidit, 
Interfectum a se ipso ad vitam restituit, 
Et altaras valvas clausas comiti aperuit 
Stephanoque servo Dei ut miles apparuit 
Virum captum comes spatha laedere non 

potuit, 
Hie contractum membris raptum erexit 

humiliter; 
Vinculatum solvit virum tredecies dulciter. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



53i 



Miracles of 
the Com- 
postellan 
collection 



Cockle- 
shells 



532 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



Hec sunt ilia sacrosancta divina miracula, 
Que ad decus Christi fecit Jacobus per 

saecula. 
Unde laudes Regi regum solvamus alacriter. 
Cum quo leti mereamur vivere perenniter. 
Fiat, Amen, Alleluia, dicamus solemniter, 
£ ultreja e sus eja decantemus jugiter. 

By Aymery Picaud. From HisUrire LiUe- 
raire de la France, XXI, 276-7. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



THE LITTLE HYMN OF S. JAMES 

Dum pater familias 

Rex universorum, 

Donaret provincias 

Jus apostolorum; 

Jacobus Hispanias, 

Lux, illustrat, morum. 
Primus ex apostolis 
Martir Jerosolimis, 
Jacobus egregio 
Sacer est martirio. 

Jacobi Gallecia 
Opem rogat piam; 
Glebe cujus gloria 
Dat insignem viam, 
Ut precum frequentia 
Cantet melodiam. 

Herru Sanctiagul 

Grot Sanctiagu I 



533 



A march- 
ing song 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



534 


1 

WAY OF S. JAMES 




£ ultreja, e sus eja! 
Deus, adjuva nos. 




Jacobo dat parium 
Omnis mundus gratis; 
Ob cujus remedium 
Miles pietatis 
Cunctorum presidium 
Est ad vota satis. 

Primus ex apostolis . . . 


< 
( 


Jaoobum miraculis, 
Que fiunt per ilium, 
Arctis in periculis 
Acclamet ad ilium 
Quisquis solvi vinculis 
Sperat propter ilium. 

Primus ex apostolis . . . 




beate Jacobe, 
Virtus nostra vere, 
Nobis hostes remove, 
Tuos ac tuere, 
Ac devotos adhibe 
Nos tibi placere. 

Primus ex apostolis . . . 


I 


HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



Jacobo propicio, 
Veniam speremus; 
Et, quas ex obsequio 
Merito debemus, 
Patri tam eximio 
Dignas laudes dermis. 

Primus ex apostolis 
Martir Jerosolimis, 
Jacobus egregio 
Sacer est Martirio. 

Helru Sanctiagu! 

Grot Sanctiagu! 

£ ultreja, e sus eja! 

Deus, adjuva nos. 



Amen. 



535 



By Aymery Picaud. From Fita, Recuerdos 
de un Viaje, p. 45. Also in Dreves, Analacta 
Hymnica, xvii, 213-214, he reads Got Sanc- 
tiagu, and Deus ai a Nos. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



536 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Alivio de 
Caminantes 



VI 



LA GRANDE CHANSON DES PELERINS 
DE S. JACQUES 



Quand nous partimes de France 

En grand desir, 
Nous avons quitte* pere et mere 

Trist* et maris: 
Au coeur avions si grand desir 

D'aller a Saint Jacques, 
Avons quittes tous nos plaisirs 

Pour faire ce voyage. 

Refrain 

Nous prions la Vierge Marie, 

Son fils Jesus, 
Qu'il plaise nous donner 

Sa sainte grace, 
Qu'en Paradis nous puissions voir 

Dieu et Monsieur Saint- Jacques. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 


537 


2 

Quand nous fumes en la Saintonge, 




He*las! mon Dieu; 




Nous ne trouvames point d'eglises, 


■ 


Pour prier Dieu; 




Les Huguenots les ont rompues 




Par letir malice, 




C'est en depit de Jesus-Christ 




Et la Vierge Marie. 




3 
Quand nous fumes au port de Blaye, 




Pres de Bordeaux 




Nous enframes dedans la barque 




Pour passer 1'eau. 




11 y a bien sept lieues par cau, 




Bonnes me semble, 




Marinier passe promptement 




De peur de la tourmente. 




4 
Quand nous fumes dedans les Landes 




Bien 6tonnes, 




Avions de l'eau jusqu' a mi-jambes 




De tous cotes; 




Compagnons nous f aut cheminer 




En grandes journees 




AN D MONOGRAPHS 


1 



538 WAY OF S. JAMES 



La Grande 
Chanson 



Pour nous tirer de ce pays 
De si grandes rosees. 



Changing 
money 



Quand nous fumes a Bayonne, 

Loin du pays, 
Nous fallut changer nos couronnes 

En fleurs de lys; 
C'e*tait pour passer le pays 

De la Biscaye, 
C'£tait un pays rude a passer 

Qui n'entend le langage. 



(Iran) 



Quand nous fumes a Sainte-Marie 

H£las! mon Dieu! 
Je regrettois la noble France, 

De tout mon cceur; 
Et j'avais un si grand d£sir 

D'etre aupres, 
Aussi de tous mes grands amis, 

Dont j'en suis en malaise. 



Quand nous fumes a la montagne 

Saint-Adrien, 
Au cceur me vient une pensee 

De mes parens; 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



539 



Et quand ce vient au departir 

De cette ville, 
Sans dire adieu a nos amis, 

Ftmes a notre guise; 

8 

Entre Peuple et Victoire 

Fumes joyeux 
De voir sortir des montagnes 

Si grande odeur, 
De voir le romarin fleurir, 

Thym et lavande, 
Rendtmes graces a J6sus-Christ 

Lui chantames louanges. 



Quand nous fumes a Saint-Dominique, 

H61as! mon Dieu, 
Nous entrames dedans l'eglise 

Pourprier Dieu; 
Le miracle du pelerin, 

Par notre adresse; 
Avons oui le coq chanter, 

Dont nous fumes bien aise. 

~ « to 

Quand nous fumes a Burgue, en Espagne, 
H^las! mon Dieu, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



540 WAY OP S. JAMES 



La Grande 
Chanson 



Nous entrames dedans reghse 

Poor prier Dieu, 
Les Augustms nous out montre* 

Un grand miracle, 
De voir le Crucifix saer v 

Rien de plus veritable. 



ii 



Quand nous fames dedans la viDe 

Nominee Leon, 
Nous chantames tons ensemble 

Cette chanson; 
Les dames sortoient des maisons 

En abondance, 
Pour voir chanter les pelerins, 

Les enfants de la Prance. 



12 



Oviedo 



Quand nous fumes hors de la ville, 

Pres de Saint-Marc, 
Nous nous asslmes tous ensemble 

Pres d'une Croix. 
II y a un chemin a droite 

Et l'autre a gauche; 
L'un mene a Saint-Salvateur 

L'autre a Monsieur Saint- Jacques. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



APPEN DIX 



541 



13 

Quand nous fumes au Mont-Etuves, 

Avions grand froid, 
Ressentimes si grande f roidure, 

Que j'en tremblois. 
A Saint-Salvateur sommes alles; 

Par notre adresse, 
Les reliques nous ont montre\ 

Dont nous portons la lettre. 

14 

Quand nous fumes au Pont qui tremble, 

Bien £tonnes, 
De nous voir entre deux montagnes 

Si oppresses, 
D'ouir les ondes de la mer 

En grande tourmente; 
Compagnons nous f aut cheminer 

Sans faire demeurance. 

15 

Quand nous fumes dans la Galice, 

A Rivedieu, 
On voulait nous mettre aux galeres, 

Jeunes et vieux; 
Mais nous nous sommes deiendus 

De notre langue. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



542 


WAY OF S. JAMES 


La Grande 


Avons dit qu'e'tions Espagnols, 


Chanson 


Et nous sommes de Prance. 




16 




Quand nous fumes a Montjoie, 




Fumes joyeux, 




De voir une si belle eglise 




En ce saint lieu, 




Du glorieux ami de Dieu, 




Monsieur Saint- Jacques, 




Qui nous a tous preserves 




Durant ce saint voyage. 


. 


17 

Quand nous fumes a Saint- Jacques, 




Grace a Dieu, 




Nous entr&mes dedans l'eglise 


* 


Pour prier Dieu, 




Aussi ce glorieux martyr, 




Monsieur Saint- Jacques, 




Qu'au pays puissons retourner 




Et faire bon voyage. 




From Alexis Soccard, Noels et Cantiques 




Imprimis & Troyes depuis le X Vllme Steele 




jusqu'a nos Jours, pp. 22-24. 


I 


HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



APPENDIX 



VII 

THURKILL'S VISION 

(Condensed) 

In the Bishopric of London, in the village 
called Stidstede, there was a simple rustic 
named Thurkill, industrious at his work 
and given to hospitality so far as his means 
allowed him. It happened that after the 
hour of Vespers on the vigil of S. Simon and 
S. Jude, which was then a Friday, he was 
trenching his little field which he had sown 
on the same day, in order to drain off the 
waters of a flood of rain. Suddenly, raising 
his eyes, he sees a man a long way off coming 
up to him. And he had even then just begun 
to repeat the Lord's Prayer, and he wondered 
to see the man instantly stand before him 
and the stranger bade him finish his prayer: 
and then they began to talk together. The 
stranger asked where he could pass the night; 
and Thurkill began to name this or that 
neighbour, but ended by proffering his own 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



543 



So a man 
dreams in 

the 
thirteenth 
century 



October 27 



544 



S. Julian 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



hospitality. Then the stranger answered, 
"Thy wife has already received two poor 
women: and I do not yet seek to be housed, 
for I am bound for the province of Danesei. 
And I shall return thence tonight: — and then 
will I visit thee and lead thee to thy Lord S. 
James, to whom thou hast already turned in 
prayer. I am Julian the Harbourer: and I 
am sent to fetch thee and to show thee 
secret mysteries. Hasten home, then, and 
make ready for thy journey. '* And with 
that he vanished. Thurkill went .home at 
once: and he washed his head and his feet 
though against the will of his wife, the day 
being a Friday, and he found the two women 
lodged in his house. Then he lay down in a 
bed outside his bedroom, which he had already 
used for a month, and fell asleep. And when 
all were asleep in their beds, S. Julian stood by 
Thurkill, and awoke him, saying: "It is time 
to depart." And when Thurkill began to 
rise, the saint said, " Let thy body rest here 
awhile, only thy Soul will depart with me. 
But that thy friends may not think thee 
dead, I will send a breath of life into thee." 
And so saying he breathed into ThuririlTs 
mouth: and then both, as it seemed to the 
man, left the house, and set forth straight 



HISPANIC NOTES 



A PPEN DIX 



towards the east. And thus for two days 
and nights the body of the man lay senseless 
and motionless, as if it were sunken in a deep 
sleep. . . . Thurkiirs Spirit, being now freed 
from the flesh, followed S. Julian in the like- 
ness of his body, clad in its usual clothes. 
He only remarked one change in himself, 
that he breathed quicker than usual. They 
journeyed toward the east, as far as the 
middle of the world. Here they entered a 
Basilica, the pediment of which was sup- 
ported by only three columns [Cf. Aymery 
Picaud's chapter on the three pillars of the 
world]. The Basilica was large and fine, but 
without any solid walls, the sides being 
arched like a monastic cloister. [Cf. the 
Basilica of Auriz which we call Eunate.] 
But against the northern side there stood 
an outer wall, though not more than six feet 
high. There was a fabric in the midst of the 
Basilica which looked like a vast fount: and 
out of it arose a great flame, not heating the 
place but lighting it up throughout with the 
splendour of noonday. This illumination 
proceeded from the tithings of the Just. 
[Cf. the Ark in the midst of Santiago.] Here 
S. James wearing a mitre [as Metropolitan 
and Primate] received Thurkill as his pilgrim, 



545 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Omphalos 



S. James 



546 



S. Domin- 
go de la 
Calzada 



Like birds 
in autumn 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



and calling up S. Dominick, the warden of 
the Basilica [S. Domingo de la Calzada, as 
Ward points out] he bade him join S. Julian 
and show to this man his pilgrim, the habi- 
tations of the wicked and the good, and 
having said so, he vanished. ' ' This Basilica, ' ' 
said S. Julian, "is the assembling place of all 
departed Spirits, founded at the intercession 
of The Virgin [the Good Lady] and dedicated 
to her, and it is called the Congregation of 
Souls [hence it is not far to the Paradise of 
Souls]. Within it the man saw many white 
Souls with youthful faces [cf. Gallegan lore 
of Murguia] and their feet never wore nor 
withered the green grass that formed its floor 
[cf. the feet of Christ in the tympanum and 
the souls in the green leafage, of the Gloria]. 
But outside, when he was afterwards led 
beyond the northern wall, he saw many 
spotted souls striving to reach the wall, and 
the whiter they were, the closer they would 
come to it: and in the distance he saw many 
souls that were black all over. Now there 
was a pit near this wall, and it vomited a 
stifling smoke, fed by tithings of the Unjust: 
and twice, as Thurkill passed the pit, he was 
stung by the smoke so that he coughed in 
great pain. And twice, at the same hour, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



the body that he had left behind him coughed, 
as those who were watching around it testi- 
fied. "Methinks," quoth S. Julian, "thy 
crops are not fully tithed. ' ' Thurkill pleaded 
his poverty, but the Saint replied that full 
tithings bring full harvests. 

From the east end of the Basilica he saw 
two walls stretching, with fierce purgatorial 
flames between them. This fiery passage 
leads to an immense pool and here all the 
souls that have just emerged from fire are 
plunged into the coldest and saltest of all 
waters. Last comes a long bridge, bristling 
with stakes and nails, which every soul must 
cross before reaching the Mount of Joy. 
[Cf. S. Marcos, at Mount joy, in view of 
Santiago.] And high aloft upon this Mount 
there stands a wonderful church that seems 
large enough to hold all the people in the 
world. 

But now let us return to the Basilica. So 
Dominick sprinkled the souls there with 
holy water and they were even whiter than 
before. And lo, almost the first hour of the 
dawning Saturday, Michael the archangel 
appeared together with S. Peter and S. Paul. 
And S. Michael led the white souls along a 
narrow grassy path [this is the Causeway, 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



547 



Like 
S. Gines 



A 



548 



Weighing 
souls 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



la Calzada, the Camino francSs] between the 
flames and across the pool, and over the 
bridge, and up to the Mount of Joy. . . . 

The " weighing of the Souls lasted from the 
first hour of the Saturday down to the ninth 
hour. And whilst it was still going on, S. 
Julian led Thurkill unhurt over the grassy 
path between the purgatorial flames. . . . 
The next episode is that a fiend came gallop- 
ing a black horse over stock and stone amid 
shouts of triumph from a crowd of his brother 
fiends. [Cf. Santiago Matamoros on a great 
white horse at Clavijo and Simancas, near 
la Calzada,] This is the soul of one of the 
Barons of England who had died the night 
before without confession. Then S. Dominick 
takes him to see the games, in something 
quite too surprisingly like a bull-ring, being 
derived, presumably, like that, from the 
Roman Arena. There was one at Ntmes and 
one at Verona, that pilgrims might have 
known. That at Sagunto is set in the slope 
of a hill like this. The souls sitting round on 
seats in every yard, recall the old prints of 
Ntmes choked up with houses. And above 
them there were other seats, fixed into the 
walls, where the fiends sat grinning as if at 
some merry show. The wretched souls enact 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



a sort of Morality pageant : types are punished 
typically. And now when the Sunday was 
dawning upon earth, the saints brought Thur- 
kill back to the Basilica. He took no count 
of time himself, but he learned the hour from 
the Saints. S. Dominick received his asper- 
sorium again on entering, and sprinkled the 
new Congregation and the souls were whiter 
than before. Then Thurkill was led over 
the grassy path, past the fires and the pool, 
and over the bridge, and up the Mount of 
Joy, till he reached the forecourt of the 
Church upon its summit. The beautiful 
Gate of the West front stood always open 
[the Gloria had been in place nearly twenty 
years]: and through this Gate S. Michael 
led the pure white souls. But in the fore- 
court stood the Souls who had completed 
their purgatorial penances, each eagerly wait- 
ing for his own turn of admission. Going 
around the church, Thurkill found on the 
south side the wearied souls who waited 
upon the prayers of the throng; and on 
the north side they lay on their faces with 
their arms outstretched toward the Church 
grovelling upon sharp flint stones, swept by 
the blast of a dismal wind. And S. Michael 
allowed the man to visit the church and he 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



549 



. . . as it 
began to 
dawn to- 
ward the 
first day of 
the week 



Psycho- 
pompos 



550 



The Great 
Stair 



Compare 
page 204 



WAY OPS. JAMES 



saw throngs of pure white souls; and looking 
up the steps toward the East end [here lingers 
the memory of that earlier staircase, like that 
at Le Puy and that at Heliopolis] he saw them 
whiter and whiter still. And here the souls 
abide: and every day, at certain hours [the 
Canonical] they hear the music of heaven, and 
this music is their food. The saints gather 
their votaries, in order to present them here- 
after before the throne of God. Then S. Mi- 
chael brought Thurkill back once more to the 
purgatorial pool. And the whole place was 
drained : and the steps to the bed of the pool, 
that had made the water lie in different 
depths, were now dry and clean, and the 
Souls stood on their appointed steps as if 
they were at church, for the Angel S. Uriel, 
whose name means the Fire of God and who 
watches over all the souls in Purgatory lest 
evil spirits could increase their torments; this 
angel, I saw opening a certain sluice after the 
ninth hour of every Saturday, that the Souls 
may be left. in peace throughout the Sunday. 
But when Monday dawns, he opens another 
sluice towards the north, and the pool is soon 
filled to the brim with the cold salt water. . . . 
And now the Saints and Thurkill left the 
pool again and passed the Church. And 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPEN DIX 



proceeding eastwards [the symbolism here, 
which is that of Vincent of Beauvais, deter- 
mines all the orientation : the south is merciful, 
the north bitter, ex oriente lux], they reached 
a pleasant dale, glowing with flowers and 
herbs, and watered by a bright fountain. 
And four springs, each of a different kind and 
colour, gushed out of the fountain and ran 
far away, until they joined again in one full 
stream. And above the fountain stretched 
a vast and vigorous tree, that bore every sort 
of flower and fruit, and beside the fountain 
reclined a man of gigantic form and noble 
aspect, decked in a many coloured garment 
from his feet up to his breast. And he seemed 
to laugh with one eye and to weep with the 
other. [Cf. Protevangel of James.] "This 
man," said S. Michael, "is the first parent 
of the human race, even Adam. ..." 

And now going a little farther on, they 
came to a temple of gold having a gate set 
with precious stones. And this temple ex- 
celled all that they had seen in beauty and 
brilliance. And within it was a shrine where 
three virgin martyrs were enthroned, and 
their names were S. Catharine, S. Margaret, 
and S. Ositha. [Cf. altar to S. Zita at Caca- 
belos.] "But now, when Thurkill was most 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



551 



A sentence 
miscon- 
strued 
gives birth 
to legend 



Vol. II. 
page 364 



552 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



eagerly gazing at their beauty, suddenly S. 
Michael said to S. Julian, "Take this man 
back to his body; or the cold water which 
those around him are pouring into his mouth 
will choke him to death." And lo at once 
he was in the body again, he knew not how, 
and sitting up in bed he said, "Benedicite! " 

The Vision of Thurkill written probably 
by Ralph of Coggeshall, printed from a MS. 
in the British Museum and edited by H. L. 
D. Ward. The translation is his — Journal of 
the British Archaeological Association, xxxi, 
pp. 420-459. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



VIII 

FROM THE APOCALYPSE OF PAUL 

And I looked and saw and beheld one of 
the sons of men fallen nigh unto death; 
And the angel said unto me: This is a just 
one and righteous in all his works. And I 
saw everything which he did for God standing 
before him, in the hour of his departure from 
the world. Then I Paul perceived that he 
was righteous who was now dying: and 
he found for himself rest even before dying. 
And there approached him wicked angels 
(when a righteous one departs, they do not 
find a place by him) and these good angels 
ruled over that righteous one. And they 
drew out of him the soul, while alluring it 
with rest; and again they restored it to him, 
while inviting it and saying: "0 soul, be 
assured as for this thy body, O holy one, 
thou wilt return into it in the resurrection ; and 
thou wilt receive the promises of the living 
God with all the saints. ' ' Then was that soul 
carried from the body; and they enquired 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



553 



Syrian lore 



554 



As on 
Master 
Matthew's 
Porch 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



after its health, as though it had grown up 
with them; and they took delight with it in 
love; and they said unto it: "Blessed art 
thou, O happy soul, which every day, did 
perform the will of God, and now takes 
delight in pleasures." And there came to 
meet it he who was its guardian in life, and 
said to it: "O soul of mine, be of good cour- 
age, and be joyful, and I will rejoice over 
thee, that thou hast done the will of our 
Lord, all the days of thy life; and I carried 
thy good works, by day and by night, before 
God." And again I [it?] turned, and said to 
my soul: "Do not fear, in that behold thou 
seest a place thou hast never seen." And 
while I was beholding these things, that 
spirit was lifted up from the earth, that it 
might ascend to heaven. And there went 
out to meet it wicked powers, those that 
are under heaven. And there reached it the 
spirit of error, and said: "Whither dost 
thou presume, O soul? And art thou run- 
ning that thou mayest enter heaven? Stop, 
that we may see ; perhaps there is in thee some- 
thing that belongs to us, that we may narrate 
a little." And that soul was bound there, 
and there was a fight between the good 
angels and the evil angels. And when that 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



spirit of deception saw, it bewailed with a 
loud voice, and said: "Woe unto thee, O 
soul, that we have found in thee nothing of 
ours! and lo, all the angels and the spirits 
are helping thee against us; and behold, all 
these are with thee; thou hast passed out 
from us." And there went forth another 
spirit, the spirit of the Tempter, and of forni- 
cation; and they came to meet it; and when 
they saw it they wept over it, and said: 
" How has this soul escaped from us? It did 
the will of God on earth, and behold, the 
angels help it and pass it along from us." 
And all the principalities and evil spirits 
came to meet it, even unto it; and they did 
not find in it anything that was from them; 
and they were not able to do anything to 
it; and they gnashed their teeth upon that 
soul, and said: " How hast thou escaped from 
us?" And the angel which conducted it in 
life answered and said unto them : " Return, O 
ye mortified ones; ye have no way of access to 
it; with many artifices ye enticed, when it 
was on earth, and- it did not listen to you." 

And after that I heard the voice of myriads 
of angels, praising God and saying: "Re- 
joice and be glad, O soul, be strengthened and 
do not fear." And they marvelled much at 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



555 



As at Pisa 
in the 
Triumph 
of Death 



556 



So at 
Cremona 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



the soul, when they saw it holding the seal 
of the living God in its hand. And thus they 
were giving it heart and saying: "We all 
rejoice over thee, that thou hast done the 
will of thy Lord." And they carried it and 
placed it before the throne of the living God, 
while they all rejoiced with it. And there 
was a great pause afterwards; silence reigned 
for a considerable time. And afterwards the 
angels ceased — to wit, those angels that 
worshipped before the footstool of God with 
that soul . . . (pp. 191-193). 

And I followed the angel and he took me 
and caused me to fly, and carried me up to the 
third heaven. Then he placed me at a door; 
and I looked upon the door, and saw the 
likeness of fine gold; and before it two posts, 
like adamant; and two tablets of gold above 
them; and they were full of writings. And 
the angel who was with me turned and said 
unto me: "Do not fear, Paul, to enter this 
door; for every man is not permitted — only 
those in whom there is great purity and in 
whom evil dwells not. ' ' And I inquired of the 
angel who was with me, and said unto him: 
"Whose are the names inscribed on these 
tablets?" . . . And when we entered within 
through the gate into the city, there came 






HISPANIC NOTES 



APPEN DIX 



forth an angel unto us, whose face was shining 
like the sun . . . this [was] Enoch, the 
scribe of righteousness. Then I entered 
within that place; and I beheld there great 
Elijah, coming toward us; and he drew near 
and gave me a salutation, rejoicing and 
delighted ... (p. 197). 

And I saw in the centre of the city a great 
altar, which was very high ; and I saw standing 
on the side of the altar an aged man, great 
and honoured; and his face shone as the 
sun in the firmament: and he held in his hand 
a harp and said " Hallelujah! " and the whole 
city was astonished at his voice; and together 
they shouted — those that were above the 
towers, and all said "Hallelujah!" . . . 
This [was] David, the king and prophet, who 
sings in the Jerusalem of Christ. As he 
sang on earth so sings here David in spirit, 
and all the saints are engaged with him with 
the voice of shouting; and David the prophet 
goes forth singing first, while all the saints 
after him respond "Hallelujah! " (p. 201). 

From The Revelation of the Blessed Apostle 
Paul translated from an ancient Syriac man- 
uscript by the Rev. Justin Perkins and pub- 
lished in the Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, 1866. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



557 



Enoch and 
Elijah 



There 

stands 

David 



558 



The Good 
Lady 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



IX 



FRAU HOLDA 

Holda and Bertha, or Perchta as she is 
called in Southern Germany, are identical 
with Freyja; and in Aargau another, but 
nameless, representative of the same supreme 
goddess is known as a kind and bounteous 
lady with golden hair, who has her dwelling 
in the interior of the Schlossberg. A vaulted 
passage, through whose roof the stars are seen 
leads into a hall of apparently boundless 
extent, glittering with thousands of lights 
where many old men sit fast asleep before 
an iron trough. Before an oaken trough, in 
another vault well lighted with candles, sit 
thousands of sleeping youths and maidens. 
And in a third hall, filled with a milky, pal- 
pable light, there is an oaken trough con- 
taining a countless multitude of sleeping 
children. These are the unborn. The white 
lady of the mansion feeds them with anem- 
ones and snowdrops, flowers of wondrous 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



virtue, the stalks of which placed in the 
mouth, supply for many a day the place of 
. every other kind of food. If there are parents 
that want a child, the white lady opens the 
trough with a golden key, takes out a babe 
and gives it to the midwife. Should it die 
unbaptized, it comes back to the mountain 
and is replaced in the same trough. But if 
several weeks elapse before its death, or if 
the white lady takes it back because mankind 
have not been worthy of it, then it is placed 
in another trough nearer the heart of the 
mountain, and fed there with honey, which 
the bees of the village deposit every time they 
swarm in the oaks of the Schlossberg. 

From Walker K. Kelly, Curiosities of Indo- 
European Tradition and Folk-Lore, pp. 128- 
129. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



559 



So, S. Juan 
de Ortega. 
Vol. I., 
page 408 



Bees 



5&> 



The 

Pilgrimage 
of the soul 



The end of 
the great 
S. James 



WAY OF S. JAMBS 



X 



A LYKE-WAKE DIRGE 

In a MS. of the Cotton Library, contain- 
ing an account of Cleveland in Yorkshire, 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, there is a 
passage which illustrates this custom. It 
has been quoted by Sir Walter Scott in the 
notes to the Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, 
and runs thus: "When any dieth, certaine 
women sing a song to the dead bodie, reciting 
the journey that the partye deceased must 
goe, and they are of beliefe (such is their 
fondnesse) that once in their lives it is good 
to give a pair of new shoes to a poor man, 
for as much as after this life they are to pass 
barefoote through a great launde, full of 
thorns and furzen, except by the meryte of 
the almes aforesaid they have redemed the 
forfeyte; for at the edge of the launde an 
oulde man shall meet them with the same 
shoes that were given by the partie when 
he was ly ving, and after he hath shodde them, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



APPEN DIX 



dismisseth them to go through thick and thin 
without scratch or scalle." The dirge in 
question continued to be sung in Yorkshire 
until the year 1624, and is as follows: 

This ae night, this ae night, 

Every night and alle, 
Fire and fleet and candle light, 

And Christ receive thy saule. 

When thou from hence away dost pass, 

Every night and alle, 
To Whinny Moor thou comest at last, 

And Christ receive thy saule. 

If ever thou gave either hosen or shoon, 

Every night and alle, 
Sit thee down and put them on, 

And Christ receive thy saule. 

But if hosen or shoon thou never gave nane, 

Every night and alle, 
The whinnes shall prick thee to the bare bane, 

And Christ receive thy saule. 

Prom Whinny Moor that thou mayst pass, 

Every night and alle, 
To Brig o' Dread thou comest at last, 

And Christ receive thy saule. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



56i 



The North 
of England 



Something 
here is lost 



562 


WAY OF S. JAMES 




From Brig o' Dread, na braider than a thread, 




Every night and alle, 




To Purgatory fire thou comest at last, 




And Christ receive thy saule. 




If ever thou gave either milke or drink, 




Every night and alle, 




The fire shall never make thee shrink, 




And Christ receive thy saule. 




But if milk nor drink thou never gave nane, 




Every night and alle, 




The fire shall burn thee to the bare bane, 




And Christ receive thy saule. 




From Kelly, Curiosities, pp. 115-117; also 




in Scott, Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, II, 




361 ; and in Aubrey, Remaines of Gentilisme 


• • 


and Judaisme, pp. 30-31. 

• 


I 


HISPANIC NOTES 



APPEN dix 


S63 


1 

XI 




EL ALMA EN PEN A 


One just 


En camino de Santiago 


born, being 
dead 


iba un alma peregrina, 




una noche tan escura 




que ni una estrella lurfa: 




por donde el alma pasaba, 




la tierra se extremecia. 




Arrim6se un caballero 




a la ventana y decia: 


• 


— Si eres cosa del demorgo, 




de aquf te esconxurarfa; 




si eres cosa deste mundo, 




dir&sme lo que querfas. 




— Non soy cosa del demorgo, 




conxurarme non debias; 




soy un alma pecadora 




que para Santiago iba ; 


• 


hallara un rio muy fondo 




y pasarlo non podfa. 




— Arrimate k los rosarios 




que rezaste en esta vida . . . 




AND MONOGRAPHS 


1 



564 


WAY OP S/ JAMES 




i Ay de mi, triste, cuitada 




que ninguno non tenia! 




— Arrimate a los ayunos 




que ficiste en esta vida . . 




i Ay de mi, triste, cuitada, 




que nunca ayunado habia ! 




— Arrimate a las limosnas 




que ficiste en esta vida . . . 




i Ay de mi, triste, cuitada, 




que ninguna fecho habia! 


So, for an 


— Las velas de la Victoria 


alms, 


yo te las emprestaria; 


priests 
pray, while 


las velas de la Victoria 


the hachera 


que en mi casa las tenia. — 


is alight 


P6nsolas a la ventana, 




tanto como el sol lucian; 




pdnsolas a la ventana 




y el alma sigui6 su via. 




Volviendo la misma noche 




de la Santa Romeria, 




venia el alma cantando, 




desta manera decia: 




"Oh, dichoso el caballero, 




mas dichoso non podia; 




que por salvar a mi alma, 




salv6 la suya y la mia." 




— Dirasme, alma pecadora, 




lo que por Santiago habia? 


IV 


HISPANIC NOTES 



APPEN DIX 



— Perd6neme el caballero, 
decfrselo non podia; 
que tengo el cuerpo en las andas, 
voy a la misa del dia. 

From J. Menendez Pidal, Coleccidn de los 
Viejos Romances que se Canton par los As- 
turianos. 



565 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



r 



566 



The Lost 
Pilgrim 



flome say 
A If omo «/ 
ftatattador 
ended so 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



XII 

GALLEGAN ROMANCE 

A ond' ir£ aquel romeiro, 
Meu romeiro a dond'ira? 
Camiflo de Compostela 
Non sei s' ali chegard. 
Os p£s leva cheos de sangre 
E non pode mais andar; 
Mai pocado! probe vello! 
Non sei s' ali chegard. 
Ten longas e brancas barbas, 
Olios de doge mirar, 
Olios gazos, leonados 
Verdes com' augua d' o mar. 

— A dond' ides meu romeiro, 
A dond' ides meu vellifio? 

— Camiflo de Compostela. 

i A ond' ides vos soldadino? 

— Compostela mifla terra 
Sete anos fai que marchei, 
Non coidei volver a ela. 
Dlgame, diga 6 seu nome. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 


567 


Collase a min meu vellifio 


The kind 


Repare que non ten forzas 


companion 


Para seguir 6 camino. 


is S. James 


— Eu chamome D. Gaiferos, 




Gaiferos de Mormaltan, 




S' agora non tefio forzas 




Meu esprito mas dara. — 




Chegaron a Compostela 




£ foron a Catedral, 




Desta maneira falou 




Gaiferos de Mormaltan: 




— Gracias meu Sefior Santiago 




A vosos p6s me t6s xa, 




Se queres tirarm* a vida 




P6desma Sefior tirar, 




Por que morrerey contento 




Nesta Santa catedral. 




Y 6 vello d' as barbas longas 




Caiu tendido no chan. 




Cerrou os seus olios verdes, 




Verdes com' augua d* o mar. 




obispo qu' esto veu 




Ali 6 mandou enterrar. 




Asi morren meus sefiores 




Gaiferos de Mormaltan 




Est' 6 un d' os moitos milagros 




Que Santiago Apostol fay. 




— Prom Murgula, Galicia, p. 423. 




AND MONOGRAPHS 


1 



r 



568 



142s 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



XIII 

PURCHAS HIS PILGRIM 

Here beginneth the way that is marked, 
and made with Mount Joiez from the Lond 
of Engelond unto Sent Jamez in Galis, and 
from thennez to Rome, and from thennez to 
Jerusalem: and so againe into Engelond, and 
the namez of all the Citeez be their waie, 
and the manner of her governaunce, and 
namez of her silver that they use be alle 
these waies. 

In the Name of the Fader that seteez in trone, 

And of Jhu his oonly blesset Sone, 

And of the Holy Gost, this blesset Trine'te, 

And also of our Ladie S. Marie: 

And of all the Seintez of the Court of Heven. 

I make this mynde wit milde Steven: 

Wiclj waye I went I schall you telle, 

And how be the waie I dide dwelle. 

Ferst to Plummouth to see went I, 

And landet in the Trade of Bretany, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 


569 


There we rested daies too, 




And thrugh the Race then did we go 




To Burdewez, to that faire Citee: 




And there was I daies thre. 




And so from thennez to Bayon, 




For so the that is a faire toune. 




And from thennez to Petypont St. Jenouhe, 


S. Jean 


The ferst toune of Naveron, sicurly: 


Pied 


Up in a hee hull hit is faire sette, 


dePort 

confused 

withS. 


And ther men schall make her tribett, 


For every pice of Gold trust me well, 


Genou 


Thou schalt swere upon the Evangele: 




And there Jakkez ferst most thou have, 


Jaqueses 


And thee lust thy Gold to save. 


Wymmenz araie upon there heved, 




Like to Myterez they ben wheed: 




A raie Man tell they were upon 




And foule wymmen mony oon. 




Then to the Dale of Rouncevale hit is the 


\ 


waie, 




A derk passage I der well saie: 




Witelez there ben full necessary, 


■ 


For in that passage my mouthe was dry. 




Beyond the hull upon hee, 




Is a Mynster of our Ladee: 




Of Chanounez of the Order of St. Austyn, 




And the well of Rouland, and Oliver therein. 




From thennez even to Pampylyon, 




AND MONOGRAPHS 


1 



570 



Up the 
Ebro 



Logrofio 



Manier 

names 

Grufion 



Puente 
la Reyna 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



The chef Citie of the Reme of Naveron : 

A faire Cite and a large, 

Thereto commeth bothe Bote and Barge. 

And from thennez to the tonne of Keer, 

Is xxx. miles long, and hongery heer. 

Then to the Gruon in Spayne, 

That is the last toune certaine, 

Of the Realme of Naveron: 

And then into Spayne feare ye schon, 

Jakkez ben ther of little prise: 

For there beginneth the Marvedisez. 

Alle is brasse, silver is none In, 

And the Grote of Spayne is silver fyn. 

iiii. score for a Coron schal thou have, 

Of the Marvedise of master and knave. 

Then from the Grime to Sent Dominico 

Thou hast tenn long miles for to go. 

And from thennez to Grunneole, 

Much pyn men ther thoole. 

Hit ston upon a hull on hyy, 

And Jewez ben Lordez of all that contray. 

Ther most thou tribute make or thou passe, 

For alle thi gud bothe mor and lasse: 

Of that tribute they be full fayn; 

For thei hyeer hit of the King of Spayne. 

From thennez thou most to Pount Roie, 

That passage ther hit kepeth a boie: 

A gud contraie, and evell wyn, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



571 



And witelez ther ben bothe gud, and fyn. 

And so forthe to Pount Paradise. 

At that passage thou most paie thriez. 

And so forthe from thennez to Borkez that 

citee, 
A faire toune and a muche sicurly. 
And from thennez to Hospitall de Reyne, 
To passe that River thou schalt be fayne. 
And so forthe to Sent Antony: 
And ever ther gothe the Marvedy. 
From thennez even to the citie of Lyones: 
Betweene hem ben mony praty tounez. 
In that cite ther schalt thou paie 
Passage or thou goe awaie. 
By younde the Brugge on thi right hand, 
To Sent Salvator the waie is liggand, 
Where ii. pottez may thou se, 
In the wiche water turnet to vyn 
. . . at Architriclyne. 
And mony other reliquez ben there, 
But the mountez ben wonder he, & fere. 
Wymmen in that Land use no vullen, 
But alle in lether be thei wounden: 
And her hevedez wonderly ben trust, 
Standing in her forhemed as a crest, 
In rowld clouthez lappet alle be forn 
Like to the prikke of a N 'unicorn. 
And men have doubelettez full schert, 



Bridge of 
Najera 

Burgos 



Leon 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Oviedo 



Cana of 
The Mar- 
riage 



572 



Compare 
Froissart, 
page 190 



Le6n 



La Faba, or 
Febrero? 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Bare legget and light to stert. 

A Knight, a boie wit out hose, 

A sqwyer also thei schull not lose. 

A Knave bere iii. dartez in his hand. 

And so thei schull go walkand: 

Here wyn is thecke as any blode, 

And that wull make men wode. 

Bedding ther is nothing faire, 

Mony pilgrimez hit doth apaire: 

Tabelez use thei non of to ete, 

But on the bare flore they make her sete: 

And so they sitte alle inf ere, 

As in Irlande the same manere. 

Then from the citee of Lyonz so fre, 

On thi lyft hand the waie schalt thou see, 

At that Brugge that I of have saide, 

Over an heethe to Astergo is layde. 

That is a cite and faire is sette, 

There the gret mountaines togeder be mette: 

And so forthe to Villa Frank schalt thou go, 

A faire countraye, and vinez also. 

The Raspis groeth ther in the waie. 

Yf thee lust thou maie asaie. 

From thennez a deepe dale schalt thou have, 

Up unto the Mount of Fave: 

He hullez, and of the Spanyse see a cry: 

That noyse is full grevose pardy. 

And so forth even to Sent Jamez, 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



573 



AHe waie Pylgrimez suche havez, 
And then to Mount nostre Dame, 
The Prior ther hath muche schame. 
And then so forthe to Luaon, 
Other Villages ther be mony oon. 
And then to Sent Jamez that holy place; 
There maie thou fynde full f aire grace. 
On this side the toune milez too, 
By a Chappell schalt thou go: 
Upon a hull hit stondez on hee, 
Wher Sent Jamez ferst schalt thou see, 
A Mount Joie, mony stonez there ate, 
And iiii. pilerez of ston of gret astate: 
A C. daiez of pardon there may thou have 
At that Chappell, and thou hit crave. 
Then at Sent Jamez wit in that place. 
To telle the pardon hit askes space. 
Hit is a gret Mynstor, large, and long, 
Of the hold begging hit is strong: 
Glason windowez there are but few, 
Wit in the Mynstor in nowther rew: 
Viii. Cardinalez chosen there be, 
For Confessourez, that is verry, 
And have plaine power fully to here, 
And penaunce to yef in alle manere: 
And to assoyle the of alle thing, 
That is the Popys graunting. 
Now of the pardon telle I shall 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Lugo 



S. Cross 



cairnes? 



574 



The origin- 
al pillar 
and altar? 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



In what place thou maie it calle: 

At the Northe side of that place, 

There is pardon and muche faire grace. 

In the Chappell on the rizt hand among the 

guest, 
iii. C. daiez of pardon thou havest. 
Forthermore at the hee autere 
A iii. daiez alle time in the yere. 
Under the hee autere lithe Sent Jame, 
The table in the Quere telleth the name: 
At alle the auterez so by and by, 
xl. daiez to pardon is grantet to the. 
At the iii. derrez benethe the Quere, 
Is plenor remission onez in the yere: 
And at alle tymes xl. daies, 
The table written so hit saies. 
On the South side behinde the Derre, 
A grete of ston fyndest thou there: 
At nine of the Bell the Derre up is sett, 
And a Bell rongen a gret f et. 
Ther men maie se of Sent Jamez the lesse, 
His heed in Gold araied freche: 
To the wiche Pilgrymez her offeryng make, 
For the more Sent Jamez sake. 
And there by a nauter there is, 
Wher Sent Jame, dud Mase yuis, 
A iii. daies ther maie thou have, 
Of remission, and thou hit crave. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



More pardon is nonzt in that place 
That in that table mynde hase. 
Then from thennez to Patrovum, 
Wher the Sent londet the ferst toun 
iiii. xx. myles longs from Sent Jamez, 
Coron ne vin non men there havez. 
And then to Pont Wederez went I, 
L. long miles; that waie is dry: 
Jewes and Sarasynez ben there mony on, 
A plentiful contraye as man maie gon. 
From thennes a vale faire, and clere, 
Where wynez groethe of all manere, 
Unto the toun of Corpe Sante, 
Alle manere fruyte at man maie haunt. 
The See cometh thether at alle tide, 
And fisth, and coron on alle side. 
Wymmen be araied like to men, 
Men maie nouzt well nouther ken: 
There thei life un gudely, 
Namely men of holy Chirche pardy. 
And Bugell flesch is there full rive, 
In alle that contraie hit is ther lif : 
And Corpe Sant is the last toun. 
In Galise, and stondeth the See upon. 



575 



Padron 



Puente 
Cesures 



Estuaries 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



576 



I 

nao 



WAY OP S. JAMES 



XIV 

ITINERARIES 

The writer began by transcribing all the 
following seven Itineraries with Purchas's 
and then making out the modern names and 
the correct distances, except where earlier 
editors had already done this. It was a 
pleasant game, but left nothing for the 
reader. Therefore it has seemed best to print 
them as they were encountered, where in 
three instances the admirable labours of 
French editors will give him example and 
assistance, all that he needs of either, for 
the winter nights with books and maps. 

i. Itinerary of Aymery PiCAtJD 

I . FROM SOMPORT TO PUENTE LA REYNA 
BORCIA BORCE 

Portus Asperi Somport 

Hospitale s. Christinae S. Cristina 
Canfrancus Canfranc 

Jacca Jaca 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



APPENDIX 


577 


A ragonus, flumen Passage of the A ragon 




Osturiz 




Thermas Tiermas 




Mons Reellus Monreal 




Pons Reginae Puente la Reyna 




2. FROM PORT DE CIZE TO PUENTE LA REYNA 




Villa S. Michaelis S. Michel 




Portus Ciserei Port de Cize 




Hospitale Rotolandi Ibaneta 




Villa Runcievallis Roncevaux 




BlSCARETUM (BlSCA- 




RELLUS) VlSCARRET 




Resogna Larrasoana 




Arga et Runa, fl. Passage of the Arga 




Pampilonia Pampeluna 




Pons Reginae Puente la Reyna 




3. FROM PUENTE LA REYNA TO COMPOSTELLA 




Rivus Salatus Passage of the Salado 




Stella Estella 




A iega, ft. Passage of the Ega 




Arcus Los Arcos 




Grugnus Logrofio 




Ebra, fl. Passage of the Ebro 




Villa Rubea Villaroya 




Nagera Ndjera 




AND MONOGRAPHS 


I 



578 


WAY OF 


S. JAMES 


Itineraries 


Sanctus Dominicus 


S. Domingo de la Cal- 


I 




zada 




Radicellas 
Belfuratus 


Rprier>i1lA Hftl Pj»minn 


Belorado 




Franca villa 


Villafranca 




Nemus Oquae 


Montes de Oca 




Altaporca 


Atapuerca 




Burgas 


Burgos 




Alterdalia 


Tardajos 




Purnellos 


Hornillos del Camino 




Castrasorecia 


Castrogeriz- 




Pons Fiteriae 


Itera del Castillo 




Pisorga,fl. 


Passage of the Pisuerga 




Frumesta 


Fr6mista 




Carrionus 


Carri6n de los Condes 




Sanctus Facundus 


Sahagun 




Ceia f fl. 


Passage of the Cea 




Manxilla 


Mansilla de las Mulas 




Aisela,fl. 


Passage of the Esla 




Porma,fl. 


Passage of the Porma 




Torio,fl. 


Passage of the Torio 




Legio 


Le6n 




Bernesgua, fi. 


Passage of the Bernesga 




Orbega 


Puente Orbigo 




Osturga 


Astorga 




Raphanellus 


Rabanal del Camino 




Portus Montis Iraci 


Puerto Irago 




Sicca Molina 


Molina Seca 


I 


HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 


579 


Ponsferratus Ponferrada 




Sil, fl. Passage of the SU 




Carcavellus Cacabelos 




Cua, fl. Passage of the Cua 




VlLLAFRANCA VlLLAFRANCA 




Burdua (Burbia?) Passage of the Burbia 




Vallis Careens Valcarcel 


Villa 
Sarracfn 


Castrum Sarracenicum 


Villa Us 


Villa de 


Hospitale in cacumine 


Ur* 


montis Pebruarii Hospital? 




PortusmontisFebruarii Monte Cebrero 




Linar de Rege Linares 




Triacastella Triacastela 




Villa S. Michaelis 


Samos 


Barbadellus Barbadelo 




Pons Mineae 

Sala Reginae Sala Regina 


Puerto 
Marin 


Palatium Regis Palaz de Rey 




Campus Levurarius Leboreiro 




S. Jacobus de Boento Boente 

Castaniolla 

Villanova Villa nova 

Ferreras Ferreiros 


S. Mamed 
de Cas- 
taneda 

Arzua? 


COMPOSTELLA SANTIAGO DE COMPOS- 




TELLA 




From B6dier, Les Chansons Epiques, III, pp. 




121-126. 




AND MONOGRAPHS 


1 



58o 



Itineraries 
II 

1417 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



11. From db Caumont : Voiatge A S. Jaques 

EN COMPOSTELLE 

et d Nostre Dame de Finibus Terre, en Van 
MIL. CCCC. XVII 

Ensuit se ung autre voiatge que je Nopar 
seigneur de Caumont, de Chasteau Neuf, de 
Chasteau Cullier et Berbeguieres, ay fait 
pour aler a monseigneur saint Jacques en 
Compostelle, et a Nostre Dame de Finibus 
Terre. Et fu le viij jour du mois de juillet 
que je parti de mon chasteau de Caumont, 
l r an mil. cccc. xvij. Et fuy de retour a Cau- 
mont le tiers jour de setembre apres venant, 
l f an susdit: ou il est le nomme des pais et 
le nombres des lieues de lieu en autre, 

Le chemin de monseigneur Jacques en 
Compostelle et de Nostre Dame de Finibus 
Terre, ou est l'un chief du monde, qui est sur 
rive de mer en une haulte roche de montainge. 

Premieremant, de Caumont a Roque- 
ffort. ix. lieues. 

MARSAN 

De Roqueffort au Mont de 
Marssan iij lieues 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPEN DIX 


58i 


Du Mont de Marssan a Saint 








De Saint Seve a Hayetman i j lieues 




BEARN 












BALCOS 




De Sauvaterre a Saint Palays.. ij lieues 




De Saint Palays a Hostanach ... i j lieues 


, 


NAVARRA 




De Hostanach a Saint Jehan de 








De Saint Jehan de Pedes portz 








De Capeyron roge a Nostre 




Dame de. Ronssevaux et au 




Borgetquiestpresd'aqiii.. . . iiij lieues 


Burguete 




Larrasoafia 


De le Rosonhe a Pampalone. . . iij lieues 




De Pampalone au Pont leRoyne v lieues 




Du Pont le Royne a Lestelle. . * iiij lieues 


Estella 




Los Arcos 


AND MONOGRAPHS 


1 



i 



5^2 



Itineraries 
II 

Los Arcos 

Logrofio 

Najera 



Hornillog 
del Card no 

Castro jeriz 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



CASTBLLE 

Dels Arcos Grunh v lieues 

Du Grunh a Navarret ij lieues 

De Navarret a Nagere iij lieues 

Et davant ceste place, ha un grant champ 
moult lone et ample ou le Prince de Gales, 
due de Guienne, fils du bon roy Edoart, qui 
avoit en sa compaignie de moult belle cheval- 
lerie et escuierie de Guascons, et d'autres 
d'Angleterre, gueagne le bataille et esconffit 
le roy Enric; et mist en possession le roy 
Pedro de tout le royaume d'Espagne, comme 
roy droyturier. 

De Nagere a Sain to Domingo de le Calssade 
iiij. lieues, auquel lieu avint une foix jadis 
ung grant miracle: Et encore ha, en l'eglize, 
ung coli et une jeline de le nature de ceulx 
qui chanterent en Taste davant le jutge; et je 
lez ay veux de vray et sont tout blancs. 

De Sainto Domingo a Vile- 
franque vij lieues 

De Vilefranque a Burgos viij lieues 

ESPAHNE 

De Burgos a Pormelhos iiij lieues 

De Pormelhos a Castrosiris.. . . iiij lieues 



HISPANIC NOTES 



^ 



APPEN DIX 


583 












Sahagun 




Mansillade 




las Mulas 


LEON 








De Leon au Pont de l'Aygua. . vj lieues 




De Pont de l'Eue a Astorgue. . iij lieues 






Rabanal 


GUALICIE 




De Ravanello a Pont Ferrado .viij lieues 




De Pont Ferrado a Cacanelhos . iij lieues 


Cacabelos 


De Cacanelhos a Travadello.. . . iiij lieues 






• 




Triacastela 










De Porto Marin a Palays de 
















De Duas Cazas a Saint Jaques. . iij lieues 




SAINT JAQUES 




De Saint Jaques a Salhemane 




pour aller a Nostre Dame de 








AND MONOGRAPHS 


1 



584 



Manilas 



Padr6n 



Ferreiros 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



De Salhemana a Martenhas. . . iij lieues 

De Maronhas a Nostre Dame de 
Finibus terre viij lieues 

lequelle est au port de le mer, et de la en 
avant Ten ne trouve plus de terre; auguel lieu 
fait de beaux miracles et y a une grant 
montaigne ou est un hermitatge de Saint 
Guilhames du desert. 

NOSTRE DAME D£ FINIBUS TERRE 
LE RETOUR 

De Finibus Terre a Noye ix lieues 

De Noye al Patron iiij lieues 

C'est ung lieu auquel monseigneur saint 
Jaques arriva d 'outre mer, ou lez Sarrazins 
couppe le teste; et vint en une nef de pierre le 
chief et le corps separes Tun de l'autre, tout 
seul, sans autre chouse, et j'ay veu le nef a le 
rive de le mer. 



LE PATRON 

Du Patron a Saint Jaques 

De Saint Jaques a Perreyres.. . 

De Perreyres a Melid 

De Melid a Porto Marin 

De Porto Marin a Sarrie 

De Sarrie a le Fontfria 



iiij lieues 
v lieues 

iiij lieues 
ix lieues 

iiij lieues 

vij lieues 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



585 



Pe Pontfria a Travadello viij lieues 

De Travadello a Cacanelhos. . . iiij lieues 

De Cacanelhos a Molines iiij lieues 

De Molines a Rayanello. vj lieues 

De Ravanello a Astorgua v lieues 

De Astorgua au Pont de 1' Aygua iij lieues 
Du Pont de l'Aygua a Leon. . . vj lieues 

De Leon a Borinelho vij lieues 

De Borinelho a Saffagon iiij lieues 

De Saffagon a Carrion viij lieues 

De Carrion a Fromista iiij lieues 

De Fromista a Castro Siris v lieues 

De Castro Siris a Burguos viij lieues 

De Burguos a Vilefranque viij lieues 

De Vilefranque a Vileforat ij lieues 

De Vileforat a Santo Domingo iiij lieues 
De Santo Domingo a Nagere... iiij lieues 

De Nagere a Gronh v lieues 

Du Gronh als Aroos v lieues 

Dels Arcos a Lestelle v lieues 

De Lestelle au Pont le Royne.. iiij lieues 
Du Pont le Royne a Pampalone v lieues 

De Pampalone au Borguet viij lieues 

Du Borguet au Capeyron roge iiij lieues 
Du Capeyron roge a Saint Jehan 

de Pedez portz iij lieues 

De Saint Jehan a Hostanach....iiij lieues 
De Hostanach a Sauvaterre iiij lieues 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



The return 
varies the 
stages 



586 



Itineraries 
hi 



X535 



So wrote 

Columbus' 

son 



Irtin 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Pontarabia 



I 



De Sauvaterre a Hortes iij lieues 

De Hortes a Saut de Noalhas.. ij lieues 

De Saut a Orgons iiij lieues 

De Orgons a Duffort ij lieues 

De Duffort a Roqueffort v lieues 

De Roqueffort a Caumont ix lieues 

Pinito libro sit laus gloria Cris- 
ta. A. M. E. N. 

Qui scripsit istum librum ad Deum vadat 
unum eternum ubi laus et gloria in seculorum 
cantantur secula. 

Perm Caumont. 

hi. Lb Chbmin db Paris A Sainct- Jacques bn 
Galicb dit Compostelle; et Combien 
il y a db Lieues de Ville en Ville. 
Este libro costo un diner o en Leon pot 
Septiembre de 1535, y el ducado vale $70 
dineros 

De Paris au bourg la Royne 1 1. L. 

De Sainct Jehan de Lux a Saincte 

Marie de Heurin 2. 

Nota. Est la fin du royaulme de 
Prance a une riviere qui est 
deca la dicte nostre Dame de 
Hurin pres fon arrabye. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



De Saincte Marie de Hurin a Ar- 
nani 3. 

D'Arnania VilleneufVe 2. 

De VilleneufVe a Toulousette 2 . 

De T. a Villefranque 3. 

De V. a Segure...., 4. 

De S. au Mont Sainct Adrien 2. 

Qui est assez hault, passez parmy 
le trou de St. Adrien a Saldon- 
don 2. 

De S. a Saluatiere 2. 

De S. a Victoire 3. 

Ville de Victoire a Peuple 3. 

De P. a Nurende 3. 

De N. a Pencorbe 3. 

De P. a Verbiesque.... 4. 

De V. a Castille* 1. 

De C. a Monasterio 1. 

De M. a Bourgues 5. 

De B. a Tardaiges 2. L. 

De. T. a Horvilles 2. 

D'Orvilles a Fontaines 2. 

De P. a Quatre-souris 2. 

De Q. a Ponterose 2. 

De P. a Boseville 2. 

De B. a Pormende 1. 

* That is, the frontier of Castille. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



587 



Heruani 

Villabona 

Toloseta 

Villafranca 

Segura 

Puerto de 
S. Adrian 
Zalduendo 

Salvatierra 
Vitoria 

La Puebla 

Miranda 
de Bbro 

Pancorbo 

Bribiesca 

de Rodilla 

Burgos 

Tarda j os 

Hornillos 

Ontanas 

Castrogeriz 



Pr6mista 



588 


WAY OP S. JAMES 


Villarmen- 




i. 


tero 

Poblaci6n 
de Campos 


Ville de Ravanire a Population 


. i. 

2. 


Calzadilla 


Ville de C. a Casedille 


4- 


Sahagun 




4- 


Brescianos 




3- 


El Burgo 




2. 


Rehegos 


De Bourgue a Religoux 


2. 


Mansilla 




I. 


Le6n 

S. Miguel 
del Cam i no 




3- 
3- 


Puente de 




2. 


Orbigo 


De Fontaines au pont de l'Aigue... 


2. 


Astorga 

Espital del 

Ganso-S. 

Catalina 

Rabanal 


D'E. a Lhospital Scte. Katherine.. 


i 

3- 
4- 


Molina 




2. 


Seca 




2. 


Ponferrada 


Nota que cy est Tentree du pays 
del Galice, et la fyn du pays 
d'Espaigne et les bons vins. 


I. L. 


Pieros 




3- 


Villafranca 
del Vierzo 




2. 
2. 




De P. a Lhospital de la Contessa. . 


2. 






3- 


I 


HISPANIC NOTES 



"1 



APPENDIX 



De T. a Villemisere 4. 

De V. a Pontz Marin 4. 

De P. a Saincte-Jame le Vieil 4. 

De Saincte-Jame a Sainct- Julian . . 2. 

De S. a Chantleurier 3. 

De Ch. a Arcerouze, dit Ville neu- 

fue. 3. 

De Ville brulee [Arziia] a Ville 

rouge 3- 

De V. a Saincte Montioye 2. 

De S. a Monseigneur Set. Jaques 1. 

grande lieue comme de Paris a 

Saint Denys. 

Somme. de Paris a Set. Jaques en 
Galice ccc. 1. neuf lieues. 

From Harrisse, Biblioteca Colombiana. 

iv. Reportorio de Todos los Caminos de 
Espana: Hasta Agora Nunca Visto 
en el Quel Allaran Qualquier Viaje 
que quieran andar muy provechoso 
Por Todos LOS Caminantes. Com- 
puesto por Pero Juan Viluga Valen- 
ciano. ano. de. m.d. xlvj. con pri- 
vilegio Imperial 

U Ay de Santiago a san juan del pie del 
puerto clii. 



589 



Sarria 

Puerto 
Marin 

Samos 
Mellid 

Casas 

Novat 



Manzoi or 
Mount joy 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



IV 

1546 



590 WAY OF S. JAMES 



Itineraries 

IV 



a san marco j. 

ala vacula j. 

almenar ij. 

a ferreros j. 

a axqua j. 

a mellid iij. 

ala puente campana iij. 

alegundi ij. 

a goncar ij. 

a puerto marin ii. 

a gujada j. 

a sarria iij. 

a mutan ij. 

a triacastela ij. 

A fuenfria ij. 

al espital j. 

a cebreyro ij. 

a lafava j. 

a libera de valcacar hasta la vega ij. 

a villafranca iiij. 

a campo de naraya j. 

a cacavelos ij. 

a ponferrada ij. 

a molina seca j. 

a riego ij. 

al azebo j. 

ala venta j. y media. 

a fuen cevadon j. y media. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



APPENDIX 



al ravanal j, 

al espital del ganso. j. 

a palacios de valduerno iij. 

a estorga ij. 

a sante Juste j. 

al a calcada j. 

a la puente dorbigo j. 

a villadancos ij. 

a san miguel del camino j. 

a val verde j. 

a nuestra senora del camino j. 

a trabjo media. 

A leon media. 

a villarent iij. 

a mansilla j. 

a reliejos j. 

al burgo ij. 

al brecianos ij. 

a sahagun ij. 

a san nicolas j. 

a moratinos media. 

a ledigos ij. y media. 

a las tiendas j. 

a calcadilla j. 

a carrion ij. 

a villa martin. ij. 

a flomesta ij. 

a la puente ij. 



591 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



r 



592 



Itineraries 

IV 



Zalduendo 



I 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



a castro xeriz ij 

a hontanas j 

a hornillos j 

a rabe j 

a tardajos : . j 

a Burgos ij 

A nuestra sefiora la blanca de Burgos. 

a carbadel ij, 

a ybeas j, 

a san dueldo ij, 

a val de huentes j, 

a Villa Franca de montes doca ij, 

a todos santos j. 

a villorado j, 

a villa miesta j, 

a redesilla media, 

a granon j, 

A san to domingo de la cal$ada j, 

a cafra iij, 

a najara j 

a navarrete.* iij 

A logrono ij 

a viana j. y media 

a los arcos iij 

a estella iiij 

al aldea ij 

a la puente la reyna ij 

a la austia de remiega ij 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



"1 



593 



a pamplona... ij. 

a villalua media. 

a rasnay ij. y media. 

a subiri ij. 

a burguete iij. 

a roncesvalles ij. 

a. s. juan del pie del puerto iiij. 

^[ Ay de san Juan de pie del puerto a 

fuente rabia viii. 

astajos i. 

a rejeria iii. 

a fuente rabia iiij. 

1f Ay de fuente rabia a san Sebastian. . . iij . 

al pasaje j. 

a renteria j. 

a san Sebastian j. 

f Ay de san Sebastian a 

laredo xxvii. y media. 

a morrio iii. 

a sarrans i. 

a guetarja i. 

a cumaya i. 

aytciar ii. 

a deva media. 

a motrico j. 

a ergoybar j. 

aybar j. 

a sabdibar j. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



594 WAY OF S. JAMES 



Itineraries a durangO ij. 

iv a la venta ij. y media. 

a villon ij. y media. 

a salsedon v. 

a laredo iij. 

f Ay de laredo a victoria.... xij. y media. 

a guecus ij. 

a san josollo .ij. 

a requalde j. y media. 

a loquendo j. 

a mono j. 

a mesagua ij. 

a victoria iij. 

H Ay de Victoria a Burgos.xxiij. leguas. 

a la venta cibay ij. y media. 

a la puebla j. y media. 

a las ventas destalvillo j. 

a miranda de ebro j. y media. 

a horon j. 

a mehingo j. y media. 

a pancorvo j. 

a cufieda ij. 

a grisanella media. 

a birviesca j. y media. 

a pradanos j. 

a castillo de plones media. 

al monasterio de rodilla j. y media. 

a quintana palla ij. 



I 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



595 



a rubena j. 

a bilnuna media. 

a Burgos ij. y media. 



H Ay de leon a logrofio lv. 

a villa rente iij. 

a mansilla i. 

a reliejos ij. 

al burgo ij. 

a brecianos ij. 

a sahagun ij. 

a san nocolas j. 

a moratinos media. 

a ledinos ij. y media. 

a lastiendas 

a calcadilla 

a carrion rj 

a villa martin ij 

a flomesta ij 

ala puente ij 

a castro xeriz ij 

a hontanas j 

a hornillos 

a rave j 



a tardajos j 

a Burgos ij 

a castafiares j 

a ybeas j 



S. Martfn 
del Camino 

Fr6mista 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



I 



596 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Itineraries 
v 



1586 



ville 
rep as 

Arpaj6n 



a san dueldo ij. 

a valde huentes j. 

a villa franca de montesdoca ij. 

a todos sanctos j. 

a villorado j. 

a la venta de buradon j. 

a villa de pun j. 

a granon j. 

a sancto domingo de la calcada j. 

a cafra iij. 

a najara j. 

a navarrete iij. 

a logrofio ij. 

v. nowelle gvide des chemins. paris, 
par Nicolas Bonfons ruE Neuue 
Nostre Dame, A l'Enseigne S. Nicolas, 

1583 

Le bourg la Roine ii 1. 

Le pont Antony i 1. 

Longjumeau ii 1. 

Montlehery v ii 1. R. 

Chastres, sous Montlehery, v i 1. 

Torfou, au haut du Tartre i 1. d. 

La forest de Torfou pour le jourd'huy 
destruicte. 
Estrechy le larron i 1. d. 

L 'hermitage, ancienne briganderie. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



Estampes, v. ch ii 1. g. 

Villesauvage m. [maison] i 1. 

La Beausse commence. 

Monterville a main dextre ii 1. 

Engerville la gaste ii 1. 

Cham a lorry iij 1. d. 

Toury v. ch i 1. d. R. 

Chasteau gaillard ii 1. 

Artenay b ii 1. 

La Croix briquet, i 1. 

Langenerie i 1. 

Sercotes i 1. 

Pave" jusques a la ville. 

La croix de la montjoye i 1. d. 

Nostre Dame des aydes d. 1. 

Orleans v. e. un ii 1. g. 

Sainct Mesmin, abb ii 1. 

Plaine. 
Clery v. Pelerinage ii 1. 

A main dextre de la riviere de Loire est 
la ville de Meun, ou Ton peiche des 
pluyes de Loire, qui est poisson rare, 
et fort excellent. 

Pond pertuis, a coste* destre, au bout 
delaplaineetyabonvin i 1. 

Passe un ruisseau. 
Les trois chemin^es ii 1. 

A main dextre de la riviere boy Baugency . 

AND MONOGRAPHS 



597 



chateau 
giste 



Angerville 

Champilory 

Thoury 

bourg 



Cercottes 



viUe 

eveschi 

universiU 

abbaye 

Notre 
Dame de 
Ctery 



I 



598 WAY OF S. JAMES 



Muides 
Saint-Di6 



Cisse 



Veuve 



Perry at 
Montlouis 
Ferry at 
Bac de 
Cisse 

Blere 



Sainct Laurens des eaux ii 1. 

Nouan b ii 1. 

Mande b i 1. 

Sainct Dier b i 1. 

A main gauche, Ton voit le chasteau de 
Chambourg eMiAe" par le feu roy 
Francois. 

Montlivaut b i 1. 

Noiseux b i 1. 

Blois v. ch. conte\ Sur la riviere de Loire 

il. 

Chousy, a coste* dextre iij 1. R. 

Passe le pont de la riviere de Gisse, 
qui tombe en loire, ayant passe* le 
pont. 

Escures b ii 1. 

Vesve b i 1. 

Le mare i 1. 

Le haut chantier i 1. g. 

Commencement de la Touraine. 

La Pillaudiere i 1. 

Amboise v. ch i 1. 

Passe le Loire sur les ponts d 'Amboise, 
pour le meilleur, et qui veut on va 
passer au port de Montlouy, ou au 
pont de Clisse pour aller d 'Amboise 
a Tours, de Tautre coste* de la riviere. 
Bleray sur le Cher ii 1. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPEN DIX 



Le Pau sur Inde iij 1. 

Mantelan iij 1. 

Semesacost6dextre q R. 

La Selle ii 1. 

Le port de pille sur Creuse q. 

Les hommes sainct Martin i 1. 

Dangers, sur Vienne i 1. 

Ingrande, sur Vienne v. ch i 1. 

Chasteleraut sur Vienne, v. du i 1. 

Passe la garenne du Roy, et haut bois. 

La Tricherie iij 1. 

Iaulnays i 1. 

Chassenoeil i 1. 

Le Pont des anses i 1. 

Poictiers v. e. un. pari i 1. 

Coulombiers iij 1. 

Luzignanv. Sur la riviere Sevre ii 1. 

Y a grandes foires. 

Cheuaix b iiij 1. 

Cherry b i 1. 

La Barre i 1. g. 

Sainct leger de mesle i 1. 

Laisse Mesle bonne ville, a main dextre 
un quart de lieue au dela. 

Brion, b ii 1. R. 

La ville dieu d'aulnois ii 1. 

Aulnois b i 1. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



599 



Le Fau or 
Reignac 

Sepmes •' 



quart 

Les Ormea 

Dang6 

duchi 

Forest of 
Chatelle- 
rault 

Chasse- 
neuil 



Chenay 
Chey 

Saint- 

Leger-les 

Melle 

Briou 
Aulnay 



6oo 



Paille 

Bercloux 

poste 

Brizem- 

bourg 

Escoyeux 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Saint-Genis 
Plassac 

Saint- 

Disant-du- 

Bois 



half-way 
between 
Estauliers 
and Blaye 



Paillets i 1. 

Bricleu ii 1. p. 

Laisse Busambourg, bonne ville, a 
main gauche. 

Escoyaux i 1. 

Veneran i 1. 

Saintes, v. e i 1. R. 

Ville capitale de Xaintonge. 

L'hospital neuf q. 

La maladerie d. q. 

Ponts q. 

Recose i 1. 

Sainct Gervais i 1. 

Pressac b i 1. R. 

La Tenaille b. abb i 1. 

Sainct Duisan i 1. 

Mirambeau d. 1. 

Petit beaunois i 1. 

Plaine seve ii 1. g. 

Sainct Aulbin b ii 1. 

Le bois Franc en la comt6 de Blaye. 

Lepaysdefenestres i 1. 

Estauliers i 1. 

Gigot ii 1. R. 

La Garde, ou Darde de Roland, duquel 

lieu Ton dit que Roland jetta une lance 

jusques dans la mer de Blaye. 



I 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



Blaye v. ch i 1. 

Frontiere, port de mer. 

Comte* souz l'EveschS de bordeaux; 

Passe un brachs de mer venant de la 

Rochelle. 
A Blaye on monte sur l'Anguille qui est 

un certain bare petit et grand, lequel 

d'une maree conduict selon le vent 

jusques a Bordeaux, ou il y a sept 

lieues de pays. 
Monte sur ledit brachs de mer et sur 

l'Anguille susdicte, par les lieux qui 

s'ensuyvent. 

Roched'estaux i 1. 

Laisse a ville du bourg a main gauche. 
Le bee d'Ambois, passage dangereux, 

qui est d'un pont et d'une Isle entre 

deux mers, que verres a main gauche. 

Montf errant... ii 1. 

Sur la coste de la mer a main gauche. 

Macaut, a main dextre. 

Le pays de M&Iqc, dont on voit places 

et chasteaux a main dextre. 
Blanc et fort, a main dextre, chasteau 

fortancien. 
Lermont, port de mer, a main gauche. 

Bordeaux v. arch i 1. R. 

Port de mer. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



6oi 



Itineraries 
V 



RocdeTau 

Bee 
d'Amb6s- 



Monf er- 
rand 



602 



L'Hopita- 
lot, priory 

t'ust before 
leliet 

Post 2 Idi- 
om. beyond 
Belin 
Le Muret 
Lapostey 

LaBouliere 

Chapelle 
St.Antoine 

La Harie 
Lesperon 
Castets 
Magesc 

de Tirosse 
Ondres 



Irun 

Irun 

Brnani 

Villabona 

Tolosa 

Villafranca 

Segura 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Le petit Bordeaux ii 1. 

L'hospital iiij 1. R. 

La tricherie ii 1. 

Le mutat ii 1. 

Pontel ii 1. g. 

Herbe fanee ii 1. 

L'hospital sainct Antoine ii 1. 

La ferme ii 1. R. 

L'esperon ii 1. 

Castel ii 1. 

Matticque ii 1. g. 

Sainct Vincent iij 1. 

Hondres , iij 1. 

Bayonne V. ch ii 1. R. 

Bons tranche-plumes. 

Sainct Jean de Lux v. 1. g. 

Saincte Marie de Hurin ii 1. 

Fin du royaume de France a une riviere 
deca Huria, pres de Fontarabie. 

Arnani iij 1. 

Villeneuve i 1. R. 

Toulouzette ii 1. 

Villefranque iij 1. g. 

Segare iiij 1. 

Mont sainct Adrien, bien haut.. . . ii 1. R. 
Passe par le trou sainct Adrien. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPEN DIX 



603 



Chaldondon ii 1. 

Salvatierra v. ch iij 1. g. 

Victoire iij 1. 

Peuple iij 1. R. 

Nutande iij 1. 

Pencorbe iij 1. g. 

Verbiesque iiij 1. 

Castille v. ch ii 1. 

Meilleur langage d'Espaigne. 

Monasteno i 1. R. 

Burges v. ch v 1. 

Tardaignes ii 1. g. 

Homilies ii 1. 

Fontaines ^. ii 1. 

Quatre souris, ou Castre sortiz . . . ii 1. R. 

Ponte roso iiij 1. 

Boseville ii 1. g. 

Formande i 1. 

La Ravanarie v i 1. 

Paublation, ou Population ii 1. 

Canon v ii 1. R. 

Capadille v iiij 1.' 

Sainct sagon iiiij 1. g. 

Brisanne ii 1. 

Burgo i 1. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



Zalduendo 



Vitoria 

La Puebla 

Miranda 
de Ebro 

Pancorbo 

Bribiesca 

Castil de 
Peones 

Rodilla 

Burgos 

Tarda j os 

Hornillos 
del Camino 

Ontanas 

Castro- 

geriz 

Boadilla 

del 

Camino 

Fromista 

Poblaci6n 
de Campo 
Carri6n 
Cueza 

Sahagun 
Bercianos 



6o4 WAY OF S. JAMES 



Reliegos 
Mansillade 
las Mulas 

San Miguel 
del Camino 
Robledo de 
Valdoncina 
Puente 
de Orbigo 
Astorga 
Santa 
Catalina 

Ravanal 

Villanueva 

Molina 
Seca 

Otero 

Ponferrada 



Pieros 

Villafranca 
del Vierzo 

(o 

Between 

Linaresand 

Padornelo 

Triacas- 

tela 

Puerto 
Marin 

del Camino 
or Samos 



Peligoux i 1. R. 

La Moucelle ii 1. 

Lyon d'Espaigne, ou Leon, v. ch..iij 1. g. 

Sainct Miphel iij 1. 

Fontaignes ii 1. R. 

Le pont de Laigue ii 1. 

Estorgues i 1. 

L 'hospital saincte Catherine iij 1. g. 

Ranoeil ii 1. 

Villeneuve iiij 1. R. 

Molins ii 1. 

Caux i 1. 

Pont ferrat i 1. g. 

Fin d'Espaigne, entree du pays de 
Galice, bons vins. 

Pavies iiij 1. 

Villefranque ii 1. R. 

Finiterre, que Ion dist estre en la fin 

de l'Europe ii 1. 

L 'hospital de la comtesse ii L g. 

Tricastel iij 1. 

Ville Misere iiij 1. 

Pont marin iiij 1. 

Sainct Jame le viel iij 1. g. 

Sainct Julian i 1. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



Chauleurier iij 1. R. 

Arse touse, dicte Villeneuve iij 1. 

Ville bruslee ii 1. 

Ville rouge iij 1. g- 

La saincte Montjoye, qui est haut mon- 
taigne en rocher. 

Compostelle, v. ch i 1. R. 

From Bonnault d'Houfet, PUerinage d'un 
Paysan Picard, pp. 175-183. 

vi. Pilgrims' Guide. From Chansons 

DESPELER1NS DE S. J A CQUES, CheMIN 

de Paris A S. Jacques le Grand 

De Paris au Bourg-la-Reine.. . .une lieue. 

Longjumeau 3 

Monthlery 2 

Caste* 2 

Mortevelle 2 

Amerville le gate 3 

Tournai 3 

Arenzy 2 

Languette 4 

Sarcotte 2 

Orleans 3 

Notre-Dame de Cleri 4 

Saint Laurent-des-Faux 6 

Blois 8 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



60s 



Itineraries 

VI 



Arztia 



Monte de 
SanMarcos 



1718 



Monner- 
ville 

Anger ville 

Thoury 

Artenay 

Langen- 
nerie 

Cercottes 



St. Laurent 
des Baux 



606 WAY OF S. JAMES 



Chaumont 
Montlouis 
Tours 
Montbazon 

Ingrande 

LaTri- 
cherie 

Chenay 



Escoyeux 

Saintes 

Plassac 

Miram- 
beau 

Etauliers 



L'Hospita- 
lot just be- 
fore Beliet 
Cne de 
Mons 
Le Muret 

Lapostey 

LaBouliere 



Clermont 8 

Monthleri 5 

Tours-aux-Chateaux 1 

Montezo 6 

Ste. Catherine de Fierebois 7 

Algrade 2 

Chatellerault 2 

La Trenerie 8 

Poitiers 3 

Lusignan 4 

Le Cheval 4 

Melle 4 

La Ville Dieu 3 

Escournua 3 

S. Eutroupe de Vanines 5 

Plassat 4 

Mytuban 2 

Toclier 5 

Blaye 1 

De Blaye on passe la Garonne 
7 lieues pour aller a Bor- 
deaux. 
De Bordeaux au petit Bordeaux 2 lieues. 

L'Hdpital 3I. 

La Tricherie 2 1. 

Le Meret 2 1. 

Le Ponter 2 1. 

L'Herbe fan£e 2 1. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



607 



L'H6pitaldeS. Antoine 3 1. 

Notez qu'a TEperon, qui veut tirer a 
Navarre, faut prendre a main gauche, 
et passer la Biscaye. 

DTEperonaOrly 2lieues. 

Matique 2 1. 

Saint Vincent 1 1. 

Hongres 3 1. 

Bayonne 3 1. 

Saint Jean de Luz 3 1. 

Sainte Marie deHuran 2 1. 

Ici est la fin du Royaume de France. 
De sainte Marie de Huran a 

Handem 1 lieue. 

Villeneuve 2 

Toulouzette 2 

Villefranque 3 

Fegnat 4 

Le Mont saint Adrien 2 

Desidodum a Salvaterie 2 

Victoire 3 

Peuple 3 

Marailde 4 3 

Pencorbe 3 

Saint Dominique 3 

Castille 2 

Monasterie 2 

Burges 5 



Chapel le 
S. Antoine 

Orliac 

grangenear 

Castets 

Magesc 

de Tirosse 

Ondres 



Irtin 



Andoain 

Villabona 

Tolosa 

Villafranca 

Segura 

Zalduendo 

to 

Salvatierra 

Vitoria 
La Puebla 
Miranda 
Pancorbo 

S.Domingo 

Castil 
de Peones 

Rodilla 
Burgos 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



6o8 



Tarda j os 
Hornillos 
del Catnino 
Ontanas 

Castro- 
jeriz 

Pr6mi8ta 



Revenga 

Poblaci6n 
de Campo 

Carrion 
Cueza 
Sahagun 
Bercianos 
El Burgo 

Reliegos 

Mansillade 
las Mulas 



Robledo de 
Valdoncina 

Astorga 



Ravanal 

Villanueva 

Ponferrada 

Villafranca 

Piedrafita 

Triacastela 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Tartadur 2 1. 

Sarville 81. 

Fontaine 2 1. 

Quatre-Souris. 2 1. 

Panterose 2 1. 

Mamnade 2 1. 

La Ravoquerie 3 1. 

Population 4 1. 

Curion 2 1. 

Curandille 2 1. 

Saint Lupens 9 1. 

Brisance 3 1. 

Burgos 2 1. 

Pericoc 5 1. 

La Moc 2 1. 

Leon .4I. 

De Leon a saint Michel 2 1. 

Fontaines 2 1. 

Le Pont de Laines 2 1. 

Essorgues 2 1. 

L'Hdpital de Ste. Catherine. . . 5 1. 

Du Reveil 3 1. 

Villeneuve 3 1. 

Pont-Salvat 3 1. 

Villefranque 3 1. 

Fumeterre 2 1. 

L'Hdpital de la Comtesse 2 1. 

Triscatte 3 1. 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



Villeneuve 4 1. 

Pont sainte-Marie 4 1. 

Saint Lomme le Vieil 2 1. 

Saint Julien 1 1. 

Gablevier 2 1. 

Alserance, dit la Villeneuve.. . . 2 1. 

Ville bruise 3 1. 

Ville-rouge 3 1. 

Sainte Mont-joie 5 1. 

De Paris a S. Jacques 340 1. 

A Saint Salvateur en Espaignc 

Voyage singulier, duquel Ton diet, qui 
a este* a sainct Jaques, et n'a este* a 
sainct Salvateur, a visite* le serviteur, 
et a laisse* le seigneur. 

Lyon, ou Laon, en Espaigne, au chemin 
de Sainct Jaques cy dessus. 

La pola de Gordonne vj 1. 

Boicia i 1. R. 

Le mont saincte Marie iiij 1. g. 

Cette montaigne est en partie de roche- 
creuse par dedans, et y va Ton plus de 
deux lieues en long et leans on trouve 
force fleuves qui traversent. 

La paille i 1. 

Le pont de les sieres ii 1. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 




sarna 

Puerto 

Marin 

San Julian 
del Camino 

Arzua 



Monte de 
SanMarcos 



La Voyza 
de Gordon 
Santa 
Maria 
de Arvas 



Pajares 
Puentes 



6io 



Itineraries 

VII 



1798 



Only one 
given here 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Oviedo vj 1. 

En cette ville est l'Eglise de sainct 
Salvateur, od y a de la Couronne 
d'Espines, du Laict nostre Dame, de 
la peau sainct Barthelemy, et plusi- 
eurs autres saincts Reliquaires. 
From Bonnault d'Houet, PUerinage d'un 
Paysan Picard, pp. 185-188, 183. 

vii. Itinerario Espanol, o Guia db Cam- 
inos, Para ir Desde Madrid A Todas 

LAS ClUDADES Y VlLLAS MAS PrINCIPALES 

de Espana, y Para ir de unas Ciudades 
A Otras, y A Algunas Cortes db la 
Europa. Anadido y Corregido en 
Esta Quinta Impresion. Con Licen- 
cia : en Alcal A : mdccxcviii. En la Im- 
prenta de d. isedro lopez. dondb sb 
HallarA, y en Madrid en su LibrerU 
Calle de la Cruz Num. 3 

MADRID PARA SANTIAGO de Galicia, 
Finibus-Terre, Astorga, y Orense por dos 
Caminos; y para Pontevedra, y otras Villas. 

Camino de Ruedas hasta Villafranca. 

Se ha de guiar por el Cam. de Castilla 

que esta al fol. 53 hasta llegar & 
Tordesillas, leg 32 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



R. Duero. Pte 2 

La Vega de Valde-Troncos 1 

La Mota del Marques 1 

38 Villar de Frades 2 

Vta. de Almaraz 1 

42 Villalpando 3 

Cerecinos 1 

La Puente de Castro Gonzalo,/?. Esla 2 

46 Benavente 1 

Villabrazaro 1 

Puente Lavizana 2 

La Nona 1 

S. Juan de Torres 1 

R. y Puente de Orbigo 

52 La Bafteza 1 

54 Los Palacios de Valduerno 2 

La Venta del Monte de la Matanza 2 

San Martin del Valle 2 

Pedredo, Rio Juta 1 m 

E. Ravanel 

Fuen-Cevadon 1 m 

Manjarin 

El Acevo 

Riego del Camino. 

Molina Seca 

R. Boesa, Puente. 

68 Ponf errada 2 

Cacabelos, R. P 1 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



611 



Bridge 
castle 



Bridge hill 



Here the 
Passage 
Honour- 
able 



Magpies 

there 



Bridge 



6l2 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Bridge 



green 
pastures 

3,450 feet 



slept here 
coal mine 



No good 
shelter 

good folk 
Bridge 



good wine 



Campo de Narraya 

72 Villafranca de el Bierzo, R. P.. 

Pereje 

Travadelos 

Ambas Mestas 

Herrerias de Valcarze 

Comienza el Reyno de Galicia. 

La Faya 

78 Villa, y Puerto del Cebrero. . . . 

Linares 

Padornelo 

81 Fonfria 

Pasantes 

Triacastela 

San Fiz 

Laya 

Sarria 

Villacha 

93 Puerto Marin 

Rio Miflo, Puente. 

Tejebon 

Gonzar 

Ligonde 

Palas de Rey 

Puente de Campafta 



m 



m 
m 

m 



m 
m 



Bridge Rio Ulla, Puente. 

evil folk Leboreiro 



I 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



Turetos m 

R. Ameca, Puente. 

Mellide i 

Arzua 3 

Rio Sar, Puente. 

Dos Casas 2 

San Marcos 1 

106 Santiago 1 

Puente de Mafeda 3 

Segua 3 

Las Barreras 1 

Mon-Jesus 2 

Puente de Albarados 2 

Villa de Sese" 3 

122 Finibus Terre 2 

PAMPLONA para Burgos. 

Camino Frances de Ruedas. 

La Venta del Perdon 2 

La Puente de la Reyna 2 

7 Estela 3 

Los Arcos 3 

13 Viana 3 

14 Logrono 1 

Rio Ebro, Pte. 

Navarrete 2 

18 m Nagera 2 

Rio Nagera, Pte. 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



613 



Bridge 



cattle-fair 
Bridge 

Mount joy 
The Shrine 



The 

World's 

End 



good 
shelter 

Bridge 



Bridge 



614 



WAY OF S. JAMES 



Itineraries 

VII 

white fowls 
Bridge 



Bridge 



'Entrar de 
prisay salir 
corriendo" 



'Sans 
trains 
de luxe" 



Azofra i 

22 m Sto. Domingo % de la Calsada. . . 3 
Rio Glera, Pte. 

Grafi6n 1 

Redecilla 1 

Villambistia m 

Velorado, R. P 1 

Todos Santos 1 

Villafranca de Montes de Oca 1 

Zalduendo 3 

San Medel 3 

35 Burgos 1 

VITORIA para Bayona de Francia. 

Camino de Ruedas. 

Ulivari de Gamboa 3 

Salinas de Guipuzcoa 1 m 

Mondragon, R 2 

Oflate Puente 2 

Villa Real 2 m 

Villafranca 2 m 

Tolosa 3 

Hernani 3 

Oyarzun 2 

Iran 2 

S. Juan de Luz 2 m 

Vidarte 2 

30 Bayona 2 



HISPANIC NOTES 



i 



APPENDIX 



PAMPLONA para San Juan de Pie de 
Puerto, y Bayona de Francia. 

Camino de Ruedas. 

Villava y Ugarte i 

Zabaldica, y Iroz i m 

Anchoriz m 

Larrasoana i 

Urdanfz m 

Zubiri m 

Viscaret i 

Espinal i 

Burgete i 

1 1 Ronces Valles 3 

15 S. Juan de Pie de Puerto 4 

Mendiondo 4 

23 Bayona 4 

Qualquiera de estos Caminos de Bayona 
mirados al rev£s sirven para ir a 
Santiago de Galicia. 
De Pamplona a Burgos, de Burgos a 
Leon, de Leon a Astorga y a Santiago, 
f. 126, 128, 105, y 61. 

BURGOS para Leon. 

Camino Francis de Ruedas. 

Tardajos 2 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



615 



diligence 
stops 



omitted 
with regret 



616 WAY OF S. JAMES 



Itineraries 

VII 



Bridge 



Bridge 
the wood 
by the 
road side 



Bridgeover 
Ponna 



Rabe i 

Hornillos i 

Hontanas i 

Castro Xeriz i 

La Puente del R. Pisuerga 2 

Fromista 2 

Villa Martin 2 

Carrion, Rio Arion, Pte 2 

Calzadilla, Rio Cea 2 

Las Tiendas 1 

Ledigos. 1 

Morativos 2 m 

S. Nicolas m 

Sahagun, R. Esla 1 

Brecianos 2 

El Burgo 2 

Reliegos. . 2 

Mansilla 1 

Villarent 1 

32 Leon 2 

OVIEDO para Santiago. 

Camino de Herradura. 

La Puente de Gallegos 1 

Escamplero 1 

Atahoces, Pormono, y la Aspra 1 

Grado 1 



I 



HISPANIC NOTES 



APPENDIX 



617 



El Fresno y Doriga 1 

Cornelian, R. P 1 

Salas 1 

V. de la Espina 1 m 

La Pereda m 

Pedrejal m 

Tineo, y Gera 2 m 

Miraya, y la Venta de Arganza. ... m 

El Pueblo Retuerto, y Corias 1 m 

Cangas de Tineo m 

San Julian de Arbas 3 

ElBuron 2 

Castroverde 4 

27 Lugo 4 

Santa Eulalia 3 

Sobrado 4 

San Gregorio 4 

42 Santiago 4 



Bridge 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



618 WAY OF S. JAMES 



HISPANIC NOTES 



1 



B IB LIOGRAPH Y 



619 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



620 WAY OF S.JAMES 



HISPANIC NOTES 



~*1 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Aa, Pieter van der. Beschryving van 

Spanjen en Portugal. Leyden, 1707. 
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HISPANIC NOTES 



INDEX 



663 



INDEX 



AND MONOGRAPHS 



INDEX 



In order to save space, the names of authors and of places, with but 
few exceptions, appear in the Index only when in the text proper, — 
the Notes and the Appendix being conveniently disposed for those 
who are interested. 



Aa, Pieter van der, II-457 
Abdias, 1-56, 61 
Abderraman, 1-397, n-219 
Abgar (King), m-337, 343 
Abohalid, 11-123, 142 
Abn-Edhari, III-203, 336, 

34i 
Acci, IU-291 ; v. Guadix 

Accitani, III-294, 295 

Acuna, Luis de, 11-33, 35, 

36, 39, 43, 5i, 57 
Adad,m-307, 321, 322, 327, 

338, 348, 356;— axe, m- 

338 ;— cypress, m-328 ;— 

beardless, IH-333, 363 
Addai, m-336, 337 
Adon,I-58,59,6i 
JEneas Sylvius, II-38 
Africa, I-5, III-286, 302 
Agen (bishop of), I-147; 

diocese of, m-96 
Agreda, III-290 
Aguas Santas, S. Marina 

de, JI-364 
Aguilar, I- 105; del Campo, 

n-87 
Aix, DI-96 
Alarz6n, I-93 
Albelda, I-99, 364, 375, 

382, 397; Chronicle of 



( Chronicon A Ibeldensej , 

1-59, 397 
Albert (of Paris), I-43 

Albertus Magnus, I-43, II- 

89 
Albi, I-306, 403 
Albigensian, I-265 
Alcala, 1-359, ni-197 
Alcobia, I- 198 
Aleman, Rodrigo, II-248 
Alexandria, II-201 
Alfonso II (the Chaste), I- 

53, 59, ni-36, 67, 357; 

letter to Tours, IQ-482 
Alfonso m (the Great), I- 

98, n-97, 136, 294, 296, 

in-37, 42, 67, 380, 385, 

5i5 
Alfonso IV, II-124 

Alfonso V, II-187, 203 
Alfonso VI, I- 1 00, 103, 106, 
400, 411, 412, n-5, 29, 
60,99, 119, 125,128, 131, 
134, 144, 189, 206, 245, 
385, m-418; — friend of 
Cluny, II-220; wives, II- 
127, 189; death, II-206 
Alfonso VII,I-ioi, 315, 374, 
414,11-113, 135, 193,220, 
454; crowned, III-98, 102, 



664 



INDEX 



665 



Alfonso VIL- -Cont'd 

107, 118, 122, 126; char- 
acter, 133 

Alfonso Vm, I-iii, 147, 
332,400,415,11-8,10,19, 
29,113,136,145 

Alfonso IX, I-85, II-ioo, 
204, 226, 227, 231, 237, 

249,312, 359, 423 
Alfonso X (el Sabio), I-281, 

401, n-14, 73, 93, 167, 
246, m-250; Siete Parti- 
das, I- 1 05; Cantigas, I- 
281, n-13, 94, 95, 473, 
in-276, 516-525 
Alfonso XI, H-18,33 
Alfonso XIII y .III-i5, 30 
Alfonso of Aragon, (el Ba- 
tallador), I-67, 192-201, 
264, 291, 295, 306, 314, 
346, n-91, 99, r35, 294, 
in-30, 98-101, 106, 151, 
418 
Alfonso II of Aragon, II-91 
Al-Ghazal, I-97, m-43 
Ali-ben-Yussuf, I- 107 
Alkacer, I-110 
Allariz, 1-86 
Almaccari, I-98 
Almanzor, I-28, 59, 197, 
397,11-124, 125, 139, 142, 
180, 187, 205, 244, 296, 
370, m-43, 139, 203, 380 
Almaz&n, H-74, 495-6 
Alonso of Carthagena, I-15, 

437, n-33, 36, 37-8, 41 
Altamira, Rafael, I-20 
Alvarez, Manuel Anibal, II- 

76 
Alvaro de Luna, II-317, 

3i9 
Aly scamps, I-28, 74 



Amador de los Rios, II-38, 

50 
Ambrose of Milan, S., m- 

312, 365 

Ambulatory and chapels, I- 
12,216,284,11-33-4, 145, 
240, ni-49, 405; a face, 
n-58 

Amiens, I-n; II-58, 104, 
178,250,261 

Ammidab, chariot of, II- 1 1 5 

Anatolia, I- 170, 317, 322 

Ancestral ghosts, IH-21, 
232, 239, 251, 256; v. las 
dnimas 

Andalusia, I- 10, II- 122 

Andorra, IH-391 

Andre le Chapelain, m-267, 
272 

Andreo, Pedro, I-356 

Andres and Nicolas, Mas- 
ters, I-403, 418, II-298 

Andres de Najera, Master, 
I-418, 419-21, 426, 429; 
stalls, 417, 418; called 
Andres de S. Juan, I-418 

Andres de Soria, I-250 

Angers, III-394 

Angevine, II-20, 146 

Angouldme, II- 106, ni-62, 
442; bishop of, I- 1 47 

Angoumois, III-445 

Animas, las, IH-32, 235, 
272 ; offerings to, 232, 234; 
will wake you, 235 ; wan- 
dering, 236, 237; on pil- 
grimage, 242, 272 

d'Annunzio, Gabriel e, m- 
272 

An6nimo of Almeria, III- 
252, 361, 493; of Sahagun, 
II-126, 127, 204 



666 



INDEX 



Anseis of Carthage, 1-34, 

128, II-72, 290 
Ansur, II- 124, 164 
Anton Perez de Carridn, II- 

87 
Antonine Itinerary, 1-8 7 

Antoninus Martyr, HI-338 

Antwerp, I-403 

Apocalypse II-54, 104, III- 

72, 86, 265, 375, 389, 393, 

438. 445 „ 
Apocrypha, IH-250, 264; 

Acts of Apostles, 334; of 
Andrew and Matthew, 
250, 307. 343; of Philip, 
344-5, 354» 358 ; of Thom- 
as, 334; Protevangel of 
Tames, III-309; Apoca- 
lypse of Paul, ni-265, 

375, 549 
Apollo, III-282, 300, 301, 

363; v. Helios, sun-god 
Aponte, Vasco de, II-480, 

ni-185 
Apostles, ni-335, 340, 343- 

347; as twins, 343-4 
Apostolado, 1-353, H-53, 88, 

95,105,108,115,111,393, 

436. 446 

Apostolus Peregrinus, III- 

275 
Aquitaine, III-413; Aqui- 

tanians, I-297 
Arabs, I-5; style, II-36, 48 

learning, I-298, HI-271 
Arachas, IQ-330 
Aragon, I-7, 153, 345, 388, 

425,11-135, 155, 343, ni- 

99, 391, 443; Order of 
Holy Sepulchre in, I-315 
Aragon (kings of): Alfonso 
I, v. Alfonso el Batalla- 



dot; Garda ffiigxiez, I- 
IQ2; Peter I, I-182, 212, 
lfl-91; Peter II, U-204; 
Ramiro I, I-59, 96, 161, 
172, II-222; Ramiro II, 
el Monje, I-250, H-91, 
134; Sancho el Mayor, I- 
100, 181, 263, 269, 398, 
H-77, 133, 166, 295; San- 
cho Ramirez, I- 162, 193, 
211, 295, 326, 330; Mar- 
tin the Humane, I- 154 

Arconada, II-82 

Aristotle, I-5 

Aribau, L. Giner, II-283 

Ark,m-i76 

Arlanza, S. Pedro de, II- 
218; Abbot Peter of, II-3 1 

Arlanz6n, I-440, II-63 

Aries, I-320, 340, 343, H- 
190, m-101, 349, 384, 

390,444 
Armenia, I-i 13 ; Armenians, 

m-339, 368 

Armentfa, S. Andres de, II- 
201, ni-150, 386, 390, 
412, 413, 432, 43&-44J 
bishop Fortunio, HI-436 

Arnald of Barbazan, 1-270, 
276 

Arnao de Flandes, II-50, 52 

Arnaut del Monte, I-41, 45, 
m-228 

Arriaga, IQ-327 

Arras, I-99 

Artajona, I-377, n-107 

Artois, I-239 

Arzua, 11-479, 480, 482; 
Santiago de, 485; cattle- 
mart, 487 

Ashburnham (Pentateuch), 
I-28 1 



INDEX 



667 



Asia Minor, I-3, 4, 10, 287, 
322, H-183, m-387 

Assisi, 1-403, m-164, 165, 
167, 168 

Astorga, I-15, 32, 35, 36, 98, 
411, n-42, 237, 262, 288, 
291, 292, 293-303, 304, 
312, 314, 315, 330, 344, 
362, HI-98, 407, 410; 
walls, II-300; Roman, II- 
293, 300, III-310; history, 
II-294-9; cathedral, 297; 
stalls, II-297-298; French 
canon, II-298; S. Fran- 
cisco, 301 ; S. Julian, 301 ; 
Conventus Asturum, HI- 
287; bishop, II-314; bis- 
hops Ferdinand, 11-137, 
Ordofio, 217, Tovar, 299, 
Lope, 305, Amadeus, 309, 
Osmund, 358, 364, 366; 
mountains of, II-39 

Asturias, 1-8, 82, II-78, 152, 
309,457,471,10-42,232, 
237, 241 ; Asturian, I-163, 
182, II-180, 408; type, 
m*39» 67; romance, II- 
242; folk-lore, m-247 

Ataecina, m-295, 297, 303, 
485; cult-epithet Libera, 

III-303 
Atapuerca, I-400; HI- 100 

Atares, Pedro, I-177 

Atargatis, m-307, 321, 347, 
348, 356, 357; Hons, 329, 
354; v. Syrian Goddess 

Atlantic, II-383, m-9, 191, 
218 

Athys, ni-311, 314. 315, 

5io 
Auch, m-108; diocese, 96; 

archbishop of, I-264 



Augsburg, II-58 
Augustus, I-289, III-289; 

Soter, 308; cult of, 304, 

308 
Augustinian order, I- 146, 

H-215; canons regular, I- 

263, 436; at Astorga, II- 

298 
Aulnay, I-188, 190, 303, II- 

35, 189, 431, 432, 459, 

476, m-409, 413, 445, 

487 
d'Aulnoy, Madame, n-64 
Aurillac, II-394 
Autun, I-228, II-62, 70, 106, 

m-397; Honorius of, II- 

"5 
Auvergne, I-161, 168, II- 

199,456,0-381,382 

Auxerre, I-215, II-241 

Avignon, I- 17, II-73, m- 

329; bridge of, I- 1 01 

Avila, I-14, 15, 164, 356, II- 

273, m-382, 397; bishop 

of, m-57; glass, n-52; 

S. Vicente of, I-14, 164, 

225, III-70 ; copied Autun, 

m-397; Avallon, 397; 

Vezelay, ni-397; narthex, 

EI-397 
axe, Adad's, m-338; Mi- 

noan double — , fll-290 
Aybar, I-237; Dona Caya, 

I-398 
Aymerico de Anteiaco, I- 

65 
Aymery Picaud, I- 19, 21, 43, 

64, 73, 76, 79, n-491; 
cited, I-101, 146,203, 228, 
329, n-71, 184, 220, 282, 

310, 365, 386, 426, ra- 

5ii 57, 58, 116, 14*, l6 3, 



668 



INDEX 



Aymeiy Picaud — Cont'd 
248, 249, 349, 366, 396, 
512, 528, 531 

Aymeiy the Chancellor, I- 

65,68 

Back-wash, I-7, II- 108, 258, 

ni-379 

Baalbek, m-330, 337, 347. 
351. 364, 367; v. Heliopo- 
lis 

Babylonia, m-307, 349 

Badajoz,II-226; Juan de, I- 
16, II-248, 249, 270; at S. 
Isidore, 248; S. Zoyl, 248; 
Rodrigo de, IQ-406 

Baeza, battle of, I-54, II- 
221, 222 

Bale, Council of, I-i 5, H-36 

Baleaiic Isles, IH-360; Port 
Mahon, III-314; v. Ma- 
ttered 

Bamberg, III-2 1 4 

Banda, Baflos de, 1-8 7 

Barbadelo, II- 192, 412, 426, 
m-413; Santiago de, II- 
416, 460; cats at, II-430 

Barbastro, I-425 

Barbarossa, III- 192 

Barcelona, I- 123, 296, 298, 
n-201; pilgrim from, I- 
I3i» 367, fil-512; Muse- 
um, III- 149; cathedral 
of S. Eulalia, III-163; S. 
Cugat, m-346 

Ban, I-302, 322, m-387, 
304; Terra di Ban, I-322 

Barletta, S. Sepulcre, III- 
70 

Basque, I-73, II- 156, III- 

505 
Bastiani, Lazzaro, III-80 



Battle of Lake Regillus, m- 

284 
Bayeuz, n-277 
Bayonne, I-83, 200, 271, 

284, n-240, 259, HI-96, 

108, 429 
Beatrice of Suabia, II-31, 

55, 257 
Beaulieu, I-228, 242 
Beaumetz, Jean de, I- 16 
Beaumont, D. Juan de, I- 

300 
Beckford, II-170 
Bede, the Venerable, I-41, 
45; Penitentials, I- 120; 
Commentary on Can- 
ticles, II-i 15 
Bedier, I-29-31, 36, 37, 70, 

358 
Bedous, I-141 

Bees, I-437-8, n-230, m- 

238-9, 240, 281 
Beleth (master), I-48 
Belfort, II-297 
Belgium, HI-425 
Belfn, I-28, 32, 75 
Bell, G. Lowthian, I-322 
Bell-founder, HI- 140 
Belorado, II-99 
Bembibre, I-87 
Benavente, II-311; counts 

of, n-100, 324, 325, 338, 

359 
Benedetto Antelami, I-320, 

ni-386, 392, 395 

Benedictine, I- 1 08, 147, 2 1 1 , 

II-394, 417; foundation, 

H-77, 131, 355, HI-37, 
211; style, I-169, II-105, 

43i,m-4io 

Benevfvere, I-353, II- 105, 

112, 498, DI-408, 410 



INDEX 



669 



Benjamin of Tudela, III- 

172,329,331,364 
Berdun, I-203 

Berenguel (archbishop), I- 

65,66 
Berenguela (queen), I- 195, 

H-12, 31, 223, 249, 257, 

261 
Bermudez, Cean, I-223, 

249, 415, 418, 423, 424, 

435, H-33, 39 
Bernard of Angers, I-39 

Bernard the Elder, EB-45, 

51 

Bernard, Archbishop of To- 
ledo, I-108, II-ioo, 119, 
126, 129, 220, 237, m-91, 
107, 118, 119 

Bernard the Younger (treas- 
urer), HI-45, 116, 127, 

130 

Bernardette, 1-23, II-219 

Bernardo del Carpio, I- 128, 
H-60, 70, 124, 210, 291 

Berruguete, I- 157, 420, 421 

Berry, duke of, I-16; es- 
tates in, II-253 

Bertauz, I-n, 14, 271, 273, 
279,282,313,11-192,202; 
disputed, I-230 

Betanzos, I-50, 87, 347, II- 
472, III-34, 401 ; S. Maria 
de Azogue in, III-404 

Beyreut, ni-332, 337, 338, 

34i, 343, 357 
Beziers, I- 147 
Biscay, II-155, m-307 
Bitonto, I-322 
Bivar, II-62 
Black Prince, I-297, 381, 

382, 389, 390, m-41 8, 578 
Black sea, 1-245, III-416 



Blanche of Castile, I-195, 

II-12, 257, 261 
Blaye,I-2i, 28, 38, 75, 240, 

m-417, 428 
Blazquez, 1-88 
Boente, II-480 
Bony, Guillermo, I-213 
Bohemia, I-147; coin of, I- 

85 
Bojardo, ni-272 

Bollandists, II-218, IQ-503 

Bologna, 1-298, HI- 196 

Bonfons, Nicholas, n-282, 

in-592 

Bonnault d'Hoiiet, 1-8 1 

Book of S. James, I-29, 39, 
41-46, 60, n-454, m-47, 
228 

Book of the Miracles of S. 
Faith, I-39, 99 

Book of the Miracles of S. 
Isidore, II-223 

Books borrowed, I-401 ; re- 
ceived, DI-141-2 

Boorde, Andrew, II- 154 

Borassa, IH-346 

Bordeaux, I-28, 37, 73, 75, 
109, 164, 240, 284, II- 
192, 293, 431, ni-326, 
443 ; archbishop of, I- 147 ; 
cathedral, II-256, III-62; 
S. Seurin, I-75, 164, II- 
108, 255, 258, m-402, 
428; S. Croix, II-476, m- 
79; S. Michel, m-423 

Borgo S. Donnino, I-322, 
in-388, 390, 395, 440 

Borgofia, Juan de, II-48; 
Felipe de,v. Vigamy 

Borja, I-3 1 5, III-289 

Bosco R. Velasquez* n-i 4 5, 
190 



670 



INDEX 



Bota Fumeiro, ni-25, 26 

Bourges, I-243, 377, 11-241, 
253, 376 

Braga, I-108, 11-254, 293, 
IH-91, 03, 108, 113, 118; 
archbishop, III- 1 14 ; coun- 
cil, 232; conventus Bra- 
carensis, HI-287 

Braisne, S. Yved, II-34, m- 

433 
Brehier, m-326 

Breton, II- 1 2 7 ; church, 214; 

knights, 147, 297; coast, 

m-246, 272; fishermen, 

m-272, 273, 274 
Brick architecture, II- 1 19 
Bridge of Dread, m-259, 

264, 265, 271, 276, 280, 

558 
Brou (church of), II- 115, 

m-434 

Bruges, I-i 19, 296, 332, III- 

Brunette Latini, HJ-449 
Bull as totem, ni-323; on 

coins, 288-292, 309, 324; 

Apis, 292; b. god, 297, 

322, 323, 347. 354, 36i, 
364, 488; at Heliopolis, 
32 1 ; worshipped in Spain, 

324, 364 
Buonafede, II-378, HI- 194, 

210,212 

Burchard of Mount Sion, 

m-330, 333, 3^>, 364 
Burgos, I-32, 78, 83, 99, 124, 

332, n-3-70, 29, 61, 98, 

166, 243, 246, m-99, 416; 

cathedral, I-242, 284, 285, 

367, n-32-59, 34, 107, 

238, 242, m-402, 407, 

416; doors, west, II-37, 



55; north, 52; south, 
54; pellejerfa, 43, 57; 
chapel of visitation, 37- 
40, 51; Presentation, 40; 
Conception, 41, 52, 57; 
constable, 163; chapter, 
15; maestrescuela, 429; 
architect, 47; bishop, 13, 
16, 43; Maurice, 13, 30, 
31, 33, 54, 274; glaziers, 
50-52; figure-sculpture, 
52-59; Hospital del Rey, 
7, 26, 416; Las Huelgas, 
10-28; capitals, 30; S. 
Maria la Blanca, I-80; 
S. Gadea, II- 128; Augus- 
tinian Council of B., II- 
64, 132; workmen of, I- 
419, II-298; BurgaJese 
sculpture, 1-419, 424; 
men, 419, 420, IJ-42, 43, 
300; Andres de Ndjera, 
I-420 

Burgundy, II-135, m-349; 
style of, I-15, 278, II- 
438, m-45, 69, 380, 397, 
410, 411; narthex, £Q- 
69-70, 397; workman of, 
I-419, II-150, 238; duke 
of, I-16, no; Burgun- 
dians, I-295, II-127, 130 

Butler, H. C. (his Mission), 
I-io 

Butler, Pierce, I-446 

Byblus,ni-33i, 332 

Byron, I-33, 407, III-429 

Byzance, I-4, II-200, m- 
332, 367 ; workman from, 
III-398; v. also Constan- 
tinople 

Byzantine, influence, I- 170, 
340, n-191, 375; style, 



INDEX 



671 



Byzantine — Cont 'd 

136, 202, m-147, 149, 
384, 389, 444; art, II- 
I 9 I » 376; mosaics, 477, 
16-384, 442; tradition, 
II-263; use, 227, III- 
172 

Cabrera, 1-86 

Cacabelos, II-361, 366, III- 

93, 304, 328 

Caceres, province, III-314 

Cacubelos, IH-304 

Caesarea, HI-333 

Cahors, I-241, 265, II- 106, 
199, m-62, 96 

Cairo, II- 182 

Calahorra,I-397, 399,11-1 81 , 
190, 234, m-37; bishop, 
I-414, n-16, m-432, 433; 
coins, m-288, 292; twins, 
II-190, III-299, 304 

Calataflazor, I-397 

Calatayud, I-198, 319, m- 
289; Order of S. Sepul- 
chre, 1-3 1 5-3 1 7 

Caldas de Reyes, m-276, 
287, 299, 469, 481 

Caldas de Vizella, m-298 

Calderon, m-263 

Camarinas, 1-88, III-216; 
ria de C, m-207 

Cambrai, I-119 

Cambre, S. Maria de, III- 
408 

Camerino, ni-283 

Camino de Santiago, I-21, 
138, 285, 295, n-309, ra- 
3, 241, 319, 378; shooting 
star, m-241 

Camino frances, I-22, 32, 

39r 85, 105, 266, 361, n- 



310, 320, 341, 414, ra- 
il, 414, 426 

Camino real, II-388, 465; 

king's highway, I-90, II- 

168, 388 
Campo (the), I-73 
Campomanes, II-85, 433 
Candes, II-21, 108, 498 
Candlemas, III-242, 269, 

297 
Canfranc, 1-144, 147, 192 
Cantabria, I-397; Canta 

brian hills, 1-88, II-179; 

C. sea, I-84 
Cantar de Garci Fernandez, 

I-128 
Canterbury ,1-95; S.Thomas 

of, 1-119,11-299 
Car of Ezekiel, II- 1 15, 498 
Carballido, E. A., II-477 
Carboeiro, II-458, 111-382, 

401, 408, 411 
Cardena, II-131 ; Abbot Pe- 
ter, m-88 

Carderera, I-424, II-91, 116 
Carmona, III-320 
Carolingian, I-9, 214, 281, 

n-54, 191 
Carracedo, II-305, 350, 360 
Carrion (river) , II-7 1 , 83, 1 1 3 
Carrion of the Counts, I- 
32, 34, 88, 320, 353, n- 
62, 81, 82, 94, 96-101, 
166, 361, III-99, 100, 10 1, 
213, 265, 281, 386, 393, 
414, 445; councils of C, 
II- 1 00, 362 ; Hospital , 1 02 ; 
Santiago, 102; S. Maria 
del Camino, 101, 105, 
108, III-412; S. Zoyl, n- 
78, 105, 248, m-106, 302, 
393, 408, 409 



672 



INDEX 



1 



Cartagena, III-320 
Casanova, F., lfi-374 
Cascante, 1-414, 415, III- 

438 
Cascante, Rodrigo, II-234, 

ni-289 
Castafiola, 1-79, II-482 
Castile, II-85, 96, 98, 155, 
176; old county of, 1-8; 
Count Garcia of, II-207- 
214; confines of, I-368; 
two C, I-16, 42, 98; Old 
C, III-297; style of, II- 
105; Kings of — Henry I, 
13, m-188; Juan I, II-16; 
Juan II, fi-317; Sancho 
Ord6fiez, II-83; Sancho 
V el Deseado, I-400, 436, 

n-385 , 
Castillo, D. Angel del, I-78, 

II-396, 422, III-472 
Castillo de Onfs (S. Pau), 

n-430 
Castle-church, 111-190, 191, 

404 
Castor, m-179, 299, 488; 

and Pollux, EQ-284, 298; 

v. also Dioscuri 
Castrelo, II-308, IH-113, 

251 
Castro de los Judfos, I-72 

Castrojeriz, I-36, 363, II- 
71, 75, 98, IH-ioi, 106; 
church, II-72 , ni-4 1 2 ; 
miracles, II-73-75 

Castro, Rosalia de, II-452 

Castrum Saracenum, II-386 

Catacombs, IQ-80 

Catalan art, III- 149, 346; 
architecture, I-347; fron- 
tier, 208; Catalans, II- 
333, 336, 337 



Catalonia, 1-8, 13, 16, 198, 
339, HI-391; order of S. 
Sepulchre in, I-3 15 

Catholic Kings (Ferdinand 
and Isabel), I- 168, 331, 
II-16, 101, 116, 151, 183, 

34?, 359, 395, 454, HI- 

315; Ferdinand, n-3, 100; 

Isabel, I-436-7 
Cats, n-430, 431, 433-4 
Caumont, Chevalier de, I- 

79, m-576 
Caxton (Golden Legend), 

1-47, 378, 446-7; Life 
of Charlemagne, II- 

117 
Cea,I-28, 134, 399, n-117, 

122, 135, 365 

Cebrero, II-388, 390-5 ; mir- 
acle, 392 

Cebrian, Peter, H-245, 249, 

253, 254 
Celadilla, II-289 

Celanova, 1-318,434,11-453, 
III-43, 113,211 

Celtiberian horseman, v. 
Iberian; coins, 11-234, 
IQ-288-9, 298; religion, 
294-8 

Celtic character, m-280; 
cults, 297; Esus-Mercury, 
320,488; Proserpine, 269, 
295; Mothers, 314; ele- 
ments, m-80, 234, 241, 
268, 269, 272, 280 

Cerratense (Martin), Ht- 
229; Cerro de los Santos, 
m-324 

Chaise-Dieu, II-5 

Chalons, I-392 

Champagne, I-239, 249, 278, 
ni-434 



INDEX 



673 



Chanson de Roland, 1-25, 
31, 33, 261, 322, n-130, 

m-335, 451 

Chansons de Gestes, 1-31, 
128, 358-9, 382 

Chansons des Pelerins, I- 
82, H-186, III-262, 263, 
272; Grande Ch., I-91, 
III-532 

Chantier, I-13, 21, 39, 178, 
187, 356, n-42, 49, 103, 
104, 253, ni-47, 379-85, 
432 

Chapbook of Abbot John, 
II-370; of the chemin de 
S. Jacques, I-80, IH-582 

Charite'-sur-Loire, la, I-24 1 , 
II-498 

Charlemagne, 1-23,26-9, 3 1 , 
95,128,146,196,261,392, 
tI-60, 117, ni-417, 450, 
451; Saint C, I-39; capi- 
tulary of, I- 1 20 

Charles V, I-367, 423, II-29, 
44, 67; the Bad, I-277, 

278, 333, 353; the Noble, 
I-249, 250, 270, 271, 275, 

305, 333, 334, 336; his 
tomb, 301 
Chartres, I-15, 39, 242, 244, 
374, n-58, 177, 178, 269, 
ni-67, 70, 84, 195, 217, 
382, 385, 389, 390, 395, 
39 6 » 397; school of, I- 
236, 320, n-106, m-85, 
385, 397; windows, 1-38, 
11-241, 252, 376; rood 
screen, I-235; porches, 
II-253, 264, 269; S. 
George, 256; pride, 270; 
S. Pere de C, I-i 10; dean 
of, 1-337; Jean de, I-i 18 



Chaucer, I-95, 400, II-8, 

132, 407 

Chaves, I-87, n-180 

Chemin de S. Jacques, II- 
106; v. Way of S. James 

Chevet, III- 171, 449 

Chickens, white, I- 1 30, 430, 
n-50, in-578 

Chrestien de Troyes, HI- 
267, 272 

Christina of Norway, I- 116, 
n-89 

Chronicle of Albelda, I-59, 
II-123; of archbishop Be- 
rengual, I-65; of Luke of 
Tuy, II-224; of Pelayo, I- 
1 00, II-2 1 7 ; of archbishop 
Roderick, II-7, 31, 222; 
of Sebastian, I-59; of Tur- 
pin, I-26, 31, 34, 45, 60, 
67, 70, Coronica general, 
II-98, 219, 224, 227, 229, 
291, 294 

Chthonian aspects, m-230, 
236, 249, 297, 298, 301, 
304, 488; Etruscan Hades, 
298; ch. twin, 346 

Church and Synagogue, I- 
272, 280, II-267 

Cid, I- 1 06, 154, 200, II-62, 
63, 129, 205, m-283, 418 

Cira, ni-114 

Cirauqui, I-324, II-473 

Cisneros, I-207, 306, 334 

Cistercians, I- 1 47, 213, 238; 
style, I-292, 363, III-407, 
409, 411, 414; rule, II- 
19; abbot William, II- 1 1 ; 
abbot Guy, II- 11 

Ciudad Rodrigo, I-54, II- 
225; bishop, II-137 

Cividale, III-415 



674 



INDEX 



Civray, II-145, 375, ni-445 
Claudel, Paul, I-54 
Clavijo, I-53, 9$, II-222, 

ni-37, 301 
Clermont, Council of, III- 

97, 107 

Clermont-Ferrand, 11-241, 
m-413,448 

Cloak (magic), n-97,111-339 

Cluny, m-88, 95, 96, 130; 
power of, H-118, 126, 
136, 218; in Spain, II- 
132, 237, m-89, 91, 133, 
410; sent knights, II- 130; 
sent monks, I-211, 402, 
n-97, 126, 144, 215, 218, 
369, III-94; rule of, I-181, 
263/359; customs of, II- 
1 26, 2 1 5 , III-94 ; church of, 
n-142, 145, 253, m-45; 
Hugh of, II-126, 133, 
IH-96, 97; Marcellinus, 
II-126; Pons, 111-97, 108; 
Stephen, III-112 

Cnidos, m-296 

Coca, m-281 

Cock, Enrique, 1-371, II- 5, 
9, 63, 83 

Codex Calixtinus (the MS.)* 
I-29, 38, 39, 4i, 64, 70; 
date, 66-68 

Coffin shaped, I-48, II-394, 
474, III-204 

Coimbra, m-118, 192 

Collis Paradisi Amoenitas, 
m-165 

Cologne, I-15, 37, 392, II- 

25,36 
Colonia, II-43; Hans de, I- 
16, n-35, 36, 41; Simon, 
II-41, 42, 59; Francisco 
de, I-15, II-42, 48, 298 



Comacine masters, I-238 
Comminges (S. Bertrand 

de), I-246, m-444 
Como (S. Abbondio de), m- 

39i 
Compiegne, I-117, 119, IH- 

422 

Compostella, 1-13, 24, 27, 

86, 93, 94, "3, 136, 
212, 228, 336, n-36, 155, 
301, 462, 472, 486, HE- 
488; town, III-17-22, 25, 
35, 196; townsfolk, III- 
102-3, 131; fueros, 113; 
tariff, 131; customs, 225, 
235, 242; hospital, 212; 
S. Domingo, II-492; S. 
Jer6nimo, IH-402, 406; 
Porta Francigena; II- 
492 ; Antealtares, I-62, 

m-49, 92, 105, 318, 
S. Martin, III- 104, 478; 
a castrum, 192; council 
of, 120; C. and Oviedo, 
II-237; C, Rome and 

Ephesus, ni-345, 357; C, 
Rome and Jerusalem, I- 
72, 447; Compostellan 
school, H-459, III-68-69 ; 
C. style, II-105, 458, 474, 
III-85, 401-3; v. also 
Santiaguese; Mother and 
son at, m-315; Syrian 
triad at, 357 

Confraternities of pilgrims, 
m-419-423; Paris, 419; 
Compiegne, 422 ; Mois- 
sac, 423; Bordeaux, 423 

Conques, I-39, 75, II-106, 
192, 255, 430, m-46, 60, 
61, 91, 381, 413, 447; 
statue of S. Faith, HI- 



INDEX 



675 



Conques — Cont 'd 

144, 151; abbot Odalric, 
46 

Constance (daughter of Al- 
fonso VIII), I-iii; of 
Peter I, HI- 188; queen of 
Alfonso VI, II-127, 129, 
133, 137; of Louis VII, 
I-111-112 

Constantine, ni-309, 349 

Constantinople, I-4, 8, 246, 
II-31, 199; S. Sophia, III- 
164, 168; Blachernes, III- 
172; knot at, III-415 

Copin, II-248 

Coptic, I-9, II-182; Copts, 
III-203 

Corcubi6n, III-2 13,218 

Cordova, I-33, n-97, 123, 
137, 141, 150, 228, 232, 
m-279, 379 

Corinde, D. Jose*, I-121 

Corull6n, n-371, 373, 379, 
III-223, 402; figs, H-379 

Corunna, I-63, 1 10, 347, II- 
359, 372, 388, 425, 451, 

462, 491, ni-7, 166, 186, 
225, 235, 242, 287, 401 

Corufla del Conde, III-290, 

314 
Coryat, n-348 

Costig, III-324 

Count Julian, I-35; Luca- 
nor, II-230; counts of 
Benavente, Castile, Gali- 
cia, Gormaz, Lemos, v. 
these 

Courajod, I-3, 136, 214, III- 

415 
Coutances, II-270 

Covadonga, I-177 

Covarrubias, I-420, II- 89 



Cremona, I- 16, 342, III- 

376, 387, 389 
Cretan traits, ni-290 
Crowfoot, I- 10 
Crown at Santiago, HI-171, 

l ll% 365; crowns of Gue- 

rrazar, ni-415 
crusade, I-297, 317, II- 130* 

III-4 1 7 ; crusaders, I-9 , 

291, 302, 322, m-251, 

33°, 33i; crusaders' 

churches, III-332 
Cuenca, II-19, 51, 146, 369 
Cult-epithet, III-303; image, 

321; of S. James, 297; 

Jupiter of Heliopolis, 328, 

329, 33i, 344, 356 
Cumont, II-183, III-209, 

286, 303, 318, 325, 354, 

368 
Cuscurrita, I-428 
Cybele, IH-317; v. Great 

Mother; pine, 317 
Cypress tree, fl-422, III- 

249-252, 307, 321 ; grove, 

307, 332; at Heliopolis, 

353 
Cyprus (churches), II-u; 

Famagusta, I- 17 

Damian, S. Peter, III-255, 

376 
Dante, I-133, 265, III-240, 

255, 272, 397 
Daroca, 1-198,11-392; fue- 

rosof, I- 1 05 
Dastean, Angel, I-357 
Daux, CamiUe, I-82 
Days of creation, I-304 
Delos, ni-347 
Demetrio de los Rlos, II- 

249 



676 



INDEX 



Desteilla, I-357 

Diana, II- 1 80 

Diaz, Jimenez, II- 140 

Dicastillo, I-292 

Diego de la Cruz, n-44 

Dieppe. I-i 17 

Dieularoy, I-3, 7 

Dijon, I-277, 302, 11-38, 56, 

III-434; churches, HI-70 
Dionysus, m-240, 344, 350; 

temple at Baalbek, ITI- 

344, 357 
Dioscuri, HI-300, 313, 508; 

cult of, 298; functions of, 

299, 5°8 ; white swans,3oo, 

301 ; cap, II-259, m-310 

Doom, I-236, 267, II-265, 
£Q-8i, 389; v. also Last 
Judgement 

Dos Casas, las, II-479 

Dove, in-358, 363; in 
church, 242, 297; d. god- 
dess, 297, 358, 361 ; Venus, 
243; S. Eulalia, 296 

Dozy, 1-86, 97-8, 397, II- 

3ii 
Drake, I-63, 122, m-666 
Dreves, I-43, n-233, 234, 

m-169 
Duchesne, Mgr., I-45, 55- 

63, UI-316, 333 
Du Guesclin, I-297, 382, 

387, 389, n-100 
Durham, I-434, HI-207 

Dussaud,III-3i3, 3*9, 354 
Dutch, I-295 

Ebro, I-198, 324, 361, 369, 
373, 421, n-179, 181,234, 
III-292, 301, 304; basin 
of, ni-288 

Ecclesiologists (Spanish), I- 



11, 12, 20, II-249, 261, 

in-34 
Edda, m-251 
Edrisi, n-62, III-43, 143, 

495-6; called also Idrisi 

Egypt, I-9, 98, in-308, 368 

Einghen, m-426 

Eleanore of Guienne, I- 109, 

M7 
Elne,III-i9i 

Elva, n-226 

Elvira, Queen, I-294, 399, 
II-77; v. DoHa Mayor; of 
Las Almenas de Toro, II- 
244, 505, III-I60, 282, 369 

Emessa,II-i82, UI-298,337, 

343 
Endovelicus, IH-295 

Engadine, I-143, 145 

England, I-82, 121, 326, 355 
356, m-90, 425; Chester, 
I-355; London Bridge, 
m-271 

English architecture, II- 
127, 397, 457; court, II- 
348; travellers, III-426; 
pirates, m-99; workmen, 
II-150; architect, 144-6; 
cult, II-365; saint, 364-5; 
bishops, I-57, H-358, 364, 
366; Englishmen, minstrel 
Walter, I-118; Walter 
Courland, II-145; Wil- 
liam the E., II-145 

Enlart, I-i 1, II-20, 203, m- 

46,54 
Enoch and Elijah, II-200, 

in-256, 376 
Enrique (Master), 11-55, 

245, 252 
Entree d'Espagne, I-31 

Ephesus,I-28, III-307, 345 



IN DEX 



677 



Escalada, S. Miguel de, II- 
140, 141, 148, 165, 166, 
172, 186, 187, 282, 364, 
m-126 
Escalona, II- 126, 136 
Escorial, 11-415, m-281 
Esculabolsas, I- 166 
Esla,II-i65, 166, 177 
Eslonza, II-I25, 169; abbot 

Ordono, 125 
Espinoso, II-309 
Estadea, III-236 
Estefanfa, Queen, I-294 
Estella, I-15, 32, 34, 78, 
81, 134, 164, 183, 186, 
304, 308, 324, 325-57, 
359, 367, 377, 380, II- 
53, 103, 147, 260, m-106, 
386,391,393,413,442; S. 
Domingo, I-347; S. Nico- 
las, I-351; S. Miguel, I- 
289, 302, 34 2 -7, n-282, 
m-147, 319, 387, 442; S. 
Pedro la Rua, I-181, 292 , 
337-40, n-144, 473, III- 
353, 39i; S. Salvador, I- 
332; S. Sepulcro, 325, 

343, 351-55, n-105, m- 

386, 393; Last Supper, I- 
321, 352-5; apostolado, 
1-353, n-105, 107; pal- 
ace, 1-333-4, II-376 

Estibaliz, S. Maria de, li- 
no, IH-391, 413, 444-6 

Eudes de Montereau, I-17; 
count of Touraine, I-101 

Eunate, I-286, 302, 309, 
318,11-91,111-352, 408 

Eusebius, ni-349, 364 

Evangelists at desks, II-54, 
253; with heads ot beasts, 
II-201 



Evans, Sir Arthur, m-360 
Ezekiel, II-115, m-315 

Faba, la, II-389 

Fabie, UI-185 

Fabre, Jaime, I-16, 347 

Fabricio (fr. Guaberto), I- 

152, 156 
Fadrique, Master, II-248 
Ferdinand I, I- 100, 106, II- 
125, 131, 188, 203, 205, 
216, 237, m-192, 283, 
418; death, II-206, 233; 
Ferdinand II , II-3 1 1 , 386, 
m-57; Ferdinand III, I- 
40,85, 110,201,404,414, 

n-9, 13, 23, 30, 33, 55, 89, 

100, 228, 252, 257, III-30, 

1 40 ; character, II-274-7 ; 

cathedral, at Chartres, 

I-40; Ferdinand IV,I-H3 
Ferdinand the Catholic, I- 

103, III-361 
Fernan Gonzalez, II-83, 

205, m-283 
Ferragus, 1-381,392 
Ferrara, I- 16, 186, 246, III- 

387, 395, 49i; chantier, 

m-388, 393 
Ferreiro, L6pez, I-12, 86, 

396,111-41, 115,160,175, 

178,233,251,425 
Ferreiros, m-103 
Ferrol, I-87 
Fertility spells, m-223-4, 

231, 269; bees, 239 
Feudal system (in Spain), I- 

155, II-130, 131; privi- 
leges, II-130, 144 
Finisterre, I-95, m-185, 

207, 209, 210, 218, 221; 

Cape, III-218, 450 



6 7 8 



INDEX 



Fita, Fr., 1-45, 47, 54, 69, II- 
166, 234, HI-34, 169, 278, 
293, 360, 458 

Flanders, 1-117,118; Coun- 
tess of, m-114; Flemish, 
I-296; art, 272, 278 ; Flem- 
ings, 295 

Fleury, v. S. Benoit sur 
Loire; abbot, I-99 

Flores andBlancaflor, I- 128 

Flfrez, I-435, 439, H-218, 
309, 3io, 312, 365, 453, 
m-90, 136, 142, 185, 295 

Folk-lore, I-24, 437, II-180, 
205, 229, 434, III- 1 92, 226, 
234, 271, 293, 327, 416; 
v. sepultados; bread and 
candles, m-222; hache- 
ras, 223; running water, 
242; old clothes, I-172, 
Indian, III-327; Folk-lore 
Society, III-223-4 

Foncebadon, II-309, 312 

Fonfria, 11-403, 405, 410; 
S. Maria, 408 

Fonseca, family, III-281; 
Bishop, Juan Rodriguez, 
n-43, 57; Archbishop 
Alonso, IH-185 

Fontevrault, ni-409 

Fontfroide, II-23 

Ford, Richard, I-14, 78, U- 

169, 173 
Forment, Damian, I-423, II- 

7 ; style, I-426 
Formente,I-422; Lucas, 426 
Fortunatus (Saint), I-42, 56 
Fount of Paradise, m-80, 

116,248,258,265, 276 
Foulques, Master, I-223-4; 

Count of Anjou, 120 
Fowler, Warde, m-279 



Foz, I-85 

Fraga, I- 198, 199, 200 
France, I-3, 6, 8, 18, 103, 
271, n-374, m-85, 425: 
early work in, I-13; imi- 
tation of Spain, 1-6, 7, II- 
86, 266, m-379, 401, v. 
also back-wash; workmen 
fetched from, I-7, 14, 295, 
H-53, 107, 144, 247-8, 
257, 414, m-408; Fo- 
ulques, I-223; Baldouin, 
II-243; knights, I-7, 147, 
297, II-130; French ele- 
ments, I-269, 320, 321, 
339, n-20, 31, 33, 35, 72, 
85, 142, 199, 202, 238, 
427, 443, 456, 466; in 
Italy, I-322, m-388; mo- 
tives, II-106, 200, 262, 

263, 375, 475, 476; plan, 
I-416, H-33, 86, m-46; 
windows, II-375; mural 
painting, II-199, 477; 
architects, I-17, 380, II- 
247, 248, 256; influx into 
Spain, I-7, 25, 239, 264, 
II-252, 414; affranchise- 
ment, II-60, 125; ecclesi- 
astics, m-91, II-394-5; 
shrines, I-335; Gothic, II- 
34, 241, 251, m-doj; 
army, I-373, n-303, Ul- 
114; modern scholars, I- 
5, 10, 11; share in San- 
tiago, III-45-6; style in 
churches, ni-408, 409, 
411; southwest of, I- 
239, 255, II-460, m-434, 
443; west of, m-410; 
northeast of, II-42, HI- 

434 



INDEX 



679 



French towns: Alet, m- 
381; Bergerac, I- 109; 
Bran tome, 246; Chau- 
vigny, 1-2 16; Cravant, 
HI-415; Cruas, 1-2 14; 
Digne, II-456; Echellais, 
n-375; Espalion, 1-228, 
II-106; Etampes,* I-243; 
Figeac, m-381; Maille- 
zais, II-476; Marcillac, 
m-381 ; Monsempron, II- 
500; Montmoreau, I- 
458; Neuvy-S. Sepulcre, 
n-71; Nogent-sur-Coucy, 
I- 1 32; Pirignac, I-240; 
Perse, v. Espalion; Pons, 
I-240, II-106; Ruffec, II- 
106; S. Gaudens, m-381; 
Solignac, m-409; Vaison, 
II-502; Vauvant, SI-394 

Fres del Val, I-435 

Friars' churches, I-348; 
Friars' Gothic, II-301, 
370, 460, m-414 

Friedel, I-69, 70, 445 

Frisia, I-75; Frisian sea, I- 
26; Frisians, I-no 

Froissart, I-118, 382, 390, 
m-186, 191,418 

Frimista, n-71, 75-83, ni- 
414; S. Martin, I-318, n- 
77, 79, 162, 165, m-213, 
408, 409, 446; S. Pablo, 
II-80; S. Maria del Cas- 
tillo, 80; hospitals, 80, 
81 

Frothingham, m-357 

Fnentarrabia, m-429 

Fulbertof Chartres 9 I-38, 39, 
42, 43-4, 74, m-155-9, 
308, 369 

Futa, I-93 



Galicia, 1-8, 26, n-155, 175, 
220, 234, 278, 309, 360, 

385, 389, 395, 460, m- 

232, 234, 294, 315, 416; 

the land of the dead, 247, 

252, 301 ; coins of, m-287, 

291 ; mountains of, II-469; 

counts of, n-452-3 
Gallegan architecture, III- 

403, 404, 408; authors, 

II-486; mothers, HI-314; 

customs, m-222-7, 232- 

5, 239, 240, 242 
Gallegans,n-485-6, 488 
Gandia, I-423; Juan de, I- 

298 
Gaona, Ruy Diaz de, I-373; 

Ruy Fernandez de, I-388 
Garcia, Alvar, I-356; Juan 

G. de Laguardia, I-356 
Gardens of Adonis, II-379, 

m-223 
Garran, I-401, 418 
Garstang, m-358 
Gascons, I-73, 385-91, H- 

127; Gascon knights, I- 

147, 297; Gascony, I-92, 

131, 147; monks, I-381, 

m-500 
Gaston IV and V of Beam, 

I-146; G. de Foix, I-373 
Gaul,m-286 ; Gallo-Roman, 

m-297, 428 
Gayet, 1-6 
Gelmirez, Diego, I-45, 60, 

67, 128, 199, 201, II-IOO, 

204, 220, 253, 362, 404, 

m-47, 54, 90-138, 317, 
323; character, 126, 136- 

7; building, 91, 92, 105, 

in, 117, 303, 304; raids, 

10 1, 129; rebellion, 102- 



i 



68o 



INDEX 



Gelmfrez, Diego — Cont'd 
62; town and chapter, re- 
lations with, 113, 117, 
130, 131; reforms, 94, 
100, 102, 112, 123, 128; 
death, 136 

Gennaios, IH-329, 354 

Genoa, II-368, HI-101 ; 
Genoese, I-297, IH-331 

Germany, I-37, 103, 108, II- 
164, III-425; Germans, I- 
130, II-127, m-295; Ger- 
man Gothic, I- 1 7, 18, II- 
34, 58, 238; frontier, HI- 
286; towns, Bremen and 
Breslau, IH-425; Ger- 
manic, III-280; Tyrolese, 

1-437 
Germigny des Pres, 1-6 

Gerona, I-213, III- 149, 404 ; 

SS. Marinus and Patro- 

nus, II-453 
Giles, A. R., II-431 
Glastonbury, I-94 
Glaziers, I-39, II-50, 243-4, 

246; glass, II-241-3 
Goblet d'Alviella, m-300 
Goilan, I-85 
Golden Bough, m-229 
Golden Legend, I-46, 66, 

378, m-335 
Golpejares, II-99 
Gomez, Counts of, II-96- 

97, 281 ; Countess Teresa, 

II-96, III-302 
Gonzalez Davila, Gil, II-30 
Gonzalo de Berceo, I-413, 

II-224, m-300 
Gonzalo de C6rdova, el 

Gran Capitan, HI- 184 
Gonzalez, Davila, Gil, II-30 
Gothic, Spanish, HI-416 



Gougaud, m-368 

Govantes, I-408, 415 

Gradefes, II-12, 169 

Grail, II-392 

Granada, n-26, 67, 90, 120, 
232, 302, 358; chapel roy- 
al, II-203 

Grande Sauve, la, I-92 

Grass, BI-74, 248, 377-8, 
486 

Gregory of Tours, I-56, 65 

Grimani Breviary, I-296 

Guadalupe, I-80, 124 

Guadiz, I-60, II-230, m- 
231, 291, 292, 295, 309; 
G. and Galicia, 295 

Guide for Pilgrims, I-33, 46, 
66, 70, 78; for souls, III- 

249 
Guillen de Holanda, I-419; 

de Rohan, II-247 
Guipuzcoa, II- 156 
Guy de Bourgoyne, I-128; 

de Vienne, II-41, 395 
Guzman, II- 178; Bishop 

Diego de, I- 123 

Hacheras, II-151; v. sepui- 
tados 

Hades, m-298, 309 

Hagiography and iconogra- 
phy: coffin, I-48, II-394, 
IQ-204; cult-image with 
bulls, m-328; flag at 
Leon, II-229; at Santiago, 
m-179; mallet, ni-297-8 

Hagiography (Spanish), II- 
453, m-303; Coptic in- 
fluence, I-9 

Haro, I-408; counts of, II- 

345, 377 
Harris, Rendel, IQ-302, 345 



INDEX 



68 1 



Havre, I-i 17 

Haya, Bartolome' de la, II- 

43, 49; Rodrigo de, 41, 49 

Head of S. James, HI-302; 
at Carrion, 302; at San- 
tiago, 103, 141; at Jeru- 
salem, 339 

Heavenly Jerusalem (can- 
opies), I-243, 320, II-91 

Heavenly twins, ni-284; v. 
Dioscuri, Castor, and 
twins 

Hebrides, HI-246 

Hecha, I- 193 

Heddernheim, HI-307 

Heiss, A.,m-287 

Helgi {lay of), m-270, 282 

Heliopolis, m-301, 347"57, 
361, 364, 379; H. of Asia, 
II-260; high god of, III- 
321, 327, 347, 489; is Mer- 
cury, 320; triad of, 329; 
at Iria, 322 ; stair, 366 

Helios, HI-309, 347, 3^3; 
psychopompos, 319; v. 
also Apollo, Sol 

Hell mouth, 1-226, 242, 248 

Helpers and harbourers, I- 
438, H-6, 290 

Henry H of England, I-123, 
n-30, 386 

Henry of Trastamara, I-i 1 6, 

383, 392, 414, n-16, 33, 
100, 454, m-418 

Hera, m-358; sancta, 303; 

Syrian, 358 
Hermengild , II-2 1 6 
Hermes, n-282, HI-239, 

357; Celtic Mercury, 319- 

20 
Hernandez, Gregorio, II- 

138 



Herodotus, II-432 
Herpd, III-290, 3^1 
Herrerlas, las, n-388, 389 
Hewlitt, Maurice, I-33, II- 

173 
Hierapolis, DI-297, 336, 

347, 354, 357-8, 361-3, 
367; the goddess, 358; 
symbol, 358, 363; pool, 
362; stair, 362; pilgrim- 
ages, 363 
Historia Compostellana, I- 
60, 196, H-127, 362, III- 

35, 44, 49, 52, 55, ™ 2 , 
140, 151, 171, 185, 318; 

authors, 95-6 
Hittite, IH-347, 358, 486 
Holda, Frau, I-437, III-226, 

243, 269, 554 
Holland, L. B., H-182 
Hornillos del Camino, I-36; 

H-73 
Horse-shoe arch, I-5, 8, II- 

182, 198, 355, 438 
Hospice, I- 1 06; Aspe, I-146; 
Barbadelo, II-426; Bor- 
deaux, I- 1 09; Cebrero, H- 

391, 394, 39 6 ; del Ganso, 
n-309, 310; las Herrerlas, 
n-388; Irache, 1-359; 
Mansilla, n-165; Mellid, 
n-472; Puerto Marin, H- 
454; Sahagiin, I-97; S. 
Marcos, I- 102; Santiago, 
m-42, 91, 94, 116; of S. 
Chnstina, I- 146 

Hospitaliers Pontifes: of 
Lucca, de S. Jacques, I- 
101 

Hospital, Order of ,I-io, 200, 
300, 314, n-31, 373 

Hospitals: Arconada, H-82 



682 



INDEX 



Hospitals,— Cont'd 

Carrion,II-i02 ; Fr6mista, 
II-80; Orbigo, II-29 1 , 322 ; 
de la Condesa, II-402 

Howell, m-426 

Hoya, ni-136 

Hubner, 111-278, 286 

Huelgas, las, I- 161, 164, 
285, 319, 34i, n-9, 10- 
28, 29, 32, 40, 44, 86, 145, 
256, III-408 

Huesca, 182, 194, 250, 297, 
315, 423; S. Pedro, II- 
162, Hl-444, 445; bell of, 
n-135; coins of, III-288; 
twin at, m-515 

Hugh, bishop of Oporto, HI- 
95, 108, 141 

Hungary, I-15, 147, 239; 
Hungarians, 295 

Huntington, A. M., I-33 

Ibanez, Bernard, HI-439; 
Blasco, 312 

Iberian, II- 179; Iberian 
horseman, ni-179, 288, 
290; on coins, HI-287, 
292, 298; jinete, IQ-288, 
290 , 301; I. Proserpine, 
lfi-295 

Ibn-ac-Cairafi, I- 197 

Ibn Khaldoun, 1-6, II-96 

Iconium, I-322 

Idaeus, I-56 

Ilsung, Sebastian, II- 185, 
HI- 1 80, 209 

Imperator, ni-284 

Incio, 1-86, n-419, 455 

Infant D. Felipe, I-116, H- 
87, 89-90; D. Juan Man- 
uel, II-230; D. Ramiro, I- 
358; Infants of la Cerda, 



n-423 ; Lara, ni-290, 302 ; 

de Luna, I-277 
Infantado (dukes of): pal- 

.ace, n-134 
Irache, I-9, 161, 298, 314, 

346, 357-65, n-79, m- 
150,327,408,409,411 

Iranzu, Abbot Nicholas, I- 

38i 
Ireland, ni-245, 368; Irish, 

I-295, m-245, 253, 264, 

280 

Iria, I-98, m-171, 215, 287, 
296, 317, v. also Padrdn; 
Iria Flavia, I-362, m- 
204, 469; gulf of, ffl-203 

Irun, 1-83, 306 

Isis, I-9, n-434, m-252, 
308, 311; at Guadix, 309; 
at Heliopolis, 357 

Isle of France, I- 1 5, 17, 374, 
n-23, 238, 253, m-41 1 

Italy, I-108, 187, 406-7, H- 
369, ffl-85, 200, 425; ro- 
mantic Italy, I-406; Ital- 
ian influence, I-190, 339, 
n-106, m-386, 394, 409; 
workmen, I-321, Ett-387- 
90, 392-4; pilgrims, I-97, 
295; clergy, 100, 103; 
Cistercian in, I-363; Fri- 
ars' churches, I-348; 
south of, I-22 8 ; Emilia, I- 
187, ni-394; Tuscany, I- 
238, 313, n-193, m-234; 
towns of, Arezzo, H-28i ; 
Brindisi, I-322, ni-394: 
Florence, I-367, n-44, 
103; or S. Michele, n-93; 
Forli, I-iJi, 430; Lucca, 
I- 1 01, III-491; Perugia, 
I 491; Siena, II- 128 



INDEX 



683 



Itero del rfo Pisuerga, II-72 
Itineraries. 1-79-84, 6-415, 

m-572 (not indexed) 
Ivories, I-273, 281, n-54, 

191, ni-383 

Jaca, I-78, 144, 152, 153- 
165, 169, 178, 192, 204, 
230, 246, 318, 397, 407, 
411, III-106, 444; cathe- 
dral, I- 1 58-163, 189, 202, 
208; bishop of, I- 1 63, III- 
107; fuero of, I-265 
Jaen, Bishop of, II- 16 
Jaime I el Conquistador, I- 

154, 333 
Javier, I-233 

Jehane of Navarre, I-234, 
III-420 

Jelsa,in-288 

Jerusalem, I-57, 71, 82, 94, 
109, 122, 315, n-91, 309, 
333, m-367; Holy Sepul- 
chre, I-290, ni-340; pa- 
triarch of, I-42, III- 129; 
confusion of the two SS. 
James at J., m-337-34 ; 
J., Rome, and Compos- 
tella, I-72, 447, ni-259; 
Count Jerusalemito, III- 

125 
Jesuit architecture, I-211, 

233 
Jesus, I-9, III-309 

Jews, 1-331,335,11-62 
Jinete, III-288, 488; v. Ibe- 
rian horseman 
Joan of Ponthiers, II-257 
John of Brienne, I-i 13; the 
Deacon, II-234; of Na- 
varre, I-370; of Wurtz- 
burg, m-339 



Joinville, I-i 1 1 , III-332 
Joppa, m-339 
Jordan,Maestre, I-250 
Juan de Castro, I-419; de 

Malines, II-248 
Juan de Juni, II-297 
Julia Domna, IH-307 
Julian, Emperor, m-309, 

Julio Romano, I-420 

Jupiter Dolichenus, III-290, 
303 » 321; herp6, 290; and 
Hera Sancta, 303; called 
Marina, 321 

Jupiter Heliopolitanus, m- 
320, 328, 347; attributes 
of S. James, 32 1 , 328, 348 ; 
cult-image, 328-9 

Justinian, I-4, m-332 

Juvenal of Orvieto, I-430 

Kipling, n-182, m-175 

Knights' chapels, las Huel- 
gas, II-19; Leon, 240; 
Windsor, 241; Westmin- 
ster, 248 

Knights of Santiago, II- 130, 
lfi-29; in the French 
epics, I-30; v. also Order 
of Santiago 

Knot, 1-245, m-4 1 5 

Laborde, II-455, HI- 143 
Labours of the months, II- 

200, III-63, 388 
Lacar, I-325 
Lady (the Good), m-226, 

242; of the Doves, 243, 

296, 361; S. Eulalia, 296; 

Our Lady, first church of, 

331, 332, 333 



1 



684 



INDEX 



La Fuente, II-131, 149, IQ- 
118, 240 

Lalin, II-472 

Lamberto de Zaragoza, Fr., 
m-^61,498 

Lamperez, D. Vicente, I- 
9, 20, 187, 213, 236, 265, 
290, 292, 303, 361, 376, 
402, 435, II-19, 25, 72, 
76, 78, 142, 164, 477, in- 

47, 327, 366, 374, 379, 
403-407 
Lancaster, Duke of, II-297, 

m- 1 86-90 

Land of the dead, 111-267, 

274, 301; Galicia, 247, 
252; Saragossa, 252; land 
whence none returns, 227, 
258, 267 

Lang, Andrew, HI-266, 271 

Langlois, Jean, I-i 7 

Langres, Juan de, I-420, II- 

48,59 
Languedoc, I-108, 137, 225, 

236,239,in-4i2,443 

Lannoy, Robert de, HI-421 

Lantern (French Examples), 

H-35; others, Spanish, II- 

35; Burgos, n-35, III- 

410; Fr6mista, II-78, III- 

409; Irache, I-361, II-35, 

III-409; Las Huelgas, II- 

44; Orense, O-406, 411; 

Sanguesa, I-237, III-411; 

S. Cruz, I- 1 70, m-411; 

Tarazona,III-4i 1 ; Torres, 

I-318 
Laon, I-n, 287, II-143, 239, 

258, 261; diocese, I-132, 

rf-85, 385 

Lassota, HI- 167, 171, 174, 

178, 207, 208-9 



Last Judgement, 1-228, 236, 
267, n-52, 265, m-65, 72, 
75; v. also Doom 
Lasteyrie, I- 170, IU-390 
Latin-Byzantine style, H- 

140 
Laurence of Brindisi (the 
Blessed), n-371, 372, 373 
Lausanne, I- 15, 237 
Lebanon, m-321, 330, 347 
Leboreiro, II-467, 468, 472 
Lemos, II-411; counts of, 
n-359; Monforte de, II- 
378; S. Vicente, II-395 
Lena, S. Christina de, III-39 
Leon, 1-8, 11, 13, 15, 102, 
275, n-24, 56, m-386, 
395; earlier style, II-141; 
cathedral, I-240, II-34, 54 
238-74, 297, in-402, 
416; date, II-250; archi- 
tect, 245; French work- 
men, II-247-8; altar to S. 
Saviour, IH-308; stalls, 
II-274; tombs, 272; tras- 
coro, 274; chapel of San- 
tiago, 228, 240; banner, 
228; cloister II-270; win- 
dows, 241-3; sculpture, 
254-5; early, 273-4; 
north door, 259-60; Bay- 
onne parallel, 240, 259; 
south door, 255-8; influ- 
enced Bordeaux, 258; 
west door, 26 1 -5; bishops, 
Pelayo, 1-140, 211, 244, 
n-126, 216, 244, 252, 253; 
Alvito, II-2 16-18, 237; 
Manrique, II-245, 252, 
253 ; Truxulo, 251 ; others, 
8,105,185,194,219,228, 
240, 243, 247, 248, 252 



INDEX 



685 



Leon (Roman), II- 1 78-1 81; 
Mithraic survivals, 183, 
190 

Leon (town), II- 166, 169, 
177, 178, 180, 184, 301, 
362, 383, 409, m-93, 98, 
99; S. Ant6n, II- 184; S. 
Isidoro, 1-171,296,11-145, 
186-209, 205, 222, 248, 
206, m-63, 294, 299, 380, 
391, 408, 410; history, II- 
187, 194; pantheon, 198, 
433, 434, ni-438; paint- 
ings, II- 1 99; chapel of 
Quinones, 88, 345; S.John 
Baptist, II-212, 218; S. 
Marcos, I- 102, II- 184, 
249, 274, 278; Museum, 
140, 182, 254 

Leon, kingdom of, I-399, II- 

99, 135, 152, 174, 175, 
237, £09, HI-122, 414; 
council of, II-246; dio- 
cese of, II-414; bridge of, 
II-321 
Leon, kings of: Alfonso IV 
the Monk, II- 124; Ferdi- 
nand II, II-225; Ordono 

I, I-59, m-37; Ordono 

II, H-240, 244, 397; 
Ramiro, II, II- 122, 123, 
141; Ramiro III, II-124; 
Sancho Ord6fiez, II-219; 
Veremund, II-205, 210, 
279, 295, m-45, 281 

Leonore of England, I-147, 

n-30, 136, 146 
Leopold Von Suchem, DI- 

340 
Lerida, I-198, 302, m-288 

Lerma, Gonzalez de, II-40; 

Juan de, 47 



Leyre, I-208, 211-229, 238, 
263, 292, 303, n-364, III- 
62, 398, 408, 409, 445; 
sierra de, I-208 

Lezaun, I-351 

Liberodunum, m-34, 297, 
303 

Lilbana, S. Martin and S. 
Maria, ffl-42; mountains 
of, II- 1 64 

Liege, I-99, ni-425 

Lily, of cathedrals dedicated 
to Virgin, II-509 

Limia, IH-301 

Limoges, I- 7, 21, II-181, 
III-96; D. Benedict of, 
1-337; S. Leonard of, I- 
74, 77,416; S. Martial of, 

163,11-14.5, 181,202,253, 

m-46, 381 
Linares (S. Esteban de), II- 

398; chapel of S. Roque, 

n-30 
Lisbon, I- no, II-372, III- 

102, 314 
Litchfield, I-374 
Llaguno, I-249, II-42, 49 
Logrono, I-32, 34, 100, 198, 

315,370-83,111-106,414; 

bridge of, I-369, 383; 

road, 287, 310, 366; S. 

Bartolome\ 376-8; S. 

Maria del Palacio, 315, 

373-5; la Redonda, 371, 

375 
Lombard builders, I-322, 

II-145, m-39 1 ; style, I- 
169,186,225,246,11-145; 
towers, m-39 1 ; porches, 
IH-392 ; knight, I- 1 28 ; 
trumpet, II-341; capitu- 
lary, I- 1 00; Lombards, I- 



r 



686 



INDEX 



Lombard builders — Cont'd 
97, 195, n-127; Lom- 
bardo, Juan, III-135 ; Rai- 
mundo, I-15, lfi-391; 
Lombardy, 1-128, 187, 
ni-63, 391 

Lome, Janin, I-277 

Lope de Vega, I-371, II-290 

L6pez de Haro, el Bueno, I- 
403; Dona Mencia, I-404 

L6pez, Sim6n, I-250, 305 

Lorca, I-325 

Loreto (Holy House of), I- 

323 
Lorraine, I-13 1 

Los Arcos, I-367-8 

Louis IX (S. Louis), I-iii, 
II-187, 252, 257; le Hu- 
tin, I-348, ni-420; Louis 
VII, 111-12; Louis XI, 
I- 1 23; Louis XIV, I-92, 
m-424 

Lourdes, I-44, 139, H-66, 
III- 194, 431; canticle of, 
I-83; Our Lady of, H- 
92 

Loyo, I- 1 02 

Lucas of Burgos, I-419 

Lucas of Tuy, I-iii, II-34, 
38, 125, 180, 181, 206, 
212, 220, 222, 224, 225, 
226, 227, 229, 233, 237, 
245, 260, 275, m-192, 
282,319,333,340 

Lucian, IH-357, 358, 363, 
364,366,485,489 

Lugo, I-85, 86, 116, n-255, 
421, 450, 462, 471, 482, 
III-91, 98, 295, 403, 404, 
408, 416; Bishop Recared, 
II-452; church, H-456, 
458, 460; S. Francisco, 



ni-403, 406; conventus 

Lucensis, ffl-287 
Luiserne, I-36 
Luke of Tuy, v. Lucas 
Luna, n-178; bishop Lope 

de, I-34 
Lupa (queen), I-47, 60 
Lusitania, III-278, 287, 295, 

314; Lusitanian cults, 286 
Lyons, n-241, ffl-326 

Macias o Namorado, UL- 

384 
Macleod, Fiona, ni-246 
Macrobius , HI-294 , 301 , 

321, 347, 364, 489 

Madonna of Majesty, I-24 1 , 
n-299 

Madoz, I-418, n-43, 473 

Madrazo, I-214, 223, 248, 
265, 305, 310, 351, 353, 
374, 408, 415, 416 

Madrid n-239, 407; con- 
vocation of, II-244 

Maeterlinck, IH-272 

Magic: boat, ni-155, 207, 
276, 580; cloak, H-97,m- 
339; natural magic, H- 
152, IH-279; making a 
magic, HL-24, 32, 280 

Maguelonne, I- 170; bishop 
of, I-170, 182, ni-91 

Malaga, I-197, ni-319 

Malakbel, IH-303 

Malalas, m-351 

Male, Emile,H-i 15, m-387 

Mallet, HI-297, 338; of Dis 
Pater, 297; fuller's, 336 

Mallorca, 1-123,315; Palma 
de, 123; chapel royal, II- 
203 

Mafieru, I-324 



INDEX 



687 



Manier, Guillaume, I-74, 
81,92,11-65,82,153,165, 
184, 290, 292, 293, 325, 
368, 378, 389, 402, 423, 
479, 482, m-140, 172, 
174, 267, 272 

Man jar din, , II-308 

Manrique, Angel, II-413 

Le Mans, II-241 

Mansilla de las Mulas, I- 
34, n-95, 165, 166, m- 

525 
Maragatos, I-85, II-302, 

312 
Mariana, I- 194 
Marie de France, m-280 
Mars, IH-295, 320; v. also 

Neto 
Marseilles, I-296, 322, II- 

133 
Marti y Monso, I-418, 419, 

422 
Martin, Master, I-415, 416 
Martinez, Briz, t-172, 193, 

199, m-100 
Martinez, D. Diego, II- 113, 

114 
Martinez y Sans, I-420, II- 

32, 35, 4», 53, 246 
Matthew, Master, II- 196, 

268, 459, m-54, 57, 67, 
68-9, 72, 214, 395, 396, 
401 

Maundrell, III-352 

May Day: Slavonian pil- 
grims, I-i 17, III-231, 268; 
feast of S. James, 230; 
dedication, 231; olive at 
Gaudix, 231 ; games, 224- 

25 
Mayor, Dona, I-294, 398- 

9; v also Elvira 



Mayorga de Campo, II- 

325 
Mayorazgo, I-428; of Te- 

jada, 429 

Mazote (S. Cebrian de), II- 

364 
Medellin, EH-314 

Medina del Campo, II-317 

Meira, II-363 

Melanie of La Salette, II- 

219 
Melida, m-298, 318 
Mellid, 1-88, II-428, 431, 

467, 470; history, 471-3, 

480, 485, in- 1 02; s. 

Maria, II-475, III-413; S. 

Pedro, n-473, 476, m- 

204 
Menendez y Pelayo, II-60, 

ni-293, 319, 324 
Mendoza, Diego, DI-181; 

Dofia Mencia de, II-41; 

Rny Diaz de, II-331 
Mequineza, I- 198 
Mercury, m-320, 488; v. 

Hermes 
Merida, I-54, II-178, 226; 

see of, III- 1 08; Paul of, I- 

94; coins of, III-291, 292; 

Ataecina worshipped at, 

III-296; Mithras and Ser- 

apis, m-310, 318 
Merovingian, ni-428; fibu- 
lae, I-246, HI-415 
Mesopotamia, 1-3, 5 
Meyer, Kuno, m-258 
Meyer, Paul, m-228 
Michael the Syrian, m-335, 

336, 350, 489 
Miguel de Goyni, I-249, 250 
MM y Fontanals, m-226 
Milan, I-378, II-251, HI- 



688 



INDEX 



Milan— Cont'd 

243; Milanese, I-422; 
people, m-313; clergy, 
m-96 

Militia Dei, II-41 1 

Milky Way, v. camino de 
Santiago, Walsingham 

Miller, Konr ad, I-89 

Mifio,I-8i, 101,11-121,420, 
442, m-416 

Minoan, art, IH-488; dou- 
ble-axe, 290; emblems on 
coins, 291; gems, 360, 
488; pillars, 358 

Miracles of S. Isidore, II- 
229-232 

Miracles of S. James, I-44, 
60,111, 129,367,430,11- 
94, 281, ni-93, 319, 504- 

, 515 

Miracles of Our Lady of 

Villa-Sirga, II-92-95, 167, 

m-516-25 
Miraflores, I-440, II-38, 44 
Mithras, 1-8, 431, II- 183, 

m-309, 3". 3i8, 488; 
Dominus Invictus, III- 
319; cypress, m-307; 
psychopompos, III-3 1 9 ; 
mithraic allusion, II- 182; 
relief, II- 190, IH-209, 294, 
318; Mithraeum, problem- 
atic, III-38, 40; at M6r- 
ida, 310; at Leon, 319 

Moarbes, I-320, 353, II-105, 
III-386, 393 

Modena, I-16, 322, 352, III- 
163, 386, 387, 388, 395 

Mohammedan architecture, 
HI-47, 67, 379, 406; v. 
Mozarabic, Mudijar 

Moissac, I-77, 108, 240, 



241, n-104, 106, m-79 v 

96, 265, 377, 382, 393, 

423, 442 
Molina, Luis de, 1-8 1, 122? 
Molina Seca, II-305, 306. 

310 
Mondofiedo, 1-84, 88, 122, 

n-278, 299, 421, ni-91. 

93, 141, 295, 406-7; clio- 

cese of, II-472; bishop 

of, II-16; synodals of, IH- 

233, 235 
Monjardin, I-358 

Monreal, I-207, H-153, m- 

233 
Monserrat, I-80, 92, H-392 

Monte Arag6n, II-7, 91, III- 

499 
Montero, IQ-125 

Mont £tuves, 1-8 2, 84, m- 

262, 263 
Monte Irago, II-310, 311 
Monte Sagro, I-60; v. Pico 

Sagro 
Montmajour , I- 1 70 
Montpellier, I-77, m-424 
Mont S. Michel, I-23-4, HI- 

191 
Monzon, II-213 
Moon-face: prophylactic, 

n-430, 433 
Moors, I-5, n-29, 277, 291, 

370, HI-128, 129, 316 
Moraime, S. Julian, 11-364, 

IH-211, 213, 216-7, 401 
Morales, I-ioo, II-187, 205, 

228, 394, 426, m-36, 147, 

165 
Moreno, M. Gomez, I-20, 

n-358, m-384, 398, 402 
Moreruela, II- 13 
Morris, William HI-474 



INDEX 



689 



fk Mort d'Arthur, II-356, m- 
J& r 227 

# Moscoso,Bernard Yanez de, 
>* n-480, m-183 
*»* Mother (the Great) ,111-314, 
488; Mountain, 243, 367; 
mourning, II-365, m-75; 
Celtic Mothers, 314 

Mountjoy, I-72, 79, 132, H- 
480, m-92, 207, 378 

Mozarabic architecture, I- 
8, 182, II-29, 134; work- 
men, II-141, 150; litur- 
gies, I-57, II-215; use, 
I-187, 364, n-126, 133, 
HI-94, 437 ; Mozarabes, I- 
156,181,315,319,0-141 

Mozarifes, II-141 

Mudejar, I-319, 320, 321, 
n-24, 91, 105, 148, 151, 
III-406 

Mugfa, m-276 

Murguia, I- 106, 109, II- 
155,111-21, 192,222,223, 
224, 235, 275, 287, 292, 

293 
Murulabarren, I-306 

Najera, I-32, 53, 78, 100, 

381, 392, 394, 396, 439, 
H-4, 77, ni-99, 106, 291, 
301; battle, I-381-92, II- 
10b, m-579; bridge, I- 
",390, 393; S. Maria, I- 
368, 399, 400-04, m- 
413, 446; prior of, III- 
107; monks of, I-399; Pe- 
ter of, II-129; See of, I- 
415; bishop, I-436; stalls, 
I-403, 418-9, 432, n-298; 
cloister, I-367, 403; king- 
dom of, I-396, 412 



Najera (kings of): I-396- 
400, 412; D. Garcia, el de 
Ndjera, 399 

Nantes, I-76, 271 

Naranco (S. Maria de), II- 

427, m-39 

Narbonne, II-231, ni-326; 
Narbonnais, II- 134, HI- 

309 
Navagero, I-131, II-52, 61, 

67 
Navarre, I-13, 73, 193, 211, 

269, 294, 421, H-90, 155, 

156, 210, 256, m-409, 

420; Portals in, I-267-9, 

351-2, 377, n-107 

Navarre (kings of) : Charles, 

the Bad, the Good, q. v. ; 

Garcia, el de Ndjera, I- 

358; el Restaurador, 306, 

332, 358, 400; Garcia 
Sanchez, 294, 358, 401; 

Inigo Arista, 211; Juan, II- 
298; Philippe d'Evreux, 
234; Sancho VIII, II-205; 
Abarca, I-396; el Mayor, 
100, 398, II-77, 133; the 
NobleJ-295 ; el dePeftalen, 
358, 412; the Strong, 305, 

333, 335, 374; the Wise, 
291, 305, 329, 330, 368, 
374; Theobaldo I, 1-331, 
332 ; Theobaldo II, 11-249, 

317,322,347 
Navas de Tolosa, las II-208, 

227; shepherd of, 227 
Neto, ni-295, 297, 303 
Nicholas Frances, Master, 

n-248, 321 
Nicholas, Master, (carver 

of Verona) , I- 1 6, 1 86, 344 , 



r 



690 



INDEX 



Nicholas, Master— Cont'd 

ni-387; of Najera, I-403, 

418 
Nicholas, Master (painter), 

n-274 
Nicholas of Poppelau, II- 

347, m-178, 181, 208, 

221 

Nicholas of Verona (poet), 
I-33 

Nineveh (archbishop of), I- 

113 
Nogales, II-76 

Norman architecture, I-14, 
II-422; churches, II-270, 
m-171, 434; invasions, 
m-316; knights, I-147, 
297; ship, m-108; Nor- 
mans, I-97, 295, m-43, 
88, 90, 128; Normandy, 
n-238 

Noya, n-458, m-211, 213, 
224, 298, 382, 401; S. 
Martin, 213, 217, 404 

Noyon, 1-81,377,11-255 

Nubia, 1-98,111-203 

Nuestra Sefiora de las An- 
gus tias, II-365, v. also 
Mourning Mother; de la 
Barca, lft-207, 208, 210; 
a stone, 209; la Blanca at 
Burgos, I-80; of Leon, II- 
265; del Camino, 11-86, 
281-4; del Dado, II-240, 
261; del Pilar, I-80, III- 
359, 503;delaRegla, II- 
2ii, 238, 279, 321; de 
Salas, I-337 ; de las Vic- 
torias, I- 1 65; another, 
m-435; de Villa-Sirga, 
n-92-93, 167, m-516 

Nuremberg, I-438, II-264 



Oca, II-29; mountains of, 

I-83, II-5; wood of, I-73; 

Villaf ranca de Montes de, 

m-106 
Ojea,I-ii7, 166, m-231 
Olbega, m-290 
Olifaunt, m-428, 448 
Old clothes, hung on trees, 

I-72 ; on church cross, III- 

178 
Olite, I-300, 353, 357, 374, 

fI-24 53, 107,256 
Oliver, I-21, 322, m-388, 

45i 
Olligorzan, Pedro, I-331 
Olmedo, II-347 
Olorin, I-138, m-108, 394, 

401 

Onamiol, 1-88 

Oporto, in-93, 95 

Orbigo: bridge, 11-247, 301, 
321, 341; anchoress, 345; 
hospital, 291; river, I- 
36; Puente de, II-291, 

379 
Order of Calatrava (cross), 

n-9 

Order of Holy Sepulchre, I- 
10, 200, 314-17. 374. ni- 
408; towns which be- 
longed to, I-316; canon 
Giraldo, 314 

Order of Santiago, I-102, 
n-87, 229, m-29; first 
Master, I-102; another, 
II-113; confraternity of 
Santiago, II-229 

Order of S. John of Jeru- 
salem, I-234, 238, 299, 
316, 324, n-322, 455,m- 
33o, 417 



INDEX 



691 



Order of the Temple, I-200, 
287, 292, 299, 314, n-85, 
m-418 

Orders (military), I-291; 
S. Lazarus of Bethlehem 
and Nazareth, I-316 

Orense, 1-86, 97, n-181, 

396, 455, 457, 458, 472, 
m-70, 71, 93, 166, 211, 
217, 234, 295, 299, 376, 
397,402,403,405-6,411, 
416; bishops, H-126, 137, 
408, 414 

Organ, II-32-3 ; organ doors, 
at Najera, I-403; at Ven- 
ice, m-80 

Oriental builders, ni-380; 
influence, I-9, 177, 321, 
322, n-79, 182, III-326, 
364; sources, I-3, 4, 5, 6, 
189, 287, in-251, 387, 
413 ; Asiatic influence and 
parallels, I- 10, 340, II-279, 
m-251, 364, 393; Pan- 
nonia and Mysia, II- 180; 
v. also Syria; religions, II- 
182, 183, IH-314-29, 347- 
65, 368 

Origen, III-238 

Orippo, III-309 

Orkneys, m-99, 2 4 6 

Orphic influences, III-249, 

304, 307 
Ortega of Cordova, I-419 
Ortegal, Cape, III-241 
Orthez, I-32 

Orvieto, n-392, m-298, 387 
Osera, m-125 
Osma, Burgo de, III-402, 

411 
Oviedo,I-83, 84, 92,11-178, 

219, 237, m-308, 316, 



383, 415; cathedral dedi- 
cated to S. Saviour, III- 
308; bishops of, 11-217, 
305; Council of, I- 1 19 

Owain Miles, m-262, 264, 
268 

Oxen (in legend of S. 
James), I-49, 111-229* 
230, 232, 282; taxed, I-96, 
II-234, III-230; S. Isi- 
dore's, II-364, III-230 

Oxford, III-20, IQ7 

Ozanam, I-129, II- 156 



Padornelo, II-388, 404 
Padr6n, I-50, 95, II-232, 
474, 491, IH-34, 68, 102, 
117, 185, 204-13, 209, 
215, 294, 297, 318; church 
of Santiago, IH-117, 203, 
322-3; triad at, 322, 357; 
Juan Rodriguez de, III- 

384 
Padua, I-298, 370, IH-197 

Pagan and Christian use, 
I-365, H-490, III-279; 
syncretism, HI-312 

Painting (French) : at Pam- 
peluna, I-279; minia- 
ture, 281; panel of Holy 
Cross, 279-83; mural at 
Leon II- 1 99, at Mellfd, I- 
278-9; Venetian: Carpac- 
cio, III, 243; Titian, II- 
115; Mantegna, III-243 

Palaz del Rey, II-396, 449, 

450,463,465 1 S. Tirso, 466 
Palencia, 1-8, II-75, 160, 
IH-4, 99, 107; bishops of, 
II-13, 16, 126; council of, 
I- 1 05; S. Sabina at, II- 
218; Peter of, m-384 



692 



INDEX 



Palestine, I-17; early 
churches of, HI- 168; cru- 
saders' churches, ni-332; 
coast of, m-329; Pales- 
tine Pilgrims' Text So- 
ciety, v. Bibliography 
and Notes 
Pambre, II-462, 467, 482 
Pampeluna, I-32, 33, 34, 78, 
192, 198, 211, 230, 236, 
247, 253, 275, 286, 302, 

329, 333, 337, 348, 351, 
362, 367, 373, 377, 380, 
II-153, IH-60, 106, 389, 
407, 434; cathedral, I- 
270-78, 283; old cathe- 
dral, 263, 284; S. Cernfn, 
262,265-9, 354; S. Firmfn, 
257 ; S. Nicolas, 262 ; tomb, 
277, II-38; bishops, 263, 
264, 270, 284, 329 

Pancorbo, I-83, II-5, 99, 
m-429 

Panicha, I-43 

Pano, M. de, I-425 

Paradise of Souls, m-80, 
221, 248; earthly, 80, 264, 
265; 01 the west, 80, 244; 
gate of Paradise, I-268; 
fruits of, 240; Collis Para- 
disiAmoenitas, 165; Para- 
dise at Orense, 71; at 
Santiago, 92, 116, 117, 
119,248 

Pardiac, I-93 

Pardo Bazan, Emilia, III- 
223, 246 

Parera, II-430 

Paris, I-101, n-31, 451; 
Notre Dame de, II-34, 
58, 258, 261; S. Jac- 
ques la Boucherie, III- 



419, 420; Bibliothdque 
Nationale, II-191 ; Cluny, 

. I-281, m-147, 421; Lou- 
vre, II-191 ; college of Na- 
varre, I-298; university, 
n-89, m-95 

Paris, Gaston, 1-70, IH-267 

Pa*ma> 1-317, 320, 321, m- 
386, 389, 390, 393, 395, 
442 

Parthenay, I-21, 64, 

Passage Honourable, II- 
248,292,301,317-348 

Patras, 1-339, ni-347 

Pau, I-78, m-424 

Paul the Deacon, I-95, m- 
283 

Peacham's Complete Gen- 
tleman, n-348 

Pedro de Huesca, II-91; de 
Medina, II-248; P. Pon- 
tones, II-138 

Pedrosa, II- 124 

PelAez, Diego, I-62, 212, 
m-45, 48, 54, 88, 99, 100, 
107, 317 

Pelayo (hermit), I-53, ni-37 

Pelegrino Curioso, 1-8 1, II- 

297, 36o, 378, 389, 395, 

426, 479, m-151, 165, 

170, 207, 211 
Pelerinage (de l'&me), III- 

172 
Pefialva, Santiago de, II- 

140, i4i,35o,355,39o 
Pennell, Joseph, IH-366 
Pepin (capitulary of), I-97 
Perigueuz, I-75, 77, III- 
353; bishop of, I-147; 
Perigord/I-6 
Persia, I-3, 4, 6, II-6; Per- 
sian lore, III-271 



I N DEX 



693 



Peter of Corbie, I-11, 19, 

m-410 
Peter (the Just), 1-383, 

389, 414, n-16, 100, m- 

418; called by Froissart 

king Dampeter 
Peter (the Pilgrim), II- 

196,454,459,111-57 
Petrus ALonsus, I- 194; de 

Deo, II-195, *9 6 , 203, 

in-381; Petri, I-11, H- 

274, m-46 
Peyrut, Jacques, I-271, 276 
Phallic emblem, IH-225; 

phalloi at Hierapolis, III- 

358 
Philip, the Fair (of France), 

I-348; of Evreux of Na- 
varre, 1-2 34 
Philip II (of Spain), H-i8, 

Philip III, n-18; Philip 

IV, I-123 
Phoenician coins (type) , III- 

291 
Picardy, I-117, 255, II-178 
Picaud, v. Aymery 
Pico Sagro, II-465, m-115, 

192 
Pidal, J. Menendez, I- 124, 

in-246, 559 
Piedrafita, II-388 
Pieros, n-364, 365, 366; S. 

Martin, 365-6; Bishop 

Osmund, 358, 366 
Pierre de Chelles, II-258, 

m-68 
Pierre de Ries, I-36, II-293 
Pilgrimage (of the soul), 

fll-248, 249, 258; souls on 

pilgrimage, I- 124, III- 

241, 264 
Pilgrimage (to S. James), I- 



9, 25, 85, 93, 134, n-59, 
60, 227, 234, 312, 333, 
334, 341, 416, m-378, 
427; road bad, II- 108, 

m-379 

Pilgrims, I-98-116, 130, 
II-105, 124, 142, 146, 
185, 221, 265, 310, 334, 
336, 358, 478, m-99, 
180, 203, 378, 419; to 
Jerusalem, m-331, 389; 
to Hierapolis, 363; carry- 
ing lore, III-258, 262-3, 

423 

Pilgrim Way (the), 1-8, 19, 
32, 188, 211, 242, 247, 
320, 326, 335, 355, 359, 
364, 413, 416, n-60, 79, 
108, 183, 255, 256, 413, 
425, IH-99, 383, 410; in 
Italy, I-322, m-388, 393; 
pilgrims' churches, II- 
438; confraternities, III- 
414 

Pillar, I-55, m-359, 361, 
364, 488; draped, m-358; 
at Saragossa, 359-61 , 488, 

497, 499, 502, 593; at 

Santiago, I-55, III-360 
Pine of Cybele, HI-317, 

360; Pinario, S. Martin, 

318; cone, II-429 
Pisa, ni-101, 491; Pisan 

pilgrim, 133; pilot, 129 
Pistoja, I-99, 352, 355, m- 

95» 386, 394 ; Bishop Aton, 

I- io 7» 355; S. Giacomo de, 

1-355 
Pisuerga, 1-399, 421, n-234 
Pliny, II-293 
Plough-land tax, I-28, 96, 

m-229 



694 



INDEX 



Ploughman (on coins), m- 
289, 292; S. Isidore the, 
n-234, 364 

Poblaci6n de Campos, II-82, 

Poblet, I-423, 425, 11-23, 
51, m-281; abbot of, II- 
18 

Poema de Fenian Gonzalez, 
I-128 

Poitiers, 1-68, 77, 392, II- 
35, 106; bishop of, I- 
147; Notre Dame la 
Grande, I- 164, 227, 229, 
III-62; S. Hilaire, I-216, 
II-145; Poitevin, I-64, 65, 
73, 213, 217, 227, 236, 
305, n-79, ni-62, 67 

Ponferrada, I-87, II-304, 
31 1 f 349. 36o, 367, 368, 
379; bridge, 358; castle, 
350; S. Tomds de las 
Ollas, 357; Bishop Os- 
mund, 358, 366 

Pont qui tremble, I-82, 84; 
HI-262, 263, 267, 272, 

377 

Pontevedra, I-87; S. Fran- 
cisco, II-394; S. Maria, 
UJ-404 

Ponz, I-356, H-29, 57, 85. 
86,105,113,247,281 

Pool (stepped): IH-362; at 
Hierapolis, 365; at Pa- 
dr6n, 204; in ThurkiU's 
vision, 362 

Popes: Alexander II, I-364, 
391, III-437; Alexander 
111,1-102; Alexander IV, 
I-348 ; Benedict XIII, m- 
316; Calixtus II, I-43, 
106, 141, n-395, m-46, 



107, 121, 137, 141; Calix- 
tus III, HI-361, 503; Cle- 
ment VII, II-17; Eugre- 
nius VI, I-300; Formosus, 
I-98; Gelasius II, HI- 106, 
107, 500; Gregory VII, 
H-125, 133, 230, III-96; 
Gregory IX, H-13; Hon- 
orius II, ni-97, 121, 127; 
Innocent II, I-60, 68, IH- 
127; Innocent VIII, II- 
17; Leo (any), I-61, 63; 
Leo X, II-17; Nicholas V, 
II-36; Pascal II, m-126; 
Paul IV, n-17; Sixtus V, 
II-18; Urban II, m-46, 
88,97 

Port of Aspe, I-77, 78, 83, 
147; P. d'Espagne, I-32; 
P. de Cebrero, II-395; 
P. de Cize, I-77, 78, 108; 
P. of Rabanal, II-308, 
350; P. of Valcarcel, II- 
386 

Porter, A. Kingsley, I-452 

Portrait, state, m-281 

Portugal, n-89, 90, m-310; 
kings of, m-181, 190, 
219; Alfonso IX, II-204; 
Sancho II, I-404; D. 
John of, n-347 

Prague, I-17, m-425 

Prat, Caceres, II-361 

Pre-Romanesque, 1-8, II- 
363, m-409 

Primacy in Galicia, I-28, 67, 
II-237, m-119; Leon ex- 
empt, II-220 

Priscillian, I-59, m-334, 
345; Priscillianism, II- 
222, 237, m-237, 264, 316 

Prise de Pampelune, I-33 



INDEX 



695 



Procopius, m-273 
Proserpine (dedication to), 

m-296; the Celtic, 269; 

the Iberian, 295; Saint 

Proserpine, 295, 303 
Provence, I-170, 172, 343, 

ni-329; Provencals, I- 

295, n-127 
Puchstein, ni-354, 366 
Puente de Ard6n, I- 105; 

Cesures, III-68, 117, 215; 

de Domingo F16rez, 1-86; 

de Garcia Rodriguez, I- 

85; de Ulla, m-20; de 

Villarente, II-165 
Puentedeume, I-85 
Puente la Reyna, I-77, 236, 

246, 250, 286, 294-98, 

324, 362, n-474, m-106, 

414; el Crucifijo, I-289, 

300, 302, 324; S. Pedro, 

306; Santiago, 303 
Puerto Marin, I-72, 81, 86, 

101,11-386,431,432,436, 

443-4, 452-61, 474, 479, 
482,111-401, 414; S.Maria 
de Ribalogio, 11-455? S. 
Marina, 452, III-303; S. 
Nicolas, 11-455, and San- 
tiago, 458-59; French ele- 
ments, 460 
Pulgar, Hernando del, II- 

_ 38, 494 

Purchas, 1-8 1, 371, II-184; 
his pilgrim, ni-261, 426, 

564 
Purgatory of S. Patrick, m- 

263 
Puy,le, 1-75, 98, 287; Notre 
Dame du, I-iii, 118, 
336-7, m-54, 66, 366, 
489; S. Michel de l'Ai- 



guille, I-458, m-379; 
steps at, III-366, 378-9; 
Syrians at, ni-366 

Quadrado, 1-86, 161, II- 
80, 82, 86, 179, 183, 249, 
257, 386 

Queen's Bridge (the), I- 

324, 398 
Quercy, 1-6, 108 

Queza, II- 124 

Quincialubel, II-98 

Quiflones (chapel of), II- 

345; Suero de, II-317- 

348 
Quintana, II-124, 141 
Quintero, I-418 
Quixote, Don, I- 154, II-290 

Rabanal, I-72, 101, II-304, 
313, 3M, 315, 408; Port 
of, 308, 309, 350 
Rabe* de las Calzadas, II-72 
Rada y Delgado, II-190 
Ramiro Maestrescuela, I- 

107, 355, in-95 
Ramsay and Bell, I-442 
Raoul de Cambrai, I-95, II- 

361 
Rasines, Pedro or Juan, I- 

417 
Ratisbon, m-245 

Raymond of Burgundy, I- 
14, 41, n-60, m-90, 317 

Redempto, II-233 

Reggio, I-95 

Reinach, Salomon, HI-293, 
300 

Relics of S.James, 1-6 1, 99, 

108, m-302, 339 
Reole la, I-109 
Revenga, II-82 



696 



INDEX 



Reville, m-310, 311, 368 

Rheims, I-n, 18, II-240, 
257, 266, m-434; Alber- 
ic of, I-42 ; Council of, I- 
64, 94, IH-96, 108; par- 
liament of Champagne 
at, I-119 

Rhineland, I-430, II-42, III- 
294; v. also Cologne; 
Rheinish, II-191, HI- 147 

Rhone, I-239; Bouches du 
Rhone, I-392 

Riafio, II-348 

Ribadeneyra, I-411, 439 

Ribaforada, I-291 

Ribagorza, I-399 

Ribas de Sil (S. Esteban 
de),H-i98, 363, in-211 

Richard Coeur de Lion, I- 
108, 147 ; Cardinal Legate, 
n-126, 133, 500 

Rioja, I-370, 397, 420, 421, 

rf-174 
Ripoll,I-i2, 41, 266, II- 1 06, 

151, HI-391, 392, 393. 

394 » 395 
Rivoira, Commendador, I- 

4,5 
Roads (old), I-22; Roman, 

I-86-89; pilgrims', I-85, 

86, 88, 382; v. also Way 

of S. James 

Robert de Coucy, 111-68 

Rocaforte, I-233 

Rocamadour,I-i5, 113, 118, 

"9,335-6,339 

Rodrigo Ximenez (arch- 
bishop), I-57, 196, II-38, 
89, 119, 125, 212, 222, 
225, 257, 277 

Rodriguez de Lara, Pedro, 
n-331 



Rohan, Guillen de, II-247 

Roland, I-21, 28, 39, 75, 
322, 381, 393, n-60, m- 
70, 388, 428, 449-51 

Roman architecture, I-4, 5, 
8, 290, 321, II-25, 144, 
IH-393; roads, 1-86-^88, 
411, II-122, m-442; sta- 
tions, I-87, 88, H-72, 86, 
178, 179, HI-38, 458; 
coins, III-287-92, 297, 
301, 309, 310, 320, 366; 
inscriptions, II- 180, 298, 
III-286, 293, 294, 295-7, 
314; remains, I-430, II- 
29, 178, 181, 363, 466, 
III-276; R. domination, 
II- 1 25, 126, 133; Legio 
VII, Gemina, H-178, IH- 
291 ; Romans in Spain, I- 
294.386,11-150, 178, 180- 
81,293,301,361,111-281; 
walls, II- 1 79 

Roman religion, II- 1 8 1 , 1 99, 
300, 411, 432, 433, II£- 
231, 278-84, 279, 283; 
state worship, 282; cult 
of Augustus, 304, 308; 
symbolism in, I-171, II- 

199, 432 

Romances (Asturian), I- 
124, 127, II-418; Casti- 
lian, I-398, n-60, 70, 77, 
83, 146; Gallegan, I-109, 
in-562; English, I-461 

Romanesque, I-9, 74, 270, 
321, 334, 342, n-22, 29, 
77, 92, 107, 134, 161, 200, 
373, 444, ni-67, 4io, 416, 
458; age, I-303, m-74, 
381, 403; Spanish style, 
H-242, fil-414 



I NDEX 



697 



Romantic Spain, I-407 
Rome (as carrier), 1-8, 9, 

II-162, 192 
Rome (the see of Peter), I- 

83»92,94»i87,ni-95,96, 

106, 168; S. Peter's, m- 

63; Aracoeli, I-430; S. 

Paul without, II-201 
Rome, Ephesus, and Com- 

postella, I-28, m-357 
Rome, Jerusalem,and Com- 

postella, I-72, 109, 358, 

447, m-90, 259 
Romieu de Vifieneuve, I- 

"3 
Romulus buried, m-231 

Roncal, I-230 

Roncevauz, I-25, 31, 37, 78, 
83, 230, 247, 382, n-60, 
m-414, 449-53; called 
also Roncesvalles 

Rosenkreutz (Chymical 
Marriage of) , HI- 1 72, 466 

Rouen, II-i 77, 272, m-434 

Rouergue, I-39, 99 

Roulin, Dom, DI-79 

Rousillon, I-7 

Royal Domain,I-i5, 17, 271, 
278; v. Isle of France 

Rozmital (Knight of), II- 10, 
35. 4't 6 5. 66, 184, III- 
173, 221, 461; his secre- 
taries, II-155, III-178, 
182, 204, 207, 245; Scha- 
schek, 182; Tetzel, II- 
155, 485, m-178, 184-5, 
221 

Rubroques (Fr. William), I- 

115 
Ruitelan, II-390, 391 

Rule, Our Lady of the, 

II-241; v. N. S. de la 



Regla; v. Augustinian, 
Benedictine, Cistercian, 
Cluniac, under those Or- 
ders; Rule of S. Isidore, 
I-28, II-215; Rule of S. 
Loy, I- 1 02 
Running Water, I-124, IH- 

242, 272 

SS. Abdon and Senen, III- 

346 
S. Alvito, II-216, 217, 218, 

237 
S. Andrew, I-134, 341, II- 

260, m-82, 250, 341; S. 

Andres de Armentia, III- 

436; de Teijido, III-241; 

de Sarria, II-437 
S. Anna (her family), II- 

260, m-335 
S. Anthony (abbot), II-290, 

466 
SS. Athanasius and Theo- 
dore (Companions of S. 

James), 1-6 1, III-360, 361 

498 
S. Aventin, II- 199 
S. Bartholomew, I-378, II- 

260 
S. B^nezet, I-101, II- 196 
S. Benoit-sur-Loire, I-99, 

163, H-54, 203, ni-448 
S. Bernard, I- 109 
S. Bona of Pisa, I- 1 29, III- 

267, 272 
S. Bridget (of Ireland), m- 

243, 368; called also S. 
Bride; S. Bridget of Swe- 
den, I-116 

S. Casilda, II-38, 50 
S. Catalina, 11-314, 315 
S. Christina, I-146 



698 



INDEX 



SS. Cosmas and Damian, 

II-423, m-336 f 346 
SS. Creus, I-362, 377, 436, 

n-272 
S. Cristeta, II- 188, 218 
S. Cristobal, 11-357; S. 

Christopher, II-279 
S. Crista de Burgos, II-64 
S. Cruz de la Serfs, I- 166, 

189, 318, 323, n-78, m- 

386,411,442 
S. Cyprian, H-244 
S. Denis, I-28, 278, II-115, 

25<>» 258, 261, m-389; 

the Person, IEI-417 
S. Domingo de la Calzada, 

I-75, 101, 407, 413-6, n- 

5, 98, 417, m-294, 411, 

432, 433, 542; church, I- 
416-7; stalls, 4:7, 419, II- 
298; retable, I-311, 421, 
426 

S. Domingo de Silos, I-412; 
for the convent, v. Silos 

S. Dominic, I-i 13, II-38 

S. Eligius or S. Loy, I-102 

S. Elizabeth (of Portugal), 
I-116 

S. Elmo (S. Pedro Gonzalez 
Telmo), S. Elmo's fire, 
III-299 

SS. Emetrius and Celadon- 
ius , II- 1 8 1 , 1 90, III-299 

S. Eulalia, I-203, HI- 163, 
296, 479; cathedral of 
Barcelona, HI- 163 

S. Eutropius of Saintes (pas- 
sion), I-60; for church, v. 
Saintes 

SS. Facundus and Primi- 
tivus, I-75, 97, 122, II- 
117, 181, III-299; monas- 



tery of S. Facundo, II- 

82 
S. Firmin, I-255, 257 
S. Foy (of Conques), I-75; 

called S. Faith; for church, 

v. Conques 
S. Francis, I-113, m-164, 

168 
S. Froilan, n-256, 264 
S. Front, I-75 
S. Fructuosus, I-94, II-293, 

35i 
SS. Genadius, I-98, 11-141, 

300,360 
SS. Gervase and Protase, 

m-313 
S. Gilles, 1-2 1, 74, 77, 11 8, 

"9, 275, 343, m-390; 

S. Giles, 1-74-7, 275; m- 

390; Fulbert's Mass, I-74 
S. Gin6s, I-74, m-349 
S. Gregory of Ostia, I-412 
S. Hilary, I-74, 75, 77 
S. Honorat, I-74 
S. pdefonsus, n-215 
S. Ifiigo, I-181 

S. Isidore, 1-75, n-183, 193, 
221-242, 280, 504; spouse 
of, 221, 279, 505; suc- 
cessor of S. James, II-223, 
505, m-328; rain-maker, 
II-231, 233, 280; writings, 
I- 1 01, 401; apparitions, 
II-193, 222, 223, 225, 226, 
228; Doctor Egregius, 

214-37 
S. Isidore the Ploughman, 

n-232, 364, m-290, 328 

S. James Major, I-26, 27, 

74, 75,99, 107, 110,267, 

367, 393, 413, n-92, 



I N DEX 



699 



S. James Major — Cont'd 
190, 260, 318, m-65, 66, . 
284, 337. 341. 367; legend, 
I-46-50, III-230; Mgr. 
Duchesne on, I-56-63; 
his Epistle, II-259; Pro- 
tevangel, m-307, 547; 
collect, I-iii; Miracles, 

I-44, 130-132, HI-504- 
15; Dominus, II-223, 
lft-161-2, 192; going to 
Coimbra, II-227, IH-193; 
White Horseman, I-5< , 
96, 131, 413, n-226, 
ni-193, 283, 301, 515; 
Matamoros, IQ-300, 321, 
179, 289; a cult-centre at 
Saragossa, II-234, IU- 
289, 359-61, 488; at Gua- 
dix, I-60, ni-231, 295; 
at Chartres, I-40 

S. James the brother of 
the Lord, m-86, 334, 335. 
338, 346; looks like Him, 
lfi-86, 346; His twin, 485; 
S. James as twin, II- 190, 
260, m-291; as Castor, 
UI-179, 299; replaced by 
S. George, m-515; rival 
to S. James, II-92, 194, 
221, 227; double to, II- 
221, 229, IQ-505; com- 
petition with Santiago, 
II-92, 221, 227 

S. James successor of bull- 
god, m-324, 505; v. also 
A dad; Far-traveller, III- 
179, 204, 275-6; as pil- 
grim, II-273, and illus- 
trations with pilgrims, I- 
179, n-157, 430, 447; 
hat, II-259, m-279, 310, 



320; cloak, m-339; foot- 
prints, m-209; psycho- 
pompos, m-179, 232,319, 
488, v. also Hermes, and 
S. Michael; Lord of the 
dead, III-179, 232; 
chthonian power, U-230, 
236, 249, 297, 301; vege- 
tation-spirit, ni-i 79-80, 
227-232, 294, 327, 488; 

springs, HI- 179, 209; 
fruits, III- 1 79-80, 229; 
solar, III-282, 294; feasts 
solstitial and spring, III- 
2 30-3i ; a faded sun-god, 
IH-294; Son of Thunder, 

ni-156, 159, 327 

S. James, Peter and John, 
HI-40, 209; S. J. and 
seven Disciples, I-&o, III- 
316; the two Compan 
ions, 1-6 1, m-360, 361; 
confused with S. James 
Minor, II-2 50-60, III-230 

S. James Minor, H-259, III- 

75, 83, 298, 3i5,335» 340, 
341, 342, 346; head at 

Carrion, III-302; at San- 
tiago, m-103, 141, 302; 
feast of May-Day, III- 
230; draped staff, III- 

359 
S. Jean d'Angely, I-75, 77; 

abbot, m-112 
S. Jean Pied du Port, I-78 
S. Jean de Luz, II- 156 
S. Jerome, I-291, II-38 
S. John Baptist: S. Isidro 

dedicated to, II- 188, 212, 

218; altar at Leon, II-244 ; 

shrine at Santiago, III- 

40 



700 



I NDEX 



S. John Evangelist, 1-28, II- 
260, m-65, 66, 72, 322, 
34 if 345; also Ephesus 

S. Juan de las Abadesas, II- 
500 

S. Juan de Bafios, I-215, 

S. Juan de Ortega, 1-431, 
433, 439, ni-239, 243, 
412; person, 102, 369, 
430, 432-3, 435, 438, 
II-38; prior, I-437 

S. Juan de la Pefia, I- 162, 
177, 178-189, 200, 213, 
263, 318, 323, 326, 342, 
345,35i,n-i03, 105, 106, 
260, 364, m-386, 387, 
395, 404, 408, 409; chron- 
icle of, I- 1 96 ; burial place, 
I-177, 189, n-202, 203; 
abbot, I-181 

S. Juan de Sahagun, II- 3 7 

S. Jude, II-6, 260, m-82, 

336, 337, 341, 347 
S. Julian the Harbourer, II- 

6, 8, 216, III-378, 540; in 
Astorga, II-301; of Bri- 
oude, I-98; de Moraime, 

n-364, ni-211, 215, 2i&r 

7, 401 ; with a dove, m- 
218; of the North, I-74 

SS. Julian and Basilisa, 
m-252, II-417; at Samos, 
II-282, 417, III-252; pos- 
sibly, m-218 

S. Julian of Burgos, II-37 

S. Justa, II-216, 504; and 
Rufina, n-220, 504, m- 
320 

S. Justo, II-292 

S. Leandro, II-215, 216, 
242 



S. Leonard of Limoges, I- 

74, 77, 416 
S. Lesmes, II-5, 38 
S. Loup de Naud, I-243 
S. Mancio, II- 137 
S. Marcos, II-479, 480; v. 

Mountjoy 
S. Maria de Priesca, If- 164; 

del Puig, 1-337; de Vian, 

I-85 
S. Marina, 11-452-3, HI- 

303; at Sarria, II-424; at 

Aguas Santas,II-364, 453 ; 

at Puerto Marin, II-452- 

3 
SS. Marinus and Patronus, 

II-453; Marinus, Bishop 

of Doliche, IU-321 

S. Mart, I-32; S. Marta, II- 
96; S. Marta de Tera, I- 
443, in-384, 398; SS. 
Martas, I-32 

S. Martial de Limoges, I- 
74, II-200, 202 

S. Martin of Braga, I-56 

S. Martin of Tours, I-74, 
75,77, 1 13, 361-2, n-290; 
church, I-12; tomb at 
Candes, I-ioi; at Leon, 
II-289, 290; de Sande, I- 
94; de Villarente, I-85; 
de Unx, I-215 

S. Mary of Egypt, I-299; 
S. Mary Magdalen, III- 
243 ; S. Mary of le Puy, I- 
77, 1 1 1 ; v. N.Ddu Puy; S. 
Mary Salome, m-75, 3 1 5, 
322, 335; S. Mary Virgin, 
IH-75, 335; first church in 
her honour, III-331, 332 

S. Michael, I-29, 393, II- 
281, 282, 290, fil-76; sue- 



I NDEX 



701 



S. Michael—Cont'd 

ceeds Hermes, II-282; 
psychopompos, II-282, 
III-319; dedications to, I- 
33-34, II-282-3, Ill-ill; 
S. Michele in Gargano, 
Mont S. Michel, S. Mi- 
chael's Mount, I-23-4 

S. Miguel del Camino, II- 
287, 365; de Escalada, II- 
1 72, v. Escalada; in Excel- 
sis, II-282, m-148; de 
Linio, I-441, II-198, 427; 
Villa S. Michaelis, II-413 

S. Mihiel, m-434 

S. Millan, I-54, 97, 413, 
abbey, I-382, 397, 412, 
m-446 

S. Nicholas of Bari, I-436, 

438 
S. Osith, n-364, 365 

St. Paul, Anthyme-, ni-45- 

7 
S. Pedro de las Duefias, II- 

79, 109, 121, HI-408, 410; 

de Montes, I-98, II-352, 

360; de las Ollas, II-357 
S. Pelayo, II-219, 504 
S. Perpetua, III-255 
S. Philip, n-259, 260, III- 

82, 333, 34I.34 2 ; type of 
Adad, 333 ; twin of Christ, 

345 
S. Quirse, HI-412 

S. Raphael, I-74, II-8 

S. Restituta, III-303 

S.Rita of Cascia, 1-438,11-92 

S. Roque, I-74, II-8, 290, 

401,466,473,475 

S. Rosendo, m-42 

S. Sabina, II-188, 189, 218 

S. Salvador, altar at Leon, 



II-244; chapel at las 
Huelgas, n-21, 24, 27; 
early dedications, v. 5. 
Saviour; S. S. de Fonce- 
badon, II-310; de Monte 
Irago, II-310; de Ley re, 
I-226; S. S. de Sarria, 
II-283, 421 ; at S. Domin- 
go de la Calzada, I-415; 
at Oviedo, I-83, 311; 
de Val de Dios, I-2I5, 
II-408, m-50 

S. Savin, 1-2 16, II- 199 

S. Sebastian, I-306 

S. Sernin, Saturninus, I- 
75, 264, 267; calledj also 
S. Cernin 

S. Sepulcre, Neuvy, n-91; 
v. also Holy Sepulchre, 
Estella, Eunate, Torres 

S. Seurin, I-38, 75 

S. Silva of Aquitaine, m- 

334, 343, 364 
S. Simon Cleophas, II-260, 

ni-335,338,34i,346 
S. Susanna, m-93, 303; 

twin trees, 304 
S. Thaddeus, m-336, 341, 

343 
S. Thomas Apostle, m-82, 

341, 343, 346; twin of 
Christ, 345; of Canter- 
bury, II-299, 386; of the 
Pots, n-357; of Villa- 
nova, II-47 
S. Toribio, II-215, 309, m- 

334 
S. Torquato, m-231 

S. Trophime, I-74 

S. Ursula, I-37, III-243 

S. Valerius, II-352 

S. Veremund, I-359, 363 



r 



702 



INDEX 



S. Vincent of Avila, II- 188, 
189, 218, 233; of Sara- 
gossa, I-40, II-233, 270 

S. Vitores,H-37, 38 

S. William of Aquitaine, I- 
74; of Vercelli, I-99 

S. Zita, II-364, 365 

S. Zoyl, Bt-97; sacrist of, 
m-107 

Sagunto, III-320 

Sahagun, I-28, 34, 97, 359, 
441, n-99, 109, 118-51, 
159. 163, 166, 181, 218, 
253, m-99, 103, 106, 136, 
147, 281, 292, 299, 408, 
410; abbot Alfonso, II- 
122; Diego, 126-8; Ju- 
lian, I-97; William, II- 
140; abbey consecrated, 
II-127; S. Francisco, II- 
149-50; S. Lorenzo, 122, 
1 40, 1 48 ; S. Mancio, chapel 
of, 134. 136, 138; Santi- 
ago, 149; S. Tirso, 147; 
Trinidad, 149 

Saintes,I-2i, 188, 190, 215, 
240, 342, II-35, 192, 43i, 
ni-409, 413, 445, 491; 
Saintonge, I-73, 305, II- 
375; bishop, I-147; S. Eu- 
tropius, I-65, 75, 77, 190 

Salamanca (old cathedral), 
I-171, 360, II-35; chapel, 
II-26; chapter, HI-52; 
style, III-409, II-36; S. 
Cristobal, I-315; uni- 
versity, I-106, 359, in- 
197; see, III-118; bishop, 
IH-141; Virgin, II-284 

Salambo, III-320; v. Syrian 
Goddess 



Saldana, II-244; castle of, 
II-124; count of, II-60, 
96 

La Salette, II-92 

Salermo, III-95 

Salisbury, I-3 74, II-239 

Samos, I-220, n-218, 282, 
396, 413, m-408; S. Ju- 
lian, II-417, m-410; S. 
Michael , II-4 1 4 ; chapel of, 
417; lost church, 419, III- 
410; abbot Viril, HI-252 

Sampiro, II-93, 293 

Sancha (queen of Ferdi- 
nand the Great), II- 188; 
sister of Alfonso VII, II- 
193, 203, 221, 279, 280, 
5o8,HI-i26; of Ferdinand 
the Great, II-2 1 8 ; of Vere- 
mund, II-2 10-14 

Sandoval, Abbot of, II-305 

Sandoval, Fr. Prudencio, I- 
187,11-118,129,134, 147, 
169, 298 

Sanguesa, I-15, 39, 193, 
229, 230-50, 294, 304, 
320,356,374,11-105, 106, 
107, 147,111-62, 79, 319, 
382, 411, 415; S. Maria, 
1-234-37, 246, 249; Car- 
men, 248; S. Nicholas, 
247; S. Salvador, 248; 
Santiago, 247 

Sansol, I-369 

Santiago, (Aymery's de- 
scription) ,01-59-66 ; plan, 
46; early history, 35-58, 
128; splendours, 140-51; 
crypt, 59, 163; S. James 
Undercroft, 35, 39, 53- 
8; sculpture, 398; Puer- 
ta de las Platerias, II- 



INDEX 



703 



Santiago — Cont 'd 

422, 460, m-i8, 252, 395; 
II-104, 106, 268, 454, 
458, 482, m-71, 184, 
255» 375-8; statue of 
S. James, II- 104, III- 
74, 83, 86, 329; towers, 
n-485, m-44, 52, 59, 
191; three churches 164- 
7» 365; cloister, 55-7; tri- 
forium galleries, 61, 167; 
outside of, 379; Corticela, 
60f I05» 315; fountain, 
1 15-6; treasures, 108, 127, 
140-41; altar, 92, 171; 
ark, 176; baldachin, 148; 
bells, 140, 180; bord6n, 
178, 297; chain, 177, 178, 
365; crown, 171, 177, 
365; retable, 144, 171; 
supernatural light, 59, 
163, 166, 167, 194, 260, 
269* 361; wind, 166, 
269; donations, 142, 301 ; 
burials, II-423, DI-126; 
style of, II-106, 458, m- 
218; S. copied, 401 ; back- 
wash from, 291, 383, 
401, 404; bishops of 
Ataulf, III-41, 317; Cres- 
conius, III-44 , 96; Dalma- 
tius, III-88, 91, 97; Gu- 
desteo, III-48; Gunde- 
sind, II-452; Mozoncio, 
II-456, III-44; Peter the 
Necromancer, m-58; 
archbishops, Alvaro de 
Isorna, III-233; Juan de 
S. Clemen te, HI- 166 

Santos Domnos, I-97, II- 
122, 190; v. SS. Facundus 
and Primitives 



Sar, S. Mary of, II- 1 09, 192, 
430, 459, 492, m-93, 131, 

413 

Saragossa, I-28, 33, 156, 
196, 198, 200, 279, 297, 
301, 422, II-26, m-99, 
101, 361, 488; Happy 
Other World, DI-230, 
2 5 2 » 359; S. James at, 
II-234, 455; cult of the 
Pillar, HI-359-61, 488; 
church, I-423; S. Pablo, 
I-424; cathedral dedi- 
cated to S. Saviour, III- 
308 ; nuns of S. Sepulchre, 
I-3I5; coins, II-234, m- 
289, 292 

Sardinia, II-431 

Sarria,II-283, 396, 419, 420, 
426, 454; S. Saviour, II- 
421,111-251; SS. Cosmas 
and Damian, II-423; S. 
Marina, II-426 

Sarria, S. Andres de, II-437 

Sasam6n, II- 107, 165, III- 
290 

Saumur, I-2 1 , 377, n-20, 108 

Saviour (early dedications 

to), n-244, 283, 453, ra- 

308; Feast of Transfigu- 
ration, I-226, m-75, 357 

Scandinavia, I-n; Scan- 
dinavian element, III- 
269, 270, 415, 416, 492 

Scott, m-266, 273 

Sedes, Majestatis, II-299, 
469, m-74; Sapientiae, 
I-241 

Segovia, I-14, III-391; ca- 
tiiedral,III-52 ; S.Ciprian, 
I-208; S. Martin and S. 
Millan, I-164 



704 



INDEX 



Sem Tob, H-ioo 
Senlis, I-243, 374 
Sens, II-240 

Seo de Urgell, 1-15, m-392 
Sepulchre (the Holy Church 

of), I-290, 291, 309, 405, 

n-182, m-168, 169-71, 

461 ; Order of, q. v. Holy 

Sepulchres at Compos- 

tella, m-304, 338, 365; 

at Saragossa, 361, 468; 

Companions, v. S. Athan- 

asius 
Sepultados, m-281; called 

also hacheras, II-287 
Sepulveda, n-292 
Serapis,I-8, 9, m-252, 308, 

in-488; type of S. James, 

310 
Serra (Jaime and Pere), 

in-346 
Sertorius, III-244 
Severus, Alexander, III-3 1 3 
Seville, I-297, 298, II-4, 52, 

89, 109, 178, 216-7, 230, 

231, 233, 239, 242, 276, 

277, 347, m-102, 298, 

320; saises, 363; Virgen 

del Pilar, m-360 
Shelley, IH-80 
Shrines (old), I-23, 141 
Sicilian, I-5, 295, m-90, 

251; la Martorana, II- 

201 
Side porch, I- 164, 235, II- 

287, 288, 289, 313, 314; 

cloister, II-148, 163, 408 
Siena, I-235, m-20, 187 
Signs of the Zodiac, I-244, 

II-181, 189, 190, m-63, 

294 
Siguenza, HI-4 1 1 



Sil, 1-86, II-385, 420 
Silense, I-ioo, 106, 11-98, 

216, m-44 
SiloS, Gil de, II-38, 49; 

French Symbolism, 39; 

Diego de, II-39, 49, 53 
Silos, S. Domingo de, I-i 83, 

188, 190, 342, 343, n-216, 

ni-390, 442, 448; frontal 

from, III- 148; the person, 

I-412 
Simancas (battle), 1-53, 

413, n-224 
Sin-eater, m-246 
Slavonians, I-117, 111-133, 

268; Slavonic, 280 
Sluter, Claus, I-16, 277, II- 

36,56 
Sobieski, I-371, 430, m-95, 

212, 363 
Sobrado, m-44, I2 5 
Sobrarbe, I-159, 177, 399, 

m-44 
Soissons, n-34, m-433; 

bishop, I-42; Soissonais, 

n-85 
Sol, m-309, and Christ, 368 ; 

Invictus, II-300, m-282 ; 

Sanctissimus,m-228,23 1 , 

232, 282, 303, 308, 368 
Soler,£[-i42, 143,0-380 
Solomon and Sheba, II-55, 

267, m-70-1, 84, 389 
Solsona, I-275, m-74, 346 
Somport, I-146, 147, 397 
Son of Thunder, m-37, 1 56, 

322, 327; sons of thunder, 

336, 345J thunder-god, 

324, 327, 367; thunder. 

bolt, 192, 348, 35i 
Soria, 1-8, 334, 341, m-383, 

395. 401. 4*3; S. Juan de 



^ 



INDEX 



705 



Soria— Cont'd 

Duero, I-290, 434; de 
Rabaneyra, IQ-384; S. 
Pedro, I-342, m-396, 438, 
S. Tomas, I-345, II-102, 
IH-74; province of, III- 
290; road to, I-388 

Sos, I-233, 250 

Soter, n-283, 453, ni-158, 
308, 488 

Souillac, I-15, 266, 339, II- 

1A4, m-353, 409 

Souls, little, m-76, 243, 
244; in Limbo, 242; un- 
born, 226; passing across 
the sky, 269; among the 
stars, 235; singing, 253- 
8, 259; white, 73, 546 

Spanish beauty, I-258-60, 
m-31; isolation, m-285; 
scholars, I- 12, 20, HI- 
293; virtues, m-7, 16 

Spiers, Phen6, m-332 

Spoleto, m-283 

Stair (the great), HI-53, 205, 
m-362, 365, 366 

Stein, Henri, I- 13 

Steles, II- 1 82 

Stephen, the Greek, I- 116, 
m-53, 194 

Strasbourg, II-275, IH-389 

Street, I-u, 21, 283, 319, 
419, n-30, 49, 104, 108, 
192, 196, 197, 203, 250, 
265, 272, 297, IH-374, 
460 

Strong (Mrs. Arthur), I-430 

Strzygowsky, I-4 

Sun-god of Heliopolis, m- 
301; attributes of S. 
James, 321, 328; a faded 
sun-god, 294 



Swans, m-300 
Syncretism, m-294, 307, 

308, 311, 313, 357, 367; 
law of, 307 
Syria, I-3, 4, 9, 10; influence 
HI-3°3» 366; architect, I- 
9. 290, 361, m-327, 366, 
409, 489; style, I-364, II- 
1 83, m-353 ; emblems, II- 
182, m-251 ; Syro-Byzan- 
tine, I-293, III-67; Syrian 
influx, m-323, 325; bis- 
hop, II-215, m-364; 
saints, 346; cults, II- 183, 
III-368; triads m-322, 
357; Baals, 321 ; Goddess, 
II-220, 504, III-307, 312, 
320, 363 

Tafalla, I-264 

Talavera, HI- 142 

Tamara, II-80, 86 

Tarazona, I-147, 156, m- 
411 

Tarragona, I- 198, 297, II- 
107, 178, m-308 

Tarrasa, I-168, m-346 

Tartary, I-115 

Taurobolium, m-31 7, 324 

Taurus, I-317, 322 

Teijido, S. Andres de, III- 
240, 241 

Temple, Order of the, I- 
200, 287, 292, 299, 314, 
II-85, m-418; churches 
of, I-320, H-80, 85, 91; 
castles, II-350; tombs, 
II-91; cross, II-92; tem- 
plars, n-350, 433, 452, 
m-251; building, I-io 

Teresa of Portugal, II-296, 
m-112 



V 



706 



I ND EX 



Thammuz, HI-315 
Theban Legion, I-37 
Theodomir (Bishop), 1-45, 

53 
Theodore (master), II-254 

Theodosius the Great, III- 

351. 365, 366; the pilgrim, 

III-336, 337 
Thermosilla (the Blessed 

Jerome), I-427 
Thomas and Robert (mas- 
ters), n-298 
Three Churches, IH-164- 

8 
Thurkill (Thorkill), I-412, 

456, n-364, m-55, 354; 

his Vision, 539-48 
Tiermas, I-202, 230, 255 
Tiobre, S. Martin de, III- 

93 
Tokens, pilgrims', IH-117, 

424; I-frontispiece, II- 

447 
Toledo, 1-33, 80, 98, 404, 

n-26, 34, 98, 126, 129, 
147, 148, 151, 220, 228, 
237; siege of, I-297, II- 
228; taking of, IH-418; 
councils of, I- 1 73, II-215, 
HI-316; see, DI-91; bre- 
viary, 6-233; use, II-207; 
S. Ildefonso, II-215; S. 
Julian, I-57, II-216; ca- 
thedral, I-n, 352, II-41, 
51, 215, 238, 242, III- 
402 ; S. John of the Kings, 
II-57; Bernard of, v. 
Bernard; Raymond of, 
HI- 1 28; Roderick of, v. 
Roderigo XimSnez 
Toral de los Vados, II-350, 
361 



Tordesillas,II-247, 347 
Toro, I-315, 360, n-35, 102, 

IH-79, 81, 401 
Torres, I-72, 287, 309, 314, 

368, n-80, 91, 105, m- 

386, 408 
Torsello Sanuto, HI- 168; 

Marino, 340 
Tortosa, m-329, 330, 360, 

361; first church of Our 

Lady, 330, 360 

Totem, IQ-323 

Toulouse, I-2 1, 77, 82, 99, 
113, 130, 138, 172, 263, 
296, 343, n-376; school 
of, I-11, 14,214, 223, n- 
103, 104, 105, 106, no, 
189, m-85, 382, 383, 384, 
39°, 398, 409; Toulousan 
Renaissance, II- 193, III- 
383, 401 ; borrowed from 
Santiago, m-252; S. Ser- 
nin, I-12, 214, 284, II-197, 
253, m-46, 61, 252, 381, 

443 
Toutain, HI-286, 298, 308, 

3i8 
Towers, II-144, 145, m-59, 

380,391,411,461 
Traba, Counts of, IJI-98, 

101, 112, 115, 118, 125, 

126 
Traba jo, Barrio de, II-211; 

T. del Camino,II-279,28o 
Tramoyeres, I-425 
Irani, I-302, 322 
Transfiguration, I-226, 228, 

II-422, m-66, 73 
Tree of the Cross, I-274; of 

Life, m-73, 80, 243, 250, 

264, 265; of Jesse, 1H- 

74 



I N DEX 



707 



Triacastela, 1-79, n-282, 
385, 388, 405, 410-11, 

4M, 435 
Tribal Hero, HI-229, 232, 

282, 294, 364 
Troyes, I-17, 82, 296, m- 

434; bishop of, I-42 
Tudela, I-200, 301, 397, II- 

11,256 
Tudor, Mary, II- 154, 242, 

m-90, 426 
Tumbo, A, in-35; Tumbo 

B, I-65, in-298, 303; 

Tumbo Negro, I-199, III- 

58 
Turpin, I-26, 96, 322, II- 

116, 203, III-451; Chron- 
icle of, I-26, 31, 34, 45, 
60, 67, 70, m-229, 417; 
Gallegan version, I-23, 95 
Tuy, n-81, 108, 225, m- 

91,93,113,136,191,235, 
295, 299, 301, 316, 386, 

394, 402, 403, 404-5, 416 
Twins, II-97, 181, 190, 423, 

m-301, 327, 334-47; 
twin apostles, 343-4; S. 
James Twin of Christ, 
346, 488; twin legions, 
291; t. pillars, 298, 358; 
t. saints, II- 190, ni-299, 
301, 346; one chthonian, 
346; S. George substi- 
tuted, 515; girl saints, 
302; sisters, 309, 345 
Twist, m-415 

Ucctes, I- 1 02 

Uju6, I-213, 292, 352, 377, 

II-364, m-409 
Ulm, 1-17,11-58 
Urdos, I-146 



Urraca (queen), I-195, 197, 
199, 201, n-78, 99, 135, 
204, 220, 296, 395, 421, 
454, m-90, 98-100, 1 ii- 
iS, 119, 122, 137, 141, 
183, 464; U. queen of 
Zamora, U-188, 189, 244 

Uzerches, HI-96 

Valbanera, I-411 

Valcarcel, I-103, II-370; 
Vega de, II-384, 385; S. 
Maria de O teres, m-115 

ValdSs, n-67 

Valdejunquera, I-397 

Valencia, I-196, 198, 297, 
315, 425, n-63, m-309; 
taking of, III-418; coins 
of, m-320, V. deZ). Juan, 
n-325, 347; counts of, 
325 

Valenciano, Alonso, and 
Benito, II-248 

Valenciennes, I-82 

Valladolid,I-8, 73, 360, 420, 
n-89, 239, 243, ni-391; 
council of, I- 1 05; la An- 
tigua, II-145; S. Benito, 
H-394, 395; stalls, I-4 1 8, 
420; retable, 420-1; ab- 

• bot, I-364; university, I- 

359 
Vallejo, Domingo de, II- 298 
Val Tajada, II-309 
Val de Soz, II- 141 
Valverde, II-280 
Vasari,ni-i64 
Vasconcellos, Leite de, III- 

287 
Vascongadas (provincias), 

ni-430 
Vazquez, Ruy, HI- 185 



708 



INDEX 



Vega y Verdugo, III- 147, 

166 
Velasco, Pedro Fernandez 

de, II-41 
Velay, II-460 
Velazquez Bosco, II- 145, v. 

Bosco 
Venice, I-99, 296, III-243; 

marbles, m-384; organ 

doors, III-80; painters, v. 

painting 
Ventas de Caparra, III-314 
Ventura Rodriguez, I-283 
Venus, m-243, 354 
Vera Cruz, I-278, 315, H- 

9i,IH-386 
Verastegui, Nicolas de, I- 

250 
Vergers talk, HI- 175, 177 
Verin, 1-86 
Verona, I-16, 344, 370, m- 

163, 387, 388, 392, 395 
Verrueta, Juan de, I-250 
Vezelay,I-2i, 45, 64, 68, 77, 
171,11-104, 105, 142, 144, 
145, 253, 431, m-70, 79, 

384, 395, 396, 397, 447; 
the Magdalen, I-75; S. 

Pere sous V., m-70; ab- 
bot Alberic, I-45, 69; 
master Airard of, I-42 . 
Viadangos, II-296, IH-98 
Viana, I-310, 369, 383; 

Prince of, I-300, 369 
Vich, I-281, II-201, III- 149, 

346 
Vico, I- 1 76 
Vierzo, 1-86, II-3JO, 349; 

mountains of, II-351, 390 
Vigarny, I-419, 420, II-40, 

47, 48, 49, 54, 59; family 

of, 48 



vigo, in- 1 29 

Vilancosta, m-239 

Villa-amil, I-84, 116, II-477 

Villalba, I-84 

Villa Espesa (Mossen Fran- 
ces de), I-301 

Villafrucnos, II-347 

Villafranca del Vierzo, II- 
350, 360, 367, 369-78, 
38i, 390, 478; history, 
369; Santiago, 367, 374; 
S. Maria, 369, 371, 372; 
S. Nicholas, 373; Villa- 
franca, de Montes de Oca, 
III- 1 06, 429 

Villahuerta, Virgin of, I- 
292 

Villaizan, Juan Nunez de, 

n-15 
Villanueva, de Lorenzana, 

I-84 
Villaquiran, II-72 
Villard de Honnecourt,I-i5, 

238, n-14 
Villarente, II- 1 66 ; family of, 

H-178 
Villa S. Michaelis, n-282, 

413,415 
Villa-Sirga, I-320, II-80, 82, 

84-5, 105, 107, 167, 194, 

221, 281; Virgin of, 93, 

167, 168; Miracles of, II- 

04, 167, m-516-25 

Viuatuerta, I-325, 335 

Villaviciosa, m-217 

Villela, I-105 

Villeneuve, I-76 

Villovieco, n-82 

Villuga, Juan, I-80, II-426 

Vincent of Beauvais, I-40 

Viollet-le-Duc, II-258 

Virgil, in-239 



INDEX 



709 



Virgin of las Angustias, III- 

6, 321; Spanish Virgins, 
ni-314, 321, v. Nuestra 
SeHora; of VUla-Sirga, II- 
93 ; of the Cave, II-402 ; of 
Soledad, III-75; la Pere- 
grina, II- 150; dressed Vir- 
gins, II-352, m-358 
Viril, 1-220, 223, III-252 
Visigothic art, 1-8; early 
home of, II-8, IH-416; 
history, 1-59,11-150; king, 
m-38, 316; MS., I-281; 
remains, II-29; type, II- 
176; writers, I-56 
Vision of Adamnan, III- 
172, 256; of Laisren, m- 
260; of Paul, III-376; of 
S. Perpetua, ni-471; of 
Thurkill, m-248, 377, 
539-48; of Tundall, II- 
440, in-80, 245, 253, 265, 

267, 375» 377; Visions, 
m-259, 264, 271 

Vitoria, I-83, II-32, 1 10, m- 
407, 412, 414, 429; town, 
429, 434; S. Pedro, 408, 
435; cathedral, 429, 432; 
S. Miguel, 434, 344-5 

Vizcaya, I-428 

De Vogue, I-io 

Voto de Santiago, I-28, 96, 
m-229, v. ploughland tax 

Voyage of Bran, m-256, 
276, 280; of Maelduin, 
256, 276; of S. Brendan, 
257; of Snegdus, 256 

Walsingham , I-94 ; W. Way, 

I-448 
Walter of Aragon, I-370 

Wamba (king), II-216 



Wandering Jew, I- 1 13, 136 
Washers of the fords, III- 

246, 279 

Way of S. James (the 
road), I-85-6, 90, 93, 
294, II-60, 71, 166, 420, 
455, 471, in-35, 272, v. 
also Pilgrim Way 

Wayfaring themes, II-375, 
376, 414, m-388, 446 

Weighing Souls, I-242, 345, 
n-52, in-319, 466, 544 

Westminster, II-262; Hen- 
ry VII's chapel, II-228, 
240 

Wheat-and-wine tax, I-96, 
III-229 

William of Aquitaine, III- 
114; others, I-74, 108, 
109 

William the Englishman, II- 
145, III-410; of Sens, I- 
16; master William and 
master Nicholas, I- 16, 

in-387 
William of Jerusalem, I-42, 

68, III-386; of Norman- 
dy, I-108 
Winchester, m-95, 227 
Windsor chapel, II-228, 241 
Wise Virgins, I-246, II-265- 

6, m-76 
Wolf, m-288; den, 42, 456; 
skin, 297, 298; subLobio, 
42 

Xanas, II-180, m-247, 279 

Yeats, m-474 
Yepes, I-358, 360, 363, 364, 
n-78, 393 



7io 



INDEX 



Zalduendo, I-431, 440 
Zamora, I-9, 315, 360, II- 

35. 96, 98, 99, 104, 105, 
145, 226, ni-122, 327, 
391, 401; Pray Juan Gil 
de Z., n-234 



Zend Areata, m-250 
Zeus,m-239, 307, 309, 310, 

347, 358 
Zodiacal figures, II- 189, 

190, m-65, 294 
Zuloaga, II-156 



7 



a 



^ 



HISPANIC 



HISPANIC SOCIETY 



THE BORRO 
AN OVERDU 
NOT RETURt 
OR BEFORE' 
BELOW. NOI 
NOTICES Di 
BORROWER 

Harvard C 
Cambridge, L. 



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