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translated by 

Bi-lingual Edition 




As this book is going to press, we 
are all stepping into the threshold of 
the new millenium, the 21st century. 
To all the endless poverty, famine, 
chaos, ignorance and misery of mil 
lions of sentient beings, this book is 
respectfully dedicated. May peace 
and prosperity become an eternal con 
dition of our earth. May everyone s 
Buddha nature prosper. May everyone 
truly escape the cycle of the rebirth 
shore to soon reach the other pure 
shore of freedom. 


Khi quyen sdch nay stfa soan Idn 
khu6n thi tt ca chung ta dlu ding tie n 
vao nguftng ctfa cua mot ky nguyen 

Xin thanh kinh h6i hutfng cong dtfc 
tCf dich phlm nay dn ta^t cd moi ngheo 
kh6, d6i kh^t, bien dpng, v6 minh va 
khd dau bat tan cua hang tridu trieu 
chung sinh. Xin khln nguy$n de: hoa 
bmh, thinh vtfdng trd thanh mOt hi^n 
thtfc thirdng hang cua tinh ciu chung 
ta; de Phat tnh cua moi hffu tinh deu 
dtfdc bimg vd sung thinh; de 7 tat cd 
chung sanh dlu dtfdc i6t rdo xa lia be^n 
bd lu^n hoi sinh tu* v^ ch6ng dat den 
canh gidi thanh tinh giai thodt. 

Nguy^t Tu$ Huy 





His Holiness 
The Dalai Lama 

translated by 
Nguyen Thuy Phtfcfng 

Bi-llingual Edition 


Buddhist Calendar 2543 

Solar Calendar 1999 

The Way To Freedom. Copyright 1994 

by The Library of Tibet, Inc. 

Hutfng Den Con DiTdng Giai moat. Copyright 1999 
by Nguyen Thuy Phtfdng 

All rights reserved. 
Printed in the United States of America. 

No part of this book may be used 

or reproduced in any manner whatsoever 

without written permission, except in the case 

of brief quotations 

embodied in critical articles and reviews. 

Library of Congress Cataloging - in - Publication Data 

ISBN: 0-9674295-0-1 
LOCN: 99-90996 

Vien Triet Ly Viet Nam va Triet Hoc The Gidi 

424 So. Ramona Ave. Monterey Park, CA 91754 USA 

Phone: (626) 288-5359 

Fax: (626) 572-8741 








His Holiness 
The Dalai Lama 




















With deep gratitude, I now prostrate my appreciation 

o His Holiness the Dalai Lama and to the Most Ven 
erable Lhakdor at the Library of Tibet for the generous 
permission to translate this book THE WAY TO FREE 
DOM from English to Vietnamese. 

o The Most Venerable Thinlay Topgyal (Abbot), the 
Most Venerable Lobsang Ngawang (Vice Abbot), Vener 
able Tashi (Administrator) and all the monks at Gyudmed 
Tantric Monastic School and Gyudmed Tantric Universi 
ty (Tibet) for the tireless effort, prayers and all the spiri 
tual support that they have given me in the last few years. 

o The Most Venerable Thich Dtfc Nhuan, Chief Advi 
sor of the Steering Commitee of The Unified Buddhist 
Church of Vietnam. He is also an astute scholar, author, 
translator of many Buddhist scriptures, many valuable 
dissertations, many historical researches for his gracious 
foreword to my translation despite his enormous obliga 
tions to his tight schedule and despite his limited health 
due to age. 



o The Most Venerable Thich Quang Do, President of 
the Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam. He is also an 
eminent scholar, author, translator of many profound 
Buddhist scriptures for his loving - kindness and his com 
passion to encourage me in my study of Buddhism and in 
my commitment to engage with the path. 

o Venerable Thich Thien Tri, Chairman of Council of 
Vinaya and Commissioner for the clergy of The Viet 
namese American Unified Buddhist Congress in the 
United States of America. He is also a translator of many 
sacred Buddhist Sutras. My thanks go to him for inspiring 
me to take refuge with The Triple Gems and my sincere 
prayers also go to wish him a speedy recovery from his 
illness and best of success in his devotion. 

o Venerable Thich Vien Ly, Assistant of the Vice 
President and Vice Secretary General of The Unified 
Buddhist Church of Vietnam; he is also Secretary Gene 
ral of The Vietnamese American Unified Buddhist Con 
gress in the United States of America for his great com 
passion to create countless opportunities for me to over 
come all arduous obstacles so that this book could be 

Nguyen Thuy Phtfcfng 

Nguyet Tue Huy 




Buddhism is a religion of the truth. 
Buddha is a great healer. 

Hhe three Collections of the Buddhist Canon consists 
of 84,000 wonderful Dharma Paths, which are 
84,000 miraculous medications to be used to cure 84,000 
kinds of "illness caused by delusions" of sentient beings. 
It therefore, brings about harmony and happiness to 
those who BELIEVE IN and who APPLY that endless 
source of awakened and liberated Dharma lights during 
the course of their ordinary lives. 

"The Way to Freedom"* 1 ) is one of the Dalai Lama s 
great teaching volumes which could bring peace to life. 
People from all walks of life, all around the world are 
currently welcoming it with full admiration and pleasure. 

This volume consists of ten chapters. For instance, in 
chapter IV - "THE DEATH," he taught: 

"A practitioner of the Dharma thinks daily about 
death, reflects upon the sufferings of human beings, the 
suffering at the time of birth, the suffering of aging, the 
suffering of sickness and the suffering of death. Every 
day, tantric practitioners go through the death process in 
imagination. It is like mentally dying once everyday* 2 ). 



Because of their familarity with it, they will be quite pre 
pared when they actually meet with death.... " 

"If you reflect upon death, you will begin to make 
your life meaningful.... " 

"It is just like you have to go through a very dan 
gerous and frightening terrain (The DEATH).... " 

Upon mentioning "THE DEATH," he taught that peo 
ple should diligently fulfill the virtuous deeds in this life 
so he or she could rely on these as a good fruition for 
many future lives. 

Upon taking a vow to follow the Bodhisattva s path, a 
Buddhist disciple should learn how to forget his "SELF 
- so that he can serve the True Buddhist Law and serve 
all beings...: a Buddhist disciple should know to suffer 
before his fellow beings suffer and enjoy after the joy of 

Examining carefully every single thought and single 
word of the supreme monk s collection - The Way to 
Freedom - we see each thought and each word is over 
flowing with LOVE for human beings and for all 
beings It is just like a bunch of beautiful lotus flowers, 
blooming and exhaling their fragrance to refresh all the 
painful spirits and it is just like sunshine, causing all dark 
clouds of life to disappear. 

Today, NguySn Thuy Phtfdng - Nguyet Tue Huy is 
devoting herself to translating the above mentioned text 
book from English to Vietnamese; this is a genuine con 
tribution of her share to the "Propagating the Dharma for 



the sake of others mission." I praise her deeds and high 
ly recommend this to all readers. 

Written at Giac Minh Pagoda, Saigon 

Springtime of 2543-1999 

Thich Btic Nhuan 

Note from the foreword s person: 

( 1 ) Original English Version 

(2) A BIG DEATH (&-$) means a person should let all the evil and 
wrongful habits as Greed, Hatred, Ignorance die... so that he or she 
can be reborn as a new person: a person with perfect virtue, who leads 
a life as wholesome as a lotus which has risen from the dirty mud, yet 
is has stayed clean. That life is a life filled with BUDDHA MIND. 



T o practice Buddhism is to wage a struggle between the 
* negative and positive forces in your mind. The medi 
tator seeks to undermine the negative and develop and 
increase the positive. The teachings in this book are meant 
to transform the mind; to read or listen to a single passage 
can bring great benefit. 

There are no physical markers by which to measure 
progress in the struggle between the positive and nega 
tive forces in consciousness. Changes begin when you 
first identify and recognize your delusions, such as anger 
and jealousy. One then needs to know the antidotes to 
delusion, and that knowledge is gained by listening to 
the teachings. There is no simple way to remove delu 
sions. They cannot be extracted surgically. They have to 
be recognized, and then, through the practice of these 
teachings, they can be gradually reduced and then com 
pletely eliminated. 

These teachings offer the means to free oneself from 
delusions a path that eventually leads to freedom from 
all suffering and to the bliss of enlightenment. 

The more one comes to understand the Dharma, or 
Buddhist teachings, the weaker will be the grip of pride, 
hatred, greed, and other negative emotions that cause so 
much suffering. Applying this understanding in daily life 
over a period of months and years will gradually trans- 



form the mind, because, despite the fact that it often seems 
otherwise, the mind is subject to change. If you can com 
pare your state of mind now to your state of mind after you 
have read this book, you may notice some improvement. 
If so, these teachings will have served their purpose. 

In the present eon, the Buddha appeared over 2,500 
years ago in the form of Shaky amuni, the sage of the 
Shakya clan. He took ordination as a monk and engaged in 
arduous yogic practices. Seated in meditation under a tree 
in a place called Bodh Gaya in northern India, he achieved 
complete enlightenment. Subsequently, he gave myriad 
teachings designed to suit our diverse interests and dispo 
sitions. Some he taught how to gain a better rebirth and 
others how to gain liberation from the cycle of birth and 
death. The extensive and profound scriptures containing 
those teachings, called sutras, outline the methods and 
means to bring happiness to all beings. Derived from the 
Buddha s experience and logically sound, these teachings 
can be practiced and tested by anyone. 

In Tibet, the Buddhist teachings were compiled to 
reveal the stages of the entire path to enlightenment in a 
single book. In the past, many people have been able to 
achieve the state of complete enlightenment by relying on 
these same instructions; they are suited to anyone with an 
untamed mind. Though we realize the harm caused by 
our delusions, such as the damage done to ourselves and 
others when we act out of anger, we still fall under their 
influence. Thus an untamed mind throws us recklessly 
into the abyss instead of stopping when it sees the edge. 



We have been propelled into this cycle of suffering by 
our delusions and the actions they provoke, which are 
known as karma. Because of the cause-and-effect relation 
between our actions and our experience, we spend our 
lives enduring all sorts of ups and downs, in trouble and 
confusion. To be totally free from the weight of past deeds 
and from the thralldom of desire, hatred, and ignorance is 
called liberation, or nirvana. When we are able to elimi 
nate delusions and karma by realizing the natural purity of 
the mind, total peace follows and we gain complete free 
dom from the cycle of suffering. 

If we can do good deeds, such as saving the lives of 
animals under threat of death, we can accumulate the con 
ditions necessary for gaining rebirth as a human being. If 
we undertake the serious practice of the Dharma, we will 
be able to continue our spiritual progress in our lives to 
come. But this life is precious and unpredictable, and it is 
important to engage in practice while we have the oppor 
tunity. We never know how long that opportunity will last. 

What we do now, according to the law of karma, the 
principle of cause and effect, has consequences for the 
future. Our future is determined by our present state of 
mind, but our present state of mind is overrun by delu 
sions. We should aspire to achieve enlightenment. If that 
is not possible, we should seek to gain freedom from 
rebirth. If that is not possible, we should at least plant the 
seeds for a favorable rebirth in the next life, without 
falling into lower realms of existence. At this auspicious 
juncture, when we are free of obstacles to hearing and 



practicing the Dharma, we must not let this rare opportu 
nity pass. 

However, freeing ourselves from suffering is only part 
of the quest. Just as you do not want even the slightest suf 
fering and want only happiness, so also does everyone else. 
All beings are equal in the sense that all have a natural ten 
dency to wish for happiness and freedom from suffering. 
All beings have the same right to happiness and freedom 
from suffering. Knowing this and still working only for 
our own liberation makes the accomplishment a small one. 
But if our underlying motivation is to be able to help oth 
ers, we can attain the omniscient state and with it the 
capacity to benefit every living being. We can become 
Buddhas ourselves. 

If our present state of mind is poor and our capacity 
limited, how can we fulfill the wishes of others? The mere 
wish to help them is not enough. First we must achieve the 
ability to perceive the diverse aspirations of others. In 
order for our perception to be clear, we must eliminate all 
the faults that prevent us from seeing things as they are. 
The obstacles to omniscience are the imprints left by such 
delusions as desire, anger, pride, and ignorance. Even after 
delusions have been eliminated the mind retains their 
imprints. But because the true nature of the mind is 
clear, pure, and knowing, it is possible to purify the 
mind thoroughly and so attain that clarity of awareness 
known as omniscience. 

The principal motive impelling the Buddha to achieve 
all his great qualities of body, speech, and mind was com- 



passion. The essence of our practice too should be the 
wish to help others. Such an altruistic wish is naturally 
present within our hearts in the acknowledgment that 
others are just like us in wishing to be happy and to avoid 
suffering. It is like a seed, which we can protect and help 
to grow through practice. All the teachings of the Buddha 
essentially try to develop this kind heart and altruistic 
mind. The Buddha s path is founded on compassion, the 
wish that others be free from suffering. This leads us to 
the understanding that the welfare of others is ultimately 
more important than our own, for without others, we 
would have no spiritual practice, no opportunity for 
enlightenment. I do not claim to have great knowledge 
or high realization, but remembering the kindness of 
my teachers, who gave these instructions to me, and 
with concern for the welfare of all beings, I offer these 
teachings to you. o 






Phe Buddha arose from meditation 2,500 years ago 
after attaining enlightenment. The subject of his first 
teaching was the Four Noble Truths. The First Noble 
Truth was the truth of suffering, the fact that our happi 
ness is constantly passing away. Everything we have is 
subject to impermanence. Nothing within what we com 
monly think of as real is permanent. Ignorance, attach 
ment, and anger are the causes of our relentless suffer 
ing. Thus the Second Noble Truth is to understand this 
cause of suffering. When you eliminate the root of suf 
fering (the delusions), you achieve a state of the cessa 
tion of suffering the Third Noble Truth, or nirvana. The 
Fourth Noble Truth is that there exists a path leading to the 
cessation of suffering. In order to achieve that state within 
your own mind, you must follow a path. 

It is not until we understand the law of karma, or cause 
and effect, that we are inspired to embark on the path to 
end suffering. Negative thoughts and actions produce neg 
ative results and conditions, just as positive thoughts and 
actions produce positive results and conditions. When we 
develop deep conviction in the law of cause and effect, 
we will be able to perceive the causes and conditions 
of our own sufferings. Our present happiness or unhap- 
piness is nothing more or less than the result of previ- 



ous actions. The sufferings themselves are so obvious that 
our experience testifies to their existence. We will there 
fore develop the realization that if we do not desire suf 
fering, then we should work to uproot its causes now. 
Through understanding suffering and its origins we can 
perceive the possibility of eliminating ignorance, which 
is the root cause of suffering, and we can conceive of a 
state of cessation, a total cessation of this ignorance 
and the delusions induced by it. When our understand 
ing of cessation is perfect, we will develop a strong and 
spontaneous desire to reach such a state. Our under 
standing should be so profound that it shakes our whole 
being and induces in us a spontaneous wish to gain it. 
Once we develop this spontaneous wish to achieve ces 
sation, an immense appreciation for the beings who 
have realized this cessation within their own minds 
develops. The recognition of the Buddha s accomplish 
ments becomes powerful. The benefits and beauty of 
his teachings become clear. 

This teaching of the stages of the path to enlighten 
ment came to Tibet from India. Buddhism did not come 
to Tibet until the eighth century, but in the ninth century 
its practice was outlawed by King Lang-dar-ma. He 
closed the monasteries, which had been the primary cen 
ter for teachings, as the Chinese have done today. Lang- 
dar-ma s destruction of Buddhism was extensive, but it 
was still possible to practice in remote regions, and the 
tradition was preserved. In the eleventh century, confu- 



sion arose over the existence of two approaches to the 
practice of the teachings. There was sutra, or the path 
of study and practice by which it takes many lifetimes 
to achieve enlightenment, and tantra, the secret prac 
tices by which enlightenment can be achieved even in 
one lifetime. In the eleventh century, an Indian monk 
named Atisha became famous for his ability to explain 
the Buddha s teachings and to defend them in debates 
with non-Buddhist philosophers. He was able to bring 
together all the diverse Buddhist philosophical positions 
that had developed over the centuries as well as the lay 
and monastic systems of practice. He was regarded as a 
nonpartisan and authoritative master by all the philo 
sophical schools. 

At that time the king of western Tibet, inspired by the 
great Buddhist faith of his ancestors, read many texts and 
found what he thought were contradictions among the 
different systems, especially regarding sutra and tantra. 
Many Tibetans at that time, due to a misunderstanding of 
the role of ethics in the two systems, thought that the 
practices of sutra and tantra could not be undertaken by 
one person. Yet the king was aware that when Buddhism 
had arrived in Tibet in the eighth century, the two sys 
tems had coexisted peacefully. The Indian master Shan- 
tarakshita had spread both the practice of monastic disci 
pline and the vast and compassionate practices of sutra. 
At the same time the great yogi, Padmasambhava, was 
spreading the practices of tantra and taming the malevo- 



lent forces that plagued Tibet. These two masters under 
took the practices of the Dharma together, without any 
hostility between them. Realizing that India was the 
source of the practice of sutra and tantra, the king sent 
twenty intelligent students from Tibet to study in India 
with the idea that they would return and clarify the teach 
ings for Tibetans. Many of them died on the way, but two 
returned and reported to the king that in India the practice 
of sutra and tantra was undertaken without any difficulties 
between them. They found the great master, Atisha, at the 
monastery of Vikramashila in Bengal. Atisha, these stu 
dents felt, was the one who could help Tibet. 

The king himself went in search of enough gold to 
meet the expenses of inviting this master from India, but 
he was captured by a king who was hostile to Buddhism. 
He was given the choice between his life and his search 
for the Dharma. When he refused to give up his search, 
he was imprisoned. His nephew tried to rescue him, but 
the king said, "You should not bother about me. Do not 
waste a single gold coin on my ransom. Use all the gold 
to invite Atisha from India." The nephew did not obey 
his uncle and eventually offered the king s weight in 
gold as ransom. But the kidnapper refused it, saying the 
nephew had brought gold equal only to the weight of 
his uncle s body, but not enough for his head. He 
refused to release the prisoner until he had brought 
more gold. The nephew then told his uncle what had hap 
pened. "If I wage a war to rescue you," the nephew 



explained, "there will be great bloodshed. So I will try to 
collect the gold for your head. Please pray that I will be 
successful." His uncle replied, "It is my wish to bring the 
light of the Dharma to Tibet to clarify all doubts and con 
tradictions. If my wish is fulfilled, even if I have to die 
here, I will have no regrets. I am an old man; sooner or 
later I will have to die. I have taken rebirth over many 
lifetimes, but it is very rare that I have been able to sac 
rifice my life for the sake of the Dharma. Today I have 
been granted that opportunity. So send word to Atisha 
himself telling him that I have given up my life so that he 
could be invited to Tibet and that my last wish is that he 
come to Tibet and spread the message of the Buddha and 
clarify our misunderstandings." Hearing his uncle s deter 
mination, the nephew was greatly moved. With tremendous 
sadness he bade his uncle farewell. 

The nephew sent a group of Tibetan translators to 
India in search of Atisha. The six companions, taking 
seven hundred gold coins, eventually arrived at Atisha s 
monastery, where they were taken to see the abbot. 
Although they did not reveal their purpose in coming, the 
abbot told them, "It s not that I feel possessive of Atisha, 
but there are very few masters like him, and if he were 
to leave India, there would be a great danger to the 
Dharma itself and therefore to the entire populace. His 
presence in India is very important." The Tibetan trans 
lator was at last able to see Atisha, and his eyes filled 
with tears. Atisha noticed this and told him, "Do not 



worry. I know of the great sacrifice made by the Tibetan 
king on my account. I am seriously considering his 
request, but I am an old man and I also have the respon 
sibility of looking after the monastery." But Atisha even 
tually agreed to come to Tibet. After his arrival in western 
Tibet, he was requested by the king s nephew to compose 
a text that would benefit the entire Buddhist teaching in 
Tibet. He has left us The Lamp on the Path to Enlighten 
ment, which condenses all of the essential paths from the 
entire corpus of teachings into a form suitable to the 
actual needs of the Tibetan people. 

In the early fifteenth century, the Tibetan teacher 
Tsong-kha-pa wrote a book called Lam Rim or Stages of 
the Path to Enlightenment. He elaborated on Atisha s 
presentation and made these integrated teachings more 
accessible for anyone to practice. The Lam Rim is the 
basis for the teaching contained in this book. 

By showing all the stages of the path to enlighten 
ment, the Lam Rim also shows how all the teachings are 
integral how the Dharma includes both sutra, the com 
mon path, and tantra, the secret path. Although these 
teachings might appear at times to be contradictory, they 
are without contradiction when practiced appropriately 
in a gradual process. All of them are important as guides 
for the path to enlightenment. Some people think that 
they can undertake esoteric practices without under 
standing the basic Buddhist teachings. Without the prop 
er foundation of the common path, one can make no 



progress in tantra at all. Without the compassionate wish 
to gain enlightenment in order to lead everyone to free 
dom, tantra just becomes some mantra recitation; tantric 
practice will be confined to playing instruments like 
cymbals and thigh-bone trumpets and making a lot of 
noise. The Perfection of Wisdom Sutra says that the 
practice of generosity, ethics, patience, effort, concentra 
tion, and wisdom are the only path, whether sutra or 
tantra, that all the Buddhas of the past traversed to 
enlightenment. If you give up the common aspects of the 
path, it is a great mistake. 

Therefore, the great master Tsong-kha-pa, the author 
of the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, advises that 
practitioners seek the guidance of an experienced spiri 
tual master and strive to perceive all the teachings of the 
Buddha as appropriate and relevant to their practice. 
Those aspects that cannot immediately be put into prac 
tice should not be abandoned. Instead, ask inwardly that 
you may be able to put them into practice in the future. 
If you are able to do that, then your perspective on the 
Buddha s teachings will be very profound. 

The entire Buddhist canon is necessary and relevant 
to a practitioner. When someone is painting a thangka (a 
Tibetan Buddhist scroll), the artist must appreciate the 
need for all types of paint. But that is not enough; he or 
she should know when each type of paint is needed, first 
painting the outline and then adding the colors. It is very 
important to know their actual sequence. Similarly, we 



must know the importance of all the Buddha s teachings 
as well as when and how they should be practiced. When 
these factors are present, all obscurations and difficulties 
associated with your practice will be naturally elimina 

When I talk about the practice of the Dharma, I do not 
mean leaving everything behind and going into isolated 
retreat. I simply mean that we should integrate a higher 
level of awareness into our daily lives. Whether we are 
eating or sleeping or doing business, we should constant 
ly check our intentions, check our body, speech, mind, 
and actions, for even the subtlest negativity. Try to bring 
your day-to-day activities into line with a compassionate 
motivation. Infuse your acts of body, speech, and mind 
with the wisdom gained from hearing the teachings and 
from practice. But if someone is capable of giving up 
everything and devoting his or her life to practice, that 
person is worthy of admiration. 

Study is like the light that illuminates the darkness of 
ignorance, and the resulting knowledge is the supreme 
possession because it cannot be taken by even the grea 
test of thieves. Study is the weapon that eliminates the 
enemy of ignorance. It is also the best friend to guide us 
through all our difficult times. We gain true friends by 
having a kind heart and not deceiving people. The 
friends that we make when we have power, position, and 
influence are friends based only upon our power, influ 
ence, and position. When we meet with misfortune and 



lose our wealth, these so- called friends leave us behind. 
The infallible friend is study of the teachings. This is a 
medicine that has no side effects or dangers. Knowledge 
is like the great army that will help us crush the forces of 
our own faults. With that knowledge we can protect our 
selves from committing nonvirtuous actions. Fame, posi 
tion, and wealth may result from one s knowledge; but 
only study and practice dedicated to removing delusion 
brings the enduring happiness of enlightenment. 

Without the knowledge of the teachings, realizations 
will not follow. The teachings we receive are meant to be 
lived. When we train a horse for a race, it should be on 
the same kind of track on which the race will be run. 
Similarly, the topics that you have studied are the very 
teachings you should put into practice. Study is underta 
ken for the sake of practice. Tsong- kha-pa says that if you 
are able to perceive the profound and extensive sutras as 
personal advice, then you will not have any difficulties in 
perceiving the tantras and their commentaries as personal 
advice to be put into practice in the process of the path 
leading to enlightenment. This protects us from the mis 
conception that some sets of teachings are not necessary 
for practice and some sets of teachings are necessary only 
for scholastic achievement. 

Bowing down and folding our hands before receiving 
teachings is a way of countering pride and conceit. 
Sometimes you see people who know less about the 
Dharma than you do but who have a greater sense of 



humility and respect. As a result of your knowledge of 
the Dharma, you should be more humble than the other 
person. If you are not, then it is you who are inferior to 
that person. So when you study, try to check your own 
state of mind and integrate what you study into your way 
of thinking. If that is undertaken, you will reach a stage 
where you 1 will be able to see some kind of effect, some 
change or impact within your mind. That is an indication 
that you are making progress in your practice and that 
the purpose of study has been fufilled. 

Conquering the delusions is the task of a lifetime. If 
we are able to engage in practice in a sustained manner, 
then over the months and years we will see a transfor 
mation of the mind. But if we look for instant realization 
or instant taming of thoughts and emotions, then we will 
become discouraged and depressed. The eleventh centu 
ry yogi Milarepa, one of the greatest masters in Tibetan 
history, spent years living like a wild animal and under 
going great hardship in order to be able to achieve high 
realizations. If we were able to devote this kind of time 
and energy, then we would be able to see more quickly 
the benefit resulting from our practice. 

So long as we have any belief in the efficacy of the 
teachings, it is important to develop conviction in the 
value of engaging in practice right away. In order to 
progress along the path, it is important to gain proper 
understanding of the path, and that can be achieved only 
by listening to a teaching. So develop a motivation to 



achieve the completely enlightened state for the sake of 
all other sentient beings, and with that motivation listen 
to or read this teaching. 

When someone teaches the Dharma, he or she is 
serving as the messenger of the Buddhas. Regardless of 
the actual realization of the master, it is important for 
the listener to regard the teacher as inseparable from the 
Buddha. Listeners should not be spending time reflecting 
upon the faults of the master. In the Jataka Tales it is said 
that one should sit on a very low seat, and with a tamed 
mind and with great pleasure look at the face of the mas 
ter and drink the nectar of his or her words, just as 
patients would attentively listen to the words of the doc 
tor. The Buddha said that one should not rely upon the 
person of the master but rather rely upon the teaching, 
the substance of his or her teaching, the message of the 
Buddha. It is very important to respect the teacher from 
the viewpoint of the sacredness of the teaching itself. 

When listening to or reading teachings, we are like a 
vase meant to collect wisdom. If the vase is upside down, 
though the gods might rain down nectar, it would merely 
drain down the sides of the vase. If the vessel is dirty, the 
nectar would be spoiled. If the vase has a hole in it, the 
nectar would leak out. Although we might attend a tea 
ching, if we are easily distracted, we are like a vessel 
turned upside down. Though we might be attentive, if our 
attitude is dominated by negative intentions, like liste 
ning to the teaching in order to prove superior intelli- 



gence, we are like a dirty vessel. Finally, although we 
may be free from these faults, if we do not take them to 
heart, it is like letting the teachings in through one ear 
and out the other. After the teaching is over we will be 
totally blank, as though we could not take the teaching 
past the door when we left. This is why it is a good idea 
to take notes or, nowadays, use a tape recorder. The abi 
lity to retain the teachings depends upon the force of 

In a discussion with Khun-nu Lama, he vividly narra 
ted events from his life that had taken place long before I 
was born. I am now fifty-nine. I tend to forget even the 
texts I am studying at the moment. Khun-nu Lama said 
that not studying constantly is due to the fault of not ha 
ving joyous effort, and I think this is very true. Because 
of my lack of time I do not read a text often; I just read 
it through once and then get some kind of overall idea of 
what it is about. Because I have relatively good intelli 
gence I read texts very quickly but do not read them 
often. As the saying goes, the person with great intelli 
gence is like a burning field: the fire swiftly passes 

If you read Tsong-kha-pa s Stages of the Path to 
Enlightenment nine times you will have nine different 
understandings of the text. When you read a newspaper 
article once, there is often no point in reading it again; 
you do not enjoy it, you just feel bored. When you read 
profound and eloquently written texts for the second, 



third, and fourth times, you sometimes feel surprised that 
you missed this or that point, although you have read it 
many times before. Sometimes you get a new under 
standing and different perspective, so constant familiari 
ty is the main method for not forgetting. Those who wish 
to achieve omniscience should be single-pointed, atten 
tive, and mentally humble, motivated by a wish to help 
other sentient beings, paying full attention with their 
minds, looking at the spiritual master with their eyes, and 
listening to the spiritual master with their ears. 

It is also important to listen to teachings with a proper 
attitude. First, you should recognize yourself as a patient 
and the teacher as the doctor. The great Indian poet Shan- 
tideva says that when we are afflicted by ordinary illness 
es, we have to follow the word of the doctor. Since we are 
afflicted by hundreds of illnesses caused by delusions 
like desire and hatred, there is no question that we 
should follow the word of a teacher. Delusions are very 
insidious. When a delusion like anger is present, we lose 
control. Worries due to attachment keep us from sleeping 
or enjoying a meal. Just as the patient would treat the 
medicines given by the doctor as very precious, taking 
care not to waste them, in the same manner teachings 
given by a spiritual master should be preserved as pre 

In order for the patient to get rid of the illness, he or 
she has to take medicine. Just simply having medicine in 
a bottle will not help. Similarly, in order to free our 



minds from the chronic disease of delusions, we have to 
put the teachings into practice, and it is only through 
practice that we will be able to free ourselves of the dis 
ease of delusion. Even over the short term, the greater 
the force of your patience, the less will be your anger 
and the greater the force of your respect for others. As 
your pride and conceit diminish, the influence of the 
delusions slowly decreases. Tsong-kha-pa says that 
someone suffering from the chronic disease of leprosy 
cannot get rid of it by taking medicine once or twice; it has 
to be taken continuously. In the same way, our minds have 
been under the constant grip of delusions since beginning- 
less time. How can we expect to free them simply by 
undertaking practice once or twice? How can we expect to 
cure an illness by simply reading a medical text? 

Within Tibetan Buddhism there are four schools: 
Nyingma, Sakya, Geluk, and Kagyu. It is a great mistake 
to claim that one of these schools is superior to the others. 
They all follow the same master, the Buddha Shakyamu- 
ni; they have all combined the systems of sutra and 
tantra. I try to cultivate a faith and admiration for all the 
four schools. I do it not just as a diplomatic gesture, but 
out of strong conviction. It also befits my position as 
Dalai Lama to know enough about the teachings of all 
four schools to be able to offer advice to those who come 
to me. Otherwise, I am like a mother with no arms 
watching a child drown. There was a Nyingma meditator 
who once came and asked me about a certain practice 



that I did not know well. I was able to send him to a great 
master who could answer his question, but I felt 
depressed that he had come sincerely seeking a teaching 
from me and I could not fulfill his wish. It is one thing if 
another s wish is beyond one s ability to fulfill, but so 
long as it is within one s own ability, it is very important 
to meet the spiritual needs of as many sentient beings as 
possible. We must study all the aspects of the teachings 
and develop admiration for them. 

Nor should we consider Tibetan Buddhism to be 
superior to other forms of Buddhism. In Thailand, 
Burma, and Sri Lanka the monks have a true commit 
ment to the practice of monastic discipline, and, unlike 
Tibetan monks, they still maintain the custom of begging 
for meals, which was practiced 2,500 years ago by the 
Buddha and his disciples. In Thailand I joined a group of 
monks on their rounds. It was a hot, sunny day, and 
because the tradition is to go without shoes, my feet really 
burned. Apart from that it was inspiring to see the prac 
tice of the Thai monks. 

These days many people see only negativity in the 
practice of a spiritual tradition or religion. They see only 
how religious institutions exploit the masses and take 
away their possessions. However, the faults they see are 
not faults of the traditions themselves, but of the persons 
who claim to be followers of such traditions, like the 
members of monasteries or churches who use spiritual 
excuses for bettering themselves at the expense of other 



adherents. If spiritual practitioners themselves are care 
less, it reflects on everyone involved in that practice. 
Attempts to correct institutionalized faults are often mis 
construed as an attack on the tradition as a whole. Many 
people conclude that religion is harmful and cannot help 
them. They reject any form of faith. Others are totally 
indifferent to spiritual practice and are satisfied with 
their worldly way of life. They have physical and mater 
ial comforts and are neither for nor against religion. Yet 
all are equal in that they have the instinctive wish to gain 
happiness and avoid suffering. 

If we abandon spiritual practice, or in this case Bud 
dhism, we no longer give credence to the law of karma 
and will cease to perceive our misfortunes as the conse 
quence of past negative actions. They appear perhaps as 
manifestations of faults within society or the community 
or the result of the action of a friend. We then go about 
blaming others for things that may even seem clearly to 
be our own fault. This blaming will reinforce self-cen 
tered attitudes, like attachment and hatred. Through 
association with such deluded attitudes, we become 
attached to our belongings and beset by mistrust or even 
paranoia. The Chinese Communists abandoned religion 
for the sake of what they saw as liberation. They call 
each other comrade and in the past made great sacrifices 
in the struggle for the liberation of their country. But 
after gaining power, they created political rivalries and 
now often fight against each other. One tries to take 
advantage of the other, and eventually one destroys the 



other. Although socialism has the noble aim of working 
for the common welfare of the masses, the means for 
achieving that end have antagonized the community, and 
the attitude of the people has become confrontational. In 
this form, Communism has become so destructive that all 
the energy of the government is directed toward repres 
sion rather than liberation. 

In contrast to the Communists, many great practitioners 
have traveled the Buddhist path and led their lives on the 
basis of love and compassion. With such motives your 
basic intention would be to work for the benefit of sen 
tient beings, for whose sake you are trying to cultivate 
positive states of mind. Even if the damage done by the 
Chinese Communists in Tibet and China had been 
matched by an equally extensive positive program, I 
doubt that they would have been able to contribute much 
to the betterment of society because they lack the moti 
vation of great compassion. When we look at Karl 
Marx s own life and the actual origin of Marxism, we 
find that Karl Marx underwent great sufferings during his 
lifetime and advocated constant struggle to topple the 
bourgeois class. His outlook was based on confrontation. 
Because of that primary motive, the entire movement of 
Communism has failed. If the primary motive had been 
based on compassion and altruism, then things would 
have been very different. 

Many who are indifferent to any form of spiritual 
practice are materially well off in some developed coun- 



tries, but even then they are completely unsatisfied. 
Although they are affluent they are not content. They 
suffer the anguish of wanting more, so that although they 
are materially wealthy, they are mentally poor. It is when 
they find that they cannot achieve whatever they wish for 
that the trouble really starts. They become depressed and 
anxiety creeps in. I have talked with some of my friends 
who are very wealthy, but because of their material out 
look on life, they are absorbed by business and make no 
room for a practice, which might help them gain some 
perspective. In the process they actually lose the dream 
of happiness, which money was to have provided. 

In Buddhist practice, instead of avoiding these suf 
ferings we deliberately visualize them the sufferings of 
birth, the sufferings of aging, the sufferings of fluctuations 
in status, the sufferings of uncertainty within this life 
time, and the sufferings of death. We try deliberately to 
think of them so that when we actually do face them, we 
are prepared. When we meet with death, we will realize 
that our time has come. That does not mean that we 
would not protect our bodies. When we are sick we take 
medicines and try to avert death. But if death is unavoid 
able, then the Buddhist will be prepared. Let us set 
aside for the moment the question of life after death, 
liberation, or the omniscient state. Even within this life 
time, thinking about the Dharma and belief in the Dhar- 
ma has practical benefits. In Tibet, although the Chinese 
have meted out such systematic destruction and torture, 
the people still have not lost their hope and their deter- 



mination. I think it is because of the Buddhist tradition. 

Although the destruction of Buddhism has not gone 
on as long under Chinese rule as it did under Lang-dar- 
ma in the ninth century, the extent of destruction is far 
greater. When Lang-dar-ma had destroyed the Dharma, 
it was Atisha who came to Tibet and restored the entire 
practice of Buddhism. Now, whether we are capable or 
not, the responsibility has fallen on all of us to restore 
that which has been systematically destroyed by the 
Chinese. Buddhism is a treasure meant for the entire 
world. To teach and to listen to this teaching is a contri 
bution to the wealth of humanity. There might be many 
points that you are not able to practice immediately, but 
keep them in your heart so that you will be able to prac 
tice them next year or after five or ten years, as long as 
the teachings are not forgotten. 

Although we exiled Tibetans are struck by the 
tragedy of losing our country, we remain generally free 
from obstacles in the practice of the Dharma. In whate 
ver country we reside, we have access to the Buddha s 
teachings through exiled teachers, and we know how to 
create conditions conducive to meditation. Tibetans have 
been doing this since at least the eighth century. Those 
who remained in Tibet after the 1959 Chinese invasion 
have had to undergo great physical and mental suffering. 
Monasteries were emptied, great teachers were impri 
soned, and the practice of Buddhism became punishable 
by imprisonment or even death. 



We must use all opportunities to practice the truth, to 
improve ourselves, instead of waiting for a time when 
we think we will be less busy. As Gung-thang Rinpoche 
said, the activities of this world are like ripples on a 
pond: when one disappears another emerges; there is no 
end to them. Worldly activities do not stop until the time 
of death; we should try to search for a time within our 
own daily lives to practice the Dharma. At this junc 
ture when we have obtained the precious human form 
and have met with the Dharma and have some faith in 
it if we are not able to put the Dharma into practice, it 
will be difficult for us to undertake its practice in future 
lifetimes, when we will not have such conditions. Now 
that we have met with such a profound system, in which 
the entire method for the achievement of the enlightened 
state is accessible, it would be very sad if we did not try 
to make the Dharma have some impact on our lives, o 




Tnfinite numbers of Buddhas have appeared in the past, 
and we have not had the fortune of meeting them. Bud 
dha Shakyamuni came to care for the sentient beings of 
this degenerate time. He appeared in this world 2,500 
years ago and has since shown many sentient beings the 
path to freedom from the cycle of suffering. We, however, 
did not have the fortune to meet him and come under his 
guidance and so are left with untamed, ordinary minds. 
There have been many great masters in India and in 
Tibet who achieved the completely enlightened state. 
Many other great masters have achieved high realiza 
tions, while others just managed to enter the path. 

The teachings have been present for many centuries 
now, but what is important about the presence of the Dhar- 
ma is not its continuity over time, but whether or not it is 
present in our own minds, whether it is alive in our actions. 
If we are satisfied merely that the teaching of the Buddha 
still exists in the world, then there is danger of its deterio 
rating because no one will be able to speak from the expe 
rience of practice. After the passing away of the Thirteenth 
Dalai Lama in 1933, the Tibetans isolated themselves. 
Despite the great transformation taking place in other 
parts of the world, Tibetans shut themselves in and left 



themselves open to invasion by the Chinese. Tibetan 
Buddhism is now vulnerable to degeneration since the 
dispersal of the Tibetans, so it is very important to really 
put effort into the practice of the Dharma at this time. At 
such critical moments, it is the spiritual master who pro 
tects us and sustains us. It is the guru who introduces us 
to the vast and profound teachings set forth by the Bud 
dha himself in a manner suited to our understanding. 

Although all the Buddhas are actively engaged in 
working for the benefit of other sentient beings, whether 
or not we will be able to enjoy such benefits depends 
upon how we relate to our spiritual master. The spiritual 
master is the only door to enlightenment because he or 
she is the living teacher to whom we can relate directly. 
Meeting with a spiritual master is not enough if we do 
not follow the advice given about practice and how to 
lead our lives. If we have the good fortune to encounter 
these teachings, it means that we are free from most of 
the major obstacles to the practice of the Dharma, so it 
is important to make the remaining part of our lives 
meaningful by engaging in spiritual practice. If we take 
the initiative now, the likelihood is that we will be able 
to progress along the path. 

The practice of any path should be based on compre 
hensive and authentic instructions. We must consider 
carefully what kind of practice we would like to under 
take and what kind of teachings we want to base our 
practice on. The great Tibetan scholar Sakya Pandita 



(1 182-1251) used to say that people take great care over 
worldly matters like buying a horse. Thus when you are 
choosing to practice the Dharma it is important to be 
even more selective about the practice and the teacher, 
because the goal is Buddhahood, not transportation. 
Whether or not the teacher is authentic does not depend 
upon on the ability to quote from Buddhist texts. You 
should analyze his or her words and actions. Through 
constant close analysis you will be able to develop deep 
admiration for that person. 

The Tibetan master Po-to-wa (1031-1106) said that 
the starting point of the entire path is learning to take the 
advice of a spiritual master and that the slightest experi 
ence of realization and the slightest diminishment in 
delusion all come as a consequence of the teachings of 
the spiritual master. If we cannot manage our affairs 
without the guidance of a good lawyer, there is no ques 
tion of the importance of a spiritual master if we are to 
follow the unfamiliar path to Buddhahood. 

There are cases of people with great intelligence 
who seem to be very clever, but the moment they direct 
their attention toward the Dharma their minds become 
numb. This indicates that they have not accumulated suf 
ficient positive potential. There are also cases of people 
who are very intelligent and have great knowledge of the 
Dharma, but this knowledge does not affect their minds. 
They do not put what they know into practice. In this 
context, the spiritual master is very important. High rea- 



lization especially can be gained only through the gra 
dual guidance of a spiritual master who has authentic 
experience. The teacher becomes a role model and 
source of inspiration for our practice. It is possible to 
develop strong conviction by reading texts related to the 
practice of compassion, but when we meet a living per 
son who has practiced it and who can teach us the prac 
tice of compassion from his or her own experience, it 
inspires us more powerfully. 

Tsong-kha-pa says that unless the mind of the 
teacher is tamed, there is no hope of the teacher s taming 
others. Teachers should be restrained in their demeanor; 
their minds should be protected from distractions by the 
power of concentration. They should be equipped with 
the faculty of wisdom, penetrating the appearance of phe 
nomena. If one possesses higher training in ethical disci 
pline, one s mind is said to be tamed. In the Pratimoksha 
Sutra, the sutra dealing with monastic vows, the mind is 
compared to a wild horse, and the practice of ethics is 
compared to the reins by which this wild horse is tamed. 
So when the untamed mind departs from the path and 
indulges in negative actions, this wild horse should be 
tamed by using the rein of ethics, restraining the body and 
mind from negative actions. 

A qualified teacher must also be skilled in the higher 
training of concentration evidenced by the constant 
application of mindfulness and introspection. Those who 
have lived recently in Tibet have gained great experi- 



ence in the application of mindfulness and introspection, 
because even the slightest physical expression of dissent 
angers the Chinese regime. They have to be constantly 
mindful and alert to whether they are transgressing some 
rule. A teacher must also be completely pacified by the 
higher training in the wisdom of understanding the illu- 
sionlike nature of phenomena. 

Tsong-kha-pa says that having only tamed one s mind is 
not sufficient; one should have knowledge of the teachings 
as well. The lama Drom- ton-pa (1005- 1064) used to say 
that when a great teacher speaks on one specific topic, he 
or she should be able to relate it to the entire canon of the 
path to Buddhahood. Teachers should be able to turn their 
understanding of an entire topic into an instruction that is 
beneficial and easy to apply. Just as the scriptures say, 
the Buddhas cannot wash away the negative actions of 
others, nor can they remove the sufferings of others, nor 
can they transfer their realizations to us. It is only by 
showing the right path for us to follow that the Buddhas 
can liberate sentient beings. 

The very purpose of teaching others is to help them 
understand. Therefore, it is important to have an appealing 
style of speaking, to do what is necessary to get the point 
across. The motive for teaching should be pure never 
done out of a wish for fame or material gain. If money is 
the motive, then the teaching becomes merely a worldly 
activity. Before the Chinese came in 1951, some people 
in Lhasa either read texts or sang songs in order to col- 



lect money. It still happens in Tibet. Tourists gather 
around and take pictures. I think this is quite sad, 
because the Dharma is being used as an instrument for 
begging, not for spiritual advancement. 

Po-to-wa said that although he had given many 
teachings he had never mentally accepted even the 
slightest compliment, because he was teaching out of 
his compassion for other sentient beings. He regarded it 
as his responsibility to teach because his primary pur 
pose was to help others. There is no point in making 
others feel indebted or in accepting their thanks, 
because what you are actually doing is fulfilling your 
own pledge. When you eat your own food, there is no 
point in thanking yourself, because eating is something 
you have to do. 

Tsong-kha-pa says that the spiritual masters who 
serve as guides on the path of enlightenment are like the 
foundation or root of your achievement of enlightenment. 
Therefore, those seeking a spiritual master should be 
familiar with the necessary qualifications and determine 
whether the teacher has those qualifications. In the world, 
without a proper leader we cannot improve our society. 
Similarly, unless the spiritual master is properly qualified, 
despite your strong faith, following him or her could be 
harmful if you are led in the wrong direction. Therefore, 
before actually taking someone as a spiritual master it is 
important to examine him or her, ask others about that 
person, and examine yourself. When you find that a per- 



son is suitable to be a spiritual master, only then should 
you start regarding him or her as your spiritual master. 
Likewise, before the spiritual master accepts someone as 
a disciple, it is very important that he or she first com 
pletely fulfill the qualifications of a spiritual master. 

Just because a lama has some attendants or servants 
does not qualify him as a spiritual master. There is a dif 
ference between being a spiritual master and being a 
tulku, or the reincarnation of a particular master who has 
been returning for generations. There are some who are 
both, some are tulkus but not lamas, and some are lamas 
but not tulkus. Within the Tibetan community tulkus 
occupy a high position. If they do not also have the qual 
ities of a spiritual master, then theirs is merely social sta 
tus. Within Tibetan society, and even in the West where 
many lamas have gone to teach, when someone is called 
a tulku, people immediately look up to him. But others, 
who are really serious practitioners, do not command 
much respect simply because they do not have the label 
tulku. The greatest Buddhist philosopher of India, Nagar- 
juna, is regarded as a master by all later practitioners, 
although he had a simple name and we have no record of 
his having had an entourage or private secretary. Our 
Tibetan lamas have long and grand-sounding names, 
some of which are difficult to pronounce. In fact, there is 
no need to have a title other than that of bhikshu (monk), 
which was given by the Buddha himself. These are some 
of the great mistakes of Tibetan society. We Tibetans do 



not pay attention to the yellow monastic robes actually 
given by the Buddha himself but instead pay more atten 
tion to garments that are given as a mark of rank to make 
the person look grand. Later Indian masters wore some 
kind of reddish hat, and in Tibet their followers became 
more attentive to that red hat than to what was truly 

The importance of finding a trustworthy teacher can 
not be overemphasized, and I think Tibet s own political 
situation shows the folly of not being skeptical of a 
leader. Under the guise of being sponsors and benefac 
tors, the Chinese established a close relationship with 
Tibet. We did not realize that China did so in order to 
portray Tibet as a province of its own country and would 
eventually use that argument to justify invasion. If we do 
not manage our affairs both spiritually and socially in a 
responsible manner, we will inevitably come to regret it 

The great monk Geshe Sang-pu-wa (twelfth century) 
had many spiritual masters. Once, when he was traveling 
from eastern Tibet, he met a lay disciple giving teachings. 
Geshe Sang-pu-wa went to listen. When his attendants 
asked why he needed to go to take teachings from a lay 
man, Geshe Sang-pu-wa replied that he had heard two 
points that were very helpful. Because Geshe Sang-pu- 
wa was able to develop admiration for and faith in many 
people, it was not a problem for him to have many teach 
ers. People like us, whose minds are not yet tamed, are 



likely to see faults in our spiritual master and are prone 
to lose faith easily. So long as we see faults in the spiri 
tual master and so long as we are prone to lose faith as a 
result of seeing superficial or projected faults, it is better 
to have fewer spiritual masters but to relate to them well. 
If you do not have this problem, you are free to have as 
many spiritual masters as possible. 

When you see the spiritual master as the embodi 
ment of all the Buddhas and take refuge, that faith is 
based on admiration. When you cultivate faith by per 
ceiving the guru as the foundation and the root of your 
development, that is faith based on conviction. When you 
develop faith in the spiritual master by following his or 
her words, that is called aspiring faith. Generally spea 
king, faith is said to be the root or foundation of all vir 
tuous thoughts. When you are able to see your spiritual 
master as equal to the Buddha himself, you will be able 
to stop yourself from seeing your spiritual master s faults 
and will perceive only his or her great qualities. But faith 
must be based on tried and tested experience. Therefore, 
you should constantly and deliberately try to prevent the 
kind of perceptions that lead you to see faults in the spir 
itual master, which actually might be your own projec 
tions, and try to see great qualities within the spiritual 
master. It is said that although your spiritual master may 
not be a true Buddha in reality, if you view the spiritual 
master as an actual Buddha, then you will obtain inspira 
tion as if from an actual Buddha. On the other hand, even 



though your spiritual master might be a perfect Buddha 
in reality, if you are not able to view him or her in that 
way, you will receive the inspiration of an ordinary 
human being. 

At this time, in this age of degeneration, gurus work 
on behalf of all the Buddhas and bodhisattvas in order to 
liberate all sentient beings from the cycle of suffering. It 
is prophesied in many tantras that in the degenerate age, 
the Buddha will appear in the world in the form of gurus. 
And in the degenerate age, their compassion must work 
in a more forceful manner, which can be confusing to 
those who expect compassion to take a certain form. If 
we are not receptive to the Buddha s teaching and com 
passion, then no teacher can help us much. But faith and 
conviction will open us to the power of the Buddhas, 
whose strong compassion is directed toward all sentient 
beings without exception. That includes you and me. 

One teaching says, "While I was wandering in the 
cycle of existence, you [the Buddha] searched for me 
and illuminated my ignorance. You have shown me the 
light and released me from bondage." We can find the 
Buddha who is working for us by a process of elimina 
tion. Ask yourself who, among those close to you, is 
leading you out of the cycle of suffering caused by igno 
rance, attachment, and hatred. Is it one of your parents? 
Your friends? Your husband or wife? Your friends do not, 
your relatives do not, your parents do not. So if there is a 
Buddha working for you, he or she must be the person in 



your life leading you to enlightenment your teacher. 
That is how one can view the teacher as the perfect Bud 
dha. There have been cases in the past where, due to a 
mental obstruction, practitioners saw the actual Buddha 
in ordinary form. Asanga (fourth century C.E.) had a 
vision of the Buddha of the future, Maitreya, as a mag 
got-ridden dog, and Sang-pu-wa saw a female Buddha as 
an old leper woman. If we were to meet the great mas 
ters of the past who achieved enlightenment within 
one lifetime, they would look just like ordinary Indi 
an beggars who wander around naked with lines 
painted on their foreheads. 

When I speak of the importance of devotion to the 
teacher and of perceiving him or her as the Buddha, 
please do not misconstrue it to mean that I am implying 
that I am a Buddha. This is not the case; I know I am not 
a Buddha. Whether I am exalted or condemned, I will 
still be the ordinary Buddhist monk that I am. I am a 
monk, and I find it very comfortable. People call me the 
Bodhisattva of Compassion, Avalokiteshvara, but that 
does not make me Avalokiteshvara. The Chinese call me 
a wolf wearing a yellow robe, but that does not make me 
less of a human being or more of a wolf. I just remain an 
ordinary monk. 

What should you do if following the instructions of 
your master causes you to act immorally or if his or her 
teachings contradict the Buddhist teachings? You should 
adhere to what is virtuous and leave what is not in confor- 



mity with the Dharma. In India there was once a teacher 
with many disciples who asked them to go out and steal. 
The teacher was a member of the brahmin caste and was 
very poor. He told them that when brahmins become 
poor they have a right to steal. As favorites of the god 
Brahma, the creator of the world, he said, it would not be 
nonvirtuous for a brahmin to steal. The disciples were 
about to go on their thieving expedition, when the brah 
min noticed that one student stood in silence with his 
head bowed. The brahmin asked him why he was not 
moving. The student said, "What you have advised us to 
do now goes against the Dharma, so I do not think I can 
do it." This pleased the brahmin who said, "I tested your 
knowledge. Although you have all been my pupils and 
are loyal to me, the difference between you is in your 
judgment. This boy is very loyal to me, but when I 
advised something wrong, he was able to recognize that 
it went against the Dharma and would not do it. That is 
correct. I am your teacher, but you must examine my 
advice, and whenever it goes against the Dharma you 
should not follow it." 3 



Tmagine a wide ocean with a golden yoke adrift upon it. 
In the depths of ocean swims a single blind turtle, who 
surfaces for air once every hundred years. How rare 
would it be for the turtle to surface with its head through 
the hole in the yoke? The Buddha said that attaining a 
precious human rebirth is rarer than that. 

It is said that even the gods envy our human exis 
tence, because it is the best form of existence for the 
practice of the Dharma. There are something like five 
billion people in this world, and all of them are human 
beings. Their hands, brains, limbs, and bodies are quite 
the same. But if we examine whether all humans have 
the opportunity for practice, then we will find a vast dif 
ference. We are free from adverse circumstances that 
prevent the practice of the Dharma, adverse circum 
stances such as rebirth with wrong views, rebirth as an 
animal, ghost, a hell being, or as a god addicted to plea 
sure, or as a human who has difficulty hearing the teach 
ings, or being born into a place where there is no Bud 
dhist teaching available. Other adverse circumstances 
would be to be born in a barbarous land where thoughts 
of survival consume all one s resources or at a time when 
no Buddha has appeared. 



On the positive side, we are endowed with many 
things that make our practice possible. For example, we 
have been born as humans able to respond to the teach 
ings in a land where the teachings are available. We have 
not committed any heinous crimes and have a degree of 
faith in the Buddhist teachings. Although we have not 
taken rebirth in the world when the Buddha was alive, we 
have met with spiritual masters who can trace the lineage 
of the teachings they have received all the way back to 
the Buddha. The Dharma remains stable and flourishing 
because there are practitioners following these tea 
chings. We also live in a time when there are kind bene 
factors who provide monks and nuns with necessities for 
practice, such as food, clothing, and shelter. 

The Buddha s teachings benefit infinite numbers of 
beings, who as a result of practice achieve high realiza 
tions and eliminate delusions from their minds. But if we 
have taken rebirth as an animal or hell being or hungry 
ghost [described in chapter 5], the presence of the Bud 
dha s doctrine in this world will not help us at all. For 
example, the Buddha Shaky amuni was born in India, 
became completely enlightened, and turned the wheel of 
the Dharma three times. If we had obtained a precious 
human life at that time and had been cared for by the 
Buddha, then our present fate would be totally different. 
We might have escaped rebirth by this time. But that was 
not the case, and his teaching did not benefit us at all 
until now. It is fortunate that we are not in the lower 



forms of existence, but simply taking rebirth in a human 
form and being freed of the bondage of nonhuman exis 
tence is not enough. Suppose we had taken rebirth in a 
place where the Dharma flourishes, but if we were 
born without full mental faculties, the Dharma would 
not benefit us. Physical disabilities need not impede the 
practice of the Dharma, but without use of the mind, it 
would be impossible. Even if we had no disabilities, if 
we had been born into a community where they deny the 
law of cause and effect, our intellects would have been 
filled with wrong views. But that is not the case. If we 
had taken rebirth during the times when there was no 
Buddhist doctrine at all, then we would not be on a path 
of transforming the mind to end suffering. But that also is 
not the case. We should recognize the fortune of taking 
rebirth at a time when the Buddha s teachings exist. We 
should reflect on this, rejoicing in our fortune of being 
free from such disadvantages. When we think along such 
lines we will finally be able to realize that we have 
obtained a form of human existence that is unique. If we 
consider it in such a detailed manner, we will eventually 
recognize the real significance of human existence. We 
will decide to make a very strong commitment to a serious 
practice of the Dharma. 

It is said that the doctrine of Buddha Shaky amuni will 
remain five thousand years. If we take rebirth as a 
human after that, we will not benefit from it. But we have 
taken rebirth in this world during an eon of illumination 



when the Buddha s doctrine still remains. In order to 
want to transform the mind, you must be persuaded to 
take full advantage of your life as a human. 

Up to this point, we have been living our lives, we 
have been eating, we have found shelter, we have been 
wearing clothes. If we were to continue in this same 
manner, simply eating for the sake of living, what mea 
ning does that give our lives? We have all obtained a 
precious human form, but simply obtaining a human 
form is nothing to be proud of. There are an infinite num 
ber of other forms of life on the planet, but none are 
engaged in the kind of destruction in which humans 
indulge. Human beings endanger all the life on the planet. 
If we let compassion and an altruistic attitude guide our 
lives, we will be able to achieve great things something 
that other forms of life are not able to do. If we are able 
to use this precious human form in a positive manner, it 
will have value in the long term. Our human existence 
will then become truly precious. If, however, we use our 
human potential, the ability of the brain, in negative 
ways, to torture people, exploit others, and cause 
destruction, then our human existence will be a danger to 
ourselves in the future as well as to others right now. 
Human existence, if used destructively, has the potential 
to annihilate everything we know. Or, it can be the 
source for becoming a Buddha. 

Up to now we have not made much headway in out 
spiritual progress. Ask yourself, "What wholesome deeds 



have I done so far; what practices have I done to tame 
the mind and make myself confident in the future?" If 
you do not find anything that would give you a sense of 
certainty about your future fate, then all this eating of 
food in order to maintain your life so far is pretty much a 
waste. As the eighth-century Indian poet Shantideva 
says, our taking birth would have been simply for the 
sake of giving pain and difficulty to our mother; it would 
have served no other purpose. 

Shantideva says that having achieved such a precious 
human form, I would be stupid not to meditate and accu 
mulate virtues. If out of laziness I still postpone practice, 
at the time of death I will be seized by great remorse and 
concern for the sufferings I will undergo in the lower 
forms of existence. If having obtained such a valuable 
human existence, we then waste it, it would be like going 
to the land of jewels and coming back empty-handed. 
Reflect upon the fact that all the great masters of the past 
who achieved enlightenment within one lifetime 
Nagarjuna, Asanga, and great Tibetan masters like 
Milarepa had just the same human life that we have 
obtained now. The only difference between us and them 
is that we lack their initiative. By meditating on the rari 
ty of our circumstances, we can cultivate a similar moti 

Though a dog may live in a place where the Dharma 
is flourishing, the dog cannot actively benefit from it. 
Animals are even more strongly ruled by delusions and 



do not have our ability to choose between different kinds 
of behavior. They indulge more easily in negative 
actions and thoughts like hatred and desire and have 
more difficulty with virtuous actions. If I take rebirth as 
an animal or any form of lower existence, how will I 
have the chance to practice the Dharma? It is very diffi 
cult to accumulate virtues, and I would be continuously 
accumulating nonvirtuous actions, so that even after 
death I would be spinning in a chain reaction of con 
stantly taking rebirth in the lower forms of existence. If 
it is the case that even a momentary negative action has 
the potential to cause rebirth in the lower forms of exis 
tence for innumerable eons, then as a result of the infi 
nite numbers of nonvirtuous actions that I have accumu 
lated in the past, how can I doubt that I will take rebirth 
in the lower forms of existence? Once you take rebirth in 
the lower realms of existence, even though the karma 
that caused that rebirth can be exhausted by the suffer 
ings you undergo, there is hardly any hope for you to be 
freed from those lower realms because, in a vicious 
cycle, you will be indulging in negative actions, which 
will cause another, lower rebirth. Having reflected upon 
the difficulty of obtaining such a human existence, and 
reflecting upon the stupidity of wasting it, you should 
make the decision to make the best use of your life by 
undertaking the practice of the Dharma. 

It is generally said by Buddhists that our ordinary 
human existence requires as its primary cause a pure 



observance of ethics in a former life. In addition, especial 
ly for the attainment of a human form with the capacity to 
practice the Dharma, it is very important that the single 
ethical deed be complemented with other actions like 
generosity and aspirational prayers in the previous life 
time. If you consider it, you will find that it is very rare 
that someone possess all these factors. By thinking about 
the rarity of its cause, you will realize how difficult it is 
to obtain a precious human form. And if you compare 
human existence to other types of existence, such as ani 
mals, there are far more animals and insects than there 
are humans. Even within the human existence, one 
whose life is endowed with the leisure and opportunity to 
practice the Dharma is really very rare. If you under 
stand the importance of this precious human life, then all 
the other realizations will come naturally. If someone 
who has gold in his hand throws it away and then prays 
to get more gold tomorrow, he would be a laughingstock. 
In the same way, although we might be old and physical 
ly weak, we are far superior in our capacity to practice 
the Dharma than are other sentient beings. We can at 
least recite the mantra of the Bodhisattva of Compassion, 
OM MANI PADME HUM. Even if a person is at the 
point of death, he or she still has the ability to think and 
to cultivate virtuous thoughts. 

The Buddha s activities from the beginning of his 
cultivating the wish to help others to the accumulating of 
merit and his eventual achievement of enlightenment 



were all done for the sake of other sentient beings. The 
welfare of other sentient beings is classified into two 
types: temporary welfare, which is the achievement of 
favorable rebirth, and ultimate welfare, which is the 
achievement of liberation and the omniscient state. All 
the teachings associated with the achievement of favor 
able rebirth in the future are said to belong to the cate 
gory of small scope. When we talk of our ultimate aim, 
it is of two types: liberation from suffering, and omni 
science. All the teachings related to the practice of 
achieving personal liberation are teachings of middle 
scope. For this purpose, practitioners of middle scope 
engage in the practice of ethics, concentration, and wis 
dom and then eliminate the delusions and achieve liber 
ation from suffering and rebirth. All the teachings that 
outline the techniques for achieving the omniscience of 
Buddhahood, including both the sutra vehicle and the 
tantric vehicle, are teachings related to practitioners of 
great scope. A being of great scope is someone whose 
mind is motivated by great compassion for all other sen 
tient beings and who wishes to achieve enlightenment for 
their sake. Thus one group can think only of a future life; 
these are people of small scope. People in the second 
group are not preoccupied with the concerns of the future 
life alone but are able to think of something more distant, 
liberation from rebirth; these are beings of the middle 
scope. Yet other people are not concerned only with their 
own welfare but are more courageous. They are con- 



cerned with the welfare also of other sentient beings, and 
these are the beings of great scope. 

Tsong-kha-pa says that although we divide the prac 
tice into three types, the practice of initial scope, middle 
scope, and great scope, the two earlier ones are included 
in the practices of the great scope, because they are like 
preparations for the practice of great scope. When we 
train our minds to realize the importance of our precious 
human life and its rarity, we decide to take advantage of 
it. Our bodies, composed of flesh, blood, and bones, are 
like the banana tree, which has no core, and they are the 
source of all sorts of physical sufferings. Therefore, we 
should not be so concerned about our bodies. Instead, fol 
lowing the example of the great bodhisattvas, we should 
make our human birth meaningful and use our bodies for 
the benefit of other sentient beings. 

In other words, precious and rare opportunities sur 
round us, and we should recognize their value. We have 
obtained this precious human form, endowed with these 
special characteristics. If we were to waste it, simply 
indulging in trivial concerns and trivial deeds, it would be 
sad. Having realized the value of the precious human 
form, it is important to make the decision to capitalize on 
it and use it for the practice of the Dharma. Otherwise, 
there would hardly be any difference between our lives 
as human beings and those of animals, o 





C H A P TE R 4 


Phe Buddha said that of all the different times for 
plowing, autumn is the best, and of all the different 
kinds of fuel for fire cow dung is the best, and of all the 
different kinds of awareness, awareness of imperma- 
nence and death is best. Death is certain, but when it will 
strike is uncertain. If we really face up to things, we do 
not know which will come first tomorrow or death. We 
cannot be entirely sure that the old are going to die first 
and the young are going to remain behind. The most 
realistic attitude we can cultivate is to hope for the best 
but be prepared for the worst. If the worst does not hap 
pen, then everything is fine, but if it does occur, it will not 
strike us unawares. This applies also to the practice of 
the Dharma: be prepared for the worst, for none of us 
knows when we are going to die. 

Every day we hear of death in the news or the death 
of a friend, someone we knew vaguely, or a relative. 
Sometimes we feel the loss, sometimes we almost 
rejoice, but we still somehow hang onto the idea that it 
will not happen to us. We think we are immune to imper- 
manence, and so we put off spiritual practice (which 
might prepare us for death), thinking that we will have 
time in the future. When the time inevitably arrives, the 



only thing that we are left with is regret. We need to 
engage in practice right now so that no matter how soon 
death comes, we will be prepared. 

When the time of death comes, no circumstances can 
prevent it. No matter what type of body you might have, 
no matter how impervious to sickness you might be, 
death will certainly strike. If we reflect upon the lives of 
the past Buddhas and bodhisattvas, they are now only a 
memory. Great Indian masters, like Nagarjuna and Asan- 
ga, made great contributions to the Dharma and worked 
for the benefit of sentient beings, but all that remains of 
them now is their names. The same applies to great 
rulers and political leaders. The stories of their lives are 
so vivid that they seem almost to be alive. When we go 
on a pilgrimage in India, we find places like the great 
monastery of Nalanda, where great masters like Nagar 
juna and Asanga studied and taught. Now Nalanda lies in 
ruins. When we see the traces left by the great figures of 
history, the ruins show us the nature of impermanence. 
As the ancient Buddhist aphorisms say, whether we go 
underground or into the sea or into space, we will never 
be able to avoid death. The members of our own family 
will sooner or later be separated from each other like a 
collection of leaves blown about by wind. Within the next 
month or two, some of us will begin to die, and others 
will die within a few years. In eighty or ninety years all 
of us, including the Dalai Lama, will have died. Then 
only our spiritual realizations will help us. 



There is no one who after taking birth goes farther 
and farther away from death. Instead, we get closer and 
closer, like animals being led to the slaughter. Just as 
cowherds strike their cows and oxen and lead them back 
to the cow shed, so we, tormented by sufferings of birth, 
illness, aging, and death, move ever closer to the ends of 
our lives. Everything in this universe is subject to imper- 
manence and will eventually disintegrate. As the 
Seventh Dalai Lama said, young people who look 
very strong and healthy but die young are actually mas 
ters teaching us about impermanence. Of all the people 
we know or have seen, none will remain in one hundred 
years. Death cannot be averted by mantras or by seeking 
refuge in a powerful political leader. 

During the years of my life I have met so many peo 
ple. They are now only objects of my memory. Nowa 
days I meet more new people. It is just like watching a 
drama; after performing their parts, people change their 
costumes and reappear. If we spend our short lives under 
the influence of desire and hatred, if for the sake of those 
short lives we increase our delusions, the harm that we 
will do is very long-term, because it will destroy our 
prospects for achieving ultimate happiness. 

If sometimes we are not successful in trivial worldly 
matters, it does not matter much, but if we waste this pre 
cious opportunity afforded by human life, we will be let 
ting ourselves down in the long term. The future is in our 
hands whether we want to undergo extreme suffering 



by falling into the realms of nonhuman existence or 
whether we want to achieve higher forms of rebirth or 
whether we want to reach the state of enlightenment. 
Shantideva says that in this life we have the opportunity, 
we have the responsibility, we have the ability to decide 
and determine what our future lives will be. We should 
train our minds so that our lives will not be wasted not 
even for a month or a day and prepare for the moment 
of death. 

If we can cultivate that understanding, our motivation 
for spiritual practice will come from within the 
strongest motivational factor there is. Geshe Sha-ra-wa 
(1070-1 141) said that his best teacher was meditation on 
impermanence. The Buddha Shaky amuni said in his first 
teaching that the basis of suffering was impermanence. 

When faced with death, the best practitioners will be 
delighted, the midlevel practitioners will be well pre 
pared for it, and even the lowest practitioners will have 
no regret. When we reach the last day of our lives, it is 
very important not to have even a twinge of regret, or the 
negativity we experience at the time of death could 
influence our next rebirth. The best way to make life 
meaningful is to undertake the path of compassion. 

If you reflect upon death and impermanence, you will 
begin to make your life meaningful. You might think that 
because sooner or later you have to die, there is no point 
in trying to think about death now, for it will just make 
you depressed and worried. But awareness of death and 



impermanence can have great benefits. If our minds are 
gripped by the feeling that we are not subject to death, 
then we will never be serious in our practice and will 
never make headway on the spiritual path. The belief 
that you will not die is the greatest stumbling block to 
spiritual progress: you will not remember the Dharma, 
you will not follow the Dharma even though you may 
remember it, and you will not follow the Dharma purely 
even though you may follow it to a certain extent. If you 
do not contemplate death, then you will never take your 
practice seriously. Overcome by laziness, you will lack 
effort and momentum in your practice, and you will be 
beset by exhaustion. You will have great attachment to 
fame, material wealth, and prosperity. When we think so 
much of this life, we tend to work for those we like our 
relatives and friends and we strive to make them 
happy. Then when others try to harm them, we 
immediately label these others as our enemies. In 
this way delusions like desire and hatred increase like a 
river flooding in the summer. These delusions automatically 
induce us to indulge in all sorts of negative actions whose 
consequences will be rebirth in lower forms of existence 
in the future. 

As a result of a small accumulation of merit, we have 
already obtained a precious human life. Any remaining 
merit will manifest as some relative degree of prosperi 
ty in this life. So the little capital that we have will 
already be spent, and if we are not accumulating any- 



thing new, it is like spending our savings without making 
a new deposit. If we simply exhaust our collection of 
merit, then sooner or later we will be plunged into a 
future life of even more intense suffering. 

It is said that if we do not have a proper awareness of 
death, we will die in the grip of fear and regret. That fee 
ling can send us into the lower realms. Many people avoid 
speaking about death at all. They avoid thinking the worst, 
so when it actually happens they are taken by surprise and 
are totally unprepared. Buddhist practice advises us not to 
ignore misfortunes but to acknowledge and confront them, 
preparing for them right from the beginning, so that when 
we actually experience the suffering it is not completely 
unbearable. Simply avoiding a problem does not help 
resolve it but in fact can make it worse. 

Some people remark that Buddhist practice seems to 
emphasize suffering and pessimism. I think this is quite, 
wrong. Buddhist practice actually strives to gain an ever 
lasting peace something that is inconceivable to an 
ordinary mind and to get rid of sufferings once and for 
all. Buddhists are not satisfied by prosperity in this life 
time alone or the prospect of prosperity in future lives 
but instead seek an ultimate happiness. Now the basic 
Buddhist outlook is that since sufferings are a reality, 
simply mentally avoiding them will not resolve the problem. 
What should be done is to confront suffering, face it and 
analyze it, examine it, determine its causes, and find out 
how best you can cope with it. When those who avoid 



thinking about misery are actually struck by it, they 
are unprepared and suffer more than those who have 
familiarized themselves with sufferings, their origin, 
and how they arise. A practitioner of the Dharma 
thinks daily about death, reflects upon the sufferings 
of human beings, the suffering at the time of birth, the 
suffering of aging, the suffering of sickness, and the 
suffering of death. Every day, tantric practitioners go 
through the death process in imagination. It is like 
mentally dying once every day. Because of their 
familiarity with it, they will be quite prepared when 
they actually meet with death. If you have to go through 
a very dangerous and frightening terrain, you should find 
out about the dangers and how to deal with them in 
advance. Not to think about them ahead of time would be 
foolish. Whether you like it or not you have to go there, 
so it is better to be prepared so that you will know how 
to react when the difficulties appear. 

If you have a perfect awareness of death, you will 
feel certain that you are going to die soon. If you then 
find out that you are going to die today or tomorrow, 
because of your spiritual practice you will try to detach 
yourself from objects of attachment by getting rid of your 
belongings and seeing all worldly prosperity as without 
any essence or significance. You will try to put all your 
effort into your practice. The advantage of being aware 
of death is that it makes life meaningful, and, feeling 
delight when the time of death approaches, you will die 



without any regret. 

When you reflect upon the certainty of death in ge 
neral and the uncertainty of its time, you will make all 
effort to prepare yourself for the future. You will realize 
that the prosperity and activities of this life are without 
essence and unimportant. Then, working for the long- 
term benefit of yourself and others will seem much more 
important, and your life will be guided by that under 
standing. Just as Milarepa said, since sooner or later you 
have to leave everything behind, why not give it up right 
now? In spite of all our efforts, including taking medi 
cines or doing long-life ceremonies, it is very unlikely 
that anyone will live more than one hundred years. There 
are some exceptional cases, but after sixty or seventy 
years most of the people reading this book will not be 
alive. After one hundred years people will reflect upon 
our time as simply a part of history. 

When death arrives, the only thing that can help is the 
compassion and understanding of the nature of reality 
one has thus far gained. In this regard it is very important 
to examine whether or not there is life after death. Past 
and future lives exist for the following reasons. Certain 
patterns of thinking from last year, the year before that, 
and even from childhood can be recollected now. This 
clearly shows that there existed an awareness prior to the 
present awareness. The first instant of consciousness in 
this life is also not produced without a cause, nor is it 
born from something permanent or inanimate. A moment 



of mind is something that is clear and knowing. It must 
therefore be preceded by something that is clear and 
knowing, a previous moment of mind. It is not feasible 
that the first moment of mind in this life could come from 
anything other than a previous lifetime. 

Although the physical body may act as a secondary 
cause of subtle changes in the mind, it cannot be the pri 
mary cause. Matter can never turn into mind, and mind 
cannot turn into matter. Therefore, mind must come from 
mind. The mind of this present life comes from the mind 
of the previous life and serves as the cause of the mind 
of the next life. When you reflect upon death and are 
aware of it constantly, your life will become meaningful. 

Realizing the great disadvantages of our instinctive 
grasping at permanence, we must counter it and be con 
stantly aware of death so that we will be motivated to 
undertake the practice of the Dharma more seriously. 
Tsong-kha-pa says that the importance of the awareness 
of death is not confined to the initial stage alone. It is 
important throughout all the stages of the path; it is impor 
tant at the beginning, in the middle, and also at the end. 

The awareness of death that we must cultivate is not the 
ordinary, incapacitating fear of being separated from our 
loved ones and possessions. Rather, we must learn to fear 
that we will die without having put an end to the causes for 
taking rebirth in lower forms of existence and will die with 
out having accumulated the necessary causes and condi 
tions for favorable future rebirth. If we do not accomplish 



these two aims, then at the time of death we will be 
gripped by strong fear and remorse. If we spend our 
entire lives indulging in negative actions induced by 
hatred and desire, we cause harm not only temporarily 
but also in the long term, because we accumulate and 
store up a wide collection of causes and conditions for our 
own downfall in future lives. Fear of that will inspire us to 
make even our day-to-day lives into something meaning 
ful. Having gained an awareness of death, we will see the 
prosperity and affairs of this life as unimportant and will 
work for a better future. That is the purpose of meditating 
on death. If we fear death now, we will try to look for a 
method to overcome our fear and regret at the time of 
death. However, if we try to avoid a fear of death right 
now, at the time of death we will be gripped by remorse. 

Tsong-Kha-Pa says that when our contemplation of 
impermanence becomes very firm and stable, everything 
we encounter will teach us about impermanence. He 
says that the process of approaching death starts right 
from conception and that when we are alive, our lives are 
constantly tormented by illness and aging. While we are 
healthy and alive we should not be lured into thinking that 
we will not die. We should not be obliviously delighted 
when we are well; it is better to be prepared for our future 
fate. For example, some one falling from a very high cliff 
is not happy before he or she hits the ground. 

Even while we are alive there is very little time for 
the practice of the Dharma. Even if we assume that we 



might live long, perhaps a hundred years, we should 
never give in to the feeling that we will have time to 
practice the Dharma later. We should not be influenced 
by procrastination, which is a form of laziness. Half of 
one s life is spent in sleep, and for most of the rest of the 
time we are distracted by worldly activities. When we 
become old, our physical and mental strength decreases, 
and even though we might wish to practice, it will 
already be too late because we will not have the ability 
to practice the Dharma. Just as a scripture says, half of 
one s life is spent in sleep, for ten years we are children 
and twenty years we are old, and the time in between is 
tormented by worries, sorrow, suffering, and depressions, 
so there is hardly any time for the practice of the Dhar 
ma. If we live a life of sixty years and think of all the 
time we spend as children, all the time that we are 
asleep, and the time when we are too old, we will find 
that there are only about five years that we can devote to 
the serious practice of the Dharma. If we do not make a 
deliberate effort to undertake the practice of the Dharma 
but instead live as we normally do, we are certain to 
spend our lives in idleness without purpose. Gung-thang 
Rinpoche said, partly in jest, "I spent twenty years without 
thinking of practicing the Dharma and then I spent another 
twenty years thinking I would practice later and then I spent 
ten years thinking about how I had missed the chance to 
practice the Dharma." 

When I was just a child, nothing much happened. At 



about fourteen or fifteen years of age, I began to take a 
serious interest in the Dharma. Then the Chinese came, 
and I spent many years in all sorts of political turmoil. I 
went to China and in 1956 I visited India. After that I 
returned to Tibet, and again some time was spent 
involved in political affairs. The best thing I can recall is 
my examination as a geshe [the highest academic degree 
in the Tibetan monastic universities], after which I had to 
leave my country. I have been in exile now for more than 
thirty years, and although I have managed some study 
and practice, most of my life is spent idly without much 
benefit. I have not yet reached the point of regretting that 
I have not practiced. If I think in terms of practicing 
Highest Yoga Tantra, there are certain aspects of the path 
that I can not practice because my physical constituents 
have begun to deteriorate with age. The time for practicing 
the Dharma does not come naturally but has to be set aside 

If you must depart on a long journey, at a certain point 
it is necessary to make preparations. As I often like to 
say, we should spend 50 percent of our time and energy 
on the concerns of our future life and about 50 percent on 
the affairs of this lifetime. 

There are many causes of death and very few causes 
of staying alive. Furthermore, those things that we nor 
mally regard as supporting life, such as food and medi 
cine, can become causes of death. Many illnesses today 
are said to be caused by our diet. The chemicals used to 



grow crops and to raise animals contribute to bad health 
and cause imbalance within the body. The human body is 
so sensitive, so delicate, that if it is too fat, you have all 
sorts of problems: you cannot walk properly, you have 
high blood pressure, and your own body becomes a bur 
den. On the other hand, if you are too thin, you have lit 
tle strength or stamina, which leads to all sorts of other 
troubles. When you are young you worry about not being 
included among the grown-ups, and when you are too old 
you feel like you have been cast out of society. This is 
the nature of our existence. If the harm were some kind 
of externally inflicted thing, then you might somehow be 
able to avoid it; you could go underground or submerge 
yourself in the ocean. But when the harm comes from 
within, there is nothing much you can do. While we are 
free of illness and difficulty and we have a healthy body, 
we must capitalize on that and take the essence of it. To 
take the essence of life is to try to achieve a state that is 
totally free of illness, mortality, decay, and fear that is, 
a state of liberation and omniscience. 

The richest man in the world cannot take a single pos 
session with him at death. Tsong-kha-pa says that if we 
must leave behind this body, which we have held so dear 
and labeled as our own and which has been accompany 
ing us since our birth as our oldest companion, then there 
is no question of not leaving behind material belongings. 
Most people spend so much energy and time simply try 
ing to gain some prosperity and happiness within this life- 



time. But at the time of death, all our worldly activities, 
such as taking care of our relatives and friends and com 
peting with our rivals, have to be left unfinished. Although 
you might have enough food to provide for one hundred 
years, at the time of death you will have to go hungry, and 
although you might have clothes that would suffice for 
one hundred years, at the time of death you will have to 
go naked. When death strikes there is no difference 
between the way a king dies, leaving his kingdom behind, 
and the way a beggar dies, leaving his stick behind. 

You should try to imagine a situation in which you are 
sick. Imagine that you have a grave illness and your 
entire physical strength has gone; you feel exhausted, 
and even medicines will not help. When the time of 
death comes, the doctor will speak in two ways: to the 
patient he or she will say, "Don t worry, you will get bet 
ter. There is nothing to worry about; just relax." To the 
family he or she will say, "The situation is very grave. 
You should arrange for the final ceremonies to be per 
formed." At that time there will be no opportunity for you 
to complete unfinished business or to complete your 
studies. When you lie down your body will be so weak 
that you can hardly move. Then the heat of your body 
gradually dissolves and you feel that your body has 
become very stiff, like a tree that has fallen on your bed. 
You will actually begin to see your own corpse. Your last 
words will be barely audible, and the people around you 
will have to struggle to understand what you are saying. 



The last food you eat will not be a delicious meal but a 
mixture of pills that you will not have the strength to 
swallow. You will have to leave your most intimate 
friends; it may be eons before you meet them again. 
Your breathing pattern will change and become noisy. 
Gradually it will become more uneven, with the inhala 
tion and exhalation coming faster and faster. Finally, 
there will be one last very strong exhalation, and that 
will be the end of your breath. That marks death as it is 
ordinarily understood. After that, your name, which once 
gave such delight to your friends and family when they 
heard it, will have a prefix added to it, "the late." 

It is crucial that at the time of death the mind is in a 
virtuous state. It is the last chance that we have, and it is 
a chance not to be missed. Although we might have lived 
a very negative life, at the time of death we should make 
great effort to cultivate a virtuous state of mind. If we are 
able to develop a very strong and powerful compassion 
at the time of death, there is hope that in the next life we 
will take rebirth in a favorable existence. Generally 
speaking, familiarity plays a great role in this. When 
people are sick and about to die, it is unfortunate that 
others allow the dying person to feel desire or hatred. At 
the very least the dying person should be shown images 
of Buddhas and bodhisattvas so that he or she can see 
them, try to develop strong faith in them, and die in an 
auspicious frame of mind. If this is not possible, it is very 
important that the attendants and relatives not make the 



dying person feel upset. At that time a very strong emo 
tion, like desire or hatred, can send the person into a 
state of great suffering and quite possibly a lower rebirth. 
As death approaches, certain signs indicating the 
future might appear. Those with virtuous minds will feel 
that they are going from darkness into light or onto open 
ground. They will feel happy, see visions of beautiful 
things, and will not feel any acute suffering as they die. 
If at the time of death people have very strong feelings 
of desire or hatred, they will see all sorts of hallucinations 
and will feel great anxiety. Some people feel as if they are 
entering darkness; others feel that they are burning. I have 
met some people who had been very sick who told me that 
when they were seriously ill they had visions of being 
burned. This is an indication of their future fate. As a result 
of such signs, the dying person will feel very confused and 
will shout and moan, feeling as if the whole body is being 
pulled down. He or she will have acute pain at the time of 
death. All of this derives ultimately from attachment 
focused upon oneself. The dying know that the person 
they have cherished so much is going to die. 

When those who have indulged most of their lives in 
negative action die, it is said that the process of the dis 
solution of the body s warmth starts from the upper part 
of the body until it reaches the heart. For practitioners of 
virtue it is said that the process of the dissolution of 
warmth starts from below, from the legs, and eventually 
reaches the heart. In any case, the consciousness actual- 



ly departs from the heart. 

After death one enters into the intermediate state, the 
bardo. The body in the intermediate state has several 
unique features: all the physical senses are complete, 
and it has a physical appearance that is identical to the 
physical appearance of the being that it will next take 
rebirth as. For example, if it is to take rebirth as a human 
being, it will have a physical appearance identical to a 
human being. If it is to take rebirth as an animal, then it 
will have the physical appearance of the particular ani 
mal. The being of the intermediate state has such 
powerful sight that it can see through solid objects 
and is able to travel anywhere without obstruction. 
Beings of the intermediate state are visible only to 
intermediate beings of the same type. For example, if 
an intermediate being is destined to be reborn as a 
human, it will be visible only to intermediate beings 
who are destined to take rebirth as humans. Interme 
diate beings of the god realm walk upward, looking 
upward, and the intermediate beings of the human 
realm walk straight and look straight. The intermediate 
beings of those who have indulged in negative actions 
and are destined to take rebirth in lower realms are said 
to move upside down. 

The period of time spent in this intermediate state is 
seven days. After one week, if the intermediate-state 
being meets with appropriate circumstances, it will take 
rebirth in the appropriate realm of existence. If it does 



not, then it will again have to die a small death and arise 
as an intermediate being again. This can happen seven 
times, but after forty-nine days it can no longer remain as 
an intermediate-state being and must take rebirth, 
whether it likes it or not. When the time has come for it 
to take rebirth, it sees beings of its own type playing, and 
it will develop a wish to join them. The regenerative fluids 
of the future parents, the semen and the ovum, look different 
to it. Although the parents may not be actually sleeping 
together, the intermediate being will have the illusion that 
they are and will feel attachment to them. If someone is like 
ly to be born as a girl, it is said she will feel repulsion for the 
mother and, driven by attachment, will try to sleep with 
the father. If someone is likely to be born as a boy, he 
will feel repulsion for the father but will have attachment 
to the mother and will try to sleep with her. Moved by 
such desire, he or she goes to where the parents are. 
Then, no part of the body of the parents appears to that 
being except for the sexual organs, and as a result the 
being feels frustrated and angry. That anger serves as the 
condition for its death from the intermediate state, and it 
takes rebirth in the womb. When the parents are copula 
ting and achieve orgasm, it is said that one or two drops of 
thick semen and ovum mix together like cream on the sur 
face of boiled milk. At that moment the consciousness of the 
intermediate being ceases and enters into the mixture. That 
marks the entry into the womb. Although the parents may not 
be copulating, the intermediate being has the illusion that 



they are doing so and will go to the place. This implies that 
there are cases where, although the parents may not cop 
ulate, still consciousness can enter into the physical ele 
ments. This accounts for test-tube babies today; when the 
fluids are collected from the parents and are mixed and 
kept in a tube, the consciousness can enter into that mix 
ture without actual copulation taking place. 

Shantideva says that even animals work to experience 
pleasure and avoid pain in this life. We must turn our atten 
tion to the future; otherwise we will be no different from 
animals. Awareness of death is the very bedrock of the 
entire path. Until you have developed this awareness, all 
other practices are obstructed. The Dharma is the guide 
that leads us through unknown terrain; the Dharma is the 
food that sustains us in our journey; the Dharma is the 
captain that will take us to the unknown shore of nirvana. 
Therefore, put all the energy of your body, speech, and 
mind into the practice of the Dharma. To talk about 
meditation on death and impermanence is very easy, 
but the actual practice is really very difficult. And 
when we do practice, sometimes we do not notice 
much change, especially if we just compare yester 
day and today. There is a danger of losing hope and 
becoming discouraged. In such situations, it is quite help 
ful not to compare days or weeks, but rather to try to 
compare our present state of mind with that of five years 
ago or ten years ago; then we will see that there has 
been some change. We may notice some change in our 



outlook, in our understanding, in our spontaneity, in our 
response to these practices. 

That in itself is a source of great encouragement; it 
really gives us hope, because it shows that if we make 
the effort there is the potential for further progress. To 
become discouraged and decide to postpone our practice 
to a more favorable time is really very dangerous, o 




can be understood as cause and effect in much 
same way that physicists understand that for 
every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. As 
with physics, what form that reaction will take is not 
always predictable, but sometimes we can predict the 
reaction and we can do something to mitigate the out 
come. Science is working on ways to clean up the envi 
ronment now that it has been polluted, and many more 
scientists are attempting to prevent further pollution. In 
the same way, our future lives are determined by our 
present actions as well as those of our immediate past 
and past lives. The practice of the Dharma is meant to 
mitigate the outcome of our karmic actions and prevent 
any further pollution by negative thoughts and actions. 
Those negative thoughts and actions will otherwise land 
us in a rebirth of tremendous suffering. Sooner or later 
we are going to die, and so sooner or later we will have 
to take rebirth again. The realms of existence where we 
can take rebirth are confined to two, the favorable and 
the unfavorable. Where we take rebirth depends on 

Karma is created by an agent, a person, a living 
being. Living beings are nothing other than the self, 



imputed on the basis of the continuity of consciousness. 
The nature of consciousness is luminosity and clarity. It 
is an agent of knowing that is preceded by an earlier 
moment of consciousness that is its cause. If we come to 
understand that the continuity of consciousness cannot 
be exhausted within one lifetime, we will find that there 
is logical support for the possibility of life after death. If 
we are not convinced of the continuity of consciousness, 
at least we know that there is no evidence that can dis 
prove the theory of life after death. We cannot prove it, 
but we cannot disprove it. There are many cases of peo 
ple remembering their past lives vividly. It is not a phe 
nomenon confined to Buddhists. There are people with 
such memories whose parents do not believe in life after 
death or past lives. I know of three cases of children who 
have been able to remember their past lives vividly. In 
one case the recollection of the past life was so vivid 
that even though the parents previously did not believe 
in life after death, as a result of the clarity of their 
child s recollections, they are now convinced. The child 
not only recollected clearly having lived in a nearby vil 
lage that she recognized, but was able to identify her 
previous parents, whom she had no other occasion to 
know. If there is no life after death, there is no past life, 
and we will have to find another explanation for these 
recollections. There are also many cases of parents who 
have two children brought up in the same way, in the 
same society, with the same background, yet one is more 



successful than the other. We find that such differences 
come about as a result of differences in our past karmic 

Death is nothing other than the separation of the con 
sciousness from the physical body. If you do not accept 
this phenomenon called consciousness, I think it is also 
very difficult to explain exactly what life is. When con 
sciousness is connected to the body and their relationship 
continues, we call it life, and when consciousness termi 
nates its relationship with a particular body, we call it 
death. Although our bodies are an aggregation of chemi 
cal or physical components, a kind of subtle agent of 
pure luminosity constitutes the life of living beings. 
Since it is not physical, we cannot measure it, but that 
does not mean that it does not exist. We have spent so 
much time, energy, and research in the exploration of the 
external world, but now if we change that approach and 
direct all this exploration, research, and energy inward 
and begin to analyze, I really think we have the ability to 
realize the nature of consciousness this clarity, this 
luminosity within ourselves. 

According to the Buddhist explanation, conscious 
ness is said to be nonobstructive and nonphysical, and it 
is from the actions of this consciousness that all emo 
tions, all delusions, and all human faults arise. However, 
it is also because of the inherent nature of this con 
sciousness that one can eliminate all these faults and 
delusions and bring about lasting peace and happiness. 



Since consciousness is the basic for existence and 
enlightenment, there are extensive writings on the topic. 
We know from our own experience that conscious 
ness or mind is subject to change, which implies that it is 
dependent upon causes and conditions that change, 
transform, and influence it: the conditions and circum 
stances of our lives. Consciousness must have a substan 
tial cause similar to the nature of conciousness itself in 
order for it to arise. Without a prior moment of con 
sciousness there cannot be any consciousness. It does not 
arise out of nothing, and it cannot turn into nothing. Mat 
ter cannot change into consciousness. Therefore, we 
should be able to trace the causal sequence of moments 
of consciousness back in time. The Buddhist scriptures 
speak of hundreds of billions of world systems, infinite 
numbers of world systems, and consciousness existing 
since beginningless time. I believe that other worlds 
exist. Modern cosmology also says that there are many 
different types of world systems. Although life has not 
been scientifically observed on other planets, it would be 
illogical to conclude that life is possible only on this 
planet, which is dependent upon this solar system, and 
not on other types of planets. Buddhist scriptures men 
tion the presence of life in other world systems as well 
as different types of solar systems and an infinite number 
of universes. 

Now if the scientists are asked how the universe came 
about, they have a lot of answers to give. But if they are 



asked why this evolution took place, then they have no 
answers. They generally do not explain it as God s crea 
tion because they are objective observers who tend only 
to believe in the material universe. Some say that it hap 
pened just by chance. Now that position itself is illo 
gical, because if anything exists by chance then it is tanta 
mount to saying that things do not have any causes. But we 
see from our everyday lives that everything has a cause: 
clouds cause rain, wind blows seeds around so that new 
plants grow. Nothing exists without any reason. If evolu 
tion has a cause, then there are two possible explanations. 
You can accept that the universe was created by God, in 
which case there will be a lot of contradictions, such as the 
necessity that suffering and evil must also have been crea 
ted by God. The other option is to explain that there are 
infinite numbers of sentient beings whose karmic poten 
tials collectively created this entire universe as an envi 
ronment for them. The universe we inhabit is created by 
our own desires and actions. This is why we are here. This, 
at least, is logical. 

At the time of death, we are blown about by the force 
of our own karmic actions. The result of negative karmic 
actions is rebirth in the lower realms. In order to dis 
courage ourselves from negative actions, we should 
try to imagine whether we would be able to bear the 
sufferings of the lower realms. Having seen that happi 
ness is a consequence of positive actions, we will take 
great pleasure in accumulating virtue. Equating your 



own experience with that of others, you will be able to 
develop strong compassion, for you will understand that 
their sufferings are no different from your own and they 
also wish to achieve liberation. It is important to medi 
tate upon the suffering of the animal and hell realms. If 
we do not make spiritual progress, our negative actions 
will lead us there. And if we feel we cannot bear the suf 
fering of burning or cold or unquenchable thirst and 
hunger, then our motivation to practice will increase 
immeasurably. At the present time, this human existence 
affords us the opportunity and conditions to rescue our 

The lower forms of existence are rebirth as an ani 
mal, hungry ghost, or hell being. According to the scrip 
tures, the hells are located a certain distance directly 
below Bodh Gaya, the place in India where the Buddha 
achieved enlightenment. But if you were to actually 
travel that distance, you would end up in the middle of 
America. So these teachings should not be taken literal 
ly. They were spoken in accordance with the convention 
of the time, or popular belief. The purpose of the Buddha 
coming to this world was not to measure the circumference 
of the world and the distance between the earth and moon, 
but rather to teach the Dharma, to liberate sentient beings, to 
relieve sentient beings of their sufferings. If we do not under 
stand the basic approach of Buddhism, we might imagine that 
the Buddha sometimes spoke in a contradictory and confusing 
manner. But there is a purpose in each of the diverse philo- 



sophical views he taught, and each benefits different types of 
sentient beings. When he talked about the hells, he must have 
taken a lot of popular conventions and popular beliefs into 
account for the specific purpose of causing his listeners to 
practice the Dharma. 

I believe that such states as the various hot and cold 
hells do exist. If the highest states, like nirvana and 
omniscience, exist, why should their opposite, the most 
extreme state of suffering, the most untamed mind, not 
exist as well? Even within human existence there are dif 
ferent types of people: some enjoy more life and a 
greater degree of happiness, some have to undergo a 
greater degree of suffering. Now, all of these differences 
in experience come about as a result of differences in the 
causes actions, or karma. If we go further and compare 
human beings to the various forms of animal existence, 
we find that animals states of mind are more untamed 
and their suffering and confusion are more obvious. They 
still have a natural tendency to wish for happiness and 
avoid suffering. Some animals are very clever: if we try 
to catch them by giving them some food, they are very 
cautious. The moment they have eaten, they try to run 
away, but if we are sincere and patient in giving them 
food, they can come to trust us completely. Even ani 
mals, like dogs and cats, appreciate the value of kind 
ness; they appreciate the value of sincerity and love. 

If there are different levels of spiritual attainment 
based on how tamed the mind has become, there should 



also be different levels of the untamed mind. Beyond the 
animal realm are states such as that of hungry ghosts, 
who cannot satisfy their appetites. Hell realms are states 
of existence where sufferings are so extreme that the 
beings there retain hardly any power of judgment or 
intelligence. The sufferings in the hells are of intense 
heat and intense cold. Proving that these realms exist is 
beyond our ordinary logic. But we can conclude that they 
exist because we know that the Buddha has proven to be 
so accurate, logical, and consistent on many other impor 
tant matters, like impermanence and causation, which 
we can verify logically. Therefore, we can infer that he 
was correct about the various levels of rebirth as well. 
The Buddha s motives for explaining the hell realms are 
only compassion and his desire to teach what would be 
beneficial to sentient beings for freeing themselves from 
the cycle of rebirth. Because he has no reason to tell lies, 
these hidden things must also be true. 

Every day we accept as true things that we have no 
direct way of proving. I was born on July 6, 1935. 1 know 
this simply because my mother told me and I believe her. 
There is no way that I can directly perceive it or logical 
ly prove it, but by relying on someone in whom I have 
confidence and who does not have any reason to tell me 
lies, I know that I was born on July 6, 1935. Those deeper 
questions of life after death and the existence of other 
realms can only be approached by relying on scriptures. 
We have to prove the validity of those scriptures by 



applying reason. We cannot just take a quotation at face 
value. We have to study it and apply it to our lives. 

The many different levels of suffering in the lower 
realms of existence have been explained in different 
scriptures. Some of the sufferings are so extreme they 
are beyond our understanding. If you take rebirth in any 
of these lower realms of existence, how will you be able 
to bear them? Examine whether you have created the 
causes and conditions for rebirth in such lower realms of 
existence. As long as we are under the grip of delusions, 
the strong forces of hatred and desire, we will be forced 
against our will to indulge in negative actions that will 
actually be the cause of our own downfall. If that is the 
case, then we will have to undergo these sufferings our 
selves. If you do not wish to undergo such sufferings or 
you feel that you would never be able to bear such 
extreme sufferings; you should restrain your body, 
speech, and mind from indulging in actions that will 
accumulate the potential for your fall into such states. 
Those that have already been accumulated should be 
properly purified according to the relevant practices. And 
since everything is impermanent, there is no nonvirtue 
that cannot be purified. 

The more you reflect on these sufferings and the 
stronger your feeling that they would be unbearable, the 
more you will see the destructive potential of negative 
actions. When you meditate on these sufferings, you 
should try to imagine yourself having taken rebirth in 



these existences and undergoing the sufferings yourself. 
It is said, for example, that when reflecting on the suf 
ferings of the hot hells, you should imagine your body 
burning, or when reflecting on the sufferings of the cold 
hells, you should think that your body is freezing. The 
same should be done with regard to the sufferings of ani 
mals. It is recommended that you should go to some iso 
lated place and try to simulate the entire experience of 
such beings, trying to imagine that you are undergoing 
their suffering yourself. The more powerfully you feel 
unable to bear the suffering, the greater will be your fear 
of the lower realms. That leads to knowledge of the 
destructive power of negative actions and the suffering 
caused by them. Later, when you meditate on compas 
sion, this practice will help you to increase your compas 
sion toward others who indulge in very grave negative 
actions. For example, when Tibetans think of the Chi 
nese, whose negative actions consist of genocide, 
instead of being angered, we try to develop a strong 
feeling of compassion toward those who are so con 
trolled by their delusions. Although these people may 
not immediately undergo obvious sufferings, it is only 
a matter of time, because sooner or later they will have 
to face the consequences. If we are able to develop a 
fear of suffering right now as human beings, we have 
the potential, capacity, and opportunity to prevent the 
causes for our own downfall. We can purify the nega 
tive and accumulate great stores of merit. We will be 



able to increase the accumulation of merit we already 
have, and we will be able to dedicate the merit so that 
it will not be destroyed by anger. If we undertake a 
proper practice day by day we will be able to make our 
human lives meaningful, a 




A Buddhist is someone who, motivated by fear of the 
^""^sufferings of the cycle of rebirth and of the lover 
realms of existence, takes refuge in the Three Jewels: 
the Buddha, the Dharma (the teachings), and the Sangha 
(the spiritual community). A Buddhist, through practice 
and experience, knows that the Three Jewels have the 
capacity to protect him or her from falling into the lower 
realms of existence. The eleventh-century teacher Po-to- 
wa once remarked that when he visited a monastery, 
even among the senior monks sitting inside in prayer, 
there were some who were not even Buddhists. Many of 
them lacked a proper understanding of the Three Jewels. 
It is taking refuge that fortifies the wish to achieve nir 

The Buddha is a being who is totally free of all delu 
sions and faults, who is endowed with all good qualities 
and has attained the wisdom eliminating the darkness of 
ignorance. The Dharma is the result of his enlighten 
ment. After having achieved enlightenment, a Buddha 
teaches, and what he or she teaches, is called the Dhar 
ma. The Sangha is made up of those who engage in the 
practice of the teachings given by the Buddha. These are 
the basic definitions of the Three Jewels. The activity of 
the Buddha is to give teachings and show the path. The 



activity or the function of the Dharma is to eliminate suf 
ferings and their causes, the delusions. The function of 
the Sangha is to take pleasure in undertaking the practice 
of this Dharma. You should regard the Buddha with 
respect. Your attitude toward the Dharma should be one 
of aspiration, trying to bring about experience of it within 
your mind, and you should regard the Sangha as noble 
companions who assist in the process of the path. The 
Buddha is the master who shows us the path to 
enlightenment, the Dharma is the actual refuge in 
which we seek protection from sufferings, and the Sang 
ha consists of spiritual companions through the stages of 
the path. 

One of the benefits of refuge is that all the misdeeds 
you have committed in the past can be purified, because 
taking refuge entails accepting the Buddha s guidance 
and following a path of virtuous action. Most of the ne 
gative actions you have committed in the past can be 
alleviated or reduced and your stores of merit increased. 
Having sought refuge in the Three Jewels, we will be 
protected not only from present harm, but also from the 
harm of rebirth in the lower realms of existence, and the 
full enlightenment of Buddhahood can be quickly 
attained. We should never give up the Three Jewels, 
even at the cost of our lives. There have been many 
cases in Tibet where the Chinese have tried to force peo 
ple to abandon their faith. Many responded by saying 
that they could not give up their faith and have instead 



chosen to give up their lives. This is the true commitment 
of taking refuge. 

Tsong-kha-pa says that if your fear and conviction 
are mere words, then taking refuge is just words also, 
but if your fear and your conviction in the Three Jewels 
ability to protect you from such fear are deeply rooted, 
then your refuge will also be very powerful. 

The objects of refuge themselves have achieved a 
state that is totally free of fear and suffering. If the 
objects themselves had not obtained such a state, they 
would not have the ability to protect us, just as someone 
who has fallen down cannot help you to stand up. Those 
from whom we seek protection should be free of suffer 
ing and fear; otherwise, even though they may have the 
wish to do so, they will not have the capacity to protect 
us. The Buddha Shakyamuni is not only free from suf 
fering and fear himself, he is also supremely skillful in 
leading sentient beings along the right path. This we can 
understand by reflecting upon the diverse teachings that 
the Buddha gave to suit the diverse interests and disposi 
tions of sentient beings. He left us with teachings that 
can reach us no matter what our level of spiritual devel 
opment. When we realize the importance of this, we will 
also begin to admire all the religions of the world, 
because the very aim of their teaching is to help others. 

Tsong-kha-pa says that if you reflect upon the great 
qualities that make something an object of refuge and 
develop deep, one-pointed conviction in the three 



objects of refuge, there is no way that you will not be 
protected. What we need is a deep sense of fear of the 
sufferings of the lower realms and trust in the capacity of 
the Three jewels to protect us from them. We develop 
this trust through meditating on the qualities of the Bud 
dha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. 

The Buddha s compassion is without bias. He does 
not distinguish between sentient beings who help him 
and those who do not. His working for the benefit of all 
the sentient beings is unbiased. These qualifications are 
complete only in the Buddha, and so he and his many 
forms and emanations are the refuge, along with the 
teachings that he has given and the community that emu 
lates him and engages in his way of practice. 

The Buddha s speech is such that if he is asked any 
question or many different questions at the same time, he 
is said to be able to understand the essence of them all 
and can reply in one statement. As a result, the answers 
are in harmony with the questioner s understanding. 

The Buddha s wisdom is able to perceive the entire 
range of phenomena, conventional and absolute, just as 
if he were looking at something in the palm of his hand. 
Therefore, all objects of knowledge are perceived and 
are within the grasp of his wisdom. 

The Buddha s mind is also omniscient. The reason 
that it is possible for a Buddha s mind to perceive the 
entire sphere of phenomena without exception is that he 
has achieved a state that is totally free of all obstructions 



to knowledge. The obstructions to knowledge are the 
imprints or predispositions left in the mind by the delu 
sions ignorance of the nature of reality, attachment, 
and hatred since beginningless time. When these 
imprints are removed, we gain the state called omni 
science, because there is no longer any obstruction to 
knowledge. We gain the omniscient state of mind, which 
perceives the entire range of phenomena without any 

The Buddha s mind is spontaneously moved by unin 
terrupted compassion when he sees suffering sentient 
beings. At the beginning of the path the Buddha deve 
loped strong compassion toward all sentient beings and, 
over the course of the path, has brought that compassion 
to its ultimate level. Compassion, being a virtuous state 
of mind and based on the clear nature of the mind, has 
the potential to increase infinitely. 

The body, speech, and mind of the Buddhas are 
always actively engaged in the task of working for the 
benefit of others. They fulfill the wishes of sentient 
beings and lead them through the stages of the path in a 
skillful manner appropriate to the diverse needs, inte 
rests, and dispositions of sentient beings. Tsong-kha-pa 
says that if your faith in the Buddha is firm, as a result of 
your recollection of his great kindness and other quali 
ties, your faith in the other two, the Dharma, his tea 
chings, and the Sangha, the spiritual community, will 
come naturally, and the entire canon of Buddhist scrip- 



tures will be like personal advice. So, having developed 
strong faith in the Buddha, you should develop strong 
faith in his teachings as well. 

Statues or images of a Buddha, irrespective of their 
material or shape, should never be criticized. You should 
respect them as you would the Buddha himself. Having 
taken refuge in the Buddha, you should not be concerned 
with what the image is made of but should pay it respect 
regardless. You should never make Buddha statues 
objects of commerce or use them as collateral for a loan. 
Once Atisha was asked by one of his disciples to com 
ment on a statue of Manjushri, the Bodhisattva of Wis 
dom, and said that if Atisha thought it was good, he 
would like to buy it. Atisha said that one cannot make 
judgments about the body of Manjushri, but so far as the 
sculpture was concerned it was quite average, but then 
he placed the statue on his head as a sign of respect. It 
seems that when Atisha said the sculpture was quite 
average, he meant that it did not look very good, so the 
artist should be more careful. Artists have a very great 
responsibility to paint images and sculpt statues with a 
good appearance. Otherwise there is a grave danger of 
causing many people to accumulate nonvirtuous actions, 
because sometimes, due to the images odd appearance, 
we cannot help laughing. 

The method that leads to the omniscient state is the 
path. The path and the cessation make up the Dharma, 
the true refuge. The Dharma is something we cannot 



absorb immediately; it has to be realized through a gra 
dual process. In the context of the practice of refuge, you 
must be very skillful in being virtuous while avoiding 
negative actions. That is what is called the practice of the 
Dharma. If you are afraid of the sufferings of the lower 
realms of existence, you should transform your mind and 
prevent it from indulging in negative actions, which 
cause your downfall. That depends very much upon 
whether your practice is serious or not, on whether you 
are committed to accumulating virtuous actions and 
avoiding negative ones, and that in turn depends upon 
whether or not you have deep conviction in the law of 

There are two different kinds of experience, the 
desirable and the undesirable, and each has its own 
cause. Suffering, the undesirable experience, is called 
the cycle of existence (samsara), and it has its origin in 
the delusions and the nonvirtuous deeds they compel us 
to commit. The ultimate form of happiness, the desirable, 
is nirvana, and it is the result of the practice of the Dhar 
ma. The origin of sufferings and of the lower realms of 
existence is the ten negative actions [described in chap 
ter 7]. The desired prosperity and rebirth in favorable 
realms of existence are caused by the observance of 
pure morality, or the practice of the ten virtuous actions. 
In order to prevent your taking rebirth in the lower 
realms of existence and undergoing suffering there, you 
must put a stop to their causes by turning your body, 



speech, and mind toward virtuous actions. The degree of 
your commitment to serious practice depends very much 
upon how convinced you are, how deep your conviction 
is in the law of cause and effect, how fully you believe 
that undesirable sufferings and misfortunes are the con 
sequences of negative actions, and how convinced you 
are that desirable consequences, like happiness, plea 
sure, and prosperity, are the results of positive actions. It 
is very important first of all, therefore, to develop a deep 
conviction in the infallibility of the law of karma. 

Having taken refuge in the Dharma, as a commit 
ment of affirmation, one should show respect to Buddhist 
texts. You should not step over even a single page, and 
the texts should be kept in a clean place. You should not 
have a possessive attitude toward scriptures; you should 
not sell them or place them as security for borrowing 
money. You should not place your eyeglasses or pens on 
top of the scriptures. When you turn the page, you should 
not lick your finger. It is said that Geshe Chen-nga-wa 
used to stand up when he saw texts being carried by, but 
later when due to his age he was unable to stand up, he 
used to still fold his hands. When Atisha was in western 
Tibet there was a tantric practitioner who would not take 
teachings from him. One day Atisha saw another Tibetan 
mark the place in a text he was reading by picking some 
food from his teeth. Atisha asked him not to do that, and 
as a result the tantric practitioner saw Atisha s commit 
ment to the precepts for taking refuge, was very 



impressed, and is said to have become his disciple. 

We should also have faith in the Sangha, the spiritual 
community. When we talk of the Sangha, it chiefly refers 
to those superior beings who, as a result of their diligent 
practice, have realized the Dharma within their own 
minds and penetrated the nature of reality. The real 
Sangha is those who are always engaged in the practice 
of the Dharma, who uphold the precepts properly, who 
are excellent in their observance of morality, and who 
are always truthful, honest, pure in heart, and always 
filled with compassion. 

Having taken refuge in the Sangha, you should never 
insult any monk or nun who maintains the ordained life. 
You should be respectful of them. Within the Sangha 
community you should not be sectarian or hold any rival 
ry. In places like Thailand, the Sangha is held in great 
respect. Just as people respect them, so the monks also 
should not behave disgracefully, causing the laypeople 
to lose faith. In general, I do not think it is necessarily 
good to have a large community of monks, as there was 
in Tibet, but that it is better to have truly pure monks, 
even if it is only a small community. Whether you 
become a monk or not is a matter of personal choice, but 
after having chosen to lead the life of a monk or nun, it 
is naturally better not to be a disgrace to the doctrine. 
Otherwise, not only is it bad for you, it also causes other 
people to lose their faith and unnecessarily accumulate 
nonvirtues. It is said that Drom-ton-pa would not even 



step over a small piece of red or yellow cloth, because it 
represented the robes of monks and nuns. 

Tsong-kha-pa says that taking refuge is really the 
entrance to the Buddhist community, and if our refuge is 
more than mere words and is really deeply felt, we will 
be invulnerable to harms from human beings and will 
make easy progress in our practice. Realizing these be 
nefits, we should try to reinforce our fear of suffering 
and develop a strong faith and conviction in the Three 
Jewels capacity to protect us from those sufferings. We 
should try to make our practice of refuge as powerful as 
possible and try never to act against the precepts that we 
have taken. Thus, with awareness of death and fear of 
the lower realms of existence, we will find that the Three 
Jewels have the capacity to protect us, that they are a 
true source of refuge. 

The Buddha is the master who reveals the actual 
refuge, and the Sangha is like the companions on the 
path leading to enlightenment. The actual refuge is the 
Dharma, because through the realization of the Dharma, 
we will become free and be relieved from suffering. The 
Dharma consists of cessation and the path to cessation. 
The absence of or freedom from delusions is called ces 
sation. If we do not apply the appropriate antidote to our 
faults and delusions, they continue to arise. But after the 
application of the antidote, once a delusion is totally 
uprooted, it will never arise again. Such a state, free 
from delusions or the stains of the mind, is said to be a 



cessation. In short, anything that we want to abandon, 
like suffering and its origin, can be eliminated by the 
application of opponent forces. The final cessation, also 
known as nirvana, is a state of complete liberation. 

The Buddhas, the fully enlightened ones, are incon 
ceivable, and the Dharma, their teaching, is inconcei 
vable, and the Sangha is also inconceivable. Therefore, 
if you develop inconceivable faith, the result will also be 
inconceivable. It is said in the scriptures that if the bene 
fits of taking refuge in the Three Jewels could be made 
visible, the entire universe would be too small to enclose 
it, just as the great oceans cannot be measured in your 
hands. Being mindful of these great benefits, you should 
rejoice in the opportunity to make offerings to the Three 
Jewels and take refuge in them. You will be able to alle 
viate the influences of negative actions committed in 
addition to karmic obstructions. All these will be elimi 
nated, and you will be counted as a sublime being, which 
will please the Three Jewels, o 




r I he consequences of karma are definite: negative 
-* actions always bring about suffering, and positive 
actions always bring happiness. If you do good, you will 
have happiness; if you do bad, you yourself will suffer. 
Our karmic actions follow us from lifetime to lifetime, 
which explains why some people who indulge constant 
ly in negativity are still successful on the worldly level or 
why others who are committed to spiritual practice face 
myriad difficulties. Karmic actions have been committed 
in infinite numbers of lives, so there is infinite potential 
for an infinite number of outcomes. 

The potential of karma always increases over time. 
Small seeds have the potential to produce massive fruits. 
That is also true of the inner cause and effect; even a 
small action can bring about a massive consequence, 
whether positive or negative. For example, a small boy 
once offered the Buddha a handful of sand, vividly 
imagining it to be gold. In a future life, the boy was 
reborn as the great Buddhist emperor, Ashoka. From the 
slightest positive action can come the greatest conse 
quence of happiness, and in the same way the smallest 
negative action can bring about very intense suffering. 
The potential of karma to increase within our mind- 
streams is far greater than the potential of mere physical 



causes, such as an apple seed. Just as drops of water can 
fill a large vessel, in the same way the smallest actions, 
when continuously committed, can fill the minds of sen 
tient beings. 

Within the human community we see a lot of diffe 
rences. Some people are always successful in their lives, 
some are always unsuccessful, some are happy, some 
have a good presence and calmness of mind. Some peo 
ple seem always to face great misfortune, against our 
expectations. Some people whom you would expect to 
have misfortune do not. All of this testifies to the fact that 
not everything is within our hands. Sometimes, when we 
try to start an endeavor, we accumulate all the necessary 
conditions that are required for its success, but still some 
thing is missing. We say that someone is lucky and some 
one is unlucky, but this alone is not enough; luck must 
have a reason, a cause. According to the Buddhist expla 
nation, it is the consequence of your actions committed 
either in the past life or in the earlier part of this life. 
When the potential has ripened, then even if you are fa 
cing adverse circumstances, still the endeavor proves 
successful. But in some cases, even if you have all the 
necessary conditions gathered, still you fail. 

We Tibetans have become refugees and have under 
gone a lot of suffering, but still we are relatively fortu 
nate and successful. In Tibet the Chinese have tried to 
make the entire population equal by creating com 
munes and limiting private property. But still, in the com- 


KARMA 133 

munes, some gardens grow more vegetables than others, 
and some cows give more milk. This shows that there is 
a great difference between the merits of individuals. If 
someone s virtuous actions ripen, even though the 
authorities confiscate his or her wealth, this person will 
still prove successful because of the force of his or her 
merit, because of the force of that karma. If you accu 
mulate virtuous actions properly, such as avoiding 
killing, freeing animals, and cultivating patience toward 
others, it will be beneficial in the future and in the lives 
to come, whereas if you indulge in negative actions con 
tinuously, you definitely will face the consequences in 
the future. If you do not believe in the principle of karma 
then you can do as you like. 

Once you commit an action, the cause for a reaction 
remains and increases until its effect is experienced. If 
you have not committed the action you will never face 
the consequences; once you have committed the action, 
unless you purify it through proper practices, or if it is a 
virtuous action, unless it is destroyed by anger or oppo 
sing factors, the effect of the action will be experienced. 
An action, even if it was performed many lifetimes ago, 
will never lose its effect simply due to the passage of 

Positive and negative actions are determined by 
one s own motivation. If the motivation is good, all 
actions become positive; if the motivation is wrong, all 
actions become negative. The karmic actions are of 



many different types; some are totally virtuous, some are 
totally nonvirtuous, some are mixed. If the motivation is 
right, although the action itself might appear quite vio 
lent, it will bring about happiness, whereas if the motiva 
tion is wrong and devious, then even though the action 
might seem beneficial and positive, in reality it will be a 
negative action. It all depends upon the mind: if your 
mind is tamed and trained, all actions become positive, 
whereas if your mind is not tamed and it is influenced 
constantly by desire and hatred, although actions might 
appear to be positive, in reality you will accumulate ne 
gative karma. If more people believed in the law of 
karma, we would likely never have to have a police force 
or a penal system. But if individuals lack this internal 
faith in karmic actions, even though externally the peo 
ple might apply all sorts of techniques to execute the law, 
they will not be able to bring about a peaceful society. In 
this modern world sophisticated equipment is used for 
surveillance and for detecting lawbreakers. But the more 
fascinating and sophisticated these machines are, the 
more sophisticated and determined criminals become. If 
this human society is to change for the better, then 
enforcing a law externally alone will not be enough; we 
need some kind of internal deterrent. 

A civilized, peaceful, way of life and a spiritually 
based morality should go hand in hand. Before the Chi 
nese invaded in 1959, the kings of Tibet created laws for 
the country based on the Buddhist concept of morality. 


KARMA 135 

People throughout the world say that the Tibetan people 
are exceptionally gentle and benevolent. I do not see any 
other reason to explain this unique feature of our culture 
than by the fact that it has been based on the Buddhist 
teaching of nonviolence for so many centuries. 

There are three doors through which we commit 
actions: body, speech, and mind. Through these doors, 
we can commit either the ten positive deeds or the ten 
nonvirtuous deeds. Of the nonvirtuous deeds, three are 
physical, four are verbal, and three are mental. The first 
physical nonvirtue is taking the life of another. For killing 
to take place, there must be another living being, taking 
one s own life is not regarded in the same way because 
no other person is involved. If you have the initial motive 
of killing a certain person, but in the actual performance 
of the killing you happen to kill someone else by mis 
take, then it does not constitute a complete nonvirtuous 
action of killing. On the other hand, when your primary 
motive is to kill anyone you meet, then if you kill any 
one, that constitutes accumulation of the full nonvirtue of 

Killing can be motivated by any of the three poisons: 
attachment, hatred, or ignorance. For example, we can 
kill animals out of attachment for the meat, we can kill 
enemies out of hatred, and we can perform animal sacri 
fices out of ignorance. Whether you do the deed yourself 
or you let others do it for you does not matter; both con 
stitute the same negative action of killing. In order for 



the action of killing to be complete, the person who is 
killed must die prior to the killer. 

The second negative action is stealing. Stealing can 
be motivated by attachment, or you can steal out of 
hatred for someone, in order to harm that person. Stea 
ling could also be motivated by ignorance due to a mis 
taken belief that you can take anything you want. The 
intention is to separate the possession from its owner. 
Stealing can be done by force or by stealth, or you can 
borrow something and let the owner forget and then keep 
it yourself, or you borrow money and do not pay it back. 
The deed is complete when you think that the object now 
belongs to you. Even if you do not do it yourself directly, 
if you let others do it for you, it still constitutes stealing. 

The last of the three negative actions of the body is 
sexual misconduct, which is a sexual act performed with 
an unsuitable person, with an unsuitable part of the body, 
at an unsuitable time, in an unsuitable place, or against 
the will of the other person which of course includes 
rape. For a man, unsuitable women include one s own 
mother, the wife or girlfriend of someone else, prosti 
tutes temporarily paid by someone else, one s relatives, 
or ordained women, like nuns. It also includes other 
males. Unsuitable parts of the body are the anus and the 
mouth. Unsuitable places are around the residence of 
one s own spiritual master or near a stupa or inside a 
temple or in the presence of one s own parents. Unsuit 
able time for a man is when the woman is having men- 


KARMA 137 

struation, when she is pregnant, and when she is suffer 
ing from an illness that intercourse would worsen. If a 
man engages in sexual intercourse in these ways, even 
with his own wife, it is said to be sexual misconduct. 
Generally speaking, intercourse is engaged in out of 
attachment, but one could also do so out of hatred, such 
as a man sleeping with the wife of an enemy. It is also 
sometimes done out of ignorance, thinking that through 
sexual intercourse one can gain great realizations. The 
negative action of sexual misconduct can only be com 
mitted by oneself, and the act is made definite when the 
two sexual organs meet. 

The next four negative actions are deeds of speech. 
The first is telling lies. This includes speaking contrary to 
what one has seen, heard, or knows to be fact. Lying can 
be motivated by attachment, hatred, or ignorance. The 
intention is to confuse the other person, and it can be car 
ried out either by speaking or nodding the head and ges 
turing with a hand. Any action done out of the intention 
to confuse someone constitutes the negative action of 
lying. If the other person hears it, that constitutes com 
pletion of this act. 

Next is divisive talk. The intention is to cause dissen 
sion between friends or people in the spiritual communi 
ty for one s own sake or for the sake of others. Whether 
one succeeds in causing dissension or not, the moment 
the other person hears the divisive talk, that constitutes 
the completion of this act. 



Next is verbal abuse. The intention is to speak harsh 
ly, and the deed is complete when the abusive words are 
heard by the person to whom they are directed. Abuse 
includes insulting others, speaking about their faults, 
whether true or untrue; if one does it to hurt the other 
person, it is abuse. 

Next is senseless gossip. It is frivolousness without 
any purpose, and it can be motivated by any of the three 
poisons. One s intention is simply to chat without any 
reason, to just gossip without any purpose. The execution 
of this act does not require a second person. You do not 
need a partner; you can do this by talking to yourself. 
Idle gossip would include talking about wars, the faults 
of others, or arguing just for the sake of argument. This 
would also include reading unimportant books out of 

Lastly, there are three negative actions of the mind, 
the first being covetousness. The object of covetousness 
is possessions belonging to others. The delusion that 
prompts covetousness can be any of the three poi 
sons desire, hatred, or ignorance. Completing this non- 
virtue involves five factors: strong attachment toward 
others possessions, the desire to hoard wealth, coveting 
another s possessions, desiring another s possessions for 
oneself, and not seeing the harm in coveting others 
belongings. If these five factors are complete, then when 
one covets something, it completes the execution of this 
mental act. 


KARMA 139 

Next is harmful intent, which is similar to harsh 
speech. The intention is to hurt someone or speak harsh 
ly or hope that others will suffer misfortune and fail in 
their activities. Once one indulges in such thoughts, the 
outcome or completion is either that you physically 
strike the person or mentally intend to do so. This would 
also require five factors: I/ that one has as the basic 
motive hatred or anger, 21 that one has a lack of patience, 
3/ that one does not realize the faults of anger, 4/ that one 
actually intends to harm the other person, 5/ and that one 
does not realize the faults of the harmful intent suffi 
ciently to overwhelm one s harmful intention. Simply 
wishing that the other person would suffer is harmful 

The last of the ten negative actions is wrong views or 
perverse views in which one denies the existence of 
things that exist. There are generally four types of wrong 
views: wrong views with respect to cause, with respect to 
effect, with respect to the function of a thing, and with 
respect to the existence of a thing. Wrong view with 
respect to cause would be believing that there is no 
karmic action; with respect to effect would be believing 
that certain actions do not have consequences; with 
respect to function would be thinking that children are 
not raised by their parents and seeds do not produce their 
results, and also thinking that there is no past life or life 
after death. The fourth type of wrong view is wrong view 
with respect to existent things believing out of igno- 



ranee and attachment that enlightened beings, nirvana, 
and the Three Jewels do not exist. Tsong-kha-pa says 
that although there are many different types of wrong 
views, these wrong views really cut the root of one s col 
lection of virtue and as a result force the individual to 
indulge in negative actions without any control. There 
fore, wrong views about the Three jewels and the law of 
cause and effect are said to be the greatest of wrong 

We should also be aware of the relative gravity of 
karmic actions. When the deed is motivated by very 
strong delusions, then the deed is said to be very grave. 
The way in which the deed is actually performed also 
determines the karmic weight. For example, if a murder 
is committed with great pleasure, first torturing the per 
son and then mocking and insulting the person, it is said 
to be very grave because of the inhuman manner in 
which that person or living being was killed. If the mur 
derer s mind has no conscience or sense of shame, then 
because he or she lacks the opponent forces, the nega 
tive action of killing is very grave. If your killing of a li 
ving being is motivated by ignorance, like making a sac 
rificial offering, thinking this killing is actually a reli 
gious act and it does not constitute a negative action, 
then that is said to be very grave. In general, the more 
you perform certain negative actions, the more grave the 
act becomes. The weight of the karma also depends on 
the person who performs the action. If you dedicate your 


KARMA 141 

merit for the benefit of other sentient beings for the pur 
pose of achieving enlightenment, it is said to be more 
powerful, whereas if it is dedicated to lesser aims it is 
said to be less powerful. This applies to negative action 
as well; the more forceful the motivating delusions are, 
the more forceful the karmic action is, and among all 
these delusions anger is said to be the most powerful. A 
single moment of anger directed toward a bodhisattva 
would destroy all the virtuous collections that you might 
have accumulated over the last thousand eons. 

The effect of negative actions is based also on the 
intensity of the delusions that prompt them. There are 
also effects that correspond to the cause. For example, as 
a result of killing, even when after taking rebirth in the 
lower realms of existence one takes rebirth as a human 
being, one s life will be short. As a result of stealing one 
will lack material wealth, as a result of sexual miscon 
duct one will have a very unfaithful spouse, as a result of 
harsh speech people will insult you, as a result of divisive 
speech there will be dissension among one s friends, and 
so forth. Another type of effect is instinctive behavior. As 
a result of killing in a past life, even as a human being 
one would have instinctive impulses, taking delight in 
killing. There are also environmental effects, which ripen 
more collectively for a community. As a result of killing, 
for example, one would have to live in a place where the 
crops are not very good, harvests are not abundant, the 
countryside is very desolate, the climate is not very good, 



full of poisonous trees and thorns. As an environmental 
effect of stealing, a farmer would not have successful 
crops. As an environmental effect of wrong views, one 
would lack protection and one would have no refuge. 

If as a result of morality one refrains from indulging 
in these negative actions and resolves not to indulge in 
them, that constitutes accumulation of positive actions. If 
one does not have the ability or the capacity to indulge 
in negative actions, however, that does not mean that you 
have accumulated virtuous actions; virtuous actions can 
be accumulated only when one has the ability and capa 
city to do these negative actions but one does not do so 
out of moral restraint. 

Some actions are committed but not done inten 
tionally, like accidental killings, killing in dreams, or 
doing something against one s will. In these cases the 
action is committed but the karma is not accumulated; 
the completion of the karmic action does not take place, 
because it lacks the necessary factor of intention. If, on 
the other hand, you compel someone to commit a non- 
virtuous act on your behalf, then the negative karma is 
accumulated by you. 

The result of an action can ripen within this lifetime 
or within the very next life or after an interval of many 
lives. Some of the actions that are very grave, done out 
of ignorance or intense hatred, are said to be so grave 
that they will produce their results even in this lifetime. 
That also is the case with some positive actions; if you 


KARMA 143 

have strong compassion for sentient beings, if you have 
strong refuge in the Three Jewels, and if you repay the 
kindness of the spiritual master and your parents, the 
fruits of these actions are said to be so powerful that they 
will begin to ripen within this lifetime. 

Attaining a human form is mainly the result of 
observing pure morality and refraining from the ten ne 
gative actions. However, in order to attain a human form 
that is endowed with the conditions that will expedite 
one s process on the path, other factors are necessary. 
These include a long life for the completion of Dharma 
practice. It also helps to have a sound, handsome, and 
healthy body as well as birth in a respectable family, 
because then you would naturally command great 
respect from people and you would have greater influ 
ence. Other factors that are mentioned in the texts are 
having credible speech and a powerful body and mind so 
that you would not be vulnerable to interferences. With 
an attractive form the mere sight of you will attract dis 
ciples and cause them to have great faith in you, without 
any difficulty. Coming from a respected family, people 
will listen to you and heed your advice. You will be able 
to gather many people together under your influence by 
giving them material aid, and you will cause others to 
take what you say as true because of your credible 
speech. Whatever you say will be accomplished quickly, 
as you wished, just as when a king gives an order. You 
will not be afraid or shy to teach the Dharma to a large 



crowd of people, and there will be fewer obstacles to the 
practice of the Dharma. By having a powerful body and 
mind you will be able to endure great physical hardship, 
and you will not have any regrets or frustration about 
working to fulfill any of your own or others aims. 

Each of these various qualities has a specific karmic 
cause. The cause of a long life is always having a help 
ful, altruistic attitude, never harming others. The cause 
of a strong, healthy body is giving others new clothes 
and abstaining from losing your temper. Birth in a 
respected family is the result of always being humble, 
never being proud, and regarding oneself as a servant to 
one s teacher and parents. The cause of great wealth is 
giving material aid to poor people, and the cause of cre 
dible speech is abstaining from negative actions of 
speech. Having great influence is the result of making 
offerings to the Three jewels, one s own parents, teachers, 
and so on. Having a powerful body and mind is the result 
of giving food and drink to others. If you accumulate these 
causes, you will achieve the unique human existence with 
those qualities. 

If we remain idle and do not think seriously about 
karmic law, we might sometimes feel that we are not 
accumulating any negative actions and that we are good 
practitioners. If we analyze our thoughts and actions 
closely, however, we will find that we are engaging in 
idle speech, harming others, or engaging in covetousness 
on a daily basis. We will find that we actually lack the 


KARMA 145 

primary factor of deep conviction that is necessary to 
really observe the law of karma. We need to see the gap 
between the practice of the Dharma and the way we are 
living our lives at the moment. In order to close the gap, 
integrate the knowledge of the law of cause and effect 
into your actions. If you see the potential danger of your 
way of thinking and acting, then you will repeatedly cul 
tivate the resolve to correct your thoughts and behavior. 
Tsong-kha-pa says that although we should make 
great effort not to indulge in these negative actions ever 
again, as a result of long association with delusions, we 
sometimes find ourselves uncontrollably having commit 
ted them. These should not be left unheeded. Rather, we 
should engage in the purification techniques that the 
Buddha himself has recommended. He said that by 
applying four opponent powers we will be able to purify 
the negativity that has already been committed and will 
be able to overcome it. The first is the power of regret. 
By reflecting upon the gravity of the consequences of 
negative actions, you should from the depths of your 
heart develop a deep sense of regret for the actions com 
mitted. The second is the power of purification. This can 
be achieved through a variety of techniques, including 
reciting, memorizing, and reading sutras, meditating on 
emptiness, reciting mantras, making images of the Bud 
dha, making offerings, and reciting the names of the 
Buddhas. These purification practices should be under 
taken until you see signs and indications of success in 



your purification practice. These signs include having 
dreams of vomiting, dreams of drinking milk or curd, 
seeing the sun and moon in a dream, dreaming of flying 
or of fires burning or of overpowering buffaloes or peo 
ple with black coats, dreaming about monks and nuns, 
dreaming about climbing hills, and dreaming of listening 
to teachings. These are indications of success in your 
purification practice. 

The third is the power of resolve not to engage in the 
nonvirtuous deed in the future. If you have the power of 
resolve and restrain yourself from committing the ten 
negative actions, you will not only be able to purify the 
negativities of the ten nonvirtuous actions alone, but you 
also will have the power to purify the delusions and the 
imprints left by them. If your power of resolve is very 
superficial, your purification practice will also be super 
ficial. The last power is meditation on taking refuge in 
the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha and developing the 
wish to become enlightened for the sake of all sentient 

If a negative action is committed and left unpurified, 
it will have the potential to bring about rebirth in the 
lower realms of existence. Negative actions can either 
be totally purified in the sense that their potential will be 
totally destroyed, or their potential to produce rebirth in 
lower realms will be destroyed but they could manifest 
as simple headaches within this lifetime. That is, any 
negative actions that would otherwise have brought 


KARMA 147 

about their consequences over a long time can be expe 
rienced within a short period of time. These results 
depend upon whether or not the practitioner is skillful in 
the purification practice, whether or not the four powers 
are complete, and also how intense one s practice is and 
for how long this purification practice is undertaken. In 
some cases the potential of karmic action is destroyed; in 
other cases it can manifest in lighter experiences. You 
should not take this as contradictory to the statement in 
the scriptures that karmic actions once committed will 
never lose their potential even for a hundred eons. This 
means that if the karmic actions once committed are left 
unpurified, then they will never lose their potential just 
because of the passage of time. There is no action that 
cannot be purified. Purification destroys the potential of 
the negative karmic actions in the same way in which 
positive actions lose their potential due to the arising of 
anger. But the Buddha has said that you can never puri 
fy a karmic action once it has already produced its 
results. For example, the negative experiences we have 
had in this life are effects of negative actions committed 
in the past actions that have already taken place; there 
is no way you can purify these. 

Tsong-kha-pa says that since it is possible for positive 
actions to lose their potential by the arising of their 
opposing factors, like anger, we should not only be very 
careful to accumulate virtue, we should also be equally 
careful to protect virtues after having once accumulated 



them. This is done by dedicating our merit for the 
achievement of enlightenment for the purpose of achie 
ving Buddhahood. It is said that once you have dedicat 
ed your merit for the achievement of such aims, then 
until you fulfill that aim, the virtuous action you have 
accumulated will never lose its potential. It is like 
depositing your money in a bank impregnable to rob 
bers who in this case would be anger, attachment, or 

Although through the application of proper opponent 
forces we can purify the negativities totally and destroy 
their potential to bring about undesirable consequences, 
it is far better simply not to commit these negative 
actions in the first place. Therefore, it is better right from 
the beginning never to indulge in them, never to stain 
your mind with such negative actions. Tsong-kha-pa says 
it is analogous to someone breaking a leg; later it is 
healed, but compared to a leg that has never been bro 
ken, it is far different. 

Some might think that since in other scriptures the 
prosperity and benefits of this life within samsara are 
described as objects to be avoided and renounced, it is 
not suitable for a practitioner to wish to gain favorable 
forms of existence, because that also is a life within sam 
sara. This is a very wrong attitude. When we talk of aims, 
they are of two types: temporary aims and ultimate aims. 
Temporary aims include achieving the precious human 
form in the next life. On the basis of such a precious 


KARMA 149 

human form you would be able to carry on your practice 
of the Dharma in order that you can eventually fulfill 
your ultimate aim of achieving enlightenment. Although 
for a Mahayana practitioner the ultimate aim is to work 
for the achievement of omniscience for the sake of other 
sentient beings, it is also necessary for a practitioner to 
wish to gain a favorable rebirth in the future, like human 
existence, so that he or she will be able to continue prac 
ticing. Shantideva says that the precious human life 
should be thought of as a vessel in which one can cross 
over the ocean of samsara. In order to fulfill the ultimate 
aim of achieving the omniscient state, you must attain 
the precious human form in many lifetimes. The basic 
cause of achieving such favorable forms of rebirth is the 
practice of morality. 

After having developed the wish to undertake the prac 
tice of the Dharma, it is very difficult for the majority of 
people totally to renounce the world. The best type of 
practitioner renounces worldly life and spends the rest of 
his or her life in an isolated, solitary practice. This is 
really commendable and it has great benefits, but for the 
majority of us it is very difficult to undertake a practice 
like that. You have to also think of your own life and also 
work within the community and serve the people. You 
should not be totally preoccupied with worldly activities; 
you should also expend much energy and time for the 
practice of the Dharma aimed at the betterment of your 
future life. You begin to realize that compared to your 



future destiny, the affairs of this life are not that impor 

By taking refuge and living within the karmic law, 
making effort to abandon negative actions and accumulate 
positive actions, you might enjoy a favorable rebirth in 
the future. However, we should not be satisfied with that 
alone, because that favorable rebirth, as a place in sam- 
sara, is of the nature of suffering. We rather should culti 
vate the perception that every form of existence within 
this cycle of existence is of the nature of suffering. Since 
beginningless time, we have had this instinctive attach 
ment to the prosperity of samsara, and we have never 
been able to perceive the pleasures of samsara for what 
they are: actual and genuine sufferings. As long as pri 
soners do not know that they are in prison and do not per 
ceive the life of the prisoner as difficult and painful to 
bear, they will not develop any genuine wish to free 
themselves from prison. The same is true of samsara: as 
long as you are not able to perceive the defects of life 
within this cycle of existence, you will never develop a 
genuine wish to gain nirvana, freedom from samsara. 

You should not have the wrong notion that Buddhism 
is pessimistic. Rather, it is very optimistic, because the 
aim of each individual is complete enlightenment, which 
brings a total, lasting happiness. Buddhism reminds us 
that this is possible for everyone. The pleasures of sam 
sara seem desirable temporarily, but they can never satisfy 
us no matter how long we enjoy them, and they are not 



reliable because they are subject to change. In contrast 
to the bliss and happiness of nirvana, which is ultimate, 
permanent, and eternal, these pleasures and happiness 
within samsara become insignificant, o 




Tn order to build solid aspiration for liberation from the 
cycle of existence, we must thoroughly examine our 
condition and consider the reasons for wanting to escape. 
The first thing to recognize is that our bodies and minds 
are predisposed to suffering. The Four Noble Truths the 
Buddha s first teaching address this issue directly. 
These truths are the truth of suffering, the truth of the ori 
gin of suffering, the truth of the cessation of suffering, 
and the truth of the path leading to cessation. The Bud 
dha s decision to teach the truths in this sequence has 
great significance for our practice. In order to underline 
the importance of understanding that what we ordinarily 
regard as happiness is in fact suffering, the Buddha 
taught the truth of suffering first. 

When you perceive that you have fallen into an 
ocean of suffering, you will develop the wish to be liber 
ated from that suffering, and for that purpose you will 
see first that it is necessary to eliminate the origin of suf 
fering. When you look for the origin of suffering, you 
find the delusions and karmic actions. You will then be 
able to perceive that the cycle of existence and its suf 
ferings are produced by your own karmic actions, which 
in turn are propelled by the delusions, which are rooted 



in the mistaken belief in the solidity, or inherent exis 
tence, of the self. If we analyze how we think of the self, 
we will find that we tend to think of it as existing intrin 
sically, independent of the mind and body. And yet when 
we seek to locate it, it eludes us. The Buddha taught that 
no such self exists and that our belief in an independent 
self is the root cause of all suffering. 

Among the many different religions, one group does 
not accept any life after death and one group does. Those 
who accept life after death may be divided into two 
groups: one asserts that the delusions and stains of the 
mind can be eliminated and purified, while the other 
believes that they cannot. The latter group maintains that 
as long as the mind is there, we can never purify and sep 
arate the mind from its delusions. Therefore, elimination 
of delusion means that the mind itself must be terminat 
ed. Within the group that believes that the mind can be 
eventually separated from its stains and delusions that 
is, who believe in nirvana one group identifies nirvana 
with a kind of a place that is totally free of sufferings, a 
pleasant place up in a lofty realm. Others identify nir 
vana with the state of mind in which the delusions are 
totally dissolved into reality. 

Nirvana exists on the very basis of the mind itself. 
This is the Buddhist view. 

The Truth of Suffering 

In order to understand the first truth, that of suffering, 
one must meditate on suffering. We see ourselves as 



the most precious thing in the universe, and we treat our 
selves as though we are more precious than a Buddha. 
But that kind of clinging has still not led to perfect hap 
piness. Since beginningless time we have gone through 
the cycle of existence and had an infinite number of 
lives. From childhood till now, we have gone through ups 
and downs, all kinds of frustrations and confusions. Our 
lives are beset by problems, sufferings, miseries, frus 
trations. Eventually this life will end with death, and 
after that we have no certainty where it will lead us. We 
should really examine whether there is a way to free 
ourselves from this unsatisfactory existence. If life were 
such that it arose independent of causes and conditions 
and ended without further continuity, we would be help 
less to escape. And if that were true, we should live by 
hedonistic principles. But we know that suffering is 
something we really do not desire and that if it is possi 
ble to obtain total freedom from it, that this freedom is 
worth achieving. 

Karmic actions of body, speech, and mind are what 
bind us to the cycle of existence and suffering. As we 
know, we can accumulate these actions even within a 
moment, and that moment can throw us into a lower 
realm. This bondage is rooted in the untamed mind and 
caused by our own ignorance, our own misunderstanding 
of the self. This instinctive notion of a kind of indepen 
dent, isolated self prompts us to indulge in all sorts of 
negative actions, which result in suffering. This self-cen- 



tered attitude has long been our master; we have always 
obeyed its order. We should realize that we have not ben 
efited from following its advice. As long as we do so 
there is no chance for happiness. At this juncture we 
should examine whether or not it is possible to overcome 
this delusion. 

The very experience of birth is painful for both moth 
er and child. After we are born, delusion has an instinc 
tive hold over our bodies and minds, preventing the mind 
from being directed toward practice of the Dharma. Our 
own bodies become causes for the arising of delusions. 
For example, when the body is weakened by certain dis 
eases you get angry, and when it is healthier you have 
attachment. Birth is inevitably followed by death, and 
death is followed by another rebirth. If this were not 
enough, rebirth itself serves as the basis for further suf 
ferings, because this rebirth provides the setting for fur 
ther delusions, which again motivate negative actions 
that have karmic consequences. 

This human existence, which we hold as precious, 
arose from something filthy. Our bodies are produced by 
the combination of the regenerative fluids of the parents, 
the semen and ovum. If we find blood and semen on a 
cloth or a drop spilled on the ground, we are repulsed. 
Yet we continue to worship our own bodies. We try to 
cover our bodies with fine clothes and disguise the smell 
with perfume. Our parents also arose from the same sub 
stances, as did their parents and grandparents. If we trace 



it back, we will see that the body is the end product of all 
these impure substances. If we take it one more step, we 
can see that the body is like a machine for producing 
excrement and urine. When you see earthworms that eat 
mud at one end and then excrete it from the other, it is 
really very pitiful. The same is true of our own bodies; 
we keep on eating and we keep on excreting. Such a 
body is nothing to cherish. 

In addition, human beings have the potential to 
threaten the very survival of the earth. As a result of their 
untamed minds, people like Stalin, Hitler, and Mao not 
only have accumulated limitless stores of negative 
actions, but also they have affected the lives of innume 
rable persons, causing distress, suffering, and torment. 

Then there is the suffering of aging. Aging comes 
about gradually; otherwise we would not be able to bear 
it at all. When we become old, we lose the suppleness 
we had when we were young; we cannot digest the food 
we once enjoyed. We are unable to recall the names of 
people or things that we used to remember vividly. Grad 
ually our teeth fall out, out hair falls out, and we lose our 
eyesight and hearing. Eventually we reach a stage of 
decline at which people begin to find the mere sight of us 
repulsive. When you have reached a stage when you 
need the assistance of others, people will shy away from 

Next, there is the suffering of illness. Physical suffer 
ing and mental anxiety increase, and you have to spend 



days and nights wracked by illness. Sickness prevents 
you from eating the food that you really like, and you are 
prevented from doing the things that you love to do. You 
have to take medicines that taste awful. Next is the suf 
fering of death. You will part from your precious belong 
ings, and you will part from your own loved ones, and 
you will part from your own physical body that has 
accompanied you throughout your life. The suffering of 
death is very obvious to us; there is no need to explain it 

Then there is the suffering of meeting with the 
unwanted, such as enemies. Within this lifetime, many 
experiences take place against our wishes. We Tibetans 
have lost our freedom; this is the suffering of meeting 
with the unwanted. Even people in a superpower like the 
United States are beset with all sorts of problems. Since 
they have been brought up in such material affluence, 
sometimes they get spoiled. As a result of unbridled 
competition they live with more anxiety than others. 
Competition is good to a point, but if it gets out of con 
trol, as it has in the United States, it creates jealousy and 
overwhelming dissatisfaction. In the materially devel 
oped countries, there is so much food that people some 
times throw it into the ocean, but on the other side of the 
planet are countries, such as those in Africa, where mil 
lions of people are starving. It is difficult to find someone 
who is completely satisfied. 

Next is the suffering of having what we want taken 



away from us. We Tibetans lost our country and had to 
part from our loved ones. There is also the suffering of 
not obtaining what is desired although it is sought. Even 
though you work in the fields, you do not get a good har 
vest, or if you start a business, it is not successful. 

Another perspective on suffering is to contemplate 
the suffering of uncertainty. In this cycle of existence, 
over the course of many rebirths, and sometimes within 
a single lifetime, everything changes. Our parents will 
turn into enemies, our relatives will turn into enemies, 
our enemies will turn into friends, our parents will be 
born later as our own children. There is no certainty. 
Tsong-kha-pa says that we should try to prevent the kind 
of emotional fluctuations that we have toward other peo 
ple, based on the discrimination or classification of some 
as enemies and some as relatives or friends. We should 
reflect upon the uncertainty of the entire life within this 
cycle of existence and try to develop some sense of aver 
sion for samsara. 

There is also the suffering of lack of contentment If we real 
ly consider how much food we have eaten over the course of one 
life, then we feel depressed and wonder what use we have made 
of it If that is the case with this lifetime, what if we consider all of 
our past lifetimes the amount of milk we have drunk from our 
mothers as children, for example? It is beyond our imagina 
tion. You should reflect upon all sorts of prosperity and 
suffering in this cycle of existence and think that there is 
no kind of experience that you have not already under- 



gone in samsara. We try to enjoy ourselves in order to 
have some kind of mental satisfaction, but the pleasure 
and happiness of samsara are such that no matter how 
much we try to enjoy them, there is no sense of content 
ment; it is just endless. You should reflect upon this lack 
of contentment, which in itself is a great suffering. We 
have gone through all these experiences and ups and 
downs in samsara infinite numbers of times. Reflecting 
upon the pointlessness of such experiences, you should 
determine that if you do not put a stop to this vicious cir 
cle now, there is no point in going on at all. Thus we 
should develop a deep sense of aversion toward the 
entire range of experience within this cycle of existence. 

There is the suffering of having to discard the body 
again and again. Up to now we have lived so many lives 
and had so many bodies, and still we have not been able 
to make use of them in a meaningful way. We have 
achieved nothing simply by taking on these countless 
bodies. We have had to undergo conception again and 
again. The Buddha said that if we were to count our 
mothers by setting aside pebbles, with each one repre 
senting our mother, there would be no end to this count 

Reflect upon the fact that all the prosperity within 
samsara ends in some kind of misery and frustration. As 
the texts say, the end of gathering is depletion, the end of 
high status is downfall, the end of meeting is separation, 
and the end of living is death. In short, all experiences, 



pleasure, and, pleasure, and happiness within this cycle- 
of existence, no matter how forceful and how great they 
appear, end with misery. 

Finally, a further perspective is provided by the three 
types of sufferings. The first type is called the suffering 
of suffering, the obvious experiences of physical and 
mental pain that we ordinarily identify as suffering. The 
second type is called the suffering of change. Because 
all worldly pleasures and happiness eventually turn into 
sufferings, they are called sufferings of change. Suffer 
ings of change are misidentified as experiences of hap 
piness. For example, if you have a fever or you feel very 
hot and cool water is thrown on your body, you feel a 
kind of pleasure. This is what we regard as happiness. Or 
if you have been walking for a long time and after a 
while you get a chance to sit down, at that moment it 
seems really very blissful. However, in actual fact it is 
not a blissful experience; what you are actually expe 
riencing is a gradual cessation of the earlier suffering. If 
sitting down were a true pleasure, then going on sitting 
should cause you the same pleasure, but if you continue 
sitting, after a while you will get tired and will want to 
stand up. 

The third type of suffering is the suffering of perva 
sive conditioning, the fact that our minds and bodies are 
so conditioned as to be capable of undergoing suffering 
at any moment. The three types of suffering can be illus 
trated in this way. If you have a burn and you apply an 



ointment that gives you some kind of feeling of protec 
tion and pleasure, that is like the suffering of change, 
because although that is momentarily pleasurable, the 
pleasure will not last. Then if someone touches it acci 
dentally or hot water is splashed on it, you really feel 
acute pain. That is obvious suffering, the suffering of suf 
fering. What makes these two sufferings possible is that 
we have that burn in the first place. If we had not been 
burned, we would not have the subsequent experiences. 
The burn provides the condition for further suffering, just 
as our possession of a body and mind predisposes us to 
further suffering. And the nature of the body itself pro 
vides the condition to be burned. It is predisposed to suf 
fering. This is the suffering of pervasive conditioning. 

We should recognize that the sufferings of animals, 
hungry ghosts, and hell beings can also occur among 
humans. In Tibet many people died of starvation after the 
Chinese occupation began. It seems that they sometimes 
had to eat the leaves of trees and also some insects and 
worms. These are very similar to the experiences of hun 
gry ghosts. The same suffering is occuring now in Africa, 
where millions of people are starving because of famine. 
When countries are at war, due to political differences, 
the people suffer almost as they do in the hell realms. 
When Stalin came to power, he ruled the Soviet Union in 
an authoritarian and inhuman way. It is said that before 
the Second World War, 14.5 million people lost their 
lives under Stalin s rule. They were Russian peasants, 



many of whom died of starvation or torture. The Com 
munist party members had access to good food and a 
good life. When they had lunch they had to be protected 
by guards because of the danger that the peasants might 
riot and take the food. 

Even the gods suffer. They are able to foresee their 
deaths before they die, so they suffer mentally. It is said 
that their flower garlands wilt and their clothes and bo 
dies begin to stink. After having experienced all the plea 
sures of heaven, they have exhausted the entire potential 
of their positive actions. As a result, when they die they 
will go straight to the lower realms of existence. Tsong- 
kha-pa says that having thus reflected upon the general 
sufferings of all of samsara in general and also the spe 
cific sufferings of each of the realms of existence, we 
should develop a deep sense of aversion for all expe 
rience within samsara and develop deep renunciation. 
Then we will begin to really examine exactly what the 
causes are that lead to such miseries and frustrations. 
Therefore the question of the second truth, the truth of 
the origin of suffering, comes next. 

The Truth of Origin 

| Delusion is the chief cause of rebirth in samsara. 

Without delusions karmic actions would not have 

the power to produce rebirth; they would be like seeds 

that have been burned. It is very important to seek the 

antidotes to the delusions, and that in turn depends upon 



whether or not you have identified the delusions proper 
ly. Therefore, we should be very clear about the general 
and individual characteristics of the delusions. As the 
First Dalai Lama said, tame the one enemy within, which 
is delusion. External enemies might seem very harmful, 
but in future lives they could turn into our friends. Even 
now they provide us with the opportunity to practice 
patience and compassion because we are all basically 
the same: we all want happiness and do not want suffe 
ring. But the inner enemy, the enemy of delusion, has no 
positive qualities; it is only to be fought and destroyed. 
We thus have to identify the enemy properly and see 
how it operates. Any mental state that destroys calmness 
of mind and brings about mental misery, which upsets, 
afflicts, and torments the mind, is said to be a delusion. 
Let us identify some of the chief delusions. First, there 
is attachment, which is the strong desire for beautiful per 
sons, beautiful things, or pleasurable experiences. Attach 
ment is very difficult to get rid of, it is as if your mind has 
become fixed to the object. Another delusion is anger. 
When people become angry, we can immediately see that 
they lose their composure; their faces become red and 
wrinkled, and even their eyes become red. The object of 
anger, whether animate or inanimate, is something found 
to be undesirable and repulsive. Anger is a very untamed 
state of mind, very rough and uneven. Another delusion, 
pride, is a state of mind in which one feels conceited 
about one s own status, position, and knowledge, based on 



a self- centered attitude. Regardless of whether one has 
really achieved something or not, one feels inflated. 
Someone who has very deep pride is very pompous and 
appears very inflated. Next is ignorance, which miscon 
ceives the identity of the Four Noble Truths, the law of 
karma, and so forth. In this particular context, ignorance 
refers to a mental factor that is totally ignorant of the 
nature of the Three jewels and the law of karma. The 
delusion of doubt is wavering thought concerning whether 
there are Four Noble Truths or not, whether there is a law 
of karma or not. 

Another category of delusions is wrong views, active 
misconceptions about the nature of reality. The first of these 
is a state of mind that focuses on one s sen and misconceives 
it to be truly or substantially existent to imagine that with 
in our impermanent bodies and minds there is some kind of 
permanent, autonomous self. Other types of wrong view 
would hold that there is no life after death, no law of karma, 
and no Three Jewels. Based on the mistaken view of self, 
the other delusions arise. For example, if there is a coiled 
rope and it is a little dark, you might misidentify that coiled 
rope as a snake. Then the mistaken idea that the rope was a 
snake would set off all kinds of reactions in your mind, such 
as fear, and would lead to all sorts of actions, such as running 
out of the house or trying to kill the snake, all based on a sim 
ple misapprehension. In the same manner, we mistakenly 
believe that the body and mind possess some kind of sen , 
and as a result all the other delusions, like desire and anger, 



follow. Due to this self-centered attitude, this misconception 
of self, we discriminate between ourselves and others. Then, 
based on how others treat us, we hold some to be dear and 
feel attachment for them and hold others to be distant and 
classify them as enemies. We then have experiences of 
anger and hatred, and, focused upon ourselves, we become 
inflated and proud. Then, if the grip of the misconception of 
sen is very strong, we may begin to question the validity of 
the Buddha himself who taught selflessness. We therefore 
may begin to doubt the law of karma, the Four Noble Truths, 
the Three Jewels. These wrong views lead to doubts. All of 
this arises because of the mistaken belief in an intrinsically 
existent self. 

When delusion arises within you it upsets your calm 
ness, your presence of mind, and it also clouds your judg 
ment of people. It leaves a very strong imprint. It harms 
not only you but others as well. For example, if you are 
so angry that you begin to hit people, you cause trouble 
for your neighbors. Anger will decrease your power of 
virtue and will cause you to lose your possessions and 
your friends. When someone is under the sway of anger, 
he or she really loses the characteristics of a human 
being. We humans are naturally equipped with a very 
sophisticated brain, and we have the power to judge what 
is right and wrong and weigh the pros and cons of a situ 
ation. We have that natural gift, which is unique to 
human beings compared to other forms of existence, but 
when we are under the strong influence of delusion, we 



lose that power. Although we might decide to do some 
thing, we lose the power of judgment. Taming the mind 
is the most important task of one s life. 

The Truth of Cessation 

A s Tsong-kha-pa said, all the realms in which we 
might take rebirth in the cycle of existence, from the 
peak of existence to the lowest hell, have the nature of 
suffering. These sufferings do not come about without 
any cause, nor are they created by some kind of almighty 
god. They are products of our own delusions and karmic 
actions prompted by untamed states of mind. The root 
cause of all suffering is the ignorance that misconceives 
the nature of phenomena and apprehends oneself as self- 
existent. This ignorance leads us to exaggerate the status 
of phenomena and create the categories of self and o- 
thers. These bring about experiences of desire and 
hatred, which in turn result in all sorts of negative 
actions. These in turn bring about all our undesirable suf 
ferings. If we do not want these sufferings we should 
determine whether or not it is possible to get rid of them. 
If the ignorance that misconceives the self is a mistaken 
consciousness, it can be eliminated by correcting the 
mistake. This can be accomplished by generating within 
our minds a wisdom that realizes the direct opposite of 
that state of mind, a wisdom realizing that there is no 
such intrinsically existent self. When we compare these 
two states of mind one believing in an intrinsically 



existent self, the other perceiving the absence of such a 
self the apprehension of self might initially appear 
very strong and powerful. But because it is a mistaken 
consciousness, it lacks logical support. The other type of 
mind, the understanding of selflessness, might be very 
weak at the initial stage, but it has logical support. Soo 
ner or later this wisdom realizing selflessness is going to 
gain the upper hand. The truth at the initial stage may not 
be very obvious, but as we get closer to it, it becomes 
increasingly self-evident. Something false at the initial 
stage might seem very vivid and firm, but eventually, as 
we probe it further, it becomes more flimsy and eventu 
ally dissolves. 

Delusion is separate from consciousness; it is not part 
of the essential nature of mind. For example, someone 
who might be very short-tempered does have some 
moments of peace of mind. Just being a very angry per 
son does not mean that one has to be angry all the time. 
Therefore, when these deluded states of mind like hatred 
and desire arise within us, they are really very forceful 
and strong, but it is never the case that they will remain 
manifest for as long as we are conscious. Another fact is 
that we cannot possibly have two opposing types of men 
tal state focused upon one object at the same time, like a 
very deep hatred toward someone and at the same time 
a very deep feeling of pity toward that person. 

Within our minds there are many different aspects, 
very subtle ones, some negative, some positive. Within 



these two polarities we find that it is also obvious that the 
more we enhance and increase our familiarity with one 
side, the weaker the grip of the other side becomes. 
Therefore, the stains and delusions within our minds can 
be eliminated. Our own experiences testify that some 
people when young are really very short-tempered and 
easily provoked, but later they turn into very gentle peo 
ple. This shows that it is possible to change our mental 
states. As we familiarize our minds with love and com 
passion, the strength of anger will gradually decrease. 

The Truth of the Path 

TTaving seen that all experience in the cycle of exis- 
-* -*^tence has a nature of suffering, we should develop a 
genuine wish to gain liberation from it. Motivated by that 
wish, we should enter the path of the three trainings: the 
trainings of morality, concentration, and wisdom. Among 
these three, the antidote that will eliminate the delusions 
is the wisdom realizing selflessness. For that purpose, we 
first require the mental stability of concentration as the 
basis, and that in turn depends upon the observance of 
pure morality. Therefore, we need training in morality as 
well. At the initial stage, the first priority should be given 
to the practice of morality; that is the immediate need. 

Tsong-kha-pa says that mindfulness and introspec 
tion are the foundation of the entire Dharma. In order to 
have a pure observance of morality, the faculties of intro 
spection and proper mindfulness are required. 



For laymen and laywomen the observance of pure 
morality, refraining from the ten negative actions, is the 
foundation of the practice of the path leading to enligh 
tenment. If we do not consider practical needs, like the 
observance of morality, but instead go in search of more 
sophisticated practices, our practice will be simply a 
sham and not really very serious. With the practice of 
these three trainings, we should work for the achieve 
ment of liberation, not just for ourselves alone but also 
for other sentient beings. 

Human existence is said to be the best form of exis 
tence to practice the Dharma and try to bring an end to 
this cycle. Among human beings, the life of lay people is 
beset with all sorts of troubles and problems, and they 
are more involved with worldly activities that are not 
very conducive to the practice of the Dharma. Life as a 
monk or nun is said to be far more conducive to the prac 
tice of the Dharma, to put an end to this cycle of exis 
tence. Tsong-kha-pa says that to reflect upon the faults 
and the disadvantages of lay life and the advantages of 
monks and nuns life reinforces your commitment to 
such a life if you already are a monk or nun. If someone 
has not yet chosen such a way of life, such reflection 
leaves a very strong karmic imprint on one s mind so that 
later one will have the chance to lead such a life. In lay 
life, if you are too wealthy, your life will be beset with 
problems and worries about protecting your wealth; if 
you are poor, then your life will just be involved in 



searching for material sustenance. To have many mate 
rial possessions and not be content is not the way of life 
for a monk or nun. Monks and nuns should not be 
involved in business unless they have fallen into some 
kind of debt. Doing business and having too much 
involvement in trying to raise money when you have suf 
ficient provisions should really be avoided. If you do not 
live according to the monastic way of life, with modesty 
and contentment, there is hardly any difference between 
laypeople and monks and nuns apart from the mere 
external appearance of different types of clothes. 

There was a monk from Ganden monastery who was 
a very serious meditator. He had taken a pledge never to 
live under a roof and had done that for many years. He 
told me that one day he was meditating when a big snake 
crawled in front of him and just gazed at him. The medi 
tator looked back at the snake and started to say some 
religious words. I found it quite funny, because it seemed 
as if the meditator was giving teachings to the snake. He 
told me that the snake looked at him for a long time and 
then went gently away. 

The importance of moral discipline was emphasized 
by the Buddha himself. When he was passing away, the 
Buddha was asked who would succeed him, and he said 
that the practice of morality should be the guide and the 
master of the entire Buddhist doctrine. He named moral 
discipline as his successor. 

In order to overcome the abundance of delusions, it is 



important to check your own mind, and whatever emo 
tion is more forceful and abundant should be given first 
priority. For example, some people are very attached to 
sensual pleasures, some people are very short-tempered, 
some people are very ignorant and lazy. You should 
check your own personality and try to overcome what 
ever emotion is most obvious and strong within your 
mind. As explained earlier, you should really make an 
effort to ensure that none of your vows are broken. How 
ever, if you find that some vows have been transgressed, 
you should not leave them like that but rather should 
apply the necessary procedures and immediately restore 
and purify them. Purification of the transgression should 
always be accompanied by a very deep resolve not to 
repeat it; having the notion that "it does not matter what 
I do because even if I transgress the vows I can restore 
them" is really very dangerous, like deliberately eating 
poison thinking that you can be cured. 

Having realized the importance of morality and 
reflected on how peaceful it would be if you could be 
free of these delusions, then, as explained earlier, you 
should first identify the delusions individually. Having 
identified them, reflect upon their destructive nature, and 
then apply mindfulness and the power of introspection. 
Whichever delusions are more forceful and obvious 
should be countered immediately, just like hitting what 
ever sticks out with a hammer. If you simply leave them 
they will do real harm to yourself and others. Delusion 



might seem very forceful, but it is not that powerful if 
you analyze it carefully. I once asked one of my lamas if 
the delusions were truly weak, because sometimes they 
seem so strong. He answered that delusions are weak 
because you do not need nuclear weapons to destroy 
them. I began to understand what he meant. All we are 
lacking in order to combat the delusions successfully is 
the necessary will and effort. Defeating our enemies, the 
delusions, is largely a matter of having the right attitude. 
Our state of mind is so important that whenever the In 
dian master Atisha met someone, the first question he 
would ask was, "Do you have a kind heart today?" You 
might defeat ordinary enemies once, but they can 
regroup and attack again. But once the delusions are 
eliminated, there is no possibility of resurgence. 

Whatever realization you gain from your practice of 
the Dharma should be valued and judged on the basis of 
whether your commitment to the law of karma has 
increased and, as a result, whether your practice of 
morality has become pure and whether the force of delu 
sions, like ignorance, hatred, and desire, has decreased 
within you. If you notice that as a result of your practice 
you have managed to change your mind and have over 
come some of the gross manifestations of the delusions, 
like anger, hatred, ignorance, and desire, that really is a 
great achievement. As Shantideva says, ordinary heroes 
who kill their enemies are not really heroes because the 
people they kill would have died sooner or later; they are 



actually killing corpses. But someone who is fighting the 
delusions and is able to kill that enemy is a hero in the 
true sense of the word, o 



eing content with the achievement of liberation from 
e cycle of existence is not enough. Even speaking 
from the viewpoint of your own aims, it is the omniscient 
state of Buddhahood that is the complete fulfillment of 
your own welfare. After having developed the wish to 
achieve liberation and having undertaken practice of the 
three trainings, instead of being concerned with the 
achievement of your own personal liberation, it is better 
for intelligent practitioners to meditate on the altruistic 
aspiration to Buddhahood, called bodhichitta, right from 
the outset and enter the Mahayana, the Great Vehicle. If 
you see people who are under the constant sway of delu 
sions and undergoing suffering, yet you do not work for 
their benefit, it is really very unfair and disappointing. 
You should not be content with working for your own per 
sonal benefit alone. You should think in broader terms and 
try to work for the benefit of many people. This is what 
distinguishes human beings from animals, because the 
wish to work for the benefit of oneself and one s relations 
is something that even animals do. The unique feature of 
human beings is that they work for the benefit of others, 
not being concerned with their own welfare alone. That is 
the beauty and the specialty of a human being. 

People like the American president Lincoln and the 
Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi are regarded as really 



great men because they did not think of themselves 
alone but worked for the benefit of the people. They 
thought of the entire human society, and they struggled 
and fought for the rights of the poor. Take the example of 
Mahatma Gandhi: after gaining Indian independence he 
just remained as an ordinary citizen, never taking any 
position, such as prime minister. That is the mark of a dis 
tinguished person. Mao at first worked very hard for the 
rights of the masses, but after gaining power, he himself 
became a member of the very same class he had fought 
against. He succumbed to power and became utterly 
totalitarian, taking even the slightest dissent as a great 
personal offense. Once Mao was praised, but now that 
people have become disillusioned, more and more things 
are revealed. 

When the sun shines, it shines without any discrimi 
nation; it shines on every point of the country, every nook 
and corner. We should be like that. We practitioners of 
the Mahayana should not be concerned with our own 
benefit but with a single-pointed mind should develop 
the courageous altruistic attitude, taking upon our own 
shoulders the responsibility of working for all sentient 

Bodhichitta, the compassionate wish to achieve Bud- 
dhahood for the sake of others, is the entrance to the 
Mahayana path. When you cultivate bodhichitta, even 
though you might not make any further progress on the 
path, you become a Mahayanist, but the moment bodhi- 



chitta degenerates, even though you might have very 
high realizations, you fall from the ranks of the 
Mahay ana. Shantideva says that the moment you deve 
lop bodhichitta, even though you might be living in a 
lower realm of existence, you will be called a bodhisatt- 
va, a child of the Buddhas. As a result of bodhichitta, you 
will be able to purify negativities very easily and be able 
to fulfill your aims. You will be invulnerable to inter 
ferences and harm, because if you have this faculty of 
bodhichitta, you regard other people as more important 
and precious than your own life. When harmful spirits 
realize this, they hesitate to harm you. As a result of bod 
hichitta, if you are able to purify negativities and accu 
mulate great stores of merit, you will encounter favor 
able circumstances that are necessary for making speedy 
progress on the path. Bodhichitta and compassion are the 
very sources and foundations of all the goodness in this 
world and nirvana. You should regard bodhichitta as the 
essence of your practice and should not leave it only at 
an intellectual level; you should not be satisfied with 
your practice of bodhichitta if it consists merely of the 
recitation of a few verses at the beginning of a meditation 
session. You should try to generate it through experience. 
Tsong-kha-pa says that if you have an authentic aspi 
ration to enlightenment, then any act of goodness, even 
something minor like giving grain to a crow, becomes a 
bodhisattva deed. However, if you lack this motivating 
factor, even though you might make offerings of an 



entire universe filled with jewels to other sentient 
beings, it will not be the deed of a bodhisattva. If your 
practice of bodhichitta is not successful, no matter how 
long you try to practice the Dharma, it will be a very slow 
and laborious process, like cutting grass with a blunt tool. 
But if you have a perfect and successful realization of 
bodhichitta, even though it may take some time to make 
that your primary motive, all of your practices will be 
very powerful. If you do not repeatedly reinforce your 
compassion, improving and enhancing it, there is a great 
danger of losing your courage and becoming depressed, 
because sentient beings are infinite. There are many 
hostile sentient beings who, instead of repaying your 
kindness, will try to harm you. Therefore, you should not 
be satisfied with a single experience of compassion but 
should really work to enhance it to the point where your 
compassion is deeply rooted. If that happens, you will 
not care much about hardships, and as a result you will 
never be depressed by circumstances when you work for 
the benefit of others. It is because of the force of com 
passion that the Buddhas remain committed to working 
for the benefit of other sentient beings. The Buddha said 
that bodhisattvas do not need to be concerned with many 
aspects of the path; they need not practice many other 
things. It is by one practice alone that Buddhahood will 
be in the palm of your hand. That one practice is great 
compassion, meaning the desire to become enlightened 
in order to liberate all other sentient beings. In order to 



generate this aspiration to enlightenment it is not enough 
to have great compassion and love, wishing sentient 
beings to be free of suffering. In addition, what is 
required is the sense of personal responsibility to shoul 
der the task of freeing them from sufferings and provid 
ing them with happiness. 

When we reflect upon the suffering nature of sentient 
beings, we might be able to develop the wish that they be 
free from such sufferings. In order to discover a warm and 
kind heart that is forceful, stable, and firm, it is very 
important first of all to have an affectionate attitude 
toward sentient beings, regarding them as precious and 
dear. The more affection you feel toward other sentient 
beings and the more you hold them dear, the better you 
will be able to develop genuine compassion for them. 
Normally, when we let our natural reactions follow their 
own course, we find it unbearable to see the sufferings of 
our relatives and friends. We tend to delight in the misfor 
tunes and failures of our enemies, and we tend to remain 
indifferent to people we do not know. Our emotions fluc 
tuate in relation to these different people. The more we 
regard a person as close and dear to us, the stronger our 
feeling of being unable to bear it when that person suffers. 

In order to equalize your feelings, visualize three peo 
ple in front of you: a very close friend, an enemy, and a 
neutral person. Having visualized these three people, let 
your mind react naturally. You will find that your mind 
reacts in an unbalanced way. You find yourself attached to 



the friend and repelled by the enemy, and your attitude to 
the third person is totally indifferent. Then, examine why 
you react in such a manner. Friends might be friends 
now, but they may have been our enemies in the past, 
and they could be our enemies in the future. Those 
whom we call enemies now may have been our best 
friends or relatives in the past and could also turn out to 
be the same in the future. What is the point of making 
such discriminations? Friends are those whom we wish to 
have happiness and to enjoy life. We wish them happi 
ness and success because they are our relatives and 
friends and have been good to us. But in the future they 
could turn out to be our enemies, and even in this life 
they could turn against us. Similarly, when we react to 
our enemies, we tend to react in a very negative manner, 
wishing instinctively, deep down, that they face misfor 
tune, hardship, and failure. We react like that because we 
think that they have harmed us. But even though they 
might actually be harmful at present, they could turn out 
to be our friends in the future. There is no certainty, no 
totally reliable or permanent friend or enemy. Likewise, 
although the neutral person is totally unconcerned with 
us and we are indifferent to him or her in turn, in the past 
that person may have been either our friend or enemy. If 
you train your mind this way, you will come to see all 
people in the same light, and gradually such a drastic dis 
crimination among the three types of people will begin to 
fade. You should extend this practice to include every- 



one, eventually encompassing all sentient beings. That is 
how you develop equanimity. This is not to suggest that 
we do not have friends and enemies. What we are con 
cerned with here is to offset our drastic, imbalanced 
emotional reactions to others. This equanimity is very 
important; it is like first leveling the ground before culti 
vating it. Although equanimity itself is not a great rea 
lization, if you have that foundation, further practices 
become very successful 

After developing equanimity, the first of the cause- 
and-effect precepts for creating the aspiration to enligh 
tenment is the recognition that all sentient beings have 
been our mother in a past life. This is because there is no 
beginning to the cycle of existence. Because life in the 
cycle of rebirth is beginningless, our own lives are also 
beginningless. Life and death succeed each other wi 
thout any interruption. Whenever we take on a body, we 
require a mother. Since the cycle of existence has no 
beginning, there is no sentient being we can point to and 
say, "That person has not been my mother in the past." 
Not only have they been our mothers in the past, but also 
they will be our mothers in the future. If you are able to 
develop deep conviction in this fact, it will be quite easy 
to recollect and reflect upon their great kindness and 
then develop the wish to repay their kindness. Although 
it is usually recommended that you see all sentient 
beings as your mother, you should do this meditation 
according to your own experience. For example, some 



people feel closer to their father. The person to whom 
you feel closest and regard as most kind should be taken 
as the model. There is not a single sentient being who 
has not been either our mother or father or relative in the 
past. The fact that we do not remember or recognize 
them does not mean that they have not been our mothers. 
For example, even in this lifetime there are cases of pa 
rents and children being separated when the children are 
very young. Later, these children are unable to recognize 
their parents. 

The next precept is to reflect on the kindness of all 
sentient beings. This meditation is said to be most suc 
cessful if, after having recognized all the other sentient 
beings as your mother, you recollect their kindness, ta 
king your own mother as an example. Visualize your 
mother in front of you, and reflect that she has been your 
mother not only in this lifetime but also numerous times 
in the past. Then think of how kind she has been to you, 
how she has protected you from danger and how she has 
helped you, how in this life she first conceived you and 
even during the pregnancy she took great care of you. 
She looked after you with no sense of hesitation. She 
was willing to give up her possessions for your sake, and 
she was willing to use devious and irreligious means to 
obtain what you needed with no care for the hardships it 
caused her. Her commitment and love for her child was 
such that she would prefer to fall ill herself rather than 
have her child become sick. You should single-pointedly 



meditate on her great kindness. When you develop a 
deep feeling of indebtedness to your mother for her great 
kindness by reflecting this way, you should apply the 
same method to other people who have been kind to you, 
such as your friends and relatives. Eventually you can 
extend it to include neutral persons. If you are able to 
develop that same kind of feeling for neutral persons, 
shift it to your own enemy as well. Gradually include all 
other sentient being within the sphere of your recogni 
tion of kindness. 

Next is meditation on repaying their kindness. You 
should understand that it is only because of our constant 
ly changing lives that we are not able to recognize that 
all sentient beings have been our kind mothers, parents, 
and relatives. Now they are protectorless; they have no 
refuge. If we see their suffering and their helplessness 
and then still work for our own benefit and personal 
liberation alone, we will not only be acting unfairly, but 
also extremely ungratefully. You should develop a deep 
sense of commitment that you will never abandon them 
but will instead repay their kindness. Even in a worldly 
sense, if someone does not repay the kindness of people 
but acts against them, he or she is regarded as a very bad 
and ungrateful person. How then can a Mahayana prac 
titioner completely neglect the welfare of other sentient 
beings and not think of repaying their kindness? 

Imagine your mother, mentally unstable, blind, and 
without any guide, walking toward a cliff. She calls out 



to her own child nearby, her only refuge, in whom she 
places her hopes. If her own child does not help her, who 
is going to? We should reflect on the idea that since the 
beginning of time sentient beings have been mentally 
unstable because they have been slaves of delusion, they 
lack the eye of wisdom to see the path leading to nirvana 
and enlightenment, and they lack the necessary guidance 
of a spiritual teacher. Moment by moment they are 
indulging in negative actions, which will eventually bring 
about their downfall. If these mothers cannot seek help 
from their children, in whom can they place their hope? 
Feeling a sense of responsibility, you should repay the 
great kindness of the mother. 

Next is the meditation on love. The Buddhist defini 
tion of love is the wish that all sentient beings may enjoy 
happiness and never be parted from happiness. It is said 
that meditation on love even for a moment far exceeds 
the merits accumulated through making infinite offerings 
to infinite Buddhas. It was by the power of meditation on 
love that the Buddha defeated the hosts of demons who 
tried to keep him from his goal. Meditation on love is the 
supreme protection. The actual sequence of meditation 
on love is that first you should cultivate love directed 
toward your own friends and relatives, then you should 
shift that attention to neutral persons, then on to your 
enemies as well. Then gradually include all other sen 
tient beings whom you encounter 

Next is meditation on compassion. There are two 



types of compassion; one is just a wish that sentient 
beings be free of suffering, and the other is more power 
ful: "I shall take the responsibility for freeing sentient 
beings from suffering." First you should meditate on your 
own parents, friends, and relatives and then shift that 
attention to neutral persons and eventually to your ene 
mies, so that eventually all sentient beings you 
encounter will be a part of your meditation. This has 
great significance because when you are able to extend 
your meditation to all sentient beings, your compassion 
and love will become so pervasive that the moment 
you see suffering, compassion will spontaneously 
arise. Otherwise, if you try to meditate on compassion 
and love for all sentient beings, thinking about "all sen 
tient beings" without first identifying them individually, 
your idea of "all sentient beings" will be very vague, and 
your compassion will not be very strong and firm. When 
you meet with certain individuals, you will begin to 
doubt whether you really wish them to enjoy happiness. 
On the other hand, if you cultivate compassion in a gra 
dual process, first of all picking out individual categories 
of people and making a very special effort to cultivate 
that kind of love and compassion focused on your enemy, 
who is the most difficult object, then having love and 
compassion toward others will become very easy, and 
your compassion will be able to withstand any circum 
stances you might meet. 

In the actual meditation you should contemplate how 



sentient beings, like yourself, rotate in the cycle of exis 
tence tormented by all types of sufferings. To be suc 
cessful in developing love and compassion, it is very 
important to understand and realize the faults and 
defects of the cycle of existence. If you are able to do 
that in terms of your own observations, you can extend 
your understanding to other sentient beings through 
experience. Otherwise, if you have not developed renun 
ciation yourself and a sense of aversion for the entire 
range of experience within this cycle of existence, there 
is no way you can cultivate compassion. Renunciation is 
indispensable for the cultivation of compassion. 
Compassion and renunciation differ only in their object: 
renunciation is focused upon yourself; it is the wish that 
you be liberated from suffering. Compassion is directed 
toward other sentient beings; it is the wish that all beings 
be liberated from suffering. 

It is very important to study and understand the many 
types of sufferings. Having gained extensive knowledge 
by reading many texts and thinking a lot, you should con 
template the faults and defects of the cycle of life and 
death and how sentient beings in this cycle of existence 
spin through this chain reaction. For example, in scienti 
fic laboratories, guinea pigs are tortured with all sorts of 
equipment. To understand how the brain operates, scien 
tists have to experiment on animals. It is a very strange 
situation, because their primary aim is to help and pro 
long the life of human beings. In a way it is a noble aim, 



but it is also difficult to justify. Although they may use 
tranquilizers, scientists do these kinds of experiments 
without any sense of compassion or mercy for the ani 
mals. In the West there are groups who protest against 
such treatment of animals, not out of religious sentiments 
but out of their compassionate attitude toward animals. I 
support this effort. 

Initially it might prove quite difficult to generate any 
experience of compassion for all beings, but once you 
begin to develop it, it will become firm, genuine, and 
unshakable, because it is based on a firm foundation of 
knowledge and reason. If you have some experience of 
compassion, it is really important to try to stabilize it by 
reinforcing it with reasons and extensive understanding. 
Merely depending upon some kind of intuition alone is 
not very reliable, because there is a danger that after 
ward that kind of experience will disappear without a 
trace. This is true not only of meditation on compassion 
and love, but for all the other practices as well. 

As a result of your continuous meditation and con 
templation, your feeling of compassion toward other sen 
tient beings will become as intense as the love of a moth 
er toward her only child when she sees him or her suf 
fering from an illness. The child s suffering would cause 
her worry and pain, and day and night she would have 
the natural wish that her son or daughter be well. 

If your attitude toward any other sentient being is such 
that, regardless of whether or not they are related to you, 



the moment you see any suffering you are able to devel 
op an equally intense compassion toward all other sentient 
beings without partiality, that is the sign of having 
achieved and developed compassion. This applies to 
love as well. Such love and compassion will lead natu 
rally, without any effort, to the superior attitude of taking 
upon your own shoulders the responsibility of working 
for the benefit of other sentient beings, which in turn 
leads to the eventual realization of the aspiration to 

In meditating on repaying kindness you have reflected 
on the great kindness of the mother sentient being and 
on the necessity of working for their benefit. Here the 
primary concern is to cultivate a deep-felt sense of 
responsibility to work for their benefit and shoulder the 
task of relieving sentient beings of suffering and provi 
ding them with happiness. Throughout your daily life and 
activities, wherever the occasion arises, you should 
immediately seize that opportunity to train in this medi 
tation. Only then can you begin to hope for progress in 
the realization. The Indian poet Chandragomin (sixth 
century C.E.) said that it is stupid to expect to change the 
taste of a very sour fruit simply by adding one or two 
drops of sugar cane. In the same way, we cannot expect 
the taste of the mind, which is so contaminated with the 
sour flavor of delusion, to be instantly changed into the 
sweet taste of bodhichitta and compassion, just by one or 
two meditations. Sustained effort and continuity are real- 



ly very important. 

In the last step, the actual development of bodhichit- 
ta, the mind aspiring to achieve enlightenment for others, 
you should not be satisfied by seeing the importance of 
enlightenment for the sake of others alone. There is no 
way to fulfill that ultimate aim without your achievement 
of the omniscient state of Buddhahood, from which you 
can best benefit others. You should develop a very deep, 
heartfelt faith in the enlightened state, and that will lead 
to a genuine aspiration to achieve it. Generally spea 
king, there are many causes and conditions for the culti 
vation of bodhichitta, but chief among all of them is com 

We should realize that the purpose of taking birth in 
this world is to help others. If we cannot do that, at least 
we should not harm other living beings. Even people 
who are opposed to religion speak highly of the altruistic 
attitude. Although the Chinese Communists are ideolo 
gically opposed to religion, they talk of the wish to work 
for the welfare of the masses. If these people truly had 
an altruistic attitude, they would be able to fulfill the 
wish for a perfect socialist state. On the other hand, if 
they continue to use violent methods to enforce a totali 
tarian system, there is no way that they can bring about 
what they are looking for. Nations have diverse political 
systems, but an essential factor in most societies is the 
altruistic attitude the wish to work for others, for the 
welfare of the majority. The altruistic attitude is the root 



of happiness within the human community. All the major 
religions of the world encourage cultivation of an altruis 
tic attitude, irrespective of their different philosophical 
systems. In short, if you cultivate the altruistic attitude, it 
not only helps you by providing peace of mind, it also 
creates a peaceful atmosphere around you. That is one of 
the practical results that you can see. The ultimate pur 
pose of cultivating the altruistic attitude is to achieve the 
enlightened state so that you will be able to work for the 
total fulfillment of the wishes of other beings. Therefore, 
the Buddha has not left the importance of cultivating 
bodhichitta as a matter of simple advice; he has also 
shown the techniques and means by which we can deve 
lop such an altruistic aspiration. 

Once we have taken rebirth in this world, as long as 
we are human beings we depend for our survival on 
other human beings. We cannot survive independently. 
That is the nature of being human. Therefore, we should 
help our fellow human beings and relieve them of their 
sufferings, both physical and mental. That is the proper 
way to treat our fellow human beings. Insects like bees 
and ants do not have a system of education, but in prac 
tical terms, because they have to depend upon each other 
for their survival, they somehow help each other, regard 
less of whether they have a strong sense of affection and 
compassion. When ants get a large piece of bread, they 
help each other to carry it. Human beings depend for 
their survival on their fellow human beings yet do not 



treat each other as fellow human beings. All human 
beings have a natural tendency to wish for the expe 
rience of happiness and to avoid suffering. Taking that 
into account, it is very important to cultivate an altruistic 
attitude to help others. 

We have obtained this life as a human being. 
Whether we make it worthwhile or not depends upon our 
own mental attitude. If we adopt a devious attitude but 
show a benevolent and kind face, we are making a mis 
take. If we have this altruistic attitude and treat others as 
they deserve to be treated, then our own happiness is 
assured as a by-product of working for the happiness of 
others. When we experience happiness, we should 
rejoice in the fact that it is the consequence of virtuous 
actions we have committed in the past. At the same time, 
we should dedicate that virtue to the happiness of all 
sentient beings in the hope that they may experience this 
type of happiness as well. If we undergo suffering, we 
should realize that it is the consequence of nonvirtuous 
actions that we have committed in the past, and we 
should develop a wish that through our experience of this 
suffering, all the sufferings that other sentient beings 
have to undergo in the future may be avoided. Pledge 
that whether you achieve enlightenment or not, you will 
work for the welfare of other sentient beings come what 
may. Having received instructions on the method of over 
coming the self-centered attitude, you can die without 
regret. When I give explanations of my practice in aspiring 



to develop this aspiration to enlightenment, I feel very 
fortunate to be doing so. My mouth and tongue have 
served their purpose. Listeners and readers should rejoice 
at the great fortune of becoming acquainted with such 
marvelous teachings whose practice bestows benefits both 
now and in the future. 

The practice of bodhichitta is indispensable for some 
one who wishes to achieve enlightenment. All the Bud- 
dhas and bodhisattvas of the past have achieved these high 
realizations by cultivating this altruistic attitude. Some 
ideologies lose their relevance as time passes. The Bud 
dha taught that life is our most cherished possession and 
that we should treat the lives of others as more important 
and precious than our own. This kind of message and 
teaching retains its relevance throughout the ages. In this 
modern age when there is a great danger of the destruc 
tion of the entire world, we find the message of the Bud 
dha more and more relevant. 

The other method for developing the altruistic aspi 
ration to enlightenment is the equalizing and exchanging 
of self and others. The first step in this practice is to re 
cognize the advantages of exchanging oneself for others 
and the disadvantages of not doing so. All the good qua 
lities in this universe are the product of cherishing the 
welfare of others, and all the frustrations and confusions 
and sufferings are products and consequences of selfish 
attitudes. But is it possible to exchange oneself for others? 
Our experience testifies that we can change our attitude 



toward certain types of people whom we formerly found 
repulsive and fearful, that when we get closer to such 
persons and understand them, we can change our atti 
tude. Exchanging self and others does not mean that you 
physically change yourself into others but rather that the 
attitude that you have about yourself is applied to others. 
The strong cherishing that you feel for yourself should 
now be shifted to others, so that you will have a natural 
tendency to work for the welfare of others instead of 

There are two main obstacles to developing such an 
attitude. The first is this strong discrimination between 
self and others, regarding self and others as totally inde 
pendent and separate. In fact, self and other are relative, 
like "this side of the mountain" and "that side of the 
mountain." From my perspective, I am self and you are 
other, but from your perspective, you are self and I am 
other. We also have a natural feeling of indifference 
because we feel that the happiness and suffering of others 
is not our business; they do not matter to us. Then we have 
to remember that there are certain types of people, like 
our relatives, whom we hold very dear. Even though your 
relatives are not you, the sufferings and happiness they 
experience do affect you. Also, despite the fact that our 
bodies consist of many parts head, hands, legs we 
treat our own bodies, collections of parts, as very pre 
cious. In the same way, we should look at what unites us, 
the common feature that all the sentient beings like our- 



selves share, the natural wish to achieve happiness and 
avoid sufferings. We regard a person who gives up his or 
her life for the sake of others as noble, but we think that it 
is foolish to sacrifice ten people to save one. This has 
nothing to do with religion; it is simply a human response. 
Therefore, to give up the rights, benefits, and privileges of 
the few for the sake of the many is right and fair. This is 
what the Buddha teaches that to give up the privileges 
and rights of one individual for the welfare of all other 
beings, who are as infinite as space, is right and fair. 

When we try to practice the exchange of self and 
other, we meet strong resistance from our own natural 
tendency and self-centred attitude. It is very important 
that we overcome them. The idea that the happiness and 
sufferings of others do not matter to me, so there is no 
need for me to work for others is a significant obstacle. 
But we should reflect that although we are not the same 
persons now that we will be twenty years from now, it 
would be foolish for us not to be concerned for the ones 
we will be in the future. It would be foolish to do things 
that will later cause him or her to suffer. We should also 
reflect that when you step on a thorn and hurt your foot, 
one of your hands removes the thorn, even though that 
hand is not undergoing suffering. It is only because of 
familiarity and habituation that we have this strong clinging 
to our own selves and regard anything that is related to 
ourselves as very precious and something to be che 
rished. Through constant familiarity we can develop just 



as strong an attitude cherishing the welfare of others. 
Although we have been working to achieve happiness 
and be free of suffering since beginningless time, our 
self-centered attitude has caused us to undergo incredi 
ble pain. If, at some time in the past, we had been able 
to change this attitude and instead of cherishing our 
selves we had cherished the welfare of others and 
worked for their happiness, then we would have 
achieved the bliss of Buddhahood by now. 

Therefore, we should decide, "From now on I shall 
dedicate myself, even my body, for the welfare of others. 
From now on, I will not work for my own happiness but 
rather for the happiness of others. From now on others 
are like my master; my body will obey and take orders 
from others instead of myself." Reflecting upon the great 
disadvantages and harms of the selfish attitude, you 
should develop a strong determination, saying to the self- 
cherishing attitude, "Your domination of my mind is a 
thing of the past. From now on I will not obey your orders. 
You have only done me great harm by your devious 
means. From now on do not pretend that you are working 
for my own happiness, because I have realized that you 
are the great enemy and the source of all my frustrations 
and sufferings. If I do not abandon you and work for 
others, you will again plunge me into the sufferings of 
unfortunate rebirth." Understand that a self-centered 
attitude is the source of all suffering, and concern for 
others is the source of all happiness and goodness. 



If you meet ten equally poor beggars, it is wrong to 
make distinctions among them, deciding that some are 
more deserving than others. If there are ten equally sick 
persons, it is senseless to start making discriminations 
among them. Similarly, you should develop an equal atti 
tude toward all the other sentient beings, who either are 
suffering or who have the potential to suffer. These sen 
tient beings have shown you boundless kindness in the 
past. From a religious point of view, even the enemy is 
kind because he or she provides you with the opportunity 
to develop patience. All of us have the same nature, and 
all of us are suffering the same fate; there is no point in 
being antagonistic and unfriendly to each other. The 
Buddhas see only the delusions as faults to be eliminated; 
they never discriminate among the sentient beings who 
are beset by delusions, helping some and not helping 
others. If some beings were intrinsically evil, the Bud 
dhas would see this and would abandon such people. 
Because they, who see reality exactly as it is, do not act 
this way, we can conclude that evil is a temporary afflic 
tion that can be eliminated. It is said that if the Buddha 
was flanked by two people, one striking the Buddha with 
a weapon and the other massaging the Buddha with oil, 
he would not favor one over the other. 

Thus in the ultimate sense enemies and friends do 
not exist. This does not mean that there are not people 
who sometimes help us and others who sometimes harm 
us. What we are concerned with here is trying to overcome 



our fluctuating emotions. We should reflect upon the rela 
tivity of friends and enemies in order to reduce the grip of 
emotional reactions. We can then more easily identify the 
great advantages of cherishing others the door to the 
achievement of all good qualities. We will then naturally 
wish to work for others, and the indifference that we pre 
viously felt for others can now be applied to our own 
welfare. The strong emotional attachment normally 
associated with our own welfare in the past can now be 
transferred to others. 

If we think carefully, we can see that even the 
achievement of our own enlightenment very much 
depends on others. Without the practice of the three 
trainings in ethics, meditation, and wisdom, there is no 
way we can achieve nirvana. The practice of the three 
trainings begins with morality, such as vowing not to kill. 
If there were no other sentient beings, how could we 
refrain from killing them? All these practices depend 
upon the contribution of others. In short, right from the 
beginning of our conception in the womb up to now, we 
have been entirely dependent upon the kindness and 
contribution of others. A Tibetan would not enjoy drinking 
Tibetan tea without the contribution of animals like the 
female yak. Milk is the natural right of the calf, but we 
take it away and make it into butter. Without other 
beings contributions, we would not have these things. 
The same is true of shelter and food and especially fame. 
In this modern world, without the activities of journalists, 



no one could become famous. Even if one person shouts 
out loud, he or she will not become famous that way. 

We find that our very survival is something that is 
dependent upon others. This is true in the world, and it is 
true on the path: everything depends upon the contribu 
tion and kindness of others. So if we reflect along such 
lines, our recollection of the kindness of others will have 
a greater dimension. I often remark that if you would like 
to be selfish, you should do it in a very intelligent way. 
The stupid way to be selfish is the way we always have 
worked, seeking happiness for ourselves alone and in the 
process becoming more and more miserable. The intelli 
gent way to be selfish is to work for the welfare of oth 
ers, because you become a Buddha in the process. 

In order never to separate from the aspiration to 
become a Buddha for the sake of others, even in future 
lifetimes, we have to maintain certain kinds of training. 
Specifically, we should abandon the four negative 
actions and undertake the practice of the four virtuous 
actions associated with this training. The first negative 
action is deceiving your spiritual master, especially by 
telling lies. The second negative action is causing a reli 
gious practitioner who has no regret about his or her past 
virtuous actions to develop such regret because of some 
thing that you say. The third negative action is to insult 
bodhisattvas, beings who have generated bodhichitta, by 
belittling them and insulting them. This is a negative 
action we are very prone to commit, because it is very 



difficult to say who is a bodhisattva and who is not. We 
should be very careful to avoid this. The Perfection of 
Wisdom Sutras explain the gravity of generating anger. If 
you realize that you have lost your temper toward a bod 
hisattva, it is very important to regret it immediately and 
engage in means of purifying your negative action, with 
a strong resolve never to indulge in such actions in the 
future. The greatest stumbling block in your cultivation 
of compassion and the aspiration to enlightenment is 
hatred toward others. The fourtn negative action is 
deceiving others without any sense of conscience, espe 
cially concealing your own faults and pretending to have 
high realizations. 

The four virtuous actions are the opposite of these 
four. The first is never to lie to any living being. There 
are a few exceptions where you might have to tell lies in 
order to protect the Dharma or other people, but other 
wise you should avoid telling lies to anybody. The se 
cond virtuous action is to be honest, and the third is to 
praise and have high regard for bodhisattvas, who are 
constantly working for others. Again, it is very difficult to 
assess who is and who is not a bodhisattva, so it is safer 
to develop a strong sense of respect toward all sentient 
beings and always speak highly of them and praise their 
positive qualities. The fourth virtuous action is exhorting 
others to work for the achievement of Buddhahood, the 
completely enlightened state, o 




A Ithough the generation of the aspirational aspect of 
the bodhichitta alone is remarkable and a virtuous 
action in itself, that alone will not fulfill your aim of 
achieving Buddhahood. It is important to engage in the 
practice of the bodhisattva deeds. These deeds, called 
the six perfections, constitute the essential and compre 
hensive path to enlightenment, combining method and 
wisdom. The Buddha himself said that by the force of 
their wisdom bodhisattvas abandon all the delusions, but 
by the force of their compassionate method they never 
abandon sentient beings. These two aspects of the path 
should always be undertaken in combination, never in 
isolation. The entire practice of the bodhisattva is classi 
fied under the six perfections, which are generosity, 
ethics, patience, effort, concentration, and wisdom. 

To fulfill the wishes of others it is very important to 
engage in the practice of generosity, and generosity 
itself should be reinforced by the pure observance of 
ethics, abstaining from inflicting harm upon others. Ethi 
cal practice itself should be completed by the practice of 
patience, because you should have forbearance toward 
harm inflicted upon you by others. In order to engage in 
such practices, you must have strong effort. Without con- 



centration, your practice will not be powerful. And wi 
thout wisdom realizing the nature of phenomena, you 
will not be able to guide others rightly on the path lead 
ing to the achievement of enlightenment. Now I will 
explain the six perfections in more detail. 


/^.enerosity is an attitude of willingness to give away, 
^^^ without a touch of miserliness, your own posses 
sions, body, virtues, and so forth. You give away your 
own possessions and wealth, and the virtues accumula 
ted through giving these away should also be dedicated 
to others benefit. The perfection of generosity is not 
dependent upon rooting out the poverty of all living 
beings; it is the ultimate development of a generous atti 
tude. The texts speak of the importance of developing a 
sense of generosity, especially of giving your body to 
others. The physical body in itself is full of faults and 
defects, but with this body you can fulfill great aims by 
using it to help others instead of being possessive about 
it. The same applies to your possessions. If you are pos 
sessive about your belongings, you will accumulate more 
nonvirtuous actions by being miserly. But if you give 
your possessions away to others, they will serve a pur 
pose, while increasing your practice of generosity. The 
virtuous collections you accumulate by giving these to 
others should be dedicated toward their benefit. 

It is said that if you undertake the practice of gen- 



erosity in this way, giving away your possessions, body, 
and your virtuous collections, the merit that you accumu 
late will be vast. Therefore, you should not be possessive 
about your belongings, nor should you work to hoard 
more and more, because possessions will prove an obsta 
cle to your practice of generosity. The Buddha gave 
away his possessions and belongings for the benefit of 
others and achieved the state of perfect enlightenment. 
Having realized the futility of being possessive about 
your belongings, you should try to increase your sense of 
generosity and put it into practice by giving your posses 
sions to others. A person who realizes the futility of 
being possessive and gives away his or her belongings, 
out of a pure wish to help others, is-called a bodhisattva. 
It is said that since you have dedicated your own body 
and possessions and virtuous collections for the benefit 
of others, when you do use them, you must do so with the 
attitude of borrowing them from others and doing so for 
others benefit. 

In the practice of generosity, a stable and firm aspi 
ration to enlightenment should be your motive. Whate 
ver you give should be beneficial to others. The practice 
of generosity should be undertaken for the benefit of 
others and should be done in a very skillful way, that is, 
with the understanding that ultimately there is no self to 
give or to receive. The practice of generosity should be 
dedicated to the benefit of others, but it should also be 
endowed with what is called sublime purity, meaning 



that the other five perfections should also be present. For 
instance, when you give the Dharma to others, you 
should have the morality of abstaining from falling into a 
selfish attitude, and also you should have the patience to 
endure hardships during the practice of the path. There 
are three types of generosity: the giving of the Dharma, 
the giving of fearlessness or protection, and the giving of 
material possessions. 

The intention with which you should practice ge 
nerosity is the wish to achieve enlightenment for the 
sake of others. When you actually engage in giving, your 
attitude toward the persons to whom you give should not 
be one of pity. You should see them as a source of great 
kindness, contributing to your progress in the practice of 
the Dharma. Although you should not discriminate, you 
must pay special attention to those who are materially 
poor and those who are suffering greatly. In short, whe 
never you practice giving, you should always look and 
speak of the good qualities of others and never speak of 
their faults. Your attitude should not be influenced by a 
wish for reward or fame or the hope of receiving some 
thing in return. And after having given something, you 
should never regret having parted with that possession. 
Try to increase the joy in giving, and never back away 
from situations in which you might have to actually phy 
sically engage in giving something away. 

To increase and develop your sense of generosity, you 
should begin by giving away small possessions. With 



practice, this will lead to your not having even the sligh 
test sense of apprehension or reservation in giving away 
your own body. It is said that one s state of mind depends 
always on what one is familiar with. For example, when 
we learn a language, we start right from the beginning 
with the alphabet. Initially it seems very difficult. If at 
that point we were given a complex grammar, it would 
not be helpful. But if we begin with the alphabet in a 
skillful manner, eventually even the complexity of the 
grammar will seem very easy. In the same way, if we 
train ourselves in giving away our material possessions, 
then later even parting with our own bodies will seem 
quite natural. 

You should not postpone giving something away or 
wait for the other person to do something good. You 
should not give one gift when you have promised to give 
another, and you should not refer to your own kindness 
when you give something to make the recipient indebted 
to you. When you do give something away, you should 
do so out of pleasure and joy, with a pleasing expression. 
You should practice generosity yourself and encourage 
others to do so, to help others to develop a sense of ge 
nerosity as well. Anything that harms others in the short 
term and that brings about sufferings and unhappiness in 
the long term is not a suitable gift. Anything that brings 
happiness in both the short and long term is suitable to be 
given to others. When you practice giving the gift of 
teachings, you should first analyze the nature of the lis- 



tener to determine whether he or she will benefit from 
the teaching that you are thinking of giving. Otherwise, 
instead of being helpful to that person it might end up 
being harmful, and your listener may lose faith in the 
Dharma. In addition, you should not make gifts to 
hunters that they might use to kill animals, nor should 
you teach them techniques to catch animals. In some 
cases, refusal proves more beneficial than the giving. 
The bodhisattva should be skillful in such situations. 

If you find yourself incapable of parting with some 
thing, you should reflect upon the futility of material pos 
sessions and also realize the impermanence of your own 
life. Sooner or later you will have to part with these pos 
sessions, so instead of dying in the grip of miserliness it 
is better to be free of the miserliness and give away your 
possessions now. Think to yourself, "I have been under 
going the torments of suffering in the cycle of existence 
just because I have not developed familiarity with the 
attitude of giving away my possessions. From now on I 
must change my attitude and develop a sense of gen 
erosity." To do this, mentally create all sorts of mar 
velous possessions and imagine giving them to others. 


Phe second perfection is ethics. Ethics is a state of 

mind that abstains from engaging in any situation or 

event that would prove harmful to others. The perfection 

of ethics is accomplished when you have developed to 



the ultimate point the conviction not to harm others. 
Ethics here is broadly classified under ten headings, that 
is, abstaining from the ten nonvirtuous actions. Ethics is 
like a cool rain, which extinguishes the fire of attach 
ment, hatred, and anger within you. The intention with 
which you should undertake the practice of ethics should 
be nonattachment, nonhatred, and also right view. The 
observance of pure ethics should be influenced by fear 
of the consequences you will have to face if you indulge 
in negative actions, whose negative consequences have 
already been explained. The pure observance of ethics is 
like a beautiful jewel that suits everyone, irrespective of 
height, weight, age, and nationality. Material ornaments 
may look beautiful on one person but not on another, 
whereas the ornament of ethics looks beautiful on all 
practitioners irrespective of their physical appearance. 

With the pure observance of ethics you will naturally 
command respect within the human community. Under 
the influence of ethics you will treat human beings in a 
proper and virtuous way, and you will be protected from 
indulging in negative actions. In the sutras it is said that 
even the dust of the ground on which the person with 
pure ethics walks is an object of veneration; such is the 
great quality of ethics. Your intention in observing pure 
ethics should not be confined to protecting yourself from 
engaging in negative actions but should also set an exam 
ple for others, so that they too can be protected from the 
harm of negative actions. 




T)atience is a state of mind that forbears in the face of 
harms inflicted by others. There are three types of 
patience. The first is not being upset by harms inflicted 
by others; the second is voluntarily taking suffering upon 
oneself, and the third is being able to endure the suffe 
rings involved in the practice of the Dharma. It is very 
important to reflect upon the great qualities and benefits 
of possessing patience. Those who have not undertaken 
any practice of patience will be seized at the time of 
death by a strong sense of remorse for the negative 
actions they have committed during their lifetimes, 
whereas those who have undertaken the practice of 
patience and endured harms inflicted by others will not 
have any sense of remorse at death. The most effective 
antidote to the attitude of abandoning others is the prac 
tice of patience. Patience also protects the practitioner 
from the harm inflicted by anger. It is said that even an 
instant of anger directed toward a bodhisattva can 
destroy the entire collection of meritorious virtue you 
might have accumulated over one thousand eons. So 
patience protects you from being discouraged when 
others harm you, and it also protects you from situations 
when your anger would destroy the entire collection of 
your virtues. It is an ornament admired by others; it is the 
armor that protects you from your own anger and from 
any harm inflicted by others. 

The immediate effect of losing your temper is that 



you lose your calm, your presence of mind. Those 
around you will not be happy, because anger creates a 
bad atmosphere around you. Anger and hatred destroy 
your power of judgment, and instead of repaying some 
one s kindness you end up miserably retaliating. Even 
though you might enjoy material comforts, if your mind 
is filled with a powerful anger and hatred, you will not 
enjoy even the slightest pleasure because you will be in 
constant emotional torment. Realizing this, put great 
effort into this practice of patience and try to get rid of 

When someone harms you, you should not lose your 
temper and retaliate, but realize that the other person 
does not have any control over his or her emotions. The 
person is not doing it willfully but under the influence of 
negative emotions. The primary cause of someone get 
ting angry and inflicting harm upon you is that he or she 
is under the constant influence of the delusions. Instead 
of losing your temper, you should develop mercy and 
compassion. The very simple point is that if individuals 
had control over their emotions, they would not do you 
harm at all, because what they seek is happiness. They 
would not work for their own downfall by accumulating 
the negative karma that comes from harming others. 
Because they do not have control over their emotions, 
there is no point in losing your temper. 

You should analyze whether the anger and hatred 
and harmful intention are intrinsic to human beings or 



not. If anger is the essential nature of human beings, as 
heat is the nature of fire, there is nothing one can do to 
overcome it, and there is no point in retaliating when 
harmed. If, on the other hand, anger is not the essential 
nature of living beings but is just an adventitious quality, 
then again there is no point in losing your temper and 
retaliating, because what actually inflicts the pain is the 
instrument the person used, like a stick or a club. We 
should lose our temper at these instruments instead of at 
the person, but in fact we do not. Just as we do not lose 
our temper at inanimate objects like clubs, we should try 
to calm down and not lose our tempers at all. Instead, try 
to probe for the deeper cause of the harm. You will find 
that it is your own karmic actions, negative actions you 
have committed in the past, that have caused the person 
to harm you. Therefore, if you are going to lose your 
temper and retaliate, you should do so toward your own 
delusions and negative actions. There is no point in lo 
sing your temper toward others. It is only our delusions 
that cause us to face such circumstances and sufferings. 
If I lose my temper and retaliate in response to some 
small experience of suffering that I am not able to bear, 
I will accumulate negative actions that will have a far- 
reaching impact in the future. Instead, I should feel 
indebted to the person who has harmed me, because he 
or she has given me the opportunity to test my own 
patience. Instead of losing our temper and retaliating, we 
should feel thankful to the persons who harm us. When 



we are struck, the pain is equally the result of the injury 
and of our own body. Without the body, we would not 
experience physical suffering. Therefore, if we are going 
to be angry, we should also be angry with our own body. 

The practice of patience is very important for over 
coming resentment and jealousy of the success and hap 
piness of others. We should rejoice that instead of our 
having to work for all others, some individuals are capa 
ble of working for their own well-being. When we see 
such success, we should be happy and rejoice. We must 
overcome the sense of pleasure we experience when we 
see the downfall of our enemies or rivals and should not 
feel resentful or depressed about our enemy s success. 
Our resentment not only harms that person but also cau 
ses us to accumulate more nonvirtuous actions, which 
will cause our own downfall in the future. 

In normal life, we often have more suffering than 
happiness. It is very important to be able to view all 
these experiences of suffering in the context of furthe 
ring our practice of the Dharma. If we have developed 
patience, in the sense of voluntarily taking sufferings 
upon ourselves, even though we might not be able to 
take on others suffering physically, we will not lose our 
power of judgment. Even in ordinary life two people 
may be suffering from the same illness, but due to their 
different attitudes and ways of looking at things, one per 
son suffers more because he or she is not equipped with 
the right attitude to face the situation, whereas the other 



person can face the situation better and can avoid the 
additional mental anguish and torment. We should 
remember that if a situation cannot be changed, there is 
no point in worrying about it. If the situation can be 
changed, there is also no point in worrying; we should 
simply work to change it. 

If we do not face suffering, we will not have the wish 
to achieve liberation from the cycle of existence. That is 
one positive aspect of suffering. Without suffering, how 
can you have the experience of renunciation? In this con 
text it is important to reflect upon the fact that up to this 
point from beginningless time we have been undergoing 
this cycle of suffering and torment constantly, never gi 
ving up our selfish motives, trying to cling to our self- 
importance, working for our own selfish ends. Now, we 
should realize the importance of changing that attitude 
and trying to work for the benefit of others. If, in the 
process, we have to face suffering, we will be able to 
endure it without losing the power of judgment and wi 
thout being depressed about such experiences. There is 
no experience that through constant familiarity does not 
become easy in the end. Enduring sufferings in the 
process of the path is something that we can get used to. 

It is very important to be decisive and courageous 
and resilient in your determination. When heroes see 
their own blood in battle, instead of being discouraged 
and losing heart, they become more determined; it 
serves as an impetus to fight more fiercely. That is the 



type of attitude that bodhisattvas should adopt when they 
meet situations in which they have to undergo sufferings. 
We should endure the suffering of poor physical circum 
stances in the process of the practice. We should endure 
the discomforts caused by people insulting us or spea 
king against us. We must bear the suffering of our own 
illness and aging. These should not overwhelm us; we 
should be able to endure them. We should be prepared to 
undergo the hardships that are involved in the process of 
leading an ardent life in the practice of the Dharma, 
devoted to the ultimate welfare of all sentient beings. We 
should never lose the force of our effort and should carry 
on with our practice without ever being resentful of the 
situation. On this stable foundation of patience we can 
construct our future realization of the path. 


Hhe next perfection is effort. Effort is the state of mind 
that delights in virtuous actions. It serves as the foun 
dation for practices by which we avoid falling into the 
lower realms of existence. It is said to be the forerunner 
of all virtuous actions. If you are endowed with effort, all 
your studies and practice will be successful, because you 
will have no sense of weariness or discouragement. It is 
said that if you are endowed with perfect effort, free 
from any sense of discouragement or inadequacy, there 
is no endeavor in which you will not succeed. If, on the 
other hand, you are seized by laziness, you will make no 



progress in wisdom or in any other practice. A lack of 
effort brings downfall, not only in this life, but in the long 
term as well. 

Armorlike effort enables you to endure any form of 
suffering or hardship in the process of working for the 
benefit of others. It protects you from discouragement 
and depression when faced with hardships. Your armor- 
like effort should be such that if you were to take rebirth 
in hell for innumerable eons, just for the sake of fulfill 
ing the wishes of one individual, you would be prepared 
to do so. In order to achieve the effort needed to accu 
mulate virtue, you must first identify the obstacle to 
effort, laziness. There are three types of laziness: the 
laziness of indolence, which is the wish to postpone what 
you have to do; the laziness of inferiority, which is the 
sense of not being able to do something; and the laziness 
that is attachment to negative actions, or putting great 
exertion into nonvirtue. To overcome laziness, you must 
reflect upon the fact that the practice of the Dharma has 
favorable consequences. You must also see the harm and 
futility of just engaging in senseless gossip and so forth. 
Senseless gossip and being constantly distracted and 
attracted to the worldly way of life serve as the greatest 
stumbling blocks to progress in our practice. To over 
come the sense of inferiority, you must reflect upon the 
fact that all the Buddhas of the past have achieved 
enlightenment through the faculty of effort. Originally 
they were not Buddhas but were ordinary beings, like 



ourselves. But because they made great effort in the 
practice of the Dharma, they have been able to achieve 
the final goal. In order to overcome our lack of confi 
dence we must realize that in order to achieve Buddha- 
hood we have to be prepared to make some sacrifice. If 
we find that we are not yet prepared to make such effort, 
to part from our possessions, then we should realize that 
sooner or later we will have to part from these posses 
sions and even from our bodies. Instead of having to 
uncontrollably part from them at the time of death when 
it would serve no purpose at all, we should give them 
away. Through the force of our generosity, we can at 
least derive some kind of benefit from them. Just as 
when you fall sick you have to endure the sort of physi 
cal pains that doctors inflict upon you by giving you 
injections, so for the sake of overcoming the great suf 
fering that is the plague of the cycle of existence, it is 
necessary to endure a certain amount of hardship and 
physical pain on the path to enlightenment. 

We should not feel depressed or discouraged by the 
fact that in order to achieve enlightenment we have to 
accumulate vast merit and wisdom for innumerable eons. 
The purpose for which we are trying to achieve this 
enlightenment is the welfare of all sentient beings. The 
number of sentient beings is limitless, and their suffe 
rings are infinite. The process of working to relieve all 
these infinite beings from their limitless sufferings is 
bound to be a long and hard process. We must be pre- 



pared to make some sacrifices in the process. A bod- 
hisattva is a being who, due to his or her compassion, 
love, and mercy for all suffering sentient beings, does not 
have even the slightest sense of regret or depression 
when he or she has to face suffering and hardship. There 
has never been a case where someone has achieved 
something with a lack of confidence. On the other hand, 
if we develop the courage and exert the necessary effort, 
even things that might have previously seemed compli 
cated and difficult will eventually turn out to be very sim 
ple and easy. When you venture into an undertaking, first 
of all it is very important to assess the situation, analyze 
it, and see whether you will be able to do it or not. If you 
find that it is beyond your present ability or capacity, 
instead of trying to plunge into it immediately, it is bet 
ter to back off and wait rather than leaving it half done. 
But once you have decided to do it, it should not be left 
half done; you should carry it through to the end. 

It is said that in order to succeed in the venture you 
have undertaken, it is important to have confidence. This 
confidence does not have any negative implications; it is 
a simple sort of courage. Your confidence must be such 
that you are prepared to do anything alone, without 
depending upon the contribution or help of others. You 
should think that all other sentient beings, because of the 
influence of delusions, do not have the capacity or abili 
ty to work for themselves. You should have the confi 
dence to feel that you have seen the harm of the delu- 



sions that you will not allow yourself to remain under the 
influence of delusions, that you have the ability and 
capacity to work for the benefit of others. You should be 
confident never to let yourself come under the sway of 
delusions but always face and combat them. If you back 
down, even the slightest harm can destroy you. When a 
snake is dying, even crows act like vultures. 

You should also cultivate the power of joy. When 
ever you engage in these practices, it is very important 
that they are always accompanied by the faculty of joy. 
Your attitude of joy and pleasure in your practice should 
be just like the pleasure that children take in their games. 
This faculty of taking joy or pleasure in the practice of 
the Dharma overcomes your being satisfied with minor 
achievements. At the same time, you should not neglect 
the power of relaxation. When you make an effort in 
your practice and you feel tired and exhausted, it is 
important to relax so that you will feel refreshed and 
recharged and ready to engage in practice again. Other 
wise, physical exhaustion will cause depression. It is said 
that the faculty of effort should be like a river, sustained 
and continuous. 

When you apply the faculty of effort, you should try 
not only to combat the opposing factors that you are try 
ing to overcome, but also to protect yourself from com 
mitting other negative actions as well. For example, 
when you are concerned with overcoming ignorance and 
you make constant efforts to identify ignorance and com- 



bat it, you may totally neglect other types of delusions 
and end up accumulating other nonvirtuous actions, like 
attachment. When a warrior drops his sword, he imme 
diately picks it up without hesitation. In the same way, 
when you apply the faculty of effort, you should con 
stantly apply the faculty of mindfulness, so that you do 
not fall under the influence of other negative states of 
mind. Mindfulness should serve as the primary factor for 
protecting yourself from the other delusions in the 
process of making effort, because even the slightest ne 
gative actions can have grave consequences. When you 
are pierced by a small poisonous arrow, the wound might 
be very small, but the poison pervades your entire body 
and eventually kills you. All the negative states of mind 
have that kind of potential. Some might seem not to be 
very grave, but all these emotions have this kind of 
potential. Your vigilance should be like that of a person 
forced to carry a glass of milk on his or her head under 
the threat of death if a single drop is spilled. Naturally 
that person would be careful not to spill anything. Your 
vigilance in undertaking the practice of the Dharma 
should be equally scrupulous. Under the circumstances it 
is very important to regret the negative actions that you 
have committed in the past and to develop a strong 
resolve never to indulge in them again. This will serve as 
a constant reminder never to lose the faculty of mindful- 
ness, just as a feather is carried on the wind, your body 
and mind should be sustained by the effort and joy you 



take in the practice of the Dharma. 

l^oncentration is the mental state of focusing single- 
^^pointedly on a virtuous object. Our ordinary mental 
state is one of distraction. Our ordinary minds are too 
uncontrolled and weak to be able to understand the 
nature of reality. And it is essential to understand the 
nature of reality if we are going to liberate anyone, our 
selves or others, from the sufferings of the cycle of birth 
and death. It is therefore necessary to develop the mind 
into a suitable tool for investigating reality, like a strong 
microscope. It is necessary to develop the mind into a 
suitable weapon to sever the root of suffering, like a sharp 
sword. Concentration is the practice whereby one s ordi 
nary, distracted, uncontrolled mind is developed to the 
point that it can remain powerfully, effortlessly, and one- 
pointedly on whatever object one chooses. Bodhichitta 
should be at the basis of the practice of concentration. 

Tsong-kha-pa says that our minds have been under 
the influence of delusions since the beginning of time. 
The function of concentration is to gain control of your 
mind so that you can steer it to any virtuous object you 
choose. Up to now we have been under the influence of 
our minds, and our minds have been under the influence 
of delusions. Because of that, we have indulged in nega 
tive actions. As a result, we have to undergo unwanted 
sufferings. In order to terminate this vicious circle of the 



causes and conditions of suffering in the cycle of rebirth, 
we have to transform our minds and gain control over 
them. The mind, like a horse, should be directed to vir 
tuous activities rather than to nonvirtuous ones. We 
should not let the mind simply wander into virtuous 
actions at random. In order to make your meditation 
effective, you have to do it in a systematic order with a 
degree of control. Otherwise, although you might initial 
ly experience a vivid visualization by accident, as long 
as it is not properly controlled, it is not very helpful. You 
will develop the bad habit of letting the mind go wher 
ever it wishes. When you make real progress, on the 
other hand, you should be able to place your mind on a 
certain point easily and without difficulty. Until you 
reach that stage it is important to follow the proper 
sequence, just as you must lay proper foundations for a 
house if you are going to construct stable walls. You 
should have a plan right from the beginning, and you 
should decide in advance how much meditation you will 
do. During the main meditation itself you should be able 
to apply both mindfulness and introspection to see 
whether your mind is being distracted to other topics or 
not. It is said that at the beginning it is better to do shor 
ter sessions, because if your session is very long there is 
a danger of coming under the influence of mental sin 
king or excitement. If you do a long session of two or 
three hours, even though you are spending the time, if 
your mind is not very attentive and comes under the 



influence of either mental sinking or excitement, your 
meditation will not be as effective as it should be. It is 
also important to have short sessions at the beginning so 
that when you do the meditations you will take pleasure 
in them. Otherwise, if you do a long session and do not 
enjoy it, there is a danger of becoming discouraged. 
When you see your meditation seat again, you will feel 
a sense of boredom or reluctance. However, if you do 
short sessions, when you resume your meditation you 
will actually enjoy doing it, because the impact of the 
earlier session will not have faded. 

What is the role of sleep in practice? It is important 
not to sleep during the day or the first and last parts of the 
night. Westerners have a very strange habit. They go to 
bed very late at night and get up very late in the mor 
ning. If there is a special reason for doing this, that is 
another matter, but if not, it is better to go to bed early 
and get up early. Sleep is said to be a changeable men 
tal factor. If you have a virtuous thought when you fall 
asleep, your entire sleep is said to be changed into virtu 
ous thought. We have to go to bed for a specific amount 
of time, so try to cultivate a virtuous thought, like com 
passion, beforehand; then your entire sleep will be vir 
tuous. Proper sleep actually sustains your body and 
maintains your physical health, which will help you in 
your spiritual practice. If you follow the Indian custom, 
you should wash your feet and then go to sleep. I doubt 
if many Tibetan masters followed this practice because 



of the cold. It is said that one should sleep like a lion, 
lying on the right side. Sleeping in this posture is said to 
have many advantages, for example that your body will 
not be overly relaxed; even though you fall asleep you 
will not lose the power of mindfulness; you will not fall 
into very deep sleep; and you will not have bad dreams. 

When you go to bed, you should try to imagine a 
vision of light, so that you will not be subject to the dark 
ness of ignorance during sleep. You should also have 
mindfulness and introspection and the wish to get up 
early. To be mindful before going to bed, just review the 
activities of the day or mentally go through your medita 
tions. If you are successful in that, even when you are 
asleep you will not be out of control. Not only will your 
sleep be virtuous, it will also be possible to have virtuous 
thoughts. When you wake up, you will be mentally 
awake, but since the sense consciousnesses have still not 
regained their power, you can sometimes have a very 
clear state of mind. If you can use it for analytical prac 
tices, it is really very powerful. So you should have an 
intention to wake up at such- and- such a time, sleeping 
lightly, like animals do. By the force of that intention you 
will be able to get up as you plan. Tsong-kha-pa says that 
if you are able to use the activities of eating and sleep 
ing properly, you can turn them in a virtuous direction 
and many negative actions will be prevented. 

Tsong-kha-pa says that it is very important to realize 
that meditation is of two types, stabilizing and analytical, 



and that of these the skillful application of the analytic 
faculty of the mind is very important. For example, in 
order to make their silver and gold workable, goldsmiths 
and silversmiths first heat it and wash it and clean it and 
do all sorts of things so they can use it to make jewelry 
of any shape. Similarly, in order to overcome the root 
and secondary delusions, it is important first to reflect 
upon the faults and destructive nature of delusions and 
how they induce negative action how as a result of this 
action one rotates in the cycle of rebirth. All of these 
have to be understood by applying the analytical faculty 
of wisdom, and only then can we hope to achieve the 
commitment to engage in the practice of the path. All of 
these analytical processes are like preliminaries that 
prepare the mind to benefit from the main thrust of the 
meditation. After having laid the proper foundation and 
made your mind fertile by such analytical processes, you 
can do any meditation, whether it concerns quiescence 
or insight. 

When we do meditations, we should have an aim; we 
should make an effort. That effort is developed by seeing 
a purpose, and the purpose of our meditation should be 
understood. The better your understanding of the pur 
pose, the more committed you will be in your practice. 
Tsong-kha-pa says that whether or not all the scriptures 
appear to be personal advice depends very much upon 
whether or not you can see how indispensable and 
important it is to practice both analytical and stabilizing 



meditation. He says that it is very sad that not only have 
people not studied properly, but even those who have 
undertaken a wide range of studies, when they actually 
engage in serious practice, discard all their studies and 
are satisfied with mere nonconceptuality alone. That is 
really very sad. If you do not try to explore the analytic 
faculty of the mind and just continuously remain 
absorbed in stabilizing meditation, simply maintaining 
nonconceptuality, you become less and less intelligent, 
and the wisdom to discriminate between right and wrong 
decreases. This is very dangerous. 


\\7isdom analyzes the nature of phenomena. There 
are many different types of wisdom, such as the 
five sciences: the inner science of religion and the four 
outer sciences of logic, medicine, grammar, and the arts. 
I speak here of the inner science. This form of wisdom is 
the foundation of all good qualities. Without the guid 
ance of wisdom, all the other perfections, like generosi 
ty and ethics, would be like a group of people without a 
leader. The practice of the other perfections without the 
faculty of wisdom will not lead to the desired destination, 
toward the achievement of enlightenment. Compared to 
other faculties, like faith, mindfulness, effort, and so 
forth, wisdom is said to be more important because it is 
only through the force of wisdom, when complemented 
by the other faculties, that one can actually, combat the 



force of the delusions. The other perfections, like ge 
nerosity and ethics, depend heavily upon the realization 
of wisdom. 

The power of wisdom is like that of a powerful king. 
If he is assisted by very skillful and intelligent ministers, 
he will not make any mistakes. In the same way, seem 
ingly contradictory situations, like having very strong 
love and compassion and still not being polluted by 
attachment and desire, are due to the impact of wisdom. 
With wisdom, although you develop strong compassion 
and love toward others, you will never have desire and 
attachment toward them. If you are endowed with the 
faculty of wisdom, you will not fall to an extreme philo 
sophical position of permanence or nihilism. 

The obstacle to wisdom is ignorance, and the cause 
that promotes and increases ignorance is constant indul 
gence in pointless activities, such as laziness and slee 
ping too much. Ignorance also arises from having no joy 
or pleasure in the power of wisdom. The method for 
overcoming this ignorance is to increase your knowledge 
through study. For those who take serious interest in the 
practice of the Dharma, it is important to realize that the 
wisdom discriminating the nature of phenomena is the 
primary cause for achieving enlightenment. If someone 
is only concerned with teaching and not practicing, there 
is no need to acquire a broad knowledge; but instead of 
teaching it would be more beneficial if people like that 
kept quiet. For a serious practitioner, both learning and 



contemplation are very important. The progress you 
make in your practice should match the increase in your 
knowledge of the Dharma. Having obtained this precious 
human life endowed with a complex brain, we must 
make use of its special qualities and apply the unique 
faculty that we are endowed with, that is, the power to 
discriminate between right and wrong. This is done by 
increasing our understanding. The more you increase 
your knowledge, the better your understanding will be. 

When you work for the achievement of wisdom, it is 
very important never to isolate your practice of wisdom 
from the other perfections. A practitioner who is working 
for the achievement of enlightenment actually requires 
realization of all six perfections. We can draw inspiration 
from the Buddha s own example. He first underwent 
severe penances and endured great hardships in the 
process of the path. Finally, under the Bodhi tree, he 
became enlightened and taught others what he had rea 
lized himself. Although it is initially very difficult for us 
to plunge into the practice of the six perfections, it is 
important at first to develop admiration for them and 
increase our understanding of them. This will eventually 
lead us to the true practice, enabling us to find freedom 
from the difficulties of the cycle of existence and enjoy 
the bliss of perfect enlightenment, o 






Tdc gid 


Dich gid 


Song Ngur 





(Trang 1- Trang 234) 





CHLfCfNG 3 Cd HOl 











Con xin thanh kinh danh le va tri an: 

o Dtfc Dat Lai Lat Ma, va Hoa Thuttng Lhakdor 
cung Thtf Vien Tay Tang da hoan hy cho phep con diTdc 
chuyen dich nguyen tac "The Way to Freedom " tu* Anh 
Ngtf sang Viet Ngff. 

o Hoa Thtfcfng Thinlay Topgyal (Vien Trtfdng), Hoa 
Thtfdng Lobsang Ngawang (Pho Vien Trufdng), ThtfcJng 
Toa Tashi (Giam Hoc) va tat ca quy thay cua TriTdng 
Trung va Dai Hoc Hien Mat Tay Tang Gyudmed da tich 
ciTc cau nguyen va ho trd tinh than cho con trong nhieu 
nam thang qua. 

o Hoa ThiTdng Thich DiJc Nhuan, Co van Chi Dao 
Vien Hoa Dao - Giao Hoi Phat Giao Viet Nam Thong 
Nhat; mot hoc gia uyen bac dong thdi cung la tac va 
dich gia ciia nhieu tac pham Phat phap khao ctfu, lich suf 
van hoa gia tri da bi man doc va viet Idi gidi thieu cho 
quyen sach nay mac du Phat su* da doan, tuoi gia stfc 

o Hoa Thufdng Thich Quang Do, Vien Trirdng Vien 
Hoa Dao - Giao Hoi Phat giao Viet Nam Thong Nhat, 
mot hoc gia uyen bac, dong thdi cung la tac va dich gia 
cua rat nhieu tac pham Phat Hoc tham ao da tuT bi, an 
can day bao va khich le con tren bufdc dufdng tham cau 



hoc hoi va phung su* Chanh phap. 

O Thtfcmg Toa Thich Thien Tri, Chu Tich Hoi Dong 
Giam Luat kiem Vu Trtfcfng Vu Tang Su, dong thdi cung 
la dich gia ciia nhieu kinh sach gia tri da bi man dm dat 
con quay ve nifdng tita Tarn Bao. Nguyen cau Ngai 
chong diTdc binh phuc, phap the khinh an, dao qua vien 

o ThiTdng Toa Thich Vien Ly Phu Ta Pho Vien 
TrUdng Kiem pho to ng thuf Ky Vien Hoa Dao, Giao Hoi 
Phat Giao Viet Nam Thong Nhat, Tong ThiT Ky Giao Hoi 
Phat Giao Viet Nam Thong Nhat Hai Ngoai tai Hoa Ky 
- Van Phong II Vien Hoa Dao; da tuT bi tao nhieu thang 
duyen de dich pham nay duTdc hinh thanh. 

Nguyen Thuy Phttcfng 

Nguyet Tue Huy 

2543 - 1999 


Dqo Phat la dqo Nhu That. 
Dtic Phat la mot vi Dai y vtfcmg. 

jPam tang thanh dien ciia dao Phat trong do chtfa dtfng 
tarn van boh nghin phap mon vi dieu, ttfc 84.000 than 
dUdc de chtfa tri cho 84.000 can benh "phien ndo dau 
kho" cua chung sinh va, do do, da dem lai niem an vui, 
hanh phuc cho nhiJng ai bie t tin theo va ap dung nguon 
anh sang giao ly Giac Ngo Giai Thoat cua dao Phat trong 
thufc tai cuoc so ng hang ngay. 

Tac pham "HlfCfNG DEN CON DlfdNG GIAI 
THOAT" W la mot tac pham Idn cua DuTc Dat Lai Lat Ma 
co cong nang dem sif an lanh den vdi cuoc ddi nen hien 
nay, diTdc moi Idp ngtfdi trong the gidi don nhan vdi tat 
ca tarn long han hoan, ngiT5ng mo. 

Noi dung tac pham gom 10 chtfdng - Trong chufdng 
IV, noi ve "Cdi Chef chang han, Ngai day: 



O Mot ngtfcri tu theo Phat phdp, hang ngdy deu nghi 
den cdi chet; tu duy ve niem dau noi kho cua nhdn loqi 
nhu ve sink kho, ve Ido kho, ve benh khovd ve iti kho. Moi 
mot ngdy, ngtfdi tu Mat Tdng deu qudn ttfdng phai trdi 
qua cd mot qua trlnh chet choc giong nhu trong noi tarn, 
mdi ngdy deu se chet mot lan( 2 )- nen khi doi dien vdi tit 
than ho da chudn bi sdn sang nen khdng con khiep set 

o Doi dien vdi cdi chet, con ngtfdi se tao cho minh mot 
ddi song day y nghia... 

O Khdc ndo nhu (mot ngudi) sap phai vtfcft qua mot 
vung dat hiem nguy (cdi chet) vd day set hdi... 

Vay khi noi den cai chet la Ngai co y khuyen thinh 
con ngifdi 6 kiep nay hay chdm lam nhffng viec tot lanh 
de lay do lam tir liTdng cho kiep mai sau. 

La Phat tuf, phat nguyen tu hanh Bo Tat Dao thi w 
ban than phai bie t quen minh di... de phung su" chinh 
phap, phuc vu chung sinh; bie t dau trufdc ni dau cua 
dong loai, va vui sau niem vui cua mien ha. 

...Tham dinh tufng y, tufng Idi trong toan bo tac pham 
Thanh tang, ta thay: mi y, mSi Idi chan hoa tinh Thufcfng 
Yeu nhan loai, chung sinh khac nao nhiT nhffng doa sen 
toa hiTdng thdm lam tiTdi mat nhtfng tarn hon dau kho, la 
vang thai diTdng lam tan di nhimg dam may mu che phu 
the gian. 

Nay Phat tur, NGUYEN THUY PHU0NG Nguyet 
Tue Huy, phat tarn dich tac pham tren, tuf Anh van sang 



Viet ngff, day cung la phan dong gop tinh anh cua minh 
trong stf nghiep "hoang phdp left sink", toi xin nhat tarn 
tan dtfdng cong dtic va tran trong gidfi thieu cung toan the 
quy vi doc gia. 

Viet tai chua Giac Minh, Saigon, thang trong xuan, 
Phat lich 2543 -DL. 1999 

Thich DuTc Nhuan 

( 1 ) Nguyen tdc: The WAY TO FREEDOM 

< 2 ) Mot phen chet ldn(j^fa&), ticc co nghia not rang con ngudi 
hay M chet di nhitng thoi hu tat xau nhti tham lam, sdn han, ngu si 
de tai sinh moi con ngtidi mdi: Con ngticri thdnh thien - song bang 
tarn hon Phat - mot cuoc song dep nhtf hoa sen d trong bun ma 
khong nhiem bun - chu thich cua ngudi viet gidi thieu. 



u hoc va hanh tri giao phap cua Phat day la dan bufdc 

vao mot cuoc chien doi khang gitfa hai Itfc lifting tieu 
ctfc va tich cufc cua noi tarn. Hanh gia can truy cau de 
khai tru* mat tieu cut va phat huy tiem nang cua mat tich 
ciTc. Nhtfng giao phap trong quyen sach nay nham muc 
dich chuyen hoa tarn thiJc; do vay, chi can duyet doc hay 
lang nghe mot doan nho thoi cung du mang den mot stf 
Idi lac vo cung to Idn. 

Da khong co khac do cu the nao co the dung de do 
lufdng tien trinh tranh chap giffa lu*c luttng tich cufc va tieu 
ciTc trong tarn thufc. Sir chuyen bien se bat dau ke tuf khi 
ban tu" tri nhan difdc nhtog phien nao cua chinh minh, 
chang nan nhu" long san han va ti hiem. VI the, con ngufti 
can phai co trinh do tri nhan va y thtfc each diet truf nhtfng 
phien nao; loai tri tntfc do co dufdc la do su* lang nghe tu* 
giao phap. Khong co bat ci? mot phu*dng phap ddn gian 
nao de diet trtr phien nao ca. Khong the dung thu thuat 
ngoai khoa de cat bo chung. Chung can phai diTdc tri 
nhan. Sau do, xuyen qua su* dung cong thufc tap va hanh 
tri theo giao phap mi phien nao se dan dan giam thieu va 
cuoi cung se hoan toan bi doan diet. 

Cac giao phap nay da cung cap nhiJng phiTdng tMc 
de con ngu"cfi tim du*dc giai thoat ngay tu" trong phien nao 
- con dtfdng da that sU dtfa dan de n giai thoat moi khd 



dau va dat dtfp*c stf an lac ttf tai cua qua vi ctfu canh giac 
ngo (the bliss of enlightenment). Khi con ngufti cang hieu 
Phat phap bao nhieu thi stf 6m gift tinh kieu cang, san 
han, gian tham va nhimg tinh cam tieu ctfc da tufng gay ra 
nhieu dau khd trtfdc kia ciing se giam thieu bay nhieu. 
Neil ap dung stf hieu biet nay vao ddi so ng thudng nhat 
thi noi tarn se dan dan diTdc chuyen hoa theo nam dai 
thang rong. Bcfi vi noi tarn co khuynh hirdng bi chuyen 
bien trong khi minh tu*dng chufng nhuf trai ngu*dc lai. Neu 
ban co the so sanh giffa trang thai tarn thtic hien tai va 
tarn thufc sau khi doc xong quyen sach nay, co le ban se 
tim thay mot vai thay ddi tien trien. Neu qua dung nhtf 
vay thi nhtfng 15i day nay da dat difdc muc dich cua no. 
Tai day, hdn 2500 nam tnTdc, trong mot kiep, Dtic 
Phat da thi hien thanh DuTc Thich Ca Mau Ni The Ton, 
mot bac tri gia cua dong toe Thich Ca. Ngai da xuat gia 
nhtf mot vi sa mon, trai qua mot qua trinh tu tap du gia 
(yoga) mot each gian kho . Ngai da dat dtfdc qua vi giac 
ngp vien man khi mien toa du*(5i mot coi cay d mot dia 
danh phia bac An Do dufdc gpi la Bodh Gaya. TO do ve 
sau, Ngai da khai thi vo so giao phap thich ufng vdi tufng 
loai tham due va can tanh khac nhau cua chung ta. Co 
ngirdi, Ngai day lam the nao co du*dc su" chuyen sinh to t 
dep hdn; ngUcfi khac thi Ngai day each de thoat khoi 
vong sinh tuf luan hoi. Nhtfng dieu day tinh tham vi dieu 
chufa dufng trong nhtfng giao phap ay, dtfdc gpi la Kinh 
(Sutra), da vach ro nhffng phufdng phap va nhUng con 
dufdng dSn den hanh phuc an lac cho tat ca chung sanh, 



diTdc the nghiem trtfc tiep bdi Dtfc Phat va rat hcfp vdi 
moi ly luan, bat ctf ai cung co the tntfc hanh va nghiem 
chtfng dutfc. 

Tai Tay Tang, giao nghia Phat giao dtfdc bien soan 
thanh mot bo sach, trinh bay can ke nhtfng giai doan cua 
ca mot hanh trinh tien den stf giac ngp. Trong qua khtf, 
co rat nhieu ngifdi da dufa vao nhimg giao phap dufdc chi 
day gio ng nhau nay de ttfu thanh qua vi chufng ngo vien 
man; nhtog giao phap nay rat thich hdp vdi bat cd: ai tarn 
tanh van con chuTa diTdc thuan thuc. Mac du tu" thau triet 
noi nguy hai gay ra do chinh nhtog sai lam cua minh, vi 
du nhiT mot cdn thinh no se mang de n biet bao ton thtfdng 
cho minh va cho ngiTcJi, nhiTng nhffng loi lam ay van con 
da va dang khie n chung ta bi nghieng nga anh htfcfng. Do 
vay, mot tarn hon chiTa du"dc dieu phuc se vSn tao bao 
thuc day chung ta nhay xuo ng ho sau thay vi dijfng lai 
ngay ben b5 ho. 

Phien nao va hanh vi tao tac khien chung ta bi cuo n 
hut trong vong luan hoi tuan hoan dau khd; do la "nghiep 
ltic"(karma). Do quan h$ giffa hanh dong va kinh 
nghiem, chung ta da keo dai ddi so ng vdi biet bao n6i 
tram bong, nhieu loan va me md. Cdi bo hoan toan 
nhUng nghiep lufc trong qua khtf va thoat khoi vong no le 
cua tham, san va si goi la " gidi thodt" hay "Niet Ban". 
Khi chung ta thau ro diTdc ban the thanh tinh tu" nhien cua 
noi tarn ma co the loai bo dUdc nhiJng lam 16i va phien 
nao thi niem an lac tuyet dich se theo do ma de n, va 
chung ta se tim diTdc ctfu canh giai thoat ngay chinh 



trong vong luan hoi dau khd. 

Neu chung ta cd the lam dtfdc nhtfng dieu thien, 
chang han nhif ctfu lay sanh mang cua nhimg con vat sap 
diet; chung ta cung cd the tich tap dtfdc nhtfng dieu kien 
can thiet de dtfdc thac sanh lam ngufti trcf lai. Cuoc so ng 
tarn linh cua chung ta se tie n trien to t dep trong ddi vi lai 
neu chung ta chiu thyc hanh nghiem chinh "Phat Phdp". 
Dieu quan trong la chung ta nen dung cong tu hanh ngay 
khi dang con co nhieu cd hoi vi cuoc so ng vo n di rat quy 
gia nhu*ng lai kho Itfdng trirdc dufcfc. Chung ta se khong 
bao gid biet dutfc cd hoi nhu the se keo dai de n bao lau. 

The theo luat nhan qua va nghiep lite thi nhiftig gi 
chung ta lam horn nay se diTa den nhtfng ket qua trong 
Wdng lai. Ttfdng lai chung ta dtfdc dinh doat tu* trang thai 
noi tarn trUdc mat, ma trang thai noi tarn trtfdc mat 
thufdng la sir tran Ian cua chudi dai phien nao. Tren he t 
chung ta can nen cau nguyen de chufng dac dufdc qua vi 
giac ngp giai thoat. Neu khong, cung nen tarn cau de 
moat khoi vong luan hoi sanh tu*. Neu khong ntfa, thi it ra 
cung nen gieo nhihig hat gio ng de dUdc thac sanh vao 
mot canh gidi to t dep hdn, tranh khoi doa vao canh gidi 
thap kem hdn canh gidi ma chung ta dang so ng hien nay. 
Trong hoan canh may man dtfdc thuan duyen nghe thay 
va tu hanh theo Phat phap thi chung ta cung chd danh 
mat cd hoi hy htfu nay. 

Tuy nhien, tuf giai thoat ra mpi khd dau khong thoi chi 
mdi la mot phan cua muc tieu truy cau cua chung ta. Vi 
ai cung giong nhu" chung ta deu mong moi hanh phuc, 



deu mong moi tranh diTdc khd dau du la khd dau nho 
nhat. Tat ca chung sanh deu bmh dang trong khuynh 
hutfng mini cau hanh phuc va gidi thoat khoi moi khd 
dau. Mot khi da biet du*dc dao ly nay roi ma chung ta van 
chl miru cau giai thoat cho rieng minh thi se lam cho stf 
co gang thanh ttfu giai thoat cua minh bien thanh nho 
nhiem lam. NhiTng neu dong cd can ban la de giup cho 
tha nhan thi chung ta se dat diTdc canh gidi Nhat Thiet 
Tri (Omniscience) , vdi canh gidfi nay chung ta se co nang 
life giup ich Idi lac moi loai chung sanh. Va tu" than chung 
ta da co the thanh PHAT roi vay. 

Neu noi tarn ngheo nan va nang lu"c han hep, thi lam 
sao chung ta co the dap tfng du*dc nguyen vong cua moi 
ngiTdi? Chi mong giup d3 tha nhan khong thoi van chifa 
du. Trtfcfc tien chung ta can co kha nang cam bie t dtfdc 
nhffng nguyen vpng khac nhau cua moi ngiTdi. De co 
diTdc mot su" nhan thtfc ro rang sang suot, chung ta phai 
loai bo tat ca moi kie n chap da chiTdng ngai va nhu" the 
chung ta se nhin may moi su* moi vat nhu" no dang hien 
hiru. Nhffng chiTdng ngai vat cua Nhat Thiet Tri chinh la 
nhtfng dau vet de lai tuf nhtog loai phien nao nhtf tham 
due, phan no, kieu man va vo minh. Cho du sau khi loai 
bo difdc nhUng phien nao roi thi tarn thtfc van con in dam 
nhtfng dau vet cua no. NhiTng vi ban the cua tarn thtfc 
von la trong sang, thuan khiet nen chung ta co the thanh 
tinh hoa triet de noi tarn cua minh. Va khi da dat diTdc 
the tanh sang su6t tinh giac nhu" the, ttic la da dat dtfdc 
Nhat Thiet Tri. 



Dtfc Phat co diTdc tat ca nhffng dac chat vi dai cua 
Than, Ngit, Y chu yeu la do dpng Itfc cua "Dai Bi Tarn". 
Gnu yeu cua sir tu hanh cua chung ta cung phai do tarn 
nguyen Idi tha. Do tri nhan dtfdc rang moi ngtfcfi deu 
gio ng nhtf chung ta, mong cau vui stfdng va diet truf dau 
kho nen long vi tha se tu* nhien hien ufng trong tarn chung 
ta. Do la mot hat gio ng gieo xuo ng, va xuyen qua qua 
trinh tu tap, chung ta co the bao ve va cham bon cho no 
du*dc trtfdng thanh. 

Taft ca moi giao phap cua Dufc Phat deu chu yeu giup 
chung ta phat trien long Dai Bi va tarn Lai Tha. Con 
dufdng de thanh Phat da dtfdc kie^n lap tren long Dai Bi: 
mong ngufdi khac co the xa lia dau kho. Va dieu nay da 
khien chung ta thau triet diTdc rang niem an vui hanh 
phiic cua ngu*di khac chung cuoc con tol thtfcfng, quan 
yeu hdn ca hanh phuc ciia chinh minh; bdi vi, ne u khong 
co ngufri khac thi chung ta se khong co cd hoi tu hanh va 
chufng dac qua vi giac ngo. Toi khong dam ttf xu"ng minh 
la ngiTdi co kien thufc quang bac hoac lieu ngo cao tham. 
Toi chi nhd den cac vi su* trifcfng cua toi, da vi long tuf ai 
ma truyen day cho toi nhffng giao phap nay; vi vay vdi 
y nguyen tha thiet quan tarn den su* Idi ich cua muon 
loai, toi xin mang ra de hien dang cho quy vi nhffng giao 
phap vi dieu do. o 



TIJdn 2500 nam ve triTdc, sau khi chtfng dac diTcfc qua 
vi giai thoat giac ngo, tit trong quan tu xuat dinh, bai 
phap dau lien ma But Phat da giang day, do la "TtiDieu 
Be" (bon chan ly hay bo n sir that). 

Be nhat Thanh de la KhoDe: stf vui sUdng cua chung 
ta khong ngu*ng bi dan dan tieu hao, bat cur su* vat nao 
chung ta co cung deu rat ngan ngui va rat tarn bd. Thong 
thufrng cai chung ta xem la ton tai chan that thi lai khong 
phai la vmh vien thu*5ng hang. V6 minh, tham chap va 
san nan la nhtog nguyen nhan khien chung ta dau khd 
kich liet. VI the de nhi Thanh de la muo n tim hieu 
nguyen nhan gay khd. Sau khi ban got sach dtfdc can 
nguyen dau kho phien nao thi dat den trang thai diet khd 
- do la de tarn Thanh de hay Niet Ban. Be tuf Thanh de 
la con duftng chi dan hufdng ve su* diet khd. De tarn linh 
minh dat den canh gidi Niet Ban, ban can phai tuan theo 
mot con dtfcfng chan chanh. 

Khong can phai chd den khi thau triet diTdc luat 
"nhan qua " hay "nghiep " mcfi co the khdi day long ham 
mudn dan than cua chung ta de di tren con dufdng chan 
chanh nham cham duft khd dau. Nhirng tu" Wdng va hanh 
vi tieu cu*c se mang den nhftng hau qua va dieu kien 
nhan duyen tieu cu*c; cung the ay, nhtog tu" tirdng va 
hanh vi tich cite se mang den nhimg ket qua va dieu kien 



nhan duyen tich cut. Chi khi nao phat khdi dtfdc tin tarn 
sau chac vao luat "nhdn qua " thi chiing ta mdi cam biet 
dtftfc nhtfng nguyen nhan dau khd cua chinh minh. Su* vui 
sufdng hoac bat hanh hien nay it nhieu deu la ket qua cua 
nhimg hanh vi tao tac tru*dc kia. Kinh nghiem cua chung 
ta da xac quyet stf ton tai cua moi khd dau vi su* hien dien 
cua chung da qua ro rang 16 lilu. Do do, ne u muo n het 
kho , thi ngay tu" bay gi6, chung ta phai tap y thuTc each 
nao de nhd sach g6c rS cua nhan duyen dau khd. Trai 
qua kinh nghiem mail hieu difdc dau khd va nguyen nhan 
duyen khcfi cua no, chung ta co the y thuTc dufdc each 
doan tru* vo minh vi vo minh la can nguyen cua dau khd; 
va chung ta cung tu* do ma y thtfc dufdc mot trang thai tich 
diet, mot trang thai hoan toan diet lang moi vo minh va 
mpi phien nao da ttag phat xuat tu* do. Khi su* hieu biet 
cua chung ta do i vdi suf tich diet nay dat de n dung mtfc 
vien man thi tif nhien chung ta phat khdi ra mot y chi 
manh liet muo n dat den canh gidi nhu* vay. Si/ hieu biet 
do phai tham nhap den noi co the lam rung chuyen ca 
ban tanh noi tai cua chung ta va dong thdi khie n chung 
ta phat khdi ra y muo n dat den canh gidi ay cho ky diTcfc. 
Mot khi chung ta da tiT nhien phat khdi ra y mudn dat de n 
sir tich diet nay thi mot noi niem tri an sau xa cung se 
day len trong tarn tu* chung ta do i vdi nhtfng ai da thau 
triet diTdc sy tich diet. Su* tri nhan ve nhu^ng thanh tufu 
vien man cua Btfc Phat cang trd nen manh me. Nhtog 
Idi ich thu thang va net dep cua cac giao phap cua Ngai 
trd nen sang sua ro rang. 



Giao phap Bo Be Dqo TM Be da dutfc truyen sang 
Tay Tang tu* An Do. Cho mai den the ky thtf tarn Tay 
Nguyen, Phat giao mdi dutfc truyen vao Tay Tang, nhirng 
qua den the ky thtf chin thi Phat giao da bi vua Lang-dar- 
ma cam chi. 6ng da dong cira nhirng tu vien, ndi ma 
trufdfc kia da tirng la nhirng trung tarn giang day chanh 
yeu, gio ng nhtf viec Trung Cong da lam ngay nay. Stf 
huy diet Phat phap cua vua Lang-dar-ma rat khung khiep 
va rong Idn, nhiTng ngifdi ta van con co the tu hanh dtfcfc 
d nhi?ng vung xa xoi heo lanh va truyen thong cua Phat 
giao da du*dc bao ton. Den the ky thuf mu*di mot thi bat 
dau co suf 161 loan trUdc sir xuat hien ciia hai giao phai. 
Do la Hien tong (Sutra) hay con goi la con ditdng hoc hoi 
va tu tri trai qua nhieu ddi nhieu kiep de thanh tifu suf 
chtfng dac qua vi giac ngo; va Mat tong (Tantra), mot 
phufdng phap tu tri bi mat co the thanh ttfu su" chufng dac 
qua vi giac ngo ngay trong mot kiep. Vao the ky thuf mufti 
mot co mot vi tang An Do ten Atisha da trd nen no i tieng 
ve kha nang giang day va bien luan Phat phap vdfi nhieu 
triet gia ngoai dao. Ngai co the tong tap tat ca cac loai 
kien giai Phat hoc da tufng phat trien tu" nhieu tram nam 
trifdc nhiT cac he tho ng tu hanh ciia hang tai gia va xuat 
gia. Ngai da diTdc tat ca cac Tong phai triet hoc ung ho 
va kinh ngtfdng nhu" mot vi dao sir uy quyen sieu viet. 

Cung thdi ay, co mot vi vua d mien Tay cua Tay 
Tang, chiu anh htfcfng tin ngufOng mot each kien thanh do i 
vdi Phat giao ttt cac to tien ong. 6ng da ttog doc rat 
nhieu kinh dien va nhan xet la da co nhieu mau thuan 



gitfa cac he phai tu tap khac nhau nhat la ve Hien tong 
va Mat tong. Nhtfng ngufri Tay Tang tho*i ay, do vi hieu 
lam giac sac dinh vi gitfa hai he tho ng gidfi luat nen da 
nghi rang mot ngufri khong the cung mot Me tu theo Hien 
va Mat tong dtfdc. Tuy vi quoc vtfdng nay van biet rang 
khi Phat giao truyen den Tay Tang vao the ky thti tarn thi 
ca hai he phai deu dong xuat hien mot each em dem. 
Mot dai sir An Do co ten la Shantarakshita (Tich Ho) da 
truyen day ca hai he phai: phiTdng thufc tu tri gidi luat 
hoang truyen Hien tong tu" vien( 1 ) va phiTdng thufc tu tii 
quang dai bi tam( 2 ). Cung trong thdi gian ay, bac dai hanh 
gia du gia Padmasambhava (Lien Hoa Sanh) da hoang 
dtfdng he phai Mat tong va da dieu phuc nhtfng ma 
chiTdfng dang quay nhieu Tay Tang vao thdi bay gid. Hai 
vi dai stf nay deu cung nhau hoang dtfdng Phat phap va 
khong co gi dol lap thu nghich nhau ca. Sau khi quo c 
vifdng tri nhan dtfdc rang Hien tong va Mat tong deu phat 
xuat tu An Do, the la tuf Tay Tang, nha vua da phai hai 
mirdi hoc sinh thong minh tai gioi den An Do de cau hoc 
vdi y muo n Wdng lai ho se trd ve va minh bach hoa tat 
ca cac giao phap cho nhan dan Tay Tang. Rat nhieu vi da 
chet d doc dufrng, chi con hai vi trd ve va bao cao cung 
quo c viTdng la phap tu Hien Mat 6 An Do deu co the 
hanh tri cung mot luc ma khong co gi tr3 ngai va kho 

( 1 ) Phucfng tMc tu tri gidi luat hoang truyen hien tong ttfvien: 
the practice of monastic discipline. 

(2) Phucfng thtic tu tri quang dai bi tarn: the vast 
and compassionate practice of sutra 



khan. Ho da tim diTdc mot vi dai sir ten la Atisha (A Be 
Hap) tai tu vien Vikramashila d Bengal (Manh Ca La). 
Nhtfng hoc sinh nay cho rang ngai Atisha la ngtfdi co the 
giup cho lay Tang. VI the, qudc vtfdng da dich than 
quyen gop day du so" vang de dung lam phi ton nham 
cung thinh dai su* Atisha ttt An Do sang. Nhirng ong da bi 
mot quoc viTdng doi lap vdfi Phat giao bat gitf. Vi quo c 
viTdng nay cho ong lira chon mot trong hai dieu kien, do 
la bao ve lay mang song hay truy cau Phat phap. Ong da 
bi giam cam ngay sau khi ong khong chap nhan tuf bo 
cong cuoc cau hoc giao phap. Mot ngtfdi chau da tim 
each cma ong nhimg vi quo c viTdng nay bao rang: "Ngtfcri 
dicng vi ta ma lo Icing, chd ton hao mot mieng vang nao de 
lam tien chuoc mang ta. Hay mang tat cd vang sang An 
Do decung think ngai Atisha di". Ngufti chau khong tuan 
theo chi thi ciia chu, da dang tat ca khol vang cho vi quo c 
viTdng kia de lam tien chuoc mang. NhiTng vi quoc viTdng 
nay vln tuf choi, bao vdi ngufti chau rang: "So vang nay 
nguai mang den chi mdi nqng bang than the cua chu 
nguoi thdi, chua nqng bang cat ddu duac. ". Ong ta quyet 
liet tiT cho i tha con tin tru" phi mang them vang den. 
Ngufti chdu ben dem sir viec trinh lai vdi chu rang: "Neu 
chau phdt dong cuoc chien tranh cihi chu ", ngu*5i chau 
trinh bay tiep : "se tqo nen mot cuoc do mdu vi dai. VI the 
chau se co gang tim du so vang the nap cho ddu cua chu. 
Xin chu hay cau nguyen cho chau duojc thdnh cong. " 
NgiTdi chu tra 16i: "Nguyen vong cua ta la mang dnh sang 
Phat phap den Tdy Tang de lam sang to tat cd nhifrig nghi 



ky vd mdu thudn. Neu nguyen Udc cua ta dtictc thdnh tUu 
thi cho du co bo mqng tqi day ta cung khdng an hdn. Ta 
nay da gid roi, chet choc chl Id viec sdm toi thoi. Qua hM 
nhieu ddi ta da mdi ludn hoi Itfu chuyen nhtfng that Id vo 
ciing hy htiu dedticfc hy sinh tank mqng cho sit Icti ich cua 
Phdt phdp. Horn nay ta da co difcfc co hoi nay. Cho nen 
xin chuyen Idi den Atisha, hay trlnh vdi Ngdi rang ta da 
dang hien tinh mqng ly do la vi muon Ngdi dap Idi mdi 
cua ta den Tdy Tang. Ifdc nguyen cuoi cung cua ta Id 
cung thlnh Ngdi vdo Tdy Tang dehoang truyen gido phdp 
Phdt Da vd minh bach hoa moi sit hieu lam cua chung 
ta. " Sau khi nghe xong quyet dinh cua chu, ngi^cJi chau 
vo cung cam dong, va cao biet gia tu* vdi mot noi niem bi 
thufdng vo ban. 

Ngufti chau guri mot nhom dich su* den An Do de tim 
ngai Atisha. Sau vi dong ban nay da mang theo bay tram 
dong tien vang, cuol cung den dutfc tu vien cua ngai 
Atisha de dien kien vi tru tri. Du chiTa kip thd 16 muc dich 
cua minh vi tru tri da phat bieu: "Khdng phai vi ta co y 
chiem gift Atisha nhung rat tiec Id vi khdng co nhieu bdc 
dqi stfnhtfngdi vd neu ngai rdi khoi An Do thi Phdt phdp 
noi rieng vd todn the dqi chung noi chung sephdi doi dien 
vdi mot nguy co" to Idn. Suhien dien cua Ngdi dAn Do rat 
quan yeu. " Cuoi cung nhtog dich stf Tay tang da dtfdc 
dien kie n dai sir Atisha trong su* xuc dong vo bd den noi 
khong the nao co the cam dufcfc nhtog giong le nong. 
Atisha thay the nen da bao ho rang : "Xin ditng lo lang, 
ta biet Tang vtfctng da vi ta ma hy sinh rat nhieu. Ta se suy 



nghi can than den sU think cau cua dng, nhung hien nay 
ta da la mot lao gia, va Iqi con vtfdng mac track nhiem 
trong lo tu vien ntta. " Tuy vay, cuo i cung roi Atisha cung 
dong y den lay Tang. Sau khi dat chan den lay Bo Tay 
Tang, the theo 16*i yeu cau cua ngufti chau cua vi quoc 
vtfdng, Ngai da bien soan mot bo sach va bp sach nay da 
dem lai rat nhieu Idi ich cho toan the Phat giao lay Tang. 
Ngai da lini lai cho chung toi bo "The Lamp On The Path 
To Enlightenment" (Bo De Dqo dang luqn). Tac pham 
nay due ket toan bo phiTdng phap tu hanh chan chanh do 
suf to ng hdp tu* cac giao phai sd hihi de soan thanh mot 
bo luan vdi noi dung thiet thuTc thich hdp vdi nhtog nhu 
cau cua nhan dan Tay Tang. 

Dau the ky thur 15, mot Dai su"Tay Tang ten la Tsong- 
Kha-Pa da vie t mot quyen sach mang tu*a de Lam Rim 
hay la "Stages Of The Path To Enlightenment" (Dqo TM 
De hay Bo De TM Luqn). Ngai da nghien ciJu mot each 
ky lufdng sau xa de n quan diem cua Ngai Atisha va da 
dung hdp mot each hoan chinh nhiJng giao nghia nay de 
giup cho moi ngirdi de dang tog dung trong viec tu hanh. 
Dqo TMDe la mot bo luan chtfa diTng nhiTng giao ly can 
ban nhat. 

Ngoai viec trinh bay tat ca nhtog \M yeu cua Bo De 
Dqo, Dqo Thti De con khai trien phufdng each dung hdp 
moi giao phai - lam the nao de Phat phap bao gom ca 
hai Hien Tdng la phiTdng phap cong thong dao va Mat 
Tdng la phtfdng phap bi mat dao. Nhffng giao ly nay lam 
khi to ra rat mau thuan nhau, nhimg neu tfng dung mot 



each thoa dang theo tien trmh tuan ttf thi lai chang co gi 
mau thuSn ca. Do i vdi viec hirdng tdi Bo De dao, tat ca 
moi giao phap deu la nhirng stf htfdng dan trong yeii. Co 
mot so ngufti nghl rang ho co the hanh tri phap tu bi mat 
(Mat phap) ma khong can phai thong hieu nhUng giao ly 
can ban cua Phat giao. Mot ngiT5i ne u khong dat dufdc 
nen tang can ban chinh xac de thong hieu dao phap thi 
vao Mat thufa se khong dat dutfc ba t cur su* tien bo nao. 
Neu khong vi hirdng din con ngiTcfi nham den con dudng 
giai thoat bang tarn nguyen dai bi giac ngo thi Mat phap 
se trd thanh sir tri tung chu ngit va viec tu hanh Mat phap 
se bi gidi han trong viec trinh tail cac dung cu nhu* pheng 
la, chap cha va nhtog chie c ken lam bang xiTdng dui de 
tao ra mot ru ng am thanh ma thoi. The Perfection Of Wis 
dom Sutra (kinh Dai Bat Nhd) de cap den: tu hanh cac 
hanh Bo thi, Tri gidi, Nhan nhuc, Tinh tan, Thien dinh, Tri 
hue. Do la con dufdng duy nhat ma chu" Phat trong qua 
khti da tu*ng di qua de hirdng den su* giac ngp, du la tu 
theo phtfcfng phap Hien hay Mat. Qua that la mot sai lam 
to Idn neu ban quen han nhiing tang dien cong thong 
chanh dao. 

Vi the, dao su* Tsong-kha-pa (Ton Cach Ba) tac gia 
quyen "Bo De Dao TM De Luan" da khuyen nhii tat ca 
nhUng ngifdi tu hanh nen tim mot vi dao su" tinh than co 
kinh nghiem de dan dao va nen co gang the nhan moi 
giao phap Phat Da mot each dich dang va thich tog vdi 
phiTdng phap tu hanh cua minh. Cung khong nen loai bo 
nhi^ng khia canh nao ban khong the ap dung lien dtfdc. 



Trai lai, ban hay ttf hoi la co ting dung dtfdc phtfdng phap 
ay trong ttfdng lai khong? Neu ban co the lam dutfc nhu* 
vay thi vien kien cua ban doi vdi moi giao phai cua Bite 
Phat se rat uyen tham. 

Tat ca moi chuan tac phap quy cua Phat giao deu rat 
can thiet va thich tfng dol vdfi mot ngtfdi tu. Khi mot 
ngirdi da ve mot biJc Ditdng Kha(V (mot Phat hoa Tay 
Tang), ngufti hoa su* phai cam nhan su* can thiet cua moi 
loai hinh ve. Nhirng van chtfa du, ho phai biet luc nao 
can loai hinh nao, phai ve khuon mlu tru*dc, sau do mdi 
to mau. Dieu rat quan trong la phai biet su* phol hdp hien 
h(?u ciia chung. Cung gio ng nhu* vay, chung ta can phai 
biet tat ca trong diem cua Phat phap cung nhif khi nao va 
lam each nao de u"ng dung tat ca nhtog giao phap ay. Khi 
nhtfng yeu to tren day difdc hien thifc thi tat ca moi su* an 
khuc va kho khan da tufng gan lien vdi su* tu hanh cua ban 
se tu* nhien du*dc hoa giai. 

Khi toi de cap (ten suf hanh tri Phat phap; toi khong 
co y muo n noi den sir buong bo tat ca de tim mot ncfi 
each biet ma an tu. Toi chi ddn thuan muo n bay to rang 
chung ta nen phoi hdp mot trinh do tmh thufc cao hcfn de 
ap dung vao ddi so ng thirdng nhat. Bat ctf khi nao, ngay 
nhUng luc chung ta dang an uo ng, ngu nghi hoac lam 
viec, chung ta can nen thiTdng xuyen kiem tra moi y 
niem cua minh, than, khau, y va moi hanh vi cua minh, 
cho dSu do la mot su* sai quay tieu ciTc nho nhat. Hay co 
gang hiTdng moi sinh hoat thufdng ngay theo dong cd cua 

( 1 ) Diccmg Khd: A Thangka (A Tibetan Buddhist scroll) 


tu* bi. Mang tri hue co diTdc tuf su* lang nghe nhffng giao 
phap va thtfc tu de hoa nhap vao moi hanh vi cua than, 
ngff, y. Nhtfng neu ngtfdi nao co the tuf bo tat ca de hien 
dang ddi minh cho viec tu hanh, thi ngtfdi do rat xufng 
dang de diTdc kinh ngtfcmg. 

Nghien cufu hoc tap gio ng nhu" mot ngon den soi sang 
moi tarn toi vo minh va kien thufc gat hai du*dc se la vat 
scf him tol thUdng vi no khong the bi danh cap du vdi mot 
ten trom gioi nhat. Nghien cufu hoc tap la mot vu khi 
dung de loai truf ke dich vo minh va cung la mot ngutfi 
ban tot nhat diTa dan chung ta thoat khoi nhffng giai doan 
kho n kho. Nhd long nhan tu" va tarn khong doi gat ai ma 
chung ta se ket than diTdc vdi nhtog ngirdi ban chan 
thanh. Nhtog be ban ma ta ket giao diTdc khi dang co 
quyen the , dia vi va sffc anh hUcfng, chi la nhffng ngifdi 
ban di/a tren quyen the, dia vi va sufc anh hu*dng cua 
chung ta ma thoi. Khi gap canh bat hanh hoac bi khanh 
tan thi nhffng loai be ban nay se lia bo chung ta ngay. 
Con ngtfdi ban khong phan boi va chan thanh nhat cua ta 
chinh la su" nghien cufu hoc tap cac giao phap. Day chinh 
la mot loai lu"dng dufdc khong co bat cuf tac dung dao 
ngifdc hay nguy hiem nao cd. Kien thffc giong nhu" mot 
quan dpi hung manh co the giup nghien nat moi sufc 
manh cua nhffng phien nao noi tai. Vdi nhffng kien thufc 
nhtf the , chung ta co the 7 tu* phong ve de tranh lam nhffng 
hanh vi bat mien. Danh vong, dia vi, bac tien co the la 
ket qua cua kien thufc con ngtfcfi; nhiTng chi co suf hoc hoi 
va tu tap de loai tru" nhffng 16i lam phien nao mdi mang 



den niem hy lac trtfcfng cufu cua stf chting dac. 

Neu khong co stf hieu biet cac giao phap thi stf khai 
ngo se khong theo do ma sanh ra dufdc. Nhtfng giao phap 
ma ta nhan dutfc co y nghia la chung phai dutfc ke tuc 
sanh ton. Khi chung ta huan luyen mot con ngtfa dua thi 
no phai diTdc chay tren con diTdng gio ng nhu* d trufdng 
dua vay. Cung the ay, nhtog chu de nghien cufu hoc tap 
cua ban la nhffng giao phap ma ban nen mang ra thi/c tap 
tu hanh. Muc dich ciia su" nghien c#u hoc tap la nham vao 
sir ich Idi cua cong viec tu hanh. Ngai Tsong Kha-pa day 
rang neu ban co the thau triet dtfdc nhtog y nghia tham 
sau uyen ao cua kinh dien nhu" la Idi khuyen day cho 
canh gidi cua rieng minh thi ban se khong co chut trd 
ngai nao trong viec the nhan nhffng Mat phap va Mat tuc 
(chu thich ciia Mat Phap) de thu*c tap, uTng dung vao viec 
tu tri nhu* la Idi chi day cho rieng minh tren tien trinh 
chuTng ngo. 

Dieu nay se giup chung ta tranh dufdc ta kie n cho 
rang mot vai giao phap nao do khong can thiet cho viec 
tu hanh va mot vai giao phap nao do chi can thie t cho su* 
thanh ti/u tren phiTdng dien hoc thuat. 

Cui dau va chap tay trtfdc khi tiep nhan giao phap la 
phiTdng phap doi tri kieu cang va ttf dai. Doi khi ban thay 
mot ngu*di chu*a hieu dao bang ban, nhufng ho lai co thai 
dp khiem cung va le phep hdn. Do vi su* hieu dao ciia ban 
ma ban cang nen khiem cung hdn ngirdi kia. Neu khong, 
qua tinh ban con thap kem ho*n ca ngirdi do nffa. VI the 
khi hoc tap, nen tim each kiem soat trang thai noi tarn, 



va dem su* hoc tap dung nap vao phtfcfng thtfc tif duy cua 
ban. Neu lam dtfcJc nhtf vay thi dan dan se den mot giai 
doan ma ban co the thay dutfc mot vai anh htfdng, mot 
vai thay ddi hoac mot vai thanh qua nao do trong chinh 
tarn thtic minh. Do la dau hieu cho thay cong viec tu 
hanh co stf tien bo va muc dich cua viec nghien ctiu hoc 
tap cung da dtfdc thifc hien mot each ven toan. 

Chinh phuc phien nao la khoa hoc can hoc ca d6i. 
Neu chung ta co the lay thai do kien tri chiu du*ng de tu 
hanh, trai qua nhieu nam thang se thay du*dc suf chuyen 
hoa trong tarn thufc. NhiTng neu chung ta trong mong 
dtfdc churng ngo hoac nhffng itf tirdng va tinh tiT dutfc dieu 
phuc ttfc khac, at han chung ta se trcf nen that vpng va 
chan nan. Hanh gia du gia Milarepa cua the ky thtf mufti 
mot la mot trong nhirng dao su" vT dai nhat cua lich su 1 Tay 
Tang, vi muo n dat den su" chtfng ngo tol cao, da to n nhieu 
nam tr5i, trai qua moi gian khd va so^ng cuoc ddi khong 
khac gi da thu. Neu co the dau tu" thdi gift va tarn sure 
gio ng nhu* vay thi se thay sir Idi ich tu hanh cua chung ta 
tien trien mot each nhanh chong hdn. 

Sau khi dat du*dc mot niem tin nao ve hieu nang cua 
nhtog giao phap, dieu quan trong la phai phat huy ngay 
tufc khac niem tin sat son ve gia tri cua viec dung cong tu 
tap. De tang tien tren dufdng giac ngo, su* hieu biet mot 
each chinh xac ve con dufdng minh di rat la quan trong va 
chi dat diTdc bang each chiu lang nghe giao phap. Do do, 
hay phat khdi long miru cau dat dtfcfc giac ngo toan triet 
nham dem den Idi ich cho tat ca chung sanh hiiu tinh va 



lay duyen cd thuc day nhif vay de tham hoc hay duyet 
doc cac giao phap. 

Khi co ai dang truyen day Phat Phap thi ngtfdi ay 
dang phuc vu nhuf mot ke rao truyen thong diep cua Chtf 
Phat. Bat chap su* tntfc chtfng cua su* trtfdng, trong yeu la 
ke nghe phap can kinh phuc vi dao stf nhtf kinh trong Chtf 
Phat khong hai va khong khac. Nhtog ke nghe phap 
khong can to n thi gift de soi moi suy tim 16i lam cua dao 

Jataka Tales (Ban Sanh Kinh) co de cap: can phai 
ngoi 6 dia vi that thap, lay tarn y thuan thuc va dai hoan 
hy de chiem ngu*5ng dung dien thiTdng su" va uo ng tirng 
giot cam lo co t tiiy ciia phap ngit do ngai khai thi gio ng 
nhif benh nhan can than lang nghe nhifrig Idi chi day ciia 
vi y si. Dtfc Phat da ttog khai thi: Khong nen mong chd 
gi cf ban than dao su* ca va tren het la hay trong cay vao 
ban than phap, ttfc la chu the truyen thu ciia ho, la giao 
thi cua Phat. Kinh ngtfdng vi giao thp tren binh dien tu" 
the linh hien cua nhitng giao phap la dieu toi u" quan 

Khi lang nghe hay doc tung nhtog giao phap, chung 
ta chang khac nao nhiT chie c binh diTdc dung de thu nap 
tri tue. Neu doc ngiTdc dau xuong thi cho du trdi co xoi 
xa mu*a phap cam lo thi cung bi hao chay theo hai ben 
thanh binh ma thoi. Neu binh chufa hoen 6 thi ban lay 
cam lo. Neu binh chufa ran nuft thi cam 16 se chay mat. 
Khi chung ta du" mot budi khai thi giao phap va neu de 
tarn dd dang phan tan thi chung ta chang khac nao chiec 



binh bi lat up xuong. Cho du tarn co chuyen chu nhirng 
lai mang tarn trang vay dong bcfi nhifng y niem tieu cite, 
chang ban nhtf di nghe giao phap vi muon ttf chting to la 
minh co tai tri sieu viet hcfn ngtfdi thi chang khac nao nhiT 
chiec binh dang bi 6 ue dcf ban. Sau cung, cho du co tranh 
difdc mpi loi lam vu*a ke, nhufng giao phap da nghe ma 
chang ghi nhd trong long thi cung nhtf chung vao 16 tai 
nay va thoat ra lo tai kia thoi. Khi thdi khai thi ket thuc, 
chung ta hoan toan trong trdn gio ng nhu* ra ve nhiTng 
khong sao mang giao phap da diTdc khai thi xuyen qua 
khoi canh cu*a. Do la ly do tai sao ngay nay chung ta nen 
ghi chep hoac dung may de ghi am lai nhtfng 15i khai thi. 
Mpi kha nang tiep nhan nhffng Idi khai thi deu tuy thuoc 
vao su* thuan thao luyen tap ma ra. 

Trong Ian thao luan cung Khun nu-Lama (Khon Na 
La Ma), ong da dien ta mot each song dong ve mot so su* 
viec ttog xay ra trong cuoc ddi ong, rat lau tu* thud toi 
con chiTa sinh ra. Nam nay toi nam mufdi chin tudi. Toi co 
khuynh hutfng hay quen tham chi luon ca nhffng kinh van 
dtftfng thcfi toi dang nghien ctfu. Khon Na La Ma noi: 
khong kien tii hoc tap la do khuyet diem khong co diTdc 
sir hy lac khi tinh tan dung cong ma ra. Va toi nghl dieu 
nay rat dung. Bcfi khong du thi gid, toi khong thutfng 
xuyen doc tron kinh van, chi liTdc doc mot Ian de co mot 
y niem khai quat ve noi dung cua no. Bcfi vi co chut 
thong minh nen toi khong thtfdng xuyen ma chi duyet 
doc cac kinh van mot each rat nhanh chong. Nhu" mot cau 
ngan ngu* da noi: "Ngtidi co tri thong minh Ion chang 



khdc nao mot cdnh dong dang hoc chdy - ngon Itia se 
thieu mi no mot each nhanh chong ". 

Neu ban doc quyen"Bo Be Dao TM Be Luan" ciia 
Tsong -Kha- pa chin Ian thi ban se thong hieu ly giai ve 
bo luan nay chin each khac nhau. Khi ban doc mot de 
muc nao tren tcf bao, thuftng khong thay ly do can thiet 
de doc lai Ian nffa vi ban khong cam thay htfng thu ma 
chi cam thay nham chan. Khi ban doc that ky cang nh(?ng 
bai kinh van tham ao difdc viet vdi mot phifdng thtfc bien 
luan chufng hai, ba, bo n Ian; co luc ban se kinh ngac tai 
sao minh sd sot trong diem nay hay trpng diem no, cho 
du tru"dc day da tu*ng doc qua nhieu Ian. Doi khi ban se 
co 16 i ly giai mdi hoac cam quan khac biet. VI the n6 life 
khong ngtog nghi su" luyen tap thuan thuc la phufdng 
phap chanh yeu de tranh bi quen lang. Nhtog ngurdi 
muon dat den Nhat Thiet TrfW can phai mot long chuyen 
chu, mang tarn thai khiem cung va nhat tarn mong cau 
cufu giup moi loai chung sanh huXi tinh, cung nhu*phai tap 
trung moi W tu*dng de chu y ngam nhin dao su* bang chinh 
mat minh va lang nghe dao sir bang chinh tai minh. 

Lay tarn thufc trung thu*c de nghe phap cung la dieu 
vo cung trpng ye u. Trtfdc tien nen xem minh la mot benh 
nhan, con dao su* la vi thay thuoc. Thi nhan loi lac An Do 
Shantideva (Tich Thien) noi rang khi chung ta khd ve 
mot so benh thong thtfdng, can phai nghe theo 16i cua 
thay thuo c. Huong ho, benh phien nao co den hang tram 

( 1 ) Nhat thiet tri: ndng luc tri hu? ma Phat co sdn. 



loai, dtfdc tao ra do vi tham due va san ban thi khong 
chut nghi van nao ve vice chiing ta can nghe theo nhtfng 
Idi khai thi cua mot vi dao stf ca. Phien nao thuftng rat hiT 
do i. Vi khi bi phien nao nhu* la stf phan no hien hien len, 
chung ta thtfdng mat di stf khong che, ttf chu. Va nhffng 
iru ttf vi tham dam thudng lam trd ngai giac ngu va an 
uo ng kem ngon mieng. Nhu" mot benh nhan khong muon 
phi pham ma lai con rat tran quy nhimg thuo c men do y 
si chu cap; giao phap cung vay, khi da du*dc truyen tho 
bdi vi dao stf, cung nen du*dc bao ton nhuf mot bau vat. 

Benh nhan vi muo n khoi benh nen can phai uo ng 
thuo c. Chi duy tri thuoc san trong Ip khong thoi chang 
giup ich gi ca. Tu*dng W nhu* vay, de ddi so ng tarn linh 
difdc giai thoat can benh phien nao man tinh, can phai 
dem giao phap tfng dung vao viec hanh tri va chi xuyen 
qua sir tu tri mdi co the giup ta giai thoat dutfc chiJng 
benh phien nao. Chi trong mot thcfi gian ngan, sufc nhan 
nhuc cua ban cang manh thi long san han cang giam va 
sir cung klnh 1 do dol vdi tha nhan cang tang trtfcfng. Khi 
sir kieu cang va long nga man giam xuo ng thi nhifrig anh 
hirdng cua phien nao cung dan dan vdi bdft. Ngai Tsong 
-Kha-pa noi : mot ngiTdi khong the tri dtft chtog benh 
phong cui man tinh vdi mot vai Ian uo ng thuo c ma phai 
uo ng thuo c khong ngufng nghi. Cung the" ay, long chung 
ta tuf vo thuy de n nay ciJ mai bi kem kep trong vo minh 
phien nao, dau the voi nghi tu hanh mot doi Ian la giai 
thoat dufdc? Lam sao chung ta co the ky vong rang chi 
dcfn gian xem qua mot tap sach y khoa la co the tri lanh 



dutfc mot chting benh? 

Phat giao lay Tang co bo n giao phai: Nyingma^ 
SakyaW GelukW va KagyuW. Tuyen xtfng giao phai na - J 
cao hdn giao phai kia la sai lam to lofn. Ho dtfdc truyen 
thufa tu* chung mot vi dao stf, Dtic Thich Ca Mau Ni; ho 
deu ket hdp toan bo he tho ng Hien Tong va Mat Tong. 
Doi vdi tat ca bon giao phai toi deu boi duf5ng dong nhat 
mot tin niem: do la long kinh ngiTdng tan than. Toi lam 
nhu" \h& khong nham de bay to mot each thtfc ngoai giao, 
ma do long tin kien dinh. Dieu nay cung dong thcfi phu 
hdp vdi vai tro cua toi la mot Bat Lai Lat Ma muo n co 
suf hieu biet day du nhtog giao phap cua ca bo n giao 
phai de co the dang kien ngon cho nhffng ai tim de n toi. 
Neil khong, toi gio ng nhtf mot ba me mat thay con minh 
chet chim ma khong co tay de ctfu vdft. Co Ian, mot vi 
hanh gia phai Nyingma den hoi mot vai phtfdng phap tu 
tri ma chinh toi khong hieu may. Toi da htfdng din ong 
ta den mot vi Dai suf co the giai dap diTdc thac mac cua 
ong, nhiTng toi cam thay buon chan vi khong the dap ting 
nhtf nguyen sU thanh khan cau giao cua ong. Ne u nguyen 
vpng ngifdi khac viTdt qua kha nang cua minh thi do la 
mot chuyen khac, nhtfng neu nguyen vong nay con nam 
trong pham tru nang lufc cua chinh minh thi dieu toi u* 

0) Nyingma: Ninh Ma 

(2) Sakya: Tat Gia 

(3) Geluk: Cdch Lo 

( 4 ) Kagyu: Cat Cti 



quan trong la phai thoa man diTdc mpi nhu cau tarn linh 
cua cang nhieu chung sanh hffu tinh cang tot. Chung ta 
can phai hoc tap mpi khia canh cua giao phap va can 
phat trien long tuy hy tan than doi vdi tat ca. 

Cung khong nen xem Phat giao lay tang cao hdn cac 
su* truyen thira cua nhffng nutfc Phat giao khac. Tai Thai 
Lan, Mie n Dien va Tich Lan v.v...cac vi xuat gia chan 
chinh da rat tham tin va da gitf gin phiTdng thufc tu hanh 
cua Tang Doan. Khong gio ng nhu* ngtfdi xuat gia Tay 
Tang, ho van bao ton phong tuc co hdn 2500 nam tru*dfc 
cua chinh Dufc Phat va tang doan cua Ngai la phiTdng 
tMc nang bat khat thu"c. Toi tufng d Thai Lan, tham gia 
tang doan va theo ho tu chung. Mot ngay oi a va choi 
chang bcfi anh nang mat trdi, vi theo truyen tho ng di chan 
khong nen chan toi da bi phong nang. Ngoai viec nay ra, 
trong thay suf tu hanh ciia cac bac tang gia tai Thai Lan 
da lam cho mpi ngufri rat cam kich, phafn chan. 

Nhieu ngufti gan day chi thay toan nh(?ng dieu tieu 
cu"c trong truyen tho ng cua nhtfng khoa tu hay nghi thufc 
ton giao. Ho chi thay nhffng to churc ton giao Idi dung 
nhtog khoa le de boc lot cua cai tin do. Tuy nhien nhffng 
sai trai ma ho thay khong phai la sai trai cua nhtog 
truyen tho ng ton giao, nhimg chinh la cua ngitdi ttf xtfng 
la tin do cua ton giao, chang han nhu* nhffng thanh vien 
cua cac tu vien hay cac chua chien da vien dan cac ly do 
tarn linh de tu* Idi bang nhffng chi tieu cua cac thanh vien 
khac. Neu tur than nhffng ngiTdi lanh dao tinh than bat 
can, se anh hirdng den mpi ngufti dang tu. Mpi co gang 



de sila chtfa nhffng sai lam thtfdng bi gan cho la mot hanh 
dong da kich loan bo truyen thong. Nhieu ngirdi da ket 
luan rang ton giao chi lam hai va chang giup ich dtfdc gi 
cho ho. Ho khutfc tuf bat cur hinh thtfc tin ngtfdng nao. Mot 
so ngirdi khac thi hoan toan thd d lanh dam vdi moi tu 
sufa tarn linh va tu" man vdfi loi so ng the tuc cua ho. Ho co 
nhffng thoai mai ve the chat va vat chat va do do ho 
khong tan thanh cung chang phan dol ton giao. Dau sao 
thi tat ca deu binh dang tren phiTdng dien trf nhien mudn 
surdng va tranh kho ? . 

Neu khirdc tu" su* dung cong tu sufa tarn linh, trong 
trirdng hdp nay la khutfc tuf Phat giao, chung ta cung 
khong con tin vao thuyet nghiep lu*c va cung se khong 
the thau hieu dufdc rang nhffng bat hanh cua minh chinh 
la ket qua cua nhffng hanh vi tao tac xau ac trong qua 
khur. Nhtog bat hanh nay co the dufcfc hien 16 ra ngoai 
nhu* la nhtog 16i lam cua xa hoi, cua cong dong hay cua 
ngtfdi quen gay ra. TO do chung ta bat dau oan trach 
ngirdi khac ve nhtfng loi lam ma ro rang la do chinh tif 
than minh gay ra. Sir oan trach nay se lam gia tang nhirng 
thai do co chap nhuf tu* xem minh la trung tarn diem, nhuf 
tham dam, nhu* san han... chang han. Lien ke t vdfi nhtog 
loai tarn thai gia ddi nhu* vay, chung ta se trd nen chap 
luyen vao moi tai vat cua minh va se bi go bo trong dinh 
kien ho nghi hoac tham chi ngay ca trong benh vpng 
tirdng. Dang Cong San Trung Qudc vi ly Wdng giai 
phong ma da huy bo ton giao. Ho gpi nhau bang dong 
chi, va da hy sinh rat nhieu trong tran chien cho cupc giai 



phong que hufdng cua ho. Sau khi nam quyen, ho tao ra 
nhtfng tranh dua chinh tri va hien gift thi thuftng xuyen 
chong doi lln nhau. Phe nay muon thang phe kia va cuo i 
cung la phe nay tieu diet phe kia. Tuy chu nghia Xa Hoi 
co muc tieu ly ttfcfng miru cau phtfdc Idi chung cho tap 
the nhirng each thtic de dat dtfdc muc tieu ay lai ttfdng 
phan vdi tap doan dan chung va tarn thai nhan dan cung 
da bie n thanh dol nghich. Dufdi mo thtic nay, chii nghia 
Cong San trd nen qua tan ac va tai hai vi tat ca moi tinh 
lufc nha nifdc deu chu hiTdng ve phan cam ngan dan ap 
hdn la thao gd giai phong. 

TiTdng phan vdi Cong San, biet bao vi dai hanh gia 
da di tren con dudng Phat phap, lay tarn tu* bi lam can 
ban de dinh hifdng cho cuoc ddi cua ho. Vdi nhiJng dong 
cd nhuf vay, chu tarn can ban cua ban la phuc vu cho sir 
Idi ich cua moi htfu tinh chung sanh ma ban dang co cong 
vun boi tarn niem chanh htfdng cho ho. Cho du su" ton 
that gay ra bcfi dang Cong San Trung Qudc tai lay Tang 
va Trung Hoa da diTdc phoi hdp bang mot ke hoach tiTdng 
do i Idn lao nhufng toi van hoai nghi la ho co the kien thiet 
nen mot xa hoi tien bo hdn; ly do la vi ho thieu mat dong 
lUc cua Dai Bi Tdm. 

Khi chung ta quan sat cuoc ddi cua chinh Karl Marx 
va nguon go c dich that cua chu nghia Marxism, chung ta 
se kham pha rang ong da trai qua biet bao khd dau vi dai 
trong dcfi minh va da de xiTdfng chie n dau lien tuc nham 
lat do giai cap trung san. Vien kie n cua ong du*a tren can 
ban dol nghich. B3i vi dong lu*c chanh yeu nhu* vay, nen 



toan the cd cau boat dong cua cmi nghla Cong San deu 
bi that bai. Neu dong cd ban dau dtfdc dat de tren nen 
tang cua long tu* bi va vi tha, cd le moi stf moi vice deu 
rat khac biet. 

Tai nhirng quoc gia phat trien mcf mang, co biet bao 
ngtfdi thd d vdi moi hmh thtfc tu su"a tarn linh, du rat giau 
co ve vat chat nhifng ho cung khong hoan toan hai long 
thoa man. Tuy giau nhirng khong biet du. Ho quan quai 
tho ng khd vi "muon them"; vi vay du vat chat co sung 
man nhirng noi tarn van ngheo nan. Khi kham pha ra 
rang khong the nao so* hUu diTdc moi vpng cau thi phien 
nao thUc sir phat khcfi. Ho trd nen chan nan bi quan va su* 
bon chon lo au se keo ap den. Toi tufng han huyen vdi 
mot so than hiru rat giau, do ho lay vat chat lam nhan 
sinh quan, miet mai bdi cong viec va khong con ranh tay 
de tu hanh ngo hau co the giup ho dat diTdc mot vai vien 
kie n nao do. Trong tien trinh ay, ho da that su* danh mat 
di giac md an vui hanh phuc ma dang le ra dong tien phai 
mang lai cho ho. 

Trong each tu hanh theo Phat giao, chung ta can than 
trong tham dinh dau khd thay vi tim each tranh ne no - 
sanh kho , lao khd, cai khd bien dong than phan trong 
cuoc ddi, cai khd phirdng phat bat dinh, va tuf khd. Co 
gang can than de tham tra, ttf duy chung ngo hau chung 
ta co dtfdc suf chuan bi khi phai that su* dol dien vdi 
chung. Khi do i dau vdi cai chet, chung ta biet rang dai 
han da den. Dieu do khong noi len la chung ta khong ttf 
bao ve than the minh. Khi lam benh chung ta vln udng 



thuoc de tranh thoat tu* than. Nhirng neu cai chet la dieu 
khong the tranh khoi thi ngtfdi tin do Phat giao se dtfdc 
chuan bi trufdc. Hay tarn thdi gat qua mot ben cau hoi ve 
sir so ng sau cai chet, su* giai thoat hay trang thai Nhat 
Thiet Tri. Cho du ngay trong ddi nay, chi can ttf duy den 
nghia ly Phat Phap va dat su* tin tufdng ndi Phat Phap thi 
cung co nhieu Idi ich thifc tien roi. Tai Tay Tang, dlu 
rang Trung Cong da pha hoai tan cung va day vo mot 
each co he tho ng, nhiTng ngiTdi Tay Tang van khong danh 
mai t dtfc tin va long quyet tarn. Toi cho rang do la do 
truyen tho ng Phat giao ma co. 

SU bufc hai Phat Giao du*di ach thong tri ciia Trung 
Cong tuy khong keo dai lau bang du*di thdi ky ciia vua 
Lang-dar-ma vao the ky thuf 9, nhiTng muTc do tan pha lai 
vi dai hdn nhieu. Khi vua Lang-dar-ma huy hoai Phat 
Phap, chinh Ngai Atisha la ngirdi da den lay Tang va 
dung lai toan bp phiTdng phap tu hoc Phat Giao. Hien tai, 
trach nhiem thuoc ve chung ta du chung ta co du hay 
khong dii kha nang trung hiTng lai nhtfng su* hiiy hoai mot 
each co he tho ng cua Trung Cong. Phat giao dufdc xem 
nhtf mot kho tang bao vat chung cho ca the gidi. Truyen 
thu va lanh hoi giao phap la mot dong gop vao sir phong 
phu cua nhan loai. 

Co the con nhieu van de ma ban chiTa mang ra tu 
hanh ngay tufc khac diTdc, nhiTng hay gii? trong tarn ban, 
ngo hau co the suf dung den cho nam sau hoac nam nam 
sau hoac mufti nam sau do mien la nhUng giao phap ay 
chiTa bi chim vao quen lang. Dlu rang ngtfdi Tay Tang 



chung toi da va dang so ng mot cuoc song liru vong bi 
thiet, phai chiu canh mat ca ruong vuftn nha cufa, xtf sd, 
que htfdng nhirng chung toi vSn co day du cd hoi de hanh 
tri Phat phap mot each khong chtfdng ngai. Du cu* ngu 
tren bat cur quoc gia nao, chung toi cung lanh hoi diTcfc 
Phat Phap qua cac vi giao tho lina vong va chung toi con 
biet tao dieu kien nhan duyen cho vice tu thien him ich 
ntfa. Nhan dan lay Tang da lam nhuf vay it ra tuf the ky 
thuf 8 den nay. Nhifrig ngifdi con d lai Tay Tang sau cuoc 
xam lang cua Trung Hoa nam 1959 da phai trai qua 
nhieu sir kho dau nghiem trong ciia than xac va tarn than. 
Tu* vien bi bo hoang, su* tnrdng bi bat b<5 va moi viec tu 
hanh trd thanh ly do de phat giam hoac de xuf tu*. 

Can phai tan dung moi cd hoi de thu"c hanh chan ly, 
de tu* trau doi thay vi trong ddi de n khi ma chung ta nghi 
rang it ban ron hdn. Gio ng nhu* ngai Gung- thang Rin- 
poche da noi, moi sinh hoat tren the gian nay deu gio ng 
nhu* song nu*dc trong ao ho: Idp nay tan bie n thi Idp khac 
troi len, chang bao gid cung tan. Moi bien dpng cua 
nhimg sir vat tren the gian nay se tiep dien mai cho den 
gid phut lam chung; chung ta hay nen co gang danh mot 
it thdi gian trong sinh hoat thufdng ngay de tu tap theo 
giao phap Phat. Ngay trong thdi diem horn nay, khi da 
mang dtfdc than ngufti hiem quy, da gap du*dc Phat Phap, 
lai con co diTdc niem tin vao Phat Phap nffa - neu nhu" 
khong biet dung cong tu hanh thi qua tinh chung ta kho 
long ganh vac dufdc viec tu tap trong nhimg kiep s6ng vi 
lai khi ma chung ta khong con nhimg dieu kien nhan 



duyen nhu* vay ntfa. 

Hien tai, chung ta da gap dutfc mot phap mon tham 
sau mau nhiem - trong do, bao gom nhtog phiTdng phap 
co the dat den canh gidi khai ngo giai thoat, rat de hanh 
tii va chting dac. NhiTng neu chung ta khong chiu n lUc 
de tao ra mot so anh hirdng trong ddi song bang Phat 
phap thi dang buon tiec biet bao! a 



Qua khtf co vo so Btfc Phat xuat the , chung ta da 
khong co dii phutfc bau de gap g3. Btic Phat Thich 
Ca Mau Ni da den vdi coi ddi ac trtfcfc nay de hoa dp 
chung sanh trong thdi Mat Phap. Ngai da thi hien xudng 
the gian nay each day tren 2500 nam trtfdc va tuf do den 
nay da khai hien chanh dao nham giai thoat sU dau khd 
luan hoi cho vo so chung sanh. 

Tuy nhien, chung ta khong co phudc bau de du*dc Bite 
Phat trite tiep dan day; do vay, tarn niem van con pham 
phu chu*a dutfc thuan thuc. Tai An Bo va Tay Tang da 
ttog co biet bao vi dao stf da dat den dtfdc canh gidi giac 
ngo vien man. Nhieu vi khac cung da dat den trinh do 
lieu ngo cao tham trong khi mot vai vi khac chi mdi cat 
birdc htfdng theo con dufdng giac ngo. 

Giao phap da hien dien each day tuf nhieu the ky; 
nhUng dieu quan trong trong su* hien dien cua giao phap 
khong phai d ch la su* lu\i truyen co diTdc mien vien hay 
khong, ma d cho la Phat phap co ton tai trong long chung 
ta hay khong, co song dong trong hanh vi cua chung ta 
hay khong? Neu chung ta hai long chi vi giao phap hay 
con hien htfu tren the gian thi se co nguy cd bi huy hoai 
vi khong con ai co the thuyet giang bang kinh nghiem 
thUc tu cua chinh minh nffa. Ngai Bat Lai Lat Ma dcfi tntf 



13 sau khi vien tich nam 1933, ngtfdi lay Tang da ru* each 
ly. Mac cho su* canh tan rong Idn cua nhieu quoc gia khac 
tren the gidi, ngtfdi lay Tang lai ty co lap lay minh va do 
la nguyen nhan md dtfdng cho Trung Quo c xam Itfcfc. 
Phat giao Tay Tang hien nay co nhtfdc diem bi suy thoai 
tu" sau cupc lifu ly that tan cua toan dan; do vay, dieu 
quan yeu la phai that su" don no lu*c vao viec tu hoc Phat 
phap. Ngay trong nhifrig thdi diem nguy kich nay, chinh 
vi dao stf la ngirdi da bao ho va cu\i do chung ta.Vi 
ThiTdng Sul 1 ) chinh la ngufti da gidi thieu mot giao phap 
tham tham vi dieu da tufng du*dc khai md bcfi Dtfc Phat 
trong mot phufcfng each xufng hdp vdi can ccf hieu biet cua 
chung ta. Mac dau tat ca Chu* Phat deu tich cufc no lufc vi 
Idi ich cua cac loai him tinh chung sanh nhiTng chung ta 
co the thifdng thtfc cam nhan difcfc nhffng ich Idi ay hay 
khong cung con tuy thuoc vao mol quan he cua chung ta 
vdi vi dao su*. Vi dao su* la cuTa ngo duy nhat din du*a den 
sU chufng ngo bdi vi ngai la vi thay song ma chung ta co 
the trufc tiep lien lac dtfdc. Neu chung ta khong tuan chi 
theo sU khuyen day tu hanh va theo each thtfc htfdng dao 
ddi minh thi gap gO du*dc mot vi dao su" khong chiTa du. 
Ne u co phiTdc bau nhan lanh diTdc nhtog huan thi tren 
day, dieu nay ndi len y nghia rang chung ta da tranh dutfc 
da so chiTc ng ngai then ch6t trong viec tu tap Phat phap; 
do do dieu quan trong la hay tuf lam cho cuoc ddi con lai 
cua chung ta diTcfm nhieu y nghia bang each dan than 

0) Thitang Suhay Co Nhu dich tix chit Guru 

THU0NG SU 289 

hanh tri chanh phap. Neu nhap cuoc ngay bay gid, chung 
ta se dufcfng nhien co the thang tien tren con dtfdng giac 

Tu hanh bat luan la dtfdng loi nao deu can dat nen 
tang tren nhffng huan thi bao quat, ham sue va xac thtfc. 
Can phai suy xet can than loai phufcfng thtfc tu hanh nao 
chung ta mud n thufc tu va nhUng giao phap nao chung ta 
muo n dat nen tang de dung cong thu*c tap. Dai hoc gia 
lay Tang Sakya PanditaO) (1 182-1251) ttog noi: doi vdi 
nhtog viec the tuc nhtf khi di mua mot con ngiTa, ngiTdi 
ta rat thiet tha quan tarn. Do vay, dieu quan trpng la 
chung ta cang phai trd nen ken chon hdn, khi tuyen lira 
phu*c(ng each tu tap giao phap va chon lu*a su* tru dng; bdi 
vi ctfu canh cua ban la thanh tuTu Phat Qua chu: khong vi 
phUdng tien van chuyen. Mot vi Thay co chan xac hay 
khong chu*a han tuy thupc vao kha nang dan thuat tu" Phat 
Kinh. Ban can nen phan tich ngon hanh va cu* chi cua vi 
ay. Xuyen qua su* phan tach ti mi khong ngufng, ban se co 
the phat sinh long kinh ngiTOng sau xa dol vdi vi ay. 

Vi dao sir lay Tang Po-To-Wa(2) (1031- 1106) da noi: 
khdi diem cua con dtfdng giac ngo vien man la hoc tap 
kien ngon cua Dao stf; con kinh nghiem lieu ngo nho 
nhat hay su* doan tru* dutfc phien nao nho nhat nao cung 
deu la thanh qua giao huan ciia vi dao su* tinh than. Neu 
khong co mot luat sir gioi co van chi din thi chung ta 
khong sao xft ly diTdc cong viec; neu phai tien bu*dc tren 

( 1 ) Sakya Pandita dich la Tat Ca Bang Tri Dat 

( 2 ) Po-Ta-Wa dich la Bdc Ta Va 



con dtfdng chiTa quen thuoc nham thanh tiru Phat qua thi 
tinh each trpng yeu cua mot dao sir tinh than la dieu 
khong co gi de con phai dat thanh nghi van. 

Co mot so tinh huong da xay ra, do la mot so ngtfdi 
vo n san thong minh tai tri co ve nhtf rat kheo leo va tinh 
anh; nhifng khi muon chuyen tarn quay htfcmg theo Phat 
phap thi tarn thtfc lai trd nen te cong. Dieu nay bieu hien 
rang ho chu*a tich tap du tiem nang cua mien can. Con 
mot so truftng hdp khac la, co ngifcfi tuy rat tinh khon va 
sd dac diTdc mot kie n van quang bac ve Phat phap, 
nhiTng kie n van nay lai khong gay dtfcfc anh htfcfng nao 
cho tarn thufc ho ca. Ho chang dem sir hieu biet de dung 
cong tu hanh. Dutii tinh huong nay, dao sir tinh than rat 
can yeu. Suf lieu ngo cao tham dac biet chi dat duttc 
xuyen qua su* chi giao tuan tiT cua mot vi dao su* co kinh 
nghiem thuTc chufng. Vi sir trtfcfng trd nen mot gifdng sang 
de noi theo va la mach nguon hufng thu de hanh tri chanh 
phap. Du duyet doc nh(?ng kinh van noi ve each tu luyen 
Dai Bi Tarn, cung co the khie n ta phat khdi long xac tin 
kien dinh; nhufng gap g5 diTdc mot vi hien tien da tufng 
that tu va con co the trao truyen lai each thtfc luyen Dai 
Bi Tarn bang chinh kinh nghiem cua vi ay nffa thi su* 
khich le cang manh me hiru lu*c hdn. 

Dai su* Tsong-Kha-Pa noi rang: truf phi noi tarn su* 
tnrdng da duTdc dieu phuc, neu khong thi kho hy vong 
rang ngai se dieu phuc dtfdc tha nhan. Cuf chi va ngon 
hanh cua sir trtfdng can diTdc tiet che, noi tarn can phai 
dtfdc phong ve tranh xao lang loan dong do nhd vao dong 



Itfc chuyen chu. Ho nen dung hue Itfd 1 ) de trang bi, va 
thau triet xuyen suot moi hien ttfdng be ngoai. Noi tarn 
cua mot ngiTdi se dtfdc cho rang la da thuan thuc neu 
ngirdi nay dat dtfdc su" ren luyen nghiem mat hdn tren 
phtfdng dien gidi luat. Trong "Biet gidi thodt gidi kinh"( 2 ) 
bo kinh noi ve nhUng the nguyen xuat gia tu hanh, noi 
tarn dtfcfc vi nhu* con ngu*a hoang va su* tuan hanh cac gidi 
luat dUdc vi nhu" chie c day ciTdng de dieu phuc con ngu*a 
hoang ay. Vi the, khi long chtfa du*dc thuan nhuyen va bat 
dau each ly htfdng de n dao qua giac ngo cung nhiT say 
dam theo nhtfng hanh vi tieu cu"c, thi ngifa hoang can phai 
diTdc day cUdng gidi luat che ngu*, de ngan ngufa cho than 
tarn khong bi vi pham nhtog hanh vi xau xa tieu cifc kia. 
Mot vi su 1 trirdng xufng dang con can phai dutfc kheo 
leo ren luyen dinh Itfc tu tap 6 mot tang bac cao hdn, cu 
the hda bang each van dung phufdng phap quan chieu va 
tuf kiem khong ngufng. Gan day, nhUng ngifdi con 6 lai 
lay Tang, da dat diTdc kinh nghiem to Idn trong phap tu 
chanh niem( 3 ); va chanh tri phan tinh( 4 ) vi bat cuf hanh vi 
nho nhiem nao de dien dat su" khang nghi cung deu gay 
phan no cho che do Trung cong. Ho phai luon can than va 
giff tarn chanh niem de lufu y thuf xem phai chang mmh da 
viTdt qua qui dinh nao. Vi sir tnrdng con can phai duTdc 
ven toan an dinh bcfi sir toi luyen cao dang cua tue giac 

( 1 ) Hue luc: ndng luc cua tri hue dich tic "Faculty of wisdom" 

( 2 ) Biet gidi thodt gidi kinh: Pratimoksha sutra 

( 3 ) Phap tu chanh niem: (application of) mindfulness 

( 4 ) Chanh tri phan tlnh: (application of) introspection 



de thau triet dtfdc the tanh cua mpi hien ttfdng hu* ao. 

Ngai Tsong-Kha-Pa noi: chi dieu phuc noi tarn cua 
minh khong chiTa du ma phai cung luc co tri thtfc doi vdi 
giao phap nffa. Ngai Lat Ma Drom-ton-paO) tufng noi: khi 
mot vi ton stf dien giang ve mot tieu de dac biet nao do, 
ngai can co kha nang lien ket tieu de ay vdi toan bo he 
thong kinh dien cua con dtfdng tien den Phat qua. Stf 
triTcfng can chuyen dat dufdc su* thau triet cua minh ve 
toan bo tieu de do thanh mot phtftfng thuTc Idi lac va dl 
dang ap dung. Nhu" kinh sach da day: chu* Phat khong the 
rtfa sach nghiep chufdng cua muon loai, cung khong the 
tay truf dutfc khd dau cho muon loai, cang khong the 
chuyen nhtfdng su* lieu ngo cua cac ngai sang chung ta 
dtfdc. Chi can khai md mot chanh dao cho chung ta tuan 
phung thufc hanh; do la chu" Phat da giup cho moi loai 
chung sanh dat dutfc giai thoat roi. 

Muc dich chu yeu trong viec giang day muon loai la 
giup ho thau hieu difdc dao mau. VI the, trong yeu la 
phai co mot phtfdng thufc thuyet phap thu hut, lam du moi 
dieu can thiet de diln dat dung dufdc tieu dich. Tarn cd 
truyen giao phai thuan chanh. Khong nen vi dong cd 
mong cau danh tieng hoac Idi dufdng. Neu tien bac la 
dong cd thuc day thi viec truyen giao chi trd nen mot 
sinh hoat cua the tuc thoi. Nam 1951, tnTdfc khi Trung 
cong xam nhap, mot so ngtfdi tai Lhasa lay viec tung 
kinh hoac xirdng ca de kie^m tien. Dieu nay vln con xay 
ra tai lay Tang. Khach du lich tu tap chung quanh va 

^) Drom-ton-pa: Chung Don Ba 


THU0NG SLf 293 

chup hmh liru niem. Toi cam thay kha dau long khi Phat 
phap dtfcJc dung nhu* mot cong cu de xin an chtf khong 
phai de thang hoa ddi so ng tarn linh. 

Ngai Po-To-Wa da noi: mac du truyen giang rat nhieu 
giao phap nhtfng tham tarn ngai chtfa he chap nhan bat 
luan su* ngdi khen nho nhat nao, bdi vi ngai da truyen 
giao bang tarn long bi man dol vdi moi loai chung sanh. 
Ngai ton quy suf truyen day nhtf la trach nhiem ciia chinh 
mmh vi muc dich ban so* van la su* giup d5 tha nhan. 
Khong co ly do nao de khien ke khac cam thay mang no* 
minh hay de tiep nhan su* tri an cua ke khac; bdi vi that 
ra, nhtfng gi ta dang lam chi la dang hoan man 15i nguyen 
the cua chinh minh ma thoi. Gio ng nhiT khi ban an thi 
cung khong co ly do de cam ta chinh minh vi an uong chi 
la mot viec ma ban can phai lam. 

Ngai Tsong-Kha-Pa noi: vi dao su* tinh than la dao 
dien cua ban tren chanh dao hufdng den giac ngo, y het 
nhu* mot nen tang hay mot gdc re de dtfdc chtog ngo. Vi 
the nhtfng ai dang tim kiem mot vi dao su* tinh than can 
biet ro nhtog tu* each can thiet de co the phan doan xem 
vi dao su* ay da hoi du tieu chuan chiTa. Tren the gian 
nay, neu khong co mot vi lanh dao xtfng dang thi khong 
the cai thien xa hoi diTdc. Tru* phi dao sir tinh than co tiT 
each thich dang, dau rang vdi tin tarn kien dinh nhiTng 
neu bi hu*dng dan sai duftng thi deo dudi theo vi dao su" 
nay van bi nguy hai. Do vay, triTdc khi that su" chpn h/a 
mot vi dao su* cho minh, dieu thiet yeu la phai xem xet, 
do hoi nhieu ngufti khac ve vi dao su* nay va cung nen tu* 



kiem chting lai ntia. Khi da tim dtfdc mot vi nao thich hdp 
roi thi luc ay mdi bat dau quan tarn lien he vdi vi ay. Doi 
lai, mot vi dao su* tinh than muo n tiep nhan mot ngtfdi 
nao do thanh de tu" cua minh; quan trong nhat phai tu* 
chau toan day du pham hanh de xting dang la mot vi may 
lanh dao. 

Mot vi Lat Ma chi vi co mot so tuy tung hoac ngtfdi 
hau can van khong du ye u to de trcf thanh vi dao su* tinh 
than. Co stf khac biet gitia mot dao su* va mot Tulku hoac 
mot vi ton stf dac biet nao do da hoa chuyen de hien than 
trcf lai trong nhieu kie p. Co mot so vi vtia la Tulku vtia la 
Lat Ma, co mot so vi chi la Tulku chti khong phai la Lat 
Ma, va mot so vi la Lat Ma nhirng khong phai la Tulku. 
Trong dong toe doan the Tay Tang, Tulku co dia vi cao va 
rat dutfc sung kinh. Neu ho khong co pham hanh dao su* 
thi cung chi la mot danh vi cua xa hoi thoi. Trong xa hoi 
Tay Tang va ngay ca 6* Tay phtfdng, no*i co rat nhieu cac 
vi Lat Ma dang truyen giao; ngUdi ta thtfdng quy kinh 
ngay ttic khac nhffng vi nao du*dc ton xiTng la Tulku. 

Mot so vi khac, tuy cung thiTc tu nghiem mat nhirng 
khong dtfdc sung kinh nhieu nhu" vay chi vi ho chiTa diTdc 
an chting la Tulku. Mot triet gia vi dai nhat d An Do, 
Ngai Long Tho( 1 ), dufcfc nhieu hanh gia hau boi ton la dao 
su* tuy rang ten tuo i ngai ddn gian; hdn ntia chang co su* 
ghi chep nao rang la ngai da tting co tuy tung hoac bi thif. 
Lat Ma lay Tang chung ta thtfdng co danh xiTng rat dai, 
tham chi co nhting danh xifng con kho phat am ntia. Tren 

( 1 ) Long Tho: Nagarjuna 


THU0NG SU 295 

thurc te, khong can thiet danh xirng nao khac hdn la Ty 
kheo (Tang Itf) - danh xifng da dutfc chinh Drfc Phat 
phong cap. Day la mot vai sai lam ciia xa hoi lay Tang. 
Ngufti Tay Tang chung toi khong dat su* chu y den chiec 
ca sa mau vang do Dtfc Phat dich than cap phat nhirng lai 
quan tarn nhieu den nhirng y phuc dung de bieu 16 cap 
bac cua mot ngifdi cao troi. Cac dao su" An Do can dai 
da dpi mu do, va nhffng de tu* cua cac vi ay d Tay Tang 
lap ttfc dac biet chu y den chiec mu do nay thay vi chu y 
den nhihig gi that chan chanh trong ye u. 

Khong nen qua nhan manh den tarn mufc quan trong 
phai tim cho ra vi su* tru*dng dang tin cay, va toi thiet nghl 
tinh hinh chinh tri dat nUdc Tay Tang da to ra dien ro khi 
chang biet hoai nghi ve ngtfdi lanh dao. Nguy trang diTdi 
hinh thurc ngu*di bao trd va ngu"di co chanh nghia, Trung 
quo c da thiet lap mo i quan he chat che vdi Tay Tang. 
Chung ta khong ngd Trung Hoa lam the vdi y do mieu ta 
lay Tang nhu" mot tinh trong chinh quoc gia ho de roi sau 
rot dung luan ctf nay bien minh cho su" xam lang. Neu 
khong co tinh than trach nhiem trong viec chinh don noi 
tinh ciia chung ta tren ca hai phtfdng dien ton giao va xa 
hoi; at han chung ta khong tranh khoi su" hoi tiec ve sau. 
Vi dai tang si Geshe Sang-pu-wa( 1 ) (vao the ky tM 
12) da co rat nhieu su" phu tinh than. Co Ian, khi dang du 
hoa tu* Tang Dong, ngai da gap mot ctf si tai gia dang 
giang kinh. Geshe Sang-pu-wa lien den nghe phap. 
NhQfng tuy tung cua ngai da hoi tai sao ngai lai can di 

(^Geshe Sang-pu-wa: Cdch Tay Tang Bo Va 



nghe mot ctf si tai gia giang phap. Geshe Sang-pu wa tra 
Idi rang: toi da tirng nghe qua hai quan diem rat him ich. 
Bcfi vi co the vu*a phat khcfi long ham mo kinh phuc vufa 
co ca su* tin tarn doi vdi nhieu ngtfdi, nen khong co gi trcf 
ngai khi ngai co nhieu may cung mot hie. Nhtfng ngtfdi 
nhtf chung ta vdi noi tarn chtfa dtfcfc thuan thuc nen 
thu*5ng de dang trong thay nhtog khuyet diem cua vi dao 
su* va tin tarn lai con co khuynh hufdng bi lung lac mot 
each de dang - t6t hdn la nen co it su" phu nhufng lai lien 
he to t dep vdi cac su* phu cua minh khi ma minh van con 
co khuynh hifdng trong thay khuyet diem va danh mat 
niem tin chi vi su* thay biet nhffng loi lam phien dien 
hoac tirdng tufcfng ndi cac vi nay. Ban co the tu* do tha ho 
co cang nhieu dao su* cang to t neu ban khong vap phai 
nhffng trcf ngai nay. 

Khi ban xem vi dao su* tinh than la hien than cua tat 
ca Chu* Phat ma quy y thi loai tinh tin do diTdc xay dap 
du"a tren nen tang la mot su" kinh ngiT5ng. Khi ban vun 
trong tin tarn du*a tren nhan thuTc rang vi Thifdng Suf dUdc 
vi nhtf la can ban va coi re cua moi tang trtfdng thi loai 
tinh tin do dUcfc xay dap du*a tren nen tang la mot sir xac 
tin kien dinh. Khi phat trien niem tin doi vdi vi dao su* 
bang each man thu theo Idi chi giao cua ngai, dieu do 
dufdc goi la tinh tin gia tri. Thong thu*dng ma noi, tinh tin 
ditoc neu ra nhu* la coi rS hay ccf sd ciia moi dao dufc 
thien niem. Khi co the thay rang dao su* cua minh cung 
binh dang nhu" chinh ban than dtfc Phat, thi ban co the ttf 
cham dtit nhin ngd nhUng sai trai va se chi tri nhan moi 


THU0NG SLf 297 

iru diem tot dep ciia ngai. Nhirng tinh tin phai dtfa tren 
thuf thach va trac nghiem. Vi vay, ban can phai co gang 
khong ngufng va hay suy doan can than de tranh bdt nhin 
ngd cac khuyet diem va hay n6 life tim kiem nhirng iru 
diem to Idn cua stf trufdng; bdi vi tat ca nhtog soi moi tim 
kiem cac khuyet diem nhu* vay tren thtfc te rat co the 
chinh la do suf dung tarn tru du* cua ban. Kinh die n day 
rang dao su* tinh than cua ban tren thifc te" co the khong 
phai la mot vi Phat hien thufc nhimg ne u xem ngai het 
nhtf Phat so ng thi ban se dat dufdc nguon cd cam nhiT the 
tu* mot vi Phat chan chinh. Hay noi ngiTdc lai, du dao sir 
tinh than cua ban trong hien thifc co the la mot vi Phat 
toan bich di nffa, nhifng neu khong the lay kinh tarn do i 
vdi Phat ma doi dai thi ban chi gat hai ditdc mot suf cd 
cam gia tri cua mot con ngtfcfi thong thu*6ng ma thoi. 

Trong thdi dai mat phap nay nhirng vi ThiTdng stf 
(Guru) thirdng dai bieu cho tat ca ChiT Phat, Chtf Bo Tat 
de tan lUc vi muc dich giai thoat moi loai hiru tinh chung 
sanh ra khoi vong luan hoi dau khd. Trong nhieu mat 
phap da ttog dtfdc tien tri tu" tru*dc rang, Dufc Phat se lay 
hinh tufdng cua Thifdng su* (Guru) de thi hien vao thdi 
buo i Mat phap. Dai Bi Tdm cua cac ngai bat buoc phai 
bieu 16 ra ngoai mot each manh me hdn vao thdi Mat 
phap; dieu nay co the gay hoang mang xao tron cho 
nhirng ai ky vong mot hinh thtfc co" dinh do i vdi Dai Bi 
Tdm. Neu khong de dang tiep nhan long bi mSn va su* 
minh huan cua Chu" Phat thi khong cd su* tnrdng nao cd 
the giup do* gi nhieu cho chiing ta du*dc. NhiTng, tin 



ngtfOng va long xac tin kien dinh se thong htfdng chung 
ta den phap lufc cua Chu* Phat. Bi tarn lofn manh cua ChiT 
Phat hirdfng ve tat ca chung sanh, khong co biet le nao ca. 
Dieu nay bao gom ca ban va toi. 

Co mot bai giao thi noi rang: "Khi ta dang phieu du 
trong ludn hoi sanh til, Ngai (Dtic Phat) da tlm den ta va 
soi sang moi tarn toi vd minh cua ta. Ngai da hudng dan ta 
bang mot con dtfdng quang minh chink dqi va gidi phong 
ta vUOt thodt moi troi buoc phien nao". DiTa vao qua trinh 
cua sir Chi Diet, chung ta co the phat hien rang Phat dang 
vi ta ma no life. Hay tu* van: ai trong so nhu"ng ngtfdi can 
ke da chi dao cho ban thoat xa khoi vong luan hoi dau khd 
vi vo minh, tham dam va san han? La mot trong song than 
ban chang? Bang htfu ban chang? Vd hay chong ban 
chang? Bang him ban khong the, than quyen ban khong 
the, song than ban cung khong the not. Vay thi, neu co 
mot vi Phat n6 lite vi ban, at han vi ay la ngiTdi da dan dao 
de ban chufng dac diTdc qua vi giac ngo. Su*trurdng cua ban 
day. Do la nguyen nhan ta nen xem su" tru dng het nhu* mot 
vi Phat chau toan vien man. Qua khur ttog co nhieu dan 
chufng, do chtfofng ngai noi tarn, ngufti tu da trong thay 
mot vi Phat chan that mang hinh Wdng tarn thu*6ng. Ngai 
AsangaO) (the ky thuf 4 C.E.) da ttog trong thay ngai Di 
Lac Bo Tat( 2 ), dufc Phat ddi vi lai thi hien thanh mot con 
cho coc ghe day minh; va ngai Sang-pu-wa( 3 ) thi trong 

0) Asanga: Ngai Vd TrUdc 

(2) Maitreya: Ngai Di Lac Bo Tat 

( 3 ) Sang Pu Wa : Ngai Tang Bo Ba 

PHAN II - VlfeT NG0 

THI/0NG SLf 299 

thay vi Phat Mlu hien thanh mot ba lao cui hui. Neu 
chung ta co the hoi ngo diTdc nhirng vi dai sir ciia qua khtf, 
cac vi nay da tufng chtfng ngo trong cung mot hien kiep; 
thoat nhin ho chi nhu* mot doan hanh khat binh di d An 
Do, dao quanh khap vung ao quan loa the va tren tran co 
xam ve nhieu hang chuf. 

Khi toi de cap den su* quan trpng cua long kinh ngu*5ng 
dol vdi sir trirdng va sir nhan tri rang su* trufdng nhiT mot 
vi Phat; xin chd hieu lam toi dang am chi ca nhan toi la 
Phat. Day khong phai la tru*5ng hdp do, vi toi biet toi 
khong phai la Phat. Bat ciJ la toi dtfcJc ton sung, tuyen 
dtfdng hay bi ket an; toi se luon la mot tang Itf Phat giao 
binh pham nhu* hien gi5 toi dang la mot tang si, va toi 
cam thay rat thoai mai va an lac. Ngufri ta goi toi la Dai 
Bi Bo tat, Bo tat Quan The Am; nhu*ng dieu nay khong 
lam toi trd thanh Quan The Am( 1 ) Bo Tat du*dc. NgiTdi 
Trung Cong goi toi la con cho soi mac ao ca sa, nhirng 
dieu nay cung khong khien toi thua mot con ngiTdi va hdn 
mot con cho soi. Toi vln nguyen ven la mot tang si tarn 

Neu tuan theo nhirng huan thi ciia sir trtfcfng khien 
ban hanh dong trai luan ly hoac gia khi giao phap cua ho 
mau thuan vdfi giao ly Phat thi ban nen lam the nao? Ban 
nen kien tri vdi nhtog gi thuoc phan dao du^c va xa lia 
nhtfng gi khong nhat tri vdi chan ly Phat phap. Tai An Do, 
ttog co mot vi lao sir co nhieu de tuf, muo n hoc tro ong 
di trom cap. Lao su* nay thuoc Ba La Mon giao va rat 

( 1 ) Avalokiteshvara: Quan The Am Bo Tat 



ngheo. 6ng bao vdi cac de tuf khi ngtfdi Ba La Mon trcf 
nen ngheo kho thi co quyen trom cap. 6ng ndi, do duttc 
sung ai cua dang sang tao the gidi, Dai Pham Thien 
Than,< 1 ) lam than mot ngtfdi Ba La Mon trom ctfdp khong 
bi cho la vo dao dufc. Khi nhom mon do sap su"a keo 
nhau len dirdng hanh nghe moc tui. Vi Ba La Mon bong 
chu y den mot de tu* dang du*ng lang yen, chiec dau cui 
thap xuo ng. Vi Ba La Mon hoi: tai sao con chu*a ra tay 
hanh dong? 

Ngu*di de tuf dap rang : "Hien tai thdy dang day 
chung toi lam dieu phan lai Phat phdp nen Met nghi toi 
khong nen lam. " Dieu nay da khien cho vi Ba La Mon 
rat hai long, ong bao: "Ta dang trdc nghiem sd hoc cac 
ngUo i. Tuy cac nguo i deu Id de tit trung thdnh cua ta 
nhung sU sai biet gifia cac ngUo i chinh la khd ndng phan 
dodn. Thang be nay doi vdi ta rat trung thdnh, nhtfng khi 
ta day dieu sai, no da co khd ndng tri nhqn dtfojc Idi chl 
bao ay trdi ngtfctc vdi Phat phdp vd no da khong thi hanh. 
Dieu nay rat hojp each. Ta la thdy cua cac ngUo i, nhung 
cac ngUo i phdi can nhdc Idi khuyen day cua ta, khi no 
trdi nguac vdi gido phdp Phat Da, cac ngUo i chd tudn 
theo. " o 

The God Brahma: Dai Pham Thien Than 




T Tav thuf tu dng tu dng mot gong trau mau vang troi ndi 
-^ ^tren mat dai dtfdng rong Idn. Dutfi day be sau co 
mot con rua mu ddn doc bdi loi, cti each tram nam thi troi 
len mat nutfc mot Ian de thd. Cd hoi nhu* vay co hy him 
chang de con rua co the chui dau trung ngay lo gong trau 
khi troi len cao. Dufc Phat ttog day: muon tai sinh than 
ngufdi, viec do lai cang hy him hdn the nffa. 

Theo nhu* kinh day, ngay ca chu* thien con ganh ghet 
vdi than ngufri cua chung ta vi day la hinh tufdng hien him 
tot nhat de tu hoc. Gio ng nhu* nam ty chung sanh tren the 
gidi tat ca deu mang than ngufti. Tay, nao, tuf chi va than 
the ho deu y het nhau. Nhufng neu khao sat, phai chang 
moi ngutfi deu co dufdc ccf hoi tu hanh Phat phap gio ng 
nhau? Chung ta se thafy co su* khac biet rat Idn. Chung ta 
dang thoat diTdc nhiing hoan canh nghiet nga lam trd 
ngai durdng tu nhir sanh nham ndi ta kien, dau thai lam 
sue sanh, lam ma, lam nga quy hoac lam thien nhan tham 
dam due lac, hoac tuy co diTdc than ngtfdi, lai kho nghe 
diTdc giao phap hoac sanh ndi khong co giao phap. 
Nhtfng hoan canh bat Idi khac cung co the la sanh nham 
ndi bien dia nen mpi y tirdng sinh ton cua con ngtfcfi da 
bi hoan toan tieu hiiy hoac sanh nham thdi dai khong co 
Phat tru the. 



Nhm theo khia canh tich cu*c, chung ta lai cung co 
nhieu dac an de ? co the tu tri giao phap. Vi du: ta ditoc 
sanh d ncfi co giao phap truyen ba va dtfcfc sanh lam than 
ngirdi co kha nang tiep nhan diTdc Phat phap. Ta khong 
pham vao nhtfng toi trang cung hung cite ac ma lai co 
trinh do hie u biet va tin tirdng Phat phap. Tuy khong sanh 
nham thdi diJc Phat tai the nhu"ng ta gap dtfdc cac bac 
dao sir co the tiep tuc truyen thu*a nhtog giao phap ma 
cac vi ay da tiep thi tuf th5i Dufc Phat tru the. Chanh phap 
van trtfdng ton va hiTng thinh la nhd co nhtog vi hanh gia 
da nol got theo Phat phap. Ta cung song vao thdi dai co 
bie"t bao thi chu cong dufc nhan tu* da an trd nhtog nhu 
cau thiet ye u cho tang ni tu hanh nhu* thtfc pham, ao 
quan, nha cufa v.v... 

Giao phap Phat Da da mang ich Idi den cho vo so" 
ngifdi do nhd vao cong hanh tu tap ma ho da dai ngo va 
noi tarn cua ho cung tuyet diet dUdc moi phien nao. 
NhiTng neu dlu thai lam sue sanh, lam chung sanh d dia 
nguc hoac lam ma doi (se tuftng thuat d chu"dng thuf 5) thi 
su* xuat hien cua Phat phap tren the gian nay cung chang 
giup ich gi du*dc cho ta. Vi du: Dufc Thich Ca Mau Ni Phat 
sanh tai An Dp, chuTng dac qua vi rot rao, chuyen phap 
luan ba Ian. Vao thcfi gian do, ne u chung ta mang dtfdc 
than ngiTdi quy gia nhtf vay, lai con difdc Dufc Phat che 
chef dum boc thi co le van menh chung ta gid day hoan 
toan khac han. Co le chung ta da thoat khoi vong luan 
hoi tai sinh roi. Nhufng, thiTc ie khong phai nhuf the", ngay 
ca tru*dc mat, giao phap cua ngai cung chang giup ich 

PHAN n - VlfeT NG0 

COH0I 305 

dufdc gi cho chung ta neu chung ta khong chiu no Itfc tu 
hoc. Nhifng, may man thay, chung ta da khong sanh vao 
mot hinh thtfc ton hffu thap hdn (chi cho canh gidi map 
hdn canh gidi lam ngtfdi); tuy nhien chi thuan tuy sanh ra 
lam ngtfdi va thoat khoi dtfdc tinh trang hien hffu phi 
nhanO) khong cung chite du. Gia nhtf sanh vao ndi Phat 
phap diTdc hung thinh nhiTng bam sinh khong co tri nang 
ven toan thi Phat phap cung chang trd ich gi cho ta dtfdc. 
Nhffng khuyet tat the xac chiTa du trd ngai vice tu hanh 
nhu*ng qua that la vo phiTdng neu ban khong the van dung 
den tri 6c. Cho du khong co khuyet tat nao di nffa, nhUng 
neu so ng trong mot doan the ma luat nhan qua bi phu 
nhan thi tarn tri chung ta cung day day ta kien. Nhu*ng do 
cung chufa phai la tnTdng hdp muo n noi. Ne u tai sinh vao 
nhffng thdi dai chang he co Phat phap thi chung ta cung 
khong the birdc vao chanh dao nham chuyen hoa tarn 
linh de cham duft khd dau. Va tnrdng hdp do lai cung 
khong han dung. Chung ta nen nhan dien van may man 
cua minh, do la diTdc sanh vao thdi ky ma Phat phap 
dang hien hien. Ta nen suy nghi ve chuyen nay, va hoan 
hy vdi niem vui la da tranh thoat diTdc mpi bat Idi nhu* 
tren. Tu* duy theo nhffng chieu hufdng nhu* vay, cuoi cung 
roi ta se y thffc tu*dng tan rang mang dtfdc hinh Wdng loai 
ngu*di qua la doc nhat vo nhi. Neu tham dinh viec tren 
day mot each ti mi, chung ta se hoat nhien dai ngo ve y 
nghia chan that cua su" ton tai nhan dang. Va vi the", ta se 

( 1 ) Hien hffu cua loai phi nhan : Nonhuman existence 


quyet dinh phat nguyen thtfc tap giao phap mot each tinh 
tan dong manh va kien dinh. 

Giao phap cua Btic Thich Ca Mau Ni Phat theo kinh 
chep, se try the 5000 nam. Ta se khong htfdng tho dtfdc 
gi neu tai sanh lam ngtfcfi sau thdi gian ay. May thay ta 
lai dufdc sanh ra dung ngay khoang thdi gian dai bat tan 
vdi anh sang quang minh rtfc ro* cua Phat phap. VI the, 
muo n chuyen hoa tarn thtfc ta can phai vtog tin de van 
dung tron ca ddi minh khi mang dtfdc mot than ngurdi han 
hihi nhu* the nay. 

Cho de n gid khac nay, ta da tufng sinh song, ttog an 
uo ng, ttog tru mu*a dut nang, ttog mac ao, mac quan. 
Neu cuf tiep tuc cung mot the thufc nhu* vay, an uong chl 
thuan do*n gian de so ng thi cuoc ddi ta co y nghia gi? 
Chung ta da co dUdc than ngu*di qui gia nhu" the", nhiTng 
chl thuan tuy mang than ngufdi thoi thi chang dang de 
du*dc hanh dien mot chut nao ca. Con co vo van vo so 
hinh thai sinh mang khac hien dien tren qua dia cau nay; 
nhtfng, chang co loai nao tan pha huy hoai nhieu nhu* loai 
ngifdi ca. Con ngufti da gieo rac hiem hoa cho muon loai 
tren mat dat. Neu chung ta dung dai bi tarn va long Idi 
tha htfdng dan ddi song, ta co the thanh tiru diTcfc mot so 
dai sir - nhtog su* viec ma cac loai chung sanh khac 
khong the lam no i. Neu co kha nang suf dung than ngu*di 
quy gia nay theo hiTdfng tich cure, dieu do se mang lai 
nhtog gia tri rat lau dai. Va sir ton tai cua kiep nhan sinh 
se trd thanh that su* dang qui. Tuy nhien, neu ta van dung 
tiem lu*c cua con ngufdi, kha nang cua tri 6c mot each 

PHAN n - VlfeT NG0 

CO HOI 307 

tieu cufc de hanh ha tra tan, hoc lot, tic che, btic hai ke 
khac thi su* hien htfu cua ta se ttic khac trcf thanh moi 
hiem hpa cho tha nhan va cho ca chung ta trong dcfi vi lai 
ntia. Suf hien hftu cua kiep ngtfdi, neu suf dung de tan pha, 
co kha nang tan diet mpi thti ma ta biet dtfdc. NhiTng sir 
hien htfu cua kie p ngiTdi cung co the la mot khdi nguon 
de thanh Phat. 

Mai den gicf day, ta cung chite that su" dan bu"dc trong 
viec thang hoa ddi so ng tarn linh. Hay tu* van long minh: 
"Ta da thuc hien duac nhitng cong dtic thu thang nao roi; 
da that sU ha thu cong phu de dieu phuc tarn thtic, va giup 
ta qua cam trong tUcfng lai chita?" Neu chtfa tim ra dieu 
gi co the giup ban vffng tin vao van so" tiTdng lai cua 
minh; the thi cho den nay, moi dinh dtfcJng de duy tri tanh 
mang chi la hoai cong udng phi. Gio ng nhu" thi si Shan- 
tideva( 1 ) cua An Do vao the" ky thti 8 da noi: "Su ra ddi 
cua ta chi thudn tuy cong hien nhitng kho dau va day vo 
cho me ta, dau con muc dich gi khac ntfa". 

Ngai Shantideva day: Da mang dtfdc hinh hai qui gia 
cua than ngufti ma khong tu mien va tich lap phtfdc dtic 
thi qua la ngu xuan! Ne u vi liTdi bieng ma tri hoan viec 
tu, e rang den luc chet ta se dai hoi va se hieu tham thia 
noi bang hoang lo sd vi phai thp kho khi chuyen sanh vao 
canh gidi thap hdn. 

Neu da mang dufdc than ngufdi qui gia ma lai lang phi 
thi chang khac nao di den nui bau nhirng lai trd ve vdi hai 

( 1 ) Shantideva: Tich thien 



ban lay trang. Hay nghiem xet lai tat ca nhimg bac ton stf 
cua thdi qua khtf da tufng chtfng ngo rot rao ngay trong 
mot ddi - nhtf ngai NagarjunaO), ngai Asanga( 2 ) va nhimg 
dai stf Tay Tang nhtf Ngai Milarepa chang ban - cac vi 
ay cung chi mang kiep lam ngtfdi nhtf ta ngay nay. Sai 
biet duy nhat gitfa ta va ho la vi ta thieu mat long tien 
thu tinh tien cua ho. Bang each tram ttf suy xet ve stf thii 
thang hiem co cua hoan canh chung ta hien gift; ta co the 
to boi dtfdc mot dong Itfc ttfdng ttf. 

Mot con cho khong that stf dtfdc Idi lac gi ca du no sinh 
song d mot ndi Phat phap dang htfng thinh. Dong vat con 
tham chi bi cac loi lam sai quay sai sur manh bao hdn ntfa 
la vi chiing khong sao co kha nang nhtf chung ta de bie t 
tuyen chon giffa cac loai hanh vi khac nhau. Chung de 
dang sa vao cac y nghi va hanh dpng xau ac hdn chang 
han nhtf: san han va tham due. Chung lai cang co nhieu 
trd ngai hdn ni?a doi vdi nhtog hanh vi thanh thien. Neu 
bi chuyen sanh lam cam thu hoac rdi vao mot canh gidi 
ha dang hdn thi lam sao ta co dtfdc cd hoi de hanh tri 
giao phap? Qua tinh rat kho to boi phtfdc dufc neu toi 
khong biet dinh chi viec tich tao them nhi?ng hanh vi bat 
thien, de roi sau khi mang chung, toi se quay cuong trong 
chudi dai qua bao bi chuyen sanh vao nhimg hinh thai 
thap hdn. Neu trong trtfcfng hdp chi can mot thoang cho c 
hanh dong xau ac thoi, cung dii din den viec chuyen sinh 
vao canh gidi ha dang trong vo Itfdng vo bien a tang ky 

( 1 ) Nagarjuna: Long Tho 

( 2 ) Asanga: Vo Tritdc 


CCfH0I 309 

kiep roi; vay thi, do ket qua ciia hang ha sa so hanh vi 
bat thien tich luy tuf lau xa, lam sao co the hoai nghi gi 
vice ta se dau thai thanh hinh thai thap kem hdn chti? 
Mot khi da thac sanh vao canh gidi ha dang nay roi; that 
khd long hy vpng thoat khoi dau rang nghiep bao thac 
sinh nay da chung tan vi ban phai chiu trai qua biet bao 
kho 9 so* dau ddn. Bcfi vi trong vong luan hoi ac xau, ban 
se bi cuon hut theo biet bao hanh vi bat thien de roi lai 
tao ra mot canh chuyen sanh thap kem khac mra. Hoi 
quang tinh ngo rang: than ngiTdi kho du"dc va thay vi si 
me lang phi no, ban hay nhat tarn quyet y de ? kheo dung 
than ngufdi cua minh nham hanh tri Phat phap. 

Cac tin do Phat giao thirdng noi, co mot than ngifdi doi 
hoi mot nhan duyen tdi sd la su* tri gidi thanh tinh tu* ddi 
trufdc. Them vao day, co du*dc than ngu*5i roi lai con dac 
biet co kha nang tu hanh Phat phap ntfa thi dieu t6i quan 
trong la mi gidi luat phai dUdc bo khuyet bang nhtog 
hanh vi nhu* bo thi va nguyen cau mot su* gia tri tu* ddi qua 
khur. Ne u suy xet dieu nay, ban se kham pha rang rat 
hiem ngu*di hoi du tat ca nhan to tren day. Nghi den su" 
han him cua can nguyen, ban se thau triet rang than 
ngudi qui gia qua rat kho co. Va neu so sanh nhan mang 
vdi nhieu chung loai khac, nhu" cac loai sue sanh chang 
han, so lifting dong vat va con trung nhieu hdn nhan 
mang boi phan. Tham chi ngay trong loai ngutfi, rat hiem 
ngufti difdc iru dai, so ng nhan ha va co cd duyen tu hoc. 
Ne u ban hieu dufdc tarn muTc quan trong ciia than ngirdi 
qui gia nay, thi mpi lieu ngo khac se tu* nhien khdi phat. 



Neu ke nao vtft di kho i vang trong tay minh, sau do cau 
khan cho ngay mai co them nhieu vang ntfa, han se trcf 
thanh tro ctfcfi. Cung the ay, tuy chung ta da gia va than 
the yeu duoi ta van hdn xa nhieu hffu tinh chung sanh 
khac trong kha nang tu hanh theo giao phap Phat. It ra, 
chung ta cung co the tti tung tarn chu cua Dice Dai Bi 
Qudn The Am Bo Tat - Om Mani Padme Hum. Tham chi 
dol vdfi mot ngufti sap chet, ho van con nang lu*c tu" duy 
va vun trong nhtog tu* ttfcfng dao dtfc. 

Sir nghiep cong dufc cua DiJc Phat - tuf ban sd vdi ban 
nguyen vun trong de giup d5 muon loai cho den su" tich 
tap cong dtfc, va sau ro t la su* thanh tiru giac ngo - tat ca 
deu nham den su" phuc Idi cua moi loai him tinh chung 
sanh. Su* an lac cua moi loai hiru tinh chung sanh co the 
chia dinh ra thanh hai phan: 

I/ nhat thdi an lac - do la thanh tifu viec chuyen sinh 
vao canh gidfi iTa thich. 

21 curu canh an lac do la su* chuTng dac giai thoat va dat 
diTdc canh gidi Nhat Thiet Tri. 

Tat ca nhu"ng giao phap lien quan de n viec thanh tiru 
lai sanh hau the duWc xem nhu* thuoc ve pham tru Tieu 
Tri KienW- Khi ban den muc tieu cufu canh thi co hai loai: 
giai thoat tuf trong dau kho, va canh gidi Nhat Thiet Tri. 

Tat ca nhtog giao phap lien quan den viec thanh tiru 
giai thoat ca nhan, thuoc ve Trung Tri KienW. VI muc 
dich nay, hanh gia Trung Tri Kien dan than tri thu gidi 

( 1 ) Tieu Tri Kien/Hq Si Dao: Category of small scope 

(2) Trung Tri Kien/Trung Si Dao: Category of middle scope. 


CCfH0I 311 

luat, tu tap mien dinh, tri hue Bat Nha va roi doan tru* 
phien nao de thanh ttfu muc tieu giai thoat moi khd dau 
va giai thoat khoi luan hoi sanh tuf. 

Taft ca nhffng giao phap trinh bay ve nhtfng ky thuat 
chting dac canh gidi Nhat Thiet Tri de dat dittc Phat qua, 
bao gom ca Hien va Mat, deu la giao phap ciia nhtog 
hanh gia Dai Tri KienW. Noi tarn ciia Thtfcfng ST Dqo 
hanh gia (Dai Tri Kieri) diTdc hun due bang long dai tuf 
dai bi dol vdi mpi loai hi?u tinh chung sanh va vi phuc 
lac cua muon loai ham linh ma chufng ngo Phat qua. VI 
the co nhom ngufdi chi nghl de n kiep sau; nhffng ngufdi 
nay thuoc ve Ha SI, do la ngiTdi co Tieu Tri Kien. Nhom 
ngirdi thuf hai, khong chi quanh quan ban tarn den kiep 
song vi lai khong thoi ma ho con co tarn nghT xa hdn-siT 
giai thoat luan hoi chuyen the - do la nhtfng hang ngufdi 
Trung ST Dqo, la ngiTdi co Trung Tri Kien. Con bac 
khong chi ban tarn den phuc lac rieng tu* ma con co them 
dung khi, quan tarn den niem phuc lac cua moi him tinh 
chung sanh khac, do chinh la nhtfng bac ThMng ST Dqo, 
la nhffng bac co Dai Tri Kien. Ngai Tsong-kha-pa day 
rang: tuy chung ta phan chia tien trinh tu hanh ra lam ba 
loai: Ha ST Dqo, Trung ST Dqo va Thucfng ST Dqo nhirng 
hai loai dau tu* no da bao ham trong tien trinh tu Thtfong 
ST Dqo roi vi hai loai tu nay gio ng nhU nhtfng chuan bi 
cho Thucfng ST Dqo vay. Khi huan luyen npi tarn cua 
chung ta den mot trinh do co the thau triet tarn mite quan 

( 3 ) Dai Tri Kien/ Thucfng Si Dqo : Category of great scope. 


trong cua than ngufti qui va hiem nay, at han ta se nhat 
tarn de kheo leo xu* dung no. 

Than the ta gom co thit, mau, xtfdng; no het nhU mot 
cay chuoi bong ruot, nhirng lai la nguon gdc cua tat ca 
kho dau vat chat. Vi the, khong nen qua chu y den than 
xac ciia ta. Ngtfdc lai, nen no i got theo khuon thu"dc cua 
cac bac Dai Bo Tat; hay lam cho than mang ta dtfdm 
nhieu y nghia va dung xac than nay phung su* moi loai 
chung sanh. 

Noi each khac, ta can biet nhan thiJc du*dc chan gia tri 
cua nhtog co* hoi qui gia va hy htfu chung quanh ta. Da 
mang du*dc than ngifdi vo cung hiem quy lai con dtfcfc 
phu cho nhtog dac tinh thu thang ni?a. Neu lang phi 
chung va thuan tuy chiu luy theo nhtfng au lo xoang xinh 
va nhiJng hanh vi thien can thi qua la dang buon. Sau khi 
tri nhan mot each ro rang gia tri ciia kiep nhan sinh, trong 
yeu la hay quyet chi lo*i dung va su" dung than ngufti theo 
tien trinh tu hanh Phat phap. Neu khong, trong sinh hoat 
cua mot kiep ngufdi, ddi so ng ciia chung ta se chang khac 
nao nhu* ddi so ng cua cac loai cam thu. o 

CHLfdNG 4 


tfc Phat tufng day: Trong moi theft diem de cay cay, 
mua thu la mua thich hdp nhat, tat ca nhien lieu 
dung de nhen lira, phan bo tot nhat; con trong tat ca cac 
loai giac ngo , giac ngo do i vdi vo thuftng va giac ngo doi 
vdi cai chet la stf giac ngo vo thtfcfng nhat. Cai chet la 
dieu chac chan se phai xay ra, nhu*ng chufng nao no se 
xay den thi qua that kho ma dinh dufdc. Khi doi dien vdi 
moi sir mpi viec, ta khong tai nao biet du cfc viec gi se 
xay den tru*dc - ngay mai hay cai chet. Ta khong the 
khang dinh rang gia lao se chet trufdc con tudi tre se lull 
lai sau. Ta co the trau doi mot tarn tMc thu*c te nhaft la ky 
vong vao dieu toan bich, nhinig hay chuan bi cho dieu toi 
te nhat. Neu tinh huo ng toi te nhat khong he xay den thi 
moi su* deu to t, nhu*ng neu no xay ra thi cung chang lam 
ta bO ngO. Cung nen ap dung nguyen tac nay vao viec 
hanh tri Phat phap: hay chuan bi cho nhtog gi dd xau 
nhaft, vi khong ai trong chung ta biet trtfdc diTdc ngay gid 
chet ciia minh. 

Xuyen qua tin ttfc hang ngay, ta nghe loan bao ve cai 
che t cua mot ngiTdi ban, ciia mot ngiTdi nao khong quen 
biet lam hay ciia mot ngufti ba con nao do. Doi khi ta 
cam nhan mot mat mat; doi khi ta gan nhiT hdn hd; nhirng 
ta van con mang y tufdng tUa ho nhiT cai chet se khong 
xay den vdi ta. Ta nghl rang minh du cfc dac mien doi vdi 



le vo thtfdng, va vi vay, co the tarn gac chuyen tu hanh, 
(co the giup ta chuan bi cho cai chet), va nghi rang ta con 
nhieu thdi gift trong tiTdng lai. Khi thdi khac khong the 
tranh diTdc nay xay den, ta con lai mot dieu duy nhat la 
ni niem hoi tiec. Ta can nhap cuoc tu hanh ngay ttfc 
khac de dutfc chuan bi du cho cai chet co xay ra nhanh 
chong the may cung difdc. 

Khi thdi khac til vong da diem, khong co tinh huo ng 
nao co the can ngan. Bat ky ban co loai the phach nao, 
chiu difng dufdc benh tat day vo the" may, cai chet van 
chac chan se phai xay ra. 

Ne u ta ngtfdng vong ve cuoc ddi cua Chu* Phat va Chu* 
vi Bo Tat trong qua khuf; tat ca gid day chi con la ky tfc. 
Cac vi dai su* An Do nhu* Ngai Long Tho va ngai Vo 
TrUdc da ttog dong gop rat Idn cho Phat phap va no liTc 
cho sir Idi lac cua biet bao hiru tinh chung sanh nhiTng tat 
ca nhtog gi con liru lai tuf cac vi ay bay gib* cung chi 
tuyen la ten tudi khong thoi. Dieu nay cung ap dung luon 
cho cac vi dai thong tri va cac vi lanh tu chinh tri. Sir tich 
cuoc dcfi cua cac vi ay, vi qua choi sang, nen ho dtfcfng 
nhuf van con s6hg dong. Khi sang An Do hanh hUdng, ta 
se phat hien ra di/dc nhtfng ndi nhiT dai hoc Nalanda ma 
cac dai su" dtfdng thdi nhu" Bo Tat Long Tho, Bo Tat Vo 
Trtfdc da ttag hoc tap va giang day tai do. Nalanda hien 
gid chi con tufrng xieu vach nga. Khi xem dau tich do cac 
nhan vat vi dai trong lien stf liru lai; sir hoang tan do nat 
se chi bay cho ta ban tanh huyen ao vo thiTdng. NhiT mot 
bai each ngon Phat giao xa xiTa da noi: "Du chung ta co 



chui vdo long dat, lang sdu xuong day bien hay bay len 
khong trung; ta vinh viin khong sao trdnh khoi cdi chet". 
Than bang quyen thuoc cua ta sdfm muon gi roi cung 
each chia nhtf dam la tung bay rdi rac trong gio. Gitfa 
mot doi thang ke tiep, vai ngtfdi trong chung ta se bat 
dau vinh vien ra di va nhtfng ngtfdi khac se phai lia ddi 
trong vong mot vai nam nffa. Trong khoang tarn chin 
chuc nam sau; tat ca chung ta bao gom luon ca Dat Lai 
Lat Ma deu phai chet. Den luc do, chi co sU lilu ngo tinh 
than cua ta mdfi giup ich cho ta ma thoi. 

Khong co bat ky ngu*di nao co the cang ngay cang lia 
xa coi che t ke tiif khi sinh ra ddi ca. Ngufdc lai, cang ngay 
cang can ke cai chet giong nhuf thu vat bi dan do den 16 
sat sinh vay. Nhu" ngufdi chan bo dung roi vot de dan do 
nhtog con bo cai bo due cua ho quay ngufdc ve chuong; 
chung ta cung vay, day xeo bdi khd dau cua sanh lao 
benh tu*, cang ngay cang tien gan hdn den hoi chung ket 
cua cuoc ddi. Van phap tren the gian deu bi chi pho i bdi 
le vo thufdng; de roi tan cung se rdi rac phan ly. NhiT ngai 
Dat Lai Lat Ma ddi thtf bay thirdng day: "Nhitng ngtfdi 
ire tuoi trong rat mqnh va rat khoe nhtfng lai chet sdm 
mdi that su la vi thdy day chung ta ve dao ly vo thtfdng". 
Trong tat ca nhiJng ngirdi ta quen biet, khong ai la ngu*di 
so ng den tram tuoi. Cai chet khong the xoay chuyen 
dtfdc du bang niem tung chu ngiJ hay la diTdc bao ho bdi 
mot vi lanh tu chinh tri quyen uy. 

Trai qua nhieu nam trong cuoc ddi, toi da tirng gap g5 
rat nhieu ngtfdi; nhu*ng hien gid tat ca chi con la dol 



ttfdng trong ky tic. Hien tai thi toi lai quen biet mot vai 
ngtfdi mdi; cti nhif dang xem mot vcf tuong; sau khi vai 
trd din xuat cham dtit; ngtfdi ta se thay do i xiem y de tai 
xua t hien. 

Neil hoang phi ca cuoc ddi ngan ngui cua ta theo chieu 
htfdng tham due va san ban; neu cung vi cuoc ddi ngan 
ngui nhtf vay ma gia tang phien nao thi sir ton hai qua rat 
dai lau bdi vi chinh no da tieu huy tien do va hy vong cufu 
canh an lac cua chung ta. 

Co doi khi ta khong thanh cong trong mot vai vice the" 
tuc thudng tinh thi cung khong co gi dang quan ngai cho 
lam. Nhimg ne u de lang phi ca cd hoi qui bau cua kiep 
nhan sinh nay, thi chung ta se trufrng ky that vong. Tifdng 
lai dang nam ngay trong long ban tay cua chung ta - phai 
chang ta muo n trai qua bao dieu tram luan tho ng khd khi 
bi doa lac xuo ng canh gidi phi nhan - hoac gia ta muo n 
dutfc chuyen sinh len canh gidfi cao tot hdn - hoac ta 
muo n dat den canh gidi thifc chufng giac ngo. Ngai Shan- 
tideva day rang: hien ddi nay, ta co cd hoi, co trach 
nhiem, co nang life de dinh doat va quye t dinh cho ca 
cuoc ddi vi lai cua ta. Ta nen dao luyen tarn tri de cuoc 
so ng khoi bi luo ng udng - du la mot thang hay mot ngay 
% - va hay chuan bi cho thdi diem cua tu* vong. 

Ne u co the vun trong su* hieu biet nhiT vay thi dong cd 
thuc day tie n trinh tu hanh tarn linh se xuat phat tuf npi tai 
- do la mot nhan to , dong cd kien dinh nha t. Ngai Geshe 
Sha-ra-wa(^) (1070-1141) da day: "Vi thdy cao tot nhdt 

( 1 ) Geshe Sha-ra-wa : Cdch Tdy Ha La Va 



cua Ngdi la phdp qudn tu ve le vo thtfdng ". Btic Thich Ca 
Mau Ni Phat cung thtfdng day trong bai phap dau tien 
rang: "nen tang cua kho dau Id vo thtfdng". 

Khi trtfc dien vdfi tuf than, bac tu hanh dao hanh nhat 
se cam may vui stfdng; ngtfdi tu hanh trung dang da 
chuan bi ven toan; va ngay ca ngtfdi tu hanh kem nhat 
cung se khong con hoi tiec gi nffa. Vao ngay cuo i cung 
cua mang so ng chung ta, dieu toi quan trpng la khong 
nen co du mot may may thufdng dau hoi tiec. Neu khong 
thi nhfing kinh nghiem tieu cu*c vao gid che t se anh 
htfdng den stf luan hoi tai sanh cua ta. Phufdng phap toi 
thtfdng de lam cho mang so ng tron day y nghia la hay di 
tren 16 trinh cua tu* bi. 

Ne u ban suy gam ve cai chet va vo thtfdng, ban se 
khdi stf lam cho ddi minh dtfdm nhieu y nghia. Co the 
ban se nghT rang: sdm muon gi cung phai ra di, khong co 
ly do de nhd nghT de n cai chet vao gid phut nay, bdi vi 
no chi thuan tuy khien ban bi quan va au lo. Tuy nhien, 
giac ngo ve cai chet va ly vo thtfdng co the gay nhieu Icfi 
ich to Idn. Neu noi tarn bi kem ham bdi cam giac rang 
chung ta dtfdc bat tuf thi chung ta chang bao gid thtfc tarn 
dan btfdc tren con dtfdng chanh phap de tu hanh. Niem 
tin se dtfdc bat tuf chinh la khdi da to Idn ngan trd qua 
trinh tu dao cua ban: ban khong nhd nghi den Phat phap; 
ban khong tuan phuc du co the ban cung nhd den Phat 
phap; hoac ban chang triet de ma chi tuan phuc Phat 
phap den mot trinh do nan dinh nao do. Neu khong tram 
ttf mac ttfdng ve cai chet thi khong lam sao co gang that 



tu cho dtfdc. Bi khong che bcfi hrdi bieng dai dai, ban se 
danh mat su* tinh tan n6 Itfc va xong pha tren dufdng tu de 
roi met moi chan nan se trum phii len ban. Ban se sanh 
ra chap tritdc sau dam do i vdi danh vi; do i vdi Itii dtfdng 
vat chat va doi vdi vinh hoa phu qui. Khi suy nghi qua 
sau xa ve cuoc so ng hien tai, ta se co khuynh hifdng phuc 
vu cho ngufti ta yeu me n - cho than quyen, cho bang htfu 
cua ta - the la ta phai n life de mang niem vui den cho 
ho. Khi co ngufdi muon am hai ho, ta ttfc thi dan mot nhan 
hieu vao nhom ngiTdi nay nhu* chinh ho la thu dich cua ta. 
Phien nao nhtf tham due va san han se tiif do dang trao 
nhiT lu lut ciia giong song vao ha. NhUng phien nao nay 
se tu* nhien xui khien ta sa dam vao du moi hanh vi xau 
ac tieu cufc ma hau qua du"a dan den tufting lai bi chuyen 
sinh vao canh gidi thap hdn. 

Do cong dufc tich luy mot phan nho phifdc mien; ta da 
co dufdc mot bau than. Phan phiTdc bao nao con thufa lai 
se hien 16 ra cuoc so ng qua tufng nac thang phu qui lifting 
tog. Vi the, chut it von lieng danh dum da tieu pha roi; 
neu khong gdp nhat them gi mdi la nffa thi cung het nhuf 
tieu dung het trtfting muc tiet kiem ma chang chiu bo 
them tien mdi vao. Neu chi tieu to n cong durc phu*dc bao 
da tich tap, sdm muon gi ta cung se lao dau vao cho n 
thap phan khd dau trong dcfi so ng hau lai. 

Doi vdi tuf vong, neu khong co mot nhan xet thich 
dang; luc che t se bi sti hai va nuol tiec rang bupc. Loai 
cam giac nay se diTa din ta den canh gidi thap htin. 
Nhieu ngUdi rat tranh ky noi den chet choc. Ho tranh ne 



suy nghi den nhtfng dieu xau xa toi te nhat de roi den khi 
moi chuyen trcf thanh hien tntfc thi ho se hoan toan kinh 
hai va khong con kip trd tay ntfa. 

Tu hanh theo Idi Phat day thufdng canh tinh chung ta 
khong nen ngoanh mat tho* d vdi moi bat hanh. Trai lai 
phai tri nhan va triTc dien vdi bat hanh, de khi ta thtfc 
nghiem va thUc chtfng thUdng dau thi chifa han la khong 
co each nhan chiu. Chi dcfn thuan tranh ne van de thi 
khong giup giai quyet dufdc gi ma thiTc te chi lam cho no 
te hai hdn moi. 

Co mot so ngufti liTu y rang la tu Phat duftng nhiT chi 
dac biet nhan manh den noi khd dau va su* bi quan yem 
the. Toi cho rang dieu nay hoan toan sai lam. Tren thu"c 
te, hanh tri Phat Phap la n Itfc dat du*dc mot suf binh yen 
vinh cufu - do la dieu khong the tu*dng tu*dng noi doi vdi 
mot tarn hon binh di - chi diet tru" mot Ian ma vinh vien 
thoat khoi khd dau. Phat giao do khong man nguyen vdi 
sU giau sang phu quy cua ddi nay khong thoi hoac ky 
vong vao vinh hoa sung man ciia nhffng kiep so ng vi lai, 
ma thay vao do la miru tim su* an lac hanh phuc toi 

Nhan xet can ban ciia Phat giao la: Bdi vi kh6 ? dau la 
mot thifc the chan that ma noi tarn chi co tranh ne cho 
nen khong the nao giai quyet dtfdc van de. Viec ta can 
lam la hay triTc dien, mat dol mat, phan tich, kiem soat, 
xac dinh nhffng can nguyen va tim each to t nhat de giup 
ban dol phd vdi chinh nhUng khd dau. Vdi nhffng ai 
thudng tro n tranh nhd nghi den dau thtfdng bat hanh, thi 



thufc te khi bi no tan cong da kich; ho se khong kip chuan 
bi va se bi hanh ha quan quai hdn ca nhffng ngufti da tufng 
quen thuoc vdi khd dau, vdi nguon go c va vdi each thufc 
khd dau trdi day. Mot ngtfdi tu theo Phat phap, hang ngay 
deu nghi den cai chet; ttf duy ve niem dau ni khd cua 
nhan loai nhif: ve sinh khd, ve lao khd, ve binh khd va ve 
tu* khd. Moi mot ngay, ngirdi tu Mat tong deu quan tufdng 
phai trai qua ca mot qua trinh chet choc. Gidng nhif trong 
noi tarn moi ngay deu se chet mot Ian. Do thuoc lau va 
lam quen do i vdi cai chet nen luc that su* ddi mat tuf than, 
thi ho da chuan bi kha san sang. Neu phai bang ngang 
mot vung dat day hiem nguy va kinh khiep; ban nen tim 
hieu ve nhtfng nguy hiem ay va trufdc tien phai biet each 
do i pho ra sao. Khong suy nghi tru dc khi hUu su* la dien 
ro khd dai do thiTa ban! Du ite thich hay khong, ban deu 
phai den do. VI the, tot hdn la phai dtfdc chuan bi de khi 
nhtfng nguy kho n ap den, ban se biet each phan ting. 

Neu sd hihi du"dc mot su" tinh thtic tron ven dol vdi tu* 
vong thi ban cam thay chac chan rang minh se sap sila ra 
di. Sau do, neu phat giac la minh co the chet trong nay 
mai; do nhd qua trinh tu tap tarn linh, ban se no Itfc tuf 
each ly ra khoi nhffng chap trutfc vat chat bang each loai 
bo moi sd hffu cua minh va xem the tuc vinh hoa phu qui 
nhir khong co thtfc chat va vo nghia. Ban se tan life tu 
hanh. Dieu thang Icfi khi biet tinh thtic do"i vdi cai chet se 
khie n cho ddi song ngap tran y vi. Khi ke can vdi tuf than, 
ban se cam thay hoan hy va lia d5i khong chut hoi dec. 

Thong thuftng, khi biet nghi cai chet la dieu chac chan 



phai den va no khong xac dinh la se den d vao thdi diem 
nao; ban se tan site vi tuttng lai ma ttf chuan bi. Ban se 
thafm thia rang vinh hoa phu qui va moi sinh boat pham 
tuc deu khong co thtfc chat va khong con quan trong gi 
ca. Vi the, lam viec cho stf ich Icfi ben lau ciia chinh minh 
va ciia tha nhan dtfdng nhtf trong yeu hdn nhieu, va cuoc 
ddi ban se diTdc dita dan theo tarn hieu biet nhuf vay. 

Nhuf ngai Milarepa( 1 ) tufng day: "Sdm muon gi moi tM 
ctiu mang cung phai bo lai sau lung, sao khong bo ngay 
di?" Qua chi/a chac may ai song tren tram tudi du vdi tat 
ca toan lu*c bao gom luon viec uo ng thuo c chUa tri va tu 
phap tru*5ng tho. Tuy cung co doi ba trifdng hdp ngoai le; 
nhiTng qua sau, bay mutti nam sau, phan Idn nhUng ngifdi 
dang doc sach nay deu da qua dcfi. Sau mot tram nam, 
ngtfdi ddi se thuan tuy nhd nghi ve thdi dai ciia chung ta 
nhu* mot giai doan cua lich suf the thoi. 

Khi tu* vong ke can, chi con co tarn dai bi va bao nhieu 
hieu biet ve ban chat cua hien thufc ma ngtfdi ta da dat 
diTdc cho den gid phut ay la dieu trd ich duy nhat ma 

Theo nhif quan diem nay, suf kiem chtfng de nghiem 
xem phai chang dang sau coi chet con co nhffng ddi so ng 
khac hay khong la dieu toi u* trong dai. Ddi so ng trong 
qua khuf va vi lai hien dien vi nhffng ly do nhu" sau : Mot 
vai mo thufc dac dinh tu* duy nao do tu* nam ngoai, tu 1 nam 
trUdc nffa, va tham chi tu* thud au thdi gid day deu co the 

( 1 ) Milarepa: Mat Lac Nhitt Ba 



hoi tirdng lai dutfc. Dieu nay ro rang cho thay co mot 
giac thtfc da hien htfu triTdc ca giac thtfc hien tai. Cai sat 
na dau tien cua su* y thtfc hieu biet trong cuoc ddi khong 
phai khong co nguyen nhan ma dutfc tao thanh; cung 
khong phai diTdc thoat sinh tuf vat the gi triTdng cuTu hay 
vo hon. Cai khoanh khac cua tarn linh la dieu gi trong 
trang va minh giac. VI the , tm dc no can phai co mot vat 
the nao trong trang va minh giac lam; do chinh la cai tien 
khoanh khac tarn linh vay. Qua khong the hcfp ly neu gi5 
khac dau tien cua tarn thufc trong hien ddi co the den tuf 
mot suf vat nao khac hcfn ddi so ng tru dfc do. 

Cho du than the htfu hinh co the dong vai tro nhu* 
duyen cd phu thuoc cua nhitng bien ho a tinh vi trong tarn 
thtfc; nhUng no khong the la nguyen nhan dau tien dufdc. 
Vat chat khong bao gift chuyen thanh tarn linh; va tarn 
linh cung chang chuyen thanh vat chat. VI the, tarn linh 
do goc r tu* tarn linh. Tarn linh hien ddi nay den tu" tarn 
linh cua ddi tru dfc va phuc vu nhtf nguyen nhan cua kiep 
so ng tarn linh cua ddi sau. Khi ban hoi ttfcfng ve cai chet 
va khong ngufng canh giac thi cuoc song cua ban trcf nen 
ngap tran y nghia. 

Tha u triet du"dc nhtog bat Idi to Idn ciia moi bam viu 
tu" nhien cua ta do i vdi cai ma ta nghi la thirdng hang bat 
bien; ta phai nghich cho ng lai no va thu*dng xuyen canh 
giac ve cai chet de ta diTdc khich le trong viec ha thii 
cong phu tu hanh nghiem tuc hdn. Ngai Tsong-Kha-pa 
day rang: "Tarn quan trong cua stf canh tinh dot vdi cai 
chet khong chl hqn dinh d giai doqn dau tien. No trong 



yeu va xuyen suot qua moi giai doqn cua Bo Be Dqo (dqo 
gidc ngo); no trong yeu tit giai doqn ddu, qua giai doqn 
gitia va ke luon cd giai doqn cuoi cung". 

Sir tinh thtfc doi vdi cai chet ma ta bat buoc trau doi 
khong phai la ni niem lo sd thiTdng tinh, bat Itfc vi bi 
chia each gitfa nhtfng ngtfdi than yeu va vat sd htfu cua 
chung ta. Thay vao do, ta hay tap lo sd la ngay lia ddi ma 
ta van chiTa the tan diet dtfdc moi nguyen nhan gay ra 
canh chuyen sinh vao the gidi ha dang. Va, ta se lia ddi 
khi chiTa tich tap du dieu kien nhan duyen can thiet cho 
mot su" luan hoi ifa thich dung nhuf Udc nguyen. Neu chifa 
hoan thanh hai muc tieu tren thi vao gid phut lam chung, 
ta se bi kem ham bdi sir hoang so* ao nao va an nan hoi 
han. Trai ca cuoc ddi nuong chiu theo nhtfng hanh vi tieu 
cu*c bat mien vi san han va due vong xui khien; su" ton hai 
tao ra khong chl tarn thdi ma rat dai lau bdi vi ta da tich 
luy va suXi tap rat nhieu dieu kien nhan duyen lam bai 
hoai nhtog kiep vi lai. Lo so* nhu" vay, se cang khdi sang 
trong ta each lam cho sinh hoat binh nhat difdm nhieu y 
nghia. Dat diTdc su" tinh thtfc doi vdi cai che t nhu" vay roi; 
ta xem vinh hoa phu qui, cong viec the tuc khong con 
quan trong va se lam viec cho mot tUdng lai ttfdi sang 
hdn. Do chinh la muc dich quan tirdng ve cai chet. Ne u 
bay gid sd set chet choc, ta se tim ke viTdt qua sir sd hai; 
nhiTng lai 6m hoi tiec vao gid phut lam chung. Tuy nhien, 
neu tim each tranh ne sir sd hai ve cai chet nay thi ta lai 
bi vay ham bdi triTdng han vao gid phut ay. Ngai Tsong- 
Kha-Pa day rang: "Khi su tram tti mac ttfdng cua ta doi 



vdi vo thtfdng trd nen vting vang on dinh; moi stf moi viec 
gap gd deu dang day ta ve dao ly vo thtfdng". Ngai noi 
qua trinh tien dan ve coi chet bat dau ngay tuf trong thai 
me va ngay khi con dang song. Cuoc ddi ta da khong 
ngdft bi day xeo bcfi benh hoan va gia lao. Ngay khi dang 
song khoe manh, ta end nen de bi loi cuo n theo y nghl 
rang la ta se chang chet. Ta khong nen qua vui mufng ma 
quen het moi su* ngay khi dang dtfdc yen lanh; tot hdn ca, 
la hay chuan bi cho phan so tiTdng lai. Vi nhu": ke dang 
rdi tu* ho cao se chang han hoan gi tnrdc khi y cham daft. 
Can ttf duy rang: Ngay khi con dang so ng, ta cung co rat 
it thi gid de tu hanh. Du rang ta con co the so ng lau diTdc, 
co the ca tram tuo i, ta cung tuyet doi khong bao gid bi 
khuat phuc bdi cam nghi rang la hay con nhieu thi gid de 
tu hanh sau nay. Chd nen bi anh hu*dng bdi su* tri hoan vi 
do la mot hinh thufc liTdi bieng. Phan nufa ddi ngifdi da 
tieu pha vao viec ngu nghi va th5i gian con lai da so bi 
phan tarn vi tap sir the gian. Khi tuo i gia chong chat, the 
tang va tri nang giam sut thi du muo n tu cung da qua tre 
vi ta khong con sufc lire ntfa. Gio ng nhu* kinh dien da day: 
trai nufa ddi ngufti trong giac ngii, mufti nam ta lam mot 
dtia tre, hai mu di nam cho su* gia nua. Khoang thdi gian 
chinh giffa thi bi day xeo bdi au lo, phien muon, khd dau, 
va buon chan. Vi the, dufrng nhu* khong con thdi gian nao 
de tu hanh Phat phap ca! Neu song thp dtfdc sau miTcfi 
nam, thu* nghi phi ca thdi gian nhiT dura tre nit, thdi gian 
ngu nghi luon ca thdi gian tuo i tac gia nua; ta se phat 
giac rang: chi con khoang nam nam de co the chuyen 



tarn cong hien cho tien trinh tu hanh. Thay vi song cuoc 
ddi binh di nhiT hien nay, neu ta khong can than n6 life 
hau ganh vac con dtfdng tu hanh thi dieu chac chan la ta 
da so ng mot cupc dcfi vo cong roi nghe va khong co muc 
dich gi ca. Ngai Gung-Thang Rinpoche( 1 ) tirng noi nfta 
dua nufa that: "Toi phi thdi gian hai mticti ndm khong he 
nghi den viec hanh trl Phat phdp roi tieu them hai mUo~i 
ndm nita, nghi rang sau nay co the toi se tu, vd roi them 
mtfdi ndm khdc nita nghi ve each tqi sao toi bo Id co" duyen 
tu hanh cua mlnh. " 

Luc toi con tre chu*a co chuyen gi xay ra. Khoang 
mufti bo n mu di lam tudi, toi bat dau that su* quan tarn den 
Phat phap. Roi ngufti Trung Hoa den va toi da tieu phi 
nhieu nam vdi dii loai xoay lo c chinh tri. Toi da di Trung 
Quoc va vie ng tham An Do vao nam 1956. Sau do, trd ve 
lai Tay Tang, va lai Ian nffa phung phi mot so" thdi gian 
cho nhieu sir vu chinh tri. Dieu ro nhat ma toi co the con 
nhd noi la su* tham gia khao thi cho chtfc vu Geshe( 2 ) (hoc 
vi cao nhat trong dai hoc tang vien Tay Tang); sau do toi 
buoc long phai rdi bo que hUdng. Den nay toi da so ng lufu 
vong hdn ba mu di may nam roi; tuy toi van khong ngtag 
nghien ctiu hoc tap va tu hanh nhu"ng phan Idn cuoc d5i 
toi troi qua khong chut y nghla cung chang ich Idi gi. Toi 
rat lay lam hoi tiec vi da bo 15 cong viec tu hanh. Neu 
nghi ve phap tu "Vd Thtfong Du Gia Mat phdp ( 3 Hhi toi 

(^) Gung-Thang Rinpoche: Dtfctng Nhcfn Ba Thiet 

(2) Geshe: Cdch Tay 

(3) Vd Thicang Du Gia Mat Phdp: Highest Yoga Tantra 



khong con kha nang hanh tri mot vai phep tu cua phap 
mon nay vi su* cau tao cd the cua toi da bat dau suy thoai 
vcfi tuo i tac. Thdi cd tu hoc Phat phap chang phai ttf 
nhien ma den, ngtfdc lai, no can phai dtfdc sap xep rieng 
re can than. 

Neu buoc phai chap nhan dan than tren mot cuoc du 
hanh dai lau; den mot thdi diem nao do, dieu can thiet la 
phai lo toan chuan bi. Nhuf toi thifdng u*a noi, ta nen dau 
tu" nam mufdi phan tram thi gid va tinh lu"c de quan tarn 
den cuoc ddi vi lai va nam mu di phan tram den moi van 
nan trong ddi hien tai. 

Duyen chet choc thi nhieu ma duyen song sot thi rat 
it. Hdn the ntfa, thtfc pham va thuo c men ma ta thu*5ng 
xem nhtf nhtog thtf de duy tri mang so ng co the trd nen 
nguyen nhan gay chet choc. Nhieu loai benh hien nay 
dtfcfc xem nhuf phat nguon tijf each an uo ng cua ta. San 
pham hoa hoc du"dc dung de trong trot nong san, nuoi sue 
vat da gop phan vao viec ton hai siJc khoe va gay ra su* 
mat quan binh trong cd the . Than the con ngufri qua nhay 
cam, ye u dt; vi vay ne u qua map, ban se co du thuf van 
de: ban khong the di diJng vtog vang, cao ap huye t va 
chinh than the ban trd thanh mot ganh nang. NgiTdc lai, 
neu ban qua gay, the lire va su"c chiu diTng rat yeu se diTa 
dan den du thiJ phien phiJc khac. Khi con nien thieu, ban 
lo sd khong du*dc bao gom trong dam ngu*di Idn va khi 
qua gia thi ban cam may nhtf bi tach biet chia xa khoi 
doan the xa hoi. Day la ban chat sinh ton cua chung ta. 
sir thtfdng to n la mot vat the dau ddn ngoai tai nao 



do thi co the ban con co each tranh ne dUdc; ban co the 
chui tro n dtfdi dat hoac Ian sau vao long bien ca. Nhirng 
neu si/ thiTdng ton xuat phat ru" noi tai thi ban chang con 
co the lam gi dtfdc. Dang khi khong benh khd cung chang 
gap khd khan, lai con co mot cd the trang kien; ta phai 
Idi dung cd hoi va nam lay tinh hoa. Nam bat tinh hoa 
ciia ddi so ng la no luTc dat den canh gidi toan nhien 
khong benh khd, khong chet choc, khong suy nhifdc va 
khong sd hai - do chinh la canh gidi gidi thodt va Nhat 
Thiet Tri. 

NgiTdi giau cd nhat the gian, luc chet du mot mdn vat 
scf hiJu ddn gian cung khong the mang theo dtfdc. Ngai 
Tsong-Kha-Pa day rang: neu phai bo lai sau lufng cai 
than the ma ta da cu*u mang qua than thiet, dufdc ghi dau 
nhuf la cua rieng minh, hdn nffa no da deo dudi ta tu* thud 
sd sinh nhu* ngufdi ban dong hanh ky cu\i nhat. The thi 
khong con gi thac mac de tufc khac buong bo moi sd him 
vat chat. Da so nhieu ngu"di hao phi bie t bao nhieu thi gid 
va sufc lUc, chi thuan tuy co cong dat duTdc vinh hoa phu 
qui va hanh phuc trong hien ddi. Den luc chet di, tat ca 
mpi sinh hoat the tuc nhtf dum boc lo lang cho than nhan 
bang hiJu va tranh dua vdi do i thu cua ta deu ngUng dong 
dang do*. Du cd du thu*c pham de nuoi mang ca tram nam 
thi cung phai che t trong ddi khat va du cd quan ao du ban 
ca tram nam thi cung vinh vien lia ddi trong tran truong. 
Khi til than ap den, khong cd gi sai biet trong cai chet 
gitfa mot vi vua de lai ca mot viTdng quo c vi dai va ngiTdi 
hanh khat chi de lai von ven mot chie c gay con. 



Ban nen co gang hinh dung canh ttfdng khi ban lam 
benh. Hay ttfcfng ttfdng ban lam trpng benh, toan the stfc 
Itfc tieu tan; ban cam thay gan moi, hdi tan, site kiet, 
ngay den thuo c men cung chang giup ich dtfdc gi. Mot 
khi tuf than ke can, bac si se co hai each noi : Vdi benh 
nhan, bac si se noi: "Chdco du lo, ban se blnhphuc, tuyet 
dot khong nen ban tarn, can phai nghl ngcfi thtf thai ". V6i 
ho hang gia quye n, bac si se noi: "Benh tinh rat nghiem 
trong, nen thu xep hau stidi". De n luc ay ban khong con 
cd hoi de hoan thanh cong viec dang dd hoac hoan tat 
cong viec hoc hanh. Khi nam xuong roi, than the suy 
nhtfcJc den do tu"a ho nhu* khong con each chi di dong 
diTdc. Roi hdi am trong than the ban dan dan tan bien, 
ban cam thay xac than trd nen cufng dd nhuf mot khuc cay 
nga nam tren giUdng. Ban se that su* bat dau trong thay 
than xac cua minh. Nhtog 15i noi sau cung cua ban ttfa 
ho khong the nghe diTdc du moi ngtfdi vay quanh co sure 
lang hieu thuf xem ban muo n trol lai dieu gi. ThiTc pham 
Ian chot an vao khong con la nhffng my vi ma la mot 
dong thuoc hon hdp ma ban khong con du sufc nuot vao. 
Ban bi bat bupc phai bo lai nhffng bang htfu than thiTdng 
nhat; co the den vo so kiep sau ban mdi gap lai ho dufdc. 
PhiTdng thuTc ho hap se thay doi va trcf nen hon hdp on ao. 
Dan dan bien thanh khong lien tuc, hdi hit vao thcf ra 
cang ngay cang gap rut hdn. Sau cung trut ra mot hdi dai 
chot, va day la chung cuoc cua su* ho hap. Dieu nay danh 
dau cai chet theo thoi hieu bie t thong thufdng. TO do ve 
sau, cai danh xiTng da tufng mang nhieu an vui hanh phuc 



den vdi bang htfu than nhan se dtfdc gan them may chi? 
d dau cau: "ngtfdi qua co". 

Vao gid phut lam chung, noi tarn co dtfdc trang thai 
dao dtfc thien niem la yeu to then cho t quyet dinh. Do la 
ccf hoi sau cung con lai cua chung ta va la cct hoi khong 
the bo Id. Du ta da co the tirng so ng mot cuoc ddi tan ac 
tieu cifc nhufng khi sap chet, ta van nen co gang het stfc 
de boi diTOng tarn niem Itfcfng thien. Neu ta co the phat 
khdi long tu* bi manh liet va kien dinh vao gid phut nay, 
hy vong ta se dUdc chuyen sinh vao canh gidi ma ta ifa 
thich. Thong thufdng ma noi, tinh than mat dong mot vai 
tro vo cung trong yeu. Khi mot ngufti benh sap che t, qua 
that bat hanh ne u moi ngirdi khac de cho ngtfdi nay khdi 
niem tham va han. It ra ngufdi sap chet cung dtfdc cho 
ngam nhm hinh tufdng cac vi Phat va cac vi Bo Tat. VI co 
the chiem ngiTOng Phat va Bo Tat, ngtfdi do co the phat 
sanh tin tarn manh liet va ra di vdi mot tarn canh quang 
minh tot dep. Neu khong the lam ditoc nhuf vay, dieu toi 
quan trong la nhtog ngtfdi hau can va than quyen khong 
dufdc lam cho ngtfdi chet cam thay buon phien. Vao gid 
phut ay, neu bi xuc dong va khdi len y niem tham lam 
hay tinh tif san han manh me, tat ca deu co the gay cho 
ngirdi che t rdi vao trang thai dau kho ? cung ciTc va rat co 
the bi luan hoi vao canh gidi thap hdn. 

Khi tu* than ke can, mot vai dau hieu bao trufdc cuoc 
ddi vi lai cua ngUdi do co the xuat hien. NhiJng ngtfdi co 
tarn niem lifdng thien se cam thay tijf den to i di tdi sang 
sua hoac tien de n mot khoanh daft tro ng rong rai. Ho se 



cam thay an lac, trong may canh tiTdng cua nhieu sir vat 
trang le va se khong con cam tho dau ddn cung tot khi 
chet ntfa. 

Neu luc chet, ngiTcfi ta day len tarn niem tham va san 
mot each dtf dpi, thi ho se thay du loai ao giac va long 
triu nang bon chon lo so". Co ngufdi cam thay dang vao 
ndi den toi; co ngirdi lai cam thay bi lufa dot. Toi da tufng 
gap nhffng ngufri bi benh nang ke cho toi nghe rang khi 
ho lam trong benh, ho da co ao giac bi hla thieu do t. Day 
la diem chi dinh van menh ttfdng lai cua ho. Do ket qua 
cua nhtog dau hieu nhu* vay, ngiTdi chet se cam thay noi 
tarn vo cung hon loan; se gao thet va than van; cam thay 
toan than nhiTbi ghi keo xuong du*di. Ho se cam thay dau 
dcfn d(J doi khi chet. Taft ca nh^ng dieu nay deu tuyet doi 
phat xuat tu" tu" tarn chap nga. NgiTdi sap chet biet rang 
"con ngtfcri" ma ho da ttog qua yeu qui dang di vao coi 

Nhu^ng ngufdi da ttag tieu pha phan Idn cuoc ddi cua 
ho vao nhtfng hanh vi bat mien luc chet, theo truyen 
thuyet, thi qua trinh tan that the 6nO) bat dau tfr phan 
tren than the chuyen dan den tim. Con ngufti tu hanh co 
pham dtfc, thi qua trinh nay bat dau tu* phan diTdi, tuf chan 
sau cung len den tim. Trong bat cti tru dng hdp nao, y tMc 
cung deu thifc su" tach rdi ra tu* tim ca. 

Sau khi chet con ngufti tien den trang thai trung gian 

( 1 ) Qua trinh tan that the on: process of the dissolution of the 
body s warmth. Chu gidi: day la giai doan hoi am cua than the tieu 
tan dan, bien thexdc cung Iqnh va hon phdch rcfi khoi than xdc. 



ttic la Than Trung AmO). The xac cua Than Trung Am co 
vai dac thu rieng biet: moi quan nang sinh ly deu hoan 
thanh tron ven, tufdng mao cua Than Trung Am se net 
khuon nhu" ttfdng mao cua chung sanh ma no sap su*a dau 
thai vao. Vi du: neu no se luan hoi trd lai lam ngtfdi thi 
se co ttfdng mao giong nhu* con ngufti. Neu no se di dau 
thai lam sue sanh thi se co Wdng mao cua rieng loai thu 
do. Than Trung Am co mot nhan quan manh me den noi 
co the trong xuyen qua nhtfng vat the va dao chdi cung 
khap ma khong bi can trd. Than Trung Am chi co the bi 
nhin thay diTdc bdi Than Trung Am cung loai. Vi du :neu 
mot Than Trung Am nao da diTdc dinh doat tru*dc de tai 
sinh lam ngufti thi no chi dtfdc nhin thay bdi nhtfng Than 
Trung Am da dtfdc dinh phan de dau thai lam ngufdi. 
Nhtog Than Trung Am coi thien di dting, nhin ngo theo 
chieu htfofng thUdng; va nhtog Than Trung Am coi ngiTdi 
di dting nhin ngo theo chieu ngang. Than Trung Am cua 
nhtfng ngufti tufng chim dam cf hanh vi bat thien, bi dinh 
phan se dau thai vao canh gidi thap kem hdn va theo 
truyen thuyet, se di chuyen theo htfdng chuc dau Ion 
xuo ng. 

Than Trung Am trai qua chu ky keo dai trong bay 
ngay. Sau mot tuan neu Than Trung Am gap dtfdc tinh 
canh thich hdp, no se tai sanh vao canh gidi ttfdng ting 
thich hdp ay. Neu khong,Than Trung Am se trai qua mot 
canh chet nhd mot Ian ntia va so ng trd lai nhif mot Than 

( 1 ) Than Trung Am: the bar do 



Trung Am. Tmh trang nay co the xay ra bay Ian; tuy 
nhien sau boh mutti chin ngay, no khong con keo dai 
trang thai Than Trung Am va bi bat buoc di dau thai cho 
du thich hay khong thich. Khi thcfi gid da diem de Than 
Trung Am di dau thai; no trong thay chung sanh cung loai 
vdi no dang vui dua va no se nay sinh y muoh tham gia. 
Nhtfng tinh chat co tinh each tai tao cuoc song cua cha 
me ttfdng lai cua no, ay la tinh cha trting me. Ca hai, tinh 
cha va trting me la nhimg gi rat do i khac thirdng doi vdi 
Than Trung Am. Than Trung Am nay se co ao tufdng rang 
song than no co the da ngu chung vdi nhau roi du that te 
khong phai vay. Nen no mang long lini luyen gan bo vdi 
song than. Neu vi nao gan nhu" co the dau thai lam con 
gai; theo kinh noi, vi ay se cam thay muo n cu* tuyet day 
lui ngufti me va se tim each ngu vdi ngtfdi cha do thuc 
day bdi ai luye n chap tru*dc. Neu vi nao co the difdc sanh 
ra lam con trai, vi ay se cam thay muo n chong doi cu* 
tuyet ngtfdi cha nhu"ng lai luye n ai vdfi ngu*di me va se 
tim each ngii vdi me. Do su* thuc day cua loai due niem 
nhu" vay, cau ta hay co ta se doi theo bu*dc chan cua song 
than. The" roi, khong co phan the nao cua song than hien 
16 ra doi vdi Than Trung Am ngoai tru" bo phan sinh due 
va ke t qua la no cam thay bi trac trd va sanh ra gian du . 
Suf phSn no do, trd thanh dieu kien tat ye u lam cho trang 
thai Than Trung Am bi chet va dau thai vao trong tuf 
cung. Khi song than giao hdp va dat de n cao diem nhuc 
due; Kinh noi, mot hoac hai gipt tinh dich day dac se 
cung tru ng hoa hdp tron Ian vdi nhau nhu* chat kem noi 



tren mat stfa nong. Tai thdi diem do, "y tMc" cua Than 
Trung Am se ngufng ban va nhap ngay vao chat h6n hdp 
nay. Do la dau hieu tien vao til cung. Cho du song than 
cung co the chita giao hdp vdfi nhau nhtfng Than Trung 
Am van co ao tu*dng rang cha me dang giao hdp nhu* vay, 
nen no se tien ngay den ndi ay. Dieu nay bao ham chi 
cho nhttng trufrng hdp xay ra khi ma song than co the 
chufa giao hdp nhirng "y tMc" vln co the thang tien vao 
trong cd phan than the roi. Dieu do xac dinh ro rang 
truftng hdp cua nhtog "thi quart thai nhi"W ngay nay. 
Khi dich the cua song than dtfdc thu nhat, hoa tron va 
chufa gii? trong mot cai o ng thi "y tMc" co the nhap ngay 
vao dung hdp nay ma khong can phai co su* that thu giao 

Ngai Shantideva noi rang: dau la sue sanh cung con 
tim each trai qua diTdc kinh nghiem lac thu va tranh ne 
khd dau trong dcfi nay. Ta phai chuyen chu chuyen hu*dng 
tu*dng lai; bang khong ta se chang khac gi cam thu. Su* 
tinh thufc dol vdi cai chet la chiec ban thach vtfng chac 
cua trpn ven chanh dao. Ngoai triif ban phat trien diTdc 
loai giac ngo nay; neu khong, tat ca moi phUdng thufc tu 
hanh khac deu bi tac nghen. Phat phap la hifdng dao vien 
dm dat ta bang ngang vung dat chu*a quen; Phat phap la 
thUc pham nuoi so ng suo t cuoc hanh trinh; Phat phap la 
vi thuyen trufdng diTa dan ta den ben bd Niet Ban xa la. 
VI the, hay do c toan life than, ngit, y dung hoa vao qua 

( 1 ) Thi quan thai nhi: test tube baby. 



trinh tu hanh. Dam luan ve phap tu quan tufdng den cai 
chet va le vo thifdng rat de, nhirng tntfc te tu hanh qua 
that khong phai dS dang. Va ngay ca khi thufc tu; lam hie 
cung chang nhan biet diTdc bao nhieu bie n chuyen dang 
thay ddi nhat la khi ta chi so sanh giffa horn qua va horn 
nay. Qua co su" nguy hiem lam mat di hy vong va trd nen 
nan long. Trong truftng hcfp nhu" vay, that hoan toan him 
ich khi khong so sanh gitfa suf khac biet cua may ngay 
hoac may tuan. To t hdn nen co" gang so sanh tarn canh 
hien gi5 vdi tarn canh nam nam hay mufdi nam ve tnTdfc; 
roi ta se thay da ttog co mot vai thay doi trong lo i kien 
giai, trong nang lire hieu biet, trong tinh chat ttf phat va 
trong each dap ufng vdfi su" tu hanh ke tren. 

Chinh tu" trong nhirng thay ddi ay, phat xuat ra coi 
nguon cua mot su" khich le vo cung to Idn. Dieu nay se 
that sir cung tfng cho ta mot niem tin; bdi vi, no da chtfng 
minh rang co no lire at han ta se co kha nang tien thii xa 
hdn. Con thol chi va quye t dinh tri hoan viec tu hanh 
nham chd dcfi mot dip khac thuan tien hdn thi qua la dieu 
rat nguy hiem. o 



CHl/dNG 5 



ghiep (Karma) co the dtfdc hieu nhtf su* quan he gitia 
nguyen nhan va ket qua; kha gio ng nhtf 16 i hieu biet 
ciia cac nha vat ly hoc ve moi tac dong deu co mot phan 
tog ttfdng dong hay trai ngtfdc. Doi vdi vat ly hoc, khong 
phai bao gift ta cung tien doan diTdc hinh thu*c nao ma 
phan tog se sanh ra. NhiTng doi khi ta co the tien lieu 
diTdc phan ting va co the lam mot chut gi de diu bdt ket 
qua. Khoa hoc ngay nay dang co gang dung du moi 
phifdng thtic de thanh loc hoan canh moi sinh da tufng bi 
6 nhiem. Co nhieu khoa hoc gia dang tim each ngan chan 
de tranh tie p tuc 6 nhiem them ntfa. Cung the ay, nhffng 
kie p so ng vi lai cua ta cung dtfdc dinh doat bdi nhting 
hanh vi trong hien tai cung nhu* trong tien kiep va trong 
nhieu kiep qua khti. Viec tu hanh Phat phap du*dc hieu la 
de lam diu bdt ket qua cua nhffng hanh nghiep(i) cua ta 
va de ngan chan moi 6 nhiem chong chat them tuf nhffng 
y turdng va hanh vi tieu cu*c bat thien. Neu khong, nhffng 
tu* tirdng va hanh vi tieu ciTc ay se diTa dan ta de n suf 
chuyen sinh trong dau khd kich liet. Sdm muon gi ta cung 
se che t va sdfm muon gi ta cung se tai sanh luan hoi. Canh 
gidi ma ta dau thai vao diTdc chia lam hai loai: loai iTa 
thich va loai khong Ua thich. Ndi cho n tai sanh cua ta tuy 
thuoc vao nghiep thtic. 

(1) Hanh nghiep: karmic action 



Nghiep dtfcfc tao tac tu mot tac gia - con ngtfdi hay 
sinh vat. Chung ta khong gi khac hdn la ttf nga, diTdc tac 
thanh du*a vao lien tuc tanh cua y thufcO). Ban tanh cua y 
thtfc la sang sua, ro rang (linh minh giac tri). No la chu 
te cua linh minh giac tri, la nguyen nhan cho moi hanh vi 
diTdc khdi len bdi y thufc trurdc do trong mot sat na. Neu 
ta bat dau hieu rang lien tuc tanh cua y thufc khong the 
tieu hao het dufdc trong vong mot ddi so ng thi ta se kham 
pha rang su* kha di co mot mang s6ng sau khi chet hdp 
vdi luan ly hoc. Neu ta khong the dutfc thuyet phuc de 
tin vao tanh lien tuc cua y thufc thi it ra, ta cung biet 
khong co chtfng cd gi co the bai bac ly thuyet co ddi song 
sau khi chet. Ta khong the chtfng minh, nhufng ta cung 
khong the phu dinh dutfc. Co rat nhieu tnfdng hdp, con 
ngu*di nhd ro rang nhtfng tien kiep cua ho. Day khong 
phai la hien Wdng chi gidi han cho rieng Phat giao do. 
Co nhffng ngu*5i co nhtog tri nhd nhu* vay ma ngay ca cha 
me cua ho cung khong tin co ddi so ng sau khi chet hoac 
co tien kiep. Toi da tu"ng thay ba stf kien trong do, tre con 
co the nhd ranh re tien kiep cua chung. Trong mot trtfdng 
hdp, suf hoi tu*6ng lai tien kiep qua s6ng thu*c ma tham chi 
song than cua chung trtfofc kia khong tin la co ddi song 
sau khi chet. Vi su" hoi ti/dng qua ro rang va chinh xac 
cua dufa tre, ket qua la hien nay ho da bat dau tin ttfdng. 
DiJa be nay khong nhtog co the hoi ttfcfng lai ro rang va 
nhan ra thon lang phu can ma mot thdi no tijfng tru ngu. 

( 1 ) Lien tuc tanh cua y thicc: continuity of consciousness 

SANH 341 

No con co the nhan dien diTtfc song than ddi trutfc ma no 
chtfa he co dip quen biet trong hien ddi. Neu khong co 
ddi song sau khi chet hoac khong co tien kiep thi ta phai 
bat buoc tim cho ra mot cau giai dap khac cho nhtfng stf 
hoi Wdng kia. Co rat nhieu trufdng hcfp ma cha me da 
nuoi diTOng hai dtfa tre trong cung mot phtfdng each, 
cung mot xa hoi va cung mot boi canh nhu" nhau. Nhifng 
diJa nay thanh cong hdn dufa kia. Ta phat hien nhiJng di 
biet nhtf vay xay ra do ket qua cua nhieu di biet trong 
nhffng hanh nghiep qua khtf ma chinh ta da lam. 

Chet khong gi khac hdn la su* tach rdi ciia y thtfc khoi 
than the. Neu ban khong the tiep nhan cai hien tiWng gpi 
la y thiJc nay, toi cho la rat kho de thuyet minh chinh xac 
sinh mang la gi. Khi y thufc noi lien vao than xac va su" 
quan he nay no i tiep thi ta goi la "ddi song". Va khi y 
thtfc cham diJt su" quan he cua no vdfi mot than xac dac 
biet nao do thi ta goi la "chet". Cho du than the ta la mot 
tdng hdp cua cac cd cau hoa hoc hay vat ly; ddi so ng cua 
moi sinh vat deu cau tao tuf mot loai linh xao cua thuan 
nhien quang minh( 1 ). Vi khong phai la vat chat, ta khong 
the do luftng dtfdc nhiTng dieu nay khong co nghia la no 
khong hien dien. Ta da tirng tieu pha qua nhieu thi gift, 
stfc li/c trong cong cuoc nghien cufu hay tham do the gidi 
ngoai tai. NhiTng nay, neu ta thay do ? i each thtfc va triTc 
hUcfng moi kham pha, nghien cufu va tinh life cua chung 
ta quay ve vcfi noi tai va bat dau phan tich them; toi that 

0) Linh xao thuan nhien quang minh: subtle agent 
of pure luminosity. 



sir nghl rang chung ta co du kha nang thau triet ban tinh 
cua y thtfc - sir trong sang, stf linh minh nay - ngay chinh 
tuf trong tu* than cua ta. 

Theo loi giai thich cua Phat giao, tarn thtfc dtfcfc cho la 
khong he bi trd ngai va cung khong co tinh each vat chat. 
Tat ca moi tinh tuf cam giac, moi phien nao, moi loi lam 
cua con ngufti deu khcfi nguon tu" nhtog hanh vi cua tarn 
thtfc. Tuy nhien, cung vi ban chat co him cua tarn thu*c 
nay ma con ngu*5i co the loai truf tat ca nhtJng sai quay va 
phien nao ay hau mang lai mot nen hoa binh vinh cull va 
niem an lac thirdng hang. Bcfi vi y thufc la nen tang cua 
moi hien him va cua su* giac ngo nen con co rat nhieu bai 
khao thuye t uyen ao ban luan ve van de nay. 

Do chinh kinh nghiem ban than, ta biet rang y thtfc hay 
tarn thtfc rat de bien hoa, dieu nay cung co nghia la 
chung tuy thupc vao nhtfng dieu kien nhan duyen da thay 
do i, bien hoa va anh hifdng chung: nhtfng dieu kien va 
nhan duyen cua ddi so ng chung ta. De cho tarn thtfc co 
the khdi phat, no can phai co mot nguyen nhan kha dl to 
Idn titdng dong vdi the tinh cua chinh no. Khong co mot 
sat na y thtfc trtfdc do thi khong the co bat ctf y thtfc nao 
ca. No khong the xuat phat ttf hu* vo va cung khong the 
chuyen trcf lai thanh hu* vo. Vat chat khong the chuyen 
thanh y thtfc du*dc. Do vay, chung ta co the quay lai de 
truy nguon tim go c ve suf quan he tiTdng tuc nhan qua cua 
sat na y thtfc nay.. 

Kinh dien Phat giao de cap den ca tram ti the he the 
gidfi; vo lu*dng vo bien the he the gidfi va y thtfc da hien 


SANH 343 

dien tu* vo thi den nay. Toi tin rang con co stf hien hffu 
cua nhieu the gidi khac nira. Nghanh vu try luan ngay 
nay cung noi rang con vo so hinh thtfc the he the gidi 
khac nhau. Tuy khoa hoc chtfa quan sat thay dufdc co ddi 
so ng tren nhtfng hanh tinh khac; nhirng qua tinh khong 
hdp ly de luan dinh chi co tinh cau duy nhat dtfa vao thai 
dufdng he nay cM khong the co bat cur hanh tinh nao khac 
co the co nhi?ng ddi song hien dien. Kinh Phat de cap 
den dau tich sanh mang hien dien tren nhieu the he the 
gidi khac cung nhu* tren nhieu thai dtfdng he khac nhau 
va vo lufdng vo bien vu try the gidi. 

Cac khoa hoc gia ngay nay se co nhieu giai dap khi 
diTdc hoi den nguyen nhan phat sinh va sir hinh thanh cua 
vu try. Nhirng neu du*dc hoi tai sao phat sinh loai tien hda 
nay thi ho se khong co cau tra Idi thich dang. Thong 
thtfdng, ho khong giai thich su* kien nay nhu* la do ThUdng 
de sang tao ra; bdi vi ho la nhtog quan sat vien khach 
quan co khuynh hufdng tin Wdng vao vu try vat chat. Co 
ngirdi noi vu try ngau nhien dutfc tao thanh. The thi quan 
diem nay tif no khong hdp ly; bdi vi neu sir vat nao cung 
hien dien bdi tinh cd thi cung tufting dtfcfng nhufta dang noi 
la moi sir mpi vat deu khong cd can nguyen. Nhirng ta lai 
thay trong sinh hoat thirdng ngay thi moi vat deu cd 
nguyen nhan cua no: may la nguyen nhan lam mufa, gid 
thoi tung bay cac hat giong de sanh ra cay co. Khong cd su* 
vat nao ton tai ma khong cd nguyen nhan. Neu stf tie n hda 
cd nguyen nhan cua no thi kha di cd hai loi giai dap. Ban 
cd the chap nhan rang vu try do ThiTdng De sang tao. 



Trong trufrng hdp nhiT vay se co rat nhieu mau thuln; 
chang ban nhu* su* kho dau va tan ac cung tat nhien la do 
Thtfdng De sang tao. Mot chon tea khac de giai thich rang: 
vo so chung sanh vcfi tiem life cua nghiep thtic tich chtia da 
tao ra toan the vu tru van htfu nay thanh mot moi trtfdng 
cho chinh ho. The gicfi ma ta dang song dufdc tao ra bdi 
chinh nhffng due vong va hanh vi cua chung ta. Do la tai 
sao ta hien dien ndi day. Dieu nay, it ra cung ho*p ly. 

Vao gid phut chet, ta se bi loi keo bdi stfc manh cua 
cac hanh nghiep cua chinh chung ta. Ket qua cua nhimg 
nghiep bat mien la chuyen sinh xuo ng canh gidi thap 
hdn. De tu" bao ve minh khong pham vao cac hanh vi bat 
mien, chung ta thuf ttfcfng Wdng xem lieu minh co chiu 
difng ndi vdi biet bao thong kho 6* cac canh gidfi thap hdn 
khong? Nhan chan dittfc niem an vui hanh phuc la ket 
qua tat yeu ciia cac hanh vi Itfcfng thien thi ta se hang say 
vui ve trong viec vun boi phirdc diJc. Can bang kinh 
nghiem tu* than va kinh nghiem cua tha nhan, ban se phat 
khdi tarn tu* bi dong manh; bdi vi ban se cam thong dtfdc 
niem dau n6i kho cua ngu*di khong khac chi vdfi niem dau 
noi kho cua chinh ban than minh; bdi vi ho cung dong 
tho*i mong muo n dat diTcfc cuTu canh giai thoat vay. Dieu 
quan trong la hay tu* duy ve n6i kho sd cua cac loai sue 
sanh va noi kho sd cua canh gidi dia nguc. Neu chang 
chiu no lufc cau tien trong ddi so ng tarn linh thi nhtfng 
hanh vi xau ac se dufa dirdng ta den do. Ne u cam thay 
khong the nhan chiu no i cai kho phdng chay hoac buot 
gia hoac doi khat trien mien thi dong cd tu hanh cua ta 


SANK 345 

se tang trtfcfng vo han. Thdi diem trtfdc mat, mang dtfdc 
than ngtfdi da cung cap cho ta cd hoi va dieu kien de ttf 
ctiu thoat. 

Hinh thtfc ton him map hdn, la suf thac sanh vao loai 
sue sanh, thanh nga quy hoac thanh chung sanh trong 
canh gidi dia nguc. Can ctf theo kinh dien, cac canh gidi 
dia nguc nam d mot vi the nao do ngay chinh phia dtfcfi 
cua Bo De Dao TrangO) 6 An Do, la ndi Dufc Phat thanh 
dao (giac ngo). Nhtfng neu ban that su* du hanh den 
khoang each do, thi ban se tan cung du*ng ngay d vung 
Trung My. Do do khong nen xem ttog chu" mot cac Idi 
day tren day. Cac giao nghia tren dUdc day tuy theo tap 
tuc du"dng thcfi hay tuy theo niem tin cua quang dai quan 
chung. Muc dich Dtfc Phat thi hien xuo ng nhan gian 
khong phai de do dat chu vi cua the gidi va khoang each 
ciia dia cau va mat trang; nhu*ng hdn het la de khai thi 
Phat phap, giai thoat va cu\i nguy nhtfng noi tho ng khd 
cua moi loai chung sanh. Neu khong thau hieu diTdc tien 
tiinh cd ban cua Phat giao, ta se nghi rang, doi luc Du"c 
Phat thuyet phap mot each khd hieu va mau thuSn. 
Nhu*ng trong tufng loai quan diem triet hoc khac nhau do 
Ngai giao huan deu cd muc dich rieng biet cua no. Va 
moi quan diem deu giup ich cho moi chung sanh vdi 
tirng can cd khac biet. Khi de cap den cac canh dia nguc, 
at han ngai muo n nham den cac tap tuc va tin ngu"5ng 
dan gian vdi muc dich ro rang muo n ngUdi nghe phat 

( 1 ) Bo De Dao Trang: Bodh Gaya 



tarn tu hanh Phat phap. 

Toi tin rang nhtfng loai trang thai dia nguc ndng lanh 
khac nhau deu co that. Neu co cac canh gidi cao tot nhat 
nhu* Niet Ban va Nhat Thiet Tri; tai sao khong co cac 
canh gidi trai ngtfdc nan, cac canh gidi ciia thong kho 
tram luan nhat, cua tarn thai kho dieu phuc nhat chti? 
Cho du trong kiep lam ngiTdi cung co du moi hang ngifdi 
khac nhau: lam ngtfdi du*dc an lac hanh phuc va vui 
hufdng ddi so ng; nhiTng cung lam ke phai cam chiu hoan 
canh kho n kho kho khan. Vay, tat ca cac kinh nghiem sai 
biet tren day deu xay ra do tu* ke t qua cua cac nhan to di 
biet - do la hanh vi hay nghiep lufc. Neu tien xa hdn va 
so sanh loai ngtfdi vdi nhieu hinh the dong vat khac 
nhau; ta se kham pha rang trang thai tarn linn cua dong 
vat cang kho dieu phuc hdn nffa va suf kho n kho 9 , ban loan 
ciia chung cung cang hien nhien hdn. Chung van co 
khuynh hu*dfng rtf nhien muon sUdng va tranh kho . Co mot 
vai loai thu rat thong minh: chung rat can than neu ta tim 
each bat chung bang each cho chung thufc an. Vira an 
xong, chung tim each chay tro n ngay. Nhifng neu ta chan 
thanh va kien nhan cho chung tntfc an thi chung bat dau 
tin turdng ta hoan toan. Ngay ca dong vat nhu* cho meo, 
cung bie t cam kich dol vdfi long nhan tir, gia tri long chan 
thanh va yeu thiTdng. Neu muc tieu thanh tiru tinh than 
co nhtog dang cap khac biet diTa vao mufc do tarn thu*c 
diTdc dieu phuc thi cung nen co nhtog dang cap khac 
nhau cua tarn tntfc chu*a dieu phuc du dc. Cf ngoai lanh 
vufc sue sanh con co canh gidi nga quy, chung khong the 


SANH 347 

an uong no du dtfdc. Dia nguc la canh gidi ma cac chung 
sanh d do rat khd long dung stfc phan doan hoac tri hue 
vi stf lam than dau kho cung cut. Cac kho nan ndi dia 
nguc that ctfc ndng va eye lanh. Chtfng minh rang cac 
canh gidi nhu* vay co that qua vufdt ra ngoai tarn luan ly 
thong thirdng cua chung ta. Nhirng ta co the di den ket 
luan rang cac canh gidi ay that co bdi vi Dire Phat da 
chtfng minh cho ta thay nhieu van de he trong khac mot 
each qua chinh xac, qua hdp ly va qua vtfng chac; chang 
han nhtf ly vo thufdng va sy ttfdng quan nhan qua ma ta 
co the xac chting rang rat hdp ly. Vi the, ta co the suy 
luan rang doi vdi dang cap khac nhau cua su" tai sanh, 
Ngai cung rat dung. Dong cd khie n Dufc Phat thuyet 
giang ve cac canh gidi dia nguc thuan tuy do long bi mSn 
va y muo n day do nhtog gi xet ra him ich de mpi loai 
chung sanh tu" giai thoat khoi vong luan hoi sanh tuf. 
Nhtog dieu sau kin nay bat bupc phai tuyet doi chan that 
bdi vi Ngai chang co ly do gi de phai vong ngff. 

Hang ngay ta thiTdng chap nhan mot vai su* the nhtf la 
chan that ma ta khong co each tryc tiep chufng minh. Toi 
sanh ngay 6 thang 7 nam 1935. Toi biet diTdc dieu nay chi 
ddn thuan vi me toi bao cho toi biet va toi da tin ba. Toi 
khong sao nhan hieu trifc tie p hoac chufng minh dieu nay 
hdp ly ca. NhiTng du"a vao mot ngtfdi ma toi dat de long 
tham tin, lai cung khong co ly do de doi gat toi thi toi biet 
rang toi sanh ngay 6 thang 7 nam 1935. Nhirng cau hoi 
tham ao hdn tren day ve ddi song sau khi chet va su" hien 
hiru cua nhirng canh gidi khac chi co the dtfdc tien gan 



den bang sir mam tin va lilu giai ttfdng tan kinh dien. Ta 
phai dan chtfng rang cac kinh dien tren co gia tri bang 
each bien giai ly luan. Chung ta khong chi chieu theo 
mot doan trich dan dtfa tren be mat, ma ta can nghien 
ctfu hoc tap va ufng dung vao dcfi song thufc tien. 

Bao nhieu muTc do dau khd khac biet trong canh gidi 
thap hdn da dtfdc thuye t minh trong mot so kinh dien 
khac. Co nhieu noi tho ng khd cung cufc den mufc vudt xa 
tarn hieu biet cua ta. Lam sao ban co the chiu difng noi, 
neu bi thac sanh xuo ng nhffng coi ha dang do? Hay kiem 
lai xem phai chang ban da tufng gay tao nhan duyen va 
dieu kien cho su" thac sanh vao canh gidi thap hdn nhuf 
vay! Cho de n khi nao con bi kem kep bcfi phien nao - 
nhtog stfc manh kinh khiep cua san han va tham due - ta 
se bi cUOng bach de chiu thuan theo nhtog hanh vi tieu 
cUc xau ac trai vdi y muon cua minh; va do chinh thu*c la 
nguyen nhan gay ra dpa lac. Neu dung la trtfcfng hdp nay, 
thi ta se phai tu* ganh lay nhffng qua bao kho dau. Neu 
khong mu6n trai qua hoac nghT rang ban chang bao gift 
kham nhln noi nhffng dau khd cung cufc nhtf vay thi ban 
nen tim each che ng\f ba nghiep than, khdu va y cua minh 
de khoi sa dam vao nhtfng hanh vi tich tu nhffng tiem lire 
co kha nang khien ban bi doa lac vao cac canh gidfi do. 
Nhffng hanh vi da tich luy can dUdc thanh loc ky cang 
ttfdng ffng vdi phufdng phap tu hanh thich dang. Bdi vi 
moi sir moi vat deu vo thiTdng, khong co su* doc ac nao 
ma khong the tinh hoa diTdc (chuyen hoa de bien thanh 
thanh tinh). 


SANK 349 

Gang ttf duy ky, ban cang cam nhan mot each sau sac 
rang nhffng khd dau cung tot nhu* the qua that la dieu 
khong the chiu dtfng ndi; tu" do ban se tri nhan rang 
nhffng hanh vi xau tuf no la nhffng nguyen nhan tiem tang 
stf huy diet dang so". Khi quan ttfdng den cac noi khd dau, 
ban nen hinh dung chinh tu* than minh thac sanh vao cac 
canh gidi ay va dang chiu dtfng nhffng ndi thong khd nhtf 
vay. Kinh dien day rang: vi du, khi ngSm nghl den cac 
loai dau khd trong dia nguc nong, ban nen Wdng tufdng 
than the dang bi bo c chay; hoac khi ngam nghl den cac 
loai dau khd trong dia nguc lanh, ban nen ttfcfng tiTdng 
than the dang bi dong lanh. Cung nen lam gio ng nhu vay 
khi ngSm nghl den n6i truing khd cua cac loai sue sanh. 
That dang khuyeh khich ban nen an dat mot ndi biet lap 
nao do va thuf bat chifdc kinh nghiem cua cac loai chung 
sanh nhu* vay, thuf hinh dung chinh minh dang nhan chiu 
canh khd. Gang cam thay khong the chiu di/ng difdc 
nhffng noi khd sd mot each manh liet chufng nao thi su" 
kinh khiep ve cac canh gidi ha dang cang Idn manh 
chufng do. No se dan dufa chung ta nhan thufc diTdc sufc 
huy diet cua cac hanh vi bat mien cung nhffng khd dau 
do chung gay ra. Dan dan khi ban quan chieu va tuf duy 
bang vdi mot tarn dai bi thi phap tu nay se giup tang 
trtfdng tarn tff do i vdi nhffng ngufti bi sa dam vao cac 
hanh vi cung hung ciTc ac ay. Ty nhir, khi ngUdi Tay Tang 
nghl den Trung Cong vdi biet bao hanh vi ac doc gom ca 
cong viec sat nhan diet chung. Thay vi phan no, chung ta 
cd gang phat trien mot tarn tu" bi rong Idn ddi vdi nhffng 



ngtfdi da bi phien nao cua minh kh6hg che mot each qua 
site Wdng ttfdng. Du nhtfng ngutfi nay khong ttfc khac gat 
hai nhtfng dau kho 9 mot each ro ret; nhtfng chi la van de 
cua thdi gian, vi sdm mupn gi ho van phai do i dien vdi 
qua bao ma thoi. 

Mang dufdc than ngtfdi, neu ta co the phat trien ngay 
bay gid noi sd hai bi dau kho thi ta se co tiem nang, nang 
life va cd hoi de phong ngufa nhtfng nhan duyen gay nen 
doa lac cho chung ta. Ta co the tinh hoa dieu xau va tich 
tap nhieu phudc diJc. Ta cung co the lam cho cong dufc 
tich luy diTdc tang trtfcfng them, va mang cong dtfc nay 
hoi hu*dng trd lai de chung khong bi huy diet vi tarn phln 
no. Ne u moi ngay, chung ta deu thufc tap each thtfc tu 
hanh chanh dang nhu* vay, ta se co the lam cho kiep nhan 
sinh cua minh du*dm day y nghia. o 

CHl/dNG 6. 


do Phat giao la mot ngufti bi moi thiic bcfi dong cd 
lo so* phai chiu dau khd trong vong luan hoi sanh til 
va trong sir chuyen sinh vao canh gicfi thap hdn ma quay 
ve quy y vcfi Tarn bao: Phat, Phap (giao phap) va Tang 
(doan the nhtfng ngutfi tu hanh). Ngufdi Phat tuf, xuyen 
qua kinh nghiem tu hanh, biet rang Tam Bao co nang life 
ho trd ho khoi bi doa lac xuo ng canh gidi thap. Vi su" Po- 
to-Wa(i) vao the ky thtf mu*di mot co Ian noi rang khi ngai 
vieng tham mot tu vien: du trong so nhffng vi tu si cao 
nien dang ngoi cau nguyen trong ay, van co vai vi chiTa 
han da la nhtog Phat tu". Rat nhieu ngUdi trong ho thieu 
su* hieu biet thich dang ve Tam Bao. VI quy y la tang 
ctfdng nguyen vong thanh tuTu Niet Ban. 

"Phat" la mot bac hoan toan thoat ly moi phien nao va 
16i larn, la dac chat cua tat ca moi pham hanh cao qui, la 
mot bac da dat dufcfc tri tue vien man sieu viet de co the 
loai trijT diTdc moi vo minh tarn tol "Phap" la ket qua cua 
su* giac ngo cua ngai. Sau khi chtfng ngo, Dtfc Phat giang 
day, va dieu ma ngai giang day, dutfc goi la Phat phap. 
"Tang " du"dc hinh thanh tuf doan the nhirng ngifdi tu hanh 
theo giao phap truyen thufa bcfi Bite Phat. Tren day la 
dinh nghia can ban cua Tam Bao. Pham vi sinh hoat cua 
DiJc Phat la thuyet phap va khai hien chanh dao giac 

(1) Po-To-wa: Bac Da Va 



ngp. Hoat dpng hay chufc nang cua giao phap la diet truf 
dau khd va nguyen nhan gay khd: phien nao. Chufc nang 
cua doan the Tang gia la hoan hy dam trach sti menh 
hoang phap va tu hanh theo giao phap. Ban nen quy 
ngtfOng ton kinh Phat. Dol vdi phap ban can co thai do 
khat vong cau thinh de no life tao du p c phan nao kinh 
nghiem cho chinh noi tarn minh; va ban nen quy ngufdng 
tang doan nhtf cac thien htfu cao quy dm dat minh tren 
qua tiinh cua chanh dao. "Phat" la vi dai dao su* chi bay 
cho ta hifdng den con duftng giac ngo. "Phap" la that suf 
quay ve niTdng tu*a vao no*i ma ta co the tim thay du*dc su" 
bao che, bao ho tranh khoi mpi khd dau ach nan, va 
"Tang" thi bao gom nhffng thien tri thtfc trong suo t mpi 
giai doan cua con dtfdng tu tap dao chan chinh giac ngp. 
Mot trong nhtfng lp*i ich khi quy y la co the thanh tinh 
du p c mpi tpi, mpi nghiep tao tac tu* qua khtf. Bdi vi quy y 
se bupc ta phai tuan theo nhffng dieu hifofng dan cua Dufc 
Phat de tien birdc tren con dtfdng cua nhtog hanh vi lifting 
thien. Da so nhffng hanh vi xau ac ma ban da 10 pham 
trong qua khti deu co the du p c giai trfr hoac giam khinh; 
con cong dufc tich luy thi du p c gia tang. Quy y vdi Tarn 
Bao, chang nhttng ta du p c sir h6 trp* de tranh di nhffng ton 
hai trong hien d5i ma con tranh du p c canh dpa lac tho ng 
khd trong canh gicfi thap hdn va co the nhanh chong dat 
thanh Phat qua. Khong bao gid du p c tu" bo Tarn Bao du 
phai tra gia bang chinh than mang cua ta. O Tay Tang da 
xay ra nhieu truftng hp"p Trung Cong da tim each ctfdng 
bach ngirdi dan tuT bo tin ngiTdng. Nhieu ngufdi da bay to 


QUYY 355 

tha chiu hy sinh tinh mang chtf khong the bo dtfdc niem tin 
ton giao. Day mdi dich thtfc la sir phat tarn quy y chan 

Ngai Tsong-Kha-Pa noi: neu su* sd hai( 1 ) va 16ng xac 
tin< 2 ) cua ban chl la Icfi noi khong thoi thi quy y cung chi 
la ngon ngft suong. Nhirng neu su" lo sd va niem tin vtfng 
chac vao Tarn Bao cua ban du*a tren nen tang va du*a vao 
go c rS sau day rang Tarn Bao co kha nang bao ho ban 
tranh khoi niem lo so* nhu* vay thi su* quay ve nu*dng tu*a 
ciia ban cung se co nang lu*c rat cao. 

Chinh ban than nhtfng dol tu*dng ma ta quy y cung phai 
dat diTdc canh gidi hoan toan khong con scf hai va kho ? luy 
nffa. Neu chinh nhtog dol tiTdng ay con chufa dat diTdc 
den canh gidfi nhuf vay thi ho khong the nao co du nang 
lu*c ho trd chung ta; gio ng nhu" ngu*di dang nga quy khong 
the giup ban dufng len dtfdc. VI the , nhffng dol ttfdng ma 
ta trong chd dufdc bao ve can phai moat khoi moi kho 7 dau 
sd hai; ne u khong thi ho cung chang co kha nang cho du 
ho co tarn nguyen muon bao ho chung ta. Btfc Thich Ca 
Mau Ni Phat khong nhffng da ttf thoat ly moi kho dau sd 
set ma Ngai con co nang lire mien xao vo thiTdng co the 
hiTdfng dan moi loai chung sanh tien bufdc tren con duftng 
chan chinh de diTdc khai ngo. Ta co the thau hieu dieu 
nay dira tren nhffng giao phap khac nhau ma Dtfc Phat da 
tuy u"ng giang day theo can cd sd thich va khuynh hirdng 
cua moi loai chung sanh. Ngai da liru lai nhieu giao phap 

< 1 ) Dich chu: scf hai ludn hoi dau kho 

(2) Dich chu: niem tin vtfng chac vao Tarn Bao 



co the dap ting cho chung ta vdi bat ctf trinh do tri thtic 
nao. Khi da liSu ngo dtfdc tarn mufc quan trong cua stf 
vice nhtf vay, ta cung se tuy hy tan than moi ton giao 
tren the gidi, bcfi vi muc tieu to i thtfdng cua nhtfng giao 
dieu cua ho cung chi la giup do* tha nhan. Ngai Tsong- 
Kha-Pa noi: Neu ban tiTcfng nghT de n nhUng dac chat vi 
dai da cu the hoa dol tufdng quy y va phat khdi niem tin 
sau day chuyen nhat dol vdi ba doi ttfdng ay thi khong 
the nao ban khong dtfdc ho tip* che chd. Dieu ta can co 
la cam giac so" hai cung ctfc doi vdi nhiJng tho ng khd cua 
canh gidi thap va vtog tin rang Tarn Bao co nang lu*c bao 
ve chiing ta khoi khd. Ta phat khcfi long tin kien dinh nay 
xuyen qua suf quan chieu cac pham hanh cao thtfcfng cua 
Phat, Phdp va Tang. 

Long tu* bi cua chif Phat thi khong co thien vi. Ngai 
chang he phan biet trong so nhffng htfu tinh chung sanh 
ai da giup hoac ai da khong giup Ngai. Ngai no lufc hanh 
hoat "cho " va "vi " su" an vui phuc Idi cua chung sanh 
mot each vo tu* khong thien vi. Nhffng cong hanh nhuf vay 
chi co Gnu* Phat mdi duTdc toan bich. Vi the ndi ntfdng ttfa 
quy y chinh la Dufc Phat va nhieu hinh thtic hoa than xuat 
phat( 1 ) cua ngai cung vdi nhtog giao phap da du*dc 
truyen day, cung nhu 1 tat ca doan the nhtog ngu*di da hoc 
theo va dan than tu hanh theo ngai deu chinh la ndi 
nufdng tu*a de quy y. 

Kim ngon cua Chu" Phat trum khap den n6i ne u ngai 
du"dc hoi mot hoac nhieu dieu khac nhau cung mot luc, 

( 1 ) CM thick cua dich gid: do la Phat thdp, xd Icri, kinh tticmg v.v. 

QUYY 357 

kinh sach noi rang ngai co kha nang thau triet noi dung 
tinh yeu cua van de va co the dung mot cau giai dap duy 
nhat ma ket qua noi dung tra 15i co the ttfdng ting nhat tri 
vdi tufng trinh do ly giai cua ngufti hoi. 

Tri hue Phat co the thau triet diTdc mpi hien ttfcmg theo 
dinh tfdc, truyen thong tap tuc mot each tuyet doi giong 
nhtf xem moi su* vat trong long ban tay cua ngai. Do do, 
moi dol Wdng tri thtfc deu co the lieu tri va nam gon 
trong tue giac sieu viet cua Dtfc Phat. 

Tarn Phat bao trum tat ca, la Nhat Thiet Tri. Tarn tri 
Phat khong co mot biet le nao trong viec thau triet van 
hffu sum la (moi hien ttfdng the gidi) vi ngai da dat de n 
dtfcfc canh gidi hoan toan thoat ly moi chufdng ngai cua 
tri mite. Cac chu*dng ngai cua tri thtic la nhtfng dau an 
hoac nhtog khuynh hirdng thien lech con sot lai trong noi 
tarn do bdi phien nao tu* vo thi den nay: do la su* vo minh 
doi vdi ban tanh thiTc tai, su" tham dam chap tirfdc, va 
long san han. Khi ru bo het nhtog net in an tren day, ta 
se dat den canh gidi Nhat Thiet Tri bdi vi ta khong con 
vifdng mac bdi bat crt chiTdng ngai tri nhan nao. Khi noi 
tarn da dat de n Nhat Thiet Tri, tarn linh ta se lieu tri diTdc 
van htfu vu try mot each vo chiTdng ngai. 

Khi chu"ng kien niem dau noi khd cua moi loai chung 
sanh, tarn Phat tuf nhien cam kich va buTng len mot long 
bi man bat tan. Khcfi dau cua Bo De dao, ChiT Phat phat 
khdi tarn tuf bi rong Idn doi vdi tat ca chung sanh, va da 
khai trie n tarn tif bi ay den ctfu canh tuyet dich xuyen 
suot qua trinh tu hanh. T&Bi Tdm, mot trang thai tarn linh 



co pham cao dao hanh dtfa tren ban tanh hang sang cua 
noi tarn, co kha nang tang trtfdng mot each vo tan. 

ChiT Phat luon dung than, ngitva y trong vice miru cau 
Idi ich cho chung sanh. Cac ngai dap u*ng nguyen vong va 
dan dao chung sanh tren tufng giai doan tu hanh bang 
phtfdng tien mien xao thich tfng vdi tuy loai nhu cau, so* 
thich, can cd khac nhau. Ngai Tsong-Kha-pa noi rang: 
ne u ban co niem tin vtog chac ndi "Phat" thi nhd sir nhd( 
ttfcfng den cac pham hanh khac ciia ngai va long nhan tu* 
vo lifdng cua ngai ma niem tin doi vdi "Phdp " la Idi khai 
thi va "Tang" la doan the nhffng ngufdi tu hanh se tuf 
nhien phat sinh. Nhtf the, toan bo luat nghi, quy pham 
trong kinh dien Phat giao se nhu* la 15i khuyen bao cho 
moi ca nhan. VI the khi phat khdi long tin tu"dng kien 
dinh ndi Phat thi ban cung se phat khdi niem tin sau xa 
do i vdi nhtog giao phap cua ngai. 

Ban khong nen chi trich phe binh ttfdng dap hoac hinh 
Phat bat ke cac ton tu*dng do difdc lam bang chat lieu gi 
hay hinh trang the nao. Ban hay kinh trong ton ttfdng nhu* 
kinh trong Chu* Phat. Khi da quy y Phat roi, ban khong 
nen quan tarn den hinh ttfdng ma chi nen kinh trong cac 
ton ttfdng bat ke cac ton Wdng ay diTdc lam thanh bang 
chat lieu gi. Ban tuyet doi khong diTdc dung tiTdng Phat 
de buon ban hoac de the chap vay mufdn. 

Co Ian ngai Atisha du*dc mot trong cac vi de til ciia 
ngai yeu cau Ngai binh pham ve ton ttfdng cua dtfc Bo 
Tat Van Thu Su* Ldi, vi Bo Tat dai bieu cho dai tri va noi 
rang neu ngai Atisha nghi rang pho tiTdng nay dep thi ong 


QUYY 359 

se mua ngay. Ngai Atisha bao rang: Khong nen bmh 
pham ve than UTdng Bo Tat Van Thu nhirng pho ttfcmg 
nay chi dat dutfc mtic do trung binh neu xet ve khia canh 
nghe thuat dieu khac. Va roi Ngai lai dpi pho ttfcmg len 
dau nhtf bieu to long ton kinh. Khi ngai Atisha bao rang 
khia canh thu cong dieu khac hoan toan d miJc trung 
bmh, diTdng nhu Ngai ngu y la pho tiTdng trong khong 
du*dc dep lam. Do do, nhtog ngirdi nghe si dieu khac can 
nen het stfc can tac. Nhffng dieu khac gia mang trong 
trach rat Idn khi to ve hoac dieu khac nham lam the nao 
de cac Phat Wdng dufdc tufdfng hao trang nghiem. Neu 
khong thi se rat nguy hiem bcfi vi co nhieu ngu"di da ttf 
tich tap nghiep chu*dng bat thien, chi vi khong the nhin 
cu"di dUdc trifdc nhtfng hinh tu*dng ky di khong can xufng. 
PhiTdng phap hiTdng dan ta dat de n canh gidi Nhdt 
Thiet Tri la Dao De. Dao De va Diet De da tao thanh 
mot su" quy y chan chinh-Phat Phdp. Phat Phdp la dieu 
ma ta khong the hap thu, tham nhuan ngay tufc khac diTdc 
ma can phai dufdc cMng nghiem xuyen qua mot tien 
tnnh dai lau. Trong tien tiinh quy y tu tap, ban phai het 
stfc kheo leo de hanh thien dong thdi can tranh xa cac 
hanh vi xau xa tieu cUc. Do goi la thifc hanh theo giao 
phap Phat. Neu khiep scf nhUng noi tho ng khd d cac canh 
gidi ha dang thi ban nen chuyen hda va ngan ngu*a tarn 
tntfc minh dtog de sa vao cac hanh vi bat thien thu*dng 
khien ban bi doa lac. Dieu nay tuy thuoc rat nhieu vao 
su" tu hanh cua ban cd nghiem can khong? Hoac ban cd 
quyet chi tich tap cong dtfc va tranh xa nhtfng hanh vi ton 



dtfc khong? Va dieu nay cung con tuy thuoc vao dieu, do 
la ban co tin ttfdng sau xa vao luat nghiep bao hay 

Co hai loai kinh nghiem khac nhau: iTa thich va khong 
u*a thich; va loai nao cung co can nguyen rieng cua no. 
Su* dau khd, mot loai kinh nghiem khong u*a thich, dtfdc 
goi la vong tuan hoan luan hoi (samsara), co can nguyen 
xuat phat tu" cac phien nao va ac nghiep, da ep buoc 
chung ta phai tao nghiep. Hinh thiJc mong cau mot su* han 
lac, mot niem hanh phuc chan that; do la mot loai kinh 
nghiem iTa thich, va cung chinh la ciJu canh Niet Ban va 
tat ca deu la thanh qua cua su* tu hanh Phat phap. Con 
can nguyen cua dau khd va doa lac xuo ng canh gidi thap 
kern hdn la mufti ac nghiep (tiTdng thuat 6 chufdng thiJ 7). 
Su* giau co phong lull va mac sanh vao canh gidi t6t dep 
dung nhu* sir mong muo n la do tri gidi thanh tinh hoac do 
tu hanh theo mufti thien hanh. De tranh bi tho sanh va tho 
khd d canh gidi thap kem hdn, ban phai diet tru* tan goc 
nguyen nhan dau khd ay bang each chuyen ddi than, 
ngtt, y hu"dng ve hanh vi Itfdng thien dao cltfc. Tnnh do ca 
quye t nghiem mat tu hanh cua ban tuy thuoc rat nhieu 
ndi niem tin sau xa vao luat nhan qua; va chang ban co 
hoan toan tin ttfdng rang nhtog khd hpa khong nhu* y la 
hau qua cua cac hanh vi tieu cu"c; va tin rang cac thanh 
qua nhtf y, chang han nhif: hanh phuc, hy lac, giau sang 
deu la qua bao ciia cac hanh vi tich cu*c chanh chan. Vi 
the, dieu tdi trong ye u tnTdc tien, la hay phat trien niem 
tin kien dinh rang phap tac nghiep bao khong the sai lam 


QUYY 361 


Quy y Phat phap, nhu* mot Idi phat nguyen de khang 
dinh; ngufri Phat tuf can to bay su* ngufdng trong doi vdfi cac 
kinh sach Phat giao. Ban khong nen btfcfc ngang qua du la 
mot trang kinh, va Phap bon thi can phai dtfdc cat gift ndi 
sach se. Ban khong nen co thai do chiem hull, buon ban 
hay cam the kinh sach de vay miton. Khong nen mang 
kinh deo mat va but viet dat tren kinh dien. Khi lat trang 
kinh, ban khong nen Hem tay. Tufting truyen, mSi khi co 
ngutfi mang Phap bon di ngang qua thi ngai Geshe Chen- 
nga-wa( 1 ) thifdng dufng len; sau nay vi tudi tac lofn, ngai 
khong lam sao dimg len cung tong diTdc thi ngai thuftng 
lang yen chap tay to y ton kinh. Khi ngai Atisha con d tay 
bo lay tang, co mot vi hanh gia Mat Tong chtfa ttog thinh 
phap vdi ngai. Mot horn, ngai Atisha chtfng kien mot tang 
nhan lay Tang khac da dung thtfc an trong rang minh de 
lam dau trang sach kinh dang doc. Ngai Atisha bao vi kia 
khong nen lam nhu" vay. Ke x t qua la vi hanh gia Mat Tong 
qua cam kich trtfcfc sir quye t tarn quy y va phung hanh gicfi 
luat hoc xti cua ngai Atisha, nen ttfdng truyen rang vi hanh 
gia Mat Tong sau nay da trcf thanh de tu* cua ngai Atisha. 

Chung ta cung nen tin Tang Bao, doan the cua cac bac 
tu hanh. Khi noi den tang gia, chu yeu la ta de cap den 
nhtfng bac ton kinh trong dai chung vi nhd can man 
chuyen tu ma da liSu ngo dtftic Phat phap ngay chinh tuf 
trong noi tarn va da thau triet diTdc ban tinh cua mpi thufc 
tai. Tang Bao chan chinh la nhirng ngifdi thufcfng xuyen 

( 1 ) Geshe Chen-nga-wa: Cdch Tay Gian Nga Va 



thtfc hanh Phat phap; nhtfng ngufdi duy tri thich dang cac 
gidi the; nhirng ngufri rat xuat sac trong viec tri gidi; 
nhtfng ngtfdi luon chan thanh chanh trufc, tarn tu* thi thuan 
tinh va ngap tran tu* bi. 

Quy y tang roi, ban tuyet doi khong nen thoa ma bat 
cuf vi tang hay ni nao dang deo dudi ddi s6ng xuat gia. 
Hay ton kinh ho va khong nen phan biet phai he hoac 
tranh dua cao thap ngay chinh trong tang doan vdi nhau. 
d nhtfng ndi nhu Thai Lan, Tang Bao rat diTdc quy kinh. 
Vi du*dc moi ngiTdi kinh trong, nen cac tang si khong nen 
cuf xuf kem thanh nha khien ngirdi tai gia bi mat niem tin. 
Thong thifdng, toi khong nghi phai can co mot doan the 
tang si dong dao to Idn nhu* d lay Tang tnTdc kia mdi tot. 
Du chi la mot doan the nho gom nhuTng vi tang thuan 
chanh thanh tinh cung con t6t dep hdn. Trd thanh tu si hay 
khong chi la mot van de lu*a chon ca nhan; nhUng sau khi 
lu*a chon con dufdng xuat gia lam mot vi tang hay ni roi, 
dieu dtftfng nhien la tot hdn khong nen lam 6 danh dao. 
Neu khong, khong nhtfng chi bat tinh cho chinh ban ma 
con dong thdi khien ngtfcfi khac thol that tin tarn va tich 
luy ac nghiep mot each vo ich. Ttfdng truyen ngai Drom- 
ton-pa khong he bufdc ngang du chi la mot manh vai do 
hoac vai vang bdi vi no tiTcfng trifng cho y bao tang ni. 

Ngai Tsong-Kha-pa day rang: Bat dau tho tarn quy la 
bu*dc vao ngu*6ng cufa cua Phat giao. Neu suf quy y cua 
chung ta thifc sir dufdc cam nhan mot each sau dam chtf 
khong phai chi la nhtog ngon tuf suong thi chung ta se 
khong con cam thay bi thifdng ton trifdc nhffng ham hai 


QUYY 363 

ac doc cua loai ngufri va dieu nay se tro* duyen cho vice 
tu hanh cua chung ta diTdc trcf nen de dang. Da hieu ro 
dittfc nhtfng ich Idi nay roi, ta hay co gang nung nau noi 
lo so* bi kho va hay dong manh phat khcfi tin tarn kien 
dinh vao kha nang pho trd cua Tarn Bao trong viec giup 
ta thoat kho. Ta hay co gang de su" hanh tri tu tap trong y 
nghia quy y cang kien cuftng cang to t va tuyet nhien 
khong nen vi pham gidi luat da tiep tho. VI the , vdi su" 
tinh thufc tru*dc cai chet va niem lo sd cac canh gidi thap 
kem hdn, ta se kham pha rang Tarn Bao co nang lu"c che 
chef ta, rang Tarn Bao la cpi nguon chan chinh de ta quy 
y ntfcJng tufa. 

Phat la vi dao sir chi day each quy y chan chanh va 
Tang gia gio ng nhu" la nhtfng ngufdi ban dong hanh htfdng 
dan con du*dng tien den giac ngo. Thp gidi quy y chinh 
that ra la quy y vdi Giao phap bdi vi nhd su" lieu ttfdng 
giao phap ma ta trcf nen tu" tai giai thoat khoi moi kho 
dau. Phat phap gom co Diet De va Dao De. Su vang mat 
cua phien nao hoac ly tru* du*dc phien nao goi la Diet De 
(Chi Diet). Neu ta khong ap dung mot phiTdng thudc thich 
dang de su*a do i loi lam va dol tri phien nao thi chung se 
tiep tuc sanh khdi. Nhirng, mot khi phien nao da ditdc 
khai tru* tan go c re vdi phiTdng thuoc giai kho 7 thi no se 
khong bao gift phat khdi trcf lai nffa. Canh gidi nhu" the , 
nghia la thoat vong phien nao hay diet tru* su* 6 nhiSm 
trong tarn linh, du*dc gpi la mot loai Chi Diet. Mot each 
ddn gian, nhtfng gi ta muon buong bo, chang han nhu* kho 
va can nguyen cua kho , deu co the van dung stfc doi 



nghich de 7 giai tru* buong bo chung dutfc. Sir Chi Diet cuoi 
cung con diTdc xem nhu* la Niet Ban, do la mot canh gidi 
hoan toan ttf do giai moat. 

Chtf Phat, nhimg bac toan nhien chting ngp thi bat kha 
tiT nghi (khong the nghi ban); Phat Phap, nhtog 15i day 
cua ChiT Phat, la bat kha tiT nghi, va Tang cung bat kha tu* 
nghi. Vi the, neu ban phat khdi long kinh tin bat kha ttf 
nghi, thi ket qua cung se bat kha ttf nghi. 

Trong kinh day rang: Neu co the thifc hanh de co the 
trong thay duTdc nhi?ng ich lp*i cua sU phat tarn quy y Tarn 
Bao thi toan the vu tru cung qua nho de gom thau cac suf 
ich Idi ay, vi nhu* dai hai khong the do luftng bang ban 
tay cua ban. Dung chanh niem de quan chieu nhtfng Idi 
ich thu thang nay, ban hay hoan hy vdi nhtog cd hoi 
dUdc cung dtfdng va ccf hoi diTdc quy y Tarn Bao. Va ban 
co the lam giam nhe nhu^ng anh hifdng cua cac hanh vi 
bat thien va nghiep chufdfng. Tat ca nhffng hanh vi bat 
thien va nghiep chiTdng ke tren se du*dc hoan toan tieu 
tru* va ban se dtfdc xem nhiT la mot chiing sanh cao sieu 
toan bich, mot "hoan nhdn" hay mot "vo thticfng nhdn" 
lam dep long Tarn Bao. o 

CHLfdNG 7 


hau qua ciia nghiep Itfc rat ro rang: cac hanh 
vi xau luon luon gay khd va hanh vi tot luon luon 
mang lai an lac hanh phuc. Neu ban hanh mien se dufdc 
an lac; lam ac, chinh ban se chiu khd. Hanh nghiep cua 
chung ta se deo dudi ta ttt kie p nay sang kie p khac. Bieu 
nay giai thich tai sao co ngirdi khong ngdt lam ac lai van 
cong thanh danh toai tren phiTdng dien the tuc hoac lam 
ke khac d6c long tu hanh thi lai phai dol dau vdi muon 
van kho khan khdn khd. Hanh nghiep da tao tac ttf vo so" 
kiep; vi the, co vo so tiem nang trong vo so nghiep bao. 
Tiem nang cua nghiep thu c luon luon gia tang theo 
thdi gian. Hat gio ng nho co tiem nang dcfm ket trai Idn. 
Dieu nay cung dung ddi vdi nhan qua noi tai; cho du 
hanh vi nho cung co the mang de n anh hirdng to t hoac 
xau to Idn. Vi du nhu* : mot cau be co Ian da tufng lay nam 
cat cung duftng len Phat va quan tirdng nhuf kim sa. Cau 
be do ve sau tai sanh lam mot dai quo c vifdng Phat giao, 
do la vua Ashoka( 1 ). Mot hanh dong to t nho nha t cung co 
the mang den mot ket qua la niem hanh phuc Idn lao 
nhat; dong thdi, mot hanh dong xau nho nha t cung co the 
mang lai su* dau khd manh liet nha t. Nghiep life troi chay 

( 1 ) Ashoka: A Due Vucmg, 



trong noi tarn cua ta gia tang boi phan hcfn tiem nang cua 
nhirng nguyen nhan vat ly, nhtf hat gio ng trai tao chang 
han. Nhirng hanh dong nho nhat neu tao tac lien 11 co the 
khoa day tarn thufc chung sanh nhtf mot giot ntfdc co the 
dan dan cham day binh. 

Trong xa hoi loai ngtfdi, ta may co rat nhieu sai biet. 
Co ngiTdi luon thanh cong trong ddi so ng, lam ke luon 
that bai. Co ngifdi sung stfdng, co ngifdi trong co ve di/dc 
yen on may man va an dinh tarn hon. Lam ke diTdng nhtf 
luon phai dol dien vdi nhirng bat hanh Idfn lao, khac vdi 
du* doan cua chung ta. Co ngu*di, ban mong sao ho gap tai 
iTdng thi ho lai binh an vo su*. Taft ca dieu do, deu noi len 
rang khong phai moi su* moi viec deu nam gon trong tay 
ta. Khi bat dau mot du" an nao d6, doi khi ta co gang het 
sure, tich luy moi dieu kien can thiet de dat den thanh 
cong, nhirng vSn bo sot mot vai viec nao do. Ta bao ngu*di 
nay hen. Ngutfi kia kem may man. Nhirng chi the thoi 
van chira du; van may chac chan phai co ly do va nguyen 
nhan. Theo 16"i giai thich cua Phat giao, day la ket qua 
cua nhirng hanh vi tao tac trong ddi qua khtf hoac da tao 
tru*dc day ngay trong ddi nay. Khi tiem nang chin mui, 
tuy dang doi dau vdi nghich canh nhirng ban van thanh 
cong. Tuy nhien, trong mot vai trirdng hcfp khac, du tap 
hcfp diTdc moi dieu kien can thiet nhimg ban vln ctf that 
bai. Nhan dan Tay Tang chung toi trd thanh liru vong ti 
nan va trai qua nhieu cam go dau khd nhiTng van tircfng 
doi thuan Idi va thanh cong. Tai lay Tang, Trung cong co 
gang binh dang hoa toan dan bang each quo c hiha hoa va 



han che tiT san. Nhirng trong thi xa vln co vai lam san 
nay trong dufdc nhieu hoa mau ho*n ndi khac va vai con 
bo nay van cho nhieu sffa hdn con khac. Bieu do chtfng 
to co stf sai khac Idn lao gitfa cong dtic phtfdc bau cua 
tufng ca the. Khi thien nghiep chin mui, cho du chinh phu 
co tich thu tai san nhuTng ngtfdi ta van thanh cong vi nhd 
vao nang lu*c cua phtfdc bau va thien nghiep. Tu*dng lai 
va ddi sau se dufdc ich Idi neu ban biet tich tap mot each 
chan xac cac hanh vi lufdng thien nhu tranh sat sanh ma 
lai phong sanh; hoac boi dirdng hanh nhan nhuc do i vdfi 
tha nhan. Trong khi ay, neu ctf mai cuon hut theo nhtfng 
hanh vi bat hao thi chac chan ban se gap qua bao trong 
ttfdng lai. Neu khong tin theo dinh luat ciia nghiep bao 
thi ban co the hanh dong tuy theo sd thich. 

Mot khi da tao nghiep, nghiep nhan ttfcfng tog se liru 
lai va gia tang cho den khi nghiep bao hien tien. Ne u 
chu*a tirng tao nghiep thi ban se khong bao gid gat qua 
bao. Mot khi da tao nghiep roi thi nghiep qua se ufng hien 
tru" phi ban thanh tinh hoa no xuyen qua cac tien trinh tu 
hanh thoa dang. Hoac doi vdi mot hanh vi dao dufc, thi 
nghiep qua cung se ufng hien va no chi bi huy diet truf phi 
co mot su" cuong no hay nguyen nhan doi khang nao do. 
Anh hirdng ciia nghiep( 1 ) du tao tac tuf nhieu ddi trutfc se 
khong bao gid phoi pha theo thdi gian ca. 

Nghiep tot hay xau deu du*dc dinh doat tu* chinh su* tac 

^) Dich gia chu thich: An action: dich la nghiep vi trong trKcmg 
hap nay rd rang tac gia muon ndi la hanh vi co tac y. Ma hanh 
vi co tac y chinh la nghiep. 



y cua ta ma ra. Neu tac y tot thi moi hanh dong deu lifting 
thien; neu tac y sai lam, moi hanh dong deu trd nen xau 
ac. Hanh nghiep co nhieu hinh ttfdng khac nhau; co 
nhieu loai nghiep thuan thien, co nhieu loai hoan toan 
bat thien va co loai nghiep lln Ion ca hai. Du hanh dong 
dtfdng nhu* bieu 16 hinh ttfdng kha duf dpi bao dong, 
nhimg neu tac y chan chanh thi no vln mang den an lac 
hanh phuc. Trong khi ay, ne u tac y sai trai va bat chanh 
thi du cho hanh dong duftng nhu* him ich va to t dep nhu*ng 
that te vln se mang den nghiep bao xau. Tat ca deu tuy 
tarn: neu tarn ban da thuan thuc va kheo huan tap roi thi 
moi hanh dong deu trd nen chanh dang t6t dep. Trai lai, 
neu tarn ban chiTa dufdc thuan thuc, lai con thtfcfng xuyen 
anh hircfng bdi tham due va san han, thi tuy viec lam 
dtfcfng nhu* chang dang nhirng thtfc te ban vln se tich tap 
nghiep bao xau. Neu cang co nhieu ngtfcfi hdn tin vao 
phep tac nghiep bao thi ta co the tuyet doi khong can den 
lire lu"dng canh sat hay nhirng che dp hinh phat. Du tren 
hinh thtfc ngoai tai, ngu*di ta co the ap dung du loai ky 
thuat de chap phap nhu*ng ne u thieu mat niem tin npi tai 
doi vdi cac hanh nghiep thi cung khong the mang den 
mot xa hoi hoa binh du*p*c. Trong xa hoi hien dai, may 
moc toi tan phtic tap du p c dung de kiem soat theo doi va 
nhan dien nhffng ke pham phap. Nhirng dung cu cang 
tinh vi toi hao thi tpi pham cang trd nen giao hoat ngoan 
co hdn. Neu muo n cai thien xa hoi nhan loai thi tang 
ctfdng phap luat ngoai tai khong moi vSn dura du; chung 
ta can co sir tiet che npi tarn. 



Phufdng thtic so ng van minh, hoa binh va nen dao ly 
tarn linh can phai dtfdc tien hanh song song. Trtfdc khi 
Trung Cong xam chiem nam 1959; cac quo c vtfdng Tay 
Tang da dtfa theo quan niem dao dtfc Phat giao de che 
dinh luat phap quo c gia. Nhan dan khap loan the gidi bao 
rang ngufri Tay Tang on hoa nhan tuf mot each phi 
thtfcmg. Toi khong the thay ly do nao khac giai thich net 
dac thu cua nen van hoa chung toi hdn la sif viec no da 
diTdc dat tren nen tang giao phap bat bao dong cua Phat 
Giao tfr qua nhieu thap nien qua. 

Chung ta co the tao nghiep qua ba cufa ngo: than, ngtf 
va y. Qua cac cufa ngo nay, ta co the tao hoac thap thien 
nghiep hoac thap bat thien nghiep. Trong cac bat thien 
nghiep co ba viec thuoc ve than, b6h viec thuoc ve khau 
va ba viec thuoc ve y . Viec pham toi thtf nhat do than gay 
ra la sat sanh. De tao nen toi sat sanh, dtfdng nhien phai 
co su* lien quan den mot sanh mang nao khac. Con tif sat 
la mot trirdng hdp biet le vi khong lien quan gi den 
nhiJng ke khac. Neu ban khdi len tarn niem mu6n ha sat 
mot ke nao do, nhufng ban lai giet lam ngu*di khac; hanh 
dong nay hoan toan chUa phai la mot bat thien nghiep 
ddi vdi toi sat sanh. Mat khac neu trong tarn thufc von co 
san dong cd sat hai muon loai, va ban san sang giet bat 
ctf ai ban gap; truftng hdp nay da xac dinh ro ret, hoan 
toan day la mot bat thien nghiep ciia toi sat sanh. 

Sat sanh co the vi tarn doc: tham, san, si ma ra. Vi du: 
vi tham Sn thit ma ta co the sat sanh, vi san ma ta co the 
giet dich thu va vi si ma ta giet thu de cung te. Bat ke la 



ban dich than tao nghiep hoac xui due ngufri khac tao 
nghiep deu gay nen nghiep ac sat sanh nhu* nhau. Be cho 
hanh vi sat sanh ro rang hoan thanh, ngufti bi giet chac 
chan phai chet trUdc hung thu. 

Nghiep ac thtf nhi do than tao ra la trom ctfdp. Trom 
cutfp co the thuc day vi tham hoac gia vi san han ma 
muo n ham hai ngu*5i nao. Trom cutfp cung co the do si, 
vi lam ttfdng rang ban co the cirdp lay bat cuf gi minh 
muon. Chu tarn la muo n khai phan vat sd hu\i va chu sd 
hiru. Trom ctfdp co the thufc hanh bang bao life hoac do 
len lut; hoac do ban vay miton xong, chd chu nhan quen 
roi giff lai luon cho minh; hoac mtfdn tien khong chiu tra. 
Hanh dpng trom cutfp dufdc ke nhu" hoan tat khi ban co y 
nghi rang mon do vat gicf day thupc ve minh. Du chinh 
ban khong trufc tiep ma de cho ke khac lam dum minh 
vSn bi xem nhuT toi trom ctfdp. 

Nghiep cuol cung trong ba nghiep ac cua than la ta 
dam. Do la lien he sinh ly vdi mot ngu*5i khong thich 
hdp, thufc hien tai mot cd phan khong thich hcfp; vao mot 
thdi gid khong thich hdp; tai mot dia diem khong thich 
hdp hoac vi pham y muo n cua ngufti khac - du*dng nhien 
la bao gom ca viec ham hiep. Dol vdi ngiTdi dan ong thi 
ngiTdi dan ba khong thich hdp bao gom me minh; vd hoac 
ngtfcfi yeu cua ke khac; co gai giang ho do ngtfdi khac tra 
tien thue bao, than quyen cua chinh minh hoac nhtfng 
ngurdi nff da xuat gia nhu* cac ni sir. Cung bao gom luon 
ca nhtfng ngu*di dan ong khac. Nhirng cd phan khong 
thich hdp trong than the la hau mon va mieng. Nhffng ndi 



cho n khong thich hdp la chung quanh tinh that cua sir phu 
minh, gan thap mieu hoac ngay trong chua hoac ngay 
trtfdc mat cha me mmh. Thcfi gian khong thich hp*p doi 
vdi ngtfdi dan ong la khi ngtfdi dan ba dang thdi ky kinh 
nguyet, luc mang thai va khi ngufti dan ba dang vtfdng 
phai mot chting benh ma su* giao hdp lam cho benh trd 
nen tram trpng. Neu ngufdi dan ong giao hdp sinh ly theo 
nhtlng each tren thi du vdi chinh vd minh vln ke la ta 
dam. Thong thiTdng ma noi , suf giao hdp la do tuf tham 
luye n, nhtfng ngUdi ta van co the giao hdp vi san han vi 
du nhu" ngu*di dan ong ngu vdi vd cua ke thu cua han. Co 
luc cung do vi vo minh ma nghT rang su* lien he sinh ly co 
the giup con ngiT5i dat dai giac ngo. Nghiep xau cua 
hanh ta dam chi do minh tu* tao va hanh dong trd nen cu 
the khi co su* va cham giffa hai cd quan sinh due. 

Bon loai nghiep xau ke tiep la khau nghiep. Tnfdfc tien 
la vpng ngtf; bao gom viec noi nhirng ngon tu* trai vdi 
dieu da thay, da nghe va da biet. Vpng ngi? cd the do bcfi 
tham, san hoac si. Chu tarn la gay hoang mang cho ngufti 
khac, cd the dien dat bang Idi noi, gat dau hoac chi can 
ra mot dau tay. Bat cur hanh dong nao cd chu y lam ngiTdi 
ta hoang mang deu tao nen nghiep xau vpng ngtf. Va neu 
ngirdi khac nghe thay nhffng vpng ngi? nay, dieu do da 
lam cho hanh dong vpng ngtf dufp c thanh hinh. Tie p theo, 
la noi 15i chia re ly gian. Chu tarn la gay su* bat hoa phan 
tranh giffa ban be hoac t^ng doan vi quyen lp*i cua chinh 
minh hoac vi quyen lp"i cua ngiTdi khac. Du mot ngufdi 
nao do cd thanh cong hay khong trong viec tao ra su* 



phan tranh bat hoa thi hanh dong ly gian cua ho hoan tat 
ngay trong phut giay ma ngufti khac nghe dtfdc nhtfng Idi 
noi chia re nay. 

Ke tiep la ac ngff. Gnu tarn la noi 15i tho ac, va nghiep 
ac ngtf se hoan tat ngay khi ngufdi bi noi xau nghe dtfdc 
nhimg 15i mang nhiec nham den ho. Giem pha noi xau 
bao gom nhi?ng Idi si nhuc ngiTdi khac, chi trich 16i lam 
ngirdi ay du dung hay sai. Neu ngifdi nao suf dung ngon 
ngi? ac doc de gay ton thtfcfng cho ngu*di khac, do goi la 
ac ngi?. Ke tiep la y ngi? (noi chuyen thi phi). Y ngi? la 
noi chuyen thi phi bi thuf do mot trong tarn docO) thuc 
day. Chu dich ddn gian la chi muon han huyen vo cdf 
hoac nhan dam tarn suf khong muc dich. Y ngiJ khong can 
co ngiTdi thu* hai. Ban chang can co mot ngtfdi tri am, ban 
co the noi Idi y ngtf (Idi thi phi) bang each noi chuyen vdi 
chinh minh. Nhan dam vo ich bao gom viec ban luan 
chien tranh thdi su*, viec loi lam cua ke khac hoac bien 
luan chi de bien luan thoi. Cung bao gom luon viec doc 
cac loai sach khong quan trong gi ca, cac loai sach vo bo 
mat thich gi5 chi vi ai chap. 

Sau cung la ba nghiep xau dtfdc tao ra bdi y, dieu dau 
tien la tham due. Doi tufdng cua tham due la vat sd hiru 
cua ngufoi khac. Phien nao co suy cho long tham due co 
the do tarn doc tham, san, si gay nen. Hoan thanh viec 
lam bat mien nay lien he den nam yeu to: tham chap 
manh liet tai vat cua ngufdi khac; y do tich chtfa cua cai; 
da tarn them mu6n tai vat ngufii khac; muo n gitft cua cai 

( 1 ) 7am doc: ba doc tham san si 



ngufri khac tao thanh cua rieng minh; khong trong thay 
diTtfc sir nguy hai vi them khat tai vat cua ngufti. Ne u hoi 
du nam yeu to nay khi ngufri ta ao tfdc them khat vat gi 
do thi hanh vi tarn ly nay (tham due ) da hoan thanh. 

Ke den la tarn san nan; tarn san han ttfcfng ttf nhtf ac 
ngtf, chu dich la do y muo n gay thiTdng to n cho ngtfdi; 
hoac la noi Idi ac ngU hoac la mong cau ngu*di ta gap 
hoan nan tai tfcfng va bi that bai, hong viec. Mot khi bi 
cuon hut theo tarn niem nhiT vay thi cung da hoan thanh 
nghiep san roi. Dieu nay (nghiep san) cung doi hoi can 
phai co nam yeu to : I/ phai co dong cd can ban la long 
san han hoac long phan no. 21 thie u tinh than nhan nhuc. 
3/ khong tri nhan diTdc nhtog 16i lam cua su* gian di?. 4/ 
co tinh ham hai ke khac. 5/ khong tu" tri nhan rang neu 
ban chi can thau hieu diTdc nhffng hau qua tai hai cua 
tarn san han khong thoi, thi su* tri nhan nay cung du sufc 
giup ban che ngu* difdc y muo n ham hai ke khac roi. Chi 
can ban ddn thuan mong muo n ngufdi khac gap khd dau 
ach nan, do chinh la tarn san han. 

Hanh vi cu6i ciang trong mufti hanh vi bat thien la ta 
kien hoac chap kien (tufc la bam viu mot each ngoan co 
vao nhffng tri kien sai lam); nhffng dieu nay co nghia la 
ban phu nhan ban tanh ton tai cua cac phap hien hiru. 
Thong thufdng co bon loai ta kien: ta kien doi vdi nhan; 
ta kien do i vdi qua; ta kien do i vdi tac dung cua cac phap 
va ta kien doi vdi su" hien hiru cua mot vat the. Doi vdi 
ta kien ve nhan thi tin rang khong co hanh nghiep; do i 
vdi ta kien ve qua thi tin rang co nhtog hanh vi nao do 



khong tao ra nghiep bao; ta kien doi vdi tac dung cua cac 
phap thi nghi rang con cai khong phai do cha me nuoi 
nang, va hat gio ng khong the ket trai va cung nghi rang 
khong co tien kiep hoac khong co dcfi song sau khi chet. 
Ta kien thu* tu* la ta kien doi vdi su* hien hffu cua moi vat 
the-do vi vo minh va tham chap ma tin tirdng rang cac 
bac A La Han, Niet Ban va Tarn Bao deu khong hien 
thiTc. Ngai Tsong Kha-Pa noi rang: mac du co nhieu loai 
ta kien khac nhau nhiTng cac ta kieh nay that su* cat dtit 
moi coi re tich luy cong dufc cua con ngiTdi va chinh vi ly 
do do da khie n cho ngufcfi ay bi cuo n hut theo cac hanh 
vi bat mien mot each khong kiem che noi. Vi the, ta kien 
khong tin Tarn Bao va ta kie n khong tin luat nhan qua 
du*dc goi la ta kien Idn nhat. 

Chung ta cung nen bie t rang co su* sai biet nang nhe 
trong cac hanh nghiep. Khi hanh vi ditdc thoi thuc bdi 
nhirng phien nao manh liet thi hanh vi nay dtfdc goi la 
hanh vi vo cung nghiem trong. Phtfdng thiJc hanh vi tao 
tac cung quyet dinh mu c do khinh trong ciia nghiep. Vi 
du nhu* mot cuoc miru sat du*dc dien ra trong tarn thtfc han 
hoan, tnrdc tien la tra tan, roi che" gieu va phi bang ngtfdi 
ta thi cuoc mini sat nay diTdc goi la cuoc miru sat rat 
nghiem trong vi con ngutfi da bi gie t mot each vo nhan 
dao. Neu ke sat nhan khong co liTdng tarn va khong co y 
thufc ho then thi hanh vi sat sanh ac doc nay diTdc ke la 
rat nghiem trong bdi vi han da danh mat kha nang hoac 
lire liTdng doi tri. Neu sat sanh vi do ngu si, vdi muc dich 
sat sanh de lam te pham chang han va nghi rang hanh 



dpng sat sanh nay that stf la mot nghi IS ton giao chtf 
khong phai la mot hanh vi xau ac thi theo kinh day, 
nghiep tao ra xem nhif rat nghiem trpng. 

Thong thufrng, ne u ban tai pham mot vai hanh vi nao 
do cang nhieu Ian thi no cang trd nen nghiem trong hdn. 
Nghiep Itfc nang hay nhe cung con tuy thuoc ke tao tac. 
Neil ban hoi hiTofng cong dufc cho sif phuc Idi cua chung 
sanh de tarn cau chtog ngo, kinh day, nang lufc se manh 
me hdn. Trong khi ay, neu hoi htfofng cong dtfc cho muc 
tieu thap kem hdn, kinh day, nang li/c cung se yeu hdn. 
Dieu nay cung con dtfdc ap dung cho hanh vi bat mien 
nffa. Phien nao cang thoi thuc di? dpi chufng nao thi hanh 
nghiep cang gia tang manh me chimg ay; va trong tat ca 
cac phien nao nay thi san han diTdc ke la loai phien nao 
manh me nhat. Mot niem san rat nho doi vdfi mot vi Bo 
Tat se thieu hiiy moi cong dufc tich tu tu* ngan kiep cua 

Qua bao cua nhiJng hanh vi bat thien du*a tren cufcfng 
do cua cac phien nao da xui giuc sai suf chung. Cung co 
cac qua bao ttfdng tog vdi cac loai nghiep nhan. Vi du: 
vi da tufng sat sanh, con ngtfcfi se bi dpa sanh vao cac 
canh gidi thap kem; sau do du mang du p c than ngu*5i 
nhiTng thp mang cung se rat ngan. Bcfi vi da ttog trpm 
cifdp nen se thieu th6n vat chat. Bdi vi ta dam nen se co 
ngufti phoi ngau khong trung thanh. Bdi vi ac ngu" nen 
ngutfi ta se nhuc ma ban. Bdi vi noi Idi ly gian nen bang 
hffu bat hoa chia re v.v...Mpt loai qua bao khac la each 
hanh xuf theo ban nang bam sinh. Bcfi vi ddi trtfdfc sat 



sanh, cho nen du dtfdc dau thai lam ngufti nhirng van tu* 
nhien co tinh tinh rat xung dong va thich giet choc. Cung 
co loai qua bao tuy theo hoan canh va moi triTdng; loai 
qua bao nay chin mui va tich luy chung cho ca tap the 
cong dong. Vi du nhir, do bcfi sat sanh ma mot ngufdi da 
sinh so ng d vung lua ma trai trang khong dtfdc xum xue 
doi dao, lang cung heo lanh, khi hau khong tot, day day 
cay doc gai goc. Bdi vi trom ciTdfp nen gat qua bao lam 
ngurdi nong phu bi that mua. Bdi vi ta kien ma co qua bao 
phai chiu hoan canh thieu su* cull ho va khong ndi nUdng 

Neu do nhd gidi luat ma con ngufdi co the tu" kern che 
va khong dam chim vao cac hanh vi xau ac; ngu*dc lai 
con quyet tarn khong de dinh liu vao nhimg su* kien nhtf 
the thi ngUdi do da tich luy difdc nhieu thien hanh. Neu 
khong du sure hoac khong co kha nang thifc hien dieu ac 
thi khong co nghia la ban da tich tap dtfdc hanh vi lifdng 
thien. Chi khi nao ban co du stfc va dii kha nang de tao 
tac ac nghiep nhiTng vi dao dtfc nen tu" che khong lam 
mdfi du"dc ke la tich tu thien hanh. 

Tuy hanh vi da tao tac roi nhimg khong phai do co y; 
vi nhif ngo sat, sat sanh trong giac mong, hoac lam nhtfng 
viec trai vdi y nguyen ca nhan; trong nhimg trtfdng hdp 
nhu" vay, hanh dong tuy da tao tac nhirng nghiep van 
khong tich luy. Do vi thieu yeu to can thiet la su" chii tarn 
co y nen nghiep bao cua hanh dong cung khong thanh 
hinh. Mat khac neu ban ctfdng bach ngiTdi nao phai dinh 
liu den cac hanh dong bat hao thay the cho ban thi 



nghiep xaii tich tu la do tuf ban ma ra. 

Nghiep qua co the d ddi nay, ddi sau hoac each 
khoang nhieu ddi mdi chin mui. Mot vai hanh dong qua 
trpng dai gay ra do stf vo minh va san han kich liet nen 
dufdc xem nhu" rat tram trpng va da mang den qua bao 
ngay trong hien ddi. Cac hanh vi to t dep tich cu*c cung 
the. Neu ciru mang bi tarn lai lang do i vdi tat ca chung 
sanh, neu vtog tarn quy y Tarn Bao va den dap an dtfc su* 
trufdng cung cha me minh thi hoa trai cua cac hanh dong 
nay dtfdc ke la qua thu thang den noi chung se khcfi sir 
chin mui ngay trong hien kiep. 

Mang dufp c than ngu"5i chu yeu la do tri gidi thanh tinh 
va tu* che khong tao miTdi ac nghiep. Tuy nhien de co 
diTdc than ngufri vcfi nhieu trd duyen iru dai giup vu*p*t tien 
tren qua tiinh tu hanh thi van phai can den cac nhan to 
khac ntfa. Dieu nay bao gom ca viec so ng lau de hanh tri 
Phat phap mot each vien man. Cfing dong thdi can bo tuc 
them; neu co dufp c than hinh trang kien, trang nghiem, 
khoe manh, lai sanh tru dng trong mot gia dinh ton quy; 
dtfdng nhien ban se tao dufp c niem quy ngu*5ng Idn lao tuf 
tat ca mpi ngtfdi va gay du*p*c stfc anh hudng rat to Idn. 
Trong kinh dien co de cap den nhan to khac, do la ngon 
tif dang tin cay va than tarn cirdng trang de tranh khong bi 
cong kich bdi nhufng su" hon mang khuay pha. Chi can 
thoang trong thay ban, thi vdi nhan dang thu hut, ban se 
khong khd khan gi trong van de thu nap de tu* va tao cho 
ho vufng tin ndi ban. Khi thupc dong doi ciia mot gia dinh 
ton quy, mpi ngtfdi se lang nghe va liru tarn den Idi 



khuyen cua ban hcfn. Bang stf giiip d5 vat chat cho nhieu 
ngufri, ban co kha nang phoi hdp dong dao quan chung 
vcfi stfc anh hifcfng cua ban va vdfi ngon tfr dang tin, ban se 
lam cho quan chung tin ttf6ng vao 15i noi nhif that cua 
ban. Nhtfng gi ban noi deu co the thanh ttfu sdm sua dung 
theo y nguyen, chang khac nao nhiT chieu chi cua mot vi 
quoc vUdng. TrvTofc dam dong, ban khong con scf set hay 
rut re khi giang phap cho ho. Va cung se co rat it chtfdng 
ngai trong viec tu hanh. Nhcf than tarn vtfng manh, ban co 
the nhan chiu du*dc su* thuf thach cam go cua the xac va 
cung khong con hoi han hoac gap bat ctf chiTdng ngai nao 
trong no lire dat du*dc bat cu" irdc nguyen gi cua minh va 
cua ngufdi. 

M6i mot trong nhtog ufu diem khac nhau nay deu do 
mot nghiep nhan dac thu ciia no. Nhan tru*dng tho la do 
hang thiTdng co thai do vi tha giup ich, khong bao gid gay 
thiTdng to n cho ke khac. Than the cuftng trang khoe manh 
la do cung cap quan ao mdi cho ngtfdi va kem che khong 
nong gian. Sanh trufdng trong gia dinh ton qui la do nhan 
luon luon khiem cung, tuyet doi khong cao ngao va tu" 
xem minh nhtf toi td cho su* tnrdng va cha me cua minh. 
Nhan dai phu la do bo thi tai vat cho ngufri ngheo, va nhan 
co Idi an tieng noi uy tin la do kem che khau nghiep. Gay 
diTdc nhieu uy tin anh htfcfng sau sa la do nhan cung dirdng 
Tarn Bao va cha me su* trirdng minh v.v... Co than tarn 
vffng manh la bdi cung cap thtic an vat uo ng cho ngirdi. 
Ban se co mot than ngtfdi dac biet hy hiru vdfi nhieu tfu 
diem ke tren neu ban tich tap cac nghiep nhan vura din. 



Neu cuf tri tre bieng nhac, khong chiu suy gam ky cang 
ve luat nghiep bao, co the ta ttf cho rang minh chang lam 
gi xau ac va tu* cho minh la mot ngufti tu hanh dao hanh. 
Tuy nhien, neu tu* phan tich can ke nhtfng y nghi va vice 
lam cua minh thi se kham pha rang hang ngay ta dang 
vutfng vao nhtfng Idi noi vo can ctf gay ton thtfdng cho 
ngufdi; hoac dang virdng vao 16i tham dam. Ta se kham 
pha rang minh that sir thieu mat yeu to hang dau can 
thiet ciia long tin tarn virng vang kien dinh de co the tuan 
thu phap tac nghiep qua mot each chan chinh. Ngay bay 
gid ta can tri nhan diTdc su* khac biet va khiem khuyet 
giffa viec tu hanh theo phap Phat va phtfdng thufc sinh 
song thirdng nhat. Hay lien ket tarn hieu biet ve luat 
nhan qua vdi viec lam ciia ban de ket thuc su* di biet nay. 
Ne"u tri nhan dufcfc moi nguy hie m tiem an trong diTdng 
loi tu* duy va hanh dong thi ta se khong ngtog boi during 
quyet tarn nham sufa do i each ciT xuf va y Wdng cua ta. 
Ngai Tsong-Kha-pa day rang: vi da lien ket qua lau vdi 
nhffng phien nao nen du chung ta co tan stic de khong 
virdng mac vao cac hanh vi bat mien; tuy nhien doi khi 
ta tuf phat hien ra rang minh khong the nao tu" chu dufdc 
de tranh tao tac them nhieu hanh vi bat mien. Ta khong 
nen khinh xuat doi vdi nhtfng chuyen nhuf vay. Trai lai 
hay dan bu*dc theo nhtfng phiTdng phap thanh tinh hoa do 
chinh dtfc Phat khuyen day. Ta co the thanh tinh hoa va 
khac phuc dieu xau ac da tao bang each ap dung bon oai 
liTc doi tri. Dau tien la sam hoi lu*c( 1 ). Bang each tu* duy 

") Sam hoi luc: power of regret 



den tinh each nghiem trong ve qua bao ciia cac hanh 
dong xau ac, ban nen phat khdi noi niem an ban sau xa 
ve nhtfng hanh vi da tao ngay ttf day long minh. Thtf hai 
la thanh tinh Itfd 1 ), co the dat dutfc xuyen qua nhieu 
phtfdng phap khac nhau bao gom viec tho tri doc tung 
kinh dien, quan tu ly khong tanh, tri chu, dap tao Phat 
tuttng, ciing du*dng, xiTng tan danh hieu chu Phat. Nhi?ng 
phap tu thanh tinh nay can phai cufdng quyet thtfc thi cho 
den khi ban thay difdc dau hieu va trieu chiJng thanh 
cong. Nhi?ng dau hieu ay bao gom mong thay 6i miJa; 
mong thay uong sffa bo hoac si?a dac; mong thay mat trcfi 
va mat trang; mong thay bay bong hay life chay hay che 
phuc cac bo rtog hay ngirdi mac ao choang den; mong 
thay cac vi tang ni; mong thay treo nui; va mong thay 
nghe kinh. Nhtfng dieu do deu la trieu chufng thanh cong 
trong phap tu thanh tinh. 

Thtf ba la nang lu*c quyet tarn khong tao tac nghiep 
ac( 2 ) trong ttfdng lai. Neu co nang lu*c quye t tarn va tu" 
khac che khong tao mufti ac nghiep; khong nhimg ban co 
kha nang thanh tinh hoa su* tieu cu*c ciia mu"5i ac nghiep 
khong thoi ma ban con co kha nang thanh tinh hoa phien 
nao va cac dau an do phien nao de ? lai. Neu nang lu*c 
quyet tarn cua ban rat phien dien thi phap tu thanh tinh 
cung se can co*t. Nang lu*c sau cung la quan Wdng quy y 
Phat, Phap va Tang va vi phuc lac cho moi loai chung 

( 1 ) Thanh tinh luc: power of purification 

( 2 ) Nang luc quyet tarn khong tao tdc nghiep ac: power of resolve 
not to engage in the non virtuous deed 



sanh ma phat nguyen thanh ttfu qua vi giac ngo. 

Neu ac nghiep da tao ma khong he thanh tinh hoa thi 
se tao nen ccf duyen thac sanh vao canh gidi thap kem. 
Ac nghiep co the dtfdc hoan toan thanh tinh hoa trong y 
nghia la tiem nang cua no hoan toan tan diet, hoac duyen 
thac sinh vao nhtfng canh gidfi thap hcfn cung da tan diet 
duy chi con mot vai viec rac rol dau dau ddn gian trong 
ddi nay. Do la, bat eft hanh vi xau ac nao von phai thdi 
gian dai mdi sanh ra ket qua, nhimg nay trong thdi gian 
ngan nghiep bao da chieu cam roi. Ket qua con tuy theo 
phap tu thanh tinh cua hanh gia co thien xao chang, ttf 
oai lire co hoan bi khong va dong thdi su* ha thu cong phu 
cua hanh gia co dong manh khong va phap tu tinh tri keo 
dai bao lau roi. Trong vai trufrng hdp, nghiep chieu cam 
da bi huy diet; trong vai truftng hdp khac vSn con thp 
nhan mot vai chieu cam nhe hcfn. Ban chd nen xem nhu* 
dieu nay mau thuln vdi Idi day trong kinh dien rang 
nghiep da tao tac khong bao gid xoa nhoa ditdc mtfc do 
chieu cam du ca tram kie p. Dieu nay co nghia la nghiep 
da tao ra chu*a ttag du*dc thanh tinh hoa thi khong bao gid 
co the phoi pha du"dc tiem nang chi vi thdi gian troi qua. 
Khong co hanh dong nao ma khong the thanh tinh hoa 
diTdc. SU thanh tinh hoa se giup diet triif tat ca moi tiem 
nang chieu cam gay nen tuf cac nghiep xau; cung the ay, 
moi hanh dong thien hao cung deu bi giam mat sufc chieu 
cam khi khdi len mot niem san. NhiTng Dufc Phat da day 
rang ban khong bao gift thanh tinh hoa dtfdc hanh nghiep 
mot khi no da tao thanh ket qua. Vi du: nhi?ng kinh 



nghiem tieu cu*c xau trong hien ddi la qua ciia hanh vi 
xau da tao tu* qua khti; nhtfng nghiep qua da dien ra roi, 
ban khong the tinh truf chung dtfdc. Ngai Tsong-Kha-pa 
bao rang: nhimg thien nghiep co the vi cac nhan to doi 
khang nhu* san han ma mat han nang Itfc; cho nen ta 
khong chi can trong de tich tap cong dufc khong thoi; ma 
con can phai bao ve cac cong <3tfc da tich tap di/dc mot 
each he t sure than trong ntfa. Dieu nay thifc hien diTdc 
bang each hoi hutfng cong dtfc de thanh tiru sir chufng ngo 
cho muc dich thufdng cau Phat qua. Kinh day rang mot 
khi ban da hoi htfdng cong dufc de 7 dat den nhtfng muc 
tieu nhuf vay thi chi khi nao da dat thanh vien man roi, 
cac thien nghiep ban tao mdfi khong bao gid bi mat han 
tiem nang cua no. Chang khac nao nhtf da ky thac tien 
bac vao ngan hang thi ban rat yen tarn dol vdi giac cirdfp 
- giac cutfp d day la tham, san, si. 

Du ta co the thanh Ipc hoan toan moi xau ac va huy 
diet tiem nang mang lai cac hau qua dang sd cua no 
xuyen qua each van dung cac life lufdng dol tri thich nghi 
nhiTng chi can ddn gian khong pham vao cac ac nghiep 
tu* luc dau thi vln tot hdn rat nhieu. Do vay, tot hdn het 
la ban khong nen pham vao va khong bao gid de cho npi 
tarn bi vay ban bcfi nhirng ac nghiep nhuf vay. Ngai 
Tsong-Kha-pa noi rang cung tu*dng td nhu" mot ngtfdi bi 
gay chan; sau do, lanh lai nhiTng qua that chiec chan bi 
gay khac xa so vdi chiec chan chu*a he bi gay bao gid. 

Co le co ngu*5i nghi rang vi ly do trong mot so kinh 
dien khac co de cap den suf phu quy va cac quyen Idi cua 



kiep so ng hien nay trong vong luan hoi nhiT nhtfng doi 
ttfdng can phai xa bo va khtfdc tir, nen mot hanh gia nao 
do con co y nguyen dat dtfdc hinh thtfc ton tai Itfdng hao 
la dieu khong thich hdp. Day la thai do rat sai lam. Tarn 
nguyen ma chung ta vu a noi gom co hai loai: chi nguyen 
tarn thdi va chi nguyen ctfu canh. Chi nguyen tarn thdi 
bao gom su* truy cau than ngufti qui gia trong kiep tdi. 
Di/a vao than ngtfdi qui gia nhiT vay ban co the lien 15 tu 
hanh Phat phap de cu6i cung dat thanh chi nguyen ctfu 
canh, do la sir thanh tiru giac ngo. Tuy rang do i vdi mot 
Dai thira hanh gia; muc dich cufu canh la muo n no lure dat 
di/dc Nhdt Thiet Tri nham mina cau phuc Idi cho quan 
sanh. Nhirng cung dong thdi rat can thiet cho vi hanh gia 
nay nguyen cau dat dUdc mot sir tai sanh to t dep trong 
ddi vi lai, nhu" co dufcfc mot than ngUdi chang han de vi ay 
co the tiep tuc tu hanh. Ngai Tich Thien noi rang: than 
ngirdi qui gia can dtfcJc nhdf nghi nhiT chie^c thuyen viTdt 
ngang qua bien luan hoi. De dat den muc dich ctfu canh 
thanh tiru canh gidi Nhat Thiet Tri, ban phai co diTdc than 
ngirdi hiem qui nay trong rat nhieu kiep. Dat dufdc hinh 
thufc tai sanh t6t dep nhuf vay, nguyen nhan cd ban la do 
tri gidi. 

Doi vdi da so nhieu ngu*di, qua that khd khan de bo 
han the gian sau khi ho phat nguyen tu hanh. Ngirdi tu 
hanh to t nhat la xa bo moi sinh hoat the gian, hy hien 
cuoc ddi con lai cua minh d mot ndi biet lap ddn doc de 
tu hanh. Dieu nay dang khen ngdi va cd nhieu dai Idi ich 
nhiTng rat khd de tu nhu* vay doi vdi da so nhieu ngirdi 



trong chung ta. Ban phai lo nghl ve chinh cupc ddi cua 
minh, lam vice trong cong dong va phuc vu cho nhan 
quan ntfa. Ban khong nen hoan toan ban long vdi moi 
sinh boat the tuc ma hay dung nhieu nSng lufc va thdi 
gian de tu hanh ngo hau cai thien ddi sau. Ban se bat dau 
lieu ngo rang moi hanh stf trong hien ddi khong den noi 
quan trong lam so vdi van menh tiTdng lai. 

Ban co the se co dtfdc mot cuoc chuye n sanh tot dep 
d ddi vi lai do sir quy y va phung hanh giao phap theo 
luat tac nghiep bao; bang each n6 life tu" bo cac hanh 
dong xau ac va tich tap nhirng hanh vi lifting thien. Tuy 
nhien, vi van de chuyen sanh thich hdp la mot van de con 
nam trong pham vi luan hoi ma ban chat cua luan hoi la 
"kho 9 " nen ta khong nen lay do lam thoa man. Trai lai, ta 
hay boi du*5ng sir nhan thufc rang moi hinh thuTc hien htfu 
trong vong luan hoi deu mang tinh chat "khonao". TO vo 
thi den nay, ta tfrng quen thupc vdi tarn chap thu dol vdi 
su* sung man cua luan hoi ma chang he liiu tri du*dc rang 
suT khoai lac cua luan hoi la: mot suf khd dau dich thufc. 
Cho den ngay nao ma cac pham nhan chiTa hieu rang 
minh dang bi giam cam va cung chang tri nhan diTdc rang 
cuoc ddi trong nguc that rat khd va rat khd de nhan chiu 
thi ho se vln khong phat khdi niem u*dc mong chan that 
de difdc thoat khoi vong lao nguc ay. Luan hoi cung vay, 
cho den khi nao ma ban chira nhan thufc dUdc cac khiem 
khuye t cua ddi so ng trong vong tuan hoan hien htfu nay, 
thi ban se chang bao gid chan chanh phat nguyen dat 
dufcfc Niet Ban tu"c la giai thoat khoi luan hoi. 



Ban khong nen co quan niem sai lam rang Phat giao 
la dao bi quan yem the. Trai lai, Phat giao rat lac quan 
bdi vi muc dich ma moi ca nhan nham den, do la stf 
chtfng ngo vien man hau co the dat dUdc mot niem an lac 
toan bich va vlnh cu"u. Phat giao gdi nhac chung ta rang 
m6i ngtfdi deu co the dat thanh muc dich t6i thufdng nay. 
Nhtfng khoai lac nhat thdi ciia luan hoi dirdng nhir co ve 
vui thu, nhifng chung khong the thoa man chung ta dutfc, 
cho du ta co diTdc hudng thu lau den each may di ntfa. 
Chung chang ben vimg vi chung de bien hoa thay ddi. 
Trai lai, vdi culi canh thudng hang va vinh cufu ciia an lac 
r6t rao Niet Ban thi nhirng khoai lac va an vui tarn bcf 
trong vong luan hoi nay deu trd thanh vo nghia. o 


CHl/tfNG 8 


,e kien lap mot nguyen vong kien dinh nham giai 
thoat khoi vong luan hoi sinh tuf, ta can phai triet de 
kiem soat nhtfng nhan duyen va can nhac cac ly do cua 
y muon thoat ly nay. Dieu dau tien phai thufa nhan la 
than tarn chung ta da ditdc sap dat tn/dc de chiu khd. Tit 
Dieu De(\), bai giao ly dau tien cua Btfc Phat - da de cap 
triTc tiep den van de nay. Cac chan ly nay la Kho De, 
chan ly ciia khd; Tap De, chan ly ve nguyen nhan cua 
Kho 7 ; Diet De, chan ly cua sir diet kho va Dao De, chan 
ly ve con du*dng diet kho 7 . Sir quyet dinh chi bay cac chan 
ly ke tren theo each sap thtf tiT nhiT vay cua Btfc Phat co 
mot y nghia trong dai dol vdi si/ tu hanh cua chung ta. 
Dtfc Phat da day chan ly cua khd triTdc tien nham nhan 
manh tinh each quan trong cua su* hieu biet ve cai ma ta 
thuftng cho la an lac ky that lai la khd dau. 

Khi nao nhan thtfc diTdc rang minh dang chim trong 
bien khd thi ban se day khdi len y muon diTcJc giai thoat 
khoi cai khd ay. Va chinh vdi ly do do, ma ban cam nhan 
rang, triTdc tien can phai tieu diet ngay nguyen nhan gay 
ra dau khd. Khi tim hieu ve can nguyen cua khd, ban se 
kham pha thay dufdc phien nao va nghiep bao. Do do, ban 

our Noble Truths: Tit Dieu Be hay Tit Thanh De 


co kha nang nhan thtfc diTcfc rang vong tuan hoan luan hoi 
va cac kho dau cua no dUcfc cau tao nen bcfi chinh cac 
hanh nghiep cua ban; ma nghiep thi dutfc sai su" thuc day 
bdi phien nao; phien nao thi do tu* goc rS sau day la niem 
tin sai lam vao stf ben vtfng, hoac vao su* ton tai co him, 
hoac vao ban nga. Neu dem phan tach lol tu* duy cua 
chung ta ve ban nga; ta se kham pha rang ta co khuynh 
htfdng nghl ve no nhu* mot hien hihi co that doc lap 6* 
ngoai ca than lln tarn. De x n khi ta co gang dinh vi no thi 
no lien tranh xa ta. Btic Phat da ttog khai thi rang: khong 
co cai nga nhu" vay hien him; rang niem tin cua ta ve mot 
cai nga doc lap la coi re dau nguon cho moi kho dau. 

O trong nhieu tin ngtfdng ton giao khac nhau, mot 
nhom ngifdi khong chap nhan co ddi so ng sau khi chet va 
mot nhom ngufri khac thi chap nhan. Co the chia lam hai 
nhom trong so nhtog ngifdi chap nhan co ddi so ng sau 
khi chet: mot nhom xac quyet rang phien nao cung cac 
ty vet cua tarn thufc co the du*dc tieu tru" va thanh tinh ho a 
trong khi nhom kia tin tiffing la khong the dutfc. Nhom 
sau nay chu trtfdng rang cho den khi nao tarn thtfc con do 
thi ta khong bao gid thanh tinh hoa va tach ly tarn thtfc ra 
khoi phien nao dutfc. Do vay, loai tru* phien nao cung co 
nghia rang chinh tarn thtfc cung bi tieu diet. Trong nhom 
ngufti nghT rang tarn thtfc cuoi cung roi cung se diTdc tach 
ly khoi cac cau nhiem va cac loai phien nao - do la nhom 
ngirdi tin co Niet Ban - da nhan dinh Niet Ban la cho n 
hoan toan diet kho, la mot quo c do an lac cao tham den 
tan canh gidi trac tuyet. Nhom ngufti khac thi nhan dinh 


TtfDIEUBE 393 

Niet Ban la mot trang thai tarn linh sau khi da xa ly phien 
nao va chtfng nhap diTtfc canh gidfi chan nhirv 1 ). Niet Ban 
hien dien ngay chinh trong nen tang cua tarn linh va do 
chinh la nhan quan cua tin do Phat giao. 


e thau hieu de nhut Be, KhoDe; con ngufri can phai 
tir duy ve cai kho. Ta thufdng W xem minh la mot bau 
vat thtfcfng hang trong vu tru va thufrng tu* doi dai con quy 
gia hdn ca doi vdi DiJc Phat. Tuy nhien, loai chap tru dc 
nay, chang he dufa de n ben b6 ctfu canh an lac. Bdi vi tu* 
vo thi den nay, ta da Ian Ion trong vong luan hoi sinh tu* vdi 
vo liTcfng vo bien luy kiep. Tuf thud au thdi den nay, ta da 
trai qua biet bao thang tram, chao dao va hoang mang. 
Cuoc ddi ta lai bi vay quanh bdi nhieu van nan, nhieu kho 
dau, lam luy phien va vo van that bai. Cuol cung roi cuoc 
d6i se dutfc ke t thuc bang cai chet va ta cung khong biet 
chac la no se du*a ta di ve dau nffa. Ta hay tham dinh mot 
each chan xac rang va chang co mot con duftng nao do co 
the giup ta thoat khoi su* hien hiru bat nhuf y nay. Neu cuoc 
d6i in tuyen nhu* diTdc khdi phat theo mot the thtfc doc lap 
vofi moi nhan duyen, va du"dc ket thuc bang mot the thufc 
khong con co bat cuf su* tiep noi lien li nao thi qua la vo 
phiTdng de viTdt thoat. Va neu qua dung nhu* vay, thi ta 
cung nen so ng theo chu thuyet khoai lac. Tuy nhien, ai 
cung deu biet rang kho dau la mot su* the ma ta that su* 
chang muon mong tim va rang giai thoat la dieu rat dang 

H) Cdnh gicti chan nhif: reality 



truy cau neu nhiT co the dat dutfc su* giai thoat loan triet 
ngay tu* trong khd dau. 

Than nghiep, ngff nghiep va y nghiep da troi buoc 
chung ta trong vong luan hoi sinh tuf va khd dau. Nhuf 
chung ta vSn biet, du trong mot sat na (chdp nhoang,) 
minh cung co the tich tap dtfdc ca tarn nghiep va chinh 
cai sat na (chdp nhoang) ay da xo day ta xuong canh gidi 
thap hdn. Suf troi bupc da phat khdi tuf mot tarn tntfc chiTa 
dufdc dieu phuc do chinh vi vo minh va vi sir lam ttfcfng 
ve tu* nga cua ta gay ra. Khai niem tu* nhien ve mot loai 
ban nga doc lap tach rieng ra se thoi thuc ta dam chim 
theo du loai ac nghiep ma ket qua dUa den la dau thtfdng 
khd luy. Thai do duy nga nay da lam chu chung ta tu* lau 
ma chung ta thi cuf mai mai vang theo menh lenh cua ong 
chu sai sir. The nen, ta can tri nhan diTdc rang minh se 
chang thu hoach dufdc ich Icfi nao khi deo dudi theo Icfi 
chi bao ay ca. Va ngay nao con 6m gift thai do nhu* vay, 
ngay do van chufa the co du"dc cd hoi tim ditdc niem an 
lac hanh phuc dich thiTc. 

Trong tinh huo ng nguy cap nhtf vay, chung ta hay tham 
xet thu" xem va chang minh co the khac phuc dtfdc cac 
phien nao nay. Kinh nghiem Ian dau tien du*dc sinh ra 
qua la mot kinh nghiem daii ddn cho ca me cung con. 
Vira diTdc sinh ra, phien nao co mot ban nang tu" nhien 
bam chat lay than xac va tarn tu" ta; de roi can trd tarn 
thufc khien ta khong sao trufc tiep hiTdng den Phat phap de 
tu hanh dtfdc. Chinh than the ta la ndi trd nen cac nhan 
to day phat phien nao. Vi du nhir: khi bi benh hoan, than 



the suy nhtfcfc thi ta san ttfc; den khi diTcfc khoe manh thi 
ta lien sanh tarn ai chap. Su* song tat nhien diTdc tiep no i 
tu* cai diet va chet lai dutfc noi tiep bcfi mot cuoc chuyen 
sanh khac. Neu dieu nay van con chtfa du, thi sir chuyen 
sinh chinh no dutfc xem nhir la mot nen tang cd ban cho 
nhieu khd dau ach nan khac ntfa. Bdi vi chinh sir chuyen 
sinh nay da cung tfng hoan canh cho nhieu phien nao 
khac tiep theo de roi lai them Ian ntfa khdi duyen cho ac 
nghiep va diTa din den cac ac bao. 

Than ngirdi ma ta gin gitf nhir mot bao vat da de n tu* 
cac vat the nhd nhdfp. Than xac chung ta diTdc cau tao tuf 
mot tdng hdp tinh dich cua song than la tinh cha tru ng 
me. Chung ta se tranh ne neu may quan ao bi dinh mau 
va tinh dich hoac neu co giot nao bi rdi rai xuo ng dat. 
Song le, ta vln tiep tuc sung bai chinh tu" than minh; tim 
each dung quan ao to t dep de che day than minh, dung 
hufdng thdm de che day mui hoi cua minh. Cha me, ong 
ba, to tien chung ta cung diTdc sinh ra tuf cac dich chat 
tufdng tu*. Truy nguyen nguon go c, ta se nhan thay rang 
than xac la san pham sau cung cua moi chat liTdng bat 
tinh ke tren. Tien them mot butfc n(?a, ta co the thay du*dc 
than xac hhu* mot chiec may san xuat ra phan va nirdc 
tieu. Qua that dang thufdng khi nhin thay nhffng con 
trung, mot dau an nuo t bun dat va mot dau kia dung de 
bai tiet. Khong co gi dang de nang niu tran qui mot than 
the bat tinh nhir the ca. 

Them vao do, con ngUdi lai con co kha nang de doa moi 
sir so ng con cua qua dia cau. NhSng ngufcfi nhu* Stalin, 



Hitler, Mao Trach Dong vi tarn chtfa dtfdc dieu phuc nen 
khong nhufng ho chi tich tap vo so nghiep ac ma con gay 
anh hufdng den biet bao sinh linh, tao nen vo so au sau, 
thong khd va bi thtfdng day vo. 

Ke den la cai khd bdi suf suy lao - Ido khoW. Tudi gia 
theo nam thang chong chat dan dan; nen ta khong tai nao 
co the kham nhln ndi. Khi tudi gia bong xe, ta se mat di 
sir linh hoat cua th5i son tre va cung chang tieu hoa ndi 
nhtfng thiTc pham ma trirdc kia ta mot thdi ham thich. Ten 
cua nhimg ai va nhtog do vat gi ma trirdc kia ta nhdf rat 
ro rang, thi nay vi tudi gia ta khong tai nao nhcf ndi. Dan 
dan, rang rung, toe rdi, mat nhoa, tai lang. Cudi cung roi 
ta se phai den hoi tan ta va moi ngu*di bat dau mu6n tiT 
bo tro n chay du chi thoang thay bong dang cua ta. Khi 
den thdi ky phai trong nhd vao su" giup d5 cua tha nhan 
thi moi ngufdi se tranh ne gap ban. 

Ke tie p la berth khoW. Than thi benh hoan, tarn thi gia 
tang xao xuyen bat an nen ban se bi benh tat day vo 
ngay dem bat tan. Benh tat cung gay trd ngai lam ban 
khong the an nhihig mon gi ma minh Ua thich, lam nhtog 
viec gi ma minh muo n lam. Va ban buoc long phai uo ng 
nhtog thu" thudc co nhirng mui vi ma ban ghe tdm. 

Ke den la t&MioW. Ban se bo lai tat ca tai san qui gia 
cua minh, xa lia chinh nhirng ngutfi than thtfcfng va ngay 
ca xac than da gan bo deo dudi ban sudt ddi, ban cung se 

( 1 ) Lao kho: suffering of aging 

(2) Benh kho: suffering of illness 

(3) Tit kho: suffering of death 


TtfDIEUBE 397 

)hai xa lia no. Dau kho cua tuf vong qua tinh da qua ro 
ang doi vdfi chung ta nen khong can thiet de giai thich 
nhieu hdn nffa. 

Sau cung la odn tang hoi kho(^\ vi du nhu* phai gap g3 
nhtfng ke thu ghet. Ngay trong hien ddi da co rat nhieu 
loai kinh nghiem ve su* bat toai y. Nhan dan lay Tang 
chung toi mat di tuf do; do la cai kho oan tang hoi day. 
Ngay ca nhan dan cua mot dai sieu ctfcfng nhif Hiep 
Chung Quoc Hoa Ky vSn bi du thtf phien toai doanh vay. 
Doi khi ho da bi nuong chiu hu* hong vi sinh trufdng trong 
mot moi truftng vat chat sung man nhu* vay. Do vi su* 
kiem toa bdi nhtog dua tranh qua do nen ho da so ng 
trong noi phap phong au lo hdn ngu*5i khac. Tranh dua 
de n mot mite do nao do thi t6t dep; nhifng neu tranh dua 
qua mite kiem che nhuf tufng xay ra tai My quo c thi se du*a 
den do ky ganh ghet va bat man ciTc do. Tai nhtfng quoc 
gia phat trien nhieu ve vat chat, doi khi ngufdi ta con 
lieng bo thifc pham vao long dai dtfdng. NhiTng ben kia 
bd cua dia cau la nhiTng quo c gia Phi Chau vdi hang trieu 
trieu ngtfdi doi khat. Qua that kho khan de co the tim 
dtfdc bat ciJ ngufdi nao kha di hoan toan vira long man y. 

Ke den la di biet ly khoW. Vi du: nhan dan lay Tang 
chung toi da bi mat nu*dfc lai con chiu canh tang toe chia 
ly vdi nhu^ng ngifdi than thtfdng yeu qui. Cau bat toai y 
cung la mot loai dau kho. Chang han nhu* cay cay bi that 
mua hoac khdi su* mot thtfcfng vu bi that bai v.v... 

( 1 ) Odn tang hoi kho: suffering of meeting with the unwanted. 

( 2 ) Ai biet ly kho: suffering of having what we want taken away 



Mot khia canh khac ve khd dau la phai muc kich cai 
khd cua su* bat dinhO). Trai qua nhieu Ian chuyen sanh tai 
the hoac doi khi chi trong mot kiep cua vong luan hoi 
nay, moi stf mpi vat deu thay doi. Cha me, than bang 
quyen thuoc cua ta trcf thanh thu nghich va ke thu dich lai 
trcf thanh bang hu\i, hoac cha me ta se chuyen sinh trd lai 
lam con cai cua chinh chung ta. Khong co gi co x dinh chac 
chan ca. 

Ngai Tsong-Kha pa day rang: ta hay n lufc ngan ngufa 
mpi hmh thufc nghieng nga thien vi ve mat tinh cam doi 
vdi tha nhan, do du*a vao su* ky thi hoac su* sap hang rang 
day la thu, day la ban, day la than bang quyen thuoc. 
Hay ttf duy ve su" bat dinh cua ca ddi ta ngay trong vong 
tuan hoan nay va hay tim each phat khdi mot vai y niem 
chan ghet gdm tdm( 2 ) doi vdi luan hoi( 3 ). Con co mot noi 
kho nhuc khac, do la khd vi khong biet thoa man( 4 )- Neu 
thu*c su" chiem nghiem den tdng so thufc pham ma minh 
da tufng an udng ca cuoc ddi nay, thi ta se cam thay chan 
ngan va kinh ngac rang an nhu* the muc dich la de du*dc 
gi? Day la trufdng hdp cua hien ddi nay; vay con bao 
nhieu ddi kiep qua khuf neu ta thuf chiem nghiem, ta se 
nghi sao ve nhtog kiep ay? Chang han, tat ca so stfa cua 
me ma ta da udng tu* thucf au thdi den nay? Qua la da 
vuTdt qua xa tarn tri tufdng Wdng cua ta! Ban hay quan 

( 1 ) Kho cua stibd t dinh: suffering of uncertainty 

( 2 ) Y niem chan ghet gdm torn: sense of aversion 

(3) Luan hoi: samsara 

( 4 ) Kho vi khong biet thoa man: suffering of lack of contentment 


TtfDIEUBE 399 

chieu den moi trang huo ng phon vinh cung nhu" dau kho ? 
trong vong tuan hoan luan chuyen lien tuc nay va hay 
nghi xem phai chang chtfa co kinh nghiem nao ma ban 
chtfa tufng trai qua. De dat dtfdc mot hinh thtfc thoa man 
tarn linh, ta co cong hu*cfng thu; song moi hoan lac va 
hanh phuc ciia stf luan hoi deu in nhu* mot cam giac 
khong bao gid thoa man, no chi nhu* bat tan du ta co tim 
cau the may de hi/cfng thu chung. Ta phai tu" duy rang 
khong biet thoa man, chinh tit no la mot n6i kho dau to 
Idn. Ta da tifng nem trai vo Itfdng vo bien kinh nghiem va 
thang tram trong luan hoi. Tu* duy den su* vo cd ciia cac 
kinh nghiem nhu* vay, ban hay xac dinh ro rang, neu ban 
khong bat dau dinh chi nhtog tuan hoan ac tinh nay ngay 
tu c khac thi moi tiep tuc dan bufdc deu khong co y nghia 
chi ca. Vi vay, ta hay bat dau phat trien mot noi niem 
chan ghet sau xa doi vdi toan the qua trinh nhffng kinh 
nghiem co dtfcfc ngay chinh trong vong luan hoi nay. 

Co mot n6i kho vi phai tiep tuc va tiep tuc xa bo than 
xac. Cho den nay ta da trai qua biet bao luy kiep va khoac 
vao biet bao hinh hai, nhirng ta van mai hoai cong de lam 
cho kiep song va xac than dtfdc du*c(m nhieu y nghia. Ta 
da khong thanh dat dtfdc dieu gi ca khi chi ddn thuan 
khoac vao minh vo so dem ke cac than xac hinh hai. 

Ta lai trai qua biet bao Ian tho thai tai diln va tai dien 
mai. DuTc Phat day rang: ne u ta nhat da cuoi, dung de 
dem so cac ba me ciia chung ta, moi vien Wcfng triTng cho 
mot ngtfdi me thi su" diem so nay se khong cung tan. Khi 
nghi de n tat ca nhtog phon vinh trong luan hoi deu ket 



thuc mot each bat hanh va true trac, nhtf phap ngtf da noi: 
"Sti cdo chung cua hoi tu la tan tdc; cua dlnh cao danh 
vong Id suy thodi; cua gap gd Id phdn ly; cua sU song la 
nghin thu vinh biet. " Tom lai, moi kinh nghiem, mpi hy 
lac, moi hanh phuc trong luan hoi deu tan cung trong khd 
sau bat hanh, cho du be ngoai dtfcfng nhtf sung thinh va 
vi dai the may di nffa thi cung the thoi. 

Sau cung, mot viln canh khac nffa lai diTdc de ra bcfi 
ba loai kho . Loai thu: nhat goi la Khd KhoW, do la nhffng 
kinh nghiem hien nhien cua niem dau the chat va tinh 
than ma ta thiTdng nhan dinh nhuf la mot loai kho ? . 

Loai khd thuf hai dtfdc goi la Hoqi Kho ( 2 ) vi moi sung 
stfdfng hanh phuc cua the gian deu chung cupc roi cung 
bien thanh dau kho ? , nhiT the goi la Hoqi Kho. Hoqi Kho 
da bi ngo nhan nhu" la mot kinh nghiem cua vui stfdng. Vi 
du nhu*: neu ban dang len cdn sot hoac dang bi nong biJc, 
va neu co nu*dc lanh de dpi xoi len than, ban se cam nhan 
duTdc mot vai cam giac dS chiu thoai mai. Va chung ta 
xem day la mot loai hanh phuc. Hoac gia, sau mot cupc 
tan bp dai dang, ban lai co du*dc ccf hoi ngoi nghi, giay 
phut nghi chan ay qua that dufcfng nhu" tuyet vdi hanh 
phuc. NhiTng day khong phai la mot kinh nghiem chan 
that hanh phuc; nhtfng gi ban dang that su* cam nhan chi 
la sir ngimg triet dan da cua noi khon kho trurdc kia ma 
thoi. Neu du"c(c ngoi nghi la niem thoa thich chan chinh 

(1) Kho kho: the suffering of suffering 

( 2 ) Hoqi kho: the suffering of change 


TtfDIEUBE 401 

thi dtfdc tiep tuc ngoi mai chac chan phai tao dtfdc nhtfng 
cam tho vui thich gio ng nhtf vay. Song le, ban lai cam 
thay moi met va muo n dtfng day trcf lai neu dtfdc tiep tuc 
ngoi lau them ntfa. 

Loai kho tM ba la Hdnh KhoW, co nghia rang than 
tarn ciia chung ta bi khohg che bcfi qua nhieu dieu kien 
gan nhu* co the kham chiu ndi moi dau kho trong bat cu* 
thdi khac nao. Ca ba loai kho nay co the diTdc mieu ta 
nhu* sau. Ne u ban bi phong thifdng, khi boi thuo c dan len 
se gay cho ban mot vai cam giac diTdc chffa tri va thoai 
mai de chiu. Day gio ng nhu" triTdng hdp cua Hoai Kho, 
bdi vi tuy diTdc nhat thdi thoai mai nhiTng su" vui surdng dl 
chiu chang the keo dai lau dufdc. Neu co ngirdi vo y dung 
phai hoac bi niTdc soi dpi nham ve t thifdng thi ban se that 
su* cam nhan dufdc sir dau buot tai te. Do la cai kho ro 
rang hien nhien, la Kho Kho. Cai co the gay cho hai cai 
kho tren day hien dien difdc chinh la vet phong thu*dng 
ban dau. Neu chung ta chang he bi phong, thi chung ta 
cung se chang co nhihig kinh nghiem tiep nol sau do. Vet 
dau phong da dong gop dieu kien cho cai kho khac in 
tuyen nhu* la sir sd him than mang va tarn thtfc cua chung 
ta da co khuynh hiTdfng dat dinh cho chung ta cai kho ke 
tiep roi. Va dac tinh cua than \ac tif no da dong gop dieu 
kien nhan duyen de bi phong rat. Va no da diTdc dat dinh 
tnfdc de san sang nhan chiu cac loai kho dau ach nan. 
Day chinh la Hanh Kho. 

0) Hanh kho: the suffering of pervasive conditioning 


Ta nen tri hieu mot each ro rang ve cac loai khd dau 
nhu* sir khd dau cua cac loai sue sanh, cua cac loai quy 
doi va cua cac chung sanh cf dia nguc; tat ca deu co the 
xay ra ngay chinh trong loai ngufti. Sau khi Trung cong 
bat dau chiem dong, nhieu ngufdi da chet vi doi cf Tay 
Tang. Co luc nhan dan lay Tang gan nhtf phai an la cay, 
con trung va giun de. Nhffng truftng hdp nhu* vay rat 
tu*o*ng tu" nhu* cac loai quy doi. Tai Phi Chau cung xay ra 
nhu"ng khd dau nhu" vay, vi hien co hang trieu ngirdi dang 
chet vi doi. O nhtfng quo c gia co chien tranh, con ngiTdi 
phai chiu lam than khd scf nhu* cf coi dia nguc vi cac anh 
hu*dng di biet chinh tri. Khi Stalin len nam quyen, ong da 
ap dung phtfdng thtfc chuyen che bao ngiTdc va vo nhan 
dao de cai tri Cong Hoa Lien Bang So Viet. Theo tai 
lieu, dudi ach tho ng tri cua Stalin da co den 14 trieu nam 
tram ngan ngUdi bo mang tnrdc the chien thuf hai. Rat 
nhieu ngtfdi trong so ho, nhtog nong dan Nga So da chet 
vi doi, va vi bi tra tan hanh ha. Nhffng dang vien Cong 
san thi lai du*dc thira hifdng mot ddi so ng sung man va 
thufc an cao liTdng my vi. Ho phai co canh binh bao ve khi 
an tru"a vi lo sd bi cac nong dan ndi loan va cu*dfp giut thiTc 

Ngay ca chtf thien cung phai chiu khd. Ho co the thay 
biet trutfc khi chet nen ho rat khd sd ve tinh than. Kinh 
day rang cac trang hoa cua ho se tan ua; ao quan va cd 
the cua ho cung bat dau nang mui hoi thol Ho da lam 
suy can toan triet tiem nang cua thien nghiep sau khi tan 
htfcfng he t moi due lac coi trdi. Vi the, ho se rdi thing 


TlfDIEUBE 403 

xuong canh gidi thap hdn khi chet. Ngai Tsong-Kha-pa 
day: do vi suy nghiem den toan the cac n6i khd dau ciia 
sir luan hoi noi chung, va cac kho 7 dau rieng biet trong 
tirng canh gicfi ma ta hay phat khcfi tarn cam chan ghet 
sau xa ve moi kinh nghiem con nan cuoc trong vong luan 
hoi, va hay phat khcfi mot each dong manh tarn xuat ly 
thoat tuc. De roi, ta se that sir bat dau chinh thufc dieu 
nghien thu* xem nhffng nguyen nhan nao da diTa din den 
biet bao bat hanh e che nhu* vay. Vi the, cau hoi cua De 
Nhi De- chan ly thur hai, su* that ve nguon goc cua kho 
dau se n6i tiep theo sau. 

Tap De 

T)hien nao la nguyen nhan chu ye u ciia sir chuyen sanh 
trong luan hoi. Khong co phien nao, nghiep se gio ng 
nhu* hat gio ng da bi thieu huy va se khong du nang lu*c de 
gay nen mot su* sanh chuyen ttfdng tuc. Truy tim cac 
phtfdng thuoc de giai truT phien nao qua that het sure quan 
trong; va dieu nay con tuy thuoc vao ban, do la ban da 
tri nhan dUdc phien nao mot each chan xac chira? Do do, 
chung ta can phai dUdc thong suo t ro rang ve cac d^c tinh 
thong thirdng va cac dac tinh ca biet cua phien nao. Nhtf 
ngai Dat Lai Lat Ma ddi thtf nhat da noi, hay dieu phuc 
nhtJng ke thu trong tif than noi tai, ay chinh la phien nao. 
Ke dich ngoai tai co the diTdc xem nhu* rat hung doc 
nhirng lai co the trd thanh bang hiru cua ta trong ddi vi 
lai. Ngay trong hien kiep, ho da cung ufng cho ta cd hoi 
de tu hanh nhan nhuc va tu" bi, bdi vi tren cd ban, tat ca 
chung ta deu giong nhau: chung ta deu ham vui tranh 



khd. Nhirng ke thu phien nao noi tai chang co mot chut 
iru die m nao ca, no chi da pha va buy diet thoi. Chung 
ta vi vay can phai nhan dinh ro rang ke thu, nhin xem 
each no van tac ra sao? Bat ctf trang thai tarn ly nao diet 
pha suf an tinh cua tarn hon, va mang den luy phien cho 
tarn linh, gay nen sau nao buon dau day vo tarn thufc deu 
diTdc goi la phien nao. 

Chung ta hay nhan dinh mot vai phien nao chu yeu. 
Dau tien la su" tham chap, do chinh la niem khat vong 
manh liet doi vdi ngirdi, hoac dol vdi vat dep, hoac dol 
vdfi nhffng kinh nghiem vui surdng. Tham due gio ng nhiT 
dem tarn ban buoc vao dol tufdng ngoai vat, rat kho tru" 
khuf. Mot loai phien nao khac, do la su" san ban. Khi con 
ngufti gian du"; ngay tiJc khac chung ta co the trong thay 
ho bi mat binh tmh, mat mui do ngau, bien nhan ngay ca 
cap mat ho cung do luon. Dol Wdng cua su* cam phan, du 
la nao nhiet sinh dong hay vo tri vo giac deu la nhtog gi 
xem nhif khong dang say me va nen tu* khufdc. Phan no la 
trang thai npi tarn chifa difdc dieu phuc, rat tho bao va 
khong binh hoa. Mot loai phien nao khac - su* kieu man 
- do la trang thai tarn linh ma con ngufti tu* khoe khoang 
cao ngao vdi dia vi, giai cap, hoc thtfc cua chinh minh do 
du*a vao thai do xem tuf nga nhu* trung tarn diem; cho du 
la minh co thanh tifu dtfdc dieu gi hay khong, minh van 
cam thay dtfcfng dtfdng tu* dac. Ke nao mang tinh cao 
ngao chat ngat se rat tu* phu va to ra rat ta day. Ke den la 
vo minh, ttfc la sir nhan dinh lam lac ve Tit Dieu Deve 
luat nghiep bao v.v...V6 minh difcfc trinh bay trong rieng 



phan thao luan nay, do la muon de cap den mot yeu to 
tarn ly hoan toan lam lac, md am ve ban chat cua Tarn 
Bao va phap tac cua nghiep. Con phien nao cua su* hoai 
nghi la nhtfng ttf tufdng chap chcfn lirdng lu* khong biet 
chac co Tit Dieu De hoac luat tac cua nghiep bao hay 

Mot loai phien nao khac ntfa, do la nhtfng loai ta kie n, 
la su* ngo nhan voi vang ve ban chat cua thifc tai. Loai 
dau tien trong nhtog loai ta kien nay la trang thai tarn ly 
chuyen chu vao tu" nga va lam tufdng rang ban nga ton tai 
chan that, hoac co mot thu*c chat - Wdng Wdng cho rang 
ngay chinh trong than xac va tarn thufc tarn bd vo thiTdng 
cua chung ta co mot loai ban nga trtfdng cull, tiT do doc 
lap. Nhffng loai ta kien khac la nhiJng loai ta kien chu 
tru*dng khong co ddi so ng sau coi che t, khong co tac 
nghiep va cung chang co Tarn Bao. Dufa tren kien giai 
sai lam ve W nga, co nhffng phien nao khac trdi day. Vi 
du: neu trdi nha nhem tol va neu co cuon day thufng thi 
co the ban se ngo nhan sdi day la con ran. De roi y tudng 
nhan lam sdi day la con ran se xuc tac va se dufa dan den 
du loai phan ting trong tarn thtic nhu* scf hai; va se du"a 
dan den du loai hanh dong, chang han nhu" chay ra khoi 
nha hoac tim each giet ran... tat ca deu dira can ban tren 
mot ngo nhan thuan tuy ddn gian. Cung the ay, ta lam lac 
tin tiTcfng rang ca than va tarn cua ta deu sd hu\i mot hinh 
thai ban nga nao do. Va ket qua la du thti phien nao se 
nol tiep theo sau nhu* due cau va san han. Bcfi vi thai do 
xem tu" nga nhu* trung tarn diem va quan niem sai lam ve 



ban nga ciia tu* than nay ma ta ky thi phan biet minh va 
ngufti. De roi can cu* theo phufdng each tha nhan doi xuf 
vdi ta; ta se xem mot doi ngiTdi iru ai than can, va chap 
luyen vdi ho; con mot vai ngufri khac thi xa each va liet 
ke ho nhirke thu nghich. The la chung ta phan no san han 
va vi trpn ven dat chu tarn vao tiT than nen ta trcf nen kieu 
cang tU dac va tuf quan trpng hoa minh. Sau do, neu sif 
chap chat cua quan niem sai lam ve ban nga da qua 
manh liet thi ta se bat dau dat nghi van rang la va chang 
giao phap day ve vo nga ciia chu* Phat co dang de diTdc 
tin cay? Vi the, ta khcfi suf hoai nghi ve luat tac nghiep 
bao, v< Tit Thanh De, ve Tarn Bdo. Nhtog ta kien tren 
day se du"a dan den hoai nghi. Pham tat ca deu khdi phat 
tu* mot niem tin sai lac ve mot ban nga that co cua tu" 

Khi phien nao phat khdi trong ban, no se quay nhiSu 
suf tinh lang binh hoa cua tarn thtfc ban, va no cung dong 
thdi mu khuat su* phan doan cua ban ve tha nhan. No se 
de lai mot ty vet rat sau dam, khong nhffng hai minh, ma 
con hai ca ngufdi khac nffa. Vi du nhu": neu vi qua gian dff 
ma sinh ra au da thi ban se gay ra phien toai cho hang 
xom. Su* phln no se lam tieu hao cong du*c va lam cho 
ban mat het tai san va ban be. Khi ngu*di nao bi kern kep 
bdi anh hirdng cua sir thinh no, thi ke do that sU danh mat 
pham each cua mot con ngirdi. Nhan loai chung ta diTdc 
trang bi bang mot khol 6c het sufc phufc tap, va chung ta 
co nang lu*c phan xet dung sai cung nhu* co nang life do 
Itfdng tinh huong phai trai cua van de. So vdi cac loai 



hftu tinh khac, ta co mot pham vat mien phu doc dao; tuy 
nhien ta lai danh mat cai kha nang ay khi ta dang bi de 
nang dtfdi sufc anh htfcfng manh liet cua phien nao. Cho 
du ta co the quyet chi lam mot dieu nao do, nhiTng ta da 
danh mat nang Itfc phan doan. Dieu phuc tarn thtfc la 
cong tac trpng yeu nhat trong cuoc ddi cua mot con 

Diet Be 

hit ngai Tsong-Kha-pa da day: tat ca cac canh gidi 
luan hoi ma ta co the chuyen sanh den, tuf diem ton 
tai cu*c cao xuo ng den canh gidi thap nhat cua dia nguc 
deu mang tinh chat kho dau. Nhtog kho dau nay khong 
phai do vo cd, va cung da khong diTdc tao ra bcfi mot 
dang ThiTdng De toan nang nao ca. Chung la san pham 
cua nhffng phien nao va hanh nghiep cua chinh chung ta 
do trang thai tarn linh chu*a dtfcfc dieu phuc thuc day ma 
tao thanh. Nguyen nhan coi rS ciia moi kho dau la vo 
minh, va do vo minh nen da co mot kien giai sai lam ve 
ban chat cua van phap, va da xem ban than tu" nga nhiT la 
mot thiTc the ton tai doc lap. Su* vo minh nay khien chiing 
ta phong dai tinh trang cua van phap, va da gay tao nen 
sir phan biet giffa ta va tha nhan. Nhtfng dieu ay se mang 
den cac kinh nghiem cua su* ham muo n, cua su* san ket qua du*a den la dii loai hanh vi tieu cu*c. 
Chung cung san sinh ra tat ca nhtfng kho dau ngoai y 
muon cho chung ta. Ne u khong muo n kho thi ta thuf nhan 
dinh xem, suf diet kho ? co kha thi chang? Neu vo minh da 



khien ta vong chap ban nga la mot y thtfc sai lam thi van 
co the tranh dutfc bang each sira do i sir sai lam ay. Co the 
dat dutfc dieu nay bang each khdi phat ngay chinh trong 
noi tarn chung ta mot loai tri tue co the thau triet diTtfc 
stfc doi lap trtfc tiep cua tarn thtic, do la mot loai tue giac 
co the thau triet dutfc rang khong he co mot ban nga co 
that hien him nhu* vay. Khi so sanh hai trang thai tarn thtic 
tren day - mot thi tin ttfdng rang co mot ty nga noi tai 
that sir hien htfu; va hai la mot trang thai tarn thtfc triTc 
nhan dufdc sir vang mat cua mot loai ban nga nhuf vay- 
thi sir chap chat vao ban nga theo nhiT su* ly giai luc dau 
rat chac chan va viJng manh. Tuy nhien, vi do la mot y 
tMc sai lam nen no da thie"u han sir ho trd mot each 
thuan ly. Con co mot hinh thai noi tarn khac ntfa, do la 
suf thau triet vo nga, dufdng nhiT rat yeu dt vao giai ky dau 
tien nhiTng no lai rat thuan ly. Sdm muon gi thi tue giac 
co kha nang ly giai dtfdc vo nga cung chiem the thiTdng 
phong. O vao giai ky tien khdi, chan ly co the khong 
diTdc ro rang cho lam nhiTng khi ta tien gan de n chan ly 
hdn, thi chan ly cang dan da trcf thanh tiT chuTng. Nhtog 
gi sai quay 6* giai doan tien khdi tiTa ho rat linh hoat va 
viJng chac; nhirng ket cuoc khi ta tham xet cang ky liTdng 
bao nhieu thi no cang trcf nen mong manh can cctt hdn de 
cuol cung diTa dan de n tan ra. 

Phien nao khac vdi tarn thtfc, no khong phai la mot 
phan cua ban tanh chu ye u cua noi tarn. Vi du nhiT: co 
ngirdi tanh net rat nong nay nhirng cung co luc tarn binh 
khi hoa. Mot ngiTcfi co tanh tinh rat nong nay chiTa han la 



y se trufcmg ky san gian. VI the, khi nhffng trang thai tarn 
thufc phien nao nhu* san han va due vong troi day trong ta, 
chung rat dtf dpi va manh me. Nhirng, neu ta y thtfc dUdc 
thi khong bao gid co trtfdng hdp la cac trang thai tarn 
thtfc nay tie p tuc hien dien. Mot sir that khac ntfa la, ta 
khong the co hai trang thai tarn ly ddi lap dong luc doi 
vdi mot vat the; giong nhu* doi vdi ngiTdi nao do ta khong 
the vufa co long han thu sau xa, vira co long bi mln nong 
nan di/dc. 

Co rat nhieu trang huong khac nhau ngay chinh trong 
tarn tu* chung ta; co nhUng trang huong vo cung vi te nho 
nhiem, co mot so tieu cufc va mot so tich ciTc. Chinh ngay 
trong chanh trai lu*5ng ciTc do ma ta phat hien rat ro rang 
la cang nang cao va gia tang sir quen thuoc doi vdi ben 
nay thi sir chap chat vao mat ben kia cang trd nen ye u oft 
di. Do vay, nhffng 6 nhiem va phien nao ngay chinh trong 
tarn chung ta deu co the tru* khuf diTcfc. Kinh nghiem cua 
chung ta chufng minh rang co mot so ngiTdi that su* rat nong 
tanh va dl bi khich dong luc tre tudi, nhirng da trd nen rat 
on hoa ve sau. Dieu nay chtfng to khi tarn tanh chung ta 
quen thuoc vdi tinh thiTdng va long bi man rong Idn bat 
tan, thi site manh cua su" phan no se dan dan giam thieu. 

Dao Be 

r chung ta da thay va hieu rang tat cd mpi kinh 
nghiem trong luan hoi deu von co du ban chat kho ? 
dau, do vay chung ta nen phat nguyen mot each chan 
thanh de cau diTdc giai thoat. Do nguyen lire thuc day, 



chiing ta phai tien vao con dtfdng tarn hoc: Gidi, Dinh, 
HueO). Trong tarn hoc, thuoc giai co the tieu tru* doc 
phien nao la tri hue hieu biet ve vd nga. Hufdng den muc 
dich do, dau tien phai can lay tarn linh o n dinh, chuyen 
chii lam nen tang; ma tarn linh chuyen chii co dtfdc do 
nhd dtfa vao stf tri gidi thanh tinh. VI the , chiing ta cung 
can phai tri gidi thanh tinh. Cf giai doan sd khcfi, iru tien 
hang dau can phai lam, do la viec tri gidi, vi tri gidi la 
viec vo cung can thiet cap bach. 

Ngai Tsong-Kha-pa day rang, chanh niem< 2 ) va 
chanh tri( 3 ) la nen tang cho toan the giao phap cua Phat. 
De tri gidi thanh tinh, nang life chanh tri (hieu biet chan 
chinh) va niem trii (an tni trong chanh niem) la dieu can 
phai co. Doi vdi nam chiing va ntf chiing tai gia, stf tri 
gidi thanh tinh de tiet che tranh pham vao thap ac nghiep 
la nen tang cua su* tu hanh nham hifdng den con diTdng 
giac ngo giai thoat. Neu chiing ta khong suy xet nhftng 
dieu can thiet, thufc tien, nhuf tri gidi ma chi tim kiem cac 
phUdng thtfc tu hanh phufc tap thi su* tu hanh cua chiing ta 
chi ddn thuan gia d6i chtf khong that su* nghiem can chan 
chinh. Tu tap tarn hoc, chiing ta nen truy cau mot su* 
thanh ttfu giai thoat, khong nhtfng cho chinh minh ma con 
dong thdi cho khap muon loai. 

Kinh sach day, than ngufti la hinh thtfc tot nhat de tu 

( 1 ) Con dudng tarn hoc, Gidi, Dinh, Hue: The path of the three 
trainings: training of morality, concentration, wisdom 

( 2 ) Chanh niem: mindfulness 
W Chanh tri: introspection 



hanh Phat phap va de nS lire cham dirt luan hoi. Ngay vdi 
than ngtfdi, cuoc ddi cua nhftng ctf si tai gia cung thufdng 
bi vtfdng ban vao du loai van nan, du loai phien toai. Vi 
vay cac sinh hoat the tuc ma ho bi vufdng ban vao thtfdng 
khong giiip ich gi nhieu cho sir tu tap hanh tri ciia ho. Con 
cuoc ddi cua chu* vi tang ni thi thiTdng diTdc xem nhu* da 
giup cho su* tu hanh diTdc vo cung d dang de cham diJt 
luan hoi. Ngai Tsong-Kha-pa day rang: Neu ban da la 
mot tang si hay mot ntf tu roi thi chi nguyen dan than vao 
ddi so ng xuat gia se diTdc kien dinh hdn khi tu* duy den 
cac khuyet diem va cac bat tien cua ddi so ng tai gia, 
cung cac tfu diem va sir thuan Idi cua ddi so ng xuat gia. 
Loi tu* duy nhu* vay, se lim vao tan cung tarn kham cua 
ban nhffng dau an sau dam ciia mien nghiep de roi mot 
ngay nao do se bien thanh nhtog cd duyen diTa din ban 
htfdng den cuoc so ng cat ai lia than cho du hien nay ban 
van chtfa dtft khoat lira chpn con dtfcfng xuat gia nay. 
Trong cuoc so ng the tuc, neu qua giau co sung man thi 
ddi ban se ngap tran doanh vay bcfi nhieu van nan va au 
lo de bao toan san nghiep; ne u ngheo kho thi cuoc ddi 
ban se chi tuyen la bu*di chai nham tim ke sinh nhai. Co 
nhieu ciia cai vat chat va vln khong tri tuc (biet du); day 
khong phai la the thufc song cua mot tang nhan hay mot 
ni sir. Tang va ni khong nen dinh liu den cac thufdng vu 
buon ban truf phi bi sa vao vdng nd nan. Lam thtfdng mai 
va dan than qua nhieu vao cong cuoc quyen gop tai 
chanh khi ban da co day du lirdng thuTc du* phdng roi can 
phai that su* xa bo. Neu ban khong co lo i so ng tu hanh vdi 



long khiem cung va tarn tinh biet du thi qua that chang 
co chi sai khac gitfa ngtfdi tai gia va ngtfdi xuat gia, ngoai 
truf do chi la mot dang ve be ngoai vdi stf khac biet cua 
ao quan. 

Co mot vi tang nhan den tu* Cam Dan Ttf (Ganden 
monastery), ngai la mot vi thien stf tu hanh rat nghiem 
tuc. Ngai da lap nguyen la khong bao gid so ng dutfi mot 
mai nha, va ngai da tu hanh nhiT the tu" rat nhieu nam 
qua. Ngai noi vdfi toi rang co mot ngay no khi ngai dang 
tinh tpa thi mot con ran da bo ngang mat ngai va nhin 
cham chu vao ngai. Vi thien sir da nhin trcf lai con ran va 
bat dau noi mot it phap ngu" vdfi no. Toi cam thay kha 
thich thu vi duftng nhu* la vi thien stf dang truyen phap 
cho ran. Ngai noi vdfi toi, ran nhin ong mot hoi lau roi tu" 
tu" bo di mot each em a. 

Tanh each quan trong cua gidfi luat da dtfdc Dtfc Phat 
dich than nhan manh va khai thi. Khi Bute Phat dang 
nhap Nie^t Ban, ngai da dtfdc van hoi: ai se thufa ke ngai 
va ngai da day rang gidfi luat se la ngtfdi htfdng dao va la 
vi thay cua toan the giao phap Phat giao. Ngai da xtfng 
tung rang gidfi luat chinh la ngtfdi ke vi ngai. 

De co the khac phuc dtfdc stf htog hly cua phien nao, 
van de trong yeu la phai biet ttf kiem tarn thtfc minh, va 
phai biet danh tfu tien hang dau de ttf kiem <36i vdi nhtog 
xuc cam nao manh me hdn. Vi du: co ngtfdi rat say dam 
nhimg khoai lac cam quan, co ngtfdi rat nong tanh va co 
ngtfdi rat vo minh va Itfdi bieng. Ban phai ttf cat van ca 
tinh cua minh va tim each chien thang nhiJng tinh ttf nao 


TtfDIEUBE 413 

soi ndi 16 liu nhat. Nhu da de cap tuf trirdc, ban can phai 
that sir no lufc de chac chan rang khong co 15i the nguyen 
nao bi vi pham ca. Tuy vay, neu kham pha rang minh da 
vi pham mot vai dieu the nguyen, ban khong nen bo qua 
ma hdn het hay ttic khac ap dung nhirng phtfdng thufc can 
thiet de khoi phuc lai va thanh loc chung. Khi thanh loc 
mot dieu vi pham nao ban phai luon luon nhd nghi va suy 
glm sau xa de tranh dufng tai pham. Mang y niem rang: 
"Nhitng vice tdi lam khong quan he gi, bdi vi cho du vi 
pham Idi the cung co the khoi phuc trd lai" qua tinh rat 
nguy hiem; dieu nay chang khac nao co y uong thuo c 
doc va nghi rang se difdc chffa khoi. 

Mot khi da tri nhan diTdc tinh each trong yeu cua su* tii 
gidfi va nghi den biet bao an lac yen binh neu ban co the 
tru* khuf moi phien nao; thi nhu* da giai thich tuf tru*cfc, ban 
can phai trirdfc tien nhan chan rieng re tufng loai phien nao. 
Mot khi da nhan chan dtfdc chung roi, hay suy gam den 
tinh chat tan pha, huy hoai cua chung, va sau do ap dung 
chanh niem va nang lu*c chanh tri. Doi vcfi nhufng loai 
phien nao cang manh me va cang lo lieu bao nhieu thi 
cang phai chong cU phan khang ngay ttfc khac; giong nhtf 
dung bua sat de dap tan nhtfng vat nhon. Neu ban chi ddn 
thuan bo mac chung thi chung se that sif gay ton hai cho 
chinh ban va cho ca ngiTdi khac ni?a. Phien nao dutfng nhu* 
rat manh me nhirng neu phan tich ky cang thi phien nao 
khong thiTc sit uy manh nhtf vay. Co Ian toi da van thi mot 
trong nhirng thiTdng su* cua toi, phien nao co thiTc sir yeu eft 
chang vi doi khi chung diTdng nhiTboc khdi rat manh. Ngai 



dap : phien nao yeu lam vi ban dau can den vu khi nguyen 
tur de 7 tieu diet chung dau. Va toi da khdi suf hieu ro y ngai. 

Tat ca nhtfng gi ta can co de chien thang phien nao 
mot each ve vang la chi can co y chi va stf kien tri co 
gang. Danh bai ke dich phien nao, dai de la can phai co 
thai do thich hdp. Trang thai tarn linh cua chung ta rat 
quan trpng den noi ngai ThiTdng Su* An Do Tich Thien 
moi khi gap bat ctf ai, cau hoi dau tien Ngai neu len la: 
"Horn nay tdm dia ngtfcti co Itfdng thien khong?" Ban co 
the danh bai ke dich thong thufdng mot Ian, nhimg chung 
van co the pho i hcfp trd lai va tan cong tiep tuc. NhiTng 
mot khi phien nao da bi tieu tru" roi thi chung khong con 
each nao co the tai phat lai. 

Bat ctf su* lieu ngo nao ma ban dat du*dc tu* viec tu tri 
Phat phap cung deu can dUcfc tham dinh va xet doan du*a 
tren cd ban rang la va chang su* tin ttfcfng gan bo ciia ban 
ddi vdi luat tac nghiep bao da tang tnrdng; va vi the phai 
chang sur tri gidi ciia ban da trd nen thanh tinh va nang 
lUc cua nhUng phien nao nhu" vo minh, san han va tham 
due da giam ngay chinh trong tuf than cua ban? Neu xet 
thay do bdi tu hanh ma ban da hoan man de sufa ddi tarn 
thtfc minh va da vufdt qua du*cfc mot vai bieu tuTdng chanh 
yeu cua phien nao nhuT la san, han, vo minh va due cau 
thi qua tinh do la mot thanh ttfu to Idn. Ngai Tich Thien 
day rang: nhimg vi thuftng tinh anh hung la nhimg vi da 
giet du"dc dich mil cua ho, chiTa han da la anh hung bdi 
vi nhftng ngu"di ma ho giet sdm muon gi roi cung se chet 
va ho chi that ra dang giet chet cac thay ma thoi. NhiTng, 


TtfDIEUBE 415 

ngufti nao dang phan dau chohg choi vdi phien nao ma 
co kha nang tieu diet ke dich ay mdi thifc sir la mot vi 
anh hung trong y nghla dich thUc cua danh xtfng vay. o 


CHl/dNG 9 


lay sir thanh tiTu giai thoat luan hoi lam thoa man 
thi vln chufa the goi la du. Du tu" trong quan diem 
cua chi nguyen minh de ban thao thi chinh canh gidi 
Nhdt Thiet Tri thanh ttfu Phat qua mdi dich that la stf dat 
thanh ven toan cho sir phuc Idi cua chinh minh. Sau khi 
phat nguyen cau giai thoat va trai qua qua trinh tu hanh 
Tarn Hoc; thay vi chi quan tarn den sir thanh tiTu giai 
thoat cho chinh ttf than thi doi vdi nhUng ngiTdi co tue 
giac cao, viec tien khdi la nen quan tu ve Bo De Tdm, do 
la nguyen thanh Phat do khap chung sanh va hay tien 
vao con dirdng dai thufa (tufc la co xe Idn). Qua that vo 
cung bat cong va that vong neu trong thay ngiTdi nao 
dang khong ngtog bi day vo bdi phien nao va tho ng kho , 
nhiTng ban khong no lire giup d5 de mang lai Idi ich cho 
ho. Ban chdf nen hai long tu" man vdi nhtog cong viec de 
chi phung suf cho quyen Idi ca nhan cua minh. Nen nghi 
suy den nhtfng gidi han rong Idfn hdn va hay no lufc vi 
quyen Idi cua nhieu ngufdi. Do la diem khac biet giffa 
ngirdi va dong vat; bdi vi ngay ca dong vat cung utfc 
muon phuc vu cho quyen Idi cua chinh no va than toe cua 
no. Dae tinh cua con ngirdi la: khong chi miTu cau phuc 
Idi cho rieng minh ma con quan tarn de n su* Idi ich ciia 
tha nhan. Day chinh la net dep va la net dac thu ciia nhan 



Nhffng ngufti nhuf Tong thong Hoa Ky Lincoln va Dai 
Thanh An Dp Mahatma Gandhi da dufcfc ton kinh nhu* 
nhtfng bac vi nhan chan chinh vi cac vi ay da khong chi 
au lo cho rieng tuf than minh ma con phung sir cho quyen 
Idi cua tha nhan ntfa. Ho da au lo den toan the xa hoi 
nhan loai, da vung vay va phan daii cho quyen han ciia 
ngufti ngheo. Lay vi du cua ngai Mahatma Gandhi: sau 
khi danh lai doc lap An Do, ngai khong bao gift dam 
nhan bat ctf chufc vu gi chang han nhtf vai tro lam Thu 
TiTdng ma chi d lai lam mot cong dan tarn thufrng. Do la 
an tich cua mot con ngufti tiet do. Luc dau, Mao Trach 
Dong da khd cong tranh dau cho quyen Icfi cua da so 
quan chung; tuy nhien sau khi nam dtfdc quyen hanh, 
chinh ong da trd nen thanh vien trong dam ngiTdi ma ong 
da tufng cho ng do i. Ong da bi quyen lufc ap dao va da trd 
nen triet de doc tai chuyen che, du chi mot bat dong y 
kie n nho nao cung du"dc xem nhiT la mot dai si nhuc cho 
ca nhan ong. Mao Trach Dong da tufng difdc ca tung mot 
thdi nhufng gi6 day nhan dan da dan dan thtic tinh vi cang 
ngay cang co nhieu chuyen khong t6t bi phdi bay hie n lo. 

Khi vang thai dufdng chieu roi, no soi sang mot each 
binh dang khong phan biet ky thi; no chieu sang khap 
mpi ncfi trong quo c gia, trong khap tufng xo ho c va khap 
moi goc do. Chung ta cung nen nhtf vay. Chung ta la 
nhiJng hanh gia Dai Thijfa khong nen chi quan tarn den 
Idi ich cua rieng minh ma hay suf dung suf nhat tarn 
chuyen chu de phat huy mot thai do can dam vi tha, ganh 
vac len chinh vai minh cai trach nhiem nS life vi muon 



van ham linh. 

Bo Be Tarn, mot bi nguyen dat thanh Phat qua vi stf Idi 
ich cua tha nhan la ngo vao cua con dirdng Dai Thufa. Khi 
phat Bo De Tdm\ tren 16 trinh dang di co the ban khong 
tien thu gi hcfn tuy vay ban da trd thanh mot hanh gia Dai 
Thufa. Nhirng ngay cai thdi khac ma Bo De Tarn thoi that 
thi du cho co lieu ngo cao tham, ban vSn bi rdi ra ngoai 
pham tru Dai Thfra. 

Ngai Tich Thien noi: Ngay cai giay phut ma ban phat 
tarn Bo De du rang ban co dang hien hihi d mot canh gidi 
thap kern di nffa, ban van difdc goi la Bo Tat, la Phat tuf. 
Do nhd Bo De Tdm, ban se co kha nang tinh hoa moi xau 
ac mot each dl dang va ven toan chi nguyen. Ban se vo 
nhiem vdi mpi trd ngai nguy kho n, bcfi vi ne u co du"dc 
nang life cua tarn Bo De thi ban se xem tha nhan tiTa ho 
quan trong va qui gia hdn chinh mang so ng minh. Khi cac 
yeu ma ac doc tri hieu du*dc dieu nay, chung se ngan ngai 
moi khi muo n ham hai ban. Va do nhd tarn nguyen Bo De 
ma ban co the tinh hoa moi ue trUcfc va tich tu cong dufc 
mot each rong Idn thi ban se gap nhieu thuan canh can 
thie t de tinh tien vtfng biTdfc tren 16 trinh Dai Thufa. Bo De 
Tarn va Dai Bi Tarn la nhffng mach nguon va nen tang 
cua mpi mien my cho ddi nay va cho Nie t Ban. Ban hay 
xem Bo De Tarn nhuf mot tinh chat chu yeu cua suf tu hanh 
va chd nen chi dat de tarn nguyen ay d mot tang thtf tri 
giai. Ban chef nen lay lam thoa man neu su* tu tri tarn 
nguyen Bo De cua ban chi thuan tuy bao gom do tung 
mot vai cau kinh vao luc khai ke tinh tpa. Ban hay tim 



each xuyen qua su" tfng dung the nghiem de khcfi phat 
tarn nguyen Bo De. 

Ngai Tsong-Kha-Pa day rang: neu ban hy cau mot 
each chan thanh de dUdc chtfng ngo, thi bat luan mien 
hanh nao, du nho nhiem nhiT hanh dong bo thi thoc lua 
cho chim qua di ntfa cung deu tro* thanh Bo Tat Hanh. 
Tuy nhien, neu thieu mat dong Itfc nay thi du co mang ca 
hang sa the gidi ap day bao vat tran chau de cung durdng 
muon van ham linh thi cung chang thanh ttfu Bo Tat 
Hanh diTcfc. Neu sir tu tarn Bo De (tarn giac ngo) cua ban 
khong diTcfc thanh ttfu vien man thi dau cho co tu hanh 
theo Phat phap lau de n the may di nffa, cung se la mot 
qua trinh rat cham chap va vat va tya nhuf dung dao cun 
de cat co thoi. Nhimg, ne u ban dat dUdc su" thang giai cu\i 
canh va toan triet doi vdfi Bo De Tarn thi moi phiTdng 
phap tu hanh cua ban deu co nang lufc manh me du phai 
tieu hao mot it thdi gid de xac lap tarn nguyen ay thanh 
dong co* chu yeu cua ban. Neu ban khong tarn tarn 
nguyen nguyen de tang ctfdng, cai tien, md rong, bo sung 
long tu* ciia minh; va do bcfi chung sanh thi vo luting vo 
bien nen se co nguy cd rat Idn la ban se danh mat nhue 
khi va trd nen tieu tram. Thay vi hoi bao an dufc, se co 
rat nhieu chung sanh nhieu loan, tim each ham hai ban. 
Vi the, khong nen thoa man vdi mot kinh nghiem bi man 
ddn le nao do, ma phai co gang boi dufOng cho den khi 
nao long tu" mln ciia ban that sy bat sau cpi re. Neu that 
nhtf vay, ban se khong con quan hoai den nhffng vat va 
cam go va do day ma ban se tuyet nhien khong bi kho 



sau vl ngoai duyen khi phuc vu cho quyen Idi cua tha 
nhan. VI stfc manh cua Dai Bi Tdm ma chiT Phat van hang 
thuftng phuc vu cho stf Idi ich cua muon loai. Dtfc Phat 
day Bo Tat khong can phai quan tarn den nhieu phufdng 
each tu tren Bo De dao; Bo Tat khong can hanh tri nhieu 
phap mon khac nhau lam gi. Chi can hanh tri mot phap 
mon thoi thi qua vi Phat se nam ngay trong long ban tay 
cua ban. Cai phap mon nay la phap tu Dai Bi Tdm, co 
nghia la ngufOng cau chtog ngp ngo hau giai thoat muon 
van ham linh. De phat khdi tarn ngtfdng cau chtfng ngp 
nhu* tren thi co long Dai Bi va long Tic Ai tufc la sir mong 
cau cho chung sanh moi loai du p c thoat khd khong thoi 
van chifa du. Them vao do, dieu can thiet doi hoi la su" 
cam nhan mot trach nhiem ca nhan, hong ganh vac cho 
ho du*dc giai thoat khd dau va co dufdc sU an lac dich thufc 
(bdt kho them vui). 

Khi suy nghi den ban chat kho dau ciia chung sanh, ta 
se phat trien diTdc tarn mong cau de ho du p c lia khd. Be 
co the dao xdfi, khai pha mot trai tim nong nan quang dai, 
manh liet, on dinh va ca quyet; dieu rat quan trpng la 
trirdc tien phai co mot thai dp thien cam dol vdi muon 
loai, xem ho nhiT bau vat va than thiet. Do i vdi chung 
sanh, cang sung man thien cam bao nhieu thi cang than 
gan bay nhieu, va cang co the trien khai long tuf ai chan 
that nhieu hdn ni?a. Thong thtfdng, khi de mac cho nhtfng 
phan u^ng tu" nhien cua ta rong rudi van hanh thi ta se 
kham pha rang khong the kham nhan ndi trirdc nhirng 
khd luy cua than quyen va bang hiru ta. Ta thufdng co 



khuynh htfdng vui thich trifdc nhtog bat hanh, nhtog that 
bai cua ke thu va thd cf lanh dam doi vdi ngtfdi khong 
quen biet. Tinh cam cua ta bien chuyen tuy theo cac do i 
ttfdng ke tren. Gang qui trong ngtfdi nao nhiT gan gui va 
than thiet vdi ta bao nhieu thi cam giac bat kham cang 
Idn khi ngufdi do gap kho . 

Hay hinh dung ba nhan vat trtfdfc mat de can bang 
nhffng xuc cam cua ban: mot ngtfdi ban chi than; mot ke 
thu nghich va mot ngufri trung lap. Sau khi hinh dung ba 
ngufri ke tren; hay de cho tarn thtfc ban phan tfng mot 
each ty nhien. Ban se kham pha rang tarn thufc minh phan 
tog mot each khong binh dang; rang minh rat luyen 
thiTdng ngiTdi ban, va xua dudi tuf khtfdc ke thu; con dol 
vdi ngufdi thti ba thi ban mang thai do hoan toan thd d 
lanh dam. Sau do, hay tham xet lai tai sao minh phan 
tfng nhu* vay. Ban be cd the la bang him trong hien tai, 
nhiTng trong qua khtf cd the da ttog la ke thu va cd the 
se la ke thu chung ta trong tifdng lai. Nhirng ai ma hien 
nay ta goi la ke thu cd the trong qua khtf da ttog va trong 
ttfo*ng lai se thanh ngu*di ban tri ky hoac than quyen to t 
nhat cua ta. Vay tai sao phai cd nhtog phan biet nhiT vay? 
Bang htfu la nhtog ngifdi ta mong ho dufdc an lac hanh 
phuc va vui song. Ta mong ho dtfdc an vui va thanh cong, 
vi ho la quyen thuoc, ban be, va dol dai tot dep vdi ta. 
NhiTng ddi vi lai ho cd the trd thanh ke thu va ngay ca 
trong hien ddi ho cung cd the chuyen sang ch6ng bang 
ta. Cung the ay, khi chong tra vdi ke thu nghich, ta cd 
khuynh hudng cho ng tra bang mot the thtfc rat ac xau, ttf 



trong sau mam va tu* nhien, ta mong muo n ho gap phai 
bat hanh, trac tro* va that bai. Ta phan ting nhir vay vi 
nghi rang ho da ham hai ta. Nhtfng trong hien d5i cho du 
ho co that sir ac quay di ntfa thi cung van co the trd thanh 
ban be ciia ta trong ttfdng lai. 

Khong co gi chac chan va nhat dinh, khong co ngufti 
ban nao hoan toan dang tin cay va vmh cufu, cung khong 
co ke thu nghich vinh vien. Hdn niJa, tuy mot ngufti trung 
lap khong lien can gi de n ta, va ta cung rat dilng diTng 
the* d vdi ho, nhiTng co the trong ddi qua khtf ho da tiTng 
la ban hay la thu cua ta. Neu huan luyen noi tarn cua ban 
theo chieu htfcmg nhu" the thi ban se xem moi ngirdi nhir 
nhau de roi su" phan biet, ky thi to tat nhu" vay se bat dau 
phai nhat dan. Ban nen ndfi rpng lol hanh tri nay de bao 
gom tat ca mpi ngirdi va cuoi cung thi luon ca muon van 
ham linh. Day la each phat trien phiTdng phap Binh Dang 
Xd(V. Dieu nay khong phai la khuyen nhu chung ta 
khong diTdc co ban hoac co thu. Nhtog gi chu tarn d day 
la de tieu tru" nhttng tinh tu* phan tog kich liet va bat binh 
dang doi vdi ke khac. Binh Dang Xd la dieu rat quan 
trong, chang khac nao can san bang mat daft trtfdc khi 
cay cay. Tuy Binh Dang Xd ttf no khong phai la mot su* 
lieu ngo tham sau nhiTng ne u ban dat diTdc nen tang ay 
thi moi tien bufdc khac trong viec tu hanh se trd nen rat 
thuan Idi thanh cong. 

Sau khi phat trien dtfcfc tarn xa, Idi ran day tM nhat 
cua ly nhan qua de kien tao nguyen vong dufdc khai ngo 

( 1 ) Binh Dang Xd: equanimity 



la hay thufa nhan rang tat ca chung sanh deu da ttog la 
me ta trong tien kiep. Dieu nay la do bdi khong co diem 
khdi dau cho vong tuan hoan luan hoi; do bdi sinh mang 
trong vong tai sanh chuyen the la vo thuy; do bdi ngay ca 
sinh mang ciia chung ta cung vo thuy. Sanh va tuf ttfdng 
tuc khong co gian doan. He khi nao co xac than la chung 
ta can phai co mot ba me. Bdi vi luan hoi khong co khdi 
diem nen ta khong the chi vao bat cti chung sanh nao va 
noi: "Ngtfdi nay chua tifng la me toi trong qua khti." 
Chang nhtfng ho da ttog la me ta trong tien kiep, ma ho 
con se la me ta trong ddi vi lai nUa. Neu ban co the vtog 
tin vao su* that nay mi se ra t de hoi tu*dng va nghi nhd den 
trong an cua ho, de roi sau do co the khdi phat mot Udc 
muon bao den an diJc. Tuy thurdng du*dc khuyen nhu nen 
xem moi chung sanh nhiT me minh nhu*ng ban hay ap 
dung phap quan Wdng nay can ctf theo kinh nghiem cua 
chinh ban than minh. Chang han nhu* co mot so ngifdi 
cam thay gan gui vdi cha minh hdn. Ngtfdi nao ma ban 
cam thay than gan va kinh ngtfOng nhu* co tu* tarn nhat 
can difdc xem do nhu 1 la doi Wcfng de lam mau chuan. 
Khong co bat ciJ mot chung sanh nao da chu*a ttog la me, 
la cha hoac la quyen thuoc cua ta trong qua khtf. Su* the 
ma ta khong nhd hay khong nhan dien diTdc ho khong 
dong nghia la ho chite ttog lam me chung ta. Vi du nhu", 
trong hien kiep co nhtog tnTdng hdp ma cha me va con 
cai bi chia each tuf khi dtia be con rat tre; nhtog diJa con 
nay khi Idn len khong each gi nhan nhd du*c(c song than 
cua chung. 



Bao ly ke tiep la tiT duy den an dtfc cua tat ca moi 
chung sanh. Sau khi thtta nhan rang tat ca moi chung 
sanh khac deu nhtf me minh, hoi ttfdng an dtfc cua ba ta, 
hay lay ngirdi me ruot cua chinh minh lam chuan du; 
each quan tu nay theo kinh day la thu thang nhat. Ttfdng 
tiTdng me ban d ngay trade mat, va nghi rang ba khong 
nhffng chi la me ban trong hien ddi ma con la me cua ban 
trong vo so kiep qua khtf ntfa. Sau do, hay suy nghi la ba 
da doi dai vdi ban nhan tu* nhif the nao, san soc bao ve 
ban nhiT the nao de ban tranh khoi hiem nguy ; va hdp tac 
giup dO ban ra lam sao? Ddi nay tuT luc bat dau mang thai 
ban ra sao va difdng trong thcfi ky thai nghen ba da cham 
lo ban nhieu den the nao? Ba trong nom ban tron ven 
chang chut do du*. VI su* an vui cua ban, ba chang quan 
khiTdc tu* moi scf him va san long dung moi thu doan va 
ke sach phan luan ly de dat thanh nhffng gi ban can bat 
chap moi nguy khon xay den cho ba. Tmh thufdng va tarn 
y doi vdi con tre nhieu den noi tha tuf minh ganh chiu 
benh hoan con hcfn de con minh dau yeu. Ban nen nhat 
tarn true chi quan tu ve an tham dtfc trong cua ba. Trai 
qua each tu* duy nhu* the, khi ban do i vdi an dufc vT dai cua 
me ma khdi phat niem cam sau day tnrdc tham an nghla 
nang cua ba thi ban ciing nen ap dung phu*dng each nay 
ke ca vdi nhffng ngirdi da tufng doi dai tot dep vdi ban 
nhu* la bang him va quyen thuoc. Cuo i cung cd the trien 
khai de bao gom luon ca nhffng ngirdi trung lap. Neu doi 
vdi nhffng ngufti trung lap ma ban cd the hirng khdi niem 
cam nhiT vay, thi hay chuyen luon den ca chinh nhffng 



ngufti thu nghich vdi minh. Dan dan thi to ng nap luon 
muon van chung sanh vao trong pham tru cua su* cam 
niem an dtic cua ban. 

Ke den la phap quan ttfdng de hoi bao an drfc( 1 ) cho 
ho. Ban nen hieu rang chi vi tai sanh chuyen the" khong 
ngufng nghi, nen chung ta khong co kha nang nhan dien 
diTdc tat ca chung sanh deu da ttag la hien mau, la song 
than, la quye n thuoc cua ta. Gid day, ho khong ndi che 
chd, khong ndi niTdng Wa. Neu chinh mat trong thay ho 
dang bi dau kho nhUng khong ai trd giup, ma ta van chi 
miru cau quyen Idi va giai thoat ca nhan thi khong nhimg 
ta dang hanh xu* rat bat cong ma ta con cufc ky vo an boi 
nghia. Ban nen phat khdi tarn tinh phung hien sau dam, 
tuyet nhien khong lia bo ho, trai lai, con bao den an dite 
cho ho nira. Ngay ca tren danh nghia the tuc, ne u ngiTdi 
nao khong bao den an diJc ma con hanh xtf chong trai lai 
ngufti khac, cung bi xem nhuf con ngirdi toi te va vong an. 
Huong chi mot Dai Thufa hanh gia lam sao co the tuyet 
nhidn ngoanh mat dol vdi sir phuc Idi va chang he nghi 
suy den viec hoi dap an dtfc cua moi loai htfu tinh chung 
sanh khac dutfc? 

Hay hinh dung den me ban, mot ngufti me dang bi tarn 
than bat on, doi mat mu loa khong ngu*6i hutfng din, ddn 
doc tie n theo htfdfng doc. Ba reo gpi dtfa con ruot ke can 
ma ba dat tron niem tin nhuf ndi cay nhd duy nhat. Ne u 
chinh dufa con do khong giup d5 ba thi ai se la ngu*di giup 

( 1 ) Phdp qudn ttfdng de hoi bao an dtic: meditation on repaying 
the kindness 



d<3 ba day? Chung ta nen tuf duy den quan diem nay: tu* 
vo thuy den nay, tarn tinh chung sanh chtfa tufng on dinh 
vi ho da tirng trot lam no le cho phien nao, ho da danh 
mat tue nhan de nhin ra con duftng din den Niet Ban va 
khai ngo; va ho cung thieu ca stf hudng din can thiet ciia 
mot vi dao stf tinh than. Dan dan, ho chim dam trong 
nhtfng hanh vi tieu ctfc de ? cuo i cung diTa dan de n sa doa. 
Ne u nhtog ba me nay khong the tim dtfcfc sir d5 dan tuf 
cac con, thi con pho mac hy vong vao ai ntfa day? The 
hoi du*dc trach nhiem, ban hay nen dap den nghia trong 
tinh tham ciia me ban. 

Dieu thtf tuf la quan tu Tic TdmW. Dinh nghia ciia Phat 
giao dol vdi Tic Tarn la nguyen tat ca moi him tinh chung 
sanh deu co the hirdng thu su* an lac va vinh viin khong 
lia xa an lac. Kinh sach day, chi mot sat na quan tu Tic 
Tarn, con thang xa cong dufc tich luy tu" vo so su" cung 
durdng cho vo liTdng-chu* Phat. Chinh bcfi phap tu Tic Tarn 
ma Dtfc Phat da danh bai ma vu*dng trong no life kern gitf 
ngan chan Ngai dat den cull canh giac ngo. Phap quan Tic 
Tdm la mot su* bao ho vo thu*dng. Su" phoi hdp chan chinh 
cua phap quan Tic Tdm la, tien khcfi nen boi dirdng Tic 
Tdm d6i vdi chinh nhffng bang htfu cua ban, sau do 
chuyen si/ chii tarn den cac ngufol trung lap, de roi sau ro t 
de n luon ca nhffng ngi^di thu nghich. Dan da bao gom 
luon tat ca cac chung sanh khac ma ban gap go\ 

Thur den la phap quan Dai Bi TdmW. Co hai loai Dai 

( 1 ) Quan tu Tic Tdm: meditation on love 

( 2 ) Tu quan Dai Bi Tdm: meditation on compassion 



Bi Tarn, mot la chi nguyen cho tat ca chung sanh dtfcfc lia 
dau kho va loai Dai Bi Tarn kia thi thu mang hcfn: "Tdi 
xin cult mang track nhiem giup chung sanh thodt kho. " 
Trtfdc tien, ban hay quan ttfcfng den chinh song than, 
bang hffu va quyen thuoc cua minh, sau do dem sure 
chuyen tarn chu y den nhtfng ngufti trung lap va sau rot 
htfdng den ca nhiftig ngtfdi thu nghich de roi cuol cung 
moi chung sanh ma ban gap g5 se trd thanh mot phan cua 
phap quan tufdng cua ban. Viec lam nay mang mot y 
nghia vo cung trong dai bdi vi khi ban co the chuyen 
rong phap quan ciia minh hutfng ve muon van ham linh 
thi Dai Bi Tarn va Tic Tarn cua ban se trcf nen nhuan tham 
de n do ngay cai giay phut ma ban chufng kien kho dau thi 
Dai Bi Tarn se tur khac boc phat. Trai lai, neu ban chi co" 
cong tu quan Dai Bi Tarn va TO Tarn doi vdi tat ca chung 
sanh; nghT den "Tat Ca Chung Sanh" ma khong triTdc het 
phan chia ho mot each rieng re; thi cai y niem "Tat Ca 
Chung Sanh" se cu*c ky mcf ho va Bi Tarn cua ban cung 
se khong that su* vtog manh kien dinh. Khi vu a hoi ngo 
mot vai ca nhan nao do, ban se bat dau hoai nghi rang la 
phai chang minh dang chan thanh mong mu6h ho diTdc 
an vui hanh phuc. Mat khac, neu tuan tu* boi dtfdng Bi 
Tarn, bang each trtfdc het lu"a chon ra tufng hang ngu"5i 
rieng re va vdi mot no lire dac biet cua stf boi dtfdng Tic 
Tarn va Bi Tarn chuyen chu den ke thu cua ban chinh la 
tieu de kho khan nhaft; nhien hau tarn long tu* ai va bi 
mln doi vdi tha nhan se trd nen rat de dang va Dai Bi 
Tarn cua ban se co kha nang nhln chiu bat ctf trang 



huo ng nao ma ban co the gap phai. 

Trong khi thtfc thu quan ttfdng, ban hay tiT duy den 
nhtfng each thtfc troi Ian trong luan hoi va tat ca nhtfng 
hinh thtfc day vo kho ? dau cua moi chung sanh cung nhiT 
ciia chinh ban than minh. Be diTtfc thanh cong trong viec 
phat trien TO va Bi Tarn, su* thau hieu va tri nhan cac viec 
sai trai va khuyet diem cua luan hoi la dieu rat trong 
yeu. Neu ban co kha nang lam diTdc dieu ay, bang chinh 
nhifng quan sat cua minh mi xuyen qua sif the nghiem; 
ban co the ndi rong su* thong cam cua minh den tat ca cac 
chung sanh khac. Trai lai, neu chite W phat khdi difdc 
tarn cau Xd Ly va y hiTdng gdm tdm dol vdi toan bo cac 
kinh nghiem trong vong luan hoi nay thi ban khong each 
gi boi dudng dUdc Bi Tarn ca. Tarn y Xd Ly la dieu 
khong the mien tru" du*dc trong viec boi dtfdng Bi Tarn. 
Bi Tarn va Xd Ly chi khac nhau cf doi Wdng: Xd Ly thi 
chuyen nham den chinh tuf than cua ban, do la iTdc 
nguyen "chi co minh" difdc giai thoat. Bi Tarn thi trufc 
nham den cac loai chung sanh khac, do la ifdc nguyen 
"mudn loai " diTdc giai thoat. 

Qua that rat quan trong de dieu nghien va thong hieu 
diTdc nhieu hinh thufc kho dau. Nhd gat hai du*dc mot kien 
thtfc rong lofn bang each doc tung va nghien ngam kinh 
dien; ban nen suy gam ve cac sai trai va khiem khuyet 
cua vong luan hoi sinh tu* cung the thtfc ma cac loai 
chung sanh da troi Ian trong chuoi xich chuyen phan tfng 
nay. Vi du nhiT, trong cac phong thi nghiem khoa hoc, cac 
bo phan cua heo da bi day xeo bdi du loai may moc dung 



cu. De tim hieu each thtfc boat dong cua mot bp 6c, cac 
khoa hoc gia da dung dong vat de thi nghiem. Qua that 
la mot chuyen ky quai bdi vi muc tieu chanh yeu cua ho 
la giup keo dai dcfi song cua nhan loai. Day la mot muc 
dich cao thtfdng trong mot khia canh nhirng cung dong 
thdi rat khd bien giai du*dc. DSu rang ho co the dung 
thuo c me de tran dinh; nhu*ng cac khoa hoc gia da thufc 
hien cac cupc thi nghiem ke tren bat ke long tur bi va trac 
an doi vdi thu vat. Tai Tay phtfdng, co nhtog doan the 
chong doi nhtog each doi xu* vdi thu vat nhiT the khong 
phai vi tinh than ton giao ma do vi thai do bi thUdng doi 
vdi cac loai cam thu. Toi dac biet tan dong no life nay. 

Luc khdi dau co the hoan toan kho khan de phat khdi 
bat luan kinh nghiem bi trurdng nao doi vdi tat ca chung 
sanh; nhu*ng mot khi da bat dau sanh khdi dufdc roi thi no 
se trd nen kien dinh, chan that va khong the lay chuyen 
du p c bdi vi no da diTp c dat de tren mot nen tang tri thtfc 
va ly tinh vtfng chac. Neu ban co du*dc kinh nghiem Bi 
Tdm nao roi, dieu he t siJc trong yeu la hay no lu*c quan 
binh hoa bang each cung co no vdi nhifrig ly giai va su" 
hieu biet rong Idfn cua ban. Chi thuan tuy dura dam tren 
mot vai hinh thai trUc giac ddn thuan nao do khong thoi 
thi qua that kho tin cy. Bdi vi se co nguy cd la cac loai 
kinh nghiem ay se tan bien vdi khong mot dau vet nao 
liru lai. Dieu nay dung khong phai chi doi vdi phap quan 
Bi Tdm va Tic Tdm ma con dung doi vdi tat ca cac phap 
tu khac nffa. 

Do nhd vao phifdng phap thien quan va phap tu tram 



mac ttf duy mot each lien li, ma niem bi cam cua ban doi 
vdi muon van ham linh se trcf nen nong nan manh liet, 
nhuf tinh thufdng yeu cua mot hien mau doi vdi dura con 
doc nhat khi chtfng kien no quan quai vi binh hoan. Su* 
khd sau cua con tre se tao nen au lo va dau ddn cho ba, 
de roi ngay cung nhtf dem, ba se du*dng nhien nguyen 
iTdc cho cau ta hoac co ta chong du*dc khoe manh. Neu 
thai do cua ban doi vdi cac chung sanh khac cung gio ng 
nhu* the, thi bat luan la ho co lien quan den ban hay 
khong; ban deu co the khcfi phat mot tarn tuf bi binh dang 
manh liet, khong chut mien vi ngay cai thcfi khac ma ban 
chufng kien difdc bat cuf khd dau nao ciia ho. Va do la dau 
hieu da dat den, da phat trien dUdc Torn Dai Bi. Dieu nay 
ap dung ca luon cho Tit Tdm. Tic Tarn va Dai Bi Tarn nhif 
the, se tU nhien diTa din den, khong can bat ctf co gang 
nao, mot thai do thu thang hdn nham ganh vac len chinh 
doi vai cua minh trach nhiem miTu cau phuc Idi cho quan 
sanh, de roi dan da se dan dufa den ctfu canh lieu ngo cua 
y nguyen chufng dac. 

Trong khi tu quan hoi bao an dtfc, ban da tu" duy den 
dai an dufc sau day cua mot "ba me chung sanh" va tu* 
duy den mot suf can thiet la phai tao niem an vui hanh 
phuc cho muon loai. Cf day, su quan ngai can de, do la 
van de boi du*5ng mot niem cam tham sau ve trach vu 
miru cau phuc Idi, cung ganh vac nhiem vu curu khd ban 
vui cho tat ca chung sanh. Xuyen qua cuoc so ng va cac 
sinh hoat binh nhat, khi co* duyen du*a den, ban hay ttfc 
khac nam bat cd hoi de huan luyen phap quan tu nay. Chi 



co luc do ban mdi co the khcfi stf hy vong thang tien lieu 
ngp. Vi luan sir An Do Chandragomin (the ky thuf 6 C.E.) 
da noi: "Ky vong de thay dot chat vi cua mot trdi rat chua 
bang each pha them mot hoac hai giot dtfdng, do Id ngu 
xudn. " Cung the ay, ta khong the mong cau hoan chuyen 
ngay ttfc khac htfdng vi tarn linh da bi 6 nhiSm bdi chat 
chua phien nao thanh hao vi ngot ngao Bo Be Tarn va 
Dai Bi Tdm chi vdi mot hay hai Ian quan tu. Nhan chiu 
tinh tan va mien mat lien li chinh la dieu toi u" trong yeu. 

Giai doan cuoi cung la phat Bo Be Tdm chan chanh, 
do la mot tarn nguyen diTdc khai ngo vi muc dich Idi tha. 
Vi the ban khong nen hai long thoa man chi vi da tri hie u 
dufdc tarn mufc quan trpng cua sir khai ngo nham phung 
su" chung sanh nay. Khong the nao dat den muc tieu cu\i 
canh diTdc neu khong dat du"cfc su 1 thanh tufu canh gidi 
Nhat Thiet Chung Tri cua qua vi Phat; ma do tuf ndi do 
ban co the mang su* Icfi ich tuyet do i den cho muon loai. 
Doi vdfi canh gidi khai ngo, ban nen phat khdi mot niem 
tin sau day thiet tha vo tan tu* ndi day long, va chinh dieu 
do se din dufa den mot u*dc nguyen khao khat difdc chufng 
dac. Thong thtfdng ma noi; co rat nhieu dieu kien nhan 
duyen de vun xdi Bo Be Tdm rchimg trong ye u nhat trong 
tat ca cac thuf ay vln la Dai Bi Tdm. 

Ta nen tri hie u rang muc dich de diTcfc sinh ra trong the 
gidi nay la nham giup ich quan sanh. Neu khong the lam 
dtfdc dieu ay thi it nhat ta cung khong nen ham hai cac 
chiing sanh khac. Ngay ca nhtfng ngutfi ttog phan dol ton 
giao, van tan du*dng thai do vi tha tuf ai. Du tren mat tu* 



ttfcfng, ngufdi Trung Cong thufdng bai xich ton giao nhufng 
ho cung ban thao de n utfc mudn xay dtfng phuc lac cho 
dam dong quan chung. Neu nhffng ngtfdi nay tntfc sir co 
thai do vi tha tuf ai thi ho co the chu toan iTdc nguyen cua 
mot chu nghia xa hoi hoan mien hoan my. Ngtfdc lai, neu 
cuf tiep tuc suf dung nhffng chinh sach bao dong de cung 
co tap quyen chuyen che thi nguyen vong cua ho khong 
sao thUc hien dufdc. Moi quoc gia deu co nhffng the che 
chinh tri khac nhau, nhufng phan Idn moi xa hoi deu co 
mot nhan to cd ban la thai do Idi tha - do la u*dc nguyen 
no lufc vi ngirdi, vi sir phuc lac cua nhan dan dai dong. 
Thai do Idi tha la go c re ciia moi an vui hanh phuc ngay 
chinh trong cong dong nhan loai. Moi ton giao chanh yeu 
tren hoan cau deu khich le boi difdng tarn thai Idi tha 
mac du he thong trie t hoc co khac nhau. Mot each ngan 
gon, neu boi dtf5ng du*dc thai do Idi tha, no khong chi 
giup co ng hien cho ban mot noi tarn an tinh ma con gay 
tao diTdc mot moi truftng binh yen chung quanh ban ntfa. 
Do la mot trong nhtfng ke t qua thUc tien ma ban co the 
thay difdc. Muc tieu culi canh khi boi dtfdng thai do Idi 
tha, la thanh tini chufng ngo ngo hau dap tfng vien man va 
thoa dang moi nguyen vong cua chung sanh. Vi the, d6i 
vdi tinh each trong yeu cua viec boi diT3ng Bo De Tarn, 
Dufc Phat khong chi liru lai nhu* mot Idi khuyen day gian 
ddn; ngai con da dong thcfi chi bay cac loai ky xao va 
phiTdng phap ma do nhd vao day chung ta co the hiTng 
phat mot tarn nguyen Idi tha nhuf tren. 

Mot khi da thac sanh trong the gidi nay roi, ngay nao 



con lam ngtfdi thi ngay do suf sinh ton cua chung ta con 
tuy thuoc vao nhieu chung sanh khac ntfa. Chung ta 
khong the dcfn doc sinh ton. Do la ban tinh cua loai 
ngufdi. Do do, chung ta nen trd giup cac dong loai cua 
chung ta va giup ho vcfi dtfdc than kho va tarn khd. Day 
la phtfdng thtfc dtfng dan de tiep xuf vdfi nhtfng ngtfcfi 
dong loai cua ta. Con trung nhu* cac loai ong kien chang 
he co mot the che giao due gi ca; tuy nhien tren thiTc te, 
vi phai niTdng tu*a Ian nhau de sinh ton nen dau co thien 
cam hay Bi Tarn manh liet hay khong chung van giup dd 
nhau. Khi kien tim dtfdc mau banh mi nao Idn thi chung 
giup nhau van chuyen. Loai ngufdi cung can ntfcfng Wa 
vao dong loai de sinh ton nhiTng lai khong cu* xuf vdi nhau 
nhtf ngifdi dong chung. Tat ca loai ngiTdi deu co khuynh 
hirdng tu* nhien ham stfdng tranh kho . Nghi den dieu nay 
qua tinh toi trong yeu de boi du*5ng mot thai do Icfi tha 
nham giup d5 quan sanh. 

Chung ta da mang dtfcJc than ngu*di trong kiep so ng 
nay. Lam cho no dtfcmi day y nghia hay khong la hoan 
toan tuy thuoc vao chinh tarn thai cua ta. Neu lite chon 
mot thai do bat chinh nhiftig lai pho bay mot ve mat an 
can lu"dng thien thi chung ta dang lam Ian roi vay. Neu 
ctfu mang thai dp Idi tha va cu" xu* vdi quan sanh nhiT the 
ho xtfng dang du*cfc dol dai nhu* vay; thi su* an lac cua 
chinh chung ta se dtfcJc bao dam nhu* mot ket qua tat yeu 
trong viec mu\i cau phuc lac cho tha nhan. Khi chung ta 
htfdng thu an lac; nen vui mtog hoan hy vi day la ket qua 
hanh thien tiif ddi qua khd:. Dong thcfi, nen dem phutfc 



bao nay hoi hutfng cho khap tat ca chung sanh trong 
niem ky vong la ho cung ditoc tho htfcfng niem an vui 
nay. Neu chung ta bi khd, nen tri nhan rang day la ket 
qua ac nghiep tao tac cua ta tu* ddi qua khtf; vi the, nen 
phat nguyen: xuyen qua cac kinh nghiem kh6 ? dau nay ta 
tfdc mong sao cho tat ca nhtfng khd dau ach nan ma cac 
chung sanh phai nhan chiu co the tieu triif dtfdc. The 
nguyen rang du co du"dc giac ngo hay khong, ban vln se 
no lu*c miru cau phiTdfc lac cho moi loai chung sanh. Mot 
khi da tho nhan dtfcfc cac huan chi ve phtfdng phap khac 
phuc cac thai dp xem tu* nga nhu* trung tarn diem roi thi 
ban co the chet khong chut hoi tiec. Khi giang giai 
phiTdng phap ngirdng cau cua toi de phat khdi nguyen 
vong giac ngo nay thi toi cam thay rat may man co phiTdc 
bao dufdc lam nhu* vay. Mieng lirdi toi da phung su* cho 
tieu dich cua no roi. Thinh chung va doc gia nen hoan hy 
vdi dai phudc bao du"dc trcf nen quen thuoc vdi nhirng 
giao phap bat kha Of nghi nhu* vay, ma su" tu hanh se co ng 
hien nhifng an hue to Idn cho ca hien tai Ian vi lai. 

Tu Tarn Bo De la mot dieu khong the thieu difdc doi 
vdfi nhffng ai ngiTdng cau thanh Wu dufdc qua vi giac ngo. 
Tat ca ChiT Phat, Bo Tat qua khtf deu nhd boi dufdng thai 
dp Idi tha nay ma thanh dat su" lieu ngo cao tham. Mot 
vai nha tiT Wdng hoc da danh mat tinh tiTdng thong hdp ly 
nay theo dong thdi gian. 

Chu* Phat da khai thi rang sinh mang la vat sd hifu 
dang tran quy nhat cua ta va hay xem sinh mang ke khac 
con quan trpng va quy gia hcfn ca chinh sinh mang cua 



minh. Thong diep va Idi huan thi nay vSn muon thud gift 
dtfdc suf tuc ly cua no . Trong tho*i budi can dai ngay nay, 
vdi hiem hoa to Idn la the gidi se bi hoan toan huy diet; 
chung ta phat hien rang thong diep cua Dtfc The Ton 
cang ngay cang htfu ly hdn. 

Mot phap tu khac nham phat trien long hy cau vi tha 
dat du*dc toan giac, la phap tu Tu Tha Blnh DangW va Tu 
Tha Tuctng HodnW. Giai doan dau tien cua phap tu nay 
la tri nhan nhffng ini va khuyet diem cua Tu Tha Tucfng 
Hoan. Tat ca nhtog pham chat tfu viet cua van hffu vu tru 
deu la hoa trai cua su* tran tiet phuc Idi cua tha nhan; va 
tat ca moi that bai, hoang mang, khd nan deu la san 
pham va hau qua cua nhtog tarn thai vi ky. Tuy nhien, 
Tu Tha Tucfng Hoan co la dieu kha thi chang? Kinh 
nghiem chufng thufc rang: ta co the thay ddi thai dp dol 
vdfi mot vai hang ngiTdi nao ma trtfdc kia ta ttfng cu* tuyet 
va kinh sd; rang ta co the thay ddi thai do mot khi ta tiep 
can vdi ho hdn va thong hieu ho hdn. 

Tu Tha Tucmg Hoan khong co nghia la ban than ta thay 
ddi thanh ngu*di khac ma do la each thtfc doi dai dat dia 
vi hoan canh cua minh vao hoan canh va tarn trang cua 
ngifdi khac, de co the cam thong vdi ho mot each tu* 
nhien trong n6 lufc mang lai niem hanh phuc an vui cho 
tha nhan thay vi cho chinh ban than minh. 

( 1 ) Tit Tha Blnh Dang: Equalizing self and others: minh va ngucfi 
deu binh dang 

( 2 ) Tu Tha Tucfng Hoan: Exchanging of self and others: dat minh 
vao hoan canh tarn trang ngudi khac de co the hieu duojc su 
kho dau cua ho nham ctiu mang trdch nhiem cult do 



Co hai chirdng duyen chanh yeu khi khai trien mot 
thai do nhir vay. Thtf nhat la phan biet ta va tha nhan mot 
each manh liet; xem ta va tha nhan nhtf hoan toan doc 
lap va rieng re. Ky that, minh va ngtfdi deu quan he vdi 
nhau giong nhu* "ben nay nui" va "ben kia nui" vay. Theo 
nhan quan cua toi, thi toi chinh la minh con ban la ke 
khac; nhirng do i vdi nhan quan cua ban thi ban chinh la 
minh con toi la ke khac. Chung ta deu co chung mot cam 
giac thd cf lanh dam bcfi vi ta cam nhan hanh phuc va kho 
luy cua ngirdi khong phai la van de co can dtf gi de n ta. 
The thi, ta can phai nhdf nghi den mot vai ngu*5i ma ta 
xem rat than thufdng, nhtf quyen thuoc cua ta chang han. 
Cho du than bang quyen thuoc cua ban khong phai la ban 
nhirng moi kho ? vui ma ho gap deu co tac hirdng den ban. 
Lai nffa, du tren thu*c te, than the ciia ta bao gom nhieu 
phan - dau, tay, chan - nhitng ta van cur xu" vdi chinh than 
the ta, mot su" tong hdp cua nhieu cd phan deu rat qui gia. 
Cung the ay, ta nen tham xet ve nhUng gi da lien ket 
chung ta lai; mot dac chat cong hiru ma van van chung 
sanh nhiT chinh tuf than chung ta dang cung nhau san se; 
do la y nguyen tiT nhien - mong diTdc an lac va xa lanh 
sir kho dau. Chung ta xirng ton ke nao da vi phuc lac cua 
tha nhan ma hy sinh cuoc ddi ho la ngUdi cao thiTdng; 
nhirng ta lai cho rang dien ro khi hy sinh mufti ngUdi de 
ciJu lay mot ngtfdi. Dieu nay khong co gi lien he de n tin 
ngiTdng ca, no chi gian ddn la mot giai dap co tinh each 
nhan ban thoi. Do vay; xa bo quyen han, Idi loc va iru 
tien cua dam ba ngtfdi cho su* phuc lac cua nhieu ngtfdi 



la hp-p each va cong bang. Do la nhtfng gi Dtfc The Ton 
da tuyen day: "Xd bo nhtfng tfu lien va dac quyen cua mot 
cd the cho sit an sink cua chung sank dqi dong nhieu bat 
tan, nhieu ttfa hu khong, la hop each va cong bang. " 

Khi n6 lye tntfc hanh phap tu Tu Tha Ttfcrng Hodn\ 
chung ta se phai dtfdng dau vdi mot site khang cu* kich 
liet xuat phat tif chinh khuynh hu*cfng tiT nhien cua ban 
than va thai dp xem tu* nga nhu* la trung tarn diem. Khac 
phuc difdc chung la dieu toi trpng ye u. "Kho stidng cua 
ngtfdi khdc khong co gi lien he den toi; va vl the, toi chdng 
can lam gi cho ai cd; " loai quan niem nay la mot chu*dng 
ngai to Idn dang ke. Tuy nhien, ta nen tiT duy rang: dau 
cho con ngtfdi cua chung ta trong hien tai se khong gio ng 
nhuf con ngtfdi cua chung ta trong hai mutfi nam sau; 
nhimg qua la dien ro neu ta khong quan hoai den cai con 
ngufdi ma ta se trd thanh trong tiTdng lai; va cung qua la 
dien ro neu chi chuyen lam nhUng dieu se mang dau khd 
den cho minh trong ttfcfng lai. Ta cung nen tiT duy rang: 
khi dap phai gai nhpn, chan bi thifdng; dlu rang tay 
khong dau, nhimg mot trong hai tay lien lap itfc thao gd 
chiec gai kia ngay. Chi vi tap quan lau ngay quen thupc 
ma ta 6m giu" chap chat vdi tu* than, de roi cho rang bat 
cuf thti gi lien he den ty than minh cung deu nhuf la nhtog 
viec vo cung qui gia va he t stfc tran trpng. NhUng xuyen 
qua mot tap thoi quen thupc kien tri; ta co the hirng khdi 
mot thai dp tran tiet phiTdc lp*i cua tha nhan cung manh 
me khong khac tran tiet phtfofc lp"i cua chinh minh. Dlu 
ta da tufng no lu*c tu* vo thi kiep den nay de dat du*p*c an 



vui, thoat dtfcfc kho 9 sau; nhirng thai do lay ttf nga lam 
trung tarn diem da khien xui ta trai qua nhirng dau ddn 
khon luftng. Neu d mot thdi khac nao trong qua khti ma 
ta co the thay ddi thai do nay; ta da ttog tran qui su* phuc 
Idi cua ngufdi thay vi su* phuc Icfi cua ta, va con no lufc vi 
sir an lac cua ho ntfa thi gid day co le ta da thanh ttfu 
dufdc cu\i canh Phat qua roi. 

Vi the, chung ta nen quyet dinh: "Bat dau tit nay, toi 
se phung hien chinh minh, bao gom cd the xdc rnlnh cho 
stfphuc Icfi cua tha nhdn. Bat dau tic nay, toi se khong lam 
viec chi vi niem an lac cua tu than, ma hcfn the nita la vi 
niem an lac cua tha nhdn. Bat dau til nay, mudn ngUdi deu 
nhu sU trtfdng cua toi, than xdc toi se tudn phuc va nhdn 
lanh menh lenh cua ngtfdi thay vi cua chinh minh. " Tuf 
duy ve nhtog bat Idi va ton hai vi dai cua thai do vi ky; 
ban hay phat khcfi mot quye t tarn dong manh, noi vdi 
chinh thai do tran qui tu" nga cua minh rang: "Stf khong 
che noi tarn toi cua ban chi con la mot tieu de cua qua 
kM. Ke tic nay trd di, toi se khong tudn vdng theo menh 
lenh cua ban nfta. Cdc phucfng thicc bat chdnh cua ban chi 
gay tqo thticfng ton to Idn cho toi thdi. Ke tit nay trd di, 
dung gid vdphuc vu cho chinh niem an vui cua toi ntta bdi 
vi toi da tri hieu ductc rang ban chinh la he thu Ion va la 
coi nguon cua moi trac trd va kho luy cho toi. Neu toi 
khong tic bo ban de phuc vu tha nhdn; ban lai mot Ian nita 
nhdn dim toi xuong nhitng kho dau cua chuyen sanh bat 
hqnh. " Nen hieu rang thai do lay tu" nga lam trung tarn 
diem la coi nguon cua tat ca "kho" con quan hoai den tha 



nhan la coi nguon cua tat ca "an lac" va "my dtic" . 

Neu ban gap mufti ke hanh khat ngheo khd ngang 
nhau, roi phan biet ho, quyet dinh ngufri nay xtfng dang 
durcfc giup d5 hcfn ngtfdi kia, thi day la dieu sai lam. Neu 
co mufti ngufti benh ttfcfng dtfcfng vdi nhau thi qua khong 
hcfp ly neu bat dau phan biet ngiTdi nay vdi ngufdi kia. 
Cung the ay, vdi tat ca chung sanh, ban nen phat trien 
thai do binh dang dol vdi nhi?ng ai dang dau khd hay dol 
vdi nhffng ai sap chiu kho . Nhtog chung sanh nay da 
tufng thi an nhieu vo han dol vdi ban trong qua khtf . Dufng 
tren quan diem ton giao ma noi, cho du ke thu nghich 
cung van nhan tuf, bdi vi ho khien ban co cd hoi tu hanh 
nhan nhuc. Taft ca chung ta deu co mot ban chat nhtf 
nhau, deu kham chiu chung cung van menh thi khong ly 
do gi phai phan khang va bat thien cam vdi nhau. Chif 
Phat chi xem phien nao nhu* la khuyet diem nen tru* khuf; 
cac ngai khong phan biet, ky thi cac chung sanh dang bi 
vay phu bdi phien nao ma cufu do mot vai ngiTdi va bo 
mac mot vai ngtfdi khac. Neu vai chung sanh that sir co 
ban chat xau ac thi chtf Phat se thay dieu nay va tuf bo 
nhtfng loai ngufdi nhu" vay. Nhimg vi cac ngai lilu tri diTdc 
ban chat thufc tai gidfi nhiT la no dang hien hiJu nen khong 
hanh xu" theo each nay; vi the , ta co the ket luan rang sir 
xau ac la mot phien nao doan ky co the thanh tru" du"dc. 
Kinh sach da day rang: neu chtf Phat bi thuc ke bdi hai 
ngufti, mot ngiTdi thi cong kich ngai bang vu khi con 
ngufti kia thi dung dau de thoa diu ngai di chang n(?a thi 
ngai cung chang he thien vi ngtfcfi nay hdn ke kia. 



Do vay, trong y niem tot cung nhat, thu va ban khong 
con hien dien. Dieu nay khong co nghia la khong co 
ngufdi doi khi giup ta va khong co ke khac thi doi Ian ham 
hai ta. Nhffng gi ta liru tarn den ncfi day la tim each de 
che phuc cac tinh cam nghieng nga cua ta. Hay tir duy 
den moi lien he gitfa ban va thu, ngo hau giam bdt moi 
day rang buoc cua cac phan ufng co tinh each tinh cam. 
The la ta co the de dang nhan dien diTdc nhtfng iTu diem 
to tat cua suf tran quy tha nhan - do la ciJa ngo thanh ti/u 
moi pham dufc cao thUdng. Ta se tuf day, han nhien 
nguyen cau phuc vu cho tha nhan va su* lanh dam ma 
tnrdc kia ta da doi xuf vdi ho co the gift day diTdc uTng 
dung cho chinh su* tu* Idi cua ta. Niem cam luyen chap 
manh liet mot each binh thiTdng doi vdi su" phuc lac cua 
ban than ta xtfa kia co the hien nay dutfc chuyen hifdng 
cho sir phuc lac cua moi ngufri. 

Neu tu* khao tl mi, ban co thetri hieu rang thanh tiTu 
dtfdc sir chtfng ngo cho ban than minh cung con tuy thuoc 
vao ngirdi khac rat nhieu. Khong co su 1 tu hanh tarn hoc 
Gidi, Dinh, Hue; ta khong each nao dat den Niet Ban. Tu 
tap Tarn Hoc bat dau bang tri gidfi, vi nhu" phat the khong 
sat sanh. Neu khong co cac chung sanh khac hien dien, 
lam sao ta co the ? kem ham tarn sat sanh chtf? Tat ca 
nhtog phiTdng each tu hanh nay deu tuy thuoc vao su" 
dong gop cua ke khac. Tom gon lai, ngay tuT khdi thuy 
thai nghen den nay, chung ta da tron ven nuttng difa vao 
an diJc va su" dong gop ciia ke khac. Ngu*di Tay Tang 
khong the vui htfcfng du"dc mon tra Tay Tang ma khong 



co sir dong gop cua cac loai dong vat nhirbo cai. Stfa vo n 
la quyen htfcfng thu dtfcfng nhien cua bo con nhirng ta da 
lay di va dung lam bd. Neu khong co stf dong gop tu* cac 
chung sanh khac thi chung ta se khong co cac vat dung 
nay. Dieu nay cung dung luon do i vdfi ndi tru an, doi vdfi 
tntfc pham va dac biet doi vdfi danh vi. Trong xa hoi hien 
dai, khong ai co the trd nen danh tie ng neu khong he co 
nhu^ng sinh hoat cua cac ky gia. Du cho co ho to het Idn, 
mot ngu*cfi cung khong the trd nen ndi danh dtfcfc bang 
the thufc nhu the . 

Ta phat hien rang su* nhat thiet ton tai cua ta la mot 
dieu gi nufdng du*a vao tha nhan. Dieu nay chang nhtog 
dung doi vdfi the tuc, ma no cung con dung doi vdfi Bo De 
dao: van phap deu tuy thuoc vao su* dong gop va an du*c 
cua ngufti khac. Cho nen, neu nufdng theo nhtog moi 
ranh nhtf vay ma tu* duy, thi su" hoi tirdng an dufc ciia 
muon loai se co mot kich thiTdfc rpng rai hcfn. Toi thufdng 
lini y rang neu ban muon ich ky, ban hay nen thu*c hanh 
no theo mot phtfdng phap khon ngoan. PhiTdng phap ttf tuf 
ich ky me md la each thufc ta da mai miet lam, chi mini 
tim an lac cho chinh tuf than va tien tiinh trd nen cang 
ngay cang bi dat khon khd hdn. PhiTdng phap ttf tit ich ky 
thong minh la phuc vu cho sir phuc Idi cua quan sanh; bdi 
vi ban se diTdc thanh Phat ngay chinh trong qua trinh thiTc 
hien ay. 

Nham vinh viln khong lia xa nguyen vong diTdc thanh 
Phat de ? mang Idi ich den cho tha nhan ke ca d kiep vi lai, 
ta can phai kien tri vdi mot vai huan tap nao do. Mot 



each cu the ro rang, ta nen tu* bo bo n hanh vi tieu eric xau 
ac va hanh tri bon Thien Hanh lien quan den stf huan tap 
nay. Hanh vi xau ac thu* nhat la phinh gat vi dao su* tinh 
than cua ban, dac biet la noi dol. Hanh vi trai nghich thu: 
hai la gay cho mot vi tu hanh nao do khcfi niem hoi tiec 
trong khi vi nay nguyen trutfc kia khong he hoi tiec ve 
cac mien hanh qua khtf cua vi ay, chi vi ngon ngi? cua 
ban. Hanh vi xau ac thuf ba la lang nhuc Bo Tat, do la 
nhtfng vi da tufng huTng khdi Bo Be Tarn; bang each boi 
nho va nhuc ma cac vi ay. Chung ta co khuynh hirdng de 
pham vao hanh vi xau ac nay bdi vi qua tinh rat kho de 
bao rang ai la Bo Tat va ai khong phai la Bo Tat. Chung 
ta nen to i can tac de tranh pham vao dieu nay. Kinh Dai 
Bat NhaO) giai thich tarn mtfc nghiem trong cua su* phan 
no. Neu phat hien ban da 15 gian dff dol vdi mot vi Bo 
Tat; hay ttfc khac sam hoi va dan budc trong nhieu 
phufdng thiJc de thanh tinh hoa ac nghiep cua ban bang 
each ctfcfng quyet rang: dieu toi quan trong la ta se mai 
mai tranh khong tai pham vao dieu 16i lam nay ntfa. Tang 
da chiTdng ngai Idn nhat trong viec boi dtfcfng tarn dai bi 
va nguyen vong giac ngo la niem san han tha nhan. Hanh 
vi xau ac thuf ttf la phinh gat ke khac mot each vo lu"dng 
tarn; dac biet la che day loi lam cua ban va gia vd nhuf 
da dat diTcfc lieu ngo cao tham roi. 

Bon Thien Hanh la bon viec trai ngufdc vdi cac dieu ke 
tren. Dieu thuf nhat la khong bao gid noi dol vdfi bat ctf 
chung sanh nao. Co vai tru"dng hcfp ngoai le ma co the 

^ 1 ) Kinh Dai Bat Nhd: The perfection of wisdom sutra. 


ban phai noi doi, nham ho tri Phat phap hoac bao ho 
ngufdi khac. Ngoai trir dieu nay ra, ban nen tranh noi doi 
doi vdi bat cti ai. Thien Hanh thtf hai la chanh tnfc va thuf 
ba la tan than va kinh ngiTOng Bo Tat, la nhtog vi da 
khong ngufng phuc vu quan sanh. Mot Ian nffa, qua that 
rat kho phan doan ai la Bo Tat va ai khong phai la Bo 
Tat; vi the, an toan hdn ca la nen hu"ng phat kinh y manh 
me dol vdi tat ca chung sanh; luon luon ton vinh va ngcfi 
khen pham each cao qui cua ho. Thien Hanh thtf ttf la cd 
suy tha nhan hay no life nham ttfu thanh Phat qua, mot 
qua vi dai giac vien man. o 



I ~\u chi la mot khcfi niem trong khia canh hy cau cua 
Bo Be Tarn va trong tuf the cua mot Thien Hanh 
khong thoi cung da rat vtfo*t thtfdng; nhtfng, chi co the 
thoi se khong ven toan no i tieu dich vien man Phat qua. 
Ma trong yeu la hay dan btfdc tu Bo Tat Hanh. Nhifng 
hanh vi nay goi la Luc Ba La Mart 1 ), ket hcfp phiTdng tien 
va tri hue, kien tao nen mot chanh dao chu yeu va bao 
quat hirdng den giac ngo. Chinh Dtfc Phat da ttog day 
rang: Bo Tat sd di xa bo diTdc moi phien nao la nhd siJc 
manh cua Tri Hue, nhufng cac ngai mien viSn chang lia 
bo chung sanh la nhd vao sufc manh cua phiTdng tien 
thien xao TO Bi. Ca hai phiTdng dien tren day cua Bo De 
Dao khong bao gift nen tach rdi biet lap ma can phai 
luon luon lien ket Ian nhau. Toan bo qua trinh tu tap cua 
Bo Tat dufdc phan hang thanh luc do Ba La Mat: Bo Thi, 
Tri Gidfi, NhSn Nhuc, Tinh Tain, Thien Dinh va Tri Hue. 
Nham vien man nguyen vpng cua tha nhan, tu hanh 
Bo" Thi la dieu rat quan trong va hanh Bo Thi tif no can 
phai ditdc toi luyen them bang each tii gidi thanh tinh de 
tranh ham hai ke khac. Sy tri gidi can phai dUdc hoan 
man bang hanh nhan nhuc, bdi vi ban can phai kham 
nhSn no i nhffng ham hai den vdi ban tu* phia ngoai nhan. 

(1) Luc Ba La Mat/Luc do: the six perfections. 



Ban can phai dong manh tinh tan de tu cac hanh nguyen 
nhtf vay. Su* tu hanh cua ban cung se khong dtfdc cang 
cirdng neu thieu Binh Itfc. Va neu khong co tri tue de tri 
hieu ttfdng tan tu* tanh cua van phap, (ban chat cua moi 
hien ttfcfng) thi ban se khong co kha nang dan dao tha 
nhan mot each chan xac tren 16 trinh hifdng den giac ngp 
vien man. Bay gift, toi se giang giai chi tiet ve Luc Ba 
La Mat. 

Bo Thi 

o thi la mot tarn thai thiet tha ban phat vdi khong 
mot may may rit ram bon xen cac tai him, than 
mang, cong dufc cua chinh minh v.v...Ban bo thi chinh 
nhtfng sd hij^i giau sang, va ngay ca cong cltfc tich luy tu* 
hanh bo thi cua minh cung can phai mang ra hoi htfdng 
cho su* phifdc Idi cua tha nhan. Bo thi Ba La Mat khong 
tuy thuoc vao su" nhd tan goc re canh trang ngheo cung 
khon kho cua tat ca chung sanh; ma la mot loai phat trien 
ctiu canh cua thai do vi tha quang dai. Kinh dien de cap 
tanh each quan trong cua sir boi difOng y niem bo" thi, dac 
biet la bo thi than the minh cho ngufti. Than xac chinh no 
day day toi loi va khuyet tat; nhimg vdfi cai the xac nay, 
ban co the dung no de hoan tat muc dich to Idn la giup 
ich ke khac thay vi chi chiem hihi no. Va dieu nay cung 
ap dung luon cho cac tai vat cua ban. Neu ban chiem 
chat tai vat tuy than, ban se tich luy nhieu ac nghiep hdn 
do vi bon xen keo kiet. Nhufng ne u hie n tang cho ngirdi 
cac sd hini cua ban, chung se phuc vu muc dich cua no 



va dong thdi gia tang hanh nguyen bo thi cua ban. Cong 
dtfc lanh do hanh ban phat cho ke khac cung nen dtfdc 
mang ra hoi hutfng cho ho tat ca. Kinh dien day rang: neu 
tu hanh bo thi nhiT vay, xa bo tai htfu, than xac va xa bo 
luon ca nhtfng mien hanh da tich luy thi cong dtic tich tap 
se rat vi dai. VI the, khong nen chiem chat cac vat sd 
hihi, hoac cung khong nen cat Itfc de danh dum tich trtf 
cang ngay cang nhieu; bcfi vi moi sd hitu deu se minh 
cMng la mot chutfng duyen cho hanh tu bo thi. DuTc Phat 
da xa bo moi sd nina va vat tuy than cho su* ich Idi cua 
muon loai va Ngai da dat ditdc cu\i canh giac ngo. Hieu 
ro diTdc su* chiem htfu la hoai cong udng phi; ban hay co 
gang gia tang mem cam quang dai vi tha cua minh va 
ufng nghiem bang each ban phat cac tai vat cua minh cho 
tha nhan. Ke da tri hieu dtfcfc sir vo ich cua long chiem 
htfu ma xa bo moi sd hiJu cua minh do y nguyen thanh 
tinh muo n giup dO ngUdi khac, dtfcfc goi la mot Bo Tat. 
Kinh dien day rang: do bcfi ban da tirng dang hien than 
mang, sd htfu va luon ca cac cong cltfc tich luy cho su" 
phuc Idi cua tha nhan, nen khi can suf dung den chung; 
ban hay lam vdi mot tarn thai vay mufcfn chung tuf ngtfcfi 
va lam nhif vay cung vi kfi ich cho ngtfdi. 

Khi tu hanh bo thi, nguyen utfc giac ngo mot each 
vtfng chac va kien dinh can nen la dong ccf thuc day cua 
ban. Bat cti dieu gi hien tang can phai nham muc dich Idi 
lac quan sanh. Tu hanh bo thi can phai dufdc hanh tri vdi 
mot phufdng each kheo leo nham den su* phuc lac cua tha 
nhan; do la, lieu tri rang; tan cung roi thi khong co tu* nga 



ban phat hoac tu* nga nhan lay. Tu hanh bo" thi can phai 
dtfdc ban phat vi phuc lo*i cho ngtfdi; nhirng no cung dong 
thdi can phai dutfc hy cung vdi dieu dtfdc gpi la Thanh 
Tinh Thu ThangO) co nghia la nam loai hanh nguyen Ba 
La Mat kia cung dong thdi can phai dutfc hien dien. 
Chang han nhir, khi hien cung Phat phap cho ngtfdi, ban 
nen tri gidi de tranh rdi vao tarn thai tu" ky va dong luc 
ban cung can phai nhan nhuc de kham chiu moi gian khd 
chtfdng duyen tren suo t 16 tiinh tu hanh. Co ba loai bo 
thi: bo thi Phap; V6 Uy thi - bo thi sir che chd hoac ban 
phat stf khong so* hai; va Tai thi. 

Muc tieu ma ban tu hanh bo thi la y nguyen dat de n 
toan giac vi phuc lac ciia muon van ham linh. Khi that su* 
dan than vao viec bo thi, thi tarn thai cua ban doi vdi 
ngufdi nhan cua ban phat khong nen la mot tarn thai trac 
an thiTdng cam. Ban hay trong thay ndi ho nhu* la mot 
lach nguon Dai An Sung dang phung hien vao tie n trinh 
tu dao cua minh. Du rang ban khong nen ky thi phan biet, 
nhufng ban can phai chu tarn dac biet de n nhtog ke thieu 
tho n vat chat va den nhtog ke dang chiu nhieu khd dau. 
Tom gon lai, bat cti khi nao tu hanh bo thi thi ban cung 
nen luon luon nhin thay va de cap de n cac iru diem cua 
ngtfdi, va hay tuyet nhien khong noi 16i cua ngtfdi. Tarn 
thai cua ban khong nen bi anh htfdng bdi long mong 
muon dtfdc Wdng thifdng hoac danh thdm hoac vdi long 
hy vong diTdc den tra. Va sau khi cho roi, ban chd bao gid 

( 1 ) Thanh Tinh Thu Thang: sublime purity 



6m long tiec nudi la ban da bi ton hao tai vat. Hay n Itfc 
thang hoa niem hy lac trong hanh bo thi, va hay tuyet 
nhien khong thdi lui trutfc nhtfng trang hudng ma co the 
ban phai that sir dich than dan btfcfc nham xa bo ban phat. 

Be tang cuftng va phat huy y niem bo thi, ban nen bat 
dau bang each ban phat mot vai so* htfu nho nho. Thtfc tap 
dan dan thi dieu nay se diTa din den sir viec la ban khong 
con mot may may quan ngai hoac chap gitf lay ca viec 
bo thi ngay chinh than mang minh. Kinh dien day rang: 
trang thai tarn linh cua mot con ngufri luon luon tuy 
thuoc vao nhirng gi ngirdi ay than quen. Vi du nhiT ta bat 
dau hoc tiT van dieu chtf cai khi hoc mot loai ngon ngiJ 
nao. Ban sd du*6ng nhiT rat kho khan. Chang co ich Idi gi 
ne u bay gid ta diTcfc trao truyen cho ca mot bai van pham 
pMc tap. NhiTng neu khcfi sir vdi cac mau itf mot each 
thuan thuc thi chung cupc roi du cho van pham co phiJc 
tap di nffa cung difdng nhu* rat gian ddn. Cung the ay, neu 
ta tiT huan luyen de ban phat cac so* hiru vat chat, thi ve 
sau du cho co xa bo than mang di ntfa cung se difdng nhu" 
raft tu* nhien. 

Ban khong nen tri hoan trong viec bo thi hoac trong 
cho* ngurdi khac lam viec mien. Ban khong nen cho mon 
qua nay khi da Id Ma tang mon qua khac va cung khong 
nen nghi den cong dn cua minh khi ban phat de khien 
cho ngirdi nhan phai mang dn minh. Khi bo thi, ban nen 
hie n tang vdfi su" hoan hy va iru ai, the hien bang tarn long 
phi lac. Ban hay ty minh thu*c hanh bo thi va khuyen 
khich ke khac cung lam de giiip cho moi ngirdi deu cung 



phat nguyen bo thi. Dieu gi co the xuc hai du trong nhat 
thdi hoac trirdng ky, mang den tho ng kho ? , bat an cho 
ngtfdi deu khong phai la qua tang thich nghi hdp each. 

Nhirng gi co the mang lai an lac trong doan ky hay 
trirdng ky deu rat thich hdp de hien tang tha nhan. Khi 
tntfc hanh hanh phap thi; triTcfc net ban hay phan tich can 
cd cua ngtfdi thinh phap xem ho se tim dUdc nhtfng Idi 
lac gi trong giao phap ma ban du* tinh trao truyen. Neu 
khong, giao phap truyen ra, chang nhtfng khong giup ich 
gi, lai con gay thiTdng to ? n cho ho va ngu*5i thp phap con 
co the bi mat tin tarn. Ngoai ra, ban cung chd nen hie n 
tang cac vat dung giet thu hoac chi bay cac ky thuat giet 
thu cho nhtfng ngu*di thd san. Trong mot doi tru*dng hdp, 
su* ciT tuyet , tu* choi dtfdc chiing minh la Idi lac hdn ca bo 
thi hien dang. Bo Tat can nen rat kheo leo trong nhtfng 
trirdng hdp nhu" vay. 

Neu ban kham pha rang tuf minh khong the buong bo 
diTdc cac tai vat thi nen tu* duy den su* vo ich ciia cac scf 
him vat chat va hay tri nhan le vo thtfdng ngan ngui tarn 
bd ciia dcfi song minh. Sdfm hay muon, ban deu phai xa 
lia cac sd hffu cua minh; do vay, thay vi chet trong suf vay 
ham kem kep cua long bon xen thi to t hdn hay buong bo 
ngay cac sd htfu ciia minh de tranh khoi su* de tien bun 
xin. Hay tiT nghi rang: "ta da tifrig trdi qua biet bao day 
vo khodau trong vong ludn hoi nay chl vi ta chua he quen 
thuoc vdi thai do hien tang cac cua cdi cua minh. Tit nay, 
ta phai thay doi thai do va phat trien tarn niem bo thi cua 
minh. " De thufc hien du*dc cong viec nay, ban hay tu*dng 


Bd TAT HANH 455 

ttfdng den ctu loai tai vat bat kha tu* nghi va quan Wdng 
rang minh mang chung ra de bo thi cho tha nhan. 

Tri Gidi 

jri gidi la Ba La Mat thrf hai. Tri gidi la mot trang thai 
noi tarn tranh ky vtfdng mac vao cac bien su* co the 
gay to n hai cho ke khac. Tri gidi Ba La Mat se hoan man 
khi nao long xac tin khong ham hai ke khac cua ban difdc 
phat huy den mtfc do ciJu canh tuyet dol Gidi luat d day, 
dtfdc liet ke mot each rong rai diTdi mirdi tieu dich, tufc la 
tranh ky mirdi ac nghiep. Gidi luat nhu* tran mu*a tu*di 
mat, dap tat ngon lufa tham, ngon lufa san va ngon lufa 
phln no trong chinh tu" than ban. Khi tu tri gidi luat, chii 
tarn cua ban nen la tarn vo chap( 1 ), vo han( 2 ) va chanh tri 
kien( 3 ). Nghiem tri gidi luat thanh tinh can dtfdc anh 
hirdng tuf noi e sd cac qua bao ma ban phai triTc dien ne u 
gay tao ac nghiep. Va cac ac bao ay da diTdc giai thich tuf 
tnTdc roi. Thu tri gidi luat thanh tinh dtfdc xem nhu la mot 
bau vat trang nghiem thich hdp cho moi ngifdi, bat ke cao 
thap, map o m, tudi tac va chung toe. Nhtog trang stfc vat 
chat cd the se yeu kieu dol vdi ngirdi nay nhiTng lai 
khong dep vdi ke kia. Trong khi ay, su* trang hoang gidi 
luat lai diTdc xem la rat dep vdi moi hanh gia baft luan 
dang ve be ngoai cua ho the nao. 

Tri gidi thanh tinh, ban se W khac tao niem kinh trong 

( 1 ) Vo chap: non attachment 

(2) Vo han: Non hatred 

( 3 ) Chdnh tri kien: right view 



ngay chinh trong cong dong nhan loai. Vdi anh hirdng 
cua gidi luat, ban se tiep xu" nhan loai mot each hdp xting 
va tiet thao. Ban cung se dtfdc phong ho de tranh gay 
nen ac nghiep. Kinh die n day rang: dau la hat bui do dau 
chan cua ngufti tri gidi thanh tinh dam ngang cung da la 
mot vat ton klnh; day chinh la pham chat thu thang vi dai 
cua gidi luat. Tarn niem tri gidi thanh tinh cua ban khong 
nen chi cue han nham tu* bao ve minh tranh tao nen ac 
nghiep; ma can phai difdc neu ra nhu* mot vi du cho tha 
nhan de moi ngufdi cung deu difdc bao ho khoi sir nguy 
ton cua ac nghiep. 

Nhan Nhuc 

n nhuc la mot trang thai nhan nai tu* che" khi dol 
dien v6i nhtog ham hai trirng phat cua ke khac. Co 
ba loai nhSn nhuc: dieu dau tien la khong phien nao 
trUdc nhtog ham hai cua ngoai nhan; dieu thtf nhi la tu* 
nguyen ganh vac cac khd dau ach nan va dieu tM ba la 
cd kha nang kham nhan mpi cUc kho khi dan than tu hanh 
theo giao phap cua Phat. Ttf duy den cac pham chat va 
Idi lac thu thang to Idn cua hanh nhan qua la mot dieu toi 
cu*c trong ye u. Nhtog ai khong tu hanh nhan nhuc se bi 
doanh vay bcfi niem cam hoi han sau day vao luc lam 
chung, vi nhtfng ac nghiep da ttag tao ra trong kiep so ng 
cua ho. Trong khi ay, nhtog ngufdi nao tu dtfcfc hanh nhln 
nhuc va kham chiu noi moi am hai cua ke khac se khong 
bi an nan hoi tiec gi ca vao gift phut lam chung. Linh 
diTcfc xao dieu toi thUdng nhat cho tarn thai hy xa dol vdi 



ngufti khac, la thtfc hanh hanh nhan nhuc. Hanh nhln 
nhuc con dong thcfi bao ho ngtfdi tu tranh khoi stf nguy 
hai cua san ban. Kinh dien day rang: du la mot khdi niem 
san ban nhat thdi doi vdi mot vi Bo Tat cung co the thieu 
huy tat ca moi cong dtfc tich tu dtfdc tu* nghin kiep. Do 
vay, "nhdn " giup ban khoi thoi chi khi ke khac ham hai 
ban, va "nhan" cung dong th5i bao ve ban trong nhi?ng 
tmh huo ng ma cdn thinh no cua ban co the thieu huy toan 
bo cong dtfc ma ban da tich tap. Day chinh la mon trang 
stfc du*dc chiem ngu*0ng bcfi tha nhan; la giap bao gin gift, 
giup ban tranh dutfc long san tu*c cua chinh minh va tranh 
dtfdc mpi su* ham hai den tu* ke khac. Hau qua tu*c khac 
khi ban ndi san la suf danh mat tarn thtfc binh tinh. 

Nhftng ngu*di chung quanh cung se khong diTdc an lac 
vi sir san ttfc da gay tao nen bau khong khi xau xa quanh 
ban. Phan no va san han thieu dot kha nang phan doan 
cua ban; thay vi hoi bao an dufc, cuoi cung ban lai phien 
muon va tham chi sanh tarn tra thu. Neu noi tarn chat 
chtfa day day thinh no va san han, thi dau vdi nhftng sung 
man vat chat, ban cung se chang co may may vui sutfng 
nao vi ban se lien tuc bi tinh cam day vo. Tri nhan difcJc 
dieu nay, ban hay tan life tu hanh nhan nhuc va hay co 
gang lia bo tarn san va tarn han. 

Khi co ngiTdi nao ham hai ban, ban chd nen cau gian 
va tra thu, ma hay tri nhan rang ke kia khong tu* kem ham 
dtfdc tinh cam cua ho. Ngu*di do chang lam nhu* vay vi co 
y ma chi tai vi bi anh hirdng bdi nhftng tinh tu* tieu cure do 
thoi. Nguyen do chanh yeu khi ngufti nao do san tftc va 



ham hai ban la vi y da khong ngufng bi kho ng che bcfi 
phien nao. Ban hay phat khcfi tarn niem trac an va bi tarn 
thay vi ndi gian. Bieu gian do*n nhat la, neu nhtfng ngufti 
nao co the che phuc dtfcfc tinh cam cua ho thi ho chang 
bao gid ham hai ban bcfi vi nhtfng gi ho tarn cau cung la 
an lac hanh phuc ma thoi. Ho cung chang ttf no Itfc de bi 
sa doa bang each tich tap cac ac nghiep do su* ham hai ke 
khac. Ta khong co ly do gi de phai san ttfc bdi vi ho 
khong the che phuc diTdc tinh tu* cua ho ma thoi. 

Ban hay phan tich xem va chang su" san han va khuynh 
hurdng ham hai la nhtog ban chat chanh yeu cua nhan 
loai. Ne u su* phan no la ban chat chanh ye^u cua nhan loai 
nhu* hdi nong la the tanh cua lufa, thi con ngufdi cung 
khong the lam gi de khac phuc no va cung khong co ly 
gi de bao thu khi bi am hai. Mat khac, neu su* phan no 
khong phai la dac tinh cd ban cua nhan loai ma no chi la 
mot dac chat ngau nhien thoi; thi ta lai mot Ian nfta 
khong co ly do gi de san ttic va muon bao thu bcfi vi tren 
thUc te ; khi gidi ma con ngirdi su* dung nhu* dao nhpn, con 
chuy mdi la vat gay nen thifdng ton. Ta nen san tufc cac 
khi gidi nay, thay vi san tufc con ngufdi. Va thuTc te, ta da 
khong lam vay. Chi nhu" ta da chang he boc phat su* gian 
dff ddi vdi cac vat the vo tri rihuf con chuy, thi ta hay nen 
binh tinh va khong nen ttfc gian gi ca. Trai lai, nen co 
gang tham do tim hieu nguon coi sau xa cua sir thtfcfng 
ton. Ban se phat hien ra rang chinh nhtog nghiep bao 
xau ac tao ra tu* qua khur cua ban da khien xui ngu*5i ta 
ham hai ban. Do vay, neu se cau gian va bao thu, thi ban 



hay cau gian va bao thu ngay chinh nhtfng phien nao va 
nghiep bao cua minh di. Khong co ly do gi de boc phat 
suf gian dtf do i vdi ngoai nhan. Chinh ttf cac phien nao 
ciia ta da khien ta tru*c dien vdi nhtfng hau qua va kho ? 
dau nhu* vay. 

Neu do i vdi cac kinh nghiem dau kho ? nho nhoi ma 
khong the nhan chiu de phai sanh tarn cau gian va bao 
thu thi ta se tich tap them nhieu nghiep bao xau ac cd the 
gay tac hirdng lau dai cho ttfdng lai. NgiTdc lai, dol vdi ke 
ham hai; ta hay cam thay nhu* mang no* y vi y da giup ta 
cd hoi khao nghiem stfc nhan nhuc. Nen cam dn ke ham 
hai ta thay vi gian di? va bao thu. Khi bi da thifdng, sir 
nhuTc nhoi chinh la ket qua binh dang cua ca vet thiTdng 
va cua ca tu* than minh. 

Neu khong cd than nay thi ta khong thiTc chtfng difdc 
kinh nghiem cua niem dau the chat. Vi vay, neu phai san 
gian thi ta nen san gian vdi chinh than xac ciia ta. Hanh 
tii hanh nhan nhuc la dieu rat trong yeu de khac phuc 
diTdc long phan uat va long do ky dol vdi su* thanh cong 
va hanh phuc ciia tha nhan. Chung ta nen vui mfrng vi cd 
mot doi ngu*di da tu* cd kha nang miTu tim dtfdc si/ phuc 
lac cho ho; thay vi chung ta phai no life de tao an vui cho 
tat ca moi ngiTdi. Khi chu^ng kien sir thanh cong nhu* vay, 
ta nen vui mufng va hoan hy. Ta can phai khac phuc cam 
tho vui stfdng khi nghiem chitng du*dc su* sa cd that the 
cua ke thu nghich minh. Va ta cung khong nen phan uat 
hoac buon chan khi do i dien vdi suf thanh cong cua ke thu 
minh. Su" cam phan khong nhtfng chi gay tac hai cho 



ngtfdi ma con dong thdi khien ta tich tap nhieu ac nghiep 
hdn; nhtfng ac nghiep nay se khien xui cho ttf than chung 
ta bi sa doa trong tifcfng lai. 

Trong ddi song bmh nhat, ta thtfdng gap nhieu kho 7 
hoan hcfn vui. Dieu rat trong yeu la minh co kha nang 
quan chieu de thay dtfdc rang tat ca nhtfng kinh nghiem 
kho 7 dau nay deu rat hitu ich tren bu*dc du*5ng hanh tri 
chanh phap ciia Phat. Ne u vun boi diTdc hanh nhan nhuc; 
theo y nghia tinh nguyen W ganh vac moi kho dau thi cho 
du ban than ta chiTa co kha nang ciru mang lay cai kho 
cua chung sanh di ntfa thi ta cung se khong tu 1 lam mat 
tiem nang phan doan. Ngay trong ddi so ng hang ngay, 
hai ngtfdi du benh tinh giong nhau; nhifng vi thai do va 
each thiJc quan sat van phap khac nhau; nen co mot 
ngufdi se cam nhan kho tho nhieu hdn vi y chu*a ditdc 
trang bi thai do chanh dang de doi pho vdi hoan canh; 
trong khi ngiTdi kia thi co the tru*c dien vdi hoan canh mot 
each tai ba hdn va y cung dong thdi co kha nang tranh ne 
diTdc niem kho dau day vo tarn linh kha hcfn. Ta can nen 
nhd rang neu khong the sufa do i du*dc hoan canh thi 
khong co ly do gi de phien muon; trai lai ta hay ddn gian 
do c sure gang cong de thay ddi no. 

Neu chang he gap kho thi ta se khong 6m chi cau dat 
diTcfc thoat khoi vong sanh tu" luan hoi. Do chinh la mot 
khia canh tich ciTc cua kho dau. Khong kho dau thi lam 
sao ban co dtfdc kinh nghiem muo n tu* bo thoat ly? Trong 
tieu de nay, qua that trong yeu de suy gam den mot su" 
that rang: tuf vo thi kiep de n nay, ta khong ngdt bi day 



dpa trong vong luan hoi kho ? dau day xeo; chang bao gid 
xa bo nhffng xu htfdng vi ky; tim each bam chat vao su* 
quan trong cua itf ky, va no Itfc cho nhtfng muc tieu ich 
ky ciia chinh tiT than. Gid day, ta hay thau triet tarn mufc 
quan trpng trong vice thay ddi thai do va hay n6 Itfc phuc 
vu cho sir Idi lac ciia tha nhan. Neu ngay trong tien trinh 
ay, ta can phai trifc dien vdi kho dau thi ta se co du nang 
lu"c de kham nhan ma khong phai danh mat siJc phan 
doan cung nhu* khong bi suy suyen nan long vi nhtfng 
kinh nghiem kho dau nhu* vay. Xuyen qua nhtfng kinh 
nghiem do tu* cac thoi quen thong thu*5ng; cu6i cung roi 
ban co the kham nhan moi chudng duyen mot each de 
dang. Nhan chiu cac kho dau tren tie n trinh cua chanh 
dao giac ngo la dieu ma chung ta co the thong quen 

Qua that rat trpng yeu de phai cifcfng quyet dinh doat, 
can dam va phan khdi len trong chi nguyen cua ban. Cac 
vi anh hung khi trong thay mau minh tuon ra gitfa tran 
mac, thay vi tho i chi that tarn, ho cang trcf nen quyet liet 
hdn; va dieu do da phuc vu nhu* la mot dpng life tac chien 
dtf dpi hdn. Day chinh la loai tarn thai ma Bo Tat nen suf 
dung khi dol dien vdfi nhUng trang huo ng phai kham nhan 
chiu kho. Chung ta cung phai chap nhan cac kho dau the 
xac tren tien trinh tu hanh. Va nhan chiu nhtfng mupn 
phien gay nen tu* nhUng ngu*5i mang chiri hoac cho ng bac 
minh. Va cung nen chiu diTng dtfdc canh benh kho va lao 
kho ciia chinh ban than minh. Khong nen de cac loai kho 
dau nay ap dao, ma hay kien gan nhan chiu. Tren qua 



trmh hang say hanh tri theo chanh phap vdi y nguyen 
mini tim phuc lac ctfu canh cho muon loai; chung ta hay 
chuan bi de duttng dau vdi nhtfng khon do n xay ra. Vinh 
viln khong nen tho i that stf tinh tan dong manh ma hay 
tri tuc tu hanh va khong bao gift nen cam phan trifdc 
nghich duyen. DUa tren nen tang nhan nhuc kien co nay, 
ta da co the dap xay dtfcfc mot sir tham ngo cho chinh 
tiTdng lai cua minh. 

Tinh Tan 

Phtf den la Tinh tan Ba La Mat. Tinh tan la mot trang 
thai noi tarn hao lac doi vdi cac thien hanh. Tinh tan 
da giup tao mot nen tang tu dao, nhd vao day chung ta 
tranh khoi bi doa xuo ng canh gidi thap hdn. Kinh dien 
day rang: tinh tan la ngiTdi di tien phong trong moi thien 
nghiep. Tat ca moi nghien tarn so* hoc va tu hanh deu se 
difdc thanh tufu neu ban dUdc trang bi bang sure chuyen 
can tinh tan bdi vi ban se chang he mang mot khdi niem 
hoac y nghT chan ngan va tho i that nao. Kinh sach con 
day rang: neu cd dutfc mot stfc tinh tan hoan my, thanh 
tru" tat ca moi y niem nan chi thoi long hoac y niem 
khong the ting hdp diTdc thi khong cd bat ky sd nguyen 
nao ma ban khong the dat thanh. Mat khac, ne u rang 
buoc bdi lufdi bieng dai dai, ban se chang the nao tan 
btfdc no i tren phufdng dien phat trien tue giac hay bat cuf 
tren phtfdng each tu hanh nao ca. Thieu mat tinh tan se 
mang den suy vi khong phai chi cho hien ddi ma con cho 
nhieu kiep dai lau nffa. 



Tren qua trinh phung su* cho cong ich cua tha nhan, ao 
giap tinh tan se co nang life giiip ban chiu dtfng no i bat 
cur hinh thai dau kho 9 hay khon kho nao. Stf tinh tan se 
bao ve ban tranh khoi thoi that va buon chan khi trufc 
dien vdi nhtfng cam go khon kho. Chiec ao giap tinh tan 
cua ban can nen dong manh den mtfc do rang: neu phai 
sinh vao dia nguc trong vo liTdng kiep chi de thoa man 
nguyen vong cua mot ca nhan thoi, thi ban cung san long 
lam. Nham dat dufdc mtfc tinh tan can thiet de tich luy 
cong dtfc; triTdc he t, ban phai xac dinh chiTdng ngai vat 
cua dufc tinh tafn, do la suf liTcfi bieng dai dai. 

Co ba loai dai dai: I/ dai dai ciia si/ bieng nhac, muo n 
keo dai tri hoan viec phai lam; 21 dai dai vi cam may 
map kem, do la y niem rang minh khong du kha nang 
hanh sir; 3/ dai dai vi chap thu vao cac hanh dong tieu 
cure hoac tan stfc gay nen ac nghiep. Nham vUdt qua su* 
dai dai bieng nhac, -ban phai ttf duy rang hanh tri theo 
giao phap Phat, ban se co diKfc nhiing thien bao thu 
thang. Ban phai trong thafy diTcJc su" ton hai va vo bo chi 
vi dinh liu den cac thi phi bi thur vo nghia...Sir luan ban 
vo can cur va thuftng xuyen xao lang hay cuo n hut theo 
the sir da chuTng minh la tang da chirdng ngai to Idn nhat 
cua qua trinh tu hanh. Nham vtfcft qua difdc mac cam ttf 
ti; ban phai tur duy rang, xuyen qua qua trinh tinh tan ma 
tat ca chu* Phat qua khur da thanh tiru muc tieu giac ngo 
toi hau. TO nguyen thuy, cac ngai cung chiTa thanh Phat 
ma chi la cac chung sanh binh thiTdng nhiT chung ta. 
Nhtfng nhd no lye tinh tan hanh tri theo giao phap ma cac 



ngai da ttfu thanh scf nguyen sau cung. Be khac phuc 
dtfdc long thie u tu* tin, nen thau hieu ro rang, vi cau Phat 
qua, chung ta can phai chuan bi hy sinh. Ne u nhan thay 
rang mmh chu*a tinh tan du de co the xa bo du*dc moi tai 
vat, thi hay tri nhan mot each thau dao rang sdm muon gi 
chung ta cung phai lia xa cac tai htfu va luon ca than 
mang minh. Ta hay buong bo thay vi bi curing bach phai 
rcfi xa chung vao luc lam chung, ma dieu nay cung chang 
giup ich vao dau ca. It ra thi ta cung se rut tia dtfdc mot 
vai dieu lo*i lac xuyen qua y lUc bo thi ay. Ty nhu* khi lam 
benh, ban phai nhan chiu cac loai day vo kho dau the xac 
do y si chich thuoc. Cung the ay, nham khac phuc ni kho 
dau to Idn cua su* phien nhieu luan hoi sinh tuf; tren biTdc 
du*dng hiTdfng den ben bo" giai thoat, ban phai kham nhan 
chiu du"ng mot so nhtog nguy kho n va dau ddn the chat. 
Chung ta khong nen buon nan va thoi that vi sir the 
rang: chung ta phai tich luy nhieu cong dtic va tri hue 
trong vo lu"dng vo bien kiep so nham dat du*dc giac ngo. 
Muc tieu hy cau giac ngo cua chung ta la niem an vui 
hanh phuc cua muon van ham linh. Con so chung sanh thi 
vo han ma kho dau cua ho thi vo tan. Qua trinh cu\i rSi 
vo lu*dng vo bien chung sanh thoat khoi vo lu*dng vo bien 
dau kho chac chan la mot lich trinh dai dang dang va 
nhieu gian kho. Chung ta can phai chuan bi de hy sinh 
tren butfc dirdng di ay. Bo Tat la mot chung sanh; do tuf 
bi, yeu thtfdng va trac an do i vdi moi kho dau cua muon 
loai ma chang he day len mot y niem hoi tie c, buon chan 
nho nhat nao khi phai tri/c dien vdfi thiTdng dau va nguy 

PHAN n - VI$T NG0 


khoh. Se chang bao gid co trtfdng hdp ma mot ngtfcfi nao 
do se dat thanh dtfdc bat cur stf vice gi bang tinh than 
thieu ttf tin ca. Trai lai, neu phat khcfi sir dung cam va tan 
dung mpi nang life; cho du von la viec phtfc tap kho 
khan, nhimg cuo i cung roi cung se bien thanh ddn gian 
de dang. Khi dan butfc de ganh vac viec gi, dieu tien 
khdi vo cung trpng yeu, do la can phai tham dinh trang 
huo ng, phan tich tinh the va tu* lUdng stfc minh xem co dii 
kha nang hoan tat cong viec hay khong. Neu kham pha 
thay viec do vi/dt qua kha nang hien tai cua minh; thay 
vi co sufc lao dau vao ngay tuTc khac thi to t hdn, hay lui 
trcf lai va chd ddi; con hdn la bo dd nufa ditdng. Nhufng 
mot khi da quyet dinh nhap cuoc thi ban hay kien tn lam 
cho den ndi den chon thay vi buong xuoi dang dcf nijfa 

Tuc ngtf co cau: mao hiem neu muon thanh cong, 
trong yeu la can phai co long tin. Long tin d day khong 
ham chtfa bat cur su* tieu cifc nao ma chi gian ddn la mot 
loai dung khi. Long tin cua ban phai kien ciTdng den do, 
ban san sang tu* lam bat cuf dieu gi ma khong can tuy 
thuoc vao sif dong gop hay giup d5 cua ke khac. Ban hay 
suy nghi rang: do bdi anh hufdng cua phien nao ma tat ca 
cac chung sanh kia da khong dii kha nang hoac stfc lu*c 
de hanh su* cho ho. Ban phai co long tin du de cam nhan 
dufdc sir ton hai cua phien nao, de roi ban khong the cho 
phep minh bi nghieng nga anh hudng bdi phien nao; va 
ban co kha nang cung nhtf sufc lu*c de phung hien cho 
quyen Idi cua tha nhan. Nen co long tin va tuyet doi 



khong tu* de cho minh bi nghieng nga lay dong vi phien 
nao; ma hay luon triTc dien, chong tra danh bai chung. 
Neu co nit lai, du do chi la mot ham hai nho nhat cung 
co the tieu huy xo dim hoac danh guc ban. Khi con ran 
chet thi du chim qua hanh xuf nhu* loai chim img, 
kenh kenh thoi. 

Ban cung nen boi dUOng nang luTc hoan hy (power of 
joy). Su" tu hanh can phai difdc hoa nhip trong niem phi 
lac khi ban khcfi su" dan bufdc de nhap cuoc la dieu rat 
quan trong. Doi vdfi tu hanh, tarn thufc han hoan tinh lac 
cua ban phai giong nhiT tre em dang hon nhien vui chdi. 
Cai nang lUc han hoan tinh lac trong cong viec tu hanh 
theo giao phap Phat cua ban se Ian at luon ca su* man 
nguyen cua ban doi vdi mot vai thanh tifu nho nho. 
Nhirng dong thdi ban cung chang nen thd d doi vdi quan 
nang diTdc thu" gian nghl ngdi. Trong n hfc tu hanh cua 
ban, neu cam thay moi met chan nan thi dieu quan trong 
la hay nghi ngdi de ban tim lai dufdc suf sang suot, sang 
khoai, hoi tinh va san sang tu tiep. Neu khong, thi su* kiet 
stfc ciia the xac se du*a den buon nan. Kinh dien day 
rang, nang lu*c tinh tan phai gio ng nhu" dong song, ma 
dong song thi mien mien bat tuyet. 

Trong khi van dung stic tinh tan, khong nhimg ban phai 
no lure de chien dau vdi cac chutfng duyen ma ban con 
phai dong thdi tu bao trong de dufng dinh mac vao cac 
hanh dong xau ac khac. Vi du nhu", khi liru tarn den each 
diet tru* vo minh, va no lire khong ngufng de phan dinh va 
chien dau vdi vo minh; thi co the ban se hoan toan quen 



mat cac loai phien nao khac de roi cuoi cung lai bi vtfcfng 
mac vao mot loai nghiep xau khac ntfa, do la sir luyen 
chap. Khi bao kiem rcfi xuong, ngufti chien si se ttfc thi 
cui nhat mot each khong do du*. Cung the ay, trong khi 
dong manh tinh tan, ban cung phai dong thdi thtfcfng 
xuyen gitf chanh niem de tranh bi anh hu*6ng bdi nhieu 
trang thai tarn ly khac. Chanh niem can phai phuc vu nhu" 
la mot yeu to" can de nham giup ban tranh duttc bao dieu 
phien nao tren qua trinh tinh tan. Bcfi vi, du la nhtfng 
hanh dong xau ac nho nhiem cung co the du*a den nhtog 
qua bao nghiem trong. Vet thtfdng se rat be khi mui ten 
nho dam trung nhifng noc doc Ian toa khap chau than se 
cuoi cung giet che t ban. Moi trang thai tarn ly xau xa deu 
co cung kha nang nhuf the . Mot vai trang thai dufrng nhu* 
khong de n noi tram trong, nhifng taft ca moi tinh tu* ke 
tren deu co cung mot kha nang. Su* can tac cua ban phai 
gio ng nhu* mot ngtfdi bi ep buoc de ly sffa tren dau, va bi 
doa giet chet cho du chi mot gipt sffa rcfi rai. Ngu*di do se 
tu" khac rat can than de tranh do thao. Tu hanh theo giao 
phap Phat, suf can trong cua ban cung phai ti mi y net nhtf 
vay. Trong moi hoan canh, qua that rat trong yeu de sam 
hoi doi vdi nhffng ac nghiep qua khu va phat khdi mot 
quyet tarn dong manh la khong bao gid tai pham nffa. 
Dieu nay da phuc vu nhu* mot su* thufdng xuyen nhac nhd 
khong nen de mat chanh niem. Tifa nhu" may long cu6h 
theo chieu gio, than tarn cua ban cung nen diTdc tham 
nhuan bcfi sufc dong manh tinh tan va niem hoan lac tren 
biTdc dirdng tu. 



Thien Dinh 

Phien Dinh la trang thai tarn ly chuyen tarn nhat tri ddi 
vdfi thien canh. Trang thai tarn ly thuftng tinh cua 
chung ta la vong ttfdng tan loan. Tarn thtfc binh thiTdng 
cua ta rat yeu dudi va kho be che phuc de co the tri hieu 
dutfc ban chat dich that cua tntfc tai gidi. Neu mudn giai 
phong dufdc bat cur ai, minh va ngu*5i, thoat khoi moi kho 
dau sinh tuf luan hoi; can ban nhat la am hieu ban chat 
cua thiTc tai gidi. Vi the can bien chuyen tarn thtic thanh 
mot dung cu thich nghi nhu* la mot loai kinh hien vi cu*c 
manh nham tham dinh thifc tai gidfi. Can chuyen tarn thtic 
thanh mot loai khi gidi thich hdp nhu* mot bao kie m sac 
ben de cat duft tan gdc moi kho 9 dau. Thien dinh la 
phtfdng each thufc tap ma tu* tarn tMc binh thuftng, tan 
loan, khong the che phuc dutfc cua mot con ngtfdi; tarn 
thiJc ay se difdc chuyen hoa, de dat den mufc do ma 
ngufdi do du dol dien vdi bat ctf ngoai canh nao cung deu 
giU du*cJc su* manh me va khong can t6n hao tarn sufc de 
chuyen tarn nhat tri den de muc da chon. Bo De Tdm can 
phai dutfc dat tren nen tang cua su* thu*c tap thien quan. 
Ngai Tsong-Kha-pa day rang: tarn thtfc cua chung ta tu* 
vo thi da chiu anh hufdng cua phien nao. Cong dung cua 
thien dinh la kiem soat tarn thufc cua ban de co the nham 
den bat ctf thien canh nao ma minh chon lira. Mai de n 
gi5 nay, ta ctf bi tuy thuan theo sir ap che x cua tarn thtfc, 
ma tarn thtfc thi ctf mai bi phien nao tho ng tri. Vi the, ta 



bi loi cuon dam chim theo cac ac nghiep. Ket qua la ta 
phai kham chiu nhffng khd dau ngoai y mu6n. Be cham 
dtft cai vong nhan duyen xau ac cua khd dau luan hoi 
sanh tu*, ta can phai chuyen hoa va che phuc tarn thtfc. 
Tarn thtfc nhu* con ngtfa can phai diTdc hutfng dan theo 
cac sinh hoat dao dtfc hdn la theo cac sinh hoat bat thien. 
Ta khong nen de tarn thtfc chi gian ddn ngao du vao cac 
thien nghiep mot each tinh cd. De cho su* thien dinh cua 
ban co hieu qua, ban phai thien quan mot each co he 
tho ng, vdi mot trinh do co kiem soat va co kem che . Neu 
khong, du cho ngSu nhien ban co the bat dau kinh 
nghiem dufdc mot vai ao canh linh hoat nao do; nhiTng 
dieu nay cung chang giup ich gi nhieu khi ma tarn thiJc 
ban con chufa diTdc dieu phuc mot each tinh xac. Ban se 
phat trien mot tap thoi xau de cho tarn thtfc rong ruo i van 
hanh bat ctf ndi nao no muo n. Ngu*dc lai, khi thtfc hien 
du*dc su* tie n bo mot each xac thtfc thi ban co the co dtfdc 
sir de dang va vo chu*dfng ngai khi mudn dem tarn linh 
minh dat de vao mot tieu dich nao do. 

Qua that rat quan trong de phai tien hanh theo mot 
tien trinh thich tfng cho den khi dat tdi giai doan nay; 
cung gidng nhu* ban phai dat nen mong cho can nha mot 
each chinh xac trutfc khi xay du*ng cac vach ngan kien co. 
Ban phai hoach dinh mot chifdng trinh ngay ttf luc khdi 
dau va phai quyet dinh trtfofc khi ban bat dau tinh toa. 
Ngay trong gitfa giai doan chanh yeu cua su* toa thien; 
ban phai co kha nang van dung ca chanh niem Ian chanh 
tri de co the quan sat thu" xem noi tarn co bi suy nghi van 



vcf den cac de muc khac khong. Sach day rang: tot hdn 
la hay toa thien vdi nhtfng thdi khoa ngan ngan khi khcfi 
dau thtfc tap; bdi vi se co nguy cd bi hon tramO) hoac trao 
cur( 2 ) neu thdi khoa cua ban qua dai. Neu thdi khoa cua 
ban keo dai hai hoac ba gid dong ho thi du ban co co" 
cong gang stfc nhu"ng ne u tarn thufc khong dtfo*c chuyen 
chu, lai con bi hon tram va trao cuf thi su" thien dinh cua 
ban cung chang mang den hieu qua theo nhu" thdi gian du* 
dinh. Sach cung day rang: dieu quan trong la hay bat dau 
vdi nhi?ng thdi khoa tinh toa ngan de ban tim dufcfc su* hy 
lac. Neu khong, vdi thdi gian tinh toa dai, ket qua chang 
nhifrig khong mang lai lac thu ma con se co nguy cd bi 
nan chi. Va ban se cam may nham chan, hoac gtfdng ep 
moi khi nhin thay vi tri tinh toa cua minh sau do. NhiTng, 
neu tien hanh tufng thdi khoa ngan; ban se that su* yeu 
thich khi bat dau thifc tap thien quan trd lai, ly do la vi 
anh tu*dng va tarn thiJc hy lac ma ban tiep xuc vdi khoa 
thien trufdc do van chu*a he md nhat. 

Khi tu hanh, giac ngu se dong vai trd nhif the nao? 
Dieu quan trong la khong nen ngu ngay hoac ngu vao 
dau horn hoac gan sang. NgiTdi Tay phufdng co thoi quen 
rat la, ho ngu khuya day tre. Neu vi ly do gi dac biet thi 
mien ban, neu khong thi ngu sdm day sdm thi tot hdn. 
Dieu can noi cf day: giac ngu la mot thtf nhan to" tarn ly 
co the sufa ddi diTdc. Ne u mang thien niem vao giac ngu 

( 1 ) Hon tram: trang thdi buon ngu, hon me khong sang suot 
tinh thtic. 

( 2 ) Trao cti: trang thdi tarn thicc lang xdng loan dong, 
khong an dinh. 



thi sach vcf bao rang: loan the canh mong se dutfc ddi 
thanh nhtfng niem tu*dng Itfdng thien. Nen di ngu vao mot 
gid giac nhat dinh va trade tien hay boi dtfdng mot vai 
thien niem nhtf Dai Bi Tarn chang han thi se co mot giac 
ngu ngon, hufng tarn, vdi nhimg mong canh hoan toan tot 
dep an lac. Ngu nhieu du se that sif giup duy tri the nang 
va ccf the nham gop sure nang d5 cho viec tu hanh cua 
ban. Neu du"a theo thoi quen cua ngufri An Do, thi hay 
rufa chan trufdc khi len gitfdng. Vi thdi tiet gia bang, toi 
hoai nghi se khong co bao nhieu vi sit lay Tang chiu lam 
theo nhiT vay. Sach vd noi rang: khi ngu, nen nam 
nghieng ben phia tay mat nhu* the nam cua mot con stf tuf. 
Tu* the nay diTdc truyen tung la co nhieu iru die m, chang 
han nhiTtoan than ban se khong buong tha qua dang. The" 
la ban se chang bi mat nang lu*c chanh niem, khong bi 
ngu me, va khong bi ac mong du vdi giac ngu say su*a. 

Khi len gitfdng, ban hay co gang ttfcfng tufdng trong 
thay hao quang de tranh khoi bi che ngu bdi bufc man u 
toi cua vo minh. Ban cung dong thdi nen gitf chanh niem 
va chanh tri cung y nguyen thtfc day sdm. De giiJ dutfc 
chanh niem; khi di ngii ban can hoi Wdng hoac mac 
tirdng trong long nhffng sinh hoat va su" tu tap trong ngay. 
Neu tien hanh mot each thuan Icfi nhu* vay thi ban se 
khong bi mat quan binh tu* chu du dang khi ngu. Giac ngu 
cua ban khong chi trcf nen thuan lUdng khong thoi, ma no 
con dong thdi co the du*cfm day my y. Khi thtfc day vdi 
dau 6c tinh giac nhiTng vi tarn than chtfa hoan toan hoi 
phuc nen doi khi tarn thtfc ban se rat ro rang sang suo t. 



Neu ban co the dung tri 6c minh man ay de 7 nghien tarn 
phan tich thi no that suf co mot nang life phi thtfcfng. Do 
vay, ban nen co gitf khuynh htfdfng thtfc day vao mot gift 
giac nao nhat dinh, va giong nhu* dpng vat, ngii vdi mot 
giac ngu nhe nhang an lac thanh thdi. 

Vdi y chi do, ban se co kha nang thtic day nhiT ban tru 
dinh. Ngai Tsong-Kha-pa day rang: neu kheo dung vice 
an ngu thi ban co the bien nhiJng sinh hoat an uo ng ngu 
nghi theo chieu hirdng thuan thien va rat nhieu ac nghiep 
se dufcJc ngan ngufa. 

Ngai Tsong-Kha-pa cung bao: dieu quan trong la tri 
nhan diTdc rang co hai loai Thien dinh: An Tru Tu< 1 ) va 
Nghien Chiet Tu( 2 )- Va trong hai loai tu hanh ke tren thi 
su* quyen bien kheo leo thUc hanh nang lire phan tich cua 
tarn thufc rat la trong yeu. Vi du nhiT: de co the sir dung 
di^cfc bac vang; ngtfcfi thd bac phai trifdc tien nung nong, 
lau chui va rufa sach chung, sau do phai lam du moi each 
de co the dung chung tao thanh nhffng mon trang sufc vdi 
bat cur hinh dang nao. TUdng ty nhu* the, vi de khac phuc 
nhi?ng phien nao chanh va thtf yeu; dieu quan trong tnTdc 
he t la hay ttf duy den moi sai lam cung ban chat ton hai 
cua phien nao; sau do la each thtfc ma phien nao da din 
dufa den cac hanh vi bat thien va each thiJc ma do vi hau 
qua cua cac hanh vi bat thien nay nen con ngufri da phai 

^) An Tru Tu: stabilizing practice: phtfcfng phdp thtic tap de gift 
cho tarn dticfc an tru trong chanh dinh (dich gid chu thick) 

(^Nghien Chiet Tu: analytical practice: phucfng phdp thtic hanh 
nang luc phan tich de thdy ducfc that ttfdng cac phdp (dich gid 
chu thick) 



Ian Ion mai trong vong luan hoi sanh til. Pham nhtfng loai 
nay, deu phai van dung den nang lufc phan tich cua tue 
giac de lieu tri, va chi co nhtf vay mdi hy vong thanh tiru 
dufdc nhtfng the nguyen tu hanh tren con duftng giai thoat 
giac ngo. Taft ca qua trinh phan tich ke tren deu tuftfng ttf 
nhu* dong tac chii yeu nham chuan bi cho tarn thufc dat 
diTdc ich Idi tur su" xung kich chanh yeu cua phap quan tu. 
Chi sau khi da boi dap dufdc mot nen tang chan xac va 
phong phu hoa noi tarn bang vao cac qua trinh phan tich 
nhu* vay roi, thi ban mdi co the tien hanh bat cti phap 
quan tu nao du do la phap chiO) hay phap quan( 2 ). 

Khi tu thien ta phai vach ra mot muc tieu: ta hay n6 
lu"c tinh tan. Su* tinh tan ay se diTdc tang trirdng do bdi 
nhin thay dtfdc tieu dich, ma tieu dich ciia phap quan tu 
cua chung ta can phai difdc lieu giai mot each tan tuftng 
r6t rao. Gang am Wdng muc dich bao nhieu thi ban cang 
gan bo vcfi phap tu cua ban bay nhieu. Ngai Tsong-Kha- 
pa day rang: tat ca kinh van co tog hien nhu Idi khuyen 
day ca nhan hay khong, con tuy thuoc rat nhieu vao kha 
nang co nhin thay dtfcJc tarn miJc can thiet va quan trong 
cua ca hai phifdng phap tu: Nghien Chiet Tu va An Tru 
Tu. Ngai bao: Qua that dang buon khong phai chi doi vdi 
cac hang ngiTcfi khong nghien tarn, hoc hoi mot each chan 
xac, ma ngay ca dol vdi nhffng ngufdi da tufng hoc cao 

(1) Phap chi: quiescience: dink chi, chdm diet moi dien dao 
vong ttfdng (dich gid chu thich) 

( 2 ) Phap quan: insight: quan chieu vao mot doi tucfng nao do. 

Vi du nhu: quan khong, quan hoi thd, quan vo ngd v.v...(dich gid 
chu thich) 



hieu rong; den khi that stf dan btfdc tu hanh thi ho da bo 
mac moi sd hoc de roi chi ttf hai long xtfng y vdi chu 
thuyet "vo khdi niem". Dang thitong thay! 

Neu ban khong tim each khai phat nang Itfc phan tich 
tarn thtfc, ma chi tiep tuc tram minh de dtfdc nhuan tham 
trong phap an chi quan tu; va de chi gian ddn bao tri doan 
kien thi ban se trd nen cang ngay cang bdt man tiep, tinh 
anh va tri hue phan biet dung sai cung theo do ma giam 
dan. Day la dieu vo cung nguy hiem. 

Tri Hue 

\ri hue phan tich ban chat cua moi hien tu*dng. Co 
nhieu loai Tri Hue khac nhau, chang han nhu* ngu 
minh: Noi minh va bo n loai Ngoai minh bao gom Nhan 
minh, Y phiTdng minh, Thanh minh, Cong xao minh. O 
day, toi chi ban den Noi minh. Loai Tri Hue nay la nen 
tang cua moi iru tinh mien hao. Thieu vang su* hiTdng dan 
cua Tri Hue thi tat ca cac Ba La Mat kia nhtf Bo thi va 
Tri gidi deu nhiT mot tap the thieu ngu"5i lanh dao. Tu 
hanh cac Ba La Mat khac ma thieu mat nang lUc cua Tri 
Hue thi se khong the du*a dan no i den muc tieu truy cau 
hu*dng ve su" thanh tifu giac ngo. So sanh vdi cac loai Ba 
La Mat khac nhu" tin tarn, nhu" chanh niem, nhu" tinh tan 
v.v...thi Tri Hue duTdc truyen rang no quan trong htfn ca 
bdi vi chi cd xuyen qua thanh tri cua Tri Hue , khi pho i 
hcfp vdi cac loai Ba La Mat khac thi con ngufti mdi that 
sur cd kha nang dol tri phien nao. Cac loai Ba La Mat 
khac, chang han nhuf Bo thi va Tri gidi, deu tuy thuoc rat 



nhieu vao stf lieu giai ciia Tri Hue. 

Nang Itfc ciia Tri Hue tira nhtf nang Itfc cua mot quoc 
vtfdng day uy quyen. Quan vtfdng se chang pham phai 
bat ctf suf sai lam nao neu ong dufdc pho trd bdi cac can 
than quyen xao va minh triet. Cung the ay, va dufrng nhu* 
mau thuln; vi du nhu* : khi ta co diTdc long yeu thiTdng va 
tu* bi manh me nhu*ng lai khong bi nhiem tap bdi nhifrig 
chap triTdc va luyen ai thi do la do nhd vao su" trd life cua 
Tri Hue. San co Tri Hue roi thi dlu rang, ban doi vdi tha 
nhan co khdi phat long tu* ai manh liet di chang ntfa thi 
cung tuyet nhien khong co luyen ai va chap thu gi ca. 
Ban se khong the rdi vao lap truftng triet hoc vinh hang 
(thu*5ng kien) cu*c doan hoac chu nghia hu" vo ne u du"cfc 
trang bi bang stfc manh cua Tri Hue. 

Chutfng ngai vat cua Tri Hue la vo minh. Va nguyen 
nhan difa dan cung nhu" lam cho vo minh tang trtfcfng la 
sU thufdng xuyen dinh mac vao cac sinh hoat vo muc dich 
nhtf ngii qua nhieu hay dai dai liTdi bieng. Vo minh cung 
dong thdi xuat phat tuf ch khong cam thay vui thu hoac 
hy lac vdi nang li/c cua Tri Hue. Phtfdng each doi tri vo 
minh la xuyen qua su* nghien tarn hoc hoi de gia tang 
kien thtfc. Doi vdi nhtog ngufti quye t tarn tu hanh theo 
giao phap Phat, thi qua rat quan trong de tri hieu rang Tri 
Hue de minh bien du*dc the tinh cua cac phap, la nguyen 
nhan chu ye u cho sir ttfu thanh giac ngo. Neu ngufti nao 
chi quan tarn den viec giang kinh thuyet phap, chuf khong 
quan tarn de n sir hanh tri thi ho khong can phai cau dat 
mot kien thu"c quang bac; nhu*ng thay vi chi giang kinh 



thuyet phap khong thoi thi nhtfng ngufti nhtf vay, neu chi 
giff sir tham lang tu hanh xet ra con Idi lac hcfn. Ca hai, 
sir hoc tap va sir tham lang mac ttfcfng va tiT duy deu rat 
quan trong doi vdfi mot hanh gia nghiem tuc. Sir tien bo 
tren dtfdng tu hanh cua ban can phai xtfng hcfp vdi sir tang 
tnrdng cua kien thtfc Phat hoc. Co dutfc than ngirdi hiem 
quy lai diTcfc phu cap cho mot nao bo ky tap, ta phai tan 
dung moi pham chat dac thu cua no va phai ap dung cai 
nang lire duy nhat da diTdc ban phat cho, do la nang lu*c 
minh bien dung sai. ThiTc hien dtfcfc dieu nay do nhd vao 
sir tang trirdng cua tarn hieu biet va ly giai cua ta. Kien 
thufc cua ban cang tang trirdng bao nhieu thi su* hieu biet 
va ly giai cua ban cang gia tang bay nhieu. Trong no lire 
tien den sir thanh tiru Tri Hue, dieu quan trong la ban 
phai tuyet doi khong nen tach ly sir tu hue cua minh ra 
khoi cac Ba La Mat kia. Mot hanh gia no lire de dat diTdc 
sir thanh tifu giac ngp, chinh that ra can phai liu ngo tat 
ca Luc Do Ba Mat. Ta co the tim dtfcfc nguon cam Mng 
ay tuf tarn gtfdng sang choi cua Btfc Phat. Tren qua trinh 
tu hanh, triTdc tien Ngai phai trai qua nhieu khd hanh cam 
go va nhan chiu nhieu kho nan to lofn. Sau cung, diTdi coi 
cay Bo De, Ngai da giac ngo, va da mang tat ca nhtog gi 
Ngai da tiT tu tuf chtfng ra de giang giai cho muon loai. 
Dau rang mien kho van kho cho chung ta de nhap cupc 
thUc hanh Luc Do Ba La Mat ngay ttr sd khcfi; quan trong 
hdn ca la trirdc tien hay phat huy long han ngiT5ng de roi 
hay dan dan gia tang su* hieu bie t ve Luc Do Ba La Mat. 
Dieu nay, se chung cuoc din dufa ta den mot suf that 



nghiem tu tri, se giup ta tim diTdc giai thoat ngay chinh 
tuf trong muon trung kho khan cua xich chuyen luan hoi 
va se giup ta tim diTdc an vui trong qua vi cu\i canh giac 
ngo. o 


This book is respectfully dedicated to my 
late father, Nguyen van Dai, my late father 
-in-law, Nguyen van Tong, my late mother, 
Nguyen thi Mdi - Qudng Nguyen, and my 
mother-in-law, Nguyen thi Xoi - Hue Lien. 

My heartfelt thanks also go to my husband, 
Nguyen Thanh Tdi; my two sons Nguyin 
Bdo Chdu - Nhat Quang and Nguyin Bdo 
Quoc - Nhat Bdo whose support and 
encouragement afforded me an opportunity 
to make my aspiration a successful one. 

Nguyen Thuy Phtfcfng 

Nguyet Tue Huy 

2543 - 1999 

Xin nguyen hoi htidng cdng dtic nay de cdu 
sieu cho hticmg link than phu Nguyen van 
Dai, nhqc phu Nguyen van Tong, than mdu 
Nguyin thi Mdi phdp danh Qudng Nguyen 
vd cdu an cho nhqc mdu, Nguyen thi Xoi 
phdp danh Hue Lien. 

Vd cung xin het long tri an phu qudn 
Nguyen Thanh Tdi, hai trudng vd tM nam 
Nguyen bdo chdu, phdp danh Nhdt Quang; 
Nguyin Bdo Quoc, phdp danh Nhdt Bdo da 
khuyen khich vd h tro 1 de tqo nhieu thien 
duyen cho tarn nguyen dich thudt kinh sdch 
Phdt gido cua dich gid dtiac ttiu thdnh vien 

Nguyen Thuy Phufdng 

Nguyet Tue Huy 
P.L. 2543 - D.L. 1999 

All proceeds from the sale of 
this book will respectfully bene 
fit The Library of Tibet and Bao 
Php monastery s construction 
fund, Azusa, California, USA. 

Xin Thanh Kinh cling dtfdng 
tt c tinh tai bn sch nay cho 
Thtf Vin T&y Tang v& cho quy 
xay dtfng Tu Vi^n Bdo Ph^p tai 
thanh ph6" Azusa tieu bang 
California, Hoa K. 

Nguy^t Tu? Huy 

Although humbly claiming to be a simple human being and an ordi 
nary Buddhist monk, His Holiness The Dalai Lama is known the world 
over as a great teacher, a winner of millions of hearts and also a winner 
of the Nobel peace prize in 1989. He has managed to capture and 
demystify the essence of the Mahayana doctrine in this book "The Way 
To Freedom", one of the landmark series of The Library of Tibet. 

With a clear and concise style, Nguyln Thuy Phtfdng has cultivated 
Bodhichitta and invested her tireless efforts and time to translating many 
illustrious Buddhist scriptures. "The Way To Freedom" is one volume 
among those mentioned texts. We highly recommend this text to anyone 
who aspires to urge his own way of life toward the shore of purity, nobility 
and beauty. 

Btfc Bat Lai Lat Ma, mot b$c thly Idn, c6 khd nang chinh phuc hang 
chuc tri6u con tim tren th gift, da tirng doat giai Nobel h6a binh nam 
1989, nhung ngai van ludn khim cung ttf nMn mlnh chi gidn ddn fe mOt 
chung sanh va te mOt tu si PMt Giao blnh thtf6*ng. Tc pham "Hudng Den 
Con Dicdng Gidi Thodt" 1^ mOt trong nhimg tuyf t tc cua thu* vi$n ly 
Tang da dtfdc Ngai kh6o l^o c6 ke^t d^ diln dat trpn ven tinh hoa c6t loi 
ciia gido php dai thu*a. 

Bao hini Nguyeb Thuy Phtfdng vdi mdt but phap trong s^ng vk su 
s^c, da phat tarn B6 Bl, dau ttf toan b0 nang Itfc v^ thi gid de phi6n dich 
nhilu tac phlm Ph|t Hoc gid tri ndi tieng. "Hudng Den Con Ditdng Gidi 
Thodt" 1^ mOt trong nhimg tdc phlm y. Chfing t6i xin trSn trong gidi 
thifu quyen sach nay cho nhflng ai mudn htfdng cd ddi mmh de^n ben bd 


US $ 26.00 
CAN $ 35.00 

ISBN D-Tb7ME c lS-D-l 

9 "780967 "4 29 502 

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