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NO. 1. 


{Ilhatrattd by SO fiyures and 19 kalf-Ume pit ties 


( ollrrtlom. of ike MlUMOtl Historical S«l*tT. 

191 J. 

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l.SOC. I 

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St. Paul, Minn., Oct. 10, 1912. 
- President W. H. Lightner. 
My Dear Sir: 
In accordance with the recommendation of the Mu- 
seum Committee a manuscript entitled "A considera- 
tion of the Paleoliths of Kansas" is herewith offered 
for publication It is a further result of the examina- 
tion of the collections amassed by the late J. V. 
B rower. 



Museum Committee. 
Newton H. Winchell Olin D. Wheeler 

Francis J. Schaefer Harold Harris 

Warren Upham, Ex-Officio, 

Publication Committee. 
William G. White Henry S. Fairchild 

Harold Harris Jas. H. Baker 

Chas. W. Ames Warren Upham 


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To Dr. Charles Conrad Abbott, 
Trenton, N. J, 

I beg the honor and the privilege of inscribing 
to you the following work on the "Weathering of 
Aboriginal Stone Artifacts." Never having met 
you, not knowing you by sight, I can assure you 
that it is only because of my admiration of your 
skill, and your -persistence through more than forty 
years, in describing the occurrence of paleolithic 
stone artifacts in the Delaware valley, that I am 
moved to offer you this testimonial of esteem. 

N, H. Winchell. 
St. Paul. Minn.. April 30. 1913. 

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One of the most interesting, as well as the most im- 
portant, questions that concern man is that of his 
antiquity. In America, as in Europe, for many years 
it has been much discussed, but in America archeolo- 
gists are not in as good concord on the fundamental 
ideas as in Europe. The leading American authorities 
are about where the European were prior to the dis- 
coveries of Boucher de Perthes. That is about the 
same as saying that in America authoritative archeo- 
logical opinion on this subject is about sixty-six years 
behind that of Europe. It is true that human artifacts 
in the river gravel at Trenton, New Jersey, were an- 
nounced in 1872 by Dr. C. C. Abbott, who is the 
Boucher de Perthes of America, and have been de- 
scribed elsewhere, but to this day all discoveries of 
pre-Glacial human remains, whether bones or imple- 
ments, have been discredited and discarded by the 
powerful influences that are localized at Washington, 
and the existence of man in North America earlier 
than "the Glacial epoch", i. e. the Wisconsin ice-epoch, 
is tabooed. The effect of this leading has been so pro- 
nounced that in most of the museums of the country, 
outside of New England, it is vain to search for any 
labels that indicate pre-Glacial man in America. 

There is a singular anomaly in the course of numer- 
ous American archeologists in this matter. Admitting 
that European study of aboriginal stone artifacts ante- 

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dated American, they accept the conclusions of 
European experts as to the names and uses which 
they ascribe to American specimens, adopt the terms 
applied to their culture stages, their classification and 
definitions; practically therefore European archeology 
has been transplanted to America, though with some 
extensions and modifications. But, the signs of age 
when discovered in America are rejected, in such a 
manner that, to be philosophic and reasonable, it be- 
comes necessary, in order to justify such rejection, to 
assume that in America, the difference of longitude, or 
of climate, or manner of exposure to the atmospheric 
elements, was so powerful that we cannot expect in 
America the same results as in Europe. If that be 
true, it is an important new element in natural physics, 
and were it to be applied generally it would be incum- 
bent on American geologists and geographers, as well 
as all natural scientists, to reconstruct the sciences 
which are current, and to build up from the foundation 
a special code of American sciences. But the work 
which follows is based on the assumption that natural 
forces have operated in America in the same manner 
as in Europe, and have produced identical results. 
The patination of flint is accepted in Europe as an in- 
dication of great age. When found on similar arti- 
facts in America it has the same significance. Not 
only do European specimens show the well-known pat- 
ination indicative of Paleolithic date, but African and 
Asiatic stone implements, when they possess this evi- 
dence also are classed uniformly with European Pale- 
oliths. It seems that, in order to be justifiable in the 
rejection of this evidence in America, the burden of 

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proof rests upon the objectors. They should show, 
either th^t what in this work is called patination is 
not patination, or that different natural causes have 
produced in America those results which in Europe 
are ascribed to patination. 

No one, reading American literature devoted to 
stone artifacts, can fail to notice the paucity of de- 
scriptions and discussions made from the geologist's 
point of view; that too when the nature of the speci- 
mens and their environments were more or less geo- 
logical, and when a careful examination by a compe- 
tent geological observer would have added materially 
to their significance and to their value. The archeolo- 
gists of America have usually not been equipped with 
geological training. They have gathered, with great 
assiduity a vast number and variety of aboriginal im- 
plements, and have assigned them in many cases to 
their supposed uses. They have filled their cases 
with "beautiful " specimens, and have dazzled the visi- 
tor with skillful arrangements from shelf to shelf. 
They have had little concern for the question of the 
relative ages of these specimens, and usually they 
have considered all their collections from American 
localities as the product of the historic Indian. More 
recently, as the question of Paleolithic man in America 
has been revived, while discerning the need of geologi- 
cal investigation, they have still been content to sub- 
mit the inquiry to archeologists who made no pretense 
of geological skill, or to geologists who, with super- 
ficial and insufficient investigation, were satisfied to 
corroborate the views of their archeological associates. 
Thus in some notable instances the geological evidence 

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of the antiquity of man in America has been glozed 
over, and in others seems to have been distorted and 
ignored ; at the same time geologists generally are too 
intent on the facts of their own science to give heed to 
that dim. border-line which separates man from geol- 
ogy. It will be probably many years before the Pleis- 
tocene relations of man in America can be worked out 
with that particularity which has been attained by re- 
cent work in Europe. 

If there be one portion of American geological his- 
tory which more than any of the others has undergone 
modification in recent years, as geologists have pushed 
their investigations to greater detail, it is that which 
is called Glacial Geology, or, in broader terms. Pleisto- 
cene Geology. In this remarkable modification it is 
notable that in all cases, as new features have been 
discovered, it has been necessary to lengthen rather 
than shorten the time involved. Thus, the "Glacial 
Period" which was at first believed to have been a 
simple, single and unique phase of Pleistocene time, 
has been doubled and quadrupled in its recurrent 
phases, and hence has been doubled and quadrupled 
in its complexities, as well as in the time needed to 
warrant such physical revolutions as are evident. 
Some of the momentous topographic changes of the 
western United States have been effected by volcanic 
action and by erosion, since the close of the Tertiary. 
Thousand of square miles have been covered by vol- 
canic lava floods and have been given a new topogra- 
phy by post-Tertiary erosion. It is only recent that 
it has been found necessary to take cognizance of this 
great lapse of time since the close of the Tertiary, 

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and it has not yet been found possible, in all cases, 
even to distinguish between the later Tertiary and 
the early Pleistocene; nor is it to be wondered at 
that in some instances no notice whatever has been 
taken of this long Pleistocene period, and that in the 
discussion of human antiquity no room has been left 
for the existence of man between the Tertiary and 
the historic Indian, i. e. between the Tertiary and the 

If the writer has succeeded in showing, in the pages 
of this little work, that man existed in Kansas through- 
out at least the Glacial period, with its many phases, 
he has opened the door through which proof may flow 
eventually that man occupied the entire North Ameri- 
can continent during the same period and that he wit- 
nessed many of the convulsions of the western states 
which were marked by violent volcanism, as well as 
the more gradual changes of topography consequent 
on floods and their resulting erosions, which marked 
the successive Glacial epochs. 

Scientific workers in America are not numerous, and 
they are often handicapped by poverty of resources 
and of time. They do not always agree in their con- 
clusions, but there can not be found a body of men 
more unreservedly devoted to the single cause of the 
advancement of truth. They are subject in their re- 
searches only to errors of judgment, not to lapses of 
integrity. Therefore whatever their differences on 
scientific questions they should be credited with hon- 
esty of motive and conviction, for however great those 
differences it requires only the further prosecution of 
research to prove where the truth lies. It behooves 

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them to be patient and conciliatory with each other, 
and to have constant willingness to accept new facts 
whenever and wherever they appear, and whatever 
may be their bearing on their own views. 

The writer contemplates a similar treatment of hu- 
man implements from other states in the near future, 
and he asks the co-operation of American archeolo- 

A brief announcement of these results was pub- 
lished in Records of the Past, July-August, .1912. A 
more extended account was presented at Geneva, to 
the Congres international d'Anthropologie et d'Arche 
ologie pr£historiques, September, 1913. They were 
discussed in a paper read in December, 1912, at Cleve- 
land O., before Section H of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and in January, 1913, 
at Milwaukee, before the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society and before the Minnesota Academy of Science 
at Minneapolis. 


St Paul, April 18. 1913. 

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Preliminary Note 1 

T, A consideration of the Paleoliths of Kansas 3 

1. The Quiviran implements were not from the 

Wichita 6 

Nature of the Quiviran chert. Patination. 6 

Comparison with European Paleoliths 11 

Effect of the Ice Age 21 

2. They have been secondarily chipped by later 

people 25 

Character of the Paleolithic artifacts 26 

3. Location of these artifacts 38 

i. Relation to the Glacial drift 39 

5. Aqueous deposits of the Lower Kansas 

valley 39 

6. Mingling of Paleolithic and Neolithic arti- 

facts 40 

II. Cultural stages of stone chipping correlated with 

Glacial stages 41 

Supplemental Note 44 

III. What were the tribes met in the Kansas valley 

by Coronado in 1541 ? 44 

IV. Early Man and his cotemporary fauna in Kansas.. 48 

Explanation of Plates 58 

V. Critical working observations on some Kansas 

Paleolithic culture in Neolithic time 70 

Iron Mould 72 

Variation of the chert 75 

Criteria of the different ages of Weathering 76 

Gradation of Culture stages 79 

Critical observations 81 

Significance of a Gloss 81 

Persistence of Paleolithic Culture 82 

Relative number of Early Neolithic specimens.. 83 
Weather scales are sometimes white and some- 
times brown 83 

Unfinished edges on "Turtles" 85 

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Early Paleolithic, Paleolithic and Early Neo- 
lithic chipping on the same specimen 87 

Successive weather scales 89 

Uniformity of the Kansas chert 90 

Paleolithic or Early Neolithic? 80 

Loss of a Glossy Surface 91 

Pink chert 92 

The Tomahawk People 92 

Incipient scraper 93 

Neolithic "Turtle" 93 

Limitation of the terms Paleolithic and Early 

Neolithic 93 

Paleolithic culture continued in Neolithic time.. 94 

Tomahawks have never been withed 93 

The Scraper 96 

Different signs of age 97 

Continuation of Paleolithic culture 98 

Lefthandedness of Early Neolithic Man 99 

Imperfect Harahey Knives 101 

Different rates of Patination 102 

Early Neolithic preferable to Pre-Neolithic 103 

VI. Work of Dr. W. Allen Sturge in England 104 

VII. Classification of Kansas artifacts by culture stages 113 

The simplest artifact an edged tool 113 

Knives 115 

Gouges 117 

Scrapers 118 

Tomahawks 120 

Leaves or Blades 121 

Celts 122 

Explanation of Plate XII 125 

Explanations of Plate XIII 127 

Points, Neoltihk No. 1 128 

Explanation of Plate XIV 131 

VIII. An A rcheo logical Reconnoissance 133 

The Kansas valley, Elevations 133 

In other western Museums and Private 

collections 151 

Rotting of chert 154 

Resume and Conclusions 169 

Index 177 

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The results presented in this paper, and the evidence on 
which they are based, were theoretically anticipated by the 
writer prior to the examination of the artifacts. Indeed they 
were first confirmed by an earlier cursory handling of a 
large collection of "Mandan" flint artifacts collected by Mr. 
Brower for the Minnesota Historical Society; but at that 
time it was inconvenient to enter upon the discussion. Sim- 
ilar conclusions seem to be warranted by the weathering of 
some Oklahoma specimens. In later discussion these facts 
will be presented. 

The main purpose of this note is to call attention to the 
fact that Mr. Brower was fully aware of the important bear- 
ing of the rude culture of the "Quivira" on the question of 
paleolithic man in America, as shown by the following quo- 
tation from his Har ahey (p. 109): 

"I was so impressed by the developments of unusual in- 
terest, indicating the existence of two stages of ancient cul- 
ture near the Kansas chert beds, that a series of the chipped 
implements of each nation was submitted for inspection to 
the authorities of the United States National Museum at 
Washington. Dr. Thomas Wilson has replied quite fully, 
and that portion of his last communication which relates par- 
ticularly to the Quivira and Harahey implements is available 
to indicate some of the difficulties encountered. 

'"Smithsonian Institution, 
U. S. National Museum, 
Washington, D. C, Feb. 3, 1899. 
Mr. J. V. Brower, 

St. Paul, Minn. 
Dear Sir:— 

I do not know what your discoveries of new imple- 
ments and different stages of culture in the same neigh- 
borhood is going to delvelop, but it is surely remarkable 
and opens up a new vista which should be pursued and 
explored to the very end. I conclude that you are the 
only individual qualified to make the investigation, and 
I think the responsibility of pursuing it will rest with 

Yours very truly, 

Division of Prehistoric Archeology. 

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"Eminent archcologists, appealed to f 
advice in the preparation of these papers, are unable to 
definitely conclude new questions which have arisen during 
the continuance of these explorations in Kansas, and the fact 
that some of the rude implements found there indicate no 
higher culture than existed probably 50,000 years ago in the 
Somme Valley,* France, places a responsibility upon me 
which I have been cautious to assume, on account of the 
wide diversity of opinions in archeologic matters relating 
particularly to American anthropology.'' 

It is in continuation of the examination of the specimens 
gathered by Mr. Brower, and the work which they entail 
upon the Minnesota Historical Society, that the writer has 
prepared this paper. To the late Dr. Thomas Wilson must 
be given the credit, as appears from the foregoing and from 
other excerpts from his letters which have been published 
by Mr, Brower, of detecting the paleolithic character of the 
rude artifacts assigned by Mr. Brower to a tribe of historic 
Indians. Mr. Brower shrank from the labor and the re- 
sponsibility of the task pointed out by Dr. Wilson, of pur- 
suing the "new vista" opened up by the discovery "to the 
very end." Hence the subject has remained dormant for 
thirteen years. N. H. W. 
August, 1312. 

♦"Primitive man in the Somme Valley, by Professor War- 
ren Upham, Vol. XXII, p. 350, American Geologist, Decem- 
ber, 18«H. Professor Upham conducted a critical examina- 
tion of the locality mentioned in 18W7, by observations based 
on Glacial Geology." 

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Without calling in question the identification of 
Quivira by Mr. J. V. Brower, and the distinction to 
which he called attention between the artifacts found 
in one part of the area and those found in another, 
which he has delimited on his various maps in 
"Quivira," "Harahcy," and in "Kansas," there are cer- 
tain important other facts which seem to require a 
profound modification of his archeological reasoning. 

1. The coarsely chipped large artifacts which Mr. 
Brower attributed to the Quivirans (Wichita Caddo) 
are not characteristic of that branch of the Caddo 
people, nor of any other branch, nor of any existing 
Indian people of America. They are distinctly paleo- 
lithic and manifest all the characteristic features of the 
paleolithic artifacts of Europe as stated by Evans in 
his work, "Ancient Stone implements of Great 

2. They have been secondarily chipped by a later 
people, and this later people have left their work 
strewn up and down the Kansas valley and its tribu- 
tary valleys. This later people may have done inde- 
pendent quarrying in the cherty limestone. 

3. These paleolithic artifacts are south from, but 
quite near, the oldest known glacial moraine of the 

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ice-age, the northeastern corner of Kansas having been 
invaded by the Kansas ice-sheet. An outline map of 
this section of Kansas has been constructed by the aid 
of Prof. J. E. Todd, showing the Glacial geology. 
(See Plate-map). 

4. The area of the Quivirans, as marked out by 
Mr. Brower, takes in a part of the elevated lands 
which are underlain by the chert-bearing limestone, 
which was not disturbed by the ice-movement, nor 
covered by a sheet of Glacial drift of any kind. 

5. The area of the Haraheyans (of Brower) is fur- 
ther north and further east, and was in part involved 
in the events of the near-by Glacial moraine, at least 
so far as the abundant waters from the dissolving ice 
were able to spread a sheet of gravel and sand, or of 
loess, along the valleys. Hence 

C. The rude artifacts from the chert-bearing up- 
land when not wholly buried from sight, are found 
mixed, in the valleys, with the more finished artifacts 
of the later people, some of the former being partially 
(and frequently wholly) re-chipped. 

7. The stone artifacts show therefore two (or 
three) ages of stone-working, one being perhaps pre- 
Glacial, or inter-Glacial (if not both) and one post- 
Glacial. The corresponding inter-Glacial terms would 
probably be Pleistocene (or Aftonian), Buchanan and 

There are several other interesting propositions that 
might here be given, but they will appear more reason- 
ably in connection with the circumstantial discussion 
of these, and their perfect adjustment with these will 
serve to elucidate and confirm these. Mr. Brower's 

* Google 


great work in establishing Quivira in the Kansas 
river valley, and having it marked by a granite monu- 
ment at Logan grove,* cannot be called in question. 
It is in his attempt to adjust his discovery with discov- 
ered archeologic facts, and with aboriginal history and 
tradition, that the writer thinks that some change 
should be made — a change, moreover, which, if Mr. 
Brower had apprehended it, he would have welcomed, 
since it furnishes another confirmation of one of the 
leading ideas of his archeological work — the existence 
of pre-Glacial man in America. 

Near the close of Mr. Brower's work in Kansas, he 
collected, boxed and sent to St. Paul, with the aid of 
Judge J. T. Keagy of Alma, living in the valley of 
Mill Creek, in Wabaunsee county, a large number of 
those coarse artifacts. This collection came from 
"Quivira" village sites in Morris, Geary, Riley and 
Wabaunsee counties, and from various isolated spots, 
and in the course of examination of Mr. Brower's ex- 
tensive collection has just been reached (January, 
1913). The sites are often well up toward the crest 
where the uplands break down in undulating slopes 
and descend into the valleys. The upland divides be- 
tween adjacent creeks {such as Humbolt and McDow- 
ell) on the northwesterly side of the range, are narrow, 
and it was easy for the people who lived on the north- 
westerly side to pass the crown of the upland and find 
suitable sites on the upper slopes of the southeastern 
side. (V. Kansas, pp. 101-102). 

•Logan Grove is on the land of Capt. Robert Henderson, 
near Junction City. Later Mr. Brower was instrumental in 
having similar commemorative monuments erected at Man- 
hattan, Alma and Herrington. 

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Taking the foregoing propositions in numerical 
ordci, it is not at all necessary to dwell on the first 
part of No. 1. Probably every student of the present 
Indians will admit that the "Quiviran" artifacts de- 
scribed by Mr. Brower are notably different from 
those now in use, or in use when America was dis- 
covered. That they are distinctly Paleolithic however 
requires demonstration. 

Xature of the tytivira Chert. Patination. 
This chert is embraced in nodules and broken lay- 
ers in a magnesian limestone of the age of the Coal 
Measures, or the Permo-Carboniferons. This lime- 
stone does not effervesce freely in cold acid, but dis- 
solves on being boiled. It is apparently also quite 
siliceous, and in this condition is cemented firmly up- 
on the surfaces of some of the coarse artifacts that 
have been made from the chert.* The chert and the 
surrounding limestone are fossiliferous with small 
organisms, some of which are coralline (crinoids and 
cyathophylloids), rarely brachiopodous or ostracodous 
and bryozoan, and with many siliceous spicules ap- 
parently from sponges. The chert has been called 
blue, but it is prevailingly, at least on the outside, of 
a dark gray color, with denser portions which are more 
blue. Besides these shades, which may be considered 

•This condition of the limestone chemically is more allied 
lo chert than to limestone, but its grain and its color exclude 
it from the designation chert. 

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as variations of one color, there is a notable amount of 
a light gray color, and this light gray is not due to 
atmospheric weathering of any recent date, for these 
two penetrate each other in irregular patches and 
sometimes in a manner resembling sedimentary lamin- 
ation. As chert it is not very siliceous. It is easily 
chipped. Perhaps one eighth of all the coarse arti- 
facts collected are made entirely of this light-colored 
chert, and more than one-half of them show both 
colors. Long weathering turns both these colors usu- 
ally to a still lighter color. This light-colored chert 
was noted by Mr. Brower, who considered it of an in- 
ferior quality, and as prevailing in the western part of 
Quivira, along the eastern boundary of the Dakota 
sandstone. This alteration may be attributed there- 
fore to pre-Cretaceous exposure, and perhaps to the 
atmospheric elements, and it may be expected that 
the limestone, where now overlain by the Dakota 
sandstone, would show, on deep exploration, a large 
amount of this altered chert. It is apparently from 
this that numerous Missouri artifacts have been 
made.* The darker-colored chert, further east, shows, 
by the manner of transition to light-colored, that the 
latter is only a phase of the former. 

Paleolithic Weathering. Weathering of a more su- 
perficial kind is notable on nearly all the coarse arti- 
facts of Quivira. This later weathering requires care- 
ful consideration. It manifests various characteris- 
tics, viz : 

*The "points" figured on "'plate 3 of arrow points" "Abor- 
igines of Minnesota" made of "light colored chert" illustrate 
this kind of Kansas chert, and can be referred confidently to 
'"" isouri, as noted on page 415, 

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(a). Patina consisting of a superficial change of 
color. The dark gray and the blush-gray cherts have 
a tendency to become much lighter colored, approach- 
ing white (and sometimes light brown) and the light 
gray has a tendency to become yellowish, passing 
through buff to yellowish brown. 

(b). Patina consisting of a polished, or glossy sur- 
face. This glossy surface is usually more pronounced 
on one side of an artifact or chip than on the other, 
as if one side had been less exposed to the atmospheric 
agents. It is often visible on both sides, but there are 
some that do not show it noticeably on either side, 
although belonging by culture in the same class. This 
glossiness of course has obliterated all the fine, sharp 
angularities due to the fracturing of the grain of the 
chert, but it has not destroyed the coarser angularities 
(aretes), such as are produced by the intersections of 
fracture planes. It smoothes off the edges and de- 
scends into the main undulations of the chipped sur- 
faces. Some have described this glossines as a "bur- 
nishing," but if it were produced by a burnisher, it 
was one that accommodated itself to the inequalities 
of a very uneven surface. On making a new chipping 
from one of these glossy specimens, so directed as to 
cause an intersection of the new surface with the 
glossy surface, the contrast presented by them is quite 
evident. The fresh surface is dull gray, does not re- 
flect the light from the window and has the feel of a 
fine roughness, while the old surfaces reflect the light 
successively as the turning of the specimen brings 
them into the proper angles. 

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This patina, whether change of color or loss of the 
fine asperity of the original fracture, is very thin. Its 
thickness usually cannot be seen with the unaided eye. 
Frequently both characteristics are seen on the same 
specimen, and on the same surface, indeed usually they 
go in company. 

(c). There is also another form of patina, which 
appears on the grayish-blue specimens. In this case, 
while there is no marked glossiness there is a change 
of color throughout a surface layer about as thick as 
card-board, or letter paper, the color assumed being a 
dirty gray and brownish gray. This change screens 
entirely the bluish tint of the interior, and when a chip 
is removed not only the color of the coating can be 
seen but also its thickness. This form of alteration 
is due probably to protection from the impact of at- 
mospheric agents, by burial beneath a rubbish of chert 
and soil, and its significance is nearly the same, as to 
age, as the forms (a) and (b), but in numerous cases it 
is older than (a) and (b). 

(d). Occasionally can be seen scattered spangles 
and non -reflecting specks of what appears to be black 
oxide of manganese, but this has not been analyzed, 
and is not common. 

(e). There is also a persistent thin dirt-colored 
patina which cannot be washed off, nor removed with 
a brush and warm water. This is very common on 
all the old surfaces, but is absent from modern arti- 
facts. It is later than the glossy surfaces. It is only 
in this patina that have been observed (though rather 
doubtfully) the peculiar spots described by Evans 

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(op. cit. p. 575) "caused." as supposed by him, "by 
lying for ages in contact with other stones." 

(f). In addition to the foregoing there is, though 
rarely, a calcareous scale which is usually considered 
evidence of a Glacial age. This I have called a "gla- 
cial patina" (Records of the Past, Vol. VIII, p. 251) and 
it is found on pebbles gathered from the drift in the 
Mill Creek valley. The most remarkable instance of 
the preservation of this calcareous crust on an artifact 
is seen on specimen Xo. 5206, of the Brower register, 
and it is probably due to the size of this specimen that 
it is well preserved. It is a large, egg-shaped, yet 
pointed, leaf or turtle, having a length of ten inches, 
a width of six and three-fourths inches and thickness 
of three and a half inches. It was coarsely chipped 
to form, the outline for an implement of its kind {if it 
may be called such) being about perfect- The chipped 
facets are large, and usually do not show, on either 
side, a pronounced gloss, though it is quite plain on 
some of the facets. This calcareous scale is scattered 
throughout both surfaces, in spots of varying size, and 
has apparently been removed from much of the surface 
by some means unknown, occupying now probably not 
more than one-fifth. This large specimen was prob- 
ably covered and screened from friction by the accu- 
mulation of a layer of debris composed of quarry 
refuse or surface glacial wash-gravel (or sand) during 
the prevalence of the flooded waters. It may be in- 
ferred therefore that this glacial patina has the same 
origin and probably the same date as the calcareous 
stalagmite (as described below) which in European 
caverns covers the paleolithic implements and bones 

v, Google 


bf the cave-earth, and it is a remarkable illustration 
of the similarity of the effect of the ice-epoch on op- 
posite sides of the Atlantic. 

(g). On many specimens can be seen a sprinkling 
of limonite, which is in streaks and spots, usually more 
plentiful on one side than the other. This is accepted 
as a sign of long weathering, probably with the limon- 
ated side lying downward. 

Comparison With European Paleolitks. 

In the Brower collection are several European Pale- 
olithic specimens obtained from the Smithsonian In- 
stitution. Two of these are shown on the accompany- 
ing plates (I and II) by photo-engraving. One (a) is 
from Feuardent, Loire Bassin, France. (No. 35122 of 
the Smithsonian register, and 2220 of the Brower reg- 
ister of the Historical Society) and the other (b) from 
the drift at Thetford, England, (No. 11083 of the 
Smithsonian register and 2228 of the Brower register). 

The former (a), approximates the general shape of 
a "scraper" but is too large for that designation, and, 
besides, its larger end is not artificiallly beveled on one 
side in a manner like the mono-oblique beveling of the 
conventional scraper, although a part of the old outer 
surface which came in contact with the rock matrix 
in which as a chert nodule it was originally surround- 
ed, slopes toward the base, with a curving contour 
so as to give it the general shape of the small Neo- 
lithic scrapers of America. Its general surficial color 
is a mottling of buff-yellow and gray of differing 
shades, these colors blending into each other. A few 

v, Google 



recent chips have been flaked from the edges and 
from the small end, revealing the fact that the interior 
color is a mottling of gray of differing shades, and 

Outline of a Paleollth from Fenard»t,Fraace. 

v, Google 



proving that the yellow and buff tones and the glossi- 
ness have been acquired by weathering. These ac- 
quired tones do not pierce the substance of the chert 

Outline of a PaJeolIIk from Pi 

* Google 


to any appreciable thickness, but the oldest surface, 
which came next to the rock matrix, is changed to a 
nearly white color to a depth of one thirty-second part 
of an inch to one-sixteenth part, and its texture is 
finely granular and harsh to the finger-nail. This yel- 
low-buff color, which is more pronounced on one side 
(a) than the other, must be considered, therefore, as a 
patina formed by long weathering. It is not a glacial 
coating, but a weather-coating. 

The other side of this specimen (a') likewise evinces 
its age by a similar alteration of color, but much less 
marked. Indeed this side is almost wholly mottled 
gray, with only a faint clouding by buff. All over this 
side, however, are small scattered specks of limonite, 
or Iimonitic manganese, of about the size of a common 
pin head. This side was probably turned downward 
during a long period while the other side was exposed 
to the sun and the friction of atmospheric precipitation 
and wind. Both sides are "polished" or "burnished" 
but the a side is the smoother. In no case is there any 
perceptible (though there probably is an actual) loss 
of sharpness at the angular edges of the flaking, al- 
though that sharpness is sometimes dulled by small 
chippings due to use and to rough handling. 

The specimen is a typical Paleolithic implement, 
judging by the roughness of the flaking, no less than 
by the age which it evinces, or the source record which 
accompanies it. 

2. The second European Paleolith selected for 
comparison (b) is a rude and apparently purposeless 
implement, still more altered by long weathering, hav- 
ing almost uniformly the same yellowish color, but 

v, Google 


slightly showing a shading toward dark amber color. 
This specimen is apparently only a part of the original 
implement, which was broken before it was weathered, 
and corresponds to the larger end of the specimen last 
described. In the same manner, and approximately 
in the same part of the specimen, is preserved a por- 
tion of the original matrix-surface. 

On fracturing this specimen the interior color is 
found to be gray, entirely like that from the Loire 
Bassin. Adherent to the larger end is some rusty 
grit derived from drift, cemented by limonite. 

These two specimens can reasonably be taken as 
typical of the chert implements which are buried in 
the drift gravels of the regions mentioned,* and hence 
as guides to Paleolithic specimens of the same material 
found in America. The chief characteristic is the 
nature of the patina. The surface of the chert is 
turned to honey-yellow of varying shades, but the or- 
iginal gray of the chert occasionally gives a darker 
shade to the patina, and on protected surfaces it shows 
through the patina and appears to be almost un- 
changed. Besides this patina there is a glossy 
smoothness which is superior to that of recently flaked 
chert. This smoothness is not due to use as an im- 
plement, for the smallest inequalities and the sharp- 
ness of the flaking are preserved, and are handsomely 
covered by the patina as well as by this smoothness. 
It would be a misnomer to call this smoothness a 

"It is at present impossible to correlate the drift of these 
points with the drift epochs of America, But the deep al- 
teration of the Thetford chert seems to require that the 
gravels in which it was found belong to the Kansas epoch 
rather than the Wisconsin; though it may have long ante- 
dated even the Kansan. 

v, Google 



"polish," if by that is meant an artificial frictional 
effect. It may be a "polish" if it be allowed that the 
polishing agent had no grit, and was nothing more 
abrasive than wind and rain and sunshine. The speci- 

Paleolltk froi 

v, Google 




v, Google 
















Other specimens might be selected to show the 
same contrasts in the weathering of the chipped sur- 
faces of the same piece. 

Plate IX is intended to show specimens that have 
had Paleolithic and Neolithic chipping, described as fol- 
lows, beginning at the upper left hand corner. No. 5115 
shows an Early Paleolithic area embracing the central 
part of the specimen. The Neolithic chipping is about 
the margin, especially on the right side. There is 
some doubt as to the rank of this secondary chipping 
especially along the left side, where most of it is 
glossy. The material is the same as that of No. 5231 
of plate VI, and its age is equally uncertain. The 
contrast however between the two chippings is quite 
marked, regardless of their actual rank. The speci- 
men in the center at the top (5013) shows the older 
chipped area outlined in the central part. The edge 
all around is perfectly chipped, and the other side of 
the specimen is almost wholly fresh. The notches on 
the sides of the specimen were made by the fresh 
chipping. The specimen in the upper right hand 
corner (5030), a small double scraper, nono-beveled at 
each end, shows a marked contrast between the old 
and the fresh chipping. The thickness of the Paleo- 
lithic patina is quite marked where the chippings come 
together, suggesting that the older surfaces may be 
Early Paleolithic. The specimen in the lower left 
hand corner (5227) shows two dates of chipping (even 
three dates), but they are not so strongly contrasted 
as in the last, and it is uncertain whether any of it can 
be considered Xeolithic. This uncertainty does not 
exist in the case of the specimen represented in the 

* Google 



middle of the lower row, for the line separates areas 
that show distinctly different periods of weathering, 
that in the center being like that of the most of the 
specimens here classed as Paleolithic. Outside of that 
area the surface is unglossy, and is fractured by a 
multitude of small chippings which appear to have 
been made mainly by the use of the piece as a hammer. 
The specimen numbered 5008 is a notched "point," 
made from a Paleolithic chip by Neolithic work. The 
Paleolithic area shows the undulations of forced flak- 
ing, and is lighter colored than the Neolithic surfaces. 

In plate X the figures show Early Paleolithic sur- 
faces, with characteristic conchoidal chip- fractures. 
The larger specimen (5226) was chipped again by 
Paleolithic men, bringing out sharply the thickness of 
the Early Paleolithic alteration crust and its color. 
It is as thick as thick card paper, and its edge is al- 
most white. The dark-colored surface at the top and 
along the right side is considered Paleolithic, but is 
not highly glossy. It is, however, in that respect like 
many of the Kansas Paleoliths. The other specimen 
(522?) while Early Paleolithic throughout the most 
of the exposed surface, was chipped by Neolithic man 
along the upper edge, as evinced by the fresh fracture 
surfaces. The Early Paleolithic weather-crust, or 
patina, has somewhat less thickness than seen in the 
last, and consists, not of a gloss, but of an alteration 
in color to a dirty white. The dark spots seen on the 
Early Paleolithic surface are caused by limonite de- 

Plate XI shows a collection of artifacts of recent 
date, collected by Mr. Brower in the valley of Mill 

* Google 






Creek, in the area of the people called Harahey by him. 
The village sites that afford these more artistic and 
freshly chipped implements also afford implements. 
and refuse of all of the foregoing types. 

A large nmber representative of all the types were 
collected by Mr. Brower, running into the thousands. 
Usually the chipping on these artifacts is wholly re- 
cent and fresh and can be attributed to the Indians 
resident in the Kansas valley at the date of the visit 
of Coronado in 1541. Still there can be seen some- 
times slight differences in the weathering, and some- 
times on the same specimen, indicating that the Neo- 
lithic stone chipper chose his material from flakes or 
chips which were older. The first of this plate (5021) 
seen at the upper left-hand corner is unique in form 
in this locality as well as in the kind of chert, called 
Harahey knife by Mr. Brower, and the material must 
have come originally from some other locality* It is 
fine-grained, siliceous and quite light-colored, with a 
faint suggestion of flesh-red, but has veinings and ir- 
regular deposits of light blue quartz. The next figure 
(5022) which is canoe-shaped, represents what Mr. 
Brower called a Quiviran knife. Although it is fresh- 
ly formed, the chipping did not entirely remove an 
older surface, of which remnants appear on both sides. 
This older surface, however, is not characteristically 
Paleolithic. The next (5053) represents a handsome 
little tomahawk, chipped fresh all over. The tanged 
knife, or "point" (5094), shows also only fresh, or re- 
cent, chipping. The same statement can be made of 

•Subsequently it was found (hat the Kansas chert is quite 
variable, in local and exceptional conditions, though having a 
type uniformity. 

v, Google 


the next figure (5052), a chipped leaf, or knife, of an 
elongate and pointed, ovate outline. The barbed point 
(5080) is also wholly recent, but the character of the 
chert indicates that it may have been imported to the 
Kansas valley. The specimen figured by 5071 is fresh- 
ly chipped at the notches and along one edge between 
the notch and the point, but elsewhere the surface is 
old, though not Paleolithic, having a shiny luster. 
The specimen was evidently a knife or a point prior 
to the latest chipping, and had a straight, edged base. 
It indicates a stage of chipping and of art between the 
Paleolith and the Neolith. The chert is of the native 
variety. Specimen 5031 might be called an imperfect 
scraper, as it shows one side nearly Bat and a tendency 
toward mono-beveling at one end. Its edges, which 
have been roughened apparently by use, show the 
freshest chipping, prior to which it was a somewhat 
weathered flake. The chipping seen on No. 5035 is 
wholly fresh. This is a common form found in Mill 
Creek valley. In the case of No. 5025 a portion of the 
original surface of the piece from which the implement 
was made, can be seen on one side. The shape of this 
remnant, which runs to the extremity of the blunt 
point, indicates that this was an implement prior to 
the latest chipping. No. 5175, a large and otherwise 
typical, scraper, is problematical. It has but little 
fresh chipping, and such as there is, is confined to the 
mono-beveled edge; but the surface is everywhere 
shiny with age. This age is not great enough to 
warrant assigning the specimen to Paleolithic time, 
and such a reference would be negatived also by the 
fineness and completeness of the implement. It seems 

* Google 


to be neither recent nor Paleolithic, an intimation 
which is derived also from Nos. 5022 and 5071. The 
two specimens numbered 5024 are, in the main, freshly 
chipped, but the chipping about the notches and along 
some of the edges is later than some of the surface 
remote from the edges.* The same is true of those 
numbered 5060. These have evidently been used as 
knives rather than as arrow points, as the edges from 
the notch to the point are more or less dulled by use. 
No. 5057 was freshly made from a flake, and a portion 
of the original surface remains distinguishable from 
the chipping about the edges, but the latest chipping 
still is not so recent as that seen in the specimens 
figured at the top of the plate. No. 5061 illustrates the 
same truth, viz : that some of the recent artifacts show 
two chippings, the latest being, in this case, in notches 
above the ears, and in the notch in the base. 

Probably the foregoing illustrations are sufficient to 
establish the second of the propositions already stated, 
viz : that the artifacts of the region show two or more 
dates of chipping. If full acceptance be given to the 
evidence so far as it indicates difference of age, it 
seems to be necessary to allow four dates of chipping, 
viz : Early Paleolithic, Paleolithic, Early Neolithic and 
Neolithic, which, for the present, may be assumed to 
be expressed as follows in terms of Glacial geology : 

1. Early Paleolithic. Pleistocene (or Aftonian). 

2. Paleolithic. Pre-Kansan or Aftonian. 

3. Early Neolithic, Buchanan. 

4. Neolithic. Peorian and Recent, (i. e. Post 

D lg tz S d,yCOOg[e 


There is no question of the existence of these stages 
in the weathering of these Kansas artifacts. If the 
chert were not derived from the same place, and if it 
were not of essentially uniform characters as to color 
and hardness, and if the specimens compared were ob- 
tained from distant or different localities, the distinc- 
tions mentioned would be less likely to be valid. The 
area is restricted to a portion of the Kansas valley. 
The foregoing collocation of these differences with 
the stages of the Pleistocene and of Glacial time, based 
on the determinations of the Iowa geological survey, 
is entirely provisional. 

These observations are confined to a small tract in 
the north-east central Kansas lying south from the 
southern limit of the drift at that place. There is a 
copious morainic accumulation of northern drift in 
northeastern Kansas extending nearly to the Kansas 
valley at this place, and crossing it further east, ex- 
tending into Missouri south of Kansas City. This 
carries many large boulders of granite and red quart- 
zyte derived from Minnesota. Such a morainic accu- 
mulation, at the time the ice was present would have 
dammed the Kansas river and ponded it back so as 
to flood a portion of the country, and hence would 
have formed a layer of loess-like clay which would 
have buried numerous artifacts of earlier origin, and 
it is not impossible that the Kansas valley at this 
place was choked with glacial gravel and sand, which 
also would serve to cover and conceal Early Paleo- 
lithic and Paleolithic work. The fact that the ice 

v, Google 


limit was near adjacent toward the north and north- 
east from this small area in Kansas is well known 
and is indicated on Wright's map of the Glacial geol- 
ogy of the United States and Southern Canada (Tee 
Age in North America, 5th Edition). Whether the la- 
custrine or alluvial deposits cotemporary with this ex- 
tension of the ice covered the limestone plateau con- 
taining the chert beds is not known, but it is evident 
that if this upland was so covered the limestone, with 
its cherty beds, has since been uncovered. The writer 
at this date has not seen the locality, and has to de- 
pend on the descriptions of Mr. Brower and Judge 
Keagy. (The accompanying map of northeastern 
Kansas was made since this was written and shows 
that the limestone area was exempted), 

That the chert-bearing limestone of the upland, 
specially designated by Mr. Brower as the habitat of 
the Quivirans, and specially marked by the preval- 
ence of the Paleolithic implements and by the absence 
of Neolithic handiwork, was not disturbed by the ice 
itself, is evident from the absence of Glacial 
drift (boulders and till) from the region as well as by 
the concentration of these artifacts. Had the ice 
moved over these loose artifacts they would have been 
scattered and distributed confusedly amongst Glacial 
deposits of till or of gravel and sand. 



That the Kansas valley in general at this place was 

flooded, is evident from the occurrence of aqueous de- 

* Google 


posits at considerable elevations above the present 
high-water mark. It is somewhat difficult to assign 
these aqueous deposits unequivocally to the respective 
Glacial epochs. The lower lying gravel and sand may 
be of the date of the Kansas epoch, and certain loess- 
like or clayey beds, overlying such gravel and sand, 
may date from the Iowan. Early Paleolithic and 
Paleolithic artifacts only would be expected in the 
former, while in the latter might also be found Early 
Neolithic. The habitat of the Harahey was therefore, 
so far as it was within the valley, upon the aqueous 
deposits of one or more ice-epochs, and so far as it ex- 
tended beyond the valley toward the east it was upon 
Glacial drift. If the same people or any people co- 
temporary with them, occupied any part of Kansas 
further west or southwest, they were beyond the ice 
limit, and they may have come into contact with pre- 
Glacial artifacts. 


The sixth proposition affirms that along the valleys, 
when not buried, the oldest artifacts are mixed on the 
surface with the newest. This is illustrated by the 
findings of Mr. Brower and of Judge Keagy. The col- 
lections of the Minnesota Historical Society, derived 
from the Mill Creek valley, embrace the oldest and the 
newest of human stone artifacts. It shows that the 
Harahey carried the rude artifacts of the upland to 
their village sites and there rechipped them into finer 
forms, resulting in the frequent preservation of some 
of the Paleolithic surfaces on the finished Neolithic 

v, Google 


implements. If the statement of Mr. Brower be ac- 
cepted unqualifiedly, to the effect that the finished 
Neolithic implements are never found in the region of 
the rude implements, (i. e. in the region of the Quivi- 
rans), it would follow that in all cases the modern 
stone workers carried the rude artifacts to the valley 
before re-working them. But a priori it would be rea- 
sonable to suppose that occasionally some of the Neo- 
lithic men would have done some of their re-chipping 
on the spot where the material was found, and perhaps 
had there also some of their village sites, or at least 
some temporary camps. It is possible that further 
search in the area of the Quivirans, as defined by Mr. 
Brower, will reveal more or less of the working which 
Mr. Brower supposed was characteristic of the Hara- 
heyans.* Therefore it is probable that there cannot 
be made any reliable geographic definition of tht pres- 
ent distribution of these kinds of artifacts. The safest 
distinctions are those based on type of culture and 
extent of weathering, 

7. The seventh proposition has been anticipated in 
the discussion of the second, 


It has already been remarked that the man of Paleo- 
lithic time (and hence of Early Paleolithic), was sat- 
isfied with the acquirement of an edge. With that he 

•It may also be remarked that Mr. Brower's illustrations 
of "Quiviran" implements include several types of Neolithic 
implements, especially some found by him in the Elliott 
(Quiviran) village site. 

v, Google 


could do the roughest and simplest cutting by using 
the implement in his hand, without a withed handle. 
Such edges he often found ready to his hand, made by 
nature, and very many show by their battered angles 
that they have been used as knives or primitive axes, 
without any artificial chipping, illustrating the "Pro- 
tolithic" stone age of McGee, (see Am. Anth. IX, p. 
318, 1896). Amongst the hundreds of Paleoliths gath- 
ered in Kansas, there is no intimation of an arrow- 
point, nor of a scraper, nor of a finished knife or blade, 
nor of a pestle and mortar, nor of a grooved hammer, 
nor a drill. The artifacts, so far as appears at present, 
warrant the inference only of the rudest kind of human 
life, in which the exigencies of scanty food and little 
or no clothing were connected with those of the most 
comfortless kind of existence. We have no right 
therefore to assume the presence of the buffalo — nay, 
we are debarred from such a presumption, for in the 
presence of such an animal, so inoffensive, so easily 
killed and so productive of both food and raiment, 
Paleolithic man would have given to his stone arti- 
facts some of the features that would have aided him 
in its capture, if not in the fabrication of useful articles 
from the hides and bones. His physical condition is 
well described by Mr. Brower in the words which he 
applied to the Quivirans: 

"As Nature's children turned loose upon the plains 
of Kansas, with nothing whatever except their two 
hands and a savage intellect, urged on by necessities 
engendered by their hardships and by exposure ; with 
one stone they chipped another to a fractured edge, 
sallied forth, lived and prospered." Quivtra., p. 23. 

v, Google 


There is, however, a class of implements which by 
their weathering approach toward the Paleolith, which 
are excluded by the terms of the last paragraph. It is 
as yet questionable where they belong. They em- 
brace some long, well-made knives, some scrapers and 
the articles that have been styled tomahawks. They 
show too much delicate manipulation to warrant put- 
ting them with true Paleoliths, as understood by the 
writer. One of the scrapers has been included in 
plate XI, (5175) among the Neolithic artifacts, but 
with some doubt and qualification. There are quite 
a number of these. One of the knives and one of the 
tomahawks (5015) are partially coated with a calcare- 
ous scale, which is taken as indication that they have 
been buried in some drift deposit for a long time. At 
present the only way apparent by which to adjust the 
culture with Glacial history is to refer these shiny 
implements to an Early Neolithic period, the Bu- 
chanan(?), and thereby to presume they have been 
embraced in a calcareous loess belonging perhaps to 
the Iowan ice epoch. According to this there was a 
large advance in skill between the Paleolithic and the 
Early Xeolithic. The idea of a tomahawk, the idea of 
a scraper and that of a long chert knife or blade, use- 
ful in many ways, were evolved, or at least existed, 
in Early Neolithic time, and that would, perhaps, war- 
rant the presumptioo that the buffalo flourished on the 
plains in the Buchanan(?) inter-Glacial epoch. 

It may be possible, in the future, to determine ap- 
proximately when the stone arrow point was intro- 
duced, invloving a knowledge of the bow. At present 
there is not enough known of the consecutive steps of 

* Google 


progressive culture in Peorian and Recent time to 
warrant an attempt to fix its introduction further 
than to say that it was a Neolithic, or Early Neolithic, 
step, probably the latter. Subsequent to that came 
the fabrication of numerous polished stone articles 
characteristic of the early days of the present Indian. 
Feb. 13, 1912. 

Supplemental Note. 

The argument of the foregoing chapter is based on 
the fact, (which is well known by geologists) that 
siliceous rocks, such as quartzyte, jaspilyte, flint and 
chert, are practically indestructible under atmospheric 
agents. The boulders of red quartzyte found near 
Topeka, in the Kansan moraine, are entirely intact, 
whereas those of granite can be crushed in the hand. 
Therefore chipped chert whenever it has a weather- 
scale of decay must be older than the Kansan moraine. 

Aug. 15, 1912. 

It is manifest, from the chronicles of the Coronado 
expedition, that there were two tribes or sub-tribes 
with whom Coronado had intercourse. It is also plain 
that their places of habitation were not far separate. 
They spoke substantially the same language. The 
guide of Coronado (Ysopete) acted as spokesman 
when Coronado first encountered the people of Quiv- 
ira, and as interpreter when the two people came to- 
gether to a conference with Coronado. It is also 
stated that the guides were both from Harahey. The 

* Google 


statement that these tribes were at war "with one an- 
other," is based plainly on a misunderstanding of the 
original, as it is inconsistent with all other facts which 
appertain to the relations of these two tribes. The 
expression can be understood by supposing that the 
words "these tribes" included all the tribes (the 
Querechos and the Teyas) with whom Coronado had 
met since he left Mexico. The circumstances of the 
death of missionary Padilla are given differently by 
different chroniclers. One account states that he was 
slain by the Haraheyans because of jealousy, when he 
attempted to carry the blessings thai he had bestowed 
on them to their enemies, and the other that while en 
route to another tribe his party was attacked by hos- 
tile warriors and alt were put to flight, Padilla submit- 
ting to death that the rest might escape.* The latter 
is far more reasonable and probable, and points to a 
state of war existing between the Haraheyans and 
some other tribe living further east. This hostile 
tribe was probably one of the stock of the Dakota, the 
Osage or the Kansas, with greater probability of the 
Kansas, since at a later date, after the Wichita had 
left the valley, the Kansas are known to have occupied 
the Kansas valley, with their central village on the Big 
Blue river, near its junction with the Kansas river. 

In reviewing historic authorities and old maps 
Mr. Brower observes that Quivira is shown, not as a 
village, but as a province containing several villages. 
"The Spaniards under Coronado spent twenty-five 
days exploring the province of Quivira in all direc- 

'Jaramillo also says that Padilla was stain by members of 
his own party, i. e. by some Indians that were with him as 
"lay servants". 

v, Google 


tions before they retired in the direction from whence 
they came." In that explored area must have been 
included the habitat of trie Haraheyans, and there is no 
evidence whatever of a state of war. All the facts 
indicate peaceful relations, and require that the Quiv- 
ira and the Haraheyans were neighboring sub-tribes 
of the same stock. It has been shown, furthermore, 
by Mr. F. W. Hodge that the Quivira were Wichita- 
Caddo (Harahey, p. 68). Coronado sent a summons 
"to the governor of Harahey and Quivira", which 
shows that he understood that the people were closely 
allied and that the Haraheyans must have been also 
of the Caddoan stock. Mr. Hodge also has shown 
that the Harahey people were Pawnee, and adopts the 
suggestion of George Bird Grinnell that they were of 
that particular tribe of the Pawnee that were known 
then as Ariki, and later as Artisan, the same that for 
many years were closely associated with the Mandan 
on the upper Missouri in North Dakota, and this de- 
termination can hardly be questioned. They differed 
from the Wichita in dialect, and in the manner of 
dressing their hair, comparable to the description given 
by the chroniclers of the Coronado journey. The 
name "Harahey" could, perhaps, by such confusion and 
corruption as are not uncommon amongst modern 
writers of Indian names, be derived from the old name 
of the Arikara (Ariki) with less violence to the abo- 
riginal vocalization than from any name borne by any 
neighboring Dakota tribe. It is further historically 
probable that the Arikara were still with their linguis- 
tic kin (Skidi) in 1541 ; and it is more likely that the 
Wichita Caddo, in answer to the question what was 

* Google 


next east from them, would mention their kin than an 
enemy. Again there is some significance in the fact 
that sometimes the two tribes are referred to as if 
they were one people, one part living but little re- 
moved from the other, and at other times referred to 
as two peoples. Such double significance could hardly 
have taken place if one were Caddoan and the other 

The two cotemporary people therefore were of the 
same stock (Caddo), and must have been of identical 
culture, and neither of them could have been the fab- 
ricators of the implements which denote the rude and 
savage life mistakenly ascribed by Mr. Brower to the 
Quivira. They were both undistinguishable, in every 
respect, from the historic aborigines of the region. 
But the fabricators of the rude implements (though 
now more or less mingled with implements of higher 
culture) were much ruder and more savage, destitute 
of most of the simple utensils which characterized 
the former, without pottery, without earth houses, 
without stone vessels of any kind, with slight use of 
fire, a wild and barbarous race, dressed in skins and 
mrs or in such garments as they constructed from a 
scant supply of flax and from skins which they sewed 
with sinew and needles of bone, using the extensive 
cnert deposits of the region for rude axes and perhaps 
tomahawks, and grinding their food in flat metates 
made of boulders. "Nature's children turned loose 
upon the plains of Kansas, with nothing whatsoever 
except their two hands and a savage intellect, urged 
on by necessities engendered by their hardships and 
Dy exposure, with one stone they chipped another to 

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a fractured edge, sallied forth, lived and prospered." 
Quivira, p. 22. These contrasts of culture were fur- 
ther evidenced by the coarseness of the chipping which 
marked the implements of the ruder people, compared 
with that of the stone artifacts of the Caddo of history. 
It seems impossible that two aboriginal peoples thus 
different could live cote mporaneou sly in adjacent 
regions, in peace, for a period of time sufficient to sat- 
isfy the conditions of history. One would have ex- 
terminated or expelled the other as rapidly as aborig- 
inal warfare could be made to do it. If these two 
peoples had been located in distant and different river 
basins, even then their differences would have led to 
the extirpation of one or the other, and the extension 
of the culture of the victor over the areas of both. 

All these obstacles are obviated and a consistent suc- 
cesion of ethnologic stages of culture becomes mani- 
fest by the relegation of the ruder people to a prehis- 
toric age. 

In the foregoing chapter evidence is given to show 
that the ruder people preceded the more cultured by a 
long interval of time, and that they were probably of 
the age which in Europe has been called Paleolithic, or 
Early Neolithic, or more likely both. 



The proofs of the existence of man in Kansas before 
and during the Glacial epoch, or epochs, as detailed in 
this article, are only renewed confirmations of the in- 
ferences that have been drawn from the discovery of 

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his skeletal remains and his stone artifacts in the loess 
of the Mississippi valley, which have been announced 
from time to time. These have been summarized by 
the writer in "Aborigines of Minnesota", 1911, pp. 
2-23. If man's remains exist in the loess of the great 
valley, they can of course be there only adventitiously, 
and it would be reasonable to expect that on the land, 
where he must have spent his life and developed his 
activities, there would have been distributed, normally, 
more evident and more numerous traces of his habita- 
tion.* North from the limit of glaciation these traces 
were necessarily enveloped by the movements of the 
ice, and distributed, and often destroyed, by the re- 
sultant floods of water. He did not build, in the lati- 
tude of Kansas, any structures of stone that could 
withstand the destructive elements of the air. His 
habitations were rude and simple and have disap- 
peared entirely. His domestic articles, wnen not of 
chert, have decayed; but he everywhere used the chert 
beds of the various geologic formations for the fabri- 
cation of implements needed for his daily existence, 
and these are practically indestructible, and they ought 
to be identifiable. So far as the writer is informed, 
however, this is the first attempt ever made in America 
to remove, because of differences of patination, a group 
of the stone artifacts of the country from the author- 
ship of the historic Indian, or at least from the Indian 

"The author considers the aqueous origin of the Mississippi 
loess, and hence that of the Missouri, as a whole, as demon- 
strated by its stratiform structure and its geographic dis- 
tribution. It was the product of ages of rock-decay. 
Pleistocene and pre-Pleistocene, a gecst, which covered, and 
still covers, the most of the upland surface in Kansas and 
other states, swept into the valleys by the agencies mainly 
of the lowan ice epoch. 

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of post-Glacial time, to pre-GIacial time, and to show 
the characters by which they can be distinguished.* 
Individual instances are not wanting; in which, by 
reason of geological environments, isolated specimens 
have been shown to have been formed prior to the 
Wisconsin Glacial epoch, and one or two cases have 
been described in which the weathered condition of the 
artifacts indicated pre-GIacial date. The most im- 
portant of these latter are (a) that of Claypole in 1896, 
"Human relics in the drift of Ohio", Am. Geol., XVIII, 
302, and (b) that of the writer in 1909, "Possible pre- 
GIacial human remains about Washington, D. C", 
Records of the Past, VII, 249. 

In pursuance of a discussion of the weathering of ab- 
original atone artifacts, it will be well to present a short 
review of the Glacial period, in order that the reader 
may apprehend the succession of the main climatic 
changes and the consequent physical changes in the 
surface of the country. 

Previous to the advent of the first ice-sheet in Kan- 
sas, and throughout the most of the area of the United 
States, there was a long period of comparative quiet, 
during which it was possible for the existence and the 
multiplication of a characteristic fauna. This fauna 
embraced numerous large mammals which are now ex- 

According to Professor J. A. Udden, in the Ameri- 
can Geologist, Vol. VII, p. 340, "The Megalonyx beds in 

"The well-known work of the pioneer, Abbott, in the Dela- 
ware valley, and of his successor, Volk, under the auspices 
of the Peabody Museum of Cambridge, though mainly based 
on a study of the river gravels and sands, differentiated two 
types of artifacts and two peoples, prior to the Delaware 

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Kansas," pebbles of crystalline rock and quartz are 
found in a gravel deposit in McPherson county, Kan- 
sas. There are also certain detached masses of Cre- 
taceous in the overyling strata which he considers to 
have been brought to their present position by floating 
ice. These deposits lie in a great north-south trough 
which cuts across the main east-west watershed of the 
state, uniting the valley of the Kansas with that of the 
Arkansas, which apparently drained an old lake several 
miles in extent extending over the valley of the Smoky 
Hitl river, which had an overflow discharge southward 
into the valley of the Little Arkansas. This lake, if 
not a late Tertiary lake, may be ascribed to an ice 
sheet which dammed the Kansas and Smoky Hill val- 
leys and diverted the drainage of Northwestern Kan- 
sas southward into the Arkansas valley. This "pre- 
Kansan" Glacial lake, which has never been named, 
and the sediments which it formed in this trough, are, 
apparently, indications of a drift epoch older than that 
whose terminal moraine is outlined on the accompany- 
ing plate-map. In the gravel at the bottom of this old 
trough Prof. Udden found fossil bones of Megalonyx 
and Equus.* A similar assemblage of fossils has been 
described by Calvin in Iowa, and referred by him to 
the Aftonian inter-glacial age. (Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. 
XX, 1909; Vol. XXII, 1911 and Iowa Geol. Sur. 
Vol. XX, 1910). This Atfonian inter-glacial epoch 
is that which immediately preceded the Kansan 
Glacial epoch, and followed the pre-Kansan. If 

•These fossils having later been studied by Beede (Kan. 
Geol. Sur. vol. 2, p. 390) are found to comprise Megalonyx 
Leidyi, Equus major, Spherium. striatum and sulcatum, 
Pisidium abditum, Anomodontia, Valvata and Gamarus. 

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these assignments of this fauna are correct as 
above given they seem not to be identical as to 
date. If man was a denizen of America at that 
date he was compelled to compete for existence with 
a horde of carnivores, and to share with them in 
the destruction of many herbivires. With the advent 
of the Glacial epoch (pre-Kansan) the physical con- 
ditions became more unfavorable, and so extreme that 
many species both of fauna and flora were forced to 
move southward, or were exterminated. Southward 
from the ice-margin, which probably extended into 
northeastern Kansas about as far as the mouth of the 
Salina river, the country was too cold for human com- 
fort, even as far south as near the gulf of Mexico. It 
is not probable that man was expelled from the valley 
of the Mississippi southward from Kansas, nor from 
the shores of the gulf of Mexico. The river main- 
tained an open channel in the midst of the ice-covered 
land for many hundreds of miles northward from the 
ice limit, and in many sheltered coves and small trib- 
utaries where these united with the Mississippi, the 
native fauna, especially those species that characterize 
now the latitude of Alaska and northern Canada, gath- 
ered in large numbers. And if man was then an in- 
habitant he was found in their company, and shared 
with them the fresh and cool air, the abundant fish 
and water fowl, and suffered also with them the dep- 
redations of the fiercer beasts. In summer he wan- 
dered over the country to the east and west of the 
Mississippi, and probably visited many wonted spots, 
including such as the chert deposits of Kansas, Mis- 

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souri, Illinois and Ohio, where he extracted material 
for the rough implements that he needed. The most 
of Kansas, although probably forested, was suitable 
for his roaming and hunting. Probably he had not 
yet the modern buffalo as a mentor for his movements, 
but there was a profusion of other animals which were 
useful for food, which were easily caught. He was not 
at all delicate in his taste, and devoured not only the 
most toothsome, but was well satisfied with anything 
that he could capture, not excepting insects, lizards 
and serpents. His most conspicuous companions were 
the mammoth, mastodon, giant beaver, megalonyx, 
moose, musk ox, an extinct bison, an extinct peccary, 
and, further south, llama, camel and horse. As a 
geological group these have been classed under the 
name of "Megalonyx beds", when found in Kansas and 
described by Udden, and by Cope as "Equus beds", 
in which he reported human remains. 

The ice epoch waned, the climate became more gen- 
ial, and all the fauna moved gradually northward. The 
"Aftonian inter-glacial" epoch supervened. This un- 
covered for habitation a large extent of country lying 
to the north of the pre-Kansan moraine. Where this 
moraine runs has not been worked out. It is probable 
that it will be traced only in a general way. Its con- 
tents may have largely decayed and gone into the com- 
position of clays and soils, and its topography may 
have been smoothed down by age; or it may have 
lain so far north that it was buried by the later Kansas 
ice sheet. On the other hand, there may never have 
been a distinct pre-Kansan moraine, as that term is 
ordinarily understood, but the ice may have feathered 

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out imperceptibly beneath the drift which it bore along 
nnd only the slow-moving loess-like mud which it 
must have produced in abundance over so broad and so 
level and expanse as the state of Kansas, lapped effect- 
ually over the ice and the adjoining land, obliterating 
all indication of the actual ice-margin, but distributing 
widely a pre-Kansan loess, partly Glacial and partly 
aqueous, derived from the easily disintegrated Cre- 
taceous strata of the region. If man existed in Amer- 
ica during this (Aftonian) inter-Glacial epoch his re- 
mains may be found in the drift of the Kansan ice 
epoch, or in later drift, and, outside of the ice limit of 
the Kansan, they might occur on the surface, or near 
the surface, of the ground, where they had lain from 
Aftonian time to the present. In this paper such spec- 
imens are called Paleolithic, while a few which show 
the greatest alteration are called Early Paleolithic. 

The Kansan ice epoch was like the pre-Kansan, but 
the ice margin left a distinct morainic accumulation. 
Its ice-sheet encroached upon northeastern Kansas 
and its margin, as indicated by its terminal moraine, is 
shown on the accompanying map. Its moraine con- 
tains much red quartzyte, and granite that can be 
referred to southwestern Minnesota. This moraine 
is that which is usually considered as the border of the 
continental ice-sheet. It is evident that the Kansan 
epoch was one that was marked by rapid and vigorous 
transportation of drift, in that respect differing from 
the pre-Knnsan. The effect upon man and his as- 
sociated fauna was quite similar to that of the pre- 
j\ansan, but less prolonged and more intense. It need 
not be supposed that the drift which forms the moraine 

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of the Kansan ice-sheet was entirely carried from its 
sources by the Kansan ice, but a large part of it was 
probably brought part way by the pre-Kansan ice. 

The people that came to Kansas on the withdrawal 
of the Kansan ice-sheet were probably similar in all 
essential characters, with those that left it as the ice- 
sheet came upon them. They had the same necessities 
and supplied them in about the same way, but perhaps 
with some increase of skill, the period of time separat- 
ing them being unquestionably several thousand years, 
The artifacts which at first they chipped from the 
chert were rude and large, seldom showing any more 
design than to moke an edge with which to cut their 
meat or to break their small sticks. These were the 
people of the Buchanan inter-Glacial epoch, so named 
by the geological survey of Iowa. This people re- 
mained in Kansas during not only the Buchanan inter- 
Glacial epoch, but also, as now supposed, through the 
later epochs, both Glacial and inter-Glacial, not having 
been driven away by a return of excessive cold. This 
long residence may have been interrupted, and prob- 
ably was, by hostile tribes, and actually there may have 
been several tribes that succeeded each other in north- 
eastern Kansas from this cause. While the Illinoian 
Glacial epoch, affecting the country further north and 
east, came and went, and was followed by a minor 
inter- Glacial epoch (Sangamon), the state of Kansas 
was not so affected that any radical change took place 
in the nature of the mammalian fauna. These cli- 
matic fluctuations may have provoked certain warlike 
inroads and forced migrations, but it is probable that 
the new comers were about on a par with their pre- 

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decessors so far as regards their methods of life and 
their status in aboriginal culture. The Iowan Glacial 
epoch was more momentous and projected a flood of 
muddy water down the Mississippi and (especially) 
the Missouri valleys, so voluminous that where it 
reached the latitude of Kansas the banks were full, 
and sometimes more than full, so that much of the 
adjacent land was covered. These floods were bur- 
dened with a fine silt which was deposited on the land 
along these rivers and in their valleys, especially along 
the Missouri valley, and in the Mississippi below the 
mouth of the Missouri. It everywhere shows traces 
of horizontal water stratification, and has received the 
geological designation loess. Drainage from the land 
adjacent carried many land shells into the muddy 
slime and these are seen interstratified in irregular ac- 
cumulations in the loess, extending horizontally and 
indicating the points where tributaries joined the main 
river. This reduction in the habitable area of the 
country was unfortunate for the larger animals, and 
for man. It can cause no surprise that, along with 
the bones of the mammoth and his associates of the 
time, have been found, in this loessian mantle of the 
main valleys, the remains of man, not only in the form 
of stone artifacts but of his bony skeleton. 

The people that lived in Kansas through this Iowan 
flood were very likely the descendants of those who 
came there on the withdrawal of the Kansan ice-sheet, 
and they seem to have improved in their skill of stone 
chipping. In this paper this improved state of culture 
is designated Early Neolithic. Not only are the arti- 
facts more skillfully chipped and the finished imple- 

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ment a product of a higher and more artistic concep- 
tion, but they show a commensurate state of less 
weathering, indicating, in their culture, an approach 
toward Neolithic art, as well as Neolithic, i. e., post- 
Wisconsin, time. Indeed it has been found conveni- 
ent, in this preliminary investigation, to class as Neo- 
lithic only those chipped implements which show an 
absolute freshness of fractured surface. There have 
been found, as yet, no reliable other characters by 
which to separate the Neolithic from the Early Neo- 
lithic. Theoretically the writer would prefer to make 
all post-Wisconsin artifacts Neolithic. But it was 
found impossible on that basis to separate some of the 
Early Neolithic from the Neolithic. In other words, 
so far as can be determined, there is a sensible grada- 
tion from Early Neolithic to Neolithic, both in type 
of culture and in the weathering shown by the speci- 
mens. It was during Early Neolithic time that the 
arrow-point was introduced, and the mono-clinal 
scraper and the thin slender knife and the drill. Hence 
it is that we infer that the American buffalo then be- 
came important as a source of food and of shelter from 
cold and storms. Then followed the Wisconsin Gla- 
cial epoch which was more like the Kansan, a period 
of refrigeration for the northern United States and 
Canada, of tumultous transportation of drift and of 
migration from north to south. There seem to have 
been striking resemblances between the pre-Kansan 
and the lowan, and also between the Kansan and the 
Wisconsin. The two former were epochs of (appar- 
ently) long duration and slow, easy transportation, and 
the latter of less duration but rapid and powerful 

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transporting power.* The waters that resulted from 
the Wisconsin ice-sheet re-excavated the loess mantle 
along the great valleys and brought the natural surface 
more nearly to the physical conditions of the present. 


Plate I. 

PaleoHthd from Europe, actual sire. Page 13. 

a Paleolith from the Loire Bassin, Feuardent, 

France, No. IS5122, of the Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, and No. 2229 of the Brower Register of 

the Minnesota Historical Society; showing the coarse 

chipping and the most glossy surface. 

b Paleolith from the drift gravel at Thetford, Eng- 
land, No. 110S:J of the Smithsonian register and No. 
2228 of the Brower register of the Minnesota Histori- 
cal Society; showing the coarse chipping and the old- 
est natural surface, which came in contact with the 
matrix chalk when the nodule was in the rock. 

Plate II. 
Paleolitka from Europe, actual size, page 17. 

Showing the same European specimens as in Plate 
I, but the reverse sides, o shows the manner of dis- 
tribution of specks of limonite or limonitic manganese 
oxide, indicating that this surface of the specimen was 

'The writer is aware that the great granite boulders which 
lie in the area of the Iowan l<iess in southern Minnesota 
and northern Iowa have been supposed to date from Iowan 
Glacial time, and if that is true they form a remarkable 
exception; but it seems quite easy theoretically to refer them 
to the time of the energetic Kansas transportation and to 
explain the bold prominence with which they stand above 
the surface by superficial removal of the Iowan loess by 
which they may have been surrounded, or perhaps covered. 

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turned downward. This surface is less glossy than 
that represented in Plate I, and also shows, at the 
bottom, a portion of the old matrix contact on the 
chalk, ft, of the Thetford specimen, in point of discol- 
oration and glossiness, does not differ perceptibly from 
ft of Plate I. 

Plate III. 
Paleolith from Kansas, actual size, Page 26. 
Xo. 5212 of the Drower register of the Minnesota 
Historical Society. Found at the Dreball site, 4 miles 
west from Alma, in the Mil! Creek valley, Kansas. 
The interior of the specimen is blue-gray. The weath- 
er patina is a thin scale of alteration having a gray col- 
or without a blue tint, but in some parts being of a 
dirty buff, still without any marked tinge of yellow. 
The chipping is very coarse. Along the edge at the 
lower right hand is a dulled portion showing use by 
the Paleolithic people. The opposite side, where not 
chipped, consists of the matrix-contact on the lime- 
stone and is of a dirty buff color. Where it is chipped 
it is less weathered than the side photographed. 

Plate IV. 
Paleolith from Kansas, actual size, Page 26. 
Xo. 5213 of the Brower register of the Minnesota 
Historical Society. Found at the same place as the 
specimen illustrated by plate III. These were both 
associated with a large number of Paleoliths. As to 
color and patina this is quite similar to the last, and 
likewise shows battering by use on the edges. The 
darker portion at the lower right hand is caused by a 

* Google 


variation in the chert to a very siliceous, coarse, gray 
rock, resembling limestone, which however has lost 
all calcareous ingredient which it may originally have 
contained. It is (here) separated from the chert by a 
thin layer of dirty white chert. 
Plate V. 
Kansas Paleolitha, actual size. Page 29. 
Nos. 5215 and 5225, of the Brower register of the 
Minnesota Historical Society. Found, along with an 
indefinite number of others of a similar character, at 
the Dreball site, at four miles west from Alma, in the 
Mill Creek valley, Kansas. These specimens, having 
squarish outline, are battered by use along the longer 
edges. The sides photographed show the strongest 
patinate characters. The chipping is very coarse. 
The surface is glossy, and considerably lighter colored 
than the color of the interior. 

Plate VI. 
Kaunas Early Paleolitha, Paleolitha and Paleolitha re- 
chipped, actual size. Page 28. 

No. 5216 to 5224 of the Brower register of the Min- 
nesota Historical Society. Found at the Dreball site, 
4 miles from Alma and elsewhere in Mill Creek valley. 

No. 5216. The side photographed shows only Early 
Paleolithic weathering, except that at the edge, along 
the lower right hand, a part of the matrix contact sur- 
face is preserved. The weather scale is yellowish 
brown. On the reverse side a portion of the surface 
is Paleolithic and has a dull glossy weather patina, 
which contrasts with the Early Paleolithic brown 
weather scale. 

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No. 5217. On the plate that portion which is en- 
closed by the dotted line is the freshest of the con- 
choidal surfaces, but has a dull gloss and may be Pale- 
olithic, especially so since much of the rest of the sur- 
face has a dark brown patina indicating Early Paleo- 
lithic time. On the reverse side is a larger area of the 

No. 5218. In this specimen the dotted line sur- 
rounds the oldest surface, which is brown, or yellowish 
brown, and belongs to the age which is considered 
Early Paleolithic. The edge of the patina is thin, but 
still has a visible thickness. The rest of this specimen 
ts Paleolithic, with conchoidal surfaces and dull glossy 
patina, the color being dirty buff, mottled with gray. 

No. 5219, whose form suggests a tomahawk, has a 
weathered glossy patina, equivalent to that charac- 
teristic of the Paleoliths. The dotted lines enclose sur- 
faces which are conchoidal and older than the rest, but 
not covered with a thick Early Paleolithic brown pat- 
ina, which do not fall plainly into any category adopt- 
ed in this paper. Other tomahawks in the collection 
are certainly Early Neolithic. 

No. 5220 is Paleolithic throughout, except along 
the right edge which has a harsh and siliceous coating 
which was formed round the nodule from which the 
implement was chipped out. This is one of many in 
the collection. 

No. 5221 is of doubtful age. It is glossy all over, 
and its color is brown, even inside. It is a piece of a 
large flake. 

Nos. 5222, 5223 and 5224 were made of altered chert. 
They have plainly, in part, a Paleolithic patina, and on 

* Google 


the back side of No. 5223 is a remnant of an Early 
Paleolithic surface. Their edges have been broken by 
use. They may be Early Neolithic. 

Plate VII. 
Paleoliths from Kansas, actual size. Page 39. 

\os. 5198 {2 specimens) and 5220 (2 specimens). 
Found in the Deep Creek valley, northwest from Alma 
on the O'Neal site, along with numerous others. 

No. 5198. The weathered surface is gray and light 
gray, and covers an interior which is blue-gray and 
gray. The edges have been battered by use. 

Xo. 5220, leaves or turtles like the last, one being 
broken across and showing only about one-half, 
These have a Paleolithic, whitish patina and a gloss. 

Plate VIII. 

Paleoliths from Kansas, actual size, showing two Pateo- 

lithie dates. Page 30. 

These specimens are from the Mill Creek valley, and 
Xo. 5226 are from one and three-quarters mile north- 
west from Alta Vista. 

No. 522G (three specimens) are described in the text, 
p. SO. The weathered surfaces of different dates are 
outlined on the plate. The oldest surfaces shown on 
the two large figures at the top of the plate have a 
weather scale of different colors. That in the left hand 
upper corner shows a brown scale, not glossy, marked 
"pre-palcolithic". That in the right-hand upper cor- 
ner has a dirty cream-colored scale. But that in the 
lower right hand corner has a more nearly white Pale- 
olithic weather scale. 

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Specimen No. 5114 is described fully in the text. 
It shows plainly three weather stages, viz: Early 
Paleolithic (1), Paleolithic (2), and Neolithic (3). 
The Paleolithic weather scale is white or dirty white, 
as in No. 5226 next adjoining to the right. 

Plate IX. 

Paleoliths from Kansas, actual size. Page 33. Show- 
ing Early Paleolithic, Neolithic and Early 
Neolithic Chipping. 

These are all from the Mill Creek valley, and No. 
5227 from one and three-quarters miles northwest 
from Alta Vista. 

No. 5115. In addition to the description given in the 
text (p. 33) it may be stated further that the Early 
Paleolithic surface (1) is divisible into two parts, a and 
b, a having a white, thin, unglossy weather-crust seen 
on both sides of the specimen, lying upon a thick 
brown crust, b; that No. 2 intersects both a and b and 
that it shows entirely a brown and glossy patina 
whether it covers b or the original olive-gray chert. 
The chipping (3) about the edge at the right is much 
later, but doubtfully Neolithic, although it has a gloss 
which elsewhere is unquestionably Early Neolithic. 
The chert of this specimen is dense in texture and of 
olive gray color. 

No. 5013. Shows Paleolithic and Neolithic chip- 
ping, but the Paleolithic surface is not glossy. It is 
outlined in the central part of the figure, and it may be 
later than pre-Kansan. It contrasts strongly with the 
Neolithic chipping about the edges of the specimen. 

* Google 


No. 5030. A bi-terminal scraper, showing Paleo- 
lithic and Neolithic (or Early Neolithic) chipping. 

Xo. 5227. Shows two dates of chipping. The larg- 
er specimen bearing this number has a plain Paleo- 
lithic area in the center, as outlined, and an equally 
plain fresher fracture all about the edge, apparently of 
Neolithic date, produced by use of the piece as a ham- 
mer, — perhaps for chipping other pieces. 

No. 5008 shows a rough Paleolithic crust of decay 
surrounded by Neolithic chipping, producing a notched 

Plate X. 
Kansas Palcoliths, actual size. Showing Early Paleo- 
lithic, Paleolithic and Neolithic Dates. Page 34. 

From the Mill Creek valley. 

No. 5226. A characteristic squarish specimen, the 
most of the surface having a nearly white Early Paleo- 
lithic weather scale, the chipping having been done by 
Puleolithic man. 

No. 5227. A similar specimen, roundish instead of 
squarish, chipped to an edge along the top by Neolithic 
man. The Early Paleolithic scale is not so thick as on 
the other. Both these specimens show, by their curv- 
ing chip-surfaces, that Early Paleolithic man was a 

Detailed description of Plate XI, showing specimens 
not Paleolithic, taken from Mill Creek valley. Be- 
ginning at the upper left-hand corner. The figures 
show the actual size of the specimens. 

No. 5021. Light gray chert, dense and siliceous, 
probably a variant of the blue chert of the locality, but 
fresh and wholly unweathered; battered along the 

* Google 











edges, apparently (or possibly) to bring the piece into 
form in the finishing touches, rather than by use as an 
implement. The blows that caused the battering were 
directed about perpendicularly upon the edge, as in- 
dicated by the fact that usually the little slivers flew 
in both directions. It is noticeable that sometimes the 
most battered points are at places where the edge was 
clumsy, or too thick, and that this extra thickness re- 
mains even after the battering, indicating that at those 
points the edge was at first also unduly prominent. 
This delicate implement is perfect in outline, although 
it was coarsely chipped out. This Harahey knife (so 
named by Mr. Brower) is not characteristically 
beveled, and is probably Neolithic No. 1. 

No. 5053. Small tomahawk, blue-gray chert, section 
rhomboidal. All the chipped surfaces are quite fresh 
excepting only a small space on the reverse side near 
the larger end. This remnant, as well as those men- 
tioned on the last, cannot be called Paleolithic. The 
edges along the sides and on the larger end are bat- 
tered as described, and it is important to notice that 
this battering descends into the notches and also ap- 
pears on the central longitudinal ridge between the 
notches, on the reverse side. It does not appear on 
the central ridge on the side shown. These facts seem 
to show that the battering of the edges was purposely 
done in order to shape the outline of the implement, 
and is not due to use. 

No. 5022. Quivira knife, (from Mr. Brower), blue- 
gray chert, canoe-shaped. This is freshly chipped 
all over excepting two remnants of an older chipped 
surface visible on the reverse side. 

* Google 


No. 5094. Spear-point, or knife, freshly made from 
the blue-gray chert. The edges are battered and the 
surface has a sub-gloss which indicates some age. 
(p. 35). 

No. 5052. Knife, freshly wrought from the blue- 
gray chert of the region ; edges are somewhat battered. 

No. 5080. Point, tangless, but conspicuously 
barbed; this specimen is light gray, apparently an al- 
tered state of the chert of the region, in that respect 
differing from No. 5021, above, which is a different 
chert. Its edges are battered. It is freshly made, 
but a remnant of an older surface is apparent on the 
barb at the right-hand side, while all over the speci- 
men there are some facets that exhibit a subdued sub- 
gloss like that seen on No. 5094. 

No. 5071. Point, blue-gray chert, considerably old- 
er than any of the foregoing, but not Paleolithic; edges 
scantily battered as above. The whole outer surface 
has a shininess due to age, but not equal to the Paleo- 
lithic nor to the Early Neolithic, but approaching the 
latter. It shows no fresh chipping. 

No. 5031. Scraper or knife, blue-gray chert. In 
the main this is fresh, but has remnants on either side 
of older surfaces. Neither end is characteristically 
mono-beveled. It might be called a small "turtle." It 
is somewhat battered on the long edges. 

No. 5035. Scraper, blue-gray chert, but not of char- 
acteristic form nor of mono-beveled end. It is pointed- 
ovate. While this is probably of modern make, it is 
not fresh tike 5021 or 5022, or 5053. 

No. 5025. Leaf, altered chert of the region, having 
lost its blue-gray color, pointed at both ends. It is 

* Google 


freshly made, but exhibits two stages of weathering on 
the chipped surfaces, edges slightly battered. The 
remnant of the older surface mentioned in the text can 
hardly be detected except with a magnifier, and with 
favorable reflection of the light. 

No. 5175. Scraper, blue-gray chert, mono-beveled 
and thick at the larger end. Edges somewhat bat- 
tered. As for age, this is one of the Early Neolithic 
specimens, not Paleolithic, though having a somewhat 
shining surface due to age ; both sides alike as to age. 
Complete and typical. 

No. 5024. Point, or bunt, notched, of blue-gray 
chert. This was a tanged point of early Neolithic 
age as to weathering, and shows fresher fine battering 
along the edge. 

No. 6024. Point or bunt, or knife, blue-gray chert, 
mottled with altered chert. This shows some Paleo- 
lithic (?) and Early Neolithic surfaces, but the most of 
the chipping is fresh ; edges battered especially in the 

No. 5060. Point, narrow, blue-gray chert; evidently 
a Neolithic implement, but not freshly chipped; edges 
dulled from the notches to the point. Notches slight. 

No. 6057. An Early Neolithic flake of blue-gray 
chert, chipped about the edges, the notches and the 
tang, to the form of a point ; less fresh than those 
along the top of the plate. 

No. 5060. Point, or knife, like 5060 above, but com- 
prising also altered chert. (Perhaps Early Neolithic; 
it is not fresh ; it is not Paleolithic). 

No. 5061. Point, blue-gray chert. A Neolithic im- 
plement, but not freshly chipped. . 

* Google 


For explanation of plate XII, see p. 125, and of 
plate XIII see p. 127 and of plate XIV see p. 131. 



After the foregoing summary of preliminary results 
respecting the Kansas artifacts had been put into shape 
for publication, on further examination of the same 
collection some interesting new features and some ad- 
ditional ideas were developed. It is thought best not 
to intercalate these in their places in the original paper, 
but to present them somewhat chronologically, as they 
were observed. The original paper as here presented 
was read by several, including Prof. F. W. Putnam, 
of Cambridge, Mass., Judge J. T. Keagy, of Alma, and 
Prof. J. E. Todd, of Lawrence, Kansas. Some correc- 
tions and suggestions made by them have been used 
to make the article correct. The notes which follow 
were not thus submitted. However, after these notes 
were written, through the mediation of Prof. Putnam 
the writer was enabled to examine a copy of a remark- 
able article by Dr. W. Allen Sturge, of Mildenhall, 
Suffolk, England, who has recently reached conclu- 
sions as to the extension of Neolithic culture into the 
pre-Glacial past of aboriginal man quite similar to 
those expressed in this article, and the conclusions of 
Dr. Sturge are based on a critical study of the kinds 
and stages of patination of implements found in Suf- 

v, Google 


folk, and other parts of East Anglia.* It is another 
instance of the near contemporaneity of results reached 
by different workers along the same line of research, 
carried on independently on opposite sides of the 
Atlantic. The writer is not familiar with the publica- 
tions of French or other continental archeologists, and 
it is quite likely that similar distinctions have been ob- 
served by them. Dr. Sturge's conclusions are based, 
also, on the Glacial striations which his specimens ex- 
hibit, proving the later date of the ice-age or ages. 

February 15, 1912. I began to lay out a collection of 
these artifacts, i. e., of the Paleoliths, which showed 
by the battering of the edges that they had been used 
for cutting; but I soon found that nearly every one 
had been so used. Every one (I hardly know of an 
exception) shows a mashing and fine fracturing as 
if done by pounding, or other contact, on a piece of 
wood or of other stone. This battering is found along 
some long edge, or near some angle or place of vant- 
age, which could be made to serve as an ax or chopper 
in the hand of the owner. It seems as if the full pur- 
pose of the knapper was to get a simple edge, whether 
on a large piece or on a small one, and that he knew 
nothing, or next to nothing, of the finer art required 
to make an arrow-point or a scraper. The limit of 
their skill was in the formation of a tomahawk or a 
turtle back. 

Note. Some of the Early Neolithic class show a cal- 
careous scale, or "Glacial patina", as I have elsewhere 
called it. (Records of the Past, vol. 8, p. 251.) 

Prehistoric Society of East Anglia, 

v, Google 


Paleolithic Culture in Neolithic Time. 

February 24, 1912. I 
find by continued examin- 
ations (of other Kansas 
specimens) that the place 
of origination of the 
scraper, in the Glacial 
scale, is still doubtful, as , 
there are some patinated g 
specimens which are J 
rudely mono-beve»led J 
which appear to express 
the scraper idea. 1 have 
laid out a few. I also find • 
a specimen (No. 5069) * 
which is a piece of what | 
may have been a "Quiv- S 
ira" knife, like this figure, • 
which not only is patin- 
ated by long weathering, 
but on being broken, as 
shown by the dotted line, 
has a distinct, light-col- 
ored patina which can be 
seen surrounding the unweathered interior, and 
which has a nearly uniform thickness, but is thicker 
on one surface. It appears, hence, that the feeble 
commencement of Neolithic culture was in Paleo- 
lithic time. The Quivira knife in its perfection ap- 
peared in Early Neolithic time. Not only are Paleo- 
lithic rude implements found that date from Paleolithic 

* Google 


time, but lately chipped implements of the same, or 
similar, shapes are found in the Kansas valley, the 
freshness of which will not allow of their being older 
than Neolithic time. Some leaves, or turtles, having 
both sides convex, are of this character, also some rude 
knives, the latter showing not infrequently a recent 
chipping superposed on a distinctly Paleolithic chip- 
ping (5304), as if the later artizan had tried to con- 
tinue, or to improve, the implement for the use for 
which it was at first designed. This fact seems to in- 
dicate that the idea of the first artizan was satisfied in 
the creation of the rude "turtle", and that the later 
artizan recognized the idea and attempted simply to 
perpetuate it. This sequence is specially evident in 
some implements that are not so characteristically 
"blanks", but are leaves (5309) somewhate ovate, 
whose edges are battered by use. It appears hence 
Paleolithic culture persisted in some degree in Neo- 
lithic time. 

There is no doubt in my mind that the Paleolithic 
implements, especially the oblong or ovate-oblong 
so-called "turtles" or "blanks", of W. H. Holmes, as 
found here were completed implements as they now 
exist, since the long edges are frequently battered by 
use; and the same is true of those larger rude imple- 
ments which taper roughly to a blunt point or so as 
to afford a handle for a person who wished to use 
them as hand axes or gouges This statement is true, 
also, of numerous other pieces of irregular and pur- 
poseless shapes, but which happened to develope a 
long suitable edge in the process of rough chipping. 
Such pieces are battered along the edges thus pro- 

* Google 


duced. I have about reached the conclusion to put 
all artifacts whose culture precludes Paleolithic in the 
Early Neolithic, which have a marked shininess per- 
taining to the youngest chipping, and retain in the 
Neolithic only those whose latest chipping is evidently 
fresh. Of course there are numerous specimens that 
show two stages of chipping, and in such cases the 
latest chipping is often designed to carry to more 
exact completion the design which was apparent in 
the earlier chipping. But in other cases the design 
is apparent only in the later chipping. This is very 
often the case with the mono-beveled scrapers. The 
large flakes which certainly were produced in large 
numbers by Paleolithic man, (as well as by the Early 
Neolithic) were employed by the later men to make the 
conventional scraper. The flat side (i. e. that which 
cleaved from the core) is longer weathered than the 
surfaces formed by the beveling, sometimes being 
Paleolithic, but more frequently Early Neolithic, and 
when the latter they can hardly be distinguished some- 
times from Neolithic beveling. No beveling of this 
kind has been found which can be called Paleolithic. 

Iron Mould. 
March !*, 1912. I notice that some Paleolithic pieces 
which have a light gray color throughout acquire a 
blue-gray color by weathering. This change occurs 
sometimes in oolitic parts, and is rare. There is also 
a curious sprinkling of iron rust. It is found but oc- 
casionally, and prevails along the crests of anticlinal 
ridges formed by the intersection of two fracture 
planes, but it also occurs on smooth surfaces. It ap- 

v, Google 


parently is not due to the oxidation of contained pyrite, 
but appears to be entirely a deposition from the out- 
side, (see however p. 128). Occasionally it forms an 
interrupted small streak running in an unexpected and 
unexplainable direction across a flat or slightly curv- 
ing surface, as if some iron tool had left a portion of 
itself on the spot on being dragged across it. This 
idea is strengthened by the finding of a spot wihch 
gives a metallic luster, somewhat striated, in which a 
few centers of oxidation were to be seen, exactly like 
those which occur generally. (These so-called metal- 
lic surfaces I find, later, are natural cleavages of the 

March 18, 1912. How to account for the curious 
distribution of brown hematite (already mentioned) is 
a puzzle. Can it be as follows? It is essentially a 
very late, probably post-Glacial, effect, and as iron 
oxide is the chief coloring agent in turning the chert 
brown, can any cause be named that would make it 
accumulate in this manner? The most evident feature 
in this oxide of iron, in its manner of distribution, is 
its accumulation in streaks, such as may have been 
formed by a hard tool (iron apparently, but perhaps 
another chert) dragged forcibly over the surface of the 
chert where the oxide has formed by chemical secre- 
tion. In case the surface of the chert were slightly 
crushed or powdered along such an accidental streak, 
would the crushed condition of the surface cause a 
more rapid deposition or a detention of iron along such 
a streak (or scratch)? I notice also that this curious 
accumulation is along a narrow belt where the chert is 
not crushed, but is covered by a thin coating of some- 

* Google 


thing like evaporated albumen, having a glistening 
surface when not removed by friction nor covered by 
the oxide. 

March 19, 1912. When this brown hematite occurs 

along a ridge formed by the intersections of two flake 

surfaces, which is very common, it seems impossible to 

ascribe it to a scratch by some hard foreign tool or 

other substance. In such cases I see it is not only 

scattered along the whole crest of the ridge, coloring 

the surface in a narrow strip, but forms, at somewhat 

regular intervals, little bunches, or concretionary 

spheres which lie exactly on the crest of the ridge, 

these being evidently simply local enlargements due 

to greater deposition from ferriferous solution. These 

little concretions are so numerous sometimes as to 

form almost a continuous line, but being hollow they 

can easily be broken and removed, after which there 

remains only a portion of their crusts. It is not found 

exclusively on ridges, but occasionally on flat or curv- 

*? ing surfaces. The appearance sug- 

\ gests that from the lower (?) side of 

J an artifact ferriferous water was slow- 

,*C * ly trickling and evaporating, and that 

>*" the iron in solution had slowly gath- 

C ered on evaporation of the water, after 

] the manner of stalactites. The ridge, 

\f* in any case, governed the deposition, as 

| to place, since, in one case, a distribu- 

sinak »f don is seen like this figure. At a is a 

Iron Mould. 

line of limonite running along a crest, at 6 the 
crest is interrupted by some means, and a slight de- 
pression takes its place, but the irony deposit divides. 

* Google 


following the two new crests formed, surrounds the 
slight depression, and uniting again at c, continues 
further as one streak. There is, however, in no case 
observed, any calcareous deposition cotemporary. 

On a Paleolith from Loire Bassin (No. 2289) similar 
irony spots, in form of isolated small scales, but of 
darker color, are sprinkled over one surface, apparent- 
ly the surface which was downward during a long 
period, though they are absent from the other surface. 
They are not on the ridges but in the depressions or on 
planes that slightly curve downward. They are 
wholly wanting on the ridges, — or occur there only 
accidentally and rarely. On the specimen from Thet- 
ford drift (2228) of England, only two spots are found 
where such accumulation of iron is seen, and these are 
on ridges, in manner comparable with the accumula- 
tion on the Kansas artifacts. 

Variation of the Chert. 
This chert passes into a porous, siliceous chert-look- 
ing rock containing many minute fossils, which weath- 
ers to a rusty brown. This occasionally is seen ad- 
herent on some of the implements, and rarely consti- 
tutes the sole material of some of the implements. 
This does not effervesce, and should not be mistaken 
for the limestone of the region. The chert also varies 
in the compactness of grain, becoming occasionally 
very fine-grained and hard, approaching flint and 
agate, and along with this compact texture and dense- 
' ness of grain it is somewhat variegated in color. 
These can be seen sometimes in the same specimen, 
one of the colors being pinkish. I do not know that 

* Google 


Mr. Brower's "pink chert", supposed by him to have 
been imported from Missouri, can all be referred to 
local variation in the Kansas chert, but it seems to me 
to be possible, and may have been common in Mis- 

Criteria of the Different Ages of Weathering. 

March 7, 1912. There are plainly three weathering 
stages which are evident and easily distinguishable, 
viz., Early Paleolithic, Paleolithic and Neolithic. The 
Early Neolithic is indefinite, it shades into the Neo- 
lithic in various steps of approach and rarely it is also 
difficult to decide on the basis of weathering alone 
between Paleolithic and Early Neolithic. 

The Early Paleolithic (and the Pre-paleolithic) 
chipped surface is characterized by: 

(1) The deepest alteration of color. This colored 
scale may be 

(a) a dirty, cream-colored white, formed on a 

somewhat vesicular gray chert, illustrated 
by the two specimens seen in plate X. Its 
thickness is very apparent, varying from 
that of card paper to three or four times 
that thickness; and sometimes, apparently 
on the protected (lower) surface of a speci- 
men, this scale is distinctly stained with 
iron rust, even becoming pinkish or red. 
This scale is smooth but not glossy. 

(b) a brownish-yellow, formed on a dark gray, or 

blue-gray, and dense chert. Its thickness is 
about the same as the last, but its surface 
is glossy and has a darker brown color, al- 
most raw umber brown. The contrast be- 
tween this weather-scale and the interior 

* Google 


is very marked, especially when any part of 

glossy exterior is preserved. 
(2) By a change in the texture of the chert, by 
which the chert, when fractured, exhibits a 
finely granular internal structure, having a 
harsh feel. This is true whatever the color 
of the scale. This granular internal struc- 
ture can hardly be seen except with a magni- 
fying glass. It seems to have been formed 
by minutely fine sedimentary deposition, 
since sometimes a scattering of grains of 
different color can be distinguished. 

Pre-Paleolithic surfaces, not chipped, are rotted and 
spongy, and not glossy, whitish or somewhat rusty 
with iron, and even reddish by concentration of iron 
oxide. The rotted scale may be of any thickness up to 
half an inch. 

The Paleolithic weathered chipped surface w character- 
ized by 

(1) An alteration of color like the foregoing, but 
less extended, the thickness of the scale be- 
ing generally not more than one-half or even 
one-eighth of that of the foregoing, and 
sometimes almost imperceptible as a weath- 
er-scale; yet manifested by a superficial 
change of color, 
(a) If the interior, of the chert is blue-gray the 
surface color is likely to be the same, but 
lighter colored, especially on one side of the 
specimen, i. e., that which was downward 
during a long exposure, or when it was oth- 
erwise sheltered from atmospheric friction. 
The surface of a blue-gray artifact which 
was not so sheltered shows an accumulation 
of what appears to be dirt, but it is inti- 

* Google 


mately united with the surface of the chert, 
and will not wash off, nor brush off, giving 
the specimen a dirty aspect, although the 
surface may show a glossiness at the same 

But sometimes a dense specimen having 
a light blue-gray interior, or a light gray in- 
terior, becomes more deeply blue, or blue- 
gray, on the immediate surface, but the 
weathered scale, below the blue surface, is 
brown and vitrified, 
(b) If the interior of the chert is dense and light- 
colored, i. e., a light gray, the weather sur- 
face may be about the same, but tinted with 
yellow (or with blue-gray, as mentioned 
last above). If it be somewhat vesicular 
and light-colored the alteration is deeper, 
but of the same yellowish light color. 
(SJ) Uniformly, some portion of a Paleolithic arti- 
fact, along with coarse and rude chipping, 
will show more or less glossiness. This 
glossiness sometimes is hardly perceptible 
on an artifact of the light-colored and versi- 
cular chert, and on more dense chert if the 
specimen has been sheltered from atmos- 
pheric friction. A glossy surface, however, 
can be acquired in a shorter period when the 
dense artifact is favorably exposed to blow- 
ing dust and sand on the prairies. If the 
specimen be not accompanied by rude and 
coarse chipping, nor by a thin weather-scale, 
the artifact probably belongs in a later stage 
of culture. 

Paleolithic and Early Paleolithic artifacts sometimes 
show glacial patina. 

v, Google 


In general, the denser the grain the thinner the 
weather scale and the better the gloss. 

A weather-scale may exist without any glossiness, 
and a glossiness may exist with no perceptible weath- 
er-scale, the latter in the Early Neolithic specimens. 

An Early Neolithic weathered chipped artifact is 
marked by no perceptible (or very slight) depth of 
weather-scale, but shows a change of surface color or 
a glossy surface, or both, in whole or in part, usually 
combined with finer work; glacial patina occurs some- 
times on these. 

A Neolithic implement shows, normally, neither a 
weather-scale nor a glossy surface, but it is often diffi- 
cult to determine between Early Neolithic and Neo- 
lithic, owing to successive chipping of the same piece, 
and to similarity of culture and probably also to differ- 
ences of exposure. In this paper the term "Neolithic" 
is applied only to those artifacts which are so freshly 
chipped as to be referable to the present Indian dyn- 

Gradation of Culture Stages. 
There is a gradation of culture stages into each other 
so that they overlap in the Early Neolithic, thus: 

P»Hollthlo .... ■____._ 

fallT Iwlithio 

The culture of the Paleolithic, so far as shown by 
the chipping and the nature of the implements, extend- 
ed into the Early Neolithic, and the Early Neolithic 
into the Neolithic, but in diminishing force. Appar- 

v, Google 


entry some Paleolithic forms were fabricated in Early 
Neolithic time (perhaps also in Neolithic, but these 
have not yet been certainly identified), and Early Neo- 
lithic culture forms were fabricated in Neolithic time, 
showing the Neolithic freshness; but the converse is 
not true, i. e., in proceeding up the stream of progres- 
sive culture the new and higher forms seem to cease 
suddenly and entirely. Few specimens (one only, v. 
p. 70) having an Early Neolithic culture have been 
found in Paleolithic time, i. e., with Paleolithic 
weather-scale, but sometimes with what cannot be dis- 
tinguished from a Paleolithic gloss. In the same way, 
Paleolithic chipping, so far as seen as yet, is separable 
from Early Paleolithic. (This is to be further tested). 

(April C, In general these distinctions appear to be 
sustained, but need further verification.) 

(June 8, These statements are O. K.) 

March 13th. It is apparent that many so-called 
"points" were knives, and were fastened on the ends of 
handles. This is shown by their frequent battered 
edges, and by the fact that many of them are too large 
for use as arrow-points. 

That the grain of the chert, whether fine and dense, 
or coarser and loose, has much to do with the exist- 
ence of a gloss on the weathered surface, is quite 
evident, not only by the comparison of separate indi- 
vidual specimens, but especially by the appearance 
of a knife (point) No. 5433. This specimen is com- 
posed of two sorts of chert, both kinds having a tend- 
ency to pink. These kinds are irregularly distributed 
with respect to each other, but they are persistently 
distinct, though in immediate contact. The coarser 

v, Google 


kind is pink, and never polished, coarser grained and 
sparsely sprinkled with fine fossil fragments which 
are white. The dense kind is mostly brown, with a 
shade of red, and is uniformly glossy, with no visible 
fossil remains. The glossiness on the brown surface 
causes its classification as Early Neolithic, although 
the appearance of the other chert would indicate a 
Neolithic age. 

Critical Observations. 
March 14. A fine Early Neolithic point (No. 5463) 
shows partly pink and partly brown, and the colors 
grade into each other, indicating that they are differ- 
ent stages of ferruginization, and, because elsewhere 
both the pink and the brown separately grade into the 
blue-gray chert, they can be both assigned to a change 
in the originally blue-gray, but a change carried out 
while in the rock containing the chert 

Significance of a Gloss. 
March 15, 1912. I notice that in the case of a lot of 
broad points (5475 to 5484), all from the "Kilian site" 
and quite similar, almost identical in size and shape, 
and apparently referable to the same date as to style, 
culture and weathering, while the most of them have 
to be classed as Early Neolithic on account of the ex- 
istence of more or less glossiness, yet a few (6 or 8 in 
31) show no gloss and, under the rule under which I 
am working, these are classed as Neolithic. It is 
apparent from this, and from other facts observed, that 
Neolithic specimens might acquire a gloss, and that 
the existence of a gloss is not a sure guide to the age 

* Google 


of the specimen. This applies to some specimens 
showing a glossiness which may actually be Neolithic, 
although put in the Early Neolithic group. Still it 
may be that these presumed Neolithic specimens have 
lost a gloss (if they ever had it) or may have been 
so protected from friction that they could not acquire 
it, though as old as those that have it. At least it is 
evidence that the criterion (gloss or no gloss) is one 
that may have exceptions, and must be employed with 

See further, under "Different rates of patination," 
p. 102. 

I have already noted that even Paleolithic artifacts 
sometimes (though rarely) show but little glossiness. 

Specimen No. .1302 is a rude, irregular blade, seven 
inches long and nearly four inches wide. The central 
portion, on one side, is of Paleolithic age, with undulat- 
ing, forced, fracture-surfaces. All around the edge 
this piece has been chipped in Early Neolithic time, 
and in part, apparently, in Xeolithic, but the later 
working did not much change the shape nor evident 
purpose of the implement. 

P'-rmxtvnve of Paleolithic Cultnre. 

From this it appears that Early Neolithic man was 
satisfied, in some instances, to use a very rude imple- 
ment, and even to chip out one. though he frequently 
employed a Paleolithic implement as a base. Numer- 
ous artifacts showing Paleolithic and Early Neolithic 
chipping indicate an approximation toward identity 
of culture, so far as can be determined by the remain- 
ing Paleolithic surfaces, but others show, along with 

v, Google 


more recent chipping, a wide separation and approach 
toward Neolithic culture. Were it not for the differ- 
ences of weathering, a casual examination could not 
separate them, in some cases, and the whole might 
be placed in one age, only requiring some such dis- 
tinction as "cache" implements, or "blanks" to receive 
the "Paleoliths" whatever their age. It appears thai 
the Paleolithic artizan, at least his art, was not wholly 
replaced by Early Neolithic art. 

Relative Xumbcr of Early Xeolitklf Specimens. 
I find that by far the greatest number of artifacts, 
judged by the age of the weathering, fall into Early 
Neolithic time. There are very few that can be cer- 
tainly classed as Neolithic (according to the foregoing 
definitions), and none of these, so far as examined, 
are "polished" (i. e. ground) implements. They sim- 
ply show recent chipping. There are not so many 
whose entire surface is plainly Paleolithic, and fewer 
still Early Paleolithic, and there are some whose cul- 
ture and whose glossy surface would allow of their 
being either Paleolithic or Early Neolithic. But along 
with a patina of gloss, a true Paleojjthic usually ex- 
hibits also some weather-scale — but still the gloss may 
be wanting and only a weather-scale of white or brown 
then may determine its Paleolithic age. A specimen 
showing chipping of two or more dates is classed in 
accordance with the latest chipping. 

Weather Scales Are Sometimes White And Sometime* 
March 31, 1912. .Vo/e. Query: Why arc the old- 
est surfaces sometimes brown and sometimes white, 

v, Google 


or nearly white? It is evident that when the surface 
is white all the color elements, chiefly iron, have been 
removed from the chert, and only the silica remains, 
and that when the oldest surface is brown, there has 
been added to the chert some coloring element, chiefly 
iron. It follows that in order to answer the question 
it is necessary to And some cause for this different ac- 
tion of iron. It is probable that the cause is some 
way connected with the chemical environment. In 
one case iron is supplied to the chert and hence there 
must have been more in the environment than in the 
chert. In the other case either some acid surroundings 
leached out the iron from the chert, or perhaps the 
presence of decaying organic matter caused its re- 
moval. Decaying organic matter, as in a peat bog, 
causes the accumulation of iron in and about itself, 
abstracting it from waters that carry it in solution. 
It may be, therefore, that acidulated waters and de- 
caying organic matter may both be concerned in the 
production of this diffeernce of weather scale, the 
former to abstract the iron, by solution, from the 
surface of the chert where conditions were favorable, 
and the latter to cause its accumulation on other sur- 
faces when situated in the presence of decaying organic 
matter, as in a low tract of land where the prairie (or 
the forest) vegetation accumulated over the specimen, 
or in situations where drainage was not free. 

April 1, 1912. Again, I have noticed that, on some 
specimens, weather scales of both colors are present, 
on the same surface, the brown one next the uncolored 
chert, and the white one. (which is usually a dirtv 
white) on the exterior. Ordinarily, the first effect of 

v, Google 


weathering, so far as change of color extends, i. e., 
after the formation of a gloss, is the deepening of color 
by the accumulation of a rusty coating, and by the ab- 
sorption of iron into the meshes of the chert. By 
some change in the chemical environment the surface 
of the brown scale seems to have been deprived of its 
color element and converted superficially to a white 
color. There are, besides, considerable masses of the 
chert which are deeply altered in color by the absorp- 
tion of iron, sometimes becoming buff-white, or yel- 
towish-brown, or merely reddish or pinkish, and some 
artifacts are made wholly of such colored chert. Of 
course such coloration must have been produced be- 
fore the chert of which the specimens are composed, 
was extracted from the parent rock, and while the con- 
ditions of its environment were dependent on the for- 
mation carrying the chert. Ordinary superficial weath- 
ering, however, due to exposure in Pliestocene and 
post-Glacial time, affects only a scale of varying thick- 
ness, or which indeed is so thin as to be almost in- 

There is a question as to the significance and dura- 
bility of a gloss on a weathered surface. Can it have 
rotted and been followed by a patina of decay? 

Unfinished Edge* On "Turtles." 
April 1, 1912. In some instances it is noticeable that 
artifacts of the "turtle" form are not completed, but 
an edge, at one end or the other, is left unchipped, 
and so dull, or flat, that it was utterly impossible to 
use it for cutting meat or other objects. Such un- 
finished edge is thicker, and sometimes would furnish 

v, Google 


a partial handle, or such enlargement that in the grasp 
of the hand the implement could have been more se- 
curely and effectively wielded. Whether it a 

v, Google 


tended for such a purpose or not, it has also occurred 
to me that perhaps the edge for which the artifact was 
made was developed gradually, and that in the exig- 
encies of savage life the artizan found it necessary to 
interrupt his chipping and to use, or to allow to be 
used, such edged portion as was ready, calculating to 
finish the implement at a later date. At such later 
date he would probably chip another part of the edge, 
or all of it, and thus have a fresh and keen cutting 
edge for later service. This may explain not only the 
existence of wholly unchipped portions of the edge, 
but also the contrasts which the two edges of an im- 
plement sometimes present, one edge (along one side) 
being considerably more dulled by use than the other. 

Early Paleolithic, Paleolithic and Early Neolithic Chip- 
ping on the Same Specimen. 

April 2, 1912. The specimen figured on p. 8(i, (Xo. 
5523) is quite interesting and suggestive. It is brown 
all over, on all sides and edges, except where Early 
Neolithic chipping has served to give it a mono-clinal 
bevel at the broader end, where it is gray. It was a 
Paleolithic knife made of a flake from an Early Paleo- 
lithic parent mass, the only remaining part of the 
Early Paleolithic surface being on the convex side of 
the specimen, as indicated in Figure (2). The Paleo- 
lithic chipping developed two cutting edges « and ft. 
Of these, a was much used in Paleolithic time, as 
evinced by the dulled edge and by the brown-patin- 
ated, fine and worn fracture-surfaces which extend the 
whole length of the edge a as far to the point where 
a later chipping has removed them and furnished the 

v, Google 


implement with a new sharp edge which remains 
nearly entire and fresh. The edge b is battered also 
somewhat by use, some of which appears as fresh as 
the mono-bevel at the broad end. The paleolithic 
surface shown in Figure (2) is reddish-brown and the 
patina is much thinner than the brown Early Paleo- 
lithic surface which it intersects. The thickness of the 
brown-patmated scale can be seen all along the convex 
back of the specimen from one end to the other. It is 
about as thick as card paper. The thickness of the 
weather-patina on the Paleolithic surface is also visible 
at the line of intersection of the Paleolithic surfaces 
in Figure (2). The Early Neolithic surface shown 
in Figs. (2) and (3) is characterized by finer flaking, 
by a gray color, and by a glossiness such as appears 
on all those artifacts which have been classed as Early 
Neolithic. This glossiness in other specimens is some- 
times distinguished with uncertainty from that which 
is Paleolithic, but in this specimen there is no uncer- 
tainty, inasmuch as two other earlier-chipped surfaces 
are brown with an old patina, which certainly removes 
them from the age of the Early Neolithic, and which 
slums that during Paleolithic time the specimen was 
exposed to the weather under circumstances that were 
almost identical with those of Early Paleolithic time, 
hut less prolonged. On the Early Neolithic surface 
there is no brown color, but the gray color of the chert 
has a faint tinge of buff, which is no doubt due to the 
action of ferruginated water, since the latest chipping 
was done, and which, if continued long enough, would 
finally produce a brown patina scale such as seen on 
the rest of the specimen. 

* Google 


It might be mentioned further that near the crest 
formed by the intersection of the Early Paleolithic sur- 
face with the later chipping (Figure 2) is to be seen a 
small amount of the iron rust already mentioned as if 
deposited in the manner of stalactites in caves. 

(June 8, 1912. The foregoing described specimen 
was lost somewhere in Ohio on my late expedition 
during May, probably at Newark, Ohio. It had al- 
ready been shown and interpreted to a number of 
archeologists and others in Kansas and Missouri.) 

Successive Weather Scales. 
April 7, 1912. In the matter of weathering, and the 
colors assumed by the weather scale, it appears plain 
that the first effect is the formation of a gloss. By 
long-continued exposure this gloss is lost (or may be 
lost) and a slow decay begins, this decayed scale being 
sometimes white and sometimes brown, depending 
upon the environment, and if brown it may become 
quite thick, and may then be covered by a white 
scale. This is illustrated by specimen No. 5115, of 
plate IX. Below both of these scales, in some cases, 
can be seen layers alternating with each other two or 
three times, white and brown,and deepest of all there is 
a purple scale. These repeated alternations are too 
deep, especially the purple layer, to warrant the suppo- 
sition that they denote successive epochs of surface ex- 
posure when they were attacked directly by the weath- 
er. They indicate, more likely, variations in the inten- 
sity of the weathering forces, or in the supply of the 
coloring elements, before removal from the parent 
rock, by reason of which a banding was given to the 

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mass of the chert which recalls the banding of colors 
seen in banded agate. This, however, is a rare feature 
of the Kansas chert. It is seen sometimes at Flint 
ridge, Ohio. 

Uniformity of the Kansas Chert. 

April 9, Ii)I2. I have found the chert quite uniform 
in color and texture, within certain limits of variation. 
It is sometimes denser, and then is likely to have a 
dull gray color, and also is sometimes banded with 
brown-gray, and when dense it is sometimes brown 
throughout. These dense specimens acquire and re- 
tain a gloss easily, while the blue-gray, being softer, 
sometimes seems to acquire a color scale of slight de- 
cay rather than a gloss, and in some cases I have 
suspected that they had a gloss at first but have lost it 
by reason of different exposure. In general this blue- 
gray and rather soft chert is not exactly comparable 
with the Chalk flint of England in this respect, and it 
cannot be expected to exhibit (as it does not) the 
bright, firm gloss seen on those specimens. 

I have one white quartzyte scraper (5544) the ma- 
terial of which probably came from the local drift. I 
have seen no chert, as yet, which must be excluded 
unqualifiedly from the local chert beds, as a source, — 
except one small triangular point (5599) which is 

Paleolithic or Early XeoHthw? 

April 10, 1012. It may be necessary lo allow to the 

Paleolithic fabricator the idea of a rough knife, since I 

find one (5oil2) on which there is a distinct white 

v, Google 


weather-scale which, though thin, is no thinner than 
some seen on some Paleoliths. The coarse chipping 
also would allow the Paleolithic date. (See note of 
February 24). 

The difficulties with allowing specimen No. 5o92 in 
the Paleolithic group are as follows; 

1. It is distinctly chipped to a knife shape, having 
a point and a regular curve on each edge, coming to 
a rounded end. 

2. Its rounded end shows a few finer chip-scars, 
bringing the shape more to a bevel, though by no 
means like the mono-bevel of the scraper. 

•*t. It is an entire knife-like implement, and finished, 
and was used as a knife, as proved by the battering 
of the long edges. 

4. It has no gloss, and yet only a very thin weather 

Xone of these characters is known, as yet, in the 
Paleolithic group. It is the coarseness of the chipping 
which gives this knife a Paleolithic aspect. It seems, 
therefore, better to allow coarse chipping in the Early 
Neolithic epoch than to disregard all these features 
and put the specimen as yet in the Paleolithic epoch.* 

Loss of a Glossy Surface. 
The idea of a specimen having lost a gloss is con- 
firmed by one of those numbered 5603. It is a pink 
chert "core." An old surface has no gloss, but a 
smooth surface and a very thin weather scale. Where 
this is intersected by an Early Xeolithic chipping the 

♦It was found later that this knife falls in the Early Neo- 
lithic, along with tomahawks and others [Early Neolithic 

x». i]. 



later chipped sufaces are glossy-— distinctly glossy, the 
material being the same. The older surface, therefore, 
may be Paleolithic, and probably was once as glossy 
as the Early Neolithic sufaces are now. 

Pink Chert. 
Mr. Brower, in his note book No. 20, March 11 and 
24, 1902, declares that the peculiar pink chert is "in 
place" in southern Missouri, on the head branches of 
the Osage river, especially on Sac (Sauk) river. He 
says he procured 6000 of these (pink) chert imple- 
ments. In course of examination these have not yet 
been found. 

The Tomahawk People. 

April 23, 1912. It is becoming more and more prob- 
able, as I get familiar with the specimens, that not only 
most of the specimens are Early Neolithic, extending 
through several Glacial epochs, but that the "toma- 
hawk people," the typical people of the ancient Quivira 
region, were not Paleolithic, although "pre-Glacial" 
with regard to the Wisconsin epoch, yet post-Glacial 
with regard to the Kansas epoch, and hence Early 

April 26, 1912. I notice that the tomahawks, char- 
acteristic of Mr. Brower's "tomahawk people" (Nos. 
5673 to 5678) are distinctly less weathered than the 
specimens which I have classed as Paleolithic. As Mr. 
Brower says in his notebook that these tomahawks are 
found on the tops of terraces outside of the Kansas 
moraine (yet in the Kansas valley), and as these ter- 
races are (questionably) due to the damming of the 

* Google 


river by the Kansas ice* the tomahawk people are for 
that reason also probably post-Kansan and hence not 
"Paleolithic" according to the definition of Paleolithic 
in this paper. That is as it should be. and leaves the 
Paleoliths still as pre-Kansan, and harmonious with 
their weather patina. (See further p. 96). 

Incipient Scraper. 
June 21, 1912. I find a number of large flakes, suit- 
able for making scrapers, with a flat surface on one 
side but not mono-beveled to a scraper about the 
broader end (5731). These are Early Neolithic. 
Some of them are in part, chipped about one end, or 
nearly all round, as if the scraper idea was incipient 
in the mind of the maker, but not yet actualized in a 
perfect implement. 

2Veolt(ftM! "Turtle." 
I find also a Neolithic large turtle (5725), or "blank", 
coarsely chipped and indistinguishable from the Early 
Xeolithic except by the freshness of the chipping. 

Limitation of the Terms Paleolithic and Early NeoUtkic. 
June 25, 1912. In renumbering the specimens (with 
ink) I find a specimen (5397) which has the general 
aspect of an Early Neolithic but the culture of Paleo- 
lithic time, in that its design appears to have been no 
higher than to get an edge, and its three edges show 
that the fabricator was satisfied with that accomplish- 
ment, for they have been battered by use This, and 

•The terrace on which these tomahawks are found may 
date from Tertiary time, the river having- been the discharge 
from a Tertiary lake that existed in western Kansas. (Aug, 

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a few other facts observed give me a suggestion that 
some re-arrangement is needed in the definition and 
limitation of the terms Paleolithic and Early Neolithic, 
v. p. 104. 

This (53ft?) I find is one of a group of six, which 
are registered "pieces or cores". But the rest of the 
group do not show edges which have been used like 
the edges of this one. They are approximately globu- 
lar, and have been used apparently as chipping ham- 

Paleolithic Culture Continued into Xeolithic Time. 

June 28, 1SI12. In going again through those first 
classed as Xeolithic 1 find: 

1. Many are Early Xeolithic — judged by the gloss 
which more or less covers them. 

2. Of tomahawks, a few are Xeolithic, judged by 
the absence of gloss. 

If. Of large leaves, or turtles, which prevail in 
Early Xeolithic and Paleolithic time, three are found 
without gloss and are apparently of Xeolithic time, — 
although one of them has remaining a little calcareous 
scale, indicating the action of a Glacial epoch. They 
are completed specimens, and not "blanks". They have 
been battered by use. They are Xo. 5;(0T. 

From Xos. 2 and 3, foregoing, it seems necessary to 
infer that Paleolithic culture did not cease with the 
introduction of higher art. It seems to be necessary 
to admit the actuality of a series, or succession of 
stages, such as has been shown by Holmes, in the de- 
velopment of a perfect or well-finished implement 
wholly in Xeolithic time. But that does not do away 
with Paleolithic implements made in Paleolithic time. 

v, Google 


Paleolithic art would naturally and necessarily pre- 
cede Neolithic. It is not reasonable to assume that 
Xeolithic art, in its perfection, sprang at once into 
activity. It seems to have required a long period of 
time for the growth of sufficient skill to fashion the 
Neolithic implement from the Paleolithic, but it is evi- 
dent that every Neolith was fashioned from a funda- 
mental Paleolithic shape. The fact that only Paleo- 
lithic forms are found with the patina of age proves 
that the Neolithic forms were developed later, and 
probably by improvement on the art of the Paleolith. 
We have to admit, then, the existence of rude (i. e., 
Paleolithic) forms both in Paleolithic and Neolithic 
time, and we cannot exclude them from any stage in 
the development of the art of stone-chipping. The 
important thing is to admit their basal importance in 
the development of the art, whether in the time re- 
quired for the growth of the art, or in the fabrication 
of an individual specimen. Mr. Holmes has demon- 
strated the latter, but has seen no evidence of the for- 
mer, or at least when he has seen it he has refused to 
admit its validity. It seems to me that one is the 
subsidiary complement of the other, and that when 
fully and properly understood neither can exist with- 
out the other. That is, if we have a Xeolithic imple- 
ment that fact implies an earlier Paleolithic form, not 
onlv for that implement itself but also for the com- 
mencement of the art. Or. if we have a Paleolithic 
implement, that fact implies, according to the known 
progress of man in the art of stone chipping, the ex- 
istence sooner or later of a "finished" Neolithic imple- 
ment, and that Neolithic implement may be made all in 

v, Google 


one day from the rude Paleolithic shape, or it may re- 
quire the patient labor and development of thousands 
of years. It is only by the weather patination, ceteris 
paribus, that Paleolithic blades can be distinguished 
from the rude Neolithic. V. also p. 96. 

Tomahawks Have Never Been Withed. 

There are reasons for believing that the so-called 
tomahawks have never been mounted by having a 
withe bound around them for handles. 

1. They show no wearing where such withes would 
have been bound about the tomahawk. 

2. They show a battering along the lateral edges 
which extends along the most of the length of the spec- 
imens, such battering descending into the notch where 
it is to be presumed the tying descended. (Many 
tanged points, however, show the same.) 

3. There is no evidence of a groove on the side of 
the specimen where the withe might have grasped the 
body of the specimen between the notches. 

4. Sometimes the notches on the sides are not op- 
posite each other, and sometimes they are obsolescent 
and even wholly wanting. 

The Scraper. 

June 29, 1912. As to the scraper, there are some 
variants from the typical form which tend to the belief 
that we do not know yet with certainty the purpose of 
this implement, viz: 

1. There are many that show an under-chipping at 
the bevel end. so as to cause a retreating of the out- 

* Google 


line along that end backward, along the flat surface. 
The profile of such is like this figure: 

C l *' 8 

2. There is occasionally one that has both ends 
mono-bevelled, at the same time one being under- 

3. Some are so small that they would have been of 
no use as scrapers of hides, and some of these small 
ones are under-chipped. The smallest I have noted is 
exactly 3/4 in. long. 

Different Signs of Age. 

June 30, 1912. Besides a glossing which comes on 
some specimens (I may say most specimens) with age, 
there is also a roughness which denotes age. This 
appears on specimens that are light colored (5552), 
and is due to a variation of internal grain. When such 
specimens are broken freshly, or cut, such variation 
of internal grain cannot be observed, but on weather- 
ing there is developed, on the surface, along with an 
imperfect scattered fine porosity, a gentle roughness 
which brings into relief the firmer and coarser ele- 
ments of the rock. There seems to be no difference 
in the chemical composition. It is only a difference in 
the manner of siliceous aggregation. Sometimes the 
shapes of fine fossils can be seen in this roughened 
rock, and sometimes this roughness and this glossi- 
ness can be seen on the same specimen, the glossiness 

* Google 


being usually on a variety of dense blue-gray rock. 

Continuation of Paleolithic Culture. 

July 9, 1912. Referring to what is stated on pages 
94 and 95 respecting the continuation of the Paleo- 
lithic culture as evinced by leaves or turtles, into Early 
Neolithic and even into Neolithic time, I think further 
that it would be warrantable to state as a general 
principle that: All Paleolithic art was perpetuated, 
or may have been perpetuated, into Early Neolithic 
and Neolithic time, and all Early Neolithic into Neo- 
lithic, and hence that the progress of stone-chipping 
was essentially a continual introduction of new forms 
and higher skill without the necessary loss of any of 
the older forms. This I think can be shown respect- 
ing the following kinds: leaves, tomahawks, scrapers 
and knives, 

Beyond the latitude of the Kansan moraine it would 
be inevitable that artifacts showing all stages of pat- 
inization should be found, and that, too, on the same 
sites, while on the northerly side of that moraine a 
pre-Kansan artifact would be found but rarely and still 
more rarely inside the Wisconsin moraine. (V. plates 
XV and XVII. 1 Between those moraines a long period 
of time elapsed, such that great advance in the art of 
stone-chipping probably was made. . Some of these in- 
termorainic artifacts, i. e., the oldest of them, ought 
to show a nearer approach to the pre-Kansan artifacts 
in both culture and age, than others, and some of them, 
if the foregoing general principle be true, ought to ap- 
proximate toward Neolithic and even ought to grade, 

* Google 


in both respects, into Neolithic. This would be illus- 
trated by artifacts found southward from the glaciated 
areas, while to the northward from the great moraine 
belts, there would be necessarily more or less evident 
steps of improvement in culture, port passu with less 
and less patination, on passing from the outside of any 
moraine to the area within it. 

Left Handedness of Early Neolithic Man. 

As to scrapers, again, in addition to what is written 
on page 96, I have discovered evidence that the under- 
chipping mentioned is due to rough usage as an im- 
plement, viz: (1) it is most commonly a little to one 
side from the center of the implement, as if the tool 
were held in the hand, and in use had been turned 
somewhat to one side to give it effective application — 
and I have noticed that it is most frequently to the 
left of the center when viewed perpendicularly on the 
flat surface, as if the user held it in what we know 
as the right hand. This may indicate that the abor- 
igines were left and right-handed. (2) I have seen the 
same kind of underchipping extending along one side 
of the tool more than half way to the other end, evi- 
dently due to use, there dying out into little irregular 
chatter-marks or checks. 

Hence it appears that this under-chipping was not 
caused by a systematic flaking, by a hammer or other 
flaking tool, but by a rasping or scraping of the edge 
of the scraper on some substance. 

(3) Where this under-chipping appears there is a 
recession of the edge back upon the body of the scraper 

* Google 



so as to distort the otherwise symmetrical outline, this 
proving that the under-chipping was not a step in the 
making of the implement, but was in some way super- 
induced after the implement was finished. 

July 11, 1912. I have examined a lot with reference 
to the right or the left hand use of the scraper.* In 
making the selection I discarded those which showed 
only a central undercutting, and also those which man- 
ifested no noticeable difference as to right or left hand 
use. I found 39 which indicated a right hand use, and 
19 that indicated use with the left hand, and probably 
10 that showed no difference. The figures below illus- 
trate this. 

Skowl>s KlBht Hand Ih 

Showln* Lett Kn* Vmt. 

'"'On Lefthandedness in North American Aboriginal Art." 
See D. G. Brinton, Am. Anth. vol. IX, p. 175, May, 189«. 

, y Google 


Imperfect Harahey Knives. 
July 23, 1912. One of those knives numbered 5162, 
while having the same shape as the others of tne same 
number, has one side for two-thirds of its length mono- 
beveled, like a Harahey knife thus: 

Imperfect Hanhey Knlvtn 

The whole knife has a semi-gloss, and on that char- 
acter is put with Early Neolithic implements. 

The mono-beveled edge is thicker than the edge at 
any other place. 

Still another (5170) is mono-beveled on both edges 
at one end and is not beveled throughout the rest. 

* Google 


About one-half the length is thus mono-beveled. This 
is doubtfully Early Neolithic, the gloss being less pro- 
nounced. Compare plate XIII. 

Different Rates of Patination. 

On a large specimen (5199), shaped like an elongat- 
ed (small) turtle, the oldest chipped surface is partly 
on a blue-gray and partly on a light-gray chert. The 
light gray by long exposure has acquired a scale which 
is cream-white and glossy, its thickness being quite 
distinct. That portion of this fracture surface which 
extends over the blue-gray chert is not glossy nor no- 
ticeably patinated by decay or change of color. It has 
acquired simply a dirty tinge by which it appears a 
little lighter colored than a fresh fracture. Both these 
have been broken by Early Neolithic chipping, and 
the same Early Neolithic surface runs in the same 
manner, from the light-colored chert to the blue-gray. 
A similiar difference appears: that part of the Early 
Neolithic surface which is on the light gray chert is 
well glossed and is distinctly Early Neolithic, as I 
have classified many specimens, but that part of the 
Early Neolithic fracture which runs on to the blue- 
gray chert is not perceptibly patinated in any way, 
and might easily be called Early Neolithic, or even 
Neolithic No. 2. (Page 104). 

From this it is apparent not only that a blue-gray 
chert requires much longer time to be altered so as to 
acquire a patina, either of gloss or of alteration, but 
also that Paleolithic specimens of btue-gray chert may 
be so well preserved, even when favorably exposed for 
patination, that they show no evidence of greater age 
than Early Neolithic. These differences are of fre- 

* Google 


quent occurrence, introducing another element to be 
observed in judging the age of any specimen. 

Early Neolithic Preferable to Pre-Neolithic. 

July 29, 1918. Putnam, in a letter from S. Eliot, 
Maine, suggests the term Early Neolithic instead of 
Pre-Neolithic, which presumes prior to Neolithic. It 
is a good suggestion, and his term can be applied to 
those artifacts that show Neolithic culture but are so 
old as to be glossy. That would leave Neolithic still 
for those not glossy but of Neolithic culture. Then 
the term Pre-Neolithic can still be applied to those 
glossy specimens which have Paleolithic culture, but 
which still are not plainly Paleolithic in patination. 
We would have then : 

1. Pre-Paleolithic and Early Paleolithic, those hav- 
ing a thick white or brown patina of alteration, with or 
without a gloss, and with little to denote culture. 
Some natural jointage or other old surfaces are Pre- 

%. Paleolithic, those having less alteration patina 
but usually a glossy surface. On the light chert a 
glossy white scale of alteration is present and cotem- 
porary with a scant brown scale of alteration on the 
blue-gray chert with little or no gloss. This embraces 
those large rude leaves or turtles, which are abundant 
and frequently broken so as to embrace but one-half, 
and many irregularly shaped fragments that have an 
edge, or two edges, which have been battered by use. 
This is sometimes difficult to separate from the next. 

3. Pre-Neolithic, those having no noticeable alter- 
ation patina but are glossy, with Paleolithic culture. 

* Google 


4. Early Neolithic, those having Neolithic culture 
and a distinct gloss, without alteration patina. 

At first these were classed together as Pre- Neo- 

5. Neolithic, having, with Neolithic culture, no pa- 
tina of any kind; also all polished or ground imple- 
ments of Neolithic culture.* 

I find that the stages of culture can hardly be as- 
signed to definite Glacial epochs, so far as shown by 
the Kansas specimens. It is possible to say now only 
that the great change in culture exhibited between the 
Pre-Neolithic (and Paleolithic) and the Early Neo- 
lithic was probably incidental to the oncoming of the 
Kansan Glacial epoch. The Early Neolithic seems to 
extend from after the Kansas epoch to the post-Wis- 
consin, apparently grading into the Neolithic culture. 

August 24, 1912. 

August 2J1, 1912. By mail I have received from Dr. 
W. Allen Sturge, of Miidenhall, Suffolk, England, a 
copy of Vol. 1, Part 1 of the "Proceedings of the Pre- 
historic Society of East Anglia", published in 1911. It 
contains the presidential address by Dr. Sturge, Octo- 
ber 26, 1908: "Flint implements of Sub-Crag Man", 
by J. Reid Moir ; A report by a special committee to en- 
quire into the question "whether the Sub-Crag imple- 
ments had been chipped by natural or by human 
agency"; "The Chronology of the Stone Age", by Dr. 

"Later it was found necessary I 
into No. 1 and So. 2, and the samt 

v, Google 


Sturge; "Animistic forms in certain flints, showing 
human work", by Col. W. Underwood, and Resumes of 
business and scientific meetings, 1908 to 1910. 

Of these papers that which specially concerns Am- 
erican archeologists is the "Chronology of the Stone 
Age", by Dr. Sturge, pp. 43 to 105, read January 13 
and March 22, 1909. The stone age, as well as the 
Glacial geology with which it is intimately associated 
in England, according to the author, is well represent- 
ed in America, and as Glacial geology is also abund- 
antly represented in America, it becomes a very per- 
tinent inquiry whether the two are as intimately asso- 
ciated in America as in England. 

It affords the writer great satisfaction to know that 
in many things — indeed in all essential results — Dr. 
Sturge's investigations, so far as they run along lines 
parallel to those of the foregoing chapters confirm the 
writer's conclusions as to the intimate association of 
man with the Ice-age, throughout its extent, from its 
beginning to its end. The district in which Dr. Sturge 
found his Glacial implements is near the morainic 
border of glaciation, and has sometimes been water- 
flooded and sometimes ice-covered, introducing a con- 
fused succession of boulder-clays, brick clays and 
gravels, some of the earlier deposits having been 
pushed aside and over-run by later ice sheets. It 
was the effect of some of the later ice sheets upon 
some of the implements, which attracted attention. 
The implements are "striated" in the same manner 
as the hard rocks in the northern part of Minnesota. 
These striations were found to vary considerably. He 
discriminates six classes and illustrates them by beau- 

* Google 


tiful photo-plates. He correlates these classes with 
differences of patination. Of patination he makes the 
following remarks: 

"A flint has been worked into some shape suitable 
to his needs by a man at one period; has been aban- 
doned by him at his death, or when he has done with 
it. It has lain on the ground for a sufficient length of 
time to become more or less deeply patinated. At some 
subsequent period it has been picked up by another 
man who, though living at a time long posterior to 
the first worker, is still in about the same stage of 
civilization as this first man; and who works the flint 
to suit his particular needs. The new work will be 
quite unpatinated, as the patinated surface will be 
partly removed by the process of chipping the flint 
into the new shape. This second man will then aban- 
don the implement in his turn, and it will again lie 
on the ground exposed to patinating influences. When 
picked up today by the collector, some thousands of 
years after the last user has thrown it aside, the work 
of the second period may or may not have undergone 
surface change. But in any case the surface change 
will be wholly different from that of the work of the 
first man, and we see two well-defined series of sur- 
faces on the same flint, the one on the facets due to 
the older man's work and the other on the facets of the 
later man's work. This applies both to Paleoliths and 
to Neoliths, though it is perhaps more common in the 
case of the latter. A study of a large number of such 
doubly patinated implements, in conjunction with a 
study of an even larger number of singly patinated im- 
plements, is of the greatest service in helping us to ar- 

v, Google 


rive at a good working knowledge of the value of pa- 
tina in relation to age." P. 48. 

With the "striation" due to glaciation and the associ- 
ated patination, the author unites lustre and "iron- 
moulding." The former is the glossiness, and the lat- 
ter the streaked distribution over the surface of some 
artifacts, of limontte, both described by the writer in 
the foregoing discussion of Kansas artifacts. 

All these features, and the time involved in their 
production, the author puts into "Neolithic" time. He 
considers that Paleolithic time, while antecedent to 
Neolithic, was composed of two great epochs, "Drift" 
man and "Cave" man, of which the former was the 
earlier. Back of Drift man was the age of the Boul- 
der-clay, and earlier still, in the Pliocene, at the base 
of the "Crag", flint implements showing glacial etch- 
ing. The whole time involved in the production of 
the successive Glacial epochs, and hence of the exist- 
ence of man, he finds to accord with the Crollian hy- 
pothesis, the lastest glaciations, or series of gla- 
ciations, having occupied a period of time extend- 
ing from 300,000 years ago to 100,000 years ago. 
There was some "nine or ten recurrences of 
glaciation, corresponding to the occurrence of 
winter in or near the aphelion, with relaxations of 
cold conditions in the intervals, during which winter 
was in or near perihelion." 

There are several important "conclusions" brought 
out by Dr. Sturge to which attention should be spec- 
ially directed, viz: 

1. As regards the nomenclature of the successive 
epochs of the Stone age, the author's distinction be- 

* Google 


tween Paleolithic and Neolithic is based on the acci- 
dent of where the implement teas found, — if on the sur- 
face it is Neolithic, if in the gravels it is Paleolithic, 
always presuming that the gravels were deposited 
prior to the fabrication of any of the surface-found im- 
plements. That, however, is very questionable. To 
the writer it seems quite likely that many of the pat- 
inated implements found on the surface, and especially 
in the little fresh-cut gorges, or "side valleys" that de- 
scend from the Elveden plateau, were originally em- 
braced in gravel beds that form the sloping sides of 
those little valleys, and that they have been brought 
to light and concentrated by the erosive action that 
formed the little valleys. In general, throughout the 
region, this transformation of Paleoliths to Neoliths, 
by change of pose through the action of surface dis- 
turbance of the gravels, is likely to have taken place. 
In that case many of the Neoliths described by the 
author may be actually Paleoliths. In short, the ac- 
cident of where the stone is discovered, whether in 
gravels or not, is of no value whatever, unless con- 
sidered in connection with its cultural characteristics 
and its patination. 

2. It will be noticed that in the term "Neolithic" 
the author embraces what in the foregoing discussion 
the writer has put in the Early Neolithic, and that he 
includes in the term "Later Neolithic" essentially what 
the writer has called Neolithic. It is probable that the 
occurrence in Europe of a "Bronze age", which has 
not been recognized in America, is to some extent re- 
sponsibe for this discrepancy. 

v, Google 


3. It will be noticed also that all of the characters 
which by the writer are considered Paleolithic are in- 
cluded by Dr. Sturge in his term Neolithic. 

4. On the presumption that the operations of the 
Glacial epoch, and epochs, would have been in Europe 
much like the same in America, it seems remarkable 
that the gravels produced by the tumultuous waters 
should have been considered by Dr. Sturge of so much 
later date than the boulder clay, or the boulder-clays. 
In America it is a settled conclusion that each boulder- 
clay had its cotemporary gravels and sands, and, at 
lower levels when the waters were gathered in ponds 
and lakes, had also its brick-clays. It is by the care- 
ful and prolonged study of these, and especially of 
their distribution and superposition, that in America 
it is well established that there was a succession of 
Glacial epochs. It was by the wash and destruction 
of the boulder-clays by the discharged waters that 
were deposited the gravels, sands and brick-clays. 
Hence, in general, the boulder-clays are to be consid- 
ered not as antedating the Glacial period, and so evi- 
dence of glaciations earlier than what Dr. Sturge has 
put in his "Neolithic", but as actually coeval with his 
"Neolithic", some boulder clays being earlier than 
others. Owing to the confusion which was introduced 
in the drift by the successive glaciations, and especially 
about the moraines, the unraveling of the dates of 
any human artifacts found in it becomes a very com- 
plicated problem in all places where different ice-sheets 
have covered the country. 

5. The characters of striation which Dr. Sturge 
has found on numerous Neoliths, and has so minutely 

* Google 


studied and described, he takes as evidence of succes- 
sive glaciations of the country. To the writer this 
seems to be unreliable evidence. An observer who 
had never seen striation on the hard rocks of the 
Archean, might suppose the depth of the striae, the 
criss-crossing of the fine striae, the confused polishing 
striation on quartzose surfaces, could be attributed to 
differences of pressure, and hence to successive sheets 
of ice of different thickness. But it is not an uncom- 
mon thing, in northern Minnesota, to find two or three, 
perhaps all, of the different characters described by the 
author, on the same rock surface, within the area of 
a few hundred, or even a few scores, of feet, and plain- 
ly due to a single glaciation. The hardness, the po- 
sition and the movements of pebbles embraced in the 
bottom of the ice all vary, as the movement proceeds. 
6. The author's description of the valley of the 
Lark where it crosses, at nearly right angles, the 
"gravel-topped ridge" which makes Warren Hill, High 
Lodge and other gravel deposits as far north as Maid's 
Cross Hill near Lakenheath, is so minute and natural 
that it warrants, perhaps, the presumption, on the part 
of a stranger, that a different history from that given 
by the author would fully apply to the facts he has 
described, and would be in consonance with known 
principles of Glacial geology. Briefly, the writer is 
impressed with the similarity of the surface features 
between Mildenhall and the Elveden plateau, to those 
of many localities in America where, near the farthest 
limit of the latest ice-sheet, streams of water were 
numerous and turbulent, flowing from the ice. Such 
waters gathered in gorges in the ice, and in the same 

v, Google 


gorges, by surface wash and gravitation, was concen- 
trated the drift which was on and in the ice. The 
running stream carried away all it could carry, leaving 
only the coarser parts of the drift in its bed. On the 
complete disappearance of the ice-sheet the bed of 
the former ice-bound river is marked by a ridge of ac- 
cumulated gravel and sand and stones of all sizes, 
which rises, in places, nearly as high as the adjoining 
plateaux. This ridge is sometimes continuous for sev- 
eral miles, but is frequently broken by little cross- 
valleys such as those named "the valley", "the vale", 
and "the gully", on Dr. Sturge's "map of the vicinity 
of Icklingham". It is quite reasonable to suppose, 
therefore, that the great gravel ridge mentioned, on 
which so many human stone artifacts have been found, 
is of the nature of a fame formed not far back from 
the margin of a great ice-sheet, in the bed of a rapid 
river which flowed southwardly from the ice-field of 
one of the great glaciations, such ice-field extending 
toward the north an unknown distance. The fact of 
the existence of disrupted, brick-clay and of till 
mingled sporadically with the gravels of the ridge, is 
very interesting, and as the clay contains Mousterian 
artifacts there must have been an earlier period of 
quiet and non-glaciation when the country about Mil- 
denhall was habitable, or at least a spot where brick- 
clay could be gathered and could receive occasional 
human contributions of stone implements; though it 
is entirely conceivable that such brick-clay did not 
much antedate the epoch of its disruption. During 
the time of the formation of this great gravel deposit, 
composing the "kame", if this explanation be correct, 

v, Google 


the drainage was southward, and it would be likely 
that enormous areas of "over wash" sand and gravel 
would be found in the country lying to the south and 
southeastward from Mildenhall. 

7. In the opinion of the writer there is no way to 
separate the Paleolithic age into two successive parts, 
such as the drift and the cave. But on a geographic, 
basis there might be a Drift paleolithic man in north- 
ern latitudes where glacial streams formed copious 
gravel deposits in their bottoms which later by gen- 
eral desiccation of the country became terraces, and 
a Cave man in southern latitudes where Glaciation did 
not occur, or even in Glacial latitudes where habitable 
caves escaped the course of the glaciers. But obvious- 
ly, the Drift man was cotemporary with the Cave man, 
at least with the later part of the Cave man period. 
In genera], therefore, the man of the caves had a longer 
dynasty than he of the terraces, and such dynasty 
probably extends back further than any recognized 
glaciation. It may have been during some inter-glacial 
epoch that the Cave man of Le Moustier occupied the 
region of Suffolk and dropped his implements into 
some quiet waters The facts described by the author 
pertaining to the Warren Hill locality obviously show 
the following: 

(1) The Mousterian age, in Suffolk, showing in- 
terlaminations of till with brick-clay which contains 
humanly shaped implements, must have been nearly 
cotemporary there with a general glaciation. 

(2) The deposits were thrown out of horizontality 
by a later ice-sheet. 

* Google 


(3) The later ice-sheet furnished the gravel of 
Warren Hill and of High Lodge. 

(4) The Mousterian Cave man of Mentone was co- 
temporary with a Mousterian Drift man in Suffolk. 

Still, notwithstanding these critical objections to 
some of the conclusions of Dr. Sturgc, which seem to 
show the necessity of extensive remodeling of his 
chronology of the stone age, it is to be admitted that 
archeologists are much indebted to him for his 
critical discussion. British archeologists, as well as 
American, will be spurred to a vigorous study of pat- 
ination, and to a closer search for implements in gravel 
pits and terraces. Whether finally the succession of 
events wilt be found to coincide with the theory of 
Croll it is too early to predict. 

The Simplest Artifact an Edged Tool. 
It is plain, from a careful inspection of the Kansas 
artifacts, that the simplest culture of aboriginal man 
was sufficient to produce only an edge. In many cases 
he used pieces of an irregular shape on which there 
happened to exist, in whole or in part by his agency, 
an edge which could be made to serve his purpose. 
He may at first have found, ready to his hand, some 
nature-fractured pieces. From these, either by acci- 
dent or design, new edged pieces were broken off, and 
he found that by very little effort he could produce 
others. Some of those which he produced are coarsely 
chipped, and large, and have but little to indicate any 
design as to shape; but he certainly acquired the skill 

v, Google 


and the habit of giving his simplest implements some 
conventional shapes. Those which are called "leaves" 
or "blades" or "turtles", having a general ovate or 
ovate-oblong outline, and a longer dimension of about 
four or five inches are common. But the sizes extend 
from a length of ten inches, illustrated by specimen 
numbered 5206 (page 12), and a width of six and 
three-fourths inches, down to less than two inches in 

Others were left more nearly in the shape that the 
natural fractures gave them, with the addition of some 
marginal trimming, and this gave rise to a large series 
that are squarish and also to those that are polygonal 
and some that are celtoid. These indeed probably 
antedated the ovates. but they must have continued 
side by side for a long period. 

Implements of these shapes date from Paleolithic 
time, as shown by their patination, but they do not 
cease with Paleolithic time. The same idea is ex- 
pressed in implements of later date, and even Neolithic 
time. It may be that the so-called Neolithic "blanks", 
found in great numbers in caches in Ohio and other 
states, embody the primal idea of the Paleoliths of the 
ovate and ovate-oblong shapes. It is not alone by 
the patination that the Paleolithic specimen is dis- 
tinguished ; but. along with the oldest patination, the 
completeness of the implement according to the puropse 
of the fabricator is shown by the fact that nearly all of 
them have been dulled in Paleolithic time along their 
edges by use in the hand of their owners, such dulling 
also being patinated. 

v, Google 


The use of ovate, or squarish, edged tools seems to 
have provoked the trimming of their outlines into a 
more elongated tool, to which the term knife has uni- 
formly been applied. These knives were about eight 
inches in length and about an inch and a quarter, or 
somewhat more, in width. They are essentially the 
same that by Mr. Brower was called "Quivira knife". 
For the most part they are not sufficiently patinated 
to be placed unequivocally with Paleolithic culture, 
only one having been found (p. 90) which certainly 
dates from the same age as the foregoing, and that one 
is not a well-shaped implement. All the rest, so far 
as observed, fall into a later stage. They are about 
pa rail el -edged, well chipped, well shaped, with a slight 
curvature, and one end a little narrower than the other, 
but both ends terminating rectangularly, (or approxi- 
mately so) and in nearly all cases have a distinct 
glossiness but no patina of alteration. Many were 
broken and we have the parts. 

This Early Neolithic Quivira knife was the complet- 
ed instrument, but the term "knife" has to be applied 
to a number of (Paleolithic) implements which were 
chipped only coarsely, the general shape of which 
would allow of their being called lance-ovate or lance- 
oblong. These are sometimes eight or nine inches in 
length. They show edges battered by use, and could 
have been used only for purposes identical with the 
purpose of the perfected tool, i. e., for some coarse 
cutting or hacking. These have been put into Early 
Neolithic No. 1. The shape varies still further, one 

v, Google 


end being left rough and large, as if it furnished a 
more convenient hand-grasp, thus grading into the 
gouge. With stitl further variation in shape the ends, 
(one or both) were dressed to a point more or less ob- 
tuse, and also more or less acute, the latter making 
an instrument which must have been in constant de- 
mand, either about the camp or in the capture of game 
by hand. These nicer forms (like the Quivira knife) 
are Early Neolithic No. 1 and Neolithic No. 2. 

But the term knife must be given a still wider appli- 
cation. Indeed it is applicable not only to numerous 
almost shapeless implements which plainly have been 
used for simple cutting with a single hand-stroke, but 
to others that are well-trimmed and shaped but whose 
shapes are not always such as to cause them to be 
classed as knives. This includes many that have been 
called spears or arrow -points. Their use as knives 
is shown by their battered edges, and might be inferred 
from their size which sometimes plainly precludes 
them from the category of spear or arrowpoint. Some 
knives are short, and evidently derived from scrapers 
by trimming their edges, and some are single, simple 
flakes which have not been trimmed at all. The great 
majority of these more variant forms are found to fall 
into Early Neolithic time, but they were continued in 
Neolithic, and to the very latest of American stone- 

The "Harahey knife" is a special type which devel- 
oped in Early Neolithic time. It has four mono-bev- 
eled edges, one-half of the knife being alternatively 
beveled in the direction contrary to the bevels on the 
nther half, the general outline being diamond shaped. 

* Google 

GOUGES. 117 

In some cases only one-half of the knife was thus 
mono-beveled, and occasionally only one-fourth or 
three-fourths. Such lozenge-shaped knives manifest a 
high degree of skill and workmanship and it can hardly 
be doubted that normally they would have continued 
into Neolithic time. v. plate XVIII. 

It is plain that any stone, with any kind of a pro- 
jecting angle, could have been employed as a gouge, 
and such gouge might grade into a rough drill. Some 
such are shown on plate VI. They began in Paleo- 
lithic time, in their simplest form. Some such have 
distinctly pointed, or beak-like terminations, with but 
little effort manifest to dress the larger end further 
than to reduce it to convenient size for the hand. It 
is impossible for modern man to conceive of the uses 
to which the aborigine could have put such a crude 
tool, but modern man cannot question its existence 
and its usefulness to its owner. The most recent of 
stone gouges are concavo-convex and show by their 
form the purpose for which they are made, and along 
with their higher culture they express an improvement 
in the grade of work which they are designed to per- 
form, commensurate with the differences which dis- 
tinguish Neolithic man from Paleolithic. So far as 
the Kansas specimens convey any idea of the simplicity 
of the wants of Paleolith man, they would allow us to 
suppose that the first stone gouge, as well as the pri- 
meval stone knife, and the first sharp edge used by 
him, were nature- formed, due to such jointing and 
separating under the influence of moisture, heat and 

v, Google 


cold, as are well-known effects on long-weathered 
chert. Such knives he occasionally found on the 
slopes where a chert bed had an outcrop exposed to 
the elements. It was by use that he learned that new 
edges were formed equal in sharpness to the old ones. 
(A practiced eye can easily distinguish the natural 
fractures from the artificial.) It must have required, 
however, no very long periol of time for primeval man 
to discover that by chipping a stone he could form 
edges and points far superior to those which he found 

When aboriginal man began to chip stone so as to 
improve on nature-formed pieces, he found that his 
chips themselves constituted useful implements. 
They had sharp edges as well as points. Some simple 
chips were used as knives without further fashioning. 
They were also the first scrapers ; but the conventional 
scraper was the result of some want not before felt 
and it came into use in Neolithic time, apparently in 
Early Neolithic. They never have the Paleolithic 
patina of alteration in any form. They were made 
from those flakes or chips which were struck off by 
a single blow of the hammer-stone, having a curving 
outer surface and an inner surface less curved, or 
nearly straight. The ictus-bulb is usually preserved 
at the smaller end of the less-curving fracture-surface. 
The smaller end is also thinner than the larger (with 
very few exceptons) and rarely shows any secondary 
chipping. But the larger end is extensively re- 
chipped, the chips all having been taken in the same 

v, Google 


direction so as not to affect the less-curving fracture- 
surface, but so as to run out on the outer (older) 
surface. This repeated chipping about the end gives 
the flake a mono-bevel at that end and maintains an 
edge which lies constantly in the less-curving surface 
of the flake. 

Such scrapers occur in great numbers in the col- 
lection. In size they vary from three-quarters of an 
inch in length to about three and a half inches, by far 
the larger number being about two and a half inches 
long. There are, however, nine specimens (5531) 
which vary remarkably from the normal. Their 
length is about six inches. They are not so notice- 
ably mono-beveled at the larger end but are more 
uniformly chipped all round, the flaking along oppo- 
site edges intersecting along the center of the older 
(convex) surface so as to form a more or less continu- 
ous ridge or keel. These edges have been dulled by 
use. The demand for such scrapers, if they were used 
for dressing hides, may indicate the existence of the 
buffalo at the time they appear. They are classed, 
according to their patination, as both Early Neolithic 
and Neolithic No. 2. 

Occasionally a scraper is found which is mono- 
beveled at both ends, and also one that has the sides 
(edges) nearly parallel. There are also implements 
which approach near the scraper in size and form, 
which were not made from single flakes, but have been 
re-chipped in all directions so as to reduce them to 
their present outlines. Indeed, abnormal forms occur 
in all the classes, and, as has often been remarked, 
the classes run together so that sometimes it is im- 

v, Google 


ale to assign individual specimens to any class 
without some qualification. 


The origin of the tomahawk (5197, plate XIII) must 
have been about coeval (though perhaps a little earl- 
ier) with that of the scraper, — i. e., in Early Neolithic 
time. The implement here referred to is quite nu- 
merous in the collection. Its most usual (and hence 
the normal) form is what will here be considered. A 
flattish piece of chert was chosen having a length of 
about four and a half inches. The thickness was less 
than an inch and its width about two inches. One 
end was frequently a little wider than the other, and 
likewise a little thinner. With this piece the toma- 
hawk was made by chipping about the wider end so 
as to produce a rough central edge. The narrow end 
being left almost in a natural state, and usually quite 
rough and coarse. In addition, two broad depressions, 
or notches, were formed, one on each lateral edge, by 
chipping into the outline more deeply at points about 
opposite to each other. These shallow depressions 
were made usually not at the center of the lateral 
edges, but at about two-thirds of the distance between 
the extremities, and nearer the non-edged end of the 
implement. Such notches, or indentations in the out- 
line, suggest the idea that the implement had been 
wrapped in a wooden or rawhide withe and had been 
wielded with a handle somewhat in the manner of the 
modern war-club. 

Variations from this normal type consist of: larger 
size, reaching more than six inches in length and a 

v, Google 


corresponding width ; both ends edged* ; the width not 
much greater than the thickness ; the lateral notches or 
indentations very slight, or even wholly imperceptible; 
the lateral notches not opposite each other. The 
tomahawk represented on plate VI (5219) is a variant 
form, smaller than the type. 

This form of tomahawk seems to have continued in- 
to Neolithic time, — i. e. post-Wisconsin — judging by 
the occurrence of specimens whose chipped surfaces 
show no glossiness. It may have been hence the pro- 
genitor of the modern war-club. Still, its form is so 
different from that of the modern withed war-club 
that there is room to suppose that its purpose is not 
yet understood. If it were withed by the aborigine 
it would have formed an effective and dangerous 
weapon, either in the chase of the large beasts with 
which he was cotemporary or in war against his hu- 
man enemies. 

Leaves or Blades, 

Allusion has already been made (p. 114 and plate 

VII) to Paleolithic leaves, blades and turtles, but in 

Early Neolithic and Neolithic time these became more 

finely chipped and more ornate as to form, and more 

nearly representing the implements which at present 

in most collections are thus named. One such may 

be seen photographed in plate XII (Xo. 5556), and 

another (No. 5135) in plate XIII. The use of these 

implements is problematic. They could serve as 

knives when their edges were thin enough, as well as 

•Moorhead. in '"The Stone Age in North America" has 
illustrated some tomahawks, saying that they are found fre- 
quently west of the Mississippi, in NVhraska. Missouri, Ar- 
kansas and Iowa. Op. Cit. II, 1S8. 

v, Google 


scrapers. There is reason to suppose that they were 
useful in so many ways that for the hunter, as well 
as for the squaw who remained most of the time at 
the camp, they were consequently in demand and per- 
haps were carried as vade mecums as faithfully as a 
civilized man carries his pocket knife. It is notice- 
able that some of them have been worn away by use 
on the edge at the larger end. as exhibited by the pho- 
tograph seen on plate XIII, 

As with other implements, the "blades" were subject 
to great variation, becoming nearly circular (5802) 
especially the Paleolithic, or elongated, with sub-equal 
extremities (5110), and also grading into pointed celts. 
(olio of plate IX). They are sometimes thick and 
rough ; and their earliest types are exhibited by Nos. 
5TC5 and 5231 of plates XII, as well as by several oth- 
ers shown on plates VII and VIII. 

The earliest, at least the roughest, identifiable cett 
(~>~02) differs widely from the typical form. It is an 
implement about seven inches long, originally em- 
braced between natural jointage planes, on three 
sides, and on the other apparently chipped off so as to 
approach a Paleolithic edge, tapering roughly to a 
blunt point. The butt end is terminated also by a 
straight jointage plane approximately at right angles 
to the others. This does not date back to Paleolithic 
time. Its latest worked surfaces show little or no 
glossiness. It is composed of dark gray chert, a kind 
which does not take a gloss nor a weather-scale easily. 
Its surface carries a scattering deposit of limonite 

* Google 

CELTS. 123 

("iron-mold" of Sturge), which may be considered an 
indication of considerable age (V. p. 107). At the most 
this specimen can be referred to Early Neolithic time. 

Its culture would take it back farther than that but 
its comparative freedom from weathering and patina- 
tion requires that it be put into Neolithic or Early 
Neolithic time. 

From this rough form of celt, which may be con- 
sidered, perhaps, only a small form of those represent- 
ed in plates III and IV, (5212 and 5213), there are so 
many stages of alteration that they cannot be illus- 
trated, nor even noted. There was an easy gradation, 
as to size and form (v. 5868) from the foregoing 
to the Neolithic type, i. e., to the polished celt, or un- 
grooved stone hatchet, or ax. There are some which 
seem to be allied to the tomahawk, already described. 
Others appear to verge toward the Made and others 
toward a pointed knife (5867). There are none that 
certainly ante-date the Kansan ice age, but there are 
many that show by their patination that they are not 
much younger. The celt idea, therefore, was one of 
the primitive concepts of aboriginal stone art, and it 
finally resulted in the Neolithic polished celt and the 
grooved-ax celt. 

On plate XVIII is shown a celt from Kansas (5*15) 
which closely resembles the Paleolithic found some 
years ago at Xewcomerstown, Ohio, by Prof. W. C. 
Mills to which attention has been called widely by Dr. 
G. F. Wright. That was from a gravel pit supposedly 
of the Wisconsin Glacial age. This was found at or 
near the surface, beyond the morainic limit of the Kan- 
san Ice age. This has dates of four chippings. as 

D lg tz S d,yCOOg[e 


evinced by differences of patination, viz. : (1) Pre-pale- 
olithic or Early Paleolithic, having a thick, white 
weather-scale and perhaps not artificial, seen only on 
one side; (2) Early Paleolithic, having a brown, glossy 
weather-scale, less thick than the last and certainly 
artificial, showing the wavy undulations of chip-frac- 
ture; (3) a thin white weather-scale, perhaps a rem- 
nant of (1) where (1) has been roughly chipped away, 
appears only on one edge. It may be Paleolithic, how- 
ever; (4) highly glossy Early Neolithic surface cover- 
ing the most of the specimen, ornamented by wavy 
concentric undulations. This specimen is of dense 
blue-gray chert. It shows the effect of considerable 
use at the broader end and along both lateral edges. 

5052 (of plate XIII) represents a handsome smaller 
chipped celt of Neolithic date, slightly dulled at the 
broader end and along the long edges. It is of dark 
blue-gray chert and free from weathering effects. Be- 
tween this and that first mentioned (57!>2) is a wiae 
gap, but it is filled by examples which by slight vari- 
ations show the lineal descent of one from the other. 

The purpose of the celt which dates from Early 
Neolithic time was not that of the Neolithic celt, which 
is sometimes given the name ungroorcd ax. It shows 
no evidence of having been used as an ax or hammer. 
It is never grooved, nor notched, as if it had been at- 
tached to a haft or handle. It is usually not battered 
by use at either end, and if so battered at all it appears 
to have been accidental, or subsidiary to that which 
is seen on the long edges. The long edges are some- 
times so rounded by use that all semblance of an 
"edge" is lost. It is on such specimens that can be 

* Google 





v, Google 



seen a little battering at the ends. The use of such 
celts seems to have been more like that of a knife, 
although still it may have been more like repeated 
light blows than like strokes of a knife. 

Explanation of Plate XII. 

This plate shows the extremes of culture, evinced 
not only by the differences of patination but by the dif- 
ferent types of implements. The specimens illustrated 
are from the Kansas valley, and chiefly from the vi- 
cinity of Alma, in the Mill Creek valley, one of the 
tributaries of the Kansas river. 

The oldest artificial surfaces are seen on No. 5765 
and No. 5231. The former is specially valuable as a 
demonstration of two dates of chipping on the same 
specimen, both of them so old as to have acquired 
a patination. The older patination almost surrounds 
the piece, showing that it had about the same size and 
form in Paleolithic time as at present. At certain 
points this patination, which is a dirty-brown (or 
drab) and glossy scale, covers the edge on opposite 
sides, and on one side the edge was worn as by use 
in Paleolithic time, (at X). These old surfaces con- 
trast strongly with the later surfaces which indicate, 
not only by the type of the specimen but also by the 
glossiness, that they were formed in Early Neolithic 
time. Taken alone, in all its features, this specimen 
indicates that the purpose of the later chipping was 
almost identical with that of the earlier, and that the 
art of the later fabricator was not much in advance of 
that of the earlier. 

v, Google 


Xo. 5231 is a large irregular implement made from 
a slab of light-gray chert. Its earliest chipped sur- 
faces are marked Paleolithic, and its later Pre-Neo- 
lithic. The contrast between the surfaces of different 
dates is not so great as in the last, but sufficiently 
marked to warrant the designations given. This 
specimen is somewhat dulled with use at two points 
on the edge. One is at the top, and is not shown be- 
cause the chips and the battering are too much on 
the other side. The other is at the extreme left, and 
can be seen in the photograph. The thickness of the 
weather-scale that covers the Paleolithic surfaces is 
seen distinctly along the dotted line. It is white, and 
about as thick as card-paper. 

Xo. 5577, a bi-pointed, gibbous knife of blue-grey 
chert, covered by a dull gloss. This gloss, as well as 
the higher art manifested, denotes a length of time 
between the making of the two specimens already men- 
tioned and the making of this, which was sufficient 
for the introduction of an entirely new people. It is 
believed that the Kansan ice epoch separated them. 
The term Early Neolithic is applicable, therefore, 
both from the Glacial date and by the state of culture 

Xo. 5290 represents a typical scraper of Early Neo- 
lithic date, mono-beveled at one end, dulled along the 
loii^' eilgcs and especially at the broad end by use in 
the left hand of the owner. This type of implement 
continued into Neolithic time. 

Xo. 5556. A perfect ovate-oval blade, which shows 
two dates of chipping, Early Neolithic and Neolithic, 
and at the point and at the lower right hand, a part of 

* Google 






a Pre -paleolithic weather scale which has a white color 
and a thickness of one-sixteenth part of an inch. 

No. 5450. A Neolithic arrow point with a stout 
tapering tang, having no gloss and no weather scale, 
of bine-gray chert. 

Explanation of Plate XIII. 

Specimens from the Kansas valley. Actual size. 
(See pp. 115-125). 

Xo. 5135. Leaf, ovate, thin, worn away at the larg- 
er end by use, gray chert. Early Neolithic. 

No. 5802. Circular leaf, roughly finished; has a 
dull gloss, but no weather scale; slightly limonated; 
perhaps Early Neolithic, mottled with gray and dark 

No. 5110. Short knife, or leaf, or scraper, chipped 
to form on all sides, a variant of the typical scraper. 
Compare Nos. 5222, 5223 and 5225, of plate VI, and 
pp. 18 and 19. 

No. 5197. Typical tomahawk of the "tomahawk 
people". The entire edge is chipped from the base up, 
and shows but little damage by use. The surface is 
streaked with limonite on the side photographed (pa- 
tina (g), p. 11), and that side has less weather patina- 
tion than the other; Early Neolithic. 

No. 5715. Celt, showing four dates of working, de- 
scribed on page 107. 

No. 5052. Handsome chipped celt of Neolithic date. 
This consists entirely of drak blue-gray chert, and 
hence may have a greater age than its fresh appearance 

v, Google 


No. 5624. "Harahey knife", mono-beveled three- 
fourths. That part not mono-beveled is marked X. 
This sample is smaller than the average. It shows 
the patinae (b), (d) and (g), the former two only on 
the reverse side. In the immediate vicinity are five 
empty square cavities indicating that the patina (g) 
may have been derived from the oxidation of pyrite. 
The emptied square cavities were then filled in part 
by the black substance which forms patina (d). 

No. 5626. A well-glossed, perfect "Harahey knife", 
of dense, mottled, pink and dirty-white chert, prob- 
ably dating from (late) Early Neolithic time, a little 
smaller than the typical size. 

Points. Neolithic No. 1. 

The points show some interesting features. It has 
been intimated already at several places in the course 
of the investigation of the Kansas artifacts that not 
only was there a notable change in the skill evinced 
by the specimens in passing from the Paleolithic to 
Early Neolithic, but that the Early Neolithic culture 
grades into Neolithic. It has also been stated that 
the large majority of all the specimens are of the 
Early Neolithic stage, as evinced by the shiny gloss 
that covers them, and that comparatively few are of 
Neolithic date. It has al^o been stated that the Early 
Neolithic specimens belong apparently at different 
dates between the Kansan and the Wisconsin ice- 
epochs. It remains now to call attention to a group 
of points which differ from the Early Neolithic points 
in several important respects : 

1. They show but little glossiness — as a rule they 
are free from gloss and distinctly Neolithic. 

v, Google 






:,,iz,d, Google 





POINTS. 129 

2. They have a coarse chipping, almost recalling 
Paleolithic art, and they are usually larger and thicker 
than the glossy Early Neolithic type (No. 2). 

3. They are quite numerous in the collection, be- 
tween forty and fifty, and as a group present a striking 
contrast with the Early Neolithic (No. 2) points, 
which are not only glossy and thin, but of delicate 
shapes and sizes, as well as finely chipped. 

These two classes are shown on plate XIV. 

If we may depend upon the criterion which has been 
followed hitherto in the investigation, (the different 
weather effects) these coarser points indicate a late 
intrusion of coarser culture into the area of the Early 
Neolithic culture, or else a succession of a people of 
coarser culture upon the spots that for a long time had 
been the habitat of a higher (Early Neolithic No. 2) 
culture. There are several considerations, based on 
the specimens, which rather indicate the latter of these 
alternatives: (a) The sudden appearance of the fresh 
points, (b) The non-discovery, or at least the com- 
parative absence of points of Early Neolithic No. 2 
culture that show the freshness of these of coarser 
culture. There are a few points (only fourteen so far 
as the collection has been examined) which have been 
classed as Neolithic which show the Early Neolithic 
culture and delicate trimming, but ten of these are 
only fragments and two are variants which have uncer- 
tain relations. Practically the point a knives and scrap- 
ers of Early Neolithic No. 2 beauty of form and finish 
ceased in Kansas with the introduction of this coarser 
type. Several of those objects shown on plate XI are 
manifestly contemporary products of this new culture. 

v, Google 


There is reason to believe that the so-called Paleo- 
lithic '"blanks" and probably the Paleolithic types of 
leaves and knives or blades which, in Kansas, show 
the freshness which certainly separates them from 
Paleolithic time, as already discussed on p. — , can be 
referred, in large measures, if not wholly, to the people 
that introduced these coarse points. 

This change from Early Neolithic culture No. 2 to 
what may be called, at present, the real Neolithic (or 
Neolithic No. 1) is so marked that the event must be 
considered one of first rank in the history of the Amer- 
ican aborigine, and its cause must be looked for 
amongst those of first rank.* Every archeologist, as 
well as every geologist, will revert at once to the 
agency of the Wisconsin Glacial epoch, as the prime 
cause of this change. Whether these coarser artifacts 
were produced while the Wisconsin epoch prevailed, 
and by a people who may (in that case) have re- 
sembled the Esquimo, or were introduced after the re- 
cession of the Wisconsin glaciers, is an interesting 
inquiry, but one which at present it is perhaps too 
early to attempt to answer. Future investigations will 
probably throw light on it. 

The idea presented above, based on a consideration 
of the points, to the effect that the Early Neolithic 
culture No. 2 was expelled on the introduction of the 
coarser points is not borne out by an examination of 
the leaves and knives; but it seems more probable 
that the former of the alternatives mentioned on p. 129 
was the actual condition on the introduction of the 
coarser artifacts. That is, it seems that a people of 
more rude skill in stone-chipping was co-temporary, 

♦The intrusive culture is illustrated by plate XIX. 

v, Google 






at least for a time, with those who fabricated the 
nicer implements. The facts seem to warrant this 
conclusion, since amongst the knives and blades of 
Early Neolithic No. 2 culture are fourteen thin, finely 
chipped blades that are so fresh that they certainly 
belong in the Neolithic group, as to date. These may 
not have been made exactly cotemporary with the 
coarser implements (Neolithic No. 1) ; but they may 
have preceded or followed them, in the Kansas valley, 
by several hundred years. If the intrusive coarser cul- 
ture in the Kansas valley was in any way connected 
with the Wisconsin ice epoch, and if the rest of the 
country toward the south were still inhabited by the 
people of Early Neolithic No. 2 culture, there could 
not have been a long-continued occupation of the Kan- 
sas valley by the intruders; but in turn, on the ameli- 
oration of the climatic conditions, the southern people 
would necessarily have resumed possession of the 
chert beds as the intruders retired toward the north. 
The chert of these nice thin blades is of the same 
quality as that of the coarse points. 

Explanation of Plate XIV. 

Early Neolithic No. 2 and Neolithic No. 1 from the 
Kansas Valley, actual size, illustrating the intrusive 
culture (see also plate XIX). 

No. 5475. Point with a broad square tang, Early 

No. 5447. Point with a tapering stout tang. Early 

No. 5422. Point with a stout, eared tang. Early 

v, Google 


Xo. 3150. Point or knife with a short, edged tang. 
Early Neolithic. 

Xo. 3055. Point or knife with a broad, edged tang. 
Early Neolithic. 

Xo. 5421. Point, broad, barbed, having a tang with 
a concave edged base. Early Neolithic. 

The foregoing are thin, finely chipped, and glossy 
with age. 

Xo. JiO-lT. Point, thick, rough, with a stout broad 
tang, which has a convex, edged base. Xeolithic No. 

Xo. "(080. Similar to the last, but having a narrow 
tang. Xeolithic Xo. 1. 

No. S055. Point, narrow, notched like the next but 
having a tang narrower than the body. Neolithic Xo. 

Xo. 5035. Point, with broad stout tang, that is sep- 
arated from the body of the implement only by broad, 
shallow emarginations, edges dulled, apparently by 
use. Neolithic No. 1. 

No. 5082. Point, tangless, base edged and slightly 
concave. Neolithic No. 1. 

No. MH'. Point, thick, coarse, tang edged. Neo- 
lithic Xo. 1. 

No. 50 1 9. Point, triangular, coarse, base concave. 
Xeolithic Xo. 1. 

Xo. 5082. Point, triangular, base nearly straight. 
Xeolithic Xo. 1. 

Xo. 50(11. Point, or drill, base of broad tang con- 
cave. Xeolithic No. 1. 

No 5+?+. Mi-pointed point, small, ends blunt. Neo- 
lithic No. 1. 

* Google 


The writer spent the month of May, 191S, in an 
archeological reconnoissance which extended through 
Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin. 
About one-half of the month was occupied with an ex- 
amination of the valley of the Kansas river as far west- 
ward as McPherson county, the purpose being to as- 
certain the relation of the artifacts to any terraces 
which might accompany that stream or any of its 
tributaries, and thus to get a guide as to the relation 
of the artifacts to the successive ice-epochs. The re- 
mainder of the month was devoted to an examination 
of archeological collections at Topeka, Kansas City, 
St. Louis, Cincinnati, Columbus, Flint Ridge, Cleve- 
land, Chicago. Milwaukee and Madison, with a view 
to learn whether those collections contained any of 
American paleolithic date. The following notes con- 
tain the results of this trip so far as they have archeo- 
logical import. The writer was accompanied and 
guided at different places by Prof. J. E. Todd, of Law- 
rence. Judge J. T. Keagy, of Alma, and Mr. B. B, 
Smyth of Topeka, and desires to thank them for their 

. cordial assistance. 

Elevations in the Kansas Valley. 
The following list of elevations is from Henry Gan- 
nett's Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey, 
giving railroad elevations in the United States. The 
figures expressing elevations above the sea level seen 
on the various depot buildings of the Union Pacific 

v, Google 



railroad are quite different from and usually lower 

than Gannett's, sometimes more than fifty feet. 

Feet Above 
Authority. Sea Level. 

Atvlene U. P. Station 1154 

Alma Chicago, R. I. & Pac 1061 

Alta Vista U. P. R R 1432 

Assaria U. P. R. R 1277 

Belvue U. P. Station 9S9 

Beverly U. P. Station 1386 

Blaine U. P. Station 1505 

Blue Rapids U. P. Station 1105 

Chapman U. P. Station 1113 

Cow Creek U. P. Station 1606 

Detroit U. P. Station 1135 

Dwight C. R. 1. R. R 1500 

Emporia Junction A. T. & S. F. R. R 1138 

Enterprise A. T. & S. F. R. R 1137 

Eureka Lake U. P. Station 1023 

Fort Riley U. S. C. & G. B 1064 

Hanlon, Neb. U. P. R. R 1205 

Harveyville A. T. & S. F. R. R 1113 

Herrington C. R. I. & P. R. R 132B 

Junction City U. P. R. R. 1078 

Kansas City U. P. R. R 760 

Kansas Falls U. P. R. R 1000 

Lawrence U. P. R. R 828 

Lindsborg U. P. R. R 1241 

Manhattan U. P. R. R 1012 

Marysville A. T. & S. F. R. R 1497 

McPherson A. T. & S F. R. R 1497 

Minneapolis U. P. R. R 1255 

New Cambria U. P. R. R 1098 

Ogdensburg Sta. U. P. R. R 1044 

Randolph U. P. R. R 1052 

Ramona C. R. I & P. R. R 1436 

Republic M. P. R. R 1495 

Salina U. P. R. R 1226 

Smoky Hill Buttes L'. S. S 1580 

Solomon U. P. Sta 1171 

Stockdale L'. P. R. R 1029 

Topeka U. P. R. R 880 

Wabaunsee A. T. S. !•'. R. R 1020 

Wamcgo U. P. Sta 898 

Waverly A. T. & S. F 1127 

White City C. R. I. & P. R. R 1469 

Zcamlale C. R. I & P. R. R 997 

v, Google 


The Big Blue Valley. Descending the valley of the 
Big Blue river it was noted that at Wymore the town 
is located on a flat lying between Indian creek and the 
Big Blue river and rising about 50 feet above the creek. 
But the town also ascends to an upland which is about 
25 or 30 feet higher toward the west. This upland is 
also apparent along the southeast side of Indian creek. 
The whole upland (and flat) is covered with a loess 
without any stones. This terrace-like flat is originally 
due to the Kansan drainage. Since the loess was de- 
posited the Big Blue river has cut into it. The terrace 
contains much gravel and sand, and serves as a reser- 
voir that affords the water supply of Wymore. The 
Burlington Depot, at Wymore, is fifteen to eighteen 
feet below the top of this terrace. 

A similar terrace accompanies the Big Blue below 
Blue Springs to Barneston, and to Oketo which i<s ap- 
parently on a lower terrace, and to Marietta. Marys- 
ville is on a lower terrace, about 40 feet below the up- 
land at the East. Below Marysville this lower terrace 
abuts upon the strike of the rock which rises about 15 
feet still higher. Randolph is on a cultivated high 
flood plain. 

Manhattan. On the south side of the river the rock 
cliffs rise more or less abruptly from the river or from 
the flood plain, with no distinct remains of any "second 
bench'", or terrace, for several miles in both directions. 
But on the north side is an evident and extended up- 
per bench, embraced within the outer rock hills. The 
situation is as below: 


~ L JPH J| « fi _ v ^£l T _> 

tlnn of the Vallej 

v, Google 


Xo. 1 is the upland, perhaps ISM lo 250 above the 
river, composed of limestone and shaly strata, giving 
a rolling topography on the south side of the valley, 
with much stone in the soil, making a grazing country, 
but -cUlon] considered lirsi class as farm land. Prob- 
ably the residuum of decay of the Carboniferous. Xo 
drift boulders seen. 

Xo. 2 is a loam, or loess, terrace, on which the north 
part of Manhattan stands. 

Xo. 3 is a terrace about 15 feet lower than Xo. 2. 
and on it is the Union Pacific depot. In 1903. the river 
covered this terrace at a memorable flood, when the 
(iillett house was approached by boats. The business 
part of Manhattan is on this bench. 

Xo. 4 is the immediate flood plain. 

Xo. 5 is the present river. 

The Agricultural College is on terrace ('i) at the 
northwest corner of Manhattan. 

At a quarry near the top of the upland, north of 
Manhattan, the light buff limestone and the shale con- 
trast singularly with the maroon -colored stoneless. 
sticky gumbo by which they are overlain. The shale 
seems not to have affected the gumbo in any percept- 
ible way though in immediate contact. The gumbo 
was therefore transported to its present place. Indi- 
cations of this gumbo were seen at several other 
places, even in Nebraska, near Holmesville. It covers 
also the upper terrace (Xo. 2) at Manhattan, and is 
evidently a great and important member of the super- 
ficial deposits. So far as seen it is the oldest member, 
but still at all places seen it may have been secondarily 

v, Google 


redeposited by the drainage incident to the valley dur- 
ing some part of its earlier history. 

Wamego. Eastward from Wamego.on the north side 
of the river, is an extended area of flat land, which ap- 
pears to be the bottom land of the present river, as far 
as St. Mary's, making fine farms. On entering within 
the moraine at Wamego, the distant bluffs become 
more distant and apparently lower, and the said plain 
broader. The plain with only slight undulations con- 
tinues to Lawrence. The drifted country looks like 
Minnesota in drift topography. Where, near Buck 
creek, the line of moraine crosses from the south side 
to the north side of the Kansas river, there can be seen 
on the north side a series of very stony hills ranging 
toward the northeast, and a little further southeast 
are outcrops of apparently a sandrock in the low bluff, 
a formation which must run below the great Carbonif- 
erous limestone seen at Manhattan. 

On the south side of the river, opposite Wamego. 
is an emphatic and distinct terrace which rises above 
the wide cultivated flood-plain about 30 feet. This 
flood-plain was covered by water at the time of the 
flood of 1903, as at Manhattan, and doubtless corre- 
sponds hyre to that level. The Wamego railroad sta- 
tion was not flooded, by six or eight feet. This upper 
bench consists of a light red silt, or loess, but there 
was no opportunity to examine its structure. 

Alma. Many specimens have been collected in the 
Mill creek valley, and especially from the neighbor- 
hood of Alma. Xot only were the collections made by 
Mr. Firower augmented by Judge J. T. Keagy, of that 
city, hut through his guidance and later by his recent 

v, Google 


industry, a considerable addition has been made not 
only to the knowledge of the region, but to the Mu- 
seum of the Historical Society. The recent visit was 
made in company with Prof. J. E. Todd, of Lawrence. 

Judge Keagy's collection is installed in "the mu- 
seum," a building lately acquired by the city, of which 
it forms the greater part of the exhibit. The speci- 
mens are mainly of Early Xeolithic date, but a few 
arc Paleolithic, while some show portions of pre-Pale- 
olithic surfaces. There are small and elegant arrow 
points, drills, many scrapers, "Harahey knives," spear 
points (notched), and some modern hammers and 
mill-stones, also one polished celt. The museum also 
contains the collection and books of the late E. A. 
Kilian, of Alma. It was at this city, Oct. 29, 1901, 
that was held the first meeting and the organization 
of the Quivira Historical Society. 

At one mile and a half north from Alma, on Hen- 
drick creek, was found recently a locality rich in 
Early Neolithic artifacts. We walked over the 
plowed land but found only a few flint spalls. They 
are on a loess plain, or terrace, about twenty feet 
above the creek. They are outside of the Kansas mo- 
raine, and the date and cause of so copious a loess 
along the valley are not apparent, but perhaps it is 
due to the damming of the Mill creek by the Kansan 
ice, the moraine of which lies about six miles to the 
northeast from Hendrick creek at this place. It 
would be in that case a part of the lacustrine plain left 
by the Glacial Mill lake, so named by B. B. Smyth.* 

* Kansas Academy of Science, Twenty-ninth Annual Meet- 
ing, 189T, p. 100. 

v, Google 


It was found, on visiting the place, that the site of 
Paleolithic (or Early Neolithic) artifacts at one and 
three-quarters miles southwest from Alta Vista had 
no relation to any terrace., It is in a valley of a small 
creek, but, aside from a variable present flood-plain, 
the creek has no evidence of any constant higher 
stage, and the site appears to have been on one of 
the higher remnants of this shifting flood-plain. The 
valley has rock bluffs that are some distance back, 
and rise about 75 feet above the creek. Chert frag- 
ments are abundant, occasionally blue, but mainly 
long-weathered and brown or buff yellow. Both 
kinds show signs of artificial chipping rarely. It is 
also apparent that the chert chips formed by natural 
disintegration take conchoidal surfaces and have been 
accumulated under the action of ancient pre-Glacial 
drainage, locally along stream valleys, as seen abund- 
antly at Alma, at levels at which now no stream can 
reach, thus capping remnants of old rock terraces or 
of alluvial flood-plains that may date from any Early 
Glacial or even pre-Glacial epoch. Such gravel of old 
chert at Alma is seen to reach the thickness of four 

Junction City. The descent from the flat on which 
the business center stands (Bardell House) is not 
abrupt but irregular and gentle. Indeed this flat is 
itself somewhat undulating. The lowest cultivated 
flat of the Republican river is about 8 feet above the 
river, and about 8 feet below the depot flat. 

ITollle Section of the Valley « Juetloa City. 

v, Google 


Fori Riley, Is a tract of 1!),8()0 acres lying: on both 
sides of the Kansas river. The site of the fort proper 
is on an undulating ascent which rises to the lower 
part of the limestone bluffs, where rock and chert are 
crushed by machinery. The terrace conditions at 
Junction City are the same as at Manhattan. On the 
farm of Robert Henderson, southeast from Junction 
City, the main (upper} terrace rises 30 feet above the 
lowest cultivated flood-plain and consists of red clay. 
At the bottom, however, at the river level, may be 
seen unmistakable northern drift in the form of 
quartzytt' small pebbles, and smaller rounded niiartz- 
ytes apparently derived from a conglomerate. These, 
however, may not have been derived directly from 
the Potsdam here, but may have entered first into a 
conglomerate at the base of the Cretaceous existing 
further west and thence transported down the valley 
by some later agency. One pebble is 3V. inches in 
diameter. Mr. Henderson also showed me a red 
qnartzyte about t inches in its longer diameter. It 
was not water-rounded, but had been battered all 
over, one side (edge) having been used evidently as 
a knife-ax. It was found on the plowed bottom land. 
He has also a small red mano-stone, or upper mill- 
stutie. which is oblong and battered all about the edge 
a; if used for a hammer. He also stated that he had 
found a red nuartzyte pestle. These facts indicate 
that formerly red quartzyte was not an uncommon 
fact nn his farm, or that the?e have been brought from 
the morainic region further east by the aborigines. 
Still the gravel above mentioned, evidently in part 

v, Google 


from the Potsdam, rather indicates that this is on the 
feather edge of the Kansas drift. 

Abilene. The plain on which Abilene is situated 
was flooded in 1903. It extends south to the river, 
about a mile and three-quarters, and also about three- 
quarters of a mile further south, where it is terminat- 
ed by the great (upper) terrace which rises forty feet, 
more or less, above this flood-plain. There are no 
rock bluffs visible on the south side. Building rock is 
hauled from Enterprise. This flood-plain is about 15 
feet above the average normal flow of the river. 

On the north side of Abilene the upper bench is 
broken, but it contains sand which is used for cement. 
This sand, on careful examination, affords but slight 
evidence of ingredients derived from the northern 
drift. It embraces, besides white quartz sand, very 
much of ferruginated (Cretaceous) scales, also chert 
which is mainly rotted, and lime concretions, and a 
few larger, dark red or brown quartzyte pebbles 
which, however, cannot be connected with the Pots- 
dam with any certainty. This upper bench, on the 
north side, extends so far north that it forms the gen- 
eral upland of the country, and it is stated that at least 
for IH miles toward the north there is not much varia- 
tion. The surface descends in a rather undulating 
manner to the lower bench, and that also descends 
somewhat to the river. 

Between Junction and Abilene there seems to occur 
some important underlying cause which determines 
not only the greater hight of Abilene, but also the dis- 
appearance of the outer (limestone) rock-bluffs. This 
tipper bench, which now rises and spreads so as to 

v, Google 


constitute the general upland, is apparently that which 
has been noted already at Junction, Manhattan and 
elsewhere, but the composition is much more sandy. 
It is about 40 feet above the flood-plain on which Ab- 
ilene is located, but owing to moderate "dissection" 
its actual average level is indeterminable, although so 
far as can be judged by what has been seen it seems 
to be a waterlaid formation. 

New Cambria. At New Cambria the flood-plain is 
broad, and the railroad stations are on it. Toward 
the north, at a distance of a mile and a quarter, sand- 
stone bluffs appear, rising about 15 feet. The rock 
is scaly and probably Cretaceous. Round the bases 
of these bluffs are remnants of what may have been 
an alluvial terrace, which rise about 30 feet above the 

Toward the distant south, across the river, are 
buttes of some rock formation, which are probably 

The 1903 flood-plain is about 10 feet above the pres- 
ent (high) stage of the river. 

Salina. East from Salina, across the Smoky Hill 
river, is an upper terrace, rising above the great ter- 
race already noted, which is of Cretaceous sandstone 
and sandy, scaly, mostly thin-bedded rock; and about 
two miles still further southeast is a line of buttes also 
probably Cretaceous. The terrace mentioned has an 
undulating upper surface, somewhat dissected, but its 
top is still alluvial or lacustrine. It rises 50 or 60 feet 
above Salina station. It appears to correspond to 
what was seen at New Cambria. It furnishes not 
only mortar sand, but some brown and purplish-brown 

v, Google 



pieces that somewhat resemble Potsdam. Otherwise, 
about Salina the country is very flat and at the same 
level (1,226) as the railroad station, in all directions 
so far as can be seen, and liable to flooding as in 1003. 

The upper surface of the Cretaceous terrace at Sa- 
lina is composed of a red sandy soil, at least in part, 
but it becomes (below) a red clay and a lighter-colored 

At the brick-plant, east of the river, which is on the 
flood-plain, is an exposed bluff of Cretaceous rising 
above the flood-plain about 50 feet, of which the fig- 
ure adjoined illustrates the structure. 
Explanation : 

1. Red, or light red clay, 
or loess, vertically 
jointed, in places 
sandy 5 ft. 

2. Dislodged masses of 
hard, rusty sand- 
stone, waterworn. .1-3 ft. 

:j. Sandstone like No. 2 
but apparently in 

place 1-3 ft. 

4. Blue shaly sandstone 
and shale easily dis- 

istegrated 50 ft. 

The shaly sand and shale are 
used in the plant, makng a red- 
brown hard brck, mottled with 
buff. The hard sandstone mass- 
es are crushed by machinery and 
sold for cement works. 

There is a rather coarse silica- 
sand obtained in great quantities 
in a "pit" toward the north from 



* Google 


the brick plant, situated in the lower plain, the sand 
of which is obliquely stratified, in part, by some rapid 
current, probably of the river itself in its earlier his- 
tory. This sand no doubt was derived from the Cre- 

Assaria. Is on a broad plain, but toward the west 
(a little south) are seen some buttes, about three 
miles distant., 

Lindsborg. At Lindsborg the great plain (the flood- 
plain which was covered in 19U3) extends indefinitely, 
the only visible exception being the Cretaceous buttes, 
already mentioned, toward the west. The extent of 
this plain is surprising. It seems to be within the 
area of the great lake described by L'dden.* This 
great plain was practically covered by water in VJ0'6, 
but "it did not go up into town." An old settler (J. 
M. Wilson) asserted that the flat at Lindsborg was 
not generally covered in l!)u;S. The Indians state, 
however, that about 100 years earlier they went across 
the prairie in canoes from Dry creek to Smoky Hill 

•V. American Geologist VII, 340. Prof. Uddeu describes 
a great '"trough" extending southward from the valley of 
the Smoky Hill river cutting through the main watershed 
of the state and connecting with the Arkansas valley. This 
has been revealed by borings, etc., for its presence is not in- 
dicated by the surface topography, the country being level 
as a lake. The materials in the southern end of this trough 
are: yellow marl, volcanic dust, clay, sand, gravel, in de- 
scending order, with variable thickness and composition, and 
with pebbles of crystalline rock in the gravel, associated 
with fossil wood and Mammalian bones. The Pleistocene in 
this trough is at least i5 ft. thick, with volcanic dust at a level 
of 1430 to 1480 feet. This dust was deposited in water and 
assorted in layers. The surface of the lake was about 1480 ft. 
above tide, and had an expanse several miles wide in the 
trough and still wider in the Smoky Hill valley toward the 
north. These deposits are "a remnant of the latest general 
deposits of the plains" in that region. These beds are sup- 
posed by L'dden to be the probable equivalent of some part 
of the "Ei|iius beds" of Cope. According to J. E. Welin the 
volcanic dust is 5 feet thick at the M. E. corner, Sec 14, T. 
18 S-. R. 3 \V\. McPherson Co. Cragin has called this dust 
"pearlette beds". 

v, Google 

THE FLOOD OF 1903. 145 

river. Mr. Wilson stated that below the "wash," 
which fills the trough already mentioned to the depth 
of 100 feet, is "soapstone," and that this soapstone 
rises in the hills to near the tops, where it is covered 
by a thin loam. These "hills" are the Cretaceous 
buttes referred to. The city water of Lindsborg 
which comes from the sand of this "wash," is very 
hard, and can hardly be derived from the Cretaceous. 
It may be shed into the trough by the lower-lying 
Carboniferous so as to gather in considerable quanti- 
ties in favorable situations, 

According to the account of Mr. Wilson, confirmed 
by others, the water of the flood of 1903 extended 
much more over the flood-plain between Lindsborg 
and Salina. From this it appears that the volume of 
the river in flood time diminishes on going upstream 
in comparison with the capacity of its banks, — in 
other words, the actual volume of the water, in com- 
parison with the valley, diminishes upstream, indicat- 
ing that the valley was not excavated by the present 

MePheraoa. At about six miles south from Linds- 
borg the Union Pacific railroad grade makes a slight 
cut in the Carboniferous (?) shale and shaly lime- 
stone, covered by a loam of about + ft. The country 
changes, getting away from the river, and becomes 
first slightly undulating as we get out of the valley 
toward the southeast. The Smoky Hills are in the 
southern part of Saline county, west from Bridgeport, 
and are composed of sandstone. At the limestone cut 
there appears toward the east a higher terrace, appar- 
ently *~> feet above the lower, or flood-plain, which 

v, Google 


may be due to rock strata. The train soon gets onto 
this upper flat, which is undulating with some dissec- 
tion, and as a "flat" it is soon lost. Without any ob- 
servable ascent the road reaches its "summit" at Hil- 
ton, where there is a fine fiat country with a heavy 
surface loam, the summit itself being a fiat plain which 
extends to McPherson, but with a slight descent 
toward the south. There is no sign of any valley, 
either recent or old. The divide at Hilton is 160 feet 
above Lindsborg and McPherson city is 130 feet. 

The valley described by Udden is said by Mr. Jeff 
Tourney, of McPherson, who as an alderman became 
familiar with the city's explorations for water supply, 
to be about seven miles wide and 1*5 feet deep. 

East and west from the old valley, of which there 
is no sign on the surface, the underlying rock rises to 
within ten or twenty feet of the surface, as determined 
by drilling for wells. The same flat extends to Galva, 
eastward, from McPherson, and to Canton. 

Without much attempt to correlate or discuss the 
foregoing observations the writer puts them on rec- 
ord for future use by others who may study the ter- 
races of the Kansas valley. It would need more time 
than was available in gathering more facts, to war- 
rant an attempt to treat this subject with such thor- 
oughness as the geological questions involved seem 
to require. 

Lake Udden. Probably the most important conclu- 
sion that can be drawn, at least tentatively, from the 
facts noted, as viewed from an archeological stand- 
point, concerns the origin and date of the great upper 
terrace which accompanies the Kansas valley. The 

* Google 


level of this upper terrace apparently blends into the 
level of a lake bottom whose waters covered the val- 
ley of the Kansas (or Smoky Hill) above Abilene. 
Whether this lake, which may appropriately be called 
Lake Udden, from the geologist who first noted it, 
was of late Tertiary date, or pre-Glacial Pleistocene, 
is not proven by the facts that are known; but it ap- 
pears evident that it was older than the Kansan Gla- 
cial epoch. The writer is of the opinion that it may 
be found to date from late Tertiary time, and that 
probably the stream that then occupied the valley be- 
tween the high rock bluffs, as at Manhattan, was the 
discharge from a large Tertiary lake lying over west- 
ern Kansas and extending northward into Nebraska. 

It would be well to study the Kansas valley at 
points eastward from the Kansas moraine, with spe- 
cial reference to the continuance or absence of this 
terrace. If it antedates the Kansan moraine it would 
be likely to be destroyed where the ice of that epoch 
buried the valley. The writer did not observe any 
terrace at Topeka, but at Lawrence there is at the 
depot a massive terrace which is excavated for brick, 
and which by reason of its color and location is more 
likely to be a dependency of the Kansas epoch. 

Kate Laic. This name has been given (by Smyth) 
to a Glacial lake formed in the Kansas valley by the 
damming of the Kansas river by the Kansas ice- 
sheet.* The necessary production of such a lake by 
the obstruction of the river by the ice and its 
moraine has already been referred to (p. 38). Ac- 

v, Google 


cording to Smyth this lake began at the "ice-dam" 
about two miles above Wamego station and extended 
above Manhattan, "westward on the Smoky Hill to 
Salina and northward on the Blue nearly to Blue 
Rapids." * * * "The depth of this lalce at Man- 
hattan was a little over 150 feet." Mr. Smyth has 
given the depth of this lake and of several other nearly 
cotemporary Glacial lakes formed in some tributaries 
of the Kansas from tbe south, at different places, viz., 
Mission creek, Mill creek and the Wakarusa river, 
which must have been nearly on the same level, 
though connected by broad streams. In only one 
place has he mentioned any shore line, or bench-marks 
proving the existence and the levels of any of these 
lakes, viz., on the sides of Burnett's mound, southwest 
from Topeka, in the Shunganunga valley. Mr. 
Smyth guided the writer to this place, where by some 
aneroid measurements some data were obtained from 
which some calculation can be made as to the extent 
of Kaw lake. The result of this calculation can be 
considered only approximately correct, but so far as 
it goes it throws light on the possible cause of the per- 
sistent terrace which accompanies the Kansas river. 
Bearing upon this are the following levels, partly de- 
rived from Gannett's Dictionary of altitudes (U. S. 
Geol. Survey), partly from statements of Mr. Smyth, 
and partly from aneroid readings by the writer. 

Topeka 880 ft. 

Ice-dam, 2 miles southwest of Wamego 980 

Wamego 989 

Terrace, smith side of the river at Wamego 1010 

Lower shore line on Burnett's mound 1035 

v, Google 

KAW UKE. 149 

Upper shore line on Burnett's mound 1065 

Top of Burnett's mound 1115 

Manhattan 1012 

Abilene 1154 

Salina 1226 

Lindsborg 1241 

Assuming the upper shore line on Burnett's mound 
(1,065 ft.) as correctly ascertained, and also that it 
expresses approximately the level of Kaw lake (though 
that lake may have been sometimes a few feet higher 
than this shore line) the depth of the Kaw lake at 
Manhattan, above the present railroad station, was 
53 feet, and the lake could not have reached Salina 
(1,226 ft.) nor Abilene (1,154), nor Enterprise 
(1,137), nor Junction City (1,078), but it must have 
come very nearly to the junction of the Republican and 
Smoky Hill rivers. The terrace seen at the south side 
of the Kansas river opposite Wamego (1,010) appears 
to be, therefore, 55 feet lower than this assumed level 
' of Kaw lake, and it may have been nearly cotempo- 
rary with the lower shore line seen on Burnett's 
mound, or it may express only the level of the bot- 
tom of Kaw lake. It is hardly worth while to con- 
sider the extent of Kaw lake on the supposition that 
the lower shore line on Burnett's mound indicates its 
surface level. It is 30 feet lower than the upper. 

While it is probable, therefore, that the action of 
Kaw lake in the Kansas valley could not have pro- 
duced the terraces seen above Junction City, yet it 
may be responsible for some terraces seen below that 
point. Artificial stone implements found on a terrace 
formed by the Kaw lake would be post-Kansan, and. 

* Google 


according to the foregoing classification, might be 
Early Neolithic or even Neolithic, and those found 
on the terraces above Junction City, on the assump- 
tion that they are due to an older Tertiary stream, 
might be Paleolithic, Early Neolithic and Neolithic, 
in the same manner as those that occur on the uplands 
outside of the valley. 

It will be noticed that the hight of Kaw lake above 
Manhattan, as determined above, differs by 100 feet 
from that given by Mr. Smyth. As already stated, 
Mr. Smyth does not indicate what evidence in the 
form of shore lines or beaches, or other water marks, 
he depended on to reach this result, and only in one 
instance mentions the existence of any shore lines, in 
all his discussion, viz. : in Shunganunga river on Bur- 
nett's mound. It is from this datum that it appears 
that the level given by him (150 ft.) is much too high. 
If, however, it shall appear by later examination, that 
the shore-line on Burnett's mound is not at the (near) 
level of Kaw lake, and that other data will require 
that Kaw lake stood at 150 feet above Manhattan, it 
would be sufficient to carry the lake up the valley a 
little beyond Abilene at an elevation of 1,162 feet 
above tide. It would require a still further elevation 
of 32 feet at Abilene to bring Kaw lake up to the level 
of the extensive plain that extends northward from 
that city. 

It is a desideratum that the Kansas terraces be care- 
fully examined both in the interest of Glacial geology 
and from an archeological point of view. 

v, Google 



Lincoln, Nebraska. In the museum of the Nebraska 
Historical Society is a collection of aboriginal stone 
artifacts and a much larger one of textile and other 
articles. Among the former are specimens that fall 
into the Early Neolithic stage, both as to time and as 
to culture, some of which are of blue-gray chert and 
were obtained by Mr. Blackmail in southern Ne- 

Southward from Lincoln red quartzyte boulders 
were observed in a loamy drift about the head of Salt 
creek, perhaps ten mlies south of Hanlon, the con- 
tours of the surface being gentle but probably mo- 
rainic. The drift is loess-like. An extensive flat then 
supervenes and extends to and beyond Princeton. 
This plain apparently was caused by having been the 
bottom of an extensive lake, perhaps of Tertiary date. 
It continues to Cortland, and in the drainage cuts re- 
veals lacustrine clay, which clay, however, may be of 
later date than Tertiary. At Cortland this plain 
shows some dissection by local drainage. The gen- 
eral level then begins to descend toward the south, 
the dissection increasing, and a small creek forms, 
running south, no "drift" appearing either at Pickerell 
or at Beatrice. At Holmesville a chert-bearing lime- 
stone appears in the banks. It was near this place 
that Mr. Blackman found some rude artifacts which 
he assigned to the same class as those at Quivira, de- 
scribed by Mr. Brower. 

Blue Springs. James Crawford's Collection. At Blue 
Springs and Wymore this chert is quarried extensive- 

ly Google 


ly for road-metal. Its outcrops along the valley of the 
Big Blue river in this vicinity afforded material for 
the rude implements made by the aborigines, not alone 
for the late (Indian) aborigine but for his predeces- 
sors for many generations, and probably for many 
thousands of years earlier. Indeed, judging from the 
few specimens remaining of the collection of Mr. 
James Crawford, near Wymore, (Sec. %%, T. 2 X., R. 
7 W.) who gave the bulk of his collection, through 
Mr. Blackmail, to the Nebraska Historical Society, 
already noted above, this locality has been a resort 
for chert knappers since Paleolithic times. Mr. 
Crawford, an old settler since 1871, occupies a farm 
which is on the edge of the Kansas moraine, yet inter- 
sected by the erosion of the upper Carboniferous lime- 
stone by the river, forming rock bluffs on the crests 
of which the usual boulders of red quartzyte are com- 
mon, along with some that are of granite, trap and 
red felsyte. These are brought to light by the rapid 
washing away of the thick surface loam under which 
the country is buried. There are no boulders visible 
in general in the upland fields. This loess lies di- 
rectly on the Kansas drift, and it seems to be Iowan. 
These artifacts, therefore, so far as they are Early 
Neolithic and embrace the tomahawk, are probably 
post-Iowan, anil apparently of the age of the toma- 
hawks that lie on the great terrace of the Kansas val- 
ley. Still it is not certain yet, so far as present ob- 
servation extends, that these artifacts were not buried 
beneath this loam, and have become superficial by 
washing away of the loam, in the same manner as the 
quartzyte boulders. 

v, Google 


Mr. Crawford's collection, as presented to the Ne- 
braska Historical Society, embraced tomahawks of the 
"tomahawk people" of Mr. Brower, and some large 
spatulate pieces. At his house was seen an old speci- 
men outlined by the figures below, actual size, show- 

Implment He-chipped la Early Neolithic Time. 

ing unmistakable Early Neolithic chipping. It was 
a rude knife or blade, and its latest chip-surfaces are- 
so weathered as to show that they far antedated the 
Neolithic. The specimen is convex on both surfaces, 
and was given its form by chipping, which entirely 
covered it, the latest at the ends, apparently to give 
it fresh edges in Early Neolithic time. The figures 
show opposite sides of the specimen. 

v, Google 


1. Patinated Paleolithic surfaces. 

2. Early Neolithic chip-surfaces. 

3. A bruise, or break, which appears on both sides. 
Mr. Blackmail's reports are published in the State 

Agricultural Society's reports, especially that dated 
1902 where he presents several plates of "Harahey" 
and "Quivira" types, as defined by Mr. Brewer, in- 
cluding a tomahawk of the typical form, which was 
found by Mr. F. E. Crawford on his father's farm. 
Most of Mr. Blackman's illustrations were taken, how- 
ever, from the large collection of Mr. Walter Rice 
{Sec. 16, T. 2-7), which shows chip-surfaces that are 
Early Paleolithic (or pre-Paleolithic) and Early Neo- 
lithic. The pottery and polished stone axes in Mr. 
Rice's collection are, of course, of Neolithic date. 
These articles sufficiently show that the "Quivira" cul- 
ture was not restricted to the typical locality in Kan- 
sas, but extended at least as far north as Blue Springs 
in Nebraska. 

The Hotting of Chert. 
Some important observations as to the weathering 
of stone artifacts were made at Wymore, viz.: some 
chert artifacts are so old that they are rotted nearly 
all through. That seen at Mr. Crawford's (above de- 
scribed) was rotted deeply, and this could be seen on 
the Early Neolithic surfaces, which were finely 
roughened from decay, while the Early Paleolithic 
surfaces still retained the brown patina scale, though 
broken by some hard blows at the places indicated 
(3). In Mr. Rice's collection are two small, Early 
Neolithic, buff-yellow artifacts whose surfaces are so 

v, Google 


disintegrated in places that they give a loose fine pow- 
der when rubbed. They are thin, ovate, or ovate- 
oval, blades, and the chipping round the edge is also 
disintegrated. It appears, therefore, that since the 
Early Neolithic chipping these specimens have suf- 
fered such atmospheric attacks that the integrity of 
the chert has been superficially destroyed. It appears 
also that the patina scale formed in Paleolithic time 
served as a protection to the chert, excluding the de- 
structive agents, whether gaseous or liquid, which 
might act on the granular texture of the chert wher- 
ever freshly broken. The Paleolithic patina, espe- 
cially a gloss, smooths the surfaces so as to make 
them impervious, resembling glass. A fresh chert- 
fracture exposes the texture of the interior, and opens 
the fine porosity to the entrance of moisture and hence 
subjects the surface to freezing and thawing. It may 
be, also, that these rotted specimens, found at the 
margin of the Kansas moraine, have been liable to ex- 
ceptional disintegrating conditions. 

McPherson. Dr. Vance N. Robb has an interesting 
collection consisting mainly of Early Neolithic and 
Neolithic specimens and three Paleoliths from Indi- 
ana. He has also found Paleoliths at McPherson of 
which he exhibited several specimens. One is of 
white chert, one of siderite, now stained dark brown 
by oxidation, and one of yellowish quartzyte, also two 
double tomahawks of Early Neolithic date, one of 
which is of blue-gray chert. 

Topeka. In the collection of W. E. Richey, now in 
the keeping of the Kansas Historical Society, are a 
few that are Paleoliths, some tomahawks of the "tom- 

v, Google 



ahawk people," and flakes and rude knives of the same 
age, and numerous other Early Neolithic implements. 
He has two identical specimens, of twenty or more 
kinds, from two different localities (in sets), one from 
the Cottonwood basin and the other from the Smoky 
Hill basin, intending to show that the culture of the 
fndians had no bearing on the location of Quivira, 
seen by Coronado. 

Kansas City, Mo. Mr. M. C. Long has a large and 
valuable collection, which, being boxed, could not be 
seen, but he showed me some samples made from a 
wholly rotted (or altered) chert. They are of a light 

a Of ■peclm^ni 

buff color, finely versicular, and of low specific grav- 
ity, with an exterior more or less darkened by iron 
oxide. This chert has not rotted since the imple- 
ments were made, but before it was taken from the 

v, Google 


native formation. It is known as "cotton rock.' They 
show Neolithic and perhaps Early Neolithic culture. 
They consist of a celt-like hoe, a hammer and two 
axes. The cotton rock is found in southern Missouri 
and southern Illinois. 

A visit was made with Mr. Long to the Public Li- 
brary, where can be seen, under bad illumination, a 
fine display of aboriginal material, but not much that 
can be considered Paleolithic. The outlines above 
show forms seen here which are possibly pre-Kansan. 
They are made of a light-colored chert which is com- 
mon in Missouri artifacts. 

The collection also embraces some English and 
French Paleoliths. 

St. Louis. Dr. H. M. Whelpley has a remarkable 
private collection, to which I was conducted through 
the courteous introduction of Dr. W. F. Farks. Dr. 
Whelpley has more than 500 hematite axes, and also 
several of kidney iron ore. The latter are coated with 
a scale closely resembling hematite, and when the 
scale is unbroken can hardly be distinguished from 
genuine hematites. In Dr. Whelpley's collection can 
be seen evidence of the great length of the "Neolithic" 
period of aboriginal culture, inasmuch as he has a lot 
of chert chips and Neolithic long knives, well trimmed 
and handsome, of a light-colored, dense chert, from 
Union county, 111., which are covered with a thin scale, 
or at least with a staining of a reddish-brown color, 
<|iiite similar to the color patination of Kansas speci- 
mens. The length of time necessary for such altera- 
tion, in the case of this dense chert, in the opinion of 
the writer, would carry their fabrication into pre-Wis- 

v, Google 


consin time, and hence into what is distinguished, in 
this article, as Early Neolithic. 

It is a remarkable fact that implements of kidney 
iron ore, of Neolithic culture, have been so long made 
that they have acquired a thick scale, even a double 
scale, of iron oxide. Along with some problematic 
pieces of elongate but rectangular shape, were seen 
some celts, some semi-globular disco ids and several 
axes, made of this ore. He also has some siderite im- 
plements that were at first naturally shaped by the 
partings of the rock and had acquired in situ an orig- 
inal scale of oxide, after which they were worked to 
an ax or chisel form, especially by the grinding at 
one end to an edge. After this working the ground 
surfaces have also oxidized so that the whole imple- 
ment is covered with an iron scale. But I think there 
may be a perceptible difference between the old iron 
scale and the more recent. Prof. George H. Perkins 
has illustrated an ax of clay iron stone from Vermont, 
also much altered superficially, in Am. Nat. Dec. 1885. 

Dr. Whelpley also exhibited a series of rude, large, 
elongate-ovate or wedge-shaped celts (or axes or 
what?) of Paleolithic making and style of chipping, 
which seem to be as late as Neolithic in weathering. 
They grade from a length of 20 inches to 2£ inches or 
less. They seem to belong, as a class, with the rude 
Neolithic intrusive culture of which evidence in Kan- 
sas has already been mentioned (pp. 128-130). 

The large Neolithic chert "spades," so-called, which 
are common in southern Illinois, are made, according 
to Dr. Whelpley, from a dense chert which occurs in 
thin layers in a sort of clay, and that hence the na- 

* Google 


tives easily procured it by digging in the clay. There 
are extensive chert workings in Union county, 111. 
Many (or most) of the implements made from this 
chert, so far as seen, are fresh and quite light-colored. 

The museum of the Academy of Science, St. Louis, 
contains nothing in stone work that is Paleolithic, and 
but little that is aboriginal. But it has a large col- 
lection of pots of earthen ware, unlabeled. 

The archeological collection of the Missouri His- 
torical Society (St. Louis) was boxed and has been 
since the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

Cincinnati. The Museum of the Cincinnati Society 
of Natural History has a large collection of human 
skulls, aboriginal and probably largely from mounds, 
many celts, axes and hammers, also rolling stones (or 
"pins") pestles, discoids, globular stones, gorgets of 
bone and of stone, many animal bones, earthen pots, 
arrow points, leaves and drills, but nothing that is 
actually Paleolithic. Although some leaves and celts 
are coarsely chipped, they show by the polish at the 
end that they were at least used by the latest stone- 
chipping people, and may have been made by them. 
Most of the stone celts are wholly ground. 

At the Art Museum, Cincinnati, is a very large and 
well-displayed collection of aboriginal material of 
which the stone artifacts arranged geographically are 
an important portion, included in the "Cleneay collec- 
tion." They are mainly from the Ohio valley, and 
extend from Pennsylvania to the mouth of the Ohio, 
and further, on both sides of the river. Many others 
were presented by M. F. Force. There are but 
few of Paleolithic or Early Neolithic significance, viz.: 

v, Google 


1. There are a few coarse-chipped leaves, but 
nothing to show that they are pre-Glacial. 

2. There are several old axes of syenyte, or gabbro 
(or dioryte) which are deeply decayed, like one in the 
Brower collection which is said to have been taken 
from the bottom of the Ohio river. These are 
grooved, but there are many that are not decayed. 

3. Two glossed, ovate or ovate-oblong leaves or 
knives, from Belmont, Campbell Co., Ky., of dense 
pink-gray chert. (It is noticeable here, as elsewhere, 
that the implements of large size (axes, pestles, ham- 
mers) when not made of native material, which is 
rare, are of some variety of greenstone. This is due 
probably to the fact that such stones endured after 
the Kansas epoch better than the granite rocks, which 
crumbled by decay). Hematite specimens are dis- 
tributed through the collection. 

4. Two other similar pieces, one of light chert and 
the other of gray chert. They do not show distinct 
gloss, and their only apparent Paleolithic character is 
their coarse chipping, locality not stated. 

5. Two others of "flint," i. e., gray chert of similar 

6. Part of a deposit of 1500 found in 1872 at 
Beardstown, Cass county, III. These number 14. 
Two or three of these show the supposed Glacial cal- 
careous patina (f) described on page 10. Their thick- 
ness is from y» inch to 1 inch. The age of these 
caches is problematical. It is not presumed by the 
writer that they are Paleolithic, as to date, though 
they show a rough chipping resembling the work of 
the Paleolithic people. 

v, Google 


The main part of the entire collection is Neolithic, 
and of the stone artifacts but a portion are Early Neo- 
lithic. This is indicated by the nature of the imple- 
ments, their finish and the comparative freshness of 
the surfaces. 

Columbus. In the museum of the Ohio Archeologi- 
cal and Historical Society are archeological materials 
as follows, which indicate great age, probably Early 

1. Semi-rotted hammers of granitic rock. 

2. A lot of unfinished specimens of quartzyte from 
the District of Columbia. 

3. Siderite celt and siderite long celt covered with 
oxide scale (in the Moorhead collection). 

4. Part of a large collection found by Moorhead, 
consisting of oval or ovate-oval chert blades or 
"blanks" of gray chert (four pieces). These are dis- 
tinctly glossy, but less so than those seen at Cincin- 

5. Paleoliths (two) from Dr. John Evans of En- 
gland. These are of the same chert and appearance 
as those illustrated on plates I and II, Nos. 2228 and 

The most interesting thing in this museum is the 
display of the findings in the Harness and other 
mounds, explored lately by Prof. Mills, in one case 
showing a succession of peoples or tribes which oc- 
curred during the mound builder dynasty. 

Newark, 0. On the "Flint" ridge, ten miles south- 
east of Newark, at a 4-corners, at Clark's blacksmith 
shop, is said to be one of the chief workshops of the 
aborigines. Here are many pits, and the ground is 

v, Google 


covered with chips of all shapes, of which I collected 
enough to fill a small "telescope" when packed for 
shipment. This is near the center of Hopewell town- 
ship. The pits and workshops cover about two acres, 
about the four corners, and extend further south- I 
cannot say that I found anything certainly Paleolithic, 
although there are some old, yellowish-brown sur- 
faces, which, however, may have been caused by rust- 
ed, pre-existing jointage or cleavage planes, rather 
than by open atmospheric exposure. Mr. Clark said 
that he does not believe that the present Indians did 
the work. It is probable that in that he is right, as 
the work is rather attributable to the Ohio dynasty 
of the Mouudbuilders, or to some of their predeces- 

It would require much time to determine whether 
Paleolithic man had any part in making these excava- 
tions. The location, as in Kansas, is not only favor- 
ably near a chert-bearing limestone ridge, but is quite 
near the southern limit of the greatest known conti- 
nental ice-sheet. Only scattering pebbles of norther- 
ly drift are seen on the ridge at the western end. It 
is a promising location at which to look for Paleo- 
lithic artifacts. Large craggy masses of chert, more 
or less diversified by quartz and amethystine geodes, 
are a common feature on the slopes. 

CJerrttntd . At the museum of the Western Reserve 
Historical Society the Xewcomerstown "Paleolith" 
found by Prof. \V. C. Mills in 1889 can be seen. It 
is of "black chert," but is variegated with fragments 
of fossils which are whitish on the surface, and with 
some porosity, as well as with some small remaining 

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part of the limestone with which the chert is asso- 
ciated, the last not being glossy- Otherwise the spec- 
imen is glossy. The longer edges were battered by 
use prior to its having been incorporated in the gravel, 
on one side more than on the other. The gloss and 
the generally unworn surface, and the sharpness of 
the outer angles, all indicate that as a constituent of 
the gravel terrace it had not much experience before 
coming to rest in the terrace, but that the most of its 
life history transpired prior to the gravel deposition. 
The sides are about equally glossy. If the gravel 
terrace be found to be a consequent of the Wisconsin 
ice-epoch, it appears therefore that this implement 
originated earlier, and falls into the culture as well 
as the date of what is herein called Early Neolithic. 
Its date is pre-Wisconsin, but not pre-Kansan. (Com- 
pare No. 5715 of plate XIII.) It is noteworthy that 
like numerous Early Xeotiths and Paleoliths, it was 
most used along its lateral edges instead of on its ends. 
This specimen has been described by Dr. G. F. Wright 
in Tract 7."3 of the Western Reserve Historical Society, 
Vol. Ill, April 14, 1890, and in Popular Science 
Monthly. May. 1893. The form of this specimen is 
quite common among the Kansas artifacts, and had 
a wide range in aboriginal stone art. It is referred to 
on a former page under Celts (p. 123). V. plate XVI. 
Chicago. In the Field museum (1) in the case 
showing the archeology of Alabama, Florida and Ar- 
kansas, are about 40, rudely chipped, celt-like and 
knife-like implements of chert from Decatur county, 
Tenn., the appearance of the culture of which seems 
to be Paleolithic. On the label thev are called "Im- 

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plements and rejects." The material is not dense and 
siliceous, and they are not much glossy. They are 
from 4 to 8 inches in length. 

2. In the same case are some "flint implements and 
rejects from the banks of the Kansas river, J. V. 
Brower." These are ten in number, two tomahawks. 
three rude tomahawks but not notched, three small 
knives or arrow points, and the others are nonde- 
script or purposeless. They are of blue-gray chert, 
somewhat mottled, in color as well as in grain, all 
Early Neolithic No. 1 of this paper. 

3. So-called "flint disk-like implement," Beards- 
town, 111., evidently from the great cache found there. 
This is dark, almost black, glossy. 

4. Leaf-shaped, brown, quartzyte implements from 

5. In the Clark and Hopewell mounds, Ross coun- 
ty, central Ohio, which are situated in the "second 
terrace" along with many remarkable other discov- 
eries, Mr. Moorhead found a cache of flint disks num- 
bering in all "over 7000." From this lot specimens 
have been distributed to various places, but an enor- 
mous conical stack of them occupies one of the glazed 
cases. They are oval and ovate. The total taken 
from the mound (No. 22) is 8,185, including those 
taken out prior to Moorhead's discoveries. They are 
of a "light blue-gray color," made from flint nodules 
found in Indiana and Tennessee, considered not fin- 
ished implmeents but "roughed-out" raw material, to 
be elaborated as required. Some of the edges appear 
slightly battered, as if by use, but generally the finer 
chipping about the edges may be referred to the chip- 

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ping incident to their formation. Some of them ap- 
pear to be sub-glossed, but perhaps owing to the dust 
which obscures them, I could not see that any marked 
glossiness exists on them. They have a general 
smoothness which in some cases appears to approach 
a gloss, which denotes considerable age but not char- 
acteristic of Early Neolithic time. They must be later 
than the terrace on which they were found, and hence 
probably are post-Wisconsin. 

G. A stone celt, found with skeleton 262, mound 
25, of the Hopewell group, is coated with an incrusta- 
tion of light gray color, probably caused by the decay 
of the bodies or other organic matter, as it shows the 
maggot-like forms which I have before noted on 
mound articles. The celt is of chert, apparently, and 
about seven inches long, and was worn smooth by use 
at the broad end before it was buried. This celt and 
its culture indicate strongly the Neolithic age of the 
mounds, as do all the other important discoveries in 
the Hopewell group, with the bare possible exception 
of the cache of 8,185 oval cherts, and without further 
proof to the contrary the cache itself has to be as- 
signed to the same date. Still, it is a remarkable fact, 
according to Moorhcad (Stone Age in North Amer- 
ica, I, 220), that the chert of these oval disks came 
from northwestern Tennessee while "most of the 
chipped objects on the village sites of the Hopewell 
group and in the mounds were made of Flint Ridge 
material." This difference of source of the chert may- 
warrant the suggestion that the cache of disks may not 
be due to the same people as the other implements. 

There were found also several other stone celts, 

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"one in an unfinished state,'' being of different rock 
and also containing what appears to be a "glacial 
patina," about the broader edge. On one of the others 
is an incrustation (slight) which may be due to or- 
ganic decay, or to glacial patina. A similar white in- 
crustation is found on some of the chert arrowpoints 
"found with skeleton No. 186, mound 23." 

", In a case near the north entrance are European 
artifacts, Paleolithic and Neolithic, some of the former 
called "flint rejects," chiefly from county Down, Ire- 

8. In the same case a "series representing the proc- 
ess of manufacturing flint implements," embraces 
mainly Paleolithic artifacts from ancient Egypt. 

i). Paleoliths are here also from Egypt, Somaliland 
("rejects"), and from Poondi, near Madras, India, the 
last being labeled "Paleolithic implements," also from 
England, from the British Museum. 

10. The Martin A. Ryerson Swiss Lakes collection 
contains only Neolithic stone artifacts. 

Milwaukee. In the Public Museum, after a fruit- 
less search through the cases and the inost of the 
drawers containing "refuse stuff" and duplicates, a sin- 
gle oval Paleolithic "blade" was found in the last 
drawer opened, not of European origin. The chert is 
gray and apparently made up largely of sub-rounded 
small grains of chert in a matrix of chert. It is patin- 
ated with yellowish, or ochre color, and has a gloss 
that is distinct all over. Its longer diameter is 6,'<j 
inches, its shorter about 4J4 inches. It was through 
the courteous aid of Curator S. A. Barrett that this 
implement was found, and by the kindness of Direc- 

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tor H. L. Ward that the accompanying illustration 
(three- fourths actual size) is presented (plate XV). 
Its number is ^l-f - and on searching the records it 
was found to have been derived from Adams county, 
Wisconsin, which is outside the line of the Wisconsin 
moraine, but quite near it. This specimen has the 
lorm of a true Paleolith, as the term is used in this 
discussion, but its age is likely to be post-Kanson, i. e., 
Early Neolithic. 

Madison. (1) The museum of the Wisconsin His- 
torical Society contains a collection of rude artifacts 
from Seneca, Mo. They are made of a light-colored 
chert, simitar to that of some large spears and knives 
("points") in the Brower collections, derived from 
Missouri. On breaking one of the triangular flakes, 
Curator Brown found the light color is not due to a 
patina, but that the material is white within; but on 
close inspection it is to be noted that the interior 
whiteness has a whiter scale, evidently due to weath- 
ering. This locality has been described by Dr. \V. C. 
Barnard in "Records of the Past," October, 1905. To 
the writer it seems quite probable that the Newton 
county (Okla.) working is as old as any in Kansas, 
although no certainly Paleolithic artifacts from there 
have been seen as yet by the writer.* 

(2) At Crescent, Mo., is another similar old work- 
ing of which some chips and implements are in the 
same case, given by Dr. H. M. Whelpley, of St. Louis. 
These, and the above, are labeled "rejects and rough- 

*Dr. Bernard sent subsequently, in exchange, some white 
quarry pieces and a collection of turtles and points from 
Newton county. Mo., the latter of Early Neolithic age. 

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ing-out material." They may be, however. Early Neo- 
lithic, or even Paleolithic in part. 

(3) In the same museum are a lot, of glossed chips, 
etc., from the so-called Spanish diggings and Indian 
quarries in Converse and Laramie counties, in Wyo- 
ming, presented by Robt. F. Gilder, embracing 
quartzyie and chert of various colors, some of them 
of flint, proper, i. e., apparently of fossil wood. 

A collection of these from Mr. Gilder, from near 
Fairbanks, Wyoming, are certainly of Early Neo- 
lithic date, and possibly earlier. Mostly of quartzyte, 
like the Potsdam of Minnesota, they are also of chert 
of different colors, and one (of flint) is flecked as if 
fossil hferous with fine angular fragments. 

(4) Contents of two caches at Richland City, Wis., 
gray chert, roughly chipped "blanks", deposited by 
Charles E. Brown. These pieces are smaller than 
those of the cache in the Hopewell mound, found in 
Ohio by Moorehead. 

(5) Rhyolyte material, Blue Bell bay, Puckaway 
lake, Green Lake Co., Wis. Some of this is very old, 
as shown by the change of surface color and by the 
culture, dating probably from pre- Wisconsin time. 

(6) Specimen numbered "A1491", in another case, 
is outlined by the figure below. It is notched at the 
broad end as if to be applied to a handle. It differs 
from all others in the cases, as far as seen, in having 
a yellowish patina and gloss, similar to that seen at 
Milwaukee. It is of light gray chert. I could not learn 
the source of the specimen. It falls into Early Neo- 
lithic time both by its weathered condition and by its 
culture. Plate XVII. 

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Resume. The reader who has perused the foregoing 

pages devoted to "a consideration of the Paleoliths of 
Kansas" will be glad to have the main results brought 
into a smaller compass. For this purpose a resume 
of the steps along which the investigation has been 
prosecuted will be a suitable introduction. 

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1. The Kansas artifacts are of at least three differ- 
ent and successive dates. This is shown by a compari- 
son of the oldest with European Paleoliths which they 
resemble in patination and in culture, and by the fact 
that the rudest implements have been taken as basis 
for the making of nicer implements by later working. 
Therefore the Indians found in the Kansas valley 
(Wichita) who were supposed by Mr. Brower to have 
been the fabricators of the oldest implements, were in 
no way connected with their manufacture. 

2. The blue-gray chert of the Upper Carboniferous 
in Kansas is abundantly exposed in the region. The 
specimens made from it, when old, are covered with 
a patina which varies in color and kind according to 
the length of time exposed and the nature of the ex- 
posure, six of these kinds of patination being noted and 

:t. The characters of the oldest implements indicate 
that the Paleolithic artizan was satisfied, in the main, 
with the acquirement of an edge, but he also brought 
his implements into an ovate, or oval, or squarish 
shape, and, as found later, he occasionally drew them 
out into the form of parallel-edged knives about eight 
or ten inches in length.There are no Paleolithic scrap- 
ers, nor points, nor drills, and knives only that occa- 
sionally are elongated with two nearly parallel edges. 

4. There was found to be a stage of culture, as 
well as of patination. intermediate between the fore- 
going and the Neolithic, in which are found finished 
knives (the "Harahey knife" for example), points 
which were used as knives, as well as knives of deli- 
cate elongate form and fine chipping; also scrapers, 

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blades, spears and arrow points. It was found that a 
large majority of Kansas artifacts fall into this group. 

5. In order to form a preliminary classification four 
time-classes were designated, viz: Early Paleolithic, 
Paleolithic, Early Neolithic and Neolithic* 

6. These specimens are found further south than 
the Kansas moraine, but not far from it, and closely 
adjacent to the outcropping chert of the Upper Car- 
boniferous. The Paleolithic, Early Neolithic, and the 
Neolithic are found sometimes mingled at the same 
sites, indicating a succession of people who chose for 
habitation the same situations, resorting to the same 
chert beds for material, and probably resembling each 
other in many ways. 

7. The Indians met by Coronado in Kansas were 
the Wichita and the Pawnee, both of Caddo stock, 
the former the Quivira, of Brower, and the latter the 

8. In this paper the term Paleolithic is applied to 
any people, and their artifacts, which antedated the 
Kansan Glacial epoch. Early Neolithic includes the 
time elapsed between the Kansan and the Wisconsin 
Glacial epochs, arid Neolithic applies to people who 
have existed in Kansas since the Wisconsin. 

0. It was found that only at one point in the scale 

of culture is there a marked transition to a higher 

type. That occurs at the passage from Paleolithic to 

Early Neolithic. Early Neolithic culture is found to 

continue to, and into. Neolithic, and can be separated 

from Neolithic, so far as expressed by the Kansas 

'Later it has been found convenient to subdivide again, viz: 
Early Neolilhic No. 1, and Early Neolithic No. 2; also Neo- 
lithic No. l and Neolithic No. 2. 

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specimens, only by the marked glossiness which de- 
notes greater age for the former. 

10. It was also found that Paleolithic types did not 
cease with the close of the Kansas Glacial epoch, but 
continued into, and through, Early Neolithic, and even 
into Neolithic time. 

11. In weathering the first effect produced on a piece 
of chert is the formation of a gloss. This gloss may 
be lost by decay, or it may be replaced by a colored 
(or white) weather-scale which is not glossy but yet 
smooth, and still later the brown weather-scale may 
be covered by a white scale. The color of the scale 
depends on the presence or absence of iron dissolved 
in water having access to the specimen. 

12. As a general principle: all Paleolithic art was 
perpetuated, or may have been perpetuated, into Early 
Neolithic and Neolithic time, and all Early Neolithic 
into Neolithic; and hence the progress of stone chip- 
ping was essentially a continual introduction of new 
forms and higher skill without the necesasry loss of 
any of the older forms. 

13. Early Neolithic man seems not to have been en- 
tirely ambidextral, but used his tools most with his 
right hand. 

14. Near the close of Early Neolithic time a new 
and coarse type of stone chipping was introduced into 
Northeastern Kansas, so coarse that though the im- 
plements made were about the same in kind as those 
of the Early Neoliths, yet the skill displayed in the 
making of them was not much in advance of the Pale- 
oliths. Page 130 and Plate XIX. 

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15. This new culture may have been introduced 
as a consequence of climatic change that inaugurated 
the Wisconsin Glacial epoch, and in the terms of this 
paper, is actually Neolithic. (Neolithic No. 1). 

Conclusions. The people of the Iowan Glacial 
epoch, represented by the skull and skeleton found in 
the loess at Lansing, Kansas, probably took part in 
the making of some of the Early Neolithic implements 
found on the Kansas upland interior, and were a part 
only of a wide-spread race which, we may assume, oc- 
cupied much of the interior of North America. Their 
bony skeleton and their skull, as well as their culture, 
did not differ noticeably from those of the modern 
Neolithic man as represented by the historic Indian. 
This statement is based not only on the foregoing re- 
searches but also on the opinion of Dr. Ales Hrdlicka* 
who stated: 

"Considered anthropologically, all the parts of the 
skeleton, and the skull in particular, approach closely, 
in every character of importance, the average skeleton 
of the present-day Indian of the central states. Zoo- 
logically, as well as in growth, the Lansing skeleton 
and the skeleton of the typical present-day Indian of 
the upper Mississippi region are of the same degree 
and quality." 

This coincidence of archeological results with those 
which are more strictly anthropological is interesting 
and suggestive. At the time of the discovery of the 
Lansing skull and skeleton there was considerable dis- 
cussion as to their age, and owing to the affinity which 
was apparent between the Lansing man and the his- 

•American Anthropologist, V. 323, 1903. 

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toric Indian, and especially because some leading au- 
thorities in America discredited the existence of man 
in America earlier than the Wisconsin ice age, there 
was a tendency also to discredit this discovery, and 
to show that the loess in which they were found was 
not true loess of the Iowan epoch, but was formed by 
a "slide" of late date, or belonged to the alluvial de- 
posits of a small stream which there joins the Mis- 
souri river. But by the light thrown on the subject 
by these artifacts, dating from between the Kansan 
and the Wisconsin epochs, it is clear that the culture 
and therefore the ancestry, of the historic Indian ex- 
tend backward far beyond the Wisconsin Glacial 
epoch, and it is not at all unreasonable to expect to 
find the skeleton and skull of the Indian, in all im- 
portant respects, not dissimilar to those of his ances- 

In Europe, in Asia and in Africa, and even in South 
America, as well as in Australia, remains of men have 
been found which archeologists and geologists have 
accepted not only as pre-Glacial but sometimes Early 
Pleistocene and ej/en Tertiary. Those found in Ar- 
gentina, South America, arc questioned by some, it is 
true.* but with that exception the rest of the entire 
globe, with its principal geographic divisions, has af- 
forded evidence of the great antiquity of the human 
race. To exempt Xorth America seems not only an- 
omalous but more unreasonable than to welcome all 
the evidence which has accumulated going to show 

*The South American evidence has recently been reviewed 
by Hrdlicka, and, as in North America, has "been questioned 
and discredited. Bulletin 52, Bureau of American Ethnology, 

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such antiquity here also. On such a question it is 
safe to be very cautious and conservative, but it be- 
hooves men of science, on the other hand, not to carry 
their conservatism so far that it passes into unreason. 
It appears now that the existence of Paleolithic man 
in America has been supported by so many witnesses 
that it is beyond "reasonable doubt." 

If man has existed in America since pre-Glacial 
time archeologists will naturally look for some trace 
of his industry and art. Not to mention the ancient 
ruins in Central and South America, the dates of which 
are not yet determined but which may be older than 
the Wisconsin Glacial epoch, it appears to the writer 
altogether possible, and even probable, that many of 
the stone implements which, in the museums of the 
United States have been classified as Neolithic, had 
their origin earlier than the Wisconsin epoch, and 
would fall into the class Early Neolithic, as here de- 
fined, and that hence a critical re-examination would 
lead to a general division of our American stone arti- 
facts into Early Neolithic and Neolithic, based 
mainly on the degree of patination. That would 
bring perhaps a majority of the stone artifacts 
of America (here called Early Neolithic) into 
chronological equivalence with those which in 
Europe are considered of "Neolithic" date, and 
would also make the actual Neolithic (i. e., post-Wis- 
consin) implements of America substantially parallel 
with the bronze and iron ages of Europe. There is 
reason to believe that after the last Glacial epoch had 
subsided in Europe, extensive migrations from Asia 
introduced bronze and later iron, into the renovated 

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lands, and that these metals then first became common 
in the fabrication of such tools as had before been 
made of Hint; but that the stone age was perpetuated 
in America until after the Columbian discovery, only 
because no such post-Wisconsin Asiatic migration 
flowed into America. 

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Abbott, C. C, A pioneer in Paleolithology in America... 50 

Abilene, terraces and plains 141, 150 

Academy of Science, St. Louis 158 

Age, different signs of 97 

Alma, specimens collected 137 

Alta Vista, location and artifacts 139 

Aqueous deposits of the lower Kansas valley 39 

Aqueous origin of the Loess 49 

Archeological recomioissance in Nebraska, Kansas, etc. 133 

Ariki and Arikara, of the Pawnee 46 

Arrow-point, its introduction in Early Neolithic time.. 42. 57 

Art. Paleolithic antecedent to Neolithic 94 

Artifacts reworked by later people 4, 25 

Asiatic migrations after the Wisconsin Glacial epoch 175 

Assaria, plain and buttes 144 

Axes of hematite in Dr. Whelpley's collection, St. Louis. 157 

Barnard, W. C, described the Seneca, Mo. rude artifacts 1 
Barrett, S. A. found Paleolithic blade in the Milwaukee 

Beardstown, Cass. Co.. 111., deposit in cache of 150 blades 160 

Big Blue valley, its terraces 135 

Blackman, E. E, found Quivira artifacts near Holmes- 

ville, Xeb 151 

Black Mould of Kent's cavern 20 

Blades, their variations 122 

Blue-gray chert requires longer time than gray for p;it- 

ination 102 

Blue Springs, Neb., extensive chert quarries 152 

Brower. J. V.. Opinion as to the occurrence of Paleolithic 

Man 5 

Brower, J. V., The "Quivera" culture and Paleolithic 

Man 1 

Brower. J. V., erected monuments commemorating 

Quivira 5 

Brown. Chas. E., found Early Neolithic point from 

Wisconsin 169 

Brown hematite (iron mould*, distribution and origin. 73. 128 

Bou kler-c lays of successive dates 109 

Buchanan Inter-glacial epoch and its people 55 

Buffalo probable in Early Neolithic time 57 

Buffalo unknown to Paleolithic man 42, 53 

Burnett's mound and its shore tines 149 

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Caches at Richland City. Wis 160 

Caddo stock included the Quivira and the Harahey 4G 

Calvin, Prof. S., Aftonian fossils in Iowa 51 

Cave-earth of Kent cavern, its pre-Glacial date 21 

Celts and their variations 122 

Celt like that of Newcomers town. 123 

Celt of Early Neolithic not of the same purpose as that 

of Neolithic 124 

Celts of hematite in Dr. Whelpley's collection 157 

Celt of Neolithic date 124 

Characteristics of river drift articles, Evans 23 

Characters of Kansas Paleolithic Artifacts 26 

Chemical environment efficient in giving color to the 

weather scale 84 

Chert disintegrates sometimes with conchoidal surfaces. 139 

Chert gravel accumulated by pre-Wisconsin drainage... 139 

Chert disintegrates after long exposure 154 

Chert, nature and mode of occurrence 6 

Chert of two sorts of grain 80 

Chicago, the Field museum and its Paleolithic material.. 103 

Chipping of three dates 63, 71 

Chronology of the stmie age in England, Sturge 105 

Cincinnati, museum of the Society of Natural History 

and the Art Museum 159 

Classification of artifacts in four time-groups 171 

Classification of Kansas artifacts by culture stages 113 

Cleneay collection at the Art Museum. Cincinnati, O 159 

Cleveland, O., museum of the Western Reserve Histori- 
cal Society 163 

Collections from -Quivira" village sites 5 

Columbus, O., museum of the Ohio Archeological and 

Historical Society 161 

Comparison with European Paleoliths 13 

Conclusions 173 

Coronado explored the province of Quivira 45 

Coronado monuments commemorating Quivira 5 

Cragin called the volcanic dust pearlette beds 144 

Crawford, James, collection of Paleolithic artifacts 152 

Crescent, Mo., rude artifacts seen at Madison 167 

Criteria of different ages of weathering 76 

Critical working observations on some Kansas speci- 
mens 68, 81 

Crollian hypothesis, accepted by Sturge 107 

Cultural stages of stone chipping correlated with Glacial 

stages 41 

Culture stage-- can hardly be assigned to definite Glacial 

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Culture stages, manner of succession 70, 113 


Decaying organic matter as agent in weathering 84 

Differences of patination in England, Sturge 106 

Different rates of Patination 102, 103 

Different signs of age , !*7 

Disrupted brick clay mingled with till Ill 

Distribution of iron mould -T3. 128 

Drebail site paleoliths :••■>. 60 


Earlier distinction based on weathering 50 

Early Man and his cotemporary Fauna in Kansas 48 

Early Neolithic characteristic implements 43 

Karly Neolithic culture .">«, 1T1 

Early Neolithic culture No. 2 130 

Early Neolithic man not ambidextral 172 

Early Neolithic point from Wisconsin 160 

Early Neolithic preferred to Pre-Neolithic 103 

Early Neolithic shades into Neolithic 70 

Early Neolithic specimens, relative numbers 83 

Early Neolithic weathered surface 79 

Early Paleolithic, Paleolithic and Early Neolithic chip- 
ping on the same specimen 87 

Early Paleolithic surfaces 34, 7fi 

Edge, acquirement of, by the Paleolithic artizan.26. 42. 93, 113 

Effect of the Ice-age , 21 

Equits beds equivalent of the Megalonyx beds 53 

Esquimo possihly in Kansas 130 

Evans. Sir John. Changes in the implements from 

Kent cavern 20 

Evans, Sir John. Characters of European Paleoliths.. 3, 23 

Evidences of Pre-Glucia! man in Amercia 175 

Explanation r>f plates 5S 

Extent of Kaw lake in the Kansas valley 140 

Extremes of culture contrasted 125 


Fauna of Kent's cavern 20 

Fauna cotemporary with Early Man 48 

Feuardent, France. Paleoliths from 12, :>S 

Flint ridge. Licking Co., Ohio 161 

Fluod of l!io:s at Lindsborg and northward 145 

Flood of the lowan Glacial epoch ;,U, 173 

Fort Riley, its situation HO 

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Geographic limitation of the '"Quivira" artifacts im- 

Gilder, R. F.. collection from the "Spanish diggings." 

Wyoming 168 

Glacial Patina, a calcareous incrustation 10, 13, 69. 78 

Glacial Period, review of SO 

Glacial striation in Minnesota 110 

Gloss dependent on the grain of the chert 80 

Gloss, its acquirement the first change 29, 172 

Gloss may sometimes have been lust 85, 89, 91 

Glossy patina on Kansas artifacts 8 

Gouges, natural and chipped 117 

Gradation of culture stages 79. 98. 104 

Granitic boulders of southern Minnesota probably of 

Kansas date ,. . . 58 

Grinnell, George Bird, on the relations of the Pawnee... 46 

Gumbo in the Big Blue valley 136 

Habitations of man in pre- Wisconsin time have disap- 
peared 49 

Harahey knife, a special type 116 

ilarahey knife, imperfect examples 101,128 

Haraheyan people at war with some Dakota tribe 45 

Haraheyan people, location of 4, 171 

Haraheyan people rechipped the upland paleoliths 41 

Haraheyan people, relation to the Glacial drift 40 

Hematite implements in Dr. Whelp ley's collection 157 

Hematite specimens in Vermont 158 

Hematite specimens in the Art Museum, Cincinnati 160 

Henderson, Robert, extreme limit of northern drift 140 

Henderson. Robert, found quartzyte implements on his 

farm 140 

Hctidrick creek, locality of Early Neolithic artifacts 138 

Hodge, F. W., has shown who were the Quivira and the 

Harahey 46 

Holmcsville. N"eh., chert-bearing limestone 151 

Holmes. W. H„ actuality of series as defined by htm 94 

Hopewell and Clark mounds, Ross Co., O,, large cache 

found by Moorhead 16* 

Human implements in England coeval with pre-CHacial 

time- 22 

Hrdlicka. Ales. Lansing man related to the present 

Ice-dam near Warn ego 

Illinois.™ Glacial epoch 

Incipient scraper. Early .Neolithic. 
Indian, historic, his ancestry very i 

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INDEX. 181 

nsive culture in Neolithic time 129, 172 

an Glacial epoch and the Loess 58, 173 

an glaciation comparable with the Pre-Kausan 57 

i in solution in water as agent of weathering 85 

i Mould on stone artifacts 73, 107 


ction City terraces and profile across the valley. .139, 140 

Kansas artifacts of three successive dates 170 

Kansan glaciation similar to Wisconsin 57 

Kansas ice epoch and its effect on Kansas 54 

Kansas City. Mo., collections of M. C. Long and the 

Public Library .' 158 

Kansas Paleoliths of large size 59, 60 

Kansas valley, elevations above tide water 133 

Kaw lake, its origin and extent 147 

Keagy, J. T., Aid to Mr. Brower 5 

Keagy, J. T., Aid to the author 68 

Kent cavern, Torquay. Relations of its implements, 

Evans 20 

Kidney Iron ore used for implements 157, 160 

Knives, various dates and styles 115 

Lansing man an Early Neolithic of the lowan epoch.... 173 

Lansing skull and bones discredited by some authorities. 174 

"Leaves and Turtles", product of Paleolithic man 27 

Leaves or blades and "turtles," became more ornate.... 114 

Lefthandedness of Early Neolithic man 99 

Lc Moustier cavern, specimens from 18 

Le Moustier people later than the "river drift" people ... 19 

Limestone area of Kansas not covered by lacustrine clay 39 

Limitation of the terms Paleolithic and Early Neolithic. 93 

Limonile deposits 34 

Lincoln, Neb., museum of the Nebraska Historical 

Society 151 

Lindsborg, lake plain of Uddcn 144 

Loess of aqueous origin 49, 56 

Loess on Hendrkk creek 138 

Long, M. C, specimens made of "'cotton rock" 157 

Loss of a glossy surface 01 


Madison, Wis., museum of the Wisconsin Historical 

Society 167 

Mammal remains of tile river drift and of the cave earth 21 

Manhattan, profile section of the valley 133 

v, Google 


:.'*r.i r«r.a::> :-, t* e*;*;:e.i >a :'=« =;.:=-; i= I: 
ir-.P!-.*r*-R. t :>c:c,n of Dr V X. R >b 

M.::-. '.V C. «x>:->n::^a of the Harries* i= : =c<! . ... . . 

Sin-. \V. C. foami the S>»«w.(r« -wr. P^Iith.. 
Mj:»a-jk« Pub:-: :.:-j<c::ai c<» a \Vi«c=>ia Pa 

::-h:~ blade 

MmKlingof V&it/.-.-.r.ic ard Seo^hie artifacts 

Mi-*-,nri river in :he I .wan Glacial epoch 

Moraine-, g'acial. relation to di*:r-bu:i'jn oi artifact- 

Moraine .,f the Kansan ice-sheet 

Mou-terian age at Suffolk. England 

Murium and private collections in several state'... 


Neolithic distinguished from Early NeolithK 57 

N'l-oliihic of America substantially cotemporary with the 

Bronze age 175 

Neolithic man in England according to Sturge 68 

N'r-olithtc No. 1, intrusive in Neolithic time 130, 172 

Neolithic period of culture was of great length 157 

Neolithic surfaces are neither weathered nor glossy 79 

Neolithic time in England according to Sturge 107 

Neolithic "turtle" 93 

Newark. O , the flint ridge of Licking Co 161 

New Cambria, plains and terraces 142 

Newcomers town Pal eolith, its characters 162 

Newomcr*town Paleolith compared with one from 

Kansas 123 

Origin of the Kansas chert.. 

Origin of iron mould 

Origin of Raw lake 

Padilla, manner ..f his death 45 

Paleolithic artifacts mingled with Neolithic 40, 171 

Paleolithic art, relation to Neolithic 95 

I'alr.-liiiiic artifacts of Europe compared to the "Quivira" 

artifacts :t 

Paleolithic artizan, oldest, and his skill 56, 83 

Paleolithic, as a term, significance and use 88, 171 

Paleolithic chipping 30, 33 

v, Google 


Paleolithic culture in Neolithic time 70, 94, !i 

Paleolithic culture of the "Quivira" artifacts 

Paleolithic implements have been used 

Paleolithic or Early Paleolithic? 

Paleolithic man in America beyond "reasonable doubt". 

Paleolithic patina scale serves as a protection 

Paleolithic time in England, according to Sturge 

Paleolithic weathering 7, 7 

Paleoliths of large size . . .5 

Patination in England, according to Sturge 

Patina of European Paleoliths 

Patina characteristic of the different ages 

Patina, of different kinds 

Patina of Kansas Paleoliths 


i of chert 

i Vermont.. 

Pawnee, the Harahey of Coronadn's 
People of the lowan Glacial epoch.. 
Fermo-Carboniferous of Kansas is cl 
Perkins, Geo. II.. axe of clay iron tl 

Persistence of Paleolithic culture 82, !M. 173 

Physical conditions of the "Quivirans." Brnwcr 42 

Pink chert from Missouri 75 

Pink shade in the Kansas chert fill. 81, <I2 

Points of coarse chipping but Neolithic culture... 128 

Points were sometimes used as knives 80 

Polished or "ground" implements arc of Neolithic date, . 104 

Post-Kansan people , 55 

Pre-Cretaceous chert exposure 7 

Pre-Glacial man found in the principal divisi >!.■. i f the 

Prehistoric Society of East Anglia (18. 104 

Pre-Kansan glacial lake 51 

Pre-Kansan moraine not yet discovered.. 53 

Preliminary note .1 

Pre -Paleolithic and Early Paleolithic 103 

Pre-Paleolithic surfaces, how altered 77 

Primitive man in the Somme valley Uphnm. 2 

Protolithic stone age of >fcGee . . 43 

Putnam, F. W.. Suggestions by ti8 


Quivira (The) and the Harahey were at peace 46 

Quivira a province and not a village site 45 

"Quivira" artifacts have been reworked by later people.. 3 

"Quivira" artifacts, where found 4 

Quivira chert, nature of 6 

"Quivira" culture according to Dr. Thomas Wilson 1 

"Quivira" culture and its extension lo Nebraska 154 

v, Google 


"Qutvira" knife 65. 70 

Quivira people, location of 4, 5 

"Quiviran" implements were not from the Wichita 6 

Quartzyte scraper from the local drift 90 

Rechippine of old artifacts 30, 87 

Rectangular shape in Paleolithic artifacts 29 

Relation of Kansan artifacts to the drift 39 

Resume and conclusions 169 

Richey, W. E-, collection in the Kansas Historical So- 

Robb, Dr. V. X., collection of Paleoliths 155 

Rotting of chert by atmospheric exposure 154 

Roughness which denotes age 97 

Rude forms both Paleolithic and Neolithic 95 

Ryerson Swiss Lake collection contains only Neolithic 
stone artifacts 166 

Saint Louis, collection of Dr. H. M. Whelpley 1S7 

Salina. terrace and Cretaceous section 143 

Salt creek valley in Nebraska 151 

Scraper, incipient 93 

Scrapers, natural and conventionally mono-beveled 118 

Scraper, typical 97, 118 

Scrapers under-cut indicating the right and the left hand 100 

Seneca, Mo., rude artifacts 167 

■Separation of artifacts into separate ages by difference 

of patination 49 

Siderite (kidney iron ore) used, for cells 158. 161 

Simplest artifact an edged tool 113 

Smoky hills, location and composition 145 

Smyth. R. B., guidance to Burnett mound 148 

Smyth. B. B. on Kaw lake 147 

Spades, of dense light-colored chert in Union Co. 111. ... 158 

Spanish Diggings, rude artifacts from Wyoming. ... lfiH, 169 

Stalagmite layer in the Kent cavern 20 

Stone, working of different dates 4 

Striation of patinatcd artifacts in England 107, 109 

St urge, Dr. W. Allen, recent stludies of Neolithic cul- 
ture 68. 104 

Succession of events in Pleistocene time 23 

Successive dates of Kansas artifacts 170 

Successive peoples responsible for the Kansas artifacts. 26, 177 

Successive weather scales 89 

Supplemental Note, the basis of the argument 44 

Terraces of the Kansas valley 'J2. 133, 148 

Thetford, Eng.. Pakolilh from 16. 98 

v, Google 

INDEX. 185 

Time intervals of early man 171 

Todd, J. E., aid to the author 68 

Todd. J. E-, map showing the Glacial geology 4 

Tomahawk, about coeval with the scraper 120 

Tomahawk, a doubtful Paleolithic implement 27. 43 

Tomahawks have never been withed 9B 

Tomahawk people Early Neolithic 93 

Tomahawks sometimes show the Glacial patina 32 

Topeka, collection of W. E. Richey 155 

Tribes met by Coronado in 1541 44 

"Turtles" as Kansas Xeoliths 93. 114 

'"Turtles" as Kansas Paleoliths 37,114 

Types of Recent (or Neolithic) artifacts 34 

Typical tomahawk illustrated 12T 

Udden. Prof. J. A... Discussion of the Megalonyx beds 

in Kansas 50 

Udden lake covered the Kansas valley above Abilene... 146 
Udden, J. A., trough extending southward from the 

Smoky Hill valley 144 

Unfinished edges on "turtles" 88 

Uniformity of the Kansas chert 90 

Upham, Warren. Primitive man in the Somme valley... 2 

Variation of the chert 75 

Volcanic dust in the great north-south valley in McPher- 

son Co 144 

Volk. Ernest, in the Delaware valley 50 


Warn ego. relation to the moraine and to a river terrace. 137 
Ward. H. L.. furnished photograph of a Wisconsin 

paleolithic blade 167 

Weathering of aboriginal stone artifacts 3 

Weathering of different ages 7fi 

Weather scales are sometimes white and sometimes 

brown 83 

Welin, J. E., volcanic dust in McPhcrson county 144 

Whelpley. Dr. W. R. large collection at Saint Louis.... 158 

Wichita, not responsible for the ''Quivira" implements. 6, 170 

Wichita, the actual Quivira 46, 171 

Wilson. Dr. Thomas. Letter on the rude culture of the 

Quivira 1 

Wisconsin glaciation similar to the Kansan 57 

Wisconsin Glacial epoch and the ancestry of the historic 

Indian 174 

Wisconsin Paleolithic bl.ide in the Milwaukee Public 

v, Google 


Wright. 0. F.. has described the Newcomerstown Pa>- 
oiilh VIZ. 163 

Wvmorc. Xel... paleolithic artii'a^s ,f Mr. James Craw- 
ford 152 


Y"jpete. Quiviran guide of Coronado 44 

v, Google