Skip to main content

Full text of "Weather modification operations in California"

See other formats


IlillllliiiPllillp^ 




1 1976 




SCIENCES 
UBRARV 




THE RESOURCES AGENCY OF CAIIFORNU 
Department oF Water Resources 



BULLETIN No. 16-63 



WEATHER MODIFICATION 

OPERATIONS 

IN CALIFORNIA 

OCTOBER 1, 1962— SEPTEMBER 30, 1963 



HUGO FISHER 

Administrator 
The Resources Agency of California 



JUNE 1964 



EDMUND G. BROWN 

Governor 

State of California 



UNIVERSIIY OF CALIFORnTa 

DAVIS 



NOV!>0 1964 

LIBRARY 



WILLIAM E. WARNE 

Director 
Department of Water Resources 



State of California 
THE RESOURCES AGENCY OF CALIFORNIA 

Department of Wa ter Re sources 



BULLETIN No. 16-63 



WEATHER MODIFICATION 

OPERATIONS 

IN CALIFORNIA 

OCTOBER 1, 1962— SEPTEMBER 30, 1963 



JUNE 1964 



HUGO FISHER EDMUND G. BROWN WILLIAM E. WARNE 

Adminislrafor Governor Director 

The Resources Agency of California State of California Department of Water Resources 



6)^'7- 



ERRATA SHEET TO BULLETIN NO. I6-63 

WEATHER MODIFICATION OPERATIONS IN CALIFORNIA 

OCTOBER 1962- SEPTEMBER I963 



The following corrections should be made on Bulletin 
No. 16-63: 

1. Page 6, Table 2 - under Project No. 12-63-1 in the "Client" 
column, "County of Kern and County of Tulare" change to 
"County of Kern". 

2. Page 6, Table 2 - under Project No. 12-63-1 in the "Target 
Area" column, "Eastern Tulare County and Kern County" 
should be changed to "Kern River Watershed and Northwest 
Corner of Kern County". 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFOnNIA 

OAViS 

JAN lb 1965 



TABLES OF CONTENTS 



Page 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL v 

INTRODUCTION 1 

SUMMARY OF OPERATIONS 2 



TABLES 

Table 
Number 

1 ACTIVE WEATHER MODIFICATION LICENSES DURING THE 
PERIOD OCTOBER 1962 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 1963 . . . 

2 WEATHER MODIFICATION OPERATIONS IN CALIFORNIA, 
OCTOBER 1, 1962 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1963 



APPENDIX 



CHAPTER k, DIVISION 1, OF THE WATER CODE. 



Plate 
Niomber 



PLATES 



APPROXIMATE TARGET AREA OF WEATHER 
MODIFICATION OPERATIONS, I962-63 . 



CALENDAR OF WEATHER MODIFICATION OPERATIONS 
OCTOBER 1962 THROUGH SEPTEMBER I963 .... 



13 
15 



ill 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA- RESOURCES AGENCY WILLIAM E. WARNE, Direc«or 

DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 

P.O. BOX 388 
SACRAMENTO 




May 4, 1964 



Honorable Edmund G.. Brown, Governor 
and Members of the Legislature of the 
State of California 

Gentlemen: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith a report 
of the Department of Water Resources, entitled "Weather 
Modification Operations in California, October 1, I962 - 
September 30, I963." 

During the period covered by the report, there 
were ten projects Involving weather modification operations 
which were undertaken in California. These were accomplished 
by nine of the eleven operators who were licensed by the 
department for such activities. 

Sincerely yours. 



^JU^ 




Director 



WEATHER MODIFICATION OPERATIONS IN CALIFORNIA 
OCTOBER 1, 1962 - SEPTEMBER 30, I963 

INTRODUCTION 

This report presents a summary of all weather modifi- 
cation projects conducted In California during the period October 1, 
1962, through September 30, 1963:. as reported to the Department of 
Water Resources In accordance with the provisions of Chapter 4, 
Division 1 of the Water Code, 

Appended to this report are the statutes on the regulation 
and control of natural precipitation by artificial means. 

These statutes provide in part that: 

"No person, without first securing a license from the 
department, shall cause or attempt to cause condensation 
or precipitation of rain, snow, moisture, or water in any 
form contained in the atmosphere, or shall prevent or attempt 
to prevent by artificial means the natural condensation or 
precipitation of rain, snow, moisture, or water in any form 
contained in the atmosphere." 

On being Issued a license by the department, the licensee 
may operate projects in the areas and periods specified in the notices 
of Intention to modify natural precipitation by artificial means. 
These notices must be published by the licensee in newspapers having 
a general circulation and published In each county where the oper- 
ation is to be conducted. At the conclusion of each weather modifi- 
cation project, the licensee is required by law to submit a comple- 
tion report to the Department of Water Resources. These reports 
include such information as the name of the agency sponsoring the 
project, location of the project, log of all seeding operations. 



-1- 



cloud-seeding techniques and type of equipment used, and the names 
of all persons who assisted In the operation. These completion 
reports are summarized by the department In an annual report on 
weather modification operations In California, This is the eighth 
report published in this series which summarizes completion reports 
submitted to the department since July 1952 . 

A detailed report which presents the theory of weather 
modification, evaluation of methods and results, and a history of 
cloud-seeding operations from July 19^7 through June 1952 was pub- 
lished by the State Water Resources Board in June 1955 as Bulletin 
No. l6, "Weather Modification Operations in California." 

SUMMARY OF 1962-63 OPERATIONS 
During the period October 1962 through September 1963, 
ten weather modification operations were conducted In California 
from Plumas County in the north to San Diego County in the south. 
Of the ten cloud-seeding projects, nine were for the stated purposes 
of increasing precipitation, and one was for suppressing hall. Five 
of these operations were concentrated along the western slope of 
the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and one was concentrated in the Central 
Coast Range for the purpose of increasing precipitation on watersheds 
above water conservation reservoirs or hydroelectric Installations. 
Precipitation increase was also the purpose of the three seeding 
projects in Southern California. The single hail suppression project 
covered most of the lower Sacramento Valley. Approximate areas 
affected by cloud -seeding operations during I962-63 are shown on 
Plate 1. 

-2- 



The year covered by this report was one of the better 
water supply seasons of recent history. A major portion of the 
total rainfall, which approached or exceeded the 50-year average 
in most areas, fell during the months of October, March, and 
April. Even though clouds with rain producing potential were avail- 
able for only relatively short periods, paralleling the weather of 
the 1961-62 season, the total number of days in which seeding took 
place increased by 46. 

During the I962-63 season, ten projects were conducted 
by nine licensees. The total operating time of ground based gener- 
ators on these projects was 23,952 hours. Nine operators used silver 
iodide as a nucleating agent for ground based generators, and one 
used non-toxic metallic haloids in an experimental project. Dry ice 
(solidified carbon dioxide) and silver iodide were used in air- 
borne generators in four of the projects. During this period an 
estimated 390,653 grams, or 861 pounds, of silver iodide, 3,527 
pounds of haloids, and 4,576 pounds of "dry ice" were released. 

The amount of silver iodide released during the I962-63 
season was I76 percent of that released during the 196I-62 season. 
Total operating time during the 1962-63 season was I5I percent of 
the previous season's. Of the 365 calendar days during the year 
covered by this report, seeding operations were conducted on 133 
days, as opposed to 87 days for the 196I-62 season. 

During the period covered by this report, no licenses 
expired, and License No. 25 was issued to KRC Service Corporation. 



-3- 



Table 1 lists all licenses which were active during the I962-63 
period . 

Projects conducted in California during the 1952-63 
season are listed in Table 2, together with pertinent data on 
number of generator-hours, rate of use of silver iodide, etc. Each 
project in the table is designated by a coding number consisting of 
three elements. The first element is the license number, the 
second indicates the water year, and the third is assigned in numer- 
ical sequence to projects undertaken by a licensee during the year 
as shown by published notices of intention filed with the department. 
This code number is used to identify the project for which the 
approximate target areas are shown on Plate 1 and for which the daily 
cloud-seeding operations are shown on Plate 2. 



-4- 



TABLE 1 

ACTIVE WEATHER MODIFICATION LICENSES 
DURING THE PERIOD OCTOBER I962 THROUGH SEPTEMBER I963 



License : 
Number : Licensee 

1 North American Weather Consultants 
Santa Barbara Municipal Airport 
Goleta, California 

5 Water Resources Development Corporation 
460 South Broadway- 
Denver 9 J Colorado 

6 Weather Modification Company- 
San Jose Municipal Airport 
San Jose 10, California 

12 Precipitation Control Company of California 
105 Pierce Street 
Taft, California 

l4 North American Weather Consultants of California 
Santa Barbara Municipal Airport 
Goleta, California 

18 Los Angeles County Flood Control District 
Box 24l8, Terminal Annex 
Los Angeles 54, California 

21 Atmospherics Incorporated 
3435 East Pontiac Way 
Fresno 3, California 

22 San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District 
355 North ' D" Street 

San Bernardino, California 

23 Pacific Gas and Electric Company 
245 Market Street 

San Francisco 6, California 

24 International Weather Control, Inc. 
40 West First Street, Suite 105 
Reno, Nevada 

25-"- KRC Service Corporation 
2956 C Street 
San Diego 2, California 



•K- License issued July 9, 1963 

-5- 



I- 

IS 



■p «> -«-> « 



£ £ £ £ £ £ 



ON ON 



a^ 




H On 


r- ri 


«-t H 


rH r^ 




li 


SI 



gl Is 



o -ri V o 



Ǥ 



a & 



« HI 

i S 



tod 

S c 



< «> DC 

st si 



4^ P< 

§§ 



§5 ^S 



gfe 



5-3 



o o 



SR 

«} o 



j:: C < 

+» o 



o tf c 

3 P. u tij 

c z S u i 



c 3 

lat; 

h U fH 



5^ 



vo vo 



VO ^O 



yD V£> 



OJ OJ 



SS 5 

t) H 5 



^ •s 



^, o o o 

GO O 

*-. ^ ti >, 

V ^ V Id 

-Ha) V 0) 

•HO of p. 

4h O 

u 5 b 

v « (ll p< 

>^•^ > ^ 

■H >rt » O 

a O -H ^ 



5 5°-|fe 

w o tf « +J 
> CO c 



e T3 TJ -H C W 

« « « V Tl • 
+) m 10 > * >» 



1^ =^l^ 



-6- 



CHAPTER 4, DIVISION 1 OF THE WATER CODE 



-7- 



CHAPTER 4, DIVISION 1 OF THE WATER CODE, STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

REGULATION OF RAIN -MAKING AND RAIN -PREVENTION 
^Chapter 4 added by Stats. 19133, Ch, 139? as part of codification) 



400. The public interest, health, safety, welfare, and necessity 
require that sclent j fie experimentation in the field of artificial 
nucleation, and that scientific efforts to develop. Increase, and 
regulate natural precipitation be encouraged, and that means be pro- 
vided for the regulation and control of interference by artificial 
means with natural precipitation of rain, snow, moisture, or water 

in any form contained in the atmosphere, within the State, in order 
to develop, conserve, and protect the natural water resources of 
the State and to safeguard life and property. 

401. As used in this chapter: 

(a) "Department' means the Department of Water Resources. 

(b) ''Person" means any person, firm, association, organi- 
zation, partnership, company, corporation, private or public, county, 
city, city and county, district, or other public agency. (Amended by 
Stats. 1959, Ch. 1269) 

402 . No person, without first securing a license from the 
department, shall cause or attempt to cause condensation or precipi- 
tation of rain, snow, moisture, or water in any form contained in the 
atmosphere, or shall prevent or attempt to prevent by artificial 
means the natural condensation or precipitation of rain, snow, moisture 
or water in any form contained in the atmosphere. 

403. Any person desiring to do any of the acts specified in 
Section ^ 402 may file with the department an application in writing 
for a license. Each application shall be accompanied by a filing 
fee fixed by the department with the approval of the Department of 
Finance but not to exceed fifty dollars ($50) and shall be on a form 
to be supplied for such purpose by the department. 



[l\ 



404. Every application shall set forth all of the following: 
The name and post-office address of the applicant. 
The previous education, experience, and qualifications of 
the applicant, or. If the applicant is other than an individual, 
the previous education, experience, and qualifications of the persons 
who will be in control of and charged with the operations of the 
applicant . 

(c) A general description of the operations which the applicant 
intends to conduct and the method and type of equipment that the 
applicant proposes to use. 



-9- 



(d) Such other pertinent information as the department may 
require. 

405. Upon the filing of the application upon a form supplied 
by the department and containing the information prescribed by 
this chapter and accompanied by the required filing fee the depart- 
ment shall issue a license to the applicant entitling the applicant 
to conduct the operations described in the application for the calen- 
dar year for which the license is issued, unless the license is sooner 
revoked or suspended. 

406. A license may be renewed annually upon application to the 
department, accompanied by a renewal fee fixed by the department 
with the approval of the Department of Finance but not to exceed 
twenty-five dollars ($25), on or before the last day of January of the 
calendar year for which the license is renewed. 

407. Prior to undertaking any operation authorized by the 
license the licensee shall file with the department and cause to be 
published a notice of intention. The licensee shall then confine 
his activities for that operation substantially within the time and 
area limits set forth in the notice of intention. 

408. The notice of Intention shall set forth all of the 
following: 

[a) The name and address of the licensee. 

,b) The nature and object of the intended operation and the 
person or persons on whose behalf it is to be conducted. 

(c) The area in which and the approximate time during which the 
operation will be conducted. 

(d) The area which will be affected by the operation as near 
as the same may be determined in advance . 

409. The licensee shall cause the notice of intention to be 
published pursuant to Section 6063* of the Government Code in a 
newspaper having a general circulation and published within any 
county wherein the operation is to be conducted and in which the 
affected area is located, or, if the operation is to be conducted in 
more than one county or if the affected area is located in more than 
one county or is located in a county other than the one in which 

the operation is to be conducted, then such notice shall be published 
in like manner in a newspaper having a general circulation and 
published within each of such counties. In case there is no newspaper 

* A copy of Government Code Section 6063 is appended to this excerpt 
from the Water Code. 



-10- 



published within the appropriate county, publication shall be made 
In a newspaper having a general circulation within the county, 
(Amended by Stats. 1955, Ch. 432, and by Stats. 1957, Ch. 448) 

410. Proof of publication shall be filed by the licensee with 
the department within 15 days from the date of the last publication 
of the notice. Proof of publication shall be by copy of the notice 
as published attached to and made a part of the affidavit of the 
publisher or foreman of the newspaper publishing the notice. 

411. Every licensee shall keep and maintain a record of all 
operations conducted by him pursuant to his license showing the 
method employed, the type of equipment used, the times and places of 
operation of the equipment, the name and post-office address of each 
person participating or assisting in the operation other than the 
licensee, and such other information as may be required by the 
department, and shall report the same to the department immediately 
upon the completion of each operation. 

412. Each licensee shall further prepare and maintain an 
evaluation statement for each operation which shall Include a report 
as to estimated precipitation, defining the gain or loss occurring 
from nucleatlon activities, together with supporting data therefor. 
This statement, together with such other pertinent information as 
the department may require, shall be sent to the department upon 
request by the department. 

413. Notwithstanding any provision of this chapter to the 
contrary, the department may grant a licensee permission to undertake 
an emergency nucleatlon project, without compliance by the licensee 
with the provisions of Sections 407 to 4lO, inclusive, if the same 
appears to the department to be necessary or desirable in aid of 
extinguishment of fires. 

413.5. Notwithstanding any provision of this chapter to the 
contrary, upon request of the board of supervisors of a county or 
of the governing body of a city or a public district of the State, 
and upon the submission of such supporting evidence as the depart- 
ment may require, the department may grant a licensee permission 
to undertake a nucleatlon project for the purpose of alleviating 
a drought emergency, without prior compliance by the licensee with 
the provisions of Section 40? requiring publication of notice of 
intention, if such project appears to the department to be necessary 
or desirable. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed 
as to relieve the licensee in such case from compliance with the 
provisions of Sections 407 to 4lO, inclusive, requiring publication 
of notice of Intention and filing of proof of such publication, as 
soon after the granting of permission by the department as is 
practicable. (Added by Stats. 1955, Ch. 1399) 



-11- 



414. Any license may be revoked or suspended if the department 
finds, after due notice to the licensee and a hearing thereon, that 
the licensee has failed or refused to comply with any of the pro- 
visions of this chapter. The proceedings herein referred to shall 
be conducted In accordance with the provisions of the Administrative 
Procedure Act, Chapter 5, Part 1, Division 3, Title 2 of the 
Government Code and the department shall have all the powers granted 
therein. 

415. Any person who violates any provision of this chapter Is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. 

NOTE 

The foregoing Is a true copy of Chapter 4, Division 1 of 
the Water Code as of 1/1/61. Persons directly concerned with any 
activities coming under the provisions of this chapter are urged 
to check with the department from time -to-time for any revisions that 
may be made by the Legislature. 

For convenience of those persons interested in publication 
requirements for notices of intention, the following is a copy of 
Section 6063 of the Government Code. 

6063. Publication of notice pursuant to this section shall be 
once a week for three successive weeks. Three publications in a 
newspaper regularly published once a week or oftener, with at least 
five days intervening between the respective publication dates not 
counting such publication dates, are sufficient. The period of notice 
commences upon the first day of publication and terminates at the 
end of the twenty-first day, including therein the first day. 
(Added by Stats. 19^9, Ch. 1587; amended by Stats. 1957, Ch. I67O, 
and by Stats. 1959, Ch. 95^) 



• 12- 




STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 

DIVISION OF RESOURCES PLANNING 

APPROXIMATE TARGET AREA 

OF 

WEATHER MODIFICATION OPERATIONS 

1962-63 



J'Xl^-^7"\'^\icf^-^- "''1-' 




\-r 







\ ^ 






■•^ 






X 






if . 






_.; ^ 


5>, 




^ 


"}' 




^ '"^ . 


Kv: 


, 


--r" 


iC 


(U) 





-13- 



OPEBA°TTO NOS 






OCTOBER 


5 30 






NOVE 


USER 


25 3 







DECS 


5 2 


3 2 


5 50 






J«N 


j«Rr 


2 


5 50 




' 


EBRU 


5 20 2 


^ 






"" 


CH 


20 


25 30 












































III! 






111 


MM 


Ml 




"" 












Ml 


III 




5-65-1 




































































J 






6-63-1 




































































12-63-1 










































































14-6S-1 










































































18-63-1 










































































21-63-1 










































































21-63-2 










































































22-63-1 
























i 






































- 






- 


- 






23-63-1 


































































25-63-1 
























































































































































































































































































































































































































































n, 



















MH 





















































OPERATION NO'S 






ap 




J , 


5 , 







" 


OY 




5 30 




JU 


NE 


2 




(, 




3 1 


S 20 2 


5 5C 




10 1 


UST 


5 5r 






SEPTEMBER 

15 20 25 3 











1 '" 






















1 




III 




Ml 


'" 




■ " 














III 


MM 


Mil 










5-63-1 






1 1 1 
































































6-63-1 




































































12-63-1 
































































14-63-1 




] 1 
































































18-63-1 




































































21-63-1 










































































21-63-2 










































































22-63-1 










































































23-63-1 








































































25-63-1 
















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































1' 


111 















































II 


IMI 


Ml 


MM 


III 


II 





DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES 1962 



CALENDAR OF WEATHER MODIFICATION OPERATIONS 

OCTOBER 1962 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 1963 

DAYS OF CLOUD SEEDING SHOWN IN GRAY 



-15- 



c.> 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 



BOOKS REQUESTED BY ANOTHER BORROWER 
ARE SUBJECT TO RECALL AFTER ONE WEEK. 
RENEWED BOOKS ARE SUBJECT TO 
r.. IMMEDIATE RECALL 



Mm 2 1992 



LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS 

D4613 (12/76) 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORN 



1175 02037 6706 



TC 


California. 


i 
Dept. of Water Resources. 


8?.k 


Bulletin. 




C2 






A? 






moJC, 


U-7Z 




PHYSiCAt 






SCIFNCES 






LinuAsr 






Jf 




^