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Full text of "Weaving calculations : a guide to calculations relating to cotton yarn and cloth and all processes of cotton weaving"

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THIRD EDITION. 



Cloth, crown 8vo, 6s. 

COTTON MANUFACTURING, 

By the Same Author. 

EIGHTY ILLUSTRATIONS. 

A complete Treatise on the Machinery, Processes, and 
Products of Cotton Weaving-. 






Weaving 
Calculations. 



A GUIDE TO CALCULATIONS RELATING TO COTTON 

YARN AND CLOTH AND ALL PROCESSES 

OF COTTON WEAVING. 



BY 



C. p. BROOKS, 

AUTHOR OF "COTTON MANUFACTURING;" 

Examiner to the City atid Guilds of London Instittite ; 

Sen. Honours Medallist, Cotton Manufacturing, 1887 ; 

Late Lecttirer on Cotton Spin?iing, Weaving, and Designings at 

the Blackburn Tecluiical Institutions. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



LONDON: E. & F. N. SPON, 125 STRAND. 

AND NEW YORK: 12 CORTLANDT STREET. 

MANCHESTER: C. P. BROOKS, HARPURHEY. 

JOHN HEYWOOD, DEANSGATE AND RIDGEFIELD. 
1893. 

{^Copyright — A II rights reserved. ] 






PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 




ANY books have in times past been published 
by authors whose object has been to explain 
the calculations of the weaving industries. 
This was more frequently the case in the 
earlier days of the trade than it has been in recent times, 
the first forty or fifty years of this century being prolific 
in this respect, some indeed being published even in the 
last century. The author has in his possession one dating 
so far back as 1779- The cause of so many works being 
published early in this century is explained by the fact 
that seventy to eighty years ago the introduction of 
power machinery was taking place rapidly, and the trade 
was consequently in a transition stage. Doubtless there 
would be much inquiry, and information would be in 
great demand on the subject of calculations connected 
with the trade and necessary for use. Thus books de- 
scriptive of the machinery, coupling with this the calcula- 
tions, supplied the demand. 

However, few, if any books exclusively on cotton 
weaving calculations have been published for twenty or 
thirty years, and the author, believing that such a one 
is wanted, publishes the present work to replace those 
which in their time have done good service to the manu- 
facturing interests of their day, but which are now out 



. ii-kH ? '^ 



vi PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 

of date. The object in the production of this book has 
been to tabulate and collect the various calculations and 
rules which from time to time are required in the manu- 
facturing industries, to adapt them for reference and for 
instruction. 

The author has endeavoured to provide a book of cal- 
culations, and not of descriptive explanation of machinery. 
For this the reader is referred to various books of his and 
other authorship. It has been borne in mind that such a 
book as the present one will have many readers among 
the younger members of the trade, and therefore the 
explanations and examples have been given at some 
length, and with as great simplicity as possible. For 
this reason intricate explanations, such as necessitate 
algebraical and other of the deeper classes of mathematics, 
have been avoided, for such are only passed over by the 
practical manufacturer, who desires simpHcity and clear- 
ness, and which tend to encourage the common opinion, 
formed not without reason, that technical education in 
some directions tends too much towards theory. 

It is probable that some rules have been omitted refer- 
ring to special branches of trade or systems of calculation 
with which the author may not be acquainted. Should 
any reader notice this, a communication from him will be 
gladly accepted. 

Blackburn, /w/j/ 1889. 




PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 

|N preparing the second edition for the press the 
author heartily thanks his numerous corre- 
spondents for their examination, their cor- 
rections, their criticisms, and their suggestions 
regarding the first edition. All these were welcome, and 
have aided in making this edition still more comprehensive 
and useful than its predecessor. In this edition many 
rules and examples have been added, several parts of the 
book have been rewritten, and further exercises from the 
City and Guilds' examination papers introduced. Recent 
alterations in standard wage lists necessitated the addition 
of three new ones, including the important Uniform List, 
which is given in full, with explanations and examples. 
Other sections which have been added to are those relat- 
ing to coloured cloth, yarn tables, warping calculations, 
and details of commercial usages. The author has still 
endeavoured to retain the clear and simple style of ex- 
planation which characterised the first edition, knowing 
that it is preferred by many students of the leading textile 
industry. He hopes that this edition will meet with the 
same approbation as was shown to the former one in an 
extensive circulation and by the many correspondents. 




Manchester, February 1S93. 



vn 



CONTENTS. 



cloth calculations ..... 

yarn calculations 

commercial notes 

speed and gearing calculations 

mensuration 

Winding, warping, and beaming calculations 

slashing or taping calculations 

loom calculations ..... 

wage lists and wage calculations . 

HEALD and REED CALCULATIONS . 
ENGINE CALCULATIONS ..... 
ARITHMETICAL RULES AND EXPLANATIONS . 
ANSWERS TO EXAMINATION QUESTIONS . 
INDEX 



13 

39 

54 

59 
66 

69 

78 

83 

lOI 

160 
170 

175 
182 

205 



READY INDEX OF LEADING RULES 
AND TABLES. 

PAGE 

Addenda to Uniform List 119 

Arithmetical Explanations . . . . . . • i7S 

Beaming Wages List 104 

Blackburn Weaving Wages List 124 

Burnley Weaving Wages List . . . . . . .132 

Casting-out for Jacquards ....... gg 

Chorley Fancy Weaving List 139 

Chorley Plain Weaving List 128 

Colne Coloured Goods List 152 

Coloured Goods, Weights and Costs ... 25, 193, 201 

Constant Numbers for Wrapping. Table V. ... 44 

Contraction or Milling-up in Weaving. Table I. . . 17 
Costing, Rating, or Quoting for Goods . . . -31 
(Examples of same at pp. 183, 184, 188, 193, 198, and 204.) 

Counts of Double Yarn 46 

Healds for Striped Cloth 197 

Horse-power of Engines 171' 

Looming Wages List 108 

Nelson Fancy Goods Wages List 141 

Oldham Velvet Wages List 149 

Pick Table. Table IX 96 

xi 



SMTI LIBRARY 



Xii INDE5C OF LEADING RULES AND TABLES. 



Picks to J Inch, Wheels to give various 

Picks to the Round, Wheels to give . 

Preston Weaving Wages List . 

Radcliffe Coloured Goods List 

Reed Systems, Comparison. Table XI. . 

Reeds for Striped Cloths 

Reeds to be Used. Table XII. 

Rope Driving (Power of Ropes). Table VII 

Scotch Yarn Numbering. Table VL 

Slashing or Taping Wages List 

Spaced Healds 

Speeds of Shafts 

Uniform List of Weaving Wages . 

Warping Wages List 

Weight of Beams. Table VIII. 
Weight of Piece from Small Sample . 

Weight of Warp 

Weight of Weft 

Weight Table for Yarn Wrapping. Table IV. 
Wheels for Tape Frame .... 
Wheels to Use for Picks. Table X. 

Winding Wages Lists 

Wrapping Rules and Tables 
Wrapping Table, 7's to 8o's. Table IV. 
Yarn Measure. Table II 



PAGE 

92, 96, 97, 191 
86 

135 
141 
165 
165 
169 

65 

47 

105 
166 

59 
110 

105 

77 
29 

H, 15 
20 

39 
80 

97 
102 

40-43 
42 

39 



{Fo?' complete Index, see page 205. ) 




Meavino Calculations* 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 

HESE are by far the most important to the 
textile manufacturer. It is to them that he 
must refer in settHng the price that he shall 
receive for his work ; on their accuracy in 
indicating the weight of twist or of weft that he shall 
give for a certain price, or the length or counts of yarn 
he shall use, a great deal of his success depends, and 
thus the maker of cotton goods endeavours to deduce 
with exactitude and nicety the amount necessary to repay 
him for the material, labour, and expense to which he is 
put in producing a piece of cloth. No two manufacturers 
work on exactly the same terms, conditions, classes ot 
fabrics, and rate of expense, and therefore each has to 
adopt rules best adapted to his own position and require- 
ments, and no rule can be given which shall be binding 
to all. These facts preclude the possibility of framing- 
hard and fast rules, but doubtless a few generalities will 
be found acceptable to many readers. 

To obtain the Weight of Twist required for a piece 

of cloth many methods are employed to suit particular 

13 



14 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

classes of fabrics on which people are engaged, but all 
systems can be traced to one common to each. 

Rule A, — Multiply the number of ends of twist by the 
length of warp from which the piece is made, divide this 
result by the number of yards in a hank, and also by the 
counts of yarn used. 

It will be clearly seen that by this means a compara- 
tively accurate result will be obtained. The number of 
ends or threads of twist multiplied by the length of warp 
required, obviously includes the whole of the twist in the 
piece in yards, and the division by the number of hanks 
and counts is made simply for the purpose of converting 
length into weight. The counts or numbers of cotton 
yarn mean the number of hanks contained in a pound, 
and 840 yards make a hank. A fuller explanation of this 
is given in the section on yarn calculations. 

Ends in a Piece. — Firstly, we must arrive at the 
number of ends in the piece of cloth by 

Ruie B. — Multiply the widlh in the reed by the number 
of ends in an inch of reed. 

The width in the reed is usually an inch or two wider 
than the cloth, and no arbitrary rule can be made by 
which the reed width can be obtained. It will be suffi- 
cient for our purpose if we take it at 5 per cent, more 
than the cloth width ; for wide light cloths it would pro- 
bably suffice, but for narrow ones 5 per cent, on the 
width would hardly be enough to allow, and the latter 
remark also applies to the heavily picked or heavily 
wefted fabrics. 

Example. — Forty-inch cloth made with a 56 reed, say 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 15 

5 per cent, added to 40 = 40 + 2 = 42 inches ^ in the 

reed multiplied by 56 = 

42 

252 
210 

2352 ends required. 

This gives us the first requirement of the Rule A. We 
now want the length of warp. 

It will be noted that no mention has been made of 
selvage ends or twisters. At the side of a piece of cloth 
the warp threads are laid together more closely to form 
a strong border, and thus a few extra ends are required 
to keep up the width. The number can only be exactly 
estimated by practice. In the case given, probably 32 
would be required, 16 for each side. The number neces- 
sary is greater where the cloth has to come up full width, 
or over-width, where coarse weft is used, or where the 
cloth is heavily picked. Fewer selvage ends will suffice 
where thin picks, fine weft, bastard reeds, &c., ar' .'^spd. 
The weighting of the beam, and the make and setting of 
the temples, also affect the number to be allowed. Usually 
it is customary to give 20 ends at each side, or a modifica- 
tion of this according to the class of the cloth. Often two- 
fold yarn is used for selvages, and in this case no number 
need be allowed for selvage ends, but it must be borne in 
mind that 20 ends or so at each side are double ones, and 
each end calculated as two in getting the weight out. 

It may be stated that many practical manufacturers, in 
calculating for quotation purposes, do not trouble to add 

^ For an explanation of the signs used, and also of various arithmetical 
lules, see section on arithmetical rules and explanations.. 



1 6 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

the selvage ends as such, as it rather complicates the 
calculation, and trust to the allowance they make for 
contraction on the width, or the fact of the twist stretch- 
ing and becoming finer during working, to cover the 
selvage ends. For this reason, the reader will note the 
omission in most of the following examples. 

However, in putting orders into work and getting out 
the necessary particulars, such as the ends for warping, 
it is absolutely necessary to consider them. 

Length of Warp. — Different names are given to this, 
such as cut length, tape length, slashing length ; but they 
all mean the length of twist used for a piece of cloth. 
This is longer than the piece itself, because of the 

Contraction or Milling* up which takes place during 
weaving. The thread bends round the weft to a small 
extent, and if removed after having been woven would 
appear sHghtly wavy, and, of course, in that form occupies 
a shorter length than would a straight thread. It is 
difficult to give a hard and fast scale for this milling up, 
which, along with the allowance for extra ends, varies 
greatly with the class of cloth made, counts used, the class 
of looms employed, the weather, or the system of sizing. 

The author has at various times made many experiments 
and gone to considerable trouble in endeavouring to deduce 
formulae, based on accurate mathematical principles, that 
shall apply to contraction correctly in all varieties of 
cloths, and has seen the same attempted in various publi- 
cations, but in all cases unsuccessfully. The causes 
named above upset the most well-formed theories, and 
nothing but practical observation applied in repeat orders 
can be thoroughly successful. It is possible, however, to 
arrive at approximate rules for medium plain cloth only. 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 



17 



One Rule C for ascertaining the, contraction is to mul- 
tiply the picks in a quarter of an inch by 12 and divide by 
the counts of iveft. 

This, apart from the differences caused by the local cir- 
cumstances just mentioned, is comparatively accurate for 
counts of twist and weft from 25's to 50' s, and picks from 
10 to 20 to the quarter inch. For higher picks 13 must 
be taken as the multipher. A table framed on the above 
rule would be as under : — 

Table I.— Approximate Percentage of Contraction 

in Warps. 



Picks per 

Quarter 

Inch. 


Counts of Weft. 


24's. 


30's. 


36's. 


42's. 


4S's. 


10 
12 

14 
16 

18 

20 


5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 


4 

4l 
5l 
6| 

7i 
8 


1^ 
63 

4 

4! 

5i 
6 

6| 


2f 

4 

4f 

5f 


4 

3 

02 

4 

4j 

5 



Or in decimals — a more convenient method :- 


- 


Picks per 




Counts of Weft. 




Quarter 
Inch. 








24's. 


30's. 


36's. 


42's. 


48'S. 


10 


5 


4.0 


3-33 


2.85 


2.5 


12 


6 


4.8 


4.00 


3-43 


3-0 


14 


7 


5.6 


4.66 


4.0 


3-5 


16 


8 


6.4 


5-33 


4.57 


4.0 


18 


9 


7.2 


6.00 


5-14 


4-5 


20 


10 


8.0 


6.66 


5-71 


5-0 



1 8 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Example. — Supposing we made a 90-yard piece with 
42's weft and 14 pick. The table allows 4 per cent., then 
we should slash it 93 yards 22 inches, 3 yards 22 inches 
being 4 per cent.^ on 90 yards. 

Another rule — a useful one from its simplicity — is : — 

Rule CI. — Multiply the length in yards of piece required 
by the picks per inch^ and divide by the counts of weft. 
The answer is the number of inches that should be allowed. 

This rule does not bring the cloth out quite as long as 
the Rule C, but, with this exception, is quite as reliable 
for a limited range of counts and picks. 

Example. — A piece is required to be 17 J- yards long, 
12 picks of 42's weft per quarter inch, 17J yards X 48 
picks per inch divided by 42's gives 20 inches to allow. 
Thus the warp length would be 18 yards 2 inches. 
Ans. 18 yards 2 inches. 

All the remarks on contraction on the preceding pages 
must be understood to refer to getting bare lengths on 
medium makes of plain cloth only. There is a great variety 
in thie allowances that have to be made for contraction in 
fancy goods. A twill ground cloth requires much less 
allowance than a plain ; and some others, where the warp 
only interweaves at comparatively distant points, such as 
8 end satins, hardly take up at all. On the other hand, 
certain threads in such cloths as crimps, leno, and other 
gauze fabrics, and in some quiltings, towellings, and piques, 
take up so much that the high percentage of contraction 
necessitates their being woven from separate beams, as 
there are two and even three beams at one loom. 

The counts of the warp yarn also make a considerable. 

^ For an explanation of percentage, see section on arithmetical rules and 
explanations. 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 1 9 

difference; 20's twist, for example, contracts more quickly 
than 32's. 

As a matter of fact, although we add a certain per- 
centage to the length that we intend the cloth to be, in 
order to ascertain the length of warp, the contraction 
does not take place on the cloth length, but on the warp 
length. Thus, if there is 10 per cent. ac^7ial conirsLCtion 
on a certain piece of cloth which is required to be 100 
yards in length, 10 per cent, on 100 would not suffice. 
Ten per cent, added to 100 is 1 10. Ten per cent, con- 
traction on no yards is no X 10 -f- 100 =11 yards, 
which would only leave 99 yards of cloth. 

This is the reason why 13 has to be taken as multi- 
plier on heavier picked cloth instead of 12. The allow- 
ance for contraction increases in greater proportion than 
the increase of picks. The reader, however, will find 
a sufficient percentage of allowance in Table I., if taken 
on the cloth length only. 

There has now sufficient explanation been given for 
us to apply the Rule A. 

Example. — Take a 40-inch 7 5 -yard cloth, made with 
60 reed, 30's twist, and 36's weft — 15 picks to the 
quarter inch. 

Add 5 per cent, to the width = 40 -f- 2 = 42 inches. 

42 width. 
60 
2520 ends required. 

The rate of contraction according to Rule C. is 12 x 

15 -h 36 = 5 per cent. 

75 yards + 5 per cent. 

75 + 3 yards and 27 inches = 78 yards 27 inches, 

which is the length of warp. 



!0 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



2520 X 78 yards 27 inches = 198450 yards twist. 

We have now to divide by 840 (yards to a hank) and 
by the counts of twist (30's). 



840)198450(236^ 
1680 




3045 
2520 


30)2361(7 lbs. 14 oz 


5250 


210 


5040 


26I 


210 1 


16 


840 * 


4 
156 
26 




420(14 




30 


ns. 7 lbs. 14 oz. 


120 




120 



Weight of Weft. 
To find the weight of weft in a piece. 

Rule D. — Multiply the width in the yeed by the picks in 
an inch, and by the length in yards of the piece when woven, 
and divide by the counts of weft and the number of yards 
in a hank. 

The explanation that has been given before about the 
width at which the twist stands in the reed applies to 
the above rule for the weft. It is necessary to take this 
width, which is wider than the cloth actually measures, 
in consequence of the weft contracting in a waved line, 
thus ^^.,,.-.,.....,.^..,...^..^..,..^, just as we have explained regarding 
the twist. 

There is an apparent omission in the above rule in 
stating: — Multiply the picks in an inch by the width, 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 21 

and then by the length in yards. We ought really to 
multiply by 36 to get the number of picks in a yard, 
but then we should have a result in inches, because we 
took the width of cloth in inches, so instead of multiply- 
ing by 36 and dividing also by 36, we take the result as 
being in yards. Thus, if the yarn in the reed is 40 
inches and picks per inch 60, we get 40 x 60 = 2400 
inches of weft in an inch of cloth, which is taken as 
2400 yards of weft in a yard of cloth. Thus 2400 X 36 
inches = 86,400, and divided by 36 to reduce it to yards 
gives 2400 yards, which is the same result. 

Example. — For the length the actual number of yards 
on the counter is taken. Thus, for a cloth 40 inches 
wide, 75 yards long, 36's weft, 15 picks to the quarter 
inch, the quantity of weft is obtained as under : — 

Width in reed 42 inches 
Picks in i inch 60 
2520 

Length 75 

12600 
17640 



840 yds.) 1 89000(225 hanks 
1680 
2100 
1680 
4200 
4200 
36's weft)225(6 lbs. 4 ozs. 
216 

9 

16 ozs. 



144 

Ans. 6 lbs. 4 ozs. 144 



22 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Reeds and Wheels Necessary for Various Cloths.— 

At pages 169 and 97 are given tables showing the right 
reeds and wheels suitable for giving various numbers of 
ends and picks to the quarter inch. 

Scotch System of Calculating Weights. 

The Scotch system of numbering reeds and picks would 
necessitate rather different procedure from the foregoing. 
It would be described as a 40-inch, 75 yards, ii°° reed, 
1 1 shots on the glass, 30's twist, and 36's weft. 

ii°° reed means iioo dents or splits on 37 inches, i.e., 
2200 ends. As the warp is 42 inches wide at the reed, 
we get the ends by multiplying 2200 by 42 and dividing 
by 37, thus arriving at 2498 ends. To get the weight of 
twist, follow our previous Rule A. 

2498 X 785 yards -r 840 and 30. 
2498 
78f 



19984 


3o)234K7 lbs. i2j^^o ozs. 


T7486 


210 


1249 


24I 


624 


16 


840)196717(234^ 


3 


1680 


144 


2871 


24 


2520 


387 


3517 


30 


3360 


87 



■^ — about i 

840 ^ i7__9_ 

Ans. 7 lbs. i2j^o0z. 30 1^ 

Shots on the glass means picks in the Scotch glass 
of 2-^^ part of 37 inches. 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 23 

Rule E. — To get weft weight then we take width X shots 
on glass X 200, divide by 37 to reduce result to yards, by 
counts and by yards in a hank. 

Example. 

42 X II X 200 X 75 -f 37 and 36's and 840. 
Ans. 6.19 lbs. 

Weig'ht of Yarn in Stripe Cloth. — In many fabrics 
the yarn is not evenly distributed over the surface of the 
cloth, but arranged in stripe form. Suppose, for instance, 
the example previously given (40-inch, 75 yards, 60 reed, 
15 picks, 36's weft) had alternate stripes of I inch 60 
reed 2 in a dent, 30's twist, and J- inch 60 reed 4 in a 
dent, 40's twist, ending at each side with the stripe of 
30's twist. 

Then there would be 39 inches of alternate stripes. 39 
divided by the space of two stripes (ij inches) gives 26 
stripes of 40's twist and 26 of 30's twist. Add one stripe 
to the 30's twist for the extra one at the side, making 27. 
To get the ends of 30's twist add the contraction, 5 per 
cent., to the number 60, that being the ends in an inch of 
reed, 60+5 per cent. = 63 ; there are 27 stripes, there- 
fore there are 63 x 27 = 1701 ends. The rule previously 
given for getting the weight of twist is now taken, and 
we get 1701 X 78f ~- 840 and 30 = 5 lbs. 5 J ozs. 

Then there are 26 stripes of 40's twist. Half inch of 
60 reed 4 in a dent gives 60 ends + 5 per cent. = 63 X 26 
stripes = 1638 ends. 1638 X 78f -=- 840 and 40 = 3 lbs. 
13J ozs. 

Rule F. — To obtain weight of warp yarn for striped 
goods, we obtain the number of stripes of each colour or 



24 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

counts, and the ends in each stripe^ add the contraction to 
the ends in each stripe, and multiply by the numher of stripes. 

The result is the number of ends, when the previous Rule 
A. can be followed. The same plan must be adopted for 
each sort of stripe in the piece. 

We have just considered cloths in which the arrange- 
ment of the twist varies, and may now calculate for the 
differentiation of the weft in the same manner. 

Example. — Take a satin stripe cloth to be made with 
24 picks of plain followed by 36 picks satin. In the plain, 
the ratchet to take up as usual, but in the satin there are 
to be two picks of weft for one tooth taken up. The 
cloth to be 32 inches wide, 82 yards long, 32's/4o's, 17 
picks per quarter where plain. Find the average picks of 
weft and the weight of weft per piece. 

Rule G. — Find the average picks per inch, and proceed 
as in an ordinary calculation. 

In a yard of cloth woven 1 7 picks to the quarter there 
should be 17 X 4 X 36 = 2448 picks. 

In the above cloth 36 picks of satin take up the space 
of 18 plain. There are also 24 plain, so the double stripe 
occupies the space of 42 picks. 

42)2448(58! stripes in a yard. 
210 

^^ 
336 18 picks extra in each satin stripe. 

12 2 

42 ~ 7 

18 multiplied by 58f = 1049^ 
added to 2448 

3497-7- 
3497t picks per yard, averaging 97 f picks per inch. 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 



25 



Adopting Rule D. — 

34 ^ 97t X 82 h- 40's X 840 = 8.06 lbs. 
Ans. Average picks, 97y; weight weft, 8.06 lbs. 

Coloured Cheeks and Stripes.— In the weaving of 
coloured goods, such as ginghams, oxfords, harvards, 
flannelettes, the ordinary rules given are almost always 
required, in a modified form, in costing or rating the goods, 
and also in getting out the particulars with which to put 
the cloth in work, both necessitating the separate weights 
of each different colour and counts. 

Rule H. — When there are different colours of warp in 
the one clothe apply Rules A. and B., but divide the weight 
in proportion to the number of ends of each colour in the 
warp plan. When there are different colours of weft of the 
same counts^, work out the weight by Rule D., but apportion 
it according to the picking plan. If the various colours are 
also different in counts, it must be apportioned when the 
number of hanks have been ascertained. 

Example. — Find the particulars of each colour in a piece 
of cloth 32 inches wide, 80 yards long, 58 reed, 16 pick, 
24's twist, i8's red weft, i6's white weft, i8's blue weft, 
allowing 90 yards of warp, and 5 per cent, for waste. 

Woven 2 red 



4 white 
2 blue 
4 white 
4 blue 
2 white 
4 blue 
4 white 
2 blue 
4 wh ite 
32 picks, 



) Warped the same. 



26 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

In the colour plan out of every 32 ends, there are 2 
red, 18 white, 12 blue. 

Warp. — 34 inches x 58 reed, allowing 28 for selvage, 
gives 2000 ends. 

Of these, 2 out of 32 would be red = 125 ends. 
18 ,, „ white = 1 125 „ 

12 „ „ blue = 75Q » 

2000 ,, 

To get the weight of warp apply Rule A.— 
1125 X 90 



840 X 24 

125 X 90 
840 X 24 



- 5.022 
= -558 



750 X 90 _ 



3-348 



^4° X 24 s;^ lbs. 

The calculation could have been made — 
2000 X 90 



840 X 24 



= 8.928 lbs. 



and the weight apportioned, but in this case the separate 
ends for each warp would not have been obtained, and as 
it is necessary to have these, in order to make separate 
warps to dye to the different colours, the mode given is 
best. If white selvages are required, a little less weight 
of red and blue will be used, and correspondingly more 
white. 

Weft.— AY>v\y Rule D.— 

M_i^ — ° — 4 _ 207.24 hanks of weft used 207.24 
°4o Add waste, 5 percent. 10.36 

Total hanks required, 217.6 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 2/ 

The picks are in the proportion of 2 red, i8 white, and 
12 blue, the same as in the warp. 

Out of every thirty-two hanks, — 
two are red equalling 13.6 hanks, divided by the 

counts i8's ....... = .755 

eighteen are white equaUing 122.4 hanks, divided by 

the counts i6's . . . . . . = 7.65 

twelve are blue equalling 81.6 hanks, divided by the 

counts i8's . * . . . . . . = 4-54 

lbs. 12.94 

Had all the weft been one counts, say i6's, the best 
plan would have been to work the calculation — 

34 X 80 X 64 
840 X 16 

Add 5 % waste 



A" ^'^ TW 0^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ -^5 
^f or y^^ of this is white =7.65 

If or f of this is blue = 5-i 



After calculating the weight of warp and weft at the 
market prices, the additions to these figures are then made 
for dyeing the warp at the usual price for each colour, 
dressing the warp, drawing or twisting it, and all other 
wages and expenses. The total is divided by the length 
of cloth on counter, to give the unfinished price per yard. 
Where the goods are delivered finished, then an addition 
has to be made for the specific finishing process that it has 
to go through, or in the case of flannelettes, for raising, &c. 
Divided by the finished length, which is longer than the 
grey length, we obtain the finished price per yard. Many 
coloured manufacturers get out tables of prices per piece 




28 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

or per yard to cover all these extras, and save themselves 
considerable trouble in calculation. 

All the preceding calculations are for cotton goods. 
Should other materials be used, we must divide by a 
different number of yards in the hank in each case. We 
give 840 for cotton ; for worsted we should take 560, for 
linen 300, and for single silk 840. (See section on Yarn 
Calculations.) 

Leng"tli of Yarn in Cloth. 

Rule J. — To get the length of twist in a piece of cloth y 
multiply number of ends by length of warp. 

Rule K. — To get length of weft in a piece of cloth, 
multiply width in reed in inches by picks in i inch^ and 
by length of piece when woven. 

Counts to g*ive Certain Weig'htS. — In many in- 
stances it is necessary to arrive at the counts of yarn 
necessary to give a certain weight of cloth, the width, 
length, reed, pick, and weight being given. 

Rule L. — Find the length of yarn in the piece, reduce it 
to hanks, and divide this by the weight in pounds. The 
result will be the average counts of twist and weft. 

Example. — Take a piece 60 inch, 40 yards, 50 reed, 
12 picks, to be 6 lbs. Length of twist (Rule J), 60+5 
per cent. = 63 inches at reed. 40 yards plus say 5 per 
cent, for milling up = 42 yards. 

63 X 50 X 42 

3150 

42 

6300 
12600 
132300 yards twist. 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 29 

Weft (Rule K). — 63 x 48 picks x 40 yards = 



63 

_48 

504 

252 

3024 


3024 
40 

120960 yards weft. 




Length twist = 132300 
„ weft = 120960 




840)253260(301! hanks 
2520 



1260 

840 

420 

6 lbs.)30iJ(5oJ's yarn 

3^ 

li 

Should this be too fine for the twist and too coarse for 

the weft, as, for instance, when it is desirable to use 40's 

twist, the method adopted is to calculate the weight of 

40's twist required, and deduct this from the 6 lbs., and 

from the balance the counts of weft can be obtained 

thus — 

. - , . . , 132300 ,, 
132300 yards of 40 s twist weigh ^ ~=3 lbs. 15 ozs., 

then the weft weighs 2 lbs. i oz. 

120960 yards of weft= 144 hanks. 

144 hanks divided by 2 lbs. i oz. = 69.8 counts weft. 

To find Weight of a Piece from a Small Sample.— 

It is frequently necessary in the cotton cloth trade to 
estimate the weight or price of a piece of cloth from a 
small sample. This may be done either by comparing 



30 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

different pieces of known counts of yarn, reed, and pick 
with the sample until an exactly similar one be found, or 
another system is to pick out certain lengths of threads, 
if the size of the sample will allow, and wrap them as 
will be described. The weight of a piece can, however, 
be calculated almost exactly from a small sample, and 
thus a method of ascertaining the weight is obtained 
which can be used either with the previously mentioned 
ones as a check or independently. 

Rule M. — Multiply the weight in grains of the small 
sample by the number of square inches in a yard of the 
required cloth, and divide by the number of square inches 
in the sample and 43 7 J. The answer is the weight in 
ounces of one yard of the required cloth. 

Example. — A piece of cloth 3 inches by ij inches 
weighs 10 grains. What will be the weight of a yard, and 
also the weight of a 371 yard piece 40 inches wide ? Thus 
a yard contains 40 X 36 = 1440 square inches. The 
number of square inches in-the pattern is 3 X i| = 4.^- 

Multiply 1440 by 10 and divide by 4 J and 43 7 J gives 
7.314 ozs. as the weight of a yard. 7.314 multiphed by 
37|- yards and divided by the number of ounces in a lb. 
(16) gives the weight per piece, 17.142 lbs. 

Ans. 7.314 ozs. ; 17.142 lbs. 

There is now in use, to a considerable extent, a yarn 
assorting balance adapted for ascertaining the counts of 
small samples of yarn such as can be extracted from 
small pieces of cloth. It is Staub's balance, and the mode 
of operation is to cut a small square out of the cloth 
exactly the size of a little brass templet supplied with 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 3 1 

the instrument. Each of the pieces of weft in this scrap 
are of course of the same length, and the balance is so 
arranged that the number of threads that turn the scale 
indicates the counts. Thus 32 threads would indicate 
32's counts. The same thing applies to the warp threads 
out of the same sample, excepting that an allowance has 
to be made for the weight of size. 

The reader will readily understand the principle of 
this machine when he calls to mind the fact that if an 
ordinary pair of scales were used with a i lb. weight at 
one end and a number of knots of yarn at the other, each 
being exactly one hank or 840 yards in length, it is clear 
that the counts of the yarn would be shown by the 
number of knots that balanced the I lb. weight. This 
principle is adopted in Staub's balance, the necessary 
modifications required in such a delicate balance, dealing 
with such minute weights, being made. It is surprising 
that such accurate results are obtained with the instru- 
ment in question when the fact of the normal variation of 
yarn counts is considered. 

Costing", Rating, or Quoting for Cloth. — The object 
of all the preceding calculations, or at least the principal 
use of them, is to prepare for ascertaining the cost of the 
fabric. Whether the weight of the warp be obtained by 
applying Rules A. and B. or by Rule F., or the weight of 
the weft by Rules D. or E. or G., whether from full 
particulars provided, or from a scrap pattern, the prime 
cost per piece or per yard is usually desired. The weight 
of twist is taken at the market price, the weight of weft 
calculated at the same, the price for weaving calculated 
by one or other of the systems described in a later 
portion of this book, and then remains the- allowances 



32 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

that have to be made for winding, warping, sizing, wages, 
management expenses, coal, taxes, rent, oil, belting, car- 
riage, commission, discount, and the scores of other 
expenses appertaining to the manufacture of cloth. It is 
of course impossible to calculate the exact amount to 
allow for each of these items for every different piece of 
cloth, or even to consider them separately, while a cus- 
tomer may be waiting on 'Change or at the telephone for 
the price. It is therefore not unusual to consider for 
an ordinary make of plain fabric that all these expenses 
are covered if a sum is added equal to the amount paid 
for weaving the piece. Even this is not a hard and fast 
rule, as the state of the markets have to be taken into 
consideration. 

Taking the cloth given in a previous example, viz. : — 

40 inch, 75 yards, 60 reed, 15 picks per quarter, 
30's twist, 36's weft. 



'O' 



00 



Weight of warp as previously ascer- ) ^ 
tained, 7.875 lbs. at 8d. .. . j 

Weight of weft, 6.25 lbs. at 8d. . 50.00 

Weaving wage, by uniform list less 
10 per cent. .... 

Estimate for expenses, one weaving (^ 
wage . . . . . . j 



20.25 
20.25 



153*50 o^ I2S. Qid. 

The total of these gives the price for a 75 yard piece of 
cloth. As explained under the heading of coloured goods, 
the price of the cloth has sometimes to be given in a 
finished state and per yard. In other goods, especially 
those of fancy weave, extras have to be added for expenses 
over and above ordinary cloths, such as special warping, 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 33 

special heading, card cutting, harness mounting or tieing 
up, coloured borders, extra sizing, and many other ex- 
penses. Most manufacturers lay themselves out for 
certain classes of goods, and thus can tell to a nicety 
what to allow for such extras to suit their own position 
and circumstances. 

Pereentag'e of Size Required. — Sizing the warp is 
necessary in weaving single yarn, and it is often desir- 
able to fix beforehand the percentage of size, so as not 
to put on too much or too little. 

Suppose a 38 inch, 2)7i yards, 72 reed by 17 picks, 
3o's/4o's has to weigh 8 lbs., and we desire to ascertain 
the percentage of size. 

By the Rule A., previously given, the weight of twist 
is 40 X 72 X 39 J -^ 840 X 30, which gives 4J lbs. or there- 
abouts. 

The weight of weft = 40 x 68 x 37J-^ 840x40 is 3 lbs. 
and J oz. 

4 lbs. 8 ozs. added to 3 lbs. J oz. = 7 lbs. 8|- ozs. 
Deduct this from 8 lbs. = y^ ozs. of size on 4J lbs. of 
twist. 

4^ lbs. = 72 ozs.);. 5 ozs.(io.4i per cent. 

72 

300 
288 



120 



The standard makes of cotton cloth are fully described 
in the author's book on ^' Cotton Manufacturing." 

Symmetry of Cloth.— In fabrics other than cotton it 
is necessary to utiHse many calculations for the purpose 
of preserving a proper balance in their fabrication. In 

c 



34 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

the worsted trade especially, where few retilly plain fabrics 
are made, and where each cloth has some special feature 
caused either in design or colouring, or use of various 
counts or sorts of yarn, it is necessary to make ranges 
of cloth of a particular pattern, each being perfect in 
the relation of grist of yarn to closeness of sett, and yet 
varying in weight. It is necessary to change from one 
pattern of cloth to another, and calculate the counts of 
yarn or sett which shall give as firm a weave in the 
second cloth as the first, and sometimes this question of 
preserving the '' balance of cloth " arises in using a new 
material to replace one previously used. In the cotton 
trade these questions seldom arise, the standard makes of 
cloth are made out of the same yarns, and if the question 
of forming a new fabric has to be contended with, patterns 
are easily made, often without much expense. 

The majority of cotton fabrics do not depend for their 
utiHty on the nicety of selection of yarns and propor- 
tioning of grists and setts, such as do the worsted 
cloths, which have more important functions to perform ; 
and we therefore do not give many formulse for these 
calculations. 

A thorough and comprehensive explanation of one 
part of this subject was given over forty years ago in a 
book by Murphy, and we cannot do better than reprint 
his remarks, altering the wording slightly to adapt it to 
modern necessities, and giving the Stockport counts of 
reed as an example instead of the Scotch system, such 
as he adopted. 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 35 



Caaming, Sleying, or Setting. 

'' These terms are severally employed to denote the 
proportioning of the grists or fineness of warps to the 
different setts of reeds, so as to preserve a uniformity of 
fabric in the same species of cloth. In order to explain 
what is meant by the word fabric, let us suppose that a 
piece of cloth is woven in any sett of reed, as, for in- 
stance, a 60, and that the diameters of the warp threads 
and the small spaces between them are exactly of the 
same size. Then, if we have another piece of cloth of 
the same texture, woven, for example, in an 80 reed, the 
diameters of the warp threads being also equal to the 
intervening spaces, then these two sizes of cloth are said 
to be of the same fabric, although the one is a third finer 
than the other, so that, when the diameters of the threads 
are greater than the spaces, the fabric is proportionately 
stouter, and the reverse when they are smaller. Now, 
the method of determining the several grists of yarn that 
will preser\^e the uniformity of fabric through the different 
setts of reed depends on the following analogy : — 

As the square of a given reed : 
To the grist of yarn that suits that sett : : 
So is the square of any other sett of reed : 
To its respective grist for the same fabric. 

'' The reason for this rule will evidently appear by con- 
sidering the threads of warp when stretched in the loom 
as so many cylinders of equal length or altitude, and the 
reed as the scale which measures the space in which a 
given number of these threads are contained; therefore 



36 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

the solidities of those in any sett of reed will be to the 
solidities of those in any other sett of reed as their bases, 
or, which is the same thing, as the squares of their 
diameters, by p. ii, b. 12 of Euclid. But the weights of 
the cylinders or threads, supposing them of the same 
density, will be as their solidities, and a determinate 
number of splits or dents of any reed, or rather the 
interval between them, may be substituted for the 
diameters of the warp threads which pass through them : 
therefore, by the last analogy, it will be as the square 
of the number of splits in any given reed to the known 
weight or grist of yarn, so is the square of any number 
of splits, occupying the same space, to the weight or grist 
of yarn that will produce cloth of the same fabric, which 
is the rule given above." 

The rule may be expressed : — 

Rule N. — To find counts of yarn for a change of reed 
which shall suit the new reed as well as the first counts 
suited the old reed, midtiply the reed of the new cloth squared 
by the counts of yarn in the old cloth, and divide by the 
square of the reed in the old cloth ; or what comes to the 
same, multiply the reed of the new cloth by the square root 
of the counts of yarn in the old cloth, and divide by the reed 
in the old cloth. Square the residt, and it gives the counts 
required. 

Example. — An example is found by supposing with 
25's twist in a 6o's reed that the space between the ends 
is equal to the diameter of the thread, and that we desire 
to find the yarn that should produce the same effect in a 
70 reed. 

As 60 squared is to 70 squared so 25's is to the result. 



CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 37 

or 70 squared x 25's -i- 60 squared gives the counts 
required. 

Tlie square of 70 = 4900 

» 3J 60 = 3600 

4900 X 25 = 122500 

36oo)i2 2 5oo(343Vs twist 
10800 

14500 

14400 

100 

Using the alternative rule, square root of 25's X 70 -r 60 
gives the square root of the result. 

5x70 = 350 

60)350(51 
• 300 

60 
The square of 5f = S4^q's twist. 
Ans. 343Vs- 

The preceding rules are used vice versa for finding 
suitable counts of reeds for different yarns, viz., to find a 
suitable reed in which to make a similar cloth to a given 
one but with different yarn. 

Rule 0. — Multiply the square of the given reed by the 
counts of the new yarn, and divide by the old yarn. Take 
the square root and you have the desired result ; or inultiply 
the given reed by the square root of the counts of the new 
yarn, and divide by the square root of the old yarn. 

Example. — A cloth is made with 60 reed and 25's 



38 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

twist. What reed should be used with i6's twist to give 
a similar cloth ? 

The square of 60 x 16 ^ 25 = 2304. The square root of 
2304 = 48 reed 
or 

The square root of 16 x 60 4- the square root of 25 = 48. 

An example of changing the reed and pick for a change 
of pattern is given among the answers to examination 
questions, as is also a change of yarns to give an equally 
firm cloth in a twill as in a plain weave. 




YARN CALCULATIONS. 

jROM the earliest stage of the cotton industry 
it has been found necessary to have some 
method of indicating the thickness of cotton 
threads, and there has gradually been built up 
a table indicating this by weight, a system which seems 
to be common to the whole of the British cotton trade. 
840 yards are taken as a hank, and the number of hanks 
contained in a pound avoirdupois of 7000 grains is known 
variously as the counts, grist, size, or numbers of cotton 
yarn. Thus 20's has 840 X 20 = 16,800 yards in a lb. 
A yarn that has 52 X 840 yards in a lb. is called 52's. 
The thinner the thread the higher it is numbered. The 
numbers or counts signify the number of times that the 
yarn is finer than I's. 
The complete Table (II.) of Measurement is — 

I J yards = i thread or circumference of a wrap reel. 
120 „ =80 threads = i lea. 
840 5, =560 threads =7 leas=i hank. 

The Table of Weights is a peculiar one, being a 
pound avoirdupois divided into the troy weight denomi- 
nations of pennyweights and ounces. 

Table III. 

24 grains = i dwt. 
437i 5J =^^48 dwt. = 1 oz. 
7000 ,, =291! ,, =i6oz. — lib. 
39 



40 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

The first line only of the table is used. 
The system just described applies both to twist and 
weft. 

Wrapping' Yarn. — The practical way of testing the 
counts of yarn is to wind on a wrap reel 120 yards of 
yarn and weigh this, dividing its weight in grains into 
1000. Thus the thinner a thread is, the less it will 
weigh, and therefore a higher count is got by dividing 
this smaller weight in grains into the number given. 

A short explanation is necessary as to the manner in 
which we get at the number 1000. 

I's yarn contains I hank in i lb., 

therefore it contains 840 yards in 7000 grains, 

or one-seventh of this, 120 „ in 1000 „ 

As 840 yards would be too much to wrap, we take 
one-seventh of the length and also one-seventh of the 
corresponding weight as a standard. 

lo's yarn is ten times as fine as I's, and 120 yards of 
it weigh 100 grains. 

1000 divided by 100 = lo's counts. 

We should only get the same result if we took 840 
yards, which would weigh 700 grains divided into the 
weight of 840 yards of i's, i.e., 7000 grains, we get 
7000 -^ 700 = ten times as fine as i's or lo's counts. 

Rule A. — To find the cotmts, wrap 120 yards, weigh it, 
and divide the weight in grains into 1000. 

Example. — Should 120 yards of yarn be wrapped and 
found to weigh 25 grains, then lOOO -f 25 = 40's. More 
than one cop might be taken, and the leas weighed 
together. Suppose 4 cops are wrapped, i lea or 120 
yards off each, and found to weigh 3 dwts. and 8 grains, 



YARN CALCULATIONS. 4I 

four times looo must be taken as the dividend, that is 

4000. 

3 dwts. 8 grains = 8o)4ooo(5o's counts. 
4000 

Table IV. is a comprehensive one giving the counts 
of all yarns from 7's to Bo's, as shown by the weight of 
either one lea, three leas, or four leas. The table is self- 
explanatory, and the reader will easily see that if one lea 
is wrapped from either one cop, three cops, or four cops, 
and the weight ascertained in grains, a reference to Table 
IV. gives the exact counts worked out to two decimal 
places. 

With each copy of this book is presented a copy of 
Table IV., printed in suitable form for mounting on 
cardboard, and hanging in a mill or other office for 
reference when wrapping yarn with the wrap reel 



42 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



^ < 

O H 


t/5 

u 

o 


'N^oo (^ \0 '^00 M Ln O "^00 M vO O ^=^00 

HHhHM _|1-(C^ MI-IC^ 


Q 


oocooococo OOnOOOOnO O O O O <-* ^-< >-' 




o 






vOvOvovo^ovOvo t^r^r^i> t^r^t^ t^oo oo oo oo oo 


B 
u 


OOOC0C0r-l00iO'rHTt<T}<<:r>05<Nt-<M00lO<NO 
C<JC<lf— li-Ht— Ji— IrHi-li— IrHi— li— JrHrHr-Si—fi— It-HrHrH 


<5 
w 

w 
O 




M C^ CO -xi- i-n\D r^CO O O i-i M CO -^ i-0\0 t-vOO C^ O 

KHI-ll-ll-ll-l.-(l-ll-,l-tl-lM 


Q 


MMMNMWMC^nMNMNNMMNNMM 


P4 en 
O W 


O 


M '^vO CO M ^^ 00 M O M '^^ 00 O M '^vO 


Q 


^^^-^'^'^-^'^^Th^uauMr^iimiirMJiiiMii 






h|i^ hIn Hisq h|ci H|iM Hisq h1(M Hlc^ Hisq Hlci 
1-H CO '^'O t>^ On O M CO uivO CO ON H-i M O I-I CO Tj-vD 

MHHhHI-IP-.hHI-HMM 


Q 


cocococococococococococ0cococ0^'^'sf'=;l-'st- 


t/5 

■s 

o 
U 


rHOi-)CDCOCOCDi-(OOOOOSCOOOiOTj<iOCOOiOi-l 
00pc<^•^l^-pcOI^-p■^(»(^0t-(Nt-(NI^-(^:»o0'Ji^ 

THrHcocococococococococoeoeocococococ<Jc<j 


< 
w 

w 
^; 
O 




HlffJ Hici H'l^ hIim hIc? He' h|n r-'le' hIn Ho^ 
OhHhHMMCOco^^LO i-n\0 vO I>» t^OO OO On On O 


Q 






« u5 

O W 




M M CO '^ iJi\0 r^OO ON O '-' 01 CO "^ u^\D r^oo on o 

MhHH-ll-HhHHHMI-IMl-HCI 


1 

Q 


NC<lNMMMMMnMMMC^MC^MMMClM 






MH^HIo^-iM CCMh1(MH|^ COWfHiO-lM MMhIoVHH* CChi<H|<M-l|T# 

N CO 'nJ- iJ-v lovo t^OO OOOnO'-i'-iMCOOOi-iC^CO 

MI-ll-ll-il-ll-ll-IMI-ll-HC^nMMM 


Q 






8 
o 




w 

o 




■H|^H|cq»hH -hMh|cixi|-* i-iH}<h1(>wH( m|tj<h;(mm|-* r-(K)(HlcvcM< 
M M CI cocorocO'^'=^'if'^i-0"~>>-n i-nvO vO vO vO t^ 


Q 





YARN CALCULATIONS. 43 



M vO 

h-l HH CS 


OOOvO OOOvO OOOvO OCOvO OvOOO OvOCO O<D0O OvOCO O 

hH l-H 1— 1 l-HI— 1 l-H l-H l-H 


hH « _ 


M M 05 fOcocO■^T}-r^l-nLo unvo O l>,co ooOOO'-'Cinrn-i- 




HI HH W 


OvOMCOOMDMCOOMDMOOOnOMOWOMONOnO 


00 00 00 


0^0^0^0^0 O O i-h w m m n M en rn ^ -ri- i-n tnvO vO r^ l>~CO 







05000000i-ilOC<J0050<MCOr-ICOCOi-lOi-liOC<l(NCOCOrHt^mTt<r}l 



i-HnroOM^OOOO<^l ''t^O CO O n O "^CO M vO O O ^00 M vO O 

MNM |_|-H1-II-HI-hNM I-HI-hM 1_|_(*) 



M M M cocorococorococococococO"^'^'^'>f-^'^i-nu~iLni^"-i i-n\0 



OO O N O W •'^vO 00 O N "^vO 00 O C^ O M '^vO 00 O M '^vO OO O (^ O 

l-HMCq HHMI-ll-HI-lC^Cl MhHMI-HI-HMC^ 



u-i Li-> ir^so vovOvO'OvovOvOvOvOvOvo t^^^^^^^^^r^^^^^^^^^t^ t~^oo 



Hl<M Hisq HffI Hlff" H|(M H|<M HcI Him HIo^ HiM HM H|ff» nS^ H'?' 

t^ 0"> O c^ en ^J-l^sO 00 C^ I-" n O I-* fO 'sl-vO t-^ 0\ O c^ ^ vnvO 00 O i-h 05 o 

hHI-HI-HI-ll-HI-HI-HC^O) I-II-HI-HI-II-HI-HI-HC5C5 



rJ-';j-ri-'^'^'^T^r:|--^rj--7:}-i-ni-ni-oi-oi-ni-ni-niJ~ii-oi-ni-n tn i-o tn u-i ltivo 



OOt-COI>-Oi(NCOrHt^'^T-l0050i050(NiOCOClt^C<)t>.COOC^iOeO 
<plpl7^t^-oppOO^pMppcopoOO(^^OiI^-"^C^05^-lO<NpcO 



H|C1 HlffI rH|<^ H|0-1 iHIO^ Ho' H|iM H|H H|ffl r-!|oq pHlcfl H|C^ HiOl Hi(N 

O l-H l-H OJ M cOCO-^'^i-n "-ivO MD r^ t^CO OOONONOO'-HMOJ(S)COrnO 

|-HI-HI-H|.HI-Hl-ll-(l-HI-HI-Hl-HHHI-l|.HI-ll-HI-HI-H|.HC^OJMC<)MMMO) 



i-HMfOO'-<C5fO'^ ir^vO t^OO On O HH ^^ cO ^^ i-ovo I>nOO On O i-i m fn o 

MC5M HHI-H1-HI-HHHI-<I-HI-HI-HI-H(VJMMC5 



N OJ M cocococococococococorofocococoeocococofocococoro'^ 



eo)^H|oiHHi whHHlc^Hhjj cchnHc^i-iM fof-itHlcVHH* wH'h,(M-<M coH^H'^■»-^l•<i^ Wf^HlCT^Kft 
CO -Tt ij->\0 vO t^OO OnOnO hh M c^ m-^""! i-nvO t^CO coOnO'-hmmcoQ 

HHl-lt-HI-HI-HI-HhHI-HI-HI-Hl-Hl-HI-HO)MMC^M 



05 M M C5 OJ M M n 05 M 05 M 05 n N N n OJ 05 n M M M M M M C5 CO 



t-riiCOlOOilOCOCOeOOOCOOOOOOOirHlOi-lt^lOTH'^mt^i-tlOOCD 
pi^Mipt-pCOppC<ippeOI>»rHpO>pp7t<OSrt<P'^piprHp 



rHKjfHl^KOh* rHlr^Hli^mhH i-hMhM^M iH|-!;lfHl01?3|rH rHl^H|lNMhJ< i-hF^HcWM i-Hhi<HlOKOl^ 

t>. tv f^OO COOOOOONONONONOOOOi-Hi-Hi-Hi-H05050)OlfOrncncOO 
(.HhHmi-Hi.Hi-<t-(i-Hi.HhHi-ic-5 05O105OlO5M05C5OJM0505OJ0505 



44 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



If other lengths are taken the followmg are the divi- 
dends : — 



240 

1 20 

60 

40 

30 
20 

^5 
10 

8 

6 

4 

3 
2 
I 





Table V. 


i"4 


leas 


= 


4000 g 


2 


35 


— 


2000 


I 


jj 


= 


1000 


1 


53 


= 


500 


1 

8 


35 


= 


333-3 


1 
4 
1 
6 


33 
33 


^^ 


250 
166.6 


1 

S 

1 
12 

1 
1 5 


55 
33 

35 


= 


125 

^3-3 
66.6 


1 

¥0 


33 


= 


50 


1 

30 


33 


= 


33-3 


1 

40 

1 

6 

1 
12 


33 
33 

35 


= 


25 
16.6 

8.3 



Sometimes it is necessary to test the counts of yarn 
from, a scrap of woven fabric, and as only a short length 
of thread can be got, the ctbove table regarding the shorter 
lengths is useful. 

Having the lengths and counts given, to find the 
weight : — 

Rule B. — Divide the length by 840 and by the counts. 

Example. — What is the weight of 9240 yards of 44's 

weft ? 

9240 yards -^ 840 =11 hanks. 

In the given counts 44 hanks weigh i lb., then 1 1 hanks 
weigh J^, or J of a lb. 



Ans. J of a lb. 



YARN CALCULATIONS. 45 

Having the weight and counts given, to find the 
length : — 

Rule C. — Multiply the weight in pounds by 840 and by 
the counts. 

Example. — 79 lbs. of 17's yarn are required for a 
warp. What is the total length ? 

79 X 17 X 840 

79 
17 

553 
79 

1343 

840 



53720 
10744 
1 1 28 1 20 yards. 

In most districts except Lancashire single yarns are 
generally indicated by i before or after the counts — thus, 
i/40's, i/20's in wool or worsted districts; or, 40's/i, 
2o's/i in silk districts. 

Double Yarns (Cotton.) — Twofold yarns are num- 
bered according to the single yarn counts — thus, 2/80's 
= two ends of 8o's twined together, which would wrap 
40's. Actually, to make the resultant count 40's the 
single yarn should be finer than 8o's, because the twist 
put in the folded yarn contracts it in length and causes 
the twofold to be really coarser than would appear. 
However, neglecting this, suppose we twine one end of 
40's and one of 20's, the counts would not be 15's, as 
a first glance would indicate, but 13.33. This can be 
proved by taking the weight of a lea of 40's = 25 grains, 



46 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

and of 2o's = 50 grains; total, 75. 75 divided into 1000 
gives the counts as 1 3 J. Another is — 

Rule D. — Multiply the two counts together and divide by 
their sum — 

40 X 20 800 2. 

— ; — =— 7— =^33 
40 + 20 60 

It is seldom that two different counts are doubled 
together as mentioned above. Singles of the same 
counts make the best doubled yarn. 

To find the counts which must Ibe doubled with 
another to make a given count: — 

Rule E. — Multiply the two counts given and divide by 
their difference. 

To find counts of three or more folds of single 
yarn all of one count : — 

Rule F. — Divide the single counts by the number of folds 
— thus, 3/30o's= lOo's, and 4/8o's = 2o's. 

To find counts of thr'eefold yarns each of diffe- 
rent counts:— 

Rule G. — Take the weight of a lea of each, add them 
together^ and divide into 1000. 

Example. — Threefold yarn of 40's, 80's, and I20's 
would be 21.81. 



TOOO 


A lea of 40's = 25 grains. 
„ 8o's = i2j „ 
i2o's= 84 „ 

451- 
— 2T ® 's counts. 


45l 


■ ^ X 1 -| W \^\J \AKX^*J% 



or 



YARN CALCULATIONS. 47 

Rule H. — Take the highest count and divide it by each 
of the others and by itself, then divide the total of the 
quotients into the highest. 

Example. 

120^ 80 = 1.5 

I20-f- 40 = 3 

T20 -4- 120= I 

120 o 

I- r = 21.81 

From these rules the reader can easily deduce the rule 
for four or higher fold. 

Scotch Numbering'. — In Scotland the quantity of 
yarn is often expressed in spindles, hanks, and leas, and 
the yarn measure is an extension of the one previously 
given. 

Table VI. 

\\ yards = i thread. 

120 5, = 80 5, = I skein. 
840 ,, = 560 ,, = 7 ,, = I hank. 
15120 55 =10800 ,, =126 ,, =18 ,, = I spindle. 

Example.— 80 lbs. of 40's twist would be 177 spindles, 

14 hanks. 

80 X 40 = 3200 hanks. 
18)3200(177 spindles 

18 

140 

126 



140 
126 



14 hanks. 

Gross. — Worsted yarns are occasionally sold by the 
gross hanks, i.e., 144 hanks each 560 yards. 



48 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Counts in other Materials and Systems. —The 

cotton manufacturer has occasionally for some classes of 
cloth to deal with counts of silk, worsted, or linen, and 
some information on these points will not be superfluous. 

Silk, — Single silk is numbered like cotton 840 yards 
to the hank, except for folded patent silk, when the first 
number indicates the actual counts — thus, 4o's/2 means 
two threads of 8o's, which actually wrap 40's, as already 
explained. This would in cotton be written 2/80's. 30/3 
in silk means three threads of 90's. 

Worsted is numbered exactly as cotton, excepting 
that the. length of the worsted hank is 560 yards — thus, 
3c's worsted has 30x560 yards in a pound, while 30's 
cotton has 30 X 840 yards. Botany yarn is a variety of 
worsted. Worsted folded yarns are numbered 2/60's, 
that is two threads of worsted 6o's. 

Worsted. 80 yards = i wrap. 

560 „ =7 wraps = I bank. 

The French Cotton Standard, or Metrical System, as 

largely used on the Continent of Europe, is looo metres in 
5 CO grammes, which is called No. I, equal to 992.4 yards 
in one pound — thus 1. 1 81 in Enghsh would be I's in 
French. 

Rule J. — To find the Metrical or French numbers divide 
the number of metres measured^ by its weight in grammes, 
and by 2. 

Thus if 24 metres weigh 2 grammes 24-^-2=12-^2 = 
No. 6. 

Rule K. — To convert French numbers into English counts 
multiply by i.i^. 



YARN CALCULATIONS. 49 

Rule L. — To convert English counts into French num- 
bers multiply by 1. 1 8. 

Example. — What would English 59's be in French 
numbers ? 

59 ^ 1. 18 = No. 50. 

American Systems. — In the United States, cotton 
yarns are counted the same as Enghsh, viz., 840 yards 
to the hank. Silk and worsted are also numbered as in 
England, to a great extent. In woollen yarns, the prin- 
cipal system is the ''run system." There are 1600 yards 
in a '' run," and the yarns are numbered according to the 
runs in a pound. Another, common to woollen yarns, 
is the ''cut" system; here 300 yards equal one cut, and 
the number of cuts in a pound indicate the numbers of 
the yarn. Doubled yarns in the States are numbered as 
in England. Cotton, silk, and woollen folded yarns have 
the number of threads placed before the counts of the 
single yarn, as 2/20's, 3/60's, &c. In silk the counts of 
the folded yarn are first written, and then the number of 
threads comprising the folded yarn, as io's/2, 2o's/3. 

Linen. — The linen standard, called the "lea," is 300 
yards. The linen hank is 10 leas, or 3000 yards. 

I thread = 2|- yards = 90 inches = 2 English ells. 
I lea or cut= 120 

I hear = 2 leas or cuts = 240 

I hank = 5 heers = 10 ,, „ =1200 

I hesp= 24 „ ,, = 2880 

I spindle = 2 hesps = 48 ,, ,, =5760 

Coarse linen and jute are reckoned by the weight of a 
spindle — thus, if 14400 yards weighs 4 lbs. it is 4 lb. 
counts. 

D 



eac 


ls= 300 yds. 


jj 


= 600 „ 


3> 


= 3000 „ 


J5 


= 7200 „ 


53 


=14400 „ 



50 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Finer linen is reckoned by the number of leas to the 
pound = 40's linen has 40x300 yards =12000 yards in 
a pound. 

Wool. — The usual method of indicating woollen counts 
is by the number of yards in a dram, and as many yards 
as there are in a dram are called so many skein yarn — 
thus, 10 skein counts means 10 yards in a dram, and as 
16 drams make one ounce, 16 ounces i lb., then the num- 
ber of skeins X 16 X 16, i.e., 256 = the number of yards 
in a pound; otherwise expressed, 1536 yards =1 skein 
in a watern of 6 lbs. 10 skein yarn has 2560 yards in a 
pound. This is often called the '' Leeds system," but is 
largely used elsewhere. As there are 256 drams in a 
pound, this system may be expressed as the number of 
times 256 yards are contained in one pound. 

Several examples must now be given of finding the 
equivalent counts in the various systems. To convert 
counts of one system into those of another. 

Rule M. — Multiply the 'counts given by the length of the 
hank or lea used for that material, and divide by the length 
of the hank or lea in the desired system. 

Example. 

Case I. — What counts of worsted are equivalent to 
30's cotton ? 

30 X 840 4- 560 = 45's worsted. 

Case II, — What counts of spun silk are equal to 8o's 
cotton ? The same, 8o's. 

Case III. — What counts of linen are equal to 20''s 
cotton ? 

20 X 840 H- 300 = 56's linen. 



YARN CALCULATIONS. 5 I 

Case IV. — What counts of cotton are equivalent to 
90's worsted ? 

90 X 560 -^- 840 = 6o's. 

Bundle Yarn. — Cotton yarn is often reeled and then 
made up into bundles, more especially for export and the 
home dyeing trade. Home trade bundles are usually 
10 lbs. in weight, and the yarn in them is double cross 
reeled, often expressed XX hank. Two hanks, = 1680 
yards, are reeled together; then 5 of these are twisted, 
making 10 hank knots. In fine numbers they may be 
twisted in tens, making 20 hank knots. In finding if 
there are the right number of heads showing at the 
straight end of the bundle, indicating the number of knots 
in the bundle, apply — 

Rule N. — Multiply the weight of the bundle by the 
counts, and divide by the number of hanks in each knot. 

Example. — How many heads would show at the end 
of a press bundle of 2/40's yarn, 10 lbs., made up in 10 
hank knots ? 

10 X 2o's 4- 10 = 20 
Ans. 20 heads. 

Testing" Yarns. — In addition to wrapping warp yarn 
to ascertain actual counts, it is frequently tested as to 
strength. The lea from the reel is placed between two 
hooks on a testing machine, and by a wheel, worm, and 
screw, the lower hook is moved downw^ards, increasing 
the tension on the yarn. By an index finger this ten- 
sion is indicated on a face plate, and when the lea is 
broken the finger stops at the highest weight or strain 
that the yarn has stood. Below is a table, which will 
give a general idea of the comparative strength of mule 



52 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

twists, having the standard turns in — i.e., for the Ameri- 
can cottons square root of counts multiplied by 3f, and 
for Egyptian, square root multiplied by 3.606. 

2o's American cotton = 80 lbs. 



30s 


)5 




= 54 33 


40'sj 

50'sj 


33 

Egyptian 
\ American 

[ Egyptian 




= 40 „ 

= 50 33 
= 28 „ 

= 37 3, 


6o's 


5J 




= 30 3, 


70's 


5) 




= 26 „ 



Diameters of Yarns. — In yarn the diameters of the 
threads do not vary inversely as the counts, but inversely 
as the square root of the counts. Thus, i6's is not four 
times as thick as 64's, but twice as thick, the square roots 
being four and eight respectively. To find the counts of 
a yarn that shall have any desired relation in thickness 
to another yarn, apply — 

Rule 0. — Extract the. square root of the counts of the 
given yarn, invert the terms of the proportion between the 
given and the desired yarns, and proceed as in proportion, 
squaring the result. 

Examples. — What yarn is one-sixth as thick as 25's, 
or, in other words, has one-sixth the diameter of 25's ? 

The square root of 25 is 5 
The terms are i to J 
inverted „ J^ to i 

, ,. . ixc;ix[;x6 

then as |- is to i so 5 is to — ^ = = 3^ 

30 squared = 900's 

Ans. 900's yarn is one-sixth the thickness of 25's. 



YARN CALCULATIONS. 53 

Another example is given among the answers to exa- 
mination questions. 

Testing Dampness. — Another test of yarn is to ascer- 
tain the dampness. A sample is dried at a temperature 
of about 1 00° Fahr., and then allowed to cool to an ordi- 
nary temperature of say 60°. 

This is necessary, because the higher temperature 
might drive away some of the natural moisture which all 
cottons contain, and which it should be allowed to regain. 
Suppose yarn weighing 40 lbs. at first, only scales 38 lbs. 
when the test is complete, then it has lost 100 X 2 -^ 40 
= 5 per cent. The manufacturer gets 95 lbs. really for 
every lOO lbs., so that yarn costing 8d. per lb. at first 
actually costs 8^6 d., obtained by multiplying 100 X 8 -f 
95 = 8.42 id., or about 8xV- 



COMMERCIAL NOTES. 

MANCHESTER. — Yarns are usually sold for home trade, 
either 2J per cent, terms, 14 days' accounts, or 3 per cent, 
cash terms. This is when the business is done direct. In 
the first case 2^ per cent, discount is allowed off the gross 
amount of the invoice, less coppers, payable in 14 days 
from date of invoice, on Tuesdays or Fridays only. The 
cash terms allow a discount of 3 per cent., but the account 
is due the Tuesday or Friday following the date of invoice. 
It is generally understood that goods are free on rail at 
Manchester. Where an agent is employed, the full 
agency terms are i per cent, for commission and |- per 
cent, for guaranteeing payment of the account. 

BRADFORD terms are . much longer than these. In 
cotton, yarns delivered before the 26th of one month are 
paid for on the 3rd Thursday of the following month, less 
2^ per cent, discount. Thus yarns sent on the 24th of 
April would be paid for on the 3rd Thursday in May. If 
on the 27th of April on the 3rd Thursday in June, or two 
months' credit. Agency terms, as arranged; usually 
rather higher than Manchester. Carriage is expected to 
be paid by the seller. 

GLASGOW terms are somewhat similar to Bradford, 
but the discounts vary largely, 7 J per cent, being generally 
allowed. The 20th of the month is generally the date for 

limiting accounts for payment in the following month. 

54 



COMMERCIAL NOTES. 55 

BELFAST buyers take deliveries to account up to the 
15th of one month, paying for them on the 4th of the 
next month, usually less 2^ per cent. 

In Bradford, Belfast and Glasgow, after the times 
named above have expired, bills are occasionally given. 
There can be no doubt that the prompt terms of Manchester 
have added very much to the stability of its houses, to the 
good credit in which the cotton trade is usually held in 
commercial circles, and to the development of the trade. 

Piece Goods. — In Manchester, terms are again very 
prompt. Where business is done direct, the terms usually 
are 2^ per cent, discount for payment in 7 days. Where 
an agent is employed and paid I J per cent, on the trans- 
action for commission and guarantee, the manufacturer 
customarily gets prompt cash less 2 J per cent. 

In Glasgow, London, Bradford and Belfast the terms 
are, like yarn terms, much longer ; in fact the bulk of the 
business is done by accepting bills for some forward date. 

WEIGHTS, MEASURES, AND MONEYS OF 
FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

HAVING COMMERCIAL RELATIONS WITH THE TEXTILE 
DISTRICTS OF ENGLAND. 

WEIGHTS. 

The Metrical system of weights is the most common 
one, and at the same time the most sensible system. It is 
sometimes called the French system, and has been offici- 
ally adopted in most cases for weights, measures, and 
moneys in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, 
Spain, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Bulgaria, Holland, 



56 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Switzerland; Chili, Argentine Republic^ and the United 
States. In some cases the nomenclature has been altered 
and only the principle adopted ; in other countries, where 
the use of the system has not been made compulsory, it 
has not yet got into common use. 

I gramme =the unit (15.432 grains). 
10 grammes = I decagramme. 
100 ,, = T hectogramme. 



1000 , 
.lor^-V , 

•01 or 3-^0- , 
•001 or yoVo' 



= I kilogramme. 
= I decigramme. 
= I centigramme. 
= I milligramme. 



One kilogramme is equal to 2.2046 lbs., or 35^ oz. nearly. 

China. — 

I leang or tael= .083 lbs. avoir. 
16 „ „ = 1.333 „ = I kire or katty. 

1600 „ „ =^33-33 » =100 5. 5, 

= I tan or pecul. 

India. — The legal standards are the metrical ones of 
the kilogramme (2.2046 lbs.), called the legal seer; the 
metre (39.37 inches) ; the litre, also called the seer (1.76077 
pints). The old systems, of which there are many in 
consequence of the large extent of the country, are still 
largely used. 

In Bengal, i seer =16 chittacks = 80 tolas = 2.057 
lbs. (avoir.). 40 seers = i maund. 

In Madras, the candy = 20 maund s of 40 seers each, 
the weight of the candy here being 493.71 lbs., is in use. 
By commercial usage the candy is still frequently taken at 
500 lbs., and the maund at 25 lbs. 

In Bombay there is still in use a candy of 20 maunds 



COMMERCIAL NOTES. 5/ 

of 4 seers each, equalling 560 lbs., the seer in this case 
being 7 lbs. 

Eg"ypt. — I cantar =: 98.046 lbs. (avoir.), and consists 
of 100 rottoli, each rottolo containing 12 uckreh or 96 
meticals. 12 dirhem make i uckreh. 

Japan. — i rin = 10 mo = 1.33 lbs. (avoir.). 

Brazil. — i quintal (100 arratel) — ioi.i861bs. (avoir.). 

United States. — The old English measures and weights 
generally adhered to, although the metrical system has 
been authorised. 

MEASURES. 
Metrical System. Linear Measure. 

I metre = the unit = 39.37 inches = 1.093 yds. 

10 ,, = T decametre. 

100 ,, = I hectometre. 

1000 ,, =1 kilometre = .62 1 EngUsh mile. 

.1 or Y^Q- ,, =1 decimetre. 

.01 or Y^-g- ,, =1 centimetre = .393 7 inch. 

.001 or YoVo 55 = ^ millimetre. 

Brazil. — i pollegada= 1.093 inches. 
I vara =1.215 yards. 

China. — Shanghai Customs chih= 14.098 inches, 

Eg"ypt. — I kirat=i.i25 inches. 

India. — Bengal. I guz = i yard. 

I moot = 3 inches. 
Madras. I guz = 33 inches; English measures also 
used. 

Bombay, i guz =27 inches. 

I tussoo=i.i25 inches. 
Also see under "Weights." 



58 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

United States.— As in England. 

Japan. — i sun = 1.1954 inches. 
10 „ = I shaku. 
100 „ =10 „ =ijo. 

MONEYS, 

France . . 100 centimes = i franc, about 9jd. Eng. 

Italy . . . 100 centesimi= I lire, „ 9jd. 

Switzerland 100 centimes = i franc, „ 9jd. 

Belgium = 100 „ =1 „ „ 9jd. 

Spain . . 100 centimes = i peseta, „ g^d. 

Germany . 100 pfennige = i mark, „ I2d. 

India. — Taking the rupee at i6d. sterling; nominal 
value 2/. 

I pice . . . . = -0833 English. 

125,=! anna . . = id. „ 
192 ,, = 16 annas = I rupee = i6d. „ 

China. — Taking the tael at 4/2 ; nominal value 6/6. 

I candarine . . . = .o5d. English. 
TOO ,, =1 mace . = 5d. „ 
1000 ,, =10 „ =itael = 5od. ,, 

United States. — 100 cents = i dollar (|) = 4/2 EngHsh. 




SPEED AND GEARING CALCU- 
LATIONS. 

EFORE considering the calculations referring to 
the general cotton manufacturing machinery, 
it is advisable to mention a few fundamental 
rules which frequently are necessary to deter- 
mine problems common to all kinds of mechanism. What 
rules are referred to in particular are those by which we 
calculate speeds of shafting, and these are given first. 

To Determine the Speed of a driven Shaft. — When 
the speed of a driving shaft or wheel is given, and also 
the size of the gearing transmitting the power, to find 
the speed of driven shafts or wheels. 

Rule A. — Multiply the speed of the first driving shaft by 
the size of the driving wheel or wheels, and divide by the 
driven wheel or wheels. 

Example. — A hne shaft in a shed revolves 150 times 
per minute, and carries pulleys 15 inches in diameter. 
The looms driven by them carry pulleys 10 inches in 
diameter. At what speed do the looms run ? Multiply 
150 by the driving wheel 15, and divide by 10. 

Ans. 225 revolutions. 

Cog's or Ropes. — The term ^^size of the wheel" in 

the rules includes either number of teeth, diameter, radius, 

or pitch circle, and refers equally to cog wheels, either 

59 



6o WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

bevel or otherwise, or rope, or strap driving. A pair of 
mitre wheels are bevels whose teeth are equal in number, 
and therefore make no change in the speed, but reverse 
the direction of motion. 

The method of description of the driving wheel neces- 
sarily must also be applied to the driven. For ex- 
ample, if the diameter of the driving wheel be taken, 
the diameter also of the driven one must be adopted, and 
neither the radius nor circumference. 

Case I. Example. — The driving wheel of an engine 
revolving 50 times a minute is 30 feet in diameter, and 
by means of ropes drives a pulley on the second motion 
shaft of 3 feet in radius. What is the speed of the 
second motion shaft ? 

50 X 30 feet -^ double the radius 6 = 250 revolutions 
per minute. 

Case II. — The under shaft of a loom revolves 90 times 
a minute, and carries a bevel of 15 teeth, which gears 
with a 15 on an upright shaft. At the top of this shaft 
a 12 drives a 6o-teeth wheel on a block of tappet plates. 
At what speed do they revolve ? 

90 X first driver, 15 X second driver, 12 4- first driven 
15, and second driven 60. 

Ans. 18 revolutions per minute. 

To Determine which is the Driver or Driven Wheel 
is not difficult, a glance at the gearing when in motion 
usually shows it. The driver is generally bright or 
worn on the front of the tooth, i.e., on the side of the 
tooth in the direction of which the wheel moves. If a 
wheel is worn on the side of the tooth further from the 
direction of its motion it is a driven wheel. Then with 



SPEED AND GEARING CALCULATIONS. 6l 

bands and straps, one side of the band or strap is tighter 
than the other. That which is puUing can readily be 
recognised as the driver. 

To find the Speed of the Driving" Wheel, when the 
speed of the last driven wheel is known, and also the 
size of the gearing. 

Rule B. — Multiply the speed of the last driven wheel by 
the size of the driven wheels^ and divide by the size of the 
drivers. 

Example. — A spindle is required to revolve looo times 
a minute, and the proposed method is to drive it from 
a line shaft by a 40-inch drum to a 15 -inch pulley, the 
latter being fixed to a lo-inch tin roller driving the 
I J inch wharve on the spindle. At what speed will the 
line shaft have to revolve ? The drivers are 40 and 10, 
the driven 15 and \\. 

1000 X 15 X ij= 18750 

40)18750 



10)468 



3 



46I revolutions per minute. 

To obtain the Size of the Driving" Wheel, if the 

speed of the driven and driving shaft are given along 
with the size of the driven pulleys. 

Rule C. — Multiply the speed of the driven by the size of 
the driven pulleys, and divide by the speed of the driver. 

Example. — A shaft, speed 100 per minute, drives 
another at 70 per minute; on the latter is a 50-tooth 
bevel wheel. What size of a bevel wheel is on the 
driving-shaft ? 

Multiply 70 X 50 -^ 100 = 35 teeth. 



62 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

To obtain the Size of the Driven Wheel, if the speed 
of the driver and driven wheel or wheels are given along 
with the size of the driver. 

Rule D. — Multiply the size of the drivers by speed of 
first driver, and divide by the speed of driven, and by 
the driven pulleys given, if any. 

Example. — A shaft making 17 revolutions per minute 
carries a i6-tooth wheel driving a second shaft by means 
of a wheel the number of teeth in which it is desired to 
find. On this shaft is a lOO-tooth wheel driving one of 85 
teeth, which latter revolves at 16 revolutions per minute. 
What is the size of the first driven wheel ? 

Drivers 16 and 100. 100 
Driven 85. 16 



1600 




17 




II200 




1600 




16)27200(1700 


85)1700(20 


16 


1700 


112 




112 





A7ZS. 20 teeth. 

Worm Wheels. — These are used in order to rapidly 
diminish speed, as drivers only, and usually are single 
threaded, and are equal to one tooth as a multiplier of 
speed. For example, a worm wheel revolves 700 times 
a minute, and drives a 140-tooth wheel. What is the 
speed of the latter ? 

700 X I -T- 140 = Ans. 5 times per minute. 

Had the worm wheel been double threaded it would 
have taken two teeth at one revolution, and the result 



SPEED AND GEARING CALCULATIONS. 63 

would have been 10, obtained thus: — 700 x 2 -i- 140 
= A us. 10. 

A Mang'le Wheel is used in order to reverse its own 
direction of motion, and as a driven wheel only. Its 
speed is calculated as if it were an ordinary wheel, 
excepting that its size is taken as one tooth less than it 
is actually, in consequence of the tooth at each end being 
used only once in a double revolution, while all the 
others are used twice. 

A lo-pinion revolving 360 times a minute drives a 
mangle wheel of 181 teeth or pegs. How many times 
will the mangle wheel revolve in a minute ? 360 x 10 
-r 180 = 20 revolutions (equalling 10 in each direction). 

To change the Speed of a Driven Pulley, Shaft, op 
Wheel. 

Rule E. — Increase the size of the driver or decrease the 
size of the driven pulley in exact proportion to the increase of 
speed required. 

Case I. — To increase the speed by increasing size of 
driver. 

A loom is run at 180 picks per minute, and it is 
desired to run it at 200. The driving pulley on the line 
shaft of shed is 1 3 J inches in diameter. What size is 
required? Multiply 13!- X 200, and divide by 180. 

Alls. 15 inches diameter. 

Case II. — To increase the speed by decreasing size of 
driven wheel. 

The tappets of looms are set for a six-shaft cloth, and 
it is desired to weave a five-shaft satin. Thus the speed 
of the shaft carrying the tappets has to be increased in 



64 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

the proportion of five to six. The driven wheel on the 
tappet shaft is a 6o. 

Multiply 60 X 5 -f 6 = 50 wheel required. 

Circumferential Velocity. — To ascertain the circum- 
ferential velocity of a wheel, driver, or C3dinder. 

Rule F. — Multiply the circumference in feet by the num- 
ber of revolutions per minute. 

Example. — A beaming frame drum is 6 feet in 
circumference, and makes 48 revolutions per minute. 
What is the circumferential velocity ? 

6x 48 = 288 
Am. 288. 

To Calculate Power of Leather Straps.— To calcu- 
late the power of single leather belts, the following 
Rule G. may be used : — 

Let H P = actual horse-power. 

W = \Yidth of belt. 

F = driving force. 

T = working tension from 70 to 150 lbs. 

V = velocity of belt in feet per minute. 

Then = ■^I^ H P = 1^ W = 33?|^HP 

2 SSoc-o F X V 

Example. — A lo-inch belt running 2500 feet per 
minute, what horse-power will it transmit ? Assuming 
ing the working tension to be 100 lbs. — 

-r^ 10 X 100 TT -p. 2c;oo X !:oo o , 

F = = 500 H P = -^ ^ — =38 horse-power. 

Horse-power of Ropes. — The following table, com- 
piled b}' ]\Ir. A. G. Brown, and published in the catalogue 
of Messrs. J. Musgrave & Sons, Limited, Bolton, gives 
the power that good cotton driving ropes will transmit : — 



SPEED AND GEARING CALCULATIONS. 65 

Table VIL— Horse-power of Cotton Driving Ropes. 

CA. G. BROWN.^ 



Velocity 






Diameter 


OF Ropes in Inches. 






in Feet 

per 
Minute. 


















i 


i 


1 


1 


I 


H 


4 


if 


2 


600 


0.84 


1.30 


I.91 


2.60 


3-43 


5-30 


7.69 


10.40 


13-52 


700 


0.98 


1.52 


2.23 


3-03 


4.00 


6.18 


8.96 


12.12 


15.75 


800 


1. 12 


^'73 


2.54 


3-45 


4.56 


7-05 


10.22 


13.82 


17.96 


900 


1.26 


1.94 


2.86 


3.88 


5.12 


7.92 


11.48 


15-52 


20.17 


1000 


1-39 


2.15 


3.16 


4.30 


5-67 


8.76 


12.72 


17.18 


22.34 


1 100 


1-53 


2.3s 


3-47 


4.71 


6.22 


9.61 


13-94' 


18.83 


24.48 


1200 


1.66 


2.56 


3-77 


5.12 


6.76 


10.44 


15-15 


20.47 


26.61 


1300 


1.79 


2.76 


4.07 


5-53 


7.29 


11.27 


16.35 


22.10 


28.73 


1400 


1.92 


2.96 


4.36 


5-93 


7.83 


12.10 


17-55 


23.72 


30.83 


1500 


2.05 


3.16 


4.65 


6.32 


8.34 


12.89 


18.70 


25.27 


32.86 


1600 


2.18 


3-36 


4.94 


6.74 


8.86 


13.70 


19.88 


26.86 


34.92 


1700 


2.30 


3-55 


5.22 


7.10 


9.37 


14.48 


21.01 


28.39 


36.90 


1800 


2.42 


3.74 


5-50 


7-47 


9.86 


15.25 


22.12 


29.89 


38.85 


1900 


2.54 


3.92 


5-76 


7.83 


10.34 


15-97 


23.18 


31-32 


40.71 


2000 


2.66 


4.10 


6.03 


8.20 


10.82 


16.72 


24.26 


32.79 


42.62 


2100 


2.77 


4.27 


6.29 


8.54 


11.28 


17-43 


25.29 


34.17 


44-42 


2200 


2.88 


4-45 


6.5s 


8.90 


^^■75 


18.16 


26.35 


35-60 


46.29 


2300 


2.99 


4.62 


6.80 


9.24 


12.19 


18.84 


27-34 


36.94 


48.03 


2400 


3.10 


4.78 


7.04 


9.56 


12.62 


19-51 


28.31 


38.26 


49-73 


2500 


3.20 


4.94 


7.28 


9.89 


13-05 


20.17 


29.26 


39.55 


51-41 


2600 


3-30 


5-09 


7.50 


10.18 


13-44 


20.77 


30.14 


40.73 


52.96 


2700 


3-39 


5-24 


7.71 


10.48 


13-83 


21.37 


31.00 


41.90 


54.47 


2800 


3-48 


S.38 


7.92 


10. 75 


14.20 


21.94 


31.84 


43.02 


55-93 


2900 


3-57 


5-51 


8,12 


11.03 


14.56 


22.50 


32.64 


44.11 


57-35 


3000 


3.66 


5.65 


8.31 


11.30 


14.91 


23.04 


33-44 


45.18 


58.74 


3100 


3-74 


S.78 


8.50 


11.56 


15-25 


23-57 


34-20 


46.22 


60.08 


3200 


3-83 


5- 90 


8.69 


II. 81 


15-59 


24.09 


34-95 


47.23 


61.40 


3300 


3-9° 


6.01 


8.85 


12.02 


15-87 


24-53 


35.59 


48.10 


62.53 


3400 


3-96 


6.12 


9.01 


12.23 


16.15 


24.96 


36.21 


48.94 


63.62 


3500 


4.03 


6.22 


9- IS 


12.44 


16.42 


25-37 


36.81 


49.75 


64.67 


3600 


4.09 


6.31 


9.29 


12.63 


16.67 


25.76 


37.38 


50.51 


65.66 


3700 


4.15 


6.41 


9-43 


12.81 


16.91 


26.13 


37.92 


51.24 


66.62 


3800 


4.20 


6.48 


9-53 


12.95 


17.10 


26.43 


38.35 


51.82 


67.36 


3900 


4.25 


6.56 


9-65 


13.12 


17.32 


26.76 


38.83 


52.48 


68.22 


4000 


4.29 


6.62 


9-75 


13.24 


17.48 


27.01 


39.20 


52-97 


68.86 


4100 


4-33 


6.68 


9-83 


13-36 


17.63 


27.25 


39-53 


53-42 


69-44 


4200 


4.36 


^•73 


9.91 


13.46 


17.77 


27.46 


39-84 


53-84 


69-99 


4300 


4-39 


6.78 


9.98 


13.55 


17.89 


27.65 


40.11 


54-21 


70.47 


4400 


4.41 


6.80 


10.01 


13.60 


17-95 


27-75 


40.26 


54-40 


70.72 


4500 


4.42 


6.82 


10.04 


13.64 


18.00 


27.82 


40.36 


54-55 


70.91 


4600 


4-43 


6.83 


10.06 


13.66 


18.03 


27.87 


40.44 


54.64 


71.04 


4700 


4-43 


6.84 


10,07 


13.67 


18.05 


27.90 


40.48 


54.70 


71.10 


4800 


4.43 


6.84 


10 '07 


13.67 


18.05 


27.90 


40.48 


54-70 


71.10 


4900 


4-43 


6.83 


10.06 


13.66 


18.03 


27.87 


40.44 


54-64 


71-04 


5000 


4.41 


6.80 


10.01 


13.60 


17-95 


27.74 


40.25 


54-40 


70.70 


5500 


4.24 


6.54 


9-63 


13.08 


17.27 


26.69 


38.73 


52.33 


68.04 


60CXD 


3.89 


6.00 


8.83 


12,00 


15.84 


24.48 


35-52 


48.00 


62.40 


6500 


3-38 


5.22 


7.68 


10.04 


13-78 


21.30 


30.90 


41.76 


54-29 




MENSURATION. 

OME of the simpler rules of this science find a 
frequent use in the manufacturer's calculations 
as regards the machinery, and these are given 
below. Many readers will no doubt be fully 

acquainted with them, but there are others to whom the 

information may be acceptable. 

To find the Area of a Circular Space. 

Rule A. — Square the diameter {shown by the line A, B, 
Fig. i) and multiply ^J^ .7854, or multiply the radius by half 
the circumference. 

Example. — The diameter of an engine piston is 18 
inches. What is its area ? 

Square 18= 18 X 18 = 324 
324 X. 7854 = 
•7854 
324 
31416 
15708 
23562 



254.4696 
Ans. 254.46 square inches. 

To find the Circumference (A, C, F, B, D, Fig. 3) of 
a Circle. 

Rule B. — Multiply the diameter 4y 3.1416. 

66 



MENSURATION. 



67 



Example. — A tape cylinder is 7 feet diameter. What 
is its circumference ? 

3.1416 X 7 = 22 feet nearly. 

N.B. — 3.1416 is nearly 3!-, and for rough work this 
is near enough for a multiplier. 

Radius (A, D, Fig i) is half the diameter. 




Fig. I. 



Ang'le. — An angle is the corner formed by the meeting 
of two straight lines, other than in a straight line, thus — 



/ 



D 



B 



Fig. 2. 



The angle D, B, C (Fig. 2) is an acute angle, while A, B, 
D (Fig. 2) is an obtuse one. 

All angles are measured by the number of degrees 



68 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



which they contain. Every circle is divided into 360 
equal parts, each of which is called a degree. If two 
diameters of a circle cross each other at right angles, as 
A, B and C, D in Fig. 3, they make four angles of 90°. 
Every angle which contains 90° is a right angle ; half of 
a right angle (B, O, F) is an angle of 45°; and a third 




of one (E, O, D) is an angle of 30°. The right angle 
contains 90°, and is so called because it is the standard 
angle by which we measure other angles, just as the 
straight line is often called a right line because it is the 
standard by which we measure and test all other lines. 

To find Contents of a Cubical Block. 
Rule C. — Multiply length, width, and depth together. 
To find Contents of a Cylinder. 
Rule D. — Find tJie area of one end, and multiply by the 
length of the cylinder. 



WINDING, WARPING, AND BEAMING 
CALCULATIONS. 



Winding". — The process here referred to^ is winding 
from cops to bobbins, the latter intended for the beaming 
frame or warping mill. 

Specification of Winding" pep 1000 Looms, the latter 

on ordinary plain goods, about 32's twist counts. 



No. of winding spindles 

„ frames . . . . 

„ spindles each side of frame 

„ winders per side, 5 ; in all . 

„ winders per beaming frame 
Size pulley on frame end 

„ tin roller .... 
Length spindle .... 
Diameter wharve on front row of spindles 

3) 35 bacK ,, ,j 

Length of lift or traverse 
Size of bobbin, diameter of head . 

barrel . 



1200 

4 

150 
40 

4 
12 



16 in. 

I- 

4j 33 
4 „ 
ij 33 



1 

4 " 
1 

2 '5 



To find Speed of Spindle. — Use Rule A. given on 
page 59. 

Example. — Driving shaft speed . .168 
Drum on driving shaft . 
Pulley on frame end 
Size tin roller 
Diameter spindle wharve 



11 m. 

12 „ 
10 ,, 



1 

4 33 



168 X II X TO ^ 12 X ij= 1232 per minute. 

^ For a full description of this and all other preparatory processes of 

weaving, refer to the author's book on " Cotton Manufacturing." 

69 



70 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

To find Percentage of Waste. 

Rule A. — Add two cyphers to weight of waste, and divide 
by weight of twist from which it is made. 

Example. — A winder in a week winds 580 lbs. of 
twist; and makes 8 lbs. of waste. 

580)800(1.379 per cent. 
58o_ 
2200 
1740 



4600 
4060 
5400 

Particulars required before Beaming. ^ To get 
Length for Beaming. 

Rule B. — Multiply warp length (explained on page 16) 
by number of pieces required. 

Example. — An order is given for 180 pieces of 75 
yard cloth made from 80 yards of warp. How many 
yards of warp are required ^ 

80 X 180 = 14400 yards. 

Wraps. — The length of a warp is usually expressed 
in wraps, of which there are various lengths. The com- 
monest are — 

3000 yds. to the wrap divided into 100 teeth of 30 yds. to the tooth. 

3500 5j 5j 55 100 » 35 » » 

3564 » 55 „ 132 „ 27 „ 

3600 „ „ „ 100 „ 36 „ „ 

1 In some districts, notably Blackburn, Darwen, and surroundings, this 
process is called warping, which term is erroneous. Warping, strictly- 
speaking, refers only to the old style of circular mill, with heck, for making 
ball and chain warps. 



WINDING, WARPING, AND BEAMING. /I 

If the beaming length of the i8o pieces just mentioned 
had to be expressed in wraps of the first size, the calcu- 
lation would be — 

3000)14400(4 wraps 
12000 



30)2400(80 teeth 
2400 

Ans. 4 wraps 80 teeth. 

Number of pieces that can be made in a set. 

Rule C. — Multiply the number of wraps in a set by the 
length of a wrap, and divide by the length of warp per 
piece. 

Example. — The set of beams consists generally of four 
or five wraps on each beam. How many 100 yard pieces 
can be made out of a 5 wrap (3500 yards) set ? 

Allowing 5 per cent, to the 100 yards for contraction, 
we should proceed — 

5 X 3500 ^105 = 

17500-105 = 1661. 
Ans. i66| pieces. 

Ends in a Set. — The number of ends in a set are 
equal to those in the piece of cloth desired to be made, 
and the number is ascertained as shown on page 14. 
The number of ends is generally too large to be held 
on one warper's beam, and is divided among several. 

If 2100 ends are required they would be made on five 
beams of 420 each, probably. 

If 3100 were required they would be obtained, per- 
haps, by six 444's and one 436. 

No definite rule can be given for this, or, in fact, is 



J2 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

necessary, as almost each mill is circumstanced differ- 
ently. 

Weig'ht of a Beam or Set of Beams.— To ascertain 
by calculation. 

Rule D. — Multiply the total ends by the length in yardsy 
and divide by 840 and the counts. 

Example. — A set of beams consists of five, each 420 
ends and 4 wraps (3000 yards long). Counts 30's. 
What is the weight of the set ? 

5 X 420 = 2100 ends. 4 X 3000 = 12000 yards. 

12000 
2100 



1200000 
24000 



840) 2 5 200000(30000 
2520 
30)30000 
Ans. 1000 lbs. weight. 

Counts of Beams. — To find the counts of a beam or 
set of beams by calculation. 

Rule E, — Divide the length by 840 and the weight. 

The object here is obviously to find the number of 
hanks by using 840 as a divisor, and then find the num- 
ber of hanks in the pound by dividing by the weight. 
The number of hanks per pound is equivalent to counts. 

Example. — A beam weighs 210 lbs., and contains 500 
ends. It is 15,000 yards long. What are the counts? 
15000 multiplied by 500 and divided by 840 and 210 
gives 42.51. 

yi;zi". 42.5 1 's counts. 



WINDING, WARPING, AND BEAMING. 73 

Warping" Calculations. Ball or Chain Warping", 

otherwise circular-mill warping. This process, almost 
indispensable at one time for all varieties of goods^ is 
now largely superseded by the beaming frame for plain 
and grey goods and the section-warping for coloured 
goods, but is still used to a considerable extent in the 
coloured weaving trade and in many of the outside manu- 
facturing districts. 

The mill is usually from 10 to 18 yards in circumference, 
with staves set a foot apart all round ; for sample work, 
small mills of 5 yards in circumference are used, and in 
Scotland 4 or 5 ells of 45 inches and 10 feet high. The 
bank or creel is sometimes constructed to hold as many as 
500 bobbins, although it is more usual to work a much less 
number. 

To Determine the requisite Number of Revolutions 
to make a Warp. 

Rule F. — Divide the length of warp required by the 
circumference of the mill. 

Example. — For a 360-yard warp with an 18-yard 
mill, 20 turns would be required before reversing. For 
a warp of 100 ells on a 4-ell mill, 25 revolutions would 
be required. 

Another example. — How many revolutions of the mill 
will be made in one layer of a sample warp, 2000 ends, 

20 yards, allow 24 inches at each end for gaiting, a 
1 5-yard mill being used ? 

The total length of warp is 2 1 yards i foot, as 4 feet 
are allowed altogether for gaiting. 1 5 yards divided into 

2 1 J- yards gives one complete round and 6 J yards (equal- 



74 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

ling 19 feet) over. Therefore the first layer would occupy 
one round and 19 staves towards another round. 

Layers. — Generally, in fact almost always, the number 
of ends in the warp is several times as many as there are 
bobbins in the creel, and the mill has to be turned back- 
wards and forwards till the required number of layers 
have been obtained. 

The number of ends in the warp determines the number 
of layers to be warped. 

Rule G. — Divide the number of ends in the warp by 
the number of bobbins in use in the creel. 

Should there be 200 bobbins in the creel, and 2400 be 
required to form a warp, then 2400 -^ 200 =12 layers 
are required. 

These are usually expressed in bouts, millgangs, or 
returns, which mean once down and once up. Therefore 
for 2400 ends six bouts would be required. 

Thus, six bouts of an 18-yard mill, with 200 bobbins 
in the creel and 20 turns of the mill before reversing, 
would give a warp of 360 yards length and 2400 ends. 
The number of bobbins in the creel should always divide 
into the number of ends in the warp without remainder, 
otherwise it necessitates breaking out at the last layer. 

In Scotland 20 splits equal I porter, and the number of 
ends in a warp are expressed frequently in porters and 
splits — thus, 60 porters 10 splits. 

The number of bobbins in the bank of a mill equals 
therefore the number of splits (two ends) in a complete 
bout. To find the number of bouts it is usual to use — 

Rule H.— 7b divide the mimher of splits in the web by 
the bobbins in the bank. 



WINDING, WARPING, AND BEAMING. 75 

Example. — With i lo bobbins in bank, and 6o porters 
10 splits in the web. How many bouts of the mill are 

required ? 

60 
20 

1200 
10 



110)1210 



II 



Ans. 1 1 layers. 



Weight of Warp. — To find the weight or counts of a 
ball warp use the rules given on page 72 for a beam 
warp. 

Pinion. — The pinion at the upper part of the mill re- 
quires changing smaller when very long warps are made 
so as to get the layers closer together, and thus more 
length on the mill. The sizes are in exact proportion to 
the distances from centre to centre of each layer, but 
usually do not require such exact adjustments to neces- 
sitate any examples being given here. 

Beaming". Specification for 1000 Looms, plain 

goods, about 32's twist. 

No. of beaming frames 

Capacity ...... 

Creel either V or bed creel. 
Measuring roller circumference . 
Cylinder diameter .... 

Beam, length between flanges 

,, diameter of flange . 

„ „ timber 

Measuring" Motion. — For the purpose of measuring 
the length of yarn on the beam, each beaming frame is 



10 






500 


en 


ds 


18 


in. 




20 


15 




54 


5? 




22 


J' 




5 


55 





76 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

supplied with a roller half a yard in circumference, round 
which the yarn passes; on the end of this roller is a 
worm driving a worm wheel of 54 teeth, which we will 
call B ; on the stud carrying B is a second worm driving 
a worm wheel C of 132 teeth. The worm only takes one 
tooth at each revolution, therefore a complete revolu- 
tion of the first worm wheel represents a length of 27 
yards having passed the measuring roller; this is equal 
to one tooth only on the second wheel B ; therefore, a 
complete revolution of the latter means 3564 yards — 
technically called a wrap — J X ^^^^— = 35^4. If a warp 
contains 4 wraps and 7 teeth, it is 14,445 yards long = 
4 X 3564 added to 7 X 27. 



WINDING, WARPING, AND BEAMING. 



77 



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SLASHING OR TAPING 
CALCULATIONS. 

Specification for 1000 Looms, plain sorts, 32's in 
counts. 

No. of frames if weaving about 12 to 14 pick cloth, 4 
„ „ „ 16 to 20 „ 3 

,, » » 24 to 30 ,, 2 

Cylinders 7 feet and 4 feet diameter. Width to suit 
looms. 

Marking" Motion Calculations. — To enable the weaver 
to finish the piece when a required length has been 
woven, the warp is marked at the sizing frame at a cer- 
tain length. This is generally done for plain goods by 
means of a measuring roller 14.4 inches in circumference, 
round which the twist passes. On the end of this is a 
tin roller wheel driving a change wheel or stud wheel. 
By means of a worm on the same stud the motion is 
transferred to a bell wheel of 45 teeth, which drives a 
marking cam so arranged as to gradually lift and sud- 
denly drop a hammer, which smites the warp against a 
block soaked in some colouring matter. 

To g'et the Wheels for a certain leng-th, e.g., the 
Stud Wheel. 

Rule A. — Multiply the length of mark desired in inches 
by tin roller wheel, and divide by the bell wheel and the cir- 
cumference of tin roller. 

78 



SLASHING OR TAPING CALCULATIONS. 79 

Example. — Suppose we desire to mark every 3O2 
yards, and have on a tin roller wheel of 36. 

3o|- yards = 1098 inches. 
1098 X 36 -f- 45 and 14.4 
1098 
__36 
6588 
3294 
45)39528(878.4 
360 
352 
315 



378 
360 
180 

14.4)878.4(61 teeth in stud wheel 
864 
144 
144 

Note. — 45 X 14.4 equals 648, which is generally used as 
divisor. 

To get the Tin Roller Wheel. 

Rule B. — Multiply the circumference of measuring roller 
by bell wheel and by stud wheel, dividing by the length of 
mark required. 

Example. — A mark of 45 yards 32 inches is required 
with a 5 1 stud wheel. What tin roller wheel must be used ? 

14.4x45 = 648 X 51 = 33048 
45 yards 32 inches = 1652)33048(20 

33Q4 
8 

Ans. 20 tin roller wheel. This is not exactly right, but 
20 is the nearest wheel that can be got. 



8o WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

A very simple and yet reliable rule has been sent to 
me by a correspondent. It is 

To g'et Wheels for any Length of Cut. 

Rule C. — Divide the length in inches desired by 648 
(14.4 X 45). The quotient in the form of a vulgar fraction 
shows the wheels required. The numerator will represent 
the stud wheel, and the denominator will indicate the tin 
roller wheel. 

Example. — Take the example from the previous page, 

for the 30 J yard cut. 30 J yards =1098 inches; 1098 

61 
divided by 648 = -^, then the stud wheel is 61 and the 

tin roller wheel 36. 

To find what length the wheels will give. 

Rule D. — Multiply 648 by the stud wheel, and divide by 
the tin roller wheel. 

Example. — What length will 44 tin roller and 100 

stud wheel give ? 

100 X 648 = 64800 
44)64800(1472! 

44 

208 

176 36)1472! inches 

320 40 yards 32! inches 

308 
120 
88 

3^ 

44 
Ans. 40 yards 32! inches. 

Dhootie Marker. — In marking dhooties, in addition to 
the smit for the end of the piece^ additional smits have 



SLASHING OR TAPING CALCULATIONS. 



8l 



to be made where the heading for each scarf has to be 
inserted. Usually this is done by having an additional 
train of wheels and an extra marker, called a dhootie- 
marker, to strike 3, 4, or 6, &c., times for the cut- 
marker's once. In Fig. 4 a special arrangement is shown. 
The usual wheels are shown at /i, the worm z, the bell 
wheel /^, the bell shaft cut-mark hammer 7/1. The other 




IT 

Fig. 4. — Dhootie-Marker. 



wheels and the marker 7i refer to the dhootie-mark ; d is 
fixed to the stud and drives c with d, a pinion on another 
stud ; the wheels e, /, and ^ complete the train, and on 
the same shaft as ^ a cam operates the dhootie-marker. 
This is arranged to strike any number of times for once 
of the cut-marker, regulated by the number of teeth in 
the change wheel /, 10 teeth in which give one mark 

F 



82 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

to a cut mark, 30 give three marks to a cut, 100 ten 
marks to a cut, and so on by somewhat similar systems 
for higher numbers. This marker is made by Messrs. 
Howard & BuUough. 

To find the actual Pereentag'e of Size put on the 
Yarn. 

Rule E. — To find the size actually put on the yarn, sub- 
tract the weight of the unsized yarn less waste from the 
sized yarn — e.g., 

1639 actual sized weight. 
1300 weight of yarn before sizing less waste. 
339 = weight of size. 

1300)33900(26.07 per cent, actual. 

2600 



7900 

7800 

100 



Example— Counts after Sizing*.— Apply Rule E., 
page 72. 2280 ends 4 wraps of 3564 yards each weigh 

1639 lbs. 

142K6 X 2280 ^ , 

-^ = 23.61's counts. 

1639 X 840 

The author, in his book on '' Cotton Manufacturing," 
describes the process of sizing, also sizing materials, 
and machinery. 




LOOM CALCULATIONS. 

|RITHMETICAL problems, as far as regards 
weaving machinery, bear reference chiefly to 
speeds of different parts of the machine. 
These are necessary ones, but not very in- 
tricate, and the rules common to all speed calculations 
previously given can be here applied. 

The take-up motion is a special piece of apparatus, 
and requires careful consideration, as do also one or two 
calculations referring to fancy work. 

To get the Speed of the Loom from the Eng'ine. 

Rule A. — Multiply the speed of the engine by the dimen- 
sions of driving wheels^ and divide by the dimensions of the 
driven wheels. 

Example. — Engine speed, 46 revolutions per minute; 
spur driving wheel, 105 teeth; pinion, 53 teeth; second 
motion driving wheel, 52 teeth; line shaft in shed, 49; 
drum on line shaft, 15 inches diameter; loom pulley, 8 
inches. 

83 



84 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

46 X 105 X 52 X 15-53 X 49x8. 

46 

105 



230 






460 




49)71083(1450 


4830 




49 


52 




220 


9660 




196 


24150 




248 


25II60 




245 


15 




33 


1255800 






25II60 




8)1450 


53)3767400(7] 


:o83 


181I 


371 






57 






53 






440 




- 


424 







160 
Ans. 181 revolutions of crank shaft or picks per minute. 

This is the calculated speed, but about 4 per cent, may 
be allowed for slip, which leaves a result of about 174 
picks per minute. 

Changing Speed of Loom. — An example is given on 
page 63. 

To obtain Speed of the Bottom Shaft (in the plain 

loom called the tappet shaft) from the Crank Shaft. 
Apply Rule A,, given on page 59. 

^ If all the fractions had been taken into account the result would have 
been slightly greater. In this and some other connections where it is not 
of importance to express the result in infinitesimal quantities, the fractional 
remainders are left out for convenience in calculation. 



LOOM CALCULATIONS. 85 

Example. — A loom crank shaft revolves 180 times in 
a minute. It carries a 41, driving an 82 on the bottom 
shaft. What is the speed of the latter ? 

180 X 41 -f- 82 = 90 revolutions per minute. 

To obtain the Number of Revolutions of a Crank 
Shaft for One Revolution of a Twill Shaft, Tappet 
Shaft, or Tappet Motion. 

This corresponds with the number of picks per minute 
that the motion is adapted for. 

Examples. 

Case I. — When the twill shaft is under the loom and 
parallel to the bottom shaft — 



'.g., Wheel on end of crank shaft 


40 


„ „ of bottom shaft 


80 


5, bottom shaft (driver) . 


24 


„ twill shaft . 


36 



How many revolutions does the crank shaft make for the 
twill shaft one ? 

Apply Rule B., on page 61. 

I X 36 X 80 -^ 24 X 40 = 

2880 ^ 960 = 3. 

The motion is then for a three-leaf twill. 

Case II. — For a woodcroft tappet. 
The crank shaft carries a 12; the tappet wheel is 108. 
How many picks are there to the round ? 

I revolution of tappet x 108 -^12 = 9 picks to the round. 

The same rule applies to side tappets without inter- 
mediate wheels, the carrier of course not entering into the 
calculations. 



S6 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Case III. — For side tappets with an intermediate pair 
of wheels. 

In this arrangement the crank shaft carries a driver 
gearing with the first of the intermediate wheels on a 
stud. On the same stud is the second intermediate 
wheel driving the wheel on the tappets. 

Suppose the train of wheels is 20 driving 50, 18 driv- 
ing 72, the 50 and 18 being the intermediate wheels on 
the stud. How many revolutions of the first driver (the 
crank shaft) are made for the tappet one ? 

Apply Rule B., on page 61. 

I X 72 X 50 -^ 20 X 18. 

72 

5^ 

20)3600 



18)180 
10 



Am. 10. 



Case IV. — A tappet motion, such as Smalley's sateen 
motion. 

Example. — Crank shaft wheel 41, driving 82 on bottom 
shaft. Bottom shaft carrying 36 twist gear, driving 36 
on upright shaft. 12 at top of upright shaft, driving 60 
on tappets. How many revolutions of crank shaft for 
tappet shaft one ? 

Applying the Rule B., on page 61. 

I X 60 X 36 X 82 -=- 12 X 36 X 41 = 10 picks to the round. 

To find the Wheel or Wheels required to give the 
required number of Picks to the Round. 

Use Rule C, on page 61. 



LOOM CALCULATIONS. 8/ 

Examples. 

Case I. — Where the twill shaft is under the loom 
parallel to the bottom shaft. Suppose the crank shaft to 
carry a 41, driving an 82 on the bottom shaft, and we 
require the bottom shaft to drive the twill shaft to give 5 
picks to the round, or, in other words, to make I revolu- 
tion for the crank shaft 5. 

We require the size of two wheels, and shall have to 
estimate one. Say we have a 100 on the twill shaft, 
then we want the size of the driver on the tappet shaft. 

Applying rule — 

I X 100x824-41 x5 = 4o the wheel required. 

Then the two wheels required are in proportion of 40 
to 100, or say 20 and 50. 

Case II. — A woodcroft tappet. Picks to round re- 
quired, 16; size of tappet wheel, 192. How many teeth 
on crank shaft wheel ? 

Applying rule, divide driven wheel by speed of driver — 

192 

— 7- = wheel required on crank shaft. 

Ans. 12 teeth. 

Case III.— Side Tappets.— To find one of the drivers 
to give a required speed, use Rule C, on page 61. For 
a 14 pick to the round, with a 10 on crank shaft, 35 on 
stud, and 40 on tappets. Find the driver on the stud. 
Multiply the speed of the driven shaft I by the driven 
wheels 35 and 40, and divide by the speed of the driver 
14 X driving wheel 10. 

35 X I x4o= i4oo _^^ 

14 X 10 = 140 



88 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

The train will be — 

lo driving 35 
10 „ 40 

If it be one of the driven wheels that is wanted, apply 
Rule D., on page 62. 

Example. — 13 picks to round. 13 picks to the round 
must be woven, the wheel on the crank shaft being 25 ; 
the stud drives 13, and the last wheel on the same shaft 
as the tappets is 65. Then, to get the size of inter- 
mediate driven wheel on the stud, multiply the speed of 
driver 13 by the drivers 25 and 13, and divide this by 
the driven 65. 

I X 13X 13X 25-^65 = 65 the wheel required. 

If both intermediate wheels have to be found. 

Rule B. — Find the speed that the driven and driving 
wheels give, and this is to the required speed, as the two 
required wheels are to one another. 

Example. — 17 picks to the round are required. There 
is a 10 on the crank shaft and a 25 on the tappets. What 
have the two intermediate wheals to be ? The speed of 
the crank shaft for the tappets i with the given wheels 
is 25-MO = 2|-. Then as 2 J is to 17, so the required 
wheels. 10 and 68 would do, or 15 and 102. Take 
the latter, the train would then be — 

10 driving 102 
15 n 25 

Case IV. — Tappet motion above loom driven from 
bottom shaft by an upright wheel. 

Example. — 7 picks to r6und required, or the crank 



LOOM CALCULATIONS. 89 

shaft to revolve 7 times for tappet once. Crank shaft 
wheel 4O; driving 80 on bottom shaft, 36 on bottom 
shaft driving 36. JO on tappets. What is the size of 
the intermediate wheel ? 

Applying the Rule C, on page 61 : — 

70 X 36 X 80 -f 7 X 36 X 40. Ans. 20. 
The train of middle wheels would then be — 

40 driving 80 

36 » 36 

20 „ 70 

Leverag'e. — To find the distance moved through by 
one end of a lever. 

Case I. — Levers of the first order, when the fulcrum 
or centre on which it moves is between the power and 
the work. 

Rule C. — The length of the weight arm multiplied by 
the distance through which the power arm is moved, and 
divided by the length of the power arm, gives the distance 
through which the end of the weight arm moves. 

Example. — ^A lever 10 inches long, working on a 
centre 4 inches from one end, is moved i inch at its 
longer end. How far does it move at its shorter end ? 

The weight arm 4 inches X i inch -i- the power arm 
6 inches = f inches. 

Case II. — Levers of the second order, i.e., where the 
weight is between the fulcrum and the power. 

The same rule applies. 

Case III. — Where the power is between the weight 
and fulcrum. 

The same rule applies. 



go WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Size of Shed. — The ordinary treadles of the plain 
loom are levers of the second or third order, and the 
calculation of the size of the shed from given dimensions 
of the tappets and treadles forms a good example in 
leverage. Suppose the stroke of the tappet, or the dis- 
tance through which it moves the treadle bowl, between 
the outer and inner circle is 3|- inches. The treadle, a 
lever of the second order, is 30 inches long, the treadle 
bowl being 25 inches from the treadle pin, and the 
healds connected 15 inches from the pin or fulcrum 
at a point which we will call N. Then the movement of 
the heald from its highest to its lowest level is equal to 
the distance moved through by the point N — i.e., 2.1 
inches — for if the bowl moves 3 J inches, the point N 

-7 i V T d 

moves (by the rule) — = 2. i inches. This gives the 

size of the shed at the healds. 

Suppose the heald in question is 7 inches from the fell 
of the cloth, the shuttle passing through the shed 2 inches 
nearer to the cloth, then the size of the shed at the heald 
multiplied by 5 and divided' by 7 gives its size at the point 
where the shuttle passes through, or 2. 1x5-1-7= 1.5 
inches. 

Take-up Motion. — Among cotton looms the positive 
take-up motion is generally used. The cloth as woven is, 
by this arrangement, drawn on the, cloth roller a certain 
distance at every pick, the amount of take-up being regu- 
lated by wheels. Fig. 5 shows a sketch of the arrange- 
ment. The construction is similar" for almost all looms, 
but there are different gears and sizes of wheels used. In 
Harrison's gear the rack wheel of 50 teeth receives its 
motion from a pawl, worked by one of the slay swords. 



LOOM CALCULATIONS. 



91 



On the same stud is the change wheel. This gears with 
the stud wheel, 100 teeth, firmly connected with the 
pinion of 12 teeth, driving the beam wheel 75- The 
beam or sand roller is 1 5 inches in circumference, and is 
covered with glued sand, perforated tin, or some rough 
substance, to hold the cloth firmly. The fabric is wound 
on the cloth roller below this by means of contact with 
the sand roller. The chano'e wheel is varied to ffive 




Fig- 5- 



changes of picks in the cloth, a larger wheel giving fewer 
picks in the quarter inch. Each gear has a constant 
number associated with it, called a dividend. 

To ascertain the Number of Picks in a Quarter 
Inch of cloth. 

If the number of teeth in the change wheel be divided 
into this dividend, it gives the picks in a qiim'ter inch 
of cloth. Imagining that a change wheel, having the 



92 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

effect of only one tooth in a revolution, could be 
applied, then the dividend is the number of picks that 
the loom would run before the sand roller advanced a 
quarter of an inch. Suppose 528 dividend is taken, this 
represents a change wheel supposed to have one tooth. 
If a wheel of 66 teeth be put on, only gV ^s many picks to 
the quarter will be inserted — i.e., ^-^^ = 8 picks. 

To ascertain the Number of Teeth in the wheel 
required for a number of picks per quarter inch of cloth. 

Divide the number of picks per quarter inch into the 
dividend, and select the nearest wheel to the result 
obtained. Also see the following pages and Tables IX. 
and X. 

Dividend. — The method of obtaining the dividend for 
any ordinary gear is — 

Rule D. — Multiply all the driven wheels together, and 

divide by the drivers and the circumference of the roller, 

thus — 

Rack wheel x carrier wheel x beam wheel 

Pinion wheel x number of 5 inches in circumference of taking-up roller 

afterwards adding i J per cent, for shrinkage of the cloth 
after being released from the tension of the loom. 
Thus Harrison's gear gives — 

50 X 75 X 100 -=- 12 X 60= 520.8 
Add i^ per cent. = 7.8 

Dividend . 528.6 usually taken as 5.28 



LOOM CALCULATIONS. 



93 



The principal g'ears in use in Lancashire are: 





Rack 
Wheel. 


Stud 

and 

Carrier 

Wheel. 


Pinion. 


Beam 

Wheel. 


Circumf. 
Take-up 
Roller. 


•6 
c 

s 


J. Harrison & Sons, now"\ 
J. Dugdale & Sons . ./ 
Willan & Mills . . . . ] 
J. Dugdale & Sons . . . r 
J. & R. Shorrock . . J 
Butterworth & Dickinson 
Pickles 


50 

24 


100 

120 

120 
89 


12 

15 

18 
15 


75 

75 

100 
90 


15 

15 

16 
15 


528 

507 

528 



To weave heavy pick cloth with, say, the first-named 
motion, the rack wheel might be increased to 60 from 
50, and the dividend would then be 634. 

Pickles' gear also has a swing pinion 24, and two change 
wheels. To find the change wheel required, multiply the 
change wheel on the rack stud by the picks per quarter 
inch, and divide by 9 — 

Equal to 4 teeth per pick for a 36 change wheel. 



27 



By using this motion both heavy and light pick cloth 
can be woven without a great variation in the wheels. 

The dividend is not given for Pickles' motion ; in fact 
the constant number is a multiple and not a dividend. 
There are two extra wheels in Pickles' motion on a swing 
between the stud wheels and rack wheels. One of these 
is a swing pinion, 24, and the other is a change wheel. 
There are thus two change wheels. The one on the rack 
stud is generally considered a standard one, and is either 



94 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

1 8, 27, 36, or 45, each of which, it will be noticed, is a 
multiple of 9 : a 36 is often used. The other change 
wheel on the swing stud is the one altered for picks, and 
supposing a 36 standard to be used, then the number of 
picks per quarter inch multiplied by 4 gives the change 
wheel required. If the standard were 27, then the 
number of picks multiplied by 3 gives the wheel required. 
If an 18 standard be used, then the number of picks 
multiplied by 2 gives the change wheel. The advan- 
tages of this motion are : — the possibility of obtaining the 
same fraction of a pick in difference by changing one 
tooth, whether in low pick or heavy pick cloths — in other 
Vv^ords, each tooth having the same value ; also a smaller 
range of change wheels, as a change of the standard 
wheel makes the same set of change wheels serve for 
heavy picked as well as for light picked cloths ; also the 
possibiHty of changing to a J pick in heavy goods, which 
is very difficult and unusual with the dividend system of 
gears. 

Example. — Applying .Rule D. to Pickles' motion, the 
drivers are 24 rack wheel, the variable change wheel, 
which we want to find, the 89 stud wheel, and the 90 
beam wheel. The driven wheels are the standard wheel, 
the swing pinion 24, and the stud pinion 15. 

Then £4^l9Jl_9° 

24 X 15 X 60 8.9 

Add I J per cent. .1 

9-0 

The calculation is not yet completed, as we have 
another change wheel — the standard. Suppose it is to 



LOOM CALCULATIONS. 95 

36 
be a 36, and using 9 as a divisor, the result is — , or 4. 

27 18 . 

If a 27 standard be used, ^^ = 3. With an 18, ^ — is 2. 
^ 9 9 

The figure 4 obtained with the 36 is not a dividend but 
a multiplier if we desire to find what wheel is used for a 
certain number of picks per quarter, or divisor if the picks 
are required from the wheel. 

Example. — Suppose a 36 standard is used, and the 
picks per quarter inch required are 20 : 20 multiplied by 
4 gives the number of teeth — 80. If 17 picks are required 
per quarter inch, 17 x 4 = 68 wheel. 

On the contrary, the figure 4 may be a divisor if the 
picks are required — e.g.y if a 48 wheel is used, what are 

A 8 

the picks per quarter inch ? — = 12 ; or with a 61 wheel, 

4 

— = 15 J picks per quarter inch. 
4 



Table IX.— Pick Table, g'iven in picks to the 
quarter inch. 



Atherton's Gear. 


Dickinson's Gear. 


Harrison's Gear. 


Beam 


wheel . 80 


Beam 


wheel . 7'5 


Beam wheel . 75 


Beam wheel . 7s 


Beam 


wheel . 7^ 


Stud wheel . 120 


Stud wheel . 120 


Stud wheel . 120 


Stud wheel . 100 


Stud wheel . 100 


Rack wheel . 60 


Rack wheel . 50 


Rack 


wheel . 80 


Rack wheel . 50 


Rack wheel . 60 


Pinion wheel. 15 


Pinion wheel. 15 


Pinion wheel 15 


Pinion wheel. 12 


Pinion 


wheel. 12 


Emery bm. 15 in. 


Emery bm. 13 in. 


Emery bm. 15 in. 


Emery bm. ij in. 


Emery bm. 15 in. 


Dividend . . 649 


Dividend , . 507 


Dividend . . 811 


Dividend . . 528 


Dividend . . 634 


u-3 








a)_- 




4)_- 

bcv 




(U_. 

be D 




n <u 


Picks. 


P 4) 


Picks. 


C V 


Picks. 


C V 


Picks. 




Picks. 


sl 




6^ 




S^ 




U^ 








15 


43.26 


15 


33-8 


15 


54-06 


15 


35.2 


15 


42.266 


16 


40.56 


16 


31.69 


16 


50.68 


16 


33 


16 


39.625 


17 


38.17 


17 


29.82 


17 


47-7 


17 


31.06 


17 


37.294 


18 


36.05 


18 


28.17 


18 


45.05 


18 


29.33 


18 


35.222 


19 


35.21 


19 


26.68 


19 


42.689 


19 


27.79 


19 


33-368 


20 


32.45 


20 


25.35 


20 


40.55 


20 


26.4 


20 


31.7 


21 


30.904 


21 


24.1:43 


21 


38.623 


21 


25.143 


21 


30.19 


22 


29.5 


22 


23.045 


22 


36.863 


22 


24 


22 


28.818 


23 


28.217 


23 


22.043 


23 


35.26 


23 


22.956 


23 


27.565 


24 


27.041 


24 


21.125 


24 


33-791 


24 


22 


24 


26.417 


25 


25.96 


25 


20.28 


25 


32.44 


25 


21.12 


25 


25-36 


26 


24.961 


26 


19.5 


26 


31.192 


26 


20. 308 


26 


24.385 


27 


24.037 


27 


18.778 


27 


30.037 


27 


19.556 


27 


23-481 


28 


23.178 


28 


18.107 


28 


28.964 


28 


18.857 


28 


22.643 


29 


22.379 


29 


17.483 


29 


27.965 


29 


18.207 


29 


21.862 


30 


21.633 


30 


16.9 


30 


27.033 


30 


17,6 


30 


21.133 


31 


20.935 


31 


16.355 


31 


26.161 


31 


17.032 


31 


20.452 


32 


20.281 


32 


15.884 


32 


25-343 


32 


16.5 


32 


19.813 


33 


19.666 


33 


15-364 


33 


24.575 


33 


16 


33 


19.212 


34 


19.088 


34 


14.912 


34 


23-852 


34 


15-53 


34 


18.647 


35 


18.542 


35 


14.486 


35 


23.171 


35 


15.0S6 


35 


18. 114 


36 


18.027 


36 


■14.083 


36 


.22.527 


36 


14.667 


36 


17.611 


37 


17-54 


37 


13-703 


37 


21.918 


37 


14.27 


37 


17.13s 


38 


17.078 


38 


13-342 


38 


21.342 


38 


13-895 


38 


16.684 


39 


16.641 


39 


13 


39 


20.794 


39 


13.538 


39 


16.256 


40 


16.225 


40 


12.675 


40 


20.275 


40 


13.2 


40 


15.85 


41 


15.829 


41 


12.366 


41 


19.78 


41 


12.878 


41 


15-463 


42 


15.452 


42 


12.071 


42 


19.309 


42 


12.571 


42 


15-095 


43 


15-093 


43 


11.791 


43 


18.86 


43 


12.279 


43 


14.744 


44 


14-75 


44 


"•523 


44 


18.431 


44 


12 


44 


14.409 


45 


14.442 


45 


11.267 


45 


18,022 


45 


11-733 


45 


14.089 


46 


14. 108 


46 


11.022 


46 


17.63 


46- 


11.478 


46 


13-783 


47 


13.808 


47 


10.787 


47 


17.225 


47 


11.234 


47 


13.489 


48 


13.52 


48 


10.563 


48 


16.895 


48 


II 


48 


13.208 


49 


13.244 


49 ■■ 


10.347 


49 


16.51 


49 


10.776 


49 


12.939 


SO 


12.98 


50 


10.14 


50 


16.22 


50 


10.56 


50 


12.68 


SI 


12.725 


51 


9.94T 


51 


15-9 


51 


10.353 


51 


12.431 


52 


12.48 


52 


9-75 


52 


15.59 


52 


10.154 


52 


12.192 


S3 


12.24 


53 


9.566 


53 


15.30 


53 


9.962 


53 


11.962 


54 


12.02 


54 


9.389 


54 


15.01 


54 


9.778 


54 


1 1. 741 


55 


li.S 


55 


9.218 


55 


14.74 


55 


9.6 


55 


.11.527 


56 


11-59 


56 


9.054 


56 


14.48 


56 


9.429 


56 


11.321 


57 


1:1-37 


57 


8.895 


57 


14.22 


57 


9.263 


57 


11.123 


58 


11.29 


58 


8.741 


58 


13.98 


58 


9.103 


58 


10.931 


59 


11.00 


59 


8.593 


59 


13-74 


59 


8.95 


59 


10.746 


60 


10.81 


60 


8.45 


60 


13.51 


60 

1 


8.8 


60 


10.567 



LOOM CALCULATIONS. 



97 



At Table IX. a pick table is given showing the calcu- 
lated picks for forty-six different wheels in five styles of 
gear. As will be imagined from a perusal of the list, the 
same wheels are not always used for the same pick at 
different mills, but the following scale gives a medium 
cloth, and is in use very largely. Poorer or better cloth 
can be made by using larger or smaller wheels re- 
spectively : — 

Table X. 



Picks to 


507 


528 


649 


Quarter. 


Dividend. 


Dividend. 


Dividend. 


9 


60 


62 


76 


lO 


56 


58 


71 


II 


50 


52 


65 


12 


46 


48 


59 


13 


42 


44 


54 


14 


39 


41 


50 


15 


3^ 


38 


46 


16 


33 


35 


43 


17 


32 


33 


40 


18 


30 


31 


38 


19 


28 


29 


36 


20 


26 


27 


34 


21 


25 


26 


32 


22 


24 


25 


31 


23 


23 


24 


29 


24 


22 


23 


28 



An Up-taking" Motion, used in Scotland, consists of 
three wheels only (omitting wheels C and D in Fig. 5); 
the change pinion gearing directly with the beam wheel. 
Suppose the beam to be 13 inches in circumference, the 
beam wheel to be 140 teeth, and the rack wheel 120, the 
dividend for the number of picks j^er inch is got by 

G 



98 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Rule E. — Multiply the beam wheel and rack wheel to- 
gether^ and divide by the circumference of the roller in inches. 

140x120-^-13 = 1291 dividend. 

Thus for 43 picks to the inch a 30 wheel would be 
required, obtained by dividing 129 1 by 43. 

To many manufacturers it is no doubt preferable to 
have a dividend which, when divided by the shots on the 
glass, gives the necessary wheel ; therefore we give 

Rule F. — Multiply the rack wheel by the beam wheels 
and divide by the circumference of the up-taking roller ex- 
pressed in two-hundredths of'^'j inches. 

The dividend of the former example would be 1 20 x 
140, and divided by 70.27, that being 13 inches expressed 
in 2%- of an inch — 

120 X 140 -^ 70.27 = 239. 

Suppose 17 shots on the glass were required — 

239-17=^. 
Ans. 14 wheel required. 

Jaequard Calculations. — In designing for Jacquard 
work many sizes of design paper are used — thus, 8x8, 
12x9, 12x10, 10X8, signifying that the first-named 
number of squares across the paper occupy the same 
space as the latter number down the paper. 

These are used so that a pattern may be in proportion 
on the paper to what it would be in the cloth, although 
in the latter it might have less picks than ends per inch. 

For example, a square pattern woven 12 ends to the 
\ inch and 10 picks to the \ inch, if drawn on I2X 10 
design paper, would be as broad as long, if on I2X 12 
design paper would appear broader than long. 



LOOM CALCULATIONS. 99 

Apparently then the design paper to be used should be 
in proportion to the ends and picks per inch. If the cloth 
has to be i6o ends and i6o picks per inch, then the 
design paper must be as i6o to i6o. For example, 8x8 
would do. 

If 132 ends and no picks per inch, the paper must 
be as 132 is to no, e.g., 12 x 10 paper. 

Casting" Out. — In lay-over patterns a number of ends 
are tied to one hook, and if the pattern contains as many 
ends as there are hooks, or some factor of the number, it 
is easy to calculate how many shall be tied. In a warp 
of 1600 ends in a 400 machine, and 400 ends in the 
pattern, four would be tied to each hook. With 100 ends 
in the pattern there would be 16 ends similar, which, 
however, would be divided between the four patterns 
representing the capacity of the machine, still giving four 
ends to a hook. In some cases, the number of hooks 
available for use cannot be divided by the number of ends 
in the pattern without remainder. This remainder can- 
not be used, and has to be cast out. 

Rule G. — After allowing for selvages, &c., divide the 
number of hooks available by the number of ends in the 
pattern, the remainder after division is the number to be 
cast out ; the other hooks being all utilised. 

Example. — How many hooks would be cast out in a 

408 machine, with 64 ends in the pattern, 8 hooks being 

used for selvages. The machine will weave six patterns 

and have 16 hooks to spare, which would be cast out — 

64)400(6 groups 

384 
16 

Ans. 16 hooks cast out. 



100 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

One row of 8 would be cast in the middle and another 
at the end. 

To find the ends foF each Hook or Neckband. 

Rule H. — Divide the number of patterns in the width 
of the fabric by the number of groups of hooks available 
for them. This gives the number of ends to each hook, 
any surplus being added to one or more groups of hooks. 

Example. — Taking 1600 ends in a 400 machine, with 
64 ends to the pattern, the 1600 ends, neglecting sel- 
vages, will give 25 complete patterns of 64 ends each in 
the width of the cloth ; this will give four ends, otherwise 
four patterns, to each hook to five sets, and five patterns 
or five ends to a hook in the sixth set. 

Casting out for coarser reed. 

Rule J. — Multiply the number of hooks in use for the 
finer reed by the coarser reed, and divide by the finer reed. 
The difference is the number to cast out. 

Example. — 400 hooks are being used for 100 reed 
cloth. How many would have to remain at rest in weav- 
ing 80 reed cloth with the same Jacquard harness ? 

400 X 80 -f- 100 = 320 

400 - 320 = 80 to cast out. 

Cumhertaoard. — The total number of holes per inch in 
the cumberboard' must be equal at least to the number of 
warp ends per inch in the reed. If the cumberboard is 
finer than this, subtract the ends per inch in the reed 
from the ends per inch in the cumberboard, and the 
number to be left unused in each inch remains. 




WAGE CALCULATIONS. 

N the cotton trade wages are now regulated 
chiefly by lists of prices drawn up and agreed 
upon by representatives of masters and opera- 
tives. This is a commendable system, not 
only because it obviates disputes, by having a standard 
to refer to in case of differences of opinion, but be- 
cause each manufacturer and each district are placed on 
the same basis, and thus unfair competition is avoided. 
Earlier in the history of the cotton trade each master had 
his own list, and paid more or less than his competitors, 
as he was more or less favourably situated, or perhaps 
in some instances according to the rates to which he had 
been accustomed from the commencement of the factory 
system. The growth of trades' unions has compelled the 
adoption of fixed bases on which all makers must pay, 
forcing up the lowest prices, while at the same time 
increased competition has compelled those manufacturers 
who in times gone by have paid higher rates than their 
competitors to reduce their payments to the ordinary rates, 
and thus the standardised scales of payments have been 
adopted. 

Almost the only disadvantage in standard lists is that 
when once fixed neither masters nor men seem inclined 
to make allowances for abnormal circumstances, such, for 



I02 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



example, as when an employer is engaged on producing 
cheap fabrics out of poor material, or where machinery 
is old or worn out. In these cases the work-people are 
obviously at a disadvantage. In other circumstances the 
employer is in the worse position where he has gone to 
great expense in providing the most modern machinery, 
or the most healthy workshop, or where he finds employ- 
ment in a country neighbourhood for people who would 
otherwise be unemployed, and where he is at greater 
expense in carriage, cartage, lighting, and other expenses. 
In these cases the operative reaps the benefit if full rates 
are paid. The greatest unanimity of prices prevails in 
the weaving departments, and least in those branches 
where the fewest men are employed, such as taping or 
warehousing. In these departments each man has his 
own value based on his abihty. The rates paid in each 
department will now be given, and where possible the 
districts in which each list is accepted will be noted. 



Winding". 

Mule Yarn, from Twist Cop to Warper's 

Bobbin. 



Counts of 
Yarn. 
i8's. 

20'S . 
22'S . 
24'S . 
26'S. 
28'S. 
30'S. 
32'S. 

34'S. 
36'S. 



Lbs. of Twist 
for I2d. 
65 lbs. 
62 „ 

57 ,, 

52 ., 

49 >5 

46 „ 

44 ,, 

42 „ 

41 ,, 

40 5, 



Counts of 
Yarn. 
38'S. 
40's . 
46'S. 
50's . 
6o's. 
70's . 
8o's. 
90's . 
loo's . 



Lbs. of Twist 
for I2d. 
36 lbs. 

30 
28 

24 

21 

18 

16 

15 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 



TO3 



Above paid nett, and is an average of rates paid in 
Lancashire. 

Ring frame or throstle frame yarn about 25 per cent, 
more for a shilh'ng. No acknowledged list is paid in all 
the cotton districts, but the above is about the average. 

In Burnley, 6Jd. per 20 Jbs. of 32's twist is paid, and 
5 per cent, added to the price for each two counts finer, 
and 5 per cent, deducted for each two counts coarser. 

Below are the prices for winding allowed by the Preston 
list of 1 860, and still current at some places in the town : — 



Average of Prices Paid for Winding for 20 lbs. 



Throstle. 


Mule. 


Throstle. 


Throstle. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


26 . . 3f 




50 . . 8 


85 . .14 


28 




3i 


5l 


55 • • 81 


90 • . i5i 


30 




3« 


5f 


60 . . 9 


95 • • 16I 


32 




3l 


6 


65 ■ • 9f 


100 . . 18 


34 






6i 


70 . . \o\ 


105 . . 20I 


36 




... 


6i 


75 • • iij 


no . . 23 


40 






7 


80 . . 12I 


120 . . 30 


46 




... 


7i 







Coloured Yarn Winding*. 

When coloured yarn is used for warps, the yarn is 
dyed either in the warp or chain as a rule ; but in goods 
where the amount of colour is small in proportion to the 
grey yarn (d booties, for example, and also in other special 
goods), the yarn is dyed in the hank, and has to be 
wound to the warping bobbin. Rates vary very much 
for this; is. per bundle is often paid for 20's or 2/40's in 



I04 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



dhooty work. In other districts this rate gets as low as 
8d. per bundle, but the average may be taken as lod. 
A scale in proportion to this would be : — 

12's 16's 20's 24's 28's 32's 36's 40's 



M. 



^d. lod. 



ii^d. 



i2,d. i4^d. i6d. iT^d. 



Pirn Winding". 

Coloured wefts often require winding from hank to 
pirn, and this is more costly than winding the same yarn 
to the warper's bobbin. An average over the county of 
Lancashire would probably give : — 

12's 16's 20's 24's 28's 32's 36's 40's 

igd. 



lod. 1 2d. i4d. i6^d. igd. 2i^d. 24^. 2'jd. 
In each case the prices apply to a 10 lb. bundle. 



Beaming". 

(Less 10 _per cent) 



Pnr\a 


Price per wrap 


Fnrlq 


Price per wrap 




of 3564 yards. 




of 3564 yards. 


300 


3-75^- 


410 


4.93^. 


310 


3.85^. , 


420 


5.04^. 


320 


3.96^. 


440 


5.28^. 


330 


4.0 J d. 


460 


5.52^. 


340 


4.1 Sd. 


480 


5.76^. 


350 • . 


4.2 gd. 


500 


6.ood. 


360 


4.40^. 


520 


6.2 6d 


370 


4.5^. 


550 


6.66d 


380 . 


4.6d. 


580 . 


7.05^. 


390 


4.7 id. 


610 


7.45^. 


400 


4.82^. 


640 


7.85^. 



No list has been official^ adopted for this work, but 
the above may be taken as the average rate in North 
Lancashire. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. I05 

Ball Warping". 

Ball warping is paid either by the thousand hanks or 
by the 100 lbs., except in the case of small or difficult 
warps, which are made by time. 

An average rate varies from 6d. to 8d. per lOOO hanks, 
and an allowance of 2d. per warp for all warps under 500 
hanks. In some cases id. is allowed for each double 
lease, and from 6d. to 8d. per hour paid for making 
sample warps, or difficult coloured warps. 

An average list of prices is for grey warps of not less 
than 800 hanks each : — 



lo's 


"jd. per 


1000 hanks. 


or 7^/. per 


100 lbs 


i6's 


6|^. 


5} 5) 


lid. 


55 


24's 


61^. 


5' 55 


^S¥' 


55 


32's 


(>\d. 


5? 55 


2od. 


55 


40's 


6d. 


>5 55 


24^. 


55 



Example. — What is the price for warping 1400 ends, 
840 yards, 2/60's ? 

Weight of warp 1400 multiplied by 840 and divided 
by 840 gives 1400 hanks. At 6Jd. per 1000, the price for 
the warp is 8.75 pence. 
Alts. 8fd. 

Slashing" op Tape-Sizing*. 

The Blackburn list, framed some twenty-five years 
ago, is largely used where payment by list still obtains. 
Many mills now have the slashers or tapers, as they are 
variously called, paid at a fixed wage. The list is as 
under : — 

Taking 2460 ends as a standard, deducting |d. for 



io6 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



every 50 ends below the standard, on 37^ yards per 100 
cuts. 

Taking 2460 ends as a standard, add Jd. for every 50 
ends above the standard, on 37|- yards per 1 00 cuts. 

Fractional parts of 50 ends given in favour of the 
workman. 





1460 


1560 


1660 


1760 


i860 


i960 


2060 


2160 


Ends. 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 




1510 


1610 


1710 


1810 


1910 


2010 


2IIO 


2210 




d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


25 yds. 


14.00 


14.5 


15.00 


15-5 


16.00 


16.5 


17.00 


17.5 


37h " 


21.00 


21.75 


22.5 


23-25 


24.00 


24.75 


25.5 


26.25 


46 „ 


25.76 


26.68 


27.6 


28.52 


29.44 


.30.36 


31.28 


32.2 


60 ,, 


33-6 


34-8 


36.00 


37.2 


38.4 


39.6 


40.8 


42.00 


100 ,, 


56.00 


58.00 


60.00 


62.00 


64.00 


66.00 


68.00 


70.00 




2260 


2360 


2460 


2560 


2660 


2760 


2860 


2960 


Ends. 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 




2310 


2410 


2510 


2610 


2710 


2810 


2910 


3010 




d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


25 yds. 


18.00 


18.5 


19.00 


19.66 


20.33 


21.00 


21.66 


22.33 


37i .. 


27.00 


27.75 


28.5 


29-5 


30. 5 


31.5 


32.5 


33.5 


46 ., 


33-12 


34-04 


34-96 


36.186 


37-413 


38.64 


39.86 


41.093 


60 ,, 


43-2 


44-4 


45-6 


47-2 


48.8 


50.4 


52.00 


53-6 


100 ,, 


72.00 


74.00 


76.00 


78.66 


81.33 


84.00 


86.66 


89.33 






3060 


3160 . 


3260 


3360 


3460 


3660 


3860 


Ends 


}. 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 






3110 


3210 


3310 


3410 


3510 


3710 


3910 






d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


25 yds. 


. 


23.00 


23.66 


24-33 


25.00 


25.66 


27.00 


28.33 


37h » 




34-5 


35-5 


36.5 


37.5 


38.5 


40.5 


42.5 


46 „ 


. 


42.32 


43-546 


44-773 


46.00 


47.226 


49.68 


52-13 


60 ,, 


. 


55-2 


56.8 


58.4 


60.00 


61.6 


64.8 


68.00 


100 ,, 




92,00 


94.66 


97-33 


100.00 


102.66 


108.00 


113-33 



The preceding hst is based upon medium counts of 
yarn. Extreme counts and extreme sorts to be allowed 
for as per agreement. 

The list is paid less 10 per cent. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 



107 



It is adopted in most manufacturing districts, excepting 
South Lancashire, where no deduction is made below 
2500 ends. 

Example. — Suppose the taper is engaged on 1970 ends 
for three days, and runs three sets each of 200 — 75 yards 
pieces, and for three days more on three sets of 1470 
ends. 

If 25 yards is adopted as the standard length of cut, 
he will have slashed 200x75-^25=600 cuts in a set — 
that is, 1800 cuts of 1970 ends, and 1800 cuts of 1470 
ends, the rates of payment for which, according to the 
lists, are i6Jd. per hundred and I4d. per hundred re- 
spectively. 



1800 at i6J^.=;2^i 4 9 
„ at 14^. = 110 

^2 5 9 
10 per cent, off o 4 6 



£^ 



Looming" with Lease. 



i6's to 22's 

23's to 27's 

28's to 55's 

56's to 8o's 

8o's and upwards 

28's to 55's, without lease 



2\d, per 1000 threads. 



2%d. 

2\d. 

2%d. 
2\d. 



Three leases to have something allowed as per agree- 
ment. Double warps for worsted goods to have an allow- 
ance as per agreement. 

Jobbing or labouring to be paid extra, at so much per 
hour. Yarns below i6's to be paid according to quality 
of yarn and fineness of reed. 



I08 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



Drawing'-in. 

Dra wing-in . . ^^d. per looo ends, with lease. 
„ . . 4^d. ,, „ without lease. 

The above is the Blackburn and district hst paid less 
10 per cent. Other districts have rather higher lists. 
The prices in the Preston list of i860 were as under : — 

Looming" op Twisting" for 1000 Ends. 





With a less d. 


Without a 


less 


d. 


28 to 


60 inclusive . 2J 


28 to 60 inclusive 


-3I 
04 


61 „ 


80 „ . 2f 


6l „ 80 


. 


3l 


81 „ 


120 „ . 2|- 


81 „ 120 


• 


3i 




Drawing-in for 1000 Ends. 








With a less d. 1 Without 


a less 


d. 


28 to 


120 . . . 3I 


28 to 120 . 





34 



Weaving Wages. 

The employers of Blackburn, Preston, and Burnley, 
being the principal weaving districts of Lancashire, and 
the representatives of the Northern Counties Weavers' 
Associations adopted and put in force during the past 
year (1892) a new uniform list of prices for plain weav- 
ing. Until this list was adopted, the most important lists 
were the Blackburn list of 1853 and the Burnley list of 
1880 for plain cloth, and the Nelson satin list for fancy 
cloth. The Chorley plain and Preston lists were based 
on the Blackburn list, and related to a fine class of goods. 
The Bury, Stockport, and Ashton lists had been gradually 
superseded by the Blackburn list as regarded plain cloth. 
An attempt had been made by the operatives to combine 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. IO9 

the Chorley fancy list and the Nelson satin list as a new 
list, to be called the North and North-East Lancashire 
fancy list, but it had not been accepted by the employers. 

These two fancy lists are given here, and have been 
printed with the uniform hst, but, as just stated, have not 
been officially adopted by the employers of any district. 

The lists may be divided into two classes : — 

(i.) Those regulating wages for weaving plain cloth. 

(2.) Those regulating wages for weaving fancy cloth. 

The Blackburn list was in 1883 formally adopted for 
the former by many districts as the chief regulating 
factor of Lancashire plain weavers' wages, but of course 
has now been superseded by the uniform list. This has 
been most difficult to formulate, having, it might be said, 
for years engaged the attention of Joshua Rawlinson, 
Esq., J. P., of Burnley, and Thomas Birtwistle, J. P., of 
Accrington, the employers' and operatives' secretaries 
respectively, who called in to their aid other leading repre- 
sentatives of both sides. Difficult of formulation, it has 
been still more difficult to establish, opposition having 
been met with from operatives in all districts where a 
reduction was involved. It is now estimated to cover 
300,000 looms, and with the preparatory processes to 
regulate a wages bill of ;;^ 100,000 weekly. 

Since the first edition of this book was published three 
new lists have been adopted in addition to the uniform 
list. These are the Oldham velvet list of 1890, the Colne 
coloured goods list of 1891, and the Radcliflfe coloured 
goods list of 1892. The latter lists were like the uniform 
list framed by Mr. Joshua Rawlinson and Mr. Birtwistle 
on behalf of, and in consultation with, the leading men on 
both sides. 



no WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

The RadclifFe list is printed here in place of the older 
list that appeared in the first edition, and the Oldham and 
Colne lists are inserted as additional representative lists. 
The Oldham list refers to velvets and heavy goods. In 
those towns where a uniform style of goods is made of 
plain and comparatively simple weave, it is possible to 
adopt and adhere to a standard rate of payment such as 
is done in Burnley, Blackburn, and other towns. In other 
districts such as Bolton, Manchester, and Preston, the 
sorts are so varied and difficult to classify that at many 
mills a private list is adhered to. 

The lists here g'iven are:— 

1. The Uniform list of weaving prices of 1892. 

2. The Blackburn list of 1853. 

3. The Chorley plain hst of 1875. 

4. The Burnley plain list of 1 880. 

5. The Preston list of i860. 

6. The Chorley fancy hst of 1886. 

7. The Nelson satin list of 1886. 

8. The Radcliffe coloured goods list of 1892. 

9. The Oldham velvet list of 1 890. 

10. The Colne coloured goods list of 1891. 

I. THE UNIFORM LIST, 1892. 
(i) The Standard. 

The standard upon which this list is based is an 
ordinarily-made loom, 45 inches in the reed space, 
measured from the fork grate on one side to the back 
board on the other, weaving cloth as follows : — 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. Ill 

Width. — 39, 40, or 41 inches. 

Reed. — 60 reed, 2 ends in one dent, or 60 ends per 
inch. 

Picks. — 15 picks per quarter inch, as ascertained by 
arithmetical calculation, with \\ per cent, added for 
contraction. 

Length. — 100 yards of 36 inches measured on the 
counter. Any length of lap other than 36 inches to be 
paid in proportion. 

Twist. — 28's or any finer numbers. 

Weft. — 31's to lOO's both inclusive. 

Price. — 30d., or 2d. per pick. 

(2) Width of Looms. 

A 45-inch reed space loom being taken as the standard, 
\\ per cent, shall be added for each inch up to and 
including 51 inches; 2 per cent, from 51 to 56 inches; 
2j per cent, from 56 to 64 inches; and 3 per cent, from 
64 to 72 inches. \\ per cent, shall be deducted for each 
inch from 45 to 37 inches inclusive ; and i per cent, from 
37 to 24 inches, below which no further deduction shall 
be made. For any fraction of an inch up to the half no 
addition or deduction shall be made, but if over the half 
the same shall be paid as if it were a full inch. All addi- 
tions or deductions under this clause to be added to or 
taken from the price of the standard loom, 45 inches. 



112 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



Deducted from Standard. 


Added to 


Standard. 


Loom. 


Per- 


Loom. 


Per- 


Loom. 


Per- 


Loom. 


Per- 




centage, 




centage. 




centage. 




centage. 


Inches. 




Inches. 




Inches. 




Inches. 




24 


23 


35 


12 


46 


4 


60 


29 


25 


22 


36 


II 


47 


3 


61 


34 


26 


21 


37 


10 


48 


4j 


62 


34 


27 


20 


38 


8f 


49 


6 


63 


36i 


28 


19 


39 


7i 


50 


72 


64 


39 


29 


18 


40 


6i 


51 


9 


65 


42 


30 


17 


4T 


5 


52 


1 1 


66 


45 


31 


16 


42 


3¥ 


53 


13 


67 


.48 


32 


15 


43 


2* 


54 


15 


68 


51 


33 


14 


44 


li 


55 


17 


69 


54 


34 


13 


45 Standard 


56 


19 


70 


57 










57 


24 


71 


60 










58 


24 


72 


63 










59 


26I 







(3) Broader Cloth than Admitted by Rule. 

All looms shall be allowed to weave to within 4 inches 
of the reed space, but whenever the difference between 
the width of cloth and the .reed space is less than 4 inches 
it shall be paid as if the loom were i inch broader, and 
if less than 3 inches, as if it were 2 J inches broader. 



(4) Allowance for Cloth 7 to 15 inches 
Narrower than the Reed Space. 

When the cloth is from 7 to 15 inches inclusive nar- 
rower than the reed space of the loom in which it is being 
woven, a deduction in accordance with the following 
tables shall be made. No further deduction shall be 
made when cloth is more than 15 inches narrower than 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 



113 



the reed space, or when cloth is narrower than 18 inches. 
Fractions of an inch are not to be recognised under this 
clause. 



Allowances for Narrow Cloth. 


Cloth 


72-in. 
Loom 


Cloth lit 


Cloth 
in. 


70-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


69-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


68-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


67-in. 
Loom 


in. 


percent. 


in. percent. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


65 


1.38 


64 


1.41 


63 


1.43 


62 


1.46 


61 


1.49 


60 


1.52 


64 


2.76 


63 


2.81 


62 


2.87 


61 


2.92 


60 


2.98 


59 


3-04 


63 


4.14 


62 


4.22 


61 


4-3 


60 


4-38 


59 


4-47 


5« 


4-56 


62 


5-52 


61 


5.62 


60 


5-73 


59 


S.84 


5^ 


5-96 


57 


5.83 


61 


6.9 


60 


7-03 


59 


7.17 


5^ 


7-31 


57 


7.2 


56 


7.09 


60 


8.28 


59 


8.44 


5^ 


8.6 


57 


8.52 


56 


8.44 


55 


8.36 


59 


9.66 


5^ 


9.84 


57 


9-79 


56 


9.74 


55 


9.69 


54 


9-63 


5« 


11.04 


57 


11.02 


56 


10.99 


55 


10.96 


54 


10.93 


53 


10.9 


57 


12.19 


56 


12.19 


55 


12.18 


54 


12.18 


53 


12.17 


52 


12.16 


Cloth 


66-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


65-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


64-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 
in. 


63-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


62-in. 
Loom 


Cloth 


61-in. 

Loom 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


59 


1-55 


5^ 


1.58 


57 


1-35 


5& 


1-37 


55 


1.4 


54 


1-43 


5« 


3-1 


57 


2.91 


56 


2.7 


55 


2.75 


: 54 


2.8 


53 


2.85 


57 


4.4 


56 


4-23 


55 


4-05 


54 


4.12 


53 


4.2 


52 


4.28 


56 


5-69 


55 


5-55 


54 


5-4 


53 


5.49 


! 52 


5-6 


51 


5-7 


55 


6.98 


54 


6.87 


53 


6.74 


52 


6.87 


' 51 


7- 


50 


7-13 


54 


8.28 


53 


8.19 


52 


8.09 


51 


8.24 


50 


8.4 


49 


8.27 


53 


9.57 


52 


9.51 


51 


9.44 


50 


9.62 


49 


9-51 


48 


9.41 


52 


10.86 


51 


10.83 


50 


10.79 


49 


10.71 


48 


10.63 


47 


IO-55 


51 


12.16 


50 


12.15 


49 


11.87 


48 


11.81 


47 


11.75 


46 


11.69 


Cloth 


60-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


59-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 
in. 


58-in. 
Loom 


Cloth 


57-in. 
Loom 


Cloth 


56-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


55-in. 
Loom 


in. percent. 


in. 


percent. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. ipercent. 


53 


1.45 


52 


1.48 


51 


I-5I 


50 


1.54 


49 


1.26 


48 


1.28 


52 


2.91 


51 


2.96 


50 


3.02 


49 


2.78 


48 


2.52 


47 


2.56 


51 


4-36 


50 


445 


49 


4-23 


48 


4.01 


47 


3.7^ 


46 


.3.^5 


50 


5.8[ 


49 


5-63 


48 


5.44 


47 


5.25 


46 


5.04 


45 


5-13 


49 


6.98 


48 


6.82 


47 


6.65 


46 


6.48 


45 


6.3 


44 


6.09 


48 


8.14 


47 


8. 


46 


7.86 


45 


7.72 


44 


7.25 


43 


7-05 


47 


9-3 


46 


9.19 


45 


9.07 


44 


8.64 


43 


8.19 


42 


8.01 


4b 


10.47 


45 


10.38 


44 


9.98 


43 


9-57 


42 


9.14 


41 


8.97 


45 


11.63 


44 


11.26 


43 


10.89 


42 


10.49 


41 


10.08 


40 


9.94 



H 



114 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 





Allowances for Narrow Cloth- 


-continiied. 






Cloth 


54-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


53-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


52-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


51-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


50-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


49-in, 

Loom 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


1 
in. 


percent. 


47 


1.3 


46 


1-33 


45 


1-35 


44 


1.03 


43 


1.05 


42 


1.06 


46 


2.61 


45 


2.65 


44 


2.36 


43 


2.06 


42 


2.09 


41 


2.12 


4S 


391 


44 


3-^5 


43 


3-38 


42 


3-1 


41 


3-14 


40 


3- 18 


44 


4.89 


43 


4-65 


42 


4-39 


41 


4-13 


40 


4.19 


39 


4-25 


4S 


^.87 


42 


5-64 


41 


5-41 


40 


5. 16 


39 


5-23 


38 


5-13 


42 


6M 


41 


6.64 


40 


6.42 


39 


6.19 


38 


6.1 


37 


6.01 


41 


7.83 


40 


7-63 


39 


7-43 


38 


7.05 


37 


6.98 


3^ 


6.9 


40 


8.8 


39 


8.63 


38 


8.28 


37 


7.91 


36 


7.85 


35 


7.78 


39 978 


38 


9.42 


37 


9.12 


36 


8.77 


35 


8.72 


34 


8.67 


Cloth 


48-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


47-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


46-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


45-in. 
Loom 


Cloth 


44-in. 
Loom 


Cloth 


43-in. 

Loom 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


41 


1.08 


40 


1.09 


39 


I. II 


38 


.94 


37 


•95 


3(^ 


.96 


40 


2.IS 


39 


2.18 , 


38 


2.03 


37 


1.87 


3& 


1.9 


35 


1.92 


^9 


3-23 


38 


3.09 


37 


2.96 


36 


2.81 


35 


2.85 


34 


2.88 


38 


4-13 


37 


4. 


3^ 


3.88 


35 


3-75 


34 


3.80 


33 


z-n 


37 


5.02 


36 


4.91 


35 


4.8 


34 


4.69 


33 


4-75 


32 


4.81 


36 


5-92 


35 


.5-83 ' 


34 


5-73 


33 


5.62 


32 


5-70 


31 


5-77 


3S 


6.82 


34 


6.74 


33 


6.65 


32 


6.56 


31 


6.65 


30 


6.54 


34 


7.72 


33 


7-65 


32 


7.57 


31 


7-5 


30 


7.41 


29 


7.31 


33 


8.61 


32 


8.56 


31 


8.5 


30 


8.25 


29 


8.16 


28 


8.08 


^, ,, 42-in. 
Cl^th Loom 


Cloth 


41-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


4b-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


39-in. 

Loom 


1 
Cloth 


38-in. 
Loom 


Cloth 


37-in. 

Loom 


in. percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


per cent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


in. 


percent. 


3S 


.97 


34 


•99 


33 


I. 


32 


I.OI 


31 


1.03 


30 


•83 


34 


1.95 


33 


1.97 


32 


2. 


31 


2.03 


30 


1.85 


29 


1.67 


33 


2.92 


32 


2.96 


31 


3- 


30 


2.84 


29 


2.67 


28 


2-5 


I 32 


3-9 


31 


3-95 


30 


3.8 


29 


3-(^5 


28 


3-49 


27 


3-33 


31 


4.87 


30 


4-74 


29 


4.6 


28 


4.46 


27 


4-32 


26 


4.17 


30 


S.6S 


29 


5-52 


28 


5^4 


27 


5-27 


26 


5-14 


25 


5- 


2q 


6.43 


28 


6.32 


27 


6.2 


25 


6.08 


25 


5-96 


24 


5-83 


28 


7.21 


27 


7.11 


26 


7- 


25 


6.89 


24 


6.78 


23 


6.67 


27 


7.99 


26 


7.89 


25 


7.8 


24 


7-7 


23 


7.60 


22 


7.5 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 



115 



Allowances for Narrow C-lotii— continued. 


Cloth 


36-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


35-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


34-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


33-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


32-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


31-in. 

1 Loom 


in. 
29 

28 

27 
26 

25 
24 

23 
22 
21 


percent. 
.84 
1.69 

2-53 
3-37 
4.21 
5.06 

5-9 

6.74 

7.58 


in. 
28 

27 
26 

25 
24 
23 
22 
21 
20 


percent. 
.85 

1.7 
2.56 

341 
4.26 

5-II 

5-97 
6.82 
7.67 


in. 
27 
26 

25 
24 

23 

22 
2[ 
20 
19 


percent. 

.86 
1.72 
2-59 
345 
4-3' 
5-17 
6.03 

6.9 

1-1^ 


in. 
26 

25 
24 

23 
22 
21 
20 

19 
18 


percent. 

1.74 
2.62 

349 
4.36 

5.23 
6.1 

6.98 

7.85 


in. 
25 
24 
23 
22 
21 
20 

19 
18 


percent. 

.88 
1.76 
2.65 

3-53 
4.41 

5-29 
6.18 
7.06 


in. 
24 

23 
22 
21 

20 

19 
18 


percent. 
.89 
1.79 

2.68 

3-57 
4.46 

5.36 
6.25 


Cloth 


30-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


29-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


28-in. 
Loom 


Cloth 

in. 
20 

19 
18 


27-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


26-in. 

Loom 


Cloth 


25-in. 

Loom 


in. 

23 
2.2 
21 
20 

19 

18 


percent.: 

.9 
I.81 
2.71 
3.61 

4-52 
542 


in. 
22 
21 
20 

19 
18 


percent. 
.91 

1.83 

2.74 

3-66 
4-57 


in. 
21 
20 

19 
18 


percent. 

•93 

1.85 
2.78 

3.7 


percent. 

•94 
1.87 
2.81 


in. 

19 

18 


percent. 

•95 
1.9 


in. 
18 


percent. 
.96 



(5) Reeds. 

A 60 reed being taken as the standard, f per cent, shall 
be deducted for every two ends or counts of reed from 60 
to 50, but no deduction shall be made below 50. | per 
cent, shall be added for every two ends or counts of reed 
from 60 to 68 ] i per cent, from 68 to 1 00; \\ per cent, 
from 100 to no; and 2 per cent, from no to 132. All 
additions or deductions under this clause to be added to 
or taken from the price of the standard, 60 reed. 



ii6 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



Deducted from 
Standard. 




Added to 


Standard. 




Count of 


Per- 


Count of 


Per- 


Count of 


Per- 


Reed. 


centage. 


Reed. 


centage. 


Reed. 


centage. 


50 


si 


62 


3 


98 


18 


52 


3 


64 


4 


100 


19 


54 


2i 


66 


2i 


102 


20I 


56 


ij 


68 


3 


104 


22 


58 


f 


70 


4 


106 


23i 


60 


Standard. 


72 


5 


108 


25 






74 


6 


no 


26J 


_ 




76 


7 


112 


28I 






78 


8 


114 


30J 






80 


9 


116 


32i- 






82 


10 


118 


34J 






84 


II 


120 


s^i 






86 


12 


122 


sH 






88 


13 


124 


4oi 






90 


14 


126 


42J 






92 


15 


128 


44i 






94 


16 


130 


46i 






96 


17 


132 


48J 



(6) Picks. 

Low. — An addition of i per cent, shall be made for 
each pick or fraction of a pick below 1 1, thus : — 

Below II down to and including 10, i per cent. 

JJ ^O 53 ?> 9' 2 5) 

J) 9 " " ' 3 " 

55 " ij j5 7? 4 j> 

and so on, adding I per cent, for each pick or fraction 
thereof. 

High. — An addition of i per cent, per pick shall be 
made whenever they exceed the following, if using 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 



117 



Weft below 26's when picks exceed 16 
jj 26's to 39's inclusive ,, 18 
„ 40's and above ,, 20 

In making additions for high picks any fraction of a 
pick less than the half shall not have any allowance ; 
exactly the half shall have J- per cent, added ; any fraction 
over the half shall have the full i per cent, added. 

(7) Twist. 

The standard being 28's, or finer, the following addi- 
tions shall be made when coarser twist is woven in the 
following reeds : — 

Below 28's to 2o's in 64 to 67 reed inclusive, i per cent. 

68 to 71 ,, „ 2 

72 to 75 „ „ 3 

Below 2o's to 14's in 56 to 59 „ ,, i 

60 to 63 ,, ,, 2 

64 to 67 „ „ 3 

and so on at the same rate. When twist is woven in 
coarser reeds no addition shall be made. 

(8) Weft. 

Ordinary Pin Cops. — The standard being 31's to lOO's 
both inclusive, shall be reckoned equal. Above lOO's I per 
cent, shall be added for every 10 hanks or fraction thereof. 
In lower numbers than 31's the following additions shall 
be made : — 



For 3o's5 

29's, 28's, 

27's, 26's, 

25's, 24's, 

23's, 22's, 

2l's, 20'S, 

19's, i8's, 
17's, i6's, 
15's, 14's, 



add I per cent. 
» 2 
n 3 

„ 6^ 



101 
16 



Il8 . WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Large Cops. — When weft of the following counts is spun 
into large cops so that there are not more than 19 in one 
pound, the following additions shall be made in place of 
the allowance provided for pin cops in preceding table : — 

For 29's, 28's, add i per cent. 

„ 27's, 26's, „ 2 

„ 25's, 24's, 23's, „ 3 

5, 22'S, 2l's, 20'S, ,, 4J 

„ 19's, i8's, „ 6 

,, 17's, i6's, „ 8 

,, 15's, 14's, ,, 10 

(9) Four-Staved Twills. 

Low Picks. — In four-staved twills an addition of i per 
cent, for each pick or fraction thereof below the picks 
mentioned in the following table shall be made when 
using weft as follows : — 

Below 26's, the addition shall begin at 13 
26's to 39's, inclusive ,, ,, 14 

40's and above ,, ,, 15 

High Picks. — When using weft 

Below 26's, the addition for high picks shall begin at 21 
26's to 39's inclusive ,, „ ,, 22 

40's and above ,, ,, „ 23 

In making additions for high picks, any fraction of a 
pick less than the half shall not have any allowance; 
exactly the half shall have \ per cent, added ; any fraction 
over the half shall have the full I per cent, added. 

(ro) Splits. 

The following additions shall be made for splits : — 

One split, uncut, add 5 per cent. 
Two splits, „ „ yi ,, 

Empty dents only shall not be considered splits. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. II9 

(it) Additions and Deductions. 

All the foregoing additions and deductions shall be 
made separately. 

This list is subject to a reduction of lO per cent. 

This list shall come into force after the first making-up 
day in August for cloths requiring a fresh calculation, 
and on the first making-up day in November next for all 
cloths. 

The foregoing list has been framed at Conferences of 
Representatives. 

Signed on behalf of the Employers, 

Joshua Rawlinson, 

Secretary of the North and North- East Lancashire 
Cotton Spinners and Manufacturers' Association. 

Signed on behalf of the Operatives, 

Thomas Birtwistle, 

Secretary for the Northern Counties' Amalgamated 
Associations of Weavers. 

June 24, 1892. 



Additions upon Plain Cloth Prices for the following 
Classes have not been altered. 

Dopia Stripes. — Two and a half per cent, extra for 
doria stripes in addition to the number of ends. 

Spiral Gold Headings. — id. extra for spiral gold head- 
ings requiring 50 picks at each side, nothing for any less 
number of picks. 



120 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



Grey Dhooties. — Seven or nine gall headings, cloth 
woven full width of loom, 40 inches and over, to be Jd. 
for 12, Jd. for 14 headings, and id. for 16 to 20 marks of 
40 yards. Nothing extra for headings if narrow cloth in 
broad looms. 

Plain Dhooties. — There are two systems of paying for 
dhooties, but in the ultimate result there is very little 
difference. 

The first that was adopted was as follows : — 

10 yard dhooties 10 per cent, above list. 



9 » 




II 




8 „ 




12 




7 „ 




13 




6 „ 




14 




5 n 




15 





The second is 10 per cent, upon all lengths without 
any deduction being made for width of cloth. 

Dobby Dhooties. — Sixteen flush ends or under, with 
Calcutta heading, 20 per cent. 

Sixteen ends and under, with Madras heading, to be 
paid 30 per cent, on list. . 

All other dobby borders to be paid 30 per cent., with 
prices for headings as per illustrated coloured list, 
agreed upon March 15, 1886. 

Dhooty Heading's— Extras for 40ss Yards. — Madras 
heading to be paid ^d. for 12, Jd. for 14 marks, if woven 
in looms over 39 inches wide, and id. for 16 to 20 marks, 
and ijd. for 21 to 30, in whatever loom woven. 

Large sarrie heading, with I shuttle 15 bars, to be 
paid id. extra. Small sarrie heading, with i shuttle 9 
bars, to be paid Jd. extra. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 121 

Madras sarrie heading, with 2 shuttles 1 1 bars, includ- 
ing cord, to be paid Jd. extra. 

Bombay chocolate heading, with 2 shuttle 14 bars, to 
be paid id. extra for 16 marks. 

Madras chocolate heading, with 4 shuttles 18 bars, 
including cord, to be paid id. per cut extra. 

Red Madras heading, with 2 shuttles 10 bars, including 
cord, to be paid ^d. for 12 headings, and Jd. for 14 if 
woven in looms over 39 inches wide, and id. for 16 to 
20 marks, and ijd. for 21 to 30 in any loom. 

What is known as 9-bar Bombay heading, with i 
shuttle II bars, to be id. extra for 16 marks. 

Bombay chocolate heading, with 3 shuttles 14 bars, 
to be paid id. extra for 16 marks. 

Ordinary Calcutta heading, with 5 bars, no extras. 

Examples. — Find the weaving price under the uniform 
list for cloth : 39 inches wide, 40 yards of 36 inches, 58 
reed, 39 wheel, 507 gear, 32's twist, 32's weft, woven in 
45 inch reed space loom. 

Standard for 45 in. reed space 100 yds,, 2d. per pick. 
Multiplied by 40 yds. and divided by 100, equals Sod. 
Multiplied by the picks 13. (507 divided 

by 39 wheel gives 13 picks) . . . 10.40 
Width of loom, standard. 
Reed, f per cent, less than standard. 

f per cent, on 10.40 is .078 . . . .078 

10.322 
Picks, no allowance. 
Yarns, no allowance. 

The price is therefore io.322d., unless paid below the 
list — e.g. J at present the uniform list is paid less 10 



122 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

per cent. lO per cent, on 10.322 is 1.032; deduct this 
from the Hst price and it leaves 9.29. 

Ans. 9.2 9d. 

Example No. 2. — What is the weaving price for 52J 
inch cloth woven in a so-called 55 inch loom, 33 reed, 
5 J pick, 40's twist, 6o's weft, 80 yards of 36 inches ? 

Standard for 100 yards, 2.00 per pick. 

Multiply by 80 yards and divide by 100 . 1.60 

Multiply 1.60 by si picks .... 8.80 

Taking the additions and deductions in the order given 
in the list, 55 inch loom has 17 per cent, added to 45 inch, 
the standard ; but in this case, as the cloth is within 
3 inches of the reed space, it must be taken as if it were 
a 57 J inch loom. The J inch has not to be reckoned. 
The list allows 21 J per cent, for a 57 inch loom; 21 J 
cent, on 8.80 is 1.892. 

8.80 

Add 1.892 

10.692 

Reed : no deduction be.low 50. 3f per 
cent, below the standard equalling 
.4009 ...... .400Q 

10.2911 

Picks : I per cent, per pick or fraction 
of a pick below 11 to be allowed ; in 
this case 6 per cent. . . . .6174 

10.9085 standard. 

If paid less 10 per cent., 1.098 would be deducted, 
leaving 9.8i7d. 

Ans. 9.81 yd. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 23 

Example No. 3. — Find the weaving price for 40 inch 
cloth, 108 yards long, 36I- inches to the yard, 80 reed^ 
24 pick, 4o's/6o's, woven in 50 inch reed space loom. 

Standard, 2d. per pick. 

The cloth in yards of 36 inches is ioqJ yards long. 

109J multiplied by 2d. and divided by 100 

gives . . . . . . . 2.19 

Multiplied by 24 picks gives . . . 52.56 
Loom width : the loom is 50 inch reed 

space, and therefore requires 7J per cent. 

over standard, equaUing . . . 3.922 

56.502 
Narrow cloth : as the cloth is more than 
7 inches narrower than the reed space, a 
deduction of 4.19 per cent, is allowed, 
equal to 2.3674 ..... 2.3674 

54-2346 
Reed : the reed is above standard, and has 

9 per cent, added . . . . .4.8721 

59.0067 
Picks : cloth of 24 picks has 4 per cent. 

added ....... 2.3692 

61.3369 

If 10 per cent, be deducted, equalling 6.i;^66, it leaves 
55.2003 as the price. 

Ans. 4s. 7.2003d. 

If the foregoing examples be carefully studied, and 
each allowance checked by the standard list to ascertain 
the reason why it is made, the student will soon be able 
to set himself similar problems, and exercise himself in 
the calculations by working them out without referring to 
a copy of the list, afterwards checking them by the list. 



124 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



2. THE BLACKBURN LIST, 1853. 

(i) The Standard. — The standard upon which this 
list is based is a 40-inch loom, weaving from 36 to 41 
inch cloth, 60 reed Stockport counts, 16 picks per J inch, 
374" ya-rds of 37 inches, from 30's to 6o's weft, and from 
28's to 45's twist for I2.25d. 

(2) Reeds. — A 60 reed or 30 dents, being the standard, 
is made the starting-point, and } per cent, is deducted 
for every two ends or counts of reeds, from 60 to 48-; 
but no deduction is made below 48 reed, and f per cent, 
is added for every two ends or counts of reed above 60. 

(3) Weft. — All weft from 30's to 6o's, both included, 
is considered medium, and reckoned equal, but all weft 
above 6o's to be allowed i per cent, for every ten hanks, 

and all below 30's to 26's to be allowed 2 per cent, on list. 
„ 26's to 2o's „ 5 „ 

J, 2o's to i6's ,, 8 „ 

,, i6's to 14's ,, 10 „ 

(4) Twist. — All twist from 28's to 45 's, both in- 
cluded, is considered medium, and reckoned equal, but 
all twist above 45 's up to 6o's to be allowed i J per cent., 
and all above 6o's I per cent, for each ten hanks, 

and all below 28's to 20's to be allowed i per cent, on list. 
5, 2o's to 14's ,5 2 „ 

(5) Additions for Picks. — All picks above 8 and up 
to 18 are considered proportionate, but 8 picks, and all 
below and all above 18, to have i per cent, allowed for 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. I 25 

every pick over and above the proportionate difference in 
the number of picks. 

(6) Width of Looms.— A 40-inch loom, being the 
standard, is taken as the starting-point, and all additions 
or deductions are made therefrom. (The reed space is 
measured from back board to forkgrate.) 

26 in. loom has 2J per cent, deducted from 30 in. loom. 

3*-* 55 5 J5 55 35 15 

35 5> 5 jj )j 40 ?> 

4.0-inch loom {4.^-inck reed space) the standard — 

45 in. loom has 5 per cent, added to 40 in. loom. 
50 5, 10 „ „ 45 „ 

55 5, 10 „ „ 50 „ 

60 „ 10 „ „ 55 

(7) Looms of Intermediate Widths.— One per cent, 
per inch to be deducted from 40 down to 30-inch loom ; 
below 30 to 26-inch loom f per cent, per inch to be 
deducted. Above 40-inch up to 45 -inch loom i per cent, 
per inch to be added, and all above 45 -inch 2 per cent, 
per inch. 

(8) Narrow Cloth in Broad Looms.— Suppose a 40- 
inch loom should be weaving cloth ^^^6 to 31! inches in 
width, take off one-half the difference between 40 and 
35-inch loom price; and if weaving cloth 31 to 2J\ inches 
wide, take off one-half the difference between 40 and 
30-inch loom price; or if weaving 41 J to 46-inch cloth in 
a 50-inch loom, take off one-half the difference between 
50 and 45-inch loom, and so on with all other widths. 



126 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



(9) Range of Cloths. 

26 in. loom allowed to weave cloth up to 27 in. 



27 


J3 J> 


30 


}) 5) 


35 


5> >J 


40 


;5 5) 


45 


J3 35 


50 


33 33 


55 
60 


53 33 
35 33 



from 


27 


to 


28 


in. 




27 


55 


31 






31 


33 


36 






36 


55 


41 






41 


55 


46 






46 


55 


52 






52 


53 


57 






57 


35 


62 





(10) Basis of Caleulations. — The calculations in the 
Blackburn list are based upon the picks counted by the 
glass when the cloth is laid upon the counter. Forty 
yards short stick to be taken as 39 yards long stick. 

(11) Adding" or Deducting" Percentages.— In making 
calculations the allowances must be added or deducted 
separately in the order they are here placed, viz., reeds, 
materials, picks, and widths. 

(12) Splits. — Splits to be allowed -^^d. per piece 
(double width) for 29 yards, or Jd. per piece (double 
width) for 46 yards. 

(13) Figured Shirtings. — Figured shirtings are paid 
10 per cent, above plain cloth. 

(14) Twills. — Plain 4-staved twills are paid same 
price as plain cloth. Other kinds by special arrangement. 

(15) Plain Dhooties. — There are two systems of pay- 
ing for plain dhooties, but in the ultimate result there is 
very little difference. 

The first that was adopted was as follows : — 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 12/ 

lo yard dhooties lo per cent, above list. 



9 » 


,, II 






8 „ 


,, T2 






7 „ 


13 






6 „ 


14 






5 ,^ 


15 







The second is lO per cent, upon all lengths without 
any deduction being made for width of cloth. 

(16) Dobbie Dhooties. — On February 18, 1874, it was 
agreed that f fluss bordered Dobbie Dhooties should be 
paid 30 per cent, on hst without any deduction for width 
of cloth or additions for number of headings, the wider 
borders and more exceptional goods to be paid extra. 

(17) Dividend. — The dividend of the loom is formed by 
adding I J per cent, to the mathematical dividend for the 
contraction of the cloth between the loom and the counter. 

(18) This list was paid in Blackburn, Darwen, Accring- 
ton, Great Harwood, Bury, HasHngden, Stalybridge, Moss- 
ley, Chorley (part), Ashton (part), Preston (part), and most 
weaving districts, less 10 per cent., until autumn 1892. 

Example. — To find price for a 44 inch cloth in 45 inch 
loom = 66's reed, 44 change pinion, 528 dividend, 75 
yards long, 34's/36's — 

12.25 standard. 
Add 2 J per cent, reed .27 

12.52 
Add 5 per cent. loom .62 

I3-T4 

Calculate in proportion to ) _ ^^ 

pick 16 to 12 . . ( ~ ^' 
Calculate proportion length I t • 

37i to 75, double. .|-i9 72 = l.stpr.ce. 

Deduct 10 per cent. = 1.97 

17.75 =pi'esent price. 



128 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Or from list under heading, 45 inch loom — 

66 reedj 37^ yards = .822 for i pick 

9.86 for 12 picks 
19.72 for 75 yards, less 10 per cent. 

= 17.75- 

3. CHORLEY PLAIN LIST, 1875. 

The Chorley Standard List of Prices for Weaving 
Cambrics, Shirtings, and Tanjibs. 

(i) Standard. — 45 inch reed space loom, 60 reed, 
Stockport counts, 37|- yards long stick, 15 picks per J 
inch, at ii.25d., is taken as a standard, free from any 
allowances for materials. 

(2) Reeds. — A 60 reed is made the starting-point, and 
f per cent, is deducted for every 2 ends or counts of reed 
below a 60 to a 48, but no deduction for reeds below 48. 
One per cent, is added for every 2 ends above a 60 to an 
84 reed, and ij per cent, for every 2 ends from 84 to 88, 
and 2 per cent, for every two ends above an 88 to 94, and 
2| per cent, for every two. ends or counts of reed above 
94. All odd or bastard reeds to be paid as the next 
finer counts — that is to say, a 77 reed to be paid as yS, 
and 99 as 100 reed, and so on with all other counts. 

(3) One End in a Dent, — One end in a dent to be 
paid half way between the actual fineness of the reed 
and the number of ends — that is to say, a 96 reed would 
have 48 ends to the inch ; therefore it would be taken as 
72 reed, half way between 48 and 96. 

(4) Three or more Ends in one Dent. — Three or 
more ends in one dent to be paid according to the number 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 29 

of ends per inch — that is to say, a 60 reed with three 
ends in one dent to be paid for as a 90 reed. 

(5) Wet Weft. — For wet weft, id. to be added for a 
piece of 25 yards. 

(6) For Width of Looms. 

31 inch loom has 4 per cent, deducted from 35 
35 » 55 5 5, „ 40 

40 J3 5) 5 n » 45 

45 inch Reed Space Loom is the Standard. 

50 inch loom has 5 per cent, added to 45 

55 » 55 TO )3 55 50 

60 „ „ 10 „ „ 55 

65 ,1 ^. 15 55 35 60 

(7) Measurement of Looms. ^The loom in all cases 
to be measured from the backboard on the one side to 
the fork-grate on the other side, and allowed to weave 
cloth within 4 inches of the width of the reed space. 

(8) Looms of Intermediate Widths. — One per cent, 
per inch below 45 to 31 inch to be deducted, but no 
deduction to be made for looms below 31 ; and i per 
cent, per inch to be added from 45 to 50 inches, and 
2 per cent, per inch from 50 to 60 inches, and 3 per cent, 
per inch for all above. 

(9) Percentage for Picks. — All picks above 9, and 

up to 1 8, are considered proportionate ; but 9 picks and 
all below, and all above 18, to have i per cent, added for 
every pick over and above the proportion. All under the 
half not to be paid for, but all above the half to be paid 
for as full picks ; if exactly the half pick, J per cent, only 
to be paid above the proportionate part. 

I 



I30 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



(lo) Range of Cloth. 

31 inch reed space loom, to weave cloth up to 27 inch. 
32 



33 


5 53 


34 


5 J5 


35 
36 


) 55 


37 
38 


) 5> 
3 33 


39 


3 55 


40 


3 53 


41 


3 33 


42 


5 53 


43 


3 3) 


44 


3 -3 


45 
46 


J 55 
5 J3 


47 
48 


5 55 

3 35 


49 


3 3' 


50 


3 35 





from 


27 




28 


55 




33 


27 




29 


55 




53 


27 




30 


55 




33 


27 




31 


51 






27 




32 


53 






28 




33 


33 






29 




34 


53 






30 




35 


35 






31 




36 


35 






32 




37 


33 






33 




38 


33 






34 




39 


35 






35 




40 


55 






36 




41 


55 






37 




42 


5J 






38 




43 


55 






39 




44 


55 






40 




45 


55 




35 


41 




46 


35 



(11) Narrower Cloth than Table admits. — Suppose 

a 50 inch loom should be weaving cloth from 36^ to 41 
inches in width, then t^ke off one-half the difference 
between 50 and 45 inch looms; and if weaving from 31^ 
to 36 inch cloth, take off one-half the difference between 
50 and 40 inch looms; or if weaving 33i to 38 inch cloth 
in 47 inch loom, take off half the difference between 42 
and 47 inch looms, and so on with any other width. 

(12) Broader Cloth than Table admits. — Any 

broader cloth than table admits to be paid half the 
difference between that and the next broader range of 
looms — thus, 42 inch cloth woven in a 45 inch loom to be 
paid half the difference between 45 and 50 inch looms ; 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 131 

and if 34 inch cloth be woven in 37 inch looms, to be 
paid half the difference between 37 and 42 inch loom 
price, and so on with all other widths. 

(13) Twills. — Four-stave plain twills to be paid same 
price as plain cloth. 

(14) Adding* or Deducting* Percentages. — In making 
the above calculations, the allowances for reeds, picks, 
width of loom, widths of cloth, and wet weft, are taken 
and added or deducted, separately, in the order they 
are here placed, viz., first, reeds; second, picks; third, 
width of loom; fourth, width of cloth; and fifth, wet 
weft. 

(15) Calculations to Ibe made from Decimal Pick.— 

In making out prices from this list the decimal pick as 
produced by dividing the dividend by the change wheel 
is to be taken instead of the net pick ; the dividend to be 
formed by adding ij per cent, to the wheel calculation 
for contraction of the cloth between the loom and the 
counter. 

(16) Rising and Falling of Prices below 77 Reed.— 

This list of prices, up to and including ^6 reed, is con- 
sidered 2j per cent, below the Blackburn standard list, 
and when the list is paid net at Blackburn, this list shall 
be paid in Chorley with 2\ per cent, added, and any 
rise or fall at Blackburn shall be immediately followed 
by the same advance or reduction at Chorley, up to and 
including the "jG reed. 

(17) Rising" and Falling" of Prices above 76 Reed.— 

This list of prices, above y6 reed, shall be considered 
equal to the Preston standard list, and when the list is 
paid net at Preston, this list shall be paid net in Chorley, 



132 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

and when any advance or reduction is paid upon the 
Hst at Preston, the same advance or reduction shall be 
paid on this list at Chorley, above j6 reed. 

The above list is now largely merged into the Uniform 
List. 

4. THE BURNLEY PLAIN LIST, 1880. 

For Weaving Printers, Shirtings, Madapallams, 
Jacconet, Mulls, and Tanjibs. 

(i) Standard. — Two shillings and sixpence is taken 
as the standard for 39 inch cloth, 60 reed, Stockport 
counts (or 60 ends per inch), lOO yards long stick, 15 
picks per J inch, woven in a loom of 43 inches reed space, 
measured from backboard to fork-grate. 19I- yards long 
stick to be taken as 20 yards short stick. 

(2) Reed. — A 60 reed being the standard, f per cent, 
shall be deducted for every two ends or counts of reed, 
from 60 to 52, but no deduction shall be made below 52. 
f per cent, shall be added for every two ends from 60 to 
6^^^ and above 6'^^ i per cetit. for every two ends. 

(3) Counts of Yarn. 

Weft. 

From 30's to 6o's inclusive shall be reckoned equal. 
,, 30's „ 26's 2 per cent, shall be added to standard. 

,, 20 S ,, 20 35?) }J 3> 

„ 2o's „ i6's 8 „ „ „ 

„ i6's „ 14's 10 „ „ „ 

Weft above 6o's shall have i per cent, added for every 
10 hanks. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 33 



Twist. 



From 28's to 45's inclusive shall be reckoned equal. 
,, 45's ,, 6o's ij per cent, shall be added to standard. 

,, 2o S „ 20 SI jj ,, J, 

5, 20 S 5, 14 S 2 ff }, J, 

Twist above 6o's shall have i per cent, added for 
every 10 hanks. 

(4) Picks. — Picks between and including 13 and 20 
are considered proportionate, but each pick below 13 
and above 20 shall have i per cent, added for each pick 
below 1 3 or above 20 respectively. Picks shall be paid 
for as ascertained by calculations given in Clause 1 1 ; but 
with reference to the additional percentage, if under the 
half pick, nothing extra shall be paid ; if above the half, 

1 per cent, shall be paid as if it were a full pick ; but 
if exactly the half pick, J per cent, shall be paid. For 
example, 21.49 pi^^ shall have I per cent, added; 21.51, 

2 per cent, added; but if exactly 21.5, I J per cent, shall 
be added. 

(5) Width of Looms. — A 43 inch reed space loom 
being taken as the standard, ij per cent, per inch shall 
be deducted from 43 to 36 inch reed space, and I per 
cent, per inch from 36 down to 30, but no deduction 
shall be made below 30 inch, ij per cent, per inch shall 
be added from 43 to 45 inch reed space, and 2 per cent, 
per inch above. 

(6) Narrow Cloth in Broad Looms.— All looms shall 
be allowed to weave cloth within 4 inches^oL-Xhe breadth 
of the reed space, measured from backboard to fork-grate. 
When the cloth is 6 inches narrower than the reed space, 
f per cent, shall be deducted, and so on at the rate of 



T34 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

f per cent, per inch until the width of cloth be 15 inches 
below the breadth of reed space, when no further deduc- 
tion shall be made. 

(7) Broad Cloth in Narrow Looms.— When the dif- 
ference between the cloth and the reed space is less than 
4 inches, for the first inch or fraction of an inch, the 
same shall be paid as if the loom were I inch broader, 
and if within three inches of the reed space, as if the loom 
were 2 inches broader. 

(8) Throstle Twist.— In reeds above 68 a deduction of 
2^ per cent, shall be allowed for throstle twist. 

(9) Twills. — Four-stave twills shall be paid same as 
plain cloth except in allowances for picks, when all picks 
15 and up to 24 shall be considered proportionate, but 
each pick below 15 and above 24 shall have i per cent, 
added below or above the proportion. 

(10) Heading's. — This list shall only apply to printers, 
shirtings, madapallams, jacconets, mulls, and tanjibs ; 
but when more than 9 picks of gold for a single piece, or 
any other heading out of the usual course for the above 
classes of goods shall be ■ put in, an extra price shall be 
paid as per special arrangement, but in no case less than 
J-d. per piece. 

(11) Dividend. — The actual dividend for calculation 
shall be formed by adding i J per cent, for contraction of 
the cloth between the loom and the counter to the divi- 
dend produced by the beam and wheel calculation. 

(12) General. — (a) The width and length of cloth shall 
be deemed to be the width and length at which it is 
bought and sold. 

(d) In making calculations from this list the additions 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 35 

or deductions for reeds, counts, picks, width of loom, 
width of cloth, and throstle twist shall be made separatel}^, 
in the order here given. 

(c) This list shall come into force on the second pay 
day in March 1880, and if either employers or operatives 
desire to make any change in the various clauses, they 
shall give to the other party three months' notice of such 
desire. 

(d) The existing rate of wages being 15 per cent, less 
than the list, the three months' notice shall not apply to 
any rise or fall in the rate of wages, but merely to a 
desired change in the details or conditions of the list. 

Example. — Find price for 39 inch, 68 reed, 75 yards, 
17 picks per ^ inch, 5o's/7o's, 43 inch loom. 

Standard for 100 yards . . . . 30.00 
Proportion for 75 ,, . . .22.5 

Add for reed 3 per cent. . . . . .67 

23-17 
Proportion 15 to 17 picks . . . 26.26 

Add for counts of twist i J per cent, and ) ^ 

weft I per cent. = 2^ per cent. . J ^ 

26.91 

This, less 10 per cent., the current discount off list, was 
the price payable in Burnley and district until autumn 
1892, when it was merged into the Uniform List to a 
great extent. It is still paid, less 10 per cent., in some 
outside districts. 

5. PRESTON PLAIN AND FANCY LIST, i860. 

Fop Shirting's, Cambrics, and Tanjibs. — (i) 45 inches 
reed space loom, 60 reed Stockport counts, 37^ yards 



136 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

long stick, 37 inches to the yard, 60 picks per inch at 
lid. per piece, is taken as a standard. 

(2) Reeds. — ij per cent, is deducted for every 4 ends 
below a 60 to a 48. All reeds below to be paid the 
same as a 48. ij- per cent, is added for every 4 ends 
above a 60 to a 76 ; 3 per cent, for every 4 ends above 
a 76 to a 90 ; 5 per cent, for every 4 ends above a 90 to 
100 ; and 4 per cent, for every 4 ends above 100. 

(3) Picks. — All picks from 9 to 18 per J inch inclusive 
are reckoned in equal ratio. One per cent, is added for 
each pick below 9 and above 18, up to the extent of list, 
and i^ per cent, per pick to be added for all above the 
list in 66 to 86 reeds inclusive. 

(4) Materials. — All yarns below 28's to be allowed 2 
per cent, for every 5 hanks, and any other deviation from 
list counts to have 2^ per cent, added for every 5 hanks. 

Twills. — To be paid the same as plain cloth. 

For wet weft id. to be added for a piece of 25 yards. 

For Jaeeonets and Mulls. — (i) 46 inches reed space 
loom, 60 reed Stockport counts, 20 yards short stick, 36 
inches to the yard, 60 picks per inch, at 6d. per piece, is 
taken as a standard. 

(2) Reeds. — i J per cent, is deducted for every 4 ends 
below a 60 to a 48. All reeds below to be paid the 
same as a 48. ij per cent, is added for every 4 ends 
above a 60 to a 68, 4 per cent, for every 4 ends above a 
68 to no, and 6 per cent, for every 4 ends above no. 

(3) Picks. — All picks from 9 to 18 per J inch inclusive 
are reckoned in equal ratio, and i per cent, is added for 
each pick below 9 and above 18. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 37 

(4) Materials. — 1| per cent, to be added for every 10 
hanks the yarns are finer than Hst counts up to 80 reed, 
but no allowance on jacconet yarns above 80 reeds. 

For wet weft |-d. to be added for a 20 yards piece. 

For Fancy Goods. — (i) Hair Cords to be paid 40 per 
cent, over jacconet prices. 

(2) Satin stripes with Spots to be paid by the 

annexed list without receiving any advance with plain 
cloth. 

(3) Spots and Unfig'ured Satins woven in spot looms 
to be paid lO per cent, more than plain cloth. 

(4) Brocades woven with a double lift machine to be 
paid 40 per cent, more than plain cloth. 

(5) Brocades woven with a single lift machine, with a 
satin ground, to be paid 30 per cent, more than plain 
cloth. 

(6) Brocades woven with a single lift machine, with a 
plain ground, to be paid 50 per cent, more than plain 
cloth. 

(7) Cloth woven with 3 ends in a dent to be reckoned 
half way between the actual fineness of the reed and 
what it would be if 2 ends only were in a dent. 

No allowance to be made for yarns on fancy cloth. 

General Conditions.— Narrow Cloth woven in a broad 
loom to be paid half the difference between the price of 
broad and narrow cloth, and any cloth broader than table 
admits to be paid half the difference between that and the 
next broader loom. 

Looms of Intermediate Widths.— One per cent, per 
inch to be deducted on looms below 45 inches, 2 per 



138 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

cent, per inch from 45 to 60 inches, and i J per cent, per 
inch for all above. 

The annexed tables are based upon the count of picks 
and breadth of cloth when laid upon the counter, and in 
fixing the rate of wages to be paid for weaving any sort 
of cloth, the picks to be calculated by the wheels as shown 
on the table. 

Atherton's GeaP. — Beam wheel, 80; stud wheel, 120; 
rack wheel, 60 ; pinion wheel, 1 5 ; emery beam, 1 5 inches ; 
dividend, 640. 

Atherton's Gear. — Beam wheel, 80; stud wheel, 146; 
rack wheel, 60 ; pinion wheel, 14 ; emery beam, 1 5 inches ; 
dividend, 8343^%%. 

Atherton's Gear. — Beam wheel, 100; stud wheel, 146; 
rack wheel, 60; pinion wheel, 14; emery beam, 15 inches; 
dividend, i042x^V 

Dickinson's Gear. — Beam wheel, 75 ; stud wheel, 120; 
rack wheel, 50; pinion wheel, 15 ; emery beam, 15 inches; 
dividend, 500. 

Dickinson's Gear. — Beam wheel, 75 ; stud wheel, 120; 
rack wheel, 80 ; pinion wheel, 1 5 ; emery beam, 1 5 inches ; 
dividend, 800. 

Harrison's Gear. — Beam wheel, 75 ; stud wheel, 100; 
rack wheel, 50; pinion wheel, 12; emery beam, 15 inches; 
dividend, 520|-. 

32 inch reed space loom to have 12^ per cent, deducted 

from standard. 
36 inch reed space loom to have 10 per cent, deducted 

from standard. 
41 inch reed space loom to have 5 per cent, deducted 
from standard. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 39 

46 inch reed space standard to weave from 36J to 41 

inch cloth. 
5 1 inch reed space loom to have 5 per cent, added to 

standard. 
56 inch reed space loom to have 1 5 per cent, added to 

standard. 
61 inch reed space loom to have 25 per cent, added to 

standard. 
66 inch reed space loom to have 35 per cent, added to 

standard. 
72 inch reed space loom to have 45 per cent, added to 

standard. 

The Reed Space in all cases to be measured from 
backboard to backboard, and the loom allowed to weave 
cloth within 5 inches of the breadth of the reed space. 
For the Preston prices for winding, looming, drawing, &c., 
see earlier pages. 

6. CHORLEY FANCY LIST, 1886. 

( TAis list to apply to grey goods only.) 

Double Lift Jacquards.— To be paid the following 
over and above plain cloth prices : — 

For plain grounds, 30 per cent. 
„ satin „ 25 „ 

When single lift machines are used, the scale shall be 
10 per cent, higher than the above. 

Brocades, damasks, and stripes created by a variation 
of the number of ends, 3, 4, or more in a dent, to be paid 
for by the number of ends per inch. 

Picks 18 to 30, I per cent, per pick, from 30 to 40, 
f per cent., all above 40 J per cent, instead of i per cent. 



140 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



Lace brocades 5 per cent, extra. 
Leno Cloths and Velvets. — Not to be included in 
this list; but paid extra as per arrangement. 
The above applies to jacquards only. 

Dobby and Tappet Motions, Sateens Excepted.— 

To be paid the following on plain cloth prices : — 
All up to and including — 



4 staves 12 per cent. 



5 




^3 




6 




14 




7 




15 




8 




16 




9 




17 




10 




18 




II 




19 




12 




20 





13 staves 21 per cent. 



14 , 


, 22 




15 , 


, 23 




16 , 


, 24 




17 , 


, 25 




18 , 


, 26 




19 . 


. 27 




20 , 


, 28 





Stripes and other cloths, with more than 2 ends in a 
dent, to be paid for by the number of ends per inch. 

Exceptions. — Plain handkerchiefs, 72 reeds and below, 
to be paid 5 per cent, extra. 

Single shuttle cord checks, with more than two picks 
in one shed, to be paid 2^ per cent. less. 

In single shuttle checks, handkerchiefs, and all other 
special classes of goods in which more than one pick is 
put in one shed, all lost picks shall be counted. 

Lace stripes, fly overs, or any other goods of a special 
character shall be paid extra as per arrangement, to be 
agreed upon by the employers' and operatives' associa- 
tions. 

Sateens, Drillettes, and Drills.— When reed and 
pick per J inch added together do not make more than 
40, 5 per cent, shall be added to plain cloth prices. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 141 

When reed and pick per ^ inch do not exceed 50, 
2 J per cent, shall be added ; above 50, plain cloth prices, 
excepting when the number of ends per J inch in the 
reed exceeds the pick, then f per cent, additional shal] 
be added for every two points of the reed above the pick. 

In case of any special cloth, either dobby or jacquards, 
being required for which this list is not adapted, the 
price shall be arranged by the employers' and operatives' 
associations. 

7. NELSON SATIN LIST, 1886. 
■ Agreement for Sateens, Drills, and Drillettes. 

Cloths up to and including 25 picks to be paid 8 per 
cent, on plain cloth prices, and for every additional pick 
or fraction beyond the half, an extra J per cent, shall be 
added. These additions to be made in place of the allow- 
ances for picks in the various lists. 

Whenever the reed per J inch exceeds the pick, } per 
cent, shall be added for every additional two counts of 
reed above the number of picks. 

When cloth is woven with three or more ends in a 
dent, the allowance for every two ends or counts of reed 
above 68 shall only be f per cent, same as from 60 to 6S. 

Lenos. — For one doup 70 per cent. ; two doups, 80 per 
cent, on plain cloth, prices. 

8. THE RADCLIFFE AND DISTRICT LIST FOR 
COLOURED GOODS. 

(i) Standard. 

Cloth. — The list shall be based on cloth, 36 inches to 
the yard, and 100 yards long. 



142 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Reed. — 56 reed, i.e., 28 dents to the inch and two ends 
in a dent. 

Width. — 2J to 30 inches measured on the counter in 
an unfinished state as it comes from the loom. 

Weft. — 2o's or any finer counts. 

Shuttles. — ^Two. 

Looms. — Drop box. 

Warps. — Full (or hand) dressed or sectional warps. 

Price per Pick, per \ inch. — 3.4d. or 3d. and two-fifths, 
as ascertained by wheel calculation with ij per cent, 
added for contraction. 

Extras and Deductions. 

(2) Reeds. 

Standard. — 56 reed, i.e., 28 dents to the inch, and 2 
ends in a dent. 

Additions. — Above 28 to 35 dents, add 1 per cent, for 
each extra dent above 28, and above 35 dents add i\ per 
cent, for each extra dent. 

Deductions. — Below 28 dents down to and including 25 
dents, deduct i per cent.- per dent, and below 25 to 20, 
f per cent, for each dent, beyond which no further de- 
duction shall be made. 

(3) Width of Cloth. 

Standard. — 27 to 30 inches. 

Additions. — Above 30 inches up to and including "^fi 
inches, add i per cent, per inch ; above 36 inches to 40 
inches, add i\ per cent, per inch; above 40 inches to 48 
inches, 2 J per cent, per inch ; and above 48 inches, 3 per 
cent, per inch. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 



143 



Deductions. — For each inch below 27, deduct | per cent, 
per inch down to 24 inches, beyond which no further 
deductions shall be made. 

(4) Weft. 

No addition or deduction to be made for weft finer than 
2o's, but for 

cent. 



19's 




ii's 


add 


II per 


i8's 


> add I per cent. 


id's 


;j 


14 


17's 




9's 


5 ' 


18 


i6's 


> add 2 per cent. 


8's 

7's 


5' 

51 


22 
26 , 


14's 


5? 4 JJ 


6's 


5? 


30 


13's 


55 6 „ 


5's 


^J 


35 


12's 


5) 8 ,, 


4's 


31 


40 



J5 


3> 


3J 


3J 


•5 


33 



(5) Linen Weft. 

No addition or deduction to be made for 3 5's linen weft 
or any finer counts. 

But for 34's to 30's linen add 2 per cent. 

33 33 29's to 25's „ „ 4 „ „ 

,, ,, 24's to 2o's „ ,, 8 

J, ,, 19's and i8's „ ,, 10 

., „ 17's and 1 6's ,, ,,12 

(6) Coarse Twist in a Fine Reed. 

Below 1 6's in a 68 or finer reed (2 threads in a dent), 
2 per cent, per count to be added. 14's two-fold yarn, 
that is, 2/28S, to be paid as i6's, and so on in proportion. 

(7) Undressed Warps. 

Ordinary half-beer warps, dyed, sized or bleached in 
the warp, to be paid extra as follows : — 



144 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



All one colour 


.035 per yd. 


Two colours, white or grey counted 


.045 » 


Three „ „ „ 


•055 » 


Four „ „ „ 


•075 „ 



increasing .02 per yard for each additional colour, sel- 
vages not reckoned a colour. Warps wound on so as to 
avoid crossing or splitting of half-beers in weaving, to be 
paid .035 per yard. 

(8) Half Dressed Warps. 

All warps run through a reed, but neither dressed nor 
brushed by hand, and when broken threads are not found 
and pieced in the usual way, shall be considered half 
dressed warps, and paid as follows : — 



All one colour 


.02 per yd. 


Two colours, white or grey counted 


•03 jj 


Three „ „ „ 


.04 „ 


Four „ „ „ 


.05 » 



(9) Round Mill Warps. 

All warps made on a round mill, irrespective of colours, 
shall be paid 5 per cent, extra. 

(10) Shuttles. 

For each shuttle above two, 2 J per cent, shall be 
added, i.e., for 

3 shuttles 2 1 per cent. 

4 shuttles . . . . . 5 „ ,, 

5 shuttles 7i » » 

6 shuttles . . . . . 10 ,, „ 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. I45 

(11) One Shuttle Work. 

Cloth woven in a one shuttled loom running not less 
than 170 picks per minute shall be 25 per cent, less than 
two-shuttle price, and if slower than 170 picks shall be 
1 2 J per cent, less in place of 25 per cent. 

(12) One Shuttle Work in Check Looms. 

One shuttle work woven in check looms shall be paid 
1 2 J per cent, less than two shuttle price. 

(13) Shaft Work. 

Extra payment shall be made for shaft work, such 
payment to cover and include pick finding, at the follow- 
ing rate : — 

3, 4, 5, 6 hfts or treads add 5 per cent. 
7j 8, g ,, ,, ,, 72 '5 

10 
II, 12, 13, 14 
15, 16, 17, 18 

increasing ij per cent, for each additional hft or tread. 

(14) Two Beams. 

All cloth woven with two beams shall be paid not less 
than 7J per cent, extra. 

(15) Splits. 

Cloths woven 2 or more in a breadth with selvages 
worked by a catch end shall be paid 3 per cent, extra for 
I spht, and 5 per cent, for 2 spHts. 

If empty dents only are used, no extra charge shall be 
made. 

K 



;5 


J5 


3) 


xy^ 


33 


5) 


J> 


35 


14 


33 


5; 


5J 


35 


18 


35 



146 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

(16) Three or more Threads in one Dent. 

When the number of lifts used are equal to the number 
of threads in a dent, the reed to be paid for shall be found 
as follows : — 

For 3 threads in one dent add 25 per cent. 

33 5 3' 3 3 33/5 3 3 

,3 6 ,, „ ,, 100 ,, 

to the actual reed used, Stockport counts, 2 ends in i 
dent. 

Example. — A reed 20 dents per inch, 3 ends in each 
dent, shall be paid for as 25. 

20 reed, 4 in a dent as 30 

20 ,, 5 ,, ,, 35 reed, and so on. 

When the number of lifts used are not equal to the 
number of threads in each dent, the reed to be paid for 
shall be found as follows : — 

For 3 ends in one dent add 37J per cent. 

35 4 33 33 33 75 '5 

35 5 33 3,3 33 11^2 33 

= , 6 „ „ „ 150 

to the actual reed used, Stockport counts, 2 ends in one 
dent. 

Example. — A reed 20 dents per inch, 3 ends in each 
dent, as a 27 J ; 

the same reed with 4 in a dent as 35 

33 - 53 5 33 3) 422 

,, ,, 6 ,, ,, 50 reed, and so on. 



Provided always that in no case shall a lower reed than 
26 be paid for. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 47 

(17) One Thread in a Dent. 

One thread in a dent shall be paid for as if the reed 
were half way between the actual number of threads per 
inch, and what it would be if there were 2 threads in a 
dent. 

Example. — What is known as an 80 reed, 40 dents per 
inch, I thread in a dent, would be paid for as 60 reed, 30 
dents per inch, 2 ends in each dent. 

(18) More than one Thread in a Heald. 

(a.) Two threads shall be counted as one if in same 
heald. 

(b.) Three or more threads in a heald and one heald to 
a dent, nothing extra shall be paid. 

{a.) All cloths with either 3, 4, 5, or 6 threads in a 
heald, and 2 healds to a dent, an addition of 7J per cent, 
shall be paid. 

(19) Circular Box Looms. 

When circular box looms are used a deduction of lO 
per cent, shall be made from the standard, and clause 10 
shall not apply. 

(20) Additions and Deductions. 

In calculating the list all the above additions and de- 
ductions shall be made separately. 

(21) General. 

(a.) Should any dispute arise as to the interpretation 
of any of the conditions or clauses, or as to the price to 



148 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

be paid for weaving any exceptional goods, a meeting of 
the two committees (employers and employed), shall be 
held with a view to an amicable settlement thereof before 
any strike takes place. 

(b.) This list shall come into force for all new sorts 
put in the looms after the first making-up day in May 
1892, and for all classes of cloth on the first making-up 
day in July 1892. 

{c.) If either employers or operatives desire to make 
any change in the various clauses, they shall give to the 
other party three months' notice of such desire. 

The foregoing list has been framed by a joint committee 
consisting of representatives of employers and operatives, 
and was finally adopted at a meeting held at Manchester 
on Friday the 29th day of April 1892, after having been 
approved by a general meeting of the members of the 
Radcliffe and District Manufacturers' Association, and 
approved by the operative weavers by means of a ballot. 

Signed on behalf of the Employers, 

Joshua Rawlinson, 

Secretary. 

Signed on behalf of the Operative Weavers, 

Thomas Birtwistle. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 



149 



50 




54 


55 




59 


60 




64 


65 




69 


70 




74 


75 




79 


80 




84 


85 


,. 


89 



9. THE OLDHAM VELVET LIST. 

A List applying to the Weaving of Velvets, Cords, and 
SUCH Heavy Goods, put in operation October i, 1890. 

Basis.— 

45 and 49 looms weaving 56's weft, yd. per lb. 

6i|d. 
6iJd. 
6Ad. 
6id. 
6|d. 
6Jd. 
6id. 
6d. 

Whenever the looms are narrower than the above 
table, x^^d. per lb. shall be added for each range of 5 
inches, and if broader Jd. per lb. shall be deducted for 
each similar range. 

Measurement of Looms. — The loom in all cases to be 

measured from lathe sword to lathe sword, except looms 
that have a fork attached ; in such case they shall be 
measured from lathe sword to fork -grate. 

Lost Pick. — Whenever the yarn in the reed in a loom 
64 inches or narrower stands more than 2 inches less 
than the width of the loom, -^6. per lb. for each inch, or 
fraction thereof, shall be added, and in looms above 64 
inches, whenever the yarn stands more than 3 inches 
below the width of the loom, the same allowance per inch 
shall be made, but no deductions shall be made for over- 
widths. 

Allowances for Weft. — 56's weft is taken as the 



150 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Standard, and Jd. per lb. shall be added or deducted for 
each hank as the weft is finer or coarser. 

Extras. — Ribbed edges Jd. per lb. extra. 

Cloth with over 24 picks to the round Jd. per lb. extra. 

E 3 patents, ^d. per lb. extra. 

X and XX superfine twill backs up to and including 
88 reed, ^d. per lb. extra ; above 88 reed and up to and 
including 96 reed, ^d. per lb. extra; and for each addi- 
tional 6 ends per inch or counts of reeds, -Jd. per lb. 
extra. 

Velvet cords -Y^d. per lb. extra. 

Stripes f d. per lb. extra. 

Checks ^d. per lb. extra. 

General. — This list for velvets was agreed on between 
the Oldham velvet manufacturers and the weavers' 
representatives, at a meeting held May 3, 1888, when 
it was also agreed : — " That the basis with allowances for 
weft only should come into operation on the first pay-day 
in June 1888. The conditions for lost pick and all other 
extras being suspended for the present. The time for 
them to come into operation to be considered at a future 
meeting." 

Samuel Andrew, 

Employers^ Secretary. 

Abraham Buckley, 

, operatives' Secretary. 
May 17, i\ 



This list is now paid net with the above exceptions. 

January i, 1890. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 



151 



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152 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

lo. THE COLNE AND DISTRICT LIST FOR 
COLOURED GOODS. 

(r) The Standard. 

The standard upon which the price for plain and 
striped goods is based is as follows : — 

Cloth. — 28, 29, or 30 inches in width. 

Reed. — 52 to 64 both inclusive, or 26 to 32 dents per 
inch, 2 ends in a dent. 

Length. — 74 yards of warp, 36 inches to the yard. 
Weft. — l6's or any finer counts. 

Price. — ijd. per pick. 

The standard upon which the price for checks is based 
is 70 yards of warp, 2d. per pick ; in all other particulars 
the same as the standard for plain and striped goods. 

(2) Reeds. 

Reeds. — 52 to 64 inclusive, or 26 to 32 dents per inch, 
2 ends in a dent, being taken as the standard. 

Add. — Above 64 to 70, 2 per cent., above 70 an addi- 
tional I per cent, for each extra dent or 2 ends per inch. 

Deduct. — Below 52 down to and including 46, 2 per 
cent., and below 46, 3 per cent., beyond which no further 
deduction shall be made. 

(3) Cloth, 

The standard, being 28, 29, or 30 inches is reckoned 
equal. 

For each inch below 28, f per cent, is to be deducted 
down to 20 inches, beyond which no further reduction 
shall be made. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 53 

Above 30 inches up to and including 36, i per cent, 
per inch is to be added. Above 36 to 40, ij per cent., 
and above 40, 2J per cent, per inch. 

(4) Undressed Warps. 

Ordinary half-beer warps, dyed, sized, or bleached in 
the warp, to be paid extra as follows : — 



one colour ..... 


.035 per yd. 


Two colours, white or grey counted 


•045 » 


Three „ 


.055 5' 


Four „ „ „ 


•075 » 



increasing .02 per yard for each additional colour, sel- 
vages not reckoned a colour. Warps wound on so as to 
avoid crossing or splitting of half-beers in weaving, to be 
paid .035 per yard. 

(5) Half Dressed Warps. 

All warps run through a reed, but neither dressed nor 
brushed by hand, and when broken threads are not found 
and pieced in the usual way, shall be considered half 
dressed warps, and paid as follows : — 

All one colour ..... .02 per yd. 

Two colours, white or grey counted .03 ,, 

Three „ „ „ .04 „ 

Four „ „ „ .05 „ 

(6) Coarse Twist in a Fine Reed. 

Below i6's in a 68 or finer reed (2 threads in a dent), 
2 per cent, per count to be added. 14's twofold yarn, 
that is, 2/28S. to be paid as i6's, and so on in proportion. 



154 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

(7) Weft. 

No addition or deduction to be made for weft finer 
than 15's. 



15's add 2 per cent. 
14's „ 4 „ 
13's ,, 6 „ 
12's ,, 8 



ii's add II per cent, 
lo's „ 14 „ 
9's „ 18 „ 

8's ,,22 



Hank Weft. — Hank weft woven into plain or striped 
goods from tubes or bobbins shall be paid 5 per cent, 
extra. 

(8) Shaft Work with Dobbies. 

No extra payment shall be made for cloths woven with 
6 or any less number of lifts or treads that can be worked 
with tappets although dobbies are used. 

All cloths woven with dobbies that cannot be worked 
with tappets to be paid extra as follows : — 

Up to and including 10 lifts or treads add 10 per cent. 
II to 14 lifts or treads inclusive ,, 14 „ 
15 to 18 ;, „ „ „ 18 „ 

increasing \\ per cent, fpr each additional lift or tread. 

(9) Pick Finding in Looms Without Dobbies. 

Whenever the employer requires the weaver, in cloth 
with 3 or more lifts or treads, to turn the loom backward 
or forward in order to find the shed in which the weft 
broke, he shall pay an advance of 10 per cent. 

(10) Additions and Deductions. 

All the above additions and deductions shall be made 
separately. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. 155 

(11) General. 

This list shall come into force after the first making-up 
day in September next for new classes of cloth, and for 
all classes of cloth to which it applies on the first making- 
up day in November. If any dispute should arise as to 
the interpretation of any of the previous conditions or 
clauses, or as to the price to be paid for weaving any 
goods, a meeting of the two committees (employers and 
employed) shall be held with a view to an amicable 
settlement thereof before any strike takes place. 

The foregoing list was unanimously adopted at a joint 
meeting of committees representing employers and opera- 
tives, held at Colne on Thursday the 26th day of June 
1890, and finally settled between the two secretaries at a 
conference held on July 16, 1890. 

Signed on behalf of the Employers, 

Joshua Rawlinson, 

Secretary of the Colne <5r= District Coloured Goods 
Manufacturers^ Association. 

Signed on behalf of the Operative Weavers, 

T. BiRTWISTLE, 

Secretary of the North- East Lancashire Weavers^ 
Association. 



156 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

ADDENDA. 

(12) Three or More Threads in One Dent. 

When the number of lifts used are equal to the number 
of threads in a dent, the reed to be paid for shall be 
found as follows : — 

For 3 threads in one dent add 25 per cent. 

}5 4 J) 5J J) 5^ J> 

?j 5 '> J) '> 75 'J 

» 6 „ ,, ,, 100 „ 

to the actual reed used, Stockport counts, 2 ends in one 
dent. 

Example. — A 40 reed, or 20 dents per inch, 3 in each 
dent, shall be paid for as 50. 

40 reed, 4 in a dent as 60 

40 „ 5 ,, „ 70 reed, and so on. 

When the number of lifts used are not equal to the 
number of threads in each dent, the reed to be paid for 
shall be found as follows : — 

For 3 ends in one dent add 37!- per cent. 

5? 4 jj 55 ii 75 5' 

jj 5 J3 5} 55 ^^^2 " 

6 „ „ ,. 150 „ 



J3 



to the actual reed used, Stockport counts, 2 ends in one 
dent. 

Example. — A 40 reed (20 dents per inch) 3 ends in 
each dent, as a 55 : — 

the same reed with 4 in a dent as 70 

>5 J> 5 5' JJ "5 

5, „ 6 „ „ 100 reed, and so on. 



WAGE CALCULATIONS. I 57 

Provided always that in no case shall a lower reed than 
52 be paid for. 

(13) One Thread in a Dent. 

One thread in a dent shall be paid for as if the reed 
were half way between the actual number of threads per 
inch, and what it would be if there were 2 threads in a 
dent. 

Example. — What is known as a 80 reed, 40 dents per 
inch, I thread in a dent, would be paid for as 60 reed. 

(14) Mexicans. 

Mexicans shall be paid by this list without any addition 
or deduction. 

The foregoing addenda has been agreed to between the 
committees representing the employers and operatives, 
and the wording finally settled at a conference held on 
the 15 th day of September 1891. 

Signed on behalf of the Employers, 

Joshua Rawlinson. 

Signed on behalf of the Operative Weavers, 

T. Birtwistle. 



158 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 





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HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS. 

EFORE being fully prepared to enter into the 
calculations regarding the weight of cloth, it is 
necessary to familiarise ourselves with some 
method of counting the ends of warp in the 
cloth. On the Manchester exchange the system adopted 
both for ends and picks is their number per quarter-inch ; 
e.g., a i6 by 14 means 16 ends per J-inch, or 14 picks per 
quarter. The methods used in the manufactory are based 
on the counts of reed. Formerly many systems of reed 
counts prevailed, each town or district having a method 
peculiar to itself; thus, Blackburn counts, Preston counts, 
and many others were at one time adhered to in their 
respective districts, but have now fallen into disuse, and 
almost been forgotten. 

The Stockport counts are commonest in Lancashire, 
and based on the number of dents or splits of the reed 
in 2 inches, and as cloth is generally wrought two ends 
in a dent, this system is often taken as the number of 
ends in i inch. It is in use in almost every Lancashire 
manufacturing district, being adopted in consequence of 
its simplicity and suitability for calculation purposes. 

The Bolton counts are still used in some mills in that 

town, and also in Bury and some few other districts. The 

system is based on the number of beers in 24J inches — a 

160 



HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS. l6l 

beer comprising 20 dents. A Stockport 40's reed would 
have 485 dents on 24J inches, or 24J beers Bolton. A 
Bolton 24J reed is then equal to a Stockport 40's. 

The Scotch systems are to take the number of dents 
or splits in the old Scotch ell, 37 inches, and in this 
system the splits per ell are expressed in hundreds ; 
thus, 17°° indicates 1700 splits on 37 inches, almost equal 
to a 92 reed, Stockport ; or, to take the number of porters 
on the same length. The Scotch porter is equal to the 
Lancashire beer — 20 splits ; thus, a 60 porter reed would 
equal 60 X 20 = 1200 splits or dents on 37 inches. A 
third method used in Scotland is the inch scale, which is 
the number of splits in i inch, and corresponding to the 
old Radcliffe and Pilkington method in Lancashire. 

In the United States the inch scale is generally 
adopted. 

In Scotland, as in Lancashire, the old complicated 
systems show a tendency to give way in favour of the 
simpler systems of counting the dents on i inch or on 
2 inches, i.e., the inch scale, or the Manchester and 
Stockport systems respectively. It will be greatly to 
the convenience of the textile trades when the British 
members of them adopt uniform methods of counting 
reeds, picks, yarns, &c.; and it seems probable that the 
Stockport system, once confined to a small district, will 
ultimately be the system of reed counting. 

The obsolete systems of reed counting are : — 

The Blackburn system, in which the counts referred 
to the number of beers of 20 dents each on 45 inches. 
The English ell was 45 inches.* 

The Fustian reed system of counting the number of 
beers of 38 ends or 19 dents on 24 J inches — this modi- 

L 



1 62 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

fication of the Bolton count is even yet met with. The 
beer or porter of 19 dents is occasionally found in Scot- 
land^ and Yorkshire also. 

The Preston systems, viz. : — 

The I" count equalled the number of beers on 34 inches. 

JJ T 3) 53 5) 39 33 

33 8" 3) }> JJ 44 55 

33 4" 55 5J 55 54 35 

The Nankeen count was the number of beers of 38 
ends on 20 inches. 

An old Manchester system was the number of beers 
on 36 inches. 

A Summary of Reeds Counts now in use. 

I's reed in 

each system 

= the following 

dents in one 

inch. 

Stockport — number of dents on 2 inches ... .5 
Bolton — number of beers (each 20 dents) on 24^! 

inches , . , . .... .8247 

Scotch ell — number of hundreds of splits or dents on 

37 inches . . ' . . . . . 2.7027 

Scotch porter — number of porters (each 20 dents) on 

37 inches . . . . . . . .5405 

One inch scale — number of dents on i inch . . i 

To find an equivalent in any other system for a 
given counts in a given system. 

Rule A, — Multiply the given counts by the number of 
dents per inch in the standard of given system^ and divide by 
the number of dents per inch in the standard of the required 
system. 



HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS. 1 63 

Case I. 

Example. — To convert Bolton counts into inch scale 
counts, or, in other words, to find the number of splits 
per inch in a reed, having Bolton counts given, multiply 
those counts by .8247, and divide by i. The answer 
shows the number of dents and decimal parts. 8.245 is 
more often taken, but it gives the number with less exacti- 
tude. The fraction is only taken to two places of decimals, 
showing thus the lOOth parts of dents ; e.g., a 30 Bolton 
has 24xV^^ spHts per inch (.8247 x 30 = 24.741). 

Case 11. 

Example. — To convert 30 Bolton into Stockport counts. 
Multiply 30 by .8247, and divide by .5. 

Ans. Half-way between 49 and 50 on Stockport system. 

Case III. 

Example. — To convert 68 Stockport into Scotch. 

68 X .5 -f 2.7027 = 

27027)340000(1258 
27027 
69730 

54054 20)58(2 porters. 

156760 40 

135135 18 ends. 

216250 
216216 

34 
Ans. 12°° and 58 over= 12^^, or 1200, 2 porters, and 18 ends. 

Case IV. 

Example. — To convert 40 porter reed into Stockport 
counts. 



1 64 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

40 X. 540544-. 5 

•54054 

AO 



.5)21.62160(43.24 
20 

"76 

15 

121 

10 

21 

Ans. Slightly finer than a Stockport 43 reed. 

To find ends in a given width, Bolton counts. 
Rule B. — Multiply counts of reed by 1.649, ^^^ ^y "^idth 
in reed required. 

Example. — A cloth is required to be 38 inches wide 
(40 inches in reed), 6o's Bolton counts. 

60 X 1.649 ^ 40 = 3948 ends. 

Note. — 1.649 is the calculated number of ends in i 
inch, calculating 2 ends in a dent — No. i Bolton counts. 

Obtained thus — 20 beers = 40 ends -r 24J inches. 

2425)40000000(1.6494 

2425 

15750 
14550 



12000 
9700 



23000 
21825 



11750 

In the reed table (XL) given below, the first row of 
figures shows the proportion which these reeds bear to 
one another, and the lower rows indicate the fineness of 



HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS. 



165 



the different systems for 33 and 40 splits per inch respec- 
tively — the calculation results being given, which, how- 
ever, might not frequently appear in practice — 

Table XL 



The Inch Scale. 
Dents per inch. 


Stockport Dents 
on 2 inches. 


Bolton Beers on 
24^ inches. 


Scotch. 100 dents 
on 37 inches. 


Scotch Porter. 
Porters on 
37 inches. 


I 


2 


I.2125 


0-37 


1.85 


33 


66 


40. 


12.20 


61 


40 


80 


48.5 


14.80 


74 



Reed for Striped Cloth. — In some striped fabrics, 
where the stripe is made by '' cramping " the ends in the 
reed, they are at the same time worked with extra ends 
in each eye of the heald, to compensate for the extra 
ends in the dents of the heald, and thus the same counts 
of healds as reed are used. In other cases it is necessary 
to cramp the ends in the reed to form a stripe, when 
from the nature of the pattern they must be drafted in 
the ordinary way in the healds. In that case different 
counts of heald and reed will be used. In either case it 
is necessary to find the counts of reed required for a 
cloth in which the pattern is formed by condensing the 
ends in certain parts of the reed. 

Rule C. — Find the number of dents occupied in 2 inches 
of the cloth. 

Example. — What reed will be used for a cloth made 
by introducing a stripe of 30 ends 3 in a dent, 10 ends 
2 in a dent, 60 ends 4 in a dent ? When the cloth is 
woven 2 in a dent, the cumberboard is arranged for an 
80 Stockport reed. 



1 66 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



In a complete pattern 
occupy 30 dents. 


there 


are 


100 


ends. 




30 ends 3 in a dent 
10 „ 2 „ 
60 „ 4 „ 


• 




10 

5 

• 15 

30 


dents. 
>) 



These 



The cumberboard being arranged for an 80 reed will 
have 160 ends on 2 inches, therefore if 100 ends occupy 
30 dents, 160 ends will require 48 dents; or, in other 
words, the reed will be a 48 reed Stockport counts. 

160 

30 

100)4800 

Ans. 48 

Healds. — In Stockport counts four healds are consi- 
dered as a set, and four healds having one thread through 
each eye are dubbed of similar counts to the reed ; e.g., a 
6o's set of healds has 15 stitches per inch in each set, 
equalling 60 ends per inch in the reed, which is a 6o's 
reed Stockport. 

Spaced Healds. — In spaced healds some are knitted 
finer than others, and consequently numbered differently. 

Rule D. — To find the counts of each heald stave, with a 
broken draft^ find the number of eyes per inch and mtdtiply 
by 4. 

In this point draft : — 





No. 


No. Stitches 




Heald. 


on each. 


5 5 


5 


2 


4 4 4 4 


4 


4 


3 3 3 


3 


3 


2 2 


2 


2 




I 


I 



HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS. 167 

twelve ends are drawn on five healds, one end on the 
1st heald, two on the 2nd, three on the 3rd, four on the 
4th, and two on the 5th. Four different degrees of fine- 
ness are required in the' five heald staves, and the above 
draft is given to the knitter with instructions for so many 
patterns to the inch. Say five patterns per inch : 5 X 12 
would give a 60 reed, and the number of stitches per inch 
would be respectively 5, 10, 15, 20, and 10 — the front 
one being equal to a Stockport 20's, for if there were 
four similar to it in a set, the number of ends would be 
20. Similarly, the second stave equals a Stockport 40's, 
the third 6o's, the fourth 8o's, and the fifth same as the 
second, a 40's. To prove this, the requisite set of five 
staves might be obtained by taking one stave out of a 
plain 2o's set, two staves out of a plain 40's, one stave 
from a 6o's, and one from an 8o's set. 

Healds are usually sold by the score of beers. A beer 
equals 40 ends in 20 dents, therefore a score equals 800 
ends. 

Reeds are sold by the beer of 20 dents each. 

Reed Space and Width of Cloth. — The reed space 

of a loom is, as its name implies, a measurement of the 
size of the cavity which receives the reed, and is generally 
measured from the edge of the backboard to the edge of 
the fork-grate on the other side of the loom. We have to 
deal with the width of cloth obtainable from a given reed 
space. In the first place, some little width is lost in not 
being able to use the outside dents of the reed, in the 
thick dents, and in the loss of space at each end of the reed, 
probably on an average from these three causes three- 
quarters of an inch at each side, or an inch and a half in 
all. Then there is the contraction between the width of 



1 68 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

the yarn in the reed and the width of the cloth on the 
counter, say 5 per cent. On 40 inch cloth this accounts 
for 2 inches more. On these premises we may assume 
that a 43 inch reed space loom might at the outside weave 
a 40 inch cloth, but in the list 39 inch cloth is con- 
sidered to be the widest that can be conveniently woven, 
as the uniform list fixes the width at 4 inches from the 
reed space. 

Much confusion has been caused by the principle of the 
old Blackburn list, which classed the width of looms by 
the width of cloth that was supposed to weave easity and 
not by the reed space, as for example a 45 inch reed 
space was generally called a 40 inch loom. 

In the old Burnley list, on the contrary, the reed space 
was the width by which the loom was known. In addition 
to this, the figures cast on the loom were in many cases 
only nominal, and such anomalies as a 58 inch cloth being 
woven in a 55 inch reed space loom were not unknown. 
It is hoped that the explanation given will clear away 
many doubts, and that it will indicate why the new 
uniform list prohibits cloth from being woven within 4 
inches of the reed space Without an allowance. 

Reeds to be Used. — The reeds to be used for the 
number of ends per inch vary accordingly as the cloth is 
required to be full, or poor, in the reed. The following 
table comprises two ranges actually in use for the two 
classes of cloth : — 



HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS. 169 





Table XII. 




Ends per 


Reeds in Use for 


Reeds in Use for 


Quarter Inch. 


Poor Cloths. 


Good Cloths. 


8 


28 


29 


10 


35 


36 


12 


41 


43 


13 


45 


47 


14 


49 


51 


15 


52 


54 


16 


56 


58 


17 


60 


62 


18 


64 


66 


19 


68 


70 


20 


70 


72 


22 


73 


80 


24 


86 


88 


26 


92 


96 


28 


98 


102 


30 


104 


no 


32 


112 


118 



The middle column is about I2| per cent, less than the 
supposed number of ends per inch in the finished cloth, 
and the last column about 8 per cent. less. It will be 
noticed that each reed in the range is not proportional. 
This is a practical necessity, as a manufacturer usually 
desires as far as possible the numbers to descend in steps 
of four for the sake of convenience. This prevents 
mathematical accuracy. The words ''full" and ''good" 
cloths are used in a trade sense. Some makers of very 
good old-fashioned cloths use even finer reeds than those 
given. 




STEAM-ENGINE CALCULATIONS. 

HE motive-power of our mills is an interesting 
and important subject, and worthy of treatment 
in more space than we can devote to it in these 
pages. The millworker who takes an interest 
in his surroundings would find pleasure and useful informa- 
tion in the possession of one of the numerous handbooks 
treating of engines and boilers, the conversion of natural 
resources into heat, and the generation by means of that 
heat of the steam which drives our sheds and mills. 

Specification of Engines and Boilers for Shed of 
1000 Looms Plain Goods. 

Engines, — Horizontal, high and low pressure, con- 
densing. Indicated horse-power, 350. 

Boilers. — Two Lancashire, working at 80 lb. pressure. 

Economisers. — Set of 120 pipes. 

The power of an engine is indicated in horse-powers. 
A horse-power is taken as the capacity of performing 
33,000 foot-pounds of work in one minute; lifting 3 300 
lbs. 10 feet high, or 10 lbs. 3300 feet high would be 33,000 
foot-pounds of work. 

Parts of Steam-Engine. — The figure (6) will enable 

the reader to understand the allusions to various parts of 

the steam-engine. PR is the piston rod, with a hori- 

170 



STEAM-ENGINE CALCULATIONS. 



171 



zontal reciprocating movement ; steam is admitted by the 
supply pipe S, either through the front port, a, or the 
back port, c, according to the direction in which the 




Fig. 6. 



piston has to travel ; the used steam escapes through 
the exhaust-port e. The sHde-valve / on the shde-rod 
regulates the admission and exit of the steam. 

To Obtain the Indicated Horse-power, — A diagram 
is taken from each end of each cylinder by means of a 
little piece of apparatus known as an indicator. This 
diagram shows the initial pressure of steam against the 
piston, and also the gradual lowering of pressure as the 
piston continues its stroke. An average is made at ten 
points of this steam pressure, and thus we obtain the 
average pressure throughout the stroke. This multiplied 
by the area of the piston gives the total pressure on the 
piston in pounds, and multiplied by the speed of the 
piston per minute in feet gives the number of foot-pounds 
of work done per minute. 

Rule A. — Multiply the average pressure of steam in the 
cylinder by the area of the piston^ and by the speed of the 



\J2 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

piston, which is obtained by multiplying the length of stroke 
by 2, and by the number of strokes per minute. Divide 
the result by 33,000, which gives the indicated horse-power. 

Example. — Find indicated horse-power from the fol- 
lowing particulars : — Average pressure 39.81, area of 
piston 400 square inches, length of stroke 5 J feet (equal- 
ling 1 1 feet both ways), strokes per minute 40. 

39.81 
400 



1592400 

5i 

79620 
7962 
87582 
2 
175164 
40 
33000)7006560(212.32 I.H.P. 
66000 
40656 
33000 



76560 

66000 

105600 

99000 

66000 

66000 



Nominal Horse-power. — It is, in engineering estab- 
lishments, customary to have a system of standardising 
the power of an engine apart from its speed and steam 
pressure. 

Rule B. — Divide the area of piston in inches by 22. 



STEAM-ENGINE CALCULATIONS. 1 73 

Example. — What is the nominal horse-power of a 
single cylinder engine, piston 40 inch diameter ? 

40 X 40= 1600 

■7854 
6400 
8coo 
12800 
11200 



22)1256.6400(57.12 N.H.P. 
no 

156 

154 



2.64 

22 

44 

44 

Looms per Horse-power.— 2 J to 3 looms, with pre- 
paration, are calculated to require I indicated horse- 
power. 

Coal. — A good quality of coal should evaporate 8 lbs. 
of water for each i lb. burnt, and for a manufacturing 
concern (including sizing, which takes a great amount of 
steam) the consumption of coal should not be more than 
3:^ lbs. per indicated horse-power per hour. Thus, 600 
horse-power would use about 49 tons per week ; exclud- 
ing sizing, 2f lbs. would suffice. 

To find the weight of coal used per indicated horse- 
power per hour. 

Rule C. — Reduce the weight used in a week to pounds, 
divide by the horse-power and by the number of hours run 
per week. 



174 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Example. — Engines of 440 horse-power require 35 
tons of coal per week. Engine running 56 hours. 

'ZK X 2240 
440 X 56 ^ 
Ans. 3.18 lbs. per I.H.P. per hour. 

Safety-valves. — To find the pressure at which a valve 
will blow off. 

Safety-valves are levers of the third order, and their 
use is to relieve the pressure of the boiler by opening 
when a certain pressure per square inch is arrived at. 

Rule D. — Multiply the weight in pounds by the distance 
of its point of suspension from the pin or fulcrum, and 
divide by the area of the valve and the distance from the 
fulcrum of its point of contact with the lever. 

Example. — A safety-valve lever is pivoted 3 inches 
from the top of the centre of the valve and 16 inches 
from the weight of 50 lbs. The diameter of the valve 
is 2 inches. At what pressure will it blow ? The area 
of the valve is 2^ x .7854. 

4 X. 7854 = 3.1416. 
50 X 16 = 800 

3.I4I6X 3 = 9.4248. 

9.4248)800.0000(84.8 lbs. pressure. 
753984- 
460160 
376992 



831680 

753894 

77696 




ARITHMETIC. 

N a book of textile calculations the necessity of 
introducing various mathematical rules is un- 
avoidable, and in many cases the references 
to these rules may not be intelHgible to some 
readers who are not so familiar with calculations as 
others, in consequence perhaps of lack of early educa- 
tion, or of practice in the use of figures. Thanks to 
the system of compulsory education, such are now few 
and far between ; but the author considers that, in justice 
to these readers, he should make a few short explana- 
tions of the principal rules involved in this work, and of 
the signs and abbreviations adopted. 



Signs and Abbreviations Used. 

+ The sign of addition, signifies added to. 



from which is subtracted, 
multiplied by. 
divided by. 
equal to. 



subtraction, 

multiplication, 

division, 

equality, 
/J ,, „ the square root. 
V » » 5> cube „ 

2 over a number signifies that that number has to be squared. 

3 over a number signifies that it has to be cubed. 

% stands for per cent. 

17s 



176 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

The four fundamental rules of Addition, Subtraction, 
Multiplication, and Division are well known, and re- 
quire no explanation excepting of the terms used in con- 
nection with them. 

The Sum is the total of numbers added together. 

The Difference or Remainder is obtained by sub- 
tracting one number from another. 

The Multiplicand is the number which is multiplied by 
another. 

The Multiplier is the number by which the multipli- 
cand is multiphed. 

The result of their multiplication is called the Product. 

The number which is divided by another is called the 
Dividend. 

The one by which it is divided is called the Divisor. 

The result of the division is called the Quotient. 

Proportion. — This is necessary to determine from a 
given ratio in which one number stands towards another 
number, what the ratio or proportion would be were the 
first number to be replaced by a third number; such as, 
for example, if a number of articles give a certain weight 
or length, or if a number of workmen do certain work, 
what would be the weight or length or work done if the 
original number of articles or men be changed ? 

Rule A. — Place the three given numbers so that the two 
numbers in which the proportion is known stand first, and 
the third number is the one for which the proportion is un- 
known. To obtain me answer, multiply the second and 
third terms together, and divide by the first. The following 
signs are generally used: — 

: is to 
: : so 



ARITHMETIC. IJJ 

Example. — If 7 skips of yarn contain 21000 cops, how 
many will 3 skips contain ? The numbers are placed — 

7 : 21 000 : : 3 \ans. 

or as 7 is to 21000 so 3 is to the answer. 

To obtain the answer, multiply the second and third 
terms together, and divide by the first. 

21000 X 3 = 63000 

7)63000 
9000 ans. 

Percentag'e may almost be classed with proportion, as 
it is really a proportion problem, 100 always being taken 
as the third term. 

Percentage is the ratio which one number bears to 
another number, expressed in the ratio which lOO would 
bear to a certain number called the percentage. 

Example. — A manufacturer calculates that he loses 2d. 
on a 75 yard piece which cost i6s. 8d., what is that per 
cent. ? 

Expressed in proportion terms — 

200 : 2 : : 100 \ans. 

Multiply the second and third terms, and divide by the 

first. 

2 X 100 -^ 200 = I per cent. 

Rule B. — To find percentage, multiply the number of 
which it is desired to find the relation by 100, and divide 
by the term to which the other term bears relation. 

Example. — A man receives as dividend on shares ;^I9. 
This bears relation to the value of his shares as 19 to 190, 
what is the percentage ? 

19 X 100 -f 190= 10 per cent. ans. 

M 



1/8 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Vulg-ar Fractions. 

A fraction is one or more parts of a thing, and indicates 
the number of parts. 

It is written by two numbers, one above the other, with 
a line between, thus : I, |-, |-. 

The lower number is called the Denominator, and 
shows the number of parts into which the thing is 
divided. 

The Numerator is the upper number, and shows 
how many of these parts are represented, as |^ = seven- 
eighths, 7 = four-sevenths. 

Reducing". — To reduce fractions to their lowest terms. 
Cancelling" is another name for this. 

Rule C. — Find a number that will divide into both the 
numerator and denominator without remainder, and divide 
them until they are no longer both divisible by a number 
greater than one. 

The value of the fraction will not be altered. Thus 
Y^o- may be divided by 5, and gives \^. This is again 
divisible by 5, and is reduced to f. 

To Add Fractions. ' 

Rule D. — Reduce them to a common denominator, and 
add the numerators. 

Thus:i + ^ + ,V 

Seventy is the lowest number which will contain 2, 7 
and 10 without remainder, and the three fractions are 
then described |g, -fg, |i = ?^. 

This may be reduced by dividing by 2 to || or \\% ans. 

To Sulbtraet Fractions. — Proceed as in addition, but 
subtract the smaller numerator instead of adding. 



ARITHMETIC. 1/9 

To Multiply Fractions. 

Rule E. — Multiply all the numerators together for a nume- 
rator, and all the denominators together for a denominator. 

Example. — Multiply |, |, | together. 

3x5x7 = 105 
4x6x8 = 192 

This may be reduced, by dividing by 3, to || ans. 

Division. — To divide fractions. 

Rule F. — Invert the divisor and multiply. 

Example.— 

A9_^7_49 y 8_392 
80-8~80'^7~5 6^ 

This may be reduced by dividing by 56 to -f-^ ans. 

Decimal Fractions are expressed always in tenths, hun- 
dreds, thousands, &c. ; and the numerator only is written. 
A point is placed before the decimal number to distin- 
guish it from an ordinary one, and to the right of the point 
the tenths are placed, or, if none, a cypher; then the 
hundreds are placed as the second figure from the point , 
thirdly, the thousandth. Thus yV? tIo-j t/oq- would- be 
written .163, or .796 would be ^^^^o oi" toj tw' and x^- 

Decimals are far more suitable to textile calculations 
than vulgar fractions, and their use should be cultivated 
by the earnest student. 

The addition and subtraction of decimals is pro- 
ceeded with as in ordinary figures, care being taken to 
get the points exactly under one another. 

Rule G. — Multiplication.— il/?///^>/v the two numbers 
together irrespective of the decimal points, and afterwards 
count from the right of the product as many figures as 



l80 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

there were to the right of the multiplier and multiplicand^ 
and place the point. 

Example.— 

1.347 X 2.86 

1-347 
2.86 

8082 
10776 
2694 

385242 

There are three figures to the right of the point in the 
multipHcand, and two in the multipHer. The point is 
therefore placed as under^ five figures from the right — 

3.85242 

Recurping" Decimals. — Certain fractions cannot be 
expressed in full in the decimal system, e.g.^ ^ in decimals 
would be .iiiiiiiii, and so on. 

These are called recurring or repeating decimals, and 
are marked by placing a point over them, or if there are 
several in the repeat, over the first and last of the group. 

Example.— 

\ is .written . i 

Y is written .142857 

Square Root. — To extract. 

This problem, known as one branch of evolution, con- 
sists in finding the number which, when multiplied by 
itself, or, in other words, when squared, gives, as the 
product, the given number. 

Rule H. — Divide the number into pairs of figures, he- 
ginning at the unit place. Find the greatest number which, 
when multiplied by itself, i.e., when squared, will be con- 



ARITHMETIC. l8l 

tained in the left-hand figure or pair ; place this root as 
a quotient, and as a divisor also, and subtract their product 
as in ordinary division. Then bring down two more figures, 
and double the previous divisor, and add the largest figure 
to it that can be the quotient also. Then multiply the 
divisor by this figure. Double the quotient, and proceed as 
before. If there is a remainder, add two cyphers to it, and 
proceed as before, calling each addition to the quotient a 
decimal. 

Example. — Find square root of 8462548064. 

Mark off thus. 9 is the root 

of the greatest square con- 9)8462548084(91992.1 

tained in 84. 81 

Double 9. I is the highest 181)362 

number that can be added 181 

to 18 and to the quotient 9. 1820)181^4 

Double 91. 3.5461 



18389)169380 
165501 



183982)387984 
367964 



Add 2 cyphers and place a 1839841)2002000 

decimal point to the quo- 1839841 

tient. 162159 

Ans. — 91992. 1. 

In all textile calculations the slide rule will be found 
very useful, and is well worthy of study by the earnest 
textilist. The old-fashioned, antiquated rule is not re- 
ferred to, but the modern one, constructed on the lines of 
the rules largely used by many Continental manufacturers. 
A book by Mr. J. W. Nasmith, of Mulhouse, Alsace, 
shortly to be published by Mr. John Heywood, will treat 
exhaustively of this subject. 




EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND 
ANSWERS. 

HE City and Guilds of London Institute hold 
annually an excellent series of examinations 
in the different trades. For some years 
cotton-weaving was examined with cotton- 
spinning under the name of ''Cotton Manufacture," while 
questions were concurrently given under the subject of 
''Weaving and Pattern Designing," which included also 
woollen, worsted, silk, jute, and linen weaving. In 1889, 
for the first time, a separate examination was held in 
" Cotton-Weaving." 

The author, considering that it would be beneficial to 
the textile student of our technical schools to reprint 
some of these questions and append answers, and that it 
would also be interesting and instructive to older readers 
to study the various exercises that have been propounded, 
has here given a selection from the various papers. 

Questions necessitating calculations have alone been 
given, and questions referring to other textile trades have 
been omitted, as have also duplicate or similar questions 
given in different years. 

As most calculation questions are repeated in succeed- 
ing years, the duplicates not answered in this book are 

left for test questions, to be given by the teachers. 

182 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 83 

Selections from Weaving and Designing* Papers. 

1883. — No. 5. — If you are weaving a 7 pick pattern 
with tappets (that is, a pattern which recurs every seven 
picks), and your tappet- wheel contains 1 50 teeth, whilst 
the wheel on the crank shaft contains 25 teeth, how will 
you obtain the proper rate of speed for the tappets, and 
what wheels will you use for the purpose ? 

Intermediate wheels would be required. 

By rule given on page 88 it is shown that we must 
find what proportionate speed the 25 and 150 would give; 
150-^25=6. Then as 6 is to 7 so are the two inter- 
mediate wheels to one another, say 60 and 70. The train 
of wheels would be 25 driving 70, and 60 driving 150. 

No. 11. — Calculate the cost of material in a piece of 
cloth made as follows : — 100 ends per inch of twofold 
70's cotton at 2s. 3d. per lb., 84 picks per inch of single 
40's worsted at 2s. 5d. per lb. The piece to be woven 
30 inches in the reed, 5 3 yards long, made from 5 8 yards 
of warp, allowing 5 per cent, for weft wasted in weaving. 

Rules given on pages 14 and 20. 

30 X 100 X 58 ^840 X 35's = 5.9i lbs. twist. 

30 X 84 X 53 -- 560 X 40's = 5.962 
Add 5%= .298 
6.26 

5.91 lbs. twist at 2s. 3(5?'. = 159.57^. 
6.26 ,, weft ,, 2J-. 5(2?. = 181.54^. 

341 = £^, 8j-. 5^. 

1884. — Ordinary Grade.— No. 5.— A drum 13 inches 
in diameter^ making 120 revolutions a minute, is required 



1 84 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

to give motion to a shaft required to make 156 revolu- 
tions. Find the diameter of the pulley required. 
Rule given on page 62. 

Ans. 120 X 134-156 = 10 inches. 

No. 9. — How many hanks will be in a pound weight 
of two-ply yarn made by twisting one thread of 24's and 
one of 30's single cotton ^'•arn together ? 

See Rule on page 46. 

Ans. Multiply 24 x 30, and divide by 24 + 30 = 54. 

24 

30 

54)720(13.3 

54 

180 

162 

Ans. i2>¥s. 

No. 10. — Having 40's cotton yarn, and wishing to twist 
it with another yarn to make it 24's, what numbers would 
you employ ? 

Ans. By rule E. on page 46. 

40 X 24 = 960 
40-24= 16 

16)960(60*8 
96_ 
Ans. 6o's. 

No. 13. — Give a calculation showing the weights of warp 
and weft in a piece of cotton cloth woven in a 20-reed 
with eighteen shots (Manchester count), 40 inches wide, 
60 yards, 70's warp, 8o's weft. Allow what you consider 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 85 

necessary for shrinkage in length and width, and extra 
ends for selvages. 

Rules given on pages 14 and 20. 

Width to be taken at 40, v^ith say 2 inches allowed 
for contraction and selvages. 

20 reed X 18 shots = 80x72 to the inch. Allow 3 per 
cent, on length. 

Twist . 42 X 80 X 6if -7- 840 X 70 = 3.53 lbs. 
Weft . 42x72x60 -^840x80 = 2.7 lbs. 

1885.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 10.— Explain the counts 
or Nos. by which the fineness of cotton, silk, linen, 
woollen, and worsted yarns are indicated. How would 
you proceed to prove the counts of any yarn ? 

Explanation of this is given on pages 39 to 53. 

1886.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 6.— If the crank shaft 
of a loom is making 130 revolutions a minute, having a 
12-inch pulley, what size of pulley will you require to 
have on to make it revolve at the rate of 160 revolutions 
a minute ? 

Rule given on page 63. 

A smaller pulley would be required. 

130 X 12 -^ 160 = 

160)1560(9! 

1440 



I20_ 3 

i6^~^ 



Ans. 9x inches. 



1886.— Honours Grade.— No. 1.— It is required to 
weave a piece of cloth which must be 48 yards long and 
28 inches wide, and you have only 180 hanks of weft 



1 86 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

yarn (cotton). How many picks per inch must the piece 
contain ? 

No rule has been given for this, but the reader can 
easily deduce one from the abundant explanations given 
in the early part of the book. 

Rule A. — Multiply width by lengthy and divide into length 
of yarn given. 

48 yards X 28= 1344. 180x840=151200. 

151200-f I344= ii2|. 
Ans. 1 12 J. 

No. 10. — How many hanks will be contained in one 
pound weight of 3-fold yarn made by twisting one thread 
of lo's, one of 30's, and one of 50's single worsted yarn 
together ? 

Rule given for finding counts on page 47. 

50-50 = 1 
50-^30 = 1.66 

50-10 = 5 

7.66 

7.66)5000(6.52 hanks in a pound 
4596 of the 3-fold yarn. 
4040 
3830 
2100 

1887.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 2.— What will be the 
resulting counts of two threads twisted together as 
follows — viz., 8o's single cotton with 32's single worsted ? 
And what quantity of each will be required to produce 
100 lbs. of folded yarn ? 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 8/ 

First find equivalent in worsted of 8o's cotton. 
Rules given on pages 50 and 46. 

80 X 840 -^ 560 = i2o's 

Twofold 32's and i2o's = 

32 X 120 -r 32 + 120 = 

3840-152 = 

25.26's counts of resultant yarn expressed in hanks of 560 yards. 

100 lbs. X 25.26 = 2526 hanks of each. 

32)2526(78.94153. of worsted. 
224 

"286 
256 



300 
288 



120 

25.26 hanks of 560 yards x 100 x 560 -=- 840 = 1684 hanks of 
840 yards. 

8o's)i684(2i.o5 lbs. cotton. 
160 

80 

4 
Ans. 25.26's; 78.94 lbs. worsted; 21.05 ^t»s. cotton. 

No. 10. — What is the speed of a loom driven by a 
14-inch drum on main shaft^ making 120 revolutions per 
minute; loom pulley being loj inches? 

Rule given on page 59. 

120 multiplied by 14 and divided by 10 J. 
Ans. 160 picks per minute. 

No. 11. — What number of shots, per inch, will a 30- 
teeth change pinion give, other parts of the motion being 



1 88 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

— ratchet wheel, 50 teeth ; intermediate wheel, 120 ^eeth ; 
and intermediate pinion, 15 teeth; feed roller wheel, 75 
teeth ; and circumference of feed roller, 1 5 inches ? 

Ans. Rule given on page 92. 

50X120X75-M5X 15 = 2000. 
2000 
I J per cent. = 30 

30)2030(67! 
180 
230 
210 



20 
30 



Ans. 67! picks per inch. 

No. 12. — State the time it will take a loom to weave 
60 yards of cloth with 80 shots per inch. Diameter of 
puUe}^ on crank shaft 8 inches; diameter of drum on 
main shaft, 14 inches; main shaft revolutions, 120 per 
minute, allowing 20 per cent, for stoppages. 

The piece has 60 x 36 x 80 = 172800 picks in it. 

The loom makes per minute — 

120 X 14 -f-8 = 2IO 

Less 20 per cent. 42 

168 picks. 

1728004-168 = 1028! minutes = i7 hours 8^ minutes. 
A/is. 17 hours, Sf minutes. 

1888.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 13.— Make a stripe as 
follows : — 60 ends cotton, 40 ends silk, 24 ends cotton, 20 
ends silk. Cotton 2 ends in a split, silk 4 in a spht. Reed 
40 splits or dents per inch, width of piece 32 inches in 
reed. How many ends of each material will be required ? 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 89 

Ans, 

6a ends of cotton at 2 ends in a split occupy = 30 splits. 

40 „ silk „ 4 ,, ,, = 10 ,, 

24 „ cotton ;, 2 5, ,, = 12 ,, 

20 „ silk „ 4 „ „ =^ „ 

One stripe occupies = 57 ,, 
Number of splits available = 40 x 32 = 1280 

57)1280(22 complete stripes and 26 splits over 
114 
140 

£14 

26 

The 26 splits could be used for a border of cotton 2 
ends in a split, thus giving a cotton border at each side of 
the piece, and the number of ends of cotton that v^ould be 
then required would be — 

22 stripes each 84 ends cotton = 1848 
26 splits „ 2 „ „ = 52 

1900 ends cotton. 
22 stripes each 60 ends silk =1320 ,, silk. 

Honours Grade. — No. 1. — Same paper. — Give the 
average counts of yarn in any cloth composed of alternate 
threads of single 1 6's and single 40's yarn. 

Ans. Apply rule given for twofold yarn, page 46, and 
multiply by 2. 

16 X 40 -^ 16 + 40 
56)640(11.428 



56 








80 


II 


.428 




S6 




2 




240 


22 


.856'S 


ans. 


224 








160 








112 









480 



190 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Proof:— 

1 hank of i6's weighs 43 yj grains 
£ J, 40's „ i75_ „ 

2 hanks ,, 612J „ 
Average = i hank ,, 3°^ » 

7000 4- 306;!: = 22.856's 
Ans. 22.856's. 

Selections from the Cotton Weaving"^ 
Examination Questions. 

1889 Examination.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 7.— 

How many tokens of 20 healds each will you have on 
each heald in a five-end satin with a total of 1600 ends? 
And what space will each token stand in, suppose the 
healds are for a 50-reed Manchester counts of reed ? 

Ans. 1600 ends in all -4- 5 shafts = 320 on each shaft, making 
no allowance for plain selvage. 

•520 

^ — = 16 tokens on each heald or shaft. 
20 

The whole reed space occupied is 1600 -=-50 = 32 inches. 
Each token therefore stands in 32 -=-16 = 2 inches, or, in 
other words, there are 20 eyes in every 2 inches of each shaft. 

No. 13. — What pinion or crank shaft and intermediate 
or carrier wheels would you use to drive a woodcroft 
tappet 16 picks to the round, if the tappet wheel has 
180 teeth ? 

^ Cotton Weaving. The subjects which are comprised in the syllabus to 
be studied for this examination in addition to the calculations, such as the 
construction and use of the machinery, both in the weaving and prepara- 
tory processes, are fully described in the author's book on " Cotton Manu- 
facturing," price 6s. 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 191 

Ans. One wheel on crank shaft would not drive 180 at the 
required speed, as I8o-^ 16 gives a broken size. 

A pair of intermediate wheels must be employed. Apply 
rule on page 88. Supposing any wheel, say 16, to be on the 
crank shaft — 

180 1 

As ii^l is to 16 so the required wheels are to another, say 45 
and 64. 

The train would be 16 driving 64 
» 5) 45 » 180 

No. 14. — What change v^^heel vv^ill you require to put 
in 25 picks per quarter inch? The ratchet vi^heel has 
120 teeth driving the required pinion, which gears into a 
carrier wheel of 50 teeth, and 30 teeth driving the roller 
wheel of 90 teeth, the roller being 15 inches in circum- 
ference. 

Apply Rule D. on page 92 for obtaining dividend. 

120 X qo X go 

^ — ^- = 300 

30 X 60 

60 is the circumference of roller in quarter inches. 
Add I J per cent, for contraction, 300 

4i 



304 J -f picks required, 25 = 12.18 

Afts. Nearest change wheel 12, which, being less size than 
calculation gives, would give more than 25 picks to the J inch 
(about 25f). 

No. 18. — You have 160 bobbins of 30's twist, each 
containing 8 ozs. of yarn, and wishing to use all the yarn 
(allowing 5 per cent, for material left on the bobbins and 
waste) in a warp of 3600 ends, what length should the 
warp be ? 



192 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

Multiply 30's by 840 to find yards in a pound, and divide by 
2 to get length in half a pound, deduct 5 per cent. — 

Giving 11970 yards usable on each bobbin. 

11970 X 160 bobbins = 1915200 total yards usable, and this 
divided by 3600 gives length of warp. 

Ans. 532 yards. 

No 19. — A piece of cloth, 40 yards long, 30 inches 
wide, with 80 ends per inch (out of loom), and 1 20 picks 
per inch, contains 18 lbs. of yarn; what is the average 
counts of warp and weft, allowing a shrinkage of 10 per 
cent, from reed ? 

>^ Ans. Apply Rule L., page 28. 

''^'^4. The width = 30+ 10 per cent. =30 + 3 = 33. The tape length 
5 ^ will be about 42 yards. The length of twist = 
'^^-^<-..^ _^ 33 X 80 X 42 yards = 1 10880. 

The length of weft is — 
■ ^.:^^ 33 X 40 X 120 = 158400. 

^' 1 10880 + 158400 = 269280 yards. 

269280 divided by 840 and by 18 lbs. gives 17.809. 
Ans. 17.809's average counts. 

Honours Grade. — ^No. 4f,—Same paper. — If you are 
placing a loom to run 180 picks per minute side by side 
with a loom to run 96 picks per minute, in a shed where 
the shaft makes 108 revolutions, what size of drum would 
you put on the shaft, and what size of pulley on the loom 
in each case ? 

Ans. The proportionate sizes of driving and driven pulleys 
in the first case will be 180 to 108, or, say, 15 inches driving 
and 9 inches driven. 

In the second case 96 to 108, or, say, 16 and 18 inches 
respectively. 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 93 

No. 15. — Suppose you are weaving a plain cloth with 
60 ends per inch and 60 picks per inch, equal counts of 
warp and weft, and you wish to make a four-end twill 
using the same yarns, how many ends and picks per inch 
would you put in to make a cloth of similar firmness ? 

Ans. Suppose the 4-end twill to be an ordinary one — 2 
ends up out of 4. There would be two intersections in 4 
ends, that is, 4 ends and 2 picks passing through equal to 
6 threads. 

In 4 ends of plain there are 4 intersections, 4 ends, and 
4 picks, equals 8 threads. Then with the same reed and pick 
and yarns the twill would be looser, or to make it as firm we 
must increase it at the proportion of 6 to 8, or — 

— - — =80 ends X 80 picks per inch. 

No. 16. — Calculate the cost of i dozen tapestry table- 
covers from the following, particulars : — Size on table 
32 X 34 inches, 33 inches in reed. 

Warps 600 ends 2/60 indigo blue at 3 

,, 2,432 ends 2/40 red . . 

„ 2,432 ends 2/40 brown . 
Weft 30 picks per inch 6's ecru 

» 30 „ „ 6's black 

Weaving, is. 3d. per dozen; general expenses, 20 per 
cent, more than weaving ; allow 5 per cent, for waste in 
both warp and weft, 5 per cent, for the taking up of the 
coarse warps in weaving, and 10 per cent, for the taking 
up of the fine warp. 

Ans. Weight of 2/60's. 
Length = 34 inches x 12 + 10 per cent, for length. 
34 X 12 = 408. 



s. 


d. 


at 3 


2 per lb. 
4i „ 


» I 


4j » 


5, I 


I „ 


» I 


I » 



194 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

408 

40.8 
448.8 inches 
600 ends 



36)269280.0 

7480 yards 

7480 + 5 per cent, waste, 
374 
840)7854(9.35 
7560 
2940 2/60's or 3o)9.35(.3iilbs. 

2520 90 

4200 35 

4200 30 

"50 
.311 at 35. 2d. — w.Zd. 

Weight of 2/40's. 

Length 34 x 12 = 408 + 5 per cent. = 428.4. 

428.4 
4864 ends 
17136 
25704 
34272 
17136 
36)20837376(57881! yards. 

180 2894 5 per cent, waste 

283 840)607751(72.35 hanks 
252 5880 

^17 1975 

288 1680 20)72.35(3.61 lbs. 
293 295.5 6o_ 

288 252.0 123 

77 43-50 ^ 

36 35 . 



21 



3.61 lbs. at i^. df\d. = 59.56^. 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 95 

Weft— 

33 X 60 picks X 1 1 J- yards ^ 6's x 840 = 4.45 lbs. 



4-45 
.22 = 5 per cent, waste. 


4.67 at IS. id. 


60. J id. 


Twist .... 


d. 
II. 8 


Weft .... 
Weaving .... 


59-56 
60.71 

15.00 


Exs. = i| weaving 


15.00 




3.00 



165.07 per doz. = 135', 9^. 
Ans. 13^-. 9^. per dozen. 

1890 Paper.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 3.— What is the 
counts of a doubled thread composed of 20's and 40's 
twisted together? 

Apply Rule D. and Example, page 46. 

Ans. 13.33's. 

No. 4. — How much 6o's twist will you require for a 
set of slasher's bea,ins, the whole set to contain 2360 ends, 
18000 yards ? 

Apply Rule D., page 72. Multiply 2360 by 18000, and 
divide by 840 to bring it to hanks, and then by 60, the 

counts. 

2360 X 18000 
840 X 6q 
Ans. 842.85 lbs. 

No. 9. — If weaving 8-end satin, 40 inches in reed, 56 
reed, Stockport counts, how many healds would you 
require on each stave in two inches. Also, how many 



196 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

healds for each stave, if drawn in on 8 staves, centred 
backwards and forwards, if for a 14-end pattern ? 

In the case of an 8-end satin there would be an equal 
Nos. number of ends on 

8. — = V- each stave (see draft, 

7- — ^ Fig. 7). There would 

6. _^— — ^^ _ be g healds. In two 

5- ^^ inches of 56 reed 

4 ' ^^— Stockport, two ends 

2' " ** in a dent, there would 

^' " *'"^~~" be 112 ends. This 

I. -A — 



divided by the num- 

Fig. 7. -^ . 

ber of staves (8) gives 
the number of heald eyes on each stave — namely, 14. 

A71S. 14. 

The second part of the question involves a different 
draft, shown at Fig. 8, It will be seen that the first stave 

Nos. 
8. ^ Nc 

7. .^^ :v 

6. N^ i^^ 

5 N^ H 

4. — N ■ N^ 

3= N^ \ 

2. _i^ :»^ 



I. V 



Fig. 8. 



and the eighth have only half as many ends or e3^es on 
them as the others. A glance at the draft shows that out 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 97 



of 14 ends 2 healds have I end each, and 6 healds 2 ends 
each. 

Apply Rule B. 

Rule B. — Having given the counts of reed, the number 
of healds required for the pattern, and the number of ends 
on each stave for one pattern, the number of ends on each 
stave for any distance can be found by dividing the total 
number of ends for that distance by the number of ends in 
the pattern, and multiplying by the number of ends on each 
stave in one pattern. 

As there are 14 ends in the pattern and 112 ends in 

. , , 112 o 

2 inches, there are ■= b patterns. 

14 

Multiplying this by the ends on each stave in one 

pattern, we have the ends on each stave in 2 inches. 



I St stave 


8x1=8 


2nd „ 


8 X 2 = 16 


3rd „ 

4th „ 
5th „ 
6th „ 


8 X 2 = 16 
8 X 2 = 16 
8 X 2 = 16 
8 X 2 = 16 


7th ,, 
8th „ 


8 X 2 = 16 
8x1=8 




112 



No. 14. — What size of pulley will you require on a 
loom to give 168 picks per minute, if the driving drum is 
14 inches on a shaft running 108 revolutions ? 

See Rule D., page 62. 

Multiply 14 by 108 and divide by 168. The answer is 
9 inches diameter of pulley required. 

No. 15. — Draw the taking- up motion you are accus- 
tomed to, and give the train of wheels required to weave 



198 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

112 picks in I inch of cloth ; circumference of taking-up 
roller 14 inches. 

For sketch of taking-up motion, see page 91. This is 
adapted to lower picks than the question refers to, but 
still the necessary picks could be inserted. As explained 
on page 92, find the dividend for that particular gear by 
applying Rule D. Taking the same wheels as are given 
on the page mentioned, with a 14-inch cloth roller, the 
dividend is 50X 75 X IOO-M2 X 56= 558.03, add I J per 
cent. = 586.4. This, divided by the number of picks to 
the quarter, 28, gives a change wheel of 20.4 teeth. 
Either a 20 or a 21 would be used, say a 20. The com- 
plete train in this case would be 50, 20, 100, 12, 75, and 
14 inch cloth roller. The wheel 20 gives rather more 
than the desired picks, but is the nearest that can be used 
with the taking-up motion under discussion. A Pickles' 
motion, page 93, would give the exact result with either 
84 and 27 or 56 and 18 change wheels. 

Honours Grade.— No. ii.— Same paper. 

What is the value per yard grey of the following 
quilting cloth (show all calculations), 72 reed Stockport 
counts, 3 1 inches in the reed : — 

Face warp 2 ends in dent 6o's twist 1.25 yards of warp 
per yard of cloth. 

Back warp i end in dent 32's twist i.i yards of warp 
per yard of cloth. 

Total picks 180 per inch, in the order of 10 picks of 
face weft 50's to 2 picks of back weft 12's. 

Weaving 2\d. and general expenses 2jd. per yard. 

Prices of yarn in loom, 6o's i6d., 32's H^d., 50's weft 
I3jd., 12's weft 9fd. 

This calculation must be treated as if there are two 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. IQQ 

separate cloths. One cloth is made 31 inches, 72 reed, 
I yard long, 2 ends in each dent, 6o's twist, and with yj 
of the total picks per inch, 50's weft. The other cloth is 
31 inches, J 2 reed, I yard, i end in a dent, 32's twist, 
and with -^^ of the total picks per inch of 12's weft. The 
contraction allowances are given, and no allowance is 
made for side ends, as explained in the chapter relating 
to cloth calculations, nor is any special allowance made 
for waste, as the prices given in the question cover cost 
of yarn in the loom. 

Take the first cloth, applying Rules A. and B. on 
page 10. 

31 X 72x1^5 ^_ @ i6^- per lb. =.8848^. 

840 X 60 S ' — — "— 

Weft. — Apply Rule D., on page 20. \% of the picks 
belong to this cloth, and are of 50's weft. 

180 X 10 . , . , 
= 150 picks per mch. 

^I X ICO X I r-s ^ J 1U 

■^— ^ = .1107. .1107 @ i3f<2. per lb. = 1.494 pence. 

840 X 50 — — 

Second cloth. — Warp, see same rule as for the other 
warp. As there is only i end in a dent, there will only 
be 36 ends per inch. 

^ — — ^ — ^ — ^==.0456 lbs. @ i4M = .66i2^. 
840 X 32 

Weft. — See same rule as for other weft. The picks 
are jg of the whole 180 or 30 per inch. 

^- — = .OQ22 lbs. @ c)\d. = 8qq^. 

840x12 ^ ^ ^^ -^^— 



!00 



WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 



Summary : — 




d. 


ist cloth, twist , 




, .8848 


weft 




• 1.494 


2nd „ twist . 




.6612 


weft . 




. ,899 


Weaving per yard 




• 2-25 


Other expenses per y 


ard 


. 2.5 


Ans. Grey cost per yard 


. 


. 8.689 pence. 



No. 12. — An engine is driving a line shaft by ropes, and 
running 60 strokes per minute, with a driving drum of 20 
feet. Give a size for line shaft drum to be driven by 
engine drum, and speed of line shaft; also, presuming 
you have mitre wheels on driving shafts of shed from 
line shaft, give sizes of drum driving loom, and loom 
pulley to drive your loom 180 picks per minute. 

Three wheels have to be found, — the driven one on 
the line shaft, the drum driving the loom, and the pulley 
on the loom. Some liberty is left to the candidate in 
assuming the dimensions of the pulleys. Suppose the 
ratio of the dimensions of the driving drum and the loom 
pulley is 15 to 10. This would give a firm grip and good 
driving. Then the speed of the shaft over the looms 
would be 120; for 180 multiplied by 10 and divided by 
15 equals 120. Here the Rule C. given on page 61 has 
been applied. 120 is the speed both of the shaft over 
the looms and the line shaft, as mitre wheels connect 
them. The drum driving the line shaft is 20 feet diameter, 
running 60 revolutions per minute. Then applying Rule 
D. on page 62, the pulley on the line shaft must be — 



60 X 20 
120 



= 10 feet diameter. 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 201 

Ans. The whole train would thus be 20 feet drum, speed 
60 revolutions per minute, driving 10 feet pulley on the line 
shaft ; on same shaft is mitre wheel, say 50, geared with another 
50 mitre wheel on shaft over looms, carrying a 15 inch pulley 
driving a 10 inch pulley on the loom. 

The proof of the accuracy of this train can be found by 
applying Rule A., page 59, thus — 

60 X 20 X 50 X 15 

=180 revolutions of loom pulley per mm. 

10 X 50 X 10 1 / r 

1891.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 3.— Referring to the 
process of beaming a ball warp, give the number of teeth 
per inch in the wraithe if the v^arp contains 84 beers by 
20, and stands 28 inches between the flanges. 

If the warp contains 84 beers of 20 ends each, there will be 
84 X 20, or 1680 ends in all. Divide this by the space occu- 
pied between the flanges of the beam, viz., 28 inches, and we 
have the ends per inch = 60. There would probably be for 
this size of warp 4 ends in the dent of the wraithe, then there 
must be 15 teeth per inch ; if 2 ends per dent, then 30 dents 
per inch ; if 6 ends per dent, then 10 dents per inch, &c. 

No. 5. — What weight of yarn shall I dye of each 
colour to make a pattern warp, 2 blue, 2 yellow, 2 blue, 
6 red, 2 blue, 2 yellow, 2 blue ? The warp to contain 
720 ends of 20's twist, and to be 820 yards long. 5 per 
cent, allowed for waste. 

Apply Rule A. and Rule H., pages 14 and 25. 

720 ends X 820 yards -^ 840 and 20's = 35. 143 lbs. 
Add 5 per cent. i-757 5, 
36.9 lbs. 

The ends in one pattern are 18, of which 8 are blue, 4 
yellow, and 6 red. 



202 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

js of 36.9 lbs. are 8 x 2.05 = 16.2 blue. 
1% „ 36-9 » 8x2.05= 8.1 yellow. 
T8 »> 369 ;, 8x2.05 = 12.3 red. 

36.9 lbs. 

No. 6. — What counts of yarn shall I have to double 
with 30's to produce 12's? 

Apply Rule E., page 46. 

^o x 12 ^60 , 

^ = *?— - = 2o's 

30 - 12 18 

Ans. 2o's. 

No. 7. — A warp of 1035 ends 750 yards weighs 33 lbs. 
What are the counts ? 

Rule D., page 72, may be made to apply to this question 
by changing the terms. 

Length 1035 ^ 750 = 776250 yards. 
Divide by 840 = 924 hanks. 

33)924 
28 
Ans. 28's counts. 

Honours Grade. — Sa7ne paper. — No. 7. — What will be 
the relative strain in the shedding of two warps, if one is 
weaving in a loom running lOO picks per minute, the 
shed being opened 3 inches each pick, and the other 
weaving in a loom running 90 picks, the shed being 
opened 4 inches each pick ? the weighting of the warps 
being the same. 

The strain as affected by the size of the shed is in pro- 
portion to the amount by which the threads would be 
lengthened were they perfectly elastic, and this is in pro- 
portion to the square of the distance that the thread is 
raised. 



EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 203 

The strain caused by the speed is in direct proportion 
to the speed. 

Therefore we compare them by the product of the size 
of shed squared and the speed. 

ist. Lift 3 inches squared = 9 x speed 100= 900 
2nd. „ 4 „ „ =i6x „ 90 = 1440 

900 I 



1440 1.6 

The loom with the 4-inch shed has the greater strain 
in proportion of 1.6 to I. 

No. 14. — Presuming that the relative diameters of cotton 
yarns are {inversely) as the square root of their respective 
counts, what counts of yarn will give the same firmness 
in a 2 and 2 twill that 20's would give in a plain cloth, 
the threads being equal in number both ways ? 

The question is obviously meant to read as if the word 
'^ inversely " were inserted as shown. 

Assuming that the opening between the warp threads, 
where the weft passes through, in interlacing, is about 
equal to the diameter of the weft, and consequently of the 
warp, where the same counts are used for warp and weft, 
then in plain cloth, where the weft interweaves with every 
end, there will be 4 spaces or intersections for 4 ends of 
warp ; or, in other words, 4 ends occupy a space equal to 
the diameter of 8 ends. If the weave is changed to a 2 
and 2 twill, then for each 4 ends, the weft passes once 
under and once over, or occupies 2 spaces, making the 
4 ends of warp to occupy the diameter of 6 threads. If 
the counts remained the same, the cloth would conse- 
quently be more loosely built. To remedy this the yarns 



204 WEAVING CALCULATIONS. 

must be made coarser, and the diameter of the new yarn 
must be to the diameter of the old yarn, as 8 is to 6, 
these being the relative spaces occupied. 
The square root of 2o's is 4.47. 

4.47 multiplied by 6 and divided by 8 is 3.3525. This is 
the square root of about iij's yarn. 

Ans. iij's yarn. 

No. 17. — How much per yard (grey) will a sateen stripe 
cost woven to the following particulars : — Brocade stripe 
of 3 inches, and sateen stripe of 2 inches (in reed) alter- 
nate, 40 inches wide in reed, brocade 2 in dent, sateen 4 
in dent, twist 40's throughout, 64 reed Stockport, 96 picks 
per inch 30's weft weaving fd. per yard. Expenses 10 
per cent, more than weaving. Cost of twist in loom I4jd. 
per lb., weft 9jd. 

Apply Rules F., page 23, and D., page 20. Examples 
given at pages 193 and 198. 

Ans. Allow 10 per cent, for contraction in warp and 36 side 
ends, and nothing for waste beyond what the price allows. 

Warp .1185 lbs. @ 141 = 1.72 
Weft .1524 „ @ 9i = i-4i 
Wages . . . = .75 
Expenses . . , = .82 
Total . . 4.7^. 



INDEX. 

When several page numbers are given against one subject, the more 
important ones are given in heavier type. 



Abbreviation marks 175 

Agency terms 54 

American yarn counts 49 

Angle 67 

Answers to examination ques- 
tions 182 

Area of circular space 66 

Arithmetical rules 175 

Average counts of yarn in cloth 192 

Average picks per inch 24 

Balance of fabrics 33, 193, 203 

Ball-warping calculations ... 73 
Beaming calculations ... 'jo, 75 

Beaming wages 104 

Belts 64 

Blackburn list of wages 124 

Blackburn reed counts 161 

Boilers 170 

Bolton reed counts 160 

Botany yarn ... ... 48 

Bundled yarns 51 

Burnley list of wages 132 



Casting out 

Changing character of cloth 

33, 193, 

Changing speeds 

Chorley list of wages ... 128, 

Circular area 

Circumference 

Circumferential velocity 



99 

203 

63 
139 
66 
66 
64 



Cloth calculations 

13, 183, 184, 192, 193, 198 

Coal consumption 173 

Coiling motion 90,97,138,187,191 
Colne coloured goods list ... 152 
Coloured goods calculations 

25, 193, 201 
Coloured winding wages ... 103 
Contraction in weaving 14, 16, 18 
Converting one system of reed- 
counting to another 162 

Converting one system yarn 

counts to another 50 

Costing cloth 

27, 31, 183, 193, 198, 204 
"Cotton weaving" exayaina- 

tion questions 190 

Counts, equivalents in other 

materials 50 

Counts of beams 72 

Counts ot yarn 40 

Counts required for certain 

weights 28 

Cumberboard loo 

Cut mark 78 



Damp in yarn ... 
Decimal fractions 
Design paper ... 
Dhooty marker 
Dhooty wages ... 
Diameter 



••• 53 

... 179 

... 98 

... 80 

... 120 

.. 67 



205 



206 



INDEX. 



Diameters of yams 52, 203 

Discounts 54 

Dividend of loom 92 

Double yarn calculations 

45, 186, 195 

Drawing-in wages 108 

Driving and driven vi^heels ... 60 

Driving ropes 65 

Ends, to obtain number of 14, 188 

Engine calculations 170 

Examination questions and an- 
swers 182 

Examples, wage calculations 

121, 122, 127, 135 

Folded yarns 45, 186, 195 

Foreign weights, measures, and 

moneys 88 

Fractions 178 

French cotton counts 48 

Fustian reed counts .., ... 161 

Gears for taking-up motions 

93, 96, 138 

Gross 47 

Hank, definition 39 

Heald calculations 

160, 166, 190, 196 

Horse-power 65, 171 

Indicated horse-power ... ij2 

Intermediate wheels ... 88, 183 

Jacquard calculations 98 

Jute yarn counts 49 

Lea, definition of 39 

Length of warp 16 

Length of yarn in cloth 28 

Leverage 89 

Linen counts 49 

Lists of weaving wages iio 

Loom calculations 

83, 187, 190, 192, 200 

Looming wages 107 

Looms per horse-power 173 



PAGE 

Mangle wheels 63 

Marking motion 78 

Measures, foreign 57 

Measuring motion, beaming .. . 75 

Mensuration 66 

Metrical system of yarn counts 48 

Metrical weights and measures 55 

Milling up 16, 18 

Moneys, foreign 58 

Nelson list of wages (fancy 
goods) 141 



Nominal horse-power 

Oldham velvet list 

Percentage 

Pickles' motion 
Picks per quarter inch 
Picks to the round ... 

Pick table 

Pirn winding wages 
Power of straps 
Preston list of wages 
Preston reed counts 
Proportion 



... 172 

... 149 

70, 177 
93 
91 
86 
96 
104 
64 

135 
162 
176 



Quoting for cloth 

27, 31, 183, 193, 198, 204 

Radcliffe list of wages ... 141 
Rating goods 

27, 31, 183, 193, 198, 204 

Reed calculations 160 

Reed for striped cloth 165 

Reed space 167 

Reeds to be used 169 

Right angle 68 

Rope driving 65 

Safety valves 174 

Scotch reed counts 161 

Scotch system of calculating 

weights 22 

Scotch yarn counts 47 

Selvage ends 15 

Set of beams 71 

Shots on the glass ... ... 22, 98 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 207 



MILES PLATTING REED, 
HEALD, AND WIRE WORKS, 

VARLEY STREET, OLDHAM ROAD, 

MANCHESTER. 



ENRY TETLOW, 

MAKER OF 

ALL KINDS OF REEDS AND HEALDS ; 

ALSO MAKER OF 

SELF-ACTING LOOP AND MAIL MEALD MACHINES, 

SELF-ACTING REED MACHINE, 300 DENT PER MINUTE, 

PATENT SPACING MOTION FOR HEALD MACHINE, 

HEALD BRUSHING MACHINES FOR VARNISHING OR SIZING, 

WIRE POLISHING AND ROLLING MACHINES, 

DENT CUTTING MACHINES, 

STEAM CHEST FOR HEATING PITCH OR YARNISH, 

POLISHED WIRE ON RIMS, IN COILS, OR CUT DENTS, 

REED ENDS, REED RIBS, REED BAND AND HEALD YARN. 



ALL ORDERS PUNCTUALLY ATTENDED TO. 



Doubler of all kinds of Cotton Heald Yarn. 



208 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Side tappets S6 

Signs and abbreviations ex- 
plained 175 

Silk counts 48 

Size of shed 90 

Size, percentage of 82 

Skein system yarn counts ... 50 
Slashing or taping calculations 78 
Slashing or taping length ... 16 
Slashing or taping Vi^age list ... 106 

Slide rule 181 

Slip _ 84 

Small samples, price from ... 29 

Spaced healds 166 

Specifications, machinery 69, 75, 78 
Speed calculations ... 59, 8^, 192 
Speed of loom from engine ... S^ 

Speed of tappets 85 

Speeds and wheels, different 

picks to the round 86 

Square root 180 

Standard cloths 33 

Steam-engine calculations ... 170 

Stockport reed counts 160 

Strain on warp 202 

Straps 64 

Strength of yarn 52 

Stripe cloth, weight of yarn in 

23, 25, 189, 193 

Stud wheel 79 

Summary of reed counts used 162 
Symmetry of cloth ... 33, 193, 203 

Tables of money, weights, and 

measures 55 

Table yarn measurements ... 39 

Table yarn weights 39 

Take-up motion 90, 97, 187, 191 

Taping calculations 78 

Taping wages list 106 

Tape length 16 

Tappet speeds 85 

Testijig yarn 51 



PAGE 

Three-fold yarn 46 

Tin roller wheel, to obtain ... 79 

Toothed wheels 60 

Turns of twist 52 

Twisters 15 

Twist required 13,22,25 

Two-fold yarn 45 



Uniform weaving wages 


list 1 10 


Uptaking motion 


... 97 


Velvet wage list 


... 149 


Wage calculations 


. ... lOI 


Warp, ends in a 


. ... 14 


Warping calculations 


• 70, 73 


Warping wages 


• ••• 105 


Warp strain 


. ... 202 


Waste percentage 


. ... 70 



"Weaving and designing" 

questions 183 

Weaving wages 108 

Weft weight required 20, 23, 26 
Weight of piece from small 

sample 29 

Weight of beams 77 

Weight of weft required 20, 23, 26 
Weight of twist required 13, 22, 25 

Wheels for tape frame 80 

Wheels for tappets, to find ... 85 
Wheels to be used for picks 92, 96 

Winding calculations 69 

Winding wages 102 

Woodcroft tappets 85 

Wool, grist of 50 

Worm wheels 62 

Worsted counts 48 

Wrap, length of 70 

Wrapping yarn 40 

Wrapping table 42 

Yarn calculations 39 

Yarn, measurement table ... 39 
Yarn, weight table 39 



PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. 
EDINBURGH AND LONDON. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



209 



FLEMING'S 



"STANDARD" 
OAK TANNED 



MAIN DRIVING 
BANDS. 

Any Width or Thickness. 

Delivered at a Day's 
Notice if Required. 




BELTING 

FOR ALL 

REQUIREMENTS. 

Ordinary Widths in 
Stock. 



LOOM BELTING. Extra Quality. 



SUPERIOR HAIR BELTING. COTTON BELTING. 

LINK BELTING. LACES. PICKERS, 

PICKING BANDS. MILL LEATHERS, 



MULE BELTING. A Speciality. 

JOINTS CEMENTED ONLY, AND GUARANTEED 
EQUAL TO ANY BELTING OF THIS DESCRIPTION IN 

THE MARKET. 



Apply for Catalogue, Contains 
Valuable Commercial 
Information. Post free. 



BELTING. 



Comprising Firms established 100 years. 

FLEMING, BIRKBY & GOODALL, LIM^. 

:ffieltlng, dc„ /nbanufacturer^, 
WEST GROVE MILL, HALIFAX, ENGLAND. 



BRANCHES AT LIVERSEDGE AND BRIGHOUSE, YORKS. 



2IO ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ASA LEES & CO., 

Limited, 

Sobo Sxon Morfes, 
OLDHAM. 



Address for Telegrams— h^S^K OLDHAM. 



Conetructore of 
ALL KINDS OF jWACHINERY 

for 

Preparing, Spinning & I^/^itbling 

COTTON AND WOOL 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



211 



THOMAS WESTBY & SONS. 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 

GLEBE STREET HEALD, REED, AND WIRE WORKS, 

GREAT HARWOOD. 



VENTILATING 

ENGINEERS, &c. 

Telephono No. 613. 



I COTTON HEALD, 

I YARN DOUBLERS, &c. 

Telegrams— "Westby, Great Harwood." 




SOLE MAKERS OF THE PATENT 

LANt>.5HIRE AIR PROPELLER. 

Perfect ventilation without draft ; approved by K H. Osborn, 
Esq., and W. Williams, Esq., H.M. Inspectors of Factories. 

SPECIALITY in FINE HEALDS AND REEDS. 

Also for Export. 



212 ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Established 1823. 

BOBBINS, TUBES, CREEL SKEWERS, & SHUTTLES. 

WILSON BROTHERS Ltd., 

CORNHOLME MILLS, 
TODMORDEN. 

Telegrams— "Wilsons, Cornholme." Telephone No. 7. 



16 Highest Awards for Excellence of Exhibits. 



ORIGINAL INVENTORS AND MAKERS OF 

STEEL AND BRASS-PLATED 

BOBBINS and TUBES. 

■♦♦♦♦♦»♦»♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦»»♦♦♦ 
SHUTTLES, 

For Cop or Bobbin, made under the supervision of a trained and 
experienced manager. They are made from Persian Boxwood and 
the best American blocks, carefully seasoned. 

Shuttle Pegs, Shuttle Springs, Beam Wedges, Creel Pegs, Creel 
Steps, Picking Band Pegs, Pirns with Brass Tips, and Picking 
Sticks. Shuttle Pegs neatly repaired. 

WARPING and WINDING BOBBINS, 

Fitted with Wilson Brothers' Patent Flange BINDERS, 

Cannot open at the Joints, and are so made that it is almost impossible 
for them to be broken with ordinary usage. Strong, light, and durable. 

Enamelled Wood Bobbins for Conditioning Yarn. By a new 

patent American process Wood Bobbins are completely covered, 
both inside and outside, with hardened Enamel, that will not crack 
or become adhesive. They effectually resist the action of steam and 
moisture required in conditioning. 

Impossible to warp or twist from repeated steaming. References 
to users in Great Britain, America, and the Continent. 



Office and Show Rooms-U MARKET PLACE, MANCHESTER. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 213 



HEALEY BROS., Ltd., 

CARTRIDGE ^VORKS, 

HEYWOOD, 

And 19 Cannon Street, Manchester. 

■♦♦♦♦♦♦♦«»»♦»»»»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

COTTON jVIAIN DRIVING )?OPES 

FOR COTTON AND WOOLLEN MLLLS, ETC. 



ALSO MAKERS OF 

HEMP TWINES and LOOM CORDS. 

SCROLL, RIM, AND SPINDLE BAND. 

Also TUBULAR BAND FOR RING FRAMES. 



Works — HEYWOOD, BROADFIELD, and OLDHAM. 



♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦»♦♦♦»♦♦»»♦♦♦♦♦■ 



Telegraphic Addresses :— 

"Improve," Manchester, 

OR 
"Tow," HEYWOOD. 

ABC CouE (Fourth Edition) used. 



Telephones :— 

153 Manchester. 
103 Heywood. 



2 14 ADVERTISEMENTS. 



HOWARD & BULLOUGH, LIMITED, 

ACCRINGTON (England), 

MAKERS OF 

Cotton Spinning and Manufacturing 

MACHINERY 

Of the most modern and approved principle, with all Brackets and Seatings milled 
by Special Machinery to Standard Templets. 



d-I^^JIirfl^S^^S^.'^.WJ^.'SJ'WiJ^^^W 



SPECIALITIES: 

PATENT HOPPER FEED FOR COTTON OPENERS. 

ANGLO-AMERICAN OPENERS AND SCUTCHERS. 

New Patent REVOLVING FLAT CARDING ENGINE, 

With rigid bend — no Flats — 43 working. Over 6000 Cards at work. 

DRAWING FRAMES, with Electric Stop Motion. 

Reliable — quick — not liable to get out of order. Already applied to 
over 35>000 deliveries. 

SLUBBING, INTERMEDIATE, & ROVING FRAMES, 

With Patent Differential Motion, Patent Cone Lifting Motion, Patent Cap Bars, 
and Patent Method of Balancing Top Rail, &c. &c. 

We have applied Electric Stop Motion to over 200,000 Intermediate Spindles 
with marked success for the prevention of " Single." 

RING SPINNING FRAME. 

THE LARGEST MAKERS IN THE WORLD. 
Over 4,500,000 Spindles supplied. 

RING WEFT FRAMES. 

References given on application, comprising leading and extensive mills where 
the Weft Ring has entirely displaced the Mule. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 2 I 5 

HOWARD ^^ BULLOUGH, Limited— Continued. 

RING DOUBLING FRAMES, 

Made on either the English or Scotch System, 
For Ordinary Doubling or for Sewing Cottons. 



COMPOUJ<D 8IZIJ<G jWACHINES. 

One 9 ft. Cavity Cylinder and 3 to 7 Fans. 

Howard & Bulloug-h's Aip-Drying- and Cylinder Sizing 

Machines of all sizes from 3 ft. to 9 ft., in Tin and Copper, 
with some or all of the following improvements, are found 
in all countries wherever Cotton Manufacturing is carried on. 

Hitehon's Patent Safety Compound Friction Motion 

for coarse or fine counts. 

Hitehon's Patent "Self-Traversing"" Yarn Beam Pressor. 
Hitehon's Patent "Self-Expanding and Contracting" 

Double Roller Yarn Beam Presser. 

Hitehon's Patent Adjustable Measuring Indicator, 

will mark any length of yarn from J to 200 yards or metres 
(requires no change wheels). 

Hitehon's Patent "Self-Regulating" High Pressure Size 
Boiler. 

Hitehon's Patent Yarn Relieving Motion for size box. 

New Patent Light Running Beaming Machine ("Im- 
proved Singleton"), with Patent Self-Stopping Measuring 
Motion, adjustable for any number of yards. 
This machine has so rapidly superseded all others — our own six patents 

included— as to be practically the only one recog'nised in the market. 



HOWARD & BULLOUGH, Limited, 

ACCRINGTON, LANCASHIRE. 

Accrington is distant from Manchester only 20 miles. Frequent trains run daily 
from Victoria or Salford Stations on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. 



2l6 ADVERTISEMENTS. 



The only Weekly Textile Journal. 

The Textile Mercury, 

A Representative Weekly Journal for 

Manufacturers, Spinners, Machinists, Bleachers, Colourists, and 
Merchants, in all Branches of the Textile Industries, 

With which is Incorporated 
''THE HOSIERY AND LACE TRADES REVIEW." 

THE 

OFFICIAL ORGAN 

OF THE 

SILK ASSOCIATION OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. 

PRICE THREEPENCE. Home Subscription, 12s. 6d. 
Foreign Countries, 15s. per annum, post free. 



May be ordered of any Newsagent, or direct from 

jyiARSDEN & CO., Publishers 

ENGRAVERS AND PRINTERS, 

Carr Street, Blackfriars, K^x. 

.x?X MANCHESTER. 



NATIONAL TELEPHONE, No. 2080. 



Machinists' and Engineers' Catalogues, Circulars, etc., and 

all Descriptions of Commercial and General Printing 

produced in the Finest Style. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 2 1 7 



GEORGE ORME & CO., 

ATLAS METER WORKS, 
OLDHAM (England). 

Telegraphic Address: "ORME, OLDHAM." National Telephone, No. 93. 



Orme's Patent Indicators for Looms. This Indicator is 

fixed upon the Tappet Shaft, and registers up to 1,000,000 
revolutions or 2,000,000 picks. 

Orme's Patent Indicators for Mules; Roving, Drawing, 
and Ring Frames ; Engine Counters, &c. 

Full Illustrated Lists on application. 



Crown Zvo. Paper Covers. One Shilling. 

WeavlDg Examination Questions. 

Contents. — Six Years' Weaving and Pattern Designing 
. Questions. — Lists of Examiners, Rules of Examina- 
tion, &c. — The Syllabus for Study in each of the 
following Subjects : — Woollen and Worsted Cloth 
Weaving, Cotton Weaving, Linen Weaving, Silk 
Weaving, and Jute Weaving, 

Post Free^ is. id. 



0. P. BROOKS, 

TRAFALGAR HOUSE, HARPURHEY, MANCHESTER. 



2l8 ADVERTISEMENTS. 



LUPTON BROS., 

ROLLER AND TEMPLE MAKERS, IRON AND 
BRASS FOUNDERS, &c., 

GRANGE IRONWORKS (AND SCAITCLIFFE FOUNDRY), 
ACCRINGTON. 



MAKERS OF 

TROUGH AND ROLLER TEMPLES, 

With Patent Baek-Edg'e, which weave the cloth 
within two inches of reed space of loom. 



Makers of all Kinds of One, Two, or Three 

ROLLER SIDE TEMPLES, 

With iron or brass rollers, and with inserted Steel teeth ; also 

supplied with latest patented improvements, having the 

covers made in iron, brass, or steel. 



Makers of all Kinds of Expansion and Segment 

RING TEMPLES, 

with patented improvements and adjustments for weaving 

strong or light goods equally well. 



SPECIAL SOFT CASTINGS. 

WEAVERS' AND WARPERS' FLANGES, LOOM ACCESSORIES, &c. 

Perforated Iron, Steel, or Brass Strips, and Iron 
or Zinc Sheets, &c. &e. 



DRAWINGS AND ESTIMATES ON APPLICATION. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



2T9 



THE PRJCTICAL MONTHLY JOURNIL _ 

TEXTILE IMDDSTRIES. A^ ' 



lll,.,lllli..,lllli..,illli...lllli...i'lli...l|llr..,il Illi..ill|j.,ill Illi..,|llli.,lllll,..lllll...'llll,..lllll,..lllll...lllll...lll Ill Ill„.lllll. Ili...llll In. .illll...lllll...llll' 



Published on the 18th day of 



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ARTICLES, 

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!''■ ''II'' ■'"' ''li' 'il'" ''II 1'' ''111'' 'III''' 'i||i''''i|i' ''ll' ■•'i|i'-'i||P-N||r'i,|||i"i||||i-nj;c.||||,".,,||,- .||||,",|||, ||ir'.i,||i'-i|)i',||||i-i|(|i"H||i'-'i|KP-iij|r'(|(irH|(|ri||| 

JOHN HEYWOOD, 

2 AMEN CORNER, LONDON, E.G. ; and 
RIDGEFIELD, MANCHESTER. 



220 ADVERTISEMENTS. 



LAYCOCKS' 



Picking Bands 



Are UNSURPASSED 



For DURABILITY 



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SEND FOR POST SAMPLE AND PRICES TO 

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banners anb Cunners, 

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ADVERTISEMENTS. 221 



Telegraphic Address; "Pi.atts, Oldham." 

PLATT BROS. & CO. LD., 

MACHINISTS, 
HARTFORD WORKS, OLDHAM. 



Makers of the Following Machinery : — 

IMPROVED C OTTON BAL E BREAKERS. 

PATENT "EXHAUST" OPENERS. 



SCUTCHERS, WITH PATENT PEDAL REGULATORS. 

PATENT REVOLVING SELF-STRIPPING FLAT CARDING ENGINES. 

Carding Engines for Cotton, Wool, Worsted, Silk and Waste. 



PATENT CONDENSERS FOR WOOL, COTTON AND COTTON WASTE. 
COMBING, DRAWING, 8LUBBING, INTERMEDIATE AND ROVING FRAMES. 

PATENT SELF-ACTING MULES AND TWINERS 

For Spinning and Doubling Cotton, Cotton Waste, 
Woollen, Worsted, Silk and Silk Waste. 

RING SPINNING FRAMES FOR WARP AND WEFT. 

RING DOUBLING FRAMES FOR COTTON, WOOLLEN, 
WO RSTED, AND SI LK. 

IMPROVED MACHINERY FOR 

PREPARING, COMBING, ROVING AND SPINNING WORSTED 

On both the French and Bradford Systems. 

Machinery lor Preparing and Spinning Barchant or Waste Yarns. 

PREPARING MACHINERY FOR WEAVING, 

Including Winding, Warping, Sizing, Beaming, and Dressing Machines for Cotton, 
Linen, and Jute Yarns, and Starching Machines for Carpet Yarns. 



POWER LOOMS, 

For Plain and Fancy Cloths, for Cotton, Linen, Woollen, Worsted, Jute, &c. 



222 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Lambeth Cotton Ropes 



■/ / lib.6oz. 
■-: Fo.Ui-'.Croove. ■ 



llb.l4oz'. 
■VyElGHTtjFlYPafROPE ; 
For li.N. GROOVE. ' 



■ 2]b 5oz. : 

IAa/eichtofIy^ofRope 

Foaf^N GROOVE 



They are firmly made and very solid, containing more actual yarn for a given 

diameter than is usual ; and being made from pure Egyptian Throstle 

Yarn, without any weighting material, are light in weight. 

Also DRUM, RIM, SCROLL, SPINDLE, RING SPINDLE, TAPE, and 
TUBULAR BANDINGS to any deseription for Cotton Mills. 



THE LAMBETH COTTON ROPES are of unique design and construction, 
superseding all other Cotton Ropes for Main Driving. 

Tension and Friction accurately -measured for and provided against, and the 
Ropes fitted exactly to the working part of the grooves of the pulley. 

A LARGE STOCK of ALL SIZES KEPT, to meet Urgent Orders. 




NOTE.— These Ropes are made at my works alone, and are only 
genuine when bearing my Registered Trade Mark. 



THOMAS HART, BLACKBURN. 

ESTABLISHED 1789. 



Telephone, No. 10. 



Telegraphic Address : " HART, BLACKBURN." 
(ABC Code used.) 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



223 



JAMES WALM8LEY & SONS 

(ESTABLISHED 1848), 

Leather Curriers, Strapping Manufacturers, and Mill Furnisliers 

Works:— AVENUE PARADE, 
ACCRINGTON. 



MAKERS OF ALL KINDS OF 

ROLLER SKINS, 

SINGLE LEATHER BELTING, 

DOUBLE LEATHER BELTING, 

GREEN PICKING BANDS, 
OAK-TANNED PICKING BANDS, 
LEATHER PICKERS, LACES, 
BUFFALO SKIPS AND PICKERS, 
LOOM FITTINGS, &c. 

And all other kinds of LEATHER GOODS used in 

THE Spinning and Manufacturing of Cotton, 

Woollen, Silk, or Jute. 

Telegrams — " Abbey, Accrington." 
Telephone — No. 23. 







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SOUTHEASTERN MASSACHUSETTS UNIVERSITY 

TS1490.B78 1893 
Weaving calculations 




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