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THIRD EDITION.
Cloth, crown 8vo, 6s.
COTTON MANUFACTURING,
By the Same Author.
EIGHTY ILLUSTRATIONS.
A complete Treatise on the Machinery, Processes, and
Products of Cotton Weaving.
Weaving
Calculations.
A GUIDE TO CALCULATIONS RELATING TO COTTON
YARN AND CLOTH AND ALL PROCESSES
OF COTTON WEAVING.
BY
C. p. BROOKS,
AUTHOR OF "COTTON MANUFACTURING;"
Examiner to the City atid Guilds of London Instittite ;
Sen. Honours Medallist, Cotton Manufacturing, 1887 ;
Late Lecttirer on Cotton Spin?iing, Weaving, and Designings at
the Blackburn Tecluiical Institutions.
ILLUSTRATED.
LONDON: E. & F. N. SPON, 125 STRAND.
AND NEW YORK: 12 CORTLANDT STREET.
MANCHESTER: C. P. BROOKS, HARPURHEY.
JOHN HEYWOOD, DEANSGATE AND RIDGEFIELD.
1893.
{^Copyright — A II rights reserved. ]
PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION.
ANY books have in times past been published
by authors whose object has been to explain
the calculations of the weaving industries.
This was more frequently the case in the
earlier days of the trade than it has been in recent times,
the first forty or fifty years of this century being prolific
in this respect, some indeed being published even in the
last century. The author has in his possession one dating
so far back as 1779 The cause of so many works being
published early in this century is explained by the fact
that seventy to eighty years ago the introduction of
power machinery was taking place rapidly, and the trade
was consequently in a transition stage. Doubtless there
would be much inquiry, and information would be in
great demand on the subject of calculations connected
with the trade and necessary for use. Thus books de
scriptive of the machinery, coupling with this the calcula
tions, supplied the demand.
However, few, if any books exclusively on cotton
weaving calculations have been published for twenty or
thirty years, and the author, believing that such a one
is wanted, publishes the present work to replace those
which in their time have done good service to the manu
facturing interests of their day, but which are now out
. iikH ? '^
vi PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION.
of date. The object in the production of this book has
been to tabulate and collect the various calculations and
rules which from time to time are required in the manu
facturing industries, to adapt them for reference and for
instruction.
The author has endeavoured to provide a book of cal
culations, and not of descriptive explanation of machinery.
For this the reader is referred to various books of his and
other authorship. It has been borne in mind that such a
book as the present one will have many readers among
the younger members of the trade, and therefore the
explanations and examples have been given at some
length, and with as great simplicity as possible. For
this reason intricate explanations, such as necessitate
algebraical and other of the deeper classes of mathematics,
have been avoided, for such are only passed over by the
practical manufacturer, who desires simpHcity and clear
ness, and which tend to encourage the common opinion,
formed not without reason, that technical education in
some directions tends too much towards theory.
It is probable that some rules have been omitted refer
ring to special branches of trade or systems of calculation
with which the author may not be acquainted. Should
any reader notice this, a communication from him will be
gladly accepted.
Blackburn, /w/j/ 1889.
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.
N preparing the second edition for the press the
author heartily thanks his numerous corre
spondents for their examination, their cor
rections, their criticisms, and their suggestions
regarding the first edition. All these were welcome, and
have aided in making this edition still more comprehensive
and useful than its predecessor. In this edition many
rules and examples have been added, several parts of the
book have been rewritten, and further exercises from the
City and Guilds' examination papers introduced. Recent
alterations in standard wage lists necessitated the addition
of three new ones, including the important Uniform List,
which is given in full, with explanations and examples.
Other sections which have been added to are those relat
ing to coloured cloth, yarn tables, warping calculations,
and details of commercial usages. The author has still
endeavoured to retain the clear and simple style of ex
planation which characterised the first edition, knowing
that it is preferred by many students of the leading textile
industry. He hopes that this edition will meet with the
same approbation as was shown to the former one in an
extensive circulation and by the many correspondents.
Manchester, February 1S93.
vn
CONTENTS.
cloth calculations .....
yarn calculations
commercial notes
speed and gearing calculations
mensuration
Winding, warping, and beaming calculations
slashing or taping calculations
loom calculations .....
wage lists and wage calculations .
HEALD and REED CALCULATIONS .
ENGINE CALCULATIONS .....
ARITHMETICAL RULES AND EXPLANATIONS .
ANSWERS TO EXAMINATION QUESTIONS .
INDEX
13
39
54
59
66
69
78
83
lOI
160
170
175
182
205
READY INDEX OF LEADING RULES
AND TABLES.
PAGE
Addenda to Uniform List 119
Arithmetical Explanations . . . . . . • i7S
Beaming Wages List 104
Blackburn Weaving Wages List 124
Burnley Weaving Wages List . . . . . . .132
Castingout for Jacquards ....... gg
Chorley Fancy Weaving List 139
Chorley Plain Weaving List 128
Colne Coloured Goods List 152
Coloured Goods, Weights and Costs ... 25, 193, 201
Constant Numbers for Wrapping. Table V. ... 44
Contraction or Millingup in Weaving. Table I. . . 17
Costing, Rating, or Quoting for Goods . . . 31
(Examples of same at pp. 183, 184, 188, 193, 198, and 204.)
Counts of Double Yarn 46
Healds for Striped Cloth 197
Horsepower of Engines 171'
Looming Wages List 108
Nelson Fancy Goods Wages List 141
Oldham Velvet Wages List 149
Pick Table. Table IX 96
xi
SMTI LIBRARY
Xii INDE5C OF LEADING RULES AND TABLES.
Picks to J Inch, Wheels to give various
Picks to the Round, Wheels to give .
Preston Weaving Wages List .
Radcliffe Coloured Goods List
Reed Systems, Comparison. Table XI. .
Reeds for Striped Cloths
Reeds to be Used. Table XII.
Rope Driving (Power of Ropes). Table VII
Scotch Yarn Numbering. Table VL
Slashing or Taping Wages List
Spaced Healds
Speeds of Shafts
Uniform List of Weaving Wages .
Warping Wages List
Weight of Beams. Table VIII.
Weight of Piece from Small Sample .
Weight of Warp
Weight of Weft
Weight Table for Yarn Wrapping. Table IV.
Wheels for Tape Frame ....
Wheels to Use for Picks. Table X.
Winding Wages Lists
Wrapping Rules and Tables
Wrapping Table, 7's to 8o's. Table IV.
Yarn Measure. Table II
PAGE
92, 96, 97, 191
86
135
141
165
165
169
65
47
105
166
59
110
105
77
29
H, 15
20
39
80
97
102
4043
42
39
{Fo?' complete Index, see page 205. )
Meavino Calculations*
CLOTH CALCULATIONS.
HESE are by far the most important to the
textile manufacturer. It is to them that he
must refer in settHng the price that he shall
receive for his work ; on their accuracy in
indicating the weight of twist or of weft that he shall
give for a certain price, or the length or counts of yarn
he shall use, a great deal of his success depends, and
thus the maker of cotton goods endeavours to deduce
with exactitude and nicety the amount necessary to repay
him for the material, labour, and expense to which he is
put in producing a piece of cloth. No two manufacturers
work on exactly the same terms, conditions, classes ot
fabrics, and rate of expense, and therefore each has to
adopt rules best adapted to his own position and require
ments, and no rule can be given which shall be binding
to all. These facts preclude the possibility of framing
hard and fast rules, but doubtless a few generalities will
be found acceptable to many readers.
To obtain the Weight of Twist required for a piece
of cloth many methods are employed to suit particular
13
14 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
classes of fabrics on which people are engaged, but all
systems can be traced to one common to each.
Rule A, — Multiply the number of ends of twist by the
length of warp from which the piece is made, divide this
result by the number of yards in a hank, and also by the
counts of yarn used.
It will be clearly seen that by this means a compara
tively accurate result will be obtained. The number of
ends or threads of twist multiplied by the length of warp
required, obviously includes the whole of the twist in the
piece in yards, and the division by the number of hanks
and counts is made simply for the purpose of converting
length into weight. The counts or numbers of cotton
yarn mean the number of hanks contained in a pound,
and 840 yards make a hank. A fuller explanation of this
is given in the section on yarn calculations.
Ends in a Piece. — Firstly, we must arrive at the
number of ends in the piece of cloth by
Ruie B. — Multiply the widlh in the reed by the number
of ends in an inch of reed.
The width in the reed is usually an inch or two wider
than the cloth, and no arbitrary rule can be made by
which the reed width can be obtained. It will be suffi
cient for our purpose if we take it at 5 per cent, more
than the cloth width ; for wide light cloths it would pro
bably suffice, but for narrow ones 5 per cent, on the
width would hardly be enough to allow, and the latter
remark also applies to the heavily picked or heavily
wefted fabrics.
Example. — Fortyinch cloth made with a 56 reed, say
CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 15
5 per cent, added to 40 = 40 + 2 = 42 inches ^ in the
reed multiplied by 56 =
42
252
210
2352 ends required.
This gives us the first requirement of the Rule A. We
now want the length of warp.
It will be noted that no mention has been made of
selvage ends or twisters. At the side of a piece of cloth
the warp threads are laid together more closely to form
a strong border, and thus a few extra ends are required
to keep up the width. The number can only be exactly
estimated by practice. In the case given, probably 32
would be required, 16 for each side. The number neces
sary is greater where the cloth has to come up full width,
or overwidth, where coarse weft is used, or where the
cloth is heavily picked. Fewer selvage ends will suffice
where thin picks, fine weft, bastard reeds, &c., ar' .'^spd.
The weighting of the beam, and the make and setting of
the temples, also affect the number to be allowed. Usually
it is customary to give 20 ends at each side, or a modifica
tion of this according to the class of the cloth. Often two
fold yarn is used for selvages, and in this case no number
need be allowed for selvage ends, but it must be borne in
mind that 20 ends or so at each side are double ones, and
each end calculated as two in getting the weight out.
It may be stated that many practical manufacturers, in
calculating for quotation purposes, do not trouble to add
^ For an explanation of the signs used, and also of various arithmetical
lules, see section on arithmetical rules and explanations..
1 6 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
the selvage ends as such, as it rather complicates the
calculation, and trust to the allowance they make for
contraction on the width, or the fact of the twist stretch
ing and becoming finer during working, to cover the
selvage ends. For this reason, the reader will note the
omission in most of the following examples.
However, in putting orders into work and getting out
the necessary particulars, such as the ends for warping,
it is absolutely necessary to consider them.
Length of Warp. — Different names are given to this,
such as cut length, tape length, slashing length ; but they
all mean the length of twist used for a piece of cloth.
This is longer than the piece itself, because of the
Contraction or Milling* up which takes place during
weaving. The thread bends round the weft to a small
extent, and if removed after having been woven would
appear sHghtly wavy, and, of course, in that form occupies
a shorter length than would a straight thread. It is
difficult to give a hard and fast scale for this milling up,
which, along with the allowance for extra ends, varies
greatly with the class of cloth made, counts used, the class
of looms employed, the weather, or the system of sizing.
The author has at various times made many experiments
and gone to considerable trouble in endeavouring to deduce
formulae, based on accurate mathematical principles, that
shall apply to contraction correctly in all varieties of
cloths, and has seen the same attempted in various publi
cations, but in all cases unsuccessfully. The causes
named above upset the most wellformed theories, and
nothing but practical observation applied in repeat orders
can be thoroughly successful. It is possible, however, to
arrive at approximate rules for medium plain cloth only.
CLOTH CALCULATIONS.
17
One Rule C for ascertaining the, contraction is to mul
tiply the picks in a quarter of an inch by 12 and divide by
the counts of iveft.
This, apart from the differences caused by the local cir
cumstances just mentioned, is comparatively accurate for
counts of twist and weft from 25's to 50' s, and picks from
10 to 20 to the quarter inch. For higher picks 13 must
be taken as the multipher. A table framed on the above
rule would be as under : —
Table I.— Approximate Percentage of Contraction
in Warps.
Picks per
Quarter
Inch.
Counts of Weft.
24's.
30's.
36's.
42's.
4S's.
10
12
14
16
18
20
5
6
7
8
9
10
4
4l
5l
6
7i
8
1^
63
4
4!
5i
6
6
2f
4
4f
5f
4
3
02
4
4j
5
Or in decimals — a more convenient method :

Picks per
Counts of Weft.
Quarter
Inch.
24's.
30's.
36's.
42's.
48'S.
10
5
4.0
333
2.85
2.5
12
6
4.8
4.00
343
30
14
7
5.6
4.66
4.0
35
16
8
6.4
533
4.57
4.0
18
9
7.2
6.00
514
45
20
10
8.0
6.66
571
50
1 8 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Example. — Supposing we made a 90yard piece with
42's weft and 14 pick. The table allows 4 per cent., then
we should slash it 93 yards 22 inches, 3 yards 22 inches
being 4 per cent.^ on 90 yards.
Another rule — a useful one from its simplicity — is : —
Rule CI. — Multiply the length in yards of piece required
by the picks per inch^ and divide by the counts of weft.
The answer is the number of inches that should be allowed.
This rule does not bring the cloth out quite as long as
the Rule C, but, with this exception, is quite as reliable
for a limited range of counts and picks.
Example. — A piece is required to be 17 J yards long,
12 picks of 42's weft per quarter inch, 17J yards X 48
picks per inch divided by 42's gives 20 inches to allow.
Thus the warp length would be 18 yards 2 inches.
Ans. 18 yards 2 inches.
All the remarks on contraction on the preceding pages
must be understood to refer to getting bare lengths on
medium makes of plain cloth only. There is a great variety
in thie allowances that have to be made for contraction in
fancy goods. A twill ground cloth requires much less
allowance than a plain ; and some others, where the warp
only interweaves at comparatively distant points, such as
8 end satins, hardly take up at all. On the other hand,
certain threads in such cloths as crimps, leno, and other
gauze fabrics, and in some quiltings, towellings, and piques,
take up so much that the high percentage of contraction
necessitates their being woven from separate beams, as
there are two and even three beams at one loom.
The counts of the warp yarn also make a considerable.
^ For an explanation of percentage, see section on arithmetical rules and
explanations.
CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 1 9
difference; 20's twist, for example, contracts more quickly
than 32's.
As a matter of fact, although we add a certain per
centage to the length that we intend the cloth to be, in
order to ascertain the length of warp, the contraction
does not take place on the cloth length, but on the warp
length. Thus, if there is 10 per cent. ac^7ial conirsLCtion
on a certain piece of cloth which is required to be 100
yards in length, 10 per cent, on 100 would not suffice.
Ten per cent, added to 100 is 1 10. Ten per cent, con
traction on no yards is no X 10 f 100 =11 yards,
which would only leave 99 yards of cloth.
This is the reason why 13 has to be taken as multi
plier on heavier picked cloth instead of 12. The allow
ance for contraction increases in greater proportion than
the increase of picks. The reader, however, will find
a sufficient percentage of allowance in Table I., if taken
on the cloth length only.
There has now sufficient explanation been given for
us to apply the Rule A.
Example. — Take a 40inch 7 5 yard cloth, made with
60 reed, 30's twist, and 36's weft — 15 picks to the
quarter inch.
Add 5 per cent, to the width = 40 f 2 = 42 inches.
42 width.
60
2520 ends required.
The rate of contraction according to Rule C. is 12 x
15 h 36 = 5 per cent.
75 yards + 5 per cent.
75 + 3 yards and 27 inches = 78 yards 27 inches,
which is the length of warp.
!0 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
2520 X 78 yards 27 inches = 198450 yards twist.
We have now to divide by 840 (yards to a hank) and
by the counts of twist (30's).
840)198450(236^
1680
3045
2520
30)2361(7 lbs. 14 oz
5250
210
5040
26I
210 1
16
840 *
4
156
26
420(14
30
ns. 7 lbs. 14 oz.
120
120
Weight of Weft.
To find the weight of weft in a piece.
Rule D. — Multiply the width in the yeed by the picks in
an inch, and by the length in yards of the piece when woven,
and divide by the counts of weft and the number of yards
in a hank.
The explanation that has been given before about the
width at which the twist stands in the reed applies to
the above rule for the weft. It is necessary to take this
width, which is wider than the cloth actually measures,
in consequence of the weft contracting in a waved line,
thus ^^.,,..,.....,.^..,...^..^..,..^, just as we have explained regarding
the twist.
There is an apparent omission in the above rule in
stating: — Multiply the picks in an inch by the width,
CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 21
and then by the length in yards. We ought really to
multiply by 36 to get the number of picks in a yard,
but then we should have a result in inches, because we
took the width of cloth in inches, so instead of multiply
ing by 36 and dividing also by 36, we take the result as
being in yards. Thus, if the yarn in the reed is 40
inches and picks per inch 60, we get 40 x 60 = 2400
inches of weft in an inch of cloth, which is taken as
2400 yards of weft in a yard of cloth. Thus 2400 X 36
inches = 86,400, and divided by 36 to reduce it to yards
gives 2400 yards, which is the same result.
Example. — For the length the actual number of yards
on the counter is taken. Thus, for a cloth 40 inches
wide, 75 yards long, 36's weft, 15 picks to the quarter
inch, the quantity of weft is obtained as under : —
Width in reed 42 inches
Picks in i inch 60
2520
Length 75
12600
17640
840 yds.) 1 89000(225 hanks
1680
2100
1680
4200
4200
36's weft)225(6 lbs. 4 ozs.
216
9
16 ozs.
144
Ans. 6 lbs. 4 ozs. 144
22 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Reeds and Wheels Necessary for Various Cloths.—
At pages 169 and 97 are given tables showing the right
reeds and wheels suitable for giving various numbers of
ends and picks to the quarter inch.
Scotch System of Calculating Weights.
The Scotch system of numbering reeds and picks would
necessitate rather different procedure from the foregoing.
It would be described as a 40inch, 75 yards, ii°° reed,
1 1 shots on the glass, 30's twist, and 36's weft.
ii°° reed means iioo dents or splits on 37 inches, i.e.,
2200 ends. As the warp is 42 inches wide at the reed,
we get the ends by multiplying 2200 by 42 and dividing
by 37, thus arriving at 2498 ends. To get the weight of
twist, follow our previous Rule A.
2498 X 785 yards r 840 and 30.
2498
78f
19984
3o)234K7 lbs. i2j^^o ozs.
T7486
210
1249
24I
624
16
840)196717(234^
3
1680
144
2871
24
2520
387
3517
30
3360
87
■^ — about i
840 ^ i7__9_
Ans. 7 lbs. i2j^o0z. 30 1^
Shots on the glass means picks in the Scotch glass
of 2^^ part of 37 inches.
CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 23
Rule E. — To get weft weight then we take width X shots
on glass X 200, divide by 37 to reduce result to yards, by
counts and by yards in a hank.
Example.
42 X II X 200 X 75 f 37 and 36's and 840.
Ans. 6.19 lbs.
Weig'ht of Yarn in Stripe Cloth. — In many fabrics
the yarn is not evenly distributed over the surface of the
cloth, but arranged in stripe form. Suppose, for instance,
the example previously given (40inch, 75 yards, 60 reed,
15 picks, 36's weft) had alternate stripes of I inch 60
reed 2 in a dent, 30's twist, and J inch 60 reed 4 in a
dent, 40's twist, ending at each side with the stripe of
30's twist.
Then there would be 39 inches of alternate stripes. 39
divided by the space of two stripes (ij inches) gives 26
stripes of 40's twist and 26 of 30's twist. Add one stripe
to the 30's twist for the extra one at the side, making 27.
To get the ends of 30's twist add the contraction, 5 per
cent., to the number 60, that being the ends in an inch of
reed, 60+5 per cent. = 63 ; there are 27 stripes, there
fore there are 63 x 27 = 1701 ends. The rule previously
given for getting the weight of twist is now taken, and
we get 1701 X 78f ~ 840 and 30 = 5 lbs. 5 J ozs.
Then there are 26 stripes of 40's twist. Half inch of
60 reed 4 in a dent gives 60 ends + 5 per cent. = 63 X 26
stripes = 1638 ends. 1638 X 78f = 840 and 40 = 3 lbs.
13J ozs.
Rule F. — To obtain weight of warp yarn for striped
goods, we obtain the number of stripes of each colour or
24 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
counts, and the ends in each stripe^ add the contraction to
the ends in each stripe, and multiply by the numher of stripes.
The result is the number of ends, when the previous Rule
A. can be followed. The same plan must be adopted for
each sort of stripe in the piece.
We have just considered cloths in which the arrange
ment of the twist varies, and may now calculate for the
differentiation of the weft in the same manner.
Example. — Take a satin stripe cloth to be made with
24 picks of plain followed by 36 picks satin. In the plain,
the ratchet to take up as usual, but in the satin there are
to be two picks of weft for one tooth taken up. The
cloth to be 32 inches wide, 82 yards long, 32's/4o's, 17
picks per quarter where plain. Find the average picks of
weft and the weight of weft per piece.
Rule G. — Find the average picks per inch, and proceed
as in an ordinary calculation.
In a yard of cloth woven 1 7 picks to the quarter there
should be 17 X 4 X 36 = 2448 picks.
In the above cloth 36 picks of satin take up the space
of 18 plain. There are also 24 plain, so the double stripe
occupies the space of 42 picks.
42)2448(58! stripes in a yard.
210
^^
336 18 picks extra in each satin stripe.
12 2
42 ~ 7
18 multiplied by 58f = 1049^
added to 2448
34977
3497t picks per yard, averaging 97 f picks per inch.
CLOTH CALCULATIONS.
25
Adopting Rule D. —
34 ^ 97t X 82 h 40's X 840 = 8.06 lbs.
Ans. Average picks, 97y; weight weft, 8.06 lbs.
Coloured Cheeks and Stripes.— In the weaving of
coloured goods, such as ginghams, oxfords, harvards,
flannelettes, the ordinary rules given are almost always
required, in a modified form, in costing or rating the goods,
and also in getting out the particulars with which to put
the cloth in work, both necessitating the separate weights
of each different colour and counts.
Rule H. — When there are different colours of warp in
the one clothe apply Rules A. and B., but divide the weight
in proportion to the number of ends of each colour in the
warp plan. When there are different colours of weft of the
same counts^, work out the weight by Rule D., but apportion
it according to the picking plan. If the various colours are
also different in counts, it must be apportioned when the
number of hanks have been ascertained.
Example. — Find the particulars of each colour in a piece
of cloth 32 inches wide, 80 yards long, 58 reed, 16 pick,
24's twist, i8's red weft, i6's white weft, i8's blue weft,
allowing 90 yards of warp, and 5 per cent, for waste.
Woven 2 red
4 white
2 blue
4 white
4 blue
2 white
4 blue
4 white
2 blue
4 wh ite
32 picks,
) Warped the same.
26 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
In the colour plan out of every 32 ends, there are 2
red, 18 white, 12 blue.
Warp. — 34 inches x 58 reed, allowing 28 for selvage,
gives 2000 ends.
Of these, 2 out of 32 would be red = 125 ends.
18 ,, „ white = 1 125 „
12 „ „ blue = 75Q »
2000 ,,
To get the weight of warp apply Rule A.—
1125 X 90
840 X 24
125 X 90
840 X 24
 5.022
= 558
750 X 90 _
3348
^4° X 24 s;^ lbs.
The calculation could have been made —
2000 X 90
840 X 24
= 8.928 lbs.
and the weight apportioned, but in this case the separate
ends for each warp would not have been obtained, and as
it is necessary to have these, in order to make separate
warps to dye to the different colours, the mode given is
best. If white selvages are required, a little less weight
of red and blue will be used, and correspondingly more
white.
Weft.— AY>v\y Rule D.—
M_i^ — ° — 4 _ 207.24 hanks of weft used 207.24
°4o Add waste, 5 percent. 10.36
Total hanks required, 217.6
CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 2/
The picks are in the proportion of 2 red, i8 white, and
12 blue, the same as in the warp.
Out of every thirtytwo hanks, —
two are red equalling 13.6 hanks, divided by the
counts i8's ....... = .755
eighteen are white equaUing 122.4 hanks, divided by
the counts i6's . . . . . . = 7.65
twelve are blue equalling 81.6 hanks, divided by the
counts i8's . * . . . . . . = 454
lbs. 12.94
Had all the weft been one counts, say i6's, the best
plan would have been to work the calculation —
34 X 80 X 64
840 X 16
Add 5 % waste
A" ^'^ TW 0^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ ^5
^f or y^^ of this is white =7.65
If or f of this is blue = 5i
After calculating the weight of warp and weft at the
market prices, the additions to these figures are then made
for dyeing the warp at the usual price for each colour,
dressing the warp, drawing or twisting it, and all other
wages and expenses. The total is divided by the length
of cloth on counter, to give the unfinished price per yard.
Where the goods are delivered finished, then an addition
has to be made for the specific finishing process that it has
to go through, or in the case of flannelettes, for raising, &c.
Divided by the finished length, which is longer than the
grey length, we obtain the finished price per yard. Many
coloured manufacturers get out tables of prices per piece
28 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
or per yard to cover all these extras, and save themselves
considerable trouble in calculation.
All the preceding calculations are for cotton goods.
Should other materials be used, we must divide by a
different number of yards in the hank in each case. We
give 840 for cotton ; for worsted we should take 560, for
linen 300, and for single silk 840. (See section on Yarn
Calculations.)
Leng"tli of Yarn in Cloth.
Rule J. — To get the length of twist in a piece of cloth y
multiply number of ends by length of warp.
Rule K. — To get length of weft in a piece of cloth,
multiply width in reed in inches by picks in i inch^ and
by length of piece when woven.
Counts to g*ive Certain Weig'htS. — In many in
stances it is necessary to arrive at the counts of yarn
necessary to give a certain weight of cloth, the width,
length, reed, pick, and weight being given.
Rule L. — Find the length of yarn in the piece, reduce it
to hanks, and divide this by the weight in pounds. The
result will be the average counts of twist and weft.
Example. — Take a piece 60 inch, 40 yards, 50 reed,
12 picks, to be 6 lbs. Length of twist (Rule J), 60+5
per cent. = 63 inches at reed. 40 yards plus say 5 per
cent, for milling up = 42 yards.
63 X 50 X 42
3150
42
6300
12600
132300 yards twist.
CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 29
Weft (Rule K). — 63 x 48 picks x 40 yards =
63
_48
504
252
3024
3024
40
120960 yards weft.
Length twist = 132300
„ weft = 120960
840)253260(301! hanks
2520
1260
840
420
6 lbs.)30iJ(5oJ's yarn
3^
li
Should this be too fine for the twist and too coarse for
the weft, as, for instance, when it is desirable to use 40's
twist, the method adopted is to calculate the weight of
40's twist required, and deduct this from the 6 lbs., and
from the balance the counts of weft can be obtained
thus —
.  , . . , 132300 ,,
132300 yards of 40 s twist weigh ^ ~=3 lbs. 15 ozs.,
then the weft weighs 2 lbs. i oz.
120960 yards of weft= 144 hanks.
144 hanks divided by 2 lbs. i oz. = 69.8 counts weft.
To find Weight of a Piece from a Small Sample.—
It is frequently necessary in the cotton cloth trade to
estimate the weight or price of a piece of cloth from a
small sample. This may be done either by comparing
30 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
different pieces of known counts of yarn, reed, and pick
with the sample until an exactly similar one be found, or
another system is to pick out certain lengths of threads,
if the size of the sample will allow, and wrap them as
will be described. The weight of a piece can, however,
be calculated almost exactly from a small sample, and
thus a method of ascertaining the weight is obtained
which can be used either with the previously mentioned
ones as a check or independently.
Rule M. — Multiply the weight in grains of the small
sample by the number of square inches in a yard of the
required cloth, and divide by the number of square inches
in the sample and 43 7 J. The answer is the weight in
ounces of one yard of the required cloth.
Example. — A piece of cloth 3 inches by ij inches
weighs 10 grains. What will be the weight of a yard, and
also the weight of a 371 yard piece 40 inches wide ? Thus
a yard contains 40 X 36 = 1440 square inches. The
number of square inches inthe pattern is 3 X i = 4.^
Multiply 1440 by 10 and divide by 4 J and 43 7 J gives
7.314 ozs. as the weight of a yard. 7.314 multiphed by
37 yards and divided by the number of ounces in a lb.
(16) gives the weight per piece, 17.142 lbs.
Ans. 7.314 ozs. ; 17.142 lbs.
There is now in use, to a considerable extent, a yarn
assorting balance adapted for ascertaining the counts of
small samples of yarn such as can be extracted from
small pieces of cloth. It is Staub's balance, and the mode
of operation is to cut a small square out of the cloth
exactly the size of a little brass templet supplied with
CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 3 1
the instrument. Each of the pieces of weft in this scrap
are of course of the same length, and the balance is so
arranged that the number of threads that turn the scale
indicates the counts. Thus 32 threads would indicate
32's counts. The same thing applies to the warp threads
out of the same sample, excepting that an allowance has
to be made for the weight of size.
The reader will readily understand the principle of
this machine when he calls to mind the fact that if an
ordinary pair of scales were used with a i lb. weight at
one end and a number of knots of yarn at the other, each
being exactly one hank or 840 yards in length, it is clear
that the counts of the yarn would be shown by the
number of knots that balanced the I lb. weight. This
principle is adopted in Staub's balance, the necessary
modifications required in such a delicate balance, dealing
with such minute weights, being made. It is surprising
that such accurate results are obtained with the instru
ment in question when the fact of the normal variation of
yarn counts is considered.
Costing", Rating, or Quoting for Cloth. — The object
of all the preceding calculations, or at least the principal
use of them, is to prepare for ascertaining the cost of the
fabric. Whether the weight of the warp be obtained by
applying Rules A. and B. or by Rule F., or the weight of
the weft by Rules D. or E. or G., whether from full
particulars provided, or from a scrap pattern, the prime
cost per piece or per yard is usually desired. The weight
of twist is taken at the market price, the weight of weft
calculated at the same, the price for weaving calculated
by one or other of the systems described in a later
portion of this book, and then remains the allowances
32 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
that have to be made for winding, warping, sizing, wages,
management expenses, coal, taxes, rent, oil, belting, car
riage, commission, discount, and the scores of other
expenses appertaining to the manufacture of cloth. It is
of course impossible to calculate the exact amount to
allow for each of these items for every different piece of
cloth, or even to consider them separately, while a cus
tomer may be waiting on 'Change or at the telephone for
the price. It is therefore not unusual to consider for
an ordinary make of plain fabric that all these expenses
are covered if a sum is added equal to the amount paid
for weaving the piece. Even this is not a hard and fast
rule, as the state of the markets have to be taken into
consideration.
Taking the cloth given in a previous example, viz. : —
40 inch, 75 yards, 60 reed, 15 picks per quarter,
30's twist, 36's weft.
'O'
00
Weight of warp as previously ascer ) ^
tained, 7.875 lbs. at 8d. .. . j
Weight of weft, 6.25 lbs. at 8d. . 50.00
Weaving wage, by uniform list less
10 per cent. ....
Estimate for expenses, one weaving (^
wage . . . . . . j
20.25
20.25
153*50 o^ I2S. Qid.
The total of these gives the price for a 75 yard piece of
cloth. As explained under the heading of coloured goods,
the price of the cloth has sometimes to be given in a
finished state and per yard. In other goods, especially
those of fancy weave, extras have to be added for expenses
over and above ordinary cloths, such as special warping,
CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 33
special heading, card cutting, harness mounting or tieing
up, coloured borders, extra sizing, and many other ex
penses. Most manufacturers lay themselves out for
certain classes of goods, and thus can tell to a nicety
what to allow for such extras to suit their own position
and circumstances.
Pereentag'e of Size Required. — Sizing the warp is
necessary in weaving single yarn, and it is often desir
able to fix beforehand the percentage of size, so as not
to put on too much or too little.
Suppose a 38 inch, 2)7i yards, 72 reed by 17 picks,
3o's/4o's has to weigh 8 lbs., and we desire to ascertain
the percentage of size.
By the Rule A., previously given, the weight of twist
is 40 X 72 X 39 J ^ 840 X 30, which gives 4J lbs. or there
abouts.
The weight of weft = 40 x 68 x 37J^ 840x40 is 3 lbs.
and J oz.
4 lbs. 8 ozs. added to 3 lbs. J oz. = 7 lbs. 8 ozs.
Deduct this from 8 lbs. = y^ ozs. of size on 4J lbs. of
twist.
4^ lbs. = 72 ozs.);. 5 ozs.(io.4i per cent.
72
300
288
120
The standard makes of cotton cloth are fully described
in the author's book on ^' Cotton Manufacturing."
Symmetry of Cloth.— In fabrics other than cotton it
is necessary to utiHse many calculations for the purpose
of preserving a proper balance in their fabrication. In
c
34 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
the worsted trade especially, where few retilly plain fabrics
are made, and where each cloth has some special feature
caused either in design or colouring, or use of various
counts or sorts of yarn, it is necessary to make ranges
of cloth of a particular pattern, each being perfect in
the relation of grist of yarn to closeness of sett, and yet
varying in weight. It is necessary to change from one
pattern of cloth to another, and calculate the counts of
yarn or sett which shall give as firm a weave in the
second cloth as the first, and sometimes this question of
preserving the '' balance of cloth " arises in using a new
material to replace one previously used. In the cotton
trade these questions seldom arise, the standard makes of
cloth are made out of the same yarns, and if the question
of forming a new fabric has to be contended with, patterns
are easily made, often without much expense.
The majority of cotton fabrics do not depend for their
utiHty on the nicety of selection of yarns and propor
tioning of grists and setts, such as do the worsted
cloths, which have more important functions to perform ;
and we therefore do not give many formulse for these
calculations.
A thorough and comprehensive explanation of one
part of this subject was given over forty years ago in a
book by Murphy, and we cannot do better than reprint
his remarks, altering the wording slightly to adapt it to
modern necessities, and giving the Stockport counts of
reed as an example instead of the Scotch system, such
as he adopted.
CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 35
Caaming, Sleying, or Setting.
'' These terms are severally employed to denote the
proportioning of the grists or fineness of warps to the
different setts of reeds, so as to preserve a uniformity of
fabric in the same species of cloth. In order to explain
what is meant by the word fabric, let us suppose that a
piece of cloth is woven in any sett of reed, as, for in
stance, a 60, and that the diameters of the warp threads
and the small spaces between them are exactly of the
same size. Then, if we have another piece of cloth of
the same texture, woven, for example, in an 80 reed, the
diameters of the warp threads being also equal to the
intervening spaces, then these two sizes of cloth are said
to be of the same fabric, although the one is a third finer
than the other, so that, when the diameters of the threads
are greater than the spaces, the fabric is proportionately
stouter, and the reverse when they are smaller. Now,
the method of determining the several grists of yarn that
will preser\^e the uniformity of fabric through the different
setts of reed depends on the following analogy : —
As the square of a given reed :
To the grist of yarn that suits that sett : :
So is the square of any other sett of reed :
To its respective grist for the same fabric.
'' The reason for this rule will evidently appear by con
sidering the threads of warp when stretched in the loom
as so many cylinders of equal length or altitude, and the
reed as the scale which measures the space in which a
given number of these threads are contained; therefore
36 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
the solidities of those in any sett of reed will be to the
solidities of those in any other sett of reed as their bases,
or, which is the same thing, as the squares of their
diameters, by p. ii, b. 12 of Euclid. But the weights of
the cylinders or threads, supposing them of the same
density, will be as their solidities, and a determinate
number of splits or dents of any reed, or rather the
interval between them, may be substituted for the
diameters of the warp threads which pass through them :
therefore, by the last analogy, it will be as the square
of the number of splits in any given reed to the known
weight or grist of yarn, so is the square of any number
of splits, occupying the same space, to the weight or grist
of yarn that will produce cloth of the same fabric, which
is the rule given above."
The rule may be expressed : —
Rule N. — To find counts of yarn for a change of reed
which shall suit the new reed as well as the first counts
suited the old reed, midtiply the reed of the new cloth squared
by the counts of yarn in the old cloth, and divide by the
square of the reed in the old cloth ; or what comes to the
same, multiply the reed of the new cloth by the square root
of the counts of yarn in the old cloth, and divide by the reed
in the old cloth. Square the residt, and it gives the counts
required.
Example. — An example is found by supposing with
25's twist in a 6o's reed that the space between the ends
is equal to the diameter of the thread, and that we desire
to find the yarn that should produce the same effect in a
70 reed.
As 60 squared is to 70 squared so 25's is to the result.
CLOTH CALCULATIONS. 37
or 70 squared x 25's i 60 squared gives the counts
required.
Tlie square of 70 = 4900
» 3J 60 = 3600
4900 X 25 = 122500
36oo)i2 2 5oo(343Vs twist
10800
14500
14400
100
Using the alternative rule, square root of 25's X 70 r 60
gives the square root of the result.
5x70 = 350
60)350(51
• 300
60
The square of 5f = S4^q's twist.
Ans. 343Vs
The preceding rules are used vice versa for finding
suitable counts of reeds for different yarns, viz., to find a
suitable reed in which to make a similar cloth to a given
one but with different yarn.
Rule 0. — Multiply the square of the given reed by the
counts of the new yarn, and divide by the old yarn. Take
the square root and you have the desired result ; or inultiply
the given reed by the square root of the counts of the new
yarn, and divide by the square root of the old yarn.
Example. — A cloth is made with 60 reed and 25's
38 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
twist. What reed should be used with i6's twist to give
a similar cloth ?
The square of 60 x 16 ^ 25 = 2304. The square root of
2304 = 48 reed
or
The square root of 16 x 60 4 the square root of 25 = 48.
An example of changing the reed and pick for a change
of pattern is given among the answers to examination
questions, as is also a change of yarns to give an equally
firm cloth in a twill as in a plain weave.
YARN CALCULATIONS.
jROM the earliest stage of the cotton industry
it has been found necessary to have some
method of indicating the thickness of cotton
threads, and there has gradually been built up
a table indicating this by weight, a system which seems
to be common to the whole of the British cotton trade.
840 yards are taken as a hank, and the number of hanks
contained in a pound avoirdupois of 7000 grains is known
variously as the counts, grist, size, or numbers of cotton
yarn. Thus 20's has 840 X 20 = 16,800 yards in a lb.
A yarn that has 52 X 840 yards in a lb. is called 52's.
The thinner the thread the higher it is numbered. The
numbers or counts signify the number of times that the
yarn is finer than I's.
The complete Table (II.) of Measurement is —
I J yards = i thread or circumference of a wrap reel.
120 „ =80 threads = i lea.
840 5, =560 threads =7 leas=i hank.
The Table of Weights is a peculiar one, being a
pound avoirdupois divided into the troy weight denomi
nations of pennyweights and ounces.
Table III.
24 grains = i dwt.
437i 5J =^^48 dwt. = 1 oz.
7000 ,, =291! ,, =i6oz. — lib.
39
40 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
The first line only of the table is used.
The system just described applies both to twist and
weft.
Wrapping' Yarn. — The practical way of testing the
counts of yarn is to wind on a wrap reel 120 yards of
yarn and weigh this, dividing its weight in grains into
1000. Thus the thinner a thread is, the less it will
weigh, and therefore a higher count is got by dividing
this smaller weight in grains into the number given.
A short explanation is necessary as to the manner in
which we get at the number 1000.
I's yarn contains I hank in i lb.,
therefore it contains 840 yards in 7000 grains,
or oneseventh of this, 120 „ in 1000 „
As 840 yards would be too much to wrap, we take
oneseventh of the length and also oneseventh of the
corresponding weight as a standard.
lo's yarn is ten times as fine as I's, and 120 yards of
it weigh 100 grains.
1000 divided by 100 = lo's counts.
We should only get the same result if we took 840
yards, which would weigh 700 grains divided into the
weight of 840 yards of i's, i.e., 7000 grains, we get
7000 ^ 700 = ten times as fine as i's or lo's counts.
Rule A. — To find the cotmts, wrap 120 yards, weigh it,
and divide the weight in grains into 1000.
Example. — Should 120 yards of yarn be wrapped and
found to weigh 25 grains, then lOOO f 25 = 40's. More
than one cop might be taken, and the leas weighed
together. Suppose 4 cops are wrapped, i lea or 120
yards off each, and found to weigh 3 dwts. and 8 grains,
YARN CALCULATIONS. 4I
four times looo must be taken as the dividend, that is
4000.
3 dwts. 8 grains = 8o)4ooo(5o's counts.
4000
Table IV. is a comprehensive one giving the counts
of all yarns from 7's to Bo's, as shown by the weight of
either one lea, three leas, or four leas. The table is self
explanatory, and the reader will easily see that if one lea
is wrapped from either one cop, three cops, or four cops,
and the weight ascertained in grains, a reference to Table
IV. gives the exact counts worked out to two decimal
places.
With each copy of this book is presented a copy of
Table IV., printed in suitable form for mounting on
cardboard, and hanging in a mill or other office for
reference when wrapping yarn with the wrap reel
42
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
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YARN CALCULATIONS. 43
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44
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
If other lengths are taken the followmg are the divi
dends : —
240
1 20
60
40
30
20
^5
10
8
6
4
3
2
I
Table V.
i"4
leas
=
4000 g
2
35
—
2000
I
jj
=
1000
1
53
=
500
1
8
35
=
3333
1
4
1
6
33
33
^^
250
166.6
1
S
1
12
1
1 5
55
33
35
=
125
^33
66.6
1
¥0
33
=
50
1
30
33
=
333
1
40
1
6
1
12
33
33
35
=
25
16.6
8.3
Sometimes it is necessary to test the counts of yarn
from, a scrap of woven fabric, and as only a short length
of thread can be got, the ctbove table regarding the shorter
lengths is useful.
Having the lengths and counts given, to find the
weight : —
Rule B. — Divide the length by 840 and by the counts.
Example. — What is the weight of 9240 yards of 44's
weft ?
9240 yards ^ 840 =11 hanks.
In the given counts 44 hanks weigh i lb., then 1 1 hanks
weigh J^, or J of a lb.
Ans. J of a lb.
YARN CALCULATIONS. 45
Having the weight and counts given, to find the
length : —
Rule C. — Multiply the weight in pounds by 840 and by
the counts.
Example. — 79 lbs. of 17's yarn are required for a
warp. What is the total length ?
79 X 17 X 840
79
17
553
79
1343
840
53720
10744
1 1 28 1 20 yards.
In most districts except Lancashire single yarns are
generally indicated by i before or after the counts — thus,
i/40's, i/20's in wool or worsted districts; or, 40's/i,
2o's/i in silk districts.
Double Yarns (Cotton.) — Twofold yarns are num
bered according to the single yarn counts — thus, 2/80's
= two ends of 8o's twined together, which would wrap
40's. Actually, to make the resultant count 40's the
single yarn should be finer than 8o's, because the twist
put in the folded yarn contracts it in length and causes
the twofold to be really coarser than would appear.
However, neglecting this, suppose we twine one end of
40's and one of 20's, the counts would not be 15's, as
a first glance would indicate, but 13.33. This can be
proved by taking the weight of a lea of 40's = 25 grains,
46 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
and of 2o's = 50 grains; total, 75. 75 divided into 1000
gives the counts as 1 3 J. Another is —
Rule D. — Multiply the two counts together and divide by
their sum —
40 X 20 800 2.
— ; — =— 7— =^33
40 + 20 60
It is seldom that two different counts are doubled
together as mentioned above. Singles of the same
counts make the best doubled yarn.
To find the counts which must Ibe doubled with
another to make a given count: —
Rule E. — Multiply the two counts given and divide by
their difference.
To find counts of three or more folds of single
yarn all of one count : —
Rule F. — Divide the single counts by the number of folds
— thus, 3/30o's= lOo's, and 4/8o's = 2o's.
To find counts of thr'eefold yarns each of diffe
rent counts:—
Rule G. — Take the weight of a lea of each, add them
together^ and divide into 1000.
Example. — Threefold yarn of 40's, 80's, and I20's
would be 21.81.
TOOO
A lea of 40's = 25 grains.
„ 8o's = i2j „
i2o's= 84 „
451
— 2T ® 's counts.
45l
■ ^ X 1  W \^\J \AKX^*J%
or
YARN CALCULATIONS. 47
Rule H. — Take the highest count and divide it by each
of the others and by itself, then divide the total of the
quotients into the highest.
Example.
120^ 80 = 1.5
I20f 40 = 3
T20 4 120= I
120 o
I r = 21.81
From these rules the reader can easily deduce the rule
for four or higher fold.
Scotch Numbering'. — In Scotland the quantity of
yarn is often expressed in spindles, hanks, and leas, and
the yarn measure is an extension of the one previously
given.
Table VI.
\\ yards = i thread.
120 5, = 80 5, = I skein.
840 ,, = 560 ,, = 7 ,, = I hank.
15120 55 =10800 ,, =126 ,, =18 ,, = I spindle.
Example.— 80 lbs. of 40's twist would be 177 spindles,
14 hanks.
80 X 40 = 3200 hanks.
18)3200(177 spindles
18
140
126
140
126
14 hanks.
Gross. — Worsted yarns are occasionally sold by the
gross hanks, i.e., 144 hanks each 560 yards.
48 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Counts in other Materials and Systems. —The
cotton manufacturer has occasionally for some classes of
cloth to deal with counts of silk, worsted, or linen, and
some information on these points will not be superfluous.
Silk, — Single silk is numbered like cotton 840 yards
to the hank, except for folded patent silk, when the first
number indicates the actual counts — thus, 4o's/2 means
two threads of 8o's, which actually wrap 40's, as already
explained. This would in cotton be written 2/80's. 30/3
in silk means three threads of 90's.
Worsted is numbered exactly as cotton, excepting
that the. length of the worsted hank is 560 yards — thus,
3c's worsted has 30x560 yards in a pound, while 30's
cotton has 30 X 840 yards. Botany yarn is a variety of
worsted. Worsted folded yarns are numbered 2/60's,
that is two threads of worsted 6o's.
Worsted. 80 yards = i wrap.
560 „ =7 wraps = I bank.
The French Cotton Standard, or Metrical System, as
largely used on the Continent of Europe, is looo metres in
5 CO grammes, which is called No. I, equal to 992.4 yards
in one pound — thus 1. 1 81 in Enghsh would be I's in
French.
Rule J. — To find the Metrical or French numbers divide
the number of metres measured^ by its weight in grammes,
and by 2.
Thus if 24 metres weigh 2 grammes 24^2=12^2 =
No. 6.
Rule K. — To convert French numbers into English counts
multiply by i.i^.
YARN CALCULATIONS. 49
Rule L. — To convert English counts into French num
bers multiply by 1. 1 8.
Example. — What would English 59's be in French
numbers ?
59 ^ 1. 18 = No. 50.
American Systems. — In the United States, cotton
yarns are counted the same as Enghsh, viz., 840 yards
to the hank. Silk and worsted are also numbered as in
England, to a great extent. In woollen yarns, the prin
cipal system is the ''run system." There are 1600 yards
in a '' run," and the yarns are numbered according to the
runs in a pound. Another, common to woollen yarns,
is the ''cut" system; here 300 yards equal one cut, and
the number of cuts in a pound indicate the numbers of
the yarn. Doubled yarns in the States are numbered as
in England. Cotton, silk, and woollen folded yarns have
the number of threads placed before the counts of the
single yarn, as 2/20's, 3/60's, &c. In silk the counts of
the folded yarn are first written, and then the number of
threads comprising the folded yarn, as io's/2, 2o's/3.
Linen. — The linen standard, called the "lea," is 300
yards. The linen hank is 10 leas, or 3000 yards.
I thread = 2 yards = 90 inches = 2 English ells.
I lea or cut= 120
I hear = 2 leas or cuts = 240
I hank = 5 heers = 10 ,, „ =1200
I hesp= 24 „ ,, = 2880
I spindle = 2 hesps = 48 ,, ,, =5760
Coarse linen and jute are reckoned by the weight of a
spindle — thus, if 14400 yards weighs 4 lbs. it is 4 lb.
counts.
D
eac
ls= 300 yds.
jj
= 600 „
3>
= 3000 „
J5
= 7200 „
53
=14400 „
50 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Finer linen is reckoned by the number of leas to the
pound = 40's linen has 40x300 yards =12000 yards in
a pound.
Wool. — The usual method of indicating woollen counts
is by the number of yards in a dram, and as many yards
as there are in a dram are called so many skein yarn —
thus, 10 skein counts means 10 yards in a dram, and as
16 drams make one ounce, 16 ounces i lb., then the num
ber of skeins X 16 X 16, i.e., 256 = the number of yards
in a pound; otherwise expressed, 1536 yards =1 skein
in a watern of 6 lbs. 10 skein yarn has 2560 yards in a
pound. This is often called the '' Leeds system," but is
largely used elsewhere. As there are 256 drams in a
pound, this system may be expressed as the number of
times 256 yards are contained in one pound.
Several examples must now be given of finding the
equivalent counts in the various systems. To convert
counts of one system into those of another.
Rule M. — Multiply the 'counts given by the length of the
hank or lea used for that material, and divide by the length
of the hank or lea in the desired system.
Example.
Case I. — What counts of worsted are equivalent to
30's cotton ?
30 X 840 4 560 = 45's worsted.
Case II, — What counts of spun silk are equal to 8o's
cotton ? The same, 8o's.
Case III. — What counts of linen are equal to 20''s
cotton ?
20 X 840 H 300 = 56's linen.
YARN CALCULATIONS. 5 I
Case IV. — What counts of cotton are equivalent to
90's worsted ?
90 X 560 ^ 840 = 6o's.
Bundle Yarn. — Cotton yarn is often reeled and then
made up into bundles, more especially for export and the
home dyeing trade. Home trade bundles are usually
10 lbs. in weight, and the yarn in them is double cross
reeled, often expressed XX hank. Two hanks, = 1680
yards, are reeled together; then 5 of these are twisted,
making 10 hank knots. In fine numbers they may be
twisted in tens, making 20 hank knots. In finding if
there are the right number of heads showing at the
straight end of the bundle, indicating the number of knots
in the bundle, apply —
Rule N. — Multiply the weight of the bundle by the
counts, and divide by the number of hanks in each knot.
Example. — How many heads would show at the end
of a press bundle of 2/40's yarn, 10 lbs., made up in 10
hank knots ?
10 X 2o's 4 10 = 20
Ans. 20 heads.
Testing" Yarns. — In addition to wrapping warp yarn
to ascertain actual counts, it is frequently tested as to
strength. The lea from the reel is placed between two
hooks on a testing machine, and by a wheel, worm, and
screw, the lower hook is moved downw^ards, increasing
the tension on the yarn. By an index finger this ten
sion is indicated on a face plate, and when the lea is
broken the finger stops at the highest weight or strain
that the yarn has stood. Below is a table, which will
give a general idea of the comparative strength of mule
52 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
twists, having the standard turns in — i.e., for the Ameri
can cottons square root of counts multiplied by 3f, and
for Egyptian, square root multiplied by 3.606.
2o's American cotton = 80 lbs.
30s
)5
= 54 33
40'sj
50'sj
33
Egyptian
\ American
[ Egyptian
= 40 „
= 50 33
= 28 „
= 37 3,
6o's
5J
= 30 3,
70's
5)
= 26 „
Diameters of Yarns. — In yarn the diameters of the
threads do not vary inversely as the counts, but inversely
as the square root of the counts. Thus, i6's is not four
times as thick as 64's, but twice as thick, the square roots
being four and eight respectively. To find the counts of
a yarn that shall have any desired relation in thickness
to another yarn, apply —
Rule 0. — Extract the. square root of the counts of the
given yarn, invert the terms of the proportion between the
given and the desired yarns, and proceed as in proportion,
squaring the result.
Examples. — What yarn is onesixth as thick as 25's,
or, in other words, has onesixth the diameter of 25's ?
The square root of 25 is 5
The terms are i to J
inverted „ J^ to i
, ,. . ixc;ix[;x6
then as  is to i so 5 is to — ^ = = 3^
30 squared = 900's
Ans. 900's yarn is onesixth the thickness of 25's.
YARN CALCULATIONS. 53
Another example is given among the answers to exa
mination questions.
Testing Dampness. — Another test of yarn is to ascer
tain the dampness. A sample is dried at a temperature
of about 1 00° Fahr., and then allowed to cool to an ordi
nary temperature of say 60°.
This is necessary, because the higher temperature
might drive away some of the natural moisture which all
cottons contain, and which it should be allowed to regain.
Suppose yarn weighing 40 lbs. at first, only scales 38 lbs.
when the test is complete, then it has lost 100 X 2 ^ 40
= 5 per cent. The manufacturer gets 95 lbs. really for
every lOO lbs., so that yarn costing 8d. per lb. at first
actually costs 8^6 d., obtained by multiplying 100 X 8 f
95 = 8.42 id., or about 8xV
COMMERCIAL NOTES.
MANCHESTER. — Yarns are usually sold for home trade,
either 2J per cent, terms, 14 days' accounts, or 3 per cent,
cash terms. This is when the business is done direct. In
the first case 2^ per cent, discount is allowed off the gross
amount of the invoice, less coppers, payable in 14 days
from date of invoice, on Tuesdays or Fridays only. The
cash terms allow a discount of 3 per cent., but the account
is due the Tuesday or Friday following the date of invoice.
It is generally understood that goods are free on rail at
Manchester. Where an agent is employed, the full
agency terms are i per cent, for commission and  per
cent, for guaranteeing payment of the account.
BRADFORD terms are . much longer than these. In
cotton, yarns delivered before the 26th of one month are
paid for on the 3rd Thursday of the following month, less
2^ per cent, discount. Thus yarns sent on the 24th of
April would be paid for on the 3rd Thursday in May. If
on the 27th of April on the 3rd Thursday in June, or two
months' credit. Agency terms, as arranged; usually
rather higher than Manchester. Carriage is expected to
be paid by the seller.
GLASGOW terms are somewhat similar to Bradford,
but the discounts vary largely, 7 J per cent, being generally
allowed. The 20th of the month is generally the date for
limiting accounts for payment in the following month.
54
COMMERCIAL NOTES. 55
BELFAST buyers take deliveries to account up to the
15th of one month, paying for them on the 4th of the
next month, usually less 2^ per cent.
In Bradford, Belfast and Glasgow, after the times
named above have expired, bills are occasionally given.
There can be no doubt that the prompt terms of Manchester
have added very much to the stability of its houses, to the
good credit in which the cotton trade is usually held in
commercial circles, and to the development of the trade.
Piece Goods. — In Manchester, terms are again very
prompt. Where business is done direct, the terms usually
are 2^ per cent, discount for payment in 7 days. Where
an agent is employed and paid I J per cent, on the trans
action for commission and guarantee, the manufacturer
customarily gets prompt cash less 2 J per cent.
In Glasgow, London, Bradford and Belfast the terms
are, like yarn terms, much longer ; in fact the bulk of the
business is done by accepting bills for some forward date.
WEIGHTS, MEASURES, AND MONEYS OF
FOREIGN COUNTRIES
HAVING COMMERCIAL RELATIONS WITH THE TEXTILE
DISTRICTS OF ENGLAND.
WEIGHTS.
The Metrical system of weights is the most common
one, and at the same time the most sensible system. It is
sometimes called the French system, and has been offici
ally adopted in most cases for weights, measures, and
moneys in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal,
Spain, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Bulgaria, Holland,
56 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Switzerland; Chili, Argentine Republic^ and the United
States. In some cases the nomenclature has been altered
and only the principle adopted ; in other countries, where
the use of the system has not been made compulsory, it
has not yet got into common use.
I gramme =the unit (15.432 grains).
10 grammes = I decagramme.
100 ,, = T hectogramme.
1000 ,
.lor^V ,
•01 or 3^0 ,
•001 or yoVo'
= I kilogramme.
= I decigramme.
= I centigramme.
= I milligramme.
One kilogramme is equal to 2.2046 lbs., or 35^ oz. nearly.
China. —
I leang or tael= .083 lbs. avoir.
16 „ „ = 1.333 „ = I kire or katty.
1600 „ „ =^3333 » =100 5. 5,
= I tan or pecul.
India. — The legal standards are the metrical ones of
the kilogramme (2.2046 lbs.), called the legal seer; the
metre (39.37 inches) ; the litre, also called the seer (1.76077
pints). The old systems, of which there are many in
consequence of the large extent of the country, are still
largely used.
In Bengal, i seer =16 chittacks = 80 tolas = 2.057
lbs. (avoir.). 40 seers = i maund.
In Madras, the candy = 20 maund s of 40 seers each,
the weight of the candy here being 493.71 lbs., is in use.
By commercial usage the candy is still frequently taken at
500 lbs., and the maund at 25 lbs.
In Bombay there is still in use a candy of 20 maunds
COMMERCIAL NOTES. 5/
of 4 seers each, equalling 560 lbs., the seer in this case
being 7 lbs.
Eg"ypt. — I cantar =: 98.046 lbs. (avoir.), and consists
of 100 rottoli, each rottolo containing 12 uckreh or 96
meticals. 12 dirhem make i uckreh.
Japan. — i rin = 10 mo = 1.33 lbs. (avoir.).
Brazil. — i quintal (100 arratel) — ioi.i861bs. (avoir.).
United States. — The old English measures and weights
generally adhered to, although the metrical system has
been authorised.
MEASURES.
Metrical System. Linear Measure.
I metre = the unit = 39.37 inches = 1.093 yds.
10 ,, = T decametre.
100 ,, = I hectometre.
1000 ,, =1 kilometre = .62 1 EngUsh mile.
.1 or Y^Q ,, =1 decimetre.
.01 or Y^g ,, =1 centimetre = .393 7 inch.
.001 or YoVo 55 = ^ millimetre.
Brazil. — i pollegada= 1.093 inches.
I vara =1.215 yards.
China. — Shanghai Customs chih= 14.098 inches,
Eg"ypt. — I kirat=i.i25 inches.
India. — Bengal. I guz = i yard.
I moot = 3 inches.
Madras. I guz = 33 inches; English measures also
used.
Bombay, i guz =27 inches.
I tussoo=i.i25 inches.
Also see under "Weights."
58 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
United States.— As in England.
Japan. — i sun = 1.1954 inches.
10 „ = I shaku.
100 „ =10 „ =ijo.
MONEYS,
France . . 100 centimes = i franc, about 9jd. Eng.
Italy . . . 100 centesimi= I lire, „ 9jd.
Switzerland 100 centimes = i franc, „ 9jd.
Belgium = 100 „ =1 „ „ 9jd.
Spain . . 100 centimes = i peseta, „ g^d.
Germany . 100 pfennige = i mark, „ I2d.
India. — Taking the rupee at i6d. sterling; nominal
value 2/.
I pice . . . . = 0833 English.
125,=! anna . . = id. „
192 ,, = 16 annas = I rupee = i6d. „
China. — Taking the tael at 4/2 ; nominal value 6/6.
I candarine . . . = .o5d. English.
TOO ,, =1 mace . = 5d. „
1000 ,, =10 „ =itael = 5od. ,,
United States. — 100 cents = i dollar () = 4/2 EngHsh.
SPEED AND GEARING CALCU
LATIONS.
EFORE considering the calculations referring to
the general cotton manufacturing machinery,
it is advisable to mention a few fundamental
rules which frequently are necessary to deter
mine problems common to all kinds of mechanism. What
rules are referred to in particular are those by which we
calculate speeds of shafting, and these are given first.
To Determine the Speed of a driven Shaft. — When
the speed of a driving shaft or wheel is given, and also
the size of the gearing transmitting the power, to find
the speed of driven shafts or wheels.
Rule A. — Multiply the speed of the first driving shaft by
the size of the driving wheel or wheels, and divide by the
driven wheel or wheels.
Example. — A hne shaft in a shed revolves 150 times
per minute, and carries pulleys 15 inches in diameter.
The looms driven by them carry pulleys 10 inches in
diameter. At what speed do the looms run ? Multiply
150 by the driving wheel 15, and divide by 10.
Ans. 225 revolutions.
Cog's or Ropes. — The term ^^size of the wheel" in
the rules includes either number of teeth, diameter, radius,
or pitch circle, and refers equally to cog wheels, either
59
6o WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
bevel or otherwise, or rope, or strap driving. A pair of
mitre wheels are bevels whose teeth are equal in number,
and therefore make no change in the speed, but reverse
the direction of motion.
The method of description of the driving wheel neces
sarily must also be applied to the driven. For ex
ample, if the diameter of the driving wheel be taken,
the diameter also of the driven one must be adopted, and
neither the radius nor circumference.
Case I. Example. — The driving wheel of an engine
revolving 50 times a minute is 30 feet in diameter, and
by means of ropes drives a pulley on the second motion
shaft of 3 feet in radius. What is the speed of the
second motion shaft ?
50 X 30 feet ^ double the radius 6 = 250 revolutions
per minute.
Case II. — The under shaft of a loom revolves 90 times
a minute, and carries a bevel of 15 teeth, which gears
with a 15 on an upright shaft. At the top of this shaft
a 12 drives a 6oteeth wheel on a block of tappet plates.
At what speed do they revolve ?
90 X first driver, 15 X second driver, 12 4 first driven
15, and second driven 60.
Ans. 18 revolutions per minute.
To Determine which is the Driver or Driven Wheel
is not difficult, a glance at the gearing when in motion
usually shows it. The driver is generally bright or
worn on the front of the tooth, i.e., on the side of the
tooth in the direction of which the wheel moves. If a
wheel is worn on the side of the tooth further from the
direction of its motion it is a driven wheel. Then with
SPEED AND GEARING CALCULATIONS. 6l
bands and straps, one side of the band or strap is tighter
than the other. That which is puUing can readily be
recognised as the driver.
To find the Speed of the Driving" Wheel, when the
speed of the last driven wheel is known, and also the
size of the gearing.
Rule B. — Multiply the speed of the last driven wheel by
the size of the driven wheels^ and divide by the size of the
drivers.
Example. — A spindle is required to revolve looo times
a minute, and the proposed method is to drive it from
a line shaft by a 40inch drum to a 15 inch pulley, the
latter being fixed to a loinch tin roller driving the
I J inch wharve on the spindle. At what speed will the
line shaft have to revolve ? The drivers are 40 and 10,
the driven 15 and \\.
1000 X 15 X ij= 18750
40)18750
10)468
3
46I revolutions per minute.
To obtain the Size of the Driving" Wheel, if the
speed of the driven and driving shaft are given along
with the size of the driven pulleys.
Rule C. — Multiply the speed of the driven by the size of
the driven pulleys, and divide by the speed of the driver.
Example. — A shaft, speed 100 per minute, drives
another at 70 per minute; on the latter is a 50tooth
bevel wheel. What size of a bevel wheel is on the
drivingshaft ?
Multiply 70 X 50 ^ 100 = 35 teeth.
62 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
To obtain the Size of the Driven Wheel, if the speed
of the driver and driven wheel or wheels are given along
with the size of the driver.
Rule D. — Multiply the size of the drivers by speed of
first driver, and divide by the speed of driven, and by
the driven pulleys given, if any.
Example. — A shaft making 17 revolutions per minute
carries a i6tooth wheel driving a second shaft by means
of a wheel the number of teeth in which it is desired to
find. On this shaft is a lOOtooth wheel driving one of 85
teeth, which latter revolves at 16 revolutions per minute.
What is the size of the first driven wheel ?
Drivers 16 and 100. 100
Driven 85. 16
1600
17
II200
1600
16)27200(1700
85)1700(20
16
1700
112
112
A7ZS. 20 teeth.
Worm Wheels. — These are used in order to rapidly
diminish speed, as drivers only, and usually are single
threaded, and are equal to one tooth as a multiplier of
speed. For example, a worm wheel revolves 700 times
a minute, and drives a 140tooth wheel. What is the
speed of the latter ?
700 X I T 140 = Ans. 5 times per minute.
Had the worm wheel been double threaded it would
have taken two teeth at one revolution, and the result
SPEED AND GEARING CALCULATIONS. 63
would have been 10, obtained thus: — 700 x 2 i 140
= A us. 10.
A Mang'le Wheel is used in order to reverse its own
direction of motion, and as a driven wheel only. Its
speed is calculated as if it were an ordinary wheel,
excepting that its size is taken as one tooth less than it
is actually, in consequence of the tooth at each end being
used only once in a double revolution, while all the
others are used twice.
A lopinion revolving 360 times a minute drives a
mangle wheel of 181 teeth or pegs. How many times
will the mangle wheel revolve in a minute ? 360 x 10
r 180 = 20 revolutions (equalling 10 in each direction).
To change the Speed of a Driven Pulley, Shaft, op
Wheel.
Rule E. — Increase the size of the driver or decrease the
size of the driven pulley in exact proportion to the increase of
speed required.
Case I. — To increase the speed by increasing size of
driver.
A loom is run at 180 picks per minute, and it is
desired to run it at 200. The driving pulley on the line
shaft of shed is 1 3 J inches in diameter. What size is
required? Multiply 13! X 200, and divide by 180.
Alls. 15 inches diameter.
Case II. — To increase the speed by decreasing size of
driven wheel.
The tappets of looms are set for a sixshaft cloth, and
it is desired to weave a fiveshaft satin. Thus the speed
of the shaft carrying the tappets has to be increased in
64 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
the proportion of five to six. The driven wheel on the
tappet shaft is a 6o.
Multiply 60 X 5 f 6 = 50 wheel required.
Circumferential Velocity. — To ascertain the circum
ferential velocity of a wheel, driver, or C3dinder.
Rule F. — Multiply the circumference in feet by the num
ber of revolutions per minute.
Example. — A beaming frame drum is 6 feet in
circumference, and makes 48 revolutions per minute.
What is the circumferential velocity ?
6x 48 = 288
Am. 288.
To Calculate Power of Leather Straps.— To calcu
late the power of single leather belts, the following
Rule G. may be used : —
Let H P = actual horsepower.
W = \Yidth of belt.
F = driving force.
T = working tension from 70 to 150 lbs.
V = velocity of belt in feet per minute.
Then = ■^I^ H P = 1^ W = 33?^HP
2 SSoco F X V
Example. — A loinch belt running 2500 feet per
minute, what horsepower will it transmit ? Assuming
ing the working tension to be 100 lbs. —
r^ 10 X 100 TT p. 2c;oo X !:oo o ,
F = = 500 H P = ^ ^ — =38 horsepower.
Horsepower of Ropes. — The following table, com
piled b}' ]\Ir. A. G. Brown, and published in the catalogue
of Messrs. J. Musgrave & Sons, Limited, Bolton, gives
the power that good cotton driving ropes will transmit : —
SPEED AND GEARING CALCULATIONS. 65
Table VIL— Horsepower of Cotton Driving Ropes.
CA. G. BROWN.^
Velocity
Diameter
OF Ropes in Inches.
in Feet
per
Minute.
i
i
1
1
I
H
4
if
2
600
0.84
1.30
I.91
2.60
343
530
7.69
10.40
1352
700
0.98
1.52
2.23
303
4.00
6.18
8.96
12.12
15.75
800
1. 12
^'73
2.54
345
4.56
705
10.22
13.82
17.96
900
1.26
1.94
2.86
3.88
5.12
7.92
11.48
1552
20.17
1000
139
2.15
3.16
4.30
567
8.76
12.72
17.18
22.34
1 100
153
2.3s
347
4.71
6.22
9.61
1394'
18.83
24.48
1200
1.66
2.56
377
5.12
6.76
10.44
1515
20.47
26.61
1300
1.79
2.76
4.07
553
7.29
11.27
16.35
22.10
28.73
1400
1.92
2.96
4.36
593
7.83
12.10
1755
23.72
30.83
1500
2.05
3.16
4.65
6.32
8.34
12.89
18.70
25.27
32.86
1600
2.18
336
4.94
6.74
8.86
13.70
19.88
26.86
34.92
1700
2.30
355
5.22
7.10
9.37
14.48
21.01
28.39
36.90
1800
2.42
3.74
550
747
9.86
15.25
22.12
29.89
38.85
1900
2.54
3.92
576
7.83
10.34
1597
23.18
3132
40.71
2000
2.66
4.10
6.03
8.20
10.82
16.72
24.26
32.79
42.62
2100
2.77
4.27
6.29
8.54
11.28
1743
25.29
34.17
4442
2200
2.88
445
6.5s
8.90
^^■75
18.16
26.35
3560
46.29
2300
2.99
4.62
6.80
9.24
12.19
18.84
2734
36.94
48.03
2400
3.10
4.78
7.04
9.56
12.62
1951
28.31
38.26
4973
2500
3.20
4.94
7.28
9.89
1305
20.17
29.26
39.55
5141
2600
330
509
7.50
10.18
1344
20.77
30.14
40.73
52.96
2700
339
524
7.71
10.48
1383
21.37
31.00
41.90
54.47
2800
348
S.38
7.92
10. 75
14.20
21.94
31.84
43.02
5593
2900
357
551
8,12
11.03
14.56
22.50
32.64
44.11
5735
3000
3.66
5.65
8.31
11.30
14.91
23.04
3344
45.18
58.74
3100
374
S.78
8.50
11.56
1525
2357
3420
46.22
60.08
3200
383
5 90
8.69
II. 81
1559
24.09
3495
47.23
61.40
3300
39°
6.01
8.85
12.02
1587
2453
35.59
48.10
62.53
3400
396
6.12
9.01
12.23
16.15
24.96
36.21
48.94
63.62
3500
4.03
6.22
9 IS
12.44
16.42
2537
36.81
49.75
64.67
3600
4.09
6.31
9.29
12.63
16.67
25.76
37.38
50.51
65.66
3700
4.15
6.41
943
12.81
16.91
26.13
37.92
51.24
66.62
3800
4.20
6.48
953
12.95
17.10
26.43
38.35
51.82
67.36
3900
4.25
6.56
965
13.12
17.32
26.76
38.83
52.48
68.22
4000
4.29
6.62
975
13.24
17.48
27.01
39.20
5297
68.86
4100
433
6.68
983
1336
17.63
27.25
3953
5342
6944
4200
4.36
^•73
9.91
13.46
17.77
27.46
3984
5384
6999
4300
439
6.78
9.98
13.55
17.89
27.65
40.11
5421
70.47
4400
4.41
6.80
10.01
13.60
1795
2775
40.26
5440
70.72
4500
4.42
6.82
10.04
13.64
18.00
27.82
40.36
5455
70.91
4600
443
6.83
10.06
13.66
18.03
27.87
40.44
54.64
71.04
4700
443
6.84
10,07
13.67
18.05
27.90
40.48
54.70
71.10
4800
4.43
6.84
10 '07
13.67
18.05
27.90
40.48
5470
71.10
4900
443
6.83
10.06
13.66
18.03
27.87
40.44
5464
7104
5000
4.41
6.80
10.01
13.60
1795
27.74
40.25
5440
70.70
5500
4.24
6.54
963
13.08
17.27
26.69
38.73
52.33
68.04
60CXD
3.89
6.00
8.83
12,00
15.84
24.48
3552
48.00
62.40
6500
338
5.22
7.68
10.04
1378
21.30
30.90
41.76
5429
MENSURATION.
OME of the simpler rules of this science find a
frequent use in the manufacturer's calculations
as regards the machinery, and these are given
below. Many readers will no doubt be fully
acquainted with them, but there are others to whom the
information may be acceptable.
To find the Area of a Circular Space.
Rule A. — Square the diameter {shown by the line A, B,
Fig. i) and multiply ^J^ .7854, or multiply the radius by half
the circumference.
Example. — The diameter of an engine piston is 18
inches. What is its area ?
Square 18= 18 X 18 = 324
324 X. 7854 =
•7854
324
31416
15708
23562
254.4696
Ans. 254.46 square inches.
To find the Circumference (A, C, F, B, D, Fig. 3) of
a Circle.
Rule B. — Multiply the diameter 4y 3.1416.
66
MENSURATION.
67
Example. — A tape cylinder is 7 feet diameter. What
is its circumference ?
3.1416 X 7 = 22 feet nearly.
N.B. — 3.1416 is nearly 3!, and for rough work this
is near enough for a multiplier.
Radius (A, D, Fig i) is half the diameter.
Fig. I.
Ang'le. — An angle is the corner formed by the meeting
of two straight lines, other than in a straight line, thus —
/
D
B
Fig. 2.
The angle D, B, C (Fig. 2) is an acute angle, while A, B,
D (Fig. 2) is an obtuse one.
All angles are measured by the number of degrees
68
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
which they contain. Every circle is divided into 360
equal parts, each of which is called a degree. If two
diameters of a circle cross each other at right angles, as
A, B and C, D in Fig. 3, they make four angles of 90°.
Every angle which contains 90° is a right angle ; half of
a right angle (B, O, F) is an angle of 45°; and a third
of one (E, O, D) is an angle of 30°. The right angle
contains 90°, and is so called because it is the standard
angle by which we measure other angles, just as the
straight line is often called a right line because it is the
standard by which we measure and test all other lines.
To find Contents of a Cubical Block.
Rule C. — Multiply length, width, and depth together.
To find Contents of a Cylinder.
Rule D. — Find tJie area of one end, and multiply by the
length of the cylinder.
WINDING, WARPING, AND BEAMING
CALCULATIONS.
Winding". — The process here referred to^ is winding
from cops to bobbins, the latter intended for the beaming
frame or warping mill.
Specification of Winding" pep 1000 Looms, the latter
on ordinary plain goods, about 32's twist counts.
No. of winding spindles
„ frames . . . .
„ spindles each side of frame
„ winders per side, 5 ; in all .
„ winders per beaming frame
Size pulley on frame end
„ tin roller ....
Length spindle ....
Diameter wharve on front row of spindles
3) 35 bacK ,, ,j
Length of lift or traverse
Size of bobbin, diameter of head .
barrel .
1200
4
150
40
4
12
16 in.
I
4j 33
4 „
ij 33
1
4 "
1
2 '5
To find Speed of Spindle. — Use Rule A. given on
page 59.
Example. — Driving shaft speed . .168
Drum on driving shaft .
Pulley on frame end
Size tin roller
Diameter spindle wharve
11 m.
12 „
10 ,,
1
4 33
168 X II X TO ^ 12 X ij= 1232 per minute.
^ For a full description of this and all other preparatory processes of
weaving, refer to the author's book on " Cotton Manufacturing."
69
70 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
To find Percentage of Waste.
Rule A. — Add two cyphers to weight of waste, and divide
by weight of twist from which it is made.
Example. — A winder in a week winds 580 lbs. of
twist; and makes 8 lbs. of waste.
580)800(1.379 per cent.
58o_
2200
1740
4600
4060
5400
Particulars required before Beaming. ^ To get
Length for Beaming.
Rule B. — Multiply warp length (explained on page 16)
by number of pieces required.
Example. — An order is given for 180 pieces of 75
yard cloth made from 80 yards of warp. How many
yards of warp are required ^
80 X 180 = 14400 yards.
Wraps. — The length of a warp is usually expressed
in wraps, of which there are various lengths. The com
monest are —
3000 yds. to the wrap divided into 100 teeth of 30 yds. to the tooth.
3500 5j 5j 55 100 » 35 » »
3564 » 55 „ 132 „ 27 „
3600 „ „ „ 100 „ 36 „ „
1 In some districts, notably Blackburn, Darwen, and surroundings, this
process is called warping, which term is erroneous. Warping, strictly
speaking, refers only to the old style of circular mill, with heck, for making
ball and chain warps.
WINDING, WARPING, AND BEAMING. /I
If the beaming length of the i8o pieces just mentioned
had to be expressed in wraps of the first size, the calcu
lation would be —
3000)14400(4 wraps
12000
30)2400(80 teeth
2400
Ans. 4 wraps 80 teeth.
Number of pieces that can be made in a set.
Rule C. — Multiply the number of wraps in a set by the
length of a wrap, and divide by the length of warp per
piece.
Example. — The set of beams consists generally of four
or five wraps on each beam. How many 100 yard pieces
can be made out of a 5 wrap (3500 yards) set ?
Allowing 5 per cent, to the 100 yards for contraction,
we should proceed —
5 X 3500 ^105 =
17500105 = 1661.
Ans. i66 pieces.
Ends in a Set. — The number of ends in a set are
equal to those in the piece of cloth desired to be made,
and the number is ascertained as shown on page 14.
The number of ends is generally too large to be held
on one warper's beam, and is divided among several.
If 2100 ends are required they would be made on five
beams of 420 each, probably.
If 3100 were required they would be obtained, per
haps, by six 444's and one 436.
No definite rule can be given for this, or, in fact, is
J2 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
necessary, as almost each mill is circumstanced differ
ently.
Weig'ht of a Beam or Set of Beams.— To ascertain
by calculation.
Rule D. — Multiply the total ends by the length in yardsy
and divide by 840 and the counts.
Example. — A set of beams consists of five, each 420
ends and 4 wraps (3000 yards long). Counts 30's.
What is the weight of the set ?
5 X 420 = 2100 ends. 4 X 3000 = 12000 yards.
12000
2100
1200000
24000
840) 2 5 200000(30000
2520
30)30000
Ans. 1000 lbs. weight.
Counts of Beams. — To find the counts of a beam or
set of beams by calculation.
Rule E, — Divide the length by 840 and the weight.
The object here is obviously to find the number of
hanks by using 840 as a divisor, and then find the num
ber of hanks in the pound by dividing by the weight.
The number of hanks per pound is equivalent to counts.
Example. — A beam weighs 210 lbs., and contains 500
ends. It is 15,000 yards long. What are the counts?
15000 multiplied by 500 and divided by 840 and 210
gives 42.51.
yi;zi". 42.5 1 's counts.
WINDING, WARPING, AND BEAMING. 73
Warping" Calculations. Ball or Chain Warping",
otherwise circularmill warping. This process, almost
indispensable at one time for all varieties of goods^ is
now largely superseded by the beaming frame for plain
and grey goods and the sectionwarping for coloured
goods, but is still used to a considerable extent in the
coloured weaving trade and in many of the outside manu
facturing districts.
The mill is usually from 10 to 18 yards in circumference,
with staves set a foot apart all round ; for sample work,
small mills of 5 yards in circumference are used, and in
Scotland 4 or 5 ells of 45 inches and 10 feet high. The
bank or creel is sometimes constructed to hold as many as
500 bobbins, although it is more usual to work a much less
number.
To Determine the requisite Number of Revolutions
to make a Warp.
Rule F. — Divide the length of warp required by the
circumference of the mill.
Example. — For a 360yard warp with an 18yard
mill, 20 turns would be required before reversing. For
a warp of 100 ells on a 4ell mill, 25 revolutions would
be required.
Another example. — How many revolutions of the mill
will be made in one layer of a sample warp, 2000 ends,
20 yards, allow 24 inches at each end for gaiting, a
1 5yard mill being used ?
The total length of warp is 2 1 yards i foot, as 4 feet
are allowed altogether for gaiting. 1 5 yards divided into
2 1 J yards gives one complete round and 6 J yards (equal
74 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
ling 19 feet) over. Therefore the first layer would occupy
one round and 19 staves towards another round.
Layers. — Generally, in fact almost always, the number
of ends in the warp is several times as many as there are
bobbins in the creel, and the mill has to be turned back
wards and forwards till the required number of layers
have been obtained.
The number of ends in the warp determines the number
of layers to be warped.
Rule G. — Divide the number of ends in the warp by
the number of bobbins in use in the creel.
Should there be 200 bobbins in the creel, and 2400 be
required to form a warp, then 2400 ^ 200 =12 layers
are required.
These are usually expressed in bouts, millgangs, or
returns, which mean once down and once up. Therefore
for 2400 ends six bouts would be required.
Thus, six bouts of an 18yard mill, with 200 bobbins
in the creel and 20 turns of the mill before reversing,
would give a warp of 360 yards length and 2400 ends.
The number of bobbins in the creel should always divide
into the number of ends in the warp without remainder,
otherwise it necessitates breaking out at the last layer.
In Scotland 20 splits equal I porter, and the number of
ends in a warp are expressed frequently in porters and
splits — thus, 60 porters 10 splits.
The number of bobbins in the bank of a mill equals
therefore the number of splits (two ends) in a complete
bout. To find the number of bouts it is usual to use —
Rule H.— 7b divide the mimher of splits in the web by
the bobbins in the bank.
WINDING, WARPING, AND BEAMING. 75
Example. — With i lo bobbins in bank, and 6o porters
10 splits in the web. How many bouts of the mill are
required ?
60
20
1200
10
110)1210
II
Ans. 1 1 layers.
Weight of Warp. — To find the weight or counts of a
ball warp use the rules given on page 72 for a beam
warp.
Pinion. — The pinion at the upper part of the mill re
quires changing smaller when very long warps are made
so as to get the layers closer together, and thus more
length on the mill. The sizes are in exact proportion to
the distances from centre to centre of each layer, but
usually do not require such exact adjustments to neces
sitate any examples being given here.
Beaming". Specification for 1000 Looms, plain
goods, about 32's twist.
No. of beaming frames
Capacity ......
Creel either V or bed creel.
Measuring roller circumference .
Cylinder diameter ....
Beam, length between flanges
,, diameter of flange .
„ „ timber
Measuring" Motion. — For the purpose of measuring
the length of yarn on the beam, each beaming frame is
10
500
en
ds
18
in.
20
15
54
5?
22
J'
5
55
76 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
supplied with a roller half a yard in circumference, round
which the yarn passes; on the end of this roller is a
worm driving a worm wheel of 54 teeth, which we will
call B ; on the stud carrying B is a second worm driving
a worm wheel C of 132 teeth. The worm only takes one
tooth at each revolution, therefore a complete revolu
tion of the first worm wheel represents a length of 27
yards having passed the measuring roller; this is equal
to one tooth only on the second wheel B ; therefore, a
complete revolution of the latter means 3564 yards —
technically called a wrap — J X ^^^^— = 35^4. If a warp
contains 4 wraps and 7 teeth, it is 14,445 yards long =
4 X 3564 added to 7 X 27.
WINDING, WARPING, AND BEAMING.
77
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SLASHING OR TAPING
CALCULATIONS.
Specification for 1000 Looms, plain sorts, 32's in
counts.
No. of frames if weaving about 12 to 14 pick cloth, 4
„ „ „ 16 to 20 „ 3
,, » » 24 to 30 ,, 2
Cylinders 7 feet and 4 feet diameter. Width to suit
looms.
Marking" Motion Calculations. — To enable the weaver
to finish the piece when a required length has been
woven, the warp is marked at the sizing frame at a cer
tain length. This is generally done for plain goods by
means of a measuring roller 14.4 inches in circumference,
round which the twist passes. On the end of this is a
tin roller wheel driving a change wheel or stud wheel.
By means of a worm on the same stud the motion is
transferred to a bell wheel of 45 teeth, which drives a
marking cam so arranged as to gradually lift and sud
denly drop a hammer, which smites the warp against a
block soaked in some colouring matter.
To g'et the Wheels for a certain length, e.g., the
Stud Wheel.
Rule A. — Multiply the length of mark desired in inches
by tin roller wheel, and divide by the bell wheel and the cir
cumference of tin roller.
78
SLASHING OR TAPING CALCULATIONS. 79
Example. — Suppose we desire to mark every 3O2
yards, and have on a tin roller wheel of 36.
3o yards = 1098 inches.
1098 X 36 f 45 and 14.4
1098
__36
6588
3294
45)39528(878.4
360
352
315
378
360
180
14.4)878.4(61 teeth in stud wheel
864
144
144
Note. — 45 X 14.4 equals 648, which is generally used as
divisor.
To get the Tin Roller Wheel.
Rule B. — Multiply the circumference of measuring roller
by bell wheel and by stud wheel, dividing by the length of
mark required.
Example. — A mark of 45 yards 32 inches is required
with a 5 1 stud wheel. What tin roller wheel must be used ?
14.4x45 = 648 X 51 = 33048
45 yards 32 inches = 1652)33048(20
33Q4
8
Ans. 20 tin roller wheel. This is not exactly right, but
20 is the nearest wheel that can be got.
8o WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
A very simple and yet reliable rule has been sent to
me by a correspondent. It is
To g'et Wheels for any Length of Cut.
Rule C. — Divide the length in inches desired by 648
(14.4 X 45). The quotient in the form of a vulgar fraction
shows the wheels required. The numerator will represent
the stud wheel, and the denominator will indicate the tin
roller wheel.
Example. — Take the example from the previous page,
for the 30 J yard cut. 30 J yards =1098 inches; 1098
61
divided by 648 = ^, then the stud wheel is 61 and the
tin roller wheel 36.
To find what length the wheels will give.
Rule D. — Multiply 648 by the stud wheel, and divide by
the tin roller wheel.
Example. — What length will 44 tin roller and 100
stud wheel give ?
100 X 648 = 64800
44)64800(1472!
44
208
176 36)1472! inches
320 40 yards 32! inches
308
120
88
3^
44
Ans. 40 yards 32! inches.
Dhootie Marker. — In marking dhooties, in addition to
the smit for the end of the piece^ additional smits have
SLASHING OR TAPING CALCULATIONS.
8l
to be made where the heading for each scarf has to be
inserted. Usually this is done by having an additional
train of wheels and an extra marker, called a dhootie
marker, to strike 3, 4, or 6, &c., times for the cut
marker's once. In Fig. 4 a special arrangement is shown.
The usual wheels are shown at /i, the worm z, the bell
wheel /^, the bell shaft cutmark hammer 7/1. The other
IT
Fig. 4. — DhootieMarker.
wheels and the marker 7i refer to the dhootiemark ; d is
fixed to the stud and drives c with d, a pinion on another
stud ; the wheels e, /, and ^ complete the train, and on
the same shaft as ^ a cam operates the dhootiemarker.
This is arranged to strike any number of times for once
of the cutmarker, regulated by the number of teeth in
the change wheel /, 10 teeth in which give one mark
F
82 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
to a cut mark, 30 give three marks to a cut, 100 ten
marks to a cut, and so on by somewhat similar systems
for higher numbers. This marker is made by Messrs.
Howard & BuUough.
To find the actual Pereentag'e of Size put on the
Yarn.
Rule E. — To find the size actually put on the yarn, sub
tract the weight of the unsized yarn less waste from the
sized yarn — e.g.,
1639 actual sized weight.
1300 weight of yarn before sizing less waste.
339 = weight of size.
1300)33900(26.07 per cent, actual.
2600
7900
7800
100
Example— Counts after Sizing*.— Apply Rule E.,
page 72. 2280 ends 4 wraps of 3564 yards each weigh
1639 lbs.
142K6 X 2280 ^ ,
^ = 23.61's counts.
1639 X 840
The author, in his book on '' Cotton Manufacturing,"
describes the process of sizing, also sizing materials,
and machinery.
LOOM CALCULATIONS.
RITHMETICAL problems, as far as regards
weaving machinery, bear reference chiefly to
speeds of different parts of the machine.
These are necessary ones, but not very in
tricate, and the rules common to all speed calculations
previously given can be here applied.
The takeup motion is a special piece of apparatus,
and requires careful consideration, as do also one or two
calculations referring to fancy work.
To get the Speed of the Loom from the Eng'ine.
Rule A. — Multiply the speed of the engine by the dimen
sions of driving wheels^ and divide by the dimensions of the
driven wheels.
Example. — Engine speed, 46 revolutions per minute;
spur driving wheel, 105 teeth; pinion, 53 teeth; second
motion driving wheel, 52 teeth; line shaft in shed, 49;
drum on line shaft, 15 inches diameter; loom pulley, 8
inches.
83
84 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
46 X 105 X 52 X 1553 X 49x8.
46
105
230
460
49)71083(1450
4830
49
52
220
9660
196
24150
248
25II60
245
15
33
1255800
25II60
8)1450
53)3767400(7]
:o83
181I
371
57
53
440

424
160
Ans. 181 revolutions of crank shaft or picks per minute.
This is the calculated speed, but about 4 per cent, may
be allowed for slip, which leaves a result of about 174
picks per minute.
Changing Speed of Loom. — An example is given on
page 63.
To obtain Speed of the Bottom Shaft (in the plain
loom called the tappet shaft) from the Crank Shaft.
Apply Rule A,, given on page 59.
^ If all the fractions had been taken into account the result would have
been slightly greater. In this and some other connections where it is not
of importance to express the result in infinitesimal quantities, the fractional
remainders are left out for convenience in calculation.
LOOM CALCULATIONS. 85
Example. — A loom crank shaft revolves 180 times in
a minute. It carries a 41, driving an 82 on the bottom
shaft. What is the speed of the latter ?
180 X 41 f 82 = 90 revolutions per minute.
To obtain the Number of Revolutions of a Crank
Shaft for One Revolution of a Twill Shaft, Tappet
Shaft, or Tappet Motion.
This corresponds with the number of picks per minute
that the motion is adapted for.
Examples.
Case I. — When the twill shaft is under the loom and
parallel to the bottom shaft —
'.g., Wheel on end of crank shaft
40
„ „ of bottom shaft
80
5, bottom shaft (driver) .
24
„ twill shaft .
36
How many revolutions does the crank shaft make for the
twill shaft one ?
Apply Rule B., on page 61.
I X 36 X 80 ^ 24 X 40 =
2880 ^ 960 = 3.
The motion is then for a threeleaf twill.
Case II. — For a woodcroft tappet.
The crank shaft carries a 12; the tappet wheel is 108.
How many picks are there to the round ?
I revolution of tappet x 108 ^12 = 9 picks to the round.
The same rule applies to side tappets without inter
mediate wheels, the carrier of course not entering into the
calculations.
S6 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Case III. — For side tappets with an intermediate pair
of wheels.
In this arrangement the crank shaft carries a driver
gearing with the first of the intermediate wheels on a
stud. On the same stud is the second intermediate
wheel driving the wheel on the tappets.
Suppose the train of wheels is 20 driving 50, 18 driv
ing 72, the 50 and 18 being the intermediate wheels on
the stud. How many revolutions of the first driver (the
crank shaft) are made for the tappet one ?
Apply Rule B., on page 61.
I X 72 X 50 ^ 20 X 18.
72
5^
20)3600
18)180
10
Am. 10.
Case IV. — A tappet motion, such as Smalley's sateen
motion.
Example. — Crank shaft wheel 41, driving 82 on bottom
shaft. Bottom shaft carrying 36 twist gear, driving 36
on upright shaft. 12 at top of upright shaft, driving 60
on tappets. How many revolutions of crank shaft for
tappet shaft one ?
Applying the Rule B., on page 61.
I X 60 X 36 X 82 = 12 X 36 X 41 = 10 picks to the round.
To find the Wheel or Wheels required to give the
required number of Picks to the Round.
Use Rule C, on page 61.
LOOM CALCULATIONS. 8/
Examples.
Case I. — Where the twill shaft is under the loom
parallel to the bottom shaft. Suppose the crank shaft to
carry a 41, driving an 82 on the bottom shaft, and we
require the bottom shaft to drive the twill shaft to give 5
picks to the round, or, in other words, to make I revolu
tion for the crank shaft 5.
We require the size of two wheels, and shall have to
estimate one. Say we have a 100 on the twill shaft,
then we want the size of the driver on the tappet shaft.
Applying rule —
I X 100x82441 x5 = 4o the wheel required.
Then the two wheels required are in proportion of 40
to 100, or say 20 and 50.
Case II. — A woodcroft tappet. Picks to round re
quired, 16; size of tappet wheel, 192. How many teeth
on crank shaft wheel ?
Applying rule, divide driven wheel by speed of driver —
192
— 7 = wheel required on crank shaft.
Ans. 12 teeth.
Case III.— Side Tappets.— To find one of the drivers
to give a required speed, use Rule C, on page 61. For
a 14 pick to the round, with a 10 on crank shaft, 35 on
stud, and 40 on tappets. Find the driver on the stud.
Multiply the speed of the driven shaft I by the driven
wheels 35 and 40, and divide by the speed of the driver
14 X driving wheel 10.
35 X I x4o= i4oo _^^
14 X 10 = 140
88 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
The train will be —
lo driving 35
10 „ 40
If it be one of the driven wheels that is wanted, apply
Rule D., on page 62.
Example. — 13 picks to round. 13 picks to the round
must be woven, the wheel on the crank shaft being 25 ;
the stud drives 13, and the last wheel on the same shaft
as the tappets is 65. Then, to get the size of inter
mediate driven wheel on the stud, multiply the speed of
driver 13 by the drivers 25 and 13, and divide this by
the driven 65.
I X 13X 13X 25^65 = 65 the wheel required.
If both intermediate wheels have to be found.
Rule B. — Find the speed that the driven and driving
wheels give, and this is to the required speed, as the two
required wheels are to one another.
Example. — 17 picks to the round are required. There
is a 10 on the crank shaft and a 25 on the tappets. What
have the two intermediate wheals to be ? The speed of
the crank shaft for the tappets i with the given wheels
is 25MO = 2. Then as 2 J is to 17, so the required
wheels. 10 and 68 would do, or 15 and 102. Take
the latter, the train would then be —
10 driving 102
15 n 25
Case IV. — Tappet motion above loom driven from
bottom shaft by an upright wheel.
Example. — 7 picks to r6und required, or the crank
LOOM CALCULATIONS. 89
shaft to revolve 7 times for tappet once. Crank shaft
wheel 4O; driving 80 on bottom shaft, 36 on bottom
shaft driving 36. JO on tappets. What is the size of
the intermediate wheel ?
Applying the Rule C, on page 61 : —
70 X 36 X 80 f 7 X 36 X 40. Ans. 20.
The train of middle wheels would then be —
40 driving 80
36 » 36
20 „ 70
Leverag'e. — To find the distance moved through by
one end of a lever.
Case I. — Levers of the first order, when the fulcrum
or centre on which it moves is between the power and
the work.
Rule C. — The length of the weight arm multiplied by
the distance through which the power arm is moved, and
divided by the length of the power arm, gives the distance
through which the end of the weight arm moves.
Example. — ^A lever 10 inches long, working on a
centre 4 inches from one end, is moved i inch at its
longer end. How far does it move at its shorter end ?
The weight arm 4 inches X i inch i the power arm
6 inches = f inches.
Case II. — Levers of the second order, i.e., where the
weight is between the fulcrum and the power.
The same rule applies.
Case III. — Where the power is between the weight
and fulcrum.
The same rule applies.
go WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Size of Shed. — The ordinary treadles of the plain
loom are levers of the second or third order, and the
calculation of the size of the shed from given dimensions
of the tappets and treadles forms a good example in
leverage. Suppose the stroke of the tappet, or the dis
tance through which it moves the treadle bowl, between
the outer and inner circle is 3 inches. The treadle, a
lever of the second order, is 30 inches long, the treadle
bowl being 25 inches from the treadle pin, and the
healds connected 15 inches from the pin or fulcrum
at a point which we will call N. Then the movement of
the heald from its highest to its lowest level is equal to
the distance moved through by the point N — i.e., 2.1
inches — for if the bowl moves 3 J inches, the point N
7 i V T d
moves (by the rule) — = 2. i inches. This gives the
size of the shed at the healds.
Suppose the heald in question is 7 inches from the fell
of the cloth, the shuttle passing through the shed 2 inches
nearer to the cloth, then the size of the shed at the heald
multiplied by 5 and divided' by 7 gives its size at the point
where the shuttle passes through, or 2. 1x517= 1.5
inches.
Takeup Motion. — Among cotton looms the positive
takeup motion is generally used. The cloth as woven is,
by this arrangement, drawn on the, cloth roller a certain
distance at every pick, the amount of takeup being regu
lated by wheels. Fig. 5 shows a sketch of the arrange
ment. The construction is similar" for almost all looms,
but there are different gears and sizes of wheels used. In
Harrison's gear the rack wheel of 50 teeth receives its
motion from a pawl, worked by one of the slay swords.
LOOM CALCULATIONS.
91
On the same stud is the change wheel. This gears with
the stud wheel, 100 teeth, firmly connected with the
pinion of 12 teeth, driving the beam wheel 75 The
beam or sand roller is 1 5 inches in circumference, and is
covered with glued sand, perforated tin, or some rough
substance, to hold the cloth firmly. The fabric is wound
on the cloth roller below this by means of contact with
the sand roller. The chano'e wheel is varied to ffive
Fig 5
changes of picks in the cloth, a larger wheel giving fewer
picks in the quarter inch. Each gear has a constant
number associated with it, called a dividend.
To ascertain the Number of Picks in a Quarter
Inch of cloth.
If the number of teeth in the change wheel be divided
into this dividend, it gives the picks in a qiim'ter inch
of cloth. Imagining that a change wheel, having the
92 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
effect of only one tooth in a revolution, could be
applied, then the dividend is the number of picks that
the loom would run before the sand roller advanced a
quarter of an inch. Suppose 528 dividend is taken, this
represents a change wheel supposed to have one tooth.
If a wheel of 66 teeth be put on, only gV ^s many picks to
the quarter will be inserted — i.e., ^^^ = 8 picks.
To ascertain the Number of Teeth in the wheel
required for a number of picks per quarter inch of cloth.
Divide the number of picks per quarter inch into the
dividend, and select the nearest wheel to the result
obtained. Also see the following pages and Tables IX.
and X.
Dividend. — The method of obtaining the dividend for
any ordinary gear is —
Rule D. — Multiply all the driven wheels together, and
divide by the drivers and the circumference of the roller,
thus —
Rack wheel x carrier wheel x beam wheel
Pinion wheel x number of 5 inches in circumference of takingup roller
afterwards adding i J per cent, for shrinkage of the cloth
after being released from the tension of the loom.
Thus Harrison's gear gives —
50 X 75 X 100 = 12 X 60= 520.8
Add i^ per cent. = 7.8
Dividend . 528.6 usually taken as 5.28
LOOM CALCULATIONS.
93
The principal g'ears in use in Lancashire are:
Rack
Wheel.
Stud
and
Carrier
Wheel.
Pinion.
Beam
Wheel.
Circumf.
Takeup
Roller.
•6
c
s
J. Harrison & Sons, now"\
J. Dugdale & Sons . ./
Willan & Mills . . . . ]
J. Dugdale & Sons . . . r
J. & R. Shorrock . . J
Butterworth & Dickinson
Pickles
50
24
100
120
120
89
12
15
18
15
75
75
100
90
15
15
16
15
528
507
528
To weave heavy pick cloth with, say, the firstnamed
motion, the rack wheel might be increased to 60 from
50, and the dividend would then be 634.
Pickles' gear also has a swing pinion 24, and two change
wheels. To find the change wheel required, multiply the
change wheel on the rack stud by the picks per quarter
inch, and divide by 9 —
Equal to 4 teeth per pick for a 36 change wheel.
27
By using this motion both heavy and light pick cloth
can be woven without a great variation in the wheels.
The dividend is not given for Pickles' motion ; in fact
the constant number is a multiple and not a dividend.
There are two extra wheels in Pickles' motion on a swing
between the stud wheels and rack wheels. One of these
is a swing pinion, 24, and the other is a change wheel.
There are thus two change wheels. The one on the rack
stud is generally considered a standard one, and is either
94 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
1 8, 27, 36, or 45, each of which, it will be noticed, is a
multiple of 9 : a 36 is often used. The other change
wheel on the swing stud is the one altered for picks, and
supposing a 36 standard to be used, then the number of
picks per quarter inch multiplied by 4 gives the change
wheel required. If the standard were 27, then the
number of picks multiplied by 3 gives the wheel required.
If an 18 standard be used, then the number of picks
multiplied by 2 gives the change wheel. The advan
tages of this motion are : — the possibility of obtaining the
same fraction of a pick in difference by changing one
tooth, whether in low pick or heavy pick cloths — in other
Vv^ords, each tooth having the same value ; also a smaller
range of change wheels, as a change of the standard
wheel makes the same set of change wheels serve for
heavy picked as well as for light picked cloths ; also the
possibiHty of changing to a J pick in heavy goods, which
is very difficult and unusual with the dividend system of
gears.
Example. — Applying .Rule D. to Pickles' motion, the
drivers are 24 rack wheel, the variable change wheel,
which we want to find, the 89 stud wheel, and the 90
beam wheel. The driven wheels are the standard wheel,
the swing pinion 24, and the stud pinion 15.
Then £4^l9Jl_9°
24 X 15 X 60 8.9
Add I J per cent. .1
90
The calculation is not yet completed, as we have
another change wheel — the standard. Suppose it is to
LOOM CALCULATIONS. 95
36
be a 36, and using 9 as a divisor, the result is — , or 4.
27 18 .
If a 27 standard be used, ^^ = 3. With an 18, ^ — is 2.
^ 9 9
The figure 4 obtained with the 36 is not a dividend but
a multiplier if we desire to find what wheel is used for a
certain number of picks per quarter, or divisor if the picks
are required from the wheel.
Example. — Suppose a 36 standard is used, and the
picks per quarter inch required are 20 : 20 multiplied by
4 gives the number of teeth — 80. If 17 picks are required
per quarter inch, 17 x 4 = 68 wheel.
On the contrary, the figure 4 may be a divisor if the
picks are required — e.g.y if a 48 wheel is used, what are
A 8
the picks per quarter inch ? — = 12 ; or with a 61 wheel,
4
— = 15 J picks per quarter inch.
4
Table IX.— Pick Table, g'iven in picks to the
quarter inch.
Atherton's Gear.
Dickinson's Gear.
Harrison's Gear.
Beam
wheel . 80
Beam
wheel . 7'5
Beam wheel . 75
Beam wheel . 7s
Beam
wheel . 7^
Stud wheel . 120
Stud wheel . 120
Stud wheel . 120
Stud wheel . 100
Stud wheel . 100
Rack wheel . 60
Rack wheel . 50
Rack
wheel . 80
Rack wheel . 50
Rack wheel . 60
Pinion wheel. 15
Pinion wheel. 15
Pinion wheel 15
Pinion wheel. 12
Pinion
wheel. 12
Emery bm. 15 in.
Emery bm. 13 in.
Emery bm. 15 in.
Emery bm. ij in.
Emery bm. 15 in.
Dividend . . 649
Dividend , . 507
Dividend . . 811
Dividend . . 528
Dividend . . 634
u3
a)_
4)_
bcv
(U_.
be D
n <u
Picks.
P 4)
Picks.
C V
Picks.
C V
Picks.
Picks.
sl
6^
S^
U^
15
43.26
15
338
15
5406
15
35.2
15
42.266
16
40.56
16
31.69
16
50.68
16
33
16
39.625
17
38.17
17
29.82
17
477
17
31.06
17
37.294
18
36.05
18
28.17
18
45.05
18
29.33
18
35.222
19
35.21
19
26.68
19
42.689
19
27.79
19
33368
20
32.45
20
25.35
20
40.55
20
26.4
20
31.7
21
30.904
21
24.1:43
21
38.623
21
25.143
21
30.19
22
29.5
22
23.045
22
36.863
22
24
22
28.818
23
28.217
23
22.043
23
35.26
23
22.956
23
27.565
24
27.041
24
21.125
24
33791
24
22
24
26.417
25
25.96
25
20.28
25
32.44
25
21.12
25
2536
26
24.961
26
19.5
26
31.192
26
20. 308
26
24.385
27
24.037
27
18.778
27
30.037
27
19.556
27
23481
28
23.178
28
18.107
28
28.964
28
18.857
28
22.643
29
22.379
29
17.483
29
27.965
29
18.207
29
21.862
30
21.633
30
16.9
30
27.033
30
17,6
30
21.133
31
20.935
31
16.355
31
26.161
31
17.032
31
20.452
32
20.281
32
15.884
32
25343
32
16.5
32
19.813
33
19.666
33
15364
33
24.575
33
16
33
19.212
34
19.088
34
14.912
34
23852
34
1553
34
18.647
35
18.542
35
14.486
35
23.171
35
15.0S6
35
18. 114
36
18.027
36
■14.083
36
.22.527
36
14.667
36
17.611
37
1754
37
13703
37
21.918
37
14.27
37
17.13s
38
17.078
38
13342
38
21.342
38
13895
38
16.684
39
16.641
39
13
39
20.794
39
13.538
39
16.256
40
16.225
40
12.675
40
20.275
40
13.2
40
15.85
41
15.829
41
12.366
41
19.78
41
12.878
41
15463
42
15.452
42
12.071
42
19.309
42
12.571
42
15095
43
15093
43
11.791
43
18.86
43
12.279
43
14.744
44
1475
44
"•523
44
18.431
44
12
44
14.409
45
14.442
45
11.267
45
18,022
45
11733
45
14.089
46
14. 108
46
11.022
46
17.63
46
11.478
46
13783
47
13.808
47
10.787
47
17.225
47
11.234
47
13.489
48
13.52
48
10.563
48
16.895
48
II
48
13.208
49
13.244
49 ■■
10.347
49
16.51
49
10.776
49
12.939
SO
12.98
50
10.14
50
16.22
50
10.56
50
12.68
SI
12.725
51
9.94T
51
159
51
10.353
51
12.431
52
12.48
52
975
52
15.59
52
10.154
52
12.192
S3
12.24
53
9.566
53
15.30
53
9.962
53
11.962
54
12.02
54
9.389
54
15.01
54
9.778
54
1 1. 741
55
li.S
55
9.218
55
14.74
55
9.6
55
.11.527
56
1159
56
9.054
56
14.48
56
9.429
56
11.321
57
1:137
57
8.895
57
14.22
57
9.263
57
11.123
58
11.29
58
8.741
58
13.98
58
9.103
58
10.931
59
11.00
59
8.593
59
1374
59
8.95
59
10.746
60
10.81
60
8.45
60
13.51
60
1
8.8
60
10.567
LOOM CALCULATIONS.
97
At Table IX. a pick table is given showing the calcu
lated picks for fortysix different wheels in five styles of
gear. As will be imagined from a perusal of the list, the
same wheels are not always used for the same pick at
different mills, but the following scale gives a medium
cloth, and is in use very largely. Poorer or better cloth
can be made by using larger or smaller wheels re
spectively : —
Table X.
Picks to
507
528
649
Quarter.
Dividend.
Dividend.
Dividend.
9
60
62
76
lO
56
58
71
II
50
52
65
12
46
48
59
13
42
44
54
14
39
41
50
15
3^
38
46
16
33
35
43
17
32
33
40
18
30
31
38
19
28
29
36
20
26
27
34
21
25
26
32
22
24
25
31
23
23
24
29
24
22
23
28
An Uptaking" Motion, used in Scotland, consists of
three wheels only (omitting wheels C and D in Fig. 5);
the change pinion gearing directly with the beam wheel.
Suppose the beam to be 13 inches in circumference, the
beam wheel to be 140 teeth, and the rack wheel 120, the
dividend for the number of picks j^er inch is got by
G
98 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Rule E. — Multiply the beam wheel and rack wheel to
gether^ and divide by the circumference of the roller in inches.
140x120^13 = 1291 dividend.
Thus for 43 picks to the inch a 30 wheel would be
required, obtained by dividing 129 1 by 43.
To many manufacturers it is no doubt preferable to
have a dividend which, when divided by the shots on the
glass, gives the necessary wheel ; therefore we give
Rule F. — Multiply the rack wheel by the beam wheels
and divide by the circumference of the uptaking roller ex
pressed in twohundredths of'^'j inches.
The dividend of the former example would be 1 20 x
140, and divided by 70.27, that being 13 inches expressed
in 2% of an inch —
120 X 140 ^ 70.27 = 239.
Suppose 17 shots on the glass were required —
23917=^.
Ans. 14 wheel required.
Jaequard Calculations. — In designing for Jacquard
work many sizes of design paper are used — thus, 8x8,
12x9, 12x10, 10X8, signifying that the firstnamed
number of squares across the paper occupy the same
space as the latter number down the paper.
These are used so that a pattern may be in proportion
on the paper to what it would be in the cloth, although
in the latter it might have less picks than ends per inch.
For example, a square pattern woven 12 ends to the
\ inch and 10 picks to the \ inch, if drawn on I2X 10
design paper, would be as broad as long, if on I2X 12
design paper would appear broader than long.
LOOM CALCULATIONS. 99
Apparently then the design paper to be used should be
in proportion to the ends and picks per inch. If the cloth
has to be i6o ends and i6o picks per inch, then the
design paper must be as i6o to i6o. For example, 8x8
would do.
If 132 ends and no picks per inch, the paper must
be as 132 is to no, e.g., 12 x 10 paper.
Casting" Out. — In layover patterns a number of ends
are tied to one hook, and if the pattern contains as many
ends as there are hooks, or some factor of the number, it
is easy to calculate how many shall be tied. In a warp
of 1600 ends in a 400 machine, and 400 ends in the
pattern, four would be tied to each hook. With 100 ends
in the pattern there would be 16 ends similar, which,
however, would be divided between the four patterns
representing the capacity of the machine, still giving four
ends to a hook. In some cases, the number of hooks
available for use cannot be divided by the number of ends
in the pattern without remainder. This remainder can
not be used, and has to be cast out.
Rule G. — After allowing for selvages, &c., divide the
number of hooks available by the number of ends in the
pattern, the remainder after division is the number to be
cast out ; the other hooks being all utilised.
Example. — How many hooks would be cast out in a
408 machine, with 64 ends in the pattern, 8 hooks being
used for selvages. The machine will weave six patterns
and have 16 hooks to spare, which would be cast out —
64)400(6 groups
384
16
Ans. 16 hooks cast out.
100 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
One row of 8 would be cast in the middle and another
at the end.
To find the ends foF each Hook or Neckband.
Rule H. — Divide the number of patterns in the width
of the fabric by the number of groups of hooks available
for them. This gives the number of ends to each hook,
any surplus being added to one or more groups of hooks.
Example. — Taking 1600 ends in a 400 machine, with
64 ends to the pattern, the 1600 ends, neglecting sel
vages, will give 25 complete patterns of 64 ends each in
the width of the cloth ; this will give four ends, otherwise
four patterns, to each hook to five sets, and five patterns
or five ends to a hook in the sixth set.
Casting out for coarser reed.
Rule J. — Multiply the number of hooks in use for the
finer reed by the coarser reed, and divide by the finer reed.
The difference is the number to cast out.
Example. — 400 hooks are being used for 100 reed
cloth. How many would have to remain at rest in weav
ing 80 reed cloth with the same Jacquard harness ?
400 X 80 f 100 = 320
400  320 = 80 to cast out.
Cumhertaoard. — The total number of holes per inch in
the cumberboard' must be equal at least to the number of
warp ends per inch in the reed. If the cumberboard is
finer than this, subtract the ends per inch in the reed
from the ends per inch in the cumberboard, and the
number to be left unused in each inch remains.
WAGE CALCULATIONS.
N the cotton trade wages are now regulated
chiefly by lists of prices drawn up and agreed
upon by representatives of masters and opera
tives. This is a commendable system, not
only because it obviates disputes, by having a standard
to refer to in case of differences of opinion, but be
cause each manufacturer and each district are placed on
the same basis, and thus unfair competition is avoided.
Earlier in the history of the cotton trade each master had
his own list, and paid more or less than his competitors,
as he was more or less favourably situated, or perhaps
in some instances according to the rates to which he had
been accustomed from the commencement of the factory
system. The growth of trades' unions has compelled the
adoption of fixed bases on which all makers must pay,
forcing up the lowest prices, while at the same time
increased competition has compelled those manufacturers
who in times gone by have paid higher rates than their
competitors to reduce their payments to the ordinary rates,
and thus the standardised scales of payments have been
adopted.
Almost the only disadvantage in standard lists is that
when once fixed neither masters nor men seem inclined
to make allowances for abnormal circumstances, such, for
I02
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
example, as when an employer is engaged on producing
cheap fabrics out of poor material, or where machinery
is old or worn out. In these cases the workpeople are
obviously at a disadvantage. In other circumstances the
employer is in the worse position where he has gone to
great expense in providing the most modern machinery,
or the most healthy workshop, or where he finds employ
ment in a country neighbourhood for people who would
otherwise be unemployed, and where he is at greater
expense in carriage, cartage, lighting, and other expenses.
In these cases the operative reaps the benefit if full rates
are paid. The greatest unanimity of prices prevails in
the weaving departments, and least in those branches
where the fewest men are employed, such as taping or
warehousing. In these departments each man has his
own value based on his abihty. The rates paid in each
department will now be given, and where possible the
districts in which each list is accepted will be noted.
Winding".
Mule Yarn, from Twist Cop to Warper's
Bobbin.
Counts of
Yarn.
i8's.
20'S .
22'S .
24'S .
26'S.
28'S.
30'S.
32'S.
34'S.
36'S.
Lbs. of Twist
for I2d.
65 lbs.
62 „
57 ,,
52 .,
49 >5
46 „
44 ,,
42 „
41 ,,
40 5,
Counts of
Yarn.
38'S.
40's .
46'S.
50's .
6o's.
70's .
8o's.
90's .
loo's .
Lbs. of Twist
for I2d.
36 lbs.
30
28
24
21
18
16
15
WAGE CALCULATIONS.
TO3
Above paid nett, and is an average of rates paid in
Lancashire.
Ring frame or throstle frame yarn about 25 per cent,
more for a shilh'ng. No acknowledged list is paid in all
the cotton districts, but the above is about the average.
In Burnley, 6Jd. per 20 Jbs. of 32's twist is paid, and
5 per cent, added to the price for each two counts finer,
and 5 per cent, deducted for each two counts coarser.
Below are the prices for winding allowed by the Preston
list of 1 860, and still current at some places in the town : —
Average of Prices Paid for Winding for 20 lbs.
Throstle.
Mule.
Throstle.
Throstle.
d.
d.
d.
d.
26 . . 3f
50 . . 8
85 . .14
28
3i
5l
55 • • 81
90 • . i5i
30
3«
5f
60 . . 9
95 • • 16I
32
3l
6
65 ■ • 9f
100 . . 18
34
6i
70 . . \o\
105 . . 20I
36
...
6i
75 • • iij
no . . 23
40
7
80 . . 12I
120 . . 30
46
...
7i
Coloured Yarn Winding*.
When coloured yarn is used for warps, the yarn is
dyed either in the warp or chain as a rule ; but in goods
where the amount of colour is small in proportion to the
grey yarn (d booties, for example, and also in other special
goods), the yarn is dyed in the hank, and has to be
wound to the warping bobbin. Rates vary very much
for this; is. per bundle is often paid for 20's or 2/40's in
I04
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
dhooty work. In other districts this rate gets as low as
8d. per bundle, but the average may be taken as lod.
A scale in proportion to this would be : —
12's 16's 20's 24's 28's 32's 36's 40's
M.
^d. lod.
ii^d.
i2,d. i4^d. i6d. iT^d.
Pirn Winding".
Coloured wefts often require winding from hank to
pirn, and this is more costly than winding the same yarn
to the warper's bobbin. An average over the county of
Lancashire would probably give : —
12's 16's 20's 24's 28's 32's 36's 40's
igd.
lod. 1 2d. i4d. i6^d. igd. 2i^d. 24^. 2'jd.
In each case the prices apply to a 10 lb. bundle.
Beaming".
(Less 10 _per cent)
Pnr\a
Price per wrap
Fnrlq
Price per wrap
of 3564 yards.
of 3564 yards.
300
375^
410
4.93^.
310
3.85^. ,
420
5.04^.
320
3.96^.
440
5.28^.
330
4.0 J d.
460
5.52^.
340
4.1 Sd.
480
5.76^.
350 • .
4.2 gd.
500
6.ood.
360
4.40^.
520
6.2 6d
370
4.5^.
550
6.66d
380 .
4.6d.
580 .
7.05^.
390
4.7 id.
610
7.45^.
400
4.82^.
640
7.85^.
No list has been official^ adopted for this work, but
the above may be taken as the average rate in North
Lancashire.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. I05
Ball Warping".
Ball warping is paid either by the thousand hanks or
by the 100 lbs., except in the case of small or difficult
warps, which are made by time.
An average rate varies from 6d. to 8d. per lOOO hanks,
and an allowance of 2d. per warp for all warps under 500
hanks. In some cases id. is allowed for each double
lease, and from 6d. to 8d. per hour paid for making
sample warps, or difficult coloured warps.
An average list of prices is for grey warps of not less
than 800 hanks each : —
lo's
"jd. per
1000 hanks.
or 7^/. per
100 lbs
i6's
6^.
5} 5)
lid.
55
24's
61^.
5' 55
^S¥'
55
32's
(>\d.
5? 55
2od.
55
40's
6d.
>5 55
24^.
55
Example. — What is the price for warping 1400 ends,
840 yards, 2/60's ?
Weight of warp 1400 multiplied by 840 and divided
by 840 gives 1400 hanks. At 6Jd. per 1000, the price for
the warp is 8.75 pence.
Alts. 8fd.
Slashing" op TapeSizing*.
The Blackburn list, framed some twentyfive years
ago, is largely used where payment by list still obtains.
Many mills now have the slashers or tapers, as they are
variously called, paid at a fixed wage. The list is as
under : —
Taking 2460 ends as a standard, deducting d. for
io6
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
every 50 ends below the standard, on 37^ yards per 100
cuts.
Taking 2460 ends as a standard, add Jd. for every 50
ends above the standard, on 37 yards per 1 00 cuts.
Fractional parts of 50 ends given in favour of the
workman.
1460
1560
1660
1760
i860
i960
2060
2160
Ends.
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
1510
1610
1710
1810
1910
2010
2IIO
2210
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
25 yds.
14.00
14.5
15.00
155
16.00
16.5
17.00
17.5
37h "
21.00
21.75
22.5
2325
24.00
24.75
25.5
26.25
46 „
25.76
26.68
27.6
28.52
29.44
.30.36
31.28
32.2
60 ,,
336
348
36.00
37.2
38.4
39.6
40.8
42.00
100 ,,
56.00
58.00
60.00
62.00
64.00
66.00
68.00
70.00
2260
2360
2460
2560
2660
2760
2860
2960
Ends.
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
2310
2410
2510
2610
2710
2810
2910
3010
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
25 yds.
18.00
18.5
19.00
19.66
20.33
21.00
21.66
22.33
37i ..
27.00
27.75
28.5
295
30. 5
31.5
32.5
33.5
46 .,
3312
3404
3496
36.186
37413
38.64
39.86
41.093
60 ,,
432
444
456
472
48.8
50.4
52.00
536
100 ,,
72.00
74.00
76.00
78.66
81.33
84.00
86.66
89.33
3060
3160 .
3260
3360
3460
3660
3860
Ends
}.
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
3110
3210
3310
3410
3510
3710
3910
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
25 yds.
.
23.00
23.66
2433
25.00
25.66
27.00
28.33
37h »
345
355
36.5
37.5
38.5
40.5
42.5
46 „
.
42.32
43546
44773
46.00
47.226
49.68
5213
60 ,,
.
552
56.8
58.4
60.00
61.6
64.8
68.00
100 ,,
92,00
94.66
9733
100.00
102.66
108.00
11333
The preceding hst is based upon medium counts of
yarn. Extreme counts and extreme sorts to be allowed
for as per agreement.
The list is paid less 10 per cent.
WAGE CALCULATIONS.
107
It is adopted in most manufacturing districts, excepting
South Lancashire, where no deduction is made below
2500 ends.
Example. — Suppose the taper is engaged on 1970 ends
for three days, and runs three sets each of 200 — 75 yards
pieces, and for three days more on three sets of 1470
ends.
If 25 yards is adopted as the standard length of cut,
he will have slashed 200x75^25=600 cuts in a set —
that is, 1800 cuts of 1970 ends, and 1800 cuts of 1470
ends, the rates of payment for which, according to the
lists, are i6Jd. per hundred and I4d. per hundred re
spectively.
1800 at i6J^.=;2^i 4 9
„ at 14^. = 110
^2 5 9
10 per cent, off o 4 6
£^
Looming" with Lease.
i6's to 22's
23's to 27's
28's to 55's
56's to 8o's
8o's and upwards
28's to 55's, without lease
2\d, per 1000 threads.
2%d.
2\d.
2%d.
2\d.
Three leases to have something allowed as per agree
ment. Double warps for worsted goods to have an allow
ance as per agreement.
Jobbing or labouring to be paid extra, at so much per
hour. Yarns below i6's to be paid according to quality
of yarn and fineness of reed.
I08 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Drawing'in.
Dra wingin . . ^^d. per looo ends, with lease.
„ . . 4^d. ,, „ without lease.
The above is the Blackburn and district hst paid less
10 per cent. Other districts have rather higher lists.
The prices in the Preston list of i860 were as under : —
Looming" op Twisting" for 1000 Ends.
With a less d.
Without a
less
d.
28 to
60 inclusive . 2J
28 to 60 inclusive
3I
04
61 „
80 „ . 2f
6l „ 80
.
3l
81 „
120 „ . 2
81 „ 120
•
3i
Drawingin for 1000 Ends.
With a less d. 1 Without
a less
d.
28 to
120 . . . 3I
28 to 120 .
34
Weaving Wages.
The employers of Blackburn, Preston, and Burnley,
being the principal weaving districts of Lancashire, and
the representatives of the Northern Counties Weavers'
Associations adopted and put in force during the past
year (1892) a new uniform list of prices for plain weav
ing. Until this list was adopted, the most important lists
were the Blackburn list of 1853 and the Burnley list of
1880 for plain cloth, and the Nelson satin list for fancy
cloth. The Chorley plain and Preston lists were based
on the Blackburn list, and related to a fine class of goods.
The Bury, Stockport, and Ashton lists had been gradually
superseded by the Blackburn list as regarded plain cloth.
An attempt had been made by the operatives to combine
WAGE CALCULATIONS. IO9
the Chorley fancy list and the Nelson satin list as a new
list, to be called the North and NorthEast Lancashire
fancy list, but it had not been accepted by the employers.
These two fancy lists are given here, and have been
printed with the uniform hst, but, as just stated, have not
been officially adopted by the employers of any district.
The lists may be divided into two classes : —
(i.) Those regulating wages for weaving plain cloth.
(2.) Those regulating wages for weaving fancy cloth.
The Blackburn list was in 1883 formally adopted for
the former by many districts as the chief regulating
factor of Lancashire plain weavers' wages, but of course
has now been superseded by the uniform list. This has
been most difficult to formulate, having, it might be said,
for years engaged the attention of Joshua Rawlinson,
Esq., J. P., of Burnley, and Thomas Birtwistle, J. P., of
Accrington, the employers' and operatives' secretaries
respectively, who called in to their aid other leading repre
sentatives of both sides. Difficult of formulation, it has
been still more difficult to establish, opposition having
been met with from operatives in all districts where a
reduction was involved. It is now estimated to cover
300,000 looms, and with the preparatory processes to
regulate a wages bill of ;;^ 100,000 weekly.
Since the first edition of this book was published three
new lists have been adopted in addition to the uniform
list. These are the Oldham velvet list of 1890, the Colne
coloured goods list of 1891, and the Radcliflfe coloured
goods list of 1892. The latter lists were like the uniform
list framed by Mr. Joshua Rawlinson and Mr. Birtwistle
on behalf of, and in consultation with, the leading men on
both sides.
no WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
The RadclifFe list is printed here in place of the older
list that appeared in the first edition, and the Oldham and
Colne lists are inserted as additional representative lists.
The Oldham list refers to velvets and heavy goods. In
those towns where a uniform style of goods is made of
plain and comparatively simple weave, it is possible to
adopt and adhere to a standard rate of payment such as
is done in Burnley, Blackburn, and other towns. In other
districts such as Bolton, Manchester, and Preston, the
sorts are so varied and difficult to classify that at many
mills a private list is adhered to.
The lists here g'iven are:—
1. The Uniform list of weaving prices of 1892.
2. The Blackburn list of 1853.
3. The Chorley plain hst of 1875.
4. The Burnley plain list of 1 880.
5. The Preston list of i860.
6. The Chorley fancy hst of 1886.
7. The Nelson satin list of 1886.
8. The Radcliffe coloured goods list of 1892.
9. The Oldham velvet list of 1 890.
10. The Colne coloured goods list of 1891.
I. THE UNIFORM LIST, 1892.
(i) The Standard.
The standard upon which this list is based is an
ordinarilymade loom, 45 inches in the reed space,
measured from the fork grate on one side to the back
board on the other, weaving cloth as follows : —
WAGE CALCULATIONS. Ill
Width. — 39, 40, or 41 inches.
Reed. — 60 reed, 2 ends in one dent, or 60 ends per
inch.
Picks. — 15 picks per quarter inch, as ascertained by
arithmetical calculation, with \\ per cent, added for
contraction.
Length. — 100 yards of 36 inches measured on the
counter. Any length of lap other than 36 inches to be
paid in proportion.
Twist. — 28's or any finer numbers.
Weft. — 31's to lOO's both inclusive.
Price. — 30d., or 2d. per pick.
(2) Width of Looms.
A 45inch reed space loom being taken as the standard,
\\ per cent, shall be added for each inch up to and
including 51 inches; 2 per cent, from 51 to 56 inches;
2j per cent, from 56 to 64 inches; and 3 per cent, from
64 to 72 inches. \\ per cent, shall be deducted for each
inch from 45 to 37 inches inclusive ; and i per cent, from
37 to 24 inches, below which no further deduction shall
be made. For any fraction of an inch up to the half no
addition or deduction shall be made, but if over the half
the same shall be paid as if it were a full inch. All addi
tions or deductions under this clause to be added to or
taken from the price of the standard loom, 45 inches.
112
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Deducted from Standard.
Added to
Standard.
Loom.
Per
Loom.
Per
Loom.
Per
Loom.
Per
centage,
centage.
centage.
centage.
Inches.
Inches.
Inches.
Inches.
24
23
35
12
46
4
60
29
25
22
36
II
47
3
61
34
26
21
37
10
48
4j
62
34
27
20
38
8f
49
6
63
36i
28
19
39
7i
50
72
64
39
29
18
40
6i
51
9
65
42
30
17
4T
5
52
1 1
66
45
31
16
42
3¥
53
13
67
.48
32
15
43
2*
54
15
68
51
33
14
44
li
55
17
69
54
34
13
45 Standard
56
19
70
57
57
24
71
60
58
24
72
63
59
26I
(3) Broader Cloth than Admitted by Rule.
All looms shall be allowed to weave to within 4 inches
of the reed space, but whenever the difference between
the width of cloth and the .reed space is less than 4 inches
it shall be paid as if the loom were i inch broader, and
if less than 3 inches, as if it were 2 J inches broader.
(4) Allowance for Cloth 7 to 15 inches
Narrower than the Reed Space.
When the cloth is from 7 to 15 inches inclusive nar
rower than the reed space of the loom in which it is being
woven, a deduction in accordance with the following
tables shall be made. No further deduction shall be
made when cloth is more than 15 inches narrower than
WAGE CALCULATIONS.
113
the reed space, or when cloth is narrower than 18 inches.
Fractions of an inch are not to be recognised under this
clause.
Allowances for Narrow Cloth.
Cloth
72in.
Loom
Cloth lit
Cloth
in.
70in.
Loom
Cloth
69in.
Loom
Cloth
68in.
Loom
Cloth
67in.
Loom
in.
percent.
in. percent.
percent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
65
1.38
64
1.41
63
1.43
62
1.46
61
1.49
60
1.52
64
2.76
63
2.81
62
2.87
61
2.92
60
2.98
59
304
63
4.14
62
4.22
61
43
60
438
59
447
5«
456
62
552
61
5.62
60
573
59
S.84
5^
596
57
5.83
61
6.9
60
703
59
7.17
5^
731
57
7.2
56
7.09
60
8.28
59
8.44
5^
8.6
57
8.52
56
8.44
55
8.36
59
9.66
5^
9.84
57
979
56
9.74
55
9.69
54
963
5«
11.04
57
11.02
56
10.99
55
10.96
54
10.93
53
10.9
57
12.19
56
12.19
55
12.18
54
12.18
53
12.17
52
12.16
Cloth
66in.
Loom
Cloth
65in.
Loom
Cloth
64in.
Loom
Cloth
in.
63in.
Loom
Cloth
62in.
Loom
Cloth
61in.
Loom
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
percent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
59
155
5^
1.58
57
135
5&
137
55
1.4
54
143
5«
31
57
2.91
56
2.7
55
2.75
: 54
2.8
53
2.85
57
4.4
56
423
55
405
54
4.12
53
4.2
52
4.28
56
569
55
555
54
54
53
5.49
! 52
56
51
57
55
6.98
54
6.87
53
6.74
52
6.87
' 51
7
50
713
54
8.28
53
8.19
52
8.09
51
8.24
50
8.4
49
8.27
53
9.57
52
9.51
51
9.44
50
9.62
49
951
48
9.41
52
10.86
51
10.83
50
10.79
49
10.71
48
10.63
47
IO55
51
12.16
50
12.15
49
11.87
48
11.81
47
11.75
46
11.69
Cloth
60in.
Loom
Cloth
59in.
Loom
Cloth
in.
58in.
Loom
Cloth
57in.
Loom
Cloth
56in.
Loom
Cloth
55in.
Loom
in. percent.
in.
percent.
percent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
in. ipercent.
53
1.45
52
1.48
51
I5I
50
1.54
49
1.26
48
1.28
52
2.91
51
2.96
50
3.02
49
2.78
48
2.52
47
2.56
51
436
50
445
49
423
48
4.01
47
3.7^
46
.3.^5
50
5.8[
49
563
48
5.44
47
5.25
46
5.04
45
513
49
6.98
48
6.82
47
6.65
46
6.48
45
6.3
44
6.09
48
8.14
47
8.
46
7.86
45
7.72
44
7.25
43
705
47
93
46
9.19
45
9.07
44
8.64
43
8.19
42
8.01
4b
10.47
45
10.38
44
9.98
43
957
42
9.14
41
8.97
45
11.63
44
11.26
43
10.89
42
10.49
41
10.08
40
9.94
H
114
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Allowances for Narrow Cloth
continiied.
Cloth
54in.
Loom
Cloth
53in.
Loom
Cloth
52in.
Loom
Cloth
51in.
Loom
Cloth
50in.
Loom
Cloth
49in,
Loom
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
1
in.
percent.
47
1.3
46
133
45
135
44
1.03
43
1.05
42
1.06
46
2.61
45
2.65
44
2.36
43
2.06
42
2.09
41
2.12
4S
391
44
3^5
43
338
42
31
41
314
40
3 18
44
4.89
43
465
42
439
41
413
40
4.19
39
425
4S
^.87
42
564
41
541
40
5. 16
39
523
38
513
42
6M
41
6.64
40
6.42
39
6.19
38
6.1
37
6.01
41
7.83
40
763
39
743
38
7.05
37
6.98
3^
6.9
40
8.8
39
8.63
38
8.28
37
7.91
36
7.85
35
7.78
39 978
38
9.42
37
9.12
36
8.77
35
8.72
34
8.67
Cloth
48in.
Loom
Cloth
47in.
Loom
Cloth
46in.
Loom
Cloth
45in.
Loom
Cloth
44in.
Loom
Cloth
43in.
Loom
in.
percent.
in.
percent
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
41
1.08
40
1.09
39
I. II
38
.94
37
•95
3(^
.96
40
2.IS
39
2.18 ,
38
2.03
37
1.87
3&
1.9
35
1.92
^9
323
38
3.09
37
2.96
36
2.81
35
2.85
34
2.88
38
413
37
4.
3^
3.88
35
375
34
3.80
33
zn
37
5.02
36
4.91
35
4.8
34
4.69
33
475
32
4.81
36
592
35
.583 '
34
573
33
5.62
32
570
31
577
3S
6.82
34
6.74
33
6.65
32
6.56
31
6.65
30
6.54
34
7.72
33
765
32
7.57
31
75
30
7.41
29
7.31
33
8.61
32
8.56
31
8.5
30
8.25
29
8.16
28
8.08
^, ,, 42in.
Cl^th Loom
Cloth
41in.
Loom
Cloth
4bin.
Loom
Cloth
39in.
Loom
1
Cloth
38in.
Loom
Cloth
37in.
Loom
in. percent.
in.
percent.
in.
per cent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
in.
percent.
3S
.97
34
•99
33
I.
32
I.OI
31
1.03
30
•83
34
1.95
33
1.97
32
2.
31
2.03
30
1.85
29
1.67
33
2.92
32
2.96
31
3
30
2.84
29
2.67
28
25
I 32
39
31
395
30
3.8
29
3(^5
28
349
27
333
31
4.87
30
474
29
4.6
28
4.46
27
432
26
4.17
30
S.6S
29
552
28
5^4
27
527
26
514
25
5
2q
6.43
28
6.32
27
6.2
25
6.08
25
596
24
583
28
7.21
27
7.11
26
7
25
6.89
24
6.78
23
6.67
27
7.99
26
7.89
25
7.8
24
77
23
7.60
22
7.5
WAGE CALCULATIONS.
115
Allowances for Narrow Clotii— continued.
Cloth
36in.
Loom
Cloth
35in.
Loom
Cloth
34in.
Loom
Cloth
33in.
Loom
Cloth
32in.
Loom
Cloth
31in.
1 Loom
in.
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
percent.
.84
1.69
253
337
4.21
5.06
59
6.74
7.58
in.
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
percent.
.85
1.7
2.56
341
4.26
5II
597
6.82
7.67
in.
27
26
25
24
23
22
2[
20
19
percent.
.86
1.72
259
345
43'
517
6.03
6.9
11^
in.
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
percent.
1.74
2.62
349
4.36
5.23
6.1
6.98
7.85
in.
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
percent.
.88
1.76
2.65
353
4.41
529
6.18
7.06
in.
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
percent.
.89
1.79
2.68
357
4.46
5.36
6.25
Cloth
30in.
Loom
Cloth
29in.
Loom
Cloth
28in.
Loom
Cloth
in.
20
19
18
27in.
Loom
Cloth
26in.
Loom
Cloth
25in.
Loom
in.
23
2.2
21
20
19
18
percent.:
.9
I.81
2.71
3.61
452
542
in.
22
21
20
19
18
percent.
.91
1.83
2.74
366
457
in.
21
20
19
18
percent.
•93
1.85
2.78
3.7
percent.
•94
1.87
2.81
in.
19
18
percent.
•95
1.9
in.
18
percent.
.96
(5) Reeds.
A 60 reed being taken as the standard, f per cent, shall
be deducted for every two ends or counts of reed from 60
to 50, but no deduction shall be made below 50.  per
cent, shall be added for every two ends or counts of reed
from 60 to 68 ] i per cent, from 68 to 1 00; \\ per cent,
from 100 to no; and 2 per cent, from no to 132. All
additions or deductions under this clause to be added to
or taken from the price of the standard, 60 reed.
ii6
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Deducted from
Standard.
Added to
Standard.
Count of
Per
Count of
Per
Count of
Per
Reed.
centage.
Reed.
centage.
Reed.
centage.
50
si
62
3
98
18
52
3
64
4
100
19
54
2i
66
2i
102
20I
56
ij
68
3
104
22
58
f
70
4
106
23i
60
Standard.
72
5
108
25
74
6
no
26J
_
76
7
112
28I
78
8
114
30J
80
9
116
32i
82
10
118
34J
84
II
120
s^i
86
12
122
sH
88
13
124
4oi
90
14
126
42J
92
15
128
44i
94
16
130
46i
96
17
132
48J
(6) Picks.
Low. — An addition of i per cent, shall be made for
each pick or fraction of a pick below 1 1, thus : —
Below II down to and including 10, i per cent.
JJ ^O 53 ?> 9' 2 5)
J) 9 " " ' 3 "
55 " ij j5 7? 4 j>
and so on, adding I per cent, for each pick or fraction
thereof.
High. — An addition of i per cent, per pick shall be
made whenever they exceed the following, if using
WAGE CALCULATIONS.
117
Weft below 26's when picks exceed 16
jj 26's to 39's inclusive ,, 18
„ 40's and above ,, 20
In making additions for high picks any fraction of a
pick less than the half shall not have any allowance ;
exactly the half shall have J per cent, added ; any fraction
over the half shall have the full i per cent, added.
(7) Twist.
The standard being 28's, or finer, the following addi
tions shall be made when coarser twist is woven in the
following reeds : —
Below 28's to 2o's in 64 to 67 reed inclusive, i per cent.
68 to 71 ,, „ 2
72 to 75 „ „ 3
Below 2o's to 14's in 56 to 59 „ ,, i
60 to 63 ,, ,, 2
64 to 67 „ „ 3
and so on at the same rate. When twist is woven in
coarser reeds no addition shall be made.
(8) Weft.
Ordinary Pin Cops. — The standard being 31's to lOO's
both inclusive, shall be reckoned equal. Above lOO's I per
cent, shall be added for every 10 hanks or fraction thereof.
In lower numbers than 31's the following additions shall
be made : —
For 3o's5
29's, 28's,
27's, 26's,
25's, 24's,
23's, 22's,
2l's, 20'S,
19's, i8's,
17's, i6's,
15's, 14's,
add I per cent.
» 2
n 3
„ 6^
101
16
Il8 . WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Large Cops. — When weft of the following counts is spun
into large cops so that there are not more than 19 in one
pound, the following additions shall be made in place of
the allowance provided for pin cops in preceding table : —
For 29's, 28's, add i per cent.
„ 27's, 26's, „ 2
„ 25's, 24's, 23's, „ 3
5, 22'S, 2l's, 20'S, ,, 4J
„ 19's, i8's, „ 6
,, 17's, i6's, „ 8
,, 15's, 14's, ,, 10
(9) FourStaved Twills.
Low Picks. — In fourstaved twills an addition of i per
cent, for each pick or fraction thereof below the picks
mentioned in the following table shall be made when
using weft as follows : —
Below 26's, the addition shall begin at 13
26's to 39's, inclusive ,, ,, 14
40's and above ,, ,, 15
High Picks. — When using weft
Below 26's, the addition for high picks shall begin at 21
26's to 39's inclusive ,, „ ,, 22
40's and above ,, ,, „ 23
In making additions for high picks, any fraction of a
pick less than the half shall not have any allowance;
exactly the half shall have \ per cent, added ; any fraction
over the half shall have the full I per cent, added.
(ro) Splits.
The following additions shall be made for splits : —
One split, uncut, add 5 per cent.
Two splits, „ „ yi ,,
Empty dents only shall not be considered splits.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. II9
(it) Additions and Deductions.
All the foregoing additions and deductions shall be
made separately.
This list is subject to a reduction of lO per cent.
This list shall come into force after the first makingup
day in August for cloths requiring a fresh calculation,
and on the first makingup day in November next for all
cloths.
The foregoing list has been framed at Conferences of
Representatives.
Signed on behalf of the Employers,
Joshua Rawlinson,
Secretary of the North and North East Lancashire
Cotton Spinners and Manufacturers' Association.
Signed on behalf of the Operatives,
Thomas Birtwistle,
Secretary for the Northern Counties' Amalgamated
Associations of Weavers.
June 24, 1892.
Additions upon Plain Cloth Prices for the following
Classes have not been altered.
Dopia Stripes. — Two and a half per cent, extra for
doria stripes in addition to the number of ends.
Spiral Gold Headings. — id. extra for spiral gold head
ings requiring 50 picks at each side, nothing for any less
number of picks.
120
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Grey Dhooties. — Seven or nine gall headings, cloth
woven full width of loom, 40 inches and over, to be Jd.
for 12, Jd. for 14 headings, and id. for 16 to 20 marks of
40 yards. Nothing extra for headings if narrow cloth in
broad looms.
Plain Dhooties. — There are two systems of paying for
dhooties, but in the ultimate result there is very little
difference.
The first that was adopted was as follows : —
10 yard dhooties 10 per cent, above list.
9 »
II
8 „
12
7 „
13
6 „
14
5 n
15
The second is 10 per cent, upon all lengths without
any deduction being made for width of cloth.
Dobby Dhooties. — Sixteen flush ends or under, with
Calcutta heading, 20 per cent.
Sixteen ends and under, with Madras heading, to be
paid 30 per cent, on list. .
All other dobby borders to be paid 30 per cent., with
prices for headings as per illustrated coloured list,
agreed upon March 15, 1886.
Dhooty Heading's— Extras for 40ss Yards. — Madras
heading to be paid ^d. for 12, Jd. for 14 marks, if woven
in looms over 39 inches wide, and id. for 16 to 20 marks,
and ijd. for 21 to 30, in whatever loom woven.
Large sarrie heading, with I shuttle 15 bars, to be
paid id. extra. Small sarrie heading, with i shuttle 9
bars, to be paid Jd. extra.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 121
Madras sarrie heading, with 2 shuttles 1 1 bars, includ
ing cord, to be paid Jd. extra.
Bombay chocolate heading, with 2 shuttle 14 bars, to
be paid id. extra for 16 marks.
Madras chocolate heading, with 4 shuttles 18 bars,
including cord, to be paid id. per cut extra.
Red Madras heading, with 2 shuttles 10 bars, including
cord, to be paid ^d. for 12 headings, and Jd. for 14 if
woven in looms over 39 inches wide, and id. for 16 to
20 marks, and ijd. for 21 to 30 in any loom.
What is known as 9bar Bombay heading, with i
shuttle II bars, to be id. extra for 16 marks.
Bombay chocolate heading, with 3 shuttles 14 bars,
to be paid id. extra for 16 marks.
Ordinary Calcutta heading, with 5 bars, no extras.
Examples. — Find the weaving price under the uniform
list for cloth : 39 inches wide, 40 yards of 36 inches, 58
reed, 39 wheel, 507 gear, 32's twist, 32's weft, woven in
45 inch reed space loom.
Standard for 45 in. reed space 100 yds,, 2d. per pick.
Multiplied by 40 yds. and divided by 100, equals Sod.
Multiplied by the picks 13. (507 divided
by 39 wheel gives 13 picks) . . . 10.40
Width of loom, standard.
Reed, f per cent, less than standard.
f per cent, on 10.40 is .078 . . . .078
10.322
Picks, no allowance.
Yarns, no allowance.
The price is therefore io.322d., unless paid below the
list — e.g. J at present the uniform list is paid less 10
122 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
per cent. lO per cent, on 10.322 is 1.032; deduct this
from the Hst price and it leaves 9.29.
Ans. 9.2 9d.
Example No. 2. — What is the weaving price for 52J
inch cloth woven in a socalled 55 inch loom, 33 reed,
5 J pick, 40's twist, 6o's weft, 80 yards of 36 inches ?
Standard for 100 yards, 2.00 per pick.
Multiply by 80 yards and divide by 100 . 1.60
Multiply 1.60 by si picks .... 8.80
Taking the additions and deductions in the order given
in the list, 55 inch loom has 17 per cent, added to 45 inch,
the standard ; but in this case, as the cloth is within
3 inches of the reed space, it must be taken as if it were
a 57 J inch loom. The J inch has not to be reckoned.
The list allows 21 J per cent, for a 57 inch loom; 21 J
cent, on 8.80 is 1.892.
8.80
Add 1.892
10.692
Reed : no deduction be.low 50. 3f per
cent, below the standard equalling
.4009 ...... .400Q
10.2911
Picks : I per cent, per pick or fraction
of a pick below 11 to be allowed ; in
this case 6 per cent. . . . .6174
10.9085 standard.
If paid less 10 per cent., 1.098 would be deducted,
leaving 9.8i7d.
Ans. 9.81 yd.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 23
Example No. 3. — Find the weaving price for 40 inch
cloth, 108 yards long, 36I inches to the yard, 80 reed^
24 pick, 4o's/6o's, woven in 50 inch reed space loom.
Standard, 2d. per pick.
The cloth in yards of 36 inches is ioqJ yards long.
109J multiplied by 2d. and divided by 100
gives . . . . . . . 2.19
Multiplied by 24 picks gives . . . 52.56
Loom width : the loom is 50 inch reed
space, and therefore requires 7J per cent.
over standard, equaUing . . . 3.922
56.502
Narrow cloth : as the cloth is more than
7 inches narrower than the reed space, a
deduction of 4.19 per cent, is allowed,
equal to 2.3674 ..... 2.3674
542346
Reed : the reed is above standard, and has
9 per cent, added . . . . .4.8721
59.0067
Picks : cloth of 24 picks has 4 per cent.
added ....... 2.3692
61.3369
If 10 per cent, be deducted, equalling 6.i;^66, it leaves
55.2003 as the price.
Ans. 4s. 7.2003d.
If the foregoing examples be carefully studied, and
each allowance checked by the standard list to ascertain
the reason why it is made, the student will soon be able
to set himself similar problems, and exercise himself in
the calculations by working them out without referring to
a copy of the list, afterwards checking them by the list.
124 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
2. THE BLACKBURN LIST, 1853.
(i) The Standard. — The standard upon which this
list is based is a 40inch loom, weaving from 36 to 41
inch cloth, 60 reed Stockport counts, 16 picks per J inch,
374" yards of 37 inches, from 30's to 6o's weft, and from
28's to 45's twist for I2.25d.
(2) Reeds. — A 60 reed or 30 dents, being the standard,
is made the startingpoint, and } per cent, is deducted
for every two ends or counts of reeds, from 60 to 48;
but no deduction is made below 48 reed, and f per cent,
is added for every two ends or counts of reed above 60.
(3) Weft. — All weft from 30's to 6o's, both included,
is considered medium, and reckoned equal, but all weft
above 6o's to be allowed i per cent, for every ten hanks,
and all below 30's to 26's to be allowed 2 per cent, on list.
„ 26's to 2o's „ 5 „
J, 2o's to i6's ,, 8 „
,, i6's to 14's ,, 10 „
(4) Twist. — All twist from 28's to 45 's, both in
cluded, is considered medium, and reckoned equal, but
all twist above 45 's up to 6o's to be allowed i J per cent.,
and all above 6o's I per cent, for each ten hanks,
and all below 28's to 20's to be allowed i per cent, on list.
5, 2o's to 14's ,5 2 „
(5) Additions for Picks. — All picks above 8 and up
to 18 are considered proportionate, but 8 picks, and all
below and all above 18, to have i per cent, allowed for
WAGE CALCULATIONS. I 25
every pick over and above the proportionate difference in
the number of picks.
(6) Width of Looms.— A 40inch loom, being the
standard, is taken as the startingpoint, and all additions
or deductions are made therefrom. (The reed space is
measured from back board to forkgrate.)
26 in. loom has 2J per cent, deducted from 30 in. loom.
3** 55 5 J5 55 35 15
35 5> 5 jj )j 40 ?>
4.0inch loom {4.^inck reed space) the standard —
45 in. loom has 5 per cent, added to 40 in. loom.
50 5, 10 „ „ 45 „
55 5, 10 „ „ 50 „
60 „ 10 „ „ 55
(7) Looms of Intermediate Widths.— One per cent,
per inch to be deducted from 40 down to 30inch loom ;
below 30 to 26inch loom f per cent, per inch to be
deducted. Above 40inch up to 45 inch loom i per cent,
per inch to be added, and all above 45 inch 2 per cent,
per inch.
(8) Narrow Cloth in Broad Looms.— Suppose a 40
inch loom should be weaving cloth ^^^6 to 31! inches in
width, take off onehalf the difference between 40 and
35inch loom price; and if weaving cloth 31 to 2J\ inches
wide, take off onehalf the difference between 40 and
30inch loom price; or if weaving 41 J to 46inch cloth in
a 50inch loom, take off onehalf the difference between
50 and 45inch loom, and so on with all other widths.
126
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
(9) Range of Cloths.
26 in. loom allowed to weave cloth up to 27 in.
27
J3 J>
30
}) 5)
35
5> >J
40
;5 5)
45
J3 35
50
33 33
55
60
53 33
35 33
from
27
to
28
in.
27
55
31
31
33
36
36
55
41
41
55
46
46
55
52
52
53
57
57
35
62
(10) Basis of Caleulations. — The calculations in the
Blackburn list are based upon the picks counted by the
glass when the cloth is laid upon the counter. Forty
yards short stick to be taken as 39 yards long stick.
(11) Adding" or Deducting" Percentages.— In making
calculations the allowances must be added or deducted
separately in the order they are here placed, viz., reeds,
materials, picks, and widths.
(12) Splits. — Splits to be allowed ^^d. per piece
(double width) for 29 yards, or Jd. per piece (double
width) for 46 yards.
(13) Figured Shirtings. — Figured shirtings are paid
10 per cent, above plain cloth.
(14) Twills. — Plain 4staved twills are paid same
price as plain cloth. Other kinds by special arrangement.
(15) Plain Dhooties. — There are two systems of pay
ing for plain dhooties, but in the ultimate result there is
very little difference.
The first that was adopted was as follows : —
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 12/
lo yard dhooties lo per cent, above list.
9 »
,, II
8 „
,, T2
7 „
13
6 „
14
5 ,^
15
The second is lO per cent, upon all lengths without
any deduction being made for width of cloth.
(16) Dobbie Dhooties. — On February 18, 1874, it was
agreed that f fluss bordered Dobbie Dhooties should be
paid 30 per cent, on hst without any deduction for width
of cloth or additions for number of headings, the wider
borders and more exceptional goods to be paid extra.
(17) Dividend. — The dividend of the loom is formed by
adding I J per cent, to the mathematical dividend for the
contraction of the cloth between the loom and the counter.
(18) This list was paid in Blackburn, Darwen, Accring
ton, Great Harwood, Bury, HasHngden, Stalybridge, Moss
ley, Chorley (part), Ashton (part), Preston (part), and most
weaving districts, less 10 per cent., until autumn 1892.
Example. — To find price for a 44 inch cloth in 45 inch
loom = 66's reed, 44 change pinion, 528 dividend, 75
yards long, 34's/36's —
12.25 standard.
Add 2 J per cent, reed .27
12.52
Add 5 per cent. loom .62
I3T4
Calculate in proportion to ) _ ^^
pick 16 to 12 . . ( ~ ^'
Calculate proportion length I t •
37i to 75, double. .i9 72 = l.stpr.ce.
Deduct 10 per cent. = 1.97
17.75 =pi'esent price.
128 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Or from list under heading, 45 inch loom —
66 reedj 37^ yards = .822 for i pick
9.86 for 12 picks
19.72 for 75 yards, less 10 per cent.
= 17.75
3. CHORLEY PLAIN LIST, 1875.
The Chorley Standard List of Prices for Weaving
Cambrics, Shirtings, and Tanjibs.
(i) Standard. — 45 inch reed space loom, 60 reed,
Stockport counts, 37 yards long stick, 15 picks per J
inch, at ii.25d., is taken as a standard, free from any
allowances for materials.
(2) Reeds. — A 60 reed is made the startingpoint, and
f per cent, is deducted for every 2 ends or counts of reed
below a 60 to a 48, but no deduction for reeds below 48.
One per cent, is added for every 2 ends above a 60 to an
84 reed, and ij per cent, for every 2 ends from 84 to 88,
and 2 per cent, for every two ends above an 88 to 94, and
2 per cent, for every two. ends or counts of reed above
94. All odd or bastard reeds to be paid as the next
finer counts — that is to say, a 77 reed to be paid as yS,
and 99 as 100 reed, and so on with all other counts.
(3) One End in a Dent, — One end in a dent to be
paid half way between the actual fineness of the reed
and the number of ends — that is to say, a 96 reed would
have 48 ends to the inch ; therefore it would be taken as
72 reed, half way between 48 and 96.
(4) Three or more Ends in one Dent. — Three or
more ends in one dent to be paid according to the number
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 29
of ends per inch — that is to say, a 60 reed with three
ends in one dent to be paid for as a 90 reed.
(5) Wet Weft. — For wet weft, id. to be added for a
piece of 25 yards.
(6) For Width of Looms.
31 inch loom has 4 per cent, deducted from 35
35 » 55 5 5, „ 40
40 J3 5) 5 n » 45
45 inch Reed Space Loom is the Standard.
50 inch loom has 5 per cent, added to 45
55 » 55 TO )3 55 50
60 „ „ 10 „ „ 55
65 ,1 ^. 15 55 35 60
(7) Measurement of Looms. ^The loom in all cases
to be measured from the backboard on the one side to
the forkgrate on the other side, and allowed to weave
cloth within 4 inches of the width of the reed space.
(8) Looms of Intermediate Widths. — One per cent,
per inch below 45 to 31 inch to be deducted, but no
deduction to be made for looms below 31 ; and i per
cent, per inch to be added from 45 to 50 inches, and
2 per cent, per inch from 50 to 60 inches, and 3 per cent,
per inch for all above.
(9) Percentage for Picks. — All picks above 9, and
up to 1 8, are considered proportionate ; but 9 picks and
all below, and all above 18, to have i per cent, added for
every pick over and above the proportion. All under the
half not to be paid for, but all above the half to be paid
for as full picks ; if exactly the half pick, J per cent, only
to be paid above the proportionate part.
I
I30
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
(lo) Range of Cloth.
31 inch reed space loom, to weave cloth up to 27 inch.
32
33
5 53
34
5 J5
35
36
) 55
37
38
) 5>
3 33
39
3 55
40
3 53
41
3 33
42
5 53
43
3 3)
44
3 3
45
46
J 55
5 J3
47
48
5 55
3 35
49
3 3'
50
3 35
from
27
28
55
33
27
29
55
53
27
30
55
33
27
31
51
27
32
53
28
33
33
29
34
53
30
35
35
31
36
35
32
37
33
33
38
33
34
39
35
35
40
55
36
41
55
37
42
5J
38
43
55
39
44
55
40
45
55
35
41
46
35
(11) Narrower Cloth than Table admits. — Suppose
a 50 inch loom should be weaving cloth from 36^ to 41
inches in width, then t^ke off onehalf the difference
between 50 and 45 inch looms; and if weaving from 31^
to 36 inch cloth, take off onehalf the difference between
50 and 40 inch looms; or if weaving 33i to 38 inch cloth
in 47 inch loom, take off half the difference between 42
and 47 inch looms, and so on with any other width.
(12) Broader Cloth than Table admits. — Any
broader cloth than table admits to be paid half the
difference between that and the next broader range of
looms — thus, 42 inch cloth woven in a 45 inch loom to be
paid half the difference between 45 and 50 inch looms ;
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 131
and if 34 inch cloth be woven in 37 inch looms, to be
paid half the difference between 37 and 42 inch loom
price, and so on with all other widths.
(13) Twills. — Fourstave plain twills to be paid same
price as plain cloth.
(14) Adding* or Deducting* Percentages. — In making
the above calculations, the allowances for reeds, picks,
width of loom, widths of cloth, and wet weft, are taken
and added or deducted, separately, in the order they
are here placed, viz., first, reeds; second, picks; third,
width of loom; fourth, width of cloth; and fifth, wet
weft.
(15) Calculations to Ibe made from Decimal Pick.—
In making out prices from this list the decimal pick as
produced by dividing the dividend by the change wheel
is to be taken instead of the net pick ; the dividend to be
formed by adding ij per cent, to the wheel calculation
for contraction of the cloth between the loom and the
counter.
(16) Rising and Falling of Prices below 77 Reed.—
This list of prices, up to and including ^6 reed, is con
sidered 2j per cent, below the Blackburn standard list,
and when the list is paid net at Blackburn, this list shall
be paid in Chorley with 2\ per cent, added, and any
rise or fall at Blackburn shall be immediately followed
by the same advance or reduction at Chorley, up to and
including the "jG reed.
(17) Rising" and Falling" of Prices above 76 Reed.—
This list of prices, above y6 reed, shall be considered
equal to the Preston standard list, and when the list is
paid net at Preston, this list shall be paid net in Chorley,
132 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
and when any advance or reduction is paid upon the
Hst at Preston, the same advance or reduction shall be
paid on this list at Chorley, above j6 reed.
The above list is now largely merged into the Uniform
List.
4. THE BURNLEY PLAIN LIST, 1880.
For Weaving Printers, Shirtings, Madapallams,
Jacconet, Mulls, and Tanjibs.
(i) Standard. — Two shillings and sixpence is taken
as the standard for 39 inch cloth, 60 reed, Stockport
counts (or 60 ends per inch), lOO yards long stick, 15
picks per J inch, woven in a loom of 43 inches reed space,
measured from backboard to forkgrate. 19I yards long
stick to be taken as 20 yards short stick.
(2) Reed. — A 60 reed being the standard, f per cent,
shall be deducted for every two ends or counts of reed,
from 60 to 52, but no deduction shall be made below 52.
f per cent, shall be added for every two ends from 60 to
6^^^ and above 6'^^ i per cetit. for every two ends.
(3) Counts of Yarn.
Weft.
From 30's to 6o's inclusive shall be reckoned equal.
,, 30's „ 26's 2 per cent, shall be added to standard.
,, 20 S ,, 20 35?) }J 3>
„ 2o's „ i6's 8 „ „ „
„ i6's „ 14's 10 „ „ „
Weft above 6o's shall have i per cent, added for every
10 hanks.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 33
Twist.
From 28's to 45's inclusive shall be reckoned equal.
,, 45's ,, 6o's ij per cent, shall be added to standard.
,, 2o S „ 20 SI jj ,, J,
5, 20 S 5, 14 S 2 ff }, J,
Twist above 6o's shall have i per cent, added for
every 10 hanks.
(4) Picks. — Picks between and including 13 and 20
are considered proportionate, but each pick below 13
and above 20 shall have i per cent, added for each pick
below 1 3 or above 20 respectively. Picks shall be paid
for as ascertained by calculations given in Clause 1 1 ; but
with reference to the additional percentage, if under the
half pick, nothing extra shall be paid ; if above the half,
1 per cent, shall be paid as if it were a full pick ; but
if exactly the half pick, J per cent, shall be paid. For
example, 21.49 pi^^ shall have I per cent, added; 21.51,
2 per cent, added; but if exactly 21.5, I J per cent, shall
be added.
(5) Width of Looms. — A 43 inch reed space loom
being taken as the standard, ij per cent, per inch shall
be deducted from 43 to 36 inch reed space, and I per
cent, per inch from 36 down to 30, but no deduction
shall be made below 30 inch, ij per cent, per inch shall
be added from 43 to 45 inch reed space, and 2 per cent,
per inch above.
(6) Narrow Cloth in Broad Looms.— All looms shall
be allowed to weave cloth within 4 inches^oLXhe breadth
of the reed space, measured from backboard to forkgrate.
When the cloth is 6 inches narrower than the reed space,
f per cent, shall be deducted, and so on at the rate of
T34 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
f per cent, per inch until the width of cloth be 15 inches
below the breadth of reed space, when no further deduc
tion shall be made.
(7) Broad Cloth in Narrow Looms.— When the dif
ference between the cloth and the reed space is less than
4 inches, for the first inch or fraction of an inch, the
same shall be paid as if the loom were I inch broader,
and if within three inches of the reed space, as if the loom
were 2 inches broader.
(8) Throstle Twist.— In reeds above 68 a deduction of
2^ per cent, shall be allowed for throstle twist.
(9) Twills. — Fourstave twills shall be paid same as
plain cloth except in allowances for picks, when all picks
15 and up to 24 shall be considered proportionate, but
each pick below 15 and above 24 shall have i per cent,
added below or above the proportion.
(10) Heading's. — This list shall only apply to printers,
shirtings, madapallams, jacconets, mulls, and tanjibs ;
but when more than 9 picks of gold for a single piece, or
any other heading out of the usual course for the above
classes of goods shall be ■ put in, an extra price shall be
paid as per special arrangement, but in no case less than
Jd. per piece.
(11) Dividend. — The actual dividend for calculation
shall be formed by adding i J per cent, for contraction of
the cloth between the loom and the counter to the divi
dend produced by the beam and wheel calculation.
(12) General. — (a) The width and length of cloth shall
be deemed to be the width and length at which it is
bought and sold.
(d) In making calculations from this list the additions
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 35
or deductions for reeds, counts, picks, width of loom,
width of cloth, and throstle twist shall be made separatel}^,
in the order here given.
(c) This list shall come into force on the second pay
day in March 1880, and if either employers or operatives
desire to make any change in the various clauses, they
shall give to the other party three months' notice of such
desire.
(d) The existing rate of wages being 15 per cent, less
than the list, the three months' notice shall not apply to
any rise or fall in the rate of wages, but merely to a
desired change in the details or conditions of the list.
Example. — Find price for 39 inch, 68 reed, 75 yards,
17 picks per ^ inch, 5o's/7o's, 43 inch loom.
Standard for 100 yards . . . . 30.00
Proportion for 75 ,, . . .22.5
Add for reed 3 per cent. . . . . .67
2317
Proportion 15 to 17 picks . . . 26.26
Add for counts of twist i J per cent, and ) ^
weft I per cent. = 2^ per cent. . J ^
26.91
This, less 10 per cent., the current discount off list, was
the price payable in Burnley and district until autumn
1892, when it was merged into the Uniform List to a
great extent. It is still paid, less 10 per cent., in some
outside districts.
5. PRESTON PLAIN AND FANCY LIST, i860.
Fop Shirting's, Cambrics, and Tanjibs. — (i) 45 inches
reed space loom, 60 reed Stockport counts, 37^ yards
136 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
long stick, 37 inches to the yard, 60 picks per inch at
lid. per piece, is taken as a standard.
(2) Reeds. — ij per cent, is deducted for every 4 ends
below a 60 to a 48. All reeds below to be paid the
same as a 48. ij per cent, is added for every 4 ends
above a 60 to a 76 ; 3 per cent, for every 4 ends above
a 76 to a 90 ; 5 per cent, for every 4 ends above a 90 to
100 ; and 4 per cent, for every 4 ends above 100.
(3) Picks. — All picks from 9 to 18 per J inch inclusive
are reckoned in equal ratio. One per cent, is added for
each pick below 9 and above 18, up to the extent of list,
and i^ per cent, per pick to be added for all above the
list in 66 to 86 reeds inclusive.
(4) Materials. — All yarns below 28's to be allowed 2
per cent, for every 5 hanks, and any other deviation from
list counts to have 2^ per cent, added for every 5 hanks.
Twills. — To be paid the same as plain cloth.
For wet weft id. to be added for a piece of 25 yards.
For Jaeeonets and Mulls. — (i) 46 inches reed space
loom, 60 reed Stockport counts, 20 yards short stick, 36
inches to the yard, 60 picks per inch, at 6d. per piece, is
taken as a standard.
(2) Reeds. — i J per cent, is deducted for every 4 ends
below a 60 to a 48. All reeds below to be paid the
same as a 48. ij per cent, is added for every 4 ends
above a 60 to a 68, 4 per cent, for every 4 ends above a
68 to no, and 6 per cent, for every 4 ends above no.
(3) Picks. — All picks from 9 to 18 per J inch inclusive
are reckoned in equal ratio, and i per cent, is added for
each pick below 9 and above 18.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 37
(4) Materials. — 1 per cent, to be added for every 10
hanks the yarns are finer than Hst counts up to 80 reed,
but no allowance on jacconet yarns above 80 reeds.
For wet weft d. to be added for a 20 yards piece.
For Fancy Goods. — (i) Hair Cords to be paid 40 per
cent, over jacconet prices.
(2) Satin stripes with Spots to be paid by the
annexed list without receiving any advance with plain
cloth.
(3) Spots and Unfig'ured Satins woven in spot looms
to be paid lO per cent, more than plain cloth.
(4) Brocades woven with a double lift machine to be
paid 40 per cent, more than plain cloth.
(5) Brocades woven with a single lift machine, with a
satin ground, to be paid 30 per cent, more than plain
cloth.
(6) Brocades woven with a single lift machine, with a
plain ground, to be paid 50 per cent, more than plain
cloth.
(7) Cloth woven with 3 ends in a dent to be reckoned
half way between the actual fineness of the reed and
what it would be if 2 ends only were in a dent.
No allowance to be made for yarns on fancy cloth.
General Conditions.— Narrow Cloth woven in a broad
loom to be paid half the difference between the price of
broad and narrow cloth, and any cloth broader than table
admits to be paid half the difference between that and the
next broader loom.
Looms of Intermediate Widths.— One per cent, per
inch to be deducted on looms below 45 inches, 2 per
138 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
cent, per inch from 45 to 60 inches, and i J per cent, per
inch for all above.
The annexed tables are based upon the count of picks
and breadth of cloth when laid upon the counter, and in
fixing the rate of wages to be paid for weaving any sort
of cloth, the picks to be calculated by the wheels as shown
on the table.
Atherton's GeaP. — Beam wheel, 80; stud wheel, 120;
rack wheel, 60 ; pinion wheel, 1 5 ; emery beam, 1 5 inches ;
dividend, 640.
Atherton's Gear. — Beam wheel, 80; stud wheel, 146;
rack wheel, 60 ; pinion wheel, 14 ; emery beam, 1 5 inches ;
dividend, 8343^%%.
Atherton's Gear. — Beam wheel, 100; stud wheel, 146;
rack wheel, 60; pinion wheel, 14; emery beam, 15 inches;
dividend, i042x^V
Dickinson's Gear. — Beam wheel, 75 ; stud wheel, 120;
rack wheel, 50; pinion wheel, 15 ; emery beam, 15 inches;
dividend, 500.
Dickinson's Gear. — Beam wheel, 75 ; stud wheel, 120;
rack wheel, 80 ; pinion wheel, 1 5 ; emery beam, 1 5 inches ;
dividend, 800.
Harrison's Gear. — Beam wheel, 75 ; stud wheel, 100;
rack wheel, 50; pinion wheel, 12; emery beam, 15 inches;
dividend, 520.
32 inch reed space loom to have 12^ per cent, deducted
from standard.
36 inch reed space loom to have 10 per cent, deducted
from standard.
41 inch reed space loom to have 5 per cent, deducted
from standard.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 39
46 inch reed space standard to weave from 36J to 41
inch cloth.
5 1 inch reed space loom to have 5 per cent, added to
standard.
56 inch reed space loom to have 1 5 per cent, added to
standard.
61 inch reed space loom to have 25 per cent, added to
standard.
66 inch reed space loom to have 35 per cent, added to
standard.
72 inch reed space loom to have 45 per cent, added to
standard.
The Reed Space in all cases to be measured from
backboard to backboard, and the loom allowed to weave
cloth within 5 inches of the breadth of the reed space.
For the Preston prices for winding, looming, drawing, &c.,
see earlier pages.
6. CHORLEY FANCY LIST, 1886.
( TAis list to apply to grey goods only.)
Double Lift Jacquards.— To be paid the following
over and above plain cloth prices : —
For plain grounds, 30 per cent.
„ satin „ 25 „
When single lift machines are used, the scale shall be
10 per cent, higher than the above.
Brocades, damasks, and stripes created by a variation
of the number of ends, 3, 4, or more in a dent, to be paid
for by the number of ends per inch.
Picks 18 to 30, I per cent, per pick, from 30 to 40,
f per cent., all above 40 J per cent, instead of i per cent.
140
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Lace brocades 5 per cent, extra.
Leno Cloths and Velvets. — Not to be included in
this list; but paid extra as per arrangement.
The above applies to jacquards only.
Dobby and Tappet Motions, Sateens Excepted.—
To be paid the following on plain cloth prices : —
All up to and including —
4 staves 12 per cent.
5
^3
6
14
7
15
8
16
9
17
10
18
II
19
12
20
13 staves 21 per cent.
14 ,
, 22
15 ,
, 23
16 ,
, 24
17 ,
, 25
18 ,
, 26
19 .
. 27
20 ,
, 28
Stripes and other cloths, with more than 2 ends in a
dent, to be paid for by the number of ends per inch.
Exceptions. — Plain handkerchiefs, 72 reeds and below,
to be paid 5 per cent, extra.
Single shuttle cord checks, with more than two picks
in one shed, to be paid 2^ per cent. less.
In single shuttle checks, handkerchiefs, and all other
special classes of goods in which more than one pick is
put in one shed, all lost picks shall be counted.
Lace stripes, fly overs, or any other goods of a special
character shall be paid extra as per arrangement, to be
agreed upon by the employers' and operatives' associa
tions.
Sateens, Drillettes, and Drills.— When reed and
pick per J inch added together do not make more than
40, 5 per cent, shall be added to plain cloth prices.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 141
When reed and pick per ^ inch do not exceed 50,
2 J per cent, shall be added ; above 50, plain cloth prices,
excepting when the number of ends per J inch in the
reed exceeds the pick, then f per cent, additional shal]
be added for every two points of the reed above the pick.
In case of any special cloth, either dobby or jacquards,
being required for which this list is not adapted, the
price shall be arranged by the employers' and operatives'
associations.
7. NELSON SATIN LIST, 1886.
■ Agreement for Sateens, Drills, and Drillettes.
Cloths up to and including 25 picks to be paid 8 per
cent, on plain cloth prices, and for every additional pick
or fraction beyond the half, an extra J per cent, shall be
added. These additions to be made in place of the allow
ances for picks in the various lists.
Whenever the reed per J inch exceeds the pick, } per
cent, shall be added for every additional two counts of
reed above the number of picks.
When cloth is woven with three or more ends in a
dent, the allowance for every two ends or counts of reed
above 68 shall only be f per cent, same as from 60 to 6S.
Lenos. — For one doup 70 per cent. ; two doups, 80 per
cent, on plain cloth, prices.
8. THE RADCLIFFE AND DISTRICT LIST FOR
COLOURED GOODS.
(i) Standard.
Cloth. — The list shall be based on cloth, 36 inches to
the yard, and 100 yards long.
142 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Reed. — 56 reed, i.e., 28 dents to the inch and two ends
in a dent.
Width. — 2J to 30 inches measured on the counter in
an unfinished state as it comes from the loom.
Weft. — 2o's or any finer counts.
Shuttles. — ^Two.
Looms. — Drop box.
Warps. — Full (or hand) dressed or sectional warps.
Price per Pick, per \ inch. — 3.4d. or 3d. and twofifths,
as ascertained by wheel calculation with ij per cent,
added for contraction.
Extras and Deductions.
(2) Reeds.
Standard. — 56 reed, i.e., 28 dents to the inch, and 2
ends in a dent.
Additions. — Above 28 to 35 dents, add 1 per cent, for
each extra dent above 28, and above 35 dents add i\ per
cent, for each extra dent.
Deductions. — Below 28 dents down to and including 25
dents, deduct i per cent. per dent, and below 25 to 20,
f per cent, for each dent, beyond which no further de
duction shall be made.
(3) Width of Cloth.
Standard. — 27 to 30 inches.
Additions. — Above 30 inches up to and including "^fi
inches, add i per cent, per inch ; above 36 inches to 40
inches, add i\ per cent, per inch; above 40 inches to 48
inches, 2 J per cent, per inch ; and above 48 inches, 3 per
cent, per inch.
WAGE CALCULATIONS.
143
Deductions. — For each inch below 27, deduct  per cent,
per inch down to 24 inches, beyond which no further
deductions shall be made.
(4) Weft.
No addition or deduction to be made for weft finer than
2o's, but for
cent.
19's
ii's
add
II per
i8's
> add I per cent.
id's
;j
14
17's
9's
5 '
18
i6's
> add 2 per cent.
8's
7's
5'
51
22
26 ,
14's
5? 4 JJ
6's
5?
30
13's
55 6 „
5's
^J
35
12's
5) 8 ,,
4's
31
40
J5
3>
3J
3J
•5
33
(5) Linen Weft.
No addition or deduction to be made for 3 5's linen weft
or any finer counts.
But for 34's to 30's linen add 2 per cent.
33 33 29's to 25's „ „ 4 „ „
,, ,, 24's to 2o's „ ,, 8
J, ,, 19's and i8's „ ,, 10
., „ 17's and 1 6's ,, ,,12
(6) Coarse Twist in a Fine Reed.
Below 1 6's in a 68 or finer reed (2 threads in a dent),
2 per cent, per count to be added. 14's twofold yarn,
that is, 2/28S, to be paid as i6's, and so on in proportion.
(7) Undressed Warps.
Ordinary halfbeer warps, dyed, sized or bleached in
the warp, to be paid extra as follows : —
144 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
All one colour
.035 per yd.
Two colours, white or grey counted
.045 »
Three „ „ „
•055 »
Four „ „ „
•075 „
increasing .02 per yard for each additional colour, sel
vages not reckoned a colour. Warps wound on so as to
avoid crossing or splitting of halfbeers in weaving, to be
paid .035 per yard.
(8) Half Dressed Warps.
All warps run through a reed, but neither dressed nor
brushed by hand, and when broken threads are not found
and pieced in the usual way, shall be considered half
dressed warps, and paid as follows : —
All one colour
.02 per yd.
Two colours, white or grey counted
•03 jj
Three „ „ „
.04 „
Four „ „ „
.05 »
(9) Round Mill Warps.
All warps made on a round mill, irrespective of colours,
shall be paid 5 per cent, extra.
(10) Shuttles.
For each shuttle above two, 2 J per cent, shall be
added, i.e., for
3 shuttles 2 1 per cent.
4 shuttles . . . . . 5 „ ,,
5 shuttles 7i » »
6 shuttles . . . . . 10 ,, „
WAGE CALCULATIONS. I45
(11) One Shuttle Work.
Cloth woven in a one shuttled loom running not less
than 170 picks per minute shall be 25 per cent, less than
twoshuttle price, and if slower than 170 picks shall be
1 2 J per cent, less in place of 25 per cent.
(12) One Shuttle Work in Check Looms.
One shuttle work woven in check looms shall be paid
1 2 J per cent, less than two shuttle price.
(13) Shaft Work.
Extra payment shall be made for shaft work, such
payment to cover and include pick finding, at the follow
ing rate : —
3, 4, 5, 6 hfts or treads add 5 per cent.
7j 8, g ,, ,, ,, 72 '5
10
II, 12, 13, 14
15, 16, 17, 18
increasing ij per cent, for each additional hft or tread.
(14) Two Beams.
All cloth woven with two beams shall be paid not less
than 7J per cent, extra.
(15) Splits.
Cloths woven 2 or more in a breadth with selvages
worked by a catch end shall be paid 3 per cent, extra for
I spht, and 5 per cent, for 2 spHts.
If empty dents only are used, no extra charge shall be
made.
K
;5
J5
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xy^
33
5)
J>
35
14
33
5;
5J
35
18
35
146 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
(16) Three or more Threads in one Dent.
When the number of lifts used are equal to the number
of threads in a dent, the reed to be paid for shall be found
as follows : —
For 3 threads in one dent add 25 per cent.
33 5 3' 3 3 33/5 3 3
,3 6 ,, „ ,, 100 ,,
to the actual reed used, Stockport counts, 2 ends in i
dent.
Example. — A reed 20 dents per inch, 3 ends in each
dent, shall be paid for as 25.
20 reed, 4 in a dent as 30
20 ,, 5 ,, ,, 35 reed, and so on.
When the number of lifts used are not equal to the
number of threads in each dent, the reed to be paid for
shall be found as follows : —
For 3 ends in one dent add 37J per cent.
35 4 33 33 33 75 '5
35 5 33 3,3 33 11^2 33
= , 6 „ „ „ 150
to the actual reed used, Stockport counts, 2 ends in one
dent.
Example. — A reed 20 dents per inch, 3 ends in each
dent, as a 27 J ;
the same reed with 4 in a dent as 35
33  53 5 33 3) 422
,, ,, 6 ,, ,, 50 reed, and so on.
Provided always that in no case shall a lower reed than
26 be paid for.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 47
(17) One Thread in a Dent.
One thread in a dent shall be paid for as if the reed
were half way between the actual number of threads per
inch, and what it would be if there were 2 threads in a
dent.
Example. — What is known as an 80 reed, 40 dents per
inch, I thread in a dent, would be paid for as 60 reed, 30
dents per inch, 2 ends in each dent.
(18) More than one Thread in a Heald.
(a.) Two threads shall be counted as one if in same
heald.
(b.) Three or more threads in a heald and one heald to
a dent, nothing extra shall be paid.
{a.) All cloths with either 3, 4, 5, or 6 threads in a
heald, and 2 healds to a dent, an addition of 7J per cent,
shall be paid.
(19) Circular Box Looms.
When circular box looms are used a deduction of lO
per cent, shall be made from the standard, and clause 10
shall not apply.
(20) Additions and Deductions.
In calculating the list all the above additions and de
ductions shall be made separately.
(21) General.
(a.) Should any dispute arise as to the interpretation
of any of the conditions or clauses, or as to the price to
148 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
be paid for weaving any exceptional goods, a meeting of
the two committees (employers and employed), shall be
held with a view to an amicable settlement thereof before
any strike takes place.
(b.) This list shall come into force for all new sorts
put in the looms after the first makingup day in May
1892, and for all classes of cloth on the first makingup
day in July 1892.
{c.) If either employers or operatives desire to make
any change in the various clauses, they shall give to the
other party three months' notice of such desire.
The foregoing list has been framed by a joint committee
consisting of representatives of employers and operatives,
and was finally adopted at a meeting held at Manchester
on Friday the 29th day of April 1892, after having been
approved by a general meeting of the members of the
Radcliffe and District Manufacturers' Association, and
approved by the operative weavers by means of a ballot.
Signed on behalf of the Employers,
Joshua Rawlinson,
Secretary.
Signed on behalf of the Operative Weavers,
Thomas Birtwistle.
WAGE CALCULATIONS.
149
50
54
55
59
60
64
65
69
70
74
75
79
80
84
85
,.
89
9. THE OLDHAM VELVET LIST.
A List applying to the Weaving of Velvets, Cords, and
SUCH Heavy Goods, put in operation October i, 1890.
Basis.—
45 and 49 looms weaving 56's weft, yd. per lb.
6id.
6iJd.
6Ad.
6id.
6d.
6Jd.
6id.
6d.
Whenever the looms are narrower than the above
table, x^^d. per lb. shall be added for each range of 5
inches, and if broader Jd. per lb. shall be deducted for
each similar range.
Measurement of Looms. — The loom in all cases to be
measured from lathe sword to lathe sword, except looms
that have a fork attached ; in such case they shall be
measured from lathe sword to fork grate.
Lost Pick. — Whenever the yarn in the reed in a loom
64 inches or narrower stands more than 2 inches less
than the width of the loom, ^6. per lb. for each inch, or
fraction thereof, shall be added, and in looms above 64
inches, whenever the yarn stands more than 3 inches
below the width of the loom, the same allowance per inch
shall be made, but no deductions shall be made for over
widths.
Allowances for Weft. — 56's weft is taken as the
150 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Standard, and Jd. per lb. shall be added or deducted for
each hank as the weft is finer or coarser.
Extras. — Ribbed edges Jd. per lb. extra.
Cloth with over 24 picks to the round Jd. per lb. extra.
E 3 patents, ^d. per lb. extra.
X and XX superfine twill backs up to and including
88 reed, ^d. per lb. extra ; above 88 reed and up to and
including 96 reed, ^d. per lb. extra; and for each addi
tional 6 ends per inch or counts of reeds, Jd. per lb.
extra.
Velvet cords Y^d. per lb. extra.
Stripes f d. per lb. extra.
Checks ^d. per lb. extra.
General. — This list for velvets was agreed on between
the Oldham velvet manufacturers and the weavers'
representatives, at a meeting held May 3, 1888, when
it was also agreed : — " That the basis with allowances for
weft only should come into operation on the first payday
in June 1888. The conditions for lost pick and all other
extras being suspended for the present. The time for
them to come into operation to be considered at a future
meeting."
Samuel Andrew,
Employers^ Secretary.
Abraham Buckley,
, operatives' Secretary.
May 17, i\
This list is now paid net with the above exceptions.
January i, 1890.
WAGE CALCULATIONS.
151
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152 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
lo. THE COLNE AND DISTRICT LIST FOR
COLOURED GOODS.
(r) The Standard.
The standard upon which the price for plain and
striped goods is based is as follows : —
Cloth. — 28, 29, or 30 inches in width.
Reed. — 52 to 64 both inclusive, or 26 to 32 dents per
inch, 2 ends in a dent.
Length. — 74 yards of warp, 36 inches to the yard.
Weft. — l6's or any finer counts.
Price. — ijd. per pick.
The standard upon which the price for checks is based
is 70 yards of warp, 2d. per pick ; in all other particulars
the same as the standard for plain and striped goods.
(2) Reeds.
Reeds. — 52 to 64 inclusive, or 26 to 32 dents per inch,
2 ends in a dent, being taken as the standard.
Add. — Above 64 to 70, 2 per cent., above 70 an addi
tional I per cent, for each extra dent or 2 ends per inch.
Deduct. — Below 52 down to and including 46, 2 per
cent., and below 46, 3 per cent., beyond which no further
deduction shall be made.
(3) Cloth,
The standard, being 28, 29, or 30 inches is reckoned
equal.
For each inch below 28, f per cent, is to be deducted
down to 20 inches, beyond which no further reduction
shall be made.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 1 53
Above 30 inches up to and including 36, i per cent,
per inch is to be added. Above 36 to 40, ij per cent.,
and above 40, 2J per cent, per inch.
(4) Undressed Warps.
Ordinary halfbeer warps, dyed, sized, or bleached in
the warp, to be paid extra as follows : —
one colour .....
.035 per yd.
Two colours, white or grey counted
•045 »
Three „
.055 5'
Four „ „ „
•075 »
increasing .02 per yard for each additional colour, sel
vages not reckoned a colour. Warps wound on so as to
avoid crossing or splitting of halfbeers in weaving, to be
paid .035 per yard.
(5) Half Dressed Warps.
All warps run through a reed, but neither dressed nor
brushed by hand, and when broken threads are not found
and pieced in the usual way, shall be considered half
dressed warps, and paid as follows : —
All one colour ..... .02 per yd.
Two colours, white or grey counted .03 ,,
Three „ „ „ .04 „
Four „ „ „ .05 „
(6) Coarse Twist in a Fine Reed.
Below i6's in a 68 or finer reed (2 threads in a dent),
2 per cent, per count to be added. 14's twofold yarn,
that is, 2/28S. to be paid as i6's, and so on in proportion.
154 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
(7) Weft.
No addition or deduction to be made for weft finer
than 15's.
15's add 2 per cent.
14's „ 4 „
13's ,, 6 „
12's ,, 8
ii's add II per cent,
lo's „ 14 „
9's „ 18 „
8's ,,22
Hank Weft. — Hank weft woven into plain or striped
goods from tubes or bobbins shall be paid 5 per cent,
extra.
(8) Shaft Work with Dobbies.
No extra payment shall be made for cloths woven with
6 or any less number of lifts or treads that can be worked
with tappets although dobbies are used.
All cloths woven with dobbies that cannot be worked
with tappets to be paid extra as follows : —
Up to and including 10 lifts or treads add 10 per cent.
II to 14 lifts or treads inclusive ,, 14 „
15 to 18 ;, „ „ „ 18 „
increasing \\ per cent, fpr each additional lift or tread.
(9) Pick Finding in Looms Without Dobbies.
Whenever the employer requires the weaver, in cloth
with 3 or more lifts or treads, to turn the loom backward
or forward in order to find the shed in which the weft
broke, he shall pay an advance of 10 per cent.
(10) Additions and Deductions.
All the above additions and deductions shall be made
separately.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. 155
(11) General.
This list shall come into force after the first makingup
day in September next for new classes of cloth, and for
all classes of cloth to which it applies on the first making
up day in November. If any dispute should arise as to
the interpretation of any of the previous conditions or
clauses, or as to the price to be paid for weaving any
goods, a meeting of the two committees (employers and
employed) shall be held with a view to an amicable
settlement thereof before any strike takes place.
The foregoing list was unanimously adopted at a joint
meeting of committees representing employers and opera
tives, held at Colne on Thursday the 26th day of June
1890, and finally settled between the two secretaries at a
conference held on July 16, 1890.
Signed on behalf of the Employers,
Joshua Rawlinson,
Secretary of the Colne <5r= District Coloured Goods
Manufacturers^ Association.
Signed on behalf of the Operative Weavers,
T. BiRTWISTLE,
Secretary of the North East Lancashire Weavers^
Association.
156 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
ADDENDA.
(12) Three or More Threads in One Dent.
When the number of lifts used are equal to the number
of threads in a dent, the reed to be paid for shall be
found as follows : —
For 3 threads in one dent add 25 per cent.
}5 4 J) 5J J) 5^ J>
?j 5 '> J) '> 75 'J
» 6 „ ,, ,, 100 „
to the actual reed used, Stockport counts, 2 ends in one
dent.
Example. — A 40 reed, or 20 dents per inch, 3 in each
dent, shall be paid for as 50.
40 reed, 4 in a dent as 60
40 „ 5 ,, „ 70 reed, and so on.
When the number of lifts used are not equal to the
number of threads in each dent, the reed to be paid for
shall be found as follows : —
For 3 ends in one dent add 37! per cent.
5? 4 jj 55 ii 75 5'
jj 5 J3 5} 55 ^^^2 "
6 „ „ ,. 150 „
J3
to the actual reed used, Stockport counts, 2 ends in one
dent.
Example. — A 40 reed (20 dents per inch) 3 ends in
each dent, as a 55 : —
the same reed with 4 in a dent as 70
>5 J> 5 5' JJ "5
5, „ 6 „ „ 100 reed, and so on.
WAGE CALCULATIONS. I 57
Provided always that in no case shall a lower reed than
52 be paid for.
(13) One Thread in a Dent.
One thread in a dent shall be paid for as if the reed
were half way between the actual number of threads per
inch, and what it would be if there were 2 threads in a
dent.
Example. — What is known as a 80 reed, 40 dents per
inch, I thread in a dent, would be paid for as 60 reed.
(14) Mexicans.
Mexicans shall be paid by this list without any addition
or deduction.
The foregoing addenda has been agreed to between the
committees representing the employers and operatives,
and the wording finally settled at a conference held on
the 15 th day of September 1891.
Signed on behalf of the Employers,
Joshua Rawlinson.
Signed on behalf of the Operative Weavers,
T. Birtwistle.
158
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
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WAGE CALCULATIONS.
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HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS.
EFORE being fully prepared to enter into the
calculations regarding the weight of cloth, it is
necessary to familiarise ourselves with some
method of counting the ends of warp in the
cloth. On the Manchester exchange the system adopted
both for ends and picks is their number per quarterinch ;
e.g., a i6 by 14 means 16 ends per Jinch, or 14 picks per
quarter. The methods used in the manufactory are based
on the counts of reed. Formerly many systems of reed
counts prevailed, each town or district having a method
peculiar to itself; thus, Blackburn counts, Preston counts,
and many others were at one time adhered to in their
respective districts, but have now fallen into disuse, and
almost been forgotten.
The Stockport counts are commonest in Lancashire,
and based on the number of dents or splits of the reed
in 2 inches, and as cloth is generally wrought two ends
in a dent, this system is often taken as the number of
ends in i inch. It is in use in almost every Lancashire
manufacturing district, being adopted in consequence of
its simplicity and suitability for calculation purposes.
The Bolton counts are still used in some mills in that
town, and also in Bury and some few other districts. The
system is based on the number of beers in 24J inches — a
160
HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS. l6l
beer comprising 20 dents. A Stockport 40's reed would
have 485 dents on 24J inches, or 24J beers Bolton. A
Bolton 24J reed is then equal to a Stockport 40's.
The Scotch systems are to take the number of dents
or splits in the old Scotch ell, 37 inches, and in this
system the splits per ell are expressed in hundreds ;
thus, 17°° indicates 1700 splits on 37 inches, almost equal
to a 92 reed, Stockport ; or, to take the number of porters
on the same length. The Scotch porter is equal to the
Lancashire beer — 20 splits ; thus, a 60 porter reed would
equal 60 X 20 = 1200 splits or dents on 37 inches. A
third method used in Scotland is the inch scale, which is
the number of splits in i inch, and corresponding to the
old Radcliffe and Pilkington method in Lancashire.
In the United States the inch scale is generally
adopted.
In Scotland, as in Lancashire, the old complicated
systems show a tendency to give way in favour of the
simpler systems of counting the dents on i inch or on
2 inches, i.e., the inch scale, or the Manchester and
Stockport systems respectively. It will be greatly to
the convenience of the textile trades when the British
members of them adopt uniform methods of counting
reeds, picks, yarns, &c.; and it seems probable that the
Stockport system, once confined to a small district, will
ultimately be the system of reed counting.
The obsolete systems of reed counting are : —
The Blackburn system, in which the counts referred
to the number of beers of 20 dents each on 45 inches.
The English ell was 45 inches.*
The Fustian reed system of counting the number of
beers of 38 ends or 19 dents on 24 J inches — this modi
L
1 62 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
fication of the Bolton count is even yet met with. The
beer or porter of 19 dents is occasionally found in Scot
land^ and Yorkshire also.
The Preston systems, viz. : —
The I" count equalled the number of beers on 34 inches.
JJ T 3) 53 5) 39 33
33 8" 3) }> JJ 44 55
33 4" 55 5J 55 54 35
The Nankeen count was the number of beers of 38
ends on 20 inches.
An old Manchester system was the number of beers
on 36 inches.
A Summary of Reeds Counts now in use.
I's reed in
each system
= the following
dents in one
inch.
Stockport — number of dents on 2 inches ... .5
Bolton — number of beers (each 20 dents) on 24^!
inches , . , . .... .8247
Scotch ell — number of hundreds of splits or dents on
37 inches . . ' . . . . . 2.7027
Scotch porter — number of porters (each 20 dents) on
37 inches . . . . . . . .5405
One inch scale — number of dents on i inch . . i
To find an equivalent in any other system for a
given counts in a given system.
Rule A, — Multiply the given counts by the number of
dents per inch in the standard of given system^ and divide by
the number of dents per inch in the standard of the required
system.
HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS. 1 63
Case I.
Example. — To convert Bolton counts into inch scale
counts, or, in other words, to find the number of splits
per inch in a reed, having Bolton counts given, multiply
those counts by .8247, and divide by i. The answer
shows the number of dents and decimal parts. 8.245 is
more often taken, but it gives the number with less exacti
tude. The fraction is only taken to two places of decimals,
showing thus the lOOth parts of dents ; e.g., a 30 Bolton
has 24xV^^ spHts per inch (.8247 x 30 = 24.741).
Case 11.
Example. — To convert 30 Bolton into Stockport counts.
Multiply 30 by .8247, and divide by .5.
Ans. Halfway between 49 and 50 on Stockport system.
Case III.
Example. — To convert 68 Stockport into Scotch.
68 X .5 f 2.7027 =
27027)340000(1258
27027
69730
54054 20)58(2 porters.
156760 40
135135 18 ends.
216250
216216
34
Ans. 12°° and 58 over= 12^^, or 1200, 2 porters, and 18 ends.
Case IV.
Example. — To convert 40 porter reed into Stockport
counts.
1 64 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
40 X. 540544. 5
•54054
AO
.5)21.62160(43.24
20
"76
15
121
10
21
Ans. Slightly finer than a Stockport 43 reed.
To find ends in a given width, Bolton counts.
Rule B. — Multiply counts of reed by 1.649, ^^^ ^y "^idth
in reed required.
Example. — A cloth is required to be 38 inches wide
(40 inches in reed), 6o's Bolton counts.
60 X 1.649 ^ 40 = 3948 ends.
Note. — 1.649 is the calculated number of ends in i
inch, calculating 2 ends in a dent — No. i Bolton counts.
Obtained thus — 20 beers = 40 ends r 24J inches.
2425)40000000(1.6494
2425
15750
14550
12000
9700
23000
21825
11750
In the reed table (XL) given below, the first row of
figures shows the proportion which these reeds bear to
one another, and the lower rows indicate the fineness of
HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS.
165
the different systems for 33 and 40 splits per inch respec
tively — the calculation results being given, which, how
ever, might not frequently appear in practice —
Table XL
The Inch Scale.
Dents per inch.
Stockport Dents
on 2 inches.
Bolton Beers on
24^ inches.
Scotch. 100 dents
on 37 inches.
Scotch Porter.
Porters on
37 inches.
I
2
I.2125
037
1.85
33
66
40.
12.20
61
40
80
48.5
14.80
74
Reed for Striped Cloth. — In some striped fabrics,
where the stripe is made by '' cramping " the ends in the
reed, they are at the same time worked with extra ends
in each eye of the heald, to compensate for the extra
ends in the dents of the heald, and thus the same counts
of healds as reed are used. In other cases it is necessary
to cramp the ends in the reed to form a stripe, when
from the nature of the pattern they must be drafted in
the ordinary way in the healds. In that case different
counts of heald and reed will be used. In either case it
is necessary to find the counts of reed required for a
cloth in which the pattern is formed by condensing the
ends in certain parts of the reed.
Rule C. — Find the number of dents occupied in 2 inches
of the cloth.
Example. — What reed will be used for a cloth made
by introducing a stripe of 30 ends 3 in a dent, 10 ends
2 in a dent, 60 ends 4 in a dent ? When the cloth is
woven 2 in a dent, the cumberboard is arranged for an
80 Stockport reed.
1 66
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
In a complete pattern
occupy 30 dents.
there
are
100
ends.
30 ends 3 in a dent
10 „ 2 „
60 „ 4 „
•
10
5
• 15
30
dents.
>)
These
The cumberboard being arranged for an 80 reed will
have 160 ends on 2 inches, therefore if 100 ends occupy
30 dents, 160 ends will require 48 dents; or, in other
words, the reed will be a 48 reed Stockport counts.
160
30
100)4800
Ans. 48
Healds. — In Stockport counts four healds are consi
dered as a set, and four healds having one thread through
each eye are dubbed of similar counts to the reed ; e.g., a
6o's set of healds has 15 stitches per inch in each set,
equalling 60 ends per inch in the reed, which is a 6o's
reed Stockport.
Spaced Healds. — In spaced healds some are knitted
finer than others, and consequently numbered differently.
Rule D. — To find the counts of each heald stave, with a
broken draft^ find the number of eyes per inch and mtdtiply
by 4.
In this point draft : —
No.
No. Stitches
Heald.
on each.
5 5
5
2
4 4 4 4
4
4
3 3 3
3
3
2 2
2
2
I
I
HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS. 167
twelve ends are drawn on five healds, one end on the
1st heald, two on the 2nd, three on the 3rd, four on the
4th, and two on the 5th. Four different degrees of fine
ness are required in the' five heald staves, and the above
draft is given to the knitter with instructions for so many
patterns to the inch. Say five patterns per inch : 5 X 12
would give a 60 reed, and the number of stitches per inch
would be respectively 5, 10, 15, 20, and 10 — the front
one being equal to a Stockport 20's, for if there were
four similar to it in a set, the number of ends would be
20. Similarly, the second stave equals a Stockport 40's,
the third 6o's, the fourth 8o's, and the fifth same as the
second, a 40's. To prove this, the requisite set of five
staves might be obtained by taking one stave out of a
plain 2o's set, two staves out of a plain 40's, one stave
from a 6o's, and one from an 8o's set.
Healds are usually sold by the score of beers. A beer
equals 40 ends in 20 dents, therefore a score equals 800
ends.
Reeds are sold by the beer of 20 dents each.
Reed Space and Width of Cloth. — The reed space
of a loom is, as its name implies, a measurement of the
size of the cavity which receives the reed, and is generally
measured from the edge of the backboard to the edge of
the forkgrate on the other side of the loom. We have to
deal with the width of cloth obtainable from a given reed
space. In the first place, some little width is lost in not
being able to use the outside dents of the reed, in the
thick dents, and in the loss of space at each end of the reed,
probably on an average from these three causes three
quarters of an inch at each side, or an inch and a half in
all. Then there is the contraction between the width of
1 68 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
the yarn in the reed and the width of the cloth on the
counter, say 5 per cent. On 40 inch cloth this accounts
for 2 inches more. On these premises we may assume
that a 43 inch reed space loom might at the outside weave
a 40 inch cloth, but in the list 39 inch cloth is con
sidered to be the widest that can be conveniently woven,
as the uniform list fixes the width at 4 inches from the
reed space.
Much confusion has been caused by the principle of the
old Blackburn list, which classed the width of looms by
the width of cloth that was supposed to weave easity and
not by the reed space, as for example a 45 inch reed
space was generally called a 40 inch loom.
In the old Burnley list, on the contrary, the reed space
was the width by which the loom was known. In addition
to this, the figures cast on the loom were in many cases
only nominal, and such anomalies as a 58 inch cloth being
woven in a 55 inch reed space loom were not unknown.
It is hoped that the explanation given will clear away
many doubts, and that it will indicate why the new
uniform list prohibits cloth from being woven within 4
inches of the reed space Without an allowance.
Reeds to be Used. — The reeds to be used for the
number of ends per inch vary accordingly as the cloth is
required to be full, or poor, in the reed. The following
table comprises two ranges actually in use for the two
classes of cloth : —
HEALD AND REED CALCULATIONS. 169
Table XII.
Ends per
Reeds in Use for
Reeds in Use for
Quarter Inch.
Poor Cloths.
Good Cloths.
8
28
29
10
35
36
12
41
43
13
45
47
14
49
51
15
52
54
16
56
58
17
60
62
18
64
66
19
68
70
20
70
72
22
73
80
24
86
88
26
92
96
28
98
102
30
104
no
32
112
118
The middle column is about I2 per cent, less than the
supposed number of ends per inch in the finished cloth,
and the last column about 8 per cent. less. It will be
noticed that each reed in the range is not proportional.
This is a practical necessity, as a manufacturer usually
desires as far as possible the numbers to descend in steps
of four for the sake of convenience. This prevents
mathematical accuracy. The words ''full" and ''good"
cloths are used in a trade sense. Some makers of very
good oldfashioned cloths use even finer reeds than those
given.
STEAMENGINE CALCULATIONS.
HE motivepower of our mills is an interesting
and important subject, and worthy of treatment
in more space than we can devote to it in these
pages. The millworker who takes an interest
in his surroundings would find pleasure and useful informa
tion in the possession of one of the numerous handbooks
treating of engines and boilers, the conversion of natural
resources into heat, and the generation by means of that
heat of the steam which drives our sheds and mills.
Specification of Engines and Boilers for Shed of
1000 Looms Plain Goods.
Engines, — Horizontal, high and low pressure, con
densing. Indicated horsepower, 350.
Boilers. — Two Lancashire, working at 80 lb. pressure.
Economisers. — Set of 120 pipes.
The power of an engine is indicated in horsepowers.
A horsepower is taken as the capacity of performing
33,000 footpounds of work in one minute; lifting 3 300
lbs. 10 feet high, or 10 lbs. 3300 feet high would be 33,000
footpounds of work.
Parts of SteamEngine. — The figure (6) will enable
the reader to understand the allusions to various parts of
the steamengine. PR is the piston rod, with a hori
170
STEAMENGINE CALCULATIONS.
171
zontal reciprocating movement ; steam is admitted by the
supply pipe S, either through the front port, a, or the
back port, c, according to the direction in which the
Fig. 6.
piston has to travel ; the used steam escapes through
the exhaustport e. The sHdevalve / on the shderod
regulates the admission and exit of the steam.
To Obtain the Indicated Horsepower, — A diagram
is taken from each end of each cylinder by means of a
little piece of apparatus known as an indicator. This
diagram shows the initial pressure of steam against the
piston, and also the gradual lowering of pressure as the
piston continues its stroke. An average is made at ten
points of this steam pressure, and thus we obtain the
average pressure throughout the stroke. This multiplied
by the area of the piston gives the total pressure on the
piston in pounds, and multiplied by the speed of the
piston per minute in feet gives the number of footpounds
of work done per minute.
Rule A. — Multiply the average pressure of steam in the
cylinder by the area of the piston^ and by the speed of the
\J2 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
piston, which is obtained by multiplying the length of stroke
by 2, and by the number of strokes per minute. Divide
the result by 33,000, which gives the indicated horsepower.
Example. — Find indicated horsepower from the fol
lowing particulars : — Average pressure 39.81, area of
piston 400 square inches, length of stroke 5 J feet (equal
ling 1 1 feet both ways), strokes per minute 40.
39.81
400
1592400
5i
79620
7962
87582
2
175164
40
33000)7006560(212.32 I.H.P.
66000
40656
33000
76560
66000
105600
99000
66000
66000
Nominal Horsepower. — It is, in engineering estab
lishments, customary to have a system of standardising
the power of an engine apart from its speed and steam
pressure.
Rule B. — Divide the area of piston in inches by 22.
STEAMENGINE CALCULATIONS. 1 73
Example. — What is the nominal horsepower of a
single cylinder engine, piston 40 inch diameter ?
40 X 40= 1600
■7854
6400
8coo
12800
11200
22)1256.6400(57.12 N.H.P.
no
156
154
2.64
22
44
44
Looms per Horsepower.— 2 J to 3 looms, with pre
paration, are calculated to require I indicated horse
power.
Coal. — A good quality of coal should evaporate 8 lbs.
of water for each i lb. burnt, and for a manufacturing
concern (including sizing, which takes a great amount of
steam) the consumption of coal should not be more than
3:^ lbs. per indicated horsepower per hour. Thus, 600
horsepower would use about 49 tons per week ; exclud
ing sizing, 2f lbs. would suffice.
To find the weight of coal used per indicated horse
power per hour.
Rule C. — Reduce the weight used in a week to pounds,
divide by the horsepower and by the number of hours run
per week.
174 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Example. — Engines of 440 horsepower require 35
tons of coal per week. Engine running 56 hours.
'ZK X 2240
440 X 56 ^
Ans. 3.18 lbs. per I.H.P. per hour.
Safetyvalves. — To find the pressure at which a valve
will blow off.
Safetyvalves are levers of the third order, and their
use is to relieve the pressure of the boiler by opening
when a certain pressure per square inch is arrived at.
Rule D. — Multiply the weight in pounds by the distance
of its point of suspension from the pin or fulcrum, and
divide by the area of the valve and the distance from the
fulcrum of its point of contact with the lever.
Example. — A safetyvalve lever is pivoted 3 inches
from the top of the centre of the valve and 16 inches
from the weight of 50 lbs. The diameter of the valve
is 2 inches. At what pressure will it blow ? The area
of the valve is 2^ x .7854.
4 X. 7854 = 3.1416.
50 X 16 = 800
3.I4I6X 3 = 9.4248.
9.4248)800.0000(84.8 lbs. pressure.
753984
460160
376992
831680
753894
77696
ARITHMETIC.
N a book of textile calculations the necessity of
introducing various mathematical rules is un
avoidable, and in many cases the references
to these rules may not be intelHgible to some
readers who are not so familiar with calculations as
others, in consequence perhaps of lack of early educa
tion, or of practice in the use of figures. Thanks to
the system of compulsory education, such are now few
and far between ; but the author considers that, in justice
to these readers, he should make a few short explana
tions of the principal rules involved in this work, and of
the signs and abbreviations adopted.
Signs and Abbreviations Used.
+ The sign of addition, signifies added to.
from which is subtracted,
multiplied by.
divided by.
equal to.
subtraction,
multiplication,
division,
equality,
/J ,, „ the square root.
V » » 5> cube „
2 over a number signifies that that number has to be squared.
3 over a number signifies that it has to be cubed.
% stands for per cent.
17s
176 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
The four fundamental rules of Addition, Subtraction,
Multiplication, and Division are well known, and re
quire no explanation excepting of the terms used in con
nection with them.
The Sum is the total of numbers added together.
The Difference or Remainder is obtained by sub
tracting one number from another.
The Multiplicand is the number which is multiplied by
another.
The Multiplier is the number by which the multipli
cand is multiphed.
The result of their multiplication is called the Product.
The number which is divided by another is called the
Dividend.
The one by which it is divided is called the Divisor.
The result of the division is called the Quotient.
Proportion. — This is necessary to determine from a
given ratio in which one number stands towards another
number, what the ratio or proportion would be were the
first number to be replaced by a third number; such as,
for example, if a number of articles give a certain weight
or length, or if a number of workmen do certain work,
what would be the weight or length or work done if the
original number of articles or men be changed ?
Rule A. — Place the three given numbers so that the two
numbers in which the proportion is known stand first, and
the third number is the one for which the proportion is un
known. To obtain me answer, multiply the second and
third terms together, and divide by the first. The following
signs are generally used: —
: is to
: : so
ARITHMETIC. IJJ
Example. — If 7 skips of yarn contain 21000 cops, how
many will 3 skips contain ? The numbers are placed —
7 : 21 000 : : 3 \ans.
or as 7 is to 21000 so 3 is to the answer.
To obtain the answer, multiply the second and third
terms together, and divide by the first.
21000 X 3 = 63000
7)63000
9000 ans.
Percentag'e may almost be classed with proportion, as
it is really a proportion problem, 100 always being taken
as the third term.
Percentage is the ratio which one number bears to
another number, expressed in the ratio which lOO would
bear to a certain number called the percentage.
Example. — A manufacturer calculates that he loses 2d.
on a 75 yard piece which cost i6s. 8d., what is that per
cent. ?
Expressed in proportion terms —
200 : 2 : : 100 \ans.
Multiply the second and third terms, and divide by the
first.
2 X 100 ^ 200 = I per cent.
Rule B. — To find percentage, multiply the number of
which it is desired to find the relation by 100, and divide
by the term to which the other term bears relation.
Example. — A man receives as dividend on shares ;^I9.
This bears relation to the value of his shares as 19 to 190,
what is the percentage ?
19 X 100 f 190= 10 per cent. ans.
M
1/8 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Vulgar Fractions.
A fraction is one or more parts of a thing, and indicates
the number of parts.
It is written by two numbers, one above the other, with
a line between, thus : I, , .
The lower number is called the Denominator, and
shows the number of parts into which the thing is
divided.
The Numerator is the upper number, and shows
how many of these parts are represented, as ^ = seven
eighths, 7 = foursevenths.
Reducing". — To reduce fractions to their lowest terms.
Cancelling" is another name for this.
Rule C. — Find a number that will divide into both the
numerator and denominator without remainder, and divide
them until they are no longer both divisible by a number
greater than one.
The value of the fraction will not be altered. Thus
Y^o may be divided by 5, and gives \^. This is again
divisible by 5, and is reduced to f.
To Add Fractions. '
Rule D. — Reduce them to a common denominator, and
add the numerators.
Thus:i + ^ + ,V
Seventy is the lowest number which will contain 2, 7
and 10 without remainder, and the three fractions are
then described g, fg, i = ?^.
This may be reduced by dividing by 2 to  or \\% ans.
To Sulbtraet Fractions. — Proceed as in addition, but
subtract the smaller numerator instead of adding.
ARITHMETIC. 1/9
To Multiply Fractions.
Rule E. — Multiply all the numerators together for a nume
rator, and all the denominators together for a denominator.
Example. — Multiply , ,  together.
3x5x7 = 105
4x6x8 = 192
This may be reduced, by dividing by 3, to  ans.
Division. — To divide fractions.
Rule F. — Invert the divisor and multiply.
Example.—
A9_^7_49 y 8_392
808~80'^7~5 6^
This may be reduced by dividing by 56 to f^ ans.
Decimal Fractions are expressed always in tenths, hun
dreds, thousands, &c. ; and the numerator only is written.
A point is placed before the decimal number to distin
guish it from an ordinary one, and to the right of the point
the tenths are placed, or, if none, a cypher; then the
hundreds are placed as the second figure from the point ,
thirdly, the thousandth. Thus yV? tIoj t/oq would be
written .163, or .796 would be ^^^^o oi" toj tw' and x^
Decimals are far more suitable to textile calculations
than vulgar fractions, and their use should be cultivated
by the earnest student.
The addition and subtraction of decimals is pro
ceeded with as in ordinary figures, care being taken to
get the points exactly under one another.
Rule G. — Multiplication.— il/?///^>/v the two numbers
together irrespective of the decimal points, and afterwards
count from the right of the product as many figures as
l80 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
there were to the right of the multiplier and multiplicand^
and place the point.
Example.—
1.347 X 2.86
1347
2.86
8082
10776
2694
385242
There are three figures to the right of the point in the
multipHcand, and two in the multipHer. The point is
therefore placed as under^ five figures from the right —
3.85242
Recurping" Decimals. — Certain fractions cannot be
expressed in full in the decimal system, e.g.^ ^ in decimals
would be .iiiiiiiii, and so on.
These are called recurring or repeating decimals, and
are marked by placing a point over them, or if there are
several in the repeat, over the first and last of the group.
Example.—
\ is .written . i
Y is written .142857
Square Root. — To extract.
This problem, known as one branch of evolution, con
sists in finding the number which, when multiplied by
itself, or, in other words, when squared, gives, as the
product, the given number.
Rule H. — Divide the number into pairs of figures, he
ginning at the unit place. Find the greatest number which,
when multiplied by itself, i.e., when squared, will be con
ARITHMETIC. l8l
tained in the lefthand figure or pair ; place this root as
a quotient, and as a divisor also, and subtract their product
as in ordinary division. Then bring down two more figures,
and double the previous divisor, and add the largest figure
to it that can be the quotient also. Then multiply the
divisor by this figure. Double the quotient, and proceed as
before. If there is a remainder, add two cyphers to it, and
proceed as before, calling each addition to the quotient a
decimal.
Example. — Find square root of 8462548064.
Mark off thus. 9 is the root
of the greatest square con 9)8462548084(91992.1
tained in 84. 81
Double 9. I is the highest 181)362
number that can be added 181
to 18 and to the quotient 9. 1820)181^4
Double 91. 3.5461
18389)169380
165501
183982)387984
367964
Add 2 cyphers and place a 1839841)2002000
decimal point to the quo 1839841
tient. 162159
Ans. — 91992. 1.
In all textile calculations the slide rule will be found
very useful, and is well worthy of study by the earnest
textilist. The oldfashioned, antiquated rule is not re
ferred to, but the modern one, constructed on the lines of
the rules largely used by many Continental manufacturers.
A book by Mr. J. W. Nasmith, of Mulhouse, Alsace,
shortly to be published by Mr. John Heywood, will treat
exhaustively of this subject.
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND
ANSWERS.
HE City and Guilds of London Institute hold
annually an excellent series of examinations
in the different trades. For some years
cottonweaving was examined with cotton
spinning under the name of ''Cotton Manufacture," while
questions were concurrently given under the subject of
''Weaving and Pattern Designing," which included also
woollen, worsted, silk, jute, and linen weaving. In 1889,
for the first time, a separate examination was held in
" CottonWeaving."
The author, considering that it would be beneficial to
the textile student of our technical schools to reprint
some of these questions and append answers, and that it
would also be interesting and instructive to older readers
to study the various exercises that have been propounded,
has here given a selection from the various papers.
Questions necessitating calculations have alone been
given, and questions referring to other textile trades have
been omitted, as have also duplicate or similar questions
given in different years.
As most calculation questions are repeated in succeed
ing years, the duplicates not answered in this book are
left for test questions, to be given by the teachers.
182
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 83
Selections from Weaving and Designing* Papers.
1883. — No. 5. — If you are weaving a 7 pick pattern
with tappets (that is, a pattern which recurs every seven
picks), and your tappet wheel contains 1 50 teeth, whilst
the wheel on the crank shaft contains 25 teeth, how will
you obtain the proper rate of speed for the tappets, and
what wheels will you use for the purpose ?
Intermediate wheels would be required.
By rule given on page 88 it is shown that we must
find what proportionate speed the 25 and 150 would give;
150^25=6. Then as 6 is to 7 so are the two inter
mediate wheels to one another, say 60 and 70. The train
of wheels would be 25 driving 70, and 60 driving 150.
No. 11. — Calculate the cost of material in a piece of
cloth made as follows : — 100 ends per inch of twofold
70's cotton at 2s. 3d. per lb., 84 picks per inch of single
40's worsted at 2s. 5d. per lb. The piece to be woven
30 inches in the reed, 5 3 yards long, made from 5 8 yards
of warp, allowing 5 per cent, for weft wasted in weaving.
Rules given on pages 14 and 20.
30 X 100 X 58 ^840 X 35's = 5.9i lbs. twist.
30 X 84 X 53  560 X 40's = 5.962
Add 5%= .298
6.26
5.91 lbs. twist at 2s. 3(5?'. = 159.57^.
6.26 ,, weft ,, 2J. 5(2?. = 181.54^.
341 = £^, 8j. 5^.
1884. — Ordinary Grade.— No. 5.— A drum 13 inches
in diameter^ making 120 revolutions a minute, is required
1 84 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
to give motion to a shaft required to make 156 revolu
tions. Find the diameter of the pulley required.
Rule given on page 62.
Ans. 120 X 134156 = 10 inches.
No. 9. — How many hanks will be in a pound weight
of twoply yarn made by twisting one thread of 24's and
one of 30's single cotton ^'•arn together ?
See Rule on page 46.
Ans. Multiply 24 x 30, and divide by 24 + 30 = 54.
24
30
54)720(13.3
54
180
162
Ans. i2>¥s.
No. 10. — Having 40's cotton yarn, and wishing to twist
it with another yarn to make it 24's, what numbers would
you employ ?
Ans. By rule E. on page 46.
40 X 24 = 960
4024= 16
16)960(60*8
96_
Ans. 6o's.
No. 13. — Give a calculation showing the weights of warp
and weft in a piece of cotton cloth woven in a 20reed
with eighteen shots (Manchester count), 40 inches wide,
60 yards, 70's warp, 8o's weft. Allow what you consider
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 85
necessary for shrinkage in length and width, and extra
ends for selvages.
Rules given on pages 14 and 20.
Width to be taken at 40, v^ith say 2 inches allowed
for contraction and selvages.
20 reed X 18 shots = 80x72 to the inch. Allow 3 per
cent, on length.
Twist . 42 X 80 X 6if 7 840 X 70 = 3.53 lbs.
Weft . 42x72x60 ^840x80 = 2.7 lbs.
1885.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 10.— Explain the counts
or Nos. by which the fineness of cotton, silk, linen,
woollen, and worsted yarns are indicated. How would
you proceed to prove the counts of any yarn ?
Explanation of this is given on pages 39 to 53.
1886.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 6.— If the crank shaft
of a loom is making 130 revolutions a minute, having a
12inch pulley, what size of pulley will you require to
have on to make it revolve at the rate of 160 revolutions
a minute ?
Rule given on page 63.
A smaller pulley would be required.
130 X 12 ^ 160 =
160)1560(9!
1440
I20_ 3
i6^~^
Ans. 9x inches.
1886.— Honours Grade.— No. 1.— It is required to
weave a piece of cloth which must be 48 yards long and
28 inches wide, and you have only 180 hanks of weft
1 86 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
yarn (cotton). How many picks per inch must the piece
contain ?
No rule has been given for this, but the reader can
easily deduce one from the abundant explanations given
in the early part of the book.
Rule A. — Multiply width by lengthy and divide into length
of yarn given.
48 yards X 28= 1344. 180x840=151200.
151200f I344= ii2.
Ans. 1 12 J.
No. 10. — How many hanks will be contained in one
pound weight of 3fold yarn made by twisting one thread
of lo's, one of 30's, and one of 50's single worsted yarn
together ?
Rule given for finding counts on page 47.
5050 = 1
50^30 = 1.66
5010 = 5
7.66
7.66)5000(6.52 hanks in a pound
4596 of the 3fold yarn.
4040
3830
2100
1887.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 2.— What will be the
resulting counts of two threads twisted together as
follows — viz., 8o's single cotton with 32's single worsted ?
And what quantity of each will be required to produce
100 lbs. of folded yarn ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 8/
First find equivalent in worsted of 8o's cotton.
Rules given on pages 50 and 46.
80 X 840 ^ 560 = i2o's
Twofold 32's and i2o's =
32 X 120 r 32 + 120 =
3840152 =
25.26's counts of resultant yarn expressed in hanks of 560 yards.
100 lbs. X 25.26 = 2526 hanks of each.
32)2526(78.94153. of worsted.
224
"286
256
300
288
120
25.26 hanks of 560 yards x 100 x 560 = 840 = 1684 hanks of
840 yards.
8o's)i684(2i.o5 lbs. cotton.
160
80
4
Ans. 25.26's; 78.94 lbs. worsted; 21.05 ^t»s. cotton.
No. 10. — What is the speed of a loom driven by a
14inch drum on main shaft^ making 120 revolutions per
minute; loom pulley being loj inches?
Rule given on page 59.
120 multiplied by 14 and divided by 10 J.
Ans. 160 picks per minute.
No. 11. — What number of shots, per inch, will a 30
teeth change pinion give, other parts of the motion being
1 88 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
— ratchet wheel, 50 teeth ; intermediate wheel, 120 ^eeth ;
and intermediate pinion, 15 teeth; feed roller wheel, 75
teeth ; and circumference of feed roller, 1 5 inches ?
Ans. Rule given on page 92.
50X120X75M5X 15 = 2000.
2000
I J per cent. = 30
30)2030(67!
180
230
210
20
30
Ans. 67! picks per inch.
No. 12. — State the time it will take a loom to weave
60 yards of cloth with 80 shots per inch. Diameter of
puUe}^ on crank shaft 8 inches; diameter of drum on
main shaft, 14 inches; main shaft revolutions, 120 per
minute, allowing 20 per cent, for stoppages.
The piece has 60 x 36 x 80 = 172800 picks in it.
The loom makes per minute —
120 X 14 f8 = 2IO
Less 20 per cent. 42
168 picks.
1728004168 = 1028! minutes = i7 hours 8^ minutes.
A/is. 17 hours, Sf minutes.
1888.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 13.— Make a stripe as
follows : — 60 ends cotton, 40 ends silk, 24 ends cotton, 20
ends silk. Cotton 2 ends in a split, silk 4 in a spht. Reed
40 splits or dents per inch, width of piece 32 inches in
reed. How many ends of each material will be required ?
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 89
Ans,
6a ends of cotton at 2 ends in a split occupy = 30 splits.
40 „ silk „ 4 ,, ,, = 10 ,,
24 „ cotton ;, 2 5, ,, = 12 ,,
20 „ silk „ 4 „ „ =^ „
One stripe occupies = 57 ,,
Number of splits available = 40 x 32 = 1280
57)1280(22 complete stripes and 26 splits over
114
140
£14
26
The 26 splits could be used for a border of cotton 2
ends in a split, thus giving a cotton border at each side of
the piece, and the number of ends of cotton that v^ould be
then required would be —
22 stripes each 84 ends cotton = 1848
26 splits „ 2 „ „ = 52
1900 ends cotton.
22 stripes each 60 ends silk =1320 ,, silk.
Honours Grade. — No. 1. — Same paper. — Give the
average counts of yarn in any cloth composed of alternate
threads of single 1 6's and single 40's yarn.
Ans. Apply rule given for twofold yarn, page 46, and
multiply by 2.
16 X 40 ^ 16 + 40
56)640(11.428
56
80
II
.428
S6
2
240
22
.856'S
ans.
224
160
112
480
190 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Proof:—
1 hank of i6's weighs 43 yj grains
£ J, 40's „ i75_ „
2 hanks ,, 612J „
Average = i hank ,, 3°^ »
7000 4 306;!: = 22.856's
Ans. 22.856's.
Selections from the Cotton Weaving"^
Examination Questions.
1889 Examination.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 7.—
How many tokens of 20 healds each will you have on
each heald in a fiveend satin with a total of 1600 ends?
And what space will each token stand in, suppose the
healds are for a 50reed Manchester counts of reed ?
Ans. 1600 ends in all 4 5 shafts = 320 on each shaft, making
no allowance for plain selvage.
•520
^ — = 16 tokens on each heald or shaft.
20
The whole reed space occupied is 1600 =50 = 32 inches.
Each token therefore stands in 32 =16 = 2 inches, or, in
other words, there are 20 eyes in every 2 inches of each shaft.
No. 13. — What pinion or crank shaft and intermediate
or carrier wheels would you use to drive a woodcroft
tappet 16 picks to the round, if the tappet wheel has
180 teeth ?
^ Cotton Weaving. The subjects which are comprised in the syllabus to
be studied for this examination in addition to the calculations, such as the
construction and use of the machinery, both in the weaving and prepara
tory processes, are fully described in the author's book on " Cotton Manu
facturing," price 6s.
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 191
Ans. One wheel on crank shaft would not drive 180 at the
required speed, as I8o^ 16 gives a broken size.
A pair of intermediate wheels must be employed. Apply
rule on page 88. Supposing any wheel, say 16, to be on the
crank shaft —
180 1
As ii^l is to 16 so the required wheels are to another, say 45
and 64.
The train would be 16 driving 64
» 5) 45 » 180
No. 14. — What change v^^heel vv^ill you require to put
in 25 picks per quarter inch? The ratchet vi^heel has
120 teeth driving the required pinion, which gears into a
carrier wheel of 50 teeth, and 30 teeth driving the roller
wheel of 90 teeth, the roller being 15 inches in circum
ference.
Apply Rule D. on page 92 for obtaining dividend.
120 X qo X go
^ — ^ = 300
30 X 60
60 is the circumference of roller in quarter inches.
Add I J per cent, for contraction, 300
4i
304 J f picks required, 25 = 12.18
Afts. Nearest change wheel 12, which, being less size than
calculation gives, would give more than 25 picks to the J inch
(about 25f).
No. 18. — You have 160 bobbins of 30's twist, each
containing 8 ozs. of yarn, and wishing to use all the yarn
(allowing 5 per cent, for material left on the bobbins and
waste) in a warp of 3600 ends, what length should the
warp be ?
192 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Multiply 30's by 840 to find yards in a pound, and divide by
2 to get length in half a pound, deduct 5 per cent. —
Giving 11970 yards usable on each bobbin.
11970 X 160 bobbins = 1915200 total yards usable, and this
divided by 3600 gives length of warp.
Ans. 532 yards.
No 19. — A piece of cloth, 40 yards long, 30 inches
wide, with 80 ends per inch (out of loom), and 1 20 picks
per inch, contains 18 lbs. of yarn; what is the average
counts of warp and weft, allowing a shrinkage of 10 per
cent, from reed ?
>^ Ans. Apply Rule L., page 28.
''^'^4. The width = 30+ 10 per cent. =30 + 3 = 33. The tape length
5 ^ will be about 42 yards. The length of twist =
'^^^<..^ _^ 33 X 80 X 42 yards = 1 10880.
The length of weft is —
■ ^.:^^ 33 X 40 X 120 = 158400.
^' 1 10880 + 158400 = 269280 yards.
269280 divided by 840 and by 18 lbs. gives 17.809.
Ans. 17.809's average counts.
Honours Grade. — ^No. 4f,—Same paper. — If you are
placing a loom to run 180 picks per minute side by side
with a loom to run 96 picks per minute, in a shed where
the shaft makes 108 revolutions, what size of drum would
you put on the shaft, and what size of pulley on the loom
in each case ?
Ans. The proportionate sizes of driving and driven pulleys
in the first case will be 180 to 108, or, say, 15 inches driving
and 9 inches driven.
In the second case 96 to 108, or, say, 16 and 18 inches
respectively.
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 93
No. 15. — Suppose you are weaving a plain cloth with
60 ends per inch and 60 picks per inch, equal counts of
warp and weft, and you wish to make a fourend twill
using the same yarns, how many ends and picks per inch
would you put in to make a cloth of similar firmness ?
Ans. Suppose the 4end twill to be an ordinary one — 2
ends up out of 4. There would be two intersections in 4
ends, that is, 4 ends and 2 picks passing through equal to
6 threads.
In 4 ends of plain there are 4 intersections, 4 ends, and
4 picks, equals 8 threads. Then with the same reed and pick
and yarns the twill would be looser, or to make it as firm we
must increase it at the proportion of 6 to 8, or —
—  — =80 ends X 80 picks per inch.
No. 16. — Calculate the cost of i dozen tapestry table
covers from the following, particulars : — Size on table
32 X 34 inches, 33 inches in reed.
Warps 600 ends 2/60 indigo blue at 3
,, 2,432 ends 2/40 red . .
„ 2,432 ends 2/40 brown .
Weft 30 picks per inch 6's ecru
» 30 „ „ 6's black
Weaving, is. 3d. per dozen; general expenses, 20 per
cent, more than weaving ; allow 5 per cent, for waste in
both warp and weft, 5 per cent, for the taking up of the
coarse warps in weaving, and 10 per cent, for the taking
up of the fine warp.
Ans. Weight of 2/60's.
Length = 34 inches x 12 + 10 per cent, for length.
34 X 12 = 408.
s.
d.
at 3
2 per lb.
4i „
» I
4j »
5, I
I „
» I
I »
194 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
408
40.8
448.8 inches
600 ends
36)269280.0
7480 yards
7480 + 5 per cent, waste,
374
840)7854(9.35
7560
2940 2/60's or 3o)9.35(.3iilbs.
2520 90
4200 35
4200 30
"50
.311 at 35. 2d. — w.Zd.
Weight of 2/40's.
Length 34 x 12 = 408 + 5 per cent. = 428.4.
428.4
4864 ends
17136
25704
34272
17136
36)20837376(57881! yards.
180 2894 5 per cent, waste
283 840)607751(72.35 hanks
252 5880
^17 1975
288 1680 20)72.35(3.61 lbs.
293 295.5 6o_
288 252.0 123
77 4350 ^
36 35 .
21
3.61 lbs. at i^. df\d. = 59.56^.
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 95
Weft—
33 X 60 picks X 1 1 J yards ^ 6's x 840 = 4.45 lbs.
445
.22 = 5 per cent, waste.
4.67 at IS. id.
60. J id.
Twist ....
d.
II. 8
Weft ....
Weaving ....
5956
60.71
15.00
Exs. = i weaving
15.00
3.00
165.07 per doz. = 135', 9^.
Ans. 13^. 9^. per dozen.
1890 Paper.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 3.— What is the
counts of a doubled thread composed of 20's and 40's
twisted together?
Apply Rule D. and Example, page 46.
Ans. 13.33's.
No. 4. — How much 6o's twist will you require for a
set of slasher's bea,ins, the whole set to contain 2360 ends,
18000 yards ?
Apply Rule D., page 72. Multiply 2360 by 18000, and
divide by 840 to bring it to hanks, and then by 60, the
counts.
2360 X 18000
840 X 6q
Ans. 842.85 lbs.
No. 9. — If weaving 8end satin, 40 inches in reed, 56
reed, Stockport counts, how many healds would you
require on each stave in two inches. Also, how many
196 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
healds for each stave, if drawn in on 8 staves, centred
backwards and forwards, if for a 14end pattern ?
In the case of an 8end satin there would be an equal
Nos. number of ends on
8. — = V each stave (see draft,
7 — ^ Fig. 7). There would
6. _^— — ^^ _ be g healds. In two
5 ^^ inches of 56 reed
4 ' ^^— Stockport, two ends
2' " ** in a dent, there would
^' " *'"^~~" be 112 ends. This
I. A —
divided by the num
Fig. 7. ^ .
ber of staves (8) gives
the number of heald eyes on each stave — namely, 14.
A71S. 14.
The second part of the question involves a different
draft, shown at Fig. 8, It will be seen that the first stave
Nos.
8. ^ Nc
7. .^^ :v
6. N^ i^^
5 N^ H
4. — N ■ N^
3= N^ \
2. _i^ :»^
I. V
Fig. 8.
and the eighth have only half as many ends or e3^es on
them as the others. A glance at the draft shows that out
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 1 97
of 14 ends 2 healds have I end each, and 6 healds 2 ends
each.
Apply Rule B.
Rule B. — Having given the counts of reed, the number
of healds required for the pattern, and the number of ends
on each stave for one pattern, the number of ends on each
stave for any distance can be found by dividing the total
number of ends for that distance by the number of ends in
the pattern, and multiplying by the number of ends on each
stave in one pattern.
As there are 14 ends in the pattern and 112 ends in
. , , 112 o
2 inches, there are ■= b patterns.
14
Multiplying this by the ends on each stave in one
pattern, we have the ends on each stave in 2 inches.
I St stave
8x1=8
2nd „
8 X 2 = 16
3rd „
4th „
5th „
6th „
8 X 2 = 16
8 X 2 = 16
8 X 2 = 16
8 X 2 = 16
7th ,,
8th „
8 X 2 = 16
8x1=8
112
No. 14. — What size of pulley will you require on a
loom to give 168 picks per minute, if the driving drum is
14 inches on a shaft running 108 revolutions ?
See Rule D., page 62.
Multiply 14 by 108 and divide by 168. The answer is
9 inches diameter of pulley required.
No. 15. — Draw the taking up motion you are accus
tomed to, and give the train of wheels required to weave
198 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
112 picks in I inch of cloth ; circumference of takingup
roller 14 inches.
For sketch of takingup motion, see page 91. This is
adapted to lower picks than the question refers to, but
still the necessary picks could be inserted. As explained
on page 92, find the dividend for that particular gear by
applying Rule D. Taking the same wheels as are given
on the page mentioned, with a 14inch cloth roller, the
dividend is 50X 75 X IOOM2 X 56= 558.03, add I J per
cent. = 586.4. This, divided by the number of picks to
the quarter, 28, gives a change wheel of 20.4 teeth.
Either a 20 or a 21 would be used, say a 20. The com
plete train in this case would be 50, 20, 100, 12, 75, and
14 inch cloth roller. The wheel 20 gives rather more
than the desired picks, but is the nearest that can be used
with the takingup motion under discussion. A Pickles'
motion, page 93, would give the exact result with either
84 and 27 or 56 and 18 change wheels.
Honours Grade.— No. ii.— Same paper.
What is the value per yard grey of the following
quilting cloth (show all calculations), 72 reed Stockport
counts, 3 1 inches in the reed : —
Face warp 2 ends in dent 6o's twist 1.25 yards of warp
per yard of cloth.
Back warp i end in dent 32's twist i.i yards of warp
per yard of cloth.
Total picks 180 per inch, in the order of 10 picks of
face weft 50's to 2 picks of back weft 12's.
Weaving 2\d. and general expenses 2jd. per yard.
Prices of yarn in loom, 6o's i6d., 32's H^d., 50's weft
I3jd., 12's weft 9fd.
This calculation must be treated as if there are two
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. IQQ
separate cloths. One cloth is made 31 inches, 72 reed,
I yard long, 2 ends in each dent, 6o's twist, and with yj
of the total picks per inch, 50's weft. The other cloth is
31 inches, J 2 reed, I yard, i end in a dent, 32's twist,
and with ^^ of the total picks per inch of 12's weft. The
contraction allowances are given, and no allowance is
made for side ends, as explained in the chapter relating
to cloth calculations, nor is any special allowance made
for waste, as the prices given in the question cover cost
of yarn in the loom.
Take the first cloth, applying Rules A. and B. on
page 10.
31 X 72x1^5 ^_ @ i6^ per lb. =.8848^.
840 X 60 S ' — — "—
Weft. — Apply Rule D., on page 20. \% of the picks
belong to this cloth, and are of 50's weft.
180 X 10 . , . ,
= 150 picks per mch.
^I X ICO X I rs ^ J 1U
■^— ^ = .1107. .1107 @ i3f<2. per lb. = 1.494 pence.
840 X 50 — —
Second cloth. — Warp, see same rule as for the other
warp. As there is only i end in a dent, there will only
be 36 ends per inch.
^ — — ^ — ^ — ^==.0456 lbs. @ i4M = .66i2^.
840 X 32
Weft. — See same rule as for other weft. The picks
are jg of the whole 180 or 30 per inch.
^ — = .OQ22 lbs. @ c)\d. = 8qq^.
840x12 ^ ^ ^^ ^^—
!00
WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
Summary : —
d.
ist cloth, twist ,
, .8848
weft
• 1.494
2nd „ twist .
.6612
weft .
. ,899
Weaving per yard
• 225
Other expenses per y
ard
. 2.5
Ans. Grey cost per yard
.
. 8.689 pence.
No. 12. — An engine is driving a line shaft by ropes, and
running 60 strokes per minute, with a driving drum of 20
feet. Give a size for line shaft drum to be driven by
engine drum, and speed of line shaft; also, presuming
you have mitre wheels on driving shafts of shed from
line shaft, give sizes of drum driving loom, and loom
pulley to drive your loom 180 picks per minute.
Three wheels have to be found, — the driven one on
the line shaft, the drum driving the loom, and the pulley
on the loom. Some liberty is left to the candidate in
assuming the dimensions of the pulleys. Suppose the
ratio of the dimensions of the driving drum and the loom
pulley is 15 to 10. This would give a firm grip and good
driving. Then the speed of the shaft over the looms
would be 120; for 180 multiplied by 10 and divided by
15 equals 120. Here the Rule C. given on page 61 has
been applied. 120 is the speed both of the shaft over
the looms and the line shaft, as mitre wheels connect
them. The drum driving the line shaft is 20 feet diameter,
running 60 revolutions per minute. Then applying Rule
D. on page 62, the pulley on the line shaft must be —
60 X 20
120
= 10 feet diameter.
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 201
Ans. The whole train would thus be 20 feet drum, speed
60 revolutions per minute, driving 10 feet pulley on the line
shaft ; on same shaft is mitre wheel, say 50, geared with another
50 mitre wheel on shaft over looms, carrying a 15 inch pulley
driving a 10 inch pulley on the loom.
The proof of the accuracy of this train can be found by
applying Rule A., page 59, thus —
60 X 20 X 50 X 15
=180 revolutions of loom pulley per mm.
10 X 50 X 10 1 / r
1891.— Ordinary Grade.— No. 3.— Referring to the
process of beaming a ball warp, give the number of teeth
per inch in the wraithe if the v^arp contains 84 beers by
20, and stands 28 inches between the flanges.
If the warp contains 84 beers of 20 ends each, there will be
84 X 20, or 1680 ends in all. Divide this by the space occu
pied between the flanges of the beam, viz., 28 inches, and we
have the ends per inch = 60. There would probably be for
this size of warp 4 ends in the dent of the wraithe, then there
must be 15 teeth per inch ; if 2 ends per dent, then 30 dents
per inch ; if 6 ends per dent, then 10 dents per inch, &c.
No. 5. — What weight of yarn shall I dye of each
colour to make a pattern warp, 2 blue, 2 yellow, 2 blue,
6 red, 2 blue, 2 yellow, 2 blue ? The warp to contain
720 ends of 20's twist, and to be 820 yards long. 5 per
cent, allowed for waste.
Apply Rule A. and Rule H., pages 14 and 25.
720 ends X 820 yards ^ 840 and 20's = 35. 143 lbs.
Add 5 per cent. i757 5,
36.9 lbs.
The ends in one pattern are 18, of which 8 are blue, 4
yellow, and 6 red.
202 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
js of 36.9 lbs. are 8 x 2.05 = 16.2 blue.
1% „ 369 » 8x2.05= 8.1 yellow.
T8 »> 369 ;, 8x2.05 = 12.3 red.
36.9 lbs.
No. 6. — What counts of yarn shall I have to double
with 30's to produce 12's?
Apply Rule E., page 46.
^o x 12 ^60 ,
^ = *?—  = 2o's
30  12 18
Ans. 2o's.
No. 7. — A warp of 1035 ends 750 yards weighs 33 lbs.
What are the counts ?
Rule D., page 72, may be made to apply to this question
by changing the terms.
Length 1035 ^ 750 = 776250 yards.
Divide by 840 = 924 hanks.
33)924
28
Ans. 28's counts.
Honours Grade. — Sa7ne paper. — No. 7. — What will be
the relative strain in the shedding of two warps, if one is
weaving in a loom running lOO picks per minute, the
shed being opened 3 inches each pick, and the other
weaving in a loom running 90 picks, the shed being
opened 4 inches each pick ? the weighting of the warps
being the same.
The strain as affected by the size of the shed is in pro
portion to the amount by which the threads would be
lengthened were they perfectly elastic, and this is in pro
portion to the square of the distance that the thread is
raised.
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 203
The strain caused by the speed is in direct proportion
to the speed.
Therefore we compare them by the product of the size
of shed squared and the speed.
ist. Lift 3 inches squared = 9 x speed 100= 900
2nd. „ 4 „ „ =i6x „ 90 = 1440
900 I
1440 1.6
The loom with the 4inch shed has the greater strain
in proportion of 1.6 to I.
No. 14. — Presuming that the relative diameters of cotton
yarns are {inversely) as the square root of their respective
counts, what counts of yarn will give the same firmness
in a 2 and 2 twill that 20's would give in a plain cloth,
the threads being equal in number both ways ?
The question is obviously meant to read as if the word
'^ inversely " were inserted as shown.
Assuming that the opening between the warp threads,
where the weft passes through, in interlacing, is about
equal to the diameter of the weft, and consequently of the
warp, where the same counts are used for warp and weft,
then in plain cloth, where the weft interweaves with every
end, there will be 4 spaces or intersections for 4 ends of
warp ; or, in other words, 4 ends occupy a space equal to
the diameter of 8 ends. If the weave is changed to a 2
and 2 twill, then for each 4 ends, the weft passes once
under and once over, or occupies 2 spaces, making the
4 ends of warp to occupy the diameter of 6 threads. If
the counts remained the same, the cloth would conse
quently be more loosely built. To remedy this the yarns
204 WEAVING CALCULATIONS.
must be made coarser, and the diameter of the new yarn
must be to the diameter of the old yarn, as 8 is to 6,
these being the relative spaces occupied.
The square root of 2o's is 4.47.
4.47 multiplied by 6 and divided by 8 is 3.3525. This is
the square root of about iij's yarn.
Ans. iij's yarn.
No. 17. — How much per yard (grey) will a sateen stripe
cost woven to the following particulars : — Brocade stripe
of 3 inches, and sateen stripe of 2 inches (in reed) alter
nate, 40 inches wide in reed, brocade 2 in dent, sateen 4
in dent, twist 40's throughout, 64 reed Stockport, 96 picks
per inch 30's weft weaving fd. per yard. Expenses 10
per cent, more than weaving. Cost of twist in loom I4jd.
per lb., weft 9jd.
Apply Rules F., page 23, and D., page 20. Examples
given at pages 193 and 198.
Ans. Allow 10 per cent, for contraction in warp and 36 side
ends, and nothing for waste beyond what the price allows.
Warp .1185 lbs. @ 141 = 1.72
Weft .1524 „ @ 9i = i4i
Wages . . . = .75
Expenses . . , = .82
Total . . 4.7^.
INDEX.
When several page numbers are given against one subject, the more
important ones are given in heavier type.
Abbreviation marks 175
Agency terms 54
American yarn counts 49
Angle 67
Answers to examination ques
tions 182
Area of circular space 66
Arithmetical rules 175
Average counts of yarn in cloth 192
Average picks per inch 24
Balance of fabrics 33, 193, 203
Ballwarping calculations ... 73
Beaming calculations ... 'jo, 75
Beaming wages 104
Belts 64
Blackburn list of wages 124
Blackburn reed counts 161
Boilers 170
Bolton reed counts 160
Botany yarn ... ... 48
Bundled yarns 51
Burnley list of wages 132
Casting out
Changing character of cloth
33, 193,
Changing speeds
Chorley list of wages ... 128,
Circular area
Circumference
Circumferential velocity
99
203
63
139
66
66
64
Cloth calculations
13, 183, 184, 192, 193, 198
Coal consumption 173
Coiling motion 90,97,138,187,191
Colne coloured goods list ... 152
Coloured goods calculations
25, 193, 201
Coloured winding wages ... 103
Contraction in weaving 14, 16, 18
Converting one system of reed
counting to another 162
Converting one system yarn
counts to another 50
Costing cloth
27, 31, 183, 193, 198, 204
"Cotton weaving" exayaina
tion questions 190
Counts, equivalents in other
materials 50
Counts of beams 72
Counts ot yarn 40
Counts required for certain
weights 28
Cumberboard loo
Cut mark 78
Damp in yarn ...
Decimal fractions
Design paper ...
Dhooty marker
Dhooty wages ...
Diameter
••• 53
... 179
... 98
... 80
... 120
.. 67
205
206
INDEX.
Diameters of yams 52, 203
Discounts 54
Dividend of loom 92
Double yarn calculations
45, 186, 195
Drawingin wages 108
Driving and driven vi^heels ... 60
Driving ropes 65
Ends, to obtain number of 14, 188
Engine calculations 170
Examination questions and an
swers 182
Examples, wage calculations
121, 122, 127, 135
Folded yarns 45, 186, 195
Foreign weights, measures, and
moneys 88
Fractions 178
French cotton counts 48
Fustian reed counts .., ... 161
Gears for takingup motions
93, 96, 138
Gross 47
Hank, definition 39
Heald calculations
160, 166, 190, 196
Horsepower 65, 171
Indicated horsepower ... ij2
Intermediate wheels ... 88, 183
Jacquard calculations 98
Jute yarn counts 49
Lea, definition of 39
Length of warp 16
Length of yarn in cloth 28
Leverage 89
Linen counts 49
Lists of weaving wages iio
Loom calculations
83, 187, 190, 192, 200
Looming wages 107
Looms per horsepower 173
PAGE
Mangle wheels 63
Marking motion 78
Measures, foreign 57
Measuring motion, beaming .. . 75
Mensuration 66
Metrical system of yarn counts 48
Metrical weights and measures 55
Milling up 16, 18
Moneys, foreign 58
Nelson list of wages (fancy
goods) 141
Nominal horsepower
Oldham velvet list
Percentage
Pickles' motion
Picks per quarter inch
Picks to the round ...
Pick table
Pirn winding wages
Power of straps
Preston list of wages
Preston reed counts
Proportion
... 172
... 149
70, 177
93
91
86
96
104
64
135
162
176
Quoting for cloth
27, 31, 183, 193, 198, 204
Radcliffe list of wages ... 141
Rating goods
27, 31, 183, 193, 198, 204
Reed calculations 160
Reed for striped cloth 165
Reed space 167
Reeds to be used 169
Right angle 68
Rope driving 65
Safety valves 174
Scotch reed counts 161
Scotch system of calculating
weights 22
Scotch yarn counts 47
Selvage ends 15
Set of beams 71
Shots on the glass ... ... 22, 98
ADVERTISEMENTS. 207
MILES PLATTING REED,
HEALD, AND WIRE WORKS,
VARLEY STREET, OLDHAM ROAD,
MANCHESTER.
ENRY TETLOW,
MAKER OF
ALL KINDS OF REEDS AND HEALDS ;
ALSO MAKER OF
SELFACTING LOOP AND MAIL MEALD MACHINES,
SELFACTING REED MACHINE, 300 DENT PER MINUTE,
PATENT SPACING MOTION FOR HEALD MACHINE,
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REED ENDS, REED RIBS, REED BAND AND HEALD YARN.
ALL ORDERS PUNCTUALLY ATTENDED TO.
Doubler of all kinds of Cotton Heald Yarn.
208
INDEX.
PAGE
Side tappets S6
Signs and abbreviations ex
plained 175
Silk counts 48
Size of shed 90
Size, percentage of 82
Skein system yarn counts ... 50
Slashing or taping calculations 78
Slashing or taping length ... 16
Slashing or taping Vi^age list ... 106
Slide rule 181
Slip _ 84
Small samples, price from ... 29
Spaced healds 166
Specifications, machinery 69, 75, 78
Speed calculations ... 59, 8^, 192
Speed of loom from engine ... S^
Speed of tappets 85
Speeds and wheels, different
picks to the round 86
Square root 180
Standard cloths 33
Steamengine calculations ... 170
Stockport reed counts 160
Strain on warp 202
Straps 64
Strength of yarn 52
Stripe cloth, weight of yarn in
23, 25, 189, 193
Stud wheel 79
Summary of reed counts used 162
Symmetry of cloth ... 33, 193, 203
Tables of money, weights, and
measures 55
Table yarn measurements ... 39
Table yarn weights 39
Takeup motion 90, 97, 187, 191
Taping calculations 78
Taping wages list 106
Tape length 16
Tappet speeds 85
Testijig yarn 51
PAGE
Threefold yarn 46
Tin roller wheel, to obtain ... 79
Toothed wheels 60
Turns of twist 52
Twisters 15
Twist required 13,22,25
Twofold yarn 45
Uniform weaving wages
list 1 10
Uptaking motion
... 97
Velvet wage list
... 149
Wage calculations
. ... lOI
Warp, ends in a
. ... 14
Warping calculations
• 70, 73
Warping wages
• ••• 105
Warp strain
. ... 202
Waste percentage
. ... 70
"Weaving and designing"
questions 183
Weaving wages 108
Weft weight required 20, 23, 26
Weight of piece from small
sample 29
Weight of beams 77
Weight of weft required 20, 23, 26
Weight of twist required 13, 22, 25
Wheels for tape frame 80
Wheels for tappets, to find ... 85
Wheels to be used for picks 92, 96
Winding calculations 69
Winding wages 102
Woodcroft tappets 85
Wool, grist of 50
Worm wheels 62
Worsted counts 48
Wrap, length of 70
Wrapping yarn 40
Wrapping table 42
Yarn calculations 39
Yarn, measurement table ... 39
Yarn, weight table 39
PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO.
EDINBURGH AND LONDON.
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211
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TEXTILE IMDDSTRIES. A^ '
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Published on the 18th day of
each month. /(^/ ^
PRICE
Sixpence.
POST FREE,
9s.
per
annum.
ARTICLES,
BRIGHT AND ACCURATE,
WRITTEN BY
PRACTICAL EXPERTS,
In Every Department.
!''■ ''II'' ■'"' ''li' 'il'" ''II 1'' ''111'' 'III''' 'ii''''ii' ''ll' ■•'ii''iPNr'i,i"iinj;c.,".,,, .,",, ir'.i,i'i)i',ii(i"Hi''iKPiijr'((irH(ri
JOHN HEYWOOD,
2 AMEN CORNER, LONDON, E.G. ; and
RIDGEFIELD, MANCHESTER.
220 ADVERTISEMENTS.
LAYCOCKS'
Picking Bands
Are UNSURPASSED
For DURABILITY
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦
SEND FOR POST SAMPLE AND PRICES TO
WM. LAYCOCK & SONS,
banners anb Cunners,
KEIGHLEY.
ADVERTISEMENTS. 221
Telegraphic Address; "Pi.atts, Oldham."
PLATT BROS. & CO. LD.,
MACHINISTS,
HARTFORD WORKS, OLDHAM.
Makers of the Following Machinery : —
IMPROVED C OTTON BAL E BREAKERS.
PATENT "EXHAUST" OPENERS.
SCUTCHERS, WITH PATENT PEDAL REGULATORS.
PATENT REVOLVING SELFSTRIPPING FLAT CARDING ENGINES.
Carding Engines for Cotton, Wool, Worsted, Silk and Waste.
PATENT CONDENSERS FOR WOOL, COTTON AND COTTON WASTE.
COMBING, DRAWING, 8LUBBING, INTERMEDIATE AND ROVING FRAMES.
PATENT SELFACTING MULES AND TWINERS
For Spinning and Doubling Cotton, Cotton Waste,
Woollen, Worsted, Silk and Silk Waste.
RING SPINNING FRAMES FOR WARP AND WEFT.
RING DOUBLING FRAMES FOR COTTON, WOOLLEN,
WO RSTED, AND SI LK.
IMPROVED MACHINERY FOR
PREPARING, COMBING, ROVING AND SPINNING WORSTED
On both the French and Bradford Systems.
Machinery lor Preparing and Spinning Barchant or Waste Yarns.
PREPARING MACHINERY FOR WEAVING,
Including Winding, Warping, Sizing, Beaming, and Dressing Machines for Cotton,
Linen, and Jute Yarns, and Starching Machines for Carpet Yarns.
POWER LOOMS,
For Plain and Fancy Cloths, for Cotton, Linen, Woollen, Worsted, Jute, &c.
222
ADVERTISEMENTS.
Lambeth Cotton Ropes
■/ / lib.6oz.
■: Fo.Ui'.Croove. ■
llb.l4oz'.
■VyElGHTtjFlYPafROPE ;
For li.N. GROOVE. '
■ 2]b 5oz. :
IAa/eichtofIy^ofRope
Foaf^N GROOVE
They are firmly made and very solid, containing more actual yarn for a given
diameter than is usual ; and being made from pure Egyptian Throstle
Yarn, without any weighting material, are light in weight.
Also DRUM, RIM, SCROLL, SPINDLE, RING SPINDLE, TAPE, and
TUBULAR BANDINGS to any deseription for Cotton Mills.
THE LAMBETH COTTON ROPES are of unique design and construction,
superseding all other Cotton Ropes for Main Driving.
Tension and Friction accurately measured for and provided against, and the
Ropes fitted exactly to the working part of the grooves of the pulley.
A LARGE STOCK of ALL SIZES KEPT, to meet Urgent Orders.
NOTE.— These Ropes are made at my works alone, and are only
genuine when bearing my Registered Trade Mark.
THOMAS HART, BLACKBURN.
ESTABLISHED 1789.
Telephone, No. 10.
Telegraphic Address : " HART, BLACKBURN."
(ABC Code used.)
ADVERTISEMENTS.
223
JAMES WALM8LEY & SONS
(ESTABLISHED 1848),
Leather Curriers, Strapping Manufacturers, and Mill Furnisliers
Works:— AVENUE PARADE,
ACCRINGTON.
MAKERS OF ALL KINDS OF
ROLLER SKINS,
SINGLE LEATHER BELTING,
DOUBLE LEATHER BELTING,
GREEN PICKING BANDS,
OAKTANNED PICKING BANDS,
LEATHER PICKERS, LACES,
BUFFALO SKIPS AND PICKERS,
LOOM FITTINGS, &c.
And all other kinds of LEATHER GOODS used in
THE Spinning and Manufacturing of Cotton,
Woollen, Silk, or Jute.
Telegrams — " Abbey, Accrington."
Telephone — No. 23.
■'— .i. 'i.''^J
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SOUTHEASTERN MASSACHUSETTS UNIVERSITY
TS1490.B78 1893
Weaving calculations
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