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Webster s academic dictionary : a dictio 

3 6105 04919 6921 

.^ '%■ 










The Authentic 
of X864, 1879, and 
Thoroughly Revise 
D.D., LL.D., of \ 
name of 


Editorial work 
Ten Years. 

Not less than 
upon it. 

Over $300,000 e> 

Critical compar 

The yarions Bindli 
i^*IIliistTated Pampl 

■:'rzr?^^^-Tzr^^yt.., ^. .^ 


IliJIi flij 


II lllll 






The retell price of this book is $ 

Published by 

G. & C. MERRIAM & CO., Springfield, Mass., U. S. A. 


Also Webster^ Nstionsl Piotorisl DietioiuuT. 600 Bngravliigs. 


New Editions 

Webster's Primary School Dictionary. Cloth, 4j^x6X in. 336 pp., 
Webster's Common School Dictionary. Cloth, 5X^6^ in. 432 pp., 
Webster's High School Dictionary. Cloth, 5^*7^ in. 560 pp., . 
Webster's Academic Dictionary. Cloth. 6>^ x 8X in. 73^ PP*» • • 


. .98 
. 1.50 

Webster's School Dictionaries in their revised form constitute a 
progressive series, carefully graded and specially adapted for Primary 
Schools, Common Schools, High Schools, Academies, etc. They 
have all been thoroughly revised, entirely reset, and made to conform 
in all essential points to the great standard authority— Webster'* 
International Dictionary. 

The American Standard. — From the earliest days of the Republic, 
Webster's Dictionary has been the universal and acknowledged 
standard in American education. From its first publication all the 
leading American school-books have conformed in spelling, pro- 
nunciation and definition to Webster. 

Officially Recommended. — Webster's Dictionaries have been indorsed 
and recommended by the official or educational authorities of nearly 
every state in the Union. Nearly every purchase of dictionaries 
made by National or State authority has been of Webster. 

Highest Indorsements. — Webster's Dictionaries have been indorsed 
by nearly all the college presidents and leading educators and literary 
men of the United States and Canada. 

A Text-Book in Schools. — In view of these facts. School Officers 
and Teachers should make the use of Webster's School Dictionaries 
as general in their schools as any other text-book. 

Copies of Webstef's School Dictionaries will he sent^ prepaid^ to any cuidress on receipt 
of the price by the Publishers : 


LELAKD fSiAi\£Lil.-.> :^^^^^ 


(\) 0(xV ^thmt*si acaDemtc H^tanatt 















:^ V 



Coiijrigfat, 1886, 


lAU rights rturved.] 
w. p. 15 


Although this edition of Webster^s Academic Dictionary is an entirely new book 
abridged directly from Webster^s International Dictionary, care has been taken to 
preserve in it the essential features of the former Webster *s Academic Dictionary 
(originally prepared by Mr. William G. Webster and later revised by Mr. 
William A. Wheeler) which have made it a favorite as a comprehensive dictionary 
of small size and cost. The alterations consist chiefly in the increase of the amount 
of matter, the improvements in typography, the method of indicating pronunciation, 
the use of new and better illustrations (the number has been increased from 350 to 
over 800), and other changes intended either to improve the appearance of the 
work, or to make it more serviceable, accurate, and complete. 

The excellent typography of the International has been entirely adopted, and 
the page has been printed with two instead of three columns, which not only 
improves the appearance and promotes the facility of reference, but also gives room 
for the insertion of larger illustrations. 

The enlargement of the vocabulary, made possible by the addition of more than 
150 pages and by the omission of the definitions of some self-explaining deriva- 
tives, has permitted the introduction not only of new definitions and literary words, 
but also of the many modem scientific terms which have found their way into 
common use. 

The pronunciation is clearly shown by respelling the words with diacritically 
marked letters whose sounds are explained in the key lines at the bottom of the 
pages, and more fully in the Guide to Pronunciation. Even the sounds of vowels 
in unaccented syllables have been indicated. 

In definition great care has been taken to follow the excellent Websterian tradi- 
tion of giving a clear descriptive definition of the word, avoiding as far as possible 
definition by synonyms alone. At the same time greater fullness has been g^iven 
to the lists of synonyms following the descriptive definitions, and to discriminations 
between synonyms. 

The etymologies are concise, as necessitated by the scope of the work, but are 
believed to be in accordance with the most advanced scholarship. It will be noted 
that words spelled alike but derived from different sources, have been given under 
different vocabulary entrances, as in the case of cock^ sail, sounds etc. 

The list of prefixes and sufiixes has been enlarged and the etymology of each in- 
dicated, and typical examples, carefully selected, have been given for each meaning. 
It may be used by teacher and scholar as a safe guide to the study of the formation 
of derivative words, and as a key to the meaning of many derivatives which are out 
of place in a vocabulary of this size. 

In the appendix it will be observed that much space has been saved by con- 
solidating into one the various pronouncing vocabularies of proper names. 
Especial attention has been devoted to amplifying and perfecting the lists of 
abbreviations, foreign quotations, and mythological personages. 

It has been the special purpose in the present revision to meet the demand made 
by teachers and by the students at colleges, academies, and high schools for a re- 
liable dictionary of ready reference, giving etymologies, pronunciations, definitions 
and synonyms, comprehensive and authoritative yet concise, and at the same time 
to adapt the book to the needs of the office and countingroom. The work is sub- 
mitted to the public with the belief that this end has been attained. 


PREFACE '. . . Hi 


Kbt to ths Symbols • . . . t 

Thb Vowbla of thb Alpbabbt IK Dbtail yii 

DiAGKAM of the Simplr Vowrl Soukds zu 

The Consokants of the Alphabet (with the Covbovjlst Digraphs) in 

Detail xii 

Table of Consonant Elements zriii 

Assimilation of Sounds xyiii 

DcrpucATiON of Consonants xriii 

Accent xviii 















In the RE8PELLIN0 FOR PRONUNCIATION in the Dictionary, there is employed ~m ahown in Uie Tebto 
— a lymbol for erery clear vowel or diphthongal sound in the language ; with, in four instances, a pair of eqidvalents 
for the same sound as occurring in different situatioos, viz. : || = 4Sb; \i = <jb; 6 = %; and j^ (final) = I ; besidee 
a and e, italitiied, as these Towels are in certain cases obscured and turned toward the neutral form ; also, apostrophe 
for tiie voice-glide ; and N to indicate foreign nasalised vowels ; — some of the sounds occurring only in accented and 
others only in unaccented syllables, and some others, with but slight difference of quality, in both. The ft, ft, and 
ft are used to represent the similar sounds in foreign words, but not limited as they are in English to unaccented 
syllable. The ^ is employed, as the nearest English vowel we have, inexact as it is, to replace u French and tt 
German ; and in like manner the 9 for the eu French and tt Oerman. 

The cons(mant letters b, d, f, h, J, k, I, m, p, r, t, t, i«r, and y, and the digraphs sh and ns, are used 
with theix ordinary normal value ; s> f>f z, and cli are each limited to a single sound ; n and th, are marked for 
one aoand of each and used unmarked for the other. No use is made of c, q, x, or the digraphs ph, i^, dff, and 
irb. The principal substitutions of the consonant symbols used in the respelliug are noted in the Table. 

. . ale, fate, lalior, cha'os, diSmnber, pft'tri-ar'eluil. 

. . ■en'ftte, prefAce, del'l-eftte, ftr^'ri-al, ehft-ot'le, Bal'a-tft-rj. 

. . c&re, sliAre, plUr'ent, com-p&re', pIow'aliAjre', beAr, &ir. 

. . ftm, ftdd, tat, r&n'dom, &trtAck', fte-eept', re'Ad-mli'. 

. . arm, fttr, ftt'Uier, mUr'tyr, iili. Urns, ilrt, pftlm. 

. . &sk, srass, dAnce, a-bate', A-mer'l-ca, so'tA, bot'ft-ny. 

. . ll'nal, In'fant, cold'ance, Tal'lant, liiulKiiid, mad'oni. 

. . 9II, %we, sw^rm, t%lk, drf^ivr. 

. STe, mSte, ge-r^ne', liS'Il-oin'e-ter. 

. ft-Tenr, dft-pelid^ orft-ate', soHsl'ft-tj, dft-lln'ft-ate, ift-raiie^. 

. £nd, mfit, £x-€U8e', ef-face', ear'pfit, eon'dem-na'iloii. 

. fSrn, liSr, Sr'mlne, pSr-vSrt', eT^r, in'fSr-enoe. 

. re'cent, de'cen-cy, pra-dence, peu'l-tent, noVeL 

. fee, time, Msht, bind, lu-BpIre', Jtu'tl-fl'a-ble. 

. t-de'a, trt-bu'nal, dt-am'e-ter, bt-oFo-sy. 

. ni, pin, pit'y, ad'mlt', bablt, dl-Tlde', In-flnl-tlve. 
. . 91d, nttte, r9w, bSId, S^ver, pro-pSse', I5'oo-m9'tlTei 

. ft-bey', tft*bac'o6, sor'rftiT, a-nafft-my, prft-pone'. 

. ftrb, I6rd, ftr'der, landlord', ab-hdr', ab-bdr'rliis. 

. ttdd, nttt, tttr'rid, fttr'est, tto-enr', ln'c5r>reet'. 

. Use, pure, mOte, tflne, dO'ty, bO'man, aa-sftmc^ 

. fl-nlte', ao'tft-ate, ed-fl-ca'tlon, bfl-mane'. 

. rude, rn'mor, ln-tn|de'. 

. f^ll, p^t, p^sli, f^l-flll', Joy'fvl. In'strv-meiit. 
. . ftp, tttb, stttd'y, On'der, •Ob-mlt^, lii'da»-tvy. 

. tim, ftlrl, eon-eftr', bftm. 

. pit't, in'Jnrt, dl-vin'i-tj^. 

. f4Sbd, miTon, tdbh n<>bn, ivrtfo'lnff. 

. f<^t« w<A>l, b<A>k, s<^<i> crtfbk'ed. 

. ont, thou, de-voiur'. 

. . oil, nois^y, a-Told', re-Jolce', em-broid'ev-y, BoKter. 
N , representing simply the nasal tone (as in French or Portuguese) of the preceding vowel ; as in entembto 

(iiir'dtN'b*!). Intrigante (Sif^tr^giiict^). 
' (for voice^lide), as in pardon (pXr'd'n), en ten (Sf'n), ertl (VvH). 



as in . 


,» „ • 


f. If • 


n »t • 


M „ • 


H ,1 • 


»♦ ,f • 


n f, • 


»f ,t • 


», M • 


tf ,» • 


*, M • 


,, „ • 


„ „ • 


», „ • 


„ „ • 


„ „ • 


„ „ • 


„ „ • 


„ ,* • 


„ „ • 


n „ • 


„ ,» • 


f, ,» • 


« w • 


»t „ • 


„ „ • 


„ „ • 


„ „ • 


,» „ • 


If »» • 


B(hard): m in ffo, beffln, sreat, anger ; for gu, m in guArd ; forgue,Minplagae; for gh, m in ghost. 
■ (Mird, or sharp) : as in so, this, haste; (or c, as in cell, vice ; for ae, as in scene, sclenoe ; f or ss, as in hits, 
s (like s sonant) : aainBone,haze; f or s, as in Is, lives, iwrlao, mosle, ears, llgs ; f or z, as in Xenophon, 

eh (= tsh) : as in chair, much ; for tch, as in match, etching, 
sh: for ch, as in nsaehlne, chaise, chandelier ; for ce, as in ocean ; for d, as in social ; for icl, as in 

conscious; for s, as in sure ; for se, as in nauseous; for si, as in pension ; for ss, as in issue ; for 

ssi, as in passion ; f or tl, as in nation, 
ah (=: sh made sonSnt) : for z, as in azure ; for zl, as in glazier, brazier ; for s, as in pleasure, usual; 

for si, as in vitflon ; for ssi, as in abscission ; for g, as in rouge, cortege. 
J (= dzh) : f or g, as in gem, giant, engine ; for gi and ge, as in religion, ptgeon ; f or di, as in soldier ; 

for dg, as in edge, knoiwrledge. 
k : for ch, as in chorus, epoch, anarchy ; for c, as in cat, cube ; for ok, as in pack, dnek ; for qn, as 

in conquer, coquette ; for que, as in pique, oblique, 
k' w : for qu, as in queen, quit, quality. 
ks (surd) : for z, as in vex, exit, perplex, dextrous. 
gs (sonant) : f or x, as in exist, exact, example, 
f : for ph, as in philosophy, triumph ; for gh, as in laugh, rough. 
hiT : for wh, as in ivhat, ivhy, ivhere. 

t : for ed, as In baked, crossed, capped ; for th, as in thyme, Thomas, 
n (the ordinary sound) : as in no, none, man, many, 
ng : as in long, singer ; for ngue, as in tongue. 

Q (like ng) : for n before the sound of k or hard g, as in bank, Junction, linger, sln^A* 
th (surd) : as in thin, through, Mrealth, ivrorth, breath, ivrldth. 
tib (sonant) : for th, as in then, though, this, smooth, breathe. 

NoTS. Foreign consonant sounds are represented by the nearest English equivalents. 

AooBSTt AVD HTPmnrs. The principal accent is indicated by a heavy mark (0, and the secondary accent by 
a Ughter mark (0, at the end of the syUable. Syllabic diriaion is otherwise indicated by a light bypheo ; ahesTier 
hyphen joins the members of oompoiuid words. 

The Table here appended, together with the preceding TaUe, furnishes a method of INDICATINO PRO- 
NUNCIATION WITHOUT RESPELLINO. It is, in ito main features, the same as that employed in pxevions edi- 
tions of the Dictionary, and will serve except in the case of a oompantively few words, which must be respelled. 
Use Is made of It in this Gums to Pbohtncxatioh. 

To each of the symbols here given, the equivalent is added that takes its place in the respelUng (thus : ^ = ft, 
etc ; whft = i«rh6t, etc. ; c = k, etc.). The unmarked letter In a digraph is to be taken as If silent; as 
in breSk, brSad, hSll, yield, Tgil. etc. Silent e at the end of syllables, as In fate, etc., or hi the -ed of 
preterits and participles, as in baked, burned, etc, need not be marked. 

The method has diacritical marks applied to such consonant letters and digraphs as offer especial and frequent 
occasion for their use. Certain syllables, as tlon, slon, tlal, dal, etc., which would naturally be correctly jpro- 
nonnced, need not be marked or respelled. The sounds, as described, of x, ph, qu, and i«rh, unmarked, are what 
these oharacters will usually, but not invariably, represent. 

9 (= 5), . . . . asin Whft, Was, Qu^ty, In'stfl-Wtion. 
B, fi (= S), . . . . N II BiSht, Prfiy, Vfiln, O-bfiy', Un-f fiign'ed-ly. 
B, 6 (= A), . . . . „ „ Th6re, Wh6re, H6ir, Wh6re-ln'. 
Bw, ew (= II), . „ „ Ewe, Dew, Hewn, etc ; or (= ^), as in Breir. 
Be, ee (= e), . . . n M E«l» Feet, Feel>Ie, Un-seen', Seeing. 

¥ (= 8), „ „ PYqne, MarchYnC, Po-lYce'. 

f , f (= «), „ „ Irk'some, Ftr, Bird, TIr'tue, Ttr-gin'i-ty, B-Iiztik 

Q, fl (= db), . . . „ „ i>oze, Df^, WhQ, T^mb, Re-mffv'al. 

9 (= tfb or If), „ „ W^If , W^m'an, W9VTer-tne', B^a'om. 
6, 6 (= tt), . . . . „ „ dth'er, 86n, Wel'c6me, Wls'dAni, Can'n&n. 
OWt oi«r(= on), . „ „ Oivl, Cow'ard, Vow'el, AMow', Bow'ivrow'. 
Oy. oy (= oi), . . „ „ Oya'ter, Boy, Roy'al, En-Joy', An-noy'ance. 

y (=!)» » H Fly, Sky, Style, De-^, Dying. 

*. f (= I), „ „ tf tH-a, Ufmn, I^jh^ic, M^thoFo-gj^. 

t (= S)« .» ., Mtrrh, Mfr'tle, SmTifv, Mar'tfrHlom. 


Ci « (= k)f . • . . M In Cnt, Concur. 

9,^(=»), „ „ 9eU,Ti^. 

Ch, «li (= k), . . „ n Clionu, Epo«li. 
Cli, ^ (= sb), . „ „ ^udM, Machine. 
Q, t (= S), . . . . „ „ Get, Beflii, Anfer. 
6, *(= J)» . . . . M M 6em, Bnilne. 

f C= «) ,. ,. Iff H»|. wtfdom. 

X (= ks) „ „ Vex. Exff 

Ph. ph (= f) „ Phantom* Sjlph. 

Ott, na (== kw), . „ „ QaooM, Conqnett. 
Wk, wh (= kw), n tt wboB, Wkat 



f L A, ft: M in Sle, fSte, mSk^er, pro-fftno'. The ■ound !• oUmtwIm vepreMntad, m in pak^ day, 
gaol, gauge, break, toU, wltoj, also aye (erer) ; and is Ibe name aoond of the letter. The TOwel ia oalled 
"long a.'* 

A ia diphtlioagal, ita initial element being nearly £ in ISiftd, and ita Tanlah 1 in lU or 8 in Sto. 

Tbe Taniah la beaid moat diatinctly when the sound enda a word or an accenfeed ayllabie, and it Tartoa aooording 
feo the nature of the conaonant by which it ia stopped. 

The radical or initial element, somewhat widened, la the ezoeptlcaal sound of a hi many, any, Tbamee; and 
ol al in laid, again, agalwtt. See §18. 

§2. A, ft : a modification of the preceding TOwel in ayllablea without accent ; ranging between ft (Sle) and H 
(tad) ; and nerer taking the nmiah. It oocura in the endinga -ace, -age ; aa, prefiee, aol'ftee, raT^ftge, 
ad'ftse, etc The ending -ate, in the caae of Terba, takea ft (Sle), with accent, primary or aecoodary (though 
with the secondary accent not marked in the Dictionary) ; aa, re-ISte^, ad'TO-efite (r.), em'a>lSte, eon'Jia- 
Sftte (v.), ag^gge gSte (v.), etc. ; whUe, in the caae of nouns and adJectiTea, ft without the accent is commonly 
used ; aa, aen^te, prelate, ad'vo-eftte (n.), ac^gre-cftte (n.), eon'Ju-cftte (a.) Also, ft often occurs aa 
pieoeding another rowel — uauaUy accented — in the foUowhig ayUaUe ; aa, ft-e^-al, ekft-oile, Ju'dft^ltm. 
In worda like mla'eel-lft-ny, aal'ii-tft-ry, snmp^u-ft-ry, the a, before ny or ry final, and with the pre- 
ceding ayllable unaccented, has properly this sound ; but if the preceding syllable be accented, aa In bof a-ny, 
dFa-ry, aal'a-ry, pri'ma-ry, boon'da-ry, the & aound (ao'fft), Is usually preferred ; yet In eon'tm-ry 
and IFkra-ry the ft la the easier to giro, and in theee and some others of the class Is common and allowable. 
In final ayUahlea, the tendency of the sound Is to pass through « to I, aa in vliaftse, •ur'fftce, etc, hi which 
the ft is followed by a J or an ■ aound. The al in monn'taln, cap'taln, etc, hi the same way becomee 


§8. A, ft : only In lyllaUea doaed by the aound of r and more or leaa atrongly accented ; as in cfUre, ikftre, 
eom-pftre', plU/ent, pIow'akAre'. The aound la alao repreeented by 6 (tk6re); and otherwiae aa in air, 
bear, heir, prayer. 

The a before r doea not ordinarily take thia aound when the r precedes a rowel or another r hi the following 
ajllable of the word ; aa in pftr'i-ty, pftr'ry, com-piir'l-aon, cki&r'l-ty, etc. But the sound remaina without 
change by an added verb inflection or the suffix -er ; aa in com-pftr'inK, ■kftr'er ; and appeara exoeptiottaDy in 
pftv^ent, pftr'ent^ace, cftr'lsk. 

The aound ii the narrow correlate of the wide ft (ftm). It la not aimply a prolongation of that aound ; though,tf 
we attempt auch prolongation, the organa naturally slide into a position which glrea the aound in queation. 

The dilTereoce between this sound and that of ft may he readily distinguished by sounding the first syUaUe of 
ekftrlty and the word ekalr. 

Some orthogpists, aa Walker, Smart, Btormonth, Ellis, identify this sound with ft, or with % prolonged, but this 
sound ii not now commonly given in the United Statea. 

f 4. A, ft : aa b) ftm, ttdd, f ftt, rftn'dom, kftve, pftr'l-ty ; also in platd, gnar'an-ty, etc. ; the regular 
*' short a.** It is usually followed by a doalng consonant aound, whether accented or unaccented. 
Aa uvAOonmo, it ia more commonly found in initial doaed syUablee : aa in ftl-lode', ftt-tack^ ftn-nni'. 

§ 6. X, ft: aa hi ftrm, fftr, ffttker, ttk, ftlmt, piUm, etc ; baring equiralenta aa in hearth, aont, guard, 
etc ; called the •• Italian a.** 

Thia ia the most open of all the rowd aounda. In ita formation the mouth and throat are opened widdy, and the 
tongue is left in its natural poaltion of rest 


f 6. A, 4. This is the Mund to be preferred in certain words or syllablea ending in sk, IT, ft, ih, M, ip, ■!, 
nee, nt, nd ; m, Ask* gtAlT, ffrikfl, p4Ui, pass, srisp, last, danise, elubit, com-miLnd' ; and in some 
other cues; besidee its frequent use in unaccented syllables, — for one class of which it will in this Dictionary be 
indicated by a, the Italic form of the letter. See § 7. 

In organic position, & lies between ft in ftm, and ii in ftrm. The main part of the tongue is raised higher than 
in iinn, and the mouth is not so widely opened. 

In un ACCBVTBD 8TLLABLB8 this sound (A) is of frequent occurrence, though in rapid speech more or less obscured 
and often falling into the neutral form. 

In open syllables unaccented, as in &-rlse', dl'^-dcm, cA-lor'lc, inii't4-ble, bot'4-ny, Bal'4-ry, villi^ 
9«/tkt etc, the sound may be regarded as a brief and obscure form of ft. 

§ 7. In final or medial syllables, unaccented, and closed by n, I, nt, nee, nd, a, u, et, p or ph or tt^ m, or d, 
as in syl'Taii, va'ean-ey, mor'tal, loy'al, ra'cant, val'lant, cold'ance, hualiand, bl'ae, eom'pasa, 
baFlaat, break'faat, Jal'ap, ■er'apli, mad'am, myr'i-ad, etc, the Itauo a is used hi the spelling for 
pronunciation. See § 6. 

§ 8. 4, 9 : as hi ^U* t%lk, Bw^rm, w«'ter, ap-p^l' ; otherwise repr esent e d hi haul, draw, awe ; ako in 
6rb, b6m, bought, etc. 

Tills is called the ** broad aound " of a, and is formed by a de|weasioD of the larynx and a consequent retracticm 
of the tongue which enlarges the carity of the mouth posteriorly. 

In the words salt, malt, quarrel, etc., as commonly heard, the sound of a falls between 5 hi not and y in 
all (or is 1^ somewhat shortened). 

§ 9. ^, 9 : as in wfs, wh^t, w^'der, w^low, qn^l-ty, etc. The sound Is identical with that of 5 
(6dd, n5t), and ow in knowl'edge, etc. In the respelling for pronunciation, it will be represented by 5. 

§ 10. fi, S: as hi Sve, mSte, con'crSte', etc. ; the name sound, baring equiralents as in feet, beam, de- 
oelTe', peo'ple, key, Cse'sar, roa-ohlne', field, quay, Phoe'bus, Portu-guese', etc The Towel is called *' long 
e.** In the formation of this element, the tongue Is ndsed conrexly within the dome of the palate, preasfang sgainst 
its sides, and learing the smallest possible passage through which a Towel sound is uttered. 

{ 11. 6, ^ : in unaccented syllables, as ^-vent', ^plt'o-m^, cr^te', d^lln'^te', ■o^l'i-ty ; shorter 
thaa accented S (Sve), Terging towards, or sometimes eren reaching, I (111). 

§ 12. E, $. This, hi genuine English words, occurs only with 1 or y added, so as to make a digraph ; as in 
filKlit, prey, vein, etc The sound is identical with a in ale, and will be faidicated by S hi the respellhig. 

In naturalised and half-naturalised foreign words, jm forte, llnale, abb^, ballet, eonsomm^, adobe, 
anto-da-f ^, Jos^, and in the interjection eli and in a few other instances, we hare tlUs sound of e without the 
Tsnish. In snoh cases, hi the respelling, it is indicated by the symbol ft. 

f 13. E, II : as in Cnd, p€t, tdn, Cr'ror, etc. ; otherwise as in featl/er, heifer, leop'ard, friend, di-aer'e-ais, 
as'a-foet'i-da, bur'y, gueas, a'ny, lalJ, etc. ; called *' short e." The syllable is usually closed by a consonant 

This is not the short sound of C in ire, but the initial or radical sound, somewhat widened, of the diph- 
thongal ft. It Is made by arching up the tongue under the hard paUte, as in S, but its place of formation Is 
farther back. 

Umaookstbd it occurs, as in dx-ente', dn-Iarse', fif-face', ea-tate', Cr-ro'ne^us, leVfil, ln't£Mect% 
car'p^t : and sometimes it Terges to or towards I, as in ro'a^s, hors'^s, f alr'fist, wls'^at, rlv'Ct, end'£d, 
wlck'«d, wool'«n, kltch'«n. 

§ 14. lb, 6 : as in tlidre, wli6re ; also in heir, etc ; only before r ; — identical in loand with ft (cftre). 

§ 15. E, 9: as in fSrn, 8rr, li8r, Sr'nUne, vSrfce, In-f8r', per-vSrt'; otherwise as in air, bird, earn, 
mtrtb, myrtle, gner'don, etc. It occurs when immediately followed by r in a mcmo^Uable or in the same 
accented qrllsble; but not when the r precedes a rowe) or another r in the following syllable, as in Tdr'y, 
p6r^l, nUlr'ry, dr'ror, kS'ro, pS'rI-od, etc., except that verbs having this sound of the letter almost always 
retahi It when biflected or suffixed ; as hi con-fSr'rinSt de-tSr'rlnK, con-fSr'rer, re-fSFrt-ble. 


Thii sound is fomMd by pladiig the organs in a poeition intermediate between tliat requisite for sounding H 
(Ikni)i and that for sounding ft, thus nuUdng (as Smart observes) a compromise between tite two. A majority of 
Engiisb-speaking people, boweyer, make no distinction between S in her, and A in am ; but as many ortboepist* 
do make a slight difference, the two markings have been retained in this Dictionary. 

§ 16. UMAOCBMnD 9 (before r), — as in ev^r, read'ISr, loVSr, ■ev'Sr, ■«T'9r-aI, pSr-form', rev'Sr-Ant, 
In'fSr^iicc, cAT^rn, etc., with equivalents in e-lixir, ceph'jrr, ac't6r, li'&r, etc., -r is nearly identical with 
the accented % (fSru). 

§17. The e before n in unaooented syllables,— as in pru'dent, raFment, con-ven^ient, ore'denee, 
de^cen-cy, etc, — takes a sound of obscure quality in ordinary speech. The e before n in wooFen, kltd&'en, 
etc., takes properly the 6 (ftnd) sound, which in rapid speech tends toward I (111). In words like com'meut, 
eon'Tent, — correct with ft (find), — we have the final syllable actually under a secondary accent. Before 1, the 
onaccented e Is, in some cases, like that above before n ; as hi noVel, ln'11-del ; while in shrlVel and some 
others it takes the form explained below (see $ 18) ; — but, in many cases, it is commonly and properly given as 6 
(«iid) ; thos in Jew'ftl, cra'61, cam'«l, sos'pfil, fon'ndl, an'sAl, olum'n«L In some of these, and hn 
other words of the kind, tiiere is considerable diversity of usage as between these sounds. 

In the case of words like pru'dent, nov'el (see above hi this paragraph), ther vowel will be indicated by a bare 
Italic e in the qwllii^.for pronunciation. 

§ 18. The unaccented vowel of obecure quality before n or I, Is sometimes reduced to the attenuated form oalled 
the voiee-gtidef — tM in eat'en, heav'eu, o'pen, frhrlv'el, a^ble, gen'tle, par'U-cIe, ba'aln, eoua'la, 
par'don. wmmfaon, etc. 

Syllables are also made by m with the voice-glide ; as in scl&inn (sTs'm), chasm (kis'm), mFcro-coflm 
(-kSs'm), etc Substituting the vowel tt for the voice-glide is not sanctioned. 

In this Dictionary, an AKwrnoPHB C) is used in the respelling for pronunciation to indicate the vowel elisioD or 
the voice-glide ; as, pai'd'n, an>*l, etc. 

§ 19. The letter e silent. As annexed to a consonant at the end of a syllable, this letter has no sound ; but 
serves commonly. In accented syllables, to indicate the preceding vowel as long; as hi ofime, t9ne. It also 
maikfi the preceding consonant c or s as soft ; as in ser'Tlce, rav^age, vice, o-bllffe'. 

§ 20. The letter e. wUh eonsonant value. Like the short I, when e unaccented is closely followed by another 
vowel, it naturally faUs into more or leas of a consonant y sound, and the e tiius makes with the f(dlowing vowel 
an imperfect, or consfHiantal, diphthong. After t, or d, or ^, or a, this y sound often coaleeoea witii the consonant 
and changes its sound ; as in rlsht'eous (ri'chtts) ; Bran'dear (grih/dttr or gran'jyr), ml-oa'oeoiu (-sh&s), 
o'cean (S'shan), and naa'aeous (u|^sh&s). Even after the sound of the e has changed the preceding consonant, 
it may stiU ^ipear, especially when the accent falls upon the following vowel ; as in o'ce-aii'lo (S'shl-Xnik), 

f 21. I, I : as In foe, time, slsbt, child, bind, Bl'ant : the name sound of the letter. It Is called ** long 
t" Squivalento are vie, guile, height, aisle, thy, buy, choir, rye, eye, ay or aye (yes) as sometimes heard. 
The sound is diphthongaL The main part is the glide between its initial (M in iirm) and its terminal (I hi HI). 

f 22. I, f : unaccented : as in t-de'a, bt-ot'o-RTi tri-bu'nal, bl-oar'bo-nate, dl-am'e-ter. The quality 
of the sound is subject to vamtion ; the diphthong (I hi Ice) being more curtailed as the syllable takes less stress 
and shorter quantity. 

f 23. 1, Y : as hi pique, manshlne', in-trlKue't etc. The sound is the same as that of 6 (Sve), by which It 
is repr e e cn ted in the respelling for pronunciation. 

f M. 1, I : as in m, pit, pit'y, le'sue, ad-mll', un-tll', etc. Equivalents are hjhnn, gnln'ea, sieve, 
breech'es, been, English, bua'y, wom'en. This is not the short sound of I in Ice, but the short oorrehitive of 8 
inSvo. It is called "short!.*' 

VvAcaxmo stllablm with this vowel are, in the greater number of cases, closed by a consonant, as in cab'Iii, 
Yl-lume', In-habat. But there are many words in which I ends an unaooented syllable or forms a syllable by 
itself, as dl-Tlde', vlsable, vis I-bll1-ty. 


$ 26. i, I, before r : as in fir, bird, ▼Ir'tue, ▼Ir'sln, Irk'aome, etc. : the precise equlTelent o< % (fSni> 
In aoine words the lound, before 1 or n, k reduced to the roioe-glide ; m in e'vU (c'tU), ba^iiB (baVn), eta 
Bee §18. 

§ 26. The letter 1, vHth earuonant valu4, A abort 1, closely followed by snotber TOwel, often falls into s y 
sound, sod thus produces en impure diphthong, and makes one qrllable out of two ; as in fll'lal, ttilnloii, 
gen'liis, etc. A preceding i surd, e soft, or ec, by f usi<» with Um y, takes an ab sound ; as in naan'sloii, 
eou'sclous, wi'ciovM ; and an • sonant or a z takes a zh sound ; as in vl'alon, ffla'zler, —the 1 sound being 
wholly lost. A preceding t does the same, as in lui'tloii, partial, eta ; with the exception that when preceded 
by a syllable ending in a or x, the U takes a cli (tali) sound ; as in quea^oa, mlx'tloB, Clirla^an, eta 
After s, the 1 falls out, leaying tlie s soft; as in re'gion. When d precedes the 1, the dl in some words 
becomes, or tends to become, a J (dzh) ; as oor'dial, lu'dlan, eta, are sometimes, and tol'dler is alwaya, 


$ 27. O, 5 : as fai 81d, n5te, bSue, i^ver, pro-pSse', IS'eo-mS'tlTe, «ta ; with equivalents as in roam, 
foe, shoulMer, grour, owe, sew, yeo'man, beau, haufboy, d<Mir. It is the ** regular long** aound, and the 
name sound of the lener. 

This vowel takes a distinctly perceptible vanish in 6b (fdbt), or sometimes hi db (fdbd), snd Is thus dipb- 
thongaL In the formation of the radical part, tlie lips are contracted to a circular opening ; and the Jaw is less 
depressed tlum for %, and more than for db (fdbd). As in the similar case of ft (Ue) the vanish is not univenal, 
yielding more or less to counteracting influencea 

Before r in accented syllables, the long o naturally and more properly takes a vanish in tk (Urn) instead of db ; 
as in fflS'ry, 8re, door* four. 

$ 28. 6, H. In unaccented and usually open qrUables, hi BngUsh ; as hi ft-bey', tll4iac'cll, blllH w, bll'- 
16w», Sft-crat'lc, pd^t'le, eial6-gy, a-nat'A-my, trana'l-t^ry. This sound differs from the 8 (5ld), 
not only by absence of the vanish, but by taking a somewhat wider form. 

$ 29. 6, 6 : only before r ; as in 6rb, 16rd, dr'der, ab-hdr', ex-h6rt', eta ; with eqnivalants, as In eztraor^ 

ditiary, georglc, eta 

The most generally approved pronunciation here represented by this symbol Is identical with that of % («1I). 

The 6 is limited to accented syllables with the r not followed by a vowel or another r in the fcdlowing qrllable of 
the same word (the case of inflected verbs, as ab-hdr'rliii:, and the cognate nouns in >€r, as, ab-li6r^rer, 
excepted) ; while otherwise the vowel is 5, as in fdWelsn, tdr'rld, or 5, as In mSre, S'ral. 

There are some words in which o before consonants other than r takes ususUy and properly a medial sound 
between % i^U) and 5 ; as sous, longr, aoft, croaa, (one, off, tronsh, olt, of'tou, cost, brotb, clotli, 
eta In the respelling for pronundatian in the Dictionary, this medial sound is indicated by 5 (Add). 

In nvAooBHTBo sTLLABLBs, ws somctimes have the 6 (6rb) ; as in iu6r-tal'l-ty, f 6r-Ket', 6r-dalii', etc., and 
in f 6r, ii6r, 6r, unaccented as well as accented. 

$ 30. 6, 6 : as in nttt. Add, etc. ; called ** short o; ** havhsg ^ (In w^ etc.) as an equivalent, and also ow in 
knowl'edse and ou In liouffh, loash. It is the short correUite 6f % (^). 

UiTACOSirTaD syllabubs with 6 are naturally closed by a consonant; as in cttn-dnde', tte-du/, 6p-p#ois', 
dla^cttn-tent', reo'ttl-lect', re'oSm-mlt' ; falling into the neutral sound In very rapid speech. They are 
rarely final syllables, the 6 (a6ii) sound being commonly given In final syllables. 

$ 31. O, ^ : as in dff, pr^ve, t^mb, etc. ; the same as db, and represented by db in the respelling for pro- 

$ 32. p, 9 : as in MWQlit w^'man, b^'aom, eta ; with sound of db, and rep r e s e n ted by db in the respelling 
for pronunciation. 

$ 33. 6, 6 : as hi a6n, dtoe, 6th'er, etc. ; doubled in flood, blood, eta ;~the same as fi (ap)i or before r 
as a (Um), and in the respelling for pronunciation represented by these symbols in accented syllables. 

In TOAOCSMTBD BTLLABLI8 the 6 oocurs frequently ; as in ac'tAr, at'6m, wel'cdme, f«l'6ii, blsii'6p, 
blg'At, etc., with sound either as fi (tip) or as S (ev'Sr). In the respelling for pronunciaticm, it will appear 
before r as 9, and In most other cases as il ; but sometimes before n It repres en ts merely a voice^lide ; asbeok'oa, 
(bSk^), rea'son (rS'i'n). 



§84. Zbe doable letter oo Iim two aoundB, nuked tfb and db; beeldeitlw oo ia door, end In flood, etc. 
In atteiing tbeae aounds the kbUd opening ii atiU more cootreoted then for 5. 

f 36. do, db : •• in mtfbu, f <rikl, f tfbl, bdbt, etc. ; with eqnlTelente in dQ, cenoe, group, r)|de, me, 
leemlt, rhemn, dreur, menoenvre. 

f 36. do, db : ea in fdbt, wdbl, sdbd, crdbk'ed, eto. Eqniraleiite ere 9 (w^lf) end ^ (fvU> It ie the 
wide or ebovt ooneapondent of the long oo» 


f 37. The dtpfatbong ol end oj le mede by the repid ohenge or glide oi the orgias In peering from § to I, ee in 
oil, boj, ete. 


$ 38. The dipthong on end 4»w ie formed by e r^d peenge of the orgene from ft to db, ee in outrun, owl, 
ontliTO, etc Making the flrat element & ia e kKad pecolleri^, end ia very objectioneble. 

Aa dlgr^tha, theae combinationa of lettera take aeveral other aoanda ; ea in eonp, rente, Zonnve (xwKt or 
a55-ilT0, eoni, eonfple, srioT'ons, know, bUOow, knowl'edce* oluun'ole, nVolr^n-pole', cbolr, 
tortoleo, etc 


$ 30. ft, II : ee in tieo, a-Mtoe', ftt'eion, pllre, mllte, cllbe, tOno, dll^, mte, Jll'ry, etc ; celled 
** kng n ; ** having eqniralenta aa in beon^, feodal, fend, poiv, ewe, lien, view, cne, anlt, ynle, yew, yon. 

The general type of the aotind ia that of e diphtliODg, which liaa 6b (f d5d) for the terminal and main part, and 
for the initial a very brief end eraneaoent element, neerly related to I (ni) or to S (Sve) ; but in the greater 
nnmber of ceeea there oomea in, aa a glide, a more or leaa full aoond of oonaonant y, which diaplaoea the initial 
rowel element. When preceded by certain conaonanta, the y glide haa a tendency to be fnaed with the conaonant, 
thna teUng the ahape of a albilant, eh or zh, glide (aee below). Thia tendency, in accented syllables, — to which 
the Ilia limited, — ahould be aeverely restricted. Also, in no caae whatever ahonld the y sound be forced in when 
it will not come In amoothly aa a glide. 

At the beginning of a syllable, aa in llee, ll'nit, etc, the initial vowel element beoomea y, — the a here aoond- 
ing the same aa yon in the words yon, yonth, etc. Next to this, the y aound cornea in the moat clearly after 
p, b, m, ▼, f , e, and s hard ; aa in pfire, bU'rean, beauty, mllte, view, fll'tlle, eObe, gUle. After n, 
it ie leaa prominent ; aa in ne-w. After e, th, 1, and J, the y aound comes in with difficulty, and need not be 
ettempted; aa in elllt^ ae-eame', tliew, eu-tha'al-aem, mte, Jll'ry. After t or d, the a may better be 
given without the y ; aa in tUne, tll'tor, dne, dllke, dH'ty. In all theae casea of y omitted, tho initial vowel 
element (a brief form of I) la retahied : it would be quite wrong to give an ordinary db for the entire sound in 
BDch words. The y« if attempted after t or d, ia apt to degenerate into a sibilant, and produce, with the conao- 
nant, a decided tali or dzli eound, thus making tnne eli<M»n, and dne the same aa Je-w. The y sound after 
d or n la common in Enghmd, aa hi dne, new, etc, but not fai America. Aa exceptional, the • in sure, 
■nc'ar, and their derivativee, ia entirely diaplaoed by the eh developed ^rom the y sound, and the vowel ia reduced 
to a dmple db (f dbd) or db (f dbt) eound. 

f M. 0, ft : repr ee euthi g a modification of the aound of d (dee), hi unaccented syllablea ; aa hi ft-nlte', grad'- 
ft-ate, ae'tft-ate, em'ft-late, tft-mnl'tft-ons, Jft-dl'cial, ad'Jft-tant, oon'Jft-SAte, •ft-preme', In'ift- 
lar, Ift-ddl-ty, In-dle^eo-lft-ble, val'tt-a-ble, Tirtfte, na'tftre, ▼er'dare, cen'eftre, sen'tft-nl, ie'ift- 
Inc, meaa'Qre, etc. The aound differa from that of d by taking for the final element the wide db (fdbt) ; and, 
after t, by a partUl or entire change of the y into a more or less clear ih, and uaually after d into a zh glide ; aa 
in na'tftre, ▼er'dOre, etc A precedhig s. In a ayUeble not initbd (aa in oen'aftre, eeu'sa-al, etc.), takee 
more commonly an eh sound, and a b or an • sonant (aa in as'ftre, ecFsftre, lel'iftre, cae'n-al, etc.) takee a 
ih sound, and the vowel becomea nearly, if not quite, the aame in sound aa ^ (Joy'f ^). But the preceding a re- 
meina unchanged in initial, and sometimea also in medial syllables ; as hi ift-preme', con'ed-lar, in'sft-lar, 
etc After J or 1 hi the same ayllable, the vowel haa nearly or exactly the sound of ^ (Joy'f 9I) : a« in Jft-df rial, 
ad'Jft-tant, Ift-eld'l-ty, In-dla^eo-lft-ble. Before r, the sound often hicUnea towards S (ev'Sr) ; as in na'- 
tftvo, oen'eftre, nieae'ftre, etc 


§ 41> 1?« II * <^y ^'^^ r ; u in rude, rn'mor, rn'ral. The wMiiid does not differ Meeotially from that oi 66 
(food). The aonnd ooctin after •, u exceptional, in sure and its deriTatiTes, the • being beard aa ah. 

§42. V, V : M in b^ll, f ^, pyt* pi^ab, p^t etc. ; with sound the lame as db (f dbt), heard also in BUgfmr 
after a aa ah. 

Uhaocbxtsd the n occurs in the syllable f al ; aa in Joyf ^, Joy't^neM, f ^l-llll', etc. ; also, after r, in 
fr^-SsFl-ty and a few other words. 

$ 43. C A : as in ftrn, Arcoi bAm, hArl, etc. ; with equivalenta as in worm, Joitmal, etc., before r only. 
Tbe sound, aa more commonly heard, is tlie narrow form of the Towel, corresponding to the wide tl (ttp). 

$ 44. t^, il : as in ftp, bild, tab, As, Osh'er, On'der, etc. ; the '* short a ; " with equiTalenta as in E6n, 
d<ios, blood, touch, etc. 

In uvAccsirrBD stllailis the vowd occurs in cir'ctta, aftb-mlt', etc, and falls readily into tbe ** neutral 
vowel.'* The ou in pl'ous, etc, oi in por'polae, eo in dtin'seon, etc., usually the o\w in bello^vs, etc, 
and the final element of the eon in rtsht'eous, etc., and of iou in fra'cloiu, etc., and the o in mt'om, Irk'- 
•ome, ua'Uon, etc., hava the same sound. 

$ 45. U, teitk eorutmani valuer having the sound of iv, before another vowel in the same syllable : after q or s ; 
as hi qual'lty, quite, quea'tton, (ua'ho, lan'suage, etc. ; also after a, as in persuade', suite, etc 

$ 46. The neutral voivel, sometimes called the *' natural vowel," is the vocal sound made with tbe least artic- 
ulative effort, or with no effort to shape the sound, and heard, except as a glide, only in onaocentad syllablea. It 
may be described as an obscure sound approaching that of il (up) or tk (urn). 


$47. Thia letter, aa a vowel, haa four sounds : y = I; as in de-^', style, fly ; — ^, the equivalent of t (tdea) ; 
as in ht-^na, my-ol'o-gy ; — f = I ; as in nj^mpli. If r'lo, and (unaccented) ptt'f , hap'pf ; — f = S or I ; 
as in myrrb, n&yr'tle and (unaccented) zepli'f r. 


!&;••• asin • • • iirm; 
.4;. . . . •• " • • . 4sk; 

&,&; 5,«; • • " ** • e4re,&m; 5dd,«l]; 

S. « ; 6, o ; ** ** file. €nd : «bey. Sid ; 

[«, « ; CO, <l ; ** *' [fSm, evSr ; [ftp, Am ; 

«, I i on>, db ; '* ** eve, HI ; f o^t, f dbd. 


The compound ou is a glide from ft to db. 

The compound 1 is a glide from II to I. 

The compound II is composed of y or I and 6b» 

The sound of a has a vanish in I or S. 

The sound of 5 has a vanish in db or 66. 


§ 48. This is a labial sonant, correlative of p, as in boy, cab, ebb, bean'ty, briny, blow, a^ble, berb, 
bulb, robbed (r5bd), etc. It is usually sUent after m in the same qrllable ; aa in bomb, oUmb, tomb ; alao 
before t ; aa m debt, doubt, suVtle ; also in bdellium. 


f 49. Ths **Mfk o ** hM a ilbilAnt toand of three Tuieties : — One like ■ iherp, mariud 9, ^ and repreeented bj 
• in the reepeUinff for pronimciatioii. O hea this scMind before e, i, or y ; m in eede, elvll, cypress, aeld, 
Klmnee, foroe, vlee, etc —In % few words the letter has tlie s sonnd ; ss in saerlllce, snlllee, dlaeern. — 
When ee or el is followed by snother vowel in the same syllable, the ab sound is taken^ either by the e alone, as 
in oceABle, Tleloslty, or by the oe or el together, as in oeean, vleloiis, eto. 

§ 60. The *'haxd e,'* marked C, «, has the sound of k, and is represented by k in the respelling. The letter has 
this sound before a, o, or a, or a consonant, and at the end of a syllable if not followed by 1 or e ; as in call, 
cold, plc^tme, act, ctklcs ; snd before e in sceptic, and 1 in aclrroaa, etc 

§61. C is silsnt in csar, vlctiaals, Indict, and in miucle, corpuade, etc 


f 02. The digraph ck (unmarked) has neariy the sound of tak; as in ckln, ckorck. It is the surd conektlTa 
of J. 

The sound is also represented by tl in bastion, qaeatlon, Ckristlan, etc, by te in rlskteons, snd by t 
with the initisl part of n hi textnre, nature, etc 

% 53. The digraph marlced 9k, ^k, has the sound of ak, in words from the French which hsTe retained this sound ; 
as hi ckaiae, ckivalry, ckagrrin, niaekiiie, mustacke. 

§ 54. Ck hard, marked €k, ek ; with sound like k, which is used to represent it in the respelling. It has this 
sound in words derived from the Greek, and through the Latin in aU but quite modem words ; as in ckoros, 
epock, ecko, cklorlne, ekrlam, okaracter ; or from the Hebrew ; as in Nebockadnczzar, Knock, 
etc ; exceptions are ckurck, ckart, Rachel, cherub, and the prefix arch- in arckblahop, archdeacon, 
archduke, etc. ; but the k sound remains in archangel, snd in architect, arckitrave, etc 

§ 56. Ck is silent in drackm, ackiam, yackt ; also in fnckala. 

f 58. This is a dental sonant, oorrebitiTe of the surd t ; as in day, dry, bed, aimed. Idle. It seunds as t 
when preeeded by a surd hi the same syUable ; as in hissed, looked, arched (hTst, ld6kt, Xroht). It is silent 
in the first syllable of Wednesday and in kandkerckief , kandsonie, and wiudrovr. 


f CT. TUa is a labiodental, the surd oorrelatlTe of the sonant ▼ ; as in fame, fly, f enr, stall; o<t, etc It has 
gk snd pk for equtralents ; as in laugk, pkotograpk, etc It takes the sound of ▼ in the word of, and usu- 
ally hi the coo^onnds, kereof , tkereof , wkereof . 


f 5S. The **hard s** is marked Q, ^\ but in the respelling for pronundation is re p r eee n ted by % unmarked. 
It is a guttural scmant, the correlatiTe of k, used before a, o, u, or 1, r, a, in the same syllable ; as in gay, (o, 
sun, clad, srovr, lingual, argue, baga, kaggle ; — sometimes, though not usually, before e, i, or y : 
ss in get, give, gig, niuggy. The letter g is always hard at the end of a word ; as in kug, berg ; also in 
the deiiTstiTes of such words, even when the doubled g is followed by e, 1, or y ; as in cragged, druggist, 


The interposition of a slight sound of 6 (five) or I (111) between g hard and a following tt or I sound, in garden, 
gnard, guide, guile, etc, and in like manner after a k or hard c, in card, kind, etc., — upheld by the 
authority of Walker, — is not approved. 

f 50. The ** soft g," marked 6, ^, has the sound of J, snd is represented by J in the respelling for pronunciation ; 
ss in gem, engine, rage, caged, etc It is found usually before e, i, or y. 


$ 60. In a few words from the French, the letter c retelne the eound like that o< b in asore ; m fai ronce, 

f 61. The letter c ia ailent before m or n final, and when initial before n ; m in phlegsa* sIbb, Siuit, buo*> 

tiOieto. No caoimd it heard in the digraph nc ; M in iliis, Ions, etc; nor in terasUo, nor in bmsBlo. 


f G2. At the beginning of a word, thla digraph ia aoonded like hard s ; aa in (liastly, glkoit, etc. It ia allent 
after 1 ; aa in hiffli, siKh, 'vrelBh, stralBht, el^t, rlgflU, eto. ; alao before t in the Hune or a following 
syllable; aa in bought, brouffht, Uftoosht, wroosht, cMislit, tansht, fraosht, davditer, 
drousht, etc ; but haa the aound of f in the word draaslftt ; the eound of f alao oommonly after an or on at 
the end of a syllable ; aa in lanslft, oonsh, ronch, enonsh ; that of k fai bongli, loush, ahonyh ; and is 
often silent after an or on in the sane qrllable ; as in oTerttansh, donsii* donsli7i thonsb, boncta, 


§63. This ii a pore breath soond, lepreeenHng no fcced configuration o< theTOcal organa, and ii often called the 
aspirate. It oceors st the beginning of words or syllables, as in liato, l&ero, hire, bonae, boma, bard, bit, 
boop, boot, etc The sound may be produced before any of the Towel sounds and before the semivowel sounds 
y and w. It Is represented by wb in wbo, vrboae, wb«un. H ia silank in bair, berb (usually), bo— tt 
boBor, bonr, snd their deriTatirea. 


§ 64. Thia, with the equiralenta c aoft and ds, Im compounded of d and sb. We haTO it in Jar, Jam, Joat, 
Jnt, Jnry, Join, etc. It ia the sonant oorrelatiTe of the surd cb. In some proper namee of foreign origin, and In 
other foreign words, J or dj occurs st the end of a syUable ; as hi 4)^a-lon, badj, badJM, MlJ'a-mln, BaJ* 

The sound ii represented by ge in aiirg;eon, ontrageona, etc ; by g;! in regiloa, rellslooat «tc ; by dl 
to aoldler, etc ; by de in grandenr, etc. ; and by d with a part of n in Tordnre. 

f 6S. Thia ia a guttural surd mute, the oortalatiTe of sonant g (hard); aa in kite, kill, aklll, adc, ark, alk, 
Ilk, mink, oak, etc It haa hard o, hard cb, gb, en, qn, qne, eqne, and q for equiralento; aa In call, ' 
cboma, boncb, blaenit (-kTt), eoqnet, antique, aaque, qneen. The aound ia the first component of the 
ordinary x ; as In bosc, etc Before n, In the same qrUable, k Is silent; as in luu»t, knee, etc ; ck has the 
sound of k alone ; asinbaek; aa does Ik after § («U) or 8 (51d) ; aa fai walk, folk, etc 

f 66b TUa ii a palatal sonant made by contact o< the point of the tongue with the palate, aa f or t, d, n ; but 
with the sides of the tongue in this case left free for the passage of the breath. It la one of the liqulda. We 
have it fai lie, all, aole. The 1 In an unaccented followfaig an accented syllable fulfills the office o< a Towel ; 
as in battle, bnatle, bridle, eonple, pickle, etc, and in some other ea ses, aa In ctU, easel, etc 
The 1 ia sOent in vronld, conld, abonld, alnta, balm, nuUmaey, onlm, palm, palmer, paalm, 
aalmoii, almond, half, bebalf, calf, balTc, aalve, ealTca, balk, cbalk, calk, talk, atalk, 
walk, folk, yolk (often), with like words and their deriTatirea. 

§67. M haa but one sound, produced l^ dosing the lips, as for b and p, and letting the Tooaliied breath into the 
nasal passage ; as in me, tan&e, tinkea AX the bsgiimlng of a word, m before n is silent; as in nuiemonlca 


§68. N, as in none. Inn, one, ten, fern, aown, tent, annnl, cbange, Ingreaa, eonsresalTe,«tc,ls 

ths dentonasal consonsnt ; the oral passage being doeed by contact of the pdnt and the sides o< the tongue with 
the palate, Just aa it ia for t and d, — n being continuous and nasal, while t snd d are momentary and ond. 


§ 00. Wben n b final after m it is silent ; as in bymiii eondemn. solemn, etc ; bat when to such words Is 
added a suffix or sn inflection beginning with a rowel, the n is generally sounded; as in oondemnaUon, eon- 
demnAtory, Bolemiilze, solemnity, lijrmnolosy, liymnlst, Umner, antumnal, etc N is silent in 
kiln, llnaeklln, etc In the participles damned, damning, eondemnlns, eontentnins, byn&nlns, 
limning, etc, and also in the cognate noons condemncr snd contemner, ussge is divided. Initial Icn, pn, 
mn, are soonded as n; as in know, pneumatics, mnemonics, etc 

§ 70. N at the close of sn sooented syllable, with g, c, or ch, hard, or k or qo, commencing a following qrllable, 
commonly takes the ng sound, snd is marked o ; as in an'ser, uii'el«* dla'gile, au'chor, coo'irrees, eoo'- 
gre-Sa^tlon, can'ker, coo'qaest, coo'qner, etc ; bat not generally if the accent falls on the latter syllable ; 
as in con-sree^alTe, ^n-cor'dant, etc ; nor in the prefixes lu-t en-, on-, un-, non-; ss, In'come, un'- 
con-eem', non'com'»mlt'tal ; nor in qaln'cnnx, and the deriTatives and compounds of quln'que, nor in 
pen'Boln snd a few other words. In e'loo-ga'tlon, pro'lon-sa'tlon, aao-gnlfer-ons, etc, and often in 
con-Ki^a'alon-al, coo-irru'l-ty, and like words, the n, though unaccented, retains the sound of ns, which is 
given it by rule in the words from which these are derived, as e-loQ'sate, etc It takes the ns sound also before 
k, or ck hard, or z, at the end of a syllable ; as in Ink, tkliik, tkailk, moQk, coBck, anzloos, etc 


f 71. The digraph nc is the equivalent of q. This sound is formed with the organs in the same position as 
§ (hsrd), except that the nassl passage through which the sound passes is left open. The digraph occurs only 
at the end of qrllables; as in Ions, wine, bans, alns, ■ons'streM ; or with ne added it the end ; as in 
tongrne ; except that hi the comparatives and superlativea of lone, atronc, youns, the g goes with a proper 
hard g: sound to the inflection, while the n takes to itself the o sound ; as, loa'ffer, lon'S^at. In dlpktkonc 
and tripbtkong the c goes, in a like way, to the suffix -aL 


f 72. This is the sard oorrektive of b ; as in pea, cup, pray, play, barp, spy, spread, oppress, etc 
Itissilent as initial before n, s, sb, and t ; as hi pneumatics, psalm, pabaw ; also in raspberry, receipt, 
sempstress, aeoompt, corps, and their derivatives. 


f 73. This digraph ooouzs chiefly In words of Greek derivation, and has usnally the sound of f ; as in pbantom, 
sylpbt pbllosopby, etc It has the sound of ▼ in Stepben ; and, according to most orthoepists, in nephew, 
thoogh in America it has oommonly its regular sound of f in the latter word. In dlpbtb<ing, trlpbtbongr, 
opbtbalmy^ napbtba, and other allied words, and their derivatives, the pb is sometimes sounded as p. 


f 74. Q is in sU cases followed l^ n, and the two together have oommonly the sound of kw ; as in queen, 
conquest, etc ; but they have that of k in a few words from the French, as in coquette, etc ; as has also the 
ending -que in antique, burlesque, etc 


f 75. The sound of r, as in rip, trip, oarol, far, form, etc., is produced by the passage of the voice over 
the tongue, the end of which is raised, but does not touch the roof of the mouth, while Its sides doee the passages 
through which the sound of 1 passes. 

There are two lea4ing varieties of the consonant r. One, the dental r, is made between the point of the tongue 
and hard pahite not far back of the teeth ; used before a vowel, as in rise, try, oral, array. This, as requiring 
a more forcible expulsion of the breath, is commonly called ** rough *' r. The other, the palatal r, is made between 
the tongue and the pahite, somewhat farther back, with less friction of breath than the dental, and hence is com- 
monly called ** smooth ** r. It occurs st the end of a syllable or before a consonant, as in far, arm, orbit. 

The "rough '* r is by some speakers more or less trilled, but this practice is not common in the United States. 

A prevsOing fault in New Aiglsnd is (like that which Walker says prevailed In Bngbmd, especially hi London) 
not sounding the r at the end of words and before a consonant ; thus, cU (with the vowel somewhat prolonged) for 
car, fiUn for f arn&, etc It still prevails in the south of England. In the United States, the fault is not uncom- 
mon in New England. But among educated people the r takes generally in the United States a more or less dear 
sound as a consonant In sU sitaatioas. 


The letter r neTer takes the regular short sound of s TOwel before it, except when in primitiTes and their derira- 
tiTes it ends a syllable, and is followed by a syllable beginning with a vowel sound ; as in marry, very, aplrlt, 
mirror, florid, morrow, liarry, mjrrlMls. The doubling of the r does not affect this statement, since 
but one r is sounded. 

When primitiTes end in r their derivatiTes do not take the regular short sound of a vowel similarly situated ; tm 
in bar, barring ; Infer, Inferring ; err^ errlac ; stir, sUrrlMi: ; abkor, abborriiis ; occur, occ1ll^ 


$ 73. The propo' soiind of i as a surd is made by breath forced through a contracted chaond between the tongue 
and the hard palate near the front teeth, and impinging upon the edges of the upper or the lower teeth ; as in see, 
M>, hiM, yet, scorn, sky, sly, smile, snow, spy, square, stay, swim, cnllb, picks, cups, cuts, 
sense, curse, best, message, display, lisp, sypsy, absurd, etc. Equivalents are : c soft, as in cell, 
d-ril, vice ; sc, as in scene, science, etc. ; sck a* iu scklsm. 

§ 77. The sonant s (marked f ), corresponding to the surd, as above, is made with the same articulative positioo, 
exoept that the tongue is p re ssed somewhat closer to the palate. The sound is precisely like that of z ; as in If , 
kaf, etc The s is sonant as the ftniJ sound of s(mie verbs and surd as the Anal sound of the cognate nouns or 
adjectives ; as use, abuse, dimue, konse, etc. Notice close, with s as z in verb and noun, and s sharp in 
the adjective. Compare adTlfe (r.), advice (n.), etc 

§ 78. S takes sometimes the sound of sk, by fusion with a foOowlfig y sound, with consequent vowel change ; as 
in version, mansion, convulsion, censure, sensual, sure, sugar, etc. ; in the case of s doubled, the 
first Is assimilated to the second ; as in passion (pish'tiu), Issue (Tsh'tt or Tsh'y). In a few words s takes the 
Sk sound while leaving the f<dlowing vowel unchanged ; as in Asiatic, nausea, etc. Compare § 49. 

$ 79. 8 takes the sound (zk) of z in azure by fusion with a following y sound, when it is preceded by a vowel 
in an accented syllable; as in vt'flon, de-cl'flon, ad-ke'flon, sua'flon, ez-plo'flon, con-ftt'flon« 
pleaf 'ure, lel'f ure, vlf'u-al, u'f u-ry, etc. ; also in sclf'f Ion, ab-scln'f ion, re-sclf'f Ion. 


§ 80. This digraph, as in skarp, Sklne, rask, usker, represents a surd sibilant made between toofue and 
palate at a place fartlter back than the s. It is reckoned as a simple element, and is the correlate of the soosnt 
sound represented by zk. 

The sound is otherwise represented by c or s with or before e or I, and by t or sc with or before I ; by s, 
sometimes, before u ; as involved in the x in anxious, luxury, etc. ; by ck in ckalse, macklne, etc. ; hy 
cks in fucksla ; and by sck in sckorl, sckottlscke, from the Qermaa. 


§ 81. This is the dental surd correlative of sonant d ; as in tie. It, note, try, tone, trrlne, stay, stray, 
art, last, apt, sent, aft, act, salt, next, attend, etc. 


$ 82. This digraph is used to represent two sounds, a surd and a sonant, both made with the same articulative 
position: the surd, as in tkin, tklng, tkrlve, entknslasm, breatk, lengtk, birtk, widlk, etc.; the 
sonant, marked "ni, th, as in ttie, this, ttiy, ttien, with, breattie, batlie, father, northern, etc. 

In the following nouns the tk is surd in the singular and sonant In the plural : balk, clofk, lath, moutk, 
oatk, path, wreath, moth ; pi. bathf , clothf , etc. Verb and noun forms differ : the verb sonant, the 
noun surd ; as, breathe, breath ; w^reathe, wreath ; bathe, bath ; mouth, mouth. 

$ 83. Th has the sound of t iu thyme, Thomas, Thames, Estker ; and in pktklslc, (pk being silent). 
It is commonly silent in Istkmus and astkma. 


§ 84. This i» the sonant correlative of the surd f ; as in vain, vivid, evor, live, lived, move, niovrf. 
ralvef. wo1v«>9, etc. The sound is taken by f in of ; but in pronouncing its compounds, kereof , tkereof , 
etc., usage is divided between v and f. 


} 86. At the Iwigipntng o< a word or of a qrlUbte, u wet« worse. Inward, this letter (wliioh la unmarked) 
ia a aooaat, formed from, aad nearly reeembUng, the TOwel oo, but requiring for its utterance a closer position, or 
greater contraction, of the labial aperture ; and this compression of the lips changes the quality of the sound, 
giving it a bossing and artioulatlTe instead of a smooth and purely vocal character. 

It is often represented by n occurring before another rowel in the same syllable, as in quail, query, langutd, 
SMsnase, etc 

$ 8G. After a vowel in the same syllable, vr is generally silent ; as in slow, tlirowu, etc., though sometimes 
significant, as in flaw. With e it unites to form a diphthong, which is generally sounded like long u, as in dew, 
few, nevr ; but it is sounded like oo, or like u in rude, if the letter r stands before it, as in crew, shrew. 
It is often Joined with a preoeding o to represent the diphthongal sound otherwise expressed by on, as in brow, 

$ 87. W is always silent before r in the same syllable, as in iirrins, nvrote, avrry ; tdso in the words answer, 
sword, toward, two. 


f 88. The true sound of these letters is in the reverse order, namely, hiv, as they were written in Anglo-Saxon ; 
e. g., wlien Is pronounced liwen ; wluurf , hwarf. The h is here a free emission of breath through the posi- 
tion taken by the lips in the formation of w. In who, ivhole, whoop, whore, and their derivatives, the -w 


$ 88. The surd sound of x, as in box, wax, execute, exit, exodus, exudation, exclaim, extreme, 
excel, excellent, etc, is equivalent to that of ka X, as preoeding an accented syllable, is exceptionally surd 
(ka) in ex-ar'chate, ex-er'cent, ex-ude', hex-am'e-ter, ox-al'lc, and a few other words (see $ 90). In 
words such as anxious, noxious, luxury, the s component of the x becomes sh by fusion with a following j 

f 90. X is, with few exceptions, sonant ((gs) when followed by sn accented syllable that begins with a vowel, or 
by a silent h and a vowel under the accent ; as In exist, exalt, exaffserate, example, exempt, exert, 
exotic, exult, exhaust, exhibit, exhort, exhilarate, etc Some derivatives of such words often retain 
the sound with the x falling under the sccent ; ss In ex'em-pla-ry, ex'emp-tl'tloua 

f 91. At the beginning of words, x bss the sound of z ; ss in xanthlc, xebec, xyloffrap|iy. It retains this 
Booad ia certain compounds, as in par'a-xan'thln, met'a-xylene, etc. 

§92. T, as a oooaonant, is a palatal sonant ; as in year, you, yonns, beyond, vineyard, halyard, etc. 
It is o ls ss o d with vr as a semivoweL In certain cases the sound is represented by I ; as in poniard, onion, 
Sealal, familiar, etc. ; and in like manner by e, and it forms a part of the vowel VL (Use). The ptaoe of articu- 
bitien for this consonant extends farther back than the phMw of constriction for the vowel 8 (Swe), involving the 
soft palate, as the place for 9 does not. 

T, as a consonant, occurs only at the beginning of a syllable ; at the end or in the middle, it Is a vowel, as in 
my, happy, eye. It is used in tliis Dictionary in giving the pronunciation of some foreign words, as flord, 
lorsnette, camarilla, etc ; and, in such case, is not restricted to the beginning of a syllable. 

$ 93. The ordfaiary m is a sooaat; as In meal, xone, maze, size, amazed, frozen, hazy, dizzy, sizar, 
buzz, etc. ; the sound is often represented l>y s ; ss in easy, his, ears, etc. ; sometimes by c ; as in suffice, 
etc It is the oorrelative of the surd a. 

§ 94. In some words, z takes a sound (zh) which is the sonant correlative of the surd sh ; ss in azure, sei- 
zure, sraxler. The sotmd is represented by si In f nidon, etc ; by tl, exceptionally, in transition (cf. In- 
sltton) ; snd by s in rouge, manage, mlraffe, and other words from the French. 




FlKBOV ▲jcnoDi.ATam. 













f * 




s; r 



lip and teeth 

Tongue end teeth 

Tongue and hard pahite (forward) 
Tongue iDd hard palate (back). . 
Tongue, hard pabte, and aoft patate 
Tongna and aoft palate • • . . 
Yariona ptooaa 


k ' 




When a sard and a aonant oonaonant oome together in the aame ayUable, it is generally Tery difllenlt, in fluent 
pronunciation, to preserve each in its regular and appropriate sound. Henoe it frequently becomes necessary to 
change the character of the one or of the other, in order to make the combination readily pronounceable. This Is 
generally done, In English, by assimilating the sound of tlie second consonant, whether surd or sonant, to that of 
the first. Thus, in chlnta, the rocal consonant x assumes the sound of its surd c o rr esp o n dent a, in order to unite 
with the surd t. On the other hand, the a in Mrlnds is rocalixed, or aarames the sound of x, for the sake of cor> 
responding with the sonant d. Sometimes, though rarely, the sound of the first consonant is assimilated to that of 
the second, as in ipaam (spas'm), prlam (pris*m). 

This affinity between these two classes of consonanto is an important fact, and one which needs to be ftonUiarly 
known. For there are four very common inflecttonal terminations which come under ite influence, namely: 
L PossessJTa forms in a, as matd'a (maids) ; 2. Plurals in a, as tubs (tu1»), Brores (grthrs) ; 8. 8 in the third 
person singular of Teibs, as loads (loads), anuiotlia (smootiu) ; 4. Preterite and partlciplea in d preceded by • 
mute, as In daabed (daaht), insnlf ed (ingulf t). 


In many words, a consonant is doubled between two rowels ; yet, in such ea ses, no more than one artioulatian to 
used in speaking. In bniiiier, for example, we doee the organs but once between the flrst snd second qrUables ; 
nor is it possible to use both of the letters n without pronouncing bnii, then intermitting the Toice entirely, 
opening the organs, snd closing them a second time. Hence, in all ea ses, when the same consonant to written twioe 
between Towels, as In banner, robbing, nuidden, lettor, borrld, one of tbem only to represented by an 
articulation of the organs ; and the only reason for repeating tlie consonant to to indicate the fact that the pre- 
ceding Towel has ite short sound. 

But although only one articulation to ever used where a consonant is written twice,' yet in some words the articu- 
lation to dwelt upon for an appreciable space of time, producing an apparent duplication of the wuntL Thto eflact 
takes place in many derired words, in which the primltiTe ends or begins with the same totter as that with which 
a supmdded sufllx and prefix of English origin respeotiTely begins or ends, as in soulleaa, foully, keennoM, 
n&lsatep, oatimvel, unnntoral. The same effect takes place in most compound words, in which the second 
port begins with the same aound as that with which the first part ends, as In pott-town, beaddreM, ball* 


Accent to a particular stress or effort of Toice upon certain syllables of words, which distinguishes them from 
the others by a greater distinctness and loudness of pronuncistion. Accent to of two kfaads, primary, as in 
tn-tend', where the full force of the voice to on the last syllable, and secondary, aa hi sa'per-in-tend^ 
where the first syllable to distinguished by a stress greater than that laid on the second and third syUables, 


thoofli leu ttMui that laid on the )Mt In •one worda tb«re an two Moondary or Mbordinata Meenfcs, m in 

Hon. — (1.) The genonbl tondenoy of aooent, whether fntnarj or aecoodary, tatoahortenaU TOweUbat a, when 
farther beck then the pennltlmate qrUable, m in ten'ement, ne^eMarlneie, an'atom'lcnl* penon'lllca'- 
tlon» etc (though we eay la'brlonte, end not lAI/rieate ; tru'eulency, and not trac'aleney ; sa'pera- 
bm^dmnt, and not sflp'erabiui'dant, etc). Thia tendency generally fails, if the first of the two following 
ayUablee ends, and the second begins, with a vowel ; as in pe'ii-od, o'ri-en'fal, le-Tt'a>tlinii. 

(2) The primary and secondary accents are, in certain cases, so nearly equal that we interchange them freely, 
*• making," as Walker remarka, ** the secondary accent principal and the principal secondary.** Kyamples are muk- 
boacade, cavalende, oMrleature, «tiqoette, reverie, oonfldaute, sovemante, parachate, etc. 

(3) Many in America give a marked secondary accent in certain words which properly have but one accent, and 
that on a p re a n tepenultimate syllable, aa in ter'rI-tS'ry, dlf'll-efU'ty, clr'ciim-atilii'oea, Inter^Sat'lnc 
etc lUs droning fault may be corrected by giving the accented syllable a sharp percussion, which carriee the 
TOlee lightly thxongh the rest of the word. 



Af !> [AS. on,} On; In:— forming adJeotlTM denot- 
ing a itftte or ftdrerba of mumer; ai, afoot, aaleep, 
ogroond. 8.[AB. 0/.] Oif; from: aa,adown. 3. [AS. 
0-; aUn to Ooth. tu-, tir-, O. er-.j Away ; on ; back ; 
— of ton intenaive; as. ffriae, ago, abide. 4. [OB. v-or 
i-, AS. ge-; akin to OHO. go-, gi-.] A prefix making 
little ciuuoge iu the meaning, as in aware. 6. [F. ^, f r. 
L. ad to.] A form of An- ; as, abaae, achieve. 6. [L. 
a, aby ab*.} Prom ; as, avert. 7. [Or. a, privative.] 
WitlKMit ; not ; — aldn to E. Uk-, not ; as, abyss, oUieist. 

Ab-. [L. aby same as E. o/, oj^.] Prom; away; 
aeparauon ; departure ; as, abstract, aMuct. 

Abg*. A form of An-. 

Ao-. A form of Ad-. 

Ad-. [L. Off, prep.] To; towards; at; near; — writ- 
ten oe-, a/-, ag-, a/-, an^^ ap-^ ar-, a«-, a/-, tlie d twiug 
aaiimllated to the first letter of the word to wtiich it is 
prefixed, but remaining unclianged before vowels, and 
before d, A, m, v / as, (uMuce, a<;cord, a/fect, ajwregate, 
a/Iude, annex, appear, etc. It becomes ac- before ^u, 
and a- in many words from OF: ; as, acquiesce, avow. 

AdMIO-, AAl&Br. [Or. A3i|K, «^^»^, gland.] Combining 
forms of tlie Oreek word for gland; as, acffitology. 

AMro-. [Or. inlipt ^poc, air.T Combining form of the 
Oreek word for air ; as, aerolite, aif ropbyte. 

Aiort-. [a- -{-/ore ; AS. onforan or mtforan,"] Before ; 
previously ; as, aforemid, 

Af-f Af -. Forms of Ad-. 

A1-. 1. [AS. eof.] AU; whoUy; oompletely; as, 
a/mighty, a/most. 8. A form of Ad. 3. The Arabic 
defliUte article = £. /A« ; as, a/chemy, a/coran. 

Amu-, Amb-. TL., aUn to Or. o/a^i, AS. embe^ O. trm, 
also to L. ambo both.] About ; around ; on both sides ; 
as, amfrtdexter, amMent. 

Aflblll-, Amj^-. [Or. oM^'.] Both; of both kinds; 
<m both sides ; about ; around ; as, amphiiAoxM. 

An-. [Or. h^\ akin to £. un:'\ Without; not; as, 

Aiu-. [Or. ard on; in oomp., on, up, upwards.] Up; 
upward ; throughout ; backward ; bock ; again ; anew ; 
as, anapest, anachronism. 

Anglo-. [Or. ayyctor vessel, receptacle.] Combining 
form indicating relation to seed or vessels of plants or to 
blood vessels, lymph vessels, etc., iu animals ; ss, angio- 

Anglo-' [NL. Angltu English.] English ; English and ; 
English conjoined with ; as, iln^lo-Saxon. 

Ant-. A form of Akti-. 

Ante-. [L. ante ; akin to Or. ovri, AS. an<f-, om/-, O. 
an/-, «»/-.] Before ; fore ; in front ; as, att/ecedent. 

Anti-, Ant-. [Or. ianC against.] Against ; opposite ; op- 
posed to ; contrary ; in place of ; as, on^islavery, anti- 
thesis, an/arctic. 

Apo-. [Or. air^.] From; away from; off; asunder; 
separate ; as, apocope, apostle. 

AlOh-, Arohi-. [L. arch-^ archi-^ Or. &fixi- ; fr. root of 
aAx«iy to be first, begin, apv^ the first pUce, begin- 
ning.] Chief; head; primitive; original; as, arcA- 
deaicon, orcAitect. 

As-. A form of Ad-. 

Astro-. [Or. ioTfow star.] Gombiidaf form fkom flio 
Oreek word for star; as, osfftmomy. 

At-. A form of Ad-. 

AntO-. [Or. avT^c self.] Self ; one*s aelf ; ooe*i own ; 
itself ; ita own ; as, auiognph. 

Aso-. [Abbr. of axote^l Containing nitrogen varioualy 
combined ; — a chemical term ; as, aMbensene (a sub- 
stance furnishing a dye). 

I-. [Or. fidvt€ step, base.] Combining form indi- 
cating the base, or position at or near the base, or form- 
ing a base, — uaea esp. in botanical and anatomical 
words; as, 6a^ranial (situated at the base of the 

Bo-. [AS. be-, orig. same as M by ; akin to O. be-, bei, and 
perh. Or. a/t^ about.] Orig. same as bjf. Joined witli 
verbs, it serves: (a\ To intensify the meaning; as, 
bespatter, 6estir. (6) To render an intransitive verb 
transitive ; as, 6«fall, 6espeak. (c) To make the action 
of a verb particular or definite ; as, beget (to get an 
offspring), to freset (to set aroundV 

It is loined with some substantives, and a few adjec- 
tives, to form verba; as, 6edew, befriend, delate. It 
occurs with certain nouns, adverbs, and prepositions, 
with the force of by or about ; as, beUet^ behalf, 6«neatli, 
beside. In aome words the original force of be- is ob- 
scured or lost ; as, become, begin, behave. 

Bt-. [L. b»-, bU, twice ; akin to E. tteo; cf. Di-, Dn-.] 
1. Two; twice; donUy; — eq>. common in scientific 
words; as, Mcyclo, bflateral. 2. In chemical names, 
b»- denotes two atcnns, parts, or equivalents of the con- 
stituent to whose name it is pnnxed, to <»e of the 
other compound ; or that such constituent is present in 
double the ordinarv proportion ; as, bichromate (a salt 
containing two eauivalents of chromic acid). Bi- and 
Di- are often used interchangeably. 

Bin-. [L. bini two at a time.] Two; twice; bi-; as, 
btnaural (reUting to both ears). 

Bis-. [L.] Same as Bi-. 

OstS-, Ost-i Ostll-. [Or. iraTcL] Down; downward; 

under; agidnst; contrary to; opposed to; wholly; 

completely ; as, ro/arrh, co/optrics, cathoUc. 
OopnslO-. [Or. ffc^oAi) hesd.] Head ; pertaining to, or 

connected with, tlie head ; as, cephalopo^ 
Ohloro-, Ohlor-. Containing chlorine as an ingredient ; 

as, <rA/oroform. 
CQlondro-, Ohonflr-r [Or. xoi'^pov grain of wheat, 

cartilafre.] Like a grain; granular; cartilaginous; as, 

Otronm-. [L. drc^tm ; akin to cireut circle.] Around ; 

about ; surrounding : as, circumnavigate. 
ds-. FL. ris.l On this side of ; as, cimlpine. 
Oo-, Om-, Con-. Forms of Com-. 
OOOI-. [L., same as cum with.] With; together; in 

c<mjunotlon ; against ; very. It is written com- before 

b, m, p, and sometimes /; col- ususilly before / ; cor- 

before r/ co- usually before a vowel or h or ir; and 



C4m- oraaDy in other cues; ai, combine, comminute, 
eommre, comfort, co/lact, corrupt, ooact, colutbit, co- 
worker, confer. 

OOBtnh* [L. conira.l Against ; in oppoaitiou ; counter 
to ; acroM ; as, con/rodict. 

Oor-. A form of Com-. 

OoortW-. [F. centre; fr. L. amtra.} Against ; op- 
posite ; answering to ; contrary ; as, coimiermand. 

CfrypIO-. [Or. Kpwrr^ hidden.] Secret; invisible to 
tlie naked eye ; indistinctly ; as, ctyp/ogram, eryptoctj»- 
talline (indistinctly crystailine). 

OfOlO-. [Or. KVffAof circle, wheeL] Circular; of a 
circle or wheel ; as, cyclometer. 

!>•-. [L. dty prep.] Down ; from ; away ; — often with 
negatnre force, sometimes intensive ; as, <iefer, t/cprave. 
In words from the French it Is often equivslent to L. 
Dn- ; as, <fcrange, detach. 

DMA-, Dtka-. [Or. Hita ten.] Ten ; in the Metric Sys- 
tem, derignating a weight or measure ten times the 
principal unit ; as, decalogue, decttmeter. 

DmI-. [F. dSH- tenth ; fr. L. deeimtu.] One-tenth ; in 
the Metric System, designating a weight or measure 
one-tenth of the principal unit ; as, deHmate, deciliter. 

D«ll-. [F.; fr. L. dimidius half.] Half; as, demi- 
moude. [of Dis- ; as, deshabille. I 

Dm-. [F. ; fr. L. dis-.] Apart ; away ; not ; — a form | 

DcvtO-, Dtnt-. [Or. a«vTcp<K second.1 1. Second ; as, 
deit/oi]4aam (the second, i. e. albuminous, portion of 
eggs having both a yolk uid albumen). 8. Id chemistry, 
formerly, second iu a regular series of chemical com- 
pounds ; now equivalent to Bi-, Di-. 

D«Stro-. [L. dexier right.1 Pertaining to, or toward, 
the right ; in chemistry and optics, turning the plane of 
pcdarixed light to the right; as, dex/rorotary, dextrowe. 

In-. [Or. &-, iiiy twice ; akin to 3vo two, L. bU twice.] 
Twofold ; double ; twice ; in chemistry, denoting two 
omsjradicals, or equivalents ; as, dichroism, dtUtsic. 


[Or. Ml through.] Through; between; 

apart ; asunder ; across ; as, diameter, di 
ra-. A form of D»-. 
Dto-. 1. [L. ; fr. same root as bi* twice, duo two, E. 
tteo.} Apart ; asunder ; in two ; undoing ; ^ often used 

as a privative and a negative, also as an intensive; 

as, difmpt, difconnect, dinrm. 2. [Or. dtf.] Same as 

Di-, twofold. 
Dti-. [Or. avf. hard, ilL] DI; bad; dIfBoult; as, 

<fy«entery, dyspepaia. 

B-. [L. e.] A form of Ex-. 

Bo-. rOr. hi.\ A ferm equivalent to Ez-. 

Sot-, EOtO-. [Or. jicr«k outside.] Without; outside; 
external ; as, ec/organism (external parasitic organism). 

Bf-. A form of Ex-. 

BUotTD- [L. elHtrum amber. Or. ^<cTpor.] Pertain- 
ing to electricity ; produced by, producing, or employ- 
ing electricity ; as, e/ec/rolysis, e/ecf ro-magnet. 

Bb-. a form of En-. 

Bb-. 1. [F. ; fr. L. in."] In ; into ; on ; — sometimes also 
having a causal force, sometimes intenrive ; as, enamor. 
Kn- commonly becomes em- bef ore p, 6, and m ; as, em- 
ploy, entbody, emmew. 8. [Or. iv^ prep.] In; into; 
up<ni ; as, encaustic. 

BDdO-.BDd-. [Or. ^K&w within, fr. iK in.] Within. 

But-. Within ; — a form of Ento- ; as, en/optic (within 
the eye). 

BMir-. [F. mtre between; fr. L. iiUer.l Between; 
among; part: an, en/erprise. [<oa.| 

BntO-. [Or. ^rr^ within, f r. iv In.] Within ; as, ento- \ 

Bpl-, BP"* Bph-. [Or. ^t on, upon, to.] Upon ; beside ; 
anumg ; on the outside ; above ; over ; after ; as, epi- 
taph, crpode, epAemera. [lateral. I 

Bqill-. [L. aequus even, equal.] Equally; as equi-\ 

S-. [OF. ; fr. L. er.] See Ex-. 

Bb-. [Or. ct well.] Well; good; advantageous; — 
opporite of Dti- ; aa, eulogy, euphony. 

Sb-« E-. [L. er, e, or the kindred Or. c^, ^, out of, 
out, proceeding from.] 1. Out of ; <^ ; from ; be- 
yond; without ; — sometimes also having a privative 
force, sometimes intensive ; as, eaeclude, excel, exacer- 
bate, emanate. JSz' becomes </- before /; as, ^errent, 
<friilgent. 8. Implying a former (indicated) ofBce, ata- 
tion, or condition ; as, eaiqgovemor, exoonvict. 
SlO-. [Or. <{m out of, outside, fr. «( out.] Out of ; out- 
side ; as, exotic, exorhiza. 

Bztza-. [L. ; fr. ex^er, compar. fr. ex out] Beyond ; 
outside of ; besides ; in addition to ; as, ex/roordlnary. 

FCRl-. [L. /errum iron.] Containing ferric iron as 

an ingredient ; as, /erricyanide. 
Fanro-t Ferroso-. Pertaining to iron; in chemistry, 

containing ferrous iron as an ingredient ; as, /errotype, 

Flao-. Containing fluorine aa an ingredient ; — a chem> 

ical combining form ; as,yluophosphate. 
For-. [AS.] A negative or privative prefix to verbs, 

often implying loss, detriment, or destruction; also 

used as an intensive prefix, meaning utterly; quite; 

thoroughly ; as, /ot-get, /orbear, /orlom. 
Foiro-. [AS.] Beforehand ; in advance ; before in time 

or place ; as, /oretell, /orefather. 
FnmtO-. [L. /roM^ froniiSt forehead.] Relating to 

the forehead or frontal bone ; — an anatomical combin- 

ing form ; as, /ron/onaaal. 

Oastro-, OOfltr-. [Or. 'V«<^P. y^n-po*, beUy.] Ro- 
uting to the stomach or digestive tract ; as, ga*tr<mom9, 
loo-, Oo-. [Or. Y^a, y^, the earth.] Relathig to the 
earth ; as, ^ography. 



sembling, blc 

Xfia, eufuKTOC, blood.] Relating to, or re- 

ilood ; associated with blood; as, hematoid. 

Hollo-. [Or. T}Atoc the sun.] Relating to the siin ; as, 
Ae/iotype, Ae/iotrope. [Ae»»»«phere. I 

Homl-. [Or. ^i ; akin to L. semi-.'} Half ; semi- ; aa, | 

Hoptft-. [Or. cirra seven.] Seven; sevenfold; as, 
Aep/ochord, Aep/agon. 

Hotoro-. [Or. ercpoaptber.] Other ; other than usual ; 
different ; as, Ae/erodox. 

HOZ-, Hoia-. [Or. c^ six.] Six ; sixfold ; aa, Aexapod, 

Holo-. [Or. oAo« whole.] Whole ; complete ; entire ; as, 
Ao/ograph, Ao/oblast. 

Homo-. [Or. V(^ the same.] One and the same; 
common ; joint ; similar : like ; as, Aomogeneous. 

Hydro-* Hydr-. [Or. vUtp water; whence E. hydro- 
in hydrogen.] 1. Relating to water ; as,. Aydrogren, 
Aydrography. a. Obtained by hydrogen ; having liydro- 
gen as an ingredient ; — a chemical combining form ; as, 
Aydrocarbon. . ^, ^ 

Hydroxy-. Having hydroxyl aa an ingredient ; — a 
chemical combining form, also sometimes used adjec- 
tlvely ; as, hydroxy compounds. 

Hyo-. ReUtmg to the hyoid bone or arch ; — an ana- 
tomical prefix ; as, Ayomandibular. 

Hypor-. [Or. vWp above ; akin to L. super, E. orer.] 
Over ; above ; too ; excessive ; as, AypercriUcal. 

Hypo-. [Or. vn6 under; akin to L. sub.) 1. In a 
lower or inferior position or sUte; as, Aypotenuse, 
Aypothesis. 2. Having a low chemical valence ; in a 
low sUte of oxidation ; as, Aypophosphite, a phosphite 
containing phosphorus in a low state of oxidation. 

IdOO-. [Or. iS4a idea.] ReUting to ideas, conceptions, 

representations, etc. ; as, ideojfraph. 
IdlO-. [Or. lauK proper, peculiar.] Private; personal; 

peculiar ; diatinct ; as, idiosyncrasy. 
n-. A form of Ik-. 
nio-. Relating to, or connected with, the ilium / — an 

anatomical combining form ; as, iliolumbar. 
Im-. A form of In-. 



In-. 1. [E.<n,pi«p.ud«dT.,orL.iN;boUialdiitoOr. 
^ la. J In; within; into; <m; among; — MOietimet used 
with dmple intenalTe force. In words of Latin origin 
it reguUrly becomes U- before /« ir- before r, and m- 
before a labial, as 6, m, p ; as, ^bred, intrude, inode, 
irruption, ^bue, immigrate, impart, moriminate. 2. 
pL m- ; aUn to B. «ii-. j Not ; contrary to ; without ; 
n<m- ; un- ; as, inadequate, i/logical, irresponsible, im- 
meararable, improvident ; — this suflU rnanging like 
the preceding. 

IbAo-. Purtaining to East India ; Indian ; as, Indo-Euro- 

iBtri-. [L. ; aUn to E. under.} Below ; beneath ; un- 
der ; after ; as, ii^timaxillary. 

iBttr-. [L. inter ; compar. of in in.] Among ; between ; 
amid ; as, interfere, in/«rpolate. 

btm-. [L. intra ; akin to inter.} Within ; on the in- 
side of ; interior ; as, in/ramargliud. 

mtlO-. [L. in/ro; akin to in^er.1 Within ; into ; In ; 
inward ; as, in/roduoe, ih/rospectTon. 

lOdO-, lod-. Earing iodine as an ingredient ; — a chem- 
ical c<mibininff form ; as, iodide. 

Ir-. A form of Ixr-. 

SM^ Hi-. [Or. Xaot equaLI Identical; equal; of the 
same numerical raloe ; as, iiometric 

JUtft-. [L.] Near; nigh; dose; as,yiurtoposition. 

as, macrocosm. 

[Or. Ktwtif white.] White ; colorless ; 

as, feiM^hyllous (white-leaved). 
Lt¥0-, IrflYO-. [L. liBvu* left.] Toward the left; in 

chemistry, referring to tlie plane of polarised light ; as, 

ferorotary (turning this plane to the left). 
UtbO-. [Qt. XtBot stone.] Fertahitaig to stone; made 

of, or on^stone ; stony ; as, /i^Aograph, tithology. 
LvtoO-. [I^ luteue. ] Orange yellow ; brownish yellow ; 

buiS ; — a chemical combining form. 

>. [Or. fMucp^.] Long; large; great; 

_ Pertaining to, produced by, or connected 

wtth, magnetism ; as, m<iff»«toelectricity. 

■tl-, Mtt*-. [F. mal, or L. mHv, adv., fr. malut ill, 
bad.] ni ; evil ; bad ; badly ; as, mo/ediction, ma/con- 
tent, maladministration. 

HtgA-, MmiIO-, M«f-. [Or. fMyof, gen. itry^Aov, 
great] 1. Oreat ; extended ; powerfuL 8. A million 
times ; a million of ; —combining forms In the Metric 
Bvstem, electric science, mechanics, etc ; as, megathe- 
rium, m^^volt. 

■mo-. Km-. [Or. M^cHK in the middle.] In the mid- 
dle ; intermediate ; as, »»««ocarp, m«jentery. 

M«ta-, Htt-. [Oc, fttra between, with, after.] 1. Be- 
tween ; with ; after ; behind ; over ; about ; reversely ; 
as, m^tomeric, metothesis, m«fempsyohosis. 8. Other ; 
duplicate ; corresponding to ; resembling ; hence, meta- 
meric ; — chemical prefix ; as, mefaldehyde (substance 
metameric with aldehyde). 

■loro-, MIor-. [Or. iiutpit smalLJ 1. SmaU ; Uttle ; 
trivial; slight; as, microscope. 8. A mllliouth part 
of; —combining forms in the Metric System, electric 
scieno^ mechanics, etc. ; as, microfarad (one millionth 
of a farad). 

Mail-. [F. ; fr. L. mille a thoussnd.] A thousandth 
part of; —combining form in the Metric System, etc ; 
as, mitfimeter. 

M»-. [AS. mis- ; akin to O. mi$M'^ and fr. same root 
as O. meiden to shun. Also OF. m«s-, fr. L. mintu 
less. The prefix from the French has been supplanted 
by tiie AS. form, which is now the one in use.] Amiss ; 
wrong ; ill ; unsuitable ; unlike ; as, miitake, midead, 
mitchief, miwrmnt. 

Mono-, ■on-. [Or. M^t««.] One ; single ; alone ; sole ; 
only ; as, monotony, monoxide. 

Mmir, Molt-. [L. multu* much.] Much ; many ; 
several ; more than one ; as, mn/Zifonu, mu//sngular. 

Myo-. [Or. i&vv, iiv^, a muscle.] Bdafting to mos- 
cies ; — an anatomicyU otnnbiniiw form ; as, myomii^bj, 

Mym*. [Or. ^vpuit mvriad.] Tta thousand; t«a 
thousand times ; as, myriapod. 

Maao-. [L. naem nose.] Pertaining to, or oonnaetMl 

with, the nose ; — anatomical combining form ; as,na«»- 

Mm-. [Or. vion yoathfuL] New; recent; late; as, 

Mmio-, Mmt-. [Or. rfvpov nerve.] Pertaining to a 

nerve or to the nervous system ; as, nenropter^ 
Mttro-. Containing idter or compounds of nitrogen ; as, 

Moo-. [L., fr. OL. neoenum not one.] Not ; on- ; in- ; 

as, no ne ssential, nonconformity. 

Olh. [L. o6.] To; toward; before; against; reversely: 
— abo used Intensively. 06- is commonly ssslmilsted 
before c, /, p, and p to oe^, <tA, 0|^, and op- reqwctive- 
ly ; as, oMrude, occur, q/Ter, oppose, obverse, oteecrate. 

Co-. A form of Ob-. 

Colo-, Oola-. ih. oeto eight, or the kindred Or. oktm, 
with c<Hnbining form hxr^- ; akin to E. eigkL} Bight ; 
ei^th ; as, ociopod, octogon. 

OdOOtO-, OdOBt-. [Or. oaovc, Utfrrev, a tooth.] Per- 
taining to a tooth or teeth ; as, odontoloxy ^ orfon?ilgla. 

Of-, Os-. Forms of Ob-. 

OUgO-. [Or. ^yoc.] Few ; little ; as, oHgoKpexmaoM 

[L. omni*.} All ; every ; everywhere ; as, omni- 
it, omnipotent 
A form of Ob-. 

Orgiao-. [Or. 6pyapo¥ organ.] Belating to, or con- 
nected with, an organ or organs ; as, ori^nogri^phy. 

OnittllO-. [Or. opric, opyitfoc, a bird.] Pertaining to 
birds; as, ornithology. 

OrtllO-. [Or. &pMc straight.] Straight ; right ; upright ; 

<&. A 

correct ; regular ; as, or/Aography. 

OstM-. [Or. ^trrcoi' a bone.] Pertaining to, or con- 
nected with, bones ; mm, otteoim. 

OtO-, Ot-. [Or. o6t, MT^, the ear.] Psrtainlng to the 
ear; In or near the ear ; as, otalgia. 

Oat-. [E. OM/, adv. ; fr. AS. fi/.] From ; beyond ; more ; 
not within ; as, outdo, otilside. 

0¥W-. [E. orer, adv. ; fr. AS. qfer ; akin to L. mper. 
Or. ytmi^.\ Above ; beyond ; in excess ; too great ; un- 
due ; needless ; superfluous ; as, otvrdue, orerlap. 

Ozy-. Containing oxygen; hydroxy-;— a chemical 
combining form ; as, oxyhydrogen (having or using oxy- 
gen and hydrogen). 

Paidlf-. [Or. iraxik thick.J Thick; as, nocAydermata. 

Pan-, Paata-, PaatO-. [Or. ira«, m., v«v, neut., gen. 
n^yrof, all.] All ; every ; ss, pantheism, jMn/ograph, 

Par-. [F. : fr. L. per.] By ; with ; through ; as, par- 
don, parterre, paramount 

Pan-. [Or. frapdL beside.] Alongside of; beside; be- 
yond ; sgainst ; amiss ; as, paradox, para^tt. 

rarl-. [L. par, paris, equal] Equal ; even ; as, pari- 

PaitotO-. Connected with, or related to, the parietal 
bones or parietal segment of the skull; —anatomical 
comoinlng form ; as, panetomastold. 

Pedl-, P0dO-. [L. pc^, pedis, foot ; aUn to E. foot.} 
Pertaining to the foot ; pedal ; as, pecfiment, perfometor. 

Poitth, Pant-. [Or. ircvra-, combining form of w4m 
five ; akin to E. jf re.] Five ; fivefold ; asi^penlagon. 

Par-. [L. per, prep. ; sometimes through F. par-.} 1. 
Through ; throughout ; by ; for ; often used also inten- 
sirely; as, perforato, perhaps, perforce, perspicuous, 
perform. 8. In chemimry, formerly, havii^ the highest 
valence ; now, having a higher valence than in some 
other compound ; as, peroxide (an oxide In which oxy- 
gen has a valence higher than In some other). 



[Or. ««pC] Anmnd ; bv ; near ; over ; beyond ; — 

•lao uaed intoniiTeljr ; Mi pertmeteri perispberical (quite 
Ftlro>» Pitr-. [Gr. w4rfitk a rock, Wrpot akoiM.] Per- 
tatnfaig to rocka. ttone, etc ; aa, oe/roleum. 
Pkno-, Pldl-. [Or. ^tAoc loTing.] Fond of ; attaobed 
to; aa, pM2ok>Kjr, i»*i/antbropy. 

~>. [Or. 4mm^ Bound, tone.] ReUtIng to aounds 
peecb; as, oAonogn^plnr. 

^ [Or. 4tS(, ^»r<r, Ugbt.] Bebiting to, or pro- 
I bj, lijrtit ; aa, pkotogn^y, 
00-. [Or. imicift natural, fr. ^vvtf nature.] Be- 
j to, or depending upon, natural cauaea or tbe 
adence of pbyaloa ; aa, /Xy^tfootbeoloor. [p^ology. i 
PkftO-. [Or. ^vrtfr a plant.] Belaung to planU; as,! 
Flair, FUBO-. (L. plimtu lerel.] Flat ; level ; plane ; 

wide; flat; aa. 

aa, olanimeter, /itaiio-conoaTe. 
Flanr-. [Or. wkmrvt broad.] Broad 

ptoqfoepbalous (wide-hoaded). 

. [Or. wktvoi a rib, tbe aide.1 Relating to a 

toonected witb tbe pleura ; as, jrfeuropnenmonia. 

[L. plus, plurit, more.] More ; many. 
■£»•. [Or. wcv^«, wti^nw, air, breatb.] Per- 
j to tbe properties of air and other elastic fluida, 
or to breath or respiration ; as, pneumaiolm* 

[Or. «rv«v^uar, vy«viu)roc, a lung. J Relating 
to tbe lunga ; as, jmntmogastric (relating to tbe lungs 

[Or. votfc, woUt^ a foot.] Relathiff to a foot, or 

the feet; as, jMOophyllous (baring leafl&e organs of 

Foly-. [Or. wokik much ; aUn to B. fuU.! Many ; re- 
jMted ; aa, polyfum. [pMmx, pottoXAt, I 

Fast-. [Lb pM/ after.] Behind ; back ; after ; later ; as, I 
FoslMO-. TL. potienu oondng after ; f r. pott after.] 
PcMterior ; bacK ; later ; hinder; as, po«<fro-4nferior. 
" — "■ — '" Forms of PWh, Fbbtse-. 

t^ pretervaXMtiX. 

Flo-. ' (X. pro,' or tfie kindred Or. wp6 ; akin to E. /or, 

1 Before ; in front ; forth ; in behalf of ; in place of ; 

li^to; as, 2>roject, prologue, nroTide,0ronoun. 

fore.] Put ; Sy ; beyond ; monthan ; as, 


Froo-. t&». 9pAi.^ tdwiuda; at 

FlOV^, Frot-. [Or. vpMToc first, superL of wp6 before.] 
1. Firat ; primary ; primordial ; aa, protoplasm. 2. As 
a chemical otnnbining form : (a) First or lowest in a se- 
ries ; having tbe smallest amount of the element named ; 
aa, protosilicate (silicate with least silicic acid). (6) 
Bometiraes equivident to Movo-. 

I-. rOr. tfffvd^ lying, false.] False; 

counterfeit; pretended; spurious ; — also used adjec- 
tirely ; aa, osetMionym, p$evdo reliidon. 

Fmko-. [Or. ifnn(4 the soul.] Relatfaig to the soul, 
muid, or understandtog ; as, ptvcholon. 

Fw-. [OF. por, pur, pour ; fr. L. pro. J Forward ; be- 
fore ; aa, purcbsM. Bee Plo-. 

PflO-, Fyr-. [Or. »vp, wp^, flre.] Causing, or 
eaoaed by, flre or best ; aa, pyrology. 

QjMdil-. [L., fr. quattuor four.] Four; four tlmea; 

fourfold ; aa, ftMuf rflateraL 
QptaUlM^ [L. guinque flve.] Five ; flve times ; flve- 

nld; aa, fVM^tt^foliate. 

Bo-, Rod-. [L.;aometimea through F.] Back ; against ; 
agafai ; anew ; aa, recline, recall, rejom, reiterate, reas- 
sure, [lineal. I 
Roell-. DLreefMstraiKbt] Straight ; right ; as, recTi- 1 
Bobo-. [!«• r^fro backward.] Back; backward; aa, 

[Or. ^it, AuNk, tbe noae.] BeUtIng to tbe 

[Or. vxtV<ir to split, cleava.] Dividing ; cleaT- 
ing ; as, <cAicouarp (a dry fruit that splits at maturity). 
>^-« [L.;akintoOr.i(M-balf.l Half ; bemi- ; partly ; 

imperfectly ; aStMinicircle, semmukL 

801^« 80Pt-> [L. teptem seven ; akin to E. setenA 
Seven; seven times: aerenf old ; aa, jeptengle, teptC 
f olioua (seTon-leaTed). 

Sooqill-. [L., one half more, one and a half.] 1. One 
and a half; as, «e<9tt<pedaL 2. (kmtainiiw three atoma 
(of the substance named) combined with two atoms (of 
another element) ; — chemical combining form ; as, set- 

juioxide, [nial.| 

Box-. [L. sex six.] Six ; six times ; sixfold ; as, Mxen- 1 

Staimo-. [L. ttannum tin.] Pertaining to, or contain- 
ing, tin ; — also used adjectively ; as, «/oNfiofIuoride, 
ttoMHO c<nnpounds. 

Stop-. [AS. *te6p- ; akin to O. «M</-, and to AS. atte6pan 
to deprtve, bereave (children of parents).] Having (a 
specified relationship) through a parentis marriage ; sm. 
stepson, ffepfatber. [<fereograpby. f 

8t«00-. [Or. oTCM^ solid.] Solid ; hard ; firm ; aa,| 
I'L.mb under ; akin to Or. yw6.} 1. Under ; be- 

neath ; below ; in an inferior position or degree ; in an 
imperfect or partial state ; as, ««6scribe, mSserre, tub- 
am, tubtudd. In wcnrds from L*tin it is regularly tue- 
before e. tuf- iMtore/, tug- before g, and tup- before p ; 
ram- before m, and ««r-b«orer occur in a few instances ; 
as, Miccess, «i(/fer, M^gest, mmmon, Mirrender. See 
alsoBus-. 8. Containing a small proportion or less tb«n 
tbe normal amount of (the aubi^oe to tbe name of 
which it is prefixed); — an obsdeacent chemical use; 
as, ntfroxide (an oxide with leaa than the normal amount 
of oxygen). 

SoMor-. yJL. tuUer, a oomparatire form of tub under.] 
Under ; beneath ; as, mMerf uge. 

Boo-, Sol-, Bog-, Bom-, Bop-. Forms of Sro-. 

Sopor-. (X. tuper over, above ; akin to Or. v»<p, B. 
ov€r.'\ Above; over; more than; in a superior posi- 
tion ; in addition ; in exceas ; exMedinsly ; as, tuper- 
impose, Mpercede, fvpematural, raperabundant. 

Sllpim-. [X tuora ; akin to «iiper over.] Over ; above ; 
before ; beycma ; besides ; as, mpromundane. 

Sv-. 1. [F., over, above ; fr. L. tuper, tupra."] Over ; 
above ; beyond ; upon ; aa, ntrbase, rarcharge. 8. A 
form of BiTB-. 

Bus-. [Ii>, for tubt, fr. tub under ; sometimes through 
OF. fr. L. tubtut below, fr. t%ib,] Equivalent to Sitb-. 

Syl-, Sim-. Forms of Sm-. 

Syn-. [Or. <r^p with.] With; along with; together; 
at the same time ; as, «ynonym. Syn- becomes tyl- be- 
fore /, and tjfm- before p, b, and m ; as, jy/lable, «ymboL 

TompOfO-. Connected with tbe temple or temporal 
bone ; — an anatomical term ; as, /emporo-aurlcular 
(pertalnhig to tbe temple and the ear). 

Tor-. [L. ter thrice.] Three ; thrire ; tii- ; aa, tercen- 
tenary (relating'to an interval of 300 years). 

Totra-, Totr-- [Or. Hrpa-, fr. riovapn, Wrropct, four.] 
Four ; fourfold ; as, tetrahedron. 

TlMnno-. [Or. 0^ptM.n heat, BtpitM hot, warm.] Relat- 
ing to, causing, or cauised by, heat : aa, Mermometer. 

Tlim-. [L. /nnu across.] Over; berond; through; 
through and through ; on the other aide ; as, lran«al- 
pine, troarform, /ronmigrate. 

Trl-. [Or. vpc-, or L. tri- ; aUn to L. tret, B. Mrm.] 
1. Three ; thrice ; threefold ; aa, friangle, Mcolored. 
8. Containing three proportioaal or combining parts of 
the substance named, or being of its third degree ; — a 
chemical combining form ; as, trisulphide (a sulphide 
containhig three atoms of sulphur). 

Ultn-. [L. ultra beyond.] Beyond ; on the other side ; 

exoesdvely; inordinately; as, uilromarine, tflfromon- 

tane, u/fromundane. 
Uft-. [AS. un-, on-; aUn to O. ent-, Ooth. and-, L. ante 

before, Or. irri against.] Undoing ; reverting ; — pre- 



fixed : (a) to Terbt to expraw th« contnuy, not tbe rim- 
fde negative, of the action of the verb modified ; m, 
tmbend, ufido, unfold ; (6) to nouns, forming verbs ex- 
prcMfting privation of tlie quality expreaaed by the noun, 
or separation from it ; as, unchurch, tinaex. It is some- 
times used merely as an intensive ; as, unloose. 

Ull-. [AS. un-; akin to L. in-. Or. ay, a-, not, with- 
out.] Not ; in- ; non- ; — prefixed to adjectives, parti- 
eiplM, and adverbs, sometimes to nouns, forming words 
expressing the negative of tbe meaning of the original 
wOTd; as, unable. 

Untar-. [B. under^ prep, and adv. ; f r. AS. under : akin 
to O. untert L. infra below, inferior lower.] Below ; 
beneath ; inferior ; as, umfermlne. 

UbI-. [L. vntu one.] One ; single ; once. 

Up-. [E. upy prep, and «dv. ; f r. AS. up, upp, fip ; akin 
to 0. at^t and to E. wer.'^ Upwards ; over ; above ; 
as, uphold. 

mraniMMh. Cocwaining uranium ; — a chemical eombi»p 
ing form. 

In the place 
to, and (on 

Flo*-. [L. victt ^I> of vieii change, turn.] 
of ; instead of ; representing ; next in rank 
occasion) assuming tbe duties of a superior in office ; — 
also used adjectively ; as, vicegerent, rireroy, rice ad- 

WlUh. [B. vitk, hi iU old sense of against; fr. AS. 
tciS ; akin to O. vidfr."} Against ; back ; in opposition ; 
from ; away ; by ; as, tri/A^and, iriMdraw. 

XylO-, Xyl-. [Or. tvko¥ wood.] 
as, xytophone, xylogen. 

Derived from wood ; 

Zotf-. [Or./^an 
xodlogy, todcomy. 

animaL] Routing to animals; as, 


Non. — In the foUowing list of suflUxes there are included many which are now used and considered as such in 
English, but which hlstoricUly are the result of older endings not always strictly suffixes, but often containing a 
part of the stem of a primitive word, and also, sometimes, more than one original suffix. 

Some very rare or much altered suffixes and a number of compound suffixes, the meanings of which are readily 
gathered from the elements of which they are made up, are omitted. 

•aUSt -tU*. [F. -able, or L. -abtiU ; F. -ible, or L. -/M/ii.] 
Capable of being or doing ; fit to be ; causing ; — usuallj^ 
in a passive sense ; as, capaM«, passoMe, amenoMe, sult^ 

CP* Oenerally the form -aHe is affixed to uncorrupted 
infinitival stems of Latin verbs of the first coujujgattou 
(verbs ending in -aro^ to verbs from the Anglo-Saxon, 
and to all nouns whatsoever their source ; in other cases 

•alAT, -fUy. Adverbial forms corresponding to -abls, 


••0. [Or. -«ur^ ; often through F. -a^ue^ or L. -aeu*A 
Of or pertaining to ; partaking of ; one who ; as, cardi- 
ac, demoniac, elegiac, sodiac. 

•AOOOIIS. TL. 'aceus.'\ Having; pertaining to; resem- 
bling ; full of ; as, cetaceous, herbac«(nw, saponac«ott«, 

-MdOOS. [L. -ax, gen. -ads.'] Characterised by ; show- 
faiff ; indicating : as, mendactou«, audacious, c%paciou*. 

-WakCf. [L. -acitas; sometimes througli F. -aciU.'] A 
suffix corresponding to -Aaous, and forming abstract 
nouns ; as, audori/y. 

-toy. [OF. -acie, or LL. -aiia.l State or quality of 
being ; office of ; -cy ; as, abbocj^, primacy^ diplomacy, 

-ad. [Or. -44- (nom. -ac).] 1. Thhig that Is (single, 
double, etc.) ; mona<f, dyad. 8. Patronymic form equiv- 
alent to -ID ; as, dryaJ, IIia<f , duncio^.- 

-ago. [F. ; fr. L. -aticumA Collection of; state of 
being; act of; allowance for; as, savaj^, umbroj^, 
foliaoe, homay<>, dannaffe, hnakngf. 

-al. [F. -a/, -«/, or L. -alis ; sometimes (forming nouns) 
fr. F. -aUle, fr. L. neut. pi. -o/w.] Of ; perUining to ; 
befitting ; becoming ; act of ; as, morto/, basa/, cordio/, 
annua/, etema/, riva/, anima/, timxal. 

•an, -ian. [F. -a», -oM, -ten, or L. -anu*^ -innu*.'\ Per- 
taining to (office, profession, character, etc.) ; one who ; 
as, urban, Lutheran, mammalian, ChHstion. 

-ant. [Neuter pi. ending of L. adjectives in •anu».'\ 
Things pertaining tb (pertonn or places named) ; — used 
of collections of anecdotes, 8a3ingB, etc. ; as, Virgiliafia, 

•aiioe, -anoy. [F. -an/v, or L. -an/m, .<n/»a.] Condition; 
quality ; state ; act of : as, assiKtanrr, complaisance, 
complaisanrv, rclevan/*v, plegawcr. 

-antfrona. [Or. ^i^, av5p<k, a man.] Having stamens ; 
staminate ; as, soiondrotu^ polyandrotui (with many sto- 
is), gynandroM ( witli stamens inserted on the pistil). 

[L. -aneiui.l Being; existing; as, contem- 
poran^ofa, simultaneou*. 

-ant. [F. -ant^ or L. -ans^ -anti*^ -en«, -entit.^ One 
who ; that which ; doing ; -ent ; as, asceudan/, depend* 
ani^ plion/, servan/. 

-ar. 1. [L. -art*.] Of; pertaining to; -al; as, lunar, 
stellar, regular. 8. [L. -ariut; sometimes through 
French.] One who ; that which ; -er ; as, vicar, pillar. 

-andl. [Or. dpx<k chief, commander.] Ruler; leader; 
as, monarcA, symiKMiarcA. 

-arohy. [Or. -opx^ 'i"* ^X<^ chief.] A rule ; rtiling ; 
authority ; as, monarrAy, ollgarrAy. 

-aid, -an. [F. ; of O. i>righi.l Of (such a) disposi- 
tion or character; one who; liable or addicted to; — 
an intenaive form ; as, bastartf, wisarcf , drunkanf , brag- 

-ary. [L. -oWut.] Of or pertaining to: doer of 
(something specified) ; place where ; as, arbitrary, vol- 
untary, adversary, granory, diary. 

•ata. TL. -o/uf, terrain, of past participles.] 1. -ed : — 
IHurtictpial and adj. sufllx ; as, situa/f , desola/e, cauda/e, 
oblo/c. 8. To make, cause, or act ; — verbal suffix ; 
as, separo/e, aggrava/e, fasciua/e. 3. Denoting salts 
formed from acids whose names end in -ic ; — cliemical 
suffix; aa, chloro/e, nltro/f, sulpha/^. 4. [L. -a/u^.] 
Agent ; office ; — a noun suffix ; as, oura/e, sena/e, 

-Illast [Or. /3Aa<rr6f sprout, ahoot.] Orowth ; forma- 
tion ; — suffix used chiefiy in biological terms ; as, mero- 

6/aW, holoMairf. 
-bla. [L..6f/i<.] 

See -ABLB, -IBLB. 

-oaL [L. -enli*.'] See -kul, -la 

-oarpona. [Or. xopir^ fruit.] Bearing fruit (of a kind, 

or in a manner, indicated) ; as, monocarpou« (bearing 

fruit but once) ; anthrocarTxnw (having some part of the 

fioral envelope developed into Iruit). 
-oaphalona. [Or. kc^A^ heod.l Halving a head or 

heads ; as, hydrocfpAa/ou#, brachycfpAa/otM (having a 

short head). 

-da, -cnla, -culm, -cnlnm. [L. -eu/tw. 'cnloy •cutum,'] 

A small, diminutive, or little thing (of a kind indicated) ; 

as, follir/e, auric/e, corpusc/«, animalcule, oalcu/ui, cur- 

-oraft. [E. craft, n.] Art; sklU ; trade; as, witch- 

crafi, woodernft. 
-cy. [F. -rr, -tif, or L. -«a.] Condition ; state of being ; 

as, infancy, agency, captaincy, bankruptcy. 



A torm of -mo ; aa, Ukf , paid, rmd. 
rm. [Or. tipiin akiD.I Bkin ; intefrnment ; corer- 
ing ; — an anatomical and biological aufBx ; aa, pachy- 
derm, uidoderm, 

•40B. [AS. dom authority, judgment ; lamo aa E. doom.'] 
Juriadlction ; dominion ; state or quality of beinv ; -ric ; 
aa, kingdom, chriitendom, earktom, freedom, wliMfom. 

-•d. 1. [AB. -ed, •od.'} Haring ; having been ; — termi- 
nation of the paat participlea of regular verba ; also of 
analogooa adjectirea formed from nouna; as, heat«d, 
worked, talented, minded. 2. [AS. -ede, -de, -ode.] 
Termination of the past tense, — aa of any regular verb. 

•%9. [F. .^, past participle ending.] Recipient of ; one 
on, or to wlMHn, somethmg ia done ; — oorrelatire to-OB, 
the agent or doer ; aa, donee, mnt^. 

•Mr, -lar. [F. -V<t, or -airet L. -arita.] Engaged in ; 
employed at ; residing in ; one who ; aa, cannoned, can- 
nonter, musketeer, vSunt«er, engiu««r, brigadier, gren- 
ad«^, cavaUer. 

-IB. 1. FAS. •OR, plural ending.] Two or more ; aa, 
oxen, children, brethren. 2. [OfAS. origin.] To make, 
render, or oanae ; — a suiBx forming verbs from noons 
and adiectives ; as,strengt)ien,quicken,frighten. 3. [AS. 
-em; akin to L. -omm, Or. •ivoc.] Made of ; pertaining 
to;— adjective suffix; as, golden, leaden, wooden. 4. 
[AS. -en.] Tennination of the past participle of many 
strong verbs ; aa, brolien, beholden, gotten, spoken. 

•tBO^, -«Miy. [F. -eitee, or L. -^ntia.'] Action ; state ; 
quality ; also tliat which relates to the action or state ; 
-anoe ; -ancy ; as, emergenev , emergency, diffidence, dili- 
influenee, difference, excellence, excellency, ef- 

^F. -ent, or L. -«m. -entu.) A suffix signifving (as 

fonning adjectives) action or being; and (as forming 
nouns) one who or that which is or does ; -ant ; aa, cor- 
roden/, excellen/, emergen/, continent, quiescen/. 
•«. [AS. -ere; akin to L. -arius.] 1. One who does; 
agent; inhabitant of a (specified) place; a^ hater, 
farmer, grater, Londoner. 2. [AS. -ra (for adverbs 
-or) ; akin to O. -er, L. -<or. Or. -a*v.] More ; — com- 
parative snffix of adjectivee; as, warmer, Ut(e)er, 

thicker, earlier (i = y). 
tug.'] In ; 

belonging to; as, northern. 

[L. -ernuM.] 
aobalt^m, western. 

-mf. [F. -erfe, LL. -erio, -arin.] Act ; behavior ; occu- 
pation ; art ; place where something is done or kept ; col- 
lectioQ ; as, robberv. foolery. Joinery, surgery, f oundery, 
refinery, grocery. Anery, nunnery. 

•«■. Plural tennination. See •«. 

•MO*. [L. -e*eere.] To begin to ; to be in a (specified) 
condition : as, acquiesce, coale«ce, efrerve«re. 
Moant [L. -fJicens, •^seenti*, ending of present parti- 
ciple of inchoative verbs.] Beginning : a^ adoIe«cen/, 
obsQiescen/, seneMVn/, incandetcenf. 

.•M. [OF. -eit, or It -ew, or Sp. -«*, or Pg. -e*; all 
It. L. -en*i«.l 1. Belonging to a (specified) place or 
oountry ; as, Chinese, Malteie, Portuguese. 2. The lan- 
guage of a (specified) place or people ; as, Ghine«e, Jap- 
ancje, etc. 

-mvn. [F. -sjujue, or It. -ejco.] In the manner or 
style of; like; •ish; as burlesque, moretque, pictur- 

•MS. [OF. -esM, LL. -iMsa, Or. -unra.] Suffix forming 
feminine nouns; -Ix ; as, anthoreM, UoneM, negre<«, 
shepherdeM, sorcereu, gianteM, huutre**, counter, 
prieeteM, ho«te«, poet«««, taiIore««. 

•Mt [AS. -ott, -ejtt ; akin to O. -e«/.] Most ; — super- 
lative suffix of adverbs and adjectives ; as, highe«<, no- 
ble«/, Ut(e)e< thioke«f, earliest (i = y). 

•«t, -#«•. [F. -el, maac., -e//e, fem.] Diminutive sufllx 
of nouns ; -let : aa, qnartef, quartelle, minuel, barone/, 
pocke/, face/, floweref, Intciiel, brune//e. 

.•at [AS. -€9,- a9, -9.] Obsolete termination of the 
8d peraon sing, of the pres. Indie, of verbs : as, wiUeM, 

•ttld. [AS. -feald; akin to /widan to fold.] Repeatwi 
(so many) timea ; -pie ; aa, four/o/d, manvoM, aeveu- 

•tam. [L. /ormo form.] In the form or ahape of ; like ; 
resembling ; having (such) a form or (so many) forms ; 
as, fiU/orm, calci/onn, deform, mvit^orm. 

-fal. [AS. /ul lull ; akin to L. plenutt Or. vX^pi^f.] 
Full of ; abounding with ; causing ; as, hope/tc/, cheer/u/, 
aw/u/, oarq^td, pMoq/id, powe^A'', f anc(^tM, doub^ni. 

-fy. [F. -y(er, L.-ylc{ite;aklnto/(ioeretodo.] To make, 
render, or become ; aa, fflorW* P<^l/y* ^^V^vVt li<]t><^* 
rat^y, puri/y, teat^, aiip^/y, aoett/y, quaHfy, rect^. 

-no. [Or. yfvit bom ; sometimes through F. •ghte.'] 
Tiling growhig or increasing (In a way indicated) ; thing 
producing or generating ; aa, oxygen, hydrogen, cyano- 
gen, endo^en, exo$vn. 

'oenCor Or. -vti.,. , . .^ 

ducing ; yieldinj 

[rgen (or Or. -yw^ bom) -|- -out ; 

] L. -gentu.] Producing ; yielding ; 

growing ; increasing ; aa, homogeneous, exoyenoiu, endo* 

sometimes IT. kindred L. -gentu.] 


yenoiM, •Xkaligenotu (producing alkalis), indloenoM. 

[L. -ger (fr. geren to bear, carry) -f- -ow«.] 
; producing ; aa, dentl^eroiw (bearing or having 
cuci^eroH* (containing lime). 
-gram. [QT.ypdfiiia thing drawn or written, f r. yp4^uf 

to write.] Thing drawn or written; aa, monof^rcrm, 

telegram, chronooram, cryptoyrom. 
•gnpit [Or. -ypa^ deacrlbing ; akin to Or. ypo^ty to 

write.] Thing drawn or written ; alao, a writer ; aa, 

autoyropA, cryptooropA,teleyropA, phono^ro;)A,chrono> 

graphs ]ptaitograpn. 
-graphy. [Or. -^pa^ta, fr. ypA^tw to write.] Art of 

wriung ; description ; a treatise ; as, ttonography^ hU 

ography^mography^ vayogruphy^ phonography. 
-grare. [O. gra/ earl, count. J A ruler ; — tennination 

of titles ; as, maryrore, landyrore. 

[AS. had.! SUte; condition; quality; 

totality; -ship; as, manAood, childhood, knightAood, 
brotherAood, priestAood, nelghborAood, widowhood, god- 

-Hilt. A form equivalent in meaning to -abls. 

-lo, -kMd. [L. -ims, or Or. -ur^ ; sometimes through 
F. -iqur.] 1. Relating to ; characteristic of, or charao- 
terixed by ; as, hiktoric, bistortco/, hyglen^, telegraphic, 
sodic, politM*, politico/, calcic, magnettc, cubic, cub/co/, 
periodic, periodica/. 2. Pertaining to ; having iU high- 
est, or a relatively higher, valence in a compound ; — a 
chemical use of -ic ; as, nitric (acid), sulphuric (acid). 

-lot. [F. -ice, or (its commonest source) L. -iSia^ or (leaa 
commonly) -iciia.] Act ; quality ; condition ; aa, mal- 
ice, pumice, novice, notice, Justice. 

-lot. [-ic + -'t pl* "iffnO Science or art of (the subject 
specified in the stem word) ; theory or study of ; aa, 
mathf>niattc«, static«, opttc«, ethic«, dynamic*, mbric*. 
BiF^ Words ending in -ic« are plural in form, and 
previous to the nineteenth century were construed aa 
plural ; but they are now generally treated as singular. 

-UL [F. -ide, or L. -tdti^.l Having a (specified) quality ; 
as, rabid, morbid, acid, liquid, rigid, humid, timid. 

-Ida. [L. -idtw, Or. -tjifc.l Usually, the nonmetallic, or 
negative, element in a binanr compound ; — a chemical 
suffix : as, oxtde, sulphide, chloride. [brownie. I 

-to. Little ; -y ; -kin ; — a diminutive suffix ; aa, lassie, | 

-I«r. See -UMM. 

-11«. [L. -ilijf.] Of ; pertaining to ; like ; aa, mobi/e, 
agi/e, docite, mercanti/e, veraati/e, piuertto, volati/e. 

-In. Sell -iKR. 

-IlM. [L. inuM^ -ina^ or Or. -tMK.] 1. Like; of; per- 
taining to; aa, masculine, ferointne, canine, adaman- 
tine, pristine, equine, genuine, aquiline. 2. (a) A 
suffix forming names of substances ; aa, vaseline, glycer- 
ine (commercial usage), iodine, bromine. (6) Basic 
and alkaloidal substance ; — a chemical aulfix used in 
forming namea of organic baaea and basic an b e ta aoea, 



6q>. nitrogenout sabfltaacM ; m, quln^ie, morphiM. In 
the preaent ■yatem of obeiiik»l terminology -to U die- 
Uufftiished from -ine, and is need in nuning indifferent 
end neutral tubetancea ; aa, gelatin, fibrin. 3. [F. ; fr. 
L. 'ina^ Gr. -un|; aometimea G. -in.] Suffix forming 
feminine nouna ; as, heroine, landgraYiiie, margrartoe. 

•Ing. 1. [Substituted for AS. -eiufe, akin to L. -ant-, 
•mU-t Gr. •orr^.] Ending of preaent participles; as, 
girto^, ennoblif^, aoothin^, etc. 2. [AS. -ino, -ung.] 
Aot of; result; aJao (secondary sense) ooUectioii; ttie 
entire bodv of; aa, ridinj^, dyin^, feeling, winning, 
ahippiiijir, boardinjir, olothiiH^; — a auifix for forming 
nouns, origicaUy from verbe. 

40O. IF. -ion, or L. -io, -iont*.] Act ; process ; result 
oi a process; state; oondition; -tion; aa, dominion, 
contagion. See -nov. 

-IgiA. [French form eqnir. to E. -ic.] Haring ; involv- 
ing ; -ic ; -ical ; aa, unique, antique, criti^u^, pnUgue, 

4m. a form of -ixi. 

•iBll. 1. [AS. -ise; akin to G. -itch^ Gr. -uncoc.] Per- 
taining to ; like ; aomewhat ; in some degree ; aa, lav- 
iM,aeIfi«A, boyi«A, brutifA, dandyi«A. 2. [F. -it-, LL. 
•iae-f inchoative.] A verb aufflx of French origin, usu- 
ally having a causative sense ; as, aboli«A, oheriiA, fin- 
ifA, fumiM, gartti«A, impoverifA. 

•Imi. [F. -inne, or L. -i«maw, or (their aouroe), Gr. 
-toyi^.j Act, process, or result ; chsracteristio ; doc- 
trine; aa, baptitm, galvanitm, organism, hypnotitm, 
aocialivm, sensualim, Anglicanifin, Mohsmmedsnifm. 

-tot [F. -itte, or Gr. -urr^.} Agent ; doer ; practioer 
of; believer in; aa, theort«r, sodalif^, druggM, op- 
timii^, anarchiff. 

•tto. [Gr. -4x^9, or -trie.] 1. One of ; a fcdlower of, or 
believer in ; as, presdamt<«, Jaoobito, bedlamite. 2. A 
auifix used in naming mhienUs ; as, barite, meteorite, 
sraphifo, pyrite. 3. Ending of names of salts formed 
from scids terminating in -ous ; — a chemical suffix ; as, 

•tlto> [vr, -iTtvJ Inflammation of (the put specified) ; 

— a medical aulnx ; as, adenifif, bronohim, arthH/i<. 
•Ity. [F. -i<^, or L. -i/a«.] A suffix equivalent to -tt ; aa, 

equif^jveracif^, apontauei/y. 

4Tt. iL. •ivus.'] Relating or belonging to; of the 
nature of; tending to; aa, affirmatir«, active, oonclu- 
aitw, diminution, deviaioe, conducive, irritative. 

•IM, -toe. [F. -Uer, L. -490^, or (their source), Gr. 
-i^dtr.] To make ; to do ; to practice ; to become ; aa, 
memorise, economise, equalise, criticise, exercise. 

-torn. A form of -mi. 

-ktn. [Akin to LG. -Jfcen, G. -cAen.l Small; pretty; 
-y ; -ie ; -let ; -ling ; aa, oatJtin, lamliJtin, bodJkin, nap- 
inn, pipMn. 

-le. 1. [AS. -o/. -uf, -ef ; or F. -ef, fr. L. -elliu.} UMd 
for ; — often a diminutive suffix of nouns and adjectives ; 
aa, bundfe, girdte, thrott/e, bridte. 2. A diminutive 
and frequentative suffix of verbs ; aa, spark/e, qiecUe, 
Joggte, dvk/e, crumbte. 

•leu. [AS. le&t loose, false ; akin to G. -/os.] With- 
out; free from; lacking; destitute of; aa, child/ess, 
wit/eM, hometeM, breathteM, aensetest. 

-tot [F. -e/ (= L. -eUiu) -f- -eT.] Used for; llttie; 
small ; -le ; -kin ; aa, rivu/</, streamte/, arm/e/, braoe/e/. 

•Ilk*. [E. like, adj. ; fr. AS. gelle like, fr. praf . ge- + tU 
body, ahape.] Resembling; -ly; as, homelike, child- 
like, war/iJte. 

-Unff. 1. [AS.] Small thing ; — a diminutive or depre- 
datory suffix forming nouns ; as, found/in^, duckling, 
goaling, hire/ino, under/in^, stripling. 2. IKS. -linga, 
•lunga.) In a (specified) condition or direction ; -long ; 
—adverbial suffix ; as, dark/in^, flat/ift^ (flatwise). 

•Ittll, -Ute. [Gr. \£»iK a stone.] PertahiinR to stone ; 

— endings of names of minerals ; aa, moaoliih, aero/i/A, 
aSro/ite, meteoro/ite. 

40fy. [Gr. -Aoyia, fr. A^ diacoursSf fr. >Jytw to 

speak.] A disoouiae, treatise, doctrine, theory, teiaiiot, 

enc, concerning; as, bioto^, etymoJoyy, •ntomofeyy, 

moTphologjf, histo<<My. 
-tottg. [AS. -^tmffo.] In a (apeeified) oondition or direo- 

tiou ; -Ung ; — adverbial suffix ; aa, headton^, aidefon^. 
-ly. [AS. 4ie, orig. tame as E. like ; or aometimea from 

a kindred IceL ending.] Like ; resembling ; — a tntbx 

forming adjectivea and adverba ; aa, 1 

f ul/y, pudnfy, nob/y, oost/y. 

, home/ y, ugf y. fear- 




[Gr. iiaamuL divination.] Divination (by a 
meana or method); as, neeroMonry, chut>- 

[F. -menf, or ( 


or nti souroe) L. -menfwm.l , 

state, of o<mdition of being ; proceaa ; reault of ; that 
which ; aa, contentmen/, manajgeiNen/, impedimenl, in- 
f ringemenl, com^men/. 

-m&n* [Gr. lUpot part] Part; portion; — a combin- 
ing form in biology, etc ; aa, bIastoi»»ere. 

-mitor. [L. melrum, or Gr. itirpw, measure.] A thing 
used for measuring; as, hydrometer, barometer, chro- 
nometer, dynamometer. 

-BMliy. Art, proceaa, or adenoecrf measuring; as, chro- 
nomelry, eeomefry. 

-mony. [F. -monie, or (its sooroe) L. •monia^ or -mtmi' 
um.j Action; result of an action; faculty; state of 
being; abstract condition; aa, matrimony, testimony, 
alimony, parsimony, aanctimony, ceremony, patrimony. 
^ - [Gr. Mop^ form.] Havhig (a spedfled) 

form, shi^M, or condition ; as, amoniAoiu, iaomorT^AoKs. 
•most [AS. -me*t; confused with E. fnott, fr. AS. 
m£«f.] In the highest degree ; -est ; — superiative suf- 
fix ; as, topmosi, lowermoff , uf^rmod. 

•B. A form of -nr. 

-BMB. [AS. ; akin to G. -nit, -niss.} Quality or state 

of bdog ; condition ; — suffix formins abstract noons ; 

as, goodneM, likeneM, hoUnesf, empmew. 

[AS.-tic.] Small; young;— ad 

ahillocA. buUocA;, mattocJb. 
-«ldaL [Gr. -o-ctai^v, fr. cttov form, Hw to see.] 
Like ; resembling ; in the form of ; as, alkaloid, alka- 
loidal, botryoitf, botryoi<fo/, asteroiif, spheroi<f. 

-naUL. [Gr. -tttfia, -Mfiarof .] Morbid condition ; tumor ; 
— a medical suffix ; aa, glaucoma, fibroma (tumor 
mainly of fllmras tissue). 

•UK. [L.; scmietimes through F. -or, •<ntr.'] 1. Act, 
state, or quality ; as ardor, fervor, demeanor, behavior. 
2. Agent or doer ; -er ; — correlative to -n ; as, donor, 
actor, author, assessor. See -tob (the true Latin fonn 
of the suffix in this sense). 

-OTT. 1. [L. -oritu; sometimes through F. •oire.'} Per- 
taining to ; for the purpose of ; serving for ; as, auditory, 
peremptory, valedictoty, promlasofy. 2. [L. -orium; 
sometimes through F. ■inre.'\ That which pertains to, 
or serves for ; place where ; aa, consistory, f aotofy, oon- 

-OM. [L. -ostM.] 1. Full of ; containing ; like ; aa, glo- 
bo«e, comatose, morose, verbose. 2. Belonging to the 
group which includes the sugars, starches, xnA gums ; — 
a chemical auffix ; aa, dextrose, odlulose, glucose. 

-our. rOP.] A form of -OB. 

-mm. [OF. , f r. L. -ostw, or -us.] 1. Full of ; abounding 
in ; having ; addicted to ; poaaessing the qualitiea of ; 
like ; as, vslorous, generous, globows, (merons. 2. Hav- 
ing a lower valence than that denoted by -lo ; — a chem- 
ical suffix ; as, nitrous, sulphurous. 

-ptostto. [Gr. wXaaruc6i fit for molding, fr. vAaovctv 
to form.] Developing ; forming ; growing ; as, mono- 
pliutic (that has one form) ; heter(^>tosiie (produdng a 
different type of organism). 

-ptosty. [See -PLASTIC.] A forming; development; 
ffrowth ; as, perineop/os^ (the proceaa of restoring aa 
injured perineum by growth). 


-fto. [Lb -piutA Bepeated (ao many) timM ; -fold ; m, 

<|indrnpl0, triple, mxtaple, 
•piod. L^r. «ov«, «o56c, foot.] Earing (such, or to 

many) feet ; footed ; as, decafwcf, ampbiporf, myrlapod . 
•p«ia. [See -VOD.] Sufllx uaed in naming ehMen, 

ordcn, etc., of inaecta, oruataoeana, etc., referring to 
I kind, etc, ni tbeir feet; as, ampliipoda, 

-ltd. [A& HUen.1 Condition; state; -hood; 4iead; 

as, Idndreif , hat(e>«(l. 
•ite* [AS. rfee kii^om, dominion.] Dominion ; Joris- 

dktion ; district ; office ; -dom ; as. bishopHc. 
A [A form of -bbt.] Method ; place ; region ; ooUec- 

ooo ; art <rf ; as, yeomanry, rcTelry, imagery, enginery. 

•«. [AS.-M.] 1. Sofllz forming the posseesiTe singular, 
and sometimes the posseesiTe plural, of noons (written 
V); as, man*#, menV, Tirtoe*#, socoess*«. womanV, 
women't. 2. In a secondary use, a suffix forming 
adverbs; as, toward*, always, noway#, betime«, un- 

••,•«•. 1. [AB. "Of ; perhaps in part also F.-«.] Plural 
suffix for nouns ; as, hope«, gO(MU, chattek, meaning*. 
S. In Terbe the ending of the 3d pers. sing.,— snbrti- 
toted for the earlier -th. 

lOOH. [Or. atnm6t a watcher, fr. vkoww to Tiew.] 
An mstrument for obserring ; as, microfcope, horoMope, 

[See -soorm. J Obeerration ; examination ; sur- 
▼or ; as. microscopy. 

^nlpw [AS. 'Scipe.'] State ; office ; dignity ; profes- 
) sion; art; -heaa; -liood ; -red; as, authorship, king- 
Mi^, oomradeMifp, wor<Mp, hwsemansAtp. 
■kil See -non. 

-MOW. 1. [Or. <rikMia the body.] Thing pertaining to, 
or forming part of, the bodv; — suffix of biolo^cal 
terms ; as, cephalo«om« (anterior region of head of in- 
jects). S. [AS. -win ; skin to E. Mme.1 A suffix bar- 
ing prlmarQy the idea of sameness or luceness, and de- 
noting a considerable degree or quantity of the thing or 
quality indicated by the first part of the compound ; as, 
mettleJOivM, gladsome, win«ome, blithe«ome, fuLiom^, 

-■iHr. [A& -esTre, -iifre.l Agent or doer (originally a 
woman) ; esp., one who does something with skill, as an 
oocopatioa, or habitually : as, spinjTrr, songster, bax/er 
(= bakedar), youngster, dab«r<T, pun«<^. 

^trWB. i-sler -f •eu.'] Feminine agent ; as, 
street, seanutfrcM. 

-t [AS. -/, •^, Se, -^tf.] Act ; deed ; -th ; — atermina- 
tlon of abatract noons; as, fligh/, mighl. 



•te«B. [AS. -/^Ntf,-/^; akintoE.lm.] Increased by 
ten ; — termination of numerals ; as, fourteen, nineteen. 

-tb. 1. [AS. .^, Sth -^e-] State; qualitv; rasolt of 
an act; thing existing iu a conditioii indicated; as, 
wid/A, heal/^ truM, spiUA (that which is niUed), 
mtath (green folisge). 2. [AS. -^a; akin to L. -/m. 
Or. -Toc.j Earing (such a) place or order;— termina- 
tion of ordinal numbera ; aa, four/A, fifM, nin/A. 8. A 
form of -BTB. 

-tkn. [L. -iio, -tioni*; aometimes through F. -/ten.] 
State ; action ; result of an act ; — termination of ab- 
stract nouns ; as, condi/ten, decep<ten, inducften, emo* 
ften. From the standpoint of English the suffix often 
seems to be -^tm ; as, action, constructten, subjectten. 

-tor.* [L. ; sometimes through French.] Agent or doer ; 
•or ; -er ; as, qperater, inipec/or, regulater. 

•IllE. [L.] FOminine sulBx correq^nding to -tob ; as, 
execulrtx, administra/rtx. 

-Cy. 1. [AS. •tig.'] Ten times; multiplied by ten ; — 
terminanonof numerals; as, forty^/y, sixty. 2. t^. 
-1^, or (its source) L. -tot, -te/it.] The being or baring a 
(qjMcillBd) i«<>perty or ouality;— termination <rf ab- 
stract nouns ; as, equi/y, bounty, beauty, entity. 

[F., or (its source) L. -«/tw.1 Little ; pretty ; 
-diminntire terminaaon of 

•cule ; -de ; - 
-vn. [F., or (Ita aoorce) L. 'Vra.'} Action; being; 
thing produced; abatract condition; aa, cenatcre, ex^ 
poavre, torture, cinctnre, rupttire. 

-waid, -wafds. [as. -treartf, -veardes; akin to L. 
versus toward. The s of -wards is the adrerbial -«.] 
In a (specified) direction ; baring a (q>ecifled) motion or 
tendency ; as, hometrord, leetcorcf , outtrorrf, outtronte, 

-Wty, -wayi. [E. troy, n., fr. AS. weg; akin to L. via 
war. The s of •urays Is the adrerbial -«.] In a (apeci- 
fled) manner or direction ; -wiae ; aa, notroy, noiray«, 
croaairoy, anytroy, eadteavs. 

-WlM. [E- «^«« manner, fr. AS. triM.] In a (specified) 
manner, fashion, mode, or directi<m ; -way ; -ways ; as, 
edgetriie, nowise, lengthiri«e. 

-T. 1. [AS. -ig ; akin to O. -<y, L. -icus, Or. -ut6t.] Be- 
ing in a condition characterised by ; haring ; full of ; — 
aimlx forming adjectires from nouns and rerbs ; as in 
heary, guilty, bum. 2. Little ; -ie ; -kin ; — most used 
as a familiar ending of Christian names. 3. [F. -te, 
or (its source) L^ -te, or Or. -mu] A haring ; resem- 
Uanoe ; somewhat ; -cy ; -ence ; -ency ; — originally a 
termination of abatract nouns; as, prophecy, onry, 

Note. - The forgoing list of Prefixes M^ Suffixes in connection with the «^ 
SDable a learner tobeoome acquahited wHh the formation of worda and the aijgniflcaiion of .their oonstltnent pwrts. 

the pnpO be requt 

faichiding the root a..^ --j-rr— - - — ^ 

use of the prefixes and of the more common suffixes. , , ^_^ * ^ *v . ^ i. 

Another method would be to giro a list of words for analysis, requiring a careful sUtement of the meaning of each 
word, and how this meaning has grown from the root by the infiuenoe of prefixes and sofBxee. 

OtlMT motlioda of vSgtM tatSe will ocoor to the thooghtfal teacher. 



f L The letters /and /, at the end of monosyllables, 
and standing immediately after single vowels, are gen- 
erally doubled ; as In tUtjf, c/i/T, doff, puff; all, bell, hill, 

toll, nnll. The words ele/, if, of, and sot, are exceptions. 

f 2. The letter s, at the end of a monosyllable, and 
after a single vowel, is generally doubled, except when 
used to form the possessive case or plural of a noun, or 
third person singular of a verb ; as in ffrasg, pre$M, hi**, 
moM, trusM. The only Important exceptions are a», fftu, 
hat, was, yes, hit, is, thus, and u». 

f 3. Besides /, /, and «, the only consonants doubled 
at the end of a word are b, d, g, m, », p, r, /, and s. 
Words in which these letters are doubled are abb, ebb ; 
add, odd, rudd; egg, mumm (to mask); inn, bnnn; 
wapp : gnarr, parr, err, birr, shirr, skirr, burr, purr ; 
» mUt, bull ; fizz, fuzz, buzz. 

$ 4. A consonant standing at the end of a word im- 
mediately after a diphthong or double vowel La never 
doubled. The words ait, peat, haul, door, and maim, 
are examples. 

§ 6. Monosyllables ending, as pronounced, with the 
sound of k, and in which c follows the vowel, have usu- 
ally k added after the c; as in black, knock, buck. The 
words lac, zac, talc, zinc, ploc^ roc, soc, arc, mare, ore, 
and/Uc, are exceptions. 

Words of more tlian one syllable, ending In ic or iac, 
which formerly ended In k, also words derived from the 
Latin or Greek languages, or from other sources, or 
formed in an analogous manner, 'are now written with- 
out the At ; as, maniac, music, public. The word derrick 
is an exception. Words of more than one syllable, in 
which c is preceded by other vowels than i or ia, com- 
monly end in ck; as arrack, barrack, hammock, hillock, 
wedlock. The words almanac, sandaruc, limbec, rebec, 
manioc, and havoc, are exceptions. 

§ 6. In derivatives formed from words ending in c, 
by adding a termination beginning with e, i, or y, the 
letter * is inserted after the c, in order that the hitter 
may not be inaccurately pronounced like s befort^ the 
following vowel : as, colic, colicky ; traffic, trafficked, 
trafficking, traj^ker ; zinc, zincky. 

§7. In derivatives formed by adding a termination 
beginning with a vowel to monosyllables and words ac- 
cented on the last syllable, when these words end in a 
single consonant (except x) preceded by a single vowel, 
th«it consonant is doubled; as, clan, clannish; plan, 
planned, planning, planner; hot, hotter, hottest; tpit, 
witty; cabal', cabnl'ler ; abet*, abelUed, abet'ting, abet'- 
tor : infer*, inferred*, infer*ring. 

The derivatives of the word gas (except gassetl, gas- 
sing, and gassy) ar« written with but one » ; as, gajteoits, 
gaseity, gasify. Ez'ceUence, as being from the Latin 
excellens, retains tiie double /, though one / has lieen 
droppM from the termination of excel*. It is no excep- 
tion to this rule that chancellor, and the derivatives of 
metal -xnd crystal, m metalloid, metallurgy, erystnlline, 
crystallize, and the like, are written with the (doubled, 

since they are derived cespectively from the Latin eim- 
cellarius (through the French), and metallum, and the 
Greek luivaTaAAof. So also the word tranquilliiy retains 
the double / as being from the Latin tranqvilliias, while 
the English derivatives of tranquil, thotigh often written 
with two Vs, are more properlv written with only one, 
as tranquilize, tranquilizer, and the like. 

§ 8. When a diphthong, or a digrapli representing a 
vowel sound, precedes the final consonant of a word, or 
the accent of a word ending In a single consonant falls 
on any other syllable than the last, or when the word 
ends In two different oons<Miant8, the final consonant is 
not doubled in derivatives formed by the addition of a 
termination beginning with a vowel : as, daub, daubed, 
dauber; need, needy; rer*el, rev*eled, rev*eling ; trav*- * 
el, trav*eling, trav'eler ; proffit, profiled ; stand, stand- 

The final consonant is doubled in the derivatives of a 
few words ending In g, in order to diminish the liability 
to its being pronounced like/, before e ort'.* as, hum- 
bug, humbugged, humbugging; periwig, periwigged. 
Tlin word woolen is more generally thus wntten, in the 
Uuited States, with one /; but in England it is wTitten 

N^'TK. - There i« n luf^u rljtsa af n-orilPi^ndmK in a liu- 

?;1-- ■ I'lP^iUhAiii, Axii] ^lc^i:ent^N! pjri MOnn* otlier Hytlsble thaji 
fc. i -T. th- TlffiM rotii»4itLn[jtJ» of v4l)if"!» ST<*, by rery insu^ 
w;.il-i^. lilt I. vJ.'i'HjTH.r'lii'n'. diHi-blml in lhi?lr Fipi-trttl*"i?»^ 
uii.i ' ■ — LiiK ^LEj^l rtMitnirlly tr> mialngy, Thf>*?wordii 
at' T ]ii^ iiy i]ko«ii* oiidhitr iik t^ with sIjio ii Tk^w of o^hAr ter- 
romni JMiL'i. Thi^ follovriiij; h^l, tbi* vrortii iti wblcU ani 

chi. rU' vrrbh., iTm^^iil^'N iXw iinjut flllll^rtailt Of tbD44<' !■« TV^ 
ear. I t'. wlii:<'if* nftmjf vnrtei*: naru^l^', ntijyfreJ^. hntrrl, 
hfrfi^ hhi-g^ hutrH. z%iu\ \t* rfMujioimLls, tnm'rLcnrhirri^ 
ani ftll Ainitlai- wi-injn ending In nr*'t^ t^jriUr^irm, chfmtn^^ 
c/i"rf, t'vtiirpri»niK f^fittfref^ ffufifrf, i/ftit^ tti^hwfHi, ftoit^ef, 
tfl\r^f, rififf. rmittm^U *'-tt'im^L r'jHrit^ fitttnrL ffattibot^ 

or-"Tf. firrtrpf^ hifnthfh hnU-hH^ (rtt peril, jftffi. kfnnet.^ 
h'lhtftp, hth^f^ ttnirfl^ frvrt-, tfhtl^ mfJr.*htfK mttrrvl, ta*4fif, 
m'ini, mt^ir-/, ftfmrf, j^tjrttUrK futnrly jH'tfi.'if,i>ef^i, jTiMletl:, 
pfnumeh astffrrrf^ r*firL rf^ff, rhuL rotf-ff, /h*yef, AhriieU 
sni*fi, t*iMft, itrijfel, {tttinm^tt ffftf^rK tttitn*'t, KnrfttfK 
virti, rit-tmil. ipfimhip, hi thin Dlrtldn^ry, the deriva- 
tivi-n Df ttiPfli* wonia. srn nm\f Uf I'iwiforrji to tlip rule, as 
re- i.imnn?nded by Wjiiksr, Lowth^ tvTty* aikl other emi- 
nent scliuUrs. 

$ 9. Derivatives formed from words ending in a dou- 
ble consonant, by adding one or more syllables, com- 
monly retain both consonants: as, ebb, ebbing; odd, 
oddly; stiff, stiffness; fen,fellable; skill, skill/ul, skill- 
fulness; will, willful, tcillf Illness ; dull, dullness; full, 
fullness. So alw the doiibln / is retained in the words 
installment, inthrallment, thralldom, and enrollment 
(from install, inihrall, thrall, and enroll). In order to 
prevent the false pronunoiation they might receive If 
spelled with one /. M'tny writers and lexicographers, 
especially in En«rland, rnntt one / in these words, as also 
in the derivatives of skill, irHl, dull, and full, formed by 
adding the syllables ly and ness. 


TlM deriratlTM aiptmt^ are ezoeptiooa to the rale, 
beiof written with only one/; m, wmHfte^ jtonUiJleal^ 
fionnJMal, end the like. One / aleo is dropped in a few 
words formed by adding the termination /y to words 
ending In 2/, in order to prerent the conourrence of three 
Ps: as, m, iUy; duU, duUy ; /uU, fully. 

f 10. In derivatives formed from words ending with 
siMnt e, the e is generally retained when the termination 
begins with a consonant : as, pale^ paleness; hale^ hate- 
hu; move, mavemsni. Wlieu, however, the e is imwe- 
dtetely preceded by another vowel (except «), it is often 
dropped from the derivative : as, aue^ duly ; awe^ ate- 
ful ; and derivatives and compounds of these words. 

The words wholly^ nurding^ wisdom^ tUfridgmenit ac- 
kiuncUdgmentf lodgment^ judgment y and tlie compounds 
of some of tlieae, are exceptions. The last four, how- 
ever, are written, by many authors, abridge menty ae- 
kmowledgementy lodffement.Judgenttnt. 

) 11. In derivanves formed from words ending with 
sQent «, wlien the termination begins with a vowel, the 
c is generally omitted, except in the cases mentioned in 
the next paragraph : as, bnde, bridal ; ti«e, usage ; come, 
com^g : shape^ sKapin^g ; mwty movable ; fleece, fleecy ; 
foree^ forciole. 

The e is retained in the words hoeing, shoeing, aud 
toeing (from Aoe, «Ao«, and toe), in order to prevent 
donbt as to the pronunciation. It is retained, also, iu 
the words dyeing, singeing, springeing, swingeing, tinge- 
ing (from dye, singe, springe, swinge, tinge), to dlstln- 
gmsh them from dying, singing, springing, swinging. 
tinging (from die, sing, spring, swing, Itna). Tlie word 
mueage, as commonly written, does not omit the «,though 
it is sometimes, and more correctly, spelled m Uage. The 
words lineage, lisieal, and pineal, though appareutlv ex- 
ceptions, are not really such, since they are derivea not 
directly from line and pine, but from the Latin Hnea 
(through the French J, linealis, aud pinea. The e, stand- 
ing, in a derivative, before a termination beginning with 
a or o, and immediately after c or o, is retained in order 
to preaerve the soft sounds of these consonants: as, 
peaee^ peaceable : notice, noticeable ; manage, manage- 
able; change, changeable; advantage, advantageous; 
outrage, outrageous ; mortgage, mortgngeor. The latter 
word is sometimes very improperly written mortgagor, 
and pronounced mor*ga-jor, 

% 12. In derivatives formed from words ending in ie, 
by adding the termination ing, the e is dropped, and the 
i changed to y. in order to prevent two Vs from coming 
together : as die, dying ; vie, rying. 

$ 13. In derivatives of words ending in y preceded 
\n a consonant, and formed by appending any termina- 
tkm except one beghining with i, the y is usually changed 
into <•• as, icy, iciest, icUy; mercy, merciless; foggy, 
foagineu ; pity, pitiful. 

T%e derivatives of adjectives of one syllable ending in 
y preceded by a consonant, are exceptions, and usually 
retain the y .* as, shy, shyness. But the adjectives drier 
uA driest, from dry, are commonly written with i in- 
stead of y. Derivatives formed by adding the termina- 
thm skip, as secretaryship, suretyship, ladyship, and the 
Uke, lUso retain the y. The words babyhood and lady- 
kin are likewise exceptions. The y is also retained in 
the pos s e s s i ve case singular of nouns, when formed by 
addintr * with the apostrophe : as, eofintry^s, everybody's. 

f 14. Derivatives formed by affixing a termination 
to words ending in y preceded by a vowel, generally re- 
tain the y unchanged: as, gay, gayrty, gayly; obey, 
ebbing ; Joy, joyful ; gluey, glueyness. 

The words daily, laid, p<tid, said, saith, slain, and 
staid (from day, lay, pay, say, slay, and stay), with their 
compounds, are exceptions. Staid, however, is some- 
times written stayed. Derivatives from words ending in 
S, aa eotloquies, from coltoauy, are not exceptions to 
) rule, as n, in such cases, is not strictly a vowel, but 
itands for the consonant tr. 

f 16. Derivatives formed by appending a syllable 

beginning with a vowel to words endbig with a TOwel 
sound, generally retain the letter or lettera renreienting 
such sound : as, husMa, huMMoed ; agree, agreeable, agr^e- 
ing; weigh, weighing; bow. bowed; beau, beauish. 

Derivativea of words of this class ending in silent «, aa 
also those formed from words endhig in double e by add- 
lug a termination beginning with e, drop the final e .* aa, 
hoe, hoed ; agree, agreed. The cases mentioned in sec- 
tions 11, 12, and 13 are ^ao exceptions. 

L16. Derivatives formed by prefixing one or more 
ibles to words ending In a double consonant com- 
monly retain both consonants : aa, rebuff, befall, inthrall, 
foretell, fulfill, emboss (from buff, fall, thrall, tell, fill, 

The word until is an exception, being always written 
with one /. Those words of this class which end In // 
are written bv some authors, especially In England, with 
one/.* ua,befal,inthral,foretel,fulfll, enrol. The words 
distill and instill should be written with the / doubled, 
though they are often written distil and instil, with only 

§ 17. Compound words formed by jdnlng two or 
more words commonly retain all the lettera of the alm- 
ple words : as, stiff-necked, wide-mouthed. 

There are numerous exceptions to this rule, many of 
them compounds which by long use have acquired the 
force of dn^e words. They are the following : namely, 
some compounds of all and well; as, almighty, almost, 
alone, already, also, although, altogether, always, withal, 
therewithal, wherewithal, welcome, welfare ; — com- 
pounds of mass ; as, Christmas, Michaelmas, etc. ; — 
words of which the second part la the adjective full ; 
as, artful, woeful ; — u-Uo, the words chUlkain, fulfill, 
namesake, neckerchief, numskull, pastime, ttandish, and 

) 18. The plural of nouns regularly ends In s, or, in 
certain classes of words, in es. 

When the noun In the singular ends with such a sound 
that the soimd of « can unite with it and be pronounced 
without forming a separate syllable, s only is added iu 
forming the plural: as, sea, seas; tpoe. woes; canto, 
cantos; daw, claws; chief, chiefs; path, paths; gem, 
gems; act, acts. A few plurals from nouns endhig In o 
preceded by a consonant, ehd in e«.' as, echo, echoes; 
cargo, cargoes; potato, potatoes. Other nouns of this 
class generally form their plulials reguhu-ly, though usage 
differs with regard to some of them. Those In which 
final o is preceded by a vowel form their plurals regu- 
larly. The plural of alkali is written alkalts or alkalies ; 
that of rabbi, either rabbis at rabbies. With regard to 
other nouns ending in i usage differs, thouffh they are 
more properly written with the termination is. 

When the noun In the dngular ends with such a sound 
(as that of ch, sh,j, s, x, or t) that the sound of s can 
not unite with It In pronunciation, but roust form a sep- 
arate syllable, e is Inserted before s in forming tlie plu- 
ral, untoss the word ends with sUent e, in which case 
the hitter serves to form a separate svlha>le with s : as, 
church, churches; age, ages; lace, laces; gas, gases; 
maze, mazes. 

To express the plural of a letter, figure, or any char- 
acter or sign, or of a word mentioned without remrd to 
its meaning, the letter s, generally preceded by the 
apostrophe, is appended, as in the phrases, ** The two Vs 
In all ; »' *' The two (Ts in 400;'' " The why's and where- 
fore's of the question.*' 

§ 19. Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant 
form their plural by adding es and changing y into < >: 
as, mercy, mercies; sky, skies; pUy,oiHes. This role 
Includes words ending in quy. In which u, behig pro> 
nounced like w, is strictly a consonant : as, colloquy, 
colloqtties. The plural of proper nouns endhig In y pre- 
ceded by a consonant. Is formed by chanffing y Into ies, 
according to the rule : as, "The three Maries." Many 
writers, however, form the plural of such words by sim- 
ply adding *.• as, ** The three Marys. ' 


When the afngolar of a noon ends in y preceded by a 
Towel (except u having the power of w), the plural Is 
regularly formed by adding t only : as, (fay, daps ; key, 
keys; money , moneys; attorney , attorneys; alloy, al- 
loys; guy, gays. Some plurals of the kuter class are 
often inaccurately written with tlM termination ies : as, 
monies, attomies, and the like. 

$ 30. The plurals of a few nouns ending in / or /e are 
irragularly formed by changing / or /e into ves. The 
f<^owing words, with their compounds, are the principal 
examples: nunely, life, lives; kn^e, knives; wife, 
wives; leaf, leaves; sheaf, sheaves; loi\fj loaves; bet/, 
beeves; thief, thieves; calf, calves; hat/, halves; elf, 
elves; shelf, shelves; self, selves; wolf, wolves. The 
plural of stajf is scnnetimes written stir's, but more com- 
monly staves, except when it means a corps of officers, 
either military or civil, in which sense it is ^ways writ- 
ten sttuffs. The plural of wharf is generally written 
wharfs in England ; in the United States it is more com- 
monly but improperly written wharves, as it is also by 
some recent English writers. The plurals of hoof and 
iurf, formerly written hooves and turves, are now written 
hoqfs and tur/s. The plurals of other nouns ending in /, 
fe, orjf, are formed regularly by the addition of s only. 

4 21. In the following nouns, the plural is distiu- 
gmshed from the singular only by a change of the vowel 
or vowel sound of the word : namely, man, men ; wo- 
man, women; goose, geese; foot, jeet; tooth, teeth; 
brother, brethren; louse, lice; mouse, mice. Words 
which end in the syllable man, and are not compounds, 
form their plurals regularly, by adding s only : as, cay- 
man, caymans; desman, desmans; firman, firmans ; 
talisman, talismans; German, Oeraums,' Mussulman, 

f 82. A few plurals end In en : namely, brother, breth- 
ren ; child, children ; ox, oxen. To these may be added 
the obsolete forms eyne, kine, shoon, hosen, housen (from 
eye, cow, shoe, hose, house), the first three of which, 
th<mgh they have received a slightly different form, end, 
as pronounced, with the sound of n. 

$ 23. The words brother, die, pea, and penny, have 
each two plurals of different forms and with different 
significations: as, bn^hers, male children of the same 
parent, also, members of the same society, association, 
class, or profession ; brethren, members of the same re- 
ligious or eodesiastical bed v, the word in this form be- 
ii^ rarely used except in rel^ious writings, or in scrip* 
tural language, whera it also has the same meaning that 
brothers has in ordinary language ; dies, implements for 
making impressions by stamping, or for malnng screws, 
also ttie cuUcal parts of pedestals; dice, the cnUcal 
blocks used in games of chance ; peas, aeeds of the pea 
plant, when a definite number is mentioned ; pease, the 
same in bulk, or spoken of collectively ; pennies, the 
ooins, especially when a definite number ia mentioned ; 
pence, the amount reckoned by theee coins. 

§ 24. A few words, mostly names of Miitn^i«^ have 
the same form in the plural as in the fjngi^iaf : m^ deer, 
sheep, trout, and the like. 

f 26. Manv words adopted from foreign languages 
retain their original plurals : as, datum, data ; criterion, 
criteria ; genus, genera ; larva, larvas ; crisis, crises ; 
matrix, matrices; focus, foci; monsieur, messieurs. 

Many words of this class, while retaining the original 
plurals, have also a second, formed after the analogy of 
Bngliah words of similar termination : a^ formula, for- 
muite, or formulas ; beau, beaux, or beaus ; index, in- 
dices, or indexes ; stratum, strata, or stratums ; bandit, 
banditti, or bandits; cherub, cheruhim, or cherubs; 
seraph, seraphim, or seraphs. The plurals of the last 
two words are sometimes mcorrectly written cherubims 
and seraphims, with double plural terminations, from 
ignorance or forgetf ulness of the fact that, in Hebrew 
words, iminn plural ending. 

f 20. In certain loose compounds consisting of a 
noon followed by an adjective or other qoallfytaiff «s- 

presalon, the plural is commonlv formed by making the 
same chanm in the noun as when it standa aloue : as, 
eourt-marnal, courts-martial; eousin-german, cousins- 
german ; son-in-law, sons-ist-law. When, however, the 
adjective is so closely Joined to the noun that the com* 
pound has the force of a simple word, the plural of the 
compound is commonly formed like that of any otiier 
wora of the same terminatioa: as, cupful, eupfuls; 
handful, han4fuls. 

)27. There are many worda, besides tiioee men- 
tioned in the preceding paragn^ths, in respect to which 
usage, even that of the best authors, is variaUe. The 
most important of these words are mentioned in this 
and the succeeding sections. 

The derivatives of the word rUlain, as vClainous, vil- 
lainy, etc., though often written villanous, villany, etc., 
properly retain the i, like those of other words similarly 
ending in ain : as, mountainous, from mountain ; eap- 
taincy, from captain. 

The words connection, defleetien, inflection, and reAee- 
tioH follow the spelling of the woras conned, deflect, in- 
fleet, and reflect, though often written, especially in 
England, connexim, deflexion, inflexion, and reflexion. 

nie word woe, though often written without the final 
e, should retain it, like most other nouna of one syllable 
and of aimilar form : as, doe,/oe, hoe, toe, and the like. 
Mono^jdliUdes other than nouns, and words of more thm 
oue qrilable, having a similar termination, omit the e : 
asjjcfo, go, no, so, canto, motto, potato. 

The words defense, expense, offense, uA pretense are 
properly written thus, though often spelled with c in- 
stead of s, for the s belongs to the words from which 
they are derived, and is also used in all their deriva- 

The words drought and hHght were formerly written 
drouth and hight, and are still very <rften thus written In 

The verb pracUoe is thus written like tiie noun, in 
preference to the torm practise, though the latter spelling 
Is used by many writers, especially in England. The 
difference in spelling between the noun and the verb is 
properly obeerved, in words of this kind, only in sudi as 
are accented on the last syllable, as device, devise. 

Derivatives of the Oreek i6pa (seat, base, side ; pro- 
nounced hed'ra), as polyhedron, tetrahedron, octahedral, 
and the like, are properly thus written with A before the 
e of the termination, but are sometimes written poly- 
edron, tetraedron, odkedral, etc, without the h, 

§ 2S. There is a class of words beginning with en or 
in, as enclose or inclose, enquire or inquire, ensttre or 
insure, and the like, many of which take either form at 
the prefix indifferently. They are chiefly derived from 
the Latin, either directly or through the French, tiie 
prefix in belonging to the former language, and en te 
the latter. In some of these words, en is to be preferred ; 
in others, in; in many of them, either may tie used in- 

$ 29. There is a class of words ending in er, some of 
which are written by many authors with the termination 
re : as, center, meter, theater, etc., which are often writ- 
ten centre, metre, theatre, etc. Acre, chancre, lucre, 
nacre, massacre, and ogre, retain the termination re, in 
order to preserve the hard sound of the c and g. . 

§ 30. There are two classes of chemical words endhug 
reflectively, as more commonly written, in ide and ine, 
in regard to which usage has been variable. Most of 
them were formerly written without the final e; but it 
is now the ^most universal practice to retain it: as, 
bromide, iodide, chlorine, fluorine, etc. The word tan- 
nin is alvrays written without the final e. Oxide is now 
generally written with the termination ide, tiiough 
formerly by many written oxyd, from the suppodtion 
that the y of the last syllable represented the v oi the 
Oreek hfit, from which the word Is derived ; whereas 
the last syllable is simply the same as the termination 
of the words bromikl$t ttafMd$t and tht Uka. 


f SI. Then ba eUM of words ending, Mpronoonced, 
with the aonnd of long i, followed by «, aome of which 
are diflteently written, bv different authors, with either 
iae or ice to represent this sound : as, criticUe or eriti- 
eUe ; patronw otpatronite. These words are mostly 
rerbs, and are chiefly derived from Greek works ending 
in (^ or from French words ending in uer or tM. Those 
formed from Greek words hare the termination ize: as, 
anathematize, eharaeterite, dranuUiee, tantalize. The 
words eatecMte and exarciee are exceptions. Those 
formed hi an anslogous manner from English words are 
likewise written mth iee .* as, alhutnenize, memorizey 
mntitize. Those derived from the French ^erh prendre 
(pMiiciple prit or pri*f) end in £m .* as, apprite, com- 
prieej empriee, enierprite, turprise. Of tnose formed 
trom French words other than prendre, or which have 
eorresponding forms in the French, a majority end in 
ise, though in respect to some of them usage is variable : 
as, cinUixe, satirize. The following are the polncipal 
Bnglish verbs ending ia iee: namely, advertise, ad- 
vise, affranchise, apmrise, catechise, chastise, cireumeise, 
comprise, compromise, criticise, demise, despise, devise, 
disenfranchise, di^ranchise, disguise, diverttse, emprise, 
enfranchise, enterprise, exercise, exorcise, franchise, 
moMimiffe, misprise, premise, reprise, revise, supervise, 

surmise, surprise. It may be remarked that most of 
those in respect to which usage varies are more fre- 
quently written in England wtth the termination ise, 
and in the United States with the termination ise. 

$ 32. The words mold and molt, and their compounds 
and derivatives, are written in this I>icti<NiarT with o 
instead of oti , in analogy with the words bold, bolt, colt, 
gold, etc., from which the tt has been dropped, lianv 
authors, however, write these words mould and iiio««, 
and their derivatives in like manner. 

§ 33. There is a numerous class of words almost uni- 
versally written, in the United States, with the termi- 
nation or, many ol which are written, in England, with 
the termmation our: as, candor, honor, labor, vigor. 
English usage, however, is not uniform with respect 
to these words, many being written with or in English 

$ 34. There is a small class of words ending with the 
syllable ped (from hat. pes, pedis, foot), the termhiation 
of some of which was iormerly, and is still frequently, 
vrritten pede: as, biped, centiped, miUiped, quadruped, 
soliped, etc. The words biped and quadruped are uni- 
versally written without the final e, and the others, ac- 
cording to the best nsage, should be written in the same 


a adjective. 

abbr. abbreviated. 

abl ablative. 

ace. aoouaative. 

aet aotlve. 

adf. adjective. 

aop adverb. 

^J"^ \ ..American. 

nor aorist. 

Ar.. Arabic. 

Arch, Architecture. 

AS, Anglo-Saxon. 

aug augmentative. 

BUe Blaoayan. 

Bohem, . . . Bohemian. 

Bot. Botany. 

Bmz Brasiilan. 

C Centigrade. 

. \ eonf«r (oom- 

*^' I pare). 

Chald, ...Chaldee. 
Chin Chinese. 

""»»••• I sssisay. 

compaT' ' .companttive. 

conj conjunction. 

-«-#.. \ contracted. 
contr. .{contraction. 

Copt. Coptic. 

Com Cornish. 

corrtl correlative. 

eorrup. ) ( corruption. 
corrupt. ) \ corrupted. 

D Dutch. 

Dan Danish. 

dat dative. 

Dec December. 

d^. definition. 

Dial Dialectic. 

dim diminutive. 

dittinff. . . .distinguished. 

E. English. 

I exempli gra- 
tia (for exam- 

Effypt Egyptian. 

empA. . . . .emphatic 

Eng. . . 

1 English. 


Lapp. . . 


prir. . . 






. . probably. 








. . Uthuauian. 






} etymology. 


Middle : aa, 





w. ...... 

( High German. 
. .masculine. 

q. V 

i quod vide 
' \ (which see). 

Fahr'. . 


Molay. . 



nirtsc — 

. . masculine. 




. . . feminine. 





Finn. . 



/r., or Fr. from. 


( New ; as, NL. 

\ = New Latin. 


... Russian. 

/req. .. 





. . noun. 

iS., or 5ax. Saxon. 


. . . future. 




( scUieet (b«hig 
' ( understood). 


. . neuter. 


. . . Qennan. 


. . nominative. 

Seand. . 






Scot. .. 

1 ScoUand. 





' {Scottish. 


1 genltlvely. 



Sept. . . 

.. September. 

• i generally. 
. . . German. 




( Old ; as, OE. = 
\ OldEngUsh. 

Serr. . . 
sing. .. 

. - . Servian. 

Qoth.. . 



Gr. ... 




Skr. . . . 




Slav. . . 



(High: as,//©. = 


. obaole«;ent 

South. . 

. . . Southern. 

' ( High German. 


■ .originally. 



Hfh. . . 

. . . Hebrew. 

ong — 



Hind. . 






. ..Hungarian. 




( participle. 








p. a... 

I parUcipial ad- 
( jecU\e. 



i. e 

. . id est (that is). 



im. . . 




1 Illustration. 

Tart. . . 


' i lUustrated. 



term. . . 


imp.. . . 

. . . imperfect. 



incho. . 






ind. . . . 

. ..'mdlcative. 


. .Peruvian. 




...United Stotea. 






inf. \ 
in/in. i 


. plural. 




. . . intensive. 










...verbal n<Hin. 


. . . participle past. 

V. i 

. . .verb intransitive. 



p. ft. 

t participle prM- 


...verb transitive. 


. . . Italian. 

1 ent. 


( videlicet 
'{ (namely). 



. . Proven^. 

Jav.. . 

. . .Javanese. 



prep. . 

IF. ... . 



1 Low ; as, /,(?. = 
• ( Low German. 

pre*.. . 

. . prei;ent. 






Foreign words inserted In the vocabulary, but not yet anglicised, are printed with two bara before them ; aa, 
II A-Oonie, II Bar«-teUo', il SaL 

The hyphen in words which sliould be written or printed with a hvphen Is indicated by a longer, heavier mark 
than that used In indicating syllabic division ; as, E-leo'trOH-mag-IMtliD. 

The figures following tlie respelling for pronunciation refer to sections of the Guide to Pronunciation, pp. v-xix. 

In the respelling for pronunciation, when successive words in the same column begin with one or more syllables 
which are pronounced alike, the common part is usually omitted after the first word. Words ending in simple suf- 
fixes such as -bly, -«d (when not contracted), -MS, -Mtt -iDJg, -Isll, -We, -lOM, -ly, -mmtf -B«M. etc., are not 
uaually respelt wlien the pronunciation of nil but the suffix can be supplied from a preceding word. Otherwise they 
are respelt ; aa in the cases of OOlI'di-ment, Olad'lMM, Ill'tnHipe(/tlV«f D0-geil'er-at«-ly, etc. 

For plurals not given see the Rules for Spelling, §$ 18-26, pp. xxvili-xxxi. 

For etymologies of prefixes and suffixes used without explanation in et3rmologie8, see the list of Prefixes and 
Suffixes, pp. xx-xxvil. For meanings of suffixes forming derivatives run on without definition, see the same list 



A (named i in English, and X in most other lan- 
guages). The iudeflnite article, contracted from 
ant •od eulMtituted for it before words beginning with a 
oooeonaat. It elgnifles one or any, but leM emphatlcaUy. 

A« prep' [For an, AS. on. Bee On. J In ; on ; in or 
for each. 

A-bMk' (A-bSkO« adv. [Pref. a- + back.'l Toward 
the back or rear ; on fthipa, backward against the mast. 

AVUrOUB (Xb'&-klii), II. / E. pi. Abacubu ; L. pi. Abaci 
i-m). [L.] 1. A calculaUug 
frame for performing arith- 
metical calculations by sliding 
Mwnters. 2. The uppermost 
diviskm of the capital of a ool- 
nmn ; a panel in mosaic work. Abacus. 

A-haOf{^bkftf)tprep. Bj- 
hind ; toward the stem f rom.— a<f r . Toward the stem ; aft 

A-bftn'don (-bSu'dOn), V. (. [F. abandonner ; h (L. 
ad) -f- bandon permission, LL. bandum, bannumt public 
proclamatiou.l To give up absolutely ; to forsake ; to 
yield (oae*s self) unrestrainedly. 

Syn. — To Abandon; Dbsbbt; Fobsanb; yield; fore- 
go; surrender; abdicate; quit; relinquish; renounce; 
Msve ; retire : withdraw from. — We abandon what we 
giTe up aboolutely and finally. We desert from military 
aerrlce, or aomething which we ought to stand by and 
support. We forsake a previous habit, association, or 
thn^ familiar or frequented. 

UAlMn'Ooa' (A'bliN^ddNOt n. [F.] A giving up to 
natural impulses ; freedom from constraint ; eaae. 

A-blB'dOlltd (&-b<u'd&nd), a. 1 . Forsaken ; deserted. 
2. Oiven up to vice ; irreclaimably wicked. 

A-lMUI'dOll'IBflOt (-d&n-meut), ». 1. Total desertion. 
%. Relinquishment ; desertion. 

A-bAM' (-^^')t f • '• [F. abaisser, fr. LL. bassus low. 
8ee Babb, o.l To lower ; to cast down ; to humble ; to 
degrade. — A-base'nieiU, n. 

A-lMSV (-blsh'), r. /. [OE. nbaissen, OF. esbahir, 
f r. I* ex 4- interj. bahy expreaaing astonishment.] To 
destroy the self-posse uion of ; to shame ; to disconcert. 

8yn. - To Abandon : Contitss ; Contottno ; disconcert ; 
ahame. — We are aboxhed when stntck with shame or a 
sense of inferiority. We are con/tued when an unexpected 
occurrence destroys our self-possession. We are eon- 
fovnded when our minds are overwhelmed by something 
amaiing, dreadful, etc., so that we have nothing to say. 

A-btfa-Ue (-bif 4-b*n, n. C^p<U>le of being abated. 

A-bttO' (-bStO, V. t. [OF. abatre to beat down, L. 
batuere to beat.] To bring to a lower ftate or degree ; 
to lessen ; to moderate ; to do away with (a nuimnce, 
writ, or tax). » r. t. To decrease ; to come to naught ; 
to subside ; to fail. 

Syn. — To Abate : Subsidb: derrensp; intermit; de- 
cline ; diminish ; 1 jsaen. — Abate implies diminution of 


force or of intensity. Subside refers to a preyiooB state 
of agitation or commotion. 

A-bate^e&t (4-Mf mmt), n. 1. An abating or bdng 
abated ; diminution. 2. Amount abated. 

n A^bat'tOlr' (A'bAtawar'), n. A slaughterhonae. 

AbOia (Sb^bA), n. [Syriac. See Abbot.] Father; 
superior ; — title of bishops of Oriental churches. 

Ab^ba-cy (-^), n. Dignity or Jurisdiction of an abbot. 

Ab-ba'tua (Ib-bi'shal), a. Belonging to an abbey. 

UAbOl^C&b'btO*')- LF. See Abbot.] The French 
word answering to abbot, now a title given in France to 
unbeneficed secular ecclesiastics. 

Ab'beM (Sb'bfo), n. A female superior of a nunnery. 

Ab'bey (-bj^), n. ; pi. Abbktb (-bTz). 1. A monastery 
or society of monks or nuns ; the monastic building or 
buildings. 2. The church of a monastery. 

8yn. — See Cloistbr. 

AblMt (-bnt), n. [L. abbas. Cf. Abba, AbbI] Sn- 
perior or head of an abbey. 

Ab^boC-shlp, n. State or office of an abbot. 

Ab-bre^-ate («b-bryvl-it), r. /. [L. abbreriare; 
ad and brev^is short.] To make briefer ; to shorten ; to 
abridge ; to reduce by contraction or omission. 

Syn. — See Abridob. 

Ab-b|ie^¥l-a1l0ll (-i'shfin), n. 1. A shortening, or 
reducing ; an abridgment. 2. The form to which a word 
or phrase is reduced by contraction or omission ; as, Gen. 
for Oenesii; U. S. A. for United States nf America. 

Ab-breM-a-tO-ry (-A-tft-rj^), a. Tending to abbreyi- 
ate ; nbridging. 

Ab'di-oant (Xb'dT-kantV a. Abdicating ; renouncing ; 

— followed by of. — n. One who abdicates. 
Ab'dl-oate (-kit), V. t. [L. abdicare; ab-i-dieare to 

proclaim. See Diction.] To surrender or relUiqnIsIi. 

— r. i. To renounce (a throne, office, etc).— Ab'dl- 

ca'tton, n. — Ab'tfl-oa^tor, n. 

Syii. — To Abandon; Rbbion; glye up; yaoate; re- 
linquish ; renounce. — Abdicate expresses the act of a 
monarch who formally yields up sovereign authority. 
Resign is applied to the act of anyone who gives back a 
tmst into the bands of him who conferred it. 

Ab-dO'man (Sb-d6'in8n), n. [L.] 1. The belly, or 
that cavity of the bellj, which contains the stomach, 
bowels, and other viscera. 2. The posterior section of 
the body, behind the thorax. In inw*ct«, crustaceans, etc. 

Ab-dom^-nal (-dSml-nal), a. Pertaining to the ab- 
domen ; ventral. 

Ab-4lict' (-dfikt'), V. t. (X. nbductfis, p. p. of abdu- 
cere to lead awav; ab + dnrere to lead.] 1. To take 
away (a human being) wrontrfnlly ; to kidnap. 2. To 
draw away (a limb or other part) from its ordiiuuy posi- 
tion. — Ab-dQO'tion, n. 

S, e, 1, 5, 0, long : ft, ^, 1, A, A, f, short : senAle, ^veiit. Idea, iih^y, finite, cfkrei, lirm, ask, fill, f nol, 
f€ni, recent, 6rb, r^de, fi^U, Am, f<>bd, fcTot, out, oil, chair, so, dng, iQk, tlien, I hin. 




Ab^taolor (Xb^ttkOSr), n. 1. One who abducts, i 
S. A mnacle whioh draws a part from the median line 
of the body. 

n IHim (4-bSmOt adv. On the beam ; on a line at 
right angles with a ship*s keeL 

A-lM^ (bSdO, adf . In b«), or on the bed. 

Aih9tnat (ib-l$r'rant)« o. [!«• aberram^ p. pr. of ab- 
ermre ; ab + errare to wander. See Euu] Wwdering : 
deriatinff from the ordinary ^rpe ; abnormsL — All-MT'- 
laiMM, Ab-sr'nui-oy, n. 

A^n-ntiaa (ib'Sr-ri'shttn), n. 1. A wandering; 
deviation from tmth, the natural state, or a tvpe. 
%. Partial ahenation of reason. 3. A smidl periodical 
change of position in a star or other heavenlv body. 
^ 4. Conveigenoe to different foci, by a lens or mirror, of 
* rays of light emanating from one point. 

Syn. — Insanity ; lunacy: derangement: alienation; 
mania ; hallucination ; deludon. Bee Imsaiott. 

A-b«t' (*-b«f ), r. /. [OF. abeier; a (L. arf) + be/er to 
bait (as a bear), henoe to bait, to incite. See Batt, Bit.] 
To instigate ; to incite by encouragement or aid ; to con- 
tribute to the commission of an offense. — J^-lMtlBflllt, n. 

Syn. — To incite ; instigate ; foment ; countenance ; en- 
courage ; second ; aid ; support ; back ; connire at. 

A-bttttr, A-lMnor (-tSr), n. One who abeto ; insti- 
gator of an offense or an offender. 

^T" Abettor is the legal form and also in general use. 

Syn. — Aanroa; Aocissobt; Aocompucs. — An abet- 
tor incites to the act, without sharing in it. An acces- 
toru accedes tor its guilt by enoouragiug, aiding, or con- 
cealing it. An accomplice participates hi its commission. 

A4MT'aB00 (-Nfans), n. [OF. a -|- baer, beer, to 
gape, expect, LL. badare to gape.] Expectancy ; condi- 
tton of beingundetermined. 

Ab-bflV' (ib-hdr'), V. /. [ABRoassD (-hdrdO ; Abhor- 
BXMo.l [L. abhorrere ; ab -f horrere to bristle, shudder. 
Bee IiouiD.] To regard with horror ; to loathe. 

Syn. — To bate ; detest ; loathe ; abominate. Bee Hate. 

Ab-taortWUM (-hKr'rens), n. Extreme dislike. 

Ab-hor'lmit (-T«nt), a. 1. Abhorring ; detesting ; 

■tronvly opposed to. 2. Contrary or repugnant (to). 
A-blda' (4-bidO, r. i. [imp. A p. p. Abodb (i-bC:') ; 
^ . . /. . ,.i«._ _v T T»o sijj — ^^/pref. 

_ , ^ tav; to 

continue in a place ; to dwell. — r. /. 1. To await. 2. To 

«. pr. & rb. n. Aaionro (4-b!aTng).] 
a- -f IMnn to bide. See Bidb.] Ti 

'o wflit ; to stay 

endure ; to put up with. 3. To answer for ; to suffer for. 

A-feMiBff, n. Continuing. — A-bUPlnC-ly , adv. 

A-Wl-ty (-bTlT-ty), n. [L. habit is apt. 
See Abia] Power to perform; capacity; skill; — in 
pf., faculty, talent 

Syn. — ABiLrrr : C afactit ; talent ; cleTemess ; facul- 
ty ; canability : efflolenry : aptitude : aptness : address ; 
dexterity ; skill. - i4frt7^2/impli<*R vigor of mind, together 
with ease of execution. Cnrvtrify signifies re$mtrcts and 
undeveloped power. Abilities, in pi., embraces both 
qualities, and denotes high mental endowments. 

Ab'lWIt (n/jWrt), a. [L. abjectiis. p. p. of abjicere to 
throw away.1 Bunk to a low condition ; defrraded ; des- 

• "e.-Ablirt.i 


n.— Ab1«Ct-ly,orf»'. 

Syn. — Mean: groveling; cringing; ignoble; worth- 
leas : contemptible ; degraded. 

Ab-too'tiOil (-jSk'shttn), n. 1. A bringing down or 
bumbling. 2. A low st%te : degradation. 

AlKhl-im'tloa (-Jft-ri^shBn), n. An abjuring or for- 
swearing ; sfdemn renunciation. 

Ab-lv'ni-tO-IT (-ju'r4-t^-TJ^),<i. Containing abjuration. 

Ab-Jvrt' (-J«»^). «'• '• * *• SJ^' ahjwrnre to deny upon 
oath ; ab and jns, juris, right, law. Bee Jubt.] To re- 
nounce upon oath ; to forswear ; to repudiate. 

Syn. — Bee Rbhovncb. 

Abla-tt?« (IbOA-tTv), a. [F. ; L. ablaHnu ; ab away 
-|-te<iu, used as p. p. of /rrre to carr v.] Takinff away or 
removing ; — applied to a case (iinpl ving removal or sepa^ 
tatkm) of Latin nouns. <— it. The ablative case. 

II Ablaut (ibHoot), n. [Oer., off-sound ; a6 off + 
taut sound.] Substitution of one root vowel for another, 
indicating a change of use or meaning ; as, mon, men. 

A-UmW (&-blisO, adv.A a. 1. On fire ; in a blase. 
2. In a state of great excitement or ardent desire. 

Aide (En>'l), a. [Ablbb ; Ablbst.] [OF. ; L. ha- 
bilis easily managed, skillful, fr. habere to have.] Hav- 
ing sufficient power or resources ; showing skill. 

Syn. — Ckmipetent : qualified ; fitted ; efficient ; effect- 
ive ; capable ; slclllf ul : clever ; vigorous ; powerf uL 

Aba«-S«te (Sbnt-gtt), n. [L. ablegatus, p. p. of ab- 
legare to send with a commissiou. Bee Lboatb.] A rep- 
resentative of the iKMw commissioned to foreign countries. 

Ab-llltloa (Kb-lu'shfin), n. [L. abtutio. It. abluere to 
wash away ; ab -\- lucre {lavare). See Lavb.] 1. A wash- 
ing or cleansing. 2. Religious purification. 

AOlly (E'blf ), adv. In an able manner ; with ekiU. 

Ato'IM-ga'tlmi (ib^nt-gl'shfiu), n. [L. abnegatio ; ab 
-f negare to deny. See Dbkt.T^ Denial ; renunciation. 

AlMMnfmal (-i.Or'mal), a. [For earlier onorma/. LL. 
anormalus for anomalus, confused with L. abnormis. 
See Anomalous.] Not conformed to rule ; snomalous; 
irreguUr. ^ Ab'BOr-IIMll-ty, n. — Ab-BOr'BMd-ly, adv. 

Ab-motmiVf (-ml-ty), n. Irregulsrity ; monstrosity. 

A-bOMPd' (*-l5rd0t adv. 1. On bosrd ; within a ship, 
b<Mt, or rsllroad car. 2. Alongside. ~pr<^. On board of. 

A-lKlde' (-1 9d0, pret. of Abiob. — n. SUy hi m, place ; 
sojourn ; residence ; a dwelling ; a habitation. 

A-MLIall (-baTsh), r. t. [L abolere; ab + olere to 
grow.] To do away with wholly; to make void. — 

A-boIaili-ft-ble, a. — A-boIiali-iiMBt, n. 

Syn. — To Abolish ; Rbpbal ; Abbooatb : Revokb ; Am- 
HUL : NuLurr ; Cancbl. — These words all have tiie idea 
of settii^ aside. Abolish sppUes to things of a permanent 
nature, institutions, customs, etc. Repeal describes the 
setting asid^ an existing law. Abrocate meant the repeal 
of a law bv the Roman people, and later the emperor*s 
setting aside the laws ; hence an act by which a sovereign 
or executive government sets aside laws, treaties, con- 
ventions, etc. Reioke denotes the reciUling some power, 
privilege, etc. Annul means simply to mske void. Nul' 
hfy Is applied to the setting of things aside either by 
force or by total disregard. Cancel is to strike out or an- 
nul smnetning which has operative force. 

AVo-Utton (Ib/^-lTshllD). n. An abolishing, annul- 
ling, or utter destruction. — Ab'O-IitlOII-lni, n. 

Ab'O-UtlOII-lsl, n. One who favors the abolition of 
any institution, especially of negro slavery. 

A-lMml-nA-ble (&-b5mnr-n4-b*I), a. Worthy of abhor- 
rence ; odious ; detestable. — A-lKMD^-IUI-Uy, adv. 

A-bomt-IIAto (-nit), r. t. [L. abominari to deprecate 
as ominous, abhor ; ab + omen. See Ombm.] To turn 
from as ill-omened ; to abhor ; to loathe. 

Syn. —To hate ; abhor ; loathe ; detest. See Hatb. 

A-lMllll'l-IUltlOO (-ni'shiln), n. 1. Strong aversion. 
2. Something abominable ; an object or state which ex- 
cites disgust ; a hateful vice. 

Ab^O-ngl-nal (Ib^i-rTjT-nal), a. First; original; 
primitive. — n. An original inhabitant ; an animu or a 
plsnt native to the region. — Ab'O-llgl-lull-ty, n. 

Ab'O-rlgl-IIMI (-nSx), n. pi. [L. Aborigines; ad-f- 
origo, esp. those who originally {ab origine) inhabited 
Latium or Italy.] Earliest known inhabitants of a coun- 
try ; native races ; original animals and plants of a region. 

A-bortlOB (i-bdr'shQn), n. [L. aborlio, fr. aboriri; ab 
-f oriri to rise, to be bora. See Oribjtt.] 1. Premsture 
birth ; miscarriage. 2. Anythhig that fails to mature. 

A-bortl¥e (-tTv), a. Coming to naught ; fruitless ; 
unsuccessful. —A-bor^Te-ly. adv. 

A-bOOnd' (-bound')i ♦'. ». [L. abundare to overflow ; 
ab -f unda wave.] 1. To be prevalent or plentiful. 
2. To be copiotisly supplied : — followed by in or vnth. 

A-bonV C-boutO, prep. [AS. abiktan / on -f fcfi/fffi, fr. 
6e by -f- Otan outward, fr. ft/ out.] 1. Around ; on every 
side of. 2. Near : by or on (one's person). 3. Through 

ft, S, 1, 9, 0, long ; &, fi, 1, 6, 0, f, short ; seuUte, fivent, tdea, 6bey, Unite, cftre, Mrm, ftsk, ||11, final, 




or over fii Tarioiu dlrectlonB ; here and there In. 4. 
Netf ; not far from. 6. Engaged in. 6. On the point 
of. 7. Concerning ; with r^ud to. — adv. 1. On all 
■iJes ; around. 2. Round the outside ; circuitoualy. 3. 
Here and there ; around. 4. Nearly ; i^iproximately. 
6. To a reversed position ; in the opposite direction. 

A-bOTO' (4-bBT')« prep. [ A8. abt{fon ; an (or on) on 
-\- be hy -\- ufan upward. See Ovkk.] 1. In or to a 
higher place ; on or over the upper surface ; over. 3. Su- 
perior to ; beyond ; higher than. 3. Surpassing ; more 
than. — adv. Overhead ; higher ; more than. 

A-lMTeHMMVi' (-b5rd')t adv. Above the board or 
table ; openly ; without trick or deception. 



openly ; without trick or deception. 
ft-oa-di^^ (Sb'ri-kA-dlb'ri), n. [L. Of un- 
origin.1 A mystical word written as an amulet; 
ling babble. abkaoadabba 

Ato-ndt^ (Xb-ridO. V. t, 
[Lb abrad€ret abrasum, to 
scrape off. See Rasb, 
Rais. J To mb ; to wear 
away by friction. 

Ain'iloil (-rTshttn), n. 
1. An abrading or rubbing 
off. 2. Substance rubbed off. 

A-taast' (A-brestO. adv. 



A B 

I B A C 
B R 


A B B A 

Side by side; on a line. 
[P. abriger, it. L. abbre- 
Abbbbviatb.] 1. To make 
shorter ; to condense. 2. To deprive ; —followed by cj. 

L-bflto' (-brIJO, f. A 
re. See BBonr and cf. 


A shortened form ; 

1. An abridging; reduction, 

Syn. — Abbidombkt ; CoimitDmii ; KprroMB ; Ab- 
STBACT ; STKorais. — An abridgment is made by omitting 
the leas important parts of some larger work. A compen- 
dium is a brief exhibition of a subject for common use. 
An epitome gives briefly the most material points of a 
subject. An attract is a brief statement of a thing in its 
main points. A tynoptis is a bird*s-eye view of a subject 
In its several parts. 

A-broaoll' (-brSch')* adv. In a state to let out liquor. 

A-toOtd' (-bnidO) adv. 1. At Urge ; widely ; broad- 
ly. 2. Outside the house ; away from one's abode or 
country. 3. Before the public at large. 

Ab'ro-nt* (n/r*-gat), v. /. [L. abrogare ; ab -f- ro- 
gare to aScf propose. See Rogation.] To annul by an 
authoritative act ; to do away with. — AbTO-gatloa, n. 

Syn. - See Aboubh. 

Ab-rnpt' (Sb-rfiptO» a. [L. abrupius, p. p. of abrum- 
p^it to break off ; a6 -{- rumpere to break.] 1. Broken 
off: preci|rftous; steep. 2. Sudden; unceremonious. 
3. Unconnected. — Ab-mptly, adv. — Ab-mytlMU, n. 

Syn. — Sudden : unexpected ; hasty : curt ; unceremo- 
nious; rugged; uunt; disconnected; broken. 

Ab-mp'llon (-rlip'shlin), n. A sudden breaking off ; 
violent separation o( bodies. 

AVlOMl (WsSs), n. [L. abseetsuSf p. p. of abscedere 
to go away ; ab^ ab* -f cedere to go off. Bee Cbdb.] A 
collection of pus in any tissue of the body. 

Ab-Mllll' (-slnd')« V. t. [L. abseindere ; ab -f «cm- 
dere to rend, cut. See Schism.] To cut off. 

Ab-Sdl^Sl (-sTs'sA), n. ; E. pi. Abscissas (-s&b), L. pi. 
ABSCTBSJt (-s2). [L., fem. of abseimns, p. p. of absein- 
dere to cut off ; a5 + scindere to rend, cut.] One of the 
geometrical elements €/l reference in referring a point, 
as of a cnnre, to a nrstem of fixed coordinate axes. 

AbMlS'atOB, Ab-Mi'alOII (-sTsh'On), n. 1. A cut- 
ting off. 2. State of being cut off. 3. A rhetorical fig- 
ure, in which a statement u cut off abruptly. 

ill lOWlfl' (-skOndO, V. i. [L. abseondere to hide ; 
o6, abs -f condere to lay up.] To steal off and secrete 

one's self, esp. to avoid a legal process. — AlHMXMia'ar. n 
Ab^MOM (IVsens), n. [P., fr. L. absentia. See Ab- 

SBHT, a.] 1. A being absent. 2. Want; destitution. 

3. Inattention to things present. 
AFlMBt (Xb'sent), a. C^-i 'r. L. absent^ abeentie^ p. pr. 

of abesse to be away from ; ab -f esse to be.] 1. Being 
away from a place ; not present. 2. Lacking. 3. Abaeut- 
minded ; preoccupied. 

Syn. — Absbht ; Abst&actbo. — We call a man absent 
when his thoughts wander Irom oresent subjects ; ab- 
stracted when his mind is drawn off from present things 
by some matter for reflectimi. 

AtHMBt' (Xb-sSnf), v. t. To take (one*s self) to such 
a distance as to prevent intercourse. 

Ab'Mll-ta*' (ib'sen-tS'), AI^MBt'er (-sSnfSr), n. One 
who absents himself from his country, poet, or dutv. 

AlKMn-tOOiam (-Ii'm), n. The state or practice of 
an absentee. 

Ab'gllltll' Hn/sTnth/), n. [F. absinthe; L. absii^. 

AWwintbib^ i thivm^ fr. Or. o^tt^uM^.] 1. Absinthium 
or wormwood. 2. Strong spirituous liqueur made from 
wormwood and brandy or ^cohol. 

Ab'M-lQtO (-s^-lut), a. [L. absoluius, p. p. of a5- 
solvere. See Absolvb.] 1. Loosed from any limitation ; 
unconditional. 2. Complete in itself ; faultless. 3. Act* 
ual ; real ; — opposed to relative and comparative. 4. Self* 
sufficing. 6. Capable of being conceived by itself alone. 
6. In grammar, not immediately dependent on the other 
parts of a sentence in government ; as, the case absolute. 
— Ab'M-lQta-ly, adv. — Ab'M-lnta-iiMMK n. 

Syn. — Positive ; certidn; unconditional; onlimlted; 
unqualified ; arbitrary ; despotic ; autocratic 

AVM-lQtloll (-lu'sh&n), n. [L. absolvtio.'] An ab- 
solving, or setting free from sin or penalty ; forgiveness. 

Ab'M-lll'tlllll (-tTz^m), n. The being absolute ; abso- 
lute or arbitrary government ; despotism. 

Ab'M-lll'tlStt n. One who favors absolute or auto> 
cratic government. «> a. Arbitrary. 

Ab-Ml1i-to-ry (Sb-sQl'd-t«-rV), AlMMlT'a-to-fy 
(-sSlv'i-), a. Serving to absolve : absolving. 

Ab-MlTe' (-•lAv'), r. /. [L. ahsolvere to set free ; ab 
-f solvere to loose. See Bolvb.] To set free, or i 
as from obligation, debt, or consequences of guilt. 

Syn. — To Absolve ; Exonbratb : Aoqittt. —We speak 
of a man as absolved from something that binds his 
conscience, or involves the charge of wrongdoing. He is 
exonerated^ when released from some suspicion or odium. 
He is acquitted^ when a decision has been made in hia 
favor with reference to a specific charge. 

Ab-MTIK (-sdrV), r. /. [L. absorbere; ab4-sorber9 
to suck in.] 1. To swallow up; to Imbibe. 2. To en- 
gross or engage wholly. 

Syn. - To Absobb ; Eic oboss ; Swallow up ; Krovlp. — 
These words agree in the general idea of completely tak- 
ing up. We say that one is absorbed in study or some 
employment of the highest interest. He is engrossed by 
something which occupies his whole time and thoughts. 
He is swallowed up and lost In that which completely 
occupies his thoughU and feelings. He is engulfed In that 
which (like a gulf) takes hi all hb hopes and interesta. 

Ab-eorb'a-iae (-4-bn), a. CaMble of being absorbed 
or swaUowed up. — AlK^Oltt'a-blll-ty, n. 

Ab-MrtKent (-«nt), a. Absorbing.— ». A substance 
or bodily organ which absorbs. [absorbed. 

Ab-sorp'ttoil (-fdrp'shfin), n. An absorbing or being 

Ab-Mrp^T* (-tTv), a. Having power, capacity, or ten- 
dency to absorb. — Ao-MTpttve-lian, All'Mfl^ttTl^ 
(-ttvl-ty), n. 

Ab-sUln' (-8t5n0« f • i- [L. abstinere^ abstentum^ to 
keep from ; a6, abs -f tenere to hold. See TBmablb.] 
To forbear or refrain voluntarily. 

Syn. — To refrain ; forbear ; withhold ; give up. 

All-Ste'nii-OlU (-stS'mT-fis), a. [L. abstemius; oft, 
abs -H root of temetum intoxicating drink.] Sparbg in 
diet ; temperate ; abstinent — Ab-StfUl-OIUi-ly, adv. 

Ab-Stergt' (-etJrj'), v. t. [L. abstergere, -tteraum; 
ab^ abs -j- tergere to wipe.] To wipe away ; to r' 
to purge. — Ab-fftM^gMlt (•stSr'jent), a. & n. 

fVn, fMMtt Ofb| r^de, f^ ttn, Mbd, fiTbti out, oU, •hair, vo, aitts, l||k, tlien, ttUa* 



AbM^MBM (tt/rtT-oens), » [F. ; L. abtHneniia, it. 
abaiinere, 8m Amtaut.] An ihtf ining ; esp., the de- 
priving one's Mil of some indulgence. 

Ab^Mt^MOt (-nent), a. Retraining from indulgence, 
eep. of appetite; abatemioua. — n. One wtio abetAins. 

— A1/ttl-IMOt-l7,a</r. 

AVstrmOt' (Sl/itrikt^), a. [L. abttractu*, p. p. of 
abttrahere to draw from, aeparate : a6, abt + trahere to 
draw. See Tkacb.] Considered apart from any particu- 
lar object ; existing in ttie mind only ; ideal ; abstruse. 

— AVttnuitay, adv. — Ab'stxaet'iiMMK n. 

Ab-«traotf (Ib-atriOct'), v. t. 1. To withdraw ; to sepa- 
rate. 2. To separate (ideas) by the operation of the miud; 
to condider by itself. 3. To epitomize; to abridge. 
4. To take secretly ; to purloin. 

Abi'Straof (Ib'striktOt >*. 1. A summary or epitome ; 
a brief. 2. Separation from other things. 

Sjn. — See AssiDOMXirr. 

Ab-atraot'td (-strSkfed), a. l. Separated or discon- 
nected; withdrawn. 2. Inattentive ; absent in mind. 

— AlHitnot'td-ly, adv. 

Ab-ttraotUni (-strlk'shlin), n. 1. An abstracting 
or withdrawing, or state of being withdrawn. 2. Analy- 
sis. 3. An ioea of an abstract or tlieoretical nature. 
4. Absence or absorption of mind. 6. A taking surrep- 
titiously the property of another ; purloining. 6. Chem- 
ical separation of volatile parts by distillation. 

AlHrtnu>^tt?» (-tTv), a. Having power of abstracting. 

AlKAtimetly (Ib'strikt/lj^), adv. In an abstract state 
or manner ; separately ; absolutely ; by itself. 

Ab-9tnM' (Ib-strny), a. [L. abttrususj p. p. of ab- 
tlrudere to thrust away ; a6, ab* -f- trudere to thrust. 
Bee TiusAT.] DifBcult to comprehend ; recondite. — 
Ab-ctrnseaf, adv. — Ab-ctmso'tteas, n. 

Ab-sard' X-sQrd'), a. [L. absurdut luursh-sounding ; 
not connected with 9urd.\ Contrary to reason or pro- 
priety ; opposed to manifest truth or to common sense ; 
logically contradictory ; ridiculous. — Ab-SOrdly , adv. 

Srn. — ABSumo ; laaATioif al ; Foolish : Prepostksous. 

— Of these terms, irrfitionnl b the wcakeut, deuotiug 
that which is i^amly inconsistent with sound roason. 
FoolUh implies either a perversion of that faculty, or 
weakness or fatuity of mind. Absurd means that which 
is plainly opposed to propriety and truth. Prepotteroiu 
supposes an absolute inversion in the order of things. 

Ab«1II«l-ty (-T-tj^), n. -1. A behig absurd. 2. Any- 
thing absurd. 

A-bon'dailOt (i-b&uMans), n. [L. abundantia^ fr. 
abnndare. See Abouhd.I Overflowing fullness ; profu- 
sion ; superfluity ; wealth. 

Syn. — Abuhdamcs ; Plshtt ; Exvbuahcb : copious- 
ness : riches ; affluence ; wealth. —The first three of these 
words express the idea of fullness. Plrmty denotes a suffi- 
ciency to supply every want. Abundance gives the idea 
of superfluity or excess. Eiuberanet implies a bursting 
forth in grsM superfluity or redundance. 

A-bnn'dant a. PientifuL — A-bnn'duit-ly, adv. 

8yn. - See Amtlb. 

A-bOM' (-bus'), r. /. [F. abuser ; L. abusus^ p. p. of 
abuH to misuse ; ab-{-uiito use. See Us«.] 1. To mie- 
nse ; to pervert. 2. To use ill ; to punish or tax excet- 
■ively ; to hurt. 3. To revile ; to disparage. 

Syn. — To maltreat ; injure ; revile ; reproach ; vilify ; 
Tituperate : asperse ; traduce ; malign. 

A-bOM' (-bus'), n. 1. Improper treatment or use. 
2. A corrupt practice or custom. 3. Insulting speech. 

Syn. — Abuse ; Ihvkttvk ; contumely ; reproach ; scur- 
rility ; insult ; opprobrium. — AbttJte is generally prompt- 
ed by anger, and vente<l in harsh words, generally in 
Srivate quarrels. Inreetire is used In writing or public 
isrussions, and may be conveyeti in refined lanKU***?** and 
dictated by indignation against what is blameworthy. 

A-bn'Stre (-bu'sTv), a. l. Wrongly used : misap- 
plied. 2. Practicing abnse ; vituperative ; scurrilous. — 

A-bii'al¥0-ly, adr. ~ A-bn'stre-nen, n. 

A-bnt'(A-bat0.v.<. [OF. otonler, a (L. «f) + Mm*, 
buter^ to push.] To terminate or border ; to meet ; ~ 
with on, upon, or against. 

A-bnt1llMlt(-bQt'meut),n. 1. An abutting. 2. That 
on or against which a body abuts or presses. 

A-blrt'tal (-tol), n. Butting or boundary of land. 

A-byiKmal (-bis'mal), a. Bottomless; profound. 

A-byM' C-bTs'), n. [L. abyssus a bottomless gulf, 
fr. Gr. afivaoKK bottomlcos ; a priv. -\- ^v<ro-6f bottom. J 
An uufathomed depth ; hell, or the bottomless pit. 

A-byu'al (-al), a. Like an abyss ; fathomless. 

A-€a'0lft (-kS'ahi or .shT-&), n. ; nl. E. Acaciai 
(-shiz), L. -CUB (-shT-S). [L., fr. Gr. ataxia a thorny 
Egyptian tree.l 1. A genus of legumi- j' 
nous trees and shrubs. 2. Inspi&sated i 
juice of several species of acacia ; — called I 
also ffum acacia^ and ffum arabir. 

Ac'a-dMn'lo (ik'i-dSm'Tk), Ac'a- 

dtmlc-al (-T-kal), a. [L. academicus.] 
Belonging to an academy or institution of 
learning ; scholarly ; classical, in distinc- 
tion from scientific. — Ac'ft-dcmlo-ftl-ly, 

Ac^a-tfem^ n. 1. A Platonic philos- 
opher. 2. A member of an academy, col- 
lege, or ui.iversitv ; an academician. 

Ad-tfem'io-aft (-T-kalz), n. pi. Dress 
worn at some colleges and uiiiven^ities. 

ACA-tfe-mi'dan (-d#-mTsL'an), n. A 
member of an academy. 

A-CHd'C-Biy (4-kXd't-my), n. [F. aeadSmif, L. aeade- 
mta.l 1. A garden near Athens (named from the hero 
Academus), where Plato taught the Platonic philosophy. 
2. An iubtitution for higher learning ; a school rankhig 
I btt^eeu a college and a common school. 3. A society 
for advancement of art, science, or literature. 

Ac'a-leph (Sk'4-ie(), Aca-Ie'pluui (-IS'fan), n. One 
of tliC Acalephie. 

II Ac'a-Whhm (IS'fe), n. pi. [NL., fr. Gr. MpJi^ri 
a nettle.] A group of invertebrates including the jelly- 
fishes and hydroids ; — so called from the stinging power 
they poat«&8. Sometimes called sea nettles. 

A-cantbllS (4-kIn'th&s), n.;pl. E. Acasthusss (-Sz), 
L. AcAKTUi (thi). [L., fr. Or. 
aicai'^, fr. oKovBa thorn, fr. ( 
am} point. See Acute. ] 1. A 
genus of herbaceous prickly 

Slants, found in the south of 
Europe, Asia Minor, and India. 
2. An architectural ornament 
resembling the acanthus, used 
in capitals of the Corinthian 
and Composite orders. 

A-«at't-lec'tio (-k«t'4-i?k'. 
tTk), a. [Or. oxaraAiHcrK not defective at the end.] 
Mot defective. »n. A verse having the complete num- 
ber of syllables. 

Ac-cede' (ftk-sW). r. i. [L. accedere to approach, ac- 
cede ; ad -f cedere to move, yield.] 1. To enter upon 
au ofl^ce ; to attain. 2. To become a party ; to assent. 

Syn.— To agree : consent ; comply ; acquiesce ; concur. 

Ac-oel'«r-ate (-t«l'2r-at), v. t. [L. aceeUmtus, p. p. 
of aecelerare ; ad -f celerare to hasten.] To quicken 
tlie motion or process of ; to hasten. — AO-CCl'cr-AtiOll, 
n. — Ao-cel'er-A'tor. n. & a. 

Syn. - To hasten : expedite : quicken ; dispatch ; for- 
ward ; advance : further. 

Ao-oePer-A-tlve (-A-tTv), Ac-cel'cr-a-to-ry (-A-te-rJ), 

a. Relating to nroelt^ration ; quickening. 

Ao'oent (SkVCnf), n. [L. accrntut; ad + cantus a 
singine, canrre to sing. See Cant. J 1. A superior force 
of voice upon a particular syllable of a word or a phrase. 
2. A character used in writing, to regulate the pro- 
nunciation ; esp. : (a) a mark to indicate the place of the 

Acanthus {Arch.). 

ft, e, 1, 5, a, long , ft, e, 1, 5, 0. S', short ; senftte, (vent, tdea, Obey, Anite, cAre, iirm, ask, |^l, finaL 


frpoken accent ; (6) a mark to indicate the sound of the 
vowel uiarked ; as, the French accents. 3. Modulation 
of the voice in speaking ; manner of pronouncing. 

Ao-oent' (Sk-sfinf ), v. t. To pronounce, utter, or mark 
with accent ; to emphasize. 

Ac-oentn-al (-seu'ttt-al), a. Relating to accent; 
formed by accent. 

Ao-0«llla-Ate (-St), v. /. [LL. aeetntualusj p. p. of 
accfntuare^ fr. L. accetUus.'\ To mark or pronounce 
wiih accenU ; to emphasize. — A(MWII't11-a'tMII, n. 

AlHMpt' (-sfipf), V. t. [P. accepter^ L. acceptare^ 
freq. of aecipere ; ad 4- capcre to take. I 1. To receive 
with a consenting mind ; to approve. 2. To admit and 
agree to. 3. To understand. 4. To receive as obliga- 
tory and promise to pay (a draft, bill, etc.). 

8yn. — To receive ; take ; admit. See Rscxrvs. 

Ao-oept'a-ble, a. Worthy or sure of being accepted ; 
gratifying ; welcome. — Ao-onit'A-liU1-ty, Ao-oept'a- 
Dto-iMSB, n. — Ac-^epf a-lily, adv. 

ACh€#p>f anoe (-<in8), n. 1. An accepting ; a receiv- 
ing what is offered, with satisfaction or acquiescence ; 
approval. 2. An ei^;agement by one on whom a bill of 
exchange is drawn, to pay it when due ; an accepted 
bill. 3. An agreeing to terms of a bargain. 

Ao'oep-talUMl (Sk'sSp-ta'sh&n), n. The meaning in 
which a word or expression is generally received. 

Ao^evt'er (Sk-s6pt^r), n. 1. One who accepts ; a 
taker. 2. In law, an ac<«ptor. 

Ao-cepfor (-ir or -0r), n. [L.] One who accepts; 
one who accepts an order or a bill of exchange. 

AlH)MS' (Sk-sSs^ or Sk'eSs), n. [L. accesms^ fr. ae- 
eedere. Bee Accede.] 1. A coming to ; approach ; ad- 
mission ; accessibility. 2. Means or way of approach ; 
pusage. 3. Increase; addition. 

A€H09afWtL-Tf (-sSs'st-rj^), a. Accompanying, as a sub- 
ordinate ; accessory ; contributing to a crime, but not 
as chief actor. See Accbssort. <— n. One who is an as- 
sistant or instigator to a crime, though not present at 
its commission. 

Ao-C«Ml-1lle (-T-b*l), a. Easy of access ; approacha- 
ble. — Ao-cen'l-ViT, adv. — Ao-oaM'i-Mll-ty, n. 

Aci OOa'rtnn (-sfisVCn), n. [L. accession fr. acceder^. 
See AocKOB.1 1. An acceding and becoming Joined. 
2. Increase by something added ; augmentation. 3. A 
coming to a throne, office, or dignity. 

S711.— Increase; augmentation; enlargement. 

Ao'oes-WKrl-al (Sk^ses-MS'rl-ol), a. Pertaining to an 

Ao-oeg^lO FT (Xk-sSs^sd-rj^), a. [L. accexxorius. See 
Access, and cf. Accessary.] Accompanying as a sub- 
ordinate ; additional ; contributing or contributory. ' 

Syn. — Accompanying; contributory: auxiliary; sub- 
sidiary ; subservient ; additional ; acceding. 
— n. 1. An accessary ; something additional and subor- 
dinate. 2. A feature of a work of art, ornamental but 
not necessary. 

Syn. — Abettor ; accomplice. See Abettor. 

Ao'd-dOMM (Sk'sT-dens), n. [Corrup. of E. accidents. 
See Accident, 2.] The infections of words; the rudi- 
ments of a subiect. 

Al/0l-4eilt (-dent), n. [F., fr. L. accident^ -dentis^ 
p. pr. of accidere to happen ; ad -|- cadere to f alL See 
Gadbncb, Cass.] 1. A chance event ; contingency ; cas- 
ualty ; mishap. 2. A property of a thing not essential 
to it, or as distinguished from its substance. 

Ao'el-dMltalt a. 1. Happening by chance; casual. 
2. Nonessential ; incidental. — Ao'ol-de&'tal-ly* adv. 

Syn. — AccmBiiTAL ; Inciobictal : Casual; Fortui- 
TotTB : CoHTnfOEMT ; occasional ; adventitious. — A thing is 
called acc^ental when it falls out as b^ chance, and not 
ha the regular course of things. It is mcidenint when it 
falls, as it were, into some regular course of things, but 
is secondary, and forms no essential part thereof. It is 
easHol, wlmi it happens by chance, without being pre- 

Besk and Tslons of one of the 
Accipitre* cGyrfalcon). 


meditated, and when it is somewhat unimportant. FoT' 
ttiUotit applies to what ocouiit without known cause, and 
in opposition to what has been foreseen. CoHti$igefU re- 
fers to what, considered in itself, may or may not hap- 
pen, but depends on something else. 

II Ao-clpl-ter (Sk-sTp^-t8r), n.; pi. E. Aocipmu 


(-tr8z). [L.,hawk.] A 
genus of rapacious i 
birds ; one of the Ac- \ 
cipitres or rapacious 
birds, which have a 
hooked bill, and sharp, 
strcmgly curved tal- 
ons. The vultures, fal- 
cons or hawks, and 
owls are examples. 

Ao-^laim' (-klamO, 
V. t. & i. [L. accla- 

mare ; ad -f- clamare to cry out.] To applaud ; to shout. 
— n. Acclamation. 

Ao^ola-ma'tlOll (-kli-mi'shOn), n. A shout of appro- 
bation, assent, or approval ; applause. 

Ao-oUun'a-tO-ry (-klSm'4-t«-rj^), a. Applauding. 

Ao-cUlnate (-kli'mit), v. /. [F. aedimater; h (L. 
ad)-^cUmat climate.] To acclimatize. —Ao'oll-llia'- 

Ac-oii'ma-ti-ia'tlOll (-mi-tT-zX'shttn), n. A making, 
or becoming, used to a new climate. 

Ac-cU'Oia-tlzo (-tiz), r. t. To inure to a climate dif- 
ferent from that which is natural: to adapt to the 
peculiarities of a foreign or strange climate. 

Ao-oUvl-ty (-klTvT-ty), n. [L. aeclivUat, fr. accli- 
nts^ ascending ; ad -\- clivus a hill, slope.l A slope con- 
sidered as ascending, in opposition to declivity^ or de- 
scending ; ascent. 

Ao-cu'voiis (-kli'viis), a. Sloping upward ; rudng, at 
a hillside ; — opposed to dedivous. 

Ao-oom'mo-date (-k5m'm^-dXt), v. t. [L. aecommo- 
datus, p. p. of accommodare ; ad -\- commodore to make 
fit, help ; con- -(- modus measure. Bee Mode.] 1. To 
render fit or correspondent ; to adapt. 2. To bring into 
agreement ; to reconcile ; to settle. 3. To furnish with 
something desired or convenient ; to oblige. 

Syn. — To suit ; adapt ; conform ; adjust ; arrange. 

Ao-COm^O-da'ting (-dX^Tng), a. Affording, or ready 
to afford, accommodation ; obliging. 

Ao-oom'mo-datloa (-dX'shQn), n. 1. A fitting or 
adapting; adjustment. 2. Obligingnesa. 3. Whatever 
supplies a want or affords ease or convenience : anythlna 
furnished which is desired or needful ; pi., lodgings and 
food, as at an inn. 4. Adjustment of differences ; rec- 
onciliation ; settlement. 6. A loan of money or credit. 

Ao-oomiHi-lli-IIMBt (Sk-klim'pi-nT-mrat), n. That 
which accompanies or is added for completeness, orna- 
ment, or symmetry ; in music, a subordinate part accom- 
panying the voice or principal instrument. 

Ao-Oom'INI-lllst (-j^nTst), n. Musical performer who 
takes the accompanying part. 

Ao-OOOl'pa-liy (-nj^), v. t. [F. accompngner to asso* 
ciate with,fr. OF. campaign companion. See Compaht.] 
To go with as a companion or associate. 

Ao-OOOl'pUoe (-kom'plTs), n. [Ac- (perh. for the ar- 
ticle a or for L. ad) -+- E. complice (obs.). See Coiiru- 
CATS.] An associate in a crime. 

Syn. — See Abbttob. 

Ao-oooi'plUdl (-pllsh), V. t. [F. aceomplir ; L. <uf + 
complere to fill up. J 1. To complete. 2. To effect ; to 
fulfill. 3. To equip thoroughly ; to render accomplished. 

Syn. — To do ; perform ; fidflll : effect ; complete ; ex- 
ecute ; achieve ; perfect ; equip ; furnish. 

/IfMWnn^lttlllHl (-plTsht), a. Completed ; effected ; 
complete in acquirements. 

fCm, recent, 6rb, ryde, f ^ Urn, food, ftfbt, out, oU, eliair, so, aius, ink, then, tliiii. 


AO^OOfpUlll-mtllt (Kk-kSn/pITsh-mCTit), n. 1. An 
•ccomplishnig ; completion; fiuflUment. 2. Acquire- 
ment; attainment. 

AOHOOBUpt'ailt (-koanfant), ». An accountant. 

JLo-OOfv (-kdrdOt n. [F., n., accord, harmony; t., 
aeeorder^ tr. LL. accordare ; L. ad-^eor^ eordiSj heart.] 

1. Agreement or concurrence; harmony; aaaeut. 2. 
Harmony of aounda; concord. — v. /. 1. To make to 
agree or corretpond ; to reconcile ; to settle or compoee. 

2. To grant ; to concede ; to award. ^ r. i. To agree. 
Ao-MKtfliBOO (-ana), n. Agreement ; harmony. 
Ao-OQKtf 'ant (-ant), o. CoQsonant ; harmonious. 
Ao-OOfd'lllKt p. a. Agreeing; harmonious. 
AlMMrdtBf-ly, adv. 1. Agraeably ; correspondingly ; 

■nitably. 2. Consequently ; so. 

S711. — AocoKDiHOLT ; GoiTSBQUSirrLT ; therefore : 
wherefore; hence: ao. — Accordinylu and ronseqtterUly 
indicate a connection between two things, the latter of 
which is done <m account of the former. Accordingly 
marks the connection as one leading naturally to the 
result which f <41owed. Consequenily marks a connection 
of logical or causal sequence. 

Ao-OOr'Al-OB (-kdr'dT-fin), n. A musical instrument, 
hsTing bellows which force wind upon free metallic reeds. 

Ao-^OSf (-kSsf), V. /. [F. aecotter^ LL. aecostare to 
bring side by side ; L. ad -f- cotia rib, side.] To speak 
to first ; to address. [hi chUdbed. I 

|]A0-00a6h«'IIMBt(Uc-kS5sh'mKif),n. [F.] DeUvery| 

II Ao-OOO-tillMU' (-k05-sh8r'), M. [F.] OnewhoassisU 
women in childbirth ; an obstetrician. 

flAo-OOll-ekmiM'(-sh&').n. [f.] a midwife. 

Ao-«OBBt' (ik-kount')« v. t [OF. aconter; a (L. ad) 
•\- canter to count, F. conter to tell, compter to count, L. 
eomptitefv.] To T&Iue or estimate ; to judge ; to deem, 
i— V. i, 1. "To render an account or relation of |/%rticu- 
lara. 2. To render an account ; to answer in judgment ; 
— with /or. 3. To give a satisfactory reason; to ex- 
plain ; — with /or. — n. LA reckoning ; computation ; 
statement of buainess dealings or of things subjected to 
a reriew. 2. A statement of reasons, causes, or occur- 
rences ; narrative ; report. 3. An estimate ; valuation ; 
judgment. 4. Importance; value; profit. 

8711. — Accouirr ; Karkativb : Nakbatioh : Ricital ; 
relMioB ; description ; explanation ; rehearsal. — An ac- 
count Ituns attention to the fact related, and applies to 
the report of some event, or group of incidents. A 
narratfre is a story of connected incidents. Narration 
is usually the same as narrative, but is sometimes used 
to describe the mode of relating events. A ircital is a 
aeries of minute particulars, usually peculiarly interest- 
ing to the speaker. 

A»«0Ut'a-1lle (-i^b*!), a. Liable to be called to 
account.— Ao-oomt'a-1m1-ty, Ao-ooimt'a-ble-iiew, n. 

87II. —Amenable ; responsible ; liable ; answerable. 

ACHMNIBfUlt (-ant), n. One who renders account ; 
one who keeps, or adjusts, accounts ; an officer in charge 
of accounts. 

Ao-OOOter, ) (-k«yt8r), v. t. [F. accoutrer.'^ To fur- 

Ao-OOVtret f ni«b with dress or equipments , to array. 

Ao-<Km't«r-lllMttS, ) n. pi. Dress; trappings; esp., 

AfHKmtra-intlltl, i equipments worn by soldiers. 

Ao-orad^ (-krMat), v. t. [F. accvMiter; h (L. ad) 
-f- erSdit credit] 1. To invest with credit or authority ; 
to sanction. 2. To send (an ambassador or agent) with 
letters credential; to authorize (a messenger or dele- 
gate). 3. To credit ; to put trust in. 

AfHawtton (-krfi'shfin), n. [L. accretio, fr. ac- 
crejtcere to increase.] 1. Increase by natural growth ; 
matter added by accession of parts externally. 2. Con- 
cretion ; coherence of separate particles. 3. A growing 
together of parts naturally separate. 

AlHVllt' (-krn'), V. i. [F. accroUre ; L. arf -|- cre*cere 
to increase.] To increase ; to arise as a growth or re- 
sult ; to be added as increase, profit, or damage. 

Ao'oa-IWtiOIl (IkOctt-bi'shlln), n. [L. accubatio, fr. 


acctibare to recline ; ad -f- cttbare to lie down.] A re- 
clining on a couch, aa practiced by the ancients at meals. 

AOrtmmfhnX (Ik-kfimn>«ut), a. 1. RecUmng, as the 
ancients did at meals. 2. Lying again^ anjrtuing, aa 
one part of a leaf against another leaf. — n. One who 
reclines at table. 

AfHm^ll-lAte (-ku'md-lat), r. (. [L. accumulatM^ 
p. p. of accumulare ; ad -\- cumulare to heap.] To 
hei^ up in a mass ; to collect, ^v. L To increase. 

Syn. — To collect ; pile up , store up ; amass ; gather. 

Ao-€ll^ll-4A'tkait n. An accumulating or being ac- 
cumulated : that which i» accumulated. 

Ao-oa'flUl-lft-ttVS (-It-tTv), a. Serving to collect or 
amass ; cumulative ; additional. 

AfHm^ll-U'tor (-IS'tSr), n. [L.] 1. One that ac- 
cumulates or amswses 2. A mechanical contrivance for 
storing power, such as the cylinder storing water for 
hydraulic elevators, the storage battery for accumulathng 
«ner^ of electrical charges, etc 

Ac^-im-oy (Xk^kd-dUj^), n. The being accurate; 
conformity to truth or to a rule ; correctness. 

Ao'OQ-imte (-rtt), a. [L. accurattUy p. p. & a., fr. ac- 
curare ; ad-\- curare to take care.] In exact conform- 
ity to truth, or to some requirement ; free from failure ; 
exact. — Ao'cn-imto-ly, adv. — Ao'Oll'imtt-llMMK n. 

Syn. — AccuEATV : Corebct ; Exact ; PRicm ; just; 
nice ; particular. — A thing is called conect with refer- 
ence to some rule or standard of comparison. It is styled 
acrura/e with reference to the care bestowed upon its ex- 
ecution, and its consequent correctness. A thing is exact 
with reference to a perfected state in which there Is no 
defect and no redundance. A thing \b precise when it ia 
strictly conformed to some rule. 

Ao-OOrM' (-kfirsOf V' t' To curse ; to execrate. 

Ao-eVMa' (p. p. -ktlrst', a. -kfirs^), Ac-CUIt' 
{p. p. & a. -kfirst'). Doomed to destruction or misery ; 
curaed ; execrable ; detestable. 

Ao'Oll-U'tioa (Kk'kA-a'shBn), n. 1. A charging 
with an offense. 2. That of which one is accused. 

Syn. — Impeachment ; crimination ; censure ; charge. 

Ao-on'M-tfTe (Kk-ku'sA-tTv), a. [L. accutativus, fr. 
accutare. See Accubb.] Applied to the case of the ob- 
ject on which the action of a verb terminates. It corre- 
sponds to the objective case in English. — n. The accu- 
sative case in grammar. — Ao-cn'U-ttre-ly , adv. 

Ao-oa'U-tO-IT (-sA-t^-Tj^), a. Pertaining to, or con- 
taining, accusation. 

Ao-OIIM' (-kuz'), T. t. [L. accusare to accuse ; ad + 
causa cause, lawsuit.] To charge with a crime or fault ; 
to censure. — Ao-OllB'«r, n. 

•Syn. — To Accusb; Chabob; Impbach; Abeaiok; 
blame ; censure ; reproach ; criminate ; indict. — To ac- 
cuse is a formal act, applied usually to crimes. Charge 
may refer to a crime, a fault, etc., more commonly to 
moral delinauencles. To arraign is to bring (a person) 
before a tribunal for trial. To impeach Is ofncially 
to charge with misbehavior in office. 

Ao-OttSlOlll (-kfis'tfim), V. t. [OF. acostumcr ; a (L. 
ad) -f- OF. costume custom.] To make familiar by use ; 
to habituate or familiarise ; ^ with to. 

Syn. — To habituate ; biure ; exercise ; train. 

Aoe (is), n. / pi. AoBs (a'sSz). [OE. & F. as, fr. L. 
as, assisy unity, a copper coin. Cf. As.] 1. A unit ; a 
single spot on a card or die ; the card or die so marked. 
2. A very small quantity or degree ; an atom ; jot. 

A-0epn'a-l01UI (A-pSf &-lfis), a. [Or. ix^faXo^ ; d priv 
+ «c^aAi) head.] Headless ; without a distinct head ; 
deficient at the beginning, as a line of poetry. 

A-oerb'l-ty (-sSr'bT-ty), n. [F. acerbiti, L. actrli- 
tas, fr. acerbus, fr. ncer sharp.] 1. Sourness of taste, 
with bitterness and astringency, like unripe fruit. 
2. Harshness or severity. 

A-oes'OMlt (-sSs'efnt), a. [L. acescens, -cutis, p. pr. of 
acescere to turn sour. Bee Acid.] Turning sour ; r«adily 

£, S, 1, 3, 0, long ; A, £, 1, 5, 0, ^, short ; senftte, £vent, Idea, 6bey, Anite, cAre, lirm, »ak, ||11, final. 


r add ;aUght]v tour.— n. A sabtUnoe Uftbto to 

— Aow^O—oa Ok-dte^aens), A-^es'otii-oy, n. 

Al/0-tat« (ia^ttt), n. [L. acetum vinegar, fr. aeere 
to be •oar.] A salt formed by acetic acid. 

A-COHo (4-»SaTk or ^tak)« o. Portaining to, like, 
<Hr prodndng, Tinegar or its ing^vdieuta. 

A-0«tl-tl^»ftnioa (-aSt/I-iT-ki'ab&n), n. A making 
•our ; formation of Tinegar. 

A-0«tl-ty (-eSt^-fl), V. A [L. aeetum Wnegar + -fy,} 
To convert into acid or vinegar. ^ v. i. To turn acid. 

Ao'e-tlBi'o-tMr (Ivt-tTm't-tSr), Ao'e-tooi'e-tar (-t5m'. 
t-tSr), A. [L. aeetum -{- -meter.] An iuatrumeut for 
abowing tbe amount of acetic acid in any liquid. 

A-OlAoni (4-88 'tSs), Ao^e-tOM' (b't-tSe'), a. 
1. Boor; acid. 2. Causing acetiflcation. 

AitihM (ik), n, [AS. CM, fee, f r. acan to acbe.] Con- 
tinued pain, aa diatinguiahed from spaamodic pain. ^ 
9. i. To auffer pain ; to be distreaaed. (.achieved. I 

A-^htoT'ft-VU (A^hSv^i-bM), a. Capable of being | 

A-Olda^*' (-ch8vO» f. '. [OF. achever^ nehievety to 
flniah ; a (L. a<f) -I- OF. chi^f end, head, fr. L. caput 
bead. See Canr.] To carry on to a final close ; to 
accomplish ; to perform ; to win. — A-^htoT^MT, n. 

Syn. — See Accompubb. 

A-4Akm^m&ai, n, [Cf. F. achhtement^ E Hatch- 
mar.] 1. An achieving or performing ; successful per- 
formance ; acoomplisbment. 2. A great or heroic deed ; 
a feat. 3. An heraldic escutcheon ; a funeral chield, 
commonly called hatchment. 

Aldl'nHBatlO (Sk'rft-mltnrk), a. [Or. avpM^aroc 
eolorleaa ; « priv. 4- Xfi**f^ )^*H*^f^* color.] Free from 
color ; transmitting Ught without decomposing it into its 
primary colors ; not absorbing color from a fluid. 

AOklo-mik'tk^tf (-mi-tTsa-tf), A-ohio'aui-tlim 
(i-kriKmA-tTz^m), n. The quality of being achromatic. 

U A-ote'S-U (A-sIk'tt-lA), n. ; pi. AcicvhM (-15). [L., 
a small needle, dim. of octM needle.] Anything likis a 
needle, as a sphie, bristie or crystaL 

A-fiti/ll-lar (-tSr), a. Needle-shaped ; slender like a 
brirtle; having sharp points like needles. 

Aoid (Ksntd), a. [L. acidue sour. Cf. Actttb.] 
Soar, sharp, or biting to the taste ; tart ; pertaining to 
an add.i— A. A sour substance; substance capable of 
combining with b ases to form salts and of reddening veg- 
etable blue colors. 

A-oMn-ffft-Ue (4.sTdT-fi'&-b*l), a. Capable of being 
addifled, or converted into an acid. 

A-cUn-fT (-T-fi), r. t. [L. acidus + -fy.] To make 
add ; to sour ; to imbitter. — A-old^l-fl-€ft'tiOB, n. 

AdO^III'e-tor (isOTd-Im^tSr), n. [L. acidus -i- -me- 
ter.'] An instrument to show the strength of adds. 

A-€Ml-ty (A-sIdT-tj^), Aolfl-IIMS, n. Sourness ; Urt- 
ness ; sharpness to tbe taste. 

A-eM^ll4at» (-tt-lit), v. t. To make acid in a moder- 

B degree ; to sour somewhat. 

A»-kllOWl'«df« (Ik-nBl'SJ), r: t. [Prob. fr. prof. 

> degree ; 

I (-lUi). a. Slightly sour ; sub-add. 

-f verb knowledge.] To own or admit 'knowledge of ; to 
recognise as a truth or aa oenuine ; to assent to (a legal 
instrument, to give it validity). 
Syn.— To Ackvowlkdob; RaoooinzB: avow; pro- 
admit; allow; conce^: confess. — Re- 

claim; own; 

kmowledoe \a ovpoted to conceal^ and sunposes something 
previooalv known which we now feel bound to make 
public. Jteeognize suppoaes that we have forgotten or 
not had a thing distinctly in mind, but that now we know 
and admit it. See alao CoirFBss. 

A»laMWl'«dC-flMBt, n. 1. An acknowledging ; ad- 
mission ; recognition. 2. Courteous recognition ; ex- 
rssioo of thanka; return for a favor, message, etc. 
An avowal of one*s own act, to give it legal validity ; 
the certificate of such declaration. 

Sjn. — Confession : concession ; recognition ; admis- 
iian; avowal; recognisance. 


Ao'BM (Xk'mt), A. [Or. oKfAM point, top.] The top or 
highest point; culmination; crisis of a dliMse. 

Ao'O-lyt* (-^-Ut), Ao^o-lytk (-nth), m. [Gr. UiKnAot 
following.] An inferior church officer ; an asfeistaut. 

Ao^O-Btle (-nit), A. [L. acoA^Kin, Or. flutovtror.] The 
herb wolfsbane, or monluhood ; extract or tincture used 
as a poison and medicinally. — Ao'O-llltIo (-uTtTk), a. 

A'OOfB (Sn^ttm). A. '•" - • -.. 

The fruit of the oak. 

A-0«t'7-le'dOO (&-k0tnr-18'dttn), A. [Or. i. priv. -\- 
Korvknbnv anything cup-shaped. See CoTTLBDOif.] A 
plant wliich has no cotyledons. 

A-0«t'y-ltd'oa-OlU (-lU'llo-fis), a. Having no seed 
lobes ; having no true seeds, as ferns, mosses, etc. 

A-OOIUi^tlo (-kous'tTk or -kfid^-). a. PSr oucovtm- 
m6i relating to hearing, f r. axouctv to hear.] Pertaining 
to hearing, or science of sounds ; auditory. — m. A 
medicine or agent to assist hearing. — A-OOOStllHd, a. 

A-OOUtkM, A. [Names of sciencee in -k«, as, ueou*- 
ttes^ mathenudicty etc., are usually treated aa singular.] 
Sdence of sounds, their nature, phenomena, and laws. 

Ao-^nalllf (Ik-kwintO, v. t. [OE. aqueinien^ OF. 
aeointtett LL. adcognitarcy fr. L. ad -^ cogniiui^ p. p. of 
cognoMcere; con- -f noscere to know.] 1. Tb make (one) 
to know ; to make familiar. 2. To inform. 

Syn. — To inform ; apprise ; communicate ; adviae. 

Ao-^pudnfaaoo (-<ins), n. l. Familiar or intimate 
knowledge. 2. A person or persons with whom one is 
acquainted. — Ao-qiudiiraiioe-alily* «*• 

Syn. — Acquaihtamcb; FAMiUABmr; Ihtimact; fel- 
lowship; knowledge. — ^cotmin/dATf arisea from occa- 
sional Intercourse. Famitiaritv is the result of such 
continued acquaintance that there ia no lomcer any 
restraint and reserve. Intimacy is the result ctttec in- 
terchange of thought. 

Ao^gnX 9&0it^ (Ik'kwT-SsO, v. i. [L. aequieseere; ad 
-j- quicMcere to be quiet, fr. quiet rest.] To rest satia* 
fled ; to consent by silence or by omitting to object. 

Syn. —To submit; comply; jrield; asaent: a( 
consent ; accede ; concur ; conform ; accept tacitly. 

Ac'qvl-M'Otllt (-srat), a. Resting satiafled or sab- 
missive. — Ao^gid-M'oeBoo, Ao'giil-iiroMi-oy, a. 

Ao-qnlre' (-kwIrO, v. t. [L. acquirere^ aequititum; 
ad -f- quaerere to seek for.] To gain, usually by one*a 
own exertions. •— Ao-qidr'a-ble, a. 

Syn. — To obtain ; gain ; attabi ; procure ; win ; earn ; 
secure. See Obtaih. 

Ao-qvtn'BMllt, A. An acquiring ; anything acquired ; 

STn. — AcQuninoir ; Acqvibbmbmt. — Acquirement ia 
used in oppoeitiou to a natural gift or talent, and denotes 
especially personal attainments, in opposition to external 
thingB gained, which are usually called acquisition*. 

Ao^qid-ll'tlOII (-kwT-iIsh'On), n. 1. An acquiring. 

2. Thing acquired or gained ; an acquirement 
Ao-qidan-tt?* (-kwIsa-tTv), a. Able or disposed to 

make acquisitions ; acquiring. — Af)-qilia'l-tt¥*4y, adv, 
— Af)-qid0l-tt¥«-llMS, n. 

Ao-qotr (-kwTtO, v, t. [F. acquiUer; h (L. a<f)4- 
quitter to quit.] 1. To c'Ls-liarge (a claim or debt); 
to pay off; to requite. 2. To set free or discharge 
from an obligation, burden, accusation, or charge. 

3. Reflexivelv: (a) To clear one*s self. (6) To con- 
duct one^s self; to perform one*s part. 

Syn. — To abe<rfve; clear: exonerate; exoolpate; re- 
lease ; discharge. See Absolvb. 

Ao-avlttal (-t^l). a. l. An acquitting ; diachargB 
from debt or obligation. 2. In law, a deliverance from 
the charge of an offense, by verdict of a jury or sentence 
of a court. 

Ao-qvlttaBOe (-tans), n. 1. A release or discharge 
from liability. 2. A writing which is evidence of a du- 
charge ; a receipt in full. 

ftm, recent, 6rb, r^df^ '^^ ^'^"h food, f<^t, out, oil, otair, so, sins, iQk, ttien, tliin. 


A'ort (i^dlr), n. [AS. aeer ; akin to L. OjQtr^ Gr. 
IyP^, fleld.] ▲ piece of land coutaioinf 160 aquare roda. 
A'OPMICt (-tJ)* *• Acrea collectively. 
Aoild (Ik'rld), a. [L. aeer aharp. See Eaodu] 

1. Sharp and banh, or bitter and hot, to the taate ; 
pungent. 2. Cauaing heat and irritation; corroaive. 
iTCauatio; irritatma. — A-oMl-ty (4^krIdTtj^), Al/- 
lld-ll0Mf n. ~ AoW-ly, adv, 

AoM-mo-ny (Sk'rT-w^ny), n. [L. acrimonia, fr. 
aeer aharp.] Sharpneaa or ae verity ; bitteme«i of dia- 
poaition or mannera. — Ao^ri-mO^-OIIS (-niyuI-QB), a. 

— Acrl-mo'iii-oiu-ly, adv. 

S^.^AcsniONT: AapuuTTj HABSHima: Tartkbm. 

— Asperity and hnrmufM ariae irotn auery f eeliuga, with 
diaregard for the feeliiiga of othera. Har$hnes» iiaually 
denotea needleaa aeventy. Acritnony u a biting aharp- 
neaa produced by an imbittered spirit. Tarinrss denotea 
alight aqwrity and impliea intellectual readiueaa. 

AClro-lMIt (-rd-bSt), n. [Or. ijcp6fiaTOt climbing aloft ; 
Jbcpot high -|~ jBoivtiv to ga] One who practicea rope 
daudng or daring gjminastic feata. — Ao'IO-lMlMOt a. 

AlOtn-tm (-JSn), n. [Or. itcpot -^ -ffen.} A plant of 
the higheat claaa of cryptogama, including the fema, etc. 

Ao-roc'«-BOlUI (-rOj^nCia), a. Increaaiug by growth 
from the extremity. 

A-«rail'yo (A-krSnTk), ) a. [Or. ixpoyvxot at night- 

A-«nill'yO-al (-T-kal), > fail; oKpoi + vv( night.] 

A-oron^Oll-ai (-T-kal), ) Riiing at aunaet and setting 
at aunrise, as a star ; — opposed to cosmical. 

A-erop'0-lUl (-kiSp'd-lTs), n. [Or. lUpoiroAif ; ok^ok 
-4-«<SAtt city.] The citadel of a Orecian city ; especially, 
the citadel of Athena. 

ACro-Spire (Ik'r^-aplr), n. [Or. mmk 4 <nr«ipa any- 
thing twisted.] Tiie sprout at the ena of a seed begin- 
ning to germinate. 

A-erOM' (4-kr6s0, prep. A adv. [Pref. o- + cross. 
See Caoes, n.] From aide to side; crosswise, or in a 
direction onpoeed to the length ; quite over. 

A-CHMltlO (-tTk), n. [Or. ivpoarixoc ; axpov extreme 
4-<rrt;(0t order, verse.] A compoaitton in which tlie 
first or last letters of tne linea, or certain other letters, 
taken In order, form a name, word, phrase, or motto. — 

A-«rMrtlo, A-crostlo-ftl, a. — A-oros'tlo-al-ly, adv. 

Act (Xkt), n. {L. nctusy fr. agere to drive, do. See 
AoBRT.] 1. That which is done or doing; perform- 
ance; deed, {n) The determination of a legislative 
body, court of justice, etc. ; a decree, law, judgment, 
award. (/>) A formal writing, expressing something 
done, (c) A principal division of a dramatic work. 

2. Process of doing ; action. — r. t. 1. To perform ; 
to represent dramatically. 2. To assume the oflBce or 
character of; to play; to personate. 3. To feign or 
counterfeit ; to simulate. — 1>. i. 1. To exert power ; to 

rduce an effect. 2. To be in action or motion. 
To behave or conduct ; to deport one*a self. 4. To 
perform on the stage ; to represent a character. 

n Ao-tlBl-A (Ik-tTn^-A), n. [Latinised fr. Or. oicrK, 
Ajn-ri^of , ray.] An animal resembling flowers in form and 
color, and often called animal Jiowrr and sea anemone. 

Ao-tlatO (-Tk), a. Pertaining to actinism. 

Ao^ttn-tem (Sk'tTn-Tx*m), n. The property of radiant 
energy (in solar or electric light) which produces chemi- 
cal changea. aa in photography. 

Ao^tkm (-shCin), n. [L. aWt'o, fr. agere. See Act.] 
1. A doing of sometliing ; exertion of power ; effect of 
power exerted ; agency ; operation. 2. An act ; thing 
done; deed; ui enterprise, (pi.) Conduct; behavior; 
demeanor. 3. In meclianics, effective motion ; meoh- 
aniam. i. A legal suit or process. 5* An engagement 
between troopa or ships in war ; battle ; flght. 

AotUm-a-me (-4-b'l), a. That may be the subject of 
an action or suit at law. — Ac/tlOIl-A-Dly, adv. 

Aottrv (-tTv), a. [L. aeiii*us, fr. agere to act.] 1. Hav- 
ing the power or quality of acting or of cau&ing action 


or motion;— oppoaed to passive, 2. Quick in move- 
ment ; nimble ; energetic ; buay ; lively. S. In grammar, 
applied to a form of the verb ; — oppoaed to passive ; also 
to v^rbs which aasert that the subject acts upon or affecta 
something else ; transitive. — Ao^T«-ly (BktTv-H^), aif r. 
- Al/tiTS-IMM, Ao-tt¥l-ty (tTv'T-tJ^), H. 

Sjn. — Agile ; alert ; brisk ; vigorous ; nimble ; lively ; 
quick; sprightly; prompt; energetic. 

Actor (ik'tJr), n. [L., fr. agere.^ 1. One who acts ; 
a doer. 2. A theatrical performer. 

Al/tren (-trSs), n. A woman who acta. 

AotQ-al (-ttt-<il, 40), a. 1. Existing in act or reality ; 
real. 2. In action at the time being; now existing; 
present — Ac'tQ-ftl-neM, ACtQ-all-ty (-«T-ty), II. - 
AotQ-Al-ly, adv. 

Syn. — Real ; genuine ; positive ; certaUi. See Real. 

Aotn-A-ry (-t-r^), n. [L. actuaritu clerk, fr. actns^ 
p. p. of agere. \ 1. A registrar or clerk. 2. Tlie com- 
puting official of an insurance company. 

Ao'ta-Ata (-5t), r. t. [IX. actwttusy p. p. of actuare^ 
fr. L. actus act.] To put into action or motion ; to in- 
cite ; to influence actively. 

Syn. — To move : impel ; incite ; instigate : animate. 

A-CUlO-Att (i-kult-tt), a. [L. acttleatus^ fr. acvlevs^ 
dim. of acits needle.] Having a 
ating, prickles, or sharp points. 

A-OQ'niMl (-mSn), n. [L., fr. 
acuere to sharpen. Cf. Acftk,] 
Quickness of perception or dis- Aculeste Stem, 

cemment ; nice discrimination. 

Syn. — Sharpneaa; aagadty; keenness; acuteneaa. 

A-ca'ml-liatt <-mT-ntt), a. Tapering to a point; 
pointed. — A-CU'ini-lia'tion, n. 

ACn-pVBOtvre (ik'tt-p&nk'tdr, 40), n. [L. anis a 
needle 4- punctvra a pncklug, fr. pungere to prick.] 
Pricking vrith a needle; insertion of 
needles into living tissues for remedial 

A-CUtt' (i-kutO, a. [L. octi/tM, p. p. 
of art/«rc to sharpen.] 1. Sharp at the V 

end ; pomted. 2. Having nice discern- 
ment ; penetrating : ahrewd. 3. Hav- 
ing quick sensibility; sharp; keen; 
intense. 4. High, or shrill in sound. 
6. Coming speedUy to a criaia.- ^^^,^ ^es^^ 
A-cutely, ndr. 

Acvts angle, an angle less than a right angle. 

Syn, —Subtile; ingenious; sharp; 
keen; penetrating: sagacious: sharp- 
witted ; shrew d : discerning ; discnnu- 
nating. See Bubtilb. 

A-cnte'neM, n. 1. Tlie being acute 
or pointed ; aharpness. 2. The fac- Acute Angle, 
ulty of nice dlscemment or percep- 
tion; acumen; keenness; sensitiveness. 3. Shrillness; 
hlKh pitch ; — said of sounds. 4. Violence of a diseaic, 
which brings It speedily to a crisis. 

8yn. — Penetration; sagaHty ; keenneas: higenoity; 
shrewdness; subtlety ; sharp-wittednoss. 

Ad'agO (Waj), 11. [F. ; fr. L. adaginm ; ad 4- rort 
of L. aio I siy.] An old saying, accredited by loi:g use. 

Syn. - Axiom ; maxim ; aphorism ; proverb ; aaymg ; 
saw : apothegm. See Axiom. 

II A-da'gio (i-dK'j6), a. & adv. [It ; ad (L. ad) at 
-f- agio leisure, ease. See Aoio. ] Blow ; slowly, lei- 
surely, and gracefully, ^n. A piece of music in adagio 
time ; a slow movement. 

Ad'a-mant (S4l'i-mSnt), n. [OF. : L. adama*^ adn- 
mon/Ct. the hardest metal, ifr. Gr. ofofiaf, -nvro^ ; o priv. 
-f jofifi' to suUIiie.] A f ubulouB stone of inq enetrabi* 
hardness ; the diamond or other very hard aubstance. 

Ad'a-man-ta'aii (3*'A-m&u-tS'an), Ad'a-mantlne 

&, S, 1, 5, a, long ; ft, C, I, 5, A, ^, abort ; aenftte, Cvcnt, Idea, 6bey, finite, cAre, jirm, aak, fUI, fMa\ 



(Mdfk'VaMn'iXn)t a. 1. Made of adamant ; impenetrabla. 
%. Like the diamond in hardness or lustre. 

AA'am'm ap'ple (id'omx ii/pU). 1. A large species 
of banana. 2. A spiecies of lime or lemon. 3. The pro- 
jection formed by the thjroid cartilage in the neck. 

A-tfapt' (i-dlpf), V. t. [L. adaptare; ad -\- aptare 
to fit.] To make suitable ; to fit ; to adjust. — A-d^^'- 
ft-bto, a. — A-tfAVt'A-tall1-ty, A-4Apt'A-1»i«-ll0Mf n. 

Aa'ap-UHlMI (Xd'Sp-tS'shiiu), n. 1. An adapting, or 
fitting, or iMing adapted; fitness. 2. The result of 
adapting ; an acUpted form. 

A4d (id), V, t, [L. addere ; ad -f- dare to give, put.] 

1. To give or bestow. 2. To join or unite (one thing to 
another) ; to sum up. — r. i. 1. To augment ; to increase. 

2. To perform the arithmetical operation of addition. 
8. To say further. 

Brn. — To Add : Joiw ; Amonc ; Ukiti ; Coalbscs. — We 
edd bT bringing things together so as to form a whole. 
We join by putting one thing to another in close connec- 
tkm. We annex by attaching some adjunct to a larger 
body. We unite by bringing things together so tliat their 
parts adhere or intermingle. Things coalewe by coming 
together or mingling hito organization. 

Add'a-llU (Sd^i-bU), a. Addible. 

n Ad-den'dimi (Sd-dSn'dBm), it. ; pt. Addkkda (-d&). 
[L., fr. addere. \ A thing to be added ; an appendix. 

Add'or (Sd'd?;r), n. Oae that adds ; a machhie for 
adding numbers. 

Ad^OMT, n. [AS. nmdre adder, snake ; akin to L. na- 
trix water snake. An adder is for a Hadder."} A small 
serpent of the viper kind. 

Addl-Mt (Sd'dT-bn) a. Capable of being added. — 

Ad-Otef (-dTktO, V. i. [L, addicttu, p. p. of addieere 
to devote ; ad -f- dieere to say.] To apply habitually ; to 
devote; to habituate. —Ad-dist'ed-n6U, Ad-dfo'tlOll, n. 

Syn. - To Addict ; Dsvotb ; Consbcratb ; Dedicatc 
— Addict was formerly used in a good sense, but now 
has a bad or indifferent one. Devote is always tiken in a 
good sense, expressing earnestness in pursuit of some 
favorite object. Consecrate and dedicate express devo- 
tkw of a higher kind, Evolving rdlig^ous sentiment. 

Ad-di'dflB (-dTsh'On), n. 1. An adding two or more 
things together. 2. Anything added; increase. 3. 
Arithmetical process of adding numbers. 

Syn. - Increase ; accession; augmentation; append- 
age; adjunct. 

Ad-ditfon-ftl (-al), a. Added ; supplemental ; in the 
way of an addition. — Ad-di'tUm-ftl-ly, adv, 

Ad'dlt (Sd'd'l), a. [OB. a<ie/, AS. (Miffto, mud.] Rot- 
ten ; putrid ; unfruitful or confused; muddled. ^r. /. 
&i. To make or grow addle ; to muddle. 

Ad-drraa' (M-drfa'). «•• t- [F. adreuer, fr. h (L. ad) 
-f- dres»er^ to arrange. See Drsss, p.] 1. To prepare 
(oae*s self) ; to apply (one's skill or energies, to some 
object) ; to betake. 2. To direct (words, to any one or 
any thing); to make (a speech, pstition, etc., to any 
one). 3. To direct in writing, as a letter ; to superscribe; 
to transmit. 4. To court ; to woo. 6. To consign or 
intrust to the care of another, as agent, ^n. 1. An ad- 
dressing one's self to a person ; verbal appUoation ; for- 
mal communication, written or spoken ; speech ; peti- 
tion. 2. Direction of a letter. 3. Mmner of speakhig 
to another ; delivery. 4. Attention in the way of court- 
ahip; — usually in pi. 6. Skill; dexterity; adroitness. 

Syn. — Speech ; discourse; harangue: oration; peti- 
tion ; lecture readiness ; ingenuity : tact ; adroitness. 

Ad-dOOd' (-dus'), r. /. [L. adducere, addttctum, to 
bring to ; acf -f ducere to lead.] To bring forward or 
ofler as an argument or proof. - Ad-dn'd-Ue (-sT-bM ), a. 

Syn. — To present ; allege ; advance ; cite ; quote ; aa- 
algn ; urge ; name ; mention. 

Ad-dnetloil (-dBk'shOii), n. 1. An adducing or bring- 
ing forward. 2. Action of drawing tlie parte of the 

body towards ite axis ; — opposed to abdueitoH. — Ad- 
dlU/tiTe(Xd-d&k'tTv), a. 

A-d«l'plioils (4^ei'ffi8), a. [Or. iitk^it brother.] 
Having coalesoent or clustered filaments ; 
— said of stamens of flowers. Utually i 
in composition ; as, mona<f«/pA<nM. ^ 

II AAf-vl'tIa (Sd't-ui'tTs), n. [Aden- 
-f- •4tis.'\ Olaudular inflammation. 

Ad'e-noid (Sd't-noid), \ a. [Or. <Ue. 

Ad'e-nold'ftl (-noid'al), j r o « c a if r ; 
ajqt' gland + <^^ form.] Olaudlike; 

Ad't-nol'0-nr (-n»l'ft-jj^), n. [Ad< no- 

-logy.X Physiology of the glands. — 
"- no-lOglC-al (-uft-lSiT-kaf), a. 
Ityt' (4^6pt0, n. [L. adeptv4 ob- 


tained (sc. artem)^ he who has obtained an art, p. p. of 
adipisci to obtain ; ad + apisci to pursue.] One well 
versed in anything ; a proficient ^ a. Welfskilled. 

Ad'0-qiUta (Id>^kwtt), a. [L. adaegttatvg^ p. p. of 
adaeqttare to make equal to; ad -{■ aeqttare to make 
equal, aeg»us equal.] Equal to aoroe requirement; 
fully sufficient. — Ad'e-ooa-cy (-kwi-sj^), Ad'O^piAt*- 


n.— Ad'e-qiuU«-ii 

8yn . — Proportionate ; comm«naurate ; 
■uitalile ; competent ; caiMUe. 

Ad-fect'ed (-fSkfSd), a. In algebra, affected. 

Ad-hen' (-hSr^), v,i. [L. adhaerert^ adhaesum : ad 
-f haerere to stick.] 1. To stick fast or cleave. %. To 
hold, be attached, or devoted. 

Syn. — To attach ; stick ; cleave ; cling ; hold. 

Ad-hflir'eilOO (-ras), n. 1. An adhering. 9. Fidelity ; 
steady attechment ; adhesion. 

Syn. — Adhbrsnck, Adhbsion were once freely inter- 
changed, but are now almost entirely separated. Adher- 
enreXB applied to mental habits. AdheHon is confined 
chiefly to the physical sense. 

Ad-hMfent (-<nit), a, 1. Sticking ; clinging. 9. Closely 
united. — n. One who adheres. 

Syn. —Follower; partisan: npholder; diadple; sup- 
porter ; dependent ; ally ; backer. 

Ad-he'sloil (-he'ihttn), n. [L. adhaexfo, fr. adhaerere."} 
A sticking or being attached , intimate union ; fidelity. 

Syn. — Adherence ; union. See Adhxrkmcb. 

Ad-he'Blve (-hTv), a. Sticky ; tenacious ; clinging. — 
Ad-be'Blvc-ly, adr. 

Ad-he'slTe-nau, n. 1. Stickiness ; tenacity. 2. In 
phrenology, lasting attachment to persons. 

A-dten' (4-duO, interj. & adv. [F. h dieUy fr. L. o/f to 
4- deua Ood.] Oood-by ; farewell. — «. A commenda- 
tion to the care of Ood at parting. 

II Ad In'fi-llltlim (Sd Tn'rr-nia&m). [L., to influity.] 
.Without limit ; endlessly. 

Ad'l-po-oero' (i(da-p«-s8r'), n. [L. adept, adipU, fat 
■\-cera wax.] A soft, unctuous, or waxy substance, 
which sometimes replaces the fat and muscle tissue of 
dead bodies after long immersion in water or burial in 
moist pUces. — Ad'l-pm/or-OlU (-pSs'Sr-ns), a. 

Adi-pOM' (-P^), <t. [L. ad«p9, adipis.j Pertaining 
to animal fat; fatty. 

Adtt (-Tt), H. [L. aditHS, fr. adire, aditum, to go te ; 
ad -f- ire to go.] An entrance or passage; a nearly 
horixontel opening for entering a mine, or carrying away 
water and ores, 

Ad-Ja'0«lt (-ja'K^nt), c. [L. adjacens, -centii, p. 
pr. of adjitcere to He near ; ad -\-jacere to lie.] Lying 
near ; neighboring. — Ad Ja'oenoe, Ad-Ja'0«l-oy, n. 


Syn. — Adjacent; Adjoiniho; 

Tilings are adjacent when they lie close to each other, 
not necessarily in ront-uit. They are adjoining when 
they meet at some line or point of junction. When eim- 
tiqiioug they touch with some extent of one aide or tlM 
whole of it. 

f^ra, recent, drb, r^)de, fyll, Om, ftfbd, fdbt, out, oil, cttair, go, alug, iQk, then, tlM% 




AOfftO-Wynl (Id/jSk-tl'vol or Ud'HKk-tXr-al), a. Re- 
Uting to the adjective ; of the nature of an ad jective. 

AdIOO-tiTt (Kd'JSk-tTv), n, [L. adJecHvum (ac. 
notnen)^ neut. of adieetivus that U added, fr. adjicere 
to throw to, to add to; atf -f- jadire to throw.] A 
word uaed with a noun or nibatautive, to expreaa a 
quality of the thing named, or to limit or define it, or 
to deaoribe a thing, aa diatuct from aomethlng elae. — 
AdlM-tiT»-l7, adv. 

AA-yia,' (U-jein^), v. t. [P. cuHoindre, fr. L. ad- 
jttngere; ad-\-jungere to join.] To join or unite to; 
to be in contact with ; to attach. ^ v. i. To be next ; to 
be contiguoua. 

AA-f3ahnti a. Joining to; oontiguooa; bordering. 

Syn. — See AojAcnrr. 

Ad-JOOm' (-jOn/), V. /. & i. [F. qjourner; h (L. 
nd) -\-jouT day, fr. JL diurnut belonging to the day, fr. 
dies day. Cf. Joitrmal, Jourmst.1 To put off (buaineaa. 
etc.) to another day, or indefinitely ; to doae or auapend 
for the day. 

Syn. — To Admdrm; PBOROOtrs; DnsoLVs; deUy; 
defer ; poatpone ; put off ; auapend. — Adjourn ia applied 
to all caaea in which public bodiea aeparate for a brief 
' d, with a view to meet again. Prorogate ia applied 


„ Oreat Britain to that act of the executive government 
which cloeea a aeaaion of Parliament. To dwnlve ia to 
annul the corporate exJatence of a body. 

it, n 1. An adjourning. 2. Interval 

during which a public body poatpbnea buain 

Ad^vSC*' (-j&j')t *"• '• [I^ adjttdieare; ad + Judi- 
care to judge.] L. To award or decide judicially ; to 
adjudicate. X To aentence; to condemn. 3. To re- 
gard ; to judge ; to deem. 
Syn. — To decree; award; determine; adjudicate; or- 

Ad-jO'dl-oate (-ju'dT-kit), v. t, [L. adjudieaha^ p. p. 
of adfudicare.'] To adjudge ; to aettle by judicial decree. 
^mff.i. To come to a judicial deciaion. — Ad-Jll'41-<MI'- 
tlon (-ki'ah&n), n. 1. An adjudicating. 2. A judicial 
deciaton or aentence. 

Adlnnot' (Sd^jfinktO, a. [L. adjunctus, p. p. of od- 
jungere. See Adjoin.] Conjoined ; attending ; conae- 
quent.— fi. L Something joined to another thing, but 
not eaaentially a part of it ; an appendage. 2. A col- 
league ; an aaaociate. 3. A word or words qualifying 
the force of other worda. 

AA-fononHaa (-jttyk'ahfin), n. A joining ; thing joined 
or added. [^ n. One tiiat ia loined. I 

Ad-JnnoltT* (-tTv), a. Joining ; forming an adjimct. | 

A^ta-ntkn (Xd'jtt-ri'ahiin), n. 1. An adjuring; 

UTieat appeal. _2. The form of oath or appeal. 

AA-fBOn^ (Id-jur'), V. t. [L. adjurare, adjuraiun^ to 
swear to; later, to adjure. See Jury.] To charge or 
command, aolemnly, aa if under oath, or under penalty 
of a curae ; to entreat eameetly. 

Ad-flWt' (-jBaf ), v.t. [L. orf + Jvxla near ; confuaed 
with L. ad and Justu* juat, right, whence P. ajugter to 
adjuat.] 1. To make exact ; to fit ; to bring into proper 
reUtiona. 2. To put in order; to reduce to ayatem. 
3. To bring to a aaUafactory atate ; to regulate forliae. 
— Ad-lwt'A-Mt, a. - Ad-liurt'er, n. 

Syn. — To adapt; auit; arrange; regulate; accommo- 
date ; aet right ; rectify ; aettle. 

Ad-IVStfllMllt, n. 1 . All adjusting or being adjusted ; 
regulation. 2. Settlement of legal claims; equitable 
arrangement of conflicting claims. 3. The bringing all 
the parU of an instrument into proper relative position 
for use ; the being thus adjusted. 

Syn. — Suiting ; fitting; arrangement; regulation; 
aettlemeut ; adaptation ; disposition. 

Adln-tan-oy (ld'jft-t«u-ty), n. 1. Office of an adju- 
tant. 2. Assistance. 

Adln-tant (-tfliit), n. [L. adjutan», p. pr. of adju- 

tare to help. See Aid.] 1. A helper; aaaiatant. X A 
rnrimental ataff officer, who aasiata the commanding 
offloer in detaila of duty. 3. A very large atork, native 
of India, which destroys serpents. 

Adln-TAIIt (Id' jtt-vant), a. [L. adjuwnu, p. pr. of ad- 
juvare to aid.] Helpins ; aaaisting. — n. An ingredient, 
in a medical preacription, which akla or moufiea the 
action of the principal ingredient. 

Ad-BMUKnra (-m&h'ttr ; 40), v. (. To measure ; to 
determine the proper ahare or apportionment of. 

All meaB^mre ment f-mmt), n. 1. An aacertaining 
th»' ^i'liji'iiniiiiir, ^hr .lu.^chLtig; mi.«ii>>u nation; meaaurement. 
2. Tlio iiii^.iAuri' (it a tliiii^ ; tiif. [urement.! 

Ad mon SHi TA'tlOQ (■men'^sLii rSMifin), n. Admeaa-| 

Admin^lB-ter rmTnTA-t^rVV. t. [L. adminUtrare ; 
ad 1 uiittiVratr to adTe.] L. T*i utanage or conduct 
(pij UUc atTAtrn) ; lo A^ittffiiiteiid. 3^ To diapenae ; to aup- 

Slv ; to piffcale. S. To »\H}Iy (k remedy); to give (a 
o><s bl(j*t c^t(\). 4, To tiHi,nlfr ^ ui oath). 6. To 
aef t> (an mtate). -^ r. i. 1. To i nujI i ibote ; to conduce. 
2. To jK^rfonu iUv oEUce <?[ jmI jiTLr.itor. 

Syn. — To manM^ ; conduct ; minister ; supply ; dia- 
pense ; give oat : oiatribute ; f umiah. 

Ad-mln'liktA^-al (-tS^rT-^l), o. Pertaining to ad. 
miniatration. [being administered.! 

Ad-llliBis-tni-ble (•mtnTa-tr&-b'n, a. Capable of| 

Ad-IBln'liktnitlon (-tri'shfin), n. 1. An admimster- 
Ing ; government of public affairs ; direction ; man«ge> 
ment 2. The executive part of government ; the chief 
magistrate and hla cabinet or council. 3. A tendering 
aomething to another; diapenaation. 4. Management 
of the estate of one deceased. ^ 

Syn. —Conduct ; management ; direction ; regulation ; 
execution ; diapenaation ; distribution. 

AA-mh^lm-tnk'nw (-triaTv), a. Pertaining to ad- 
minlatration ; executive. 

Ad-mln'liktnitor (tri'tSr), n., Ad-miifliktnitiis 
(-trTka), n. /. [L.] 1. One who adminiatera affairs ; a 
manager. 2. One who aettlea the estate of an intestate, 
or of a teatator when there is no competent executor. 
— Ad miiflB-tni'tfir-fllilp, n. 

Ad'ml-ra-llto (Kd'mT-ri-bM), a. [L. admirabilU.) 
Deserving admiration ; excellent — Ad'mi-ra-lliy . adr. 

Syn. — Wonderful ; marveloua ; aurpriaing ; excellent ; 
delightful ; praiaeworthy. 

Ad'ml-rfti (-ral), n. [OF. amiral, ultimately fr. Ar. 
atntr-al-bahr commander of the aea.] A naval officer of 
the higheat rank ; the commander in chief of a fleet. 

Ad'lBl-nl-llllp« n. 1. The office of an admiral. 
2. Naval aUll of an admiral. 

Ad'Bll-rfti-tT (-tj^), n. 1. Office or juriadictlon of an 
admiral. X The department or offioera in charge of 
naval affairs. 3. Court having jurisdiction of mantlme 

Ad'llll-ratl<Ml(-ri'8hfin),n. L Wonder mingled with 
approbation or delight. 2. Sometliing to excite wonder, 
or pleased aurprise , a prodigy. 

Nets ef adflBiratloa, the mark [I] : an exclamation point. 

Syn. — Wonder; approval; appreciation: adoration; 
reverence ; worship. 

Ad-mln' (Id-ralrO, r. t. A i. [L. cdmirari ; ad -f 
mirari to wonder.] To regard with wonder and delight ; 
to price highly. 

Syn. — To esteem ; approve ; delight in. 

Ad-mla'll-ldt (•mT8'»T-bn), a. [F. See AdmztJ En- 
titled to be admitted ; allowable. — Ad-mii'll-llUl-ty, 
Ad-iiils'il-U«-no«B, n. — Ad-mls'ilUy, adv. 

Ad-mlB'Sion (-mlsh'fin), n. [F] 1. An admitting. 
2. Admittance; entrance: access. 3. Acknowledg- 
ment; concession; concurrence. 

Syn. — See ADMrrrANCK. 

Ad-mlt' (-inTf), r. t. [L. admiffere^ admisstim ; ad 

i, 9, 1, 5, fl, long : ft, fi, 1, 5, fi, f, short : aen2U, ^vent, tdea, 6bey, ftnite, cftre, ftrm, &ak, |^, final. 




different i 

4- miitert to aend.] 1. To grant entrance (into a place, 
the mind, or consideration) ; to receive. 2. To concede 
aa true ; to acknowledge or aaaent to ; to conleaa. 3. To 
allow ; to permit. 

Ad-mtttlBM (Sd-mTttuns), n. L An admitting. 
%. PermiBsion to enter ; right of entrance ; reception. 

Syn. — Adiuttakcb : Adussiow ; access ; entrance ; 
initiAtion. — Admittance is now chiefly confined to its pri- 
mary aenae of acceaa into some localfty or building. Ad- 
miuion haa taken aecondarr or figuratiTe aenaea ; aa, 
admission to the righta of citizenship ; admission* made 
by one of the partiea in a dispute. 

Afl-nlx' (-mTksO, V. t. [Pref . ad- -f mix. ] To mfaigle 
with something elaa. 

Ad-nlXtion (-chOn ; 26), AA-mkEftUf (-tttr ; 40), n. 
1. A mixing ; mixture. 8. Compound formed by mixing 
t snbstanoes together. 

(-mSn^ah), v. t. [L. admonere to re- 
mind ; ad -f- monere to warn.] L To reprove kindly, 
but seriously ; to exhort. 8. To counsel against wrong 
practices ; to caution or advise. 3. To instruct or di- 
rect ; to inform. — Ad-IMB'lsll-cr, n. 

AA'mo-lll'tlOill (Sd'mft-nTsh'Qn), n. Gentle reproof; 
expression of authoritaUve advice ; friendly warning. 

Syn. — Admohition : RBnuomrsioir : Rbpboov. — Ad- 
monition relates to moral delinquencies, and seeki to 
prevent further transgression. Reprehension snd re- 
V^oof are retrospective. A person of uiy age or st'ition 
may be liable to reprehension in case of wrong conduct ; 
but reproof Is the act of a superior. 

Ad-mOB'l-tt-ry (-mSn'T-td-rj^), a. Conveying admo- 
nition; warning; reproving. 

Ad-aaft'oent (-nis'aent), a. [L. adnascens, p. pr. of 
adnasci to grow to or on ; od 4- nasei to be bom, grow.] 
Growing to or on aomething elae. 

A-4(K (&-d5&Q, n. [OB. at do, northern form for to do. 
Of. Attaib.] Trouble: difficulty; fuaa; bustle. 

llA-4l>lie(-d5'bt), n. [8p.] An unbumt brick dried 
in the ann ; alao uaed aa an adjective, a*, an adobe houae. 

Ad't-leyoaOM (Sd'ft-lSa'aens), n. The atate of grow- 
ing up from childhood to maturi^ ; youth. 

Aft't-lM^Otnt (-arat), a. [L. adolesctns, p. pr. of 
adoleseere to grow up to. See Aditlt.] Growing ; ad- 
vancing from childhood to maturity. — > n. A youth. 

A-draf (&-d8pt0« V. t. [L. adoptare; ad -f optare to 
choose. J To receive as ooe^s own what is not so natu- 
rally ; to aelect and approve. 

A-dOvHon (-dSp'ahOn), n. 1. An adopting, or being 
adopted. 2. Reception; acceptance. 

A-^kfpttwt (-d&pt^v), a. Pertaining to adoption; 
made by adoption ; fitted to adopt. 

A-dor'A-Ma (•d5r'4-bM), a. Deaerving to be adored ; 
worthy of the ntmoat love or reapect. — A-dM^a-Ua- 
B0U, n, — A-dor'A-lliT, adv. 

Ad^«-ration (Sd'd-iVahOn). n. L Worship paid to a 
divine being. 2. Homage paid to one in high esteem ; 
fervent devotion. 

A-don' (A-d5r0, V. t. [L. adorare; ad -f orare to 
pray, o*, oris, mouth. See Oral.] 1. To worship with 
pnrfonnd reverence. 2. To love in the highest degree ; 
to idolise. — A-dor'er, n. » 't> 

A-doni' (-ddm'), r. /. [L. ndomare ; ad -f- arnare 
to embellish. See Orhatb.] To ebmellish ; to render 
aUractive. - A-doni'llieilt, n. 

LKH ; bc!iiutity ; srAfy ; ^^j-iiiiili ■ f.\alt ; liruiDr. - Wt> fifc 
orate jiTirl oriMmmt by pvttbigc on frgnajf* tt^ijttit^i vthich 
MifTPi Vj belghMiQ the ffRDeral pffp(*t, (^nuimi^u/ In ii*ied 
m K wJcJrr maaa than if^iyimtr^ Tty^mh^'lfhA Ir to imia- 
nrtmt richly by nwxiifvirii! tlifi tUUi^ itiwif an a wImUc. 
Atttfrn m •onifftini^'^ tflMuhPnl witk tff^mr/jfr^ bnt urten 
impllcss ioni<>t]^i£ii^ mr)irH< m wlien wn piifiitk ot b ^^ilhTy 
mmvdmiuii wlih nftlA^ atatu&ry. A^f^rtt m^y bf uai^il of 
— ^-* '-^tiw^ly inar%l ; lu, n ntiarart^r ttitornrti uritH f^vcry 
_j KT«*. Heftf nci'ither ft^rorrftf, nar vtttniurnt. 

Ad-OS'en-latton (id-Ss'kfi-la'.h&n), n. [L. adotm' 
lari, -latum, to kiss. See Osculatb.] Impr^nation of 
plants by external contact. 

A-dllff (i-drTftO, adv. & a. [Pref. a- (for on) 4- 
drift.} Floating at random ; in a drifting condition ; at 
the luercy of wind and waves. Alao fig. 

A-droir (-droif ), a. [F. ; a (L. ad) -{- droU atraight, 
right, fr. L. directus. See Dibict.] Dexterona in the 
uae of the handa or mental facultiea ; ready in invention 
or execution. — A-dxoltly, adv. — A-drolriiMM, n. 

Syn. — Dexteroua ; akillful ; expert : ready ; clever ; 
deft ; ingenioua ; cunning ; ready-witted. 

Ad'Ml-tltiOIIS (Sd'aT-tTsh'fis), a. [L. adscitus, p. p. 
of adseiscere, aseiseere^ to take knowingly ; ad 4- »cis- 
cere to seek to know, approve, scire to know.] Supple- 
mental; additional; adventitious. 

Ad'll-late (-d-lat), V. t. [L. adtdatus, p. p. of adtUaH.l 
To flatter in a aervile way. — Ad'tt-la'tur, n.— Ad'tt- 
la-t«-ry* «• 

Ad'V-lation (-li'ah&n), n. Servile flattery. 
Syn. — Adulation ; Flattbbt ; Complimbrt ; ayci 

phaincy; crin 


y; crinffine ; fawning; obsequiousness; blan<j 
ment. — Men deal in compliments from a desire to plekwv -, 
they vuaeAattery either from undue admiration, or a wish 
to gratify vanity ; they practice adulation from sordid 
motives, and with mingled falsehood snd hypocrisy. 

A-dOlt' (A-dttlf ), a. [L. adultus, p. p. of adoleseere^ 
akhi to alere to nouriah. See Adolbbcbmt, Old.] Hav- 
ing arrived at full aise and strength ; matured. — n. A 
person, animal, or plant grown to full aise and atrength. 

A-dOl'ter-ant (-dfil'tSrwmt), n. Tlist which la uaed 
toadulterateanything. — a. Adulterating 

A-dOl'tfir-Att (-at), t*. /. [L. aduUerfUus, p. p. of adul- 
terare, fr. adulter adulterer, prob. fr. ad -(- alter other.] 
To make impure by admixture of a foreign or a baaer 

Syn. — To corrupt; defile; debase; contaminate; vi- 
tiate ; sophisticate. 

A-dalt«r-at« (-tt), a. 1. Tainted with adultery. 
2. Debased by admixture of foreign matter ; spurious. 

A-dld'tar-Atton (-5'ahlin), n. An adulterating; cor- 
ruption, or debaaement (eap. of food or drink) ; an adul- 
terated state or product. 

A-dvller-w, n., A-dol'tar-eM (-^a), n. /. One who 
commita adultery. 

A-diater-lne (-Tn or -in), a. Proceeding from adul- 
teroua intercourse ; spurious ; illegal. 

A-dldler-OlU (-Qs), a. Guilty of, or given to, adul- 
tery; illicit. 

A-dvl^er-y (-y), n. l. Unfaithfulness of a married 
person to the marriage bed. 2. Faithlessness in religion. 

Ad-mnntomte (Sd-&ra'br5t), v. t. [L. adumbratus, p. 
p. of adumbrare; ad -f- umbrtire to shade; umbra 
shadow.] 1. To shadow forth : to outiine. 2. To over^ 
shadow ; to shade. — Ad-mnlsmBt, a. 

Ad^mn-lmitilUI (Sd'Qm-bri'sh&n), n. 1. A shadow- 
ing forth. 2. A faint sketch ; an imperfect representa- 
tion of a thing. 

A-dvao'i A-dimqiie' (&-dBnkO, 


m-uHiMT, A-muM|iiw varuuiia';, A-auraoiis ^-aun'- 
kos), a. [L. aduncus; ad -f uncus hooked, hook.] 
Hooked, as a parrot's bill. — A-dlU'd-ty (-dCin'sT-^), n. 

A-dVflt' (-ottstO, a. [L. adustus, p. p. of ndurere ; 
ad 4- urere to bum.] 1. Inflamed or scorched ; fiery. 
8. Looking as if burnt ; sunburnt. 

II Ad ▼a-lofram (Sd vi-lS'rem). [L., according to the 
value.] A term uaed to denote a duty upon goods, at a 
certain rate per cent upon their value. 

Ad-yanoe' (-vine'), v. t. [F. amncer, fr. a supposed 
LL, abantiare ; nb -f ante (F. avant) before. The spell- 
ing with d was a mistake, a- being supposed to be f r. L. 
od.] 1. To bring forward ; to move towards the van or 
front. 8. To promote ; to further ; to aid. 3. To bring 
to notice ; to propose ; to show. 4. To make earlier 
(an event or date) ; to hasten. 6. To furnish (money, 

f«m, recMit, trh, r«de, fyU, Am, food, fo^ot, out, oil, oliair, bo. "inB, iQk, tben, thin. 




etc.). before it becomes due, or in itid of an enterprise ; 
to supply beforehand. 6. To mihauce ; to raiie in rate. 
Syn. — To raise; elevate; exalt; anrrandise; im- 
prove ; heighten ; accelerate ; allege : adduce ; assign. 

— ff. i. L To move forward ; to proceed. 2. To in- 
crease or make progress. 3. To rise in rank or in con- 
sequence ; to be promoted. —n. 1. An advancing; 
progress. 2. Improvement. 3. Rise in value. 4. Au 
approach ; overture ; offer. 6. A furnishing (money, 
goods, etc) before an equivalent is received : payment 
beforehand, —a. Before in place : beforeliand. 

AA'YUIOt^mt (KJ-v&ns'ment), n. 1. An advandug, 
or being advanced ; furtherance ; promotion. 2. Au 
advance of money or value ; payment in advance. 

Ad-Tan'tag* (-v&utij : G, 2), n. [F. avtintag^, fr. 
arant before. See Aovamcb, and cf. Vamtaok.] 
1. Any condition, circumstance, or means, favorable to 
success ; benefit 2. Superiority ; mastery ; gain ; profit. 
^ V. /. To give an advantage to ; to further ; to profit. 

Syn. — Advaktaob : AnvAMTAOBOtrs ; BxHCFrr ; Bkkb- 
nciAL. We call a thing a benefit^ or beneficiaU when it is 
■imply productive of good ; an advantage^ or mlwmta- 
geou*^ when it affords means of getting forward, and 
I^aces us on a " vantage ground " for further effort. 

AA^rUk-WnoOB (Sd'van-tS'jtts), a. Being of ad- 
vantage ; profitable; useful; beneficial. — Ad'TAn-ta'- 

geoiu-ly. adv. — AO^yan-U'geoiui-nMs, n. 

Ad'TMIt (Sd'vJnt), n. [L. adrentus, fr. adrenirf, 
adventum ; ad -^ venire to come.] 1. The ecclesiastical 
season including the four Sundays before Ghristinait. 
X The first or the expected second coming of Christ. 
3. Coming; approach. 

Advmt Bvnday, the first Sunday in the season of Ad- 
vent, or that nearest to the feast of St. Andrew (Nov. 30). 

Ad'Ten-ti'tiOIUI (Sd'v6n-tTsh'Qs), a. Added extrin- 
sically ; not essentially inherent ; casual ; foreign. — 

AOrwrnt-WtUnuhlj, adv. 

Ad-ven'tim (ad-v«n'tflr ; 40), «. [F. nrenfurr, fr. 
LL. adventuray fr. L. ndvenire^ adreiitnm^ to arrive.] 
1. Chance ; hazard ; chance of danger or loss. 2. A 
hazardous enterprise ; a daring feat ; a stirring incident. 
3. A mercantile or speculative enterprise of hazard ; a 
shipment by a merchant on his own account. 

Syn. — Undertaking ; enterprise ; venture ; event. 
^ r. /. To risk, or hasard ; to venture upon ; to dare. 
^ r. i. To try the chance ; to take the risk. 

Ad-TMitnr-er, n., Ad-Yvn'tiir-eM, n. /. 1. One who 
adventures, or seeks fortune in new or perilous enter- 
prises. 2. A social pretender seeking advancement. 

Ad-TMItore-SOme (-sCim), a. Full of risk ; adventur- 
ous; venturesome. 

Ad-TMI'tur-OlU (-Qa), a. 1. Inclined to adventure ; 
rashly daring. 2. Full of risk.— Ad-TUl'tUr-OUS-ly, adv. 

Syn. — Rash; foolhardy; presuraptnons : enterpris- 
ing : duing ; luuardous ; venturesome. See Rash. 

Ad'TWl) (Sd'vZrb), n. [L. adrerbium; ad-\-rerhnm 
word, vorb.l A word used to modify the sense of a 
verb, participle, adjective, or other adverb. 

Ad-¥er^-ftl (Sd-v2r'bT-ol),a. Pertaining to an ad- 
verb; of the nature of an adverb. —Ad-Terl)i-fll'l-ty 

(-«T-ty), n. — Ad-yerOii-al-ly, adv. 

Ad'TW-sa-ry (id'v2r-^t-ry) ,n. [L. adrersarim^ a., 
turned toward, n., an adversary. See Advkbss.] Oue 
opposed ; an antagonist : a foe. 

Syn. — Advkrsaht ; Enemy: Opponkwt: ANTAOOinvr. 

— Enemy Implies personal hostility. Men may be ndrrr- 
tnrie*, antagonitdf, or opponent to each other in certain 
respects, and yet have no feelings of animosity. An ffd- 
vernnry may oe simply placed for a time in a hostile 

'"' • ' lult. an argument, or a game. An 

position, as in a lawsul 
oppoTi^^ is ranged ngai 
on the opposing side. An nnimjfmiM struggles against 

, an argument, or a game. 
opponent \% ranged ngainnt another (perhaps passively) I 

on the opposine side. An nnlngonist struggles ag 
another, either ui a literal figlit or in verbal debate. 

Ad-Ttr'sa-tlTe (Sd-vSr's&-tI v ), a. Expressing opposi- 

tion or antithesis; as, ui adver.^ativt conjunction (frit/, 
hottever^ yet^ etc.), — n. An adversative word. 

Ad'verae (WvSrs), a. [L. adversus, p. p. of orftvrw 
tere. See Advbbt.] 1. Acting against, or in a contraiy 
direction ; contrary ; conflicting. 2. Unfavorable ; 
contrary to one*s wishes ; unfortunate ; hurtfuL — Ad'* 
TOrSd-ly, adv. — Ad'T«rM4l«as, n. 

Syn. — See Avbrsb. 

Ad-yer'alty (Sd-vSr'sT-tj^), n. a condition attended 
with severe trials ; misfortune ; calamity. 

Syn. — Affliction ; distress ; misery ; disaster ; trouble ; 
suffering ; triaL 

Ad-TMTt' (-v2rt'), V. i. [L. adrertere, v. t., to turn 
to ; a<f -f~ vertere to turn.] To turn the mind or atten- 
tion ; to refer ; to take heed or notice. 

Syn. — To refer ; allude : regard. See Rma. 

Ad-yeit'flllt, a. Attentive; heedful.— Ad-THt'eBCO, 

Ad-yett'en-oy, n. 

Ad^er-tlse' («a'v8r-tU' or Id'v8r-tix0, «. t [F. 
avertir^ adrertir^ to warn, give notice to, L. advertere.] 
1. To give notice to ; to inform ; to warn. 2. To an- 
nounce publicly, esp. by a printed notice. — Ad'Tar-tll'er 
(5d'v8r-tlx^r or «d'v«r-tl'i2fr), n. 

Syn. — To apprise ; inform ; make known ; notify ; an- 
nounce ; proclaim ; promulgate ; publish. 

Ad-¥ertlse-meilt (Sd-vSr'tTz-meut or Xd'vSr-tlx'- 
metit), n. 1. An informing ; notification. 2. A public 
notice, esp. in a public print ; anything that advertises. 

Ad-Tlce' («d-vi6'), n. [F. avu; h -f OF. rw, fr. L. 
ri»i4m seemed, seen ; p. p. of videre to Me, so that vi* 
meant that which has seemed best.] 1. An opinion 
offered; counsel. 2. Information given; intelligence. 

To taks advles. (a) To accept advice, (b) To consult 
with another or others. 

Syn. —Counsel; suggestion; recommendation; ad- 
monition ; exhortation ; information ; notice. 

Ad-¥is'a-Ut (-vix'i-b 1), a. Proper to be advised ; 
prudent. —Ad-Ttra-bUl-ty, Ad-Tis'a-Ua-iieM, n. 

Syn. — Expedient ; proper ; desirable : befitting. 

Ad-Vlaa' (-vix'), r. /. [F. orwrr, fr. LL. adrigare : 
ad -f vitare, fr. L. videre, visum, to see.] 1. To give 
advice to. 2. To give notice to; to inform.— r. i. To 
take counsel ; to consult. — Ad-¥is'er (-vix'Sr), n. 

Syn. -To counsel; admonish; apprise ; acquaint. 

Ad-¥iS'ed-ly (-^d-l^^), adv. Purposely ; by design. 

Ad-TiS'ed-nesa, n. Deliberate consideration ; pru- 
dent procedure ; caution. 

Ad-vlselneilt, n. Consideration ; consultation. 

Ad-yl'ao-ry (-vi'z6-rj^), a. Having power to advise; 
containing advice. 

Ad'yo-oa-cy (Sd'v6-k4-sj^), n. An advocating ; inter- 

Ad'TO-cate(-ktt), n. [OE. & OF. arocat, fr. L. advo- 
eaitut one called to another ; p. p. of advoaire to call to, 
call to one*s aid ; atf -}- vocare to call.] One who pleads 
the cause of another, or who defends or espouses any 
cause by argument ; a pleader. 

Ad'VO-catO (-kat), V. t. To plead in favor of ; to sup- 
port, or recommend publicly. -- Ad'TOHiatiom, «. 

Ad-VOW-ee' (K.l-vou-S'), n. [F. avouS, fr. L. orfro- 
catnx.'\ One who has an advowson. 

Ad-TOW'SOn (-vou'xttn or -sfin), n. [OE. avoireifoun, 
OF. rtt'o^.von, fr. L. advoratio.^ The riglit of presenting 
to a vacant benefice or livini? in the church. 

II Ad'y-na'ml-a (WT-nS'inl-A), n. [NL., fr. Gr. iav- 
y^fiia want of strength ; a priv. -f tvvofui strength.] 
D»»biHty of the vital powers, as \n typhoid fever. 

Ad'y-namlC (-nSmtk), a. Locking force : weak. 
^ I! Ad'y-tmn (-tttm), »'. / pi. Adtta (-tA). [L., fr. Gr. 
afiuTOF, n., fr. advToc, a., not to be entered ; a priv. -f- 
dvciK to enter.] The innermost sanctuary in ancient 
temples, whence oracles were jriven : n sanctum. 

S, S, 1, 5, a, \ODg ; A, «, 1, 5, 0, t, short ; senfttef dvant, tdea, ftbey, finite, c4re, l&rm, ask, |^, flnaL 





) (Ids), n, [AB. oieM, odwt, ax, hateh«t] 

I ) ▲ ctrpenter's or ^ 

cooper*! tool for chipping or 
•Ucbif wood, having a thin 
ardiing blade aet at right 
angles to the handle. 

fr. aed€M temple, puhlio build- 
ing.] A magutrate in ancient 
Rome, who had charge of public '^^■^ 

boildinga, highways, shows, etc. 

11 A'glS (-jT-i)} n. [L.f fr. Or. oiytv goat skin, shield, 
aZ| goat, or fr. aurvm to rush.] A sliield or protective 
armor; theahield given by Japiter to Minerva; henoe, 
a protectioa. 

A-O'll-ia (t-SHT-on), 0. 1. Pertaining to iBolia or 
.fiolia, in AsU Minor, or to iU inhabitants. 2. Per- 
taining to .Solus, the mythic god of the winds; pro- 
duced by tha wind ; aeriaL 

JMIaa harp, a musical instrument consisting of a box, 
OQ which are stretched strings, on which the wind acts to 
produce the notes. Usually placed at an open win low. 

JB-Ollo (-SlTk), a. JBolian ; pertaining to MoU%. 

JBf9A (S'fiu)* n. An eon, or period of immeasurable 
duration ; also, an emanation of the Deity. 

A-O'Bl-aB (e-O'iiT-an), a. Eternal ; everlasting. 

A'Vr-ato (rSr-it), v. t. [F. airer. See Aia, v. /.] 

1. To c<Mnbiiie with gas, usually with carbonic acid gas. 

2. To supply with common air. 3. To expose to chemi- 
cal action of air ; to oxygenate (tha blooi) by respira- 
tion ; to arteriallse. — A'W-a'tlaa, n. — Alfr-a'tfir, n. 

A4Krt-al it-VrX-al), a. 1. Pertaining to the air, or 
i^mosphere ; inhabiting, produced by, or found in, the 
air. a. Co n sisti n g of air ; of the nature of air ; unsub- 
stantisl ; unre^ 3. High in air ; lofty. 

At'tte (8'ry )» ». [OB. «!><•, tfiVtf, air^ nest, also origin, 
descent, LL. area^ aera^ nest of a bird of prey, peril, f r. 
L. arta an open space (for birds of prey build their nests 
on open spaces on the top of high rocks). Cf. Area.] 
The nest of a bird of prey ; a brood of such birds ; eyrie. 

A'Vr-l-fonil (i'Sr-i-fdrm), a. Having the form or 
nature of air, or of an elastic fluid ; gaseous ; unreaL 

iL%t'itf C-fi), V. t. [L. flk»r air + -/y.] 1. To infuse 
air into; to combine air with. 2. To ' 
ai^form sUte. — A'ttr-Ml-iul'tloil« n. 

Alk-Og^-tthy (-V^'y). »• lA'iro- -f -graphy.] 
Deacriptfon of the air or atmosphere ; aerolmry. 

A'Vr-o^lto (^-Ut), A'Vr-ollth (-lltb), n. iAigro- -h 
lite.} A stone, or metallic masa, fallen to the earth 
from distant s|Mioe ; a meteorite j meteoric stone. 

A'^-4kfthtrr (-ffl'd-jy), «. [Airo. -f 4ogy.] That 
department of physics which treaU of the atmosphere. 

A1k-«ai'«-t«r (-«m^-tSr). fi. lAirO' -^ -mfter.] An 
instrument to measure weight or density of air and gases. 

A'«r-«ai'*-tnr (-try), n. lAiro. -f- -metry.] Science 
of measuring the air, ici pressure, elvstidty, rarefaction, 
and condensation ; pneumatics (the term now usually 
employed). — A^-O-msfllo (-^-mSt'rTk), a. 

A'Hr-O-IMVt (-«-nftt), n. -^ ' 
air + ravTiff sailor.] Anaei „ 

— A^-o-nanl'io, A^HHiftatliMd, a. 

A'Vr-O-naitflM (-Tks), n. The ascending and sailing 
in the air, as by a tMlloon ; aerial navigatioti. 

A'Vr-O-^hyto (-fit), n. lA<fro- 4- Or. 4,vr6tf plant.] 
A plant growing entirely in the air, and receiving its 
nourishment from it ; an air plint or epipliyte. 

A1i^<«-CUt C-stlt), n. [Or. anp air + orar^f placed. 
Bee Statics.] 1. A balloon. 2. An aeronaut. 

A'ttr-O-SUtlos (-Tkn), 71. Science of the equilibrium 
of elastic fluids, or of bodies sustained in them. ~ A'ttr- 
0-stif iB, A'Mr-o-statiiHa, n. 

A'ttr-OS-Utloil (.8e-a'sb&n), n. Aerial navigation : 
use of balloons in the sir. 

JB-ni'Sl-IMNM (l-ni'jT-niis), a. [L. nerftffinnxfis, fr. 

To change into an 

.'Vr-O-naVt (-^-nftt), n. [F. aSronaute, fr. Or. 

aerial navigator ; a balloonist. 

OifUM nut of oopper, fr. net copper.] Of the nature 
or color of verdigris, or rust of copper. 

II AhtlM'll-a (Ss-thfi'sT-i), n. [Or. aia^<nf aenssr 
tion, fr. MBd¥tc€ax to perceive.] Perception by the 
senses ; feeling ; — the opposite of anrnttheiia. 

JBt^tiultb (bOhSt or W-), n. One who makes much 
or overmuch of nstbetics. \ Recent} 

Aihth«no(8s4hSt^k),iBs-tlMtVal,a. Pertaining 
to lesthetics. or versed in them. 

Ahtlltf 108, Bs-tlMt'lOSt *»• [Or. alo^uctSf percep- 
tive, fr. ourMb^otfoi.] Theory or philosophy of taste; 
science of the beautiful in nature and art. 

S^tL'Wtl (Ss^tT-vol or S^-ti'vat), a. [L. aettivalu, 
aettivtUt fr. aeattu summer.] Belonging to the summer. 
[Spelt also etHvalA 

JBtbar (S'thSr), ». Ether. 

A'U-Ol'O-sy (-tT-Ol^-jj^), n. [Or. airtoXoy^; oin'a 
oauae -f- A6yo( description.] L Science of causes ; in- 
vestigation of the causes of disease. 2. Assignment of 
a cause. - JB'ti^lOCllHd (-ft-lSfT-kal), a. 

A-far' (A-laiO, odv. [Pref. a- (for on or o/) + Jar.} 
At, to, or from a great distance ; far awsy. 

Af lA-Ua (Si'fi-b1), a. [F. ; L. affahilii, fr. afaH to 
speak to ; ad -|- fart to speak. See Fablb] 1. Easy 
to be spoken to; courteous; sociable. 2. Oracious; 
mUd; benign. -AffA-Ull-ty, Afta-IOt-liaM, n. — 
Af^-My, adv. 

Syn. — Courteous ; dvil; complaisant; accessible; 
mild ; benign ; coudesceudiug. 

Af-falr' (Xf-fftr'), n. [F. affaire, fr. h /aire to do; L. 
ad -)- facere to do.] 1. Sometliing done or to be done ; 
matter; concern. 2. An engagement less important 
tluui a battle. 

Af-fact' (-fSkt^), V. t. [L. affecttu, p. p. of affieere to 
affect ; ad -f facere to make.] 1. To act upon ; to 
change. 2. To influence (the feelings or passions) ; to 
touch. 3. To show fondness for ; to choose ; to fre- 
quent liabitually. 4. To make a show or pretense of. 

Syn. — To influence ; operate ; act on : concern ; move ; 
melt ; soften ; subdue : overcome ; pretend ; assume. 

Af'fao-Ution (Sf'fSk-ta'sh&n), n. An attempt to as- 
sume what is not natural or real ; artificial show. 

Af-faof aa (Sf-facfSd), n. p. & a. 1. Oiven to false 
show. 2. Assumed artificially ; not natural. 3. Made 
up of algebraic terms involving different powers of the 
unknown quantity ; adfected. — Af-faof ad-ly* adv. — 
Af-faofad-nass, n. 

Af-faotiilC. o. Moving the emotions; pathetic; 
touching. —Af-taotinff-ly, adv. 

Af-fao'tioil (-ffik'shOn), n. [F. ; L. affectio^ fr. afflcert. 
See ArFBCT.] 1. An affecting or acting upon. 2. An 
attribute ; condition ; bodily state. 3. Bent of mind ; 
feeling or natural impulse. 4. Kind feeUng; love. 
6. Duease ; morbid symptom ; malady. 

Srn. — Attachment ; oassion ; tenderness ; fondness ; 
kindness ; love ; good wiU. See ArrACHMXHT ; DnmAsa. 

Af-faotloo-Ata (-tt), a. 1. Having affection ; fond. 
2. Proceeding from love. — Af-fo(/tlon-ata-ly, adv. 

Syn. — Tender; attached; loving; devoted; warm; 
fond ; earnest ; ardent. 

Af -faotlTa (-tTv), a. Pertaining to emotion ; emotional. 

Af-ll'aiioa (-fl'ans), n. [OF. aflance, fr. afier, LL. aM- 
dare to trust ; ad -{- fidare to trust, fr. L.flde* faith.] 
1. Plighted faith; marriage contract. 2. Trust; con- 
fidence. — V. t. To betroth ; to pledge one^s faith to for 
marringe. ~ Af-fftn-oar (-«n-B«r), n. 

Af-fi'ailt (-^nit), n. [From p. pr. of OF. after, LL. 
affidare.} One who makes an affidavit. 

8yn . — Deponent. See Dspovsirr. 

AI'tl-dA'Tlt (Sf'fT-dS'vTt), n. [LL., he has made oath, 
fr. itJfMare.} A sworn statement In writing ; a declara- 
tion, Rign*»d and made upon osth before a magistrate. 

87 n. - Deposition. See DspoArnow. 

f£m, recent, 6rb, ryde, f^jOl, fkro, food, fobt, out, oil, cliair, so, sins, ^O^ tben, tbin. 




Al-fflfUttClf-ma^).*.^ CLLo^iare to adopt M 
•on; ad'\-JUiu» mm.] 1. To adopt luto a family a« a 
BOO ; to raceire into dose coimocUon ; to ally. 2. To 
attach {to) or unite {wUh) ; to receive into a society a« a 
member, ^v.i. To connect or aaiociate oue^it self ; — 
loUowed by ttUk. 

Af-ffl'l4l'tlOII (-S'ahiin), n. 1. Adoption ; association 
in the same family or society. 2. Connection iu the way 
of descent. 

Af-ftnl-ty (-fTn^.ty), n, [P. aMnUi, L. affinUiu, fr. 
a^U related to ; ad + finis boundary, limit.] 1. Rela- 
tionahip by marriage ; — in contradistincUon to c 

gukiity^ or relationship by blood. 2. Close agreement ; 
conformity ; c<Mmection. 3. Chemical attraction which 
takes placoi ait an insensiUe distance, between particles 
of bodies, and unites Uiem to form chemical compounds. 

Ji.f|nii' (-fSrmOf V. t. [F. affirmer^ fr. L. afjirmart ; 
ad 4- firmare to make firm, ylrmta firm.] 1. To make 
firm ; to confirm, or ratify. 2. To assert positively ; to 
maintain as true. — r. i. 1. To assert positively. 2. To 
make a solemn declaration, before a magistrate or tribu- 
nal, under penalties of perjury ; to testify by affirmation. 

Sjn. -To Amuf; Assbvbratb: Avbb: Pbotbst; 
assert ; declare ; assure ; pronounce ; avouch ; confirm ; 
establish ; ratify. — We ^rm when we declare a thing as 
a fact or a proposition. We aneverale it in a peculiarly 
earnest manner, or with increased positiveness. as what 
cannot be duputed. We aver it, or formally declsre it to 
be true, when we liave poeitive knowledge of it. We pro- 
trtt in tk more public manner, and with the energy of 
perfect sincerity. 

Af-Onn'ft-IIlt (-A-b*!), a. Capable of being affirmed, 
asserted, or declared. 

Af-llzin'aiioe (-ons), n. Confirmation; declaration. 

Af-tlnn'Allt (-ant), n. 1. One who asserts. 2. One 
w1k> afiSrms, instead of taking an oath. 

Af flr-niAtlOll (If'f&r-mS'shfin), n. 1. An affirming 
or asserting as true ; assertion. 2. That which is as- 
sorted ; positive statement ; an averment. 3. A sol- 
emn declaration made under the penalties of perjury, 
by persons who conscientiously decline taking an oath. 

ii-fll1ll'A-thre(Sr-fSrm'4^tTv), a. 1. Confirmative; 
ratifying. 2. Asserting that the fact is so ; declaratory 
of what exists ; answering '* yes ** to a question ; —op- 
posed to negative. 3. Positive ; — a term applied to ^• 
gebraic quantities which are to be added, and opposed to 
negative^ which are to be subtracted, ^n. 1. An affirm- 
ative proposition ; that side of a ouestion which affirms 
tile proposition stated. 2. A word or phrase expressing 
affirmation or assent. — At •tlnn'a-tt¥»-ly, adv. 

Ai'ttit (Xf-fTks'), V. t. [L. affixus^ p. p. of affiaere to 
fasten to ; ad-\-figere to fasten. See Fix.] 1. To add 
at the end ; to append. 2. To ilx or fasten in any way. 

Syn. — To attach ; subjoin ; connect ; annex ; unite. 

ASftkK (Sfflks), n. An appendage ; one or more let- 
ters or sylhtbles added at the end of a word ; a sufiSx. 

Af-fUtlOB (Sf-fli'shfin), n. [L. afflattu^ p. p. of af- 
flare to breathe on ; ad -^ flare to blow.] A Mowing or 
breathing on ; bisidration. 

AMUtns (-tiiB), n. [L.] 1. A breath orbUst of wind. 
2. A divine impartation of knowledge ; inspiration. 

Af-fllOt' (-flikf ), r. /. [L. afflietut, p. p. of affligere 
to cast down ; ad -f fligere to strike.] To inflict injury 
upon ; to trouble grievously. 

Sjm. — To trouble; grieve; pain; distress; harass; 
torment ; wound ; hurt. 

Af-fllotlnc, a. Grievously painfnl ; distressing. 

Af-fUotlOII (-flYk'shOn), n. 1. Cause of continued 
pain of body or mind ; grief. 2. A being afflicted. 

8Tn. — AFrucnoN; Boibow: Gsibf; Durasss; ca- 
lamity ; pain : adversity : misery : wretchedness ; mis- 
fortune ; trouble ; hardship. — Ajmcti&n uid sorrow are 
terms of general application : gne/ and distress refer to 
particular cases. Affliction is the stronger term, uid 
applies particularly to prolonged sources of sulferlng. 

Sorrow and gri^n% much alike In "*^««fa*g, but gri^]M 
the stronger term, usually denoting polraant mental suf- 
fering, whereas torrov Is more reflective, and is tinged 
with regret. Distress implies extreme suffering, and 
supposes some struggle of mind or body. 

Af-fllo^tlVt (U-flTkaiv), a. Giving continued or re- 
peated pain or grief ; distressing. 

Arav-MM (Vmfi-«ns), n. [F. ; L. affluentia. fr. 
affluens, p. pr. of nffluere to flow to ; ad -\- fluere to ilow. 
See Flux.] L A flowing to or towards ; concourse ; in- 
flux. 2. An abundant supply ; profusion; wealth. 

Srn. — Abundance ; riches; profusion; exuberance; 
plenty; wealth; opulence. 

AfUll-CBt (-ent), a. Abundant; copious; wealthy. 
—A. A stream flowing into a river or lake ; a tritmtafy 
stream. — Afllll-6llt-nr. adv. 

Araiir(V'flllks/),Al-flllz1«l(lf-flfik'shnn),n. [L. 
qffluxum, p. p. of affluere,'] A flowing towards; that 
which flows to. 

Af-fOf«' (If-f8rd0, V. t [OB. a/orthen, AS. ae/or- 
Sian^/orSian^ to further, accomplish, tt.forS forth, for- 
ward.] 1. To give forth; to supply or produce as the 
natural result or fruit ; to furnish. 2. To incur or bear 
without serious detriment ; to be able or rich enough. 

Af-frmy^ (-'raO, ». t- [F. efftaytr^ orig. to disquiet, 
fr. L. ex-f-OHG. Jridn peace (akin to E. /ree).] To 
frighten. — >m. A tumultuous quarrel ; brawl ; fray. 

Syn. — Quarrel ; brawl: scuffle: encounter; fight; 
c<nitest ; feud ; tumult ; disturbance. 

Al-fwlghf (-fraf ), r. /. [Pref. <id--f yir.>A/.] Tto 
hire (a ship) for transportation of goods or freight. 

Af-frigkr (-fritn, r. /. To frighten: to alarm.— n. 
Sudden and great fear ; terror. 

Syn. — To terrify; frighten: alarm; dismay; appall; 

!are ; startie ; daunt ; intimidate. 

Af-fnmt' (-frfintO, V. t. [F. affronter to confront, fr. 
L. od H- /rofu forehead, front.] To offend by disre- 
spect ; to treat with marked incivility. 

Syn. — To insult; abuse; outrage; wound; Ultreat; 
slight ; defy ; offend ; provoke ; pique ; nettie. 
^ n. Contemptuous or rode treatment ; marked disre- 
spect ; a purpcNMd indignity. 

Syn. — AvFSOHT ; Iksult ; Outraob. - An affront is a 
demgned mark of disrespect, usually in the presence of 
others. An insult is a person^ attack either by w<Mds 
or actions, designed to humiliate or degrade. An outrage 
is an act of extreme and violent insult or abuse. 

Af-fronHra (-Tv), a. Tending to affront ; offendve. 

Af-fue' (-fusOf v> ^ [I^ ZF*^**^^2' P* ^' offnndere to 
pour to ; ad -^jfundere. See Fuss.] To pour out or upon. 

Af-in'SlOia (-fu'shfin), n. A pouring upon, or qirin- 
kling with a liquid, as in baptism, or as a remedy. 

jLTgluUl (Sf'gon), a. Pertaining to Afghanistan. — 
n. 1. A native of Afghanistan. 2. A worsted wrap. 

A-fl0ld' (A-fHdO, adv. {Pref. a- +/eW.] 1. To, hi, 
or on the field. 2. Out of the way ; astray. 

A-flre' (-fif), adv. & a. [Pref. a- -f->»r*.] On fire. 

A-Ooar (-t5t'), adv. & a. [Pref. a- -{-float.} 1. Borne 

h float.} 1. 
». 2. Movi 

on the water ; floatins ; on board ship. 2. Aoving; in 
genera] circulation. 3. Unfixed ; adrift. 

A-fOOt' (-f»f ), adv. [Pref. a- -^/oot.} 1. On foot. 
2. In motion ; astir ; in progress. 

A-fOlV (-fBr'), adv. [Pref. o- +/o»v.] In the fore 
nart of a vesseL— prep. 1. Before (hi all its senses) 
" ' before ; in f 

I front of. 

2. (Among sailors) I 

A-fora'tO'llIC (-gS'Tng), a. Going before ; foregoing. 

A-fora'llM^BlNMd (-mSn'shllnd), a. Previously men- 
tioned; before-mentioned. 

A-fore^Mld^ (-f8d')« a. Said before, or in a preceding 
part ; already described or identified. 

A-fore^tlUNICllt' (-thftt'), a. Premeditated ; prepense ; 
previously in mind ; designed.— n. Premeditation. 

A-fora'tlllia' (-tim')* adv. In time past; formerly. 

R,iftt9,fl,l«ttff|ft,«,l,d,a,tf ^9r% i Mofttet 3v«m tdea, fkbay, ttnite, oArt, Km, Aak, fll, AmI* 




A-ioal' (*-t<mlO, adt- & a. [Pnt. a- + /<nrf.] In 
ooUuicHi ; entangled. 

A-ixaiA' (-frii?0. p. a, [OB. a/rayed^ p. p. of afraien 
to affny.] Impreaaed with fear. 

Ssm. — Fearful ; timid ; timoroiu : alarmed ; anzioua. 

A-fTMk' (-frSshO, a<f P. [Pref. a- -f/^^A.] Anew; 
again; once more; newly. 

Afki-GaB (if'rT-kon), a. [L. Afrietu, Afrieanu*, fr. 
^/rr African.] Pertaining to Africa, ^n. A native of 
Airica ; one of African race. 

Af rl-oaB'<l«r (-ktn'dSr), n. One bom in Africa of 
other ttian African parentage. 

A-fmit' (A-frttntO, adv. [Pref. a- + fnmt.'^ In 
front ; face to face. ^prtp. In front of. 

Alt C^rt), adv, & a. [AS. te/ian behind ; orig. auperL 
of o/, off. See Avtkb.] Near or towards the stem of a 
v e ss e l ; astern ; i^nft. 

AfTer (Aft^r), a. [AS, «^er after, behind. The end- 
ing -ter is an old compar. sufBx, in E. generally -thf-r (as in 
oiker\, snd after is a compar. of o/, off.} 1. Next ; later 
in tune ; subiiequent. %. Hinder ; nearer the rear or the 
stem of the sldp. ^prep. 1. Behind in place. 2. Below 
in rank ; next to in order. 3. Later in tune ; subsequent 
to. 4. Following; in pursuit of. 5. In conformity 
with ; after the mannw of ; in accordance with. ^^adr. 
Subsequently in time or pisce ; behind ; afterward. 

9^t~ After is prefixed to many words, forming com- 
pounds, but retaining its usual signification. Tlie prefix 
may be adveri>ial, prepositional, or adjectival ; as in infter- 
deecribed, after-it%tt. The hyphen is sometimes need- 
letSBly used to connect the adjective after with its noun. 

Affer-Uxtll' (-bSrthO, n. The membranes connected 
with the fetus, which come away after delivery. 

Affer-eUp' (-klip^), n. An unexpected subsequent 
erent ; a dist^rreeable occurrence after an affair Is sup- 
posed to be st an end. [same year. I 

Affer-ero^ (-krOpO* n. A second harvest in the| 

Aft%r damp' (dimp'). An irrespirable gas, remaining 
after an explosion of fire damp in mines ; choke damp. 

Affer-rai'll«r(-dTn'n^r),ii. Following dinner. 

Aft%r-Biat]l (-mith), n. A second mowing; grass 
which grows after the first crop of hay ; rowen. 

Affer-OMMt (-mSit), a. iuperl. 1. Hindmost. 2. 
Nearest a sliip*8 stem ; moit aft. 

Aff •r-BOOa' (-nSSn'), n. The part of the day which 
follows noon, between noon and evening. 

Atl'er-palillS' (-plnx0« »• pi- The pains which suc- 
ceed, childbirth, as in expelling the afterbirth. 

Aff •r-ptooe' (-P§>'). n. A farce or other piece per- 

1 after a play. 2. Th 

Affer-tlioiicM' (-thfif ), 


lay. 2. The heel of a rodder. 
_ tt' {'t\\ff/)y n. Refiection after an act ; 
subsequent thought or expedient. 

Aft'er-warte (-wirdx), \ adv. At a Uter or succeed- 

Af I'er-waid (-wSrd), ( ingtime. 

A-galB' (i-gSn^), adv. [OE. agein^ agayn, AS. ongeAn, 
against, again.] 1. In retum ; back. 2. Another time ; 
once more ; anew. 3. Moreover ; besides ; further. 

A-galBsr (4i58nsf ), prep. [OE. agens^ AS. ongegn.'\ 
1. Opposite to ; towards. 2. In contact with ; upon. 
3. In opposition to ; on the oth?r side ; counter to. 

A-Kuilo (A-glwTk), a. [See Aoamous.] (a) Pro- 
duced without sexual union ; as, agamic or unfertilised 
eggs, (b) Not having visible organs of reproduction, as 
flowerless fdants ; sf^mous. 

AgftL-mmm (Ig^i-mOs), a. [Or. ayofUK unmarried ; a 
priv. -f- yofiot marrisge.] Having no visible sexual or- 
gans ; asexual. In botany, cryptogamous. 

A-gape^ (i^^p' or -gii/), adv. & a. [Pref. a- + gape."] 
Gaping, as with wonder, expectation, or eager attention. 

Af'A-llo (Ig'A-rTk), n. [Or. ayafuc6¥, said to be fr. 
Agara, a town in Sarmatia.] 1. A fungal* of many spe- 
cies, including the common mushroom. 2. A name for 
several species of corky fungi growing on decayint; wood. 

Ac'ato (Ig^), n. [F. ; L. achate*, it. Or. oxani*.] 

L UnerystaUIxed quarts, presenting various color* ar- 
ranged in stripes or bauds, or blended in clouds. 2. A 
kind of printiM type, larger thau pearl and smaller than 
nonpareil ; in Kugland cs^Ued ruby. 

^giT' This line Ik printe<l In the type called agate. 

A-ga'Tt (A-ga'v§), n. [L. Agave^ prop, name, fr. Or. 
•yav^, fem. of ayowof illustrious, 
noble.] A genus of plants in- 
cluding the maguey or century 
plant, wrongly oilled Aloe. 

Af (Si)« »• [F- d^«« fr. L. 
oeto«, coutr. fr. aevitas, fr. 
aevum lifetime, age.] L The 
whole duration of a being ; life- 
time. 2. That part of the dura- 
tion of a being between its be- 
ginning and any given time. 

3. The latter part of life; 
seniority; state of being old. 

4. One of the stages of Ufe (of 
infancy, of youth, etc.). 6. Ma- 
ture age ; the time of life at , 
which one attains personal lights * 
and capacities. 6. A particular . ... 
period in history. 7. A great Agave (^. ^wmcoiw). 
period in tlie history of the Earth. 8. A century. 

9. The people of a particular period; a generation. 

10. A long time. 

Sy n. — Time ; period ; generation ; date ; era ; epoch. 
—V. i. To grow aged ; to become old ; to show marks 
of age. — r. t. To cause to grow old ; to impart the 
characteristics of age to. 

A'f«d (i'jM), a. 1. Old; having lived long or .be- 
yond the usual time allotted. 2. (i'jSd or l^d) Hariug 
a certain age : at the age of ; havhig lived. 

A'gm-oy i-ieu-af), n. [LLu agentiOy fr. L. agetu^ 
agenti*. See Aobnt.I 1. The faculty of acting; state 
of being in action ; instrumentality. 2. Oflkw of an 
i^ent, or factor; relation between a principal and his 
agent; business of one intrusted .with the concerns of 
another. 3. Place of businecs of an agent. 

Syn.— Action; operation; efficiency'; management. 

A'gent (-j^t), a. [L. agent, agenti*, p. pr. of agere 
to act.] Acting, —it. 1. One who has power to act; 
an actor. 2. One who acts for another ; a substitute ; a 
deputy ; a factor. 3. An active power or cause, able to 
produce ui effect. 

Ag-glom'er-Att (ig-glSm'Sr-it), r. /. &, i. [L. ag- 
giomerattUt p. p. of agglomerare; ad -\- gtomerare to 
lorm into a ball] To wind or coUesC into a ball; to 
gather into a mass. — (-tt), n. 1. A collection or mass. 
2. A mass of angular volcanic fragments united by heat ; 
— distinguished from eongtomerate. — Ag-gloOl'er-Atat 
AK-glom'er-A'tea (-i'UM). a. 

AK-glam'9t-tLtlmi, n. 1. A collecting in a mass ; a 
heaping together. 2. A mass ; cluster. 

Ak-gln^-IUUlt (-glu'tT-nont), a. [L. aggliUinan*, 
-antu, p. pr. of agglutinare.} Uniting, as glue; caus- 
ing adhesion.— a. Any viscous substance which causes 
bodies orvarts to adhere. 

Ag-ftn'tl-natt (-nit), v. t. [L. aggtntinntH*, p. p. of 
agglutinare to cement to a thing; ad -\- glutinnre to 
glue ; gluten glue.] To cause to adhere, as with glue ; to 
unite by causing an adhesion of substances. — a. 1. 
United; cemented together. 2. Consisting of root 
words combined but not materially altered as to form or 

Ag-fflll'ti-iiation, n. 1. A uniting by a tenacious 
substance; adhesion of parts. 2. Combination of root 
words without change of form or loss of meaning. 

Ac-glQ'ti-lia-tlTe (-ni-tlv), a. Pertaining to agglu- 
tination ; tending to unite ; adhesive. 

Ag'grail-diM (Sg'grSn-diz), v. t. [F. agrandir ; h 

fSm, recent, 6rb, ryde, fyll, llm, food, f^Tot, out, oil, chair, co, sing, ii^k, then, thin. 




(L. ad) -^ffrandir to increaM, L. prandire, tr. ffmndi* 
great.] To wake sreat or greater; to Uicreaae; to 
exalt - ATinui-^Btr (Kg'gtiu-dPzSr), n. 

8yn. — To augment ; exalt ; promote : adrauce. 

AC'^mifdlie-IMIIt (Ig-griu'dTs-mmt or ig'grio-dlx'- 
m«iit)f n. An aggraudisiug, or being exalted m power, 
honor, wealth, etc. 

Syn. — Augmentation : exaltation; enlargement; ad- 
Tancemeut ; promotion ; preferment. 

Af gni-TAte (-gr4-vit), r. /. [L. aggravatu*^ p. p. of 
aggravart. See Aoorisvb.] 1. To make worse, more 
•evere, or more offensive. 2. To exaggerate. 3. To 
exasperate ; to irritate. [C0//09.] 

Syn. — To heighten ; intensify : increase ; magnify : 
exaggerate ; provoke ; irritate ; exasperate. 

Ag'gnt-TAtlon, n. 1. An aggravating, or making 
worse ; an increasing in severity or lieinousuess. 2. Ex- 
aggerated representation. 3. An extrinsic circunutance 
wtiich hicreases ttte guilt of a crime or misery of a ca- 
lamity. 4. ProvocaTion ; irritation. [ro/Zo^.] 

Ag'gTt-ffate (-gri-gat), V. t. [L. aggregatu»^ p. p. of 
aggregate to lead to a Hock ; ad + gregtirt to collect 
into a flock, grfx flock, herd. See OaKOAUOi».] To 
bring together ; to collect into a mass or sum. 

Syn. — To heap up ; accumulate ; pile ; collect. 

Aff^gn-gate (-gftt), a. 1. Formed into a whole mass 
or sum ; collective. 2. Formed into clusters or into a 
common organised mass. — n. 1. A mass, assemblage, 
or sum of particulars. 2. A mau formed by union of 
homogeneous particles ; — in distinction from a eoni' 
pounds formed by union of heterogeneous particles. 

Af'gn-Catloa (•gi'sban), n. An aggregating, or 
being aggregated ; collection into a nuus or sum ; a 
collection of particul.-urs ; an aggregate. [lective. I 

As^gTt-ga-tt¥« (-gk-tTv), o. Taken U>gether; col-| 

Ag-glwlloil (-griUh'&n), n. [L. aggre*sio^ fr. aggredi 
to approach ; ad -f- gradi to step, gmdtu step.] The first 
act of hoatility ; unprovoked attack ; assault. 

Syn.— Attack; invasion: assault; encroachment; in- 
Jury ; offense ; intrusion ; provocation. 

Ag- fl ll ^lif (•grfis'sTv), a. Tending or disposed to 
•ffgreM ; unjustly attacking. — Ag-grtB'llTe-IltM, n.«riOr(-««0, n. [L.] One who begins hos- 
tility or a qunrrel ; an assailant. 

Aff-grtore' (-griv'), v. t. [OF. agrever; a (L. ad) 
-f grei'fT to burden, injure, L. ararare to. weigh down, 
fr. grarit heavy. See OmrevB.] To give pain to; to 
afflict ; to oppress or injure. 

Ac-fnmp' (-gro^p'). »*. '. C- ogrouper; h (L. ad) 
-f groftpe group.] To bring together in a group. 

A-CMUrt' (i-gistO, ff' *_?>• P' [OK. aguKtfn to terrify, 
fr. AS. pref. a- out + gS»tan to terrify.] Terrified; 
■truck with amazement or liorror. 

Af 'Ut («j^I). fl. [F. ; L. nailif, fr. f^d^r^ to move.] 
Apt or ready to move. — A-gU'l-ty (A-jT11-ty), n. 

Syn. -Active; alert; nimble; brisk; lively; quick. 

Ag1-0 (Ijl-* or 5'jT-ft), n. [It. aggio exchange, 
premium.] Premium on a better sort of money when 
exchanged for an inferior sort; discount on foreiin» 
billM of exrhanffe. [jobbing. I 

Agl-O-ttCO (KiT-^-tlJ"). n. Exchange business : stock- 1 

Agitate (-tSt), r. /. [L. agitaitu, p. p. of ngitarr to 
pMtTn motion, fr. agere to move.] 1. To move with 
violent. Irregular action. 2. To stir up ; to excite. 3. To 
discuss earnestly. 4. To devise ; to plot. 

Syn. — To move : shake : excite ; rouse ; disturb ; dis- 
tract : revolve ; discuss ; debate ; canvass, 

Agi-Utton, n. 1. An aglUting, or being agltnted ; 
commotion. 2. DIrturbance; perturbation. 3. Exami- 
nation ; earnest dlBcuwIon : debate*. 

Syn. — Emotion ; commotion; «>xrlt4»ment ; trepida- 
tion ; tremor ; perturbation. Ree Emotion. 

Ari-tmtor (ijT-tl'tIr), n. [I^] 1. One who ex- 
citet* others. 2. An implement for shakiug or mixing. 

Ag^nall (ig'nil), n. [AS. angnml; ange vexaUon, 
trouble -f futgrj naiL Cf. Hakomail.] Inflammation 
under or around the nail ; a lianguail. 

Ag%M.H (-ntt), a, [L. aguutug, p. p. of agnatci to 
I be bom in addition to ; nd -{ nasci to be bom. J L Rc- 
l.kted by the father's side ; sprung from the same male 
> ancestor. 2. Allied ; akin. — n. A relative whoae re- 
I lationship can be traced exclusively through malea. 
I Ag-BA'tlOtt. n. Relntionship by tlie father's side. 

Ag-nOStiO (nSytlk), a. [Or. A priv. -|- ymmttuc^ 

I knowing, ytyMMntftv to know.] Professing ignorance; 

' involving no dogmatic asceriioii.— w. One who denies 

that we have any knowledge, save of phenomena ; one 

who supports agnosticism. 

Ag-IMM^-Olsill (tT-sTx'm), n. That doctrine which, 
profesaing ignorance, neither auerU nor denies. The 
theological doctrine that the exiFtence of a personal 
Deity, an unseen world, etc., can be neither proved nor 
disnroved ; —opposed alike to dogmatic skepticism and 
to dogmatic theism. 

A-gC (i-gS'), a. & adr. [OE. ago, agon, p. p. of agon 
to go away, pass by.] Past ; gone by ; since. 

A-gOg' (-gSg'), a. & adr. [Cf. F. gogtte fun, perh. of 
Celtic origin.] In eager desire; eager; astir. 

A-gOlng (il-gCang), adv. [Pref. a- -f- p. pr. of go.] 
In motion ; in the act of going. 

Ag'O-nlM (ftg^-ulz), r. i. 1. To writhe with agony. 
2. Tx) struggle desperately. — r. t. To torture. 

Ag'O-nl'ldllg-ly (-iiFzTnf:-lj^), adv. With extreme an- 
guish or desperate struggles. 

Ag'O-ny (-n^), n. [L. agonia. Or. aywiaa,orig. a con- 
test, fr. Aytir strife, fr. aytiv to lead.] Extreme pain. 

Syn. - Aoomr ; Aworrtn ; Pako ; torment : Uiroe ; 
distress; suffering. Aonif nnd antjuisk both denote 
acute and permanent poiii, often produchig contortions, 
but in af/onv the pain is more general. A ttrmg ia a par- 
oxysm o< excruciating pain, severe and transient. 

Axra'rl-AB (A-grii'rT-on), a. [L. agraritu, fr. ager 
field.] 1. Pertaining to fields, lands, their tenure, or 
equitable division. 2. Orowhig nild;— said of plants 
in the fields, ^n. One who f.ivors equal diviaioa of 
landed property. — A-gra'rl-UI-iam, R. 

A-glW C-gT?'), r. i. [F. ogi-rer to receive kindly, fr. 
h grf; h {L. ad) -^- gre good will, liking, fr. L. grtitn* 
agreeable. See ORATcruL.] 1. To harmonize in opin- 
ion or action ; to be in unison ; to be or become united 
or consistent. 2. To yield aasent; to acctnle; — fol- 
lowed by to. 3. To excliange proiuiites; to come to 
terms. 4. To resemble ; to correspond. 5. To suit or 
do well. 6. To correspond grammatically in gender, 
number, case, or person. 

Syn. —To assent; concur; consent; acqiUesce; ac- 
cede ; engage ; promise : stipulate : contract ; bargUii ; 
correspond ; harmonize ; fit : tally ; coincide ; comport. 

Agrtra-bUl-tT (-&-btiq-ty ), n. Agreeableness. 

A-gre«'a-Wt (-A-b'l), fl. [¥. agr^ahle.^ 1. Pleasing 
to the mind or senses ; pleasant ; grateful. 2. Willing ; 
ready to consent. [CoUoq.'\ 3. Agreeing or suitable; 
adapted. 4. In pursuance or accordance ; — in this 
sense used adverbially for agrerabig. — A-gXtCa-llla- 

BMs, n. — A-grsa'a-Uy, adv. 

Syn. — Pleiiting: pleasant: welcome ; charming ; ac- 
ceptable ; amiable. Bee Plbabant. 

A-gree^ent, n. 1. Bute of agreeing ; harmony ; 
concord ; conformity. 2. Oraramatical concord or 
corivsponilenoe of wonls in gender, number, care, or 
person. 3. Concurrence in an engagement ; exchange 
of promises ; mutual arrangement or stipulation. 

Syn. — Bargain ; contract ; compact : stipulation. 

A-graa'tlo (-trri^'tlk), a. [L. ngrrxtist, fr. ager field.] 
Pertaining to fields or the country ; rural ; rustic. 

a, 0, 1, o, u, long ; A, e, I, 6, tt, j^, short ; senAte, «vent, tdea, 6bey, ftnite, cAre, J4rm, Ask, |^1, txkoL 




AfM-saltan (Sf^rT-kUafir ; 40), n. [L. agHcul- 
tura; uger -^ cultura culthration.] Cultivi^ion of the 
ground ; Ullage ; huibuidry ; famung. — Afll-onl'- 

Ag*A<nytMX4aHt n. One engaged or akilled in agri- 
calt«re ; a huabandman. 

A'gnPUd' (i-groandO« odv. & a. [Pref. a- -|- ground.'} 
Ou the ground ; atranded. 

A'gam (i'gtt)* n, [OF. ; LL. (febris) aeutOy acute 
ferer, fr. L. aevhu tha^.] 1. Intermittent ferer, with 
alternate cold and hot flta. 8. The chill of intermittent 
fever. — A'gll-lall, «. 

All {^), wterj. An exclamation of nirpriae, pity, 
complain^ contempt, delight, triumph, eta 

A-lM' (A-hSO, inierj. An exclamation of triumph, 
mixed with dertdon or irony, or rimple rarpriae. 

A-lUl', n. A ha-ha, or sunk fence. 

A-]Mai'(-h8d'),a<fr. [Pref . a- + Aea<f.] In or to the 
front ; in advance ; onward. 

A-aioy^C-hoiO, inttrj, [OK. a, haterj. -|- ho}f.'\ A aaOor's 
term uaed in hailing ahips, etc. 

A-lnOl' (-hOl'), adv. [Pref. a- + Ati//.] With laila 
furled, and helm lashed alee ; — aald of thipa. 

AlA (id), V. t. [T. aider, f r. L. adjuiartf freq. of ad- 
Juvtire to help ; ad-\-juvare to help. Gf. AivnrrAirr.] 
To sQpport ; to help. 

Ayn.— To help; anist; support; surtain: succor; 
relieve ; bef riendf; cooperate ; promote. See Help. 

*n. 1. Help; relief. 2. A helper; an aaaiatant. 3. 
An aid-de-caiup. 

(id'de-kSiiOt w/ P'- AiDa-DB-CAiip 

(ids'-). [F. aiae de camp (literally) camp aaidstaut.] 
An <nScer who carries a sen coral's orders, or assists him 
in correspondence and in directing movements. 

AFgrvt (i'RrSt), in. [P.] 1. Tlie small white 

Al-glVtte' (t-grCf), ) European lieron. 2. A plume 
of feathers, gems, etc. 3. A feathery crown of seed, as 
the down of dandelions or thistles. 

AIl(il),v. /. [AS. tf^/an to trouble, pain.] To affect 
with pain or uneasiness ; to trouble ; to be the matter 
with. — r. i. To be ill. Indisposed, or in trouble. — n. 
Indispodtion or morbid affection. 

A^lJlli't1M (t-lXn^Bs). Al-lan'tlms (thfis), n. lAy- 
lanlo tree of heaven, Molucca name.] A genus of trees, 
natives of the East Indies. 

Afl'BMat (al'ment), n. Indisposition ; morbid affec- 
tion of the body. 

AtB (am), V. i.& t. [L. aestimare to estimate ; or 
perh. Or. netmer ; a (L. atl) + esmer. See Bstimatk.] 
To point or direct (a weapon, effort, intention, remark, 
etc.). — !». L Tlie pointing of a weapon toward the ob- 
ject to be struck ; direction of a weapon, blow, discourse, 
remark, etc, towards a particular object. 2. Intention ; 
design ; scheme. 

8yn. — End ; object ; scope ; drift ; design ; purpose ; 
intention ; scheme ; tendency ; aspiration. 

Alfli'IeM, a. Without aim or purpose. 

Ain't (Slit). A colloquial or illiterate contraction for 
are not and am not, also used for U not. 

Air (tr), n. [OE. A F. air, L. aH; fr. Or. w^p air, 
mist, prob. akin to E. wind.] L The fluid which we 
breathe ; the atmosphere. 2. State of the atmoeptiere, 
as respects iieat, cold, moisture, etc. 3. Air in motion ; 
wind. 4. A musical idea rhythmically developed; a 
■e i ody ; a tune. 5> Manner and aiH>eanuioe of a per- 
son; demeanor; semblance; style. 6- pf. Artificial or 
affected manner ; show of pride ; liaughtiness. 

JB^ Air is much used adicctlvely or as thp first part 
ofa etmiixrand term. In mo^ rn^em it might be written 
ettlier as a seimate limittng word, or as part of a com- 
pound term, with or without the hyphen. 

Air ballL (a) An appantns for applying air to the 
l)ody. <b) An arrangement for drying substances in air 

a Mr Chamber of a 

of any desired temperature. — Air bsA, a aack inflated 
with air, and used as a bed. — Air UaMsr, a sac full of air 
in an animal or plant; an air hole in a carting. — Air 
braks, a raOroad brake operated by condensed air. —Air 
can. a cen containing air. — Air chaaher, a caivity filled 
with air, in an animal or plant, also 
for equalising tlte flow of a liquid 
in a pump or other hydraulic ma- 
chine. — Air oesk, a faucet to allow 
escape of air.— Air drill, a drill 
driven by elastic pressure of con- 
densed air; a pneumatic drill.— 
Air sBftaM, an engine drtren by 
heated or by compressed air. — Air 
gVB, a gun in which the elastic 
force of condensed air is used to 
discharge the ball. — Air bole, (a) 
A hole to admit or discharge air ; a 

7ot in the ice not frosen over. (6) 
fault in a casting, produced by a 
bubble of air : a blowhole. — Air 
Una, a straight line ; bee line. —Air pips, a pipe for draw- 
ing off foul air. — Air plant, a plant neurisaed by the air 
only : an aerophjrte. — Air b«ih>« a machine for exhaust- 
ing air from a closed vesseL — Air sao, an air cell in a bird. 
— Air shaft, a passage supplying fresh air to a mine or 
tunnel. — Air spring, a sprinff operated by the elasticity 
of air. —Air stovs, a stove for neatlng a enrreat of aar 
driven agafaist it and diatributed throv«h a building. — 
Air tru>, a contrivance for abutting off fool air or gaa 
from drains, sewers, etc ; a stench trap. — Air trtak, a 
dwf t for conducting foul air from a room. — Air vssssL a 
vessel or cell (m birds, plants, pumps, etc.) containing 
air. — Air way, a passage for a current of air. 

Air (ftr), r. t. 1. To expose to the air ; to ventilate. 
2. To expose or display osteutatioualy. 

Alrl-ly (ftrOr-lj^i adv. In an airy manner ; lightly. 

Alr't-IMSB, A. 1. Openness or exposure to the air. 
2. Lightness of spirits ; gayety ; levity. 

Alrillf,!!. L A walk or a ride in the open air. 2. An 
exposure to air, or to a fire, for warming, drying, etc. 

Air'iMS, a. Not open to fresh air. 

Alr'-tlfBt^ (-tit/ ), a. So tight as to exclude air. 

Alr'y i-f), a. 1. Consisthig of air. 2. Relating to air ; 
high in air ; aerial. 3. Open to a free current of air ; 
breesy. 4. Resemblinff air; thin; nnaubetantial. 6. 
Without reality or solid foundation ; empty ; visionary. 
6. light of hctart ; vivacious ; flippant. ?• Having an 
affected manner ; affectedly grand. 

Alsto (il), n. [F. aiU wing, L. ala, contr. fr. axilla.} 
(a) A lateral division of a bcdlding, separated from tlte 
middle part (nave), hy a row of colnmns. (b) [Perh. 
confused with alley.) Passageway to the pews of « churcli. 

[ (Ud), a. Furnished with an male or aisles. 

A-|ar' (i-iarO, adv. [OB. on char ajar, on the turn ; 
AS. cerr, cyrr, turn.] Slightly turned or op«ied. 

A-lar', adv. [Pref. a- ^jarj In a state of discord. 

A-klmlM) (4-kTma>6), a. [Etym. unknown.] With 
a bend ; with hand on the hip and elbow turned outward. 

A-Ua' (-kin'), a. [Pref. a- {tot of) + kin.} L Of 
the same kin ; related by blood. 2. Of the same kind. 

Al'ft-teS'tar (il'i-bSVtSr), n. [L., fr. Alabastron a 
town in Egypt, near which it was common.] A com- 
pact sulphate or carbonate of lime. 

A-lack' (i-UkO, A-lMTA-dAy' i-MS/), inieri. An 
exclamation of sorrow. 

A-lACllrty (-rT-tj^), n. [L. olaerUat, fr. alaeer eager.} 
Cheerful readiness or promptitude ; briskness. 

Al'a-moOe' (U'i-mSd' ; F. k/\k-mtii>), adv. A a. [F. 
h la mode after tlte fashion.] According to the faidiion 
or mode. — n. A thin black silk for scarfs, etc. 

A-UurB' (A-larmO, n. [It all' arme to arma ! fr. L. 
arma, pi., arms.] 1. A summons to arms. 2. A wam^ 
ing of danger. 3. Surprise with terror. 4. A mechanical 
contrivance to rouse persona from sleep ; an alaram. 

Alarm bsU, a bell giving notice of danger. — Alarm dock 
or watek, a clock or watch which can be so set as to ring 
loudly at a prearranged hour. — Alarai gaage, an attadi' 

fira, rsc«nt, 4Vrb» ryde, f ^ tan, food, fo^oC, o«t, oil, clialr, go, sins, i|^ then, U&ia. 


ment to a steam boiler to show an orerpreasore of ateam 
or deficiency of water in the boiler. 

Sfii. — Alasji: Fei«iit; Tbrbob; CoNtnaMATioir ; 
affright ; trepidation ; appreheuaiou ; dismay ; a^tatiou ; 
diaauiet ; diaquietude. — Frig/it is fear suddenly excited, 
producing ctmfunion of the senses. Alarm la hurried 
agitation from a sense of immediate exposure. Terror is 
agiti^g and excesaire fear, which usuiaUy benumtM the 
faculties. ConMemation Is OTerwhelming fear, with 
powerleasneas and amazement See Apfrehsm siow. 

A-lamf (S-lKm/), V. t. 1. To call to arms for defense ; 
to notify of approaching danger ; to put on the alert. 
a. To disturb. 3. To fill with anxiety ; to excite with 
Budden fear. 

A-Iann1st (-Tst), n. One prone to excite alarma, 
eapecially needless alarms. 

A-Uur'iaB (-liir'am), n. [OK alarom^ same as alarm,'] 
1. Alarm. 2. An alarm signal or mechanism to sound an 
alarm (as in an alarm clock). 

A-lM' iM^\ interi. [OE. A OF. ; L. oA + Iomum 
weary.] An exclamation M sorrow, pity, or dread. 

Alb (ilb), n. [LL. adba, fr. L. alhut white.] An 
ecclesiastical vestment of white linen, reaching to the 


feet, and euTeloirfng the person. 

\*Vk (U-bi'U), n. [L. albaiu*, p. p. of albare to 
I wldte, fr. aibus.] A white metallic alloy, made 
into Hxxms, forks, teapots, etc. ; German siWer. 

AinM-trau (-b4-tros), n. [Corrup. fr. Pg. alcatra* 
cormorant, albatroaa, or Sp. Meatras pelican.] A very 
larm web*footed sea bird, of the southern hemisphere. 

Al'lMlt (al'bSnrt), conj. Even though; although; 

Al-bM^oent (U-bfia'sCTit), a. [L. albeMffU, p. pr. of al- 
beseere to grow white, fr. atbus white.] Becoming whit- 
ish ; moderately white. — Al-bf^oence> n. [family. I 

Allll-OQre (-bT-kSr), n. A Urge fish of the Mackerel! 

Al-U'&O (-bi'nft), n. [Sp. or Pg. ; orig., whitish, fr. 
albo white, L. albu*."] A person having usuificient col- 
oring sub^ance in skin, liair, and eyes. An albino luw 
skin and hair of a milkv hue, and eyes with red pupil and 
pink or blue iris. Said also of animals and planta. 

AinM-on (SI'bT-&n), n. An ancient name of England. 

A11Ml-gtll'e-0IW(-btt-jTn'$-as),a. Of the nature of the 
white of the eye, or of an egg ; albuminous. 

Al'bnm (-bttm), n. [L., neut of albu4 white.] A 
blank book for pliotographs, autographs, sketches, etc. 

Al-ba'mMl (-bu'raSn), n. [L., fr. albus.] 1. The 
white of an egg. 8. Nourishing matter stored in the 
aeed in many plants. 

Al-bUlnla (-mTn), n. A thick, viscous nitrogenous 
substance, the chief constituent of white of eggs and of 
the serum of blood, found also in other animal substances 
and in raanv plants. 

Al-bulnl-lllB (-mT-nTn), n. The substance of the 
cells which inclose the white of birds' eggs. 

Al-bUlni-noilS (-nOs). ) a. Pertaining to, or con- 

Al-bU'ml-nOM' (-uSiO* i taining, albumen, or re- 
sembling albumen or albumin. 

Al-lNir'nillll (-bfir'unm), n. The white and softer 
part of wood, next the Inner bark ; sapwood. 

Al'OA-bMt (n'ki-bSst), n. Alkahest. 

IIAl-€akP, Al-Myde" (Sl-kid'; Sp. Sl-ka-S'dt), n. 
[Sp. alcaide^ fr. Ar. al-gdUt governor, fr. qdda to gov- 
ern.] 1. Conmiander of a castle or fortress among 
Spaniards, Portuguese, and Moors. 2. Warden of a jalL 

II Al-oal'de (al-kU'dt), n. [Sp., fr. Ar. al^adl Judge, 
fr. qada to decide, judge. Hence, the eadi of the Turks.] 
A magistrate or judge in Spain, Spanish Araerics, etc. 

Al-OhemlC (U-k«mTk), Al-Chon'lc-al, a. Relating 
to alchemy. [cheray. | 

Al'ollt-llllSt (XlOit-mTst). n. One who practices al-| 

Al'Oht-my J-m^), n. [OF. alkemie, Ar. allAmia, fr. 
late Or. x^Mtut infusion, x^f*-^ juice, liquid, fr. x<'*^*' 
to pour.] Occult chemistn- ; pretended art of transmut- 
ing base metals into gold, finding the panacea, or univer- 


sal remedy for diseases, etc. — Al^ 
mTs'tlk), Al'olM-mla'tkHa, a. 

Al'oo-bol (U'kft-hOl), n. [Sp., alcohol, antimony, 
galena, fr. Ar. al-kohl powder of antimony or galena, to 
paint the eyebrows with ; — later, rectified spirits.] Pure 
or highly rectified spirit ; the intoxksating element of 
fermented or diiftilled liquors, extracted frmn fermented 
vegetable juices. — Al'M-hfAlc, a. 

Al'00-nui(ll'k«.rin or ii/kft-rKnO,*. [F. ; fr. Ar. a/- 
ooran^ orig. the reading, the book, fr. qaraa to read. 
Cf. KoEAM.I The Mohammedan Scriptures ; the Koran 
(usual form). [Spelt also Alkoeah.] 

Al'COV* (ll'kSv or B-kSV), n. (f. ; Sp. aleoba, fr. 
Ar. al-quobbah arch, tent.] 1. A recesaed portion of a 
room ; recess in a library. 2. A garden bower. 

Al'dA-hyte (-d^hid), n. [Al^r. fr. otoohol dehyd- 
rogenatum, alcohol deprived of iU hydrogen.] A 
oobrlesa and very volatile liquid obtained from alcohol 
by oxidation. — Al'da-hy'dlo (-hi'dTk), a. 

Al'dMT (ftl'dSr), n. [OE. aldir, oiler, akin to L. oMm, 
uid E. elm.'] A tree, usually growing in moist land, 
whose wood Is used by turners, etc., and the bark by 
dyers and tanners. 

Al'dMr-man (-man), ». [AS. aldormon^ ealdorman ; 
ealdor an elder -f man.] A municipal officer having a 
l^:islatlve function, and sometimes exercising magisterial 
and administrative functions. — Al'der-nuil-OJ \-^)t n, 
— Al'der-manlo (-minTk), a. 

Ale (S), n. [AS. ealu.] L A liquor made from an 
infusion of malt by fermentation and addition of hopa. 
2. A festival in English country places. 

A-lM' (A-IS'), adv. [Pref. a- -f lee.] On the lee, or 
side away from the wind ; — oppoiaite of aweather. 

AWhauai^' (ilHious'), n. Phice where ale is retaOed. 
, A-lemntfo (4-l«m'bTk), n. [F. ; Ar. al-ntUAq, fr. Or. 
a^/3i^ cup, cap of a still.] An old ap- 
paratus for distillation, now replac^ 
py the retort and worm still. 

A-leiT (-I8rf ), a. [F. alerie, ear- 
Uer h Verte on the watch, fr. It. aW 
erta on the watch, prop, (standing) on 
a height ; erta a declivitv, steep. See 
EucT.] Watchful; Tigflant; nimble. 

— A-lertly, adv. — A-ieifBmw, ». 

Sjn. —Active ; agile ; lively ; quick ; 

Ale'wtfe'(Sl'wifO,n. A woman who 
keeps an alehouse. 

AM'Wlfe^, n. [Prop, aloof y Indhm 
name of a fish.] A North American 
fish of the Herruig family. 

Al'ez-An'drint (Si'Sgz-SnMrTn), a. 
Alexandria. — n. A kind of verse consisting in 
of twelve syllables. 

A-lez'l-^llfirllliC (A-l«k8/T-fllr'mTk), a. [Or. AA.^t^ilp- 
fioicoc keeping off poison ; aXi^tw to keep off -\- ^p^ocor 
poison.] Expelling or counteracting poison. — n. An 
antidote against p(^n or infection. 

A-lSS'l-ter^ (-tSr^k), a. [Or. aAc^iir^piov fit to keep 
off or help, fr. iXi^tw.] Resisting poison; alexipharmic 
^n. A preservative agMust contagious and infectioua 
diseases, and the effects of poison. ~ A-lM^-ttf'kHdf a. 

Al-falfa (U-fKI'f4), n. [Sp.] A kind of lucem, grow, 
ing in California, Texas, etc. 

II Al'ca (Xl'gA), n. ; pi. Kutm <«'j5). [L., seaweed.] 
A kind of seaweed ; pi. the class of cellular cryptogamle 
plants including kelp, dulse, sea lettuce, conferva, etc 

Al'ge-toa (-j^brA), n. [LL. ; fr. Ar. al-jebr reduction 
of parts to a whole, f r. jabara to bind together.] Mathe- 
matical calculation by letters and sjrmbols. — Al'g»- 

toalo (U'jibraik), Al'ge-bralo^a, a. — Al'g»-bn'- 
lo-al-ly, adv. 

Al'ge-bn'tet (-brS'THt), n. One versed in algebra. 

Al'fOlA (-gold), a. Lilte an alga, or seaweed. 

a Hesd i h Cucur- 
bit ; c Receiver ; 
(/ Lsmp. 


S, S, I, S, a, long ; A, fi, 1, 5, A, $-, short ; sanAte, dvent, tdea, 6bey, tinite, cftre, lirm, ask, |^ flnoL 




Al'S»-lltlBl(iKg^rTtli'm),fu IV. alfforithme.} Art 
of computanff iu any puticuUr way. 

AFgOU v-ff^)* ^ [^ aiffotuSf fr. alga leaweed.] 
Pertaming to tb« alg», or Maweoda. 

Ali^m (air-C«), adv. [L., fr. alius other. See Elo.] 
Otberwiae; otherwise called. —II. 1. ▲ writ inMied alter 
a first has expired. 9. An aaaomed name. 

AFI-fei (IKT-bi), ft. PL., elsewhere, at another place.] 
An accused per8on*s plea that he was in another place 
when the alleged act was committed. 

A11tn(il'yen),a. {h. alientu, fr. alius.} L Not be- 
longing to the same comitry ; foreign. 2. Different in 
nature; inconsistent {with); incongruous.— ti. A for- 
; stranger. [Al'ton-A-lllll-ty, n 

Al'ktL-Urtf (U'kArlT.II), V. t. A i. To change faito ao 


Allan-a-llle (-4-b*l), a. Capable of being alienated. — 

AlliO-Ate (-it), a. [L. alienare^ -otem, fr. alienus.\ 
Estranged ; foreign. ^ f. /. 1. To transfer to another 
2. To withdraw (the affections) ; to estrange. 

Al'I«»4ltloa (-Tshttn), n. 1 An aUenating, or being 
alienated. 2. Legal conveyance of property. 3. Es- 
trangement. 4. Mental derangement. 

Syn. —Insanity ; lunacy ; madness ; derangement. 

AllMHt'tnr (-t^r), n. One who alienates. 

itriMtIt* i'jea-V), n. One to whom the tiUe of 
■ty is transferred ; — opposed to alienor. 
MMm (-Ts*m), n. 1. The legal condition of an 
alien. 2. The treatment of mental diseases. 

A11mk4altt n. One who treats mental diseases. 

AllMI-ar' (-^^f *• ^® ^^ transfers property. 

All-form (Ul-fdrm), a. [L. ola wing + -form.'] 
Wing-shaped; winglike. 

A^lj^hf (i'UtO, V. <. [AS. iRhian ; pref . i- + llhian 
to aligfit.] 1. To get down or descend ; to dismount. 2. 
To descend and settle, rest, or stop. 

A-Uckt', a. [Pref. a- -f- light.1 Lighted : In a flame. 

A-Ubm' (-UnO, v. t. A i. [F. aligner; h (L. ad) + 
ligne (L. linea) line.] To adjust or form in line ; to 
faU faito line. — A-UgB'toMIt, n. 

A-Ukt^ (-nkO, a. [AS. on/Ir, getU:: pref. d- + like.} 
H iTing resemblance ; similar. — adv. In the same man- 
ner, form, or degree ; in common ; equally. 

All-BMIIt (iKi-ment), n. [L. alimentum^ It. alert to 
nourish.] That which nourishes ; food ; sustenance. 

AH-aWtll (-mSnOol), Al'l-B0ntA-ry (-ti-rj^), a. 
Pertaining to aliment ; nutritious. 

iWsuntsry eaaal, the entire channel, from the mouth 
to the anus, through which food passes 

AM— n-ta^tton (-mSn-tl'shfin), n. Nutriment. 

AFt-BU n^f - m i , n. Appetite for food. 

A11-B0-ny (ilT-mft-nj^), n. [L. alinumia.} 1. Main- 
tenance. 2. An allowance legally made to a wife out of 
her huri>and*B income, upon her separation from him. 

All-ptd (-pSd), a. [L. alipes ; ala wing -f pes^ pedis, 
foot.] Wing-footed. — n. An animal whose toes are 
connected by a membrane used as a wing, as the bat. 

All-QiBaBt (-kwont), a. [L. aliqwmtus some, mod- 
erate ; alius otlier + qwtnius how great] Not diTiding 
another number or quantitywithout leaving a remainder. 

All-VMt (-kwSt), a. [L. aliauot several; alius + 
quoi how many.l Dividing exactly, without remainder. 

A-Uvw'Cirk' . 
life; Uvlng. 2. 

Sprightly; brisk. 
AIIiTa-xIb (•lTs'4^rTn), n.' [f. aliznHne.] 

[AS. on n/e in life.] 1. Having 
In opera^n; unextinguished. 3. 
4. Easily impressed ; sensitive. 

, n), n. Mr. aliznrine.] A coloring 

principle, which produces the Turkish reds. 

Am4Mt(nnci-hBst),n. [U^ alchahest.} A'*uni- 
▼ersal solvent. 

Al'kft-lM'OMIt (Il'k4^iee'sCTit), a. Tending to the 
propertiea of an alkali- — Al'kA-lM'OMIOt, n. 
Arka-U (-li or -IT), n.; pi. Alkalis or Alkalibs 

ins or -ITsl [F. aleali, fr. Ar. alqatl ashes of saltwort.] 
. Soda ash ; potash, etc. 2. A caustic base which neu- 
tralixea adds, turns reddened litmus blue, etc. 

Al'ka-Ullt (-Un or -ITu), a. Pertafaiing to, or having 
>roperties of, an alkali. — Al'kA-lllll-ty (-ITunT-t^), n. 
Al'ka-UM (-lis), r. /. Torender alkaline. — Alltt-11- 


Al'Kft-lold (-loid), n. An organic base occurring in 
pliukts and ^n^iffiM*, and resembling the alkali*, — A^lOl- 
kid, Al'kA-loid'al, a. 

Allm-nui (Uncft-rin ; Ar. Il'kft-riU/), n. Alcoran. 

All (»1), a. [AS. eo/, pL ealle.] The whole quantity 
or quautv of; the whole of; every. ^ adv. wholly; 
completely ; entirely ; ouite. — n. llie whole ; the total ; 
the aggregate ; everything. 

AU the saas, nevertheless. - AU tsld, all eounted; in 
alL — At all, in any way or respect ; in the least degree ; 
under any circumstances. 

U AllAk (UOi), n. [At., eontr. fr. a/ the + OoA Ood.] 
The Mohammedan name of the Supreme Beiiag. 

PAl-laBtO-lsCil-Un't^-Ts), )n. A membranous ap- 

Al-laa'tOid (n-Un'toid), i pendageoftbeembryoe 
of mammals, birds, and reptiles. — AlOABrtiOlo (il'ttn- 

tsnrk), Al-lABtoM (-Un'told), AlOan-toid'al, a. 

Al-lay^ (U-liO* r.t.&i. [AS. aUcgan ; 5- + Uegan 
toUy.] Tomakequiet;toappease; to quell; to abate; 
to mitigate; to subside. — Al-Uy^or, n. 

8jn. — To alleviate; check; rep re ss; aaBaage;8ub> 
due ; destroy ; compoee ; soothe ; ddm. See Aixsviats. 

. allegation fr. al- 

AH^^artlon (naMK'sh&n),, 

legare, -gaium, to sena a m ess a ge ; ad -{- legare to i 
Cf. Alliob.1 1. Positive assertion. 2. Averment ; legal 
statement of what is to be proved. 

Al-Itce' (U-USJOi <*• f' [OK aleggen to adduce as evi- 
dence ; L. eac 4- litigare to quarrel.] 1. To bring for- 
ward with positiveness ; to afBrm ; to assert. 2. To 
urge as a reason, plea, or excuse. — Al'legV'A-blt, a. 

Srn. — To bring forward ; adduce ; advance ; assign ; 
produce ; declare ; affirm ; assert ; aver ; predicate. 

Al-Ie'glaiioe (-18;;ianB or -jT-ons), n. [OK aUge- 
ounce ; pref. o- 4- OF. lige^ liege.} The obligation owed 
by a subject to his sovereign or government ; lojralty. 

Syn. — Allwiancs : Lotaltt ; fealty. — AUegianee is 
an obligation to a ruling power. Loyalty is a sentiment 
towards such power, and is penKmal, so that we speak of 
the loyalty of a wife to her husband, not of her allegianee. 

All«-gor^ (Xkl^-gSr^k), \ a. Belonging to, or oon- 

AllMPOr'lO^ (-gor^'kal). ) sisting <^, allegory; 
figurative. — Alle-corto-Al-lT, adv. 

All^-CO-llst (-RS-rTst). n. One who allegoriaes. 

Alle-forl-n'tflUl (-fforOT-zi'shfin), ». A turning into 
allegory ; an understanding allegorically. 

ATl^-gO-llM (Ult-g^-ris), V. t. L To form or turn 
into all^^ory. 2. To treat as allegoricaL 

AyU-Eoij i-ftt-rf), n. [Or. a^kiiyo^a description 
of one thing under the image of another ; aAAor other 
-f- ayopevtuf to speak in the assembly.] A figurative 
discourse, in which tlie principal subject is described by 
anotlier subject resembling it in its circumstances. 

Syn. — Aluboobt ; Pakablb; metaphor: fable.— < An 
allegory differs both from fable and parable^ in that the 
properUes of persons are represented as transferred to 
things. In the parable there is no transference of prop- 

llAlle-gnrtO (il'l^-nSt'ti; It. UOt-grtfti), a. 
[It., dim. of allegro.} Quicker than andante, but not so 
quick as a//ejrro. —n. MusioU movement in this time. 

II Al-le'jno (O-iygrft ; //. JU-U'grft), a. [It., gay, fr. 
L. alaeer Uvely.] Brisk, lively. — n. An allegro move- 
ment in music ; a quick, sprightly strain or piece. 

Alle-Inla I (U'I$-lu'y&), n. [L. alleluia, fr. Heb. 

Allt-ln'lak t hnlteia-y&h.} Hallelujah. 

Al-le^-«te (lyvl-it), r. /. [LL. aUeviare, fr. L. 
ad -}- levis light. See Lbvtty.] 1. To lighten or lessen 
(troubles) ; to mitigate, or make easier to be endured. — 

fim, reo0nt, 6rh, nide, f ^^ Am, food, fdbt, out, oil, ebair, go, sine, 'qI^ then, tiftln. 




A14oM-A-thr« (IQ-iVvMtTv), A14«^rU-to-nr, o.- 
Al-l«^n^-tfir, n. 

Syn. — To Allsviatb ; Mitioatb ; Assvaob : Allay. — 
Theae words all iudicafce relief from some paiiif ul state. 
Alleviats sappoaea a load which la llgbteued or takeu off ; 
mitigate^ aomethiiig fierce which ia made mild ; iutuuye^ 
•omethinc rioleat which ia quieted ; aUay^ somethiug 
preriouaiy exoited, but uow brought down. 

Al-lt^-a'tiOll, n. 1. An alleviating ; mitigation ; re- 
lief. 2. That which mitigatea, or makes more tolerable. 

Alley (Ulj^), n. ; pi, Allbts (4Is). [F. aU6e a go- 
ing, paaaage, fr. allerXo go.] A narrow paaaage. 

Aia«r:WAr(:wlO,n. AnaUey. 

AU' Fools' Day (nl' f551x dIO. The first day of 
April, on which aportive impoaitions are practiced. 

All' fours' (f»l^ fSnO. [ii// + /our (cards).] A game 
at carda, called ** High, Low, Jack, and the Oame.** 

All' Mats' [formerly, All' four']. AU four lege of a 
quadruped ; or the two legs and two arms of a person. 

All' hllU' (ftl' hll'). [i4tt -h A<if/, interj.] AU health; 
— a phraae of aalutation or welcome. 

AUIUdaow OVr (Kl'hilld 9vO. The evening before 
Allhallowaor All Bainto* Day. November lat. 

AlllUdlow-IIUUI (-mAs), n. The feaat of AU Saints. 

All'bSiaow-tiao' (-tIdO, n. [AS. ad time.] The 
time at or near All Saints, or November lat. 

Al-U'saoo (U-U'ons), n. [F. ; fr. a//i>r to ally.] 1. A 
being aUied ; union of interests. 2. The persons allied. 

Syn*— Connection; affinity t c<mfederacy; league. 

Al-Ued' (-Ud'), a. United ; joined ; akin ; related. 

AlOI-BSte (kinT-git), V. t. [L. alliaatus, p. p. of 
aUigare. Bee Ally.] To tie ; to unite by some tie. 

AlllrgStktfl, n. Arithmetical solution of questions 
conoeming ingredients of different quaUties or values. 

AlOi-ffS'tor (niT-gi'tSr), n. [Sp. a lagarto the Usard, 
L. lacertm Usard.] A krge carnivorous reptUe of the 
OrooodUe family, peculiar to America. 

Al-U'Skm (n-lTsh'lln), ft. [L. allisio, fr. ad + laedere 
to doah against.] A dashing against. 

Al-ltt'or-Atlon (-ITfSr-^shnn), n. [L. <uf + lUfra 
letter.] RepetiUon of the same letter. — Al-ltt'or-A- 
ttVS C-irtTv), a. 

Aia»«atO (Hlft-kit), V. t. [L. ad + locate to phice.] 
Tb distribute or assign ; toaUot. 

AllO-Oatton (-kl'shOn), n. 1. A putting one thing 
to another ; arrangement. 2. An apportionment. 

It Allo-oatinr (-tfir), n. [LL., it U allowed, fr. aUo- 
care to aUow.l *^ Allowed,** — a legal term expressing 
the judicial allowance of a writ, order, etc. 

AllO-OS'tkn (-ku'shttn), n. [L. allocntio, fr. ad -f 
loqui to mpeak. ] An address, eap. of a pope to his clergy. 

Al-IO'fll-llm (-IS'dT-am), n. [LL. ; cf. OHG. al all, 
and M possession.] Freehold estate ; land held in abso- 
lute independence ; — opposed to feud. — Al-lO'dl-sl, a. 

AlOo-pStll (nn«-pSth), Al-lop'A-tlllst (ll-lSp^A-thtst), 
n. One who practices or professes aUopathy. — Al'lo- 
psthlo (U'l^plthTk), a. 

Al-loP'S-tliy (XM5p'4^thJ^), n. [Or. oAAor other + 
no$9i¥ to suffer.] Use of medicines to produce effects 
different from those produced by disease ; -- opposed to 

Al-fof (-15tO, V. t. [OF. nloter; a (L. ad) -f lot lot.] 
To distribute by lot ; to parcel out ; to grant. 

Al-lotlueilt, n. 1. An allottlug ; assignment. 2. A 
part, or portion granted or distributed. 

Al-loW (-louQ, V. I. [F. allwier, fr. LL. allocare to 
admit as proved. J 1. To grant or yield ; to let one have. 
2. To own or acknowledge ; to concede. 3. To abate or 
deduct. 4. To license; to consent to. ^ v. i. To admit; 
to make aUowance or abatement 

8jm. — To allot : assign : bestow ; concede ; 
permit : suffer ; tolerate. See Pbbmit. 


Al-Tow'a-blt (-A-bM), a. Proper to be aUowed ; not 
forbidden or improper. — Al-lOW'a-My, adv. 

Al-loWSBOO (Xl-lou'ans), ». 1. An aUowing ; sanction. 
2. A portion allotted; stated quantity, as 6t lood or 
drink. 3. Deduction for mitigatii^ circumstance. ■« 
t'. /. To put upon aUowance. 

Al-loy' (loi'), n. [F. aloi. fr. ofoyer to aUoy, aUier 
to aUy, fr. L. alligare to bind to.] L A compound of 
metals fused together. 2. A baser metal mixed with a 
fhier. 3. Admixture of anything which lewens the 
value. ^ t?. /. & i. To debase by mixing ; to form an aUoy. 

Al-loy'agO (U-loitj), n. An aUoying metals; also, the 
combinatitm or alloy. 

All' SsllttS' (al' sints"). \ The first day of November, 

AU' Saints' Day'. I caUed, also. AIUmUovm or 

HaUowmas' a feaet day in honor of aU the saints. 

All' Souls' Day' (e51z). A Roman Catholic feast 
(November 2d), when suppUcations are made for the 
souls of the faithful dead. 

All'sploo' (-spis'), n. The berry of the pimento ; Ja^ 
maica pepper. 

Al-lnde' (O-lud'), r. i. [L. alhidere; ad + ludeie to 
play.] To refer to somethiug indirectly. 

Syn. — To refer ; hint ; suggest ; insinuate. See Rkfcb. 

Al-lsro' (-inr'), V. t. [OF. aieurrer, fr. c (L. orf) -f- 
leurre lure.] To attempt to draw ; to tempt by a lure 
or offer of some good, real or apparent. — Al-lw'or, n. 

Syn. — To Alldks ; Entics ; Dbcoy ; Saoucs : attract ; 
tempt. — We are allured by the proepect (usuaUy decep- 
tive) of some future good. We are enticed into evU by 
appeals to our passions. We are decoyed into danger by 
false appearances or representations. Wc are seducm 
when drawn aside from the path of rectitude. 

Al-lue'Diailt, n. That which allures ; temptation. 

Al-llfsloia (U-lu'zhOn), n. [ See Alludk.] Indirect 
reference ; a hint. 

Al-ln'slTt (-sTv), a. Containing an allusion. 

Al-ln'Tl-al (-vT-al), a. Pertaining to, contained in, 
or composed of, alluvium. 

Al-lnM-on (-&o). n. [F. ; L. alluHo, it. ad -{- hiere^ 
lavare, to wash.] 1. Wash of water against the shore. 
2. An overflowing ; flood. 3. Matter (Uposited by flow- 
ing water ; alluvium. 

Al-ln'Tl-lllll (-fim), n. Deposits of earth, sand, etc., 

washed upon land not permanently submerged. 

to bind.J 
marriage, etc. — n. One united to another by any tie ; 


ad -f- ligare 

>, V. t. [F. allier, f r. L. alligare to bind to ; 
to bhid.] To unite by treaty, friendship, 
s uni' ' ' 
a confeden^ ; an auxiliary. 

IIAI'SUI Ha'ter (U'm& mfi'tSr). [L., fostering 
mother.] A coUege or seminary where one is educated. 

Al'ma-nao (ftl'mi-nSk), n. [LL. ; It. almanaccOt of 
uncertain origin.] A calendar of days, weeks, and 
months, to which astronomical data are often added. 

Al-ndslU'y (-mlt'^), a. [AS. ealmihtig ; eal nil + 
mihtig nughty.] Unlimited in might; omnipotent. 

The Atanlghty, the omnipotent Ood. 

Alm'ond (S'mfind), n. [OE. almandc, L. amrgdala, 
Or. ofivyfioAif.] 1. Fruit of the almond tree ; alto, the 
tree itself, native of the Mediterranean region and west- 
ern Asia. 2. Anything shaped like an almond ; a toneiL 

Al'mon-or (iU'mfin-Sr), n. [See Alms.] One who 
distributes alms for another. 

Al'mOB-ry (-r]H, n. Place wliere alms are distributed. 

Allnost (ftl'mSst), adv. [AS. ealm«st almost aU.] 
Nearly ; weU nigh ; all but ; for the greatest part. 

Alms (am8)j ft. ting. & pi. [OE. almes^ fr. L. elee- 
mosyna^ Or. cAeij/moavKif charity, fr. iXttiv to pity.] 
Anvthing given to relieve the poor ; a gift of charity. 

Alms'Pmise' (Smz'housOj n. A poorhouse. 

Al'OO (Sl'«), n. [ Or. aA6i}.] 1. A genus of succu- 
lent evergreen plants of warm countries. 2. {pi. -Sz) 
The juice of sIa^, ukM as a purgative. 

Al'0-6tl0 (Xl'd-^tTk), a. Of the nature of aloes.— 
n. A medicine containing chiefly aloes. 

S, 5, 1, o, n, long ; ft, C, I, 5, ft, 5-, short ; senftte, «vent, idea, dN»y, ftnlto, cAre, Rrm, &ak, |sll, flnaL 




A-lfllt'(Arl9ft0t ndv. [Pref. a-+ /o/r.] 1. On high ; 
in the air. 2- (Among sailon) in the top, or on tlie 
higher rigging ; overhend. 

A-lOB*' (-ISnO, a. [A[f -{-one.'i Quite by one*s leU ; 
single ; only. ■* adv, &olely ; simply ; exclusively. 

A-lcinC' (-ISng'), adr. [AS. antUang, along; pref. 
amd- -j-Hrng long. J 1. By the length ; lengthwise. 2. 
In • line ; ouwsrd ; forward. 3. In company ; together. 
—mprejK Bv the length of, as distinguished f r. across. 

ArlOBC'lHto^ (-<ud^), adv. Along or by the side ; side 
by aide with. 

A4oor (ISdfO. adv. [Pref. a- + loo/, fr. D. lotj InfT, 
hence, as a nautical word, to the windward.] At or 
from a small distance ; apart, mm, prep. Awav from. 

A-VamA' (-loudO, adv. [Pref. c + loud.} Loudly. 

Alp (Xlp)t n. [L. Alpes the Alpi, of Celtic origin.] 
A very high mountain ; p/., the higbsst mountain chain 
in Europe, containing the mountains of Switserland, etc. 

Al-pao^A (U-pSk'i), n. [8p., fr. Peruvian name.] 
1. An animal of Peru. 2. 
Wool of the alpaca. 3. A 
thin cloth made of the hair 
<rf the alpaca. 

iiAl'pm-itook' (xi'pSiH 

■t^OtA- [0.;il(p, 
Afpen + stock stick.] Au 
iron-i>oiuted staff OMd in 
elimbing the Alps. 

Al'pbm (U'lA). n. [Or. 
oA^J The flrst letter in the 
Greek alphabet, used to de- 
note the beginning. 

Al'DluhlMt (-b«t), n. [L. 
QlphaUtum, fr. Or. oA^ -j- Aipac4. 

^ifra, the flrst two Greek letters.] 1. The letters of a 
language arranged in the usual order. 2. Simplest rudi- 
ments. *r. t. To alphabetise. — Al'plui-lMtIo, Al'filUI- 
b«tl>al. a. — Al'>luib«t'lo-ftl-ly, adv. 

A11^4wt-lM (-U), V. t. 1. To arrange alphabetic- 
allT. 2. To furnish with an alphabet. 

Al'pIlM (-pTn or -|>in), a. Pertaining to the Alps, or 
to any lofty mountain ; lofty. 

Al-IWdT (Rl-riJd'y), adv. [All -f rwrf*/.] Prior to 
■ome specified time ; by this time; previously. 

AFm (Al'sft), adv. & conj. [AU -f «o.] In like man- 
ner : beftides ; as well ; further ; too. 

Alt (nt), a. A n. The higher part of the musical 
scale. See Alto. 

Al'Ur (lU'tJr), n. [L. altare, prob. fr. altiu high.] 
1. A raised structure on which to offer sacrifices to a 
deitT. 2. A Christian communion table. 

Altar-piM«' (-pSsO, n. The parting or sculpture 
behind the sltar ; raredos. 

AlOW (-t8r), V, t. & i, [LL. aUerare, fr. L. alter 
'.] To change in some respect ; to vary ; to modify. 

Hrp. — To Chanob ; Altbk. - Change may express loss 
of identity, or substitution of one thing iu place of 
another. Alter expresses change in form or details with- 
out destroying identity. 

Al'ter-«-Ua (nl't?r-A-b'l), a. Capable of change. — 
AltOT-«-bai-ty. n. - Al'ter-t-Wy , flrfr. 

Alter-«Bt (-«nt), a. Alterhig ; ipradually changing. 

Al'ter-Ation (ftl'tir-i'sh&n), n. 1. A making differ- 
ent. 2. Chanse in the form or nature of a thing; 
changed condition. 

AlOar-a-tfy* (-A-tTv), ff. Causing alteration. *ti. A 
medicine or treatment which gradually induces a rhanpe. 

Al'ter-eata (Xl'ter-kit). r. ». [L. altermre, ^ntum, 
fr. fttter another.] To contend in words; to dispute. 

— Al'ter-OAtifm, n. 

Al-ter^lt« (Xl-tSr'nit), n. [L. nltemirre, -natum, fr 
altemus, fr. Hter other.] B<*ing or succneding by tiim^ ; 
reciprocal. —n. 1. Timt which alternates with iwme- 
thingclse. 2. A substitute. 3. A mathematical pro- 

portion derived from anotlier proportion by interchan- 
ging the means. - Al-tWliaMy («-t«r'ntt-iy), adv. 

Al'ter-oata (Il't«r-nat or U-Olr'uit), V. t. Ai, T^ 
periorm by turns ; to interchange regularly. 

Al'tar-na'tlOtt (U'tSr-na'ahfin), n. i. Reciprtxad 
succession of things in time or plaoe ; a following and 
being followed by turns. 2. Mathematical permutation. 

Al-tWlia-thr* (-tSr'uA-tTv), a. 1. Offerhig a choice of 
two things. 2. Disjunctive. ^ n. Choice between two 
or more things. — AA-tMrlUI-tlya-ly, adv. 

Al-ttaOUgll' (f»l-th5'), conj. [All -f <AoupA.] Grant 
all this ; suppottng that ; notwithstanain 

Hrn. — ALTHOtJ«H : Though. - 

ding; though. 

,, il/M<»u(7A. which origi- 
nally was perhaps more emphatic than though^ is now 
interchangeable with it In the sense given above. 

Al-tlm't-tar (U-tTm't-tSr), n. [LL. ; aUut high -H 
metrum, Or. ^cVpoi^, measure.] An instrument for tak- 
ing altitudes, as a qiiadrant, sextant, etc. 

Al-tlm'e-tfT (-tiT). n. Measurement of altitudes. 

Al'tt-tnda (Xl'tT-tSd), n. [L. altitudo, fr. aUus high.] 

1. Space extended upward ; height 2. The elevation 
of a pohit or oelestial object above the horisoa. 

Alfto {Siti or iX'tt), n. [It, high, fr. L. alius.} 
The part sung by the lowest female voices ; in instru- 
mental music, the tenor. 2. An alto singer. 

Al'tO-setll'er ( f»l'td6-gSth'Sr}, adv. [OB. allogedere ; 
a/ all -|- Togedere together.] Without exception ; wholly. 

AltO-Stt-lie'TOCSl't^-rl-lS'vd), n. Alto-riUevo. 

||AltO-li-lte'ro(iil't«-rt-lyt'v«),n. [It] High relief. 

Al'tni-telll (Il'tTd6-Ts*m), n. [P. aUruisme, ft altrui 
of or to others, fr. L. alter another.] Regard for the in- 
terests of others ; brotherly kindness. 

Altm-ist, n. One imbued with altruism. — Al'tin- 

Al'vm (il'ttm),n. [OF., fr. L. alumen alum.] Au 
astringent mineral substance, a double sulphate of alu* 
minitim and some other element 

A-lnlni-Iia (4-lu'mT-n&), n. [L. alumen, aluminis. 
See Alum.] One of the eartlis, tlie oxide of the metal 
aluminium. It is the characterising ingredient of com- 
mon clay. 

Alll-IBint (U^-mTn), n. [P.] Alumina. 

Al'n-mlBl-lllll (-mTn^-iim), n. [L. alumen.} A 
chemical element, the metallic base of alumina. 

A-lnlni-IIOIUI (i-Iu'mT-nOs), a. Pertaining to or con- 
taining alum, or alumina. 

A-ln'ml-nmil (-n&m), n. Aluminium. 

II A-lmn'lia (*-1&m'n&), n. fern.; pi. -VM (-nS); 
II A-lmn'mis (-n&s), n. ; pi. -MI (-ni). [L., fr. alert to 
nourish.] A pnpii ; a fmuluate of a seminary. 

Al^ro-a-ry (Ii'vt-t-i^), n. [L. alrearium^ alreare, 
beehive, fr. alvus belly, beehive.] 1. A beehive, o^ 
something like one. 2. The hollow of the outer ear. 

Al'T«-0-late (-ft-l£t), a. [L. alveolatus^ fr. alveolua.} 
Deeply pitted, like a lioneycomb. 

II Al-TC'O-lllS (-vS'ft-ltts), n. [L., small cavity, dim. 
of alveus.} 1. A cell in a honeycomb. 2. Small cavitv 
in a coral, shell, etc. 3. A small depression, sac, or vesi- 
cle, as the socket of a tooth, the air cells of the lungs, 
etc. — Al^e-0-lar (il'v>«-l2r or U-vS'ft-lSr), a. 

AlMlM (SI'vTn or -vfn), a, [L. alvus bellv.] Of, 
from, in, or pertaining to, the belly or the intestines. 

Al'wayi (ftl'wtx), adr. [All -\' way.} At aU times; 
ever; perpetually; continually; invariably. 

Am (Sm). [AS. am, eom, akin to L. sum^ Gr. •ifu.} 
The flrst person singular prevnt of be. 

A-nudn' (i-miu'), adv. [Pref. a- 4- main strength.] 
With full force ; violently ; in great haste ; at once. 

A-mal'Cam (-mSI'gam), n. [F. amalgame, prob. fr. 
L. malogma. Or. iiiXayfiOy plaster, poultice, fr. ^oAoxtk 
Aoft.] 1. An alloy of meroury with another metal. 

2. A compound of different things. 
A-mal'ga-nUlte (-g4-mat), r. /. 1. To compound 

(quicksilver) with another metal ; to unite, combme, or 

fim, recent, Arb, r||de, fyll, Am, food, ioot^ out, oil, eliair, (o, ains, iQk, then, flain. 




aUoy with mercury. 2. To unite or combine, ^v. i. 
To unite in an amalgam ; to blend ; to coaleace. 

A-nud^n-nUltton (4-mKI'gi-uii'shnD), n. l. An 
amalgamating. 2. The mixing of diiferent elements, 
races, societies, etc. ; a homogeneous union. 

A-mailll-ail'ilB (4-min'ft-«u'BTi), n. ; »/. AMAHUBran 
(-s9i). [L., fr. a, ab -j- manu* hand.] One who writes 
wh*t another dictates ; a copyist. 

Am'A-riBtll (Im'i-rKnth), n. [Or. sf^poyrof unfad- 
ing, amaranth ; a nriv. + ^apatyciy to cause to wither.] 
1. An imaginary flower supposed never to fade. 8. A 
genus of ornamental annual plants. 3. A purplish color. 

Am'ft-nui'thlM (-rItt'thTn), a. 1. Pertaining to 
amaranth. 2. Unfading. 3. Purplish. 

A-BHUW' (i-mAsO, v. t. [P. amauer / L. ff d -f massa 
mass.] To effect mto a mass. — A-mMMa^moAi n. 

Syn. —To accumulate ; heap up ; pile. 

Am'A-tAlir' (Im'i-tSr^), n. [P., fr. L. amator lover, 
fr. atnare to love.] One who cultivates a study, or art, 
from taste, without pursuing it professionally. — Am'ft- 
tmurisll (Sm'4-t8r^sh), a. — Am'A-tolir-tm, n. 

Am'a-tITt (lm'4-tTv), a. [L. aniatus^ p. p. of amare.'] 
Pull of love ; amatory. — Am'a-tlT»-IIMS, n. 

Am'A-tO^-al (-tO'rT-al), AMnfm-t»-TJ (-t«-rj^), a. Per- 
taining to, producing, or expressing, sexual love. 

W AmftMrnftAm (-f^rysTa), n. t<}r. ifuaifman, fr. 
iifUB»p6€ dark, dim.] Loss of sight, without external 
change hi the eye. — Am'an-nf lo (-r8t/Tk), a, 

A'tua¥ (4-mix'), v. i. [Fret, a- -f ma«c.] To over- 
whelm with wonder ; to astonish greatly. — A-nUM', 

A-maatlnMit, n. — A-mas'ea-ly, adv. — A-bmiIbc, 
a, — A-DMatBg-ly, adv. 

Syn. — To Amazb ; Astohrh : astound ; confound ; 
bewilder. — Amatemeni includes bewilderment and sur- 
prise, and expresses a state in which one does not know 
what to do, say, or think. A$toni$hment is a state in 
which one is tiutmed by the greatness of something. 

Am'a-na (im'4-s5n), n. [Or. 'Afui^v.'] 1. One 
of a fabled race of female warriors. 8. A masculine 
woman ; viraga 3. A South American parrot. 

Amfti-mo^ni^ak (-s5^T-<ra), a. L Like an Amason. 
8. Pertaining to the river Anuuon in South America. 

Am-lma^mi-AK (im-Ute'si-dSr), Bm-tes'M-dor (Sm-), 
A. 1. A minister representing his sovereign or couutiy 
at a foreign court. 8. An official representative. 

Am-lMi'lft-tfrtM (-drSs), n. A female ambassador ; 
wife of an ambassador. 

AoHmT (Sm'bSr), n. [8p. Ambar^ fr. Ar. *anbar am- 
bergris.] 1. A yellowish fossil resin. 8. A clear light 
yellow. 3. The balsam, liquid*mbar. —a. Consisung 
of or like amber. 

AmOMr-ffXls (-grU), n. [P. ambre grit gray am- 
ber.] A fragrant, waxy secretion of the intestfaies of 
the sperm wlMle, used in perfumery. 

Arn'M-^aHer (-bT-dSks'UIr), a. ILL., fr. L. ambo 
both + dexter right.] Using both hands with equal 
ease. — n. 1. One who uses both hands with equal 
facility. 8. A double-dealer. — Am'M-dM-tarl-ty 
(-terO-ty), n. — Am'M-deztroiis, a. 

Amlli-MIt, a. [L. ambieru; amb- -{-ire to go.] 
Encompassing on all sides ; investing. 

Am-nc^-OUl (-bTg'ft-Qs), a. [L. ambiguut^ fr. am- 
bigere to wander about.] Doubtful or uncertain, esp. 
in signification; equivocal. ~Am-1ltC^-0IU-ly, adv.— 
Am-Uc^-«iui-ii0aB, AmlM-fQl-ty (-bT-gua-ty), n. 

Syn . — Doubtful ; dubious ; uncertain. Bee Equivocal. 

Am^blt (-bTt), n. [L. amMtfu.'\ Circuit ; compass. 

AB-Mnion (-bTsh^), n. [L. ambilio a goinc around, 
esp. to solicit votes, fr. ambire to go around.] Desire 
for preferment, honors, power, etc. 

AJB-lll'tiOIUI (-bTsl/lis), a. 1. Possessing, or con- 
trolled by, ambition; inordinately desirous of power, 
etc 3. Springing from, or indicating, ambition. 

AmHlto (Im'bM), V. i. [P. ambler, fr. L. ambutare 
to walk.] To go at an amble. —n. A gait of a horse, 
in which both legs on the same side move at the same 
time. — AmldMr, n. 

Am-teo'ilB (im-bryshi or -zhT-A), n. [Gr. ofi/ipovM, 
fr. ofififiOTot immortal ; A priv. -f fiporis mortal.] 1. 
The fabled food of the gods, which immortalised those 
who ate it. 3. A gei>us of plants, including some worth- 
leas weeds. — Am-lllO'BiAl (-shal or -sliT-al), a. 

AmOra-laaoe (•bft-iaus), n. '~ 

walk.] (a) A field hospitaL 
injured persons to a hospitaL 

Amim-lailt (-hmt), a. Walking ; moving about. 

Am'ta-latlon (IS'shfin), n. AwaUdng. 

Anlmlk-Uhtf {-\,a. iTlble to walk; 
walking. 3. Not staUonary. 3. Not yet fixed legaUy, 
or settled past alteration. — n. A phu» to walk hi. 

-_^ -_. (.bfU-kid'), n. [P. embtitcade, fr. 

[P. ; fr. L. ambutare to 
{b) A wagon to convey 

LL. imboteare. See Ambush.] 1. A lying in wait, to 
attack an enemy bv surprise ; an ambush. 8. A body of 
troops lying hi ambush, —v. t. L To poet in ambush. 
8. Towi^lay. 

Amtnuhi (-bd6^i). <"■ i. ILl** itnbmcnrt; In fai -f> 
6oT. ' * w wti.Ml.J L Toh station In aintiu«h. 8. TO way- 
lay. — T , I. To lift Id wait ; to lurli. — n. 1. An nnax- 
peeted sttsfk from h cotu'HUe*! i4ice; a snare. %. A 
C0Tici^%]pd ststJoLi H'lirm enrtnies tie iu ii>it- 

A jUHxr', A-mir ^^-u^tr^), n^ [B» Eim.] One of 
til- M'il<i.4ru]iji'<1iiii noblLity^ of Alghatilfctau and Scinde. 

A toeFlD-rattt (ntel'y^^rf t«), t, L &i. [L. ocf -f- me- 
lii.-nnf lo iii»k« l>rtt^Tr] To nislt^^ or ^roH, better; to 
mrliomt* — AHLttl lO-IttUui, f^. — A-SMllO-n-tlVt 

Amtn^ (i'lllHii' i^ iw ^mamg^ ji^fiilit/), intttj., adv., & 
n. [L. amm, Gr. o^ijk', Heb. amfN tvrtiiinijr.] An ex- 
pr--^i.-.n up^d at tlun rifl of praifTHj oji-inHiir, 5o be H. 
It I J u^w^ jut ^ Lxuui., Lu iii;;iti^ic : (a) aAseixl ; (o) the final 
word or act ; (r) Christ, as being true and f althf uL 

A-mo^na-Ua (i-mS'n4-bn), a. [P. amener to lead ; 
fr. L. minari to threaten.] 1. Liable to be brought to 
account or punishment; responsible. 3. Willing to 
yield; tractable. ~ A-mo'lia-ttle-lMM, A-BM'llll^rfl'- 

A-BMBd' (-mfodO, f. t.Ai. [L. emendare; e (ex) + 
mendum fsult.] To change for the better ; to improve. 

Syn. — To Ambhd : Eiord ; Coaaacr ; RaroBii ; Rao- 
Tirr. — These words agree in the idea of bringing things 
into a more perfect state. We correct (literally, make 
straight) when we conform things to some standard. We 
amend or emend by removing faults or errora. and ren- 
der a thing more nearly perfect. To r^ortn is to form 
over again, or put into a new and better form. To rectify 
is to make right. 

A-BMnd'A-tO-ry (-4-tft-rj^), a. Supplying amendment. 

II A^mflOde' (A^mK^dO, n. [P.] A pecunhuy pimish- 
ment or fine ; a reparation or recantation. 

A-nMBd'BMIIt (i-raSnd'ment), n. L A change for 
the better. 2. In public bodies : An alteration hi a bill 
or motion by adding, changing, or omitting. 

Syn.— Improvement; refor- 
mation; emendation. 

A-IIIBIldi'(-m8nds'),n. ting. 
A pi. Compensation for loss 
or injury; recompense; repa- 

A-IMDl-ty (-mSnT-ty), n. 
[L. amoenut pleasant.] The 
being agreeable ; civility ; suav- 
ity; gentleneMi. 

Am'ent (Im'Snt), n. [L. 
amentum thong or strap.] A 
species of inflorescence ; a rat- 
kin. — Am'Ul-U'OMIIS (-Sn- 
ti'shOs), a. 

AmenU or Catkins. 

a Male Amenti t b Femsle 


S, 8, 1, 5, 0, long ; &, iS, 1, 5, a, ti ^''^ \ Mn3te, 3 vent, tdea, 6bey , finite, cAre, iirm. Ask, nil, flnaL 




' (4-iiiSnO« t». /. [OF. amerder^ fr. a merci 
•t the mercy of.] To puniah bj a pecuniary penalty; 
to mulct. — A-Btret'BMnt n. 

A-niMT'l-oail (A-mAr^-kau), a. [Fr. Ainerieus Vespu- 
eian] Fertaininff to America, eep. to the United States. 
— fi. A native of America ; citixea of the United States. 

A-mai'l-oail-lBni (-Ts*m), n. 1. Attachment to the 
Uuitod States. 2. An American characteristic. 3. A 
word or phrase peculiar to the United States. 

Am'^-tbyit (Sint-thTst), n. [Gr. ci^«9v<rT0« a rem- 
edy for drunkenness; a priv. -f- M<^ strong drink.] 
Crystallixed quarts, of violet color, used as a jeweler's 
•tone. — Am'^-tbyi'tlne (-thlsaTnJ, a. 

A'ml-A-llto (i'mt-A-bn), a. [F. ; L. amieabUU 
friendly, fr. amieu* frieua, fr. amare to love.] Lova- 
ble ; kindly ; kind-hearted ; having sweet temper. — 
Ald-i-ttto-naM. A'ml-a-Ul^ty, n. - Alni-a-tily, adv. 

Am'l-ailtllllB (tma-ln'thft«), n. [Or. o^uorroc kiBvi 
onsoiled stone ; a priv. -{- i^iaivtu^ to stain.] A soft 
silky variety of asbestus, resembling flax. 

Aail-ca-ble (-k4-b'l), a. ^L. amicabUU^ fr. amicus 
friend, fr. amare to love.] Friendly ; peaceable. — Am'- 
l4Mi4d*-nMS, Am'Ua-Ul'i-ty, ». - Am't-M-bly, adv. 

Syn* — AnoABLB ; Fubitdlt ; peaceable ; kind ; har- 
monious. — Neither amienbte nor friendly denotes great 
affection, since friendly has not the same strength as its 
noon friendship. It does, however, imply something of 
md cordiality; while amicable supposes only that the 
parties referred to are not disposed to quarreL 

A-ndd' (i-mTdOt prep. Amidst. 

A-mUKslllps (-ships), adv. In the middle of a ship. 

A-nldst' GmTdstOt I prep. [OE. amidde^ on midden^ 

A-mld' (-mTdO, ) in the middle, fr. midde mid- 
dle.] In the midst or middle of ; encompassed by. 

Syn. —Amidst, Amowo. — Amidst denotes in the midai 
or middle of, and hence surrounded by. Among denotes 
a mingling with distinct or separable objecta. 

I A-Bdr' (-mSr'), n. Ameer ; emir. 

A-nlM' (-mTs'), adv. [Pref. a- + mitM.'\ AMny ; 
faultily; wrongly; ill.— a. Wrong; improper. 

AlBl-ty (imT-ty), n. [F. amiiiS, fr. L. amicus 
friendly, fr. amare to love.] Friendship between faadi- 
vidnals, societies, or nations ; friendly relations. 

ABMIIO'lll-ft (-mynT-A), n. [Fr. sal ammtmiac, first 
obtained near the temple of Jupiter A mmon. ] A gaseous 
compound of hydrogen and nitrogen, with a pungent 
smell and taste ; vohitile alkali ; spirits of hartshorn. — 

Am-mo^-ao, Am'mo-iil'a-oal, a. 
Am-mo'Bl-M (-nT-Ck) (or Omn' un-mo^-ao), n. 

Concrete juloe (gum resin) of a Ptersian plant, having a 
peculiar smell, and used in medicine. 

AB'imMlitlOB (Im/mt-nTsh'lin), n. [F. BeeMuHi- 
noii.] Articles used in chargins firearms and ordnance 
of all kinds ; as powder, balls, shot, shells, etc. 

II Am-lia'M-a (-nS'sT-A or -sT-A), n. [NL., f r. Or. i^unt- 
9uu] FoTgetfnlness ; misuse of names or words through 
Umb of memory. ~ Am-lia'llo (-aTk), a. 

AarBM-ty (-n«».ty), n. [Or. atuntarta a forgetting ; 
* priv. -|- ftrcotfoi to remember.] 1. Forgetfulness. 
2. Oeneral pardon of offenses, —v. /. To pardon. 

AHBOBg' (i-mlingOt I prep. [AS. onmang^ gemang^ 

A-mongat' (-mttngstO, ) in a crowd or mixture. See 
McroLB.] 1. Mixed or mhigled with; surrounded by. 
8. Associated with ; in the number or cUss of. 

Syn. - Amidst ; between. See Amidst. 

Afll'O-nmi (Sm^-rtts), a. [LL. amorosiis, fr. L. amor 
love.] 1. Inclined to love, or to sexual enjoyment 2. 
In love ; enamored. 3. Relating to love. — Am'O- 
looa-ty, (Kfr. — Aa'o-imuhiiaaa, n. 

Sjn, — Loving ; fond ; tender ; p%ssionate ; ardent. 

A-flUr^yhOlia (A-mar'flis), a. [Gr. a^p^ : A. priv. + 
Mop^ form.] 1. Having no determinate form ; shape- 
I4MS. a. Uncrystallised. 3. Of no particular kind. 

Msnh Frog (Rnna pahulri*\ 
one of the Amphibia. 

A-morHaa (i-mdr'tTi), v. t. [F. amortir to sell in 
mortmain.] 1. To alienate in mortmain, that is, to convey 
to a corporation. 2. To extinguish (a debt) usually by a 
sinking fund. — A-moTtl-za'ttOB, A-moi^tlaa-Bant, n. 

A-mtmatf (-mount'), v. i. [OF. amonter to increase, 
ascend, fr. amont upward.] 1. To r^ach by an accumu- 
lation of simas or quantities ; to come {to) in the aggre- 
gate. 2. To be equivalent.— fi. 1. The sum total; 
the aggregate. 2. The effect or result ; the sum. 

A-moor' (-mS&r'), n. [F.] Love making; an intrigue. 

II Am'ptoe' (iiit^pftr'), ) n. [Name of a French eleo- 

Am-para' (Sm-pir'), f trician.] The standard unit 
of current in electrical measurements. 

II Am-phlbl-a (Im-fTba-A), n. pi. [See Amphibiovs.] 
A class of the vertebrates. 
Amphibia usually have no 
scales, have eggs and em- 
bryos similar to those of 
fishes, and undergo a com- 
plete metamorphosis, the 
young having gills. — Am- 
pliflyi-an, a. & n. 

Am-Ahlbl-aiia (-Qs), a. 
[Or. o^i^i^uw living a 
double life, t. e., both on 
land and in water ; «fi^' -{- 
pios life.] 1. Able to Uve 
both on land and in water. 
2. Adapted for both land and water. 3. Partaking of 
two natures. — Am-^hlM-oaa-naaa, n. 

Am'pia-1»0l'O-l7(lm/fT-b51'ft-]j^),n. [Qt. ifi^fiPoXot 
ambiguous + A<$yof speech.] A propodtfoo susceptible 
of two interpretations. 

Am-phlb^O-loaa (-fn/ft-lds), a. Ambiguous. 

Am'plli-lnaoh (-fT-brSk), n. [Or. i/j^ifipaxvt short 
at both ends ; ofi^t + fipaxyt short.] A foot of three 
sylliM^rt, the inldille one In^iiif, the others short. 

Am-phlc'ty ons (-rTk'j,y i^ia^), n. p/. [Or. 'AfiAuerji' 
0¥i<i. Pt'h.]«. LT INT. ^iLLt^iiTT^oj''^; Uwellers around.] Depu- 
ties frH'Tii tilt! riii]f4'ili^i.iLt'.L Mt:\ieB of ancient Greece to a 
comti it. — Am-phlD ty-on'ic 1 i{m-fTk'tT-5nTk), a. 

Am^pbJ-pDd {S.m'\J-i.»j 1 u rr One of the Amphlpoda. 
~ Am'phl pod. Am-pMp^o dAB (Im-fTp^-dan), a. 

Am-phfp'o da {jtm.if|>'.%44), n. pi. [NL., fr. Or. 
o^^it t- -01.^, Taiiiv, fLf'lJ A numerous group of four^ 
tea iL - h " 1 ( ► . J L f u - iJirnt. Thtj Iheach flea Is an example. — 
Am nhlp^o doaa 4^1 Hji'^, *t. 

Am phia'&i 1 (-nNh^-T), I n. pi. [Or. ati^unctot 

Am jvlils'ClJma { - n^h *nnt i, i throwing a shadow both 
wsy- f api.^i -\- ffPTifli nhmJuw.] The inhabitants of the 
tWipii"-. «h'-iiir- i.iiii.iow?i til HT].' part of the year are cast 
to »atj ui^tUi, ikimi iu tlie oiii^i M> the south. 

Am'phl-tha'a-tar ) (-n-thS'i-tSr;, n. [Or. ^««r'a- 

Am'plll-tlia'a-tra ( rpoi'; At^i + Bdarpot^ theater.] 
An oval or circular building with rising tiers of sests 
about an open space called the arena. — Am'skl-tlia'a- 

tral, Am'phl-tlia^t'rio, Am'plil-ttia^it'ino-al, a. 

II Am'p&O-ra (.f«-rA), n. ; p/T-Rji (.r«}. [L., fr. Or. 
ifi^ 4- ^ptty to bear. J An ancient two-handled vessel, 
Upering at the bottom, for holding wine, oil, etc. 

Am'iaa(-p'l), a. [F. ; L. amplus.! 1. Large ; widely 
extended. 2. Fully sufficient ; abundant. 3. Not brief ; 

Syn. — Ample ; Conons ; ABtnn>Airr ; 
PLBMTaous ; full : SDMsious ; extensive ; 
wide ; capacious ; bountiful. — Ample 
implies sufficiency for every want, co- 
piotis suggests flow, or collection at a 
single point. Abundant and plenteous 
refer to largeneas of quantity. 

Am-l^az'i-caill (Sm-plSks^-kKl), a. 
[L. ampleclij -plerus^ to embrace -f- 
caulis stem.] Clasping a stem, as the 
base of some leaves. 

ttrpj reofnt, ftrb, r^de, fyll, Qm, food, tifoly oMt, oil, chair, ^, sin^, iqk, then, thin. 




Aa^plMLMIlloe (Sm'plT.fT-ki'Hhlln), n. 1. An un- 
plifying; enUrgeoMut. 2. Th« enlargiug of a timple 
■tatement for rhetorical effect ; diffuse narrative. 

Aa'pll-fSr (-fl), V' t' [L. cmo/yfcarf.] To nmder 
larger, more extended, or more uitenae ; to expand. — ^ 
V. f. To expand ; |o be diffuse ; to dilate. — Am-|Att1- 
M-ttT* (piTfa-ki^TT), Am-pUfl-ca-ttHT. a.-Am'- 
pli-ff 6r, n. 

Am'^-tVd* (-t3d), n. [L. amplitudoy fr. amjAm. 
Bee AmplbJ 1. Extent ; largeneas ; aise. 2. Breadth ; 
fullneaa. 3. (a) The arc of the horison between the 
tme eaat or west point and the centre of the nin, or a 
star, at its rising or setting, (b) Tlie arc of the horison 
between the true east or weet point and the foot of the 
vertical circle passing through any star or object. 

AJO^vVf (-pl5^)f adv. In an ample manner. 

Am'pV-tm (-pt-tSt), V. I. [L. ampuiarey -iatus; 
amih -f putare to prune.] To cut off (a limb, etc.). — 
Am'pv-to'tlon, n. —Aa/ia-Wtn, n. 

ArWUMkf (i-mttk'), a, A adv. [Malay amoq furious.] 
In a f rensied and reckless manner. 

To nm avnek, to attack ferociously eyeryono met, as 
Malays 4o under the influence of bhang. 

Am^-ltl (Sm^-lSt), n. [L. amuMum.'] An orna- 
ment, scroll, relic, etc., worn as a chann against evils. 

A-nuUM' (i-muxOt V' t' [F- amuser. See Muss, r.] 
1. To entertain pleasantly. 2. To keep in expectation ; 
to delude. 

Syn. — To Aicusi; Dxmr; Kvtotaiii: gratify; 
please ; beguile. — We are amused by that which occu- 
pies us pleasantly ; entertained by that which brings our 
minds Into agreeable contact with others, as conversa- 
tion ; and diverted by that which turns off our thoughts 
to something of Interest. 

A-unUM'klMItt, n. Pleasurable excitement ; diversion. 

Syn. — Diversion ; entertainment ; recreation ; sport. 

A-lDrt^da4at« ( mTR'tU.JttJ, ^r, [L. a^ttygdala ahu- 
opfj, Gr* o^uyliiAir &•* Alhomd.] rortjitning to, like, 
or inAdn of, Alitioi|tl#, -~it. Au (itmil^inu koade of alra- 

A-m7|M A lln« { - it n), n . Like, cr iH- rt t«, almonds. 

Ara Y^A^iMDim (ilm^l-li'iihn(i)H IT. (u ^tiiylum starch, 
Or^ oMiJAoi'.] Pf^rtaiiifug Xm^ or Ukft« itt^FH-ti ; starchy. 

All (ElO* ^T. [AB, -Ifi Vnie. Swi Oth,] A, corainonly 
ciailud the indf&mtw nrd^lr. It jitenlQ^'i f^'^f^ or any, but 
leiti ertij^hiitip^Uy, va\4 J« %\m^ h^invt^ jt%i'ird beginning 
with a ToWftl flO'tind #r Wrorft A mttndfd v.\\en the word 
ta m'TC^ritw'ri on tlir wn'^nd »yllnblft. 

A'na ii'i»ft>t ^ifv. [Or. i™ (tiwd 4lBtrtt)utively).] Of 

pjU'lu Aft pqiial qujkutlty. 

An't'baf^tlll (a*i'i.MinTit), fi. iOt l^A again -f 
^aiTTi^cLi- to bi^ptittf,] Ono holiffnif Chcvt rebaptism is 
tL«irn«»^ry for tlirHw baptliu^ lit luTMU'ryh 

II An'flr-baii (-^»ifi)j, n. [Gr. ^o^dc, p. p. of oyo/Sa^i^rii' 
tft (K^vBirirM'.] A gi^uuA ol idih^, cApAbln 4>r traveling on 
Unil [tit'l elim>>fri|ff tre«s. 

An-AOll'ro-nlftlll ( itk'rft tiTj'm). n. [Gr. Araypov^^eiv 
to tpW.y inj fi \rrriiiift tiiur; i*** + ;]tpdi'Q, tktne.j A inls- 
l>|jiri:iiK hi ihf- ■fiTfl^T nf ttui"*! rhfTmnJneirft] error. — Ab- 
lOtt'to til!^"!" An ri''Ti'Tn nous. (nTi-'. ■■>, 

An a i.u.i 4*- ^ u. X.: „ .a. A iMf^i: s&rpent, which 

lives near rivers, and preys on birds and small mammals. 

A-nao'ro-OBtlo (i-nik'r«-Sn'tTk), a. Pertaining to, 
or after the manner of, the Greek poet Anacreon. — n. 
A sprightly little poem in praise of love and wine. 

A-IUldYO-mOIUI (&-nXd'r«-mnit), a. [Or. aviZpofun 
running upward ; iva -\- lpa4itlv to run.] Ascending 
rivers from the sea, at certain seasons ; — Paid of fish. 

II An'Mhtbt'lI-a (£n'«a-th8'HT-& or -zhT-&), n. [NL. .fr. 
Or. dva«rt^<r^a ; ^ priv. -f* oxa^ntr^s feeling, alavdvfa9ax 
to feel. See^sTHBTics.] Loss of feeling ; insensibility 
produced by disease or by use of an anaesthetic. 

AB'tM-tMtifi (-th«t4k), a. Causing, or character- 

ised by, insensibility. — n. Tluit which produces insen- 
sibility to pain, as chloroform, ether, etc. 

An'a-fflypll (tu'&.giTf), n. [Or. orayAv^ wrooght 
in low relief ; ij^a. 4- yAv^tr to engrave. J An ornament 
worked in low relief, as a cameo.— Alfa-slyp'tlo (in'i- 
glTj/tlk), a. 

An^ajgO'fe (-gO'jt), n. [Or. hfaf^ a leading up; 
k^ -\- oyeiy to lead.] L Elevation of mind. 2. Bnlrit- 
ual application of words. — AB'a-gOg^ (-g^Jtk), AB'a- 
gofie-tl, a. 

An'a-gnm (-grim), n. [Or. ia^ back, again -f yp^» 
to write.l Chai^ of one word or phrase into another by 
transposition of its letters. — An'A-glllll-IBftllO, a. 

AfBAl (S'nal), a. Pertaining to, or near, the anus. 

An'a-laetS (Sn'i.l«Ets), \n. pi. [Or. i^aAcicra; Mi 

II An'a-lM^ (-ISk'tA), f -f A^iy to gather.] A 
collection of literanr fragments. — An'a-lOQtlo, a. 

AB^a;le^llO (-lei/tTk), a. [Or. ayaAipm«<k restor- 
ative ; ova 4- Aofi/Saiff ii' to take.] Restorative ; giving 
strength after disease. — n. A restorative. 

An'a-IOf'lo-al (-15KT-kal), a. 1. Founded on, or ex- 

pressing, analogy. 
AB'a-Ioglo-al-ij, adv. 

2. Having uialogy ; analogous. — 

A-nal'b-glM (4^^-jIs), V. t. & i. [Or. OKoAoyt^c- 
o0ai to think over.] To explain, or reason by, anal(«y. 

A-BAl'0-gomi (-gfis), a. [Or. Avakoyot according to a 
due ratio ; ityi + Aoyoc ratio.] Having analogy ; cor- 
respondent; similar; like. 

An'a-lociia (In'^lSg), n. That which is analogous 
to " — ir ntrirr tbjrir. 

A-iialo-gy vu-jjiiin -j> », "^ 1. A ir^mblanoe of rela- 
tir^piM i. JtkeiLFM between tiiiiifrs in fcmt.^ cirrumstances, 
win 11, ihr tilings ftrt* oibtru^ie vnitSfii'^y different. 2. 
Of-'iii^'iTii^n.! prnporliltin J eqiinlitf ot ratios. 

An'a-ll^e fait'A-lJti, r. Ta aiMlyj*, 

A Q^l^f-SlB (iL-nflT-ftTs), rt^; pi, Ahaltbbs (-cSz). 
[(^1 tii-'i\vaii : ai.aitp-1 Av«u^ to W^?-] Resolution of 
aI:^llll1ll^ iitt^.' it« i-PiuiTitnent i>r urijiiiijil elements. 

JlD'^a lyat iSh'A-lT«Oi f^^ One wht> Analyses. 

^Q A tTt'lO (-irtTk), I F7. Pi<:Ttni]iMig to anslysis; 

Ab a-Iyt^lo-al i-t-k'rl), I rwohinif iiito elements ; — 
op J ■ M - H . . n 4 1 jfy If r A r/iir^. - An''a47t'lc-ftl4y , adv. 

^Q a-lyricA (Tkn), i*, Tb*? ir:j«>i]i r of analysis. 

Aa'H-lyM (111). ■'' '. To iubje:€t to analysis; to r»> 
fc\i-r- ^rll■"^ it^ f*li'mcnt«L to *»e*riAin the nature of. — 
All a-l7 zatlon ('itKi'^imn). w. — Aa'a-Iy'wr, n. 

Ad-ad ''diaiu (-Irt^dtA-il, a. [Or. o^ priv. -f- av^p a 
m;! 1 1. J I ^i'- T It utr of atuurrit as eertAiii female flowers. 

An'A-pnst i-A-itihi), n. Aatpei^t, 

Aa'Si-fetlf Jni. [Or, Airsir^imK nn Juiapest, i. e., a 
dftit>l rvvf rM'4 ; ai^ii tMU'k -f trflUti' t^i strike.] 1. A 
mr^ttiral Utui f'f Liircr «yllubleiii. tlic^ Arst two short, the 
la t ]oTi^ {k^ u. -), 2, A vvn^ composed of such feet. — 
An B-pcA^tlt}, An ft-p«s'tk-Al, fj. 

An'xrt^h {-*'Tk\ n. lOt. ap prl^, 4 epi^i} government.] 
An uutliirF-ot Aimrcbyi; oiio vrlia cxrlu«A revolt. 

A-Dir^CltlO (i^ijiT''kI1i)^ a* j P^rtuhiing to anarchy ; 

A'TtBiT'chiC'Vl (-ltT'k4'il>, j wit1i4:tiit government. 

AA'arcti ism ilu^atk-Tt'tb), a. "Die doctrine or prac- 

An'arch ist r ThO. n. An iinTirrh ; ftne who advocates 
anarchy or aima to oveitlif uw civil government. 

An'aroh-y i-f), n. 1. Absence of government; a 
state of lawlessness. 2. Confusion or disorder. 

II An'ar-throp'O-dA (•iir-thr9p'9-dA), n. pi. [NL., fr. 
Or. ufopSpot without Joints -f -poda.'\ A division of 
Articulata liaving no jointed legs, as the annelids; — 
opposed to Arihropoda. — An^ar-tlirop'O-flOIUI, a. 

II An'a-MT'oa (Sn'4->>i&r'k&), n. [NL., from Or. oya 
throughout + adp$, trapic6%, flesh.] Dropsy of the sub- 
cutaneous cellular ti'wue. — All''a-Sar'C01UI, a. 

II A-IUUltro-plie (A-nSi»'tr^-f>), n. [Or. dvarrpo^i^ ; 
ayi 4- trrp4^tiy to turn.] Inversion of the natural order 
of words ; as, echoed the hiUs^ for, the hills echoed. 

S, 8, t, B, fl, long ; ft, e, I, fi, ti, j^, short ; senllte, dvent, tdea, 6bey, ttnite, cAre, ttrm, &sk, ]|11, flnaU 




Anchor, a a Stock t b Shank ; 
cc Flukes; ttdArm*. 

deToted, eap. to evil, a cune ; f r. avari0«Kau to dedicate ; 
ar« up 4- n0t¥i to aet] A ban or cunte pronounced by 
ecclesiastical authority. 

A-naXkfO-mMrtiam (i-uitht-mi-tlx), v. t. To condemn 
pobUcIy as accursed. 

Alfa-tOBtlO (Sn^i-tOm'Tk), I a. Relating to anatomy 

AB'a-tom'io^ (-T-kal), i or dioectioa. — AB'a- 
tOmllMd-ly* adv. [omy. I 

A-aafO-mlst (i-nit^mTst), n. One akUled In anat- 1 

A-BafO-ml-iatlOII (-raT-xa'^hOn), n. An anatomiaing. 

A-nif O-mlae (-mii), v. t. To dlseect ; to lay open the 
Interior structure of ; to analyze. 

ArllftfO-my (-ni]^)« *»• [Or. opoenfiii dissection; omL 
4- T^ircir to cut.] 1. Art of dissection. 2. Science of 
tlie structure of organic bodies; anatomical organisa- 
tion. 3. A skeleton. 

An'oas-tor (In'sfo-tSr), n. [L. mtiecfuor one who 
goes before ; ante before -f- cedere to go.1 One from 
whom a person is descended ; progenitor ; forefather. — 
hafO^Wt\^ {-\XfT\-a\), An-OWKtna (-i«/tral), a. 

JLu'LilM UlMIl (-trSs), n. A female ancestor. 

An'oes-try (-try), n. 1. Condition as to ancestors; 
Urth. 2. A series of progenitors ; lineage. 

An'^dMr (Sg^Sr), n. \Tu, ancora^ Or. ayirvpa.] 1. 
An iron histniment to lay 
bold of the earth and re- 
tain a ship in a particular 
station. 2. Any instru- 
ment or contrivance that 
gives stability or security. 

— r. /. 1. To place at an- 
chor ; to secure by an an- 
chor. 2. To fix in a stable 
condition. — v. i. To cast 
anchor ; to stop ; to rest. 

An'ohor-asa (-tj), n. 
1. A place where ships may anchor. 2. Bet of anchors 
belonging to a ship. 3. A hold ; ground of trust. 4. 
A toll for anchoring ; ancliorage duties. 

AB'eho-ren (-ks-ret), n. a female anchoret. 

An'ohfMDet (-rSt}, An'oho-rtta (-rit), n. [Or. iytM- 
prur^ ; am -)- X**P'^*' ^ retire, xStpon place. J One who 
renounces the world and secludes himself, usually for 
religious reasons ; a hermit. 

ABHdlO^ (Xo-chS'vf ), n. [Bp. & Pg. anehova^ lit., 
a dried fish, fr. Bisc. antzua dry.] A small fish of the 
Herring family, caught in the Mediterranean, and pickled. 

An'dant (fin'shent), a. [F. mteicn, LL. antiamu, fr. 
L. ante before.] 1. Old ; belonging to times long past, 
esp. to the tiroes before the fall of the Roman empire ; — 
opposed to modem. 2. Of long standing ; of great age. 

— n. pi. Tlioae who lived in former mps, as opposed to 
the modems. — AB'olenMy, adv. — Aia'dent-iMn, n. 

8yn. — AncMirr : Aktiquatbd; Obwlktb; Aiitiqub: 
0u> ; primitive : old-fashioned. — Ancient is opposed to 
modern^ and refers to antiquity. Antinnated describes 
that which has gone out of U8«^. Obsolete is used, instead 
of antiquated^ In reference to linguage, customs, etc. 
Anti^ne is applied either to that which has come down 
from the ancients, or to that which is made to imitate 
some ancient work of art. 

An'oU-U-ry (fa'sll-lt-rjn, a. [L. andUaHs, fr. an- 
cilia a female servant.] Subservient or subordinate, 
like a handmaid ; auxiliary. 

AlHdp'l-Ul (-sTpnr-tal), ) a. [L. aneeps, aneipitis, 

AB-dpl-tOllt (-tlis), ) two-headed, double ; an- 

for amb- on both Mw-\- caput head.] Two^ged in- 
stead of round ; — said of flattened stems of plants. 

An'OO-BT (tn^k^-nV), n. A piece of malleable iron, 
bar-shaped in the middlp, but nnwron«ht at the ends. 

And (Snd), eonj. [AS. ; akin to G. und. D. en.] A 
particle used to express the relation of addition, and to 
connect words or sentences. 

H An-dan^a (fin-dttntt or In-dln^tt), a. [It., p. pr. 

of andare to go.] Moving moderately slow, bat dMInet 
and flowing. ^ n. A muucal movement in andante time. 

Andl'nn (ftudl'ilm), n. [OE. astdeme, prob. con- 
fused with brand-iron.} A utensil to support wood in a 
fireplace; aflredog. 

An-dlory-BODS (>»-<irefT-»Q«). ) a- [Or. Ipip&y^ 

An-drorr-BAl (-drSja-nal), | mk ; dL^fp, i^^, 
inui -f yyrn woman.] Uuitiaff both sexes, ur having 
characteristics of both ; hermaphroditic. 

in. [Or. ar8po«i^iT«ofman*a 
J form ; ot^P* ej4p6^ -f- tt- 
»rmed lil^ * 

Resembling a man. 

An'M^Ota (Su'Sk-dSt), n. [F., fr. Or. ia^iKSonn not 
published ; iof priv. -{- <«c out -^SMvai to give.] A par- 
ticuhu- incident — An^ao^OtiOnal (-dSt^kal), a. 

An'O-mom'TtL-phj (-t-mOg'ri-fJ^), n. [Or. avcitoc wind 
-f- -graphyA A description of the winds. 

AB'a-niiu'o-fT (-mOl'ft-jy), n. [Or. fvcfiov -f -fopy.] 
Science of the wind. 

II An-drol'dflt (-droiMSs), . 
&K form.] An automaton formed like a liumau being. 
AB'droMt, - • ^ 

(-mOm^-UIr), n. [Or. art|iov -f 
-meter,} An instnunent for measurinc the force or ve* 
locity of the wind ; a wind gauge. — All'a^llO-lliat'rtO 

(-mft-mSt'rTk), An^a-iiio-inanlo-al, a. 

A-nam'O-na (&-n8m'«-n«), n. [L. ; Or. iiteiiMvn, fr. 
oyffUK.] 1. A genus of plants of the Crowfoot family; 
windflower. 2. The actinia, or sea anemone. 

A-liani'O-aoOM (-ekSp), n. [Or. JU^/uk -f -teope.} A 
register of the direction of the wind ; a weathercock. 

lUl'a-rold (int-roid), a. [Or. I priv. + vnp^ wet -f 
-cid.} Containing no liquid.— n. An aneroid barometer, 
or one in which Uie pressure of the atmosphere acts upon 
the elastic top of a metallic box inclosing a vacuum. 

||All'e0-ttia'M-a(-«s.thS'sT.Aor-shT-&),n. Amesthesia. 

An'OII-rlaill (Sn'O-rTs'm), n. [Or. owi^pvoma a widen- 
ing : oKd up -f- «vpvf wide.] A soft, pulsating tumor, 
arising from dilatation or rupture of an artery. [Written 
also aneurysm.^ —AnlVfOk-WmMl (-rTs^al), a. 

hrWBm* (^nuQ, adv. Over again ; another time. 

AB'gal (5n'j«l), n. [AS. rnntfel. fr. L. angelus, Or. 
ayyvAof messenger, angel. 1 1. A celestial being, superior 
to man in power and intelligence ; spirit ; demon. 2. 
An ancient gold coin of England, bearing the figure of the 
archangel Ifichael. 

Aapi flsh. (a) A species of 
shark having large, wing- 
like pectoral fins. {b\ One of 
several species of com- 
pressed, bright colored fiahea 
of warm aeas. 

AB-gallo (Sn.J«iak), 1 a. 

An-cal'lMd (-T-koi), ) 
Belonging to, or proceeding 
from, angels ; resembling an 
angel ; heavenly ; divine. 

An'gal-ol'o-iy (in'j8l-6l'- , 
t-jf), n. [Anffel + -loffp.} \ 
DlHCourse on angels ; doc- 
trine in regard to angels. 

B'far (»n'g8r), n. [OE., 
[eel. an — -• 


fr. Icel. angr affliction, sor- 
row ; akin to L. angor anguish, angere^ Or. iyytu^ to 
strangle.] Strong passion or displeasure.*— r. t. To ex- 
cite ; to anger ; to provoke. 

Syn. — Anoir; iNoioNATioir : RisBirniBirr ; Weath; 
Irb ; Raob : Furt : passion ; displeasure ; vexation ; spleen. 
— Anffer is keen displeasure (usually with a desire to pun- 
ish) for what we re^rd as a wrong. Indionation ia a 
generous outburst of anger at things which are indigna^ 
or unworthy to be done. Resentment is often a moody 
feeling, leading one to brood over personal wrongs. 
Wratn and ire express the feelings of one bitterly pro- 
voked. Rage is vehement anger ; /ury, an excess ox rage. 

amounting almost to madness. 
II An-Kllui (Sn-jT'n& or Sn'JT-n&), n 

[L., fr. angere. 

fCm, recent, 6rb, r^de, fyll, tbl^ food, fdbt, oat, oil, chair, ^ siiiR, i|ik, then, thin« 




Bm Aiianu] Any Inflammatory affection of the throat 
tendiiv to prodooe niffocation. 

An'Sl-or^-pliy (in'JT^ri 
raphy.'} Description of blood i 


'jT-«g'r*.fy), n. lAuffio- -|- 
blood veaaels and Ijrmpbatice. 

blood veaaela and lymphatica. 

omv of blood vest 

All'gl-O-spam (-*-«p8nn), n. \^AngUh 4- Or. awipiut^ 
cwtofiarot, teed.] A plant haTiiig beeda mcloaed in a 
p ericarp, aa tlie pea. — Aafg^-^^fW^mk-tOiUM, An'gl- 
O'4i8MTlB0IIS« fl< 

Ao^gl-OfO-my (-Bt^mf), n. [w4nmo. + Or. ro^^ a 
cottii^r*] Dissection of the blood veiieeis and lymphati<» 
of the body. 

An'Cto (Ss'g*!), n, [F. ; L. ofi^iM angle, comer.] 
1. A comer ; a nook. 2. (a) The q 

geometrical figure made by two Hues ^ 

which meet, (b) The difference of 
direction of two lines. 3. [AS. 
angel.) A fishhoolc; tackle for catch- 
ing fish. « v. €. 1. To fish with hook e. 
aiki line. 2. To use some bait or 
artifice ; to intrigue. 

An'iOmtL (In'ir^ld). 

An'gltd (Ic'g'^ld), a. 

CAE Right Angle 
CAD Acute Angle. 
BA£ Obtuae Angle. 

Having an 

1. One who angles. 2. A fish 

having a broad and fiat head, and large mouth. 

angle or angles 

An'glM (Ka'g*lz), n. pi. [L. AngTi. See Amoucam.] 
An ancient Low German tribe, that settled in Britain. 

An'gto-WiflO' (Ja'gl-wIsO^ adv. lA ngle 4- wise, OE. 
tpise manner.] In an angular manner ; angularly. 

AB'gle-WQflll' (-wOrmO, n. * 


[lers for bait. 

gll-An (-glT-an), a. 
One of the Angles. 

An earthworm used by 
Pertahiing to the Angles.— 

An'gll^Mn (-kan), a. TL. Angli the Angles, a Germanic 
tribe. Cf. English.] 1. BngUsh ; pertainiuff to Eng- 
land, the English, or the Church of England. 2. Pertain- 
ing to, or held by, the high-church party of the Church 
of England. — n. A member of the Church of England, 
9sp. of the high^huroh or ritualistic party. 

An'gli-Otll-lSIll (-Ts*m), n. 1. Strong partiality to 
the Church of England. 2. The principles of the estab- 
lished church of England ; doctrines of the higlM^hurch 
party. 3. Attachment to EngUsh institutions. 
jAlfcli'M (-flt), adv. [NL.] In English; in the 

1, custom,_etc. 

, ,, jlish ; to 

lish ; to conform to the English idiom or snalogies. 

An'glo-SaX'Oll (-gld-BUEs^On or -siks^n), n. [L. 
Angli-Snxoneg English Bixons.] 1. A Saxon of BritiUn. 

2. pi. The Engliui people before the Norman Conquest. 

3. The language of the EngUsh people before the Con- 
quest (sometimes called Old English). 4. A descendant 
of the Teutonic tribes settled in England. — a. Pertain- 


English manner: as, Llvomo, Anglice Leghorn. 
An'ffU-CIsm (-sTs*m), n. English idiom, cusi 
AB'gll-elM (-dz), r. /. To make English ; to Eng- 

ing to the Anglo-S-ucons or their language. 

II An'for (ite'gSr), n. [L. See Anoul] Great « 
ety accompanied by painful constriction at the o] 

put of the' belly, often with palpitation and oi . 

An'giy (Sn'gi^)> a. 1. Inflamed and painful, as a 
sore. 2. Touched with anger; enraged. 3. Showing, 
or caused by, anger. — All'gll-ly, adv. — A]|'gll-lia«l,n. 

8rn. — Passionate : resentful ; irritated ; irascible ; 
indignant ; enraged ; inconaed ; furious ; wrathf uL 

AB'glllflll (Ko'gwTsh), n. [L. angustia narrowneea, 
distress, fr. angiutut narrow, difficult, fr angere to 
press together. See Akobs.] Extreme pain of body or 
mind ; excruciating dLstresa. 

Syn. — Agony ; pang ; torture ; torment. See Aoont. 

An'gll-lir (ilQ'Ktt-18r), a. [L. angularis, fr. angulu* 
angle, comer.] 1. Relating to or having an angle or 

angles ; sharp-oomered ; pointed. 2. Measured by an 
angle. 3- Lean ; lank ; uncraoeful ; sharp and stiff in 
character. — AB'gll-Iazl-tTTtn'gt-lIra-tj^), At^ca-Ul- 
IMM, n. — An'CQ-lAr-Iy (-iSr-ty ), adv. 

Aafhl^Uttan (Kn'bMi'shtin), n. [L. auhelntio; an 
(perb. akin to E. on) -f- halare to breathe.] Short and 
rapid breathing ; a panting ; asthma. 

AB-hy^OnNW (-bi'driU), a. [Gr. <vv6po9 wanthig 
water : i*- priv. -f- vino water.] Destitute of water. 

Anil (ii/Il), n. [F., fr. Ar. otMii/, for al-nU ti.e 
indigo plant, fr. Skr. nUa dark blue.] A West Indian 
plant, an original source of indigo ; aUo, the indigo dye. 

Al^lto (Xutl), a. [L. anitis^ fr. anus an old woman.] 
Old-womaniah ; imbecile. — A-aUl-ty (^nHI-tV), n. 

AbO-Um (inl-lTn or -ISn), n. [s4 Anil.1 The or- 
ganic base of the brilliant dyes made from mdigo and 
coal tar. — a. Made from, or of the nature of, amline. 

An'i-BMd-VWllOB (in'T.mld-vir'shQn), n, [h. ani- 
madvertio."] An aninuMiverting ; reproof ; censure ; 
tdame; atrioture; comment. 

Aaft-maA-ynttf (-v2rtO« v. i. [L. animadveHere ; 
animus mind -f- cui to -|- rertere to turn.] 1. To ob- 
serve ; to remark. 2. To criticise or oeusure. 

Ani-OUd (-null), n. [L., fr. anitna breath, souL 
See Animati.] 1. An organized living being having 
sensation and voluntary motion. 2. A brute or beast, 
as distinguished from man.— a. 1. Relating to ani- 
mals. 2. Pertaining to the merelv sentient part of a 
creature, as distinguished from the intellectual, rational, 
or spiritual part. 3. Consisting of the flesh of animals. 

Ani-OUd^llto (SuT-mU'kfil), n. [As if f r. a L. ani- 
malculum, dim. of animal.} An animal, invisible, or 
nearly so, to the naked eye. — All'1-Bllll'oa-llir (-kft- 
iSr), An^-nud'cn-Uiie (-iTn), a. 

II An'l-iiud'oa-liim (4iim), n. ; pi. Axxmalcula (-14). 
[NL.] An animalcule. 

Anl-OUd-lmi (in'T-mal-Ts*m), n. The st«te or en- 
joyment of animals ; mere animal life ; sensuality. 

An'l-OUdl-ty (Xn^T-mU'T-ty), n. Animal existence. 

Anl-nUlto (ao^-mit), v. t. [L. animntuM, p. p. of 
ani$naref fr. anima breath, soul ; akin to animus soul, 
muMl.] 1. To give life to; to quicken. 2. To give 
power, spirit, or vigor to ; to stimulate ; to enliven. 

Syn. — To enliven; Insist: stimulate; inspire; 
rouse ; urge ; cheer ; incite ; quicken ; gladden. 

Anl-mat* (-mtt), Anl-ma'tad (-mi'UM), a. En- 
dowed with life ; lively ; vigorous. 

AB'i-mAtlOll (-mi'shttn), n. An animating, or being 
lively, brisk, or full of spint and vigor. 

Syn. — Liveliness ; vivacity; spirit ; buoyancy ; promfii- 
ness ; enthusiasm ; ardor ; earnestness ; energy. 

Anl-llllrai (-mTz*m), n. 1. Doctrine that the soul Is 
the proper principle of bodily life and development 
2. Belief that inanimate objects and natural phenomena 
have personal life or a living soul ; belief in the existence 
of soul or spirit apart from matter. — Anl-mlst, n. 

An'i-mOSl-ty (-m5anr-tj^), n. [P. animoHti, fr. L. 
animositas. See Akimati, v. /.] violent hatred leading 
to active opposition ; energetic dislike. 

Syn. — Aimfosmr ; "RKMirr. — Enmity may be dor- 
niMit or concealed ; animosily is active enmity between 
opposing parties. 

Anl-nms (Xn^-mfis), n. [L., mind.] Animating spirit ; 
intention ; temper. 

AnlM (Sn^s), n. [Gr. eu^uror.] An umbelliferous 
plant, and its carminative and aromatic seeds. 

Anl-aeed (XoT-sSd), n. The seed of the anise ; also, 
a cordial prepared from it. 

Anlda (IfiHcn), n. [as. onc/«otr.] The johit con- 
necting foot and leg ; the tarsus. 

A&'ktot (KpHciet), n. An ornament or fetter for the 
ankle ; an ankle ring. [An'lUd-ifltlC o. I 

AnfBAl-ift (Sn'nol-Tst), n. A writer of annals. — | 

if 8, 1,5,fl,lon^ ; A, «, 1, 5,0,^. short ; sen^tvent^tdea, 6bey, Unite, cftre, i&rm, ask, |^,flnaU 




Ao'ntls (ii/QOls), n. »/. [L. tmtuiUt (ac libH), 
cfarouickMh 'r. anniu yearn 1. A relation of evenU in 
chronoic^cal order. 2. Hiitorical records. 

AB-nail' (So-nilOt v. t. [AS. anMlan ; on on -f- iSten 
to bom.] 1. To heat (glaMt steel, etc.), and cool alowly, 
to toughen it. 2. TO biaat (glaaa, etc.), to fix colors. 

Aa-nez' (kn-nSky), v. t, [li. minederet -nexus^ to 
bind to; ad-{-nectere to tie.] 1. To Join; to affix. 
2. To add, as a smaller thing to a greater. 3. To 
attach as a consequence, cooditum, etc. 

8711.— To add; append; affix; unite. Bee Add. 

As-nez' (Sn-nBks' or KnfttBks), n. Something annexed 
or appended. 

Aa'llSZ-a'ltall (In'n8k84[fsh&n), As-aaotlaii (-nSk'- 
sh&n), ». An annexing; union. [annihilated. I 

AB-nHllrU-U* C-nKhMA-bn), a. Capable of being I 

An-niail-Uto (-ISt), v, 1. [L od + nihU nothing.] 
To reduce to nothing ; to destroy the distinctive proper- 
ties of. — An-nMd-uitloii, n. 

An'al-Ttr'M-ry (in^uT-vSr^sA-rj^), a. [L. annus year 
-f 9erter€. versum, to turn.] Returning with the year, 
at a stated time.~fi. L A day celebrated each year. 
2. The celebration <m an anniversary day. 

AB'no-tato (-tit), v. t,&i. [L. annotare^ -iattu; ad 

inoiare to mark.] To explain or critidxe by notes. — 
I'BO-ta'tloii, n. — An'&o-ta'tor, n. 

AB-nono (tMMiWtt), Ar-BOttO (iir-nSt'td), n. A 
red dyeing material, for coloring cheese, butter, etc. 

Ab-BOUIM' (-nonni^ v. /. [L. ad -\- nuntiare to 
report.] To give notice of. — AM-naanot^mimt, n. 

Syn. — To Publub ; Avmovhcb ; Pboclaim ; Pbomcl- 
•ATB ; make known ; herald ; declare. — We publUh what 
we give openly to the world. We announce what we de> 
riare by anticipation, or make known for the first time. 
W ) proclaim any tiling to which we give the widest pub- 
lictty. We promulfftue when we proclaim more widely 
what has before been known by scune. 

As-BOy' (Sn-noiQi v. t [F. ennuyer^ odio in 
hatred.] To disturb l^ continued or repeated acts. 

Syn.— To molest; vex; trouble; pester; embarrass. 

AB-BOf'ailM (-ons), n. An annoying; vexation. 

An'Bn-fll (In^-ol; 40), a, [L. annualis, fr. annus 
year.] X. Pertaining to a year ; returning every year ; 
happening once in the year ; yearl v. 2. Performed in 
a year. 3* Lasting only one growing season, ^n. 1. 
A thiiw happening vearly ; a work puUished once a year. 
2. A plant lasting but one s e as on. — Anlm-al-ly, adv. 

AB-B1l1-tailt (in-nu^-tont), n. One who receives, or 
b entitled to receive, an annuity. 

Ab-BB1^ (-tj^), n. [LL. annuiUu, fr. L. annus.} 
A yearly allowance of money. 

AB-nsl' (-nfilO. v.t. [L. od to + nuttum nothing.] 
To reduce to nothmg ; to do away with. 

8jn.— See Abolxsr. 

ABlm-ljr (fc/tt-ttr), An'mi-U-ry (it-rf ), o. [L. 
anmdaris. fr. annulus ring.] Pertaining to a ring; 
ringed ; ring-shaped. — All'llll-lArl-ty (-U^Hf-ty), n. 

Aa'BII-lat (-Wt), n. [L. annulus.) 1. A UtUe ring. 
2. A small, flat fillet, encircling a column, etc 

AB-lUd'Hiailt (Sn-nliI'ment), n. An annulling. 

Aa^n-lOM' (kn'ft-lSy ), a. U ivhig rings ; ringed. 

AB-Bim'ol-ato (In-ufin'shTit), v. t. [L annuntiare. 
See AjraoimaL] To announce. 

An-Bon'ol-a^tlOll (-sT-rshBn or -AhT4E'shfin), n. L 
An announcing; proclamation. 2. The announcement 
of the Incarnation to the Virgin Miry ; festival (March 
25th) of that announcement ; Lady Day. 

AB-mui'Ol-ft'tflr (-shT-S^tSr), n. [L. annunHalor.l 
1. One who announces. 2. An indicator (as in a hotel) 
which designates the room where attendance is wanted. 

Aa^O^yna (In'A-din), a. [Or. ArwdvMK free from 
pain; ay priv. 4- Uvn| pain.l Serving to assuage pain. 
— n. A medicine to allay pain ; anything soothing. 

A-aollIf (i-nointOi v- t- [L. in + uuffert to smoar, 
anoint.] 1. To rub over with oil or an unctuous sub- 
stance. 2. To apply oil to or p(mr oil upon, etc., esp. 
for consecration. — A-nolBf er, n. — A-ndBtlMllt, n. 

The Lord's AnolBted, Christ or the Messiah. 

A-nom'a-Usm (A-n5m'A-lTs'm), n. An anomaly. 

A-nom'a-Ustlo (ITs'tTk), lo. IrreguUur ; departing 

A-nom'a-Uatlo-al (-tT-kul), ) from common lulea. 

A-Bflm'a-lOIUI (-l&s), a. [Or. avMMoAot irregular ; ^ 
priv. 4- htiaX&i even, bfiot same.] Deviating from a 
general rule ; irregular. — A-nom'a-lous-br, adv. 

A-nom'a-ly (-13^), n. [Or. omm^iuiAmu] Deviation from 
the common rule ; irregularity ; anything anomalous. 

A-non' (•n5n'), adv. [AS. on in -f- on one.] 1. Soon ; 
in a little while. 2. At another time ; then ; again. 

Bvsr sad aaon, now and then ; frequently ; often. 

A-lMn'lr-IIMNUI (-T-mOs), a. [Or. ay priv. + Sm^mi 
] Nameless; of unknown or unavowed author- 

ship. — A-nao^-moilS-ly, adv. 
All-atll'er_ («n-fith'8r), pron, 

A a. {An a, one 4- 
second or additional one. 2. 
3. Any other ; some one else. 
[L. ansatuSf fr. ofua handle.] 

[L., geeee.] A linnaan 

other.} 1. One more; 
Not the same ; different. 

Having a handle. 

II An'M-ras (-s^-rSs), n. pi. 
order of aquatic birds, in- 
cluding geese ducks, auks, ^ 
divers, gulls, petrels, etc. 

An'ier-liM (-s8r-fn), a. 
[L. anserinus, fr. anser 
goose.1 Pertaining to, or 
resembling, a goose, or the \ 
ddn of a gooee. 

An'swor (b/sSr), r. /. 1 
[AS. andswerian; and 
against -f swerian to 

swear.] 1. To speak or ?. ^»»*r «^'*7>/'«!^. ^*^ 
write in return to ; to reply rf*"*^*^". »»»• doroertie gooM. 
to (a question, remark, etc.). 2. To refute, a To be 
or act in response to. — r. i. 1. To reply. 2. To make 
a satisfactory return ; to be responsible ; to make amends. 
a To be or act in return. — n. 1. A reply to a charge, 
quesUon, caU, address, etc. 2. Something done bi con- 
sequence of something else. 3. A mathematical solution. 

Oyn. — Reply ; rejoinder ; response. See Rkplt. 

An'SWOr-a-Ue (-A-bl), a. 1. ObUged to answer; 
liable to be oalled to account ; liable to pay or make 
good ; accountable ; responsible. 2. Capable of being 
answered or refuted. 3. Correspondent; comparable. 
4. Proportionate; commensurate; suitable. —AnOnrw- 
ft-ttto-jiMNi, n. — AB'sw«r-a-bly, adv. — ABOnrw-er, n. 

AB't (int). A contr. for are not and am not : also used 
for is not, '^ usually written ain't. [CoUoq. <ft Illit.] 

Aat (Ant), n. [AS. eemeie.'] A hymenopterous insect 
of the Limuean genus Formica ; an emmet. 

ABt-«0lA (int-Ssad), n. [Pref. anti- 4- odd.} A 
remedy for acidity of the stomach, as an alkali or absorb- 
ent. — a. Counteractive of acidity. 

AB-tacf^-Blm (In-tIg'ft-nTs*m), n. [Or. oyroywyt- 
ofia ; ayri against -j- ayvv contest. J Oppotttion of action. 

Aa-tag'O-BlSt, n. [Or. amayuytartk.} One who con- 
tends with another. — AB-tac'O-Bte'tlO, a. 

Syn. —Adversary ; foe ; competitor. See Adybrsabt. 

AB-tag'^-Bln, v.t.&i. To oppose ; to countemct. 

AB-td^jdo (-tSFjTk), a. [Pre!, anti- 4- Or. dUkyoc 
pain.] Alleviating pain. i—n. An anodyne. 

Aat-arotiO (Snt-&rktTk), a. [Or. oyropcrunk; ayn' 
4- ifitcTOf bear. See ABcnc] Opposite to the northern 
or arctic pole ; relating to the southern pole ; —applied 
to a circle, distant from the polA 23^^ 28^. 

ABt'ar-tlirltao (Snf Kr-thrTt^), a. [Pref. anti- 4- 
afihritie.'} Counteracting or alleviating gout.— n. A 
remedy against gout. 

f Cm, reo«nt, dsb, r^de, f yll, Urn, food, fdbt, oat, oil, cliair, bo, sins, l||k, taaen, thin. 




Ant'-Mt'Cr (AnfSt^r), n. A tropicftl taAntai that 
foeda upou anU. 
AB't»«ta'«Bot ( in 'U-bU '«!!•), Aa'te-oed'ta-ey 

(-«ii-«]^), n. The being antecedent ; priority 

An^to-Otd'tnti a. [L. anUeederUt -entiStp, pr. of etn- 
tecedere ; ante -f cedere to go. See Cbdb.] 1. Ooiugbe- 
f ore in time : anterior. 2. Preaumptive.— n. 1. Tliat 
which precedee. 2. pt. The earlier events of one*a life ; 
previous conduct. 3. In grammar, the noun to which a 
relative refers. 4. In mathematics, the first of the two 
terms of a ratio. — An^te-Otd'tllt-ly, adv. 

Syn.— Prior; preceding; previous: foregoing. 

Aa'te-OM'tor (in'tl-aSs'feSr), n. IL., fr. aniectdere, 
•cestunK} One who goes before ; a predecessor. 

AntOHdUUnlMr Gchim^bSr), n. A chamber leading 
into the chief Mtartment ; a lobby. 

AM'tM-6aW (-dlt^)* n. Prior date ; a date before an- 
other which is Uie actual date. — v. I. 1. To date before 
the true time. 2. To precede in time. 3. To anticipate. 

AB'te-Ol-ln'Tl^UI (•dT-m'vT-an). a. BeUting to the 
period before the Deiuire in Noah^s time ; hence, anti- 
quated.— ^n. One who lived before the Deluge. 

Ante-lope (-19p), n. [Or. Av^^Ao^, -ovot.] A ruminant 
quadruped, intermediate between deer and goat. 

Aa'te-llie-rtai-eB (-mJ-rtda-on), a. [L. ante + 
meHdianus belonging to noon. See Mbbioun.] Being 
before noon ; pert, to the forenoon. (Abbr. a. m.) 

Alfte-IBlllI'dAlie (-mOn^din), a. Occurring before 
Ibe creation of the world. 

An-ten'taa (in-tSn'ni), n. ; pi. -kas (-nS). [L., saU- 
jard; NL., a feeler, horn of an ini>ect.] A movable, 
articulated sense organ attached to the heads of insects 
and Crustacea. In insects they are popularly called 
konu or feelers. 

Alfte-inipllal (-tt-nttp'shal), a. Preceding marriage. 

MWtO-pu^lAaX (-pfaOcal), a. Pertaining to the time 
before the Passover, or before Easter. 

Ante-pest (-P*st), n. [Pref. ante- + L. pastus pas- 
tore, food.] A foretaste. 

An'te-prnnlt (•pS'nfilt), \n. [L. antepaenulti- 

n Ante-pe-nnlH-me (-T-m&), \ ma antepenultimate ; 
tmte -{-paene almost -f- fUtimns last.] The last syllable 

of a word except two. — Ante-pe-nnlfl-mete, a. & n. 

An-tetl-or (In-tS'rT-Sr), a. [L. ; compar. of ante 
before.] Before ; prior. — An-te^rl-ori-ty (-5ra-ty), n. 

Syn. — Antecedent ; previous ; former ; foregoing. 

Anfte-noOl (in'tS-rfiom), n. A room before, or lorm- 
ing an entrance to, another ; a waiting room. 

Anthet-mlntlo (-thSl-mTn'tTk), a. [Pref. anH- -f Or. 
IX^MVf, -(»#iK, worm.] Oood Mainst intestinal worms. ^ 
n. A vermifuffe. [written aSao anthelminthic.} 

Anthem (in^thim), n, [Or. Ayrt^mt^ antiphon, 
anthem ; hti over agahist 4- ^•^ voice.] A selection 
from the Scriptures or litunryt set to sacred music. 

AntlMT (SnthSi), R. [Or. h^p&^ flowery. it4fK 
flower.] That part of the stamen con- 
taining the poUen, for impregnation of 
the ovary. — Afltner-tl, a. 

AntlMr-irer-inui(-Tf'«r-fis),a. [An- 
tker -4- -/erotu.] (a) Producing anthers, 
as plants, {h) Supporting anthers, as 
a part of a flower. 

An-thei'O-jgJ (41i51'«-jy), n. [Or. 
h4o)Myia,\ oj^of -f Kiytw to gather.] ApeUlou* Flower, 
1. Orig., a collection of flowers. 2. A thowing 

a n Anthera. 

cdlectiou of poems or epigrams. —An' 
tho-IOXtO-al (-th«-IBja.k/7l), a. 

llAn'thO-Wa (Sn'thd-sS'A), n. pi. [NL., fr. Or. 
ftvAK 4- i^ animal.] The class of Ccplenterata includ- 
ing corals and sea nnemones. — An'thO-BO'tn, a. & n. 

Antlira-Cite (Kn'thri-slt), n. [Or. ai^pa^, -auco«, coml.] 
A hard, compact mineral coal, containing little bitumi>n, 
and buminff with a nearly non-luminous flame. — An'- 
tlm-dtlO (-sTtTk), a. 

figure. 3. A grotesque trick. — r. i. To perfc 

AnH-Glllilt (-tt-krist), n. A denier or op 

Christ. —An'tl-Cllltetien (-krTs'chon ; 26), i 

est. It supposes some ground for considering 
as likely to napoen. Anticipate is, literally, t 
forehand^ and denotes simply to take into the 

AntlUO-poM (ftu'tlirft-poid), a. [Or. a»«pMvoc man -f- 

)oiu ai-e. 

I. Scieuce of 


_ - - , . . ), n. 

Anttaie-pe-mor'pillani (-p^-mdr'Js'm), n. [Or. «r- 
tfpMvof -f Mop^i) form.] 1. Reprecentation of Deiiy 
in human form, or with human attributes. 2. Ascription 
of human characteristics to things not human. 

PAn'tliro-Mpll'a-Sl (-pOf'M), n. pi. [L., fr. Or. 
oyApMiroc -f- ^av«ir to eat. J Man-eaters ; caimibala. 
An'thnKpopb'a-fy (-m, n. Cannibalism. 
An'tio (in'tlk}, a, [Same as antiaue.] Odd ; ludi- 
crous.— n. 1. A buffoon. 2. An odd device; fantastic 

perform antics, 
opponent of 

, - j, a. 

An-tlel-pete (-tTs^-pSt), r. /. [L. antidpare, -palurn^ 
to anticipate ; ante + capere to take.] 1. To do or Uke 
before another ; to prevent by prior action. 2. To take 
up beforehand, or before the proper thne. 3. To foresee 
(a wish, etc) and do what is desired. 4. To foretaste. 

Syn. -To Akticipatb: Expsct: prevent; obviate: 
preclude ; forestall. — Of these words, expect is the strong- 
est. It supposes some ground for considering the event 
,.^ . . r--„ \f!lo take be- 

,-, -- the mind as a 

conception of the future. 

An-Uo'l-petlon (pi'shttn), n. 1. An antici|)ating. 
2. Previoua impression of what is to happen ; instiuctive 
prevision ; foretaste. 3. Hasty notion. 

Srn. — Preoccupation ; preclusion ; foretaste ; precon- 
ception ; expectation : foresight ; forethought. 

An-ttol-pe-Uye (-tTsa-pl-tTv), a. AnUcipating. 

An-Uol-peter (-pS'tSr), n. One who anticipates. 

An-Hol-pe-tO-ry (-pA-ts-ry), a. Of the nature of an- 

An'H-Oirmo (in'tT-kll'mlks), n. A sentence in 
which the ideas fall, or become leas strikins, at the close ; 

— the opposite of climax. It produces a ridiculous effect, 
Anm-oU'nel (kll'nal), a. [Pref. anti- + Or. xAu^tr 

to incline.] IncUuing or dipping in opposite directions. 

— n. The crest in whlcli strata slope in opposite directions. 
An'tl-€On-ta'glfnui (-kBn-tS'jtts), a. Opposing or de- 
stroying contagion. 

Anli-dOte C-dSt), n. [Or. arriSorov (sc. ^pftoKw) ; 
AKTi 4 Ji^iii'at to give.] A remedy to counteract poison 
or other evil. — An'tlHda'tal, An'ti-4ot'io-tl (-dSff-kal), 
a. — Antl-do'ta-ry (-dS'tA-ry ), a. & n. 

Syn. — Remedy ; counteraction ; preventive. 

An'tl-feltttte (-fSnirTl), a. & ». Febrifuge. 

An^tl-fllollen (-frTk'shOn), a. Something to lessen 
friction. ^ a. Tend ing to lessen friction. 

An'tl-mo-nar^olllO (-mft-niirOcTk), i a. Opposed to a 

An'ti-mo-nar'olllO-el (-kT-kal), f monarchy. 

An'tl-mo'nl-el (-mS'nl-^z^), a. Pertaining to, or con- 
taining, antimony. ^ n. A preparation of antimony. 

Antt-mo-ny (-m^-ny ; 28), n. [LL. antinionium.} A 
tin-white, brittle, metallic element, easily fused, used in 
medicine and in many alloys, as type metal. 

An'ti-notnl-An (-nO'mT-an), a. Pertaining to the An- 
tinomians or their doctrine, ^n. One who maintains 
that, under the gospel dispensation, the moral law is of 
no obligation, but that faith alone is necessary to salva- 
tion. — An'tl-no'ml-en-Inn, n. 

An-tln'0-my (In-tTn'^-mJ^), n. [Or. ovrtfOfAia ; inrri 
against -|- v6fii}K law.] 1. Opposition of one rule to an- 
<^her. 2. An opposing law or rule ; a contradiction or in- 
compatibility of thought or language. [or to popery. I 

An'ti-pe'pel (tu'tT-pi'poI), a. Oppotw>d to the pope) 

An-Up'a-tliy (In-tTp'A-tliy), «. [Or. atmndBtia; 
arrC ■}- waBtif to suffer. S«»e rATHoa.] 1. Contrariety 
iu feeling ; distaste. 2. Natural repugnancy of quali- 

S, 8, 1, 5,0, long ; A, «, I, «, O, y, short ; soUUe, 3vent, tdM, 6bey, Unite, cftre, iinn, Ask,|^flnaU 




tiet ; — qppo<ed to sympathy. — An't 
pA-thitak), AB'tt-pt-thatlo-al, a. 
Sjn. — Hatred ; areralon ; dislike : 

-. An'tl-pft-tlMl'lO (in'tT- 

8711. — Hatred ; areralon ; dislike : diaguat ; distairte 
niMigoaDee; oootnuriety ; oppoaitioo. See DtSLiuM. 
AB'tl-pldo-Cla'tIO (In^tT-dft-jtft'tTk), a. Counteraot- 

inff inflammattou. — n. Antiphlogistic medicine or diet. 
Aatl-rtwn (fc/tl-flto), n. r ' " 
l] 1. A musical response. 

[Or. iyrM^Mva. See An- 

e. 2. A verse said before 

and after the psalms. 

As-^^^-BAl iHartXfft-nal), a, 

ooj.'^n, A book of antipbons or anthems. 
Aatti-pbtOBB (-tT-f8u), n. The responst 
aide of the choir makes to the other in a chant 

Pertaining to antiph- 
The response which one 

Aa'tf-pkonle (-fteak), a. Antiphonal. 

AB-ttpv»-llT (-tlfft-nj^), fi. A musical response ; an 
anthem song alternately in two parts. 

B AB-tiBlmi-«te (-tTf'ri-sTs), n. [L., fr. Or. ami^pw- 
e«f, f r. arr»4p^^«(y to express by negatlou.] Use of 
words in a sense opposite to their proper meaning. — 

An'tl-plixartlo (Su'tT-frib'tTk), An'ti-plmittlo-al, a. 

AB-ap^O-Oal (-tTp^-dal), a. 1. Pertaining to the an- 
tipodes; situated on the opposite bide of the globe. 
2. Diametrically opposite. 

An^-pOd* (in^T-pOd), n. One of the antipodes; 
anything exactly opposite. 

An-t^O^M (-tI|/MSz), n. [Ia pIm fr. Or. iyri- 
vov« with the feet opposite ; avri + vovf, voMc, foot.] 

1. Thoee who live on the opposite side of the globe. 

2. Things exactly contrary. 

AlKti-POpe (Sn'tT-p9p), n. A claimant to the papAcy 
in opposition to the pope canouically chosen. 

AaH-tUOtk-rj (-kwt-rj^), a. [L. antiqiiarius^ fr. an* 
tiquus ancient. See Awtiquk.] Pertabiiug to antiquity, 
—a. One devoted to study of ancient times through 
their relics.— Aa'tl-Olialrl-An (Sn'tT-kwi'rT-an), a. A 
n. — An'tl-ana'M-Aii-tsm (-Tz*m), n. 

An'tl-qilAta (-kwit), v. t. To make old, or obsolete ; 
to make void ; to abnwate. 

Anli-qmft'tad (-kwa'USd), a. Orown old ; out of use. 

Syn. — Ancient ; old ; antique ; obsolete. See AJicmrr. 

An-tlqiM' (in-tik'), a. [F., fr. L. antiquuM^ fr. ante 
before. Cf. Airnc.] 1. Old; ancient; of old fashion. 
2. Odd ; fantastic [In this sense, written antic.'\ »n. 
Anvthing verv old ; a relic or object of ancient art ; 
ooliectively, the antique, the remains of ancient art. 

9yn. — Ancient ; antiquated; obsolete; antic; old- 
fashioned ; old. See AHcmT. 

Anrnmirtw (-tTk'wT-tj^), n. 1. Oreat age. 2. An- 
cient times ; former ages. 3. People of ancient times. 

An-tlS'ObUlft (-tTsh'ansX i n. pi [h. antiseH, Or. iv^ 

II An-tto'Oi-i (-tTshT-I), I rtVicioi, pi. ; Mn( -f vkU 
shadow.] Persons living on different sides of the equa- 
tor, whose shadows at noon are oast In opposite directions. 

ia'tt-wrtelor-Al (in'tT-skrlp'tttr-al), a. Opposed 
to the Holy Scriptures. 

Aaft^-wiffllC (-sSp^Tk), a. Counteracting putrefac- 
tion, —n. A substance which prevents putrefaction, or 
destrojrt putrefactive organisms ; as, aalt, carbolic acid, 
akjohol. cinchona. [-^n. Opposition to alavery. 

AafdiotL'rm'r (-sllv^r-y), a, opposed to sUvei^. 

Aa'tt-VM-modlO (-spKs-mSdnrk), a. Oood against 
apasms — ». A medicine to allay convuMons. 

An'tl^MS'tlO (-apCs'tTk), a. [Or. ivri<nriumic^.] 
•.An. Antispasmodic. 

I Aa-tto'tro-plM (-tTs'trft-fS), n. [Or. Ayrurrpo^^ ; iLrW 
+ 9Tp«i^civ to turn. See Bnom.] 1. In ancient lyric 
poetnr, part of a song or dance altematinir with a stania 
called the strophe. 2. In rhetoric, n^petition of words 
in inverse order. — All'tl-Stroplllo (In'tT-strOf^k), n. 

AB-tltb'*«iS (In-tTth'l-sTs), n. [Or. lmV«<ri« : itm. 
+riMMu to set.] 1. Opposition of words or sentiments 
fai the same sentence. 2. Contrast. — AB'tl-tlMtIO 
(-tMlt^k), AB'tl-tlMtlO-al, a. 

AnH-t^rpe (Kn'tT-tIp). n. [Or. ArrCrvnot of correspond- 

ing form ; htrC -\- nhrof type, figure.] That of which the 
type is the representation ; the counterpart to a type. — 
AaftirtfT/lMd ntn'tT-tTpq-kal), a. 

AntW (Kutn«r),n. [OB. attntelere, P. andomiUer; 
L. <mte before -f ocutus eve.] The horn, or branch of the 
horn, of a cervine animal, as of a stag. 

II A-HQ^ (l^nu'rA), n. pi. [NL., fr. Or. i» priv. -f 
oifftd. a tail.] An amphibian having no tail, as a frog or 
toad. [Written also anoura.'} —A-muftVOM (-rfis)t a. 

UA'nilB (fn&s), n. [L., prob. for asnus; cf. Or. 
j)oi9cu to ait.] The posterior opening of the alimentary 
canal, through which excrements are expelled. 

An'Tll (in'vTl), n. [AS. an/Uf.] An &on block, upon 
which metals are hammered and shaped. 

Anx-l'e-ty (Sn-sFt-tj^), n. [L. anxietast fr. auxius. 
See Airxious.] 1. Solicitude respecting some future or 
uncertain event. 2. Bager desire. 

Syn.— Care : solicitude : foreboding ; disquietude ; 
trouble ; apprehension ; restlessness. See Cabs. 

Anxious (ink'shOs), a. [L. anxius, fr. ongere to 
cause pain, chc&e. See Ajtobk.] 1. Full of anxiety or 
disquietude; being in painful suspense. 2. Causing 
anxiety. — AnxlOIUI-ly, adv. — AllZ'tolUhllMW, n. 

Syn. — S<^icitous; careful; uneasy; onquiet; rest- 
less; concerned; disturbed; watchful. 

Afny (Sn'y), a. A pron. [AS. Bnig^ fr. in ona. See 
OiTB.] 1. One ont of an indefinite number, or whatstK 
ever it may be. 2. Some, of whatever kind, quantity, 
or number ; often used ss a pronoun, the person or thing 
beiuff understood ; anybody ; anvone ; (pi.) any persons. 
-modv. To any extent ; in any degree ; at all. 

A'O-rtet (I^-rTst), n. [Or. lUpMTOs indefinite ; I priv. 
+ hoiOiw to define, op<K limit.] A Oreek tense^ expres»> 
ing indeterminate past time. 

A-orOa (t-dr'ti), n. [Or. iopr^, fr. ^ipctr to Uftl 
The great artery carrying blood from the heart to all 
parts of the body except the lungs.— K-OftMl^ A-iV'tlOt a. 

A-pMNi' (i^pis'), adv, [Pref. a- -f- paee.'\ With k 
quick pace ; quick ; fast ; speedily. 

Ap'a-KfKn (Sp'l^gyjS), n. [Or. Aira^wyif a leadiu'' 
away; a»4 from -{- ay«iv to lead.] An indirect arnunent 
which proves a thing by showing the impossibility or 
absurdity of the contrary. — Ap^ft'gOff^ (-gSJTk), Ap'- 
A-gOffltHa, a. 

A-part' (^pKrtO, adv. VF. h part ; h{\- pari 
part.] 1. Separately; adde. 2. In a state of separa- 
tion or distinction; independently. S. Aside; away. 
4. In two or more parts ; asunder ; to pieces* 

A-muftaMtt, n. [F. appnrtement / f r. L. ml -f pars, 
partis^ part.] 1. A room. 2. A set or suite of rooms. 

Ap'a-tlMno (Ip'i-thStmE), ) a. Void of feeling ; in- 

Ap^a-theMo-aK-T-kal), f different. 

Ap^a-tldst (Sp'ArthTst), n. One destitute of feeling. 

Ap'A-tlqr (-tby), n. [Or. avdCicid ; I priv. +irdi0bt, fr. 
wa$0t» to suffer. See Pathos.] Want of feeling ; pri- 
vation of passion, emotion, or excitement. 

Syn.— Insensibility; indlfferenoe ; unconcern; stoi- 
cism ; suirfneness : sluggishness. 

Ape (ip)* n. [AS. apa.] 1. A kind of monkey, hav- 
ing teeth like man, and neither cheek pooches nor tall. 
2. One who imitates servilely. •— r. t. To mimic, as an 
ape Imitates human actions. 

A-pMk' (i-p8kO« odr. A a, [Pref. a- + peak.l In a 
vertical line ; perpendlculariy. [Spelt also apeek.'] 

A-pe'rt-Mlt (A-pVrT-ent), a. [L. nperiens ; ah -{-parire 
to produce.] Oently opening the boweU.*—». Laxative 
medicine or food. 

Al^^er-tvr* (Sp'Sr-ttr ; 40), n. [L. apertura^ fr. ape- 
1. An opening ; a gap, cleft, or chasm ; a hole, 
diameter of the exposed part of the object glass 
of a telescope or other optical instniment. 

A-pet'al-OOS (A-p«t'ol.nii), a. [Pref. a- not + petal."] 
Having no petals. [See Illust. under AirmoL] 

A'pix (i'pSks), n. [L.] Tip, top, point, or atnnmit. 


rirA 1. 
2. The difl 

fSm, recent, 6rt, r^de, fyll, ten, ftfbd, fdbt, oat, otl, cbair, so, sins, iQk, then, thin. 



I A-lkaM-tL Ck-tVMM-k), \ n. [Or. l^mtrU, fr. I prir. 
i$P;iy(if>i^), } + ♦db^i to gpemk.] Lo« 

of power to sp6«k, or •pply words, the TOcal orgmns and 
inteUigaooe being prMenred. - A-pka'llO (^fl'sTk), a. 

A^^lflS (^fV'/fin or -fSaf^), n. [Or. «iro + 
iXuK ran.] Point of a planet's or comet^s orbit moat 
aistant from the sun ; — the opposite of periheiion. 

A'pUfl iVfii), n, ; pi. Aphidis (SlT-dSs). FNL.] 
A geniu of iuaecta, Including pUnt lice and green fUea. 

f A-phO^Jll-a (^lO'uT-i), I n. [Or. i^^rio, fr. &^mw 

Aplr^^y (if^-uj^), ] ▼oiceleiia;dpriv. +^Mni 
▼oioe. J Loea of voice or Toeal atteranoe. 

A|^0-llim (Ifft-rTs'm), n. [Or. a^optou^ deflni> 
tiou, a pithy sentence, fr. a^t^cir to lUArk off by limits, 
to define ; air6 from + hpi^9^v to separate.] A compre- 
hensive maxim expressed iu a few words. — Aph'lMWt, 
fi. — Apll'^-Itello (-rTs'tTlc), Apll'»-Ite'll»«l, a. 

Syn. — Axiom ; maxim : adage ; prorerb ; apothegm ; 
aaymg ; saw ; truism ; dictum. Bee Axiom. 

Aj^lhOOf (-thSng), A. [Or.«^«oyyiKsUent:ipriT. 
4- i^offOi Toioe, fr. ^tf^yyto^oi to sound.] A letter, 
or oombi nation of letters, employed in snelJing a word, 
but not sounded, -r ABh-tkOB'gal (-thSipgfrl), a, 

Apk'fl-lOM (if m-Ifis or 4-fmds), a. XOr. «^< 
ii pnv. -f- ^AAoi' leaf.] Destitute of leaves. 

A'pl-A-ry (i'pT-t-rj^K n, [L. apiaWttm, fr. apU bee.] 
A i^ace where bees are kept ; a beehouse. 

P Avl«M (ipnr-sSs), n., pi. of Apbz. 

A-fllMt' (A-p«0» odv. [Pref. «- + piect.^ Rach l>y 
itself ; by the single one ; to each ; as the share of each. 

U A'Bit (i'pTs), n. [L., bee.] A genus of hisecU of 
the oroer Hymenoptera, including the honeybees. 

Apflall (ipTsh), a. Having the Qualities of an ape ,* 
prone to servile imitation ; fantastically silly ; trifling. 

n A'plomb' (i'pldirO* "• CF-> Ut., perpendicuUrfty ; 
<k to -f plomb lead.] Assurance ; self-posse s s i on. 

A-MO'ft-lypM (t-p«k'4rltps), n, [Or. AwoicdAw^t. fr. 
kmi 4- KoJwwrtw to conceal.] 1. The revelation deli v. 
ered to St. John, the last book of the New Testament. 
S. A disclosure. — A-poo^ft-lypHo (ITp^tTk), a, 

A-poO'O-pftte {-t'ltx), V. t. [LL. apocopattUj p. p. of 
apoeopart to cut off. bee Arooops.] TO cut off or drop 
(the Ust letter, syUable, or part of a vrord). 

II A-poo'O-pe (-P*), n^ [L., fr. Or. hnt^ a cutting 
oflf, f r. i»o<e*»T«ty to cutoff ; d»rf 4- ttimrnuf to out.] Omis- 
sion of the last part of a word. 

A-pOO'tT-plUI (-rT-f i), n. pi. [Or. airimpiv^ sporions, 
fr. air6 -\- KpvTTvtr to hide.] Books received by some 
Christians as an authentic part of the Holy Scriptures, 
but rejected by others. 

A-pOO'tT-pBal (-fal), A. 1. Pertaining to the Apoc- 
rypha. 2. Hot canonical ; of doubtful authority ; false. 
Ap'ad (ip^), ) a. 1. Without feet. 2. Desti- 
Ap^O-did (-A-dal), I tute of the ventral fin, as the eelp. 
Ap^ad (Sl>5d), I n. [Or. Jirovf, a»o<oc. footless ; a 
Ap'Od* (ip'M), i priv. + irovf, vo&k. foot.] An 
animal having no feet or footlike organs. 

1 Ap^04«l(-<-dSs), n. />/. [NL. See Avon A.] (a) An 
order of fishes without ventral fins, including eels. (6) 
A group of holothurians lacking suckers. 

llA-pod'<HdS (i-pSd'ft-sTs), fi. [Or. iiMwm^ fr. 
iiw6 + M^a», to give.] The consequent clause in a con- 
ditional sentence, expressing the rem//, distinguished 
from the protasis expressing a eondition. 

Ap'O^OOS (ftp't-dl&s), a. Apodal ; apod. 

Ap'a-fM {-iify n. [Or. air^youK from the earth ; lw6 
-f- Yi CMTth.] 1. Point in the moon^s orbit most distant 
from the earth. 2. Highest point ; culmination. 

A-ptfl'».f«tl0 (A-p91'«-j«taV), la. Said bv wav of 

. _^. j.^. .- r w , .V J apology; defenuve. 

That branch of theology 
whicK defoids the' Holy Scriptures, and sets forth the 
evidence of their divine authority. 

A-pOl'0-glM ('Ju), v* t 1. To make an apology or 

A-pd'O-fttlo^ (J-kal), 
A-ptf^0-g«t1OI (-Tks), n. 



2. To make 

fault, with expression of 
(i-jrfU'ft-JTst), A-pol'o^s 

to aoknowladfe a 
regret for it. — A-yol'o-glst 

l»'*-lb|PM(lp^-10ff%ii. lQr!awij!!^;iM4-^k6y9^ 
speech, Ktvtir to speak.] A story intended to oonvey 
some moral truth ; a moral fable. 

A-pol'*-nr (^p01^jy)« n. [Or. AiroAoyuu] 1. Some- 
thing said In defense of what appears to othera wrong; 
Justification. 2. An acknowledgment in atonement for 
M>me injurious act. 3. A substitute ; a makeahift. 

Ap'opll-tlMfm (Kpf*-th«m), ;i. Apothegm. 

Ap'^-ptootlO (-pUktTk), a. Relating to apoplexy; 
affected with, or symptoniatio of, apoplexy, ^—n. One 
affected with apoplexy. ~ Ap'^-plM^tM^d, a. 

Ap^O-ylaX'y (-plSks^), n. [Or. avovAin^to, fr. vro- 
irAi^^vctr to cripple by a stroke; iiw6 + irAif«ra«iy to 
strike.] Sudden loss of consciousness, sensation, and 
voluntary motion, from pressure on the brain, or effusion 
of blood into the rabstaooe of the lungs <»> other oigan. 

A-porf (4-p5rt0, adr. [Pref. a- -}- porl.} On or 
towaids the port or left aide ; — said of the helm. 

A-pO0lft-sy (-p«a^t4-ft3^), n. [Or. &w9orwia a defec- 
tion, fr. siraaT^rai to revolt; aw6 -f- miiitmi to stand.] 
Abandonment of what one has voluntarily profeased ; de- 
sertion from one*s faith, principles, or pu^. 

A-poaOat* (-ttt), n. [Or. a««<rr«Tivc, fr. J Ls o < r i ^ « t.] 
One who baa forsaken hia faith, prindplea,. or paity ; a 
pervert ; a renegade. -»a. Faithless to moral alleffiauce. 

A-poattrtlM (-t4>tis), V. L To foraake one's church, 
prindples, or party. 

A-poa'la-Biata (-t^mit), v. i. To form an apocteme 
or abscess. — A-MNrta-matlOB, n. 

Ap^ea-tOTM (i£'Qs-tSm),ii. [Or. awivr^/iaL, fr. ovo- 
mMu to stand off.1 An abeceia. 

A-poaHa (i-pQe^i'n, n. [Or. iw69roiMt messenger ; 
airtf-f w^^fu'tosend.1 One sent forth ; s messenger ; 
one of the twelve disciples of Christ sent forth to f reach 

the gospel. — A-paa'tta-ablp, A-poa^»4Ata, «». 

Ap'aa-tOl1a(lp'9s-t8KTk5, la. [Or. iiwovroXucit.'l 

Ap'aa^allo^ (-T-kdl), f l. Pertaining to nn 

apostle, or to the apostlea, their times, or their peculiar 

mirit. 2. According to the doctrines of the apostles. 

3. Pertaining to the pope or the pi^iacy ; papaL 

Ap'aa-tOl^-aiam (-T-eTi*m), in. state or quality 

A-poa'ta-lld-ty (-t«-lTsT-t j^), } of being apostclical. 

A-poatra-pha (i-rSa'tr^-f «), n. [L., fr. <ir. avo^po^ 

a turning away, fr. an6 + irrpi^u' to turn.] 1. A rl>e- 

torical t^poin by which the orator breaks off from his 

discourse, and addresses some person or thing, absent or 

present. 2. Cmitraction of a word by omitting a letter 

or lettera. 3. The mark ['] used to denote that a word is 

contracted, also as a sign of the possessive. — Ap'aa- 

tiopklo (tp'Qs-trSfTk), a. 

A^aa'tro-phlaa (i-pSs'trft-fls), v. t. l. To addreas 
by apostrophe. 2. To contract by omitting letters ; to 
mark with an apostrophe (*). ^^ v. <. To use the rhetor- 
ical figure called apostrophe. 

A-patll'a-oa-ry (-p«th'*-kt-ry), n. [li. apothecnHn*, 
fr. L. apotheca storehouse. Or. as«^^, fr. avonMvoA 
to put away ; aw6 -\- TiB4rat. to put.] One who prepares 
and sells drugs or medicinal compounds ; a drugfriet. 
Ap'a-tliani I (Sp'^-^bSm), n. rOr. air^^«ry|Mi 
^aph-Uagm l thing uttered, fr. ast>4«^yvca#at to 
spMK out ; «ur^ -f- ^ rfyy t gtfau to speak.] A abort and 
instructive sajring ; a sententious maxim. — Ap'a-thaff* 

maMo (-thSg-mitOk), Ap'a-thaf -maMfr^l, a. 

Ap^a-tham (-thCm), n. [Or. aw6 + Mm« that which is 
placed, Ttfitrat. to place.] The perpendicular from the 
center to the side of a regular polygon. 

Ap'a-tba'a-aiS (-thS'ft-BTR), n. [Or. amtfcM^K, fr. 
iMofeovp to deify ; iw6 -f M^ a god.] 1. The elevating 
a mortal to the rank of the gods ; deification. 2. Olor^ 
fication: exaltation. 

^a-tlia'a-alaa (-sis), v. t. To deify ; to glorify. 

R, 8, f , 3, «, long ; Ii, «, I, 5, 0, f, short ; senftte, <vent, tdsa, 6bey, Onite, cAre. Ilrm, Ask. nil, tlntsL 




Ap-pall' (Ip-pftlOt V. /. [OF. appalir to p»le ; a (L. 
ad) + pAU {Nde. J To depress or diaooarage with fear ; 
to orercome with eudden terror or horror. 

8711. — Bee D18MAT. 

AfTftk-nm (Sp'P^titj), n. [F. apanage, fr. LL. 
apanare to furnish with bread ; L. ad -|- pani* bread.] 
i. Land assigned bv a sovereign priuoe to 8on>ort his 

Sounger sons. 2. A dependency ; dependent territory. 
i. A natund adjunct or accompauiment. 
A^pft-ntVl (Sp'pi-ritlis), n. [L., f r. apvarare, ap- 

r-attim^ to prepare; ad + parare to make ready.] 
Things inroTided as means to some end. 2. A set of 
imidemeuts or utensils ; macliinerv; mechanism. 3. A 
ooUection of bodily on^ans uniting in a common function. 

Ap-pu'tl (Sp-pSr^l), ft. [F. appareil preparation, 
furniture, OF. a (L. ad) -(- pareil like, similar, fr. L. 
par equaL] Bxtemal clothing, habiliments, or array. — 
v.t, 1. To dress or clothe; to attire. 2. To deck ; to 

8711.— Drees; clothing; resture; garments ; raiment ; 
garb ; costume ; attire ; habiliments. 

Ap-pw'tllt (•ptr'ffut), a. [F., fr. L. appnren*, -enii*^ 
p. pr. of apparert. See Amjim.] 1. Capable of being 
seen. 2. Clear or manifest to the understanding ; {Mdpa- 
ble. 3. Appearing to the eye or mind (distmguisbed 
from, but not necessarily opposed to, true or rtal)\ 

8jm. — Visible ; distinct ; plain : obvious ; clear ; cer- 
tain ; erident ; manifest ; indubitable ; notorious. 

Ap-pWent-lT, adv. L Plainly ; clearly ; evidenUy. 
2. Beoninffly ; in appearance. 

Ap'pft-ntlOB (Sp'p4-rTsh'Bn), n. [F., fr. L. apparUio, 
fr. apparere.} 1. Appearance. 2. A visible object ; a 
form. 3. A wonderful or preternatural appearance ; a 
ghost ; a phantom. 4. The first appearance of a star or 
other luminary after having been obecured ; — opposed 
to oceuUation. — Ap'M-ll'tloil-tl, a. 

Ap-p«rl-tor («p-p«ra.t8r), n. LL., fr. apparert.^ A 
meaaen^r or officer serving a process of an ecclesiastical 

Ap-peaF (-pOO* t'- '• [I* appellare to approach, call ; 
akin to appellert to drive to ; ad -f- peUere to drive.] (a) 
To apply for the removal of (a cause) from an inferior 
to a superior judge or court for a rehearing or review. 
(b) To accuse.— V. i. 1. To apply for reexamination 
of a cause by a superior judge or court. 2. To call upon 
another to decide or for Md.— ». 1. (a) Application 
for reexamination or rerlew of a cause. (6) Right of 
appeal, (e) An accusation. 2. A summons to answer 
to a charge. 3. A call for proof or decision in one*s fa- 
vor ; reference to another as witness ^ call for help or a 
favor ; entreaty. 4. Act of resorting to something as a 
means ; recourse. — Ap-pMl'a-U«, a, 

Ap-pMZ' (-pSrOf V. «. [L. apparere to appear ; ad 4- 
parire to oome forth.] 1. To come or be In sight. 2. 
To come before the public 3. To stand before some au- 
thority or superior person, to answer a chwge, plead a 
cause, etc 4. To become obrlous or manifest. 6. To 
seem ; to look. 

Syn.— SeeSmf. 

Ap-pMl^aiUM (-ons), n. 1. An appearing or coming 
into sight. 2. A thing seen; phenomenon. 3. Personal 

Sresenoe; look. 4. SembUnoe; external show. pi. 
utward signs or circumstances, fitted to make a partic- 
ular impression or to determine the judgment. 6. An 
appearing in a particular place, or coming before the 
puuic in a particular character. 

Syn, — Coming ; arrival ; presence ; semblance ; pre- 
tense ; air ; look ; manner ; mien : figure : aspect. 

Ap-pOMf (lp-p««0» V. I. [F. apaiser^ fr. ft (L. arf) 
■f paix (L. pax) peace. ] To quiet. — Ap-DMS'a-llie, a. 
- Ap-ptSM'llMm, n. - Ap-p«l'^ (-pi'rfv), a. 

Syiu— To pacify : quiet: conciliate; propitiate ; as- 
suage ; eompoee ; calm ; allay ; hush ; lull ; soothe ; 

Ap-MlOailt (Sp-pSinant), a. [L. appellatu, p. pr. of 
appeiUtre. See Afphal.] Relating to an appeal ; appel- 
late. «> n. One who appeals or .entreats 

Ap-pOllAt» (-Itt), a. Pertaining to, or takhig cogui- 

Ap^tl-ljltlon (Sp/pei la'ahOn), n. [L. appellatio, fr. 
aMtUare.'] Name of a particular person or thing. 

oyn* — See Namb. 

Ap-MlOA-ttT* (-peVM-tTv), a. [L. appellaHvuM, fr. 
appeliare,'] 1. Pertaining to a common name ; deuoml- 
native 2. In grammar, common, as opposed to proper; 
denominative of a class. » n. 1. A common name, 
standing for a whole class, genus, or species of beings, or 
for universal ideaa. 2. An appellation or title ; a de- 
scriptive name. 

Ap'pOl-lM' (Ip'pn-iy). »• [F. appeik, p. p. of ap- 
peier, fr. L. appeUart.'\ (a) Tlie defendant iu a legal ap- 
peal ; — opposed to appeliant. (6) One Mpealed against, 
or accused of crime ; — opposed to appellor. 

Ap'pOl-lor' (-16K), n. [OF. apeleur, f r. L. appellator, 
fr. appellare.^ (a) One who institutes a legal appeal, or 
prosecutes another for a crime, {jb) One who confesses 
a felony committed and accuses his accomplicea. 

Ap-paod' (-pSnd'), V. t, [L. appendere ; ad-\- pendere 
to hang.] 1. To hang or attach to. 2. To add ; to annex. 

Ap-paod'Aga (-tj)f n. 1. Something appended to a 
greater thing, though not neoessarv to it 2. A subor- 
dinate part ; an external organ or limb. 

Syn. — Addition ; adjunct ; ccmcomltant. 

Ap-panA'ant (-^nit), a. Hanging ; annexed ; adjunct ; 
conoondtant. — n. Ajaything attached to another as in- 
cidental, or subordinate to it. 

Ap-pMl'dlz (-pSu'dTks), n. [L. appendix, -diets, fr. 
appendere. See Appbmd.] 1. Something appended or 
added ; an appendage or adjunct ; a concomitant. 2. 
Literary matter added to a book, but not essential to its 

Syn. — See Supplbmevt. 

iM^ptr-UiB' (Kp'pSr-tiuO, V. i. [L. appertinere; ad 
-f pertinere to reach to, belong. S3e Pert aim.] To be- 
long or pertain ; to relate. 

Ap'pe-tMioe (Kp'p^tens), Ap'pd-taii-oy (-ten-«y), n, 
[F. appitenee, L. appetentia, f r. appelere to strive after, 
long for ; od 4- petere to seek.] I. Strong desire ; natu- 
ral craving; eager appetite. 2. An instinctive propen- 
sity in animals to perform certain actions ; tendency of 
an organised body to seek what satisfies the wants of its 
organism. 3. Natural tendency ; affinity ; attraction. 

Ap'pd-titt (-tit), n. [L. appetUuM, It. appetere."] 

1. Strong longing ; desire for some personal gratification. 

2. Desire for food or drink : huncer. 

Syn. — Craving ; longing ; desire ; appetency ; passion. 
Ap^pft-tiie (-tfs), r. t. To make hungry ; to whet the 
appetite of. — Apipe-tt'Str. n. 
Ap-pland' (Sp-plKdO« '*• '• & ^> [!<• applavdere ; ad 

iplaudere to clash, to clap the hands. Cf. Explode.] 
To i4»prove by clapping the hands, acclamation, etc 
2. To commend. — Ap-pUnd'OT, n. 

Syn.— To extol; commend; approve. SeePaADB. 

Ap-pUue' (-plasO, R. An applauding ; marked com- 
mendation ; approbation and praise publicly exprossed. 

Syn. — Acclaim ; acclamation ; plaudit ; approval. 

Ap-pUn'MTa (-plf/sTv), a. Approhative. 

Miqfkb (Sp'p*!), n. [AS. mppei.'] 1. A tree of tem- 
perate climates and its fleshy f niit. 2. The pupil (of the 

Ap-pU'anoa (Sp-pll'ans), n. A thing applied or used 
as a means to an end ; an apparatus or device. 

Ap'pU-ca-Ua (tp^plT-k^-Vl), a. Capable of being ap- 
plied ; fit to be applied ; relevant. — Ap^pU-ca-bU'l-ty, 

Ap^-ca-blo-naaa, n. — Ap'pU-oa-bly, adv. 

Ap'ptl-Oaitt (-kant), n. [L. opplicans, p. pr. of ap- 
ptieare. See Apply.] One who applies for something; 
one who makes request ; a petitioner. 

tSm, recent, 6rb, r^de, f^ Urn, ftfbd, fdbt, out, oil, chair, so, sImb, iQk, then, thin. 




AfpU^tlonCSp'pIT-kS'sbttii),!*. L An applying or 
U/iug on. 2 Thii^( appU«d. 3. Enif^oynMnt of mouis 
to acoomplUh mn tud ; SMciftc oae. 4. Relevancy. 6. 
Aadduoua effort ; doee Mtention. 6. A request ; aolki- 

y Av'yU'qil^ (i'pn'ktO, a, [F., fr. appliquer to put 
on.] Ornamented with a pattern (cut out ox anotberatull) 
applied or transferred to a foundation. 

Ap-9iy (Sp-pUOt V- 1' ['• appliguery it. L. applieare 
to attach to ; od -f plicare to fold.] 1. To adjuU (one 
thing to another). 2. To use for a parUcular purpose ; 
to devote. 3. To engage diligently ; to incline. — r. t. 
1. To agree; to have some connection, agreement, or 
analogy. 2. To request ; to solicit. 3. To address one's 
self; to attend closely (to). 

H JkP'VS'pMrWnL (ArpM/jl^t<R/ri), n. [It, fr. op- 
poffffiare to lean ; ap- (L. <ul) + pogffiare to ascend.] A 
pamng tone, in raosic, preceding an essential tone, and 
forming no e ssen tia l part of the harmony. 

A»-ptiBf (Ip-polutOt V- <• [LL* appmnetareto fix the 

Joints in an agreement ; L. ad-^pvnetum a point.] 1. 
mark oat. 2. To fix by a decree or agreement ; to 

Srescribe. S. To designate by aothority. 4. To equip ; 
> fU out. 6. To direct or limit by law. •» v. i. To 
determine; toarrange.— Ap-poiBfft-U«, a. 

Ap-polBt-««^ (-polnt-«Ot *»• One appointed. 

Af-pdaftaMBLii. 1. An appointing; designation to 
office or trust. 2. Station ; position. 3. Stipulation ; 
arrangemeut for a meeting ; engagement. 4. Decree ; 
establfsiied order or ooaatttution. 6. Equipment ; furni- 
ture ; outfit ; {pi.) aooooterments. 6. An honorary part, 
as an oration, etc. , at a college exliibition. [U. ^.] 

Syn. — Designation ; command: order: equipment. 

J^por'tiOII (•pSr'shttn), r. t. [LL. apporiionarf, fr. 
L. <uf + portio. See Portion.] To divide and assign In 
just proportion ; to allot. — Ap-pOftlOB-MttBt, n. 

Ap^pOHllta (-p^-zTt), <T. [L aptHmere^ -potitum^ to 
put to; ad-{-p<mere to place.] Very appuoable; fit; 
releTant; pat. 

Ap^pfhSltlOB (-sTahtin), n. [L. appotitio^ fr. appo- 
nere.'] 1. An adding; application; accretion. 2. A 
patting tiUngs in juxtaposition, or aide by side ; a being 
so placwd. 3. Stii^ of two noons or pronoims, put in the 

lamf ca se, without a oonnectiiw wora between them. 

Ap-pnub*' (-prEaQt »• '• (fnf. ad- + praise. 
ApHuxb, Atprkiatb.] To set a value on ; to estimate. 

— Ap-ynls'al, Ap-pralM^HMit, n. — Ap-pnUfl'er, n. 

Ap-in'fli^-Ue T-prS'shT-i-b'l), a. Capable of being 
apnraolated ; large enough to be estimated ; perceptible. 

. r. /. [L. ff/>pfWiare,-a/wm, toan- 
; ad -+- pretium price. ] 1. To set a price on. 2. 


? raise ; ad -f pretium price.^ 1.' 'To set a price on. 
o recogniae the worth of ; to esteem. 3. To increase 
the marvet price of ; — - opposed to depredate. [ U. S. 1 4. 
To be sensible of ; to distinguish. — v. i. To rise in value. 

Syn.— To Apphiciatb: Bstihatb: Estbui. — Eati- 
mate is an act of judgment. Esteem is an act of valuing 
or prising. Appreciate lies between the two. As com- 
pared with esrimote^ it supposes a nni<m of sensibility 
with judgment, producing a nice and delicate perception. 
As compared with ej^eem, it denotes a valuation of tnings 
according to their distiuctiTe exccUenoe, and not simply 
their moral worth. Appreciate is used in cases wliere 
something might be overlooked or undervalued. 

A^pfcA't/nm (Sp-prS'shT-i'sh&n), n. 1. Jnst val- 
nation. 2. A rise in value ; — opposed to depreciation. 

Av-wnfiArm-ikw (-4-tTv), Ap-pre'oMi-ta-ry i-^tt-rS), 
a. Raving or showing jiiPt appreciation or perception. 

Ap'pre-kMid' (kp'prl-hSiid'), V. t. [L. apprehendere ; 
ad -f- prehendere to lay hold of ,prae before -f -hendere 
(only in comp.) ; akin to E. get.! 1. To take or seise ; 
to arrest. 2. To take hohl of with tite understanding ; to 
understand ; to recogniae. 3. To anticipate, esp. with 
pnxiety or fear, i— r. i. 1. To think ; to understand. 2. 
To fear. - Ap^fT^-lM&C'Mr, n. — Ap^fT^-lMll'lI-bto, a. 

8yn. — To AppswimxD ; Comprbrshd ; catch ; seise ; 

arrest ; conceive ; understand ; imagine ; believe ; fear ; 
dread. — Apprehend denotes the laying hold of a thing 
mentally, so as to underhand it. Comprehend denoCea 
the embracing it in aD its extent. We may apprehend 
many trutlis which we do not comprthend, 

Ai'vn-haafEktk (Ip'prt-hSu'shan), ». 1. A taking 
hold of; sefsure. 2. A taking by legid process; arrest. 
3. The grasping witli tlie mtellect; perception. 4. 
Opinion ; conception ; idea. 6. Faculty by which ideas 
are conceived ; understanding. 6. Anticipation ; dla* 
trust or fear of some futnie evil. 

Syii. — ArpMomisioir ; Alarm. — Apprehension springs 
from a sense ot danger somewhat remote, but approach- 
ing ; alarm arises from danger near at hand. 

Ap'pre-teB'ghr* (-sTv), a. L Capable of appreliend> 
ing, or quick to do so ; apt ; discerning. 2. lUOating to 
the faculty of apprehenskm. 3. Fearful of wliat may bo 
coming; in expectation of eviL — Ap'pre-ll«l'M¥i4y , 
adv. — A^fr»>lMlKitT»-nMS, n. 

Ap-pnn'tlM (kp-prfin'tTs), n. [F. apprenti, it. ap- 
prendre to learn, L. appretidere.} One Wally bound to 
another to learn a trade t>r art. » v. t. To oind to a maa> 
ter, for instruction in a trade, etc 

Ap-prsBtloe-alllp, n. 1. Condition of an apprentice; 
state of one gaiirinc instruction in a trade or art, under 
legal agreement. 2. Time an apprentice Is aerving. 

Ap-J^iaa' (-pri»Ot ''• '• ['"'• f^PpriSf p. p. of €pprnutre.2 
To give notice ; to inform ; — followed by qf. 

Ap-pritn^, r. I. To appraise ; to value. 

Ap-proacv (-prCchO, r. i. [OF. aprochier, fr. L. ad 
■j- propiare to draw near, prope near. J 1. To come or 
go near. 2. To make advances ; to approximate. «- r. i. 
To come near or nearer to. — n. 1. A coming near. 2. 
Accese. 3. pi. Movements to gain favor ; advances. 4. 
A way by which to approach a place. — Ap-piMOh'a-U*, 
a. — Ap-pftNudK^a-mt-iraw, n. 

ApOpro-tMrta (ip^*-bit), r. /. To approve. 

Ap'pro-lNltlOfI, n. [L. approbatio. See AmovB.] 

An approving ; 

9 propriety of a thing. 
Htn, — Appbobatkhi ; Approval ; liking ; sanction ; 

nting to the | 

consent ; concurrence. — Approbation and appror<il Lave 
the same general meaning, assenting to as good, sa 
tloB ; but approbation is stronger and more positive. 

Ay'pre-lNl-tlye («p'pr«.bt-tlv), o. Approving, or iaa- 
plying approbation. 

A'lfyro-ttL-tlY%-nmB, n. 1. The being approbativs. 
2. In phrenology, love of approbation. 

Ap'prtMM'ta-ry (-t^rj^), a. Containing or expresdng 
approbation; commendatory. 

Ap-pro'pft-Arbto (-prT-A-b'l), a. Capable of being ap- 
proprMtecf to a particular use. 

Ap-pnKpfi-«tli (-tt), a. [h. appropriare,-atum; ad 
-f- propriare to appropriate, fr. propritu one's own.] 
Set apart for a particular use <»- perscm ; fit ; proper. — 
Ap-pro'Vcl^ita-nMS, n. 

Ap-MO^prt^O (it). V. I. 1. To take to one's self ia 
excluJon of others. 2. To assign to a particular per- 
son or use. — Ap-pro^pri^tor (-S'tXr), n. 

Ap-pn/prt-«t»-iy, adv. Fitly ; properly. 

Ap-]inKpil-a'tiOIl, n. 1. An appropriation, or setting 
apart to a particular use or person, or taking to one's 
self, hi exclusion of others. 2. Anytiiing thns set apart. 

Ap-nVpil-A-ttT* (-*-tTv), a. Appropriating. 

Ap-FroT'a-M« («p-pr5bv>a.b'l), a. Worthy of being 
approved; meritoiions. 

Ap-proir'ftl (-al), n. Approbation ; sanction. 

Syn, — See AppROBAnoii . 

fOF. oprorer to approve, 
}f>are to esteem as good, 
prove.] ' 1. To make proof of ; to demonstrate ; to show 
practically. 2. To sanction officially ; to ratify ; to con- 
firm. 3. To commend ; to think well of. 4* To make 
worthy of approbation or accept«mce. 

Ap-prOZ^mata (-prSksT-mit), <7. [L. approrimare^ 
-mafum, to approach ; ad -{■ prorimare to come near.] 

Ap-prOT0' (-priJov'), r. f. [OF 
fr. L. approbare; ad -f probar 
prove.] 1. To make proof of ; to 

&, 8, 1, ?^ a, kmg ; ft, 6, 1, 5, fl, ft short ; sen&te, « vent, tdea, dbey, Onite, c4re, iirm, &sk, nil, finaL 




1. Approaching; neariy reaembling. 2. Nearly exact; 
not perfectly accurate. -» v. I. Ai. To approach. 

AF-fnni-OUl'tlOB (Sp-prSka'T-mE'cbOn), n. 1. An 
approach ; result of approximating. 2. Au approach to 
a correct eatimate or calculation, or to a given quantity, 
quality, etc 3. In mathematics, a continual coming 
nearer to a result : a value nearly but not exactly correct. 

Ap-nraal^BA-thrt (•mt^tTv), a. Approximate. 

JS^ptilmB (Sp'pfils or Ip-pttlaOt Ap-pol'liOB (Xp-pfil'- 
ahfin), ft. [L. appellere, -puUAm : ad-\- ptllere to drive. ] 
A driving at running towards ; approach ; impulse ; a 
fltxiking acainst. 

A|^pllrt*-1UUIM (Ip-pdr'tl-nans), n. [LL. apparte- 
mauia, fr. L. appertinere. 'See AmarrAiN. j That which 
belongs to something else ; an adjunct, appendage, or ac- 
eevory. — AB>p«^t«-lllUlt, a. An, 

AlpH-OOlTi^prT.kSt), n. [Ar. albiroUg, L. praecox 
early ripe. Bee Psioociout.] A fruit allied to the plum ; 
the tree bearing this fruit. [of the year. I 

A'^ (a'prll), n. [L. Aprilis.^ The fourth month | 

April flbel, one sportively imposed upon on AprU 1st. 

AlVOn (I'pttm or i'prOn), n. [OB. napran^ OF. 
napemt^ L. mappa napkin. Bee Map.I 1. Something 
worn OD the fore part of the body, to keep the clothes 
clean or as a covermg. 2. A cover, boot of a carriage, etc. 

Af'tO-pOS' (Xp^r^pS'), adv. & a, IF. h propot; h 
(I* ad) -f propot^ L. propontum plan, purpose.] 1. Op- 
portunely or opportune; seasonably or seasonable. 

2. By the way ; to the purpose. 

ApM (Spe), n. ; vt. ArUB (-aSz). [Bee Ann.] (a) 
A projecting part of a church or other building having 
a polygons! or semicircular termination. (6) The 
bishop's seat in ancient churches. 

V AifwU (Xp'sTb), ». ; pi. AP810I8 (-sT-dSs). [L. ; Or. 
o^f , A^QUk, a tying, fastening, wheel, 
bow, arch, fr. aurrrtv to fasten.] 1. 
One of the two points of an orbit at 
the greatest and least distance from 
the central body, corresponding to the - — — 
aphellQa and perihelion of a planet, or « ^ Apsldas. 
apogee and perigee of the moon. 2. An apse. 

Aft (Xpt), a. [L. apttu, fr. obs. apere to fasten, flt.] 
1. Fit or fitted ; suitable ; appropriate. 2. Having a 
tendency; likely; given; ready. 3. Especially fitted 
(to do something) ; quick to learn ; expert. 

Syn. — Fit ; meet ; suitable : qnallfliMl ; inclined ; dis- 
posed ; liable ; ready ; quick ; prompt. 

I Apn*-fm (Sp'tl-rA), n. pi. [NL., fr. Or. iwrtpos wing- 
lass ; a priv. + eWpev wing.] Wingless inseota. 

Apltr-«U (-tSr-lis), Apler-al (-al), a. Wingless. 

Apn-tOd* (Sp'tT-tud}, a. [F. ; LL. aptitudo, it. L. 
apihu. Bee Arr.l L Natural or acquired disposition, 
capacity, or tendency; adaptation. 2. Readiness in 
learainc; docility; aptness. 

Aptly (Xpt^l^), adv. In an apt or suitable manner; 
fitly ; pertinently ; appropriately ; readily. 

AptniMHh n. 1. Fitness; appropriateness. 2. Dis- 
pomion of the mind. 3- Quickness of apprehension; 
readuieas in learning. 4. Proneneas ; tendency. 

Ap'tOta (Xp^tSt), n. [Or. cumoroc indeclinable ; JL priv. 
4- VTMT^ fallen, declined, ircirreu' to fall.] A noun 
which has no distinction of cases ; an indeclinable noun. 

l.'A'4IUl(X^w4),n. [L. Bee Ewbb.] Water. 

Aqaa aOToiHa, the aqueous solution of ammonia; 
often called aqua ammonta. — Aqas iBariae(m4-r?ii'). or 
A««a ■aria»(mA-rT'n4).aquamarfiie. ~ i Aqua fortis (fur '- 
tis) [L., strong water], nitric acid. — Aqua vita (vT't?) 
[L., water of life), a name given to brandy and some 
other ardent sjdrits. 

A'QVa-flm-rtM' (S^liwArmArrSnO, n. Transparent p le 

green variety of beryl, 

A-qui^Om (4-kwX'rMlm). n. ; pi. E. AquARnrm 
(-ami), L. AqvABiA (-4). [L., fr. aqua water.] A glass 
tank, for living aquatic animals or plants. 


A-quVlO (4-kwXtak), a. [L. aquaUcui.l FBrtalniiig 
to water ; swimming in, or frequenting, water. — n. pi. 
Sports practiced in or on the water. 

A'VU-tlBt (mcwA^Tnt or Xk'w4-), \ n. [It. acgua 

A'qOA-tlB'U (4^w4-tTn'U). ) tinia dyed wa- 

ter ; aequa (L. aqua) water -f- Unto^ fern. Halo, dyed.] 
An etching made on coimer by the use of aqua fortis. 

A4'll»4«et (Xk'wt-ddkt), n. [OF. ; fr. L. aquatdue- 
tu* ; aqua 4- ductut a < 
leading, a«c0 re to jl^ ^* — - 
lead.] A conduit or ar- ^^^-- 
tiflcial channel for con- /^ 
veying water. / 

A'qnt-oiui (X^kw*- 
&s), a. 1. Of the na- 
ture of water, or 
abounding with it ; wa- 
tery. 2. Made by 
means of water. 

A'qnirfoim (XniwT. 
fdrm), a. [L. aqua -f- 
•form.] Having the form of water. 

Affl'Ql-UlM (Xk'wT-lTn or -Un), a. jTL. aquUimut, fr. 
aquila easle.] 1. Belonging to. or like, an eagle. 2. 
Curving ; iiooked ; promment, like an eagle's beak. 

Ar'U (Xr'Xb), n. [Heb. arabah a desert.1 One o< a 
swarthy race of Arabia, Syria, Northern Africa, etc. 

Ar'a-bcsqiW (Xr^i-bSakO, n. [F. : fr. It. arab09eo, 
fr. Arabo Arab.] A style of ornamentation which fan- 
taHtically groups figures of fruits, foliage, men, etc. -—a. 
Exhibiting the style of ornament called arabeiqu: 

A-ninhl-«B (A-ri'bT-^xn). a. Pertaining to Arabia or 
its inhabitants. — ti. An Arab. 

Ar'a-blO (Xr'i-blk), a. Arabian. — n. Language of 
the Arabians. 

Arable nvmerals or tgvres, the nine digits, 1, H, 9, etc., 
and the cipher U. 

Ar'a-Mllt, n. One versed in Arabic literature. 

Ar'A-bIa (-bU), a. [F. ; L. arabilU. fr. arare to plow.] 
Fit for plowing or tillage. — n. Arable land ; plow land. 

llA-racblll-dA (4-rXk'nT-d4). n. pi. [NL., fr. Or. 
ikpaxmi spider.] A class of Arthropoda, including spiders, 
scoroions, and mites and ticks. 

II A-ni'lia-l'BA (A-rX^nl-I'nA), n. pi. [NL., fr. L. aranea 
spider.] The order of Arachnida including spiders. 

A-nrlM-<mB (-tb), a. [L. aranto»us, fr. aranea spider, 
spider's web.] Cobweblike ; extremely thin. 

AinU-ter (iira>T-t8r), n. [L.] One appointed to arbi- 
trate or determine a controversy. 

Syn. — Arbitrator: umpire; director; referee. 

Ar-UVm-OMllt (-bTt'rA.m«nt), a. 1. Determination; 
arbitration. 2. Award of arbitrators. 

ArOli-tni-ry (Xr^T-trt-rf ), a. 1. Depending on win 
or discretion ; not governed by rules. 2. Desiwtic ; ty- 
rannical. — ArOii-tra-ri-ly, adv. — ArOrf-tra-n-nMS, n. 

ArOli-trata (-triit), r. /. <<t i. [L. arbitrari to judge, 
fr. arbiter. '\ To hear and decide; to judge. 

Arbl-timtlon (-trS'sh&n), a. Tlie determining a 
cause between parties in controversy. 

ArnM-tn'tor (Xrn)I-trX/t8r). n. [L.] 1. One chosen 
to determine differences, 2. One who can decide with* 
out control ; a ruler. — ArOll-tni^tllZ (-trTks) [L.], 
ArOil-tiaia (-tr«s), n. /. 

Syn.— Judge; umpire; referee: arbiter. BeeJvDOB. 

AtOmt (Xr'bJr), n. [L. herbaHum. Bee Hbbb,] A 
latticework covered with planU, for shade ; a bower. 

ArlMir.n. [L., tree, beam.] 1. A tree as botanically 
distinguished from a shrub. 2. In machinery, an axle 
or spindle of a wheel or pinion. 

Ar-bO'ra-al (-bVrt-al), a. l. Pertaining to, or like, 
trees. 2. Found upon, or frequenting, trees. 

Ar-bO're-ails (-«•«), a. l. Like a tree, in distinction 
from a shrub. 2. Pertaining to, or growing on, trees. 

fCm, raeont, 6rb, ruda, f yll* Am, food, fdbt, out, oil, chair, bo, alns, i<|k, then, thin. 




Mx^tO-tW^omA iHafht-rUfaent), a. [L. orboreicens, 
fr. arbor. ^ BfeMmbling m tree; becoming woody in 
•talk. — Ar^lffl-fm'o^noQ fi. 

n Ar'bO-ratlim (-rStOm), n. [L.] A collection of 
rmre trees and sbrube. 

AHm-i-mytan (l(ra>Sr-T.k«l'ttr), n. Cultiration 
of trees and shrub*. — Ar'bor-i-Olll'tlir-ist n. 

ArlniA-Olt (Kr'bfis^'l), R. [L. arbuMula, dim. of 
orftorj A dwarf tree. 

Al'mtrtaM (^bt-t&s), ) n. [L. arbuhu.} 1. The straw- 

Al^bntt ('but), I berry tree, an evergreen shrub 

of the Heath familv. 2. A spring flower of the Heath 
family ; trailing arbutus. 

Are (itrk), n. [F. ; L. areus bow, arc. Cf. Abch, n.] 
A portion of a curved line. 

ir-«lldf (Kr-kidO,n. [F., fr. L. arcM.] A series of 
arches with columns ; arched nllery. 

Ar-ca'dU (-kJ'dl-A), n. 1. A district of Greece. 
S. A scene of quiet. — Ar-M'dl^UI, Ar-oa'diOt a. 

R Ar-ealmm (-ntim), n. .- pi. Arcaka (-u4). [L., fr. 
areanu* secret, tsrea chest, arcere to inclose. See Ark.] 
X> A secret. 2. In medicine, a secret remedy ; an elixir. 

Aroh (Krch), n. [F. arche. See Abc.] 1. Any part 
of a geometrical 

euryed line. 2. 
In architecture, a 
member made up of 
wedge-shaped sol- 
ids, to support 
we^ht above an 
opening. 3. A 
puce covered by an 
arch; an archway. 
— w. L A i. To 
AlOh, eu [See 
B-,l>r«/.J 1. 



irtively i 


prlncipaL 2. Cunning or 
ihievousj roguish. 

Ohlef ; eminent; greatest 

sly mischievoiw . tvKuwu. 

_. i'a<T (iir'kl-Bl'J.jyT, n, [Or. apxatoAoy«'« ; 

4pX*^ ancient (fr. op^H begiuuing) -f- Abyof discourse.] 
^^ _. . .. . . ^ 

The soience of antiquiUes. — Al^oha 0-Iog^ (-^-lOjTk), 
ATolurO-loriS-Ill, a.— Ar'OhM-Al'O-glflt (-01'6-jTat), »». 

Ar-OlUilO T-kS^k), a, [Qt. opxaiicdf old-fashioned, 
fr. ifxMi.'} Pert, to antiquity or archaism i obsolescent. 

ArollA-lnil (-kt-Ts*m), n. 1. An old-fashioned word 
or idiom. 2. Antiquity of style ; obsoleteness. 

AlOh'«n'K«l (Krk'in'JSl), n. [Or. %ay7«Aof. See 
ABOH-,pre/., and Aiiobi<.] A chief angel; one high in 
the celestial hierarchy. — Aroh'an-callo (-Sn-jSlTk), a. 

Aroh'blallfop (lirch^bTsh'fip), n. [AS. arcebUceopy 
fr. Or. ^x^criOKOvot. See Buhop.] A chief bishop; a 
metropolitan or primate. — Aroh'UBli'Op-rlo, n. 

Arall'dMI'OOn (-dCk'n), n. [Or. apx'^»»ro*^- &«« 
Abch-, prt^.f and Dbaoon.] A church diguiUry, next 
below a bishop, whom he assists. — Aroh'dM'OOn-iy, 
AnIi'dM'OOIMlhiS, n. 

Aroh'dn'OAl (-du^kol), a. Pertaining to an archduke 
or arohduchv. 

AlOh'dllQIl'an (-dlich^), n. Consort of an arch- 
duke ; daughter of the emperor of Austria. 

Aroli'dllOll'y, n. Territory of an archduke or arch- 
duchess. [Uy of Austria. I 

Aroh^dllk*' (-dttkO, n. A prince of the imperial fam- 1 

AfOh'dllke'doni (-dQm), n. An archduchy. 

ArolMd (Kroht), a. Made with an arch or curve. 

Aroh'er (Jlroh'8r), n. [F. ; fr. L. aretu bow.] A 
bowman. — Aroll'6r-«ts, n. /. 

AlOh'«r-y (-Sr-j^), n. 1. Use of the bow; art of 
•hooting with bow and arrows. 2. Archers collectively. 

Ar'Ollt-tTpe (i&r'ki-ti^), n. [Gr. apxfrxnroi sUinped 
first and as a model ; opj^t- -f- rviroc stamp, pattern, 
Tibrciv to strike.] Original pattern or model from which 
a thing Is formed. — Ar'ollt-typal, a. 

[Or. ipx^' 

Archimedes' Screw. 

Ar'ohl-dl-M'0-BAl (iirniT-dt-Ik'd.nal), a. 
Suucovof .1 Pertaimiiff to an archdeacon. 

AtaS^plM^0^V9i (-l-ptsntft-pal), a. [Pref. arcAi- 
-f- epiMV/pa/.] Pertaining to an archbishop. 

Ar'dlll (&miTl), n. [OF. orchel. Cf. Orchiu] 1. A 
violet dye obtained from several species of lichen. 
2. The pUnt itself. [Written also orcAal and orcAt/.] 

Ar'om-IIM^e'An (iir^kT-ml-dS'an), a. Pertaining to 
Archimedes, a Greek philosopher. 

ArehlmedssB screw, or Axekiisedss' serow, an instrument 
for raising water, formed by 
winding a tube spirally round ' 
a cylinder. 

Ar'ohl-peI'a-co(-p8l'&-ff«), , 
n. ; pi. -ooBS or -oos (-gos). ; 
[It. arcipelago, prop., chief 
sea ; Gr. pref. apxti' -(- we\ayos 
sea.] 1. The Grecian Arclii- 
pelsgo, or iBgeau Sea, which is 
studded with small islands. 
2. Any sheet of water interspersed with islands. 

Ar'ohi-teot (-tekt), n. [Or. &pxirdKr%ry master 
builder ; pref. ipv*- + rtimtw workman, rUrttr to pro- 
duce.] 1. One bkilled in building. 2. A contriver. 

Ar'olli-tOC'tlTa (-tSk'tTv), a. Used in buUding. 

Airchl-teo'tim (-t«kattr), n. l. Art or science of 
building. 2. S^le of building. 3. Construction; 
workmanship. —Ar'olli-ttC't1ir-«l, a. 

Ax'tbi-tOkW (-trav), n. [F. & It ; pref. arcM- -f 
trare beam, L. trabs.} (a) The lower division of an en- 
tablature, next the column. (6) The group of moldings 
above and on both sides of a door or other opening. 

AlfolltTO (iir'kiv), n. [F. arehivtt^ pi., L. arrAirtim, 
fr. Gr. rd apx*^ archives, fr. opxi} government.^ 1. pi. 
Place for keeping public records. 2. pi. Pubhc docu- 
ments preserved as evidence of facts. 

Syn. — Registers : records; chronicles. 

Alfdll-Ylflt (-kT-vSlt), n. [It. archivolto ; pref. archi- 
•f- rolto vault, arch.] The inner contour of an arch. 

Archly (iirchlf ), adv. In an arch manner ; slyly. 

ArchlieM (iirch'nSs), n. Cleverness ; waggishneas. 

AlfcllOB (ar^On), n. [Gr. ^x*>^ ^^^^^ magistrate, 
lp\ w to riile,] A chief magistrate in ancient Athena. 

.arclrway i irrli'ml), n. A passage under an arch. 

AiC'o groLpli (^fk'^ jrr*f), n. [L. or- 
eu^ (K. fjff> -f- -priijrjAu] An instrument 
for iSra^iiiiir a cirruloj arc without the , 
QSi- fff a fvntrriT pfi^iit. 

Aia'liy C :"1„ u. [Gr. Ap«rruc<k, fr. 
£pcTO« a bear, a constellation so called.] < 
Pertaining to, or situated under, the Arcngrapb. 
northern constellation called the Bear ; northern ; frigid. 
— n. 1. The arctic circle. 2. A waterproof overshoe. 

t^^ The arctic circle is a lesser circle, parallel to the 
equator, 23^' 28' from the north pole. 

An/n-ata (&rk'd-tt), ) a. [L. arcuare^ -o/vfit, to shape 

Aroll-a^tad (-Saed), \ like a bow, fr. orctM. See 
Arc] Bent like a ho^ . — Aro'Q-a'ttoll, n. 

ArMMIt (iir'dfnt), a. [F. ardant, p. pr. of order to 
bum. L. onf^rr] 1. Hot or burning; flery. 2. Fierce; 
glowing. 3. Warm ; nassionate ; vehement. — Ar'deil- 
oy (-den-sf), n. — AlTdent-Iy, adv. 

Syn. — Burning : hot ; fiery ; glowing : intense ; fierce ; 
eager ; keen : fervid ; passionate ; affectionate. 

Alfdor (-d8r>, n. [L., fr. ardere.'} [Spelt also ardour.} 
1. Heat. 2. Warmth of passion or affection ; seal. 

Syn. — Fervor ; warmth ; eagerness. See Frbvob. 

Alfdn-CIlt (-dd-Ci»), a. [L. ardttnt steep, high.] 1. 
St<^p and loftv; hard to climb. 2. Attended with 
great labor. — Ar'da-OllS-ly. adr. — AlfdV-OIIS-IMaa, n. 

Syn. — ARDrous; Hard; DimcrLT; laborious: pain- 
ful ; exhausting. — ^arf/ is simpler and more general in 
sense than difficult. Difficult commonly implies more 

R, 8, 1, 5, a, long ; ft, 6, 1, tt, a, tf -liort ; swiAte, «vent. Idea, 6bey, <lnite, cAre, Hrm, Ask, nil, flnoL 




ikfll md nsBdty than Aorrf, M when there la dlipropor- 
tioo between the means and the end. A tldng I* arduous 
when it reqoirea atrenuoua and peraerering exertion. 

An (&r). [AS. arofi, akin to the 1st pers. pi. forma, 
L. sumus^ Or. c^imV, from a root a«.] The present in- 
dicfttire plural of be; but etymologically a different 
word from 6«, or was. 

An (tr), n. [F.,fr. L. area.} Metric unit of super- 
ficial measure, being a square having each side ten meters 
In length ; 100 square meters, about 119.6 square yards. 

A'n-tL (i^'rl-*), n. [L., a broad piece of level ground.] 
1. Any plane surface ; an open space in a building. 2. 
The inclosed space on which a building stands ; a sunken 
court, giving light to the basement of a building. 3. An 
extent of surface ; a tract or region. 4. The superficial 
contents of any figure. 6. Extent; scope; range. 

Ar'^-fy (ir^fi), V. t, [L. arere to be dry -f -/y.] To 
dry, or make dry. — AV^-fMtkn (-fik'shon), n. 

A-M'lUI (A^ri^ni), n. [L., sand.] 1. The sanded 
areft in the central part of a Roman amphitheater. 2. 
A place of public contest ; any sphere of action. 

Ar^-lUl'OMIIft (Xr^^ni'ahfis), a. Sandy ; of the n»- 
tore of sand ; easilv disintegrating into sand ; friable. 

A-IW'O-U (4-rF8-U), n. [L.Tdlra. of ami.] A col- 
ored ring, as around vesicles. — A-TO'O-lAr (-ISr), a. 

A'TO-oai'e-ter (S'rl-5mt-t3r), n. [Or. apauk thin, 
rare + -m^fr.^ An instrument for measuring specific 

gravity of fluids. ^ A'ra-om'e-try, n. 

Ar'e-OP'A-glU (Xr^^p'A-fflis)* n. [Or. *Ap«t6s-a>o«. 
'AptuK ira>o«, hill of Ares (MArs* H{U).1 The highest 
judicial court at ancient Athens, held on Mara' Hill ; any 
high tribunal. — Ar'e-^a-glst (JTst), n. 

Ax'gal (Kr^gil), n. Crude tartar. See Abool. 

Ar'gau mm^ (ar'gSnd limp'). [Fr. klvai Argand^ 
its inventor.] A lamp with a drcular hollow wick and 
chimney, forming a current of air both inside and outside 
of the name. 

Ar'CMIt (-j«nt), H. [F., fr. L. argtntum silver.] 
Whiteness: anything white. — a. Mule of silver; of 
silvery color ; shining. — Ar-genlal (-jSn'tal), a. 

AirsaB-Un (Kr^n-tln), n. An alloy of nickel with 
copper and sine ; German silver. 

Ar-ceatlO (-ISn'tTk), a. Pertaining to, derived from, 
or containing, ulver. 

Ar'gWl-tlrer-aiUI (-tlfJr-Bs), a. [L. argentum-{- 
-ferous.'} Producii^f or containing silver. 

AlfgMI-tllM (Sr'J&a-tin ; in '2d sense, -tSn), a. 1. Per- 
taining to, or like, silver ; silvery. 2. Pertaining to the 
Argentine RepubUc in South America, ^—n. 1. A sili- 
ceous calcite, having a silvery luster. 2. White metal 
coated with silver. 3. A fish with silvery scalea. 4. A 
citizen of the Argentine Republic. 

Ar'cn (iir'JTl), n. [L. arffiUa white cUy.1 CUy, or 
potter^s earth ; sometimes pure clay, or alumina. 

Ar'gll-U'OMIIft (-IS^shoifi), a. Like, or containing 
clay; clayey. 

Argll4fiPer-«U (-nf'Sr-ds), a. [L. argOla + -/er- 
OHs. ] Producing clay or argil ; — applied to earths. 

Ar-glllOM (ib'-jmOOt a. Argillaceous. 

Ar'gOl ()^gBl)t **- Crude tartar ; an acidulous salt 
deposited from wines on the sides of the casks. 

Ar'gfhllMIt (-ff^njit). 11. [Or. 'Apyoi^avriK : 'Apvw -|- 
Mivnfv sailor, vwt ship.] 1. One of the legendary Greek 
heroes who sailed with Jason, in the Argo, in quest of 
Uie Oolden Fleece. 2. A cephalopod of the genus Argo- 
nanta. — AT gO-«lllllo, a. 

I ATgO-IUIirta (-nf/U), n. A genus of Cephalopoda. 
The alteu is often called pap^ nautilus or paper sailor. 

Ar'ffO^y {rtify, n. [Earlier raguty, fr. ragusa a ves- 
sel of Bagnsa 1 A large merchant vessel. 

I Argot' (ib^gS' or Kr'g8t),n. [F.] Slang of thieves, 
trampa,and vagabonds. 

ArsiM (-g3)» v.i. [L. argutare, f req. of arguere to 
nake clear.] To use arguments; to dispute, —v. /. 1. 

To debate or discuss. 2. To prove ; to exhibit by inf«r- 
ence or reasoning. 3. To persuade. — Al^SII-Mr, n. 

8711. — To Ar«us; DnnrrB: Dbbatb; reaaon; evlnoe; 
disaiss. — To argue is to adduce argumenta or reasons 
in support of one's cause or positi<m. To dUpute is to 
question or deny the statements of ttie opposing party. 
To debate is to strive formally by f "" 

Argll-mMlt (lir'gtt-mait), n. [F. ; L. airgumentun^ f r. 
arguere.^ \. Proof or reasons ofllexed in proof. 2. A 
controversy made up of rational proofs ; argumentation. 
3. The subject matter of a discourse ; theme or topic ; 
summary of the contents of a book, chapter, poem, etc 

ArffQ-Bm-tatlOB (-mSn-ti^shfin), n. 1. A reasoning ; 
an inferring propositions, not known or admitted as true, 
from facts or pnndples known. 2. Debate ; disoussioii. 

Syn. — Discussion ; controversy. See RBASOimia. 

ATffll-mMltft-tlye (-mSn^A-tTv), a. 1. Consisting 
of argument. 2. Oiven to argument ; disputatious. 

U vgllS (-gtts), n. 1. A being in classic mythology, 
having a hunc&ed eyes, which were transpUntad to the 
Macock*ataiL 2. One always watchful. 3. A genus of 
East Indian pheasants, remarkable for the great length 
and beauty of the wing and tall feathers of the male. 

Ar'g1Uh-«T0d' (-idO* «• Watchful; sharp-sighted. 

II A^-a (S'rT-A or Vvl-k\ n, [It., fr. L a^. Bee 
AiB.] An air, esp. as sung by a single voice. 

Arlaa (lir'yan or IrTwzn), a. An, Aryan. 

A'll-An (i'rT-on), a. Pertaining to Arioa, a religloiui 
teacher, of the 4th century, who declared Clvist Inferior 
to Ood the Father, though superior to all created beings. 
— n. A follower of Arius. — A1rl-«B-lSlll (-Ts'm), n. 

Arfd (ftr^d), a. \JL.aridus^ fr. arere to be dnr.] 
Exhausted of moisture ; parched ; dry ; barren. — hjnA- 
noM, A-rtAI-ty (i-rlda-tjo, n. 

A-rlff kf (i-rif), adv. [Pref. a. -f- right.'\ RighUy ; 
correctly : without mistake or crime. 

Aril (Krai), II A-inillB (ArrnnOs), n. [LL. anUi 
dry grapes.] An exterior covering of a seed. 

A-rise' (VrisOt *- <- [i^P- Abosb (-rOs'); p. pr. A 
vb. n. Aribino ; p. p. Arubv (-rTs'^n^] [AS. drlsan ; 
a -(- risan to rise.] 1. To come up from a lower to a 
higher position; to come above the horlxon; to rise. 
2. To come into action, being, or notice; to present 
itself. 3. To proceed; to spring. 

Arte-tO(/ra-oy (KrOTs-UHE'rip^), n. [Or. ipwroKpa- 
rCa ; aptarot bert -f xparciy to rule.] ■ 1. Oovemment 
by the best citisens. 2. A form of government, which 
vests power in a pririleged order; <digarohy. 3. The 
chief persons in a state ; a patrician order. 

A-Itol»«nit ( ArrTs't^-krlt or Xr^s-tt-kritt), n. X. One 
of the aristocracy ; a noble. 2. One who is overbearing ; 
a haughty person. 3. One who favors an aristocracy. — 
Aris-tOHsatlo (Kr^s-tA-krSt^k), Arto-to^niri»«l, a. 

A-rttll'llM-tIO (&-rTth'm«.tTk), n. [Or. ip^^ruei 
(sc. Tcxi^), fr. apiBfuiv to number, fr. iptBiiit number.] 
Science of numbers; computation by figures. — ArtUl' 
meflo-Al (Ir'Tth-meta-kal), a. [metic. | 

A-rtth'SM^'olAll (-tTsh'an), n. One skilled in arith-| 

Alk (iirkV, n. [AS. are, fr. L. area, fr. areere to In- 
close.] 1. The chest supporting the mercy seat in the 
Jewish suictuary. 2. Vessel wluch preserved Noah dur- 
ing the Deluge. 3. A flatboat to transport produce. 

Arm (iirm), n. [AS. ; akin to D. A O. arm, L. armu* 
arm, shoulder.] 1. The limb extending from shoulder 
to hand ; an anterior limb. 2. Anything resembling an 
arm. 3. Power ; strength ; support. 

Arm, n. [See Asms.] (a) A branch of the military 
service, (b) A weapon; an Instrument of warfMre.— 
V. t. 1. To equip with wei^ns ; to furnish with what- 
ever will add strength, security, eflBciency, or means of 
defense. — r. i. To provide one's self with weapons. 

Ar-ma'da (iir-mi'd& or iir-mlfdA), n. [Sp., fr. L. 
armare to arm.] A fleet of armed ships; the Spanish 
fleet sent to assail England, ▲. d. 1688. 

fin, n«cB^ dfh| rude, t^ ltea« MM, ttfbt, out, oil, oiulr, (o, slas^ t||k, tSiea, thin. 




modd araMd, p. p. 
of armor to um.] 
A South Amori- 
OMi edontftto ani- 
mal bavliig the 
body and head in- 
caaed in an armor 
of bony platea. 

[Bp.; dim. of ofw 

Mule ArmmdiUo ( Tattuia hybrida). 
to arm.] 1. A body of foroee 

[L. armamenta, 
pi., ntenciU, tackle 
of a ihin, fr. arm 
•quipped for war. 2. AU equipmenU for reelitance. 

ArnBa-tnrt (-tttr), n. [L. armalura, fr. armare.'} 
X. Armor. S. A pieoe of aoft iron to connect the two 
poloi of a magnet, and complete the circuit. 

Aim'OhaJr' (inn'chtr'), n. A chair with arma to 

•npport the elbows. 
Aim'tal (-ful), n. At mu 
AimtitiW (-hsio. A* 1. 

At much aa the arm can hold. 
, . n. 1. The armpit. S. A hole for 
the arm in a garment. 

AfkMll-lA-nr (Kr'mTMt.ry), a. [L. armUla bracelet, 
fr. armu* arm.] Like a bracelet ; conBiating of rings. 

Ar-mlp'O-ttllt (-mtp'^tent), a. [L. armipoten* ; artna 
mnoB-^ooten* powerful, p. pr. of posse to be able.] 
Powerful in arms ; mighty in battle. 

Al^nla-ttM (-mTs-tls), n. [F. ; L. orma 4- stare to 
■tand stiU.] Cessation of hostilities ; truce. 

AimOct (irmnst), n. A smaU arm ; bracelet 

AllB0r(iir'm8r),fi. [Spelt also annotir.] DefensiTe 
Arms or corering for protection in battle. 

AllBOr-Mr, n. . One who makes or repairs armor, or 
has the care of arms. 

Ar^mo'll-Al (-mO'rT-ol), a. Belonghig to armor, or the 
heraldic arms 6r escutcheons. [manufactured. | 

Arlni^rr (-m^-iip), n. Place where arms are kept or| 

AimlBtt^ (Xrm'pf t'), n. Tlie hoUow beneath the Junc- 
tion of the arm and shoulder ; tlie axilla. 

Ansa (Xrms), n. p/. [L. arma^ pi., arms, orig., flt- 
tinm.] 1. Instruments or weapons of offense or defense. 
S. Deeds of war; military aenrioe or science. 3. En- 
signs srmorial. 

Arfnqr O^mf)^ n. [F. artnie^ fr. L. armare, -matum, 
to arm. J I. A body of men armed for war. 2. A host. 

Amy werm. (a) A vo- 
racious insect, which 
in the larral state 
often trarela in great 
multitudes from field 
to field, destrojring 

(ft) T 

m and other crops. 
The larya of a 

Arniy Wonn. nhont | nst. tixe. 
a Imago i h Pup* i c Larra. 

small two-winged fly, 
which marchesin large 
oompaniea,in regvdar 

Ar-natlo (-nsto^), 
n. Annotto. 

A plant, one species of 
which is used in medicine as a narcotic and stimuhint. 

Ar-Bono (Kr-n0e't^), n. Annotto. 

A-ro'DUl (i-rO^mA), n. [Or. ap«ifAa.] The fragrant 
quality of plants or other substances. 

Ar'O-mftMo (Ir'd-mitTk), a. Pertaining to, or con- 
taining, aroma ; fragrant ; spicy. — n. An aromatic 
plant or drug. — Ar^o-IDAflo-al, a. 

An^UUi-nab (^rS'mi-tli or Sr'ft.), v. /. To render 
aromatic ; to give a spicy scent or taste to. 

A-IOM' (&-r5s'). Past or preterit tense of A ana. 

A-nrand' (-roundO, a<lr. [Pref. a- -f round.'] 1, In a 
circle ; on every side ; round. 2. In a circuit ; all about. 
3. Near ; in the neighborhood, ^prep. 1. Ou all sides 
of ; round ; at>out. 2. From one part to another of. 

A-naflt'(A-nmaOfV.f. ToezdtetoaiekioiifNAaatafet 
of rest ; to put in motion or exertion ; to ronae ; to OKdt*. 

A-row' (-rO'), adv. [Pret a- -f rov.] In a row, Una, 
or rank ; suoocasirely ; in order. 

Al'QM-bM i (ar^wl-blis), n. [OF. hanptOmM,^ 

Ar'qVA-ImM ) A hand gun used before the musket. 
— Ar'qiM-toiis-ln' (-Sr^), n. 

Artiok (kr'rik), n. [Ar. orao, fr. araqa to sweat.] 
Bast Indian name for all tfdeut spirits. 

Ar-nlgB' (ir-rin'), t. t. [OF. araanier, fr. LL. 
amMonare to call before court ; L. <uf -f ratio reaaon.] 
1. To call or set (a prisoner) at the bar of a oourt to an- 
swer to an indictment or complaint. 2. To call to ao- 
count ~ Ar-nlgB', Ar-ialgBwnt, n. 

Sjn, — See Aocubb. 

Ar-nmtf (-rinJO* v. t, [F. arranger, fr. & (L. orf) 
-f ranger. Bee Ramob, v. /.] 1. To put in proper or- 
der. 2. To adjust ; to prepare ; to determine. 

Syn. — Adjust ; adapt ; range ; dispose ; classify. 

Ar-rancalBtllt, n. 1. An arranging or putting in 
order; classification. 2. Preparatorr peasure; prep*> 
ration. 3. Settlement; adjustment by agreemenL 4. 
(a) Musical adaptation of a composition to roices or 
histruments. {Jb\ A piece so adapted. 

Ar'nuit (-rant), a. [Same as errant wanderinc.] No> 
toriously bad ; thorough ; downright ; unmitigated. 

Ax'nui (-ras}, n. [Fr. Arra4 capital of Artois, hi the 
French Netherlands.] Tapestry. 

Ar-ray' (Sr-ri'), n. [OE. & OF. arrai order, a 

ment ; a (L. ad) -{- OF. rai order.] 1. Arrangement ; 
disposition hi regular lines ; order ox battle ; hoay of sol- 
diers. 2. Dress ; apparel. 3. (o) A ranking of a jury 
impaneled in a cause. (6) A body of Jurors. -» r. f. 1. 
To place (troops, a jury, etc.) in order. 2. To deck or 
dress ; to clothe ; to envelop. 

Syn. — To draw up ; arrange ; dispose ; set in order. 

Ar-retr' (-r8r')» n. [F. nrrt^rf, tr. "L. ad -\- retro 
backward.] Something behind in payment, or unpaid, 
though due ; — commonly in pj. — Ar-fMUr'Agt (-tj), n. 

Ar-rtOf (-rSkf), I a. [L. arrigere, -rectum, to raise : 

Ar-nof^d, i ad -\- regere to direct] Lifted 

up ; raised ; erect 

Ar-rest' (-rfot'). v. I. [OF. arester, "L. ad -\- restore to 
stop ; re + *tore to stand.] 1. To stop action of. 2. 
To apprehend by authority of law. 3. To hold ; to oatch. 
— n. 1. A restraining from motion, etc. ; stoppage. 2. 
The legal apprehending of a person ; restraint ; custody. 

Syn. — To obstruct ; delay: detain; check; hinder; 
stop ; arorehend ; seise : lay hold of. 

II Ariir (ftr'Hif or 4r'riK0« n, [F.] (a) A decree of 
a French court or sovereign. (6) An arrest ; legal seiiure. 

Ar-Illl'ial (i-ri'ial), ) a. [Qr. oppt^bg not rooted ; I 

Ar-lbl'BOIll C-sOs), i priv. + J4V«root.] Destitute 
of a true root, as a parasitical plant. 

Ar^ls (Sr^rTs), n. [L. arista beard of grain, bone of a 
fish.] Sharp edge formed by two meeting surxacea. 

Ar-rhr'al (-riv'al), n. 1. An arriving ; a coming. 2. 
A reaching an object. 3. One that has arrived. 

Ar-rive' (ir-riv'), v. i, [LL. nrripare to come to 
shore ; h. ad -\- ripa shore.] 1. To come. 2. To gain 
an object by effort, practice, study, inquiry, etc. 

Ar'ro-CAIIOt (Ir^rt-gans), Al^TO-fUI-oy, n. An arro- 
gating ; contempt of others ; self-assumption. 

Syn. — Haughtiness; hauteur; assumption ; preaump- 
tion ; insolence ; conceit. See HAUOHmrass. 

ArYO-gant, a. [F. ; L. orropofM, p. pr. of arrogare. 
See Aekooatb.] 1. Assuming undue imp 
Conta.n!i)R arrogance. — Ar'k1K|ttnt-ly, 

Syn. — Magisterial ; lordly ; proud ; assuming ; over- 
bearing ; presumptuous ; haughty. See BfAOismuAL. 

Ar^O-gata (Ir'rd-git), v. t. [L. arrogare, -gains, to 
appropriate to one's self; ad -f- rogare to ask.] To 
claim unduly or presumptuously. — Aj'ro-gallOB, ». 

&, B, 1, 9, a, long ; A, «, 1, 5, 0, ^, short ; senAte, dvmt, tdea, 6bey, finite, oAra, lixm, Aak, 9II, 





Affraw (M**ft), n. [AS. oTMce, €arh. Cf. Aio.] A 
mlaaile to be ahot from a bow. 

MltWrn-mHV (-TSbt/\ n. 1. A 
West ImdUn pUmt. 2. A atarch 
obUioed from rootatocks of thU 
Idaot, and uaed as a uutritive food, esp. for children and 

Ar'M-lial (ir'at-Dol), n. [Sp. & F. ; fr. Ar. dar^n&'a 
house of iuduatry ; dar house + ^a*a art.] Magazine 
tor manof acturing and storing arms and naval or mUitary 

Ar'iW-BlO (-nTk), n. [Or. op^cvuc^, fr. appnf^ male, 
from its strength.] A chemical element, resembling a 
metal in physical properties, of steel<gray color and bril- 
liant luster, and an aotire poison. 

Ar-Mnl0 (-sin^k). Ar-Mnlina, a. Pertahiing to, 
or deriTsd from, arsenio. 

Ar-M'ttMws (-sS^nl-Os), a. Containing, oonsiiting of, 
or derired from, arsenic 

lArtls (Kr'sis), n. [Or. ipvit a raising, elevation of 
the voice, fr. aZpctr to lift op.] (a) That part of a poetic 
foot dlstlnffuished from the rest {tkexU) bv greater stress 
of voice, lb) Elevation of voice ; metrical accentuation ; 

rhythmic accent. 
Ar'MB I 

, (iir's'n), n. [OF., fr. L. ardere, armm^ to 
barn/) Malicions burning of a building or ship. 

Art (Kit). 2d vers. Hng. pre*, indie, of Bs. 

Art, n. [F. ; L. art, artis, orig., skill in fltUng.l 1. 
The adaptation of things in nature to the uses of life. 
2. A system of rules for doing some special work. 3- 
Application of knowledge or skUl ; an occupation requir- 
ing knowledge or skQL 4. pi. Branches of learning 
taoght in the academical course of colleges. 6. Bkillfm 
plan ; device. 6. Cunning ; artiiloe ; craft. 

8yn. — Science ; literature ; aptitude ; readiness ; skill ; 
dexterity : adroitness ; business ; trade ; cunning ; arti- 
iloe ; duplicity. See Scishob. 

Ar-t«^al (iir-tS'rT-^xl), a. Pertahiing to the arteries. 

Ar-tA'll-al-l-tttlOB (•T-si'sh&n), n. An arterializing 
veooos blood ; afiration ; hematosis. 

Ar-t^'M-al-iM (-is), V. t. TO transform (venous blood) 
into arterial blood by exposure to oxygen In the lungs ; to 
make arterial. 

Ax-Wli^HfO-mf (-Wt-mf), n. [Or. apnjptorofita ; 
mpv^U artery + to^4 * cutting.] 1. The opening an 
artery, esp. to let blood. S. Anatomy of the arteries. 

Arw-y (-tiT'f), n. [Or. apnfpuL] 1. A vessel car- 
rying blood from the heart. 2. A continuous channel 
cv communication. 

Ar-te^jlAB (-tS'shon), a. [F. arthien, fr. Artois.^ 
Pertaining to Artois (anciently ArteHum), in France. 

Artesian weQs, wells bored Into the earth till they reach 
water, which is forced up by internal pressure. 

Artfol (iirt^l), a. 1. Performed with art, skm, or 
contrivance. 2. Cunninff ; disposed to cunning indirect- 
ness of deaUng. — Artfu-ly, adv. — Artful-new, n. 

8yn, -Cunning ; skillful ; adroit : dexterous ; crafty ; 
tricky ; deceitful; designing. See CuKmiro. 

I Ar-tkrl'tiS (ttr-thri'tls), n. [Or. ^ptrif, fr. &p»pw 
a Joint.] Any inflammation of the Joints, particularly 
gout. — Ar-tBTltlO (-thrTtOk), hx-thttXI^^a. 

II Ar'tliro-niirtra (Hr^thrft-ffls'tr*), n. pi. TNL., fr. 
Or. ip$pov -f yarr^o stomach.] A dlvialon of Arach- 
nida, liaving the abdomen annukted, including among 
others the scorpions. 

Ar-tlurOf'ni-pliy (ttr-thrSg^rArfy), n. [Or. ap»pov + 
•gmphjf.'] Description of Joints. 

" ' ' ■' " p8d), f». One of the ArthropoJa. 

^ , hr5p^-dA), n. »/. [NL., fr. Or. 

SfBpop -\- -pod<L\ A division of ArticuUta, embraring 
all that have Jointed less. It includes InsecU, Arach- 
nlda. Crustacea, etc. — Ar-throp'O-dal, a. 

llir-tkrw^n-ea (-thrSe'tril.kA), %. pi. [NL., fr. Or. 
Ip^por -h ooTpoicov a shell.] A division of Crustacea, 

omphv.l Description of Jc 

Ar^tliro-pod (-thr«-p«d), 
iiAr-tkroy'o-dA (-thrdp^ 

having thorax and abdomen both segmented. It 

eludes the Amphipodaand 


Ar'thro-BO'lo (Kr^- 

thr*-s5'Ik), a. [Or. 
apOpo¥ -j^ ^*Mic6c animal, 
from ^ifov an animal.] 
Pertaining to the Articu- 
lata; articulate. i 

Ar'tl-eholw (Hr'tT.* 
ch5k), n. [It. articioo- 
CO.'} A plant somewhat 
resembling a thistle ; also, One of the ArthrottrMs. Hsad 1 
iU edihdehead. «' <". Thonclc ■omitM 1 «i6 Ab- 

Al'tl.0la(-k'l),«. [F., J°™*?*i ■T»lS^mi«.i*'f^'f^ 
fr. L. arlui/i**, dim. of B^%,i Abdominal leg. 1 « 
artu* joint, akin to Or. 

apepov.} 1. Adistinct portion of any writing, oonsisting 
of two or more particulars ; clause ; concise statement. 
2. A particular substance or commodity. 3. In ffram- 
mar, one of the three words, a, an, f Ae, used to define 
the application of nouns.*— v. t. X. To formulate in 
articles; to set forth in distinct particular!. 2. lo 
bind by articles of covenant. 

Ar-tlO'll-ljr(iir.tTk^.l8r),a. [L. oHicttfarif.] PM^. 
talning to the Joints.— n. A bone in the base of the 
lower Jaw of many birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishea. 

II Ar-tlo'QrU'U (-liti), n. pi. TNeut. pL, fr. L, 
articulatu* furnished with Joints, distmot] A sotf logical 
subkingdom, including Arthropoda (Insects, ICyriapoda, 
Arachnida, Crustacea, etc.) and Anarthropoda (Annelida 
and silled iforms). 

Ar-tlO'll-Ute (-Itt), a. [L. artietOatut.'] 1. Jointed ; 
consisting of segments united bv iolnts. 2. Distinctly 
uttered ( spoken intelligibly ; divided into words and 
syllables. — n. An animu of the subkingdom Articolata. 

Ar-tto^n-Ute (-lit), v. i. 1. To utter articuUte 
sounds ; to enunciate. 2. To Join by articulation. •— v. /. 
X. To put together with joints. 2. To utter in distinct 
syllables or words. 

Ar-tio^-Ut*-ty (-Itt-lJ^), adv. 1. In the manner 
or form of a Joint. 2. Article by article ; in detail ; 
definitely. 3. With distinct utterance of sounds. 

Ar-tlo'll-UtlOB (-la'shfin), n. 1. A Johit between 
bones in the skeleton or in stems of plants. 2. A meet- 
ing of parts in a Joint. 3. Utterance of sounds ; pronun- 
ciation. 4. A consonant. 

Ar^-flM (lir'tT-fTs), n. [L. arti/Mum, fr. artifex 
ar^Jftcer; trrx^ artiM,vt-\-facfre to make.] 1. Work- 
miM I ^ I1 i rj ^ vijn I rl vancf^^ 2, C r > 1 ty device ; artful trick. 

Ar-tl]ri-o«r {tWX-t^T}, n. An artistic worker. 

At U-tt'dal ^jLHif.niili'ii]). «. 1. Made or contrived 
by :trt 2. Fi'\^v<\ ; firtftknin ; not genuine. 3. Culti- 
vst*'^( ; pot of ftfH.ipiUtji'i'ijB i^mvith. — Ar'tl-fl'Ol-All-tF 
C-Mn^t*), ri. -Ar ttn'olally. adv. 

At maer-i«t < «■- 1 T l^ ^'t. t „t ), n. "^ 
lerv Hir ^iLintf^T^r ; dh Brlllirrytniui. 

Ar- Uller-T C ^^ >. n ■ [LL. frrUUaria machines of war ; 
prab. Li. L. iii i/ iwv AatJ 1. Cannon : ordnance, with 
powder, utensils, etc 2. The men and ofBoers who man- 
age artillery. 3. Bdence of gunnery. — Ar-tUltr-y- 

One skilled in artil- 

Ax'ti-sail (kr^T-sXn), n. [F.; fr. L. artiiut skilled in 
arts, fr. ars.} One skilled in some mechanic art. 

Syn. — Abtist ; AxrincBm. — An artist is one skilled bi 
some one of the fine arts ; an artisan exercises a mechan- 
ical employment, although he may have the taste and skill 
of an artist. An artificer requires power of contrivance 
and adaptation, but has not necessarily either the mechan> 
ical conformity to rule of the artisan, or the refinement 
and peculiar skill which belong to the artist. 

Artllt (KrtTst), n. One who practices a liberal art ; 
a painter, sculptor, musician, etc 

Syn. — See Abtuah. 

f3m, rwmt, 6rb, r^de, fyll, Am, food, fdbt, out, oil, ctuOr, bo, sins, Ink, then, Uiln. 




•o. See 

|lr-tllt0'(«r-a8tO,ii. [F.] OiM pecoliftrly dexter- 
ou and tasteful, in almoat any employment. 

Ar-tls'llO (-tIe'tTk), I a. Pertaining to art or to art- 

Ir-tto'lkHd (-tMuil), ] ista; made in the manner of 
•B artist ; showing taste or skilL — Ar-tlstlO-«l-ly, mfr. 

AltlMS (KrtnSs), a. 1. WanUng art or skiU ; igno- 
rant. 2. Free from guile, art, craft, or stratagem. — 
JkrflMS-ly, adv, — ArtaaM4MM, n. 

87II. — Simple: unaffected; sincere; undesigning; 
guUeless ; unsophisticated ; open ; frank ; candid. 

A-nm'dl-aA'OMW (A-Hin'dT-ni'shtts), a, [L. arun- 
dinaeeuSf fr. artmdo reed.] Pertainins to, or resem- 
hUng, the reed or cane. ti^*<^ • reedy. I 

Mx*Wllr4hl'94mm (Sr^&n-dTn^&a), a. Abounding with | 

I A-nUi'ptS (A-rOs'pSKs), t n. [L anupex or harut- 

A-niS'WM (-pTs), ) pex; V. anupice.} A 

Roman diTiner who foretold events by inspection of ea- 
trails of Tictims offered to the gods. 

A-rW^-oy i'P^-'9)f »• (^ arMpiciunif hanupi- 
eium,} Prognostication from entrails of rictims. 

ArriB (M^yon or Kr^-an), n. [Bkr. drya excellent.] 
1. One of a prehistoric people in Central Asia, from 
whom sprang the Hindoo, Persian, Greek, Latin, Celtic, 
Teutonic, Slavonic, and other races. 2. Language of the 
Arrans.— a. Pertaining to the Aryans ; Indo-European ; 
Indo-Oermanic. [Written also Arian.} 

As (Is), adv. & em^i. [AS. eai swa, lit, aU 
Also.] 11. Like ; simUar to ; equally. 2. In t 
tion of. 9. While; when. 4. Because ; 
Though : although. 6. For instance ; thus. 

RAs (is), n. [L. See Acs.] 1. A Roman weight, 
divided into 12 ounces. 2. A Roman copper coin. 

As'A-ittl-dA i (Ss^A-fSt^-di), n. [ Ar. a*a heaUng -\- 

Aaftk-tmVi^tL I L. /oetidu* fetid.] The fetid gum 
resin of a large umbelliferous Oriental plant used in medi- 
cine as an antispasmodic. [Written also tuta/cetida.} 

As-bM'lllM (Is-bSs'tTn), I a. Pertainhig to asbestus ; 

As-bMtOOS (-tfis), ) incombustible. 

As-bM'tllS (-tBs), I n. [L. asbestos a mineral una^ 

As-bMllMI (-t5s), f fected by fire. Or. a<r/3«<rTOv in- 
extingnishaMe ; a priv. -f- trfiwinitmi to extinguish.] A 
varied of pyroxene, also of serpentine. 

ASKMod' (-sBnd')t V. i, & t. [L. aseendere ; ad •\- 
seandere to climb. See Scan.! To move upward ; to 
mount ; to rise. — Al OMlfl't lllOi a. 

87n«— Torise: mount; climb; scale; soar; tower. 

As-OMld'ailt (-ant), fi. [F. ascendant^ L. aseendenSf 
. pr. of aseendere.^ 1. In astrology, the horoscope, or 
\uilt degree of the ecliptic which rises above the horison 
at the moment of one*s birth. 2. Superiority, or com- 
manding fanfluence; ascendency. 3. An ancestor; a 
progenitor ; — opposed to descendant. 

A«-«Mld'Allt (-ant), I a. 1. Above the horizon. 

As-OMld'eilt (-^nt), ) 2. Rising ; ascending. 3. Su- 
perior ; predominant ; ruling. 

As-4Mlld'«l-oy i-^-^)* **. Governing influence. 

87n. — Control ; authority ; influence ; sway ; domin- 
ion ; prevalence ; domination. 

As-Otndl-llto (-T-bM), o. Capable of being ascended. 

As-Otn'ikll (-sSn'shOn), fi. [F. ; L. ascend, fr. as- 
eendere."] 1. An ascending ; a rising ; ascent. 2. The 
virible ascent of our Savior ; Ascension Day. 

Asosa sl sn Day, the Thursday but one before Whitsuntide, 
when our Sarior's ascension into heaven, after his resur- 
rection, is commemorated ; — called also Holy Thursday. 

As-Otn'llOll-Al C-ol), a. Relating to ascent. 

As-0tlir(-s8nf),n. 1. A rising ; motion upward. 2. 
Way by which one ascends. 3. An eminence. 4. De- 
gree of elevation ; inclination ; slope ; rising grade. 

As'Otr-talB' (Ss^sSr-tin'), v. t. [OF. acertener ; a 
(L. ad) -\- certain.] To learn for a certainty ; to get to 

know. — As^otr-Udn'A-lila, a. — Aroer-udn'mwit, n. 


A«-OtMo (is-sStmc), a. [Or. aoKifruttfc, fr. aoxMr to 
exercise, to practice gymnastics.] Kxtremely rigid in 
self-denial and devotions ; austere. — n. One very rigor- 
ous in religious things. — As-«tll-€llB (-T-sTx*m), n, 

I) As'ol-i (Ishnr-i), I n. pi. [L. ascU, pL of <rscti», 
, Ai'ClAlUI (ftsh'yanx), S Or. wkuk without shadow ; 
a priv. -)- vkU. shadow.] Persons who have no shadow 
at noon ; — applied to dwellers in the torrid sone, who 
have, twice a year, a vertical sun. 

llAs^tM (ks-si'tSs), n. [L., fr. Gr. cUncinyr (sc 
v6im disease), fr. oacot bhwlder, beUy.l A colleotioo of 
serous fluid in the at)domen ; dropsy of the peritoneum. 

AS-CltlO (-sTtTk), I nmnrfr^l 

AMlt1«Ha(-T-kol).J«- ^^vAcsL 

As-Crtbe' (-krib'), v. t. [L. ateribtre; ad -|- seribtr* 
to write.] To attribute or refer, as to a cause ; to con- 
sider or aJlege to belong. — As-crllKA-ldA, a. — As-^rtp'- 
tlOB (-krTp'shfin), fi. 

Syn. — To Asceibs : Attbibutb : iMpim. — Atlribvte 
denotes, 1. To refer some auality or attribute to a being. 
2. To refer something to its cause. Ascribe has boui 
senses, but involves a different image. To impute usually 
denotes to ascribe something doubtful or wrong. 

A-MpHo (A-s8|/tTk), a. [Pref. a- not -f se/Xic.] Not 
liable to putrefaction. — «. An aseptic substance. 

JL-wnTJOL-al (A-eSks'tii-al ; 40), a. [Pref. a- not + Ms- 
ual.] Having no distinct sex ; without sexual action. 

Aah (ftsh), fi. [AS. spscA A tree of the Olive family : 
also, its tough, elastic wood, 
n., sing, of Ashb. 

Uned' (A-shSmdO* a. Affected by shame ; con- 
fused by guilt or conscioiisness of some impropriety. 

Aah'Ml (bh'm), a. Pertaining to the ash tree. 

Aslt'en, a. Consisting of, or like, ashes ; grayish. 

Ash'cr-y {-ir-S), n. 1. A depository for ashes. 2. 
A place where potash is made. 

Ash'W (-Cs), n. pi. [AS. asce, stset, ore.] 1. Saithy 
particles remaining after combustion. 2. Remains cA the 
human body when burnt, or ** returned to dust " by deo^. 

AahOtf I (XshnSr), n. [OF. aiseler, f r. aU plank, fr. 

Aahler \ L. oxw, omu, plank, axle.] 1. (a) Hewn 
or squared stone. (6) A facinff of dressied stone upon a 
wall of rubble or brick. 2. One of the short upright 
pieces l>etween floor beams and rafters. 

Ashlar-lng, ) n. 1. The bedding ashlar in mortar. 

Ashlcr-illf , I 2. Partition timbers in garrets. 

A-Shm' (X-shSr'), adv. [Pref. o- -f «Aore.] On or 
to the shore ; aground. 

Aah' WednWday (ksh^ wSni'dt). First day of Lent. 

Ash^ (ish'j^), a. 1. Pertaining to, or composed of, 
ashes ; filled with ashes. 2. Ash-colored ; deadly pale. 

A'llAll (a'shan), a. & n. [L. Asianus.} Asiatic 

A'Ai-AtIC (a'ahT-Stnrk), a, [L. Asiaticus.] Pertain- 
ing to Asia or its inhabitants. — n. A native, or one of 
the people, of Asia. — A'Ai-At'l-oism (-T-sTs'm), n. 

A-«ido'(A-MdOt odv. [Pref. a- -f- side.} 1. On, or to, 
one side ; out of a straight course ; apart. 2. Privately. 
— n. Something spoken aside ; as, a remark by a stage- 
plsver which other players are not supposed to hear. 

Asl-nllM (isT-nin), a. [L. asininus^ fr. asinus ass.] 
Belonging to, or having qualities of, the ass, as stupidity 
and obstinacy.— AB^l-nilll-ty (-nTnt-tj^), n. 

Alk (Ask), r.t.Au [AS. &scian, acsiati.'\ 1. To re- 
quest; to re<)uire, demand, or expect. 2. To interro- 
gate or question. 3. To invite. 

Syn. — To beg; request; seek; entreat: crave; re- 
quire ; demand ; claim ; inquire : interrogate. See Bwk 

A-akUlOe' (i-skSns'), I adr. [Cf. D. schuin sideways; 

A-wSuaV i-6kint'), f schuiven to shove.] Side- 
wavs ; obliquely ; with disdain or suspicion. 

Alk'ar (ask'er), n. One who asks ; an inquirer. 

Aflk'ar, n. [as. aSexe lixard, newt.] A water newt. 

A-lkew' (i-sku'), adv. & a. [Pref. a- -f skev.} 
Awry ; adcance ; oblique or obliquely. 

ft, i, 1, 3, a, long ; ft, «, I, O, a, ^, short ; senftte, tvent, Idea, Obey, finite, cftre, linn, &ik, ^11, flnoL 




(i^iota adv. & a. [Pref. a- -f ttant.} 
Toward one aide ; obliquely, ^^prep. Slanting over- 

A-llMP' (i-alSpOt a. & adv. [Pref. a- -\- sleep.} 1. In 
a state of tleep ; dormant. 2. Dead, i. Numbed. 

A-fllOpt' C*-alSp'), adv. & a, [Pref. a- -f slope.] 
SlopioK ; aslant ; declining from an upright direction. 
Amp (A^)f ft. [Or. d(nrt«.] A small, hooded, poison- 
ous serpent of Egypt, etc. ; the yaja haje. 

A»-piur'A-ff1UI (is-plr'4-gfis), n. [L., fr. 
Gr. aoT^lfavoc.] A perennial plant, one 
q;>ecies of which is cultivated in gardens for 
Its edible, tender shoots. 

Aa'l^aot (IVpnct), n. [L. aspectus^ fr. 
OipicerCt Oipeetum^ to look at ; aa + spicere 
to look.] 1. Look; coun- 
tenance ; mien ; air. 2. Ap- 
pearance to the eye or miud ; 
▼iew. 3. Position or situa- 
tion, esp. in relation to the 
points of the compcas. 

Asp'en (Sa'DSn), n. [AS. 
sespt seps.l One of several 
species oi poplar, esp. the 
PopuluM tremuloj whose 

A«» /vi«Z7^nU\ *«»^*" ™<>^« "^^^^ ***• slight- 
Asp iVipema^Hsy ^^ ^^^^ ^ t^e air. 

I As'pMr (-pSr), n. [L. spiritua a^»er, rough breathlng.l 
Ttw rough breaCliing in Oreek ; a mark (') over an initlsJ 
▼owel or p to show that it is aspirated, or pronounced 
with h before it : thus wr, pron. h6s^ p^rmp^ pron. hra'tOr. 

As'Ptr-ttte (-it), V. /. [L. asperare. -aius^ it. asper.] 

To make r^mah nr iinAVAii. — Am/nmtr.m^t' — 

rough or uneven. — As'per-A'tion, n. 
„'^ty (tpSr^-ty), n. [L. oMeritas.'] 1. Kougn- 
surfsce, sotmd, or taste. 2. Severity ; harshness. 

Sjn, — See AcBmomr. 

A-sperlBUI-tOIll (A-sp2r'm&-t&s), ) a. [Or. i<nrtptio9 ; 

A-ipOT'lllOIIS (-m&s), J a priv. -f crvrp^o, 

vwtpfiATOfS, seed.] Destitute of seeds. 

As-pcvM^ (X^p&V), V. t. [L. asperstis^ p. p. of a#- 
perg^re to scatter, sprinkle; ad -f- spargei-e to strew. 
Bee Spaksb.] To sprinkle ; to bespatter with foul reports. 

8711. — To AsnusB ; Dbfams : Slakdbr ; Calummiatb ; 
detract from : abuse : vilify. —Tooty^erMistocast upon a 
pure character the imputation of offensive blemishes. 
To defame is to detract from reputation by infamous 
charges. Slander (etymologically the same as scandal) 
' mniale, from the Latin, signify tl 

and calumniate^ 

, siflnoify the circulating 

reports to a man*s injury from malicious motives. 

Ai-pcr'liOll (-pir'Ahftn), n. 1. A sprinkling, as with 
water or dust. 2. An aspersing ; calumny. 

As'pluat (Xs'fSlt or Xs-fXlt'), n. [Or. /(r^oArof.] 1. 
Mineral pitch, or compact native bitumen, lound about 
the Dead Sea (called AsphaUUe^^ or Asphaltic Lake), 
also in Asia. Europe, and America. 2. A composition of 
bitnmen, iHtch, lime, and gravel, used for pavements, 
waterproof cement, etc. —v. /. To cover with asphalt. 

[L.] Asphalt 
[Or. cur^cAoc. See Daf - 
J perennial flowering riant. 

PAB-]^ysi-«(ls-nksnr-4). In. [NL. asphytia, fr. 

hm-WrVJ (ia-fTks'J^), ) Gr. aa^^ia ; a priv. -\- 
o4ni^9Uf to throb, beat.] Apparent death, or suspended 
animation, as from inhaling irrespirable gases. — - AM- 
9kTZl-«l, a. 

As-physl-Att (-T-it), V. /. To sufTocate. 

As-phys'l-ft'tifia, n. A suffocating ; suffocation. 

Aafita (I^pTk), n. [F.] 1. The venomous asp. 2. 
An anci<*nt piece of ordnance. 

As'pio, n. [F., corrupt, of spic^ L. tpica ear, spike.] 
A European lavender yielding a voUtile oil. See Spikb. 

Aa'pio, n. [F., prob. fr. aspie asp.] A savory meat 
jelly cuntaining fowl, game, fish, eggs, etc. 

AA-ptr'ant (Is-plr'cnt), a. [P., p. pr. of aspirer.} 
Aqiiring. — n. One who seeks high position. 

As^-IBta (Xs^T-rXt), V. /. [L. aspirare^ -iUui, to 
breathe upon, to add the breathing A ; otf -f spirare to 
breath, blow.] To pronounce with a breathing, an aspU 
rate, or an A sound, —ft. 1. A sound characterised hj a 
breath like the sound of A; the breathing A or a chanuv 
ter representing such a so^ind. 2. The Greek mark of 
aspiration (*) ; the rough breathing. 3. An elementary 
sound produced by the breath alone ; a surd, or nonvocal 

As'pl-rata (-rtt), ) a. [L. aspiratus^ p. p.] Pro- 

As'pl-ra'tod (-rS'tM), ) nounced with the A sound. 

Arpi-ratloil (-rX'shon), n. 1. An aspirating; pro- 
nunciation of a letter with strong emission of breath ; 
an aspirated sound. 2. A breatning ; an Inspiration. 
3. Strong desire ; earnest wish ; ammtion. 

As-plx^ (Ss-pir'), V. i, [L. aspirare.] 1. To desire 
to attiun something high or great ; to pant ; to long. 2. 
To rise ; to tower ; to soar. — As-nlr'tr (-plr^), fi. 

A-sqnlllt' (A^skwlnt^), adv. 
Witli the eye directed to one side ; obliquely 

[Cf. Abkart, Squimt.] 

I ; obliquely; awry. 

[AS. atsa; akin to L. asinus^ Or. ivm 

I.] 1. A quadruped of the horse kind, bat smaller, 
d having long ears. 2. A dull, stupid fellow; ' *" 
As'Mrtotl-dft (Ss'sA-fSta-di), n. Asafetida. 

Ab-mU' (is-sX10« V. /. [OF. asaUlir; a (L. <uf) + 
taillir to burst out, fr. L. satire to leap.] To attack vio- 
lently. — As-Mll'A-Ut, a. — AJhWdl'AlIt, a. & n, 

Syn. —See Attack. 

As-MUI'slll (-sis'sTn), n. TF., fr. Ar. *fuuhithin one 
Intoxicated by hashish, in which state the Assassins of 
the East were said to commit murders required bv their 
chief.] One who kills by ■aoret aasault ; a treadieroua 

A»-«Ui'slll-At« (-sT-nit), ff. /. To kai by nirprlae or 
treacherous violence. — As-MUI'Ai-lia'tliOII. n.—As- 
Ms'Ai-iia'tor, n. 

Syn. — To kill ; murder ; slay. See Kill. 

AJMUllllt' (-sftltOf ft. [OF. assatU, LL. assaltus; L. ad 
4- snltus a roringing, salire to leap. See Assail.] 
violent attack ; an onslaught; onset.— v. /. To 

Syn. — See Attack. 

JktHULJf(-A'),n. lOr.asai,essa(,triaL SeeEMAT,fi.] 
1. Examination ; test. 2. An ascertaining the propor- 
tion of a particular metal in an ore or aOoy. 3. The 
alloy or metal to be assayed. —v. /. To try ; to ezamlnft 
'its composition. — As- 

(an ore, alloy, etc.), to ascertain i 

MT'or. n. 

lOOaca (-sema>ltj), «i. [F.] l. An assem- 
bling, or being assembled ; association. 2. A coUeotion 
of individuals, or of particular things. 

Syn. — AssBMBLAOB ; Assbmblt ; company; gronp; 
collection : concourse ; gathering ; meeting ; oonventbm. 

— An assembly consists only of persons : an assemMaoe 
may be composed of things as well as persons. Moris 
every assemblage of persons an assembly^ as the latter d^ 
notes a body acting in concert for some common end. 

As-iemllle (-b*l), v.t.&i. [F. assembler^ It. LL. as- 
timulare to coUect ; h. ad -\- simul together.] To col- 
lect into one place or body ; to convene ; to congregate. 

AA-iem'bly (-bl^), n. [F. assemblie.] A company 
collected in one place, usually for a common purpose. 

Syn. — See Assbmblaob. 

AA-fl«m'bly-IIUUl (-man), n. A member of an assem- 
bly, esp. of the lower branch of a State legislature. 

As-sonf (-sSntO, V. i. [F. assentir, L. assentire ; ad 
4- sentire to feel, think. See Sbxsb.] To admit a thing 
as true ; to express one's agreement or ooncesalon. 

Syn. — To yield ; sgree ; acquiesce ; concede ; concur. 

— n. An assenting : concurrence with approval. 
Syn. — AftSBBT ; Consbnt : concurrence : acquiescenoe ; 

approvnl : accord. — AsunU is an %nt of the understanding. 
consent 01 the will or feeUngs. We assent to the views of 
others wlien our minds come to the same conclusion with 
theirs as to what is true or admissable. We consent when 
there is such a concurrence of our will with their deairsB 
that we decide to comply with their requests. 

lim, rec«nt, 6rb, ryde, f^ llm, food, fcTot, out, oil, oliair, ^o, sin^, i^f^ ttien, tUn, 




AfiMMattal (Sa'afo-tl'ahlln), n. [L. assentaiio.] 
Inainoere or obtequioiu aaaent. 

Ab-WUV (S»-fl8rf}, V. t [L. tuserere^ sfiiu*. to join 
to one*a Mlf, mainUln ; ad -)- terere to bind togevaer.] 1. 
To afflnu strongly ; to state positively. 2. To nutiutain 
by words or measures. —A«-Mlt'«r, As-MTfor, n. 

8yn* - To Assnr ; Avfibm ; Uaivtaui ; Vihdicatb ; 
aver ; aaseTerate ; protest ; pronounce ; declare. — To 
astert is to fasten to one's sielf, and hence to daim. To 
affirm is to declare as true. To maintain is to uphold 
sud insist npon what we hare once asserted. To viti- 
dicate is to use language and meanres of tlie strongest 
kind in defense of ourselTss and those for whom we act. 

A aam ' lkm (•sSr'shfin), ». l. An asserting; that 
which is asserted; affirmation; position advanced. 
2. Maintenance ; Tindicatioo. 

AB-WUViW (-sSrtar), a. Positive ; peremptory. 

AA-MTt'O-ry (-^-r^), a. [L. atserloHutt fr. o#«efrrv.] 
Affirming; maintaining. 

Aiawr (-sSsO, V. t. [OP. attmtMr to settle, LL. 
asseuare to i^ue for taxation, auidere to tax. Cf . As- 
■UB,!!.] 1. To value for taxation. 2. To tax (a person, 
estate, or inoome) according to an apportionment. 3. To 
fix the rate of. — Al mi^A-Ma, c 

(-ment), n. 1. An assessing. 2. A 
valuation of propertv for taxation ; an adjudging of the 
proper sum to be levied on property. 9. The sum levied. 
4. An apportionment of a suDscription for stock into 
sncoessive installments; also, one of these installments. 

AMmma'or (-sir), n. [L.] 1. One who assisU a 
Jndm or magistrate with his special knowledge of the 
subject to be decided. 2. An associate in ofBce. S. One 
who iw iB H i persons or property for taxation. 

Ai'Mt (is'set), n. Any part of one's assets. 

As'MtSt f». Pf. [F. ogseM enough, fr. L. otf -f $aH* 
enough. Of. BATisrr.] Property belonging or due to 
a person, corporation, or estate ; — opposod to liabUitie*. 

A Mm Wn-§H (Is-sSv^r-lt), V. t. [L. assei^erart^ 
HiltMr, to assert seriously ; ad 4* *evenu. Bee BxvaRi.] 
To alBrm positively or solemnly. — AS-MT'«r-Atloil, n. 


As-gld^-ODft (-sTd'A-fis), a. [L. astiduus, fr. as- 
iiden to sit near ; ad -f- *edh^ to sit.] 1. Constant in 
annllcation or attention. 2. Performed with constant 
diligenoe ; persistent. — As-ildll-ailS-lT, adv. — Am- 
IM^-OM^MM, Arii-«1l1-ty (l8'sT-4inY ty). n. 

Syn. — Diligent ; attentive : sedulous ; unwearied ; 
onintermitted ; persevering; laborious; Indefatig^le. 

illlgll^ (-«nO« *'' '• [F. ataiffner^ f r. L. a**ignare ; 
9d 4- aignart to mark out, designate, tignum mark, sign.] 
1. To appoint ; to allot ; to make over. 2. To fix or 
designate ; to point out exactly. 9. To make over to 
anotner, esp. to legally transfer to persons called a*- 
iigneeSy for the benefit of creditors. — >fi. One to whom 
property is transferred. — Aft-lig]|'«r. n. 

As4AK]l'ft-1>le(-4-b'l),a. - " ■ 
•pecifled, or designated. - ' 

Ai'^-natiaii (Is'sTg. 

or allotting ; apportionment. 2. An appointment of time 
and place for meeting ; — used chiefly of love interviews. 

As'glgn-«t' (Ss'sT-nS'), ft. ir.auiffn^. Bee Assign.] 
One to whom something is assigned. 

Aft-giflllllMIt (Is-aln'ment), n. 1. An allotting or 
appointment. 2. (a) Legal transfer of title or interest. 
(6) The writing bv which an interest is transferred, (r) 
Transfer of a wuilcnipt*s property to auiffnees^ in whom 
it is vested for the benefit of creditors. 

Antgn-or' (Xs^sT-ndrO* n. [L. a*9ignator.'\ An 
assigner ; one who legally assigns or transfers an interest. 

ilrtnl-Ulte (Ks-sTroa-IIt). V. t. [L. OMimilare^ 
-ahu; ad -f Hmiiare to make like, simiHs like.] 1. To 
cause to resemble. 2. To appropriate and incorporate 
into alike substance; to absorb (nourishment, etc.).— 
V. i. To become incorporated. 

As-ltm'1-lAtloll, n. 1. An assimilating or bringing to 

— MM rn i^urwft n. 
), a. Capable of being assigned, 
. — A•-■lipl'A-btt'^t7, n. 
tg-ni'sh&n), n. 1. An assiffning 

a resemblance or identity ; the being so assimilated , S. 
Conversion of nutriment into the substance ot an ani- 
mal or vegetable body, by digestion and absorption. 

As-atml-Ul-tlT* (Xs-sTmAlLtTv), a. lading to 

As-ilsl' (-sTstO, v.t.&i. [L. auitten; ad + sUlen 
to cause to stand, f r. start to stand.] To support ; to 
help. — As-ilsl'ailM. M. — As-slst'aBt, a,&H. 

8yn. — To help; aid: second; baok; support; reUere; 
succor : befriend ; sustain j favor. Bee Hblt. 

As-nif (-sUO, fi. [OE. & OF. astUe, F. osKsss, as. 
sembly of Judges, decree, tax, fr. auU^ p. p. of a$aeoir. 
fr. L. auidtrt to sat by ; od -{- aedire to dt. Bee Aasass. j 
(a) A special Jury or inquest (6) A kind of writ or 
finding of a Jury, (c) A court or session of a court, for 
trials by a Judge and jury.— v. /. To fix the weight, 
measure, or price of. — As-Ctl'«r, fi. 

AjhM'alA-ble (•s8'sh*-b'l), a, 1. Capable of being 
associated or Joined. 2. Liable to be affected by sym- 
pathy with other parts ; — said of omns, nerves, etc. 

AjhM'Gl-att (-shT-it), v.t.&L [L. assoeiare, -attts; 
ad -j- aociart to unite, sociu* companion.] To iotn or 
connect ; to combine ; to unite in action. — o. 1. Closely 
connected with some other. 2. Admitted to some, but 
not all, rights and privileges. 3. Connected bv phydcal 
habitof sympathy.— n. 1. A ompanion. 2. A p«rt> 
ner or confederate. S. One connected with an associa- 
tion without the full rights of a regular ipember. 

8yn. — Companion ; mate : fellow ; friend ; ally ; part- 
ner; coadjutor; comrade; accomi^ce. 

As-M'Gl-Allai (-sT-rshOn or -shT-S'shfin), n. 1. An 
associatinff or being associated ; union. 2. Mental oon- 
nection. 3. Union of persons in a company or society. — 
As-M'Gl-Allon-al, «. — A«-gO'el^-tlT» (-shT-i4Tv), a. 

As'lO-IUUit (Ss'sA-n«rnt), a. [L. aMonann^ p. pr. of 
atsonare to correspond to in sound ; ad -f aanare to 
sound, sonus sound.] 1. Having resemblance of sounds. 

2. Pertaining to a peculiar spMies of imperfect rhyme 
called auonance ; not consonant. — As'lO-llAIIM, n, 

At-MIt' (is-sdrtQ, V. t. [Y. agaorttr; h (h. ad) -^ 
sotiir to cast lots, L. sorting fr. «or«. aotiiSy lot. Beie 
BosT.] Todistribute into classes; to classify. — r. <. To 
sgree ; to suit. 

AtHMTtllltllt, fi. 1. An assortins, or distributl^ 
into sorts or classes. 2. A quantity of t 

3. A collection of various things. 

! tUngs I 


As-SIUIgO' (-swtJOt f . t' [OF. (uuagier, fr. L. arf + 
suarU sweet.] To soften, aflay, or lessen (heat, pain, 
or grief) ; to satisfy (sppetite). — As-flWIgt'lMIlt, n, 

8jn. — Bee Allbviatb. 

As-rame' (-sum'), r. /. [L. assumere; ad -)- mmere 
to take ; mb -f emere to take.] 1. To take to or upon 
one*s self ; to appropriate. 2. To take for granted, or 
without proof. 3. To pretend to possess ; to affect. 4. 
To receive or adopt, —v. i. To be arrogant. 

8yn. — To arrogate ; usurp ; appropriate. 

As-fimilllf:, a. Pretentious ; presumptuous. 

II As-ffvmp'nt (-sQmp'sTt), fi. [L., h» undertook, 
pret. of L. aMumrre.] (a) A pronuse or undertaking, 
founded on a consideration. (6) An action to recover 
damages for breach of a contract or promise. 

As-snmptlon (-sliOn), n. [L. asMumptio a takfaag, fr. 
atsuTnere.'] 1. An assuming; a suppoMtion. 2. ^ing 
supposed ; proposition assumued. 3. The minor propo 
sition in a syllogism. 4. The taking of a person up into 

As-SUmptlT* (-tTv), a. Assnmed, or capable of be- 
ing assumed ; characterised by assumption. 

As-rar'ailM (4-shnr'ans), n. [F. Bee Assuu.] 1. 
An assuring ; a decUutition tending or designed to give 
confidence. 2. The being assured ; firm persuasion : 
confidence; certainty; self-relianoe. 3. BToess of 
boldness; impudence. 4. Insurance. 

As-SUn' ( A-shnr'), V. /. [F. auurer ;\- mewnu 

21, 8, 1, 3, a, long ; ft, d, 1, 6, il, % short ; sen&te, (vent, tdea, 6bey, finite, cftre, i&rm. Ask, ^ final. 



■More, oOTtein.] 1. To make fun or oertaln. 2. To 
daclan to {may toe) In order to inspire ooofidenoe. 9. 
To confirm ; to make aecure. 4. To ineare ; to covenant 
to indemnify tor loaa, or to pay a apecified sum at death. 

Syn.— To declare ; aver ; aroocn : vouoli ; aaaert ; aa- 
aererate ; proteat ; perauade : conTince. 

As-OTrad' (4-ahi|rd')f a. Made sure ; safe ; insured ; 
eertnin ; bold to exceaa. — n. One whoae life or property 
ia inaured. — A«-0lir'«d-ly, adv. — A«-0lir'«d-lMM, n. 

Aalor (fti'tSr), «. [L. ; Or. mtt^p atar.l A genus of 
flowering herbs ; atarwort ; also, a plant oi which manv 
TArietiea {China asters^ German a*terM, etc.) are culti- 
rated for their handaome compound flowers. 

As'tir-Ul^Ul (-Tda-on), a. Pertaining to the Aste- 
rk^daa. "^n. A starfish. 

B AB'Wxtr^»A'%^ (fa-t»'rT-oId'«-*), I «. pi. [NL.. fr. 

iA»'t«r-ld'*-a(it't8r-Tdt-4V I Or. currtpioc 

starred (fr. i^rifp) + -oM.] A daaa of EchbiodennaU 
tochidtng the true starflahea. 

AslOT-llk (-Tsk), n. [Or. a^rcpiiraof, dim. of dor^p.] 
Flfore of a atar [*] naad in printhig and writinfr. 

Aaltr-lm (-ii*ni), n. [Or. AtrnfitaiUft fr. Jlontp.] 
1. A amall cluster of stars. %. In printing, three aster- 
iaks [%*] directing attention to a particular paasage. 

' («mO, adv. [Pref. o- -f- «/em.] 

or at the hinder part of a ship ; toward the stem; back 
ward. 2. Behind a ahip; in the rear. 

A-flttr'lUd (A-stSr'nol), a. [Pref. a- not -f- stemnl.'\ 
Not sternal ; — said of rllM which do not join the sternum. 

AM^Ui-^tA (fti'tir-oid), n. [Or. Atrrtpott^ sUrllke ; 
iLffr4p + st^oc form.] A starlike body ; one of the small 
planets between Mars and Jupiter. — Aa'tW-^UL'tCL a. 

I As'tlM-Bl'A (ia'tht-n!'4), t n. [Or. Aa0tytia ; i priv. 

AstkMty (is' ), ] 4- a€4nH strength..] 
Want of atrensth ; debility.— As-tBMll0 (Is-thSnTk), a. 

AjthfOyi (Is'mi, Is'mi, or Ssf mA), n. [Or. a<r9/uui 
■bort-drawn breath, fr. itiy to blow : of. B. wind.] A 
dlseaae characterized by difllcult breathing. — Asth- 
wutHfta (.mlt^k), Asth-nutlo-Al, a. 

A-sttrHUI-tlsm (&-stTg'mi-tTs'm), n. [Or. & priv. + 
•Tt'yria.'y^a'nK,a prick of a pointed instrument, fr. trrl^tiy 
to prick. J The defect, in the eye or a lens, of not bring- 
faoff rays of light to a focus, thus causing imperfect im- 
agea. ^Aa^ng-WUiVUi (Is'tTg.mltak}. a. 

* " ' (A-et^r'), adv. & a. [Pref. a- -f stir.} Stir- 

ling ; in motion ; out of bed. 

A-StOOl'A-tOIUI (A-stSm'A-ttts), \a. fOr. A prir. + 

Aa'tO^BMIIS (ib^td-mfls), ) vTbiia, (rrd^&aTOf, 

iDoath.] Not possesring a mouth. 

AS-mfllll (as-t5nTsh), r. t. [OE. attonierty OF. eston- 
ner^ fr. L. ex out -|- tonare to thunder.] To strike with 
•ndden terror or wonder ; to surprise greatly ; to con- 
found. — Afl-tonlih-liif , a. 

8711. — See Amau. 

As-tOttilll-IIMIIt, A. 1. Condition of one stunned. 
2. Inftenae surprise; amaiement. 3. Cause of such 

Stii.— Amasemrat : wonder ; surprise. 

As-tOOBd' (-toundOi r. /. [OE. attmiien. See Astoii- 
IBR.I To astonish ; to confound with wonder or fenr. 

A-«tnid'ato (A-stridM'l), adv. [Pref. a- 4- Mtraddle.] 
In a straddling position ; astride ; bestriding. 

AsHm-gal (Ss'trA-gBl), n. [Or. d<rrp4iyaAof the ankle 
bone.] A convex architectural molding of roimded sur- 
face, generally from half to three quarters of a circle. 

Aatna (Isaral), a. [L. astratU, fr. antrum star, Or. 
JvT;por.] Pertaining to the stars ; sUrry ; starlike. 

A-«tniK (A-striO, adv. A a. Straying ; wandeHng. 

AB-tllor (la-trTkf ), r. /. [L. astHctus, p. p. of as- 
Mngere. See Astsikob.] To bind up ; to contract. 

AMrloHoo (-trTk'Bhifii), n. 1. A binding : restric- 
tion; oMimtion. 2. (a) A contraction of bodily parts 
hf appUctiions ; the action of an astringent substance on 
the animal economy, {b) Constipation. 


A-«tXld«^ (i-stridOi adv. [Pref. a- + Hride.l With 
one leg on each side, aa a man on boraeback ; with the 
legs stretched wide apart. 

As-tlllice' (is-trlnJOt v. t. [L. attringtrt ; ad ■{- 
^frtn^rre to* draw tight. See Strain, v. <.] Tobindfaat; 
to constrict ; to cause parts to draw together. 

As-trln'CMlt (-trTn'jent), a. 1. Drawing together 
the tissues ; binding ; contracting. 2. Stem ; austere. 

— n. A medicine, etc., to produce contracti<m in the 
soft organic texturea. — A«-tllB'(MI-oy, n. 

A«-trol'0-g7 (Ss-tr51'd-j>), n. fOr. ^frrpoAoyCo, fr. 

avTfMv star -{- Aoyof discourse.] Orig., science of the 

stars ; later, a foretelling events by the aspects of the 

stars. - AB-tlOl'0-g«r (-jSr), n. - As'tro-loclo (-I5J^), 

As-tro-IOf io-al, a. [astronomy. | 

An-tron'O-mcr (-trSn'ft-mSr), fi. One versed in| 

As^tro-noni^ (Sa^trft-nSm^k), I a. Pertaining to aa> 

As'tro-IMaiflo-fil (-T-kal), ( tronomy ; in ac- 

oordcnce with the methods or principles of astronomy. 

— Artro-nomio-al-ly. adv. 

As-tnm'O-my (Xs-tron'ft-mV), n. [Or. dtrrooMfua, fr. 
aiaroo¥ -f ¥4iA€ty to regtilate. J Science of tne celestial 
bodiea aixt their phenomena. 

As-tllto' (-tuf), a. [L. a*tutusy fr. astu$ oraft.] 
Critically disoeraing ; shrewd. — AA-tOttlMM, n. 

Syn. — Keen; nenetratlng; skilled; cunning; saga, 
cious ; subtle ; wily ; crafty. 

A-Sim'd«r (A'sttn'dSr), adv. [Pref. a- -f ninder.'] 
Apart ; separate from each other ; separately.'lllBI (i-sin&m), ft. [L. ; Or. turvAor, fr. iavko^ 
inviolable; a priv. -f- oifAoy right of selsure.] 1. A 
place of refuge, retreat, or security. 2. An institution 
for orotection or relief of afflicted persons, aa the aged, 
blina, or insane. 

Amynt'llM-tlT (A-sTm'ml-trj^), n. [Or. oovyiftrrpui ; 
A priv. -f wfifirrpia symmetry.] Want of symmetiy or 
proportion between the parU of a thing. — Aa^ym-Biat'- 
Zio (SyTm-raet'rTk), Arym-lll«t^-OU, a. 

ATymp-tOte (fa ' Tm - t5t or 4 • sTmp ' Uii), n. TOr. 
oov^irrwToc not falling together ; a priv. -{- aiv with -|- 
n-tirrtu' to fall.] A line which approachea some curve, 
but, though infinitely extended, would never meet it. 

— Aa^ymp-totlo (-uk^ic), As^yiap-totlo-al, a. 

A-mjBfaii-Um (i-sTn'dl-USn), n. [L. , f r. Or. MripSmmi 
a priv. -f- ovi<^Toc bound together ; 9v¥ -\- ZtXv to bind.1 
A rhetorical figure which omits the connective; aa, t 
came, ««;, conquered ; — opposed to polysyndeton. 

At {U),.prep. [AS. tU ; akin to Ootli., OS., & IceL 
aty Dan. A L. nd.] Near ; in ; by ; on ; with ; toward. 

8yn. — In ; At. - When reference to the interior at any 
place is made prominent in Is used, as before the names 
of countries and cities ; as, we live in America, in New 
York, in the South. At is commonly employed before 
names of houses, institutions, and small placea, also 
before the name of a city regarded as a mere locality. 
In regard to time, we say at the hour, on the day, in the 

Af A-bAl (Xf i-b«), n. [80. ; fr. Ar. at-tabl the dram.] 
A kettledram ; a Moorish tabor. 

At'ft-glUUl (St'i-gSu), n. A yataghan. 

At'A'Vlnil (-vTs'm). n. [L. aiavus an anceetor, fr. 
avf4* grandfather.] (a) Tendency to a recurrence of the 
original type of a species in the progeny of its vniietiesx 
resemblance to remote ancestors, (b) The recurrence of 
any peculiarity or disease of an ancestor in a subsequent 
generation, after an intermission for a generation or two. 

Ate (at), preterit of Eat. 

Alh^-llt (ftlil-Tst), n. [Or. oBtot without god ; a 
priv. 4- 9ti<s god. ] One who disbelieves or denies the ex- 
istence of a Ood, or supreme intelligent Being. — A'tll9- 
li'tlo, A'tlM-irtlo-al. a. -A'th^^my f 

Ath'e-M'IIBI I (Sth't-nFOm^n. [Ij. Athenaeum, Qr. 

Atll'9-IUt'lim I 'A&ijvatotf a temple of Athene at 
Atliens, f r. 'A^ioj (the Minerva of tlie Roroann), tut*«l iry 
goddess of Athens.] 1. A temple of Athene, at Athens. 

fim, rao«nt, 6rb, r^de, fyll, lUn, food, fcMot, out, oil, obair, (o, alng;, ink, tlien, tbin. 




8. A ■chool founded at Rome by Hadriftn. 3. A liter- 
ary or acientiflc aaaociaUoa, library, etc. 

A-tlM^-All (i-the'iiT-au), a. Pertaining to Athena, 
the metropolis of Oreece. ^ n. A citizen of Athens. 

A-thlnf (-th^rsf ), a. 1. Thirsty. 2. Eagel- : longing. 

AthOvte (StlilSt), n. [Or. a0Aijrnc prize fighter, f r. 
iBXtlv to contend for a prise, iBXo^ contest, iBKov prise. 1 
One trained to contend in games of physical agility ana 
strength; a champion. 

Ath-lCtlO (-letTk), a. 1. Pertaining to athletes or 
athletics. 2. Befitting an athlete ; strong ; muscular. 

Atll-ltflCHI, n. Training and sports of athletes. 

A-thwarf (i-thw^rt'), prep. [Pref. a- -f- thwart.} 
Across; from side to side of. — adr. 1. Sidewise; 
obliquely. 2. Perversely. 

A-tUr (4-tTlt'), adv. [Pref. a- + tilt] 1. 8o asto 
make a tilt or thrust. 2. In the position of a cask tilted. 

At'Un-te'ail (It'lIn-tS'an}, a. [L. Atlantetu.) 1. 
Pwtainiug to the isle Atlantis, fabled to be sunk in the 
ocean. 2. Pertaining to, or like, the giant Atlas ; strong. 

II AMantM (-tSs), n. pi. [Gr. * ArAoyrtf , pi. of *ArAav.] 
Figures of men, used as columns to support an entabh^ 
ture ; — called also telamcnes. See Cartatidbs. 

At-UBHO (-tTk), a. [L. Atlantieus, fr. Atltu.} 1. 
Pertaining to Mt. Atlas in Libya, or to the ocean between 
Europe and Africa on the east and America on the west. 
2. P^rtainbig to tlie isle of Atlantis. 

Atlai (Stias), n. [Or. *ArAac, -ayTOf, a god, who 
bore up the pillars of heaven ; 
also Mt. Atlas^ in Africa, the 
pillar of heaven.] 1. One sus- 
taining a great burden. 2. The 
first vertebra of the neck, sus- 
taining the globe of the head. 
S. A collection of maps in a 
Tolume, or of plates illustrating 
any subject. 4. A drawing pa- 
per of large site. 

Atrmos-phere ( SfmSs-fSr ), 

R. [Gr. ii>A(k vapor -f ff^otpa 
sphere.] 1. The aeriform fluid 
surrounding the earth. 2. The 
pressure of the air at the sea J^ 
level, about 14.7 pounds to the ^■ 
square inch. 3. Any pervading "% 
i n fl u e n c e. — ArmiMllMrio 
(•fSr^), At'imw-plMrlo-al, a. 
A-tQli' (i-t810* n- [NaUve 
name in Indian Ocean.! A 
coral island, consisting of a belt of coral reef, partly 
submerged, surrounding a central lagoon. 


Af Om (Ittlm), n. [Or. arouov uncut, indivisible ; a 
priv. -f To^^, verb. adj. of riftytiM to cut] 1. (a) An 
ultimate indivisible particle of matter. (6) A molecule, 
(r) The smallest particle of matter in chemical combinn- 
tion ; an elementary constituent of a molecule. 2. Anv- 
thinjr extremely small ; a particle; a whit. — A-tOm'io 
(&.tJSmTk), A-tomlO-Al, a. 

Afom-lm (Sffim-Tz^m), fi. The doctrine of atoms, 
which, assuming tliat atoms are endued with gravity and 
motion, accounted thus for the origin of all things. 

Af Om-llt. n. One who holds to atomism. 

Aflom-lBO {-lt\ r. t. To reduce to atoms, or to fine 
spray. — AroiB-l-I%tloll. n. 

Afom-I'MT (-i'zSr), f«. One that atomises; an in- 
strument for reducing a liquid to spray. 

At on*' (wiin'V In concord or friendship ; In agree- 
ment (with each other) ; of the same opinion ; agreed. 


A'UU^ (*-tSnO. t'. <• [Fr. at one, i. e., to be, or 
cause to be, at one.] To stand as an equivalent; to 
make compensation or amends. -> v. /. To expiate. 

A-teil«lllMlt, n. Satisfaction or reparation for a 
wrong ; expiation ; amends ; in theology, the expiation 
of sin made by the sufferings and death of Christ. 

A-toalO (-tSnlk), a. 1. Characterized by atony, or 
want of vital energy. 2. In grammar, unaccented. 
3. Destitute of tone or vocality ; surd. ^ n. 1. A word 
that has no accent. 2. An element of speech produced 
by the breath alone ; a nonvocal consonant ; a breathing. 
3. A remedy for organic irritation. 

A-top' C'^tSp'), adv. On or at the top. 

Am-IA-U'rl-aii ( it''rT-^m ), Afn-M-Uilrl- 
OW, Am-MllOUl (-bTKy&s), a. [L. atra bilu black 
bile.] Affected with melancholy ; hypochondriac 

Arra-U-Ull-ail, n. A hypocbondriac. 

Arra-mental (St'rA-n.en'tal), l a. [L. atramentttm 

Arra-mantOlU (-mSuaCU), ) ink, fr. ater bluck.} 
Pertaining to ink ; inky ; black. 

A-tfO'aOIUI (i-trCfehfis), a. [L. a/ror, afroeis^ cruel, 
fierce.] Extremely heinous ; enormously wicked. 

8jm. — Atbociocs ; Flagitious ; Flagrant. — Flagi- 
tious points to an act as grossly wicked and vile. Fla- 
grant marks the impresuon made upon the mind by 
something strikingly wrong. Alrorimu represents the 
act as springing from a violent and savage spirit. 

A-tml-tF (a-tr8ea-ty), R. 1. Enormous wickedness ; 
extreme cruelty. 2. An atrocious deed. 

AtlO-phy (St'r«-fj^), n. [Gr. arpo^ut; a priv. + 
rp4it€i¥ to nourish.] A wasting away from want of 
nourishment ; slow emaciation. — r. I. & i. To starve 
or weaken ; to waste away. — A-tnmli'lo (i-trSlTk), a. 
. AfU-bftl (St'i-bU), n . A tabal. 

At-ttOh' (it-ticl/), r. /. [F. attacker to fasten : cf. 
E. taek small nail,f</^Ar to fasten.] 1. To bind or fasten. 
2. To assign by authority ; to appoint. 3. To connect 
by ties of love or self-interest. 4. To ascribe or at- 
tribute ; to affix. 6. To take or seize by legal authority. 
^ r. t. To adhere ; to come into legal operation ; to vest. 

8yn. — To affix ; bind ; tie ; fasten ; connect ; conjoin ; 
subjoin ; annex ; append ; win ; gain over ; conciliate. 

II A.V\Mf€te (At'tA^slitOi "• [F't P- P« of attacher.'\ 
One attached to another person or thing, as a part of a 
suite, staff, or embas^. 

At-tAdtlllMIt (It-tlk:h'mrat), fi. 1. An attaching, or 
being attached ; close adherence or affection ; fidelity. 

2. That by which one thing is attached to another ; con- 
nection. 3. Something attached. 4. {a) A seizure or 
taking into custody by legal process. (6) The writ com- 
manding such seizure. 

Syn.— Attachhxnt ; ArrscnoN. — The leading idea 
of affection is that of warmth and tenderness ; of attach- 
tnent that of being^ bound to some object by laisting ties. 

At-Uok' (SttlkO, r. t. [F. attaquer, orig. a form of 
attacher to attack.] 1. To fall upon forcibly ; to assail ; 
to censure. 2. To set to work upon (a task, etc.). 3. 
To begin to affect injuriously. ^ r. t. To make an attack. 
— n. 1. An attacking; assault. 2. A fit of sickness. 

3. Beginning of destructive chemical action. 

Syn. — To Attack ; Assail ; Assault : Invadb. — 
These words all denote a violent onset. To attack is to 
commence the onset ; to atutil is to make a Kudden and 
violent attack, or repeated attacks ; to asfoult (literally, 
to leap upon) is to attack pliysically by violence ; to in- 
vade is to enter by force on what belongs to another. 

Atta-flMIl (St'ti-gln), a. Yataghan. 

At-Udn' («t-tin'), r. t. &i. [OF. nteindre, fr. L. ai- 
tingcre : ad 4- tangere to touch, reach.] 1. To achieve 
or accomplish; to gain; to arrive at. 2. To reach in 
excellence ; to equaL — At-tatll'a-Met a. — At-Udn'A- 
Ue-nMB, At-taln'a-bO'l-ty, n. 

Syn. — To Attaik : Obtain ; Procurx. — Attain always 
implies an effort or wotinn townnl an object. Hence it is 
not synonymous with oU-tin and ymrttre^ which do not 
necessarily imply such effort or motion. 

ft, 9, 1, 5, a, long ; &, «, 1, 5, 0, t, short ; stnftte, tvent, Idea, 6bey, Iknite, cAre, i&rm, ask, 1^ flncM. 




At-taln'dor (It-tiu'dSr), n. [OP. atmndre to moom, 
oonviot.] An atUintiug, or being attainted ; extinction 
of civil rigtittt, from sentence of death or outlawry. 

At-t«lll1IMIIt (ftt-tSn'm^nt), n. 1. An atUunuig ; an 
arriving at or obtaining by efforts. 2. Acquisition ; {jd.) 
Biental requirements ; kxiowledge. 

At-tainf (-tint^)f V. t. [OF. ateint, p. p. of ataindre,] 
X. To subject (a person) to the legal condition formerly 
resulting from a sentence of death or outlawry, for trea- 
wm or felony. 2. To taint or corrupt ; to disgrace. — n. 

1. A legal writ to inquire whether a jury has given a 
false verdict ; the convicting of the jury so tried. 2. A 
taint; disgrace. — At-tallll'lll0Bt, At-talntue, n. 

At'tir (St'tSr), n. [Per. *atar perfume, Ar. 'tfr, fr. 
*aiara to smell sweet.] A fragrant essential oil ; eep., 
one made from roses. [Also wifitten otto and ottar.Jl 

At-tam'ptr (St-tSm'p^r), v. t, [OF. atemprety U. L. 
attemperare; ad -f- temperare to soften, temper.] 1. To 
reduce or moderate by mixture ; to regulate, as temper- 
ature. 2. To soften or soothe ; to temper. 3. To mix 
in lust proportion ; to regulate. 4. To make suitable. 

Al-traipt' (4Smt^), V. t. [OF. aierUer^ atempter^ fr. L. 
aUentare to attempt ; ad + tentarcy temptarcy to touch, 
try, r. intern, of tendere to stretch.] 1. To make ex- 
periment of ; to try. 2. To attack ; to tnr to take by 
force.— A. An essay or endeavor; an undertaking. 

Syn. — Attuipt; Emdbatob; Ettobt; Exxhtiow; 
TkiIl. — Trial denotes a putting forth of one's powers to 
determine what they can accomplish. An attempt is al- 
ways directed to some definite oDject. An endeavor is a 
continued attempt. Effort is a specific putting forth of 
eneriry in order to carry out an attempt. Exertion is 
the Mtire exercise of any faculty or power. See Tbt. 

At-tMid' (-tSnd^), V. <. [F. attendre to expect, fr. L. 
attendere to stretch (sc. animum) to apply the mind to ; 
ruf -f foiMfere to str^oh.] 1. To care for ; to watch over. 

2. To escort ; to serve. 3. To accompany ; to be united 
or consequent ta 4. To be present at. 

B jn. — Tb Attebto : Mum ; Rboako ; Hod ; NoncB. — 
To mind is to attend so that it may not be forgotten t to 
regard is to look on a thing as of Importance ; to heed is 
to attend to a thing througn caution ; to notice is to think 
on that which strikes the senses. See AocoMrAmr. 
— V. <. 1. To pay attention or regard ; to heed ; to lis- 
ten. 2. To accompany or be near at hand ; to be ready 
for service ; to wait. 3. (With to) To take charge of. 

Srn. — To AimrD : LuTiif ; Hba&kxv. — We attend 
with a view to hear and learn ; we listen with fixed atten- 
tion, in order to hear correctly, or to consider what lias 
been said : we hearken when we listen with a willing 
mind, and hi reference to obeying. 

At-tanfl'aaM (-tfin'dons), n. l. An attendhig or 
being in waiting. 2. Persons attending ; a retinue. 

At-tMlft'ABt (-tStt'dont), a. Accompanyhig, con- 
nected with, or immediately following ; consequent. — n. 
One who attends or accompanies ; a concomitant. 

At-tonlkll (-tSn'shOn), n. 1. An attending or heed- 
ing ; notice. 2. An act of civility or courtesy. 

Syn. — Care ; heed ; study ; considerati<m ; applica- 
tion ; advertence ; respect : regard. 

AX'tnftiW (-tlv), a. 1. Rerarding with care or atten- 
tion. 2. Heedful of the comfort of others ; courteous. 
— At-tenalT^-ly, adv. — At-t«l'tiT»-lMM. n. 

Stii. —Heedful ; intent ; observant ; mindful ; regard- 
ful ; circumspect ; watchful. 

At-tMI^-ant (-tt-ont), a. [L. attenuans^ p. pr. of 
aitenuare. See Attekuats.] Making thin, as fluids; 
diluent. «» n. A medicine that thins the fluids. 

At-tMI^-at« (-at), tr. /. [L. aUenuatiu, p. p. of at- 
tenuare; ad ■{- tenuare to make thin, tenuis thin.] 
1. To make thin or slender; to rarefy. 2. To make 
less complex ; to weaken. — r. i. To become thin or fine ; 
to lessen. — At-t«l'U-ate (-tt), At-t«n'a-«'tod, a. 

At-tm'll-A'tiail (-E'shfin), n. 1. A making, or being, 
rfender ; emaciation. 2. A making thhi or less dense, as 
ftnida or gases. 3. A weakening in hitensity. 

At-tMf (St488tO, V. t. TU attestaH; ad-{-tutari to 
bear witness, testis witness.] 1. To bear witness to ; to 
certify. 2. To give proof of ; to manifest.— n. Testi- 
mony ; attestatioo. — At'tM-tft'tlmi, n. 

At'tiO (St'tXk), a. [Gr. 'Arrueik.] Pertainii« to At- 
tica, in Greece, or to Athens, iu capital ; refined. 

At'tio, n. [F. oUiqueA 1. (a) A low story above the 
main orders of a fagade, in classical architecture. (6) A 
room behind that part of the exterior ; story next below 
the roof. 2. An Athenian. 

At'tl-Qim (St'tT-sTs*m), n. 1. Attachment to the 
Athenians. 2. The Greek idiom used by the Athenians; 
a concise and elegant expression. 

At-tiro' (-tir'). V. t, [OF. atirier ; a (L. fl<f ) -f F. t-re 
order.] To dress ; to adorn. — n. 1. Dress ; headdress ; 
ornamental clothing. 2. Antlers of a stag. 

Attl-tlld« (it'tT-tud), n. [It. attitudine, fr. L. aptut 
suited. Cf. AprrruDLl Posture ; position. 

Syn. — ATTrruoB ; Postdbb. — Both of these words de- 
scribe the visible disposition of the limbs. Posture relates 
to Dosition merely ; attitude refers to fitness for some spe- 
cific object. The object of an attitude is to exhibit some 
internal feeling. Posture has no such design. 

Artl-tu'dl-nlie (-tCdT-niz), V. i. To assume affected 
attitudes ; to strike an attitude ; to pose. 

At-toll«lt (St-t511«nt), a. [h. attoUens, p. pr. of 
attollere ; ad -f tollere to lift.] Lifting up ; raising. 

At-tOTlieT (St-tflr'nj^), n. [OF. aiorni^ p. p. of 
atomer to direct, prepare ; a (L. ad) -)- tomer to turn.] 
(a) One lenllv appointed by another to transact business 
for him. (6) A legal agent oualified to act for suitors and 
defendants tn legal proceedings. 

Power, totter, or warrant, of attomsy, written authority 
empowering another person to transact one's business. 

At-torlMy-sU^, ». Profession of an attorney ; agency 
for another. 

At-«raof (-trikf ), r. t. [L. aitractus, p. p. of attra- 
here; ad -f- trahere to draw. See Tbacb, v. /.] 1. To 
draw to, or cause to approach, adhere, combine, or re- 
sist seuu-ation. 2. Toinvite or allure.— At-tnurt'A-ttto, 
a. — At-traot'A-U^-iMM, At-traof ft-Mll-ty, n. 

Sjn, — To draw ; allure ; invite ; entice ; influence. 

At-tnurt11e (-T1), a. Having power to attract. 

At-tnu/tkm (-trSk'shiin), n. 1. An invisible power 
in a body by which it draws anything to itself; the 
powter in nature tending to draw together bodies, or to 

f>roduce their cohesion. 2. An attracting. 3. An allur- 
ng or inviting ; an attractive quality, object, or feature. 

Sjm. — Allurement ; enticement ; charm. 

At-timotlFe (-trSktTv), a. 1. Having power to at- 
tract or draw. 2. Inviting ; pleasing. — At-tTAOf lT»-ly, 
adv. — At-tiaotlve-limMt n. 

At-traot'or (-Sr), n. One that attracts. 

Attn-hmit (St^ri-hrat), a. [L. atlrahens, p. pr. of 
attrahere. See Attbact.] Attracting ; drawii^. — ». 
That which attracts, as a magnet. 

At-trlb'llte (St-trTydt), v. t. [L. aUribuere, -butus; 
ad 4- tribuere to bestow.] To ascribe ; to impute ; to 
consider as belonging (to). — At-tltb'll-tA-lllO, a. 

Sjn. — See Ascbibb. 

At'tli-lmte (It'trT-but), n. That which Is attributed ; 
an essential property or characteristic. 

Artrl-lm'tkm (-bu'shlin), n. 1. An attributing or 
ascribing. 2. That which is attributed. 

At-tnb^-tlTe (St-trTy<i-tTv), a. Attributing ; express- 
ing an attribute. —n. A word denoting an attribute; 
word modifying a noun ; adjective or adjective phrase. 

At-tllt*' (-trif), a. [L. atterercy -tritiu ; ad-\- terere 
to rub. See Tbitb.] Rubbed ; worn by friction. 

At-trl'ttOll (-trlsh'fin), n. 1. A nibbing together; 
friction : abnudon. 2. State of being worn. 

Attune' (St-tSn'), v. t. [Pref. atf- -ffMn«.] To tune 
or put in tune ; to adjust (rnie soirad to another). 

Anlrain (A'blim), a. [OF. albome^ aubome^ fr. LL. 
albumus whitish, fr. L. alhts white.] Reddish brown. 

fSra, recent, 6rb, ryde, fyll, llm, food, fdbt, out, oU, oliair, go, sins, igk, ttien, thin. 




adv, — All'da'- 

m, (nk'ihaii), n, [L. audio an increMfaiff, fr. 
L. au^ere, awtum. to increue.] 1. A pubUc «de of 
property to tb« hifhMt bidder; » Tenaue. 2. The 
things to be sold by auction. — v. t. To aell by auction. 

Aua^t U mmi* (-&')« >•• One who Mil* by auoUoo. — 
V. I. To mU by auction ; to auction. 

An-^'OiOlU (ft-di'ablU), a. [L. audaeia audacity, fr. 
mutaXf "OeiSf bold, fr. audere to dare.] 1. Darmg; 
adventoroua. 2. Contemning restrainu ; bold in wick- 
edneaa ; inaolent. — Av-dA'dlOUi'ly 
daoB-mm, Au-Oaol-ty (-u&'f-ty). n. 

Att'dl-ttto (f|'dT.b'l), a. [LL. audibtiu, fr. L. andire 
to hour.] Capable of being heard. — All'dl-U^-IMM, 
Att'dl-bUl-tyt n. — AVdl-Uy, adv. 

All'41-«IIM (-^na), n. [F. ; L. audientia, fr. aiMfiVe.] 

1. A hearing. 2. Admittance to a hearing; a formal 
interview. 3. An aaaembly of hearera. 

Att'dl-phOlM (-fSn), n. [L. audire + Or. ^mini sound. ] 
An instrument to be placed against the teeth and couTey 
■ound to the audit<»7 nerre, enabling the deaf to hear. 

Au'dit (A'dTt), ». [L. aii</i/tM aheadng, fr. audire.] 
An examination, eap. of accounts by proper officers ; final 
account, -^v.t.&u To examine and adjust (accounts). 

Anfdl-tor (ll'dl-tSr), n. 1. A hearer or listener. 2. 
One authorixed to examine accounta. 3. One who hears 
judicially, as in an audienoe court. -- Au'di-tor-fllllp, n. 

Ardi-tO^-IIBI (.tyrLOm). ». [L.] The part of a 
church, theatre, etc, assifned to the audience. 

AVdl-tO-nr (-td*(t)t <*• Pertaining to hearing, or to 
the sense or ornna of hearing. — n. 1. An assembly of 
bearers; anau^ence. 2. An auditorium. 

Aa-gt'All (leJS'an), a. 1. Pertaining to Augeus, 
king of EUa, whose sUble contained 3000 oxen, and had 
not been cleaned for 30 yeara. Heroulea cleanaed it in a 
day. 2. Exceedingly filthy or corrupt. 

Au'gwr (ygSr), n. [OS. nauget\ A8. nqfegar^ fr. 
na/u nave of a wheel -f- g&r spear, 
meaning orig. anaTe>bore.] 1. A 
oarpenter*B tool for boring holes 
larger than those bored by a gim- 
let. 2. An instrument for per- 
forating aoils or rocks. 

Ml, a bit with .. , 
B that of an anger. 
■ ,». [ASTau , 
ever -f- wiAJL Bee Ay» ever, and 
WmT, Wight.] Anything ; any 
part. — ffrfr. At all; in any de- 
gree. [Also written ought.] 

AOff-mtlir (nv-mSnt^), V. t. A 
i, [L. avgmentare^ fr. augmen- 
turn an increase, f r. augert to in- 
crease.] To enlarge; to increase in else, amount, or 
degree ; to swell. — Allff-meilfa-iao, a. 

Anfmont (jw'ragnt), n. l. Eulargement by addition. 

2. A vowel prefixed, or a lengtbeninv of the initial vowel, 
to mark pant time, as in Oreek and Sanskrit verbs. 

Anf^mtn-ta'tloil (M'men-ti'ah&n), n. An augment- 
ing by addition, expansion, or dilatation ; enlargement. 

8yn. — Increase ; growth ; extenaion ; addition. 

AOff-maiira-tlve (Ag-minfi-tTv), a. Augmenting; 
expreasing augmenUtion. »n. A word expresning with 
increased force the idea of the term from which it in de- 
rived ; as, dullard^ one very dull. Opp. to diminutive. 

Av'glir (n'gfir), n. [L.] A Roman official diviner who 
foretold events from various aiflms ; soothsayer ; prophet. 
—> V. «. & f. To conjecture from si^n or omens ; to in- 
dicate a favorable or an unfavorable iRRue. 

Syti. — To prt^dirt ; forebode ; b«>tok<»n ; portend ; pre- 
■age : prognosticatA : propltesy ; f orpwaru. 

An'ffU-ral (ft'ird-ra]). An-gll'll-tl, n. Pertaining to 
augiirn or augiiry ; nminoun ; ftignificant. 

An'cn-ry (R'pft-iJ), n. 1. A foret«»lllng events from 
signs ; divination. 2. An omen ; prenaee. 

Awsr Mt, a bit with a cutting 
edge like that of an aitger. 
Avibt (at), n. [KW.&wiht;A 

Common Sersw Anger. 

A«-g«r iltffla^, a. [L. auguahuA Of a qualltf 
inspiring admiration and reverence; naving aoteom 
dignity or grandeur. — An-gngymfg, ft. 

By n. — Grand ; magnificent ; majestic ; solemn ; aw- 
ful ; noble ; stately ; dignified ; imposing. 

Av'ffUlt (A^glUt), a. [L. Augustut, fr. Augustus 
Cesar, first emperor of Rome.] The eighth moath of (he 

Allll(Kk),fi. [AkintoIceL&Sw.otta.] The pafBn, 
an arctic sea bird. 

AvOlo (Rnik), a. [Gr. 
ovAuc^, f r. ovAi^ hall, oourt.] 
Pertaining toa royal court. 

A«llt(&nt),fi. [OF. oale, 
F. tanU, L. amiia father's 
sister.] The sister of one*s 
father or mother ; — oorrela* 
tive to n«pAew or Ri«ee. Alao 
iHM>Ued to an uncle's wife. 

II AuttL (afrA), n.; pL 
AuRji(.r«). T:L.,air.] Any 
subtile, invisible fluid ex-. 
haled from a substaDoe. 

AWf9l('ral),a. [L. oitrit -^r^ 
ear.] Pertaining to the ea 

AVm-tod (-rt-tM), 

°aS}?«S. .. Uk. or «». ^"^^ -«"Tiit* • •«"- 

ninggold; gilded. 
itt^^tt (f|'rt4t), a. 

An^n^U rfl'rt4t), a. [L. aureatus, fr. aureus 
golden, fr. avrum.'] Golden ; gilded. 
II Au-ff O-lA (-rl^-lA), I 
Aul^-Ole (ft'rI-Sl), ^ 

n. f P. aurMe^ fr. L. aure- 
ola (fena. adj.), of gold, dim. 

of aureus.! A halo of light, or luminoua raya." 

AWrUtB (»'rT-k'l), ft. [L. auricula, dim. of auris 
ear.] 1. (a) The external ear. (6) One of the two 
chamberaof the heart, which transmit blood to the ven- 
tricle. 2. An instrument to aid heitfing. 

Att-riCtt-Ur (ft-rlk'tt-Wr). a. 1. Pertaining to the 
ear, or to hearing. 2. Told in the ear, or privately. 3. 
Pertaining to the auricles of the heart. 

An-ik/n-late (-lit), i o. Having ears or appendages 

Attrio^-lA'tod, J likeeara. ri— -a- 

Av-rtfor-ODft (fj-rTf^r-tta), o. [L. aurf/er; aurum 
gold -f- /erre to bear.] Producing gold. 

Av'rl-lorm (n'rl-fCrm), a. [L. auris ear -4- -/orwt,} 
Having ttte form of the human ear ; ear-shaped. 

Anltet (-rTst), n. One skiUed in disorders of the ear. 

An'rOOka (ft'rSka), n. [G. auerochjty OHG. ^rokso ; 
fir (cf. AS. fir) -|- ohso ox, G. ochs.\ The European bison. 

Av-ro^ (li-J"5^)» n. [I^] 1. The dawn of day. 
2. The rise, dawn, or beginning. 3. The aurora borealis 
or aurora australis. — Av-roTral, a. 

Aorora borsalls (bC^rMnTs), a lumhions meteoric phe- 
nomenon, supposed to be of electrical origin ; northern 
lights. — Aorora aastralls (f^trft'ITs), a corresponding 
phenomenon in the southern hemisphere. 

II AuTom (a'riim), n. [L.] Gold. 

Au^onl-U'liOll (ftVk&l-ti^shtin). n. [L. auseuUaHo, 
fr. au^ntttare to listen, fr. aurit ear.] X. A listening. 
2. Examination by sounds in the chest, indicating health 
or disease. 

Alu'idM (fts^pTs), n. ; pt. Arsncm (-pT-sSs). [L. an- 
spieium^ fr. axHs bird -f- spicere to view.] 1. A taking 
omens by observing birds ; indication as to the futura 
2. Protection; patronage; guidance. 

Ans-sl'oloni (f^pTsh'tls), a. Having good omens; 
favorable ; propitious. — Ans-pI'dOU-ly , adv. 

Ans-tanr (RS-t«r'), a. [L. augterwt, it. Gr. ovon^p^, 
fr. aveiK to dry.] 1. Sour and astringent to the taste. 
2. Severe in jndginir or acting. 3. Unadorned ; severely 
Himpie. — Ans-tenay, adv. — Ans-terefneM, Ant- 
teH-ty (§--t»rT-ty), ». 

Syn. — Har«h ; sour; stem ; severe ; rigorous; strict. 

fi, S, 1, 5, a, long ; &, 6, 1, 6, 0, fr, short ; aenftte, (vent, tdea, 6bey, <knite, c4re, Jim, iUk, |^1, flnoL 




Maanm Olt^tral), 0. [L. mutralitt it. wut^r ttM 
■OQtli wind.] SonUMrn. 

Anrtnl-A'iiMI (-i^aban), a. Portaioinff to Auiknl- 
•lift, "vfi* An inhabltent of Auttraluia. 

A«»-tniai-«]| (4riaX-an)« a. PerUluiog to AuttnOift. 
— fu An inhabitant of Australia. 

Aaa^ttl^Ul (ns'trT-an), a. Pertaining to Aoatria. » 
fi. An Inhabitant of Auiitria. 

An-tlMllllO (A-tbSntTk), a. [Gr. av0fm«^ real au- 
tbOT. abedntemaitter; airbtaelf.] 1. Having a genuine 
origmal or aothoritv ; not of doubtful orlffin. 2. True ; 
tnutworthv ; eredible. ~ Au-tllMI'tllHd-ly, adv, 

8yn. — A U T HMi ' io ; Oihvuib. — These word* refer to 
'1 documents. We call a document genuine when 

.t can be traced back to its author, meaning that it is not 
ohaosed from the originaL we call it authmiic when, 
on batng thus traced back, it may be relied on as true 
and anthoiltatiTe ; hence Its extended signification, /nuf- 

Aa-a«l1l-«ttt (-tT-klt), V. i. To prove authentic; 
to determine as real and true. — Att-tbMI'tlHMltloil, n. 

A«'tk«l-tlO'l-ty (A'thftMIsa-ty), n. The being au- 
tbentic. genuine, or not corrupted. 

AalMr (a^tMr), ». [L. ottetor^ tr. au^fere to pro> 
dnoe. See AuonoR.] 1. Beginner of anything ; origi- 
nator. 2. Compoaer of a bo<ni. — A«Hlor-6flS, n. /. 

A«4feon-te-ttV« (ft-thSra-tt^Tv), a. 1. Having due 
authority ; entitled to obedience or acceptance. 2. Posi- 
tive ; peremptonr. — Aa-tbor^ta-ttre-iy, adv. 

Att-tkorl-ty C-tj^), n. [L. auetorUaa^ fr. atkr/or. See 
Aoimml] 1. Legal or rightful power ; jurisdiction. 2. 
Oovemment ; the persons exercising power. [Chiefly in 
0/.] 3. Olaim to be believed or obeyed. 4. Tbat ' 
la appealed to in support of opinions, actions, etc. 

tton of an author. 8. Source: origin; ori 

An't^M^rta-piiy (a't^-bt-Sg'ri-f]^), 
btoaraphv.] A bfograpby written by the subject of it. 
— Avto-M-ortm-iSMr, R.— Att'to-U^o-I ' ■ 

t which 
. . J. ; wit- 

neas; precedent; warrant. 

Att'UMr-Ilt (f/th9r4a), r. r. {LL. auctorixare. See 
AUTHOB.] 1. To clothe with authority or legal power. 
2. To legalise. 9. To sanction ; to warrant. 4. To 
Justify : to furnish a ground for. — All'tllOr-l>M'tlon, n. 
AirtllOfHrillp, n. X State of being an author ; func- 
tion of an author. 2. Source: origin; origination. 

-"-'•'"" n. [i4t»/o- + 

bT the subject of il 

>wo-gTaplilo (-w> 

d-grink). Av<tO-M>gnitt|i1lHd. a. 

An-tOCmi-CJ (||rt^'rAH$^), n. rOr. a&TO«pdrvuu See 
AuTOOUT.] 1. Independent or self-derived power ; ab- 
solute author!^. 2. Political independence ; autonomy. 

AttlO-arat (A^t^krlt), n. TOr. ovroicpanK ; o^rtft + 
Mpdrot strength, gpavk strong. J An absolute sovereign ; 
a despot. — ArtO-ontlO, An%-oniti»«l, a. 

I AttlO-da-M^ (-cUUdO. n, [Pg., act of the faith ; 
nto act (L. cuius) + rfo of the -f /< faith, fr. L. fldes.} 
^nrfshment of a heretic by burning. 

Att^tO^cn^C-grif),!!. [Or. ovrbTpo^ autographic : 
a^rfctelT-fypdli^u' to write.] Thing written with one's 
own hand ; an original manuscript ; one's own signatnie 
or writing. * a. In one*s own handwriting. — Au'tO- 

gripMo (-grSfTk), Airto-nrnpHifMd, a 
Aa-torta-Vhy (ft-t^S^ri-fy), n. l. On 
writing. 2. A lithographic process for transferring a 

n. 1. One** own hand- 

Au'tO-matlb (a'tt-mltak), ) a. [See / 

AlftO^ll^iHd (-T-kal), f Having 

of action. 2. Pertaining to, or like, an a 

Automaton.] 1. 
_ inherent power 
automaton ; self • 

S. Not volunta^ ; mechanical. 

JB'A-ton ()^t9m'*-t9n), n. ; pi. 

(-ti), X. AirroatATONB (-tSns). [L., fr. Or. ourrf^anH self- 

Att-tOB'A-ton ()^t9m^*lt9n}, n.; pi. L. Aittoiiata 

moving; avrM -f- * root m/r, manf to think.] A self- 
moving machine, or one having its motive power within 
Itself: ^ ^ 

Att-tOn'O-my (-tSn'^k-mV), n. rOr. ajkovo^^; avT6f 
•elf -f- i^ttv to assign, hold, away, j The power or right 
of self-government; political independence. — Att-tMl'- 
1 (-maa), AntO-llomlo (l^tt-nlim^k\ a. 


A»lt»«r ilfVSp-sf), n, [Or. a&refia, fr. afifwrrof 

leen by one's self ; avrsc -j- ^rtfc seen.] Apoat-mortem 

lAutO"^ -tme,} 1. Afao- 
2. A picture printed from a gelatin plate. 

Aii'tlllllll(ft'tnm),n. [h. auclumnuit autumnus.'] 1. 
The third season of the year, or season between summer 
and winter, often called "the faU.*' 2. The time of 
maturity or decline ; latter portion. — Au-tlUlllial, a. 

Anz-lliA-ry (9gs*Tl'y&-r/; 26), a. [L. auxUiariut, fr. 
ouxt/ium help.] Helping; assisting; subsidiary. — n. 1. 
A helper; confederate. 2. pi. Foreign troops in the 
service of a nation at war. 3. A verb which helps to 
form the voioes, modes, and tenses of other verba. 

A-yall' (A-tUO. V- t' [F. h {h. Qd)-\- vaMr to be 
worth, fr. L. valere to be strong. See YALiAirr.] 1. To 
be of service to ; to help. —v. i. To be of use ; to an- 
swer the porpoee. — > n. 1. Profit; advantage toward 
success; value. 2. pi. Proceeds. 

Syn. — Use; benefit; utility; profit; service. 

A-yall'A-llito, o. Such as one mav avaU one's aelf 
of ; convertible into a reeoorce. — i Tlfl't tilt lim 
A-¥all^A-blll-ty, n. — A-TAll'A-Uy, Oifv. 

Av'A-lailolir (Sv^A-llnoh^), n. [F., fr. avaler to de- 
acend, fr. aval down ; h (L. ad) -f ro/, L. valliSt valley.] 

1. A large body of anow eliding down a mountain aide. 

2. A sudden or irreaistible descent of anything. 
AVa-llM (-rTs), n. [F. ; L. avaritia^ f r. avanu ava- 
ricious.] Exoeaaive desire of gain ; cupidity. 

AT'a-rl'otoni (-rTah'Oa), a. Oreedy for wealth.— 
AT^a-rl'douhly, adr. — AT'a-il'oloiw-iiiM, n. 

Syn. — AvABicioiTs : Cotbtous; PABsmoznoua ; Pivn- 
BiouB ; MniELT ; NioaABOLT ; greedy ; stingy : close. — 
The avariciotts eagerly desire wealth to hoajxl it The 
covetous grasp after it at the expense of othersjthough a 
man may be covetous and yet a spendthrift. The p^nv- 
rious.parsimonioiu,, and miserly save money by disgrace- 
ful sell-denial, and Che niggardly by meanness to others. 

A-Taaf (i-viaf), interj. [Corrup. fr. D. fumd vast 
holdfast.] Ceaae; stop; stay. 

A-TAont' (A-vanf or a-vttntOi interj. [P. awnt for- 
ward, fr. L. aft 4- ante before.] Be gone; depart; — a 
word of contempt or abhorrence. 

II Aire Ha-rPa {Hf^t m&.rS'i). ) HaU ICary, - first 

Aire Ha'lrT (rvft mi^). ( words of the 
Roman Catholic prayer to the Virgin Mary ; a form of 
salutation and prayer. 

II A-ye'lUI (A-vS'nA), n. [L.] A genus of grasses, in- 
cluding oats. — AT'e-na'oeoiM (XV^nrshfis), a. 

A-Tenge' (A- vSnJOt v. t. [OF. avenaier ; L. otf -^ vin^ 
dicare to lay claim to, to revenge.] To vindicate oy in- 
flicting pain or evil on a wrongdoer. — A-T«l'ier, n. 

Syn. — To Avmoi ; Rsvuiob. — To avenge u to inflict 
punishment upon evU doers in behalf of ourselves, or 
others for whom we act, for the sake ot vindication, or 
retributive Justice. To revenue l» to Inflict injury for 
the indulgence of resentful and malicious feelings. 

Av^e-niie (Xvt-uQ), n. [F. ; fr. avenir to come to, L. 
advenire. See Advxht.] 1. An entrance into a (daoe ; 
a way of approach or of exit.' 2. A broad street. 

A-Tei' (i-v8rO, v. t. [F. avSrer^ LL. adverare^ av^- 
rare ; h. ad -^ verus true.] To declare positively. 

Syn. — To assert : affirm : asseverate. See Ammif. 

AT'«r-age (Sv'Sr-tJ), n. [OF. ; LL. averagiumt prob. 
f r. OF. aver^ F. avoir, property ; prop. Infln , to have, 
fr. L. habere to have.] 1. An equitable dLstrlbutlon of 

loss or expense among all intereated. 2. A mean pro- 
portion ; an arithmeti<^ mean. 3. Any general state- 
ment derived from comparlaon of diverse apeclflc oases. 
—a. Pertaining to an average or mean ; medial ; ordi- 
nary ; usuaL — v. t. 1. To find the mean of (imequal 
sums or quantities) ; to reduce to a mean. 2. To divide 
ammig a number, according to a given pn^Mrtion. — r. i. 
To form, or exlflt in, a mmui or medial sum or quantity. 

A-Ter'Uieilt (i-vir'm^t), n. Positive assertion. 

A-Terae' (-vSrs'), a. [L. ttvertere^ -sum. See Avnr.] 

f Sm, recent, 6rb, r^de, f ^ Am, ftfbd, f tfbt, out, oil, clialr, (o, ains, ink, then, ttila. 




HftTlng ft repagnftnoe or opposition of mind ; unwilling 

— A-TSTMly (A-T«r8ny), adv. —A-fww^nmm, n. 

8jm. — Atkrsk : Reluct ant : ADysRSK. — Averse ex- 
preueB an habitual dinlike. Jieluctant, a t«rm of the 
will, implies au iuternal struj^gle as to making some 
sacrifice. Adverse denotes active opposition. 

A-TOr'Blcni (i-vSr'shiin), n. [L. avertio. Bee Ayebt.] 
Opposition of mind ; fixed dislike. 

Syn. - Antipathy ; repugnance ; disgust See DnuxB. 

A-Tert' (4-v8rt'), v. t. [L. avertere ; a, <ib -j- vertere 
to turn.] To turn aside, or away ; to prerent. 

ilA'VW (S'vSx), n. pi. [L., pi. of avu bird.] The 
class of Vertebrata that includes the birds. 

Feet of ATM 
or Birds : a Ad> 
hsmant (cling- 
ing as w i t n 
hooka) foot of 
the twif tib 
Scansorial i c 
or Gallina- 
ceous t d In- 
pedal ; e Ore«so> 
rial I / Raptori- 
al ; g Grallatorl- 
al or Wading; 
h Rasorial or 
Cnrsorial: t 
Webbed or Pal- 
mate; IFlisipal- 
niatei m Ixtbate; 

; Rati 
TAC. including the ostrich and aHies, the aoftfryz. and the 
extinct moas ; Odoivtobnithbs, or fossil burds with teeth. 

A'Tl-A-ry (E'vT-t-ry), n. [L. aviarium^ fr. aviariu* 
pertaining to birds, fr. avis.'\ A place for keeping birds. 

A-Yldff ty (i-TTdt-ty), n. [L. avidiUu^ f r. avidtu^ fr. 
avh'e to long.] Greed ; strong appetite ; intense desire. 

Aro-oa^ttni (Sv/^-kS'shfin), n. [L. avocoHo.'^ 
1. That which calls one away from one's regular em- 
ployment or vocation. 2. pi. Pursuits ; vocation. 

A-TOld' (A-voidO, V, t. [OF. ewuidier^ e* (L. ez) 4- 
voidier to empty. See Void, a.] 1. To make void. 2. 
To keep away from ; to shun. — A-T0ld'a-1ll«, a. 

Syn. — To Avoid; Shxtn : escape ; elude ; evade : es- 
chew. — Avoid usually means, to heev clear of, an exten- 
sion of the meaning, to trithdraw one^it self from. Shun is 
a stronger term, implying more prominently the idea of 

A-TOld'ailM (-ans), n. 1. An annulling. 2. A be- 
coming vacant, or being vacant. 3. A dismissing or 
quitting ; withdrawal. 4. A keephig clear of. 

AT'dr-dn-pols' (Xv^Sr-dft-poixOi »• & o. [OE. aver 
depeis goods of weight ; OF. peis weight, L. pensum.'] 
Avoirdupois weight ; — a system of weights for coarser 
commodities, in which the pound contains 16 ounces or 
7,000 grains. 

A-TOaoh' (&-vouchOt *'• '• [(^P* ovoehierf LL. ad- 
vocare to advocate, fr. L. advocare to call to i ad -^ 
x^ocare to call.] To vouch for ; to declare positively. 

A-TOW' (A-vou'), V. /. [F. avouer. See Avouch.] To 
declare openly. — A-TOWa-Ma, a. — A-TOW'll, n. — 
A-TOW«d' (A-voud'), a. — A-TOW'«d-ly, adv. 

Syn. — To acknowledge ; own ; confess. See Contbss. 

A-ynl'lkni (A-vfll'shttn), n. [L. avtUsio ; arellere, -vul- 
mm, to tear off.] A tearing asunder ; forcible separation. 

A-W«lt' (A-waf), V. t. [OF. awaitier, agaUier ; a 
(L. ad) -\- iffaiiier, gaitier, to watch. See Watt.] 1. 
To wait for ; to expect. 2. To be in store for. 

A-wakt' (i-wSkOt V. t. & i. [imp. Awokb (i-wSkO, 

AwAKBO (i-wiktO; p- P' Awakbd; Oh*. Awai 
Awokbm; p. pr. Awakiko. Tlie form Awokb is some 
times used as a p. p.] [AS. &wmcnan and awaeian. See 
Wakb.] To rouse from sleep, or from death, stupidity, 
or inaction, —a. Not sleeping or letliargic ; roused from 
sleep ; in a state of vigilance or action. 

A-wak'Ml (i-wik''n), r. /. & i. To awake ; to wake. 

Syn. — To arouse ; excite ; stir up ; call forUi. 

A-warA' (i-ward'), v. t. [OF. estcarder to consider, 
Judge ; e* (L. ex) -f warder^ garder^ to observe, keep. 
See Wabd.1 To give by sentence or judicial determina- 
tion ; to adjudge. — v. i. To determine ; to make an 
award. — >n. A judgment, sentence, or final decision. 

A-wart' (A-wtr'), a. [AS. gewxr^ fr. tettr wary.] 
Apprised ; iuformea ; conscious. 

A-way' (A-wS'), adv. [AS. aiteg^ anveeg^ ontreg ; on 
on -{- tceg way.] Absent ; at a distance ; from a place. 

Awe (ft), n. [OE. a^.aghe; akin to AS. ege fear. 
Or. a^of pain, and B. ail.} The emotion inspired by some- 
thing dreadful and sublime ; reverential fear. —v. t. To 
strike with fear and reverence. 

A-waath'ar (A-wStfa'^r), adv. [Pref. a- -f weather."} 
On the weather side, or toward tlie wind ; in the direc- 
tion from which the wind blows ; — opposed to alee. 

Awful (n'fvl), a. 1. Inspirhig awe ; filling with pro- 
found reverence, or with fear and admiratioo; pro- 
foundly impressive. 2. Frightful ; exceedingly bad ; 
great [Slana) — AWtul-ly, adv. — Awfflll-Il«a0t «• 

Syn. — SeeFBioj 

A-Whllt' (A-hwnO, adv. [Adj. a + tthOe time, inter- 
val.] For a while ; for some time ; for a short time. 

Awk'Waxd (ftk'wSrd), a. [OE. auJk, atek, contrary -f 
-TnTnf.] 1. Wantlnjr tfoKtf-rity: .'i'^-m— Tnrrfrn- pi«»» 

(ir <-]Ti.'i'tLvt.'iii'j^^, 2. ^I'ul I'^k^ilv luuiL^ii'ii'Ll ;, i.^mbu.rra:33^i|^4 

— ATTk'WBTd-ly, (fffr^ — AwVwarA svH» r*. 

iiyn^ AwiWAito i CLrwnT ; UsixiUTH ; uneaiiil^ ; 
nj:ib.:iii4ly : i;aw]f y ^ bittiglitiic i UoA-e^ani i uiigruH'Ui) ; uu- 
Vi*vcoin1jjjg. - Aukwitr^ Itoa fiiw^ctol rBfonBiin? to cutVHrJ 
dot'^jrtiiH.'nt, A niiu ja vittrnjuff In \i\n wUule pflCWJii* he 1* 
<ru'h<i-ii!ii iu lii-4 gjiit ail J ILe [iigv«iiu>ijt' f}\ )jia tiinbs- W^ 
S[>l»]ir tlbL> t^^.rm tiHroHth iiioart frei^iLieiitljr' tatluit whk:h 
Liltii from tliQ wtiiit uf liijftructiou or tr-yiiulue. 

Awl (»!),»- [AS. *F', ""•'■ 1 A jHjiuLH^i Ui^tniment 
for pierdng small holes. 

Awn (»n), n. [Prob. /^ 
fr. same root as E. actite.'} 
The bristie or beard of Shoemaker's AwL 

barley, oats, grasses, etc. — Awnfld (ftnd), a. 

Awo'lng (ftnlng), n. [Origin uncertain.] A roofUke 
oover, usually of cloth, extended as a shelter. 

Awnleaa, a. Without awns or beard. 

A-WOka' (A-w5k')f i^P' o' AWAKB. 

A-wry' (A-ri'), adv. & a. [Pref. a--|-irry.] 1. Turned 
or twisted toward one side; distorted; asquint. 2. 
Aside from truth or reason ; perverse or perversely. 

Az ) (Sks), n. [AS. eax, lex, ocas; aldn 

Asa { to Gr. o^iKi}, L. ascia.} An edged 
tool for felUng tree^ chopping and splitting 
wood, hewing timber, etc. 

Az1-al (SksT-oI), a. Pertaining to an 
axis ; around an axis. 

Axil (iksTl), n. [L. axilla. Cf. Axlb.] 
Angle between the upper side of a branch, 
leaf, or petiole, and its stem. 

Azila (-11), a. Situated in the axis of 

II Ax-aia (-T11A), n. [L.] The armpit 

Az'U-lar (8keai-lSr), \ a. 1. Pertainmg 

Az11-la-ry (-lt-r3^)« \ to the axilla or 
armpit. 2. Situated in, or rising from, an ^ ^ Axillary 
axil of a plant. Buds. 

Azl-om (-T-&m), n. [Gr. a^u*fiathat bbl^eafScam. 
which is thought worthy, a principle, fr. cTcrnnnal 
iiuK worthy.] A self-evident and neces- """• 
sary truth ; a proposition which it is necessary to take 

ft, i, 1, 0,11, long { ft, a, 1, 5,0, y, short; swiftte, 4vMt, Idea, 5bey,tknlte, cftre, ftrm, Ask, j^ll, final. 




for snuited. — Ax'l-O-nuitio (Slunr-«.mSt^k)« Azl-o- 
matlo-Al, a. 

Syn. — Axiom : Maxim ; Apmokism ; Aoaox. — An ax- 
iom ia ft aelf-ttvident truth taken tor granted aa the bada 
of reaaoning. A utazim is a guiding principle aanctioned 
by experience. An aphorism ia a pithy expreaaion of 
some general truth or aentiment. An adaae ia a aaying 
of long-eatabliahed authority and of universal application. 

II Axis (KkaOfs), n. ; pi. Axn (-&). [L. See Axlb.] 
1. A atraight line on which a body reToWea ; a line 
around which the parte of a body or ayatem are symmet- 
ricallv arranged. 2. The atem of a plant. 3. The aecond 
▼ertebra of the neck. 

AMf\» (iki/n), n. [AS. eaxl, eax ; akin to L. axis axle^ 
arUla ahonlder joint, dim. of azu.] 1. The pin or apin- 
die on which a wheel revolves, or which rerolvea with a 
wbeeL %, An axle-tree. 3. An axis. 

Axle bos, a bushing in the hub of a wheel, through 
which the axle paaaea; the 
journal box of a rotating axle. 

Aza^-trM" (-trS'), n. A 
bar connecting the opposite 
wheela of a carriage. 

Azfnuui (Ska^mon), n. One 
who wields an ax. 

^L^*yV«^^'- v**' *^"^ Section of Wsjfon Hob. -how. 
Ay«, I (M), adv. Yea ; yea ; i„g Axle Bdx and Axle. 
Ay* I — ft word expreas- 
ing assent, or an affirmative answer to a question. 
Ay« (MI), ft. An ftffirmfttive vote or voter. 

Aye ) (E), adv. [loel. ei, ey ; akin to AS. a, Or. acs^, 

Ay ) act, always.] Always ; ever ; continually. 

Ayt'-Aye' (HVWl'), n. [Prob. fr. iU cry.] A noctur- 
nal quadruped of Madagascar, allied to the lemurs. 

A'y-rto, A'y-ry (iT-ry), n. Aerie. 

A-saa»-A (A-za'll-i ; 20), n. [NL., fr. Or. d^aA<oc 
dry, — because supposed to grow best in dry ground.] 
A flowering shrub, akin to the Rhododendron. 

ABl-nratll (kzT-math), n. [Ar. as-siimut, pi. of 
as-samt a way, point of the horizon.] (u) Tlie quad- 
rant of an azimuth circle, one of the great circles of the 
sphere. (6) An arc of the horizon intercepted between 
the meridian of the place and a vertical circle through 
the center of any object. 

A-m^ (i-z9ak), a. [Or. dpriv. + M life.] Destitute 
of organic life, or at least of animal life ; anterior to the 
existence of animal life. 

Az'Ote (Sz'5t or i-z5tO, n. [P. ; fr. Or. & priv. + 
^(tti} life ; — so named because incapable of supporting 
life.] Nitrogen. — A-BOtIo (i-z6tak), a, 

Az'o-tin (Sz'ft-tiz), V. /. To impregnate with asote, 
or nitrogen ; to nitrogenize. 

Al'nre (Szh'yr or a'zhyr), a. [P. A OSp. aznr^ 
through Ar. from Per. lajaward lapia lazuli, a blue color.] 
Sky-blue ; cerulean ; alao, cloudleaa. ^ n. The clear blue 
color of the aky ; alao, a pigment or dye of thia color. 

Al^-rllM (Ssh'A-rTn), a. Azure. 

Ai'v-rlte (ftsh'ft-rit), n. Blue carbonate of copper ; 
blue malachite. 


Bu (bX), V. i. [An imitative word.] To bleftt as a 
aheep. — n. The bleat of a aheep. 

BabOlle (bSyb'l), v. i. l. To utter inarticulate 
•ounda or unmeaning words. 2. To talk much ; to chat- 
ter. 3. To make a continuoua murmuring noise, aa 
ahallow water running over atones.— n. 1. Idle talk; 
twaddle. 2. Inarticulate apeech ; constant murmur. 

8yn. — To prate ; prattle ; chatter ; gossip. 

BatKble-mailt n. Babble. 

BabHllar (bIt/blSr), n. 1. A prater; a teUer of 
aerrets. 2. A thrushlike bird, having a chattering note. 

BalM (bib), n. An infant ; a baby. 

Ba^Ml (bS'bSl), n. 1. The city and tower in Shinar, 
where the confusion of languages took place. 2. A acene 
of noise and confusion ; confused mixture of sounds. 

bBalKW, llBa'bll (btt'bo5), n. [Hind. 6ae»fl.] Hindoo 
title answering to Mr, or 

[P. bahouiny LL. babewy- 
nus.^ The dog-faced ape. 

Ba'by (bS'by), n. 

Kim. of babe.'\ 1. An 
ant or young child. 2. 
A doll. ••a. Pertaining 
to an infant; young or 
Uttle.— V. /. To treat 
Uke a baby; to humor; 
to fondle. — Bft'by-llOOd, 

n.— Ba1>y-toli,fl. 

BaO ' Cft - Uin ' ra • atd Chocma Baboon {CtmocephaJui 
(b»k'kA-lft'rt-ilt), n. [LL. /wiranW). 

baecalnureus bachelor of arts ; L. baecn Inuri bayberry, 
fr. the bachelor's wearing bayherries.] 1. The degree of 
bachelor of arta (B. A. or A. B.), the firHt academical de- 
gree. 2. A baccalaureate sermon or farewell discourse to 
a graduating class. — a. Pertaining to a bachelor of arts. 

RBao'oa-iB', Bao'oa-rat' (WOt/ki-riiO, n. [P.] a 

yraoch game of cards, played by a banker and punters. 

Bao'cate (bSkOitt), a. [L. baccaUu^ it. L. batea 
berry.] Piilmr throughout, like a berry ; — said of fruits. 

Bao'oa-ted (-kt-tM), a. Having many berries. 

Bao'olia-iud (-ki-n/il), a. Relating to Bacchus; 
dmiiken and riotous.— N. 1. A carouser. %. pi. The 
bacchanal ia. 

II Bao'oha-lUiai-A (-nSai-A), n. pi. [L., a feast of 
Bacchus, god of wine.] A feast in honor of Bacchus; 
dnmken revels ; an orgy. — Bao'olia-IUlli-ail, a. & n. 

Bao-otfar-OVS (-sTfllr-iis), a. [L. bacci/er; baeea 
berry -\-ferre to bear.] Producing berries. 

Bac'ol-fonil (bik'sf-fOrm), a. [L. bacca -\- -form.} 
Having the form of a berry. 

BaCHOtv'O-rona (-sTv'd-rtls), a. [L. bacca -f vorare 
to devour.] Subsisting on berries. 

Bach'e-lor (bSch'i-lSr), n. [LL. baccalariuM. See 
Baccalaurkatb.] 1. A man who has not been mar- 
ried. 2. One who has taken the lowest academical 
degree. 3. A voung knight. 4. An edible fresh-water 
bass. — Bach'e-i or-alilp, n. 

Bachslor's batten, a plant with button-shaped flowers. 

II Ba-diavs (b*.sTi1Qs), n. [NL., for L. bacillum little 
staff.] A variety of bacterium. 

Back (bSk), n. [P. bnc ; cf. D. bak tray, bowl.] 1. A 
large shallow vat. 2. A ferrvboat. 

Back, n. [AS. bfFc, bac] 1. The upper or hinder 
part of an animal. 2. The outward or upper part of a 
thing. 3. The part opposed to the front; hinder or 
rear part. 4. The part out of sight. ^ a. 1. Being at 
the bAck or in the rear ; distant ; remote. 2. Being in 
arrear ; overdue. 3. Moving or operating backward. — 
V. t. 1. To get upon the back of; to mount. 2. To 
force backward. 3. To furnish with a back. 4. To 
write upoit the back of; to indorse. 6. To support; 
to second or strengthen. 6. To bet on the success of ; 

— as, to back a race horse. — r. ». To move backward. 

— adv. 1. In, to, or toward, the rear. 2. To the place 
from which one came or from which something is taken. 
3. To a former state or condition. 4. In times past ; 

fira, recent, 6rb, r^de, fi^ll, llm, food, ftfbt, out, oil, cliair, go, alnKt ill^ tlien, tlUn. 




•go. 6. Ib ooooMlinent or raMrre. 6. lo return or 

BaekHBttf (bikliif), v. t. & i. To oMunre mMnljr, or 
■lander, or apeak evil of (<Mie abaent). 

BaOKlllt'ar (-bit^r), n, A aecrot caltunniator. 

BaoklMMM' (-bSa')\ n. 1. The apiue; vertebral 
column. 2. Firmneas ; moral principle ; sleadfaatneaa. 

Baok^ganKmOB (-gSm^&n), n. [Perh. fr. Dan. baJtke 
tray + KLgame.l A game played by two peraons on a 
** board " marked off into 24 apaces caUed " points.*' 

Badlf g fO HIl d^ (-groundOf »• 1. Oround in the rear 
or behind, or in the dlatance ; — oppoaed to foreground. 
2. Space behind a portrait or group of flgurea. 3. A 
place in obecurity or out of sight. 

BAOktUUld' (-hIndOt o* Sloping downward from left 
to right. —>«. Baclchand writing. 

BAOkluuid'ed, a. 1. With the hand turned back- 
ward. 2. Indirect ; awkward ; insincere ; aaroaatic. 
S. Turned back, or inclining to the left. 

BacTpiao*' (-pis'), in. [Baek -^ piece, plate .] A 

- "-' '"^^•),J • .... 


piece, or plate, forming, or 


oorering, the back of anything : armor for tiie back. 

n Baollllinaah' ) (-ahSah^), n. [Pers. bakh^hUA, It. 

II Baok'aklak' l bakhMhldan to giro.] In Ecgrpt, 
•to., a gratuity ; a ** tip.'* 

BiMk'alda' (-aldOt n. The hinder part ; rear. 

Badk'allda' (-aHdO, v. i. [imp. Backblio (-aiTdO ; P- 
p, •auDDEM (-alTd'd'u), -auo \ p. pr. & vb. n. -aLinaia.] 
To alide back ; to apostatise. — Baok^alld'ar, n. 

Baok'BWOrd' (-aSrd'), n. A sword witli oue sharp edge. 

Baok'ward (-wSrd), ) adv. 1. With the back in ad- 

BaOk'Warda (-wSraa), I vance. 2. Toward the back. 
S. Toward, or in, nut time ; ago. 4. From a better to 
a worse state. 6. In a reverse manner or direction. 

BaidB^Ward, a. 1. Directed to the back or rear. 2. 
Unwilling; loath. 3. Not well advanced in learning; 
dull. 4. Late or behindhand. — Baok'wafd-lieaa, n. 

Batik'woada' (-wd6ds'), n. pi. The forests or partly 
cleared grounds on the frontiera. — Baok'WOOda'Diail, n. 

Ba'OOB (bi'k'n), n. [OF.; akin to E. back.^ The 
back and aidea of a pig salted and smoked. 

Bao-ta^-vm (UQc-ti'rT-am), n. [NL., fr. Or. 0<utTih 
ptov, pojtTpWt a staff.] A microscopic vegetable organ- 
lam, uauaily in the form of a jointed rodlike filament, 
found in putrefying orpranic infusiona. 

Bad (bid), a. [Compar. Worse ( wQrs) ; wperl. Worst 
(wQrst).] [Prob. fr. AS. to'<f</r/ hermaphrodite.] Want- 
ing good qualities ; hurtful ; offeusive ; painful ; unfavor- 
able ; evil ; vicious ; wicked ; — the opposite of good. 

Syn. — Pernicious ; deleterious ; noxious ; baneful : 
injurious ; hurtful ; evil ; vile ; wretched ; corrupt ; 
wicked; viciona; imperfect. 

Badaa (bij), n. [LL. bngea sif^n, prob. of Oerman ori- 
[in.] H diatinctive aign or cognisance ; a mark ; a token. 

Badg'ar (bSj'Sr), n. [OR. bagenrd, prob. fr. badge -f- 
-ard, ir. the white mark on its forehead.] A carnivo- 
rous burrowing animal. — v. t. To tease, as a badger 
when baited ; to worry persistently. 

II Ba'Ol'liasa' (bi'drniih' or bfidnr-ntj). n. [F., fr. 
badiner to joke.] Playful raillery ; banter. 

Badly, adv. In a bad manner ; poorly ; imperfectly ; 
grievously; disagreeably; aeriously. 

Bad'neaa, n. The state of heinf? bad. 

BafOa (bSf'fn). v. t. [of. beffler to mock, deceive.] 
To elude ; to foil ; to frustrate or defeat ; to thwart. 

Baff (big), n. [OF. bagve bundle, LL. bagn.-\ A sack 
or pouch. —V. /. 1. To put into a bag. 2. To capture. 
— r. i. To awell or hang down like a full bag. 

n Ba ganat* (M glnQ, n [F.] Sugar cane, aa it oomea 
crushed from the mill ; refuse of b^troot sugar. 

II Bac 'a-talla' (big^i-tino. n- [Pm ir. it. bagatella.} 
1. A trifle. 2. A game pUyed with balls and a rod on a 
board with holes at one end. 

Bac'gaffa (-gtj), n. [V. bagage^ fr. OF. bague. See 


Bag.] 1. The tenta, utanailt, and proviirioaaof aa mnaf. 
2. A traveler's trunka, etc ; luggage. 3. A woman of 
looae morals; a prostitute. 4. A romping, aancy girL 

Bac^glllC (big'sTng), n. 1. Cloth or other material for 
ban. 2. The putting anything into a bag. 3. A awelUng. 

Basnlo (bin'yft), n. lit. 6a^tto, fr.X. balneum bath.] 
A brotliel ; a house of prostitution. 

Bac'plpa (big'pip), n. A SootUah wind inatramait, 
conaiating of a leather bag, which reoeivea the air by a 
tube stopped by a valve, and three sounding pipea, into 
which air is preaaed. — Bag'plp'ar, n. 

Ball (bi), tnterj. An exclamation of extreme contempt. 

Ball (bil), n, [F. baiUe a bucket, pail.] A aooop 
used in bailing water. » v. t. 1. To dip and throw (wa- 
ter, etc.). 2. To lade water from. 

Ball, V. t. [OF. bailler to deliver, fr. L. bajulare to 
bear a burden, keep hi custody.] (o) To set free by be- 
coming security for the appearance of the person bailed. 
(b) To deliver (goods in trust) upon a contract that the 
trust shall be executed. -* fi. (a) One who becomes 
surety for a prisoner's appearance in courL (6) Security 
given for the appearance of a prisoner in court. 

BaO-bond. (a) A bond given by a prisoner and bis 
surety, to insure the prisoner's appearance in court. 
(6) Special bail in court to abide the judgment. 

Ball, n. rCf. Dan. boiU bend, hoop, akin to B. 6e«ff 
to beud.] 1. The arched handle of a kettle, psil, etc 
2. A bait hoop supporting the cover of a wagon, awning 
of a boat, etc. 3. The top or either of the two cross 
pieces of the wicket used in the game of cricket. 

Ball'a-Ua (-*-b*l), a. l. Having the right or privi- 
lege of being admitted to bail, upon bond with sureties. 
2. Admitting of bail. 3. That can be deUvered in trust. 

Ball'ea' (bills'), n. [OF. baiUi. See Bail to de- 
liver.] One to whom goods are committed in trust. 

Balllfl (biinff), M. [F. baiUi cuatodian, fr. L. bf^ulus 
porter. See Bail to deliver.] A sheriff's deputy. 

Balll-Wlok (-T-wTk),n. XBailif-^tvtck a village.] 
The limiU of a baiUff's authority. 

BalllBailt (-ment), n. 1. The bailing a person aoeuaed. 

2. A delivery oi gooda or money by one peraon to an- 
other in truat, for aome special purpose. 

Bangor' (bil'Or'). fi. One who delivers goods or 
roonev to another in trust. 

Bauna (btm), n. [AS. beam, fr. beran to bear, sap- 
port.] Scottiah name for a child. 

Bait (bit), ft. [AS. bat food.] 1. Any anbatanee, 
eap. food, used in catching fish, or other animals. 2. 
A lure : temptation. 3. Refreshment taken on a jour- 
ney; also, a stop for rest and ref reahment. — v. t. 1. 
To provoke and haraaa. 2. To feed upon the road. 

3. To furnish with bait, as a trap or book.— v. <. To 
stop for refreshment on a journey. 

Balaa ( bSx), n. [For bayes, pi. fr. OF. baie ; cf . F. box 
bay-colored.] A coarse woolen stuff with a Icng nM>. 

Baka (b£k), v.U&i. [AS. bacon : akin to Or. ^ir^w 
to roast.] 1. To prepare (food) by cooking in a dry 
heat. 2. To dry or harden (anvthinff) bv subjecting to 
heat. — n. The process, or result, of baking. 

Baka^uraaa^ (-hous'),n. A house for baking; a bakery. 

BalCar (bik'Sr), n. 1. One who bakes bread, Uaeuit, 
etc. 2. A portable oven in which baking is done 

Bak'ar-y, n. A place for baking bread ; a bakehouae. 

Bakftna, n. X. A cooking in an oven, or drying by 
heat or cold. 2. Quantity baked at once ; batch. 

Bal'anoa (Ua'ans), n. [F., fr. L. bUanxy bUancit, 
having two scales ; bi* twice -|- lanx plate, >cale.1 1. An 
apparatus for weighing. 2. A weighing mentally ; com- 
parison : estimate. 3. Equipoise; equilibrium; ateadi- 
ness. 4. Equality between the sums toUl of the two sides 
of an account ; excess on either side. 6. A balance wheel, 
of a watch, etc. 6. (n) The constellation lAbra, (fr) The 
7th sign in the Zodiac {Libra), which the sun enters at 
tlie September equinox. 7. A movement in dancing. 

a, S, I, o, O, long ; A, «, 1, 5, fi, ^, abort i aenftte, «vent, tdea, 6bey, nnite, oAra, Knn, 4ak, tU, final. 




Ittkaet ilint. paper ahowing balancM of open accoanto 
in % ouiineeB. — BelaoM whim, wheel in % chronometer, 
machine, ^c., to regulate ita motion ; fly wheeL 
—V. <. 1. To bring to an equipoiae; to weigh in a 
balance. 2. To aupport on a narrow base, so as to keep 
from falling. 8. To equal in number, weight, force, 
etc.; to counteract or neutralise. 4. To compare in 
relatiTC importance, value, etc.; to estimate. 6. To ad- 
Jnst (an account) ; to make (accounts) eoual by paying 
the difference between them. 6. To equalise (debits and 
credits) of an account. 7. In dancing, to move toward, 
and then from, reciprocally. 8. To contract (a sail) 
hito narrower compass. — v. i. 1. To hare eoual weight 
OD each aide. 2. To waver ; to hesitate. 3. In dancing, 
to move toward a person or couple, and then book. 

Syn. — To poise ; weigh ; adjust ; counteract ; neutral- 
ise ; equalize. 

Bal'00-ay (bS'kt-nj^), ». [It. balcort^..} A platform 
projecting from the wall of a building ; gallery. 

Bald (bftld)* <>• [OE. balUd, perh. p. p. ol baU to 
round like a ball.] 1. Destitute of natural covering, as 
of hair, feathers, foliage, etc. 2. Destitute of ornament ; 
bare; literal. 3. Undisguised. 

Bal'dA-^Un (bU'di-kln), «•. [LU baldaehinu*, fr. 
Bagdad, It. Baldacco, a city whence rich silks caroe.] 
A canopy. [Written also baldachUio, baldaquin, etc.] 

Bal'dar-dailb (bfll'dSr-d&sh), n. [Dan. balder noise 4- 
E. da*kJ\ 1. A worthless mixture, eep. of liquors. 2. 
Senseless Jargon ; trash. •• v. t. To adulterate (liquors). 

Bald'JMft^ (bftldOiSdO, ». 1. One whose head is bald, 
a. A white-headed pigeon. — Bald^aaA'«A, a. 

BtiWlj,adv. Nakedly; without reserve ; inelegantly. 

BtM'lliM,*!. The state of being bald. 

BalA^to' (-pif ), ft. 1. A baldheaded person. 2. 
The American widgeon. 

Bal'OllO (bfiKdrTk), n. [OHO. balderieh,} A broad 
belt, worn over one shoulder and under the opposite arm. 

Bait (UQ), n. [OF.] A bundle of goods corded for 
stonge or trannwrtation.-* r. t. To make up in a bale. 

Bua, 9. t, ' To bale, or lade. 

Bala, ft. [AS. bealo, balu.J Misery ; sorrow ; evil. 

BalaHra' C-fir")^ n. [AS. bifl/grAn of the funeral pile ; 
bSi flame -I- j^r, B.>fr0.] A signal fire; an alarm fire. 

BaleW (-fyl), a. [See Bali misery.] FuU of 
deadly influence ; destructive ; woeful ; sad. 

il Ba-lUa' (bA-UiO, ». [P.] Pole raised as a beacon. 

Balk (bftk), n. [AS. baloa beam, ridge ; cf. Oael. 
bale ridge of earth between furrows.] 1. An unplowed 
ridge of land. 2. A great timber ; tie-beam. 3. A hin- 
dnuioe or check. 4. An obstinate stop; failure. — v. t. 
To leave untouched in {dowing ; to frustrate ; to thwart. 
— F. i. To stand obstinately ; to stop short. 

B^kflr (bnk^). a. Apt to balk ; obstinate. 

Ball (W), n. [0.1 1 A round mass. 2. A game of 
throwfaig, kicking, or knocking, a baU. 2. A projectile of 
lead or ^on ; buUet. — v. t. Sti, To form into balls. 

Ball, n. [F. bal, fr. OF. baler to dance, LL. ballare.^ 
A social assembly for dancing. 

BalOaa (bSll4Ml), n. [F. ballade.} A narrative poem, 
for recitation or singing ; a short sentimental poem. 

Bal'last(Uanast),n. [D.] l. Weight put into a ves- 
sel to steady it. 2. (iravel, stone, etc., laid in the bed of 
a railroad to make it solid. 3. Anything that gives 
steadiness and security. — v. t. 
To load with ballast ; to steady ; 
to solidify. 

iiBalOaf (bnoto, n. [F., 

dim. of bal dance.] A theatrical 
dance ; the company who per- 
form it. 

iBal-Uata (bU-iTs'ti), ». 
[L., fr. Gr. fid^Mu^ to throw.] ^^^ ^ j ^^^^^^ 
An ancient military engine, in ««u»w- 

the form of a crowkbow, used for hurling large missiles. 

Bal-Uatlo (bU-ITs'tTk), a, 1. Pertahiing to tbe bal- 
lista, or to the hurling missile weapons. 2. rertainiag to 
projection, or to a projectile. 

Bal-loon' (-IS&nO, n. [F. ballon, aug. of balle balL] 
1. A bag of Ught material, filled with — 

hydrogen gas or heated air, so as to 
riae and fioat in the atmoephere. 2. 
A round chemical vessel, to hold what- 
ever is distiUed. — r. i. 1. To go 
up in a balloon. 2. To expand like 
a balloon. — Bal-loonllt, n. 

Baiaot (biiaat), n. [F. balloUe.] 
1. A ball or ticket used for secret vot- 
ing. 2. System of votfaigsecreUy. 3. 
Number of votes cast. —r.i. To vote. 

Ballot box, box to receive baUots. yj^ 

Balm (bam), fi. [OF. batume, w 
barme, L. bal*amum balsam, from Or. ^ - -. -- -^ 

/SoAvofMr.] 1. An aromatic plant. 2. BallooB. 

The exudation of certain trees. 3. A 
fragrant ointment. 4. Anything that mitigates pain. 

Bal-moi'al (bSl-mSr'al), n. [Fr. Balmoral CasUe, in 
Scotland.] 1. A woolen petticoat. 2. A walking shoe. 

Balm'y (bam^), a. Producing, or like, balm ; aro- 
matic ; soothing ; refreshing ; mild. 

Bal'aaa (bul'som), n. [L. 6of«atniim the balsam tree 
or its rmrfn. Or. /MAaofMw.] 1. A resin containing es- 
sential or volatile oil. 2. (o) A species of fir tree. (6) 
An annual garden plant. 3. Anything that heala. — 

Bal-aamlo (b]|i-sSinTk or bu-), Bal-aamlo-aL a. 

Bal1ia-t«r (bU'lis-tSr), n. [L. balauttium flower of 
the pomegranate ; named fr. the form.] A small column 
used as a support of a railing. [Corrupted into banister,'] 

Ballia-tnida' (-tridO, n. [F.] A row of balusters 
topped by a rail. 

II Bam-llI'llO (bKm-bS'nft), n. [It., little boy.] Baby; 
representation of the infant Christ In swaddling clothes. 

Bam-lMNK (bSm-bSSOf ^' [Malay bambu, mambu.l 
A lam tropical plant of the Grass family, used for build- 
ing, furniture, water pipes, etc., also for walking sticks, 
flutes, etc. — r. /. To nog with the bamboo. 

Baill-bOO^e(-sn),r./. [(K Gipsy origin.] To deceive 
by trickery ; to humbug. — Bam-bOO'Bar, n. 

II Ban (bin), n. A kind of fine muslin, made in the 
East Indies from the fiber of the banana leaf stalks. 

Ban, n. [AS. bann command, edict.] 1. A puUlc 
proclamation or edict. 2. pi* Notice of a proposed mar- 
riage, prochUmed in church. See Bahhs (the common 
spelling). 3. An interdiction, prohibition, curse, or 
anathema. — >r. f. To curse ; to forbid ; to interdict. 

Ba-nalia (bft-nK'nA), n. [8p.] A perennUl herb^ 
oeous plant ; also, its fruit, having a pulp soft and of lus- 
cious taste, eaten either raw or cooked. 

Band (bSttd), n. [IceL ; akin to O. band, and S. 
bend, Mm/.] 1. Anything that binds ; a fetter. 2. An 
architectural molding. 3. A union ; a tie. 4. A com- 
pany of armed men, musicians, etc. —v. t. &i, 1. To 
unite with, or in, a band. 2. To confederate. 

Band'aca (bSnd^i), n. [F.] A fillet or strip of 
woven material used in binding up wounds ; a ligatiire. 
— > V. t To bind or cover with a bandage. 

Ban-dan'na ) (bSn-dSn'A), n. [Hind. bandhnU a mode 

Ban-dan'a .) of dyeing.] 1. A figured silk or cotton 
handkerchief. 2. A mode of printing calico chemically. 

BandlMZ' (bSnd'bSks/), n. A light box for holding 
ruffs (the bands of the 17th centnryV caps, bonnets, etc. 

Ban'di-OOOt (bSnMT-k5dt>, n. [Corrup. of native 

name.] (a) A large rat of IndU and Ceylon. 
r»clike marsupial, of Australia and Tasmania. 

(ft) A 

Ban'dlt (-dTt), n. ; pi. BAMorrs (-dTts), or BAMDrm 
(^ITf tT). [It. bandito outlaw, p. p. of bandire to banish, 
to proscribe. See Bax.] An outlaw ; a brigand. 

Ban'dOf' (-dSff'), n. [Band 4- dog, i. e., bound dog.] 
A large and fierce dog, usually kept chained up. 

fim, recent, ftrb^ ni^ 'V^ ^'^ food, ftfbC, ont, oil, ehair, go, ains, iQk, then, tlila. 





Ban'dO-lMT', BaifOo-UMr' (UnM^-ISr'), n. [F. ban- 
doulUre^ fr. bande band.] A soldier's leather shoulder 
belt (or holding cartridges. 

Ban'dore (Ma'd5r or bSii-d5r'), n, [8p. handurria. 
It. L. pmndwa a musical instrument, fr. Or. iroydovpa.j 
A muMcal stringed instrument, resembling a guitar. 

Ban'dy (bluMj^), n. [Of. F. htmuU, p. p. of handmr 
to bend (a bow), to bandy, fr. bande. Bee Bahd.] 1. 
A club bent at the lower part for striking a ball at play. 
2. The game played with such a club ; hockey ; shinuey. 
—V. t. 1. To beat (a ball, words, etc.) to and fro. 2. 
To give and receive reciprocally ; to exchange. — a. 
Bent ; crooked ; curved with the convex side outward. 

Bail'dy-l«Cged' OrlSgd'}, a. Having crooked legs. 

Ban0 (bau)/n. \hA. bona murderer; akin to Or. 
^6yof murder.] 1. A cause of ruin or lasting injury ; 
woe. 2* A disease in sheep, commonly termed the fvt. 

Syn. — Poison : ruin ; destructioo ; injury ; pest. 

Banttnl (-f Vl)i a* Deadlv ; noxious ; pernicious. — 

Baoe'tiil-lTt adv. — BaneW-atM, n. 

Banc (bang), v. i, [IceL banga to hammer.] 1. To 
beat, as with a club ; to handle roughly. 2. To thump, 
or to strike (something) against another object, with loud 
noise. ••«. i. To make a loud noise, as It with a blow. 
— >n. 1. A heavy blow. 2. Noisy concussion. 

Banc, V' t. To out (a horse's tail, etc.) squarely 
aoroes. — n. The short, front hair combed down over the 
forehead, esp. when cut squarely across. 

:, BanglM (bXug), n. Bhang. 

g6 (biB'«'l)» »• [Hind, bangri.) 
D (bAn^an or bSn-ySu'), n. [I 

n'gle (WJs'g'l), n. [Hind, bangri.} A bracelet. 

Ban'lim (bAn^an or bSn-ySu'), n. [Skr. banij mer- 
chant. The tree was so named b^ the English, because 
used as a market place.] 1. A Hindoo merchant, cash- 
ier, or money changer. 2. A man's loose gown. 3. 
The Indian flg. [Written also banyan.] 

Bftnlsh (Mn'Ish), V. t. [OF. 6antr, LL. bannire^ fr. 
OHO. ban ban.] To exile ; to drive away ; to dispel. 

Byn. — To Bakish ; Exilb ; Expel.— A man is banished 
when forced by the goverumauc of a country to leave its I 
borders. He ueiUen when driven into banishment 
his native country. To expel is to eject or banish sum- 
marily, and usually under circumstances of didgrAce. 

BanrlSll'OIOllt, n. A banishing or bein^ bouiabed. 

Syn. — Expatriation ; ostracism ; expulsion ; proscrip- 
tion : exile ; outlawry. 

Banlv-tMr (-Ts-tSr), n. [Corrup. of baltuter.} A biU- 
uster ; (pi.) the balustrade of a stAirca«e. 

Ban'lo H^), n. [Corrup. of bamtore.} A stringed 
instrument resembliuff both guitar and tambourine. 

Bank (bigk), n. [ Akin to bench. ] 1. A ridge of earth . 
2. A steep acclivity. 3. Mir^iu of a lake, river, sea, or 
oth'ir hoUow. 4. An elevation under tha sea ; a shoal, 
shelf, or shallow. 6. A deposit o( ore or coal.— v. t. To 
raise a mound or dike about ; to embank. 

Bank, n. [Prob. fr. F. banc, and akin to E. bench.] 
X. A bench (for rowers in a galley, judges in a court, 
etc.) ; a tier of oars. 2. Tlie regular term of a court of 
law, or the full court sitting to hear arguments. 3. A 
bench, or row of keys, in an organ. 

Bank, n. [it. banca^ orig., counter, akin to B. bench.] , 

1. A place for custody, loan, exchange, or issue, of monny. I 

2. A fund. — r. /. To deposit in a bank. — r. t. 1. To 
keep a bank. 2. To deposit moneV in a bank. 

Bank Mil. Bank note, a note issuea by a bank, and paya- 
ble on demand. — Bank credit, a credit by which one may 
draw upon a bank to a certain extent agreed upon. 
Bank'a-llle (-i-bn), a. Receivable at a bank. | 

Bank'ar, n. l. One engaged in banking. 2. The 
dealer, or one keeping the bank in a gambling house. | 
BaiAillg, n. The business of a bank or of a banker. I 
BankYni^ (-rQpt), n. [F. bangueronte^ fr. It. bancn- 
banca -f- roUa broken, fr. L. rumprre, 
One unable to pay his debts.^ a. In- 
m'kke bankrupt ; to ruin flnancially ; 
to impoverish. — Bink'mpt-oy, n. 

rotia bankruptcy ; ba 
rtip/ttin, to breakj C 
solvent. — r. ^ To r 

Ban'ner (hin'nJr), w. [F. banniirr, bandiire^ fr. 
LL. banei-iii^ btmderui^ ir. bautium banner. Bee Band.] 
A uiiiitary eubigu ; a nag or standard. 

Banliar-^t G^t), n. [F.] 1. Orig., a knight orho 
led his vassals into the field under his own banner. S. 
An order of knighthood ; one bearing such title or rank. 

Ban'nook (-n&k), n. [Oael. bonnach.} A Soottiah 
cake of oatmeal or barley, baked on a griddle. 

Banns (bins), n. pi. [See Bam command.] Publie 
notice of a proposed marriage. 

Ban'qnat (bigncwet), n. [F., a feast, prop, a dim. of 
bane bench.] A feast ; an entertainment. — r. t. & u 
[Bamqubtsd ; Bakquktiho.] To feast. 

Ban^vettO'(bt&-k6tO,n. [F.] l. A raised way alonff 
the inside of a parapet. 2. A narrow window seat. 

Ban'sheo, Ban'ahto (bKn'shi), n. [OaeL beanskitk 
fairy ; bean woman -|- sith fairy.] An Irish and Scotch 
fairy, supposed to give warning of speedy death. 

Bantam (-tam), «. A smaU barnyard fowl, with 
feathered legs, probably brought from Bantam, in Jav». 

Banter (WSnOgr), r. L [Prob. corrup. fr. F. badiner 
to joke, or perh. fr. E. bandg to beat to and fro.] To 
ridicule ; to rally. — n. Humorous raillery ; pleasantry. 

Bantlinff (MntlTug), n. [Prob. for bcndling child 
in swaddling bauds.] A small child ; an infant. 

Ban'yan (bkn'yon or bSn-ySn'), «i. [See Bahiajt.] 

The Indian fig, a tree ' " ' 

whose branches take 
root and become addi- 
tional trunks, often cov- 
ering several acres. 

Ba'o-hab (bS'«-bSb), 
n. [Native name.] A 
gigantic African tree, 
naturalized in India. 

Bap'tlsm ((>Xp'- 

tls'm), n. [Or. pdim- 
Cfta^ fr. fiatrrC^tw to 
baptize, fr. fidwrtuf to 
dip in water.] A bap- 
tizing ; application o f 
water to a person, as a 
religious ceremony, initiating him Into the tlslble dmrcb 
of Clirist. — Bap-tlB'UHa (-tTz'-), B»-tto'tlO (-tl^-), a. 

Bap'tlat (-tTst), n. [L. baptUta.Qr. fiavrurn^.} 1. 
One who administers baptism ; esp.. John, the furenumer 
of Christ. 2. One of a denomination of Christisna who 
deny tlie validity of infant baptism and of sprinkling, 
and maintahi that baptism diould be administered to be- 
lievers alone, and should be by immersion. 

Bap'tiB-tcr-y (-tTs-tSr-]^), Bap^try, n. Put of a 
church containing a font for baptismal services. 

Bap-tlse' (-^0« *'• t- [Or. fiawri^tir.] To admfaiia- 
ter the sacrament of baptiun to ; to christen ; to name. 

Bar (bXr), n. [LL. barra.] 1. A piece of wood, metal, 
etc., used as a lever, or for hindering or fastening. 2. A 
substance long in proportion to its breadth and thick- 
npss. 3. An obstruction ; a barrier. 4. A bank of saad, 
etc.. obstructing navigaUon. 6. (a) Railing inoloainff 
the place which counsel occupy in courts of Justloe. (6) 
Place in court where prisoners are stationed, {e) Tbo 
whole body of lawyers licensed in a court or diatrici ; tha 
legal profession, (d) A plea defeating a plaintifTs ae^oo. 
6. A counter, over which liquors and food are passed 
to customers. 7. A division of the staff in music. — r. t 
1. To fasten with a bar. 2. To j^easQ,^ Ifsaauie. 

confine ; to prohibit. 3. To ex- 

elude by exception. 4. To cross 
with stripes or lines. 

Banyan Tree. 

Bart) (barb), n. [F. >irftc, fr. ^'• 
L. bnrba beard.] 1. 

Bar. Double bar. 

J _. Beard,' or that which resembles it. 

2. The point that stands backward in an arrow, fishhook, 
etc. 3. A brittle of a plant, endinc in a donble hook. — e. 
t. To fumiBh (an arrow, fishhook, spear, etc.) with barbs. 

fi, e, 1, 5, n, long : ». i». T, ft, rt, J, short ; senAte, dvent, tdea, 6bey, <knite, cftre, llrm, Ask, nil, CaaL 




Bub(bXrb),ii. [V. barbe, fr. Barbarie.} I. Amporior 
breed of horses introduced from Barbary iiito Spain by the 
Moors. 2. A rariety of pigeon, originally from Barbary. 

BirHM-oan (bar'bA-k&n), n. Barbican. 

Bir-l»a'rt-aB (-ba'rT-<ni), n. [SeeBARBASOus.] 1. A 
man in a rude or unciviliied state. 2. One destitute of 
culture. 3. A brutal man ; one destitute of pity or 
humanity. •* a. Rude; uucivilixed; barbarous. 

Bar-lMUrl0 (-bSrOTk), a. [L. barbaricus foreign, bar- 
baric, Or. fiappapiK6t.] 1. Of, or from, barbarian na- 
tions ; foreign. 2. Barbarous ; destitute of refinement 

BarHMl-llilll (-b4-rTx'm), n. 1. An uncivilized con- 
dition ; rudeness of manners ; ignorance of arts, learning, 
and literature. 2. A brutal action ; an outrage. 3. An 
offense against purity of style or language. See Solicbii . 

BarHMl-ltm (-rii), v. i. 1. To become barbarous. 2. 
To use barbarous speech. — v. t. To make barbarous. 

Btt^ba-rons (-rfis), a. [Or. /iapfiapof strange, for- 
eign ; later, slavish, rude, irnorant.] 1. Being in the state 
of a barbarian ; unciTilized ; rude ; peopled with barba- 
rians. 2. Cruel; ferocious; inhunum; merciless. 3. 
Contrary to the pare idioms of a language. — BaiHMi- 
ioi»-iura,Bar-lMrl-ty (-bftr^-t^). n. 

8yii. — UnciTilized ; unlettered : uncultivated ; untu- 
tored ; ignorant ; merciless ; brutol. See Fskocious. 

BaiOMte (-btt), a. [L. barbatuty fr. barba beard.] 
Bearded ; beset with long and weak hairs. 

BarniM-Clie (-b^kn), n. [In the Luiguage of Indians 
of Ouiana, a frame for roasting or drying fish, etc.] 1. A 
large animal roasted whole. 2. An outdoor entertain- 
ment, where animals are roasted. 3. A floor, on which 
coiTee beans are sun-dried. — v. ^ 1. To dry or cure on 
a frame or gridiron. 2. To roast whole, as an ox or hog. 

Bar'lMl (-bR), n. [OF. ; F. barbeau ; dim. of L. bar- 
bus barbel, fr. 
barba beard.] 1. 
A alender tactile 
organ on the lips 
of certain flahes. 
2. Alargeflahof 
European rirers. 
Its upper jaw is 
furnished with Barbel 

four barbels. 

Barl»flr (-bSr), n. [F. barbier.} One who shaTOS the 
beard, cuts the hair of his patrons, etc. 

Barl»flr-r7 (-bfir-ry), n. [OF. berbere.} A shrubby 
plant, whose bark dyesa fine yellow. [Also spelt berberry. ] 

BaiHMt (b&/b6t), n. [F., fr. barbe beard.l (a) A var 
rlety of small dog, having long curly hair. 0>) A bird of 
tropical America and Africa, allied to the Cuckoos, and 
beuded with fire bunches of stiff bristles ; the puff bird, 
(c) A lanra that feeds on aphides. 

Bar-betto' (bar-b8t0, n. [F.] A mound in a fortifica- 
tion, supporting guns to fire over the parapet. 

BarOli-OUl (biLrn>T-kSu), Baznia-oan (bi-kSn), n. 
1. An advanced work defending the entrance to a castle 
or city. 2. Opening in the wall of a fortress, through 
which to fire missiles. 

Bard (bird), n. rCeltic] 1. A professional singer 
among the ancient Celts. 2. A poet. — Bardio, n. 

Ban(bdr),a. [AS. tor.] 1. Without clothes or cot- 
erinff ; naked. 2. Open to view ; exposed. 3. Plain ; 
unadorned; bald; meager. 4. Destitute; empty; un- 
furnished. 6. Here; idone.— r. /. To strip. 

Barataoad' (bftr'fistOt a. 1. With the face uncov- 
ered ; not masked. 2. Without concealment ; undis- 
guised ; audacious. — Barofaoedly. adv. 

BanilOOt (-fd6t) , a. & adv. With the feet bare ; with- 
out shoes or stockings. — Baratoot'ad, a. 

H Barrtfga^ (b&-rizhOt n. [F., fr. Bareges, a town in 
the Pyrenees. J A gauselike dress fabric. 

BaraOiMid'ad (bftrHiSd/Sd), Baraliead, a. a adv. 

Having the head uncovered. 

Baraleggad' (bfirn^dO, a. Having the legs bare. 

Baraly, adv. l. without covering; nakedly. S. 
Without disguise. 3. Merely ; only. 4. But Just ; with 
nothing to spare (of quantity, time, etcO ; scarcely. 

Bar'gatn (ui&r'gfti), n. [Perh. fr. LL. barea boat; 
hence, to traffic] 1. An agreement concerning the 
sale of property ; a mutual pledge. 2. A purchMe ; a 
gainful transaction. 3. A thiugstipulated or purchased ; 
auythmg bought cheap. — i*. i. To make a bargain. — r. /. 
To barter ; to trade. 

Syn* — Contract : stipulation ; purchase ; engagement. 

Bar'taln-ar (-Sr), n. One who makes a bargain ; — 
sometimes iu tlie sense of bargainor. 

Bar-galn-er' (-dr'), n. One who makes a legal bar- 
giUn, or contracts witli another, esp. to sell property. 

Blarge (b&rj), n. [OF., fr. LL. barea, prob. fr. L. 
barU an Egyptian rowboat.] 1. A pleasure boat. 2. A 
large boat to convey passengers or goods. 3. A large 
omnibus for excursions. ILocal, U. S.'\ 

Barga^man (b&rj'iuan), n. Tlie man who manages a 
barge, or one of the crew of a barge. 

Ba-rUla (bi-rmi), n. [Sp. frarri/to.] 1. A seashore 
plant, whose ashes yi^ld soda. 2. Impure soda carbonate. 

Baltte (bi'rit), n. Native sulphate of barium, a 
mineral of high specific gravity, often called heavy »par, 

Barl-tone (bSra-tSn), a. & n. Barytone. 

Ba'rt-um (bS^rT-Om), n. [NL., fr. Or. fiap^ heavy.] 
A chemical element ; a metal of silver-white color, melt- 
ing at a very high temperature. Its oxide is called 
baryta. [Rarely written barylum.'] 

Baik (biirk), n. [Akin to Dan. & Sw. bark.'\ The 
exterior covering of a tree. — r. /. 1. To strip the bark 
from; to peel. 2. To girdle. 3. To cover with bark. 

Bazk, V. i. [AS. beorcan; prob. akin to E. break."] 

1. To make a short, loud, explosive vocal noise ; — said 
of dogs, et«. 2. To clamor, ^n. The sound uttered by 
a dog and by some other animali*. 

Ltik, Barqno (bark), n. [F. barque, fr. 8p. or It. 
barea, fr. LL. bfirca for 
barica. See Bahoi.] 1. 
Formerlv, any small sailing 
vessel, also, a rowing boat. 

2. A three-masted vessel, 
having her foremast and 
mainmast square - rigged, 
and her mizzenmast 

Barley (barny),n. [AS. 
bstrlic; Sere barley -f- lie 
(prob. same as E. like)^ 
A grain used for food, and Bark, 

for making malt. 

Barlay-oom' (-kdny), n. 1. A grain or ^oom*' of 
barley. 2. An old measure of length, l-3d of aa inch. 

Barm (bimi), n. [AS. beorma; prob. akin toL./er- 
mentutn.l Foam upon fermenting mnlt liquora, used 
as leaven in making bread and in brewing ; veast. 

Barm'y, a. Full of barm or froth ; in a ferment. 

Bam (biim), n. [AS. bem ; bere barley -f em, mm, 
a close place.] A building for storing grain, hay, etc. 

Bar^na-Cle (bar^n&-k*l), n. [Perh. fr. LL. bertuieula 
for pemacula, dim. of pema ham, sea mussel.] Any 
cimped crustacean adhering to rocks, floating timber, 
ships, etc. 

Barlia-Ole, n. A bemicle gooee. 

Bar'na-Ole, n. [OF. bemac, and Prov. F. bemiqttes, 
spectacles.] 1. pi. An instrument for pinching a horse^s 
nose, and thus restraining him. 2. pi. Spectacles; — 
so called as resembling barnacles. \Cant, Eng.} 

Ba-rom'a-tor (bA-r5m'*-t8r). n. [Or. fiapot weight -|- 
-meler.} An instrument for determining the weight or 
pressure of the atmosphere, thus indicating probable 
changes of weather, or the height of any ascent. — Bar'O- 
mat'rlo (bSr'ft-mSt'rlk), BaTO-llMt'llO-al, a. 

S9n, rooant, Orb, r^de, f ^ Ikm, food, IcTot, out, oU, cliair, ko» «i^Bt UA then, thin. 




K«(blHliB),fi. [pF.;«]d]itoK.6Mrto 
- bUity; InFrMi 
u«zt la rank below % count ; in Englmnd, it nobtenuu of 

A title of nobility ; In rrenoe and 0«rmaay, % 

the loweit grade in the Houae of Lorda. 
Btr'M-Af* (-tj)i n. 1. The whole body of barona or 
S. The rank of a baron. 

l(-Sa), ft. A baron*a wife ; alio, a lady who 
holda the baronial titie in her own right. 

Bar'M-M (-^It), n, A dignity next below a baron and 
above a knight, the lowest hereditary degree of honor. 

Btr^M-M-AgvC-tJ),!!. 1. Rank of a baronet. 2. The 
collective bodv of baronets. 

BWO-UJ C-^-nf ), A. The fee or domain of a baron ; 
tank of a baron. — Bft-nKBl-al (bi-rS'nT-al), a. 

BVO^OOpo (-akSp), fi. [Or. pdpot weiffht + ••eope.} 
An inatruroent ahowiiig changes in the weight of the at- 
moaphere, or Indicating changes of the weather. 

Ba-loaOlM' (bA-rm/), n. [O. baruUche, LL. barro- 
thtm, f r. L. biroius two-wheeled ;bir=zMt twice -f- rota 
wheeL] A four-wheeled carriage, with a falling top, 
and two double seats on the Inside. 

Btram (blirk), fi. A bark (vessel). 

BarTtAk (bir'rak), n. [F. baroque^ fr. LL. barra 
bar.] 1. A building for scddiers, esp. when in garrison ; 
— commonly in pi. %, In the United States, a movable 
roof sliding <m four posts, to cover hay, straw, etc — 
v.t.&i. To live or lodge in barracks. 

Bai^Vft-OOOB' (•rA-kS&n'), n. [Bp. or Pg. barraea. See 
Bariack.1 a slave warehouse. 

Bum-tor (-tSr), n. [OF. baraUor deceiver, fr. bara- 
ter to deceive, cheat, barter.] One guilty of barratry. 

Barm-try (-trj^)i *»• [F. baraterU.'[ 1. Encourage- 
ment of lairauits and quarrels. 2. Fraud of a master or 
crew of a ship against the owner of the ship or cargo. — 
«__^_ -IWBI (-trfis), a. 

I (-ra}, n. [F. baril, prob. fr. barre bar. Cf. 
BAauoADB.] 1. A round vessel, bulging in the middle, 
made of staves bound with hoope, and hisving fli^ ends 
or heads. 2. The quantity contained in a full barrel. 

3. A drum, cylinder, or case, in a watch, windlasa, etc. 

4. A metallic tube, as of a gun, from which a projectile 
Is discharged. 6. The hollow basal part of a feather. * 
V. t, [Babulsd (-rind), or Baebbllbd ; Bamuelimo, or 
Bambluho.] To put or pack in barrels. 

Btrmn (-rvn), a. [OF. brehainmA 1. Incapable of 
producing offspring; sterile. 2. Not producing useful 
vtegetaticn. 9. Unproductive ; empty. 4. Hentally dull ; 
■tnpUL— n. I. A tract of barren land. 2. pi. Elevated 
plains producing small trees, but not timber. — Btrma- 

ly, otfp. — B«imB-iMM« n. 

Bar'li-oallt' (-rT-kidOt n. [F., fr. Bp. barricada, orig., 
a barring up with casks, fr. barriia cask.] 1. A forti- 
fication, made In haste, to obstruct the progress of an en- 
emy. 2. An obstruction. *ff. I. To forWy with barri- 
cades ; to stop up (a passage) ; to obstruct. 

BaMl-Ot'dO (-krift), n. A V. I. Barricade. 

Bar^-tr (bIr'rI.Jr), n. [F. banrihre, fr. barre bar.] 
1. An obstacle made In a passage to stop an enemv. 2. 
A fortress on the frontier of a country, commanding an 
avenue of approach. 3. pi. A fence to mark the limits 
of a place, or to keep back a crowd. 4. Any obstruc- 
tion, limit, or boundarr. 

BaimihtMr (-rTs-tSr), n. [From Bae, n.] A coun- 
selor Qualified to plead at the bar. 

Bvrnou^ (bVr'rSbm'), n. A room containing a bar 
or counter at which liquors are sold. 

Barmw (bir'rd). n. [AS. 6eraii to bear.] A support 
having handlea, and with or without a wheel, on which 
heavy or bulky things can be transported by hand. 

Barmw.A. lAS.bearg.'l A male hog castrated. 

Barmw, n. [AB. beorg hill.] A mound raised over 
the remains of the dead ; a tumulus. 

Bar'tar (bXr'tJr), v. i. A t. [OF. barater, bareter, to 
cheat, exchange. Cf. BAftBATX>B.] To traffic by exchan- 

ghig OM eounodlty tor another ; to track, mm %, ] 
change of coaunoditiea. — Bar'lar-tr, n, 

Syn. — Exchange ; dealing ; traffic ; trade ; track. 

Ba-rym (bA-rFU), «. rOr. /SciAvv bea^.1 An a 
of barium (or barytum). —Ba-rytlO (bi^rf tOk). a. 

Ba-iy'taa (-tSs), n. Barium sulphate ; barite. 

Bar^-tona, Bandana (bftr^-usn), a. [Or. 
TOMf ; fitfvt heavy -f- vbroc tone.] 1. Grave and deep' in 
sound. 2. In Greek grammar, not marked with an ac- 
cent on the bwt svllaUe, the grave accent being under- 
stood. —A. 1. {a) A male voice, whoee compass is be- 
tween bass and tenor. (6) One having a voice of such 
range. 2. A Greek word havimr no accent marked on 
the last syllable. 

Ba-nr'tm (bA-ri'tum), fi. [NL.] Barium. 

Ba'aal (bTsal), o. ReUting to, or forming, the base. 

Ba-aalt' (bMUt^, n. [L. btuaUes.} 1. A rock of 
Igneous origin, very hard, and usually ox a greeniah black 
color. 2. A kind of black porceUin. — Ba4HlItlo, a. 

OBaa' Uatt' (bK^ blS'), «i. [F., fr. b<u stocking -f- 
bleu blue.] A bluestocking ; a literary woman. 

Baaa (baa), a. [F. bas low, fr. LL. basnu thick, fkt, 
short, humble. Cf. Bass a part in music] 1. Of hum- 
ble birth ; of low degree. 2. Of littie comparative value, 
as metal inferior to the precious metals. S. Alloyed ; 
dcV— > 4. Morally low; ignoble. 6. Deep or grave 
m -< f V r < J . [In this sense, commonly written bau.l 

- Bass ; Vilb : Mbam ; dishonorable ; worihless ; 


m- ■' - 



fO»;ini ,j 

piece of fumUure. CTfiat ex- 
tremity of a leaf, fruit, etc., at 
which It la attached to its sup- 
port. 6. The principal chem- . 
leal element, or chief Ingredl- Jg 
ent, in a compound. 6. Alow, /^a 

. abject: infamous: sordid; degraded. — ^/te 
high degree of moral turpitude ; vile and m»m 
ant of what is worthy of esteem. What Is base 
btaorrence ; what is rile provokes disgust or in- 
1 ; what is mean awakens contempt. 

, s. [F. ; Gr. fiwit a stepping, step, pedestal, fr. 

Eo go.1 1. The bottom of anything; support; 
m. 2. The essential part of a thing ; gronnd- 

J. The lowerpart of a wall, pier, oolumn, or 


BsM, called » Attic baM.** 
y Plinth ( a Lower torus : 
6 Upper toruai c 8ooti«t 
/// rnieu. M Sluft, 
fluted, with fllleU between 

or deep, sound ; in music, the 
lowest part ; the deepest male 
voice. [Now commonly writ- 
ten bass.} 7. The starting 
re or goal in various games. 
In baseball, one of the 
four bounds marking the cir- 
cuit of the Infield. » v. f. To 
put on a base or basis ; to found (an argument or oondii- 
sion) on or upon. 

BaaaOiall' (-bftlO« "• 1- A nme of ball, having four 
bases, designating the circuit for each player to make 
after striking the ball. 2. Tlie ball used in this game. 

BaaatMm' (-bdmO* a. 1. Born out of wedlock. 2. 
Bom of low parentage. 

Baaa^laaafO. Without a base; having no foundation. 

Baaa'ly(basnj^),a(fr. in a base manner; shamefully. 

:, nT If. toubas^ment.l The outer wall of 
the ground story of a buildhig ; rooms of a groiuid fioor. 

Baae'naaa, n. Degradation ; vileness. 

Ba-ahaw' (b4-sh}/l, n. [Bee PasraJ 1. A Turkish 
title of honor, now written pasha. 2. A magnate or 
grandee. 3. A very large sllurold fish Of the Mississippi 
valley ; — also callea ootoVm, mud cat^ and yeilote eat. 

Baahfol (bSsh'fvl), a. [See Ababb.] ExceMively 
modest ; dispoeed to tiirink from notice ; shy. 

Baahffnl-naaa, n The being bashful. 

8yn. — Bashtulkcss ; Modistt: DimntircB; Brt- 
NBS8 : reserve ; slieepishnen. — Modesty arises from a low 
estimate of ourselves ; bash/ulnets is on aftashmenf or agi- 
tation at coming into contact with others : diflidence is 
produced by undue self-distrust : shyness usually arises 

ft, 8, 1, 5, a, hmg ; ft, «, 1, 5, a, j^, abort ; aanftte, a vant, Idea, 6bey, lUdte, oftre, ftrm, ftak, §11, finoL 




from elfiiriT> lelf •eooadoooieM, and a fwinfol impre** 
iioo that •renrone ia looking at ua. 

OBaahl-teHMak' (l>lahT.b4-s65ka n. [Turkiah, a 
fooliah fellow.] On« of th« Irregular Turkiah troops. 

Ba'iIo (bTaTk), o. 1. (a) Relating to a chemical 
base, (b) HaTing the baae in ezceaa, or exceeding in 
proporooD that of the related neutral salt. (0) Appar- 
ent^ alkaline. 2. Said of cryatalline rocka which con- 
tain a relatlvelr low percentage of aiUca, aa baaalt. 

BaftAff (Wa-n), V, t. To couTort into a aalifiable 

BsEBL.] Theangle to which 

I ia grouiuL- 

To grind 

base. — B«'ll-fi<er,n 

Baa^ (bfaai), n. [Cf. 

the cutting edge of a t 
the edge of to an ang^e. 

BmOI, n. [F. basilie, fr. L. batUieiu royal. Or. ^a- 
vtAuctfv, f r. fiavtXMvt king.] A name for aeveral aromatic 
herbs of the Mint family. 

BaafUt n. TLL. basaniumt fr. Ar. bUhSna^ prop.) 

Uning.] The aUn of a aheep tanned with bark. 
BiHUW* (b4.«TKTk), «. '" • ••• ^ -* 

Ba-«lllo, BtHril'tn^ a. 

Ba-aU1-0ft (-T-kA), n. [L. 
fr. fiavdumit royal, fr. fiatnXtik king.] 

[F. batUioue.l 
Royal ; kingly. 


^oatAuny (so. ourui), 
... j] 1- Originally, a 

king*a palace ; hence, a Urge hall used for dispenaing 
Justice, a. A church or cathedral. — BA-flUI-Otn, a. 

\i Ba-flDl-OOn (-k5n), n. [U] Ointment composed 
of wax, pitch, resin, and olive oih lard, etc. 

Basl-ltt (bScTT-lTak), n, [Or. PwJdnot UtUe 
ains, kind of serpent, 
having crown-like prom- 
inences on its head.] 
1. A fabulous serpent, 
of which the ancients 
aOeged that iU hisaiug 
would drive awav other 
serpents, and that its 
breath and look were 
fataL a. Alisardofthe 
Iguana kind. 

6oeM, LLb baecMHus^ fr. baeea a water vesseLI 1. A 
hoUow vessel, dish, or pool ; a pond ; a dock. ». (a) A 
circular valley, whose lowest part generaUv oontaina 
water, {b) Tract drained bv a river, or sloping toward 
a sea <w kJu. 3. A geological formation whose strata 

Badlitk (BatOueuM mitraiu$). 

dip inward toward a 

BafWlM (-sTa), fi. ; pi. Basbs (-tSs). [L. Bee Basb, n.] 1. 
A foundation, groundwork, or support. 2. Principal part. 

Bask (bisk), V. i. [OS. badask to bathe one's self.] 
To lie in warmth. — v. t. To warm. 

BaslMt (bdsOcSt), n. [Of unknown origfai.] 1. A 
vessel made of twigs, rushes, etc., interwoven. 2. Tlie 
contents of a baakei. 

BasOM (b4sk), a. [F.] Pertaining to Biscav, iU 
people, or their langnam.<— n. 1. One of a race dwell- 
ing near the Bay of Biscay in Spain «nd France. 2. 
The language of the Basque people. 3. A part of a lady's 
dress, resembling a jacket with a short skirt. 

BM'-n-litr (bU'rl-lif), n. [F. ; ftru low + relief 
raised work, relever to raise.] Low relief; sculpture, 
whose Ag- 
urcs project 
less than 
haU of their 
true pro- 
called also 
bast - relief 
and bnsso^Hiievo. 

Bam (bAs), n. 
[AS. bmrt.} An 
edible, splny-flmied 
flah, of many species, Knropean and American. 

Baas, n. [Comip. of batl.] L The linden or Ume 

Striped BsM (Rocem UneatmB). 

tree; also, its bark, uaed for making mats. 2. {Pnm, 
bla.) A haasook or thick mat. 

Baaa (bSs), n. [F. 6cM«0, fr. bat low. See Babb, a.] 
1. A bass, or deep, sound or tone. 2. (o) The lowest 
part in music, {b) One who sings, or instrument which 
plays, bass. [Written also bate^ —a. Deep in tone. • 

Baa'aat (bis'sXt or bis-sSt^), n. FF. ftoMetfe.] An 
old game at carda, resembling the modem faro. 

II Baa'ao (bAs'sd), n. [it., fr. LL. battut,] (a) The 
baaa or lowest part in music. (6) One who singa th« 
lowest part, (c) The double bass, or contrabatto. 

BUHUmf (bfa-sSte^), n. [F. batton, fr. baste ban.] 
A wind instrument of the double reed kind, fur- 
uished with h<des, which are stopped Inr the fingers, 
and by keys, aa in flutea. — Baa-aaonitt, n. 

n Baa'B»-il-lla^ro (bAa'sd-rt-iyt'vt), Baa'a^- 
la-Ua^VO (b«s'B^r«-18'v6), n. [It. basto-HUevo.l 

Baaa' vl^Ol (bis' vi'ttl) n. A stringed instru- 
ment of the viol family, uaed for playing 

(bAs^wddd/), M. The baaa 
or its wood ; the lime tree. 

(b4st), n. [AS. bmtl,) 1. The 
inner flbroua bark of varioua ounta ; 
age, etc., made therefrom. 2. A thick 

matting, oord- I 

PF. battais fortress, OF. 
. J L A tower for the de- 

Baa'tart (bis'tSrd), ». [OF., tr. batt » pack- 1 
a«ddle used aa a bed by muleteera -f- •or<f.] jL A 1 
child begotten out of wedlock ; illegitimate child. 
2. An inferior soft brown sngar, obtained from 
airupa already boiled. 3. A writing paper of a 
particular size. —a. 1. Begotten out of lawful 
matrimony. 2. Spurious; adulterate. 3. Abbre- 
viated, as the half title in » page preceding the full 
title page of a book. 

Baa'laitt-laa (-ii), v. f . To make or prove to be 
a bastard ; to declare to be illegitimate. 

Baanar-dy(-t2r^lf),n. 1. Illegitimacy. 2. Pro- 
creation of a baatard ohild. 

Baata (bist), v. t. rCf. Icel. beptta to strike, 

powder.] 1. To beat with a stick ; to cudgeL 2. I 

To sprinkle flour and salt and drip butter or »._„. 
fat on (meat in roasting). nw«wn. 

Baato. v. t, [OF. battir, prob. fr. OHO. betian to 
sew.] To sew loosely, or with long stitches. 

Baa-tUa' I (bAs-tifi'), »• r 

Baa-tiUa'i to«rtr to build.] _ 
fense of a fortified place. 2. **The BastiUe,*' formerly 
a f ortreas in Paris, used as a prison for politioal ofTendera. 

Baa'tS-nada' (bCs'tT-nidO, n. & V. t. Bastinado. 

Baa'ti-na'dO (-ni'dd), ». [Sp. batUmada^ fr. batttm 
a stick.] 1. A blow with a cudgel. 2. A beating an 
offender on the soles of his feet. — r. t. To beat on the 
aoles of the feet. 

Baatloa (bfa'ch&n ; 26), n. [F. battion, fr. LL. bos- 
tire to build.] A work projecting outward from the 
main inolosure of a fortification ; a Dulwark. 

Bat (bSt), n. [AS. bait.\ 1. A club ; a tapering piece 
of wood used in playing baseball, cricket, etc. 2. A 
sheet of cotton for filling quilts; batting. 3. A part of 
a brick with one whole end. — r. t. To strike with a bat 
or pole. —r. i. To use a bat. as in baaeball. 

Batn. [OY..back^backe,balke.'\ One of the Cheirop- 
tera, an order of flying mammals, having wings formed 
by a membrane stretched between the elongated fingers, 
Ims, and talL 

BatOh (bXch), n, [AS. baean to bake.] L The qnan- 
tity of bread baked at one time. 2. A quantity of per^ 
sons or things of the same kind. 

Bata (bit), V. t, & i. To abate, or lesaen by retrench* 
ing, deducting, or reducing ; to lower. 

B Ba-taan' (WHy), n. ; pi. Batbauz (-MSsO. [F.] 
A boat ; a flat-bottomed Canadian boat. 

Batsaa bridgs, a floating bridge supported by bateany. 

fim, raoOTit, 6rb, rude, f^ ttm, fcKKl, fdbt, out, oil, cliair, bo, ains, ink, then, tbla. 




I OAih ; 6), ». ; vf. Baths (b4thz). [AS. 6**.] 

1. An ezpoaiiig the body to water, vapor, hot air, etc , 
to cleMiae it. 2. Water, etc., for bathing. 3. A pUce 
for bathing. 4. A solution in which photographic plates 
or prints are immersed. 

Bath (btth), f». [Heb.l A Hebrew measura. 

Bath* (tMitfa), p. t. [AS. baSian, fr. baS bath.] 1. 
To wash by immersion ; to wet. 2. To apply water or 
some liquid medicament to. 3. To surround, or envelop. 
«— r. i. To bathe one*s self; to take a bath.— «. Im- 
mersion of the body in water. — Bfttll'M', n. 

BatllM (bS'thSs), n. [Or. pJiBot depth, fr. /Sotfvf 
deep.] A ludicrous descent from the elevated to the 
low, in writing or speech ; anticlimax. 

II Ba-toI'M (bi-toi'd»-i), n. pi. [NL., fr. Or. fiartn 
a kind of ray -f -oi<f.] The division of fishes iucludiuK 
the rays and skates. [or truncheon. I 

Baron (bit^, F. bK^t^NO, n. [F. bilon.} A staff 

U Ba-tn'ohi-a (bi-trit'kT-A), n. pi. [NUfTr. Or. jSa- 
rpax*^^ belonging to a frog, fr. fidrpaxot frog.] The 
order of amphibians which includes the trogs and toads ; 
the Annra. — Ba-tn'Ohl-an (-an), a. & n. 

BatfnHdiOia (btt'rA-koid), a. [Batraehia -\- -otVf.] 
FrogUke; perUiuing to the Batrachidtf, a family of 
manue fishes, incluaing the toadflsh. 

Bat-talla (bXt-til'yA ; -26), n. [LL., batUe, a body of 
troops. 1 Order of battle ; deposition of troops for action. 

Bat-tal'lon (-tn^yOn ; 2G), n. [F. batailion. See Bat- 
talia.] 1. A body of troops, or an army in battle array. 

2. A regiment, or two or more companies of a regiment. 
Batten (bCft'u), v.t.&u [leel. batna to grow bet- 
ter ; AS. bet better. 1 To fatten ; to enrich ; to glut. 

Batten, n. [F. M/oa. See Baton.] A strip of sawed 
•tuir ; scantling. — v. t. To fasten with battens. 

Batten, n. [F. baUant. See Battbb, v. /.] The 
movable bar of a loom, for closing threads of a woof. 

Batter (-tSr), v. t. [F. btitlre, fr. LL. baltrre, for L. 
bntuere to strike, beat.l 1. To beat repeatedly and vio- 
lently. 2. To wear by hard usage. 3. To flatten (metal) 
by hammering, so as to compress it inwardly and spread 
It outwardly. »n. 1. A semi-liquid mixture of ingredi- 
ents beaten together and used in cookery. 2. A bruise. 

Barter, n. One who wields a bat ; a batsman. 

Batter-ing-ram' (bltaSr-Tng-rlraO, n. l. An engine 
to beat down the walls of besieged phkcen. 2. A blaok- 
onith^s hammer, suspended, and worked horizontally. 

Batter-y {-9), n. 1. A battering or beating. 2. Tlie 
imlawful beaung of another. 3. (a) A place where ar- 
taiery is mounted, (b) Two or more pieces of artillery 
in the field, (c) A company of artillery, hicluding gun- 
ners, guns, horses, and equipments. 4. (a) A number 
of Leyden jars so con- 

' or many, and is usually premeditated. A battle b more 
I general and prolonged. An engagement supposes largs 
numbers on each side, engagedin the conflict. 
I Battle-door (bfttaM-dOr^),!!. a Ught, flat bia to strike 
I a shuttlecock ; play of batUedoor and shuttlecock. 
Battle-ment, n, [of. bastWier to fortify.] An in- 
dented parapet in ancient fortillcatioDa, aiterwanl* 
copied for churches, etc 

Bautlle (bft'bU), n. [OF. baubel a chikl's playthinp, 
LL. bafibellum jewel, L. b<ibulu* foolish.] A trifling 
piece of finery ; cheap, showy pbything ; a fool's dub. 

Bawfl (bful), n. [OE. Jb OF. baude bold, merry, perh. 
fr. OHO. bfild bold.] One who keeps a house of probti- 

tutiou ; a lewd person ; — usually applied to a woman. 

Bawd^, a. - Bawdt-lT, adv. — Bawdl-noML ». 

Bawl (bflJ), r. /. & t. [Icel. bmUa to bellow^ To 

I as to be charged 
tmd discharged simulta- 
aeously. (b) An appara- 
tus for generating voltaic 
electricity. 5. A series 
of stamps for crushing 
ores. 6. In baseball, the 
pitcher and catcher to- 

Batting (bSf tTng), n. 
1. The act of one who 
bats ; management of a bat in games of ball, 
in sheets, for making quilts. 

Battle (b«f t'l), n. [F. bafaille battle, OF., battle, 
battalion, fr. L. battalia exerriseR of soldiers and gladia- 
tors, fr. batuere to strike.] 1. A general action involv- I 
ing a whole army ; engagement ; combat. 2. A struggle ; 
contest — V. t. & i. To fight. | 

8yn. — Battlb ; Combat; Fioht; F.soaobment; con- 
flict ; encounter : contest : action. — Fifjht is appliM to tho 
encounter of a few individuals, commonly an accidental i 
one. A rombat is a close encounter, whether between few . 

Battery of Ley den Jars. 

2. Cotton 

Bay Wiudow. 

cry out loudly ; to cry. ^n. A prolonged cry ; outcry. 

Bay (bS), a. [F. bai, fr. L. badiiu chestnut-colored ; 
— used only of horses. 1 Reddish brown ; of the color 
of a chestnut : — applied to the color of horses. 

Bay, n. [F. baie, fr. LL. teia.] 1. An inlet of the 
sea, usiuilly smaller than a gulf. 2. A recess or inden- 
tation. 3. A compartment of a building, or in a bam. 
4. A kind of mahojnny from Campeachy Bay. 

Bay window, a window forming a bay or recess in a 
room, and projecting outward 
from the wall: - often cor- 
ruptly called a bote ufindow. 

Bay. n. [F. baie a berry, 
fruit of the laurel and other 
trees, fr. L. baca^ bacca^ a 
berry.] The laurel tree ; /»/., 
an honorary crown bestowed 
as a prize, anciently made of 
branches of laurel. 

Bay Isaf, the leaf of the bay 
trt* e, having a fragrant odor and 
aromatic taste. 

Bay, f. t. To bark, as a dog at his game — r. I. To 
bark at; to bring or drive te bay.— n. 1. I>eep4oued, 
prolonged barking. 2. [F. a6oi barking, pi. aboi*^ prop., 
condition of a stag surrounded by dogs, barking [abny- 
ant).'\ A being obliged to face an antagonist or a diffi- 
culty, when escape is impossible. 
Bay, n. A bank or dam to keep back water. 
BaytMT-ry (bi'ber-rf ), n. The fruit of the bay tree, 
of Myrcia aeri*, a West Indian tree, or of Myrica cerijera^ 
\\">\ mxTtle : tli' ■♦"•nb Jt>el'. 

Bay'e-net (-A-nSt), n. [F. bayonette, fr. Bayonne, 
where bayonets 
were first made. ] 
A dagger fitted on 
the muxzle of a 
musket.— r.^ To 
stab or drive by the 

[F. bayau gut.] An inlet from the Oulf of Mexico, from 
a lake, or from a large river. 

Bay' mm' (bS' rfim'). A fragrant cosmetic liquid 
distilled from the bayberry (Myrcia acris). 
Ba-iaar' \ (bA-sl&rOt »• L^er. bazar market.] 1. lo 
Ba-iar' l the Eaat, an exchange, marketplace, or as- 
semblage of shops. 2. A hall for the sale of goods, ai 
at a fair. 3. A fair for a charitoble object. 

BdelOlnm (dBl'yBm). n. [L., fr. Or. ^«^AAto•'.] 1 
A substance mentioned in the Bible, variously taken to 
be a gum, a precious stone, or a kind of amber. 2. A 
gum renin from India, Persia, and Africa. 

Be (b?), r. i. [ imp. Was (w»z) ; p. p. BatK (Mn) ; 
p. pr. & rh. n. Bkino.] [AS. beSn to be, bf6m I htn ; 
akin to OHO. ft/m, pirn, O. 6tn, I am, L. fu-i I have 
been. Or. 4,vvat, 8kr. bhn to be. This verb is defective, 
and the parts larking are supplied by verbs from other 
roots, is, fro.<t.} 1. To exist. 2. To include or to in- 


a Sword Bayonet 
b Common Bayonet 

fi, S, 1, 9,0, long ; ft, C, I, A, O, ^, short; stnflte, «vent, tdea, 6bey, finite, cftre, iinn, ask, ||U,flBaL 




Toh« M • nmlt, coQMquence, etc. ; to efl«ot; to CMiae. 
& l^» ligaitj ; to repreaent or anawer to. 

Mh (bich), n, [Cf . IceL bakH tenk. 1 1. Pebbles, 
ccdlectiTely ; ahingle. 2. Shore wubed by tb« warea ; 
■tnnd. — «./. To nm (a Teaael) upon A beach ; to atrand. 

Bm^OM (b6nc*n), n, [AS. be6een.-\ 1. A aignal Bre. 
S. A aignal or mark aa a giiide to mannera. 3. A notice 
of danger. *v. ^ 1. To light (» beacon) ; to iUomine. 
S. ToTnmiah with beacona. 

Dtt'OOB^ag* (-tj), n. Money paid to maintain • be** 
con ; bMMwna, collectiTely. 

BMd (bSd), n, [AS. bed, gebed^ prayer. Beada are 
oaed by Bcoum Catholica to cotmt their prayera.] 1. A 
little perforated ball, atmng on » thread, and worn for 
ornament, or uaed in a roaary for counting pravera. 2. 
Any amall globolar body, drop, knob, rounded mould- 
ing, etc. * V. L To ornament with brada or beading. * 
V. i. To form beadlike bubblea. 

BttrtTnr. n 1. Molding in imitation of beada. S. The 
beada or bead-forming qnaUty of certain liquors. 

BcTdto (bS'dn), II. [OS. & OF. bedel, O. bMel, it, 
bietemtohid.} A meaaengeror crierof an Eugliahoourt; 
an inferior pariah officer. 

BMd'IrolF (bU'rOk), n. A catalogue of peraona, for 
the reat of whoae aoula a certain number of prayera are 
to be counted oft on the beada of a chaplet ; a catalogue. 

n oifla'mani H tflta ^ in f ^Tldi'mimV n A poor man, 
in a beadhonae, and required to pray for the 
[ <rf ita founder ; an almaman. 

Hmd'T (bSd7), a, Reaembling beada ; amall, round, 
and gliatening ; ornamented with oeada. 

Bm'I^ (bCg*!), n. [Ir. & QaeL beag amalL] A 
amall hound, for hunting amall game. 

BMk (b«k), II. [F. bee, fr. Oltic ; cf. OoeL & Ir. 
bae hook.! 1. The bill or nib of a bird, turtle, inaect, 
etc 2. Anything projecting or ending in a point. — 
~ ^KbtttTa: • *~ 

Beaks of Birds, o Flsmlnffo < b Rpnonhill i r TpIIow- 
hsmmsr » d Thrash t«Fslcnn }/M*nr«n»er i o Pelicnn x 
hAroetHm. wmding bird) i » Bkimnier : A PiKciTn ; / ^*no•- 
bi ; m Opeobill j n Ani«vf < toucan-like bud) ; o Saddl©- 
btUsu stork ; p Curlew ; 9 Swift. 

. . - -' ^^J^h,^' P*^ bicarium. Or. ^i'ltoc wine 
PM A lane drinking-cup, supported on a foot. 
T^'ft'" i**^^'.**-, tAS. bedm beam, tree, ray ; akin to 
11. 000m,] X, A lari^ piece of shaped timber or Iron 
tonge: than thick. 2. Piece of the framework of a build- 
ing, ship, plow, engine, loom, balance, etc. 3. Width of 
• TaaaeL 4. Principal horn of a deer. 5. A ray or col- 

lection of parallel raya emitted from » huninona body. 
— r. t. To aend forth ; to emit. — > v. i. To ahina. 

Bdunlnc (bSmfng), a. Radiant. 

BmmyT-f), a- 1- Emitting beama of light. 2. Like 
a beam In aise and weight; maaay. 3. Having antlera. 

Baan (bSu), n. [AS.] A leguminoua plant, and ito 
aeed, of many Tarietiea. 

Bmt (bftr), r. /. [imp. Sou (b9r) (formerly Bin 
(btr)) ; p. p. BoRK (bdm), Bobmb (b9m) ; p,vr. & rb, n. 
Bbarimo.] [AS. beran, beoran; akin to OHO. beran, 
peran, L. /erre to bear, carry. Or. ^peu^.l 1. To aup- 
port ; to hold up. 2. To carry ; to convey. 3. To aoataln ; 
to have on (written or inscribed, or aa a mark). 4. To 
wear. 6. To endure; to auifer; to be aoawerable for 
(bhune, expenae, reaponaibility, etc). 6. To render or 
cive; to bring forward. 7. To bring forth or produce 
(children, frmt, profit, etc.). 

Syn.— To uphold; auatain; maintain; aupport; un- 
dergo; auifer; endure ; tolerate; carry; convey; waft. 
— V. «. 1. To produce ; to be fruitful 2. To auifer ; to 
endure; to be patient. 3. To have influence or force. 
4. To relate or refer. 6. To have a certain meaning or 
effect. 6. To be situated, as to the point of the compaaa. 

Bmt, n. [AS. bera,"] 1. A plantigrmde. camivoroua 

auadruped, but living largelv on fruit and insects. 2. 
>ne of two northern consteflationa. the Great Bear, or 
UrM Major, and Leuer Bear, Ursa Minor, 3. A 
brutal, coarse, or moroae person. 4. A speculator who 
sella atocka or aecuritiea for future delivery in expecta- 
tion of a fall in the market.*— 9. L To endeavor to 
depreaa the price of (stocks). 

BMU'a-bto (bftt'i-bU a. Capable of being borne or 
endured ; tolerable. — Beai'a-blV, adv. 

Beard (bSrd), n. [AS.] 1. The hair on the chin, 
lipa, and adjacent parts of the face of a man and of aome 
animals. 2. Appendagea to the mouth or Jawa of aome 
flshea ; gilla of aome blvalvea ; labial palpi of motha and 
butteriUea. 3. Long or atiff hain on a plant ; awn. — 
V. t. 1. To take by the beard ; to defy. 2. To deprive 
(oyeten or aimilar ahellflsh) of the gills. 

Beardaaav, a. L Without a beai^ ; youthfuL 2. Dee- 
titute of an awn. 

Baar'er (btr'Sr), n. L One that been or carriea. 
2. A paUbearer. 3. In India, a palanquin carrier ; houae 
servant. 4. One who holda » check, note, draft, or other 
order to pay money. 

Baartng, n. 1. Manner In which one bean or con- 
ducta one*a aelf . 2. Situation of one object, aa to an- 
other ; relation. 3. Purport ; meaning. 4. Act, power, 
or time of producing or giving birth. 6« Support on 
which anjrthmg rests. 

Syn.— Deportment; mien; beharior; manner; car- 
rii^e : conduct ; direction ; tendency ; influence. 

fiaar'lalL a. Resembling a bear in temper or manners. 

Bear's'-loot^ (bftrz'fd6t/), n. A species of heUebore, 
a powerful emetic, cathartic, and anthelmintic. 

B6ax^lktll'(bftr'skTn/),n. L Skin of a bear. 2. Shaggy 
cloth. 3. A aoldier*a cap made of bearskin. 

Beast (bSst), n. [OB. & OF. beste, fr. L. bestia,"] 1. 
An animal. 2. A four-footed, or irrational, aiiimaL 3. A 
brutal, filthy, or degraded fellow. 

Beaatay (bSstnj^), o. l. PerUlnlngto a beast 2. Bru- 
tal ; filthy. 3. Abominable. — Beaatll-neai, n. 

8m. — Bestial ; brutish ; irrational ; sen<mal. 

Beat (bSt), r. t. [imp. Beat; p. p. Bbat, Bsatbi 
(bSf'n) ; vb. n. BsATiifO.] [AS. bedlan.l 1. To 
strike repeatedly ; to thrash. 2. To range over In hunt- 
ing, to rouse game. 3. To dash agalnet, or strike. 4. To 
tread (a path). 6. To overcome in a contest, race, 
game, etc.; to conquer ; to surpaaa. 6. To aotmd (an 
alarm, charge, parley, retreat, etc.) by beat of drum. 

Syn. — To strike: pound; thump; thrash; cudgel^ 
belabor ; conquer : defeat : vanquish : overcome, 
^r. f. 1. To strike repeatedly : to knock loudly. 2. 
To pulsate or throb. 3. To dash or fall with force. 4. Tq 

f^m, recent, 6rb, r^de, f yll, ikm, food, fo^ot, out, uU, chtde, so, sins, ink, tt&en, U&in, 




Vttff* ^aiiut the wind, by Mdlinf in • nlgug line. 6. 
To aonnd when struokf m a drum.— n. X A strok*; 
blow. 2. A throb ; pulaaUon. 3. Riae or fall of the haud 
or foot, marHIng diriaioua of time in muaie ; dlTiaioo of 
the meeeure ao marlMd. 4. A courae frequeoUj gone 
OTer ; habitual reaort. —a. Weary ; exhausted. 

BMt'en (bSt'^n ; 18), a. 1. Made amooth by beating 
or treading; worn. 2. Vanquiabed. 3. Exhauated. 

B#«tl-nr (bMta-fl), V. I. [U beatifioarti beahu 
brapy 4- jacere to make.] To prooounoe or make 
bappy: to bleaa.-B«'ft41f4o (bS'i-tlfTk), B^^a-tlMo- 
aL a. - B»«t'lrfLMtloa (bMt/T.f T-ki'ah&n), n. 

BMtlac (bStang), II. 1. A atrikinc ; puniatament 
by blowaTll. PulaaUon ; throbbing. 3. Proceaa of aail- 
ing againat the wind by tacka in a aigiag direction. 

B»«tlilldt(bMlta-tnd),fli. [h, beatiiudo,) 1. Fe- 
licity ; oonaummate bliaa. 2. Any one of tlie nine decla- 
ratiooa (called the Beatitudes), made in the Sermon on 
the Mount (MaU. v. S-12). 3. Beatification. 
Blea ae dneaa 


■ ; felicity ; happineaa. 

beau fine, beautiful, Ir. L. bellue 

(b0), n. ; pi. F. Bbaux (£. pron. bSs), E. Bkaus 
[F..a- -- ' - - - - -— - - - •• - 

U (bO' t-dS'al). [¥. beau f idSal an 

(b6«). [F.,afop,fr. 

pretty, 6oNiu good.1 1. A man who drtisaea in the latest 

faaliion ; a dandr. 2. A man who eacorta a lady ; a lorer. 

Ideal.] An ideal or faultleaa atandard or modeL 

BMQlall, a. Foppiah ; flue. 

IIBmii' mondf lb9 mfiiidO. [F. beau -f monde 
world.] The faaliiouable world ; people of faahion. 

B«m'to^1Ul(bn'tl-a^, B«ul'ttM,«. Harlng beau- 
ty. - BMQle^itt-ly, BMurti-fnl-ly, adv. — Bmn'i^ 
<Hiff iiofli.Potn*tt fnl iMi. n. 

SynT— Handaome ; elegant ; loTeJhr ; fair ; charming ; 
graceful ; pretty ; delighttuL See Fm. 

BMLUftirtf (-tl-fi), V, U IBeauty -h^.] Tb make 
beautiful ; to add beauty to ; to embelliah. 

Syn* "To adorn ; grace ; ornament ; deck ; decorate. 

BMIIty (btPtj^), n. [OE. & OF. beauti. See Bbait.] 
1. An aaaemblage of gracea pleasing to the eye, miud, or 
moral aense. 2. Anything beautifuL 3. A beautiful 
person, eap. a beautiful woman. 

Bmub (bSz). n., pi. of Bbau. 

h. fiber.] 1. 
An amphib- 
ioua rodent, 
baring pal- 
mated nind 
feet and a 
broad, flat 
tail, and re> 
markable in- 
genuity in 

atreama. 2. 

Fur of the Bevnr {Ca»for /ther). 

beaver. 3. A hat, made of thia fur, or of ailk. 4. 
Bearer cloth, a heavy cloth for overcoata. 

Better, n. [F. havi^, fr. bave slaver, chnd*a bib.] 
The front piece of a helmet, to protect the face, which 
the wearer could raise or lower, to eat anu drink. 

Ba-oalm' (bl-kiimOt v. t. 1. To render calm or quiet ; 
to appease. 2. To keep from motion, by lack of wind. 

Ba^MUB*' (bl-k5m0. imp. of Bacom. 

B«-cavM' (b^kfHiOt conj' [OE. bycauee / 6y + cause.'] 
Byor for the cause or reaaon that ; for ; ainoe ; aa. 

^O-ohanM' (-chins'), »./.&<. [Pref. be- for, by -f 
chance.} To befall ; to chance ; to happen. 
^UBtelM' d« nMI' (btah/ de mftrO. [F., lit., a aea 
Ipade.] Thetrepang; a aea slug. 

B60K(bSk),n. [AS. ^!cc.] A small brook. 

^- *- A bade or vat ; cistern ; trough. 

Mk (bSk). V. i. A t. [Contr. of tedfcon.] To nod, or 
sign with head or hand. — ft. A aigniflcant nod, or motion. 

BMk'oa (bik^k^u), e. i. A t. [^S. bedcnian, fr. beA- 
een a sign.] To direct by a aigniflcant motion ; to notify 
by nod or sign. — >«. A sign without worda ; • beck. 

Bo-Otond' (bl-kloodO, V. i. To obacme ; to dim. 

Bt CWlllt' (bi-kOm'), V. i. [AS. tectunan to come to, 
to lumpen ; akin to O. beJtommen to get, suit. Bee B»> 
and Com.] Tb paaa from one atate to another ; to be 
made. »v. L To flt ; to beflt ; to ault. 

Be-OOmtllC a. Appropriate or flt ; gracefal ; befit- 
ting. — BdHMMBf -ly, adv. — Bt^wm'uit-MM, n. 

Syn. — Seemly ; comely ; deooroua ; decent ; proper. 

B«a (bid), n. [AS. ; akin to O. beit.] 1. Couch to 
aleeporreaton. 2. PhU of ground in a garden. 3. Bot- 
tom of a body of water. 4. A biyer or stratum. 6. 
Foundation. »v. U To put in or on a bed, or upon » 
foundation, ^v. i. To go to bed ; to oohabiL 

B»4abaito (bl-dttm), v. L To dabble ; to wet 

Ba-dAf'gto (-dig^gU), V. t. To daggle, aoO, or danb. 

Ba-danlK (-dabO. •• t. To daub over ; to aolL 

BtdlMlt' (bU'bDg'), ft. A winglesa, bloodsucking, 
hemipterous ^sect, infesting houses, and espedaUy beda. 

j«r (-chlm'bJr), n. A room for a bed. 

BtA'oloClMr (-klOths' or -klSa'), n. pi. Blanketa, 
aheets, coverlets, etc., for a bed. 

Bcd'dibv. n- 1. A bed and iU materials ; bedclothes \ 
litter. 2. 'Geological poaitioo of beds and layera. 

Ba^aclC (bt-<lckOi t>. <. To deck or adorn ; to grace. 

Be^tTU (-dCvny, V. L [imp. A p- p. BKnanLin or 
BcoKviLLBD ; p. pr. A vb. n, femiBTixjiro or Bbdsvix/* 
UKo.] To throw into utter coofualon, aa if by agency of 
evil spirits ; to torment. — Ba^ertl-BMIIt, n. 

B^^lew^ (-duO, V. L To moisten with dew. 

BtaitllOW (bM'fnnft), ». one sleeping with another. 

Ba-dim' (bt^Tm'), r. /. To make dim ; to obecure. 

B«-dll'MI (b#-dTz^x'n or b(-di'z*n), v. t. To dreaa or 
adorn tawdrily or with false taste. — Be-dll'ClHIieBt, A. 

Btdlam (MdOom), n. [Corrup. fr. Bethlehem, name 
of a lunatic asylum in London.] A place for confinement 
and care of the inaane. 2. Uproar ; oonfuaion. — o. Be- 
longing to. or flt for, a madhouse. — Bodlam-ltO (-it), n. 

MKon-ln (bSd'db-Sn or -Tn), n. [F., fr. Ar. bedavi 
rural, living in the desert, fr. badw desert.] One of the 
n<»nadic Aiaba, of ArabialSyria, etc. ^o. Tertaiuing to 
tbe Bcdciutna; nomad. — BM'oa-tn-lmi, n. 

Bed^pan'' (-pli> )« t*. I A pan for warming beda. 2. 
A -)i.lLIi..'Iv rIbiuiiiiU'T- ve^uU for a bedridden person. 

Bed' piece (-pe--'')» I u- Tlie foundation piece, by 

Bod 'plat 6' (pi Si )i I ^liich other parts of a macliine 
ai, ImM ipi ].Urc ; — I Jiikd also baseplate and soleplate. 

Bi!d^qullt ( - b VI ! tt ' ).n. A quilt for a bed ; coverlet. 

Be drag'gle (l ^-ilrie^B^l ), r. t. To drag in dirt. 

Be^ drancn^ (-Hlr^EirbOt i'> ^* ^ drench ; to soak. 

Bod'Jld^ ( lw^<l'rT<l'), I o. [AS. bedreda ; fr. bed -f 

Bed'rM'deti ( rl JM'u), I ridda a rider.] Confined to 
br^ n iiM k ] ay^m or iiiflrmlt v. [formations. I 

Bud' rook' (rBk'). Solid rock underlying superficial! 

Bedtoom < -Tw.m)* n . A room for a bed ; sleeping room. 

Bed'iJdfr (-^U'\ n. TJ.« side of a bed. 

Bed'Borcv i -^ot' ), n. A sore caused by lying in bed. 

Bod'sprfl^fl' (^pjiTliiJ'). ^'. A bedqnilt ; coverlet 

Bed's! ead (-itffil), n. [Bed + stead a frame.] A 
fr:'Ui»^»*<'rk for ^iipfwrtiiiFS rt bed. 

Bedtlok' i'tTk' K fi' A tick or bag made of cloth, for 
in4 Lii:^irik^ \hv mnUTialM of u bed. 

Bed'^ttme' iihn' j, n. The time to go to bed. 

Bed'uLn ^^nlu), n. & a. Bedouin. 

Bo dye' I b*Hli'), ft, t To dye or atain. 

Bee <>*l. rt. [AS. heL'] 1. A four-winged Inaect of 
miitiv ffp-ncf* jm<l iriw]<* The common honeybee Uvea 
in ku^abcifii. 2. A gmthetlng of people to labor for an 
Individual or family. 3. pi. Pieces of hard wood bolted 
to the bowsprit, to reeve the fore-topmast sUys through. 

a, », 1, 3, a, long ; ft, «, 1, 5, «, t, short ; amiite, «v«it, idea, ftbey. finite, c4re, Unn, Aak, iill, fln«L 





^ • soft, unctuous matter, with which bees ce- 
combs to the hives, aud close 

up the cells;— called also protjolis. 
Bm Ubs, shortest way between two 
placesTuke a bee's flight to iU hive. 
*B5hlI««d'(bybriaO,n. A brown, 
bitter substance, made chiefly from 
poUen of flowers, and collected by 
boes as food for their voung. 

BmcH (bSch), n. [AS. bice; akin 
to L. /offtu, Or. im6% oak, ^ayciy to 
eat.] A tree of Europe and Aruerica, 
bearing an edible nut. — Beaoh'eil 
(bScl/Hi), a. [the beech tree. I 

BMOhnuit' (-nKt/), n. The nut of | 

Bee'-Mt'er (bS'a/Sr), n. (a) A 

ed European bird that 

lb) An African bird. 
.___(bM),ii. [OE. & OF. boe/jT. 
L. boa^ bovUy ox ; akin to Or. fiov^, B. 
cow.] 1. An animal of the ox kind, 
including the bull, cow. and ox. [In ^ Beech Twi^ ; fa) 
this sense, the word has a plural, Leaf, (6) Bur. 
beetfts (bSrs).] 2. The flesh of a bo- i? Beeelinut. entire 
▼Ineanimal.slaughteredforfood.— o. »nd(C)mMction. 
Pertaining to, or resembling, beef. 

briiliantl V col<Mred Europesn bl 
feeds on beee. 

Diagram showinir how M>me butcher* dlnde a beef : 1 Neck : 
SHhakinie piece t 3 Chine : 4 Ribs ; 5 Clod ; 6 Brisket i 7 
Flank t 8 l^in. Sirloin : » Rump; 10 Round i 11 I.<egi U 
Foot : 13 Udder i 14 Shin ( 15 Cheek. 

BMfaat'er (-it^r), n. 1. One who eats beef; a 
large, fleshy person. 2. A yeoman of the guard, hi 
England. 3. An African bird which feeds on larvie of 
botflies hatched under the skin of oxen, antelopes, etc. 

BMfCtMk' (-stSkOt n. A steak of beef ; a slice of 
beef broiled or suitable for broiling. 

Poat*7, a. Earing much beef ; fleshy. 

B«e'Jll¥»' (bS'hiv^), n. A hive for a swarm of bees. 

Been (bTn). [OB. beon^ 5«n, bin, p. p. of beon to be. 
SeeBs.] The past participle of Bb. 

BacrtbSr), n. [AS. be^; akin to D. & O. bier.} A 
fermented liquor made from malt, with hops. 

Betr^ {p^f^y, a. Besembling beer; affected by 
beer ; maudlin. — BMll-liaas, n. 

Bma^maf (bSs^wSks'), n. The wax secreted by 
bees, and of which their cells are constructed. 

BlMllIm" (-wTng'), n. A crust formed in old wines, 
eonsistfang of sciues of tartar, resembling the wing of a bee. 

Ba«t(bSt), n. [AS. bete, L. beta.} A biennial phuit, 
producing an edible root the first vear and Seed the next. 

Ba^'lle (bi^M), n. [AS. im hammer, fr. be&tnn to 
be^l 1. A mallet. 2. A machine for hammering tex- 
tile fabrics while raaslng over rollers.— v. t. To beat 
with a mallet; to finish (cloth) by hammering. 

BMtto, n. [AS. Kte/, fr. Mton to bite.l A coleop. 
terous insect having four wings, the outer pair being stiff 
cases for covering the others when folded. 

pr. & vb.'n. BiVALLiMO.] [AS. 
'To happen (to). 

Bao'tte (bS^*l), V. i. [OE. bUel, adj., sharp, projec- 
ting, n., a beetle.] To extend beyouJ the base ; to jut. 

Boere (bSv), n. A beef creature. 

BeeTes (bSrs), n., plural of Bb», the animaL 

Be-fall' (b^-f»lO, V. L & i, [imp. Bkfbll (-fSlO ; p. 
p. Bbfalukn (-fftl'*n) ; /». pr. & r6. n. ~ 
befeallan; nref. be- 4- jealian to iaXl. 

Be-ftt' (-fTt'), V, L To suit; to become. — B«-llt'- 

B#-Io|k' (-f 9g^), V. i. To InvolTC in a fog ; to confuse. 

B*-fOOl' (-f 5dl'), V. t. To delude ; to make foolish. 

B^-tm^ (-f5r'), orep. [AS. be/oran; pref. be- -f 
/oran, fore, before.] 1. In front of ; preceding ; earlier 
than. 2. In advance of ; farther onward. 3. Prior in 
order, rank, riglit, or worth ; rather than. 4. In pres- 
ence or sight of ; face to face with. 6. Under the ju- 
risdiction of. 6. Open for; in the power of.— adv. 
1. In front. 2. In advance. 3. Previously; already. 
4. Earlier ; sooner than ; until then. 

Be-toreliaild' (-hSndO, adv. 1. In advance. 2. By 
way of preparation; preriously. — a. In comfortable 
circumstances as regards property. 

Ba-foul' (-foul'), V. t. To make foul ; to soil. 

Be-frieoA' (-f rSnd'), r. t. To act as a friend to ; to aid. 

Beg (b«g or WS), n. [Turk. beg. ^ton. bay.} A bey. 

Beg (b«g), V. t. [imp. & p. p. Bbooki) (WSgd) ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. BsoonffO.] [Perh. fr. AS. bedecian, biddany to 
ask.] 1. To ask earnestly for ; to beseech. 2. To en- 
treat. 3. To take for granted ; to assume without proof. 
— > V. i. To ask charity ; to live by asking alms. 

Syn. — To Bu; Ask; Rbqubst. — To a*k (not in the 
sense of inquiring) embraces all these words. To req^teM 
Is a polite mode of askhig. To beg was originally to ask 
earnestly ; but it has taken the place of both ask and 
request, as expresshig more of deference and respect. 

Bengali' (bl-gftuO, imp. of Bboik. 

Be-gef (-g«f ), V. t. [imp. Beoot (-g8tO, {Archaic) 
BioAT (-friJf ) ; p. p. Bboot, Bwk>tt«h (-g5f t'n) ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. BBorrmie.] [AS. begUan to get ; pref. be- + 
giian.} To procreate ; to generate ; to cause to exist. 

~ * One who begs or asks alms. — 

; to impoverish. 2. To 
UMd, Beg'iar-y, n. — 
Beg'gur-ly, a. & adv. 

Bo-gin' (bt-gln'), V. <. [imp. & p.p. Bmav (bMKnOf 
Baouir (bi-gfln') ; p. pr. & vb. n. Bienriniio (-nTng). 

iAS. beginnan ; pref. be- -\- assumed ginnan to begin.] 
.. To take rise ; to commence. 2. To do tlie first act or 
take the first step; to start. — v. t. To enter on; to 
make a beginning of. — Be-fl^'lisr, n. 

Syn. — To commence ; originate ; set about ; start. 

B»-glB'lling, n. 1. First act, effort, or state. 2. 
Origin; source. 3. A rudiment or element. 

Syn. — Inception ; origfai : outset ; foundation. 

Bo-fdrd' (-gird'), V. t. 1. To bind with a band or gii^ 
die. ST To surround as with a band ; to encompass. 

Bo-goaf C-gSn'), inierj. [Be, v. i. + gone, p. p.] 
Oo away : deiMurt ; get you gone. 

Bo-gOl' (-gW/), imp. A p. p. of Bmbt. 

Bo-got'ton, p. p. of BiovT. 

Bo-grlmo' (-gnmO, V. t. To soil with grime or dirt. 

Bo-gmdgO' f-grflj'), V. t. To envy the poseeoston of. 

Bo-gvilr (-gil'), V. t. 1. To delude by guile or craft ; 
to impose on. 2. To relieve the tedium or weariness of ; 
to divert — Bo-gllllO'lllOIlt, n. — Bo-gvll'or, n. 

Syn. - To delude ; cheat ; mislead ; amuse ; entertain. 

II Bo'gnm (bS'gfira ; E. be'glim). n. [Per.] An East 
Indian princess or lady of high rank. 

Bo-gun' (b^-gfin'), p.p. of BioiH. 

Bo-nalf' (-h&f'), n. [OE. on-behalve in the name of, 
fr. AS. heal/ half, side, part.] Advantage ; favor ; stead ; 
interest ; support ; defense. 

Bo-hATO' (-hivO, V. t. [AS. behabban to restrain; 
pref. be- -\- habban to have.] To canr ; to conduct ; to 
bear. —v. i. To act ; to conduct one^s self. 

Bog'gar (bfig'gSr), n. One who b 
V. t. 1. To reduce to beggary ; to i 
seem inadequate. — Bog'gur-llOOd, 

fgni, veoeni, Orb, r^do, f yll, ftm, ftfbd, f<n»t, ant, oil, obair, so, sins* fok* tben, Uiln. 




Be-haT'lor (bi-hir'ySr), n. Manner of behaving; 
deportment; carriage. 

Syn. — Bkhaviob: Covdvct; bearing: demeanor; 
manner. — Behavior is the mode in which we havf or bear 
ourselves before, or toward, other* ; coftdwit the mode 
of carrying ourselves in the concerns of life. 

Be-lUMtt^ (bSdO, V. t, [AS. behe6/diun ; pref. he- + 
hehjod head. J To sever the head from ; to decapitate. 

Be-h^' (-hSld'), imp. Si p. p. of Bshold. 

BalM-motll (bS'ht-mSth), n. [Ueb., fr. Egvptian 
P-ehe-maui hippopotamus.] An animal, probably the 
hippopotamus, described in Job xl. 15-24. 

M-bflSt' (M-b8st0, n. [AS. behBs promise ; pref. bo- 
-\~ hM* command.] A command ; mandate ; Injunction. 

Be-talnd' (-hinaOt pr«p. [AS. behindan; pref. be- + 
hindan. Bee Hnro, a.] 1. At the back of ; on the other 
side of. S. Inferior.— a(/r. 1. Backward. 2. Remaining. 

Bt-ldndlumd' (-hXudOt ^^^c* ^ ^ Backward. 

Be-llOld' (-hSldOf V. t' & »• limp. & p. p. Bkhxld 
(-h«ldO (p. p. formerly Bkholobm (-h5ld"n), now used 
only as a p. a.) ; p. pr. & vb. n. Brholdihg. 1 [AS. be- 
healdan to have (n sight ; pref. be- -\- healaan to hold, 
keep.] To see clearly ; to regard with the eves. 

Syn. — To scan : regard ; descry ; view; discern. 

Ba-lMld'eil (-'n)« p. a. Obliged ; indebted. 

B^-tudd'er, ». One who beholds ; a specUtor. 

Be-ll00f'(-h5&f0,n. [AS. 6^ WO Advantage ; profit ; 
benefit ; use. 

Be-hOOVf (-hWvO, V. t. &. i. [AS. behOfian.} To be 
necessary, fit, or meet for; to befit ; to liecome. 

Bt^ng (bSHTng), p. or. from Bk. Existing. — n. 1. 
Existence. 2. That which exists. 

Be-lanior (b«>la'b8r), V. t. 1. To Ubor dUigently 
upon. 2. To beat soundly ; to cudgel. 

Be-Utt' (-llt^)« V- t' To reUrd or make too late. 

B*-lat'6d, a. Delayed ; too late ; overtaken by night, 

Be-lay' (-liO* v- ^« [imp. & v. p. Bklaid, Bblatki 

(-lid') ; vb, n. Bklayiso. J L^^. beleggen to cover, 

belay.] To make fast (a rope) by taking seven-U turns 
with it ronnd a pbi or deat. 

Bslsylng pla, a strong pin in the side of a vessel, or by 
the mast, round which ropes are belayed. . _ 

Beloh (b«lch ; 62), v. t. & i. [AS. bealean.-] 1. To 
eject (wind, ete.) from the stomach. 2. To issue with 
spasmodic force or noise, ^n. An eructation. 

Bal'dam \ (bfil'dom), n. [Pref. bet-, denoting rela- 

B^lMame I tionship 4- dame mother.] 1. Grand- 
mother. 2. An ugly old woman ; a hag. 

Be-lM'glMr (b^-18'g8r), V. t. [D. helegeren ; pref. be- 
— E. be- -f- leger bed, camp, army ; akin to E. /«»>.] To 
surround with an army ; to besiege ; to blockade. 

Syn. —To block up ; environ ; invest ; encompass. 
II B«l'-«S-pllt' (b81'88-pr8'), n. ; p/. Bbaux-espiuts 
(b5».'8s-pr5')« [F., fine wit.] A fine genius; man of wit. 

Bolfry (bffl'fry), n. [MHO. bervrit, fr. bergen to pro- 
toct + vride peace.] 1. Anciently, a besiegers' movable 
tower for attack and defense. 2. A bell tower. 3. A 
room in a tower, cupola, or turret. In which a bell is hung. 

Be-Ut' (bt-UO, V, t, [AS. beUSgan ; pref. be- -f led- 
gnn to He.] 1. To convict of, or charge with, falsehood. 
2. To give a false account of . 3. To slander. 

B*-ltor (-15f0» ^ [Bee Bklbvk.] 1. Assent to the 
truth of a fact, opinion, or assertion ; confidence. 2. A 
persuasion of the truths of religion; faith. 3. The thing 
believed. 4. A body of teneU; doctrine : creed. 

Syn. — Credence ; trust ; reliance : assurance ; opinion. 

Be-liOVe' (-18V), v. t. [AS. gelefan.] To exercise be- 
lief in ; to credit; to think. — r. i. 1 To have a firm 
persuasion, esp. of the truths of religion ; to exercise 
faith. 2. To think ; to suppose.— Be-UoT'ft-lllo, a. — 
Be-ltov'er, n. 

8yn. - See EXPMT. ^ ^ „_, 

Be-Uttlt (-ITtt'l), V. t. To make little or less in a 
moral sense ; to speak of contemptnotisly. 

Bell (bgl), n. [AS. belle, fr. bellan to bellow.] 1. A 

hollow metallic vessel which ringa whn ilniek. 2. Any- 
thing formed like a bell, as the cop 
or corol of a flower. 3. pi. Strokes 
of a ship's bell which mark the time ; 
time BO designated. — r. t. To 
put a bell upon. — r. t. To develop 
bells or corollas ; to take the form 
of a ben. 

B«ll (b«), V. i. [AS. bellan. See 
Billow.] To call or bellow, as deei ^j 
in rutting time ; to roar. 

B«l'U-doa1ia (b«l / lA - d»n ' nA), ^^. , „ „ ^ 
n. [It,, lit., fine hidy ; bella bean- ^{1°"?' ^"r^J? 
tifulV donia h«ly.]'Deadlpr night- ^^A^J^Z^Td 
shade, a European i.lant witli bell- Yoke : M Mouth t 
shaped flowers and black berries. P Sound bow » s 
It U very poisonous, and iU root Shoulder; rBsrreL 
and leaves are used medicinally. 

BcUt (bSl), n. [F., fem. of M, beau, beautiful, fine. 
See Bbau.] An attractive and popular young lady. 

llB*ll«»-lrttW»(b«l-18ta«r\ii.p/. [F.] PoUteor 
elegant literature ; the humanities. 

MOl-COM" (Unnt-kSs'}, a. [L. bdlicotuM, fr. bellieuM 
of war, fr. bellvm war.] Inclined to war ; pugnacious. 

Bel-Uff'er-mt (bH-lIj'Sr.ent), a. [L. beUum -\-9rren9, 
■entis, waging, p. pr. of gerere to wage.] L waging 
war. 2. Pertainmg, or tending, to war; relating to bel- 
ligerents, •^n. A nation recogoiied as carrying on war ; 
a person ei^ged in warfare. 

BeU'kliail (bSl'man), n. A man who rings • bell, esp. 
to give notice of anything in the streets. 

Bell' met'al (m«t'ol or met^'l). a hard alloy or 
bronse, used for making bells. 

Bellow (-W), V. i, [AS, bylgean, fr, bellan. See 
Bill, Bawl, Bitll.] 1. to make a hollow, loud noise, 
as an enraged buU. 2. To bawl; to roar; to make a 
loud, hollow sound. — n. A loud outery or roar. 

Bellow* (-lOs), fi. Hng. & pi. [AS. bielg, bmlig. 
Bellows is prop, a pL and the orig. sense is bag. See 
Belly.] An instrument for driving air through a tube. 
• Belrwetll'er (-wSth^ir), n. A wether, or sheep, 
which leads the flock, with a bell on his neck. 

Belly (-W), n. [AS. belg, bsdig, bag, bellows, belly.] 
That uut of the body containing the bowels ; abdomen. 
^ V. i. To swell and protrude ; to bulge. 

BellT iMlnd' ( ^«KndO, n. 1. A girtA for a horse. 2. 
A t-.tiiil «.M .'iiiuiij-., to strengthen a saiL 

Be-lonif' tbJ-l^tigO, t'. i. [Pref. be- -f Umgen to de- 
sir t. ] 1. Ti i 1 r 1 1 It property, concern, or proper business 
o/. Fu u|i^]>H tUIej to. 2. To be native^, or an Inhabitant o/. 

Be-lon^tng ^ ^j That which belongs to one ; goods or 
efiictdi uiL n^njipniiAge; appurtenance. 

Bo loved' (4i^vt]' as p. p., -Idv^ as a.), p. p. &a, 
Grosktiy b^-^ifd : fh-ar to the heart. 

Bo^lov'ed I fNv^?!d), n. One greatly loved. 

Be low I i~.'''.f-'ep. [Pref. 6e- by -f /otr.] L Under, 
or l-wfT ill fh'*' n l)eneath. 2- Inferior to. 3. Unwor- 
thy ni ; ufibpliUtfitj. — adv. 1. In a lower place or state ; 
beneath. 2. Ou the earth, as opposed to the heavena. 
3. In hell. 4. In some part orpage foUowing. 

Belt (Wnt), n. [AS.] 1, That which engirdles a 
person or thing; a band or girdle. 2. A band of 
leather, or other flexible substance, passing around two 
wheels, fai machinery, to communicate motion from one 
to the other. — ■ r. t. To encircle ; to encompass. 

Belting, n. Material of which belts are made ; also, 
belts, collectively. 

Be-ln'ga (b$-lu'gA), n. [Russ. bieluga sturgeon.] 
A cetacean allied to the dolphins. 

Bel've^ere' (bSl'vl-dSr'), n. [It,, fr. bello, bel, bean- 
tiful + vedere to see.] A small open structure, com- 
manding a fine prospect. 

Be-nure' (b^mir'\ v. i. To drag through, or fix in, 
the mire ; to soil with mud or dirt. 

ft, 5, 1, 5, a, lonj ;&,«,!. », «. t. •»»ort ; sanAte, «vent, tdea, ftbey, finite, cAre, ftrm, &sk, ;^, flnaL 




r(b*-in9n0«c-'- [ AS. ftewdinon ; pref. 6e- -f- 
I to moftn.] To bewail ; to pity. 

8711. — See Dbpmrs. 

Be-OMNlk' (-inSk'), V. I. To mock ; to ridicule. 

Bineh (Mnch), n. [AS. bene; akin to 8w., D., & O. 
ba%k.'\ 1. A seat longer than a atool. 2. A long table 
at which mechanioa work. 3. The leat for Judges in 
court. 4. The peraona who alt aa Judgea; th4 court. 
S. A coUec^n of doga for exhibition. 

BflOOh'er, n. One of the aenior members of an Eng- 
Uah Inn of Court. 

B«Bd (b8od), V. t. Ump, Sip. p. Bbhdbo or Bsmt 

218 It) ; p. pr, & vb. n. Bindino.T [AS. bendan to bend, 
. ben(dL% band, fr. hindan to buid.] 1. To atrain out 
of a attaiffht line ; to curve. 2. To incline ; to direct. 
3. To subdue. 4. To faaten(one rope to another, a cable 
to an anchor, etc).*P. i. 1. To be moved; to bow. 
2. To be inclined ; to be directed. 3. To bow in prayer, 
or in anbmisaion — n. 1. A turn ; a crook. 2. A knot 
hf which a rope ia fastened. 

B^wMCbf (M-n8th' or -nSth'), prep. [AS. beneoSan ; 
pref. be- -)- neoSan^ downward, akin to R. neiher.} 1. 
Lower than ; under ; underneath. 2. Unworthy of ; un- 
becoming, '■^adv. In a lower place ; below. 

BiB^«^liot (bSn^-dlkt), I n. [Fr. Benedick, a cliarac- 

Binr«-dlldC (-dTk), ) ter in Shakespeare's play 

** Much Ado about Nothing.**] A married man, or man 
newly married. 

BMI'A-dlotiOB (-dTk'shOn), n. [L. benedictio. See 
BsKUOir.l A blessing; invocation of bappmess. 

Bmif4Maftlmi (-flk'shfin), n. [L. bene/actio, fr. 
boffacere. See BcnEvrr.] JL The conferring a bene- 
fit. 2. A benefit conferred ; a charitable donation. — 
Btn'^-fiolflr, n. — Btii'^-faotrMSt n. /. 

8yn. — Oift; preaent ; gratuity ; boon ; alma. 

BtB'e-lloe (bBtt'^flB), n. [F. ; L. benefieium a kind- 
naas, in LL. a grant of an estate. See Bsmrrr.] An 
eodeaiastical living and church preferment. — p. t. To 
endow with a benefice. [Commonly in p. p.] 

Be-lMflrOMMe (bl-n8in-sras), n. [L. beneftcentia. 
See Bsaxrrr.] Active goodness, kindness, or charity. 
— Be-iMll-oaiit, a. — Be-iMfl-oeBMir, adv. 

Syn. —See Bbitivolkvcb, BsiravoLBNT. 

Ben'^-flfGlal (bSn't-fTsh^al), a. [F.l Conferring 
benefits ; useful ; profitable. — B6ll't-ll'dal-ly, adv. 

Sjn, — See AovAirrAOB. 

Bmt^Wti-9rrj (-nsh^-t-i^, or -flsh'A-ry ; 26), a. 
[LL. bene/Uiariui.J L Holding some valuable possee- 
Mon, in subordination to another ; holding under a feu- 
dal or other superior. 2. Bestowed as a gratuity.— 
n. 1. One who holds a benefice and uses its proceeds. 
2. One who receives a benefit ; one who receives help 
from an educational fund or trust estate. 

B«B't-flt (-fit), n. [OE. benefet, F. bienfaU, fr. L. 
bene/actum ; bene well ^v. of bonus good) -f factum^ 
p. p. of facere to do.] 1. An act of kindness ; a favor 
conferred. 2. Whatever promotes prosperity and hap- 

reM, or adda value to property ; advanti^pe ; profit. 
A theatrical performance, etc., whose proceeds go to 
some individual actor or charitable use. 

8yn. — Profit ; service ; use ; avalL See Advantaob. 
—«./.&<. To advantage ; to profit. — Ban'^-flt'er, m. 

Be-BtV^O-Imot (b*-n«v'ft-Vns), n. [OF. ; L. benevo- 
Itniia. See Bbhktolsht.] 1. Disposition to do good ; 
good will. 2. Kind act ; good done ; charity given. 

Syn. — BBmroLBMCB ; BufBricsHCB ; HuNxncBiicB. — 
Benevolence marka a disposition made in> of a choice and 
desire for the happiness of others. Beneficence marks 
the working of this disposition in dispensing good. Mu- 
ni/tcence shows the same disposition, but acting on a 
still broader scale. In conferring gifts and favors. 

Be-BtV^O-lant (-lent), a. [L. benerolens<, -enti* ; bene 
wen (adv. of bonus good) -\- ro/«n*, p. pr. of volo I will, 
I wiah.] Disposed to do good ; manifesting love to man- 

kind, and desire to promote their happiness ; dispoaed 
to give to good objects ; charitable. 

8yn. — Bbnbvolbnt; BBMBncxnr. — Etymologically, 
benevolent implies msMng well to others, and beneflceni^ 
doing well. But benevolent now includes both feelings 
and action. 

Be-nlghf (b^-nltO, v. 1. 1. To bivolve bi darkness; 
to overtake with night. 2. To involve in ignorance. 

Be-BlgB' (-ninOf a. [F. bSnin, fem. bhiigne, fr. L. be- 
niffnusTbonus good -f* root of genus kind.] 1. Of a kind 
disposition ; benignant. 2. Mild ; wholesome. 3. Of a 
mild type or character. — Be-Olc'lli-ty (-nTg'nT-tj^), n. 
— Be-nigllly (-nlulj^), adv. 

Syn. — Kind ; propitious ; bland ; genial ; salubrious ; 
favorable; salutary; gracious; liberal. 

Be-alff^iailt (-nig'naut), a. [LL. benignanSf fr. L. 
benignus. ] Kind ; favorable. — Be-olc'liail-oy , n . 

Bant-MUl (bSnT-i^n), n. [OF. beneison, fr. L. bene- 
dictio, f r. benedicere to bless ; bene -f dicere to say.] 
Blessing; beatitude; benediction. 

Bent (bSnt), imp. & p. p. of Bind. 

Bant, a. &p. p. 1. Changed by pressure so as to be 
no longer straight ; crooked. 2. Strongly inclfaied to- 
ward something, so as to be resolved, determined, set, 
etc. (on doing something). —ft. 1. A leaning or biaa; 
tendency of mind ; inclination ; purpose ; aim. 2. Par- 
ticular direction or tendency ; flexion ; course. 

Syn. — Bbmt ; Bias ; Imcuhation ; Prbpossbssion ; 
preoilection ; turn. — Bent denotes a fixed tendency of the 
mind, and applies to the will, intellect, and affections, 
conjointly. Bias Is literally a weight on one aide of a 
ball used in bowling, causing it to swerve from a straight 
course : figuratively, it denotes a permanent force on the 
character. Inrlinalion is an excited state of desire 
Prepossession is a mingled state of feeling and opinion 
which has occupied the mind previous to inquiry : it is 
commonly used in a good sense, an unfavorable impres- 
sion being denominated % prejudice. 

Bant, n., Banf ipn^lf (gr^)* [AS. beonet ; akin to 
O. binse rush.] A reedlike grass ; redtop. 

Be-nnmb' (bt-nQmO, v. t. [AS. bentman; pref. be- 
+ niman to take. See Numb.] To make tor^d. 

Ban'iane (bSu'sSn or bSn-zen'), n. [Fr. Bbnbooi.] 
A volatile, very infiammable liquid, contained in the 
naphtha distilled from coal ; benzole. 

Ben'sllld (bSu'zTn or b«n-z6nO, n. [Fr. Bsirzonr.] 
A liquid consisting of the lighter hydrocarbons of petro- 
leum, used as a solvent and for cleansing soiled fabrica. 

Ban-ao'lo (b8n-z5^k), a. Pertaining to, or obtained 
from, benzoin. 

Ban-aolll' (-zoinT), n. [Sp. benjui, fr. Ar. lubdn-j&wl 
incense from Sumatra.] A resinous substance from a 
tree of Sumatra, Java, etc., used in preparation of benzoic 
acid, in medicine, and as a perfume. 

Ban'AOle I (bSn'zSl or b8n.z510,B6ll'kO-U]l»(-B«-lTn), 

Ban'aOl ) n. IBenzoin 4- L. oleum oil.] An im- 
pure benzene, used as a solvent In manufacturing India 
rubber and gutta percha, cleaning kid gloves, etc. 

Ba-pnlse' (bt-prSz'), v. /. To praise extravagantly. 

Be-qnafttll' (-kwStfa')* «*• i- [AS. becweSan to say, 
bequeath ; pref. be- -j- ciceSan to speak. See Quoth.] 
To give or leave by will ; to hand down ; to transmit. 

Syn. — To Bbqueath ; Dbvisb. — Devise, in legal usage, 
denotes a gift by will of real property, and he to whom It 
is given is called the detHsee. Bequeath is properly ap- 
plied to a legacy, and he who receives it is called a legatee. 

Be-qnast' (b«-kw8»t0, n. [OE. biowst; pref. fte- + 
AS. cuHde a saying, fr. becweSan.'\ 1. A bequeathing. 
2. Property left by will ; a legacy ; a gift. 

Ba-rata' (-rat'), v. t. To rate or chide ; to scold. 

Ba-raaTa' (-rSv'), »'. /. {imp. & p. p. Bbrbavbd (b«- 
rSvdO, Bbreft (b«-r«ft') \ p. pr. & vb. n. Bbbbavimo.] 
[AS. beredfian. See Bb-, and Rkavb.] To make deati- 
tute ; to deprive ; to 8tri|v — Ba-raaTa'mailt, n. 

Berg (bSrg), n. [See Barbow hill.] A large mass or 
hill, as of ice ; iceberg. 

f Am, recant, 6rb, rude, fyll, 0km, food, foot, oat, oil, cAiair, bo, slug;, i^k, tben, UUn. 




Berniele Goom. 

^Wgti-molt (bSi'gApmSt), n. [F. berffttmote.} 1. (a) 
A tree of the Orange kind ; aUo, iU fruit, whoae rind 
yielda « fraipnuit esaentUl olL (b) A rariety of mint. 2. 
Perfume made from the fruit. 3. A variety of pear. 
4. Banff perfumed with bergamot. 

B«r^-Ole (bSr^nT-kn), n. [LL. bemacula for kiber- 
nietUa, fr. Hibemia; the birds coming from Hibemi': 
or Ireland.] A berniele gooae. [Written also bitnwde.'] 

Bemlele gooae, a goose of Arctao Europe and America, 
formerhr belieyed to be 
batohea from cirripeds of 
the aea. which were, there- 
fore, called bamaciea, gooae 
barnacles, or Anatif ers. 

Btr^ (Mr'ry). ». [Aa 
btrigeJ] L A omaU fruit 
that is pulpy or succulent 
throughout, having seeds 
imbeaded hi the pulp. 2. 
One of the eggs of a fish. ^ 
V. i. To produce berries. 

B«rt]l (bSrth), n, [Fr. 
root of btar to produce, like 
birth natirity.] 1. (a) Con- 
venient sea room. (6) A room for the officers orship*s 
company to mess and reside in. (c) Place where a ship 
lies at anchor, or at a wharf. 2. An appointment ; em- 
ployment. 3. Place for deeping in a ship or railroad 
oar. -mv. t. 1. To give anchorsffe to, or a place to lie 
at 2. To furnish berths to, on sEipboard. 

Bar^ (b«i^l), n. [F., fr. Or. ^iJpvAXo*.] A very 
hard minend or gem, commonly of a green color, but 
also yellow, pink, and white. — Jtor^yl-UlM (-ITn), a. 

Be mmdb f (b<-s8ch0f v. t. [ imp. & v. p. Bbsouoht 
(-sf^tO; p. pr. A vb. n. Bbsbichimo.] [OK. bwchen; 
pref. oe> 4- McA«n to seekj To ask earnestly for. 

Hyn.— To Bbsbbch; eWtrbat; Bolicit; Implors: 
BuppucATB ; beg ; crave. — To toiicit is to make a repeated 
request of a superior. To entrrot implies greater urgen- 
cy, usually enforced by arguments. To o^seech in still 
stronger, and belongs rather to the language of poetry. 
To implore denotes increasRd fervor of entreaty. To tU2>- 
pllcate expressM a state of humiliation. 

R^-umm' (-B8m'), V. i, [Pref. be- -\- #f«m.] To be 
fit, proper for, or worthy of ; to become ; to bent. 

Be-Mf i-eitf), V. t. [AS. betettan ; pref. be- + gettan 
to set.] 1. TobBm in ; to surround. 2. To set upon on 
all Kidea ; to harass. — Bs sefmeilt, n. — B*-aet^f , a. 

Syn* — To surround ; inclose : environ ; hem in : be- 
Aeae ; encircle ; encompass ; embarrass ; urge ; press. 

B*-(i1irtW (-shniO* V. /. To curse ; to execrate. 

B^-wU^ (-sidO, prep. [OE. biHde, Mtiden, biaidei; 
' j-jriide.j I. At the side of. 2. Aside from; 
3. Over and above ; in addition to. 

pref. b&- by 4- iide.j 
out of. 3. Over and 

B9 rid— ^ (•nds'), ) adv. More than that ; moreover ; 

B^^ite' (-sId'), I in addition. 

B*-ridM', prep. Over an d above ; separate or distinct 
from ; in addition to ; other than ; else than. 

B*^rtm' (-aSJOf f . t, [O E. bisegen ; pref. be- -]- wgen 
to aiege.J To beaet or surround with armed forces), for 
the purpose of compelling to aurreuder. 

Syn. — To environ ; hem in ; invest ; encompass. 

Be-riAbOMr (-siXb^r), Ba-iUiv'er (-sixvSr), Be- 
■lObOMT (-alSybSr), Bo-slllbnMr (-siaVb^r), v. i. To 
amear with spittle running from the mouth. 

Be-smear (-smSr^). v. t. To smear with any viscous, 
glutinous matter ; to soil. 

Ba'iom (bS'sQm), n. [A8. beima."] A brush of twigs 
for sweeping ; a broom. 

Bo-lOt' (be->i9tO, V. /. To make sottish, dull, or stupid ; 
to Infatuate.— Be-sotted-ly, adv. — Be-BOt'tod-ness, n. 

Bs-SOOfbt' (-sftf), P- f>. of Besbbcm. 

Be-span'gle (-spCn'f^'l), v.t. To adom with spangles ; 
to sprinkle with something glittering. 

B»-«pftrt«r (-spSt'tSr), V. t. 1. To soil by spattering. 
2. To asperse with calumny. 

Be^q^Mk' (bl-spfikO, r. /. [imp. Bkspokb (-srSlKOt 
Bbspauk {A rc/uiic) ; p. p. Bbspokb, Bespoksm (-spiKk'n) ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. BasPBAKiNo.] [AB. bemrecan to speak 
to ; pref. be- -f spreoan to speak.] 1. To speak or ar- 
range for beforehand. 2. To foretell ; to betoken. 

Be-lpnad' (-spHWOi «'• '• To spread or cover over. 

Bo-sprln'kle (-sprTn'kl). v. t. To sprinkle over. 

BML'tf-mM BlMl' (bCa'fci-mSr stao. Bteel made di- 
rectly from cast iron, by forcing air through the moltan 
metal ; — f r. Bir Henry Beuemer^ the inventor. 

Best (bfist), a. ; mperl. of Good. [AS., contr. fr. betesi^ 
beUi. Bee Brrrmu] 1. Host good, desirable, excellent, 
etc. 2. Moat correct or complete. 3. Moat ; largest. ^ 
n. Utmoat. » adv. ; mperl. of Will. 1. In the higheat 
degree. 2. To the moat advantage ; with the moat ano- 
ceas, ease, benefit, or propriety. 3. Moat thoroughly. 

BeftHel (I fiL'chnl ; 26), a. [F. ; L. be$tialU, fr. beatia 
beast.] Belongirg to a beast, or like a beaat ; bnitaL — 
Bee-tiall-ty (bS^-cl.SlT-ty or les/cbT-nT-tJ^), n. 

Syn.— Bnitith; bea&tly; vile; low; aenaual; filthy. 

Be-Stb' (It-stir'), r. /. To put into brisk action. 

Be^OW (-ste^), r. /. [Pref. be- -f $tow a place.] 1. 
To lay up in store ; to put. 2. To use ; to spply. 3. To 
give ; to iinpart. — Be-«tOW'el, iBc-StOW'meilt, n. 

Syn. — To give; grant; rreeent: confer; accord. 

Be-StnW (-stnt'or -«ti50. r. i. [imp. Butbbwbd 
(-( tr))d' or -atrSd') ; p. p. Bbstrbwbo, Bbbtbowm (-atrCnO ; 
p. pr. & rb. n. Bestrkwikg.] To btrew or acatter over; 
to besprinkle. [Spelt also bettrott.] 

Be-Stlide' (-strldO, t*. /. [imp. Bbktbodb (-ttrSd'), 
(<Jbs. or i?.) Bbstbid (-*trTd') ; p. p. Bbstbzdoeb (-atiTd'- 
d^ii), Bbstrid, Bbstbodb ; p. pr. & rb. n. BBSTBrome.] 
[AS. besMdan ; pref. be- + stridau to stride.] 1. To stand 
or sit with tlie legs astride ; to stand over. 2. To step 
over ; to stride over or across. 

Bet (bet), n. [Prob. fr. OE. abet abetting.] That 
which is staked upon the event of a contest or issue ; the 
giving such a pledpe ; a wager. ^ r. /. To wsger. 

Be-take' (bl-takO, v. t. iiinp. Bbtook (-td6k') ; p. p. 
Bbtakbn (-11% 'n); p. pr. & ib. n. BBXAKWe.] [Pref. 
6f- -f take."] To have recourse to ; to retort. 

Be'tel {WV\), n. [Pg., fr. Tsmil re(filei.1 A species 
of pepper, whose leaves are chewed. 

Batal nnt, the aeed of the areca palm, chewed in the 
East with betel leavea (whence ita name) and shell lime. 

II Bete' noire' (bif nwlir'). [F., lit., black beast.] 
Something efipedally hated or dreaded ; a bugbear. 

Bet]|'el(b6th'Sl),n. [Heb. 6^/A-f/ house of God.] 1. 
Place of worship ; hallowed spot. 2. A chapel for dis- 
senters, in England. 3. A houte of worship for seamr n. 

Be-tblnk' (bt-thTnk'), f . /. [imp. & p. o. BrrHottGirr 
(-that') ; p. pr. & rb. n. Bbthikkino.] [AS, bepettean ; 
be- 4- p^can to think.] To call to mind ; to consider. 

Syn. — To recollect; remember ; reflect. 

Be-tide' (-tidO, V. t. [imp. & p. p. Bbtidbd (-tid'gd), 
Ob*. Bbtid (-tTd') \ vb. n. Bbtidiko.] [Pref. W-, 
be- -f AS. adan^ to happen, fr. lid time.] To happen 
to ; to befall. — r. i. To come to pass ; to occur. 

Be-tlme' (-tim'), \ odr. [Pref. be- (for by) -{■ time; 

Be-tlmee' (-time'), f that is, by the proper time.] 
1. In good season or time ; before it is late ; early. 2. 
In a short time ; soon ; forthwith. 

Be-tolteil c-to'k'n), v. I. 1. To signify by signs or 
tokens. 2. To foreshow ; to indicate something future 
by that which is seen or known. 

Syn. — To presage ; portend : indicate ; mark ; note. 

Be-tOOk' (-td&kO, imp. of Betakb. 

Be-tny' (-tri'), v. t. [OE. betraien ; pref. be- 4- OF. 
trair to betray, fr. L. trai1ere.'\ 1. To deliver to an en- 
emy by treachery or fraud ; to give up faithlessly. 2. To 
be false to ; to deceive. 3. To disclose (a secret). 4. 
To reveal unintentionally. 5. To minlead ; to lead into 
sin. 6. To seduce and abandon. 7. To indicate (some- 
thing not obvious). — Be-tny'al, n. — Be-tny'cr, n. 

&I S, 1, 8, 0, long i ft, C, I, A, il, f, short ; senAte, « vent, tdea, 6bey, finite, cftre, ftrm, Ask, |^1, finaL 





' (U4r«UiOt V. i' [Praf* he- + irotk, I «. 

1. To oootraot to any one for a marrUge ; to 
a. To plight oue*» troth to. — Be-trotlfal, 
Be^rotli'auBtt ». 

Be^tfr (hStOir), a, ; eompar. of Good. [OE. betere^ 
and at adr. bet^ AS. 6etem, adj., and bet^ adv. ; akiu to E. 
hoot adTantafo.] 1. Having good qniditiet in a greater 
degree than another. 2. referable. 3. Improved in 
health.— II. 1. Adrantage, auperiority, or victory. 2. 
A raperior. >— (ufr. ; eompar. of Wux. 1. In a auperior 
manner. 2. More oorreotly or thoroughly. 3. In a 
h%her or groater degree ; more. — v. /. A i. To improve. 

Byii*— To improve; meliorate; ameliorate; mend; 
amend ; correct ; emend ; reform ; advance ; promote. 

Btflfr, B«rtor, n. One who beta or Uys a wager. 

Btflfr-mMit (-ment), ». Improvement. 

Bern (bCt^tf), n. (Ft. BeUy, for Blisabeth.'[ 1. A 
bon^'a ihort bar to wrench doora open. 2. A ou 

occupiea himself with womaninh matters. 
covered with wicker work. 

man who 
a A fladE 

Be-tWMB' (b*-twSn'), prep. [AS. betwe6nan ; prefix 
*»• Iqr + AS. /trd two. See^TwAiif.] 1. In the space 


which aeparates: betwixt. 2. From one to anotlier of 
twa 3. Bel<niging in common to two ; shared by both. 
4. In intermediate relation ta 

Syn. — BsTwanr; Amoho. — Bettcem etymologically 
indfcatfis only two, though it is extended to more than 
two. Among always snppoees more than two. 

Be-tWlMf (-twTkstO, prep. [AS. hetweox ; ml. be- 
by -I- a form fr. AS. hod twa See Bvtwesm.] Between. 

B«r'«l (b«v^), n. [F. biteau.-\ 1. A sUnt of a 
Borface at an angle other than a riftht angle. 
2. An instrument for adjusting surfaoea to a 
given Inclination.— a. Slanting.— v. f. limp. 
A p. p. BmrmiMD (-<ld) or Bktbllko ; p. pr. & 
wb. n. Bbybuho or Bbtclliho.] To cut to » ^^^^ 
bevel angle. — v. <. To slant. S^osrc. 

B«r'er-«CO (-Sr-tJ), n [OF. bevraae. It. 
beivre to driuk, fr. L. bibere."] Liquid for drinkinff ; drink. 

Btfwy (.h8yf)j n. [Perbape orig., a drinkmg com- 
pany, fr. OF. bev4e a beverage; then, a company in 
generaL] 1. A company ; an assembly, esp. of ladies. 2. 
A flock of birds, or herd of roes. 

B*-wafP (b^wIK), r. t. To express deep sorrow for, 
as by waiUng. — r. t. To express grief ; to lament. 

Sjn. — See Dbplorb. 

iM-wart' (-wtr'), r. i. [S«, imper. of Terb to be -\- 
ware.'] To be on one's guard ; to take care. 

Be-Wll'dcr (-wTl'd2r), v. t. [Pref. be- -f- ufUder.} 
To lead into perplexity or confusion. — Be-Wll'der«d 
(•dtrd), a. — Be-Wll'dcr-llMllt, n. 

Syn.— To perplex; puxzle: entangle; confuse ; con- 
found ; mystily ; embarrass; lead astray. 

B*-Wttldl' (-wTch'; 52), v. t. 1. To affect (esp. to 
injure) by witchcraft or sorcery. 2. To please to such 
a degree as to take away power of reatstanoe.— B*- 

Srn^j-- To encnaht ; captivate ; charm ; entrance. 

B»-Wtt(dl1llC, a. Enchanting ; captivating ; charm- 
lof. — Be-wlmliic-ly, adv. 

B*-wny' (-riO, v. t. [OE. biwreyen ; pref. be- -f- 
AS. wriaan to betray.] To expose ; to reveal ; to betray. 

BiT(M),ii. [See BSo a bey.] A Turkish prorincial 
governor ; a prince or nobleman ; a beg. 

BcyHe (-Itk), n. The territory ruled by a bey. 

Be-TOnd' (blt-y5nd0» p»TP. [AS. begeondnn^ prep, 
and adv. ; pref. be- -\- geond yond, yonder.] 1. On the 
farther side of. 2. At a place or time not yet reached ; 
before. 3. Pftst ; out of the reach of ; further than ; 
greater than. 4. Above, as In dignity, excellence, or 
quality <rf any kind. ^ adv. Further away ; yonder. 

Bn^tfl {hUMfSl), n. [F. Mseau sloping edge.] The rim 
fastening a jewel, watch crystal, etc., in its setting. 

M-lliM' (bt-iSkO, n. [F.] A game at cards. 

I (bKng), n. IPbt. bang ; cf . Skr. bhaAgS hemp.] 

A drag fluide from the leavea and oapaulea of wUd hemp 
and chewed or smoked in the Bast aa an Intoxloaat. 

BtAB'gll-lar (bt-Sfi'gtt.lSr), a. [Pref. M- + on^uiar.] 
Having two angles or comers. 

Bi'M (bi'os), n. [F. biais, perh. fr. LL. bifax two- 
faced ; L. 6i« -f faeit* face.] 1. A weight on one side 
of the ball used in bowls, or a tendency Imparted to the 
ball, to turn it from a straight line. 2. A leaning of the 
mind; bent; inclination. 3. A wedge-shaped i^ece of 

cloth taken out of a garment to shape it. 4. A slant ; di< 
agonaL— a. Cut slanting. ^a<f v. Croaswiae ; obUqoely. 
—V. /. To incline to one side ; to prejudice. 

8yn. — SeeBBNT. 

Btb(bTb),n. [L. 6i6ere to drink, the M5 catcUng drink 
dropped from the mouth.] 1. A cloth over a child*a 
breast, to protect the clothes. 2. An arctic fish, allied to 
the cod. — V. t. To drink ; to tipple. 

Bi4M'0lOM (bt-bi'sh&s), a. IL. bibax, blbacu, fr. bi- 
terf Addicted to drinUng. — Bl-bM/l-ty (-bieOr-tJ^), n. 

BIblitr (bTVbSr), n. A tippler. 

BniU (bi'bl), n. [F.; Or. ^t^^(br. dim. of fUfikn 
book, prop., EgyptUn papyrus.] Thb Book ; volume coo- 
tabling the scriptures accepted by GhriaUans as of divine 
origin and authority. — Bull-OU (bibni-kal), a. 

mbOI-otot (Mbni-sTst), n. One learned in the Bible. 

BlbOi-^rM-phy (-Vri^fy). n. [Or. /5*/8Au>ypaAik.j 
A history of books and manuscripts, with notices of dif- 
ferent editions, times when they were printed, etc. — 
BUi'U-Of'ni-^Mr, n.-Bll»ai-»-gnpklo (-^-grSfOk), 

Btb^-O-CXMUl'lCHd, a. 

SfbOl-CHnalll-a (-A-mi'nY-i), n. [Or. /3«^Au»r -\- 
uayui madnees.] A mania for acquiring books. — BtlK- 
ll-0-IIUl'lli-M, n. & a. 

BfbOl^pdto (-«-p01). BSMi^O-Uat, n. [Or. /8*. 
fiHiowtaXiK ; fiififiuw -I- vmAci^ to sell.] A bookseller. — 
BOiato-pQl'lO (-«-p9iak), BO^'n-nMai (-Sp^lSr), a. 

Blbai-0-tlMO(-thek),n. AUbrarian. 

llBflyil-O-tka'M (-thS^), n. [Or. St/BAto^ire; fii. 
jSAtW 4- 0i)ici} case.] A Ubrary. — Btb'U-O-tlM'oal, a. 

BQtnJM (-ITst), n. 1. One who makes the Bible the 
sole rule of faith. 2. A MbUcal scholar. 

BIb'llrlOIUI (-tt-lOs), a. [L. bibuluij fr. bibere to 
drink.] 1. Readily imbibing fluids or moisture ; spongy. 
2. Inclined to tippling. 

BI-€tp'SII-lar(bt.kIp'Bfl-12r;40),a. [Pref. M- -f cop. 
sular.l Having two capsules. 

BI^MrONMl-ato (bt-kk^bSo-tt), n. [Pref. bi- + car- 
bonate.] A carbonate In which but half the hydrogen 
of the acid is replaced by a positive element or radical ; 
an acid carbonate ; —sometimes called tvpercarbonate. 
(Ms), n. [F. bU, akin to It. bigio light 

gray, tawny.] A pale blue pigment. 

BicM/tAomm (bt.««f'4-l&s), a. [Pref. bi- + eepha- 
lom.'\ Having two heads. 

II Bi'09jfm (bl'sXps), n. [L., two-headed ; bii twice -f 
caput head.] A muscle having two heads or origins ; — 
applied to a flexor in the arm and one in the thigh. 

m-dpl-Ul (bt-sTp^-tali, Bi-dpl-toilfl (-t&s), a. [See 
BICBPS.J Having two heads; dividing into two parts. 

Bld[^(Br (Mk'Sr), V. i. [Perh. fr. CelUc] 1. To 
wrangle. 2. To quiver ; to be tremulous, like flame. ^ 
n. A noise ; angry contention. 

Bi'OOl'or (bintfir'ar), I a. [L. bicolor ; bU twice -f eo- 

Bi'OOl'orod(-lfrd), ) lor colorA Of two colors. 

Bfoorn (bincdm). ) a. [L. bicomU; bi* -f 

Bl'OOriMd (-kOmd), > comit horn.] Having two 

Bl-OOr'IlOIIS (bt-kdr'ntts), ) horns; crescentlike. 

Bl-OOr'pO-nl (-kdr^-ral), a. [Pref. H- -f- corporal."] 
Having two bodies. 

Bl-OlU'pid (bt-klis'pTd), \ a. [Pref. bi- + cuepidaU.} 

Bt-CUB'pld-at* (-tt), i Having two prommenoes; 
ending in two points ; —said of teeth, leaves, fruit, eto. 

Bi'OT-Ole (bi'sT-k*l), «. [Pref. bi- + cfde.} A two- 
wheeled velocipede, propelled by treadles. 

f<m, recent, 6rb, rude, f yll, ftm, ftfod, ftfbt, out, oil, eliair, go, slug, ink, then, Ulln. 




Bid (bTd), V. t, [imp. Bade (bXd), Bid, {Obi.) Bad ; 
D. f>. Bn>DBV (Md'd^u), Bid ; p. pr. A vb. n. Biddimo/] 
rAs. bidctan; akin to G. bitten to pray, reque«t, and K. 

headt/aith^ and bide."] 1. To offer ; to offer to pay or to 
take (a certain price). 2. To declare (a greeting, defi- 
ance, etc.). 3. To order ; to command. 4. To invite ; 
to call in.— r. i. To make a bid; to state what one 
will pay or take.^11. An offer of a price; that which 
it offered. — BId'dsr, n. 

8711. — To offer; proffer; tender; propose; order; 
oonunand ; direct ; charge ; enjoin. 

BId'dlllC, n. 1. Command; a notifying. 2. The 
making biJa ; an offer of a price. 

Bld'dy (bTdMj^), n. A name for a hen. 

^d'dy,n. [Brid 

Bld'dy,n. iSridfh 
» (bid), r. i. [AS 

] An IriBh serving girL [Colloq.^ 
^ biddan.'\ To abide ; to stay. — 
V. /. t. To'enoounter ; to endure. 2. To wait for. 

BMABtal (bt-dfin'tal), Bi-d«ll'Ut« (-tftt), a. Having 
two teeth or toothlike processes. 

Bi-«n'lll4d (bt-en'ni-ol), a. [L. biennalig and bienniSt 
fr. biennium space of two years ; bi* -\- annus year.] 1. 
Happening once in two years. 2. Continuing for two 
years, and then perishing, as planU.—n. 1. Something 
which takes place once in two years. 2. A plant which 
lasts for two years. — Bi-eil'lll-al-ly, adv. 

Btor (b^r), n. [AS. 62r, fr. root of K. bear to pro- 
duce.] A frame on which a corpse is borne to the grave. 

BtoBtlngSt BOMtlllCS (bSstTngs), n. pi. [AS. bg»t- 
ina.'] The first milk given by a cow after calving. 

BI-ll'Olll (bt-fi'shol), a. [Pref. W- -f /a««/.] Hav- 
ing the dpposite surfaces alike. 

Bl-fa'll-Oai (-rt-tts), a. [L. bifnnus; bis -f /an to 
speak.] 1. Twofold ; arranged in two rows. 2. Pohit- 
Ing two ways, as leaves that grow only on opposite sides 
of a branch ; in two vertical rows. 

BU'er-oni (bTfSr-as), a. [L. bifer; bis-{-/erre to 
bear.] Bearing fruit twice a year. 

Bl'lld (bl'fTd), Bifl-dAte (bTfT-dtt), a. [L. biftdus; 
bis 4- root of findere to split.] Opening with a cleft. 

Bi-flCmteCbt-flyrtt), )a. [L. bis -\- fias, fioris, 

Bl-flO'roiUi (-flS'rfis), ) flower.] Bearing two flowers. 

W-loTl-ate (-fSnt-tt), a. [Pref. W.-|-/o/ia/tf.] Hav- 
ing two leaves. 

Bl-floai-0-Ute (-6-ltt), a. [Pref. 6i- + L. folium leaf.] 
Having two leaflets, as some compound leaves. 

Biffomi (bi'fOrra), Bifoniied (-fdrmd), o. [L. bi- 
formisf bis -f- forma shape.] Having two forms or 
bodies. —Bi-forml-ty (-fdrm't-ty), n. 

Bl-tar'oate (bt-lfirTtit), \ a. [Pref. bi- -}- furcate.} 

Bt-flir'oa-tedf ) Two-pronged; forked.— 

V. t. To divide into two branches. — Bi'tar-OfttlOIl, n. 

W« (bTg), o. [BiooBB ; Bioowt.J [Perh. fr. Celtic] 
1. Having much bulk or magnitude; large. 2. Great 
with young ; pregnant ; swelling. 

8yn. — Bulky ; Urge ; great ; massive : gross. 

n^'a-my (-a-my ), n. [L. bigamus twice married ; bis 
4- Gr. yifUK marriage.] 
Crime of having two wives 
or husbands at once. — Big'- 
ft-mlsttii. — Blg'a-moiu, a. 

Blg'gtr (-g8r), a., eompar. 
of Bio. 

BIc'ffWt (-gBst), a., su- 
perl. ofBia. 

Bi«'glll(-gTn),n. [F. 6^- 
gnin7\ A child's cap ; hood. 

Btc'gln, n. [Inventor's 
name. ] A coffee pot in which 
boiling water is poured 
through the ground coffee. 

Blgnioni'(-h8m0tn> The 
Rocky Mountain sheep. 

Bigllt(bit), n. [OE. M?/a 
bending ; fr. AS. byht.} 1. A 

Bighorn of Rocky Mu. 

comer, bend, or angle ; a Iiollow. 2. A bend in a coast 
forming an open bay. 3. The double part of a folded 
rope ; a loop. 

BIg'nOM (bTg'nSs), ft. The being big ; aiae ; bulk. 

Blg'Ot (-i!it), n, [F., hypocrite, a name given to Kor- 
mans in France.] One who regards his own faith as 
unouestionably right, and any other as unreasonable or 
wicked ; one bUn<uy devoted to his own church, party, 
belief, or opinion. — BIg'Ot-ad, a. — BIg'et-ry, n. 

8711. — Prejudiced ; intolerant ; narrow-minded. 

Birwlr (-^V)* «»• iBig -\- U!ig.^ A person of oon- 
sequence. \Joeose\ 

II Bl-Km' (b«.ihC5'), n. ; pi. Bwoux (bl-ih»t'). [F.] 
A trinket ; a Jewel. 

Bi-JOQ^ (b^zhCVtrJ^), a. [F. bijouterie. See Bi- 
jou.l Small articles of virtu, as Jewelry, trinkets, etc. 

Bii'QTffatt (bTJ'tt-git), Btni-KOIUI (-gt&s), a. [L. bis 
twice -^jvgare^ -gatum^ to Join.} Having two pairs, as 
of leaflets. 

Bi-laOii-ate (bt-lan>T-U), a. [Pref. bi- + tefrttf/e.] 
Having two lips, as the corok of certain flowers. 

Bl-lam'el-lat» (-Ubn'Sl-ltt), 1 a. [Pref. bi- -f lamel- 

Bl-lam'el-Uttd (-IS'tSd), ) late.} Formed of two 
plates ; having two ridges, as in lips of flowers. 

Bi-lliml-lUUr (-T-n&r), ) a. [Pref. bi- -\- laminar^ lam- 

Bi-Uunl-liata (-ntt), | inate.'] Having two huniiue. 

Bi-lAt'er-al (-lit^r-Al), a. [Pref. M- -f lateral.] 
Having, or arranged upon, two sides. 

BUnbtr-ry (bnn)Sr-rj^), n. [Dan. bollebmr.1 The 
whortleberry ; also, its eaible bluish black fruit. 

Btt-bO (blin)^), n. [Fr. Bilbao^ in Spain, where they 
were made.] 1. A rapier ; sword. 2. pi. A bar of iron 
with sliding shackles, to conflne tlie feet of prisoners. 

Btte (bil), n. [L. bilis."} 1. A yellow, or greenish, 
viscid fluid, secreted by the liver, and aiding digestion. 

2. Bitterness of feeling ; choler ; anger. 

BUge (bnj),' n. [A form of bulae, akin to belly.'] 1. 
The protuberant part of a cask. 2. Broadest part of a 
ship's bottom. 3. Bilge water. — v. t. & i. 1. To frac- 
ture (the bilge) ; to leak through a broken bilge. 2. To 

Bilgs water, foul water collected in the bilge of a veaseL 

im'gy (bTl'jJ^), a. Having the smell of bilge water. 

BUla-ry (blK^i-rj^ ; 26), a. [L. bilu bUe.] Relat- 
ing to, or conveying, bile. 

Bi-Un'gval (bi-lTn'gwol), a. [L. bilinguis; bU -^ 
lingua tongue, language.] Containing, consisting of, or 
expressed in, two languages. 

&II0IUI (bTl'yfis), a. 1. PerUinin^ to the bUe. 2. 
Disordered in respect to the I ile ; havmg excess of bile. 

3. Choleric ; passionate ; ill tempered. 

Bl-lif «r4a (bt-lTt^r-<iI). a. [L. bis + lUtera letter.] 
Consisting of two letters.— n. A word, syllable, or 
root, consisting of two letters. 

Bilk (blik), r. t. To disappoint ; to defraud ; to leave 
in the lurch. —f). 1. A cheat; trick; hoax. 2. One 
who tricks a creditor ; an tmtrustworthy person. 

BUI (bTl), n. [AS. bile beak of a bird, proboscis.] 
Beak of a bird, turtle, etc. — v. i. To Join bills, as doves ; 
to caress. 

BUI, n. The bell, or boom, of the bittern. 

BUI, n. [AS.] 1. A cutting instrument. 2. An ob- 
solete infantry weapon, having a hook-shaped blade, at- 
tached to a long staff. 3. Extremity of the arm of an 
anchor. — V. /. To dig, hoe, hack, or chop, with a bilL 

BUI, n. [LL. MUa (OF. bille), for L. btdla anything 
rounded, LL., seal, stamp, letter, edict.] 1. A written 
legal declaration. 2. A draft of a law. 3. A paper to 
advertise something ; placard ; handbilL 4. An account 
of goods sold, services rendered, etc., with the charge. 
6. A statement of particulars.— v./. 1. To advertise 
by public notice. 2. To charge in a bilL 

BUaet (bT11«t), n. [F., dim. of OF. diOe bOl, a writ- 
ing.] 1. A note ; short letter. 2. A ticket directing sol- 

ft, 8, 1, 8, 0, long ; A, 6, 1, 5, 0, ^, short i SMiUte, gvMit, tdea, 6bay, finite, cArs, ttm, Ask, nil, fliML 




diem where to lodge, ^r. /. To direct (soldiers, etc.), by 
a ticket or note, where to lodge; to quarter (aoldiem) 
In priTBte houses. 

BflOet (bTnSt), n. [F. hiUeUe, bUU, log.] A small 
•tick of wood, or bar of metal. 

|i BUIet-dOOX' {hWnt^oi/), n.; pi. Buxbtb-doitz 
(-d55a0* [P* &^^ note -(- dont sweet.] A love letter. 

Bmiiudl (-y&da), n, [F. billard billiards, OF. 6t/- 
tart gUB^ fr. wHe log.l A game played with ivory balls 
on a rectangular table Dounded by elastic cushions. 

BUMnc (-Tng), a.&n. Caressing ; kisshig. 

BaaiMfB-galf (bnaTngz-gSt/), ». l. a fish market 
in London, celebrated for foul language. 2. Coarse or 
profane language ; vituperation ; ribaldry. 

BUOlmT-yfin). n, [F. biliion, fr. L. bi$ twioe, in imi- 
tation of mUlion a miUiou.1 By French and American 
numeration, a thousand millions, or 1,000,000,000; by the 
E^lish, a million miUions, or 1.000,000,000,000. 

Wl'BUUI (-man), n. One who uses, or in armed with, 
ft bill or hooked ax. 

BUaow (bTint), n. [Cf. Iccl. byls^a biUow ; akhi to 
K. bn/fftf.^ A great wave or surge ot tiie sea. ^ r. t. To 
•ante ; to nndnUte. —BSklOW-j (-1*-^)* a, 

Billy (bTllj^). !». A polieeman*s club. 

Bi-to'bfttS (bt-l^btt or bi'16-b«t), Biaobtd (binSbd), 
a. [Pref. bi + lobnt^, lobetiA Divided intc two lobes. 

Bt-l00^-lar(bM5k'tt-l8r),a. [BU + locular.} Divided 
into two cells or compartnieutA. 

D Blm'a-BA (bTm'A-ni or bi'mi-ni), 
n. pi. [NL. ; L. bi* twice -j- manus 
haaid.] Animals having two hands. — 

BI'llM-taiaio (bfrnl-tUMTk), n. 
rPref. M- + metallic.^ Relating to, or 
using, a dooUe metallic standard (as 
gold and diver) for currency. 

BMnOBtliay (bt-mBnth1>), a. [Pref. _ 

puMication. ^ adv. Once hi two months. 

Bill (bTn), II. [AS. binn manger.] A box or place, 
to hold any oommodity. ^r. /. To put into a bin. 

Bill (bTn). An obsolete form of Bb and Bbh. 

BI'kUI-rT (bl'n*-rj^), a. [L. binariiu, fr. bini two by 

two, fr. root of bit twice.] 'Compounded of two thing^ 
or parte ; characterised "by two (things). — m. "" ' 


which has two figures, things, or parts ; 'two ; duality. 

BfHate (bf ntt), a. Double ; growing in pairs. 

Bind (bind), p. t. limp. Bound (bound); p. p. 
BooHO, formerly BoimoBN (bound^'n) ; p. pr. & rb. n. 
Bnmmo.] [AS. bindan^ perfect tense bandy bundotiy p. 
p. frufMfcn.] 1. To tie witli a cord, band, etc. ; to re- 
strain or hold. 2. To cover, bandage, or dress. 3. To 
protect, by a band or binding, the edge of a carpet or 
nrment. 4. To fasten together, and inclose in a cover 
(ia book, etc.) 6. To hold, bv law, duty, promise, or other 
moral tie. 6. To place under legal obligation to serve ; 
to indenture. — v. t. 1. To tie ; to confine. 2. To con- 
tract ; to grow hard or stiff ; to stick together. »n. 1. 
That which binds or ties. 2. A climbing plant. 

Syn. — To fetter : tie ; fasten ; restrain ; oblige. 

Blad'or-y (•%--«), n. A phu^ where books, or other 
articles, are boimd ; a bookbinder*s establishment. 

Blndflnc, a That binds ; obligatory. 

Stu. - Obligatory ; rdstrabiing; restrictive; strin- 
gent ; astringent ; costive ; styptic^ 
— n. I. Process of one that bhids. 2. Anything that 
binds : bandage ; cover of a book ; something that secures 
the edge of cloth from raveling. 3. pi. The chief tim- 
bers connecting and strengthening parts of a vesseL 

Bte'te-Ol* (bTn'nA-k'l), n. [For bUtaele, corrup. fr. 
I^. bitacola binnacle, fr. L. habitaculum dwelling place, 
fr. kakUare to dwell.] A case containing a shlp^s com- 
pass, and a Ught to show It at night. 

(bTi/^-kM). n. [F. ; L. bini two at a Ume -f 

oculiu eye ] A double-barreled field glass or opera glaaa. 

Bln-OO^-lar (bln-Sk'tt-lSr or bt-n5k'-), a. [See Bin- 

ocLB.] 1. Having two eyes. 2. Pertaining to both eyes ; 

employing both eyes at once. ^n. A bmooular opera 

glass, telescope, or microscope. 
BI-IKKDII-AI (bt-nS', n. 

name.] An algebraic expression of two terms connected 
by the plus sign (+)<»' minus (—). ^ a. 1. Com 
two tenns ; pert, to binomials. 2. Having two 

[L. bis twioe -\- nomen 

1. Consisting of 
us. a. Having 

Bl-Og^a-pbar (-Og'ri-fir), n. A writer of biography. 

BI-orM-phy (-if), n. [Or. fiioypwfua ; fiio% Ufe -f- 
vpo^u' to write.] 1. The written Idstory ot a person's 
life. 2. Biographical writings in genend. — Bl'O-grank'- 
lO (bi'^-grifTk), BI'O-gniiA'IOHd, a. 

Bl-«l'0-iy(bt-51'«-jf),». iQr, fiiot -\- -loffy.-\ Science 
of life, or of living matter as distinct from matter not 
living ; the study of the origin, structure, development, 
function, and distribution of animals and plants. — Bl^o- 
lOfOo (bi/«-19JTk), Bl'O-lOj/lo-al, a. - HrOl't-glst, n. 

filp'ft-nras (bTi/i-raB^, a. [L. bi* twice -f- parere to 
bring forth.] Bringing forth two at a birth. 

Bf ptfUla (bt-piir^Tl), a. Divisible hito two parts. 

WaX'tLH (bTp'ir-tit or bt-p«r^it), a, [L. biparti- 
hUy p. p. Of bipartirt; bi* -f partire to port, divide.] 
1. Being in two parts ; having two correspondent parts; 
shared by two. 2. Divided into two parts almoet to the 
base, as a leaf ; consisting of two parts or subdivisions. — 
Bl'par-titlmi (bf'pKr-tlsh'Qn), n. 

^6d(bi'p6d),n. iL.bipe*; bi*-\-pe*ypedi*,tooi.-\ A 
two-footed animal. ^ a. Having two feet. 

BIp'^-dAl (bTp^-dal or bl'pMal), a. TL. bipedatU,'\ 
1. Having two feet. 2. Pertaining to a biped. 

Bl-pmnuU* (bt-pSn'ntt), ) a. [Pref. bi- + pennate.l 

Bl-ptnlia-tOd (-nt-tSd), I Having two wings. 

Bl-pefal-OlU (bt-pet'al-Os), a. [Pref. bi^ petal- 
otu.'} Having two petals. 

Bl-pbl'lUltt (-pTn'ntt), )a. [Pref. bi- -{- pinnate.^ 

m-pin'lia-ted (-nt-tSd), I Twice pinnate. 

BlpOI-oate (bTpnT-ktt or bi'plT- 
ktt), o. [Pref. W- + plicuie.] 
Twice folded together. 

BI-qOAd'nte (bt-kwSd'rtt), n. 
[Pref. M- + 9ua</ra<e.] The fourth 
power, or square of the square. 
Thus 4 X 4 = 16, square of 4, and 
10 X 16 = 256, biquadrate of 4. 

BI'QllAd-ntl0(bPkwM-rSt1k), n. 
Pertaining to the biquadrate. 

Bipinnste Lcnf of 8 
pinn« ami man/ 

fourth power, ^n. (a) A biquad- 
rate. (6) A biquadratic equation. 

BlTQll (bSrch), n. [AS. birce, 
beorr.} 1. A tree of several species. 
2. The timber of the birch. 3. A birch twig, used for 
flogging. 4. A birch-bark canoe. —a. Pertaining to 
the birch ; birchen. — v. t. To whip with a birch rod ; 
to flog. — Blroh'eiii a. 

Blld (bSrd), n. [AS. bridd young bird.] ]. Orig., a 
chicken ; the young of a fowl ; a young eaglet ; a nest- 
Ung. 2. A warm-blooded, feathered vertebrate, having 
winirs. — v. <. To catch or shoot birds. 

Blrd'oall' (-kulO. n. 1. Imitation of a bird^s note, to 
decoy its mate. 2. Whistle sounding a birdcall. 

BirdOlmf (-GmO, n. [Bird -f lime viscous sub- 
stance.] An adhesive viscid substance smeared upon a 
tree, so as to hold birds which light upon it ; a snare. — 
t'. /. To smear with birdlime ; to insnare. 

BlrdV-«7f (bSrdxTO, a. 1. Seen from above, as if 
by a flving bird ; embraced at a glance ; hence, general ; 
not minute or detailed. 2. Harked with spots resem- 
bling bird's eyes. » n. A plant with a small bright flower. 

BIrd'f nest' or BlidV-nett' (-nfet^), n 1. The ne^ 
in which a bird lays eggs and hatches her young. 2. 
An orchideous plant with matted roots. 

f<m, recent, 6rb, rude, fyll, Urn, fcibd, f<^t, oat, oil, chair, go^ •>">! iu^i then, thin. 




(bi'rim), n, [L. hir^mit ; bis twice + remu* 

mr.l An ancient galley with two tNuiks or tiers of oars. 

Btrth (bSrtb), n. LAB. btarS^ gebyrd^ fr. beran to 
bring forth. See Bbas to support.] 1. The coming 
Into life, or being bom. 2. LiuMwe ; extraction. 

Sjn. — Parentage ; extraction ; uneage ; race ; family. 

Btftll'day' (-<ii^)t n. 1. Day on whicli one la born ; 
day of origin. 2. Anniversary of one's birth, —a. Per- 
taining to the day of birth, or its anniversary. 

Blrth'lliaik' (-mKrkO, n. 

body at birth. 

A uuurk or blemish on the 
[is bom. I 

^ j'plaot' (-plis'), n. Town or country where one j 

Btftli'Mcllt' (-rft^)f »• Any right, privilege, or poe- 
session to which one Is entitlMl by birth. 

Bis (bTs), adv. [L.] Twice ; — a word showing that 
something is, or Is to be, repeated. 

Bis'oatt (blsOcYt^ n. [F., fr. L. frf« + coqnerf., eoe- 
tum, to cook.] 1. Unraised bread, formed into cakes, 
and baked hard. 2. A small cake of bread, raised and 
ahortened. d. Earthenware baked but not gUced ; un- 
glased porcelain, used for vases, figures, etc. 

Bi-flaot' (bt-sSkf), v.t. [L..6W -I- tteare, tectum, to 
cut.] To cut or divide into two parts, esp. Into two 
equal parte. — BtHMO^tlOB, n. 

Bi-Mg^Blillt (-sig'ment), ». [Pref. 6»- 4- tegmeni.^ 
One of two equal parts of a line, or other magnitude. 

Bi-SOTll-ai {rdka^t-al ; 40), a. [Pref. hi- -\- wzual.'] 
Of both sexes ; hermaphrodite. 

Blull'OP (bTsh'Qp), n. [AS. bitc^op, L. epitcopus. Or. 
iwioKomot ; iwi over + atcowot inspector, vmowtlif to look 
to.] 1. A spiritual overseer or head of a diocese, bishop- 
ric, or see. 2. A pieoe in the game of chess, marked by 
a biihop*s miter. 

BIsll'op-rio (-rTk), n. [AS. bisceojtrlce ; bUctop -f- 
rfoe dommlon.] Diocese; office of a bishop. 

BIs'lBlltll (oTi^ath), n. [Oer.] One of the chem- 
ical elements ; a metal of recidish white color, harder 
than IflMd, britUe, and easily fused in the flame of a can- 
dle. — BLnmitli-Al, Bto^Qth-lo, BtsHiiitli-oiw, a. 

Bi'Mm (bi'sdn), n. [L. ; Or. fiitrw wild ox.] (a) The 
aurochs or European bison. (6) The American buflfalo, a 
lai^e, gregarious bovine quadruped, now nearly extinct. 

American Biaon, male. 

BUHMStlto (bTs-sSkstTl), n. [L. biss^rtUU anntin, 
fr. bi*»exiu» {bUt ^ ttrtUM sixth, fr. xn* six) 6th of the 
calends of March (Feb. 24). reckoned twice every fourth 
year, by Intercalating a day. ] Leap year. — n. Pertain- 
mg to leap year. 

BiStar ) (bTs'tSr), n. [F. histre a color made of soot.] 

BIstrS I A brown pigment extracted from wood Root. 

BtotOIMT (-td6-ry), n. [F. bistourLI A surgical in- 
strument for InciKinnM. 

Bi-SQl'Oate (bt-sfiinctt) [pref. bi- 4- mhatf^, Bi-mil'- 
OODS (-kOsV a. 1. Having two grooves or furrows. 2. 
Cloven ; Mid of a foot or hoof. 

Btt (bU), n, [AS. bUe Wte, fr. bUan to bite.] The 
mouthpiece of a bridle. » v. t. To put a bridle upon ; to 
put the bit in the mouth of. 

Bit, imp. & p. p. of Brra. 

Bit (Mt), n. [AS. biioy fr. bUan ; akin to O. bissen 
bit.] 1. A part of anything ; morsel ; bite. 2. Somewhat ; 
something, but not very great ; jot ; whit. 3. A tool for 

Bitch (bTch), n. [AS. biece.1 The fimale of the 
caniue kind, as of the dog, wolf, and fox. 

Bite (bit), r. /. & i. (imp. Brr (bit) ; p. p. Birm 
(-t'li), Bit ; p. pr. & vb. n. Bitino.] [AS. Wan ; akm 
to L. finderf to cleave.] 1. To seize, or wound, with the 
teeth. 2. To puncture, abrade, or sting. 3. To take hold 
of; to hold fast.— n. 1. A seising or separating with 
the teeth or mouth. 2. A woimd made by biting. 3. A 
morsel; as much as is taken at once by biting. 4. The 
hold or purchase of a tool or machine. — Bit'ar, n. 

BttinC (bitTng), a. Sharp ; cutting ; sarcastic. 

Bitt«r (bTtt^r), a. [AS. biter; akin to E. M/«.] 1. 
Having a peculiar, acrid, biting taste. 2. Causing pain ; 
sharp ; poignant ; distressing ; pitiable. 3. Harsh ; stem ; 
virulent. — Bit^V-ly, adv. — Bitter-MM, n. 

Syn. — Acrid ; sharp ; harsh ; pungent ; stinging : cut- 
ting ; severe ; acrimonious. 

Bitt«r-iall, a. Somewhst bitter. 

Bittern (-tSm), n. [F. butor.'^ A wading bird of 
both hemispheres, allied to the herons. 

Bittern, n. [Fr. BrrrsB.] 1. Brine remaining In 
salt works after the salt is concreted. 2. A bitter com- 
pound used in adulterating beer. 

Bittere (-tSrz), n. pi. A liquor, generally spirituous, 
in which a bitter herb, leaf, or root u steeped. 

Blt'ter-SWeet' (-swStO, a. Sweet and then bitter; 
sweet with a bitter aftertaste ; having pleasure mixed 
with pain. ^ n. Anjrthing which is bittersweet. 

BittS (bito), n. pi. [Cf. Icel. bUi beam.1 A frame of 
two strong timbers In a ship, on which to fasten cables. 

Bi-tntlieil (bT-tu'm8n), n. [L.] Asphalt, or mineral 

Sitch ; a bUck, tarry substance, burning with a bright 
ame, and used in cements, for pavements, etc. 

Bi-tn'mi-iuite (-mT-nSt), Bi-tntni-iilie (nis), r. (. 

To prepare, treat, impregnate, or cement with bitumen. 

— sl-tll'mi-lll-iatiOIl. n. [containing, bitumen.! 

Bi-tntnl-noiU (-nns), a. Like, compounded with, ori 
Bi'TllTe (bl'v«v), n. [F. ; W- (L. W*) -|- valvt valve.] 

1. A mollusk whose 
shell consists of two 
lateral valves Joined 
by an elastic liga> 
ment at the hinge. 

2. A pericarp in 
which the seed case 
splits into two 
valves. — a, Hnv- 
ing two shells 
or valves. — Bi'- 
▼idTed (-vXlvd), 
Bi-fal'Tons, Bi- 
▼al'Tu-lar (-vtt- 

I8r), a. 

BiTi-oni (I'TvT- , 
n» or bI'vT-Qs), a. 
[L. bivins: bi* -f- 
ria w»y.] Having, 
or 1eadin?,two wnys. 

BiT'onao (bTv'wHc or bTv'»-Ik), n. [F. ; prob. fr. 
O. britcache : bei by, near -f- wachen to watch.] (o) The 
watch of a whole army by night, (fc) An encampment 
without tenU. — v. i. [imp. & p.p. BnrouACUD (-wikt) ; 
p. pr. & vb. n. BrvouACKiKO.] To encamp for the night 
without covering. 

Biweekly (bi'wSk'iy ), a. & ndr. [Pref. W- -f w«Wy.] 
Occurring once every two weeks. — n, A fortnightly 

Bi-iarre' (bt-xHrO» o. [F., odd, fr. 8p. bizarro brave, 
liberal.] Otid in manner or appearance ; grotesone. 

BUb (blSb), r. /. & <. [CL Q.plapp€rn,QtuB\.blabaran 

Inuidc of Right Valve of s Blvolve. 
I fl' Anterior and Posterior abductor 
mu»cle ImprfMion* ; ;» PalHal line ; « 
Finns : r Cardinal tooth ; / I Ijitcnil 
terth ; h Limmrnt « L Lunule ; m 
Umbo ; V Ventral margin. 

ft, «, I, S, a, long ; ft, e, 1, », tt, fy short ; senfite, «vent. Idea, 6bey. finite, cAre, Jirm, ask, j»ll, fna!. 


prob. imitotlTe.] T6 tell onnnof—rUy, 
or Ulk induorwtly ; to tattle. — ». A bebbler ; telltale. 
BUok(bUac),a. [A8.U»e;akiiito8ir.6/iid;ink.] 1. 
Destitute of light ; of a Tery dark color, tlie opposite of 
wkite; very dark or gloomy. 2. Diamal; forbidding; 
cruel; mournful; horrible. 3. Threatening; sullen; 
forebodii«.— adv. Sullenly; maliciously.— n. 1. That 
which is destitute of light or whi t e n ess ; the darkest 
color. 2. A black pigment or dye. 3. A negro.— v. /. 
1. To make black. 2. To soil ; to sully. 

nd witches . 

», or graphite.- 


J art, art of conjurers and wit<^ ; nuu^i 

tbeSu English ordothic letteV, m wliich early BngHsH 
manusoripu were written, and the first Knglfsh books 
printed. — Blask shesp, one in a family who is unlike the 
rest, and makes trouole. . ^ , ^ ^ . »_ 

Syn* —Dark : murky ; pitchy ; inky ; sombre ; dusky ; 
gloomy ; swart ; ebon ; atrociouiL ^ . ,^ 

BUok'ft-moor (-A-inobr), n. IBlaek + Moor.} A negro. 

BlAokflMll' (-bnl'}, n. 1. A composition for blaoUug 
ahoes, boots, etc 2. A ball of bhu:k color used as a 
negative in rotlng.— v. L 1. To rote against, by put- 
tii^ a black ball into a ballot box ; to exclude. 2. To 
blMsken (leather, shoes, etc) with blacking. 

BlMlTMr-ry (-bSr-rj^), n, [AS. blmcberie ; Ume + berie 
berry.] Fruit of the bramble ; the pUnt itself. 

BuoklArd (-b8rd), n. In Bugland, a species of thrush; 
merle In America the name is giren to sevenU birds. 

Blaok'bOftid' (-bOrd^), n, A black surface on which 
writing, drawing, etc, can be done with chalk or crayons. 

BllMlfeB(bltt''n), V. t. 1. To make black; to darken. 
2. To defame —v. », To grow black or dark. 

8yiu — To defama ; tUI^ ; slander ; calumniate ; tra- 
duje; malign; asperse. 

BUok'CUrd (bUb'gi&rd), fi. 1. Orig., a menial 
cmutted by handling kitchen utenaila. 2. Que who uses 

tl^irrillWI^ Wg"«g * ; * ■ nftmwi rftl ; a rtmgh.^r. I. ToT9- 

Tileorabose.— a. Scurrilous; low; worthless; ricious. 

— BUok'furd-lm, m. 

BUuak.'gmaA-'^y adv. & a. like a Maokguard. 

BiMkUg (USktng), n. L A preparation for giTing 
a black luster to shoes, stoves, etc. 2. A making black. 

Blaekisll, a. Somewhat black. 

BUskOer (-U^)« M. 1. A notorious gambler. 2. 
A disease among calves and sheep, cluuracterised by a 
settling of gdatlnous matter in the legs or neck. 

BlM'-l«t'tor (-Uk/tSr), a. 1. Written or printed in 
bUck letter. 2. Given to the studv of books in black 
letter, that is, of old books ; out of date. 

Blaok'aMll' (-toil'), 11. [Blaek -^^ mail a piece of 
money.] Bxtortion of money by threats of exposure or 
oensure. ^ v. <. To extort money from bv exdtinff fears 
ol iiijury. [in wickedness. I 

BUoiriHWi n. A being black ; black color ; enormity | 

Biaok'gmttll' (-smTthOt n. {Black (color of metal) -h 
smUfL} 1. A smith who works on iron utensils, horse- 
shoe*, etc 2. A fish of the PiMific coast, of a blackish color. 

BUoklllom' (•tbOm'), n. (a) A spreading thorny 
shrub ; the sloe, lb) A species of hawthorn. 

BlAd'dcr (blid^d^r), n. [AS. MAfre.] 1. A bag or 
sac containing fluid ; a vesicle or blister. 2. Anything 
infl\ted or unsound. — v. /. To put up in bladders. 

BUte(blid),n. FAS. M0</ leaf. 1 1 Leaf , or flat part 
of the leaf, of any plant. 2. (^tnng part of an instru- 
ment. 3. Broad part of an oar; arm of a screw propeller. 
4. Scapula or shoulder blade. 5. A reclcleas fellow. 

fault. - 


ttlT, adv. 

— Cei 


to (blim'4-b*l), 
— BUm'ft-ttto-i 


_„ _ . UU i VUUUVI 

proach; fault; sin; crime; wrongdoing. 
~" "-' 1. MeriUng blame ; faulty. 

condemnation; re- 
2. Fanlt- 

flnding; censorious. 

BlAIM'toM (-Ifis), a. Free from blame or fault ; in- 
nocent. — BlauMOaM-ly, adv. — BlanMOaM-iiMS, n. 

Syn. — Blamkliss ; SroTLns ; Faultlbs ; Btawums ; 
irreproachable ; sinless ; unblemished. — We speak of a 
thing as blameless when it is free from just imputation of 
fault ; as faultless^ stainless, or spotless^ when we mean 
that it is absolutely uHthout fault or blemish. We also ap- 
Vlr/aultless to personal appearance ; as, % faultless figure ; 
wnioh can not be done with any of the other words. 

L Scapula or shoulder blade. 5. A reck 
BUmOMNM^ C-bSn')* n. The scapula. 
BUld'6d(blIdn(d),a. 1. Having a bhi^ 

,, - - I blade or blades. 2. 

Divested oi blades';' aa, bladed cmn. 3. Composed of 
long and narrow plates, shaped like the blade of a knife. 

Mala (blin), %, [AS. blfgen.'\ A pustule or blbter. 

1^**— (blim), 9. t. [F. blAmer^ L. btasphemare^ Or. 
fiAojff^ilnsuf to aiander, to bUspheme.l To censure ; to 
fin<l fault with.— n. 1. An expression of disapproba- 
tioti; imputation of fault; censure. 2. Culpability; 

(bl4uch), V. t. [F. blanchir, fr. blanc white] 

1. To take the color out of, and make white ; to bleach. 

2. To whitewash ; to palliate. — e. i. To grow white 
Blaao-muim' (bUi-mKMih'), n. [F. blano^manger^ 

lit., white foocT; hlanc + manger to eat.] A preparation 
for desserts, etc., made from isinglass, sea moss Mid corn- 
starch, etc., with milk. [ana soothing; miavel 

BUlld(blind),a. [L. MomftM.] Mild ; soft ; smooth 

BUUI-^'M11I0IIM (blln-dll'ft-'kwens), n. [L. bUm- 
diloqueniia; bUmdus -j- loqui to speak.] Mild^ flatter- 
ing speech. 

^Uan'dtoll (blln'dTsh), V. t. [F. blandir, fr. L. 
blandirit fr. blandus.'] To flatter with kind words or 
affectionate actions ; to cajole — BlAOfdlgll-IIMOt, fi. 

Blank (blink), a. [F. blane, fem. blanehe.} 1. Of 
a white or pale oolor. 2. Free from writing, printing, 
or marks; having an unpty space to be filled In with 
some speoUl writing. 3. Utterly dfscomfited. 4. 
Empty ; void ; fruitless. 6. Lacking variety, interest, 
hope, animation, intelligence, etc. ; expressionless ; 
vacant.— II. 1. A void space; interval w(Ad of oon- 
sdousnesa, action, result, etc ; a void. 2. A ticket In 
a lottery which draws no prise. 3. A paper unwritten ; 
blank ballot ; paper to contain designated items of in- 
formation, for which spaces are left vacant. 4. A legal 
instrument, deed, release, writ, etc., with spaoee left to 
be filled with names, date, descriptions, etc 6. The 
point aimed at in a target, marked with a white spot. -~ 
BUnklT, adv. — Blaak'MM, n. 

BUn'ktt (blSo'ket), n. [F. blanchet, prop., white 
woolen stuff, dim. of blane white.] A heavy, loosely 
woven fabric, usually of wool, used fn bed clothing, as a 
robe, as a cover for a horse, etc^v. /. 1. To cover 
with a bUnket 2. To toss in a bUuiket 

Blart (bltr), V. i. & t. [Prob. im<taUve.1 To sound 
loudly and harshly.- n. A loud and harsh noise, like 
the blast of a trumpet ; a roar or bellowing. 

Blar'kMy (bliir'nj^), n. [Blarney^ a village and castle 
near Cork, in Ireland.! Smooth, wheedling talk; flat- 
tery. —V. t. To wheedle with smooth talk. 

II BU-fl^ (bl4-st0, a. [F.] Having tiie sensibilities 
deJMlened by excess of enjoyment ; surfeited ; used up. 

Blas-plMIIM' (blis-f8m'), v. I. [Or. fikaa^vnjitlv. 
See Blamb.] To speak of with impious irreverence ; to 
revile (anything sacred). — v. ^ To utter impious lan- 
guage. — Blu-plMiii'er, n. — Blaa'plM-moui (blis'f t- 
mHs), a. — Blaa^olM-iiioos-lir, (m/v. 

Blaa'plie-mT (-ft-my ), n. 1. Impious speech against 
Ood or sacred things. 2. Calumny : abuse ; vilification. 

Blast (blist), n. [AS. 6tii«/.] 1 A violent gust of 
wind. 2. A forcible stream of air from a bellows, the 
mouth, etc 3. Sound made by blowing a wind instru- 
ment. 4. A sudden, pernicious effect, as if by a noxious 
wind ; a blight. 5. The rending heavy masses of rock, 
earth, etc., bv explosion of gunpowder, dynamite, etc. : 
charge used for this purpose. 6. A flatulent disease of 
sheep. — r. /. 1. To wither ; to blight ; to shrivel. 2. 
I To rend open by gunpowder, dynamite, etc. ; to shatter. 

Blatant (blS'tant), a. [Cf. Blsat.] Bellowing, as a 
I calf ; bawling ; disagreeably clamorous ; sounding harshly. 

fSm, reotfofe, 6rb» ryds, f^ ttxn^ f^Tod, tcn>(, out, oil, eliair, ^o* •*»«* i||k, then, thin. 




I (bUb), n. [AS. blmse, bUue.l 1. A ttream of 

bumiug gas or vi^r ; bright flame. 2. Intenae light, 
with beat. 3. A white spot oo a hone's forehead. 4. 
A spot made on a tree by ohipphig off the bark. 

Hjxk. — Blazb ; Flams. — In blaze the idea of light rap- 
idly evolved ia prominent, with or without heat. Flame 
includM a stronger notion of heat. 
— r. i. 1. To ahine or glow with flame. 2. To send forth 
brilliant light, ^v. t. 1. To mark (a tree) by chipping 
the bark. 2. To deaiffnate ; to mark out. 

BltM, V. t. [OE. blasen to blow.] To make public 
far and wide ; to render oon^icuoua. 

BUICNI (bli'z'n), n, [F. blaton coat of anna. OF. 
shield, fr. root of AB. 6to«e blase, splendor.} 1. An 
heraliuc shield ; coat of arms ; armorial beanngs. 2. 
The depicting heraldic bearings. 3. Ostentatious di»- 
flay ; record. —v. /. 1. To depict in colors ; to publish 
Ux and wide. 2. To deck ; to adorn. — BU'lon-ry, n. 

Btoaoh (blich), V. I. & i. [AS. Mician, bl&can, to 
grow pale ; Uac pale. Bee Blbax.1 To make or become 
white, or whiter ; to blanch ; to whiten. — Bleooh'er, n. 

BlMOh'er-y (-Sr^), n. Place where bleaching is done. 

Bleak (blik), a. [AS. Mac, bUU^ pale, wan.] 1. 
Desolate and exposed. 2. Cold and cutting.— n. A 
small European river fish, the blay, whose scales have a 
sUvery pigment. — BlMklBll, a. — Btoak'&flM, n. 

BlMT 0>lSr)t V. /. [OE. bleren ; perh. Ir. root of blmk.'\ 
To make (Uie eyes) sore or watery ; to dim (tlie Bight) ; to 
obscure (perception) ; to hoodwink, —a. 1. Dim or sore 
with water or rheum. 2. Causing or caused by dimness 
of sight ; dim. — BlMT'-eyod' (-idO, BlMr^ (blSr'j^), a. 

Bloat (biSt), V. i. [AS. blXian; prob. imitative.] To 
make the noise of a sheep ; to cry like a sheep or calf. — 
n. A plaintive cry like that of a slieep. 

Bled (blSd), imp, & p. p. of Blkbo. 

BlMd (blSd), V. i, [AS. blidan, fr. UOd blood.] 1. To 
lose blood ; to run wiUi blood. 2. To let blood. 3. To 
shad one's blood; to die by violence. 4. To lose sap, 
gum, or Juice ; aa, a tree ^hen tapped or wounded. 6. 
To pav or lose money. lCollog.]^v. t. 1. To let 
blood from. 2. To lose (blood) ; to emit (sap). 3. To 

draw money from. 

aemlaa (biSmTsh), v. t. 

[OF. hlemir^ Uexmiry to 

strike, injure, soil, fr. Uemey blesme, pale, wan.] 1. To 
mark with deformity ; to mar. 2. to tarnish (reputa- 
tion or character) ; to defame. — n. A mark of deform- 
ity or injury ; smirch upon reputation. 

Syn. — Spot ; speck ; flaw ; deformity ; stain ; defect : 
fault ; taint ; reproach ; dishonor ; imputation ; disgrace. 

BUinoil (bICnch), v, t [AS. blencan to deceive ; akin 
to blink to deceive.] To shrink ; to flinch ; to quail. 

Blond (blSnd), v.t.&i, [A3, blandan to blend, mix.] 
To mix or mingle together ; to combine so that the things 
mixed, or the line of demarcation, can not be distin- 
guished. — > n. A thorough mixture, merging, or shading. 

8yn. — To combine : fuse : merge ; harmonise. 

nondo, n. [G., fr. blenden to blind, dazsle, fr. blind 
blind.] (a) A zinc sulphide, often containing iron ; — 
called also sphalerite^ mock leady false galena^ and black- 

^aek. (6) A general term for mptaliic sulphides of a 
rilliant but nonmetalllc luster. — Blond'OlU, a. 

Blont (blSnt), imp. & p. p. of Blbnd. Mingled. 

BlOOa (bItSs), V. i, [AS. Netsian, fr. blOd bio ad •- prob. 
orig., to consecrate by sprinkling with blood.] ll To 
make holy; to consecrate. 2. To confer happiness 
upon. 3. To invoke a blessing upon. 

BlOBS'od (bl8s^d), a. 1. Hallowed ; worthy of ado- 
ration ; holy. 2. Enjoying bliss ; happy ; Iiighly 
favored. 3 Imparting happiness : blissful ; joyful. 
4. Beatified. — Bloso'od-ly, wlr. — BlosB'ed-nesB, n. 

8yn. — Delight; beatitude; ecstasy. See Happimrss. 

Bloaalngt n, 1. The act of one who blesses. 2. A 
declaration of divine favor, or an imploring divine favor ; 
benediction. 3. A means of happiness ; beneficent gift. 

Bloat (blSst), a. Blessed. 

Blot (bUlt), M. [F., a., soft from over ripenoM,] A 
form of decay in over-ripe fruit. 

Blow (blu), imp, of Blow. 

BUok'oy (blTk'^), n. ID. blik tin,} A tin dinner palL 

BUfllt (blit), V. /. [Perh. contr. fr. AS. btteeitan to 
glitterj To affect with blight ; to blast ; to ruin. — 
v.i. To be affected bv blight. — n. 1. MOdew ; decay ; 
anything which impairs or destroya. 2. A speoiea of 
aphis, or plant louse, destructive 
to fruit trees. 

Bltnd (blind), a. [AS.] L 
Destitute of sight. 2. Unable 
or unwilling to understand or 
judge ; undiscriminating ; incon- 
siderate. 3. Mot easily discern- 
ible ; hidden ; unseen ; Intricate ; 
not easily traced. 4. Having 
no openings for light or pas- 
sage ; open only at one end. b. 
Unintelligible; lUegible.— r. /. , 

J.. To aepnve or uRht or discern- ' ma^ - 

ment ; to dazzle. 2. To conceal ; Apple BUght : a Mstu 
to deceive. -n. 1. Something feV--r*.»:i..I?™i 


Winglewi, asexual form i 
d The Mune with downy 
s«cr«tioD reinovsd ; < 
Vivet of twig with the 
inwct in place, nat. size i 
acd are enlarged. 

to hinder sight or keep out light ; 
a screen ; shutter for a window ; 
blinder for a horse. 2. Some- 
thing to mislead or to conceal ; 
a subterfuge. 

BUnd'or (-ir), n. 1. One that blinds. 2. Screen on 
a hnrce's bridle, to hide objects at the side ; a blinker. 

BUnd^ld' (-fSldO, r. /. [AB- biind + prob. JelUm 
to strike down.] To cover the eyes of ; to hinder from 
seeing.^ a. Having the eyes covered; reckless. 

Blmd'ly, adv. without sight, discernment, or under- 
standing ; without thought or purpose of one's own. 

BUndlnail'a trafT (bUnd'mlnz b&f'). A pUy in 
which a blindfolded person tries to catch one of the 
company and tell who it is. [ally or figuratively. I 

BUnd'kloaa, n. State or condition of being blind, liter- 1 

BUBd'Wonil' (-wflnu^), n. A snuxll, burrowing, snake- 
like, limbless lizard, with minute eyee, popularly be- 
lieved to be blind ; the slowworm. 

BUnk (blink), r. i. [O. & D. blinken, AB. bOean to 
shine ; £. bleak.] 1. To wink ; to see with the eyes half 
shut, or indistinctly and with frequent winking. 2. To 
twinkle; to glimmer. ^r. /. To shut out of sight; to 
evade ; to shirk. — n. 1. A glimpse or glance. 2. Gleam ; 
sparkle. 3. Dazzling whiteness of the horizon caused by 
light reflected from fields of ice at sea; ice blink. 

BUnk'ard (-3rd), n. 1. One who blinks, as with weak 
eyes. 2. That which twinkles or glances, as a dim star. 

BUnk'or (-Sr), n. 1. One that blinks. 2. A blinder 
for horses; whatever obstructs sight or discernment. 3. 
pi. A kind of goggles, to protect the eyes from glare, etc 

Bliaa (blTs), n. [AS. bli*, bttffi^ fr. bHSe blithe.] 
Orig., blithesomeness ; gladness : now, the highest degree 
of happiness; exalted felicity; heavenly Joy. — Blfiia'- 
tm, a. — BUaaful-ly, adv. — Bllaalu-noaB, n. 

Bliator (-tSr), n. [OD. bluyster, fr. root of blasts 
bladder, 6/otr.] 1. A vesicle of the skin, c<mtaining wa- 
tery matter or sei-um. 2. A superficial elevation, as on 
plants or the surface of steel. 3. A plaster of Spaniab 
flies, or other matter, applied to raise a blister. — v. <. 
To rise in blisters. — v. t. To raise a blister upon. 

Blitho (blitfa), a. [AS. bllSe.} Oay; merry ; sprightly ; 
joyous ; glad. — Blitholir, adr. — BUtllO'aoniO, a. 

Blla'aaid (bllz'zSrd), n. [Formerly, in local use, a 
rattling volley ; cf. "to blaze awav" to fire away.] A 
gale of piercingly cold wind, usually accompanied with 
fine and blinding snow ; a furious blaft. {U. S."] 

Bloat (bl5t), V. t. & i. [Cf. Icel. blotna to become 
soft, blatitr soft, wet] To puff out; to swell.— n. A 
term of contempt for a worthless, dissipated fellow. 

a, o, 1, 3, fit long ; ii, £, 1, 5, A, ft aliort ; senftte, ^vent, tdea, dbey, finite, cftre, ttrm, ask, {|U, finaL 




I (bWt), V. L 


To dry (berringB) in nsoke. 

The common harriog, e«p. when of 

lane aiie, smoked, and half dried. 

moA OMk\ n. [OE. blok; cf. F. Moe a block; 
Uoquer to block.] L A man of wood, stone, etc., 
onmlly with one or more plane faces. 2. A wooden mold 
for ihaping hats, bonnets, etc. 3. Row of houses. 4. A 
grooved poUey or sheave in a frame having a hook, eye, 
or strap, to attach it to an object, to raise or move it. 
6> A stop; obstacle. 6. A piece of box or other wood 
for engravers* work, ^v.t, 1. To prevent passage from, 
through, or into, b/ obstructing the way. 2. To secure 
or aupport by Uooks. 3. To shape on, or stamp with, a 

Bl0dk-ad«^ (bl9k-id0, n. [It. blooctUa,'] 1. The 
shotting up of a place by troops or ships. 2. An obstruc- 
tion to passage.— V. t. 1. To shut up (a town or for- 
tress). 2. To obetmct passage. — Blook-Ad'er, ». 

BIOdkllMd' (-hSdO, n. A stupid feUow ; dolt. 

BlOQk'hOIlM' (•bous'), IK 1. A wooden fort. 2. A 
boose of squared logs. [ West. & South, U. 5.] 

Bloortok, a. Like a block ; stupid ; duU. — mocT- 
lall-lT, adv. — BlOOk'llll-MM, n. 

BlODl'a-IT (bl05m'i-rf), n. Bloomery. 

Bl0Bd,BIOIlde(bl0nd),a. [F., fair, light] Of a fair 
oolor ; light-colored. — n. 1. A person of fair com- 
plexion, with light hafar and blue eyes. 2. Silk Ukce oria- 
uially of the color of raw silk, now sometimes dyed; 
— cadled also btond laee. 

BIOOA (blBd), n. [AS. bl9d.^ 1. The red fluid circu- 
lating in animal bodies. 2. Belationsliip by natural de- 
aceot; consanguinity; kinship. 3. Lineage; honorable 
birth. 4. The shedding of blood ; murder ; manslaugh- 
ter. 6. Temper of mind ; disposition. 6. A man of fire 
or spirit ; a gay, showy man ; a rake. 

Mssi hsa*, beat equal to the temperature of human 
blood, or about 98}^ Fahr. — Blood hens, a horse of the 
porest stock. — Blood vssssi, a vessel, artery, or vein, fai 
which Uood circulates In an animal. 

BtoOdftd, o. Havmg pure blood ; of approved breed. 

BtoO^jprilr y (^g tlVf)^ a. OuUty of murder or blood- 

BlOOdflMOBV (-hound'), n. A breed of powerful dogs, 
remarkable for aouteness of smell, and empli^ed to re- 
cover prev and for tracking criminals. 

Afl-ly (-T-iJ^), adv. In a bloody manner ; cruellv. 
H-UMB, n. 1. The state of being bloody. 2. 
Dhnoaition to abed blood ; bloodthirsUness. 

BoodlMB, a. 1. Destitute of blood, or apparently 
■o; lifeless; dead. 2. Not attended with shedding of 
Uood, or slaughter. 3. Without spirit or activity. 

BlOOdllWf (-r55t0, n. A plant with red root and sap. 

BIOOA'Bhad^ (-sb«dO, n. The shedding of blood; 
■laughter ; the taking life, as in war, riot, or murdeir. 

BuOd'tflOt' (-shOt^), a. Red and inflamed ; suffused 
with blood, or having the vessels ttirgid with blood. 

BtoOd'Bllok'cr (-sak^Oi «»• 1- Anyanimal that sucks 
blood ; esp., the leech. 2. An extortioner. 

BlOOd^Udnt^y (-thSrst^y), a. Eager to shed blood ; 
cruel; sanguinary; murderous. 

Bl00a^(blfid7),a. 1. Containing or like blood. 2. 
Btafaied with blood. 3. Oiven, or tending, to the shinl- 
ding of Uood ; savage ; murderous. 4. Attended with 
bloodshed ; sanguinary, ^r. t. To stain with blood. 

BlOOO^-mlBd'ed (-mInd'M), a. Bloodthirsty. 

BlOOOl (blS5m). n. [Icel. 6/0m, blOmi; fr. root of AS. 
btthean to blow, blossom.] 1. A blossom ; flower of a 
plant ; flowers, collectively. 2. A blossoming or having 
the flowers open. 3. A state or time of beauty, fresh- 
ness, and vigor. 4. The powderv coating upon certain 
fruits or leaves, as on grapes, plums, etc. ; a flush ; a 
■ - • ■ • ^ - • , flower. 2. To 

> flourish, 
r bllhna lump of 

p^w.^v. {. 1. To yield Uoeaoms; to flow 

M In a state of growing youth and vigor ; to i 

BIMIB, fi. [AS. U(ima mass, U^nes bISm 

iron.] A mass of crude iron or steel, forged or rolled, 
preparatory to further working. 

Blooni'M'-ir, Bloom^a-ry (US&m'Sr-]^), n. A furaaoe 
and forge in which Uooms of wrought iron are made di- 
rectly f roni the ore, or from cast iron. [cast iron. I 

BlOOOKillg, n. The makiug blooms from ore or from| 

BlooilllllC a. 1. Opeuing in blossoms ; flowering. 
2. Thriving ; indicating youth or health. 

Bloomy {'jf), a. Full of bloom ; flowery. 

Blos'iom (biSs's&m), n. [AS. bldsnm,} Flower of a 
plant; florescence; bloom. ^ v. i. 1. To put forth Uoa- 
soms ; to blow ; to flower. 2. To flourish and prosper. 

Blot (bl5t), r. /. [Dan. plette to blot; p^ a spot, 
stain.] 1. To spot, etviu, or bespatter ; to mar ; to soil. 
2. To disgrace. 3. To cancel; to efface. 4. To dry 
(writing) with blotting paper. ^ v. i. To take a blot. «— ». 
1. A spot, as of ink on paper ; blur. 2. An obliterati<ni 
or erasure. 3. A spot on reputation ; Uemish. 

Syn. — To oblitente ; expunge ; erase ; efface ; cancel ; 
tarnish ; disgrace ; blur ; suUy ; smear ; smutch. 

Blot, n. [Dan. btot bare, naked.] 1. In the game of 
backgammon, a siufrle man left on a point, exposed to be 
taken up. 2. A wealc point. 

BloUdl (bl5cb ; 52), n. [Cf. OE. blaeehe in blaech&' 
pot blacking pot, akin to black.! 1. A Uot or qwt. 2. 
A large pustule, or coarse eruption. 

BtotOtr (blOf t^r), n. 1. One that Uoto ; device for 
absorbing superfluous ink. 2. A wastebook, in wUch 
to enter commercial transactions as they take place. 

BloiUM (Uoui ; F. blSte), n. [F.] A loose over-gar^ 
ment, like a smock frock ; a loose coat of any material, 
as the undress uniform coat of the United States army. 

B1«W (bI5), V. i. limp. Blkw (blu) ; p. p. Blown 
(blOn) i & vb. n. Biiowmo.] [AS. bldwan to Uos- 
som ; aJun toO. btiihen^ lj.Jlorere to flourish.] To flower ; 
to Uoesom to bloom. — r. /. To put forth (flowers), ^n. 
A blossom ; state of blossoming , mass of blossoms. 

Blow, n. [0. M'duen.'] 1. A forcible stroke with the 
hand, flat, rod, club, sword, etc. 2. A forcible act or 
effort ; assault. 3. A sudden calamitv. 

Syn. — Stroke ; knock ; shock ; misfortone. 

Blow, V. i. [imp. Blkw (blu} ; p. p. Blowh (blOn) : 
p. pr. & rb. n. Bix>wiko. ] [ AS. blatcan to Uow, as wind.] 
X To produce a current of air ; to move rapidly or forci- 
bly. 2. To send forth a forcible current ot air. 3. To 
pant ; to puff. 4. To sound on being blown Into, as a 
trumpet. 6. To apout water, etc., as a whale. 6. To 
be carried by the wind. 7. To talk loudly ; to storm. 
[Colloq.'] —V. /. 1. To force a current of air upon. 2. 
To drive by a current of air ; to impel. 3. To caose (a 
wind instrument) to sound. 4. To clear (an egg, the 
nose, etc.) of contents by forcing air through, o. To 
burst or destroy by an explosion 6. To publuh ; to dia- 
cioee. 7. To swell by injecting air; to infl^ite. 8. To 
put out of breath. 9. To depoMt eggs or Urvse upon, or 
in (meat, etc.). ^n. 1. A blowing; a violent blowing 
of the wind ; a gale. 2. A forcing air from the mouth, 
or through some instrument. 3. The spouting of a 
whale. 4. A single heat or operation of the BMsemer 
converter upon metaL 6. An egg or larva deposited by 
a fly in flesh ; act of depositing it. 

BlOW'or, n. 1. One that blows. 2. A device for pro- 
ducing a current of air, for increasing draft, ventilating, 
cleansing grain, etc. 3. A small fish of the Atlantic 
cosAt ; the puffer. 4. A braggart, or loud talker. [Slang} 

BlOW^ir i-W), n. A fly that deposits its eggs or 
young larvm {flyblowa or maggott) upon meat, etc. 

Blown (bl5n), p.p.&a. 1. Swollen ; inflated ; puffed 
up. 2. Stale ; worthless. 3. Out of breath ; exhausted. 
4. Covered with eggs and larvae of flies ; flyblown. 

BlOWlL. p. p. & a. Opened ; having blossomed. 

Blow'pipe' (blS'pIp'), n. A tube l^)r directing a jet 
of air into fire, so as to oonoentrate the heat on some 

fttB, t oo oBi , ^rb, ryde, f yUt tau^ ftfbd, ftfbli oat| oil, olulr, go, •!&«, t^k, then, thia. 


BlOWMd(bl<mfld),Bl0Wl^(blou'ff),a. Raring high 
color from •zpoiuro to weather ; ruddy : f rowiy. 

BlnblMr (blfib^r), ». 1. A bubble. 2. Fat of 
wbalea, etc., yielding oIL S. A large aea nettle. —r. i. 
To weep noially, or eo aa to diafigure the face; to cry 
ohildiaUy. —v. I. 1. To iwell (the face) with weeping. 

2. To gire vent to (tears) or utter (broken words or criea). 
mndfl/eoil (bifij'ttn), n. [Ir. Uocan a liUle block.] 

A short sdok, heary at one end, ured as a weapon. 

mot (blu), a. [loeL blar Uvid ; akin to Dan. hlaa 
blue, O. Mott.] 1. Of the color of the clear sky. 2. 
Low fai spirits ; melancholy ; gloomy. S. Serere or orer 
•trlot in morals. 4. Literary ; — abbr. fr. blueMocking. 

Btae dtnils, apparitions supposed to be seen by persons 
■offering with (Miriutn tremeM ; hence, Te^ low spirits. 
— Btae fvm, a Tery large Australian tree, affording pro- 
tection against malaria. — Btae llfht, a composition which 
boms with a brilliant blue flame. — Btae mass, a prepa- 
ration of mercury from which is formed the blue pill. — 
Btae dntaeat. mercurial ointment. — Bias Peter, a blue 
flag with a white square in the centre, used on British 
ships as a signal for sailing, to recall boats, etc. — Btae pilL 
(a) An i4>enent pill of prepared mercury, {b) Blue mass, 
—n. 1. One of the seven primanr colors; color of the 
clear iky, 2. ^ 7'^'r,'"' woman; blueetocking. [Colloa.'\ 

3. ftl. ifdhori Tor f't'fe 'sevilt.'] tow spirits; melancholy. 
[ Cofio^* 1 — f '. To m ftke blue. 

Blnrb«Il^ (-bei'K n. Name of several flowering plants. 

Blovl»flr-T7 [ tt^tT^ \ n. The berry of seyeral shrubs 
ot the Hcjitb familv- ' 

BlQe^lz4' { l^lu'tif r.l ), n. A small song bird. 

BlQfrlM}! tls ( -bOt' t ' 1 1, fi. 1. A plant growing in grain 
fleMa, 3. A lnrjTr n|KM les of blowfly. 

Blu^'tlJill^ rfV^ti 1, Tf. A Urge, voracious food fish of 
the AlL^^L, L^^t ol America and the West Indies. 

Blnid^nMMt n. The quality of being blue ; a blue color. 

Blna'&OM (-nSs). n. A nickname for a Nova Scotian. 

BlUO'BUwk'bur (-f^SkOTng), n. A female pedant. 

muff (bllif), a. [OD. UaffMt, broad ; or LG. bluffen 
to frighten.] 1. Having a broad, flattened front. 2. 
Rising steeply with a flat or rounded front. S. Surly ; 
churlbh; gruff; rough. 4. Abrupt; unceremonious; 
blunt; brusque. »n. L. A high, steep bank; a cliff 
with a broad face. 2. A blufiliig ; an expression of self- 
oonfldence for intimidation. 3. A game at cards; poker. 
[{7*. ^.] «-v. t. To frighten from a purpoee by making 
a show of oonfldence bi one's strength. yCoUoq."] 

Bluing (bluing), n. 1. The rendering blue (steel, 
washed linen, etc.). 2. Indigo, etc., to give a bluish tint. 

Blnflidl, a. Somewhat blue. 

Blnil'dflr (blttn'd8r\ v. i. [Perh. akin to blend to mix.] 
1. To make a gross mistake. 2. To move clumsily. — 
n. A gross error^from carelessness, stupidity, or culpa- 
ble Ignorance. — Blil]l'd«r-«r, Blim'der-liaAa', n. 

Syn. — Bluitdbr ; Erbob : Mistaks : Bull. — An error 
is a departure from what is right or correct. A miMake 
is the interchange or taking of one thing for another, 
through haste, inadvertence, etc. A blufider is a mistake 
or error of a gross kind, through carelessness, ignorance, 
or stupidity. A biUl is a verbal blunder containing a laugh- 
able incongruity of ideas. 

Blim'dflr-lnuw (-blls), n. [Blunder + D. but tube, 
box ; or f r. D. donderhwt thunder box, gim.] 1. A short 
gun with large bore, holding so many balls as to do exe- 
cution without exact aim. 2. A blundering fellow. 

BlUllffe (blfinj), V. t. To amalgamate and blend j to 
beat up or mix in water, as clay. 

Blim'nr (bl&n'jSr), n. [Corrup. fr. plunger."] A 
wooden blade for mlxlnflr clay in potteries ; a plunger. 

Blimt (blfint), a. [Prov. O. bludde a dull knife ; or 
perh. akin to E. blind. \ 1. Dull ; not sharp. 2. I>ull 
m understanding ; stupid ; — opposed to aeute. 3. Abrupt 
in manners or speech.— r. /. 1. To dull the edfre or 
point of. 2. To repress or weaken. — Blmitly, adv. 

Syn. — Obtuse ; dull ; pointless ; curt : abrupt ; short ; 
1 rude ; brusque ; impolite ; uuciviL 


(blQr), V. i. [Prob. saoM at Mmt.] 1. To 6b- 

■oora by makinff the form of oonfnaed and unoertain ; to 
amear. 2. To aim ; to darken ; to stain. ~». A stain ; 
a Mot; indistinctnesB. 

8jn.— Tospot; blot ; disfigure ; stain; sully. 

nvt (blfirt), V. /. [Cf. Blasb.] To utter raahly. 

milBll (blilah), V. i. [AS. Uytcan to glow.] L Tb 
redden hi the cheeks, as from shame, modesty, or con- 
fusion. 2. To grow red, or have a warm and delicate 
color. ~ n. 1. Suffusion of the face with red. 2. A 
roey tint. — BlOBllillf-ly, adv. 

BlUit«r(blfisa%r),v.l [Allied to ft^ffjl] L. To blow 
fltf uUy with violence and noise. 2. To swagger ; to talk 
with noisy violence; to rage. ~ v. t. To bully. —n. 
Fitful nolae and violence, as of a storm : violent and 
boastful language. — BlllBl«-«r, n. — Blaalfr-lBC, 
BlllBtW-OVB, BlVBtmUl, a. 

Syn. — Noise; boisterousneas ; tumult; turbulenoe; 


iring ; bidlying. 
Jl., a water serpent Perh. fr. bot an 

Bo'albC'i), ». _ . 
ox.] 1. Agenusof large American serpents. 2. Along, 
round fur tippet ; — shaped like the boa constrictor. 

Boa eenstrietor, a powerful serpent of tropical America, 
which kills its prey by constriction. 

Boar (bSr), n. [AS. Mr; aUn to O. b&r boar (bot not 
bar bear).] The uncastrated male of awine ; the wild hog. 

Board (bSrd), n. [AS. bord board, shipboard; akbi 
to bred plank, y 1. A timber sawed thin, for use in 
building, etc. 2. A table to put food upon. 3. Food 
served on a table ; meals furnished for pay. 4. Tkble at 
which a council is held ; number of persons sitting in coun- 
cil to manage business. 6. Table for a game or other 
special purpose. 6. Paper made thick tuxA stiff like a 
board ; pasteboard. 7. pi. The stage in a theater. 8. Side 
of a ship, etc. ; the stretch which a ship makes in one tack, 
—r. I. 1. To cover with boards or boarding. 2. To go 
on board of, or enter (a ship, railroad car, etc.). 3. To 
supply with meals. — 1>. t'. To receive meals, etc., for pay. 

BOAld'tr, n. 1. One who lives at another^s Uble for 
pay. 2. One who boards a ship. 

BoordlBC, «. 1. The enterine a ship. 2. A < 
ing with boards ; boards, collectively ; a covering made of 
bMrds. 3. Supply of meals and lodgings, for pay. 

a house in which boarders are kept, t 

BoarHiwg school, a school in which pupils receive board 
and lodging. 

■h (bSrTsh), a. Swinish ; brutal ; cruel. 

(bCet), v.i.&t. [OE. boslen, v., bost, boost, n., 

noise, boasting ; cf. O. bausent bau»ehen^ to swell.] To 
brag; to glory; to exult.— n. 1. A boasting or Drag* 
ging. 2. Occasion of exultation. — BOMt'tr, n. — 
BoantfuL a. — BOMtnul-ly, adv. — BOMtnul-IIMM, n. 

Syn. — To brag ; bluster ; vapor ; crow ; talk big. 

Boftt (bSt), n. [AS. b&i; akki to D. & G. boot. Cf. 
Batbau.j 1. A small open vessel, moved by oars or by 
sails, wheels, etc. 2. Any vessel ;— sometimes applied 
to steam vessels of the largest class. 3. A vehicle, uten- 
sO, or dish, shaped like a boat.— v. t. 1. To transport 
in a boat. 2. To place in a boat.— v. i. To go in a boat. 

Beat hook, an Iron hook with a pohit on the back, fixed 
to a long pole, to pull or push a boat, raft, log, etc. 

Boftt'a-ble (;4-b*l), a. 1. Such as can be transported 
in a boat 2. Navigable for boats, or small river craft 

Boat'age (-tj), n. Conveyance by boat; charge for 
such conveyance. 

Boaflng, n. A rowing or sailing ; carriage in boats. 

Boat'&iail, n. One who manages a boat. 

Boat'BWaIn (bSfswftn ; colloq.^ bS's'n), n. An oflloer 
in charge of the boats, sails, anchors, cordage, etc., of a 
ship, and who summons the crew, etc. 

Bob (b8b), n. [Onomatopoetic] 1. Anythhig that 
plays looselv, or with a short jerking motion, as at the 
end of a string ; a pendant 2. Bait used in angling ; a 
cork attached to a fishing line ; a float 3. Ball of a 
pendulum, or weight at the end of a plumb line. 4. A 

S, 8, 1, 8, a, long ; &, 0, 1, 5, a, tf >^ort ; sanAte, 8vent, tdea, 8bey, finite, cAre, Urm, Aak, nil, fhusL 




short, J«rkmff motion. 6. A mode of rinfflnB: changes on 
bells. — r. /. limp. & p. p. Bobbed (b9bd) ; vb. n. 
BoBBuro.] 1. Tb more in s short, jerking manner. 2. 
To tsD. 3. To cat short (the hsir, s horse's tail, etc.). 
— r. «. To Jerk to and fro, or up and down. 

Bol>ariB(MR/bTn).ii. [F. bobine ;ct It. &QMl.baban 
tassel, or E. bob."} x. A smaU pin used in making pillow 
lace ; a spool to hold thread in spinning machhies, looms, 
sewing machines, etc. 2. Fine cord or narrow braid. 

BoblA-ntf (-bT-nBtO, ». A kind of cotton lace, 
wrought by machines, and not by hand. 

BO&O-link' (^.ITgkO, n. An AmeHcan shiging bird. 

BolKstay (-stS' ), n. A rope or chain confining a ship's 
bowmnrit downward to the stem ; — ususlly in /m. 

Boo'Ull' (-tSOf n. An animal (as a horse or dog) with 
a sliort talL -Bolllall', Bo1>lall0d' (-tSdO, a. 

BcH/whiW i-hwW), n. The quaU of North America. 

BooklBC (WJkTng), n. [Fr. ^ 

Boeking^ Kigland, where it was 
first noiade.] A coarse woolen 
fabric, used for floor cloths, etc. 

Bod'dloo(bOd'dTs),». Bodice. 

Bote (bSd), V. t. & i. [A8. 
bodian to announce, tell, fr. bod 
message, fr. root of beSdan to 
command. See Bio.] To indi- 
cate (future events) by signs ; to 
portend; to foreshow. 

Bod1oe(b8dTs),n. [Prop.pL 
of bodyj OK. bodUe a pair of 
bodies, equiv. to a bodice. Cf. 
CoBSBT.I 1. A corset ; stays. 2. 
A close-fitting outer waist or up* 
per part of a woman's dress. 

Bod'tod (-Td), a. Earing a 
body ; — usually in composition. 

B0dl-lM« (-I-lSs), a. 1. Har- Bobwhite. 

ing no body. 2. Without material form ; Incorporeal. 

Bodl-ly (-T-lj^), a. HaTing a body or material form ; 

Ehysical ; consisting of matter. — adv. 1. Corporeally ; 
1 the body. 2. Entirely ; completely. 
BodlBf (bSdTng), a. Foreshowing ; presaging ; omi- 
nous. •- fi. A prognostic ; omen ; foreboding. 

Bod'klB(b5d'kn)),n. [OB. 6oy</dl:yn dagger.] 1. A 
pointed implement for making holes in cloth, etc. ; sti- 
letta 2. A blunt needle for drawing tape, ribbon, etc.. 


trough a loop or 
Bodlr (bM7), 

> or a hem. 

• /rf. BoDM (-Ts). ik%.bodig.'\ 1. 

The nu^rial rabstance of an animal. £ The trunk, or 
main pMt, of a person, animd, tree, army, countrv, etc. 
3. A person ; — freq. in comp. ; as, anyftotfy, tkobody. 4. 
A collective mass of persons ; a corporation. 6. A num- 
ber of things or particulars embodied in a system ; a gen- 
eral collection ; any substance distinct from otiiers. 6. 
Part of a garment covering the body. 7. Box of a 
vehicle, to contain the load. 8. Geometrical figure hav- 
ing length, breadth, and thickness. 0. Consistency ; sub- 
stance; strength. —V. t. To give shape or consistency 
to; to embody. 

Bod^-ffvard' (-fKrdO, n. L. A guard to defend the 
person ; a lifeguard. 2. Retinue ; following. 

P B0«r (bS5r), ». [D.] Dutch colonist in South Africa. 

BOf (bOg), n. [Ir. & OaeL, soft, moist : Osel. bogan 
quagmire.] 1. A ouagmire ; marsh ; morass. 2. A clump 
of earth, roots, and grass, in a swamp. ILocalt U. S."} — 
V. I. To sink and stick, as in mud and mire. 

Bes ors. An ore of iron found in boggy land. 

Bo'gwr (bygy), n. a bogy. 

BorCM (bSg'g'l), V. i. [S«e BooLB.] 1. To stop as if 
suddenly frightmied, or in doubt. 2. To do anything 
awkwardly. 3. To dissemble. 

Boc'Cy (-9(9)^ <^ Like a bog ; swampy. 

Bo'jrl* (b^gl), n. [Scot. & North Eng., a specter.] 
A gobun ; specter ; bogy ; bugbear. [Written also boggle.] 

Boreas (bS'fffis), a. 
Borwood' (bSg'wdbdO, n. 


Spurious; fictitious; sham. 

, ^ iOi n. Wood of trees dug from 

peat bogs ; — of ebony color, and used in ornaments. 
Bo'C7(bS'gj^),n.; t>/. Boons 0«Ts). [See Boolb.1 A 
hobffoblin ; busbear. [Written also bogey.] 
I' (b5-h8'), n. [Fr. TTu-f', pron. in Chmese 6m-», 
name of the hills where this tea grows.] Bohea tea, an 
inferior kind of black tea. 
Bo-lM^lBl-A (-mT-4), 11. 1. A country of central Europe. 

2. The community of social Bohemians. 
Bo-lM^kni-All (-on), a. 11. Pertaining to Bohemia, or 

its ancient languBge. 2. Pertaining to a social gipsy or 
** Bohemian ; '^vagabond ; free and easy. [Afodemj — n. 

1. A native of Bohemia. 2. Language of the Cseclis. 

3. A restless vagabond ; an adventurer in art or litera* 
ture. [Modern] — Bo-lM'Bll-Ml-imi, n. 

Bon (boil), V. t*. [OF. boiilir, it. L. bullire to bubble, 
bvMa bubble.] 1. To bubble from heat ; to effervesce. 

2. To pass from a liquid state to vapor, when heated. 

3. To be excited with passion, —v. U 1. To heat to the 
boiUfidr fKiInt. 2. To fonn, or uppT&t^?, by boilinef or 
evupt'irutii'iii. 3. To heat In u boiling litiuid, m in cook- 

BoUi a. K hiirtl, inflnim'd tumor, contoiidiig pqa. 

BoU^or, n. 1. Oue wliu buOi^ 2. A Vftifiel in whl^h 
aiivT>ini<g is boil^, or Btejicu U g(mi?rate(L 

&oll'er-T, n. A plnoe Ami appumtui for bonintj. 

Soll'lagf Hh Heated to the puhU di bubblJDg; woit^ 
giui; \ BwiiiltinR: vitli Iieitt or r^iQU-^A* 1- KhulUtlon; 
agitntkOii. 2- K?ifiOBtirft to iu!ti(^u g( hot linMiil. 

Boilinfl palate, tf^iiirx'nitiin> at wlilch a fluil l.r<'iitjii-iis va> 
poT- rnr wint<^r, at tin* J#^v<*| ol tin? lu?*^ bur'Hint-i ;ni m.. 
It i-i iVi KiihreuliiJit ; tor aji^uts^o], JT2J¥; ■ Icjr itti^^r^ isLS-'. 

Eola'-lflT^tW (baift'tir Qj»K ^^- [Of I bmximm.^ Vio- 
lent L Ht canity \ turbulent. — Bolft'ter-ODS'lr, adv. 

Kyn. - Loml ; rojinrig^ » vjolfiiit; lii&nuy ; turbBlenl; 
furiiiniH tinnultiiDuii L iioLiy ; Uia|H^Euoiifl ; v(^hf<int*'iitn 

Bold (baid), rt. [AS. bfthi, beatd.) 1. FoTwwd to 
meet danger ; venturesome ; not shrinking from risk. 
2. Exhibiting or requiring spirit and contempt of danger ; 

Blanned with courage. 3. Too forward ; taking undue 
berties ; over confident ; lacking modesty or restraint. 

4. Standing prominently out to view; markedljr con- 
spicuous ; in high relief. 6. Steep ; abrupt ; prominent. 
— Bolday, adv. — BoldllOW, n. 

8yn. — Courageous ; daring ; brave ; fearless ; valiant ; 
manful; audacious; confident; forward; Impudent. 

Bold'-faood' (-fiat^)* o.l L. Somewhat imnudent. 
2. Having a conspicuous or lieavy face ; — said of type. 

^^ This line is hold' faced nonpareil. 

B<Ao (bSI), n. [loel. bolr; aUn to LG. &of/ round. 
Cf. BuLOB.] Trunk of a tree. 

Bolo, n. [Or. /SmAoc clod of earth.] 1. A friable earthy 
clay, usually colored red bv oxide of iron, and nj^ to 
color various substances. 2. A bolus ;; & done. 

Bdll (bSl), n. [AS. boUa. See Bowl s v i>mi>L ] 
The pod or capsule of a plant; a pnTt^ ilfip nf 
globular form. — v. i. To form a boU ^^r h^^^ 
vessel ; to go to seed. 

Bol'Stor (bSl'st^r), n.( 
[AS.] 1. Along pillow to I 
support the head of one 
reclining. 2. A compress 
or other thing to hinder 
pressure or to support a 
port of the body. 3. A sup- 
port in machinery, etc. 4. ^., 

Anythhig used to prevent ^3k ■ "* - ^^ J l^-^ 
chafing. —V. /. To support ; H^ ^ - ^^^ si^ 
to hold up. Some form* of Bolt*. A Tap bolti 

Bolt (bSlt), n. [AS.] /t Stove bolt I C Machine bolt t 

1. A shaft for a crossbow ^^ S"''*'^J***'!;k ^' »^'' '"•* ^ 
r. ^*^.»..i«> . ....«» . A^^ ■re furnwhed with nuts. 

or catapult ; arrow ; dart. 

2. Lightning ; thunderbolt. 3. A strong pin, to hold 

fSm, reooit, 6rb, r^de, fyll, ftm, fcTod, f<jbt, out, oil, chair, go, sinBi ^Qh, then, thin. 




■omething in place. 4. A sUdiiig catch for » door or 
gate ; portion of a lock which is shot or withdrawn by 
action of the key. 6 A roll of cloth. — r. t. 1. To 
•boot 2. To utter precipitately ; to blurt out 3. To 
swallow (food) without chewing. 4- To reject (a nom- 
ination made by one's own party). 6. To secure with 
bolts ; to shackle ; to restrain, —v. i. 1. To sUrt forth 
like a bolt or arrow ; to dart 2. To spring suddenly 
aside, or oat of the regular path. 3. To break away from 
one's political party. — otfv. Suddenly; straight — n. 
L. A sudden start aside; sodden flight 2. A breaking 
away from one's party. 

Bolt (b«lt), V. t. [OF. buUter.] To sift (bran) from 
flour, bv a bolter ; to separate, assort refine, or purify. 
— n. A fhie sieve for bolting flour and meal ; a bolter. 

Bttlftr, «. One who bolts ; a horse which starts sud- 
denly aside ; a man who breaks from his party. 

Bcoftr, n. L. One who sifU flour or meal. 2. An 
instrument for sepsmting bran from flour ; a sieve. 

BolUi (bS^fis), n. [L., bit, morsel.] A rounded 
mass of anything, esp. a large pilL 

Bomb (bSm or b&m), n. [F. bombe bombshell, f r. L. 
bombus a humming noise.] A shell ; esji., a spherical 
shell, flred from mortars. 

Bom-terfl' (b5m. or bflm-biirdO, v. t. To attack with 
artillery; to throw shells, hot shot etc., at or into. — 
Bqnu-lMra'Bioiit, n. — BomOMr-dler' (-blr-dSr"), n. 
lino' (bfim'bA-sSn'), n. Bombasine. 

I (bSm'- or bQma>iUit), n. [^OF. bombacf, LL. 

bombax cotton; hence, padding, fustian. See Bomba- 
ZI1IB.1 1. Orig., cotton, or cotton wool. 2. High- 
sounding words ; inflated style ; fustian.- a. Big with- 
out meaning ; magniloquent ; bombastic. — Bom-lNUltlo, 
Bom-lNuimo-ol. a. — Bom-lMUi'tlo-al-ly, adv. 

BomlM-^llO' (b9m'- or bfim'b4-zeiiO» »• C^- bomba- 
Mtn^ L. bon^eimu silken, bombycinum a silk or cotton 
texture, fr. bomhux silk, silkworm.] A twilled dress 
fabric baring a silk warp and worsted weft [Spelt aLw 
bomboHn^ and bomba»ine.'\ 

BoaH/vnOt (b5m'- or bfim'pr65f0i o. Secure against 
the explodre force of bombs.— n. A structure impene- 
trable Vy heavy shot and shell. 

Boilri)<WMir (-sh«10, n. A bomb. 

II Bomltn (bSm'biks), n. [L.] A genus of moths 
including the silkworm moth. 

B'sa (bft-nSn'z4), n. [Sp., prop., fair weather, 
proqwrity, f r. L. bonug good.] In mining, a rich vein of 
silver or gold ; anythhig profitable. ICoUoq. U. 8."] 

II BOBlMMl' (b8Kn)eK')» »• [Pm '»■• bon fxfn very good, 
fr. 6on eood.] Sugar confectionery ; sugarplum ; a dainty. 

Bond (bOnd), n. [Same as band.] 1. That which 
binds or ties ; cord, chain, etc. ; band ; ligament 2. pi. 
Captivity ; restraint. 3. A written obligation to fulfill 
a contract 4. Union of stones in a walL 

Syn. — Chains : fetters ; captivity ; imprisonment 
— V. t. To condition by a bond ; to mortgage. 

Bond, n. [OE. 6on<f peasant, serf, AS. bonda husband, 
householder.] Formerly, a vassal or serf ; a slave. —a. 
In a state of servitude ; captive. 

Boi^'agO (-tj), n. 1. A being bound, or under re- 
straint ; captivity. 2. Oblteation ; tie of duty. 

Syn. — Thralldom ; imprisonment 

Bood'Od, a. Placed under a bond, as for payment of 
duties, or conformity to certain regulations. 

■^ — * 7 (.mSd^), n. A female slave. 

(-man), n. A man slave. 

■onront (82rv'ant). A slave. 
mon (bOndz'roan), n. 1. A bondman. 2. A 
leml surety ; one who gives security for another. 

Bond'wom'ui (bQnd'wd6m'an), Bonds'wom'an 
(bonds'-), n. A woman who is a slave, or in bondage. 

Bono (bOn), n. [AS. ban; akin to Icel. & Q. bHn 
bone, leg.] 1. The hard, cslcified tissue of the skeleton 
of vertebrate animals. 2. One of the parts of an animal 

skeleton; any fragment of bony substance; {pi.) the 
frame or skeleton of the body. 3. Whalebone ; a piece 
of steel for a corset — r. /. 1. To withdraw bones from 
the flesh of, as in cookery. 2. To put whalebone into. 
3. To fertilize with bone. 4. To steaL {Siang} 

Bono'SOt' (bSn'sStO, n. A medicinal plant, the thor- 
oughwort, having diaphoretic and tonic pnqperties. 

Bonliro' (b5n'fir'), n. [OE. bone/Ire^ orig., a flre of 
bones.] A fire built in the open air, in exultaticm, etc. 

II Bon'mot' (bdK'm^Oi «• / P^- Bonsmotb (-mftsO. [F. 
6on ffood -j- mot word.l A witty repartee ; jeet 

II Bonno (b5n), n. (F., prop., good woman.) A female 
servant charged with the care of a young child. 

Bon'not (bOn'nSt), n. [F., fr. LL bonnela.'^ L. A 
cap worn by Scotchmen. 2. A woman's covering for the 
back and sides of the head, but not the forehead. 3. The 
second stomach of a ruminating animal. 

Bon'&y (^f\ o. [F. bon, fern, bonne ^ fr. L. bonvs 

Jay; mcrr^ 

Bon'&y-oUblMr (•kinyler), nJ [Ir. bainne mUk -f- 

good.] 1. Handsome ; pretty ; lively and gracef uL 2. 

6av; merry; blithe. 

e ; preti 
— Bon' 

t'ni-ly, adv. 

e/oftar mud, mire.] Cosgnlated sour milk; curdled milk. 

II Bon' ton' (tdx' tdN'). [F., good tone, manner.] 
The height of the fashion ; fasliionable society. 

BollUl (bCnfls), n. [L., good.] 1. A premium given 
for a loan or other privilege. 2. An extra dividend. 
3. Money paid in addition to a stated compensation. 

II Bon' vl'vant' (Idn' v»'\iiif'); pi. Bom tivahts 
(-viiKz'). [F. bon ^ood -f ftiv/wl, p. pr. of rtrre to live.] 
A good fellow ; jovial companion ; free liver. 

Bon'y (bS'n]^), a. 1. Consisting of, or fuU of, bones ; 
pertaining to bones. 2. Having large oi prominent bones. 

Bon'M (bfin'zt), fi. [Pg. bonxo, fr. Japan bdtu.} A 
Buddhist or Fohist priest, monk, or nun. 

Booa>7 (bSoO)^), n. [Sp. bobo dunce, idiot] L. A 
dunce ; stupid fellow. 2. (a) A swimming bird of the 
West Indies, related to the gannet (6) A penguin of 
the antarctic seas. —a. Stu^d ; dull. — BooHiy-lak, a. 

Boo'dlO (bSo'dU), n. 1. The whole collection or lot. 
^/>otr, U. S.l 2. Money given for votes or ^litical in- 

y ; swag. [Polit. $tang, U. ^.] 
[AS. bdc, fr. Wc, beee, beech ; bc- 

fluence; brib 

Book (bd6k), ft. . 
cause the ancient Saxons wrote on beschen board.] 1. 
A collection of sheets of paper bound together, praited 
or not 2. A composition ; a treatise. 3. A n^ster of 
accounts, of debts and credits, receipts and expenditures, 
etc. 4. Six tricks taken by one side, in whist : in cer- 
tain other games, two or more corresponding cards, form- 
ing a set. — V. t. To enter or register in a book or list 

Book accovnt a register of debt or credit in a book. — 
Book mnsllB. (a) A Kind of muslin used for covers of 
books, ib) Thin white muslin for Isdies' druses. — To make 
a book, to k ' beto (recorded in a pocket book) against the 
success of every horse, so that the bookmaker wins on all 
the unsuccessful horses and loses only on the winning 
horse or horses. 

BoOklllnd^or (-bind'er), n. One whose occupation is to 
bind books. — Booklilnd'or-y, n. — BoOklilndIng, n. 

Book'oaao' (-kSa^), n. A case to hold books. 

Bookish, a. 1. Given to study ; understanding books 
rather tlian men. 2. Formal ; labored ; pedantic. 

Bodk'keop'er (-kSp^Sr), n. One who keeps accounts ; 
one in charge of the books in an office. 

Book'keep'lnff, n. Art of recording business trans- 
actions, so as to show the state of the business in which 
thev occur. The books commonly used are a daybook^ 
cajftbook. Journal t and ledger. 

Book'mAk''or (-mik^r), n. 1. One who writes and 
publishes boolcs ; a compiler. 2. A betting man who 
'* makes a book." See under Book, n. 

Book'BoU'er (-s^'er), n. One who sells books. 

Book'Bkelf' (-Bh^O, n. A shelf to hold books. 

Book'Otore' (-stSr^). n. A store for selling books. 

Book'WOrm' C-wOrm'), n. 1. A larva of a beetle or 
moth injurious to books. 2. A close student 

S, 8, 1, 8, tl, long ; &, d, 1, 5, A, ft short ; senAte, dvent, Idea, Obey, Onite, c4re, ftrm, &sk, |^1, final. 




Boom (bS&m), n. [D., tree, pole, bur. See Bbam.] 
L. A apar extending the bottom of a laiL 2. A bar, 
cable, etc, eoroM a river or mouth of a harbor. — v. t. 
To extend, or push, with a boom. 

BoOBtV. ^ [Onoraatopoetic] 1. To cry or roar with 
aboUow aound. 2. To rush Tiofently, as a ahip before a 
free wind. 3. To grow rapidly in market value or in 
faror. — n. L. A hollow roar; cry of the bittern. 2. 
A strong and extensiTe advance in market prices, etc. 

Boom'tr-ang (-Sr-Ing), n. A missile weapon of 
Aoatralia and some parts of India. 

Boon (bS&n), n. [OB. bone^ bain^ a petition, fr. loeL 
bdn; influenced by F. bon good, L. bonus.l A gift; 
grant.— a. 1. Kind; bountifuL 2. Oay; JoriaL 

Boor (bS&r), n. [D. boer farmer, boor. ] 1. A peasant ; 
Tostic 2. A Dutch colonist in South Africa, Ouiana, 
eCe. ; boer. S. One clownish hi manners. — Boor'lall, a. 

Boooe (bSte), V. i. Tobooie. 

Boost (bStetV V. f. [Cf. Boast.] To lift or push from 
behind (one enaeavoring to climb) ; to assist in advancing. 
— n. A pu^ from behm^ ; help. [Colloa. U. SA 

Boot (b55t), n. [AS. bUt ; prop., a makmg good.] L. 
Remedy ; amends ; reparation. 2. Something given to 
equaUxe an exchange. — v. t. To profit ; to avail. 

Boot, n. [F. boUe. LL. botta.) 1. A covering for the 
foot and lower leg. 2. A pbkce for baggage at either end 
of a sti^eooach. 3. An apron for a vehicle, to protect 
from rain and mud. — v. t. & ». To put booto on. 

Boot-OO' (b55-t9'), n. A half boot or short boot. 

Booth (b5&tfa), a. [OE. bothe; akin to AS. bwtn to 
dwell, B. 6oor, boteer^ be."] 1. A shed for temporary 
oocnpation. 2. A stall in a market or at a polling phuse. 

^ ^ttO» «• A device for piUlIng off boot*. 

Fr. boot remedy, profit.] Unavailing ; 

Bootlaok" (bS&trjIk/ ), n. A device f or p^UHng off boots. 

mprofltable ; 
Boots (b50ts), n. A servant who cleans boots and shoes. 

a. [Fr. 

BOO^ (bsytj^), fiv [Cf. Icel. b^ti exchange, barter ; 
infloenoed by 600/ profit.] Spoil taken in war ; plimder. 

Boom (bJRys), v. u [D. buUeny perh. f r. 6i/w tube, bxu 
box, Jar.] To drink greedily ; to tipple. [Written also 
AoMje, and boo*e.'[ —a. A carouse ; a drinking. 

BOQS^, a. A little intoxicated ; fuddled. [CoHoq.'\ 

Bo-poop' (bt-pSp'), n. A looking out suddenly, so as 
to startle (children hi play), or a looking out and draw- 
' r back, as if frightened. 

: (bVrlks), n. [F. A LL. : fr. Ar. bUraq.^ A 
crystalline salt, with a Aight alkaline taste, used as a 
flux, in soldering metals, making enamels, flxinir colors 
onporcelain, and as a soap. — Bo-tBO'iO (bt-rSs^k), a. 

Bor'dar (bdr'dSr), n. t^' bordure^ fr. border to bor- 
der, fr. bord a border; of German origin.] 1. Outer, 
part or edge of anything. 2. A boundary ; frontier. 

8jn. — fidge ; verge ; margin ; brim ; confine. 
— 9. i. 1. To touch at tlie edge or boundary ; to be ad- 
jacent. 2. To approach ; to verge. — f\ /. 1. To>make 
a border for. 2. To touch, or be touched ; to be near 
the limits or boundary. [country. | 

"^ *dor-or, n. One who dwells on the confines of a| 

_ ._ i (bBr), v.t. & i, [AS. borian.J^ 1. To perforate 
fa solid body]| by turning an auger, drill, etc. ; to pierce. 
2. To make (a passage) by laborious effort, as in boring. 
S. To weary by tedious iteration or bv dullness ; to tire ; 
to pester.— n. 1. A hole made by boring; a perfora- 
tion. 2. Internal (nrlindrical cavity of a gun, pipe, or 
tube. S. Interior diameter ; caliber. 4. A tool for bor- 
ing, as an auser. 6. A person or thing thaX wearies 

BOffOtn. [Icel. bara wave.] A tidal flood which rushes 
Into rivers of peculiar location, in high waves. 

Bora, imp. of Bbar to support, also of Bbar to produce. 

B0'!ra4d(b5'rt-al), a. [L. borealix, fr. Or. Bop«a« north 
wind.] Northern ; pertaining to the iiorth wind. 

Boror(bSr'Sr),n. 1. One tlutt bores ; an instrument 
for boring. 2. A mollusk which burrows in wood, lime- 
stone, etc. ; Uunra which penetrates trees. 

(bdm), p. p. & a, [See Biae, v. f .1 L. Bronght 
forth ; brought into life ; introduced by birth. 2. Hav- 
ing a certain character from birth ; by nature : innate. 

Borne (bSm), p. p. of Bbab. Carried ; conveyed ; 
supported ; defraved. 

BoTon (bG'rQn), n. A nonmetalUc chemical element, 
occurring in borax, and obtained in a seini-metallic form, 
also in crystals resembling the diamond in hardness. 

Bor'oakll (bfir^), n. [AS. burhj bnra; akki to beor- 
gan to hioe, defend.J 1. An incorporated village or town 
that is not a city. 2. The citixens of a borough. 

Bor'row (bfir'rd), v. t. [AS. borgian^ fr. 6ofy, borh^ 
pledge. 1 1. To receive from another as a loan ; — oppo- 
site of tend. 2. To copy. — BOi^row-or (-?r). m. 

II Boo (b8s), n. [L., ox, cow.] A genus of ruminant 
quadrupeds, including wild and domestic cattle. 

Boo'oagO (bSsOKtj), n. [OP., grove, fr. LL. botctu 
thicket.] A growth of trees or i^rubs ; underwood. 

Booh (bSsh), n. [Turk.] Empty talk; humbug. 

Boo'OIII (babslim), n. [AS. bii*m.'\ 1. The breast. 
2. The seat of the passions, attections, and operations of 
the mind; secret thoughts. 3. Embrace; fold. —a. 1. 
Pertaining to the bosom. 2. Intimate ; confidential ; be- 
loved. — V. t. To take to heart ; to cherisli. 

B00S(bS9), n. [F. bo**e.'\ 1. A stud ; knob, 2. Raised 
work. — r. /. To emboss ; to stud. — BouKy, a. 

Boos, n. [D. baa* master.] A master workman or su- 
perintendent ; a manager ; a political dictator. —v. t, & i. 
To hold mastery over ; to superintend. [Slana^ U. 5.] 

Bo-tanio (b^-tluTk), ) a. Pertaining to botany. — 

Bo-tanloHa (-T-kal), ) Bo-taii'lo-al-ly, o<f«. 

Bot'a-niSt (bet'A-nTst), n. One skilled in botany. 

Bot'a-nlSO (-nix), v.L&i, To study plants. 

Bot'a-n7(bSf4-n]^), ». [Or. Avroin) plant, fr. /S^xcur 
to graxe.] Science of plants. 

Botoll(b5ch;62},n. [Cf. D.6o<Mntobeat] 1. Patch 
put on, or part of a garment patched clumsihr. 2. A 
clumsy performance; a bungle. •- v. t. 1. To mend 
clumsily. 2. To roar by unskillful work ; to spoU. — 
Botoh'or-y. n. — Botoh^, a. 

Botfly' (bOffliO, n. A dipterous insect of many spe- 
cies, some of 
which '>nfest 
the horse, ox, 
and sheep, on 
which they de- 
posit their 

^^ilOL (bSth), 

a. or pron. 

[OE. bothe, 

bape; akin to 

G. & D. beide, 

also AS. bffjen, 

and Gr. a^<^ft», 

L. ambo. Cf. BoitLyoi Hortei Gastrophihu^gui)- aLttm 

Ana- 1 Tlie one o»" »<>' » * Adult f enisle Botfly. Somewhat 

and the other; •^"»'^- 

the two. — conj. As well ; not only ; equally. 

Botll'or(bSth'3r),t'.<. [Cf. Ir. ftuauMtX trouble.] To 
annoy ; to worry ; to perplex. — v. t To feel care ; to 
make or take trouble. — n. One that bothers; embar- 
rassment ; worry ; petty trouble. 
Both'er-atlai, n. vexation. [C0//09.] 
BotlT-Oid (bSt'rT-oid), ) a. [Gr. p6Tfnn a cluster of 
Bot'ry-Oid'al (-oiMal), ) grapes -)-.<^.] Having the 
form of a bunch of grapes. 

BoU (bSts), n. p/. [Cf.CHeLftoftM belly worm.] The 
larva of a botfly, infesting the stomach, throat, ox iit- 
testines of the horse. [Written also botts.l 

Bottio (bOf tM), n. [OF. botel, LL. buticula, dim. of 
bntU flask.] 1. A narrow-necked vessel for holding 
liquids. 2. The contents of a bottle. — r. t. To put into 
bottles : to inclose in, or restrain as in, a bottle. 

(9ra, recent, drb, r^de, f yll, Om, fcTod, fdbt, out, pll, chair, |^. siii^, I^k, ttien, tl||qt 




Bot^t-htfU'tr (bSta*l-hSld^r), n. L. One who At- 
tends ft puf^ilist in a prise fight, with a bottle of water for 
his refreshment. 2. An abettor; backer. [CoUog.'i 

Bottom (bStt&ni), n. [A8. bolm,] 1. The lowest 
part of anything ; the foot. 2. The under surface. 3. 
That upon which anything rests ; foundation ; ground- 
work. 4. Bed of ft body df water. 6. Low land formed 
hv aUuTial deposits along a river ; valley. 6. The part 
01 a ship under water ; the vessel itself ; a ship. 7. 
Power of endurance.— a. Pertaining to the bottom; 
fundamental ; lowest. — v. f . 1. To found or build upon. 
2. To furnish with a bottom. 3. To get to the bottom 
of. —V. <. To be based. — BottOB-lMum a. 

BotlOlll-17 (-if), n. [Fr. Bottom, n., in sense 6 : cf. 
D. bodemerij.} A kind of mortgage, binding a ship as 
security for repayment of money aavftooed or lent. 

n Bmi'dolr' (bsydwSrO, n. [F., fr. bauder to pout, 
Bulkj A lady's private room. 

H BoHflO (bSQf), n. [F., buffoon.] Comic opera. 

Boogll (bou), n. [AS. bdg^ 6dA, bough, shoulder.1 

An arm of a tree, esp.~a main branch. " [bribed.] 

BoOfllt (bat), imp. & p. p. of But. — a. Purchased ; | 

II BOB-ffle' (b0&-zh80, n. [F., wax candle.] 1. A long, 
flezibi') sorgiod instrument, to remove obstructions, etc. 
2. A slender rod of gelatin, etc, impregnated with medi- 
cine, for introduction into the urethra, etc 

BOB'lllOB'(bS5'ydN0,n. [F., fr. totftf/irtoboQ.] 1. 
A liquid food made by bcrfling meat in water ; a clear soup. 
2. An excrescence on a hor8e*s f rush or frog. 

BoolMor (bSl'dSIr). n. A bowlder. 

n Bonae-TarA' (bsyiS-v&r'), n. [F., fr. O. hoUwerk. 
See Bulwark.] 1. Orig., a biilwark or rampart. 2. A 
public walk or broad avenue. 

Bonnoe (bouns), v. i. [Cf. D. bomen to strike, bont 
blow; prob. imiUtive.] 1. To knock loudly. 2. To 
spring suddenly ; to bound. — r. /. 1. To thtunp. 2. 
To cause to bound or rebound ; to toss. 3. To eject 
violently. [ColloQ. U.8.']^n, 1. A sudden leap, bound, 
or rebound. 2. A heajnr blow. 3. Bluster; brag; an 
impudent lie. — adv. With a sudden leap ; snddenlV. 

Boon'oer (boun'sSr), «. 1. One who bounces. 2. A 
boaster ; bully. 3. A bold lie or liar. 4. Something big. 

Bonn'oillir, a. 1. Stout ; lusty ; buxom. 2. Big. 

Bound (bound), n. [OE. bounde, OF. bonne^ bonde, 
F. 6ome, fr. LL. bodina, bonna; prob. of Celtic orighi.] 
The extenul or limitiiu^ line of any object or space ; 
confine ; extent ; boundary. — r. /. 1. To limit ; to 
confine. 2. To nune the boundaries of. 

Bound, V. i. [F. bcndir to leap, fr. L. bombitnre to 
buzs, hum, fr. bombus a humming, buxzing. See Bomb.] 
1. To move with sudden springs or leaps. 2. To re- 
bound, as an elastic ball. — v. L To cause to rebound. — 
n. 1. A leap; a jump. 2. A rebound. 3. A spring 
from one foot to the other, in dancing. 

Bound, <m/>. &p.p. of BiKo. 

Bound, p. p,&a. L. Restrained by a band, fetters, or 
the like. 2. Inclosed in a binding or cover. 3. Under 
legal or moral obligation. 4. Constrained or compelled ; 
destined ; certain : — followed by the infinitive. 6. Re- 
solved. iCoUog. U. 8.} 6. Constipated ; costive. 

Boond, a. tP. p. of OE. bounen to prepare, fr. boun 
ready, prepared ; akin to E. boor and bower.'\ Ready or 
intending to RO ; on the way toward ; gohig. 

Bonnd'a-ry (-&-rj^), n. That which fixes a limit or ex- 
tent; a boimding or separating line. 

Syn. — Bound ; Bound art : limit ; border ; term ; ter- 
mination ; barrier : verge : conilnes ; precinct.— ^orim/rtry. 
In its original and strictest sense, is a visible object or 
mark indicating a limit. Bound is the limit itself. 

Bonnd'en (bound '^n), p.p. &a. [Old p. p. of bind."] 
1. Under obligation; bound by some favor rendered; 
obliged ; beholden. 2. Made obligatory ; binding. 

Boundless, o- Without bounds ; vast. 

gjn.' Unlimited; immeasurable; infinite. 

(boonOl-fis), a. Uberal; disposed to 
give freely ; benefloent. — BoOtttS-OUI-ly, adv. — 
Bonnto-ois-nsss, n. 

BoonH-tal (-tT-ful), a. 1. Froe in giving ; liberal. 2. 
PlentifuL — Boontl^-ly, adv, — Boon'tt-tal-asBs, n. 

Syn.— liberal ; munificent ; geiMrous ; bounteous. 

Boonty, n. [F. boiUS^ fr. L. b(mita4, it. bonus good.] 

1. Liberality in bestowing gifts or favors ; muniflcenc«>. 

2. That which is given generously. 3. A jnmnium to 
induce men to enlist into the puUic service, or to encour- 
age any branch of industry. 

Boil-qiMf (b65-ki'), n. [F., bunch of flowers, trees, 
feathers, for bousquet thicket, dim. of LL. botctu.} L. 
A bunch of flowers. 2. A perfume ; aroma. 

Bonrnton (US&r^Qn), n. [Fr. the castle and seigniors 
of Bourbon in France^ 1. A member of a family which 
has occupied several European thrones. 2. A politician 
who neither forgets nor learns anything ; an obstinate 
conservative. — BonrlMm-ism, n. 

Boar-cools' (bflr-jois'), n. [Name of a French type 
founder, or fr. F. bourgfoU oMhe middle class.] A sise 
of type between long primer and brevier. 

113^' This line is printed in bourgeois type. 

ilBoar-fOOls' (bS&r-shwiir), n. [F., fr. bourg town.] 
A man of middle rank in society; one <^ the French shop- 
keeping class. — a. Characteristic of the middle dass. 

llBoiir-ffOQl-sto'(b6&r-shwK.tS0.n. [F.] The French 
middle class, particularly those in trade. 

Boor'goon (bflr'jttn), r. i. [F. bourgeon a bud, bour- 
gwnner to bua.] To sprout ; to put forth buds. 

~ ) (bQm), n, [AS. bumn ; akin to 08. brunno 

f spring.] A stream or rivulet ; a bum. 
) (bom or hffbra^ n. [F. borne. See Bouko 
) a limit] A hound ; boundary ; limit ; goaL 

II Boorao (bS5rs), «. [F., purse, exchange, LL. bur»a, 
fr. Or. fivp<ra skin, of which a purse was usually made. 
Cf. PuRSB, BuRSB.] An exchange, where merchants, 
bankers, etc., meet for business. 

BOQSO (b55x), v.i. An. Boose. 

Boat (bout), n. [Cf. Dan. bugt bend, turning.] L. 
Work performed at one time ; turn; round. 2. Contest. 

Bo'Vlno (bS'vin), n. [LL. bovinu*t fr. L. 5<m, borU^ 
ox, cow.] 1. Pertaining to the genus Bo*; relating to 
the ox or cow. 2. Sluggish and patient ; dull. 

Bow (bou), r. t. Jki. [AS. bugan; akin to L. /ugere 
to flee. Or. ^evytty.] To bend ; to curve ; to turn ; to 
incline.— n. An inclination of the head, in reverence, 
civility, or submission ; obeisance. 

Bow (b5), n. [AS. boga^ fr. bUgan to bend.] 1. 
Anything bent or curved. 2. A weapon made of elastic 
material, with a cord connecting the ends, for propelling 
an arrow. 3. A knot formed by doubling a ribbon or 
string. 4. The U-*haped piece securing an ox^s neck 
to the yoke. 6. An instrument of stretched horsehairs 
for playing on a violin, etc. 6. sing, or pi. Two pieces of 
wood forming the forward part of a saddletree.— v. L 
Toplay fniuuc) with a bow. — «. i. To manage the bow. 

Bow (bou), n. [Icel. bOar shoulder, bow of a ship. 
See Bough.] 1. The rounded part of a ship forward ; 
stem ; prow. 2. One who rows in the forward part of a 
boat ; the bow oar. 

Bow'el (bou'Sl), n. [OF. boel, fr. L. botvlm sanssge.] 
One of an animal's intestines ; an entrail ; a gut ; — gen- 
erally in plural. —r. /. [imp. & P- P- BowKLEDor 
BowRLLRD ; & vb. n. Bowrliko or Bowrlliko.1 To 
Uke out the bowels of ; to eviscerate ; to disembowel. 

Bow'or (bou'Sr), n. 1. One who bows or bends. 2. 
An anchor carried at the bow of a ship. 

Bow'or, n. [O. bauer peasant; the flgture for the 
knave in cards. See Boor.] One of the two highest 
cturds in the game of euchre. 

Bow'or, n. [AS. bUr^ akin to bOan to dwell ; O. bftuer 
cage, bauer peasant.] 1. Anciently, a chamber ; a lady^s 

a, S, 1, 8, 0, long ; ft, «, I, 5, tt, f, abort ; senftte, ^viint, tdea, ftbey, finite, cllre, llrm, &sk, {^1, final. 




prhrafte ^Mrtment. 2. A rustic cottage. S. A shelter 
in a gMtlen ; arbor ; sliady recess. — v. t. To embower. 

BoWtr-y (bou^-j^), a. Shading, like a bower ; fuU 
of bowers, —n. A (arm or plantation with its buildings, 
--a. Characteristic of the Bowery (a stceet in New 
York); swaggering; flashy. 

BoWkBOt' (bO'nOt'), n. A knot to which part of the 
string is drawn through in a loop or bow. 

B<nrl (bSl), fi. [AS. Mia,] 1. A concare Teasel, to 
hold Ikiuids, etc. 2. A drinking vessel ; conTivial drink- 
ing. 3. Gcmtents of a bowl. 4. Hollow part of a thing. 

Bowl, n. [F. bouie, fr. L. buiia bubble, stud. Cf. 
Bull edict.] 1. A ball for rolling on a level surface. 2. 
pi. A game played with biased oalls on level ground ; 
the game of tenpins.— p. t. & t. 1. To roll (a bowl, 
ericket ball, etc.). 2. To roll smoothly on, or as on, 
wheels. 3. To pelt with anything rolled. 

Bowl'dar, Bool'der (b51'd8i0. »• i'^^- buUm to roar, 
rattle.] 1. A large pebbla. 2. A mass of rock trans- 
ported by natural agencies from its native bed. 

> hold a 
nil to the wind. 

rllns (bSKTng), n. The playhig at bowls, or roU- 
» baHat cricket ; game of bowls or of tenpins. 
I aUejr, a covered place for playing at bowls or 

lug that 

tenpins.— Bowihiffrssa. a level piece of greensward or 
■mooth ground for bowling. 

Bowls (bSlx), n. pi. See Bowl, a ball, a game. 

BoWBUUI (bO'mao), n. An archer. 

Bow'BUUI (bou'man), n. The man who rows the fore- 
most ov in a boat ; the bow oar. 

BoWlkOt' (bS'shOf ), n. The distance traversed by 
an arrow shot from a bow. 

Bowsprit (b«'#prTt), fi. iB<w -f- tpHt.} A spar, 
protecting over the stem of a vessel, to carry sail forward. 

BBW'StrillC' (-strTngOt n. 1. String of a bow. 2. String 
with which Turks strangle felons. — 1>. t. To strangle. 

Bob (bSks), n. [AS. ; L. buzus, fr. Or. irv^of . See 
Box a case.] A shrub, used for borders in gardens ; also, 
a tree whose hard and smooth wood is UMd by turners, 
eDgravera, etc. 

Bos. H, [AS., a amall case ; akin to OHO. buhsa box, 
fr. L. buzusT] 1. A receptacle or case of any Arm mate- 
riaL 2. Qnantity that a box contains. 3. An inclosed 

rce with seats in a theater. 4. A sm%ll country house. 
A tubular bearing for an axle in machinery. 6. The 
driver's seat on a ooach. — v. f. 1. To inclose in a box, 
or with boarding, lathing, etc. 2. To furnish with boxes. 

BoSi f». [Cf. Dan. tnuke to slip, bask blow.] A blow 
oo the head or ear with the hand. — «.<.& i. To strike 
or fight with the fist ; to spar. 

BOS'or, n. One who packs boxes. 

BOS'or, n. One who boxes ; a pugilist. 

Boalunl' (-hftlO, r. t. To put (a vessel) on the other 
tack by veering her short round on her heel. 

Bonas, n. L. The inclosing (anything) in a box. 2. 
Material for making boxes. 3. A recess ; a casing. 

Boslnf , n. A flghting with the fist ; sparring. 

Bos'WOOd' (-wd6 10, n. The wood of the box. 

Bof (boi), n. [D. i>off.\ A male child ; lad ; son. 

Bof'OOtt' (-k5t/), V. t. [Nune of a land agent in Mayo, 
Ireland, so treated in 1 880. ] To combine against (a land- 
lord, tradesman, etc.). — n. Social and business inter- 
diction for coercion. [ing which one is o boy | 

Boy^MOd (-h«6d). a. State of being a boy ; timo dur- 1 

BOTlsk, a. Resembling a boy in manners or opinions ; 
ebildlsh ; trifling ; puerile. — Bojr'isli-ly, adv. 

BnVblo (briQ/b*l), V. i, [D. brnbbelen to talk con- 
fusedly.] Tb chunor. «- n. A broil ; a wrangle. 

BraVoalO (brSk'kftt}, a. [L. braeatut wearing breeches, 
fr. brncae breeches.] Fumishad with feathers which con- 
ceal the feet. 

(bris), n. [OF. , the two arms, embrace, fathom, 

fr. L. brftechiu cue arms (stretched out), pi. of braeohium 
arm. j 1. A bandage or prop. 2. A cord, rod, strut, sUy, 
etc., producing tension. 3. A curved line oonnectlug 
printed words or lines, which are to be taken together ; 

thus, ^J.^ 1 . 4. A curved instrument or handle for 

holding and turning bits, etc ; a bitstock. 6. A pair ; a 
couple. 6. pi' Straps to sustain trousers ; suspenders. 
— r. t. 1. To furnish with braces ; to support. 2. To 
tighten ; to strain ; to strengthen ; to hold firmly. 

BmooOot (-ISt), n. [F., dim. of OF. bracel armlet, 
dim. of brtu arm, fr. L. braechiutn.} An ornament 
clasping the wrist or krm. 

Brftohl-al (brSkt-al or briOtT-ol), a. [L. braehialU, 
fr. brachium.'} Like, or pertaining to, an arm. 

II BrftOhl-mn (brSkt-om), n. [L., arm.] The upper 
arm ; the fore limb between ahoulder and elbow. 

Bra-ohys^-^y (bri-kTg'ri-fy), n. [Or. fipaxik abort 
-f- "i^apAy. J Stenography. 

Bnioll'oa(brik"n),n. [AS. frrocce.] A brake or fern. 

Braok'ot (-fit), n. [Cf. OF. bracon beam, prop.] 1. 
An architectural member projecting from a waU or pier, 
to support weight. 2. One of two characters in print- 
ing [ ], used to inclose a reference, explanation, or note, 
or to indioate an interpolati<m, to supply an omission, 
etc. ; — called also crotchet, 3. A gas fixture projecting 
from a wall, column, etc. —v. t. To place within brack- 
ets ; to connect by brackets ; to furnish with brackets. 

Braokllh (-Tsh), a. [D. brak salt.] Saltish, or salt 
in a moderate degree, as water in saline soiL 

Braet (briOct), ll Bnu/tO« (briQc't«-4), n. [L. bradM 
a thin plate of metal or wood, gold foU.I A amall leaf 
or scale, whose axil supports a flower stall. 

Brad (brSd), a. [Dan. broad prick, sting, brodde frost 
nail.] A thin nail, with a slight projection on one side 
instead of a head. 

Brad awl, an awl to make holes for brads, etc. 

Brae i}>^)i f • *' [OE. braggen to blow, boast, fr. 
Icel. braka to creak, brak noise, akin to E. break.] To 
talk about one*s self or one*s affairs ostentatiously. — m. 
1. A boasting ; self glorification. 2. Thing boasted of. 
3. A game at cards, resembling poker. — Brac'gor, n. 

Syn. — To swagger ; boast; vapor; bluster; vaunt. 

nnie'Ca-dO'olo(-gi-dQ'sh«),fi. [A boastful character 
in Spenser's ** Faerie Queene."] 1. A braggart; swag- 
gerer. 2. Empty boarting ; pretension. 

- - - ' *;rt), n. lor 

bragard flaunting, brag* 

Brag'nrt (-gert), n. [OF. brc 
ging.] A boaster. --a. Boastful. 

mllllia (brib^mi), n. 1. In Hindoo mythology, the 
One First Cause ; one of the triad of Hindoo gods, — 
the others being Vishnuj Preserver, and Siva^ De^royer. 
2. A large variety of domestic fowl, having the legs well 
feathered ; — called also Brahmapootra. 

Brall'nail, ) n. A Hindoo of the hiffheat or sacerdotal 

Bialiliiiii, I caste.— Bialiliiaii-uai, -mlii-lam,!!. 

Braid (brid), v. L [AS. bregdan to move to and fro, 
to weave.] To weave, interhM^, or entwine together; 
to plait. — n. LA plait formed by Intertwhiing differ- 
ent strands. 2. A narrow fabric to bind dresses, etc. 

Brail (brSl), n. [OB. brayle furling rope, fr. L. 
bracae breeches, —a Gallic word.] 1. A thong to bind 
up a hawk*s wing. 2. pi. Ropes to haul up sails, pre- 
paratory to furling. — «. /. To haul (up) by the brails; 

Brain (brSn), n. [AS. bragen, bnegen.} 1. The soft 
mass within the sktill which is the seat of sensation and 
perception. 2. The understanding; intellect. — o. t. 
To dash out the brains of ; to put an end to. 

Bralnloas, a. Without understanding ; silly ; witless. 

Braln'pan' (-pSnO* ^ Bones inclosing the brain; 
skull ; cranium. 

BiakO (brik), n. [Cf. AS. bracce fern.] 1. A fern, 
common in almost all countries. 2. A thicket. 
I BiakO, n. [Cf. LG. brake a brake (1), akin to 

fftm, recent, 6rb, r^de, f yil, Am, food, f«A>t, out, oil, eliair, bo, sine lok, tben, Uiln. 




E. break.'] 1. An instrument to break the woody nut 
of flax oriiemp ao as to separate it from the fiber. 2. A 
handle to work a munp. 3. Frame confining a horae while 
being shod. 4. Heavy harrow to break clods after plow- 
ing ; a drag. 6. A mechanism for retarding or stopping 
motion by friction. 

BaJuihaOMai (briOi'man), n. One in cluu;ge of brakes 
on a railroad car, etc., or of the winding (or hoistii^) 
engine for a mine. [ferns ; rough ; thorny, i 

BOJaf i-f), a. Full of brakes, brambles, shrubs, or I 

BralBA (bril'mi), n. Brahma. 

BnUBlllO (brXm'bU), n. [AS. brmmbel, akin to E. 
broom.'] A plant of the genus including the raspberry 
and blackberry ; any prickly shrub. — Bramnnly, a, 

^ 'mill (bra'mln), etc. See Brahman, etc. 

I (brftn), n. [F., fr. Celtic] The broken coat of 

grain, separated from the flour. 

BniMUl (br4nch), n. [F. branchr^ fr. LL. branca c 
of a bird or beast of prey.] 1. A slioot growiug from 
the stem or bough of a pluit. 2. A part connectml with 
the main body of a thing ; section or subdivision. 

Syn. — Bough; limb ; shoot ; offshoot ; twig ; sprig. 
«-a. Diverging from, or tributary to (a main stock, hue, 
way, theme, etc.). — «.<.& i. To divide ; to ramify. 

II Bran'OllI^ (brKQncT-4), n. ; pi. -crub (^). [L., fr. 
Or. ^pavxta, pL of fi^6.yx%ov.] A gill ; respiratory organ 
by which aquatic animals breathe air contained in water. 

— Bnn'clii-al, Bnn'ohl-ate, a. 

Branohlat (briuch'.St), n. A little branch ; twig. 

Branoh^, a. Full of branches ; having wide-spread- 
ing branches ; consisting of branches. 

Brand (brftnd), n. [AS., brand, sword, fr. byman to 
bum.] 1. A piece of wood bumiug or partly burnt. 2. 
A sword. 3. A mark bunted with a hot iron or made with 
a stencil, etc. ; oualitv ; kmd ; grade. 4. A mark of in- 
famy; stigma, o. A branding iron. 6. A minute fungus 
producing a burnt appearance in plants. — > r. t 1. To 
bum, or put, a mark upon, to indicate ouality, ownership, 
etc., or to mark as infamous. 2. To Ax a stigma upon. 

Bnn'dtod (brIn'dTd), a. Miugled, flavored, or treated 
with brandy. 

Brail'dlUi (-dTsh), V. t. [F. bmwiir^ f r. brtrnd sword.] 
To wave, as a vreapon ; to shake or flourish. — n. A flour- 
ish, as with a weapon, whip, etc. 

Brand'-now' (brSnd'nu'), a. Quite new ; bright as 
if fresh from the forge. 

Bran'dy (brin'dy), n. [Orig. brandyitinf, D. bran- 
detpijny fr. p. p. of Aram/^n to bum, distill -f- wijn wine.] 
Strong alcoholic liquor distilled from wine, also from 
other liquors, and from cider, peaches, and grain. 

Bran'gle (brSn'g'l), n. [Scot, brangle to shake, men- 
ace; prob. a varfant of trrangfe, confused with bratrL] 
A wrangle ; squabble. — r. i. To wrangle ; to squabble. 

Bran'-new' (brSn'nu^), n. Brand-new. 

Bran'liy (brln'n]^), a. Like or containing brtn. 

Brant (brlnt), n. [Cf. Brest, Bhrniclk.] A species 
of wild goose ; — called also hrent and branif goone. 

Braih (briUh), a. [Cr. Oael. bra»^ Q. bnrxch harsh, 
sharp, impetuous.] Hrwty in temper ; ira{>etuous. 

nraish, a. [Cf. Arm. brfsk^ briixk^ fragile, brittle.] 
Brittle, as wood or vegetables. IColloq. , U. S. ] — n. 1. A 
rash or emption; sudden or transient fit of sickness. 
2. Refuse boughs of trees. 3. Broken fragments of 
rocks nnderlying alluvial deposits. 4. Fragments of ice. 

Bn'aier, Bra'Zler (brS'zhSr), n. [F. bmijif coals.] 
1. A worker in brass. 2. Pan to hold burning coals. 

Braaa (br&s), n. [AS. br^s.] 1. An allov of copper 
and line. 2. Impudence ; a braxen face. ICol/oq.] 3. 
pi. Utensils, ornaments, etc., of brass. 

Braaa^ (bH»fS)^ a. l. Pertaining to braw; like 
brass, in nature, appearance, hardness, etc. 2. Impu- 
dent ; bold. — Brasal-nesa, n. 

Brat (brSt), n. [AS. bratt cloak, fr. Celtic; prop., a 
child's bib.] A child ; — used contemptuously. 

I Brm-^rrn'Oo (brA-vI^dft), n. [8p. bromada boMfc, brag.] 
I Boastful and threatening behavior ; a boastful menace. 
{ BraTe (brSv), a. [F. ; It. or Sp. bravOf orig^ fierce.] 
I Bold ; intrepid ; — oppoeed to cotcardl^f. 
, Syn. — Courageous; daring; valiant; bold: heroic; 
dauntless: high-ai^ted; stout-hearted* See Oallavt. 
I — n. 1. A brave person. 2. Indian warrior. 3. A bully. 

— V. t. To encounter boldly ; to dare. — Brava^ly* odv. 
I Brav'ar-y (-ir-j^), n. L Fearleaaness; intrepidity. 

2. Splendor ; magnifloenoe ; ostentation ; fine dress. 

Syn. — Intrepidity; gallantry; valor; fearlessneaa; 
hardihood ; manfulneaa. S6e Coubaob, and Hasomi. 

Bra'TO (bra'vi), n. [It. See Beavb, a.] A daring 
villain ; bauidit ; professional assassin. 

BraTO (brii'vft), interi. [It] Well done I exceUent ! 

Brawl (bqil), V. i. WE. braulen to quarrel, boast; 
cf. W. brawl boast.] 1. To quarrel noisily mmI out- 
rageously. 2. To scold. 3. To make a confused noise, 
as water of a rapid stream running over atones. 

Syn.— To wrangle ; squabble ; contend. 
— n. A noisy quarrel ; wrangle. — Biawl'tr, n. 

Syn. — Noise ; quarrel ; uproar ; row ; tumult. 

Brawn (brf^n), n. [OF. braoH fleshypart, muscle.] 
1. Full, strong muscles ; strength. 2. rioah of a boar. 

Brawny {-f)t a. Having Itu^, strong muscles. 

Syn. — MusctUar : fleshy ; strong ; sinewy ; robust. 

way (br£), r. t. [OF. breier to pound, grind, f r. OHG. 
brehhan to break.] To pound, beat, rub, or nind flue. 

Bray, v. i. [v. braire to bray, fr. LL. bragire to 
whinny.] To utter a loud, harsh noise, --n. The harsh 
cry of an ass ; any grating or discordant sound. 

Braie (bri^), v. t. [F. brnger to solder.] To aoldw 
with hard solder, esp. with an alloy of copper and sine 

Braae, i*. t. [as. braeMtm.] To cover with brass. 

Bralen (bri'z'n), a. 1. Pertaininff to. made of, or 
like brass. 2. Sounding harsh and loud. 3. Impudent. 

— r. t. To carry through shamelessly. — Bra'MB4y, odv, 
Braller (bil'shSr), «t. Brasier. 

Breadl (brSch), n. [AS. frrtc«,fr. drecon tobreak.] 1. 

A breaking ; infraction of a law, oUigatlon, or tie ; vio- 

I lation. 2. A gap ; breiUc ; rupture. 3. A breaking of 

I waters ; surf. 4. A breaking off friendship. » v. t. Tn 

make a breach or openhiff in. 

Syn. — Rent : cleft : chasm : rift ; fracture ; rapture ; 
infraction ; infringement ; violation ; quarrel ; diiqpute ; 
contention : difference ; mLsunderstanding. 

Breadl^ <-j^), a. Apt to break fences or to break out 
of pasture ; unruly ; — s^d of cattle. 

Bread (br«d), n. [AS. bre&dA 1. An artkle of food 
made by baking flour or meal. 2. Food ; sustenance. 

Bread com, grain of which bread is made. 

Braadtrnlt' (bHSd'frut/), n. 1. Fmit of a tree of the 
Pacific islands, esp. the 
South Sea islands, whicli, 
when baked, somewhat re- 
sembles bread. 2. Tlie 
tree itself, from whose 
bark cloth Is made, while 
the timber is used for 
many purposes. 

Grain, flour, or meal of 
which bread is made. 

Breadth (brSdth), n. 
[AS. brffdu, fr. brad 
broad.] Distance from 
side to side ; width. 

BreadthMraya (wti). 

adr. In the direction of 
the breadth. 

Break (brak), r. t. [imp. Brokb (brSk), {Obt. Bkao) ; 
p. p. Broken (br5^'n), \Obt. Bsokb) \ p. pr. & vb. n, 
Brrakivo.] [AS. brecan.'tMn to tt. /rangert.] 1. To 
sever by fracture ; to divide violently. 2. To lay open ; 

Breadfruit. A branch with 
fruit and a >pike of flowers. 

^ e, I, S^ O, lon^ : ft| 6, 1, 5, a, ^, short ; senftte, dvent, tdea, ftbey, finite, c4re, i&nn, &sk, ^\^ fln«U 




to disckwe. S. To TioUte (an obUntion). 4. To inter- 
rupt; to diMohre or terminate. 6. To disorder; to shatter. 
6. Tb dimlniah the force of (a fall or blow^. 7. To iin- 
nurt (newa) ; to broach. 8. To tame ; to diadpline. 0. 
To bankrupt ; to ruin. 10. To oaahier ; to diamiaa. 

Sjn.— Todiaoart; rend: tear; shatter; batter; tIo- 
lato ; infringe ; aenu^ish ; <fostro7 ; burst ; dislocate. 
— ff. <. 1. To diTide into pieces. 2. To come to riew ; 
to appear. 3. To burst forth. 4. To become weakened 
or orerwhelmed. 6. To become bankrupt. 6. To change 
suddenly. 7. To terminate friendship.— n. 1. A frac- 
ture. flC Interruption; pause. 3. Dawn. 4. A kind of 
heavy carriam. 6. A brake. 

Bnak'ft-Dlt (brik'A-b'l), a. Capable of being broken. 

Bnak'af* (-Vi), ». 1. A breaking ; a break ; articles 
broken. 2. Compensation for things broken. 

Bnak'dOWII' (-doun'), n. 1. A breaking down \ down- 
faU. 2. A noisy duice. 

Bnt^mi-^hn. 1. One that breaks. 2. A machine 
for breaUnff rocks or coaL 3. A small water cask. 4. A 
waTe breakliag into foam against the shore. 

BlMklast(bi«k'fast),n. [Break -{-/asi.) First meal 
in the day. — v. i. To break one^s fast in the morning ; 
to eat the first meal. — v. t. To furnish with breakfast 
I (briDc'man), n. Brakemi^i. 
r (-nBkOi n. A faU, or steep place, en- 
dangering the neck. —a. Headlong ; rapid. 

BrMi^-vp' (-&p')« n. A separation and dispersion. 

Brtak'Wft'tar (-wf^tSr), n. A structure to break the 
force of wares, and protect from their violence. 

BMfll (br9m), n. [F. brime^ of German origin.] A 
food fish, of many species, of fresh and salt water. 

BrwUBI, V. t. [Ci. Bboom.] To clean (a ship*s bottom 
of adherent diells, seaweed, etc.). 

BrtlSt (bHSst), n. [AS. bredtt."] 1. Fore part of che 
body, between neck and belly; chest. 2. One of the 
glaoas in the female of man and some other mammalia, 
se cre ting milk to nourish the young ; mamma ; teat. 3. 
Beet of the affections and passions ; heart, —v. t. To 
meet, with the breast ; to oppose manfully. 

BraflfltlMnM' (-bSnOt ^- Bone of the breast ; sternum. 

BrMSfplB' (-pTn^), ft. A pin worn on the breast for 
a fastening, or for ornament ; a brooch. 

BrMUItfplatO'(-plIt'),n. 1. A plate of metal oorering 
the breast as defensire armor. 2. A piece a^nst which 
the worfcanan presses his breast in operatmg a breast 
drill or similar tod. 3. A strap across a horse^s breast. 

BrttSf^loW ) (-plouO, n. Plow to cut turf, driren 

Bt— l ^ptottgh^ I by the workman's breast. 

BW f Kw o i fc^ (-wdrk' ), n. A low parapet for defense. 

BiMtll (brSth), n. [AS. brM9 odor, scent, breath.] 
L. Air inhaled and exhaled in respiration. 2. A bre.-%th- 
tng naturally or freely. 3. Power of respiration ; life. 
4. Time to breathe ; pause. 6. A single respiration ; an 
faMtant. 6. A very slight breexe. 

BiMtk'a-llle (brSth'A-bn), a. Such as can be breathed. 

BlMtlM (brSm), v. u 1. To respire ; to live. 2. To 
take breath; to rest from action. 3. To exhale; to blow 

E*>.— V. /. 1. To respire. 2. To inject by breath- 
to infuse. 3. To utter softly ; to whisper. 4. To 
e ; to emit (breath). 6. To promote free resf^ ra- 
tion in ; to exercise. 0. To suffer to take breath ; to 
rest. 7. To pot out of breath ; to exhaust. 

BrMltkiBg, n. L. Respiration. 2. Aspiration. 3. 
Breathing place ; vent. 4. Pause ; delay. 6. The sound 
of the outgoing breath in the throat, mouth, etc. ; sound 
expressed >y the letter A. 6. A mark used over vowels 
in Greek, to indicate aspiration or its absence. 

BnaXtklmm (brethOSs), a. l. Spent with violent 
action; out of breath. 2. Holding the breath, on ac- 
coont of fear, expectation, or intense interest. 3. Dead. 

DBrM'0la(bT«t'chA),n. [It., breach, pebble.] Rock 
eomposed of angular fragments united by a cement. 

"" 1 (brSd), imp. &. p. p. of Bebbo. 

Braooll (brSch or brTch), n. [See BaxicBn.] 1. The 
lower part of the body behind. 2. Hinder part of a can- 
non, firearm, etc. » v. f. 1. To furnish with breecheaor 
a breech. 2. To fasten with breeching. 

Breeoh'M (brTcb'Sz), II. pL [AS. bree, pi. of brOe 
breech, breeches.] A garment worn by men, covering 
the hips and tliighs ; smallclothes. 

BraMhlng (brTchTng), n. 1. A whipping on Uie 
breech. 2. Part of a buiiess passing round a horse^s 
breech, and enabling him to hold back a vehicle. 3. A 
rope limiting the recoil of a gun when it is discharged. 

BTMOhaaAd'cr (brSchlSd'Sr or brTch'-), ». A fire- 
arm loaded at the breech. — BraMh'-laAd'llIf, a. 

BrMd (br3d), v. /. [imp, & p. p. Bkbo (brSd) ; p. pr. 
& vb. n. Brkkoino.1 [AS. hredan to nourish, fr. brbd 
brood.] 1. To produce as offspring ; to bring forth ; to 
liatoh. 2. To nurse and foster ; to train. 3. To en- 
gender ; to cause. 4. To raise, as any kind of stock. 

8yn. — To engender ; generate ; beget ; produce ; 
hatch ; originate ; bring up ; nourish ; train ; instruct. 
— r. t. 1. To bear and nourish young; to reproduce 
itself ; to be pregnant. 2. To be generated, or to grow. 
•— n. A race or variety ; sort ; kind. — BrMd'MT, n. 

BrMdlBC; fi. 1. A generating or bearing. 2. Nur- 
ture; education. 3. Deportment; behavior. 

Syn. — Education ; instruction ; nurture ; training ; 
manners. See Eddcatioh. 

Braait (brSs), n., BrMM' 
TLy (fiiO. [AS. bri6»a ; perh. 
akin to G. brummen to buxs.1 
A fly which busses about anl- 
mala and torments them by 
sucking their blood; horsefly; 
gadfly. [Wntten also breete 
and bmeJ} 

BraaM, n. [F. brUe ; 
akin to It. brezxa breese.] 1. A light, gentle wind. 2. An 
excited state of feeling ; disturbance ; quarreL [Colloq. ] 

BraaM, n. [F. braUe cinders.] 1. Refuse left in 
making coke or burning charcoal. 2. Refuse coal, aahea, 
and cinders, used In burning bricks. 

BraaTy (brSz^), a. 1. Having breeses; airy. 2. 
Fresh ; brisk ; full of life. 

Brant (brSut), n. A brant. 

Bratll'ran (breth'rSn), n. ; pi. of Bbothxr, — used in 
solemn address, and in speaking of sects, fraternities, etc. 

Brat'on (brlfttn), a. [F.] ReUting to Brittany, or 
Bretagne, in France.— n. A native of Brittany; the 
ancient language of Brittany ; Armorican. 

~ " '• " AbritxslEa. 

European Breese. 

(br6t), n. 

\ (br^v), n. [It.; fr. L. brevit short. Sea 
Bbixf.] 1. A musical note equivalent to four fL^f 
minims. 2. A curved mark ["] used, in printing, -H^f 
to note the short quantity of a vowel. 

Bra-Tat' (brt-vStO, n. [F, ; fr. L. brtrU.^ A mili- 
tary commission giving an oflBcer higher rank tlum that 
for which he receives pay; honorary promotion. «- v. f. 
Topromote by brevet. — a. Holding rank by brevet. 

BraM-a-ry (brS'vT-t-ry), n. [L. breviarium sum- 
mary, abridgment, fr. brefis."] 1. An abridgment; a 
rammaiy. 2. A book containing the dally prayers of the 
Roman Catholic or Greek Church. 

Bra-¥lar' (brt-vSr'), n. [Prob. orig. used in printing a 
bretHfirp.^ A size of type between bourgeois and minion. 

2;^" This line is printed in brevier type. 

Brar'i-pan'&ata (br6v'T-p8n'ntt), a. [L. bretfis + 
penna wing.] Short- winged ;— applied to birds having 
wings too short to fly with, as the ostrich, emu, etc. 

^aT'i-roa'tral (-riJe'trll), \ a, [L. brevu -\- E. rot- 

BraT'i-rostrata (-rSs'trit), J fraf, ro*irate.'\ Short- 
billfid ; having a short beak. 

Bravl-ty (-tj^), n. [L. breiHta*, fr. brevu.l 1. State 
of being brief. 2. Contraction into few words. 

Syn. — Shortness ; conciseness ; succinctness. 

fBra, ieo«Dt, 6rb, r^de, f yll, ikm, food, ftfbt, out, oil, cliair, f^ aiiiBi i|»k, then, tbin. 




(brn), V. /. [AS. breStPon.'] 1. To prepare 
(beer or (^her liquor) from malt and bops, or otber ma- 
terials, by steeping, boilinf^, and fermentation. 2. To 
eoococt ; to contrive ; to plot. — v. i. 1. To moke beer. 
2. To be in a state of preparatiouj forming, or gathering. 
«-». A mixture formed by brewmg. — TOBW^, n. 

Br«W'ag» (bni'ij)^- Malt liquor ; drink brewed. 

BraWMr-y (-8r-]^), snm'hOUf (-houa^), n. A place 
and apparatus where brewing is carried on. 

Bnwinc, n. 1. The preparins brewed liquors. 2. 
Quantity brewed at once. 3. A mLdng together. 4. A 
gathering of a storm or iquaU. 

Bll'ar (bri'Sr), n. Brier. 

Brflya-Ue (briVA-bn), a. Capable of being bribed. 

Bribe (biib), n. [F., lump of bread, scraps given to 
a beggar.] 1. A gift to corrupt one in a position of 
trust. 2. Seduction; aUurement— r. t. & i. To cor- 
rupt or accomplish by gifts. — BrtlKcr, n. 

tab'tr-y, n. A drtng or taking bribes. 

Brio'-A-teao' (brTk'AA>rSkO, n. [F.] MisoeUaneoua 
curiosities ; knickknacks, etc. 

Brick (brTk), n. [F. brique.l 1. A block of clay 
tempered, molded and sun^ried or burnt. 2. Bricks, 
collectively. 3. A good fellow. [Slangl^'V. I. To lay, 
pave, surround, or construct witli bricks. 

BriokHMt' (brTkOCtO, n. A fragment of a brick. 

Briok'kllll' (-kTlO. n. A kiln, or furnace, in which 
l^cks are baked or burnt. 

BriAOartr (-irSr). n. A buUder with bHcks. 

BriokOay'llIf , n. A building with bricks. 

Briok^Ollka-wiirkO.n. 1. Anything made of bricks. 
2. A building with bricks. 

Brfd'al (brid'al), a. Pertaining to a bride, or to a 
wedding ; nuptial, —n. A nuptial festival ; a marriage. 

Brida (brid), n. [AS. 6ry(/.] A woman newly mar- 
ried, or alxrat to be married. 

Bnte'grOQIII' (•grSdm'), n. [AS. brpdauma ; brjfd -}- 
ffuma man.] A roan newly married, or about to marry. 

BridM'taald' (brids'mid'^, n. A female friend at- 
tending on a bride at her wedding. 

Btkua^BUJk (-man), ». A male friend attending a 
bride«room and bride at their marriage ; the ** bei«t man." 

Brlda'weil (brid'wSl), n. A house of correction ; — 
from a hospital near Si. BrideU (or Bridget^s) wellf in 
London, subsequently a penal workhouse. 

Bridm (brTi), n. [AS. brycg, brieg.] 1. A structure 
over ariver, chasm, nilroad, etc., to make a passageway 
from one bank to the other. 2. A support. — r. L To 
build a bridge on or over. 

Bri'dle (bri'd'l), n. [AS. bridel.) 1. Tlie head gear 
for managing a horse. 2. A restraint ; curb ; check. — 
v.L 1. To put a bridle upon (a horse). 2. To restrain, 
guide, curb, or controL — v. <. To hold up the head, and 
draw in the chin, to express pride, scorn, or resentment. 

Brldls path, road, traek, or way, a narrow road for saddle 
horses or pack animals, but not for vehicles. 

Bri«f(br8f),a. iV. brief, bre/, fr, L. bretns.l 1. Short 
in duntion. 2. Concise ; terse ; succinct. 

8yn, — Short : concise ; succinct ; summary ; compen- 
dious ; condensed ; terse ; curt ; transitory ; short-lived. 
— n. 1. A concise writing; a statement in few words. 
2. An epitome. 3. A concise legal statement of a cli- 
ent's case or of the heads of a law argument. •- v, t. 
To make an abstract or abridgment of ; to shorten. 

Brieflass, a. Having no brief ; without clients. 

Briefly, adv. Concisoly ; in few words. 

Brieffnen, n. The being brief ; conciseness ; brevity. 

Bri'er, Brt'er (bri'Sr), n. [AS. brir, brmrA A plant 
with a slender woody stem bearing stout prickles. 

Brt'er-y, a. Full of briers; thorny.— n. A place 
where bHers grow. 

Brif(brTg).n. Abridge. [Scot.-] 

Brie, ^* [Abbr. fr. Bbiqaktins.] A two-masted, 
square-rigged vessel. 

Bri-fade' (brT-gidO, n. [F. ; fr. It. brigaia troop, 
crew, brigade, fr. briga quarrel. See Bbioand.] A 
body of troops larger than a regiment, under command 
of a brigadier general. — v. t. To form into brigades. 

Bric'a-dler cen'er-el. The military officer in rank 
next above a colonel, and below a major general. 

Bl^and (brTg'and), n. [F., fr. LL. brigans light- 
armedsoldier, fr. brigare to contend, fr. briga quarrel.] 
One of a band of robbers ; highwayman ; freebooter. — 

BriCend-efe, n. 

Brifan-^e (in-tin), n. [F. brigantin, tt. It. brigan- 
Hno a piratical vessel. See Buoako.] 1. Orig., e pirat- 
ical vessel. 2. A two-masted, square-rigged veeael, like 
a brig except that she does not carry a square mainsail 

Bnght (brit), a. [AS. beorht^ brihL\ L. Shining ; 
luminoua. 2. Transmitting light ; clear. 3. Having cou- 
spicuoos or attractive qualities ; resplendent. 4. Having 
a clear, quick intellect. 3. Sparkling with wit ; shedding 
Joy around. —Bright, Brightly, adv. 

Syn. — Shining, splendid; brilliant; effulgent; radi- 
ant ; sparkling ; glittering ; lucid ; beamy ; clear ; trana- 
parent : illustrious : witty ; clever ; vivacious ; sunny. 

Brighfea (brit^n), v. t. & i. To make or become 
bright or brighter. 

BrighfUeaa,^. 1. A being bright; splendor; clears 
ness. 2. Acuteness (of the faculties) ; sharpness of wtt. 

Srn. — Splendor ; luster; radiance; resplendence; 
brilliancy ; etfulgence ; glory ; deameea. 

Brill (brll), n. fCi^. Com. brOli mackerel, fr. briih 
speckled.] A f ood fish alUed to the turbot 

BrilOlaB-oy (brTl'yan-sJ^), BriUlanoe (-yons), n. The 
being brilliant ; splendor ; great brightness. 

BrilOlant (-yant), a. [F. briUttnt, p. pr. of brOler to 
sparkle, fr. L. beryllut a beryl.] 1. Sparkling; very 
bright. 2. Having adminUile qualities ; splendid. 

Syn. — See Shihiho. 
— n. LA diamond or other gem cut Into faces and 
facets. 2. Smallest type used m English printing. 

or TMi Km h fHatad la %Im Irv* «IM BrilUMl. 

3. A kind of cotton goods, figured in the weaving. 

BrilUanMieM, n. Brilliancy ; glitter. 

Brim (brim), n. [AS. brymme edge, border.] 1. Rim 
or upper edge of a cup, dish, or hollow vessel. 2. Bdge 
or nutfgin ; brink ; border. 3. Rim of a hat. — r. t. To 
be full to the brim. ~ v. t. To fill to the top. 

Brimful' (brTm^fyl^), a. Full to the brim; com- 
pletely full ; ready to overflow. 

Brim'mer (-men, n. A brimful bowl ; a bumper. 

Brim'atone (brIm'stSn), n. [OE. brinuton, bernsion^ 
brenston. See Bdrh, v. I., and Srom.] Sulphur. --a. 
Made of, or pertaining to, brimstone. 

Brin'ded (brTnMSd), a. [Icel. brdndWr brindled, fr. 
brandr brand.] Of a gray or taa-ny color with darker 
streaks; streaked; brindled. 

Brin'dle fbrTn'dn), n. 1. SUte of being brinded. 
2. A brinded color ; that which is brinded. — Brill'dlei 
Brin'dled (-dnd), a. 

Brine (brin), n. [AS. brgne a burning, salt liquor, 
brine, fr. brinnany byrnan^ to bum.] 1. Water strongly 
impregnated with salt ; pickle. 2. The ocean ; the water 
of an ocean, sea, or salt lake. 3. Tears. •- r. t. 1. To 
steep in brine. 2. To sprinkle with salt or brine. 

Brliur (bring), v. t. (imp. & p, p. BaouQirr (br^t) ; p. 
pr. & vb. n. BBiifoiBoj [AS. bringan.} 1. To bear or 
convey to ; to f etclu 2. To maJce to come. 3. To carry 
or conduct. 4. To procure in exchange ; to sell for. 

Syn. — To fetch; bear; carry; convey; transport; 
import ; procure : produce ; cause ; adduce ; induce. 

Brtn'iah (briuTsh), n. Like brine ; somewhat salt. 

Brink (brink), n. [Dan., edge, rerfe ; akin to Sw. 
brink, W. bryh hill.] Edge of a precipice ; bank of a 
rivpr or pit ; verge ; border. [salt. | 

Brin'y ( brin'y ), a. Pert« in ing to brine, or to the sea ; | 

Briak (brisk), a. [Cf. W. bryjtg, fr. brys haste, Gael. 
briogg quick, lively.] 1. Full of livelineM and activity. 

ft, i, I, S, a, long ;&,«,!, 6, tt, 5*, short ; senate, «vent, tdea, dbey, finite, c&re, iirm, &sk, |pl, finaL 




& FnU of Ufo; tflerrMelng; mrkUnff . — Blfttt^ 
(brlakOy), adv. - BlllkiMM, ». 

Stu. — ActiTe; lirely; acUe : alert; nimbl«( quick; 
•pr^thr; TiTadotu; gAj: spirited; animated. 

BrUKibt (brls^k), n. [OF. 6ru«ci^.l The breast of 
an aoimal from the fore legs back beneath the ribs. 

Bllalto (brTs'aU), n. [A& brisU, bynt.} A short, 
■tiff, coarse hair, as on the back of swine or on plants. — 
tr. I. &i. To stand erect and stiff.— Brls^y(-alj^), a. 

BitelOl (brTs^lil), n. An English city and seaport. 

Bristol board, fine pasteboard, having a smooth sorface. 
— Bristol brick, a brick of silioeoas matter used for polish- 

^M-tBraft-A (brT-tin'nT-4), n. [L., Great Britain.] A 
white-metal alloy of tin, antimooy, bismoth, copper, etc. 

Bil.tBn'nlo C-nTk), a. British. 

Blinill(brTtash).a. Pertaining to Orwit Britafai, its 
tnhrtrftants, or its onginal inhabitanta. »n. pi. People 
of Great Britain. 

BriUfm, (brTt^On), n. A native of Grwit Britain. 

BrtrOft (brlt^n), a. [AS. hryUian to dispense, fr. 
hreSian to break.] Baslly broken ; frafflle ; not tough. 

kB(brIe'kA),n. [Ross. 6r«#AJto ; PoL ftryc«*a.] 

A long trareUng carriage, with calash top. 

t (brU), n. The breese fly. 
Iril (brOoh), n. [F. broehej fr. LL. brocca,} A 
tapering tool: a spit; a pin. «-v. t. 1. To pierce as 
with a spit. a. To Up ; to let out ; to shed (blood). 3. 
Td make public ; to introduce as a topic of conversation. 
4. To enlarge or dress(a hole) by uslug a broach. 

BnMd (brad^ a. [AS. brdd; akin to G. breit. Of. 
Bbbadth.! 1. wide : extended in breadth ; —opposed to 
narrow. 2. Extensive ; vast. 3. Diffused ; open ; full. 
4. Not limited ; not restrained ; comprehensive ; liberal ; 
6. Plain ; evident. 6. Gross ; coarse ; indeli- 
' 7. Btronglv marked. 

i gaage, a distance between the rails of a nilroad 

wMer than the V standard " gauge of 4 feet 8 1-2 inches. 

__ jsd ssaL pubUc seal of a country or state. 

Syn. — Wide ; large ; ample ; expanded ; spacious ; 
roomy ; extensive ; vast ; comprehensive ; liberal. 

BrOAd'ar \ (•&•'), n. 1. An ancient battle-ax. 2. 

BrOAd'uW ) A broad-edged ax to hew timber. 

BrOBd'oast^ (-k&st^). n. A casting seed hi aU direo- 
tSoDS, as from the hand in sowing, —a. 1. Dispersed in 
all directions ; widelv diffused. 2. Scattering in all di- 
rections (as a method of sowing) : — opposed to planting 
in hills, drills, or rows. — adv. So as to spread widely. 

BrOBd'olOtB (-kl5th), n. Fine smooth-faced woolen 
doth for men's garments, usually of double width (t. #., 
a yard and a half). [broader. I 

BrOBd'Ml (-*n), v.L&i. To grow or make broad, or | 

gnw Uny, adv. In a broad manner. 

BriMd'BaiM, n. A being broad ; breadth ; grossness. 

BrOBd'glAo' (-ddO> n. 1. The side of a ship above 
ttie water line, from bow to quarter. 2. A discharge 
from aU the guns on one side of a ship, at the same 
time. 3. A sheet of paper containing one Hrge pa^e. 

BnMld'BWOrt' (-■Srd')* n. A sword with a broad 
blade and cutting edge ; daymore. 

BrO-oadB' (bro-kld'), n. [Sp. brocado, f r. LL. broearf 
to prick, to figure (textile fabncs), to stitch.] Silk stuff, 
woven with gold, diver, flowers, foliage, etc. 

BnKOad'M (-kid^), a. 1. Woven or worked, as bro- 
cade, a. Dressed in brocade. 

Bro^oagt (brdnctj), n. Brokerage. 

Broyoo-ll (brBk'k^lT), n. [It. , pi. of brocccio sprout.] 
A plant of the Cabbage spedes, resembliiiK cauliflower. 

H Bro-ohOIB' (br«-«h9r'), n. [F. , f r. brocher to stitch. ] 
A book of a few leaves ; pamphlet. 

Brook (br5k), n. [AS. broc.^ A badger. 

Bro'gUI (brO'gXn), n. A stout, coarse shoe ; a brngnn. 

Brono (brSg), n. [Ir. & Gael, brog shoe, hoof.] 1. 
A stout, coarse shoe ; brogan. 2. A dialectic pronuncia- 
tion ; e^., the Irish manner of pronouncing English. 

(brdl), n. [F. brcuiUer to dlaorder, from LL. 

brogiltUf brouut^ thicket] A noisy quarrel ; discord. 

Syn. — C<mtention ; fray ; affray : tumult ; altercaticn ; 
dissension ; discord ; contest ; coimict ; brawl ; uproar. 

Broil, V. t. [OF. bruillir^ fr. bruir to broil, bum.] 

1. To cook over coals or upon a gridiron. 2. To sabject 
tojpeat heat. — V. i. To be gre«tly heated. 

BraU'tr, n. 1. One who broils, or cooks l^ broiling. 

2. A gridiron or other utensil used in broiling. 
BraliBg. a. Sxoesdvdy hot. ~ n. The causing any- 

thing to broU. 

BlO'kaco(br5nctj), n. Brokerage. 

Brokt, imp. & p. p. of Bbbak. 

Bro'kan (brSOc^i), a. [Fr. break.} 1. Separated by 
violence; divided into fragments. 2. Disconnected; 
rough ; uneven. 3. Fractured ; strdned apart. 4. Hade 
infirm or weak, bv disease, age, or hardships. 6. Sub- 
dued ; contrite. 6. Subjugated ; trained for use. 7. Not 
adhered to ; violated. 8. Ruined financially ; incapable 
of paying debts. 0. Imperfectiy spoken, as by a f orenpier, 
or from emotion. — Bro^kiB-lTt adv. 

BlO'kMl-llMUt'ad (-hUrtOSd), a. Having the spirits 
depressed or crushed by grief or despair. 

B jn. — Disconsolate ; heurt-broken ; forlorn. 

ad(-wTnd'Sd),a. Having short breath 
or disordered respiration, as a horse. 
BnKker (brSOiSr), n. [OB. brocour^ fr. AS. brUean 

to use.] One who transacts budness for another ; agent. 
Bromr-BSe (-tj), n. 1. Budness of a broker. 2 
Fee or commission for transacting budness as a broker. 

Bro'BIB (brS'mi), n. [NL. , f r. Gr. fipM^ut food, fiififm- 
tTMiv to eat.] 1. Aliment ; food. 2. A light form of 
prepared cocoa (or cacao), or the drink made from it. 

Bro'Bud (-mal), n. [.Bromine -f- oMehyde.] An oily, 
colorless fluid, obtdned by action of bromine on alcohoL 

Bro'BlBte (-mftt), n. A salt of bromic acid. 

Bro'BUIto (-mat), v. i. To combine with bromine. 

Bro^mido (-mid or -mid), n. A compound of bromine 
with a more podtive radical. 

Bro'nilBe(-mTn or -mSn),n. [Gr. ^owmoc stink.] One 
of the chemical dements, related to cnlorine and iodine. 
It is a reddish brown liquid of very disagreeable odor. 

II BrOB'clll (brSnncI), n. pi. See Bbonchus. 

II BrOB'Olll-B (-kT-4), n. pi. pYL., fr. Gr. Pp^ui, pi. 
Cf. Bboncrus.] The tubes which arise from the branch- 
ing of the trachea. — Bnm'clll-Al, Bnm'ClllO (-kTk), a. 

BrOB-oU'tlB (briSn-ki'tTs), n. IBronchut + -aU.] 
Inflammation of the bronchial tubes. 

BrOB'(dlO (brSnOtd), n. [Sp. bronco rough, wild.] A 
small native, or llexican, horse. [ Western V. ^.1 

Bron'ClUHyde (-sa), n. [Gr. ^poyxoKifAi} ; pp^oc 
windpipe -j-ic^Ai} tumor.] Goiter. 

BrOB-ollOt'O-niy (br5n-k0t^-mj^), n. An incision into 
the windpipe or larynx. 

U Broa'OBBB (bronOcfis), n. ; pi. Bbohcri (-ki). [KL.. 
fr. Gr. /3p<S7x<K windpipe.] One of the subdividons of 
the trachea ; esp., one of the two jprimarv divisions. 

Bronae (br&is or brSnz), n. [F., fr. It. bronzo^ prob. 
fr. bruno brown.] 1. A red alloy of copper, thi, etc., 
used for statues, bells, cannon, etc 2. A statue, bust, 
etc., cast in bronse. 3. A reddish brown color; pig- 
ment or powder for imitating bronze.— v. /. To give 
the appeo^rance of bronze to. 

I (brSch), n. [See Broach, n.] A breastpin. 

Brood (br55d), n. [AS. brOd. Cf. Bbxbd.] 1. The 
young birds hatched at one time ; a hatch. 2. The young 
from the same dam; children of the same m<^er; 
offspring.— a. 1. Sitting or inclined to dt on eggs. 
2. Kept to breed from.— v. i. 1. To dt on and cover 
eggs or young, to warm and protect them ; to dt quieUy, 
as if brooding. 2. To thhik continuoudy or moodily on 
a subject : to be in a state of gloomy, serious thought. 

Brook (brd6k), n. [AS. brOc.] A natural stream of 
water smaller than a river or creek. 

f«m, reomt, drb, r^de, f ^, Am, food, fo^ot, oat, oil, duOr, bo, dziBi ink, tben, Udn. 




Brook (brd6k), r. /. [AS. biHcan.} To bear ; to eu- 
to put up with ; to tolerate. 
' ;att (-let}, n. AsmaUbrook. 
1 (bWS&iu), n. [AS. brdm.} H. A plant having 
twigs that mar be bound together and used to sweep 
with. 2. An implement for sweeping floors, etc. 

Brooai oom, a variety of sorghum having a Jointed stem, 
like maise, used to make brooms. 
Broom'Stlck' (-8tTkO» n. Handle of a broom. 
Broom^ (brS&m'y), a. Pertaining to broom. 
Brom (brSth), fi. [AS. frro^.] Liquid in which flesh 
has been boiled ; thin soup. 

I'el (brStfaOn), n. [AS. bre^San to ruin.] A 
bouse frequented by prostitutes. 

BroUftr (brtttfa^r). n. [AS. brOdor.l 1. A son of 
the same parents. 2. One akin by rank, profession, etc. 

BroCh'tr-hOOd (-hd6d ), n. 1. The sUte ot being brotiten 
or a brother. 2. An association or fraternity. 

Srn. — Fraternity ; association ; fellowsliip ; sodality. 

noth'tr-lll'-UW (-Tn-lf/), n. ; pi. Bkothuu-in-law. 
Brother of one's husband or wife ; husband of cue's hibter. 

BroCh'tr-ly (bHitfa'9r-lj^), a. Pertaining to, or be- 
coming to, brothers ; affectionate. --acfv. Like a brother; 
kindly. -BrOtlfor-U-IMM, n. 

Hjn, — Fraternal : kind : affectionate ; tender. 

Kroilflll'am (brSyam or brS5m), n. A light, close car- 
riase, with wheels so arranged as to turn short. 

Brow (brou), n. [AS. bru.'\ 1. Bidge and hair over 
the eye. 2. Forehead. 3. Edge of a steep place. 

BrowOMar (-bSt^)* v. t. To bear down with abusive 
words or looks ; to bully. 

Brown (broun), a. [AS. brun; akin to O. braun.'} 
Of a dusky color, between black and red or yellow. 

Brown eosl, wood coal : lignite. —Brown stoat, a strong 
kind of porter or malt liquor. —Brown statfy, a state oi 
mental abstraction or reverie. 

— ft. A dark color resulting from mixture of red and 
black, or of red, black, and yellow, ^-v.t.&i. To make 
or become brown. — BroWB'llMM, n. 

BrownlO (brounHT), n. An imaginary good-natured 
household spirit. 

Brown'llll, a. Somewhat brown. 

BroWM (brous), n. [OF. broMt sprout, shoot.] Ten- 
der branches of trees and shrubs ; green food for cattle, 
etc. — r . /. A i. To feed on branches ; to graze ; to pasture. 

Bmln (bruTn), n. [D., brown.] A bear. 

BrolM (bruz), r. t. [AS. brfgan."] L. To hurt with 
blows ; to contuse. 2. To break, as in a mortar : to 
crush. — «. <. To flght with the flsts ; to box. — n. 
Wound of the flesh of animals, plants, fruit, etc. ; a con- 
tusion. — Brnis'or, n. 

8yn. — To pulverize : bray : triturate ; pound ; contuse. 

Bmlt (hrjit), n. [F.J 1. Report ; rumor. 2. {Frmrh 
pron. brwS.) An abnormal sound in the lungs, heard on 
auscultation, —r. t. To r^rt ; to noise abroad. 

Bni'lllAl(bru'mal), a. [L. brunuUitf it, brumn win- 
ter.'] Pertaining to winter. 

WU-nette' (bni-nSf), n. [F. brunetj brunette^ brown- 
ish, dim. of brun, bmne, brown.] A girl or woman with 
a dark complexion. — n. Having a dark tint. 

Bnmt (brflnt), n. [loel. bruna to rush.] 1- The ut- 
most violence of an onset. 2. Force of a blow ; shock. 

Bmsll (brli»h), n. [OF. broche^ brosge, brushwood.] 
1. An instrument of bristles, etc., to remove dust, lay 
on colors, etc. 2. A fox*s bushy tail. 3. Branches of 
trees lopped off ; brushwood. 4i A thicket ; shrubs in 
a wood ; underbrush. 6. A brushing ; a grazing ; light 
touch. 6. Skirmish ; shock ; collision. 7. A short con- 
test, or trial, of speed. — f. /. 1. To nib, smooth, clean, 
paint, etc., with a brush. 2. To touch lightly in passing. 
— r. i. To move nimbly or lightly. 

BniBh^OOd (-wd6d), n. 1. Brush ; a thicket or cop- 
pice. 2. Small branches of trees cut off. 

"" ' Y* ^ Resembling a brush ; shaggy; rough. 
(brOsk), a. Brusque. 

Bnitqao (brd6ak), a. [F. , f r. It. bm»co bruaqoe, tavt, 
sour. ] Rough and prompt in manner ; abrupt ; bluff. 

Bratld (bru'tal), a. TF.] 1. Pertaining to a brute. 
2. Savage ; cruel ; merciless ; grosa. — BmtBl'lT, adr. 

Bni-tala-tJ (br^-tua-tj^), n. l. The being brutaL 
2. An inhuman act. [hnman. I 

Bni'Ul-lli (brut<rl-h), r. /. To make brutal or in-l 

BnitO (brut), a. [F. bnU^ L. brutus stupid, irratiooaL j 
1. Not havingwn«*tion * inanimate ; without intelligence 
or volition. 2. Notpossessing reason. 3. Cruel ; fero- 
cious ; savage. 4. Having the physical powers predcnni- 
nating over the mental; coarse; unintelligent —n. 1. An 
animal destituteof reason ; quadruped ; baaat. 2. A bru- 
tal or ooarse person ; aavag*. 

Syn. — See Bkast. 

Bnitlsll (brn^Tsh), a. Pert, to, or like, brutes ; eroel ; 
gross ; stupid. — BnHllh-lT, adv. ~ Bm^rt IHM, ». 

Syn. — Insensible ; unfeeling; cmel; bmtal; barba- 
rous; inhuman; ferocious; gross; sensual; besittaL 

I (-tls'm), «. The characteristics of a brute ; 

extreme stupiditv, or beastly vulgarity. 

Biy'O-nT (bri%>nj^), n. [Or. fifnm^ia^ fr. P^» to 
swell.] Name of several cncurbitaceous j^ants. 

II Bry'^^e'a (-«y*). »• pi- [NL., fr. Or. fipvpm moss 
-f C^^y animaL ] A class of nainute ****"*■'* which by 
budding form compound colonies, mostly found in salt 
water, but sometimes in fresh ; — called also Po/yzoo. — 
Btt^o-io'aii, o. & n. 

itkVWiB (bfiban), n. rCf. D. bobbel.) L. Thin bhid- 
der of water, etc. 2. Oiobule of air In a trannarmt 
solid. 3. Anything more specious than real ; a fraud ; 
emptv project. — r. <. 1. To rise in bubbles, or contain 
bubblea. 2. To run with a gurgling noise. »r. t. To 
cheat; to deceive. 

BQbiaT (blV), a. Abounding in bubbles; bnbbUnr. 

Blin>0 (bu'b6), n. [LL. , proin, swelUng in the groin.] 
An hiflammation of a Ivnipliatic gland, egp. in the groin. 
— BQ-bOBio (bft-bSn'Tk), a. 

Bvo'oal (bOkHial), a. [L. bueea cheek.] Pertaining 
to the mouUi or cheeks. 

BllO'oa4IOtI^ (-k&-nSrOt n. [F. bovcanier."] A robber 
upon the sea; pirate.— r. i. To live as a piratical ad- 
venturer. [Written also bucanier,] 

Bn-OOIllAlir (bfi-sBn'iRr), n. [Gr. ^ovc ox + mimifpos 
centaur.] 1. 

niony of espousing the Adriatic. 

Bll'cdill (bu'kn), n. A South African shrub and its 
leaves, dotted with oil glands, used in medicine for 
diseases of the urinary organs, etc. 

Book (bClk), ft. [Akin to LO. MUv.] Lye or sods for 
bleaching cloth or washing clothes. — r. I. 1. To soak, 
steep, or boil, in lye or suds. 2. To break up (ores). 

BlMk, n. [AS. bueca^ due, he-goat] 1. A male deer. 

2. A gay, dashing young 
Indian or negro. [Collon. 
te, as bucks and does. 2. 

f:oat, slieep, hare, or rabbit 
ellow ; dandy. 3. A male 1 

r.iS.] — r. ». 1. To copulate, . 

To Kpring violently, like a vicious mule.— 1>. t. 1. To 
punish (a man) by tving the wrists together, passing the 
arms over the bent knees, and putting a stick over the 
arras and under the knees. 2. To throw by bucking. 

Book, n. A frame for sawing firewood. 

Back saw, a framed saw to cut wood on a aawborae. 

Bnok'-terkot (bAs^kfit), n. A basket in which 
clothes are carried to the wash. 

BncklMMUrd' (-bSrdO, n. A fouivwheeled vehicle, hav- 
ing a long elastio board resting on th« uletraM. 

ft, 3, 1, 0, 0, loBf ) », «, 1, 0, 0, t, thorl I Mails, ivant, tdea, ttbay, llalta, e4r«, (irm, Admin, taiO. 




t (bOk'St), n. [AS. hue pitobBr.] 1. A ves- 
sel for drawing, holding, or carrying water or oilier 
Uqoida. 2. A tub for coal, ore, grain, etc 8. A float 
of a paddle wlteel or water wheeL 
tail It ekop, a place for betting on onnent prioee of 

_ ' (bfik'F), «». 1. A name for several Amer- 
ican trees and shrubs of the horse cliestnut kind. 2. A 
cant name for a native of Ohio. 
Bwdl'Uh, a. Dandified : foppish. 
Bae'kirCbfik'kn), n, [of: bocU boss of a shield, 
ring, L. bucca cheek, j 1. A device to hold straps in place 
or fasten things together. 2. A bend or kink in sheet 
metaL— V. L A i. 1. To fasten with buckles. 2. To 
; to kink. 
ao'klMr (bfiknaSr)* **• [of. boOer shield with a 
, fr. bocle boss. See Buckli.] 1. A Idnd of shield. 
S. (>ne of the bony plates found on certain fishes. 

Ba^^ram (-ram), n, [F. bougran^ MHO. buckeram^ 
tr. 6oe, 0. bodt^ goat (as made of goat's hair).] Coarse 
cloth stiffened with sixe or glue. ~a. 1. Made of buck- 
ram. 2. Stiff; precise. ~ e. I. To make stiff. 

(-shot/), n, A coarse shot, used in hunt- 

deer and large game. 

JtUlkfwlkiBf (-skfnO, a. L. Skin of a buck. 2. Leather 
made of deerskin. 3. pi. Breeches made of buckddn. 

Bwdie'thani' (-th6m0. n, a thorny shrub or tree. 

Batk^WkMT C-hwSfj, n. [Buck a beech tree -f- 
wkeai.} A plant of the PolvKonum family, whose seed is 
naed, when ground, for griddle cakes, etc 

Ba-OOHo (bt-k5imc), a. [Or. povieokuc6i , f r. fiwic6Xot 
oowherd ; /fovc ox -)- (perh.) kAi^c race horse.] Pertain- 
ing to the life of a shepherd ; piistoral ; nutic— n. A 
pastoral poem. — Bll^>0l1lHd, a. 

B«d (bfid), a. [D. bot, O. bntat, core of a fruit, bud.] 

1. An undeveloped branch or flower. 2. A protuberance 
on certain animals and vecetables which develops into a 
new organism. «-r.i. 1. To produce buds ; to grow Into 
a flower or shoot. 2. To begin to grow, as a horn. — r. t. 
To graft ; to insert a bud from one plant into an opening 
in the bark of (another). 

8yn. — To sprout ; germinate ; blossom. 

Bad'tta (bSdd'dA), n. [Skr., wise.] Title of an hi- 
carnation of self-abnegation, virtue, and wisdom, or a 
deifled religious teacher of the Buddliists. 

Bad'dhlim (-dTi*m), n. The religion taught by the 
Hindoo sage Gautama Siddartha, sumamed Buddha. — 
BvO'dldst, n. - Biid'dlilst, Bvd-dlUstie, «r. 

B«dO (b&j), V. i, [F. bouger.] To move oft. 

B«dC«, n. [OF. bonge, fr. L butga leathern bag. Cf. 
BoLaaj A fur prepwed from lambskin ; — used for- 
merly as an edging of scholastic habits, —a. 1. Liued 
with budge ; scholastic. 2. Austere or stiff. 

Badftt (bfij'St), n. [F. bougette waUet, dim. of OF. 
boge leather bag. Sae Bvdob, n.] 1. A bag with its 
contents; stock or store. 2. Annual financial statement 
made in the British House of Commons, etc. 

Buff (bfif), n. [OE. buff, bnffie, buff, buffalo.] 1. 
Leather prepared from buffalo sldu, dressed with oil ; 
skins of oxen, etc., similarly dressed. 2. Color of buff ; 
light yellow. 3. Wheel covered with buff leather, to 
poUab ouUerr, etc —a. 1. Made of buff leather. 2. Of 
the color of buff. — r. t. To polish with a buff (wheel). 

Baff, a. [See Btrmrr.] A buffet ; blow ; — obsolete 
except in the phrase ** Biindman's fruj 

Buffa-lO (bOf'fA-IS), n. [8p. bujalo; Or. /3ov/3aAof 
buffalo, prob. fr. /Sovv ox.] 1. A 
species of ox originally from India. 

2. A very large and savage species 
of the same genus found in South 
Africa ; — caUed also Cape bnffalo. 
S. The bison of North America. 4. 
Abuffnlorobe. 6. The buffalo fish. 

Baiklo rtfbs, the skin of the bison Head of Cspc BufFslc 

I tA North America, prepared with the hair on ; — used ai 
I a lap robe. 

I Bllff'fr(b<if'fSr),n. [Prop., a jlrOer. SeeBurFsra 

. blow.l 1. An elastic fender, to deaden the jar from 

colliding bodies ; a pad or cushion. 2. One who polishes 

, with a buff. 3. A wheel for buffing ; a buff. 4. A 

good-humored, slow-witted fellow. \VoHoqA 
1 Buf-tet' (ba6f-fi'), n. [F.; LL. bujelum.'i 1. A 
j cupboard ; sideboard. 2. A restaurant. 

Bllf'tot (b&f'lSt), n. [OF., a slap hi the face, pair of 

I bellows, fr. buffe blow.] 1. A blow with the hand ; slap 

on the face. 2. Atrial; adversity. «-«./. 1. Tostrike 

, with the hand or fist ; to cuff ; to slap ; to contoid 

against. 2. To deaden the sound of (beUs) by mufBing 

I the clapper. — v. i. To strike ; to strive. 

II Bono (bdbff d), n. [It.] Comic actor in opera. 

' BQl-tOOn' (bfif-loduO, n. Xv. bouffim { huffone^ 

I buffo, buffa, pulf of wind, vanity, nonsense, fr. bouffer 

to puff out, because buffoons puffed out their cheeks.] 

One who amuses by low tricks, antic gestures, etc ; a 

, mimic ; clown. » a. Characteristic of a buffoon. » v. t. 

To treat with buff oonerv. — Bol-foonisk. a. 

Bnf-toon'er-y (-9r-y), h. Jests, pranks, tricks, or 
postures of a buffoon. 
Bllff'y(-f9).a. Resembling buff. 
Bog Cbug), n. [W. bwg, bwgan, hobgoblin, bugbear.] 
1. Name for various insects and crustaoea. 2. Mdbug. 
BOM'tL'hOO^ (bOg^A-bsy), BnrbMI" (-bti^),ii. [See 
Buo.J Something imaginary that frightens ; a specter. 
Sjm. — Hobgoblin ; goblin ; specter ; ogre : scarecrow. 
BnC'Cy C-Sy )t o- Infested with or abounding in bugs. 

— Boc'^iieM, n. 

Bnc'cy, n. A light, four-wheeled | 
vehicle, usually with one seat. 

u/alo; Or. ftovfiakoi 

Buggy without and with Top. 

Bn'fle (bu'g'l), n. [OF., fr. L. burufus buUock, dim. 
of boa ox.] 1. A wild ox ; buffalo. 2. A hunter's horn. 
3. A copper musical instrument of the horn kind. 

Bn'i^e, n. [LL. buff*^^.] An elongated glass bead, 
commonly black. — a. Jet black. 

Ba'gle, n. [F.I A plsnt of tiie Mint family. 

Ba'glom (bu'glSs), n. [Or. fiovyAtavirot oxtongue ; 
/3ovf ox -j- vAM<ro-a tongue.] A plant, oxtongue. 

BttU (btD), BnU'WOrk (buI'wQrk), n. [Fr. Boule, a 
French carver in wood.] Decorative inlaid woodwork. 

Buhl'StolM' (bQr'st^n^), n. [OE. bur whetstone.] 
A cellular, flinty rock, used for millstones ; burrstone. 

Build ( Wld), r. t. [imp. & p. p. BuiLT (bTlt) ; p. pr. 
& rb. n. BtriLDiNO. The regular imp. &p. p. BuiLOBD 
is antiquated.] [AL. bpldnn to build, fr. bold house.] 

1. To construct (a fabric of any kind) ; to make ; to form, 
establish, or produce. 2. To increase and strengthen ; 
to estahlifth and preserve. — r. i. 1, To practice build- 
ing. 2. To rest, as on a foundation ; to rely. — a. Form 
or mode of construction ; make. — Boild'cr, n. 

Syn. — To erect ; construct ; raise ; fotwd ; frame. 

BnUd'illg, n. 1. A constnictinfr, en^tlng, or estab' 
lishing. 2. Architecture. 3. A fabric or edifice. 

II Bnk'sUall (bnk'sbSsli), n. Backsheesh. 

Blllb(baib),n. [h.butbii4) 1. A spheroidal growth 
from a plant eitlier above or bolow ground, producing a 
stem above, and roots below, as in the onion, tulip, etc 

2. An expansimi on a stem or tube, as the bulb of a ther- 
mometer.— r. «'. To swell. —Bul-lNt'oeoOA (bOl-bS^- 

shfis), Bidb'ar, Bul-boae', Balb'oiis, a. 

fBm, recent, drb, r^de, f \ill, Am, food, idht, out, oil, chair, kOi •^Si lok, tben, thin. 




Bulge (bQlJ), n. [AB. A OHG. beigam to tweU, O. 
bulge leathern sack.] X The bilge or protubenuik part of 
a cuk. 2. A protuberant part ; a beudins outward. 3. 
Bilge of a Teeael. — o. i. 1. To swell ; to Dead outward, 
a. To bilge. -Bid'gy (bfil'jf), a. 

Bulk (bOlk), n. [Dan., lump.] 1. Magnitude ; di- 
mensions; mass; sixe. 2. The mahi body; principal 
portion : majority. 3. Cargo of a ressel when stowed. 

Byn. — Size; magnitude; dimension; volume; big- 
ness; largeness; massiveness. 

Bvlk'llMd' (-hMO, n. [IceL balkr beam, partition.] 

1. A partition in a vessel, to separate spartments on the 
same deck. 2. A wall to resist pressure of earth or water. 

Balk^ (-f ), a. Of great bulk or siae ; large ; mass- 
ive. — Balkl-BM% n. 

Boll (bul), n. [D. but, O. btdU; prob. akin to AB. 
beUan^ E. bettow.} 1. The male of any species of cattle, 
also of any large quadruped or of the wliale. 2. (n) 
Taurus, the 2d sign of the zodiac, (b) A constellation 
of the zodiac between Aries and Oemiui, containing the 
Pleiades. 3. A speculator who operates for a rise in 
price of stocks ; — opposed to a bear. — a. Pertaining to, 
or like, a bull; male; large; fierce. —v. t. To en- 
deavor to raise the market price of (stocks, etc.). 

Bull, n, [L. bulla bubble, knob, LL., seal or stamp. 
Cf. Bill a writing. Bowl ball. Boil, v. ».] 1. A seal. 

2. A sealed letter, edict, or rescript, of the pope. 3. A 
grotesque blunder in language. 

Syn. — See Blurdei. 

Bnll'dof (bylMBgOt n. A dog of great ferocity, cour- 
age, and tenacity of grip. — a. Uuyielding ; stubborn. 

Bnll'dOM' (-dSs'j. r. /. To coerce by Intimidation or 
riolence. [Slang^ tl. S."] 

Buiatt (bylllt), n. [F. botdet, dim. of boule ball. 
Bee Bull an edict.] 1. A small ball. 2. A missile to 
be discharged from a firearm. 3. The fetlock of a horse. 

Buiae-tlB (-It-tTn), n. [F., fr. It. buUettino, dim. of 
buUeUa^ dim. of bulla. See Bull an edict. 1 1. An oflB- 
oial report or announcement. 2. A perlodicail publication. 

Bnll'llnoll' (-fTnchO, n. A European bird allied to 
*'.he grosbeak, which learns to whistle musical airs. 

Bvllfroc' (-frSgOt **• A very large species of North 
American frog, nameid from its loud bellowing in spring. 

Bnlllieal' (-h«dO, n. 1. (a) A fresh-water fish of 
many species, called respectively tniller*s thumb, catjtsh, 
homed Dout, and bullpovt. (b) A marine fish, the scul- 

Kin. 2. (a) The black-bellied plover ; — called also 
eetlehead. (d) The golden plover. 3. A stupid fellow ; 
lubber. [CoUoq.'\ 4. A smnll black water insect. 

Bullion (-yfin), n. [Cf. OE. buUyon hook for fasten- 
ing the dress, button, stud ; LL. b^ilHo the swelling of 
boiling water, mass of gold or silver, fr. L. bulla hosn, 
bubble, or nerh. comip. fr. F. billon base coin, LL. bUlio 
bullion.] 1. Uncoined gold or silver in the mass. 2. 
Heavy twisted fringe of gold or silver wire. 

BlUliOII-lSt, n. An advocate for a metallic currency, 
or paper currency convertible into gold. 

BulOOk (-Ittk), n. [AS. bvHuc.'\ 1. A young male 
of the ox kind. 2. An ox, steer, or stag. 

Bull* ■'-•ye' (bylt^'), n. Tl. K perforated wooden 
block without sheaves, to connect rlgglnir. 2. OIass disk 
in«ertedinadeck,floor,etc.,tolet in light. 3. A lantern, 
with a tliick glass lenn to concentrate light on any object ; 
the l-^ns itself. 4. The renter of a target. 

Bully (bviny), n. [Cf. D. bitlderanr a blusterer, 
bulderen to bluster ; prob. imitative.] A blustering fel- 
low, more insolent than coiinigeonp. — a. 1. Jovial and 
blustering; dashing. 2. Fine; excellent. {Slongl^ 
V. t. To intimidate with threats and by a swaggering j 
demeanor. — r. i. To act as a bully. 

Syn. — To bluster ; swagger: hector; domineer. 

Bnllnsll' (-rfishO* »»• lOK. bulrygche.'\ A large rush, 
growing in wet land or in water. 

Bnl'wark (-wfirk), n. [Akin to O. boHwerk; bohle 

plank -f werk work, defense.] 1. A rampart ; fortilloa> 
tion. 2. That which defends ; protection. 3. pi. The 
sides of a ship above the upper deck. — v. i. To protact. 

Syn. — See Rampart. 

immaile-be*' (b&m'bU-beOi «• [OE. bumbUn to bom 
-{- bee. Cf. Humblkb k b.] A large bee, sometimes callad 
bumblebee ; — nuned from its sc^ind. 

Buil'mtr (-mSr), It. An idle, worthleas feUow ; a 
dissipated sponger. ISlang, U. 8."] 

' " ■ -^w.j 

_ (b&nip), v.i.&i. [Cf. W. pump round mass, 
pwmpiaw to thump, and £. boom to roar.] To strike ; 
to thump. — n. 1. A thump ; heavy Uow. 2. A sweil- 
iug ; protuberance. 3. One of the protuberances on the 
cranium which phrenologists associate with distinct men- 
tal faculties. (Colloq.'\ 

Bump, V. i. [See Boon to roar.] To make a boUow 
noise, as the bittern : to boom. — n. Noise of the bittern. 

Bimi'per (bam'|.2r), n. [Cormp. of bumbard large 
drinking vessel.] A cup filled to the brim. 

Bumpier (btlmp'ir), n. 1. That which buin|w or 
causes a bump. 2. A buffer, to deaden a bump or aliock. 

Bump'klll (-kTn), n. A clown ; country lout. 

BnmpHoas (-shOs), a. Self -conceited ; forward; 
pushing. — Bnmi'tloiUhnen, n. iColloq.'] 

Bun, Bvim (ban), n. [Scot. ; fr. Celtic] A sUgfatiy 
sweetened raised cake. 

Bancll (bOnch ; 62), n. [Akin to Dan., bunke lieap ; 
cf. W. pwng cluster.] 1. A protuberance ; knob ; Imnn ; 
hump. 2. A collection, cluster, or tuft.— v. i. & t. To 
form into bunches. — Bimcllfy, a. 

Bnn'oombe, Bimlnim (btfn'klim), n. [Buncombe a 
county of North Carolina.] Speech-making to gratify 
constituents, or gain public applause. [SlanOf U. £.] 

II Bund (LdSndJ, n. [O.] Lesgue ; confederacy. 

II Bvn'dcs-iBtb' (bdau'dSs-riU^), M. '" ' 

[O., bund -f nth 
Oerman £n.pir« ; 

council.] The federal council of the i 
also, that of Switzerland. 

Bmi'dle (bfiu'dn), n. [AS. byndel; akin to E. Muf.] 
A number of things bound torether ; a package ; roU. «- 
V. i. 1. To bind in a bundle or roU. 2. To send off 
abruptly. — 1». i. To set off in a hurry. 

Bong (bilng), n. [Cf. W. bwng.'\ 1. Stopper of the 
orifice lu a cask. 2. Orifice in bUge of a cask throogh 
which it is filled ; buoghole. —v. t. To stop (the orifice 
in a cask) with a bung ; to close. 

Bvn'ca-lOW (bfiQ'K&-15), n. [Bengalee bSmgla.'\ In 
India, a thatched or tiled cottage, of a single story. 

Bong^dle' (b&ng^SlO* n. Orifice in a cask, stopped 
by a bung. 

Bu'ffle (bQQ'gn), V. i. [Prob. akin to bang.] To 
act or work clumsily. — v. /. To manage amkwaraly ; to 
botch. —n. A clumsy performance ; botch ; gross blunder. 
— Bnn'glcr, n. — Bvn'clliis, a. — Bun'sUng-ly, adv. 

Banloil (b&n'yiin), n. A ounyon. 

Bonk (b&yk), ft. [Cf. OSw. bunke heap, also board- 
ing, flooring. Cf. Bunch] 1. A wooden box, used for 
a 6cat in the daytime and for a bed at night. 2. One of 
a rfrien of berths in tiers. — r. t*. To go to bed in a bunk. 

Bunlcer (b&n'k^r), n. [Scot, bunker^ bunkarl, bench.] 
1. A cheHt whose lid serves for a seat. 2. A large bin. 

Bnnlco (-k6), n. [Cf. 8p. banco bank, bonea game at 
cards. ] A «windling game by means of cards or by a sham 
lottery. [Written also bunco.J 

Bnnlram (bOn'k&m), n. Buncombe. 

Bnnn (bOn), n. Bun. 

Bnn'tlllg (-ting), n. [Scot, buntlin.} A European 
and American bird related to the finches and fiparrowa. 

Bnn'tlng, Bnn'tiiie (-tTn), n. [Prov. E. bunting 
sifting flour, OE. boiUen to sift.] A thin woolen stuff, 
used chiefly for flagn. 

BantHne (b&m'ltn or -lin), n. [8w. burU a bundle 
-|- /m^.] One of the ropes for hauling up a sail. 

Bmi'yoil, Bnnlo-l (bSn'yHn), n. [Cf. Prov. E. bunny 
small swelling ; fr. OF. hngne tumor.] An enlargement 

a, «, 1, 5, a, long ; A, 6, 1, 5, a, ^, short ; senAte, dvent, tdea, 6bey, finite, cikre, ftrm, Aak, nil. 




nd influniBAtioii of a imaU membranout mc, atuaUy 
oeearring ou the great toe. 

Bmt (bwoi or boi), «. [D. boei baoy, fetter, fr. OF. 
baie cbMin.^ A float; 
floatiiig object moored 
to the bottom, to mark 
a chamiel or to indicate 
a khoal, rock, etc., be- 
neath the water. ~o. /. 
L. To keep afloat; — 
withnp. 8.Tonistain; 

to preMnre from ifaiking Bell Buoy. Nut Buoj. 

into min or despon- 
dency. 3. To fix buoys to; to mark by buoys.— v. i. 
To float. [of buovs. I 

Bmy^age (-t j), n. Buoys collectirely ; the providing | 

BmCff'aMk-Cf (-an-sjT), n. 1. The being buoyant; 
specific lightness. 2. Upward pressure exerted upon a 
floating l^y by a fluid; the weight just sufficient to 
submerge a floating body. 3. Cheerfulness; vivacity. 

Bmoj'MBt (-<znt), a, 1. Having the quality of rising 
in a fluid ; tending to float. 2. Bearing up, as a fluid. 
3. Light-hearted; cheerful. — BllOT'Ult-lT, atf p. 

Bar* Burr (bOr), n. [OE. bur re ; cf. OSw. borra bur- 
dock, thistle.] 1. Bough or prickly head of a plant ; a 
weed bearing burs. 2. The ridge left by a tool in cutting 
metaL 3. ^) A small circular saw. (6) A triangular 
chtseL (c) A kind of drill. 

BurnM (bOr^bOt), n. [F. barbote, fr. barbe beard.] 
A f resli-WAter fish, having on the nose two small barbels, 
and a larger one on the chin; — also called eelpotit or 
ling, and allied to the codfish. [Written also burbdt.l 

WW^Uk (bfir'd'n), n. [Written also burthen.] [AS. 
byrSen ; akin to £. bear.\ 1. Tliat which is borne or 
carried ; a load. 3. That which is difficult, grievous, or 
oppressive to bear. 3. Capacity of a ship. 

8yn. — BumoEH ; Load. — A burden is, literaUjr. a 
weight to be borne ; a load something laid upon us. Our 
bmrdens may be snch that we feel bound to bear them 
without complaint. What is cast upon us, as a load, we 
carry with greater reluctance or sense of oppression. 
-mr.t. 1. To load. 2. To oppress ; to overload. 

8 jn. — To load ; encumber ; overload ; oppress. 

BnfdflD, a. [OE. burdoun bass in music, F. bourdon ; 
LL. burdo drone, long organ pipe, staff, mule.] 1. The 
verse repeated in a song ; chorus ; refrain ; anything 
often dwelt npon ; main topic. 2. The drone of a bagpipe. 

BnfdSB-aoilie (-sQm), a. Grievous to be borne. 

Ryn. — Heavy ; cumbersome ; onerous ; grievous. 

BVdMAC-dBk), n, [Bur + dock the plant.] A coarse 
biennial herb, bearing small burs which adhere tena- 
ciously to clothes, fur of animals, etc. 

Bu'lmill (bu^8 or bfi-r^), n. ; pi. E. Burkatts (-rSz), 
F. BcBKAiTX (by-r^O* i^'* writing Uble, d?8k, office, OF., 
drugget for covering a writing tablej 1. Orig., a desk 
with drawers for papers. 2. An office for transacting 
business reauiring writing. 3. A department of public 
bosfaieas. 4. A chest of drawers for clothes. {_[/. S.] 

BB-rMra'ara-er (bfi-rOncrA-KJ^), n. [Bureau -f- Or. 
cparcu' to govern.] 1. A system of government by de- 
partments or bureaus, each under a chief. 2. Govern- 
ment officials, collectivelv. 

BVV (bOrg), n. [AS. burh, burg, cf. LL. burgu*. See 
BoBouoR.] A borough. 

Bvz'KMIOt (bQr'gA-mSt), n. Bergamot. 

Bnr-saoto' (bdr-iois'), n. Bourgeois, a sice of type. 

Batwrnm (bflr'jes), n. [OE. & OF. burgeig, fr. burc 
fortified town, fr. LL. burguM fort, city ; f r. German.] A 
dtiaen, representative, or magistrate of a borough. 

Buig ^ gia f (bOrg'grlv), n, [G. burggraf; burg for- 
tress 4- pf^J count. See M aboravs.] A German count. 

Bmrcn (bQrs ; 8ct4. bfir'rd), n. A borough or incor- 
porUed town. — Borgll'al (bfirg'al), a. 

Bar3]l'fr(b(lrg^r),n. A citizen of a burgh or borough. 

Burglar (bOi'glSr), n. [OF. burg town -{- ferv thtef , 
fr. L. latro.] One guilty of burglary. 

Bur'ala-ry (-cUk-zj^), m. [Fr. burglar ; cf . LL. bur* 
9<aria.j^Hoasebreaklng by night. — Bur-gla'fl-ims 
(-gla'rl-as), a. — Blir-fU11-4NIS-ly, odv. 

BofgO^iuuKtar (•^S-mAs^tSr), n. [D. burgemee^ter ; 
burg -f tneester master.! 1. Chief magistrate of a mu- 
nicipal town in HoUand, Flanders, or Germany. 2. A 
glaucous gull, an aquatic bird common in arctic regions. 

Bv'glin-dT (-g&n-dj^), n. 1. An old province of 
France. 2. A riclily fiavored wine made in tf urgundy. 

Burfl-Al (bSr^rl-al), li. [AS. byrgeU, fr. bgrgan to 
bury.] The burying or cepositing a dead body in the 
earth, in a tomb, or in the water ; sepulture ; interment. 

Syn.— Sepulture; interment: inhumation. 

BnfrlB (bu'rTn), n. [F., prob. fr. OUG. 6ora borer, 
bordn to bore.] An engraver's tool ; a graver. 

Bui (bOrl). V. t. [OF. bourel roll of cloth or leather, 
stuffed with flocks, etc.] To dress or finish up (cloth). 
•— n. 1. A lump in thread or cloth. 8. An overgrown 
knot on a tree ; veneer made from such excrescences. 

Burlap (bfirnxp), n. A fabric of Jute or hemp, used 
for bagging, curtains, etc [Written also burtapt.] 

Bnr-lMqiM' (bflr-lSsk'), a. [F. ; fr. It. burlesco, fr. 
burla Jest, mockery.] Tending to excite laughter by ex- 
travagant images ; jocular ; IronicaL «- n. L. Lndicrous 
representation; exaggerated parody. 2. A caricature; 
travesty. — r. t. & i. To ridicule grotesquely. 

Syn. — Mockery ; farce ; travesty ; mimicry. 
II Biur-let'ta (bQr-ieta&), n. [it., dim. of burla. 
BURLISQI7B.1 A comic operetta. 


[TRLISQI7B.1 A comic operetta. 

Bnray ( wir'iy ), a. [OE. buHieh big, strong ; cf . GaeL 
& Ir. borr greatness.] 1. Bulky ; gross ; stout ; lusty. 
2. Coarse and rough ; boisterous. — Bur'U-lIMM, n. 

Bum (bflm), V. t, [imp. & p. p. Bubmbo (bfimd) or 
BuRXT (bdrnt) ;, & vb. n. BuBiraio.l [OE. bemen, 
brennen, AS. bernan, v. t., Mman, v. i.] 1. To con- 
sume with fire. 2. To injure by fire or beat ; to scorch ; 
to scald ; to blister ; to singe. 3. To change, perfect, 
or improve by exposure to fire or heat ; to iMUce. 4. To 
cauterize. 6. To combine with oxygen, with evolution 
of heat; to consume; to oxidize.— r. i. 1. To be on 
fire ; to fiame. 2. To suffer from excess of heat. 3. 
To be in a state of lively emotion.— n. 1. A hurt, 
f~' — "- fTTt caused hy fire or excessive heat. 2. Tlie 
?.' •.'! ..r iMimhL^ or rhAkhik(. 3. A disease in vegetables. 

Bum, fi. A lioum t.>.tn)am). 

BuTQ'or. n. 1. Oiii* triftt bums anything. 2. Fart of 
n l!irii|i', Ko.'i flthire, ftr., 'smitting fiame. 

Burn'ln^t ^- 1. Oei f^r> : hot. 2. Consumhig ; hitense. 
^^t\. A iT»imnfnitig, or li- ing excessively heated. 

BBTnlnff elMm. n * oiivox lens for producing intense beat 

V I'liM i-tTKiEit; tlif' MUliV r lys to a focus. 


Eit; tlif MUiiV T- lys 

ira^(T«itiHiTi [ fi r e ; confiagration ; flame; blaze. 

Eur 'nUh i I fi r 's 1 r * ; t.&i. [OF. fri/miV, bntnir. ] 
Topolish; to brighten. —>n. Gloss; brightness; luster. 

Bnr'nooa*, Blir'noiia(bfir'nC&s or bflr-nSSs'), n. [Ar. 
bumus.] A cloaklike garment worn by Arabs. 

Burnt (bQmt), p. p. & a. Consumed with, or as with, 
flre ; scorelied ; baked or hardened in fire or the sun. 

Bornt offtriBf, something offered and burnt on an altar, 
as an atoneme-it for sin : a sacrifice. 

Burr (bfir), n. [See BuK.1 1. A bur. 2. Lobe or lap 
of the ear. 3. [Prob. imitative.] A guttural pronuncia- 
tion of the letter r. — r. <. To speak with a burr. 

Bvr'ro (bur^ri), n. [So., ass.] A Mexican donkey. 

Blir1t»W (b&r'r6), fi. [See Borouoh.] 1. A borough. 
2. A shelter ; animars hole in the ground. 3. Heap of 
rubbish. 4. A mound, or barrow. — r. i. To excavate, 
or lodffe in, a hole in the earth ; to hide. 

Bar^aar (bdr'aSr), n. [LL. bursariu*, tt. bursa purse.] 
1. Treasurer ; purser. 2. Student receiving a bursary. 

Bar'aa-ry (-sA-rj^), n. 1. Tlie treasury of a coll -^ 
or monastery. 2. A scholarship in a university ; sum 
given to enable a student to pursue his studies. 

fgm, laoant, 6rb, r^de, fyll, fim, food, fo'ot, out, o'^ 

Gliair, go, sing, ink, then, Ullii. 




i(li6n),ii. [F. ft0«r<te.] 1. A fund to malntoin 

needy aohoUn. 8. A boune ; ftn excheiige, for mer- 
ohants and bsnkera. 

Bant (bOnt), V. i. [imp. A p. p. BuBtT ; p. pr. & 
vb. n, BuBSTXVo.l [AS. bertkauj 1. To break open; 
to explode. 8. Tb i^ipear andd^y. »v. t. To break 
open suddenlv.— ». 1. A sadden breaking forth; ex- 
plosion. 2. A brief, Tiolent effort ; a sport. 

Bnrlllill (bOr'th^n), n. & v. Borden. iArchaic'\ 

Bor^ (b&rrj^), n, A borough ; manor ; — termination 
of name* of places ; as, Canter6«ry. 

BV^Jt V* ^ [AS. burgan.'} 1. To cover out of sight ; 
to hide. 2. Tb depotf t (a corpse) in its resting place ; 
to inter. S. To put away finally ; to abandon. 

83m. — To faitomb; mter; inhume; inum; hide; 
oorer : conceal ; orerwhelm : repress. 

BorytBc frooBd, Buying plaos, a place for burying the 
dead; burml place. 

Boill (bvan). n. [OE. & D. botch, LL. bo*ciu, btu- 
eusA 1. A thicket; wild forest. 2. A shrub or cluster of 
shniDs. 3. Tail, or brush, of a fox. — v. i To branch 
thickly lUfee a bush. — r. <. 1. To set bushes for ; to sup- 
port (peas, etc.) with bushes. 2. To harrow (land), for 
covering seeds sown. 

Boill, A. [I>. bus box, akin to E. box,'} A ring or 
lining of metaL let into an orifice.— v. t. To furnish 
with a bush or lining. 

Bull'el (byshm n. [OF. boiuel, LL. b^utdlut ; 
dim. of buttia, buxida^ fr. pyxidoy ace. of L. pyxis box.] 
A dry measure of 4 pecks. 

Bulll-ness, n. Condition of being bushy. 

Bull'Wteok'tr (-hwftk'Sr), n. 1. One accustomed 
to beat about bushes. 2. A guerrilla ; one who pretends 
to be a peaceful citisen, but secretly harasses an euemv, 

Bmb'y (rS)t a* 1- Thick and spreading, like a bush, 
irgrown with shrubs. — Bosnl-llMM, n. 
lay (blsT-iy), adr. In ji busy manner. 

2. Ovei 

m (bTz'nSs), n. 1. That which busies one, or 
engages his time, attention, or labor ; regiilar occupation. 
2. A trade, art, or profession. 3. Financial or mercan- 
tile transactions. 4. Affair; concern; matter. 

8711. — Affairs ; transaction ; engagement ; calling ; 
occupation ; trade : profession ; vocation ; office ; duty. 

BuHiaM-llkt' (-l%Qt ft' Sagacious and efficient. 

BlUk (bttsk), n. [P. buscA A strip of metal or 
whalebone to stiffen the front of a corset. 

Bni^ r. t.&i, [Icel. buask to make one^s self ready.] 
To make ready ; to array : to dress. [Scot. & Old Eng. j 

Blis'klll (bos^Tn), n. [OF. brossequinA A covering 
for the foot and leg, worn by tragic actors. Used as a 
symbol of tragedy as distinguished from comedy. 

Bon (bfis), n. [L. basinm kiss, W. & Gael, btis lip, 
mouth.] A Kiss ; smack. — f. t. To kiss rudely. 

Bum, n. [OF. bu*se, LL. btumy D. 2>uw.] A small 
two-masted vessel used in the herring fishery. 

Bust (bOst), n. [It. buMtoJ] 1. A statue of the human 
head, shoulders, and breast. 2. The portion of the hu- 
man figure between head and waist ; the chest or thorax. 

BlU'Uurd (bfis't^rd), n. [OF. bistarde, fr. L. oris 
tarda, lit., slow bird.] The largest game bird in the tem- 
perate regions of Europe and Asia. 

Bottle (bus's']), V. i. [OE. bmlde, perh. fr. AS. by- 
tig busy, or Icel. bustla to bustle.] To move noisily ; to 
be rudely active, —n. Great stir ; agitation ; tumult. 

BaslM, n. A cusliion worn by women on the back 
below the waist, to give fullness to the skirts ; a toumure. 

Busy (bTz'zy), a. [AS. byfig^ 1* Kng^ed in some 
business ; hard at wcnrk ; occupied. 2. Diligent ; active. 
S. Crowded with business. 4. Officious ; meddling. 

870. — Diligent ; industrious ; active ; occupied. 
•— r. /. To make or keep busy ; to employ ; to occupy. 

Bm^-bod'y (-bSd'j^), n. One who officiously con- 
cerns himself with others' affairs ; a meddling person. 

But (bttt), twep., adr., & conj. [AS. bu/an without, 
on the outside, except, besides ; pref . be- -f (Unn out- 

ward, fr. fi/ out. See BY, Our ; cf . About.] 1. Except ; 
besides ; save. 2. Excelling the fact that ; were It not 
that ; unless. S. Otherwise than that ; that not* 4. 
Only; solely; merely. 6. On the contrary; on the 
other hand ; ooly ; yet ; still ; nevertheleaa; further. 

Syn. — But; Howsvbr; Still. — Theae conjnnctkma 
mark oppoxiiion in passing from one thought or topic tc 
another. But marks the opposition with a medium degree 
of strength. Hoteevfr is weaker, and throws the opposi- 
tion (as It were) into the background. Still is stronger 
than but, and marks the oppoettion more emphatically. 

But (bQt), n. [See Bdtt a limit.] 1. A UmR; 
boundary. 2. The end ; thicker or bltmt end. 

'tr (bych'Sr), n, [OE. & OF. boeMer, orir., 
aiaugncerer of buck goats, fr. OF. boc buck goat.] 1. 
One who slaughters animals for food. 2. One who kills 

cruelly or needlessly.— v. /. 1. To kill (animals) for 
food, or for market. 2. To kill barbarously. 

Bntoh^er-ly, a. Like a butcher ; savage ; bloody. 

BntOh'tr-y, n. [OE. boeherie shambles, f r. F. bouche- 
He.] Murder or manslauffhter ; great or cruel slaughter. 

8jn. — Murder ; slaughter : carnage. See Massacsb. 

Butler (bfitlSr), n. [F. hmtteitlier, fr. LL. buticm- 
lariv*, fr. buticula bottle.] One in chaige of liquors, 
plate, etc. ; head servant in a large house. 

Butt, But (bttt), ». [F. but butt, aim, OF. bot end, fr. 
boter, buter, topush, strike.] 1. A limit ; bound ; goal ; 
the end. 2. Thicker end of anything. 3. Mark to be 
shot at ; target. 4. One at whom contempt is directed. 
6. Thrust or sudden blow from an Miimal's head. 6. 
Thrust in fencing. 7. Piece of land left unplowed at the 
end <A a field. 8. Joint where the ends of two objects 
come squarely together ; — also called butt joint. 0. 
Hinge on the edge of the door, which butts against the 
casing. 10. Stoutest part of turned oxhides. 

Batt end, the thicker end of anything. 

Bvtt, V. t. 1. To Join at the butt or outward extrem- 
ity ; to terminate ; to abut 2. To strike by thrusting 
the head forward. — v. t. To strike with the head. 

Batt, n. [F. botte, boute, LL. butta. Cf. Boitlb.] 
A large cask, containing two hogsheads. 

II Butte (but or bd6t), n. [F. See Burr a bound.] 
A detached ridge rising from a surrounding plain ; — ap- 
plied to elevations in the Rocky Mountain region. 

Batter (bfit'tSr), n. [L. b*ttyrum.l An oi^, unctuous 
substance obtaiuea from cream by churning.— v. I. To 
cover or spread with butter. 

Batter-Clip' (-kfip^), n. A plant of the crowfoot kind, 
having bright yellow flowers. 

Botter-ny (-fliO, «• [?«'!»• 

fr. tlie color of a yellow species. 
AS. bttter-Jlege, buttorfiedge.l 
A general name for numerous 
species of diurnal Lepidoptera. 
Bvf ter-iae (-Tn), n. An im- 
itation of butter, prepared from 
animal fat. 

Batter-milk' (.mTlkO, n. 
Milk remaining after tlie butter 
is separated from cream. 

Batter-not' (-ntttO, n. 1. 
An American tree of the Wal- 
nut family, and its edible fruit. Bntterflv vrith its wain le- 
2. Soimri nut of South America, moved. I Prothorwx ; A 

Batter-y (-y ), a. Having the 
qualities, consisteuce, or appear- 
ance, of butter. 

Batter-y, n. [OE. botery, 

hotry ; cf. LL. botaria wine ves- 
sel. Not fr. butter. See BoT- 
TLB, Butt, a cask.] 1. A room where butter, mUk, and 
other provisions are kept. 2. A room in English colleges 
where refreshments are sold to the studentb. 3. A ceuar 
for storing butts of wine. 
BottOCk (-tttk), n. [Fr. butt an end.] 1. The 

CoMtsl edge of wingi B 
Inner edge; C Outer 
edee i D Apex of wing ; 
E Outer angle t ob Diacsl 
cell t an* DiMal venulee ( 
m Pataglai k Mttotcn- 

S, 8, 1, 8, 0, k»f i &, «, 1, 5, 0, ti Bbort ; smAte, «vent, tdea, Obey, linite, oAie, lirm, Ask, ftll, fln«L 




mmn, or p«rt at the back of the liip, on which one sits. 
S. The convexity of a ship behind, under the stern. 

Bal ^ l o n (bfitt*u)t n. [F. boulon button, bud, fr. bou- 
ter to posh. See Butt, end.] L A Icnob ; ball. 2. A 
eatcb, to fasten ports of dress, secure a door, etc. 3. A 
bod ; germ of a pUnt. — v. <. <b t. To fasten with a button. 

Ba l lOn-lMia^ (-hSlO* ^ ^^ ^ol® or loop in which a 
'button is canght. — v. ^ To hold by the button or but- 
tonhole ; to detain in conversation ; to bore. 

BnttOB-WOOd' (-wd6 J'), n. The American plane tree ; 
— called also buttonball tree and gycamore. 

Bnl'trem (-trSs), n. [OE. butrtuse^ fr. F. botiUr to 
push. Bee Butt an end.] 1. A pro- 
jecting mass of masonry, for residing 
the thrust of an arch, or for ornament. 
SL Anything which supports or strength- 
ens. ^ r. /. To snppOTt with a buttress ; 
to brace firmly. 

Bot'T-n'oeoas (bSaT-rS'shtts), 
Bttlr-RNIS (bu'tT-riSs), a. [L. buty- 
rum butter.] Like butter. 

Bn-trHo (btt-tTrmE), a. Pertaining 
to, or derived from, butter. 

BBX'oai(bttka^m),a. [AS-Mrmm; 
bigan to bow, bend -jr ««<»», E. -some.) 
Having health and comeliness ; jolly ; 
frolicsome. — Bu'oai-ly, ndv, — 

Bay (bi). 


A p. p. 

limp. S 
BouoBT (bat) ; p. pr. & vb. n. Bimiio 
(bi^ug).] LAS* bycgan."} L To acquire Bnttrcss. 
ownership of (property) by payment of 
a price ; to purchase ; — opposed to sell. 2. To get, at 
acost.— Biiy'«r,«. 

Bob (biix), r. i, rOnomat.] To make a low, contihu- 
oas, humming sound, like that of bees. — r. /. 1. To 
jpread (a report) by whispers, or secretly. 2. To talk to 
in a low humming voice. [CoUoq.'} — n. LA continu- 
ons, humming noise, as of bees ; confused murmur. 2. 
A whisper ; report spread secretly. 

Bib saw, a circular saw, which makes a loud buzzing 
when running at full speed. 

Boa'feara (bfiz'zSrd), n. [F. btuard, L. buteo, hawk.] 
1. A bird of prey of the Hawk family. 2. A dunce. 

By (bi)f prep* [A8. frf, big^ near to, by, of, from, 
after, aoooxoing to.] 1. In the neighborhood of ; near 
or next to ; along with. 2. On ; along ; in traversing. 
3. Near to. while passing ; from one to the otlier side of ; 
past. 4. used in specifying adjacent dimensions ; as, a 

cabin twenty feet by forty. 6. With, aa mavis, wav, 
process, eto. ; througli means of ; with aid of ; through. 

By all BBsaas, most assuredly ; certainly. — By and by, 
presently : pretty soon ; before long. — By one's ssu, 
alone : solitary. — By the bys. By the way, in passing ; 
— used to introduce an incidental or secondary remark, 
—adv. 1. Near; present. 2. Passing near; going past; 
beyond. 3. Aside. — a. Out of the common path; 
aside ; — used in composition, to denote somethUig aside, 
incidental, or avoiding notice ; as, 6y-play, by-street. 

Byt (bf), n. L A thing not directly aimed at ; some- 
thing faV the way. ^Ob*. except in the phrase by the 

If.] 2. A run made upon a missed ball in cricket. 

By'-ABd' (bi'SodO, n. Private end or Interest. 

arsonid^ (-gSnOf a. Past ; gone by. — n. Something 
gone by ; a past event. 

Bv'-Uw^ (-Ift'), n. [8w. bylag ; by town -f the word 
for law ; hence, a law for one town, special law.] 1. A 
local or subordinate law ; a regulation made by a cor- 
poration for its own government. 2. A law leas im- 
portant than a general law or constitutional provision, 
and subsidiary to it ; a rule relating to a matter of detail. 

By'-IUUIIB^ (bi'nimOt n. A nickname. — r. /. To 
give a nickname to. [indirect means. I 

Bypath' (-pathOt n. A private path ; obscure way ; I 

By'pUy (-plaOf n. Action carried on aside, and 
commonly hi dumb show, while the main action proceeds. 

By'-prodlMt (-prM'tikt), n. A secondary or addi- 
tional product ; something produced, as in the course of 
a manufacture, in addition to the principal product. 

'Bj'vmAf (-rSdO« *»• A private or obscure road. 

By'ltlBd'«r (bi'stXn'der), n. [,By -f siander, equiv. 
to stnnder-by.'} One who stands near ; a spectator ; one 
who has no concern with the business transacting. 

Byn. — Looker on ; spectator ; beholder ; observer. 

By^wmy' (-waO* n. A secluded, private, or obscure 
wnv ; a road aside from the nlr^in *>ne. 

By'wond' r-wClrtl), a. [as. f^vord; M, B. fry -f 
Uh:-"i.] L A iiHiJiHtjii ^ayiUK; i»r<'Verb. 2. The object 

of ii. <->>i>t>V||i[.iCtMlll« fkljillg, 

Byz^aat tMz'int). In. [OK & F. besnni, fr. LL. 
Byz'an-tijia (-iji-tnO. I Eifzaniius^ BysantintUy it, 

Bo -'UiiiM n, A A Ktyhi i-i li ti of f I) ]t:Liitium. 

By-zan^ual] (liT-iSn^i^liiii), a. X: n. Byzantine. 

By ZAn'tlne (-tTiOn *». ri'itAining to Byzantium.— 
n. All iulmtiiUjit of BynuiUiuis, now Coostautinople. 


0«b ikiuy. t*. [Abbr. fr. mbHM^t,] 1. A l^lit dose 
cMrria-g*", %- O Jvi?r<^d part of m lo>:omotivu, 

Oab. H [llfU o^, fr, ^5h*jh Ui hollow.] A Hebrew 
Jry tiiiMaiin-, of '2.s7 iilnta. 

Ql-bftl' lltA^Wl'K n. [F, CftfHtftf cabfll, LL. fnfJjnlt, fr. 
H 'Ik. g*fbi^tih tr^itiou.l L TnMiititJo ; ocrult doc- 
trine, l€HtM.] 2, A nuruVr of |*erM>n» iiiiUr'd in ujiue 
iutrtguej a Jtmto, — f. i To ifitrimi" ; tiipplitE. 

Sjiu — GavaI^i CoxBJ^rjitioir: P^moTi jimto; in- 
trwie; plot : ^aniptnrx- - A tumhifuituut Ib an ortran- 
timdaaVm of i»dtv{dii!LU for mutual sM^prjrt, ulh-ilter 
tftiod or bSid. A rnf^rf In iv nerr^t as^TclatioTi of ■<. ' in- 
dividuals MM>kint: power, A hitfimr is si liin;F?r 1 ■ lan 
A eabai^ aplftshly ruiploywl In tii^Etitine tlih' i^oi..- ity 
in orrJer to rh^mei? tk« laniiitlnif oniet m th[iti£::<t. 

0«l>^Alii:kSr>'l-|i). r». [LL &'e C1.11AL.] 1. Atra- 
ditloD at Ji'wi»li nibijii luiJ TDPilLiL'Tnl Chtlr^Uftoflt tfflat- 
Iq^ of diviriM and hrtm»ii inj'iHterif'js. 2. Sr*r.''rr*t sr-ifnnie; 
myotic srL — O&l/ft'llsm. n. — (Jab'a Halt « — OaVi- 

Oa-bal1«r (kA-bXinSr), n. One who cabala. 

II Oa-bu' (kA-bK'), n. [F.] A flat basket for flga, 
eto. ; a lady's hand bag ; — often written eaba. 

Chd/lMlg9 (kftb^btj), n. [F. chon eabtu headed cab- 
bage, cabbage head ; cf . It. capo head, L. caput.'] An 
esculent garden vegetable of many varieties.— r. i. To 
form a head like that of the cabbage. 

Cstiti^C. - L [F. cabaaer^ fr. OF. cabas theft] 
To fiiirti)4ii i|M<'i«s of cloth when cutting a gannent) ; to 
pi U <■ r . 1^ II . C loth kept when cutting out garments. 

Cabin (4 11), n. [W. ettbauy dim. of cttb cot, tent.] 
1 AiL-ott^K'^; liut. 2. Small room. 3. Room iu a ship. 
-^ • . i. To lodge. — r. /. To connne in a cabin. 

Oabl-IMt (-T-n6t), n. [F., dim. of cabine cabin.] L 
A small room; closet. 2. A private room for consulta- 
tions. 3. Advisory council of the executive officer of a 
nation. %. A piece of furniture, with drawers, eto. 6. 
A collection of works of art, eto. — a. Suitable for a 
cabinet; small. 

ffn, recent, drb, ryde, f^U, ftm, food, fdbt, out, oil, oliair, so, slng^ ink, tlien, UklOb 


Otbl-IMt-IIUlk'«r (kKbT-nSt-mU'Sr), m. One vho 
makes artiolM of houaebold (umiture. 

■troug rope or chain. « v. L&i, 1. To fatten with 


2.' To telegraph by a •ubmarine cable. 

Oa'bto-Cnni' (-grImO, n. {Cable + Or. 
writing.] Meangtt tent by a telegraphic cable. 

Oa-bOQM' (ki-bOteO, ». [Gf. D. labuu, O. kabiue a 
but.] L A house on a ehip*a deck, where cooking is 
done ; —commonly called the ffolley. 2. A car used on 
freight trains for brakemen, workmen, etc. ; a tool car. 

Oa1»'ll-0-l«f (klb/rl-t-lF), n. [F., dim. of cabriole 
leap, capei% fr. It eapriola^ ^h^^^ 
fr. dim. of L. eapra she-goat. 
Of. Caps a leap.] A one- 
horse carriage with two 
■eats and a calash top. 

Oft-OA'O (kA-ki'd or 
kSTkt), n. (Sp., fr. Hex. 
kakahuatl.'] A small ever- 
green tree of South America 

and the West Indies, whose o„, j^ ^j Csbriolet 
fruit contains edible pulp 
and seeds yielding cocoa, chocolate, and broma. 

0a€ll'a-lOt (kbh'M5t), n. [P.] The sperm whale, 
whose head contains an oily fluid, which concretes into 
a substance called spermaceti. 

II OmIm (k*sh), «. [F., fr. cacA«rtohide.] A pUce 
for concealing and preserving provisions. 

0ft-€lM0lto(kA.k8k'tTk), to. [Or. caxcicrunk.] Per- 

OA-OlMO'tlc-«l (-tT-kal), J taining to cachexia. 

|lOMll'«t(kAsh>t),n. [F.,fr.eoeA^.] Seal of a letter. 

II Lsttrs ds cachet [F.l, a sealed letter, esp. a letter from 
the sovereign ; — used in France, under tluB Bourbons, as 
an arbitrary order of imprisonment 

llOR-fill«ll-ft(kA.k8kBnr-A), )n. [Or. «axe^'a; iraxtk 

Oft-^lMS^ (-k«k8^), ( bad + c^ic condition.] 

A condition of ill health, esp. from a specific morbid pro- 
cess (as cancer or tubercle). 

Oabllill-liallOll (kSkan-ni'shttn), n. [L. eachinnatio^ 
it, eachinnare to laugh aloud.] Loud laughter. 

Oft'ldlOll' (ki'shsy), n. [F. See Cashoo.] A silvered 
aromatic pill, to correct the odor of the breath. 

Oao^e {kKk^kM). r. i. [D. kakcJen; imlUtive.l 1. 
To make the sharp, broken cry of a hen. 2. To giggle. 
3. To nrattle. — n. 1. Noise of a hen that has laid an 
egg. 2. Idle prattle.— Gaoler, n.—OA(/kIlllg,n. 

II Oao'fMraiM (kKk'ft-9'thSz), n. [Or. irairoi79i}f of ill 
habits, rh KajtAtfin an Ul habit ; xaicoc bad + Ifioi habit.] 
1. A bad habit ; insatiable desire ; as, caco'dtheit tciibendi^ 
**the itch forwriUng.** 2. A bad disposition in a dis- 
ease ; an incurable ulcer. 

Oa-oorira-^y (kA-kSg'rA.n^), n. [Or. «aic<k bad -f- 
•frropAy.X oaA writing or spelUng. 

OA-d^i^liy (-kSfft-ny), n. . . - 
[Or. K9ioAwna\ Ka$t6% + 4>^vn 
sound.] 1. An uncouth sound 
or combination of discordant 
sounds. 2. An unhealthv state 
of the voice. — Oao'O-plUnilO 
(kik't-fOnOk), OftO'O-^hOB'- 
IflhAl, Oa-ooph'o-iioiui (kA-k5f'- 
<^-nfis), a. 

CtaU/tllS (kSktSs). n. ; pi. E. 
Cactdris (-«x), L. Cacti (-ti). 
[L. ; Or. KcucTo«.] A genus of 
prickly tropical plants, incliul- 
ing the prickly pear and night- 
blooming cereus. — Oao-tA'- 
oeons (-ti'shOs), a. 

Oad (kSd), n. [Abbr. fr. m- 
del.} L In England, the door- 
keeper of an omnibus. 2. A low- 
bred, p r esu mi ng feUow. 

Cactan (Melon Thirtlc) 
of the semis MniuiUit- 
ria. Much reduced. 

[L., fr. eadere to falL' 

a dead body;} 

nOa-dA'Vir (ki-dl'TSr). n. 
A dead human body ; a corpse. 

Oa-dAT'Mr-au (-dlv^i^tts), a. Like 

Oad'diM ( (kid'dls), n. rProT. E. cadew ; of. O, 

Oad'Ote ) bait] The larva of a caddice fly, gener. 
ally oontahied in a cylindrical case, open at each and, and 
coated with pieces of shells, gravcO. etc 

Osddlee ty, an insect whoee larva is the caddlce. 

Oad'dlsll (-dish), a. Like a cad ; lowbrod. 

Oad'dy (-dy ), n. [EarUer spelt catty, fr. Mahiy kaa a 
weight of Ij poundsj A small chest to keep tea in. 

Oad« (kSd), n, [L. ctnf (Mjar, Or. co&k.] A cask. 

Oa'dMlM (ki'dens), n. [LL. cadentia a falling, fr. L. 
eadere to fall.l 1. A fall of the voice in reading or 
spealdng. 2. A rhythmical modulation of sound. 3. A 
uniform time and pace in marching. 

Oft-dtf (ki^StO, n. [F., a younger son or brother, 
dim. fr. L. caput liMd ; i. e., a smaller head of the fam- 
ily.] 1. A younger brother or son. 2. A pupil in a 
military or naval schooL — Og-dst'gllto, n. Qudge. I 

aA'dl(kaMT),n. [Turk. SeeALCAXJ>B.] ATuridsh| 

Oad'mi-lim (kSd'mT-fim), ft. [NL., fr. L. cadmia cal- 
amine.] A metal related to sine. — OltfllllO, a. 

Oa-dn'oe-ns (k^Ulu'st-Os), n. [L. ; Or. Kiip^KtLo^ a 
herald^s wand, fr. Kripvi herald.] The official 
wand of Hermes or Mercury, messenger of the 
gods, having two serpents coiled about it, and 
two wings at the top. — Oa-dll'oe-aB, a, 

Oa-dn'OOlU (-kliB), a. IL. caducus falling, 
fr. eadere to fall.] Dropping off, or disappear^ 
ing early, as the ffills of a tadnole. 

II Cto'cma (sSOcBm), n. [L. eaecws blind.] 
(a) A cavity o|)en at one end. (b) The blind 
part of the large intestme. See niutt. of DiOBS- 
TtTi Apparatus. 

QWM9I (sc'zSr), ft. [L.] A Roman emperor, 
as Hticoeedinor Ausntstus Ciesar ; a kaiser. — tkb- c^AntimtuL. 

sa^-aa. Os-aaM-aa (st-a'rT-on), a, w^uceiw. 

Oa'aar-Ism ( -Tz*in ), n. Oovemment by a single person, 
to whom, as Caesar or emperor, the popular will has com- 
mitted it ; imperiali«n ; advocacy of such government 

Os-ni'lra (st-zu'ri or -su'rA), n. / pi. E. C^uvkab 
(•riz), L. CiESURA (-rS). [L., division, stop, fr. eaedere, 
carnttn, to cut off.] A metrical break in a verse ; a sense 
pause in the middle of a foot ; a lone syllable on which 
the ciesural accent rests. — OflHm'nu, a. 

II QtL'W (kA'(i'), n. [F.] A coffee house ; restaurant 

Oaf-felo (kSf-f eak), a. PerUlniug to coffee. 

Oaf-fe^e (-lu), n. [Cf. F. ca/rine.'] A white, bitter, 
crystallizable substance, obtained from coffee. 

Oaftan (kif't«rn or kSf-tIn'}, n. [Turk, ga/lan.} A 
garment worn throughout the Levant 

Oaga (kaj), n. [F., fr. L. cavea cavity, case, fr. cavus 
hollow.] 1. An inclosure for confining birds, beasts, 
malefactors, etc. 2. A framework inclosing something. 
— r. t. To confine or shut up. 

Oai'man (ki'man), n. Cayman. 

II Oa-lqne' (kii-SkO, n. [F., fr. Turk, qalq boat] A 
skiff used on the Bosporus ; also, a larger Levantine 
vessel. [heap of stones. I 

Oatm (ktm), ft. [Oael. cnniy gen. rotm, a heap.] A | 

Oaia'aon (kas'sBu), ft. [F., fr. caisse case, chest] 1. 
A chest or wagon for ammunition or explosive materiala. 
2. (ft) A water-tight box, within which to build submarine 
structures. (6) A box to close the entrances of docks snd 
basins, (c) A structure placed beneath a vessel to float it. 

Oaitlft (ka'tlf), a. [OF. cat/t/, cheti/y oapUve, 
wretched, fr. L. cnptivus captive, fr. capere to take.] 
Ba<w ; cowardly. — n. A despicable person. 

Oa-Jole' (ki-j5l0, V. /. [F. c<\joler to chatter like a 
caged bird, to flatter, fr. source of ge6le, dim. of rtip*? 
cage.] To deceive with flattery ; to wheedle. — Oa-Jol'- 
or, n. — Oa-lol'or-y, f». 

Sjnl—To flatter ; wheedle ; delude ; coax ; entn^ 

«, », I, ?>, «, k»g ; ft, «, 1, 5, tt, ti ■Jiort ; isnWe, dvent, tdea, dbey, finite, c4re, firm, Ask, tin, flnoL 




(kik), n. [Akin to D. koek, O. kHchen.'\ 1. 
A small maw of dough baked. 2. Matter concreted, 
congealed, or molded into a aolid mau. — r. /. & i. To 
form into a cake, or mam ; to harden. 

0al'a4MWll(kXl'A-bXsh), n. [8p. cnlabata dry gourd, 
it. Ar. qar^ gourd + aibas dry.] 1. A gourd (plant or 
fruit). 2. A water dipper, bottle, etc., made from the 
abell of a gourd. 

OaFa-niAB'OO (-mXn^), n. [LL. ealamancxu.^ A 
gloaay woolen atuff, plain, striped, or checked. 

Ojd'a-mif«r-Olll (-mTfSr-as), a, [L. ealamtu reed 
^^'Jer<nu.^ Producing reeds ; reedv. 

Oal'a-mliM (-min or -mTu), n. [P. ; LL. ealamina^ fr. 
L. cadmia. See Cadmium, j A mineral, the hydrous 
silicate of sine 

Oi lunl tons ■ k A-lt ti^-t^r^k, ri, Prn^Juriutr lakioity. 
Oi-l3inTtoas ty. n>'h. — OA-lam^l-tODSiims, a. 

iSm, - MiB^-niblf*; 4|H^u],iFtbl«; dl^tmHful ^ aiflietivt-: 
wrpti'tiei i irri*v>ju»; Ufc-ri^Jh diwftrmu i ftdversi? ; un- 
happy ; ti^x^t^ : Bvi ; untortuiutft. 


[ L- f 'if'i m rYrt^t akin 1 1 1 ti -rvJ^i m in 
dj k (TT^tl miAfortua^ or caiifi« of (Itatrpsis. 
**IJi, — CUi-MirrT ; DiiATt^ji: Mi^FnrsTrss; Mi^ruP: 
MAir^M^scm ; dUtrtui &niit>tli>a ; S'Wnr^ity ; uulj^ppJ* 
B^it; iutelleit^ : luiipry ^ erih #itreiiiity : exiiEfntrjr; 
^iWUf&lL —or thKH irciPilji, nitnniiii Ia ttm itTqiiife^t, iin- 
^$fimf£ a sdrnvwhrnt ct^ntfnuoii* Atitcs pfCMliK>9d Uy mntunl 
cuuHk, Mii*tt A« fins tiotHl, d fjic^ UP, pt 1^ Dt'mjitrr 1 1n utt ks 
Uter^sUf rfW'jtfTr^w» anil is «>iin? dHtrf^^iiiif proiit ^lilih 
e<(m«t stid^leiUr tipon iWh J/'j(/«" '''"'' Iji "[ten diit> tu no 
■t^clAc* cam * : it: u dimply t^ii^ b vl forttitip «tt an Iji^JivM- 
iiiK 411'! act t<^) be char^>^-] sj & fiiult. JT^r At^nf^ mid mif- 
h-tp ATn mUtartniwn of ^ trivia,! ntiure. 

■' ■ ■uif^, :( ^,.i, ; .; .- • ii, ;.. -"^ thp r^iiiTn<m 

ratUn. 2. A plant commonly called sweet flag. The 
root has a pungent, aromatic taste, and is used in medi- 
cine as a stomachic. 3. The barrel or quill of a feather. 

Oa-UsV (kA-lishOt n. [F. caliche,} 1. A light car- 
riage with low wheels, ^ ^^^ 

hiring a movable top, and 
often a morable front. 2. 
A womvi*s hood. 

OU-Ml^t-OBS (kllka'- 
rt-fit), a, [L. caicariMt 
fr. calx, ealeiSf lime.] Of 
the nature of calcite ; con- 
taining calcium carbonate 
or carbonate of lime. 

Oalearso«s spar, calcite. 

OlFoa-llf«r-OU (kiUkA-rTfSr-lis), a. [L. ealcaHus 
of lime -f- -A'^tf'-] Lime-yielding: calciferous. 

Oal'OO-ft'tofl (kll's^-i'tel), a. [L. calceare, -atum, to 
shoe, ealceu* shoe, ea/z, caicU^ heel.] Wearing shoes. 

Oll-Olf er-OVt (-sTfir-fis), a, [L. calx^ cntciSy lime -f 
•ftroK$.'\ Bearing or containing calcite. 

" VtMk 

One form of Calaih. 

Oll'ei-fonB (kil'sT-fOrm), a. [L. calx^ calcis^ lime.] 
In th? form of chalk or lime. 

Oll'et-miB) (-min), n. [L. calx, cnlciSy lime.] White 
or colored wash (or plastered walls. — r. /. To wash with 
calcimine. [Also spelt kalsomine.l 

OJll-olny (kll-sin' or kftl'sTn), v. /. [F. calciner, fr. 
L- calx, caldst lime.] 1. To reduce to powder by heat. 
2. To oxidise (metal) by action of heat ; to reduce to a 
metallic calx. — r. i. To be converted into a powder or 
calx, byheat. — Oll-dn'a-ble (-sin'A-b'l), a.— Oftl'd- 
Bl'tiOB (-sT-na'«hBn), n. 

OlVtAt% (-sit), n. [L. co/x, calcU, lime.] Calcium 
carbonate, or carbonate of lime. It includes common 
limestone, chalk, and marble. 

Oll'd-mil (-sT-Qm), n. [NL., fr. L. calx, cnlclsy lime.] 
An elementary substance ; a metal which combined with 
oxygen forms lime. [culation. t 

OlVeV-lVble (-kd-lA-bn), a. Ascertainable by cal-| 

Oll'on-lAte (-'5t), V. t. [L. cnlculnre, ■4ntnm, to cal- 
cuUte, fr. cnlculux pebble used in reckoning ; lience, a 

reckoning, fr. calx, colds, limestone.] 1. To aaeertain 
bv mathematical processes, usually by arithmetic. 2. To 
plan ; to expect ; to think. [Local, U.S.}^'V.i. To make 
a calculation ; to forecast consequenoes ; to compute. — 
Oal'on-U^ttllk ( UQ'ktt-li/tTng ), a. & n.—OMl'im-W- 
tion, n. — OaPon-U-tlT*, a.-aal'oa-U'tor, n. 

Sjn. — To Calculatb; CoMFim; Rkxoh; Count; 
estimate ; rate. — We calculate with a view to obtain a 
certain point of knowledge. We compute by combining 
given numbers, in order to learn the grand result. We 
reckon and count in carrjring out the details of a compu- 
tation. These words are used in figurative i 

Oal'on-lOIIS (-Ilis), a. [L. calculosus.] 1. Of the na- 
ture of a calculus ; like stone ; gritty. 2. Caused, or 
cliaracterixed, by the presence of calculi. 

Oal'on-lns (-ills), n. ; pi. Calculi (-U). [L.] L A 
solid concretion in the body. 2. A method of mathema- 
tical computation by symbols. 

Oai'dron (kfj^'dron), n. [OF. eaudron, chauderon, 
fr. L. caldarius suitable for warming, fr. cnlidus warm, 
fr. calere to be warm.] A large kettle or boiler. [Writ- 
ten also cauldron.}^ [land. I 

Ctal e-Ao'lll-a (UQ't-dy uT-A), n. Latin name of Scot- 1 

Oal'e-dO'lll-ail, a. Pertaining to Caledonia or Scot- 
land ; Scottisli ; Scotch. — n. A Scot. 

Oal'e-fa'ctoBt (-fa'sh^nt), a. [L. calefaciens, p. pr. 
of calefacere to warm ; calere -{-/acere to make.] Mak- 
ing warm; heating.— n. A substance that excites 
warmth in parts to which it is applied, as mustard. 

Oal'a-fy (-n), r. /. & i. [L. calere -f- -/y.] To heat 
— Oal'e-no^tiim, n. — Oal^e-fao'to-nr, a. & n. 

Oal'an-ilAr (-^n-dSr), n. [L. kalendarium account 
book, fr. L. calendae, kalendae, calends.] 1. An orderlv 
arrangement of the divisions of time ; an almanac. 2. A 
list of persons, things, or events; a schedule.— r. /. To 
enter in a calendar ; to register. 

Oal'Ml-d«r, n. [F. ealandre, LL. celendra, oomip. fr. 
L. cylindrus cylinder.] L A machine consisting of 
cylinders revolving nearly in contact, for smoothing cloth, 
paper, etc. 2. One who pursues the business of calen- 
dering.— r. /. To press (cloth, paper, etc.) between 
rollers to make it smooth and glossy, or wavy. 

Oal'«ll-d0r, n. [Per. ifalender.} One of a sect of 
fantastically dressed dervishes. 

Oal'endS (-Sndz^, n. pi. [L. calendae ; akin to calare 
to call, proclaim.] The first day of each month in the 
ancient Roman calendar. [Written also kalends."] 

Oal'an-turo (-Sn-tttr; 40), n. [F., fr. Sp. calentura 
heat, fever, fr. calentar to heat, fr. L. calere to be warm.] 
D.^lirium caused by the heat of the tropical sun at sea. 

Oa-laa'oeilOe (kA-ieysrns), n. [L. calescens, p. pr. of 
calescere, incho. of calere. '\ Growing warmth. 

Oall(kKf),».;/)/.CALVM(kKvz). [AS. cot//.] 1. The 
young of the cow, or of some other mammals, as of the 
elephant, rliinoceros, hippopotamus, and whale. 2. Calf- 
skin. 3. An awkward boy ; a dolt. [C0//07.] 4. A small 
island near a larger. 6. The fleshy hinder part of the 
leg be'low the knee. 

CaU'sklll' (kaf 'skTnO. n. The skUi of a calf ; leather 
made of the skin. 

Olll-ber I (kSlT-b9r), n. [F. calibre, perh. fr. L. Qua 

Qtl'XAatn I libra of what weight ; hence, of whatalze, 
applied first to a bullet.] L Diameter of the bore of a 
cannon, etc., or of any tube ; weight or size of the pro- 
jectile which a firearm will carry. 2. Diameter of a 
rotmd or cylindrical body. 3. Mental capacity. 

Oall-CO (-k6), n. [Orig. imported from Calicut.} 
Cotton cloth. — /T. Made of calico or resembling it. 

Oal'l-dnst (-dfikt), n. [L. calidtis hot -|- E. duct.} A 
pipe or duct to convey hot air or steam ; caloriduct. 

OaOlf (ka'lTf), n. A caliph. 

llOa-ll'KO (k&-li'g6). n. [L., darkness.] Dimness of 
sight, from a speck on the cornea ; also, the speck itself. 

Oa-Urra-Pliy (Itg'rA-f]^), n. CUllgraphy. 

fSm, recent, 6rb, ryde, full, €km, food, fo^ot, out;, oil, chair, go, ains, iyk, tben, thin. 





Oal'l-Pttlh' (knnr-pbh'), n. rSp. earapaeho.J A part 
of a turtle next to tbe upper ahell, esteemed aa a delicacy. 

Oalirpte' (-pSOt I** The part of a turtle attaclied to 
the lower abell. 

Oall-pan (-p8n), n. pi. [Corrup. fr. en/iber.] Com- 
paaaet %nth curred legs for measuring the di- ~ 

ameter or caliber of round bodies ; — called 
also caliper eompaue^y or caliber compares. 

OaOlBh (ki'lff), fi. [F. eali/e, fr. Ar. 
khatlfah sucoessor, fr. khalafa to succeed.] 
Successor or Tioar ; — a title of the succes- 
sors of Mohammed, now used by the sultans 
of Turkey. [Written also calif.'] 

Oil'l-pliatt(kiia-ftt).ii. The office. dig-_^ ,_ 
nity, or goTemment of a caliph. ^"Xf?^** 

llCtal'te-tk«'ll»-1im(kil'Ts.tb9'nl-fim%n. ^^^^^ 
[NL.] A gymnasium, esp. one for light physical exercise. 

Onlis-Uiaillo (-tMSnOk), M. [Or. makk beautiful + 
«tfc»«( strength.] Bodily exercise ; light gymnastics. 

jlOaOtaCkiaTfka),!!. TL.] A calyx. 

Oalk (kftk), V. /. [Perh. fr. Ar. qalafa to flU up 
on vices with fibers.] To stop the seams of (a ship, etc) 
by driring tarred oakum Into them. — Oalk'er, n, 

fklk, n. [Cf. AS. eale shoe, hoof, L. calx heel, calear 
spur.] A sharp-pointed iron on the shoe of a man or 
beast to prevent slipping ; — called also ealker^ calkin. — 
V. /. 1. To famish with calks. 2. To wound with a 
calk ; as when a horse injures a leg with a calk on one of 
the other feet. — Oalk'tr, n. 

OalklBf , f». The making seams tight, aa in ships ; a 
furnishing with calks, as a shoe. 

-- fWal 

Fig. I. 

. . _ kind of chisel for calk- 
ing ships, tightening seams in ironwo^ 

Oall (k§l), V. t. [AS. eeaUian ; akin 
to D. kaUen to talk, prate.] 
1. To command or request to 
be present. 2. To summon to 

the discharge of a particular 

duty ; to designate for an of- Fig. %. 

flee, or employment. 3. To Fig. 1. Ciilking Iron for calk- 

Invite or command to meet ; ing ships. 

— often with together. 4. To ^^- \ C«lking Iron for iron- 
m\mm. m «.». ♦« . *^ «.^^ ^/ work. o Joint of the platew; 
give a name to ; to speak of, 5 c.lkln^ Iron, driven by a 
by a speeined name. 6. To wooden mallet or ■hammer. 
regard or characterise as of a 

certain kind. 6. To state, or estimate, approximately 
or loosely. 7. To utter in a distinct voice. 8. To appeal 
to. 0. To rouse from sleep ; to awaken. 

Sjrn. — To Call ; Corvokb ; Summon : name ; denomi- 
nate : invite ; bid ; assemble ; collect : exhort ; warn : 
Kroclaim ; invoke ; appeal to : appoint ; dedgnate. — Call 
\ the generic term ; as, to call a public meeting. To con- 
voke is to require the assembling of some organised body 
of men by an act of authority. To mmmoniM to require 
attendance by an act of stringent authority. 

— r. i. L To speak in a loud voice ; to cry out. 2. To 
make a demand, requirement, or request 3. To make 
a brief visit ; also, to stop at some place designated, as 
for orders. — n. 1. A calling, by the voice, by signs, by 
writing, etc. ; a summons ; invitation. 2. A requirement ; 
vocation. 3. A short visit 4. The privilege to demand 
the delivery of stock or any commodity, at a fixed price, 
at a time agreed on. [Broker^ Cant] — Oall'or, n. 

Ctal-Uir^-Phy (kfi-lTg'ri-f j^), n. [Or. iroAAtypo^^ : 

Eref. ffoAAi- (fr. vaA^c beautiful) + Ypo^i^ to write.] 
legant penmanship. — (Ud - lif^ - plm, Oal-llC^- 
Mit (-fist), n. - (talll-ffnplllo (kiiaT-grifTk)TOal'- 

u-fnipl&lo-al, a, 

<Mlltllc(k||lTng),n. 1. A crying aloud. 2. A sum- 
moning or convocation. 3. Divine summons ; the being 
divinely called. 4. One*s usual employment 

Sfh. — Occupation ; employment: business; trade; 
profession ; office ; engsgement ; vocation. 

Ctal-U'0-po (kSl-ll'ft.p$), ». [Or. KoAAioin} the beauti- 

ful- voiced; pref. KoAAt- + ^« htntt v<rfoa.] 1. Tha 
Muse of eloquence and heroic poetry, chief of the nine 
Muses. 2. A musical instrument consisting of a aeriei 
of steam whistles. 3. A humming bird of Califoniia, etc 

Oalll-ptlh' (UQ'lT-pSBhOt »• Calipash. 

Ctol U-pte' (py), ». Calipee. 

OalOl-ptrs (pSrs), n. p/. Calipers. 

Oalllft-thMI'loi MTs-thSnmcs), ». Calistbeoioa. 

Oal-lOBl-ty (-I5snr-ty), n. a liard spot or protaber- 
ance : a thickening of skin or bark, eap. from friction. 

OalOOBS (kUaos), a. [L. eallotus caUoos, hard, fr. 
callus callous skin.] Hardened ; indurated. — CtailMS- 
ly, adv. — OalloiUhMM, n. 

Syn. — See Obdusatb. 

OkllOW (id), a. [AS. calu bald.] 1. Destitute of 
feathers ; naked ; unfledged. 2. Immatore ; boyish ; 
" green. '» 

Oal-lOW' (15^), H. [Named fr. lU note] The oki 
squaw ; — a northern wild duck. 

Oaians (-lliB), n. [L. See Callocb.] (a) Callosity. 
(6) A cartilaginous substance formed in fractures of 
bone, which becomes true bone and unites the fragments. 

Oaim (kKm), n. [F. ealme^ LL. cawMO, Or. icav^a 
heat, fr. km%9 to bum.] Freedom from motion or die- 
turbance ; tranquillity ; quiet —v. /. To still <a quiet 

Stu. - To still ; quiet ; appease ; allay : padfy ; trail- 
quilixe : soothe ; compose ; assuage ; check ; restrain. 
— a. 1. Not stormy ; without motion, as of winds or 
wavea. 2. Undisturbed by emotion; quiet— OtlBlly, 
acfr. — OAlm'llMS, tt. 

Syn. — Still ; quiet : undisturbed ; tranquil ; 1 

serene ; composed ; uumfSed ; sedate ; collected ; placid. 

Ctal'O-mel (kil'«-u.8l), m. [Or. KoA^ beautiful-f 
lUkan Uack.] Mild chloride of mercury, used in medi- 
cine as a mercurial and purgative ; merouroos chloride. 

Oa-knr^ (kA-l9r^k), n. [L. calor heat] Tbe prin- 
ciple of heat. — o. Pertaiuing to caloric 

Oft-lornULnot (T-d&kt), n. [L. calor + B. dnel.] A 
tube for conducting heat ; caliduct 

OiI'0-rle(kja'«.rT),n. [P.,fr.L.ea/or.] The French 
unit of heat ; amount of heat which raises the temper- 
ature of one kilogram of water 1^ centigrade. 

Oal'O-rtflO (-rIfTk), a. [L. caloh/lau; calor -|- 
facere to make.] Able to produce heat ; heating. 

Oal'0-llm'e-ter (-rTm'*-t«r}, n. [L. cafor -f -^eter.] 
Apparatus for measuring the beat contained In bodies. 

OA-loM-mo'tOr (ki-l5r'T.m5n2r}, n. [L. ealor -)- E. 
motor.] A voltaic battery, producmg heating effects. 

Ctal'0-typO (kSr^-tip), n. [Or. xaX&t beautiful -|- 
rviroc typeTl A photograph on sensitised paper. 

Oal'troptkU'trSp), in. [AS. co//nrppe thistle.] 1. 

Oal^trmp (kiiarip), \ A spbty herbaceous plsnt, very 
annoying to cattie. 2. An instrument with four Iron 
pohite, so disposed that one must project upward so as 
to endanger advancing cavalry. 

Oal'n-lliet (-tt-ml^t), n. [r., fr. L. calamut reed.] A 
North American Indian pipe of peace. 

Oa-lnm'Ill-ate (kA-l&ni'uT-itJ, r. t. & t. [L. calum- 
niari^-atus. See Calumnt.] To accuse falsely and ma- 

liciouiiiy. — Oa-liim'iil-ati<m, n. — Oa-liim'mki't«r, n. 

Syn. - See Aspbbsb. 

Oa-lom'iil-ons (-fis), Oa-liim'iil-a-to-ry (A-tt-rj^), a. 

Containing calumny ; f«]se, malicious, and injurious to 
reputation. — Oa-lum'ni-OIUI-ly, adv. 

Syn. — Slanderous : defamatory; scurrilons; oppro- 
brious; derogatory: libelous; abusive. 

Oal'nm-ny (kSl^m-nj^), n. [L. calumnia^ it. ealri 
to devise tricks, deceive.] False accusation made to in- 
jure another ; malicious misrepresentation ; alander. 

Oal'ra-ry (-vA-r^), n. [L. calraria a bare skoU, fr. 
calm* bald.] 1. Place where Christ was crucified, near 
Jerusalem. 2. A representation of the omciAxlon. 

Oalye (kliv), r. t [as. cenlfian. See Calt.] L To 
bring forth a calf. 2. To produce offspring. 

Oal'Tin-Um (kll'vIn-Ti'm), n. Theological doctrines 

S, i, 1, 5, a, long ; ft, fi, 1, 5, 0, ^, short ; lanAte, ^vent, tdea, dbey , ilnita, c4re, ttrm, ftak, 9II, flaoL 




of John Calvin, vkich include original dn or total de- 
pravity, election or preiiestination, particular redemp- 
tion, effectual calliiis, and the perMverance of tlie aainta. 
— Oal'Tlll-lSt (kUMn-Ift), n. - Ctal'Ylll-Li'tic Oal'- 
▼ia-is'llo-al, a. 

OilZ (UUks), n. ; pi. E. Cauos (-Sx), L. Calcbs 
(kJQ'aSz). [L. ealx limestone; cf. Or. x^^ * pebble. 
Cf. Chalk.] Earthy residuum after a metal or mineral 
his been sobjected to calcination or combustion by heat. 

QP" M:tallic calxes are now called oride*. 

Qal'y^de (kSKT-kM), n. [L. calyeulM small flower 
bud, dim. of ealyz.} A row of small bracts, outside tiie 
base of the calyx. 

OtlyB (kiaik*), M. ; pi. E Calyxw (-««), L. Calyces 
(Uia-sSs). [L. etiltfx, -ycU, fr. Gr. koXv^ husk, calyx, 
£r. root of icaAiMrrciV to cover.] Out<».r covering of a 
flower. E ich leaf of the calyx is a sepal. 

Uim (kSiu), n. [Dau. kam comb, ridge ; or cf. Gael, 
and Ir. cam b:ut.] A projecting part of a wl.eel or 
moving piece in machinery, 
■o ahaped as to give variable 
motion to another piece 
against which it acts. 

OimnMr (kXm'bSr), n. 
[OF. cambre curved; L. 
camerare to arch over, fr. 
camera vault, arch.] An 
upward concavity in ttie un- 
der side of a beam, girder, 
lintel, or arch, also of a 
ship's deck, etc. — r. /. & i. 
To curve upward. 

Ounnbtot (-bTst). n. [It. 
eainbiMt€Lt It. L. camhire to 
exchange.] A banker; dealer 
in bills of exchange. ' ^ >»»• 

nam hnnMl' (klm-bCOs'), ^l Neeille-Rar Cam t B Heart 
n Caboose ^^ ^"" '• ^' ^'"'" ^''»*«^'- 

I (-brT-A), n. Latin name of Walen. — Gam'- 
talHUI, a. & n. 

OuahbClo (kSinOnrTk), n. ICnmbrni a French city, 
where it was first made.] 1. A fine, white fabric of flax 
or linen. 2. A fabric of fine, hardspun cotton. 

OUBt (kSm), imp. of Com. 

Oam'el (kim'Sl), n. [OE. & OF. ; L. emnelut, fr. Or. 
Ka#ii|ADc ; of Semitic 
origin; cf . Heb. 
tfaiiMi/, Ar. jatnal.l 
1. A large rumiiumt 
quadruped used in 
Asia and Africa to 
carry burdens and 
for riding, fl. A 
water - tii^it struc- 
ture to assists vessel 
I over a shoal. 

to pass 
cSii4iwiai-a (kA. 

mSFlT-4 or -mS^yA), 
«, [NL.;— from 
Kamel^ a Jesuit who 
brought it from the 
East.] An Asiatic 
genus of flowering 
shrubs. BoctrUn Camel. 

Oft - iimI ' o - pwd 

(kA-ro<l'ft-I^d or kirn's!-), n. [Or. Kataikoirap^aXi^ \ 
cdfii|Aoff camel + iri£paaAtc pard, leopard.] The giraflTe. 

OUB'O-O (kXm^-i), n. [It.] A carving in relief, esp. 
one on a small scale used as a jewel. 

Oaai'«-ia (-^r&), n. [L., vault, arch. LL., chamber.] 
A chamber ; instrument having a chamber. 

I) Osasta eteeva (8b-sku''r&). (a) An apparatus which 
throws imafraa of external objecte on a white surface 
wiUdn a dailiened chamber, so that the outlhies may be 

traced, (b) A photosrapher's apparatus for throwing the 
im«so of external objects upon a sensitized plate at the 
back of a darkened box. 

(kXm'T-sSdO, ) n. [F. camUade a night 
Oaml-sa'ao (-T-sa'd6), ) attack.] (a) A shirt 
worn over the uniform, to distinguish soldiers making a 

'ht attack. (6) An attack by surprise. 
Oaniltt (-lSt)f n. [F. eametot, Ar. kkamlat^ fr. khaml 
pile, plush.] A woven fabric orig. of camel's hair, now 
of goat's hair and silk, or of wool and cotton. [Some- 
times written camelot and cnmblet.l 

Oam'o-mUe, Otaani'o-mUe (-t-mii), n. [LL. eamo- 

miUa^Qr. xofiaxfiifAoy, lit., earth apple.] A bitter medi- 
cinal herb, whose flowers are tonic, febrifugal, and in 

larve doees emetic, wliile the volatile oil la carminative. 

field.] l.i 
for shelter. 2. A collection of tents, huts, etc. 3. A 

IP (kSmp), n. [F. ; It. eampo^ fr. L. campus plain, 
field.] 1. Ground on which tents, huts, etc., are erected 

company of persons encamped. — r. /. & i. To lodge. 

Oamp bsdstsad, a bedstead folding for transportation. 
— Oamp chair, Oamp stool, a folding chair or stool. 

patjiut, fr. L. cfimptfjf.] 1. A larj^i,', Miitt^n pli*iti witljom 
hilla* See CHAwriHisf. 2^ A seriei of uuLitdry ci|j^ra- 
tiohi; Time duriiif^ wlJeU oJi aniiy itm]^ tW Hel<l. J. 
Pctljtival (ipe rations precpflii) I? «i eleoiion ; s caiita^n. [ T. 
S.l^r. i T«> etorve in nc4i;Li])nJ|^, — Oun-pAJO^Af t >'< 
Cam pan'l-f OfiD { -i>a:ti1-i Arm K f'* l^l*^ ™ mpnnn i* iJ 

OaiQ pa-nils fkAu/p4^uS'li>, *>. [It., l»U towtr, 
ster^li^ , ir. it. A LL. Cii>n}ifmn,^ A Wil t^J^vi-r* 

Qam pa-llQi'O-ffy (-nfll'^-jf), «. ILL. <-untpiifiii -f- 
•lo'jif. ] Aft tyl rUiglfiK ItI1> ; n tretttlat mt tlip AtU 

Can) paii'tl-la(-piLiL'ti'ldb). tt. [LL. catuoauHla little 
bel], «Ihu. of cfinipnnft,] A k^ihi* i>f pUatfi waring Im»11- 
sl].i[>tNl f|;i>wk^r^; — al»o i*4inefl h^iffhifrrr. 

Cam-pBtt'ii late ^ f ti >, ". B^'ll *l*ped 

Oam pealral {'\j^t/xw\\^ \ tr. fL. ntrnp^tfrr^ It. tvim- 

0am pea'tti-an (trT-z/fj^, I ^j( fifUI.] RpLitiriie tu, 
01 i;!"''^ iiiLT in, -i *]•-]'[ or f'^^-rn crum^-l. 

Cam'phBno k;'iiii'irij '-. ri;iiii i,"ii^'i, «. niiMQrsktTiei 
of i^heiuii.^ auObU.uce« rt:tiuiuk>lii4$ ciiiuphor 

Oam-tfbilia' (kKm-fSn' or kSm'fTn), n. [Fr. camphor.} 
Rectified oil of turpentine, used for burning in lamps, 
and as a solvent in vamislies. 

Oam'plltev (kim'fir), n . Old spelling of Camphor. 

Oam'phor (-fSr), n. [F. eamphre^ LL. cun/orn, com- 
phora^ fr. Ar. A-A/Mr.] An aromatic resin, or gum, from 
an East Indian tree, used in medicine as a diaphoretic, 
stimulant, or sedative. [camphor, i 

Oflm'^lior-ate (-at), v. t. To impregnate or treat with | 

Oun'pllOr-ate (-it), ) a. Combined or impregnated 

Oam'pllOr-a'tod, I with camphor. 

OUB-pllOf'lo (-fSrTk), a. Pertaining to, or derived 
from, camphor. 

Oam'pl-ail (-pT-ttn), n. [L. campus field.] A plant 
of the Pmk family, bearing berries regarded att poisonous. 

II Oam'plll (-p&s), n. [L., field.] The grounds sur- 
rounding a college or school. 

Oan (kSn), n. [AS. eanne ; akin to G. hmne.^ 1. A 
drinking cup. 2. A vessel of sheet metal. — r. /. To 
preserve in sealed cans. 

Oaa. r. f . {imp. Could (k»d).] [AS. cunnan ; akin 
to G. k'dnncn^ E. Ar» to know. The present tense / can 
(AS. ic cann) was orig. preterit, meaning I have learned ^ 
hence I know, know how.} To be able ; to have power. 

Syn. — Can but. Caw wot but. — It is an error to use 
the former phrase where the sense requires the latter. 
If we say, '* I can biU perisli if I go," *' but " means cmfy, 
and denotes that this is ail or the worst that ran hapnen. 
When the apostle Peter said, " We can not but speak of 
the things which we have seen and heard," he referred 
to a mors! constraint ; and meant. We can not help speak- 
ing. This idea of a moral necessity is also expressed in 
the phrase, "I can not help it." Thus we say, **I can 

fin, recent, drb, r^de, fyll, Am, fdbd, f<^t, out, oil, cliafar, ^, sing, iQk, then, tlilii. 




not but hope." '* I em not but think." etc.. in OMee in i 
which it would be an error to use the phraae can but. 

Oin'a-dA (Utt'i^A), n. A British province iu Nortli 
America, giving ite name to various plants and animals. , 
— Oa-na'A-an (kA-ni^dT-an), a. &n. I 

Oa-nallla' (ki-nftl'). n. [F., prop., a pack of dogs, fr. I 
L. eanit dog.J The lowest class of people ; the rabble. I 

Oa-nal' (-nUOv n. [F., fr. L. canatu canal, channel.] 

1. An artificial water course. 2. Duct in animal bodies. 
Oan'al OOal' (kin'al kSi'). Cannel coal. ' 
Oa-narA' (kA-niird' or -nKrOv n. [F., prop., a duck.] 

An extravagant story ; sensational statement ; hoax. 

Oa-nalT (*»i'ry)« f*- 1- Pertaining to the Canary Is- 
lands. 2. Of a pale vellowish color. — n. 1. Wine 
made in the Canary Islands ; sack. 2. A canary bird. 
3. A pale yellow color, like that of a canary bird. 

Caaury Mnl).A small sineing bird of tiie Finch family, 
native of the Canary Islands, but brought to Europe iu the 
Itith century, and made a household pet. 

Oas'oel (kIn'aO), V. t. [imp, & p. p. Cahcblko or 
Cancbllbd (-aSld); 0. pr. & vb. n. Cancbuko or Can- 
OCLUMO.] [L. caneellare to make like a lattice, to cross 
out, fr. cttneelli crossbars, dim. of cancer lattice. Cf. 
Chancbl.] 1. To mark out by cross lines ; to obliterate. 

2. To annul, revoke, or recall. 3. To suppress or strike 
out (matter in type). — i*. {a) A suppresftion of matter 
m type or printed. (6) The part stippresae«l. 

Syn. — To blot out: obliterate: erase; expunge; an- 
nul ; repeal ; do away : set aside. See Aboush. 

Oan'oel-latlOll (-li'shfin), n. LA canceling. 2. 
In arithmetic, the striking out common factors, La both 
dividend and divisor. 

Oan'oar (-sir), n. [L cnnctr^ cancriy crab, ulcer, a 
sign of the sodiac.] 1. A 
genus of decapod Crustacea, 
including some of the most 
common shore crabs. 2. (a) 
The 4th of the 12 signs of the 
xodiac ; the sign of the sum* 
mer solstice, (ft) A northern 
constellation between Gem- 
ini and Leo. 3. A tumor, 
often becoming an ulcer, and 
rarely cured. ^ . _. 

Oan'OCr-ata (-it), r. i. To CanarsHMg^rm of Europe, 
grow Into a cancer. — (tan'oer-atioil, n. 

Oan'oar-OOa (-ns)i «• Like a cancer; virulent; af- 
fected with cancer. 

Otn'orl-fonn (kij/krl-fftrm), a. [Cancer -f ■form.'\ 

1. Resembling a crab ; crab^haped. 2. Cancerous. 
Oail'de-lanDrnm (kin'dt-IS'brfim), n. ; pt. L. Candb- 

LABRA (-br4), E. Cakoblabrums (-brfiniz). [L., fr. can- 
deln candle.] A large, branched candlestick. 

Oan'dMlt (-d^nt), a. [L. candens^ p. pr. of candere 
to glitter. Bee Camdid^ Heated to whiteness. 

Oui'dld (-dTd), a. [F. cntuiide, L. cnndithn white, 
fr. candirt to be of a glowing white. 1 1. Free from 
biss; disposed to think and judge without prejudice. 

2. Open; frank.— Oan'dld-ly.fft/r.—Oan'dld-neaa. n. 
Syn. — Candid ; Faib; Opbn: Frank: Inobnuocs; 

imptrtial ; just : artless ; unbiased ; equitable. - A roan 
is fair when he puts things on a just footing ; he is can- 
did when he looks impartially on both sides of a subjoct. 
doing justice to an opponent's motives ; ho is oyx-/) and 
frank when he declares his sentiments without rpserve ; 
be is ingenuous when he does this from regard lor truth. 
Oan'dl-date (-dT-dit), n. [L. candidatusy n. (because 
candidates for offlce in Rome wore a white toga), fr. can- 
dulns. ] One put forward as a suitable person for an offlre, 
privilege, or honor. —Oan'dl-da-oy (-dA-sj^), Oan'dl- 
date-ahip, Oan'dl-da-ture (-dt-t(tr; 40). n. 

Oan'dla (-d'l), n. [as. candfK fr. L. candela a (white) 
light of wax or tallow, fr. candere.^ A cylinder of tal- 
low, wax, spermaceti, paraflOne, etc., containing a wick, 
and used to furnish light. 

OaB^dU-Uf hr (kXnM*MitO, n. The light of a c 

Oan'tfla-maa (-mas), n. [AS. candelmxsge ; candH -f 

mK»*e mass.] February 2d, the feast of the Purification 

of the Virgiu Mary, — on which day are blessed candles 

for the altar or other sacred uses. [candle. I 

Oan'dlO-atlOk' (-stTkO* n. A utensil for supporting s I 

Oan'dor (-dSr), n. [L., fr. candere. See Candid.] 

Disposition to treat subjects fairly ; frankness ; sincerity. 

Oan'dy (-d^), r. t. [F. candir, fr. Ar. & Pers. tjand 

sugar.] 1. TO conserve or boil in sugar. 2. To make 

sugar crystals of or in. 3. To incnist with sugar or with 

candy. — v. t. L To have sugar crystals form in or oil 

2. To solidify hi a candy like mass. — n. A preparation 
or confection of sugar. 

Oaae (kSn), n. [OE. & OF. ; L. eanna; Or. icovya.] 
1. {a) One of several palms, having long, flexible stems, 
commonly called rattans. (6) A reed ; bamboo ; sugar 
cane. 2. A walking stick. — r. /. 1. To beat with a 
cane. 2. To furnish (chair seats, etc.) with cane or rattan. 

Canalnake' (-brakO, n. a thicket of canes. 

llOa-Ulc'll-la (kA-nTk'd-U), n. [L., little dog, dim. 
of canix dog.] The Dog Star ; Sirius. 

Oa-Utc'n-lar (-I8r), a. Pertaming to, or measured by, 
the rifting of the Dog Star. 

Oa-nlna' (-uln'), a. [L. caninm, fr. conis.l 1. Per- 
taining to the family Canidic^ or dogs and wolves ; having 
the nature of a dog. 2. Pertaiuing to the canine teetli. 

Oaahis tooth, a tooth between the incisor and bicuspid 
teeth, so called because well developed in dogs ; an eye- 
tooth, or the corresponduig tooth iu the lower jaw. 

|i Oa'nla (ki'uTs), n. , pi. Canbs (-nfe). [L., dog.] A 
genus of carnivorous mamniale, including dogs and wolves. 

Oanla-tOr (kSnTs-tSr), n. [L. canistrum bMket 
woven from reeds. Or. icai^trrpov, fr. komw 
reed.] 1. A basket of rushes, reeds, willow 
twigs, etc. 2. A box for tea, coffee, etc. 

3. A case shot for cannon, in which balls are 
inclosed in a case fitting the gun. 

Oan^or (kSrintSr], n. [AS. <&' L. cancer I 
a cancer; or cf. OF. cancre^ fr. L.] 1. A | 
corroding ulcer; esp., a gangrenous ulcer in 
the mouth. 2. Anything which corrodes or 
corrupts. 3. A disease of trees, causing Caniater (Mtt.). 
the bark to fall off. 4. A disease of a with part of caw 
horse's foot, with separation of the homy **,'"r " 'r!.^'. '" 
portion. 6. A worthless rose ; the dog- •**•** content., 
rose. ^ r. /. 1. To eat away ; to consume. 2. To infect ; 
to corrupt. — r. i. To grow corrupt ; to become veno- 
raoiit>. — Oanlcer-oiia, Oanlrar-y, a. 

Oan'kar-WOnil' (-wOrmOv n. The larva o' certain 
geometrid moths which eat the foliage of trees. 

II Oan'oa-lda (kAn'ni-bTs), n. [L., hemp.] Hemp. 

CtaumaMs Indica (Tn'^dT-kA), Indian hemp, a powerful nar- 
cotic, now considered a variety of common hemp. 

Oanliel OOal' (kSn'nei k510- [Con-up. fr. candle coal.] 
A mineral coal of black colur, which bums with a cle;(r 
flame, affording a substitute for candles. 

Oaa'ni-bal (-nT-boI), n. [Cf. F. cannibale. Corrap. 
of Caribales (E. Caribbees^ the inhabitants of the smaller 
Antilles, who were man-eaters when discovered by Co- 
lumbus).] A 
human being 
that eats human 
flesh ; an animal 
that devours its 

own kind. — a. _ 

Relating to can- MuMle-l.^dinj? Can^n. A Formerly callH 
IllbaU or canni- ( „.cal>pl ; // Fir>t Rrrnfi.rc* ; C St<;..ii.I 
iMlism. — Oan'- Reinfoic* ; D ChaM- : A* S%> til of Muxrlc { 

/' Trunnion ; G RmilwM' j a H*te riiiR ; ft 
' ' d Mu2si« i t. 

BaM of Brv«ch ; c Cai«t.b«rl 
Chamber ; td Bore. 

nl-bal-lam, n. 

(-n&n), n. ; pi. 

Cannons (-nnnz), collectively Cannon. [F. conon, fr. L. 

canfia reed, tube. See Canb.] 1. A great gun ; a fire- 

S, S, 1, 3, fl, long ; ft, fi, T, 5, tt, t« Btior^ '• aauate, fivent, tdea, Obey, (knite, cftre, iirm, iUk, fUl, final 



ann for diachargiiig heavy shot. 2. A kind of printiiig 
type. See Gamom. 

(huuoB telL a miMile to be fired from a cannon. Elon- 
gated and cylindrical misailea are sometimes called boUs : 
boUow ones charged with explosives are ahelU. — Oanaon 
ihet. {a) A cannon balL {b) The rauge of a cannon. 

Om'llOB (kln'nlin), n. & v. Englisli word for Caboh. 

Oan^BQIHlde' (-S^')i •>• A diachargii^ cannon and 
throwing balls, shellSf etc., against an armjr, town, ship, 
or fort. — r. /. To attack with heavy artillery. — r. t. 
To diachaxge cannon. 

" M (-8r')» ^ 0"« ^*»o manages, or fires, 

) cannon ; au artilleryman. 

ll-ry (-ry), n. ArtiUery. 

Oas'lMt (kXn'ndt). [Can to be able -f- no/.] Am, is, 
or are, not able ; — written either as one word or two. 

OSB^'ini-llir ^nfi-lir), a. [L. cannula small reed, dim. 
of ea$uM cane. J Having the form of a tube ; tubular. 
[Written alsocanufar.] 

OaBUy, Oanllte (-n^), a. [Cf. Icel. ksmn skilled, 
learned. Cf. KnH.f 1. Artful; shrewd; wary. 2. 
Skillful ; capable. 3. Cautiotis ; prudent ; safe. 4. Oeutle. 

Oa-BOe' (k4-uddOt »• L^P* canoa^ f r. Caribbeau ca- 
ndoa,! 1. A 
boat formed of 

the tmuk of a . , ^^^^gunyug^^^. 

tree, or of bark V .' r^^HT^^^T^ * 

or aldiia. 2. A 

light pleasure Indian Canoe. 

boat, propelled by a paddie or by a small mU. ^r. {. To 

manage a canoe, or voyage in a canoe. — Oa-aoelnj, n. 

— Oa-BOt'lst, Cmi-ium^iuui, n. 

Oail'MI (Mbi'&u>, n. [AS. cation rule, fr. L. canon 
measuring line, rule, fr. Or. KoyuK rule, rod, fr. xdyii, 
mojfwih reed.] 1. A law or rule. 2. The collection of 
books received as genuine Holy Scri^ures ; the Bible. 

3. A member of a cathedral chapter ; holder of a prebend. 

4. The largest sfse of type havlnff a specific name. 
OaaoB law, the body of eccleatastiod 

law adopted in the Christian church. 

t'l OM'WaofikJi'nytuf ; angticixed kln'- 
yfin), n. [Sp., a tube or hollow, fr. 
eaUa reed, L. canna. See Cavb.] A 
deep gorge or gulch, between high 
banks, worn by water courses. 

OnfOB INUM' (kitt'fin bSnO. [F. canon, fr. L. canon 
a rule.] Tlie shank bone, or great boue above the fet- 
k>ck, in a horse, etc. 

OlB'Oll-MS (-Ss), n. A woman who holds a canonry. 

Oa-BOnlO (kA-n<k/Tk), ) a. [L. canonicuSy fr. canon.] 

Oft-noO'llHd (-T-kal), ) Pertaining to, established 
Inr, or according to, a canon or canons.— Oa-non'io- 
al-lT, adv. — Oa-nonlO-al-MMI, n. [the clergy. I 

Oa-BOnlO-alB (-T-knls), n. pi. Full official dress of | 

Oa-nOttt-oate (-kit), n. Office of a canon ; canonry. 

Oan'on-iol-ty (kSn^an-Tsnr-tj^), ». state of being ca- 
nonical ; apeemeut with the omon. 

Oan'on-llt, n. A professor of canon law ; one skilled 
faj eccleeiaatica] law. — 0an'0ll4i'tt0, a. 

Oan'on-lie (-is), v.L L To deck&re (a deceased per- 
son) a saint ; to put in the catalogue of saints. 2. To 
exalt to the highest honor. — Oan'on-l-satloa, n. 

Oan'OB-ry C-rf), Oan'on-ablp, n. A benefice or pre- 
bend in a cathedral or collegiate church; dignity or 
emoluments of a canon. 

OUk'O-pf i-^'V9)i **• [LL. conopevm a bed with mos- 
quito curtains, fr. Or. Kmrnttuov^ fr. moKw^ grnat.] 1. A 
covering over a bed, or carried over an exalted person- 
age, saored object, etc 2. An ornamental projection, 
over a door, niche, etc. ; rooflike covering, over an altar, 
statue, etc ^v.t. To cover with a canopy. 

Oaat (kint), n. [OF., edge, angle, prob. fr. L. con- 
thu» iron ring round a wheel, Or. Kaveo% comer of the 
eye, felly of a wheeL] 1. An outer or external angle. 

)cmc name. 


Canon Type. 

2. An inclination from a horixontal line ; alope ; tilt. 8. 
A sudden thru>it or other impulse, producing a change of 
direction ; bias or turn so given. ^v.U 1. To Incline ; 
to tilt over ; to tip upon the edge. 2. To give a sudden 
turn or new direction to. 3. "[^ cut off an angle f ronu 

Oant (kint), n. [OF. canty F. cAon/, shiging, fr. tlie 
whining tone of beggars, f r. L. canttu. See Cbaht. ] 1. 
Affected, singscmg speech. 2. Idioms of any sect or 
occupation. 3. Insincere use of religions phraseology ; 
hypocrisy. 4. Vulgar jargon ; slang. — a. Affecteu ; 
vulgar. —V. i. L To whine. 2. To make whining pre- 
tensions to religion, philanthropy, etc. ; to practice 
hypocri^. 3. To use pretentious Unguage, barbarous 
janron, or technical terms; to affect learning. 
Can't (k4ut). Colloquial contraction for can not. 
Oan'ta-lrap (kSn'tAricdp), n. Cantaloupe. 
Oan'ta-ler'er (-WvSr), n. ICmU external angle -f- 
lever.1 [Written also cantalivcr and cantilever.'] 1. A 
bracket to support a balcony, cornice, etc 2. A pro- 
jecting beam, truss, or bridge unsupported at the outer 
end ; one which overhangs. 

Oanta-lonpe (-US&p), n. [From CantalupOy ni^roe of a 
castle in Italy, where they were grown.] A muekmelon. 
II Oan-ta'ta (kin-ttt'tA), n. [it, f r. cantare to ahig, L. 
canere.] A poem set to music ; musical drama. 

Oan-toen' (kSn-t2nO> n. [V.cantine.] 1. A soldier *s 
flask for water, liquor, etc [Written also cantine.] 2. 
Sutler *s shop in a garrison ; chest for culinary vessels. 

Oanter (kin'ter), n. [Abbr. of Canterbury gallopy 
gentle gallop used by pilgrims riding to Canterbury.] Au 
easy gallop adapted to pleasure riding. — r. i. To move 
in a canter. — v. t. To ride (a horse) at a canter. 
Oant'er, n. One who cants or affects goodness. 
Oantha-llS (-th&-rTs), n. ; pi. CAirrHARlois (-thSr^- 
I-d&i). [L., a beetle.] A beetle of brilliant green color 
and nauseous odor ; — also called blister beetle and SpaTt- 
uh fly. The plural form is usually applied to tlie dried in- 
sects used in medicine. — Oaii-tbara-daK-thSrT-d/fl),^. 
Oantl-Cle (-tT-k'l), n. [L. canticulum little song, dim. 
of cantieum song, fr. canere to sing.] 1. pi. The Song 
of Solomon, a b(X>k of the Old Testament. 2. A passage 
from the Bible, chanted in church service. 
Oan^-ley'er (-tT-lSv^r), n. Cautalever. 
Oanto (-ti), n. [It., f r. L. canttu soug.] One of the 
chief divisions of a long poem. 

Oan'ton (-t&n), n. [F., augm. of OF. cant edge, cor- 
ner.] A small territorial district; one of tlie inde- 
pendent states of Switzerland ; a subdivision of a French 
arrondissement. — V. t. 1. To divide into districts. 2. 
To allot quarters to (parts of an army). — Oan'tOB-al, a. 
Oantoa crape' (krSpO. A silk fabric, of gauzy tex- 
ture, used for ladies* scarfs, shawls, etc. 
Oanton flanllOl (HSu'nSl). Cotton flanneL 
Oan'ton-lae (-iz), r. /. To divide into cantons. 
Oan'ton-mailt, n. A district assigned to a body of 
troops for shelter or rest ; quarters. 

Oan-tOOn' (-t55n'), n. A cotton stuff showing a fine 
cord on one side and a satiny surface on the other. 

Oaa'yaa (-vos), n. [F. canevcuy L. cannabis hemp.1 
1. Strong cloth made of hemp, flax, or cotton ; — uaea 
for tents, sails, etc. 2. (a) Coaive cloth having regular 
meshes for needlework, (b) Cloth prepared to receivu 
painting in oil. — a. Hade of, or like, canvas. 

Oau'vas-lMCk' (-bSk'), n. An American sea duck of 
delicate flesh ; — named from the markings of its plumage. 
Oan'vass, v. t. [OF. canabasser to examine curiouuv, 
to search out; prop., to sift through canvas.] 1. To 
sift ; to scrutinize (votes, etc.). 2. To examine by dis- 
cussion ; to debate. 3. To go through, with personal 
solicitation or public addresses. — r. t. To search 
thoroughly ; to solicit. — n. 1. Close inspection ; review 
for verification. 2. Search; exploration; solicitation. 
— Oan'TaM-ar , n. [with canea. I 

Oan^ (ka'nj^), a. Pertaining to cane ; aboundkig| 

fern, recent, <Vrb, r|}de, fyll, Ikm, food, fo^ot, uu:, oil, cliair bo, siits, iuk, tbeu, thin. 




GiS'yOB (UD'ylin), n. Bnglish form of Camov. 

Oai^SO-lMC' (-xi-nSt/), n. [It. oaTaonetta, dim. of 
canzone soDg.] A abort song, Ui one or more parta. 

OAOnt'OhOBO (k50'cb5&k), n. [F., fr. 8. Anier. njune.] 
A tenacious, elastic, gummy substance obtained from 
a^ of several plants of Soutb America, Asia, and Africa. 
Also called India rubber (because first brought from 
India, and used to rub out pencil marks) and gum elastic. 

Gap (kSp), n. [AS. exjwe cap, cane, hood, fr. LL. 
eapoT] 1. A covering for the head. a. Top, or upper- 
most part. 3. A large size of writing paper, —v. t, 1. 
To provide with a CM or cover. 2. To complete. 

dA'pA-Ue (ka'pA-bU), a. [F. ; LL. eapabUU capa- 
cious, capable, fr. L. oapere to take, contain.] 1. Poe- 
sesaing ability or qualification; of sufficient sise or 
atren^h. 2. Possessing adequate power, eap. legal 
power or capacity. -*-0rpft-1d«-MMI, OA'pA-bill-tT. «. 

Syn. — Able ; ccmipetent ; efficient ; effective ; skiUfuL 

Wpk'fAaOM (kA-pi'shtts), a. [L. copox, -octt, fr. 

capereA 1. Having capacity; able to contain much. 
2. Qualified to take large views of thinn, atf in obtain- 
big knowledge or forming designs. — Oa-«l'olOIIS-lyi 
OA-pa'olOIIS-MMI, n. [to qualify. 

Oa-pw/l-Ut* (-pKsnr-tat), v. t. To render capable . 

OA-pAOl-t][ (-ty), n. [L. eapacUa*^ fr. cnpox.] 1. 
Power of receiving or containing ; extent of room or space. 
2. Comprehensiveness of mind; receptive faculty. 3. 
Power resulting from possession of strength, weiitb, or 
talent. 4. Outward circumstances ; occupation ; position. 
6. Legal or moral qualification ; legal power or right. 

8yn. — See ABiLrrr. 

II Oap'-A-pto' (kIp'A-peO, adv. [OF. {de) cap-a-pie 
from head to foot ; L. aiput head 4- pc* foot.] From 
head to foot ; at all points. 

OA-part-Mm (kA-pftrT-sfin), n. [F. caparaaon, it. Sp. 
eaparazon cover for a aaddle, coach, etc. ; capa cloak, 
cover (fr. LL. cava cape) -f- term, '•azon.'] 1. Harness 
of a horse. 2. Rich clothing, —p. /. To deck or adorn. 

Oapo (kip), M. [F. capy fr. L. cap«L'\ A point of 
laud, extending into water ; promontory ; headland. 

Oapo,n. [OE. & F. cape. See Cap.] A sleeveless 
garment han^iig over the back, arms, and shoulders. 

(holier (ka'pSr), f. i. [Fr. older capreoll to caper, fr. 
L. caper ^ copra ^ goat.] To leap about ; to prance ; to 
dance.— n. A frolicsome leap or spring; skip; prank. 

OA'p«r, n. [F. cdpre. fr. L. capparis, Ar. & Per. al- 
kabar."^ The pungent flower bud of a European and 
Oriental shrub also called caper; — used for pickles. 

Oapsr bash, Capsr trse, the (plant) caper. 

Ou^pn-heitrf (•bSr'rj^), n. The berry of the caper, 
used hi pickleit and as a condiment. 

llOa'Fi-M (kS'pT-Ks), n. [L., thou mayst Uke.] A 
writ commanding an officer to arrest one named in it. 

Oap'll-U'oecnis (kSp^Tl-la'shfis), a. [L. capillaceus 
hairy, f r. capilht* hair. J Having long filaments ; slender. 

Oa-nUla-mailt (k&-pTl'lA-meiit), n. [L. capUlamen- 
film, fr. capillus.} Hairy covering ; fine fiber ; filament. 

Oap'll-larl-ty (kSpOTl-lSra-ty), n. 1. a being capU- 
lary. 2. The action by which tlie surface of a liquid, 
where in contact vHth a solid (as in a capillary tube), is 
elevated or depressed ; capillary attraction. 

Oap^-U-ry (kipOl-lt-ry or ki-pllld ry), a. [L. ca- 
pUlariSf fr. capillus.} L Resembling a hair; fine ; very 
slender. 2. Pertaining to capillary tubes or vessels. « 
n. 1. A tube or vessel, extremely fine or minute. 2. 
A minute, thin-walled vessel ; one of the smallest blood 
vessels connecting arteries and veins. 

Oapl-tal (kapa-tal), a. [F. ; L. capUalit, fr. caput 
head.] 1. Pertaining to the head, or to the forfeiture of 
the head or life ; punishable with death. 2. First in im- 
portance. 3. Of first rate quality ; excellent. 

Capital letter, a leading or heading letter, used at the 
of a sentence and as th«^ first letter of certain 

words, dlstiutniished by di£Ferent form and larger size 
from the small (/otrrr-cr/***) letters. — ~ " 

- Small caplUii Isttsrs 

have the form of capital letters and the beigbt of 1 

case letters. — Capital stock, money, property, or stock 
invested in any business, corporation, or inatitutioii. 

Syn. — Chief ; leading; ctmtroUing; prominent. 
— n. [L. capitellum^ capitnlujn^ small head, head or 
capital of a column. 

dim. of eaput.'^ 1. 
The head or upper- 
most member of a 
column, pilaster, 
etc. 2. Seat of gov- 
ernment ; chief city 
in a country; me- 
tropolis. 3. Prop- 
erty employed in 
trade, manufac- 
tures, etc.; sum 
invested or lent. 
4. A capitol letter. 

One who hascapital; 
<»>e who invests 
money or has large 
property employed 
in business. 

V. t. 1. To convert 
into capital, or use 
as capital. 2. To 
compute or assess 
the capital value of 
(a patent right, an- 
nuity, etc.). 3. To 
print in capital let- 
ters, or with an 
initial capital.— 



Oapl-tal-ly, adv, 
ture of tlM head or life, 



1. In a way involving the forfei- 
oeUenUy. \CoUoq.} 
Oapl-tatiOll (-a'shlin), n. [L. capUatio a poll tax, 

f r. cdptU.'] A tax upon each head or person ; poll tax. 

(tapl-tol (-tOl), n. [L. capitoliumt fr. caput.} 1. 
The temple of Jupiter, at Rome. 2. A government 
house ; the edifice at Washington occupied by the Con- 
gress of the United States. 

Om-ptt^-lar (ki-pTt'fi-lSr), n. [L. capitulum a chap- 
ter, dim. of caput head, chapter.] 1. An act PMMd in 
a chapter. 2. A member of a chapter. 3. The head 
or prominent part. — a. 1. Pertaining to a ch^iter ; 
capitulary. 2. Pertaining to a capitulum. 

Oa-plrtt-U-ry (-lt-r]^)« n. 1. A capltufaur. 2. A co^ 
lection of laws or statutes. — a. Capitular. 

Oa-plt^-lat0 (-1st), V. i, & t. [LL. capitularcy 4a- 
tuffiy to capitulate.] To surrender on terms agreed upon. 

II Oa-plt^-llim (-Ittm), n. ; pi. Cafitula (-U). [L., 
a small head.] 1. A thick head of flowers on a short 
axis, as a clover top, or u dandelion ; a composite flower. 
2. A knoblike protuberance of any part, esp. at the end 
of a bone or cartilage. 

Cte-poch' (kA-p55ch0t n. [Sp. capuchOy LL. eaputiuw, 
fr. capa cloak.] A hood ; hood of a roonk^s gown. — 
r. /. TO cover with a hood ; to hoodwink or blind. 

Oii'pQII (kl'p*n), n. [AS. capUUy L. capOy fr. Or. 
ffivwF ; akhi to K&imw to cut.] A nude chicken gelded 
to improve his flesh for the table. —v. t. To castrate. 

Oap^ra-0-Utt (kip'ri-t-lit or kA-prS'-}, a. [L. capreo- 
lu$ wild goat, tendril, fr. caper goat,] Havklg tendrils. 

Oa-prwe' (kA-pr5s'), n. [F., fr. L. capery capray goat.] 
An abrupt change of mind ; a notion. 

Syn. — Freak ; whim ; crotchet ; fancy ; vagary ; hu- 
mor ; whimsey : fickleness. 

fi, 5, T, 5, a, long ; ft, «, 1, 5, A, tf "hort ; senate, ^vent, tdea, 6bey, finite, cAre, Mrm, &sk, ^ll, fliMrt. 




fkk-pcyfAtnm OoHpsUh^Ba), a. €k>Terned bv caprice ; 
apt to change auddenlv. — Cw-pffolinUhly, adv. 

Syn. — Freakiah ; vhimaical ; fickle ; crotchety ; fltfal ; 
wayward ; changeable ; inconstant ; arbitrary. 

(tep^tl-OOni (kXi/rT-k6m), n. [Lb eapricomu$ ; caper 
-f- eomu horn. J L The lOtb dgn of the sodiac, which 
the ann enters at the winter aolatioe, about Dec. 21. 2. 
A toothem coiutellation. 

Oaptl-tfU (•«), ». [F.,fr.L. coper.] L A leap that 
a horae makes with all fours, without adTanoing. 2. A 
caper, as in dancing. — r. i. Toperf orm a capriole. 

OiV'U-eam (••T-kfim), n. [NLb, fr. L. capsa box, 
ffheer ] A genus of plants produciiu^ capsules of exceed- 
ingly pungent taste, which yield red or Cayenne pepper. 

Oa^Hrfat' (kXpsisO, v. t. & i, [Cf. Sp. cabeeear to 
nod, pitch ; fr. L. caput head.] To upset or overturn. 

Oup'litM' (kip'ns'), n. An upset or orertum. 

Oip'StlUl (-stSn),' n. [F. cabe^an^ fr. 8p. cabestratUe^ 
It. cAesirar to bind with a halter, f r. cabeslro^ L. capis- 
irum halter, fr. capere to hold.] A machine for raising 
an anchor or moring heavy weights. 

Oap^BB-lar (-st-lSr), la. like or pertaining to a cap- 

Ckp^lm4a-r7 (-It-ry), j sule ; hollow and fibrous. 

Oap'lm^att (-st-ltti, ) a. inclosed in a capsule, or 

Oup^n-lft'tadC-li'tSd),) as in a box. 

Ot^WSUB (-•al)* n. [L. eapnOa little box, fr. eapsa 
* " fr. capere to 

k] 1. A pod of 
a plsnt, which opens to dis- 
charge the seeds. 2. A g»> 
latinons envelope faiclosuig 
nauseous doses to be swal- 
lowed. 3. A membranoos 
sac oontalning fluid, or in* 
vesting an oigan or Joint. 

4. A metallic seal for oloa- 
iug a bottle. 6. A small 
metal shell for a perooisloo 

' '1ge,etc. 

. T-«n),«. [OK. 

A OF. capitatHt LL. oapi- 
tanus^ fr. L. cajput head.] 
1. A head, or chief oiBoer. 

5. A miUtaiT leader. ~0ulAii|.e7,aaFlalBHAI».fi. 
dApllon (-shfin), ft. [Il capiiOj fr. capere to take.] 

1. A certificate attached to a legal instrument, showing 
where, when, and by what authority, it was executed. 

2. The he a din g of a chapter, section, or page. 
OapHoBi (-shtts). a. [L. captionu.^ X Apt to find 

fbolt ; difllcult to please. 2. Fitted to harass, perplex, 
or Insnare. — Oap^lloui-ly, adv. — OaptllNUI-MM, n. 

8yn« — Oaptioub ; Gaviuvo ; GAaporo ; fault-finding ; 
censorious ; hjrpercritical ; paerish ; fretful ; p ei v er se : 
troublesome. — A captious person has a fault-finding habit 
or is disposed to catch at faults, errors, etc., with quar- 
relsome intent ; a cavUing person is disposed to raise ob- 
iections on frivolous grounds ; carping fanplies that one 
IS given to iU-natured; persistent, or unreasonable fault- 
finding, or picking up of the words or actions of others. 

Oa^tt-TIt* (-tT-vit), V. t, [L. captivare, HMifum, to 
capture.] To capture by art or attraction; to fascinate; 
to charm. — Ot^H-ya'tlng, a. — Oftp^ya'tlon, n. 

8yn«— To enslave: suMue; overp o wer; charm; en- 
chant ; bewitch ; faadnato ; capture ; lead captive. 

Oap^thrt (-tTv), n, [L, eaptivtu, fr. capere to take.] 
1. A prisoner; one kept fad bondage. 2. One captivated 
or subdued by beauty, excellence, or affection. « a. 1. 
•• ' "loner; held in bondage. 2. Subdued by love; 
; captivated. 

Oup-tM-tT (-tYv^-^), n. State of being a captive or 
u nder control ; subjection of the will or aflTections. 

Stu* — Imprisonment ; confinement; bondage; sub- 
jecaoo ; servftude ; slavery ; thralldom ; serfdom. 

Oftplor(-tSr), !». pL] One who captures. 

" I (-tVr ; 40), n. \Jj. captura, fr. capere.'] 1. 

Cspsnles. a Datura t b Pop- 
py I e Oentian. 

A seising, or getting possession of. 2. The thing taken ; 
a prise ; prey. — v. t. To seize ; to overcome and bold. 

syn. — Beiiure ; apprehension ; arrest ; detention. 

fhjffn-HltdBf (kSp'fi-shSnO, n. [F. capwiin monk who 
wears a cowl, fr. It. cappuocio hood. See Capoch.] 1. 
A Franciscan monk, who wears the cowl of St. Francis. 
2. A woman's hooded cloak. 3. (a) A South American 
monkey having hair like a monk's cowl, {b) A pigeon 
having a hoodlike tuft of feathers on the hesd. 

Oftp^-dlie (-sin), n. A capuchin (monkey). 

II Okftnt (kVpOt), n. / pi. Capita (klp^-tA). [L., tb« 
head.] 1. The head ; also, a knoblike protuberance or 
capitulum. 2. The top of a thing. 

Our (kar), n. [OF., fr. Lb camu wagon.] 1. A 
vehicle, usually having two wheels and drawn by one 
horse ; cart. 2. A vehicle adapted to the rails of a rail- 
road. 3. A chariot of war or of triumph. 

Ctar'a-1lllM(kXr'A.bin),n. A carbine. 

Oar'tt-OOto (-k51), n. [¥., fr. Sp. caracal snail, wind- 
ing staircase, a wheeling about.] 1. A half turn which 
a horseman makes. 2. A spiral staircase. — v. i. To 
more in caracoles ; to wheeL 

llOA-rato'CkA-r&fO, n. [F.] A glass water botUe. 

Oai'a-IIMl (Ub/A-mSl), n. [F., LL. cnnna meUit 
sugar cane ; L. canna reed -f- ^f^^ tnellie^ honey.] L 
Burnt sugar; a browu or black porous substance ob- 
tained by heating sugar, and used for coloring spirits, 
gravies, etc. 2. A kind of candy. 

Otf'A-pMe (kir'i-pas), Our^a-paz (-pftks), n. [F. 
carapace.'] SheU on the back of the tortoise, crab, etc. 

Oai'at (kSr^t), n. [F. ; Ar. qfrat pea shell, a weight 
of 4 grains, a carat, fr. Or. Ktpdrtoy little horn, fruit of 
the carob, a weight, a carat] 1. The weight by which 
precious stones are weighed. 2. A tMth part ; —said of 
the fineness ot sold. 

Oai^a-Taa (-i^vln), n. [F. caravanef fr. Per. kanpStu] 
1. A company of pilgrims, merchants, showmen, etc., 
traveling together. 2. A covered Tehicle for passengers 
or for moving furniture, etc. ; — shortened into ran. 

Oara-vanrsa-ry (-vSn'sik-r]^), n. [r. camransSrai, 
fr. Per. karvinsarSl ; kancan -)- MrSi palace, inn.] An 
Oriental inn, where caravans rest at night. [Written 
also caravaMemi and caravansera.l 

Oai'a-vai (-v«l), n. [F. cararelU, it. Sp. caraba^ L. 
caraJbut light boat. Or. Kapafiot light ship.] (a) A ship 
of the Middle Ages, (fr) A French fishing boat, (r) A 
Turkish man-of-war. [written tdao carvel Ukdcarareile.] 

Oar^a-way (-wt), n. [F. carvi^ fr. Ar. karawJa, fr. 
Or. ff^Epor.] L A biennial plant of the Parslev family, 
whose aromatic seeds are lued in cookery and confec- 
tionery, also in medicine as a carminative. 2. A cake 
or sweetmeat containing caraway seeds. 

OaitlllM (kiu/bin), n. [F. carabine, fr. LL. eabulus 
a projectile machine, fr. Or. KarafiaWtw to throw down.] 
A short musket or rifie. — Oarlll-llMr' (-bT-nSrO« n. 

Otf-MllO (-bSlTk), a. [L. earbo coal -f- olevm oil.] 
Pertaining to an acid derived from coal tar and other 
sources, tatd used as a disinfectant. 

Oarnbon (-bSn), n. [F. carbone, fr. "L. rarbo."] A 
non-metallic substance present in all organic compounds, 
forming the base of charooal, and entering largely into 
mineral coals. In its pure crystallized state it consti- 
tutes the diamond, also graphite or blscklead. 

" ' ■ -nJ'sh 

'-bt-nS'shtis), a. Pertaining to, con- 
taining, or composed of, carbon. 

Oai^bon-ate (-bSn-it), n. A salt of carbonic acid, as In 
limestone, some lead ores, etc. [from, carbon. I 

Oar-bOlllO (-bdnTk), a. PertAinlnv to, or obtained] 

OarntKni-iror-OlU (k&r'bSn.Tf'Sr-fis), a. ICarbon + 
'ferou*.} Producing or containing carbon or coal. 

Oai^bon-lae (-iz), r. /. 1. To convert (an animal or veg- 
etable substance) into a residue of carbon bv fire or some 
corrosive agent : to char. 2. To impregnate or combine 
with carbon. — Oar'lWII-l-ntloil, n. 

fSn, recent, drb, ryde, fyll, €lm, f^Tod, ftfbt, out, oil, chair, go, sins. iQk, then, tbln. 




ChufbOf (kUKboi), n. [Ir. & OfteL earb buket] A 
laive gUn bottle. e«p. one inclosed in haaket work. 

ObinMin-Cle (-otto-k'n, n. [Lb earbuncultu a little 
coal, tumor, dim. of carbo coaL j 1. A gem of deep red 
color. 2. Acute inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue, 
liaTingno core, as a boil has, and frequently fatal ; — also 
calledan/Araz. — 0ar-1ran'0ll-Ur (-bui/ka-l2r), a. 

Oai'lm-rot (-bd-rSt), v. t. limp. & p.p. Carbubstsd 
or -RBTm> (-ret'Sd) ; p. pr. & vb. n. Cabsukktuiq or 
-RvrnNo.] To comoine or to impregnate with carbon. 

Oar'oaM (-kos), n. [Written also careaM.I [F. car' 
eatsey fr. L. caro flesh + capsa chest, case.] 1. A 
corpse ; dead body. 2. Decaying remains of a ship, etc 

Cwrfl (kSrd), n. [F. earley fr. L. chartOy Or. x«>P^f 
paper.] L A piece of pasteboard, or thick paper ; jH, 
a game played with caroa. 2. A published note of ex- 
idanation, request, thanks, etc. ; printed programme ; 
attraction or inducement. 3. A paper showing the 
points <rf the compass ; face of the mariner's compass. 

Oaid, n. [F. earde teasel, head of a thistle, card, fr. 
L. carduiu thistle.] 1. An instrument for disentangling 
and amusing fibers of cotton, wool, etc., or cleuiiug 
hair of anlm^A 2. A roll of fiber delivered from a 
carding machine. — v. t. To comb with a card. 

Otf^-IIIOIIl(ki(r'dA-mBm),n. [Gr.Kap^afUd^Mw.] An 
East India plant of the Ginger family, and ita aromatic 
•eed, used as a condiment, and in medicine. 

CtardlKMXd' (kiird'hCrdO* n. Stiff compact paste- 
board, for carda, etc 

II Oai'dlm (kiir^dT-A), n. [Or. KopSia heart.! (a) The 
heart. (6) The anterior orifice of the stomach. 

Oai'dl-AO (-Xk), a. 1. Pertaining to the heart. 2. Ex- 
citing action in the heart, through the stomach ; cordial ; 
stimulant. — n. A cordial. — Oir-dl'a-Oill (-dFA-kal), a. 

II Oardl-al'gl-a (-S1'JT-A), \ n. [Or. KapBio^yOi ; Kop- 

Oai^dUl'cy (-«'ji^), J «itt -f- ^yoi pain.] A 
p^in referred to the region of the heart ; heartburn. 

Oir'di-Bal (-uffl), a. [L. cnn1innli.% fr. cardo hinge, 
that on which a thing depends.] Of fundamental im- 
portance; chief; principal. — 71. 1. One of the ecclesi- 
astical princes of the Roman Catholic church who con- 
stitute the pope's council, or sacred college. 2. A 
woman's hooded cloak. 3. Mulled red wine.— Oar'^- 

lul-ate, Oar^dl-nal-sliip, n. 

Oardl-Ol'O-nr (-«l'«-ly), n. [Or. Koniia heart + 
-fofft/."} Boinnce of the heart and ita functions. 

II Otf-dltls (-dl'tTs), n. [NL., fr. Or. Kop^ia -t- -V/i*.] 
Inflammation of the muscular subfitance of the henrt. 

Otr-dOOn' (-d65n'), n. [F. cordon thistle, L. cnrduiu.'] 
An herbaceous salad plant related to the artichoke. 

Oare (kftr), n. [AS. cam, ceani ; akin to OS. kara 
sorrow. Not akin to ctirc] 1. Burdensome retponsi- 
bility; trouble caused by onerous duties. 2. Respon- 
sible charge or management. 3. Atteution or heed ; 
watchfulness. 4. Object of anxiety. —v. i. To be 
anxious or solicitous ; to have rejrvrd or intprest. 

Syn. — Cark: Awximr; Solicitude; Concern; cau- 
tion : regard ; manaecment : direction ; oversight. — Care 
belongs to the IntAllert, and becomes minful from over- 
burdened thought. Anrietv denotes aistrensiug uneasi- 
ne.M from dre-tci of evil. Soliritvde expre-sses the same 
feeling in a diminished degree. Concern is opposed to 
indiffernxce^ and implies exer'*i»»e of anxious thought. 

Oa-reen' (ki-ren'), v. t. [OF. carinery fr. cnrine bot- 
tom of a ship, L. carina.'] To cause (a vessel) to lean 
over to one side, exposing the other side for repairs 
below the water line. — r. i. To lie over to one side. 

Oa-reei/ (-rSr'), n. [F. earrihre race course, L. car- 
rtw wagon.] 1. A race course, 2. Full speed. 3. 
General course of conduct. •- r. i. To move rapidly. 

Oirefnl (kfir'fyl), a, [AS. cearfuL'] Taking care; 
givinor goo<l heed ; not Indifferent or reckless. — Oaro'- 

tnl-ly, adv. — Oare^l-neas, n. 

Syn. — Anxious : solicitous; provident; thoughtful; 
cautious; circumspect; heedful; watchful; vigilant. 

aaralaM (kir^Ss), a. [AS. cearle6s.'\ 1. Free from 
care or anxiety ; light-hearted. 2. Not taking proper 
care; negligent; unconcerned. 3. Without thought 
or purpose ; without attention to rule ; unstudied ; rmah. 

— GaiVleM-ly, adv. — OanleMiieM, n. 

Syn. — Negligent ; heedless ; thoughtless ; inattentive : 
unthinking ; incautious ; remiss ; supine ; forgetful ; re- 
gardless ; inconsiderate ; listless. 

Oa-rtM' (kA-r«8'), n. [F. earetsey fr. L. ram* dear.] 
An act of endearment, or expressiou of affection or ten- 
demess. — r. /. To treat lovingly. 

Syn.— To fondle; pet; coddle; court; flatter. 

Oafrot (ka'ret or kXr'Bt), n. [L., there lacks, fr. carere 
to want.1 A mark [^1 indicating something interlined 
which belongs in the place marked. 

Oare'WOni' (kfir'wSmO, a, Woni with care. 

Oar'ffO (kar'g^), n. [Sp., fr. cargar to load, charge.] 
The lading of a vessel ; load ; freighU 

Oarl-lMm (kXra-bS5), n. [Canadian French.] The 
American reindeer. 

Oarl-fia-tnr* (-kA-tur), n. 
[It. caricaturoy fr. c-rriorrf to 
overload, exagfferate. ] Xw i<:t- 
aggeration of characttrint tra^ i^« 
in a picture or de- 
scription; a biur- 
lesque ; parody. — 
v.t. To burlesque. 

— Oarl-oa-tn'- 

llOa'd-as (kS'. 
rT-Sz), n. [L., de- 
cay.] Ulceration 
of bone. 

II Oa-il'lui (kA- 
rl'n4), n. [L., 
keel.] 1 A keel 
or part of a papil- 
ionaceous flower 
inclosing the or- 
gans of fnictifica- 
tion. 2. The keel of the breastbone of birds. 

Oar'l-Bate (kSKTntt), ) a. Shaped like a ship's keel 

Oarl-na^ted (-ni^tStl), ) or prow ; having a carina. 

Oait-Ole (-51), n. [F. carriole^ dim. f r. L. carrus car. ] 
A small, open one-horse carnage or calaah. 

Oatl-aiUI (ka'rl-tts), a. [L. cariotus, fr. caries decay.] 
Affected with caries ; decaying. 

Oarl (kSrl), n. [AS. ceorl fellow.1 1. A rude fellow ; 
churl. 2. Large stalks of hemp which bear the seed. 

Oar'Biar (kar'mon), n. Driver of a car or cart. 

Oar-mln'a-tiyo (-mTn'i-tTv), a. [NL. cortn»n<r/ir«<, 
fr. carminare to cuxl, to cleanae.] Expelling wind from 
the body; warming; antispasmodic— n. A substance 
tending to relieve colic, griping, or flatulence. 

Oarlnina (-min), n. [F. carmine fr. LL. enrmefinni 

Surple.l 1. A rich red color with a shade of purple. 
. A pigment prepared from cochineal. — Oar-mUllo 
(-mTn'fk), a. 

Oar'naKe (kar'nfij), ». [F. ; LL. camah'cvm flesh of 
animals, fr. L. cam. See Cabnal.] 1. Flesh of slain 
animals or men. 2. Great deftructiou of life; blood- 
shed ; slaughter ; mai'S'icre ; havoc. 

Oai/iial (-nol), a. [L. camalis, fr. cffro, comity flesh. 1 
Pertaining to the body or iU appetites ; given to sensual 
indulgence ; worldly as opposed to fpiritual. 

Oar'nal iat, n. A sensualist. [gence of lust. I 

Oar-nal'i-ty (-nSl^-tj^), n. The beinp carnal ; indul-| 

Oar'nal-lze (-nal-l^), r. /. To mnke carnal. 

Oar'nal-ly (-nal-iy), odr. According to the flesh, to 
the world, or to human nature ; sensually. 

Oar-naliOB (-na'shfin), n. [F., flesh tints in a point- 
ing, fr. L. camafio fleshiness, fr. caro. 8e» Carnal.] 
1. Fle.«4h color ; rosy pink. 2. pf. Parts of a picture 

Caribou (Bftngi/er CVn-Aev). 

a, 6, 1, S, O, long ; ft, «, 1, 5, 0, tt abort ; iMiMe, dvea^ tdea, 6bey, finite, cAre, iirm, oak, »11, fin«L 




■bowinf the hamAn bodr in fall ooIot; fleah tlnta. 
qwoiM of pink, havinff flowers of Tuioaa oolort. 
OucOMVtUl (kMr-nSKyon ; 26), n. [For eomelian.] 


Tariciv of oluJoedony, of rod or reddish white color. 

OaiHM-aiUl (-oMb), a, [L. eametu."} Consisting of, 
or like, flesh ; fleshy. 

Ovfid-tf (-nl-fi), V. i. [LL. eamifiearet fr. L. earo^ 
eamit -f- jaeert to mske.! To form flesh ; to beconu» 
like flesh. — Oar'ill-tl-OJituni, n. 

Oai^bi-Tll (-nT-val), n. [F. camovo/, lit., farewell to 
me4t, fr. L. earo^ eamis -f- vale farewelL] L A festi- 
Tsl c^ebratad with merriment during the week before 
Lent. %. A time of riotous excess. 

i1 Oir-]lhK«-n (-nTv^ri), n. pi. [NL., neut. pi. fr. 
L*. camivona. See Cam- 
mrcHtous.] An order of 
M-imm«li» including the 
lion, wolf, seal, etc, 
atructnrally adapted to 
feed upon flesh, harinff ^ g^, 

large and sharp teeth, and A ..lA-JwH • 

powerful Jaws. "" ^ 

Oir-iihKo-nms (-rfis), 
a. [L.eam<vorotM/oaro, 
eamis 4- wtrort to de- CamiTora. Skull of "Wolf. 
Your.l Kwting flesh. 

Oir-nosl-tF (-nSs^-tJ^), «. 1. A fleshy excrescence ; 
fungoos growth. 2. Fleshy quality ; a fleshy covering. 

Qir'tfb (kIr'Sb), n. [F. cartmhe fruit of the carob 
tree, fr. Ar. AAaiip66.] 1. An everRreen leguminous 
tree of Mediterranean countriea. 2. One of tlie edible 
succulent pods of the carob tree. 

Oar'Ol (•fil), n. [OF. eanle a kind of dsnce.] A 
song of Joy, exultation, praise, or deTOtion. — r. /. & i. 
Topraise in song ; to sing Joyfully ; to warble. 

Cnr^On (-flm), n. [Prob. corrup. fr. F. earamboler to 
carom, earamboU the red ball in billiards.] A shot iu 
billiards when the ball struck with the cue touches two 
or more balls on the tsble. — v. i. To make a carom. 

Oai^O-mtf (-^-mn), n. CarameL 

Oft-rofid (ki-rOtad), n. [Or. KOfNoTiStf, pi., fr. Kapo« 
taeavy sleep.] One of the two main arteries of the neck, 
couTeying blood from the aorta to the head. — Oft-rotld, 
Oft-rono-Al, a. [revel. I 

Oft-rou'al (-rouz'al), n. A Jovial feast or drunken | 

Sjm. — SeeFiAST. 

Chl*railM' (-rousO, n. [F. earrousse^ fr. G. garaua an 
emptying of the cup in drinking a health ; gar entirely 
4- mu out.] A caroosaL ^ v, i. To drink freely in com- 
pliment ; to engage in drunken revels. — Oft-roiu'er, n. 

Oaip (kXrp), V. i. [OB. carpen to speak ; (r. Scaud.] 
To flnd fault : to cavil ; to censure. 

Oaxp, fi. [Cf. loel. karfit LL. earpa.] A fresh-water 
herbivorous tLbh. originally from Asia. 

Qax^^al (kXr'pal), a. Pertaining to the carpus, or 
wrist. — n. A bone or cartilage of the carpus. 

Oaflptl (-pel), II Oar-Miaillll (-pSlliim), n. [NL. car- 
pellttm^ fr. Or. mapnit fruit.] A simple pistil or part of 
a compound pistil, ovary, or seed vessel. 

OlI^pai-t«r (-p9n-t6r), n. [OF. carpentier^ fr. L. 
earpentum wsgon.] A worker iu timber; builder of 
bouses, ships, etc. — Oar>ui-t«r-liig, Oar'peii-try, n. 

Oara^Cr (klbp'Sr), n. One who carps ; a caviler. 

Ou^tt (-p8t), n. [OF. earpUf. rug, LL. carpeia woolly 
cloths, fr. L. earpere to pluck, to card (wool).] A heavy 
wovMi or felted fabric to be nailed to the floor, as dis- 
tinguished from s rug or mat. — r. t. To cover or fur^ 
nish with carpets. 

Otr'ptt-bac' (-bi<^), fi. A portable ba^ for travellers. 

Oai^V^t-llur, n. 1. A covering with carpets. 2. Cloth 
or materials for carpets ; carpets in genersL 

O«r-pol'0-gy (-pw'd-jy), «. [Or. vopink fruit + 4ogt/.} 
That brmch of botany whirli treats of seeds nnd fruits. 

— Oarpo-loc^-oftl (-pd-i5ja.kai), a. — Oar-pol'o-glst, ». 

II Ota'pn (kiir^fls), ». ; pi. Caipi (-pi). [NL., fr. Or. 
Kopwit wrist.] Tne wrist; the bonaa or cartilagea be- 
tween foraarm and hand or forefoot. 

Oai^-IMB' (kir'ri-gSnO, OtftlfMB' (-rT-ffina n. 
A purplish, cartilaginous aeaweed, which, when bMaohed, 
is the Iriik mots of oommeroe. [Also written oorra- 
gheent earageen.'] 

Ctal'tti-way (-wt), n. Caraway. 

Oar'HaM V-rTJ), n. [OF. cariagty ehariage, carriage, 
baggage, fr. cariery charier^ to cart. Bee CabbtJ 1. A 
carrying or conveying* 2. Price of carrying. & A ve- 
hicle. 4. Manner of carrying one^s self ; deportment. 

OaxM-bOO (-rT-b55), n. Cariboo. 

Oar'Zi-^r, n. 1. Oue that carries or conveys ; a mee- 
senger; porter. 2. A part of a machine, etc, which 
drives or carries. 3. A carrier pigeon, a variety of pigeon 
used to convey letters from a distance to its home. 

Oar'Il-Oll (-On), n. [OF. caroignet fr. L. caro flesh.] 
Dead and putrefying fleah of an animid. ^o. Pertaining 
to putrefying carcasses ; feeding on carrion. 

CMlfram (-rfim), n. & v. Carom. 

Oar^ron-ade' (-rfln-Cd'), n. [Orig. made at Carroiif in 
Scotland.] Obsolete kind of short cannon. 

Oar'lrot (-rat), n. [L. earola.'} A biennfaa plant, the 
cultivated varieties of which have an eaculent root of 
reddish yellow color. — Oar'lrot-y, a. 

Oar'ry (-ry), r. /. [OF. carter, charier, to cart, fr. 
OF. car^ char. See Cab.] 1. To convey from one place 
to another. 2. To couvev by extension or continuance ; 
to extend. 3. To uphold through conflict; to win; to 
capture. 4. To contain ; to imply. 6. To bear (one^s 
seU) ; to behave or demean (one's self), -^v.i. 1. To 
convey snything. 2. TopropeL [covered carriage. I 

Oar'ry-aU' (-»!'). »• [Corrup. fr. ctniole.] A llirl»t| 

Oart (kXrt), n. [AS. eratt. Cf. Cab.] L A two- 
wheeled vehicle for transporting heavy articles. 2. A 
light business wagon. 3. An open two-wheeled pleasure 
carriage. — v. t. To carry in a cart. 

Oait'afa (-tj), n. 1. A carrying in a cart. 2. Price 
paid for carting. [Carte de visite. I 

II Carta (kiirt), n. [F., card.] L BUI of fare. 2.| 

I Carts blandis (blsHsh) [F., fr. OF. carte paper -*- hlnnc^ 
bhinihe^ white], a blank paper^ witii one's signature, etc., 

f:iveu to another, witli permission to superscribe what 
le pleases ; unlimited authority. — ji Carts ds visits (d« 
vC- rt'), pi. Cahtbs db vi-itb (kiirt). [V.\ (a) A visit- 
ing card, (b) A small photographic picture. 

Oar-tal' (kiir-t«10, n. [F., fr. LL carteUus a little 
paper, dim. fr. L. chartnJ] An agreement between 
belligerents for exchange of prisoners. [ster. I 

Oart'er (kiirfSr), n. One who drives a cart ; a team-| 

Oairtl-lage (kar'tT-ltj), n. [L. cartifago.} A trans- 
lucent, elastic tissue in animal bodies ; ini^tle. 

Oartl-lagl-noiUI (-ISjT-nOs), a. l. Pertaining to 
cartilage ; gristly ; firm and tough. 2. Havini; the skel- 
eton in the state of cartilage, the bones containing little 
or no calcareous matter ; — said of certain fishes, aa the 
sturgeon and the sharks. 

Oar-tOg'ra-pllv(-tV*-^).«- {T. caHographie. See 
Card, and -orapht.] The forming charts or maps. — 

Oar-tog'ra-pher, n. — Oarto-graph'lo (-t«.gr«fTk), 

OartO-graPhlo-ia. a. [a pasteboard box. | 

Carton (kl&r't^n), n. [F. See C abtoon.] Pasteboard ; | 

Car-toon' (kUr-tSSn'), n. [F. eartout fr. L. charta 

card.] 1. A design to serve as a model for copying. 

2. A lartce pictorial sketch ; '»«p., a caricature. 

Oar-tonoa' (-tSochQ, n. [F. cartwiche. It. cartnccia, 
comet, cartouch, fr. L. chnrta.'\ 1. («) A cartridge. (6) 
A cartridge box. (c) A military pass for n soldier on fur- 
lough. 2. An architectural scroll or tablet 

Car'tridge (-trlj), n. [Corrup. fr. F. cartouche.^ A 
complete charge for a firearm, contained in a case or 
shell. [maker. 

Cart'Wllgllt'(k8rt'ritO,n. [Cart -\- wright.-] Acart| 

fSm, recent, 6rb, r)|de. fyll, ftm, food, fo^ot, out, oil, cbair, go, aiug, ink, tben, thin. 





II OA-mifoii^ 

dim. of earo flaah. 

(kKKfin-kl), \n, [L. carwunda a 

l^ (kCr^MAM),] little piece of fleeh, 
leah. J 1. A anudl fleahy exoresoence ; the 
reddUh body in tbe inner angle of the eye. 2. Append- 
age near the hilnm of a aeed. 3. A naked, fleaiiy ap- 
pendage on a l>ird*a bead, aa the wattlea of a turkey, etc 

0am (kXrr), v. t. & i. [AS. ceor/an to cut, canre ; 
akin to Or. ypo^tr to write, orig., to acratch, and E. 
-gropkf.'} 1. To cut (wood, atone, etc.) in a deooratire 
manner; toaculpture; to engrave. 2. Tocutintoamall 
piece* or alioea ; to apportion. — OtfT'Mr, n. 

OufwtA (kii'Ta), ». 1. A cararel. 2. A apedea of 
jellyfiab ; aea blubber. 

(tary-«nd(klr^-itnrd},n. ; pi. E. CARTATiDa (-Yds), 
L. Cabtatidis (-I-dSa). [L., fr. Or. Kcipvi.T%itt prieat- 
eaaea in the temple ot Diana at CarjraB.] A dn^ped female 
figure aupporting an entablature, in the place ot a col- 
umn or pllwter. — (taTT-aMo, OtTlr-atid, a, 

OM'Oft-bal (ki0nc&4)«l), M. [Sp., lltUe bell, knob.] 
Knob or breeching loop behind the breech of a cannon. 

Otm-mdt^ (-UmOv *>• [F., fr. It eascaiay fr. ctucart 
to falL] A fall of water over a precipice ; «niterfall leaa 
than a cataract. — v. i. To fall in a caacade. 

Oo^oa-lflOa (-kA^rTini), n. [Sp., amaU thin bark, 
Peruvian baric, dim. of edseara bark.] A euphorbiaceoua 
Weat Indian ahrub ; alao, its aromatic bark, uaed aa a 
tonic, and aometimes mixed with amoking tobacco. 

Oaae (kis), n. [OF. casM, fr. L. eop«a chest, caae, fr. 
eapere to hold.] 1. A box or coverhig* 2. Contents of 
a box. 3. An iuclosiug frame ; a casing. — r. /. To 
cover with a case ; to inclose. 

Oaaskaite. (o) A knife carried fai a aheath or caae. (b) 
A large table knife. — 0mm ahot, a collection of amall int>- 
iectiles, inclosed in a case or canister. 

Oaso, n. [F. etiSy fr. L. <vutM, fr. cadere to fall, hap- 
pen. Gf. CRAircB.] 1. That which befalls or happens ; 
an event ; instance ; circumstance ; state of things ; af- 
fair. 2. A patient under medical or surgical treatment ; 
an instance of sickness or injury. 3. The matters of fact 
in a lawsuit ; a suit or action at law ; a cause. 4. Vari- 
ation in form, of a noun, pronoun, or adjective, indicating 
its relation to other words. 

Syn. — Situation ; condition; state; circumstances; 
plight; predicament; occurrence; contingency; acci- 
dent: event: conjuncture: cause; action; suit. 

Oaitniard'ail (kSsa)lird''u), r. /. 1. To harden 
(wrought iron) into steel by cementation with carbonising 
matenaL 2. To render insensible to good influences. 

OaM^DUIta (-mat), n. [F., fr. It. ctuamatia, prob. fr. 
COM house + »Mi//o, f. matta feeble.] A bombproof 
chamber for cannon. 

Qtm^mi&at (-ro«nt), n. [Abbr. fr. encasement. See 
Imcasb.] a hinged window sash ; a window. 

Oa'M-«llS (ki'st-Qs), a. [L. catetu cheese.] Having 
qualities of cheese ; cheesy. 

Oaia'wonil' (kis^wfirmO, If. A worm or grub that 
makes for itself a case, as the caddice. 

Oaah (klah), n. [F. caisse cuaiBt cash box.] (a) Ready 
mouey ; coin or specie, or paper convertible into money. 
(b) Immediate payment in current funds. — r. /. To 
pay, or to receive, cash for ; to excliange for money. 

Sirn. — Money; coin; specie; currency. 

Cwsll, ting. & pt. A Cliinese copper coin (Chinese 
tsien\ worth about 1-lOth of a cent. 

OaahOMMk (kSsha>d6k), n. A book in which U kept 
a regiater of money received or paid out. 

Oa-aheW (kA-sh65Q, n. [F. acajou, prob. fr. Malay 
kSyu tree.] A tropiou American tree akin to the sumac. 

Oaah-iai/ (kfab-Sr'), n. [F. causier, fr. caisse. See 
Cash ready money.] One in charge of the payments 
and receipts of a bank or mercantile company. 

Oaah-iai', v. t. [F. easser to break, annuL cashier, 
fr. L. cassore to annuL Cf. Quash.] To dismiss or dia- 
oard ; to discharse iimnrainiously. 

Oailll'lll«ra(kERh'mSr),n. 1. A rich stuff for shawls, 

scarfs, etc, made from wool of goats of Oaahmera, etc 
2. A dross fabric made in imitaaon of true cashmere 

Oa-ahOlK (kA«h9y), n. {F,eaekou,l Cateohu. 

Oaatac (WsTng), n. Il An inolodng with a oaae. 
2. An outaide covering, or indoainfr frame 

U (hHrifDO (ki-sS'ntO, !». [It, dtan. of etua hooae, L. 
eoM cottage] 1. Small country houac S. Boom for 
amuaemeuU, dancing, etc. 3. A game at carda, caasinc 

Oaak (kisk), a. [Sp. eojco potaherd, akuU, betanet] 
L A barrel, large or amall, to bold Uqulda. 2. Quantity 
contained in a caak. ^v,L To put into a oaak. 

OaamC (kia^et), n. [Cf. F. ctuqmet, dim. of casque 
helmet.] 1. A amall cheat <a box. 2. A burial oaae. 
iU. S.) 3. Anjrthing oontaining aomethiii« highly ea- 
teemed. ^r. L To preaerve hi a caaket [hehnet I 

Oaana (kisk), n. [F., fr. Sp. eo#co. See Cask.] A| 

Oaii'aa-da(kis^s4^A),n. Csauva. 

Oa^aatton (kIs-aS'shliQ% n, [F., fr. eaeser to amnil, 
fr. L. casnu empty.] An annulling. 

Oaa'aa-Ta (kfa'atvi), n. [Sp. eaxabe, fr. ihwoM, fai 
the language of HaitL] 1. A ahrubby euphorbiaoaona 
plant; mamoc 2. Stiuch obtained from the rootatocka 
of the cassava plant, used as food and in making tapioca. 

Oaa'aia (klsh'A), «. [Or. Koooia.] 1. A leguminous 
idant having purgative qualities, wEoae leavea fumiah 
aenna. 2. Chlneae cinnamon. 

Oaa'al-IIMn (kis'sI-mSr), n. [Of. F. eaeimir.'\ A 
twilled wo<den cloth for men*s garmenta. [Written alao 
kerseymere. ] [carda. I 

Oai-allDO (•sS'nftV n. [It See CAsnto.] A game at | 

Oaa'aook (kis^sOk), n, [F. cataqne.l A close, loag 
ooat, worn by ecclesiastics. 

Oaa'ao-wa-ry ^s^-wt-rV), n. [Malaj katuHfrCy A 
large bird of the East Indiea, New ^ 
Oulnea, Australia, etc., reaembling 
the ostrich, but amaller and atouter. 

Oast (kAst), V. t. [Cf . Icel. kaMa ; 

r'hapa akin to L. gerere to carry, 
jest.} 1. To aend by force: to 
throw ; to Impel. 2. To direct (the 
eyes). 3. To drop; to deposit (a 
ballot). 4. To throw down, as in 
wrestling. 6. To throw up (a 
mound, rampart, etc.). 6. To eJect ; 
to shed; toloac 7. Tobringforth 
prematurely. 8. To shed ; to re- , 
fleet ; to throw (light, etc.). 0. To < 
compute; to calculate. 10. To de- 
feat in a lawsuit ; to convict. 11. 
To overbalance ; to decide. 12. To 
form (liouid metal) in a mold; to found; to i 
type or electrotype. 13. To distribute or allot (parts of 
a play among actors). — V. i. 1. To receive form In a 
mold. 2. To warp ; to twist out of shape — ». L A 
casting or throwing. 2. Thing thrown. 3. Distance to 
which a thing is thrown. 4. A throw of dice ; a chance 
6. That which is thrown out or off, shed, or ejected. 6. 
An impression or mold ; reproduction ; copy. 7. Form ; 
mien ; air ; style. 8. Assignment of parta hot a play to 
the actors. 0. A turn (of the eye) ; glance ; squint 

n Oaa-ta'lia^ (kis-ti'nM), n. [L.] A genus of nut- 
bearing trees including the chestnut and chinquapin. 

Oaala-IMtS (kisOA-nSta), n. pi. TSp. caslaUeUu, fr. 
L. caManeaA Two small instruments beaten together by 
the fingers, to keep time in dancing. 

Oaaf a-way (k&sf A-wi), n. 1. One cast away or 
shipwrecked. 2. One who is ruined; a reprobate— a. 
Of no value ; rejected ; uselese 

Casta (Ubt), n. [Pg. casta race, Ihieage, f r. K castus 
Dure, chaste] L (>ne of the hereditarr Hindoo aodal 
cl as s e s. 2. A fixed order w class in society. 

Oaslal-Ian (kis'tei-lio), n. [OF. eoMeiain, F. cAA- 
telain, LL. castelianus governor of a oaatle, fr. L. eastel' 
lum castle] A governor or warden of a castle. 

Common Csnowary 
(Oimarnu gakatm*). 

a, S, 1, 5, 0, long , it, «, 1, 5, 0, f, short ; senate, 6vent, tdea, 6bey, ftnlte, cAre, iirm. Ask, nU, final. 



Ourm-lMrttf (klaOa-lt-oy), n. Lordahip of a cMtle ; 
extent of land and jarladictlpn pertaining to a caatle. 

Oultl-lAttd (-li'tSd), a. Built with turreU and 
battlements, like a castle. — Onrtol-Utioil, n. 

OuHfW (Uat^Jt n. 1. One who caate (stones, metal, 
aecoonts, etoA 2. A small Tessel, to contain condi- 
ments at the table. 3. A small wheel on a swivel, 
on which forniture is mored. 

OttH-CatA (kIaaT-«it>, V. t. [L. eoiHgare, 
•ffatnm, to correct, punish ; easttu pure -|- a^re 
to drive.] To punish by stripes ; to chastise. 
-Oarti-ffatloB, n. -OaaH-f a'tor, ». -OuK- 

(Kirdlt BMP' (kis'ta iSp'). [Fr. Caint/e One form 

A'hard soap, made with olive oU and soda. ' *' ^'^^ 
OlBnBC(k*stnrng),n. 1. A throwing. 2. The mak- 

ing easts or shaping metal or plaster in a mold. 3. That 

which is cast in a moUL 4. The warping of a board. 
Ossllaff Bsi, a net east and drawn, in dutinction from a 

net set and left. — Ossttag voies, Oasttag vets, the decisive 
"" ""cer, when 

vote of the 

tlie votes of the house 

are equally divided. — Ossttag wtight, a weight tliat turns 
a balance when exactly poised. 

OmT Hwi (kAsf Fttrn). Highlycarbonixed iron, the 
direct product of tlie blast furnace; — used for making 
castinga, and for conversion into wrought iron and steel. 

QlBR'-l^roa, f*. Hade of cast iron ; hardy ; unyielding. 

OmIU (kls^*!). n. [AS. easiely fr. L. castellum, dim. 
of caMmm castle.] L A fortified residence ; a fortress. 

Csfttle at Pierrefoni*. France. 
A Ihitijan m K»p. m-n {rrrf uliir biifJiiTrpenittilnfnE (Tip ilwi-l]. 
initcil lh« k^rd t B '^ Mnf* rmiqrl riiT4-r« rHnrkfiif pari »\ ihe 
(li^nJiKn >nt)of ih#dI?nM» will- ; /( ^MJtn' E'Thx r, nrpiinirinK 
Hit t*!.'' iTinJ"t e^ijiti II mi rnrminf \t^r\. n^ Mi il'ifiiifiii) ; ^ 
l^hatwl . fi H Bmm<| E^'wrn^^n Ihrt- ilfni'rwall. r A" [\i^|fni 
tf»i** IbmIIHe ttt K t<mT\ : M l"iim^l,i,n.ntmriilr»ij «[■>»! 'l:OrwKir 
to k{J tb« Ftuhr« of thr etphI tf*^rl►^ /; . ; Titrrtl irKh lUfr- 
w^j ffiT IcwiT, ^ r '* Felinnpn^-Uri- i*rr(tin<l ir-lt^rnhfru ht ttjr- 
rH-+s /' ^ J" lt•rtll■M^►■nti > *,* ^/ MiPi^inc.JiriMh* ifLhfw^Bi */ 

2. A strong and stately mansion. 3. A piece, represent- 
ing a castle, naed hi a game of chess ; a rook. — r. f. & {. 
In cheas, to cover (the king) with a castle. 

Srn. —.Bee FoBTBBsa. 

CMSt'-«IF (k4«t/9f0, a. Cast aside : diacarded. 

OuOor (kls^r), n. [L., beaver.] 1. A rodent genua, 
incloding beavers. 2. A hat. 3. Heavy cloth for overcoats. 

OMfcr (kist^Y, n. A caster, or small wheel. 

OM^Of (kisOCr), n. [L.] The nortliemmoat of the 
two bright stars In the constellation Gemini, the other 
being Pollux. [castor-oil pUnt. | 

OMOortoeul'Ckis'tSlrbSn/). The bean or seed of the 

Qtanm cH' (kls'tSr oUO. A mild catharUc oil, ex- 
tracted from seeds of the Palma CkriMi. 

OutbBK-^XL plaat, Palma Christi, a woody perennial tropi- 
ealplant, cultivated as an annual in temperate climates. 

Cte'tra-aMAllOll (kSi'trA-m^ta'ahnn), n. [F., fr. 
L. eastra camp -\- mtiari to measure off, fr. tnela limit.] 
An encamping ; tlie laying out of a camp. 

fhartmU (klsOrit). v. U [L. eaatrare, -traium.} L 
To deprive of tlie testicles ; to emasculate ; to geld. 2. To 
remove anything erroneous or objectionable from (a writ- 
ing) ; to expurgate.^ Oas-tra'tiim, n. 

UAStrtl (-trfl), n. Kestrel, a liawk. 

Oaa^-al (kish'tt-al), a. [L. easuaiUy it, easua fall, 
accident, fr. eadere to fall.] 1. Happening without de- 
sign and unexpectedly. 2. Coming without regularity ; 
owasional. — n. A vagrant. — Oaa^-«l-ly, adv. 

Syn. — See AccmsirrAL. 

CMfl'a-Al-tF (-tj^), n. L That which comes without 
design ; contingency. 2. An injury from accident ; 
death, or other misfortune, occasionecf by an accident. 

Guhl-llt (-tst), n. One skilled in, or given to, cas- 
uistry. — OMKn-ITtlO, Oas'ii-Li'tUHa, a, 

OuKn-lH-rr (-Ts-try), i». l. Science of dealing with 
cases of conscience, or of resolving questions of r^ht or 
wrong ; application of general moral rules to particular 
cases. 2. Sophistical or false reasoning. 

Oat (kit), n. [AS. ; akin to D. & Dan. kat, LL. catu*.] 
1. An animal of various species, wild and domestic. 2. 
A tackle for drawing up an anchor to the cathead of a 
ship. 3. A game of ball. 4. A cat o* nine tails, a whip 
having nine pieces of knotted cord fastened to a handle. 
— r. t. To bring (an anchor) up to Uie cathead. 

Oat'A-Ohn'giA (kSt'&.kr9'i>Ts), n. [Or. maraxpri<r*^ 
misuse ; cars against -}- xrif^oi, to use.] A rlietoricnl 
figure which wrongly puts one word for another. — Oat'- 
a-ohraalio (-krSs^fk), Ctafa-ohrat'do-al, a. 

OAfa-ClTSm (-klTs*m). n. [Or. icaraicAvv/iA^, fr. Kara- 
kAu^civ to inundate ; xara -\- KAv^tiv to dash over.] 1. A 
sweeping flood of waters ; deluge. 2. A violent catas- 
trophe, changing the earth*8 surface. 

Oafa-OOmb (-k9in), n. [LL. ratncumbii, perh. fr. Or. 
Kord -f- KVfi^ cavity.] A cave or subterrane.>us place 
for burial of tlie dead. 

CAt'ft-coufl tics (-lt.»H''tTk8 or -kSSetTks), n. [Pref. 
cat' t- - (*rf •f'>-fni.] !ii' hu^u* of reflected sounds or echoen. 

Oat'a Ulan» (-fOk'^, n. [F., fr. It. catnfalco scaf- 
foMt f(]nrr4il i^aiiopy.] A temporary structure used in 
fnrii^raJ ^nkTui>JtJr'r«4 i^r [niii-lic exhibition of the remains. 

CatalAQ^tki (llfktTk), ft. [Or. KarcJ<nKrus6^ hicoui- 
ploti' : 1^4 m -r Ar^ii^ tu ^lop.] 1. Wanting a syllable at 
the iMiiL 2' liif^prnfili^ti' ; ^mrtial. 

Oat'ft Wsy MeF'«5 *^ (»• [Or- ttarakif^vi a sei- 

I ' OAt a-fep'ttla ( -1 j! I i'hT w\ S sure ; Kard 4 Aofi/Savrtv 
to piH ' i jH ^ ] t^i id \.U I L jf UA^M' ■ vvkUiti of sensation and volition. — 
Ott a lsp^tiG> '!^ 

Gat a iOgfUC ( l^-^i-, ^' [F.; Or. Kwdkoyoi list, fr. 
<caTaAr)'Cii>' tu Oiml up ; JCJira •)- Kiytu^ tO say.] A list 
of names, titles, etc, arranged methodically. — v. t. To 
make a list of ; to insert in a catalogue. 

Syn.— See List. 

Oa-tal>a (ki-tJU'pi), n. [Name among the Indiana of 
Garolina. J A genua of American and East Indian flower- 
ing trees, bearing long cylindrical pods. 

Oara-ma-rail' (kIt7A.mi-rSnO . n. [ East Indian name.] 
1. A raft consisting <rf ^^^~-r^.,-- _ 

pieces of wood lashed 
together, and moved bv ^|;^ 
paddles or sails. 2. A -. 
vessel with twin hulls. ^ 
3. A quarrelsome^, 
woman ; a scold. TCoi- ^ 




(-mS'nY-A), n. pi. [Or. :g*_ 

Kard •{•niiivmonth.} The 
monthly courses of 
women ; menstrual discharges. — Oat^a-nnKnl-al, a. 

Oat'a-moiint (-mount), n. [Cnt -f mount: cf. Sp. 
gtUo monies mountain cat.] 1. Tlie cougar : puma ; 
panther. 2. The lynx. 


I«m, recen^ 6rl>, ryde, fyll, ftm, food, loo^ out, oil, cliair, go, sins, ink, ttien, thin. 




Oat't-phonlMi (Ut'A-fSomcs), n. [Pref. eotO' + 
phonic*.} Science of reflected soaikU ; catAcottstics. 

Oaf a-plMIII (-pll2*m^ n. [Or. KariwAatrtiu ; koto, -f 
vAaovfiv to form, mold. J A soft substance applied ex- 
ternally to the body ; a poultice. 

Oafft-polt (-pttlt^, n. [Or. KarcurAnff ; marA -f 9«A- 
A«iv to borl.l Ancient engine to throw stones, etc. 

Oaf a-IBOt (-rikt), n. [Or. Karapaxnii ; Kara -j- ^iryrwKOt 
to break.] 1. A laroe waterfaU. 2. An opacity of the 
lens of the eye, impairing or destroying sight. 

Oa-tailk'(k&-tiirOtH. [Or. xaToppoot rheum ; iwt£ + 
pttv to flow.] Inflammation of tlte mucous membrane ; 
cold in the head or lungs ; influenxa. — Oa-tan1l'alf a* 

Oa-taalrO-plia (-tfaarft-ft), n. [Or. Karturrpo^ir ; man. 
H- o*rp</^ir to turn.] 1. A fimil eTeut, usually disastrous ; 
calamity. 2. The final erent in a dranui ; denouement. 

Oa-tawlMI (ki-ta'bi), n. A light red American grape, 
or wine made from it. 

OatniM'(kita)S;rdOtn. An AmwrJCM bird leaembling 
the mocking bird, and able 
to imitate notes of other 
birds. Its scream is like a 
oat*8 mew. 

Oafboaf (-bStO/ n. A 
sailboat, with a single mast 
placed far forward. 

OatOh (kSch; 62), V. t. 

fr. L. eaptftre^ intens. of 
e/rp^re to take, catch.] L n..K4«i 

To seise, esp. with the CstWrd. 

hand ; to grasp and hold (anything) in motion. 2. To ar- 
rest ; to take captive ; to insnare ; to entangle 3. To seise 
with the senses or the mind ; to apprehend. 4. To com- 
municate to ; to fasten upon. 6. To take by sympathy, 
contagion, Inf ecflon, or exposure. 6. To reach in time ; 
to come up with. — r. i. 1. To be held or entangled. 2. 
To take hold. 3. To spread by infecting ; to communi- 
cate.— 1». 1. A seizing; grasp. 2. That which seizes 
or holds. 3. That which is caught ; proflt ; gida ; whole 
quantity taken at one time. 4. A round in music, in 
which the singers catch up each other^s words. 

Oatoll'ar, n. 1. One that catches. 2. The player in 
baseball who stands behind the batsman to catch the ball. 

OatOhlllff, (t' 1. Infectious ; contngious. 2. Capti- 
rating ; alluring. — n. A rnizing or taking hold of. 

OatOh^pen-ay (-p«n-n^), a. Contrived for getting 
smsll sums of monev from the ignorant or unwary. 

Oatoll^ (kich^p), Oaf lap (kSt'«np), n. [Prob. of 
East Indian origin.] Since made from mushrooms, 
tomatoes, walnut*, etc. [Written nlso ketchup.^ 

Oateh'WOrA' (kSch'wOrdO, n. 1. The last word of 
the preceding speaker m a play, reminding one that he is 
to speak next ; cue. 2. The flrst word of a page of a 
book, inserted at the end of the preceding page. 3. A 
word or phrase caught up and repeated for effect. 
^ Oaf 0-0]llB« (k«t't-klz), r. /. [Or. itanjxtVf w : Kara H ' 
i7X«"' to sound.] 1. To instruct by questioning and ex- 
plaining, — esp. in points of religious faith. 2. To inter- 

roirate. ~ Oafa-oU'aer (-ki'zSr), n. — Oaf e-clietlo 
(-kgtnrk), Oaf e-cTwflo-al, a. 

Oaf e-dllsm (-kTz^m), n. 1. Form of instruction by 
question uid answer. 2. Summary of religious doctrine 
in such form. — Oaf e-Ohilllial (-klz'mal), a. 

Oaf a-fihlat (-kTst), n. One who catechises. — Oaf e- 
oblB'tio, Oaf e-chls'tio^a, a. 

Oaf O-Olllae (-klz), v. t. To catechise. 

Oaf e-Ohn (-ku or -chu), n. [See Cashoo.] A dry, 
brown, astringent extract, obtained from plants growing 
in India, containing tannin or tannic acid, and used in 
medicine and in the arts. — Oaf •-Chnlo, a. 


CaterpiUarof Fwallowtsil Batterfly iPapilio 
atteriat). Nat. lize. 

Oaf ^-Ohn'toan (Utt^ku'm&i), n. [Or. mmn^^fv^iuvot 
instructed, fr. can^x*^- SeeCATBCRiaa.] One receiving 
rudimentary instruction in Christianity ; a neophyte. 

Oaf e-forio-al (-g5rn[-kal), a. 1. Pertaining to a 
category. 2. Not hypothetical or relative; admitting 
CO conditions or exceptions; absolute; positiTe; ex- 
press.— Oaf a-gor'lo-al-ly, adv. 

Oafe-gO»I7 (-g6-rj^)< n. [Or. Mrwyop^; mni -(- 
Ayopcvrty to assert, fr. ayop^ assembly.] 1. One of tlie 
h^hest clsaies to which objects of knowledge or tliouglit 
can be reduced ; an ultimate oonceptimi ; a predicament. 
2. Class; state; condition; predicament. 

llOa-to'lia (ki-te^nA or kSft-nA), n. [L.] A chain 
or series of connected things. 

Oaf e-na-ry (kSft-nt-i^), a. Like, or relating to, a 
chain. — n. Curve formed by a cord banging freely be- 
tween two points of suspension, not in the same vertical 
line. — Oaf e-nali-aB (-ni'rT-«n), a. 

Oaf a-nata (-nit), v. /. To connect, in a series of 
links or ties ; to chain. — Oaf t^a^tlOB, n. 

Oattr (ki'tSr), r. i. [OF. acaier, F. oeAetor, to buy ; 
'{-eaptttreUiW^iM»^\nt/aM,€dcapereUiUiL^^ Topro- 
vide food ; to purvey. — Oatar-«r, n.— Oalar-eM, n^ /. 

Oaf er-saOar (kit^Sr-pTl'Rr), ». [OE. eatyrpd, ooi^ 
nipt, fr OF. 
Imtse^ or cate , 
pelufy f r . 
chafe she cat 
-^pelii hairy, 
fr. L. pilus 
hair.] larval 

state of an insect. Caterpillars feed on leaves, fniit, 
and succulent vegetables, often destroying them. 

Oaf ar-waill (-wal), r. <, To cry as caU do. — n. A 

Oafflall' (-fTshO, fi. American name lor vailoas 
species of siluroid fishes ; the bullhead. 

Oafgnf (-gttf), n, tCat -f gut.l 1. Tongh cord 
made from intestines of animals, used for strings of mu- 
sical instruments, etc. 2. Canvas, with wide int-ersticea. 

Oa-tliartto (kA^hKr'tTk), a, [Or. M^aprur^c, fr. m- 
tfotpciy to cleanse, fr. KoBapot pure.] Cleansing tiie 
bowels; purgative. ^n. A medicine to promote alvine 
discharges: apnrge. 

Oafluad' (kltOiSd/), n. A projecting thnber near a 
ship's bow, to which the anchor is hoister^ and secured. 

I'0atlfa-4ra (kSth'$-drA or kA-the'drA), n. [Or. ««- 
$tSpa seat.] Official seat of a biabop or high dignitary. 

Oa-tlM'Ural (kA-thg'dral), n. The principal church in 
A diocese, where the bishop has hisofficial chair {cathedra) 
or throne. — a. L Pertaining to the head church of a dio- 
cefte. 2. Emanating from a pope or bishop ; authoritative. 

Oath'e-tor (kSth'^tSr), n. [Or. xatferilp thing let down 
or put in ; Mrd -f iivai, to send.] An instrument for 
passing along mucous canals, esp. a tubular instrument 
to draw off urine from the bladder. 

Oath'O-Uo (-d-lTk), a. [Or. KaBokucAi universal ; irntra 
-f oAo« whole.] 1. Universal or general. 2. Not narrow- 
minded or bigoted ; liberal. 3. Pertaining to the Roman 
Catholics, — n. 1. One who accepts the creeds received 
by all part« of the orthodox Christisn church. 2. A Ro- 
man Catholic. — Oa-tlidl1^4ain (kA4h5inr-«Tz*m), Oath'- 
O-Ul/l'ty (kSth/ft-lTsl-tJ), n. 

Oa-tholl-elaa (k*-th51^-siz), v. t. &i. To make or 
to become catholic or a Roman Catholic. 

OafUn (kStntTn), n. An ament ; a species of inflo- 
rescence, resembling a cat's taiL 

Oaf nip' (kSt'nTp'), I n. A plant somewhat like mint, 

Oaf muif (-n)Tiit^), I sometimes used in medicine, of 
which cats are partimlarly fond. 

Oa-top'tlloa (k&^tSp'trTks), n. [Or. raroirrpor mirror, 
fr. xaroirroc visible.] Science of reflected light.— Oa- 

top'tric, Oa-top'trUHd, a. 

ft, 8, 1, 5, 0, long ; ft, fi, I, 6, a, f, short ; senate, dvent, tdea, 6bey, ttnite, cftre, ftrm, ftak, nil, fnaL 




%m*w m§w ^KBuri' jf n. i^oara or cniuceaony, exnii 
Ing opftlesoent retlectiona from within, like the eye of a c 

Ost'l^-MW' (-rftO* >*• 1* (**) A light air which rufl 
water danng a oum. (fr) A particular hitch in a ro; 

OtTwr-^T^ (kIt«no, n. Qnarti or chalcedony, ezhtblt- 



- , . rope, 

into which a tackle may be hooked. 2. A dupe ; a tooL 

Oafsap (kSt't-Kp), fi. Catchup ; ketchup. 

Oaf -tall' (-tilOt n. A tall rush growhig in marshes, 
with long, flat leaves, used for sealing chairs, making 
ynstiBi etc 

Oaftla (kIt'tM), n. pi. [OF. eatel, ehaM, LL. eaptale, 
enpUaU, property, asp. cattle, f r. L. eapUalis relatiug to 
tbe head, chief ; because beasts were anciently the prin- 
cipal property.] •Quadrupeds of the Bovine family ; some- 
times, all domestic quadrupeds, hudoding also sheep, 
horses, aod swine. 

Oail-oa'aUB (ki^ki'shan), a. 1. Pertaining to the 
CMicasus, a moimtainous region between tbe Black and 
Caspiaa seas. 2. Pertainhng Xo the white races of men. 
—It. 1. An inhabitant of the Oaucasus, esp. a Circas- 
aimo or Oeorffian. 2. A member of any of the white races. 

Oam'mM rk^nilSs), ». ▲ poUtioal primary meeting. — 
V. i. To hold, or meet in, a caucus. 

Oas'dad (-dXi), oJv. [L. cotMfa tan + oJ to.] B^ck- 
ward* ; toward the tail or posterior part. 

OaB'dal(-dal),a. lL.eauda.1 like, or pertidning to, 
a tail ; having a tall-Uke append^. 

Oaa'date (-dftt), l a. Having a tall or atermlna- 

Oas'da-tad (-dft-t«d), ( tion like a taiL 

Oao'dl* (-dn), n. [OF. eaudel^ f r. L. calidut warm.] A 
1 drink for dok persons. — v. <. To make into caudle. 

Of (k||f),». [Perh. akin to Or. mo^woi oattket.] A 

chest with holes for keeping fish alive in water. 

Oaaclit fkfit), imp. & Catch. 

Oau (kM>, n, [OE. eaUcy prob. fr. F. co/e.] 1. A net 
for the head. 2. A membrane covering the lower hites- 
tinea in maranuls ; the great omentum. 3. A membrane 
anveloping the fetus. 

Oan-lM'oeBt (k^-lSs^Mnt), a. [L. eaulU stalk.] Hav. 
Iiiff a le ify stem. [raidicle. I 

OamOl-ole (k|/lT-k*I), n. A short caulis or stem; a| 

Oaall-flOirer (-flou^r), n. [F. chonfieur; chou (L. 
etndU) cabbage -^-fieur (L. fios) flower.] An annual va- 
riety of cabbage. 

I Oaa'lla (-lis), n. [L., a stem.1 An herbaceous or 
woody stem which bears leaves, and may bear flowers. 

1 (kftk), r. <. A «. Calk. 

'at (ka'sal), a. Relating to, or expressing, a 
oausative. — ti. A causal word or form of speech. 

Oaa-iall-tF (-iXlT-U), n. L Agency of a cause, in 
producing its effect. 2. The phrenological faculty of 
tfttdng effects to their causes. 

OUHM'tlOB (-sfdhfin), n. A causing ; act or agency 
which produces an effect. 

Oaoa^a-tlTa (kf^zA-tlv), a. 1. Effective, as a cause 
or agent. 2. Ex pressing a reason; causal. — n. A word 
exprassing or suggesting a cause. — OaQi'a-tlT»-ly « odv. 

Oaoaa (k||s), n. [F. ; fr. L. catua.^ L That which 

r duces a result ; that from which anything proceeds 
Occasion of an action or state; ground; reason; 
motiTO. 3. A legal suit or process ; case ; ground of 
actio 4. A question ; affair in general. 6. The side 
of a question upheld by a person or party. 

Stii. — Origin ; source ; nudnspring : motive ; reason ; 
faicitement ; mduoement ; purpose ; object ; suit ; action. 
— V. /. To effect; to be the occasion of. — OaOi'ar, n. 

Syn.— To create: produce, beget; effect; occasion; 
ori^nate ; induce ; bring about. 

Oansalaaa (-16s), a. L Seir-orlginating ; uncreated. 
& Without just or sufficient reason ; groundless. 

OaMM^ay (kaz'wt), \ n, [OB. & OF. cauchie, f r. 

Oan'aty (^f^\ S LL. {via) caldata, fr. cal- 

eiart to niake a rosd.] Raised road over wet ground. 

OavaHo (kM'tTk), ) a. [Or. icav<rruc<k. fr. kmiv to 

OanaHo^d (-tT-kal), ) burn.] 1. Destructive to the 

OaM'ai (kfMl), 
cause; causative.— 

of anything or eating away its aabetanoe b> 
chemical action; corrosive. 2. Severe; satirical; 
sharp.— n. Any substance which bums, corrodes, or 
destroys organic tissue by chemical action.— Oaw^tto* 
al-ly (k}|/tY-kai-iy), adv. - OaiW-tlOl-tF (-tTsT-tf), n. 

Syn. — Stinging ; cutting ; pungent ; searching. 

(nn'ter (kn'tSr), n. [Or. xavrnpior branding iron, fr. 
Koitip to bum.] A hot iron tor searing or cauterising. 

Oail't«r-Ulll (-Ts*m), H. Use of a caustic ; cautery. 

Oail't«r-lae (-II), v. t. [Or. xavnipta^fiv, fr. xov- 
r^ioy.] To bum or sear with a cautery or caustio. — 
CHIll'tOT-l-iatlOll, n. 

Oantar-y (-j^), n. L A bum*ng or searing (morbid 
flesh) with a hot iron, or by a c^uistic that will bum 
or destroy animal tissue. 2. Agent used in cauterising 

Aetoal caatsnr, a substance (as hot iron) which cauter> 
izes by actual beat ; burning so effected. — Petsatlal eaa- 
tsry, a substance cauterlsuig by chemical action; as, 
lunar cauttte ; cauterizhig produced by such substance. 

OamtlOO (-ahiin), %. [F., a security ; K cowfio, fr. 
cavere to take care.] 1. Careful attention: prudence 
hi regard to danger. 2. Precept or warning against 
evil ; exhortation to wariness, —v. L To give noUce of 
danger to; to exhort (one) to take heed. 

Syn. — Care ; forethought ; forecast ; heed ; prudence : 
watchfulnees ; vigilance; circumspection; providence; 
counsel ; advice ; warning ; admonition. 

Oaatka-a-ry (-t-rj^), a. L Conveying a caution, or 
warning to avoid danger. 2. Oiven as security. 

Oanwos (-shOs), a. Attentive to probable effecU 
and consequences of acts with a view to avoid danger or 
misfortune. — OailHoilS-ly, a<f r. — OattHoiUhBMM, n 

Syn.— Cautious; Wakt; CncuMSpacr; watchful: 
TigUant ; pradent ; discreet ; heedful ; thoughtful ; 
scrapulous ; anxious ; careful. — A man Is cautious who 
realises the constant possibility of danger ; one may be 
tcary, and yet bold and active ; a man who is circumipeet 
habituallv examines things on every side in order to 
weigh and deliberate. 

OaVal-fiafla" (kXv'al-kldO, n. [F., fr. It. eavalcata, 
fr. cavalcare to go on horseback, fr. L. cabaUut an in- 
ferior horse.] A procession of persons on horseback ; a 
march of horsemen on parade. 

Oay'a-Uer' (-*-18rO, n. [F.; It cavaliercy tt. L. 
cabaUut.l L A horseman; a knight. 2. A gay, 
sprightly man ; a galbmt. 3 One of the court party in 
the time of King Charles I. as contrasted with a Round- 
head or adherent of Parliament— a. 1. Oay; easy; 
offhand. 2. Supercilious ; haughty ; curt ; brusque. 3. 
RelaUngtothef^"" • ' " ^ 

OaT'al-ry (-< 

SeeCATAUBB.] . ^ 

Oat* (kiv), n. [F. ; L. eavus hollow, earea cavity.] 
A hoUow place in the earth; cavern; den.— r. i. To 
fall in or down. Hence (Slana). to give way : to yield. 

||Oa«veHlt (ki'vt-Xt), n. [L., let him beware, pres. 
subj. of car^re to be on one's guard.] 1. A legal notice 
to some officer not to do a certain act until the party la 
heard in opposition. 2. Description of an invention 
lodged in the patent office before the patent right is ap- 
plied for, to prevent issue of letterspatent to another, 
respecting the same invention. 3. warning ; protest 

OaT^an-tfiall (kXv'Sn-dTsh), n. Leaf tobacco softened, 
sweetened, and pressed into plugs or cakes. 

OaT'tril (-Sm), n. [L. caveman fr. carta hollow.] A 
deep hollow in the earth ; large cave. ~~ Oay'tni-OIUI, a. 

Oa-Tlara' (kA-v5rO, \ n. [F. caviar, It. Turk. havUir.] 

Oayl-ar (kSvT-l&r), ( Roes of the sturgeon, prepared 
and salted ; — used as a relish, esp. in Russia. 

Oayfl (kXv^l), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Catil«d or Cav- 
ILLBD (-TId) : p. pr. & vh. n. Catiuno or Cavillliko.] 
[L. envillari to jest, to censure, fr. cavitla banter, 
sophistry.] To raise captious objections. — n. A frivo- 
lous objection. — Oav^-«r or Oav^-ler, n. 

Oayd-ty (-I-t^), n. A hoUow place ; a hoUow. 

oupercuiouB ; naugniy ; cun ; onisque. 3. 
he party of Charles I. — OaT^arlltrly, adv. 
(-«l-rf ), n. [F. cavalerie, fr. It cavaUeria. 
a.] Mounted troops. — Oay'al-ry-lliail, *»• 

fSm, recont, 6rb, ryde, fyll, ftra, food, lout, vu:, oil, chair, bo> singr, iyk, tlien, thin. 

CAW 9 

Oaw (kft), V. i. [Ooomat.] To cry like » crow, 
rook, or raven. — n. The cry of the crow, eke 

Oay-eima' (kt^n' or kt-«n')> n. [Name of an island 
in French Guiana, South America.] Cayenne pepper. 

teyenn* p«pp«r. (a) A speciea of Capsicum with amall 
and mteuMly pungent fruit, ib) A spice made from seeds 
of Capsicum ; red pepper. 

aaj'man (kS'mau), n. [From language of Guiana.] 
The South American alligator. 

ga-sdqiWWkA-i5k'),n. [8p. coct^u*, fr. language of 

ua-Slo' ) Haiti.] A chief among some trihes of 
Indians in America. 

f (sSs), V. X, [F. cesser^ it. L. ce«iare, ▼. inten- 
sive fr. eedere to withdraw.] 1. To come to an end ; to 
leave off. 2. To be wanting ; to pass away. — v. /. To 
stop ; to end. - OeiseaeM, a. — OaaMaMS-ly, adv, 

Syn. — To intermit ; desist ; stop ; abstain ; quit ; dis- 
continue ; refrain ; leave otf ; pause ; end. 

Oe'dar (»5'd8r), n. [AS. ctder, L. ctdrus, Gr. ic^a^.] 
An evergreen tree, having very durable and fragrant 
wood. — a. Of or »ertainlng to cedar. 

Oad© (sSd), V. t. TL. ctdert to yield ; akin to ead^rt to 
fall.] To yield or surrender ; to resign. 

CPe^la (8«-dim4), n. [Sp. ; dhn. of zeta, Gr. name 
of the letter «, formerly written after c, to give it the 
sound of «.] A mark under tlie letter c [fr], to show that 
It is sounded like «, as in facade, 

Oe'dzine (aS'drIn), a. [L. cerfrmtu, Gr. kcjoimk.] 
PertauiUig to cedar or the cedar tree. 

OeU (s51), V. t. [Fr. an older noun, fr. F. ciO. heaven, 
canopy, fr. L. caelum heaven, Tault,] 1. To line the 
roof of. 2. To line (a surface of a wall, etc.) with plas- 
ter, stucco, boards, or the like. 

Ctoillng, n. 1. (a) The inside lining of a room ovei^ 
head ; the upper surface opposite to the floor. (6) The 
finishing of a surface with plaster, thin boards, etc. 2. 
The inner planking of a vesseL 

Oel'An-dlne (Rffl'Jn-din), n. [OF. celidoine, fr. L. 
cMidonia (sc. herba)^ fr. ckelidonius pertaining to the 
swallow, akin to hirundo swallow.] A plant of the Poppy 
famUy, used as a medicine in jaimdlce, etc 

Oel'e-bimte (-*-br5t), t*. /. [L. ceUbrare, -bratum, to 
celebrate, f r. celeber famous.] 1. To honor solemnly ; 
to observe duly ; to keep. 2. To participate in (a sacra- 
ment or solemn rite) ; to perform with appropriate rites. 

Syn. — To Cklbbratb ; Commkmoratb ; distinguish ; 
honor. — We commemorate events which we desire to 
keep in reraembranre, wh»»n we recall them by some spe- 
cial observance. We celebrate by demonstrauons of Joy 
or solemnity or by appropriate ceremonies. 

Oel'e-bni'tad (-briL^t«d), a. Having celebrity. 

Syn. — See Distinouishbd. 

Oere-bimtioil, n . Act, process, or time of celebrating. 

Oal'e-tire'tor (tgr), n. [L.] One who celebrates. 

Oe-leb^-ty (s«-15b' ), n. l. The being cele- 
brated ; fame ; renown. 2. A peraon of distinctkm. 

Oe-lerl-ty (-Ifirl-ty), n. [L. celeritas, fr. ceter swift.] 
Rapidity of motion ; quickness ; swiftness. 

Ool'er-y (sRl'Sr-y), n. [F. cileri; fr. Gr. <rrfAuw 
parsley.] A plant of the Parsley family whose blanched 
leaffttalks are used as a salad. 

Oe-les^lal (B$-16»'cliffl : 2C), a. [OF., fr. L. caelejtis, 
fr. caelum hoaven.] 1. Belonging to the visible heavens. 
2. Pertaining to the spiritual heaven ; heavenly ; divine. 
— n. 1. An inhabitant of heaven. 2. A native of 
China. — Oe-les'tlal-ly, aip. 

Oo^i-ao (».5nT-«k), a. Coeliac ; pertaining to the belly. 

Oel'i-lMtO (sflT-bit), n. [L. caelibatus, it. caelebs 
unmarried.] One unmarried ; a bachelor ; one bound by 
vows not to raarry. — ff. Unmarried ; single. — Oe-Ub'- 
a-Oy (s^-lTb'i-ay or «^gior-h&-8y), n. 

OeU (s51), n. [OF. celle, fr. L. ceUa; akin to celare 
to hide, and E. hell, helm, conceal. Cf. Hall.] 1. A 
close apartment, as in a prison or convent. 2. A small 
cavity or hollow place. 3. A jar or division of a com- 


pound Toasel, for holding the exciting fluid of an electrlo 
battery. 4. One of the minute elementary structures 
comprising the greater part of animal and plant tissues. 

Oel'lar (sfiialr), n. [P. ceUier, fr. L. ceUa storeroom.] 
A room under a building, for keeping provisions. 

Oellar-ac* (-^J)* »• 1- The storerooms of a cellar. 
2. Charge lor storage in a cellar. 

II Oel'to (cheiat), n. a vlolonceUo. 

Oeiaa-Ur (s«l'fi.l8r ; 40), a. [L. cellula little cell.] 
Consisting of cells ; containing cells ; resembling cells. 

Oeiau-lflld (-tt-loid), n. [C«i/it/ose + -<m/.] A com- 
position of gun cotton and camphor, retembling ivory in 
texture, and used in manufacture of jewelry, combs, 
brushes, collars, etc ; — originally called xylonite. 

Ooiaa-lOM' (-las'), a. Containing cells.— 1». The 
substance constituting the essential part of the aolid 
framework of plants, of onlluary wood, linen, paper, etc 
It is also found to a slight extent in certain animals. 

Ortt (sat), n. [L. CeUaCj Gr. KcArot, K«At<u, pi.: cf. 
W. Ceitiad one that dwells in a covert, a Celt, fr. ceU 
shelter, eelu to hide.] One of an ancient race of Central 
and Western Europe, whose descendants now occupy 
Ireland, Wales, the HUhlands of Scotland, and northern 
shores of France. [Written also Kelt The letter C 
was pronounced hsrd in Celtic languages.] 

Ottt, n. [LL. eeltis chisel.] An implement of stone or 
metal, found in the barrows of the early Celtic nations. 

Oeirio (sSltTk), a. Pertaining to the Celts. — n. Lan- 

Eaage of the Celts, whose remsJns are found in Gaelic, 
rse or Irish, Manx, Welsh, Cornish, and Bas Breton. 
[Written also A>//ic.1 -Oeltt-dmi (-tl-sli'm), n. 

Oe-mailt' (st-mfintO, »»• [OF., fr. L. caementum un- 
hewn stone, chips of marble, from which mortar was 
made, fr. caedere to cut.] 1. An adhesive substance for 
uniting bodies to each other, as mortar, glue, etc. 2. 
A calcined mixtore for making mortar which will harden 
under water. 3. Bond of union. 4. The layer of boni 
investing the root and neck of a tooth. — r. /. 1. To 
unite by cement or closely. 2. To overlay or coat with 
cement. —r. i. To become firmly united ; to cohere. 

Oem'Ml-Utlon(£«m'en-a'shfin),n. 1. A cemenUng. 
2. The process of surrounding iron, glass, etc., with 
powder of other substances, and heating the whole until 
the physical properties of the body are cliauged by chem- 
ical combination with the powder. 

Oeill'e-t«r-|[ (eSm't-tSr-V), n. [Gr. Kotfim^fitoy burial 
place, fr. xoifiay to put to sleepj Graveyard ; necropolis. 

Oon'O-blte (sSn'S-blt), n. [Gr. icou^/Stoc ; cou^ com- 
mon -f- fiiot life.] One of a religious order, dwelling in a 
community, disting. fr. an anchoret, or hermit, who hye* 
in solitude. — Oon'O-Ut'lO (-bTtTk), Otn'O-Utio-tl, a. 

Oon'O-taph (-tAf), n. [Gr. icei'ora^ioi' ; ic«v6c empty 
-f rdifKK tombj A monument to one buried elsewhere. 

Oon'sor (^sSr), n. [OF. eneensieTf fr. L. itteensum 
incense.] A vessel in which incense Is burned. 

Oon'MT (sSn'sSr), n. [L. ; fr. eensere to value, tax.] 

1. A Roman magistrate who registered tlie number and 
property of citizens, and inspected morals and conduct. 

2. One empowered to examine manuscripts designed for 
the press, and to suppress them, if found obnoxious. 3. 
One given to fault-finding. 4. Acritic— Oon-M'll-Alfa. 

Onk-Wt/li-WU (-sS^T-fis), a. 1. Addicted to censure ; 
apt to condemn. 2. Implying or expressing censure. ~ 

Oen-M/iiHrnfl-ly, adv. — Oen-so'il-oiui-nM*, n. 

Syn. — Fault-finding ; carping ; caviling ; captious ; se- 
rere; condemnatory; hypercriticaL 

Omi'sor-slllp, n. Office or power of a censor. 

Oon'snre (-shyr ; 40), n. [L. Centura^ fr. eensere."] 
1. A blaming or finding fault and condemning. 2. Ju- 
dicial or ecclesiastical sentence or reprimand. 

Syn. — Blame ; reproof ; condemnation ; reprobation ; 
disapproval ; disapprobation ; reprehension ; animadTer* 
sion ; reprimand ; refiection ; dispraise ; abuse. 

ii, e, T, o, n, long ; li, e, I, 6, a, 5^, short ; sanftte, tvent, tdea, 6bey, Ignite, cftre, iirm, 4sk, nil, final. 




«xpr«M di«»pprob»tion of. 

8711. — To blame ; rebuke ; condemn ; reprimand. 

To condemn m wrong ; to 

Cmi'rafl (-atU), n. [L., fr. ceruereA Official regia- 
tratioo of the number of people, value of eatatea, etc. 

OtOt (aSnt), n. [F., hundred, L. eenium.) 1. A 
hundred ; as, ten per een/, the proportion of 10 parte in 
100. 2. A coin of the United SUtes, worth the hun- 
dredth part of a dollar. 

Otnt'AM (-ij), n. Rate by the hundred ; percentage. 

Otntif (rta'tal), n. [L. cfntum.l A weight of 100 
poonda avoirdupou; a hundredweight. ^ a. Relating 
to a hundred. 

OmrtMf{ai/tStr'; F. dto^UrO, n. [F. eenHare; eenti- 
(Li. etiUum)-{-are.'\ The metric measure of area, 1-lOOth 
of an are ; one square meter. 

OantAlir (-tftr), n. [Or. K^in-avpoc.] 1. A fabulous 
being, half man and half horse. 2. A southern constel- 

Oofto-nalrl-ail (-tt-nS'rT-an), a. Relating to a hun- 
dred years. ^ n. A person a hundred years old. 

Oantd-IIA-ry (-nt-rj^), a, [L. cetUtnariu*^ It. centum,'\ 
1. Relating to, or consisting of, a hundred. 2. Occur- 
ring once \x\ every hundred years ; centennial. ^ n. 1. 
Aggregate of 100 single things ; a century. 2. Commem- 
oration of an event 100 years after its happening. 

Oan-ttll'lll-al (-tSn'nT-al), a. [L. centum -f annu* 
year.] 1. Relating to the 100th anniTersary. 2. Hap- 
pening once in 100 years. 3. Lasting or aged 100 years. 
•^ A. Celebration of the 100th anniversary of any event ; 
a centenary. 

0«II^Mrl(-t8r), n. [F. centre^ Or. xirrpov point, 

On^tn 1 point romid which a circle is aescnbed.1 
1. The middle point or portion. 2. A principal point of 
oonoentration ; an object of attention, action, or force. 
8. A temporary structure supporting the materials of a 
vaalt or arch. —v. i. 1. To be placed in a center ; to be 
central. 2. To be concentrated, or collected to a point. 
— r. /. 1. To fix in the center. 2. To concentrate. 

OOBter-blt', ) n. A bit turning on a center, for bor- 

00Btr»-Ur, ( ing holes. 

Ooi^tMr-illSf n. A center, or temporary structure 
supporting the materials of a vault or arch during con- 
struction. [Written also Cfntring."} 

OUk-Ut^nud, (-USsT-mal), a. [L. eentesimus the 
hundredth, fr. eenium a hundred.] Hundredth. *> n. 
A hundredth part. [tare. I 

OOBtl-ar*' (sSn'tT.fti^ ; F. sKH'ty&rO, n. [F.l Cen-| 

Otn'ti-fimte (fiSu'tT-grifl), a. [L. centum -f gradus 
degree.] Consisting of 100 degrees ; graduated into 100 

equal parts. 

Ot^tt-KUm (-grim), i 
^. sitir'tl-gr&m'), n. [F. centigramme; eenti- (L. cen- 

l-Kiam (-grim}, Oontl-gnUIIIIM (sSn'tT-grim ; 

ium) -f- gramme.} The 100th part of a gram ; a weight 
equal to .15432 of a grain. 

OnH-li'ter ) (sSn'tMi'tSr or sfin-tHT-tSfr), n. [F. 

fy&DfUrl^tn i centilitre; centi--{- litrc^ The 100th 
pert of a liter ; a measure of 0.G102 of a cubic inch. 

iCton'tillie' (slto'tSniOi n. [F., fr. L. centesimu*. 
Bee CDrnKnfAul The 100th part of a franc ; a small 
French copper coin and money of account. 

Oea'ti-mrtcr ) (sSn'tT-ni^t'^r or ^n-tTm^-t^r), n. [F. 

OtB'tl-IIM'tre I centimetre ; centi- -\- m>^re.^ The 
lOOth part of a meter ; a measure of 0.3337 of an inch. 

A. [L. een- 
tipeda; cen- 
tum •{- pegf 
pedist foot.1 
A species 6t 
laaa articu- 
lates, many- 
Jointed, and 

Centiped (Seotopendra efnipiJata). 

[Written nlw> eeniipede 


having a great nlll]]bc^r of fe«t, 

Ofln'tl-l1«re (^Pn'lT-pt^f ; K aiN'tf-Atlr^, n. 
ceuti' -r jttirtA Tlie lOOtb of a tterfr^ = M^ cubic feet. 

Otato (ftfli/tfi)* *i. [I** p4t<hwork.l A compoaition 
forriK-d by irf>1ie«tioDH tfom dJtTefvut jiutliorft, 

C«ll''tTil (trffl), a. [L. ce^^iruHs^f fr. centrum. See 
Centi^k] Routing to. III. or near tlie c^eDt^r or middle. 

0«n-timl'i-tT (-trU'T'lJ), n. A Uiug central ; ten- 
den- v tiiwinrd A ceiitiT^ 

Cen'tTol-lXB (-tral-Iji), r. /. To lirin^ to a central 
point ; tci brruN: into one nyatviu, or uiidvr one control. 

— Oen tr»l i-aa'tidii, n. 

Geil'trAl47, ^tdw In a cf^iitrpi) ttiauneroT aituation. 
Oen'tre ( lyi-K »■ *& ''► Ceiil*r. 

Cfio'trio ('trtii^, \d. Cf'ittriJi. - c*ti'trlo-tl-ly, 

Gen'trlo-Al t-trl-kul;^ J ^J''- - Oen tfic't-ty (-trl»'- 
T-U !, n. 

C«tl-trU'Q ff Al t-t rT i't-ss<J I ) . ff ■ [1* centru m -f fugere 
to ll'i 1 T* I n I i iifTt or i-a a-^iMf^ Uj r^oede * rom the center. 

Con *tr lug 1 T rTn(?) , tt . On terinif . 

Oen trlp'fi tid (-trtp^-t*rl>, a, [U erntrum -\- petere 
to i^^'^'k J Tr'ii'tiiiijH r'lr cinuMhig, to spprriarli Itie center. 

1 Oen tum'VlH-tnTij'ifrKh i ;^. CK.'nnBVUii(-vI-ri). 
[L , ft- i^Tii'ini -+■ fir niaiu] Oin? of n Rijuiau court of 
alh^ut 14 Hi i-[vn jud^ti, — Oao-fuDt'vl ral, n^ 

Ocn'ta-ple ("JJM'ifl-p'lU "' L^- (fufupfrj^i centum -\- 
pl.-rt^rr lf> foid.] Uiuidr?*diolii. — f t. To increase a 

Centii'fl-dli C^tu'TT-Qn), ». [L, rrj^iuri^^ Ir. centuria. 
See Cbnturt.] A Roman officer commanding a minor 
diWsion of troops; a captdn. 

Otn^-ry (-ttt-rj^ ; 40). n. [L. centuria, fr. centum.^ 
A hundred ; a period of 100 years. 

Ca-plUlllO (s^-fKlTk), a. [Or. Kc^aAMo;, fr. icf^oAi) 
head.] Pertaining to the head. ~ n. . Medicine fur 

0«ph'a-lo-pod(8ef'&-ift-p5d),0«9li'«-lo-pode (-pSd),n. 

One of the Cephalopoda. 

llCMl'a-lOp'O^ (-l»p^-dA). n. pi. [NL.; Or. «- 
^oA^ 4- 'poda.'] The highest class of Mollusca, having, 
at the front of the head, a group of elongated muscular 
arms, usually f umislied with prehensile suckers or hooks, 
as the cuttlefish, squid, octopus, and nautilus. 

Oe-im'ceons (B^-ri'shlis), a. [L. cera wax.] Waxy. 

Oe-nunlO (-rSmTk), a. [Or. ic«paMuc(k, fr. mtpaiUK 
earthenware. Cf. Ksramic] Pertaining to pottery. 

Oe-nun'los, n. 1. Art 01 making pottery, tiles, etc., 
of baked clay. 2. Work formed of clay, and baked. 

Oo^te (sS'rtt), n. [L. ceratum, fr. cera wax.] 
Ointment composed of wax, oil, lard, etc. 

Oe^im-ted, a. Covered with wax. [to the tail. I 

Oor'oal (sSr'kal), a. [Or. x^pKot tail.] Pertaining | 

Om« (sSr), n. [L. cera wax.] The soft naked sheath 
at the base of the beak of birds of prey, parrots, and some 
other birds. [with wax. I 

Omv, v. t. [L. cerare. It. cera."] To cover or close | 

Oe're-al (sS^ri-^n, a. [L. Cereaiis, pert, to Ceres tlie 
goddess of corn ana tillage.] Pertaining to grasses cul- 
tivated for their edible seeds (as wheat, maize, rice, etc.). 

— n. A grass cultivated for its grain, or the grain itself. 

Ctor'e-beiaiim (s«r'«b«iiiim), Oer'e-bel, n. [L. , dim. 

of cerebrum brain.] Tlie hinder and lower divinion of 
the brain, which controln combined muscular action. — 

Owe-bMlar, Oore-belloiis, a. 

Oer'e-bnim (-brlim), n. [L.] Tlie anterior division 
of the brain ; seat of the reasoning faculties and will. — 

Oer^e-lmd, a. 

Oere'OlOtll' (n^rHcISthOi n. [L. cera wax -{- E. cloth.} 
A cloth smeared with melted wax, etc. 

Oare^meilt, n. [L. cera.} A cerecloth for envelop- 
ing a dead body when embalmed ; a shmud. 

Oer'e-mo'nl-Al (rfr'S-mS'nT-ol), a. [L. caerimonintis. 
See Ckrkmoky.] 1. Relatir.g to roreraony; ocroniinfj 

fSm, recent, 6rb, r^de, fyll, Qm, food, fdbt, oat, oil, chair, go, sing, iQk, tlicn, thin. 




to ertabHatied rites. 2. Oerenionious.^fi. A ^rttem 
of ralea ; oatwud f onn. — 09t9-monai-9l'lj (aSft-mZf' 
nT-aM^), adv. 

Ocr'e-mO'tol-OIIS (■Sr't-mS'nT-tls), a. 1. Consiitiiiff 
of outward forms and rites. 2. Devoted to forms and 
oeremoDles; mincti'iious. — Otr»-lllO'lll-aui-ly, a<fv. 

Hjn. — See IV>aii al. 

(tafA-HIO-nT (flSr^-mft-D^), n. [L. eaerimonia.l 1. 
An act prescribed by law, ctutom, or authority. 2. Be- 
harior regulated by strict etiquette ; formal civility. 

Oe-IOi^-pllJ (st-rBg'rA-iy), n. [Or. iniptfc wax -f 
-grapht/T] 1. Tbe making designs in wax. 2. A method 
of making stereotype plates from inscribed sheets of wax. 

- Oe^xo-craplilo (fcrr6-«rSfak), Oero-gnpli'lo-al, a. 

Cb-raon' i-rSbt/), n. [Sp. seron hamper, pannier.] A 
package covered with hide. 

OortalB (fcSr'tTn), a. [F. ; L. eeritu fixed, certain, 
orlg. p. p. of cemere to perc«-ivp, decide.] 1. As ured 
in mind ; hariug no doubts. 2. DetermiiuBd ; resolved ; 

— with an infliutive. 3. Not to be doubted or denied. 
4. Actually existing ; sure to happen. 6. Unfailing; in- 
fallible. 6. Fixed or stated ; regular. 7. Not specific- 
ally named ; indefinite ; one or some. 

Sjn. — Bound : sure ; true ; undeniable ; unquestion- 
able : undoubted ; plain ; indubit«»blH ; indisputable ; in- 
oontroTertible : unhesitating ; undoubting ; fixed ; stated. 

Ctortaln-lyf odr. Without doubt ; unquestionably. 

OortalB-tF (-t]^), n. 1. Condition of beinff certain. 
2. A fact unquestionably established. 3. Clearness; 
freedom from ambiguity. 

Oor-tlfl-oato (-tTfT-ktt), n. [F. ctriificat, fr. LL. 
etrtificare^ -caium. See Cbstdt.] A written testimony 
or declaration. — (-kit), v. t. To verify by certificate. — 
Otrti-ft-oatloii, n. 

Oor'tl-ty (-tT-n), v. t. [F. certifier, LL. eertificare; 
L. cfr/iur -f faeere to make.] 1. To give certain infor- 
mation to ; to make certain. 2. To testify to in writing. 

Oorti-tllde (-tud), n. [LL. certitudo, fr. L. certtu 
certain. 1 Freedom fmm doubt ; certainty. 

Oe-mle-an (st-rnlS-an), a. [L. eaeruleu*.'] Sky- 
colored; blue; ainre. 

II Oe-ni'llMII (-m»n), n. [NL., fr. L. cera wax.] The 
waxlike secretion from the rlsnds of the ear. 

OelrilM (^*'rp»), n. [F. cSntse^ L. eentsM."] 1. 
White lead, used a!« a pigment. 2. A cosmetic contain- 
ing white lead. 3. Native carbonate of lead. 

OorM-eal (^^KvY-kal), a. [L. eerrir, -ici», neck.l 
Pertaining to the neck. [tainiuR todeer.] 

Oer'vine (-vin), rt. [Lr^rr/mw, fr.r^niMdeer.] Per-| 

II Oar^rlZ (-vTks), n. ; pi. E. Csrvixss, L. Csryicks 
(-vT-88x). [L.1 The neck. 

llOer'^Hl (sJr'vfis), «. [L., a deer.l A genus of 
ruminanta, including the red deer and allied species. 

Oe-Ml^n-an {i^t-yVrt-nn), a. Csesarean. 

OeS'pl-tOM' (sSs'pT-tS^), Oen'pl-tou (-tfi»), a. [L. 
caegpes, eaerpitU^ a turf.] Having the form of turf, i. e., 
many stems from entangled rootatocks nr mots. 

Oms (sSs), n. [For sex9, contr. fr. Asskss.] A rate or 
tax. — V. t. To tnx ; to assess. 

Oes-Mtlon (-i«a'shttn), n. [F. ; L. eesxntio, fr. ceuare. 
Bee CbabkJ A ceasing or discontinuance ; a stop. 

Syn. — Stop: rent: stay; pause; intermission; inter- 
val ; r«>spite : interruption ; recess : remission. 

Oat'noo (sSsh'fin), n. [L. cejutio, fr. cedere to give 
way. See Ckdb.] A ceding or vielding ; surrender. 

daM'pool' (ses'pSdlO, n. [See SusrooL.] A sink ; 
a receptacle of filth. 

0«rt0d0 (-tSd), Oattold (-toid). n. Pertaining to 
the Cestoidea.— n. One of the Cestoidea. 

II Oes-tOld'e-A (-toid'^-A), n. pi. [NL., fr. Gr. KcaTtk 
girdle -{- -oiV/.] A ol-ms of parasitic worms, including 
tapeworms. — Oes-toid'e-ftll, n. 

OM'tna (-tfis). n. [L., girdie.l A girdle. 

OettllB, n. [I^'l An ancient boxing glove. 

0*-ra'ta (sl-sU'ri or -sS'ri), n. C<pnirm. 

llOe-U'0«-« (-ta'shl-4), n. pi. [NL., fr. U 

whale.] An order of marine mammals, inclodin^ 
whales and dolphina. — O^-ta'oaaa (-shan), n. — 0*-ta'- 
OMOS (-shfis), a. 

0e-t0l'O-C7 (-t«l'«-jy), n. [Or. Knroc whale -f -lo^.] 
Natural histonr of cetaceous animals. 

Oliafe ^hSf ), r. /. [OF. chau/er, f r. L. eale/aeere to 
warm.] 1. To heat by friction. 2. To anger ; to irri- 
tate. 3. To fret and wear by rubbing.— r. i. 1. To 
rub ; to wear by friction. 2. To be vexed or irritated. 
«ft. 1. Heat or wear caused by friction. 2. Vexation. 

Sjn. — To rub : fret ; gall ; vex ; excite ; inflame. 

Ohai'n (chS'fSr), n. 1. One wlio chafes. 2. A vea- 
eel for heating water ; a dish or pan. [chafer. | 

OlUlfer, n. [AS. eea/or.'} A kind of beetle; cock-) 

OllAf cr-y, n. A forge, for heating blooms before 
working them into bars. 

Ghan (chAf), n. [AS. cm/.] 1. Husks of grains and 
grasses. 2. Anything light and wortldess ; refuse. 3. 
Straw cut up for food of cattle. 4. Liglit jesting talk ; 
raillery, ^r. i. & t. To banter. — Ohaffar, n. 

OhUftm (clMnZr), r. i. [AS. ee6p a bargain, price -h 
/aru a journey ; orig., a going to market.] 1. To dispute 
about a purchase ; to haggle or higgle. 2. To talk idly ; 
to chatter.— r. /. 1. To buy or sell. 2. To bandy 
(wordsj. — Ohaf fer-er, n. [sweet song. • 

OlluflllOh (-finch), n. A European csge bird of very 

01Ulff^(ch4f']^),a. 1. Abounding in chaff. 2. Light 
or worthless. [friction ; s wanning by rubbing. I 

Oliaflllf (chi'fTng), n. A rubbing, or wearing by | 

Chaflac dish, a vessel for cookhag on the table, or tor 
keeping food wsrm, by coals, a lamp, or hot water. 

Ona-glMn' (sliA-grlu'), n. Shagreen. 

Oba-gllll' (-grTn' or -grin'), n. [F., fr. chagrin sha- 
green, a rough and grained leather; also, a gnawing 
grief.] Vexation; mortification. ^r. /. To excite ill- 
humor in ; to annoy. 

8yn. - CHAoant ; Vexation ; Mobtiticatioii ; peevish- 
ness ; disgust ; disquiet. — Vexation is a feeling of dis- 
quietude from losses, disappointmenta, etc. MoHificction 
denotes keen pain from humiliating occurrences. Cha- 
grin is literally the cutting pain produced by the friction 
of shngreen leather ; in ito figurative sense, it may deno e 
simply vexation, or the keenest mortificatt< n. 

OhftlB (cliinV n. [F. chaine, fr. L. catena."] 1. A 
series of links fitted into one another. 2. TItat which 
confines or secures ; a bond. 3. A series of things con- 
nected and following each other. 4. A surveyor*s in- 
strument consisting of links, for measuring land. — r. /. 
1. To fasten with chains. 2. To enslave. 3. To unite 
str^rujy. 4. T . .:,■■», r . !-: .■.-.;. -v •?,;,,. 

Ghsla b«lC A b4'H ^u-uli' of a l^iuu^ Jut Lnifi^u^iltUic 
pow^T hi dint^hiiH^ry. - Ctula ^rKlft, a briiigi? «iLp|icrrt4^ 
by *->i4in i^nlilra \ imspciiHori l-iri^lgf, - C^sin cabt«, n cabl« 
vnKAf l^f trrm Unkn - ChmJa, t«ti«< ■ tlwR '^i convi. is 
chftnif<ii tof^i'tlior - ChAin pamp, a putuii cob«litlng ol so 

belt niffYt-K it, an 1.1 iii]»i>t]iE, l.>f>low 

eni \ \i' Sift fl I aiTi , ru iiiiiti |^ ^v i- r li 

haidUkji ftttShiff t(i(^ tiibM' 
whi*'h tl>** aafcft^ljriK part iis-*fa 
an^i f arryinnthe wairTtn tlm |Joiiit 
of dlMjiarff*^. — ChAlxt ilko^ ti^-' 
raMtioii hfiWm iinltfMil by n nXtiifK 
oh4ui, fonmcTly uaul in riavnl war- 
far<i Up 4lpstruy a atiitrx' rif^i^jgig. — 
Chatin ttltck. tff\ k\\ ornTiLuentol 
8tiii7<h Wkn tli^ Mi>k» of ji chain : - 
u»< h1 III crof bf^linc. iwiwinc. Jinni em- 

. briiiM.l*"ry. f^i A itllfh inflnlv by a 
Re^4irt^triA4-hhLf. hiwbk'li thf^ Ic^p- 

' inp nf Hirr tlsrrtut fnrm* a PbAlu mt 

bei'u iiiLiii-'l by n JirLh. 

Cluil vJ'Ut>, n. IF. ehtitre 

Citain Pbmp^ 

pulpit, fr. L. cathedra chair, a teacher*s chair, Gr. ica- 

1, •, I, IS «, long ; ft, «, 1, 5, 0, tf slunt ; anftte, tvent, tdea. Obey, finite, c<kr«, iirm, iksk, ||11, flDoL 




MttA down 4- «dp« seat.] 1. A morabto aliigle 
ma^ with a back. 2. A aeat of a magiitratOf judge, or 
prof OMor : tho offloo itaelf. 3. The presiding officer of 
an aamnbly ; chairman. 4. A sedan borne upon poke ; 
» gig. 5. An iron block to support and secure the rails 
ofa railroad. — r. f . Tb place in a chair. 

CDuito'toaB (chtr'man), n, 1. The prodding officer of 
» committee or ormnixed body. 2. Oue wlio carries a 
chair or ae Ian. — Oiudr'&iail-Sllflp, n. 

ObAlM ( >his), n. [F., seat, chair, carriage.] A two- 
wheelea oarriage for two persons, with a calash top, and 
the body hung on leather straps. 

Obll-Otd'O-ny (lUU-sSd't-nV or UQ' t^ft-n^), n. [Or. 
XaJuaiim p Ghaloedon, a town iu Asia Minor. V A translu- 
oeut quarts, having a luster like wax. [Written also 
caleedonf.} — Ohal'fW-dOltlo, a. 

Okatoorn-Pliy (kU-kSg^ri-f]^). n. [Or. xaA«<k cop- 
per 4- -graphjf.^ An engraving on copper or brass, esp. 
for printiug. — (nul-oog^ra-plMr, Okal-oog^-plim, n. 

Olua-dalO (-dSOCk), a. Pertainhig to Ghaldea.— n. 
Ijaj^uage of the Chaldeans ; Chaldee. 

^al-dt'ail (-dS'on), a. Pertaining to Chaldea.— n. 
Ca) An inliabitant of Ghaldea. (b) An astrologer. 

OIlAl'dM (kll'dS or kSl-dV), a. & n. Chaldaic. 

I (chil'drttn or chal'drttn), n. [OF., kettie.] 

An English measure for ooal (generally 36 bushels). 

ahanM (ohilOs), n. [OF., fr. L. calix.J A bowl ; 
the cop used in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 

Ohalk (chak), n. [AS. eealc lime, fr. L. calx llme- 
] 1. A white, calcareoiu earth, having the same 
■ition as common limestone. 2. Prepared chalk, 
f as a drawing implement ; a like compound of clay ana 
black lead, etc. ; a crayon. ^ r. /. 1. To mark with chalk. 
S. To manure (land) with chalk. 3. To make white or 
pale ; to bleach. — Ohall/f, o. — OlUdkl-IMM, n. 

OuOk'StOlM' (-stSnO. n. 1. A mass of chalk. 2. A 
ehalklike concretion, found in the small joints, the ex- 
ternal ear, and els<«where, in those affected with gout. 

ahalltagS (ohUnSnj), n. [OE. & of. ehalenge 
dairo, accusation, fr. L. ealumnia. See Calumny.] 1. 
A defiance; summons to fight a dueL 2. A sentry's 
t>aitiwg one who approaches, and demanding the counter- 
sign. 3. An exception to a juror or voter. — v. /. 1. 
To can to a contest ; to defy. 2. To demand as a right. 
8. To demand the countersign from (one who attempts 
to pass the lines). 4. To take exception to (a statement, 
» juror, a member of a court, or the qualification of a 
▼oter). — r. i. To assert a right. — (nudOtng^-a-llle, a. 
— Oluaaao-gtr, n. 

Oliaiail (shU'iy), n. [F., a stufT made of goat's hair.] 
A sot t woolen dress fabric. [Written also chatty. '\ 

(ma-lTlK»«t« (ki-iryl-tt), a. [NL. ehalybecUu*, fr. 
Lk ekalybt steel. Or. xoAv^.] Impregnated with salts of 
iron ; tasting like iron. — n. Water, uquid, or medicine, 
oontalnfaig iron as an ingredient. 

Okam'Mr (chim'bSr), n. [F. ehambrff fr. L. camera 
Tault, arched roof, in LL., chamber.] 1. A retired room ; 
a bedroom ; a study. 2. A hall for audience, legislation, 
•Co. 3. A legLdative or judicial body ; an assembly ; a 
modetj. 4. A compartment or cell ; an inclosed space 
or cavity. 6. (a) That part of the bore of a gun which 
holds (be charge. (6) A cavity in a mine, to contdn the 
powder. *- v. t. To occupy a chamber or chambers. ^ 
V. /. 1. To shut up, as in a chamber. 2. To furnish (a 
gun, etc) with a chamber. — OhtmlMrod, a. 

Gham'lMr-lalll (-ITn), n. [OF.; O. kdmmerling: 
iammer chamber (fr. L. camera) -\- -ling.} 1. One in 
charge of chambers. 2. One of the high officers of a 
3. A treasurer or receiver of public money. 

' ~' (-mid'), n. A nuddservant in charge 

of chambera, making beds, sweeping, rleining rooms, etc. 
"^ ^ (ki-mWi-ttn), n. [L. chamaeleon^ Or. 

X«lMuA^Mv, lit., ** ground lion ; " x<MA«i on the ground -f- 
kimm lion.] A linurd-like reptile, whose color changes 

more or leas with that of the objects about It, or with 

its temper when 


Oham'f er 

(chlm'fir). n. A 
beveled surface 
formed by cut> 
ting away the an- 
gle of two faces of 
a piece of timber, 
stone, etc. — r. 
/. To groove ; to Common Chamrleon (Ckanueleo mi{. 
channel; to flute. »**"*>• <V 

Gham'ols (shim'mj^, or shi-moiO, n. [F., p-ob. fr. 
OO. gamz.l 1. A small antelope, living on the ridges of 
the Alps, Pyrenees, etc. 2. A soft leather made from 
the skin of the chamois, or from sheepskin, etc. 

Oharn'O-mtto (kim'ft-mil), n. Camomile. 

Ohamp (chimp), r. /. [Prob. of Scand. origin.] 
V. /. & i. To bite ; to crunch. 

Gham-MglM' (sblm-pin'), n. [F. See Cramtaim.] 
A wine originally made in Champagne, in France. 

dham-paign' (shim-pin'), n. [OF. champaigne.2 A 
flat, open country, ^n. Flat ; open ; leveL 

aiUUn^-on (chin/pT-On), n. [F., fr. LL. eampio, of 
Oerman origin.] 1. A combatant for anothet oi for 
a cause. 2. One of acknowledged supremacy fai any 
branch of athletics, and ready to conteno with any rival. 
— r. /. To defend ; to maintain. — dhaiB'pl-Oll-MI^, n. 

Syn.— Leader; hero; warrior; defender; protector. 

f"»*«V?* (cliins), n. [F., fr. LL. cadentia a falling 
(falling of dice), fr. L. cadere to fall.] 1. A supposed 
agent other than a force, law, or purpose ; fortune ; fate. 
2. Something that befalls; accident; casualty. 3. A 
possibilitv; opportunity, ^r. i. To happen or arrive, 
without design or expectation . ^ r. /. To tue the chances 
of jto venture upon. ^ a. Happening by chance ; casual. 

Oliaa'oel (chiu'sSl), n. [OF., fr. L. cancelli crossbars. 
(The chancel was formerly inclosed with lattices.) See 
Cancsl.1 That part of a church containing the altar, or 
communion table. 

Ohan'oel-lor (-ISr), n. [F. ehaneelier, LL. cancella- 
riu* chancellor, director of chancery, fr. L. eanceUi Ht- 
tices, which surrounded the seat of judgment.] A hfgh 
judicial officer; chief justice of a court of chancer>-, 
having equity jurisdiction.— OhAII'oal-lor-B^iD, n. 

Ohanoa'-madaoy (ch&ns'mSd^j^), n. {Chance 4- 
medley.'\ The unpremeditated killing of anotlier in self- 

Ohan'oer-y (chin'sSr-V), n. rF. chancelleries LL. 
cancellaria^ fr. L. cancellariu*. See Chamcbllob.] A 
court of equity ; equity ; proceedings in equity. 

Oh«Il'ore(8hia'k2r2,n. [F. - " ^ 

real sore or ulcer. — Oluui'oroilt 

Oh«II'd«-llar' (shin/dt-lSr^), n. [F.] A support for 
candles, lights, etr. ; ^p., one hanging from the ceiling. 

Ohan'dlar (chAnMlir), n. [F. chandMier candlestick, 
maknr of candles, L. candela candle.] 1. A maker or 
seller of candles. 2. A dealer in commodities indicated 
by a word prefixed ; as, ship chandler^ com chandler. 

OIUUi'dur-T (-9), n. Commodities sold by a chandler. 

Cnuuiga (chinj), V. I. Sti, [F. changer^ 1r. LL. corn- 
Mare to exchange, barter, L. comftt re.] 1. To alter. 2. 
To exchange. 3. To vary. 4. To give, or receive, smaller 
denominations of money (technt<»lly called change) for. 

Syn. — To alter ; vary ; deviate ; substitute ; innovate : 
diversify ; shift ; veer ; turn. See Alti*. 
— n. 1. A variation or alteration. 2. A substitution of 
one thing for another ; novelty ; variety. 3. A passing 
from one phase to another. 4. Small money, by means 
of which larger coins and bills are made available. 6. 
An exchange, or place for transacting business. [ Colloq.l 

Syn. — Viuiety ; variation ; alteration ; mutation ; vi- 
cisntude ; innovation ; novelty ; revolution ; reverse. 

See Camcsr. j A vene- 

fini, reont, Arb^ r^de, f ^ Urn, ftfbd, f (ft»t, out, oil, oliair, (o, sins, i||k, then, ihln. 




OlUUIfe'a-ble (chinjK&-b*l), A. 1. Capable of chance; 
subject to alteration. 2. Appearing different, at in color, 
in different ligbta. — 01Uuig*'a-1llt-IIMSt OluafBr 
Ull-ty, n. — Ohailgf a-UT, adr. 

Syn. — Mutable ; variable; inconstant: fitful; ca- 
pricious ; fickle ; waTering ; erratic ; Tolatile. 

Ohang^llll (-fvOi ^' Full of change; mutable; in- 
constant; fickle; uncertain. — 01iail|^llll-l7, adv. — 
(mangttol-ness, u. 

OliailC^leM, a. Constant; unchanging. 

Ohailg^'llllff • n* 1* One left or taken In the plaoe of 
another, as a child exchanged by fairies. 2. A simple- 
ton; idiot. 3. One apt to change; a waverer.^a. 
Taken or left in place of another ; changed. 

Ohan'gtr (chan'jir), n. 1. Oue who changes or altera 
anything. 2. Dealer in money. 3. An inconstant person. 

CnuBliel (cJiftn'nfil), n. [OF. chanel, fr. L. canalis. 
See Cakal.] 1. Bed of a stream. 2. Deeper part of a 
river, harbor, strait, etc. 3. A strait, or narrow sea. 4. 
That through which anything passes. 6. Gutter ; groove. 
^v. t. [imp. & p. p. CHANxmLSO (-nCld), or -nellbd ; 
p. or. & vb. n. Chak kbliho, or -irBUOiio.] To groove. 

Obant (chint), V. t. A i. [F. chanter ^ fr. L. eantaret 
intens. of canere to sing.] 1. To sing. 2. To recite 
after the manner of a chant. « n. 1. Song ; melody. 2. 
A simple melody, to which unmetrical psalms, etc., are 
sung or recited. — Ohailfcr, n. — GhantlTMWt n./. 

€«aB'ti-cle«r(chSnaT-kl8r),n. [¥. ChantMlair.nam^ 
of the cock in ** Reynard the Fox " ; chanter + dair 
clear. ] A cock, so called from his clear voice in crowing. 

Ohanfry (chint'rf ), n. 1. An endowment for chant- 
ingmasses and offering prayers. 2. Chapel so endowed. 

Olia'oa (ki'Ss), n. [L chaotf 6r. x^oc> fr. X9^'^^ ^ 
yawn. Cf. Chasm.] A confusedj. unorganisea mass of 
matter ; confusion ; disorder. — Oha-Otlo (kft-5t0rk), a. 

Obap (chSp or ch5p), v. t. &i. To crack ; to split. ^ 
n. A cleft, crack, or chink. 

Obap (ch9p\ n. [OE. chnfl ; of Scand. origin.] Jaw. 

Obap (chip), n. [Perh. abbr. fr. chapman,"] A man 
or boy ; a fellow. [Col log. 1 

II Olia'par-ral' (chK^p4r-ral0t n. [8p., fr. chaparro an 
evergreen oak . ] Thicket of low evergreen oaks or shrubs. 

Obapt (chip), n. [F. ; fr. L. cappa. See Cap.] 1. 
Piece attaching an object to something, as the frog of a 
scabbard. 2. Guard of a sword. 

Oba'paaa'(sh4'pQ'),n.;p/.-nAi7x(-p9zO- [F.] Hat. 

Obap'al (chSp^), n. [F. chapelle, fr. LL. capella.} 
1. A subordinate pUce of worship ; smaU church at- 
tached to a palace, hospital, prison, etc. 2. In Engl and, 
a dissenters* meetinghouse. 

Obap'el-ry i-rf), n. Bounds or district of a chapel. 

Obap'MT-on (shSp'Sr-Sn), n. [F.] 1. A hood. 2. A 
rostron who accompanies s young lady in public. — v. I. 
To matronize. — Obap'er-on^af* (-9n'ij), n. 

Obapfail'en (chSi/fal^'n), a. Having the lower chap 
or Jaw drooping ; crestfallen ; discouraged. 

ObapOaln (chSpnin), n. [F. ckapflain^ fr. LL. ca- 
pellanut, fr. cnpella. See Crapbl.] 1. An ecclesiastic 
who performs service in a chapeL 2. A clergyman offi- 
cially attached to the army or navy, a public institution, 
society, etc. — ObapOaln-cy, Obai»laiii-tblp, n. 

Obaplot (let), n. [F. chapflet.\ 1. Garland or 
wreath for the head. 2. String of beads used in praying. 

Obap'mail (-man), n. [AS. cfApman ; cthp trade -f 
man man ; akin to G. kaupiutnn.l A peddler ; hawker. 

Obaps (ch5pR), The jaws. 

Obap'ter (chSp'tSV), n. [OE. & F. chapitre, fr. L. 
capitiuumy dim. of caput head.] 1. A division of abook 
or treatise. 2. Organized branch of some society. 

Obar, Obarr (chHr), n. [Ir. cear^ lit., blood-colored.] 
A flnh tUlied to the trout and salmon. 

Obar (chftr), n. [AS. rerr business.] Chore; work 
done by the day. [TTw^.l — t-. i. To work by the day, 
without being a regularly hired servant ; to do small jobs. 

Obar (chKr), V. t, 1. To redace to coal, cat boa, or 
charcoal ; to bum to a cinder. 2. To bum partially. 

Obai'ao-tar (kir'ik-tir), n. [L., an instrument for 
marking, Gr. xafOKnjp, fr. x^^P^^'^ ^ engrave.] 1. 
A distinctive mark ; letter ; figure ; symboL 2. Style ci 
writing or printing ; handwriting. 3. Distinctive quaU^ ; 
nature. 4. Streurtli of mind ; individuality. 6. Quality 
or conduct. 6. Estimate put upon a person or thing ; 
reputation. 7. A unique or extraordinary person. 8. 
One of the persons of a drama or novel. 

Obar'ao-tar-iatlo (-Ts'tTk), a. Pertaining to the 
character ; showing distinctive qualities or traits ; pecul- 
iar.— n. 1. A distinguishing property. 2. Integral 
part of a logarithm. — CSbarao-tar-isllo^-ly, adv. 

Obax'ao-tar-iie (-is), v. t. 1. To mark with distinctlTO 
features. 2. To indicate the character of ; to dmcribe. 
3. To show the character of. ~ Obar'ao-tar-l-ia^tlMIt n. 

Syn. — To describe : mark ; style ; entitle. 

Oba-rada' (shi-rSd'), n. [F.l An enigma In which 
a word and its significant syllables are to be g o eawd 
from descriptions or representations. 


(ch«rnt51'),n. [CAartobura-f coo/.] 1. 
Impure carbon prepared from vegetable or animal sub- 
stances ; coal made by charring wood, and used for fuel 
and in mechanical and chemical process e s. 2. Finely 
prepared charcoal, used as a drawing implement. 

CAuurffe (chlirj), r. t. [F. charger^ fr. LL. earrieare^ 
fr. L. earru* wagon.] 1. To impose, as a load, tax, or 
burden. 2. To impom, as a tsisk, duty, or trust; to 
urge earaestlv. 3. To make liable for. 4. To demand 
as a price, o. To put to the account of as a debt ; to 
debit. 6. To lay to one*s charge. 7. To make a charge 
or assertion a^^inst (a person or thing). 8. To load ; to 
fill (a gun, etc.). 9. To rush upon ; to attack. 

Syn. — To intrust: command; exhort; inatmot; ac- 
cuse : impeach ; arraign. See Accttbb. 
^v.i, 1. To make an onset. 2. To demand a price, 
or debit on an account. 3. To squat on its belly and be 
still ; — a command to a dog. — n. LA load or burden. 
2. A person or thing committed to another's care; a 
trust. 3. Custody ; office ; dutv. 4. An order or com- 
mand. 6. An accusation ; specification of something al- 
leged. 6. A burden on property, such as rents, taxes, 
liens, etc. ; expense incurred. 7. Price demanded for a 
thing or service. 8. Entry of what is due from one 
party to another. 9. Quantity (of ammunition, elec- 
tricity, ore, fuel, etc.) held by any apparatus at one time. 
10. Sudden onset ; signal for attack. 

Syn. — Care ; custody ; trust ; office ; expense ; cost ; 
price ; attack ; onset ; command ; accusation ; indictment. 

Obarn'a-Dle, a. 1. That may be charged or imputed. 
2. Liable or responsible. 3. Costly ; burdensome. 

II ObafaJK d^af'falTM^ (sh&r'zbi' d&f'ftrO, n. ; 0/. 
CHARois D^AFFAiRKS. [F., "charged with affairs."] An 
inferior diplomatic representative at a foreign court. 

Obax'Car (chSr'jSr), n. 1. One that charges. 2. An 
instmment for measuring a charge. 3. A large dish. 
4. A horse for battle or parade. 

Obar1-ly (chtrT-iy), adv. Cautiously ; fragally. 

Obar^-naM, n. The quality of being chary. 

Obart-Ot(chir^-«t), n. [F., fr. char car.] 1. A two- 
wheeled car anciently used in war, racing, processions, 
etc. 2. A four-wheeled carriage. — Obari-Ot-MT^t n. 

Obar1-ta-ble (-t&-b*l), a. [F. See CnAamr.] 1. 
FiUl of good will ; kind. 2. Liberal in judging others. 
3. liberal in giving. 4. Pertaining to charity ; eleemosy- 

nary. — Obarl-ta-ble-ness, n. — Obari-ta-Uy, adv. 

Syn. — Kind ; beneficent ; benevolent ; generous : leni- 
ent: forgiving ; helpful ; liberal ; favorable ; indulgent. 

OnarT-ty (-ty), »• [F. chants, fr. L. cari/a« dearaess, 
love, fr. cart** dear, costly.] 1. Love; good will. 2. 
Liberality in judging. 3. GeneroMty. 4. Alms; act of 
kindness. 5. Charitable inntitution : gift to support one. 

Syn. — Love ; benevolence : good will ; tendeme 
beneficence : liberality ; almsgivme. 

S, 8, 1, 5, a, long ; &, d, I, 5, tt, % short ; s«UMe, 8vent, tdea, 6bey, finite, c4re, iirm, dsk, nil, final. 




nade of ducordant noises, designed to uinoy. 

Cnur'la-tan (sbiiKUUan), n. [F., fr. It. eiartaiano.'] 
One who prates in his own favor ; a quack ; mountebank. 
— GharOft-tan-ism, Oharla-tan-iy, n. 

Ohailos'B Wain (charlz^s winO. [AS. Caria wXn 
(for W3effn).'\ The Dipper, or group of seven stars in 
the constellation ITrsa Major^ or Great Bear. 

Ghanotte (shKi^St), n. [F.] A kind of pudding. 

OharlotU Rases (shiirnSt rus'') [F.. Russian charlotte], 
custard or whipped cream, iucloeed in sponge cake. 

Oharm (chirm), n. (.F. eharme^ fr. L. carmen song, 
incantation.] 1. A magical combination of words, char- 
acters, etc. ; an incantation. 2. That which fascinates; 
alluring quslity. 3. Anything worn to avert ill or secure 
good fortune. 4. A small trinket worn on the person. 

Syn. — Spell ; incantation ; enchantment ; attraction. 
^ r. /. 1. To affect by magic 2. To attract irresisti- 
To protect with spells, charms, or 

bly; to fascinate. 3. 
•npematural influences. — 

I'ar, n. 

Syn. — To ftiscinate ; enchant ; enrapture : captivate ; 
bewitch ; allure ; subdue ; delight ; entice ; transport. 

Ohaimlng, a. Pleasing the mind or senses highly ; 
fascinating ; attractive. — uharmlng-ly, adv. 

Syn. — Enchanthig ; bewitching ; captivating ; de- 
lightful; lovely; amiable ; pleasing ; winning. 

Ohar'liel (chlir'nei), a. [F., carnal, fleshly, fr. L. ear- 
nalis. See Carkal.] Containing bodies of the dead. 

Ghanisl hoaas, a tomb ; vault: cemetery. 

n Oltai^pld (sh&r'pt), n. [F., p. p. of OF. eharjrir to 
pluck, L. carpere.] Lint for surgical dressings. 

Okarr (chkr), n. Char, the fish. [coal. I 

Ghar'kT (-ry), a. Pertaining to charcoal ; like char-| 

Ohait (chl&rtj, n. [A doublet of card."] 1. A paper 
giving information. 2. A map. -* r. /. To map. 

(Dlir-U'oeoiUI (kSr-tS'shOs), a. [L. eharUieetu.'] 
Reaembling paper or parchment. 

OhaitMr (char't«r), n. [F. ehartre^ cfuarte^ fr. L. 
ehartula a little paper, dim. of eharta.l 1. A written 
instrument, from the sovereign power of a state, bestow. 
log rights, franchises, or privileges. 2. A legislative act 
creating a corporation and defloing its powers and privi- 
leges. 3. A special privilege or exemption. 4. The 
hiring a vessel, or instrument whereby she is let. ^ v. /. 
X. To establish by ch%rter. 2. To hire by charter. 

Charter party [F. ehartre partie or charts partie^ a di- 
vided chirterK lease of a vessel, or part of it. 

Ohar^ (chftr'j^), a. [AS. eearig careful, fr. eearu 
care.] Careful ; wary ; saving ; frugal. 

Ohase (chas), v. t. [F. ckasser; L. captare to strive 
to seise. See Catch.] 1. To pursue : to hunt. 2. To 
cause to fly. — r. i. To hunt— n. 1. Vehement nur- 
auit ; earnest seeking. 2. That which is hunted. 3. A 
division of a gallery floor for court tennis. — Ghas'ar, n. 

OlUUM, n. [F. chdAie, fr. L. eapsa box, case.] 1. Iron 
frame in which printers impose type. 2. Forward part 
of a cannon. 3* A groove ; trench. 

duUM, V. t. [Contr. of enc/uue.^ To ornament (a sur- 
face of metal) by embossing, etc. — Ghaa'ar, n. 

OliaBlll (kfts'm), n. [Or. vaoTio.] 1. A deep opening 
or breach ; yawning abyss. 2. A gap or break. 

Ohaa'Wtm' (sh&s'sSrO, *»• [F> « huntsman. See 
Crass to Dursue.1 1. A light armed cavalry or infantry 
■oMier. 2. A uniformed attendant upon persons of rank. 

(niasta(chist),a. [F.; L.castus.'\ 1. Pure ; virtuous. 
8. Innocent ; modest 3. Free from vulgarisms ; reflned ; 
simple. — 01uurt»ay, adv. — Ohaste'llOM. n. 

ftyn.— Undeflled; pure; virtuous; continent 

Olua'Ull (chS's'n), V. t. [OF. ehtutier ; L. castigare ; 
cax/tw-f-A^ere to drive.! 1. To correct by punishment ; 
to discipline. 2. To refine. — CDuui'tOll-er, n. 

Syn, — Chastkh ; Puwish; Chastise: corrp'^t; disci- 
plme; oastigite: afflict: subdue; purify. —To chasten 
ia to subject to affliction, in order to amend life or charac- 
ter. TopymUh is to inflict penalty for wrongdoing. To 
enastise is to punish a particular offense. 

Ohas-tftM' (chls-tisO« V. t. 
for punishment or reformation. 2. To purify. 
tia'er, n. — OluWtlad-llMllt (-tTs-m«nt), n. 

1. To_inflict pain upon, 

Syn. — See Ghastbm. 
CBiai^-ty (-tT-ty), n. Ti 

Cniaa^-UO (chSx't-bn), n. [F.; LL. eawbula 

The being chaste ; purity. 

hooded garment, dim. of L. ea*a cottage.1 Outer vestmont 
of a priest iaying Mass. [Written also eioHbte^ chesibie.'] 

01Ut(chXt),ir.i. [Fr.ehatter.l To talk freely.— n. 1. 
Light conversation ; gossip. 2. Bird allied to the warblers. 

llOha'tMU' (shA'tSOi «./ Pl- Chatbaux (-t5i). [F. 
ehcUeau castle.] 1. A French castle or fortress. 2. A 
manor house or country seat ; a royal residence. 

Obat'e-lot (shlt^-lSt; F. shi&'t'-ltO. n. [F. c/uUelet, 
dim. of eh&feau.} A UtUe castle. 

OlUt'al-la-ny (shSfH-lt-nJ^), n. Lordship of a castle. 

Obartal (chXt't'l), n. [OF. chaiet; a form of catel. 
See Cattlb.] Any movable property. 

Obat'tar (-t2r), V. i. [ImlUtive.] 1. To utter sounds 
like language, but inarticulate. 2. To talk idly or care- 
lessly ; to prate. — n. 1. Idle talk ; Jabbe- ; prattle. 
2. Noise made by collision ot the teeth, as in shivering. 

OlUttarlNir (-bSks^), n. One who Ulks incessantly 
and idly. iColloq.} 

Oliat'tar-er, n. 1. A prater. 2. A European and 
American bird having a monotonous note. 

Obat'ty (-t^). a. Given to light talk ; talkative. 

Ohaap (chSp), a. [AS. ce&p bargain, price.] 1. Of 
small cost orpnce. 2. Of small value ; common, ^acfir. 
Cheaply. — CuMply, od v. — Oheap^esa, n. 

OhMp'eQ (chS'p'n), V. t. [AS. ce&pian.'\ To beat 
down the price of ; to depreciate. — Ohaaj^an-er, n. 

Ohaat (cbSt). n. [Prob. abbr. of escheat.^ 1. A de- 
ception or fraud. 2. An impostor. 3. Cliess, a weed. 

8yn. — Deception ; Imposture ; fraud ; delusion ; artl- 
flee ; trick ; swindle ; deceit ; guile ; finesse ; stratagem. 
— r. /. & i. 1. To deceive and defraud ; to impose upon. 
2. Tobeguile. — Oheat'ar, n. 

Syn. — To trick ; gull ; fool ; beguile ; mislead ; dupe ; 
swindle ; defraud ; overreach ; deceive ; bamboosie. 

Oheok (chSk), n. [F. Schec a stop, hindrance, orig., 
check in the game of chess. See Checkmatb.] 1. A 
word of warning in the game of chess, denoting that the 
king is in danger, and must be made safe. 2. Impeded 
progress ; arrest 3. Whatever arrests progress. 4. A 
mark to prevent errors, or identify a thing. 6. A written 
order directing a banker to pay money as therein stated. 
6. A woven or painted design in squares resembling the 
pattern of a checkerboard ; one square of such a desigu ; 
cloth having such a figure. 7. A small chink or crack. 

Syn. — Hhidrance ; setback ; interruption ; obstruc- 
tion ; reprimand ; censure ; rebuke ; reproof ; repulse ; 
rebuff ; tally ; counterfoil ; counterbalance ; ticket ; draft 
^v. t. 1. To make a move in chess which puts an ad- 
versary's piece in check. 2. To put restraint upon ; to 
stop temporarily. 3. To verify by a token or other check ; 
to mark (an item) after verifying it, to secure accuracy. 
4. To make checks or chinks in ; to cause to crack. ^ 
V. i. 1. To stop ; to pause. 2. To restrain. 3. To crack 
open, as wood, varnish, paint, etc., in drying. 

Syn. — To restrain : curb ; bridle ; repress ; control ; 
hinder ; interrupt ; tally ; rebuke ; reprove ; rebuff. 

Ohaok'er, n. One who checks. 

Oheok'er, r. t. [Fr. OF. esrhequier chessboard.] 1. 
To mark with stnnll nquares like a 
checkerboard. 2. To divernify. — 
n. 1. A piece in the game of 
checkers. 2. A pattern in checks ; 
a singl e check. 3. Checker work. 

1^^ This word is also written 

Oheck'er-lKNuna' (-b5rd0, n. A 
board with 64 squares of alternate 
colors, used for playing checkers or 


fSrn, recent, 6rb, ryde, fyll, ilzn, ftfbd, f(n>t, oat, oil, chair, go, ling, i^k, then, thin. 




OhMdi'm (cbSk'Sn), n. pi. A game, cmUed alto 
draughttf played on a checkerboard by two peraoni, each 
having 12 men (checkers). 

OllMk'cr-WOlk' (-wQrkO, n. 1. Work oonaiating of 
checkers Taried alternately in color or material. 2. Any 
aggregate of varied vicisaitudea. 

UhMdl'BIAte (-mit), n. [P. ichee el mat, fr. Per. shih 
mSt checkmate, lit., the king is dead, fr. Ar. nuUa he is 
dead. The kii^, when checkmated, is considered dead, 
and the game ends.] 1. The position in the game of chess 
when a Idng cannot be released from check, — which 
ends the game. 2. A complete check ; utter overthrow. 
— r. t, I. To check (an adversary's king) so that escape 
is impossible. 2. To defeat completely. 

Oheok (chSk), n. [AS. eeAte.] 1. Side of the face 
below the eye. 2. pi. Those pieces of a machine, etc., 
which are similar and in pairs. 3. pi. Branches of a 
bridle bit. 4. Cool confidence ; impudence. ISlang"} 

• (chSr), n. [LL. cara face, Or. icdpa head.f 1. 
Feeling; state of mind. 2. Oayety ; animation. 3. That 
which promotes good spirits ; provisions for a feast ; en- 
tertainment. 4. A shout of joy, i4)plause, favor, etc. — 
V. t. 1. To gladden. 2. To infuse life or hope into. 3. 
To salute or urge on by cheers. — r. {. 1. To grow cheer- 
ful. 2. To shout in applause, triumph, etc. 

8jii. — To gladden; encourage; inspirit: comfort; 
console ; enliven ; refresh ; exhilarate ; animate ; applaud. 

Oheei'tlll (chSr'fvl), a. Having or allowing good 
spirits. — Obaertlll-ly, ndv. — 0lMitrtlll-lM8S, n. 

Syn. — Lively ; animated ; gay ; Joyful ; sprightly ; 
j<dly; joyoiu: vivacious; buoyant; hopeful. 

GMOTl-ly (-T-iy)i udv. In a cheery manner. 

OhMl'l-IIMSt n. State of beins cheery. 

OhMrlM*, a. Without joy, gladness, or comfort. — 

Syn. — Gloomy ; sad ; comfortless; forlorn. 

Olietl^, a. Cheerful ; lively ; gay ; briKht. 

Obeoae (chSz), n. [AS. c^e, fr. L. caseut.'] Curd of 
milk, coagulated, and pressed. 

Ohssss csks, a cake of soft curds, sugar, and butter. — 
Ohssss tr, a black dipterous insect whose larvse or mag- 
gots, called xkippers or hopper*^ live in cheese, 
mite, a minute mite in cheese, etc. 

OlMMa'llMn'Ctr (-miiQ'gSr), n. A dealer 
in cheese. 

OlMM«'p«I^lllff(-pftrOrng).n. Thin bit of 
the rind of a cheese. ^ a. Scrimping ; mean. 

ChMS^ (-3^), a. Like cheese in taste, con- 

Ob«e^tAll (h ht'lA^, f? I Hjii-L cAW5.] ChfeM Mite. 

II 011*1-^1' «tivre' {nht iovT^, n, ; pi. Chbf3-d'<euvwb 
{■ht -V [F,] A iTi (IP t#r IMP. V in iirt, literature, etc. 

dlO^QO ( '' ti?(f 'ft K miftg'M I <■ p), n. Chigoe. 

|lCnieMo^(HU{tct-lJ^f^f.-di), n. Chilopoda. 

Oliel rop^1«r (-rOp'tSr), n. One of the Cheiroptera. 

llCheirOp'tfr^ra (ti-ri), w, ,' pi. [NL., fr. Or. x"P 
hoikd ■* frT*pd>^ *irj(t') All orrlfif of Mammalia, Incliid- 
Loir till? bsttx,, havJDjK thf. AiitDrif^r limbs connected by a 
Wfb. i»o til lit thpy can bt* iiit'ii like winsrs in flying. 

[lOti*^ {tifli), ri. ; pi. Cmelje (-15). [NL., fr. Or. 
TTjAij nlAw.] Tho ijinrtiftlikp «;law of Crustacea and 

II CllO-llKltl-A (kfr.lo'iiT'il, n j4. [NL., fr. Or. x«Awki? 
i(4TtorEM>,] Au ordi^r of r*»|>iiU^, including tortoines and 
tuTtlcn. h»vlntr » ^m wb^lL — Che-lO'nl-AIl, n. & n. 

CmemlG fklinmc), n. A ^. Indon of chloride of lime, 
u»^1 \n blM*Hi]iJtt- — n. Cli"i ' ' il. 

ObOHl^G'fll ( -T-k^l ) , if, I't i' 1. . oing to chemistry ; pro- 
ducpct l>v, or ^iFyvI in, prwrnj-^ ^ -f chemistry. —n. S»b- 
stai . : . ■ I* I i«^fl 1 f iTiT t. — Ohem'io-Al-ly, ndr. 

C 0, n- [F ; LL c<imi#rt shirt.] 1. 

A ^«7u..u o ui.J^i-,(.4riiietit. 3. WaU lining a bank. 

Ot&m'i-MltW (shSm^ t-z8t'), n. [F. ] A woman's under- 
garment, covering neck, shoulders, and breast. 

Oh«m1st (kSmOTst), n. [Abbr. fr. ofcAemM.] One 
versed in chemistry ; a maker or seller of drugs. 

OhMB^tXT (Is-try), n. [Fr. chemist.} 1. ScieDce 
of the oompocltioo of subetanoea and changes in the com- 
position and constitution of molecules. 2. An applica- 
tion of chemical theory and method to some puticalar 
s ubject ; as, the cAemu/ry of iron. 

ly* This word and iU derivatives were formerly writ- 
ten with y, and aometimes with i\ instead of e, hi the first 
syllable, chymUtry, chymut^ or chimistry, chtmut, etc 

OlM-llllle' (sh«-uSl'), n, [F., prop., a caterpilUr.] 
Tufted cord, of silk or worsted, used as trimming. 

OheqiM (ch8k)f n. Check, an order to pay money. 

OheqlMr (chSk'Sr), n. & V. Checker. 

OhMllll (chSr^sh), v. t. [F. ehSrir, fr. cher dear, 
fr. L. cartM.1 1. To treat with tenderness; to protect 
and aid. 2. To hold dear ; to footer. — Ohtrtsll-tr, n. 

Syn. — See Nuhtuss. 

OlM-root' ( 

[TamU MtirvfTv.] A kind 
of cigar, originally from Manilla, F 

(ch«-r66t'), n. _ 

_ . .[inally from Manilla, Philippine Islanda. 

OhMT^ (chSr'^), «. [F. cerise (cf. AS. cyra cherry), 
fr. L. eerastu cherry tree.] 1. A tree bearing a fleahy 
drupe with a bony stone. 2. Fruit of the cherry tree. 
3. Timber of the tree, used in cabinetmaking, ete. 4. A 
shade of red. » a. Of the color of the red cherry. 

OlMr'M-neM (kSr'ct-nSs), n. [Or. xcpv^i'Tooc ; x'^ 
<rK land -f yii<TOi island.] A peninsula. 

Oliart (chirt), n. [Ir. ceart stone.] An impure, flint- 
like quarts or homstone. — OhMt'T, o. 

Obei^b (oher'ab), r. ; pi. E. Chsbubs (-libs) ; Heb. 
CHBauBm (-0-bTm). [Heb. kerub.J 1. One of an order 
of angelsjjlistinguished from semphim, 2. A beautiful 
child. —CDie-ni'ble (rht-rita>Tk), CDi*nililo-al, a. 

Olier^P (ch«r'iip), r. & n. Chirp. 

Ohesl-Ue (chSsa-bU), n. Chasuble. 

Ohess (chSs), n. [F. ichecs, prop. pL of ichee check. 
See Crkcx, a stop.] A game played on a chessboard by 
two persons, with two sets of men, 16 in each set. 

OllMt, n. A troublesome weed in wheat fields ; cheat. 

OheMlKMtfd^ (-bSrdO, n. The board used in cheaa. 

OhMs'man, n. One of the 32 pieces used In chess. 

Ohest (chSst), n. [AS. cext, cyst, L. cista. Or. jci'vny.] 
1. A large box with a lid. 2. Tlie part of the body in- 
closed by the ribs ; thorax. 3. A tight receptacle for 
holding (rac, steam, liquids, etc. 

Ohegfllllt (chSs'nat), n. [AS. risten in cisten-be6m 
chestnut tree ; L. eastanea chestnut. Or. Koovarov.] 1. 
Edible nut of a forest tree of Europe and America. 2. The 
tree itself, or its timber, used for furniture, etc. 3. Tlie 
bright brown color of the nut. 4. The horse chestnut. 
6. One of the homy plates on the inner sides of the lega 
of the horse and allied animals. 6. An old joke. [Slang} 
— a. Of a reddish brown color. 

Ohe'tAh (che'U), n. Cheetah. 

II Olw-Tal' (she-vil'), n. ; pi. Chsyauz (-vS'). [F. 
S?e Cayalcadb.] A horse ; hence, a support or frame. 

II Ohe-Til'-de-frise' (-d^ -frSzO. n. / pi. Chkyaux-i»- 
PRISB. [F. cheval -|- Frise 
Friesland, where it was first 
used.] A timber traversed 
with pointed spikes, to de- 
fend a passage, impede the 
advance of cavalry, etc. 

Ohera-ller' (shevi-lSr'), 
n. [F., fr. LL. caballarius. 

OhOTYon (-rttn), n. [F., rafter, chevron, fr. ehevre 
goat, L. copra she-Koat.] 1. Mark of military rank, worn 
on a coatMleeve. 2. A sigzag architectural molding. 

Ohew (chvi), V. t.&i. [AS. cedwan.} 1. To bite and 
grind with the teeth ; to masticate. 2. To meditate. — 
n. That held in the mouth ; quid ; cud. [Lotrl 

II Ohla'ro-wm'ro (kyK'r«-Hk5&^«), 1 n. [It., dear 

|l01ll-a^ro-08-oa'ro(k^a'rd-58-k5o^r«), f dark.] Ar- 
rangement of light and dark parts in a picture. 

One form of Chev«l-dc-f rise. 
See Cayaloeb.] A kniffht. 

a, 5, 1, 5, «, long ; &, fi, I, 6, 0, f, short ; senftte, fivent, tdea, 6bey, finite, cftre. i&rm, aak, ftll, finaL 




iGlbilMVQDt^) (chT4>6&k0f *»• [F. ehihougue, fr. 

OU-bOUk' } Turk.] ATurkitfiitobAccopipe. 

I Oklo («hte)t n, [F.l CkKxl form ; style. [Slang] 

Ok^OUM' (shT-lAi/), n, [F.] Use of mrtful tubter- 
foge, esp. in legal proceedings ; trickery : sophistry.^ 
V. i. To use shiits, cavils, or artifices. — Olli-OMl'cr, n. 

Gkt-oan'or-T, n. Mean artifice : sharp practice. 

Srn.— TricKerr; sophistry; auibble; stratagem. 

Clhlo'OO-rT (chlkncft-i^), n. Chicory. 

Oklok (chik), r. I. [OK. cAyArAyn, cf. E. cAidben.] To 
sprout, as seed iu the ground ; to vegetate. 

Chlok, n. 1. A chicken. 2. A chUd. 

Gklok'All (-tu), n. [AS. dcen, dim. of coe cock.] 1. 
A young bird, esp. a young barnyard fowl. 2. A ciiild. 

^' ^ a poz, eruptive disease of children; varicella. 
C'an-bSJUt'ad (-hUrt'eJ), a. Timid ; cowardlv. 
k'-ptf (-pS'), n. 1. A leKumiuous plant of Asia 
and Africa ; dwarf pea ; gram. 2. Its nutritious seed. 

Ohlok'wetd' (-wSdO, n. A weed, whose seeds and 
flower buds are esteu by small birds. 

OhlO'O-nr (-ft*r]^)« n. [F. chieorScy L. eichorium.] 1. 
A perennial plant cultivated for its roots and as a salad 
plant ; succory ; wild endive. 2. The root, roasted for 
mixing with coffee. 

Ohld* (ch!l), r. I. Sti. [imp. CmD (chTd); p. p. 
CBXDDma (cbTdM*n), Chid; p. pr. & v6. n. Cmoiiio.] 
[AS. tkUmA To find fault ; to scold. 

8yn. — To blame ; rebuke ; reprove ; scold ; censure. 

Ohitf (chSf), n. [OB. A OF. ; F. ehe/, fr. L. caput 
head.] 1. Head or leader of any body of men; one in 
aathority ; princioal actor. 2. Most valuable portion. 

8yn« — Obisv ; CHnrrAiH ; Commamdbk ; Lbaobs ; cap- 
; general ; bead ; principal ; sachem ; sheik. 

term cAi>/ is usually applied to a head man or com- 
mander in civil or military affairs, or in a tribe or clan. 
A chiejtnin is the chief of a tribe, or a military leader. 

A commander controls a military or navsl force. A 
leader is one whom men follow, as in a political party, 
legislative body, expedition, etc 

^ a. 1:. Highest in offlce or rank. 2. Principal or most 
eminent ; takina the lead : most important. 

Syn. — Principal : head; leading; main; supreme; 
prime ; vital ; especial ; great ; grand ; eminent. 

QhUtiji adv. 1. In the first place; principally; 
above aU. 2. For the most part ; mostly. 

Okliflllll (-tTn), a. [OF. chevetnin, F. capiiaine, LL. 
eapiianuSf f r. L. caput head/1 A captain, leader, or com- 
mander. —Ohltf'talB-ey, CulaftaiB-aliip, n. 


I Cnd'pMMl(shTn'y8n ; F. shl'nydirO* »• [F., tr. chatne 
chain, L. catena."] A knot or mass of hair, natural or 
artifldal, at the back of a woman's head. 

CXIdifoe (chTg^), ) n. [Cf. F. chique, perh. of Pem- 

Ohl|^(-4r), ) vian origin.] A South American 
flea which attacks the feet or 
other exposed part, and, bur- 
rowing beneath the skin, pro- 
dnees troublesome sores. 
[Written also ckegre^ ehegoCt 
cAtaue^ chigger^ jigger.] 

dul'UJlLl' (chTHlanO, n. 
[ChUl + blain.] A blam or 
inflammatory swelling, pro- 
duced by exposure of the feet 
or handii to oold. — v. /. To 
produce chilblains upon. 

Okfld (chad), n.: pi. Cril- 
mtxa (chlKdriin). [AS. did, pi. etldm ; cf. Ooth. kVpH 
womb.] 1. A son or a daughter ; in law, legitimate off- 
q»ring. 2. A descendant, however remote. [dren. I 

OhlldllMniMr (-birang), n. The bringing forth chil- 1 

OhndnMO' (-bid/ >, n. The state of a woman in labor ; 
parturition. [travail; labor. I 

OhlldnMrtll' (-bSrthO, n. The bringing forth a child ; | 

1(-h»d). n. [AS. ciWAdZ] 1. State or 

Chlsoo or JifnTn*. much en- 
largod. a Adult frmiile 
a* removed from a hu- 
man foot ; nat. iiize. 

[NL., fr. Or. 

time of being a chUd ; condition from infancy to puberty. 
2. The commencement ; first period. 

CDllldllll (chOdTsh), a. 1. Pertahiing to, or like, a 
child. 2. Puerile ; weak. - CDllldllll-ly, a<fv. - Oltfld'- 
llll-nM», n. 

OUldliMMK a. Destitute of offspring. 

OllildlllU' (-likOi a- Resembiiug, or becoming, a 
child; submissive; dutifuL 

Ghll'drai (cbTlMrSn), a.; of. of Child. 

ahlll4ld (klia-Id), a. [Or. x(JU«lc, -oaoc, fr. x^^mh a 
thousand.] A thousand ; a period of 1,000 years. 

(mm (chll), n. [AS. eelt.] 1. A moderate de- 
gree of cold. 2. A sensation of cold, with iconvulsive 
shaking of the body. 3. A check to enthusiasm ; dis- 
couragement. 4. An iron mold, serving to cool rapidly, 
and harden, the surface of molten iron in contact witli 
it. 6. The hardened part of a casting.— a. 1. Moder- 
ately cold ; chilly ; raw. 2. Characterised by coolness of 
manner, feeling, etc. ; formal ; distant. 3. Depressing ; 
dispiriting. — v. /. & <. 1. To cooL 2. To cool (iu cast- 
ingiron) on the surface, producing increased hardness. 

CniUl'y, a. Moderately cold : cold and raw or damp 
so as to cause shivering. — ahUll-IIMS, n. [natha. I 

OhlOoc-nath (kinSg-nith), n. One of the ChUog-l 

II OhMog^nm-Uui (kt-lOg'nA-thA), n. pi. [NL., fr. Or. 
XctAof lip + yvoBoi JAW.] One of the two principal orders 
of myrii^Kxls. They have numerous segments, each bear- 
ing two pairs of small, slender legs. 

Ohiao-POA (kl'lft-pM), n. One of the Chilopoda. 

llOhl-lS?0^ (kt-Wp'M 

One of the 
orders of 
ing the 
c e n t i • 
peds. One of ths Chilopoda (TMhnltitu Americanun). 

To hi- N'*--*"- 

IIUi^(kT-m8'r4),n. [KL. See CHmaA.] A cartilagi- 
nous fish of several species. [chine. I 

Ohlmb, Otalme (chim), n. [AS. cim.l Edge of a cask ; | 

GhlBM, n. [OE. ehimbe cymbal, OF. cymbe, cwnble, 
L. eymbalum.'] 1. Harmonious sound of musical instru- 
meuts. 2. Set of bells musically tuned to each other ; in 
of., music performed on such a set of bells.— v. i. & t. 
1. To sound in harmony. 2. To agree or suit (with). 

Ohl-lM/km (kl-mfi'ri), n. TL. cMmaern chimera. Or. 
Xtfioipa she-goat, chimera/) 1. A mythological monrter 
represented as vomiting fuunes, and as having a lion*s 
head, goat's body, and dragon's tall. 2. A foolish fancv. 

Ohl-mMrftHd (-m6r^-kol), Ghl-DMr^, a. Merely 
imnginary; wildly conceived. — Ohl-mtriO-Al-ly, ndv. 

Syn. — Imaginary ; fanciful ; fantastic ; wild : vain. 

CnilmlMy (chTm'n^), n. [F. ckeminh, fr. L. cami- 
ntu fireplace.i 1. A flue for smoke. 2. A tube sur- 
rounding the flame of a lamp, to create a draft. 3. A 
body of ore extending downward in a vein. 

Ohlm-paillM ('sl), n. [Fr. native name.] 
An African ape very rlonely resembling man. 

Ohin (chTn), n. [AS. ctn ; akin to O. ^ Icel. kinn cheek, 
L. gena. Or. ycVvf.] 1. The lower extremity of the 
face, below the mouth ; the point of the under jaw. 2. 
The exterior or under surface embraced between the 
branches of the lower jaw bone, in birds. 

Ohl'nA (chi'n4), n. 1. A country in Eastern Asia. 2. 
China ware ; porcelain. 

Ohl'na-mail (-m/m), n. A native of China ; a Chinese. 

Ohln'ea-plll (chTQ^kA-pTn), n. Chinquapin. 

OlllllOh(chTnch), n. [8p. cAVn rA« bug; L. Hm«T.] 1. 
The bedbug. 2. A bug resembling the bedbug in its dis- 
gnating odor, and very deatructive tc grain. 

Qhin-OhliaA (chln-chTinA), n. [Sp.] 1. A rodent of 

fSm, recent, 6rb, ryde, f^^ Hzn, food, ftfbt, oat, oil, chair, bo, sin^, ink, then, UUn. 




Pern and Chili, of the sixe of a Urge aquirreL 2. For of 
the chinchilla. 3. Heavy, lone-napped cloth. 

Ghln' OOfagb' (chTn' kSfJ. (Fot chink cough.'} 
Whooping cough. 

Ohino (chin), n. [OF. etchine^ f r. OHO. tkina needle, 
prickle, ahin ; cf. L. spina thorn, spine, backbone.] 1. 
§pine of an animal. 2. Piece of an aninial*t backbone, 
with adjoining parts^cut for cookinff. 3. Edge or rim of 
a cask. -^v. t. 1. To cut through the backbone of ; 
to cut into chinea. 2. To chamfer (staves at the ends). 

Ohl-liom' (cht-n8x' or -nSV), a. Pertaining, or pecul* 
far, to China, ^n. sing. & pi. 1. A native or natives of 
Chhia. 2. ting. The monosyllabic language of China. 

Ohink (chTnk), n. [AS. c{n«, fr. Hnan to gape.] A 
■mall cleft or Basure. ^v. L To crack ; to open. ^ v. /. 
1. To open in cracks. 2. To fill up the chinks of. 

OUlIK, n. [Imitative. J 1. A short, sharp sound, as of 
metal struck smartly. 2. Money; cash. [Can/] — r. / 

&i. Tojingle.— d]llllk^,a. 

A North American 

COltn'qiu-ntll (chTnOcA-pTu), 
tree or ahrub allied to the chestnut. Also, its small, 
edible nut. [Written also chincanin and chinkapin.'] 

OhllttX (chinU ; 93), n. [Hindi chlnt spotted cotton 
doth. chUUa spot.] rriuted cotton cloth, often glased. 

Ohlp (chip), V. t.&i. [0. kippen to clip, pare.] To 
break or cut into small pieces. '— n. 1. Piece ; fragment. 
2. Wood or p«lm leaf split iuto slips, or straw Raited, 
tonuJcehats. 3. Counter in games of cards. 

Ohto'milllk' (-mCiQkOi n. [Indian name.] Aaqnirrel- 
animal, called 
also tlripedf 
chipping^ or 
ground tquir- 
re/, and haekre. 


phMT (kt.rOg'- 
rA-fJr), n. [Or. ^^. ,. ,^ .^. ^ . 

X»i p <S y p «^ o ? Chipmunk ( Tannas rtnortw). 

written ; ycip hand -f ypd^tiy to write.] A penman. 

Okl-rocra-pliy (-ffh **• l- ^^^ '^ o' writing or 
engrossing ; handwriting. 2. A telling fortunes by ex- 
amining the hand. — Om'ro-gniplllO (kPrft-grif^k), a. 

Ohl-na'O-gy (-r51'i-jy), n. [Or. x*ip + 'logy.l Use 
of signs by the hands, as a substitute for spoken or writ- 
ten language in Intercourse with the deaf and dumb. — 
Ghl-rol'o-glst, n. — OU-ro-loglo-al (-rft-lSjT-kal), a. 

OU'rO-lliail'Gir (kfrt-mSn'sj^), n. [Or. x"^ + 
-mancy.] A telling fortunes by insp^Rcting the hand. 

Olll-rop'O-dlSt (-r5p'*-dT8t), n. [Or. v^lp -f irow. 
iro3df, foot.] One who treats diseases of the hands and 
feet ; esp., one who removes corns and bunyons. 

CQlirp (chirp), V. i. [Imitative.] To make a short, 
■harp, cheerful sound, as of small birds or crickets. ^ 
n. The short, sharp note of a bird or insect. 

Ohlr'llip (chTr'riip), r. t. & i. To animate by chlrp- 
Inff : to chenip. ^ n. A chirping ; a chirp. 

Ohls'al (chlx'Sl), n. [OF. chUeU fr- LL. cisfUuSy fr. 
L. caetuty p. p. of caetlere to cut. Cf . Scissons.] A 
tool for shaping timber, stone, metal, etc. — r. /. 
[imp. & p. p. Chisblfd (-»lfl). or Chisbllbd; p. 
pr. & vb. n. Chiseliko, or Chiskllino.] To cut, 
pare, gouge, or engnve with a chisel. 

Chit (chit), n. [Cf. AS. cl* shoot, sprig] 1. 
The embryo or growing bud of a plant; a spronU 
2. A child ; a nnall or inaignincMit person or 
animnl. —r. i. To shoot out ; to sprout. 

Ollirchat (-chSt), n. Familiar talk ; prattle. 

Ohiyal-rto (shTv'oirTk), Ohiy'al-roiis (.rii»}, _ 
a. Pertaining to chivalry ; warlike; hiffh-min<1«Hi. cWgel. 

OhlV'al-ry (-ry), n. lF.rhrrnlfTif,fT.rhf^'alier 
knight, OF., horseman. Bee Cavalry.] 1. A body of 
cavaliers or knights; cavnlry. 2. Dignity, usages, or 
manners of knighthood ; valor, courtesy, etc. 

Ohtre (chlv), n. [F cive, fr. L. eepa, caepoy onkm.] 
A perennial plant allied to the onion. 

OhlO^nd (klS'ral), n. [CA/oHne + o/cohol.] 1. An 
oily liquid obtained bv action of chlorine upon alcohol. 2. 
Chloral hydrate, a white crystalline subetanoe, obtained 
by treating chloral with water, and used as a sedative. 

OhlO^te (-rtt), n. [F.] A salt of chloric add. 

OhlO'rtO (-rTk)« o. Pert, to, or obtained from, chlorine. 

OhlO'lite (-rid or -rid), n. A compound of chlorine 
with another element. — Ohlo-lld'lo (klft-rTd^k), a. 

OhUKlllM (klS'rTn or -rSn), n. [Or. x^P^ green.] 
One of the dements, a greenish yellow, poisonous gaa. 
Ita moat important compound is common salt. 

OhlOfro-funil (-rMOrm), n. [CA/oHne-{-/onnyl.] A 
volatile liquid formed by treating alcohol with chlorine 
and an alkali, and used as an anaesthetic. — r. -L To 
treat with chloroform, or to place under its influence. 

OhOOk (chSk), r. /. To fasten, as with a wedge or 
block; to scotch.— r. i. To fill iip, as a cavity. —n. 

Wedge preventing motion. — adv. Entirely ; quite. 
O^Wk'-fQll' (-folO. o- Quite full ; choke-full. 
Ohop'O-Ute (-O-lst), n. [8p., fr. Mexican name of the 

cacao.] 1. A pnate composed of roasted seeds of cacao 
and otner ingredienta. 2. Beverage made by dissolving 
thepaste in boiling water or milk. 

Onofoe (chois), n. [OE. & OF. choit; F. choitir 
to choose, t 1. A choosing ; preference of one thing to 
another. 2. Option. 3. Care in selecting ; discrimina- 
tion. 4. A sufficient number to choose among. 6. Thing 
or person chosen in preference to others. 6. Best part. 

Syn. — See Volition, Option. 
—a. 1. Worthy of being choeen or preferred. 2. Pre- 
serving with care ; — with of. 3. Sdected with care. 

Srn. — Select; precious; exquisite ; rare: careful. 

Oholr (kwir), n. [OF. cuer^ fr. L. chorus choral 
dance, chorus, choir, fr. Or. X9P^ dancing place.] 1. A 
band of singers, esp. in church service. 2- That part of 
a church appropriated to the singers. 3. A chancel. 

Obokt (cb5k), V. /. [Cf. AS. &ceocian to suffocate.] 
1. To stifle ; to suflTocate ; to strangle. 2. To obstruct ; to 
block up. 3. To check (growth, progress, etc.). ^v. ». 
1. To have the windpipe stopped : to have a spasm of tb« 
throat, caused bv iiritation of the windpipe. 2. To be 
checked ; to stick, ^n. Stoppage ; strangulation. 

Choks damp, carbon dioxide in wells, mines, etc 

Ghokf-fnll' (-(ylO, a. Quite full ; chock-fulL 

Obok'cr (chOnL^r), n. 1. One that chokea. 2. A 
■tiff wide cravat. [Slana'] 

Ohdkf ) i'^S)t a. 1. Tending to suffocate. 2. In- 

OhOk'ey \ cliued to choke. 

Ohol'ar (kSl'Sr), n. [F. colore anger, L. cholera a 
bilious complaint, fr. Or. x^^^P^ cholera, fr. x^^<h, x^i* 
bile.] 1. The bile; — formerly considered the seat of 
irascibility. [Obs.} 2. Irritetiou of thepasrions ; wrath. 

Ohol'er-A (-&), n. [L.] A disease affecting the diges- 
tive and intestinal tract. —Ohsl'm-tito (-ilk), a, 

Asiatic cholera, a rapidly fatal Asiatic di s ease, often 
epidemic in other lands.— Oholsra tnHkataa, a dangerous 
summer disease of infants. — Oholsra morbiis, a disease 
chnnctorized by vomiting and purging, with cramps. 

Ohol'er-io (-ik), a. [Or. xp^epucoc.] 1. Having, or 
producinir, oholer, or bile. 2. Easily irritated. 3. Angry. 

Ohon'drold (kQn'droid), a. [Gr. xSydfHK cartilage + 
■oid.2 Resembling cartilage. 

II Ohon-dros'te-l (-drSs'tJ-i), n. pi. [NL., fr. Or. 
x6ySpoi -f- ixrrwv bone.] An order of fishes. Including 
sturgeons, whose skeleton is cartilaginous. 

One of the Chondroctci (Ptepiwiu gladiw) of China. 
I (chSoz), r. /. [imp. Cross (chSz) ; p. p. Cbo- 

1, 8, 1, S, a, long ; &, fl, 1, 0, ft, ti aliort ; aanftte, dvent, tdea. Obey, finite, c4re, i&rm, iksk, nil, flnoL 



ama {ehjyt*n\ Cmn (06*.) ; p. pr. & vb. n. CROOsnro.] 
[ A9. ceSsan.J To make choice of. — v. i. 2. To select ; 
to decide. 2. To do otherwiBe. — OhOOt'cr (cbSte^r), n. 
Syn. — To Croosb; Prsfks: Elict: select; adopt; 
f oUow. — To choose denotes to take or fix u pon by an act 
of the will or deciaion of the hidgment. To prefer is to 
favor one thing as more deairable than another. To elect 
is to choose for some office, emplojrment, use, etc. 

OhOP (ch9p), V. /. [Cf. LO. & D. happen. Cf. Crap 
to crock.] 1. To cut into pieces; to mince. 2. To sever 
by blows of a sharp instrument ; to divide, ^v. i. To 
strike quickly with a sharp instrument. 

OboPr t*. /. [Cf. D. koopen to buy. See Chbafih, v. t."] 
To barter or truck ; to substitute one thing for another. 
— r. «. 1. To purchase by way of truck. 2. To shift 
suddenly, as the wind. 3. To wrangle, ^n. Change. 

GHop, r. /. & i. To chap. 

Cniop,n. 1. A chopping; a stroke. 2. A piece chopped 
off ; a slice. 3. A crack or cleft. 

Okop* n. [See Chap.I 1. A jaw of an animal. 2. A 
movable jaw or cheek of a viae, etc. 3. The land at each 
side of the mouth of a river, harbor, or channel. 

Obop, n. [Chm. & Hind, chhap stamp, brand.] 1. 
Quality ; brand. 2. A permit or clearance. 

OhOpiftll'eil (-fftl^'n), a. Having the lower chop or 
jaw depreased ; crestfallen ; dejected ; downcast. 

Obop'llOllBe' (-hous'), n. A house where chops, etc., 
are sold ; an eating house. [house. I 

Ohop'honM', n. [Fr.<;Aop quality.] Chinese custom- 1 

Oliop'par (-pir), n. One that chops. 

OhOpB (chBps), n. pi. [See Cnopa jaw.1 1. The jaws; 
fleshy parts about the mouth. 2. The sides or capes at 
the mouth of a river, channel, luirbor, or bay. 

OhOP'Bttok' (chOf/stTkO, n. One of two small sticks 
with which Chinese and Japanese take their food. 

CJluKral (k5'ral), a. Pertaining to a choir or chorus ; 
adapted to be sung in chorus or harmony. — n. A hymn 
tune ; a simple tune, sung in unison by the congregation. 
[StKnetiraes written ehorale.'\ — Oho'ral-lT, adv. 

OliOrd (k6rd), n. [L. chorda gut, string made of a 
gut. Or. x^^i ^ String of a musical instrument. 2. 
A harmonious combination of tones simultaneously per- 
formed. 3. A right line uniting the extremities of the 
arc of a circle or curve. 4. A cord, 
tendon, or nerve. 6. The upper or lower 
part of a truss, resisting compression or 
tension. — r. /. To provide with mu- 
sical chords or strings; to string; to 
tone. ^ V. i. To accord ; to harmoniae 

» (ch5r), n. [Same as char work 


(chBf)» n. [AS. eed."] A European Wrd of 
the Crow family. 

ObOOM (chous), V. /. [Turk. cAd&rA interpreter.] To 
defraud. «n. 1. Asiropieton; guU.. 2. Imposition. 

OllOW'OllOW' (chou'chouO, a. [Chin.1 Consisting of 
several kinds mingled together. — n. BUxed pickles. 

OhOW'dcr (-dSr), n. [F. ehaudih'e kettle, pot.] A 
dish made of fresh fish or clams, biscuit, onions, etc., 
stewed together, ^v. I. To make a chowder of. 

Ohrism (krTs*m), n. [AS. crigma^ LL. ehrUma^ 6r. 
ypiafia, fr. xpituf to anoint.] Consecrated oil usckI in 

done by the day.] A smaU job ; in p«., chord (.1). 
the dally light work of a household or AC\AB,ch.orA». 
{Arm. ^ r. i. To do chores. \U. 5.] 

n OkO'll-On (kS'rT-dn), n. [Or. xo?^''\ 1- ifl) ^« 
membrane investing the fetus in the womb, also many 
ova. (6) The cutis. 2. Outer membrane of seeds. 

OlMra-tor (kSras-tSr), n. One of a choir or chorus. 

OhO-rog^a-plMr (kft-rOg'ri-f^r), n. 1. One who maps 
or describewa region. 2. A geographical anti<juary.^ 

Oho-rof'ni-pliy (-fy), n. [Or. x^poypo^ta; x"P®* 

Slace -f ypo^ffiv to describe.] Map or description of a 
istrict. — CDMI'ro-cni^lo-ll (kS'rd-grSfOr-kal), a. 
OhO'rold (kyroid), a. [Or. X!^iw chorion -f- <T^ 
form.] Like the chorion, ^n. second coat of the eye. 
QhatTOM (-His), n. [L.; Or. xop<k. See Chois.;] 1. 
Band of singers. 2. Company of persons beholdmg a 
Oreek tragedy, and singing their sentiments between 
the acts ; passage thus sung. 3. A composition of two 
or more parts, each for a number of voices. 4. Parts 
of ^song recurring at intervals ; singers in such parts. 
» (ch5z), imp. A p. p. ot Choosi. 
«B (chS's'n),;?. p. of Choose. Selected from a 
number; picked out; choice. 

baj^sm, confirmation, ordination, etc. — Ohrlsllial, a. 
Uhzii'BlA- 1 

Thb Amointko ; an appell - 

■tO-ry (krTs'mA-ti-rj^), n. Vessel for chrism. 

Ollltet (krist), n. [L. Chrigtiu, Or. Xp4<rT«k, fr. j 
OT^ anointed, fr.ypiciK.] Thb Amointko; an appe 
tion of Jesus, the Savior, equivalent to Hebrew Messiah. 

Ohrlsleil (krls^'u), v. t. [AS. eristniany fr. erUteii 
Christian.] 1. To baptize and give a Christian name to. 
2. To style. 3. To use for the first time. [Co/to^.l 

Ohrlston-dcai (-dam), n. [as. crutenddm; crtslen 
-f •dom.'] 1. That portion of the world in which Chris- 
tianity prevails. 2. The whole bodv of Christians. 

Ohns^Uan (-chon ; 2G), n. [L. chrUtianus; AS. erit- 
ten."} One who believes in Jesus Christ ; one whose life 
is conformed to Christ's doctrines. — a. 1. Pertaining to 
Christ or his rellgrion. 2. Profesdng, or practicing, Chris- 
tianity. — OhrtS-tlaal-ty (-chin^-tj^ or -chl-En^). n. 

Olins'litll-lia (-chan-iz), v. t. A t. To make or be- 
come Christian. — OhllS'tlaB-l-ia'tiOII, n. 

CnulsfnyUi (krTs^mas), n. [Chrigt -f mau."] The 
festival (December 26) of Christ^s nativity. 

dUO-matlo ^kr^mStTk), a. [Or. xP«»^ruc^ suited 
forcolor,fr. xp«>v<ui, -/iaroc, color.] 1. Relating to colors. 
2. Proceeding by the smaller intervals (half steps or 
semitones) of the musical scale. 

Otaro-maflOS (-Tks), n. Science of colors. 

OhrODM (kr5ra), Onro'llll-lim (krS'mT-iim), n. [NL. 
chromium^ fr. Or. XP^I*^ color.] A chemical element 
difficult to fuse. Its compounds are used in dyeing, etc. 

Ohn/mo (krS'mft), n. [Abbr.] Chromolithograph. 

Oliro'mo-lltil'O-cnipIl (-ITth'ft-gr&f), n. [Or. xfi^^ 
-{- E. lUhograph."] Picture lithographed in colors. 

OhronlO (krSuTk), OhronlO-il, a [Or. xpovuco^ con- 
cerning time, fr. xP^vik time.! 1. Relating, or accord- 
ing, to time. 2. Continuing for a long time ; habitual. 

Ohronl-OlO (-T-k'l), n. [Or. xP^^^i n^ut. pi. of 
ypoi'uc^f.] 1. Historical account of events in order of 
time. 2. Record. —v.<. To record. — Ohronl-clor, n. 

8yn. — See Hutobt. 

Ohron'o-Kiam (-<-gr8m), n. [Or. XP<^<^ + yp<iM/*a 
writing, character.] 1. An inscription whose letters 
express a date. 2. Inscription made by a chronograph. 

Obron'O-gimph (-grif), n. [Or. xP^vm + -graph."] 
Instrument to record intei 

r intervals of time. 

Obro-nof'ra-iilMr (kr6-n5g'rA-f2r), Ohio-md'o-fer 

(-nSl'ft-jSr), n. One skilled in chronology ; chronologtst. 

OhnK-nol'O-ffy (-n5l'«-jy), n. [Or. xpoi^Aoyta ; xf^Mx 
-f- A^yof discourse. ] Science of measuring time and dat- 
ing events. — Ohro-nol'o-glst ( -jTst ), n. — Ohron'o- 
lOC^ (krSn't-ISjTk), Oliron'O-lOClo-al, a. 

Ohro-nom'e-ter (krft-n5m'$-tSr), n. [Or. xp&f^oi -f 
-meter.] A very exact portable timekeeper. — uhroa'O- 
nMttlO (krSn'ft-raet'rTk), 01iroil'0-mot'rt04d, a. 

Otaro-nom'e-try (-tr^), n. Art of measuring time. 

01ir7S'A-lii(krIa'&-ll8), n. ;pl. Chbtsalidbs (krTs-Sl^- 
T-dSz). [L., the gold-colored pupa of butterflies. Or. 
Xpvo-oAAic, fr. xpva69 KO^^^O Pups state of butterflies, 
etc., from which the perfect insect emerges. 

Oliryv-ftll'tlie-miim (krTs-Sn'tht-m&m), n. [L., fr. 
Or. xpvo-ay^cfioi' ; xpv<nk -f w^MOv flower.] A genus of 
composite plants, mostly perennial. 

Ohrys'O-beryl (krTs'i.b«r/Tl), n. [Or. XP»'<«>^^ 
pvAAo? ; x9^^^ + ^>)pvAAof beryl.] Yellowish mineral 
used as a gem. 

ieru, mcent, 6rb, r^de, f^ll, ttnk, food, fo'ot, uu;, oil, cliair, bo, ains, ink, then, tfain. 




-f AtVaf atooe.] A in'e^nUh miiMrml. 

Oknrs'O-pffaM (-prCi), n. [Or. xpvtf^poooc ; XP»^ 
+ irpoffor leek.] An apple-green Tariety of chalcedony. 

OttUb (obttb), n. [CL Sw. kubb thick pieoe of wood.] 
A f reah-water fUh of the Carp family ; cheven. 

dlllb^ (-h^)t A* I^ke a chub ; ahort and thick. 

Okntfk (cbOk), V. f. rimitatire.1 To make the noiae 
of a hen calling her chickens ; to cluck. ^ v. /. To call, 
as a hen her cmckens. — n. The cluck of a hen. 

01lllOk« r. /. [F. choquer to atrike.1 1. To strike 
gently. 2. To toes smartly out of the hand ; to pitch. 
iCoUogA 3. To hold by means of a chuck, as in turn- 
ing ; to bore or turn (a hole) in a revolving piece held in 
a chuck.— n. 1. A slight blow under tti chin. 2. A 
toes. 3. Holder fixed to a lathe. 

01liud[« n. A piece of an animal's backbone between 
nerk and collar bone, cut for cooking. ICoUog."] 

Olrao^e (-kH), n. A short, suppressed laugh of exul- 
tation or deri^on. — r. i. To laugh derislTely. 

Ohnm (chttm), n. [Perh. contr. fr. comrade.'] A 
roommate, esp. in a college ; an intimate friend. 

Ohimk (chiink), n. A short, thick piece of ainrthlng. 
-01milk^(^,a. iU.S.I 

Ohnroh (chttrch), n. [AS. cvrict; fr. Or. Kvpiac^ 
the Lord's house, fr. jrvpto« lord.] 1. A building for 
Christian worship. 2. An organised body of GhriatUn 
believers, of like creed, rites, and ecclesiaatical authority ; 
a denomination. 3. The oollective body of Christians. 

OhnndllBtB (-man), n. 1. An ecclesiastic or cleigy- 
man. 2. AnEDlscopaJian.— OlL1iro]l'lliaB-alllp,f». 

Ollliroll'wara'eil (-wi^rd'^n), n. A lay oflloerin charge 
of pecuniary affairs of an Episcopal church. 

Chlindl^Srtltt' (-yiird'), n. Oround adjoining a church, 
In which the dead are buried ; a cemetery. 

Syn. — Burial place ; graveyard ; Ood*s acre. 

Ohnil (ohQrl), n. [AS. eeort.] 1. A rustic ; laborer. 
2. A rough, iU-bred man ; boor. 3. A miser.— Qml'- 
lili, a, — Ohinlflali-ly, adv. — Ohinllili-iiaM, n. 

Olmni (chQm), n. [AS. eeren.'] Vessel for agitating 
milk or cream so as to separate the oily globuMs, and 
obtain butter, ^v. t. 1. To agitate (miUc or cream In a 
chum) and make butter. 2. To shake violently. 

01l1llll1ll|:, n. 1. The act of one who chums. 2. 
Quantity ofbutter made at one operation. 

Ohntt (shSM), n. [F.] A water trough. 

Ohylt (kn>, R. [Or. x^K6t juice, chyle, fr. x^«*>' to 
pour. J A milky fluid containing the fatty matter of food, 
and conveyed into the blood. — OhylOIUi (kinQn), a. 

OhyH-Wtton (kTn-fXk'shiin or kl'lT-). OhyH-tl- 
OatlOD, n. [Chyle + L. faeere to make.] Formation 
of chyle from food in anlnud bodies. 

OhTllie (kirn), n. [L. chffmu4 chyle, Qr.j(yn6t juice, 
fr. x«*^0 ^^ P^ilpy mass of semi-digestec 
■mall intestines after leaving the stomach. 

Ohym'lo (kTmTk), a. Cliemic. 

OI-«a'd« (sT-kSM4), n. [L.] Hemipterous insect, the 
male of which makes a shrill, gmting sound. 

aiCA-trtoe (BTk'A-trTs), n. [F.I A cicatrix. 

llGi-oa'tltK (sT-ki'trTks), n. IL.] Pellicle formed 
over a wound, subsequently contracting into a scar. 

Ok/a-trlM (sTk'A-trlz), V. /. & i. To heal or form a 
cicatrix hi (flesh). — dO'a-tri-IAttoll (trT-sa'shnn), n. 

II d'oe-ro'lieCchS'cht-rS'nt ; E. nU't-rVni). n. [It, 
fr. L. Cicero^ the orator] A guide to local curiosities. 

OI'dOT (si'dSr), n. [F. cidre.'\ The expressed juice of 
apples, used as a beverage, for making vinegar, etc. 
II Ol'-d«-T«nf (sS'dc-vSif'), /I. [F.] Former. 

Ot-gir' («T-gar'), n. [Sp. cigarro^ orig., a kind of to- 
bacco in Cuba.] A small roll of tobacco, for smoking. 

Ol^a-rttte' (sTg'i-retO, n. [F.] a Httle cigar; a 
little fine tobaoco rolled in p«per for smoking. 

n OUl-A (•TlT-4), n. pi. [L. cUium eyelid.] 1. The 
eyelashes. 2. Small vibrating appendages lining certoin 

food in the 

organs of animals. 3. Hnlrlike ptec ess e a of plaata. — 
OU'te-ry (sIl'yA-fJ or -I-t-rj^ ; 2G), a. 

I Qi'mUL (sl'm«ks), n. ; pi. CuncBS (sTmnf-eis). [L.] 
A genus of insects, including the bedbug. 

abMdW'lDa (sTn-kS'ni), n. [Fr. the wife of Cktnektm^ 
viceroy of Peru, whom It cured of intermittent fever.] 
1. A genus of trees. 2. Bark of this tree, containing 
febrifuge alkaloids ; Peruvian bark ; Jesuits* bark. 

dnc^tmra (sTnk'tftr: 40), n. [L. cindura, fr. ein- 
gere, ciuchtm. to gird.] A belt ; girdle ; fillet. 

OlB'dOT (sTn'dSr), n. [AS. sinder shig, droas.] 1. 
Partly burned coal or other combustible. 2. An ember. 
3. Scale thrown off in forging metal. 4. Blsg of a fur- 
nace, or scoriaceous lava from a volcana — Obt'dW-y* a. 

OlB'ar-A-ffy (-8r-t-iy), a. [L. eineroHuSt fr. cinU 
ashes.] Pertaining to, or containing, ashes. [asbea. | 

CHlfcr-AtlOII (-i'shfin), n. The burning aojrthing to I 

(Bn^ar-itlOlll (-Tsh'tts), a. [L. emeHHuMt fr. einu.} 
Likeaahes; having the color of aahes. 

Otaflia-tar (-ni-bl&r), n. [Or. xuv^/kipi.] Red nil> 
phide of mercury, used in medicine and as a pigment. 

(Bll'lia-IIIOII (-mlin), M. {Tleb.qinnSm9n.i (o) Inner 
bark of the shoots of a tree of Cfeylon. one of the best 
cordial, carminative, and restorative spices, (ft) Cassia. 

OtiMVM (sTnk), n. [F., fr. L. quinqw five.] Five. 

CtBOIMlOir (-foiF), n. iCingue -f /ot7, V.femUe leaf.] 
1. Plant whose leaves resemble the fingers of the hand. 2 ■ 
An architectural ornamental foliation having five cusps. 

OI'MI (dlln), n. [OF.J Scion. 

Gi'plMr (-iSr), n. [OF. eifre sero. LL. eifra, fr. Ar. 
fijrun empU, cipher, sero.] 1. A oiaracter [Oj which, 
standing bv Itself, expresses nothhag, but when Maoed at 
the right hand of a whole number, increases its value 

tded by a dugle curve line ^..^^ 
nmre, every part of which Z' \l 
i from a point within it, ( 1 

2. The line boundinjT such V J 
ference; ring. 3. An as- ^*'— -^ 

tenfold. 2. One having no weight or Infinenoe. 3. A 

combination of letters, as the ini^ds of a 


represents t 

vste 1 

characters. • 

practice a 

V. t. 1. To write in occult characters. Cipher. 
2. To ascertain by ciphering. 

Cb^Oto (sSrOLM), n. [OE. & F. eercle, fr. L. eircvlut, 
dim. of circvtf Or. leptcoc, lecpMK, circle, ring.] 1. A 
plaiM figure, bounded by a single curve line 
called its circvm/erence^ ' " ' 

is equally distant 
called the center. \ 
a figure ; circumference ; 

tronomical instrument whose graduated Uu b circle, 
consists of a circle. 4. Compass; circuit; 
inclosure. 6. A class of societv ; coterie ; set. 6. A 
series ending where it begins, and repeating Itadf. 

Syn.— Ring; circlet; compass; circuit; Inclosure. 
—v./. 1. To move around. 2. To surround; to encir- 
cle. — r. i. To move circularly ; to circulate. 

Olr'otot (-kl8t), n. 1. A littie circle ; that which en- 
circles, as a ring, bracelet, etc. 2. A round body : orb. 

Otr'cillt (-kTt), n. [F., fr. L. cireuihu; eireum 
around -f- tfre to go.] 1. A revolving around, or as in a 
circle or orbit ; a revolution. 2. Circumference of any 
space. 3. Space inclosed within a circle, or within llmita. 
4. A regular journeying from place to place, as of a judge, 
or a preacher. 6. Territorial district of a judge or an 
itinerant preacher. 

Otr-eiil-toiui (-kuT-t&K), a. Qcing round In a cii^ 
cuit; roundabout; indirect. —0ir-01ll-tinis4y,<Mfv. 

Syn. — Tortuous; winding; sinuous; serpenttne. 

Cttr'Cll-lar (sSr^cft-lSr), a. 1. In the form of a circle ; 
round. 2. Repeatingitself; reverting to the point of be- 
ginning ; illogical ; inconclusive. 3. Addreaseo to ^ circle 
of persons having a common intere»t.^n. A circular 
letter addresned to various persons. — Otr'on-lar-ly, etdv. 

— dron-lar^-ty (-wm-ty). n. 

ft, 8, 1, o, a, tong ; ft, fi, 1, 5, a, t, short ; senftte, dvtnt, tdea, 6bey, finite, cftre, ttrm, ftak, §11, finoL 




Ota^OB-lato (•Sr0c9-lit), v.LAt. [L. eirenlare^ 4atum, 
V. t., to iMUTOund, ukJkkB ronndf eireularif v. L, to gather 
into a circle.] X. To tuove iu m circle ; to more round 
and retom to the same point. 2. To pMS from place to 
plaoe, from pera<m to peraon, or from hand to hand ; to 

87n.— To spread; diffuse; propagate; disseminate. 

Oiroil-U'tlon, n. 1. A moving in a circle. 2. A 
psflsiug from place to place or person to person ; trana- 
miuion. 3. Currency; circulating coin; notes, bills, 
etc, current for coin. 4. Extent to which anything 
drculates. 5. Movement of the blood in the blood- 
Tascular system, or of sap in the tissues of plants. 

Olj/on-U'tor (•IS'tSr), n. [L.] One tliat circuUtes. 

Olr'Cll-la-tO-rT (-U^ii-xt), a. 1. Circular. 2. Gir- 
col Uing, or going round. 

OlroiUB-aiBln-tllt (B8r^am-imn>T-ent), a. [Pref. 
cireum- -f- ambientJ] Surrounding ; being on all sides. 

OifOVm-Ull'bll-lAte (-bfi-lat), v. i. [L. eireumambu- 
iaret -lotting to walk around; eireum -{- ambuUtre to 
walk.] To walk round. — Olr'oillll-aill'bll-la'tlOll, n. 

OkrOQMrOlM9 (-us), V. t, [L. eUrcumeidere^ -cisttm ; 
eireum -f- caedere to cut.] 1. To cut off the foreskin 
of. 2. To chasten. 

Otr^eom-Ol'llfNi (-sTs Vttn), n. 1. A circumcising. 2. 
(a) The Jews. (6) Spiritu:il purification. 

dr-cnaftU-VkO^ (-kBmf8r-ens), ». [L. eireuw^feren- 
tia; eireum -\-ferre to bear.] 1. Line encompassing a 
circular figure. 2. External surface of a sphere or 
orMcuUr body. — 01r-01llll'f«r-«llti«l (-Sti'shal), a. 

Otr-oaoi'ltr-WI'Mr (-Cn'tSr), n. A surveying instru- 
ment, for taking horixontal angles and bearings. 

Otr^cmil-ftas (-dSlu), n. [L cireumflexu* a bending 
round, fr. cireumflertere^ -flexum^ to turn about ; eireum 
-f- jUiAere to bend.] 1. A wave of the voice embracing 
b<rth a rise and fall on the same syllable. 2. An accent 
\^ or*] denoting in Greek a rise and fall of the voice on 
the same long syllable ; in Latin denoting a long and con- 
te*acted BylliS>le, marked T oc '^^ — ^' '• "^o mark or 
pronounce with a circumflex. — a. Curved circularly. 

Otr-eumllll-est (-flt-«nt), ) a. TL. eireum/tuensy p. pr. 

Cttr-eum^ll-OllS (-B^), I of eircumfiuere ; eircitm 
-{-fiuere to flow ; also L. eircumfluus.l Flowing round. 

m'Olllll-fllM' (aSr'kam-fui'), v. /. [h, eircumfun- 
dere, -fusum, to pour around ; eireum -\- fundert to 
ponr.l To pour round. — Oir^oani-fa'flOll, n. 

ObMnun-la'Otllt (-jS's«nt), a. [L. eireumiaeenty p. pr. 
of eireumjaeere ; eireum -i-jacSre to lie.] Lying round. 

Otr'OUII-lO-Oll'tloa (-Id-ku'sh&u), n. [L. eircumlo- 
eutiOt fr. eireumioquiy 4oeulus; eireum -\- loqui to 
speak. 1 Use of many words to express an idea that 
might 09 expressed by few ; roundabout language ; peri- 
phr%ae. — Olr'OIUII-loya-tO-rT (-lOk'A-tt-rj^), a. 

OtMram naT^-f a e (-nlv^-gSt), r. /. [L. eireum- 
naviffare, -gatum; eireum 4- navigare to navisate.] To 
•%il completely round. — Otr'Olllll-naTfl-ga-Dle, n. — 

CUroinii-BaT'i-ga'tfoB, n. — Cttrooai-iiaT^-ga'tor, n. 

Otrovm-polar (-pS12r), a. [Pref. eireum- + polar.} 
About, or near, the pole. 

(BfOOm-po-li'tiOll (-p<(-zTsh'Qn), n. ^L. eireum -f po- 
nere, pogitum^ to place J A placing, or being, round about. 

Oir'OllBI-ro'tate (-rij'tit), v.t.&t [L. cireumroUire ; 
eireum -(- rotnre to turn.] To rotate about. — Olr^Olllll- 

nKta-ry, -ro^a-to-ir, a, — Otaronm-io-ta'tloii, n. 

Otaroom-BGrilld' (-skrlV), v. t. [L. eireumtcHhere, 
-seriptum ; eireum -f seribere to write.] 1. To inclose ; 
to hem in; to restrain. 2. "^o draw a line around (a 
figure) so as to touch at certain points without cutting. 

Sjn,— To bound : limit ; restrict ; conflne ; abridge ; 
restrain ; environ ; encircle ; inclose ; encompass. 

OiroOfli-BOllptlOB (•skrTp'sh&n), n. 1. Exterior line 
of a body ; periphery. 2. A limiting, or being limited. 

Cttl'ttUJB-ipMt (-spSkt), a. [L. eircumspicere, -tpee- 
tumt to observe ; eireum -f- tpieere^ tpecere^ to look.] 

Attentive to all the circnmatanoes of a case or probi 
ctmaequenoes of an action. — Otf^OOai-spOOt-iy (sSr'- 
kfim-sp6kt-iy), arfr. — Ctr'inUBrSpMt-IIMa, n, 

Syn. — See CAimous. 

(nroillll-^M'tlOB (-spSk'sh&n), n. Attention. 

Byn. — Caution ; prudence; watchfulness; delibera- 
tion ; thoughtf ulnees ; wariness ; forecast. 

Cttr^omn-BptO^Tt, a. Looking around ; watchful. 

Otr'Olim-BtailOO (-stins), n. [L. eireumstaniiay fr. 
ct'rcuifutoiM, -on/if, p. pr. of eireum*tare ; eireum -{- ttare 
to stand.] 1. That which attends, or affects, a fact. 2. 
An event ; particular hMsident. 3. pi. Condition in re- 
gard to property ; surroundings, ^v. t. To situate. 

Syn. — Event ; occurrence ; incident ; situation ; con- 
dition : position ; fact : detail ; item. See EvBirr. 

Otronin-Btail'tlal (-st&u'shal), a. l. Consisthig In, 
or pertaining to, circumstances or particular incidents. 

2. Incidental. 3. Abounding with circumstances ; par- 
ticular.— n. Something incidental, but of minor im- 
portance ~ Oir'oiiiii-staiB'tlal-ly, adv. 

Srn. — See Munrra. 

C&r'Olllll-Stanti-ato (-sliT-£t), v. t. l. To circum- 
stance. 2. To prove by circumstances ; to detail. 

Oir^omn-TallatB (-viinst), r. /. [L. eireumvallare, 
-latum ; eireuih -f vaUare to wall, fr. vallum rampart.] 
To surround with a wall. — Otr'Olllll-Tal-latioll, n. 

Cttr^omn-TOllf (- v8nt') , v. t. [L. eireumvenire^ -ventus^ 
to deceive ; eireum 4- venire to come.] To gain advan- 
tage over by arts or deception. — Olr'oillll-TeiltlOll, n. 

Cttr'OIUII-TO-lll'tloa (-vft-lu'shfin), n. 1. A rolling 
round ; a being rolled. 2. Thing irolled round another. 

OttaamrWWrt^ (-v51%0. v.t.dti. [L. eircumvolverey 
'Volutum ; eireum -|- rolrere to roll.] To roll round. 

Otr'CIIB (sSrntfia), ». [L , circle, ring, circus.] X* 
Among the ancient Romans, a level oblong space for 
chariot races, games, and public shows. 2. A circular 
incloeure for exhibiting feats of horsemanship, acrobatic 
dispUjrs, etc. Also, the company of performers. 

II Oirrt-pa'ai-a (sYr/rl-pCdl-A), n. jtl. [NL., fr. L. 
eirrut a curl -f pety pedis j foot.] An order of Crustacea, 
including barnacles, which throw out from their shells 
curved legs, looking like delicate curls. 

II Olr'niB (sTr'rtts), n. ; pi. Cibki (-ri). [L., curl, ring- 
let.] [Also written eirrkus.'] 1. A tendril, clasper, or 
tactile appendage. 2. A form of cloud. 

OiS4d?pilM (sTs-ll'pTn or -pin), a. [L. Cualpinw; 
ei» on this side -f Alpinut Alpine.] On the hither 
(Roman), or south, side of the Alps. 

Cirat-laiimo(-Kt-lKnaTk),a. l^nt.ei4--\- AtlanHe.} 
On this (the speaker's) side of the Atlantic Ocean. 

OlB-ttr'Olail (sTs-tSr'shan), n. [LL. Cistercium, F. 
CUeauXy a convent near Dijon, in France.] A monk of 
a branch of the Benedictine Order.— a. Pertaining to 
the Cistercians. [reservoir or tank. I 

OlS^tflm (-tSrn), n. [L. cistemny fr. ciUn box.] Aj 

Ott'a-d«l (^Tt'i-del), n. [It. eiUadellay dim. of eUth 
city, f r. L. ciHtnt. See Cmr.] Fortress in or near a city. 

8yn. — See Fobtrbbs. 

Gtt-talion (st-tS'shiin), n. [F. ; LL. cUatiOy tt. L. 
citare to cite.] 1. A citing; summons to appear. 2. 
Quotation; words quoted. 3. Enumeration; menUon. 

OKU-tO-ry (ai'tA-tt-rj^), a. Citing. 

OitS (sit), V. t. [L. ciiarey intens. of eire to excite.] 
1. To summon officially or authoritatively. 2. To quote ; 
to repeat (a passage from a book, or the words of another). 

3. To specify, for support, proof, illustration, etc. 4. 
To notify of a proceeding in court. — Oifer ('"i'tJr), n. 

Srn* — To mention ; refer to ; summon. Sise Quotb. 

(Atll'ani (sTth^m), n. A cittern. 

Oitl-Mn (sTtT-x'n), n. 1. A freeman of a city. 2. 
An inhabitant of a city ; townsman. 3. One, native oi 
naturalized, owing allegiance to a government, and en- 
titled to protfW!tion from it. — Oitl-SMI-Bllte, n. 

Git'rato (nTt'rtt), n. A salt of citric acid. 

Otttlo (-rTk), a. Pertaining to the citron or lemon. 

fira, reont, 6rb| ryda, fyll, ttra, ftfbd, f(n>t, oat, oU, chair, so, sins, igk, then, UUii* 


Oif)rtB« (sTt'rTn), a. Like « citron or lemon ; of a 
lemon color. — n. A yellow, pellucid rariety of quarts. 

Oit'ron (-riiu), n. [F. ; L. citrH* citron tree, fr. Or. 
KiTpotf citron. ] 1. A fruit resembling a lemon, but larger, 
and pleasantly aromatic. 2. A citron tree. 3. A citron 
melon, a small variety of muskmelon, also of watermelon. 

Ottteni (-t8ru), n. [A8. cytere^ fr. L. cithara^ Or. 
KiOipa.] A musical instrument shaped like a lute, but 
strung witti wire and played with a quill or plectrum. 

OUT ("ttT^), n. [OE. cUe, F. cUi, fr. L. eivitas citi- 
senship, state, city, fr. civi* citizen.] 1. A large town. 
2. A corporate town. —a. Pertaining to a city. 

Syn. — See Villaob. 

(ttT'Ot («Tv'«t), n. [F. eiveUe civet, civet cat, fr. LOr. 
^orc'rioy, fr. Ar. subad civet.] 1. A substance taken 
from glands of the civet, of a muskv odor. 2. A carniv- 
orous animal of northern Africa and Asia. 

QiY^ (-Tk), a. [L. civiciUt It. dm*. See Cmr.] 
Relating to a city, a citizen, or civil affairs. 

OtF^(-Tl), a. [L. ciiMix, fr. civis.l 1. Pertaining to 
a city or state, or to a citizen. 2. Subject to govern- 
ment ; civilized ; not barbarous. 3. Having polite man- 
ners; courteous; complaisant; affable. 4. Pertaining 
to civic affairs, in distinction from military, ecclesiaa- 
tical, or otBcial state. 6. Relating to rights sought by 
suit distinct from criminal proceedings. 

01-vU'lAB («T-vTl'yon), n. 1. One skiUed in civil law. 
2. One following civic pursuits, not military or clerical. 

W-vU'l-ty (-I-ty), n. IL. civUitas.} Courtesy; good 
breeding ; a polite act or expression. 

Syn. —Urbanity ; affability ; complaisance. 

OlTl-llsO (si va-Uz}, t?. t. [Cf. F. civiliser, it. L. 
eivilis civil.] To reclaim from a savage state; to edu- 
cate : to refine. —Otvl-ll'Mr, n. ~OiV^l-ll-IA'tieil, n. 

OlT^-ly (-ll-lj^), adv. In a civil manner ; as regards 
civil rights and privileges ; politely ; courteously. 

OUbOMT (klin/bSr), n. [See BoHNTCLABBBa.] Milk 
curdled till thick, — r. i. To become clabber. 

Glaok (klSk), v. i. [Prob. imitative.] 1. To make a 
sudden, sharp noise, or a succession of noises ; to rattle ; 
to click. 2. To utter words rapidly and continually. — 
n. 1. A sharp, abrupt noise. 2. Anything that causes 
a clacking noise. 3. Continual talk ; prattle. 

Olaok'er (-3r), n. One that clacks : clapper of a mill. 

dad (klSd), imp. & p. p. of Clothb. 

OUdm (klam), v. t. [L. damare to cry out ; colore 

to procUUm, Or. koXuv to call.] To ask for by author- 
ity or right; to demand as due.— r. i. To be entitled 
to anything. — n. 1. A demand of right ; assertion of 
ariffht or fact. 2. Right to demand something; title. 
3. Thing demanded ; that to which one has a right. — 
OUlm'a-U*, a. — Olalm'Ant, Olalin'or, n. 

OUUr-TOy'anoe (klftr-voi'ans), n. [F., fr. dair clear 
-|- voyanty p. pr. of voir to see.] Discernment, while in 
a mesmeric state, of objects not perceptible by the nor- 
mal senses. — OUlr-TOy'AIlt, a. & n. 

01am (kISm), n. [Cf. Clam, v. /.] 1. A bivalve mol- 
lusk of many kinds. 2. pt. A kind of vise or forceps. 

Olaoi, t'. /. [Cf. AS. clxman to clam, smear; akin 
to E. clammi/.2 To clog, as with glutinous matter. 

Olam, n. [ Abbr. f r. clamor.'] Clangor made by ring- 
ing all bells of a chime at once. ^ r. t. Ai. To clang. 

Ola'mailt (kll'mant), a. [L. cUtmnnsy p. pr. of da- 
mare to call.] Crying earnestly or clamorously. 

OlamlMr (klSm'ber), v. i. [OE. dambrrn, dameren.'] 
To climb with difficulty, or with hands and feet. 

Olam'my (-my), «. [Cf. as. dam clay.] Viscous; 
soft and sticky ; adheHive. — Olam'mi-ness, n. 

Olan'or (-Sr), n. [L. damor^ fr. dnmare to cry out.] 
1. A great outcry ; loud and continued exclamation. 2. 
A continued expression of diitcontent. — v. t. & i. To 
demand loudly and importunately. — Olam'or-ons, a. — 
Olam'or-au-ly, adv. — Olam'or-ons-neas, n. 

Syn. — Outcry; exclamation; noise; uproar. 


aiaa» (klimp), n. [LO. & D. Uamp; D. UamjMn 
to clasp. J 1. Something rigid used to hold pieces together, 
or to strengthen. 2. A thick plank in a ship's side, to 
sustain the ends of beams. — v. /. To unite firmly. 

COamy,!!. [Prob. imitative. Cf. Clane.] A heavy 
footstep ; a tramp. » r. t. To tread clumsily ; to tdampi. 

OUb (kiln), n. [OaeL dann offspring, dmcendanta.] 
1. A tribe under a cliieftain, having the same common 
ancestor and surname. 2. A clique ; a sect, society, or 
body of persons united by some common interest. 

Olail-dMtllM (-d&'tlu), a. [L. dandestiHUSy fr. dam 
secretlvv] Conducted with secrecy. — OlaB-dOStlllt-ly, 

adv. • 

Sjn. — Hidden ; secret; private; concealed; under- 
hand ; sly ; stealthy ; surreptitious ; furtive ; fraudulent. 

daag (klSug), V. I. [L. dattgeie ] To strike togetlier 
so as to produce a rin^g metallic sound. — r. i. To re- 
sound, ^n. Loud, nngmg sound of colliding metal. 

OlMBfmat (klfts'gSr), n. [L., fr. dangere.'} A sharp, 
handi, nnging sound. — OUB'KOr-ailS, a. 

dank (klink), n. [Imitative. Cf. Claho.] A sharp, 
ringing sound*, made by collision of sonorous bodies. ^ 
V. t. &i. To sound with a clank. 

dan'nl^ (klSn'nTsh). a. Pertaining to a clan ; ex- 
clusively devoted to one's clan or clique; actuated by 
prejudices, habits, etc., of a clan. — Olail'lllBll-ly, adv. 

— danlilali-nesa, n. — dan'shlp, n. — daiia'iiiaii, a. 

dap (klftp), V. t. [AS. dappan. ] 1. To slap ; to strika 
together noisily. 2. To thrust, put, or close hastilv. 3. 
To applaud. ^r. i. 1. To strike the hands together in 
applause. 2. To come togetlier noisily, ^n. 1. Loud 
collision; bang. 2. Sudden explosion. 3. A stroke; 
blow. 4. A striking of hands in approbation. 

daplNMUrA (kUn/b(^rd), fi. A narrow board, thicker 
at one edge than at the other, for weatlierboarding houses. 
— V, t. To cover (a house) with clapboards. {U. S.'y 

dap'pw, n. 1. One who claps. 2. That which strikea 
or claps, as the tongue of a bell, piece of wood that 
strikes a mill hopper, etc. 

dap'per-<d«w(-kJR),f./. iClap -{- daw.] 1. To fight 
and scratch. 2. To levile ; to scold; Cl>ug'| 

dap'trap'(-trXp'), n. a trick to gain applause; hum-| 

dare'-OD-BOUre' (klftr'Ob-skur'), n. [L. darH» clear 
•4- obscurtis obscure.] Chiaroscuro. [wine. | 

dar'Ot (klSr'St), n. [OE. & OF.] A French red] 

dar'i-ty (-f-fi), «•• '• & «• [L. darijlcare; darut -\- 
/ocere to make.] To clear ; to purify ; to brighten; to 
defecate. —dar'i-fi'er, n. — dar4-U-oatlon, n. 

darl-net' (-T-nfif), n. [F. daHneUe, it. L. darus.] 
Musical reed instrument. 

darl-<m (-Qu), n. [OF., fr. L. ctortw.] A trumpet, 
having a clear and shrill note. 

darl-o-net' (klSr/T-6-n«tO, n. Bee CLABmcr. 

da'ro-Olhaoil'ro (kl&'rft-ob-skS&'rft), n. Chiaroscuro. 

Olaall (kl&sh), V. i. & t. [Imitative.] 1. To strike 
noisily; to interfere (with).— n. 1. Noisy collision. 2. 
Opposition; contradiction. 

Olasp (kl&^p), V. t. [Prob. akin to E. dap.] 1. To 
shut with a clasp. 2. To grasp. 3. To surround and 
cling to.— n. 1. A catch or hook. 2. Close embrace, 
grasp, or graspinfr. — dasp'OT. n. 

Olasp knife, a knife wlioae blade folds into the handle. 

Olass (kl4s). n. [L. dasii* class, collection, fleetj 1. 
A group of individuals ranked together as similar. 2. A 
number of students pursuing like studies. 3. A compre- 
hensive division of similar animate or inanimate objects, 
Rubdivided into orders, families, tribes, genera, etc. 4. 
Set ; species ; variety. — r. ^ & t. To group ; to classify. 

Olaa'alo (kl&/stk), a. [L. dnssieu* relating to the 
classes of the Roman people, esp. to the first class ; supe- 
rior ; fr. daxsi*.'] 1. Relating to the first class or rank, 
esp. in literature or art. 2. Pert, to the ancient Greeks 
and Romans, or their literature. 3. Ch&stn ; refined, -^n. 
1. A work of authority, or its author. 2. One learned 

», 9, 1, 5, a, long ; &, d, T, 0, 0, % short ; senftte, «vsnt, tdea, Obey, finite, cAre, ftrm, ask, f^, finoL 




in the literature of Greece «nd Rome. — GUs'glo-al 
(klSa'iiT-kal), a. ~ OUs'slo-al-ly, adv. 

aUu^wiif (-fy), V. t. [L. clas^ + -yy.] To dbtrib- 
nte into claaMe ; to mrrange. — GUui'al-ll-oa'tloll, n. 

OkBMfmkt^ (-mSt/), n. One in the name claaa. 

COAtlar (kUU't8r), V. t. [AS. clatntng rattle.] 1. To 
make abrupt, rattling sounds. 2. To talk fast and noisily. 
— n. 1. Rattling noise. 2. DistorkMuice. 3. Babble. 

GUlIM (klftz), n. [F. ; LL. dauaa^ it, L. elaudere to 
close.] 1. A separate portion of a written paper, para> 
graph, sentence, or document. 2. A subdinsion of a 
aentenoe containing a subject and its predicate. 

COAWtral (klus'tral), a. [F., fr. LL. elauHralU, tr. 
L. daustrum. Bee Cloistbh.1 Cloistral. 

OkBTwaf (klS'vtt), ) a. [L. data club.] Club- 

COA'TA-tad (-Tt-iXd), ) shaped. 

COAT'i-tile (klSvlk'l), n. [F. elavieule, fr. L. 
davieula a little Icey. tendril, dim. of clavii key.] 
Collar bone. — OU-TlO^-lar (kl&.vTk'ft-l8r), a. 

COAM-er (kla'vT-«r ; F. klA'vyf). n. [F., fr. L. 
dapis.} Kevboard of an organ, frfano, eto. 

OlAW (kl|^), n. [AS. clawu^ cled.'] 1. A sharp, 
booked nail, as of a beast or bird. 2. Foot of an CIsvate 
anunal having hooked nails ; pinchers of a lobster, "^P^- 
crab, eto. ^v. t. & i. To pull, tear, or scratoh with claws. 

COAT (kla), n. [AS. clUg.'^ 1. A soft, plastic earth 
formed by the wearing down of rocks containing alumi- 
nous minerals. 2. Earth in general ; the human body. 
^ r. /. 1. To cover or manure with clay. 2. To clarify 
(aonr) by filtering through clay. — OUy'oy (kla'j^), a. 

mKf*manf (-mSr'), n. [Oael. elnidheamAmor.} A 
Boottish Highla^er's large two-handed sword. 

OlMUl (kl8n), a. [AS. elBne.'] 1. Free from dirt or 
anything useless or injurious ; complete ; entire. 2. Sin- 
less ; pure ; health;^ . 3. Well-proportioned ; shapely. ^ 
adv. without limitation or remamder ; quite ; wholly ; 
entirely. —V. t. To purify ; to cleanse. — GleABly« adv. 

OlMllly (kWnljf), a. Habituall; 
— Om ' 
_ , ' : S. elXtuian:^ 

to clean. — OleBlUI'W, n. — datlirA- 


reABli-ly, adv. - 
(klSns), V. t. 

abituallv clean ; pure ; inno- 

CnOABdl-IIMA, n. 

[AS. e^Shuian.^ To render 

jf, n. — 0l6AIUr A-IiIa, a. 

r (kl»r), a, [OE. & OF. eler^ fr. L. daru* clear.] 
1. Free from opaqueness ; transparent ; bright. 2. Free 
from ambiguity or indistinctoess; lucid; plain. 3. Able 
to perceive clearly ; keen ; acute. 4. Basilv heard ; audi- 
Ue. 6. Without mixture ; pure. 6. Without defect, 
Kuilt, or stain. 7. Without diminution ; in full ; net. 8. 
Free from impediment or obstruction. 

Syn. — Pure ; transparent ; obvious. See Hakifbst. 
— n. Full extent; distance between extreme limite.— 
adv. 1. In a clear manner ; plainly. 2. Without limi- 
tation; wholly; quite. — r.^ 1. To brighten. 2. To 
free from impurities or ambiguity ; to relieve of perplex- 
ity, incumbrance, defilement, eto. 3. To vindicate or ac- 
quit. 4. To pass by, or over, without touching. 6. To 
gain without deduction ; to net. — v. i. 1. To become 
free from clouds or fog. 2. To exchange checks and 
bills, and settle balances. 3. To obtain a clearance. 

(nMa^ABOe(-ans),n. 1. A clearing. 2. A certificate 
that a ship has been cleared at the customhouse ; per- 
mission to sail. 3. Clear or net profit. 4. Tlie distance 
by which one object clears another. 

QlMf'Ing, n. 1. A making clear. 2. A tract of land 
cleared of wood. 3. A method by which banks and 
bankers settle differences of accounts. 

Oltarty* adv. In a clear manner. 

GtAAT'llMA, n. The quality or state of being clear. 

Syn. — CuuBNiBS ; PiRSPictnTT. — Clenme** refers to 
ideas and conception of things under consideration. Prr- 
fjdeuUy refers to expression of ideas, and belongs to style. 

atMO^-llgllt'ad (-»it'8d), a. Seeing with clearness ; 
discerning. - OlflAr'-Atcllt'ad-IMM, n. 

Olaai'Stanfll' (-stUrchO, «• '• To stiffen (linen, eto.) 
with starch, and make clear by clapping with the hands. 

One form of Iron Cleat 

OleAt (klSt), n. [OE. dde, MHO. klUt wedge.] 1. 
A strip fastened transversely to something to strengthen 
it, hold it in poeition, eto. 2. . 
A device having two arms, ' 
around which a rope may be 
wound so as to hold securely 
and VFt b^ rnn<?{lv Trl.'>n':M, — 
V. r ^f.i urtniKtliH'H wilh .s .. I tt. 

GleaT'agfl iklr^^'rnjs it. 1. A cleaving or splitting. 
2. HivtAhoTi \\ito Uiniiiits like slate. 

GleaTft (kicv), r. i, [imp. Clbaysd (klSvd), Glava 
fkliiv, (ih*A i p. p. CLfiAVKjj ; rb. n. Clbayino.] 
[A^. tletfj/i*jtt, ^i^iittn.l To adhere closely; to cling. 

OleATe. t\ L liwtp Vlmtt (kl«ft), Clays (kttv, Oft*.), 
Clow {hE^v, Ohifiif^.) l p. p. Clbft, Clbavbo (kl6vd) 
or t'tji>VK2f (IslS'^'nK p. pr. & rb. n. Clbaviho.] [AS. 
di . [so j» . ] 1 . To d t v id*s by force ; to split. 2. To part or 
op' ti nAtiimllv ; to diHJ#. — v. i. To open ; to crack. 

CTLeav'ttr (kliv^r), f). One that cleaves; butoher's 
InHtruiki^-ikt (br cnttiiiti auloLal bodies into joints. 

Clef {ttlJ?r), n. fP., knj% key in music, fr. L. davit 
key.] A character in musical nototion showing the po- 
sition and pitoh of the scale as represented on the staff. 

Oleft (klSft), imp. & p. p. oi Clkatb, to split. ^ a. 
Divided; nartlv split. ^n. 1. Opening made by split- 
ting ; crack. 2. A disease in horses ; a crack on the bend 
of the pastern. 

Syn. — Crack ; crevioe ; fissure ; chink : cranny. 

dtOI'A-tiA (klSm'A-tTs), n. [NL., fr. Or. icAitfAartc 
brushwood, also clematis, fr. KXruML twig.] A genus of 
flowering plants, mostly climberft, having feathery styles. 

Oltai'Ml-oy (-^n-*^), n. [L. dementia^ fr. demen*^ 
•en/i«, mild, calm. 1 1. Dispoaition to forgive and spare ; 
gentleness. 2. Mildness of the elemento. 

Syn. — Mildness ; tenderness; indulgence; lenity; 
mercy; gentleness: compassion; kindness. 

Olem'mit, a. Mild ; compassionate. 

OlmiOll (klSnch), n. & v. i. Clinch. 

01«r'gy (klgr'jj^), n. [OE. A F. dergie, fr. dere 
clerk, fr. L. derictu priest! The bodv of ecclesiastics 
or ministers of the gospel, distinguished from the laity. 

Oler'cy-lllAll (-man), n. An ordained minister. 

Olerio(kiernrk), n. [as., fr. L. deriau.'\ Clergyman. 

01erl0-Al (-T-ka1), a. 1. Pertaining to the clergy. 
2. Relating to a clerk or copyist, or to writing. 

Olerlr (klSrk ; in Eng. kUrk), n. [OF. derc, or AS. 
dere, cUHc, clerk, priest, fr. L. derieut.'] 1. One who 
could read ; scholar ; clergyman. [Oftr.] 2. An English 
parish officer. 3. Otie employed to keep accounts. 4. 
Assistent hi a shop. [U. S."]— Olerk'Alllp, n. 

dtrkly, a. Pertaining to a clerk ; scholarly. 

OlAT'er (klSv^r), a. 1. Possessing quick intellect or 
adroitoess; expert. 2. Showing skill in the doer. 3. 
Handsome. 4. Oood-natured ; obliging. [27. S.} — 
Olev'or-ly, a(fr.— Olef'or-nMA, n. 

Syn. — S<^ Smaat. 

Olev^ (-Ts), n. [Cf. Clkavs to adhere.] A U-shaped 
draft-iron on the end of the tongue of a plow, wagon, ete.; 
— called also davd, devy. 

Olew (klu), OlllO, n. 
[AS. deoxcen. elywe, ball 
of thread.] 1. A ball of 
thread ; the thread itself. 
2. That which guides one 
in anything doubtful or in- 
tricate ; a hint in the solu- 
tion of a mystery. 3. (a) 
A lower or after comer of Iron Clrw». to b« faKtpncd tn the 
asail. (fe)Aloopandthira. S'JJj^J.'iJi"'- ^"••'*^'*'" 
bles at the comer of a sail. ^^* 
(c) A combination of lines suspending a hammock. — t*. /. 
To truRs up (a sail) to the yaitl. 

Click (kITk), V. i. &. t. [Onomat] To sound with a 
click; to tick. — n. A slight sharp noise. 

ffim, recent, 6rb, r||de, f^^ <km, food, fo~ot, vu., oil, chair, ^o, sins, i||k, tben, tlUn. 




t(UTk),fi. iO¥. clique }aUih,'\ A detent, pawl, 
or rachet, to prevent beckward motion of m wheeL 

01i'«llt (UFmt), n. [L. cliens, -eHtU.} 1. One under 
the protection of m petron. 2. One who submita hie cauee 
to the management of a legal adviaer. 

Clift (UTf), n. [A8.c/f/.l Apredpiee.— OUfrr, a. 

01i-mai/t«r-lo (klt-mik'ter-Tk), a. [Or. KAifMumipc- 
le^ffr.xAt^i^ ladder.] CriticaL— n. A period in human 
life in which great chiuige takes place in the constitution. 

Onad, or Onat, eUmaelertei the 6Sd year of human life. 

Cnilnato (kli'uitt), n. [Or. icAtf&a, -«Tot, slope, tone 
of the earth, fr. xAtrcir to slope.] Condition of a |riace 
as to temperature, moisture, ete. — OU-matlO (klt-mlf - 
Tk), OU-auflo-al, a. 

OU'ma-Ml'O-CT (klW m& • tS ' « • jy ), n. IClimaie + 
4ooy.] Science of climates, their phenomena, and caoaes. 

OunBAS (-ralks), n. [L.,fr. Or. kA^mi^ ladder.] 1. 
Upward gradation ; ascent. 2. Highest point 

aUmbTkUm), V. i. [AS. dimban.) 1. To ascend hOio- 
riously, esp. by use of the hands and feet. 2. To creep 
upward, as a plant, by twining or attaching itself by ten- 
drils, rootlete, ete., te a support or upright surface.— 
V. t. To ascend; te mount ^n. A climbing; ascent 
— aumya-ble, a. — Ollmb'er, n. 

OUbm (kl!m), n. [L. elitnaA A climate or region. 

Cninoh (klTnch ; 02), r. /. [oS. cUnchen^ prop, caus- 
ative of dink te strike.] 1. To hold fast by grasping 
tightly. 2. To set closely together. 3. To bend over 
the point of (somethiiw driven through an object), so that 
it will hold fast. 4. To make conclusive. — n. A hold- 
ing fast ; grip. — OUllollfer, n. 

Cninc (kltng), V. i. [imp. &p. p. CLUiia (klOng), 
CLOMoTklBnff, Ob*.) ; p. pr. & vb. n. Clihoino.] [AS. 
dinaan te adhere.] To adhere closely ; te hold last 

OUll'lO (klTnTk), n. [See Curical.] 1. One confined 
to bed by sickness. 2. A class taught medicine or sur- 
gery by treatment of patiente in presence of the pupHs. 

(nilllC-Al, OUnto, a. [Or. xAtyucdc, fr. <cAtin| bed.] 
1. Pertaining te a bed, esp. a sick bed. 2. Perteiningto 
a clinic, or te study of disease in the living subject 

II Cni-BlaM' (klt-n^O* *>• [F] Aclinic 

CniBk (klTQk), r.t.Sti. [OB. dinken; prob. imite- 
tive.] To make a slight, sharp, tinkling sound, ^n. 
Sound of sonorous bodies struck tog«*thpr. 

OllBk'ar, n. [Fr. dink; cf. D. kiinker a brick hard 
enough to ring; fr. kiinken to clink.] 1. A mass of 
aevenl bricks run together by fire in the kiln. 2. Scoria 
or ritrified matter from a volcano; slag. 3. A scale 
formed in forging. 4. A kind of brick. 

Cnip (klTp), V. /. [AS. dynpan te embrace, clasp.] 
To cut off ; te curtail. — r. i. To move swiftly. — n. 1. 
A cutting. 2. Product of a shearing of sheep ; crop of 
wool. 2. Cl'uip for letters, etc. 4. Blow with the hand. 

Cniy'Mr (klTp'i^r), n. 1. One that clips; one who 
clips edgAs of coins. 2. A fast-sailing vessel. 

OUp'nIllv, n. 1. A cutting off, esp. the clippfaag 
edges n? ccliiM. 2. Matter clipped off something. 

II OUqiM (klSk), n. [F.] A narrow circle of persons 
associated for a common purpose*, ^r. i. Td combine. 

Oloak (klSk), n. [OF. doque cloak (fr. the shape), 
bell.] 1. A loose outer garment. 2. A disguise or ex- 
cuse. ^ r. /. To cover with a cloak ; te conceal. 

8yn. — See Palliati. 

deck (kl8k), n. [AS. ducge bell.] 1. Machine te 
measure time. 2. Fiffured work on the uikle of a stecking. 

OlOOk'WOlk' (-wQrkOf n. Machinery of a clock, or 
machinery which produces regular movement: 

dad (klSd), fi. [A form of dot.'\ 1. A lump or mass, 
esp. of turf or clny. 2. A gross, stupid fellow; dolt 3. 
A part of the shoulder of a beef. — v. <i To coagulate ; 
to Hot —V. t. To pelt with cloda. —Olad'dy, n. 

dodliop/Mr (-hSp'pSr), COod'pftto' (-pit/), Olod'lpoU' 
(-p510, n. A stupid fellow ; dolt 

doff (kISg), M. [Prob. akin te E. day.'} 1. That 

which hfaiders motion ; encumbranee. 2. Sandal to keep 
the feet dry or mcrease the suture, ^v. t. To encum- 
ber ; to hamper ; to perplex. — e. <. 1. To beoome 
clomped or encumbered. 2. To unite in a maia. — 

dornr (kiBff'Ry), «• -dorgi-B«», «• 

87n. —Impede : hinder ; obstruct : embarraaa. 

dotottff (Uois'tSr). n. [OF. doutre, L. datutnimj 
nL dauitra^ bolt, bounds, f r. daudere^clatuum^ te close. j 
1. A covered paasage on one side of a court ; (jrf.) the 
series of such passages on the sides of a court of amonaa- 
tery or a college. 2. A mooaatio eateblishment — r. t. 
To confine in a cloister ; te immure. — dototlll. a. 

Syn. — Cloistu ; Mokastbbt; Nukkbbt; Comrsirr: 
Abbbt ; PaiORT. — Cloister snd convent denote a place of 
seclusion. A doister or con^^ent for monk* Is a mtmattery : 
for ntifijr, a nunnery. An o6/.ev is governed by an abbot 
or an abbess ; a priory by a prior or a prioreaa. 

dost (klSs), r. /. [OF. & F. dot, p. p. of dorr to 
close, fr. L. WaiMf^e.l 1. To step, or fill up (an oprn- 
inff ) ; to ahut. 2. To bring together the parts of ; te con- 
solidate. 3. To bring te an end ; te consummate. 4. 
To come or gather around ; to inclose ; to confine, '■^v.i. 

1. To come together : to unite or coalesce. 2. To end. 
3 Toifrn'p|i1p.^w, 1. Conriuslon; end. 2. Agrapnio 
Us uTt':;,tLliijj-. 3, [n) Vm^fUMiHi of A *tr*Liti of muaio; 
ci^Iejicf . fj') A (leu Lie hnr iiiiirkiiig thfi fiid. 

end ; ?ndinM: : eiircmity ^ eitrentt^. 

Cl0«e tltlS* flr klSeln «^ [OF, A F. c/a* »n I: 
ciii%ure, fr. fht. S«e CLOftm, r r] An iDcloeed ^'o* 
[•la.LH- -, prrciijct df a rjitlnMlral ct Eibbe>'. ('■•••> 

0l0*e 1 H]5i), <J. [OF. A P. cIomA 1. tibu£ fast ; cloeed ; 
li«Jit. i. Narrow: conftiied. 5. Oppre**lve; without 
1 1 i ' ci > *u «r vr ntllation . 4. 6trit tly loufi i led ; carefully 
I iirir.H'i!. b- (hit of the wfty ot obi^rTBtiott ; hidden, o. 
L.i:L.c.;tit. 7. Having tlje part* near esch other ; denae; 
compact ; viacoua ; tenacious ; not volatile. 8. Concise ; 
to the point. 9. Adjoining ; near in space, time, or 
thought 10. Intimr te. 11. Nearly equaL 12. Parsi- 
monious ; stingy. 13. Accurate ; attentive ; atrict 14. 
Uttered with a contracted opening of the mouth, as cer- 
tain sounds of e and o in French, Italian, and Cierman ; 

— oppoeed to open. — adv. In a doee manner. — dOB*'- 
Ijjadv. — dem^MSS, n. 

dOMflSted (-fTst'Sd), tt. Covetous; niggardly. 

dM'et (klOz'St), n. [OF., little inclosure, dim. of 
dos.} 1. Small room for retiremoit and privacy. 2. 
Recess in a room, for household utensQs, clothtng, ete. 

— V. t. To take Into a closet for a aecret interview. 
do'ftlire (klS'ihtr; 40), n. [OF.] I. A ahatting; 

a closing. 2. That which closes. 

dOt(klBt),n. [Akin to D. kioot ball, O. Uou dod.l 
A concretion ; a soft, slimy, coagulated mass, as of blood. 
mmv.L&L To concrete, coagulate, or thicken. 

doth (klSth), n. ; pi. Cloths (klBthx) ; in the sense 
of garments, Clotrb (klStfax or klSs). [AS. dSp cloth, 
garment] 1. Woven fabric of cotton, woolen, linen, etc 

2. Distinctive dress of any profession ; the clergy. 
dotke (kl5tfa), V. /. [imp. &p. p. Clotrbd (klSthd) 

or Clad (klld) ; p. pr. & rb. n. Clothzho.] To dress. 

dotbes (klSths or kl5z), n. pi. 1. Covering for the 
body ; drem. 2. Covering of a bed ; bedclothea. 

8yn. - Oarmente ; drees ; clothing : apperel : attire ; 
vesture ; raiment ; garb ; coetume ; habit ; habiliments. 

d0Ch/1«r (k]5tfa'y8r), n. 1. One who makea, dresaea, 
or fulls cloth. 2. Dealer in cloth or clothes. 

dotklnc (-Tnff), n. Oarmente in gen